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• V :: 



• f' 










VOL. I. 

1844. ^ 

c. wvimo, wBOrowet boihk, rbaiid- 


I AM about to write the hiatory of my own day, a deli- 
cate and perilous task 1 

The residt of a ri^d self-examination, instituted before 
I took up my pen, having been to acquit me alike of in- 
terested affections and of implacable animosities, I have 
ventured to infer that I am competent to pass judgment on 
men and things, without wronging justice, and without 
betraying truth. 

The cause of the noble, the rich, and the prosperous, is 
not the cause I serve. I belong by conviction to a party 
that has committed blunders, and sorely has it atoned for 
them: but I did not enter that party till the morrow after 
its last defeat; consequently, I have not had either to 
share in all its hopes or to suffer personally in its dis- 
asters. It has, therefore, been possible for me to keep my 
heart free both from the rancour of disappointed pride, 
and from the venom that lurks even in feelings of legiti- 
mate resentment. 



PiasT Fj.BT.'^-Caïue» of Napoleon's downfid — Contradictions in hit Poliej — 
Militcvry ItcsonrcH of Fans in l8Ui its Defence ponaibts — Paris iras not 
taken, bui auirendercd; why; by whom — Perplexity of the Victors; Mex- 
■Ddei''t Melancholy — îfew Dclaila rea{iecliiig (he entry of the Allies, into Pari» 
— Tlie Bonrbona brought b&ek by M. ie VitroUpB; aulMjtera part played by 
M. di: Tiilltynitid in ttiis matter— Sttine io the Place Loui» XV.f philosophi- 
cfll aud bi^torie»] fntaiity of tlie FaU, of the Empire — Napoleon at Fontame- 
bteao — Trui- Ul^tory of the Dcftction impnted to the Due de Uagoae — Ka- 
poieon ub&ndoueii by ]m GcneraU; why— Hii Feelingo — Fint Errun uf Iiouii 
XVUL— Napuleon'A l^iurn fVom £!lb— The Bour)j;tfljiAic D^iûn f&taJ to Nâ^ 
poleuti — Memorable Woitis of the Duke irf Wtllinijlon rtapucting the Tri- 
colour Flaff and Foucltê — The Nam« of the Duc d'Orlêaru suggvstbd in tlia 
(jjiigress of ViciiDa — Louia XVIU. forced to take tlie pegiciJe Fûuchê iotn 
hij Coun8*4s^Tliu Allies welcooni.'d on iheir second entry by tliti Money 

Oetier»— lw;nmrkabk' FininciniE HrtulM of the Inrssjon 

Sscnsm Fabt.— The BonrÏKins tuittui the Bourgroisie— Monarchy in leaiUng 
BtriiiK»-^TU« ElectiTC Principle iueritsbly futal 10 Ibfi Beâtoratdon— FaD. of 
the Talicyjund Siluistry — True Cuuses of the acceasion of M. Decaze»— Vio- 
lent attacks iiiiide dq KoyiJty by the Hoyidist Cluunber of 1815 — -The Germ 
of the Rcrolulion of 183U laCfttit in. the Onlîmincjî uf September 5 — hoyalista 
mid Liberals; Lnncenmcy of these Denoroinaticins ; Tnii.> Key to the I'uhtieal 
Moreroentaof tliQ Rcstoi^lton — The Des«lJe«, Hichelien, un^l IX'oazes' Ad- 
^^ mioUtTBSion»— lliftory ^^ Churbonnc™ — The Spanish Kxpc-dition a Tietory 
^H of the Chnmiïcr over the Crown — Death of Louis X VIIL; Charnrter of his 
^^1 Reign — Charles X. niorethc Uenttlhiunme than the King — MomentJu-y Con- 
P conl between th« Miinarchical and the Llectivc rrineipie — The Ciwijtrepi^'Di 
I and the Jexuita; Fuoeral nf f^i^neral Foy — Progress of Ikiurgt»i« St-iitimenta 
I wid B«^t« in Society — Villt le Ministry— Trouble» in the Rye St- Deiii»; ilia 
I Notional Gaard disbanded— Marcha, 1830 — Summaiy Estjiuotc* of the Uealu- 
^^— ration — Philosophy of Itevolutionfl ^.,.... .<.^.. 



niBgniK AdmÎTÛFtmtîon^ForfiRîi Poliey of Prance at this period— Origin of 
the Kxpcditiun to Algiers — Address of the M^urity of 321-, Frurogation of 
(be QuunhCT»— Portrait of Cliarles X. — Threats wi the Fart of Enpktid — 
ftep«r*twtis for tlH! Expedition; I>ifflculticB; Departure of the Fleet— Disso- 
loâm of the Chamher of Depwiiea — Chanirter of the Liberal 4'>ppoNtian — 
ChariM TC. visits the l>ur d'Orli'iins— t^nsation produced by the Conqiwsi uf 
Alfficn) Views of ihv liovcmtucnt respecting it— Rr^yiitj plnying the Dnua- 




îTOpte — The Bonrgn^e fear» lîeYolutioEi — Portrait of LoiBtte — Political m- 

diflerenc» of the l^plc — The Bo^-alist» diinded into two Ciirii|is— luflocfico 
of Ihe Ct^EX — Charles X. niLlcos op liis Mintl to a Coup iI'J^fai—ApptvhKn- 
Binna of Itio Ciplooiaiic liody — Tlie StocltjobberB anJ JL de Tallej-rand— The 
OrdiiuiQCC» scctvtly diacuaawi and signed 73 

JcLT 26.-^Pablica.tipii of the Ordioanct;»— Indiflcreaice of the PeopJe — Stupi- 
factionof tlic Bourgcoiaie^CoHHUltation of Avocate — Senwtwn produiAtl in 
llic Ifenirat'i the Iiwiitut«; MnxmoDt'B I fcspnir— Protest uf tht JounuJi&t»^ 
Alarm mid l'ncertiunty of tlu; Dtpntii-'s: rorirtiit of Camiimt Piricf — The 
Spirit tif ItoEiatancL- Hprtr-nds; tlir Judicïnl Authorities take pott in the Strug- 
gle — The Bourgeoisie griidually forced iato laniirrL-ctlou ...; 9S 

JPLT 27.— Tlic Boargfoia^e alira up the Pix>p[(i— 'Die RcTûlution bcjjim hj the 
Dischargt.-^ JourncyiiKuli ï'nfiti-ra— Kfal CâuSOfi of thti Kxus pi' ration id* the* 
Peopïo— -C'^jnfldtmpe of the Prime Minister — Ih'licht of the Uh rn-Iltfynliists — - 
Example of Legul Restslatice — Fïfiali mctting of UcpnticR; Idle Words — Va- 
cilliititin of tlie Boldier»; the PalBis Eo,val m 1830 juid in 1TSÏ — The Eoile 
I'oly ttt'lmique — A Tricttlnr Flug dispUyed — Ominoiu AppeuraDcc of Vans on 
thu I^ight of tbL' 27th — The Leaders of the Bourgwiflb terriiit'd at their 
own Work — Idevting of Electors — The Doiupanutii— Cosiimt Perler tind the 
People - - lOO 

JuLT îe.^TTie Innirrection in nde popular hy tlie Display of tUeTrioolonr Fug— 
îwmc Nutiotml Guards arm for the niAinteTioDce of Order — Deputation Ihnu the 
Eeolc Polytttl inique to LDfaj'eite — JlilitftTj' Dictatorship confided to the Due 
ik' IliigTiM: i his Plati !>f DtfLtiet— TcThirs (if ihe^ldwhur Boupp:olsic — C-onfliet» in 
tlie llact' de Grève — liarritndes — The WeaJlli)'(j|u[u:tfre — Miirt-hoftheTroript 
ulrMi^thc boulevards — PariB beeouie une great Field ufB-ittlu — Varioua Scejie» 
und Incidents of the fttrufîwle — MeeCiuif of ihelk-putie» ; J>ek'gat4>.s sent to 
iTi-at with the Dur de Hagu»e ; M. Arago'a Interview ^-Jtîi hinij Slraitja' lu- 
eifît'Tit»— ItifîUuatïon of Ptitivv Pcihpiac — Frwih Md-ting (A' Deputies— InoTdi- 
tiiite Cuiifldonce of Charles X. ; Beliaviour of tlie CourticTS — Geueral Vincent 
ytropuscs to take Ihe Duc île Bordeuux to Pari» — The Députiez ctill tidkinp 
and dijitiiT nothing — Lriifuyette — l'he Hojai Troops evucuûte ilic Ilùtel de 
Ville at Midmglit loï 

Jtn.T B9.— Despondency of the Troop»— General Dnbonrg at the Hôtel do 
VUle — ScTitinicnl* of the Diplomatic Body — ^Thc Di|i[nitnrici of the Healm 
di^rtite M>L de N'tnoiivîUeand d'Arg^)utto St. t'loud ; interview of the fortiier 
with C'hiirlei X. — Ccnfliuls in P&ris ; llie CiUieniL' de Iial>ylone — Tbe I>»urre 
nnii the Tuileries curriid ; FUj^ht of the Troop» — Coudnctiif thi- IVuplo in the 
IWnce t how nccount^ for — Fi^t in the Rurllolukn — DefLVtiunnf twu Itezi- 
ineBtt] Pwtiein t^m Hôtc-l Loffltte — Short<]ivetl ilt'ign of Brotherly Feelin^After 
Ihe Triumph — Itobhers bIioi on the «pot ; Iti'iuoii of this— DohigB ut the Hotel 
I-iiftltte— PnrinEwvi'mtsl hy an InuiiriHiirj" PoWL-r-^I^ndicroui Sidi; of tlieâe 
Proihinous Kvtnt*— Muuicip«Jt^:oimnis!ij<m^L.iifiiyetteiitU>e Hotel de Ville — 
(ieneral Gerard'* Promenade— The Dauphin and the Troni»— The Duo de 
MoTUumftrt minu-il Minimer at St. Cloud— Km vuy» &om Charlea X at the 
lUittd de Ville — Ciuindr Pvrier'a Signature omnipotent — Intcn'iew of M. d'Ar- 
goril with I,afllttp — ReRinrkubli.- Words of Geniiral Paju) — Tlie liuynl Family 
at Kt,Cl«»ud — Gcnert(«ity of ClidHiii X. tairivnIsitui'Dncd'Orléana — Rubtorof 
Whiat — ^Struuge S^L'iiM precLtlinp ttiL- Iti^vixation of the Ordinanoes — M. de 
Mortcmut arrives io Pftrifr—Nijfht of tli« ï9tli.,„.„„ .„„„...„ ..., 130 

Ji-L» rïo.— Clioicc of u KiiiK— Lnfflitc'j InlliuTiiT— Pnrt tnken by the Poet Çé- 
ren^t'P 'luring tine U<'rr»liili<Tri — Sdly Pn^^-diiii,':! of If^l- TlUeri imd Mignet 

' '"' ' » — The Ihïc de Clunlrea in 


I'liMictina oiul the Orkarbu 
Atiuiiy-^'l'lie Duvlicis d'Or- 

cosTEarr». r 

ItMnê akl Mxfcune Adê]a«ie — Im^ÀasHtm rX the Dv: I'OrliMzu — T1u> D^pn- 
tÎM 1—inlkii in the Fkbû BcariKn— K. «ie Cucr^ohriaiki aiki tbt Vwi^ <jf 
France — Dedandoo of :iie Cbaarjcr— Bepc^Àj!aa Mi>£Ci&^ i: JyÀ&:iér'»— 
DepoBcon choioe so the H'jttl 3e ViDe— Ld^j^tb:'* Iorii»mrJ7c — U. 'fe 
SoafT- as tbe Hoed de \~îlk — V'jèvs c^ ûê !>:fci«st Rer^ÀTsàrjoJMi* u ùm 
PenôJ — TTie BoiuiçarddU— Aziirr::.? u tt. Cj-oi— Plii Y rîTù W*r p*-.- 
poieii CO OiaHes X.— Tie I>s: it haaux i=*al-^i -,7 ibt !>i-:^fcia— TV Irar 
aOrlàaa oiKbnxen t&e Socrew n( hl» P»rrr 07 hi* trenimû-jr : ce «cvn 
^ri> fiiRETClT — y.:tx^ir=al Iz'^rr-Jiw *Kt»^ ifrx ici :he IJ^: 'ie )fr.r%man 
— Tmrnr tt St Cloiai: Rats .€ ûk ifc.-nl Fici:?— I*>»cot:ife=r.T <.f xU 
Tnoçm l'A 

CHArTEB \'n. 
Jrtr 3L — The lieBSanai-O-iEtEnlihjp .,^ îI-jî » —t^'-'- '-.frr^l « îhi: I>ac 

— ï'neiamMâM. ■■.^ ■ùat Cbiaurjtr '-1 I^çniéd — Gnaz A2:iù;a j± ice Kxtl 
de V'JSe — Arcâ» cnccdei çr.11 Lj££Lê— &rçi-jccar^-fc .f ûe li^c 

Vaa* i: the H tei i Tlje — X.wz*!XZ r^:>jï ? âe '»'= — Lj£it6!k*» £*- 

înir ■:^ Laixj^xiùt — Fncia; nrr^ctièr^i — .-n-.f— f.-i-i. j — ïy.i,: Jhr.t^.iinui 
=:*)e ^ Bojar f L^j^n^ — 7^ T-jrj.r-y.ri» '".'rjiacjw xcrrr.": » sLrx 

by M. T\â*ri — sizsnlar 0.cTir»ari-.c. — Tbé irrziat ic«:»» i-jra^tf :=, ij 'Sut 
%:ckan .-_ , i*3 

Fr-yrâBoBoi lEaiacrT- — I^çrcr: i: ."7.-;r^ — Z- .m.- .f C- -^v. — Fi^is fr.m ?«. 
Clfjai — L'.*-iK2r-: i ;.:«: Tr^.cit — Tié 2i.;ru .-^-,« ïrao.r, «rt lt- 
r:"** tzsJSit-^.ttJKS — t'jjnirje» j.. ■.•>7^ u -nrjihr. t l-.vrirt-,* -. . r-jîlf-jc 
■f "".TVaa» — ';7iJncsênr.Li-. .Li»«:-i.Crè — .»,3--.-xr,'L-« Z^— --r ^-17. --;k r,*-x. : ,r- 
V:^ V. Cuir»» X : A'^iîiarj.c — T^ Mrui^^iu ■■. n;t::^i«r.T: ijari-n**— 
\'^ ïi Î2IÉ H-.Cei l»ÉTi — '!rro-n. lAr.:izr ? .L'eu'- '.r": .r rjz :::*■. .»••.!: -Y .v-aSf- 
csa1.11 î5 tâe îlûii» ât^t. -■» rîï'aet bi=^**i 1 — i-". •: -.iLr»- Y -_:ft Inraev 
«r*.^!»» — T-ie I'm f>V3Z9 »'jnr» -^s la^ f t Sr^iV-i-.^ ' .rv.T:j».-tj»r* 
i^ES •» ■r!>iir*i!9 X — Tm?- r:Tîrt 'zaca^; l-.*r' f-.-.yr, -Y r-jt I^lca — TV 
EjacKn^K Zr^wirjc — . :•? ? L;u.i ï ir".» r. r, ":« M Y A iç-ar — T^jnwr 
«f tâe Tryçif *r 5jm!î».T=i-' — •, .*i o^ ^'«.a* — ■"•jLTrt* X. VL.11 .£^lKfi 
5:r ICûîfisuia — S* •.^arr» :^ Trrr* -,: -ruixri: ■^vri-^-jJi v. tie Inr. !;."*■- 

: rf rat '-ti---. ■- "'t^ ïj-.»iirxc- 1 l-î 

Tie I>K iTraeaai za^'&l.:- t-';---_i,-.-. -ht Viii.-. 'sr— 'ï,* rrvi.V'-.i-'-.' — Zi- 

j2 r^^Frmrs; — I.»:rjiLt Y -•* ïi»** .t.-r jrj.-7 3f ."^n'-rtu: b. — ; '.'■jt — -irrjur 
9^ 'rf J JL M 6 — I.*T ,",w Y ---.1* 'C.rt-J^ '-Mrtt 1 ■" ■'• "■:- JJift *.. ulit-raw 

FS^te tf CÏKâea X icti zjt Jur-l.- -_.•.;.• 2^::..^^:r^ 

jxii.-r:.: i'j.7: .«t. tea 




J Blifldsm of tho Bûurfnx-iiiliiï — WretclifÛncss and Diiconient ci the People— 
[ Popularity 111' ilu> TKw Kiitg — TUq l^n«« de Coudé ni St. Lëu — luc-ditAl tti- 
ti5tB ofthê Due «t'Orlwaxu — Will in favour of the Doe ifAnnwIe— Mj^teaJons 
D^ahof the PriiKMi do Qûôdé *i6i> 

CtlAPTEH 111. 
FonagTi Policy^Loob Philippe's Letter to the Emperor NM»lai~Temper of tbo 
•ef ernl Cabin«t8 of Eurupe—lÏGlitfht of the Engluli— Loui» Philippe mid Fer- 
dinand VII. : the Spanish Hei'iigi^ea lued ta Tfiola ami abandoned — Club tio- 
Wmmenl — Rititft io Bruasela — Di-ipoflitiun of the Belg^ian Iloiirgenisie — The 
Prince of llranpc in Brussels ^ \ûf Portrait — Views (if the Palais Itoyol a« to 
lieltfiu'" — .Sliopkctpera' Policy— Irre^pulnx Appointment of TiiUejmad to the 
En^Uili Einbasiy ; bii Inispwhy— Reply of Nicolas to Looijl'liBippi^^BeTo- 
]utif>n in IVI^num— Bclfpnio intcrciited in n Union irith FïïDOe; ÔppOAithm 
uf the PoLaÎb Koral to tJie Measure; two Vastka in Brcusda^BotnbutlaiËOt 
iiif AntwiTp^ExdiuiLon oi the Nïusaa FamUy— -Ëatbuaiaam in Pari» — A 
BAttoUoq MTLt to Belgium bj the Socïetë des Amis da Peuple „ i&5 

Four of the feX-Miuistera ImptTBontd in Vinoenoe* — Cwnmiasionc™ appointed 
to eiaiiiinu them — M. Mau^iii's Vltw&i h» Portrait — -Ejciuninaliou of the 
PriflftiiErfl — Every thing done to save their LiTe*^The Kiii^'a Ahhnrren^ far 
CapntnJ PuniaHiuent^ Farliantentary l>c:hikte5 on î\s Abulition- — Indiguatiion of 
the PeOipk'; lïiot nt ViacLTine^^IV-t-kmiitions xnd Intrigues — EodL^vuura to 
get rid of (JMJK>r) Miurot-, Alt^'n^ntion ht-twL'va the Kini.' and Dupant de t'Enro 
— Retirement of the DottrimiireB^>'vw Minifltry; iJitBlte President of the 
Caoncil-^Iiisastrouj Reralts of Two ^foIlth■ of jielgn— Advantage sought Io 
be deriTcdfrum the TH&J iTtlie cx-MiiiititerB Sui 

Forajgn Policy of Friince — A Itt^petirimi uf ttie C-ongress ofVienna — Qacatioiu 
put to Mimsten by iL Mnufniin; k^' ■' S. m.iiion product'd by Hi. Bignon's 
Speech — Belgian Con^reai-. NaiinnLii ii.iii|»'iidence prwlaimtd^ Protocol of 
November ïO; ProtesU ajpiinst it — Tim LuxËmbuix Question; TaileyrBiid'^s 
Potition — Breach betveed Laffitte and tl>c King — AtiimtmoJ Communication 
tu the CliAinbcra — The Principle of Nun-[iitiTTt-ntiuii Siileniiily pnxJaiioedby 
the Prosidcnt iif the Council—Couspimcy in l*fjlaiid — Night of Nov^rnlvr 85 
in Warsaw — CWopiclci Dictator i bia Iiicapacity— Flight uf Cunstaniine— 
The Doctriiuuea of Wuwv— Lubecki set» out for St Pt-tershurg-^^Miat 
Kraaoe might have done for Poland — Strange Jjmgaage ctf the Consul of 
FT&nce in Wanair , , 3S» 

Thr Court of Feen conatituif^l a Judicial Tribunal— The Ministers br«ufi:ht to 
Farit — Death and ObH-qnics of Beiùaraîii Coastant; hia llirtrait^Trial of 
the cx-Miiustcn — M. de Martignac'i i^peech; "SL 4è Feyronnet'si M. 3auzet'i 
— Popolar IndiguatioD— Sittings of I)eoeiuUr SO; A^tatkm and Alarm— 
SlenwDta ftiT a KevolutitiD ; BooapKTtiit», L«Kilimatbta, ItepubUcans — .iVrtd- 
laiy of the Katwioal Gaanl — The Cotirt^Tiw Pniftft of IVlkw 8uitpLwti"d— . 
ThreateiiiBfP Pmelamatido of Odiloii Barrut, I'refoet of La St-iniv— Biot«; tho 
Fnaoncn hurripdly bpwttht tiadf to Viiic«diih; Terrw of tJie Jiidp,'S; Sc^n- 
tenoe — Nt^it of iJeceniUer ^K in the Coun-yard of iIk- Louttc— ProoeMJon 
of btudent«; Labtyette appnwee Uu< MultitU'Ie; he iwrnpromisn! his Popu- 
larity— La&yetle diuniiKd^ Dupont de l*Ëure retires— The lUivolutîaa dose^L .^4 1 


Belgium i tlie Due de Xetnoun ma the Due de Leuchtemburg— S^baiBtiani con> 

Tictod of FaUdiooâ— Belglam emperated try tlie PoUcj' of Franco— M. Brei- 

•on ud Lord PDawmby — M, de Lœreatînc accepu the Crown for the Duo do 

Kcmcnin In the Name of hit GoTcmment— The King of tlie Freneb rcAucs it 

— Exultation of the En^ah; Critical State of En^Uuid at thia Period — Bd- 

iri ■ , ■■' : pmed — PùUflh 5IjUiirf3ti>—Curiou8 Ciministanres attending 

^t. Ji- Morkoiaït a» AmluuHilur to Russia— Oldopicki re- 

yi.. _.. - ..siup; Kod^iinUl iuuia.d Gi;iiendis«linoi the Uuiik of Ito- 


mimoff declared excluded from the Throne of Poland — Deipondency of tho 
Emperor Nicolas — Diebitch enters Poland— Battle of Grochow 370 

The Political System of France defined— Budget of 1831— IntcUoctual and 
Moral Condition of Societr; the St. Simonians; the Republican Demo- 
crats; the French Church— M. de lAmenmUs; Prosecution of the Avenir — 
L^slatire Labours — Rerired Courage of the L^timatists — Devastation of 
the Church of St. Germain rAuxerrois, and true Causes of that Occurrence — 
Pillage of the Archbishop's Palace — Appearance of Paris during the CamiTal 
Week — The Bourse implicated in the Riots; Warrant to arrest M. Ouvrard — 
Flenrs-de-I^s efàcBd; Crosses pulled down; the King sacriflces his Armorial 
Bearing — Portr^t of M. Dupin — The Electorid Law; its Defects — Law on 
the National Guard — Revolution of Italy — Louis Philippe's eldest Son in the 
Confidence of tlw Italian Conspirators — The Duke of Modena tampers with 
Menotti — Night of February 3 in Modena— The Insurrection spreads through 
Italy — Rome threatened; Letter from the Palais Royal; the Insurgents aban- 
doned after having been encouraged — Retirement of L^tte; its Real Causes 
—Estimate of the Laffitte Administration 365 

Second Phase of the Goremment of the Bonrgeolde — Casimir Pérîer Prime 
Minister— His Position with regard to the Chamber and the Ring — Sittlngi 
t^ the 18th of March — Italy abandoned; Persecution of the Italian Refugees 
— The Government of Bologna deluded — M. Hubert's Mission to Paris — The 
Anstriana in Bologna — Convention of Ancona — Perfidy of the Vatican — ■ 
Opinions enterUdnal of the French Government in Italy — Recall of General 
Gailleminnt — Casimir Périer"» violent Proceedings — History of the Popular 
Societies — Prepress of the Republican Party — Decoration of July; Disturb* 
anoea — Casimir Périer's dislike of the King — The King's Home Tour— Disso- 
IntioD (tf the Chamber 416 

New Chamber — Odilon Barrot and Mangmn — How France mi^t have Intcr- 
frred in the Afiairs of Pcdand— Dwemicki's Victories — Skrzynecki named 
GeneraUssimo— Ccmflicts of Waver and DembewiUde ; Battle of Jganie — The 
Cholera MOTbns in Poland; Medical Ccmmiisnon sent thither flrom France — 
Austria violates the Principle of Noo-Intervention — Movements of the Rus- 
atanand Polish Armies; Battle of Ostrolenka— Arrival (rf'Orioff in the Camp 
ef Pultusk; Sodden Deaths of Diebitch and Constantine— Rumours— The 
Prinoeas de Lowicz — Nicolas and Constantine — France Insulted by Don 
Mignd — The Tagus Expedition — HistOTy a£ the C<mference of London 437 

Speedi of the Crown — I^ut Struggle between LafBtte and Casimir Péricr— The 
AaaLitimis in the Royal Speech confuted in the English Parliament — Nullity 
of the English Alliance; Insults to France — PnUicaticHi of the Note of April 
19, 1S31 — Premeditated Scene in the Chamber of Peers — Anniversary of the 
Bevohttioo; False News; Exi^osJon of National Feeling — French Inlerven- 
tâoo in Belginm — The King of HoUand defies the Fire Great Powers — Eva- 
cnatioa of Belgium by the French Army— IMsgraorfol Jobbing 459 

IXspoaitioo of the several Powers with regard to PcJaod; Secret Views of Aus- 
tria — Walewski in London and Zaluski in &itsael»~-CompariaaD betwtcn the 
PblJcTof the Ctoort of LoodoQ and that of Paris — War in I'<jlai»l — Pa»kewju:b; 
New Hsn of Campaign — HoveoieDts of the Rossian Army; Fatal Indecisitjn 
of Skrzynecki; SCbastiaoJ's DttfKtcbe»', M. de FUhattt's'Letters— Scenu 'jf 
Anarchy in Warsaw — Dembin^'s Trioinphal Entry; be is named G«:oeral- 
saanno — Ni^t of the 15tfa of August — Kmkowiedd IMctator — New Genend- 
iHBno; Coanol at War— Battle nt Waraaw — Assault; CapitulatvA rjf Pnga 
— FaQ of Poland — Rising in Paris — Stormy Debates in the Chamber— EOmm 
pro du cftd in Eançe fay the Fall of Wsmw — Tnaty of lix T-wtsttj-fuai Arti- 
cle* ained against France— General Slate of Eorope U the Cloae cf October. 
laai _ 477 





The LcgitknatiBt Party — Chateaubriand — Ben^tr — Drawing-room Plûts — Idk 
Vendeej it» Pbynîtifl] Cbsnkctert Temper oiiJ Feelings of its Inhabitanto — 
Errors uf the Admitiifttrutian — The Se£nuitory Vi-DileHnst Germs of Civil 
Wur — The Duchess dt lierrrs Homimtic Schume»— -State of Thing» in the 
chier Citiei cpf the Suuth^DiviBlons in the Ruj-jilist Ptirty— Abùliliun of tho 
Hdfditary Pccfnge — Liiw of njuiiahincnt apiiiut the dder BoucIjcpii Line — 
~ IrfcpalikUe D&ma^ done ta the McniJixcliJcal I^riiuàple in FrantX 503 

Ljotw— DijtreBa of the Silk Workers— A fixed Srade of Waffcs appointeci^-Trri- 
tatioa of the MaiiufiictiJJXTs — -Prfpo-ratiuuB for on Insurrection— Judicial 
Btindncsa of tliL- Aiithoritica^^T(ipof(Tap^iy of Lyons — Gathering in Croix 
RLyusJW — InnurrectiiHi ; U» DetaUi — Provisional GoTcmuiont — Adroit Ma- 
ntcuvrcH — TiK' Pwiple cmbajToascd ■with the Kcsulta of ite Victorj' — Phikiso- 
phj of thc#e KTcnl» — ArriTal of the Dnu d'OrléoM «id Marehal Soult— 
C<>n^UArDB. ■ £35 

I Rctiure of the State of Society; Vices of the Rtign of Trade— Attempt» atln- 
ooraticuii — History of Bu SimouLsm...^,. ...^... 544 

Progrc»(ïf the RcpnMican Party; Armiuid CarrcTTuid Gamier F&gdB — Ci»n 
Liiti M. de Connonin's Pamphlets — Law PruceetlinKs on the Subject of fhe 
Doc de Boarlxm's IJeith— lî^Miiefis of the Repuhtîean Press; Pcrsceuticrtis; 
Coorageoui l>c«liiraLioii iif Amund CarKil—CD^iypinu-y uf the Towet» of 
Motre Daine--Conflpifacy of the Riie dea Prouviiiri's— Kxpe^lition of Ancona 
— CMimir Péricr'fl Enimeration; lu» Rclntions with tlw Kingi Frantic Scene 
DwiUfbance* »t Gft-niibk-i Hot iJisputea iii rwliimient — Systematic Warfflro 
between the Two CliimtWra — Tlic liudgii — Clo*tf of the Senwon 67.i 

Ttte Oiolcra Mocbiu—fkcoth of Curief— Dc»tli of Cv^roir Përict— Eitimate 
of bii AdminiamUgii , ,..,„ ....„ 613 



The reminiscence of a catastrophe is the starting-point from 
which we shall enter wpon our theme: for such is the obscurity in- 
voWing the principle of tilings, that their commcn cement is always 
asocaated Ia our mitidâ with the idea of decay and downfal. To 
enter upoîï the field of history wc must make oiir way over ruins. 

Napoleon, Alexander, Chiurles X. : — what names now correspond 
to these three? Saint Helena, Taganroe^ Holy Rood. So then, 
when Alexander had achieved the overthrow of Napoleon, he had 
hut prepared another fall; he had thrust himself in between two 
great disasters. And for this it had been needful to set tlie world 

In that uninterrupted succcs^on of calanutiea which Js called his- 
lory, what arc all these famous triumphers, what arc all these haughty 
distributers of empires? Their prosperous fortunes manifest^ etiU 
better than their reverses, how little is their intrineie weight. The 
nineteenth century exhibits to us a monarch more unfortunate, more 
humiliated than Charles X.: and that raonardi is the Einpcxor 
Alexander, but for whom Charles X. would never have reigned. 

Tlic power of that emperor was great, assuredly, and formiilable. 

He had led the march of peace from capital to capital; he had 
ruled the congresses supremely, and presided in the assembhes of 
kings; it was even granted him to see the fortunes of a greater man 
than Csesar grow pale before his own. Wliat then, it seemed as 
though ho had been lifted up bo high only to make his weakness the 
more conspicuous, A prey to devouring raelancholy» he visit^ïtl 
distant lands without being able to escape from himself, and he 
plunged into all the a^tations of liia time, to stifle liis vag^uc ÉcnsO 
of suffering. At Paris, whither he had been <arried by the chance» 
of war, men saw him surprise and ahnost appalled at the greatnpFa 
of his destiny, and he retracixl his steps to his own dominion?, !oade<l 
with the sadness of liis triumphs. Why had this Kwlnoss become so 
poignant towards the close ot liis life? Wliat drove him to kneel at 
evcnin" in the ffravc-yards? Wliat thoughts were those tliat pur- 
sued hira in the lonely walks of Tsarskoe Scio? Had the tragic end 
of Paul I. left in liis troubled soul eomc image that would not ' 
eflaoed? It was thought so. Fcrltaps he but sauk under disgust 
life, that moral makdy, which God inflicts on the mighty, to avenge 



the "weak and ttic Uttlc for tlieir physical sufferings ! He had hecn 

gone some tinwi from his coimtrj^ which he shunned, when one day, 

a& 1h9 mother was pmying for liim ia tlw* cMthcdral of St. Petersburg, 

h was announced that a count-r had arrived» dresgcd in bkck- The 

mctlopoUlan patriarch entered the church, carrying a crucifix 

covered with ciupc, and ihc L;hant for the dead wiis raised. The 

I founder of the Holy AlUanco, the armed paciftoator of Europe, the 

1 jnan by whom had been prostrated in Napoleon the twofold gctûuâ 

' of wfcr and of France, the Emperor Alexander vtus no more ! 

A wholesome theme for meditation ! Of the two men who had 

EtarceUed out the world between them at Tilsit, one died Dii from his 

I native land, iu a savage region wluther he had Acd for reiuge, 

I Tiireary of mankiud, of natrire, aad of hiinaelf. The other, over- 

vbolmcd by liU omnipotence, wasted slowly away in the midst of 

I the ocean. They lake upnn thetu to dispr>ge of nationSf and in. tho 

I end caimot dispose of themselves. This is â religioui lesson of 


After all, cvebt^ succeed each other in a much more logical man- 
I n^ than one would be prone to s^uppose, conaidering how unstabh: 
* ftru gi>venimeat8. and how ûail arc men. 

ThuSj ance the day when the Constituent Assembly rcffiatettsd 
I tho conquests of tho bourgeoisie in Frante, what variauona m poli' 
' i^câ 1 wlutt ohanj^ea J whnt ehoeks and perturbations I wliat unex- 
I pected modifications violently introJueed iuto the govemmeiit! 
I And yet th4j bourgeoisie n?ap]xars on Uic sceoe in 1815, ready to 
eonUnue the ecarcely Interrupted work of '8& ! 

I have de«ribod the maimer in wliich the bonrgeoLîîa unfoldL>d 

I itself in France, in a work which will have & beitring on the subject 

[of that X now publiait, and wliich will siervc to explain it. I luive 

tiicre represented the bourgeoisie arri\'ing at civil hberty through 

the communes, at religious independence tljiou^h the parlmmeut, ut 

wealth llirougli the trade coi-poratione, at pohtical power through 

I tho States General- It i^ thi» last pluise of it^ development that 

[feeara upon the aifaira of the Restoration, during wldch were pre- 

I pared the elements of a new dynasty. 

1 slittU tJiesrefore limit mywlf to demonstrating, 
Ist. That the downfal of tho Empire, and the aecesâon of haxaa 
\ XVltl. accorded with the iutercsts of the bourgeoisie, and wcia 
j, acoomplL^hed bv that body: 

I Sdly- Tliiit all the pi:jhticat movements of tlve Resbiration aroae out 
[ of the dlortd essayed by the bourgeoisie to intliral tlie royal autlio- 
' lity wjciiout destroying it.* 

* Rjr boiÉfpKjmc 1 mena the wJinle boiy of ciiiieiia, vrha, poutiune: inipktnenU ol' 
L làboiir or capital, vurk with mona^ of dicir own, and Are not dcpcodcnt on others, 
f^nopC to a eertAÎn 'OCtent. The pmpk Is thu wh^ttc bwlr of citizens, who. not por- 
[■■Âat captai, depend compktelj oa sMhett, ami that m what rsgarda iïw pnioo 



ïn the magic histoty of Napoleon, and of the armed people, the 
port placed by the buHrccoisie fieoins redncerl to nothing: nevofi'j 
tlielcsa, i£ we look narro\ny Into it, we shall see that with regard të j 
commerce, manufactures, and tmance. Napoleon continued the worlfl 
erf' the Constituent Assembly, The tymnny tliùt lurked in the Ici 
aloae principlG (laiiseis fmrt)^ h(? mtiintaitied and favonreti: his Code 
he extracted Irotn olJ books of common law antï from the folios of 
PothicT : he ratificKl the principle of the divimon of property : he did 
DOthiuç to substitute the commenciai oprration of t4ie 3tAt*?'s credit 
for that of private credit. In ft word, he strengthened aU that at 
tbifl day congtitutw the baflis of bourgeois dominadoo. 

This waa what destroyed Hm. 

For wliilst his cconoruic system was giving shape and conârt- 
ency to the domination of the bourgcolsif , he was endeavouring^ in 
hia political system to re-cstabliâli the ariatoeracy. Strangf3 and latal 
contradiction.! What ailed that man^ what lacked he, that he 
oouU not tread hia path singly and without retinue? Hia genius 
had endowed him with immense force; the personal ascetidaticy he 
oaevei^ed approached tlie miracuioui". USs victories had encom- 
pMwd him with a prestige, the like of which had never been pos- 
iKserd by Churlcmajnie or by Charle? V. He had niade France one 
ioUlier, and himself the god of that soldier. Could he not have dis- 
pCBMd with chauiberlftin» and ptiges? But no. It was not granted 
to Nupolcon himself to be emperor after his own way. He needed 
mo usque tairpja under the name of aides-de-camp, hernlds and their 
MtlPmyi carnages with coata of arms, an etiquette light puerile, 
ffOl^BlHlukes, hero-barons, g reat-inen -princes. So much afraid was 
ne IcH his genius should iïpi>eftT too low-lived, that he granted let- 
ter* putcnt of nobility upon the occaBÎoa of each of his ^-ictories. 
The UHttle of Wagram ^ve him foe consort the daughter of a mo- 
narcli whom he had been able to keep waiting in his antechamber^ 
and he, the sous-hcutenant that had been, and brother-in-law of a 
ci-dc^vant stable groom, waa lifted up in spirit with the proud tliought 
of being the husband of an archduchess, picked up, &o to epcak, ia 
the baggage of a routed army. But when a son was Iwrn to thi-ii 
man, ns^o had sprung from the lanke of the people, Oh that was 

Îuite another affair truly! Behold you, the hantHng ia created 
Lin^ of Rome; a houwhoIJ of the children nf Franrç ia appointed, 
■nd a coimteffl, a real countess no less, is appointed governess of 
that chiid of I^ranre. And now beware how you look di-i(dain- 
fuUy *'n that ^irone which wa? not sufficiently honoured, I suppose, 
by the geniua of a parvenu: around that throne are ranffed, to cover 
n with their liistonc lustre, t3ie de Croîs, the Just dc NoaiDes, the 
Albert de Brancaa, the dfc Montmorencys; all those^ in short, who 
bowc the imtnaeulaic poesstseion of old parchmentg undevoured by 
tbe worms' FurtlicrauMPe in tht Tuilenes, overrun by this horoQ 


of nobles assiç^necl as patrons of tltc leader's plebeian condition, ^_. 

qiietU' fibull be more degroding, tlie forms and usages prcscnbed 

more sen-ilc tlian over they were under ibe successors of Hugh 

Capet. There cvctv movement eHuU be rcgiikted in conformity 

with the monarehical ritual; the number of obeisances due to each 

of their majeatiea shall be rigidly determined. How petty and 

' paltry ia all this ! And yet who would venture to deny that Napo- 

f leon possessed the sense of true greatûces? How often bns he 

\ evinced it îu same sort by the majesty of his manners, of hîa 

' thoughts, of liig language, in. the loftiest roffionsof the epos? But, 

pflfi emperor» he was oveiborne and inthralled by the principle by 

I virtue of which be was seated on a throne. Now he pnould either 

f have destroyed the power of the bourgeoise, or have abstained from 

[irritating its antipathies. 

i Moreover, in order to phty out liis hiatorical part, it was neces- 
ftaiy for Kapolcon that he should be at once the despot and the 
warrior: whereaa the bourgeoisie could only develop ita growth on 
the twofold condition of enjoying peace and of being free. 

Peace! Napoleon would have welcomed it, provided it were a 
rious and a etrong^ peace. When M. de Saint Aignan put before 

Sf in November 1813» the bases of a pacification, euch as they had 

been laid dawn by the allies at Franlclbrt, did he refuse to silence 

I the voice of his pride? Yet hard were the conditions prescribed to 

fliim! To give up Spain, Italy, wid Germany, was to leave Re- 

r publican France no doubt intact, but it waa to destroy Imperial 

f'rsmce. No matter: the emperor submits to the sacrilice; aiid to 

' give the stronger pledge of his sincerity he removes the Due dc 

Bossano from the ministry of foreign aflairs to make room for the 

Due dc Viccuco, the friend of the czar. And when this sacrîtice 

j has been accomplished, when the Due de Vicence has written to 

the allies Uiat Nnpolcon consents to purcliasc peace at the cost of so 

; zuuny conquests thrown away, the alUea retract their own proposals, 

' »nd march three mrat aiToica against France! That was a time, 

I forsooth, to aecufic Napoleon of tyranny, when the national territory 

Viùs overrun in every direction ! But what avail the suge-estions of 

I honour against the headlong impulses of interest? MM. K!au- 

Lgcrgues, Raytioiiard, Gallois, Maine dc Biran, and Laine resuscitate 

[airajiiBt the araaze<l emperor the old opposition of the parliaments. 

> Ho retorts against these attitcks by the establishment of the dicta- 

^t^jrsliip. Tlien, coutiding in his geniue, and in the fortunes of 

Trance, he prepares onco more to confront the hazards of war. It 

was n Bolemn night, that of the 23d of January, 1814, on which 

!Napoloon, ai'ter burning his secret papers, embraced lus wife and hifl 

eon. lie waa never to see them again ! 

Tlie bourgeoisie Iwul reason assuredly lo apprehend that this 
idepartuTB would bo tlio signal for a new kindling of iJie elements 
fftetaSt throughout the world, and to dread the result; but no one 


oa with justice cast on Napoleon^s head the responsibility of these 
Inat oonÛicts. The conférences of ChAtillon sur Soine must not be 
ibtgottcn; ihcj testified, the steadiust pursuit of peace amidst all the 
ruffe of war. No doubt Nnpoleon reiiiscd to FVtlfer France to bo 
reduced to her anciejit UmtU ; no doubt lie deemed it his duty to 
defend tlve heritage of the republic, as long us a Pword i-omained in 
his gTHsp. " What !" be exclaimod, when lie received the proposal 
of the 7th from ChâtiUon, '* what ! lliey expect me to sign siich u 
trcnty as this ! tliat I should trample undcT ibot. my onth to mnin- 
tain the integrity of the republic's territory 1 . Unheard of reverses 
may have \ming from inc the promise to i-enounee the conquests 
I have made: but that I shouîd abandon those too that were made 
before me, that I should violate the deposit so trustingly commilled 
to -my keeping, that in recnrapencc for so many effbrt=i, so much 
blood, so many victories, I should leui'o Franco less tlun I found 
her; — never!'"* Wua there inordinate pride in words like these? 
Who would dare to say so after having read the bidletins of the 
prodigious campaij^n of 1814? For never had tJiis inevitable sol- 
dier shown himscu more terrible- The allies overthrown at Cliam- 
paubcrt, at Montrairail, at Montcreau, at Craonne, — here was cause 
enough to justify Napoleon in saying of the invaders oi' the country, 
*' I am nearer to Mimich than they are to Paris." But in that city, 
the women of which, like thoscof Sparta, had not seen the smoke ot 
a hostile camp fur centuries^ there was a bom^eoide eager for peace: 
there were bankers dreaming of loans amid the din of Wctoriea ! 
Manuliicturcr*, traders, all those who suffered from the duel to the 
death jrending Ixitween Najwleon and Engbmd, — such were the 
real leaders ol the defection that opened the gates of Paris to the 
fbrocs of the stranger. 

Waa Paria capable of defending itself in 1814^ though it were 
but for two days longer ? This quesûon has been answered in 
the negative by most of those who have written on this gloomy 
period of our liistory. Let us see wliat was the slate of things in a 
military point of view.f 

Tlie barracks of Paris and its environs are capable of containing 
twenty thousaJid men, reckoning two to each bed. Well then, in 
Mftxvh, 1814, the soldieiB lay three in a bed^ and the garrets of 
the several buildings were crammed with men lying on straw 
fta close as they could find room pide by side. Hence the num- 
ber of soldiers then qmirtercd in Paris may be set down al the 
lovett estimate al thirty thousand men. 

Use mii^ht have been made ot^ — 

* MtaoMd^ do tnil huit coat <iuAtorzc, pe^re 1 10, b^ Bartm Fain- 
t Tint ftcti Ht forth in (lit text arc J^rivt'l fr^m a Dote that hns bocu rommuni- 
tated to at, and vhich ii in the uctuul U^tidw^ritlng of ooo ot the superior oiflccra 
inlnHlcd with the dcfuace of Pan* ia 1814. That tapeiioc o£Bcu- is now a peer of 


1. lime thfln two tlioufA&d unemployed ot£cci^ who itit j came la 
AO^t service of the mûûatry. 

2. Several thousand men very slightly invalided or convalescent. 

3. Ail those brave iuhabltants of the Ikubourgs, who were after- 
■wards the fcdércs of 1815* and who now offered their scrvioce to 
work tiie numcroua artillery codlecled in P^g (500 pieces providied 
Witb 800 thousand weight of powder). 

4. Well disposed men forming part of the national guard, 

5* Tlic national guard ilseli", of wliicli reserves migbt have been 
£unn^ lor 3how, and wbich, in any case, would have performed the 
necessary duly in the interior of the dty. 
All tlicsc bving resources were paralyzed. 

Paris had been threatened lor several months ; consequently there 
I had beeo all needful tiine to organixe the personnel of the defcnoc. 
I Whence comes it then that when the enemy i^fl at our gates no- 
[ithln^ w&jg found in readinees for his reception ? 
I TtiQ armed masB that occupiod Paris, numerous as it was abendy, 
wae to be further incrcciKid at the moment of the Btrugglc^ by the 
► todies of tniops that ivould fall back upon it. 

The number of mounted men of all arma who were then in Yeot- 

■ Bailies or its environs haa been e«*Limated as liigh as twelve thousand, 
I Tlie amount is exaggerated ; but certain it is that when Kin g Joseph 
[ passed throu£;h Vcraaillt^ on iiia flight liora Paris, many dismoimted 
\ cavalry soldiers in their jackcM aud Ibraging caps, thronged hia 
I jivay and saluted liim with cries of loyal attachJment, mistaking him 

I ibi the Emperor; certain it is, tliat at Maintcnon a regiment of 

' garden d^honncurwas dntwn up in battle array iu tlie most brilliant 

uniform» and that hmcctB and cJiaaBcurs^ aasembhog from their can- 

■ tonmcnts, ntUiod at Chartrc?. Tliosc troops were brave and d^^ 
Totedly faithful What my^tcriouB Imnd kept them rautionlesa 

, loimd Paris, listoniiig; idly to the sound oi' the cannons that were 
deciding the Gite ol' Fiance ? Alas ! so well were tlicy kept aloof 
irom the fight, that the niunber ol" tlic poeâblc defenders of the ca- 
pital could only be surmised from the flood of fugitives, that for 
fcvcral days inundated the roada to Blois and Vcudûme ! 

As for the iiiatcrial means of defence, th^ were more potent stiU. 

St- Denis might have been secured from attack by means of inun- 

'ans, eflecled merely by olotdng the flood-gates of mills, and ren- 
d more etiicacioua by cutting a few trenches. 

The canal of St. Denis, 2U metres wide and 2 deep» ahut in the 
plain of St. Denis; and the lieaps of matter collected in the proccaB 
of clearing it* channel, and thruwn out on its bank on the side next 
Paria, formed breastworks capable of being extonsivcly converted 
into baltcried, which could nave played on the enemy in periect 

The canal d'Ourcq, from 6 lo 8 metres widc^ furmsa ditdi, wlûch 
flanked by the batt^Tk-a of tst. Denis, secured and covered the 


village of Fftntoa. By taldng advantaec of the tcmsos and of eome 
mUitaiy obstacles capubic of being rapidly effc-t-tedT it would have 
Ijcèq easy to hold good, the space enclosed between the catml and 
the ecAtpmcnts of Hoinam'^'iUe, a epace prelected hy the batteries 
BeciffEily Edtuated behind and beîow K»mamvUie- 

1\à» village h elevated and iavourably situated for defence. Its 
nUent point towards the enemy is occupied by a large and handsome 
t;Mtfau, by the chiircïi and the cemetery wliich command and mkc 
titc slopes in front and ail the roada by which the enemy could ap- 
pîoack Tïirec hundred ciievaux-de-friêe had been prepaied for the 
defence of the strcetâ. 

Between Ronuunvillc and Montrciùl there ia a epace of' three 
«juarters of» league, open indeed to attack, hut behind whicli lie the 
TiUa^QB of Belleville, Qsgnolet, and Charonnc, and the wood of 
Romainvillc. The enemy, chetked by the fite of the artillaj in the 
îftstniuned village, would have been obliged to get posseBBion of it 
txioTO advancing further, 

Montreuil, an immense assemblage of houses aud walls, présenta a 
labyrinth of obstacles which might have been rendered inaccessible 
by means of loophoE<^ and barricades. It ia tnorcovcx protected 
by the vicinity of Vinccnnes. 

Laatlyt between the château of Vincennes, and la Mame, the wood 
Etrewtid Ti-ith falls of timber and otlier obslaclea capable of bcâng 
qniokly tiuned to account, rai^ht have be«i kept possesaon of 
wiUiout great eltort by intrepid soldiers. 

Thus then, with an army euch as tliat poBH:B9ed by Paris in 1814, 
■aâ with the aid of thoae mcaaures we have just cnmnerated, the 
«LtAtaoe of Paris was aoapl^ed in point of fact to the maintenance 
of Romain ville. 

This plan of prooecdiiij^ was formally proposed. It ■sroa rejected, 
and that upon the pretext that to occupy all this range of ground 
thirty thmulaiid men terre requisUe. In vain was it repUcd and proved 
that it WBB CBBy to muster and dispose of thirtif thousand mm ; all 
propoeaJs to investi^te the tjutli of tliis assertion were obstinately 
Fetiûcd ; and all that was done waa to display in front of the different 
bnrricra a hidicrous make-believe parade of defensive measures. 

This is not ïdL On the eve of the Isttle a supcriot officer of 
engineers waa s?nt to King Joseph hy the minister of war. It ira» 
Bx o^clock in tlic evening : the cnemv were beginning to show thcm- 
wlvea at Noigy, at llie foot oiiho heights of RomainviUe. It was of 
importance that tht-y sliould be anticipated in the occupation of that 
village, the key to the whole position; and word was sent by the 
mismler of war to Joseph to that effect. Labour in vain ! The mes- 
ecngcr could not obt^iin admision, in spite of his remoustfanco, his 
(ffltreotiea, and his urgent demands. 

The next day it was too late to repair the mischief. The aiemj 
Itad taken poBpcMion of Xiomaiuvilic during the night without en- 



countering nny resistance, and on the next morning cannon-shots 
dia-hargca from its heights showed the defenders of the capital that 
they had but one means of safety left: they had tio alternative but 
to recapture Horaaini'illc at any cost. Jerome proposed tliis ener- 
getic act: he oamestly demanded leave to put himself at the head 
of the imperial giiard, in order to carry a position on wliich de- 
pended the suocc^ of tSie battle of Paris : hia demands were made 
m vain. 

What followed ia well known; and where 13 the French soid 
from wliioh such a recollection could ever be effaced? It is noto- 
rious that the 6th corps, amounting barely to 5000 men, defended 
•Psjns with amazing heroism, — Pûris, the heart and brain of tîie 
vorldr It is uotonoug that Mumiont had his hat and hiâ clothes 
pierced with balls Ln leading' tlie bayonet charge against the enemy 
^'who had alrea.dy invaded the high street of BeUe^^lle. But King 
Joseph had ah-cady authorized Marshals Mortier and Marmont to 
[■capitulate; and that same evening, towards five o'clock, the pro- 
gramme of the funeral of the empire was drawn np in a pltry 
rithige inn of La Vallctte. 

A Ittct less known is, tliat on returning to hi& hotels and before 
the ratification of the fatal convention of which the baaa had ju^t 
,l>ecn laid down, the Due dc Ra^use remained ibr some time in a 
F'fltate of torturing hesitation. Not\\ who was it that put an end to 
that ht^itatitin? Kepre^entativea of the banking and high com- 
mercial intercsta. I make no aceuaation here against M. Jacques 
liafEttc. History owes him the justice of declaring that on the 
very morrow after the restoration he mounted the breach on which 
he remained for fifteen years; but, after all, M. Laffitte had tlie 
.zmflfoTtunc on the cvcnin'^ oi' the 30t!i of March, 1814, to accom- 
Jpany M, Perrcgaux to the Due de Uttguse*9— he had the mis- 
i fortune to appear in that greenroom where the heart of Marmont 
[ opened to the exhortations of a panic-stricken bourgeoisie. 

ïlïus it was that the foreifpiers entered Paris. That the capital 
[irould have been capable of holding out against a long siege is, I 
I admit, exceedingly doubtful ; but what was requisite to save tlic 
t fortunes of France? To resist two days longer; for on the evening 
I of the battle, the enemy, separated from his park^i, had exhausted 
^ ht5 ammunition» and the cmiwror was approaching. 

Unfortunately — and I msist on this point — the dowafal of 
^ nloon had been prepared in Paria long beforehand. Tixc people 
of the faubourgs had vainly cried ** To arms!" the men who then 
occupied the political atam; had muskets without cartridges dia- 
irihutcd at the Hotel dc Ville, and cartridges without rauskcta ftt 
the Place de la Révolution. Napoleon who was so fond of tfac 
people in uniform, abhorred the people in smockfrocks: and for 
this he was cruelly punished. He had against him in 1814 the 
bourgeoisie which was all-powerful^ and for him tlie population of 



the fiiiubourga wKicïi -was powerless. He fell because he liad not 
chosen to be the right arm of the democracy. 

The French troops had rt^coîvcd oi-dcrs en the evening of the 30th 
of March to iiill back on the Châteiu d'Eau; thence they vrero di- 
rected to the Barrii^re d'Enier. IVhen the roll wits called at mid- 
night, the number present amounted to 1800 men ! How should it 
have been possible for thia handful of eohlier?, left to them&elves, to 
hold in check the innumerable multitude of the a^ailanta ? The 
civilians ol' Paris should tlien have tumetl for the detcncc of their 
homes? Nothing of the sort wfia done. Men in their shirt-sleeves, 
men in ro^, these were they who showed tbcmselvea ready to fight, 
lo die: and these men had nothing to defend] But the bantcra, 
the manufacturers, the shopkeepers, the notaries, the proprietors of 
houses, these were the men tlial applauded the entry of the allies. 
Yea— and my iace burns as I -n-ntc this, for after all it is of my 
country I am gpcûking, — yes, small was the number of those amoni» 
(he bourgcoinc who thought then only of grasping the sworcC 
Subsequently, I am, aware, the bravery of the national guard in 1814 
has been extolled in pompous terms. The hill of Montmartre Ima 
been made the theatre of immortal deeds; the barrier of Clichy has 
furnished a moving theme for the painter. But ïustory, which 
soare above the beg of party, and judges nations consigned lo eternal 
sleep; history will tell that in 1814 Paris would not defend itseU'; 
that tlie national guard, with the exception of some brave hearts, did 
not do ils duty; tluit the bourgeoiFlo lastly, all but a small number 
of gailant schoolboys, and of citizens devoted to iheir country although 
wealthy, welcomed the invaders with open anns. 

So, when Colonel Fab^îerT who had taken post at the barriera by 
order of Marshal Marmont to sec the army of the enemy defile, and 
to estimate \is strength, went on tlie following day, the 3Ist of 
March, to report what he had seen to Napoleon, uis indignation was 
BO great that ne could not find words to give it utterance, Najioloon 
WM then behind Essonne. Colonel Fabvier stood before him witli 
tears in his eyes: he had to tell the emperor that the army of the 
eaem^ was in possession of Paris; lîiat that army was formidable; 
tluit It had betai received with cxidtation in the capital; and he 
might have added that he, a soldier, had been m danger of being 
mueocred as such by members of the national guard, and that he had 
owed liis life only to the protection of a Russian officer ! " What do 
thoy say of mcr the emperor inqiiired of tho colonel. — *' Sire, 1 
dare not repeat it to you." — *' Come, wliat is it?" — ''They vilify 
you on all hands." — '* Well* well," said Napoleon calmly, " they 
arc unhappy, and the unhappy are unjust." And not one barsh 
exprea^on edcaped hia lips. 

The fall of Napoleon was then a natural and nccesaaryrcault of the 
growth of the bourgeoisie. Can a nation be at the same time essen- 
tially commercial and essentially martial? Napoleon should^ have 
taken one or other of two courseij either to renounce his military 



career, or break at once with the honrgQoia aad the trading Byetom, 
To aim at one and tho same time at Teigniug by the swora, and at 
contifluing the work of the Coiistituent Asaimbly waa infldncss. 
France could not have at once the destinies of Rome and those of 
Carthage. Napoleon sank, and sanl: iocidtûhîy, ^lnder the eliorta of 
the Cajthaginiiin portion of the Frencli people. 

But if the natural development of the hoîiT^ûjme broiicfhî with 
it the overthrow of the empire, it likewlee brou«;ht with it the ao- 
MflnoiL of the Bourbous. To prove this we mast restore in all the 
insti^cti'Pe plain truth of it^ details, the history of thia aeef?ssion, 
which so many histoiiana have distorted. 

Let US go back iu the period when tlic diplomatists of the coalition 
were aBPerabU'd at Chutillon swr Mame. What were they al>out to 
do with the dcBtimcs of Fmnce? France was too indispensable to 
the world to allow of their thinking Beriously of cutting it up and 
dividing its fragmente among them. Besides the country had still in 
its disasters its emperor and its despair. But independently of thia 
fear, there was something more almning to the nations in Fiunee 
dead, than in France too full of lite. 

There arc nations whose eiisl*:nce is necessary. 

The forreign kings felt tlds: accordiii2;lytliey bad taken care when 
setting foot on our soil, to olHrm in lace of the nations, that they 
were come to make war, not on France, but on the emperor. To 
overthrow Napoleon, and to weaken France were aU they dared, if 
not all tliey dtsircd to do. 

And po fully impressed were they with the necessity of deftUng 
r*«pec-lfuUy with ,=ui^ a prey, that they all agreed in saying, that the 
wishca of France should be consulted in tlie very firet pkec, as re- 
garded the choice of a new government. 

Tliia dispoàtaon of mind was particularly that of the Emperor 
Alexander. Amidst the loud din of arms and horses with wliieh he 
had Idled Europe, be bad sunk into melancholy re\'eries, and solitude 
had spread round bis heart whilst ho was marching his coimtlcge 
Boldiers over the distracted world, from the banks of the Neva to 
thoee of the Seine. Fortune won granted him $o much, that 
became desire and hope alike irapossiblc for him: he was mighty 
and wretched. Ashamed then of buying vanquished in Napoleon a 
mcrtal whom he knew to be Ids own superior, he felt a bitter enjoy- 
Bkaat in inwardly denying bia own greatneea. Moderation in victory 
was therefore easy and grateful to him; he was humbled by that 
victory, and the excess of bîa good fortune had saddened hmi for 

It was Alexander'e camcat purpose, more than that of any of the 
feovereigna lùa allies» to enter subjected France in the character of a 
liberator; but who could tcU what were the wishes of France? She 
had remained mute uudcr the hand of Napoleon: how were her 
ann&tionB to be pxseeà at? 

fW^ennorCf if thexo waa uncsortainty in the minds of the allies, 



there was tio less iu the iniii<lâ of their accomplicxïs in the interior. 
M. tic TiàUeyrand, ivhatevcT the historians ol' the R<?storation have 
said to the contrary, uotwithHUmding, knew natlungj plotted no- 
lliing, foresaw nutliin";: only ho desired tlie rmn qÏ Bynoparte, be- 
cauK he had ceased to be employed hy liim. Bonaparte would 
have slways counted him in the number of his partiearLSj if' he had 
aliraye Btopped short at despising liLm. 

M. de Talle}'raud also carried with Kim no pasàon to bear upon 
the changes in pi-eparation. As the govemment of an ignorant and 
weak woman opened a £ne prospect to tlic wl fishn rsH of a Boul inca- 
pable of JflTing or hating, his desiiïsi pointed to the regency of Marie 
Louise. As for the Bourbons, he hardly thuught of them; ibr 
«hortlj before the 31gt of March^ he said to the Duchess de Vic- 
«BOCr ^* I would rather have any thin?, even the Bourbons^ tlian 
the etnpejroi," Be this as it may, he did not comtnit himâolf ; and 
contriving to pass off his reserve for profundity, he lived and throve 
meanwhile on the stupidity of naankiud. This was the whole sum 
of hia genius. 

Xhere was then in Paris a man aa yet unvisitcd by fume or fortune, 
Imt for whom was reserved a tempestuous notoriety. Full of &lirewd- 
ness and daring, ekiJSed, above all, in disguising under the manners 
ci'theffrand seigneur a cast of mind naturally aggresàTC, the Baron 
de Vitrolles was aiming at the restoration of tlie Bourbons. He dis- 
closed his viewî to the Due d'Alberg, with whom he was intimate, 
and whose exâtablc imagination he won over by n sort of revolu- 
tionary petulance. 

M. dc Talleyrand's salon was void of news : what the allies tliought, 
cff what they proposed» were matters utterly unknown to M. de 

Tmngs were in thifi position, when the name of the Baron do 
Vitrolles was mentioned to him. The Due d'Alberg depicted the boron 
M • man of intclUgcncc and resolurion^ It was euggcsted that he 
diould be employed about the allies, not to dispoEO them in favour 
of ilm Bourbons, but to sound their feelings. This passive and ser- 
vile part was the only one phiyed on this ûecasion by M. de Tuliey- 
imd. He had promised^ it is true, to accredit M. de "Vitrolles by 
Bome lines under his hand ; but when he waa appUcd to for them, he 
rcftiflcd them, being fearful of the future. 

The Due d'Alberg had been intimately acqnainted at Mimich 
with the Coimt von Stadion, representative of Austri* «t the Crm- 
giess. Now the« two personages had been on certain terms with 
two girls, whose names the Due d'Alberg remembered, and thcie 
Jia wrote down in a poekct-book. which served the adventurous am- 
fam&dor by way of letter of credence. The Baron de Vitrolles set 
otfwjtliout havmg seen M, de Talleyrand ; without having received 
him any commission; without having e^'cn obtained from him 
Im xvowal. He diâguîâod himâelf^ took the name of St. Vincent 


at Auxerrc, and matle liimseli' known to the Count von Stadion by 
moans of tlie two narnes^ ■wlitcli recalled to his mind passages of liia 
student days and of hb amours. Such is the way in which Heaveii 
is paused to dispose of the lot of nfttiona ! 

Tlie Emperor Alexander bcinjj at Troyes, M. de VitroUes quitted 
Cliâtillon and act out thither. He ibiind Alexander possessed with a 
Elrong repugnance agidnst the Bouibona. " To re-establish thatdy 
niiBty on the tliroue would bc,'^ he sald» " to open the door to terrible 
acts oi" vengeance." — Key and I^abedoyèrc but too fully proved the 
trutli of this foreboding, — " And then," he adilcd^ '* what voices tiro 
raised in France for the Bourbons? Ai-e a few eminrtinta, who 
come and wliisper in our ears that their country is royalist^ to be 
deemed reptescut&tivcs of public opinion?" M, dc VitroUes, who 
spotc in bis own name, and not in that of M. de Talleyrand, eon- 
tcndcd very ably again^ Alexander's objections. In a final interview 
between them, M. de VitroUes exclaimed, " Believe me, sircj you 
would not have lost so many soldiers in tliis country^ had you made 
tlic question of occupation a French question." '* Tlie very thing 
I have myself said a hundred times," was Alexander's auimated 
reply. Tlie interview lasted three hours, and when il was ended, 
Alexander had been gained over to the cause of Louis XVIII. 

ITie allies entered Taris oq the SIst of Marcli, M, dc Talley- 
l^ud had prepared his saloons for the reception of the czar. " Well," 
said Alexander, encountering his liost^ " it appears that France in- 
vokes the Bourbons." These words struck M. dc Talk'yrand with 
extreme surprise; but, practised in the art of governing his fea- 
tures, he preserved an apparent composure, and took ^ood care not 
to contradict wliat he imagined to be tlie expression of a personal 
desire on the emperor's part. From tliat moment he was a convert 
to a cause which he believed to be the cause of victory. 

In tJie assembly in which the political lot of the French was to 
be discussed, M. dc Pradt was one of the first whose zeal was kindled 
on behalf of ilie Bourbons. The Due d'Alberg, who could not jet 
be in the secret of his model, M. dc Talleyrand's, so recent convcr- 
eion to rovaham, harangued in favour of the regency of Marie 
Louise, All at oncc^ olécrving a sort of eloud upon Alexander's 
countenance, lie grew confused, hesitated, and cast his eyes on M. 
de Tullcyrand, to take counsel from lus attitude. M, de Tallcy- 
raad remained motioidcss, inscrutable, with his cyca bent on the 
ground. The duke was afmid he had gone too far» and every one 
present made haste to perform an overt act of royalism, to avoid 
compromising Ids chances of the morrow. 

Meanwhile some royalists liad assembled out of doors; and wlmt 
was lacking to them in numbers was to be nfiade up by buslling acti- 
vity. The ïuenihicîous show of public enthuâaam wm complete : the 
KiglicBt persiojiages of the rcahn planted themselves under Alexan- 
der's eyes In the I'lace Lotus XV.j to enact a scene of schoolboy 



rejoicings în the holidayg. Alexander tcTaeld the nation in a. few 
men who shouted; he formed his opinion of France from the win- 
dows of an liôtcl in the Rue St. Florentin, M- de Montmorency 
waving a white handkerchief at the end of a cane, prompted the 
cmbairaescd coalition to a denouement of the drama. What shall 
1 say more? M. Michaud was in waiting in the Emperor Alex- 
ander's antechamber, and held in his hand a proclamation draivn 
up beforehand : thanks to the zeal of some royahstSj it soon covered 
all the walla of Paria. The people became apprized, to their great 
anifl7.emcnt, that ihey ardently longed for the return of the Bourbons. 

Thus this return took place contrary to the will of the peop!e, to 
whom the Bourbons were unknown in 1814; contrary to the sym- 
pathies of Alexander, whose mind misgave him as to the poTils of a 
reaction; and lastly, contrary to the opinion of M. de Talleyrand, 
who lad thought nothing possible, and who desâred nothing, but the 
regency of Marie Louise. 

And now the new Toyalty onco proclaimed, all those who had 
the disposai of fortune and of honours crowded round it. Napoleon 
liad twice debased the peerage; by his proKKrity, which rendered it 
eemie, and by his mistortune?, which rendered it ungrateful. But 
when iw master was down, it felt itK.'lf so weak that it did not even 
venture to take the lead in evincing its ingratitude: it cast itself into 
the hands of the first knave that ofl'ercd; and the senate hccumc, in 
the hands of M. dc Talleyrand, a workshop of treachery. By an. 
ever memorable chastisement of pride^ Napoleon owed Ins downfal 
in part to that very baseness which ha had created and fostered. He 
liad reckoned for the strength and duration of his itign on tlïe 
levelling; down of all indiviJuali prominence of charactcr; and hig 
fir«t ricïcat let't hïm alone upon the wreck of his fortunes. 

This is what was done in 1 814. They called this the rc-cstabiish- 
ment of legitimate royalty. What a melancholy buffoonery! And 
how strong were the temptation, in witnessing such ?peclaclê9, to 
own in history notlung pave the imbecile empire of chance ! But it 
ifl tlie contingencies and the insti-uments that arc ptitty; the causes 
ore grand. Would an empty ehow played oft' before a leader of 
Tortiirs, have sufficed to bring back the succcgsors of Louis XVL 
to that palace which he liad quitted to pass throu^li a prison to 
the scafiold, if the reason of this apparently extraordinary fiiet had 
not existed in the venr eiscncc of things? The truth ie, that the 
dynasty of Louis XVI. was continued in 1814, because liia death had 
been but the signal of a halt in the history of the bourgeoisie. To cu- 
bic tliG bourgeoide in 1 814, to r<^umc that lucendancy which had been 
mterruptcd by the reign of terror and by the empire, it wanted a go- 
Tcnuuent that should have need of it, that could not dispense \rith its 
Bid and even its patronage, that is to say, a government without in- 
trinsic energy, without éclat, without nationality, without roi^t.^ — 
What tended inevitably to make the Bourbon monarchy desirable to 
the bourgeois claw, was the very wcakncK of such a monarchy, and 



«ÎKïvc aU its noTiîlty; for, C]^)etmn as it was^ it dated onl^ irotn the 
21st of Janiiarj. 

The bulk of tlie bnurgeoîaîe was Êir, nsBurodly, from making all 
these calculations in 1814; my purport, therefore^ is but to prti-re 
one things, — namely, that Pro^-idence made tlifsc calculations lor it- 
And the more I consider the pettbit^sa of the incidents that make up 
the tipoe of the vanq^uialïcd Empire, the more convinced I am 
&at tbo9C who have 'vvritten its lustory liave mistaken opportuni- 
des for causes, and have explained by pompoua nothings what ad- 
mittpd of no other legitlniate cxplaniition than tkc neccraary tend- 
encies of the ^-ictorious march in history of the blttgeoiEiCj from 
the period when tiie feudal régime was abolished. 

And, by the by, has it net fcccn written, and has not a pretended 
credence been given to the assertion, that but for the defection of 
the Due de Hoguw at Essonne^ the destinies of Froiice might havç 
taken another course ? Now, first of all, has tlic truth been told 
respecting this defc'Ctioa ? Lot tts be ailowed to disentangle the 
log-ic of history ft-om some facts with which it has in this instance 
been unhappily objured.* 

Nupolcon was at Fontainebleau still pondering on tlic means 
of evading a last stroke of illfortune, when the Prince de Tarente 
showed hun a letter be had just received unsealed: it waa from 
Gonend Beumoflvillc, member of the proviaional govcramsii, and 
hacï been delivered in the first place to tne Due do Jlaguse, who had 
rejid it; it contained pointed inducements to defection, On reading 
this letter, Napoleon's despondency redoubled. Tl^cj talked to 
him of abdicating in favour of bia son^ and his pïide did not seem 
very deeply rnortilied by the proposal. The iramenaaty of his iU- 
i^-'^rtunc had bewildered him, — him, whom hie fubulous elevation ha*! 
not even astonished. He drew up that conditional act of abdication 
which ha.=î rcinainwl imprinted on every memoryj and he nominalpd 
Marshal Ney, Cauhiîncouit, and the Dtiko of Haguso, to discuss the 
iatdcets of his son and to negotiate a half 'forfeiture of the crown. 
Then jiiddenly changing bia mind, " Marmont,'* Sidd he, " ia more 
m his place at Essonne us a soldier than in Paris as a negotiator. He 
knows the locahtyj let him remain with the advanced guard," And 
Macdonald waâ nominated instead of Marmont. 

The Due de Ragusc, meanwhile, had recfivr^l a fatal raesaage from 
Paris. Walking in a garden with Colonel Fabvier, he asked hun what 
he thought of the overtures made to him. '* I thinks" and the 
Kionulj poîndng to a tree in the garden, "• that in times of ordisaij 
imdne the mçsaenger should be ?trung up yonder," But ttiune 
were not the sentiments ^at actuated the mmds of leading men. 

The tliree ncgottators nanied by Napoleon paa?cd through Ë^onnc 
on their way to Paris, and calling on the Due de Ragusc they told 
him the purport of their minion. Marmont waa touched to the 

* What fuUovB is fouoiJod on tnfttnuatkin riimâlLod bj Mjvïbal MM^ooold, mid 
imt iatù Tùf bâaiAt Xtf M.. An^. 


mnoPUCTiON; 15 

tliG confidence reposed in him by the emperor wrung him 
like a remorse of conscience. He owned that he had lent aa I 
«ii to Schwartzenber^'s propositions; that he had assembted hi* I 
generals; tliat ht had conaultêi them on tlie overtures of the allies;:] 
and that in pursuance' of their advice he had resol-red to order a I 
TOovcmtut on Vei-aaillca. '* But," ho added in impassioned accent3|.J 
" since you arc changed with the intcrcsta of the King oi' Rome I 
will join you, and I will stop the raorement on Versailles.'* I 
Acc<irdingly he issued counterordera^ and entered tlie carriage ia | 
which the commissioners proceeded to Paris. 

Afî<:r a brief halt at the clulteau de Petit Bourg, where thai 
Priacc of Wurtemberg; wlio commanded the advanced fjuard of the 
enemy had taken up his abode, they amved in the gilded saloonj j 
c^ the Rue Saint-Florandn, the scene of «o many acts of biisenes9.J 
The official negotiators pleaded tlie cause of Napoleon's son ; bixtl 
M- de Talleymnd had already committed himself m favour of Loui* J 
XVlIL, and he put all the resources of intrignc in operation ta4 
frustrate the nc^o^utioû. 

Tlie hour of doom waa about to stnkc for the empire: Alexander 
at last resolved to pronounce those fatal ■word» fn^m which wore to 
begin Napoleon's slow agony and his own. He had scarcely finished'] 
spnkinË;:, when the door of the apartment opened; a Russian ofiiccï 1 
laailr lus appeai^nce and ^aid, accompanying tlio word with an 
Mffeaoive gesture, fohrm. But too soon was the meanin^:^ of that \ 
Q^ystcriona word to he known; lor what passed at Essonne after Mar*TJ 
mont'a departure was as foUoiva. 

General Gourgaud had been sent for from FontMncbleau tOi 
Essonne: he arrives: is made acfjuaintcd with the departure of thai 
Due de lîaguse, pvea way to a violent hurst of vexation, and ra^j 
turns to Fontainebleau. Upon this the generals hold a meeting; 
Shall tlxey order a movement on Versailles? Ia Napoleon the ma 
to pardon hid generals for having lacked faith in his destiny] 
Gnueml Souham formalEy declared in favour of defection. Alreailyj 
comprotniacd in a conspiracy wliich Napoleon had discovered, no] 
had a special motive for dreading his anger. General Comp " 
begged that nothing iniglit be done precipitately + and that at I 
&e return of Marmont shitdd be awaited. *'' Beware," cxclaimedl 
General Bordesoulle, speaking of tlie emperor, '^ you do not kno 
Ae t]|çer: be loves blood: he will have us shot." The order \ 
giTcn the troops to march. 

Colonel Fabvicr had rccei v&l from the Due de Ragitse the comma 
of tlïc advanced posta on the heights towards Paris. ÏTnable to com-j 
pTchond tlie movement that was taking place round him he cr 
the bridge of EasonnCt making his way llirough the disordered tr 
of iofimtry, and he perceived Generals Souham and BordcsouUe*] 

• TTi^re exîiU a letter of Gcaenl Borideaoulle'fl, in which be declare», tint in «m- J 
owt wiUi All the ^eoerali pnMUt at EiuoDne, with the sId^ esc^tion of G«rie9iyK-] 
I^BODtle, he difep(«d the movcpieat ga Yenaillet oûntrary to the order of (he Dm 


beside a fire lighted near a cabaret to the left of the hridge. Going 
Up to tJiem and addressing himself respectfully to Souham, he asked 
the meaning of the movement given to the troops. " I am not in 
the hahit of accounting for my acts to my inferiors," was the reply; 
and when the colonel still pressed the question, Souham added 
these characteristic words: " Marinont has placed himseLf in safety. 
For my part I am a tall man, and I have no desire to be made a 
head shorter." Colonel Fabvier kept his temper; he requested 
perniit^sion to go before the provisional government, and begged 
iliat nothing might be done till liis return. This was readily 
assented to, and he set oiFinstantHy for Parie. 

The three negotiators were at M. dc Talleyrands; the Due do 
Ra^use at Marshal Ney'a. llurmont turned ghastly pale on seeing 
Fabvier enter, and without wwting for the colonel to open his 
mouth he cried out, "I am undone!" "Yes, you are undone," 
repUed Fabvier; " your troops arc passing over to the enemy/' The 
Due dc Ragusc tottered to the chimneypiece on which he leaned, 
faintly ejaculating that no alternative i^craained to him but to blow 
out his brains. *' There ia another," said Fabvier; " and that is to 
Bet out immediately and put a stop to the moveraent." The duke 
caught cagcriy at tïds proposal; but immediately afterwards he 
det'hired that he owed it to his colleamies to confer on the subject 
with thctn, and he ran, accompanied by tbe colonel, to Pnnce 
Tallcvrand's, where he entered alone. Colonel Fabvier waited out- 
ride tor Mormont, and in a few minutes he saw him come out with 
a troubled countenance, but etriving to maeter liis perturbation. 
He was now determined not to join his troops; he took ujwn ham 
the responsibihty of a defection that was not of his own making ! 
iThat fearful responsibility Ime never rince ceased to rest upon his 
^ead: why has he not had the courage to cast off tljc burden? 
To it to be believed that one is guilty, while one derives 
Tofit from the public mistake, ia to be doubly guilty. 

It résulta from this statcment tliat the catastrophe which beibl 

tie King of Iloniej amid the very niins of his father's fortunes, is 

Dot to be accounted for by a few accidental facta^ but by a corabi- 

ation of irresistible cause?. 

And first in ibe Ust of these causes is to be placed the supinencsa 

of the genemls wiio had no longer any loiVy hopes in prospect. 

r J'fapoleoii had c<'imniitted an irreparable mistake in canting hiij 

ofliri-Tfl such high favours that they had nothing further to 

hrtv TumI been loaded with honours and gorged 

w scixcd upon iJicm. And assuredly Napoleon 

rcTB. His victories were relays; hi? armies 

11 bcneiith lujn wiUi exha\is[ion. How 

«u cuTjttble of Itoldîng out hke his in this 

ic tinknown? Tbose of his generals, tîïe 

:ould no longer recede to faruier distance, 

^ing ili£]jiritèd; the lovq of tcet had taken 

ïrtboottction; 17 

hold upon them. Country-houses, sumptuous hotels, brilliant 
equipages, women, pleasures, the easy honours of peace, these were 
the deughts from which they were torn by every new desiffn of the 
inde&tigable warrior; and they now followed hmi but with discon- 
tented murmurs across that Europe which his genius perturbed. 

For a long while, moreover, the miHtary tone and habits of the 
repubhc had become extinct in the army. Already at the period of 
the formation of Bonaparte's camp, the army had seen admitted into 
its ranks titled soldiers, yoimg men hatched in the corruption of 
the Directory, and who adopta the corruption of the Empire, — sol- 
diers without vigour, who carried with them to the camp the pro- 
tection of women of gallantry. France, nevertheless, had not ceased 
to prove herself invmcible, but she had ceased to vanquish by the 
active and intelligent concurrence of her generals, her officers, and 
her soldiera. To this concurrence, of which the repubhcan victories 
were but a glorious manifestation, had succeeded the genius of a 
sii^le man: the army had become, as it were, a colossal Uving ma- 
chine of war, put in motion and controlled by one all-powerfm arm. 
The schemes of a mathematician, and the confidence with which he 
inspired a milUon of thoroughly disciplined men, were the souroet 
whence flowed all our triumphs nnce the rise of the empire. îla- 
poleon had destroyed the personaHty of the French armies. 

So then, abandoned br his generals, he felt himself all alone, 
though adored by the soldiers. He could not descend the steps of 
the military scale in search of support. He believed himself lost, 
when he taw round him at Fontameblcau, none but marshals with 
scared faces, and heard from their lips nothing but this ultimatum pro- 
nounced bv ingratitude : " Abdicate l" Abdicate ? And why ? Had 
he not still an army? Could he not still cotmt on the dcvotedneM 
of the secondary generals, of those whom opulence had not unnerved, 
whcmi intrigue had not entangled in its toils, and who had no( 
breathed the corrupting air of the saloons of the capital? Were 
Sonlt's and Suchet's divisions combined, was the loss of the game 
indeed inevitable in the hands of a plaver like Kapoleon? 

These reasonings were not beyona the scope of a corporal's spe- 
culations, yet haridlr, perhaps, did they suggest themselves to Napo- 
leon. X cannot but admire how the weakness of men shows itself 
moeit ghuringlv in those very things that most attest their power* 
UmpcAetm }^ always exercised so marvellous an ascendancy over 
«U axoond him, that on the day when a doubt of his future 
ibrtimes seemed to cross the minds of others, he became hitosdf 
m doubter Hkc the rest. Unused to resistance, the first rcfistancc be 
encountared struck him with such amazcment as to disconcert and 
PToetiate his ener^cs. He became irresolute to excess, in cx|natioD 

r the abase he had made of his will for fifteen years. 

Behold him at Fontainebleau. Hiâ hesitation is piteoiL? : he 
neither live nor die emperor ! After having abdicated in his own 
name, erennoae retreating, he abdicates in the name of his race. But 



18 ismonvcTiOTT. 

no Booner lïa& Ke haadod to the Duc de Viccncc the fatol papef 
containing (ke condeanzMlioai. of hia race, than his mind sutiera n 
revulsion, he repents the act, and away he runs after his surrendered 
empire, like a. child after ita lost toy. Then, when he finds that &U 
thoughts of retracing liis ^teps are h&poless, that the sacrifice is irre- 
vocable» he khours painfully to replace by a factâtitfus gi'eatnes the 
real greatness departed from him; he will be a philosopher; he will 
find enjoyment forsooth In his reminiscences; he converses aJoud 
with the illustrious dead, and comments ou àic suicides of glorîous 
memory. A comedy played by a great man far his own illusion Î 

ïlic last night he is to pass m Î cmtmnehlcflu ia come. The mys- 
teries of that ni^rht have been imvcilcdj. Candles are Lghted; doc- 
tor Yvun 13 summoned; word is ecnt to Marshal Bertrand; loud 
fiobs are heard all alon»; the g^iUerr on which the emperor's apart* 
inent opens. He iasufteting horrible ai^uish, they eay; and Pubse^ 
quently ic has been related, that he had made an attempt to poison 
himself-* It is possible that he had wished to bury Iiimself in his 
pride: in that sublime and profound soul exaltation was blended 
■with artifice, and calculation aid not engross it to the exdusion of , 

At any rate, suicide would have saved Napoleon from lingering 
agony; for in 1814 his career was ended. By rising again, he could 
only render his fall more utter and signal. 

In fact, it must appau: e^■ident ou reflection, that of ûU the politi- 
cal arrani^cmeblâ pc«sible in 3814, none so completely accordca with 
the real interests of the bourgeoisie as the accession of the Bourbons. 
The King of Itome and the regency of Marie Louise» would have 
been virtually the formidable shade of the emperor seated on the 
tliTDUC^ or rather the emperor i^till governing France from, hiâ place 
of exile. As tor the Due d'Orleans, he was not yet siiflieicnily known, 
and it needed some years to enable the bourgeoisie to appreciate 
liim. all J to become accustomed to hull him as their natuml leatler. 
Louis XVni. was the only individual at hand to resume the consti- 
tutional monarcliy at the point where Louis XVI. had left it ; he 
alone could exercise the royal authority under superior orders, just 
as was suitable to the hourgeoiffle. 

Hie return of the Bourbons tmdertLc patronage of our enemies no 
doubt uetessaiily placed France tjn a f xiting of infcriority and depend- 
ence with regard to Europe : butwhat mattered to the upper bourgcoiwc 
this eubaltcm porition of the country if its results were to be a 
durable peace, the opening of the ports, the extcnaon or the 
strengthening of coimncrcial rclalions, — in a word, Uic ragn of tnide ? 
In the estimation of the ïQoney-geltcï-â» ttie humiliation waa amply 
biilnnced by the proât 

Was there not besides a pledge of BtabiUty, well suited to allure 
tlie Eclfishnc® of a mercantile society, in mc nstoratiou of Uiat 

* &« the SUnueciipt de le 1 4, I7 Ic Bwva Fain. 

of legitunacy, tbe temporary rejection of which Kad led 
no tlie cxHiTulsions oi' 1793, and to ihc devouring wars of the em- 

I Bot Ix)ma XVin. brought back tko emJOTation iû his train. 

Woii]d he nob bavc to pay the debte of his exile? Would not the 

KfOcsraitBtzincs of the noblesse Tanqtiished in 1Ï8& strive to reconqiier 

I their io6t power, and to avenge the wounds indicttd on their pride? 

I "Woukl not tbe court be revived Avith ail that was most offcnsivo to 

I iû. its ceremonials? And, wlmt was a &till graver cona- 

on, would not the puichasere oï natioxud estates be subjected 

^iabcm? I will diseuse the extent and the value of these ap- 

âon^ by and by; but "wbatevcr bo tlie degree of itnportance 

[fellowed to them, we may positively assert tliat, talcing an elevated 

I view of tbe question, the Restoration was c^entially a bourgeois 

liniiiBCtion; it accorded, I repeat^ with the moft cheiiâhed interests, 

I aid die most potont instinct£ of the bourgeoisie. 

I Accordingly it forthwith prockimcd tlie principles of tliat class. 

Did not liberalism ascend the tîironc with Louis XVIII. i' Was it 

' not ibe head of tlds restorcd dynasty who, by creating tho charter, 

■ ■• tlje politicid power oi' tbe bourgeoisie? 

li of events of which it is important to study well the cha- 
r hero opens upon us. 

The reign of Iiouiâ XVIII. began in vanity; all rdgn? b^in so; 
Sid tliia ifi ouite natural. Kin^a could never deceive any one on 
the sooxe oi their grcatneâs, if they did not, lirst of alf, deceive 
I by thû ikctitiûuâ éclat wiui which, they encompass theit* 

1 XVlU. had certainly received har?h Icssona from destiny. 

t crown wiuch the hand of a barbarian conqueror placed on the 

1 of the Bucceâsor of Louis XIV., was stained with royal blood* 

,Il W8» not unknown to Louis XVUI. how tbe lustre oi' his name 

I had been tami&hed. His iamily, insultingly proBcribcd, had been 

|<ee& msdcri^ through the WLirld, and begging a contemptuous 

iKty &om capîtHl to capital. He iumscii" had worn out hifi 

_ h un tïcading the path of the ciilc: — èo much so, that one 

I, when pesing us a fugitivo through Germany, he had been 

Bged to rest opposite a post on wjiich this inscription Iiod been 

I pUced by order of a king; ** Se^^ars atid proscribed pent&na must 

^tatriop here mt/n than a quarter nf an hour.^' And yet the first 

t of this nuuit, so roughly tried, waa to puif up his triumph, and 

■jivu liunâeif demonstrative aseiirance of lii» power. Ihe very 

tbing he took îu band was the lîiat of forming liia bousehuld 

with all poeeible pomp. The old etiquette was re-estabUi^ed in 

that palace, the wallii on which looked down on tJie spot where tbe 

eSEecutaoner had laid his hand on Louis XVI.; and the most îllus- 

tnoot, the most ancient names seemed scarcely incicnt or illuâ- 

bîoQi esou^ to jturnish to the new court a grand moatcr, a gnmd 




ftlmoncr, a grand maaier of the robes, a grand maâter of the ceremo- 
i nies, and a grand h&rbmger. 

The îilghcr bourgeoisie were deeply mortified by this coramence- 
ineut: they were wrong. I am aware that command should be 
modost: thediiîlTencebL'twoen the nreatestandtbelcastofmeaiiianot 
■euch ihat ihc will of the one can oi^ rijjht swallow up the wiU of the 
ether. Pride is allowable only in him who obeys; aa for him who 
' cnmirumda, he can nCYCr expect to bc pardoned lor that Cïcc^ nf 
[ -insolence, except by dint of humility. But truths like these are too 
lofty for an ignorant and corrupt society. In Uic impure medium 
in wJiich tho bourgeoisie moved in 1814, to dcnmnd a modeat 
royalty, was to demttnd an impossibility. 

Be this aa it may, Lf this first essay of royalty was unlucky, if 
Kapolcon was able to brin^ back from Elba hia momentarily hum- 
I tied eagles» tills camo of the fact that royalty had not shown itsell' 
, Bufficieutly humble and lowly in its first displays. Ko pardon was 
dealt it in the saloons of the bankers and the liigh commcrcialists 
for having held out its hand to the remnants of j^entlc blood (la 
! ffenfiihammerie). Above all, it I'ound no forgiveness for having 
■ chogen lor ita miniâtora and eounscllora such men aa MM. de Mon- 
\ lesmdou, D'Ambray, and Ferrand, pale and decayed pcrsonificationa 
bfpl'tho vanquished ideas. Suspicious, like all new powers, the bour- 
9IM£ie was implacable in its resentments, absolute in its wiU. 
Good proof of all this was given in the opening of the chambers in 
I June. Ihe speech from the throne was favourably received, bc- 
I -cause it was moderate, submissive, and even somewhat sad. But 
when the garde-de*-3ceaux begau to sound out the old monarchical 
pliraâeâ of usage from the tribune, there ivaa a terrible commotion 
' .throughout the whole assembly. M. d'Ambray ventured, in 
I «peakmg of the charter, to use the words ordonnance de reformation — 
And hJ3 voice was droivncd in the murmurs they excited. Pro- 
phetic murmurs I murmurs tliat were to bc translbrmed into on a[J- 
|)alUng tempest, when called up fifteen yeare afterwards by tlie same 
I word r ThuB, by a singular fatality, the foursj-Uables tliat betran the 
«truggle in 1814 were those that terminated it in 1830! ITic fat^t 
i 29, that the question between the bourgeoiric and royalty was in 1814 
I identically what it h at this day, and the problem to be solved was 
this, which of the two principles should obtain the lead, the elective 
or the hereditary, the principle of thesovcrcignty of assembliea or that 
j .oi' crowns, of tlie law or of the royal ordinances. 

AVhilat llic formidable problem of governmental unity was being 
\ fhus enunciated on the surface of society, Paris wag the theatre of 
jtho most multiform agitations. The imperialists were conspiring, pre- 
sparing heaven knowg what tortuous and obst^iire ways for the return 
'vi the man, who had hut to stamp with hiâ foot to make an army 
«lart up out ol' the ground, Fouchc was in constant intercourse with 
these petty-plot journeymen, rot lor the purpose of seconding them, 
M hua been supposed, but that he might be the better enabled to be- 


fray tïtem. His selfi«li ghrewdncss Trasnotat fault: he felt that tlic 
strength was on the sSde of the bourgeois interests and tlie liberallst 
idcaa. To introduce tKe^' îïitereets and tliese ideas to power, after 
having constituted himself their representative; to offer liis scn-iceg 
tû the Restoration in that capacity, and to rule it while he served 
it, Buch was the mark he aimed at. M. de Talleyrand ■was then in 
Vienna negotiating hia oountry's shame: Eouche, therefore, re- 
mained master of the field of battle. He set to work, and made 
such good speed, that one day M. de Montesquiuu culled a meeting 
of screral induential men of the royalist party, to a?k them, Would 
it not be advantageous to the tnonarchy that the reins should be 
committed to the hands of a liberal ininlstry? Now the ministry m 
question vas one of FouchtS s concoctinfr. And who, think yoti, 
were the men of whom he had intended to Ibrm it? MM. Laînc?, 
LaUy Tolcnilul, and even Voyer d'Argen?on. Even devra such a 
sheer descent were thinga sliding, to find at the hottrtm the trimnph 
of liberahsm, in point of principles, of the bourgeoisie in point of 

Suddenly strange news is spread. The exile has set foot on the 
■oil of that land T^vhere he once was ernperor; tlie towms are rising at 

Iftppnftch; the battalions run to meet him ^Wth shouts uf aîîcc- 
tûm; all France comes Ibrth in arms, and escorts him. Now, then, 
wc shall ece pi-oof of the degree of pijwcr at which ihc bourgixiisie 
had arrived- For, after all, lame had not hed; Napoleon was aetn- 
ully adv^ncingt carried on the arms of an urniy delirious with de- 
light; advancmg with the epeed of the eagle» whose image sur- 
mounted tlie imperial etanda-rd. Twenty days^ the time occupied 
in hastening from the Mediterranean to the Seine, were enough, and 
more than enough, to place the empire again in hh gRisp. He 
entered his capital by one gate, whilst the other royalty^ haggurd 
and trembling, was hurrying away by tlie opposite gate, to a second 
and more liumiliating exile, Tlic next day, reviewing his faithful 
legions, he caused himself to be hailed anew as Ctraar; and stuno 
day& after, aa if to testify the man's power over the world, the sove- 
ta gns assembled in Vienna sent orders to their retiring armies to 
^^ecl round, and turn thetr faces towards France. Could destiny 

^moie for the glory of a mortal ? Vain éclat ! triumpli of a day I 
There was in France a power which Napoleon had not taken into 
hâ cdculation!°, and one with which he was speedily to come into fatal 
ooUuDon. The burgeoisie, overc^>me for a moment by surjirisje, re- 
covered its sclf-poeee«sicm. LibcTaU?m applied itself, ibr the second 
time, to the tafflc of sapping the imperial tlirone. Napoleon must 
consent to the <u^f£ additional i Sic must submit to receive Fouché 
as minister and as eupcrvisor oi" his proceedings; he must lend an 
car to that mrliamenfary babbling, tmt filled him with weariness 
and indignation of ^ul. But eonccsrions were as impotent as dic- 
tatordilp against the universal leaeue of the mercantile intereats, 
Iakîiig Its eland upon an hypocritical respect for liberty and for the 





rîffhts of the people. All Europe puta fortli its streogih against 
Napoleon: he lal^î And by whom, I ai=k. had the consequences 
of Waterloo been prepared? Was it by the aristocracy? Wby 
tiiey were hiding then in Gand or in Viemm: such of the nobles 
as had not quitu^d the country desired nothin^r better than to be 
overlooked and forgotten; tlie Baron de VitrcJles was languishing 
in tlw* dungeons oiVinceimes; and ae for the Marquis de Lafayette, 
hehadlonffbccnli^hdno-an^ainst beingr perforce a ^?-aiw/*fljn«/J". Wei9 
it iho goUicni, die artisan?^ the workmen of the fanbonres of Paris, 
or the proletaries? No one surely can have forgT>tten that it was 
the BOns of the people, men in jackets and capî»^ or in plain unifonn, 
who posted thcrasclves every day after the batt!e of Waterloo under 
the Ti^indows of the Elysée lîoupbon, to raise the accuatotncd cry of 
Vive V Empereur ! And what waa passing at those very hours in the 
'egisUdve siMembly» where the interests and the passions of the bour- 
IjEeoisie found utterance? "Let him abdicate! let him abdicate!'* 
Ixhis was the thought of eveiy breast in that assembly, and it was 
Tfloon the language oi' every tongue, Tlicy wotUd not even hcor of 
UiJ'uiolGOn IL, eo impatient were they to brcaJc with all that was im- 
F;penal in the past, and to Pcsimie the traditions of 1789 ! 
' I know not why it is that illustrious misfortunes move men'a 
i ^ndâ so deeply. For my own part, I confess that vulgar woes arc 
[ wliat most affect my foelLngp. I lament for those whom the tempest 
I has oven-vhelroed^ without their having had the satisfiiction of 
t breatliing in it freely, and braving its fury ; I lament for those who, 
^ted with strong souU, have yet died withoat liavîng lived; for 
( tbose whose dust, mingled with the dust of the highway, is troddetl 
\ nndorioot by every unconscious paaeeûgar. Surely tlicre aie o«tam 
defeats thftt intoxicate» modi as victories. Jluman pride iagmrilied 
ty ^rait disaatcM as well sa by ^reat successes. To iall from a lofty 
emmence is one of the tnodtja in which fortune confers distinction. 
That Napol*?on toppled down from his pedestal in the couibc of a 
few hours; that ho saw Ibrcign princes take up their abode in the 

firepared for his son; that they g^vc him for his last country 
oet in the mimeasity of t}>o ocean; and that he slowly waattâ 
away there under the eye of his most cruel enemies,— this is not 
what demands otir sorrow. But that the promised and longed-for 
«bohtion of the droits restas became one of the causes of Ids down- 
ed; that he» the warnor without compare, was beaten by some in- 
surgent shopkeepers; tliat ho could make no imprefsîon cm an as- 
I Bêtmily of attorneys and stock-jobbers; he, of whom it had been «sid 
vilh truth, that Ida presence produced on innuraerablo armies the 
wme etlect as the lion's does on the most intrepid hunters; — ay. this 
Û what must reader him die object of everiasiing compassion. The 
hours that passed over him in the Elysée Bourbon, when he kept his 
last vigil toeie» wero hotira of humiliation and bitterness, such per- 
haps as ncvot mortal man endured. In this, and in this only, I hnd 
ft tru« and suiEEÙent expiation of his pride. - 



TliD bourgeoisie completed tlion, in IS15, iho ^rorfc boguu m 1814, 
But îtâ leadei«, cnli^litciicil bj experience, ou tliis occftsltui took tlieic ^ 
precautions antl made their reservations. In order tîittC Louis XVI 1 1.,., 
on rccovcrin|:r lug crown, migLt ricvcr cease ior one instant to be a . 
bourgeois monarch, it was important to place beside him aa mini^tCT 
a man devoted to the (lominant interests, and euÛicîently able to . 
govern under the Jdag'a name Touché was marvellously adAptcd , 
to pluy tliia part J be became accordingly ah iudiâpensabto man. U ^ 
■will be recollecled that the chambers uomÎMted a committee o£ i 
gOTcmment after the disaster of Waterloo. Comot was a member 
ot it, but its president was the Due tl'Otiuutc, It is true that Carnot 
loved the people ! 

Foxicht-'s first care, on becoming roasfter ofpnhlic affairs» was id 
liberate the Baron de VitroUes from prison. They hnd an interview. 
M' de VitroUes wished to quit Pans and join tlic king, but the re- 
ption he met wit!i from Fouché kept him back, •* I can do good , 
rice hereto the cause of Ij<iuiaX\llI.," said Vitrollcs to Pouche, 
lut on three conditions: the first is» that my life slmll not be as- 
ttiled; the Bccond, that you ehall give me &t least fifty passports» ta 
<enable me to keep up a correspondence with the ^jng ; and the third, 
that I shjiU be eJlowcd to have access to you every day.*' — " Aa 
r^ords your head," replied Foucht'^ with that picturesque fami- 
liarity oflanguttge he alli,K;t-cd, '* it liangs on tlic some hooks as my 
own; you shall have fifty ^lassporls, and we shall see each other, if 
it so pfcfisoyou, not once, but twice a dny." M. dc VitroUes bocama 
in this way a sort of middle term between the Bouxbotis and Fouche ; 
the Rcstoratiob on one sidc^ the boui^eoisic on the other, 

Wliilat Foucht' was kecpinf; up an active correspondence with tho 
court ui' Gand, he was dL-spatching emissaries to Austria» with ordcra 
to plead the cause of the httlo King of Komc, and he waa writing to 
his colleague at the Congress of Vienna to sound the diplomatic body 
as to the candidature of the Due d'Orleans; thus carrying on three 
jàota aimultancotislj, and rendering liîs own position tenable, be the 
tqjehut what it might- 

Fouche'a views respecting tlie junior branch wore readily adopted 
Ijf Talleyrand; and the enipejor Alexander's mind was inoculated. 
Wall them by means of certain dexterous insinuation?, so that ono 
day the czar suddenly proposed the questiun in full congress in this 
furm: Would it not be for the interest of Europe that the crown 
ehould be placet! on the head of the Due d'Orleans? Univer^ 
etupcliictioQ followed this unexpected proposition . But had not the 
hundred days afFbrded proof of the political nuUity of the elder 
Bourbons? Between a 2Ut of January and a 20th of March what 
place would remain for the tranquilh ty of Europe and the security of 
her kings? Opinions were already incbning m fiivour of the Due 
d'Orleans when the project was deleated by the reristanec made to 
it by l«ûrd Cïancarty, who cxpresacd himseli' earnestly on tlic dan- 
ger of holding out such encouragementâ to the ambitian of col- 



Iat4a:ul lines. Upon tliis M. Uc Tallc}^!!!!!* shifting Ha course with 
}iis usufti «k'Xtcrity, wrote to Louis XVIII. to disclose to him tliia 
specie» of diplomatie conspiraty» nil tlie tlireadâ of which lie had 
arrfinged with his owii hand. 

Meanwhile the princes arrive at Amouvillo. Tlie Burun. do 
Vlti-oUfs hastens to join ihem, impatient to sound fur lûiust'U' the 
pentimenis of the hojids of the cualition. What waa his surprise 
■when the Duke of Wellington said to him, '* 'niere is in a\\ this 
a rj^ueation of things, — ^via., the tricolour cockade, and e, question of 
pereons, — viz., Fouché.'' IM. de VitroUes hiiviug then reminded 
the duke that the tricolour cockade was the emblem of a revolt ajraiust 
the kinfîj and that Fouehé wttâ a regicide; *' Well.'' replied the 
English gênerai, '* the question of things might perhnp? be given 
up, out not the personal question; that ia impossible."* liemarKablc 
worde and well worthy of being poiidcred ! So then» in the opinion 
of the allies, Fouehé represented a more potent idea in Fnuice than 
that which was cjtpresscd hy the tricolouTcd coekadc itseli! They 
■were right; for the fact Avns, the Revolution had aroused two E-^rts of 
pogsiuns; the one sort manly and glowing, lofty, devoted; the other 
gelti^h and raeitantilc. The former were pcpreacntcd by Uic tricolour 
cockade; but, after having dazzlodand confounded the world by their 
marvelloua e?q>losion, tliey hod at last died away; over exeitctî by 
the republic, they had been in a manner exlmusted by NaiJoleou. 
The latter were personified in Fouehé, and these unfortunately were 
now tlic stronger. 

Alter thiâ it need not he wondered at that the nomination of 
ché to the miniatry of pohcc wns made one of the conditions of 
ouiâ XVlIL's entrance into Piui?, The bourgeoisie required q. 
jguarantee, and it was given one. Alftnv among the royalists thera- 
ftelvcs regarded this appointiacnt of f'ouchL' as n necessary evil; 
Among othcre the Badli de Crussol, a roan whose royalism was 
honeft and founded on conviction. 

It was likewise tho sense of tliis necessity that detennincd Louis 
L XVIIL to st«,t in liiB closet the man he had execrated as his bro- 
^tlicr's murderer, Wcmay infer this from the cynical expiassions he 
îâ&ed to the liaron do VitroUes alter the departure of the Duke 
liVelliûgton and M. do Talleyrand for Nemlly, where the Dukû 
[d'Otrantc awaited thcui. " I have inculcated upon them tliat they 
Ijliurt act for Uie best, for I am well a^vere tïial in aeccplij^ Foucli^ 
) I surrender at discretion (Je Iwre mou puceUuje). 

All these scandals were to he eclipsed by the great flcandal of the 
I second entry of the alli-us into Paris. This time there waB no battle 
^ fought, no blood ahed. Paris did not capitulate, it courted capture. 
J The ftccorapUces of the foreigner had not actctl tliis time in secret but 
kin the open day, before the feces of all men, in the pabce appointed 
kibr pubhu deliber&don. How is it possible to depict die aspect of 



PuÎB during lliose lioniblc days? Tho prkle of France li:i<^ 
refuge among the most wretched of her cliiidrcn : the prolctane» | 
were ftU that existed of the country, but whfit couUl they do? At 
tie vety most a few old soldiers were jnet here and there at thft 
turn of some deserted street or in the angles oî the cross-ways, mut- 
tering maledictions. And whilst all along the splendid main street* 
and the plitterirxg boulevards the loreigncrs "wore defiling by thou- 
Jftnds, their faeca no longer pxpreKnuE' surj>rise and admiration os in] 
§814, hut wruth, diedein, and ineiilt, ft crowd of elegnnt women, 
filling the windows, were loufily haihng tlie passage of the victors, I 
and wavinij; scarfs in token ot^ joy; the rich w etc m-cparing their 
most sumptuous apartraents to receive the EngUçh or PnisdamJ 
officers; and the shoplteepers, in the intoxication of delighted cupi-l 
dity^ were emulously dipplayin^ »ll their most precious store?. 1 

On this occasion, however, the irniptîon of the enemy into thai 
capital did not excite such fjoneral cntlmpiasra as the first invasion. 1 
liad done. It must be achnowlcdgïîd, to the credit of a portion of J 
the bourgeoisie, that it coiUd not help feeling ji touch of melancholy J 
and ehttme. The spectacle of the mral population wolully takin»! 
refuge in the city with their goods and their cattle, sufficiently tola I 
the nature of the chfltige which the disposition of the alhos had I 
undergonc: ihey were teared. And yei^ — ^but no! posterity will I 
never be brought to believe in such excess of infamy— they danced I 
OD the everlastmgly profaned turf uf the Tuileries a few paces ftOM I 
the Pont dee Arts, where our enemies had planted two pieces of I 
cannon in readiness to tire on onr public edifices. Fronc)mien dared] 
to caper in vile measurea round the bleeding body of their countiy^t ] 
like snvages bounding in a ring round a vanquished foe. The str«iiF ] 
(gerp suw thi?^ and they despised us, 

"ITiiis began in France the cm of material interests. 

Those iudividuals, after all, could hug themselves for a time in . 
their prosperous seUislmess, wlio had computed how much money an '< 
humiliation, till then unparalleled, would bring in: for, as the hist 
depth of this deep disgrace, llic vanquished suffered thempelves t« j 
be gorged with gold by the victors. Paris eold itself in retail, after I 

■ having given itsoli' over in the lump, and had not even the merit of j 
a disinterested infiimy. " The ordinary takings of the shopkeepers J 
iDCreascd tenfold ; all the young ofiieers had expcnmve mistreasea,. , 
boxes in the theatres, and dinners at Vi^ry's- From this year 1815 ' 
dati moit ttf tht ghopkttping fvrtunci of Parts. It is irapcssible to' 
imagine iho immens*? expenditure of the leaders of the coaleeeed J 
armies; the Grand Duke Conîflantîne :uid lus brother SMîk 1,500,000 j 
roubles in Paris, in the course of forty days. Bhichcr, who received 

L three millions from the French government, mortgaged liis estate»] 
and quitted Pari?, ruined by the gambling ■houses."* Paris, w« , 
peiccive, had its wages largely doled out to it ; the enemies of Franca i 


were prculigal, and tîic pTirveyors for this mob of enclumteu rovcl- 
lers ■weic as eager to gatlior the profita of its intoxicatioii to the last 
ikithing, aa it was itself to not to tlie last in pl^isurce and inso- 

But there WQS tliis siiiguWity in the results produced hy the in- 
1TISÎOÛ, tlïat France was brutally sacrificed to Paris. 

The centralization established, by the Empire exiatod in full fortM 
in 1815. Paris concentrated, without wcakcning^ them, all the 
■various instincts, interests, and passions of more than thirty millioua 
of men; it epitomised them without desstroyiofj; them. The inva- 
sion made pulpable the possible oppression latent in such a system 
of centralization; a city v^as ennched, and u wliole kinp^doni sub- 
jected to pilkfîc. Yes» fields kid waste and desolate, a multitudo 
of petty proprietors ruined, the agriculture of several provinces dried 
up at the fountain-head, opulent cities crushed under the weight of 
arbitrary contributions, every thing, in short, tliat conquest can do 
ûïid dures do in its uiust savag'e excesses; all Uns svas what those 
pieoea of gold rcprcscnicd, which the strangers scattered through 
Paris with a recklessness ropîete with insult. 

Another result deserres notice. As France was nitilcssly ran- 
sacked for the benefit of the mother city, just so the oody at lai^e 
of the bottrgcoisie was finally impovcriMhcd to the profit of &?mc 
fortunate cûpitalists. Tlie cost of subsisting the seven JiUîidred 
thoîisatiid men who cnciuubercd our soil, the fnghtfuî abuac ol requi- 
sitions, the aun;mcntation of all kinds of irapo3t^% the forced kuifls, 
tlie thousand millions, the price of our deliverance; what a bur- 
den was all tlÛ9 to lay on the boui^coisl It is true, recoures 
was had to credit to clear oft' the incumbrance; tnic, that the con- 
ditions of the loan contracted with the foreign bankers, Boring and 
IIutK.', and of which the principal Parisian bankers obtsîned an 
eighth, offered the lenders the enormous profit of irom 20 to 22 per 
cent, interest; tnte that the first financml measures of the Restiimtion 
were 80 &vouniblc to the great capitalists, that when M- Casimir 
Pcricr wrote a pamphlet inveighing against the scandal of the opo- 
mtioo, he took his stand upon tiiis, among other grounds, that it 
woultl have been more nationai to apply only to the bankers of 
France. , . . Krcct above the znafs of the bourgeoisie, bending 
under the burden, the higher bourgeoisie derived incrcosetl strength 
and opulence from the public shame. In tliia point of view, it is 
maniKstibat the invaâon was in & manner a new contrivance afibrded 
the richest to rob the poorest. In the long run, when the foreigners 
afterwards departed beyond our frontiers, ihcy did not perhaps eariy 
ofi with them any great i^uantaty of money; but the amount they 
cauHMl to change handg was enormous. Thrust by the chances of 
war between the great capitalists and tlic small manufacturers^ bo- 
Iwcen the bankets and the artisans, between daring ppecuktora and 
working men, they bestowed on the former, by mcana of the loan, 
what they violently extorted from the klter by way of toiation. 






Thu?, before ever the bourgeoisie this installed in the admiiij- 
stration, the piinciple of death latent within it had been alrGaJy 
indicated to the nttcative philosopher by the first material result of | 
the invasion. 

K the reader wiQ ponder tlie ILncâ I have just written, he will 
find they contain the germ of the whole social history of tha 
bourgecnâe: the banidng interest inthjaUing industry and com- 
merce; individual credit profiting the strong, injuring the weak; ill 
a word, the reign of compétition tending inevitably to overthrow 
Email fortune?, and to undermine lliose of the middle standard; 
and all this for the purpose of amving at a real financial femlalit7, 
îff, if you will, an oligarchy of baukcra. Admirable law of Provi- 
dencCf which, set the thi-eat of punishment adc by side with ilia 
ctdme» made the very sclftshnesa of the bourgeoisie engender th© 
commencement of its dissolution, and mingted with the daamciul 
liBiiites of ils aggrandizement the indication of the causes of ita 
fisal ruin ! 

But a system of tilings with which the passions of numbers ara 
bound up does not come to nought m a day, whatever "be the vicei 
of its origin. Many gcnerationa are often insufficient to absorb all 
the voQom of au evil principle. Etctv tyrannical regime may bo 
likened to an abyss which can be filled up only with dead boaies: 
tJbc cniel operation proceeds slowly to ita accomplishment, for the 
«bysi is profound. 

In fpite^ then, of some not very prominent signs of future decay, 
a long dominion was promised, in IS15, to this unfeeling reign of] 
compc^tion nnd individualism. Only, that doraijiiou required to be 
completed. Tl^e power of the bourgcoiaic had its roots in the con- 
Atittition of society; it only remained for it to obtain a footing in 
the politico domam. Individudism below mmmoncd hberalism tQ 
Beat ita^lf above. 

Aocordingly, from 1815 to 1&30, the bouigcoigic bused itself only 
irith completing ita dominion. To turn tbû elective system to ita 
own idvantage, to seiste on the paTliamcnt^ry power and render it 
■navne after having achieved its conquest^ such was for fifteen 
jean tïic work prasccuted by libcraliimij a work summarily ex- 
fweond in these words: To £y,sLAVE boyaltv without de* 
■TICUITAG IT. Thus, after those revolutionists of '93 had passed 
jrwtT, who had trampled on pohticaJ tradition with such fierce 
hcTûîfm; after the reign of a man, who, as he could date only from^ 
hixBfletff had essayed to silence for eïcr the antiquated vociferation of 
ike mcmbHoe, uprose once more unconquercd tradition, bringing 
with It a renewal of the struggle 90 long mùntained against royalty 
by thfl «îtats-généiaux ajid the parliamentarians. 

How many noreltzea had the natural comae of events introduced 
into this old ([uairell The field of battle had been ttaùEfonncd; 
the object of tho coml»t w»no longer tine same; the priae of victory 
bidadiâercnt complezion^the coml^tantâ had another aspect. What 




of tliat? Tlicre was in tliîs rçviving caniîict somotlcng wliicli cTcnte 
had not been able to change— its trssential nature. 


"Wlien the Bourbons fell in 1830, many and various were the ex- 
planations ^ven of the event. 

They had entered Frances it was ^d, floated on the tide of in- 
vaHon, like its foam. Tliey had I'cndered France vassal to E.uro]>e, 
and tlie ink was not dried on the fiiipjcra of their ministers from 
d^TiJni; the treaties of 1815. Tiioy had broiîghï baclt into the heart 
of a sorrowing country thousands of the haughty race of yenHls- 
hoinmes^ and that grasping? and encroaching caste, the dor^y. They 
had begun their career with proscriptionSj and the shade of Michel 
Ney rose up agaiûst them, aceuâng them of murdw. Tîiey held the 
Êword siï^nded over the heads of the purchasers of nalionul estates, 
juïJ tlK'ir mere presence was a nevut-endin*^ menace. 

Woe to liim who should declare one offlll these ch:irges unju?t ! 
But are they enough to account bistoricaily for the part played by tlie 
bourgeoisie m 1830? I say not. 

If Louis XVm. dared to pick up his crown from the bloody field 
of Waterloo; if he re-entered Paris, surrounded by an English, 
Kufisian, and Prussian stafT; if he did not blush to admit in tho 
Prince Regent of Engïand a right of moral suïertdnty over the heri- 
tage of Louis XIV. and of Napoleon ; if Wellington was throup-h 
hitn Marehal of Fmnce; if, while he was trying his band at royally 
in the Tuilerie?, the Baron von Muffling, a foreigner, was made go- 
vernor of his capital ; if the LouYi-e was pillaged by the Prusaans; if' 
Bluehcr, in a fit of rage, could talk with impunity of blowing up our 
edifices; if Alexander was regarded as the friend of tho King of 
France, becauee he had been content with making the bridges built in 
remembrance of our victories echo under the footsteps of his army; 
if the allicB, treating with this game Iving of France, exacted, and 
were accorded, as a preliminary to all negotiation, that the aiiny of 
th(^ Loire sliould be dissolved, so that Frunce should have nothing 
left but to entreat for mercy; lastly, — lor long, long, alas ! \a the hst 
of our humiliations in those days, — if out enemies acquired by the 
treaty of November the right not only of retlucing France to her last 
limits:, but of dismantling her fortifications, of building others against 
her with hor own money, (if watching and controlling her policy, 
and of occupying her territory for five years, — was all thiw the 
crime solely of the king, the princes and the ministers? Wliy had 
the reprcâcntatives of the bourgcitisie, the membcie of the legislative 
body, rel'used tljc i.-anquishi'd Kapoleon that sword he asked for as a 
ample general to repair the disaster of Waterloo, and to save the 
cotmtij, or die? And why, when the first gleam of the encmiea' 
watchhrcs was seen, why did not the bourgeoise oi' Paris stir up the 
pcoT>ic so prompt to fi"ht, aad rush, itself, to umnâ, tutuing de?pe- 
ly Ui bay, like the glorious monks of Saiagossa? But no : all the 






gates of the town were thrown open; and there wercshotita of joy in 
all t!ie streets; and there wctc dances m the public gardens; ana La 
all the theatres, for several months, the enthusiasm of those who fre* 
qucnt the theatres hailed in Aloxander the demigod of the invasion I 
Hear it again: " The shopkeepers increased their usual receipts tcn- 
Ibld. From IS15 date most of the shopkceping fortunes of the ca- 
pitaL" A proof that the bourgeoisie liad no thoi^ht In J 830 
of punishini^ tlie Bourbons as princes brought into France by the 
steâa^er, is, that it selected to fiU the throne i^hilip Duke of Orleans. 
Andliow had the Due d'Orléans entered France? Waa not he too 
found in the rear of the invasion? Let ua deal justice and truth U> 
all. llad the bourgeoi&ic taken upon it in 1830 to exact expiation 
of ilie crown for the events of 1815, then I my it would liave lakcu- 
vengeancc on the elder branch of the iiourbona for crimen of which 
it waâ itself the accomplice. Nothing of the kind occurred. It vrii3 
the people who remembered.* 

Could, the bourgeoisie with any more show of reason fall upon tho 
order oi' gentilshommes / I have noticed that Louis XVIII. com- 
mitted in 1614 the mistake of profesaing too open a regard for 
jmci^nt nflmc9; but he iud made haste lo correct that error in 1^15. 
Do we not End in the fii^t mJniatenal list of the latter epoch, along: 
with the name of Talleyiand de Pcrigordr that of Pasqmer, belong- 
ing to the noblesse de rohe, and those still less aristocratic of Gouvion. 
St. Cyr, Fouché^ and Louis? Did M. Decazea, who wasi so long die 
soul of the government of the Restoration, owe his iniluence to hJa 
parchments.^ Were not MM, de Viilèlc, de Corbière, and de 
Fcyronnet, who filled with their existence the lastycors of the Re- 
Btoration, were they not almost noGi homines f That the higheP 

* Upr i* K specimen of the- U-Thiib In which H. VUlemiim, aho htu UeH mâtùter 
mntr lit;iii,coiij^TTiituliitiMl thp Eniptrur AJciwiUcr on bia vktorj'of i$l4,aud th&t ia 
pull uciulL'iiiy, April 2U S^fU. 

** Am tiniç wlicn all heart» urc prtoccupicd by this angtut presence, I bmre need 
tocntnat imluliLinrc- :uul i^finion tbnhiï întcm^ïticKi lamsbnit tooccatlun, Uo«r 
gmA ia ihc- contrast bctvc-tin .lu feeble: & literary intemt aoA ad uidicncË ïucb ss 
thill Did the PrinoM of the Nurlh, who cmnt- to minglti iti tlicac mt^tiiiiza in limes 
pHt, fiircfee that ihciT ilvsceadnnts would une day be lud lo thi.-in by lliv rcaiilt of 
w«r? Such am the rerolutiDiis of eoipin». But the power of the nrta aVQV gime- 
roTi» couls does not change. Bt^forv the ttnagie of the &rta nioruLn-lin In artiis piiiUB 
lUtf mrmarche on n jonmeir, Tfipy tcsppct it in our montiments, in the yviuus of 
OBT WTitcni, and hi (lie mil renown of our .«ii'<iwii. Elixjutînw, or ratbcr hL'tor»\ 
win «dcbratc this litenuy urbaniiv, when it oomea to tell of this war without 
Jimbition, this LurioLable anil disinterested Icitgur, thi* royal sBcriBcc of the. uiMi 
vherljbhcd ft-elingi inuRobtteil to the repose of iiatiocui, and to n nort of Kuropcaa 
patriotiRn. The vaUruit heir of Firderick has proTcd to tu that the chtinctfl of 
arm* da tiot cact dcnra a ^nuinc- king from the thronc; tha.t he olwnyi oriACa A^aiii 
noUy, tmrriL' up on his pt-qplc'a anus and romiùna tnvincibU> Wvdu^ he is luVc-d. 
AloùmlL-r'a iiiii;miiTiiputy stt3 Vfi'Tt onrcyvs one of (hose !vntiiiueBiJul*i'>isaioQataly 
alUim for kI'TJ'. }lis pi-.wi.T and liii youili nr* «'Brrants for tbe lonp peat* of Eu- 
rope. Uii h«Tuisni, p;irinu<i l;y ihv Il(.-]iI of tn'jdt:ni OTilixntkni, leeau wortiiy of 
pemtuatiDg its t'mpirf-, «utthy uf rcoc-wm^ and »ill more embiùlûhîiig the image 
of top phikMOiiltii-Bl ujouan.-h pro-w.'iiti'il by Miknnu AttTclius, — of dtsplRyin?, in fine, 
on ttM thronc. the iknucd wisîlom ot a power, TUt as its own wpiraUona for tlic 
mUhn vt the world." 



boDTgeoiaic felt a very lively repugnance for ibe nobles and the 
dergy, and that it pursued the former with its jealous passions, 
under the war-cry of equality, and tlie Litter with its frigid scep- 
tidsnij while crying up liberty of conacieiifo, and iho indejjendcncc 
of tl^e civil power, is heyond all manner of douht. Only It would 
never have incurred the risks of a resolution bad it looked forward 
to aothlng else than scouring the triumph of its scepticism and its 

As for the cruelties so heavily charged upon Louis XVIU-, it 
must he owned tfuit it is chicly to circumstances they owe the 
character they liave preserved in history. 

** At nine o'clock in the morning,"* says on historian of the Rc^ 
HtcaatJon, *' Ney stepped into a liackney-coacli, dreseed in a hlue 
frock. He had sent to a?k M, de S^monville for a bottle of hor- 
deaux and had drunk it. The grand referendary accompamed the 
marshal to the coach; the curé of St. Sulpicc waa by his âdc, and 
two officers of gendarmerie on ttie box. The c^âmal patty crossod 
the Luxembourg-gurdena on the obscrvat«:iry side. On passing the 
iron gate it turned to the left and halted fifty paces further on under 
the wall of the avenue. The coach liaving stopped, the marGhal 
Stepped out nimbly, and standing eight paces from the wall, eaid to 
the officer, * Is this the place^ qt? — ' Yes, monsieur le inart^chaL* 
Ney then took o^hia hat with his left hand, Laid his right on lus 
heart, and oddresông the soldiers, cried out, * Comrades^ fire on 
me.' The officer gave the signal to fire, and Ney IcU witlioot 
making any motion." 

What strikes us above all in this horrible exécution is its gloomy 
Bectecy and want of solemnity. The multitude wa£ not tliercat the 
last momcntt it had been deceived, and was assembled in the plain 
of Gi'cnelle. Michel Ney, Marshal of France, Prince of Moskowa, 
Duke of Elchingen, is shot in a lonely silent 5pot, at the foot of a 
lïalli by soldiers who skulk Irom obsurvation, by order of a govern- 
ment alraid of its own violence. Tlijs e?fplâinâ why it was thût the 
first cnicltiea of the Restoration left traces stamped in fire on men's 
hearts. Key had turned ag&iust Louis XYIIl, the sword he had 
received from him to defend him in 1814: there is no question of 
that. It is true he was under the safeguai'd of a capitulation: but 
the vengeance of rçaetîon is not to be stopped by such slight conEa- 
dcrations as this. To kill one's enemies had been no novelty for liall* a 
(^nturyt *93 had wearied the executioner- But the neces^tieg of «situa- 
tion without parallel accounted for, and more than excused the blon-9 
itrutkby the lievolutîûD ; tlie sound of the axe was loii'tin '93 in the 
clamours of the forum and in the universal uproar. Here there wa.s 
Dotluiig of the kind: douth wa^ in^cted in cold blood, and a wh'jlâ 
naticm Kept nktiœ round tlic cxecutioncTS. Be it as it may, if the 
bourgc<n8tewafl indignant, its indignation was aâsuredly, disinterested ; 


nnce Key and Labédcnrère died TÎctizns of an idea combated and 
Tanquiahed with the aid of tlie boorgeoiâe itself ; since ihej died 
fictima of the Empire, — ^victims ofthe Hundred Days. Napoleon had 
caused the Duo dEnshicn to be shot in the trencnes of Vincennea. 
Louis XVm. paid Napoleon back murder for murder, — a kind of 
emulation most worthy of the masters of the earth ! But that ia alL 
Did the bourgeoisie on the day succeeding the resolution of July, 
when it was aU powerful, impose on its king the duty of restoring the 
name, fame, and memoij of Ney? And why did it not?* 

I oome to another pomt, the mterests of the purchaaexs of national 
property. Ihis vras a more serious question for the boorgcoiaie, for 
It was no mere a&ir of sentiment and humanity : acoording^ care 
«as taken not to alarm men's interests on this score. Ix>nis XVIII., 
who committed so many blunders, at least did not commit this one. 
He affirmed in his declaration of Saint Omer that the purchasers of 
national property should never be molested. What do I say? Did 
the chamber of 1815, intoxicated as it was with aristocracy, ever 
carry the audacity of its counter-rerolutionary passions to that 
length? Recollect the law on sediûous cries: the 5th article of 
that law provided a penalty against every e^^ression of a nature to 
alarm the posBcsBora of natioml proper^. " Wherefore this me»> 
sore?" exclaimed the Vicomte de Chateaubriand on this occasion 
before the assembled peers. " Why impose a silence, which would 
be broken, if not hj men, yet by the very stones that serve as land- 
marks to the patnmonies whose possessors it is int^ided to re- 
■asore?" Woras of rash dannf; but not all Chateaubriand's elo- 
quence could give effect to ^eôr hardihood, even at a moment when 
ue oounter-revolulaon showed itself daring to insolence ! If, ^eio- 
fore, the interests of the purchasers of national property were so often 
invoked in the polemics of liberalism, it was because they furnished 
that inânoere system with a serviceable weapon. And if the 
mUHard granted the emigrants be held up to me in objection, my 

* At the Tciy moment I write tbeae linei, tbii day, Maxdi 7, IMl. the jonnuls 
«nnopDce the determination jnit come toby the ion of Marshal Key, to take hiaieat 
in that a«aemfaly which voted almost onammoasly for the death of hia &ther. In 
the laat letter, explaining the motzres to thii détermination, I find what follows: 

■"UK MO of the Marqoii of Straffiird did^EMt take hk seat in the Home of Lords 
t21 after he had obtained the reTernon of the soitaioe Tu^ntUy paiwd m his father 
in therngnof CbarieiL 

" LcM fortanate than he, or leas efficiently teoooded I^ dic nmita Deet, and by the 
state cf oar laws, I haTe not been able completdy to racoeed in the accomplishment 
of aidigioiisda^twhicfa I hare nererthdess punned without relaxation, and by all 
the means in my power nnoe 1831. 

** My eflbrta with the difirentmmiitries whidi hare sooceeded each other during 
tiiat space ct time^ have beoi always fhistrated 1^ exceptions to my lotnu im ctpia, 
drawn partly from the lacmuB of our code in matters of rerision, partly also from the 
fae u o> wii e no ea with regard to the puUic secnri^ which would be occasioned by the 
erocatioo of certain reminbcences which passion wonld not £ûl to fasten upon. 

** What shall I say to yon? I hare beôi flghtjng thos without success these ten 

lUs is what the gonrnment of the boorgeoine had in store fia: the memory d 



answer is, that tliis counter-revolutioDaiy act was not passed till 
after tKc election of the Abbé Grégoire, tbc regicide, not till after the 
ttsai^nation of the Due de Bern; thjit ta to say^ when the monarchy 
dciveu to extiûinities, determined at hst to dare all ugainst its ene» 
mics, clearly perceiving timt its enemies would d^re all against it. 
]}i.-sides, be it well observed, if the milliard of indemnity waa a, 
virtual condemnation of the principiea of '89, it was no less a 
puarautee oflered to the owners of nationiJ estates, since it was the 
price for wliieh they were granted security. Tliis indoinnity being 
paid, the possessors of the property in question were dcfmitively 
protected from all lic^tile proccedings; and thoâe who bad most 
reason to complain were all those poor artisans, all those workmen, 
all thoso children, of the people, from whom the eminjation had 
lei.iud its impost^ though tlii-y had never been partakers of its 

Returning then to wliat I have aimed at proving, I repeat that 
the struggle which licgan in lftl5, and which was to terminate ia 
the revolution of 1830, was but tlio continuation, for the benefit of 
the bt>iirgcoi3ie, of the strugj:;le which the états généraux Iwd main- 
tiiincd previously to 17^9 against the monarchical priitciple^ though 
without éclat, without vigour, and mthout continuity. 

Can society have two heads? Is so%'ereignly divlï^ible? is there 
not between goveroinent by a king, and government by an assembly, 
a gulf which every day tends t*j make deeper and wider? And 
wherever this duaham existai, is not the nnlion doomed to lluctuate 
miserably l>clwcen a lOth of Augupt and an I8th Brumaire? ïliia 
question was presented to Louis XVll!. on the day ho seated him- 
self on the throne, as it had been to Bonaparte during the Hundred 
Day» : and as the social strength was on the eide of the bourgeoiaic» it 
wuR natuiul that the quc&tion should be decidctl in its favour. The 
obstacles with which royalty bad to contend during tlie lïcstorationt 
the countless feelings of hatred tliat gathered in its way, the tcm- 
t>edt^ that aâSoilcd, the sort of popular earthquake that overthrew it 
in 1830, all these had no more serious cause. 

Had it even been piissible to create a mediating power between 
the crown, and the chamber I But the right of entail Imving 
been for ever abolished, the division of patrimonies liaving become 
an inevitible fact, the ariatocracy having been thrice vanfjuishcd, 
what availed a peerage? T^at of 181^ rcprcsentcdbut aheap of ruinfi, 
and was in teahtv bwt the living history of a quarter of a century of 
treacheries. So little accoimt was made of it, that Louis XVIII., 
for in?tance, regarded it simply aâ a moans ** of putting a ring on flte 
Jittffrr ufyt-oplf of hù hoxisehoid on the birth of their eldtttt guru." Tiio 
del is, tliat the personal cûmposilian of the pcetage ivaa recast îa 
ÎHI.J without scruple and without shame. Peers of Fniucc were 
bn»k«n, rind titlin-s were created; the title of ]>ccr Ijecame a mode of 
or a priw: hulJ out to the higher otîiccra of the royal 
And alter this M. dcTuileyrand fancied himself a great 

■0 or a 


statesman for liaving caiiged sucli a peerage to be ileclarcd hcrLiditary ! 
What poverty ol" views ! ^yhc:n, Lurd Cticstoi'field's sou -n-aa sctùn^* 
out to visit tue difTeront courts <il' Europe, his father said to Kim, 
" Go, my son, go and aec the sort of awa hy whom the world is 
^vemcd !"* I comprehend this disdain. 

Yes, before ever llie government of the Restoration was in full 
opcmtioD, the leading feature of the case was the necessary rivalry 
of these two power?, the crown and the chamber. And ecc tlie kLnd 
of cm:umstance& that announce and prenarG the struggle. When 
ihc elections be»^, two men are found dividing the ministerial [x^wcr 
betweea them, Talleyrand and Fouclni: the latter, able, shrewd, a 
practised master of intrigue, poaâessiflg the confidence of tlic bour- 
ffeoisic. and versed in the art of dc&ling with impure implements; 
the other as devoid of întellectuai as of moral worth, but passing for 
a ffrand seitpteiir without prejudice?, and enjoying an immense repu- 
tation as a statesraan, because baseness Ims its triumphs, which every 
vulgar mmd eonibunda with those of talent. The antagonism between 
these two men is glaring; every one Pcea thifi, every one says this, 
and it Bcem& t]wt thia will prove the rock on which the ministry will 
be wrecked- But no: the ministry is about to be dissolved, but its 
dissolution will be the furat eddence of the power of the bourgeoia 
inicrcstâ, and of the irresistible force of the elective principle. 

We know what had rendered Fouche uecessiiry as a, minister: 
con&ctiucutly he could only fall to make way for another man, capa- 
ble bkc ïiimsclf of representing in the govermnenl the interest^3 and 
the possâous of Ûit bourgeoisie. Tli<i^ who have agsigned no other 
iiause for the extraordinary fortune of M. Decazes than the affection. 
of Louis XVIII-, appear to mc not to have dived to the bottom of 
this subject. M, Decazes was of plebeian origin: no tic could Iiave 
fttutcbed him to a regimen of ^and seif/neurs. He loved money, 
and knew its value: he loved power, and comprehended the eoadi- 
tioM of Its tenure. île posseted gagacity^ sttpplenoss, activity» 
■oepticiîim, jmbaltom ambition, evciy (juality positive and negative 
to enable him to know and to make huu subservient to the «ide that 
was the etrongcr. Libcryjism, in so lar as it was lacking in eleva- 
tion, coidd not find a truer pcrsoniiication. M. Decazes was Fouché 
âofl<'ijed down. 

This 13 pi-eclsely wlmt rendcied DecaKcs fit, in the cyca of. 
the bourgeoisie, to supersede Fouché. Again, he had piiid» in. 
tecaking of. Napoleon's asboni&hiug marcli on Paria on the 20th of 
March, " Legitimacy is not to ha acquired by dint of liard run» 
mngî" and independently of this profession of faith, the To^'aUst3 
jpRvferred him u> the Due d'Otrantc, because ho at least did not 
ïvty the smell of blood on hla clothes. 

îï. Decazes waa carried in this way to the summit of public 

■ Tïie anlhorof this «ayins wni not IjOTiI Cliesterfifld, but Oicnstlenia, Châucel- 
IwofSvedcn luider UasUtvus AUol^jlma and CbrUtiuo. ^1, ai £lj, vide ^uaa 
minima upienti rcgitur niiunlus." — jyanshitor, 




[konourn, and FoucKt; fell from power, leaving beLind a successor 
rorthy of liim. Ijouw XVIII.'s liking for the ncw minister served 
bis fortunes, but does not singly account ibr them. M, Decades 

luriii a liberal ; that was his strength. ITie time of favourites was 

rsl, and if M. Dccazes had been biickcd by nothing else than 
royal affection, whit^h is won and kept by flattery, his jnflu- 
enec^ bke tliat of M. dc IllacfLa, would never have extended beyond 
the govemment of the an tech amber. 

But by the side of this singular fact, the sudden elevation of M. 
Decazes, stands another no less chûracteristic, the fall of the Talley- 
nnd miaiAtiy. ^Vhy ctid that ministry break down ? Because the 
result of the first elections fr>retold a chamber hostile to it. M. de 
Talleyrand fearing too vehement an opposition, had an audience of 
tho kmg, and asJced him if the c^ibinct might count tully on the 
support of the crown in the approaching contest. Louis XVIII., 
long jealous of the prince's reputation, appeared offended at the 
arro^anco of his âlamit and to toe great fwtonishment of the whole 
country dissolved the ministry, leaving the destinies of royal t y in 
France to fall into the feeble liands of the Due de RicheUeu» Arc 
not these very remarkable facta? A bourgeois, a liberal, M, De- 
ouzes becoming tho head of the royalist government ; tho firat 
ministry of tho Restoration overthrown by the mere approach of the 
chrtmbcr, and in a ninnner by the shadow of the elective principle; 
thi;» victory acliiev&d on the eve of the battle; does not all this strike 
one lis a revelation of that force, of which the fifteen ycjirs of the 
Restoration were to be but the compltsle development in a political 

So fuUy alive were the most intelligent royalists to the invincible 
force of the elective principle, considered as a means of aggrandizing' 
the bourgeoisie, that tome of them made incredible efforts to keep 
Fouclie m the ministry until the n.'s^einbling of the deputies: wh- 
ue&a JÏ. t](j VitroUes, whose constant cry was, "Before dl^missing 
Foucht', wait for the chamber." 

But here is *)racthing more asnificant still. The elections are 
ended Î the chamber assçrables. Tlio3e who have reflected on the 
ehanicter of all reactions know why thi^. chamber would naturally 
fill! ittw-lf cxflusi\'i:'ly royalist, Tliey talked of nothing in it but the 
kiug: fidelity lo the ting was the virtuo of tho day: were wc to 
rely on tho official langua^'C of the chamber, never had France been 
more cumpleti-^ly monnrchicaJ ; and nothing could equal, the enthu- 
sia^^Tn thiit but-st fortii in llie Oissetobly when M. de Vaublânc pro 
iKMmced these words: '' Tlie immense majority of the chamber holds 
fiat by its king," But what ! It ia by a series of sharp attack? on 
royalty that tUh chanibrir, so eminently royalist, cammcnees itd pro- 
Oocdings. Tlir first bill* {jfnijrl clr lor), presented to the chamber by 
due ffttnle drj: icemtx 'n received vnû\ many indiçatioMof dissatisfiio-. 



tion, and ïs passed only with modificatioTia tl^at completely destroy 
its orignal chanwrter. A broad and striking assertion tliis of tlie 
right of the initiative on the part of the ftssembly I And from that 
moment how nrdently wns an opportimitv sought to exerci.'^e tJiat 
ûûtîalivc ! Whetlicf tho question regardctl the law upon tlic sus- 
pcnHon of individual liberty, presented by M. Dccizcs, or tliat 
on iurisdictions pifsciitcd by the Due dc Feltrc» the chamber 
tliinks itseh' called on not only to rectify the handiwork of tlie mi- 
nialers. but to make it over again. Alone it iills the pohlioil stage; 
llofic it governs. Waa there ever seen FÏnce the Convention an 
aaKmbly mure violent, more irnpcriou?, more intoxicated witli the 
seiwe of its own rights ? It learns that the king proposes to Itave 
the ordinance of the 24th of July legalized, whic^ bmiled royalist 
vengetLOGG to nineteen beads of note given up to the tribunals, and 
to tmtty-eight persons sentenced to bimishmcnt. At tliia news the 
lage of the chamber rises to its highest pitch, and \csl the act of 
■mnesty should be too indulgent, it takes the initiatire into its own 
handâ, thus usurping the most personal of all the prerogatives of 
royalty. I» it poaeible to conceive any thing more overbearing ? 
ÂJid what act of sovereignty could be more peremptory than that 
motion of M. de Labourdonnayc's, which proscribed at one blow 
■U tiw mazibab, all the generals, all the prefects, all the hish func' 
t£rauin<3 implicated in Bonaparte's return; which struck at all tlie re- 
gicide npners of the acte adtktioneî; which excluded for ever Irani the 
soil of France aU the members of the Bonapaite family; wliicb 
doomed the property of eo great a number of citizens to set^uestra- 
tion ; which in a word mado the judicial power a dcpendeucc oil 
liie legislative Î Ncverthclesâ the ngscrahly Banctloncd this great 
ampatîon in the very teeth of the king's formal announcement 
dial he would not consent to the proscription of the regicides. 

It has been eaid that Louis X\ IIL was not sincere m tliis; that 
in hid heart he abhorred the regicides, and only made a sbow of 
protecting thecn, in order to sJiilt off upon the chamber the odium 
of the proscription. Be it so. But he had declared hîmeclf opcaly 
ajul con.«picuously, and his mmjsters contested the projects of tlie 
dboinber in his ûïinic with extreme energy. What must have been 
the effect on public opinion of a struggle so violently displayed^ 
whatever may liave been the secret thoughts and tlie hypocrisy of • 
fcho combatants ! The Due de Richelieu addressed these words ono 
émy V} the chamber: " 'llie king has caused liimaelf to be made 
acquainted with your various propositions and your useful delibera- 
tkms. The will of Ltiuis XvJ. is always present to luis thoughts;" 
and the chatnber on hearing these wortls remains mute anil mo- 
tionkn; threatening looks lour on every face ; and the ministry is 
obfiffod to have recourse to long ncgoti&tioiis to bend the obstinacy 
of the aaecmbly. Tlie chumbeT consents at last to reject the Ban- 
gimury cstegoiics of M. dc Labouidonuayc; but it abides by the 

D 2 


■ banishment of t*he rcj^ieldes, aftof cheering tho factiously foyûlîât 

X tiered hy M. tic Bcthis/f " Vive le roi tiimntl mcime!" Qtmnd 
! The antyfjonism oi' the two principles broke out even in tho 
[Urdont royalism ol tlio asscrably. 

This is not all: the law of elections is prcponted to tlie assembly. 
Two syatems sug-gcpt themselves; the one creating an electorul college 
, in each canton, and giving tho king the power of annexing to each 
Dral college^ jug^s dc paix, mayoi^, \'ica.r9-gcncral, proviseurs, 
!, &c. ; the other catabUiihing election in two degrees, to the 
advatitage of the rich, Tlie alternative ia formidable. If the first 
[eystcm prevails, the croivn has a hold on the elections; it is pbccd 
I on an independent footing. If the second system triumphs, tho crown 
lis undone; the sway of the iMirliament has no longer any TOUUtcr- 
Ipoise; the unequal duel between Pym and Charles L^ between Robe- 
r^ierre and Ixiuia XVL, between Lafayette and Bonaparte, will be 
llcvivcd and continued; royalty la on the vcrçc of a precipice. Well 
ilKen^ the system fatal to royalty h that wnioh finds favoixr in the 
XtLÏtra-Tôtfalist chamber of 1815- ^V^lat a tlienic for meditation ! 
I That this charober aimed its blows at the ministry and not at the 
[crown; that it proclaimed the omnipotence o^ parliament ûomi con- 
[«derations of tactics, not on principle; that it was bent on inakmg 
ftbe elective power an irresistible lever, solely because it was then in 
Kts own bands; — all this is possible. And what docs this prove, 
icKCcpt that great events aro obedient to laws that baffle the tricks 
tof Belljshne?5 and all the strategy of the passions ? What mattora i& 
I to liîatory what the cliambcr of ISl.** intended ? Wliat it did is all 
that is to the purpo5c. Now, it professed the dogma of the absxflute 
Bovei-eignty of assemblies, and it was it that wnconsciously laid down 
the premises of the syliogii?m, from ■which, after fifteen years of con- 
flict, 1830 drew tho conelufiâon. 

Hence it appear th»t the revolution of July was comprised bodily 
in that fiitDous ordinance which dissolved the impracticabh; chatnbfr. 
By the ordinance of the 5th of Novcmbcrj however, Loui? XVIII. 
did but npp(?al to new elections, and to a new clectoml syfitom. K^^n- 
tially this was to establish in favour of royalty that ri^ht ol" Ji*k-*oIving 
the cliaralxT, which ts recognised an<l practised in England ; a right 
protective of the crown, and in whtcli there was surely nothing<xoi^i- 
tant, since it had not prevented the second Stuart irom dyijig on the 
scaffold ! What, nevertnolefs, was the impression proiluced by triis emi- 
nently monarchical act ? Tlmsc who were called the ulira-rot/alhti 
were struck with consternation ; those who were called the libemls ap- 
plauded, Tlie reverse is what should have taken place had there 
peallv been in France friends of tho monarchy on the one side, and 
friends of Hberty on the other. Kut no : the ultn^royalists cxc- 
crat<»d the ordinance of the 5th of November, because it broke up a 
chamber in which they bojb sway, — thus sacrificing to a teinnorary 
Advantage of position all the principles of monai'ch j : and the Libcnds 




wekoincd this huïiû ordinance is-ith cxiiltation, because the parlia*. 
montary power it smotf did not yet belong; to themselves, — ihna sati 
enticing to a temporary advantage of position all the principles of I 
liberty. f 

Tlie tnith of the matter is, that irords did not in this case tally \ 
with tho ideas they osicn^ibly impUod. Under tho dencunhintioua of 
lihcrt/U and roi/fjfists, interests were concealed that were in reality, 
neither those of liberty nor thoso of monarchy. I 

Tiie actual division existing; in France was tins. One party de-1 
fued tluit the nation should be agricultural ; that cultivation an s { 
luge scale should be re-estaUishcdj and the system of lurge proprie-- 
totship reconstitiiled by ineane of entails and the ripht of pnnio^ ' 
gcnittire; that the clerffV should be indemnified out of the foii3stsof 1 
the ?tate; that the administrative centralization should he aboU^hed; 
chat flm country in fine should be brought back to thtit aristocratia 
regimen of which the bourgeoisie, aided by the kings, had over- 
thrown the foundations. Tlio other party entertained diametricaUy 
opposite notiona. The former class consisted in general of gentiU* 
iumntc»t etnigiant?, dignitaries of the church, tuid iwJûns of ancient 
famibcs : ihcy constituted what should have been caUed the feudal 
party. To the second class belonged sons ol parliamentarians^ bank* 
en, manufacturer?, traders, holders of national property, physicians, 
lawyers, the bourgeoisie. 

Looldn" then to the substance of tliinp? and not to mere word?, 
the stnigi^e was one simply between ieuifal ideas and bouipeois in* 
tert.T?t^- Now the descendants of tliosc who hatl wa^d sucIï fierco 
vcta on monarchical centralization, through Charles the Boid, tho 
Comt*:! de Soissone, Montmorency, and Cmq Mars» were assuredly 
not more royalist than the sons of thoso who had so violently shaken 
thrones by means of the ian&cnists, the imiiHstracy, and the philoso- 
phersL Royalty was in the eyes ol" the feudal party, as wefl. as in 
thoec uf the bourgeois pirty, an instniment ratlicr than a principle. 
When, tlierefore, royalty Lent ita support to the bourgeoisie, the ten- 
tlid party was obliged to intrench itsell" behind the power of par* 
UajQcnt, and to ppeak the Ifinguagc of public immunities : and when,, 
on the other hand, it Icjit itself to the viewa and puFfdons uf the feu- 
dal party, it was then the tttm of the bour^fcoisie to attack thij 
throne in tlic name of hberty. Tlius wo account for the contradic- 
tions And anûmalica that make up the political movement of tlio 

In 1816 the bourgeoisie might almost consider JL^lf seated on tho 
tlm^he beside Louis XVIIl., wliosc mind it swayed through M, 
Docazcs. TIios*.' who were culled ullra-royab^ts began, therefore, to 
woar down the royal power, and tlicy all graduated as doctors of li- 
béralisa. Here you had M. de Vi(K*!e comphiining of the uncon- 
Mittitionid intlucnec of the king over the elections of the Pas dû 
Cftlaââ: ilicre, MM. de Ctt^lelbajac and de Labourdonnaye haranguing 
£Eom the tribune in defence of the Liberty of the press and of tho 



individual. AVho but remembers the petition of MinJcnioiscUc Ro- 
bert., untl llie slorniy discussions it gave rise to ? What I they had 
dared to riat M- Robert with arbitfury arrest 1 They liad gone the 
lengtîi of suppressing his journal ! But wlial iras to become of the 
liberty of the press, if it were competent to the executive to deal it 
snch tremendous blows ? ^Vhat penis himg over society, ii* autocracy 
ere allowed such cWtic poiver of extcneion ? This was the sort of 
nguftge held from one end of France to the other, and by whom ? 
|By the ultra-roifaUsts. Now it is to be obscn-'edi that the excessive 
I rigour with whioh M. Rol)crt was treated, was oecasioncd, by a pam* 
1 phlcl said to have issued J'rom his prras, and in which the nisjesty of 
(the crown wusdragccd ihifjugh the mire. 

Thc part played \iy the liberals during this time was as followa : 
IM. Decazes prepared, presented to the chambef, supported, and 
bis friends gupportj the system of the censorsliip, preventive 
Kftrrestf', and exceptional laws. M. Villemain kept up a restless watch 
I over the press, and siippr&^scd journals with oif-hand llippancy. M. 
'■ Royer Collard, who did not pass for au ultra-royalist» deckïed 
itrongty fur the pre-eniinonce of the royal authority, and replied in 
Lerms to M. Castetl^jac^ on the subject of the liberty of th& 
, '* The fact must not bo overlooked or mistaken,, tliat wher- 
rêver there are parties, pubUc joumab cease to lie the organs of in- 
1 dividual opinions; that pledged as they arc to the several interests 
(that command them, serving as instruments of their policy, and as 
[ the field of their battles, tl»eir Ubet-ty is but the Uberty of raging 

I The law of election of February 5, 1817, was paaed, estabbalung 
^departmental election of a single degree, and fixing the electinnl 
qualification at the annual contribution of 3(X) francs. Statistica 
published by the minislry show that the number of citizens payin^Ç 
I 800 francs of taxes, patenta included, was 90,878. The law of Fe- 
I "bruary 5th, 1817, therL'ioro, placed the parlkmentary power in the 
hands of the bourgeoisie. Accordingly tlicrc aroee an invcraon in 
the Gist of parts for the poUtica! drama. The boiu'geoiâe, now para- 
mount in parliament, lumed rcumd on the crown, of which it had 
: no longer need, and set about deil-nding against it those Borne libcr- 
tiiei, the chLimpionship of which, previously to the law of the 5lh of 
February, it had ubaudoned to the feudal parly. Tlic Law respecting 
prei-'cntivc arrcsta was now to be repealed, the ecneorship was to bo 
a1>oli4te<l, and the ministry of pobce was become so manitéstly a 
«îîiueiire,. tht»t M. Ducazca hîraself felt fonstruiacd in common de- 
ct-ncy to call for its s-upprc^jon. Hut the more tlie momirchical 

Îtrinciple humbled itfrlf bcfure that boui'geûisie by which it iiail bc- 
oiolx-cn sijFtrruuuusiy Bupiion<'d, the more did that party redouble 
the exigency of Its dwmuids. \V1iilst the politicians of the Pavilion. 
Mursui were seeking to entangle the king in thdr intriguci, ttie 
bourgeois writczs were unremittingly undermining the foundationa 
of tho throne. The Minerve waa every day becoming more acrimo- 



nîouB in its hoatilitj. Citizens Imo^rni like SI- Vojcr il'Arwnsoa 
for iheii austere independence, were already suggested as conoidiites 
for tiie consideration of the elector*. The elecUons of 1818 ehowed , 
fuDy how this movement told. SLuiuel obtained a double eleiticji 
in La Vendée» and La Sarthc sent into the cliainber tlic most illu»- ] 
trious of the foea of the royal family, M. de Lafayette. 

What then had the feudal cha.niber of 1815 donc^ in giving so i 
much strength and pcrmaneneo to the power of parliament ? With, 
îtiî owQ Uandfi it load Ibrgod a keen and glittering falchion for the 
bourgx»iae, Iltstoir ia full of these deep lessons lor hiin who will 
but take a little pains to search them out. Fttrties, Lke ccrtaia 
monkfi, olfen spend their Uvea in digging theb own graves, though 
not perhaps because, like them, they arc filled \t-ith the conscious- 
aera of theii own nothingness. It amuses me to see the air witli 
which certain men etrut over the sLiîïe of tlie world; they fancy 
they are impelling society onwards, "wlnlst they arc only fiuttcrLn» 
their own Bttttionary impotence; they set up for immortality, and 
'Would make bold to usurp God's command over the future. Laugh- 
able ambition ! God atone murehcs onwards tlirough Uic vague 
bustling of the generations of men ! 

Meanwhile, Europe was beginning to be uneasy at the state of I 
tiling? in France. The foreign sovereigns had counted on establish- 
ing the internal peace of the country by setting up in it the charter 
aim the polidcai duahsm it sanctions. Great was their mistake, and at 
last they perceived it. M. dc Richelieu, w!io had jLttcnded the con- 
ffron at Aix-Li-Chapelle, rotumod trom it filled with lively appre- 
Acnstons respecting the future dci^tiniea of the monarchy ; tlit idea of 
changing the electoral remmen was entertaincd. Unfortunately the 
danger which liad. cicited such serious attention at Ûic congress of 
Aix-Li'Chapcllc was not comprised in the law of the 5th of Fe- 
brnarf . In order to consoUJate the throne by raiang it above tho 
aaaauU of every tempest, it would have been noccssary to destroy in 
France, had tliat been practicublc, not thJa or that electoral arrange- 
tpcnt, but the elective power itself; for whatever were the hands to 
which that formidable lever might be committed, it was impossible that 
ïoyalty should long resist its action. To transfer the elective stren^H 
to othjer hands was to give the monarchical pi^ciple other cncmiesi 
not to mve it. 

This vas a point not understood dther by the flovertigns, or by 
M- do Kichelicu, thcii representative and organ in the council of mi* 
aiateffl. In the end, tlie attempts made by M. de KJchelicu to over- 
tllTOW the law of the 5th of February were uscIck^, and had, as wo 
ksaw, no other result than that of expediting his dowuikl. M. 
Docaxcs, hÉït colleague and Ids rival; ^1. Uccazcs^ whose c^le ho 
]iad denumdei], remained in power, taJdjig Gencml DcseoIc into tho 
ministry. The aim of the new ministry waa the maintenance of the 
law of election ; or, in oikev words, the monarchy chose ministers 
whoM programme wafi the deslmclion of the monarchy. 



No doubt sucli an idea had not entered any one's head. The 
boiugeoiâo itsoli", in it«i impetuous course towards absolute dominion, 
had but a cont'iiscd notion ol' its oim work, and was far from 
believing that to render royalty dcpondent was to tiboUab it. But 
«gain I say, men arc alfrays the sport of tilings thpy accomplish. 
Society subsista upon one eternal series of misconceptions. 

The Dessolc ministry waa and could be in reality nothing but an 

uninterrupted succesmnn of victories achieved over royalty by the 

'" lourgeoisie, armed with the power of parliament. And at the outset 

he first act of the suasion of 18 Î 8 waato vote a national recompense 

or the service which M, de RiclieHeu, it was eidd, had rendered 

tf ranee, in delivering it from foreiOT occupation. What that 

|*cr\'iec co?t us I do not care to recollect, but it could -with truth 

I be said tint on thia occasion the honour of France had sweated at 

It^-ery pore. The bourgeoisie, however, had attained its object; itfl 

[•STcafth hud OTown amidst tlie bumihation uf its country: some gra- 

I titudc was clearlj'' due for tlus to M. de Richelieu. Nevcrthelcsp, be 

vaa a man of intcjrrity. It was liia evil fate to have bad to sign the 

degradation of France; still it is not the less tnic that to recompense 

lliiiu was a gcandalous act; thomoBt he deserved waa compasàon. 

Be tliis as it may, the vote of the cluimber on this question was a 
[mamfeftt Ftride towards a parliamentary dictatoi'sbip. '* Beware! 
ri)cwaro !'^ was the cry from the cute drnit: "all tliis ia antîmonar- 
tchical; you are following the example of the aasembliea of tlie Rcvo- 
} lution." But it ia puenle to call upon a power to set limits to itself. 
TSbt^ chamber took ltd coûtée, and ihejiecforth purstied it without a 

There Tffaa no end to the efforts mado to conciliate it. Tlie king 
recalled the outlaws; M. de GouWon St. Cyr opened tlie army lists 
[to old officers ; M. dc SeiTcs, the minister of justice, wrote to all 
tlho ftltorncy-Kcnerals, urgently enjoining them to respect the liberty 
|©f the individual; M. Decaacg, the mim.'^tcr of the intcriofi publicly 
Imnnounccd that the industry of the country ehould be invited to 
pinatce periodical exhibitions of its best productions, thus inaugurating 
[the guy doini^ of labour on the ground from wlùch the pomps of 
I jnonarchy liatl alreiidydisapjMjared. Need I contiuue the catalogue? 
[in a bill brought in to dctiuc the responîdbiiity of ministers, the 
[representative* of the crown did homage to the ptlitical omnipotence 
[■©fthe bourgeoiMC, whiUtthey confcsecd its judicial omnipotence in 
J another bill which abolished the censure by anticipation, and put tlie 
li public jounials under t!ie jurisdiction of juries, lima we see that 
I the ministry met every demand upon ihein with full and frank con- 
|. ccsHions. when two rival powers î^tand face to face, it is not enough 
kthot the weaker give way^ta destiny ia to succumb. The hour* 
Iffeoieôa always demanded something more than was granted it. The 
rlill respecting ministerial responsibility was considered too va^e and 
uicomplete: inat wldch laid down rules for tlie liberty of the press 
vraa violently uaaîkd, because it created responsible publi^ci^ and 

C»l>UCTIOW. 41 

imposed rccognîï&ncca. The complaints urged from tlie tribuna 
werc loudly and ibrmidobly echoed by tbe prc?3. The cliamlwr of 
peers, ftlarmed by all the din around it, had talked of laodifyinij the 
Lw of the 5th ot February, and the ministry had Instantly punished 
it by a large ci-eation of peers, which altered the cliaracter of ita 
majority and let in upon it a large number of bourgeoisie. Even 
this waa not enoun-h ; the eftervesccnce went on increasing. The 
Minerve was for ha^'înp the qualification for members onnuUed j tlie 
CùnUitu.timmeî sarcustically betjgod to know, did 200 deputies really 
end truly represent thii-tj raiLliona of poopîc? M. lîavous deKvered 
iadûmmalory harangues to tho students of the uniycrsity, and said, 
in comijienting on the SGtb and 89tli articles of the penal code, 
which affixed the same penalties to the act of merely plotting 
andBSt the life of the king us to tlie consummation of that crime, 
'■^The dream of Marpyas, punished as high treason by Dionysius of 
Syracuse, and the death ofthnt gentleman, who wa3 executed in tlic 
market-plftce (on haWng entertained the thought of assassinating 
Henri HI., — what are these but facts Icgitimateil by our present 
code, in deSance of the constant and universal reprobation of poa- 
tcnty?" It ia tfflsy to conceive what must Imvc been the eflèet of 
«uçh language on the fcchnos of youth. Disturbances took place in 
the School of Law, and IL Bavoux was cited before the criminal 
court. But the bourgeoisie applauded hia couraije, the jury declared 
him not guilty, and on his coming out of court the students thronged 
round lum to congratulate and embrace him. 

Hie news from abroad added to this turbulent condiuon of thû 
public mind» which the bourgeois writers took such active meagurea 
to uphold. The antimonarohicJil maniicstoos of the German associa* 
tioQs were fiivourably received; the aaaaaaination of Kotzebue found 
admirers. It was the time when the terrible voice of the Man* 
cbester reformers resounded through all Europe. It is supcriiuous 
to »»y that the French press reported the proceedinga of those count- 
less aâscmblics that covered the soil of Great Britain, tind the news* 
||^>crs teemed with such statements as the following; — " A meetine 
^n* teld in ymitiificld. Henry Hunt, accused by tile adversuies ot 
n^brm ul" having received money, replied, * Tlic Duke ot York has 
jtwt lost at pLiy the sum voted to him by parliament as guardian of 
bi* heh>lesB father. That i& a specimen, I suppose, of tlie morality 
of the ni«;hçr orders of society. It was the same morality that made 
Lord Suboouth be*itow tiie place of clerk of the pells, a sînecurfi of 
3000/. a year, on Jua son, a mere boy, iTio Duke of Sussex hûs 
jusi abandoned ids lawful wife, with whom he lived for a very long 
time, and they have given liim 2678/., taken out of your pockets,' 
&ç^ &c, 

Theso virulent attacks made on the aristociacy in England harmo- 
nized with certain intercstïî and antipathies in France, by which the/ 
were caught up ia the saloons of the tnagiâtmcy and the fiuancii^ 



ftud pafisioiiAiely applied to things at home; and rojaltj ettfîci'^ from 
the rebound of" these Ftrokes. 

The feudftl party, on their eâde^ like dexterous tactician?, whetted 
the anirooaity of tlic bow^eoiàe asaÎQSt minister?, M. de Chatoiu- 
brtand wrote in the CoTtservateur thtit M. Decazcs had set out with 
Ixîing the persecutor of the revolutionist?, sud tliat he had persecuted 
them without measure- General Donnndicu let fly a pamphlet, in 
Trhich he east on the faTOuritc ûf Louis XVIlI. all the odium of the 
events in Grcnohle in 1816. He stated that in reply to an applica- 
tion for mercy, addressed hy him to the ting, on behalf oi scvea 
condemned persons, an order was transmitted to him by telegraph 
to put tiwm intiantly to death, niere was notldng but what was 
]aid hold of as a ground far criminating the government, even to the 
muûfest and sj>ecial protection granted by it to productive talent; 
»nd the J}rapeaii Blanc was in amazement at the subtle poUcy of 
M. Dccazcs in contriving that tlic elections should be coincident with. 
the exhibition of manulac turcs. This was a pkin hint to the hour- 
geoiâe that the government ilattered to deceive it. 

It must be added that the policy of tho ulttaA at that time was to 
provote to jacobinism, by insulting taunts. *' ^ow then," said the 
Jowrnal des Débats to the adverSBriflS of the feudal party, a propos 
to a recent resolution of the Germanic diet, *' here you see yourselvea 
ocmatrained to admit that all Europe is ultra as wc arc- Now you 
are convinced that what you call Europe, the natmtts, Ute atft, turns 
out U* be ut botiom noUiiug move than a few petty shopkeepers, 
awtod on hales of cotton and hogsheads of sugar, in tlic Hue des 
Hamass^, at Eouen, a few long-haired, short-jacketed, beardless 
Btudents, of the university of Jena , and a lew thousand honest radicals 
illuminated by the fames of gin." These petty eliopkeepers suited 
on bftles of cotton and hogslieads of sugar, determined to show what 
they could do: they elccU.'d M. Griifgoirc, and thus flunfT» as it were, 

f the gory head of Louis XVI. as their gage of battle at the feet of 

; their enemies. 

But dieir enemies rejoiced at this: '* Give us jacobin rather than 

! minifitcrial returns" had been the exclamation of the Drapeau Blanc; 
Wid the wish was accomplished. The Duchés d'Angoulfme'a grief 
troke out in redoubled paroxysms; the Comte d'Artois' appada 
claimed a right to be heard; Louis XVIIL, who fdt the rfanem- 

I Jjrance of the Pouchi* miniatry weigh lica^Hly on hie crown, now 
cnlod before the epoclre of his brother; irom that moment tho 

of tJic law of February 5th, was a setdcd thing. 
Tile miniatci-s Dcssole, l*ouis, and Gouvion St. Cyr were for up- 
lioldiag that kw^ they were coTn|>elled to retire, and at the head of 
tlïc new cabinet apj-fcarcd to tho astonishment of the beholdors — 
JL Decazesl M. I>ecaze9, who* speaking Irom tîic tribune of the 
Chamber of Pccra^ had apphed the epithet vernicittiis to Bju^tiielemy's 
propomuon; M. Decazes, who had cûmpellcd the Due de Hieheheu 


to retire, in order to gtuuuntce £1*0111 all assault that same electoral . 
«ystcm which It -was now purposed to overtlirow. Eut the favourite'» ] 
amhitioii proved to him a sorry c<iun,sellor. When one changea llic Hiig I 
he serves under» he must give pledges to the new party ol' hip adop- 
tion. M. Decjixes wiis obliged to suspend the liberty of the indivi- 
dual. Tlie law which so gUringlj demonstrated the defection of Ui3 | 
minislerwas stigmatized as thefoïfi?JSKjîprcts;and the party to whota 
he made an utlcr sacrifice of his honour, used tlic ioi dea suspects U> ■ 
cast into prison tlie friendâ of the vciy man who proposed it. As for ; 
the liberal party, it got up a subscription for the \^ctiIus, and this 1 
became so formidable that the lists of subscribers might be and wero 
oonaidered as the muster-roll of revolt What gain was M. Decaacs 
likely to reap from hie apostacy? The bourgeoisie which he betrayed 
abandoned him, and the fcudul party fell no gratitude for hia invo* 
lontan^ return to them. 

Snadenly strange news vras heard: as the Due de Berri, thd j 
prince on whom the perpetuity of the royal race depended, wea 
coming out of the theatre, he was seiîcd by on unknown person^ and 
«ubbed in the âde with a poniard- 
In the reign of ChiJjles IF. of England, when the dominant party 
dmircd to encct the ruin of the papists, it suborned an audacious 1 
impostor» named Tituâ Oate.i, to charge the whole catholic party with 
ihe crime of one individual. Centuries may roll their iiood over 
men and natious, but Uie old mud remains unwaehed away by the 
carrent. There was no lack uf Titus Oategee ai\er the assa^ïnation 
of ihc Due dc Berri. The prince, said the enemies of the bourgeoisie, 
hu been stfiMfed it}f a Uberal idea: and as nothing was waited foi 
but an opportunity to overthrow M. Dccazes, those who wero called 
idtrH-Poyalists dro^'e him from the lielm of state, with the ery of ! 
*' You are tlie uccomphec of Louveli' Lying pretexts these, no 
doubt Î commonpUce irioke of parlies, making the tomb of the mur- 
dered prince the Beene of their combats, and turning bis dead body 
into a weapon of strife. ITic true eause» of M. Decazea' fall were 
much less odious and much more decisive; he fell because he had 
«■scd to represent any thing in the government on the day when hg 
dedaxed agBinst the law of the 5th of February ; and it wasnot enough 
to IfMp hun in his place that he possessed the ailcction of the king, 
at a time when royalty was only a decrepit old man, to whom pcoplg 
fiaid tin when they spoke to hun. 

Tlie afisafsination of the Due dc Berri having turned out a perfect 
godaend for tha?o who called themselves the friends of kin^ *nà 
pfiaoee^ M. de Uichotieu naturally found himself advanœd to the ' 
administration. Here we approach, the most instructive pages of tlio 
history of the Reetoration; but before wc ejtplaiu why ihifi is so, le| 
u» see how the pohtica.! mission of the new cabinet was fulfilled. 

'Hiut mission consisted in the tnuisfer of political power to othcf 
bands, by a change in the cleet^iral aystem. No time was last* and 
in the month of ftlay^ 1820, the draft of an electoral Ljw wa^ laid 



before the chamber, -wluch had been convened shortly before. The 
[ ^MUi'geolsJc thus thrcQteiicd rallied all ha forces, and prepared fur a 
iTigorous defence. It published pamphlets, set all its joiimals groan- 
lîng or growling simultaueouply* prcMcured the prcsenUition of urgent 
I petdticma irom tlie pro^'inccp, and decliiTcd that the chnrtt-r was in 
danger. The public mind was univcrsally alert ; the discuasion began 
I in uproar. 

There existed nt that time an association (to all intents and pur- 
1 poses a revolutionary dub) hatched by freemasonry, tho puerile 
; solemnities of which served only as a cloak to cover the political 
action of the institution. This club, founded under tho name of 
J^tfi/e des Amù de la Vérité { Lodge of the Friends of Truth) by four 
clerks in the board of octroi, MM. Bazard, Flotard, Buche?;, und 
Joubert, had at lirst filled up its numbers from the schools of law, 
' medicine, îiiid pliarmacy ; and afterwards, at the suggestion of BaJËird, 
it had received into it a great number of young men who were serv- 
ing their apprenticeship to commerce, llic Lo^e fies Amix de la 
Ycrîté had thus succeeded in obtaining a mdepprcad influence 
among the young men of Paris, and it was in a condition to take the 
lead in political agitatïûn. 

Meanwhile the discussion had begun in the chamber of deputies, 
amidi?t the most intense anxiety of parties; and M, de Chauvciin, 
though suffering severely^ had caused himseli" to be carried to the 
Palais Bourbon in a style calculated to make an itnptcasion on 
tlie beholders. AppLuided by one party lie was insulted by the 
Other. The opportunity was a favourable one for exciting the peo- 
ple; and the l,oge des Amis de ia Vérité laid hold of il; the mcm- 
I>ers of that society spread theoiselves through the capital, every- 
where diffusing* tlie spirit that possessed themselves ; the eias^ses of 
the university broke up, and numerous groups of students assem- 
bled round the palace of the legislative body, shouting Vive la 
charte f On the other hnnd mUitarj' men, bulongitig to the feudal 
party, and most of them dressed in plain clothes, nix-Kcd tt> the place 
ftrnjcd with canes. A brawl ensued, and a yountj man was killed. 
Who is there but remembers the impression made in Puria by the 
death of Lallemand ? He had a right to touching obsequies ; tliey 
Tverc rendered pompous. The disturbances contmucd; the whole 
garrison was turned out; all along the boulevards rolled un angry 
niidtitadu tif young men, whose numbers were swellctl in the Hue 
St. Antoine by all tlioee working men whom wretchedness keeps 
ever ready to act on any fortuitous impulse. It is irap<>sRb)c to eay 
what might have happened if the rain, which fell in torrents, had 
not cCMjpenitcd with the char^res of cavalry. Tlie scenes in the 
chamber were no less stormy, ITic father of the unfortunate Lalle* 
maud had written a lett4?r to avenge the memory of hi& S'vn, which 
pome oi the court joutnab had l^^cly outraged. M. Loflitto read 
the letter» in toncfl of deep emotion, whilst the deputies of his party 
cried, witiihaBdâ outstretched to heaven, *' Horrible f '•Atroeiouar 


Manuel appeared in his turn ; labouring luidcr ill health, his lace 
triiy pftle, ne leaned against the marble of the tribune and uttered 
the terrible word, '* AssasgiTis f" Nûlhm^ was heard durini,' several 
sittinyï but taloa of horror and death related hy the deputit-s of ihe 
bourgeoisie. M. Dcmari^iiy had seen dragoons charging an inoRen- 
dve crowd in the Kuc de Itîvoli, and two of ihem Ibrcini^ their 
hoiws into the Passage Delonne. Pictures of no less moTing import 
were portrayed by M. Caâtaîr Ptrier, And all this while tho 
journals were publishing tiie dismal examination of Louvel, that 
stmnge man, who had slain a prince only that he might extinguish 
in him a whole race of kings at one blow; a man of implacable con-- 
victionj, though not of sm utterly impkcable heart. 

In the course of the immense agitation wMch all thia gave rise 
to, tlie two parties accused each other with reciprocal bittemçss. 
They were both right to a certain extent. The bourgeoiaie waa 
ju$ti£etl in expresftine its indipiation at the sa\Tigc violence em- 
ployed in cpielhng sedition, but it was open to the reproach of having' 
itself been sedidoLi?. 

Some cries of Vivr FEmpercur liad been uttered in tlie streets; 
the deputies of the côté aauvhe asserted that those who had uttered 
them were agents of the police, and tiiat they alono were good 
dtixens who had cried lire la c/tarteJ The whole spirit oi the 
boumeoisîe stoo*.! revoolod in those propositions. 

Vt c have subsequently seen the bourgeoisie stigmatizo with pas- 
sionate warmth those tumults in the public thorouglilarea which it 
protectt'd with a high liand in 1819» Tlie reason is simple : in 1819 
It had not yet pushed its conquests to the goal. 

Be this AS it mavi as till commotions tliat do not ond in rcvoln* 
tion eventuate to the advantage of the power that quelb them, the 
boutge«iiâo was vanquished in jiarliamont for want of having van- 
quished it* enemies in the streets. Some of its leaders were seisted 
irith alarm, some c^>nsciences Buffered themselvcg to be boughl, and, 
after stormy debates, the law of the 5th of February gave pUce to 
fln electoral sjBtem wliich gave tlio feudal party n representation 
apaii. It had called for election in two degrees; it was given. *^ome- 
tning better and more tlian it liad demanded, In tlio establishment 
of a double college. Great was the joy of the victors. A* tor the 
monarchy, it erred il" it thought itself saved, it was undone. 

To raise the tlirone above the reacli of the storm it was not 
enough, as I have already said^ to modily this or that electoral 
_jehoMc, it would have been necessary to destroy the elective prin- 
r^^lc itself. The truth of this observation is about to appear* 

The Iliehelieu mimâtry had just acluoved over the bourgeoîno 
one of thdSO victones that seem decisive of the iato of empirefi. 
Wliat gratitude was due to him from the feudal party ! What be- 
nedictions ought so signal a service ta lliave cUcited for the crowa 
from the lips of royalists, had there been any men sincere in their 
I of the name Î 



MorcoTera son had just been bom to the Duchesse de Bern, us if 

to prove that LoutgVs hand had missed ils blow> and that Pro^ 

vidoiïce mded with the monarchy. It is niadiiCî=a^ titiqucationably, 

to believe in imperishable dynasties, when their iuturity rests upon 

fthe head of a weak puling baby; and, surely, since Vienna held the 

^^apoleon, no one had any lonçer an excuse for doubting 

i the pueribt^ of glory nud the frailty of thrones. But euch Is the 

[Imbocilfi pnde of the great ones of the earth, that it debaaea their 

hMM below the level of the moat commonplace philosophy. It 

piteined, then, that the birth of the Due de Bourdcanix yvas necea- 

I Bstt'ily to surround royalty with a new prestige. 

Add to t]iia that ministcra sot CTcry engine at work to conciliate 
I tlie aristocracy. It vraa natural that the new system should secunj 
jit the advantage in the election?^ and this was actually the case, 
i îhe clectiona of 1820 gave the bourgeoisie but a very small number 
1 of represents tivca^ and produced a chamber quite as feudal aa that 
of 1815. To render ihia chamber Ikvourable to him, M. do Riche- 
[îieu immediately adopted m collenpues the men who enjoyed its 
ction. He placed M. do Corbiil'ic at the head of the royal 
icil of public inatniction^ and named M. dc VîUtïe nûnîstcc 
[isrithout «pecial functions {$atis portcfewiîle). 

Vain coDcesaiona ! The two principles were no aooner confronted 
[than they gave each other battle. Tlie feudal chamber of 1820 
jithowcd itself no less hostile to the feudal minister. If. de Richelieu, 
Ethan the fiT»nncr bourgeois chamber hnil been to thp bourgeois mi- 
FJÙBter M. Decazes; so natural and inevitable a thhig was the coniUct 
[between the two powers. 

This hoetihty maplaycd itself at once in the address in reply to 

Jtiie speech from the throne. Afior speaking of the ameliomtiona 

Piit desired to introduce into social order, tho chamber went on to 

Bay, "' We will proâoçutc these important ameliorations with the 

modenition tli^t ù alUed to gtretufth^ This language WiUS decidedly 

th&t of a sovereign asacmbly. 

Meanwhile the seaàoii opens. And what voice is tliat which firat 
ounds from the tribune'/ The inexorable voice of General Don- 
'jjAdicu, reproaching the kin^'a ministers with attempts at sh^jncful 
ttud corrupt practices. Whust still smartinf; under the conacquencca 
of this, accusation, ministers bring forward the draft of a law respect* 
ing the donees, one which was a fir?t step towards the indemnity to 
the cmigrantSj when, behold you, the whole aristocratic faction of th*> 
cham1x;r cheers M. Duplessia de Grrénadan upon his defining the 
indemnily to tlie donees as iCdtjes to cmiiptrators, A mimicipol 
law was irapntiently expected; ministers, in preparing it, labour to 
revive in it the spirit ol the tijnes of old; they commit the whole 
communal jwwcr to a very restncted number of eloctora choscin 
■mon;; tbc persons of most wealtîi. Let their ideas be adopted and 
the way is openi'^d for the return of feudality to the rural districts, 
"Jut wfiat 1 they have dared to give the king lo the town conimuacs, 


and to his repreaentutive in the mral commîmes, the rio;ht of nomi- 
nating the prefect and his adjuncts ! An impardonable crime in the 
eyes of the royalists of the chamber! 

It was on this ixcfision thftt Louis uttered this exclamation, wmii^ 
from a wounded soul; " I was surrendering the riglits of my crown 
to thi'm: they will not have ihcm: it is a Icsaon." Aleaaon it was 
indeed, the import of which was this: wherever there shall he the 
gorcmmcnt of a Irin? and that of an a£»^mbîj act face to face with 
Cich, oilier, there iriU be disorder, and society will go on its way 
between dictatorship and anarchy, that is between, two abysses. 

Soch vms the position of monarchy in France, when an event oc- 
eorred of more imporUince to it than the birth of the Due de Bour- 
deatix. Napoleon had di^Dd on a rock fur away in the wffii In the 
nûdst of tlfce ocean ? Tlie worid waa moved by the event. 

Deep, immense had been the làll of Napoleon, therefore did it, 
better ilian his triumphs, attest his genius. To what vast heart, to 
what indomitable vr-ill, to what cxeellm^ intellect, haa history granted 
Absolute impunity? What great man has not been, or has not bc- 
lie^-ed himself to have been, destined to the aad renown of altered 
foitunes ? Ca?sar diea asfsissmated in the eonate ; Sylla is seized with 
amazement and awe at the constancy of his prospenty, and be abdi- 
cates; Charlca V. takes iunbragc at his own might, and turns monk^ 
*ïha destiny of really migbty minds is not to remain at the summit 
to the end, but to fall with splendour. Show me the man who has 
been able to raiike himself numerous obstacles and Implacable ene- 
mies: when, lliose obetacles shall have exhausted all the force of hÎ9 
will, and when those enemies ehaU have trodden him tinderfoot, then 
1 will hail his genius, and marvel at the energy he must needs have 
posBCSEcd to work out for himself so vast a weight of woe. 

The dynasty of the Bourbons counted one enemy the leas: the 
court, however, was mistaken it' it thought it Imd reason to exult. 
"^ile Napoleon lived, all other pretensions besides hia were irapos- 
whcn be was dead, prctcndera rushed thick upon "^e tield of 
^ iracy. There was a party for Napoleon II-, a party for 
Joaeph ItonApartc, a party for Uic prince En^nc; and the crown 
ms set up to auction by a multitude of obscure and subaltern 
ambitions. An offer was made to LaGiyettc on the part of Prince 
Eugene of the sum of five millions of francs, to cover the Ursl coeta 
of a revolution in favour of the brother of queen Hortense- This 
offer, which was neither accepted nor rejected by Lafayette, gave 
ûcctsion Bubseqaently to his voyage to America, and suggested to 
lûm iKc idea, cu the stTann;c overtures he made to Joseph Bonaparte. 

But the most formidable enemy of the throne of the Bourbons 
was a principle under whose action Napoleon himself had succumbed, 
— the eloctife prindple. Thesesdon of 1821 completed what that of 
1 820 had bcgtm. The royalists of the chamber rcpUed to the pncech 
from the throne by an address containing thifl phrase personally in- 
Bulting to the monarch: '* Wq congratidatc ouisclTca, siie, on your 



unintcrmptedly amicable relations witli foreign powers, ejitertûînmg 
as WÊ do tKc wcU-foimdcd conËdcncc thïit u poûce so desirable is not 
pnrcba&cd by sacrifices incompatible with the honour of the nation 
and the diguity of the croTvn." 

So tlicn, when the boiirgcoisie m 1830^ JQ an ever mciiLorable 
address, set the sovereiprity of parliatncnt in opposition to the royal 
power, ajid tliat at the hazard of the most fngfitful convulsions, it 
did hut follow the example set by the feudal chamber in 1821, 

"■ Wl^t !" excJaitned M. de Serres, after the draft of the adtlrea» 
had been I'cad, " you would have your president go and tell the king 
to his face, that the chamber enit^rtaiiis a well-groimded confidence 
that he has not committed aets of dastardy and baseness l This were 
a cruel outrage!" Wliat II. de Serres rightly regarded as a cruel 
outrage, the president did go and tell the incensed but powerless 
king to his fae«. It waâ bcneatli the hands^ then, of those who live 
unly upon the ignorant adoration of the multitude, that you were 
doomed to be demolislied, O ancient idols I 

At tliia Htogo of the drama, the political dualism of which wefcaTC 
just traced tlie pliascs, is about to assiune a new eliaracter; iind for 
Bome time it will have for its result, instead of the conflict of the two 
powers, the voluntary thraldom of one of them. In order to make 
this change intelligible it is necessary to pet forth the origin, the aim 
ftnd the progress of carbonarism ; for its inHuenc-c on the relations of 
the two powci"s wad destined to be important and durable. 

On the 1st of May, 1821, three young men, MM. Bazard, 
Flotard, and Buchcz, were sealed at a round table in the Rue Copeau. 
It was out of the meditations «f these three unknown men, nncl in a 
quarter amongst the jiooretit of the capital, tluit arose that charh&ii' 
nerie which some monthg aftenvarda fei all France in a ilame. 

The troubles o^ !S20 Imd resulted in the military conspiracy of 
the 19th of August, a conspiracy which was smothered on the vexy 
eve of the fight. Tlie blow dirait aj^inst the conspirators had re- 
eounded Jn tlie Loge de» Amis de h Vérité, the principal members of 
■which dispersed. MM. Joubcrt and Dugicd set out for Italy. Naples 
was in the full tide of revolution: tlie two young Frenchmen made 
a tender of their eervicjîs, and were indebted only to the patron- 
Age of five members of the Ncopolitan parliament (or the honour of 
being allowed to stake their heads upon ihe issue of that entcrpnBC* 
Every one knows the manner in which that revolution broke down, 
and wiili what sad rapidity the Austrian Eumy belied the brilliant 
predictions of general Foy. M. Dugied retiomcd to Paris carrying 
under hia coul Uie iricolourod riband, the token of the tank he haa 
obtained in the carbonarism of Italy. M. Flotard learned of his 
friend the delwla of the initiation, which was acoompanled with 
praclices till iJien unknown în France. He mentioned the subject 
m the administrative council of the £,Offv ma^'Ofti^ue des Amis de la 
VcTttt^ and the seven members who composed the coimcîl, resolved 
to found A French charbontterie, after mutually vowing^ to keep the 


fomùdable secret inviolably concealed. MM. Limpérani and Dugicd 
vere intrusted with. the tauc of translating the rules, which the latter 
had brought with him from Italy. They were admirably adapted 
to the ItaliaR character, but not well suited to become a code for tho 
use of consjnrators in France. Iheir tone was essentially religious, 
and C7cn mysticaL The carbonari were considered in tnem but as 
the militant part of freemasoniy, as the army devoted to Christ, the 
pitriot/MT excellence. Modifications were indispensable; and MM. 
Bûchez, Hazard, and Flotard, were selected to arrange the basis of a 
more scientific o^anization. 

There was nothine precise, nothing defined in the leading doctrine 
of the association: tho considérants* as they were drawn up by MM. 
Bazard, Flotard, and Bûchez, amounted in effect to this: Seeing 
that might is not right, and that the Bourbons have been brought 
back by the stranger, the charbonniers form themselves into an am 
Bociation for the purpose of restoring to the French nation the free 
exercise of the right it possesses to choose the government that suits 
it. This was to predicate, without defining, the principal of national 
sovereignty. But the vaguer the formula the better it suited the 
divendty of hostile feelings. There was about then to be formed a oon- 
sfnracv on an immense scale, to be prosecuted with immense ardoUTy 
and this without forecast of tlie future, without previous acquiie* 
mcnts of study, haphazard as every capricious gust of passion saxmïd 
determine its course ! 

But if charbonnerie was a piece of child's play as a principle, coo- 
siderod as an organization it was something mighty and marvellous. 
Melancholy conaition of mortals ! their str^igth is manifested in the 
means, their weakness in the result 

It was agreed that aroimd a parent association called the hioUà 
vente, there should bo formed imder the name of veines centrales other 
asBOCuations, which again were to have under them ventes particulières* 
The number of members in each association was limited to twenty, 
to evade the provisons of the penal code. The hauie vente was 
originally composed of the seven foimdcrs of charbonnerie, Bazard, 
Flotard, Bûchez, Dugied, Carriol, Joubert, and Limp^rani. It filled 
up vacancies in its own body. 

The following was the method adopted to form the ventes centrales f 
Two members of the AaKfe vente took a third person as their associate 
without making him acquainted with their rank, and they named 
him president of the inciment vente, at Uie same time assuming to 
themselves the one the title of deputy, the oU^er that of oouor. The 
4uty of the deputy being to correspond with the superior association, 
and that of censor to conkol the proceedings of the secondai^ asso-. 
ciation, the Haute vente became by these means the brain as it were 
of each of the ventes it created, whilst it remained in relation to them 
mistress of its own secret and of its own acts. 

* ** The vbmAMt," if the reader win accept a barborlim tbr want of lometfaiiig 
tetter.— TVaiirfilnr. 




he progress of 

The fetiits pnrtif^hèr^n were only administrative 
having for object to avoid the compli cat ions which 
chflrboiincriG might introduce into the reUtioaa botwecn" the haute 
vfTtfe and the deputies of the ventes centrale». As the latter emanated 
frum the parent society, so did tlic inferior societies from the se- 
condary. Tlicrc waa an admirable elasticity in Uiis arrangemont ; 
the ventes were speedily multiplied ad mjinitum. 

Ihe impoambility of (dtogether baffling tlvc cfibrta of the police 
had been clearly foreseen : m order to diûûniah the importance of 
this difficulty it was agreed that the several ventes should act in 
common, without, however, knowing- each other, so that the police 
might not be able to lay hold on the whole ramification of the 
system, except by penetruting the pecrets of the haute vente. It waa 
consequently forbidden eveiy vfiarbtmiiier belonging to one vente to 
attempt to ^ûn adnmsion into another, and this prohibition w&a 
backed by the penalty of death. 

Tlie founders of chiirbonncric bad counted on the support of ihc 
troops; henee the double organization given to the îystem. Each 
vente was subjected to a military staff, the gradations of which were 
pftTftllel with those of the civil oflScership. Corresponding respect- 
ively with oAûrAtmftem, the haute venti^ the veittei centmhs, ana the 
ventes partiatHheSj there were the legion^ the cohortes^ the centuries, 
and the mnmpuhf. Wben charlxmnerie acted civilly» the military offi- 
cershîp was in aboyant;c; on the other hand, when it acted in a mili- 
t*ry point of yiew, the fimctions of the civil officere were euspendtsl. 
Independently of the force derived from the play of these two 
poweR, and from their alternate government, the double denomi- 
nations they rendered necessary aiibrdcd a means of baffling the 
tescarchcs of the police. 

The dntiea of the diavbonmer were, to have in hia ptasewion a 
gun and fifty cartri^efl, to be ready to devote himself, and blindly 
to obey the orders ofunknown leaders- 

Charbonnerie, thus constituted» spread in a very brief roftce of 
time through all quarters of the Capi t*d. It made it» way into all 
the classes of the nnîverâly. An indescribable fire glowed in every 
vein of the Ptmsian youth; every one kept the secret; every one 
TRras ready to devote ma life to tlie cause. Tlie membcra of each 
vente recogniâcd cQch other by means of particular eignB, and mys- 
terious reviews were beld, luspo'ctors were appointed in several 
rentes, whose duty it was to see that no member failed to hare a 
musket and cartridges. Hio members were drilled in their hoii 
and often was tlic cxerciae performed on a floor covered with strai 
And all the while this aingular conspiracy was extending it^lf, pr^ 
teeted by a silence and rescrrc without parallel, and surrounding' 
the society with a thousiind invisible mï^iies» the govcramcot was 
tran([uilly plumbcringin the shade! 

The foundeia of tyiarbonaerie were, as we have seen, youi^ men 
of obscujre statton, without official position or recogum iofluoice. 



When die time amvcd in which they had to thinlc of enlarging 
their ivork, and casting ova all France tho net vntk which they 
had flbrodjr covered Paria, they hcpitated and distrusted themselves. 
There existed &t that time a parltntnentary committee, ol' ivhich 
M. de Lalâyette wm a member. M, Bazara, who was on intimate 
tonus with the general, applied one day to hia friends for authority 
to admit Lafayette itito the secret of their proceedings. Objections 
could not fail to suggest themselvea : Why make this communication, 
which the easy charoctcr of Lafayette must render so full of inconveni- 
ence» and danger? if he consented to enter the rajita of chnrbon- 
tierie, and to ffUake his head upon the consequences like every other 
member — why that would be all very welli These considerations 
being represented to LalayettCj ho did not hcatatc, but entered 
the hatttê vtttte, and hi." exfimple was followed by the boldest among 
hia coUenguea in the chambta". The directors of the system were 
doc<dved if they thought this accession indispensable» Tlie charbou- 
nicra, having never known from what hands proceeded the impulse 
given thom^ had never doubted but that they were acting under the 
orders of those same eminent liborala who had been ao rœontly in* 
▼itcd to share an inscrutable authnrity. The actual presence of these 
individuals in the haute vente^ therefore, added nolhmg to the moral 
Effect which up to that time had been produced by their supposed 
preseoioc. As for the possible extent to which their powers of action 
OP their during might cany them, that was a problem for the future 
to solve. 

Be this as it may, their acc^^on was serviceable at first to the 
progress of charbonncrie, from the intercourse they kept up with 
persona in the province*- Several young men, furnished with letters 
of recommendation, went into the provinces to propagate tlic system 
there. M, Flotard was sent into the West^ M. Du^ied into Bour- 
gogne^ M. Rouen, pernor, set out for Bn^tagne, M. Joubert for 
AlsBce. Consider^ ici its relation with the departments, the havte 
vffiie of Paria leceÎTed the name ofve/ite supreme; and charbonnerio 
■WHS everywhere organized on the same plan as in the capita!. The 
impulse waâ general and irresistible; ahnost the whole surface of 
France was covered with plota and conspirators. 

Mattera arri^'ed ateuoh a pitch that, at the close of the year 1821, 
ercry thing was ripe for a risin», at Rochelle, Poitiers, Niort, Cohnar, 
Neuf Brissch» Nantes, Béfort, Bordeaux, and Toulouse. Venieshaà 
been created in a grciit number of reglmctite, and even changes of 
garmiofi become a rapid means of propagating charboimerie. The 
weadent offtfrïï/t' militaire, when obliged to quit a town, received 
nie half of & pi£<^ of metal, of which the other half was sent into 
the town whither the regiment was prori;eding^ to a mconber of tho 
haute cratr, or of the tj^e centrale, Tlianks to this mode of com- 
munication and reoognitido, which was utterly beyond reach of the 
police, the soldieES in^ted into charbonnerie becmue its taTcUiag: 

E 2 

52 jTïTKODtJcnow; 

bagmen, as ît were, and hawked coQspiracy about with them in thcâr 

Meanwliâle tlic hour for an explosion was flmvod : so at least it -was 
supposed. The number of members in the vente sttprême, baWng in- 
crcaâcd to an iucouvonient number^an acting' cotnmittce waa appointed 
for the special purpose of arranging the preparations for combat, but 
with ihe undcristanding that it was not to come to any definitive re- 
solution without the afficnt of the vente suprême. Tlii^ committee difi- 
pUyed extraordinary activity, Tliirty-six young men received order» 
to start for Befort, where the mgnal for inisurreclion was to be given. 
TTîcy set out without hcsitûtion, tiiough well a^ured thai they were 
marching to death. One of them could not quit Paris without ab- 
Bconding from an affair of honour: -with no less promptitude than 
"waa evinced by hia comtadcs, he postponed a duel for a more serious 
coniUct, and sacrificed to apauiotic duty even that reputation for 
courage so dearly prised by generous souls. A? the last hour ap- 

oacheti, the spirit and confidence of the conspiratora row: the 

\IEnà£iaù^ thsit magic song so long unsung^ was heard on the road 

jtentiin'Dlris and Béfoit. 

Blood wËâ about to dow. How was it possible not to think of^e 
consequences should the cvcut be lavourablc? True to the Fplrit of 
churbonncrie, the members of the vente suprême did not think of 
imposing any particular form of government on France, llie dy* 
tnn^ of the Bourbons itself was not absolutely and ir 

proscribed in their way 
" foi 

of thinking. 

L irrevocably 

^ ^. But in any c^ase it was indi> 

pcuKible to provide lor that ^aud necessity of all revolutions, a 

frovisional govemtncnt. The baacs of the constitution of the year 
IL wen; lidoptcd^ and the five directors named, were MM. dc La- 
iayclte, Corcollea père, Kœchlin, d'Argcnson, and Dupont do 
l'Eure ; that is to eay, au homme ttêpéef n representative of the 
national jfuatd, a manufacturer, an adimnistrator^ and a magistrate. 

Manuel had, up to this time, afforded but a tremulous and unde- 
cided aid to charbonnerio. Having learned that it was intended to 
eng;t^c on the theatre of the itiJsurr'C'vtion those who were preordained 
to rt^iilatc its successful issues, he exerted his inBuence over some of 
them, and particularly over M. de Lafayette, to dissuade thi?m from 
the expedition to Béfort; whctlier it was that he considered ihe 

, enterprise ilI-contri\'ed or premature, or that, on reflecting on the 
events of the future» Ids rigid soul }iad given admiseion to a secret 

CertJÛu ît is, at any rate, that of all the influential men whose 

I presence was expected at the scene of action, one alone &et out for 
ihô spot, namely» General Lufayottc. But a domestic duty which 

^c Kaid always rcUgiou^ly lulfiEled, and which he would not now 

I ibeglect, detuned him some hours too lon^ in his eoim try-house at 
XaOgrangc. On the let of January, 1822, the postchaiw in which 
the general and his son were travelling was met some leagues from 




B^foTt by a carriage containing MM. Corwllea junior, and Bazard. 
** Well, what news?" " All is over, genei'ûl, all ie iostl'^ r^afayctto, 
in tk'spair, chunked las route, whilst Corcelles and Bazard horned to 
the uapîîâl in a cymmon cûc drawn by post-Iiofôes. Tlic thcrraoructcr 
stood at twelve degrees below tlie iVeezins point, and the roads were 
covered, with sno^v. When Bazard arrivea in Paris he bad one car 

I will not dwell on the detaib of what had just happened in 
Béfort, — the sergeant who, coming into Iûb qmiitera on the evening 
of the Slat of December, goes up to his captaJn, slnps him on the 
sliouldcr, and by the unusual familiarity of his knguBge iiwakt^na 
liital suspicions; — Touptain,, the cnmrartiidnnt of the place, apprized 
itnd summoûing the ofRcera whom he keeps by him ; — the perturba- 
tion of Uioee among them who were impHcated in the plot; — the 
hentAUon of the soldiers cnp^a^ed in the conspiracy when they fotmtî 
tlieinKlires deprived of their leaders ; — the conspirators asscmbbng 
tumultuoualy in the market-place; — the truard Ftiinding to anns; — - 
the column of young men who had arrived the preceding evening in 
the fijubourga advancing; towards the mnrkct-place, unci cut in two 
by the raising of the drawbridge at the critical ruoment; — the pistol- 
ehot Jiied at tlie king's lieutenant, and the bullet fattening on his 
croee; — the disperrion of the conapiratoi's, among whom were tho 
bnTe Colonel Pailhùs, the impetuous Guinand, and Panco, a man 
of unbending determination and devoted heart; — the arrest of several 
peiaons; — tlic Eyrapatlucs excited by their courage; — their trials; — 
ihL'ir victorious ascendancy over their iudgca; — all thi& constitutes 
assuredly one of the most pathetic episodes of the often blood-stained 
drama of the Kcatoration. Some of tlicse details have been pub- 
tished»" but there are othcra less known which desen'C a place in 
the bisioiy of tJie bourgeoisie. 

Charixsnneric waa lar from having çustaîned an itrcprablc defeat 
at Béfort. ïl^ough smothered at one point, tlie inairrection might 
break out at another, M. Flotard had been sent to Hochcllc to 
prepare a movement there, and that town was full of conspirators. 
The three cfiefs de bataUhn of the marine artillery waited only for 
the si^ftL There were privy cojnraunicatioua kept up with Poitiers 
and with tlic garrison of Niort. M* Sofréon, a çaliànt officer, was 
to place at tlie service of cliarbonncric seven hundred men, forming ' 
pSLTl of the colonial depot at the isle of Oloron, whom he was under 
ordere to conduct to Senegpl. Tha officer at the head of the depot 
had himself listened to the confidential communications of M. So» 
fnîon, and there w:is reosoa to count, if not on the £Ùd of M. 
Fciâthomclf ut least on lii* neutrality. Active measures were also 
in progress at Nanleg, and Genci-al iicrtoa wm preparing to march 
US Saumur. 

M. KloULid, who WHS about to quit RocbcUe, was ^ning one day 


al tUo table^'bûteofthc Hôtel des Âmbassâdcuia^ v/hen a conversa- 
tion on the affairs of tlie day took place in lus presence between Iwd 
military men not known to him. ''■ That blockhead Berton," said 
one of them, *' he tblnkj hîmâclf perfectly ^fC| and Ikucîcs he is 
QOfllspinn^ in the dark : now General I^espinoia receives hou rly infor* 
HtfttioiL ot liis proceeding's, and is making ready to liavo him shotoo 
the first opportunity." lateiiscly aHbetiid by what he had overheard, 
M. FlotaM Bet out instantly for Nantes, and did not take the road 
to Parie tiil be had wamcd General Berton, and stronfjly dissuaded 
him from hia deâi^. The expcditiun agamst Saumur took pkoe 
neverthelc»; it ikued, 03 might have been expected, and Berton was 
obliged to fly from one asylum to anotheï. 

There was a radical defect in charbonnerio. There wa* an in- 
cessant collision between the fiery spirits of its founders and tlio 
timidity of the men of note who afterwarda joined the association* 
Again^ M. do Lafayette had mven himself up without reserve to 
the young men whom lie f&ncied he led, and by whom, on the con- 
tnuy, he was himself completely led. To please them he kept aloof 
&om hi£ coUeafaes in the chamber, and hid himself iiom them; tlto 
consequence ol this was a secret want of harmony, and injunnountablo 
embarrasamenta in circumetanccs of great moment. Add lo this, 
that with a policy very well conceivod when ihc matter in hand is a 
conspiracy of one day, but very imprudent when it ie applied to a 
permanent conspiracy, the first directors of charbonnerle had mado 
it a system to exaggerate their strength in order to iucrease it, and 
had ended by sowing distrust around them. 

Certain it is that the prcparaliom made at Rochelle called for a 
OO-Opeiatioa that waa rei'used. M. Flotard reported the Slate of 
diiiigs on bis return to Paris. Success he said wa& certalat if an 
unportont personage, known in the country and wielding olRcdal 
authority^ would consent personally to incur all the risks of tlie en- 
terprbîe. General Lafayette and fil. Klotard made ajjplication to 
M- de Beauséjour, wlioee ^wpidar senliments^ simple niimnei-s, and 
honourable repute liad acquired for him ^rcat iniluencc in Rochelle 
and itB eavirouif. M. dc Beauft^our rcfusod to go thither, umier 
the pretext that he had an engagement on business with M. de 
Villclc. Tlie direclory of charbonncrie lacked therefore at once tho 
tivauth that flows uom prudence and that which résulta ùvm 
' «dA(Bty> 

M. de Lafayette, in whom hia love of populanty, seconded by tho 
prompting of a naturally generous soul, rckintUed all the ardour of 
youth, 51. dc Lafayette volunteered to go to litchelk?, afi ho had 
before to Bi^fort, hut the sacrifice was not accepted at his hands, and 
Oolottfl Dentwl was appoiated to accompiny M. Flotard, 

At Iioch*?llt:* they joined company with General Berton, and 
thodc bnmortal scrgoants whom the Place dc Grùve awaiUxL 

Tlie 1 4tl!. of March, tlic day fixed on for the esploâon, was at hand. 
Charboancnc had at itci dii^pocal» through the inôuence vf the olïlccrs 



&nd noïi-oommiflsîonod officers, almost all the jgarrisons of the to^wns 
of the West, Fifty-four pieceâ of fljing artilfcry ^vere to beloug to I 
the cooapirators at a moment agreed on. RocheUc had for some | 
time assumed a Btraugc aspect- The hopes of one party, the double i 
of others, tine precautionaiy lueosurea ol' the auuioilued, tin? haljf I 
diflolosui^s tliat were made, the conjectur^a that were busy, all this f 
di Ifused an imeaaincEfi throughout the city, lliat mingled (so to spigak) 
with the air men breathed. When the stoirm is gathering to ita j 
height, patches of blue hotizon are seen in strong cuntrast witli the 
gloomy masses piled up above them. So is it when civil tempests 
gather : befure they burst they illumine and cast a molancholy 
grandeui- over the minds of men. 

It rarely happens that a thought is given in human enterprises to i 
thatgraÏQ of aimd of wliich Pascal speaks, andwhich,if placed som»' I 
whew or other in Cromwcll'a body would have changed the face of | 
the world. General Berton, the military leader of the plot, bad , 
beau oblig^cd to leave lus unifozm in Saumur when he made his 
escape irora that Uiwn. Appeamncca arc cvei^ thing in revolutions, 
and this the conspirators well knew. Tlicy made attempts to pro- 
cure a imiiurm at licH-helic, but their cndeavoura were Iruitless, noi 
were they exempt Irom danger. It was necessary to send to Sau- ] 
jnur. But the messenger did not return till the evening of the ■ 
19th of March. Sergeants Raoux, Cioubin, and Pomimer, who 
had been long suspected, were arrcatcd on the morning of tliat day, 
and east into prison^ whence they were to go to the scaffold. 

At daybreak, on the 20th of March, tltreo men got into a boat 
and were proceeding toworda the isle of Aijc. ** The IHgate," sîûd 
the owner of the boat ^' must have had some difficulty in working 
through the clianncl kat night.'* — ""What frigate are you talking 
of ?" cried the three pasdcngeis, ficarcely able to master tbeii emo- 
tions. — ^** The frigate tliat was bound to Senegal" At this unex- 
pected blow, MM. Berton, Dentzcl, and Flotard, stared sdently in 
eacli other's facea. There remained to them but one hope. 

Bertùn and Dentzcl were recognised in the isle of Ais by the com- 
mandant ; but far from denouncing, he gave them a friendly recep^ i 
tion; and when they talked of pushing on to the Isle of Olijron, ' 
where there were still 500 men left, ** Don't think of domg ray 
«uch thing," said the commandant ; ** you would be shot there on. I 
the epot" They were tliea informed that in a conversation which 
had taken place in presence oi" an agent of the government, M. 
Feiitthomel had aakèd M. Sofrtk>n if he wa& not ac^x^**"****^ with 
Gcneml Berton. M, Sofréon's reply in the affirmative had excited 
the most lively apprehensions: hence the hurried departure of the 
troops compo^^ tlie colonial depot. The commandant of Aix 
made the oonapiratora bum the unilorm they had brought with 
them before hia eyea, and furnished them with a boat, which con- 
veyed them rapidly to Rochcibrt. Once more were the attempts of 1 
the conspimtora baffled. 




wcU known. Thcncefortli chwbonnerie 
way thxougK its martyrs* gorc, The j^OTcmme 

Tlio sequel 
dragged on ita 

organized against it a vast and hideous sjstcin ol" provocntivo 
Bertou, tbe pliant indomitable Borton, liad refused llie hospitaljtif 
tiiat awmtod Mm in a foreign land; lie rushed again into the lîs^ 
and l>eing betrayed by Wollcl^ died without surprise or complainft 
like a man long eoaviuced thût his liic belonged to the cxecuiioncf 
Two ot' his companions in mialortune begged for racrcy ; but SaU£ 
shouted on the scaffold the cry of Vive la. république^ as if uttorin^ 
a vengeful prophecy; and Catïe, anticipating his enemies, opened 
his veins, and died in the antique manner. Somebmc aiWr thc' 
arrest of Bcrton, a llcutcnnnt-coioncl, the unfortunate Caron, who 
had conceived tlic generous hope of aai'iug the prisoners iinpbcated 
in the Jiffwr of Bn-lbrt, suiHcred himself to be decoyed into a meoting^^ 
in the forest of Brisaac, The non-commissioned officer, Thieri^H 
boMly plûgiariîîng the ^nllany of Wolfel^ threw himself into the 
colonel's arms, and prevailed on hiui by perfidious marks of devo& 
edness to diselosc Ida hopea, whilst spies, concealed behind a tbicfce* 
gathered up the fatal confession. Caron was sentenced to death! 
and was refused die bitter consolation of embracing Jiis ^ife and chil 
dren before bidding adieu to life: he died the death of Marebal Ney. 
Courage fails me to proceed furtlier, and to ioUow you to that Place 
de Gi-evo, where your ht^da rolled on the scaftbld, aller your souls 
had mingled in a lust embrace before the cyea of o pitying mult^^H 
tudc, O Bones, and you, worthy companions of tliat immortal 7^un|||^| 
man ! The Restoration, having been attacked, had certainly a right 
to defend itaelf, but not to defend itsell" by dishonest stratagems and 
ambusoadea^ for this was to pervert death by doom of law int 

On the evening preceding the day which waa to Ih> the last he 
twd his comcimion should bclioldj Boti^ wrote to a friend toga hii 
cell in the Bicêtre. \ 

"■ Tliey arc starving us: they intend to separate us. If you can* 
not rescue us to-day* it is to be wished that we may die to-morrow." 

Tliis melancholy wish was accompUahetb The prisonerg had been 
offered pardon at llie price of certain disclosurcs^ but they noLb 
carried the name» of their accomplices with them to the grave, * 

How is it posablc to avoid making here a painful comparison 
What did the bourgeoisie do towards saving the lives of these he- 
roic youths who were about to die for it? What! a xty thousand 
francs offered to the keeper of a prison, whopc place brought him 
in twenty thousand annually — that was all that was attempted ! 
And when the fatal car was mafciog its way tlirough tlie deiiae 
TntsscS' of a multitude eo deeply affected, (hat men were seen falling 
on their knees, and old men uncovering their heads, the bourgeoii '* 
found no means of rousing «n the people, that very bourgeoisie tl 
lud been able, in the month of June, to display so formidable 
power of agitation on behali' of its own threatened intereatâ \ 




I have dono. ATter tlic death of the Rochelle Ëergemite^ char- 
boimcne dwindled and fell to pieces. Two parties spniDg up ou it. 
One of these was for declaring' distinctly for a republic, and it ral- 
lied round Lafayette; the other was against the principle of im- 
posing any purdcukr form of govemrucnt on the people, and docked 
Itself with the name of Manuel. These di\'isiona, at first obscure, 
soon becftmc inore sharply marked; the two parties grew enve- 
noined, and broke out into mutual accusations. Anarchy made 
way into the association from all sides, briflging in its train unjust 
luspicdons, hatred, i^elfishnesa, and amhldon. The period of devoted- 
ntm past, that of intrijg^e began. 

Charbonncrie had not descended into the depths of society; it hacl i 
not atirred up its lower strata. How could it have been expected 
long to preserve itself from the vices of the bourgeoisie — individual- , 
isni^ narrowness of views^ vulgarity of sentimentt exaggerated love 
of purely material prosperity, and grossness of instinct? Charbon- 
nene had emploveifthe generous and sound part of the bourgeoisie; 
but aller humig worn it out and given it into the hands of &pïêp, de- 
coyen, and the executioner, what noble enterprise yet remained for 
It to attempt, or what could it any longer euect? It was Ln thia 
Stage of its decay and impotence for good, that it aceepted and sub- 
mitted to the sway of men like SIJI. Mcrilhou and Barthc. The 
ktlcr had given token of some noble proraptinga in his defence of 
the Bilibrt prisoners; but if any one attributed to him the virtues of 
a true friend to the ]>cople, that man's judgment was much at fault. 

A great deal lias been said since 1830 of the dramatic scenes 
etnacted tinder the shadow of charbonneric, of tlic oaths of hatred 
to royalty pledged on poniards, and of other ominous formalities. 
The real tiinh of the matter is, that charbonnerie having becomû 
vastly extended, the centeg, at Lart, escaped fi-om all central control. \ 
There Were republican, Orlcanàjti^ and Bonapartist venter; and some of 
them conspired for the pure pleasure of conspiring. The rites were as 
various as the prlueiples, ana an oasociationj that had at one moment 
been k> formidable, was become at last a mere chaos. The lack of 
guiding principles, an inherent vice in the constitution of charbon- 
nono, WAS among the causes of its ruin. It was quite natural that 
ât should be bo. 

As ibr its inSucnce, this was exhibited in two distinct results. 

liy manifeating to the government how numerous ïind implacable . 
were ite enemies, charbonncric hiuricd it upon ibat headlong course 
ttf reactions that leil straight to the abyss. 

On the other hand, by acting with equal ardour ûfflùîist the Bour- 
bon dynasty that tilled the throne, îind against the feudal party that i 
huui sway in tlie ciuimber, it compelled the two to unite their loixes, 
and for some time slackened their necessary and inevitable tendency 
to mutual rivalij. 

ïha vigour displayed by the Restoration under the VillOlc mini- 
itry, and the vioIeiiE efforts that brought destruction upon the Fo- 


ligûûc administration, liad, therefore, but one ccunmoQ sooi-cc — 
namely, cKarbonneric. 

Tlija is the reason why I have dwelt at length on this episode in 
the history of the Kcstoration, the character of which, it appears to 
^1110, has hitherto not been sufficiently studied, nor its importance 
Fwifficicntly appreciated. 

See, far instance, what modifications charbonaerie occasions ia 
tho rùLitiona between the crown and the chamber. We no tong^ 
Bee that continued struggle every instant renewed whicli began in 
1614. Royalty humblea itself ajid gives way. lai its coinbnta with 
charbonnene out of door?, its attitude 18 haughty, and its victories 
are cruel; but on the political etaga its asjiect la but languid and 
Eubdued. There is now but one real power in France, and that i» 
the chamber; and the king^'g miiustcrs are the cLerhB of that power. 

The first proof I find of the justice of this obwrvatioQ is the war 
in Sf^in. 

Need I call to mind how atrcnuoua and obstinate was tlic repug- 
nance which the project of an expedition into Spain encounterol 
in the council? M. de Villèlc* who waa the soul of the minis^t 
ircgarded such an expedition as n public calamity. Louis XVIII. 
could aot think of it "wHthout horror. And how many were the 
arguments to ^asuade from it ! What was France going into Spain 
to do ? To overthrow the constitution in tlie blood of Spani- 
ards J To carry ft sort of iSth Brumaire «ero^s die Pyrenees ! To 
what end? To thrust the Peninsula under the yoke of Antonio 
Maranon and his compeers, men of fearful character and deeds, who 
lield a rosary in one hand and & pistol in tlie other. And for whom? 
For Ferdinand VII., a prince of whom M. dc Chateaubriand hsa 
Bftid» that he had sujik doumfrom tlie intrepidity of hii head to the 
dtutardy of /tin fteart; a despot who had nothing' but disdain to be- 
stow on coDStitutioual monux^s, on Louis XVIII. and hia charter! 
Mtmcy, too» was requisite for this expetiition; and M. de VUlèlo 
fihowed the treasury cxJiauated, public credit ruined, liberalism ner- 
vously csciled, manuilictures sus^nded, commerce panic-stricken. 
Nor was that alL Chorbomicrio had sown the seeds of revolt in tho 
army, and tlie tricolour flag, home by French hands, waa âoating 
in the wind on the other side of the Bidassoa, Lastly, Encrkna 
WAS growlingi Conning was showing his teeth; and Louis XVUI. 
WM a&aid of displeaang Wellington. 

But what royalty dreaded, the chamber, on the contrary, deàred 
with tho utmost fervour: what M. de Villcle, as minister of Louis 
XVIIL, repudiated in Paris, M. de Montmorency adopted at the 
congress of Verona, in the capacity of confidant to tlie parliaments 
By aristocracy. The victory waa with the eliarober. X hava al- 
Rody usgned the reo^on for this. Hannony having become a matter 
of ncceeeity between two powcra rimultaucoiisly assailed by a botuid-. 
les conspiracy, it was the part of the weaker of the two to j^vo 
way to thic stronger. ^ 




In aitemptmg to Tcsi?t tJio will of the chamber, M. do Villi-le did 
flierefore but struggle against the forœ of things j and if he landed 
lie had achieved a great victory when he obhsed M. de Montmo-* 
rency to retire from the nûnîstry, it was not long before lie was 
undeceived. For that same porliaraentary sovcreisiity whicli M. dG 
Montmorency represented^ immediately seated the Viscomte do Cîia- 
teaubriand in hia Tacatcd place, an event which rendered the î>panΣh 
war inevitable. 

With u view to avoid that war, Loiiis XVIIl. and M. do Yillèle 
bad endeavoured to negotioto a recoûciliatiùn betïveenFerdirmnd VII. 
and the Cortca, to be based upon tlic ralification of a coni^titution, oa 
the model of the French charter; and M. de Villèlu had ivriltcn to 
that purpose to M-de Lagarde, French ambassador at Madrid, 'lliia 
dunned a very imperfect comprchenâon of tlie neccsaitiee of the 

What mgnified to the rolins: religious and feudal party the poli- 
tical eituntion of Spain» as it auectcd the Spanish nation? Tlio feudal 
psr^ dcârcd war on its own account; it desired it that it3 enemies in 
Fnnoe might be convicted of folly or struck witli terror. 

Aa fox M. de Chateaubriand, his views were more lof^; liis de* 
BJKs were still more fiery, more absolute. M. de Cbateaubriajid had 
accompanied M. de Montmorency to the congress of Verona, and 
thcro ne had studied the temper and inclinations of the sovereigns. 
He knew that in declaring for intervention in Spain, Austria and 
Pniseda merely followed the impulse ^ven ihem by the Emperor of 
Rusia, who, ns he also knew, was prompted to demand that inter* 
ventioD only by hia pride, and in order that his hxmd might be felt i 
in all the aSaira of Europe. But M- de Chatcaubiiand would havq: 
beheld with mortal anmjiah Russian battalions treading the ancient < 
U»d oi Charlpâ V. lie wislit'tl to mate the war in Spain a French 
afikir. Devoted to the Bourbons, the thought of the treatira of 1815 
sorely tormented his poetical âdehty, and he hoped to exalt the i 
Bfliûvatîun by putting a sword into its hands. 

A sUgma hâs been cast on the Spanish war by calling the principle ' 
of intervention a principle of oppression. A puerile accusation ! All i 
nations arc brethren, and all revolutions arc cosmopolite. When ft , 
govemracni Iwlicves it represents a just cause, let it make that causo ' 
triumph wherever its triumph is possible ; this is more than its right,, 
it ia its duty. But was it poaable to believe the cause of Ferdinand' i 
Vn. a just one? Oh, there was then in Spain a tyranny more to be I 
ieirad ih^i that of the Descamisados, the lyranny namely of the I 
SuvBex. Ferocious hearts beat under the robe of the Fruucifcana, | 
and more graves were to be opened to llie chant of Vcni Creator than I 
to the song of TVcyala, When a hundred thousïmâ men crowed | 
the Pyrenees under the command of the Due d'Angouleme, Iro- I 
quently did M- de Cliateaubnand (he has said so etnce) feel his heart 
oie away within him. The liberals had made all France, i'ri.^m one f 
caid to tke oth«T, rcsotind with appalling prcdictioiifl* Xt' thuv wsa 



ÈonfiJcnce iu tUc chamber, tliere was fcnr and misgiving on tlie 

throne and around it ; niid mo&t of the genemla who accompanied 

' tliû Duc d'Angoiileme had begun the maixh omlnouslv shaking ï^hd? 

. heads, because they icroembi:rcd howjnany Frenchmen^ in Wapn- 

leon'a day, had entered Spain, never to return. 

The expedition, nevertheless, succeeded; but its condemnation wîis 

; Ivrittcn in its very succea?. What must M. dc Chateaubrtttud hftvc 

thought VihtX]. he learned that the poniards of Ferdinand VII.'s mi- 

r nions were turned agflinst the liberators of tlmt monarch ; when he 

read the decree of Andujar; when be could no longer doubt that 

iVance had made henï-lf more enemies among those wliose cause she 

fcod served than irnaong those to whom she had. given battle ; when he 

fow, in line, M. Fozzo di Borgo set out for Madrid, and I'trdinond 

•VII, bow beibre the influence of Ilua^t to which he owed nothing, 

aticr having rejected that of France to wliich he owed eveiy thing* 

■ lie this as it may^ the triumpliant rctuna of the Due d'Anffouleme 

' ttnick consternation into the bourgeoiî^ic. And this waa Ine only 

[ thing remarked. Now waa there in this war, undertaken contrary 

, to the wish of royuUy, and by force of the aaccndancv of parliament, 

[ nothing worthy of remark save the disappointment of a part}'? Was 

i it not manifest to any man who should have looked deeper than the 

f furtlice of things» that the right of peace and war had been wrested 

I from the crown ? 

Yet out of this unpcrceived though real defeat of the monarchical 
I pHnciple did M, de VillMc draw furth the strange idea of septennial 
I oarliaments. It would seem tlienthit M. de Villt'le was not aware that 
I lo giving the chamber a seven years* existence he waa&ccuting to it 
I greater consistence and prominence? 

K It )9 true the chamber waa dissolved, and tJiat a new chamber was 
Bummonetl to pass the septennial law. But undi^" liit; influence of 
I tlie law of tlie double vote, and in the cxeitement produced by the 
[ Bucecss of the war in Spain, the assembly could not fail to be idtra- 
t feudttl. TItc constitutional regimen disappeared to make way for an 
I oligarchical govemmoni, a government which, having no root in 
kBocaety» was very ?oon to wear Jtscll' out by it*; own excesses, but not 
I^U it had enslaved the crown, and for ever disabled it from ziân^ 

I do not know whether M. do Villi-le foresaw this result, or whc- 

Jier, if he had foreseen it, the prospect would have given him mucJi 

[concern. M. de Villèle had a geniua only for little tbings: he waa 

I the man of bnsincBfl of the monarchy. To regulate aceoimts, prepare 

))udgcts, keep the biUikei-s in order, and control the stormy of the 

[fftucK excliange,— all this he was competent to do with marvellous 

Macility, And M. do Chateaubriand waa not an inconvenient col- 

lleague iur him in this ïcspect: for tlie petty routine of politics em* 

[fcan^^3i."d the Utter» and belaboured imder lliat kind of incapacity 

tarhieb îs cn^rendered by the habit of pursuing lofty apccuktionf. 

But his Utfrary reputation, the gorgeouaicsB of bia manners, tlio 



■Dlnptuosltj of his life, his influence over the elogant portion of the 
QlbliOQt cveiy thing even to tlic iinpaâng ctfecC of his pocticaL and 
Wgh-brcd indolence, threw M. Ac ViUlIg into the shade. M. ÛB 
Chateau briflbd was one day about to speak in the course of" the dîs- 
custsor on the septennial mw^ when his colleague, M. do Corbière, 
requested he would give way to liim : and on the next day, the 
Sunday of the Assumpûon, M. de Chateaubriand beinf^ al tho 
chât^u» received Grom the bond of his secretary, M. Piloi-gc, a letter 
in the following teriMî 

*' M. le Vicomte^ I obey the orders of the king^ and I transmit 
you tlie ordonnance hereto annexed: 

" Lc Sieur Comte de ViUèle, propident of our council of rainistry, 
and minister secretary of etutc for tho department of finance^ is in- 
trusted par interim with the ponfoUo of ibrcign aifiiirSj in lieu of the 
Sieur Vicomte de Chateaubriand." 

il . de Viilùlq coutd not have mode a more rude and unmannerly triai 
of his influence. After having successively ousted M. do Montmo- 
rency and the Due de Bellune, he comprumiaed tho dimity of the 
crown by tlio insulting dismissal of an illustrious man. He remained 
without a rival in the council : but in the chamber he had tua^ters. 

An event occurred which rendered absolute the predominance 
pooKWed by ih& chamber. On the 6th of ScptembËr, J 824, the 
prinoea and several OTand oflieers waxG assembled in the cliâteau, 
ttnd seemed aa though they expected something. Suddenly the 
door of the afmrtmcnt was thrown open, and a voice cried out, " The 
king^ sirs!" It waa Charl^ X. that entered. Louis XVlil. had 
juKt expired. 

Louis XVIII. had steered hia course smoothly between parties, 
and ho conpratulatcd him^lf on this in his last moments. What 
had he pained by it ? The ability to die quietly, almost iikc the 
lowest villager in his reaïm. A poor triuinph tliia, and one withia 
the reach of the shabbiest ambition ! \Vliat cliildishnesa there is 
in the vanity of the créai ones of the earth! Here i» a king who 
holds out against the shock of factions for want of power to vanquish 
them, and of courage to be vanquished by them; he ekes out hia 
rdjsn and his hfc, with the help of concession aliter concession ; in 
eccdunge for pleasures, not given» but promised to his palled tcusea, 
he ^rrendera to a woman the government of his own house, after 
having abandoned to his minieters the right of yielding up in liis 
name and in hb stead every thing he consents to lose from his royal 
precogfttive ; and when at last, aged, infirm, and broken down^ his last 
BMUBOUa draught of voluptuousness drained, consumed by the mock- 
ing phantoms of desire, be feels hia lile departing — then he sita up 
erect on that throne he can only bequeath in storm and tcm]>c3t to 
his hrother^ and with lus last breath — he boasia! 

It is reported, that fatting on the iàuteuil on which he was about 
to expire, muToundcd by high personages in tear^ and hi» tacc over- 
£pxvad with the ghastlinces of haelcuiug diâsolutiou, he called to him 

n ^^^^ IWTEODUCTIOîr. 

the youngest and weakliest prince of his family, aniî then laying his 
> iiuid on the child's head as it bent to receive liia blessing, he said, 
'* X/et my brother husband tenderly the crown of this child." 

Very idle words were these ! Crowns that arc fl,ssmled are not to 
be husbanded tenderly ; they must be saved or lost. 

And now I aak what had been the fruits of that lonfî series of fluc- 
tuations and ofpostponementa of the evil day, that made up the reîga 
of Louis XVTII? On the surlace of the political stage tliscorda 
■withpT,it end ; and beneath it conspiraciep^ treacherous inatigationa 
, by paid spiral, viUanoua snares for men's lives, military exécutions ; 
. these were the spectacles that reign presented. The tempest rogcdi 
everywhere, in the parliaTOOJt, in the press, atcourt» in tlie town?, 
. in the rural districts. Didier, ToUeron, Berton, Bories, what remi- 
[ aiscences.' Ay, methiûkâ that some plastic policy of Louis XVUL 
I affbrdod the executioner ample room for the convenient exercise of 
Ids craft. 

■ Naturally so, because every thing that procceda from kin^^ w1k> 
«Tc the objects of attack is mortal, Their weakness iâ aa latal oa 
their strength, and their dismay as their fury. If they choose to 
. carry things with a high hand and can do so^ they cnisn down all 
I before them. K, on the other hand, they consent to j-ield, as they 
cannot yield for ever, they provoke aggressioia for which there la 
no remedy, failing civil war, but the guillotine. What do I bst? 
What they yield in one place under the form of constituted autno- 
lity, they resume elsewhere by way of violence. Let their enemies 
put on but a little show of bofdnessi, and they revMîge themselves on 
the little lor what is snatched from them by the great, and their 
, "weakness of yesterday seeks compensation in their cruelties of to- 
I laorrciw. Thus their concevons and their exactions alike drink up 
thti blood of their people. When Louia XVIIT. gavo orders that 
' '^erc fhould bo dancing at court at tlie very hour when the grav©" 
digger wrs rec^i\*ing from the handâ of the executioner the gofy 
lAOTpses of the four soldiers of Rochelle, Louis XVUL took hi? re- 
lirage for the vicïûrics of the chamber. There were gay doings at 
[ tfie cbdteftn, bccau!>e amidst all the humiliations of royalty, the un< 
poniâhed atrocity of that ifitc wore a look of strength. The mo- 
narch's pride, hunted from every other ground, took refuge in thia 
BBvuge piece of swaggering. 

[ But was it in the nature of a series of truckling compromises, Iciul- 

I mg to such results, lonn to preserve the monarchy from nun ? Wai 

|. the Tirocess of perpetually eluding the antagonism of the two poweD 

equivalent to destroying it ? And must not every ùeth ©nort to 

Vdudc it have trended to wear out and degrade the monarchical pria* 

bciple? " Let my brother husband tenderly the crown of this child," 

[ And îiow should Charles X. have been able to do this long, in tha 

} teeth of that parliamentary authority. 9o jealoos and dO intractable? 

It had frcmiently changed'^ possewors Eiince 1814: had it changed its 

Battu»? . Uo, no. The thoroughly Icudol chamber of 1^15 had. 


tPCâi > pd the ïoyal authority ^-ith no more forl>earaiice than h&â. the 
tKopoughly bourgoûiâ cfcumiber of 18l7| and the ïaw of the doublfl 
vote liad been, no less than that of the 5th February, im implement 
of war directed against the throne. 

Ilud it bcrn possible for society to subsist thus divided between 
the ftutliority of a kin" and that of an asaembly, this phcnomenoa 
would certainly havo shown itself under the reign of Charles X. 

Let u s, in &ct, go back to the momûnt of the death of Louiâ 
XVILL Waa it not the foremost deârc oi" the party then para- 
mount in the chambeï that the system of large estates ehauld be re- i 
estabhfhed, that an independent and miinptuoua existence should, be 
IWCOffid to the nobl«:s, und that centralization Bhoold give place to 
! «way of local inflvienccs? These tondencira so essentially op- 
ad tu monarchy, theso tendencies which attacked the laborious 
l^rk begun by Ixmis XI,, and continued by Louis XIV., were pre- 
cisely those of Cliarlca X, Charles X. was not aenaiblc of the fact 
Ihat raonarchy had grown and tlmvcn in France by the gradual de- 
clension of the noble:jee» by tlie alienation of feudal estates, by the 
ÎBfleoâible weakening of the Byatem of priraogeniturc and entail, 
by thd discredit of the ccclesiastical jurisdictions, by centraliza- 
tion above all. He fancied, in hiâ ignorance^ that he was fortifying 
tho monarchy when he was but doing hie beat to revive fcudatam, 
Loiiia XI.» m order to be king, had ceased to be a gentilhomme, 
Charles X. wa3> by sentiment and habit of tnjnd, mudi more tha 
^ttiUufftimf than the king. 

It resulted, then, that at tho death of Lonîs XVIII, the dectivo 
and tlie royal powers were unit^ by a strict community of senti- 
ment» aad views. 

Acoordingly, as far a£ vigour was côQoemed^ nothing could ha 
cosnpunblc to the momentary Impulse then i^ven to society- Thû 
milbnrd of indemnity-money flung la tho nuni^ry emigrants, the 
law of sacrilegCt tlie kiw on religious coramumliee, the elaboratiod, 
of a system wliich replaced i)ropc'rty on those too grand bases of feu- 
dalism, the right of primogeniture, and tlie law of entail; all this 
formed a conibination of measure?, the expediency of which might 
well be quesdoned, and their chameter stigmatLEed, but of which it 
is Lmposeiblo to deny the boldness and iiii|X)Stng energy. 

Nor was any effort spared for the suixi^e of this gigantic entcr- 
priac. The combined forces of the legislative and the royal aulho- 
riticâ had need of bein^ backed by a moral force capable of holding 
in check that formîdalïlc Voltairiamtm to which the eightccntE 
century Kad given birth. The Congregation is formed) Llisoiplined, 
ftnd extended. Mystical affiliations ramify throughout the land, 
lise Jc8uil9 pciite on the fountmn-hefidâ of human intclligencef 
m order to adulterate tïicm, and at Sainte-Armc d'Auray, Bor- 
deauXt Billom, Montrouge, and Saint Achcul they gird up theû 
loins to the task of digging in the rising gencratioa the mm 
cf itd predece^otâ. Thia was an invcmou of the ^irit of tho 


affpf but executed with systematic consistency and with energy. 
I^eed I say a. word of those (ânatical sennou?, those prixeesiona 
Iroubliug the towns und covering the land, ihose expiatory cere» 
monies, the Miserere resounding idong the highways, and the holy 
mummery uf the coronation renowing, before the eyes of the popu- 
lation, the antique alliance between feudal royalty and the church? 

It was in the month of Muv, 1825, that the luind of an arch- 
bishop hold the crown, of Charleiniignc si:spcndetl over tlio head of 
Charles X. What! and were five years all the span of life ac- 
corded to the dynasty declared in the cathediul of Rhetms to be 
Gods daughtcr and immortal ? That waa all; and bo rapid a down- 
fai would be scarcely compréhensible, if wc sought ita esplanation 
merely in the opposition of tlie bourgeoisie. 

ïhut opposition was vchemcntj no doubt. The boargeoiâe let 
loose all the might and energy of the press against the feudaliem of 
parliament; it created an ophcmcral and fictitious popidarity for the 
cliambor of peers, all ijillatcd aa that was with the glory ol" having i-e- 
• jcctcd the principle of primogeniture, and the law agaiu?it the press 
proposed by M. de Pevronnet; it brought the majesty of the crown 
to the ieet of pamphletecrfi and writers of chansons ; it cried up 
■with ecetasy tlie Memoirs of M. dc? Montlosier, that scattered eeanflal 
lound the altar; it awoke the old spirit of the parliiimcnts in the 
cours rayaletr^ as a counterpoise to tlie league of llie priestg ; and then 
I tiKsolved that it^ too» woidd have its gala?, and would make its own 
l^spcalâ to men's imaginations. Tliousand? of citizens were seen as- 
sembled one day round a newïy-upened ffrave. Young men ap- 
I prottched, aupporliug a biey, and followed by a long file of rich and 
" ' kI compogee. All the wealtii of Paris was there. Tlie ob- 
1 of General Foy were the anti-part to the pomps of the co- 

But what agnifietl all this? One tiling was lacking to these move- 

kjnents to make them parturient of a revolution, namely, the aid 

rand ro-operation of penury: and the people who po^âcased that 

source of might — what could it understand of such quarrels ? The 

I eombatanta (ought over il, but not for it. 

] The rapid decline of the royal power, imdcr Charlcà X., i^ ex- 
'• plained by the fact that it remained wliat it was, whilst the elective 
I power insensibly underwent a metamorphûsiâ fast tending to bring 
' on war, inevitable and fatal war, between the two powers. 

And is there any thing to wonder at in this metamorphosia of the 
elective power? Had not the adversaries of the bourgeois sway 
themselves uQconsciou^ly adopted the liabita of the bourgeoiàe? 
Had they not contracted its vices? Had not tlie spirit of trrtfllc 
crept in among the preux of the iiinctcenth century? I have no de- 
^■ire to stir up from their foul br^d all the financial scandab of the 
^Rcftoratron ; but who ia there but knows the history of Ouvrard'fl con- 
tracts? and what nameâ were thode that figured îgnominiouËly in cer- 
, toiu puhHc discua^ons ? Colossal fortunes sprang up Euddcnly after 



the war in Spain : aad why ? Bccaiiao tlie royalists had speculated on 
A nac in the I'luids and had spcculaied wkh certainty. Jt Is notorious 
thut the patroim^ ol" the Jesuits was in those days a means of ad- 
vancement and fortune; it is notoriuu* that the Congi-ega,tion dis- 
tributed places, elasaified ambitions» and ofifered a mundane pri^e to 
the icrvour of every professor of mystical piety. And the first mi- 
nister of the king, be who had been summoned in a manner tt> lead 
the crusade undertaken against the bou^eoisje» was he not a raan of 
the stock exchange? Was he not M. do Villèlc* a bovirgeois all over, 
in manuet^, lanj^niage, sentiments, instincU, and capacity? 

The ieudal and rcliorioua party earned then witliin it the causes 
of ita own ruin. It talked of founding the reign of religious belief, 
and Its oblaliona were offered, only at the shrine of interest; its zeal 
-nrss kindled against the spirit of these latter times, and it confcËScd 
jtp &Twiy. Such contradictions are the suicide of parties. 

Moreover, and independently of its moral force, the bourgcoîàc pos- 
«ed, tlirou^K the institution of the national guard, a perfectly organ- 
înd physical force. Excluded from piirhament, it was quite natuiul 
^at It should make the public thoroughfares its arena, and do with 
jijenaccs what it could not do with law?. A review imprudently 
ordered gave it the opportunity it lon^red for : cries of hatred issuing 
jrom its armed mnks resounded in the ci^s of Charles X. him$clf. 
In reality» this demonstration was no very serious aïlàir; at legist it 

' was not very revolutionary. The bourgeoisie had too much to lose 
hy a social convulsion to allow of its voluntarily incurring the risk. 
To difiarm it was not merely a puerility, but an act of mîMiness. In 
a. monarchicul country the throne is the ârst of all private properties, 
and conscfjuontly cannot be placed under a more trusty sali^^uard 
that of a bourgeois mihtia. But the Duchesse de Berri and the 
iipliiuc, hearing thiit majosty liad been insulted, forced the dic- 

' tatcs of calm p;oo<^l sense to yield t»> tlie suggestions of their own 
Fploen; the nadonal guard waa dismissed, and thus was the road left 
free, over which the unbridled people were won to push their way 
to the Ti-cry throne. 

The only bulwark left M- dc VîJlèle against ao many perils, was 
the chamber. Unfortunately for him and fur the mouarchy, that 
parliamentary feudalism, which had at first trodden it^ [>ath with so 
firm a step, had come to reel and totter Uke a drunken man. The 
national guard had been dismissed, and now it was necessary to die- 
polvc the chamber. The storm blew from all quarters of the heavens 
at once. 

The absolute incompatibility of the two powers was this time 
proved in a etrikinff and dct-i&ive manner. King, ministers, and 
chamber, — had they not all desire<l the same tlnngs? Had they not 
marched in concert to the «ccomiilishment of the boldest projects? 
And yet they were now come to such a pass, that all ftuther concord 
bcmreen them was hopelesa I A new cuamber was summoned, and 

• tbe elections began. 



M- tie Villtte supposed that all lie sliûiild haxù to dû, in order to 
remain in office, was to cliongcliis system. But would a feudal ]ân0 
Bubniit to lay his crown at the leet of an assembly of lawyers and 

Tlie inictisG anxiety tlwit prevailed during the course of the eleC' 
tions is fresh in every one's mcmoiy. A disturbance had broken 
out in Paria, wlien the bourgeoisie luid been threatened with loss of 
poBsessicoi of the political cng:ine; a flisturbance broke out when the 
nope of recapturing that ona;un? was set before it. Blood flowed then 
on the pavement of the Itue St. Denis. The two parties cast the 
blame each on the other: such ia the usual practice in these case?. 
The f«et appears to be,^ that if the police did not directly create the 
âisturboncç, it urged it on. Cast an eye yonder, and loot at men 
trampled down under the hoofe of horsc9> or bleeding under the 
eabrcs of gendarmes, to aid the triumph of some candidate or another 
of tlie cCté droit or of the câtê t^ancht. This tJicy call policy, the art 
of rei.Erning, and lîcaven knows what beside?. As lor me, I hare 
email Jaith in the poUtical cfht^acy of such maelii nations. It ia bb»- 
phomy against God to pretend that the destiny of empires and the 
futurity in store for nations are dependent on a few vulgar devioea 
of barefaced knavery. 

I'he elections turned out as was expected: they sent two parties 

into tlie eliambcft the stJongCT of which was tliat of the new in- 

' Iei<est0, M. de Villt'lc would, perhaps, have consented to obey it; but 

(1m mmt h*ve enoountered a CTeater mass of hosrtihty in oider to 

propitiate tho party, than the effort to keep his ground would have 

; «tirred up apiinst him. He fell, bringing do%vT! with him colleagues, 

who, hke MM. de Pcyronnct and do Corbière, were still more t'flm* 

Xffomised than himself. Let us sec to what amounted the legacy 

I bequeathed to M. de Murtignoc. 

T1)0 king had made haste to say to his new ministers, '' M, dc 
VillMc'a system is minof* and the chamber made haste to write down 
' in its addrcsa that M. dc VillMe's system was dephrahte. The whole 
feliifitory of the Rt-^loraiion is epitomized on this isimple juxtapcàtîoa 
I of fkîtâ. How was the chamber to be prevented from exercising' the 
[paramount strength it pos-^awdV And what should hinder the 
I Iiead of the state from crying out, under the exasperation of insult. 
Ha did Charles X. upon the presentation of the address, " I will cot 
I BuiTer my crown to he flung into the mire P' Wlmt then remained 
I to be tried? To side completely with the elective power? M, de 
[liartignac could not do bo without declaring war against royalty. 
[To serve royalty in accordance with its own vjews? He coidd not 
[ ^o so without dochiring war on the chamber. To combine these 
I two sorts of Ber\'itudcs, and to hold the reins of government on the 
ttânurc of l>etng doubly a slave? He tried this. 

And really it ts> to be remarked that circumstances seemed to 
Cavour tlio sueoeas of this conciliatory scheme. The bourgeùiae had 
gradually lost its turbulent disposition in proportion as it advanced 

nnrsoDtrcTïoif. fiT 

more *nd more in tho exercise of power: it crcn watched with 
a certain anxiety over the safety of royalty, from the time that it 
had begun to feel capable of mnstcnûg it. The royal courts ■which, 
und^ th(* ViUt-le adnmiktKitioii, liad systematicaUy returoed ver- 
dicts of acquittal in prosecutions on the ground of tendency^ now 
as imifonnly viâted writings of undue violence with severe punish- 
ment; and the successive condemnations of MM.* Bérangcr, Cauchoifl 
LciDâùn?^ and Fontan, evinced tho spirit tliat actuated the magistracy 
undtT the Moiti^ac ministry. 

Circunost&nc*» then ^vcre favourahlc to a system of couciliatioR 
between the two powers, had that c-onciliation not been in its own 
natufe futile and impoeaiblc. l>o but examine the history af thaÊ 1 
period. M. de Martignac exhausts himself in concesdion& to propi- i 
tiate the ruling opinion. He excludes the congrt^tional party irom. 
the rainistry in the person of M. de Frayssinous, and he rcmovca ' 
the Bishop of Hermopolis to make way for the Abbé Feutrier, a 
mundane priest, Buppoaed to be a liberal; he extinguishes the influ- 
ence of the king's agents in elections ; he cmimcipatcs the prcas 
&oin the yolœ of the royal authorization, and mibstitutin^ a uioneyed 
for apolitical monopoly, he puts the weapon of joumahsm into the 
kaode uf the rich; he abolishes the censorship; be deals the power 
of the Jesuita a mortal blow; he transfci-s the right of interpreting ' 
the laws from royalty to the chaniber, thus rccoeniaing the «upro- | 
mary of the latter. And the bourgeoisie clap their hands ! 

But when after bo ampîifying the range of the parUamentarjr i 
power, he evincca hi^ unwitlingneas that the royal power should be | 
uttciiy stripped of every tiling, matters assume another aspect. 
He piie9ciit9 two billa to the chamber, one for a law on the OTgitp 
nization of the commune&, the other for a law on that of tM 
departmeotP, and these two bills contiûn his death-warrant. Offence 
is taken at the refusal of minsters to admit the décrive principle 
to operate in the appointment of mayors; it 13 upheld in oppori- 
lioti to ministerB, that the chamber excrdâcs a sovereign right of 
the initiative, and is competent to nippies by an amendment the 
tonsril)! ti' arrondissement established by a law. The blow is struck; 
the rainisteis have lost the majority. Whom had they to sustaLii 
them ? llie court had long been spinning it? intrif.iics round 
them; the king had in his heart vowed their downiol. and had 
been «ccretly prepared to appoint their succcasors. M. de Mar- 
tîgnao went out, and M. dc Folignac was minister. 

On the 2d of MaK-Ji, 1830, the day fixed for the convocntlon of 
the chambere, Charles X. addre*^ these wonla to the assembly: 
" Fee» ol Fiance, deputies of the departments, I entertain no doubt 
<rf your co-opcnitiou towards câectmg the good I desire to do. 
You will reject with disdain the per£diOQ9 iofinuations malevolence 
«trivcs to propagate. Should culpable manacuyres raise up ohstacktf 
tn the way of my gtnremment, an event wîiich Î cannot «ad mSL ' 
not abticipctlc, I should derÎTe the necesaary strength to mnnotrnt 




them from my resolution to upKold the public peace, from the just 
coniidcncG of tlie French, and from the love they have alwitjns 
evinced for their king." 

And wlkat was tho reply of the chamber in the iamous addross of tho 
majority of 221 ? ' ' The charter has made the poroiiinctit concurrence 
of the political views of your government with the wishes of your 
people, an indispcasable requisite to tlic regular course of pviblic 
^^irs. Sire, our loyalty, our dcvotcdnûss, condemn ub to tell you 
that this concurrence doca not exist." 

The chamber was dissolvotl: ita retium was to be effected only 

. over barricades, to the sound of bclLa toUinfr for unknown ob- 

^ «equie^, and by the arms of children oi" the people clad in battlc- 

, stamed garmenta. Then the experiment waa to bo bog^un over 

ipcain., &t the risk of dra^ving fresh tears from the bereaved motlicra 

of the êelf-dcvôtcd, the mothersi of the poor ! 

Tlte poor! did I My? It is the first time I have pronounced the 
■word: ior the truth ia, thoy were never thought of in the debates of 
J idl these fifteen years. Triumphs of the opposition, defeats or vic- 
tories of the court, toskatanoes of royalty, what was there in you for 
-which the people could reasonably feel sadness or joy? A deal of 
noi&e lifld been made over its head; for what? Clmmpinns had 
marched, to the conflict and won freedom to write : waa this for the 
people, who wrote not at all ? Nobles and rich men had battled 
with each other for the electoral right ; was this for the people, who 
, lived only from hand to mouth ? From that tribimc, eo long résonant 
to the language of faction, what voice had been heard demanding 
I that the poor man's wages should |>c increased, or that his labovu" 
I should bu dimiïiishod? Amidst all those ânaneial discnasiona that 
[rScrved as food for the rancour of party, had it over been re^dvcd to 
[Snake any imporlniit niodilicatiou in the unequal distribution of taxa- 
jtion? Whatl the eve of a preat erisia wûa arrived after fifteen 
I years of conflict in the name of justice, the country, and liberty; 
, «nd the people, Imrried into the tumult of that crisis, were to come 
f forth from it only to find the conscription return up>n thcui in the 
[shape of recruitment, and the droits-rénnis in tho indirect contribu- 
, tions ; that is to say, thoy wore a^in to take up their cvcrla^iting 
; burden. 

The Restoration, viewefl collectively, prcaents^ it must be owned, 
^ fi subject of pitinful retlfction to the historian, Dunns? that long 
f period, ao full of noise and agitation, liberahsm often aclueved diaaa- 
troufl victories. The principle of authority was attacked with cx- 
cesslve ardour, and it succumbed. Tlie power of the slate, divided 
, into two forces peqietunlly bent on mutual destruction, lost by ita 
i inrtability lis title to general respect. Incapable of directing so- 
ciety, since it was itseU' the scat of strife and anarchy, and could 
hardly maintun its own existence, it accustomed men's minds to the 
[ 'aomioiou of licence. The nation was almost always forced along 
by TJolcnce, never led. Wliat wa« the consequence? The orderly 





ffnulfltîons of rank ceased to enjoy the Trilling tribute of public 
dcterence ; reverence for tradition disappcarcd. To rGax;ii the priesta; I 
Trhoâç tjrranny Jmd become ûitoîerabl<î, men Iraoipled down reli- 
gion itself in tlicir way. Protestantism became the fundamental 
principle in matters of t>pinioD and of socùil habits; many cûïried it 
to «xcesa; dicre was a tmic wlicn the eighteenth century seemed to 
be revived bodily in the nineteenth, and enrcaam, wluch had Êoared 
BO high OM to make kings its quarr)', now dared to strike atHcnven. 

The confusion in the material, was not less violent tluin that in ' 
tlie moral Tvorld. Just as, in polllica aud relifrioii, the hourgeoiâe 
had almost completely sacrificed authority to liberty^ community of 
ùâûi to absolute intellectual independi-uce^ fraternity to pride; aj 
in mattera of trade and manu^cturcâ it sacrificed the principle of 
aasodation to that of competition : a dangerous principle which tTans- 
IbnEs emulation into implacable war, consccratca all the ubusea of 
might, tormentâ the rich rnati with insatiable desires, and leaves the 
j>oor man to perish lonely and neglected. Accordingly, in conjimc-i 
tion mth the priûcipïc of compétition, there grew up rapidly among I 
the bourgeoisie immoderate thirat for wealth, the fever of specula- j 
tion^ — in a word, raaterialiani in all its cruel and gro«? delbimity, i 
To augment tlie mass of wealth without any regard to its dis- 
trrbutioBf this was the sum and eubsUince of the economic doctrinct 
adopted by lil>eraiiFm. They were hcarticss doctrines; they forbada 
the intervention of any tutelary power in mattci"a of trade and ma- 
nufacture ; they protected the strong and lett the weak to the mercy 
ol cliance. i 

Alter this let no man wonder tliat the bourgeoisie forgot what it j 
owed to tlioso men of the people who had always suppcirted it* 
Aiw I they were once more to shed their best blood in ita quarrel: i 
ftud wc ishall see whether the gratitude of tlie bourgeoisie ttjuaUed ' 
the amount of the service. 

It iâ certainly a painful task to verily such results, and the hia- 
torian who wntes such lines has need of somv courage to silence tlio 
voice of his heurt. ^Vhat I those consuming conâîcts between nicfl, 
arrayed for mutual destruction — thi;fie geucrationa successively Im- 
pcUiug each other with groans towarda a goal always imcertain and 
idways desired ; fights by Land and sea, the debates of assemblies, 
the intriffuca of courts, conspiracies and bulcherica;^tho5c convid- 
siona without numlrer, that cJiamje revolt into doiuinioii, aud the 
loftiest hopes into psmgs of mortaT despair; — what! jdl ihia to bring 
about ^nic pîtilul various-reatlinç or auothcr in the history of great 
caiatniiics and great crimes ! What have I seen up till now in these 
ibn&s that >Tiry eternally ? Eternal tyranny: and inthediver&ityof 1 
things 1 have discovered but tliu jjei'^tateut falschootl ot words. Strati^ 
and cruel mystery Î to what tempestuous fatidity are wc then dc- 
Totcd? WUnt eilorts spent on aii! Wliat an endless sum of energy 
wasted since the origin of humnn society ! Can it be that nations 
•n doomed to tread witliuut ceasing the âatnc dork circle like blind ' 


iioTseaj assiduous creators of a motioQ they know not? For after all, 
ito wlmt atnotiutâ ûic cvoiutions of mankind in history? An and- 
j eiputcd deception ? That ia tiopc. A commencement of defeat ? 
[ ThiB we call a triumphs Kdilicea have duration ; mina alone liave 
[perpetuity. What matters it wheiHer tyranny be cnfojced by 
liuperstition, by the Bword, or by gold; whether it be called inilu- 
Itnce of the clergy, feudalism, or the reign of tlie bourgeoisie, what 
Lznatters it to the motlier wh,o weeps for the irmt of her womb ? Wliat 
FAatters it to that old m^n who has known neither repose nor love» 
P»nd whose last breath aa he dies on hia bed of boards, is spent in 
Icuî^ing Ufc? Will he whose doom is âuiîerijig irom tlie cradle to 
the grave, be he slave, serf, or proletary, will ho find in the cIiMig- 
ing dcsignatioiia of an evil fortune that uevcîr changes, motJveg suf- 
ficient to absolve Prot-idence? 

Oh 1 let ud beware how we ntter one impious word- Our powers 

t of vision fail to embrace the whob body and combination of tlÙBgs: 

this is enough to put all blasphemy to silence. We know not the 

Inst consequence ol what we call an evil: let us not speak of human 

Leâforts as barren of result. Perhaps we should tliink the course of 

[^ZïTârs an. absurdity, did wc know not] dug of ih^c ocean. 

I It seems, after all, that good always subsists at the bottom of 

rthingg sido by side witli e\ii, as if to destroy it inaeoaibly aud absorb 

it. All is not to be found fault with in tJic work ol' Liberalism 

during the Itostoration. Thougli generally selfish, the bourgeoisie 

had its heroea, ite martyre; and the generous eelf-sacrifices which 

I liberalism brouj^ht fortli, were not the less ^mnd and glorious i'or 

Lliûving tidied to kindle the whole soul of society, Maiiuel, causing 

Ihinifieu to ba forcibly exp4.'Ued from the cWmber, and to be collared 

Iby a gendanno on the very bench on which he sat ks a le^slator, 

[êêt a noble example^ of reidscancc tç oppressian. Dupont de TEurc, 

I Voyer d' Argenson, Laiïltte, the Abbé Grégoire, and General Ttirayrc, 

[belonged to the people by cheir sympathies. The press disBeininated 

[ ueefuTtrutha in ttie circle whose întereate it represented, and coui-age- 

' ouily prosecuted aod achieved the conquest of the hberty of writing 

in deiianco of obstacles without number; — a very incomplete Ubert;^ 

i indeed, for it waa, oq the whole, but the substitution of a moneyed 

' for a poHtical privilege. Amon" the writers of the bourgeooaie theic 

I were men of talent and of heart : MM, Comte, Dunoyer, liert, Ohate- 

I lain, and Cauchois Lemaire^ did honour to the profc^on of the 

, journalist. Paul Louis Courier is open to the reproach of Imving 

( come «hort in his pamphlets of that generous love of the poor widen 

I m>uld sometimes have given to his indignation ihe eloquence of en- 

[thuaiasin, and to his t^enls the potency of charity: but it waâ a 

[real glory for the bourgeoisie to liavo hailed its defender in 

B^nuiger, a child of the people, sublimely uttering the hinguage of 


Tlie special characteristic of Uie licstoratlon i«, that in ite course 
the principle of authority was combated under all its aspects; but 


what it lost tlic principle of liberty gained, and that tlic more 
surely, mAsmuch as it was invoked hy tums by all the conllicting 
parties — by its enemies when they felt thcmselvea victors^ by its pro- 
W^<cà when they were vanqujehed. There was also (La spite of that 
goocral tendency towards splitting up into fractions which we have 
pointed out) a certain enective uiuty in the onsets of the bour* 
gvoisic, wpccially towards the close of the Restoration. The liberal 
party, which had acted at first only under the inipulsee of blind 
in&tmct, came at last to discipline itself under the direction of som^ | 
studious men styled doctrinaires; and the results of this concert in 
negation and hate proved at least wliat might be expected of a 
concord founded on ideas of brotherhood aJid devotedness. 

Let us speak out the whole truth. Liber&Usm, by the very abuse 
of its principle, led the way to a reaction which contained the germ 
of Saint Simonismt and which engendered the vorioug social achoolâ of 
which we shall have to follow the proOTcss. Tlic conquosta to which 
it pro4npted thc^irit of inquiry, and wîiicli gave birlJi at first only 
to a iystematic criticism, neither far-reaehinff nor profound, were | 
afWwarda to open up a path for bold and fruitful investigation g? 
Ijùstly, if the impulse given to the genius of trade too strongly 
Aroused the lust of gain, and cast into oblivion alike the habits and 
sentim^ta of grace and good taste, and the most imperative duties of I 
humanity; on the other hand it had a favourable LnHucncc ou the ' 
progress of the sciences wliich have lor their object the welfare of 
man, and the apphcaliou of which to the ameUorotion of the lot 
of the people it^ll', awaits only the change of the impure medium 
in which it moves and sutlers. 

What do we know after all ? Perhaps it is necessary to the 
reolizatâon of progress that ftU the bad cliancea he exhausted. Now 
the lifetime of the human race is very long, and the number of 
posM.blc solutions very Uniited. Every revolution is useful in this 
respectât least, that it absorbs one inxiuspicious eventuality. Because 
sociotiee Bomctimes tall ixom an unhappy condition into a worse, let 
us not ihcTcfoTc too hastily conclude that progress is a chimera, I 
fiincy I sec before me a car set rollinn; by provident Iianda: the 
rood, at the point of departure, is well made, wide, and perfectly 
smooth; as the car advances it becomes narrow and miry; but do 
you not see, too, that as the car advances its distance ixom the goal 
diminishes? In like manner it is ea^ to diecover, even in the suc- 
ceaaoa of G^qnexal calamities, a law supremely intelligent and logical. 
If eVCTy thing dopnded on chance, events ivould be more miscella- 
neous, and it would be less easy to trace their tonnes ion and sequence. 
If, on the other hand, a maleticcnt genius governed the world, it is 
|»rùhablc tJiat the forms aÉSumed by pubhc maladies would be aa 
Âiouotonous as their essence, and tlien oppresiion would be leea 
ftequendy chastised. Courage, then ! Lei us, if possible^ behold in 
the tynonife that arise only Uie punishment of the tyrannies that 


&U. The domînion of an exclasivc interest^ that of a man or of a 
caste, such has hitherto been evermore the sore affliction of mankind. 
Why should not the remedy consist in the combination of all inte- 
rests, since these, rightly considered, do not differ one from the oth^? 
Ere long all theones Tvill have been tried, all save the simplest and 
the noblest, that of brotherhood. Until that magnificent experiment 
shall have been made, let us keep watch over our creeds, and let va 
not despair, even though it should be written in the decrees of God, 
that good should be, alas ! but the exhaustion of evil ! 



StsCe M. de Polignac's accession to power the bourgeoisie lived 
in the continual expecltition of a revolution, and its feclinga fltK> 
tUAtnl between anger and disreifiy. 

Titc court Ubouftd under all. die blindness of fanaticism, but it 
displayed all iw daring. Missionaries had ovemui all France, cx- 
dung lûen'a minds by gloomy haraneues, paraiiing before the eyca ' 
of women the pomps of an uwlul religion, and setting up in places o£ | 
public resort the image of the crucified Rcdeemet, Measures adapted 
to kindle the mindfl of the soldiery were in contemplation, and 
roj*alty was prc])ûring to brave every chance, backed as it was by 
soldiers and by pnests. 

AV'hen a king [>a5sc9, -ft-hcther his road lead to the throne or ta 
the scafibld, some confuted chunouw almost always issue from tho 
crowd. Such clamouiB Charles X, had heard on his journey to 
Abacs; he had interpreted them in the kusc suggested by his pride; 
he behçvcd himj^li' beloved. 

^utjouiTiey^ however, had been marked by somo scenes of alms- 
tar ooucn. At Varennra the royal family had been obliged to atop 
for a change of horses at the very pLice whence Louis XVI. had 
formerly been brought buck when flying from his capital and dtserV* 
ing myaity. Suddenly, the dauphine was seizctl ivith a convulâvo 
thuddcringat âght of the fatal posthouse; and ordering hor pcopla . 
to drive on, she left the assembled inlmbitants of the pbce, by w»y ' 
of adieu, some of those words that prmc the perdition of princxa. , 
Further on, at Nancy, ilic royal family appeared on a biikony ta ■ 
Eedutc the people. Some hias^ were heard. To whom was ihc iu« 
ault addressed? The dauphine wïts indignant; and retreating int-j 
the apiirtinent in a tit of tears, she caused the windows to bo closed 

The journey to Aleace aevcrtheleas, taken altogether, was not aa.| 



unfavourable eaeay of popularity, and Charles X. returned firom it 
more self-assured than ever. 

But before mentjoning the lengths to which this confidence in 
himself carried him, we must first bestow a glance at the foreign 
policy of France at this period. 

It wag for the sake of a dynasty^s interests that the treaties of 
IfllS had been imposed on P"rancc by the Bourbons» It was for the 
sake of a dynasty's interests that measures had been in contempla- 
tion Bince 1829 for essentially modifying those treaties. For it is 
the cstâbhshcd niLc in monarchies that the destinies of a people 
sliould follow aa the aSaira of a family lead them. 

The honour of this project belonged, in part, to M. de Reynevalî 
M. de Pohgnac made it the basis of liia foreimi |x>hcy. 

Thua a gceat diplomatic change hi the world was m preparation 
in 1830. It was m contemplation to rcannex the Rliine to France* 

Negotiations had begun on this subject between the cabinet of St. 
Petersburg and that of the Tuileries. The following weie to have 
been its bases : 

France and Russia contracted a close alliance specially directed 
against England. France resumed the Rhenine pro^Tuccf. IlaDOTC-r, 
wrested ùom Great Britain, was to be divided into two porta, the 
one destined to indemnily Holland, the other to be given a& a bonuâ 
to Pruaaia, whose territory was further to he augmented by the ad- 
dition of a part of Saxony to the Prusàan provinces of Silesia. The 
King; of Saxony was to be corapcnsatcd at the expense of Poland. 
To Austria were secured Servia, a part of Dalmatia not in her pos- 
session, and one of the two hunks uf the Danube, Kussia, mistireaB 
of the oppoate bank, wotdd have the dominion of the Black Sea, and 
seat heradf in ConstandnoplE^ whence she might at her leimire invade 

Since the dme of Peter I. Russia, it is well known, had never 
ceased to covet posscsaiou of the Eosphoru^, and her ambition had 
been but too well Hecondod by the mistakes and the delusioua of 
France and England. Tlic battle of Navarino had taken place solely 
for her advantage. She had followed up its consequences with a 
vigour that threatened ncuschicf to French interests, but which France 
nevertheless appkudcd. But Russia did not intend to Êiop even at 
the treaty of Adrianople. 

Mahmoud liad attempted the reform of his empire. A vain at- 
tempt! Tlic strength of races lies in their originaUty. Midnnoud, by 
breaking up ihe old traditions» enervated his people, witliout infiiang 
freâh youin into them; and tlie c^ithaustton of the once so vigorous 
race of the Qgmanlifl was itself but a symptom of the de^y of 

Already the dogma of fatalism, admitted by the East, had given 
euic âgns of its ousostrous inilui^nce. Condcnmcd by that dogma 
to remain motionless whilst the opposite dogma of human hbcrty 
breathed irresistible energies into tlie nations of the West, the East 



AWJIEB8. ' 7S 

KJuiwO to ask again of Europe the life it had formerly bestowed 
upon her^ and it presented itself as a ricL and limitless domain, but 
uncultivated and without poëscssors. 

To invito Kuaoa tbithci, was to put the whole futuie into hec 

Aa for France» the revolution of 1789 had rendered her cssendallv 
a land of tmdei and had given her new geuiuâ tlic wings of competi- 
tion: conHcqiicntly» she coiikl tkencofortb contract only continental 
alliances. Foi^ to provide a constantly expanding niaj-ket for a 
constantly increasing production, to hasten from factoiy to Jactory, 
to procure customers^ to obtain dominion of the seas, m a word, to 
follow the path which the genius of Britain had pursued, such 
were the necessities of ilic situation in which she had been placed 
by the triumph of the hourgeoiàe. In renouncing therefore all 
oILiattcc with England, she did but obey the laws of an inevitable 
nvalzj: she renounced an impossibility. 

But was France on the Khine a suflicicnt equivjdcnt for Rufsia in 
Constantinople? Was it worthy of a people like oura to abandon to a 
people newly come into Europe, and sdU semi-barboiian, the care of 
the al&ixs oi the world» and the régulation of the universal deatimea? 
Wm it fit that French activity «hould bo shut out £rom the Ëeld diat 
oBcmed opened to it by the îmincuËe void made in the East? Waa 
weh an issue too greut for that expanâvc force which^ under the 
republic, had exploded in immortal caUuitrophcif, and in prodigioua 
conquostâ under the empire? Set lius&ifit on the road to India, and 
migEt it not one day take the place of Ei^land, even as a maritime 
power, and cause us mortal anr^Ii ? The Reatoratâon looked neither 
so high, nor so iar ahead. The trcatit^ of 1815 had left burning 
traces in the heurta of Frenchmen, and these, it was hoped, would bo 
cfiaoed by the recovery oi" the Rhine ag the Ironticr of France. 

In llus state of tlunga an impoi-tant resolution was adopted by 
Charles X. and his mimaters. Xbo f=lap with the fan given by the 
Dey of Algiers to the consul of Fiance hod asyet remained uapumâhed. 
ïlncouragcd by the weakness laanUcsted in the Fraicli government 
by tliree years of ineffectual blockade, the Dcy of Al|jicrg bad caused 
tfie vcescl of an envoy sailin^^ under a ihig of truce to be llred on, and 
^■d forced our consul at Tripoh to quit lus post precipitately. Where 
^^ ^ thiGte outragea lo stopf How long was Lmpumty to laet? An 
; against the African piiatca was resolved on. 
. Btrongly approved of this project. She was well pleased to 
8GG Franco encamped on the AJjiean shore of tlie Mediterranean, 
bocauac th^re she might keep in check the maritime sovereignty of 
End^idin thoec lutitudca, 

Whilo these things were in hand, two men of adventurous spirit, 

^MM. Drovette and Lcveron, arrived in Fana. They preotai ted them- 

M^ves to the ministers of Charles X. as envoys from Mohammed Ali. 

The Pacha of Egypt^ they Baïd, was ready to ftiU upon the pirate, 



storra their lair, and avenge on their leader the insult ofiered to 

Tlieso singular overtures, vçhememtly rcÉÔf^led by MM- de Bour- 
mont, minister of war, d'Hauseez, miniater of marine, de Guomon- 
Runville, and Coiir^'oisier, were received by the Prince do Poliffnac 
on the cjntritry, with the most cordial alùcnty. He induced the king 
to approve thetn, and a trtrnty was concluded without consulting the 
council. ItcoutaiuLHl stranijc stipidations: France engaged to furnish 
to Mohammed Ali ten miUions, means of transport, and four ships 
of the line officered by Frenchmen. 

On reading this treaty concluded without their partidpation^ the 
ministère cif irar and iiiaiine were eXcecdJpg:ly irritated. They left 
nothinpf undone to throw impedimenta in the way of its execution, 
determining to resign, shoula their efforts ultimately be unjivailing. 
But the reugious scruples of the king promised them an easy victory. 
M. de Bounnont eaid that, for his part, he could never briog himself 
to make Chri-^tinn ofticei-fl serve under the orders of ft Mussuhnan. 
Ghorlea X. \v:t- -i il^l'^i.tcJ; tlic appeal was one ha could not wdth- 
rtand; luad the treaty was revoked, 

Mohammed Ali, who had already received intimation of it» 
though not officially, displayed no irritation at ihc brcalcing off of 
lh*i ncgotiiition. He even disavowed all that had been proposed in 
hia nante ; ajid in confirmation, of his disarowalj he stated that he 
bad, as duly bound, demanded a Ërmaii front the Sultan to authorize 
the steps he bad intended to take, and that it was rpfiiaod him. 
Then, and not till then, it waa deternuncd that France should arm 
in her own qnarrel- 

EngLind immediately felt all her old grudges revived. She as- 
autned by turns &n air of surprise and of indignation. She de- 
manded explanation», uttered complaints, and threw out threats. 

The French goveranaenl was neither alarmed nor affected by her 
rccmoustraaccs. It wa« assured of the support of Russia. Austria, 
and Prussia were favourable to it; iJl the petty powers of Italy ap- 
proved of (he design of clcarinj: the MediteiTanean of the piratea 
that inïested it. Tlic King of Surdinia beheld in the cnteiprisc the 
cmancijmdon of his subjects' cotumeroe. Holland had not forgotten 
that, in 1808» M. Fraiasinet, her consul at Algiers, hud been inao- 
lently sent to the chain by order of the Dcy, for ft slight delny in 
the payment of the accustomed tribute. Spain alone seemed un- 
easy at the |)ossible o^grandi renient of our power, which wag about 
to approach her chores. Jiut there was nothing to fear from Spain : 
her diplomatic reatli had never ceased to growlesp and leas sisce th« 
day ^'licii Cluirlcs V. had buried himaclf alive in the mtoiasteiy of 
St' Just, 

Charloii X. hud, moreover, an urgent interest in reàsting the in- 
junction» of Kngland, lltere was no didicnlt}' in bringing \nm to 
undazBtand that ihu cmbamaBmenta of his domestic pobcy callod 




ibr SOXÛG brilliunt diversion; that monnrcby, wliicli was hpg inm' ng 
to rci'I under the rciteiutud blows ot' liberalism, required to be de- 
fended with tKç ardour of pftssion; fmd that the érlnt of rcccjit 
canquest would render an attempt on public liberty it less porUoiia 

Monarcliy had, in fact, placed itself in a forced and desperate 
situation in France, There aubâsted continually between tbe ])ower 
of the tlnff and tliat of !hc assembly that inevitable and terrible 
struggle wliiclî had terminated fatally for Louis XVI. on ihc lOth 
of Auffust, and for Napoleon on the day after the battle of Water- 
loo. Fifteen years ol" varied expérimenta bad in no wise altered 
this neccsBury ajitag&nisin between the tivo powers. On the 2d of 
Mâich, Charles X- addressed the nowly-eonvoked chamber in the 
words WÇ have elsewhere cited;" and they "wcre answered in the 
mcraorahle uddtesa signed by 221 deputies. The chamber was 

Immeiliatc dissolution had been talked of at first. This -was the 
advice of M. de Montbel, ■who would have had the onlonniince to 
that effect followed by a proclamation, addroisacd in the king's name 
to the electors, M. dc Guenion RanvîUe vigorously opposetl this 
miggestion^ urging that to make the king thus personally engage in 
the eôtiûiet of parties would be seriously to compromise the majesty 
of tlu.* crown; and that defeat in that ease woixld be a deathblow 
to the monarclûcal principle- M. do Montbel appeared to count 
much on the aflcction of the French for Charles A. M. de Guemon 
RanriUe did not hesitate to declare, in the monarch's presence, that 
hiâ colleagues LibouTcd under a profound error in that respect. " The 
French," he eaiJ, " have eeafen Uy Icve their kings. Do you not 
«ee proof of this In the implacable hatred tJiat chnes to men merit- 
ing and possesring the hiL^hcst consideration, irom the moment they 
have been honoured by the choice of the crown?'' Charles X. was 
not otl'ended at Û\is blunt eimdour. The idt^ of immediately dis- 
■olvin^ the chamber was abandoned. But things were at such a 
pUA, that Cliarles X. liad no other alternative to fall back upon 
than dictatorship. 

In truth, what otlier ifsue was left the crown? Was it pebble 
for Clntrles X. to foi^et tlie leswn eilently inculcated upon him by 
the lunereal monument erected in front of his palace? Had con- 
oetfiioBs saved Louis X VL? He too, finding himself menaced, had 
bMakenhim to retreating; he had retreated as far as die Place 
Louts XV".| and beyond mat spot he could t^treat no farl]ier, for 
he was stopped by the hand m the executioner. 

Charlôâ X. might have abdicated, he might have decUired royalty 
aholiahed in France; but what other kind oi' moderation was poea- 
blc in his pontion? Conoeaéona would only have had the effect of 

* IntrodncUooa, p. 6?. 


brineînp liïm, at a future day, to thq alternative of abdicating or of 
tuaking hiraself despotic. 

No matter for tliat. To sacrifice ttic nation to this obstinate duej 
between two irreconcilable powers, to strive for the overthrow of all 
the principles nchievcci by so many years of revalution, without any 
other excuse tlmn tlic impossibility of upholding monarchy agmnat 
the force <if cireumstAncea, tlU3 was û crime aguinat the people aïid 
Bgaingt God. 

Even though it were true that Charles X, aneercly believed him- 
fieli' right in daring all extremes far the safety of nia crown, still 
there was one damning defect in his plea bcfoTe the bar of history 
' — he did not take personally upon his own K«ul the dangers of tlûa 
revolution he brought about. Since be would neither lower ïàa 
throne nor descend from it, he should have died on it. 

But Chailea X. was below the level of his destiny as well by his 
virtues as by his defects. Full of good failh and loyalty, of gra- 
ciousne^fl and courtesy, true to the tiea of friendship, faithful to hia 
oaths, lie bad all the qualities of a chevalier, save only entliu^asm 
and courage. Yet there was something so roynl in nis mannors, 
that in spite of his faint-heartedncas, he disarmed scom even in a 
land of wamors. With these qualîticà he might, perhaps, have 
Iwen equal to the requirements of hia part, if instead of being ob- 
^ged to cany the monarchy on bis shoulders, ho had been, like bis 
fltnoestDrs^ upheld and carried by it. Louia XVIli. had contrived 
to die in his bed only by making his reign one long abdication of 
realty. Charles X. had groaned in his heart over the dclHiscmeiit 
of his brother, seeing, as he did, all that Louis had debased around 
hba. He hoped to reoonstnict what had been destroyed, and to 
raise np what had been cast down: that is to say, to emancipate the 
crown, in the teeth of parlJaraentarians impatient of sway; to re^dve 
the authority of the church among a people who had eunered thcm- 
aelres to be made partakers in the celctration of atheism; to re- 
«Mfiah the prestige of royalty in a country where a king had died 
ÎBrtiie common thorouglifarc, with His hands bound beKind his back; 
to resugicitate the empire of etiquette in a nation fond, if not of 
eqnnlitV) at leftst of its forms and its lies. The task was immense; 
it woiJri liave exhausted all the genius of a great mim; it did not 
astound Cliarles X. It i? true that he knew not its vastncea; he 
was surrmmdcd by priests; and, from ihe day when, expiating the 
licentious pleasures of lus youth, he bad taken the communion with 
thf? half oi" the consecrated wafer picflented to the dying lip« of the 
Marchioness de Polastron, his piety had assumed a highwrought jmd 
melauihrtly c:ist, but it was not the less a cofflmonplace piety, without 
depth, ^nthout compaas^ and one which assured tkllen Catholicism a 
sort of protection more stately than heroic. He clung to old no- 
tions, hut it was for want of intellect to judge them, and of strcngtli 
of mind to âbakc them off. He strove for the aggrandizement of 



his pôTîor, but that much more for the purpose of making gCMjd ita 
prÎDciplo than of extending its practical application. I^ittle minds 
oeLight in the majesty of command, its might ia striven for by manly 
soxds alone. Despotism has its gloiy» Hnce it has its storms. 
Clutrluâ X. waa not even capable of rising to the force of tyranny. 
He used often to say, " You might bray all tlie princra of the house 
of Bourbon in a mortar, and not extract trnm them a single grain 
of tyiwnny." Ho spoke truly. That dictatotud authority i^cll 
oth«T8 would have striven for, from excess of activity or of volition, 
he coveted only from indolence. His humanity was not less than his 
mediijcrity; ajid if he desired that his power might be abflolute, it 
WM l4mt he might be sjjared the pain of making it violent. For 
in Mn there vas nothing ençrgctlct not even his bigotry, nothing 
greftt. Dot even his pride. 

Be this 05 it may, Charles X. had taken his rcsolntioD, and in hia 
thoughts the war of Altera became every ilay more and mote part 
and parcel of the measures ivhich^ as he pupposcd» wefc to put roy- 
alty beyond the reach of its foes. The rcmonstrïmces of England 
■were, therefore, sUglitcd. Hence a ministerial despatch, addrcâscd, 
March I2th, to M. de Laval, then our ambassador m London. 

ïliat despatch waa drawn up in terms of studied obscurity. Afiei 
fltying tliat the purpose of the expedition had, at first, been to ro- 
Tenge tJic insidt oficred to France, M. de Folignac talked of ikn 
Itkorv extended development which circumstances had subsequently 
given to Ûic king's projects. 

But what did thc^c anjb^:uoi;s words wgnify? Lord Stuart yres 
directed by the Earl of Abndceti to obtain a loss vague reply. 

Those instnictious, dated May 3d„ cftUed forth a second despatch, 
which repliod in these terms to the urgent inquiries of Et^land : 

"'Die fang, no longer limititig his design to the obtaming re- 
pamtinn for the griefs of France îudividuaïly, has resolved to mftkû 
the expedition prepared by hîs oidcra subservient to Uie advantage 
of all Chriî^tcndom, and lie has set betbre him as the aim, and aa 

; reward of his eObrts, the définitive destruction of piracy, the 

olutc abolition of Christian ^vcry, and the aboliluon of tho txi^ 
lote paid by the Christian powers to the regency," 

AiK^heT despatch, dated May 1 2tb, stated that the king would not 
lay down his arms tiU he liud attained the twofold end ho had pro^ 
poaed to himaoU^ — namely, rcpamtioii of the wrongs that had been 
the immediate cause of hostilities, and, secondly, the triumph of the 
common interests of all Christendom. £ut did France mtend to 
OOCupy -'Vlgiers, on her own account, and to form a permanent eeta- 
~*^*ment there? This was what England above oil desired to 
r, and on this point the cabinet of the Tuileries maintained ad 
abeolute reserve. 

The attitude asmiaed by the French ministers created deep im- 
tntioTi in England. In Paris, Lord Stuart endeavoured, la succemve 
semi-official interviews, to intimidate M. d'Haussez, the m i nis ter 


of marine^ and M. de Polignac, the president of thp coundl. The 
former repulsed tUc arrogant overtures of the English amb[t«!Hdor 
witli much vehamcnce,* the latter met them with cold and con- 
IcmptuoiiB politeness- Though EnghsL in his habits» by his per- 
Kinnl iHeni^hips, by the Tecollcctions of his youth passed in Lon- 
don, in his nmnners, and even in his dress, M. de Poliffnac was, HA 
u politician, entirely devoted to the system of the Russiiui aïliancc. 

The die tlien was cjist; the preparations for waa- were entered on 
viith spirit; the huid arîuy was rapidly organized; and the workmen 
in ail the ports of the kingdom were put on double work and double 

Tlie liberals had mimnwhile taken ahum. Convinced that there 
^vafl some mischievous! desljçn at tlie bottom of this tit of mihtary 
zeal affected by royalty, they sug"gestcd doubts as to the reMill of the 
war, exaggerating obstacles, conjuring up insurmoujitiible obstaolcs, 
and doing every thing that was possible to dishearten the public 
The Journal des Débats was especially inveterate in its oppoatioii to 
the warlike policy of the cabinet. 

M. de. BoLurinont, the minister of war^ was beset with the blackest 
prophecies of disMter, with the view of shaking his confidents. 
Water, he was positively ii^ureJ, was wanting in the environs 
of Algier»; there wi^ no wood to be found there for making 
tiscines; the array would be destroyed without ever having had sn 
opportunity to fight. There was then in Patis one who had formerly 
bceu taken prisoner by the Algerines, and forced to eerve for a while 
on board a corsaii- in the capacity of interpreter. This was M. Arago. 
Being quQgtiom'd by the minipter of war, he replied that the environa 
of Algiers would furnish wood and water in abundance, 

liut the admiralg, on their pjirt^ declared the disembarkation, im- 
possible, and they irritated, without disconcerting, tlie inexperience 
of the minister of ma.rinc. 

M. d'Haussez resolved, in tliis emergency, lo consult tiie captains 
of vea&ejg, who, having been employed in the blockade of Algiers, 
were competent to give exact icdormation on the point in qucErtion. 
TliD two captains, MM, Gay dc Taradcl and Dupetit Thouars» al- 
Drmod that Uie disembarkation of the troops was not only practicable, 
but Cïisy; and supported by tlicir opinion, M. d'Hausscz summoned 
the odmii'als before him. 

M. Rougidn was the only one among them who had not yet very 
catc'gorioally dcclaTed liia opinion. When it was his turn to speak, 
he sided with his cumpanions, and argued ag^nst the projected ex- 
pedition on nautical grounds. Upon this the minifter of marino 
drew A paper from his pocket, and smd, ** I regret^ sir, tliat au<?h ttre 

* la & ronrcriaUoo Iw hftd witli thc> r^TiirUah [Uti1in5ftiw]ar, M. 'dTtnussos, nrllted 
ty the per«tjiiitui7 tooc ainniwd by Lonl Stuart, BuiftTcd tbesc irorda to mc»ik." him; 
•■If j-on viint 0. dipIrtniiiLtlc rï-ptj-, ilie pn-sidcnl of the couuci! wili (çîtc it to joa. 
For my pnrt I toEl ynti, «tTtinff mMc the IfiTijçwigç of offlciat intercourK-, n-c d<»!it 
care » dmnn (or you!" (Sum nmu ife voum.) 



your con\nctaoDa; for I hold in my liand the conimisson appomling 
'you vicc-aclmîral^ and giving you the command of the fleef." So 
saj^ng, Baron d'Hauswz tore up the paper. His rf?9olutiûn was 
imaltCTably taken. ^* To find a commander for the fleet, the kingj" 
he said, " ia resolved, should the admirals hang back, to go down to 
a captain of a bri^, ay, to a midshipman, if necessary." 

A eecond meeting took place at Prince FoUgnac'a. The expcdi- 
tioiir against whicli Admiral Jacob had prepared a written speech, 
vu supported only by MM- de Taradel, Dupetit Thouars, and Va- 
lazé. " I am no seaman," said General Valaze, '* but 1 do not find 
that at any period of history enterprises of ivar, such as that pro- 
posed, have tiùled through the irnpossibility of disembarfcing. Have 
nautical tactics made no progress: Will any one assert tkia :*" These 
views, «9 \ras natural, were approved by tlie council. 

But to whom was the fleet to be intrusted? General Bourmont^ 
who had the command of the land farcea, recommended to M, 
d'HflUssez Admiral Duperrt^, then maritime prefect at Brest. 
Admiral Duperrv had at first no objection to suggest. 
But on the tbllowing day he Appeared to have lust all confidence, 
whether he had yielded to inâuenccs, of whose nature he had no 
very definite eonsciousnesa, or tlmt n closer examination of the en* 
tcrprtSG had made him better acquainted with its difficulties and 
dangen. Nevertheless, he accepted the command offered him; but, 
aa hia deportment and big conuexiona occasioned ministers some dis- 
trust, General Bourmont was secretly provided with a royal ordon* 
giving him plenary authority ever the forces both by land 
i sea. 

[he expedition was 6ttcd out on a magnificent scale. The army, 
"flôhsisting of three divisions, commanded by Lieutenant-gcnorals ' 
Berthezènc, Loverdo, and d'Escars, amounted to more than thir^- 
eeven thou^ad men» including a regiment of chasseurs, and a de- 
tachment of engineers under the orders of Baron Valazé. The fleet 
comprised one himdred and three men-of-war, having on board 
twenty-sercn thoueand men, three hundred and thirty -sei,'en trans- 
ports, and about two hundred and twenty-five boats or rafts. Eng- 
land having held out threats, mcapurc? had been taken to repel her 
attack? with vigour, should the case require it. The eailors evinced 
the hvehcst flidour: the admiral who commanded them was hra'vc 
and «sqwrienced. Tlio fortune of France was reUed on for the rest. 
All that England attempted was this: Tlie porte, at her instiga* 
lions» «xercising in right of nizertumy, resolved to Ëond a pacha to 
Alg^en wi^ orders to kisc the dey, have him strangled, and oiler 
Franoe every stlisfuction pbe could require. In Uns way all pretext 
for the expedition would have been precluded, Tahur Pïicha eet 
out accordingly for Alters in a vessel furnished by the Engliah. 
But the minjster of manne, having received timely intimation, had 
^voi ordetB to the French cruiscTB to forbid the pacha's entering the 






port- Tlïo frigûtc in wliJcU he sailed, httTmg met a small vessel 
commanded by Midshipmiui Dubniel, that iiitrepi4l officer resolutely 
declared that tlie frigate should not pssa till it had sunk him. Xahir 
Pacha durst not puwue his voyt^e ; the French fleet came up with 
Jiim , and he was Bent to Toulon. That ^as all tlmt come of the thicfttfi 
held out hy the court of St. Jame5*s. 

Oo the 16th of May, the day fijced for the sailing of Ûi6 £ect 
from Toulon^ the chamber, -whicli had been but prorogued, was dis- 
solved. A collision was becoming more and more certain; and two 
of the minister^, who foresaw wliat would be itsr^ult, retired: these 
vfçrc MM. de Chabrol and Coun'oiàer. It was necessary to replace 
diem. Now M. de Chautekuae had some time previously been re- 
commended to llic king as a man of capacity and determination, en- 
tirely devoted to the interests of the monarchy. The dauphin, on 
hi* return from Toulon, and hefore he reached Paris, had had a 
senous conversation with Itim, and had pressed him^ strongly to take 
office. M. dc CKantelauzc consented on two conditions, first that 
application should he inadc of the fourteenth article of the charter, 
and secondly that M- dc Feyronnet should have a scat in the coimcil. 
Tlie ministry of the interior was accordin^ily oflered to M. de Pey- 
JTonnet, and when the Prince de Polignac said to him, " You undcr- 
6tand that we intend to nutke oppUaition of the fourteenth sxticlei" 
M, de Pejronnet answered, " That is my own view of the case." 

M. Capelle, who had acquired a reputiitiou for great dexterity in 
clectionecnug matters, was also called to the council; &nd as there 
"Was no poTtefcuiUe vacant, a miniâtiy of pubhc works was crcaud 
ex^essly for him. 

Tlic court waa evidently advanûng to an ISth Brumaire. Tlie 
bourgeoisie trembled at the mere idea of a lO/A of Augvtst. The 
HberaLs menaced by tbes& two ahapes of revolution, both of which 
they equally dreaded, sought safety in the electoral privilege they 
«ayoyed ; they armed themselves with the sanction of the law, they 
invoked the charter» and, in a word, they displayed all that feveiim 
Tiolenee that springs from intense alarm. A^dociations were every- 
where formed for the refusal of taxes. Electoral committees had 
[^■Jnen i^tablisihod in Paris \ and circulars were i^ucd zcatooâly iccom- 
iMendiug the electors the iaetiçâ of holding ovations. Tbe better to 
kindle public spirit a banquet was given in Paris to more than 60O 
electors; tlie feâtive hall was r^bolicaHy decomted with 221 
tro^Tis ; and the gpcech delivered on the occasion by M. Odiloa 
BaiTut rendered a common homage to the king and to the law. 

For it is to be remarked, that, in the opiuion of the libeiala the 
throne remained aloft in a serener region, above aU the pasaing 
Bltjnns of faction. There had been a very keen discussion in the 
Aide-ioi Society, of which M. Odilon fiarrot was ft member, a» to 
vhcther the long's health should be drunk in the banquet at the 
ykmlanjfct fie Bourgogne* But those whose hatred extended to the 



monarck himself^ as vfeW as to Wis ministère, were in the minority, 
and were foroi*! to yîelJ., The liberals assembled at the V'etidttti^es 
de Bo*tr^ognû dfAtiK the kËoith of Charles X. 

Anil in doing this they were not at variance with the eentiBûents 
of the 221, whosjc liews were cicarly îtwuiiiestod in these words of 
M. Dupin *'m«i, "•* ITic fuadamentûl basis of the address is a pro- 
fbuiiii iT-âpect for the person of the king ; it expresses veneration in 
the lughcst degree fcr the ancient Bourbon race ; it holds up lesiii- 
MAATf not only as a lefi;al truth, but as a eocial necessity, whidi ia 
conlesscd by all right-tninking men in tlic present day as the result 
of experience and conviction." 

Tlio few partisaiM of the Duke of Orleans had need therefore of 
some Etnking circumstance to put the French in mind of liim. The 
arrival of the king and queen of Kaples created tliat circumstance, 
and advantage was tûken of ÎL 

At nine o'clock in the evening of the 3 let of May, the Palais 
Royal waa in a blazt- of light. Kumcrous rows of oran^-tteea em- 
balincd the goilericF around it, and the garden, pTiciouely thrown 
open to the crowd, was thronged with thousands of epcctators. 

To this ^Icndid fete, in which were to figure the élite of the 
bourgeoisie, m the persons of a great number oi men famous for their 
opposition to the courts the Due d'Orl<jûnfl had invited all the royal 
iiimil V and the whole court. Charlo X-, whom the duke's osîidiûttes, 
apd Iiîs almost obsequious demonstrations of deference and respect 
httd always rendered averse to listen to the suspicions gatheHng in 
the minds of the courtiers, Charles X. accepted the invitation of 
the son of Philippe Egalité. But certain high personages murmured 
against this proceeding, which they affected to consider as a dere- 
liftion of etiquette. 

Tlie Due d'Orléans having had intimation of the king's approach, 
Jwatuncd with hig family lo receive hîa majesty at the foot of th^3 
■tftircase, and bowing low, he testilied to his SMjvereign in expres- 
«Te term» all the gratitude he felt at the signal honour conferred 
upon him. 

The ftte was royally sutnptuonts. ITirce thousand persons were 
aaserablcd in the magnificently decorated apartments. And now 
every mind was given up to pleasure, "whpn suddenly a loud noise 
ms hard from that same ganlcai whence formi_Tly Saint Huru- 
cifcw had set» out for Vereailies at the heatl of the infuriated mob, 
By wlum ivere done the deeds of the âth and 6th of October. 
AH was flutter and eonfusion in the saloons. Flames were rising 
in the garden at the foot of the statue of Ajif^llo. Lampions filled 
with «caldiog oil were flying about, flung by unknown hands. Wo- 
raesB weie ruling trom the scene with Ehrîekî^ of terror. At this 
spêctaclie the enemies of the Due d'Orléans, invited to his f&te, ex- 
CiiAUgpd looks of surprise. Strange tales were whippcrcd about : it 
wu aûd, that that very morning the prefect of police hod waited on 
the duke to obtain permiâ^ion to post some soldiers in idie garden, to 



pievcnt any possiblo disorder, .ind that liis request had been refused. 
Looks of keen inquiry were bent on the prince, who, surrounded by 
u. numcrouf group, appeared to speak with great vehemence of tone 
Mad gesture. 

Order vrna speedily restored : troops, assembled beforehand in the 
nrighbourhood, were summoned ; and tlie bail ended without any 
other accident. But when men's minds arc in a state of indecision, 
to Fuggcst to them an aim and purpose, and to give them sometliing 
to wish, is to create a force. A candidatesliip had been set up amidst 
the tumult of a i&te. 

Anxious lorcbodÎDga absorbed eveir thondit of the publie mind, 
when a hundred cannon-shots resounded in Paris. Baron d'HauEsex 
instimtly ran to the king, with a heart big with emotion and a face 
beaming with delisht. Charles X, advanced to meet him with out- 
stretched arms, and whcQ tho minister bent to kisa the monarch'^ 
luiad, " No, no," Charles cordially exclaimed, *' tikis day we all em- 
"bracc." Algiers belonged to France. 

Tlie unbounded cnthuaaera of the eoiut at Ûâs great news wm 
displayed in exaggerating its importance* TTie liberals evinced 
but a dubious joy, and hardly could the chief leaders of the bour- 
geoisie dissemble the bitterness of their feelings. By a deplorable 
offect of the impious excesses of imrty rancouri the conquests achieved 
by a French army saddened half France, The national honouf 
had ri8;n; the funds fell: they had gone up the day newa arrived 
in Paris of the disaster of Waterloo! 

Men's passions then, instead of growing calm, became more heated 
than ever. The liberal papers had revived one of the most painful 
reminiscences of a period imitful in perfidies^ to overwhelm M. de 
Bourmant with its weight; and they strove to make all the glory of 
the expedition devolve on Admiral DupeiTé. 

The royalists, in their turn, uttered bitter, though not very loud, 
complaints against the admiral, *' The departure of the fleet/' they 
faidamonp themselves, " Imd been fixed for the I6th of May: why 
did tile ndmirul postpone it without any plausible pretext tiïl thfi 
25th? And when the Hect was within but five or six Iconics of 
Cape Cftxlne on the morning of the SOlh, why did he carry it back 
into the bay of Pahna, in epite of General BourmontV remonstrances, 
and when there was nothing in the nature of tlte wind to justify hia 
fudden determination? And then why did he not display more fore- 
thoueht? Ought he not, in any case, to have fixed and nollticd to tho 
«j|uaorons a ndlyin'T-poini where they should rendeyvoug, in case they 
ehould be dispersed? Hiid he done so, the Mediterranean would 
not have seen many of our vessels cruislng at omdom over its waters, 
and the fleet would not have recjuircd eight days to reassemble in 
the bay of Palimi. Nor ia this uU. Wliose fault was it that after 
the djscmbiu-kation the zeal of our troops was baffled by the want -of 
means of tran«poit? Had it not been for the delay of the transporte 
conveying the artillery horses, the heavy guoF, Utod the material for 


besieging, tKe battle of Staouëli would not have taken place, per- 
ham, and we should have achieved a more rapid conquest at the cost 
of leas blood." Some persona alleged, on the authority of private 
letters, that during the siege of the Chateau de VEmpereur the fleet 
had taken up its position beyond the range of cannon-shot, and had 
but veij imperfectly seconded due efforts of the land force. These 
accusations open to suspicion as they were, when proceeding from 
the Hp8 of political adversaries, were aimed not so much at the ad- 
miral as at uiose to whose influence he was supposed accessible. Be 
this as it may, Baron d'Haussez demanded that M. Duperre should 
be brought before a council of war: but, not content with formally 
refusing this, Charles X. elevated the admiral to the peerage. The 
liberals cried out at this, sapng that the title of peer was not equi* 
valent to the dignity of marshal of Fiance granted to M. de 

The Te Dettm sungfor the victory was lost in these clamours of 
conflicting parties. They were so loud that little notice was taken 
of the financial report, in which M. de Chabrol announced a surplus 
revenue of three millions for the year 1831. 

If the policy of the Folignac amninistration had not been wanting 
in vigour, when the conquest of Algiers was in contemplation, its 
views, when the time came to turn that conquest to account, were 
completely destitute of boldness and of comprehensiveness. According 
to the opinion that seemed to prevail in the council, France was to 
content herself with razing the town of Algiers, and occupying Oran 
as a military, and Bona as a commercial position. M. de Bourmont 
accordingly received orders to shut himself up provisionally in Al- 
giers. His expedition against Blida exceeded the limits of his com- 
mission, and was disapproved by the court as an infraction of mili- 
tary discipline. From conquerors of Airica we were becoming in 
some sort gate-keepers of the Mediterranean. The potency of the 
means was lost to view in the futiUty of the result. But the aboli- 
tion of piracy and the deliverance of Christendom from an ignomi- 
nious tnbute, were enough to satisfy Charles X., his devotion having 
no need of the conquest of a world. 

Meanwhile, low rumours were beginning to spread. Was it 
true that a coalman, speaking in the name of the market porters, 
and of the workmen of the port, had said to the king, " Sue, the 
coalman is master in his own house; be master in yours"? The 
courtiers affirmed ih&t it was so, and made emphatic comments on 
the phrase ; whilst the writers of the bourgeoisie, at the same time 
that they denied the fact, dwelt strongly on the gross and stolid ig- 
norance of the working classes, and on the dangers of their alliance, 
and vehemently denounced the artifice that lurked in the demagogue 
airs played off by royalty. 

See, for instance, wmit was said, on the 22d of July, 1830, by 
the National, a journal established on behalf of the iatercsta of the 
house of Orleans: " A jounud which does not poeseas the full ooo* 



fideûcû of tlio miniatry, but which is fully identified with it in feel- 
ing, exclaims^ apropos to au opinion put forth by us some dajs î^o, 
' Sabots aad spades arc not to their taste, but they have no objec- 
tiQ» to jmteQts. W^hat ! arc patents supenor to sahots f Do rhey 
mean to aasert tliis?' Here ia something atill more characteristic 
of the desperate pt^sition of your eoimter-revolutlonists, than 
the story of the oratorical coalman. When people have put them- 
selves in opposition to the public spirit of a couutry, wlien they 
cannot come to a mutual understanoing, cither with the chamber^ 
that represent that Bpirit legally, ot with the no less legal orgina 
furnished it by the presa, or i^th the independent maeistracy^ which 
I takes ita rule and ita sanction from the law alone, they must then 
[perforce find them in the nation, another nation than that which 
[ïcuda the joumab, which listens with tindling feehnga to the de- 
|bute5 of the chambers, which disposes of cûpituî, commands trade, 
Rftnd possesses the BoiL They must descend into those lower stmta 
\ of the population where opinion is not encountei-ed, where there is 
I found scarcely any poïiticûldiaceramcnt, and where ffwarm thousands 
of beings, good^ honest, simple^ but easily deceived and easily exaape- 
Liated, living from hand to mouth, and who, ^rucgling every hour 
[ of their exiâtence against want, have neither the tunc nor the repose 
of body and mind necessary to enable them somc(irac& t-o give a thought 
I to the manner in which the country is govcj-ned. Such is the 
nation with which your countcT-revoJuiioiiists would fain surround 
^ the throne. And m truth, when you resolve to have nothing more 
to do with the laws, you have nothing left you but to throw your- 
selves uDon the nopulttce." 

We aWl eeehow those who treated the populace with so much 
disdain, made uw ufit three days after the publication of tliia article. 
The fliiBolution of the chamber had occasioned new elections. 
Tlierein wsia to be the triumph of the liberals; therein likewise was 
, their danger. Royalty had resolved to stir up the popular rage 
I «gainst ihem : it set its writers upon crying up universal suflra^ in 
op|X)sition to that eleciave power which was a weapon against it in 
the liandg of the liberals. Some of ils ûgentê visîtetl the towns of 
the South, and endeavoured to get up factitious disturbances there. 
At Montauban, M. de Preissac, the deputy returned by the bntir- 
geoisie, was assailed hi hia house by » ferocious gang» who called for 
li* hea!d with shouts of Vive ie jRai! The leaders of the liberal party» 
exaggeiated these acts of violence^ not reflecting that by so doing 
they were driving over all timid persona to the ranks of their oppo- 
nents* party. 

Mysterious tires bad broken out in Normandy. These calamities, 
occasioned by accident or by private raahce, were soon interpreted by 
puiBnon as proofs of atrocious schemes on tlie portof govcJiiment, asex- 
perimentg in the way of monarddcal terroriam. People calle»! lo mind 
thoiwrrfffs; they talked uneasily i» their family circles of thesc<^ne9 
-which had drenched the Soutii with blood in 1815. Alarm then 



redoubled} and several of tlie wcaltliy agitators began, to repent of 
the courec they bad pursued. 

The health of the old monarchy wluch had visibly and rapidly de- 
dmed of late years, seemed all at once to revive. He appeared brisk 
•ndtnumphimt.thouf^h there ^vaaU(Jp^eciselynccountillwfo^thGnatuTo 
ofthe influences that had suddenly refilled the almost ei^usted foun- 
tftias of his life- Again, the uphftcd boating ofthe prime imnister; 
tlie lŒcrvcd air of hig coUongues ; the redoubled arrogance ofthe conr- 
tiet8;*.fewi!icautiouswordsstealt]iilynoted,andpropagatedby fear;the 
language ofthe public printa more impasEÎoncd than ever ; all this gave 
scope to gloomy conjectures: suspende and expectation were intense. 
Many of the liberal party foresaw «■ coup d'etat, but except eorae 
Toung men who toolc their clesires for sagacious foretJioiight^ no one 
imagmed that a speedy involution was to issue &om that coup tTétat. 
On the 22d of July M, Oddon Barrot said to two of the boldest 
members ofthe Aide-toi Society, " You have fiôth in an insurrection 
in the etrects? Good Godl if a coup d'état were made, and you were 
beaten^ you would be dragged to the scaffold, and the people would 
look on. quietly »3 you paased." Thei political chiefs of the bour- 
jgieoiâe did not calculate on the armed protection ofthe multitude^ to 
say nothing of the uncontrollable violence they imagined to be in- 
TMTed in the idea of such s protection. 

The bourgeoisie had too much to lose at that time to encounter 
the haauds of a revolution. It was in the enjoyment of all the 
TcaoDlCflaof credit; the bulk of capital was in ita own hands; ita 
intaraontion in the direction of public affairs waa important if not 
dcciore. It had therefore little to wish for. What it did desire it 
demanded impetuously; but the hostility of its attitude evidently 
amrpaased the reach of its pretensions. AJi appreciable reduction in 
the public expenditure, and a slight diminution in the amount of 
contribntiona conferring the electoral rifjht, the suppression of the 
Swiss gwards, and of some over-costly starfsj a less severe control over 
the press, and the re-cstablishinent ofthe national guard; this was the 
Bura of all that its own intensta seemed to suggest as requiate. 

As for its passions they were too utterly devoid of grandeur to 

urge it on extreme comtes. The bourgeolàe abhorred the nobles 

benuse it felt itself humbled by the superiority of their maimfira and 

«od taste of their vanity ; the clergy, because they aspircd to tcm- 

dominion and made common cause with the nobles; the king» 

ausc he was tlie supneme protector of the nobles and of the clergy. 

But the macity of these antipathies was tempered by an excessive 

làtt ad of die people, and by appalling recollections. At bottom, it 

' à monarchy m so far as it presented an obstacle to democraûo 

rations: it would have wished to subjugate royalty Tvithout d*- 

Ting H. Thus tonoented by conflicting sentiments, furious and 

ibfang, — placed, in a word, in this dilemma,that it must either sub- 

> ^ sway ofthe court, ot let loose the people, it heatated and was 




|>efrUdercd, not knowing whether to nt down patiently or to gird 
up ita loins for action. 

Meanwhile some restless gpirita had stated eingular idefts. The 
>clder branch of the Bourbons hud been likened to the incorrigible 
house of Stiurt They talked of William III., of 1688, the 
epoch of 3 pacific and yet searching revolution ; of the possibility of 
expellln" a dynasty without overturning the throne; of the murder 
of Charles T, which had been useless till the expulsion of James II. 
Thiâ language had at first circulated in some salons: the Nationai^ a 
paper recently established, had made it public, and had supported its 
tenJeney. fiut ideas Eke these, put forth with reaervc by skilful 
"writers (MM. Thiers and MJgnet), found little faith among tlie 
public. Those even who made trial of their virtue scarcely suggested 
them as more than thcoreticBl views of remote contingencies. 

There was at this period no real republican party; only a few 
young men, who had belonged to charlfomterie, had taken up an 
overstrained Hberalism^ and professed a hiitred for royalty thai served 
them in lieu of a methodical scheme of politico. Thoueh few in 
numbers, their devotcdness^ daring, and contempt for hfe, might 
have enabled them powerfully to arouse the people; but they wanted 
a leader: M. de Lafayette was but a name. 

Lasdy, apart from all s^'stematic opinions, some known individual 
Tvifihed to brin^ on a revolution, being moved thereto by various 
motives or instmcts; MM. Barthe and M^rilhou by the habit of 
conspiring; M. de Laboide by warmth of soul and levity of mind; 
M, M&ugulu to display liis activity; M. dc Schonen by notheaded- 
neas; MM. Audry dc Puyraveau and tlic Abbe do rompièrea by 
their principles; others by temperament. 

Some, like MM, de BrosUc and Guiaot, aware of the impotence 
of dogmatism in days of Doiling wrath, slirank from the ioÉa of a 
movement in which their own impoiiance would dwindle to nothing- 
Many like MM. Sûbn.stiaui and Dupîn tJ^mmed between fear and 
hope. M. de Tailcyrand waited, 

But not one of aO. these men was capable of more powCTfuUy In- 
fluencing the issue of a ^e^'olution than M. LioiStte^ because he was 
at once rich and popular. Ill adapted lor playing & revolutionary 
part on that grand stage, tho open street, no one could better than 
he direct a revolution of iMikcc-make. Hisacut^aicss of mind, his 
affability» his graceful vanity, and his liberalism devoid of gall, had 
bestowed on him a sort of drawing-room royalty» the éclat of whith 
he sustained without fatigue and with pleasure to himself Under 
the Restoration ho Imd not conspired, but chatted in favour of the 
Due d'Orléans. That was enough for him : for he possessed not the 
passionate pertinacity of purpose, nor the ardour in liatredand love, 
that arc the twin engines of might in men horn to command. Still, 
in spite of the indolence of Mb desires, he was capable, on occaaon, 
of much firmness and elastic impulâivenesâ, like the female kx. 





wliicK lac resembled m liaLîtual softness of cliaractei* ai5cl nervoiiB 
EcnfiibilJty. He listcoecî with alacrity to the counsels of the poet 
Beranger, a ruftn of cool head, an<l strong will : and ho Ivad iicetl of 
such a etiiy, his own nature being adapted to intctmittent rather than 
ooDtinucius «E-tlbî't, 

Such were the sentinoenta and the position of the bourgeoiaie and 
its leadeis; die feelings of the people were of another cast. Fuli of 
the rcmembriince of him who had been its emperor, the people 
hftdl DO otlier political faith. It had imbibed and rctaincKl from the 
military habita of the empire, and from the licence of the camp, a 
profoimd contempt for the Jesuits and the clergy. It disliked the 
Bourbons, solely on the ground of the disgraceful manner of ihcir 
aoccseion, which the popular pride connected with all the miafortunea 
of the couixtiy. For itself, the people demanded Httle^ because, long 
kept in utter ignorance of ita own aifiiirs^ it was as incapable of de- 
timte desire as of foresight. TTierc was^ therefore, neither com- 
munity of interest nor coincidence in antipatliies between it and the 

ViTiÛi these data to proceed upon, there would have been no in- 
ordinate rashness in attempting a monarchical coup d'état : but there 
Ti-ms not in France either a really royalist party or a real Idng- 

What Charles X. was I have already stated. Two royalist par- 
tus beset that feeble monarch on cither ]iand. The one was backed 
by the clergy; it consisted of old cmigiunta, and iicntibhommts^ and 
had for leaders the Prince de Pohgnae, the Baron dc Damas, and 
the Cardinal de la Fare: the other built upon the army» and com- 
prised all the new men, niost of them generals of the empire^ who 
had been won over by the Restorarion, and such of the ancient jwbUsse 
at, moved by interat or scepticism, had offered their services to the 
existing government, as it nad successively offered them to all its 

These two parties were bent on equally imposable though oppoatc 
ends. The nrst demanded that tJic lawa of primogcnitiure and 
entail shoiJd be ro-establi^ed, that the church should be rC' 
stored to its ancient Fplendour, that the offices and dignities of the 
state aboutd be conferred on men of hereditary title, and that the 
oonit should take precedence of tbe parliaments and in these dc- 
monila they iinlxxlied the natural and ncccsairy conditions of mo- 
nflxchy, but without taking tlie state of society into account. Tlic 
second party rftjulred that the subtHvision of estates should be main- 
tttincdi that tlie clergy should moderate it5 pretensions, that official 
rank shoidd lake precedence of hereditary rank even at court, and 
that the elective power should be treated with tendcmeœ and eonei- 
deration: and thus it did take account of the state of society, but 
overWked the conditions on which alone a monatcliy can subôst 
and endure. 

This diviâon of royalists had day by day acquired a more strongly 
marked character, ptnd its dangers had been multiplied by the con- 



Kocacnu predilections of Charles X« Tkcse viho liad not TECâve 
toe baptism of caxugifitioiit those whom tha king had not laioxm ag 
the friends of hia boyhood, or as his companions in exile» met wilh 
a Hnd and gracious reception at his hand*', but they were ilenied 
his confidence; he made tlieni feel, througli all the outward forma 
of an exquisite politeness;, that they were aller all only bhes restored 
to favour, and that they ought to think themselveâ Tcry happy at 
the condescension that vouwisafed to make u^ of their devoted 
terricea. Thîa slighting temper on the monareh''â part, the sdng of 
which he contrived to mitigate by extreme delicacy of manner, ma- 
nifested itself in his favourites in impertinent airs, and was to royalty 
a ftuitful source of deadly deception. The etiquette of the court 
was particularly offenâve to thoee royaliste who owed their distinc- 
tion only to their swords: for a gendeman with unmixed noble 
blood in his veins, though he was but a simple sous-UetUenani^ was 
preferred at the chîltcau to a plebeian marshal of France. Henc© 
arose heartburnings, and latent disafiection, and, on the part of the 
superior officers of the army, a great distrust of their own authority. 
How irritating to old soltUers, like the Due de Ragusc and General 
Vincent, must have been this absolute predominance of courtly over 
military rank ! They had seen in despotic countries the ïplendoiir 
of heredilûiy titles wane before that of high military position; and 
they were at once astounded and indignant at the thought, that 
under a conâdtutional government more regard was had to an old 
piece of parchment than to the most exalted claims of service. 

To these errors, committed by Charles X.+ the cîcrgy added its 
own. Whilst the inJerior clergy brought discredit on the govern- 
ment by its petty provocationa and annoyances, the higher clergy 
compromised it by ïtâ intrigues and its pndo. The influence of ftl- 
monera or chaplains in the regiments was matter for sarcasm among 
the officers and soldiers, whou it was not an encouragement to hypo- 
crisy. When the expiatoiy monument, erected to Louis XVl.^ 
irM to be inaugurated, ChArlcs X, >ra£ to appear in the ceremony 
dressed in violet, that bein" the eotour of mourning for kings. 
Thereupon it waa whispered about, among the soldiers, that hia 
majcPty intended to appear in public in the costume of a bishop. 
All this atTorded a ready handle for ridicidc amon» a people who 
arc never more liberal of their wicked wit against tlie powers that 
bo than when under arms. At all events it is clear that thtse who 
ctU down the divine protection on their heads, should not oblige it 
to descend to too great a lowncfs. It is an insult to the Supreme 
Arbiter of all things to associate the majesty of His name with diings 
that have no grandeur in them. The alliance cemented by Charles 
X. between monarchy and religion did not exalt the throne^ but it 
lesBêned God*» image in the eves of the people. 

Such waa the atmosphere m which royalty moved when it re- 
solved to break down all legal reristance. To violate the charter 
was no purpose of the king's^ even in thought. Not that he a|K 



proved of H, hut he had sworn to it, and he was both ft gentleman 
anJ a. devotee.* The 14th article seemed to o0èr him the means 
of mokiDg the accomplislinient of his wishes compatible with the 
jFopeet due to his plighted word. To take advantage of that article 
fioon became ihe most earnest puiposc of his miud, and a thousand 
circuniBtaiicce gave token that nc was full of Eomç project, though 
its nature none could exactly define. 

TTie most clear-aighted ot the royaHsta now became nncasy, M. 
de Vïllèle mode a journey to Paris to avert, if there were jet time, 
the blow he saw impending over royalty. M. de Beugnot snid, 
'* The monarchy Is about to founder undcï fidl saiL'* Ministcra 
were daily beact with urgent applications from all quarters for a 
sohiticai of the fcftrful cuigmaf but thcj shrouded themselves in 
myFteij; and when the members of the dipli>mulic body, trem- 
bling for the peace of the world, questioned the president of the 
COOncil about what th<? morrow wai to bring forth, he put them 
off with BKurauces of security. M. de Mcttemich, being in liiU 
poaaenion of the siranp; aspect of thin™ at the court of Paris, ox- 
preiBed his fears to Ml de Keyneval, the French ambapsador, and 
uttetedj these remarkable words: " I should be much less uneasy if 
M. dc Poliffuoc were more so.'*f 

Tho truth is, that there had always been a peculiar cKamcter of 
distrust and hauteur in the attitude assumed by M. de Polignac to- 
iupvds foreign ambassadors; the latter were, accordingly, not very 
'Trell dlgposed towards his administration. The African expedition 
had ifntetcd the Ën£;lish, whtfâc fears and repugnances were rcpre- 
eented in France by Lord Stuart. Prussia, by its own account, had 
not been largely cnoiigh c^^nsidered in the scheme for the cession of 
the Rhcmne provinces; and this had slightly rutflcd tiie relations of 
M. de Werther with the court. As for the ambassador of Kussia, 
M, Pozzo di Borgo, he was sccretlv incensed againet Charles X,, 
who, without violating tlie rules of decorum, had never been ablo 
to biing himself to treat that personage otlierwise than as a parvenu. 

Every thing combined^ therefore, to render the situation of the 
momfiit ^ve and alarming. But Charles X. infected M, de Po- 
lignac wiui a confidence of securi^, which was reciprocaUy ren- 
dcr«d back to him by the latter. Ile had taken him aâ his mmîster, 
prcdEEcly because he had no cause to apprehend contradiction from 
huiu Chxu-les X. was totally destitute of decision; but like all ir- 

* 'ChtflM X., beliiPTing liis throne nnJ ihc charter to tie tlmateiied, di-tomiincd 
to ilcAAd tiotb. It cADDut now be denicil tiiaS both ircre in dKBgor, tàacc tlic charter 
«Bd the tlironc were overthrown togi-tliur." — MS. nn(e by M. de FvlioMC. 

f Wi' have before ua a collection (if Hito(rrai)h lettera liy M- «le Polignac 00 llie 
— "1 of isâo. Wd ihall ptibliiih thi;w lioivs Ironi time to time, w occoiion ih*!] 
!b cfvi ta thoK caicH in whii^h wc bcliuYe «« luve reaBOQ to dmH tb? accu- 
r lÊMàr tmÊtrtiona, Candour iiD|ier«tiTdy nsgefti thU coorve to us. The 
tiaottcof these notes: "The umbiuiudot» made no rcpnaentatioaa. I àiâ 
t tlwm to mteifcre in (lie juteiiml aâfùn of Fhboa." 


tesolute meni when once he had adopted a couise of conduct, he 
willed impetuously that he might not be obliged to will long. 

Thâ%fore it was that both king and minister strove with obsd* 
nate and impatient wilfulness to blind their own judgments. TTn- 
bappj men, whose rashness was unsustained bv vigour, who rushed 
on danger with their eyes shut, braving it indeed, but not with de- 
liberate valour. 

Meanwhile, the long continuation of public uncertainty excited 
that spirit of speculation congenial to we higher boui^eoide, and 
afforded the ir^uenteis of the stock exchange an aliment on which 
their keen appetites &iled not to fasten. The bankers sent out th^ 
emissaries to besiege ail the avenues of the throne; priestly infln* 
ences were set in operation; and contracts were <aiteied into with 
persons who had the ear of ministers. A financier, who had ac- 
quired, first imder the Empire, and afterwards under tiie Restoiatùm. 
a deplorable reputation for boldness and address, bound himself, by 
a deed executed in presence of a notaiy, to pay fiAy thousand fiàncs 
on receipt of a draft of the ordonnances, which he foresaw were in 
ccmtemplation. The fifty thousand francs were paid, and the lud^ 
speculator staked upon a fall in the funds. M. Rothschild, on the 
contrai^, speculated on a rise, not being so well informed of what 
was comg on, and fully believing that the mine would not be sprung 
till the month of August. In the night of the 25th-26th ot July 
M. de Talleyrand sent for one of his friends, whose funds were 
deeply invested in stock exchange transactions. He told him he 
had been to St. Cloud in the course of the day, and had sought an 
audience of Charleâ X. to talk with him on the apprehensions of the 
king of England, of which he had received intimation; but every 
thing liad been done by the influential people of the château to pre- 
vent liis ha\*ing access to the monarch ; he had, therefore, been 
obliged to quit St. Cloud without eflccting his purpose, and he 
had every reason to believe, from the reception he luid met with, that 
a catastrophe was imminent. " Speculate on a fall," he added, " it 
is a safe game." 

A council of ministers had, in fact, been held in Paris on the 
24Ui, in which the fate of monarchy in France liad been discussed 
for the last time. 

The niinisteis made no question as to the necessity of a coup d'etat: 
such a step had been formally proposed to the council in the begin- 
ning of July by M. de Chantebuzc.* A bold leap over the pale of 
the law was the gr.ind object M. de Polignac had proix)Scd to him- 
self. Mil. d'Hausscz and dc Chantelauzc had almost made the 
adoption of the most vigt>rou3 measures the condition of their joining 

• *• The minUtcn were perfurtJy unanimous on tlie necessitr of tlw onionnancei, 
aiMl tlie ri(;lit of iuutng t! M. dc Kannlle alonu wislK>d that tlu> ext-cntion of 
the rac-niure ihould be postponed for some week». It was a mere qucstitm of time." 
~-MS. muU of M.dt fotignae. 



the ftdmmistration. But M. de Gueraon Ranville raieed more tKan 
tloubta SÂ to whether tho moment vraa opportune for a c&up d'état 
**■ The elections," he?ald, '^ have proved adverse to us. No matter. 
Let us suffer the chamber to ussomblo. If, &s is probable, it refuses 
its co-operation, it will remiiin demonstrated oeiore the eves of 
natiotis Uiat it is it renders the regular course of government impos- 
sible. The responsibility of a rcfuseJ budget cannot light upon the 
Grown. Our situation will then be mwch more favourable, and we 
|-lflWil be in a condition to consult with much more freedom for 
Ùie safety and welfare of the monarchy." 

M. de Guemon Ranville had an oratorical facility thftt empowered 
him to cneounter the wordy war of the chamber. It was not so 
with his colleagues. M. de Pcyronnct's languase had no persuasive 
cimrms. M. de Chantelauze was animated with a sort of morbid 
ardour that was fretted by discussion. Mlf, do Polignac, de Mont- 
bel» Capelle, and d'Hausaez, were not men to figure to ad^'autage in 
the tribune. Thwe considerations had prevailed, and it had l>een 
decided to be beforehand with the chamber when the meeting of 
ministeiB took place on the 24th. 

Tho firet question discussed wsis relative to the Glectoral Pcherae to 
be laid down. M. d'Haussoz did not approve of the plan drawn up 
by M. do Peyronnet. He thought that, ance law was to be set 
iinâc„ the more boldly and compietely that was done, the better; 
that to alter the electoral system was quite aa dangerous as to destroy 
it, and was less profitable; that the rich, whether noble or bourgeois, 
being the natural supporters of royalty, were the proper persons on 
whom to rely; and consequently tlie best course to take was provi- 
sionally to summon to the task of m&king laws persona equal in 
number to the deputies, taken from those who paid the highest 
amount of taxes in each depitrtment. This project, which was at 
least logical in its audacity, was not adopted. 

The electoral system ol M. de Peyronnet found also an opponent 
in M. tie Guemon Ranville, who ended by esying to him, " It 
would come just to the same thing were you to reduce your ordon- 
mmce to four lines, and decree that the deputies should be elected by 
iheprefcets of the depirtmonts/' 

Ine forces at the disposal of the government formed the next subject 
of inquiTy, and it was ono an which mhnf of the ministers were not 
free from considerable disquietude. On the departure of M. tie 
Bourmont, M. dc PoIiotûc had added to his functions ss president 
of the council those ot minister of war — a double burden» far too 
heavy for so weak a head. It ivas to no purpose that M. de Bour- 
mont had ^maestly requested and advised his colleague to take no 
dedfflye steps before his return, M. de Polignac's confidence in 
bimtttlfwos unbounded. "How many men can you count on in 
Paria?" said M. d'Haussei to him. '* Have you at least from twonty- 
dght to Oiirty thousand?*' — ** More than that," replied M. do Fo- 
lignac, '^* I have forty-two thousand;" and rolling up a paper be 


held in Kis hands, lie tlircw it across tlie table to BaFon d'Haussez, 
" Why what js this?" exclaimed tlie latter. '* I find set down here 
but tlurteen thousand men ! — thirteen thousand men on mper I that 
is to eey, barely eome seven or eight thouKand actual fighting men ! 
And the other twenty-nine that are to make ap the number you 
allege, «here are they?" II. de Polignac positively asserted ihaX 
they were qiiaxtered round Paiia, and that in ten boms they could 
be asBcmbled, if necessary, in the c&pital. 

This conversation mnac a deep imprcspion on ministeia. Thqr 
"mctù about to play a formidable game witli their eyes shut. 

The 25th was now arrived, and nothing^ very poâtive had yet 
transpired. So vague even was public anticipation, that the Prince 
de Condé gave a grand f^-te tliat djiy to the Due d'Orléans. The 
hours rolled on in joy at the chateau de St. Iveu: there were tbca-- 
trica] pecforumnces in the evening, and the Baroness de Fcuchèrei 
appeared on the atage. 

Duj^ng this time, a person who had for some month» been in 
constant and secret intercourse with the court, — M. Casimir Péiîer, 
— received a small note, folded triiingukrly, at his house in the Bcis 
dc Boulogne. He opened it anxiously in presence of hia fanulj; 
his face grew livid, and he let his arms drop m despair. 

He had received accurate intellsgencc. That very day the mi- 
nifltera were assembled at St, Cloud, to sign the ordonnances tlut 
Buspended the constitution of the country. 

Xlie dauphin was present. He had at first given hia voice 
against the ordonnuices; but he very soon aurrcndered hia own 
opinion in deference to the king's: for the dauphin trembled be- 
neath his father e eye, and cjuried to a cliildish excess that respect for 
the head of his fiunjly, in which Louis XIV- dcaned that the Bour- 
bon princes should be brought up. 

The ministers took their places in silenco roimd the fatal table. 
Charlea X. had the dauphin on his right, ^id M. de Pobgnac on 
his left. He quosrionod each of his servants one after the other, 
and when he ciime to M. d'Haussez, that minister repeated his ob- 
êexy&ûana of the preceding day- " Do you refuse ?' said Charles X. 
— '* Sire," replieil the minister, ** may I be allowed to address one 

Sueation to the king. Is your majesty resolved on proceeding 
lould your ministers draw back?"^ — " Yes," said CliarlesX., firmly. 
The minister of marine took the pen and signed. 

\Vlicn all the signatures were afBxea, there was a solenui 
and awful pause. An cxpressioïi of high-wrought energy, min^lod 
with uncasmess, sat on the faces of the minUHters. M. do Fo- 
lignac alone wore a look of triumph» Charles X walked up aad 
down the room with perfect composure. As he passed M. d Haus- 
sez, who was looking up with an air of deep thouijht, '* \\Tiat is it 
you are looking at so.''" he said. — " Sire, I wag looking round to 
Bee if there did not happen to be a portrait of Strafford here." 





The 2€t}i of July paaed awaj very calmly in Pans. At the 
Palais Royal, however, some youBg men weie seen mountb^ cm 
cîhairs, as foirmerly Camille Deemouluu had done. They read Ihe 
Moniteur aloud ; appealed to the pec^de against the violatûm of the 
ctharter, and endeavoured by violet gesdculaldon and inflammatory 
harangues to exdite in their hearers and in themselves a vague 
appetite for agitaticm. But dancing was going on in the environs 
OS the capital; the people was engaged m labour or amusement. 
The boorâeoisie akme gave evidence of constetnatifm. The ordan- 
sances had dealt it a two&ld blow: Ûiey had struck at ils political 
power in theperaons of its legiaUtors, and at its moral power in 
those of its wntersL 

At first there was nothing to be seen throughout the whole botuv 
ffeois portion of the population but one dull uniform stupor. 
Bankers, traders, manu&cturers, printers, lawyers, and joumaEsts, 
accosted each other with scared and astounded looks. There was 
in this sudden muzding of the {«"ess, in this bold and deep-searching 
alteration of the decUve mechanism, in this overturning of all laws 
by virtue of an obscure article, a sent of arrogant challenge that 
■tunned men's faculties. So much daring inferred proportional 

It happened by an unhappy &eak of chance that the revolution, 
which was to end in castmg the crown into chancery, began pra- 
■dsely by a consultation of lawyers. At the first news of the ordon- 
nances, several journalists, accompanied by some jurisconsults, hur- 
xied to the house of M. Dupin àtné. They wished to know was 
there no means of publishing the journals without an authomation, 
and how &r a step of such har^ood would be sheltered by the 
protection of the judges and of the laws. At this meeting appeared 
acme men who were destined to figure with applause on the public 
stage. Beside M. de Rémusat, who manifested a calm ana deli- 
berate firmness, stood M. Barthe, plunged seemingly in a sort of- 
moral intoxication that foimd vent m words of boyuh intemperance. 
H. Odilon Barrot ratting a little apart, turned over the leaves of a 
Code with an absent air, but his distress was visible in his troubled 
featiues. As for M. Dupin^ practised as he was in concealing his 
natural pusillanimity uz^er an afifected bluntne», he did not refuse 
his advice, but he cried out not without blustering,' that he was no 
Longer a deouty, — ^thereby declining all political responsibility as to 
events, the issoc of which was unknown. 

Meanwhile the gamUen of the stock exchange had not been the 



last to he moved by the news of the day. Ttiey Had read in the 
fatal lines of the Moniteur some of them millions lost, others miliiona 
M. Rothscliild received the first intelligence of the orJon- 


nances in the avenue of the Chomps Elysécs as he WEta returning 
from his country-house. He turned pale: it ^\'M a thunderbolt to 
a speculator for a rise. Wo will state by-aiid*by how it was he 
contrived to be a loser of only some millions of francs. Others had 
calculated better: the ordonnances were for tlicra the starting-point 
of u rerica of profitable operations. The three per cents, nftving 
suddenly fallen from seventy-eight to seventy-two, there were xacsi 
who could date their fortunes from that day. 

The emotion felt at the Institnte wag 9a lively as that at the 
Bourse, but of a loftier character. There M. Arago saw Marshal 
Marmont, Due dc Raeusc, rushing to him with flashing cyca and 
features convulsively disturbed. '•'• Well !" cried the marshal, im- 
petuously, *^ the ordonnances have just appeared. I knew ill 
Tlie wretches, what a horrible situation they place me in ! I shzdl 
have peilmps to draw my sword in support of measures I detest !" 
He was not mistaken. It was his destmy to be twice fatal to his 

The t!oge of Fresncl» which was to have been delivered by M» 
Arago on the 26th, had attracted a great concourse of [«ople to the 
Institute. M. Arago resolved not to pronounce his discourse, in- 
tending to allege as his reason the absorhlng importance of the poU- 
tical events then pending. Several of his coUeagucs Btronply coun- 
selled tiim to this act of courage : some of them, amon^ whom was 
M. Cuvier, a man greater by nis intellect than by his hesrt, repre- 
sented to him, on the contrary, that his silence under such circum- 
stances woidd be factioua, and tliat he owed it to public order, that 
he owed it to himself, not to compromise the majesty of science in 
the struggïûs of party. Wliile the matter was in discussion M. Vîï- 
lemain appeared, and an extremely violent altercation took place be* 
twcen him and M- Cuvier. M. Arago at last decided to speak ; but 
he took caje to introduce into hi? tloge on Frt^nel some spirited al- 
luaons to the aflaira of the moment. They excited & gloomy enthu- 
siasm in the aasemblv. 

The funds had fallen ; M. Araffo's words were applauded ; the old 
monarchy had therefore again&t it» from the very first day, money 
and science; of all human powers the vilest and the noblest. 

Bui it had defied a power more formidable fitiH The joumaUsts, 
threatened in their property, in tlieir poUtical importance, porhape, 
in their liberty, had assembled lumultuously in the office of the 
National. Wliat was to be done ? To fill the etrcets with long and 
loud crie* of alarm* unfurl the tricolour flag, raise the faubourgs, 
and, in a word, attack loyaliy sword in hand,— this the eiHtrvrs ol 
the Tribune would have hazarded doing, but the writers of tlic Hbe- 
ral papers were not yet prepared to cany the zeal of their convictions 
to îuch lengths. Full ol" the iccoUections of *93j they would gladly 




liavo appealed to an insurrectional revolution for the protection of 
iheir ttiroBtCiied interests, had tKcy not been fearful of letting loose 
tompcsta of irrcfflstiblc fury, Besidop, could they hope to interest 
the passions of the people in rcsentmcnta of the bourgeoisie ? 
Would tlic workaliops furnish a euflicient number of soldiers and 
of martyra to the cause of a chamber where the people had no 
icpreeentativce, and to that of a prcëa which had not yet mv^m % 
Bmgle pubUcist to poverty î Some of the writers aasembled at 
the oflicc of tlie National had recently traversed Paris ; they had 
noticed notliing indicative of the approach of popular commotion. 
The people make no stir, they said j and this was a plirase ■well calcu- 
lated to d^ip the fire of courage. 

No more, therefore, was thought of than protesting in the name 
of tJie cltarter; and the protest of the journalists, as drawn up by 
MM< Tliiers, Cliatelain, and Cauchois Lemoire, was, in fact, but an 
intoepid and solemn homage rendered to the inviolability of the law. 
It pet in array against the dictatorial power of the ordonnances the 
authortly of the fundumqntal compact ; it appealed against the mo- 
diticationa arbitrarily introduced, DOth into tne elective sptem and 
into the constitution of the press, not only to the terms of the char- 
ter, but to tlîo decisions of the tribunals, ttnd to tlxe practice until 
then pursued by the king himself; lastly, it represented the viola- 
tion of law by the government as the consecnttion of & dieobe- 
diencc which thereby became necessary, legitimate, and in a 
manner sacred» This was to combine, in due measure, prudence 
and energy. The protrat conceived în this spirit was imanimously 

But WS9 it necessary to attach to it the signatures of all who 
concurred in promulgating it ? MM. Baude and Cofte, tlie one ad^ 
rmnistrtfteurj the other principal editor of the ÏVm/u, represented 
that the uiiluence of the journab depended in part on the mystery 
in which the writers of them were shrouded ; Uiat the solemnity of 
fluch ft leôstance as that now proposed would inevitably be impaired 
by the publication of some obscure names ; and that it was expedient 
to leave the whole action of the document to the force of the un- 
known. M. Thiers replied that it wiia better to secure for the pro- 
test tlmt sort of favour which courage deserves and always obtains. 
This opinion prevailed on account of its apparent boldness. In 
reality, to divide the rcâponsîbility of the act in question^ and to 
éprend it over so many heads, was to weaken it. 

It is, nevertheless, but just to say, that most of thoFC who signed, 
bchcvcd that they did so at the risk of their lives, and some of thera 
bimved the chance of death with genuine magnanimity. A deputa- 
tioD of studcnia having presented tbcmiselves, W. de Labordc did not 
hentAte to encourage them to revolt. But the opinion of M. Thierd^ 
M. Mignet, and ol most of the influential elector was, that it was 
expedient to borrow from the law itself the means of making it tri- 
umphant. Among these means, the refusal of taxes was one. The 



chamber havin^ been ilie^'diy dissolved, ti refusal of taxes wm but 
an appeal to the charter, A Iresb meetings composed chiefly of dec- 
tora, was held at the office of tlie National. The purposi; was to 
organise that mcNle of opposition which liad begun m Eiurlund hy 
Hflinptlcn'? resistance, to eiul h\ the execution of Charles IT Kof ït 
in one of the characteristics of the Freuch bourgeobie in the nine- 
teenth Lcntury, to huve always ci>pied the procedures of England 
witliout understanding ihuin. 

There were among the pcraons present at this meeting, Bome men 
of ardent tcmpci-aincnt, ftnd pome violent înetmirea were promised. 
M. de Sehonen cvincffd extraort Unary excitement, and lu» words, 
interrupted by 9oba, produced a deep and stirring effect on tbç 
hearers, M. Thiers strove to assuajj;e this cflci vcscence. Address- 
ing the Tno3t impetuous, he ûsked them where were the cannons 
they could brimc fcj match the royal artillery ; or did ihey think to 
Hive the caupc nf liberty merely by oni:riti.^ their naked bosoms to 
the bulls of the Swis^. Hut this liraidily waa condenincd both by 
thoee who were instigated by sinctTe enthusiasm, uud by those who» 
ftltfiiig that they had too far commitlcil themeelve', thought only of 
raergin": their own ]K.'rilau8ly conapicuouft position In the chaos of 
univi'tva] uprinir, 

Diu-incc thip time pome dcpntifH, aPfWMubletl nt the hou?c of M. do 
Laljorde, were makiiiyf trinl of their on-n uietttc and pown-s oj'danng. 
The cry to arm* hud sionmh.'d- " Now ior a «ew jru rfr l*aumr^* 
Bftid M. liavoux; Bud M. Daunou declared the ULVt-Fii'ily of having 
UpttM^ to an appeal to the people. M. Cotlnnr Fcrier suddenly 
appeared. He came, nut to ur^c on lîic movomciit, but to aiTest it 
if poerfble, He aaid that the chamlwr htw! been disadved ; that con- 
soqucntly ibey had ceased to be deputies since the nppe:miiice of the 
Moniteur ; that afltr all, the men who made cottps ffi-tat did them- 
selves appeal Uj the charter, and thai there was no judg^e between the 
autborities and opinion; that it was exjiedient to wait the i«iue of 
[ èventâ, to mvc public îndigtLatiôn time to d^are itficlT^ or rather to 
eîçç mistaken royalty time to strike into a better path. And all 
uils ho said with the look antl l>earing of command, aud in impas- 
■oned toneii. Did there need more to break the springs of impvilsc 
At â moment when hesitjttïon ini^ht well be natural? MM. dc 
Sclionen. de Laborde, and Villemaiu, who liad l>een sent by tlielr 
coll«i<pio8 to attend the nieeting'of clcctotfl, retiuTied thence, in Vftin 
cnnimissioneil with strenuous exhortations to courage, Nothîn»' WM 
decided. M. Casijnir l'éner, whosîc only object wns to curb im- 
pcturtstty, otïered his house for the next day, and the meeting 
broke up. 

Who, then, wa* the man who thus presented hlmKlf as mediator 
between the bbctalfl and the tlirone at this solemn hour? Casimir 
Périer woa a man of tall Ftature and a»ured demeauour. His coun- 
tcnancCf naturally mild and noble, wns subject to midden derange- 
ttents that rendered it appalling. The quici lire of lus glaucc; Mac 

Tin: gpmiT of besistance oathers steekgth. 


împctuoRÎty of his gesture; hi» feverish daquenee; tKe frequait out- 
buT&ts af bis almost frenzied cholcr; all seamed to mark liim out as a 
mûti fcwjm to fouso the wliiriwinda of civil strife. But loftiness 
W»s laclaag to hia miad» ûnil generosity to hia heart; he hud not 
tliat devoUojj, without which the art of swaying luinds 13 but an 
illustrious cbarlataniain. He Imtod the aristocnicy only because of 
hia inability to match thora j and the uproused people seemed to bia 
Tnorbid tmagÎAatîon but ns a horde of oarbarians rushing to pillage 
through f5oa9 of bloo<l. The love of money kept hold of his mind, 
ftnd addod t-o his dread of that people which was made up of poor 
men. Timid with vehemence, atid prompt to crush beneath lus 
tyrannical humour whoever provoked it by appearing to look on it 
with misgivingj ho loved command because it promised impunity to 
yiolenoe. As for his energy, jt sprang only froiii craft, but in liim 
craft yns marvellously seoondcd by an ammonious and billtms tcm- 
peTament, Accordingly Jie took immense pride in doing little 
things. So much the haughtier in appearance as he was mean in 
reality, his empiïe was almost irroàstibio whenever unwortliinraa and 
degradation were the order of the day; and nevei was man Bttor than 
he td gain acceptance for pu^illanmlOiiB deaîgna; fur ho did not 
counsel them — he imposed them, 

Caainiir Périer would therefore certainly have amothorcd the revo- 
lution in its cradle^ if he had needed, to that cud, only the support 
of his colleagues : but they tvcrc not the men whom the march of 
events obeyed that «iay. 

Many persons, as I have soid, after yielding to their first impulses, 
jfasred tliey liad gone too iiur; and as they had httle reliance on royal 
Wmency, they resolved to make the repistancc^cncral, and to make 
the people interested in their own cfcngcr. Thus it was, that on 
and after the 26th it was rumoured among the bourgcolâc that ît 
Ixad been resolved to close the workshops and to turn out the work- 
men on the streets. Endcavoura were also made to compromise the 
judicial authorities, and these easily succeeded, since tho merabcTs of 
the tribunals «ere dra\Mi, for the mo»t part^ Iruni the ranks of the 
bourgeoiflfl; and llio publishers of the Cottriirr Français, tlio Jpurtml 
ok C ummu r U f and the Journal de Fàris, obtained from M. Dcbel- 
Uffta&f prorident of the trUiunal de première instance^ an order 
enjoining the printers to lend their presses to tho non-authorized 

We have seen in what manner the agitatioTi produced on the siff- 
Am of Bocietv had begotten the protL-at of the journalists. This 
^^fietcst, by giving a tangible expression to legal resisLancc, comnro- 
misLMl œrtaàn name*, and the perfons thus impliealcd kboured to 
diâieminate revolt, that they might not have to bear the whole brunt 
of the danger; and so the commotion was gradually propagated, till 
itiaTol?ed the bwieet ranks of society* A tew stones tlung at M. de 
Pt^q^Bac'ft Oftiriagc on Monday evening were but a prelude to more 
daring Bi mi f | « i iai. Such was the coac&t^n&tioa oi ^XlOu;^ m^issQAc;^) 




such the tissue of noble instmcts, of indecisions anJ alarni&, lay wliich 
legal reslstanûc pasaed into an insurrection, wiiioh was, in its tum, to 
give birth to a revolution. A strange revolution surelj ! £^t it waa 
brougbt on by the higher bourgeoisie, who drcadcil it, and accom- 
plished by the pooplc, who âung themselves into it almost imwit' 
tingly ! 

It was ia the following terms that a postibon travelling to Fon- 
tainebleau on the night of the 26 — 27, told one of hia comradcB 
tbenewaof the ordounanccsr "The ParLsans were m a line stew 
yesterday evening. No more chamber, no more joumab, no more 
liberty of the press " — " Ay, ay ?" rcphcd the other, '' Well, what's 
the odds? Dû you see me now, provided we have bread at two 
sous and wine at four, I don't care a button for all the rest/' I and 
on a page in which this anecdote is related this note in the hand- 
"tviitinCT- of Prince Polignac: " A charter, ua re^rda the people rc- 
Eolvcs Itself in the very first place into three thinga — work to do, 
cheap bread, and few taxes to pay/* M. de Poii^nac was migtjikcn 
in tlus. He spoke only of the material intereetâ ol the i>eHjplc, which 
is caailj contented, indeed, in times of ignorance. Now he ought 
to have taken account of îlâ passions in their loftier aspect: for all 
that was requisite to make the postiUon's language no longer true, 
was that the tricolour ilag should he unfurled, reminding the old 
K>ldier tliat the last Waterloo cartridge had not yet been nied* 


The moBt active portion of the bourgeoisie went to work on the 

■"V, and nothing was left undone to atir up the people. The 
etf£, the Qitotutienne, and the Universe! had submitted to tbo 

lonnonces from conviction r-T from party spirit; the Journal dei 
Dfbats and tlie Cotistihitionnel &om fear and mercantile pohcy. The 
Giof>e, the National^ and the Temps, whioh had appeared, we^3 
profusely circulated. The pohco order of the preceding day, for- 
bidding their publication^ only eerved to stimulate curiosity. Copies 
were ihsposcd of by hundreds in the cafés^ tho reading-rooms, and 
the restiuranta. Journalists hurried from manufactory to manufac- 
tory, and from shop to shop, to read them aloud and comment upon. 
tl)em, Indi\ndualà in the dnas, and with tlie manners and appear- 
ance of men of fashion, were seen mounting on stone poet«, and. 
holding forth as professors of insurrection ; whilst students, attracted 
from their quarter of the town by the appetite for emotion natural 
to youth, paraded the streeta armed with canes, waving their hats, 
and crying, Vive la Charte! 

The men of the people, cast into the midat of a movctneot they 

H0TALI8T lïBtTreiONe. 


could not «mpreliend, looked on with surprise at all these tHnga; 
but pradually yielding to the contagion of the hour, thoy imitated 
the Kiurgeojsie, and running nbout with bewildered looks, ttej" 
sliputcti aa othors did, Vive kt Charted 

Some among the instigatoTs of sedition were sorely afr^d they 
had done too much. They had intended only to produce a demon- 
stration that should afiford a salutary and correctiTO warning to roy- 
alty; but what if this should prove a eocial dieruption ending in 
plunder and in tho dictatorsliip of a few demagogue»!, far more to bo 
dreaded than that of a king? Wa? it prudent to arouse all the 
slumbering passions of a eocial body lefl without bond or tie ? 
TTiese conâdcrations induced some masters to retain their workmen; 
b«t others of more boldness dismissod dicm, fifiying, " We have no 
more bread to give you." Tlie printing-hou&es were eoon deserted 
and the streets thronged. 

This was the beginning; of the revolutionaiy alUanco between the 
bourgeoisie and the people: it was rendered more strict by themad- 
ncsB of Charles X- and nia ministers, 

Tlic general officer who was to have commanded at Paris on the 
27th and the following days, not beintj able to fulfil his niisaon, 
the Due dc Ragusc was appointed in his stead. Fatal choice ! — 
for — Paris delivered to the enemy; her palaces occupied by hiirba- 
rÎAns; her mtiseams stripped of their treasures; her squares ilitmai- 
tifttcd by bivouac fires; Coesacks galloping, laiice in hand, before her 
diBoonsolate matmns, and riding to the overthrow of the empire on 
horses branded with the imperial N.r all the woes and shames of the 
country were summed up^ to the people's thinking, in one name, the 
name of the Due de Hamise. In placing him at the head of its 
defenders, the old monarchy put the climax to ïîs blunders; by its 
own act it converted an exclusively bourgeois quarrel into the 
cause of the people. How should wa people have stood stiU, with 
agitators behind it to goad it on with the fear of famine; and before 
it Marmont to remind it of the emperor bctnïycd, and of Waterloo? 

Hut the blindness of Charlpa X. and his prime raiuister was pro- 
digious. No precaution had been ta.kcn. Tliere were at most 
12,000 soldiers in Paris, the gorri«on of which had just been dimi- 
nished; at the ministry of war M. de Cbampagny had his atten- 
tion engrossed with administrative details; and M. de Polignac 
was r^retting that he had no ready cash to invest in the publie 

TIiû hotheads of the royalist party went so far as to reioice at all 
this noise, llicy had often said that there was nothing lilce mowing 
down action in tlie field; t)iat I^rns XVI. had been undone by 
excees of goodnature; that the saiety of the monarchy demandca 
victims, and ^93 called for expiations. Their ianaticism ^w, there- 
fore, in the spectacle before their eyes, only a proof that the final 
hour appointed by Pro^idenco was arrived. What would hç the 


result of this great shock given to Bocicly, but to piHDjeot above the 
crowd tlio9e head» it was expedient to cut off? Warrunte to arrcet 
the eigners of the jonmalists' protest were iwued, and orders woto 
given to eeizc the presses of îhe refractory joumnlE. 

TIjg Temp» was, of all tlie jouruds, that wîiicH had displayed 
most energy! an invasion of its premises was %o be expected; und 
about the iiotir oï noon a detachment ûf Riounted gendurmeric drew 
np in order uf battle before the gate. The house Ùius menaced wb» 
Htuated in the Rue Richelieu, one of the most frequented tîiorough- 
farea of Paris, and the preî»cs wliich it was intended to eeîwï were 
in the buildings at the lurther end of n krge court. T}ie dppro»^ 
of the conimhmire bein*? announced, M. Baude had the doora of if 
printing-house li.tckcd, und the gatea opening on the etreet throt 
Tvidc open. The workmen, the contnhutora, and all tlie persons 
employed on the paper in any cnpaeity, ditw up in two files; 
M. mude Btntioned luraaelf in the space between them, bareheaded; 
and in tliat order all remained waiting the event lu deep Eilcnoe. 
Tlic paFfcrs by were Btnick withcuriutity and et^jjtpL'd; sojne of thcBI 
bowed respectfully; the gcndurmes were uneasy. 

Tlie commissaire arrived, Obligcl to puPs between the two files 
of men, who stood mute und impassive on either hand, he becftmo 
ïtgitated, turned pale, aikd ^oin^ up to M. Baude, he politely stated 
to lûnj tlie object of lus niissiun. ^' It is by \irlue of the ordon- 
aaiioea, Monsieur," said M. Buudi: lirmly, '* that you are como U> 
demoHsh our presses. Well then, it 1^ m the name of the law that 
I cuU on you to forbear." The amwiiastâre sent for a iocksmitb; 
ho came, and the doors of the printing-house were about to be forced 
open. M. Baude stopiwd tlie mûu, and producing a copy of the Code, 
ho read to hiui the article rotating to tho punishment of robbery ao- 
eompauicd with hou8C!h^eakin^^ The locKsmith uncovered hia neud 
t6tMO.w hia respect far tl»e hnv ; but bein;!.' af^n ordered by the com' 
wiuo/^* to proceed, be scomed about to obey,\when M. Baude said to 
lint with ironical cooLnetti, ^* Qh, go on ! it \s only a matter of tho 
f9ftUcy«-" At the same time appealing IVora the commmaire to the 
Oligf ctfiixiB Jm drew uut his puckc;t>bouk lo cuter the iiuine» of 
the ' ■'- The pocket-bjok passed from Jiand to hand 

and '•.<! h'ja namo. Every particular in tliiâ koenu 

wu- -'ujar, — M. Bftudc'a etal-uiv, his sturdy counte- 

nantit -^"ihung with tluck bushy brow», tho law for 

which ' pect, the stubborn determination of tJia 

$pgt$0U^' ' '"-eut iudgea invoked wiliiin a few 

^i .nç, ÙiQ crowd that every moment 

aiklibl^ ^xn^reaaon t>:i its indigtiation» 
V up thu job and was loudly <>he«red.* 
Anulbvr wa* ecnt Jirf: fao fudcavouned lo-e»Qouto the orders giveu 

lÛaU jl>Vt *udd*july iijund that !■:' *^ '■ '■■ -ino. It vvas ne- 

' to b»vc> cecî^râa tv Uie «ti ' jÏYut tiiti h\ioâ 

FBBS9 KEBTura or DEPunse. 103 

on the convicts.' These proocedings, 'which took up seTcral hours, and 
weie witnessed by great numbers of persons, derived a real historical 
importance from the circumstances. By affording the people an 
example of disobedience combined with attachment to the laws, two 
ciBvinss of its nature wore gratiûcd, — viz., the love of manifesting 
its independence, and the necessity of feeling itself governed. 

During this time tumidtuous assemblies were held in various parts 
of Paris. In the meeting of the electors, at which M. Thiers was 
present, the question of stirring up the masses was b^inning to be 
a^^tated, and M. Féline exclamicd, *' We must put all our ene- 
mies out of the pale of the law, both king and gendarmes." But 
iull of the idea that a conflict between an unarmed midtitude and 
regular troops could only lead to frightful mischief, M. Thiers 
strenuously advised keeping within the limits of legal resistance, 
and above all, " not mixing up the long's name with ^ese burning 

Hiese sentiments were th<^e of most of the deputies assembled iç 
Paris. Being met together at M. Casimir Férier's, they wasted ir- 
retrievable hours in making speeches. It was in vain that tlie meet- 
ing of electors sent to tiicm MM. Mérilhou and Boulay de la 
Meurtlie to inflame their zeal. It was in vain tliat MM. Audry de 
Puyravcau, ^fauguin, nntl Labboy de Porapières conjured tliem to 
follow the example of the joumulists and protest against a coup d'état 
that disarmed tliem. M. Sébastiani talked uf notliing but a letter to 
Uieking; M. Dupin maintained, us he hud done the day before, that 
tliere were no longer any deputies; and M. Casimir Périer, as he 
hkcwisc liad done tlie preeetling day, recorameuded his colleagues 
to lie down quietly under the defeat, and to adiouru their courage. 
Yet all had been turmoil and agitation round these stock-still legis- 
lators since tlie preceding day ; and of this they had ample means of 
convincing tliemselves; ibr the sound of horses' hoois clattering over 
the pavement of the street, rung in the room where tliey were sit- 
ting ; and some yotmg men who came to cheer and encourage Caeimir 
Périer, were charged by gendarmes under liis windows, and fell 
bleeding before tlie closed gates of his hôtel. 

Up to seven in the evening tliere had not yet been any very serious 
engagement. Stones had been thrown at the gendarmes diuwn up 
in iront of the Palais Koyal In the Hue du Lvcée the troops had 
fired after some hesitation, and a man had been killed. In the Kue 
St. Honoré a shot discharged from the window of an hotel, by a 
foreigner, had provoked a volley, by which that foreigner and his 
two servants were killed. Lastly, a barricade had been constructed 
within a few paces of the Theatre Français, and lancets had swept 
the adjoining streets, sabre in hand, and wounded a few individuals. 
Hitherto there had been but the prelude to an insurrection: but the 
aspect of the city was louring, and Paris already thrilled with the 
portentous buzzing that foretold a desperate strife. The streets were 
cxttuuned with people impelled by a sombre cuiioeity. Some ar^ 


DEonmwos OF the fhay. 

inorera' fiiopa had just lïeen pillaged; two fresh barricades inter- 
sected the Kue St. Honot^, and a detachment of the guards wis 
hastening from the Madeleine to destroy thotn, whilst a battalion of 
the 15th light infantry was advancing in the same direction fron» 
the Marché des Innocents. Muskets glistened from one end to tlie 
other of the Rue St, Bcnîa, and shouts of Vive la lujne! broke out 
ftom amidst the hollow iind mysterious munnurs of the living surges. 
The soldicra, alternately ilattcrcd and threatened, were in a «tato of 
the most torturing perplexity : they drove the mtil^tude before them 
Tsrilh friendly looks and suppliant gesturea. This was naturul: 
elegantly dressed women had been seen at the windows calling out 
to tlxe troops " Do not hurt the people;" and the fashionable Irock 
coat wa3 aeen in the tumult ade by side with the tattered jiicket of 
the proletary. Here then theoTï whs not^ as subsequently at Lyons, 
an army of modem elaves led to battle by other slaves: the leaders 
in tins case were potent by intelligence, by wealth, and by honouje. 
Now such 13 the mental serviUiy in eveiy society yet in its childhood, 
ihfll misfortune protesting agauïst iniquity^ is ncld less sacred than 
might standing up in ita own defence against those who have dared 
to misjudge iU force. 

No sooner had the agitation deect-nded from the saloons to the 
thoroughiàres than it encountered thousands of men smitten with 
disgust of lite. It is a remarkable fact, too, that it was first begun 
in the Palaia Royal, that is, in that quarter of the CApitâl, all gorgeous 
with gold and jewels, where civilization cloaka its miseries under the 
trappmga of ita pomps» the quarter of rich men and of proatitutes. 
It was from those impure liaunts that tie masked behind glitterini; 
ehopa, that were seen issuing on the evening of the 27th, with 
wild looks and flushed faces, some of the men who figured in 
tlîc be«^nning of the fray. But to tJie real people, to the people 
that toib and suffers, was to );ie left the ts^ik of filUng up every page 
in the history of these contlicts; and on the part of that people all 
WEiB pure heroism, noble instincts, and ignorant and blind magna- 

Day was just declining when a man appeared on the Quai de 
l'Ecole, Ciïrrying in his hand that tricolour Hag which had not been 
seen for fifteen years. No cry was uttered, no movement look place 
among the crowd drawn up along tlie river walls, Amaxedj silent, 
and, as if immersed in their recollections, they cflntinued gajdug» 
long after it passed, on that standard, the unexpected àght oi which 
evoked such glorious phantoms. Some Dgcd men uncovered their 
heads, others shed tear*; every face had turned pale. 

The proceedings in the courseof thisday at the Eoole Polytechnique, 
which was destined to figure so illustriously in the coming c^'ontP, was 
followe; — M. Charnis, a pupil wlio had been expelled from the 


sdiool for having sung the ManteiUûiae at a banquet live months too 
BOOQ, wrote to one ol' his <L*ld comr.ulcs, informing him that, to all 
appearance, there would be open, hostilities, and bidding him by all 



meana to incite his companiona to energy în the caiise. Along wîtli 
tho note, he sent his correspondent the journals that had appeared, 
that morning. The privates of tho school had not been obie to go 
abroad into the city, the days on. which they were allowed that 
privilege being every Wednesday and Saturdny; but the pupila 
who ranked as sergeants and sergetint -majors, being permitted to go 
mto town every day between two o'clock and five, went all over 
Paris, and on their return thoy related that the troops had charged, 
that victims had faUen, and that every thing seemed in preparation 
for a serious conJlict. Their predictions appeared to be veriSed; for 
about six o'clock the pnpils distinctly heard the noise of platoon 
firing proceeding from the other side of the Seine. The most lively 
efierveacence was immediately manliest among them ; their studttre 
wrae broken oflT; the officers and M. Binet, the inspector-general of 
studies, first threatened, thon reraonfftrjtjxl, but all in vain; the stu- 
dents asembled in the billiard- room, and set about deliberating on 
the courec they should adopt, Tiio agitation of the meetintr was 
extreme. At last it wae resolved that a deputation of four should 
be sent to Laffittc, Casiinir Périer^ and Lainyctte, to declare that tho 
school was ready to second their eâbrts* and, if necessaiy, to cast 
itself bodily into the inBurrection. The Btudfjats selected for tho 
embassy were MM. Lothon, BcnhcUn, Pinaonnicrc, and Toumeiix. 
They forced their way out, and made for tho Kue dts Fossés-dn- 
Temple, to the apartments of M. Charras. ITicre they dressed 
themselves aa civilians, for they were afraid of being aiTCStcd on the 
w»t; and all five ect out for the houdc of M. Laflitte. 

Wliat an aspect did. Paris present at the moment when darkness 
descended upon it ! All along the Boulevards, on the Place Louia 
XV. » the Place Vendôme, antl that of the Bastille, were Swiss, or 
lanc<?rs, or gendarmes d*élite, or cuirassiers of the guards, or foot 
soldicTft; patrols crossing in every direction ; in the Rues dc rEcheile 
and des Pyramides attempts at barricades ; and all round the Palais 
Royal a swarm of men assembled from all quarters to batten on 
revolt; musket shot* as yet few and desultory; at the loot of tlie 
columns of the Exchange a ^ardhouse blflssng, and shedding an 
ominous Hoo<l of light over ine e^juare; tmdcr the peristyle ol the 
Theatre dee Nouveaut<?s a corpse, laid there after having been car- 
ried about with cries of " Vengeance !" darkness gathering thicker 
and thicker over the city from the destruction of the lamps; men 
ruouing up and down the Rue Richelieu barearmed, with torches 
in their hands. Ay, the instigators of the insurrection might well 
be terrified then, for where was the rolling mass they bad set in 
motion to stop? '* No," vehemently exclaimed M, de Remusat in 
the office ol' tlic Globe; ** no, it was never our intention to produce 
a revolution; all wc purposed was a lepsl resatance." These words 
having been keenly repbed to by H.PauUn, a violent altercation 
took pluct:, and threatening exclamations gave reason to apprehend 
ft noTO serious conflict. 



M. de Itcmusatf ncvorthelcfis, had evinced, a ârmncsflthat âidHini 
honour, as loog as matters wore confiined to constitutional rcsûtAiK 
But he was alarmed at all the contingencies of mnrc reckkas daring;. 

Tîie fact was, that all tliese Ijoiugeois feared tlie people still moro 
tliflu ilioy did tlie court, "Take heed Mrliat you do/' said ti tnonu- 
liieturer of the Faubour*;; Saint- Marceiui tliat evening to liia friend» 
of the National; *' if jou give tliu workiïieu arms, tliej will fighij 
if you do not give tlicra aims, they will rob." 

No amis were given them; they took ihem, did not rob, ftmll 
tliotight only of lighting. 

Meanwhile some citizens, among whom were MM. Tliicrs, Cau-i 
chois Leinaire^ Chevalier, Bastide» and Dujxint wore deliberating 
lit the houtic of M. Catlet-Gns&icourt on tlic nieana of ^vinju; wj^nt 
larity and nystein to the resistance. The house was in the line Sw 
Honora; tlic discussion waa carried on in hearing of tlic fusilla 
ani.1 with more confusion than artlour of spirit. The neeeseity 
having recourse to le^iral forms was rncrgetieally advt>catcd by Mi\ 
lltitTs. In the opinio m of most present, tlic movouient going an Îb| 
tho capital way ptîrfeelly identical In t-haractcr, and tould not but 1*: 
idculicul in rwidt, wîlh thai which Imd bruken out in 1827 iu tl 
line St. Denis, llie jiicetinj^ had no other tdyuet llain to form 
each arron'ljgseniont a eommitteo ol' roslâtanec» which tlioiild com>* 
spiïiaî witli tiio deputies, lïut revolutions aro nt't aeeoinnli>hed is 
ftj mctliodiciil a style, A low intrepid incn^ such as MM. Clmrlctf 
Teste and Aiiious, sealed apart in a corner of the room, grew ini» 
patient at liiese piTjlLx diE?eusEiions; they auitted tire room without 
waiting to hear Uiein to an end, and humed away to concert me*- 
Bim^s ivith their friends for the next day's battle. 

Another meeting took place at tlichousu of General Gour^iud,, 
at which were prcseïxt MM. Clavet Gaubcrt, formerly uide-de-(um|| 
io General Ik-rtmnd, M. Dumoulin, Colonel Dulays, and the Com-? 
niaiiiUmt liatheville, all men of the empire, Tliey agreed to kiv, 
deî:vûus next day in the Place des Pctltfi-Pcres, not titr &om tl; 
Palais lloyel. 

Others thoug:ht only of forcing Cliarlcs X. to capitulate, the only 
mftft^flff, according to them, of steering clear of tliose two perila,, 
de^iotîam and pillage. The Btiron de Vitrolics received avïint from 
Dr. Tlnbault, wh<> was on rather intimate terms with General Gérard* 
Tliti object of thifl visit wua tu prevaU on M. de Vitrollcs to mulce 
conciliatory overtures to Charlefi X., his influence with whom wa» 
well known. 

But a revolution was become inevitable. Now did that people, 
which was about to cHèc^t it, clearly understtand itA import-, and could 
it fureaeo Jta scopeV Did it know where were itâ enemies? Did ti 
knuw iJie men it waa to take lor its leaders? In tlie course of that; 
evening a carriage was etuppetl In the Rue de Glichy by a band ofi 
working men armed with slicks. *' it is a minister escaplng/' tbe^ 
shouted, furiouisly- in the carriage were Madame Diuuéinont, her 


two children, and an unknown individuaL The door was opened 
and the unknown stepped out. He would, perhaps, have been 
IdUed, for he dared not disclose his name, when a casual passenger, 
recognising him, cried out, Casimir Périer 1 The moment the words 
«ere heard, enthusiasm succeeded to threats, and the crowd carried 
in triumph, as one of the most implacable enemies of Charles X., 
him who, at that very instant, was pondering only how he might 
save that monarch's crown. Too often tho people nghts onl^ for a 
change of tyrants, and adopts leaden of whom it knows nothing but 
their names. 

Nearly at the same hour the youths deputed by the École Poly- 
technique, knocked at the gate of the Hôtel LaBitte. They were 
answered that the master ol' the house was retired to rest He waa 
to be awakened tho next morning by the noise of a revolution, for 
tiling were hurrying down a declivity up which there was no re- 

M. de Polignac on his part was taking his measures, and he 
despatched orders to two battalions of the 6th regiment of the 
guards, then in garrison at Saint Denis, to march witli all speed on 
Paris. It was night when the order reached tho colonel. Tho 
drum summoned the two battalions to their colours; fifteen rounds 
of ammunition were delivered to the soldiers; and the colonel, ad- 
dressing the ofTicera, said to them, in a voice of deep emotion, 
" Gentlemen, we march to Paris. Preserve order in your com- 
panies, and if the guards engage, let every one do his duty." 


DuBma tho day of the 27th, tho people, suddenly startled from 
its repose by the uproar of passions tlmt were not its own, had made 
experiments in the way of insurrection. When it turned out into 
the streets on the 28th, it had not yet taken an exact account cither 
of its affections or its hatreds ; but it was suffering, it had smclled 
powder ; — ^what more was needed ? Besides, tho love of danger and 
an appetite for adventure are natural to those who have long bent 
imdcr the harsh discipline of pcntuy. 

As it is through the outward si^ of things that human authori* 
ties obtain their position, so Ukcwisc through them arc they pulled 
down. The people set about, in the first place, proscribing what 
was most elevated in that society in which it felt itself so ill at ease ; 
and that which was most conspicuous in tho high places was its most 
^tecial object of hostility. It pursued every symbol of monarchy 
with insult. It obUtcrated the signa of the court-puivcyors, and 
dragged the emblems of royalty througli the mire. 


All Urn was only disorder. The tricolour flag was unfurled 
Then began the rcvo!ution. 

In thoee three pieces of differently-coloured cloth, the people 
read a whole history of heroic and affecting import. It meant 
France about to become nguin the first nation in the world; it 
meant the imprial epic about to recommence î nay tnori\ pcrfaape,^ 
it meant the empPTor who was not dead. Two men of the empire 
appeared at the post of the Bank : one of these M, Dumoulin, wore 
a liat and feathers* and the uniform of an orderly olEocr; tlie 
other, the Commandant Dufays, was disguised as a workios mian: 
he had a red handkerchief wrapped round his head, and a tricolour 
flag tied round his loins, They marched along, followed by two or 
three hundred men, who min^'Ied the emperor's name with inroca- 
tiona to liberty. But J^v€ la Charte f was the cry of the boorgeoiâc. 
The men of the wopîe who knew nothing of the charter, threw 
into that cry all the ra^c hopes tîiat ewelled tlicir bosoms. Many 
(^them died for a word they tUd not understand: the men who did 
understand it were to show themselves by-and-by, when the time 
was come to buiy the dead- Some dexterous contrivers CTen ven- 
tured in the very heginmng of the strife to have tlic name of Thr 
Black Prinre wîdspercd about through some groups, Tliey knew 
how irresistible is the power of mystery, and how poetictd is the 
ignorance of the people. 

The invaaon of the niayorally of the Pdits I^res was one of the 
Jiifit epilodes of the 28th. MÂÏ. Dcgoufste, lIin;onnçt, and \m- 
^pvche had repaired thither early in the monun^, armed with 
muskets, and ready for combat. M. Degouasee wore the uniform of 
the nntionnl guards and as this courageous group of citizens passed 
along the boulevards, they were joined by numDcn* ol' the people. 
The post waa soon forced, the mayoralty taken possession of, the 
mugkcis it contained were dietribittod to the people, the drum was 
beat to arms. At the startling sound of the drum announcing in- 
Eurrection several bourgeois put on their uniforms as national guardsi 
jind hastened in arma to the spot. Some of them detached thcin- 
eelvea from the main body, and went to join the troops of the line in 
keeping guard at the b&nk^ otbers posted tliemsdves in the mayor- 
alty tu prcscn'c piibUe order. These were strange auxiliaries for 
inmrgents. Meanwiiilc agitation was spreading in every direction, 
and muskct-shotB were fired m the adjoining streets. Some of 
those who had seized the post wished to go out and join in the 
fight: Uie national guard stopped them, one of them exclaiming, 
*'iV hat are you about? They will fancy we are hwtilo."-^'* The 
very Ùiag I iatenà they should,'* replica M. Higontiet, contemptu- 
ously, and thercumn he threatened to shoot the other down. Thua 
the ni^ority nf the bouigcoifiie brought only distrust and doubts 
and fenia to that horrible mêlée, into which working men and chil- 
dren were about to plunge with chivabic blindoess. Tliey looked 



for order in ft revolt, and beheld nothing but the pî«9ervatioQ of 4 
few shops in the possible downlal of a throne. 

But by ihis time llie sturdy inhabitants of the faubourgs were 
riamg en mctaxe^ and pouring in lowarda the centre of Paria. 
Groups were collecting at the Porte St. Denis and the Porte St. 
Murtin. A barricade was beguii ut the entranceof tlio Fnubourg 
St. Denis with a waggon-load of rouj;h stones. The joiUTseymen 

firintcrs were collecting in the Passage Daupliinc, where M, Joubert 
tad translurmed his book warehouse into an arsenul. At another 
point M. Andiy de Puyraveau, dinging open the great gates of hia 
waggon oftico, called the combataiits to hiin with loud shouts, and 
distributed muskets among them. In the Faubourg St. Jacquea 
the studente were sticking their pistols in their belta, and arming 
themselves with their fowlingplecea. On. the Pkce de k. Bourse 
appealed two long wicker cases tilled with arma and imperial uni-' 
fonnSf under the care of M. Etienne Arago. They came I'roni the 
TliL^ûtre du Vaudeville, where had been perfurraed aome duys before 
the play of X< Servent Mathieu^ in whieh a body ot' actors ïiad to 
appear in arms. M. Charles Teste di-^tribuled these weaptma and 
uniibrms in hia house, Burnamcd Xa P^Hte JacobitâèTe. The istu- 
deiils of tlie Keole Polytechnique had broken open the fencing -rooms 
during the nighty possessed themselves of the ^foils, broken off the 
buttons from the cnds^ and sharpened them on the atones of the cor- 
ridors.* Being made aequûntcd about ten o'clock with the ordon- 
nance dismissing the school, they letl the premise, most of them in 
full-dres! uniform. They were greeted in the lîue de la Montagne^ 
Suinte-Geneviève with shouts ci" Viae i' Ecole Polytechnique! and 
tliey replied with shouta of Vive la Liberté! Vive la Charte! Ono 
of ihem, holding hia cocked hat in the air, tore the white cockado 
from it, trampled it underfoot, and nùsed the portentous cry, 
*' Down with tlio Bourbona !" 'Ihc example wùs quickly followed. 
But the school di^pereod; and the exertions of the pupils became 
ftlmcKst individual: the con^ucnce waâ that the fà.miUcs or fricnda 
of miuiy of them were able to keep tJiem back from the confliot, so 
that instËad of two hundred and fifty who, not being legitimists, 
might have taken part in the combat, only sixty actually fought. 

About 10 or n a. m.., MM. Charras and Lothon preaentcd them- 
selves At the house ol" M. Lafayette, and were told he was from 
lujine. Another deputation which had prtHMxled them had received 
from the c;eneral this strange reply, " Advise your comrades to keep 
quieL*' llic movement was imivcrsal, and those who seemed na- 
turally callod on to direct it, rctnaîucd stricken with iitupor. Châ- 
telain, ctiicf editor of the Courier Frcm^ais^ on hearing that the peo- 
ple were tearing down the royal arms from the shop fronts of tho 
court tradesmen, and were dragging them through the kennel^ had 
exclaimed that, '^ The game were a bnc one for tlie Due d'Orléans if 
he had the courage to play it." 

* L'nd«r the RËAtaration iHc pupili c^ ihc Éc<^ £^7t«cbl>i<l(ie were oaanncd, 
iocepl tbe Krg«ani«, who wore iitonï». 


Moanwliiito the Duc de Ragusc, în obedience to a suDunons ks 
otnved at eight in tho monmi"» went immedifttcly to M- do Potignae. 
Itwflfl HOC tni ihca i\mt the ordonnance appointing the maralial to tlie 
onmmand of the fîrst militaiy division was put inlo bis h»nd, Ttib 
ordmioanco ehoiild have Wen notified tohira the preceding dny ; but 
M. de Poljgnac had thought Tit on the 27th to put the commandant 
of ihc place, by a ppecial order, at tho head ol" the miards rtationod 
in Pans. For on tho one hand M. do PoHgnac befieved that whut 
ho regarded aa a mere outbreak oCthe mob would bo very ou^ily put 
down- and on the other, he would ralher ha\e afiorded the honour 
ol' tluat Little triumph to a man of his own party than to the Duo de 
Ilapusi?» who passed at court almast tor a liberal. 

Be this aa it may, Paris having been dcclured on the 28 th in & 
Btato of siege, the Due de Ragnse found himsell' invcste^î with a 
reid military dictatorship, under tho êurv^Utmcc of the prime mi- 
nifftcr. His pitmition wae a cruel one. If ho took part vrith tho 
insurgents he betrayed a kirig who had relied on him ; if he put eo 
many raothera in mourning, without even believing in the juBtice oï 
his causo, he coiiumttod an atrocity; if he stood (uoof he was twice 
dishonourcd. Of these three linoa of conduct he adopted that 
which y/m most fatal to tlie people. 

Having, howevcrj once accepted the dictatorship, he had a very 
eimplo mcnnâ in his hand^ of putting down the sneurrection, and 
that was to threaten to set fire to Paris, But there are men who 
have neither the courage of virtue nor tliat of crime. Tîio foUoiv- 
mg wofl tho duke's plan: 

rhe troopÈ were concentralctl round the Tuileries. It was nv 
solved that they should ect out theuce and inarcii in two main divi- 
m-nns towards the soulh-cast. One of the two divisions was opdcanl 
t<j proceed to the Place de Grève and tho Hôtel do Ville, aloug thu 
hujilcs of tlie Seine; the other was to troveree the whole length of 
the Ixiulevards from the Madeleine to the Place de la BaflliUe^ and 
then to march through the whole Faubotirj? St, Antoine, Thm it 
might be said that the royal army, stretching out ita too huge arms 
from tlic Tuileries south-east ward a, one to the right along the qua^, 
^the other to the left along the boulevards, enclosed the insurrection 
P%<tWeen them in the most important and most tumultuous portion 
of the city. But it wa,^ necfftsary that a communication should bo 
contrived ut some other point than their junction between these two 
hneSt thus separated by the whole breadth of the ground they en- 
cloeed. Two biitliilion." of the guards were ^ereforo ordered to 
occupy tlio Marché des Innocents m the Rue St. Dcni&j and to keep 
that street open, one of them patroling it northwarda aa for aa the 
f Iwulcvardfl, the other sttuthwarda as far aa the Seine. 

Tlic defects of ihi? plan were manifest. It wa» easy enough for the 
troops to traverse the blood-Btained route marked out for them on the 
map, but they were not numerous enough, by a great deal, to occitjpy 
BO cxtunaive a space. And tht-n to pu&li ilicm into the street.'* of St. 
Dcnia and St. Antoine^ irom which un inânity ûf bhuU crookt^ alleys 



braticJietl oft' rigJit ami left, was to expose tlicm to dcalli fi-om all 
quarters, wiUiout the power of retaliating. 

But whut otber plan was practicable? How was it possible to 
blockade the vuat city of Paris with a few thousand men? Had 
Charles X.^ when he signed the ordonnances, been iible to ibre^îe a 
revoIutJon ; and had he taken care to provide victuals for the troops, it 
inîght have been possible for him, no doubt^ to recommence the 
cventa of the 13th Ve7nUmiaîre i the royal nrmj' closin"^ round the 
pAlacc of the Icin^ would have awaJted the iusurret-tion with bnyoncta 
tixed, and with the matches of the cuunoas lighted; and if the in- 
^UTffiDti had confined them&elvea to running about the city, cup' 
tunng the posls, taking poeseseion of the public buildings, and 
bri-'akjiig the ruyal arms^ the buui'gcoisic in the excess of ita ter- 
rors, would not have dclEkved long to seek pardon on it^ knees, 
only too happy to cecapc m}m the f^ir of pilkge by aubmitting to 

liut the wjklicrs wanted victuals» and they would have been the 
iir»t to be forced by lluuine to lay down their ai-ms. Once more I 
peat, there were but two alternatives open to a servant of Charles 
^, oithor to let the crown of tliat totlenng old man fall into the 
abyw, or to set fîro to the four comers of his capital: for he it known 
toevï^ry budy politic that submits to the sway of a monarchy, that to 
Bttvo thjit nionarrhy mny even cost no less a price I 

llic Iroopa then put themselves in motion, the cannons rolled 
alnnff the pavement, and civil war broke out in Parie. 

VVhat was to be the isBuc of that war? ITie «mwFns, the men of 
letters, uiul itlmitst all the mililary mcn^ lot^ked with pity on the 
^wipulftr t:urabatants and their mad schemes. M. 'lliicrH nin oiJ" to 
wck on asylum at the liouw of Madame de Courchamp, in the valley 
of Montmorency. M. Cou^n talked, tit tho olKt^ of the Ghibr, of 
the white tlajj j*^ the only one the nation could recognise; and he 
reproached M, Pierre Loroux for compn^mieing his friends by the 
revolutiowaiy tone he was giving the journal. M. Duboia, the chief 
j^torof tlie Glohe^ waaab^nt. In short, there was nothing on all 
tods hut perturbattoQ, uncertAinty, and contiisioa in tho ranks of 
the higher bourgeoisie. 

Tliere was among the moet remarkable writers of that time^ one 
of tall figure, nbnipt but dignitîcd gestures, retiring but thoughtful 
fomhejwl. He hod been a soUlJer. At the firi^t ie|>ort of tlie mus- 
ketry he ftbook his head sadly j he then set off through the city, un- 
annttl, with a black switch in hîâ hand, heeiUcsa of the balls that 
whistled around him, and braving death without seeking triumph- 
Tliia man, destined to an illustrions and ill-fated career, waa then 
little known: his name was Armand Carrel. " Have you oven a 
Hnglo battaJton?" wa« his constant question to the moet conGdent 
among hia friendj?. On the monung of the ÎSth. pflsnng alone the 
bonlmrdd with M, Éticnno Arago, who was cnncing much ardour, 
^* Stay," «lid he» pointing to a mnn who was greasing hie ahocs with 



ite oil of ft broken atrcet-lamp, " there you have the people — there 
you see Paris ! Lovitj — recklcssne^a — what represents great thmn 
applied to little uses/' He was inistakeu in one-half. The people 
was about to lake pan seriously in the fight^ it was indiffèrent only 
aa to the results of the victory. 

The two battalions of the guards^ ordered to march aloDg tlie right 
bank of the Seine, had set out under the command of General Talon. 
FaUiug in with the 15th li^ht infantry at the Pont Neuf, tliey car- 
ried it along with them, and quitting the right bank of iKe oeine, 
they advanced by the centre hne of the bridge into ihc isle of the 
Cité. Then deffling along the Quai de l'Horloge» they reached the 
entrance of the bndge of Notre Dame, where they halted for a 

The Hotel de Ville had been occupied ànce daybreak by some 
intrepid young nteoT and by mauv timid dtkcna, who h&d gone 
thither for the protection of pubUc order; the latter had entered 
becau^ the place seemed empty» and they appneared greatly alarmed 
at tlic impetuoâty of their companions. But the Place de Grève, 
and all the streets opening upon it, were thronged with men of un- 
conquerable courage, lue tocsin was sounded from the church of 
St' Severin, and the deep booming bell of Notre Dame returned a 
still more awful response to that found of mourning. The drum 
was beating in the Rue Planche- Mibray, which faces the bridge of 
Notre Dame, and the crowd was rushing towards the quay. 

The guards advanced upon the bridge, and suddenly opening 
their fklea, exposed two pieces of artillery. The drum ceased to 
beat: the pavement of the street was swept of all but the dead. 
The guards passed iho bridge, deployed on the Quaîâ de Gèvreo 
and de PellcticT, left a platoon to guard ^ic entnmce to the 
Rue Planche-MJbray, and spread out over t}ie Place de Grève» 
driving the Parisiana before thetn, who retreated rapidly by all 
the streets and lanes that opened on the square^ whilst the defendera 
of the Hûtel de Ville escaped by the back doot», firing aa they tab. 

The 15th hght infant^ had remained on the other side of the 
bridge, covering the Marchi-aux-Fleurâ. ïlotionlesa, with their 
weapons resting on the ground, the soldiers of the 15th looked on 
widiout taking any active part in the fi^ht. Armed citizens paaeed 
belbre them every moment, and the ollicer contented himself with 
saying to them, aa he pointed with his sword to working men car- 
ricfl awoy bleedjng, *' lou eee! for mercy sake, do not go aero»!" 
But sharpshootcTS from the Passage Dauphinc and &om tho Fau- 
bourg St. Jact^ues were giaduatly accum ulatiug, ia defiance of all rc- 
aistiuicc, on the Quai de la Cité. The parapet wall of the Seine 
protected them iVom tlie ûre directed against Inem by the guards on 
the right bunk^ whil^^t their balla took certain oflbct un the soldierv 
that overspread the Place dc Grève. Such, moîeâV£l( waa tlie ardent 
spirit oi' the men of the people, that several of them rushed upon the 
suapcnsioQ bridge leading to the Pkce, in the middle of whico a c&n- 






aon was pointed agaiJist tliero. Several discharges of grape were 
Bent ftiDonest tiio assailanta, and several times in succession was ihe 
bridge trigntijilly swept by the shot. M, Charras, of the École Poly- 
technique, waa on the left bonk, sword in hand. A workman, wïio 
was shot down by liia side by a ball through the chest, bequeathed 
iûm hiâ musket, but aiamuiutioii was w^utmg. A lud of filteen or 
idxteeiiT stepped up to M. Charraa, and showing him a packet of 
cartridges, eaid, " We will divide if yon like, but on condition 
that you lend me your gun, that 1 may tire ofl' my phftte," The 
musket was put into liis hand.i, and he ran to have his shot. Just 
at that moment a body of guards advanced across the bridge: the 
insurgents vaniaîicd up the street opening on tho quay^ and among 
them the intrepid boy. It was on lïiia £«me field of battle that a 
■young man, who carried a tricolour flag^, uttered the heroic cxcîamA- 
tion» " My friends, if I fait, «member that my name is d'Arcole." 
lie did fall; but the bridge that received hia corpse haa, at Iciest, pre- 
served lus name» 

Some paces off from this scctuj of action, the students were erect- 
îng barricades. Tlicn came drums of the national guard beating the 
rappti and the ffênéraîe. Curious spectacles were sometimes mixed 
lip with all the horrors of such a tlmma. A column of fifteen or 
twenty mea waa eeen, for instance, in the Kue St, André des Arts 
mttrching with avioUn at thâr head. The women stood at the win- 
dows applauding every armed man that pa^ed. Encouragements ot 
a diffcren t kind were parti cularly addressed to the troops. Small 
printed papers were scattered about containing tlicse words — *' The 
country fuis a vtarshal» truncheon to bestmr on the firnt colonel who 
shall make common cause tcith the peopled Tliua all things concurred 
to augment the energy of tJiis movomejit, the moat extraordinary 
that ever seized upon the population of a grcjit city. 

liut the inturroction was uf a tot^dly diSeïcnt cliarooter in tlie 
rich quarters from that it dispUyed in those whence issued the 
combatants of the Place dc Grève. The prevailing gentiment in 
the Faubourg St. Honoré was tlie love of order^ the desire of conser- 
vation. Tluâ sentiment had guided a great number of national 
gUftrds to the mayoralty of the liret arrondissement: a detachment 
of the 6tii rcmmont of the guards, under the command of M. Sala, 
was sent thither, but not a shot was fired. **■ Wo arc here," cried 
the national guards, " only to insure the protection of property." — 
" It is for the aMDe object that we are come hither," replied the 
officer. The altercation waa warm : at last the national guards gave 
way, and M. Sala, who, accordin" to the orders of General St. HÎ- 
laire, should have made them pnsoners, sent them away reaesured 
and satisfied. The battalion continuing iu mareli^ a dtmi company 
wtfl attacked in front of the Madeleme by workmen armed witil 
miukcts and pistolp. They were vigorously received, and whilst 
some nf the assailants dispersed up the neighbouring streets, others 
tau for shelter into the church. A company followed them tliithëc 



Acnes the overthrown barricades. The workmen climbed ap into 
the loof : the asldicrEi threatened to Bet fire tc the Gscaffbldiug with 
the straw lying on the floor of the unfinished building: the m«i 
came down, and ■were shut np in the charch. Two houK aitertvardfl 
another detachment camo and eet them at liberty. The fiokiiets 
who fought at the Jrladeleme and in the neighbourhood had shed 
and had loft blood* Their eituAtion wsa di^treesine. thï?ir gloora 
was profbijnd. And yet when their usual hour of qïancr arriredt 
thoy weire heard joking about the siirpiise and impatieiiœ they 
fancied their cooks would feel, who hsd been left behind at St. 
Denis. Such wm the character of this war, — ^laughter and t«ira 
continually mingled together, — sometimes generous and courteons, 
Bomotimes implacable; here grave as on a field of battle, there 
ludicrous as on a stage in a fair, it set forth in bold relief all the 
dazzling qualitic?, but likewiEC aU the unstable Tcrsatility of the 
French natioh. 

Amidst this immense and confuted m^lûe, most of the officers of 
the guards thought it ïheir bounden duty to remain inviolably true 
to their colours. Some of them, such as M. I^CTnotheux, recorded 
their retirement from the service, but still withth^ full detcrminatioa 
of not dpclflxing it openly till the fighting waa over. Others inter- 

frcted their duty dilJerently. The Count do Raoul de la Tour-du- 
'in, for instance, addressed the ibUowing letter to Prince Po* 

** MûNfEiairErR,— After a <îaj or mastacKs tnâ dlaasters entend oo m défiance 
of all laws, dcTiae aad bumaa, tad in which 1 bavn tMkcn p«n od^ £ram a rupeet 
fo hoinau OHisJilËntioaB fc»* wlikh I reproaich dij^kIi'. my coDaaemic impcriuUa^ 
forbiils mc to terve a momeiit longer, I Ijave givftD, in tliiz course of 017 lue, pnwB 
FU^imtlj annffnma of my dcvotiun to tbc Vinfctn witmuit nie, irithont exinoin^ 
Vgr muntioiu to unjiut sn£pt(!iu&fi, to drav n diiUnctian between wbtt etxmnVtKB 
noax him njid the acrociti» th4t «re commiitcU in >»i« nsme. I liavc the tKHioar to 
TC^ucfit, mousoiji^cur, timt jiou will laj bdore tlie king mj res^giiatkui of n^ oom- 
mioûon as taptniit of \ùb ^nrd."* 

Mc&awhilc a cotunm commanded by M. de St. CKiunan^, and 
composed of two battalions of the first regiment of the guards, k 
battalion of the âxth, and about 150 kneers, had set out for the 
Place de la Bastille by way of the boulevards, ûccompanicd by two 
piccc9 of cannon. It marened for a. long while without meedn^jnth 
any very strenuous resistance, but on reaching the Portes St. Dénia 
and St. Jtartin, it was attacked with extreme vigour. Here fought, 
at the head of o heroic and ragged multitude, young men who 
carried with them tlio old French gaiety into the tliickcst pcrik of 
the conflict, leaders of proletaries, whom one would have lakcDi 
frtun their graceful gallantry and their chivalric ardour, for the heirg 
of tliat vahant noBease that conquered at Fontenoy. T!;e royal 
troops, tittacketl on all sides, halted and fired. This time there wero 
none killed or "tt'ounded. The assailants perceived this, and Te» 

* '^I never r«X'iveJ thii Icttrr; I would hare acnt it iMick to iit aathùr. In tbo 
noiDeDt ûf danger,)» tme's mignation it accepted." — MS, m/te of M, ii P^E^rme, 




lumed to ttc charge whh shouts of laughter tlitit niiiin;lcd witli tho 
"^ ** a&l noiec of tiie rusHliidc. The caimons were broii^'ht up. At 
1 they were about to he discharged, a boy dartt'd ibrward 
_ .oldiors and iiretl a pistol at ihem at point blank distance, 
iie troops continued their march, but bcJiind lliem the crowd camo 
on iii heaps; the trees oi' the houlcvardâ were fcUcd wth the axe, and 
barricades, thrown up with astonishing quickness, cut off all hope of 
retxcat for the soldiers. On the Place cTe la Bastille M. de St. Cha- 
xooDB found a niuneroua assemblage composed chiefly of women ajad 
childreû, " Work ! Broad !" Such were the cries that issued û-om 
thia multitude: those who composed it were ahnost all unarmed. 
Strange &ct ! Whilst the people waa elsewhere fighting with cries 
oi' wliicH it knew not the meaning;, on the Place de la Bastille it ut- 
tered its own genuiae war-cry without tliinldug of fighting. M. de 
St. Chftmans advanced among the groups fiud distributed all the 
money he had about him. 

H© found the square occupied by & ic^mcnt of cuirassiers of the 
guards, the âOth regiment of infantry ot the line, and a squadron of 
jgendarniene. Though these troops had not been placed under his 
command^ M. dc St. Clmmans ordered the cuira^picrs and the âOth 
to march to the Place de Grève^ in order to keep the communication 
free between his column and the soldiers sent to the Hatol de Ville, 
But the 50tli and t]ie cuirassiers^ not being able to efl'ect this duty, 
letumed to their position on the Place de la Bnptillc. 

M. de St. Chftiaaua himself advanced into tlie Fâubouz-^ St. An- 
teine. of which be made himself master after an hour's fighting. 

On returning to the Place dc la Bastille he found there the 50tli 
aod tlic cLurassiers. Tlieir officer reported to Kim the impediments 
lliat had prevented the execution of his orders, whereupon he imrao' 
diatcly resolved to enter the Ituc St. Antoine at the liofld of the same 
column he had led iVom the Boulevard de la Madeleine. The pas-* 
fiBffe was loDg and bloody. Groups of invisible ghai-pèliooters poured 
a iuil-stoTm of ballfl on the troops, and broken bottles, tiles, and lur- 
niture were flung down on them from every window. Fecblo 
women cturied h^vy paving-stones up to the roofs of their houses, 
and hurled thtm thence ou the heads of the soldiers. The number 
of ïncu of the people who appeaxed in the open street with muskets 
in ihcir hands was not in reality very comddemblo, but the multitude 
of those who took part indirectly in the combat was immense. In. 
the hottest of the fusillade several men in f mockfroekâ were seen in 
the Rue Culture- Sainte-Cathcrinc letting themselves down by ropes 
Jxom the walls of the pK>mpiers' borrûcks. These were ughtm^ 
m«&, who, having been made pri^Micrs, had been placed for security 
in the barracl^, «nd whom the pompiers were thus sending baciC 
into the action. Several cannon shots were fired, hut the extreme 
jDOgnitude of the occasion that converted a city into a field of battle 
gave Bupemiitural energy to couiti^er and filled the: very air mexi 
MCfttbed with, A contagious intoxication. Doora suddenly opened to 

I 2 



(lielter men of the popiilar parly at tlie moment they were hardest 
pressed, and were liastily eliut to the moment they entered; the 
wotindpf! were roeeivecl vnth alacrity, antl their wounds dressed by 
syrapathixing hands; making Unt or grindinf^ powder was in every 
house tlie occupation of the women — motlicre, sisters, or lovers of 
those who were going to death t Never was the simghino so intense; 
ita burning Itc&t augmented the universal mental iever. 

On reachin^'^ the neighbourhood of the church of St. Gervaiat tho 
column headetlby M. deSt> Chamans found its progrcM arrested by 
B huge barricade, wMch waa promptly escaladed by the voltigeurs in 
the advance» but which the soldier?, with all their courage and per- 
severance, were unahle to demolish. HercT then, there was an 
insuperable obstacle to the match of the cavalry ntid artillery; so, 
afler expending the last cartridge, M. dc St. Chamans turned uff to 
the left to cross the Seine by the bridge of Austerlitz, reach the 
esplanade of Uio Invalides by way of the new boulevards, and so 
arrive at the Place Louts XV. Such were, in fact, the ibrma! 
orders communicated to him before he cnlcred the Hue St. Antoine, 
in a despntch which was put into liis hands by a person dressed in. 
plain clothes. 

During this lime the soldiers in the Place de Grève were in a very 
bad ph^ht, and were defending themi?olveg with great courage. 
■Every house had become a fortrcas, and shots were rapidly tired 
from e\"cry window, 'llircc men had posted themselves behind a 
chimney, and theuce they kept up a deadly lire on the soldier?, till 
at hu^t ibcy were discovered. A cannon was pointed against the 
chimney, but before it was discharged the cannoneer made a sign to 
the three men to got out of the way. There wag not less gallantry 
and f,''.-neroâlv on the part of the asaaitanta. But what were these 
attiiekin^'? Wliat were those defending? Others could telH Sud- 
denly a loud clattering of arms end hoi'scs was heard in the Place de 
-Orève, A detachment of the 50th, preceded by cuirassiers, was 
■ -advancing thither along the rpmy?. It was marched into the yard 
■of the Hotel de Ville, and its cartridges, which it refused to use, 
•were distributed among the soldiers of the guartls who were more 
pertinacious defenders of royalty. A Swiss detachment had been 
«ont from the Tuileries to the sueeour of the H6lel de Ville, and it 
entered the Place do Grt>ve at double quick step. The sight of thowj 
Ted imiforma redoubled the fury of the insurgents; fresh combâtanta 
tushcd forth from every alley, and a barricade was seized and manriL-d 
I "by the people. Tlie Swiss sustained this attack with \'igour; the 
I ^guards ud\'ancetl to support them, and the Parisians were ïx?ginnîng 
to give way, when a young man advanced to rally and cheer thorn 
I ion, waving a tricolour flag on the end of a lance^ and shouting, *' I 
I will show yuu how to die." He fell, pierced with bulls, willun ten 
['paces of tlie guards. This engagemeitt was terrible; the Swi» led 
llauY of their numbers stretched on the pavement 

Tno war all over F^riâ abounded in scenes wliimsically odd, 


Jberoic, lamentable. Tlie Marqiiia d'Autichamp had taken up Ms 
pc3«t, seattitl on a cimir in the colonnade oi' the Lotivie, op|H>3ite 
St. Germain-l'Auxerrols- Bent undei' the burden of lus years, and 
Hardly «ble to sustain Ida tottering body, he encouraged tlie Swiss 
to the fijL^lit by his presence, and siit ivitn folded urnjg gazing on the 
drsnml spectacle before him with stoicnl inËcnsibility* A band of 
insurffcnts attacked the powder-magazine at Ivry, on the Boidevard 
do rHûpital, broke in iho door with hatchets and pole-axc5, rushed 
into the courtyard, and obliged the people of the pliice to throw 
item packages of powd*?r out of the wlimows; tlie jns«rg;euts:, mth 
aU the hot-headed recklessness ot'thc moment, continued with their 
pipes in their inoulhë to catch the packages as they fyll, and carried 
them oii"iji their arms. The debtors coniincd in St, Pelagic, using 
a beam for a battering ram, broke open the gatcs^ and then went 
and joined the {^ard* at tlic post, to prevent the escape of the cri- 
minaL prifloncra. A bloody encounter took place in the Hue des 
Prouvairea, and cxliibitcd the spcelacle common enough in civil 
"vars of brothers Cghtin;^ in opposite ranks. There was throughout 
the whole city a sort of morjl intoxication, the aspect of which it 
passes the power of human speeoh to deâcrlbe. Am^idst the noise of 
musketry, the roUing of the drums, the cries and the groans of the 
combfttontfif a thousand strange reports prevailed, and added to the 
imiretsal bewildermait. A hat and teaihors were carried about 
some parts of ihc town, said to Ix; those of the Due de BLifjusc, 
whose death waa asserted. There was something supernatural in 
the audacity of ccrtAÎn among tli^e combfttADte. A workman seeing 
a company of the 5th of the line cmer|riiig ui>on the Pkcc de la 
Bourse, ran stnught up to the captain, and struck liitn a blow on 
à hcftd with an iron bar. llus captain's name was Caumann. 
_ itecled» and his luce was bathcfl in blood; but ho had still strength 
cnouph left to throw up his soldiers' bayonets with his sword as 
they wo^ï about to lire on the aggressor. Ttie men of the people 
added the moat perfect sclf-dcmal to their intrepidity, ana they 
ranged themBclvcs by preference under the orders of any combatant 
whose drc^ pointeJ mm out to them as belonging to the more 
liivouied classes of society. Furtliermore, the young men found at 
every step guides for their inexperience in the persons of old soldiers 
vho had survived the battles of iho empire, — a. warlike generation 
ivhom thcBourbona liad for over inc^ua-d in 1815. 

But the magnanimity of the people was not less astonishing than 
ita couruge. If it happened in the heat of the fight that the rich 
man oHered his purse to the poor man as he gaspetl for breath and 
alm<»e ikinted» tlie poor man accepted no more than w^a Bufficicnt 
for the necessity of the moment, and ran, imder the shower of ballf, 
to return tlie remainder of the piece of gold he had received in thoee 
hours of intense and transient brotherhood. Sometimes there wad 
mingled with this diËintcrcstedness a tone of poetry , euch as can only 
be conccjTed by noble hearte that beat beneath rags. Some work* 

118 1CEETIK6 OF jyETVTOa. 

men were defending a barricade thrown up in the Rne St. Joseph. 
A bouigcois who was fighting amon^ them saw one of them leu 
faintly against the stones of the Darricade : he thought the yoimg man 
was wounded, for his shirt was bloodj and his face waa deadty pal& 
The bourgeois bent oTcr him ; but the workman said feebfy, *' I 
am bunCTy." A five-fianc piece was immediately tendered to him; 
■upon which the young man passing his hand under his bloodj shirt, 
^ew out a ragged royalist nag, aaà said to his beneiactor, '* Here, 
dr; take this xa cxcmm^." 

And, oh ! what consoling episodes amidst so many sooies of woe 
and mouminç ! In the Place des Victoires, where the troops under 
General Waff were posted, women of the people were seen carr^inf 
mtchers full of wine and n*ater, which they ofi^ed to the paiched 
fip6 of the soldiers. At the same time the general was oitenng into 
negotiation viùi M. Degoussée for the remo'v^I of the wounded. 
The poor fellows were laid on cars, and it was an insurant leader 
dressed in a blouse, a foraging cap, with a musket in his nand, who 
undertook with four men to escort the melancholy procesûon 
through the wailing streets of Paris. Unparalleled war, in whi^ 
every combatant braved death twice, — first to strike down the 
eoemy, and then to save him ! 

But the Marché des Innocents was the spot were the battle was 
hottest. The battalion which set out thence to clear the ground as 
iar as the boulevard of the Rue St. Denis, could only acoMnjdidi 
its melancholy task with incredible exertion. On arrivin? at the 
Gour Batavc it encountered a murderous fire, and it haâ. nearly 
thirty men killed or wounded before it reached the Porte St. Martin. 
Its brave colonel, M. de Pleincselve, was wounded ; the soldiers 
carrietl him on a board. As fast as the soldiers advanced, the Rue 
St. Denis became blocked up behind them with barricades; there 
was no possibility of their retracing their steps. General Quinsonnaa 
remained, therefore, in the Marché des Innocents with a small number 
of men, hemmed in on all sides by the insurgents. 

Whilst the battle was thu.s raging in various parts of Paris, the 
following is what the deputies were doing: — M. Audry de Puy- 
laveau had appointed them to assemble in his hôtel at noon. M. 
Audry was powerful and rich ; he has since fallen into poverty and 
neglect; lie has folt himself smitten in every sensitive fibre of his 
heart; and at this day he is a wanderer in a toreipn land, not having" 
been able to find a spot whore he might rest liis head in a land 
where he had thought to build a home for Irecdom. M. Audry 
distrusted tlie firmness of his colleagues : before he opened his dooos 
to them, he secretly made it known to several students and to a 
great number of workpeople, that a meeting of deputies was to 
take place at his house, and that they must be frightened into a de- 
termined course of revolution. Accordingly, on their arrival, the 
deputies found the courtyard filled with a loud and imrassioned 
concourse of people. Some young men endeavoured incnectuaUy 

M. omzcyfa draft of a pkotest. 


to get into llio Tncetm^-room ; but it was on the groimd-flooT; the 
"iTuidows were opcu; ami the deliberaliuna mu£t necesaftrily take 
place under tlie ejes *:it° tlic people. M. Muuguui was ttc lii^t 
speaker: " It is a revolution we Jiave to conduct,' he said; "our 
dioice lies between the reyal guards aad t!ic people,'' ïhtae words 
startled MM. Sébastiam and Cliarlea Dtipin, who cried out^ vehe- 
mently» '■ Let us remaiji withLu tlic bounds of law Î" M. de La' 
fayette smiled disdninfuily ; and wiiilst M. Guizot was suggesting 
to his coU^^cs that they should interpose as mediators ia the in- 
surroetion, a felse report arrived that the Hôtel de Ville had fallen 
into the hands of the people. The assembly was thus distracted by 
a twofold terror, when M. Guizùt rose, holding iii Ms band iha 
draft of a protest, <lrawn up in these terma: 

" The unflcrsijjncd, rcgiilarilj elected and deputed H- the colTeiHiMfif the flrrondiaie- 

oinits and departmcntB hereiiiKft«r-DUDcd by virtue of tbc royii ordoniumce of -, 

ajid coutbrmably to the cuiulUuiLonul cJiarter, imii t« tbe law^i reapâctiog t!i<r «lection 

of ; .iiid being at this present time îuPtrù, ikt-m tlicniielresû.bsoliitvlj' bouud^ 

by their tliitj towTird» tbe king and France, to protest against tlit meaBiites which 
the counsolicirs of tho crown, dt-oçiiin^ tlie întentîonB tif tlie manarcli, lutTç tutdy 
OHUcd to be jidopteit, to the oventirow uf the lawful s^ieoi of elcctiouA and to the 
ruin of the lilx ny of the prcsa. Tliu snid mcagurcs, contained in the onlonnonce of 
, nie, in the opinion of the nuder^iRiied, directly opposed to the conntitutional 
«kurter, to iW QQDstitDtional rights of the cbAinbcT of ivcra, tu the law& nf the 
SïïfXKh, to the inivil^ge» and tht: dLTJ^^ioiia of tlm tfibunAls, And calculaticd to cut 
the ftiite into a c<infii5ion jhïtÎIou» aiikL' to its présent pence and to îta future Sceiiritv. 
In ooosequeDCV whcmf, Tlie ondcrsigned, inriolnhly ftuthfHil to thoiri»lh to the Icing 
■ad to tfae GODititiitiaiiaL charter, protect, wilh aaa cvmutum ncconl, not only ugainAt 
Hw Hid meuuTEfl, but agaioA aU the act? wliii^h nmy rvsuU tli(;rL-frum. And 
■Khtrt-njs, on tht; onu^ hand, thtf Clmtuber of Dcpntii.-!, n^it hiiving been constituted, 
Oinnnt hare bren lc?:i!lv di-istîltî.-tl; iind, oil ihe ot lier hand, the attempt to form 
another Ctnunbur of Deputies, after a neir «id arbitrary' mimiUT, i« in dirLtt coDtn- 
dkrtioD (o t)ic coiutilutLon4il charter and to tbe ao^uûed ngbti of the electon^ the 
imdenigned dc^clorc tlmt they cortinne to coosidcr themnlm tm le^ly elected sml 
deputed bj the eollffces of the arrondi ascmeatf and deptrtmnits of whirh they hnve 
chtùBfd the 8u9'nigv's, tuid as not eapublt; ùS being set taùk for othen, except by 
virtue of ek«tioiu nuuk ai^cording to the principlea and the fomu directsd by the 
laws, Anid if the unilersignerl d» not artniilly eXercJEie Hk rigfati, find fto not dia- 
ehBTge aQ the dotie* conftiTwi (ukI iiupowd on them ttv their lawfol election, it U 
llnaH tbity u« prcventeil hy » physical viuJenn!, against; which tbey will not ceaiç 

Sivere of blood were flowing Id Paria at the motncut M. Guizot 

WIS I't^ding this document. It was variously received. Some, among 
whom were MM. de Lafayette, LaiEttc, Atidry de Puyraveau, Burard, 
l)Munou» dc ScJioncn, Mauguin, Ba\-o«x, dc Labonic, nnd Labbey 
^ Pompieres, could hardly undersnuid what was meant by talking 
of B<lelity to the kiog, and of counseliors dec^ving the intentiont &f 

[tks mtautrth, m the midst of a ravaged dtj, and amidst the din of 
koaâled combats. Others, such as MM. Oharleâ Dupiu axA Sé- 

ptiAsttajaî, tbought the declaration overbold- M. Coamir Périer made 
liimsclf promineDtly conspicuous bv his coavulaive agitation. Goin^ 
mi to M. Latiittc» be and to him, *'Wc mustabeolutuiy negotiate witJt 
liarmont. Jï^our miUiona wuuld not be ill-bestowed in tliis matter/* 
TJie idn of trying to efleet eomething with Mannont was quickly 
.t at by tne whole m^etiDg, «nd M. Lallitte was assigned the 


of naming the five membors wlto shouU farm the deputation. 

|Hc uaraeil MM. Casuuir Périer, Mauguin, Lobaii, and Gerard. 

After appointing to meet aguin at four o'clock at M. Bt-rard's» the 

Wtting broke up, and tbe five cammissionera set olFfor head-quarters, 

«topping on their way at M. Laffitte's to concert the plan of their 

frot'ocdinrrs. On setting foot in the Place d\i Carrousel, M. Casimir 
'éricr could not help Siiving to M. Laffitte, iu the cx<;ess of bis per- 
turbation, ** I very much fear we are going to cast ourselves into 
the jaws of the wolf." 

The deputies bad been anticipated in their visit to Ûie Duc de 
Ragiise by M. Arago. Tliat same morning the latter had received 
a letter from lladanie do liuigncp, intrcatin*^ bini to g"o lo Mannont, 
and exert the întlucncc he possessed over hbn to save Paris from ir- 
.blo (lisastci^- M. AragobesiLitcd, well knowing how proinpi 
how envenomed is suspicion in times of civil discord. A noble 
thought occurred to him, and his decision was taken. Calling his 
eldest son, he deâied him to accompany him, as none could suspect 
a father of meditating an act oi* pertsdy to be done in tlic pro 
vcncc of liis own son. Tlicy set out, made iheir way through the 
flying ballâ to ]]cad-(|uarters« tmd were shown into a room» in the 
centre of which was a billiard-table, on which M. Laurcmie was 
■writing an article for the Quotidienne^ whilst the most horrible con- 
fuàott prevailed all round him. The aidea-de-camp were running 
and fro bewildered, pale, and covered with dust und |j«;rgpiratioii; 
.j^Httcliea wci'C going ofl' every moment from the room occupied 
ly the commander-in-chief; a thousand tiunultuousi i-eports were 
arriving from without, mingled with the explosion oi" fire-arms; and 
superior officers, huddled promiscuously together, were standing 
witli cars bent to listen and dejected features, atixiously following 
all the ductuations of the conflict. 

When M, Arago suddenly presented among them his tall figure, 
noble, tJioughtful head, and piercing cyos, the agitation was tre- 
mendous: they surrounded him on ail sides with accenuj of terror 
or with threats, as though there were embodied in hia pcraon some- 
Btartling and living image of the uprouscd people. Upon this M. 
Komictowski» a Polish officer, goin^ up hastily to him, said, " Sir, 
if a hand ia laid on ycm, I will strike it off with my sabre." 

]M. Arago was conducted to the commandcr-in-chicil But before be 
opened hia lips, Marmont cried out abruptly, with a hurried sweep 
oi hia arm, ■* Propose notliing to mc that would dishonour me." 

" What I am about to propose to you is, on the contrary, for 
your honour. I do not ask you to turn your sword againat CharW 
jL; but refuse all command, and set out this instant for St. Cloud/* 
" What ! abandon the post in which the king's conddence has placed 
me! I, a soldier, fall Wfc before insurgent bourgeois i give Europe 
reuon to say that our brave troops have i-etrcated before a popuUce 
aimed with sticks and stones ! Impossible, impossible \ You knovir 
my BeDtiment& You know whether or not I approved of these ftc- 






cursed ordonnances. But tliere is a horrible fatality upon me^ my 
destiny must Le accomplished." — *'You may fight «gainst that ùt- 
tûiîty. One moans remains to you to wipe out from the mcmoi'y of 
the Parisians the events of the invasion — off, oÛ\ without delay l" ■ 

At thia moment a maiï rushed into the waiting-room, drcased m 
3 jacket, with a hftiry cap on his head. All way confusion at the 
aight of this unknown individual; he wm on the point of bang^ ar- 
rested, and he had hardily time to dash the cap frotn his head, and 
cry out, " Do you not knnw me? I nm the aiae^dc'Camp of Geneïûl 
QuinBfunwis. I cut olV my mouBtacboa to enable me tn get here." 
He demanded to ppciik with the Dtic dc Kiigtiso; and he toid him 
that the troops posted in the Marché des Imiocciits had already suf- 
Jwrcd severely, and that a rejuforcement was necessary. " Why» 
hjkve you not cannon?" — " Cannon, monsieur le marL'chal! What 
can cannon do against the pavin (^-stones and the furniture showered 
down from every window on the heads of the eoldiera?" 

Just then ft lancer, who bad been knocked off his horse, was 
brought into the adjoining room. The poor fellow wss cove-red with 
blood; his uniform was partly open in front, and showed bis breast 
stuck with printing- types, which had been tised instead of bullets. 

Mannont strode up and down the room; hie tumultuous emotions 
irero written, in Ms face. *' Battahons !" he said, impatiently, lo tho 
aide-dâ-eatnp. '^ I have no battalions to send them: they mu£t get 
out of the difficulty as thev can." 

The aide-de-camp ïcft tlic room, and M. Arago returned to his 
exhortations with incrfa?ing warmth. '* Well, well," murmured 
the marshal, '^ tliis evcninp; — I will eee — " " ThJa evening! Do 
you know what you say ? This evening there will be mourmng m 
tbomandsof families 1 This evening all will be over! And whatever 
be the result of the conflict your position will be terrible. Van- 
quished, your ruin is certain ; victor, you will never be forgiven all 
uiia blood.'* 

The mai^hal appeared shaken. M. Arago went on with increase' 
«icrgY : ** Must I tell you all ? As I came along» I ovcrhcartl some 
9M>oaing phrasea among the cTowd : Tltrt/ are Jirinff grape on tfie 
p&vple ; it is Alarmant pnipriff his tlcbts.^^ At these words, Mormomt 
dutehcd at the' hilt of his sword. 

The arrival of the five deputies was announced» M. Aïa^ 
made way for them, and was a witness, at the same moment, to an 
extraordmary ?ccne. M. Glandcvez, governor of the Tuileries, 
havtug ehakea hand^ witli one of Uic five negotiators, M. d'Ambra- 
neac dared to say that he would complain of tlie act to the king. 
jÉeùted with inthSTiation, General TromcUn went straight up to 
bragcac, and accosted liim in a voice of thimder, delighted at 
g at last an opportunity of unburdening hie bosom. So impe- 
waa this choleric burst, that had it encountered any resistance, 
would have Hashed from their scabbards. Such arc the bum-' 


îng antipathies that smoulder bexkea^ the cold and deceitful uni- 
foxmitT of courtly life ! 

As ne was going awaj, M. Arago infonned ]\L Delame, aide-de- 
camp to the Due de Raguae, that he had seen in the Place de TOdéon, 
soldiers disposed to side with the people. Deeply struck with the 
news, M. Ddarue hastened to commimicate it to Prince Polignac, 
and returned disheartened, saying, " It is his desire that if the tiooipi 
pass over to the people, the troops likewise shall be fired upon." 

The fi.Te commissioners were mtrodnced, and found the Due de 
Bagusc alone. M. Laffitte, speaking in the name of his colleagues, 
intreated the marshal to stop the cmision of blood ; and he repre- 
sented to him all the fatal consequences, not only to the nation, but 
to the throne, of an obstinate violation of all the constituent laws of 
the coimtiy. The marshal replied, that it was not for him to judge 
of the unconstitutionality of the ord(miianccs ; that he was a soldier, 
and bound, under pain of in£uny, to remain at the post in which 
the king's confidence bad placed him ; that moreover, before the re- 
Tocation of the ordonnances could be demanded, the Paiiàans must 
be forced to lay down their arms, and that the salvation of his honour 
d<^>ended on his not giving way. As he uttered these words, he 
tunied towards Generals Gérard and Lobau, with looks and gestures 
of inquiry. " Your honour !" replied Laffitte, with mânt, " Your 
honour, monâcur le maréchal ! but there are not two honours ; and 
of all crimes the greatest is to shed the blood of one's feUow-citizexu I" 
** Can you possibly address this language to me. Monsieur Irfiffitte ; 
you who know mo ?* said Marmont, deeply moved. " What can I 
do ? I will write to the king." 

M. Laffitte, having inquired of the marshal whether he had any 
hope in the success of this last eflbrt, the latter shook his head sadly. 
" in that case," said M. Laffitte, '* I am determined to cast myself» 
body and substance, into the movement." 

An ofiicer entered and spoke in a whisper to Marmont, who turning 
suddenly to the negotiators, said, '* Would you object to see Prince 
Polignac ?" On tlicir replying in the negative, he went out, but re- 
turned almost immediately. The prince refused to receive the depu- 
ties. Such in fact was the invincible infittuation of that man. On 
the very night succeeding that bloody day, he said to an offiox 
named Blanchard, who had a very fine voice, and who had com- 
manded the discharge of the cannon in the Place de Grève on the 
28th, '* Sir, I have otten admired your voice ; but never have I hfxsa 
so heartily delighted with it as on this day." 

It was with shuddering aversion, as we have already seen, that 
the Due de Kaguse liad accepted the fatal mission imposed upon 
him. He had been forced however to issue warrants for the arrest 
of some men who had long been objects of suspicion at court, such 
as MM. Lafayette, Laffitte, Audry de Puyraveau, Eusèbe de Sal- 
Tcrtc, and Marchais. He availed nimself of the ^dsit of the depu- 



ties to intlidraw those cruul mandates. His good faith served him 
for a pretext to tills act. He tlicn wrote to the kiisg as he had pro- 
mised. Thiîi was the third letter he had addressed to Charles X. 
since the capital had been decWed in a etiite of aiege. The first 
had misi^nied: in the second he said, " Sire, it is no longer a dis* 
turfaûace; it is a rcvolutJoii. The honour of the crown may etiU be 
BBVcd; to-morrow perhaps it will be too kte." Lastly, in the 
third^ ihex acquainting^ tlic king with the proceedings of the five 
deputies, he urgeil him to withdravv the ordonnances, nt the same 
time informing him that the troops could hold out for a month, M. 
de Puh'Tiac read tliis letter, and relying on the assurances it con- 
tained, he wrote on his own part to Charles X. to encourage hiia to a 
'UgQrous resistance. The marshal's despatch was carried to St. Cloud 
lip M. dc Komieiow^ki; but he did not peC out till wme minutes 
•ner the courier sent off by Prince Poligûac. Tlius the marshaVs 
G0im8els made no impression on the Ving, who sent him orders by 
U. de Komierowski to concentrate the troops round the TuilerioSt 
■ad to act with masses. 

Bat it was now too late to rest the salvation of the monarchy on, 
new arrangements of strategy. Tlie insurrection was increasing 
erery minute ; all the quarters oî the capital were putting thcm- 
9^TC$ in motion. How w&s this conflagration^ thus blazing in a 
l&cnasnd pkecs, to be cxtii^uished ? 'Die revolt hod long crossed 
the Seine, The Passage Dauphine was ft real mufter-ground, 
irhcncc Ixc^ combatants rushed forth every moment. An cnthu- 
GÎaBm. that bordered on delirium, premled there. Armand Carrel, 
who deplored combats he believed useless, had gone amongst his 
ijôends to represent to them the unavoidable eterility of theif 
bBRÛmt Bud he wu hataufuisg them from a table on which he 
fltoodf ▼beo. a pistol, pcànted at ms breast, sliowcd him how irrcsis- 
lible the moTemcnthad become. B^urious clamours resounded in the 
Rue de GrenoUe St. Germain, round the hotel of the minister of war^ 
and Madame de Dourmont wss 90 teiriiied that «he herself gare orders 
to hoist tlic tricolour flae, M. de Champagny had it removed. 

That superior ytHcer had for the last two days neglected nothing 
to enable him to be of service to the cause of lus adoption; hut he 
yn» left m ignorance of every thing, and was never consulted. It 
was from a man who was peHcctly unconnected with the war office 
that M. de Polignac received the military intelligence ho required: 
■ad such was the iniatuation of the leading men, that no one had 
evcai thought of warning the camps of Ltmeville and St Orosr, 
W. de Champagny expressly proposetl that this should be done; \xA 
the (elcgniphic lino was broken. Of the three brothcts, who ïiad 
the direction of the telegraphy two were liberals, the third a royalist. 
The despatch was cartied as &r oa Ecouen. aero» the bardcadea by 
a poor soldier ol' the InvaUdes, with a wooden leg. In short thepç 
was an utter want of forethought, an indescribable confusion In thâ 
higher quarters whence ftU omers should have issued. No regular 



distribution of rations had been made to the troofw, M. âe Cham' 
pogny hearing that the bakery for the troops was threatened, imine- 
diattly sent word to bead-quarter?, and two compauice of vcterana 
were sent thither, who were no sooner arrived on the spot than they 
suffered themselves to he diaanncd, M> dc Chanipag^iy instantly 
applied to M, de la Toiir Mauber^, ^i>vemor of the Invalids; a .1 
sort of new bakery wiis establialied at tlie Ecole MiUtaire with stores | 
belongiag to the lûvalidea. Labour in vain ! When rations wero 
to he carried to the troops, it was found that tlie communications 
were cut ofif^ and hunger was added to the sufferings endured by 
the soldiers on that frightful day. 

At (oux o'clock the deputies ract according to appointment at M. 
Bérard's. Intense imxiety was depicted in every iacc. SI. Lnffittc 
reported what had passed between the com mi??i oners and I ho 
l)uc de Raguae. So then, royalty did not deem itself in danger; 
it even beheved itself competent to dictate conditions! Was it 
not very imprudent to brave a power so eelf-assured? Excla- 
mations bursting from all parts of the room testified the ponia 
feftRi oi' the asçerobly. On the other hand, the perse ver;inee 
of the Parisians in revolt, the fierce and ominous shouts uttered 
In the very court3rard of the hotel» the turbulent ardour of tho 
citizens that crowded round the doors, the distant pealin;? of bells 
mingled with the dischargea of musketry and the roll of the drums, 
uU tliis proved that St. Cloud was not the sole abode of strength, and 
tliat the people^ no less than royalty, had it» passions. Wliat course 
was to be taken? That of courage, F^iûd Bérard and some of his friends. 
Two journalist»» MM. Andra and liarbaroux, had nished into the 
XOom, and there tliey stood sliaming tbe weakness of the deputies, 
and cuDJuring them to put themselves at the head of the insiu;gT3its, 
and not leave without a leader a population armed for the cause of 
the bourgeoiaâc. M- Coste^ at tlic same time, brought in a proof 
copy of the protest of the journalists, which he bad been directed to 
print; but not content with having struck out from it every exprès* 
àon savouiîng of monarchy, he refused to publis^h it unless the 
deputies affixed their signatures to it. Tliey were called on to 
decide one way or other. M. Siibastiani was airaid, and left thû 
room accompanied by M. Bcrtin dc Viutx and General Gerard, and 
by degrees the meeting was reduced to a very Email number. To 
fiToid the risk of real signatures, the expedient was ffu^cstcd of 
making out a Ust of names: tliia would leave every tme an oppor- 
tunity of falling back on a disavowal; and as if thia de^ce did not 
appear sufficiently reassuring, it was proposed to swell the list of 
names by adding those of all the liberal deputies absent from Paris. 
" That LJ a very good thought,''' Miid M, Lalhtte, sarcastically; " if 
we are beaten no one will have signed; il' we are victors, signatures 
will not be bckingJ* M . Dupin aîné, was not present at ibis meet* 
iog. His name was set down la the list, but struck out by M. 
Manguin» who seemed to fear a violent remonstrance on the part of 




faia coUeague in case of ikilure. Hie deputies as they withdrew had 
to pass tluoueh a multitude filled with ind^nation at their conduct. 
Id. S^bartiani among others was pursued with that popular execration 
which two davB afterwards was lost in songs of ^imiph. Stemally 
banen lesson! 

General Vincent who had gone over several parts of the raging 
oily, in company with General Pajol, set out in the evening for St. 
CAoudf to state his impressions to Charles X. ; to tell him wat the 
aspect of thin£;8 was becoming more and more gloomy ; that no news 
ha<d been received either of the Comte de St. Chamans or of General 
Talon; that the troops were without victuals, that they were dying 
of thirst, and found nothing on their way but threatening looks or 
dosed doors. A courtier whom Greneral Vincent met on the road, 
and to whtnn he communicated these melancholy details, found means 
to arrive before him at St. Cloud, to beUe his report beforehand, 
beixkg well assured of ingratiating himself with the monarch by warn- 
ing him gainst the truth. Charles X., therefore, lent a cold ear to 
the painful, but faithful reports brought him by the general. " The 
Eansiana," he said, *' are m a state of anarchy; anarchy will neces- 
sarily bring them to my feet." Like all princes, Charles X. had little 
£ûth in the devotion of any but those who consented to join in his 
own illufflons; and as no one could flatter these at such a moment 
without betraying him, the courtiers did betray him for fear of dis- 
pleasing him. 

As the hours rolled on, the anxietj of the men of half measures 
became more and more intense. Casimir Péricr especially appeared 
panic-stricken. He had said to M. Alexandre de Girardin on the 
' morning of the 28th, " The best thing for France is the Bourbons 
without the ultras." In fact he had then no other thought than how 
to guarantee the throne of Charles X. M. Alexandre de Girardin, 
agreeing in his views, hastened to St Cloud, to urge the king to 
lecall the ordonnances. 

Trepidation and alarm prevailed in the royal abode, though they 
found no tongue. No one was at his post; the routine of service 
was almost wholly suspended; and the high officers of the household 
were slinking away one after the other. Among the most practised 
coiirtiers, however, uneasiness was tempered by the fear of ofiending 
their master; some of them even, with a refinement of adulation 
which their paleness belied, affected to be iiiU of confidence. 

That morning Madame Gontaut ran through the guards' hall to- 
wards the apartm^its of Charles X., hiding her iace in her hands, 
and crying out ^* Save the king, Messieurs I save the king !" Ëverr 
one instantly started to his feet; the guards put on their helmets with 
all speed; M. dc Damas, who was walking in the park with his royal 

Çipu, caught him up in his arms, and ran as &8t as he could up the 
rocadero, followed by M. Mazas supporting the terror-stricken 
Madame de Damas. The cry, " To arms I" inopportunely raised by 



a Bcnùiiel, hod beea enough to set &L1 the inliabiunts of ike cbâteAtt 
ID confuâoD and disnmy. 

M. de Giiardin however found Charlea X. perfectly confident of 
success, and immovable in his puq^osc. While he was implorûa^ 
hira to recall the ordonnanccg, ihe Duchess de Bern mude her appear- 
ance, and when she talked with passionate veliemence of tlic neccEsity 
of preserving the crown and its dignity bj a firm aud resolute hvaaSiB^f 
" Good God! Madame»" cried Girardin, " it is not ray own inierasiB 
I am here to advocate, but yours. The kinn; is not wagering liis own 
crowu Jrterely; he wagera that of monsci^cui the dauphin; he 
■wagers that of your sou, Madame !" He continued to urge his suit, 
and Charles X. rcierred îûm to the dauphin j but the latter answered 
drily, ^^ I aui the first subject in the kingdom, and as euch I must 
have DO other will than the king's." Tke common policy of piinccâ, 
obedient to servility^ or traitors even to assassination. 

Other attempts of the earae kind were made on Charles X. in Ûuà 
course of the day. The Baron do Vitrollea appeared at the chiite^Ot 
uid urged Uie king, in presdng terme, to treat mth the ikctious, 
representing to liim that it was sometimes good policy to yield to 
àïcamaiajices, in order to be the better able to control them at & 
future day, and that thiâ bad been Mazatin's policy, ssid up to a 
certain point that of Richelieu himself. Charles X. did not conceal 
the repugmmcc he felt at dealiu^î by stratagem and subterfuge with 
revolt. Besides, be thought he had raif'ht'on hie àde, and he spoke 
with so much a^Burancc of the inevitable triumph of his will^ tiiaC 
the baron was, for the moment, convinced. But when he returned 
that evening to Paris» passing blood-stained barricades^ and with the 
noiœ of musketry in lug carg, he no lonaer doubted that the voices 
of lying courtiers Itdled the unfortunate king to sleep on the brink 
of a precipice. He bad another interview witk Doctor Thibatdt, 
who handed liim, not exactly on the part of General Gtirard, but in 
his name, a sUp of paper» on wliich were written two namcsi, these 
0Ï MM. de Moitemart and Gerard. The Baron de Vitrolies under- 
took to go next day to St. Cloud, and propose tliose individuals to 
the king bm hîa minintcrs. $u<xh was the origin of that Mortemait 
ministry which was to be so soon swept away by t3ie tempttl. 

Whilst Cliarlea X. thought only of inspiring all around him witli 
hJ8 own fatïd security» a bold pchcmo was concocting almost before 
Jns eyes in the apartmentâ of Madame dc Goutaut. Convinced of 
the old monarch's impotence to defend his dynasty, General Vincent 
had resolved to save royalty without tlie king's co-operation, un» 
known to the king, aud, if necessary, despite the king. He went 
to Madame de Gontaut and pct forth to her that, in the existing 
state of things, the &to of the monarchy depended on a heroic rc- 
Bolvo, and be, therefore» proposed to her to take the Duchujs dc 
Berri and her eon to Pant. He suggested that they should tako 
Neuilly in their way, get hold of the Due d'Orléans^ and oblige him 




by mjkin Ibrce to take part in tlic hazards of the c^teiprîâe ; ih^ 
sAouU then enter Paris by the faubourgie, and lite DuchesB d& Beztx, 
exhibiting the* royaï chlkl to the people, should confide Mm to tha . 
generosity of the combatants. Madame de Gontaut approved of i 
this acheme. In spite of its ndvcntuioua cliaracter^ or rather for 
Hist Tcry reBSOQf it won upon the extttahlc imagination of tho 
Duchess de Berri, and every tiling was anmiged for carrying it into 
eKOcution. But the iuHdclity of a conlcdcratc put Charles X, ia 
poflâGBfflon of the plot, and it broke dawn. 

Meanwhile ihc insurrection was raging in all quartera of the citv, 
and everywhere the people had the advantage. A Swjag battalion 
WIS posted on the Quui de l'École- The Duc de Raguse, who, aa 
ftlre^y stat«df had received orders to concentr-itc hja forces round 
the l^iileriee, sent directions to the licutenuit-eoloneL, M. Mail- 
lardoz, to march forthwjtli to the Mfirche des Innocents and hring 
off General Quinsonnaa, who was hemmed in there on all âdes. 
M. de Mailkrdoz imtucdiatcly left the Quai de l'Êcolc^ at the head 
of the Swiss^ and rcaiehed La pointe St. Eustache by the Ruo de ht 
Monnue, but instead of turning off towards the Marché des Inno- 
cents, by the Rue Montmartre, ho pursued his march through fho 
Rue Montoi^eil. This was a fiital error ; for before ever he reached 
the Rue Mandar the pavement was strewed with dead, and when ha 
had to enter that street^ which waa stopped up by an enormous bar- 
licado* it was a horrible butchery. Jlie bamcitde, however, waji 
paased, but the next day many corpses of Swiss soldiers i^-cre s^ecn 
stretched on the stones that composed it; and that of one of theif 
officers lay across it, a dismal monument of the dauntlcs^ncss and of 
the vengeance of the people ! M. de MailWdcoï continued his route, 
reached the Rug Montmartre and pamed through it, amidst a hail of 
tDusketry, down to the Man:hv> dee IniiDccnts. There he fonned a 
junction with the ibrce under General Quinsonna^, and iho whoU 
body marched away, by the river side^ to tuko up their position on 
the Quai de L'Eoole. 

A» for the troops in the Hotel dc VÏUe they continued to defend 



hrei against a constantly augmcntiug multitude of assitilnnts. 
Posted at the windows of the buildmgîlioy kept up a constant raking 
fire on all the surrounding streets. The Dumber of victims at thia 
point was con^dexablo at 1 1, that is to say at the hour whea 
the deputies, assemhled for the second time, at the house of M. 
Audry de Puyrave*ni, were afibn^ng another spectacle of their in* 
docxsioQ and impotence. lifM. Lailitto, La&yctte, Mauguin, Audry^ 
dc Laborde, Bavoux, and Chardel di^>larcd, at th^ mectitig, a 
flrmiiciis thiit did them honour; but M. St:l>asliam was, more tJuut 
ever* a stickler for due order of law. ** We arc nt^ûûaùng» Me^ 
âetirs," said he. '^ Our functions here arc those of mâdi&tora, ftod 
we do not créa posset any longer the title of deputies." "•* We ara 
oons|nriiiff as the people conspsres, and wth it, repliod M. Man- 
guin» with warmth; and M. L^ttc repeated the same ttxcat he hod 



held out to the Due de Raguse, **If the ordonnancca are not^witli- 
drawn I will tîirow raysclTbody and subelancc into the movement." 
Tlic room waa on the ground floor, jmd the people heard all that 
passed, through the window», which M. Audiy de Puyraveau had 
ordered to be opened. Ere long there was one lumnimous shout of 
indignation against M. dc Sébaatiani. Several combatants rushed 
into the courtyard, and reported how murderous had been the con- 
^ct, XTpon this MM. Lalayctte, l-.aflitte, Audry de Puyraveau, and 
de Labordc, stung witlx grief, cried out that the deputies must direct 
the efforts of the peoplo, join in its danrrers, and adopt its standard. 
M. Guizot remained silent and raotionless. M. Mecbin'a counte- 
jttqOQ betrayed his dissati^iàctîon and embarrassment. As for M. 

' fiftaitiani, he had no sooner heard mention of tlie tricolom- llag, 
than, rising; with si'Tis of lljc most violent anxiety, he declared that 
for himâcll he could take no port in such discussions, and that there 
waa no national flag except che white flag, ITien turning to M. 
Méehin, "Are you coming?'^ he Siiid^ and they both went out, 
*' We have had enough of idle talking," siiiJ Audry dc Puyraveau, 
"■ the time 19 come 10 act. Let us siiow ourselve;* to the people, and 
in arms." Lul'ayctte demanded that a post should be assigned him* 
declormg that he wa3 ready to go to it that instant. Once more the 
deputies separated, without ha'iTng come to any conclusion, ailer ap- 
pomting to meet again at six o'clock in the morning at W. Lallittee. 
If this sitting served for nothing el*e, at least it showed what those 
men were made of, who were afterwards seen figuring anaong the 

Some Uvely acclamations greeted Lafayette as ho left d»e houae. 
Age had enfeebled his body without chilimg hts heart. Intoxicated, 
moreover, witli popularity, ho was ready to sacrifice his lile: but bis 
ardour was perpetually counteracted and damped by the pewona 
about Iiim. In that mght of the 28 — 29th, he walked about for a 
while leaning on the arm of M. t'arbonel, and followed by M. Lae- 

^ÉBjrie and a domestic, lus c^ir drinking m by auticipjition the shouts 
^■fc'n^Mild doubtlcsE greet liim as lie passed on the morrow, aud ia- 

, - (illt'''^th ecstasy the odour of revolt disused throughout the àty, 

■ He reached his curri^c, and was just stepping into it, when a ci- 
tizen came up and eaid, ** Grenerul, I um going to the Cour des Fon- 
taine*, where I am expected by some in5urgeiits. I will apeak to 
them in your namc^ and tell them tliat the natiunal guard is imder 
your command." ^' Are you mad, sir?" immediately exeloiraud M. 
dc Carboncl. "Do you want to have the general shotï'" Such 
were the influences that beset Lal'ayette in the midst of a crieis iji 
which it waa plainly incumbent on him to venture hia head upon 
the israe. Here waa a palpable confirmation ol' the fact, that tho 
potency of wcU'known niuncs, however great it be, is not always siif- 
Dcient; and certainly aroong the combatanta of July, more tlnm one 
vras fuUy aware that every tiling is permitted to ihc ilaring of new 
"Tion in times of popular commotion. For instance, whilst in one ]>art 

i zvï*rrruXi uat of the 28th. 


of Parâ, the warmest fticuds of Lafayette were afraid of allowing 
lai9 great naine to be comprflmisctl, tlie foUowînn; chtiractcristic ïK-ene 
was tikîiip place at anotlicr point. At the vcrj same Kour, two 
citizens, MM. Higonnet and Dcfjousst-c were walking in tlio then 
deserted Place deg Fctita Percp, ivuen a stranger accosted tlicm and 
said, ■■* The fight begins again to-moiTow. I era a military man. 
Do you want a general?" — '*A general?" replied M. Degaussee. 
" AIL that ia wantod to mako one off-liand in timeg of revolution ia 
tKe help of a tailor." And M. Higonnet added, " You want to be 
aeencraï? Very well; put on ft uniform, and away with you lu 
where they are fighân^. The Stranraer's name was Dubourg: he 
thougbt the advice good; acted upon it^ as wc shall see by and by^ 
and was the neit day king of Pans for a time. 

Silciicc liad gcttled on the eity with the coming on of night. What 
a day did it close upon Î Paris had never seen any more terrible 
even during the savage feuds of thf Anniiguacs and Bourguignons. 
Now for what had all this blootl been ahed? Viv^ la Chattel had 
been shouted, but the cry had terrilicd within the walls of their 
dwellings both tlic deputies and the gre-atcr part of those whose 
power was founded on the charter. Vive ta Charte} had been 
shouted; but who were the combotûnts? They were some yoimg 
bourgeois, men of heart and résolution, who saw iu the charter only 
dcepotiî'm ingeniously di^guiwd; they were proletaries to whom tho 
charter was imknown, and who, had they known, would have ex- 
derated it; lastly^ and above all, they were the boys of tlic Btreets of 
Inuû, a harebrained and vnliint race, heroic from recklessness, greedy 
(^amusement?, and, therefore, martial, for as much as batUea are a 
sort of sport. And as if to put the climax to this huge and awful 
dcrisio'ta^ the commonder-in-cliief uf tlie royal troop, the Due de 
liaguee, condemned tlie ordinances, for the maintenance of which he. 
poured his volleys upon the people. What of that? the gajnc was 
to be played out to the end, for human folly h not so qiviekly ex- 
haustftl. So then, aftci- the aaasncres of tho 28th, barricade wero 
busily erected in anticipation oï the inaesac^s of the 29th: and in 
that sleepless night iiow many mothers sat waiting for a son who 
never returned ! 

Tlic troop* meanwhile had fallen back from all points on tho 
Tuileries. Tliose that occupied the H*jtcl dc Ville, having but forty 
cartridges left at midnight, determined at last to retreat. They e«1- 
licd forth, carrying their dead or wounded coTtirade?^ and marched 
in doubt and appréhension, with cars bent to catch the least sound,.. : 
and seeming to suspect fresh assailants behind cveiy barricade. Bufr | 
^y encountered no enemies; all they met on their way wcxe tho 
4vftd they stumbled over in the dark. 




At daybreak on the 29tli, some vigilant bourgeois left tbe bon 
of M- Baudc to explore iKe citj; it was silcût, desertcdjandahovi 
blnady traces of the preceding day'» events. On arriving at the Pb 
de Giî>ve, wbcre still lay some corpses, Ûiey ■were struck vnth the 
deathlike quiet prevailing there. They then agreed to go ^verally 
into the various quarters of the capiLiI, and ererywhcre to propagate 
the false r^portf that an immense a^scmbla^ md collected m froat 
of the Hotel de Ville, with the intention of proceeding to th& 

The working men of the faubourgs were ahraidy proparing to re- 
new the iJ^ht; b»t a certain portion of the bourgeoisie wcte tor- 
mented with thoughts of a different kind. M. Baude, followed by 
a numerous buid» with which be had visited several barracks and 
Bounded the fidelity of tlie soldiery^ found a company of national 
^^uardâ drawn lip in hue of battle in the Place Royale. He harangued 
them wnrmly, told them tliat the troops were everywhere surrciidt3> 
itt" up their jumst and endeavoured to hurry them with liim to tho 
Hotel dû Ville. They obstinatoly refused to follow; they bad armed, 
they said, sok-ly to save their houses from pilLige. 

During this time a citizen, named Gallc, wna making lua way 
through the line of scntinck in the Place du Carrousel, under tbo 
guidance of an unknown indÏNidual, to whom the soldier» opened a 
passage. Being introduced to the Due do Rajniee, " Monsieur le 
maréciial," be exclaimed, in a voice trembling with emotion, "yduf 
troops arc firing from some balconies in the Rue St. Honoré on in- 
ortiensivc citizens ! can you not put a stop to such atrocities?" — " You 
iDFult rae^ àr^ in regarding me as the authr^r of such orders," re- 
plied the duke. " I have just given iojunctiond to the tfoops to fire 
only in self defence. This la about to be made known to Paris by 
. a prLiclamation." — *-- How !" resumed M. Gallc ; ** for two days, 
a^eur le maréchal, you have been keeping \vp a iirc upon the 
_ pie, and tlie municipal authority hsis not yet shown itBclfP 
^, ■—** True," said the marshal^ dashing liis baud against hh forehead 
\ vith the gesture of despair; " it is true!'* Tlien calling his Bccre- 
faxy, ** Let the raayors of Paris be summoned to attend liere within 
San hour!*' — "Within an hour, monsieur 1 But who knows wliat 

[will happen within that hour? P< 

you ivill not be in ex< 

LiBteuco, nor two hundred thouaind Parisians, nor the king, nor £ 

Fwho address you. What must be done, monsieur le maréclml, allow 

me lo tell you: set out instantly; stop the fuailladeai that you hear 

from this place; go to St. Cloud, and tell the king that we have 

tom up the pavement of our streets; that the roofe of our houses 

piled with stcmcs; that a hundred thousand of the bravrat eol- 


diers sKonW not take Paris; and that many persons who understand 
tlie art of Wax, myself to begin with, are obout to put theni?clTCB 
at iKc head of tl»e mpulation, if immense eonccssiona are not madt'." 
The duki* n^pticdy dcspondinglv^ that the kiii^ knew all; but thut 
he would, perhaps, listen to a deputation, provided it were a depu- 
tation of the bourgeoise.* 

Immediately after this interview, the Due de Haguee g&vo orders 
to the Tuayora to aseemblo. Four of them responded to the summons. 
The procliiûiatdoûT of which the manslial had spoken, was printed; 
B&d some piieoners wore $ct at liberty, and. conitms6ionod to cHâtrî* 
bute copies tunong the people. 

The royal troops were now far removed from the populous quar- 
tWB, all access to wliich was barred them by the innura(irablc Ikittî* 
endes that had spruii" up in the couibc of the night. They now 
occupied only the cordon extending from the Louvre to the Cnampi 
Elysiiea Troops of the line were stationed in the gardens of th« 
Toitcrice and in the Place Vendôme. The guftrds ooverei.1 the Car- 
rouiiel, the Place Louis XV., the Boulevard dc k li^Iadeleine, ami 
the inner court of the Palais Royal; several posts had beca esta* 
hhshccl in the Kuc St. Honoré; two Swiss battabonâ defended thd 
Louvre; and the muz?.left of tlic cannons were everywhere pointed 
in the direction by which the multitude could arrive. 

The Swifia appeared restlees; but a very different feeling prevafledj 
Ainnn^ the rcEt of the troops. ExhauBted with hunger^ worn dowiT* 
with fatigue, sons after tvU of the people, in whose minda the shama^ 
of dcfcflt was combated by the horror of victory, they stood leanm^ 
feebly on their weapons, with drooping heartâ and leaden looksi^ 
Thoec houses, behina every window of which they were afieured of' 
an enemy; those streets, deserted and blazing in the gunshine,, 1 
through which they had been led, and where \&y bo many of thelrj 
comrades clun by invisible aaeaiUnts; thoee high barricades ; thfl 
nience of that vast city* in which there reigned neithiLT tumult nca 
rrooae; those «hriU and desultory cries of ^*Vive la CftArUT' thq' 
wtld appeal to a system of law of which the irmjority were igno-j 
iftut; all this diacoBiccTted the Btoutcst hearts, and tlic oiHcer* them* 
lelvtt vtcillated in utter confusion of soul. 

The people, muter in its own domain, was quitting the fâul 
in bands, and advancing along the boulevards m dense columns. 
A whimsicul sceuo wad pAâsmg at the same moment in the he 
of Paris. Betwoea ten and eleven o'clock^ a man of middle hei^ 
and energetic counlcnancci marched through the Marché dee Im, 
eentA^ drx'Sicd in a general's uniform, and followed by a great muortt 
of armed mon. Il wnâ from M. Ëvarcstc Dumouhn, editor of the 
CmisHtutionnet^ that this man hud received his unifonn, purchased at 
nn old-clothcfl shop; and the epaidettes ho wore had been given him 
by the actor Pcrleti they came from the property room of the 


Opéra Comique. "Wliat general is ihat'r"" wna asked on all hancls'; 
anj when those about him replied '^It is Cfeneml Uubourg/^ Vive 
Ir ffhwral Dubouiy! shouted the people* who bad never bcfùpe 
heard the name. But all had then an immense need of being com- 

Tlie procession took its way to the Hfiteî de Ville, TPbero the 
peneral installed himself. Some minutes afterwords the tricolour 
âag liad ceased to Host over the building, A man entered the 
XOom where IVL Dubourg was seated^ and where several young men, 
rai^^ round a table, were busy writing. ** Grcneral» the upbol- 
eterer is here. What colour is tlic Aug to be?*' — " We must have a 
black âag, and France will retain that colour till she has reconquered 
her fjreedoia." 

M, Baude appeared m his turn at the Hôtel de Ville, to enjoy 
the privilegca offered to the ^E-trng. He constituted himself secre- 
tary to an ideal government^ and sent out proclaanalioas, M. 
Franquc, an avocat, received orders to liasten to the house of M. 
Seguier, first preadent of the Cour Royale, anest liim and bring 
liim by foite to the Hôtel de Ville. These people wished to place 
the insiurrcction under the apparent patronage of the judicial autbo- 
ritiea. Thus the two men who had chosen to be the govenimemt 
for some hours, were the government, Thejr were obeyed. 

M- Baude was no sooner inatalled than be took some measures of 
-urgent expediency. He made M. do Villeneuve take an account of 
the treasury of tno Hôtel de Ville» which was found to contain & 
little more than five millions of franc^î. He sent for the tyndics of 
tlïe bakers, who informed him that the stock of bread stulf in Paris 
Vaa enough lor a month's supplj ; and he sent word to the syndics 
^f the bulchcrg that cattle Huould be admitted into the capital Iree 
of toll while the criaa lasted. Lastly be caused committet^ to be 
appointed in each of the twelve arrondissements of Paris whose duty 
il should be to correspond with the Hôtel de Vîllc. 

Whilst busied with the cares of tliis authority so boldly usurped* 

M. Baude received the visit of M. ClaprobL', an attaché of tlie Prus- 

iian embassy, Tliat gcntlemiy; informed him lliat the attitude of 

the Parisian population during those astonishing days had struck all 

the members of the diplomatic body not only wltli amazement but 

with admiration; that their despatches expressed this twofold scnti- 

. mcnt, and were of a nature to render probable tJic maintenance of 

[jwoce between monarchical Europe and revolutionary France. 

. . A short time si'tcr tlii^, some workmen cajiie with loud shouta, 

iVrin^ng in a man they had arrested at the barriers, jmd who waa 

[ibund to be tlie bearer of a despatch, carefully scaled. Tim? indi* 

TÎdual was questioned, and proved to be a bwc^Ush ofliccr whom 

Cc'unt Loewcnhielm, the minister of Sweden and Norway, had sent 

off in the night with a report to tho cabinet of Stockhuhu of the 

«vents thai had just occurred. SI. Baude sent back tlic officer and 

despatch unhroktu io Count LowcnhicUu. Ibc Swcdii mi- 


nirter, toncheH by such courtcsv, hastened to write his acknowledg- 
ments to M. Ikudc • but he aid not make liis appearance at tlio 
Hutel de Ville, as it v,-ns stated at the time that lie did, and which 
he could not have done without impi-udently breaking through the 
reserve enjoined him. For some piUtictftna eu?pccted Bemadottd 
of having ÏOîigcherishednmbîtiuuâ hopta; ihuy l>elieved that Ibrtuno^ 
by taking him from a camp to set htm on a thronoj had pufled up 
bis mibd to the degree of inapiiing him ivith drcanig of the crown of 
Franco. The fiiU of the Bourbons was an event of which he miffhc 
endeavour to take advantage. Did lie cutcrtoin the thought? We 
cannot tell. At any rate events were di?stincd to mardi with more 
rapid strides than his desire?. 

There were two military goveminents in Ponsî wliich of the two 
was to remain possessor of the fuprome aulhority? AU hope of 
conciliation was now cliimcrical. Orders to cease firing had beea 
de^iatched to the several posts, hut it never reached them. Tho 
quarter- masters of the corapimicâ posted in the Place du Carrousel 
had been commanded to copy the marshal's proclamation, and had 
acttially done so, sotne writing on their knees, nthera on djrumhea*ls ;" 
but the fusillade was kept up notwithstanding in front of the eolon- 
Dftdc of the Louvre and elsewhere with great vivacity. A month 
and a half's pay was assigned to every soldier, and the difltri- 
bution which was facihtatcd by the vicinity of the traisun', yvss 
instantly made in the Place du Carrousel. An cight-pounder was 
pointed ftt the entrance of the Rue de Rohan. Lastly, the soldier* 
of the Cth regiment of the guards, posted in the houses adjoining 
the Pakiia Rnyal, made all ready to repel the attack; for the ma» 
oi the assailaJits was swelling; the bodmg hum of the city wad 
spreatling wider and widcr^ and the barricades m the Rue Richelieu, 
approaching the position of the soldiera with surpiising rapidity, 
were becoming trenches of attack. 

The Ujldncsa of the royalist leaders was not commensurate either 
with the threatening character of the meagures taken by them, or with 
the magnitude of the danger. The Due dc Ragusc formally refused 
to authorize the artillery-mca to discharge the cannon plnntcd in the 
Rue de Rohan; and a young officer of the 6th guards haviug ap- 
plied to bira f jr permission to discharge some tannon-shot* ogainat 
tile Quai Voltaire, *' Sir," aid the marshal, passionately, " do you 
want to make the city a heap of ruintfi'" 

As for the dignitaries of the realm, the peers of France, tliey were 
only occupied at this moment in lamenting o-vtr their compromised 
position, their property flung to the ravening populace, their heads, 
perhaps, threatened! Tlie people waa let loose: how whj* it to be 
checked? and they outdid each other in cursing M. dc Poli^ac. 
PoOKssorB of a fortujic mode up of the wrecks of four levoluliona; 
fi>rtunatc for fifteen 3rear3 in a tuMmtry whose calamities wore typi- 
fied in their prosperity, they had adhered to absolute monarchy irom 
<^cuktioa, not from conviction. For this very reason they bad 



t been able to exercise a foretliouglit of wHcK M. de Polignac ' .^ 
incapable, bccAU£C be was dislutercstad like alt Iknaticsy and honcât 
; and sincere in his bUndness. 

" We foretold all this/' said tbe&e great personages to eack otter; 

M'tbe wild beast should have been lulled, and Uiey have irritated 

Iciha. Here we are un the brink of a fathojnlesa pit, and why 'f Be- 

' Cause our s&ge counsels have been rejected; because the court, swayed 

by the liital ascendiincy of a madinaii. lias not been able to moderate 

[ the movement of tlic counter-revolution. What is to become of us? 

Who knowâ but that the repeat of ÛiQ onliûances would he suf> 

' £cien£ to quiet the people? Ihat would be the saving of us." 

M, de Sémonville, tlxe grand refereudary of the court of peers, set 

; out, therefore, from the Luxcmbour^to head-quartcrp, accompanied 

'■ by M. d'Afgout. They foiuid the Due de Raguse in perturbation 

I Atid despair, When he saw them come in, the mai-shal went into 

' the adjoining room where the minbtera were assembled, uid imme- 

iidiatc-ly returned with M. de Pohgnac, M. do Sémonville heaped 

> bitter and violent reproaches on the prince, who rephed ailmly and 

[ withdrew. Furioua at a resisUncc which left them cxposicd naked to 

danger, the two monarchical nogoliators proposed to the mai^lial 

tliat he should arrest ministers who had been guilty of risking; for 

ti^e ï^g'9 sake the fortunes of the servants of royalty. M. de OUn- 

âevez ofiered his eword; the Due de Haguse hteîtated; M, de Pey- 

'■ Tonnet reappeared; and, as a last elTort, MM. de Sémonville and 

D'Argout set oiF for St. Cloud. 

Just OB their carriuj^e wa? entering tlie miun alley of the g£u*dcn of 
of the TuUei'ies, a man spranj* before the horses' heads, pointing with 
i'mom hand to St. Cloud, and with the otlier to a carriage I'oUowing 
y tbat of tliC two ncgoûatora. It was M, de Poh^^c'a, and the mim, 
vho, witli this mute eîoqucnce, urged M. de îwmonviUe to make 
bustc^ was one of those he 3iad a moment before wiahed to arreat, 
M. do Peyronnot 1* 

Au ' 
nation i 

[ Hcnvs had arrived there very early in tlic monùng, that the town of 

Vereailleg was in o|.>en insurrection- The vicinity of the town gave 

this event a formidable character. A few hours more, perhaps, and 

I the revolt would besiege royalty in ita very palace. No time was to 

aLirmint' intclHgence recently received had caused a conster- 
L in that cli:iteau of St. Cloud whither the ministers were bound; 

* " Ji WW adthec tha «amiiKuu of the Boo de B««iue nor that of M. de Séaion- 
ville that gAve occaûon^ u liu tieea suppoeed, to the departure iif Uic miuutcra fi» 
' St. Clood; und this for llic vc-r^^ simple n-tuoD, thnl they mfulo none, having no title 
I «0 ^o BO. The deitarlttTP i^d* Ibe mitrW^^rpi wom uocaaimol hj a 1«ttep frnm ChAilea 
I X« infurming uiniitcn that It wa» his Ititeatkn to wiemblQ hii «mscil on Ok 
i Jowioff numûDff. Uy coirkge wu wmitiog fen ma in tfaii cuunyKrd of the Ti " 
[ Sm^ hefore tlic mrlvul of H. de Sfnumville. 

•* The «InpoiitJan of M. dr Si-inoiiTillp bcfo» the Cliambcr of Pl-cts was (inljf i 

aomc rurcObct, got op in tlinilrure^nf fhecalHoet. I po«itivcl.T dwsTOw llii-Kirmtcr 

f Jart of tbo IbiuKB mUlvfl < - ^ Ijicki he nii^ei me ûgure u an actur ; but 

ivrcTT am tn Mr mania; ii ,odvU1c ia oIwaj'b to ilicss u^i Bomctlûug 

I jbr toe •tage»"'— itf & noitvf .^>. tn: i omjimt. 

ChAilea I 




be loet ia dispkyin^ vigour. Two companies of gardea-du-coqra were 
ihcn in the courtyatd ol' the cliâtcsu; they might be marched against \ 
VeiaaillcE; but tbcfE w&s no captain ot' the guards at hand to leadj 
the adventurous expedition. On tîie other hand to put under the»! 
ordcra of some gcncml of the empire » corps which gentlemen of 
the hJf^hcst noblœee thoup;ht lUcuajîolvcfl alone worthy to command, 
were & very rude infraciion of court privileges. Such a dGrogatioo, i 
irora etiquette wb» in the eyes of Charlos X. a mattM of almost se | 
much importULoe as the loss of a battle. But there comes a timâ 
wlien matters invincibly forre thomsolvea back to their natuiol level, 
and when logic prevails over the potly yjran<xements of hnman vanity. 
Getieiul Vincent offered to take the command of the ^niards, and to I 
oâer was, under such circumstances, to prescribe. Hii services wer*w| 
aocepledby the dauphin; Chftrlc« X. «mothered his dissatisiaclion ; 
«nd the eencral set out fur Vcrsailleâ at the head of the two ooeiï- 

C'ea ol cardea-du-corpe, supported by two or three himdred gen- 
Kfl. When he came to the last turn of the loaA he halted his 
men, and ftdvancing alone to the gate, he sent to demand an inters 
view with the autlioritira of the town. The secretary-general and 
tfae mayor soon came to him» J'oUowcd by a numerous detjLchmcnfi 
of national gomnls- Tlie group appeared very animated, and what 
was retnarfcable enônp:h, the cry lliat iMued from every mouth wos. 
To tftt CommmicI To the Commune! the revolutionary cry of th© 
lath century. General Vincent, who had been knocked oâ' liia 
horse in this samo place, when lighting a^inst the Cogsacka in 1814, 
dispUyed great firmness combined with prudence; and a cahncr 
temper was Ix^nning to prevail, when a column of men of the peo- 
ple, anned with ^\il3 or pistols, and with their arms bore, rushcd^i 
into the rood. TW shouting was then renewed; the agitation be- 
came tremendous, and General Vincent returned to his men. But 
Iwmlly had rejoiced them^ when the gentU(rtne& quitted the service, 
and went over to the people, and he was obhgod to lead the gardes- 
da-corpe back to the heights of Su Cloud. 

While these thin« were going on the ministera arrived in the 
cbilMUl. M. de PdigDAc'e carnage drove up almost at the aanw 
moment as M-deSemonviUeV. The Duchess deUcrri, who had opened 
her window at the sound of the wheels, waved a Iriendiv salute to 
M' de Polignac alone. Shortly aftiirwards the grand referendary, 
who had gone in the first instance to the Due de Luxembourg, waa 
Fummoncu to the king^; and as he entered the ajiartment he met iL 
dc PoUgmtCt who ^d to him, putting his handl to hia neck, ^' You 
come todemAod my hciidJi' No matter. I have told the king you 
vere here: have the Ërsit word." 

M. de S<!mi>nTiUe expected t^^ find the king in great agitation, 
and ho was struck by tlie calmncsi of his cinmienance and the gravity 
of his demeanour. Charles X. Usteued with an incredulous air to 
tho Xkews tliat was brought him, and even sou^'ht to reassure M. da 
S^on^dllc Uâ ho hod done the day bdbre by M. de VitroUcs. He 


sdd that every measure was taken to smother the xnnirrectioii; that 
he relied on the soldiers; that the revolt would wear itself oat, be- 
cause the people had no leaders, and the order to shoot Uie instiga- 
tors had been executed. M. de Sémonville did all in his power to 
yndecâve the kine but in vain. " Well then, sire," he exclaimed, 
at last, " I must tell you all: if the ordinances are not recalled within 
an hour, no more kin^, no more royalty." — " Perhaps you will grant 
me two hours," repUcd the king with ofibnded fmde; and he was 
letinng, when M. de Sémonville falling on his knees, seized his 
clothes, and as the king continued to retreat, he dragged himself along 
the floor in a piteous manner ! " The dauphine I think of the 
dauphine, sire!" he exclaimed. Charles X. was affected, but he 
remained 6rm in his resolution. 

The ministers, however, held a council together; M. de Vîtrolles 
had also arrived in St. Cloud, bringing with him the strip of paper 
on which Doctor Thibault had on the preceding day insCTibed these 
two names, imknown to most of the combatants, Mortemart and 

A change of ministers was tmder discussion at St. Cloud; at Paiîfl 
they were no longer fighting for any thing but the overthrow of 

The struggle had recommenced at several points. Pupils of the 
École Polytechnique went through the Faubourg St Jacques, knock- 
ing at the door of every lodging-house, and calling out **• Students, 
turn out !" A gathering had been formed in the ^aoe de TOdéon : 
arms were wanted, and a voice cried out, " To the barracks in the 
Rue Toumon !" A moment after and the barracks were taken ; the 
gendarmes fled ; and the first that rushed in threw out to the eager 
crowd sabres, small swords, cartridge-boxes, muskets, and carbines. 
Each pupil of the Ecole Polytechnique, as he received a weapon, cried 
out, ** Who will follow me?" and immediately groups of twenty, 
thirty, forty workmen ranged themselves behind hun ; the drums beat, 
and the march began. One of these detachments hurried off to take 
tiiepostof the Place St, Thomas d'Aquin from the Swiss; another 
went to seize a powder magazine near the Jardin des Plantes; a tlûrd, 
consisting of from two hundred to two hundred and fifty men, 
marched against a depot of the garde royale, in the Place del'Estra- 
pade. The soldiers appeared at the windows with their muskets in 
their hands. People called out to them " Do not fire, no harm will be 
done to you ;" the column continued to advance ; a young man named 
Hostel, taking advantage of this moment of hesitation, climbed hastily 
up to the window, and said some words to the officer, which were not 
overheard ; when instantly the latter took off his coat and put it on 
the young man, whom he preœcd in his arms. The post was eva- 
cuated and the arms were delivered to the people. 

A neariy similar scene took place at the Prison de Montaigne, a 
iew paces from the Pantheon. The commandant of the poet had 
drawn up his men in order of battle in the street. Maes, a brewer 



of the Faubourg: St. Marceau, was at tLe entrance of the street fol- 
lowed by a htmdrcJ. workmen, und ready to fire, when M. Cliamtt] 
came nmning up, dressed in liia unilbrm. He spoke a [ew word* | 
warm from the heart ; no more was necessary ; the officer lowered, lili ] 
sword, and the &Mdiers swore not to fire on their brethren. 

At this inoraent the Place de I'Odton wns covered with iuraaed men; J 
In a wine-shop, at the comer of the street which opens on the middlsi 
of the square, a great number of atudenta and workmen were tnakin^ I 
cartridges under the direction of some old soldiers. At first ther© J 
waa a want of pïLpcr; bût upon the people shouting out for a supplv*^ 1 
CDonuous heaps were thniwn down vrom all the -rondowa oi tno j 
jquare. Balb were brought cvcrj moment iJom an extemporaneous 
ioundry set up in the Place St. Sulpicc, where tin and lead weT« I 
EasU Close to the portico of the Odeon there was a cart containing' I 
tWQ bairels of powder, the heads of which had been knocked in; f 
they came irom the magaadnc of the Jardin des Plantes. Two pupila ] 
of the Ecole Polytcchjtique, MM, Lit-dot and MiUette, contmucdl 
uninterruptedly haling^ out the powder with their hats. 

During tlie distribution of the powder, which was occomphahedl 
with heroic recklessness, M. Lothon waa named by acclamation Cû- i 
nëral-in-chief of the tittle army, but an uuknown individual havmgj 
claimed thepMt m an old soldier, M. Lothon cheerfully ceded the author \ 
ritytohim. Tlie stranger put on a red saah ; the drum bcfitthcbon, andl 
the whole column was in. motion. It consisted of a thousand men. I 

Thirty or forty men detaclied themselves under the command o£*J 
JL Lothon, and took the direction of the Pont Neuf. They croascdT 
the iSeinc and proceeded by the Rue St. Thomas-du- Louvre towardi I 
the Place du Palais RoyaL There they were met by a very brisk | 
fire, and retreated. M. Lothon, to tally hia men, advanced alonfi 
Lût? the square, but he had not gone twenty steps when a ball ' 
Btruck him in the head, and stretched hiin lifeless. He was not | 
picked up for a lon»^ time after ; his cocked hat was riddled witK i 

M» Baduel^ another pupil of the school, was leading a detachment j 
of five-and-twenty or thirty mai to the Tuileries, when he wo» i 
brotight down by a grape-shot nearly at tlie ibot of the Arc de j 
Tnoropbc. • ' 

The main body, from which these two detachmcnts had gone olï^ 
marched to the Caserne de Babylone, oœupicd by tiic Swiss. As it" 
■jiproachcd the barract& it separated into three divisions. One of 
uicso posted itself in the street fixinting the barracks ; the second 
went to the entnuicc-c;atc by a street nearly perpendicular to it; the j 
tiiird advanced ujm^ti tJic rear of the building, throuffh an alley then j 
flanked in a great measure by garden walls. Thiî! uiird colonnade j 
which was commanded by M. Charms, had no sooner entered the ' 
alley than a brisk fusillade opened upon it from an unfinished house 
on Its rights Three men fell ; five orummcrs who were beating the 
charge ned ; & woiknian, in bringing down his weapon, killed tlus 



[ Vian. vrUo mzLtchod before Lim ; the column became disordctlj, and 
I ihc ranks fell back precipitately on each other. M. Chiuras rushed 
I forward^ witli his hat on the point of liîs sword, followed bj a roaii 
©f the pooplo named Bcsnard. enlhuaiastTcally waving the tricolour 
I "flag The Swiss redoubled their fire ; fortunately, some Parian 
idiBrpshooteis oppeared st the windows of the ncighboimng bouses^ 
'*ad be^an, in their turn, to lire on the Swiss witli such sucoeaOir 
,th&t the latter abandoning the imfuibhed hcmso raada tJieir way 
1 i)ack to the barracks through the gardens. Charm*, ContrcE (ano- 
ther pupil of the Ecole Polytechnique) and Bef nard advanced again, 
foHowcd by some workmen, and soon after by the whole masa. 
fSharpfihooters posted thânaelves in tlie gardens and on the roof 
f)ï a house adjomîng the barracks, which wi^re thui^ surrounded on. 
»11 ddcs. The Swias had placed mattresses against all the windows, 
and made a desperate dcfoicc. lîie assailants, on their part, almost 
all workin? men, sustaijied the fire with astonishing^ intrepidity. 
tTkrec pupJa of the school fought at their head, MM. Vamu^u, 
littcroix, and d'Ouvrier. Tlie iirst received a ball in the forehead 
Ihftt killed liim on the j^pot ; the two others were eevervly wounded. 
, 21. Alphonse MouU, a student, received a ball through the thi?h, 
! vid died five days afterwards. M. Barbier, a profesaor of mathe- 
matics, was ahot in the left arm. Others fell whose names have re- 
imuned in obecurity ; thcâc were of ihc people ! 

The attack had been going on lor three-quarters of an hour, when 

[ 'the thought occxirrcd to one of tlie aesailanta to heap straw before 

, the doora of llie barracks : it was set on tire, and the Swiss fled 

! ihrough tlie gardens. Some of them woidd neither run away nor 

surrender ; they were killed- Among theoi was Major Dufky. 

The drums bixit the recall ; the column lormed again in the Rue de 

jEèvTcs, and marcJied to the Tuileries. 

But the royal palace was already in the posesBion of tlic people. 
!rbe Louvre, which liad been conadtutcd a fortn^ss, wa^ t&keo. 
Olds extraordinary event was thus accomplii^hed, 

A great maso of as^ilants, i^uing &am all the narrow strceta ad- 
joining the church of St. Gf^main rAuxcrrois, Itad advanced to- 
; vaifdâ the Louvre, which «omc young men in a freak of poetic gx- 

• tiavagsncc had talked of capturing 'n4th a band of music at their 
.^ead^ Ttic Swiîs pcerted on the colonnade, kept up a tremendous 

• fiici, wliieh was vigorously returned by the Parisians. 

The Due de Raguse wa5, during the time, in the Place du Caï^ 
zoQsel, making all ready for a last and desperate ccMgement. In- 
telligence was brought him that the soldiers in the Place Vendâme 
I mvK in oonuntmic&tion with the people ; that they were wavering in 
\ JÛketr ailt^oncc ; and that a deifection was to be apprehended. Tltc 
mazahal immedialely resolved to withdraw the two regiments ùom 
iWmtact With the peuple, to miLrch tiicm to the Place Louis XV. and 
[the Tuilerie», and to replace them with the Swiss, who had neither 
'Isoihan nor folationa among the people whom it was intended to 







cannonailc. Caîling his aidc-dtî-camp, M. de Guise, he said to him, 
" Haâlea to M< de balis ; let him send mc one of the two batudiona 
under hia command ; one is enough for the defence of the Louvre.** 

When thia oi"der reached M. oe Sali^, there were Swiea in the 
CODTtyard of the paJuce^ and In die colonnades; thoEcin ihi; latter 
podtion were alono cjcposed to Uie fire. M. de SaHs, wiahing to 
seaxd freeih troops to act against the people, resolved to send the duke 
the b&ttalion that vrns actually engird, and to supply ita place with 
that which had not yet fought But, witli strange inadvertencir, 
instead of ârst calling up into the Louvre tlie hatUihon that wu3 m 
the courtyard, he begin by raarfliing uway that which occupied 
the colonnade, Tlie people perceived iiiat the fire of the Swiss was 
alcnced ; they eaw no cneiaie& before them. A bold lad hod 
already climbed up by a spout, and planted a tricolour flag on the 
Louvre. Some of tlie assailanta entered by a wicket which had been 
iel^ open, got into the abandoned hidls, ran to the windows and fired 
on the Swiaa. Ainuzoment and ularm seizud the intrepid mercenaTieSf 
the fearful and bloody tradition of the lOtU oi' August rushed upon 
their mindfSf and they turned abruptly and Ûcà with all speed across 
the Place du Carrousel. Uuring this Ume the people fired pistols into 
the locfesT broke open the doors with axes, and poured in floods all 
over tlie Louvre, wliilst anothet portion of the assailants pureued 
the fugitives. The Due de lioguse, his Gioe bunmig with rage and 
ahABlj&i e&deaTOured to rally his soldiers ; he succeeded in bnngiug 
waae of them hftck to the Tuilcrics, hut the disorder was immenso. 
M. do Guise who hod \Û5 Buhrc in his hand, lost it in ÛÛê horriblâ 
rout, and only fotmd it again, a long way off, hanging trom th« 
curb of a gendarme's horse. Musket-shots followed thick upon each, 
other, the men of the people were coming irp flushed and wild with 
BUCCCS8. The Swiss reached the l*avillon de I'Jiorloge, passed it in 
dùfortlor, and scattered over tlie gardens of the Tuileries. Tho panic 
{preftd to the troops posted there, and from tliese it was commuju- 
catcd to those stationed in the Place Lotus XV. Some of theoA 
pouted soldiers tore off their epaulettes in their confusion, othen 
hastily threw away their uniforms. Some otBccts, borne away by 
tiic irrcsifitible force of the tîood, broke ttieir swords in dcspoiir. La 
an instajit the rout was become general, &ud the king's army woa in 
full rctivat through the Champa Elyst'cs. ' j 

At tho moment when ttie troops were thus hurrying along th^j 
line eitending from tlie Louvre to the Arc-de-f Etoile, a windo^j 
wae gentJy opened at the comer of the Rui; de Rivoh and the KvitA 
Sftint-Fiorentin. ^' Good God I what arc you doing, M, Keyser,*^] 
erî^ a broken and aged voice from the further end of a sumptuout 
•p«rtmcnt. *' You will have thu hotel pillaged l" — " Never fear,* 
replied M. Keyser, "the troops arc in fuU retreat, but the people 
arc intent only on pnrsuinc them." — '* Indeed 1" swd M. de Talley- 
rand, and stepping up to lli>c clock, *' Note it do^'n,^^ he added, in ^ 
•olemn tone, ** that on the â9th of July^ 1830, at five minutea i 

440 CONDUCT or the people IX THE EOT AI* PALACE, 

^ooti, tlie elder brancli of the Bourbons erased to reign over France." 
.Tills was rathet preinatuxely tolling the kncU ol' the ancient mo- 
narchy; but to predict great misfortunes, in order to betray them 
nfttrwards, was the vanity of lliat ljiitlili.\*9 soul. 

Whilst the multitude that had captured the Louvre was hurrying 
through the long gallery ol' the inusc\un towards the palace ot the 
Tuiluiicp, MM. Thomas, Uastide, Guiimrd* Joubert^ and Ganja were 
entering it by the wicket of the Pont Royal. In a moment the 
^y»l dwelhng was whoUy occupied by tiic raristans, and a tricolour 
flag was planted by Thomas una Joubert on the top of the building. 
A combatant opened one of the gates of the garden for General 
Bertrand, and the eotupanion of the emperor's esile. entered, ivith 
tears in his eyes, into the place where he had not set foot since 1815. 

The people brotc statues of kings in the palace halla ; portraits 
of princes were torn with the pointa of pltes or bayonets^ and 
iTOrkmen carried home, aa the sole ti'ophy of their victory» some 
fltripa of painted canvass. In tbc hall of the marshals the victors 
discharged their pieces at some portraits that awakened recollections 
x>f perfidy; hut many a head whs uncovered before the portrait of 
Macdonald, whom tlïc falling fortunes of his bcnelactor had found 
faithful in 1814, A great number of working men had ji^t*lled 
.thcmaelvcs in the Ijall of the tlirone, each of them sat on the throne 
in hie turn, and then they placed a dead man upon it. 

Thus act of taking possession presented, fur several hours, on in- 
conceivable mixture ot heroism and heedlessness» of bufloonery and 
jETrandeur. Men of tlie humble claa3e3 were seen pulling on, over 
their bloody shirts, flowered gowns that had pressed tlie slim '\^'at2ts 
of princesses, ajid they stalked about in this odd accoutrement, thug 
making a joke of tlicir own victory, between their penury of the 
pa^l day and their penury of the morrow. 

But the rumour having spread that the doora of the Tuileries 
were open to every body, Eûen of various conditions flocked thither, 
robberies evincing a cullîvatifl taste were committed in thia 
Lley concourse. The articles which disappeared, and wliich have 
not been recovered, were generally rare bookj, sumptuous editions, 
elegant tflipperâ, a multitude of charming trifles» all Hortd of thin^ cal- 
culated to tempt the cupidity of the refined and fastidious. iVith 
theëc exceptions little mischief was done. Tlie rich man went up to the 
fKior man and said to him, " My Inend, you have a gun, keep guard 
over thc^c splendid cases." — " Very well," replied the poor man, and 
he would have suffered death rather llian have failed to liillil the 
lûirder. A young man hod got possession of a royal hat, ornamented ia 
M very costly manner ; some of the people saw him and flopped 
Sma. " Where ore you ^oing with that? No stealing here Î"— **il ia 
eoly A token I am taking with me." — '* Ail well and good; but in 
tiiat cKO the value of the article ia of no consequence.*' So saying, 
they U>ok the liat, trampled it imder their feci, and returned it to 
the young man. The people thcreibrc kept perteet wateh oves 




ÛtèrâKlvcs. A workunan^ named Miilleï, had been appointed cKie^j 
guardian of valiiablea by M. de Caillcux, the conaervator of thff 1 
muaenra: he fuldUed his duties nobly* kborioiisly, and at tlic nslc J 
of liï3 lîle. Sorae days afîcrwards, when order was restored, aï I 
workman, named Mtiller, presented liLmseLf to M. de CaiUeux, un^l 
ploring some assistance. He was without work and 6tarving". 

During this lime the waters of the Seine were carrying atongt 1 
books, vestments, and hangini;'?, thrown into it from the eack of thflf 
atchbiahopric; and a body of men, among whom pompiers madrfj 
part, wcte retumiag in triunipli from the Cafeme de Babylone,' i 
waving the red coats of the vanquished Swiss on the points of] 
bayonets. The people had broken forcibly into the artillery muÀ i 
Pcum; so that in this msiurectian of the nineteenth century figured] 
the caaque ol' Godefroy de Bouillon, the raiitchlock arquebuse o9 1 
Charles IX., and the lanec of Francis I. ti 

The courtyard of the Palais Royal was full of troops; the hoU9(Cl 
of a clothier, situated on one ddc of the ,square, and the Café de 1» 
Régence, on the opposite âde, were occupied by two compaiiies of 
the 6tb guards, under Captîiins de CoDchy and Moctc. Attcr seve- 
ral attacks gallantly sustained,, these two officers were forced Uy 
retreat. The fLtrracr haviu},^ been woimded by a ball, was carrieA^ 
to tliG ^ardhoupc, where the insurgents, furious at the loss of theip 
comrades, talked of shooting him : a combatant^ named Baziiir 
saved him. During this time one of the people who had made hifl 
way into the courtyard of die palais, entered into a parley with thei 
officer, and the court was evacuated. 

The Due de Raguse had forgotten in the hurry of the retreftt n com- 
pany of the 3d gïiaïda in the Rue de Kohan. The foldiers posted 
in the house of a hat raaniilacturer, a few paces from the Théâtre 
Français, fired from all the windows on wmc men who, under cover 
of the columns of the portico, or of the angles of the streets, kept 
up this hot contest with unâinching vigour. Two young men 
were fighting side by side: une of them was mortally wounded j thd'l 
odiicr who waa loading his gim continued lug employment, sayina^j 
in a low Ftifled voice to his comrades, ** If I am killed, you wiurJ 
pick tills po<ir fellow up, will you not? He is my brother !" Cj 

The hfvuse Wiis carried after a murtleroua conflict: Captain Méi" 
buiser was flung out of a window on the iliird story ; several of the 
soldier? were slaughtered, and ihc rest wore led prisoners to the 
Pluee de la Bourse. It wa^ one of the most terrible episodes of iho 
revolution^ and it was the l&si. 

The resistance had been ol>?tinatc; it provoked acta of vengeance. 
A eoldicr liad hidden himself in a pTt.**; he was discovered there by 
a maniiracturcr of the Faubourg St. Antoine, who ran him. tlirouglt 
with a IteyoQCL 

But if victory showed itself implacable in some, in most it waft 
maguoniuiuus and humane. An oiËccr, named Kivaubc^ having 



made liia escape over the houâctops, Kod slipped into the alley of a 
neighbouring nousc, whence he Imd entered the shop of a milkman^ 
wtaeh was empty at the raomeat. A penthouse that had been 
thrown down served liim for a place of concealment, Suddenty 
Liroices were Iieard in the dark alley, and the shop-door was opened. 
5** He is in this house," said the armed mert who n^d rushed in; and 
^^raocompanicd these words with the most irightful threats. The 
rofficer heard all from his place of concealment ; evcr^ word sounded 
[to him like a sentence of death, nnd he was terrîBcà at the noise of 
Jljia own breathing. There were some pieces of packing-paper about 
l.llim ; Ilia bresth stirred them, and thia was enough to betray hU 
Tlkidinfj: -place. A man's foot trod h^htly on hig arm, and he thought 
ilkimaeLt' lost; he was saved. '* What ?ood arc we doing here?" 
L<ïried the man who had diaoovered him, roughly. " Let us go 
rseareh the House," He left the place, hurrying hjs compomons witii 
Ikim^ and returned a moment afterwards in search of the officer who 
t owed him hia life, and who escaped by mean^ of a dlsguiae, Lieu- 
; tenant Goyon, after having courageously defended himself from 
story to stoiy, was shut up mi a raom with some of his soldiers. 
Death to Ûw officer! was shouted on all hands by the incensed 
crowd of assailants. " Here I «n f he cricd^ immediately opening 
the door. Struck by many hands at once, he fell with hia &cq 
plNitKed in blood; but two of the insurgents sprang towards him, 
took Mm up in their arms and carried him away at the risk of their 
Kves. Another officer, named Ferrand, hail a more iimhoppy fate: 
he fell mortally wounded; but it waa one of the insurgetita who 
waited by him in lii& last moments, received liia last breath, and 
ondertooK to execute his dying wishes. Tl\c history of revolutions 
ÎS full of similar tnuts: they prove that great crises by ovcr-excitinff 
tha various powers of the soul, magnify human nature in all its di- 

Two hours after this, Doctor Delaberffe, one of Uie eombatontâ of 

liÛie Louvro, was rcttiming home, when be met, in the Rue Neuve» 

I âe9-Capacinc9, a man he could scarcely recognise, so pale and hazard 

irerc his feature?. M. Casimir Péner nwhcd to him and entreated 

[tim to save some gendarmes who had taken rcfu^ in the offioo of 

-Jôreîfflï ai&irs, and who weipe beset by a frantic multitude shoudng; 

libt tncir blood. Doctor Debber^e went into the buildinff, followed 

Ibysomo resolute men, and found eighteen gendarmes in the pantry, 

^Uriio bad stripped off their uniforms^ and were expecting to be mas- 

' Kicrcd. He made them put on phdn clothe j and whilst he 

Btood at the front door haranctiing the people and keemng them in, 

play, the poor fellows eficapcd by the door opening on uie Flaoo des 


About the samo time, two large cheats, covered with gray cloth, 
, aiHTBd on the Place de la Bourae, M. ChaHes Teste, who then 
, tlie command of the Bourse, had them opened : they containod 




Uic alvGT pkte of tLc cKâteftUf and the mo?t valuable ornaments of 
the chapel. Those who ewoited and protected these rich articles 
hod on their persona nothing but blood-stained rdgs. 

The conllict seemed cndetl, but stiU the eky had not got rid of all 
iu foca. From the Place V^endômo, in wliicii there were two regi- 
mentâ of the linc^ ihc (j;arde royale extended as far oa the Madeleiiie 
along the Kuc de la Folx and the Boulevard des Capucines. But BU 
incurable discouragement had seÎ2ed the troops. Some soldiers had 
seen, Imm their station in the Place Vendôme, the rout of the fugi- 
tives from the Lou^TC, Ûva captiire of wliieh was no looker unknown 
in the ranks. Defection was momentarily to be apprehended- General 
Wall, observing M. BiUtard, rode up to him and aaid^ '♦Monsieur, 
do you know Casimir Ptrrier? It is important that he shotdd be in- 
formed, without deky, that the kinc; dmrcs to speak -with him." 
M. Billiard hurried oil to Casimir Péncr^ but he was not at homo, 

Xhc news of a truce concluded between him and Cluirlea X. sprtsd 
jftn^k. Unknown u<^cnta carried it about among the vanous groups, 
tfâhlKeiiuouâly exhorted the people to Liy do^vn their arma, Other 
citLzenSf on the contrary, conjurcd them to distrust these haran^es, 
and not to quit the field of battle till the victory was secured. Sucbf 
m particukr, wa* the Linguago addressed to the people near the Rue 
4b la. Chau^ee-d'Antin by MAI. Bérard and Dupin lune. The 
Vdour of the bttor was o-xtreme, and singularly at variance with 
die Kttitude he had maintained up to tlmt time: whether it was that 
tli6 spectacle of the victoriouâ Paiifians had Ëred hiâ imagiitation, oc 
that he vrislied to gain forgiveness for having doubted of the people's 
success by llic loudness and vehemence with which he partook in it* 
Be thta aa it may, belligerent suggestions prevailed, and indignation 
was the feeling entertained towarda those who talked of accommoda- 
tion Ln the nud^t of the victims of royal obstiniu^y. A wliito hand- 
kerchief, waved by a man who rode on horseback along the boulevard, 
e3u»perated the nullitude to the highest pitch. The commandant 
Koux, and M. Durand, advocates for the pacification of Paris, were 
quickly surrounded by a furiouâ crowd shouting out for their death. 
They were saved through the interposition of MM. Gérard and Be* 
rard, who look them away to M. Lafiittc's, under proiencu of having 
tlicm tried there. 

During thiâ time a column of insurgents was entering llie Rue de 
1* Piix by the Ruo Neuve-Saint- Augustin. It waa preceded by a 
bimve citizen, M. Frouasaid, who came running up with his musket 
slux^ over his shoulder and a pistol in each hand. After threatening 
General Wall, he delivered a soldier-like address to the troop, con- 
juring them to rcmËanbcar their origin, and tliat their enemies in this 
wariiire were their brethren. Several of the people, taking advan- 
tege of the hcâtacioa of the soldiers, had gradualtr l^piOBckcd the 
ranks, and a thousand energetic or touching appeals were uttered by 
tlie excited multitude. The force of persuasion and sympathy soon 
became irresstible, and the soldiers all idong the Rue de la. Faùe. 


turned up tKc butts of their muskets in the air. Gaatmr Férier, 
I vho was then at the house of M. Noel, His notary, at the comer of 
I the Rue de la Paix and] the Rue NcuvoSaint' Augustin, saw this 
I iiovemcnt of the guards from a window; be hastened dovra into the 
I itreet and declared Ms name, and amidst the criea that hailed hia pre- 
I ience, a captain broke hia sword. 

Cjisimii réricr now clearly perceived wlûch mde of fortune's balance 
[ decidedly prcpondcratedi and he naade all speed to M. Laffittc'8. 
The jnoment he entered, M. Auguste BilHaid went up to him and 
t «aid, ' ' I am conunissioned to tell you that Charles X. deeires to confer 
yfilh you," Ci*sirair Pc-rier retunied a, haughty refusal to this pro- 
posai, liis soul was already pledrred to tlie winninp cause. 

Many persona of note were at this moment assembled at M, Laf- 
»*8. A great noise was heard at the gate of the hôtel: it was a 
F'fiCrgeant, named Rtchcmout, who demanded ndiuïSËnon, and whea 
the servants ohjected to allow a soldier to pass into rooms where 
QUch grave matters were in debate, Richemont drew his sword, and 
' taJông it by tlio blade, oftèrcd the hilt to the servants, still urging 
bis request. At last he was shown in. He came to announce that 
the 53d of the Hoe was ready to join the people, and that the body 
of officers, with the exception of the colonel and the majors, had 
deputed him to convoy the intelhgeuce to General Gérard, At the 
Inquest of the general. Colonel Ileyiuès went oat dressed in pkiii 
clothes, aad proceeded to the Place Vendôme with Sergeant Riche- 
mont. Ou the way they met M. Laffitte'a brother^ who was assem- 
bling some national guards, and he joined them* Tliey made their 
way through the lines to (ho colonel; their c&mest words were 
parâed &om man to nmn through the ranks; tlie officers applauded; 
the colonel, who Tesist^^i at first, was finally overcome. The soldiers 
stipulated only tluit they should retain then- arm» and their culour», 
a ïîailîtary punctilio which could not be denied them, and tJie regi- 
jueat marched to the Hôtci Laihttc with the dniras beatini; before it. 
The courtyard of the hotel wafl poon Bwarming with soldiers; livo 
o£B.cers enterëd the ^rand saloon, il. Laiïitte, who was recUning on 
» toia, lia^'ing hui-t his foot+ received them with kindness and dig- 
nity. '* Messieurs," ho said to tliom, " keep your arms, but vow 
not to use them against the people." The officers stretched out 
their liands to take the oath- ** No oaths. Messieurs," wid Loflittc 
wi ill emotion; " kings have dishonoured theni; tlie word of bravo 
men is enough." These word» woio rapturously Applauded, and 
çvory one was giving free course to the strong emotions of the day* 
when euddcnly » vtulcy of musketry was heard. What langtiaco 
I, could depict the tumult that tlien burst fortli in the roomsi* Tn© 
I royal giiiirda were assuredly victorious ;-r— the enemy would be on 
the «pot forthwith; — and every one took to hia heels: the paasagev 
were choked up with people stn^Ung to get out; and several p<r^ 
sons, M. Méchin among others, jumped into the garden &om the 
viiidows of the gcoimd-âoor. In the twinkling of an eye M. Laf- 



fîttô ■WM desâftcd by all those that had suiroiuided his sofa, with tlio 
BoUtai"V exception oi'his nephew, M.Laroche. His wife had (iiinled: 
aa for himscif, as calm as ever, lie took advantiige of the int4^rva| 
this rout aifordetl to have his leg dressed by his nephew. What 
hȈ been the matter after all? The soldiers of the &th had followed 
the example of their comrades of the 53d, and going over to tho 
cause of the people, they hod di«;harged dieir muskets in the air to 
give aâsurance of their fiicndly mtentiona. 

Well, this satnc Hôtel LatBtte, the theatre of siich maivellous 
alarms, was by and by to be decked with the name of the head- 
quarters of the revolution. 

The battle over^ the city, so long; motionless end hidden, suddenly 
became alive again, and everywhere presented an imposing and 
animated concourse. In a few momenf? a countïcsa mass had spread 
like a sea tlirough the street*, squares, and boulevards: the dismal 
and portentous i^ilcnce of the preceding day» interrupted only by the 
roar of firC'arma, was now succeeded by the din of Parisian late iJi 
its noifiest mood. But how came it that the capital was free? 
What mysterious power had made troops so bmvo, so well discî plined, 
give way before scattered bands composed in a great measure oi work- 
men and boya? There was Bomething inexplicable to all men in 
such an event, and astonish men t was universal. 

The first moments uf triumph belonged to joy and brotherly 
iaeling: an enthusiasm unparalleled quickened the pubes of 
«very heart. The man of fashion familiarly accosted the man of ' 
the people, whose band he did not then sltrink from gra^pine;. 
Pcrjfon? wlio had ne\'cr seen each other before embraced like o& 
tricnds. The aliops were thut day thrown open to the poor. In 
DOADy ptaoCË wounded men passed by borne on litters, and every 
one aJuted them with aftection and respect. Blended together in 
one commou fecrling of enthusiasm, all classes seemed to have for- 
nottcn llieir old grudges; and ise<^n^ the open-banded gencro?ity 
ftl tlie one «ide, and the reserve and modesty on the other, one 
iprould have thomght lie had before him a society habituated to the 
brotherly practice of having all tilings in common. This lasted 
some hotirs. 

Tliat evening the bourgeoisie kept armed watch for the préser- 
vation of their property. The sentiment of fraternity bad abruptly 
given way among- llie prosperous to a distnist, composed in piirt of 
Hsar of the relum of the troops, and ol'that of tlie people in a. raucb 
ffrcalcr degree. Vigilant pati-ob traversed the city in every direc- 
tion. To pase with any freedom from one pbtce t4> another it was 
nommiji to be fuiniâbed with the watcKword. A si-eat number of 
arbitfary arriats were made: the bourgeois in undbrtn diiearmed 
the worlcmcn in jackets, and ocn the bourgeois in plain clothes. 
Two of Uie combatants of the pr<'ceding day» M. Dupont and Gode- 
froi Covaignac, were arrested in this way at the Croix Hauge, 



ftnd only owed it to tliclr dctcnnincdi conduct that they were leA 
in poaaesaon of thcLi- muskets. 

Prerinusly too, on the 28th, national guardâ had heen Been ocUne 
as spiitincLa at the bank conjuintly with the troops of the Line; and 
whil&t the peopk were fighlingj ]VL Dequcvausilliers had repaired 
to hcAd-quartera to ubtain the wabchwoi'd liom the Due de Kaguw, 
and permisoon for the national grurd t^j ftct ireely fût the protccdoa 
of property. 

rropeity, therefore, ran not the least risk in tJw month of July; 
it would have been protected by the providence of the bouxseoMp 
even had it not been so by the dismtcrestedncaa of the proleteicaL 

We must Dot omit to say tliat tliiâ disintcrcstedncss w» no4 left 

without stimulus. Duiinf; the dayâ succeeding the victoiry of Paris, 

tb» journals Tied with each, otber in extoIUng tlic self-denial of die 

poor; the admiration it called forth was loud and unanimous. It 

wa rckted that a worknuui hud depontcd a silver gilt vase at tlus 

ttcièctun; of poliecT and would iU3t even state his name; tliatano- 

ttier had faund a bag containing three tl\ou(iand francs under tbo 

"mckct of tlie Louvre, and had immediatelj «irricd it to tJie Coon* 

nnxoe. A phrase uttered by an unfortunate ûrtasan was gr^Aiy aà- 

[mired^ ** Equality before the law b all very well; but eqnabty of 

! fortune \a au impo?sibilJty," Lastly tliete waâ no end of ma^niiyiup 

jlhc good conduct displayed by the people in eliooting robbers tutea 

|iu the fact^ and the numbci tA' tVuse popular executions waa deagnt- 

l^edly cxa^q^cratcd. Â man having been arrested for purloiatng s 

I piece of plate of very small value, he was dragged away under an 

kiftreli of the Pont d'Arcolc. The wretched man burst into tean xaa. 

['4inied mit, " What! deatli for such a little ÛÛd^ 1 It was poverty 

■ tempted me:. Mercy ! I hove a family. Let me at least em- 

K my wiiW aikd diildren for the last time. Xa there never a man. 

ftrooQgyou tliat has suffered tho pangs of huuj,'-erl' Mercy I mercv 1'* 

He was made to kneel down, and waj jdiot dead. TJieiti waa DOthtsg 

spontaneous in this UTSgc act of jusùco on the ttaii of those who 

axecutcd it: the order for the murder emanated Irom the Hôtel do 


Nevertheless^ all tliat was said of the dislntorestcdnGss of the peo- 
p>lcwaa true; and then? was no i-easf>n just then for being chary of 
encouragement to tlic virtue» of which tlierc was imniediato ncoa. 

At the close of the day M. Chan-ae conducted to the H^itel de 
Ville a party of those who had fought at the Caserne da Btdt/looe. 
** : found Gcnend Ldayettc very composed; and having aaked hi» 
at should be dons with tlie tMo iîundrod votuntoan who weru 
' waiting bdow in the Plaoe de Grère, ho was nnswercxl, ^^ Let ibeai 
pctum pcïiccflbiy to th«b bomea; they must htive need of rqxMe/' 
M. Charras obaoved to the gencml thtit many of those brave lellows 
iroiild find no bread at home on their return. ' ' WeU, tlien, let 
them have ûvo francs per man," said the gcni^aL The oïïë^ w 




made known to tkc workmen» }Fe tîant Jit//it Jhr money w%5 the 
cry that burst simultaacously Iraui every mouth. Tlia least poor 
among these men had not ten francs' worth on hia back. 

Whilst the iuailladc was ceasing in Paris, and they tvctc di^*nng 
in iront i>f iho Loutr- two hirgc pits, which were hallowed hy a 
^est, and aunnounled with u crosa bcarinfç these words, To the 
JVi fitfAimji l idfca died /or Ithert^y those who were «swmblod at the 
Hâtsl littffitte were busy founding a new dynasty. 

Hare bcsfos a aerieg of intrigues, frivolous iu appearance» but 
which »re clmracteristic and were decisve. 

All the moneyed men whom the sense of danger had collected in 
tboae sumptuous snloons, were disturbed and tlioughtful. Already 
ihey looked upon their oianËdon^ as given up to plunder ; and struck 
by the mij^ht the people had dls^yed, they counted little on its 
grentnese of souL 

M. Laffitte'a plan waa determincd. Going np to M. Oudart, he 
aid, "Yesterday I re([ue9ted you to go Uï Neuilly. The prince*3 
le^v to the noulloation 1 sent him waa, / tittotk i/<yte* Have the 
gôounuss to cetum to Kim. Let him take his choice hetweea a pass- 
port and a crown. If I succeed I vnïi not diargc him banker's eom- 
miarion : if I fûl lie will dÙHivow my proecediingB." 

People flocked from all parts to Laffitte's: the apartments, the 
courtyard:*, ami the g:irdens were crowded with f^ranrh seiynnum^ 
cupibilistd* men of the hiw, and natioual guard:!. Ini^uîsiîtive apcc- 
tatois poeted themsvlv^ on the roofs of tiic a<ljoinin^ hLitiecs, A 
linge faunuff rom iMota this inceasantly-renewcd swarm of persrms 
animated by various paamong. Some cartridges haviag been brought 
into the courtyard occasioned a violent uproar; for the men of the 
people scraubkd kir them, there bcinc' yet mcire shots to tire. M. 
I>cgL>ufiBée cntraed, htdding a paper in his hand. Tliat intrepid cidzon 
had gune at daybreak to offer General Pajol the command of tlie 
national guards. In revolutions, authority belongs to him who lays 
hold on it. But Ûiq j^nersl having repUed tliat on authorization 
from (be deputies seemed to him to be necesaur, M^ Degou^c 
hintrnrd to the Due de Choîaeul's, where he met Al. Dupin, and the 
laUer wiote, ** The dcputia Msembled in Paris authorise ficncnU 
Pajol to take tlic command of the Parisian militia."'—'''^ Parisian 
militia !" exclaimed M. D^ooBce, " why Aat word?" — " lîecauso 
the iuiti<»ial guard has been legally disaolved/* replied M. Dupin, 
who did not choose to risk hiâ licad. in thiâ revolutioa. That aamo 
rooming, in that same hûtel of the Due dc Choîseul, he had said, 
on heanng of the aueoea of the royal army, and in presence oS the 
Obenfier de Pannat, '■'• The royal troops are nj^ùning the day on all 
peînta» and, ma foi, it is very fortunate that it is »o." 

l^e dcpubea asombled at Laffitte's fiicr^cd the written «uthoriza- 
^on presoited to them by M. Degousée; but they did so with troubla 

■ TUi fftcm flf «ply i» am9UiT« in Frtttch.— Trtnutator. 





chief will 

armed people a chiel wlio was 
deputy, was to set up by the side of the legal authority an authority 
purely insurrectional. Just as M. Degoussée wasquittiii*» the room, 
I Jd. Baillot, a deputy of Melun, hurried up to hîni, and asked îo 
the authorisîtitionj aa if to look it over, and he did not give 
k the paper till he had furtively toni oiF the signatures. Tliis 
was the style in which the bourgeoiâc prepared itscli' for the ina- 
nagcmcnt of public affairs. 

M^mwhile, the throug was increasing ; a tnan of the people 
bi"ùUitjdit news that the Louvre was taken; M, de Lafayette arrived, 
Audry dc Puyraveau had gone to him very early In the morning 
to ui^e him to take the command of the troops, and was received 
liy M. Carbonnel, who said to him, '* But do you know, you are 
about to make the general incur great risk??' To which Audry 
warmly rephed, " And I too, eir, have I not been running c;reat nsks 
these two days?" On hi? way to Laffitte's, Audry de Puyraveau 
found a great concourse of the people in the Hue DArtois, and M, 
Mignet crying out to them» *' Make your minds easy, my friends^ 
this evening you will huve the Due d'Orléans for king." 

Those who were met at Laffitte's had not all arrived as yet at 80 
definite a pLan, but they all heartily invoked the establishment of a 
alar government; some that the revolurion mjrpht find a pilot; 
Br?, and these were the majoi'ity, that it might be rigorously 
watched and kept in check, Ah-ekdy, too, the necessity of 9, 
cting power nad been proclaimed in the strecte by the com- 
nta themselves. Several citizens liad assembled tumidtuously in 
I hoUf'C of Gttrnier Pages, in the Rue Sainte Avoye; and there it 
' liftd been determined that General Lafayette, General Gérard, and 
the Due de Ohoiseul» should be invited to take the public force into 
LÎheir hands. At the eaine time, by a Pingular comcideneet MM. 
îles Teste and Tachereau were creating in the offices oi' the 
/ a provisional government, consisting of MM. Lafayette, 
and Labbey de Pompières. Upon the advice of the poet 
^rançer, the name of the Due dc Choiseul was substiuitcd for tliat 
of the latter; andji proclamation which the Cmistittttiomici was crro- 
Jicnusly induced to publish, i^pread througli Pims the gi-and news of 
Lft government which existed only în the minds of some couïïigcoufi 
I forgers, who counted od success ï^^x acquittal. 

! in the capital but by virtue of thû 
k imaginary power: the most intelligent city in the world was go- 
^ verned by a woid. 

* Men who had received their warrant from themselves alone, in- 
fitulleil themselves in the Hûlel de Ville as representatives of the 
provisional government; and in that capacity they parodied the 
tioajesty of command, «gned orders, distnbuted employtflcnts, and 
' conferred dignities. Groat was the number of those who on the 
^th of some college reminiscences dreamed tlien of playing the part 
'ifSjrUa; aaâ side by side with young men of thoughtful courage, 




ftnd disittttrestetl iu their ilaring, were seen ambitions pcramblera 
whose hardihood was mure S^iomncc of obstacles, or the delirium of 
TftJiitV. Ilieir reign vras short, because tliosMî ivlio would dare 
gïeoîl/ must brnble to ilo greatly; but it ivns rcui, and gave occji^ion 
to scenes of uncxaniplLnl btifiîioncry. Gentlemen parcelled out the 
administration of Fmnce biHweon thtïm by ptivote coutraci in the 
8»lle S(. Jean, where npplicanta for office were aiTi^"ing cverv mo- 
ment to bow before the omnipotence of thc- rulers of the pl«ce. Tlieiis 
M, Dumonlm* held sway by virtue of his cockuii hut and feathers 
and his brilliiint uTiitbrm. He hnd promoted himeelJ' to the rnnk of 
commjindant of the Hôtel de VUlo. und he fulfilled the fu(R-tiuii9 of 
that post up to a certain point. M. Alexandre do Lahorde had put 
in his claim for a place in the victory, and the eommandant of the 
hôtel, with admirable eoolneps, named hira Prelect of (he Seine by 
hc&t of drum. M. dc Montulivcti who had been absent from Pans 
during the conflict, came in hia turn to the HOtel de Ville to make 
known his expectntlona; but it waa to M- Baude be addrc'ss«?d him- 
self. He asked ibr the direetoraliip of the bridges and roada, at the 
same litnc dceUrin»^ tlmt il' M. liaudo had reserved this for himself 
he would dieeri'uliy foregft his claim, ÛL Eatide lephed like ft 
a tuau who flid not lliink lûmself empowered either to give or to 
take. Tlius this strange revolution exhibited in the qiacc of a few 
days all the vanou:* oj^pccts of humanity, heroism tmd meatiaea?, 
manly pageiona and childish vanities, griindeur and wretchedness, 
that IS to say the whole man. 

During tîiis time a deputation, of which the two brothera Gumier- 
Pflgta made part, entered the Hôtel LafHtte, with an oflor of the 
gOTcranDcnt t<j Generals Ladiyettc and (K'rard, TIio latter replied 
evasively; the former met the proposal with boyish ardour. He 
mçivly *«ked ixïrmisaion to communicate it to hia coUcagtiea; add 
going among tJicm he s^d, " GentleiiiL-n, I am strongly solicited to 
take the eoimuand of Parir^-" But Lafayette master of Paris ^gni- 
fied tlie people master of the thorou^jlifarf^. 

AL Berlin de Vaux waa présent^ a man without eld\*ation of soul, 
but of rare penetratio», and of a certain i-each of mind for cti-iL 
Adroit in managing i>thei-3 through the caie he look always to ft-^oid 
making liimeelf prominent or conspicuous, he had lon^ gathered 
ixMind him, through his brother's instrumentality, several superior 
WTÎlera, who iusetiiîibly imbibed his notion», and submitted to hia 
aupremacy, the more bocausc lie did not suÔcr them to discern it. In 
this way ho had created in the Jovmal des DvbuU a power widi 
which every succewive fjovemraent had been forced to muUe Icrras. 
M. Iturtin <lc Vatix had no political passions: the egotism ot his 
opinions waa cold and ihoroumily calculated. Ttw intelligent not to 
be very well aware that a cliange in political i'onus may after all 
amount to no more tlian a new i^ion of protection accorded to the 

* Qo. Ihiboorgî— TVwubttPT, 



eame interests, he hnà strved ail the successiTe goTemments one after 
tJhe otiier, witliout ceasing to be true to his own doctrines, wbich 
vcrc thopc of '89. M. Berlin dc Vaux was one of the statesmen of 
the bourgeoisie. 

Admirably, too, was his knowledge of tliat body. Ho knew how 
grcfit was its strength, and how tkr it was capable of pushing ila 
maetcr passion, the love of pro]>eny. He knew, therefore, tiiat to 
Btifle the social revolution to which the political revolution was about 
to i?ivcbii-th, there was but one step to be token, the reor«;anisation 
of trie national guard, or, in other words, the enrolment oi" proprie- 
tor for the defence of pr&pcrty. WHicn he lictird Laiuyette' t&ltc of 
wnehlin^; the tnitliority of state he began to pky tlie cnthumst, and 
cnt'il out, " If we cannot refoiscitate Baillj\ t-ne virtuous mayor of 
llHQ, let us rejoice at finding again the illustrious chief of the national 
guard." ïlùs was an adroit way of recalOng to Lafayette's raiad 
one of thuse rocoUcciJons tlmt are dear to the vsnity of aged men: 
leH Lufuyette had no vciy conttmanding range of vision. 
'Lafiiyctte ftcoeptcd the proposal made to him, and set oat for the 
Hotel de Ville, the Tuilenea of the people since the era of the 10th 
of August. Everyone pressed forward to ece llie marqulë, who was 
beloved of the people, &s he passed^ tliey helped him over the lar- 
liers; and he, leajiing on thearmfl of M.Carbonnol und of M. Audiy 
de Puyravcfiu proceeded on his wny, cheered by the popular accla- 
mations^ and smiling at this ovatioR, which brought Iresnly back to 
liim the împreiaioQS of bia young days. 

In the Hue Neuve- Swint-Marc he perceived & young man, M. 
Étîcnno Aia^, who wore a tricolourral eockedc in his bat. He 
$cnt word to him by M. Paquee to lake it oft*^ and when Ango 
manifested his surpnge, ''* Not yet, my friend," he siud to him, Wttvio^ 
Ids hand. TlioiMands of eitiaens, liowcverT already wore the tri- 
colour ribbon in ïbcîr buttonhtvk-î; but ?uch was the stuper with 
which this unlooked-lbr revolution had aflbcted the nobkst minds! 
At the moment Lafayette passed undei- the atchway of the Hotel d» 
Ville the multitude rent the sky with a lon^ suMoined shout of joy 
minj^ded with the dischai^ of musketiy. Colomsl Dubcmrg being 
appnzed by 51- Etienne Arago of the general's, airivftl, replied ** A 
tout sritjjieur^ taut himneuT;" he went to meet the old jrenoral, bowed 
TcepectfuDy before him, and an hour afterwards M. de Lafeiyetto hekl 
in his hancU tlie desiime» of France. 

The deputies who had forme^l a lîttïc close committee at M* Laf- 
fittc's, to which the public were not adiniltod, saw cfeariy how ini- 
portanl it was for ihem that they should countfr-bftkacc the powiit 
of a man who had received hi? in^-cstitutT from the pfopJe, To ikiB 
Vkà thcv chu** ftouj their own bod^ Gcneml Gcrftfd to intmst 
him with the dirccti'>n of active operations. As for the or^nnitation 
of tlic civil power, was it expedient to croti to a pri/omemU ^vvr^Kinntl 
ta M. Mau^uin rci^uired, or mecoly a munieiftat aatmnHnBn, me M. 
GoiioL proposed? lite kuer opinion prevailed, because it vrta the 




THÉ ML"VlClPAt coioiiseios. 

more timid of tbe two, and decided notKin^. A tiftllot was 

then fot the ïiaminadon of tlic nicmbcni who should compose tho 1 
oomimflsion; and the clioicic iell on MM. Casimir Périor, Laffitto,. 
Génïd, Odier, Loban, and Audry dc Puyraveau. The kttcr was 
pat in nomination without his own knowledge, and only heanl 
of his appointment at the Hôtel de Ville. M. Ocher refused to act, 
and his place WÏ13 puppliçd by M. do Schonen. M. LafEttc had hurt 
Ilia foot; but in «ddition to this, it was nccesary to the accomplish* < 
neftt od' his phuïs, tlmt he should make hi» own bouse the focus ai ' 
all the events oi' the day. Geneiid Gerard made the military dutie» 
"which had just been imposed un him a pretext for not ^oin^ to tha 
Hôteâ de Vilie. The de^Milics applaudtil his course, (lelighttsi t<t 
]iaveui homme tTépée at Ûvâx di^ïosal; and the commi^on ûnaUy 
Bomposcd of MM. Casimir Péiicr, Lobau, de SchoDen^ and Audj^r 
âe Fuyravoui, completed its numbers by the adjunction of M^ 

The mmiicipal commission was no sooner formed than it published 
the ibUowin^ manifesto, a |riilpable te?tiniony of the dismist that 
armed acainst the people that oourgeoiae whach was about to lay 
hold of the ruddier of the ? tatc. 

" The dpputiei aasimTblol in Paria hare ft>lt it their da^ to retnedythe icrraTe dan- 
gBt that thraiteD tbc Kcurîty of p^mns and properly. A oamnmMfkm hud bMn 
baiaed to wulcti oviii thu intecvïts of oU^ in the obseucu ^' all n^uLix orgunizaCiou." 

This monitusto, so luï^ulûn^ to the people, was the fixvt measuid 
taken by the ûrst authority that craanated from the revolution. 
Tliia waB mmScing great haste. Tlic munieipal commiâBÎoa, never* 
theirs, rendcTed some services^ and it would mvc rendered greater, 
had it oonsentod to iuUow the cour% M. Mauguin wished it to take. 
Uafortunafiely, M. lUauguin exercised but a feeble inlluence over 
Itâa ooUeagiKs: he was re^rardcd "^vidi mis^ving by the rigid Audry 
de PuvtoTcaii: M. de Schontaa had no sympathy with him; atto. 
General Lotmu was shy of a euporionty to wiiieh he could not 6db- 
mit inthout detriment to his own personal importance. An active 
and mi^lhgcnt young mail» M. Hypohtc BofmcUer, had been amon^ ^1 
the fiiBt to enter the HuLcl de Vdie, where the functio&s of accrc- 
tary had been stssipied tii him by Laikyette; he was retained in 
that poet by the municipal eommiaaan; but it took likctnec as ae- 
creiiiry, M. Odilon Barrot, who had bocn rocomniftidod to it hj 
M. lÂJlitte. Thift circumstance had no ïitile influence on the atd- 
tode ununed by the new aiitlunicv. There existed bctwecu M, 
Uauguin and M. Odilon Barrot a discrepancy of opinion rendered 
Kflve intenac by a latent nvaUhip, that ueitlicr owned to himâclf, 
bot which actuated them both, 

M. MuLiguin, however» wue no «looncr installed tlion he dispia3Fed 
all his natuml sictivity. M.Bavoux was named prefect of pohee, and 
M, Charde.l director ot' the post-office. A proelamatton placed tho 
public monumenlâ under the protection of the French people, 
VsDDiia drcuLtrs were dmwn vf^ hariog for their object to amka 



provision for the most immediate necessities. M. Mai^uin -wisliocl 
[ tliat the; inumcipal coinmipsîon should assume the title oi jrravi^ontU 
Igwentmrnt Gençi^ Lohau oppo&ed thia in llie most decided man- 
I ner. Meanwhile a notification arrived that many ■vrorkmcn wer« 
'îii want ui" broad: inonej -waa necessary. Apphcatiou was mdde to 
■'3VJ. Casimir Périer, "who rcplieJ, '' Il is past tbur o'clock, ray cash- 
[ room is closed."' 

During lliia day of the 29th the llûtol Laflitte never ceased ibr a 
[moment to be the centre of tlie agitators uf Paris: people Hocked 
f to it simultaneously fpotn all purts; deputations succeeded deputa- 
tions; the people had free aoinisaion; and in this vast medley not 
' a siuglc act of Tiolence was committed^ not one article was stolen. 
' M. Lafiitte's horses were i-uniiing in every dircetiou, mounted by im- 
Itnown riders, and in the evening they were all safe a^în in the 
stables, But the representatives of the higher bourgeoisie did not 
the less cherish a deep distrust of the people. 

General Pajol, who had entered the courtyard erving out, '* I 
bring you the Waterloo liat," was very badly received : General Lafay- 
ette was too popular not to bo looked on still inorc unlavourably. 
In order to beg"et for General Gerard an influence wdiich might be 
turned to account at need, he was strou«ly urged to put on his uni- 
form, show himself t) the people, and visit the barricades. M. Ca- 
BJmir Periet wrote to his son's tutor, " Come without delay to the 
Hotel Laiïitte, and bring horses with you." M. Gérard hcatated, 
but the request was urged with increased eamesrtnesa. " Just the 
way with all yon militLiry men»" said M. Eugène Laffitte, to stimu- 
late him, '* you tannot march unlcga you arc followed by red trou- 
tcxs.*' At lâ?t the general gave way, and He eet out to show the 
people it was in no fear of wanting leaders after the battle. He stall 
Tvore the wliite cix-kade, which he took off at the suggestion gf M. 
Sarrnns, but he did not put any other in its place. 

On the whole, whether it was from fear, inditfcreuce» or thought- 
lessness, those who had already presented tlicmselvea as leaders no- 
Tvhere evinced any impatient alacrity to hoist the colours for which 
the people had IbughL ITic manner in which t!ie tricolour flag was 
hoisted at the HAtel de Avilie deserves to be narrated. M, Du- 
moulin having perceived one lying rolled up. and all covered with 
dufit, behind a piece of furniture» sifrniljcd his intention of hanging 
It out from a wmdow of tht; Salic St. Jean, and vhd so upon a âgn 
\^ assent from M. Baude. Nations are too often led with aigna and 
'■wopda ; but tlii^ ^vas u fact which all tlie great lueu of the moment 
aecined not uwaro of. il. do Ijifayette, eeconded by the chief of 
his stall', Colonel Zimmcr, a brave officer, but whose capacity was 
more limited tlian hia patriotism and zeal, left matters oi" policy lo 
be dî^ïosed of by the Iianda of subordbiates. 

A peer of Franco was hastening, mcauirbilc, to the Hûtol Lalîîtte. 
Tlds was the Due de ChoiseuL He bad learned tliat he governed 
FnncCf and the ncwa paralyMd him with terror. Aa none could 








Jbresee wh&t m%bc yd ansc out of eo sudden a cominotioDi the Duo 
6,e Choifeul took M- LalHltc to witness tow innocent he ws*. Ha 
protested above ftU Qguiu:-t the a^eociation of his name with tb&t of ! 
Lniiiycttf, adding that ht would be sole possessor of power or no- 
ihiug. " At tlmt Piitc jt>u shall bo nothing, M. le Duc/' a voice 
exclaimed. The duke subsequently published a manile^to tenni- 
Dating with these words: "Now that the victory is no longer 
uncerluiii , I deem it a duty of conscience to declare tliat I never 
Dude part of the provisional govemuiciit, and that no proposa! of 
the Idnd was ever made to me. I acceptai, eilenily, all ûHngerai 
in the hour of combat; I owe homage to tmtli in the howr ofvic- 
ton'." This was admired. 

Atcatiwhilc the royal army, lorced to abandon tlic capital, liad 
continued its retreat towards St. Cloud, but every buttaiion Ibllowed 
î(fl own route as it were by chance. ITic Swiss batlftlionsj nan of 
the 3d battahon of the giiardd, the l^th hght, and foinc dijtach- 
ra^ta of the 1st guards, took the rosd by Cours la Reine and 
the Qoai de CbailLot. More victims fcU at Chaillot. Clûldren 
BtftTtcd out unexpectedly at tbe comers of the streets and i&rcd oa 
tlie troops witii a feroc-ity that was inexplicable. Here fell one of I 
the most accomplished and gallajit otïteors of llie guards, M. Le- 
mothcux. No o\iK limd mur»; forcibly than he diâapprovcd of the 
ordin&ncca, and he was preparing to tender bis ri^signation. Lie lell 
dead, struck bv a ball disçliargetl by an insurgent only ten years of 
Bgc, Other olBccre received nnortal wounds, and one was on tho 
point of being made prisoayr Being separated from liis regiment. 
Le yrna obliged to paaâ the ni^ht at CliaiUot, whence he escaped thâ 
next day iu diîi^âe. 'ITie disinterestedness aud grandeur of the end 
aimed at can uone absolve those who excite the thirst of blood 
among a pcofile, for there is ^niethlng tn it epidemic. The revo- 
lution of July was, even to childhood an encouragement to hcToian, 
but it waa abo a pruvocutiou to cruelty, 

Tlie battaliuns whicii huil not token the road by Cours la Heine 
bad rallied at the Arc de L'Etoile wbencc they extended as far as the 
Porte Maillot. They were clow by the house of Casimir Pcrier; a 
Awjor and some oraoen wore luked in; they were politely re- 
ceived, and refreshments were mi before them. Their distress of 
mind was poignant and profound. What terrible ^■Idiei's are these 
Pari&i&nsl eaid tlie iiujor pondering over all the gaps death bad 
made in his regiment. There, as at Cliaillot, a band of clûldren. 
■iMilrd some soldiers with Brearms, and the latter, pursuing tlieir 
Mg r cMO rSi entered a house where some ivorknien were drinking, and 
tneee ihej fliaughtered iu their bUnd cxui^pcrutton. Some citnnon- 
^lotfl, firûd in Uie direction of Ncuilty, tlu'cw balls into the pork, 
which ihe Due d'Orleuns had an opportunity of wdgbing in his 
band; one of these balls killed a villager who was crossing^ the 
bridge. Tluu tite miacbicft» that every war produces survived the 


TKe danpliiii, wko h&d supcrscdetl the Duc de Ragusc in the 
coinniaïul oï the troops, came to the Bois de Boulc^e to receivo 
them, but not one opportune thought c-ouîd ho borrow from his 

fricf, or rather irmn liia an^^cr. Goinrr up to a captain, he asked 
im how many mon lie had lost. ** Mirny, monseigneur/' repiû'd 
the captain, "with big tears rolling down his cheeks. "You nave 

[ plaity^ you have pleti^/' vus. the «arclus remark oi the douphin, 
■who -was bom a prinoo. The troop» arrived in St. Cloud, ayirxg 
irith hunger, breathless and panic-stricken. Tliey were mside to 
birooAC in the park. The greatest diâofder prevailed in the en" 
YÏrons of the ciiâteau. The horsed wore standing ready saddled ind 
loaded in the courtyard ; the pupils of Si^ Cyr arrived in havte; 
tkerû were, moreover, round that eudongcrcd throne lour pieces of 
cannon^ find eomo schoolboyg to work thein. The Due de Hoideaox 
VniE at dinner. It is rclatm that M, de Damas having caused tk> 
table to he cloJii^, Uie Due de Bordeaux hhnâelf took several mWvt 
«lishcs, which he raised Ti^th dilHculty over his heatd^ and handed to 
the AtteDiLlanta to carry do^vn to the eoLdici'& This alibfded cbe 
young prince much amue«uaent; it was a new kind of game for tfaa 

The time for compromisw waa now gone by for Charles X. Hi« 

y «fiCrnies had obtained ?udi ^ncecss, that nothing remùncd for hint 

k'lwt to continae wholly king or wholly to cease to be so t a favoiir- 
•blepoBition» because an extrenie one. As long as the chances were 
on ht» fide, it was itllowwble for lum to yield wmewhnt; but now, 
CB (he point of being struck down, there was hut one COUK leit him, 
one only course, to fifiht to the death, no longer for nsyidty alone, 
hut for autocrM^. Triig is the course he would have taken had his 

I wank been as lofty as his rank : for to hearts worthy of empire the 
«ncoeas of disaster is itself a might. But the misfcirtune of this ki^ 
me to foster in « vul^r mind the growth of gigantic designs. He 
■WM doomed to be crushed beneath the isordmaie weight on which 
he had presumed to try his strength. 

The Due de Mortemart hud nrrived the precedii«? erenîng in St. 
Cloud. He was a ^rttnrf*e-ryrtfurhiJf converted to Ubcraliaro. Bcinr 
aaoldier, he hsd acquired m «.^nnp-llf;- i liluntness of laugoage ana 
ft simplicity of nnannersdiat ill L>iu-'iiti 1 1 nvilIi the habits oi' the Kriato- 
cracy ; he had eorved witli Geneiid Séba.'^tiaiù, the triend of the Di»t 
d*Orleans; at Waterloo he hiul almost saved the Ui'e of a son oi' the 
people^ Getiârml Mouton; ù? amba^'sador at St. Petfirsburgf he had 
been She medium of the L^onstitutional Tocom m en dations addrcand 
to the caUtietof the Tuileiies by the Emperor Nicoks. For iJEL 
libew i<Ba90TW, Charles X. liiile lik{<l him. Ho sont for him however., 
In ft firat interview they had luid together, Clioxlcs had said, h. propos to 
the dang» of concession, " I havt? not forgottwi the evcaita that tofA 
place forty ymn ago. 1 do not ivish to ndc in a cart like my bro- 
thtr, I choose to nde on horseback ." But the old monarch's iieefijiigB 
wen now no longer the samct and he declared to the Due de Mtffto- 







mat thtA hè named Kim Wis prime minister. The duke rcCTioctfulIy 
but fltnaniOUflj declined the huoouri allegiDg his natural dif^inrUna* 
tion for pviblic afFfuR, his incapacity, his love of repose, tmd a fever 
tJiat he had carried with him from the bauks of the Danube. 
Charlra X. pereistcd, and at lust exchumed iiGpiïïuotisly, ** You re- 
fuse ihen to save ray liie aiid that of my ministers?*' — *' If that is 
vlut yo\ir majesty deniaods of me — •*' " Yes^ that very ihin^r^" 
aûd tho king, mTemiplinp^ him^ and he addcd^ with an involuntary 
outbreak of distnii-t, " Lucky stlli tliat they impose upon me only 

M. de Poîîgtiflc appeared in the hall where MM. de Vitrolles, do 
flémonville, and d'Argout were awitilâng some dcciaon. M. do 
nlîgziac would only admit M. do VitroUes to the king ; but M. de 
SémanTÎUe ^oing up to htm took hold of his hands ftfiecUonatcIy, 
Mid said, '* You know, my dear pritice, what confidence we reposô 
'm you, but tho drcumebutces arc momentous; it is absijlutely uecos- 
Miy tijftt we should spcuk to Charles X." M. de VitroUes Peconded 
this entreaty, and the three negotiators were introduced to the king". 
A dîgniûcd resignation was manii'e^ed in uU his deportment ; but 
his ooimtenance Dctrayed that inwnrd bittertiese which human Tani^ 
me&ctaally disavows. " Messieurs," he said, " you have &o willea 
it; gOj tell the Parisians that the king rçvokçs the order?; but I de- 
cUre to you that I beUcve this to be liatal to the interests of France 
mnà of tne monarchy/* 

IW thrtc ncgotifttor& kI oS'in an open carriage for Paris, fc^lowed 
by the Comte de Girardin on hoTwback. On the road M. d« Sé- 
^ovivîUe continually cried out, " My friends, the miuisiers are down," 
wd he scoompanicd these words witJi coaree oaths, flatteries as he 
■KMight thcsn^ when addrefteed by a prand KÎt/neiir from his 
floadl to the people. In iJiifl way they reached the Place do Grève. 
Several timci» ou the route, M- de Vilrolles had felt lus hand cor^ 
dialiy graipod by men, who, Ibtad they known his name, would have 
stj^tched him dead on the ipot. 

The Hôtel de Ville prwenled at this tiuic the twofold aspect of a 
club and of a camp: it was the mllj-ing-point of all tlie during SJH- 
ritp, the pbcc of bivouac of the insurroction- A shudder ran 
thtuueh tnc thrt-e ffentUshommei at the snght of thofe K^ld deter- 
mined faces, those brawny figures dressed in T&g»^ those mxisketa, 
Fwords, and patches nf gore. What was the style of language be- 
fitting this palace of equahty 'f Ought thoy not to make nse of 
the word fl/tWTî, wliich '93 had inscribed ui its fonnidablr voca- 
bukry? Meeting on the step» of the hotel M. Annand Marrast, 
whom ho did not know, M. dc SenionriUc paid to him^ dubiously, 
'*Clan we speak with M. dc Lafayette . . - -young manf Thus ho 
doaked, under the dignity o^ his great age, tlie obstinate pride of 1 
his rank. 

llie negotiators were kindly received by the municipal commis- 
mon, ffhich had been joined by M. Lafayclie. Incalciuable oook* 


quonccâ might have bt-cn expcuted from thia first attempt at recon* 
dliatlon between royalty and the Iwurgeaialc. liut to HSpire to save 
the throTiG waa hazardous at such a moment, above all in sudi a 
place: for the jiiultitutle waa chafing below, and demanding m 
payincnt for their blood not something Ijettcr, but something new. 

M. Baudo, however, having iicnounccd to the crowd that Churlcs 
X. consented to revoke the ordinances, one of the people shouted, 
*' Lon^ iive our good king who capitulates !" but the cry was not 
TespoiiHed to by those about him, 

\\'lien the ihrce were inti'oduecd to the coinini&sioa, M. de Se- 
momille was the firat to speak. His voice -was very weak, whether 
it was tliat fatigue had really exhausted his strength, or that he 
wished to excite in tlie noànda of the conimiasionera that sort of in- 
terest which is fett for the devotedneea of an aged man. He apolo- 
gized for tlic presence of the too famous Barou de VitroUes; then 
he commended to the gencro^ilv of the victors that royalty which 
had been &o oÛen smitten, and which had tearl'uUy suilered itacll" 
to be disarmed. Tliough the nomination ol" MM. Mortemart and 
t.^Crerard was all that had as yet been talked of at St. Cloud, he gave 
fit to be uoderstood that the king would readily assent to ^vc them 
lilîaBiniîr Périer for colleague, and he pointed to that indn-idual na 
rjjc spoke. Then tiuTiiug to M. dc Lnfayette» he reminded him that 
r/orty years before, the danwrs that beset Paris had brought them 
tbotb together in that same H6tel de Ville. Suddenly a mcpwnger 
tjEnters, and delivers a letter to Casimir Péricr, from the Comte 
F,dUexandjc do Cnraxdin, tufomving him tliat negotiations had been 
Itopened. Xlie surprise this caused was extreme. What meant thia 
jiplaj'ing at cross purposes? Was the commission made the dupe of 
I jBome intrigue ? Uncaaneaa and misgiving wore depicted in the austera 
||Uid noble countenance of Audry dc Puyraveau. M. de VitroUes. 
[j^ho was seated next M, do Schonen, vainly tried to sootïi him, 
f Baying, aa he slapped him on the knee, '^* A'A, mon Dieu I I am more 
Vb friend to the charter than you yoiu-self; it was 1 thatsu^^tcd tho 
I declaration of St. Ouen." M. de Sehonen had been iraplicalcd too 
[jdeeply to look for Impunity to any thing else ihim the downfal of n 
I monarchy, from wliich Ney s death had snatched the projogativï? of 
|anercy. He sjwke out all the agitation of his soul in thcsi:' terriblo 
[words: *' It is too late ! Tlio throne uf Charlt-s X. has foundered 
|in blood!" As for M. Mauguin, whose natural ardour waa temiwrrcl 
^J**/ judgment and forethought, he did not regard the inonaticny as 
l.yet l^jftt, and he wished that an car should be lent to negotiation. 
Have you written power??" he a:?kc<l. This unexpected qnentioii 
lied Al. de feéniouville; whereupon the Irank and iincom- 
1 ^ l;^' Autlry dc PuymvcHU, starting up, and running to the 
window, cried out, ■' Siiy not a word more of accommodation*, or 
1 will call up the people !" 

Tlie envoys of Charles X. withdrew; but Casimir Pctier, who Btill 
" led some hope», entreated them to go to Lafllttc, and make ft 

d'aUGOUT ^^IAKES overtures to L.VJFFITTE. 157 

last effort on btlialf of Charles X, M. dc Sémonvillo wjls dis- 
coiiTflgcJ, and rt-fuscd; the two others consented; and the colleofrue 
ol' M, de Mottenmrt g«ve ihem a pass, in which the name of Ar- 
naud WAS substituted for tiiat of VitroUea^ which might have called 
up diuigerous reeollcetiona- With that scrap of paper, the negô- 
tiator^ passed Crcely throuj^li tlie city, in which, as I have oh-caHy 
said, were Hirested that very evenînf; ecvtral young- men, who hod 
fought gallantly, hut to whom M. Caâmir Péricr had not given a 
sale conduct I 

\L d'Arçout presented himself alone to M. Laffittc. The heat 
was fluflocating, tue windows were opcrij and the rooms were full of 
people, M- d'Argout drew M- Lamtte aside into a window recess. 
Tkti negotiator's voice was hoUow and broken, and when he spoke of 
Chftrlcij X, it WAS almost with, teura in his eyes. *' The ordinances aro 
withdrawn," he said, " and wc hnve a iresh ministry." " Thia detiaion 
diculd lia ve been taken sooner," replied Lailitte. *' At present^ — " — 
** The exigencies remain the same — " — "■ Ni> doubt, but the situations 
«re changed. A century has elapsed ■within twenty-four hours/* 
M- Bortiu de Vaux was in the room. He thou|â;lit he could gueM 
that there was a compromise in hand, and ho cried out jo'itously, 
" So then at kst we ehall be able to negotiat*." Theâe words, re- 
peated amongst the crowd tliat throni^od the hotel, produced tho 
moat violent agitation. Some men of the people, covered with dust 
and worn down with fatigue, were stretched on the seats in the 
dining i"oom. One of thcra abruptly threw open the door between 
that room and tlie one in which Laffitte and Argout were convert' 
in^, ami making hi^ musket ring on the floor, he called out with a 
a temble voic4.', *' Who daros to talk here of negotlatinff with 
Charles X.?"— '* No more Bourbons," wns shoTitc<l at the same mo- 
ment in the vestibule. '* You hear them." said i-affitte. " Then 
you would refuse to listen to any pniposal?" replied Argout. ** Is 
your visit oflicial?" — '* Officious only, out were it official?" "^ Then 
4i it might be" M. Argout withdi'ow. The Louvre wad taken; 
ihe eauNî of Charles X. was lost> 

That evening M. LalTittc received likewise ft visit from M- Forbia 
Janm>n, who came to ask a Kifeconduct for M, de Mortemart, hia 
rather-in-hiw- M. do Mortemart was waited ior till midutght, but 
he did not come. 

. M. d' Argout had been enablod to judge, from the result of hia 
imt, of t}»e real stato of tUingft; but by pursuing his mediation, even 
ihough it should lead to notliing. he was providing for his futuro 
profpect* under cither party, llti went, therefore, in scvarch of] 
U Vitnlle?, who wns waiting tor him in c*>mpany with M. 

L;. 11, andtliL-y all three took their waj back to St. Cloud. 

31M. Charles LalHtle and Savalette accompatucd them, and served 
Ùwm a* a safeguard, 

'Ilic *lay of thf' 2flth had been doubly remarkable. On that day tha , 
people made the throne vacant, and the bourgeoisie took its measures 



, to dlqjoee of it, Oa one àde tke labour, on tUc other tlie Tecom- 
Tlicn, as ever, nameSetB nctima aeired aa st/ep^mg-Housa to 

Ï h^itlees ambitious. 

Wlicn darkpeas was gathering over Paris, General Pajol was as- 
ending the Rue de Chabrol m a raclancholy mood. Turning to 
I. Dttgousscc, who jiccompanied lum, lie aaid, " Y<ju UhI deLcnumed: 
l]uca to the fight; c:m you reckon on tbt-ir zeal?' — '' Undoubtedly.'' 
[r—** Enough to give them orders to arrest the dtrputles ?"■ — ■■' Oh, for 
Itliat I could venture to pledge roysfU"' — ■** In tliat case the revolu- 
ttion is a failure." 

The alarms at the chateau de St. Cloud had ceased for eoose 
lioura. The great saloon looking towarda Paria presented :in aato- 
nish in g spectacle. The Idiig wais seat^ with M, Duras, geutlcmJUt 
of the bedchamber, &L de Luxembourg^ captain of the guards, aad 
the Duchess de Berri^ at & card-table. The dauphin, who alwaja 
Siiflcred liimsolf to be dOgrGeat-d with little tilings, and never thought 
of grt^ut unes, was porio"^ over a, map. M. de Mortemart, reâtu^ss 
among all these cMnposed fiersonages, was every rnomcnt going to 
the balcony, and listening anxiously to every distant t^ound. 

Tlic nibber of whist pUyed that evening by Charles X,, was 
speedily recoïinted in the capital, where it excited a great burst of 
indignation, very reasonable in those who dfsired no more royalty, 
puerile in those who were employed in mating another king. 

The Due <le LuKenibourg had given orders to a lieutenant of the 
guards to put îumsclf'at the head of some cavahy, and rccoiuioitfe 
the road to Keuilly. The officer on his return informed him that he 
had observed an imusual buado in the park of Ncuilly and about the 
chflteau; adding, that had he been authorized to do so, he conlcL 
easily have earned off the Due d'Orléans. Charles X, overhearing 
the ki^t words, said sternly to the officer, " H*d you doiic thai, àr, 
I would have loudly disavowed the act." 

Night wa» come, and the party was about to separate, when the 
Due dc Mortcmart went up to the dauphin, and begged him^ as he, 
the duke, was going to Paris on a lûîaâon from the king, that he 
Would revoira^ at least u far as himself vraa concerned, the order 
catting oflT all communication between Paris and St. Cloud. ** Eh? 
WhatP^the order — very well — we will eee." Tlie duke could 
obtain no more definite reply. Ho withdrew, therefore» tohia cham* 
bcr more diBtre^sed than ^urpriscd^ tor the words of Charles X- hung 
hmvyat his heart. '* Lucky that they force only you upon me; 
bitter words to be addressctl to a man who beUcTcd he wm risking 
hie head for the safety of his king. But Charles X. trusted only in who had a suificlently ample stock of baseness to make tneir 
own opinions wholly aubservient to his. This showed but httlo 
knowledge of the art of reigning, which consist^,, not in annulUag 
the power of original thoufdit in others, but of making it the mo- 
Birch's own, as did Lrfiuia XIV. and Napoleon. 

After rU» by one of those contndictione eaâly to be accounted 


Sax in dajs ao full oï unexpected ccmtingeiicit?, Ctoiles X. ehotred 
u much hcsitatton when tlio Due dc M ortetruirt proposed tu filial h^ 
miakin, as he liad bcfaic ahawn eagcmeaa to impose it upoa him. 
" Sire," Bud the iu?w minister, '' time pres^s ; I must be gone." And 
Uw king^ aiiBwertsdt " Not yet, not yet; I expect news from Paiiâ.'^ 

MM.d'Ax20Ul and VitroUes arrived dunng the oJIglit: tlieyhaa- 
t«aied to M. dc Mortcmart to request he woutd come to a prompt 
deciaoiu *' But how um I to obtain récognition in the c&pitaL?" he 
objected. " Would you bavc me appear there as a pc^tical adven- 
buec? I must at least have the Ldnga Dguafturo." The new- 
eOBfln iiknsted: they had %cn Paiis in on» of tkoec violent situâ- 
lioBs is which a single minute ia enough to give or to take away an. 

It «ae therefare decided that ordinances shoidtl be hastily drawn 
up, xevokiss thûK of the ^ Jth, re-câtabll^hmg tlic uational guard, the 
aamznand en whida was intrusted to Mar^ihuL Maison, and naming M. 
Gaaimir Pt-i-ier to tL« niinistry of Ënaucc» and Genecal Gérard to 
that of war. But every thing w&s injiting, pens, ink, and papci: 
there was nut even a protocol at hand to serve aa a m<3del. A great 
di^aJ oTdif&cultj was lelt in getting uut of these petty i iiiiIiihimw 
menu» — impoccptible threads on which God ia pleased to haug the 
deatiny of royal families I The diflicull^ increased when it was n&- 
OSMZJ to oblaiu the si^niatiire ol' Charlea. Several lines of garde»- 
du-eorps Imd to be paased in order to reach his ftpartments, Tlie 
Due de Morteimrt £d oil he could to bend the lieiour of etiquette 
ia tiai oitjcal moment, but in vain. The ^ardeâ-du-corps thought 
tbensetvcs the more strictly bound to obey the letter of their orders, 
aa royalty was in danger. Vexed and exasperated at this» the Due 
da Morteowzt went to the valet -de -chambre on duty, and said to him 
«ÏÀ ^iqrtu*"»^ warmth, ^* Sir, I bold yuu responsible for all that may 
happen" At last he wm introduced into tlie bedKtom of Cfauke A. 
The old king vi-as in bed: he sat up l<M>bly. and said, in a despond- 
ing voice, '' Ha ! it h you. Monsieur le Uuo." M. dc Mortemart 
told him. he must make haste ; that the oriUnnncca required to be 
ùgncd forthwith, aiid that for hlft own part he waA ready to set oS. 
'* Let us wait awliile," replied Charles A. '■'■ But, Sire, M. d'Argout 
is here; he will tcU you the state things are in at Paris." — "^ I will 
■ot aee M . d'Argout," said the king, who did not like liim. *'■ Well 
iben* Sûre, die Baron dc Vitrollea is with him. Is it your pleasure 
he ihoald be breugbt in?" — " The Baron de VitroUeaV Yes, let 
hia come in." M. dc Vitrolles was sent for; ha came £nom M^ de 
PoUgnac's bedroom, where he found the prince haU'-asleep ; and 
when lie asked what inconcoivuble rashness could have prompted 
him to mvc so haughty a challenge to the revoluttoiiary epuit, whi^ 
be had but seven thousand men at his d,iapoial, "Thic liste showed 
tkiilceii thousand,'' was tlic prince's reply. 

M. dc Vitrc^lea having gone up to the king's bed, Charles X. mada 
a aign to the Doc dc Martenuirt to withdraw : the oHinided miniâtec 



^îd. iû a low tone, ** If it were not that tlie king's head is to bo 
saved — '* and left the room. 

Seeing before liim under such circumstancra the man who had 
always oxerdaed so potent an inâuenco over his mind, diaries put 
on a stem countenance, and said, *' Wliat ! is it yon, M. de VJtroUes^ 
Tffho come to urge uiic to pive way before rcbelhoits subjects?" M- 
du Vitrolles CMmestly replied that, in the existûig state of tilings, he 
thought he could not give a etroneer pttiof of dcvotedncsa to hia 
"^^ and that it vrould be deceivinn;^ him. were he to attempt to 
See light of the ca;e. " I go still furtJaer," he added, " and I 

Îuestion whether your majesty can now enter your revolted capital; 
am sure tlm dignity of your crown would suffer severely : but 
what is to be done? How is a whole popidation of insurgent to be 
put down? It would be a hundred times better to transfer the centre 
of this horrid war elsewhere. Do you think you con reckon on Ia 
Vendee? I am ready to prove my devotedness to the last.** Charles 
X. appeared to reflect for a moment. ** La Vcnd(5e !" he saidj mus- 
jn^y, " it would be very diiHicidt ! — ^vcry difficult T 

The Due de Mortemart was called in again. Tlie king's temper 
seemed to him to have undergone a complete change : his dejection 
had given place to a angular kind of nervous excitement; he showed 
ahnost an eager alacrity to sign the ordinance?, nt the same time nar- 
rowTug hig concessions wîthm certain limits. Such was tlie manner 
in which the monarchy surrendered its sword. 

It was almost day when' the Duo de Mortemart left the ting*5 bed- 

xoom. He met M, dc Poli-^ac on the terrace, 'Thie was tlie tirst 

lime he had ever seen him dressed in the uniform of a general officer. 

Tlte prince was in a state of eicat excitement. Before them lay Pam 

hidden in a cloud of mist and smoke; and the firinif of the advanced 

' posts was heard at intervals. Suddenly M. de Polignac, stretching 

out Ilia arms towards tlm capital, eiïed out like one inspired, **■ What 

a misfortune tliat my sword broke in ray hand; I was in the act of 

\ establishing the charter on indestructible bases!" Tlion turning to 

> M' de Mortemart, "Do not fear t!iat I sliaU throw impodimcnts 

' here in the way of your imssion. You aregoing to Paris; I to Ver- 

( Bulles." 

A carriage conveyed M. de Mortemart, with MM, d'Arcoutaml 

I Mazas, to tîio Boii* de Boulogne, where they were ptoppod and re- 

f fused jx^rmission to proceed. Tlic dauplun, who hiid taken the 

^ command oi' the troops the day before» and who was l>ent on pre- 

\ venting cnnccssinns at all cnst» had ■vïritten to the officers of the ad» 

' Vanoijd fKJsts, ibrbidding them on ihdr lives to allow anyone to pus 

who ciimc from 8t. Cloud, AlW a very sharp altercation* M, de 

[Mortemart obtained leave to proceed; but he had to pass the Boiff 

" t Br.iulognc on foot, making a long beud out of his way, lest he 

ould be arreslctl at the barrier of Pnsay. He observed that from 

the Pont du Jour to the Pont de GronelLe all was lonely and silent. 

He ^ot iato Paris b^ climbing a wall in which a breach had been 


made for the purpoEG of smuggling winq. He walked on without a 
rravat^ and with liis coat onliisariiit faitingm with diit'erent groups 
of working men, whose suspicions ho disarmed by a few off-httnd 
soldierly phrases, and in this style he reached the Place Louis XV. 
It was now about eight in the moniinf.'; the city was gileut, und 
all the windows were closed ; no one was ^en in the streelâ but a 
few peisone quietly p^&ng along. '^ It is the cftlninfË» of etrengtli," 
said the Due de Morteinart to those who accompanied him. 

The Parisians had n>ent the night in conatnictin^ barricades to 
secure the city (rom all assault. Lampions placed in lie vnndows and 
on the piles of stones gave licht to the busy groups at woik I'rom 
point to point. Wlial was the condition of Ufe of thcj*e workers? 
For whom did they keep watch beaide thoec hca|>a of slonea? 
What were their hopes? Strange clamours, followed by long intervaU 
of silence, were heard bursting from the remote quarters of the city; 
and the bourgeois patrols halted to hettrkeu to that voice of tlie 
people in tlie nig^ht. Watch was likewise kept at the Hotel 


The monarchy was vanquishcd ! The iKopIe was encamped in 
the îitrcctsand thoroughfares : what wafi to ensue? 

At daybreak on the dOth^ M. de GUndevcs cailed on M. Lafïitte, 
and the tbllowing important &ud memorable converaition took phicc 
between those gentlemen: 

" Well, sir/' said the governor of the Tuilerira to the banker, 
*' here you arc, ranstor of Piaris thcHi twenty-four hours. Will you 
B&vethe monarchy?" — " Wliich monarchy, sir? lliatuf I7ti9, or tliat 
oflWU?" — "The constitutional monarchy." — "There is buloncmcnDa 
by which it can be saved, that is by crowning the l^uc d'Orlcana. 
"Tlie Due d'Orlcans.siï, the Due d'Orléans ! But do you know him?'* 
*' Yes, these liftcen years."— '^ Be it eo. What are the duke's titles 
to the " " 


The boy reared in Vienna may at least appeal to the 
mcDiory of his lathers glory; and it miist bo owned Napoleon has 
fmttca hie annals in charoctci^ of flame upon men's mindf. But 
what prestwe encompaff^es the Due d'Orléans? Does the people even 
k»ow his testory ? ifow often has it heard his name?" — " I uonàder 
thmtp an fidvant-ugc rutlior than otherwise. DeriWng no strength, 
whatever from his inBuence on men'e iiuiLgijiation?, ho will find it 
tho less caay to overstep the limits within whieh it is deâiiuble that 
royalty should be confined. And then the prince baa private vir- 
tuea which to me arc warrant for big pubho virtues. J:La life is 
exempt &om the scandalous impuiitied that have suUied that û£ 
mauy princes. He shows lus self-respect in rcepeciing lus wife ; 




h& makes himâelf loveJ and featcd by liia cHldren." — " ComnM^K 
pbcc virtue!', tind surely not so exalted that they cannot be sde* 
qimtcly recompeneed save by the gift of ii crown I Are you not 
awnrc^ too, that lie is ftocbseu of Kax-ing" opiJily approved of the ho- 
inicidal votes of his father, and Imping been implicated, in the evil 
flays of OUT History, in sciiemcs having for their purpose for erer ta 
exclude the direct heirs of the unhappy Louis XVl. iTom the throTte^ 
^•nd of liiiving maintained ûi London, during the Hiiadred Dajs^ Ml 
[-jAâtudc that made him an object of die etrangcst Buspidon»? Tliat 
m nury ha«e been calumniated when he has been represented ba 
careâà^ &11 parties since 1815, procuring the restitution uf laia 
appana^ indcSanceof thelaws, casting dismay âmon^^ the purcliasera 
of national estates by his nunaerous lawsuits, cringing at courtTf and 
out of court flattoring all the miscluef-makcrB; this is posmblc^ pro> 
tabic ii' you will. But one thing at iJl events is certam, — namely, 
that Louis XVIII. put him in {x^ssesâon of vast domains; that 
' Cbarles X. pci^onally interceded to procure him an independent 
, appanage sanctioned by kw ; and, lasdy, tluit the title ol ' royal 
iughaess,' which he so coveted, has been graciously accorded htm. 
Loaded with favours by the elder branch, lie is not in a position to 
allow of bis gathering up their heritage; and would he himself per- 
mit, were he aware of it, that liia name should be used to kindle tho 
conflagration that must consume his family !" — '' We are not to dis- 
cuss the pcrsomd interests of the prince, monsieur Ic buron; what 
Wc have to look to is the interesta of the country, threatened s* it is 
■with anarchy. I do not enter into the question whether the situation 
~ the Due d'Orléans is painful or not to his feelings^ but amply 
_ Jethcr or not his advaneement to the throne is desirable for Frauce. 
[ jTow wliat prince Ja freer than he from the prejudices that have juat 
[ liurried, Charles X. to his downfal? Wbat prince has made more 
I open and decided profcîeâon of lilK^ralism ? And what course can 
I you suggest preferable to that of placing the crown on his head?" — 
•' If you believe Charles X. guHty» at least you will admit that tha 
I Xhic dc Bordeaux is innocent. Let us preserve the crown for him, 
f lie ivill be tTained up in good princijtlee. Iloeu Ivufuyette very sin- 
1 cerejy desire a repubhc ?" — ^" He wonlil wish for it, if be wercnot afndd 
I of too dccpscarchinff a convulsion.*' — *'■ Well then, let D council of 
regency be ertabHshcil, You would take prt in it with Laikjetlc." — 
j •* I i'l-tenlay that might liave been potstble; and had the Duchesa 
, dc Bcrri, separating her cause from lljat of ihu old kin?» prcEcntcd 
llerself with her young eon, holding a tricolour flag in her hand — " 
1** A tricolour fla<; ! Why it is in their eye$ the symbol of every 
lêrîme. Rather tnnn adopt it they would suffer tliemeelvee to ha 
red in a mortar." — '^ In that case, monsieur^ what is it you liavQ 
|to propose to me ?" 

I M. dc Glandevè? took his leave. The plan ho had eugg^stcd ao 

keorded with the secret hopes of nmny great personages, who were 

nj3 willing that the chain of tradition bliould be entirely broken. 



Ob© smgîc sciomc could efiêct Ûic twofold piiTjjose of preventing 
tie pnucîplc of legitîmaey from beûag overtlirouTi in Franci^ and 
hinumug royalty from too opcnlr provoking ihc revolutionary 
spirit: tms was, whilst re?pectijig the divine right of Henry V. to 
conJidc the destinies of tue monarchy to the prudenco of the Due 

Such was for a moment the view talcen by M. de Talleyrand. 
Lttaitte went further. Surprised at the pobtical influence of a 
mAD, whom he had till then looked on as 4 niero banker, the old 
diplfflnatiBt could not help giving way to a fijcllng of vexation, 
which, contrary to hia liabits of reserve, lie stiffered to ?how itâclf 
that very night in presence of his intimate acquaintances : " Really,'* 
tàà he *' îilT Laffitte counts me for Tery little," 

But M. Laflittc relied on the ïuU"icc of a man ikx Buporior to 
Talleymnd in range of vision and acaiteness of inteUoct. fiérangef 
had too keen an eye, too inexorable a sagaàty to be aecessihle to 
srtbofijkSEin. When ht saw the throne of Charles X. tottering, he 
immediately asked himself where by the strengtli. It was in the 
bourgeot^ imd of this he might havxj found proof, ii" needful, in 
his own person. Hod be contented himself as a poet with celcbrat- 
ing the ^'reutnesa of the people, as linked with the recollection of the 
imperial Jïlory, hîa genius wonl*! loug have reniiiined unrecognised; 
but with the lines in which he sung of the emperor, he had put 
forth others against the stupidity of legitimate kings and the inso- 
lenoe of the nohlcs ; in this way he had come to be adopted by the 
iNOkking and high commercial ctaâ»es : — thence his literary fortune. 
His renown made it» way from the saloon to the worisshop, and hia 
popularity was imracnac. It was impossible, thcreforeT that he coidd 
■lut bia cj^ in 1830 to the prepondomnee of the bourgeold^e ; and 
av thttt clûa could have hut one possible hcaÀ^ the «ucocasor of the 
regent, as moreover Napoleon vf&B not on the spot, Béranger becante 
tfa* aoul of the OHeanist party. He did Ëttle personally, it is true, 
bvl a great deal through others. He hardly let him&elf be seen at 
all proimneritly ; but by liia counsels, which were religiously heark- 
ened to, he acted etrongly on the leading men of the bourgeoiâe. 
But for him it is doubtliu whether M. Laflittc, for instance, would 
have so steadily and pcrseveringly exerted himself for the r^HzatioB. 
of thcdr common wished- 

As for the motives that prompted Beran^r to this determination, 
should hiirtory condemn or acquit him? Neither the one nor the 

Whilst he upheld Laffittc's eteps in the ways of Orleankm, Bé- 
ranger took care to put him on his gutird against their royal creature. 
Fearing his friend's woaknees, the aagacious poet advise him not to 
ooosest to be maèè a minuter, but to reserve himself, in oue of 
need, for another revolution. Béranger*a decision was therefore 
neither cgalistical, uor altogether shortMÎsted ; but he is open to 
î^proach for not hAving understood that in a m<3^^^xua^^ ^^:^ 




■fihuiflctl all tlimga proniisciaoualy together, nothing wag impossible 

>vith the help ot energy. The people, turned ouï into tho streets, 

too little knew what itwlf would h&ve^ not to bc-^tow on those ivho 

I iflhould Imvc rêsûlutely placed thcmsçives at its head the reward of 

int€lHgeiit and virtuous during. Great deeds, ofter all, never sprang 

hilt from a subUmc madness. Unfortunately not to know how to 

I .dare is the fatal defect of the too quicksighted. Béninger dcairod a 

I .king, even whibt he distrusted royalty, because he saw clearly and 

promptly that it was easier to mate a monarch than to establisb a 

repuhiic. He ^Ya.s sincere, he waa true-heart«d ; but he was tho 

I* dupe of Ms own clearaiglitodnese, 

' Tlio Due d'Orléans had, therefore, in hia favour, the day after the 

people's victory, the power of namea and that of ideas, Jacqu^ Laf- 

ilittc and Bérauircr. 

M. de Ghuidevi» had just left M- Laffitte when the latter was 
■visited by MM. Thiers, Mignet, nnd Laréguy. The draft of an 
Orleanist ptocLunation was dra'wn up by M. Thiere, and it was 
agreed thiit it should be published in the National^ tho Courier 
£raiiçaiSi and the Cmtimerce. It had required the whole strength 
of a people t« overthrow one dynasty, and were one deputy and 
'three journalidta eno\i£;h to create another ? 

Nevertheless the indiifereQce of tho people, whicîi was favourable 
to the projects of the OrHeauiata, might become o source of senoufl 
-impediuienta to them according to circumstances. When MM, 
Tliiers and Mirrnct set out on tlie 30lii, ivith some friends from tho 
ofltce of the Natiffnai to the Bourse, difltnbttting printed stripe 
■amonf^ the crowd, containing cidogies upon the Due d'Orléans, they 
must have been much struck by the aatouis-hincrit their proceedings 
occasioned, and when they reached the Place de la bouree they 
■must have felt tliis still more strongly, for there they were received 
•with hissea. 

The elevation of the Due d'Orltana to the throne naturally found 
opponents in those young ïnen who had FÎJed, in the afTaire of cAar- 
-haniierie, ynû\ LaËiycttc arrainat Manuel; accordingly they ran all 
over Paris propaïMting their own appréhensions and antipathies. 
.When M. Pierre Leroux, for instance, announced to the couibatanta 
,of the Passage Dauphin the plot that was in hand, one unanimous 
burst of rage was heard. " If that be the case the battle iâ to be 
b^çuï> again, and we will go and ca?t fre?h balls," 

On witnessing tlic explosion of ungcr which he bad hiniaelf pro- 
voked, M. Pierre I^toux hwrried olf to the Hotel dc Ville to warn 
Lafayette. Ho vividly depicted to him what was going on, reminded 
him of tiis own former cSorts to give a wholly repubhean impulse to 
^ehafbùfUifrie^ and of tho duty thence ininetutively prescribed to him 
['•under existing occurrences; and he ended by repre3enting to him 
tliat the acce^tiion of another Bourbon to the throne would bo tbe 
■ signal of a new and tcrrihle conflict. 

iSe»tèâ in a lar^c arm-chair, hia eyes fixed, his body motionless, 


Lafayette seemed like one stimncd. Suddenly M. de Boismilon caina 
in una requested thé liberation of tlie eldest eon of llic Due d'Or-^ 
îàu)«, wtio^ haTiiig quitted his regiment at Joi^y, had been arrested 
by M. LcuUicr the mayor of Montrouffe. *'^ You must at leii?t ba 
iJlow«d time to deliberate/' said M. Pierre Leroux to Lafajctte; 
and M- dc Boîamiion having left the room, Leroux hastily wrote an. ; 
order to uphold tlie arrest. He piaeetl the paper before Lafayette, 
who was on the point of sigmng it, when M, Odilon Barrot made 
hifl appefti&ïicc in the unifunn of a nntional guard. He drew the, 
old general into another room, and bnnging him round to more' 
timid measures, he prevailed on him to send ou' M. Comte to Mont- 
reuse with an orJcr for liie young prince's liberation. 

"rhe rumour of lliis arrest liad reached the peristyle of tbe TkéAtre 
des Nouveautés, where a band of violent and daring men were 
bivouacked under the command of M, Etienne Axugo. " A prince !" 
they shouted, " let ua go und thoot him " Aud diey began to march. 
Their young commander, not being able to reslryin them, vrtotc to 
Jkf. de Lafayette, that the life of the Prince de Chartres was m dan- 
ger, and that be must make haste if lie would save liiin. For hia i 
own part, he took care to lead hia men hy a great round. At soma i 
paces from the Barrière du Maine, he made them lie down in tha j 
ditchea by the side of tho road, under pretext tliat they needed rest, 
and he bastenetl to the officer on guard at the barrier, and begged- i 
Ihat be would not allow the men when they came up to putB through; | 
with their anus, lie then pushed on to Momrougo^ where M- Comte 
was already arrived- The Due dc Chartres immediately set off^ 
preceded by MM, Boudrand and Boismilon, for the Croix-de- Berry, 
wh(M% M. Loullier ^vas obliijcd to exert his authority as mayor to 
procure him po&t-hor&cff. Xlie 3'oimg man trembled from head to 
lOût, though ho was not aware how much Ids life had been in j«>- 
Mrdy. ror what would have been the event had M. Etienne Araga 
taken as much pain? for his destruction as he had to save him? And 
who can aay what coui^e things would bave taken in that case? 
Could the Due d'Orléans l»ave picked up a crown out of his çon'a 
eore? A quarter of an hour rained» u quarter tjl' an hour lost, — ott , 
UÙS altcmativo hung the destmieâ of a race! A ïuu?d Ueaon thi» toî» 
pride ! 

The Orleaniata did not fail to mve out tïiat the Due de Clmrtrea 
had left Joigny to olTer his sword to the cause of the insurrection. 
T^oir adveraariea alEnncd on the eootraiy, that he had set out to A 
receive orders from Charles X. One thing is certain , that M. LcuUicr, 
who had converted a patriotic arrest into a generous bospitaUty* rcn- . 
dcred In thifi afiàîr an incalculable service to the house of Orleans, 
which it VC17 quickly forgot. 

Be this AS it may» victoi-y could not long remain in auapeneo be- 
tween tKe repubhcana and the Orloanists. The hitter had tho 
iBimsDSc advantage of a govcnrnicdt all ready to their hands. 


M. LalBttc could therefore ossumi^ nith imptmitj all the prerogaUTea 
of soveragiity, and it was he who sent Carrel Ui Rouen lo direct the 
revolution tliere. It vraa at his touse, too, that lUc deputies a^cm-* 
bkd on the morning of the 30th, when, under tlie momeatary 
|sesuieoce of M. Btrard (M. Laffitte's hurt prevcntit^ his being 
pueseat}, Trac read the fljUowLng pr'^clflTnation, which, thanks to tUo 
seal of ihc OricanîsCa, oircady covered all the wqIIs of Paria. 

«CtuiSef X. can Dtvet retura to Paru: he bos shcil tlie bkwd of llic people. 

"A republic wauM cxpcae ii« to horriblû diTÎaioiu: U would invotrâ os in ho<- 
Ulitifs witli Europe. 

•' Th«? Due il'OrléanB 1» aprioce doTOted to the caaae of the reTolntion. 

** The Due d'Oriéaiu hu aer^ fbupiljt agaimt m, 

" The Due d'0r1^.iuu vu M Jemappcs. 

" The £>uc d'Orléiiiu U a dtûeu khig. 

"The Due d'Orléftm ban earried the triMloarfluguinleTt'heeBeiiiy'i toe-, the Due 
I i'Oiitaiu am alone ctury it ngain. Wt* will Iutc no otlut flag. 
I '* The Doe d'Orléuu doe» not dcd&râ hinuell'. lie waiU for the ejq)r«Biiaa ûf oOP 
l'WÛb^. hex lis procliLtm those wishes, and he vUl accept thi? diflxter,, aa we hnw 
LalwsjB uudcratood and desire it. It ia from tbc Frcucii piXTplf! be irfll hoid luB 

Tills prnclamation was drawn up with great art. It repeatod the 
Aamc of the Due d'Orléans a^in and again, m order that ihia nnnw, 
[littie known to the people, mipht ncvertheleps be deeply Lmpriiitod 
l^m itfl mcmoiy. By talking of the tricolour flag and of Jtemappes to 
I s multitude "who troubled themselves littïû about politioil forma, it 
T'Ongaged on behalf of the elect of the bourgeoiâc tliat national foeling- 
feat had been exalted to so high a pitch by the victories of the Re- 
I public and of the Empire, Lastly^ it invoked the BOfcrcignty of the 
I people, the better to destroy it, — an old trick of courage- Uckisg 
i ambition. 

^ The readinn; of such a manifesto cculd not but produce a aet^atioiz 
; in tlie assemb^. Eulogies on the Due d'Ork^na passed from month 
to mouth. What more was wanting" to create a powerful party 
^KZiODg these tncQ? The Due d'Orléans wasmouarchy andaname. 
Genenl Dubourg having presented himself, at tlu3 stage of tha 
proceedings, in the unifoiTn of si general, and with a whip in hia 
Jkund, the deputies Looked upon his visit only as an audaciouâ piece 
. of iiupudcnoe. They refiaed to lit^teit to him, or even to receive 
I. lûm. Leeal authority was already organizing itself above the 
I Tsreck of the insurrectional p»>weti?, and the domitiioQ of men alto- 
gether new to lame wa» beginnino^ to wane before the might of 
established rcputotîoiu. 

But it ^vas csscntiBl to turn to the advantage of monarchy the 
moral force of lliat revolutioni thephysical force whereof wa» then 
fftatianedin the Place dc Grève. The deputies n^olved to aet up 
the Palais Bourbon aguinst the Hôtel de Ville; iind, under the pre- 
text that no deliberation of serious moment could take place in the 
L^ouae of a private individuid, they rcsuKx'd to aBKOible at noon in 
the l^islntivc palace. Hiis showed a j^^ect nndeistanding of die 
caogencieB of the mocieiit. Power never poascsses «o much prestigo 





as iinmediately after violent «aà suddon perturbations : tor wlial most 
embarrasses and confounds men congrcgntod together is to 8cc Ûxem- 
eelvcs without mostei^. 

It was not possible, bowcver, to f^vc the crown to the Duo 
d'Orléans without first knnwiog how tar the wings of hie ambitioli 
inij-'ht carry him at need. Sarac measagvs had idready been de- 
ppatthcd to him. Tîic iiollowin;^ lutter,* written at the Chateau de 
iNfoiliy, at a quarter past three in the marning of the 30th of July» 
by one of the moaaengcrB M. LafCtte )i«d 9ont thither the prcceditig 
&y, win giro an idea of the way of thinking which prOToiled at that 
time in the chiltcau r 

** TTiP Dfxc d'OrKana i* at NeniUy with all !ii^ tsmîîy. Neat him, at Patcanx, arft 
lite Tuyai Inx^; and ■• ord&r imiieil by lh« ouurt would be enough to snntcb bin 
Ihina Uw ludon, whiiih m^y flnd in liiiu a EuSdeut wammt of iu futOTO sçcuritj^ 

" It is proposed *o wut on Jiim in the name of tlu? fonstitutod aolhorHio, snit- 
ftbly apCTmipBni«»d, and to ofTcr hiro the croirn. Shoulil he pltmd funiilr coariAta<> 
stioni Of Kruph» of ddlcftcy. it will be aniircnyl lûm, tliat hia Kbode in Pua i* in- 
porloitc to the tnuuiuLllitjr of Ùtc- t^piuJ ïuil ur Franvc, imd tli£t it h ni::C0ÈStry tù 
fiacv liijn In safety therf. Tliu infiillibility cjf ihis riiia.'iurL' may bo rt'litil on. Fur- 
thcrmon?, it irniy i» set down for rtSTtain thnt the ftvjc d'Orlfwia wiU DDt be filcrw to 
Duite LimBclf fully vitb the «iihe* of the utiotk" 

This noïe wa5 doubtless iiit<aidcJ to pomt out to the partisans of 
the fluke the course they wcie to pnrsuc. They were to offer him 
the crown with a show of forcing it upon him, and ttnder pTftexfci 
that hb presence in Paris was neccsîiiry to the maintenance ol order. I 
But ihcy were given to understand beforehand that they wotild nofj 
incur the twofold rîsk of the offer and of a rcfusah 

M. Thiers liad renppcarcd at the H&tel Luffittc. On hearing tliat-j 
he had been forestalled nt Neuilly, he complaineJy with ill humour, J 
of hai-ing been forgotten. '* Wjiv it is a matter of course that the] 
aliEont should be forgotten," edd îi(?ranOTr, in a tone of qtÛPt aar- 
caaru. "AiW all, who stops you?" M- Thiers had his mission 
authenticated by SL Sebastiani^ and set out accompanied by M-j 
Schcffer, He went to woo foitunc. T 1 

On arriving at the Clidteau dcNeuilly, the two negotiators were] 
received by the Duehc?so d'Orli^-anp, her husbandbeing absent. Whil^ ] 
M. Thiers was unfolding the purport of his nie??aj:i*, great uncasincsâ 
was depleted on the uu:5terc countenance of the duchess; and wheal 
she learned that it was proposed to convey into her family a crown 
snatchf^d from the head of an old man who had always proved him- 
self a faithful kînsman and o generous friend, " Çir," said phe, ad- 
dxeniag M, Schcffer, irith an eraolion full of true greatncî*, *' how 
Could yon posâhly take upon you srueh a commission? That M. 
Thiers should have done podoes not so much surprise me: he does 
not know us mudi ; but you have been admitted to our intimacy^ I 

^tfrii"S li-mm «rirt rMr\n.i-iTvft-i lYii rinr^B #^* 4^ •r^f**w-aY-»in#-«*^ rr '|) p fil l XFO PJm ïlCVCr 1 

prompted by «uchnoblo 

^bo have had opportimitjcs of appreciating 
furmve you thia. A Tejecrfou of their suit, 

* Thifl letter, pablialicd In the Mémorial àâ THùtd de VUk, is ttiU Ui the ponenîoà 
of M- Uyppabte Ekmndici. 


Ècntimenls Icfi the two envoys speechless, when Msdamc Adébicie 
entered the rooni, followed by Madame de Montjoie. 

Madame Adelaide had too mdsculûie n mmd, nnd too liltlo pious 

fcicmdness of heart, to yield to lamily considerations. NevtriKeloss» 

~ cWn^ acutely the dangers that e!icompfL=sod her brother, she 

[Kagk'ncd to ?fl.y, '^ Lot them imalcc my brother a president, a na* 

tional ^uaiiJ, any thing itiey please, provided they do not make iiim 

an outlaw." These words were tlie plain and genuine expression 

of the princo^s own feelings at that moment. But what M. Thiere 

, came to offer was a crown, and Madame Adéliûde was not prepared 

fto repulse so tempting an offer. Tlioroughly devoted to her brather, 

whose views she shared^ and over whomjshe possessed some iniluenco^ 

she had dreamed ibi" him of honoura she deemed him worthy to 

enjoy. One only fear i^eemed still to haunt her. W]mi would 

Europe think? To seat liiinself on the tlirone whicli Louis XVI. 

Iliad quitted for the scftlibld^— would not this carry alarm into every 

I royal hnuse, and place the peace of the world in jeopardy? 

M. Thiers rophcd that these iears were groundless ; tliat England, 

Iftill full of the recollection of the vanquished Stuarts, would clap 

fier hands at an issue of which hcE own history furnished the prece- 

1 dent; and that as for the absolute kings, far frora reproaching tlie 

I)uc d'Orléans for fixing on his own head a crown that hung tossing 

|Ljihe etorm, they would be thankful to him for having made lua 

Qwn elevation serve as a bulwark against the impetuous flood of 

[lawlees pti^lonâ; that there was someUiing great in bcine the buyout 

I of France; and that if it was too late for fejiitimacy, the time for 

[monajchy was not yet gone by; that after aU notliing waa left the 

|X)uc d'Orléans but a ehoico between dangers, and that in the exists 

[ing state of thinga, to recuil from the possible perils of royalty, WM 

|jto run full upon a republic and its inevitable violences. 

Such arg;uments were not of d. natui'o to move the humble and 
pious soul of the Duohespe d'Orlcans, but they found eftfv acceptance 
.with Madame Adelaide. As a child of Paris, as she herself said, 
«he otièi'ed Ut go amonc the Parisians. It was agreed that word 
sliauld he sent to the duke, and M. de Montesujuiou waa despatched 
to \ùta^ 

He was then at Raincy, where he had taken refuge. Hearing of 
.the events in preparation he stepped into hia carriage, and M. do 
Jirlontesquiou rode o!i before him on horseback. Presently the lutter 
Ahought the sound of the wheels was growing fainter, and turning 
xound he saw the prince's carriage making its way l?ack to JUincy 
Cat bs the horses could go. The natural effect tlûs of the unceiv 
tiûnties tliat perplexed the prince I 

The time waa come when he should be resolved and detcrmincdi 
Jt found liim vacillating and wc.^. Not to rim afler the distribiittirs 
of empty popularity, but to attract them to him by dogroes; to avoid 
^ery conepicuoua step, whilst at tiie same time managing to bo 
tboi^ht pledged; to refuse nothing, to appear to promiso raueh; to 




■ Due 

^V lakci 

keep fair TPiih influcntiai ftgitators as future donsetTTitcire of a new 
idgti; to contrive that he should be carried by tte movement of 
3CS without- letting liimself be borne away by it, such had Itecn 
LnB the Kcstonttton the part attributed by the court to Philippe 
Due d'OrlëanE. Endowctl with that kind of courage which when 
lakcn unexpectedly makes head affiiinst the emergency, but not with 
that which looks with unrutQed equanimity on distant pcrilf, ho had 
paseed many years in forcaeeing a catastrophe and in dreading i*. 
Not wishing at any price to be involved in some great shipwreck, find 
ÎÙ8 not b«in^ one of those stronn; niinfts to which illtortune is wel- 
come, provided it bo ilhistnous, be at first gave the court interested 
but ffinccre advice. When his counsels were rejected, he apphed 
his thnii^hta only to creating for himself an existence apart in the 
royal family. He temporized with his destiny. To seize the spoils 
of hi» kindred at the peril nf hia head was a crime aboTc hia courage. 
He wished to preserve himself from sharing their downfall that was 
all. He would never have staked his all but a cast^ amî was inca- 
pable of those ftcls of heroic raahncss that make up the hfc of the 
amhitiûue. At the first sound of a revolution he had foreseen, it was 
jDCceasaiy to persuade him that his surest means of preservin^r hia 
property wia to become Idng: for by taking a crown he preserved 
hia domains. 

On his return to Paris M. Thiers everywhere related with eathu- 
sîasin the pracio^is reception he had met with from the princesses; 
not omitting' from the hst of all the delightful things he had cxpc- 
rioiccd a tliousand puerile and perhap? inexact details, evcji to the 
gk» of water presented to him by hands almost royaL Was this s 
sBiaie Bot for tnc credulous vanity ol" hia bourgeois hearers? or had 
he really been the dupe of that patronirin^ goodnature^ which is the 
last form put on by ^e pride of the great.'' 

Tlic deputies mot at noon in the Palais Bourbon, b£ previously 
iwolved. M. Laffitte waa not ignorant how important it is in times 
of trouble to offer a clear and definite mark to the minds of men. To 
bring about revolutioUB it is essential to be well aware what men 
would not have; hut the sure means towards swaying tliem is to 
know better than any one elf=e what men icouîtl have. Those, thcre- 
iijre, who were privy to M. Laffitte's purpose went about everywhere 
pnipaciitiiig the news that all was ready for the installation, of the 
Due a'Orl^ns; that he alone was competent to prevent the return 
of deepotiam, and to bridle the turbulence of démagogues. These 
JMurtlonft adroitly pri>mTilgated, reassured the timid, encouraged the 
vc^ ûxed the wavering, and created in reality the strength of tlie 
pftrty that was represented as so strong, for as much ai the couxAgc 
^)f the bulk of mankind is largely made up of cowardice. 

M. LofHtte, voted president by acclamation, opened the f^ittings, 
and M. Bérard announcf^l iho approaching visit of the Due de 
Mortemart. Deep must have been the feelings of bitterness and pity 
that aeiïcd those who then beheld the manner in which all ihuso 


pale kgialators awaited tbc arrival of an cdtoj from tlie king^ On 
ÛiA naae hand they could, bear the TÏctorious ghouts cmt of doois; on 
the other ihmr old master socmed sdll to watch them from St, Cloud. 
Suspended between these two perib the nuyority ûirangcd tlieir 
looks and atdtudcâ so s& not to risk their fortunes, whatever might 
torn up. 

A single meml>er took his scat on the benches leserved to the 
defenders of the old monarchy : this was M. Hyde de Neuville. He 
Tose Slid in « Bftddened voice demanded that a committee of peon 
and deputies should be appointed to propo»: meaeures cakndated to 
reconcile all intCMBts, and to put all consciences at peace. This jttti- 
posai VTBs perfectly suited to the uncertainlîca that hung orer aO. 
those vacilLting minds; it was lavourably received, and the coai- 
mifedonera were about to be chosen and nominated, vrhen Genera! 
Gnînud announced that fifteen hundred men irûm KoQcn had juat 
arriTcd^ bringing with them several pieces of cannon, which tbcjr 
had placed on tne heights of Montmartre, Tlirac images of war ciBt 
into the midst of the as^-mbly, caused a sort of shuddering seosatiGQ; 
and in the midst of the most restless bustle aod agitation, the follow- 
ing names were drawn from the balloting um: Ai^ustin Périer, 
Sébastiani, Guiaot, Delesaert, Hyde dc Neuville, The choice of 
Fuch commissioners urOTcd plainly enough that in the eyes of tint 
«Leputics Charles X. had not yet ceased to he king. The commit , 
flioneia took the road to the Luxcmboiu-g. M, Laditte^ft u 
via manift^; he felt the victory csoaping out of his hands. Stud 
M. Colin de Susey enters, holding mi hia hand th^ iast otdinanoes 
cf Charles X. Had they been roceived the hopes and pietcxuBom 
of the Due d'Orli^ans would undoubtedly have been cartangnMhedt 
the president was therefore invincibiy firm and determined^ and Bf. 
de Sussv was obliged to retiro. But dangers of another Ëort tlutïatenod 
the Onoanist foclkm. The people a^embled round the chamlxT 
âenuided admiaioD,, and a letter energetically expressing that desire 
vas put into the prc^dcnt's handa. Now the publicity oi the attâia 
%t such a moment would have been tantamount to dcxnociacy. M. 
Laffîttc, who had wished that the a&fembly of deputies ahould be hfild. 
in the b&U of Ûie legislature, so that their debates might have a 
«iiaracteT of greater Bolemnity, — M. Laffitte negligently let iall the 
word?, *^ HÛa is not a sitting (séance), but a simple aaacmbiage 
(rétmûm) of dœulî»,'' uid there the mattef ended. 

Hio peen cl France had met in the PalftU du Xiuxccnhoui^. 
There» sonoimdod by MM. dc Broglic, Mole, Pa^otct, dc Choiacul, 
lie la Roche Aymon, dc Coigny, de Tarcntc, de Deux Bréaé, were 
nDiarkcd the Due de Mortemart^ Ftill pule Irom a b^mg lainting-Ht, 
the old Marquis de Sémon\iUe, and the poet of all ruins^ the Vi- 
.eomte de Chaioaufariand. Uc had arrivcu in that painec of a de- 
gmentc aristocracy amid the aeclamationaf and bome cm the arms 
of an enthusiastic body of youths. Yet he had come only to vfo 
ibr a laat blow the m^esty of the things th&t hod long oatlÏTld 



tlieiDaelTcs. Seated apart, melauciioly and triumplumtT he Tcmsmed 
awhile fiUcnt ami as it' a pi^y to all the ctmflîctmg energies of hû 
W5ul. But soon shaldn^ off liis Tcvcry Kc earnestly exhorted, hig 
coUoagucfl to undauutcd fidtlity. " Let us protest, he exckimed, 
** in favour of expiring monarchy. Let ua, if oeoesnry, quit Paria; 
but witbcxsoerer ibrci; may drive us, let os aave tlie làng^ messieurs, 
and let ua put our trust in ail the good chances of coangc'^ Thtsi, 
u if the oration he bad just receiTed had caused some disturbanoo 
to his thoughts, *' Let vs think ftlso," be added, with irarmlh, '* of 
the liberty of the press. It involves tiic salvntion of te^tûnacy. 
A pen ! two months ! and I raise up the throne agadn;^' — a poet's 
ilhôdons. The umbaraadora of the bouTSYXiisie entered, demanding; 
the Heuten&ut-gcncralahip of the kin^om for the man of their 
choice; and few voices m that assenQbly of dukes were raised m 
&voiir of a ihlling' |K)wer. Human tmimnna loves to nestle luuler 
Ae pomp of high station; the most illuatzioai pafidioâ are the most 

McoDvhilc tiic return of the conmoisaioacis vfts anxiously awaited 
•t tho FlalaiB Boorbon. M. I>unin set fortli all the danger that ex* 
iskd m the violeat situation of rariâ. M. Keratiy demanded that 
a dednoa should be como to, and Benjamin Constant that the de* 
ckîon should be radical. Lastly, Lafayette aent word to the depu^ 
tîai, from the Uâtcl de VîUe, where ne was beset by a thousand 
munis rumours, not to be in a harry, and not to c^ve up the crown 
vritiboat making condition». Thin^ were in tluâ state when the 
OOJimJMÎoaicM appeared. Ocnend Sébastiani reported the mann^ 
m w^ich they hadf luMled their mission ; and hc^ who that very d^ 
had uttered these words, T%fre is nathistg national here but the what 
fiâ^^ drew Qp, in conjunction witii Benjamin Constant^ the following 

•TliB iïK«l uig of Hcpntiri nX iWi timr ÎTi Pwls, lt*a deemed it nrgcntlf neeewaiy 
lo falmit hù nrj-al highnew the I>ac d'Orléaca tu repût to tlic Uf^tAl, to exemM 
there the l^inctLaru of In iitmiii glinilri of tlic kingdom, aod tu exjotita to iâtm 
tlwir ÛVXITO to pre-«pi-û the tncotour CDclude- It h», moreover, fcll inipreswd with 
the iKW!f»it7 of appl^iD^ itsclf, without fntermiflikni, to ttiL- Xtak. of Bt-curing: iff 
ftanoB, Sa the apptvMchnig ussicm cf tbo «luBiiban, «11 thL> indispoisaMe guannten 
fir ÛA fall JiQd ciUire esecutioB uf the charter." 

Tlir nsidi^ of the document produced a great agitation in ih& 
■■emblr. iTîOSO who, like M, Laffitte, knew the Due d'Orléans^ 
^«■iif«d too little on lua hiudihood not to »cek to compromise him, 
feared that a simple invitation would too much magnify in his 

rthe dangcn of the moment, and that he would bold out loogor 
TTCPuid he e^wdient in a crias in which every thing dcpimdad 
rtti a prompt decision. Iliej woold have wished that the chamber, 
by <lecUring him lieutenaai«eaezai in a Eolânn and peremptory 
manner, should have so fevoed him into the ways of revolution that 
Iw DOnld not raccdc. Knowing hia ambition to be more dehbcmte 
itfiaii cwcaseoos, more anknt than active, they would have wishod 
to oown his hopes without leaving him under tbe mietmtq of ex.* 


erting any degree of' daring. For those, on the other îiand, whose 
minds were not yet made up, to express a deàre which might seem 
revùlutionary, vtam already carrving things mucb too far. Amidst tJiis 
fluetiintii>n of thought and feehngt M. LaffiUe's voice was heard de- 
niaurlitiç that the dcclamtion should be signed in consideration of 
îf^ impoi-tance. Tlie agitiition redoubled. *' Yoa have not the 
right to diËipt^e of the crawm," cried AI. ViliGinain, *■ for mercv'» 
sake/' said old Charles dc Lamcth, in a whhiing voice, " recollect 
the revolution, and tho danji^^cr of gignatures." — "For roy part," 
gaid M- Dclessert, " what I vote I Biim.*' Finally the conclusions 
imbodied in the report were adoptett, and a deputation of twelve 
membcre, of" which M. Gallot was named prc&ident, was directed to 
set out for Neuilly, and to lay before the Due d'Orléans the resolu- 
lione. or rather the wishe.^ of the chamber. 

It is to be remarked that ncitlier the deputies nor their president 
bad ventured to affix their signatures to the declaration ci led above* 
A copy of it havinpi been sent to the municipal commission, M* 
MftuguJn consitiered. the docutiient» as adopted by the chamber, so 
counter-revolutionary in siibstance, and so ambiguous in form, that 
lie wrote Lnslantly to M. Lafiitte that ^ch a document could not be 
published &s an act of the government, milesa bearing the «ignature» 
of it» authors. Ho was right. 

For as the déTtouempnt drew near, the republicans redoubled their 
efforts. Assembled at the house of Lointicr, the restaiiraleur, lliey 
delibemted with their muskets in their hands. Pohïieal science, 
knowledge of buaines*, pofitîon, reputation, great fortunes, all tlicse 
things they wanted; tliis was their weakness» but it was also th<âr 
strength. Inasmuch as they could brave every thing, they could 
obtain eveiy thing- Their convictions were intractable, because men 
must have studied much, and liave had much practictti experience, 
to urrivfi at doubt; tliey felt the less hesitation, oe tliuy took but 
little account of obstacles; and, prepared aa they were for death, 
tliey were thereby prepared for command. 

Tlic Orleunîst paity feared them, but durst not combat them 
openly* It had aent some of ita most ardent emissariis among them 
to discourage or divide them. No efforts were spared by MM, 
liOTrêgny and Combe Siéyts to gain approval in Loindcr'a rooms 
for the arrangement thiit called a new dynasty to the throne: and 
it must be owned that these efforts derived great force from the 
poet Béranger's adheaion. A stormy debate soon began. The honeot 
and sincere rcpublienna fonmed with indignation at seeing what they 
called their victory filched from them by intrigue. Some of thc«e, 
witli that excess of distrust peculiar to conflicting parties, already 
wlii^pered accusatioiis against M- Chevallier, the prctndcnt of the 
«wmbly, diarging liim with wishing tn prolong the sifùng, and to 
Rnn out the discussion to a wearisome length, in order to let tho 
giov of generous p&sâons die awny. An (Meanist orator had ft 
mtiskct levelled at him by a member of tho asH^mbly. At lost it 




was decided that a committee should be appointed to present to the 
provisional government, then sitting in the Hôtel de Ville, an ad- 
Oîtâss beginnmg thus; 

"■ Yesterday the |Kâpk reccnqti«nd its Htcred lîgrhM ut iliâ coat of its bkiod. The 
mot prccîouf of Iliote righte is lluit of freely otiDuàing itsovD govcmmcnt. M«?(iinj 
must be t^t:^n to prevent &ny pr(M::tainatiDn from being tnndç vJxJch designates a 
diief, when the very form of the government KLonot ho detcrmincd. 

"There Cïiats a pronsional representation of the nation. Let it remain m per- 
roaneoc? tiil the wi^h of ibe luiigority of yrcnchxu^^ can luvc t)ef n kaowu," &c. 

M. ilubt^rt was chosen to carry this addrcsa to tlic Hûfet de Ville : 
he pct out in the imiibrm of a national guard, and accompanied by 
Bftveral membcrâ of the assembly, amonff whom were Trélat, Teste, 
Cliiirtoa liinjp^y, Btutidc^ Poubelle, and Guinurd, all of them men, 
full of energy, disintercHtodncss, and artlour. The deputation made 
iu way ibrougli the immense crowd in the Place de Grève, Hubert 
«arry^ns: the address on the point of a bayonet. 

Admitted to the presence of Gcneml Lafayette, the republicanjfl 
surrounded him ivilh a sort of grave and even somewhat imperioxia 
deference. Hubert read the addresa in s, very ctnphatic manner: 
then pointing to the fresh morkâ of bails in the ceiling, he adjured 
Lafayette, by the recollections of the fight, not to let the fruits of 
the popular victory perish. He added^ that Laiayette was bound to 
reckon with the people for the ptitency he derived from a revered 
name; that to hang back would be weakness or pcrËdy: and he 
concluded by strongly urgùig lûm to assume the dictatorship. Tliia 
Wfta pK-âummg too much upon Lafayett^'a hardihood. Inwardly 
perturbed, but still master of hid emotion?, be delivered a long 
flpeecht in which his embairasmcnt only betrayed itself by the inco- 
herenoc of his thoughts and by his verboEit;^'. He talked of the 
United States, of the Hrst revolution, and of the part he bad played 
in those great cvcntâ; and soon, thanks to him, the soleranilv of the 
proposal just made to him was lost m the details of a ikmiliar and 
disjointed conversation. A voice demanded, " May we at lenat coimt 
0Û the liberty of the press?" — '* Who doubts it?" rephod M. de La- 
boxde, -yrith au oath. Some of the persona present then stated that 
they had drawn up a prtx^lamation Jor whicJi they could not find a 
printer, und llial tno^e they had applied to liad shown them an ex- 
press prohibition bearing the denature of the Due de Broglio. — 
•* Take cane, mes^ieuTâ," said the meredulotis Lafayette, with a smile, 
" there is no sort of means but is employed at certain epochs. How 
often during our first revolution waa my own signature calumniated !" 
Such waa the idle talk in wliich M. de Lafayette wasted at the Plobel 
de Ville tlie precioua hoiira that were turned to such proiit^iUle ac- 
OQUnt in the Hùtel Laffitte, But an extraordinary incident presently 
aroused all cner/j;ie3. The doorof M, Lafayette's oubinet was ùjH;ned, 
and the visit of a peer of France was announced to the general in a 
whisper. " Let liim come tn," ** But he wishes for a private in- 
Jerview," " Let him come in, I tell you; 1 am here among my 
friends, and whatever he haa lo Bay to me they may hear.' The 


pecf of France ynns introduced : it was tlie Comte clc Sussy. Hie 
ODmrtenaiicc 8<o«ni«(l wobegune, ftitd ten* stood in his ey«s. He 
held out to M. dc Lafayctte the ordinancos which the chambOT of 
deputiea had ret'uBcd to receive M. de La&yetbe nude a few re- 
marks U> him on the conncxioiis of blootî betwçcn the Lcfujettes 
and the Mortemarts, that savoured of the republitan, ^rajul-ififfneur, 
and Uktng the papers from him, he eptttd wcm out Like el haiïà of 
cai<à>i before his young frienda. No «ootset Trere the contents kuotm, 
tliaii ft fuiious shout rent the liaU — '* We are tncked ! What does 
tlÛ9 mean? New mmi^rs named. by Charles X. ! No ! no ! no 
more Bourbtma i" And &1I the republicans preeeot stored anidotasly 
ia each other's faces. One of ihcm, M. Bastide, mihcd nt M. aîb 
Suaa^, to pitch îiim out of the wiiidow: ** Wlmt toe Jfou about?" 
Biid M. Trélat, holding him back, " a negotiator î" Upon this M. 
dc Lafayette^ still cahn amidst all this uproar, turned to M. do Susb^ 
with an expressive gesture, and requested him to ùo bcibre the ma- 
lûtnpai commissioQ ; imd Genera! Laban, coming m at the moncBl^ 
offered to show the coimt the way* Some minutes aftcr^ the mcni* 
bers of the republican depiatation, unfaisy as to what might be the 
result^ left IVI. dc Lafayette, and followed De SxiSêy. Some of tlieiA 
lost their way in the building; othets found the room where the 
municipal commlsâon was sitting yrith the door locked. They d^ 
TOH^d*^! admiaeioQ ; no answer was made them ; incenËcd at this ihej 
b^an to batter at the door with the buts of their muakots; it vnm 
open^ at lust from within, and entering the room they found M. de 
Suasy chatting amicably with the members of the municipal com- 
inlâ^ion. M. Audry de PuyraTCftu alone exhibited an imposaoned 
attitude. *' Take back your ordinsTico»,'^ he exdaimixl, ''we no 
longer know Charles X." At the same time the sonorous voice of 
Hulbert wn^ beard, reading for the Eccood time the address Oom the 
Lorn tier meeting. 

M. Odilon Borrot hastened to reply in the name of the mnnî* 
eipal couimissôon: ho cnmbat^-d, with moderation and ability^ the 
ejpanions exprcascd in the address; aad it was he who, on this ooca- 
Bon, ittterea the words $ttb«cquently attributed to General Lafayette: 
*' The Due d^Orléana i§ the best of republics." Wliilst he was 
spcakiAg, M. Maoguin's countemmoc showed agos of marked di»- 
fipprobaticHif and bis gntures more than once bespoke his dimli^ 

The Comto de Suasy, diwniiraged byhve rweption, flpplîod to M. 
de Lafayelte for a letter Uf the Due de Morti-iiuirt, and tire repub- 
lican deputation was taking its depftrture, when Audiy do Pxi^'ra- 
Toau, going up to Hubert, and drawing a paper from his pocket, 
eaid, with wurmth, " Stay, here ia a pro<.lamiition which the muni- 
eîpal commission at first approved of, but which it now declines to 
publish. It must be circulated." The moment he got into the open 
square, Hubert stood up on a stone post, and read the prockmAlios 
to the crowd, it ran tnua: 



■^ She -W*,*"^* & con5t.itutioa. 

" She gnnts the pruviaîonnl pj^ta^nneint only the rijAt of cffnatJiing'. 
** Tin Mch time »» «hci iluU hare exproKd her wQl b^ nçw elect^jm, mpect t9 
the foUowiog pnnciplt»] 
" No mow ÏWJ- Jlj i 

" The goTemmcnt auricd on onSy hy miundatorics elected liy the nation-, 
" Tlie executive poirer «mflded tg a tcmpoiMy pn^ndent; 

" The uMïpeiHtiâ], mediate or imtDOdute, of ^ etti^eiu in the olcction cpf dcputiee ; 
" Liberty to nil reUgjous dcDomiB&tioiu; do more eUtc nligûo: 
** AppuitttnuAU in the axmy and drvj gusraateed from all arbitrary acta of dig* 

'* The^itobliAlunent of tLe lutioa»] goorda all ovec Ptanoe. The guArdiaofblp of 
the coMtitatiun ia c^>nf1di-d to tliem. 

"lliaiQ prindple» for wlijch wc hare recently cxpond our lires ve wiD uphold set 
Btod 1)7 lenl îonirKctiou." 

This pTcwkmution fixes very precisely tKe limit at which tlie most 
adventiixcras spirits stopped in ] 830, cjccppting, however, some few 
disdplcs of St. Simon. That the stute religion should be abolished; 
thai a president should be substituted for a king; that universal 
Riffmge, in one degree or in two degrees, shoula be established; 
this was the whole extent of changes eontemplated by the most 
daring innovatora. But would vxicxy be more happy when the 
l%ht of morally directing it fihould have been wrested frotn the 
Hifttê? Would the ovcrllirow of royoltv suffice to hinder thence- 
forth the existence of tjiTïinny in the civil relations between the 
capitalist and the labottrcr? whether was nuiveraai suffrage to be 
proclâûncd aa the recognition of a metephygical rights or as a ocr^ 
tain means of arnring at a change in the whole OTstem of 9o<ûal 
order? Such quration^ were too profound for the tune»; and more 
than one tempest was destined to break forth before any one should 
tliinfc of solving- Uiem. In 1830 no one even thought of pro- 
pounding them. 

Be this aa it may, the TepttbHcan» had thîâ immense advantage 

în presence of a petralc in. movement, thtJt the objecta they aou^t 

were Ù1C most definite and the newest of all at that time presented 

to the public. But they wanted organization, and above all, a 

leader. To judge of the impalse» M. de Lafeyette was competent 

to ciTc to events, it is enough to compare the circumetaneea under 

which it was written, with the following letter oddreseod by him 

to the Ihic dc Morteraart, and sent by the hands of M, de Sussy ; 

** MofiviEtni ï-K Duc, — I httTc TucciTed the Icthr ymi have <îone ïqg the huno^ 
la write mc vitk tU the HatinWBtB I iare long uiU^rtainËd for your pommai f^- 
tKttT- M. le Goinia dc Snuy Till gîvo you an accfjuut uf tlie Tijit he had the good^ 
ttt*a to majke me ; I hitTS fïilfilled your intentions in retuUng what you addreiucd 
to mc to itULny pi^râuna about me; I rvqiioaCiHl K. tie SfUmy U> go to the rommiBÛan 
th€D imall in tiumlier, which wa« ûttïjiigiiBtheHùtel ào \il\c. Ile saw M. Laffltte.* 
wW WHS UiL'n with serersl of hit cdÛmgae^ uul I will dclàTïT to Guuund GOr&ri 
till. iui[>iTB w](h which he has comaiiaiioDed me; but the duties ihat kxtp me herû 
lendav it inwrmrititft tiuit I tboitld go to you. Shoohl yoa ccwnAto the Hotel I sltoulJ 
I lave tlw boBonr ti mxiTiaff ytn thctv, but withool adtautive »■ tp the object iÉ 
I HàÊ i TT ii Trif i liMt. âimùt yoiat côputtankrationa liavc Iwca nude to mj ooUc&gucft." 

1C& irt Uiis iitacft 


There waa in lliis letter a son of veiled sincerity not «aaUy en- 
dured by party paâ^on?. A leader capable of writing such lineâ 
»t such a moment woiUd very soou bavc been ealumjuatcd : '«'hen 
ODce suspicion had fallen upon Kun^ it would not be long afWr but 
be would be dealt witli as a traitor. In times of revolution men 
have not Ic-isurc to suspect long. 

After alt the field was open to all tbat bad daring and diâceni' 
oaent. What might not tlie seeming îouduess of a mighty heart have 
effected in that moment of disonlt-r? They talked indeed of a 
proviâional government in Paris; but the following fact sho^v^ wluit 
wa* the inanity of that power so oddly feared: 

The national guard of St. Quentin a^ed for two pupîlâ of the 
Polytechnique to command it; ^d io this end it sent a deputation 
to LaJlitte, \vbich mentioned to him at the same time that it would 
be e&sy to bring over the regimeut quartered at La Fère. Laiiiycite 
auminoned two pupiU of the Polytechnique, and sent them befure 
the municipal eommiâsàon, accompaniod by OJilon Barrot. M. 
Maugiiin^ the only member present, was walking about the hall. 
Being informed of the purpose of their visits he took up a \iGa and 
beg^ a proclamation addressed to the regiment at La Ft:ie^ when 
his colleague, Odilon Barrot, add toiura» " Leave it to them; they 
understand those things better than wc do." AL Mouguiu ceded 
the pen to one of the young men ; the proclaiuaUon was drawn up, 
and General Lobau entering the room» it was handed to him to sign. 
He le^jscd, and went out. '^ He will not sign any thing/' said 
M. Mauguin; "*it was but just now he refused to sign an order 
relating to the aeizure of a powder depot. "^" He hangs back,^ then Î" 
said one of the pupils of the Ecole Polytechnique. " I^othing is 
more dangerous m revolutions than men who hani^ back. I wilTga 
have him shoU" — *' You do not mean it?" ropUed M. Mauguin, 
eagerly. " Shoot General Lobau, a member of tlie proiTaonal 
govommcnt I" — '* The very same," replied the young man, drawing 
M- Mauguin to tlic window and showing him some hundred mt^n 
he had headed at the capture of the Caserne de Babylone. " It' I 
were to tell those bi*ve fellows to shoot U butt Dieu they would do 
it." M. Mauguin smiled, and signed the proclamation in silence 

It waa on tïmt day that a packet addressed to the Englwh niribas^ 
iodor, Lord Stuart de Hutlisay, was dcUvcrwl at tlie Hotel dc Ville. 
Oie only of the members of the provisional government was of opi- 
nion that its contents should be examined. It was sent to Lord 
Stitnrt with the Êcal ujibroken. 

Whilit every one was seeking to realize Ids wishcsi or hia belief in 
this party arena, hardly were a few voices heard uttering the name 
of the emperor in a city that Had ao long echoed to that sound. 
ISvD men, without influence, military reputation, or celebrity of 
any land, MM Ladvocatand Dumoulin, oonceived for a while the 
lOTa nf pDK'Iaiminw the empire. MM. Thiers and Miji^nct easily 
ptJvuadeJ one ol them that lortimc gives herâcU^ to liim who haat HM 




to seize her: the other appeared dressed as an orderly ofScer in the 
ffreat îiall of the Hôtel de Ville; but being politely requusted by 
M. Carbone! to pass into an adjoining roona^ he was there locked 
up and kept prisi-iner. Thus tho parade of a laced coat on the ono 
side, and a piece of boyish roguery-on the other, made up the whole 
liiâlory of tlie struggle between tlie Orleauist and the Lnp«ml 
party! Thisia one of those curiosities of history the key to which 
IS found in the grovcUing nature of most hirnian ambition. Thû 
Sun of Niipûlcon ivas far away, i'or those ivho were actuated by 
vulgar hopes, to wait was to run the risk of lusing these first Ikvomrs, 
which aïe always tljc oosiest to obtain from a govcnuncnt that has 
need to win forgiveness for iu acccwion. Neverthelcsa, Napoleon's 
memory lived iii tho heurts of the people. What Wûs requisite to the 
crowning ol the inunortnl victim oi Waterloo in the iirst-boni of 
his nicer That an tUd general ï-liuuld appear in the streets, draw 
hia sword, and «bout Vwe Napotmn IL! But no. General Gour- 
mand alone made «rmic tentative efforts. On the 29lh he protested 
»t the Jlot^^l de Ville ngaiiu-t the nomination ollhe Due d'Orlôuis; 
and on that night he assembled some olliccra at hia houae to consult 
on measures for llie next day. To conspire in the midst of open 
revolution was» to say the leiift of it» eupei'liuous: but it would seem 
that c-ivW conllîctâ discunecrt the judgment of men of war. Na|K)- 
leon, besides, had pirrinied all mlnda round Jiis own. The Imperiid 
rtîgirae hod kindled m line ]ilcbeian» he abruptly ennobled b> burning 
thirst for place and distinction. The Orleaniat party recruited itâdf 
amon^ ull those, whose promptitude to revive the empire nealcd per- 
haps but one dash of httrdiliood, a leader, and a cry ! Of all the gene- 
rals wht>t« Ibrtunes were ol itnperinl «^owtli^ Subcrvic alone cave lus 
voici? fur 4 republie in M. Lalhtte's saloons; at Icaiit he was the only 
One that was remarked. Thus all waa over as regurds Napoleon : 
and some little time after this ft younc colonel in Uie service of 
Austria ilied beyond the Rhine, thu fraif representative of a dynasty 
whoee la^t breath passed away with him. 

At some leagues distance from tumultuous Paris, St. Cloud pre- 
scntt'd a gloomy and alHicùng^ spectacle. From the pale faces and 
drooping attitude of the soldiers it was e-4$y to gu^Bs wliat was pass- 

; in their winds. Many of them h»d left Iriends and relations in 
î: what was their late? for dismal rumours were heard from 
time to time; and mys'teriou.'* emJasaries arriving by tlie public con< 
vcyftnoeci, which passed freely over the Sèvres bridi^c, spared no 
pttUUi to excite the troops to dcpcrt. Soraetimia the talc waa 
that I'uris wuâ given up to pilLtge; sometimes that M. Lal£ltc had 
oflcrcd fourteen millions of francs to ransom the city. Tormented with 
all these absurd or Ipng reports, tlie soldiers abandoned themselves 
to gloomy doâ^Kindt^ucy. Hyd Bot their leader loo aet them the 
example of hcBitation ? And then itio disorganization was complote. 
Baron Wcyler de Navas, whoâe duty it wsd to provide Ibr tlic 
âuâtcuiwce of the troops, wore liimself out witk CculUesa (tXi^Wswiri. 




Bread waa brougHt from a very grent djsUnoo in «mall cartlocidi, 
and was doled out with the moet rij^id poiaimony. M. de Chun- 
pagny, on his return from Fleuryj where he had passed tho prcctd- 
ing evening, wished that a krgc herd of oxen he met on the ro«d 
ahoald he seized and paid for in hills. No one would venture to do 
this. They had ventured to do a ^eat deal more 1 

To all these embiirrassmcnts were superadded the imcertainty 
■rising ûrom ignorance of what was pasaing, and the danger of mi»* 
conceptions. Thus it was that war was on the point of bursting 
out airesh under the very eyes of royalty, and amon^ its defcnden 
themselves. A corap^y of gardes du carpi covered St. Cloud, on 
the Bide of Ville d^Avray ; and in tlie woods beyond that villago wore 
encamped the remains of a regiment of the iine, commanHed hy 
Colonel Maussion. Sceittg the ravages desertion was making around 
him^ the colonel cuUcd together the non-commiâsioned inlllccrs and 
the piivatee that still remained faithful, appealed to (heir honour as 
Boldier?, and pointing to the flag:, exclaimed, " Can it he tliat no one 
will remain to fender bact that llajr to him who has confided tt to 
uft?" At the word the men laatantlj began their march. The 
• ffordes du corps hoard of this movement; the rumour had already 
run among them that the line^ having sided with the insurgent*, 
was only wftiting the fit moment to c-harg;e Uiem, Alarm seized 
all hearts, and »oou gave place to the blindest f'lry. Several of 
them drew their Kibrea and rushed forth to die gate of Ville d' Ar- 
ray, which they were juat about to enter, when a sons- lieu tenant of 
the company of CrnI, Colonel Lofpinaaee, ^rang forward to «lop 
them, ills voice was disregarded, euc\i was the intense exaxpen- 
lion of tlic moment. Upon this he put hts horse acroïig th« ix«df 
I Asd dociued that none sliould pas but over his body. A few worân 
were enough to clear up tlic miaunders tan ding ; but royalty had 
pcrhflpa been exposed to an enormous danger. 

In this immense disorder of the trctops to march on the cafntol 

I was very tlltficult, perhaps imposable: nevertheless the daupMn în- 

eisted on this step, (fencral Champagny, hia confidant, »olieited a 

priv;(te audience of Ch*ik'js X-, in which he laid before hini the 

following plan. The king was to betake hira?elf t^^ Orl6aTi9, where 

the liuopa would have beE^n conecTitrated; Marshal Oudînot and 

General GoetJoequct were lu take command of the camp» of Lun-é- 

▼ille and St.Omer, which it woa supposed were already on the 

march; some fifty and odd millions oi francs from the Cft^bnh of 

, Aigieia, just arrived in the roads of Toulon, were to he seizett ; Ge- 

' naral Bourmont, recalled fr^m Africa, wmdd bring bring back two 

MgiraentSf and hasten tlirough the royalipt provinces of the South, 

to Bupport the tni&ty population of the Wtst. ïïie scheme contem» 

plated setting die whule kingdom in a blaze. 

Charlea X- rsn his eye, in an jibeent and melancholy mood, avtr 

tlio paper presented to him by M. de Champagny^ and said, after a 

briel silence, ** You muet talk of this to the dmipliin/' Bui the 

sound oJ'his voice, aud the cxpvesâon oïliia ï-o,cc,\iv:'^*ii \\«;TaisiaiiM\^ 





of hla words. What was passing in the king's raind ? This 
Question has been Answered oy himself at a subsequent period. 
Oharlm X. bcheved thut he was acting upon liis ngbtfl when he 
sought to renclor the crown independent. MThen new» mw brought 
him on the 28th that blood wm flawing in VanSj he thought that 
the whole matter concerned only some laetious persona whose auda^ 
city it would be enough to quell with u high hand; but whon he 
saw that the re^stancc wft9 general, dauntless, and perKYering, he 
Mkcd himself had be not committed some error that demanded 
exnUtion? He was then seized with abject despondency^ nnd 
sinking under that bittorcflt and most utter hclpleasnecs of soul that 
attiiet'i the proud In their hour of dismay, his only thought was to 
humble himaelf beiicath the hand of God. 

The dauphin had nnneofhisfutherVau^tcro and somewhat morbid 
dsTotion; so ho tnîked of nothing but entering Pam at the head of 
an nnny, to whidi t;nd he demanded a lormal Biuicûon from hi» 
iather, who refused to grunt ît. Tlie dauphin, who possessed that 
sort of headstrong wilfulness that is common to nitrrow intellects, 
withdrew to hû aporttaont, &nd ^ving way to one ot^ Ids ooeaatooAl 
iita of boyish frowardnes, he dashed his sword on the floor; hut 
Chariv X. knew nothing of this scene. 

Tl)e dauphin's ill-humuur soon fotmd an opportunity to vent itself. 
Ifc <ï>nccivod the idea of rekindling the ardour of the soldiciy by 
publi&liing & proclamation, and one was drawn up by M. dc Cfiam- 
ptiguy in glowiag and impassioned term?, complinicntitig the troops 
on their devotcdncss, and encouraging them to bo steMOÙat. This 
proclamation was not yet published when word was brought the 
dftuphin thnt a wupcrior ollicer de«irod t> ppeak with him, Tliis wag 
.QtocnL] Ttilon, wlio, on the djiy but one beforoj had borne tlie wholo 
Bitot of the insurrection at tho Hôtel de Ville. General Talon put 
on a grave demeanour in addressing the prinec ; his looks bespoke at 
COOq indignation and grief. He spoke of n proclamation which hod 
iMen read to the troops, and which, wliilst calling on thom to Ixs 
to their colours, announced to them, as a welcome intelligence, 

the ordonnancée wore revoked. He added, that tur his own part, 

hiB d«Tot^lncsâ was such m could m,igtnm the utino!>t trial, as ho liad 
nlroftdy proved, but that it was not sulficiunt lu ciublc hira to enduro 
dishonouring treatment. The dauphin's suipriso was extreme; but 
wbeaa he learned that the proclamation corapbûned of by the general 
bopo the fiignaturc of the Due do Raguse, ho burst into a most 
TÎnlcfit fu of pâsaion. He ran to the king, ocquaintcd lûra with 
what had possed, wid hurried over the chflteaUn, BCarchino; ibr the Due 
di? Haguse^ who wa« then in the biUiard-room. The dauphin burst 
intotho room and ordered the duke to follow him into one adjoining 
It. Tlie upshot of ihia meeting wns anxiously Bwait<?d. Suddenly 
voices arc heard; the door of the Tooro is Tiolently thrown 
«pen ; the marshal appears liastily reocthngf nnd the dauphin 
jmrsuing him with his head bare and hia iijta "«^ m\Vi \ftsfaaTt. 




Springing upon I^larmoat, as he still f;:Ll back, Uic prince enatcHed 
hoB sword from liiiïij but wilJi such intemperate haste, thiat the blood 
ptartcl trom his fingers as he clutched the blade. " Gnuirds i this 
way, guards !" he cried upon ihia, like one bewildered. The gufirds 
BUiTOunded t!ie marshal, arrested him» and ied him off to his apart- 
ment, where he was kept priMner. Jn an instant the news oi" thia 
arrest spread amoni; the soldiers; a thousand ominous commentaries 
passed from mouth to mouth through the ranks, and the word 
treachery '\i-as loudly uttered. What a melancholy and singtilor 
^^tSÊtiny waa that man's! — denounced at Piiris as a murderer, at St. 
lid as n traitor, and on both liandâ held accuised. 
More t^uitable ihon the dauphin, Charka X. broke the mar- 
shnl's arrest, sent for hiin^ and did all he could to sooth his wounded 
feelings. It was an affecting right to behold the old kingt lumsell' 
m rudely emlttcn, thus taking on him the part of a comforter, and 
forgetting his own misfortunes, to repair the wrong done by hja son 
to one of his servants I The Due Ue Itagusc was dec-ply moved ; 
but he could not bring himself to forgive so outrageous an insult» 
In obedience to the king, ho went to the dauphin, and offprc?d and 
received an apology; but when die prince held out his hand in aitrn 
of reconciliûtioUf the marshal drew back, bowed low, and left uw 

The hour was approaching when the whole royal iamily was to 
Iiavc nothing auguât belonging to it but the very cxcesa of its abaae- 

On that day, as on the prtxeding^ ]VJ. Lalfitte's house h»d been 
the hostelry of the revolution: numbers docked thither from all 
parls of Pans. There was not an intriguunt wlio did not repair thither 
to recapitulate the tale of his services; ihig one Iiad captured a can- 
non; that one had brought about the dcfeetion of a regiment j all Imd 
creeled barricades, Some went as far as Neuilly, to show their facos» 
and rceord the date of their visit. Decidedly, the Orleanist party 
yvas triumphant. 

But these things soon wore an altered aspect. About eight o'clock 
in the evening the deputation appointed to offer the licutenant-gene- 
niblûp to the Due d'Orïtans presented itself at the Paki» Royal, 
where it found only a few bewildered servonti, who either knew 
not, or dared not disclose tlic retreat to wliich thdr master had be- 
taken liimscli'. It was necessary to dc*palih a measago to Neuilly. 
Wlien tho result of this visit was known at tl)e Hotel LaiEtte, it 
; produced a groat scnâation there. Wliat wai^ the meaning of tho 
auke's prolonged absence under such presdng circumstances? Was 
he afraad? Did he moan to ixtura a ivlusal to the perUous overtureâ 
of the revolution':* Sucli was the substance of every conversation. 
I Is he comcy was the uucstiou every moment asked. M, LâiËttc, 
J "whofle presence of min»i never Jorsook him, made himself guarantee 
I ibr the prince, and endeavoured to revive in those about him a con- 
fidence in which, pcrlmps, he did not liimsell" partake. M. Thiers 
ucat ûvm oac pcrsQii fco another^ lepcaûn^^ 'VîQlï^^a o^ çsuyj^nîiÇieiïa'ûat 



and hope to all. 13ut iHe hours wcie rolling on. It wm reported 
that they were carrymg off the lumitiirc Irom the Pal&ia Ro^al— a 
fiignificEiit and ommQUA pToceedîn"' ! The word republic, only vrhis- 
pcreJ before, now began to be uttered sdoud: lastly, Béranger, who 
nad gone to the Lointier meeting to try tho force ot" his influence 
there, Bérangcr himself had been coldly received, it was said, by 
the young men. And now, with one of thc^ sudden shiftings of 
the Bails that so ?a(lly exhibit, in all its glaring deformity, the baser 
ndc of human nature^ the saloons of the Hotel Laffittc were rapidly 
evBcunted^ Every one frmnd some pretext for moving off. At 
ele^'cn o'clock, in that a?lnnishing week when sleep had flctl from 
all eyes, at eleven o'clock there remained with M. Laffitte only tho 
son of Thibuudtau, the convcritionist, and Benjamin Constant, lliey 
were about to geparate, when the Due do Broglîe entered, followed 
by M. Maurice Duval. Tho duko was npprchenàvc of being pushed 
too Gir into the perils of revolution. M. Laffitte omitted nothing he 
could poEsibly say to fortify the courage of ihat high personage. 
But bctorc the latter had wcU got bcj-ond the outer gate of the 
court, Laffitte, tummg to Benjamin (jonstant, said, "Well, what 
wiB become of us to-morrow r'^ — ^*' We shall be hanged," replied 
tho other, in the tone of a man no longer capable of stnong emo- 
tions. He had become, in fact, insensible to all but those of play. 

At one in the inominff M. Laffittc waa viâu-d by Colonel Hçymè*, 
who came to announce the arrival of the Due d^Orl^ana. Tlie prince 
had entered Paris about eleven at night, dressed in plain cwthes, 
and accomjMtnied only by three persons. What may have been his 
fcelincji as he thus walked in darkness towards his palace, fatiguing 
himself with climbing over barricades, and forced to reply witli iho 
war-cry of an insui^^cnt people to the restless yui i^re of the sentinels? 

We have seen the manner in which the Due de IMortemart had 
entered I'aris. There bo was not even the testamentary executor of 
the monarchy. Mis authority, disowned in the office of the Muni' 
ttur, rejected by the chamber of deptides, and insulted at the Hôtel 
de Ville, was but a useless burden, to lum. Personally, too, he la- 
bountl under a painful oscillation of mind. Ho entertained but a 
half-liking for tlmt expiring monarchy, to which, nevertheless, ho 
owod the exertion of all his energies, rince it had relied on the inte- 
grity of his heart. He was suflerin" the full force of tliese dieltesa- 
infi" thoughLo, when lie received an mvitation to the Palais Royal. 
\V hat could that Due d'Orléans, who the moment he arrived had 
seat a oomplinaentary message to Lafayette, and an invitation to 
LaJEtte, wbat could he want with a minister of Charles X.? It waa 
night ; the Due de Mortcniart followed the messenger, and was in- 
iToduccd tiirouj/h the roof ni the palace into a small closet opening to 
iKo right on the court, and not belonging to the apartments occu- 
piwd by the faimly, Tlio duke was lying on a ntuttrcss on the floor, 
m hia shirt, and only half covered with a shabby aullt. His fitce 
WM bathed in pcKpinltion, thcit was a lurid fire in Ids eye, wml all 
aboHl^i^ heepoke çacCTËCDC fatigue vid c^^ru^x^àsuti^ «-j^vNesA'aS. ^'v. 



mind. He began to Fpcak tlio tnomont t\iù Duc de Mortmuii «B* 
terod, imd expressed. Jnmself with irreat volubility and caniestneas, 
protcstàng hîfl attaulnnent to the cïïler branch, and vowing he had. 
only come to Turis to eavo the city JVom anarchy. At thia moment 
Bgrciit noise was heard in the court, where people wore ahoutmg 
Vive le Duc tt Orléans! ** You hear that, moïïBêicncurT," said du 
Mortemart^ ** thoae ^lonts arc for yovi." — '* No! No!" replied, the 
Due d'OiIoans, with increased vehemence, " I yvîW tufler death 
eoonet tlmn accept tlxe crown/' Ho seized a pen and wrote a letter 
to Charles X., which lie dehvcTCcI scaled to dc Mortemart^ who car- 
ried it away in the Md^ oi" his cravat. 

Stran^i^e coincidence I Alraoet at the totv hour these thincs were 
pflBang in Paris in tlic palace of the Due d Orleans, the Duchefs de 
Bern started^ out of bcJ at St. Cloud, agitated by a thousand terrorB, 
and ran hulf'drcâscd to awaken the dauphin, and to reproach him for 
«a obetinacy that endangered tho livea of two poor children. It 
would be impossible adequately to convey the eliaractcr of that noc- 
turnal scene. Dietrewed and uvcrcome by tlic cries and tears of a 
mothijr, the dauphin acquainterl Charlea X. that St. Cloud was 
tliruatcncd, and that the seat of the monarchy must be moved a little 
lartlier; aitd some minutes afterwards, bofore daybreak, Clsarlea X-, 
the Duchcffl do Bcrri, and the chilfhrcn, were on their ivay to 
Trianon, under the protection of an escort of gardes du mrps. At 
Viilo d'Avray, the lugitive? might see the wot^d rpy«/ olilitcnited 
j'rom all (he public-houfic sij:^s. Tliat word, three diiya before, had 
been almost a means of fortune to thewî oblivious pubbcana. 

The dauphin woa to pass tho night at St. Cloud» along with thO' 
troops. Ihc dtparture of Charlee X, had produced a great senration 
among the troop?, and a general rapTemont took place. Tho 6tli 
guards, which were at daybreak on the roid to Ville d'Avray, wcra 
recalled by a counter order to the bridge of St. Cloud, and relumed 
by the grand avenue tu tlic alley leadmg from tlic Fer-îi-clieval to 
the i^ntm-n of Diocetieg. Sèwea wam covered by two battaliona of 
Uu> 3d Swififl and the lancere, with a battery. The aspect of tho 
r<riMQip boded ill; and bitter thought» wore written jn the faces of all 
those armed servants of iugitive royalty. The Tomftins of tho royal 
kitchen, distributed among the eoldiers, sent some flaahes of gaiety 
through this dense and dismal gloom, but whil&t the Ist guardi and 
tho artillery \<;cre dividing this unexpected booty among thom, 
with laughter, tho Swiw poitod at the Sèvres bridge were abandon- 
ing their colours^ and scattering their anna over the road as they Hod. 



At eight on the morning of the 3l6t, the deputation from tho 

chambot presented itself at the Pahiis Royal. M. Scbasliani entered 

iho ivom vfhei'e it wua waiting, and çsËisuagVùï qo^ùk»^^^ "n^'Ccuau^ 



a -word, went Btraight to the opartraent of tho Due d'Orléans, irliich 
he cntcpod, unanBoimccd. Ino duke appeared ; the moment was 
a «olemii one; the deputation acquQÎntcd hiiQ with tho purpose for 
vhich it hid come, bat the prince's confufiioti was visible, and the 
obeequious smik that played on his Una iU âisfiùeed the agitation of 
^ his micd. Ho ttiew that Charles A* was still hut a few leagues 
from Paris, that an army of twelve thousand men could be set in 
moûon by a word uttered by a monarch not jet fallen ; he knew, 
too, that with nations as with individual all violent exertions end 
in weariness, and that reactionfi arc mortal to those who have not 
known how to anticipatu them. Charles X., too, whom he waa to 
dethrone, wis his kinsman, and Uic duehcsa had not concealed from 
her huaband her stronq; conaeioutioua scniples. The language held 
by the duke flavoured of the diificultied of his positioD. lie la- 
boured paiofuUy to avoid the danger of any pi-ecise affirmation. 
Xo ioait, having always been his motto, he baited between the in- 
expediency of too hiïstîly accepting a crown, and that of too formally 
retueiug it. Ho kept up this gaiiif as long a* possible ; and therein 
Iwiw tacondiid by M. Sèbaetiitnï, who \fiiA the confidant of his 
dondrtâ. But those who did not rightly guesa the prince's feelings, 
wught to pay their court to liim by affecting to overbear his 
ncruplea by force. Some cunningly anectcd blimtncfs, reproached 
him with favouiing by his hesitation the establishment of a re- 
public, and so oomproraisjng the welfare of the country ; a «ort of 
reproach more pleasing to the heart of a prince than a less subtle 
aiul mûre downijght form of adulation. At W» beset on all sidee, 
the Duo d'Orléans appeared to suffer himself to be overcome ; but 
true to the last to the port he had pbyed all along» he demanded a 
few momenta yet, sajiug he required to take advice, and be retirod 
to hia closet, still followfj by M. Sébastiani» 

M. do Talleyrand was then in hia hotel in the Rue St. Florentiti 
and wa£ in the act of dressing, llic door waa opened, And M. 
Sébaetiani was announced. Ho entered, and presented to H. de 
Talleyrand a scaled note, which the latter glanced over with the 
flippancy of a political coxcomb, and inkme<£ately returned eaying, 
" Let him accept." 

Some luoracnts after this the Due d'Orléans returned to the hall 
where he was wiutcd for, uid mado known hia acceptanco to thâ 
imMtient deputies. 

j^ docmneut announcing this decision to the Parisians was drawn 
up in tlic following terms: 

" ImAntt-jii>rT9 of PjiJii», — The deputiM (*f France, it tliis moment Mtembkd m 
Bui^ hairo expratHd ^bàr dodre thst I «hoold betake mvKlf to thU «apitat, to ex- 
crciffc tticTv (he ftnwdtmi of licutcnant-ei^iicriil of tlic kin^^'doiii. 

•■ 1 imvK' Dflt heeitatect to «n>c (uti! ^HLrt.ike yoor diuigcn, to pluM mytolf in tli« 
midat al' tlits heroic popuktion, aiul un.' all my cndcaToun to presprvc jan from ciril 
war luij imiirt.h/. Oh piiltriiitc llie dty of Haria I wore wiHt pride tiiose gUwioiu 
COloar* yoM have nsaili6d, and whicli I liad myaulf lone carried. 

'* Tim Chaiuben atv aboitt to uucrublo t tlit-y will consult Oil the mcuil of KCUrlnff 
tbe rfigii of the lam, anit thf? Duûutcnanci: of the righLs of the natioQ. 

" A churtoc ah.ill be heuctfûrth a, true thinR. . 



This prockmauDHt so sldUully di^wn up, was approved by all the 
members of tlic <lcptitation^ witli tiic exception ot M. Bêrard, Jititl 
being carried to tbe chamber it tvas i-cad tlierc amidst loud acxJaraa' 
tioos. It was expedient to tftko advant:igc of this moment of de^Kt, 
and to pledge the chamber irrevocably. M. Lnffittc addreased tbe 
M»embly; ** 1 will not recite, messieurs," be said/' the Jueasures you ^ 
have adopted, and which have secured the welfare of the country, 
but I tbiak it is right that thia hietory shoLiUl be recorded, and the 
whole ect forth with accuracy and precision/' Tlic propositJon was 
unanîmouely acjccd to. Any man that should have hetitatcd would 
have compromised his position undcr the now order of things. 

But what was the deokratiou to contain? Should it stipulate for 
certain g^raatcea to the people? Such was the opinion ol JIM. 
Eusèbc Salvcrtp, Btkard, Corcellcs, and Benjamin Constant. M, 
Au^siin Périer apscrted " that it was not the fit time to enter into 
discussions on principles that would prove interminable," The draw- 
ing up of the dcclaratioD was intrusted to MM. Benjamin Confiant, 
Bcrard, ViUemain, and Guizot. The two latter, as we have eceu, 
had figured in the three days only as conservatives; but st^cing tlw 
balance incline to the âde oi* the Due d'Orltana, tJiey only tlie more 
sensibly fo!t the necessity of obtaining pardon for their upuiions of 
yeslcrdity. M. Guizot waa prepared with a ready raade draft of a 
reply : it was the programme of the bourgcoisiei «nd an apiocndix as it 
wcro to the constitution of 1791. Here arc the prindplcs for the 
ttduniph of which so many Frenclunen had lost tlïclr lives : 

" Frcnchttifn, yrance is frw. Al^ute ponrer unfurlwl its flng'. The hrfoir ym- 
piil*lU>n of rwi» liM Iftîd it Iûw. Puis uuHulcd lias rendenjd iriumpliant by forvc 
ot Anns the Bocrcd eauM; that Jmd before triuntphai in tlie elcctioiia. A povrt-r iwanj- 
ing our rights, pcrtutbinR pur reprise, tlitcutctiiMl ai once both liberty and order. We 
nfonw poMCfiiton tif ortk-r antl liUTty. Ho motv fuU- fur ûur ac4|airec] ri^hti : no 
bMtrer now'bctwwn us anri tlip riphts wp vet lack. 

" A gOTCTTiiiHnit that shiiU without doLiy g-iiar.vntee us ihose IJi-SAinK* is. nt thU 
niomt^nt tht- first irsiit of our countrj-, FrpticJniK'ti, iliow of yoiir deputies whn are 
alrr-idy in ^aiu have anscniblcU. luwl, for the pïvscnt. till ilio IThnnilwr» can rcurularly 
interpose tbc'ir vuicc^lhcy haro invitcJ a Fn-nclirnan, vrhn hiti ncv«r fmij^ht Init fot 
rnuiCC, M, Ic Due li'Ortiima, to uscTciw tlie fimcti^ms of I jcuteiULnt-gciM; uf tito 
klogtloai. Thii iiA in their eyes t!iç mcftoa of ptxiniptly iiecuiupElahing' hy peace tltc 
MMcrM nf tlie Trtrnt k-gitimatc <tc■^t.•nc(.^ 

" Ttie Due irUrli'ikDs is devotc-d to the natjanal •ind conK[itqtii>nAl caUM. He line 
iJirajfl dcfu-ûde*! it* intt'rest» and profMsed its principles. Jlu will «.spfcE ouf rijjbiB 
for htt vnli hulil hi* uvm frocn u&, Wc will »ecurc lo ourselves by Uwa nil the fua- 
iwilee* DecoMary tonnder lilierty ftrong nad lasttnp; 

*' The re-Cfial^lijltm^-nt tyf tlic n[Liiûajil ^unnl ^rlth tlio ItitiTVCiitioa of the oftiionti 
pionU in the tlxjirr of tliLir oflkt-'t^; 

" llie iiilerveutluu of the cUitcna in the (bTtna.tion nf tlia municipal and dcpnrt- 
ID(^^lnl iMiuitniNtr.itiiin«: 

■• 'i'rial liy ^ury for ollL>ncc* of llic prcs*; 

"Thckg^ly orsAnired n^poiuibility of the mlnlttcr» andiccoadaijaffeDticf llie 
admin TBtmiion; 

" The rtHïlixtion of ckpatic* pmmoted to public oflkw, 
u" We will, ii> ewmvTt with ilie hicod of Uw •tfttt, girc our inatitaUon» ll>« «Iotc- 
■i^i^nt of wliiclt iIk-v have need. 

" Frc-m-fiiiifii, îlie Duc J Orlcaji* himself In* (JrctwJy ipoîicn. and hi» UpfTMtfC i» 
itm wliicli UnYJim-fl u frw eoumry. The Cljambcrs, ]iv tciU vuii, are ^xmt to 
aMcmlik. Thiy will nmsiilt nn the nicunj «f Bccurinu lliu fuign of the lain and iiu: 
main t«'n Mir T of [he right* of tlie tmiioa. 

" Tlie ctiartvr $tukU Ik ht-ncefurtli a imo iWog." 



TKe proclamatioTi was signed, by iiinety-otic deputies* 

Meanwhile the proclamation oC the Due d'Orleana had been pent 
out throughall Pôris. Jt excited the most intense disautiafoction in 
pomc quarters; one of the bcnrers ol' it waa assailal hj an angry 
group in the Rue Jean Jacques Rouaeenu, and only owed liis Ule to 
the interference of a pupil of the Ecole Polytechnique. The feeling 
excited at the Flotol de Ville waa particularly stormy: the repub- 
Ucaas, who had been established tliere since tlic prccetun^ day, and 
those who wcTc spr<^ over the Place dc Cirt^vc» were ddlcient in 
numbers* but they were energetic and full of enthusiasm. They 
oonj^idcred the princes reply ambiguousj and they talked of it, 
aamc witli angler, some with contempt. What arc these dangers 
Use Due d'Ork^ans comes to aliare with ua? On what day did he 
enter Paris? On the 30lh, after the fight* after the victory, when 
there was nothing left us lo do but to bury the dead. At what 
hour did he present liimpelf at the barriers ? At the approBch of 
nijT-Lt; he stole in to u» in the dark; he entered furtively into his 
own palace. But where was he, and what was he doing, on the 
28th and 29th, between St. Cloud threatened and Pans on fire? 
If u friend nf the court, his place w:w by Iiis king's side. If a ûîend 
of the people, why wae he notatoiirhend before the Hotel dc Ville, 
at the Marché des Innocents, at the Porte St. Denis, in front of the 
Jyouvre, in every phiec where we ioughtand our brothers fell? 

Othera pointed out how warily every word of the declaration 
Boemeil to have been weighed. The danger, they said, ia not quite 

no by, since there are twelve thousand soldiers encampod witlim a 

f leagues of tlie capitid. So what does the Due d Orlijans do? 

pdoes not declare himself plainly and distinctly for cither party. 
IR declaration talks of laws yioluled, but does not eay by whom 
violated. The duke représenta his own interiercnec as a preserva- 
tive against anarchy; could Charles X. complain of this were he to 
return as victor? ITîc declaration is not dated: why is tliat? — It 
WH9 further said, thaC if the prince aspired to llie crown he ought to 
, JhSTc the eoimi^ to stretch out hi^j liaud towards it^ ajid that it 
fyna making a muck of the revolution to prosunie to fineaae with it. 
Tliere wore some who went the len^jth of roundly declaring that 
the Due d'Orléans was but a Bourbon, and that he tmght to be in- 
cluded in the a&me malediction as hi» family; and ihey asked ironi- 
CftUy if being the son of a regicide were enough to entitle a man to 
iNKiomc a king. 

To n\\ this the partisans of the prince replied that allowance ought 
to be made for the painful tdtuatiou of a man obliged to behold m 
his kinsmen the oppre*isors of his country; that he already sulB- 
eientty compromised himself in the eyes ol the elder branch of tho 
family, by surrounding himeelf with persons who had applauded the 
iusurroctioii ; that it wn.* not just to lorget that for iiftecn years the 
prince's suloons were open lo all the adversaries of the Congregation, 
to all the victimB of the tyranny of the cliâteau; and that instead of 



BO hju^ly assailing a mim who v/âs potent both by hia position and 
liis wealth, it WAS advisable to place him on the tbronË, as the aolc 
meins, periiApa, of irruvocably barring the rood to it againat 
Charles X. 

To lhe?e reflections and eouHMla some replied hy showing their 
wounds, their hands begrimed with ^Mwder, and their garmenia 
itained with dust and blood- A dlan^erous fermentation prevailed 
round the Hotel do ViUOf and a prolonged angry hum arode &om 
that denê« multitude. 

ft was important that this temper should be mitigated. M. Barthe 
hftving been introduced to the hall where the municipal oomoiiaBion 
was sitting, drew a vivid picture of what he had seen, and gave on 
animated report of what he had lieard^ and M. Audry de Payraveau 
having reque&ted him to imbody his impressions m an ftddresa to 
the expectant people, he drew up a pnx'lamation beginning with 
these words, ** Charles X. has ceased to reign over France/' 

While ho was writing, General LoIjau stepi^d up to M* de 
Sclioncn, and pointin*; to a brace of piatoU in liis girdle, ho mÂàt 
*' My friend, 1 know it is my death-warrant I urn about to ago. 
One of theso pistol» is for me; I ivill leave you the other." 

But uheadv oil was prepared at the Hôtel de Ville for the receptioii 
of *he Due d'Orléans. M. de Laftiyctte had been surrounded ever 
eince the 29'th by the Teprcpentatives of tlie Orleanist party. Know- 
ing his easy temper, and his natuml susceptibility to generouâ 
exhortations, they had organized an active and vigilant eurvciliance 
about him. The noble old man was as it wero under tJie eye of 
keeper?. A sentinel posted at the door of his closet had orders to 
admit no one to îùin with the exception of the members of a lÎMle 
camarilla, of wliich M. Carbone! was tlie soul, M. Joubcrt the man 
of business, and M. Odilon Barrot the orator. M, Audry dc Puy- 
raveau was received but with distrust in the sanctuary, and whenever 
ho entered it M. do La&yette eontented himself with shaking him 
by thâ hand with the air of a man exceedingly pressed with buSLoeflB. 
On the day the municipal commission installed itself in the Hôt«l de 
Ville, it had been placed in a room to the right of the great hall of 
St. Jeun, not far from a passago leading to the closet of the eom- 
mandant-gencniK On the 30tli, in order c-ompletely to isolate M. 
de Lafayette, the municipal commission was removed to a room at 
the other extremity of the building. MM. dc Schoncn, Maugum^ 
and Lobau, were nevertheless not republicans. Thus, kept remote 
from all llie men of erlrong convictions and hardiliood, from all tlie 
young men whose fiery Language he waa food of bearing* M , dt 
Lafiiyette was subjocted to ii constant blockade on the part of tho 
Orl4»nis^. Tho austere duties oi' tho dictatorship, and tlie diiUculty 
of checldng the people in the headlong descent of a republican career, 
were *et before his eyes in magnified propt>rtions. ifis well-known 
horror for emtps dcint was dexterously turned to accoimt, and dmine 
haatit^ the charge, and grenadiers cnterisg the Palaia Bourbon with 




THE DEPtrrraa hepajii to the talais rotal. 


fixctl bftyonetfl, were Teprceentod lo himastJiemnviteblcconflequenue 
vi proclâimiag the republic in oppcntion to the wishes of the deputies. 
Deûmg neiuicr «a ^Sth Brumaire nor another Willinin 111., La- 
fiijetto wu imeertain what course to adopt. lie waukl cort^inly 
]iavo dccidod for a republic ha»l he boon putroiindcd by none but 
republicjinfi ; not bnt that ho 0_*ttrcd tmbridlod democracy; but his 
!ovo of popularity would hiivo been too strong for his fears, for this 
WM Always his most potent smrinff of action. He km^w not that it 
is the part of a vulg'flr mind to love tha people for the snkD of its 
appUuM. Great heÀrt» devote themselves to the cau6c of men whilst 
dudflining them^ 

Ilia newBoftho agitntions at the Hôtel were not slow to reach the 
Palais Bourbon, where it was made known at the same time tliat it 
was the prince's intention to go and allay the effervescence by a viât 
to M. de Lafayette. M, BiLTard was sent to the duke to inform him 
that the deputiPB wished to accompany liim to the Hôtel de Ville. 
The duke waa dieanng when ho entered, and he received the mcs- 
Bcnger in hia dishabille, whether from an attectation of popularity et 
i'rom confusion of mind : lus face showed marks of care. He taflted 
to M, -Uomrd, as he made him heiri him in his toilet, about his 
■rerrion for the Pplentluurs of rctyulty, and above all of that old 
republican feeling that lurked at the bottom of his heart, and that 
aned to hitn, bidding him refuse a crovm. 

During tliis time tlic chamber of deputien was on its way to thç 
Palata Royd; and «ich wa» the terror with which the bourgeoisie 
reganlcd tliat people that had armed in its quarrel, tliat M. Deleasert 
ïbisd. tett the nroec^ion ehould be etoned in pa^ng through the 

Bti. Hiey nrnvt-d at the Palais Royal, the fipproachos to which 

vere fiUcd with a dense crowd. In addrepsing hlin on whom he came 
to bestow a crown, M. IjaHitte appeared neither grave nor labouring 
under any emotion. A smile was on his lips, and before reading 
the declaration in his capacity of president, he whispered, in the 
prince's car, pointing to his own hurt leg, ** Two slippers, one Ptock- 
mg! Lnrnir if the Qnnh'âimTV piiw us! It would say we were 
naaklng a king mrm ntlotf^n!^ Haw much blood was ?hed on the 
i!9th to overthrow a throne I On the 30th a new one was ereet«d 
with a jest. It is not by its tragic side that history instructs u& mort. 

M. Latlitte having read the decUration of the chamber, the duko 
xan to Iiim with open anna, and pressed liim to liî.s heart. Then ho 
wîrfieâ to lead îiîm lo the balcony of tho palace; but M. Lfiflîttc, 
who had now caught tho infection of iho pnncc's emotion, modestly 
hung back. The duko took hira by the hand, and appeared wiw 
him before the crowd, which sent up mingled shouts of V?w te Due 
d'Orîéfinsf Vice Laffitttf 

Such WB5 the port of tho bourgcoiàc in the revolution, but the 
sanction of ihc Hôtel do Ville was stjll wanting to the new dynasty. 
Tlio Dae d'Ork'ans and the deputies set out for tho Place do Grève. 
'XTio shouts of joy and triumph were numerous cnouç^H w \\w!.^ \rô. 



the PalaU RoyaL The Due d'Orh^ns. oa horseback, pteceded M. 
Latfitte, who was carried on a chair bv Savoyards, who were 
obliged to walk «!ow1t ; but the duke stopped ixom time to time for 
them. and. turning: back and leaning on his horse'? croup, he talked 
to M. lAfficte wit£ very ostentatious goodwill. The bourgeois 8ce- 
inp this, applauded. *' Things are jroing on well.*' said Lajfittc. 
" Whv. yes," replied the Due d'Orleans. " they don't look amiss." 
Oh. tÉe paltriness ot' pandcur ! From the time the procession hod 
pascd the Carrousel the accbmatïons had become much less vehe- 
ment ; and as it proceeded along the qua}*? the attitude of the people 
became more and m«?re grave. At the Pont Xcuf the shouting 
ceased altogether; and the Pbce de Grvve presented a startling as- 
pect when the procession reached ir. It was filled with a great 
multitude, and every countenance wa? louring. It was alleged, for 
certain, that men were p>.vtcil in the ibrk streets opening on the 
Place de Grève to kill the Due d'OrU-ans on his way. In the in- 
terior of the Hùtel de Ville indÎLmation was at its height, and some 
important persons partook in it. Doctor Dckberge having brought 
word that, at some paces from that spot, a iew young men seemed 
disposed to bnve every thing, and that the fear of missing their aim 
and injuring Bcniamin Constant. I^itHtto. and some beloved citizens, 
was hardlv sufiicient to restrain therc. " As tor me," cried General 
L."?l>au. with soldior-liko impetU'.'sity. '* I want to have no more to 
do with this one tlian with the others. He is a Bourb'."'n.'' It is 
certain that the in\-iLiti«^n adriressed on the pDxtnlini: day to the 
Du-: ■VOr'ltti:'.'. b-.- :"•.■> .Iotiu:-.:-. !:.:■! lXv*::':-;. lvc:i ;ii:i?:'.:r the mem- ■:: :"..■? ny.Lii:.:irai c. :u:n:??*. n. rv./r. irrxT^-: àiNravliiaction. thut 
M OL'.. n Rirr. : r.-.i v.:?: Kvn ■l:n;v:-;-<.I t :■ ir- .îr.i r.ioe: :';■.■:■ prince 
jin-^ r-7cv.-r.: :.:■■ C'T.iir.c- Sm-.'':-. w.^< :?.■.■ :a:;_"".-.' 'i.;nl-.r-::jr.e bvvvorv 
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ncBs t>f a gentleman delighted to do the honours of 9. wholly popular 
Bovcrelgnty (o a priiicfi. ITiey went in together to the great hall, 
where the stafi" was asenmhled. Some pupils of the Ecole Poly^ 
tethatquc were in atteudanceT with their heads erect and their 
e words bare. A euïlen grid' was depicted in the faces ot the reccint 
combatants, Bome ol' wnoDi alied tears. M. Laffitte^ as president, 
should hùve ïcad the declaration ol' the ehamWr, but one of the 
deputies who accompanied him stopping forward look the paper out 
of lii» hunJs to read it. At the moment when the deputy pro- 
nounced these wowU, '* Trial by Jury for oftcnces of the press," the 
Due d'Orléans, leaninrr towards M. de Lalàyette, said, goodhu- 
raouredly, "There ^vill be no more offences of tho press/' The 
hanmgue being ended, he laid lus hand on Ids heart ami replied in 
these tttubiguous, and, under the eireumatunces, curious words, "As 
a Frenchman 1 deplore tho evil done to tho country, and tlie blood 
that 1ms been shed. As a prince I am happy in contiibuting to the 
huppiness of the nation-" The dt^puties applaade<l; the master» of 
the Hôtel de Ville thiillod with indignation. General Dubourg 
Dow advanced^ aad stretehitiïÇ oui his liand towards tho gquarc Kllcn 
^vilh armed mcu, he said, *" You know our riçhts, should you forget 
tliem wc will remind you of them," Imboldcued by the good will 
of Lafayette the Due d'Orléans replied with suitable lii'mness, and 
Uke a loan justly indij^nant at having his patiiotism called in ques- 
tion. Nevertheless tlie prince wïis not perlectly reassured on quit- 
ting the Hotel de Viilc. Finding himself tor gome minutes sepa- 
ra,tod fromhis suite, and seeinc^ near biui only a young man on 
bontebaek, M. Lapercho, who st^emed not unknown to the combat- 
ants, he motioned to him to approach and ride by his àdc. What 
could be fear? Tlie tiling was done, the revolution had just been 
wound up, A trieolourcd IW liad been brought; the Due d'Or- 
léa)!» ttud M. lie Lalayelte Imd appeared together at the window of 
t}ie Hôtel de Ville with that magic banner. Till then the cry had 
l«»en only Viiv Lafaydte! Wheu the general liad embraced the 
duke, ^7t!e le Duc d'Ofléaiis! wm bkewis; shouted. The people's 
port was ended, the relgu of the bourj^eoisic was begrun. 

That very dayt and at no j^rcat dietance from the Hotel de Ville^ 
a boat moored dose under the Morgue, and bearing a bhick flag, 
meivcd the corpses carried down toll on liand-barrows. 'JTiey were 
piled in lairs with straw between them : and the multitude ranged 
along the parapets of the Seine, looked on in silence. 

The lieutenant-general of the kingdom returned to big palace by 
ono route, and M. Luilitte to bis hûtA;! by another. 

M. Laditte has since i-elated» that on returning from the PUce do 
Grève be experienced a great aiukiug of tlic heart, and as it were n 
eonfuâed regret at ihc events of the day. There are men who 
cjcpend a great de«l of power to arrive at a worthless result; when 
their work is finitJied it humibutes ibeui ; and mii^iug tlie excitement 
of the struggle they remain struck with the puerility of thck 




triumph. A Ming of tlûa kind muât liave taken tol*l of M. Laffitttf, 
if, wliile kbourijigr for the crcalioû of a nev dyoMty, he had beiieved 
in good iaitli that he wbs about 1o giirc new tbundationB to eociety. 
But if on the other hand his only aim had been to Eccure the middle 
cUsa in the possession of paramount power, it was wrong in him to 
repent, even vaguely, of wK;it he had done, for he had succeeded; 
and thanks to uiin^ the aiiciert rf'ffime ha'tojig been dissolvcdi and 
deuiociacy put down, the lourgeota rerolution of I7âfi wae about to 
xienimo its courae. 

Aè for M. dc Loikyctte he mi^ht have done Any thing in thoM 
dftySf and ho did nathing. His ATrtuo was pre-cimiicnt and Ihtali 
hjr creating for him an influence more than conimensurftte with hiji 
CKpftcâty, it served but to annul in his hand^ u powvi', tlmt, wi<^ldod 
by a gtronper arm» would have shaped other deetinics Ibr France, 
Lafayette had, notwithstanding^, not many of the qualities ossontial to 
ouinmand. liisrannnc^rs as w<ul bA his language exhibited a nngular 
mixture of fine pollàh and good-natured Pimplidtv, of suavity and 
strictness i>f dignity without liauphtineas, and iWiliarity without 
meaitncss. In tlie eyes of the one party he had remained the grand 
«fri^ntUTy though ho had mingled ymùi the multitude ; in those of the 
other he was a man of the people born, notwithstanding lii» noble 
lineage: it was liis happy pmiaiege to retain all the odrantagcfl of 
liigh birth, and to be ireely forgiven his superiority. Add to this, 
thlU he poSBeseed at once the penetration of scepticism and the warmth 
of A b^ieving eoul^ that iâ the twofold power of ^lersunding and re- 
Btoumng. In the meetings of the charbormiers he could apeak with 
fie^ force : in the chamber he ^7aa an agreeable and ingcnioiu 
talker. What then wa^ wanting to lilm? Gçoîu?, and more th«D 
that, will. Lafayette's will was never strongly bent on any thing, 
liecauee not being able to guide events he woidd have been mor* 
tified at seeing tiiein gtiidcd by others. In tliis respect he waa 
afraid of ercry body^ but tno«l of liimself- Power cnchantod and 
frig;ht«Twd him; h« would iiavc braved it^ dangers, but he shrank 
from its perplexitîefl. Full of courage, he wa^ absolutely deetitute 
of daring : capable of nobly suflerJng violence, but not of employing 
it with advantngo, the only hcftd he would have given without dis- 
nj&y to the executioner, was his own. 

As long as a government of transition had been in question he had 
been adequate to it, and even delighted with it. Surrounded, at the 
Hotel dc Ville, by a little court, thebuxzing of which was pleasant to 
Ida ear, he tarjoyed, with eomowhat childjah simplîcitv, the noisy 
veneration bestowed on bis old age. In that cabinet, which was the 
focus of ncwa from all point*, whence proclamations Jssliod every 
moment, where the buRincssof ffovemnicntconaiHted in signing ones 
name, there was much ado and little done, — a condition of thing!) 
tjix^codingly congenial to weak mind:?, because improductive bosUing 
help» them to conceal from themsoWes their dread of all that bean 
the stamp of decision. That dfttul actuated Lafayette in the ^ 





degree, luul it woa numifcat in liim >9lien tiie timo oamo in >rbicU 
he ahoiUd declare Mmself tHJSitively. To the dlaûKer oldûing whftt 
lie wiiifaed, he preiemcd that of d'oiug -what he did not wish. A 
crown was placed before luni; he did uol refuse it, he did not give 
itftwiij; he let it be takctt. 

Koycrthelesa, it was not without somo alarm he recollected the 
promieea with which He had ilattered his young^ I'rienda: he antici- 
pated thciT reproachea. Would tliey not accuse him oi' having 
betrftTcd the cause of the revolution ? And he who, as a charborumr, 
had decWed himself the implacable enemy of monarchy ; he who had 
BO onetgeticflJly protected» in the secret mcetiu*,^ itnder Uie Kesiort- 
tion, a^inat the candidature of the Due d'Orléans, supported, it waa 
said, by Manuel, — what answer should he ffîvc to the men who had 
iollowed hîâ banner, when they ahould call him to account for tho 
revolution stifled in ita cradle, lor their illusions destroyed, their 
blood died in tlic hope of far other rcsuita? Tonnentcd by these 
perplexities, and trembling- for his popularity, he rcsolred to attenuate 
by tardy eon^tioûâ the inunenaity of the conecaeion he liad made. A 
scheme to that end waa drawn up by him in concert with MM. Jou- 
bert and Marchais. 'ITie true history of thia document, wliieh waa 
afterwards the subject of so many controvenacs, is a^ iuUows: 

Alter a tolerably close and thorough discusaionj, a paper was drawn 
up at tiie Hôtel de Ville, coniaioing the substance of the conditiona 
on which M. de Lafayette cou&ented to humble himseli" beneatli the 
power of a king. 

Furnished with this paper, which might have changed tlic des- 
tïûea of a nation, Lafayette repaired to the {"akia lioyal with the 
Ûtantion of obtainin)? the signature of the Duo d'Orltana (o the 
contract. But the prince f>topped forward to meet him the moment 
hn entered, and acc^^cd him with honcïyed wonb, 'Iliey talked of 
a republic^ and of that of the United Stotcs, M. de Laiiiyetto d&- 
clanng that it pocEcssed his entire s3rmpathy, and the <lukc ausgest- 
ing doabta as to the poesibility of applying American tlieonea to 
Euch a country aa France. The prince, nefverthelcas, did not deny 
that he was a republican at heart, and he coincided with Latayette 
in thtnkiner that tha throne France required *' waa a throne sur- 
rounded witli republican institutions."* Lafayette was so enchanted 
with thcK declarations, that lie did ûot even think of showing tho 
paper he had brought with hira. The word of a gentleman sppteared 
to mm a stronger guarantee tlian a signature^ which he could not 

I hare uked tor without evincing an oflensive distruct of the duke. 
At a aubaequent period, ho said to Armand Carreh on the latier's 

bitterly reproaching him for his conduct in thii famous interview, 
" Well, well, it can't bo helped; but at tiiat time I tliought him * 
plain, honest fellow." {Jt ie crovait htni et bête.) 

Another fact must not Imî overlooked, — namcly,*that politital opi- 
nion had received « very bad education imder the Rcatoration. A 
republican throuc waa the last chimera cngcaJcred by tho dcâie of 




ehange; and It must be added, that it captivated the minds even i 
some reflecting menî ior when the old Abbt Grégoire, vho 
then residing at Pasay, hoard from M. Civiale the news of the revo- 
lution of Juljf and of its intondcd couciufion, he clftsped his liAXids, 
and exclaimed, with fervent enlhuEiasm, " My God ! tmà ia it tniol" 
and are we, indeed, to have at the same tirae a repuhiic and a king?^ 

Men of gvperior intclligenco could li^rdiy share in Ùiu- pneril 
ecstapy, and notldng more plainly phowcd this than an ejtperiineii 
tricil fit that time on Laliyetle by BâzAi-. Ilm latter was a man i 
bold and vii^oi-ous mind : deeply read in lite works of Si. Simc 
he had imbibed from the writmgs of that aîis'tocrâtjc innovator . 
impatient and greedy desire for reform. On hein^ admitted to La- 
JayettCj he laid before him hia own ideas, which aimed at noliiing 
short of tmsettling the very foimdations of society. " The oppor- 
tunity ia a fine one," he said to him; *' fortune bus anned you with 
omnipotence. What impedes you? Be yourscli' the power of the 
state, and bo the instrument of regeneratintr France.'^ I^afaye' 
listened with inexprcfsible amazement to this man, bis junior 
yearSj but one whose intellectual superiority overawed 1dm. Nc 
had such danng words entered his ears; never liad he been, carrii 
by any guide so deep into the profundities of thought. But it wm 
soon for a social renovation, and M. de Laiayette, who hardly 
ndcrstood its necessity^ was not the man to encounter its hazards. 
Phis conversation was the only effort of a really philosophical com- 
plexion that isKuo<l from the convulsion of July, and it was dooi 
to fail, like every thing that comes before its tunc. 

The government of the bourgeoisie \vaa almost constituted; 
h had yet to do was to beget for itself a popularity that shoui 
enable it to resist the perils of a ûrat cstabliabment. Em; 
were sent out through the most populous quarters. They mi; 
in every group, and mth all the assurance wliich a commenc-eiuci 
of prosperity Wtowa, and which always imposée on the nmitjtud<^ 
they boosted of the courage of the Due d^Orléana, bis patriotism, 
his virtues; and identifying the cause of the revolution itself widi 
his, diey denounced all who dared to utter a wortl agaiikst ihç 
prince as agents of the expeUed dymiEty. Bills were poon posted 
up all over the town, displaying these lying words: "The Dtc 
D'OiiLk.vKs IS xoT A Bourhos; he ]fl A Valois." Republican 
manifealoea had appeared; diey were indignantly torn down, and 
their authors were represented aa men who thirsted for pilUge. *' To 
the 7^n1une! to the TnhuTte!" cried some voices, and a knot of 
men in rag? rushed to the oflSice of the republican journal: ihey 
broke into the editors^ room, and levelled their muskets at t 
writers of the caper. The intiepidity «f these young men «avi 
tliem. ITic chief editor^ Auguste Forbe, ftandiug calrnly befo 
the frfthtic men, whose bayonets almost touehed his breasl, kei 
them iu uwe by the dignity of his bearing and the menacing fii 
nesa of his language. His coolnesa uud presence yf mind guiiwd 




liiQe for a fricml to run for aid to ihc ^mardhouse of the Petits 
Feras: bot tKe square was fiUtid with a dense multitude^ and fome 
nûaçreaats ehouicd, in order to excite the people, " Out witli tlicm 
hen, tliese lepubUcanB ! out with them lawc, till we shoot tlicni !" 
It was with H>mc difficuliy the youtig- men were saved. M. de La- 
fcyette^ hearing of what was going on, caused the s^uoro to bo 

The Due d'Oiléon? had escaped at die HuteJ de Ville from the 
peatest danger he coiild cDcounter: he had stood face to faee with 
nia mtxt formidable enemies, llien^ and not tilli then, he lutd f^itii 
iû himseli, and in the proppectfi of hi^ nice. An liour luid siiflieed 
to ppore to him that the most impetiioua mea would, ere loiiff, ex- 
kuel thejjiselTCS hy their own Tiolence; thnt baseness, whîeb has 
ia coQta^on no Icds than heroism, would dtivc tlic ambi^ouâ ftûd 
the aocpucal to him in shoalg; that the multitude, in its unccTbùxkty 
nd ignorance, was quite ready for eervîtude under new itame&; and 
iKtly, that he could count on the public imbecility. Besides, M, dc 
L»&jette It&J communicated to him, by one embiace, idl the power 
of AD honoured name, and of a popuhirity unequalled. He had 
kH 8ome precautions to take as regarded Charles X, ; but he felt 
tUt he had nothing more to ieav from the republican paitj. 

Acooniin^ly the evening of that memorable day was marked by 
tflocne the mmutest details of which are deserving of record. M. 
Thiers sent word to sortie young men who eombined great personal 
bitvery with prompt and vivid intellectual powers, that the licutc- 
nint-gencral of the kingdom desired an interview witli tlicm. They 
net, therefore, in the office of the Natiottal, and M. Thiera left no 
ut untried to make tliosc souls of proof bend and accoruJDiodatc 
dtenwclves to a revolution of palHce-make. He even, dared to say, 
pOÎBtînfr to M. Thomas, ITterc is a handsome cohnei: but all there 
aôimaûoiis, the suggestions of a vulgar cunning, were rcpulfed with 

The p«rty proceeded to the Palais Royal. The viâters were 
30{. Boinvillicrs, Godofroi Cavaignqc, Giiinard, Baftide^ Thomas, 
ud ChcvaHon: they were introduced by M. Thiers. Hie-y waited 
«long while in the grciU hall between the two courts of the Palaîfl 
fiovfti, and tlioy were beginning to give angry expression to their 
impatience when tlic lieutenant-general eutercJ with a ^aeious air 
and a «mile on his hps. The scene took place by candlelight. The 
duke politely expressed the pleafure he felt at receiving tneee_ gcû- 
llftmcn, but his looka seemed to question tliom as to tne motive of 
ihear visit. They were aetonished at dûs, una M. Iii>invilliera 
{Kâaied out the person who had invited them in the lieutt'nant-ge- 
nerarts name. M. Thiers appeared slightly citibaiTaesod , and the 
dokc made an equivocal reply, Thc«; trides aerved as a prelude to 
a icnoiu conversation. 

" To-morrow," said M. Boinviliicrs to the prince; " to-mom)W you 
inll be king," i^ 



&TftA>'OE tilALOGr*.'' 

The Due d'OHéans made uhnoet a gesture of increJulitj. Ue 
aùd lie had ikot fi«pitcd to tlio crown, and diat he did not deabe it, 
though many pf?rs'>nj pressed him to acoept it. 

" But, after all, '^ continued B<Miivillieïï, " supposmp yon hecorne 
icing, what ia tout opinion as to the tmats» of 1815 ? It h not a 
iSjerûl revolution, you will observe, that has l>eeQ made in the 
etrcfts ; it 13 a national revolution. The si"ht of the tricolour flag 
iru what stiircd np the people, and it vomd certamly be easier ta 
pudi Paria towards the Rhine tlian upon St. Cloud." 

Tlie Dnc d'Orléans tepîied, that he was no paitùan of the tmoea 
of 1816 ; but that it was important to obeerre a ^rcrj wary discr^ 
tion in presence of foreign powers, and that there were Bc^ntitneJitt 
^hich it waa not expedient to utter ttloud. 

Th« eeoond ([ucstion M. Boinvillicrs put to him related to the 

*' The peerage," ewd Boinvillicrs, *' has no longer any root» in 
tociety. The Codo, by parcelling out patrimonie-s, baa extintjuishtsd 
the pecrace in the germ -, and the principle of herediury nobility haft 
now had Jts day.'* 

The duke arake in defence of an hereditary peerage, but languidly. 
He conndeiioa it as formin? the basis of a good sjstcm of political 
;]^iianm[toQS.. ** After all,'' ne ^d, " it is a question open to cxatni- 
nation, and if the hereditary poeragf! eannot stand, / am not the nmm 
who viU Imàld it up at my oum fjjtaiK." The duke then spoke of 
the royal courts, and of the necessity of leaving their or^anizatioit 
untouched, at the same time mcndomng the lawsuits he had lost; 
fce then spoke his mind vciy decidedly agwnst a republic^ arowing 
that he Iiad been a republican ; hut declanng his condemnation of 
the syptom, particularly Jis applied to I'rance. 

" ^lonsK-igneur," said M. I5astidc, with almost iromcal Jtmooth* 
** for the take of the crown itself you ought to convoke tho 
^prima^y asscmhïicii," 

TTie prince withdraw the hand tliat rested negligently on M. 6a»* 
tide's arm, fell back two steps, changed countenance, and br^akiag^ 
out into a rapid jiow of words he dikteil on the revolution, <m iti 
^exceafcs, on the many disoijil pages to be contrasted with a few 
clorions ones; and he pointed to two pictures of the battlca of Jem- 
luap.'s and Vulniy. He then went on to attack in very explicit 
ttnns the systcm pursued by the Convention, when M. Godulrot 
Oavuignac Wnding on him a axed and stern look, that abashed tbo 
i\ oxclnimed roughly, ** Do you forget^ Monaiour; that loV 

her was a member of the Convention?" — •"• So yfaê miike, Mo£ 
liour," replied the I>uc d'Orléans, *' and I never knew a more pb* 
ftpectablu man." The bystanders gave iittcnlive eat to this altcrca* 
tion between two *ot» ofrefricideg. The Due d'Orléans complaiiicd 
of t!ic calumnies propagated against his family, and M, BoinvilEeia 


itjttff ejçprewed hJB a^tprehcnaion that th« CurlieUand the dcrey 
i>ula be lound besetung the avcnuea to the pakce, " Oh! u £a 



them,** said the duke, encrgcticaDy, " they have struck too roughly 
at my house; there is an eternal barrier between up'* Then carried 
awa/ by the Illusive force of hia own worcls, and qnito forgetting hia 
interview with M. de Mortcmart, he talked of a nvalry, a long and 
terribk- rividir. ** You know the nature of family quarrclo? Well, 
that which fluhfflBte between the elder and the youn^t branch of the 
Bourbons is not of yesterday's datej it goes beek to Philip, tlio 
brother of Louia XIV.'' He then culogieed the regent : the regent 
had been horribly calumniated; people nad not been aware ofailtho 
services he intended and was able to render; many blunders bad 
been tmjustly impvted to liim, Sec. &c. He ionclteil on many other 
Bubjcct.3 besides, expressing himself on every topie lengthily^ widi- 
out brilhancy, without depth, but not without maturity oi' views» 
and with a remukable facility of elocution. PerhajMi in to doine he 
gave way to an iinpuLse of vanity; perhaps too ho wan glad ol as 
opportunity oi' diowjng how his e*UicalJon had diifotod from that of 
otbcT princes : in this however he ehowed less tact than M. de Tal- 
leyrand, who was given cralit for genius by all Europe, because ho 
had passed half his life in uttering monoeyUablcs, and the other half 
in saving nothing. 

When the itpublicana were about to take their leave, the Duo ! 
d*Ot\6i\b& said to them in an engaging,' tone^ '* You will come again. I 
to me: you will eeeT* And tiie word wrï^^* having struck his car» 
*' You must nB\'er pronounce that word/' he said, quoting a vulgar 
aphoriam^ and Uko a man who had little làith in intractable cotL- 
vic lions. 

The young men, who liad fought sde by mde witli the people ia 
the three days, withdrew with heavy liearts. " Only a two hundred 
a/td tiOwnty-VHey" said M. Bastidcj as he left the palace. 


The day of the 31st was decaaivc. Tlic revolution betrayed oa 
the one luind, dcfiorted on the other, had sent faith from ite own 
bosom apowcr strong enough to destroy it. The mimit-ipal oommis^ion, 
luvwevcTt wa^ still funding; but one would have said it was impatient 
to dissolve. One only ol' the members compoûng it, Af. Miiuguinj 
expressed himself strongly on the neccieity o4 contmning the popular ' 
gDvcmment of the Hôtel de Ville. The coun^eousand loyal Audry 
d« Puyraveau waa on thia ooosion insnarcd by hie own disinteroât- 
«dncn. ** We mu^t not suffer a pretext to exist for nccurino; nà. 
of ambiUon/' was hia constant cry, and he joined with M^l. da 
£^onon and Lobau in bre^kin^ tlic only instrument of reeistADcO' 
the Due d^Orleans had thenoeibrth reason to fc^. V j 

O 2 

TfevertJjelcas, before declaring itself cxtîrtctt the mtinïcîpftl com- 
Ltoûsaiûn (lçemc*l it its duty to proride for tlie public admiriiPtraùon^ 
[«ad, it drew tip the following list: 

" The nniiJemBnied sre appalnted {t^roTialonal coramisaionen: — MM. Dupoat {ft 
I J'Eurc), of jurtlw; hi Huron Lnuifi, of flnanc*; ie G^nériiî Ot-rarri, of war; de 
[ ^igny, of nnvftl affiUnj Bipion, of foreign ^nirg; Guiiot, of public instruction," 

Caànùr Périer hnvîng entered the hall, the ministry of the in- 

J .lerior ipslS offered bim by M. Maugiiin, The unexpected oflfèt 

I 'perplexed him^ and he atammcred out his acceptances but an hour 

I Sfteiwards he was with M. Bonnelier, the secretary of the commis» 

IsROQ, imploring of hia generosity, of hia pity almost, the favour of an 

ytrrattan iQ the Mcniteur, He represented to him that having been 

[ J)ut yesterday the minister of Chfirles X., he could not accent olîice 

on the very day after a revolution effected against Charîea X., and 

tc was orerwhelnied vfilb despair as Jie uttered the wotda. Thva, 

this man, who had always been possessed with a pridi?, the violence 

of which sometimes amounted to madness, was suddenly bocome 

humble and suppHant. His wishea were complied mth; but his 

uneasiness was so great, that he went that evening to tbe office of 

the Moniteur to Imve ocular assurance of the omission of his natnei 

for which that of M, de Broglie was substituted, Casimir Pérîer, 

bowever, as he soon proved, was not the man to repulse the ad- 

Lyancca of fortune: but it- was at the hands of a prince, a new comer 

the revolution, that be awaited the realisation of his eecret hope?. 

I<j\.rdent and pusillanimous, the cait^s of a ooweiing ambition rack^f 

and at the same time debased his soid. Others showed mare vigour 

[in their degradation, and at least niehod with head erect towards 

power and sfurltude. 

The etilections made by the municipal commission were ratified at 

[tiie Palais Koyal; but outof door^ ihey were variomly animad verted 

inpon. On the whole it wiis thought very strange that a power 

L emanutin^ from the revolution shtndd Imvc degignoted, to represent 

I tliaC rcvulution, men lite the Abbe* Louis and M. Guizot- It is 

I' true, that during the thi-ee days, ihe farmer hud put himself forwanl 

J fit M. IjalTitte's as the IttMuicior of the revolution with an unresen'cd 

Lfrcedom that was not without courage: he had talked openly of cet- 

p|atn measures to be taken for raising taxes in case the révolution 

nould be prolonged. As for the latter, his part in the movement 

had not Ijcon of a nature t<j justify his ambition. At any rato there 

[ .twas something odd and inexplic;ible in the offiociation of these two 

rmmcd with that rif Dupont de l'Eure, so well known for his struggles 

ftigainst tlie elder branch, of the Bourbons. 

r Dupont do l'Eure refused at first to take office; he felt no taste 
aibrit, and his modesty made him fear its burden. It was M. Laf- 
[Ifitto that determined bim. Laffitte had long beensubjugfltc-d by the 
[Due d'Orléans, hut ho had become more strictly devoted to bîm 
riincc the important acrvicc ho had rcudercd bîm; in the first phico, 
itaause he hud n^cd of exalting himself as much bb possible in the 






person ofHs ToysX protégt^; and aiterwanla, because it is one of the 
artifices of oiir vanity to attach ua to those who owe us much in this 
very ratio of the service we render them. But as in M, X^fHtte'ft 
mexïtiil constitution an extreme subtlety of mind. scr\"ed as the na- 
tural j^ovision. for tempering the sensibility of a very susccptihlc 
heart, he was won witîioiU being quite convinced, and deouycd with- 
out Lcing deceived. He &oua'ht, therefore, to (brearm himself 
agftinal hi» own impuiâes, by calliuff to his aide a man whoso friend- 
ship waa courageous and austere. Hg coidd not have made a better 
choice than in selecting Dupont de I'Kure; the more so as m the 
oyts of the people the adlieàon of such a man waa a guarantee 
in favour of Lufiitte» and on excuse, whatever mi^'ht be tlic upjihot. 

Hence tlic pertinacity with wliich he pressed Lis fricaid to accept 
the ininistry of justice. He suppUcfited him, graspinc botli his 
hands, and invoking In. support ot his entreaties every tiling capable 
of moving a generous natiu"c. Xhiponl de I'Eiure j-iclded at last, 
and consented to be presented to the lieutenant-general, whose rc- 
Ceptioa of him waa lull of goodnature nnd cordiaUty. The new 
minister began by expressing his distaste for the practice of a mini- 
sterial life; lie ^id he was not a courtier, and tliat his habits and 
sflêetiotu were republican. The prince rephcd that there would he 
no court, and that for his own part he regretted that he could not 
live in a republican country like America, Dupont do l'Eure ni&dc 
no secret of his apprehensions^ and during all this interview hia 
llkiu^uage was that oi' a free man. 

But what fitting pLiee could there be for a citizen of this mould 
iu u new monarchy, and among jtarveiitts making their incipiont 
essaya in Battery, in fine manners, and in intngne':' Straight- 
forward judgment, inexorable comnion sense, a. frank demeanour, 
goodnoes of heart blended with honoiirahîc bluntnesa, great appli- 
cation to busmesB— thcH.' are not qualities ^ulBeicnt to give their 
poaaessor Ae miistety over tl*e complieatiyng limt arise, in a cor- 
rupt region Ironi the clashing oi' interests mid the play of the pa&- 
aiona. Dupont de I'Etire took otlice wlih i|ualitie8 similar to thoso 
of Roland, out under circumstances much more unfavourable. Now 
it IS well known lliat Roland could not make himself acceptable to 
Louis XVI., who yet wjis well qualified to appreciate simple ami 
modest virtues. 

Anotlier member of this ministry was M. Gnizot, a man of eotir 
and liaughty temper, steeped in pride, impassloued under an outwaixl 
»pptfiT«nce of camiuess- You could eafily recognise the man by lii» 
noble but melancholy forehead, his drily cut Upe» his cold diadiunful 
emile, and a certain drooping of the body, the index of a troublcil 
soul. Wo liavc since seen him in the eliamber^, his bilious and worn 
fcHtnies distinguishable fur oft' from thoec around him. When pro- 
voked by his advcrsiines he bent upon them a look ot piercing acorn, 
»nd erected his head upon his bent t'ramc with .ib indescrihablc expres- 
sion of tiuger and irony. His peremptory gesturee, aïid hia dogmatic 



tone (he was a protestant and a piofeswr), gave him something of 
the fiir of cmc who was not to be put donn; but hia fumnoss was all 
apparent; in reiility he posscssea no actoviiy of mind or vigour 
of will. The conastency even which was remarked in M- Guizot*s 
wrilingâ had in it something of the pertinacity of the master, who 
will uot condcficeud to contradict Wimsolf before h^a pupils. He waa 
thought to bo cruel; perhaps he was so only in his speeches; but in 
the refinement of his pride, he waa fond of compromiging himself, 
and wiiiist he wilfiilly and deeianc<lly let hia virtues be overlooked, 
he made a parade of vices arwucially put on. The versatihly of his 
political conduct waa no secret to any one in 1830, and the recollec- 
tion of the part he had played in 1815 had made him tlie object of 
keen attacks. He took httle heed of them: fuilhful in friendship» 
that none might have cause to repent of liaving trusted in his for^ 
tunes, he hiid always affected to despise hia enemies that he might 
not be auspected of fearing them. Ilia talent consisted, in veiling- 
under the solemn pomp with which he enunciated tliem, a greitt 
poverty of viewa, and sentiments devoid of grandeur. Hij word 
neverthelcsa liad weight ; and bis (.lisinteieatedness, the grave tenor 
of his lile, hia domestic virtues, and the austerity of Ins monnciVr 
marked him out from the frivolous and greedy Bocicty In which, 
he moved. Add to tliis, that he had the art, hke Casmilr Pcrier, 
of ennobling mean dosîn^as, and of serving whilst appearing to 

Piim had suddenly clwmged its aspect: the shop» opcmed again, 

r and businefis was beginning to flow baek into its usual channels- One 

I of the last acta of the municipal eommission was to postpone for ten 

the falling due of billa of exchange. Tlio suspension of all 

mercial relations, which had been to $onio poreous fin actual cause 

Lof ruin, "traa to othoM a pretext for dishonesty. The agitations ^int 

I ftffbct society always tlirow iip f5ome mud to tnc surface. 

1 At firo o'clock on the Slat Charles X. arrived at Trianon: the 

dauphin hadn;mainedat St. Cloudy which he did not leave till noon* 

f But before ho sot out he wished to try a last ctFort, A company 

Wa» posted atono end of the bridge of Sèvres, and several mvslcct* 

shot were fired from the opposite end. The Due dc Levis waa 

ordered by the dauphin to go to the troops and prevail on them to 

\ make resistjmce. Tlie chef de bataillon %vho conunonded them waa 

> itwdsng motioulcas at the head of the bridge, with his arms folded, 

Bkc one deep in tlious^ht. The duke addressed him: it wa« to ni> 

osQ. The daupiiin, informed of this scene, gallops up antl 

^ OB to liarangue the troops. Not a movement — not a cry. r ranUo 

_; this in<liflerence, he spurred his horse towards the bridge; but 

*eanc that he was not followed, ho returned to St. Cloud with feel- 

ÎDtfB divided between rage and shame. 

The company whose aeal the dauphin had thus put to ibe proof 
wa» commanded by M. Quartcry. Hie defection put the people in 
ponecàoa of a piece of artillery and of the bridge of S&vre», 





, ■ At St, Cloud the prince gave orders for the depaiturc So much 
humiliatlou had left ita trace upon Lis Icatuxes, and augmented the 
confusioa of" hU id(:4s. Aa lie ptissed aloni^ tlic front of the 6tli 
giunk, he stopped before the colond aud said, " Well, the 3d hag 
gone over; cwiyou reckoii on yom men?" The colonel replied with 
dignity that every one woidd do his duty. The prince proceeded 
some paces farther without utwring a word; but beeîng a soldier 
whoBe stock wiis carelessly fastened, he shouted to hiin, " Your i^^tock 
Sb very badly put on." There was an. inToluntary movement of in- 
dignation in tlie nmks: the soldiera tould judge for themselves what 
alTUieee ruleia of natioDS are wortli on cloâc inspection. 

The Bgofll to retreat having been given, the artlllery and die 1st 
giiardfl took (he roud by Villeneuve l'Ëtong^j whiLst the voltigeurs 
of the 6th eudea'TOured to check with their fire the skirmishers liiat 
pursued them up the grand avenue of the cliâteau. This precipitate 
night without striking' & blow deeply mortttiod the troo^ that had 
zeuuànod faithful. Witli all their respect ibr their superiors, the 
grenadiers could hardly suppress the bitU-'ine^â of their feelings, and 
many of tlicm ttirned their bearskin caps the wrtmg way, as if to 
show front, ae liir ua was in tiieir power» to the insurgents that pur- 
sued them, Tlie olticers marched with downcast ikcee, and many of 
them shed tears. 

On arriving at Versailles, tlie regiment* were huddled together 
pell meil, partly on the exercise ground, partly on a plain iu fipont 
of the Grille du Dragou. î^o provident measure had K^cn taken, 
and the olBccrs hud much difliculty in procuring pTovisionâ Lor their 
Goidieis, hajsaeed in mind tmd body, borrow was by this time 
pawing into anger^ and desertion began. TJie bivouac lasted Eome 
hours, as yet no review of tJie trot^pg took plaee: the men muf- 
murod in iho rankâ, and. a^ked each other with surprise what kept 
the princes away from ihoac whom their prcstnce would have 
checifed and stimulated. M. de Sala and another uffîcer of the £th 
ip^ards, seeing how rapidly discontent wa^ becoming general, pro- 
ceeded to tlie gat«â of Irianon; but meeting MM. do Ciuichc and 
do Veutaduur on the way, tliey learned ihat the mardi was to be 
resumed. Tlic two officers loudly complaiued of the inconceivable 
eoniùûon iu which the royal army was left. " No one commands," 
thej 8ud: *** at the very moat a Lew generaL- come, and walk about 
carêleaeiy amougst us, with oi^ulottcs btuck on plain eoate. There 
ia no re^lar allotment oi' duty; no attempt is juadc to rctsiir tho 
blundei^ that have produced univemd discouragement. What is 
intended to be done with die army? let ua be told pl^ly. la it 
not time that court doings should be at an end, and that camp 
doings should have their tumi'" An order to march wits the only 
rcpW made to the^ military remon^ir^ncoâ. 

Uliough a new mitiistry had been nominated, the old ministers 
had not ceased to accompany the king and to delibeiute- They 
held a council at Trianon, M, do Guemon Ranville waa of opi- 
nion that the king could not cntcx Paiia \>cibi<â ik^ %^'ai^>s^^'& ^ 


the rebels; tliat there remained to liim only ono course, namelj, to 
i retire to Touts, and instAutly convoke thither the two chambers, aU 
' the genttraU, the higheat public functionaries, and the dignîtarieB of 
I the realm. Xhia he conudeiHjd the best meanâ of disor|;^mEi£ig the 
I înaiirrcction and disconct'rtmir iia leadera. The advice vras np- 
proved of, and several circulars were drawn up accordinf^ly. All 
' that wag wanting wag the king^s Eagnatiire, and he seemed disposed to 
pive it; but he chan^eil his luind all at once, and his mluister», ren- 
[cereil despcmte b^ his endlesa vacillation, tcro up the cbcularp, and 
^ threw tlie piecoa into the baan of Trianon, 

The king was ab&rjlutely incapable of adoptiitp any fixed oouree- 
L A thousand ties attached him to Triauon, btit liia abode there wa^ 
|>bcset with multiphett danircrs. At last a,t the urgent advice and 
BDtreattea of M. de La Rot*nejaiim--Un and General BordesoiiUc, lie at 
laat consented to abridge the lirst halt, and to set out for Katn- 
lioiiillet. The troops were ordered to march towards Trappes, ajid 
they put themselves in motion, after ISrst tearing up the cartridge- 
boxes of th(Ko who had deserted, and throTivin^ several ol' the rauskcte 
that lay scattered over the plftiii into the park cannl. The disorder 
of this nocturtiftl retreat could only be c^mpared to tliat following 
an actual defeat. Artillery, infantry, and cavalry, floundered on 
promiscuously iit the dark, ilusket shots discharged in the air or 
into the woods, every moment excited apprehenfiion of some fresh 
attack. It wn^ mors than a retreat, it wag a rout> 

TliG royal faniily Itad made every preparation for its own de- 
parture. It was settled that General Boraesoulle should remain at 
VcrsaiileB at the head of his division, that the dauphin should go 
and pasa tlie night at Trappes, and that C'harloâ X. should &et out 
on horseback by one road| whils"t the Duchc*3 de lierri and her 
children should travel in a carriafie by anotlier, so as to rejoin tli« 
king beyond the wood on the way to UanibOHÎllut. 

Before leavinn; Trianon the king beard mius in a lar^ room whedna 
there was h chapel contained in a prcas. When his attendants came 
to tell him that it was time to depart, they ibund hini immcTK'd in 

Ïiioua and melancholy meditation. He paced slowly lîirough the 
onely halla of Loiug XIV. 'a palace, Btopping from time to time as 
if his gaae was arreateil by eome affecting puhjoct of rcmembraaoe. 
It was midnight when the condcmued iaixnly reached the Château 
of Rambouillet, wlutlier, scarcely sixteen years before, a no lees ter- 
rible catastrophe liad driven the Empwss Marie Louise, a fugitive 
from the fate of battles, from her father, and carrying with her the 
penatfs of the empire. In those gardens where young Henri went to 
play till the fast couûnu hour of exile should arrive, the boy kint; of 
Home had romped, with equal b^hthcarU-dnca^, in almost similar 
circumi^tances ol misfortune. But fîicIi parallek arc endlws in his- 
tory; ibev are become mere commnnpljice repcd lions of destiny. 
The fu^tives alighted in the lonely and silent courtyard : the moon 
alone lîghtod Uic windows of the tower. The Ultle Due do Bor- 
iknuix had hUcn asleep in hia govetciot s aniis ; Ckttlos X., ex.- 




hausted with fati^c, let his hr^sA drop on his chest and wept. Suf- 
ficiently jvpepureJ — he ptovûd this afterwards — for an utter dawn- 
fiil, he bent bencûth the first preasure of his rnigfortunes. 

The next day the troops arrived from Trappes. There is &t the 
entrance of the forest o( Rambouillet a pniall vUkpt; nomed Lc 
Pt^ray, wlicrc several regimerls halted, others reached the town. 
The 2d foot-gmardg, «ucampcd right and left of tho road, formed 
the reftr-guard with the 3d and the frendarmerie. Here some pre- 
cautions ■were taken^ nnd advanced posts were thrown t>nt. But an 
incurable despondency hnd already seized on port of the troops. Mail- 
coaches and diligenees |»aftsed every moment, decked with the tri- 
colour flag* and insurgents rode by on horseback before the eyes of 
the Boldiers without any order being gii.'ca to arrest them; in fine, 
the artny. destitute of a leader, imorant of the aetuid state of things, 
uncertain what waa to become oï it or what it had reason to hope or 
fear, now resembled only a mob of fii^tivcs. There was a moment 
when the rear-guard broke gt^ïund, and seemed disposed to return 
to VersaillGs, whereupon General La Rochejaquelin jL'aUoped up; he 
ordered the drums to iK-at, and the men to full into the lïinkf, and, 
addressing them, with elocinent emotion, he appealed to their honour, 
and brought them back to remember their oaths and their flag. 
l7iY k rmf shouted tho soldiers^ fl^d so vivid was the revulsion to 
military fidelity, that when a voltsgeur of the 2d attempted to de- 
Bert» his comrades drew their sabres a£*ain^t him. 

A scene of enthusiasm had la,ken pkec in the morning: the dau- 
phine had arri,vcd nt Rambouillet from Dijon, escaping from many 
dangers by means of a disguise. This princess had a nar?h voice, 
A Stem countenance, and a freezing demeanour; the miafortuiies that 
had smitten her in childhood peemed to have dried up in her all the 
springs of sensibility. Still the guards loved her; for she had al- 
ways dîsplôved an active and thowghtftd care for the welfare of tho 
more iinmcoiate defenders of the royal family. When she passed 
thTou;>h the ûimp, the men locked round her: she saluted them 
with tears, and they returned her greeting with brandished weapons 
and shouts of attachment. But thia was the last outburst of a de- 
votion that was soon to die away for want of encouragement. 

When Charles X. beheld the princes, whose eyes had been the 
fountains of so many tears, he hastened with open arms to the 
daughter of Louia XVL, and their sobs were mingled in their first 
embrace, " And now we are together again^ I hope, for CTer," «id 
the dauphinc- 

Al Kambouillet, the sumptuous abode of ro}'ul leisure, where bo 
many prinuea had forgotten, amid their pleasures, how much tlie 
people must sutfer that a king may be amused; at Rambouillet, 
whiiher^ on the Sfitln of July, Charles X. hiniR-lf had gone to refresh 
iiim from the fatigues of the chase whilst his ordonnances were 
kindling a contlagration in Paris, there was, at this moment, barely 
the means of shelterinff the furtive family. In order to dcfrsy the 
victualling eapenaWj mc king of Fraaicc vïas leiucsa. \n ^*^ Xvâ 



platQ. 'Hie dauphine could not procure new tlotlres, and compl; 
of a Trant of lincu. Lastly, as il' to put the climax, to eo many 
poignant afflictions, tlio colonel of the 15tli light infantiy that day 
gOTc back his colours into the king's luiad. Tlûrtecu moi acoom- 
pauied him ; all the rest had deserted. 

The gardes du corps^ hûving scattered through tlie park, killed a 
gi^t number of pheasiintg and otiier game in the preserve. Thia 
ocxuisioncd Cliarle.*; X. onti of liis most acute distresses; fc*r, wanting 
the strength of miad requisite to his eitimtion, he clun^ more to the 
petty advantages of grcatncfis than to greatness itselt. The king 
tTBB resigned, but the Eportainan waa almost inconsolable. 

On the Ist August tije Due d'Orltana received the following or- 
donnance from Chailca X- : 

" Th« kin^, deiiroiu id pat an odJ to Uw troubles existing in the capital aoii ia 
«Dolbei' port of Fmucc, kud coauting. moivoTerr on tlu; cincerc altâdjuient uT Ui« 
Coiuia tiic DoCr d'Orletim, itiiaiea him lîciitcnant-gviicnU uf the kingiJoiu. 

"The king having thon^ht fit to withdraw hi» ordotaianfca of the 25th of Jttly. 
JtpproTCS of the chamWrn nicoEm{r un tlio 3d of AiiROBt, aad hâ dadres U iwlnlpa 
tbe hope that they will rts-estnljIiEli trjjit^uJIULy ia it'Fuicie. 

" The kiiiu; will vaÀl hierc lor Uil' return ot the pt-TSOn commisiiicined to Aalry this 
dec!nriLi:li:iii t'l Paris, 

*' Slionlil attempts be made to fusail the liie of the king imd tm femily, or tui 
liherty. Le irouhl defood hinn^lf to the deuth. Daoe At KuubuuiJkrt the Ut dmy of 
AutfUBt. " CIl^VItLES." 

ThiB message arrived at seven in the morning at the Palais Roy&I« 
where M. Dupin aîné, ^vas already with the Due d*Orléaiis. 
Trembling lest he should lose the advantage of a loyal tnêndâhip, 
"" ' , DupLn advised tfse prince to send back an answer of so d<te- 
li tone to the message of Charles X., as WTJuld dlstlactly sever 
--^ttiOCtlic houso of Orlcana from that of the elder brâncn; and 

rUfBB '■sot so far as to oiler to draw up the reply. The letter ha 
wrote was rude and merciless- The Due d'Orléans read it, put It 
with his own handfi under an envelope, and lighted the scaiin^psrax 
to £cal itf when all at once appearing to betlùnk him, he said, *' Thia 
λ too serious a matter to be despatched without conçullinc my wiiie-'* 
He wont into an adjoining room^ and returned some minutes after- 
warda with the Kimt; envelope ia \m hand» which was delivered to 
the messenger. The letter tlmt was actually enclosed breathed 
oûection and fidelity, and it soothed and touched the old monardi; 
Bo nnich so, tliat from that moment all his doubts and uncertainties 
\-amfihcd. Charles X. hud never felt bo much repugnance for the 
Due d'Orhians aâ had many men about tho court. He haJ recently 
given a striking prool of this ia arderiny General Trogoi' to conli»- 
cate all the copies of the M^mt^ns de Maria SteUa, a libel against 
the Due d'Orléaus» whidi the courtiers took a spiteful pleasure in 
circulating at St. Cloud. He was therefore delighted to iind in that 
pcinec tlic protector of his grandson» and loehiig assured lliat the 
nonQur of tlie Due d'Orlt-un3 was tlic best guai-antee of t)ic Due do 
Bordeaux's royal expcctatlans, ho put in execution, without dolay^ 
a project timt belbre this had but vaguely presented itscU' to his mixta. 
J\W content, vaux abdicating tko cki^to, he used Uie abst^ute coutrol 




be pottesacd over tlie dauphin to make him also abdicate, and he 
believed in the salvadon of his dynasty. 

Me&awhile,. ailcr the scene wc have just degcribcd, the Due 
d'Ofltana gave audience to all tlio lugh personages who came 1o pay 
early homage to his fortune. The printy; had sent fur M. Laffitte, 
but his arrival wus anticipated by MM, Casimir Péricr, de Broglic, 
Guizfjit, Dupin, Sc-bastiani^ Mole, and Génord, Tliis rather sur- 
pria^d M. LathttCf -who thought he had a right to the ^let recep- 
tion: but the Due d'Orléans advanced to meet him with marked 
alacrity, and trraitcd him with the moat cordial familiaiity, ivhilsb 
the bystauders, in order to please the prince, outdid each other in 
offering homage to the power of the ikvourite. The Due d'Ork^aiis 
knew how irrésistible arc iktterica from idgh qiiancrâ : he knew 
moreover the chamctcr of La&tte. Taking liinx by the arm Yiritt 
an air of friendly i&uùlLuity, and turning to the other persons pre- 
sent, ho aaid, " x ollow ue, Messieurs/' and he Xfcnt into tlic next 
room arm and aitn witli ilie opulent plebeian, whom he had 
charmed and fascinated by that one word, that seemed to promise him 
BO large a share in tlie management of public afiairs After a few 
words, intended no doubt to throw a sol'tening hue- of pceming 
modesty over the ffloro of eudden elevation, the Due d'Orléana 
recounted with an air of mystery the message by wlUch Charles X 
zumcd him hcutcnant-general of the kingdom. All this, he said, 
waa done only to cotnpromi&c him in the eyes of the revotutioniets, 
and mch a proceeding was j>erfectly characteriatic of the elder 
branch of the Bourbons. So ûxceedingly bitter did he wax on the 
the subject, that M. Latlitte took upon mm tlie defence of Charles X» 
betore Uio Cice of the man who was about to seize his crown. 

On the same day the Due d'Orluans received the mtmicipal com* 
misaâon which came to deposit in his hands all the powers of the 
revolution. The prince Imd obtained very eurly intelligence of this 
intended step by a letter wlùch M. Maugmn's colleagues car&- 
fully concealed from his knowledge, because they feared his oppo- 
sition. Thus every one waa hastening towards the newly-created 
Sûwer. The Due d'Orléans gavo a very gracious reception to the 
eputadon, at tho head of which was General Lafayette. Just as 
the commissionera were retiring an aidc-ile-cainp whiroered a word 
in 11. Mauguin's ear, and led liim to a closet where M. Guizot was 
drawini up a reply to tlic letter in which the niuniclpa! commission 
had resigned its authority. M, Guiïot showed Ids coUenguc the 
i«j»ly he was drawing up in the Ucutcuant-gencral's name. Tlie 
pnnco (bo tsai the document) thanked the goveminent of the H6tel 
dc Ville for tho patriati?m it had displayed, accepted its resignation^ 
but requested itt^> remain constituted until lurther orders. "■' Orders !" 
rehemently ejaculated M. Mauguin. *'0h! you tliiuk tho word 
too atrong," paid M. Guizot; ** well, I will say instructions.** What 
ftn idle mocki^y of deference to an authority that had ju^t volmi' 
tarily prociûmod its own nothingness I 



To obviate, however, any possible dângcï there might hù in this 
forward hast*; to disarm tlic revolution, t]ic leaders of the bourgeoi«ie 
weïc loud nnd conspicuoiia in tlieir patriotic dcmonstiatioiia. The 
joiinmb celebrated the grcainesa of the Parisi&nâ in. the epic vein. 
Suhseriplions were opened on. all aldos,— a bitter eolace for the 
tuoummg thut had strickcii so many families ! The number^ killed 
were countcil, the condition of the wounded waa attended to with 
solicitude: in a word, the people was fooluj with it* own enthu- 
lissm. The stratagems ancl intrigues of the ambitious were tho les» 
observed whilst the pubhe mind wag called off from thorn by so 
many heroic and patnetic matter?. 

Tho hospitals were crowded with wounded. It was rcsolred ftt 
the P&laia Royal to make tliem a viait of solemnity. The Duche« 
d'Orléans^, Madame Adelaide, and the princœaca LouisCt Marie, and 
Clementine, proceeded to tlic Hotel Dieu accompanied by MM. 
fi»rb« MarboiSt Berthois, Alexandre de Laborde^ IJcLaberge, De- 
gOm^G» &c. The young princesses were painfully affected on çn- 
loring the wards where so mucli suffering was accumulated, and the 
Duchess d'Orltans'a natural gravity of dememioiir hurdly concealed 
the intonâty of her emotion. With a piety too much idcvated above 
the things of this world to let her degrade an act of humanity into 
a device of aelf'mtexest, she spoke some kind words to the first sui' 
feters she Iiappened to find in her way : tliese were men of tlie rojal | 
guards. ** Is it to comfort our enemies these ladles are «jme?** 
feebly ejaculated a July combatant. The worda were overheard by 
M. Dcf^oussée, who was escorlin*? the Princess Clementine, and goinjsf 
wp hastily to the DuehoEs d'Orlcans, he said, '* Madame, this ia not 
merely a visit of humanity; it is a political visit;" and he pointed to 
a bed simnouuted by a tricolour flag, in which lay a young man 
who had lost a Ic^ by a cyjnuon shot- The patient's eyiîfl gUsteuod 
with the fire oC enthuaa?m and with that of fever: Madame Adc- 
iuidc went up to him and began, to consoles him ^vith a profusion of 
words, when, casting liia cyca on the tricolour flag, he said, " Tliere , 
is my rccompcnce/' — " Wnere do you come from?" continued Ma- ' 
dame Adelaide. — " From Randau."- — "Oh, indeed! I am glad of j 
it: we have a chiitenu at Randan: you ^-ill paaa your cotivale&ccoco 
there, will you not?" In the evening M. Dcgoussée dined at tlio 
Palais Itoyal. When he waa taking his leave Berthoijs said 
to him, *' You will not make your way hcPe. You utter useful 
truih:". but you blurt them out too rountlfy." 

Wc know what h*fl determined Charles X. to abdicate with so 
much iudiJièrence. The dauphin had submitted without a murmur 
to his father 8 will, but he groaned in secret, and the consequences of 
abdication presented themselves to his mind under the most sombra 
Colours. Still he would have thought k t^lander %*i the blood of 
Ixïuîs XJV. to attribute tu a prince descended from diat monandi 
tl»e intention of usurping the crowîi- Tliesc were aiso the daupliinu'a 
sentiments. In au mterview ^he liad on the 2d of August witli 0U4 ] 



of herliusbond's most faîtliful servants, slie appeared lo bc filled vnih. 
but Oûc appreheûpîon : her mind mîsgftve her tliat imdcr tlie auepices 
oi' ihc Dvic d'OrîtanF, and amidst tlic stormy elements of a regency 
yoiiûg Henn would^ perhaps, be trained up in principles contrary 
to the spirit of the monarchy and of the church. As for Charle^i X-, 
he had, I say again, no thought that his owrn fato could involve that 
of hiiS grandJAon, particularly in a cxins which the first prince of tho 
Wood wfls enableti to control» So great was his conSdence in this 
respect that he sent for Genenildc Latour^Foissac, and gave him, in 
prewnco of the Due de I>fUïia?, sundr}* insts-uctions touching' the re* 
turn of the Due de Bordeaiox lo Paris. At the same time he diretied 
Lim to dispose of the troops that were still in the capital as circum- 
stUQces might require; and he put into his hanib that act of abdica- 
tion, which will be recited by and by, desiring him to go and deliver 
it to tilt' Due d^Orléans. 

General Latour-Foiasac immediately set out from n&mbouiUet; 
he arrived at the Palais Royal on the evening of the 2d of August, 
and asked to be admitted to the prince. The aide-dc-camp t<i wliom 
he applied gave him a positive refusal; t!ie general inaisled, and an- 
iQounced himself as a messenger from Charles X. The refusal vas re- 
iterated. " BtU, monsieur,' cried iha geaeral, ** our dcûtest interests 
are involved in the matter; the message of which I nm the bearer îâ 
of the highest importance." The aide-de-camp had, doubtless, rc- 
cci\"ed positive orders, for he remained inilexible. All he would say 
to the envoy of Charles X. was, that there was to be a sitting of {he 
chttinber of deputies on the next day, and that he should postpone 
his message- M. de Latour-Foissic'H amajiement was unbounded- 
On arri^'ing at the Palais Royal he had noticed men of the lower 
classes l^jnng on the very stopa of the Btaircase; he had been sti-uçk 
with the freedom with which people went in and out of the puluce; 
■nd tlie bustle he saw all round him had even recalled Bomc rlramatic 
ncoUcclions to his mind. He could not, therefore, conceive that 
"wImbb pecKUs, who came merely out of curioaty, were admitted 
mthout ceremony, there could be no admiî^ion for him, the messen- 
ger of a vunqui^heJ but not yet dethroned king, for him, the liearer 
oJ' that king's act of alxiication t*::> the lieutenant-general of the king- 
dom. Ho tioncluded from all this that the Due d'Orléans had been 
MCTctlv apprized of lii? intended visit, and bad made up his mind Uy 
avoid it, either tliat he might not iiUow an envoy from Charles X. to 
gather his wcret deâgns irom any involuntary play of liis features, 
or that he might not have his hands tied by inconTcniently prociee 
engagements entered into with an oflieial agent. 

In this perplexing position M. de Latour-Fcpissac thought it advis- 
able to go to M. do Mortetiiart and request his good ofiices. Tliey 
went together in a coach lo the Palais Hoyal, where M. dc Morte- 
jnait got out alone, and taking the despatch from his companion, ho 

SromSed thai he would not deliver it to the prince till he had firvt 
one aU he could to Qbtain the desired interview. He came out 



saine nûnutes afterwards. The Due d'Orlcana had Liken the Je- 
spatch^ and flatly refused to receire the person by whom Charles X, 
had sent it. 

Failing in every thing else, Greneral LAtour-Foisac rcqupfited per- , 
nûssion at least to sec the Duchess d'Ork'nnaj for whom n& had two 
letters» one from Madame de Gontaut, the other from Madcmoiiscllle, 
He was more fortunntc this time, and, thanks to the intervention of j 
the nephew of the Due de Martemart-, who was intimatc with tho 
eon of thç Duo d'Orlénns, hç was shown into the princese** apart- 
meut. On reading the letter, written by the unpractised hand of a i 
child whose caresea she had so often received, the duchess burst 
jato tears. She did not attempt to conceal her grief at the roe-eat 
ieniMe catastrophe, but she entered into no particuiara as to her hus- 
band^a purposes, simply saying that the royal family tnight rely on j 
him. and that ho was an honest man. 

The act of abdication brought by M. Latour-Foiseac ran thus: 

'■'■ I am too doeply distressed l>y tlic cvUa tlmt afflict, or that may seem to impeilA 1 
DTcr my people, tiot to h»Te «oapht n means ta prevent them- I hiiTc tberelbn j 
rOAOlTod to iJjdicaic the crovm in fnrmir of iny çnmdson. 

" The dauphin, who participâtes in my Hcntiiut^Qts, lîkCwiSË KuauuCes Lia right* 
Jn fnToiir of his nephe*w. 

** You viU therefoK hjiTC, Di yirar qqalitj of lieutmnnt-g^neral of ttic king^QOt, to 
CAiuci to be prockimed the acc^itm «JT Henry V. to the crown. Ytm will Ambàr^ j 
moTo tnke oil tJic meMuito tUût befit you to rpjruiotc the fonns (if tho goTemmeai^ 1 
daring the nilaorKyof the ncfrklng. Here, I confine myselT to mjUung kmiwn.] 
tboo arritnfïcuaentfl: it ie a. m&am of sroldii^; mnnj e^vils. 

** Tou will ûommuaJcate my intentions to the diplcoxmtic tudy» isd yun willialbm ' 
roe iu soon «a posiiUc of the proclaniAtiûn by which my gfuadMn atLaU be recog- I 
ni»cd king, nnder the nam* of nenry V. ' 

~ I cQinjtÛHion lieatenant-gmcral t1t« Vicomte de Lntonr-Foissiïc to ddiver ym ' 
thlt k'tt«r. He has orders to cnme to aa underttanding with you ■• to the aznM 
meut» to be nwde in faroor of tlic persooa who hare oecotupaiuud me, and Hkenra 
âa to the arraiiKCTiijeiits rt-jrartling wliat coULcnis mc? and the tvst of iny family, 

* Wc will then I^oUtt the otlier raeaauft-a «wisçqûçilt upon the crliaii^ ttf ttîg«> ; 

** lieHtr to yin^ mj oonaijl, the aïsuranoe of the aeatimente vitb which 1 am jmtf ' 
mBéctîoDate eooain, " CliARLEH." 

It WM singular that Charles should huTc i3rfl\¥Ti up in the form of ! 
& letter the important document that chantjed the order of suceesrion 
to the t]irr*ne. Such an informality was particularly remarkable in a 
monarch so gcmpuloasly observant of the laws of etiquette, Bui the 
Bwiirmcea of attachment contained in the letter written by the Due 
d'OriiiaJig had sealed the mind of Charles X. ngùnât suspicion, la 
thia dociuncnt the Due d'Orléana was considered as the natural pro- 
tector of the minority of Henry V», and he was left supreme arbiter 
Qf aU the mt^^suns which the fatality of the circumstances miglii rc&* 
der imperative, 

^^lal couTfo was the lieutennnt-ccnçral about to adopt? Aa 
konourable iieue was open to his desire»^ though these were ever bo 
daring, and hlg ambition wa^ of too bourgeois a caste to fire him witil 
heroic aspiratâona. By taking the rojidty of a child tmder his gnar- 
dianship, to wotild recoDcile the enjoyment of power with that 
Se^iect ibr the pnncîple of legitimacy which it was not, pcrhap^^ MA 


to violate, and he would bcctitç to lilms^lf the sd vantages of monaïcliy 
without Bhakinc its foundations. Such were the uotions at first 
entPTtainrd hy tliofe who thought they could read the princess mind, 
nnJ JM. Séhasliani used Ifoigimgo conformable ivith these TiewF, 
Others were convinced, with Bératiger, that it would be riaHng 
every thing to stop short at lialf measures^ and that thcro was no 
way of ftToIdin^ fresh conTulsions tut by assruining^ the strenfftlx 
arising oat of a decided and straightforward line of conduct. The 
prince took no oonsfâcuous step declaratory of his leaning to the one 
or the other of these opposite ways of thinking, and lie talked inces- 
santly of his natural aversion to the cares of so great an authority. 
lîut at the eame time he descanted earnestly on Uie inconveniencea 
of a regency, and the suspicions which womd of courao be excited 
and eounteoaneed by any dubious state of tlûngs; he was said even 
to have remarked on this subject, *' If Henry V. had only a pain la 
his bowek, it would be enough to make lue paas in Europe for a 

Charlea X> was still at Rambouillet at the head of more than twelve 
thousand men, and hia dynasty, though fallen, was sùll guarded by 
thirty-eight pieces of artillery. Sneh a neighbourhood added to the 
pcrplesitiefl of a position that in its own nature demanded so 
much reserve. It was to be feared, moreover, that the Duchess de 
Bern wotild come and cast her son upon the generosity of the Pa- 
risians. It was not unknown at the Palaia tlmt the princess had been 
advised m to do by the Duchess de Gontaut. It was of the kât nc- 
cearity to prevent such a step, and to find means of getting rid of 
the vicinity of Charles X. It was therefore agreed that under pre- 
tence of protecting the old king from the violence of public resent- 
ment, commisnoncrs should be sent to hasten his departure, and to 
accompany him with demonstrations of honour. The prince's choice 
fell on Mm. de Trevise, Jacqueminot, de Schonen, and Odilon Bar- 
rot: but as it WB3 doubtful that those gcntîemen would obtain access 
to Charles X.» by the advice of M. Sebaatiani tlic Due de Coigny 
waa asBOciatcd with them, to serve them as intcriocutor, and to jEïivc 
their mis^on a certain character of wwpcctfiil protection. The Duo 
deTrcvisi' refused to act, alleging a frivolouBcxcuse; and by a singular 
repetition of fortune, the man who waa appoLnied in luj* place was 
B^ffihal Maison, tlie same who had gone in 1814 to receive the elder 
brother of the monarch, who was now to be driven away almost 
tudor the ^es of a prince of his Ëkmiiy. 

The commiftfiuncra attended at the Palais RoyaL The Due d'Or- 
leans told him that it was Charles X. himself who requested a 6afe- 
f^otxd; Uidw4ùlsthc gave them their instructions, he tcstiiiotl tho 
most kindly feelin^rs for the elder brancli of the Bourbons. M. de 
i^ûoen having asked litm what was to be done should the Due do 
Bordeaux be ooaomitled to their charge, *' The Due de Bordeauji T* 
Cïdûmed the prince, '* why he is your king V Tlic Duchés d'Or- 
lias waa pregcnt. Deeply afiecled, she weat and threw hciaelf inta 


her Kusbami's arms, saying, " Ah Ï you are tlie most honest m&n in 
the kingdom." 

The Due (l'Orléans liad made every thing ready for the embarka- 
tion and exile of tlic vanquished dynasty. General Hulot was 9mt 
to Cherbourg,' and rceeivçd command of the lour departments lying^ 
between the capital and the sea, in the direction of Great Britain, 
Orders were abo given on the 2d of August to M. Durmont d*Ur- 
ville, to wt out for Havre in all haste, nnd charter two veaeelfl. 

At the Etttne timtt the CoJtriei' Fmnçfùs, a j^per devoted lo the 
cstabhahmeat of a new dynasty, published an article tending to proTC 
the illegitimacy of the Due de Bordeuux.* 

• llie propositions wliicli th« Due Je Mortenisrt hm j ust marie to the chamber of 
peers in favour of the Due de Bnnleauï, will oaLurolIy rec^ attcRtion to a subject^ 
wlkicli at last uirj' Iw freely txamiueJ iind dÎBCussed. We bIuUIi confine ourselves tcMUy 
tupuMLsluaKi'lu^'^i^^'^'^^^'iL'ntLasvrtiHlLii tlu'EiigUAhpnpenof cho timij; it hu never 
Jit>l«aredi in France; its puMk^ition la pc-rfcctif opporttmc; it complvtci the psxnilei 
that hu« been drawn, up tu this poiot, bctwctm the Stuart aad the Caput fiintilks. 

Tilt' following is the ttiiour of this diH-ainent, tiititlfid, Protest of the Dm tTOrUdnf, 
And uiodc pufihc in Londou in tlic nionth uf November, IS3:0; 

'* Ilia royid hiphtiess declares Hiy tlips* pn'.wiitfl that lie protests formally againE^ 
pfoctJi'iferlHii Clie 29th nf St-pletiibcr l&st, wliich dut-uni^nt; professe* to fiHttblialt 
llie (act, t\\at the cbUd ntuiitHl Cliarlc^ Ferdinand Dk'udouti^ is tlie legitimate »otic€ 
bcr royjil lùgbo^ss MfuiLami^ che Duchess da Bcttî- 

'* The Due d'Orléans will prodnce in flt time and pUtce iritnena who ran nuke 
known the origin of thccliild and of its mother; he will produce sTl the dix-unwnla 
noccvi^rj to iniika it nuuiifuBt that the Dm^liess de Bcrri has never ht^a pr^Kiiant, 
RÎncc the TiTif'jrtitnate dGutli of her liuiilninil, iuid hi; will poiut out tiic naciiun of tke 
ntachinittion of which thxit very wtiik printfs» hna been the inBiTumcnt. 

" Meanwhile, until lhf!fiivourti}]lcTTiom>L-otarrivta t'nr iitvcstigiiitingttie whole of tills 
latriguci the Due d'OrK-ans omnnt Ibrliear front calling ottnilioa to Ibc fADtaatic 
scenet which, according to the aforesaid /^roct-^-c-^er^ wus plajod id tlu: r«viIloa- 

" Tlie Jovrnat dé Paru, wbich, u erQTf hody knows, it a eoofldential joiuiial, ■&- 
noonced on th(! 2nth of list August tlic apiironrhirig oceoilcbeniËtit iu the foU^ving 

" ' IlerBons who have the honoor to approach the princess asinre as tliat the ne» 
coiidhcni«nt of her roTil highnca wiU not lake place sooner than from the 2oth to 
the i8th of taeptember.' 

" Wheu ihii Sâth of Ecpt^mher airivcd, what iook place in the I>uc]iesa's iqtart- 

" la llie nîçht of the SSth-^Satli, at two o'cKick, the whulc hffliwhoM wa3 in ht^ 
and the lights L'xtJnguÎAluil.; at h:df-pa.<it two thi^ priiK^'^-Jis cuILijI^ h^t I^i D^unc â» 
Vftthaire, lur ftrat t'emme-dt'-chniuhrv, wiw iwleeit^ Iji Dame Leiuoine, her nurse, WM 
nlwei]t, and the? Sicnr DtmeiiT, the necniicheur. wa» undreued. 

•♦ThoDlbesctnt ehanpedî La Dauie Bourgeois lighted a omdle, and aïl the per»m 
who entered the ducbcas's cliaiuher, saw a cliiid th^ was not jrct detadkcd mua Ihe 
U) other. 

•* Rut how Wiis that child placed? 

" The phv-Hcian Rarun declares that he jhïw the child plaosd on it* motlier ntid not 
yet detachrd friim her, 

" Tl)c eiiT^>on Bouf^u dL<c1are« that the child was placed on Itf nwthcr, «nd itiU 
attaclicd hy the uinhiHcal cor«L — 

"Tlicsc two prac-titionen know how important tt is not to cxplùn mote ftr- 
tiiMiFarly licur the ehild was ^aced ou ita mother. 

" MaJamiî hi Duchei.^ de Rep^o makes tin' follow djEK;Iafatiotl : 

" ' I w:li informed inslantty lliïtt her my»! Iii;;hneiis ft-lt the ptiirtl nf liihâiu*| I 
hurried that motnent to her, and on tnttrriii^' the roont 1 saw the diilil on the bed, 
aari not yet detached from its lojthcr.* 

" Thus the child wm on the bed, the duchess oa the bc<J, and the umbilical cord 
Joaodticed xmder the beddothes. -*J 



-■, 'Tîie commisaioncrs began dieir journey at four in the afternoon: 
it was night when they reached the outposts of the royal armyt 
which waâ cncampeil in the forest» right and left of the rottil. By 
tho blaze of the firca that burned from point to point along their 
routo^ tho TOmmiasâoners saw threatening lool^ bent on them, 
and naked Ewords gleaming. ïbey reached UambouiUet ne- 
vertheless, protected by the nimje of the Due <3e Coigny. 
Charles X. being informed of their arrival, refused to rcoeive 
them. He thought it étrange that four men should be sent to guard 

** Remark what wm ob»cr»ed by the Situr Dciicux, 4u?coucli£rur, vvhci, at haJf- 
fwft two o'dcx'k, hod it iiùtifl^ lo titm thnt tlti.> diidiess fdt the pains of lalxRir» 
wbereupCHi tic hutenoti iji«u&tly to her, withoue tAbing tiiâe to flaixh dreasing him* 
«df* foanJ Ler in bed, and lieard the iofiuit crying; 

"Hemark wlmt « «aid by Ma^iaine de Goiilaiïj» wlio^ at hulf-past two, was in- 
fbnned that the duchef» Mi the puiiu of labour, who came Inatiuitty, and board the 

"Reourk wh&t woi seea hy tha Sicur Frftuqac, garde de corps ds Moasicur, who 
wiB OD RUtry At hùT Tvytd bighncu^a d^mr, and who was the firat person infuniied gf 
tl» CTŒt by a \ady, who nnjiu^ated him to entor the room: 

* Braaurk what wtis twa by M, Latné, a ontioiml guard, who was on scotry »A tbfi 
JooT Af the PaviUun-Miirson, who vn^a r^u^Mtcd by a Ijidy to step up «tairs, did co, 
WM intradtici^ into the princcBs'a clianiïxfr, whc-tv iIh'TV was no one but tht; Sit'ur 
Deomi snd another pctm-id, nnd wim, nt the munienc he eatcrcd the rootu, observed 
t2iat the dock pcônted to thiny-Sve minutes past two: 

" BofbATk what was st£o by the physician Itaraiir who orriTcd At thirty-fivft 
Uiîautca past two, and the ■urgeon Ikiugun, who lutivcd loiuc moUicntJ after: 

'* Rcmurk whnt was accn by AlanhiJ Sncliet, who was todg«l by order of th4 
king in the l^rillon «tc Flore, and who. upon the flrtt inteUigeucc that her roy«l 
highn<3U fyll the pain» k>{ kbour, procwded in edJ hwtc to her apartmcnt, but ■iid not 
wrirs there uotLl forty-flvc mlnutci paet two, and wo* caUc-d on to be prevent at 
tbe âlvlaton of the umbUical cord «amc minâtes nncr: 

** Renurk what muit luir« been seen by Horslml dc Coigny, who was lodged ia 
the TuiUiriei by onk-r uf th>t kin;;, who was t^-UIcd wh(>n iwr royal higlxitesa wu d&^ 
livsred, who repaired in hmtc to Ues apartment, but ilid nut amri^ till cl moment 
«fter the iwtSno of the mrd hftd tilkea pince; 

" Rcnwrk. ftriolly^ wlukt WU nen by nit the perwin* who were uitruducod after 
half-pAit two up to tliu uiomoat of cutting the umbilical cord, which took place some 
minote« after thnx-qimniira pMt iW'\ Now, whurc were the rcUlionfl of Ihe f rin- 
cett durmg thia scvdv, vhk-h lastc<i, at k-iUt, twenty minuit-^? Why, durini; êù long 
• mAceoT time, did ihry aSwt to atiaudon her tu tîic liiuids vf stron^n, M-ntioela, 
And miiituy mca of all roJiks? la not thi^ affuctod abxuduDmi'lit prvciacL/ tku mOBt 
complele proof of a. grou and manifest fraud? li it not evident tluit, iifti-T arfang- 
infUiç ineop, thev withdrew at hatf-past two, sQd thfLt, plAi-ed in kHi (idjuiAiii<; aparb- 
ttient» they wait^Â) the moment to «Iter upon the alagu, and tù play the parts they 
hadHtdgntTJ thembjires? 

"In bet, was thcru ever seen aa instance in whicli, wlicn a woninn, of niiy cLus 
wlHlterêï, wa» about to be deliYertd, the liirlits were put out at ni^ïii, the wk 
taea about her were aalecp, that one in particular, who wua moru Bpeciiilly charged 
with the duty of ïakiui^ care of her, went awrLV. hit nccouchcur wax undtCsscd, and 
her fnnjUy, reaitling undJcr the same roof^ remained more thoa twenty niinUtc» without 
giving «îy tAgti of iJi^ eicifltenee^ 

" Hif royal liiglmeu the Due d'iM^ana i$ conrinced that t!ie Frencli nation and 
oU itm tovermma of Europe will be KOstble of ail iIh: dangerous consequences of H 
hand wa aodaaouj and >o Doatnuy to tlic principki of hereditary and legitinuite 

" Alrrady Tnntx and £iintte hare ben rictims of Bonaparte'* osurpation. Cer- 
lainly^aiiew iiiunHktioQ.ontnep«tof apr^ttwikfl Hiuiry V., would bring back the 
•ame mlfftirtiiim on Fnuicv imd on Eur»^<. 

"DooeatFarii^the aoth of September, 1920.*'— C^wrwr Franfai$ of th« Sd of 
August^ lUO. 



him in the midat of lùa armj; an^ Ihe sent tbem word ttiat tKc 
uaages of lijs royal Louse «lid not permit him to give them audience 
Mi such on hour, but that he offered them the hoepitality of the chA* 
te&u fot the night. 

The commisj*! oners returned with al! speed to Pane to report the 
resuUs of tlteir journey. The Due d'Orléans, who was in bed» him- 
eelf let them in, and received them without taking the trouble to 
drffs himsKïlf. The two monarclùcs were thus palpably contrasted: 
ftt Rambouillet, respect for etiquette carried to temerity; at t3ic 
Palais Royal, çoj\t(?mpt for forms carried to neglect of the most or- 
dmary conventional proprieties. The commissjonera did not £iU to 
mnarkthe contrast. Tne monarch in drawcra who stood before them 
seemed more worthy than the other to command, by virtue of a mys- 
terious right. Weak minds were theirs, that eaw in this religiouB 
reverence of etiquette only a monarchy that breafe down in a day, 
whilst they might have seen in it a monarchy that endures for many 
centuries! Gewgaws aad jingling trinkets^ to amuse and hiU its 
BcnsGS, ore necessary to ihe infancy of society. Tradition^ puerili- 
'ûes we the stuff of which the majesty of kings ia composed. To 
vupprces human folly, is to suppress the empires that endure. 

When the comnussioners brought their report to the heutcnan^ 
general, they found him in a very diflercnt disposition firom that he 
had inanifoated the preceding day with regard to his family. " Let 
him begone," he exclaimed, with vehemence; *' he must absolutely 
be gone j ho must be frightened into it,** Now to force the king to 
depart, Bomcthing more was requisite than a paciiic embassy; it 
was therefore thought expedient to back this by a thtefttening de- 
fflonstrivtion. Colonel Jacqueminot took upon him to call forth tliat 
demom^tration. There was thiii additional utility in an expediiian 
to Rambouillet, that it would carry all the men of hot blood out of 
Paris. It was the 3d of Aumjst; the lieutenant-general proposed 
to appear before the deputies in the splendour of hi^s recent dignity: 
a diversion might be neceaaary. Men were sent into every < 
of the town, who shouted out, " Charles X. h threatening _. 
To Kambouillot ! to lUmhouillet !" A large basket, full of^pli 
was brought from Lapage, the armorer's, to the Palais lio 
and they were distributed^ with packets of powder, by M. de 
luigny among the élèves of the JEctile Polytechnique. The drum 
beat to arms in the capita], aa it had done in its days of danger, and 
the whole city started to life at the sound. The people was in that 
eecihing state that follows the subsidonoe of the storm. The notion 
of a revolutionary campaign in the environs oftherapital charmed the 
li>Tly imaginations of the Pansians, and Memed to promise tliem tho 
*^njoymcnt of a party of pleasure in the doing of a dcwl of patriotism. 
Nothing was to do seen in the streets butyoimg men who hiid cionned 
tlie bright baldrics of gendarmes over tlicir black coats, und working 
men in their shirt-sloevcSf with liL'lm on head, and limce or carbine 
in hand. Some pupils of the Ecolo Polytechnique, who vmted 






lioTW«, obtained them at oiicc from KiuitzmaTin^g riding-scliool, on 
Bifrning ÛkIt names and adding llicir quality at the foot oï a bill, 
•which ran thus, " Hon pour ttn cAciwr'— -1. O. U. a horse. All WM 
one huge hurlj'buxly- The patriotiani of thew TH>\*el recruits broke 
out in boisloTous laughter, anectlng -words, and confused cUunours. 
Thoee ingenious piaaotks, who hftd reckoned on the frivolity of the 
Trench mind, h*a x^$»xa to complinient tbentselTcs on tlietr peao- 
tradon. They hud brought the people to parody it^ own granneurl 

The command of the expedition was gi%*en to General Pajol, 
whom the Palais Royal looked on with distrust, and right ^'ludly it 
ecizetl Uie opportunity of cotnpromieiKff and getting- rid of Iiim at 
one and the same time. But Colonel Jacqueminot was required to 
take part in tho^xpieditiont for the purpose, so at least it was said-, 
of keeping watch over the goncnd ; and he resigned his place of com- 

As for General I^afayette, hi? mind preoccupied and engrossed 
with a thoiisimd nolhing^^, he paw in 90 thoroughly a contrived af- 
fïiir as th.l9 niovemcnt only the spontaneotw impulse of the people, 
•nd ho gave orders that ûva hundred men per legion should put 
thenisctvçg under the command of General PajoL But he was tor^ 
inented with very lively apprehensions. Was it not exposing this 
army of chance recrmte to a iVighlfu! butchery, to «end it out 
^ainfit brave, well -disciplined troopsj fighting in the open country? 
AocordingtVi at the samo time that he signed such imprudent ordere, 
hfl ttmt 41. J rcdqric l>egeorge to bid tlic national guard of Arras and 
tfaflt of Amiens march to the eupport of the expeditionary anny, 
which he Sftid ran grrait jigks of being cut to pieces. 

Mfomwhile, n great crowd had been assembled from six o'clock in 
the monùng round the Palais Bourbon, a public sittingof the cham- 
ber having been announced. l"ho*c who had taken the révolution 
to bo a thing of earnest reality, bitterrly remarked that it was not 
becoming to make the opening of the chamber fall on the date that 
Charles X, had fixed; that there was something extraordinary in this 
continuation of the past, and that it would be wcU to take heed tù 
the firsi beginnings. But these discontented observations were lost 
in the intoxication of so recent a triumph. At Lost the doors of the 
palace were opened, and the deputies successively arrived. M. do 
Mardgnaç walked alone in a thoughtful mood, a icw paces from M. 
Laffîtie, who leaned for support on M. Vaasal. MM. Ouizot, Dupin, 
Guimir Péner, and Sebasii&ni, had lost all vesticvs of their terrors, 
and wore the radiant counlonances of victors. MM. licrryer, Jaa- 
quinot de Pampelune, Roger, de Bois-B^rtrund, and Arthur do La 
Bknudounaye, conversed apart, and their dejocî*id luvk» were in con- 
trast with the general joy. Th# peers ofFrancciippearcd in their tuni. 
hùgùy, the Due d'Orlikna entered, ibUowed fay the Due dc Nemours, 
rIowIv AJicendod the platform, and sat down on a cushioned stooL 
Behind him was a throne covere<l with velvet, embroidered with 



^çolcîen lilies, nnd surmounted by à crown&d canopy. Shouta and 
Bounds of appkuse burst from all sides, as usual ou thû &cc^sîoa of 
all princes. The lieutenant-general's speech, was mucb kss reserved 
than that he had dclivei'çd on tho Slst, when things were as yet in 
quite an uncortnJn position. He sptïke, for instance, of liberty threat- 
ened, and of the odious interpretation given to the 14th article. 
Still he alluded, in becoming terms, to certain august miafbr tunes; 
but even whilst he deplored them, he announced, m a solemn tone» 
to the chamber, that he had ordered the act of abdicaUon of Charles 
X. and of tlic Dauphin to be deposited in the archives. Aa for the 
motive of that deposit, — namely, the tacit recojniition of the principie 
of legitimacy, he said nodiing on that score. Was that deposit to do 
for the advantage of the Due de Bordeaux, or of anotîier ? ïliis was 
a. point the Due d'Orléans left iji doubt. 

Meanwhile, every thing was gettjng ready for the expedition to 
Rambouillet. An impatient multitude filled the Place Louis XV., 
and overflowed into the Champa Elys&es. Hackney-coaches, omni> 
buses, cabriolets, and vchiclea of every kind had been put in rc<jui- 
sition to transport the bulk of the army. The equipages of grands 
seigneurs were stopped, their owners obliged to aliglit, and. tlieir 
plftC^ were taken by men of the lower classes. Avocats-, physicians, 
Doiirgcoia of every calling in life, young men of all clafêes jootled 
each other in this strange medley» At three o'clock the cotumn 
began its march. It consisted of about ûfieen thousand men. The 
vanguard was led by Colonel Jacqueminot, George Lafiiyctte, and 
thç oomniander-in-chlef, who, liaving been able to procure his CH|uip 
ment only piece by piece, had been obliged to borrow from Rothsr 
ehild, the banker, the epaulettes ho wore as Austrian consul. Never 
was on expedition made T^'ith more headlong thoughtleesness. The 
ffcneral having called for a map of the countty at the Barrière de* 
Bnns-Horames^ it appeared that no one had thought of providing that 
indispensable rcfjuisi te towards all operations of war. Oaeof Gtaicral 
Pajul's lûdes-dc-camp was sent forward to get a map; and he ob- 
latned one from the Sevres manufactory of M. Dumas, member of 
tho Institute, on a bo7i subsciibcd with the all-puwerful title of pufnl 
of the Ecole Polytechnique. 

Thus thousands of men were undertaking a march of fifteen 
^Itttgues, without guidance, provisions, or money, through a countrVi 
^IIm resources of which had been consumed by the passage of the 
troops. There were still at Versailles, through which the expedi- 
tion would have to pass, the remains of two regiments: was it pru- 
dent to leave these in the rear? This reflection, which occurreu to 
M. Dupoty, was communicated to Gcnerui Pftjol by a pupil of the 
I' Ecole rûl)tech nique, and they all tliree proceeded to the barracks of 
the Rue d'Anjou, Now such waa the demoralization of the troops, 
that the d&ring step taken by these tlirec men did not encounter the 
least obstacle. The soldiera thctoselvea dehvered up their arms, 



which were immcdintely distributed to the people, and went away 
to Meaux, wHlst Geneml Pajol returned lo the column, followed by 
Ills two extemporaneous lieutenants. 

The eamcditionanea arrived withiji tlireeH|ua,rters of a league of 
Rambouillet, worn out with fatigue and lumber, and in the most hor- 
rible disorder. The municipality of Versaillus was to have delivered 
six thousand ratîoDâ: they were not forthcoming. To make matters 
worec, (Jic column had been enlarged by the addition of all the 
adventurers that hud flocked to it from the country right and left, 
and by two thousand voltuileera of Rouen who had rattrched Uy thû 
aid of Pang. Having been met at St, Germain by M. Laperche, 
whom the lieu tenant- go ncml himself had sent to them, they had 
iflUen in at Trappes with the rear of the army of which they Ibrmetl 
the reserve. At^St, Cyr, M. Degoussée brought awny eight pieces of 
cannon belonging to the Bchool: this waa all the artdlery belonging 
to the expetlition. 

The head of the column was passed h little way from Rnmbriuillet 
by a carriage travelling with great speed, and in which Marshal 
Maison, Odllon Barrot, atid Do Schoncn were going once more to 
Charles X. At Coi^iy they found tlic post'horses enj^sed by Ge- 
nera! Boyei- and thelbrother of M Cadet Gassicourt, The presence 
of these two mpterious trfivellers struck tliem with surprise^ and it 
woa not imtil they had given orders to let no one pû&9 that the 
commissioner!) continued their ioumcy. 

General Pajol ordered a halt at Coignières, nmht hating over- 
taken the expedition. He looked on defeat as mevitablc should 
they be attacked; but it waa among the habits of hi» miUtary Uic to 
sport with and defy fortune. Besides this he counted on the demo- 
ralization of the royal guards, and he was heard over and over again 
repeating* " Trotips demoralized, troops undotic." 

Meanwhile some young men who knew the lociilîty, told General 
Ëxcclmans tlmt it was necesBary to push forward; that the tirailleurs 
would fmd sure cover in the Forêt Verte, situtited beyond Coignicre»; 
that from that point they could seriously menace llie chateau dû 
Rambouillet; that on tho other hand it was all over with the Pa- 
risians if they remained encamped in a plmn where a einglc charge 
of cavalry would bo enough to put thçm to rout, UjKtn tliis advice. 
General Ëxcclmans gave orders to the vanguard to continue its 
movement. Scarcely bad it adi-anced a few paces, when it fell in 
with men returning full speed from Kambouillet with news tliat 
Charles X. was gone. Tho«! who were in front Êrod ofl" their 
pieces In the air in sign of triumph: tlioao who were beliind thought 
that the fight had begun. The emotion spreading from man to 
man, tho disorder was soon universal. To protect his troops» whom 
th«re was no hope of discîphning. General Pajol caused the carriages 
in which they had travelled to be drawn up in a line so as to serve 
them for a rampart. At last it was found to have been but a falâû 
r AhRn, and the men bivouacked on the road. 



ProTÙîons failing, some pilinged houses &s they passed» othets 
Kuread over tlie tidcU and brought in eheep wïûch were roasted at 
the bivouac fires. 

But these £upplkâ were insufficient, and the bread expected from 
VcreuSlles did not arrive. M. Charraa set off to Icam the cau9e of 
the delaj. Oq reaching the rearguard at Ti^ppea, lie sought out 
General Exceknans, whom he found rolled up in his cloalc^ and 
îyiog at the foot of a tree. He commumcated the purport of his noi»- 
fiion, whereupon the general, highly inconsedt rcphed, '^ Monsieur, if 
the vehicles are not on tho nmrch at four o'clock in the morning, I 
order you to have tlie prefect of VersaiUea Fhot," — ** Will you fpre 
mc that order in wntint;?" — "It is not nec«saarr: do it." M» 
Charms pursued bia wny, and on reacMiig the bttmer of V"er?«dlle3 
where there was a post of national guards, he demanded two men to 
accompany him to the prefecture. It was one o'clock in the mint- 
ing : the porter refused him admission, until throats were used, whcit 
he took a lamp and conducted the pupil of the Kcule PolytjQchmque 
into the prefect's bedchamber. " Where are the ten thousand rauoaa 
of bread that were to have been forviTirded in the course of the 
day?" said the young man on entering the roomu TTie prefect 
«tûtled from hïs sle«p, and taken by surprise, replied that he liad 
OEily arnv^ the day before in VersuUea, and tlmt he had done hiB 
best. " Your place," rephcd the meaaengeT, with a rudeness jus- 
tified by the cLFcuro stances, " Your place is not in bed, but where thfi 
rations are made,*' and he repeated the order he had received. At 
the word sJufot^ the prefect jumped out of bed, and promised that in 
less than on hour the carriages should he on their way ta Itam- 
bouiUet. '^ I will wait and satisfy myself of that fact»" eaid tha 
«de-de-eamp, sternly. The whole physiognomy of the revolution j^«^ 
July stands forth to 'view in such aoenes, and nothint^ more ^o^^^^K 
tihowB what might have been the effect produced by the forces en- ' 
nndered by me inaurrccùon, in the h&nda of a man capable of 
directing them. It wu broad daybght when General I^ajoVs aide- 
de-camp rejoined him at Goignières. Nothing untoward had oo 
currod during the night. Many of the cxpeditionarie^, ûvoroomis 
with fatigue, luid dropped down and fallen asleep in the standinj^ 
com by the aide of the road. 

Such enemies were assuTcdly not very formidable: and yet tli« 
mere news of their vicinity threw every thing into coraraotion at 
the eh^tcau de Runbcuiliet. Its occupiers comulted together in 
mortul trepidation. Some were for standing their ground and 
awaiting all chances. Was there not reason to hope for Epeedy 
rqanlbrcctnentfi ? Was it well to throw away the destinies of the 
IDOiiarcJiy upon the Impubc of a panic? It would always be pfn- 
nble to fidl b:ick upon tlie Loire; unil surely La Vendée had Ptili ati 
a^lum and avengers to oflbr persecuted royalty. Others rooom- 
awodod prompt iligbt. Tlicy represented that inauirection wav 
spreading afar into tlic rural difitiicLs ; that the Paii&iana amounted 




Ûi numbers pGrhaj» to 80,000 men; ttiat ti(?tn>at once cut afT, there 
Would be no quarter to be oxpcct^ iroln the victors, an<l that no 
time wss to be lost in witLdrawing out of the reach of rebel rago the 
last tender scion of so many kings. 

The fidelity of the uoop& too was hcginulng to mveway. It was 
related, indeed, tliiit a soldier Imd blown his brains out in remorae 
Cot a momentary weakoefii, and tltat tiio utiUei; counted but one 
dcHiter. But cmiasanea sent from Paris were inoesâantly prowptlng 
tKd fcnwps to dûsGrt The division of heavy cavalry, commanded by 
Gcner&l Jlordc&oulle had deserted en niasse. Some ofEcers were 
already talking of tlieir probable dismissal, and were beginning to 
reflect upon their future prospects. Those (and they were the 
grcalor number) who witnessing the disastcis of the royal fkmily 
would nobly have forgotten that they thcmselvca were ita victims, 
bitterly remarked the absence of ma^y great pci^onageâ who had 
never fiùlod at any oi' the ftstivities of poytdty. Did some courtiers 
pus in elegant costume thi-ough tlie groups of these wcâiher-âtiiincd 
sokticr?, tliê murmurs grew louder than ever. And then where was 
the kinc? Where was the dauphin? Wlmtl these princes who 
expected men to die for them, would they not show themaolveâ on 
horseback, sword in hand, and rc^y if necessary to fic'ht to the 
death 1 Where, oStcT aU, would be the àhame of ubaodonuig a mo 
narch who abandoned himself? 

To t!ie cilucl of thia language waa added the impre^on produced 
by tlio now known fact of the abdication^ and by tlio conjectures 
occarioned by tlkc rnvBterioua joumeya of the Comte de Girardin. 
People asked tJicmselve» was be not the m&cBuin of some Becret cor- 
leepondencc between Charles X. and the Due d'Orléans. A)l this 
served to increase doubt and indcciaon. 

General Vincent had disapproved of the ordonnances; but he 
was of opinion that thoec who had put them forth at least owt'd it 
to themselves to support them with vigour. Knowing what was 
paasîn|ç, and that the Parisians were on the march to Jiambouillct, 
ae took measures to act on the oQeneivc; but just aa he gave the 
order to mardi, General BordeaouUe came and told him on the port 
of tho king to stop the movement. 

Ncreithelesa there remained but two courses for royalty to choose 
between; to fly or to advance* At ten o'clock Colonel Poque had 
arrived at tlie outposts, and he had been scen^ alter leaving behind 
him a small party of iusurgentâ whom he commanded, walk up 
the grand avenue and pUnt a tricolour Jlog there, a few paces 
&om a platoon of national guards. Ho announced himseli' a^ de- 
airoHs oi tC parley, and demanded an interview. General Vinocnt, 
under whose orders M. Foquc had been cjuartermaftcr in 1814-, 
flatly refused to enter into a parley which he thought dangerous; 
and alter several t^ucccâsivc refuiials, he threatened M. Poquc to Itave 
Kim fired upon if he would not withdraw. M, Poque had no one 
viUi him but a brigadier of cuiiasâeis who had joined the ixtsuitcc- 


tional side. He requested the brigadier to letire, but the latter 
refused; and Foque himself folded his arms with undaunted ocxd- 
ncss. Fire! cried General Vincent to the Swiss who lined the 
road. The brigadiers hotse was killed, and Colonel Poque received 
a ball in the left instep. Ue was carried to the omces of the 

Charles X. testified the most lively concern on hearing of thil 
event. He sent the colonel a messi^ expressive of his regret fay 
General Trocoff, and had his wound seen to bj his own euzgecai. 
Madame de Gontaut visited Colonel Poque, and undertook to write 
to his mother, in the department of the Pyrenees, and reaasuze her 
as to her son's condition. It may be conceived what impressi<ni8 
scenes of this kind must have made on the soldier's mind. 

Such was the moral situation of the royal family and of the 
troops when the Parisians set out for Rambouillet. It was juat 
after dinner that Charles X. received intimation of their apprïMch. 
The courtiers vanished one after the other, and some of them with 
mich shameful haste that they forgot their white plumed hats. MM. 
Maison, De Schonen, and Odilon Barrot arrived at nine o'clock. 
They were admitted into the château after having been slowly con- 
ducted tlirou^h the park, so that they might have an opportunity of 
judging ibr themselves the amount of force that Charles JL had still 
at his disposal. 

Cliarles X. received them with a bluntncss for^gn to his usual 
habits. His equanimity had not failed him so long as the tempest 
had hung suspt-U'lcil oidy over his own head and that of his scm. 
Ills devotion, I have alroady said, made him regard his misfortunes 
as a cliastiscment intlicted on him by Providence. But of what 
crime was that child guilty whom it was sought to offer a sacrifice to 
rancour already so amply Siitisiied? Ilic natural contingencies of vic- 
tory amK?arod to his overwrought mind in the light of impious deedfl 
of violence. Always, moreover, in what he supposed to be 
the intentions of the Due d'Orléans, he could not conceive to what 
purpose liis quiet was thus disturbed. ** What do you want with 
me, mes>ieure?'' he said, when the commissioners entered. "Every 
thing is now armngcd, and I have conic to au imderstanding witn 
my lieutenant-general." — ''liut. sire," repUcii Jlarshal Maison, "ho 
it is precisely who sends us to warn your majosty that tlie people of 
Paris arc marching on llanibouillet. and to entreat you not to 
expose yourself to the consctjuenees of a furious attack." Charles X., 
now thinking himself deceived, gave violent expression to his 
resentment, and Marshal ^, who had been the foremost to 
pn;sont himself, was so intimidated that he retreated behind M. de 
Schonen. Odilon Itarrot ppoke out boldly. He talked of the hor- 
rors of civil war, of the danger of braving passions still glowing; 
and when Charles X. insisted on the rights of the Due de lk>nleaux, 
formally reserved by the act of abdication, the orator represented 
to him in persuasive tones that the throne of" licnry V^. ought not 


to be set up in blood- — '^ And 60,000 men thjeaten Rambouillet," 
ftdded Martial Maison. The king, ^lio wii3 stalking up and down 
the room, «topped at thcso words, and made à f^gxi ta the marshal 
that he wished to convorae with him in privfitc, to which the marshal 
after Eome moments* hositatioa consented. Looking him full in the 
face, the king then eald, ** Monâeur, I have faith in your integrity; 
I am ready to trust your word: ia it true that the Parisian army 
which ia advancing la composed of 60,000 men?" — '* Yes, aiic." 
Charles X. no longer hesitated. 

The king's letter to his highncs the Due d'Ork'ans had been read 
to the troopg. The Due dc Luxembourg issued an order of the 
day, acquainting llie troops that their position under Hemy V, 
would be the same as under Charles X., so hard did the old monarch 
find it to persuade himself that he could have a successor in the 
lieutenant-general I So little did he beltcTe this, that he commanded 
M. Alexandre dc Girardin to go to Paris ojid draw 600^000 franca 
from the treasury j and the report having reached his ears tl^at it was 
feared he would carry off the crown jewels, he repudiated that sup- 

rtion with much vehom^nce and dignity. Why indeed should 
carry otf jewels whicJi he knew to be part of hia giandaou'd 

The king's departure having been deoded upon by the ad^ce of 
the Due de Raguse himsoll', Charlw set off for Maintenon with his 
family. The vanguard woa composed of chasseurs of the line, 
hu9$ar&, and lancers; then came carriages, preceded and foUowed by 
gardes du corps, and containing the first of them the grandson, and 
the second the grandfather j a. child, and an old man, the whole 
monarchy. Four regimtnta of foot guards, the gendarmes des 
chuees, and the flying artillery, composed tlic body of tbe army, 
A regiment of dragoons closed lîiis line of march which was already 
a funeral procession. Several chfiteaux were passed on the road: 
not one of their proprietors appeared to salute him^ by whom the 
great had always been loaded with favoms. The poor alono 
remember in the day of misfortime. 

Thecommisfioners who had remained behind at the hôtel St. Martin, 
in Rambouillet, to give some orders, rt joined Charles X, at the ch&teau 
de Maintenon, where the royal fiimily received an affecting hospl» 
tolily. Durintf the night wliich was passed at the château, Madame 
dc Gontaut said with a melancholy smile to M. de Schonen, " I am 
strongly inclined to leave that child in your lap," and she pointed 
to the Due de Bordeaux. *■' I would not receive him, madame 1'* 
ho replied. What mystery was there at the bottom of this reply? 
And what hadjMssed since the Due d'Orléans siid to thia same M, 
dc Schonen, *^ That child is vour king*'? 

Tlie commiasionera brought Charles X. to consent to dismiss his 
guards, and to retain for escort to Cherbourg, the place fixed on for 
his embarkation^ only his military household. Then was drawn up 
this order of ^e day, the terms of which deserve attention : 




■^ hmmdiatehr nûw the loi^> depvtuK; all tiie tegidiËiit» frf ftui ^rnards w»! of 
; wiD pat tienmàrtt in tmi^ for Charbca, «than thej will ncdre iD 
crdaHveed. MM. le*dicft^civpK,aAKrlMrriD^ — oBt t ed tfaete 
, viQ «ttectottaoD ctaulû IMiîctty ânda frnnajaif vâfa extraie | 
to i^wale Iran them; that be dcnre* tban (Uw oOoini) to te 
ttm Ul M&i&ctïao; aai. thst be will alwxrs prmo^e tlie rçcdlectïoQ 
pitaat oaadnirt and Ûit drwCednan with vfaïdi t^sej ^upported ^ fati^ne»! 
prir^io^ wîA irtûch fchejr ban been cmrvhejiscd dnipff these anfortoiMto < 

"TlieldngfiwthelatttîiiK tmumiti lui wden ta) tiu tviTe troofisof l!w jfdsA 
wtetaYCftODonpAiiied Um: tim an to pnneed to An^ vhm th^y win nnlae 
Uku- mbnùanûD lu tfae liatfCIHlXt-geD^U ef Aa ^^Ig****, ^bo bas tmkaacwvrf 

Thiâ kât pluïLse was remarkabîe; h seemed to prove ihat thefe 
eadsied between Chades X. ân<l tiie Duc d'Orléims Euch rektiotu^ 
dut the fisrmei of iLcâe two princes lud & righi to count uni«- 
aeiTedly oa tlie latter. Such was Xhç oonclusiotL drawn from the 
girder of tlie any by several offiseis, who thought that they had now 
Jbund a ter to the mcaniti^ of those couùnual messages of M. 
AJexamirc de Girardin. They thought that Chiirles X. woidd noi 
Ittve BO implicitly relied on "the licutcnAnt-geD^^rai for the care of 
ihfàx future wclian;, if he had not weighty lea^onâ for doing SO* 
Grettt ma theii surpnâe afterwards when ^cy learned that the 
guards were disband^. 

It wss mbout ten o'clock on the rooiiiii^ of the 4th of August, 
tbflt the rojal jfkmily lell the châteao de Maintenoo. The Duche» 
dfi lioaillic^s appeared on the threshold in teals. The dauphine pt&- 
smtcd her hand to the offiocrs to ld$s, and said to Uicm in a voice 
Irroken with soba^ ^* Farewell^ my friends." The commisEÎoQcrs had 
gone OB to Dreux to prepare lodgings. The guards drew «p io or- 
der of battle on the rood to oAer their last adieu to Ûiç exiles ; when 
Charles X- passed by, die]drum beat as for the ^aaatge of a king, 
and the colouis were lowraed. 

GcucmI Piijol being iufonned of the departure of Charles X. gave 
ardeis to letrcat, Tlie ordar wus not well reeeived- Some r^ublicanff 
beloofflug to the expedition for a momcut entertained the thought of 
aeeembling three or four hundred of the bravest and most detcnniiied 
men iit th« multitude, returning to Paris at their head, and crying 
ont, treachery 1 The oppcotunity was ^vouzable for a bold stïwe t 
the bigfawTought state of iecliog; the uncertainty of crentB; the ■»• 
semblage on one spot of all the moet etininc Fpirita of the capital^ 
of all those nha had no fixed occupation in hie, and who delighted 
m «odden change ; what elementa of succès pr^ented to daring I 
Bat thifl project eaided in nothing : those who had conceived it couH 
neither combine nor concert together, ^d then the notion o^y 
tained, even among the most wary and distrustful, that thix^ were 
hurryiug down a declivitr* aloug whiclv even traitors th^uelvoi 
vould be imastibly impelled, and that to clog the wheels of sncii s 
■BTolutioa waa utterly impocinblc 

Be this as it may, a greit number of volunteers, irritated by the 
iàtîgue they had undergone to no purpoee, refused to obey thfi order 




to reti^eati and Hurrioil to Rambouillet, wLither the commander-în- 
dûei' waa obliged to follow them to prevent diâorder. They ran 
about tHe gtrccts^ intoxicated witH joy, firing off their guns at ran- 
dom to celebrate their easy victory. One ol' their own party placed a» 
eeûtiniil at La Verrerie, foil by a chance ball. M. Degoussée, who had 
attempted to rally tbese disorderly victors on the way^ was swept 
along by tho âood into the diâteau de Rambouillet, where his first 
care was to secure the crown diamonds, the value of which amounted 
to eighty miUionâ of fruncs. The waggon containing them, which 
had been left in one of the office yards of the chiteau, had been 
sealed in the presence of the commissioners; and the mayor of Ram- 
bouillet, the last cufTtodian of the treasure, had deliv^ed the keys to 
Marshal Maison. M. Degoussée recâved the waggon in presence of 
the ftuicùonaj-ies of the town and of several officer?, and gave mi ao- 
knowlcdr^cnt. Fearing that tlie carriages of the cX'king would bo 
broken to pieces, the thought oocurred to him of making use of them 
to carry back the most turbulent persons in the expôiilîon. In a 
moment the gilded carriages, cmbLizoaed vrith the royal arma» were 
filled with men of the lower classes, with Uieir long pikes and their 
hùvoncta timist out at the windowtu 

Meanwhile General Pajot, who had reinidned at Coignières, notified 
to the peasants of the district tliut they need only present, along 
with the mayor's cerdficato^ an accolint of the irreCTilar contribu" 
tioQs levied npon them ; on doing wliieU they would be ibrthwith. 
paid. A great number of p<'ftsant3 Hocked in on receiving thig in- 
telligence : the treasure cheat of the expedition provided fur all exi- 
gendcft. M. Cas£ân, a iricnd of General Lafayette's, had been ap- 
pointed impromptu to the office of paymaster^nertl ; the promised 
ludcmmties were paid, Presently appeared a carriage^ surmounted 
by a small tricolour flag inscribed in black letters, Crown Diamonds. 
The signal was then given, and the march was resumed. 

Quite a new episode in the old history of the ijrallties of mrthlj 
ndeur, waa the spectacle of that boàsteroua and slovenly multitude 
"hledly stowing thcmK*lvcs 09 thickly aa tliey coidd hang on, 
made and outside the magnilicent coronation carria^'es, drawn 
by cigbt horses, with âlken reins, driven by tbe court coachmen» 
Xhoee happy working men, whom want and wretchedness awaited 
in tljeir homc^^ madt a pompous and triumjphal ont^ into Paiis, fol- 
lowed by the whole stable establi^limcnt of the chateau: — an heroic 
and grotesque proccsôon w^ll suited to make tlie philosopher Teflcct> 
but which the heedless crowd hailed as it passed with shouta of 
laughter, gay songs, and briiroes ! 

Tbe people then entered «i etntipa^e the court of the Palais Royali 
there they alighted, and all gnouted untler the princess windows, 
" Hhllo I bere are your coaches !" Worldng men with begrimed 
&CC3 and naked arms stood sentinels at every door of the palace, 
some of them armed with guns, others with pikes- The Duchcssç 
d'Orléans was groatly tcrriâed at tbis spectacle, which, icniinded her 


of the scenes of the first revolution. But the due bad mustered up 
îda couraffe, and the ?mile never ceased to play ou hia lips. Charl^ 
X. w«9 a fugitive Tvîth his fimiily, leaving Ine throne r&tant. Ye 
few vain form^tie& discharged ; and the lieutenant-general 


The kgitimatist party was panic stticten : the repubticaa had lort 
a kst opportunitj of a^^tatiag men a imnds: the Ducd'Orl^Anâ had, 
thererorc, no other inUuence to fear than that of M. de I^ajette. 
It wus determined that the post of commandant-generat of the n&- 
^onnl guards of the kingdom should be given by-and-by to that re- 
doubted old man. Tliis was putting the dictatorship into his handfl, 
had he been able to wield it. But those who thus trusted him, 
Itncw their man. In confiding to him a power, which in hia hands 
would be nothing more than an authority lor show, they flattered his 
vanity in due degree, they ossoclûted hia popularity with the first 
acts of the government; and a^^ain by busying him with a thousand 
nnimportant details they contrived tj keep him away from ffrftT«r 
matterSf and confined liim to the not vei^ eerioua politics of pro- 
ehunations and orders of the day. 

Aa for the chamber of deputies the Due d'Orléans knew it to be 
ready to anticipate his least wishes, omd already he had found him* 
flelf surrounded there with emulous flatterers. But he felt the neceapity 
of ennobling and legitimizing, by a manifestation of respect on big 
own part, the only power from which liis n^cent royalty expected and 
desired ita consecration. That the people might make no difficulty 
of bendinc' to the commands of a chamber that had no longer any 
warrant fôr ita existence, the prince treated tliat assembly witn 
marked and elaborate deference. He Eccracd to humble himaelf 
before the omnipotence of its dec'isiona. When, according to the 
usagcâ of the monarchy, thçy brought him the list of the five candi- 
dates for the presidency of the chamber, he selected from that lJ*t 
the member who had received most votes, M- Casimir Porier; and 
yet he made it a point to dechurc on all occaaonâ that no one was 
more entitled than M. Laffitte to the firet testimonies of public gni- 
titudo. He went still further, and ho expressed himself very dis- 
tinctly on the right which the chamber should in future pome» to 
name ita own president ^^rhout the monarch's interierenee. Hiios 
the Due d'Orti'ans exalted ds a political power that assembly, tho 
membera of which, taken individually, strove which should meet ob- 
tet^uiously submit themselves to the growing; ascendancy of hia 

Apart from these conaderations, the prince's prédilections wcro 





beoijuiing to cUeplay tlwmsekes. He did not much like Mil. Guizot 
and dc Broglie, whose hauglity temper and &tilf maimcra lie leared 
and dbliked: but there was an aiUnity of ducliinc between liiin and 
these men that silenced the voice of purely personal avereian. The 
duke was much more favoui^bly difpoaed towards M. Laffitte. He 
hkcd his easy character; he listened with pleasure to his long and 
lively stories; and being lumsell' vccy verbose» be was glad to fund an 
always complaccnt liatcner in Laffitte. He h&pod, moreover, to make 
him a blind instnunent of his own designs. Unfortunately Laâitte 
had rightful claiiïM upon the gratitude of the court, a. thing which 
princes do not forgive. His popularity was loo great for one who 
should pky the part of a familiar ; and General Sébastian! suited 
the prince better in tliis respect. 

In the existing position oi things the îiîcjst important ministry wafl 
that of foreign afeirs ; for by this time the Due d'Orléans had no 
anxiety on any otlief point than that of conciliating Europe. The 
office had been given, as we have seen, to M- Bignon: General Sé- 
bastiani, who secretly longed to suppliint him, insinuated that the 
foreign sovereigns would hardly cnto' into correspondence with the 
Hstorian of the imperial diplomacy ; not wishinL', however, to put 
himself forward too soon, he caused the portefeuille of foreign ailaira 
to be given to Marshal Jourdan, who from his great a^ and his 
woundfit was not likely to retain it long. &L Bjgnon waa tranafeired 

froviaionally to the ministry of public instruction, M. Girod de 
Ain, too, succeeded in supplanting M. Buvoux in the prefecture of 

The austere Dupont de TËure felt hîmeclf out of hi& element 
amidst all thc^e intrigues. Beguiled by the prince's goodnatuTcd 
Hmplicity, he believed him impatient of the yoke of hia new cour- 
tiers ; but still Dupont did not labour tmder the less painful disgust 
ut the ways of power. And then, tlic leaders of what was subse- 
catled the (httrinairt school already bore secret sway in the 
Tliis was readily to be detected from the famous erratum 


in the Monitvur, in which, for the pjj^*^*3 '* A charter shall be hence- 
forth a reality," was Fubetituted, "The charter ahall be henceforth a 

The dissensions among the leaders of tlie victorious bourgeoisie 
were, in reality, more keenly expressed than serious in their objects. 
The maintenance of social order, founded on the principle of compe- 
tition; the freedom of manufacturing and commercial mdustry, and 
that of the press under certain limitations ; tlic empire of the moneyed 
interests; the ratification of the inequalities of fortune; the cfinceu- 
tTtttion of pohtical power in the middle class more or less strictly cir- 
cumscribed; — ^these were the aima they were all bent on with cqi^ 

Only, some amone them, such as MM. Dupont de PEuie, Laffitte, 
Berard, Benjamin (instant, Eusèbc Salverte, and Demarçav, were 
for giving more fuU and free play to the course of liberal ideas; 


ihey would have bad tliB monarcMcal power more IJmitod; the cloc- 
toFfll qualification ivducpd ; the liberty of ; the individual raore re- 
spected ; and the liberty of the press left with less jealousy to itB 
Tiatural elasticity ; in a word, they demanded the curtailineiit of 
governmental authority in favour of public opinion, and they wened 
to consider a respect for all that is individual as the beet of »odal 

The othci-g, such as MM. Gvàzot and de Broglie, believed in the 
necessity of ceaselessly watching and moderating the movement of 
the public mmd : they looked with distrust on opinion, thought 
only oi' fortifying the principle of authority by augmenting the 
prerogntives of the crown, and regarded the concession of too great 
freedom ti3 individual genius as a cause of disturbance and danger 
io the whole Ixnly of K>ciety. 

The instincta of the former class prompted them to wish the do- 
minion of the bourgeoisie more complete -, the calculations of th« 
latter induced them to wish it more dumble. 

HencG was evinced in the former a very marked repugnance for 
every thing connected with the principles the Restoration had sought 
to uphold ; and in the latter a manifest tendency to borrow certain 
coBservatirc forma from the Restoration. 

These two parties assfumed shape and subetance the very day after 
the revolution, MM. dc Broglic and Guiaot affected to wlieve that 
tho revolutioii had been effected only for the purpose of obtaining 
the strict execution of the charter; therein coinciding with the secret 
views of the Due d'Orléans, But their adversaries had the upper 
hand, and M, Béraïd set about revising the constitution. 

The Hfitel de Ville belonged definitively to the Orléaniste. Their 
audacity had been swollen by success, and their violence knew no 
bounds sanee the 31fit of July. All who had raised their voices 
■gûnst the Due d^Orléana were denounced as enemies of the public 
weal. General Duboorg above all wub accused with pi-cmeditatcd 
Tohemence, Colonel Rumigny, aide^dc-carap to the kcutenant^ge- 
neral, gave out that M. Dubourg was an old emigrant, an ag^t of 
Charles X., a traitor. Afler the scene of the 3l9t, at the Hotel de 
Ville, General Dubourg had felt that his place was no longer therev 
and had retired. He attempted to reappear there two dajTS after- 
tr&rds, but raeasures were taken to repulse htm. Scarcely had he 
reached the foot of the accond llight of rtalra, when he was furiously 
assailed, and narrowly escaped assassination. 

Lafayette was near yielding to the current, and had been put out 
vf countenaDce. He had caused the words Libfriy^ Eqtmlity, T^iA- 
Us OrdeTj to be inscribed on the banner of the national guard. M. 
GiiDtl de l'Ain ivaited on him on the part of the Duo d'Orléans, an<l 
besought him to obliterate tliC word Eijttaliti/; wliich he bûw awoke 
auch painful rccoUectiona. As Lafayette showed some reluctance, 
Girod dc l'Ain exclaimed, " It is a eon that entreat* you in the nanie 
of his father's memory." New colour» were ordered. 





* The repiiblicaji3, however, Etill retained some hopes. They knew 
the rancoroDS jeakwsy with wKieh the bourgeoisie regarded the here- 
ditary peerage. To cause ths abolition of the chamber of peers to be 
decreed in the open etrccts was a danDg ftttempt, but one that might 
he reab'zeJ. Now had that been accomplished, what would thcne 
have remained of the political résine of the Restoration ? Deputies 
doubtfu] of the legitimncy ol their functions, amidst the remains of 
% vanquished, execrated, trampled royalty. The républicains re- 
eolved, therefore, to make the abolition of the peerage the matter of 
a coup de mtiin. Looking to the immediate eftccts of their project, 
there was something puerile and even ridiculous in its charaetCT. 
The oon5pira,tors were to pather in the square of the Hotel de Ville 
from Yariûus points of E*aTis, ?et out thence for the Palais du Lux- 
emboui^, uttering shouts likely to arouse the people, rush into the 
palace, pitch the benches out of the windows, and bar up the doora. 
However insignificant a dcmcmstration of this kind might be La itself, 
it was capable of producing; immense results at a moment when the 
people was still bivouackea in the square3, at a moment when the 
public force was not yet in. activity, and no gorcmment was in re- 
gular operation. But what^ve the demonstration £ real importance 
WB19, that it was backed by the fonnaUy promised adhesion of a 
great pei^onage whom the republicans wished to compromise beyond 
letum, and to force into power by the way of insurrection. Now 
thi« 10 what happened. In the nieht of the 4th — 5th of Aagust, M. 
Charles Teste was visited by 51, Marchais, who brought him a letter, 
in which General I^fuyotte summoned them both to the Hotel de 
Ville. They proceeded tliiiher without delay, and were admitted to 
the general*!» aparimoit The day was beginning to break, but a 
lamp nearly spent threw a flickering light over the room. Lafayette 
Uy fast asleep with his arms folded. Teste and Marchais sat dowm 
by his bodt-ide, and for a long while abetained from distarbiog' 
the old man's sleep. Teste, however, had thought the words of 
Lofiycttea letter mther étrange, and he was impatient for an expla- 
natJOfn. He kid his hand gently on the old man's forehead and 
awoke him. *' ila! you are come, messieuis," said Lafayette, as 
he opened his eyes ; " I sent for you to tell you that the scheme 
a^rce<l on is imposable/^ — " Imposeible !" passionately exclaimed 
Charles Teste, a man of loyal youl, but impetuous and suspicioua. 
*' What woidd you have?" n-pUed Lalayette. *' 1 have been sup- 
plicated not to eive Paris up to the haHrus of a fresh revolution. I 
promised that T would not, and pledged my honour to that effect.** 
— '* But you pledged your honour that you would not let the revo- 
lution be swamped by an intri^e,** replied Charles Teste. He did 
not pte^ the matter ; and the republicans were soon informed that 
they must no longer reckon on Lafayette's co-operation. 

ITaus did a power, that yet had not its roots in the rery heart of 
the revolution, ^dually uxpand and gather strength, disentan^ling 
itself Irom all ohstactc?. Neverthelcs, the state of things still iii> 


■pmà, evenon Aè bkmI dmp^et naUtkn, aie 

^■ awt fei 1 > fiimift The irôd iv m ai , idnch had < ^^ ^^ 

^lUilenAQ^ ifanng uie intee osjfb, Ind BowbeBB seifipmed. Tw 
■i ie nBft «t Ae cpt wj wi r ttj\tà themdini «Jy «yocali rf tte caml 
of ^pML Amoi^ thoie lAo ivîibed to ne tiie Dus dt)dte9 
CBnmed, nme ie|oioed ai tibe idea that berna about to liiiiinmf 
kmff br lajing bôa band wpcm. tbe ooim; otbea, leai decfilf veon 
ja-mtnowlegga aftbepn*»feaied that he would be wiitiaiiiail-^ 

. Xbe nma of Ae chaaaJier of dqwrtâea -wen wttnnfy ilîmiiand at 
Aejoiinnala,diBnkM,aDdevieaîathertneto. M. GuaiOa Boqai^ 
%joaùgh!wjtr^ who eombûied a dear întdbKt matured hj atn^ 
wsÙL e geacvoot heart, «ôd, ia a pamp hbitirhîdi escîted nniob aH»> 
mkn, "lliecliartorof LonkXvmBolaa£pveEMto;ChadeBZp 
biatomitinç Œi loldîei^cartridgea and oma hate acattered- its 
*"C"**"*» I3ie FroidL natîoa îi letanied to the éûï. cseraaa of ÎM 
aoradgiitjr. It alone can and muit ddiberate on the fimn of il^ 
■nw ^iifiMw^ But dnztr wîIImm c£ men ff» only dfi£baBtfe by 
ftfxxj. Who are to be thooe janinea? Xbe eriiring i IiiiiiIhib 
cannot eJumJa a kgulattve power bj vîttoe of the cbaiter, beoaan 
Aat diartK no koger exûla, and beoans^ monorer, it neodi tip 
boncnmnce of the tang, and we bave no kii^." Hie pamjljliit 
tondnded with tbeae worcb: — "The ohamben.maj laimeiliati^y 
«mdoj tbemadfes in mazicmg oat the mode in which the natki^ 
émi be ooDBnUed as to the dunoe of its proxiea; Ak mnrt be A# 
mincipal, we may even my the sole object of their deliberationfc 
-llieir deoâons on all other to{ûcs, however wise thejr may be, can 
bare but a proTinonal character. It were to be wiahea that the 
T^dy to the speech of the lieateiiant*^eneral contained a pcàtive 
declaration to that effect: that declaration would quiet many appre- 
hensions, and appease many discontented feelings that ore ready to 
break out in violent utterance." 

This pamphlet put the question in a dear light, and imbodied the 
tone of feeling prevalent throughout all the soimd portion of the 

The Ueutenant-general was not unconscious of the ikct; his whole 
conduct was therefore governed with consummate prudence. All 
his words breathed an mtclligent Hberalisin. If he talked of the 
dvil list, it was to bewail the heavy burden its excessive amount 
bad, up to that time, entailed on the people. Laffitte was enchanted 
beyond telling ; Dupont de TËure himself felt his distrust gradually 
melting away. He saw plainly enough that the revolution was 
making leeway, but he laid all the blame on his doctrinaire ool- 
le^fues; and M. Bérard heard him say, on the 4th of August» 
"We are beset by an aristocratico-doctiinaire faction, that stnvea, 
with all its might, to blast the fruit of liberty sown br the revolu- 
tion. I have no hope but in the loyal integrity of the Due d*Or* 
leans, who appears to me to be animated with the best intention^ 

DiaoKBTiON OF THE liei;tenai?t-&bnï:iial. 225 

but does not always possess the degree of ehlightenment one could 

Tlie lieutenant-general, in fuct, showed himself neither impotieiit 
for nor grçedj" of swaj. He seemed to wait till he was aouylit for; 
whether it wag that he wished to let the bourgctiisio, whose triunipli 
was bound up with hia elevation, distinctly feel how necesaiiyne 
-Was to it, or that he wa3 not unwilling to exhibit himself to hie 
family «nd to Europe as a victim to the public good. 

The courtiers, on thàr part, did not seem to opprchend the loss 
of his favour for doing violence to liis patriotism. They took upon 
them the re?pon?ibilitj of all measures deemed useful with obstre- 
peroiia intrepidity, and took mucli poina to compromise their own 
popularity, the botta* to preserve the prince's, being wl-U assured that 
their deTotedness would not fail to be rewarded, though it had ceased 
to be perilous- 

Thiïir zeal in this respect went so ûir, that on the 3d of August the 
iTght of silting in the chamber of pccra wîig accorded to the Ducsdc 
Nemours and Chartrcg. This distinction^ created in favour of a 
jonng man and of a miaor, must hftye appeared, and did appear, 
extraordinary, when following close upon a revolution accomph4icd 
agniDst the privileges of birth. But as the lieutenant-general had 
never made any secret of hia contempt for those monarchical triflt^; 
a», up to that timcj his lan-^uago and manners had been those of an 
honest plebeian; as ho was tlie first French prince who had sent hia 
sons to college, those who were not very sharpsighted could suppose 
that the admission of the Dues de Chartres and de Nemours to the 
chamber of peers had been contrary to his wish. 

His conauct» on tlic whole, disarnied all distrust. Never had 
prince wooorl popularity with more good-humoured and unreset^'ed 
frankness. How many men of the people could boast, in those days, 
of having gmsped in their homy bands tlic hand cordially offered 
by the prince to every man that passed liim ! Had he not been seen 
in the Rue St. Honorti putting a glass to hia lips offered to hira by a 
working man? The people, which is not fond of seeing men con- 
dcBC^tiaT to please it, was perhaps but slightly moved by these 
demonstrations; but they furnished îm inexliauatiblc theme for eulogy 
to th^nM!- who had need of dazzling men's minds with the prestige of 

Thus the adffiifatJon for the duke encountered neither sceptic nor 
contradictor among those about him. If some alight defects were 
attributed to him, it was only to fumisJi a motive the more for jov 
and hope: if bis rather jiaxsimonioua habita were mentioned, it was 
only to point out the economy that would doubtless be ininKluced 
into the adnjinistration of the state. The very acts that mirdit have 
startled suspicious minds turned to his glory- He wus loudly com- 
miserated lor the sacrifices imposed on him oy ministers not worthy 
to serve bim; so tliat the lustre of his liberalism was heightened by 
the apparent iaulta of his courtiers. ^ f~ 

bubccubIbI^. Jb. BwmA i nranoBtKn ifM csbbb to ttis ootbbb i^ 
M. DipoBt de rErae; it did not ^pcw «fcaatfy ■iwiiiii Jto 
hW dodinme p>rt cf flic ciBiMit. Ki a BOcr cvv hMM woib v 

■ M "—''"^^Ifffn flif "^—ig"^ puifin m itamn— i fit— mmA; ife 0S^ 

ftDMd«itateniaiftof|rai^lc%diB «|nJimW» ofiAâekîft«Hd wEt 
dtfGne, and wUdi woe to be dncaaed on & ndaequcai 

Win dm not m thÎB a iiii ann i li w i dngv fir s n ue Mwhy iihiifc^ 
m RwilTf ms not mdiiied to difiu "vciy Tinay nvu ouer b^ 
BBrdnea? To leare the conitîtntioiMl compect indHmite mm to opea 
a field for endless co nUuvetay , and to introduce the icrcdnboiiaij 
apiiit at the commenoement of a reisn. Was it not better to talœ 
adTsntage of the pnblic bewilderment in order to doee the RYolution, 
and to enatch, along with the crown, all that could senre to oonadi- 
date and aheher it? The Doc d'Orleans was folly alive to this, and 
he confided to MM. Gmzort and de Brc^ie the task of safaatitotiitf 
a définitive compact for a vague piopoôtion. Moreover, aa M. Be- 
lard vraa lookea on with nu^vinss, <m account of ibe energetie 
attitode he had assumed in the revomtion, and aa his obédience waa 
doubted, he was twice succeaavely put out of the council, whither, 
ncverthele», they had i^omised to summon him, that he might be 
enabled to discuss the details of the measure he was preparing. 
Already acceptance was refused to all but unrcservea obeequi- 

And flatterers did congr^te in crowds round the new throne, 
each vaunting his recent services, and promising services to com& 
There was for some days, in all the avenues to power, a fever of 
avidity, an overflowing of boasting and meanness, of which it would 
be difficult to give an idea. The men who had exposed their Uvea 
m the revolution alone displayed a modest dicnity. Twelve or 
fifteen crosses having been offered to the École Folytcchujque, the 
pupils assembled in an amphitheatre to ocmaider what answer they 



tboiUd give to xke offer, flntl tlicy t^oddcd unanimoualy thfti the 
crosses should be reftised. They also dcckrcd that those of them 
who had plain clothes ^ould hy adde their uniformsi, that they 
tuiifht not be confounded with the hectoring' men of the clay- 
In pmpcirtîon as the revolutloti receded mto the p&st. Paria bo 
came a vast focus t>f iutri^e. The hunt for place was prosecuted 
vilh a headlong ardouj*, that stopped at no obstacle» Tlie public 
convcyanccfl, every day and every hour, discharged on Paris a hoet 
of expectants arrived from the provinces, to aiiare in the first distri- 
bution of good things. It was d.1 one hideous scramble. The whole 
scum of society floated on its surface. Many of those who had held 
pkces ufider the Hestomtion tiiougbt it no shame to ddend their 
pontioa agftinst cAndidatea arrived by coach. Petitiooa llowed In 
uom all qn&rfieiB, and they were crossed by defections as numerous. 
Many were the royalists who then anathematized M. dc PolignaCt 
And violently denounced what they called thç madnCEfi of the ordon- 
nance; they had not fiecmcd &o very mad to tlicsc lautl-moulhcd 
roTOliets the day they were promulgated. A very remarkable factj 
vnich was brought to hght in copaequenoo of Ûie seizure of the 
correspondence at tlic ministry of the interior^ was, that almost all 
the prefects hud ^ven their voices in favom- of the tirdonaances. 
One ikbnâ had dconrcd that he would not cxecut<^ them ; that was 
41. de Ltfôcoufs, prefect of Ardennes, who instantly sent in his re- 
S0ïati<»l. M. Alban de Villeneuve» prefect of the North, had sub« 
mtted Ut the ordoimances, iit the same time expttrssmg lus re^^vt 
»t seeing roy&tty enter on such a course. MM. Scib^ prefect of Puy 
de Dôroe, Rogiùat, prefect of la Moselle, Leaay-Marnena, prefect of 
liOir-et-ChcT, had not disguised the dangers that mi^ht f^pring from 
the suspension of the charter. M, de Jcsauutf who btwl been b 
prefect ever siece the office was LnsUtuted, had made no observation, 
Tbe mimstctB of Chaxlcs X., we sec, had not been altogether wa.- 
Teaxmsihle m counting on the «uppun of the public functionaries, 
and of the influential members of the court party. But in the cyee 
of all who had been attached to the old ministers only by the ties of 
interest, their deleat was their foremost crime. 

The révolution which had just been accomplished was the work 
of all France; Paris, all thin^fl cousidcxed, had been but the thoitra 
of that event» It liad spread too with extreme rapiility throughout 
all the deportments, llie tricolour tlag was everywhere hailed 
with aftbction; the outbrak w«» electrical and unanimoiis. " They 
arc fighting in Paris»" was iho cry in every spot of France on the 
day the commimicationa between the capital and the provinces were 
Gttt tiff. This was the natural conseauence of that strong centralisa' 
tion the Empire Imd established, ana the Restoration ioheiitcd. 

We will not enter into the details of the iunumerable partial 
riùngs which were but repâcliEBions of the insurrection of Paris. 
AU- these episodes of ^e gr>^t epos were Eimilar in cliaractcr, and 
unbodied the same lessons, The insurrection of Lyon alone claims 



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tàght o'clock M. Morin, chief editor of the liberal journal of Lvon, 
hastened to the Quai de Retz. He had refused to submit; his piint» 
ing-preeses had been seized, and he came to demand aid of the in- 
surgents. Some armed men were placed at his disposal, and he 
published his paper, which containea a vigorous protest against the 

Meanwhile the number of citizens ready for action was every 
moment increasing. Arms unfortunately were scarce. Dealers in 
old iron sold rusty muskets and old sabres without scabbards at ex- 
orbitant prices. The command of the insurgents was conferred on 
Captain Zindel, a man of resolution, and on ardent patriot: other 
officers were elected by acclamation. The multitude, dense and 
menacing, was evidently ready to lend its hands to the insurrection. 
MM. Debrosses and Paultre de Lomotte, the former prefect, tho 
latter commandant of the military division, were in a situation of 
momently increasing danger. The news from Paris was gloomy, 
the fidehty of the troops doubtful; and it was known that many 
influential bouigeois were connected by commimity of opinions and 
by the ties of friendship with officers of the 10th and 47th of the line, 
mdch regiments, witli one of chasseurs and some artillery, nuidc up 
the garrison. 

. In these critical circumstances M. Debrosses displayed a courago 
nngidarly contrasted with the terror that seemed to have fallen on 
the Lyonese royalists. A proclamation calling on the insurgents to 
disperse on pain of military execution, was posted up in the streets of 
Lyon. The commission elected the preceuin^ day had the singular 
weakness to back this audacious step, promising to use its eflbrts 
with the government to obtain a regular organization of the national 

These two proclamations were treated with equal ecom, and M. 
Thomas Usson, a member of the commission, having besought tho 
armed bands on the Quai de Retz to retire, was repulsed with rago 
and indignation. 

The authorities had concenteatcd themselves at the Hôtel de Villo 
with the garrison. The arsenal and the prefecture were carefully 
guarded. Urgent orders, some of which were intercepted, were 
•ent to the garrisons of Clermont, Puy, Montboison and Vienne, 
bidding them hasten to Lyon by forced marches. A shot was fired, 
and it was thought the conflict was begun. Upon this M. X^revost, 
M. Zindel's lieutenant, made his way alone into the Hotel de Ville, 
and called on the authorities to commit the guard of the place to 
an equal number of national guards and soldiers. The authorities 
refused, and demanded concessions. Prévost immediately drew his 
watch, and said, as he laid it on the table, " You have but five mi- 
nutes to accept what I have proposed. If I am not back with my 
ccnnrades by the expiration of that time, they have orders to attack.'* 
He ^ke the truth; preparations for the attack were making at 
all points; the raiment of chasseurs that set out in the direction of 

tX' -rmi'i "^ "ri:! t.-tt^es:^. lt ; 

t*. . . - . 

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io5e to protest agam^ motliGcations which he contended were not 
Butriciontly ample, A commission ivas jippointed, at the suggestion 
of M. Villeraain^ to examine the project. Suddenly it was an- 
nouhcod that menacing groujvi wei'e collected m all llie approaches 
to the Palais Bourbon; M. Kératry demanded a nocturnal sittint: an 
aooount of tKo serious nature of the circumstasccs ; and, in fact, tlio 
members could hear the tumultuous erica outside, " Doivn ^nth 
heredity 1 The chamber betrays us!" Tho deputies were seized 
■with intense uncasincsp; they passed in and out of the hall; the 
UiQJority ^thered round Lafayette, Benjamin Constant, Jitid Labbev 
(de Pompières, imploring, witn clasped hands, the protection oftluyr 
popularity. M. Girod de TAin went out, and meeting M. Lhmtier 
diî l'Ain on the steps of the perigtyle, said to hun, " You know 
MontebcUo?" — " Yes."-"" He was vn brave. Well, Aw tlaufjUttr is 
wy son-in-late.'' For such was the confusion of all these IcgteUtors. 
"lacy proauscd tliat the people should be consulted- A protest 
against what were called instigalots of dL3i>rder was sent round the 
fiaUeriesT and ?omc young men were cajoled to sign it. Benjamin 
iConstûnt and Lahbey de Pompitrea presented theraEclvea euceoa- 
"Bvely under the penstyle of the palace; then came Lalayette; the 
Ltmult was allflycd when he appeared, but the most heated of tho 
nultitude continued to cry, ""Down with heredity!" whilst La- 
ayctte raid^ witli suppliant voice, '* My friends, my good friends, 
arc walcîùng over your interests. We ore aware that wc are 
re without credentials. But go away I beseech you," This was 
be ficcond time that Lafnyette delivered up the revolution to njyalty. 
The chamber impatiently awxùled tlie report of the commusioo. 
LU these deputies felt that thcj did not rcprcs^it tho nation, that 
heir mismon had expired, and that tliere was no reason why their 
athocity should survive the doi\'afal of all the institutionG on which 
; depended. It was necosaary, tliereforc, cost what it might, to 
iuc^ the people from coming to a clear unden^t^mding of itâ posî- 
it was necessary to take advantiige of the general btwilder- 
Dt» to be beforehand with all objections, and anticijiatc all re-*ist- 
e by dint of promptitude and boldness. The crown once ecE oh 
head of the I>uc d'Orl^is, a dofinite position once aeeumed, 
rbflt then would signify protesta made loo late? The new T^^TDO 
vetdd liaTC in its favour the couâccntion of iSict, if not of nght; 
and every one knew well tliat a people docs not set about naaking a 
tcvolution every day. 

The chûmber» therefore, received with extreme alacrity the official 
eoBIkiunKstion of the act of abdication made to it by ïf. Gruizot. 
ScMiie deputies, indeed, M. llauguin among others, inreighcd against 
tlie nullity of such un act, j^>'ing thut Charles X. s forlcitUFC 
of the crown had been declared by the victury of the people, and 
that it waâ not by virtue of au abdication» but of the pK>pular will 
that the l^uc d'Orléans was to becoane Icing. It was all in vain^ 


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" 'l)if I \inui\rr '/ i\t\in\\i-A, taking ia(n '■on«i'Icra: y^n the :nj«r:vu ncrf;-<:tT re- 
nlliitiC ff'<r« i\.*: i:r< ut» U tli', ïi,\.\i, X7iLi, liitli, aad lOtîi of July, ani iroiil the 



^nera] EÏtoBtion in whidi France liaa lieen placed in confipquence of tlic violatioi: of 
the coQstiiutioiiixl chrvrtcr; coitsidmcg, nipreover. lîial iii ■wnsi.iiiit.-nctof ihit viîjla- 
lioii and of the heroic resistance of tîie inhabhants of I'rtris, the king. Chnxle» X., 
hi« HnyiJ H iplinces Louis Antoinij, daiiplÙD, and all the mt-iDWrs of llit- ctdirr braneta 
of tlic TOj'ul Èuïiily ftTC u ilùs awintût quittifi^ ilie Prendi U^rritorj-,— dcclarts tU-it 
thc^ tlirone is vimuil, tk facto and de jure, and thAt it ia inclisiiensalily n^.tU'tii lo pro- 
ride Tor the same." 

This parafrraph was very juiHciou!;ly -worded. It set forth the 
elevation of the Due d'Ork^ans as the compulsory result of events in 
■which it was very possible he had liimsclf taken no part. Charles X, 
was not expelled from the liingdoni, ho quitted it, and the Due 
d*Orl<?ans only ascended the throne hocausc the throne îiapix-ned to 
be vacant, "thm, whatever farei^ cabinets mi^'ht have regarded as 
revolutionary in the dukc^s accession, vas, of courge, cleared ^ip to 
their sati?faclioti; that prince was no longer an usui-per, he was the 
unavoidable contmuntor of tlie system of order and peac-e j^aranttcd 
hy tlie monarehical forin. It had been the wish of the Due d'Or- 
léans to mflko Europe believe that lie irppcctcd in Charles X. a 
meoiber of the family of inviolable lungs, when he sent commis- 
sioner? to ItanibouUlct to protect him figaingt the passions which the 
duke himself had excited. Nothing; couîd be better adapted to fulfil 
the prince's iotentiona than tïie declaraUon we have just read. It 
jWas adopted almost without opposition. 

ï Notlimg remained but to stipukte the conditions of tïie new es- 
^blishmcnt in ordur to mask the usurpation fi-om the cj-es of the 
peojil*?j after having done this as regarded Europe. Tlie second 
mragrnph ol'thc proposition fupprcssed the preamble of the charter. 
On, uiia occasion M. Persil insistc'd that sovcreifjiity was vested in 
the people alono; that this principle mu?t be pmclaimed, inu^t be 
written, to the end tliat no one should in future be able to etyle Iiim- 
self king by divine gTacc, and ho proposed that these two artirlca of 
the constitution of 1791 should be inserted under the head of sove- 

t" Sovpn?ifîn*y '*ltmgs to the nnlîon; it U inaJaeaaUc and imprcscriplible. Tlie 
tion can only cxurcisc it« rights by delegat ion." 
Til is proposal fell to the ^ound. 
M. PerdI was ans^vered that Ids idea was irabodicd in the com- 
Lssion's second para-graph, which ran tliua: 

" The chamber of deputies declorca t1uit, According; to the villi and m tlie Intcmt 
of the French iK^QpIc, the preamble of the cliortcr ia suppressed as ofiëiulrc to the 
dignity nf the nation, inuniuch as it KCcna to confer on the Freodi b/ TQjtl favour 
(xirvfer) nicliitB Lliat Ixlotig tu them useulially.^' 

^^ Thia paragraph was passed; but the dcjtterous men of the party 
^Bwecjctly determined to strike out from it the homaf^ paid to the 
sovereignty of the people; and this was actually done in printing 
the now charter, — -a gross knavery, which passed entirely nnnoticedl 
at that lime amidst the struggling and conlus^ion that prevailed I 
^m The assembly next procceoed to revise some articles of the chax* 
^Hfer, which it hurriedly e-xamined. The fupprcf$ioii of the 6th ar- 
ticle, however, whidi declared the cûlhohc rcli^on the teU^-iii. «aiî 


iko eiate, provoked a keen dispute. Some 'were for having the ca» 
tholic religion declaretl, as tlie commission proposeil, tlie religion of 
tlic niujority of FtencJimen. The assertion of thia fact waa re- 
garJed as Sale &\\à imincaning by Bcnjftmin Constant, whilst Charles 
Dupin cagcHy callctl for it, rc'i^ardint^' it usa îùghly politic meaeure, 
and lie involtcil in lâ-vour of Ws opinion the uerronsly susceptible 
jknatjcism of the eouthcm populations. M. Vieanct horaugued 
ftgainfit the prejudice tliat branded the Jeiire, and would have had 
tnti ininistcra of all n-ligions paid by the etata The balance of 
opinion in the chamber was at last aJjueted and cxj^eaaed in the 
I following article : 

' Die tuuiisiera of theoittibljc, A^Mustolic, uul ilomao tvUgïoiL,]irofefl»cd by the am- 
[ Jority trf Fïenchmcti, iim] those of tiu: aih-a Chriaiiim dfaoiniiniUonft (ch^ûm) rectâre 
[ HktiC9 CtQin tbc public trcascuy." 

Neither the cstholica nor the protestants, nor the French of other 
idcnomi nations, -were to be satiaHed with the uncertain tone of thia ar- 
ticle; the first, because their religion was no longer that of the state; 
ihe second, because the law oflfenHVcly established theiï minority; the 
1^ ©thcrs, because tlie law, in making mention only of Christian deno- 
L jninaUons, Bcemed to grant to these only the benefit of public pa- 
tronaore. It waa a strange compromise between the principle of 
jnoral unity and the free professictn of all creedsj between the pon- 
! tificatc of the Bovereiffn and athast law. 

The chamber then declaretl the censorship for ever abolished; thoa 
extending ita own omnipotenee over the future. 

Some minutes were given to the examination of the 14di ardclf. 
It was BuppreâBcd— a vain, obstacle to the audacity that U backed 
•with might ! 

In proportion as the chamber proceeded in this work of hur- 
ried Toviâoûj it seeraed to forget tlie recent conflicts: its recol- 
lectiotia were revived, however, when Colonel Jacqueminot proposed 
to txcïudc foreign troops from the service of the slate. But its 
fcar of pro;^c5a, wliieli was not Icsa decisive than that with 
Tthich it regarded the Swiss, made it reject every thing tendiuff to 
veaken privileges, Tïius it fixed the ogc of ehgibiHly at a naini- 
,U3n of thirty-five years, and that of electors at twenty-five. Still 
declared null ajtd void the nomînûtîons and ereationa of peers 
made under the reign of Charles X., but without prcjudicino; the 
j^vc Question of heredity, wliich was to be cxaraincd ata Juture 
The same timidity made it reject, without any discuasion, M. 
DufrcsDca propusLtiun fur remodelling the magistracy. The 
re WHB aflcrwai'ds brought forward in a]iDtht:r form by M 
Ërigode, and was then dinrufsed; but îii vain M^L dc Brrgode 
1 Suvcrtc appealed in support oï the project to the examples of 
pKapoleon and Louis XVlll. ; in viiin ihey dwelt on the lâct, thai 
:fcr n>mê years past the nominations to the magisctracy could have 
lad no other end in view than to render juftioe subservient to pcJi- 
tica; in vain M. Mauguin insisted that every thing xequired to be 



leorsamaied, and that tlio rerolutioii begmnixig ùom the top shonUl 
go down to the bottom, if new and more terrible oommo^ontf 
were to be avoided. Fri^tened by M. Villemain, recalled to 
ooneerratJve views by M. Dupin aîné, and seised with a saddea 
respect for the Haht» quo of yesterday, the <^iamber confirmed the 
eiostenoe and the irrerocable tenure of the magistracy. 

lAme meanwhile was passing away ; it was growing late, and % 
king was decidedly to oe proclaimed that very day. It was 
arranged that provision should be made at a future oay, and W 
separate laws for the following matters; viz., trial by juiy for poh- 
tical offînces — the responâbility of ministers — ^the re-election of 
deputies who had taken office — the annual voting of the anny esti- 
mates — ^the national guard — the podtion of military and naval 
officers— departmental and municipal institutions — public instruc- 
tion and liberty of teaching — the determination of the conditiani 
of electoral quah6cation and eligibility. 

At the moment when the chamber was about to confer the 
crown, M. Fleuiy de l'Orme demanded that the electoral collies 
dionld be convoked to give their deputies spécial powers for uw 
election of a king. Come, come ! cried Caâmir Féner, petulantly; 
and M. Laffitte made haste to read the last paragraph which invited 
Louis FhiHppe, Due d'Orléans, to take the tiue of King of the 
French, on condition of accepting the modified charter. 

This paragraph was adopted by a larce majority. Thirty member! 
of the night abstained from votm^. M. dc Gorcelles required that 
the election of the Due d'Orlëans should at least be submitted to the 
people for their acceptance : every one k^ silence. 

The chamber was about to proceed to the ballot upon the popo- 
flition, collectively, when the venerable Labb^ de romjnèrès de» 
numded that the voters should inscribe their names in a r^jister. 
BC Bérard supported the motion; but many had not the courage 
to give publicity to their votes. The gift of the crown of Franoe 
was voted as a simple matter of 1^-law r^ulation. 

M. de Cormenin was the only de^tjr of the opposition who ab- 


stained from voting. Aooording to nim it was incQ^icnsably reqin* 
site to consult the people, rince its sovereignty was acknowledged. 
He therefore attended the meeting of the duunbcr merely in the 
chnacter of a spectator, not as a legislator. Actuated by a noUe 
scruple, he had already, in the sitting of the 30th, refiued the title 
<tf oonmussioner of public works, which was offisred to him by a 
messenger from the Hôtel de ViDe; subsequently he had re&aed 
kn consent to the nomination of the lieutenant-general; and now, 
whilst all his colleagues, some from ddnsion, othera from interested 
motives, suffered themselves to be floated along by circnmstanoes, 
the inflexible logician, motionless on his bench, protested once moie 
i^ainst an unprecedented usurpation. 

Some days afrcrwaids he published his resignation in these 
tenus: — " I have not reeeived a eonstitueiit «uthont^ franLtha ^aa-^ 
ple> and I am not yet in poflseanon o£ i\a loXmcsScucA. V^as^ 

230 Lovis PDiLirrc declabed king. 

between those two cxireniitie* I sra ab* luvrly without poww to 
iiiuke a kin^'. a ohanor. or an ci:.::!. I Trjy the ckiiEber to aox-pt 
my resimuuinn. ilav my e-runiry ilwiy* c-e glorious and tree'." 
ïlic Cunists niisoil a *i:ou: vf ■■:■'.•: i:;.i. :.:• r-uii^iie the edèct o: this 
repifjnatioii. some Orloiir.if:? fr nr^d ^ r-ror. "Ju: M.deCMin«im wis 
a disL'uiîHHl Carlift. liuî ïV.e c--û-:i-zy wi* ::■ rûss away; iht protest 

TIio lollowiri: w:.i :I;o r-^-jù: :;" ::::- ^cll:: ;■:: ■;■:' whicL, isfuvû a 
iv>y:ilty : 

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So eagerly had ilie pretext of present necessity and ofurgi^nt coii- 
sderudons been laid hold of, that the only thought bestowed on tho 
ebiunber of pcet*» was to make it a communication that rather re- 
Bemblcd. a voluntary act of civility than an indispensable formality; 
and without cai^ng or waiting ior the adhesion of the peeni, the 
cliambcr of depntit^ Imd gone, aa wc have seen, with its declara- 
tion to the Palais Royal, and presented it as a definitive compact, as 
the ultimatum of a will without control. The peerage heingmade 
up only of all the glaring and scandalous defections wliich thirty 
ycara of political turmoil hiid occfiéioned, it had been deemed ready 
as a matter of course for a new servitude. 

But there was among the peers a man whose chivalric truth- 
fulness and fidelity of soul were well knowni at the Palais Royal. 
The report had gone abroad that M. de Chateaubriand was pre- 
~ ring an accusing and terrible speech; that he waa about to set all 
. example of courage in delivering it, to protest for the last time 
1 bchalt of the vanquished monarchy, and to denounce the friends 
ja.1 had misled, and the relations that had betrayed it. 
This news had reached the Pala^ Royal, which it tlirew into the 
utmost imeiisiness. Such a danger was to be averted at any cost. 
fadiime Adelaide scut word to M. François Arago that the Due 
L'Orléans wi>lied to have a secret interview with him. M. Anigo 
Ould not obtain acce^ to the prince, whether it was that he was 
ated by fortuitous ci rcum stances, or tlmt the Due d'Oik'ans waa 
jud of compromising himself personally in so delicate a negotia' 
n. Madame Adelaide removed the dimculty: ahc saw M.Arago, 
ad told him that he would entitle himself to unbounded gratitude if 
would see M, de Cliotcaubriand, and entreat him to forego hia 
odcd speech; upon which condition he s^hould be assured of 
_.Jig his place in the administration. M. Arago called on the 
[Iustnûustpoet,andsubmittedto him that France had justbcen shaken 
I its inmost centre ; that it waa impi>rtant to avoid exposinir^ it to the 
akoftoo Budden reactions; that the Due d'Orléans would have it in 
t |K>wer on becomiuoj king to do much for public liberty, and tliat 
i bwcanie a man like the Vicomte de Chateaubriand to abstain Irom 
oaking himself the mouthpiece of the agitators at the commence- 
oent of a reign. He ended by telling him that a better means re- 
ined to him to serve hia country with advantage, and that there 
uld be no hesitation to bestow a portefeuilk upon him, that of 
ablic instruction for example. Cliateaubriand shook hie head eadly, 
nd replied that of all he had just heard that wliieli most toufh<vl his 
eart was the consideration of what wtis due to the interest of France 
I ita deeply disturbed condi tion ; that he c.^tpectod nothing and would 
cept nothing uf a dynasty erected on the ruins of liia hopes; but 
Ql since hh speech might sow the sceda of rancour in hi£ native 
ad, he would soften down ita tenour. This singukr negotiap 
jk place on the eve of the 7th of August. 



The chamber o£ peers li&TÎng asscirtbled Ûi& next any at balf-past 
jûne LU tlie cvcuiag, the president read the dcckration oL tlie cbambËf 
of deputies, after which the Vicomte de Chateaubriajid rose uad 
thoa expreaeed Kimficlf ainidât profound filence : 

^* Mesicura, the dcclaratioa communlctted to this cKambor is 
a much simpler matter for mc than for those peers who pr^jfess opi> 
nions different from mine. One fact in tlus declaration predomi- 
nates ia my view over all the others, or rather destroys them. Were 
VfQ now in a regular and orderly state of thing?, I ahould undoubt- 
edly icniùoize with care the changes it h tlioughl tit to make in the 
charter- Several of llicsc changea I myself propoaed. The tmij 
thin? that aatomshcs me ia tluit any one could think of mentianiiig 
to the cliamber that reactionary measure touching tlie peers of 
Charles X.'a creation. I am not suspected of any weak partiality 
for haiclies ifoiimits)^ and you know tliat 1 have even withstood 
the tlueat of making such; stilt, to make ourselves the judges oÉ" o«r 
coUeagues, to strike out names at pleasure {rom the list of peen^ 
whenever one is the gtronger, this id too much like proâcrîptioiL 
Ja it intended to destroy the peerage? Be it so. It ia better to lose 
life than to beg for it." 

Alter these words, which shamed the ehamber^a patience under 
the degradation» the orator inquired what form of government 
:VIB theneefortli applicable to Fianec. A republic did not seem to 
Um to be posâble; but was monarchy so, on ttie conditions im- 
poeed on itr '* The monarchy," he cxckimcd, " will be swept aw«y 
ny the torrent of democratic laws, or the monarch by the mavcmcnt 
of fuctioM." 

Before proceeding to what he conàdered the best solution of the 
formidable problem submitted to France, Chateaubriand paid a tri- 
bute tu the heroism of ihc people of Paris. 

"Never," he sud, '* wafi defence more just^ more heroic, than 
that of the people of Paris. It did not riœ against the law, but fur 
the law, aa K«ng: as the social conifKict waa respected the pcsople re' 
mamed icjuiet. But when thoee \y]\o had lied up to the lafit hour 
suddenly called the people to servitude; when the conapiiacy of stu- 
pidity and hypocrisy burât forth, when a palace terrorism, orgamzed 
by eunuchs, presumed to take the pUce of the terrorism of the 
Kcpublic and of the iron yoke of the Empire, then tW people annod 
itâelf with its intelligence and it$ courage- It was found that theae 
shopkeepers bt^rathed freely enough the smoke of powder, and that 
something more was wantmg to put them down than four Eoldiers 
and a corporaL A century could not so have matured a people as 
tho last three puna that have ahone on France." 

Tlie orator then spoke of the Due de lîoTdeaux, Might not the 
principle uf Ic^tiiaacy, so neceasu^ to tlie existence of moaarchiea 
AftTo been rcepecied in him? The Duo d'OfléaoB would have acted 
u guardian to the royal child; he would have guided him. in the 
■àty of regent, untd the period of hi^ majûrity, and EUeh a 

duxaujlxiOiH of the msw monabcht, nt 

scheme, by manlfestiog the inviolability of the momi^ical pximnpl^ 
would peihape have i»otected France from p^ilous conTaliic»i& 

" An unavailing Ganandia," he exclaimed, lereiting pûn&llj to 
his own poflîtian, ** I have sufficiently weatied the thrrâie and the 
peerage with my diarcgarded warnings. It <»ily xemains ibr me to 
sit down on the fragments of a wieck I have so oAea predicted. 
I recognise in miafartune all kinds of power, except that (^ releaa> 
jn^ me ùwm. my oaths of fidelity. I must therefore render my life 
niuform. After all I have done, said, and written for the Bourbon^ 
I should be the vilest of wretches if I denied them at the moment 
when &x the third and last time they are going into exile.** 

Lastly, after denouncing with withoông Harfawn the dastazdy of 
all those sealous rovalistB who had contrived by theix projected 
expknts to have the aescendants of Henri IV. [ntaJhrked out of the 
oountiy, and whom he now ptHnted out aqoatting under the tri- 
ooloor cockade, he concluded with saving, '* Wliatever be the destinies 
in store for M. le heutenantr-gén^al, I will nevo- be his enemy if he 
effect the welfare of my country. All I ask is, that I may preserre 
the freedom of my conscience, and the right to go and die wherever 
I shall find indc^iendence and repose." 

Thsae eloquent outpourings <^ sqitow fdl on icf hearts. The 
peerage discussed only the measure that tended to decimate it: bat 
so ÎTunmiiiKlA -was it to the insult c^exed to its dignity by the other 
chamber, that as r^puded the questicm whether it would submit to 
to be thus outrageously mutilated, it declared that it left the mat- 
ter to the exaltpfl prudence of the prince. It «hied of itself to its 
own humiliatifm by this ^r^ous flatteiy. A deputation was 
«ipoànted to cany to the Palais fioyal the congratulations of that 
fast body in the state. It presented itself to the prince, respect&l 
and calm under insult Tne prince made those grand êeiymvr» a 
cnmmfHiplarp reply. The peerage was already dead in France. 

Kothzng remained but to give the transfer of the crown the aano 
tion of forms, and that sort of l^tima^ which juUic imbecility 
connects with the prestûe of an imposiog ceremoniaL Every thing 
was therefore made ready on Monday the 9th of August for a royal 
sémee of the chambers. A throne, overshadowed with tricolour 
flags, and surmounted with a crimatm velvet canopy, was erected in 
the Palais Bourbon : before it were arranged three settees for the 
lieutenant-geneial and his two eldest sons. A table covered with 
velvet, on which stood the pen and ink to be employed in signii^ 
the contract, separated the settee reserved for the prince from the 
thrtme, and typified the interval that lay between him and royal^. 
The Due d'C^l^ans made his entry to the sound of the ManetÛmtCj 
and the noise of cannon fired at the InvaUdes. W^en he had taken 
his place, he put on hiâ hat, and desired the members of both cham- 
bers to be setûed, thus changing upon a frivcJous point what sgih 
tibly afiects most men, ceremonial usage : for hia [nedeceseors had 
been used to address the chamber of peers alone, with their own. 



lips, and tlie chamber of deputies tlirough the chancellor, "who ttid, 
** Messieurs, the king perimt3 you to be seated.*' The prince re- 
quested M. Casimir Périer, president of the chamber of deputies, 
to read the declaration ol' the 7th of August. M. Périer did 00 
with a firm voice, laying a stress on many passages» on this one for 
example: the throne is voeant de facto and de jure. In reading; the 
last article, Casimir Pt-rier having said " Calls to the throne his UojraJ 
Highneââ Philippe d'OrK'ans, Due d^Orléans," the lieut^nant-gcno ^ 
lal, who followed the reader with the closest attention, hastily siudfl 
•' Louiâ Philippe," correetin^ him. Baron Pasquier having m his™ 
turn read the act of adhesion of the peeraj;^, the two acts were deli- 
vered to the lieutenant-general, who pûssed them to Dupont de 
l'Eure, then the garde-des-sctaux. The lieutcuant-generai read his 
acceptance in l^ese terms; 

*'' Messieurs les Pairg, Messieurx les Dejnitc*: I Have read wilh 
great altentirtn the declaration of the chamber of deputies, and the 
act ol adlieaiou of the chamber of peers. 1 have weighed and medi- 
tated every expression therein. 

'* I accept, without restriction oT réservation, the clauses and 
engagemtaits contained In that declarationj and the title oi" King of 
the }< reiich which it conféra on me, and I am re&dy to make oam to 
observe the same/" ^J 

The duke then rose, took off W? glove, uncovered his head, ao^H 
pronounced the form of oath handed to him by Dupont do rEure : ' 

** In presence of God I swear faithfully to observe the conyiitii- 
tlon:il charter, with t]ie modilications set forth in the dcclannion; to 
govern only by the laws, and according to the laws; to cauee goo<l «nd 
exact justice to be administered to every one according to His riffht,' 
and to act in every thin»; with 'Ûie sole view to the interest, the wcl- 
ûaCj and the glory of the French people." 

AmiJst the cries of Vwc k Boi, tbût greeted these words, Louis 
Phihppo signed the three originals of the charter and of hi* oath, 
which were to be deposited in the archives of the kingdoTn, and in 
those of the two chambers. At this moment the four marshah» dis- 
played the insignia of royalty, the sceptre, the crown, the sword, and 
the hand of justice. ITic settee on which the prince bad sat -was 
removed, and the new king ascended the tlirone, covered his hcmà, 
and signiâed that he was about to speak. 

*■ I hare just ratified a great act," he said; *' 1 ara profoundlv aen- 
^ble of all the extent of the duties it imposes on me. I feci comciooi 
that I will fulfil them. It is with full conviction that I lure 
ccpted the compact of alliance proposed to me, 

" 1 should have cnmestly desired never to occupy the throne 
which the wishes of the nation have called me; bat prance, «sbuIi 
in her liberty, sow public order in j>eri!; the xdolation of the chftrti 
had shaken every thing; it was necessary to re-establish the actioi 
oftîielaws, and it belongred to the chambers to provide for tlui' 
necesàty. You have done so, messieurs; the wise modî£catîons wo 



tvc effected ia the cliartcr guarantee the security of the future, and 

Pmnoe, I trusty will be happy within, respected without, untl the 

Ppeoce of Europe will be more and moi-c conHrmed." 

I Tïie Dae d'Orléans was king- He was called Louis Phihppc I., 

[ibr it had not been thought proper to give that dubious contiauatOT 

Lof the thirty-five Capets either the name of Philip V.^ which would 

raiTe omuwd an eoga^ment entered ioto with the pftst, nor that of 

TTuLp I.» which would have seemed to open a new prospect to the 

people. The tiUe of AW/ ofihc French was sulretitutcd for tliat of 

7G»ff of France; these verbal innovations appearing suitable to 

bmik the multitude. 

Meanwhile, frightful distress was be^nning to prevail among the 
-mrkiDg clâsees^ Those men who cried Vive la Charte / and who 
Ittii fait thiee days fought for it so gallantly, were aaiazcd at the 
nciGaae of fiufienng their victory entailed upon them. I'he ineasTire 
adopted by the municipal coinjnission and by LafnycUe, on the 31at 
ttfXuhr, of creaÛJûg a tnoveable national jjTuard, and decreeing that 
île toldâei? should recdve thirty sous daily pay, could only have 
otBL intended wa a proviaianal measure; besidea, it was not acted 

"Httafes to ingenious contrivances, deceitful promises, and some 
vdl-ptoced largesses, the pc^ople had been easily brought to di^pei-se 
sad disum. A proclamation was then po3ted up, bej^tining with 
tfctte words:—" Brave workmen, return to your workshops." ITie 
pOOT iellowsi did return thither, and found no work^ 

Capital disappeared, 09 might but too well have been foreseen^ and 
»U the relations of trade were intcmiptcd. Every shot fired during 
lie three days had been the prelude to a bflnki'uplcy. The Bank 
of Fruioe« though instituted for the purpose of providing against great 
«mergeDcios, regidateJ its issues by lt5 fears with cruel prudence; 
a»d centincls as usual kept watch over its vaults filled ■with gold, :n 
a city «wanning with paupers. 

Bvery day added to the distresg of the people, which was evidenced 
by innumerable fiicts. The most considerable of all the printing- 
toEoea in ihc capital employed, when the revolution broke out, about 
two hundred workmen, who each earned regularly from four to six 
fatiKs a day. After the revolution the premises were closed for eight 
« ten days, at the end of which time ten or twelve workmen were 
Ukea batik ; and ax months afterwards the men employed in that 
WabUshment were but fivc-and- twenty, who earned, not four, iive^ 
OT ax francE, as before, but twenty-five or thirty sous per day> Yet 
printing seemed less hkciy to sufier tlmn otlier businesses Irom the 
«suits of the troubles. From this we may conjecture the immensity 
of the diaaaters* The houec No. 28, in tlie Rue Chapon, Quartier 
dtt Gra-t-ilhers, let out to two hundred workmen of ditfetetit trades, 
Woo^bt in a rent of seventeen thousand francs up to the time of the 
Devolution. Ailer that event the receipts suddenly fell to ten thou- 



Band; and at this day^ aiier a lapae of mora tlinu ten yew*, it does 
not ret amount to more than fourteen thousand franca. 

Tiie following were the sort of means employed to mitigate these 
evils, A new Marscilltiûe, oommsed by M. Casimir Dolavigne, 
wae simg in tJic thuiitroei. Tlie heroes who hod iklleii in the cau^e 
of liberty were celebrated in porapoua language. The Nationai^ 
the Duke of Orleans's paper^ exclaimed, " You hiive always been thift 
bcHvest and most heroic of men. Honour to you, brave Putisianfl !" 
And the magistrates of the city, not less ciithuâiastic tlum the journal^ 
ists, outdid them in praise. " Who," said M, Alexandre de Laborde* 
in a proclanjation to the inhabitants of Paria, " who can flatter him'- 
•elf as meriting the rank of first magistrate of a population, whoso 
heroic conduct hiis been the salvation i>f freedom and civilisation?" 
All Oils while bread was wanting in many families, and mtny A 
weeping mother wm seen searching for a beloved corpse on the cold 
flugs of the Morgue. 

Aa Éubscriptions, however, were opened on all mdea in favour of 

the victima of Jidy» (so the kiUed and wounded were called,) those 

who had fallen were, in this reject at least, useful to their wives and 

children. Many of those who had Burvived were leas fortunatc- 

- During this Dine the people at the palace were busy revising the 

charter ; that is to guy, tatting measiu'es for the i-e -establishment of the 

aatioruvl guard, from which the people could easily be excluded by 

'making a costly unifonn indispensable to admission; for the mot« 

complete emancipation of the press^ wliich up to thai time had hardly 

Concerned itself about the intentions of the people; lor extending to 

U greater number of citizens the power of makine laws^ far granting 

' the legislators of the hourt^isie the rin;ht of the initiative; lastly, 

^for returning into the ways of '89 by cquaUty bctwoan TeligioQl 

^ «lennmi nations and the defeat of the noblesse. 

But b> make a more equitable distribution of taxation ; to diminish 

the burdonii that crush down the poor; to abohâh the indirect eon» 

rtribudous of the Eestorotion, çpnmg from the droittrémiù of the 

'empire; to devise a remedy for the homicidal fluctuation of wage&; 

I to lôund workshops — for the combatants of one day, becomo the unom* 

|>loyed workmen of the next;— not one of all these thint^ appeared 

' Vorthy of consideration; not one of them wa3 ao much aa prumisod» 

But, by way of amends for this neglect, extraordinarr solicitude 

' WM bceiowed on tlie gamblers of iho ptock excluui^ Ihe ofdon» 

^nances of Charlea had been a sudden stroke of good, fortune for the 

['^«culators for a fall. Now vome of them^ «a wo have ecen, hod bc<m 

^Wdmittod into the secret of the ordonnances, *nd had staked on a 

' certainty. The speculators for a rise availed ihemaelvcs of this car* 

[cumstance to demand that the settlement should be put ofif till tho 

J 9th of August. The bonkers who had s^ieculated on a tiae, and who 

ITere able xa act on the market with milhôns, coutited on stiongtlicn* 

m^ it daring the delay accorded by well-managed puxchasos. But 



the fçrant of that delay was the consecration of an injustice. For in 
(Jiu nrst place, all the specitUttirs of the etiick excliange were made to 
pay the penalty of & fraud, of which all had not been puiUy; and 
«frain, the chamcter of stock exchange transactions^ which is csâea- 
tiaily that of a game of chanw, was arbitmrily disregarded, to the 
bcDcGt of one party and the detriment of the other. No matter, 
ïhe speculators for a rise were on the 4Jdo of Ûie ^-ittors; the order 
they desired was issued from tlie finance department, and opulence 
Jlcopardised in disgraceful bai^ains and illicit speculations, was af- 
forded a protection in vnin looked for by working men rɫlux;ed to 
despair, and offering their labour for a little bread. 

The blood of the poor had been poured out like water fir that 
«hartflrthey were reviskig; und^the government was not una.ware of 
4Ke mignitude of the sacrifice when it publi^htîd the ioUowing 
article, on the 5th of August, in the Moniteur, the official journal: 

**- The Btktanents tbat h&Te bepu given m the vanoan uovEpapcra &s to the 
Dumbiai of the Idllad and woniified wtn uworruc!.: wa thinic it oQr ftuty to puUûb 
the foUowing; detçdU, wbAài were inuiBTiiiticd ycRtcnIiiy, Au^st 4, to tlie Acad^oùe 
SovaJc dc Im-ileciiit, by the surgeons ndJ phjsldnna iff the lioMfiitals, 

■■ /tôtfl Dieu. About ftvc hundred wniiiiitwl Imve been received, b^n^iji^t fjr the 
moat part, to the citizens, but there ate hut twenty-avt; iiiiliiarj men amoDg the 
4*8 huodred. Tliirtj-tJght dkU th^ flrit àa.j, twelve the Mcood^ anil eight the 

" Hùpital àe la Chufit^^ About a huiidrofi wounded hare been recdved, forty of 
whcm An deed. It in hopeil that a great Dumber dJ* ths athers will he â&«>éd. 

•* Môpié^ Stattjon. It ]iml Wcu stutcd tbat there verp sU huudixnl wounded men 
Id ^lll jm^tfll. îînitîriorv than eighty bsTC been bnuyht loit. Eight or ten hare 
■mhlguu* amputJitioD. Yesterdaf the number that hod dk>d wal fifteen or kixtaerk 
t Btjilkii da Gmt-Caiikm, Two haiiijrc>d woundi'd luvf b«a nweiTed, A great 
nam per àt amputations bbve bceu performed^ >iQ putitfut faai died. This fact; 
which appcarea extrenrdinuy to the AcAdeaiy^ hoa beeo conflroaed by the oaaertioika 
«r MM. Lany ma LndibcrL 

Hôpital dt Vat da Gr&c*. Not morti than twcat/ wounded, or thcrcahoiili, hnre 
\sen receirtil^ The result of iurf 5 Ligations gires from lâÛO lo 17ÔI) as tlw utttnber 
(rf killi-d and wounded dating thf dnya of the â?th and â^th." It t» pmhjiHle that the 
Tiuml'ivr is more coiisidi>rubIu, but it hu not been poisitdc to ohtaui an cnuniEntioa 
ef the woonded reoeirod iu the amb»!smre§, or tho« wha irert coBTc^cd to their own 
hoinea. The «ccotmt hew givoi rcfcr» only to the hoapitaJ*," 

So much for the dead. I have etatcd the tieatmcnt bestowed on 
Ûia living. 

The difficulties of the case were great, no doubt. After a revo- 
lution like thoit which had just taken phloem however rapid the 
Tictory might have been, it could not be expected ihat credit should 
be revived by royal urdomutu ces; th^it commercial alarm should be 
Stilled bv newsp«per articles, or confidence restored by prockma- 
tion». But the Conventiou had showed (even putting out of eonsi- 
^deration ita challenge to Europe and its iminortttl Frenzies) what 

Erodlgios may emanate from a genuine enthusioam. If those who 
lid hold on the movement of afiaira in 1 830 liad cxertod themsHilves 
with persévérance and courage to bring back the people from the 
toad lo ruin, those eflbrta, even though they had been unavailing, 
would have been enough to acquit thdr auUiora at the bar of his- 
tory. But no exertion of the kind w&s made; the charter waa 



Krised, a king wu crowned^ and all the rest -was the reign of inscn- 
Bâtc fat&liam. 

The government, howcrv'tt, was ready to lend thirty mUHona for 
the benefit of trade; bnt as it was not at liberty to distribute the 
public revenue on chance, it lent on mortgage to those who had pro- 
perty; conscftuontly it lent to known bankers and to opuïont mann- 
facturera. Tlie cnsis did not the less press with all its weight upon 
the poorest, 

Hifitoiy has nothing to compare with the impotence cvincod by 
ihc administration in the davâ muncdiately following the revolution; 
an impotence for good, not ibr evil. 

An idea had occurred to some citizens of founding a great print- 
ing establishment at St. Dcnia, with the aid and under the piitronotfe 
of the state, and they made the proposal to the Minisier of the 
Interior. They would have reprinted revolutionary works more 
particularly» the writings of Rousseau, Voltaire, and the encyclope- 
aiPts; and thtiir cstahiiahment vroiild have served as an asylum for 
many workfncn turned over to vagabondage and ^vrctchednese, 
Tlte proposal was rejected on the grounds that such books would 
find no sale^ since ihcy were weapons of which liberalism had no 
longer need after the battle, A reply of deep meaning, and worthy 
to be pondered. 

But there vras a Furcr means of employing many workmen 'who 
ivantcil bread. The arsenals c<)nbùncd but nine hundred thoustuid 
iimskuU', and three millions were requisite to arm the national guard 
throughoiit the kingdom. Urgent solicitations wore daily addressed 
to tlie miniatcr of the interior, who, in his turn, appbed to the 
minister of war; and ufter all only five hundred thousand mu?kctfl 
Tveru delivered. In vain were earnest and repeated applications 
made for the numufucture of those that were wanting; in vain was 
it demanded on behalf of all the workers in wood and iron that a 
great factory should be opened in Paris; iii vain were satisfactory 
projii'-^itions traiismitU'd to the offices of war from Tarions parts of 
the kingdom, and narticuUrly from St, Etienne; all these cffbrta 
were unavtûlïug, and îuid no otlier effect than to awaken the spirilt 
of ppi'culation. Wi? phall sec in the course of this history to what 
date is to be referred th^t purchase of muskets subsequontly made in 
England, which excited so great an outcry. 

'Fhe gnvermnent, however, caused some wfvrVs to be executed in 
the ( 'hiunp t\v Mnrs; n measure which, if it did not prove its eolici- 
Itulc lor the poor, at least scr\*cd to mask its indifference. 

Woe to thoîMî who cast themselvei at random into rcvolutioas, and 
izaafa. to the fight with unknown war-cries ! 




Whilst they were diapoâng iu Paria of the throne of his anc^- 
tow, ChArles X, was kneeling in the cathedral of Argentan. The 
Wbws of the accession of Louis Philippe had already circulated in 
tilflt town. TiVheu the proscribed lamily quitted it, the Inhobitants 
thronged upon its ■way to watcli its looks and scrutinize its emotions. 
Tliev Ix^heid the Diichessc dc Beni extingubliing the majesty of her 
misiortuncs by her eiddineaa; and beiàde her the daughter, so ollcn 
Borcly tried, of Louaa XVI.; her iacc was Uvid, her eyes, soused to 
t^xef s^xxned dead and viâonlcsa; the terrible catsatrophe had burst 
open all the old wounds of her heart. Frequeully during that dis- 
mal journey she would alicht from her carriage and stand hv the 
rood-side, na if that she would faîii linger a little longer in that kmg- 
dom thai hat! been thrice fat^ to her fftmily- The commissioners 
feared her on account of the abruptness of her movemcnta and the 
intense bittemeas of her language; but they were deeply impressed 
with rcspocl by the immensity of a sorrow that dated irom the Tour 
du Temple. The dauphin did not suffer, because he was free &om 

Charles X.*a appearance was tranquil. IndiiTerent aa to himself, 
his only care was lor the nacmhcrâ of his suite; yet, even in this, he 
ahowcd the effotiat, for it is thc^ pride of kings to love themselves in 
the persons of their servants. Hb conduct in other respects was full 
-of apparent contradictions. The aspect of the dauphin in tears, of 
kia wobegonc courtieis, and of the two children, who, in their 
icuoraucc, found amusement in the novelty of every thing about 
tncm; — to all this he was insensible, or at least resigned; out the 
sight of a bit of tricoloured ribbon, or a sligbt negltrct of cti- 
qucltc^ was enough to excite hi* petulance. It was ncoesœry in the 
small town of rAi^le to have a square table made, according to 
court usace, for the dinner of the monarch who was loïdug aa 
empire. Thus he showed combined in his person that exoes of gran- 
dcur and of littleness wliich is acquired from the practice of 
royalty; and whilst courageously enduring the bulk of his mi^for- 
txuic, he could not patiently coduro its details. Ho woiUd have 
had his'enenues make him at least a pompous nùsoT}\ 

At Maifitcnon he consented, without much difficviïty, to the dia- 
missal of liis army : he made no complaint when the artiEery of the 
guard, which had retained but two pieces of cannon, was taken 
away at Dreux. In a word, he gave way aa long as they took from 
him only the reality of power; nut when it was attempted to de- 
prive hJm of its externals, he felt all the pride of his blood revive; 
110 wasm^jgned to exile provided he might make a alu^w of carrying < 
with him tho lustre of his taco and the trappings of royalty. 


He complamed above all of the impatience of the commissioneis, 
[ and thought it unjust that he should be prevented from travelling 
[dowlj^; wr, after all, he was leaving liia native land and the graves 
t of his fathers. Perhaps, too* he retained some confusod hope at the 
[ bottom of his heart: la Vendée -was not far from his route. 
But be was soon given other catiscs of concern. 
A new commissioner anived at Falaise on the 10th of August; 
I Ûds was M. do La Pommeraye, deputy of Calvados. Charles X. 
I was Gjscecdingly annoyed on hearing that the new commiaeioner 
[ rrAa Bent to hasten the cortéffe, and oblige it to take the rood to Caczu 
I Was it not enough that a priDcc of iiis family had deprived him of 
Ilis crown? Why did they thus envy an old man the aole bitter 
^ consolation of lingering a little on the soil whereon he was bom, 
I ftnd which would never receive his mortal remains? This time he 
, det<;rmiiicd to roai&t. There waâ a small road-side inn at some dia- 
LtftocG from Falaise which the long ehose for the place of bia first 
j iwtemew with M. de La Pommeraye. He received the envoy of 
I the PalaiB Royal with cold politcne?», and showed himself invincibly 
I obetinâtc in bis determination. Tlie cortege vrsa obliged to do as 
the cliOBc, and take the road by Condé-sur-Nûrreau: but aa for 
I elackeiung the speed of bis journey, every thing had been arranged 
; befort-hand to defeat his intentions in that respect, 

Gt'neral Gtrard, miniater of war, wrote on the 10th of August to 
' the commandant at Cherbourg, instructing him to organise a 
[ marching column to meet the escort, and, if need were, to act with 
I ■vigttur. The people of the Palais Koyal were in haste to come to 
t the filiale of the great drama- The minister of war, therefore, govo 
General Hulot uie fullest powers, and placed the maritime pr^ect 
! of Cherbourg under Ma authority. But General Hulot, who waa 
fliot ignorant to what end he had been sent to Cherbourg-, had not 
waited for tlic minister's dci^patch before he acted; and when he 
j received it, the measures it prescribed were already In full ckgco- 
^tion. Colonel Trobriant had been sent from Cherbourg to meet t}i0 
loorUige, and bad reported to his general that the commisâûiior» 
were without authonty over the escort, and that every thing dû- 
ded upon the will of the Duo dc Raguse. The commissi oner» 
> wrote to General Hulot, " We have heard with pleasure tiiat 
FjûU «re movinff towards us witli troops and arliUcry. You will not 
Vull back on Cherbourg till we shall have concerted together." The 
I colonel's report, the commi^ouera' rcqtiest, «id the alarming 
I TumouTï tliat were purpasL'ly spread on nil ades, dctenmned Geoe- 
I lal liulot's course: he did but anticipate the nrkinifter's orders. 

p-WhiUt measures were in progrcsa to rtir up the people, the cor- 
_ J|ge wo» approaching St. LÛ. When the second Stuort travcTBcd 
thèlslâ of Wight alter the loss of a crown, und on the eve of a 
blooily deaths a young girl presented him witli a ilower. Some- 
tbing similar occurred to the brother of Louia XVI. At Val-de- 
Viie old XDêDf women, and children, from the houM of ChÉnédoUe, 



met tlic fugitives on the rood and presented ihcm witli lilies; it Vfùs 
ft poet's iamil^ Bblutmg a king's on its way into eadle I 

On nrriring at St. Li5, Cnarles X. learned tliat *n airoed and 
âtrcatenîng multitude^ conucanded by General Halot, was waid&s; 
for him at CarenUn. Tbo national gu&rds tbat had been raised 
hardJj amounted to 400 in number, and had but two cannonja^ both 
im£t for service; but as the only object aim^d at was to fnghtcn the 
in^tiveSf exaggerated pictures were drawn of the dnnger. Charles 
X, bcKeved his grandson's life in jeopardy, and weary of struggling 
with bis fate, he gave up all further resistance. 

TliG corami^oners who had. wntten to General Hulot to hastea 
hia arrival, now preesed him, throtigh General Mtdson» to hasten his 
departnre. M. Pommeraye went on to Carentan in advance of the 
cortege, and prevailed on the greater part ol' the national guaids a&< 
ftmhled th«ro to dL-ipcrsef thero being no turther occaeion for their 
Mrriecs. General Hulot left the town early in tb& morning ; and 
nothing remained of the popular raovcment that had been so artifi- 
csdly ]>foduced, but a âomcwluit dangerous Agitation. The aim had 
been achieved ; no violence had been committed (ù thing which 
would have incensed Europe), and yet Charha X. had been suiË- 
<nently frightened to Ibrce him to a precipitate flight. Prom that 
moment, in act, he made all his Gpeed to his perpetual exile. 

He was lucky in every thing, that Due d'Orléans I 

ITieioumey to Cherbourg was aad and solemn throughout. Tho 
two pnncesses wolted when the weather waa fine. Their dress 
was veiy much neglected, because their attendants had not been 
able to Driag away linen or clothes. A grave and penâve expreâ- 
BÎfiii Ml<in Uie faces of tlie beholders, wherever the cort^c psiaeed. 
Some oâio^fl presented themKÎvcs on the road, bending before 
humbled greiitnMB. Two made their appearance near Carentan^ 
" MeançuR/* eaid the king, ** keep tho^ worthy sentiments for 
that child who alone can save you all ;" and he pointed to a httte 
Ihucen-baiicd head at the window of a carriage tuat followed his 
own. But the tame was approaching when God would no longer 
leave the destiny of nations depending on irail heads* 

At two o'cLoclc, era the 14th of August» Charles X. entered Va- 
lo^csp whence he wrote to solicit an asylum of the King of Eng- 
land. He was fully entitled to a return of the hospitaiity Louis 
XIV. had accorded to James IL 

At Valogses, the officer of Uie pardes-du-corpa, with the twelve 
aUcflt soldiers of each comjsmy, went to the king to ^vc him back 
their colours. It was a tcatful ceremony and suggestive of solemn 
lesKnts. The king touched the nlk of the colours and ssid, " I trust 
that my son will restore them to you." Bcibro icavinff Valopie*, ho 
appeared on tlie steps of the hôtel where he had alighted. He waa 
dresnd in a plain blue coat with metal buttons., without star or ribbon. 
He Btiove to speak to the crowd that lUled the courtyard; but the 
wozda died away on his hp : the parting took place in âlence. 


From the top of tho cllfis near Cherbourg, the exile» beheld the 
, Bca. The column halted. Sudrlenly there was a stranffe coinino- 
iion in the T&rtks. Some horsemen who had gone on in ndvance, 
galloped bacî^ with intelligence that boded nothing good ; a great 
multitude, composed partly oC men belonging to the harbour aad of 
pIotieer3, was hurrv'ing to meet the cortege, with a sound like the 
roaring sea, and presently the front ranks stood faee to face with the 

f pawling multitude. The Prince de Croi wqs mounted on a white 
one ; he wore a general's hat and feathers and u white cockade ; he 
had a broad blue ribbon on his embroidered coat, and his featurea were 
not unlike those of the kin?. '■^ Charlsa X." shouted the people, and 
thev msîied Telling on the prince- Others forced their way into 
. the column, pushing the horses out of tlieir way, and btmding their 
glances on tlie pale fuces of the riders. The officers of the 
a, in a state of inexpressible anxiety, thouglit only how they 
Udight avoid a conflict, and kept off the asaaikntâ with almost sup- 
pliant uneasiness. Charles X. and his son had hastily stepped out 
of their carriages, and rode forward, encompaEScd by f^tliful but 
trembliug soldiei^. 

They reached Cherbourg. The revolutionary cry resounded at 
ETaie intervals in the sii-ecls; hot tricolour flags floated at almost all 
I the wiudowSf and an immense crowd from the adjoining districts 
, flocked to the port. At the entrance of the town the offioera of the 
' 64tK lowei-ed tlicir swords before the exiles as they parsed. Two 
' TQsaels had been prepared to reccivt; the king, hia family, and the 
persons of thoir suite. These were the Great Britain and the 
Chark» Carrol, under the command of Captain Dumont d'Urvillc, 
YWseUof republican build, launched in the American wuters and be- 
longing to members of the Bonaparte family. Tlie people arc Ibni) 
of reraarking thew contrast*» ; they arc the poetry of nistory. 

The port of Cherbourg is separated from the town b^ a great cir- 
cular railing j the gâte waâ guarded by aome grenadiers, and was 
closed Against the crowd bâ soon as the last of the kiug'^ guards had 
passed it. Sbunge SLnd mournful was the epcctacle that moment 
presented. Behind the guards, drawn up in line of battle on tho 
pier, thoiuands of eager tacra were pressed against the raiU, glowing 
■with curiosity, eompasaion, or anger. In front was the sea, — the 
vea with the ever-present thought of shipwrecks [ 

The carriages droTc up to a small bridge covered with blue cloth, 
and nil tlie royal family alighted. Sî, de La KochejacqucliJi sup- 
ported the <lauphine s fainting stejw. The Duchesse de Bern, leaning 
on the arm of Jl. de CharettCf displayed more indignation than d^ 
I Mctcdnera, and her demeanour attested the lire of her Neapohtan 
I tilood. Charles X. was calm as ever : he kept wateh otex bis 
, ftelingiL 

M. dc Dumns, who feared for the Due de Bordeaux, took him in 
and earned him on board with every possible prccaatiodi 
Btt uneasmesâ. But the child was unwilling to go, and 
Wflie difficulty in overcoming hia reluctance. How much 


all these adTcraities resemble each otlicT I It is said^ tlmt ût Ram- 
bouillcty in 1814, oAer JoKph had determined on that lliglit which 
surrendered tlic empire to the enemVi the litUc King of Kome mid- 
dcnly hurst into tears at the hour ot departure. His govemcsa did 
all «he could to quiet him, by fontUing him and promising him new 
toys ; but he continued to crv, and rolled on the floor scToaming 
violently. l*oor child ! that fhght entailed upon him, fitst tho loss 
of a crown, and then, ûRcr eomc years of blighted youth, a niyste* 
nous death beyond the Rhine- 

Bcforo he embarked, Chnrles X. delivered to M. Odilon Barrot, 
at the latter'a request, a certificate testifying the good conduct ol" the 
commissi on era toward* him. The daiiphme gave him also^ as u 
token of gratitude on her part, a sheet of paper inscribed with these 
two words, Maicie Théiièse. 

The king then commended the pensioners of the civil list to tho 
generosity of the victors. The guards all expected to receive the 
adieux of the royal family, hut ihcy were disappointed. The otficera 
were admitted to kiss the hends of the princes and priactsaea, hut 
the soldiers were not even inspected. Such ia tho pnde of the mtis- 
ters of the earth, even when smitten by the band of' God I To bestow 
beneGtA is easy to them, because it manifests their superiority : but 
cratitudc is irksome to them, because it reminds tncm tKat they 
have need of others, 

Sobfl meuiwhile were heard on the pier. A voun£^ man, named. 
lionnochoee, ruâhed on the bridge, threw himseli'at the king's feet, 
clasped hia knces, and weeping bitterly cried out, "O my king-î 
O my king ! I cannot part from you." Tlie favour he begged lor 
ma not granted him, and some time afterwards he sought hxa death 
in La Ycndécj and sought it not in vain, in the cause of thoeo whose 
exile he had not been allowed to slrnre. 

At laft the parting moment was come. Standing on the dock, 
tlie old king bade farewell lo France; and the Great Britain, towed 
by a steamer^ unfurled her sails, whilst the gnaxda silently took their 
way back up the ch^ of Cherbourg. Some spectaton» who lingered 
on the bcacli watched tlie course of tho vesset when suddenly ihc^ 
Bftw it turn about and stand in with all speed for the port. Was this 
in consequence of some viulcnt order given by Cnarlca X. to the 
crew? It might have been feared so; but every thing had been nssi- 
dliouflly provided for; a brig commanded by Captain Thibault, had 
jeoaavcd orders to convoy the Great Britain, and to sink it if Charles 
X. made tho least attempt to act as master. This inexorable fore- 
tliùuglii was not justified by the event. The vcsael only returned 
to tuc in provisions which had been forgotten. 

When every thing was ready, the word of command^ wm given 
again^ and the Bourhona sailed away for England, crossing uerhaps 
tiie track once made by llic vessel ol the defeated Stuarts. The sky 
fovebodcd no stonn ; tlic wind filled the sails ; ftad tho ^hip diaap- 
pearod over the sea. ,-,_i,, ^ 





A PEOPLE spuming conUot, victorious and maator of itself; three 
generations of kings flyinç beyond the bêûs; the bourgeoisie appefl*- 
ing the multitude, shuâimg it away, and giving itscli' a diiel; llie 
diaippointed nations looking reatleasly towaida France, as ahe sat 
still under a new kinr; the revolutionary ^iîit Ûattorcd at Ëist, tbea 
comprçssed, and finally exploding in prodigioua efforts and scenes of 
horror, plots, and butt'hcries ; tlixee hundred repubhcans giT-ing battle 
in Paris to a whole army; property assaîled by daring sectarifais; 
Lyon twice infiorgcnt Mid deluged with blood; the Duchesse de 
Bern rekindling the janaticifflu of La Vendee, and disgraced by 
those of her own fajnily; unparalleled prosecutions; the choïeni; 
abroad peace uncertain, tliough sought after with ruinoua obstinacy; 
Alxic-a dc^'astatcd at random, the Kast abandoned; within, no secu- 
rity; all the wild riot of intellect^ and some noble efforts; conuner- 
dal anarchy at its height; the disgraceful excesses of apoculation 
ending in ruin; the executive decried; five attempts at regicide; tho 
peopl« furtively piompted to vast doeîrra; secret societies; tho rich 
alarmed, irritated, and combming with impatience of the evil the 
dread of escaping from it. Such is the picture presented by the his- 
toid of the tea years between 1830 and 1840, 

In a purely political point of view it is naturally divided into three 
great période. 

In the £r?t, which extends from the establishment of the Orléans 
dynasty to the fall of the Laffilte administration, the executive 
appears restless, feeble, tottering; it subsista only by fallacious con- 
ocavions; it developea itself only by aidficc. Linked together by a 
ootnniunity of intcrcsta and hopes, royalty wid the hourgeoiàe 
afford each other mutual support: the parliamentaiy and the monar- 
chical principle enter into a momentary alliance. This is the period 
of jbundation. 

The second embraces the administration of Cftfiomir Perier, 
continued by that of Thiers and Gidzot. The executive, violently 
attacked, defends itself with violence. A comraimity of danger 
reudcifl more close the idliance already concluded betwe^i the bour- 
geom» snd royalty : the parliamentary and the monarchical principle 
blended into one. This is the period of struggle. 

■ eeean 



In the third an^ 1a^ periotl the vices of Ûie sjt^em declare thcm- 
Ëâlvcs, The ûKeeutivCy ccaaiii^ to encounter any Denou^ dangers^ , 
first become listless, &nd then divides. The bou^;eoiate and royalty . 
begin to Ee^HUBte. The chamber grows iacticius, and the ministz^ 
practises tirta of corruption. The riviilry of the ttro principles un- 
lolds itself with all ita inconTemences, fdl its djmgcïs. Thoa ia tha 
period of decline. 

liut before recounting the details of thia great dnana, it ia im« 
^rt&Qt to ehow the state in which the revolution of July found 

That revoluticHi sent a universal thrill through the world. Tha 
nations that had been enthraîled "by the treaties of 1815 wera 
aiouâed. Tltc apparition of the tricolour flag iloating over tho 
French consulate in Wareaw made the true hearts of the Poles, ouï 
old brethren in arms, beat hin:h with hope. At Brussels, Lie^e, and 
Antvrerp, men asked tlieniselve^ at last by what right two millions 
of Dutclunen conimandcd four Toilliooa of Belgians. The lUienino 
provinces, which, though they did not speak our languape, wishei 
to rctiLQi our laws, desired to belung to ua trom pride. A formidably 
fermentatioQ was manifested in tlie German luiiTcisitieeT till then 
lormented by vague aspirations after liberty. But nothing could 
compare with the movement that pervaded Italy. Throughout tho 
whoio pcninETula, including the Roman 5tat^^ t]ie enthusiasm was 
boimdJess. In the streets, the squares, and ail public places^ tho 
multitude thronged round travellers irom France; they made them 
read aloud the journals of their country; and when they had thus 
recoimted to their eager liftctieirB some of the prodigious events 
recently enacted on the batiks of the Seine, a unaniiDous burst of 
applause followed the recital, mingled with cries and sobs. It is 
almost literally true that for Bcveral days the Italians never ceased to 
look towards the Alps, expecting e\-ery hour to see the French de- 
scending from tlicm. The rerolution of July derived from distance 
somcthiug of a marvelloua dumtcter; and the people of Franc© 
sprang up again, in (he eyes of wfflidering Europe, in the gigaoUo 
proportio^u given to it by the HepubliCf and, alter the repubkc, by 
the Kmpirc. 

The emotion felt in England wjis profound. Tlie newspapers vied 
ilk celebrating the heroism of the Faririane, and subscriptions were 
opened in every direcdon in favour of the wounded. These demon- 
strations were sincere and di&inlcrefted only on the part of thd 
radicals. The wliigs broke out JTito exultation, because their anti- 
cipaliona had always snociatcd the triumph ol' French hberaliani 
with their ovra advancement to office. But the tones, strange as 
it might appear^ the very tories showed themselves msensibic to 
the calamity ihut had befallen a royal family, and the Wellington 
admini^tmtton Beemed to look complacently on a crins that yet wat 
destined to cause its own dowiiial. 

The fact was, the tones saw in this matter something superior to 



»11 quesrtions of party — the Question, namely, of the Biiprcmacy of 
England in Europe, The English aristocracy, like every other, 
pursues the accomplishment of its designs vntn great clear-srehted- 
neas and ï^stemûtic consistency. It knew that the idea hm been 
entcrtainoa, imdcr Charles X,, of giving the French the left bank of 
the Rhine, andtlie Russians ConstantiDople. It knetv, too, that the 
Duu d'Ofléana was English by taste ana by inclination, as he had 
f Mated under bis hand* 

All panics in England combined, therefore, if not to oeîebratc the 
llrictories achieved in France over tlic monarchy, at lea?t to insult the 
[ tanquiahed monarch. When the vesel in which Charles X. and his 
nily came to its moorings at Portsmouth, the English flocked in 
ICrowdB to the port, wcariug the tricolour ribbon. Views of the 
fCfreat Britain Tirere exhibited in the streets to the derision of the 
Ipublic, and tlie walla were covered with placards irtaulling the cxiltS3. 
l'Une of them ran thus : — *' What is the real feeling of the English 
■towards the unfortunate individual who has violated the laws he had 
l»worn to maintain? Abhoirencc and contempt," The Due de 
IHaguse ha™g gone on shore al'ter taking leave of the royal fiimily, 
I ihe custom-house ofticers behaved to him with capbouâ and Tcxatious 
Hgour; and no sooner had he mt out landwatus than a multitude 
îollected round his carriage and furiously abused him, Charles X. 
ftiot having been able to go ftshore at Portsmouth, the Great Britain 
M.nà the Cfiartes Carroll went and moored at Cowes. Well then» 
lEnglishmen went on board» planteil themselves in front of the fallen 
llirinceâf and \vith their Imts on their heads, and their arms folded, 
iStoTç^l at them with Buch sneering and insulting curiosity, that the 
\captain was obliged, at the request of Charles X., to forbid ikcm the 

Far from opposing iheso demonstrations, equally wanting aa they 
I TK^K in good faith and in dignity, the English government encouraged 
t$hcm^ andfoUowedtlteroup with falsehood and contumely of its own. 
LCharitiâ X. had requested permission to land in England, the tory nu- 
LtiiaterB sent him back word that he tnu^t not set foot on the English 
' goil until he had divested himself of the title of king. In order to find 
Ijn asylum in a nation that had always made it itsi pride to appear 

jiitable, Charles X. was obliged to take the name of Comte de 


' On tbe iSih of Julr, 1804, the Doc d'Orléana wrote from Tvrtckenhun to the 
I ^iihop uf Lliuidaflj on the SDt^ect i>f tlm ecrmon prDuchi?iJ !□ LoQd'j>[i oa tbc dcatli of 
I thu DiK' iTBnghieD : 

I " Mtin cher Milonl, — I wai nucr yoar {E^oeroui Knit would ftel juBt intlj^nuion at 
[ tlic lUruc'luiu munUT uf pay nnfaituiiate couitn. Idu mother wm ray uuiti he h'ua- 
kpidf wft», (liter mj' brother, cay veûmi rdâii^. Hit One it n vrnming to iu aU; It 
rtftows ustliat tbo Contican unupcrwiTl oevcr rest till lu: has swept away our whole 
l^mîl^ from «mon^ the Itring, Tliia tnalm inc fee\ xnora «eiuilil/ thiui tiêftitt:, 
I Éhow^lli I'uit Ù icarwJj- pqmihlc^, ibe valutf of tii€ eenCTOua protwtwb affunk-d to us 
^y Tour majrnjiainiiiu* nation. 1 kft my country ao youinr» that I hmnlly relaJu tlie 

itilt» of A F PL- 11 eh lu An, luid I can »a.j wttS truth that t am attadied (o Englaail not 

ûy hy gratitwiey but ibo by twtc and inclinatioo/ 






' Boron (rHausses (who had preceded hh old master on that hos- 
tile soil, and who had met with but a rude reception from the Duke 
of Welliii^ii)j followed Charles X. to the ahode aesi|raed him. Tho 
pa-l&cc of Moly Rood was in a state of compl^to diMpidâùùn,: no- 
thing had been done to render it habitable; the chuiri were still 
covered with the accumuLited dust i>f jeaia; the hangings wcro 
jsgged, and every tiling about tlic place recalled the gloomy âde of 
tbcliigtory of the Stuam, 

Could Châties X. httve dreamed that in a country tlien governed by 
tones, the lineal dcsccndanta of jacobitca, he should fail to receiro 
that generous and nmgnificcnt hospitality James II. had formerly 
enjoyed at St. Geritiaîn? But no monaa-ch came at Holy Hood aa 
at St. Germain^ to the foot of tho grand slaircase to receive ih© 
expected viaiter. Instead of a prince it was a doorkeeper who ap- 
peared with keys in hia hand, and gmj&y Bhowed the way ijitu tha 
dc£K)late apartrocnts- Instead of the casket fJlcd with gold^ muni- 
fice-ntly presented by Louis XIV. to the last of the Stuarts, nothing 
was accn on tl^c table but heaps of scarcely legible papers, — writs 
and wammte of execution alreJidy awaiting the i'ugitivcs in that in- 
hospitable kingdom. Not a soldier Imd been added to the g'uard at 
the main entrance, and tho sentinel did not present arma when tliaC 
old man who had been a king passed before hiin. 

The Kngliah aristocracy bad a double purpose to serre in out- 
ra^ingj or sufièring outragea to bo heaped on the white haii« ol" a 
guilty but uufortimatc prince: it wislied nn tlxe one hand to take 
venj^cance for the preference Charlcfl X. had shown to liussia; and 
on the other» it hoped to win the alliance of that new France of 
which it w»s ftlraid- 

The French bourgeoisie was too much en^n^ssed with the prida 
of its triumph, and too little initiated into the mysteries of Britiah 
dipUunacy to see through this deep and artful policy: it took for th« 
cscprea&ion of disinterested good will what waa but a crafty dc^^ce of ' 
selHt^hnesSf and a hypocritical form di^guLËing an undying^ hatred. 

He this as it may, ihe some motives that made Eingland rejoice, 
HUcd the court of St^ Petersburg with sorrow. Rusia waa too 
remoie from the centre of modem ideas, and too atemlv broken into 
slavery, to give tlic Emperor Kicolas much reason to be uneasy as 
lo the contagion of Fftmco's example. He could hardly have any 
lïpprchenAions on. this score^ c-xcept with regard to Poland. But 
the revolution of July had put an extinguisher upon the project of 
an alliance which proim:»cd the Rusians a position on the confines 
of Europe and Aaia, whereby ihey would have become sovereign 
arbiters of tho destinies of the world. This was what the Emperor 
Kioolaa couJd not think of without bitter mortifie» tion. The unex- 
pected obafiade to his foreign policy touched him more nearly than 
the blow s^Qok acaiuEt the inviolabiiity of royal races. He never- 
theless disguised liitf resentment, adhering in this to the established 
system of Hussiaf which for half a oeutuiy had nerer ce«sed to mvke 



questions of right and principle the atulking-horaes for its diplanutic 
intrigucB or its sdiemcs of aggrandizement, 

with regard to Austria aûd Fru9si&i all distinction between the 
policy of principles and that of intereat would ]\aw been, idle in 
their cose; for were the dogma of tiie sovcrejntity of tho people onoc 
admitted in Germany, there would be an end to that den>otisia of 
the diet, the shameful advantages of which Prussia and Austria, 
Bharcd between them. The court of Vienna above all was utercsted 
in Glutting out tlutt fiery appeal to liberty, which would be mire to 
find echoes in Italy, aud be converted there into a call to iiide- 

Sucli were the vtiioiïs feeUiifra the revolution of July was ulti- 
inately to excite j but thia tnanifestarion was preceded by fitnuifi^ 
"uuhounded stupefaction. NothiDg like had ever been Blown in 

' history. The haughtiest powers aeenied thunderstruck. One would 
^have said that theneeforth the nations were to sutraist only with the 
Kelp and by the permission of f'rancc. The immediate destiiues of 

, Europe were suddenly become a furmidnble mystery. 

To be able to conceive how fruitful and glorioua might have beeii 
the part filled by France at that time, we must know what wna. the 
™l ^u^^n oi Europe .. the »™ont of the xe^lu^on ^ 

- Turkey was s. prey ready to the grasp of the Husnans. On 

ascending the throne^ Malimoud had foimd the provinces of hift eva- 

pire given up to the Anarchical rule of the pachas, and the atithoQty 

of the Bultans humbled beneath the yoke -of the ulemas and the 

rjaniaaaries. Fully determined to bx'eak down this triple tyranny, he 

ils&ailcd it with daring reforms, but in his cageme^ to quell it he 

^■acrificed the independence and the inte^ty of Turkey, Thus it 

[ ^rae that to leave his hands free for the destruction of his domestic 

J 'CoemieSj be signed in 1812 the shameful treaty of Bukharest, wliich 

I abandoned the mouths oi' the Danube to Uu?sia, Greece having 

JTSea after thiâ, he sent the bravest of the janissaries thither in 

^^ehle detachmcntâ, and in âuch a manner as to cause thçir eittemii- 

kiution, feeding with hia own hands the Aamca of a revolt he cxMlld 

r luLVc extinguished, and causing the most valiant defenders of the 

fitouae of Othman to be slaughtered by its most invctciate foes. In 

' this inexorable policy he pçi>isted till its triumph waî consummated 

'on the 15th of June, I82fi, which deluged Constantinople with tlie 

I Idood of the janizaries; But it is by victories Uke this that empires 

[■re undone. The Christian powers had interfered in favour of 

' Greece by the treaty of the 28th of July, 1827, and by the battle of 

^xfavarino; Mahmoud looked round him in vain for an army; he 

b&und. himself reduced ttj preach a crusade against RusàiL, which 

[brought the tempest down upon his head, but gave him no means of 

Econjuringit: his new soldiery, though favoured at first by Ibrtinte, 

t ^nu yet imable to close the paaies of the Balkan against the Ruasians; 

«ftd th« troaty of Adoaopple, wrung &om the dianuiy of the v»- 




former» avenged the januarica hy giiring vktorious RusdA a large* ' 
portion of the spoils M' Turkey, i 

Tliua Mahmoud found himself in 1830 in the conditioD of a ! 
soviirtigu who hnd inctensed his power by destroying his pcoplej 
&ad for every reform achieved in despite of cnemiea within, there ■ 
WÉfl a corxEapondeiit loaa of territory to enemies -wiiKout, The bar- 
ruulca of the isaiizarlea liatt been bumcdj but Greece was inde* 
pendcut; the divan was rescued from the mystio domination of tho 
ulemosi but the CAbinet of St, Fetciabucg bad o&uâcd th« pen to be i 
struck through the name of Turkey in the treaties of 1^15, as being 
that of a kingdom doomed to partition. The Turks wore â , 
Em^opean costume, and were drilled on the Europcnn eyatem, but 
Couatandnople, alitady TOBaal to that civilization, which it seemed 
only to have adopted to undcreo its sovereignty, heard the Russiani 
thimdcTing at its gates. Mahmoud vas now but the omnipotent \ 
head of an empire leduced to impotence. With prodigious exep> ] 
tion ho had accomphshcd no more than to be enabled to reign die- ' 
tator over the tuins liimself had made. 

Riiâàa then was on the point of seizing the object of her ambi- 1 
tion, and that a great one, for it wnâ not rostrict^d to the conquest 
of Turkey. To convert the Black Sea into an interior lake, to hold 
the âeeta of KngLmd and France in check in the Mediterranean, to 
rule the Adriatic, to make Egypt^ Greece, and the islands* depend- 
encies on her power* in Ëne to ^hnpc out a road for herself to the 
EugUidi possessions in India, such waa the gigantic scheme Ruâsift 
had traced out; and to Tcaltïe it what had Ae to do? To occupy 
the Dardanelles. 

Moreover the possession of the Bosphorua was indispensable to hef 
to complete her system of defence. I*rotected fixim her foes on the 
north by the length of the ways, the snows iiud the desert, she bad 
but one vulnerable point, namely on the south. Now to reach that 
pointaitaated in the centre of her possessions, was it not necessary to 
pasï through the Dardanelles ? Were those straits her own she would 
thea be unassailable. Everywhere present* and ererywhisfc un^ 
assailable, her tiiight would be felt at every point of western Europe, 
wliilst she hereelf would be beyond the reach of threat or blow. 
The occupation of the Bosphorus was for her tlie empire of the 

Accordingly she had never ceased for sixty years to bend her ejci 
on that point of the map. Conducted to the borders of the Black 
Sea in 1774 by the treaty of Kaînardji; put in possession of th» 
Kouban and of the Crimea in the same year, by the treaty of Con- 
stantûiople; made mistress, in 1812, by the peace of Bukarest, of ' 
tho baokaof the Fruih and of Beaaarabia, she bad just put the climaiC 
to hei dipknaatic victories by the treaty of Adiianoplc, when th« 
levolutbn of July burst upon her. 

• By virtue of the treaty of Adrianople Russia acqtiired the delta 
formed by the mouths ot the Danube, several mili^iy pooitioiWi and 



> hundred leagues of coast; ghe isolated the princlpalitiça firom 
Porte hy tlic establishment of a quarantine ^ she secured the light 
of admimâtfaiîve intervention m the aflàirs of Turkey; «he imposed 
fin onerous tribute on her enemies, and she exacted tliat the fortrctt 
of Silistria should be dehvored to her in pledge of payment. 

At last there was no mîâtatdng why the cabinet of St. Petcts- 

had encouraged thiî insurrection of the Greeks, eicited tho 

^ous and philosophic sentimcntalism of the liberals of the irest, 

provoked against Uie SubUme Porte the diplomatic excomnm- 

nicfltion pronounced wiUi such g^uU-like àmplicity by France aiid 

England, in the treaty of the 6th of July. The trap set at Navarino 

wcred the end proposed. Russia gathered up the advantaees 

aed by that victory; her allies, be^iiled by her, shared tke 

heme between them. 

The treaty of Adrianoplc did not» however, produce the aensotioti 

it ought iu Europe. 

We have seen m the Erst book of this history how &vounhle was 
the poUcy of the Pohgnac admiuiatration to the viewa of Russia 
upon Constantînople. 

ProBeda was too remote &om the Bosphorus not eo consider her> 
self uninterested in the fjuestion ; not to mention that she had then 
more urgent matters to occupy her attention, for the Rhenine pro- 
vinces resisted the sub^cuûon of the Prusian for the French code 
with a vigour wliich tlie vicinity of France rendered very alarming 
to the cabinet of Berlin, The moral situation of tlut cabinet m&y 
be surmised from the exclamation uttered by the King of Prussia, 
on heaniuf of the events of Paris* " If the French go no further 
than the Rhine, I will not stir a foot." 

As for Austria, she ought to have watched wîlh anxiety the stto- 
Doanve enlargicments of the UuEsian tenitorj, which thttatened bor 
both onthcbimks of the Danube iiud ou the Adriatic; hut swayed by 
M. Mctternich, a statesman without originality or wide moge <h 
intellect, the oidy thing she tliought of was tho danger to whicn her 
Bapremacy was exposed from the ambition of ^-uasia in Germany, 
and from the rerolutionary spirit in Italy. 

KngUnd herself, usually ao shrewd and able, ao attentive to the 
general moTcmenlfi taking place in Europe^ England seemed to hav« 
forgotten Lord Cliathara'a word^, " I have not a word to say to the 
man who can fail to sec that the interests of England are otmocmod 
in the preservation of the Ottoman enipire.'^ And'in^(act a consider- 
able dinjinution of Ëngliâh mfluence in the Mediterranean; the 
importance of her poasesùons in the Levant destroyed; her projeeta 
ofoomnuinicftting with India through Turkey for ever ûnstrated; 
the ^most inevitable loss of an outlet for the annual expoiteliott oC 
thirtj millionâ' worth of EiigBdi pvoductitHis^ — such were furc to bo 
; «xmcr or later the results to Great Britain of Busôsn cway in 

DadoBtioos to important had doubtless not escaped the poae- 

ivT^iwït côst>iîrôw 'Si? bîw£ani>. 


tntion of the flifil'^matists of St. Jaines'?: but tlie întèmar îier- 
plexîlaes of Englancï account for her apathy. G&orge IV. httd t^t 
aîcd in the heat of the struggle between two parlica diflering i'rom 
each other on secondary points, but both equally hoetilc to tho peopl* 
and lo the Uberties of the world. Gtorge IV. vras succeeded by mf 
brother the Duke of Glarence, who, with a hypoctisy common to 
nil heirs presumptive, had ranged himself on tlie whig ado ^vhcn 
prinoo, butt showed himself a tory when he became king. 

England meanwhile liad exhausted the prosperity won by her 
Crifncs, Authentic testimonies showed that penury and distrcishati 
reached their acme in the agricultural districts. The majority of the i 
farmers payed theit rent out of their capital; and many dnven bjrj 
poverty from their holdings wandered about as common beggars; j 
pett3ant3 had been seen in many districts yoked to carts like beasts I 
of burden. The towns presented still more piteous spectacles o£| 
distress. A wan, iUthriven, sickly, and prematurely blighted po- i 
pnl&tion rottod in unwholcsorao factories, where all ages and eexea j 
were mingled in fiightfui confusion. Labour was e.xeessive, wagcA J 
insufficient, " Do you not shudder, my lords»" eaid Lord StanhoM'j 
in the house of peers, " to think of the number of workmen whoil 
are unable to earn more than from three to four pence a day?" From T 
Birmingham, where, according to tho declaradou oi'the sBJneuobl«*T 
man, w^^ had fallen two-third»^; frora Birmingham Iliad issued iiL'j 
the beginning of 1830 cries ol" despair which George IV. might 
echoing round his deatlibed. The same symptoms of decay jiervade. 
the opulent and cruel clasa placed over the sjarring populace. Th^i 
poor-rate», swollen in some parislies to forty shiliinjfs an acre, threat* 
ened with an ever-increasing burden the proprietoi's round whom it 
multiplied poverty. The exporta had sensibly diminished, an alarm- 
ing symptom for a nation that so long perturbed and govcriied the 
world with the gold of which it stripped it ! The budget, presented 
in 1830 by Mr. Goulbtinij chancellor of the exchequer, showed lhi« 
remarkable combination^ the necessity of alleviating the pressure of 
taxation and a deficit. 

Every tiling then was declining in England, agriculture, industry, 
eommerce^ and finance. And during this time Irchind, whose eT.-il 
n^ere incapable of augmentation, and whose passions had not been 
allayed by the recent emancipation of the catholics; Ireland was ' 
a ferment, and began her vengeance against her oppressors by send 
inp iJicm O'ConneJJ. 

What remedy was lo be found forthis fearful iunount of cviJs? 
conunission of inquiry was propcsed. But that would have render 
it nec«36ary lo avow m the face of Europe that iLe policy of Enghm 
had never been any thing eke but n criminal blunder^ and that aite 
having oTerthrown many a kingdom^ fomented a thousand revolts^ 
\'iolatod treaties, ravaged provincea, £red town?, insolently cntàlair 
the (tea?, and all tliis to End purchasers for English ^Oûdâ, that i 
nil this that policy resulted only in impolcmce. It is certain tliaA \a:" 




TfiftlrinLg it ter CT'stem to Bubstitute hci own activity for that of ali 
the daUoiir rendered trilrEitiuy to her trade, Kugland had not pcr^ 
cedved that she would ead by iropovenahin^ them,, and that her own 
mm voidd be oon^immatea on the day vrhcn she should bave iiiad* 
ihcm all incapable of C4i&hing their acceptances. Neither had she 
rejected that to render palpable the madnese of her eystcm, no more 
iras necessary thou that a lew great nations should be tempted to 
imitate it. iliis is what an inquiry would have clearly reveklod. 
Now tlie tory mmisters of the day did not choose to pronounce so 
flagrant a condcmnatloa against the genius of old England; and 
their adverarica taking advantage of this tlilemmato accuse them of 
incapacity, prepared to force them from ofiicc, by demanding simul- 
tancoiialy electoral reform and a conunisdon of inquiiy. 

Thus distraeted iritiun, Great Biitain saw her influence ptiralyzod 
without, and her dcstânîes compromised. Menaced alike by the 
victorious march of Russia towairas India, and by the acquisitions of 
f ranee on the shores of the Mediterranean, elie had ecarcely any 
thing left whertnvith to make head against these two dfaigcrs, exoopt 
the well'known artifices of her diplomacy; for Uio people, crushed 
dotm by taxation^ uuisted on ecotiomy. Mr. Hume had excited 
rtrong sympathy among ibe poorer classes by proposing to the house 
of commons a reduction of the army and navy estimates; and lastly 
Ireland employed a considerable number of troops, which were more 
necessary than ever to uphold in that unfortunate country a tyranny 
without parallel and without name. 

Every thing seemed, tlieicfore, to conapirc to make Roaiûi the 
^greatest power in the world, Unlbrtunately for her her real mifht 
I vas &T from conesponding to the skill of her diulomatists ana to 
Ithe greatn^ of her dc^gna. Her last war with toe Turkâ had C3i* 
Efcâtiatcd her resouroefi; formidable in appearance fihe had need, more 
Fth&n any other nation, of peace to enable her to follow up her in- 
[trigues; and her eropireT though colossal, was easily to be shaken, 
" ecanse it wanted aymmetry and firm foundation. 

To these complications, arising out of the reapectivû Côndîtiona of 
Itlie principal powcTS, was added the restlesaaea» of the sccundnry 
en, most of which were reduced to lead a prçcarioua and ha- 
id existence in Europe. 
By Ilia marriage with Marie Cliristinc de Bourbon, Ferdinand 
m. had deeply mcen^ed the party of the monks^ whose aaectiooa 
rcre bestowed on the infant Don Carlos, as a prinee more 
_, more gloomy, more proasly devout, and more bogotted than 
I mooarch lumBclfl Christina, already giiilty in tlie eyes of th» 
apostolus for having introduced new f^sliions at court and tiic love 
orplesHurea and fôtea, became hateful to them when they learacd 
that she was prâgnant; for if aho bore a son Don Carlos lost hit 
hopes of a crown. lîut tho partisans of the infante had h>oq a 
moro serious prorocabon to anger; Christina im^ht be dehreïod of 
a dMoghteTf ami 'm that case, by virtue of the saht^ue law introduced 





mlo Spftin, by tliG Bourbon Plulip V,,Doii Carloa would be entUlod lo 
giMxe«d tûa brother Ferdinand Vll. To présent tbat misfortune to 
her prc^eny, the queen prevailed on htr husband to abolidi the 
saJiqua aw? and on the 5tli of April a pragmatic sanction, attributed 
by the royal decree toCharles IV,,i£iformed SjMiinthatitinightthence- 
forth, as m the times of the Gothic law, be governed by females. 
The fury of the apoetolica redoubled; their adversaries were duahed 
with all the intolerance of victory. The juration, after all, was one 
that admitted of controTCTsy. Jcrdînand VII., according to the 
putÙUis of Don Carlos^ had no right to abolisli by a mer^ rO'yal 
OTchnuvincc that saliquc law which Philip V. had introduced into 
Spfdn with tlic consent of the cortcs of 1713. The pardMUfi of the 
4j«cen, on their part, replied, that the pragmatic tanciian was not 
a mere royal ordoniULQce, tliat it was ui e^iKiiËition of the pragïn&Uc 
of Charles IV. put forth at the request of tlie cortra 1789. War, 
it ia evident, lay at tho botcom of such a dispute; and JTrauce, 
■(rhich was more intcreetcd in tlu^ quarrcl than any other nation of 
Europe, was called on to choose her coujse in the matter. Now, 
loolkin"' at the matter in a monarchical point of ^lew, the PoUgnac 
administmtion would naturally support tJie preteuaons of Don Carlos ; 
becftuse if the salique law were once abolished in Spain, a marriage 
would bo enough to revive the old influence of Austria in that kuuf- 
dom. The policy of Charles X.'s last mioiËters consequenu^ 
seconded the views of Don Carlos and his partimns. 

Be this aa it may, the iureterate rancour borne to ChriBtiuft bv 
the apofltolicfl was of a nature to serve the cau»> of the democratic 
party. Hic latter, it is true, kept out of eight; it was silent; and 
aU tKoec who might ïuivo acted as ita leaden had been despatched 
by ^e cjcecutlonçr, or were in cacilc. But the niemory of toe con- 
stitution of 181S, and of the cortcs of 1820, was not the lesa aUve 
in the hearts of the Spaniardp- Il was even the sole real motive 
power in Spain* where despotism had consumed ita reâoureea by ita 
exoesKS. The maintenance of the established order of things ia 
re&nty interested hardly any other tlian the clergy. Nobles einbar- 
nuscd by their privilèges; a people wretched and discontented I no 
middle clashed; no aim for ambition besides that which olhi:C8 uf 
Slate held out; few manulacturcs, no commerce^ and consequently 
none of the vices which the pasaon for gain engenders; none uf the 
dMtAclea it opposes to rovolationfl, even the most legitim&Ie. How 
many chances in favour of the triumph of the democratic party had 
F»ncc thought pmper to back it t 

Portugal as well as Spain was on the eve of a war of succession, 
Don Ptdrr», who had become emperor of Brazil on the day when 
the Brarilinns had shaken ofT the Portugese yoke, foimd bimwlT j 
called on upon the death of his father, John VI., to choose bctweeitfl 
the two crowns. He kept tliat of Brazil, and abdicatod that of | 
Portu^l in favour of hÎ3 daughter, "Dona Maria. But his brother, 
Don Miguoi, whotn he nominated recent of Portugil» *^-l ^»A 

B 2 " 



scruple to usurp tlid throne. Dona Cliarlotte Joachiiiic, the tvifo 
of the jiubccile and unfortunate John VL^ had lotig instructed the 
infante m the practice of crime and the art of trcuchrry. Her 
leeeona were not throi^Tî away on Don Miguel; and in 1830 Lisbon 
trembled undor thn îiand ot ihat sRvagc and cnprictouâ manioci 
that tyrant thirsting insatiably for blood, who yet was upheld by the 
nobles whffse privilc^os ho ^defended, by the clergy whose domina- 
tion he maiiitamed, and by thnt swnrm of b&ggars whom the monks 
of Portu^ral had up to thitt time fed, coTruptea, and held m leash. 

The rcco^Tiitiou of Don Miguel was, ho-ncver, ht'td in suspense by 
bII tlie courts ol'Europc. France lean&d towards Don Pedro, with- 
ûut, for all that, ovcrslopping- the expectative line of policy. Nci- 
tlier did Kng'land declare hoTSelf^ though her intertst in the quee- 
tion was immediate and pre^in^^ on, account of the eonuneîvial 
yokc witli which she had loaded Portugal. In troth it was a peril- 
ous and difficult thm^ lur England to come to a decision. If Don 
Miguel rumninod on the throue it was to be feared that hia political 
principl(->s would impel him to court the alliance of the eiKolute 
IdngB, and that the court of Lisboa would accept the patronage of that 
of Mjulrid, »8 the aid fiinxîïhed the Miguditc party by the hipaniardâ 
Ccemed already to signify. On the other hand, wonld not Don Pedro, 
iuil as he was of re!SUeâ& thoughts of glory, would he not be tempted 
I to cnmncipate hid country from the commercial vassalap;e m which 
it had been so Ictng kept by the sîiopkcepers of London? Lord 
. i*on*onby liad been sent to ftio Janeiro to sound the emperor rels' 
rtivt'ly to the maintenance of the treotv which ratiâcd thst duunofol 
MUAgc; and the emperor's reply hatl not been satzalkctory. Tins 
I «ncHiffh to make Lnc^lând throw him overboard, even though 
khad forgotten the zeal with which» in the revolution of 18^, 
b Pedro* fritaids, the constitutionalists, bad overtlirowe Lord 
l^eresford's tyianny in Lisbon. 

If «cuch vds the »tat^ of peq^lexity in which the independent 
ntiouB, or tbo§e which wen* reputed independent, were plunged, it 
ly raâlr be iTnairitic<t what storms ^xre ^thcring in the nations 
at had Wen the victjna of the- treaties of 1815. 
abr pal{ûlnte<l under the sway of Austria, of wliich her prinoca 
> kluo mure than the prufccif ; a sway the more ^honWl, fov 
at it «as exerciaed by means of diplomacy. Deprimed of the riigbt 
"^ * ' tavening their natirc land, and of that of imbtiidûng tkâr 
I nwaiird in their personal hbcrty — tzacked by ifwa, «vcn 
ihinr luKBdiokd cin.'lc9 — cx{x)i^<d to the ^ef of bdboUung» upoo 
I kaK n mwu e u tt the abtiomsi unifianns of the AaetnaB gamaoo8 
from Home to Aacona, from Tuna to Naples — Um Ite- 
t vmichîng witli nrelli^ impaoEBoe for the momoii to 
ahako off their cbùtks. Jhotc diaji» «tie. however, lancfa heavier 
- dw caUghicaed man of the Batson than for the rest of its inha* 
«Boaa phjrâcal oomUtibn «as not in reality rery mlbitii- 
hat in mlj thcce ate no dâtmctioM of gIb», prapu^ 





speaking, except in Piedmont, where eociety is constituted upon a \ 

MgiiUrly graduated scalt^^ The Italian «iidtlle order felt conse- ■ 

qucDtly tiiat it could easily cairy aJong with it in its train that ' 

people trom which it was separated by no barrier, and of wliich it.l 

formed tJio élite. It is certaia that the love of Italian ind^pcnd-J • 

eoco existed cTerywhere, evtn among the loTvcst of the populace, ^ 

if not in the shape of opinion, yet at least în tliat of instinct andf 

sentiment. Tlierc ■vrore even countries of Itftly, la Roniagna fbc 

instance, where that sentiment prevailed among tno people in a very 

inU-nsc degree. At Genoa every one still remembered the day 'I 

when the AustriunSt having- endcavouretl to force the inhabitunta 

to help in carrying awuj a mortar, a child ciicd out la romjro (I will 

break it ) ; a cry that roused tlic people, and caused the expulsion of 

a multitude of strangcTB fro£n the city, ai^er ihreo days of heroic 

conJlict, The independence of Italy was, therefore, a thought tliat 

brooded in every heart, jVnd again, those who were naturally 

called to place themselves at ihc head of tlic movement looked for 

the acbicvement of independence only to the triumph of unity. 

In fact, though Italy vras yet ptu-tcd in to_ fragments, and the memory of 

the federative struggles of the middle agea wtiâ perhaps not yet quite 

extinct there, Palermo and Naples were the only two cities between ■ 

which there subsisted a dorp spirit of cmnity: Genoa herîclf, 

though remembering how flounshing she had once been, and 

thou4=rh bending but with indignation under the yote of Turin, even 

Genoa did not carry her jealousy 90 far as not to throw open her 

gktes with alacrity to the Piedmontcsc emîgnmts after the insur- 

wetion of 1821, give them welcome, furnish them with money, and 

save them. These were to the Itftlian patriots sufficient moti^'ea for 

hope. Only let France lend thcna her aid, let her hinder the Ans- 

trians from crossing the Alps, and luUy was live, Rome would 

then readily open her gates to the insurrection advancing from 

Boltigna; the pope, stripped of Ins temporal jwwcr, would proAerve 

his spiritual authority intact; Italy^ in tine, would be politically 

constituted ofwr ijiscribing on her banners the magic word Uuittf. 

Such were the projects of the Italiiui patriots. Aa to the leader 

they would adopt, they could not hflve much difficulty aa to their ' 

choice» titàng that in their eye* the question of nationaUty was the 

most important, and the one to be first of all determined. This it 

is that cxpl^irï the relations which hstd been established between 

Menotti and the Duke of Modcna, an artful, cruel prince, inclined 

to despotifim, but of vigorous will, and capable of plunging into u 
.^ .. ... . ' . 1 . o Italy/ 

its situation 
. plijrrical point of view it had never been more 
proBperou» than since its union with Holland- The Dutch colonics 
afforded import«flt and ûcL^essary outlets for its productions^ The mo- 
narch who ruled it vras, moreover, a man of sotind head, and unques- 
tionably one of the moat remarkable m^ in Europe. Deeply veoed 




eomomic âcnenco, widi a ts^tc^ because witK a. genius for tpGCoU' 
ttf William had given the Holbindo-Belgic trade a very yivid, 
not a very moral impetus. Some of the richest incrcliaota of his 
kingdom were his partacrs, others his debtors; and he it was who 
hod founded, in some ^rt nt hi& own risk, the Général Societt 
pf Bruasels. But William was a thorough Dutchman at heart. He 
remembered but too well that Belgiumnad been united in 1$15 lo 
Holland, only as an aceessitm of territory. Hence, offonave prefer- 
eaccs, and a rcvnltm^ partiality iJi the distribution of public employ- 
Tnent9, an exeeedinglv formidable grievance, filncc it nimâd ogainrt 
Holland the most stirring' and the most enlightened pctrtion of the 
Bd^ian population. Add to this, thai the two people did not speak 
the same language, did not prof(?3s the same lehgion, had not tho 
same liabits and manners; that four millions of lieUpana sent no 
greater number of representatives to the States-general, than two 
millions of Dutch; that William had insûsted on introducing the uw 
of one common language into the public documents and the proceed* 
ings of the law courts; and lliat^ in fine, he had by the estabhahmait 
of the philosophic college of Louvain, aroused against him the jealoua 
and uufo^gi\^Il^ power of the Belgian clorgy. The alliance between 
the liberab nndthe clcrn;j, yt:ss a natural result of thif state of thin^; 
that alliance waa as strict as possible in 1830, and it was daily becom- 
ing more menacing to the court of the Hague, Such, howeveti w»* 
the physical prosperity of the Belgians, that thcii Irritation did not 
prompt them to wish for the violent overthrow of the dynasty: an 
administrative EepamtioQ would have satisfied them. Many would 
have even been contented with the tKaml*w>1 of Van Maancn, the 
minister of justice, the too faithful instrument of his master's unjust 
desires. But it would Jmve been i^t otherwise if, in breaking off ita 
conne^Qon vrith Holhindj Belgium could Iiave placed ilaelf In a mtUA- 
tion that would liave afforded it the advantage it derived iiom its 
union with the latter country. France had but to rtretch out her 
arms to Belgium, to conclude with it tlie compact of a faithful «ad ^^ 
honourable fratemitr- ^B 

The «tudtioa of Poland, like that of Belgium^ cont^ed within it 
numerous germs of revolution. The froward warlike nobility of Po- ^m 
land, had submitted with fierce resentment to the treaties of IBIS, ^Ê 
and had more than once endeavoured to cost oflf their yoke. Major 
Ltikfisinfiki, the iiifltigalor of a Lvnspiracy which was diseoverod, had ^ 
died tn & dungeon : but the mctnoty of tnat glorious con^piiatoc lived H 
ijï the heart of every true Pole, and his name was an object of heroio ^B 
veneration nmori^ the youug. A conspiracy was on tho point of 
breaking out in Wïirsaw^ upon the coronation of Nicolaa; it fidled 
only through the timidity of some members of the diet. In vma 
hfta Princo Lubccki, the cmperor'a minister, given a prodigtou^ 
impulse to Polish trade ; in vain had the erona duke Constamting; 
BOocccded in organizing a superb and disciplined array, Pirland wêÊ 
bmt on bdng independent, and impatiently endured tho û 






tyrajmy of the ffcand duki?, a princo of strange churactcr, who r&^ 
«cmbk'd fts much by Vis good qualities as by hia defectB^ one of ihoao. 
chiefs of barbatiatia who overthrew the Roman empire. It connoB 
be saiJ that the rcvi^lution whicH seemed in prcpoiatîan, had not to 
conu^nd with rude obstacles. Brutftliaed by the hereditiuy gcrfdom^ 
whicli^ tliOHgh it bud ceased àncse. Napoleon's time to exist dejure^ 
Itill existed de facto, the Polish peasaiite knew little of tlic pride of 
indcpondenct-f t'cw thoir bcirts had never beaten i'or liberty. And 
AS for the noble?, those alone of them iirdcntly lon^d for an. unknown 
fuLuro, whose privileges were reduced to a mere name, and who 
vegetated in penury; tor among the nobles who possrased along with 
the auchoritr of high title tliat of fortuno likewise, hntrad of the 
•tnnger^s yoice wm combated by the fear of anarchy. Moroover, 
by the fddo of that noblesse, whose patriotism was timidjt though 
«meere, there was the watchM Polish aristocracy ; that ia to say, that 
class of fcloQ nobles who had accepted from Ru^ia the titles of dukos, 
oauntflf barotu, and princes^ — titles formally difiooimtenanccd by the 
original constitution, and the usages of the country. In spite of all 
this a revolution in PoUiml wm a thing easy to foresee, and ovents 
like those of July could not but render it inevitable. 

Thus tlien — ^lo recapitulate — Russia eueaged in projects too rart 
for its n»ourocs; P^uSMia itt variance with the Uheniah prorincee; 
Austria threatened by the spirit of liberty in Germany, and by iho 
spirit of independonec in Italy; England irresolute, uneasy, and im- 
potent; Portugal and Spain each on the ovc of it war of Buccession; 
Itjily, Bcl^um, and Poland, execrating the trcatic* of 1815, and 
ready to rise at the Itrst sipial: such was the state of Europe whûB 
it was ffturtled and dazzle<l by the revolution of July, 

DatA like these afibrded ïrcnchnien just grounds for a boundlcM 
Ambition, ana. any power worthy of gcrreniinc them had evidently 
tbe means in its hands of governing the world tnroun^h them, Evc?ita 
fiallcd on them to assonie the patronage of Conslantmople, and gave 
fiance with the re-estAbliahment of the empire of tbc Sultan, the 
mesBflof sAfing FoLmd. Thetmifonns of the French Etoklier!? glitter- 
ing^on the summits of the Alps were enough for the independence 
of Italy. To the Belgians Trance could offer, a* the price of a fra- 
tenial union, the suheiitution of the tricolour flag for the odious âag 
of the house of Orange, and her markets not lere opulent tlian thoee 
of the Dutch colaDiee.f By declaring strongly for Don Pedro, Prance 
would Itftve forced the English to conlroct an execrable alliance with 
Don Miguel, and woidd have sapped their dishonoured domination 
in Li&bon. It was easy for Fruice to obtain a moral hold over Spain, 
fivr all she had to do was to set on against two monarcbieal factions, 
M^ex for mutual extinction, the Spanish refugees invoking the mogio 
rejacmbiancc of the cortea of 1S2U. 

It was anuredly a marvellous combtna^on of circumslanoea which 
made the ttlvation of all the opprcœed nations depend to such A do* 
gice CO the aggi&ndboaieiil of r nuu^e. Tb^ moral graodetir and thi9 



I bourgeoisie was triumphant. It had pk£cd ajprince on the 

tfaaKi&Cf who owed iii? authority to ilâ gift alone. The TnrniptftW 
were men whose powor and reputation h bad crcatc-4. Tbc modi- 
fied charter was but a coostîtutiou £ttcd to its use. The lefrislative 
Sower belonged to it by right of occupation, and a momenta coiiÂ- 
ence in itsi own strength had been coiough to enable it to letaill 
that power in the absence of all constituent authority. 

Wishing to complete its work, it had but littîe leJt to attempt. 

By rendering the oath of alle^auce obligatory, it forced tbe 
emcere Wgitmii&lB to reaîjpi and leave It roafter of ttiQ parliamoatai^ 

By means of the forced Tesignationa of the (Merent minlstera, it 
found its way into thu olîiceâ of the state^ and seized on the adinim* 

By means of the national guard, organized with mcirvoUoTU ra}»- 
dity, it enjkbled itself to rcîgn supreme in the tboiougldares. 

Nevcrtheles?, towards the end of April, a strange spcctacLc wu 
exhibited in the eapital. Several thouFund arti&an2, marshalled ac- 
cording to tbeir trades^ were sueu walking in procession along the 
quays and tîie boulevards. They marched slowly and in good 0]^ct ; 
Uley kid no w^pone ; tbor demeancur was gmve, and not a ciy 
wiea uttered by the saddened multitude. In tliis manner they pro- 
ceeded to the hotel of the prefect of police to demand justice foi 
themselves, and compassion for their wives and chilcken ; ibr the 
revolution they had accomplished had been fatal to them. Already^ 
on the 13lh of August^ a numerous assemblao'e of joumeymen''- 
butchers luid travcreed the dty, silently by torclujght. 

Kre long an extreme agitation nianilested itaelf among the people. 
Wrctehea, ooTcred with flirty rag?, just as Paris had lately aeon 
them braring deflth, a«eemb1(M tumuUuously in tlie pubhc placML 
Concourses gathered before the offices of the several minister?, in the 
Place de (rreve, in Iront of the Palaiâ Hoyal, and in every epot tiat 
WW the abode of power and pleasure. Tlie sufferings of the poor 
Ibund cxprcffiion by turns in ilery invecdvoa and in touching lattiea- 
tatlnn^, Some bewulcd the abrupt gu.spcnsion of work» oibeiB the 
dittiinution of wages: eome indignaintly denounced the preference 
mve^ in oerlain factories to foreign workmen ; aU execrated the mar- 
oerous influence of machinery. Hare we fought for £o little? they 
cxclalmi-*!. Hero wc are, woiw off after the erpnt than befbze Uî 
what a dc«tiny ia ours, and what do they mean by talking of our 
victory? They call un the atrnsnagh people, and we arc not evisn pro- 

'«itor» of our own liaada and arnkâ. Wo liave saved tlie couatry, 
ley dcclaic, and our familiea droop around us, with iw alteraadvo 
Ife^ggJUj or do0pair. 



- Thua were fearful discords ûLready beginning to show themselvcB. 
The bouigcoiaie, all powerful in society hj its possession of the soil, 
of cajntalf and of credit, had now only to provide for the establisK' 
tnent of its political supremacy. The people, on the other hand, too 
ignonnt os yet to desiru any share of avil power, writhed under the 
joke of a social system that entailed on it nothing; but oppression. 

It ia certain diat the rcvoludon of July had tendered ^e sufibrings 
of the working cUses naore scute. The vanqniahed party consisted 
of opulent men; ita defeat waâ a heavy blow to all the employments 
dependiuit on laxury. The future too, waa uncertain; ■war was pos- 
tame} and the enthuaasm aflcctcd by statesmen only veiled the dis- 
tnut that narrowed the hearts of the rich. Hence irreparable difl» 
asters, and among the people a bitterness of icehng exaspeTated by 
dia^posnted hopes. 

The hist measures adopted by the gorcmment were not of a nftttire 
to calm this cfferre^cence. The law proposed by Marshal Gérùïd to 
assure the pOHtion of militaiy officer» assuredly imbodicd a great 
principle; neTcrthelc^, thià eager solicitude disptajed ss to the army 
might appear menacing at the commencement of a reign. As for 
M. Guiajt's bill resrpecting the re-election of deputies promoted to 
public offices, it tended to realize a rdbrm that was iiitile imdcr the 

Great political situatJons denaand great enterprises; but the bonr* 
geoifide having arrived at tlie goal of its wishes, ita polity was now 
to hinder the awakening of new deeiies; it would nuiuraUv seek t<> 
tamn down every thing, because that was the emest way of bridling 
public impetuoBity. 

It was m the spirit of this nudignîËcd policy that M. Gnizot said, 
on demanding ot the chamber a credit of fi\-c miUionSt to be applied 
to public wanes; *'' The commotion of a great shack cannot subside 
Ûi a day^ and rumour is still strong aiW the danger is past. The 
good Mnae of the people admilB this, asd seeks in work a reiuge 
•gainst ireih agilaccms." 

Subwquently M. Guizot unbodied Uie Bame thought with emd 
pteosion in an apothegm, exclaiming^ *' H''orJL ù a 6ndle." 

Be ihJa as it nmy, trouble went on iucreaaing in the capita!, and 
began even to spread beyond it. Tlic workmen of Kouen demanded 
an augmentation of wages, or a diminution of their toiL In many 
places the collection of duties and taxes was pnt a stop to by vigor^ 
ÛUS icàstance. In the month of August alone, the treasury sustained 
a laa of two millions out of thirteen which the indirect contributions 
diould hare brought in. Lastly, the tax on drink waa So strongly 
natted, that the duumber were obliged to oourtieo proviaioDaily a 
law aafaptmiting a composition for the ordinary modo of payisâDt, 
at the option of the vender. 

Now whilst the people wss tu&tinng and palpita^g, the boms 
ffeoÛM oontiniied to indulge In the intoxi^tion of its own snooeHL 
The theatres resounded with patnotic songs. A gommiwrioa had 



been namcil for the dietribuoon of the Datiimid rewards : was 
this enough for the braving of so mant liangcia and evib? X>epit- 
tations from all points of Fruice Uiid at the foet of the mocmu^ 
those homaees that arc rendered, without Taiiatson, to evên'prisoe; 
and Louis Philippe accepted Ûitm with a pooduatared Funplicity 
that afibrdcd his courtieis welcome opportunities for the parade of 
their zeal. Tlic poets rapturously celcbratal the virtues of the kzng^ 
and linked them wilh the heroi^m of the people; A baaqiaet of 
400 covers was given by the citjr to Gencïal Ld^kjette. The ûôni- 
lies that wanted bread saw idl tliia ; they munoored at it perhaps; 
hut in an imperfect state of society, the munnuiB of the poor die 
awny without an echo when they aie not converted by s sad fktaHvf 
mt'-t cries of battle. 

Nothing was left undone to take from the eomplaintâ of the pocw 
pie that character of i«^ty which they derived ^m évente. In 
a little paper addressed by Charles Dupin xo the working ebimBgt his 
besought the artisans, whom he called hÎ5 inends, to be on their 
, against perfidious iiiatigatiQQ9, The liberal papers went sûU 

rther^ and dentmnoed as ^ies. or as men escaped &om the gallers, 

1 those workmen who harangued violently agdust maahineiy. 'la 
order to sow discord among the people, and so fetter its strength, s 
bitter and virulent protest against the disorders that were dreaded 
was printed aJid published, and its authorship ascribed to workmen, 
who^ names however were not made known. 

Destruction of machinery would undoubtedly have been a brutal 
cour^ie of violence on the part of the workmen, and one from which 
they would have been the first to Bufier. And yet if machines 
iJiimately produce incontestable advantages, the accidental evils that 
arise from their sudden introduction are a sufficient proof of the 
vices of the social system. Kxecration of machinery was therefore 
naturftl among^ poor workmen, the victims of homicidal competition : 
to brand them with the name of culprits waa a dishont-sl mauauiTc 
But interests that are attacked are implacable, and nothing ootncs 
fuuisa to them by wliich tlicy can defèiia themselves. 

In this case, it must be admitted, the danger was !>enoQf : aceord- 
ii^ly the le<^timiiât joumaU did not hold a language diiferent ùfum 
that of the oihct public prints. Tlic men of the beaten p^iy would 
not hiive Ikx-'u «orry to sec the revolution devour ttselt; tile Jon of 
their property howc-vcr was a eacnSce they were not prepared to pay 
for the gratitication of their TCfcntmcnt 

The lenders of the people had, in the Erst excitenient of the mo* 
Toeni, utterc-d words of pregnant meaning; they had nokea of the 
Boverei^ty oi' the people : it was not long before they felt afnid that 
ita pride had been too stronoily excited. To turn it away from ail 
aspiring hopes by dexterouBÎy depreciating its servioos, and to give 
the bottrgeoific a share in the ^ory of the Gght wMcb ehould serve 
to account for the part it tocAi in the triumph, hencef«th became 
the mo«t Oftmest endeavour of the Orleauiats, _ mm T 





■ '* The working people of Paris," said the National of the I8th 
Au^st, 18S0, " is not the people; it is oaly^ like the arttsta, the 
BhopkccpciB, &c-, a part of the people.'^ 

ITius ti> divest the word people of ita ordinary significatioa would 
hav« been but a frivolous caprice» if the new definition had not 
conceakd important ulterior intentiong. The fact -was, there waâ a 
msh to throw into the shade all that was brilliant and original in the 
seizure of the thoroughfares by the multitude. And agoîûj that 
community of interests which was attuned in words, without being 
carried out in the practice oi' social life, was designed either to dia^ 
arm or to calummatc the popular discontent. 

A tniee was made to these bickerings by the review of the national 
^uard, which took place on tlie 29ch of Aiigxist. A tent was pitched 
for the king in the Champ dc Mara, which was crowded witli an 
armed host. Gencml Lolayettc distributed the colours to the aevoral 
legions, and received their oaths of fidelity in the king's name. The 
aun shoae with the moat dazzling lusire ; the equipment of the lemons 
was magnificent. ïhç enthusiasm kindled by the revolution of July, 
and which had not yet subsided, broke out during that whole gala- 
day in impusaioned acclamations and aon«a of triumph. The dciiglit 
of the new monarch must have been great^ for liis popularity at that 
time ae«med immease, and almost e4Uûl to tiiat of Latayette, 

But at the very same time there was talk of a tragical and m^'s* 
teriouâ event, that was for ever to hold a conspicuous place in the 
early imnals of the reign. 

It would be enough to make bare mention of that event, hud ît 
been one to excite only a frivolous curiosity or a transient emotion 
among the people: but there was this much remarkable in it, that 
beside the diaastcra of crandeur punished in the succeisor of Louia 
XIV. it displayed in the last of the Condês the woes of grandeur 
iîdlcn. Then U gave rise to di&cussions the noige of which dro^vuod 
lihe joyous aoclamationa which human baseness raises round new 
thrones, und it awoke strange and terrible sfwpicions, the envenomed 
trace of wliich we shall discover in the subsequent contests. It is 
Ibr this reason I have judged that a detailed account of sucli u matter 
cannot be unwelcome or yuperfluoua.* 

When the revolution of July broke out, the Due do Bourbon, 
Prince dc Condé, was living quietly on his domains, u stniugcr alike 
to the cares of politics and to its perils. Dut liis mind wad seized 
with deep dismay at the news of the misfortunes that smote him in 
the pcraoTia of his kindred. Hf trembled for Charles X., he trembled 
for hîiïisdf; and ere long his fears and his sorrows were aggravated 

* 'X'he mmtivi; the Kivkt Ia nbuut to pcrute ia founded doI orit)r oa an attentiro 
cxamlnntltffi nod (Musparisuo of the viiriuuji du|}<»ili<}na mjtde during a long judicial 
*J'>"lulr3'. tut ttbotiu pftdol docunventj nnd BiitUtoiic piipcn kiadl/ ooiiiiDuiiic*t«d 

Vi'v have iboujlit it uur duty tn n,']atç cirvutnatsnccs of little apparent impottnncc, 
twC'iiur they Ate, In n-nlity^ or icrinnâ signiHc^Ticc. mid nuj Bcrvu toirard» tW to- 
lutlou of Ao Impootont uU w tnelaacbd^r * in>blni. 



by all the tortuioa of imcertamty. Overwhelmed witK years jut3 m- 
firmitiefli had he a light to await the Bccumpliâhmcnt of his dostiiiy 
without accelerating it by a useless devcrtedneaa? Or ought he, re- 
Idndling hia energies by the recollection of hia youthful 'fights and 
ftiud^f to go aod join liia unfortunate master, aiid offer him, if not the 
aid, at least tlie conaolinc; offices of a fearless fidelity? The place of» 
Conde ia by hia king's side in the hour of danger, was whiapered in 
the princes ear by his most zealous retainers; and M. Choulot ex- 
claimed, ia answer to lees spirited udmonitionB» ** Wlien tlie Prinoo 
de Ckkadé took up arms in 1793^ did he wait ior the adrioe of tJao 
Due d'Orléans?" 

But the fceblo old ntan was then wholly under tlie control of a 
woman whose ori^a was obscure, whose ianiilv name was unccrtaiiif 
who had . formerly, it woa said, figured on tJic boards of Covent- 
ffardeo. Theatre, who having* afterwards formed a connexion with « 
lomgQer of enormous wealth, hud lived at Turûham-grcfoi on the 
wages of dishonour, and who, kstly, bavins: become all powerful 
over the heart of thû Due de Bourbon, had married the Baion de 
Feudières, u fraidc, honest soldier, whose abusod good faith ecrvod 
for some time to conceal the scandal of adulterous amoura. Now by 
a concatenation of circumstances, which it ia not unprofitable to r^ 
late^ the iuteiesta of that woman became closely connected with thoso 
of the house of Orléans, 

Endowed with talent, grace, and beauty, at once in^uating and 
imperioua, fond and haughty by turns, Madame de Fcuchtres had 
byner influence over the Due dc Bourbon obtained tiie testameutaa'y 
bequest of the domains of St. Leu and Boissy ia 1824, and various 
nuua amounting in all to a million, in 1825. She coveted still more. 
Bt and by she obtained the procecda of the forest of Enghien, in 
oadition to those of Boiaay and St. Lcu^ of wliich she had by anti- 
cipation the actual cnioymcnt; and even thig was not enouffh to 
Batiatc her cravina;?. But a Bccrct imcasineas no doubt troubled h^ 
in the exorcise of hor unbounded power over the duke: she hfld 
reason to fear that the death of her bcncfSictor wcitild leave her 
exposed to the ottAclu of his heirs whom ehe stripped of their inhe* 
ritancc, to the lawsuits which captation provokes, perhaps to tho 
indignation of public opinion. This was an awkward dilemma, and 
one which has given the enemies of Madame do Fcudhières reasou 
to believe that in causing the Due d'Amnale lu be adtjptcd by the 
Due do Bourbon, her only object h&d been to secure hct«elt' the 
patronage of a powerful house. 

What is certain is^ that in a letter written in 1827, in reply to 
one in which the baroness ottered her scrvicea, the Duchesse d Or- 
l£anB wrote thiu to her: ** T am very much touched, maiikmc, by 
what you tell mo of your anxiety to bring about ihst result whica 
you look on aa Ukely to fulfil the wishes of M. !e Due dc Bourbon; 
onJ UUevc me^ if I lia\T the happinc^a to find my son becomo lus 
adopted chtld„ you wilt reeeirc irom us at all times and in itll circum- 




Btancea that support for you and yours wlûcii you ore pleased to 
âeDunâ, and of whicli & moth^r'a grotituJe wiJl be for you a sure 

It must have been a sore trkl for & vornsn like the Ducliesae 
d*Orlt'aii8 to assofiatc her matomal hopca with such equivocal advo- 
cacy. She cooËcalcd to do so however; but the dignity of her 
character reappeared in this other passage of her letter; "\Vg have 
tliought it oux duty to abstain from any proceeding which might 
have the appqarance of prompting a choice or wishing to anti-* 
cipatc it." 

It Kerne that this reserve was regarded by the Due d'Orléans as 
a scruple from which he was at liberty to free himwll.. Learning 
from Madame de Feuchùres, on tlie 2a of May, 1^2^^ that sKo had 
written a prcasin? and impassioiied letter to her lover^ "^ging him to 
adopt the Ihic d'Aumale^ he did not hc&itato to ùddtesâ himâelf 
directly to the Due de Bourbon. He let him know in perfectly 
meamred and hecoiumg lon^a^e how much he was touched by the 
kind o£cc3 of Madame dc x euchère^, and how proud it would make 
Iiim to hiive the glorious name of Conde borne by one of hia aona. 

Thu Due do Bourbon was scizod with deep uncaâiness at tliîâ un- 
expected blow. Though he had always in hiâ interoourae with the 
Onuu family conducted himeeli' witn exquisite pohtenees, which 
MnuCbnes even assumed the outward tokuna of fiiendâhip, he eaw 
as Uttle as poesible of the Due d'Orlt-ans, received hia mfrtquent 
visits with Heeâtatiun, and liardly c^-er wrote to him except to enter 
into expluatLODS of the frivolities of ceremony, irivolitieâ to which 
the Due d*Orl£aiiB, all bourgeois as wc have ^nce seen him, attached 
inordinate importance. The Due de Bourbon had consented to bo 

fodfathcr to that young Due d'AumtilCt who wa^ tâ.îkcd of to him, 
ut in doing so he liad no intention of making him hia heir. To 
Inve the inheritance of tlie Condoa to a faïuîïy which had had at its 
hcttd the enemy of the noblesse and uf the monarchy, appeared to 
the old leader of the «rmcd emigration a betrayal of duty and almost 
an impiety. He could not forget that a d'0rl6aus, carrying hiii 
court into an assembiy of regicides, had voted for the deatli of 
Louiâ XVT-, and that another d'Orléans had fought under îîie ban- 
neii of Dumouriex. But on the one hand how coidd he without 
insult refuse wltat he was supposed to be so^eairoua of giving? And 
on the other how was he to bear up against tiie violent angej: of 
l^fadamo de Feuchertaj? Besides the crafty baiones had taken care 
to write to him, "TTic Hng and the loyal fiimîly wish that you 
should make choice of a prince of your l^mily to be one day the 
inheritor of your name and fortune. It ia tliought tliat I um the 
only obstacle to the fulfdmcnt of this wiah .... I eotrcatyou to put 
an eod to tliî^ painful stuation by adojitiing an heir .... You will 
thereby, my dearest friend, secure tlio good will of the royal iamily 
and a less luihappy future for your ]>oor Sophio." 

The Due de Bourbon was not capable of rcdiâting intcrccasions of 



tliifikiad: still there was soraetMno in them so despotiu, so imporfcu- 
uato, that be could not suppress his indignation. He compuined 
hitterly to Madame de Fcuchèrcs, that without consulting M m, 
wiihout inquiring what were his intentdona, she had enterai upon 
po ini[)ortant an affair with the Due d'^Orltans. Xhc baionesa let 
the stovni blow ovgt; and that same day she wrote to the pnnce 
that the Due d'Orléans was on the point of setting out for Londun, 
tliat slio expected him to breakfast, that the opportunity was a 
favourable one for an interview, and that it might take plaoe " with- 
out any thing positive being said." 

Thus beset and hara^ed on all aides, and deprived even of the 
«ibihty of rctk'Oting, the Due de Bourbon gave way; the de- 
d intcn'iew took place. No decision^ however^ was come to. 
Still the Due d'Orléans felt already so assured of the lultilment of 
Ids hopes, that he secretly directed one of his lawyers, M. Dupin, to 
prepare the draft of a i?ml in favour of the Due d'Aumalo.* Thia 
oraft, which the prince would only have to sign, would save liim the 
I ' trouble of composition, and facilitate the realization of a plan wj 
gkili'ully contrived. 

Meanwhile the baroness redoubled her importuuitics, whiUt the 
old prince gave vent to liis repugnance in lanientuble bursts of anew. 
Ilelmdknowuno rest since thiii fatal matter had occupied his thouehta; 
hia blootl he said was on fire, and he passed whole nightd without 
i sleep. Incautious exprcâ^ions oRcn câcaiied him in presence of 
euro witnesses, that betrayed tlic agitation of liis luind; and the 
silent re-treat of Chantilly was ofti'n startled with the sound of de- 
plorable altercations. '' My death is the only thing they look for,*' 
exclaimed one day in a fit of despair that pitllid representative of an 
illustrious race. Another day he lorgot hirascli' so fur as to say to 
M. de Sur\'al, " Once they shall Imve obtained Irom mc what they 
desirf, my life may be in jeopardj'." Finally, with one of tluMC 
Etrange etratagcms on whicli the excess of iheir iircsohiiion sometimes 
I men of no vigour or obtsticity of mind, he resolved to appeal 
hi the generosity of the Due d'Orléans hiJTiself, in order to t^cape 

Xlw folbwiag li the letter M. Dufiin vroba to tlic Doc d'Ûrléona on tlbb 

" MfiNSEiQitKCK, — I send voit hurçwitli the draft fûUf rojal laghnem directed me 
Id draw wp lx.-furc J-unr dcparlwe. 

**In itrict uccoratàncc with tlie tpcrecyyourroyfd Ui(;hne!i enjointil inctoohwrre, 
I îipnd yo« THv KQoad mmut(^ written irith my own hand, jinou I did not wi«li to it to that «fAiio^er. 

" 'Du.- ftatiu> dciÎTe nf obsotati! Ëùcjtscy hai prcTcntcd ine fimn eonftmaft with the 
Otiicr j ririsL'onsulti, wliom I «hoidil have liked to ooiiault, liut wlimm ynur roval lii^h- 
noaii will aSwaj^ï Iijltc it in jimr puw«r |o (question if you ttiink it advisable. 

"Jjeft WTDj- o^vn unuded reaonpces, I hare done mr bval; I h»To end^arourcd 
' IhiUy loeuAurcthcnoblc wishes of his H<>TflJI{ighDc»M,lc: Due dcBourbciu^ Aad tlui 
' tlity luii^Ut not in any l'usc prove lUunory or dusccptltle of bting aMacktd hy tliinl 
' tmrtios ntwiivtf liti^'Juufly disposed in Riich CMSçf, 1 h\ri^ addc<l to the dftiuc ndaiivg 
I io Adoption that ot'afunuAlitiRtUuUon as huir, whiuU I jitdgtd intJiV/wMoUe* to %ka 
I mtlUlltjr oC the «ntirc act. I luve tlie bonuui. Ikiù. 

" Ttvfw Aîné." 
• Und«flûi^ iti Uic Ofijrin*]- 



the persecutions of Madame dc Feuchères. " The bw^mess we have 
in hand. Monsieur," he if rote to him on the 20th of August, 1829, 
'* commenced unknown to mo, and rather heedlessly by Madame 
do Feuchtrcfi, is înfiniteïy distre-ssing to me, as you may have 
remnrked:" and he bcsouglit his kiusnian to intercede with the 
liaroness and prevail on her to give up her projccta respecting the 
Due d'Aumale, to whom he promised, aH&r all, a public and certain 
testimony of his affection, 

Tiie Due d'Orléans replied to this singular appeal ; he went imme- 
diately to Madame dc Feuchcres, and in presence of a witness she 
had taken the precaution to provide, he intreated her to discontinue 
her suit. The baroness was intlcxible. So the Due d'^Orléan», 
'nilhout compromidng his son*a prospects hfld all the merit with the 
^uc de Bourbon of an honourable act^ and of no common ilis- 

Tliis Tvas too forced and violent a state of things not to end in 
some terrible explosion. The Dtic de Bourbon being in the bllliard- 
room of the pabcc in Paris on the 29th of August, 1829, M. Surval. 
■who was in the adjoining salon, heard loud talking, and his own 
name called out. He rushed in, and found the priince in a frightfid 
pa&Sion. " Only see in what a passion Monseigneur puts himself, 
and without a cause," said Madame de Feucht-reg; '■' try and calm 
him." — *' Yea, Madame/' cried the old man, " it is horriMe, atro- 
cious, thus Ï0 put a knife to my throat to make me do a thing you 
know I 5Q abhor;" and seizing her hand, be added, with a &igni6- 
cant gesture, *' Well, then, plunge the knife in at once — plunge ili" 

Tljc next day, August 30, 1829, the Due de Bourbon drew up 
and signed, not in presence of Madame de Feuchèrea, a will by which 
he made the Due d'Aumalo his unii'ersal legatee, and secured the 
baroness a bequest, in money and lands, of ten miUiona (40,000/.). 

Such were the ties sivbsisûng, at Oie period of the revolution of 
July, between Madame de Feuclièrca and the prince whom that 
revolution made king.* 

Enthralled as he was, the Due dc Bourbon could hardly refuse 
his adhesion to the new dynasty, but all his affections belonged 
to the ftdlcn monarch. He asked himeclf with terror what was to 

* The TkiLloving is a letter written by the Due d'Orl't-uu to Mjidame de Featùttreit 
dated OrtoberaT, 1820: 

"OnrlittU! d'AumalGlins been nincw1iAtunwdl,butiiot m much so asWcmweu» 
■B/ ilanni but he tiod hiui a fever in oooH^uence of oTerfBtlfue, aad. wc belirre, of 
cxpomtK to cold We sl-di to CIcrmonC for H. Lavent, -wha b ai the head of th« 
éoote de medicine uid cpr the grcAt hiMipita], and vho i* venr tkilfuL He conflrmod; 
OB in the opinion tbat there was really noiUin^j; serions In UtÈ nutter. In fact, thu 
Ibmr bu krft him Thcic two duys. lie ntiky lie considctx'd quite rccoTcrud fruin thia 
tmuleat indiKpn^ition. and on bin rc'lum lie will tertainly Its able to gu and sea Lit 
godfkthcr, wh('ne%X'r be w-iL hnrc tlie gmdiK*i to pfnnit bim. 

" Rcrvin?, MadiunL-, the rery nnasK BiHiruiee of all the Bcnlimenti ti?" know I 
entertam for you, ud on ^bich I tmit ytm ctct tcIj', 

(Signed} L. Pn. d'OblUsb. 

** Mailfiinc la DochiEsie'd'nTb'ans and m^ sister n-qucst mo to prêtant voit all Ûicit 
rompUnKDt*, aad we all beg you to pr«>»!nl ours to ÏI. le Doc dc BoutlnoJ" 



f74 e:i:spictous cTRCnuttASCZi. 

be the lot of that fkîùilj eo abruptly Korricd from the thiono lata 
eûle? iio bu»l into tean «t the meve metitioti of Charka X.'r zkAmo; 
Im faul rttunmoed oil Asaasemeuts, and this cnr of soirow often 
aaflflq>ad his lips: " Ah ! it is too much to heboid two revolution»; 
I have lived long fnougk." He dreaded, too, tempests lite those lu! 
had in hia jouth seen sweeping over kings and noblee ; and thougbt 
fuU surely thAt brigands woulïl ovcmin the fields and pillage tlie 
cbltcaux. He tlicrefore ordered that meafiurcs ahoidd be takeu fat 
the protection of hiâ domaios, and during the daya immediately suc- 
ce^og the revolution his horBes remained ready stddlcd for flight. 

IHicBe apprchcnsLouB did not last long. The general rertontico 
of tlïnquilii ty foon Tcossuied the Due dc Bourbon, and the nc^vs of 
"tibs emhurkatioQ of tlïc exiles put an eud to his last &ai?. But hb 
nsUncholy surrived tlwî cause that had at firat aocountcd for iu 
Hîï attendants remarked this, and ^ftme of them thought they pet* 
eeiTfid a aingukr ^langâ in bia demeanour towards Madame d^ 
Feuch^res; htr name pronounct-d iu Ida preseuK; seemed, at tixaes, 
iù aliect him paàiilully, Hh fondncsa for her, thouph always pto- 
TldcQt and anticipating hor least wishes, v,'ii£ marked with a «ort of 
terror. It waa ob^rrcd that, contrary to his loTig custom, he no 
longer mftdc it a psiut to open \m lettera in h^r pres*?uce. At 
lost he disclosed to M. de Choulot, kia capiiaim des c/ulsks, and to 
ManouTy^ \ns coafidentuil valtt-de-c/iamlrrt , his design of tnAkmg a 
Ion" journey, ïlie projcet eoincided with the demand of a miiUoa 
in bauk-notca made by the prince to luu intendant, M. de SunraL 
A4 to hÎB motive3j he communicated th^n to no one, but cnjoinod 
the strictest iiociccy as to thcjoumey, above all us regarded Madame 
de Feuchères. 

Thê baronefli, on her nort, was not without uneasiness about the 
esecation of the wilL She would have been glad to have the be- 
queata in her favour converted into donations, and as the du^ on 
x^stration would have drawn too large a sum from the prinoe'* 
confers, M. de Surval had proposed to sell to Madame Adelaide, the 
king's sitter, the domain of St. Leu, which constituted part of the 
lency to Madame de Feuchères. 

Meanwhile the prepamtions for flight attempted by the Due de 
Bourbon disappointed his expectation. Manoury was to have prtv 
cured passports, taken a carnage, and gone to wait for his master at 
Moisselles. This arrangement was frustrated by the impossibility of 
executing it without having it talked of But the prmcc did not 
the less persist in his wish to quit St. Leu. 

Dark rumours circulated, at the same time, about the ch&teao. 
It was reported that on the morning of the 11th of August the prinoe 
had been found with his eye bleeding, and had hastened to explain 
the cause to Manoury, saying, " I struck against the night table;** 
and that on the latter ventunng to i«ply, ^* The table is not so hi^ 
u thie bed," the duke was silent and embarrassed; that some minnten 
û/ienr&rdSf w Manoury wu spceading » carpet in the dresaing-nNiB^ 



lie rouTnl a. lettemnder the door of the secret stairoûsc^ and brûna;ht 
it to tKe urince. The ktter was excetidingiy disturbed on reading 
it, and Uicn eaid, '* I am not a good etory-teller; I ^id I hurt 
inystli'ju my âlcc-p; the truth is, that on, o{jeiiing the door I fell side- 
mvs, and my temple struck against the comer." The rancours that 
maco up the Ufo of courta are ingeaious and implacable when they 
arc armed with the weapon of suspicion. FacIs, prhaps ummport- 
ant, receiTe<l a gloomy interpretation, which was corroborated by 
the conduct of the prince, and his apparetït i'eelitij:^ of distrust. For 
instance, after the accident of the 11th he expressed a wish that 
Manoury should sleep At the door of his bedroom; and when the 
latter obecrved that this nii^ht seem strange, and that it would be 
more in couree to give that order to hecomte, his vaUt-de-cfiamàrf de 
servia, '* Oh no," replied the Due de Bourbon, '* that rnust not be,'^ 
Lecomte had been introduced to the cli&Ccau by Madame dc Feu- 

Some days after*' the Due dc Bourbon was visited by the queen, 
who brought hinx the star of the legion of honour, and came to com- 
fort and cheer her nohlc relation. Ho appeared pEeased and grateful* 
liut ou tbe evening of the same day a horeemaii rode towards the 
chûtenu, taking bia k^ by the avenue of the park, on which hii 
lioiac's hoofa sounded less sharply than on that leading to the court- 
yurda. Tïiifl waâ M> de Choulot. Ho was expected, and was 
eautiiously conducted to the prince's bedchamber. " My mind is 
made up," tlie Litter said to liim. *'Thc quoon brought me this 
day the star of the legion of honour. They want to have me figure 
in tlie chambt;r of peers. That is impossible/' The departure waa 
then deJinilivoly determined on. 

But how waa «ucb a iligbt to be kept concealed? Bf. de Choulot 
bad ascertained that a carriage had been stationed for some dnySf by 
order of the baronees, in a httle village two leagues from St. Leu, 
between tlic forest of Montmorency and that of Lille-Adam, and 
that the driver had orders to take the road townrda England on 
receiving an appointcfl signal. This suggoMcd the fullowin^ plan 
to M. do Choiuot. There waa in the château an old vaUt-de-chamffre 
who wu not unlike tlic Due do Bourbon. The domestic, droned 
in bis master's clothes, waa to proceed in the prince's own carnago 
to tho vilbge in question; there he was to get into the carriage pro- 
vided by Aukdame de Fcuck^ve, and whilst he was pursued on tho 
road to Havre, the real dukû would be escaping in tlic direction of 

The festival of St. I^uia arrived whilrt these thiri"S were in 
vmrnttiou. Hie inhabitants of St. Leu, '^^ho lored tnc Due dc 
BouHïon» gave him tcet'mionics of their aifcctioa in the course of that 
day, with which he was tcmchcd extremely, and whicb would have 
boen enough to dissipate his political fears bad he retained any, Uo tb,c autboiitlee a very j:;racious and Battering xeo^»tîon. Nover- 
tttclcss, on hearing an air pUyed imdcr bia windQv*ii'«\ûsJ^\«ïwSi^i«^ 


STtt TAK nnrcB ra oom&. 

Km how mmy de uM—Uali OM had hecn kriilied oa ihrt fonl fii^ 
nif , -whidi WIS noir fimed «w»;- to disiaiit hnds, he -wis maaiSmfy 
ovcreome vîâi MrJiMW, and cxied out in n voioe of deep lhpHngi 

HMfc Mme der Medame de Fenchèxee pncnzed firam BMs/ÙmèM 

■me d»T 
* till on Kngfand ftr half e mîIEoa of fiano; whether it iraa that 
Ififîi i fPf; fixeign to her coitnexion with the pnnce, called her to 
London, or that some doada had gathered h e lwe e u her and the Dae 
oe Suuibun. 

Certnn xfc û, at anj late, that a -violent scene took place naît 
noning, between the tnince and Madame de FeodiènB. H» 
fimner was heard londlj nttenns the name of M. de Qianloti 
and when the baionen went oat, Mmomy fband his maa t cr Mated 
on a amaU 80& before the window, intensdj agitated, and adking 
&r eaa de Gcdogne. Afier this accident the I>ac de Bombon d^ 
^latched a man on horseback to M. Chonlot, dealing him to haMan 
to St Leo, ndiere he was wanted on boànesB of importance. NoAhiff 
extnundinarf tanspiied dnnng the rest of the daj. M. de Com 
Briaae having called on the pnnoe, the latter kept his visHer to 
dinner, and even pressed him to pass the ni^t at the rhlJtfan He 
eonvetaed, not without aadneae, on the events of the day; widied to 
■^ £>rthwxth pesons which General Lambot tokl him, as he soIk 
nutted them to him, oonld not be swned till the next day; and he. 
advised his gnests not to talk at tab&, in presence of the servanli, 
of what was gmsg on in Paris. The dinner was cheerful, only M~ 
dc Cossu Brissac rtaving mentioned some caricatures that had ap- 
peared since the fall of Charles X., the Due de Bourbon seemed a£- 
fectcd, and leaning towards îladâme de Fcuchères, he whispered 
her, ** Do tell him to hold his tongue." Play began at nine o'clock; 
for the prince had resumed his usual amusements for the last three 
da^. He played whist with Madame dc Fcuchères, and MM. de 
Lavillegontier and dc Prejean ; criticised a trick, lost money, and did 
not pay, saying, " To-morrow." 

He was to set out on the Slst, and such was his impatience to 
quit St. Leu, that he had ordered Dubois, his architect, to prepare 
his apartments at Chantilly in all haste, even should it be necesaazy 
to work night and day. Getting up when cards were over, ana 
crossing the hall to reach his bedroom, he made his attendants a 
friendly sign, which surprised them, because it seemed like a gcstoie 
of iarewcll. Was this one of those adieux in which the thought of 
approaching death betrays itself? or was it the melancholy indica- 
tion of a projected journey and exile ? 

In his bedchamber, where he was attended by the Chevalier 
Bonnie, his surceon, and Lccomte, his valet-de-chambre de ëermee, 
the duc remained silent wliiist the former treated him professionally, 

* We luiTe written proof of this important fact, which hitherto has beoi to fkr 
voknown, that no trace tf it is diacoreraUe in the docomaits pertaining to t**ft 
Judicial iàguiiy, «Q of whic^ we bare card'uUjr examined. 



and the lutter undresàng him. lîut no notice ■was t^lcen of this cir- 
cumBtancc by citlicr, because there was nothing in it at variance with 
the prince's ordinary habita. " At what hour does Monseigneur wish 
thai I should enïer his room to-morrow?" eaiJ the valet, na he yroB 
retiring. " At eight o'clock/' replied the prince, with hie Uâual tran- 

The Due de Bourbon's bedchnniber was connected by a small poa- 
sa^, with a waiting-room, wliich opened on one side upon a dresfl- 
ing-rooni, issuing upon the great corridor of the chÛteau, on the 
other» upon a private staircase, leading to a lobby, on which opened 
the apartments of Madame de Fouchcrcs, and those of Madanac de 
Flassms, her niece. From the foot of the private staircase ran a 
corridor leading lo the vestibule of the ch&teau; and from an inter- 
mediate lobby, that of the mtrew}^ there went oft' another corridor 
ftlonp which were ranged the[rooms of the Abbé Briant, secretary to 
the Baroness do Feuchi'waj of the widow Lachassine, her Jemme- 
de-chambre^ and of tJie marrietl couple^ Dupré, her special servants. 
iTie two latter lay in a room directly under tliftt of the prince, 80 
that they could eaâly hear the sound of his voice above them. 

The gamekeepers made their usual rounds of the park, on that night 
of the 26th-27th. Leoomto had locked the door of the drcspinw*room 
and Ukeu away the key, a precaution which wa5 indispensable, be- 
cause it oficn hapjK?ncd tluit the prince left the door of his bedroom 
unlocked. Madame dc Flââ&anâ sat up writing till two o'clock in 
the morning: ehc heard no noise; neither did the Dupr^-s: the most 
jxîrfoct silence prcvïuletl all night in the château.. 

'Hio next morning I^ocomtc knocked at his mMtev's door at eteht 
o*c]ock, aecording to orders. He found it locked, and the prince did 
not answer, llic valet went away, and retumiug some luinutoâ after 
wi^ M. Bonnie, he knocked again. No reply. Surprised and un- 
Msy nt ihia» they both went down to Madame dc Feuchères. '* I 
win run up directly/' she «lid, ** when he hears my voico ho wilt 
answer ; '' and she ran out from her room lialf undressctl. On coming 
to the prince's door^ with M. Bonnie and LfOcomte, ** Open the 
door, Monseigneur," she Paid; "■ open the door; it ia I." Still all 
was silent within. By tliis time the alarm Wl spread all over the 
château: the valets-de-chttmbre Manoury and Louis Leclerc, the 
Abbé Briant and M. Méry-Lafontâine hturricd to the fpot. An iron 
bar was brought by one of the gcr\-ants, with which \ianoury broke 
in one of the lower paiiela of the door^ and entered the room with 
L<?comte and Bonnie. The window- shutters were closed, and it 
waâ very dark. A candle, however, was burning in the fireplace, 
but there was an iron sci-eon before it, bo that it only threw ft faint 
gleam against the cciEing. By that dim light the prince's head was 
eoen pre«wd iwainst (ho window on the norui «ide, so that one might 
have supjMWfd he was listening intently to sometliing outside. Ma- 
nouiy Dfcaed the wiudow on the cast, and a frightlUl ppeetacle sooti 

e vM s pttft unar !■ niecfitci ci tw^UÉHBS 
rifdMdrcmiaAetevîldmddQiiiaûa. Xhei 
[ konedibotMqa SBder Uff vîodav, 1 

llodb,«d€y«fflhdwïditei».«id1iiil Mfde Fc 
IdoMiij'fiiilanBf flRKianT'toU. BomBcs wdict i 
1 Ai«tkn|ç o«ft Icr bnïtoAaKdirt catoed Al 
/» C^ûig m to the alnoDer, led faim îaAo ihe dusks oC 
«UA, Md flâd, << IWre M MoiMigBeiir r 

The Dm de BowbcMiv» fttmedio dwboltof the iMMifcum 
viadov with two haadkadiie& pHvd cne iridnB Ae odier: cBBflf 
lh«e Hmted e fhttmed aid dongtted xîiig; the other an onl, As 
hÊÊB ci whâàk aappottÊà the lower jmt, saS the «mnit hswaffÔÊÊA 
iht mMT aadiia^paitc/theheâ. Thoevw no raaiuBg lent 
on the lieiidhaicfaicf that cnoooipened the head: it did not jnm «a 
the wiaâpfe; it left the baek of the neck imunneJ ; and it «as flo 
loOM that aerâal of the pefsoof iBcaeiitooiildeasly paiB their fisMSS 
batweeo it and the head. Ihe heed of the deccned faimg on has 
cbeii; the ùce «aa pale; the tongne did not protrude from the mmmAv 
and only pioaed agaimt the lip; the hanu were doaed, the knees 
bent; and the poinU of the toes touched the caipet; ra tliat all As 
princ; JififA have done in hû a^nj was to stand upon his feet, lean- 
ing against the base of the window, and thereby he would oertûnly 
have escaped death. These obvious circumstances were stronjHT at 
variance with the euppoation of suicide: they struck most of the 
beholden with surprise. 

The authorities arrived ; first the mayor of St. Leu, who caused the 
condition of the corpse to be authenticated; then the juge de paix 
of Ënghîen, who had it taken down and laid on the bed; and 
laatlv, the juge d'instruction of Pontoise, who drew up an account 
of tho hjcality. The king hearing of the event about half-past 
cleren o'clock sent M. Guillaume his secretary, and JVIM. de Rumi- 
gn;^, Pawjuicr, de Sémonvillc, and Cauchy to St. Leu. No notifi- 
cation wan sent to Louis de Kohan, thoujrh the next of kin to the 
Due do l^urbon, and it was only through the public journals he 
was apprize^l of the death of the prince of whose inheritance nc bad 
bc«;n deprived by an unknown will. 

Tho vuriouN^TTocè/- wrdaux drawn up that day, the many inaccuracies 
of which were manifested on a subsequent judicial inquiry, all con- 
dudod for a verdict of suicide by strangulation. Indeed the fact 

* French wlndom, m mort readers are ftware, open on hioftcs on each tide IDco 
ten: Ths two otntn ban tie doted by a ttioitg bolt, called an apaçfiokta. 


that the door was bolted on the inside seemed to put tHe idea of 
assassination out of the question. It was therefore under the influ- 
ence of an opinion tending exclusively in one direction ^t every 
thing was done in the ûrst instance; and so strong was that opinion 
that M. Bonnie, finding it impossible otherwise to explain tho vo- 
luntary death of the Due de Bourbon, thought that among thd 
means of suicide was to be reckoned a chair, wnich, as he afterwaidl 
dcpc^od in court, could not have served for that melancholy purpose 
on account of its distance from tho body. He had stmck nis foot 
against that chair on entering the room, and he had stated his belief, 
in his procès verbal, that the prince had stood upon it to effect hia 
own destruction. 

Still, even before it was ascertained how easy it was to shoot a 
bolt into its staple, from the outside of tho door, the supposition of 
suicide in this case began graduall)^ to die away in every mind. Hie 
prince's age, the little energy of his character, his well-known reli- 
gious feehngs, the horror he had on a thousand occaàons evinced at 
the mere idea of death, his opinion on suicide which he re^;ardcd as 
a cowardly act, the serenity of his last days, all these confflderations 
baffled the conjectures to which the fastening of the bolt had at first 
given rise. The prince's liunting-watch was found on the chimney- 
piece, wound up bv him as usual on the preceding evening; and 
under the bolster the^e was a handkerchief, knotted in the way he 
was in the habit of doing when he went to bed, in order to remind 
of things he wished to remember next day. Had not the body too 
been found in a state of incomplete suspension? The valet-de'pied, 
Romanzo, who had tiavellcd in Turkey and Egypt, and hia comrade 
Fife, an Irishman, had seen many persons hanged: they dedaied 
that the faces of those who had thus died were not pale but blackish ; 
that the eyes were open, the eyeballs bloodshot, and the tongue pro- ' 
truding from the mouth ; all which signs were quite opposite to those 
shown by the body of the Due do Bourbon. When the corpse wae 
taken down it was Romanzo who untied tho knot roimd the upag^ 
noiette, and it was with difficulty he could do it, so skil^lly and 
strongly was it tied. Now there was not one of the prince s ser- 
vants but knew that hia awkwardness was extreme; that he could 
not tie his shoe-strings; that though he could indeed tie the bow 
of his cravat, he was obliged to have the two ends brought round 
from behind by his valet; that he had received a sabre-cut on the 
right hand, and had had his led collar-bone broken, which pre* 
vented his raising his left hand to his head; and that lastly ho could 
only make what nuntcrs called tho covp du roi^ by throwing himself 
backwards. Even admitting that the chair pushed out of its plaoe 
by M. Bonnie had been within the prince's reach, conformabl;^ with 
M. Bonnie's declaration in his procès-verbal, and contrary to ms sub- 
sequent depositions in court, but little conviction was wrou^t on 
the fflinds of .those who knew with what difficulty .the da msa 

900 nnnoBABiUTaEB or SDioiDB. 

cfattbed ft itenoMe, and liow be needed ibr ihst puzpoae Ae Anli» 
«nport of the bslitttade and of his cane. 

The doabtt ariaiiig from all theae d miimt a n i 'm w ei e «mo lwy irf 
hj oertun ■ngnhmtiwi which oonld not hare escaped the aotioe of 
thon atlmdanta who had been moat about the penon a£ the fÔBtoa^ 
The ^mèa which he seldom used remained afanoat alm^ at dM 
fbotof the chair wheie he was andresnd: was it thcnld man'a hapd 
1^ on that fiual night had placed them at the foot of the bed? 
The prince oonld onÇr get oat of bed bj tnming in a mannw vptm 
himidft and he pressed BO on the edge ca die bed as he slqit, that it 
was necessBiy to fold the blanket in four on the aide neact the noon 
to ptevent us fiJling: whj then had the middle of die bed besA 
finmd proBsed down, and the edges on the oontzaiy raised? It had 
been die cmatant piacdce of the wnnan and the,yrattmr» who madn 
the bed, to push it to die bottom of the alcove, and no change had 
been made in thatre^wct on the evening of the 26th: who then had 
nmored the bed abmit a foot and a half from the bottom of ths 
aleove? When die zoom was entered there were two candles, eztîiH 
gniahed, but not burnt out, on the chimneT-peoe: who oonld hanna 
iprritigiii«Ka<l them? The prince? He had tnen Tolnntarily left him- 
idf in die dark when setting about such complicated anangementn 
for self-destruction ! 

Madame de Fenchètes supported the hypotheria of suidde, and 
nemed to think that the aooaent of die 11th had been but an in» 
efficient attempt of the sort She trembled at the idea of the Duo 
de Bourbon's travelling schemes being talked of; and hearing Ma- 
nouiy speaking openly on the subject, " Take care !" she said : ** such 
languie mîgnt compromise you with tKe king." The Abbé Briant 
showed a remarkable pertinacity in rejecting every other supposition 
than that of suicide : he spoke of Ûie enfeebled mind of the unfortu- 
nate prince, of the manifestly impaired state of his faculties during 
die last days of his life, and concluded that he had committed sui- 
(nde in a fit of delirium. 

And now broke forth in all their hateful coarseness those greedy 
pasrions that prowl round every bier, and flagrantly display tho 
viciousncss of those institutions which the ignorance of society tole- 
rates and adores. Beside that cold body, the only remains of a 
vaunted race — in presence of that death which had not yet a name, 
amidst those confused murmurs, those tears— the inheritance of the 
victim was already coveted, and the idea of a mil brooded over that 
great scene of motuTiing. The papers of the deceased were become the 
object of anxious research. ** Kvery thing here belongs to Madame 
de Feuchères," said the Abbé Briant, and he exhorted M. Dau- 
Tcrt, the head of the plate department, to watch carefully over that 
portion of a treasure which was thenceforth to belong to the 
Doroncsfl. Madame de Feuchères, too, appeared to be very uneasj on 
the subject of the prince's papers; but sue ascribed her uneasiness 



to a generous motive, declaring her desire to find at the foot of 
some farewell letter the name of the man who had bo loved her. 

But it seemed strange to all the Due de Bourbon's servants, that 
when on the point of putting such a dismal project in execution, he 
had left no written indication of his despair» no token of his last 
hours, no mark of aflection towards those whose zeal he had always 
taken a plenâiire in recogmsing and rewarding'. This was a sort of 
moral suicide not leaa inexplicable than all the rest. An unex- 
pected discovery put the climax to these accumulated perplexitteSr 

Towards evening, on the 27th, M. Guillaume, the king's secre- 
tary, perceived, as he passed before the chimney of the room of 
death, soipe pieces of paper relieved against the black sides of tho 
fireplace. Stooping down^ be *ow on those pieces of paper, which 
lay on others burnt to ashes, the words, king — Vincennes — wn/br- 
tnnate son. The procureur-général, Bernard, arriving next day at 
St. Leu, the pieces of paper were put into hia hands with otneta 
which Ijccomto, the valet, had picked up. " The truth is here," 
was the Instant ejaculation of the procureur-général; end with the 
help of the persona present he put the fragmeata together so as tq 
ïQakeout the two following sets of lines: 

Baint'Leu aiipank-cit &u nn 

uc piil';!, ni ac brûlés 
le cbâtciiu n) le Tiliit(^ 
ne fkitCft de mal i pentinDC 
ni i D» amis, ni k m» 
gens. On TouB s é^iréi 
sur mon compte, je a'ai 

nrir en luant, 
Œur le peuple, 
et IVspuir du 
bonlicTir de ma patrie. 
Sunt Len lA wi depend 
uppaniËnamt à Yotru rgl 
Pliilippe: as pilUa ai tic lirùlé* 
te ti.- Titlflf^ 

ni es amis, ni à me9 gent« 

On Ttvqi ». égaras sur mon compte, je u'^ <ïu'à mourir en KiuKniiant bonheur et 

pmptclU AU peuple Pruiçals et il ma patrie. Adieu pour t'ju;>uur!:, 

U H. J. DE BOURBON, l'rinot iti> Coiwlt. 
F.S> Je detoimdt! à être siterri à Vlncvnacs, prùs de niiin iufurtunû âlB.* 

Many were pleased to see in these strange admonitions a proof of 
suicide: but those who were least ready to be convinced could not 
conceive that these were the adieux of a prince prepared to part 
from life. In their opmioa the fear of the pillage ol St, Leu was 

* The Utter document, «^ which ihc flnt -woulii tvem to be • roD^lk dnft, ii to 
thif eflbrt :— Stt Leu JWjd it» depend . , belong to your kinjj PliiUppe; do pot 
plUo^ nnr lïqin tttfi . . « tbe vHloge nor , , , . bum to my one neither 
. , y friends, nor to my people. You have been misled on ray account, T hUTo 
(jol/ to ax, wUliin; pTDdperitf to Use l^rench poiple uid. io my countrj. 

Adieu foi- ever, 

L. H. J, BOiniBOX, PriuTO dc Coodc. 
P.â. I re^uect iliat I may be buried ai Vucennes, new my uaCdrtvLaLiA va. 



not reconcilable witli tliat disgust at all thinas Trhich suicide im- 
plies. It was hardly crediMc thût tins icar should have po wM w d 
the Due de Bourbon's mind on the uicht oî" the 26th-27th AogUFt; 
that i» to eay, immediately al'tcr that fête of St. Jwouis^ on which he 
had received so many tcgtimonies of nffection, atter the kind atid 
rettflsuring visit oi" the queen, and when there was hardly anj ixnaa 
k'ft of the re\:ont otrîtatioti. ^Neither could it be ûccounled for whf 
the Puc dc Bourbon wrote doira Louis Pluiippo m the proprietor of 
St. Leu, wliich he well knew did nut beloog lo liim. It waa nukt- 
tei of surprise that the prince, having taken up his pen iu the mid^t 
of his preparations for suicide, had said notliiiig preciae re«pectiug 
his fultil project» and had not foreseen the frightful «uspicions to 
which Uie vanueness <jf his words would expose liia Bcrvantd. It 
WÛB even tliouffht that there wtis gomcthing inconceivable in the 
way in which the two writings had been found. Those two papers 
which Louis Pliilippe a eecrctary and Lccomtc had so easily disco- 
vered on the evening; of the 27th, by whatsingular chance had they 
scaped on the morning of the same day the search of M. de Cliou- 
lot, Manoury, Uomanzo, and all tliosc who like them had exa- 
mined the fireplace wiih the utmost care? Was it to be suppoeed 
that some one had furtively placed tbc papers in the 0rej>kcc loap 
ai'ter the princess death in order to corroborate the opinion of sui» 
cide? Tliey had been found lying on the ashes of burnt papers: 
what reason was there for belic\'ing thfit if the prince had pftpeit to 
degtroy he should have burned some and torn up othetfl? Thete strik- 
ing cireumstanees led to the notion that the writing diacovered had 
reu-Tcncc to a date preceding the erent^ and was only a draft ofii 
proclamaiion drawn up by tlic prince in the l>eginiLing of August, 
whilst the revolutionary stonn was still growUnf^. It Eoon bucaiac 
known that, npon the first breaking out of the disturbances of July, 
the Due de Bourbon hud actually thought of issuing a prodamft- 
tion, and thenceforth the fccoud hypothesis acquired the foice of 

Thus the darknef^ that hung over tliia sudden death thickened 
At every ftep, M. Marc, pliysician in ordinary to the Idng, M. 
I'asquier^ and M. Maijolin^ were sent to St- Leu to examine tlie 
body. They were of opinion that the cose had been one of euicide. 
But tliis Bcientific verdict was not enough to aliay all suspicions; and 
moreover, it was immediately called m question, and impugned by 
medical men oi" celebrity. 

Two parties were conscqucntlv formed. Those who bcUcred in 
suiâdc could aUecc, in favour ol their opinion^ the procès verbaux; 
the melaneholy ol tlic Due de Bourlion since 1830; his terrors as a 
fovftlist, a man of opulence, and a grntHJunnme ; the distmctinç 
eueeta on IiIm vuciltating mtnd of the political parties that had 
recently disturbed his house; the act of Iwneficence he had in- 
trusted to Manooiy oa the 26thi under the fear that he should not 
*ble to perform it Hnuclf; lua uiute adieux to his serrants on 




the eremng that proved his Ust; the state of the body ^lUch pre- 
sented no other traces of violence than certain excoriationfl soffi- 
cdentlv to be accounted for on the hypothesis of suicide; the state of 
his clothes, on which no stain or marks of disorder had been 
noticed; the bolt shot on the inside; the physical difficulties of 
assassination; the impossibility of saying, with any degree of cer- 
tainty, there arc the assassins 1 The defenders of the memory of Uio 
deceased Kplied to these presumptive arguments by scenes of potent 
effect. One of them, M. Méry Lafontame, suspended himseufrcmi 
the fatal espagnolette^ in a position similar to that in which the prince 
had been Ibund; and the experiment proved to be without danger. 
A trial was made of die possibility of shooting a bolt into its 
staple from the outside by means of a very slender ribbon, and the 
trial vras fully successful. Suspicions, which till then had been 
timid, now assumed a daring and violent character. Names wero 
uttered. The will was read: the exasperation already existing 
against Madame dc Fcuchères was increased when it was ascertained 
that she had left no room for any one but herself in the beneficial 
remembrances of the testator. Accusing remarks wero circulated. 
It was related that Lccomte cried out, overcome by his feelings, in 
the chapel where the body lay in state, " I have a weight on my 
heart." M. Bonnie, contrary to the positive assertion of that same 
Lccomte, affirmed that, on the morning of the 27th, the door open- 
ing on the private staircase was not bolted, and that to conceal that 
terrible circumstimce, Madame de Fcuchères had gone to the cham- 
ber of death by the longest way, that of the groat staircase ! 

The Due dc Bourbon's heart was conveyed to Chantilly on the 
4th of September. The Abbe Pelier, the prince's almono*, took 
part in tlie funeral service. He appeared carrying the heart of the 
deceased in a silver-gilt casket, and lie opened nis lips to pronounce 
the lost iarcwell. Deep silence prevailed, and prodigious was the 
sensation when the sacred orator uttered these words in a solemn 
tone : " The prince is innocent of his death in the sight of God." 

Kcligion presided over the obsequies, which wero celebrated with 
much pomp, and in which many of the king's sons took part. The 
body having been conveyed to St. Denie, the episcopal clemr re- 
ceivrd it at the abbey gates; and the prayers of tnc church and the 
usual hymn for the dead echoing through the arches of the basiUca, 
accompanied the coffin to the vault where reposes the dust of kings. 

Such was the event. Madame de Fcuchères hastily quitted St. 
Leu, and went to the Palais Bourbon, pursued by strange Noughts. 
For a fortnic^ht she made the Abbé Briant sleep in her library, and 
Madame do Flassana in her bedroom, as though she had dreaded 
seeing some funereal image rise before her in the lonely night. But 
soon recovering from her emotion, she appeared fearless and firm. 
She had been long gambling at the Stock liixchange to an enormous 
amount; she followed up her speculations, and in the course of some 
months found hexsdf ft g^^'y^ of cxuisidenblfi sumsa 



McanwtUoj unpleasant nunocms were beginning to rise on all 
iides; the princes dc Rohan were making every preparation both for s 
civil and a criminal proseoutîon- At St. Leu ana Chantilly hardly 
any one put credence in the idea of the late duke'a suicide; in Pana 
the most hardy conjectures were Uirown out in the salons^ the work- 
ehops^ and eveiywherc. The association of an august name with 
that of Madame de Fcuchcrcs supplied the ïâûcour of party with a 
weajpon of which it eajrerly caught hold. It was ronarked, with 
malicious sagacity^ that the court had, on the 27th, takeu possesion 
of the tlieatro of the event through its trusty agents; that the Due 
de Bourbon *s almoner, though on the spot» had not been called on 
to take part in drawing op the procès verbgaitx; that M. Gucrin, the 
prince's physician, liad not been invited to he present at the po«t- 
mortem examination, whith was intruste^i to three phyâcûms, two 
of whom, MM. IVIarc and Paaiuier, were on terms of the closest 
intercourse with the court. It was asked, with a sarcastic show of 
Fiirprise, what could bavn been M- de Broglio's motive forpreventdng 
the insertion in tlie Moniteur of the speech delivered by the Abbe 
Pc'lier at Chantilly. The catastrophe that swept away the last of the 
Condés from the field of history and the growing prosperity of the 

.house of Orleans were placed in injurious jujctaposition- Lastly, to 
all this were added a thousand sUly or wild exaggerations, for ran- 
tour always compromîmes its own success by its ^-iolehce. On tho 

L^Aer hand, the zeal with which ccilain courtiers strove to gain crc- 
ââlce for the supposition of suicide, turned out dieiadvantageoualy 
for their idol ; so much blindnc&s is there likewise in hapeness. 

A dwriàve means was open to the king for putting an end to 
rumours that did not spare even the throne. Surely it was compe- 
tent for him to repudiate an inheritance round which hting so many 
black suspicions, and he would thereby have marked hia ace«eàoil 
with honour, and would have humihated his enemies. But Louis 
Pîûlippe took a different view of the interests of his nascent royalty. 
On the evo of ascending a throne, he had hastily transferretl to his 
children his property which he did not choose to unite with tlie 
domains of the state, in accordance with tho ancient law of the 
monarchy. ïhir* was a sulhciently plain indication that contempt 
of money would not be the dominant virtue under liis reign. So 
then, though the richest of European sovereigns, his only thought 
was how to have his son's dcw estates mBJiuged iu the most pro- 
ductive mannej, 

Thid entailed on the men in power the necessity of asmnng to 
Madame de Feuchères a protection of which wc shall have to r»naie 
all the flagrant indeconncs. The baronsFs was invited to court, and 
mot with a reception there that immediately became the talk and 
tlie amazement of all Paris. The loud voice of public opinion ren- 
diarâl{[ M iaveeiigation iieccssaryj evidence began to be collected at 

[BooUiaBm ibe month of September, butiiothlng was neglected to 
huh up the afiair. The cmiscilkr-rapporUur^ AL dc la Huproie, 






ahuwcd a determination to tHiclt the tinitli; he was suddenly super- 
annuated, and the place of judge, whicli lie had long desired for hie 
Bon-in-liiw» was granted hdm. The depositions passed into other 

We shall see by and l;y to uîii.t uccount so many questionable 
circumstances were turned by the eloquence of M, Hennequin, and 
the resentments of the logiiiraiat party. 

The court soon ceased to be uneasy at all the noise around it; but 
still one thing annoyed it. It was not -unaware that there had long 
been in the house of Condu a secret of which two pereons were 
idii-ays the dcpositorieg. That secret had Ijccn confided by the Due 
do Bourbon, during his sojourn in London, to Sir William Gordon, 
equen^ to the Prince Regent, and to the Due de Chartres. After 
their death M. dc Choulot had been nindc the conlidant of the 
piiiioe, who had funhermoto, when suffering under tlie consequences 
of ft fall from his horse, committed the secret to Manoury. Nothing 
has ever been known, or is yet knowii^ respecting that secret, except 
that it is important and fonnidablo. 

Not one of the le=soa& derivable from this hîatory was lort upon 
the people» in who^ bosoms there remained an imperishable leaven 
of distrust; for the people believes with alacrity in extraordinary 
crimes. Victim, moreover, of the excesses of pndc and the usurpa- 
tions of mightj it is granted to it to enjoy these grand spectacles of 
power prostrated or dishonoured, and of ancient races extinguished; 
spcctactea which God aâbrdâ ic to liil it up and to avenge it. 


Whilst the bourgeoisie and royalty, become for a while imited, 
were consolidating tlicir domination, the foreign 90v<ireigns wcro 
gtaduaUy recovering from tlteir alarms. 

The first thought of the new government had been to obtain re* 
copmtion: it tlierefore resolved to base its policy on the mainte- 
nance of the trcutieâ of 1815. This was preparing for itself a fear* 
ful situation. Would it not be necessary on the one hand to trucklo 
to foreign powers in order to plense them, and on the other to de- 
cade the nation in oi'der to calm it ? The cabinet of the Palais 
noyal did not foresee these consequcuces^ Oi if it did, it braved 

On the 19tU of August, 1830, Louia Pliilippc wrote to the Em- 
peror of Russia, notifying his acccssiûu. llie «ub.«tanc« of the letter^ 
every c^r^sion of wbich seemed carefully weighed, showed through 
all tlic forms of timorous obsequiousness, wlmt was to be the atti- 
tude o£ the new government. To rca^urc Europe as to tlic coose- 



qnencfifl of llus revolution of July, Louis Flxilippe represented i 
event only as an trnfortunat^ but iaeritabLe act of resaxaace to 
iœpnidcnt aggrcainons. îIîmscLf he exhibited oa the modcrvUiT of 
tlic i-ictor3, and the natural prottfitor of tlie vauquiahed, thus flatter- 
iog; tlic monafchioal principles of the czar to the height of abaolotbiiL 
To 1^ same end the author of the letter protected his respect for 
thednïosbd soTsreign, whom he designated, even iJler his Mi, Aut^ 
Cèiarùif X; thus doing homage to the principle of legitûaûcy. 
Louis Philippe softened down whtttevur iai"ht have been oboûxioui 
in Uudiog the charter, by calling to mind the fjiot that it was a fruit 
of tlie invttFion naà n ^l ol' the Kmpcror Alcjtander, Lastlj", ho 
adroitly giive it lu he undcrstwd that the peace of Europe would 
depeiiil on the support a{ïûrdùd him by the Holy Alliance; and al* 
though wholly devoted to Eugland^ as we shall eee by-and-bjT ho 
iUow«4 Kicolafl to hope that the catastrophe which had occurred iit 
Paiiji would not hare the eflect of breaking 08^ the aîliancc canteio- 
plftlcd by the Poliguao ministry between franco and RusHÎa. 

'ï\u: liistoiy wc arc about to write was comprised beforcluuid and 
in in whole extent in this letter. 

The Kmperor Kicolaâ no doubt had not expected thcâc niarka of 
nbmiflion of the French gorerument^ for on the ilrst new» of the 
nvolutjon of July he l»ad taken meaeures for making yfox oa France- 
He iont Field Marshal Dicbitch to Berlin to dctciinino tho King of 
Pniaria to an oQonaivc aUiance ; he gave orders to the Kusnan troopQl 
to hvlil thoroeelvca ia rcadine.-^ for an approachiug campaign; anà 
he wrote to Prince Lubccki, minister of finance in Poland, dcsinng 
him to provide funds without delay for putting the army into actÎTe 

Prince Lubccki rcpUed that Poland had eight millions of florina 
in its treasury, and a million of ecus in Berlin, and that it was con- 
sequently r^ày to undertako the preparations for war requisite 
under the circumstances* 

Hie Qzand Duke Constantine pressed the French consul in Po- 
ind to swear allegiance to Louis Philippe. This consul was de^ 
voted to the elder branch of the Bourbons, and the cabinet of St. 
PeCeribiirg was a&aid of seeing his place supplied by an agent of the 
îdeM that nad triumphed in Paris. 

Such was the disposition in which the letter before mentioned 
foand the Emperor of Russia: it flattered his pride without suIh 
dninff his resentment. He did not even take the trouble to dissem- 
ble his scorn, and the envoy of the Palais Koyal was received by tlie 
chief of a yet scmibarbaroua people with an insulting haughtiness, to 
which the government of the Restoration itself would not have sab- 

The attitude of Austria was not by any means so hostile, beoann 

* Doemnenti extracted frcin the portfolio of the Grand Duke Constantine, and 
pntfnowl b7 Lafcyvttt Iwfore the Chamber of Depatiet on the S3d March. 1S81. 


its diplomatic interests were different. The cabinet of Vienna was 
not interested, like that of St. Petersburg, in the destruction of Eng- 
land. It signified little to the Emperor of Austria that the King of 
France was English at heart, provided he showed a disposition to 
bridle the revolutionary spirit, and to shield from every blow the 
European system estabhshed in 1815. Louis Philippe promised all 
this. His accession was therefore to be hailed with joy by the so- 
vereigns who had in 1815 divided the spoils of France between 
them, appropriating the secondary nations like human cattle, with 
whicb they might do as they pleased. In this respect Kussia herself 
ought to have rejoiced at the accession of Louis Philippe; and she 
would have done so, had not her views on Constantinople given her 
a special motive for anger and resentment. 

M. de Mettemich, moreover, made his policy consist in avoiding 
every violent shock. Fond of repose from egotism, he was so like- 
wise from incapacity. They alone brave the storm who feel within 
them the strength to master it. M. de Mettemich wished to enjoy 
without trouble a reputation eanly usurped, and the iklsehood of 
which would have been exposed by the least complication of affairs. 
He did not content himself with merely receiving the assurances 
given by Louis Philippe in an encouraging manner, but he strongly 
urged the Kins of Prusâa not to delay acknowledging the new ^ 
vcmmcnt ; and, in fact, it was by way of BerUn that the récognition 
of Austria arrived; that of Prussia was joined with it. 

Uhe King of the Low Countries had not hesitated to acknowledge 
Louis Phihppe, dehghted as he was to sec on the throne of France 
a king who renounced for his country the left bank of the Khine 
and Belgium. 

As for England she considered the issue of the Three Days as the 
most fortunate event in her history. Thanks to the elevation of the 
Due d'Orléans, it was for the benefit of the English that the revolu- 
tion of July had been accomplished. Accoraingly William IV. 
gave General Baudrand the most cordial reception. 

The joy which these little family successes caused in the Palais 
Royal was not altogether unmixed. An Italian prince, the Duke of 
Modcna, refused to recognise Louis Philippe, and Spain put forth 
an offensive manifesto against the government of July. 

llie Duke of Modcna's refusal was singular. There had never 
been any thing in the relation between that prince and the Duo 
d'Orléans previously to the revolution of July, which could have 
foreboded a hostiU^ bo violently pronoimced. The Duke of Mo- 
dena, who was said to be a conspirator, ought much rather to have 
made common cause with a revolution, on which all who conspired 
for the independence of Italy had so long reckoned. The strange 
insolence of his refusal, and the still stranger impunity allowed him 
by the cabinet of the Palais Royal gave nse to offensive suspicions. 
AÎ. Mislcy had been talked of as a mysterious agent scat from Italy 



io the Due d'Orli^aiu on belulf of the cau^e of Italian independoncO' 
Some threwd persons thought ih&t by bis adhi^çnce to the treaties of 
18Ï5, Louia Fhilippe disconcerted the hop» he had inspired; tJiat 
the Duke of Modena was exceedingly irritated at this; and that his 
icûtaal wu the energetic expression of a di^pleajurc , the aecret trf ^ 
which it was impossible he should reveal to Europe, H 

Thç mami'e^Co published in the name of Ferdin&nd VIT. hy M. ^M 
CftlomardCf was more easily accounted for. Spun not having been V 
• pHtidpator in the trenties of Vienna, the adherence of Loiua Phi- 
Hppe to those treaties did not, in the eyes of an absolute monarch, 
fltimciently cover the stain of his usurpation. 

The Pakia Hûjal failing to win the Spanish goTcniment by per- 
Buasion, determined to act on its fear?. 

The news of the revolution of 1830 had atttacted to Paris from 
all quarters of Europe the most illustnouâ victims of the tyranny of 
Ferdinand VII, Brought together by common imsfortunea and 
common hopes, Mendixabal^ Isturii, CalatTa\-a, San Miguel, the 
Duke de Kivas, Martinez de k Row, the Count de Tûreno* &c, 
had fotmed a sort of junta in Paria^ the avowed object of which WW 
to revolutionize Spain. The French patriots formed a second ft9a&> 
OAtion, in support of the former, under the name of Comité Etpttffnol H 
The committee, which consisted of MM. Dupont, Viaxdot, Mar- ^ 
chais, Schœïcher, Chevallon, Etienne Aisgo, Gauja, Loëvc- Wei- 
mar, and Gamier-Pages, began operations with much aidoor. A ^ 
subscription was opened, and considemble sums were collected-^ ^| 
Oolonel Pinto was the principal intermediary between the patriot* 
of the two nations. M. Oalvo, a banker, took upon him the £aaji- ^_ 
cial interests of the body of Spanish emi^rantd. The project of ^| 
raising a loan was talked oC To form a military chest, enrol lefu- 
gees, and send them to the Pyrenees were the objects on which the 
Comité Etpa^nol cmçloyeà ita strenuous exertions, fl 

Ere long it was assured of the protection of the povcmment. H 
General Scbastiani was the only member of the ministry who 
appeared averse to any intervention^ even indirect. M. Dupont 
lûving personally appbcd to him for his co-operation in the Libours 
of the committee, he replied thut the first duty of the French 
government waa to avoid a European conflict ; that the new 
govemmcnt could not, without compromising itself» as^^t the Spanish 
revolutionists; that for his own part his mind was fully made up to 
exert his voice in tlie council against every measure intended to en- 
courage their proceedings; that us a man, nevertheless, but solely in 
that capecityi nc did not refuse his succour to mUibrtuncs that grieved 
him. ** liul in that case, monsieur," exclaimed Dupont, ** there is 
war between yuu and us." — " Very well, there ia war," themioétec 
ooldly replied, 

M. Giiizot displayed a very opposite way of thinking. He 
repUed to M. Louis Viardot when the latter besought the support 





of the administration on beKalf of tlie refugees, " Tell those who sent 
you that Fnat» cominitttjd n political crime in 1S25; lliat sbo owes 
Spain a signal reparation, and that that reparation shall be given.*' 

But the coniraittte wfts well uware of what weight would be the 
personal adherence of tlie king. An audience was theTcfort^ de- 
manded of him by MM. Dufwnt, Marchais, and Loëve Weimar. 
A day was appointed, and those gontlemen were presented at the 
Palais Royal by Odilon Uarrot. 'JTlie king receive<l them with ex- 
quisite suavity. He admitted that France was threatened with war 
on the banks of tKc Rhine; that as dan'^'^ers mi<;}it at any moment 
epriti;^ up aû^aitjsther on the north, it was important that she should 
he §CL'ur(îd from all asMHult on the south. He added thïit the protec- 
tion promised by Ferdinand VI L to the Carhsts of the south eeemcd ' 
to him alarming, and tîiat it was consequently of vast political im- 
portance to deprive them of the Pyrenees. He said too he waa not 
unaware that Uiîa policyprompted him to combat family interests: 
" But na tar as regarda Ferdinand VU., they may hanjç him if they 
like. He is the greatept blackguard that ever existed." The reprc- 
seotatives of the committee finding the king tlius dispo^d, thought 
it was a favoutsble opportunity to talk to him of tlie projects of the 
SpaniiJi refugees. These were to ofler the crown of Spain to the 
Duo de Ncmoura on his marrying Dona Maria» whereby French 
interests and the pttlitioal system of Louis XIV. would be made 
to prevail in united Spain and Portugal. Such a proposition had 
Utile to recommend it, in consequence of the mutual hatred of the 
Spaniards and Portuguese. It was not however on that account the 
king rejected it. He spoke without any disguise on the danger of 
yielding to a temptation of the kind. He regarded the offer of a 
OtDwn to one of his eons as singularly rash, and he did not choose to 
ootnproTUÎK himself in the eyes of Europe. As for the subsidies in 
money, forwhich he was asked, he abetaincd from cither promiaing or 
ïefuâng iheni; but some days afterwards he placed at Lafayette's 
dispotsol a hundred thousand Irancâ out of the privy purse to aid the 
«uterpnsea of the Spanish revolutionists. Sixty thoufnnd francs 
Trere conveyed lo Hayonne by M- ChevaUon; and M, Dupont was 
commifpioncd to go to I^farseille and deliver forty thousand to Co- 
lonel Moreno, who wfia to transmit them to Gcnend Tomjos. 

Tlic Spanish refugees thus directly countenanced by the French 
government, haâlcnod with hearts full of hope to the conquest of 
their country. Every day bonds of thirty, forty^ and fifty men set 
out for the Pyren&M, with drums beating and colotirs flyiug. Pase- 
port» were dehvered to the volunteers by M- Girod dc l'Ain, pre- 
i'cct tuf police, 'iiie impirialc of the dihgenci-a was always bcspoKen 
befonrliand for the refugees- Lastly, musketa being coUectca from 
nil quarters, and M. d'Ofalia, the Spanish ainbaFeadort complunin^ 
of tKie, secret depots of arms were made with the consent of MM. 
Montalivet and Guixot. 

General Minit was in Paria prcp&riug to act out f^r the Pyrenees. 



Marshal Gérard had an interview with tkc celebrated 
leader, U^-ishedon, Inm tho most lively testimonies of sympatl] 
promised his cause the support of the Ifrench government. *^ But It 
13 important," lie said, *' not to do any tldng over hiustily. Set out 
for Bayonne without delay» and pledge yourself to me that von will 
engage in no enterpiise until France shall have put herself in a per- 
fectly Batisfactory position with regard to Europe." Mina could not 
suspect the good fuith of Marshal Gérard; lie gave the promise, and 
Bet out for Bayonne without communicating to any one eitlier hie 
hopes or his prospecta. When he reached Bayonnc he kept hia 
word: but lua inaction at a moment when cvciy thing depended on 
promptitude and daiîng^, very soon made him the obj^t of pain- 
Jul euëpieion. The Spaniak refugcee formed two camps^ on the one 
fflde were the partiijans of France^ on the other those of England. 
Mina waa accused of treachery by some of his countrymeu; it wu 
thought he hnd sold liiin&cli' to the Enghsli. Fettered by hu 
plighted word he could neither act nor defend bimÊclf. The distnut 
to natural to men labouring; under adversity, «prang up amongst the 
refugees^ divided them^ impelled some to dangerous precipitation, 
and frozq the zeal of others. A worse evil was BOon added to the 
mischiefs of these divisions: Feixlinaud VIL had been seized with 
terror, and had made known to Louis Philippe the conditioiv» on 
which he consented to support him. This wa^ what the cabinet of 
the Irakis Koy^il looked tor. luÉtontly it forbade Uic departure of 
the refugees^ guspended itf aid to them, took means to diapei'se their 
ma^est obliged Uic authorities to exercise an active mrveflla»ce^ and 
sent inhospimbte ordei^ Hyi^^ï ^^ the wings ol' the telegraph to 

Ihen it waa that Colonel Valdè«, yielding to the impulses ofiiiâ 
despair, erobsed the Bidaasoa. On the 13lh of October, at the head 
of a small gûllant band, he set foot uu the sacred soil of his native 
landf amidsit a thoumndei'ieâ of Viva la Comtitadim, and wilhotit 
any other wariitut of success than the justice of hia cause and bis 
good sward. Fortimc was favourable to liim at first: Mmegeneroud 
&paniarda rallied round his £ag, the lliig of an outlaw. But painful 
diftippointmenta awaited him. Another partisan leader. Creoend 
ChapahmgaiTa, had entered Spain imder the fatal conviction that bo 
had but to dhow himself to raise the country; and his reply to those 
who reprt-'scnied to him the Janger ofauch excessive conlidcnce wnMf 
** Tlie balls know me too weU. to strike me: and even if I l'ail what 
docs it matter? I shall at least sliow how a 8i>ld)cr of freedom c«a 
die." These last words were propKeùeal: observing a royalist powt» 
he advanced towardii it alone, aiter giving orders to his men not to 
iinî, and he utioral a few amicable word». He waa answered by a 
volley, arid fell dead. His comrades, too feeble to resist, retreated tO 
an inn where u hundred men were ported, whom the royalists had 
caused to be rec<junoitced by a i^py disguised as a vender of caka& 
ThU poflt WU3 vigorously ussâilled, and made u bruve redislAAoo. 




_ tit P^non voluntccra fougîit tlicro for the cause of Spain, four 
of \Tbora were kiUed; the other four, after a galloiit defence, suc- 
cccclcd iii saving tfaeraselves hj sfficaming. Cbapalfiogarra's tïoop 
was decimated tind dispersed. Tliia iixst check ivaa but tlie signal 
of a great disaster. Valdca, dcpriTcd of a support on wliicK lie had 
leckcmcdf and overborne by superior forces, had concentrated lus 
Strength at Vera, where he could not fail to be surrounded and d&- 
stroycd. The news reached Mina who then resolved to quit Bayonne, 
and hasten to the aid of his brother in arma. He afËcmblcd his 
companions, hflGled the vigilance of the authorilJefi, got the better, 
tljrotigh the kind assistance of Bome French patriotSj of tlie cusEom- 
houK oihccrB wlio availed to seize hismedical stores, and at lastcrossed 
the frontiers after many obstacles and dangci-s. A most serious mi*- 
tmdcCTtanding subssted between Miua and Valdès. The former 
only wished to force Ferdinand VII. to Hbeml conccsâons, the l*tter 
wished to deduone him. But when tlie two chieia met they shook 
hands, eacriGcing their mutual tUsUke to the cau^e of their country 
which called them both to tlie same field of butde. Valdts remained 
ftt Vera, and Mina marched to Irun, of ivldch he made him&cîf master. 
Unfonuniitely the Spanish loaders had not been able when they 
commenced their enterprise to foresoo idl tlie dangei^ that awaiteu 

It h«d baen apeed that wldlst Miua entered Spain by Navarre, 
General Flacenna should simultaneoualy enter by Ai^agon, &o ae to 
hold the troops of tbu tattiT province Lb check» But the arms sent 
to the latter general were seized by order of the French government : 
five hundred muâkels and aii thousand carlridgeg, collected by Greneral 
Vigo, were conGscated at Maulian, and a aunilar confiecstion toot 

flace at Ba^crcs, where General Gurrca waâ gtatioued : for iho 
'reuL-h government wàs as zealous to p\U dowu the elTorts of the 
Spaniel palriota aa it had at first been to excite them. Tlie Spaniali 
govemaieul too waa carefully made acquainted with every thing 
that lo«3k place in France, The (Japtftin-general of " Aragon was 
therefore made aware that hiâ provmco wa« not menaced, and he re- 
ceived orders to unite his trooptj with liiosc of NairaJTC. AH resiat- 
ance w^ thereby rendered useless. Miua, who after the capture of 
Irim luid occupied tbc hcîghta of Oyarzuni was warned tJïat Valdèa 
WM on the pomt of being heiniued in. He immediately ecnt him 
lac cavalry and a snudl body of infantry commanded by Gcncials 
L<^>e3-BaaD0, and Butrou. Witli this reinforcement \ aides dis- 
puted the ground foot by foot : it waa stru^gUng with impossibility. 
Uc wa6 forced to retrace hid ctef» acroaa the frontier, followed by 
auch of his Qomradee aA bad not i'alien in the unequal Etrilc. Alaa ! 
the fioil of France yrta not Ics-s fatal to those unfortunate men than 
tliut of tl*eir native land, Tiiere, where they expected an asj-lum, 
many were to find but a crave. With a violation of the law of 
aationa, the audacity of which wa£ only equalled by ita scandalous 
impunity, the royatwl» puwued theii eîicniîee even into the French 

u 2 



territory and tiiere sKot their prisoners. An aide-de-camp of Valdès, 
filled witb grief nnd indignation^ would not preserve Ms life in that 
Franco which he had yet loved; he returned to Spain to die there. 

There remiuned to Mina only a small force. He endeavoured to 
regain the frontier. Hardly beset on all «ides, pursued without 
respite, and tractcd by huge Pyrenean bloodhounds, he passe<l two 
days in climbing the ïnountaïn-sides» often compelled to Hide in the 
depths of the ravines, and even in the clefts of the rocks. At lust 
he reached Lorda, a house situated a leagtie from the frontier on the 
French dde. He had travelled thirty-eight leagues in forty-two 
hours; his handa and feet were bloody; and the wound he had for- 
merly received in the war of independence had broten out afresh. 
Several of his companions fell into the liauds of the rojal carabineers 
and were inassftcred; some of them were shot in the market-place of 
Irun, amid cries of Viva el Reif ahsoîuto. 

The cruel soul of Ferdinand VIL waa satiated with vengeance: 
he ceased to threaten the cabinet of the Palais Royal. But from 
that moment France was execrated by flU the Spanish patriots, and 
it was manifest that if ever Spain became democratic she would 
become En^^'lish. Now the triumph of democracy in Spain being 
inevitable, the French government had re-erected that barrier of the 
Pyrenees which the j^enius of Louis XIV. had levelled. 

\Vhil9t France was losinj* Spain on the south, fortune seemed to 
he opening to her on the north the road to peaceful conquests. 

Thesre eariafced in France at this epoch two governments, that of 
Louis Philippe and that of the clubs, the former calculating and re- 
served; the latter active, impassioned, loud-tongued, and fond of 
sudden flights. The party in Paris that talkcfl of prosclytism, and 
wished that France should at last push forward to the Rhine find 
lay her hand on Belgium, was com]>09cd in general of young men, 
unused to public hie, of httle wealth, and consequently of little 
weight in a society actuated by mercantile principles. Ncvci-theleaB 
the xeol of that party augg^ted wiser coun-ssls than did the ft 
its opponent:. In the perplexed condition of Europe, prudence 
sisted ill daring every thmg, and the most rash in appearance wore 
in reality the wisest, for pcsce was aBke the nltîmûte result of either 
system : only France would have imposed it on Europe, had sho 
shaken off" the treaties of 1815, whereas by adhering to them she 
was forced to sue for it; and in imposing peace she would have dic- 
tated its terras, whcrcaâ in suing for it she was compelled to accept 

• Unfortunately the propagandiit policy wanted champions of 
wdght from their Focial position. With the exception of Geneml 
Ijuniart^ue, General Rlchemont, and M. Mauguin, the latter of whom 
kept «p a ûonstant oiirrespondenre with the partisans of France in 
Bf In-luin, DU man of note L*aine fui'ward to offer a vigorous resistance 
to the ultra-pacific tendencies of the court- Moat of the old gcnemls 
of the empire longed ibr nothing more than to pass the Tcmainder 


*^^TW BBtJSSELB. 293 

of iHeii troubled lives in the swccta of repose. Some of tîican saw 
in the adoption of the policy desired by the new diepeneers of for- 
tune an caeior way opened to thdr finibition. In ttie sphere in 
"which diplomatic questions were dlscusscdj industrial France was 
BTcry thing, martial Frauce was notldûg. 

Still the propagandist party actively turned to account the state 
of vaciilation into wluch the revolution of July had plunged France, 
and the momentjirj "weakness of all the powers of government. Many 
of itâ emissaries set out for Belgiutn, where they hented the pubhc 
Tuind, and sowed among the people the seeds of thopc passions with 
which ihcy were themselves ammated, insomuch that on the nlglit 
of the 25th-2fith Aupust, 1830, the cry wiis I'aised in the strcetâ of 
Bruraelâ, " Z,et us do like the Parisians^ The Impetus which then 
poaseased some youn^ men on coming out from a representation of 
the Muette, at first led to what seemed only a broil. Thchoufc of a 
miiii&teriall journalist sacked; the tricolour ilag unfurled; some ar- 
morers' shops plundered; the windows of the cout d'axsixes broken; 
the hotel of Van Maanen, the minister of justice, set on fire amidst 
the exulting shouts of the multitude; this seemed to he the whole 
list of the acts of vengeance of the Belgian nation towards Holland. 
The whole was a violent protest father than an attempt at revolution. 

And in fuct almost all the Belgians coiïc-emed in trade were 
linked to Holland by the tics of private interest; the btildcpt hardly 
desired more than an administrative separation^ with the Prince of 
Orange for king. The people was disposed to wish for more, not 
from any exact appreciation of ita own interestfl, but because its feel- 
ings of mncour and tcndcnciea to revolt were fostered by die catholte 

Tliis descrepaney of pentimenta was manifested the day after the 
disturbance ol the 25tb of August, The lirst thought oi the bour- 
geoisie was for the re-cfitablisïiment and tlic maintenance of order: 
It made haste to E>cnd a deputation to the Hague, with a respectful 
address to King William, which ended with these words: 

" FuUf Tclj-jnjr Ml tlie poalncM and justice of your Majestf, the citiieru of 
BruMcî* Imve tkputcd their fellow -citizens to wait un yoti, only in order to ubtain 
the plcHinjE: cvrtaintr thnt the cvl]!i complained of will be remcdkd tbc motiient 
they &rc tDiiwn. The S.S. are conviDced iliat ouc of tho but nteoni of ftrriTlng at 
thU *) deaimblo tod will bo the pmrnpi oooTOcation of the itates-geneiûl. 

•• BnweU, this 29ih Ait'jitxt, leaa" 

It is certain that the Bolgiim bourgeoisie (a& far as those who con- 
Hitutcd its principal force were concerned, — namely, the manufac- 
turers and trade») was much more disposed to fear, than to desire a 
thorouffh revolution; ftrât, because guch a revolution would naturally 
hare placed Belgium in a state of violence, and have hurried it into 
A course full of troubled ; and secondly, because a shock of such mag- 
nitude was not neçeœary to bring about n rcUef (rom the grievances 
complained of Fifty-fi%'c deputies represented thf north in the 
second chamber^ and an eq^ual number the south; a lew more repre- 
acnlativea given to the southern constituency^ would therefore tmvo. 


sufficed to ovcrtlirow the hases of the muon, and to transe the 
sceptre of the Low Countries from the Hague, to Bnissda. 

But the 25th of August placed thinp on a headlong declivity, on 
which it would have been very difficult to have stopped them. An 
intense fermentation prevwlcd among the people; a new hait had 
been held out to discontented ambition; the colours of Brabant 
waved in Brussels; the insurrectional movement of that citj spread 
to Liège, Louvain, and Namur; and, as if to render the mptnre in- 
evitable, the Dutch journals intcmperately called for the punishment 
of the rebels. 

It was in the midst of the general an^dety, on the 31st of August, 
1830, that the Prince of Orange and Prince Frederick, arrived at 
Vilvordc at the head of their troops. A commission was instandj 
named at Brussels, to propose to the princes to enter the city. 
They consented to do so, on condition that the colours of Brabant 
should be displaced for those of Orange. On receiving intelligence 
of this the city of Brussels was in uproar; the streets were broken 
up, trees were felled, and barricades prepared. A fresh deputation 
set out for Vilvorde, passing through the hosts of an excited popu- 
larion. At eleven at niwEt the (fcputation returned to Brussels; 
and at midnight, a proclamation in these terras was read in the 
bourgeois guam-houses, amidst passionate cheers. 

" IL R. H. the Prince of Orange, vill come tliu day with hU staff alone, and vithoni 
tToops; he demands that the garde bomvfoijtt should go to meet him. The depntiai 
hare pledged themselm for the Bafetr of his person, And that he shall he at liberty 
to cuter the city with the ^rde bourtieoisc. or to withdraw it* he think fit." 

Tlie next tlnv. the 1st of Soptombcr. tlio Prince of Orancre made 
his entn.' into lîru^seî?. T\\q Umit-^vkk-' guard liaJ nmrolicd to meet 
him in order ol" battle, fo to «peak, and proudly waving the colours 
of Brabant. Tlie Prince of Oran^'e encountered the head of the 
column at the bridge of Lairken. He wa:; 3eoonij)anif"d onlv bv^ome 
aides-de-camp. An innumerable multitude throngc-d the roacî along 
which he had to pass. Tlie dnim? beat n? he appr->achcd. and the 
guards presented arm*. He co\dd even juilgo tV'im the <hout? of 
Vive k Princr, that greeted him here :uni there, that lie wa:: not en- 
tering a hostile city. But when lie saw ilie «treits encuniK'red with 
huge barricade?, and all the ominou* panu>her:iali;i « 'f a ivrilletl city, 
lie turned pale, and ncarîv Liiut'd. iîe^idc-:. ar^ ho :-.dvaneed. the 
voice of the people swelled louder and h^udor ab'-ve that i<î' the 
bourgeoisie, atfrightin^ \ù< ear with tiles'? «h-nits of war. Vire la 
Librrti! Doicn inth Van Maanen ! He wi-hed to proeetd throuirh 
Rue de la Madeleine, to his n^vn palace, but evfrv tuncrue cried. To 
the Hotel de Ville! Intensely a;ritated, he C'lntinued his route with 
extreme haste, and like a fuiriiive. In the Place 'le la Ju=ti.'e. where 
he appeared alone, his ai<l<^s-de-eanip not having been aMe !■• keep pace 
with him, a sentinel g:ive the iJamt. th'.- guar.b p.'~ted in the Place 
hurried up and pointed their bayonets at hiin. llius the r».volu- 
♦ionary fever had already seized on Brussels, and the prince found 



Wraself engaged in nn cnt4?rpTipe, the jmie of which might be most 
disastrous. He abridged aa much posâble, his stay in a citv, whero 
ftlieady thd coiours iatal to liis houâo, were wRTÎn^ on all pointa. 
But he had been waited on by eevcral successive deputations; ho 
had been viBited by almost all the men of note in Bni5se]p^ (ind a 
commisaoo appointed to cidvisG on the m(?ftBijTG8 to be taken "Under 
the circumstances had at last uttered the word separation. That 
word allowed the Prince of Orange the hope of a crown, " On that 
condition you will ho faithful to me?" he said, in a meeting in which 
the question was to be decided. *' Yes ! yea !" was the unanimous and 
enthusiastic reply. — " And you will not unite with the French?" — 
" Never 1" Upon this, impassioned bnguage was interchanged between 
the prince and thoae by whom he wa& surrounded ; the emotion of the 
ftseembly was at its height, and it is said the Prince of Oiango bvirst 
into teats. On the 4tb of Soptembej; he left Bruasels, never to re 

The Prince of Orange was a man of talent, chtvalric, and French 
in manners and in language. He did not bately court popularity, 
he made it gather round him spontaneousiy. But his love for play, 
and h\s strotig propensity to libertinism, furnished Ilia enemies with 
a weapon which (hey wscd ■withindcfîitigabîe rancour. Thuait wa*, 
thftt he was dceuscd, not wîtîiout ?omc ahow of probability, of having 

f purloined his wife's diamonds to pny his debts. His father did not 
ove hira. William^ a man of hunness, !iad no feeling in common 
with a man of pleasure, whose inclinations he disapproved of^ and 
whose capacity gave him umbrage. He preferred hia younger Fon, 
Prince Frederict, who juatificd, by an extreme mediocrity of mind, 
the paternal sffcction, which in kings if. always jealoue. Now, itwaa 
Prince Frwlerick's bnnd, as we shall hereafter sec, that broke ihû 
last link between Belgium and Holland. 

The news of these events produced a deep sensation in France* 
Thovîgh there was no comparison to be made between the situation 
of France, and that of Beldum, the Parisians were pleaaeU to see 
in the revolution that had just begun in Brussela, the influence 
of the heroic example wt by the peopb of Paris. 

The court was occupied with other thoughts. Tlie king, having 
had a private inlemew with two Belgians, who were at that time in. 
Paris, made no secret to thorn of his sympathies ; he spoke of William 
aa a wise and liberal prince, and appeared grieved at the shock given 
to the throne of a monarch who had recognised him with so much 
alacrity» and in ao handsome a manner. Louis Philippe coidd 
hardly venture to display the same feelings before hia ministers, par- 
ticululv before Dupont de l'Eure and Laflltte. But after the reso- 
luticm he had taken, not to displease monarchical Europe in any 
thing, how could he have beheld, without di?may, an outbreak that 
forced him lo adopt a decision, cither anli-European, or anti-French? 
For, to refuse the hand of fellowship to Bel^utn, when on the point 
of detaching itself tiom Holknd, would have been to ^ve a very 


abrupt, and perliapa dangerous negative to the topes tbe lerolatioa . 
of Ju^ Iiad awftkened among' tlie French people ; whilst to «cccpW;^- ^ 
the acLvances of fortune, would have led him to on irréparable bfêact^-- ^ 
■with England, which ever since the time of Edward III,, bad Btriverr^ ^I^ 
against the estabhahment of French interests in Belgîmn. ^H 

Not that the union of the two lattei countries could have beefc:^^^! 
effected without impedimcnt, even in the full flush of the enthuadfic^^^ 
created by the revolution of Jidy. The Belgian clergy, which exercase^^^ 
absolute eway over the people, detested the Fren^di, ag a nation 1^^^"^». 
gone in scepticism, and m idl tlie licence of the spint of inquiry ; t^fe-j^ 
n&blea feît noUiiiï^ but aversion for a country wuicli was strewed -^^a// 
over wiîh the ruins of tlie anstocracy ; and as for the traJlicki-^-ifr 
classes, they were in general Orangists, Notwithstandiûff all this» to 
attract Bel^um to France would not have been a problem heyotnj 
the reach of sktltul diploraacy. Divisions, which were nltcrw&ztlf 
to show themselves in their strcnji^th, and which might Imvu been 
turned to account, already existed in the f^erm between the calhoijc 
and the Uberal parties, ilie hostility of iho nobles was not backed 
by such real strength, as to mako it imprudent to overlottk it. The 
leaning of the traders towards the Piincc ol' Orange, having no othtt 
cause than their mercantile egoism, it would liave been easy to con- 
vince them of the great gain tbat would accrue to them irom H» 
opening of the French markets to thoir productions. The 8(^iftni- 
tion of Helgium from Holland, coupled with the royalty of th« 
Prince of Orange, could be for the former country only ft disgiiiscd 
dependence, (uid left tbe fear of the Dutch yoke conlinually sunpeoded 
over it. Had not Belgium, after all, once been Frendi? Was not 
French the language spoken by all the influential and eidîgbtened 
part of the nation .'' Were not the Walloon provinces Frcach 
IiKurt? If Brussels was afraid of sinking in importance by hoc 
tbe mere chief town of a depiirlment, was it not possible to ovc 
its apprehensions, by etipukting tliat it sliould become the read _ 
of a French prince, and tho capital of an adminiâtastivÊ dlviâon of 

Such were the thou^hta of those wlio had the greatness of l 
native land at heart: but thoyhad potent and stubborn intcreats ' 
contend with. Many of the French mantifacturere dreaded 
competition of those of Belgium, in case of & union between Hon 
countries, thus preferring their o^vn pecuniary interests to Ûie in- 
terests of the nation. M. Cuaimit Péner, as proprietor of the mines 
of Anzin, would have lost a great deal of money by the free int 
duction of Belgian c-oul. Thus, when France, a land of warm 
had renounced her genius, she with it lost her virihty, and fbv 
herself doomed to impotence, on tiic day she consented to bo go 
vcrned by shopkeepers. 

These circumstances too well coincided with the political view» 
of the château, not tohc turned to account by it. On SatunUj 
September 4, 1830, the king kid a question of the gravest moment 


before tHe council, viz. the nomination of Talleyrand, as atrtassador 
to London. M. LafEttc duclared that such aa appointtnent seemed to 
him exceedingly dangerous, because it was unpopular. SI- Dupont 
de TEurc spoke in stiîl more deciàvc terms. M. Mole, whose po- 
licy was rather Russian than English, was averse to a choice that 
abruptly forced France into an aUiiincc witli EngUnd. M. Bignon 
sided with Dupont de l'Eure and Lalïittc. The king brake oS' the 
diwtission in consequence. 

Tlie next day M. de Talleyrand, dining at M. Laffitte'a, said 
to himj "I tliunk you for what you said ^'cstcrday. I know all: 
the king told inc every thîn^**^-" In that case, you know in what 
terms 1 ^ke of your capacity." — '* We will pass over that," — *' I 
added, that 1 believed you incapable of forfeiting your word.*'^-" It 
is for thut I thank you." — " It is true, I spoke of your unpopu- 
larity." Talloyrsnd replied only with a pmilc; the others at the 
table imitated him ; and some hours afterwards M . Laffilte learued from 
the king's lips that M. de Talieyrand was ambassador to London, 

No protest was made on the part of the council. Yet the reso- 
lution just come to irrevocably pledged France to a novel hoc of 
policy. The nomination of M. nc Talleyrand aa itmbnasadorto Lon- 
don not only bound Frencli diplomacy to tîie tnnintenancc of ihe 
treaUes of 1815, but also to tlic renunciation of the Russian alUancc 
and to the adoption of that of England. 

That nomination must have deeply shocked the public had not 
all minds been dazzled and hcwildercd at the moment. Who could 
have Ibrgotlen that before 1814 France Imd been the first nation in 
the world; that her domain hod l>egun and ended with the Rhine; 
that Germany had been fasliioncd for her and by her; that Italy 
acknowledged lier laws; tlmt the capital of Catholicism belonged to 
her; that bpain obeyed her influence; that she was f^^rcatcr than all 
thopride of LouisXIV, had dared todrcam? Nowitwas inthehouse 
of M. dc Talleyrand that the ne^otiationa of Paris were opencdp 
tJiose ever sbftmeful preliminaries to the shameful troaticsof \ lenna; 
in M. dc Talleyrand's house the foes of France had, with two 
strokes of ilio pen, wreaked their spite on the military genius of the 
republic, and ita continuation by lluit of Bonaparte, it was there 
it had been decided (hat a nuEbon ghould be ^von to M. de Met^ 
ternich, a million to M. de Nesselrodc^ and six hundred thousand 
fiwica to esïch of the eubaltem negotiators, to indemmty the foreign 
diplomatists for llie puins they took to rob us. Surely these were 
singulax quahfîcations for becoming the linibnssador of a revo- 
lution, wliich, iu the opinion of tlve people, was but a protest 
against Waterloo and its consequences. 

The life of M. de Talleyrand * lurtherraore, was no my5tory for 
any one. He had risen through the protection of the courleans 
who dishonoured the bst days of the monarchy, ftnd who con- 
tributed to itfi ruin. Ho had become bisliop of Àutun on the eve 
of the church'fl downiol. He, a ffraud ati^neur^ had bcctt seen cxn 


the famous (mmvcrs^rv of the 14th of Julv officiating at the altar 
of the coniUrv as hisrh prio?t of that revolution, which gave the 
(loftth-hlow to the nrinivracv whereof he was a member. Ho 
huti had hi:« share of authoiitr. when the ISth Fructidor smote his 

)ïrttnMî!i. llo had won the [x»rtfc»lio of foreign affairs by the rcro- 
ntion t>f tho ISth Bntmairr, dirwtod against his friend Barras. In 
1814 he had prvH-lainuxl himwîf head of the prorisional government, 
wliiU his Ivuotjiotor. N:iivUvn. wa? meditating at Fontainebleau 
over tlie ruins oi' the Kmpirt». And now that the dynasty, to 
whioh ho had otVenxl hi? jx-itronage in IS14, was exiled in its 
(urn. he ï\»apjH»anHl on tho stage once more to bid good day. to 

'I'hi'se very fnets ^vintoil him out tor the admiration of the 
rtïld-MoiMUnl amhitiou:} and iho sooptie* whom the misguided couise 
lïf tl\e July TX'voUition earrievl to the manairement of the state. It 
ia the pn>|vrty ef |H»ttv s^n;!* asvl pottv intellects to deem him a 
uuin of abdity who ihrivi^? ia hi? eo^^tism. M. de Talleyrand was 
not even in i\ù* amis^» a ludn ot' ".nqualisod ability. Dismissed 
fft'iu ministerial lite \inderthe RctniMio. degraded under the Empire, 
nhi)o>t exiled t'lvm eourt ureter ti;o Kesior.iti^'n. he could not hoM 
hi^ !;r\tund muler anv of the govemr.'.onr* of which his venal and 
pr\wtituie ambition l».ul t:(Vv^«rt\l tho iriiimph. 

A^ lor ihaï other kind v'l'abilitv. wV.'a'H con*ists in accomplishing 
vast tK>ii;us with tlvble n\<. Nt. de TalIe\Tjnd never jwesessed 
it; and of thii no iiue.*tioi\ \vuUl exi?: a'.norg those foreiirn diplo- 
nnti"!-* \vlu> I'.nd w '.iiu-^'^'v! ''■< •v.-..-.m>".*v ;i* Vi-T.r'.a. For whilst, 

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Fouch^ who had aa^jared all the audacity of nûschîef poeseaeed 
at leant all its cemiis: TaUeyrand, on the contrary, was a man of 
mediocrity; omy he had this advantage, that ho knew all the forms 
and degrees of human baseness, having experimented upon them in 
bis own perscm. If he did vile actions, it was sometimes with sar- 
castic levity, sometimes with a contemptuous air, always vrilh the 
ease of a man of high birth. He would fain have made virtue pass 
for a proof of bad education, for a mark of low breeding ; and he 
was r^arded aa the protector of each of the governments to which 
he haa given himself, such a coxcomb was he in his treachery, and 
so much importance did he contrive to ^ve to his dishonour. Some 
bon motit made popular by his hangers on, some happy hits of ma- 
lice had acquired for him a reputation de talon that inspired terror. 
No one reflected that he was feared not only for the wit he possessed, 
but for that which was imputed to him. He spoke little when 
he had a mind to show off, had the art of making his advice awaited, 
and gave it with studied conciseness, thus causing it to be supposed 
that he thought much. There was nothing about the man, even to 
his outward lineaments, that did not subserve the lying part he 
played. Though he was clubfooted Ukc Lord Byron, there was in 
his whole person a sort of impertinent grace that no one could equal. 
Imperturbable too in his seli^posscssion, he put others to confusion 
by the polished insolence of his manners, the impassibility of his 
features, the perpetual smile of his half-closed eyes, and their pro- 
foundly ironical mildness. But all this would not have sufficed for 
his renown, if Europe, coalesced against France, had not desired to 
give influence to the man she had selected to degrade and ruin his 
country. M. de Talleyrand was silly enough to be deceived in this; 
he was not aware that the foes of France had bestowed on him a 
celebrity proportioned to her misfortunes. He was a pitiful being, 
and scarcely even that ! For his reputation increased oy every fla- 
grant infamy, and his prosperity was the type and epitome of all the 
disasters of nis native land. 

M. de Talleyrand's speech on being presented to the King of 
England, was every thing the EngUsh could desire, and on that day 
were laid the bases of tlic Anglo-French alliance, an alhance which 
it was impossible to establish permanently between two nations, that 
since 1789 had been ruled by the same economic laws, and both 
forced by the principle of competition to spread themselves abroad, 
to covet with equal ardour the acquisition of new -markets, the ma- 
nufacturing supremacy over the world, the empire of the seas. This 
impossibility, which the narrow intellect of TaUeyrand was incapable 
of apprehending, certainly did not escape the sagacity of the English 
statesmen; but, witli their habitual skill in dissembling their senti- 
ments, they accepted with delight the offer of an alliance which the 
distressed condition of their country rendered necessary for the 

The advantage was wholly theirs, Fianoe had aE U!)& âasuroit. "n! 

The Emperor m Bxaàa, coundeRd the iicntaxa&c(& t>1't.iS&ss<itK^'^& 



a sort of declaration of war. He could no longer doubt the cliangQ 
that was about to be introduced under Loiiiâ FbLUppe into tlie m- 
plomocy of E;iropc Tvitli respect to the question of tlie East. Ne- 
vertheless, as he was not yet prepared for war, he thought it ■expe- 
dient to temporîîîc ivlth rÙH hatred, of which the following letter, 
contemptuous as it was, was but the mitigated expression. 

" [ have received from the hands of Gcncml Atholln tlio letter of which he hu 
been Ihe bêJircr. Evenls for CTtr toïx; deploreiî liflve plac*<J your majesty in a croel 
alternative. Yoor ttiD.jt3ty hits adoptt^d a rletcrini nation wliicli ftfijioared (o yoa the 
only one fitted lo nave France from the pr&itcsl ml^mitics, luid I w^ili not utter any 
jud^mf^nt upon the con^idcfutiona wliich hart* ^rujded yout maji^ty, but I pray that 
Divine Providence may be pleased ti> bless your mtcnliooe snd the efforts you are 
about to make for the %reltare of tlie French people. In ooneert with my sdlio» I ac- 
cept with pltiianpu the wishes expresswl by your niaJMty to nijùittain rcJationi «f 
peaco and ivnJty with all the atatcA of Ëiu-ujie, As lung as these relation» shall be 
bHed on the esistinp treaties, and on the firm resolution to respect the rights and ol^ 
li^tioDS, and ibe state of tcrritoriid po^scsâïon 'si'hich those treaties Imvc ratified, 
Europe will find tliercin a ^ruarantee for thai x>eaec which i» ftO necessary to Ibe r«> 
pose of France heratlf. Called in eonjunction with my allies to eulltv3.te these COO- 
■erratÎTe relations with France, under lier goremni'ent, I will for my part brijip to 
them all the seJîdmde they demand, and the disposition* of wliicb I ghuïly offer yoor 
majesty tlic asBurance, in return for the «entiments your majçsty has expmaed lo 
nie. 1 pray your niAJecty to ai>ccpt ai the same tinic^ &c. &^ 


The cont«jnptuou9 tone of this letter, its ominous reserve, the 
inaulcing omission of the words monsieur monj'rère, wlûch Louifl 
Philippe had taken greut care to employ, all this was a ihimdet- 
strokc to ihc Palais Koyal. It wa? wot discouraged however, but 
bent all its thoughts on meriting the çood will of the courts by new 
efforts, especially in the Bol^nan question. 

The mo&t fricfntful confusion prevailed in Brussels since the Prince 
of Orange had quitted that city. A phantom of 9. government had 
appeared, there; but as Belgium liad not yet utterctt its irrevocablo 
warcry against the NiisKm dynasty, no Belgian executive dftred to 
think or to call itself tcgitimate. The people, which in all countries 
loves violent situations, because they break the monotony of ila suf- 
ferings, was all astir, and welcomed every hazard, Tlic unreflecting 
hatred it had long cherished under the zealous promptings of the 
citthohc cler^, broke out against Holliand with an impetuosity that 
threw all things into disorder. Gatherings took place in the public 
squares of Brussels ; arms were demanded on all sides ; volunteers 
were enrolled. The agitations of the capital was followed and ren- 
dered more terrible by those of Liège, Mons, Gund, and Naxnur. 
Disorder, as always happens, had engendered its orators and heroes; 
and anarthy was kept up not only by all the obscure aiubitious who 
triumphed in the uncertainties ot tlie times, but also by the Oran^iâta 
who wished to terrify the opulent part of the nation, and force it to 
surrender at discretion. 

Men must be wretched or ignorant to dare. The Belgian bour- 
gooisic, Bçeing above It an irritated king, and below it a growling 
multitude, trembled, tind strove to appease the king by deputation» 
And almost supplicating addresse?, whilst to the midtitude it oppo^&d 
itg Mrmed «ectious : but, cxhau&ted b^ tKU V^N^^yA •^si^^ \^ W gpd 


for the end of the crisis: an administratiYe separation ancl the main- 
tcnaucc of the Nassnu djmasty were the objects of its desires. 

The state&'general had been convoked to the Hagiie, William 
opened the sesaon with fi speech, in which the desire of peace was 
Sian&lated into haughty langungc. The Bel^ans were considered in 
H as rebels, and the ting announced his very decided intention of 
Conceding nothing to the spirit of faction. Tlio separation of ihe 
two Idngdoms, however, being indicated in the speech as tlie final 
term of aU, divisions, the Belfpan deptities joined those of Holland 
in ihankin» William, and the address in reply to the speech from 
the tlirone was voted by a laï^e majority. 

But too violent an aiipeal had been made to the passions of the 
two nationa to allow Ûu: possibility of a compromise. The Belgians 
were now talked of only with anger or contempt at the Hague : the 
deputies of the southern provinees were insulted theie, and veiy 
eooQ became aware that they were in an enemy's country. The 

Îuarrel was envenomed by the discussion on the address. The 
>utch orators ejaculated their desire to have recowrse to arms, and 
this imprudent language W'aa echoed from one end of Belgium to 
the other. Both sides were hurryirig fast to the dtuoutmimt, A 
Brussels paper, the Courier det Pays Bas, already inveighed 
against the timidity of the Bel^an depiitios in the states-generaL 
Alarming rumours' were spread- Eveiy instant it was expected 
that the troopSj commanded by Prince tredcrick^ would put them- 
selves in motion. Individual facta derived an ominous importance 
from these circumstancc3. Now it was a Belgian soldier woimded 
in a brawl by a Dutch soldier, and afterwards carried about the 
strcota of Alons on a hand-barrow in the sight of the indignant 
people; now it was a young man shot by a sentinel in Liège, who 
leli bleeding into his bro'Uicr'a arm». The opportunity was a fa- 
vourable one for France. The Belgian bourgeoisie felt itself hur- 
ried away iknn the Nassau party by a movement that was become 
irre^stiblc. It was sliding along between two abyescs, anarchy oti 
the one side, war on tlic other. 

There is no doubt that under these circumstances Belgium would 
have become French if the greatness of Fmnce hnd been the mark 
aimed at by the cabinet of the PaLiis Itoyal. But the progress of 
the revolution in Belgium was matter of dismay, not of liope for the 
French government. Louis Pliilippe wiis e<{Uidly afraid of having 
to refuse Belgium, because lliat would be to brave Paris, and of 
having to take it, for that would be to ofletid London, ITie agents 
of the Pohds Royal in Belirium, far from endeavouring to stimulato 
the movement, strove to discourage it, Lafayette might easily have 
baffled these discreditable efforts^ but unfortunately his activity \\v^ 
wasted in, idle speeches. Moreover there was something in tlie 
union of BdgitiUL with Fiance that gave pain to his puerile disin- 
terestedneaa. He would have been glad to see Belgium con^^tituto 
it£clf into a republic, without however supposing that France ought 
to contribute to that residt by a direct intecvcuvW. W ^axsMa- 



view he had with M. ie Potter^ who waa then in Pans, ho a»]ced 

Mm for a. note on tlic stats o£ Belgium; And there the m&Ucc 

We sec how critical was tlie portion of the Belgian bourgeoûûi 
thus left alûûc wîtli its tetroTS. A fact of little importance in ît«If» 
strikingly mamfested its perturhation and confusion. Ab they 
talked mcessantly in Brusacls of the speedy appçanmce of Prince 
Frederick's troops, porno volunteers resolved U> push forward u 
EkimiifihcTs on Uie road to Vilvortle. Tliey set out» and fearing 
Itst tîie dlligenee which followed should outstrip them and give in- 
telligence of their march, tliey forced it to return to the city. On 
reaching Terwueien they disarmed some marichaussUs, and got 
back to Brussels without further accident. Great was the co'nuno- 
tlon at the Hôtel de Ville on the news of this prooecdiag; 1^0 
nuiJacity of tlie volunteera was strongly reprehended, in a proclama- 
tion. The people became incensed in its turn» cried out tteachciyl 
rushed upoa tlie Hôtel de Ville, gtîzcd the anns there, and attac' 
BQveral posts. The bourgeois ^uard fired on an useemblage of wi 
ing men, thn;e of whom Itil dangerously wounded- Dismay rei 
in the city; and the next day a proclaraation, issued hy Prince 
Frederick, acquainted the Belgians that thu Dutch troops were 
advancing td the rëquat of the best citizen^t fiTtd to relieve the ùottr- 
ffeois guard fi-om a painful duty. 

Nor was it lon^j before the Dutch dragoons appeared on the 
chaattèe de Schmrhcck. Immediately the tocân .'«ûunded from St. 
Gudules; the drum heitt toarniâ; old lueUf wornen^ and children^ 
laboured at the barricades. Tlie moment showed one of those 
flaBbea of eathusiiism that sometimes appear on the apprmich of 
great dangers. The citizens onibraced each other in the streets, and 
vowed to die rather than to euhmît to tiic yoke. Volunteers from 
Li^ge had arrived in BruaeeLn; and with the inhabitants of that 
city they advanced upon the enemy and made a epiritcd attack on 
the Dutch cavalry, some of whom were ehot almost at musket 

On tlie 23d of September tlie Dutch troops presented thcmsolTca, 
al^ut nine or ten thousand strong, and towards eight m the evening 
they entered the city by the Schacrbcck and Louvain gates. It would 
seem that the Dutch weru bewildered at the appcurancc of the city 
raging and panting for the cumhat, and at th<2 fearful sound of the 
tocsiu mingled with discharges of musketry; for instead of marching 
at once gainst the un6mslied barricade?, seizing t)ie important 
posts, and putting tliemselvcs in a poeitiou to conimand the wlioW 
city, tliey drew off to the park where ihey intrenched thcmselvef 
with their artlUery, llierc they wore BSailcd for three days by the 
Belgians, who were masters of the Place Itoyalc, and posted in th* 
adjacent liouscs. For three days the Walloon poachers, {amons lor 
t^bnix tikill as marksmen, inccaaantly earriod death into the TaoJcB of 
ostilc ariuy« the artillery of which as inceasantly cannO'Daded 
at/. Ulic Dutch ftt k^t cvnciuiWd Birussels^ carrying away 




Belgium's inteeest if a ukion with phaxce. 303 

tïieît dea<î in carts, and leaving for toltçn of their visit, the part 
laid waste like a field of hattle, the pavement strewed with corpscf, 
and the reeking aslies of the hausea burned bv thâr shells. 

A mai"Uil blow bad been dealt the Nassau family. Merciless and 
vanquished, its critne was double. The horror excited by its abor- 
tive cflbrt was Boon numnentcd by reports of the dartest kind. 
Tim Dutchj it WU3 said, had been guilty of ati'ocious acts: tlicy 
had pillaged several hotels on tiïo Place d Orange, after beating the 
proprietors to death with tlie butts of their muskets; they had beea 
seen on the same spot filing through the îoopjioies of celuirs on poor 
inotfensive peasants; they had fastened the innkeeper of the Pavilion 
iioy&L to a horse 'â tail, and tnûlcd him idon^ m that condition; 
they liad brutally carried away young girls from booiding-schools, 
aaa set Ëre to sixteen houses between the Schaerbeck and the Lou- 
voin g»tes, A Belgian, named Hanregard, wa3 mentioned, whose 
hrais and legs they cut off, and then threw the bleeding trunk into 
a ditch. Prince Frederick waa reported to have cheered on his 
soldiers to the carnage, and to have said to his artillerymen, 
'* Courage, my sonal bombard tliis villanoua city. I promifie you 
the plunder oi it." These frightiul details, whether they were true 
or uotj were greedily received by credulous rancour, and ihcy ren- 
dered all reconciliation exceedingly difficult. 

There remained, therefore, but two courses for Belgium to pur- 
sue^ to declare itself independent, or to throw itself into the artufl 
of France. 

The former of these two courses appeared very hazardous. In 
violently separating from Holland, lielgium broke the treadea of 
1815. Would thia be tolerated iu Europe? And if not, how were 
the Belgians, deprived of the ftpai&tauce of France, to maintain their 
independence? War seemed imminent. IDven negotiations might 
engender a universal storm, if France, in ever so small a de^ee, 
cherished hopes of conquest. What would then become of Bel- 
gitim? Would it not then be, what it had sooflêubeen before, the 
ensanguined arena on which the leading powera woidd contend for 
the empire of the world? Was it not plainly ita interest to give 
itself, that it miglit not be taken by the sword? Such was the 
opinion of tho^c who, like MM. Gendebien and Seron, were inac- 
ceseible to mean jealousy, and who preferred for their country the 
solid benefit of «. strong, re^Ur, and respected existence to the 
frivotoua advantage of an impotent nationality, eternally con- 
demned to a subaltern part, subsisting only on the cmbarrMsmcnU of 
European diplomacy, and always at the mercy of the clmnces of 
war. These cbnadcratious were backed by urgent interest". De» 
pnvcd at a blow of i^U the ample outlets alTordcd its commerce by 
ilie Dutch coloniea, Belgium could not give itself to France with- 
out France reciprocally giving herself to Belgium. I^ie union of 
the two countries presented nothing of the character of a conquesti 
and would only have beeu the sealijig of â aoble pact of fratcrmty 




between them, wliich would have increAsed ttrnfold the power of 
each. Belgium, moreover, on beîno: declared independent, would 
need a government- This was a rrMli source of difHculUes: for. 
suppoaing il to become a republic, Europe would fall on it and 
crush it; if it became a monarchy, diploraacy would enslave it hj 
imponng on it a Icing. Finally, as though fortune had desired to 
show au the disorders that might lurk in that independence which 
wm 90 difficult to secure, Beîgiura had been weig^hcd down with all 
Bort? of evils since its émancipation. Formidable thoughts had, been 
ftwakenod in the minds of the people by the encouragements which 
every chan^ of dynaety holds out to ftudadtVt and by the hope of 
licence and impumty. Hordes of roaleCictors overran the rural dis- 
tricts; travellcra were tubbed, rich merchimta plundered, mAQufac- 
toriea Kickcdj property of all kinds menaced; anarchy wasspnud- 
ing day by dny. To meet all the dangers of such a situation thççftj 
was only a self '- created, government of new men, which the ne 
for its existence rendered possible, not popul^r^ and which was 
out force becauw without prestige. 

Thus every thing seemed to invite Belgium to become French. 
The dearest interests of France were involved in that re^t, and it 
would have inevitably ensued had not the Pakîs Royal movctl heavCD. 
and earth to prevent it. 

Among the iniluentiftl men of Kew Belgium, some were repub- 
licans^ who, like M. de Potter, did not wish to belong |o a. peoj^ 
relapsed under the yoke of monarchy: others, like MM. Van de 
Weyer and Kothomb, were pemi-sccptics, impatient of their former 
obscurity, without systematic view?, and prone to regard political 
capacity as consist^n^ in a cold submission to the dictates of force. 
The French government could ea«dly have engapied. these men in 
su|Mpoft of the institutions of France^ all it need nave done to that 
ena« being to convince them of ita power, and to promise them pcr- 
Bnnal consequence, Ic took an oppont<t couree, and imturaJly nad 
lliem against it: this waa what it wanted. 

Thanks to this conduct^ unparalleled assuredly in the annals of 
diplomacy, no real French party could be formed in Belfrium, cluff^ii 
ou that ode were ranop^ the logic of facts, the apparent decisioos of 
fate^ the greatness and the future prospecta of the two nation?. The 
rtrupglc began, therefore, in Iiru5sels, between the patnott, warm 
partisans of Belgian nationality, and the Orannists who had aided in 
oombatdng Dutch supremacy, but who, not believing in the poan* 
bility of Belgian independence, wif^hed for the maintenance oif the 
KasBRu dynasty, with new institutionâ. The moneyed mcn^ many 
of the trading class, and the greater port of the former fmphjft4 of 
the kingdom of the Nciherlaùids, formed the onmgo party. Tbe 
patriot partv eompriâcd the cathoHw and the young hberals* az>d 
Waa backed by the popular sympalhiea. The orangista were the richer, 
and more far-si nihfHl; the patriots were the more active, numerou?, 
and impaasioued. Between these two HtiU paxûea fluctuated the 

riSlIN£Sft ON TtU^ 1*ART OF THE PAl^A^ia EOY'AL. 


men who, eugrosâcd with their own private interests, were nssidy 
to side with. iJie victors. 

We have said that a provîsîonûl govcmmont had been established 
in Bru33cls, immediatelv after the revolution of September. It con- 
sisted of the Baron E. d^'IIoogvorst. Charles Ron^pr, Jolly do Coppin, 
Vandexlindcn, Nicolaî, f élix de Me^rode, Gendebien, and Van de 
Wcyer, to whom de Potter was added four days after its installation. 
This transitory govemraent, not venturing to take on itself the de- 
cision of any of the ereat «jne-st-ïons sïicgested by the revolution, 
hastened to convoke the congreas, to which it reserved the right of 
fixing the dcstinj^ of Bel^ura. Only it pubUshed ati ambigilouâ 
docume&t^ in which it declared that Belgium should constitute an 
independent state. It ofterwarda uppointed a committee to draw up 
a> project of a constitutions ail the membora of which, with the ex- 
peption of M. ïielcmans, declared for raonurchy, and the wording 
of tlie project was intrusted to MM- Devaux and Nothomb. When 
the latter read the document to the provisional government, M. de 
Potter bitterly remarked, *' it was not worth while to ahcd so mudi 
blooil for such a trifle." 

Meanwhile WilUam had called his f&ithfid subjoctâ to arms, and 

tlie Pmsslarts were prcpanng to second liim, whenM. Mole declared 

I to them that if they aet foot on the Belf^ian territory, a French iirmy 

would instantly appear there. No more was wanted to intimidate 

fPniœia. The successor this honourable UrinJicES ought to have 

I proved to ihe cabinet of the PnlaiB Royal how easy, profitable, and 

even prudent at that tÎTne was a bold Une of policy. 

FccHnt^ little confidence in his own Blrcngth, William had re- 
course to llie Enjjlish government. He naturally made his appeal 
to diplomacy, the kingdom of the Netherlands beine a diplomatic 
creation. In a note presented by M. Falck to Lord Aberdeen on 
the 5lb of October, 1830, it was aaidt 

** As llw juaifltanoe nf the kht|!;'i allies can alaHo restore ttanqlliUiEy in thu riOUtti- 

'. era ppoTjnccs of the NethcrlamU. I tinve received ordera to requo-iE ihiit lib Brilanaic 

' Uqotty may be pleiuceil to ot^mmand to tlmt cml t\w immediAt^ dospnicta of the 

[ Bcoemrr number of trooiia icito the soatheni proviRco« of the Netherlands, tbe 

t pneruluuted arrival of whÎL-h migtii st-riomly tximpromlK the interests uf ihoMt 

L prcniace* And thuso of iiU F.UTrpi>. In ftilâUinj^ hereby llie inlcntkinfl of m^ gorcm- 

mçTVt, I thi! hgnour to inform ygur fXix'ULincy ttiut u iiiiiiiliu- comiDunicatiuti hat 

been nddressiKl to Fruasim Austria, and Ku^sin, which hiring Ulrewis© migned the 

eight u-ticlcs (^Rstitulin^ the kio^^i'toni of the Nethcrloods, an oUed 013» u well u 

I £a^anâ« toupholdtheldnedamQfihe Nethcrlftn-Js nndthnc^itinffsbiteofGarQiie." 

In his reply, dated Oct. 17, Lord Aberdeen refused the demand 
of troops as coming too lûle, but announced the appioaching asscm- 
of the plcnipoteiatiaries of tlie Five Powers. 
hat assemblage took place. Prussia was repregented by Gouni 
Bulow, Great Britain by Lord Aberdeen, Russia by Count Mastus- 
zewic. The meeting assumed the name of conferenee, and was but a 
continuation of the con^rcia of VUnjia. Accordhigly it was vnth 
ineipreeàblc amazement that Europe beheld France represented 
therein by M. de Talleyrand^ for her people thereby became accom- 




ilice? in all tile meosures adopted by their enemies against item. 

?he coiifijrence was held in London, a& if the belter to show thai to 
Enfîlanti belonged tlie right to reguliite llie wotïd+ 

The Prince ol' Orange liftd with Ina father's saûction established 
a sort o( coimter-govcmment at Antwerp. He published n procla- 
mation, in which he acknowledged thcindependcnceofBelgium. Now 
80 ffreat wag still the indeeiaion prevailing in the public mind of the 
country^ that the prince's proclamation produced a prodi^oua effect 
Tlie provisional government aâected to disdain, it, but the cause of 
the rrincc of Orange was far from being lost. " Popular acts/' 
laid Van de Weycr and Feîix de Méi'ode to an envoy from the 
prince, " might perhapa produce an exception from the general ban 
pronounced againttthe tnernbgrs of the hoitse of Nassau" 

A Jurions event occm-reJ to simplify mattera. On the night of 
the 27th-28lh an ulai'min» aoimd was heard from a distance in lîrtui- 
Tbe mcmbera of tlic provisional government had installed 

.emselves in the old palace of the etaïes-general. From the top 
of the peristyle they perceived a lurid light on the horizou, like that 
of a great conthigration. Il came iVom the city of Antwerp, which 
the Prince of Orange bad evacuated, and wliicK General Chassé wm 
bombarding. The indii^nation of the Belgians waa extreme. Whe- 
ther guilty or not of having caused the bombutdraent, the Prince of 
Orange remained charged with the crime of having given to the 
ËAmcs the most ilourislun^ city of Bcl^um, and the only one wluch 
hft*! until then remained faithiiil to Holland. 

The moment ivaa approachin" wheuBelgiimi was to be completely 
emancipated. The Dutch had been drivtn from town to town^ from 
posttopo?t. CuimtFrL-d'-ricde Merode was mortally wounded in one 
of the numerous engagements that took place. Tne Belgian papers 
published the details of his last moments : they were affecting, and 
of a nature to produce a great confusion in France. Just before he 
expired the count turned to one of his friends and said faintly, *' He 
too ifj uii brave. He was an officer of cuirassiers in the Three Days, 
and woultl not-draw his sword against his bretliren;" and with these 
words he breathed his last. 

When the news of all these events arrived in Paris they excited 
Bcenos of enthusiasm. The popular societies above all were flushed 
with pride. Subscriptions were opened in favour of the wounded of 
Septet m bt*r- The cliibs sent emissaries to Brussels. The Société de$ 
Amh flu PmpU raised a battalion at its own expense, and sent it forth 
on i\6 muruh, giving it a name, a leader, and a banner. 



A PJEABfuLdraiBa was meanwhile preparing. Three miniaters of 
[Charles X., MM. Jc PejTonnet, de Guemon. Ranvillo, and tie Chante- 
[lauzc, having been brou^jht back to Paris from Tmirs, wore aent to 
["Vincenneg, where they wt:re soon joined hy M- do Polignac. 
' 'Hie priaonera had, at first boeii confines in the Pavilion de la 
r Kdiie, each in a separate room. Orders were sent to trausfer them 
I to the keep of the castle. 

M. de roUgnac waa the first summoned to submit to this painful 
exchange, lliere were several courts to traverse, and a great number 
I of nâtlunal guards and soldiers of tlie gariiaon prised forward. 
[,to feast their eyes on the spectacle of might laid low. M. do 
Polignac appeared^ walkitiLf slowly find bareheaded between two 
grenadierg. Ria dress was disordered, and his features showed marks 
of faUgue, but the fire of a confident belief» which inischaucea only 
irritated, stiU lighted up his eyes. He appeared affeeteti as he as- 
cended the ^tepa of tlie keep, and stopped and leaned liis liand an a 
grenadier's musket. The governor of the chiiteau accompanied him. 
After numberle^ vicissitudes, Jbrtune brought liJin back to that dun- 

feon where he had formerly expiated his jpouthful hostility t*J the 
fCupire. Then he was punished for havuig revoltetl against the 
power of the state, and now for having abu&ûd it. 

M. de PejTonnet, who was to be followed by lus other two col- 
leagues, appeared in his turn. He wore his hat; hia denieanou):' was 
haughty, and the muldtude showed no resentment at that pride^ 
which în him at least was not justified by excessive strength ol con- 
viction, when an unknown person, taking aim at the ex-minister, 
cried out, *' On your knees^ down on your knees, and ask pardon ^ 
wretch, for having caused the people to be shot." The man wiiî 
quieted ; but scenes like this conveyed a fearful warning to the go- 

The chamber had to name commissioners to examine the accused, 
and its choice full on MM, lîùrenger, Madier de MoiUjau, and Mau- 
guln. These gentlemen brought peculiar qtialitiet* to the discliarge 
of their new functions; M. Bércnger, much coobieââ and gravity; 
Madier de Montjau^ a grc&t fund oi tolerance combined witli a cer- 
tain austerity of deportment, and Mauguin^ on the contrary, the 
inflexibility of a tribune veiled under the pleasing manners of a man 
of the world. 

The finst question on which the oommiaaoners disagreed (and it 
was trilling in appearance only) was one of ceremony. Were they 
to Burroiina tho discliargc of their mission witli pomp and cireum- 
Etance? So M. Mauguin wished. Convinced tliat it is by the 
outward agna of thingsthat the multitude axe most powerfully acted 


on, an^ pcthflpe actofttcd bj « secret Aemc ; K^^ 1^ required 

that the journey from Paria to Vmoetmcs Eboul' i with pooip; 

ihttt tW chamber should» id its public displajB, :rc3«B rojntty 

the impoauig Taniti^ with vfoich it osaaes the multitude; Uwt 
every comzmsEiOQCf, for instance» should hai^e his cairùgc ; aad thil 
a vhole eqtiâdron &hoald esoort those who were gmng to irfii W Wit 
ihejastîoe of the peofAe. 

^jiese wishes were connected in >L Msugrmi's mind with boU 
Bchcnicg of ewny. Tt was with intense ilî-will that he had «ov- 
icndcrpd the Tevolutiocarr power with which he had been ixzvcatfd 
m the Hôtel de Ville. HflTing fsâltd to nmhe the chamber èb* 
appear in the reTolution, be would fain have introdaccd the terete* 
turn, mto the chamber, enga^nl his colleagues in con^picnona bm- 
garcÊ and irrcrocably commuted them; but whilçl subjecting tken 
to aD the exigencieg of popularity, he would have imported to them ito 
fitrcn^h. He himself enjoyed, at that time, u degree oC credit widl 
the public, the ralue of which he pcihupa exaggerated, but of iriiich 
he was the man to make a Tigotons nae. 

Uofortimatelj M. Mauguin cxcrdfcd no inâucnee on those in hia 
immediate sphère. He had much talent, and wanted tacL Supe- 
rior in intellect to moet of hia colleagues, be let them plainly 
peroeivc the fnct. Mediocrity in no case pardons talent, but it 
respects it when content to keep in the bûck-groond, and then sal>' 
roits to ita dictate», M. Mauguin lost the fruits of the martcmiiK&t 
ftbiUtiefl by a legibmate but indiâcreet fcLf-sulhcicncy. He hHwiInI 
confidence by all those means that usually cftptrtate it* His qtnck 
eusceptibiUty to imprcemcns pasted for seepGcian; his naturally 
^ood-notuied expreseion of countenance waa spoiled by a subtlety 
that dcTtroyed its eflect. The grace of his maniiËismaixedbim oat 
for observation, but did not conriïîatc; and there wa5 e*en m the 
anavitr of his Language something of a patronimig a^ that w 
ofiTennve. Hud it Ij&m granted to a man to command events^ this 
înabilîty of M- Mauguin to play the leading part would ha^-e been 
«Imf«t a public misfortune; for he knew better than any one ebeaQ 
that can be done, in the sequel of a crisis, by intelligent oaring, whoxt 
tuidcd and controlled by the love of the people. He knew iliat real 
liberty can onlj be founded hy means of power, oxrciscd with cooa- 
fidencc, intrepidity and audacity, and that great dangers render greot 
I things poMâble by rendering them ncccseary. But he fell ^unt of 
ftbility to command^ for want of certain virtues, and still more of 
^ );crtau defects. With talent enough to inspire many with enty, hç 
had not strength of character enough to create himself enonDOi 
Kuw in the turmoil of parties the value of a political man d<^)endt 
on the violence of the animosities he excites. When power is the 
^nxc to bo wrestled for, it is hate that pomtiODt die candidates. 

As member of the municipal commiasioai M* Mangimi had eoo* 
cfivcd some excellent idea.*, wlijch ha<i broken down by reason, of 
^c distrtnt felt towards him by hi» eoUeagues. As member of tikc 




oammisEiûn of accusation in the trial of the ministers, Kç inspired the 
fame distrust, and cucoimteped tlie Bame obstflcles. His scheme of 
making an impoeing ghow, magnifying the importance of the cham- 
"ber, and obviously settîn^f foitK its sovereigtity before the eyes of all 
men, was looked on by MM, Montjau and Bérengcr nniy as a petty 
device of pcrsonil ambition, Wltfiout openly combatting their col- 
Icagiic's views, they set abotit baBllng thcin. 

The day beia^ come when tlie commi^àoners were to proceed to 
Viacennea, M. Maug"uin was very much surprised to Bee only five or 
tax çcndanneâ assembled to form the escort, and two carriages instead 
of eight. Ho vchemcnily expresoed his disîatisfftctioa, but it "was 
too lute. M. Matlier dc Montjau carried hia modegty to euch a 
length on the occasion, as to p-nite secretly to General Daumesni], 
governor of Vincennes, requesting him to give the commisstoners a 
very simple reception. No twith standing ttufi, on entering the castle 
they found the gameon drawn up; the goldiers presented arms to 
Uiem, the drums beat; and wlicn Madier dc Montjau took the go- 
vernor aside^ and asked him why he haJ not conformed to the m- 
structlona given him, " I knewtïctter than to do e«j," replied General 
Daumesnil^ ** la not tlie sovereignty now vested in tne cbaml>er?" 
Tlie phrase clearly exhibits the repugnance with which some high 
personage then regarded every thing capable of giving too much 
prominence and prestige to the parliamentary sovcrcigntyt 

The exuninabon of the ex-mmistera was formal^ and more giïkvc 
than etem. M. Maugiiin alone showed signs of sensibility. I If had 
formerly obtained from M. de Peyronnet an amnesty for the French 
icfugoee in Spain. He hart been acquainted with M. de Ouemon 
lUnvillet and slill more ultimately with M. de Chantelauze. When 
iho Utter suddenly appeared before him pato, eickj and drooping, he 
ûOold not rcl^rain from holding out his hand to him, and bursting 
into te&rs. M. de Chontolatiziî seemed indeed borne down under tlio 
weight of cabmity, M. Je Piyronnet, on the comtmry, displayed «n 
■noanoe thai was not altogether iree from bravado. He accounted 
fat his co-operation in the ordinimcea on the ground of his absolute 
derot«dness to a king who had loaded him nyith favours. M^ de 
Gucrnon Ran\'illc's courage was tinctured with ill-humour. As for 
ÛL dc Polignac, his demeanour in the highest degree Astonished the 
comnùsàoDers. Calm and ulmi^t smiling, he seemed to look on all 
that wes going on u on insipid ihrcc. " The irreeponeibility of 
ministers/' he ioid, " is hut a corollary of the principle of royal in- 
violability. The inviolability of Charlee X. has not been re5f»ected; 
hia ministers have therefore ceased to bo responsible." This vnw 
tantamount to bidiling victory btnv to the subtletiefl o>t the ?pccial 
pleader; but A!, de Poli^nc thought himself una^ilablc beneath 
die liK^lter of tliesc deduction? I'rom a fictiiin which had not savctl 
eidier Charlea X, or Strafford. " When shall 1 be ?et at liberty?" 
he asked isicesaantly. ii^imsu^ vociferations were heard, however, 
all round the piùon. 

T 2 

3 lu 



The commissioners were careful to temper the austerity of their 
functions by many acts of considerate leniency. They cut short the 
repUta of the cx-mlnietera when ihcy began to bo hazardous to theif 
ûulhors. The examination was frequently interrupted by conTcrsa- 
tiotu, during which the accused might forget the bitterness of their 
situation. Refreshments wore set before tlicm; indifferent matters 
were talked of, and the image of the aeaflbld disappeared. The pri.- 
eonâra complained of being contined au sfcret^ and tlieir rcmonslrsncea 
were listened to with iavour, M. de Muuguin, above att, seemed 
disposed to mitigfite the condition of the culprits. M, de Polignic 
was allowed, through his inâtrumcutaUty, to be visited by the 
Ducliesse de Guiche. 

Mcanwliile Louie Philippe was intensely concerned as to the danger 
possibly impending over the last ministers of Charles X. To turn 
them over to the executioner would be to give bloody pledges to the 
revolution» ut the risk of ttiU more exasperating kings. 

The Convention had smitten Louis XVL in cold blood, without 
hatred, without passion, as one smites a principle. A terrible but 
proiound policy ! Well knowing what it had to expect from the re- 
sentments aroused against it, the Convention desired that these should 
be lieroc and implacable, in order that France, buffeted by the tem- 
pest, might have but one sole means of safety, and thiit tlie most 
powerful of all, despair. 

Louis Philippe adopted quite a contrary policy from liis very ac- 
cession, and Uus he unnounced to Europe by savmg M, do Poligiuic 
and hia colleagues. To propose to the chamber the abolition ot the 
penalty of death, in this w»y to piepare the public mind for cle- 
mency, and to intrust tlic task of passing sentence to the peers of 
1 ï'ranco, mast of whom were friends of the Gx-n]ùni9teri3i — such wafl 
the plan fixed on in the Palais KoyaL 

» U.ue course of criminal jurisdiction had been partially suâpendcd 
& tlie revolution. The guillotine had ceased ^) work all over 
nee, though there were in the prisons men condemned to capital 
jpuDLshment. The rigid Dupont do l'Eure was distrc»^ at this de* 
I jogation from the rcguhir eour=«e of things, and could not imdcr- 
] gland why the law should remain 8u,«pended. But whenever the 
[acaduld was meuUoned, the king manifested extreme sensibility. 
[Tlio ministers having decided one day that an appeal to the royal 
lolemency should bo reiected (the case was one of poiricidc) M. lÂf- 
[fittc heard the son of Pîilltppc Egalité exclaim, '' My father died on 
Filie scaffold," and Uam rolled do^vn the king's cheeks as he uttcrod 
the words. 

Tlie plan thought most feaaible for saving the ex-ministcn having^ 
encountered no opposition în the council, the king rejoiced at tlua 
u at a victory due to his personal ascendancy, and he expocled 
«▼6^ thing from the condescendance of hiâ miolsterâ. 

'Ilie abolition of the penally of di?ath had been propopcfl in the 
nttin^ of the 17th of August, by M. Victor do Tracy, and on the 





6di of October, ÎJ- Bércnger had read a rfrport on the subjoct, re- 
commendjnc an adjoumtiieiit of the question. Two days nftcr- 
wards the discussion was re^'îved. M. de Tracy doinandcd thnt his 

f)FOpoatiqn should bo accepted^ or nt least oxammcd; he was fol- 
owed by M. de Kératine* and, os it was esaenlial to interest, on be- 
hali' of ine imprisoned minigtors^ the generopity of that people, which 
was still powerful enough to be treated with defcrenee, the orator 
impetuously exdidmed, ** I aver in your présence, messieurs, if it 
were possible to nsscmbîe within these walls the relations and fiîenda 
of tho brave victims of July, nhd to ask them, *I>o you desire blood 
for blood? An?vfcX'r!* that jury would silently shake tlieir heads in 
BgQ of denial^ and would return in noble sorrow to their dedoktcd 
hearths. Should I be mistaken, I would adjure the inanea of the 
glorious vicûnia themselves; I would mentally appeal to them to 
amend a sentence so unworthy of them; for I know that the brave 
who risk their lives for a holy cauee shed no blood but in the heat 
of the fight," The walla of the chamber ran^ with applause at 
these words. M. de Ki*ratry continuc<l hia epeech, and demanded 
that the committee whose report had been read should be ordered to 
draw up the draft of an address to the king, and that the abolition 
of the penalty of death for political offences ethould be confided to 
the initiative of the monarch. 

M. de Lafayette next presented himself to the attentive awoiubly. 
" An adjourmmcnt has been proposed to you/* he said. '* Doubtless 
those who have recommendea it have not liad the misfortune to see 
their family, their fricnda, and the firet âthtms of France, dragged 
to the Kûttbld; they have not had the misfortune to see unhappy 
men immolated or pretence of Faytli^m." The revered voioe of 
Lafayette was drowned in the applausea of the chamber. The mo- 
tion for an addrc-H lo the king, calling for the abolition of the 
penalty of death in certain cases, was iupported by the garde des 
sceaux, and the reference of the subject to tlic committee was umx- 
nlmoualy voted. 

Such was the impatience of tlic legiektors that, aflcr a biief eus- 
penrion, the Httxngs were resumed at eight o'clock in the evening. 
The committee had by this time completed their ta«k. The draft 
of the oddrcfis, dmwn up by M. Bérenger, Icrnûuflted with these 
word*: — 

" Sire, the chamber invotos the prompt initiation of this icforni 
by your majesty. Too much glory is attached to it» t«r>o many ad- 
vantages must result from it, for the nation to wish to owe it to any 
but ita king." 

By bestowing thie high mark of dcfereucc on Louis Philippe, the 
deputies admirably subscTved his policy. They proved to Europe 
thai the fall of a ^yi^sty had taken noihit^ fnom the force of the 
ïnunan:hii<al principle in Franoc. And, again, by subordinating the 
safety of Charles X.'a adviser? to the will ef his succewor, they sup- 
plied the latter with an opportunity of doing himself honour in the 



ey^ of fortâgn aovereigiu. ^VTiethet or not tiie chomber fonesaw a11 
the results of ihc ftfîJre^s., nt any rate it adopted it with euthoaiattiL 
The ftu5tere Eitsebe de Soîvcrtc iilone thought proper to protoL 
*' Thua, tlien, if wo arc to put faith in the specious dictatai of ■ 
spurious humanity, ive should aay to great criminals, You haire sou^i 
to make our heads ùll ; kc«p your own. Go into foreign countnea 
and enjoy the wealth you liave oinassed; time wiU pursue his fligkt; 
pasfiioua ivill die away^ public and private sorrows will be appealed; 
ihc history of our troubles, engraved irith musket balïa and grape- 
shot on our walls, will no Songer be legible : tlien will your long exOa 
awaken the public compassion, and its voiec will demand that on end 
be put to youj banisluneut, and that you may for a tliird, pcriiaps • 
fourth tiinc, bring your country to the brink of a precipice, down 
■which you will possibly aiu-cecd in burling it.'* When he spoke of 
l^reat criiïmmla who were about to profit by the pliilanthropy of the 
I chamber, M. Eusèbe de Salverte rent the veil; the sensation was iû- 
I tense in the assembly ; but it had taken its resolution ; the addrcsi 
■ was voted by an immense majority. 

The king rcpbod to the deputation which presented Uie addroL 
•^ The wish you cxprcf^s Imd long existed in my heart-" And the 
next day, tj mitigate tlie eflcct which mif^ht be produced upon the 
people by the impiuiity promised to the FiinieTS of the ordonnances, 
M- Guizot appeared at the tribune, and said, in a voice of cmotïOtl, 
'* MessieuTf , tho king has longed impatiently, like yourselves, to canc- 
tion by a legislative measure the great act of national j^titude which 
the country owes tj the victims of our revolution. This I have tbo 
honour to submit to you. Measîcuiï, our three great days have cort 
more than 5()0 orplmtis their iitthers, more tbiin 500 widows their 
buabands, more than îtiH} old men tliL* afieetiun and support of their 
chUdien; 311 citizens will remain mutilated and inculpable of no- 
furaiug their occupiitions; S,6fi4 wounded will have bad to endura 
m temporary incapacity." In the pn^*:t de hti which followed this 
melancholy inventory, the government proposed t'") grant the widows 
of those killed in the three days an annual |jension for life of 500 
fnscs. Their children were to receive 250 francs annually up to 
the ago of ecven, and to enjoy the advantage of gratuitous edaco- 
ûoa. The Hi>tel des Invalides was opened to the wounded. 

Thus bud the govcramcnt pronounced, lionour to the victimBÎ 
ao BCaffolds for the gnilty ! There was certainly in this Bomething 
chivalric and exalted, well suited to touch the feeling of a people 
like the frentlu Besides, from a f<onthncnt of magnanimity^ casdy 
wrought to a high pitch, «hove all in Fnmcc, the wounded of Jidy 
had become the uatuiul protcclora of the prieonera of Vinccnnes. 
SoTCnd of those courageous citizens had agnetl a petition agunat 
dui penalty of death. Some of them attended at the chamber td 
leBfi the support of thdr presence to the motion of M. de Ti*cy, 
, and the interest they ecomed to take in the diacusaion had been 
*H8ed with tuaidar grmpathy. 





ecu M