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Full text of "The History of the Town and Castle of Tamworth: In the Counties of Stafford & Warwick"

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THE HISTORY 



OF THE 



TOWN AOT) CASTLE 



OF 



TAMWORTH, 



• IN THE COUNTIES OF STAFFORD & WARWICK. 



CHARLES FERRERS PALMER. 




TAMWORTH: 

JONATHAN TH01IF80N, BOOKSELLEE, MARKET STREET. 

LONDON: J. B. AND J. 6. NICHOLS. 

M.DCCC.XLV. 



THE NEW YORK 

PUBLIC LIBRARY 

ASTCR, LENOX AND 

TlU/tN f- ;,DATION«. 



• ••• 



• ! , ••» • • •• 

••• : ••• *•* •• • 



•• • 






• • • 




TO THE RIGHT HONOURABLE 

SIR ROBERT PEEL, BARONET, 

FIRST LORD OP HER MAJESTY'S TREASURY, 

AND 

MEMBER OP PARLIAMENT 

POR THE 

THIS WORK 

IS, BY PERMISSION, MOST RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED 

BY HIS OBLIGED AND OBEDIENT SERVANT, 

THE AUTHOR. 



PREFACE. 

In presentiiig "Thb History of thb Town anb 
Castle of Tamworth" to the public^ and more espe- 
cially to those connected with^ and taking an interest 
in^ these places^ it is deemed that little apology is due. 
It might, perhaps, be thought that a work, the object 
of which was confined to a particular locality, lying in 
the midst of an agricultural district, and fur removed 
firom the busy scenes of the camp or the court, would 
afford only scanty matter claiming general interest, and 
deserving particular attention. But in the history o( 
this town, there are found incidents of national impor- 
tance, which elevate it far above the generality of 
similar places in the kingdom. Its great celebrity 
during the existence of the Mercian nation, and in 
Saxon ages when the heptarchy had been completely 
abolished; its ancient Church and Castle, with other 
remains which still stand amidst the ruins of the 
past; and its connection with some of the highest 
and most eminent men, both in early and recent times, 
render Tamworth worthy of notice to the historian, the 
architect, and the antiquary. 

From its peculiar situation in two counties, Tamworth 
has, in one respect, laboured under great disadvantage* 
Writers have either confined themselves to one or other 
of the counties of which they might be speaking; or, 
if the limits of their subject embraced both, they have 
been enabled to give little more than a passing glance. 



VI. 



their field of obsemttion being too extended to enter 
deeply into this part of their subject. It has, therefore, 
happened that, owing to the want of an investigation 
of the local records, a full history has never yet been 
given. It is true that, nearly twenty years ago, a 
"History of the Borough and Parish of Tamworth" was 
undertaken by John and Henry Wood Boby; but only 
one part of the work, including the general history to 
the termination of the Anglo-Saxon domination, ever 
appeared. The death of one of the gentlemen, and the 
residence of the other abroad, have prevented the 
probability of its being completed. Subsequently a 
publication, reflecting much credit on its author, was 
brought out, under the title of "Illustrations of Tam- 
worth," by Etienne Bruno Hamel. It consisted of 
views and drawings of different parts, with a short 
description and condensed narrative. These constitute 
the whole of the endeavours dedicated solely to the 
elucidation of the history of this town. 

Claiming Tamworth as his native place, the author 
of the present work naturally felt a deep interest in 
its welfare ; and he spent much of his time in exploring 
its early history. At first, he did not contemplate that 
the result of his investigations should ever be laid 
before the public. But as matter accumulated in his 
hands, he was led to imagine that, at some period, 
he might publish the fruits of several years' labour. 
His researches, indeed, were extended much beyond the 
limits he anticipated, in consequence of his having been 
permitted to inspect the records of the Corporation and 
of the Church, and many valuable documents in the 
hands of private persons. Such advantages have enabled 
him to present the History to his readers. 



It can hardly be supposed that a work, demanding 
the most extensive researches in the national archives, 
and in the collections of private £euaulies, should pre- 
sent that completeness and correctness which might be 
desired. Indeed, the author must acknowledge that, 
from circumstances over which he had no control, 
many deficiencies occur. Much interesting matter he 
has been compelled to omit, from his not having 
been able to discover the whole of the connecting cir- 
cumstances, the records eluding his vigilance, or being 
placed beyond the range of his inspection. In &ct, as 
the work progressed through the press, he was unex- 
pectedly put into the possession of numerous facts, 
which served to add greatly to his subject. The 
principal of these have been embodied in the addenda. 
It is almost certain that future investigations will bring 
to light other matters, and indicate that the History 
gives little more than a general outline. But the author 
hopes that the errors which may exist are rather those 
of omission than commission, and that, in what he has 
given, much will be found that has hitherto been 
imknown, and that may prove of some importance to 
the historian and the antiquary. 

Such as it is, this maiden effort of the author is now 
given to the public as a humble contribution to the 
topographical literature of the day. With neither of 
the works on the same subject previously alluded to, 
does the History assimilate. Although it has been 
unavoidably necessary to retrace the ground over which 
the Messrs. Boby passed, yet even there facts have been 
introduced which had escaped the observation of those 
erudite writers. In the style, it has been the author's 
principal object to express his meaning in a clear and 



VUl. 

simple maimer. Yet, striving to avoid the formality 
of antiquarian detail^ and laxity by the adoption of 
too irrelative matter, he has endeavoured, at the same 
time, to engage the attention of the antiquary and 
excite the interest of the general reader. No remu- 
neration has been sought: but should the author have 
succeeded in elucidating the History of the town of 
Tamworth and of its Castle, and in bringing this once 
illustrious place into greater notice, his labour will be 
amply rewarded. 

It would be an unpardonable neglect on the part 
of the author, where he not publicly to acknowledge, 
and to express his thanks for, the very great kindness 
of many persons, who have, with almost unprecedented 
liberality, aided him in his researches and enquiries. 
To the right honourable sir Robert Peel, bart., thanks 
are especially due, not only on account of the interest 
which he has expressed in the History, but also for 
the liberal offer of the use of his extensive library at 
Drayton-manor, rich in topographical works, and for 
search made by his direction in the British Museum 
regarding the subject of the earl of Richmond's 
passage from Lichfield to Tamworth. Sir George Chet- 
wynd, bart., of Grendon-hall, Warwickshire, furnished 
some important matter, particularly to the account of 
the local tokens. To the rev. Francis Blick, and the 
rev. R. C. Savage, late vicars of Tamworth, the author 
owes the use of the Parish-registers, and the principal 
particulars of the royal Mintage, and of the population. 
The present vicar, the rev. E. Harston, afforded him 
the aid he needed regarding the National School. To 
the rev. John Moore, of St. Chad's, Birmingham, he is 
indebted for the free use of the very valuable library 



belonging to the Roman Catholic bishop: and to the 
lev. James Kelly^ of Tamworth^ for much information. 
The municipal body, and the town-clerk, Francis Wil- 
lington, esq., he must thank for access to the extensive 
records belonging to the town: Thomas Bramall, esq.; 
E. B. Hamel, esq.; F. J. Hamel, esq.; Mrs. Woody, 
of the Moat-house; Mrs. Roby, of Bridgenorth; and 
numerous others, for the use of many and very im- 
portant documents. The author is also bound to 
acknowledge the kindness he has experienced from 
the late vicar and churchwardens, in being permitted 
every facility which he needed in his investigations 
through the Church, particularly for allowance unhesi- 
tatingly granted to expose the painting on the wall of 
the south Transept. Such liberality demands particular 
notice at a time when it is seldom exhibited; and 
it is more deserving of acknowledgment in the peculiar 
position in which the author was placed. 

The author considers that he ought not, in conclusion, 
to omit giving his meed of praise to the publisher, 
through whom the History has been destined to appear 
much sooner than had ever been anticipated. The 
production of the work, at this time, is entirely owing 
to his enterprising spirit; which he has effected at a 
trouble and expense which the limited sale of a local 
history cannot remunerate. His merits at the hands of 
the public will not be lessened by such faults as may 
occur in the compilation itself: for these the author 

alone must be responsible. 

C. F. P. 

8, Great Charles St., Birmingham. 

December 1st, 1845. 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

PAGB. 

Map of the Borough of Tunworth Fronti^ieoe. 

Silver penny of Edward the Confessor '. . 49. 

Silver penny of William the Conqueror 50. 

Arms of the family of Willington 129. 

Penny token of John Harding 153. 

Half-penny token of the reT. F. Bliok 153. 

View of Tamworth from the South 175. 

Common Seal of the CoU^giate Church . . 222. 

Arms of the family of Repington 231. 

Anns of the family of k Court 238. 

Interior of the Crypt in the Church 253. 

Ancient inscriptton on the wall of the Crypt 255. 

Section of the staircase in the Church-Tower 270. 

Arms of tiie family of Townshend 377. 

Groond-plan of the Castle 404. 

Arms of the fkmily of Feel 436. 

View of Drayton Manor 439. 

Bolebridge and the Anker Viaduct 486. 

Arms of the family of Wolferstan 496. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. 



Bfajor Greneral ^ Courts Axnington Hall^ large paper. 
Captain Edward H. ^ Court, R.N., M.P., one large and 

one small paper. 
Charles Bowyer Adderley, Esq., M.P., Hams Hall, 

large paper. 
Quartermaster John Alexander, Store-master, Boyal Horse 

Artillery Barracks, Woolwich. 
Mr. Bichard Allen, Bookseller, Nottingham. 

Richard Bird, Esq., Tamworth, S large paper. 

E. L. Blackbume, Esq., F. S. A., London. 

Bliss Blick, Bonehill, large paper. 

Matthew H. Bloxam, Esq., Bugby. 

John B. Botham Esq., Birmingham, large paper. 

Sir W. Boyd, Knight and M. D., London. 

C. Holte Bracebridge, Esq., The Hall, Atherstone. 

Thomas Bramall, Esq., Tamworth, large paper. 

The Bight Honorable Lord Brooke, Warwick Castle, 

large paper. 
Robert Cave Browne, Esq., Tamworth, large paper. 

Richard Calron, Esq., Bury, Lancashire, large paper. 
Sir George Chetwynd, Bart., Grendon Hall, large paper. 
Sir C. Mansfield Clarke, Bart., Wigginton Lodge, 
large paper. 



XU. LIST OF 8UB8CRIBSB8. 

Mr. Chinn, Birmingham^ large paper. 

Miss Clarke^ Bamsley, Yorkshire^ large paper, 

Mr. Charles Clarson, Tamworth. 

Mr. Cooke, Bookseller, Warwick. 

Thomas Cooper, Esq., junior. West Smithfield. London. 

Miss Cotterill, Hinckley, Leicestershire. 

Mr. William Cox, Derby and Tamworth, large paper. 

Mr. Thomas Cox, Tamworth. 

Mrs. Daniel Alban Durtnall, Aldergate House, Tamworth, 

large paper. 
Mr* Darley, Bookseller, Burton-upon-Trent, one large 

and one email paper. 
Mrs. Dawes, Tamworth. 
Mr. Dumolo, Dunton House, Coleshill. 

Mr. Edmund Eaton, Tamworth. 
Miss Ellison, Tamworth. 

Marmion Edward Ferrers, Esq., Baddesley Clinton, War- 
wickshire, large paper. 
Charles Fisher, Esq., Aldermills, Tamworth. 
Mr. George Flint, Tamworth. 
Mr. William Freeman, Tamworth. 

Robert Gamer, Esq., Stoke-upon-Trent 

Mr. J. Glover, Bangley, near Tamworth. 

Benjamin Granger, Esq., Burton-upon-Tzent, large paper. 

Joseph Gray, Esq., Tamworth, large paper. 

John Hall, Esq., Tamworth, large paper. 

Robert Hanbury, Esq., Bole Hall, Tamworth, large paper. 

Miss Hanbury, Curborough. 



LIST 07 BXTBSCEIBEBS. XUl. 

Mr. Samuel Hanson^ Tamworth, one large SfonesmaHpaper. 

Etienne B. Hamel^ ^Bsq.^ Tamworth. 

Felix John Haxnel^ ^Bsq.^ Islington^ London. 

William Hardiog, Esq.^ Prestwich^ Lancashire^ large paper. 

Charles Harding^ Esq.^ Bole Hall^ Tami;?orth. 

Jevan Harper^ Esq., Mitchell Dean, Gloucestershire. 

Charles Harper, Esq., BuUo Fill, near Newnham. 

John Dove Harris, Esq., Leicester, large paper. 

The Bey. Edward Harston, Vicar of Tamworth, large 

paper. 
S. B. Harston, Esq., Islington, London, large paper. 
Miss Hawkesworth, Tamworth. 
Mr. Thomas Hill, Drayton Bassett. 
Mr. John Hill, Tamworth. 
Edward Hollins, Esq., Stockport, large paper. 
Thomas Houlston, Esq., Canonbury Flace, Islington, 

London. 
Job Hunter, Esq., Islington, London, large paper. 

The Bey. Oeorge Inge, Thorpe Constantino, Tamworth. 

John Jones, Esq., Tamworth. 

Mr. Henry Jones, Farish Clerk, Tamworth. 

The Ber. James Kelly, Tamworth, large paper. 
James Kennedy, Esq., M.D., Woodhouse, near Lough- 
borough, large paper. 
Mr. Kirk, Tamworth. 
Joseph Knight, Esq., Leicester, large paper. 

Mr. Lakin, Bookseller, Tamworth. 
William Landor, Esq., Bugeley. 

Mr. Langbridge, Bookseller, Birmingham, one large and 
one small paper. 



XIV. LIST OF SUBSCRIBSBS. 

The Rev. R. W. Lloyd, Wilnecote. 

Mr. Lomax, Bookseller, Lichfield, one large and one 

small paper, 
Mrs. Lucas, Tamworth, large paper. 

Mr. Maher, Bookseller, Birmingham, one large and one 

smaU paper. 
John Shaw Manley, Esq., Manley Hall, large paper. 
Messrs. J. and C. Mort, Advertiser Office, Stafford. 
Charles Ed. E. Mousley, Esq., Haunton Hall, large paper. 

Robert Nevill, Esq., Tamworth, large paper. 
Messrs. J. B. and J. G. Nichols, Parliament Street, 
London, S large and S small paper. 

The Rev. Francis K Paget, Rural Dean, Elford Rectory, 
large paper. 

Shirley Palmer, Esq., M. D., Birmingham, large paper. 

Mr. Shirley Fielding Palmer, Birmingham, large paper. 

Miss Charlotte E. Palmer, Birmingham, 2 large paper. 

Edward Fielding Palmer, Esq., Tamworth. 

Mr. Henry Andrew Palmer, Birmingham, one large and 
one smaU paper. 

Mr. Charles Ferrers Palmer, Birmingham, 5 large and 
one smaU paper. 

William Parsons, Esq., Wilnecote, large paper. 

Mrs. Parsons, Tamworth, 2 large and S smaU paper. 

Miss Sophia Parr, Lichfield. 

Mrs. Passam, Bonehill, Fazeley. 

Mr. Pearson, Lichfield. 

The Right Honorable Sir Robert Peel, Bart., M. P., 
Drayton Manor and Whitehall Gardens, Lon- 
don, 10 large paper. 



LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS. XV. 

The Right Honorable William Yates Peel^ Bagginton 

Hall, Coventry, large paper. 
Miss Dorothy FeiciTal, Kildare, Ireland, large paper. 
Mr. William Platts, Tamworth. 
Mr. Thomas Powell, Stafford. 
Henry John Pye, Esq., Clifton Hall, large paper. 

Henry Badford, Esq., Atherstone, large paper. 

Mr. Joseph Bhoades, King's Arms Hotel, Tamworth, 

large paper. 
Mr. J. Castle Bighton, Tamworth. 
William Bobinson, Esq., Bonehill Cottage, Tamworth. 

J. S. Salt, Esq., 9, Bussell Square, London. 

William Salt, Esq., 9, Bussell Square, London. 

The Bev. B. C. Savage, Vicar of Nuneaton, one large 

and one email paper. 
T. H. Sharpies, Esq., Tamworth. 
John Shawe, Esq., Tamworth. 
Mr. Thomas Short, Bookseller, Hinckley. 
Mr. E. W. Short, Bookseller, Nuneaton. 
Basset Smith, Esq., Grammar School, Walsall. 
Mrs. Smith, Millfield House, Tamworth. 
Mr. J. Smith, Bridgenorth, Salop. 
William Staunton, Esq., Longbridge Hall, Warwick, 

large paper. 
Thomas Brook Bridges Stevens, Esq., Tamworth. 
Mrs. Stevens, Huntingdon. 
John Thompson, Esq., Tamworth. 
The Bev. Cyprian Thompson, Fazeley. 
Miss Thompson, Stanmer Park, Lewes. 
William Tongue, Esq., Comberford Hall. 



XVI. IJ8T OF 8UB8CBIBSR8. 

Lord Charles Vere Ferrars Townshend^ Rainham^ Norfolk^ 
and 28, Cavendish Square^ London, large paper. 

Captain John Townshend, B.N., 58, Eaton Square, 
London, large paper. 

Mr. Tunnadine, Tamworth. 

William C. Webb, Esq., Tamworth, large paper. 

Baron D. Webster, Esq., Perm's Hall, Sutton Coldfield. 

Charles K E. Welchman, Esq., Lichfield, large paper. 

Mr. Wesley, Bookseller, Burton-upon-Trent. 

The Rev. R. Vernon Whitby, Osbaston Lodge, Hinckley. 

Frands Willington, Esq., Town Clerk, Tamworth, 
2 large paper. 

Mr. James Wilson, Soho Hill, Handsworth. 

R. W. Winfield, Esq., The Hawthorns, Edgbaston, 
Birmingham, large paper. 

John Fawkener Winfield, Esq., The Hawthorns, Edg- 
baston, Birmingham, large paper. 

Miss Wolferstan, Tamworth Castle, large paper. 

Stanley Pipe Wolferstan, Esq., Statfold Hall, large paper. 

Mrs. Woody, Moat House, Tamworth, large paper. 

John F. Woody, Esq., Moat House, Tamworth, large paper. 

Robert Isham Woody, Esq., Stockport, large paper. 

John Wright, Esq., Tamworth. 



HISTORY OF TAMWORTH. 



SITUATION. 



When in its butka no longer flows 
Tbe Anker's dour and sparkling stream. 
And Tame withholds Its gentle coarse, 
lliy memoTf, Tsmworth, as a dream, 
Shall, by tradition's voice alone. 

Then be told. 
Thy place forgotten, bnt as one 

Once of old. 

The town of Tamwoirth lies on the northern banks of 
two rivers^ the Tame and the Anker. The western part 
is placed in the southern division of the hundred of 
Offlow in Staffordshire^ and the eastern^ which is rather 
the larger, in the Tamworth division of that of Hem- 
lingford in Warwickshire. From the situation of the 
Church, the town is generally considered as belonging 
to the former county. Its distance from the metropolis 
is 102 miles in a direct line, or 120, by the London 
and Birmingham and the Derby Junction railways. It 
is also 24 miles from Stafford; 7, from Lichfield; 28, 
from Warwick; 15, fix)m Birmingham; and 19, from 
Coventry. It is in the diocese of Lichfield, in the rural 
deanery of Tamworth and Tutbury, and within the 
jurisdiction of the archbishop of Canterbury. Its latitude 
is 62^ S8' n'\b N., and its longitude, V 40' 12" W.; 
so that all astronomical phoenomena occur 6' 40''.8, 
or about one-ninth of an hour, later than at the royal 
observatory at Gbreenwich.^ 

1 Roby's History of Tamworth. 



2 TAMWORTH 

The situation of Tamworth, for the richness of its 
scenery and the fertility of its soil^ ranks highly among 
those parts of England, on which nature has laid her 
bounteous hand, and bestowed some of her choicest favours. 
Though possessing none of the majestic grandeur found 
alone in mountainous parts, it exhibits all those soft and 
pleasing traits which meadow, hill, and woodland can 
afford. Placed on the side of a rising ground that has 
a southern aspect, the town is protected, in a great 
measure, from the bleak north. The direction of the 
surrounding country is the same, being more or less 
hilly on three sides, whilst on the south a widely ex- 
tended valley lies open, diversified by the gentle windings 
of the river. 

The neighbourhood is highly cultivated, being one of 
the first agricultural districts in the centre of the kingdom. 
It has been long noted for the excellence of its fruits 
and other vegetable productions, some being preferred 
even to those of the vale of Evesham, though not cul- 
tivated to so great extent as there and in different parts 
of Worcestershire. Many other important advantages also 
accrue to Tamworth firom the peculiar geological charac- 
ters of its situation. The town seems to constitute the 
point for the meeting of four different formations. On 
the north, red marl occurs, extending to the extremity 
of Derbyshire, and then passing across the middle of 
Staffordshire. The clay by the town has been used, for 
a very considerable period, in manufacturing bricks. On 
the east, is a large coal-field, affording fuel of a sup- 
erior quality ; and, for many years, pits have been work- 
ed at Kettlebrook within two miles, as well as near 
Folesworth and Atherstone at a greater distance. Passing 
firom the south east to the edge of the town, is a 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 8 

luurrow band of the formation known as that of the 
mill-fltone grit, from whence a very good material may 
be obtained. The remaining country, including the whole 
of the east and a greater part of the south, consists of 
new red sand-stone, occupying the whole of the south 
<rf Staffordshire, in the midst of which lie the coal beds 
of Dudley, Bilston, and Cannock. On the west, at 
Hints, Hopwas hays, and Tamhom park, a high range 
of hills formed of gravel and sand-stone uprears itself, 
coT^red with extensive woods, relics of the ancient forest 
of Arden. 

It is irrelative to the object of our present undertak- 
ing to enter fully into the details either of the geology, 
or of the zoology, or botany, of the district. What we 
have said has only been intended to give a general idea 
of the characters of the situation of Tamworth. The 
consideration of these branches of science would well 
occupy a separate work. Here a large field is extended 
that has never been fully examined, though it once 
formed the subject of the researches of WiUoughby, and 
and afforded ample scope for the investigations of the 
celebrated Ray. The book of nature lies widely open, 
inviting each one to read its spotless page, and partake 
of its pure and chaste delights. There may the busy 
find relaxation from his toils, and the idle, emplojrment 
for his mind. The innocent may drink of clear and 
unpolluted streams of knowledge, and the guilty learn 
where true and unfailing pleasures may be found. In 
HiB works, who maintains the lowest creature there, 
a source of lasting contemplation is afforded to the faith- 
ful. The infidel too may see, written in clear and 
effulgent characters, the laws and order of nature, that 
disprove the existence of the mere chance, he fain would 



4 TAMWORTH 

exalt as the creating and legislative power of the universe. 
Nor yet^ in conclusion, should we neglect to point 
out those objects in the neighbourhood worthy of the 
notice of the antiquary. He too, who loves to dwell 
on scenes of former days, may visit, within the compass 
of a few miles, spots whose very names echo the voice 
of ages fled, and bring again remembrance of the past. 
Not £ur away BtUl stand the mouldering ruins of the 
earliest convent in these parts, raised by the great mon- 
arch Ecgberht as a habitation for his daughter Editha^ 
whom Modwen taught and Lyne and Osythe led. There 
are also other cloister shades^ the walls now changed to 
a different use, once the recluses' dwelling. The high 
mound still marks the battle field where Saxons fought, 
and the Mercian king was slain by an usurper, who 
himself, in his turn, was doomed to fall before the ex- 
piration of the year. The tombs where Romans sleep 
may partly yet be seen, known as the butts of Robin 
Hood, because, as tradition tells, he often there exercised 
his skill with his merry company. Many other objects 
of equal interest still remain around the town, to which 
we cannot particidarly allude in this place. 



RIVERS. 

THE TAME. 
Flowing from numerous sources south of Cannock 
chase, in the neighbourhood of Dudley, Oldbury, Walsall, 
and Wednesbury in Staffordshire, the Tame takes its 
course by Hampstead house and Perry hall. Curving 
south east, it enters Warwickshire, passes north of Aston, 
and then receives on the right Hockley brook, and the 
river Bea, the Styx of modem times after a passage 
through Birmingham from near Moseley. Continuing to 
the north of Castle Bromwich, East brook from about 
Sutton Coldfield joining it at Berwood hall, by Water 
Orton, and to the south of Curdworth, it is increased 
on the right hand at Marston park by the united waters 
of the Cole and Blythe. The former of these rivers 
commences by several heads about Sheldon and Tardley, 
runs through Coleshill park, by Coleshill, and then hastens 
to its junction with the Blythe. The latter springs from 
about Bickenhill and Meriden, and, on the west of Pack- 
ington, assumes a northward course between Coleshill 
and Maxtoke castle to Blythe hall, and soon after ter- 
minates. The Tame, about a quarter of a mile further, 
is augmented by the river Bourne, originating in two 
streams, one from between FiUongley and Ansley, the 
other from near Bentley. Skirting Lea Marston, it then 
pursues a northern direction to Kingsbury, receives Thistle- 
wood brook on the right, and then continues by Cliff 



6 TAirWOBTH 

hall. Between this place and Dosthill, it is added to 
on the left^ fiist by Langley'B and CoUett's brooks from 
the east of Sutton Coldfield and Canwell ; secondly, by 
Gallows brook ; thirdly by a long stream, from Canwell 
and Basset's pole, which runs between Drayton Basset 
and Middleton, and constitutes in the greater part of its 
course the boundary of the counties of Warwick and 
Stafford. The Tame, after being increased by the Black 
or Bourne brook coming from near Weeford and Hints, 
then enters the borough of Tamworth, and flows east of 
Fazeley to the town, formii^ from a little distance off 
Gallows brook the line of demarcation between the above 
stated coimties. 

After the confluence of the Anker with it, the Tame 
turning westward wholly re-enters Staffordshire, waters 
the edge of the town, continues by Millfield and Alder- 
mills, and, assuming again its northern direction, passes 
by Hopwas hays and Tamhom park to Comberford, where 
it leaves the borough. At Elford, it makes a bend to 
the west, but suddenly resumes its former course at 
Fisherwick, runs by Croxall, and fidls into the Trent not 
£Eur from the junction of the Mease with that river. 

At Tamworth, the banks of the Tame are 150 feet 
above the level of the tide of the Thames at Brentford.' 
It was once proposed to render the river navigable fitmi 
the Trent to this town ; and, on the £Oth of December, 
1759, the bailifb and commonality, with the inhabitants 
of Birmingham, Burton-on-Trent, and the neighbouring 
parts, presented a petition for that purpose to the lower 
house of parliament* But soon afterwards the scheme, 
which would have involved immense expense, was pro* 
dently abandoned. 

1 Pitt*« Acricaltnra of Steffordahire. 
2 Joanial of the Commont. Rob7*« Hist, of Tunworth. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



THE ANKER, 

The Anker^ oommenciiig in many heads between 
Wc^Tey and Withybrook in Warwickshire^ runs to the 
left of Burton Hastings. Turning from north west to 
west^ it passes Chilvers Coton (where it receives on the 
left Ghriff brook)^ continues northward through Nuneaton, 
and winds in its first direction by Weddington, Caldecote, 
and Mancetter to the old Roman road, the Watling 
street. For about three miles farther, it forms the 
boundary of the counties of Leicester and Warwick, 
going on by Witherley, and receiving above Atherstone 
the Sence on the right hand. The river Sence, lying 
wholly in Leicestershire, rises east of Bardon hill in 
Chamwood forest, runs by Hugglescote, and, joined by 
Blower's brook from Ravenstone, continues south west 
by Heather, Shakerstone, and Congerstone, to Sheepy, 
being then united to the main trunk of another origin. 
This southern Sence has its source about Market Bos- 
worth, Stapleton, Dadlington (by which the Tweed, a river 
near from Hinckley, falls into it), and Stoke Golding, 
passing by Sibson and Radcliffe Culey in its way. The 
Anker flows on by Grendon, Polesworth, Pooley hall, 
then, entering the borough of Tamworth, by Alvecote 
priory, now a private residence, and Amington. Curving 
round southwards, and skirting Bolehall and the War- 
wickshire part of the town, it mingles its waters with 
those of the Tame beneath the Castle grounds. 



8 TAMWOBTH 

The characters of the two rivers are very diverse even 
near their point of .junction, some plants being often 
confined to one alone. The Tame is in general shallow 
and slow in its course, whilst the Anker is deep, nar- 
row, and winds considerably. Michael Drayton, the poet, 
bom at Hartshill, a village a few miles distant ftom this 
town, has commemorated the latter river in one of his 
sonnets entitled ''Idea," where he addresses it in behalf 
of the imaginary idol of his soul, in rhymes as spark- 
ling as the ripples of the stream itself. 

" Cleere Ankor, on whose silTer-ianded shore 

My soale-Bhrin'd Saint, my faire Idea lies, 

O blessed brooke, whose milke-white swans adore 

That chrystall streame refined by her eyes, 

Where sweete myrrh-breatiiing Zephire, in the spring, 

Gently distills his nectar-dropping showers, 

Where nightingales in Arden sit and sing 

Amongst the daintie dew-impearled flowers ; 

Say thus, fidre Brooke, when thon shalt see thy Queene, 

Loe heere thy Shepheard spent his wand'ring yeares ; 

And in these shades, dear Nymph, he oft hath beene. 

And heere to thee he sacrific'd his teares : 
Faire Arden, thon my Tempo art alone. 
And thou, sweet Ankor, art my Helicon." 

In another of his poems, the ISth of the Polyolbion^ 
but in less pleasing strains, he celebrates the approaching 
marriage of the two rivers at Tamworth. 



NAME. 

There is an inBurmoimtable difficulty in determining 
the derivation of the name of Tamworth with any d^ree 
of certainty or satis&ction. Owing to the obscurity in 
which the origin of the town is inyolyed, it is not known 
whether it was first built by the Saxons, or whether it 
existed previously to their arrival in this country. It is 
therefore impossible to ascertain if we should have recourse 
to the British or the Saxon language. 

However^ the first part of the name is clearly taken 
from the river Tame. Lhwyd states that the British for a 
stream in general was Taf or Tav, the final letter of which 
was changed by the Romans into m, whence came the 
names of several rivers in England, as the Thames, Thame, 
Tamar, and Tame.^ But in supposing this alteration 
might have been made to conform vrith the Greek for 
a river, the first syllable being rejected, he certainly 
advances an opinion removed firom any shadow of proba- 
bility. It is as likely as that the English should alter 
a Gaelic or other foreign term to suit some mutilated 
French word for somewhat similar sound and expressive 
of the same object. Dugdale deduces Tame firom the 
gentle flovring of the water, as Arrow received its 
designation from the swiftness of its course.' 

1 Lbwyd's AdTerstfiA, labjoined to Baxter*! Gloiiuium. 
S DofdAle's Wanrtckahire. 



10 TAMWORTH 

With respect to ** worth/' the termination of the names 
of many other places in the kingdom besides this, a 
very great difference exists. Though all authors are 
unanimous in considering it to be Saxon^ they are nei- 
ther agreed as to the exact word^ nor even as to the 
meaning of the same term. Gibson* and Bailey* deduce 
it from worth, a court or farm. Dugdale' derives it from 
worthe, which he says is a mansion or dwelling place, 
and Bigland/ a habitation or farm ; but Somner/ an entry, 
porch, or court yard. Gibson also gives another word 
worthig, which he calls a street or road; whilst Lye* 
asserts that it is a small farm or field; and Lambarde,' 
a close encompassing a mansion house, or the place of 
the site of a manor. Morant' adopts worthige or worthe, 
a way through a river, a mansion or dwelling house, a 
farm or field, and in general a manor or estate. Another 
word weorth, Camden* calls a river island, or place sur- 
rounded by water ; Ingram,'^ a village or town near the 
head of a river ; Thomas," a broad way, court, or place, to 
which ige, an island, is affixed ; and Gibson, with Somner, 
Gough," and Lye, a small farm. The latter also adopts 
weorthig or wurthig, a small £Eurm or field; Bailey 
again, weorthige, a street or field ; Manning," wurth, a 
considerable mansion or farm. And finally the termi- 
nation is said to come from waert, a water farm.*^ 

Amidst such contention in writers of high authority, 
it would be impossible to decide the meaning of this 
termination. But it is clear it cannot refer to the 
circumstance that the places, of whose names it forms a 



1 Gibson's Su. Chron. S Bailey's Enfl. diet. 3 DufttaOe's Warwickshire. 

4 Bigland's Gloucestershire, ft Somner's Sax. diet. Lye's Sax. diet. 

1 Lambarde*s Diet, topogr. 8 Moraat's Essex. p Camden's Britannia. 

10 Ingram's Sax. Chron. ll Thomas's Dugdale. is Oougfa's additioiis to Camden. 

IS Mannhig's Surrey. 14 Levria's Topog. diet, of Engl. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 11 

partj lie in the neighbourhood of a river^ for* many are 
neither placed by any stream nor even in marshy land, 
80 as to afford a probability to the suppositions of .those 
who make the presence of water essential to their con- 
jectures. Beyond this we can offer.no suggestion. It 
must be left for those deeply versed in philological specu- 
lation to determine whether ''worth" may signify a great 
fiurm or a little farm^ a dwelling house^ a close encompass- 
ing a mansion^ the site of a manor^ an estate, field, broad 
way^ street, road, entry, court yard, or porch. . 

An insuperable obstacle to the discovery of the etjrmon, 
arises from the diversity of modes in which proper names 
were, anciently written. This was owing to the absence 
of fixed rules of orthography among our ancestors, . a 
circumstance almost necessarily occurring before the mode 
of speedily midtiplying and difiusing literary, works by 
the art of printing, was discovered. These variations 
have also been undoubtedly increased, in a very great 
degree^ by the modification of the names themselves du- 
ring the lapse of time. The Danish conquest, and more 
especially that of the Normans from its permanence and 
completeness, occasioned much confusion by the intro- 
duction of a foreign pronunciation, which would naturally 
lead to a change correspondingly great in the spelling. 

Of the numerous and often singular manners in which 
Tamworth has been written, we give the principal, adopt- 
ing the list collected by Roby, but with several alterations 
and additions. The dates refer to the ages of the docu- 
ments that they are foxmd in. 

In 781, Tamoworthie, Tamoworthige.* In 814, Tom- 
oworthig, Tomoworthin." In 840, Tomeworthie.' In 841, 
Tomanworthie, Tomanwordie, Tomeuuorthie, Tomeweor- 

1 Offo*8 charters. 2 CoenwolfB charters. 3 Berhtwulfs charter. 



12 TAMWORTH 

thing J In 845^ Tomeuuorthig.* In 855, Tomanworthigne.* 
In 857, Tomanuuorthig/ In the 10th century, Tama- 
weorthige, Tameweorthige, Tamanweorthe, Tameweorthe, 
Tameworththige, Tamewurthe, Tamanweorthige/ In the 
same century, Tamewrthe.' In 1002, Tamwurthin.' In 
1059, Tamawoidina.' In 1066, Tonwrrth, Tonwyrth.' 
In 1086, Tamuuorde.''' In 1115, Tamwrda.'' In 1118, 
Tomewordina, Tomwrfliigme, Tomweorthe.^ In 1148, 
Tamewrthe." In 1150, Thamewrthe.^ In 1164, Tame- 
weorde, Tomwirthig.'' In 1198, Tamuirting, Tamewrda, 
Tamneting.^' In the same year, Tamesworthe.^' In 1S16, 
Thamwrthe.'' In 1272, Tamewurthe.''' In 1284, Tamme- 
worthe.*^ In 1291, Thomwurth, Thamwurth.'^ In 1S08, 
Tammorth, Tammorthe." In 1857, Thomewurth, Tha- 
niwurth." In 1859, Tamworht.** In 1877, Thameworth.* 
In 1418, Tunneworth, Tanwith • In 1427, Tampworth.'' 
In 1491, Tomworth." In 1588, Thomworth." In 1548, 
Tomwoorth." And in 1560, Tameworth," 

Among the records of the town, we first find the name 
spelt in the mode adopted at the present time in 1804. 
Previously it was written Thamworth or Thameworth, 
and occasionally Tameworth. 

1 BerhtwnlTfl charters. s lb. s Burgred*!! charten. 4 lb. 5 Sax. Chroo. 

6 Chron. of Melrote. 7 Will of Walfric Spott. 8 Mariaaaa, quoted by 

Camden and Shaw. 9 Coins of Edw. Confess. 10 Doomsday book. 

11 M.S. quoted by Dufdale. la Florence of Worcester's Chronioon ex Chronids. 

13 Henry of Hnndnicdon's Hlstorta. U Salzed's Oenealogla Ref . An^ I. 

15 Simeon of Durham's De irestis Re^. An^. l6 Roger Hoveden*s Annates. 

17 John Brompton's Chronicon. 18 Hofh White of Peterboroach's Historia. 

19 Robert of Gloucester's Metrical Chronicle. 20 Tamworth Court rolls, IS E. I. 

SI Taxation of P. Nicholas IV. sa Tamworth Court rolls, 31 E. I. 

S3 Ralph Higden's Folychronicon. 24 WIgglnton Court rolls, SS B. III. 

25 Matthew of Wcstmister's Flores Historiarum. 

20 Tho. Rndbomo's Historia Ecclesin Wintonienals. 27 Tamworth Court rolls, 5 H.V. 

28 John Rouse's Historia Rev. Angl. 99 Polydore Vergil's Angl. Historia. 
SO HaU'B Vnion of the fameUes of Lancastre and Yorke. 91 Elizabeth's charter. 



GENERAL HISTORY. 



The origin of Tamworth is involved in the deep 
obscurity, thrown like a veil by the hand of time over 
the early history of our nation. Whether it formed one 
of the towns of the primitive inhabitants of Britain, is 
a question that can only be answered by conjectures of 
its great probability. These places in the central parts 
of the kingdom, inhabited, according to Ptolemy, by a 
tribe called Cornabii or Comavii, were not composed of 
a collection of huts as on the sea coast, where the 
people were much more advanced in civilization firom 
their intercourse with foreign nations. On the contrary, 
they were merely fortifications, consisting of a tract of 
densely wooded land surrounded by a bank and a ditch.' 
Into these the people were accustomed to retire when 
severely pressed by their enemies, and desirous of de- 
fending themselves firom their attacks. In similar places 
too, the Britons were accustomed to celebrate the mysteries 
of their religion and erect altars, on which they im- 
molated victims and paid a bloody homage to their gods. 

In Britain, there were numerous forests where the 
inhabitants chiefly dwelt. One of the largest and most 
celebrated of these was that of Arden, the name of 
which appears to have been the Celtic for a forest in 
general fixxm the occurrence of the word to designate 

1 Omar, dc Bello Oi^Uco, Ub. iv. 



14 TAMWORTH 

similar places in the north of France. It was bounded 
by the banks of the rivers Avon, Trent, and Severn, and 
by a line drawn firom Burton-on-Trent to the ancient 
Roman station Bennones, the modem High Cross, where 
the Watling street and the Foss way intersect each other.^ 
In the midst of this woodland, Tamworth or its site lay ; 
its deep seclusion, its position by two streams, and the 
productiveness of the soil, rendering it a likely spot to 
be selected by. our rude forefathers for the erection of 
a fortification and a place of refuge in necessity. 

When the Romans had completely subdued this country, 
they divided it into five provinces, Britannia prima, 
Britannia secunda, Flavia Ciesariensis, Maxima Caesari- 
ensis, and Valentia.' In the third of these, extending 
from the Thames to the Humber, Tamworth was placed 
supposing it then existed, a fact of which we have no 
direct proof. The town, however, lies scarcely more than 
a mile north of one of the Roman roads, the most re- 
markable of them, not only on account of its length, 
but also from the branches connected with it being more 
numerous than those of any other.' The Watling street 
passes through the borough in its course between the 
ancient stations Manduessedum and Etocetum, the present 
villages of Mancetter and Wall. Another Roman road 
also ran directly through the town. "Wendley-way," 
says Shaw, "comes from the West end of Tamworth 
church, nms on the West side of Drayton Basset park, 
&c. The other way, it might have proceeded by Ashby 
and Nottingham to Southwell."* 

To the statements of this learned antiquary, we are 
compelled, rather in a bold manner, to offer some ob- 

1 Brewer*8 Beauties of England and Wales. 9 Richard of Cirencester. 
S Reynold's Iter Brltannlarum. « Shaw's Staifordsbire. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 15 

jections. It seems very doubtful whether Wendley way 
came from Drayton Basset into the Watling street at 
Fazeley, as none of the characteristics are founds by 
which such works of the Romans are usually known. 
For a similar reason, the continuance of the road between 
Tamworth and Ashby may be considered as extremely 
questionable and even improbable. Yet that a Roman 
way ran from Fazeley to Tamworth westward of the 
Church, we cannot dispute. It must have continued 
along Salter street in this town, through Wigginton, by 
Portway house, and through Harleston to Edengale. At 
the latter village, Plott actually mentions the occur- 
rence of a Roman road ;' and the whole way from 
Wigginton presents all the signs of such structures in 
general. The occurrence of Roman remains at Wigginton 
and other places in the neighbourhood of the line, con- 
firms the opinion we have given. At Wigginton there 
was a large tumulus, now entirely carried away by the 
plough, and a similar one is found at a little distance 
from it, near Elford. The latter was opened by Plott 
in October, 1680, who, from the ashes and charcoal with 
several pieces of bone that he foimd in it, concluded at 
once that it was Roman. Shaw seems rather to consider 
the tumuli as those of Saxons slain in flight from the. 
battle at Seckington ; but, as Plott truly observes, these 
people never adopted the mode of burning the bodies of 
the dead, at all event after their arrival in this country. 
After maintaining their conquests in this island for 
nearly 400 years, the Romans abandoned them about the 
middle of the 5th century. Finding themselves unable 
to resist the incursions of their enemies, the Britons were 
at length compelled to call in the aid of the Saxons, a ^ 

1 Ftott's Nitond HiMonr oT Staflbrdshire. 



16 TAMWOBTH 

numerous and warlike race from the north of Europe. 
But after these people had successfully rendered their 
aid, treacherously turning round, they directed their arms 
against the Britons, and obtained almost daily fresh 
mastery over them. King Arthur, for a time, according 
to tradition, checked their career; but, when he passed 
away, they gained the field again. 

The Saxons, as they subjugated the country, established 
eight kingdoms, Kent, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Essex, 
Bemicia, Deira, and Merda. The subsequent union of 
Bemicia and Deira, reduced the octarchy into an hep- 
tarchy. Mercia was the last kingdom formed, being 
founded in the year 585. It embraced the midland 
counties of England ; but varied in size at different times, 
according to the success of arms, when the Saxons having 
few to contend with, began to make war upon each other.^ 

From the time of the first Mercian king Creoda to 
the reign of Offii, Tamworth is not mentioned, though 
it probably formed the residence of some of the earlier 
kings, even before the introduction of Christianity. Ead- 
vald or Ethelbald, who ascended the throne in 716, and 
held it for nearly forty years, was at last himself slain 
and his followers defeated, at Seccandune or Seckington, 
in a batde caused by the insurrection of his ovm army, 
headed by Beomred, one of the generaki. This ambitious 
warrior seized the government ; but he was compelled to 
fly from the country before the close of the first year of 
his usurpation, 755. He was overcome in fight by Offii, 
either grand nephew or second cousin of Eadvald, a 
young but valiant man> who was then elevated to the 
throne, as eleventh king of Mercia, by the unanimous 
coi^sent of the nobles of the land.' 

1 Turoer*! Hlitoiy of the Anfflo Suont. s Sftz. Chron. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 17 

Soon after his accession to the crown^ Offa came to 
Tamworth, where he caused a palace to be built of greater 
dimensions than was usual in those times. This, for its 
magnificence, was the admiration and wonder of the age.* 
He also then strongly fortified the town by surrounding 
it with a vast entrenchment and bank, the traces of 
which remain at the present day, and still retain the 
name of Offa's dyke, or the King's ditch. Thus Tam- 
worth was either rendered for the first time a r^al 
dwelling place, or as such received improvements which 
exigencies might require, or the bounty of royalty dictate. 
That it was previously honoured with the presence of 
kings, seems very likely from the proximity of the field 
of battle where Eadvald fell, Seckington being a small 
village about four miles distant. The town, however, 
became one of very great celebrity, and continued to be 
the fiivourite resort of Offa and of many of his successors, 
at least during the solemn festivals of Christmas and 
Easter. From hence they dated numerous charters to 
bishops and religious bodies of the realms. 

With very rare exceptions, the ecclesiastical charters 
of this period have alone survived to our time. For 
when William the Conqueror seized the possessions of 
the Saxons and divided them among his followers, all 
previous grants which could not be shown to belong to 
religious foundations were rendered useless. The instru- 
ments by which they were made were probably in part 
lost, and in part destroyed by the Normans, in order to 
prevent the possibility of their being afterwards disturbed 
in the fair domains they had acquired. The charters 
ought generally to be regarded rather as deeds of sale 
or exchange than as donations; for it is evident, in 

1 F. Palgn^e- 

D 



18 T AM WORTH 

the majority of cases, the full value of the lands and 
privileges was given in money or otherwise by the 
parties to whom the gifts were made. Much doubt 
has been cast upon the validity of these celebrated 
documents, some authors seeming inclined to reject 
them altogether as forgeries that claims might be ex- 
hibited, which could not otherwise be substantiated. But 
this opinion is not based upon any rational authority, or 
is there any historical evidence to support it. The 
inaccuracies found in the copies of them made by annalists 
and others, seem to be entirely the result of inadvertence 
or carelessness in the transcription. Many of these faults 
have been detected. For instance, Hickes gives two 
charters of Athelstan, which he designates ^'egregious 
examples of fraud and imposture,*'* bearing the date 
670, a most glaring anachronism ; and a third charter of 
the same king, in the same year, contains a similar 
error. 

But on the discovery of the original autograph or du- 
plicate of the last document in the archives of the dean 
and chapter of Canterbury, the true date, 987, was appar- 
ent, rendering it probable that Hickes' " egregious ex- 
amples" owed their chief suspicious character to the 
faultiness of the the Normanno-Saxon copies he evidently 
used. Again, many have been condemned on account of 
the misapprehension of our historians on some point. 
The recent discovery of the distinction between Ethelgar, 
bishop of Selsey, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, 
and a bishop of Crediton bearing the same name, has 
restored to honor and respectability more than twenty 
of these venerable records. In the same manner, it is 
reasonable to suppose that the weakened suspicion still 

1 Hickes* DtsserUtIo epistolaris. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 19 

hanging over some others may be cleared away by 
future investigations.' 

Of the charters granted by Offa two only remain that 
bear date at Tamworth. 

In 781, with the consent of his prelates and nobles, 
be confirmed to bishop Hathored and to the church 
of St. Peter at Worcester certain lands in Homtune 
and Fcehhaleage, exempting them for ever from all tax- 
ation. The charter was dated by the king on the 
second day of the nativity of our Lord, or the feast of 
the blessed Stephen (the 26th of Dec), " in sede regali 
sedens in Tamoworthie;" and was subscribed by Cyne- 
thryth, queen ; Eadberht, Hygeberht, Hathored, bishops ; 
Brondan, Berhtwald, Eadbald, generals.' 

At the same time, by another charter, Offa gave to 
the church of St. Mary at Worcester, lands at Icancumbe, 
exempt from royal tribute, &c., in exchange for other 
lands at Sapian. He subscribed himself " gratia Dei 
donante Rex Anglorum, sedens in regali palatio Tamo- 
worthie," written in another copy Tamoworthige. The 
following then added their consent : Cynethryd, queen ; 
Eabberht, Hygeberht, Hathored, bishops; Brordan, Berht- 
wald, Eadbald, generals; Eadher, duke.' 

Offa was a wise and able king, an experienced and 
intrepid warrior, and a great patron of learning. He 
extended his kingdom on every side, too often, indeed, 
by treachery and crime. When he came to the throne, 
Mercia included the counties of Stafford, Warwick, 
Worcester, Leicester, Hereford, Buckingham, Bedford, 
Rutland, Northampton, Huntingdon, Lincoln, Derby, 
Chester, and the largest proportions of Middlesex, Hert- 
ford, and Salop. To these he added by conquest 

1 Cod. diplom. eevi Sazonici. Chart. Aogloaax. 2 Hcmingi Chartularium. 3 lb. 



iO TAMWORTH 

Notdnghaniy wrested from Northumhria/ and Oxford 
and Gloucester, from Wessex.' The remaining part of 
Shropshire, with portions of Denbigh, Flint, Radnor, 
and Montgomery, he took from Wales.' Norfolk, Suffolk, 
and Cambridge were gained by the murder of Ethelberht, 
the East Anglian king, at a feast held during the cele- 
bration of that young prince's marriage with his third 
daughter, in 792, when he was dispatched by a hired 
assassin of the name of Ouimberht/ Ofia also subjugated 
Kent ; but he allowed its sovereign to retain a tributary 
crown.* He died on the 10th of August, 794, after a 
reign of 39 years, and was succeeded by his only son 
Ecgfryth, whom he had previously associated with himself 
in the government of his kingdom.* 

But all the endeavours of Offa were unable to secure 
the throne to his son. There was one enemy whose 
attacks no penetration could foresee or any policy pre- 
vent. The hand of death disappointed the hopes that 
he had formed, for Ecgfryth survived only 141 days. 
His death was generally considered as a judgment for 
his father's crimes. Such was the opinion of the 
learned Alcuin at the time.^ Truly the malediction of 
heaven seems to have rested on the family. Of the three 
daughters, the eldest Eadburga became in&mous for her 
licentiousness and cruelty. Her husband Beorhtric, king 
of Wessex, being poisoned by the wine she intended for 
another, she fled to France for reAige. Charlemagne, on 
account of the friendship he had entertained for her 
father, placed her in a convent. But scarcely had the 
vows of chastity passed her lips than they were broken, 
and disgraced, she was expelled from the sacred walls. 



1 John Brompton. 2 Sax. Chron. 3 Turner's Anglo Saxonv. 4 Will. Malmsb. 
5 Sax. Chron. 6 lb. 7 Letter in Leland's Collectanea. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 21 

and terminated her career at Pa via, a houseless mendi- 
canty still guilty as before.^ Elfleda, the second daughter, 
became an outcast when her husband Ethelred, king of 
Northumbria, was slain in an insurrection of his own 
subjects^ a fate his tyranny brought upon him.' .The 
youngest daughter. Etheldritha, who had been the un- 
conscious means of luring the East Anglian king to his 
doom, was perhaps the most fortunate of aU, at least if 
we look beyond .the range of time. She took the veil 
at Croyland in Lincolnshire, and there passed her life in 
peace, living, however, to see the down£Edl of her father's 
kingdom and its subjection to Wessex.' Thus futile is 
the end of crime. 

After the decease of Ecgfiyth, Coenwulf ascended the 
throne as the thirteenth king of Mercia. His connexion 
with the family of Ofia was very distant, both tracing 
their ancestry to Wybba, under whose fitther Creoda 
the kingdom was established.* 

Coenwulf was one of the sovereigns who resided at 
Tamworth, as two of his charters bear record. 

In the first of these, with the advice and consent of 
his nobles, he exchanged certain lands with his faithful 
and venerable bishop Deneberht and the church of 
Worcester, for the monastery of Bitumeum and land on 
the western bank of the Severn. The charter, dated 
''anno ncccxiiii, in vico celeberrimo qui vocatur Tomo- 
worthig, die vii kl. Januarii" (the 26th of Dec.), 
concluded with the invocation of a blessing on any one 
securing or increasing the gift, and a denunciation of 
separation from God and the saints, against any destroy- 
ing or diminiflhiTig it. It was signed by Coenwlf, king 



1 Sim. of Durham. 8 lb. s John Brompton. 
4 Matth. of Wentm. 



%X TAM WORTH 

of the Mercians ; Wulfredy archbishop ; ^Ifthryth, queen 
Ealdulfy Werenberhty Deneberht, Wlfheard, bishops 
Heardberht, Beomoth, Dywna, Ceolberht, Mucel, dukes 
Ceolwulf.' 

In that year also, another charter was given by the 
king to the same bishop and churchy conferring on them 
certain lands in Sture or Stowre, free from aU taxes, 
except those particularly specified, and to be enjoyed as 
long as Christianity should remain in the repon. It 
was dated ^4n vico oeleberrimo qui vocatur Tomoworthin"; 
and, after invoking increase of life and property on the 
preservers and augmenters, and threatening infringers 
with the wrath of Grod, was subscribed by Cenulf, king 
of the Mercians ; ^Ifthryth, queen ; Aldulf, Werenberht, 
Deneberht, bishops ; Heardberht, Beomoth, dukes ; Ead- 
gar, Wigberht, priests ; Sigreth, Eadwulf, ministers.* 

The reign of Coenwulf was one of continued success ; 
and he maintained his kingdom in the predominant 
position, to which it had been elevated by Offa. He 
was engaged, perhaps, in fewer battles than the generality 
of Anglo-Saxon monarchs, and never but once assumed 
the position of an aggressor. The principal scenes of his 
warfare were Kent and Wales. On his first accession 
to the throne, being young and ardent, he appears to 
have yielded, for a time, to motives of ambition. He 
then entered Kent with a large army, and, deposing the 
sovereign, placed his brother Cuthberht on the throne.' 
But afterwards he seems to have resigned his desires of 
acquiring new territories and devoted all his energies 
to secure the prosperity and happiness of his people. 
When Eardulf, the Northumbrian king, prepared, in 801, 
to invade Mercia, he was speedily in arms to repel the 

1 Heiningi Chartularium. 2 lb. 3 Will, of Malmsbory. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 23 

enemy. But the prelates, with some nohles of each na- 
tion, having assembled in a council, exerted all their 
endeavours to prevent the occurrence of war, and Eardulf 
was persuaded to give up his intentions. A treaty of 
peace was then proposed into which both kings gladly 
entered, and afterwards kept with the greatest fidelity.' 
The attack made by Coenwulf, a short time previously 
to his death, upon the kingdom of Powys in Wales, 
seems to have been caused by an incursion of the Welsh 
into the Mercian frontier." 

Coenwulf, of whom all the ancient annalists speak in 
the highest terms as a just and pious king, closed his 
happy reign in 819.' John Brompton says that he was 
. slain in a sudden insurrection of the East Anglians, 
whose domains Offa had retained. All other historians 
are silent as to the cause of his decease, whilst Henry 
of Huntingdon expressly asserts that he died a natural 
death. This opinion seems by far the most probable, 
as the East Anglians did not throw off the Mercian yoke 
till six years subsequently. 

Tamworth is not mentioned again for some time. 
Merda, indeed, became, during the space of nineteen 
years, a continued scene of intestine commotion, fell 
with great rapidity, and at last became a tributary 
kingdom. 

Kenelm succeeded his father Coenwulf when he was- 
only seven years old. But, in the course of a few months^ 
he was murdered at the instigation of his elder sister 
Quendred, who, dead to the gentle voice of affection, 
removed him in hopes of placing a lover on the throne, 
and of sharing the regal honours herself. Being enticed 
into a forest under a plea of hunting, the infapt king 

1 Sim. of Durham. s Lloyd's Hist, of Wales. » Sax. Chron. 



M TAMWORTH 

was assassinated near Clent in Stafibrdshire, by a man 
named Ascebert, who concealed his body in a well 
oveigrown with briarsJ 

This tragical event has afforded the subject of one 
of Shenstone's elegies. 

** Born near the scene for Kmdm's fate renown *d, 
I take my plaintive reed, and range the grove, 
And raiae my lay, and bid the rocka resound 
The savage force of empire and of love. 

Fast by the centre of yon various wild, 
Where spreading oaks embower a Gothic fane, 
Kendrida*s arts a brother's youth beguil'd ; 
There Nature uig'd her tend'rest pleas in vain. 

Soft o'er his birth, and o'er his infant hours, 
Th' ambitious maid could every care employ ; 
llien, with assiduous fondness, cropt the tlowVs, 
To deck the cradle of the princely boy. 

But soon the bosom's pleasing calm is flown ; 
Love fires her breast, the sultry passions rise ; 
A (avour'd lover seeks the Mercian throne, 
And views her Kenelm with a rival's eyes. 

How kind were Fortune 1 ah, how just were Fate ! 
Would Fate or Fortune Merda's heir remove, 
How sweet to revel on the conch of state. 
To crown at once her lover and her love ! 

See, gamish'd for the chase, the fraudfnl maid 
To these lone lulls direct her devious way ; 
The youth, all prone, the sister-guide obeyed ; 
Ill-fated youth, himself the destined prey.' 

For a considerable time, the &te of Kenelm was un- 
known; but it was at last discovered^ according to the 
old story, by a scroll being found on the high altar of 
St. Peter's at Rome, dropped, it is said, by a dove.* 

1 wm. of Malmsbury. a SSTdBegy. 3 WUl. of Malmsbury. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 25 

It bore a Saxon couplet thus rendered in Latin : — 

'* In Clenty rab spina, jacet in convalle bovina 
Vertioe priTatiu Kenelniiis nge creatu." 

This may be translated into English in the following 

manner : — 

In a lonely Tale at Clent, where oxen range the field, 
Headless royal Kenelm lies, beneath a thorn conoeal'd. 

After the discoyery of the body, a church was built near 
the well^ and both^ remaining at this time, retain the 
name of St. Kenelm's. 

The hopes of the fratricide Quendrid were justly dis- 
appointed ; for her uncle immediately ascended the throne 
under the name of Ceolwulf I.* 

This king had hardly reigned for more than a year, 
when he was driven out in a revolt among his subjects, 
and Beomwulf, an officer, usurped the government.* 

BeomwulTs short sway was marked by little else than 
misfortune. He was completely defeated by Ecgberht the 
Great, in a battle fought at EUandun or Wilton, in the 
third year of his reign. Soon afterwards, being compel- 
led to hasten into East Anglia to suppress an insurrection 
of the people, who sought to free themselves from the 
thraldom of Mercia, he was there slain in 825. Upon 
this, the East Anglians joined Ecgbert and surrendered 
themselves completely to him.' 

Ludican, in attempting to regain the lost province 
and to avenge the death of his predecessor, was sud- 
denly attacked unawares and put to death with five of 
Ids chief men or councillors.* 

Withlaff, the next in succession, after a short en- 
deavour to turn the tide of fortune, was overcome by 
the powerftil king of Wessex, and Mercia subjugated. 

I Flor.oCWorcMter. s Matfh. of Westminster. 3 lb. 4 WUl. of Mslnubury. 

E 



Xfo TAMWORTH 

From the battle field he fled to Croyland^ and sought 
sanctuary in the abbey. He was consigned for safety 
to the cell that Etheldritha usuaUy held^ who was thus 
doomed^ before death should close her eyes, not only to 
witness the extinction of her family, but the downfidl 
of the kingdom itself, which had cost her father such 
labour to exalt, and so much crime to render secure. 
The abbot of Croyland afterwards took upon himself 
the office of mediator between the royal fugitive and 
Ecgberht. He hastened to the court, and his entreaties 
and persuasions so far prevailed that Withlaff was re- 
stored to his crown, on condition that he should pay an 
annual tribute to Wessex as an acknowledgment of its 
superior sovereignty.* The terms seem to have been so 
mild, that the Mercians never attempted to throw off 
the easy yoke. 

On the decease of Withlaff in 838, Berhtwulf suc- 
ceeded,' in whose time Tamworth is mentioned in seven 
charters as a royal residence. 

The first of these was superscribed, " Alto et agio et 
omnipotentissimo deo nostro, ac sanctae et gloriosae 
Trinitati, uirtus, honor, et potestas sit in perpetuum. 
Amen." Dated on the 28th of March, 840, it recites 
that Berhtuulf, instigated by enemies, had taken away 
and given to others lands, called Stoltun, Uassanbuma, 
Cyneburgingctun, Tateringctun, Codesuuelle, which had 
been previously granted to the episcopal see of Worcester, 
that is, to the church there. Upon this, bishop Heaberht, 
with his elders, proceeded at Easter, " ad Tomeworthie,** 
and produced his charters before the court, when the 
nobles of the realm decided that he had been unjustly 
despoiled. But it seems the bishop paid highly for the 

1 Matth. orwestminiter. 2 lb. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 27 

restoration of his rights. He gave to the king four 
well-chosen war horses, a ring of the value of thirty 
mancuses/ a wrought dish of three pounds, and ^^ duas 
albas comas" of four pounds. To the queen, he gave 
two good horses, two stirrups of two pounds, and a 
golden cup of two pounds. After a denunciation against 
any king, prince, or man of other grade, who, deceived 
by diabolical avarice, should in future violate the gift, 
Berhtuulf signed his consent as king of the Mercians. 
Then followed the names of Saethryth, queen; Cylieferth, 
Heaberht, Berehtred, Cuthuulf, bishops; Eanmund, 
abbot; Hunberht, Mucel, Cyneberht, Aetheluulf, dukes; 
Eaduulf, Wicga, Eaduulf ; Aethelheard, Dudda, Sigered, 
Mucel, dukes; Aelfred, Hwithyse, Aldberht.' 

By the second charter, Berhtwulf granted to the 
venerable bishop Heaberht, for a ring of the value of 
thirty-one mancuses, land at a place called by rustics 
Huiocewudu, in perpetual freedom. The grant was 
written '' in loco qui dicitur Croppanthom, et iterum, in 
natali domini, aet Tomanuuorthie (in another copy, 
Tomanwordie'), anno domini dcccxli, regis praefati iii." 
The following subscribed: — ^Berhtuulf, king of the 
Mercians; Saethryth, queen; Cyneferth, Heaberht, Cuth- 
uulf, bishops; XJuihtred, Eanmund, Ceorred, abbots; 
Mucel, Hunberht, Sigered, dukes/ 

The third charter commenced with a quotation from 
the writings of St. Paul on the flight of time,' and 
again from those of a sage sophist, who, in a catalectic 
verse, sang saying, ''Non semper licet gaudere: Fugit 
hora qua iacemiu:." It then proceeded to grant to the 
venerable abbot Eanmund, and his fraternity at Breo- 

1 A maocuM wu of the valne of thirty Saxon pennies. 

3 Codes diplom. aevi Saxonid. Chart. Angloeax. 3 Hcming:! Chartolailum. 

4 Codex dipkun. aeri Saxon. Chart. Anglomx. 6 1 Cor. caprii. ver.Si. 



28 TAMWORTH 

dune, in perpetual alms, the freedom of their monastery 
from those called in the Saxon language festingmen, so 
long as the Catholic faith and the baptism of Christ 
should be preserved in Britain. For this immunity, the 
abbot and his holy congregation had given, ^^in famoso 
uico in Tomeuuorthie," a large silver dish, exquisitely 
wrought and of great value, and the sum of one hundred 
and ninety mancuses in pure gold. They had also sung, 
at twelve time, one hundred psalters, and one himdred 
and twenty masses, for the king, his dear friends, and 
all the Mercian nation. After the injunction in the 
name of the Omnipotent, the nine orders of angels, and 
all the elect of Christ, that the gift should remain in- 
violate, the charter was dated ^'anno dominicae incar- 
nationis dcccxli. Indictione iiii. in die natalis domini, 
in celebri uico on Tomeuuorthie." It was signed by 
Berhtuulf, king of the Mercians; Saethryth, queen; 
Cyneferth, Aldred, Berehtred, Heaberht, Cuthuulf, 
bishops; Eanmund, Uuihtred, Ceolred, abbots.* 

The fourth charter, dated '^ Anno incamationis domini 
nostri Ihesu Christi dccc^xli^ indictione iiii^ in die 
natalis domini, in celebri uico Tomeuuorthie,*' conferred 
upon bishop Heaberht a piece of land, occupied by one 
house, in a town caUed by rustics Myttun, to be enjoyed 
by the monks of St. Mary's at Worcester. After an 
injunction similar to that in the last, the gift was con- 
firmed by Berhtuulf, king of the Mercians; Saethryth, 
queen; Heaberht, Kynefyrth, Berhtred, Cuthuulf, bishops; 
Uuihtred, Eanmund, abbots; Ceolred, Aethelheard, Hun- 
berht, Aetheluulf, dukes; Eaduulf, Aelfred, Uuicga, 
Eadberht, ministers.' 

Berhtwulf, in his fifth charter, which was not dated, 

1 Codex diplom. Kvl Suconid. Chut. AnfloMX. i lb. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 29 

but is assigned to the year 841, granted to his minister 
Ecberhty for sixty pounds in pure gold and silver, cer- 
tain lands, free from all services great and small. The 
preservers of the gift were then consigned to the keep^ 
ing of the Holy Trinity, here and in heaven, and eternal 
malediction was invoked on those who should infringe 
it, unless they diould make worthy amendment to Grod 
and man. ^^ £t hii testes aderant, qui hoc consenserunt, 
et cum signo sanctae crucis Christi firmauenmt^ in 
famoeo loco qui dicitur Tomeweorthing quorum hie 
nomina notantur." Berhtwulf, king of the Mercians; 
Saethryth, queen; Tunberht, Ceolred, Cuthwulf, bishops; 
Hunberht, Aldberht, ^thelheard, dukes.' 

By the sixth charter, the king, on payment of three 
pounds of silver, gave to Bishop Heaberht the perpetual 
freedom of land called Daeglesford. It was signed, 
" in loco qui dicitiu: Tomanworthie, anno dominicae 
incamationis. dcgcxli. indictione in.," by Berhtuulf, king 
of the Mercians; Saethryth, queen; Cyneferth, Heaberht, 
Berehtred, bishops; XJuihtred, Eanmund, Ceorred, abbots; 
Mucel, Humberht, Cyneberht, Dudda, dukes.' 

By the seventh and last charter, Berhtuulf, first 
calling to mind the transitory nature of earthly things, 
compared with the unfailing joys of heaven, and re- 
membering the invitation of Jesus Christ, ^^Come to 
me all Fyou that labom: and are burdened, and I will 
refresh you," granted, for the succour of his soul, to 
his venerable bishop Heabert, and the clergy at Wor- 



] Tlie senersl mode of signing tbe Anglo-Saxon charten was for each person 
to fonn a cross before his name. This, as a sliort declaration of faith, was the most 
solemn ratification of a deed, short of an actual oath, that could be mode. Even now 
tlie cnstom is not completely lost, for those to whom the art of writing is stUl un- 
known usually substitute a cross for their names, not, however, attaching to it a 
reiigioQs meaning, but to hare afflxed over it the somewhat reproachful title of 
" their mark.** 

S Codex diplom. Kvi Saxon. Chart. Anglosax. 3 lb. 



80 TAMWOBTH 

cester^ the freedom from all services of the monastery 
by Eafene, called XJfera Stretford. For this, the bishop 
paid ten pounds in silver. The exemption was "ab 
omni iugo humanae seniitutiB, ab omnibus saecularibus 
tributis et uectigalibus ; cum cunctis utilitatibus ad illam 
aecclesiam recte pertinentibus, campis uel siluiunculis, 
pascuis uel pratis, fluminibus uel piscationibus ; ab opere 
regali^ et pastu regis et prindpis, uel iuniorum eorum; 
ab hospitorum refectione uel uenatorum ; etiam equorum 
regis, falconum, et ancipitruum, et puerorum qui ducunt 
canes. Quid plura ? ab omni tribulatione noti et ignoti, 
magni et modici, libera consistit in aeuum, quamdiu 
fides Christianae religionis apud Anglos in Brittannia 
insula permaneat." After the customary invocation of 
a blessing and a curse, the gift was dated "anno 
domini incamationis dccc^^xlv^ Indictione vni^ in 
loco regali qui dicitur Tomeuuorthig, in natiuitate do- 
mini." It was signed by Berhtuulf, king of the 
Mercians ; Saethryth, queen ; Hunberht, Heaberht, Cior- 
redy Berhtred, Cuthuulf, Uuihtred, bishops; Eanmund, 
abbot; Aetheluulf, priest; Berhtric, son of the king; 
Mucel, Humberht, Aelfstan, Cyneberht, Aetheluulf, 
Mucel, Sigered, Dudda, Aldberht, dukes; Aelfred, Uuicga, 
Aethelheah, Eadgar, Uuiglaf, Eaduulf, Uulfred.* 

The commencement of Berhtwulfs reign was marked 
by irruptions of the Welsh into Merda, in which they 
were generally successful. At length, in 843, calling 
in the aid of Ethelwulf, he completely routed them at 
Kettal, where their king Mervjrn Vrych was slain.' 
Berhtwulfs government was then peaceable for eight 
years, till the Danes appeared, and his anny was 
scattered by them. He died in 852, and Burgred suc- 

1 Codex diplom. aevi Saxon. Chart. Anglo-sax. 2 Powell's Hist, of Walet. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 81 

ceeded as the twentieth king of Mercia, and the last 
recorded as being at Tamworth. 

By charter, this sovereign granted to his faithful and 
dear prelate and friend Alhwin the freedom of the 
monastery called Bloccanleeh from the keeping of all 
hawks and Mcons in the Mercian land, and of all 
hunters of the king and prince, except those in the 
province of the Hwicdi, and from some other services. 
The bishop paid three hundred shillings for this exemp- 
tion, which, dated in 855, " in uico celebre, q : a multis 
uocitatur tomanworthigne," was subscribed by Burhred, 
king of the Mercians ; Aethelswyth, queen ; Tumberht, 
Ceorred, Berehtred, Alhiwine, Cuthuulf, bishops ; Hum- 
briht, Aethelheard, Beomnoth, Aldberhti, Weremberhti, 
Mucel, dukes.' 

In another charter, Burgred, with the consent of his 
councillors, granted to his bishop Alhun, for sixty 
shillings of silver, a small portion of the liberty of the 
grazing land in Lundonia, where it was called Ceolmun- 
dingcharga, which was not far from Uuestgetum, with 
all privileges. After the customary benediction on pre- 
servers of the grant, and anathema on all infractors, 
unless they should make amends to God and man, the 
gift was dated ^'anno dominici incamatione dccclvii. 
Indictione uero v. in loco fiunosa, qui dicitur Toman* 
uuorthig, in sancta pascha domini" (the 18th of April). 
It was agreed to by the following : — ^Burgred, king of the 
Mercians ; Aethelswyth, queen ; Tumberht, Ceored, 
Alhun, Byrhtred, Cuthuulf, bishops; Hunberht, Beorht- 
noth, Ealdberht, Mucel, Athulf, Beomhard, Eadred, 
dukes.' 

After the defeat of the Welsh, who, under the celebra- 

1 Codes diploiii. KTi Saxon. Chart. AoflosAX. s lb. 



32 TAMWORTH 

ted Bodri-mawr, or Koderick the Greats attached Mercia 
in 853/ Burgred maintained his kingdom in profound 
peace for fourteen years. But it then hastened to its 
fall even as a tributary monarchy, becoming a prey to 
the Danes. 

These northern adventurers first came into Britain 
•'from the land of robbers" in 787, when a band of 
them in three ships made their appearance off the coast 
of Wessex, where they landed for the purpose of spolia- 
tion. After slaying one of the king's officers, with his 
attendants, who, taking them for merchants, and un- 
suspicious of treachery, went to learn whence they came, 
they re-embarked." In 793, they made an incursion into 
Northumbria, murdered many of the inhabitants, regard- 
less of age or sex, and, plundering the famous monastery 
of Lindes&me or Holy Island, slew most of the monks 
there or carried them away, probably to suffer a more 
lingering and cruel death.' But, for nearly forty years, 
they were deterred from repeating their predatory visits, 
in consequence of a severe disaster that befel them in 
the following year. They came in a large fleet to 
Northumbria, and ravaged the whole country, pillaging 
the convent of Tynemouth, and many other places. 
Offa sent aid to Ethelred, his son-in-law, the king, 
and the sea-robbers were compelled to fly before the 
Mercian troops to their ships, leaving behind them the 
spoil taken from St. Cuthbert's monastery. Just as they 
were setting sail, a very sudden and heavy storm came 
on, in which most of their ships were lost, and numbers 
of their warriors drowned. Several of the vessels were 
drifted on shore, and the pirates in them, being taken 
prisoners, were beheaded immediately on the sands by 

1 Sax. Chron., Hen. of HuntliiKdon. s Sax. Chron. t lb. 



CASTLS AND TOWN. 3S 

the country-people^ who were infuriated at the loss of 
property they had sustained^ and whose ears still rang 
with the piercing shrieks of females^ and the cries of 
in&nts, the blood of whom now stained their once 
happy hearths.^ 

In 833, these ferocious rovers again appeared in 
Britain and sacked the isle of Shepey. In the ensuing 
year, they came in thirty-five ships to Charmouth, in 
Dorsetshire, where a long encoimter took place between 
them and the Saxons, without any decided advantage 
being gained on either side.' Their incursions now be- 
came frequent and continued with a harassing perti- 
nacity which no defeats could subdue. Not satisfied with 
confining themselves to the coasts, they passed boldly 
into the interior, under the command of great and ex- 
perienced leaders, and obtained easy conquests in the 
nation weakened by civil strife and divided by disaffec- 
tion. In 851, they entered the Thames, with a fleet of 
three-hundred and fifty ships, and plundered the cities 
of Canterbury and London. They were encountered by 
Berhtwulf, king of Mercia; but his army soon fled in 
dismay before the enemy at Bensington. Afterwards 
they were attacked at Oakley, in Surrey, by the forces 
of Wessex, under Athelwulf and Ethelbald ; who, after 
a most severe and protracted conflict, were left the 
conquerors in the bloody strife." 

In 866, a large body of Danes landed among the 
East-AngUans; who, terrified at the sight of the barba- 
rians and desirous of preserving themselves, entered 
into a treaty with them. In the following spring, well 
provided with horse and arms, and joined by consider- 

1 Sue. Chnm., Hen. of Hontiiigdon. a lb. 

9 SUE« Chitm., Hen. of Hantingdon. 



84 TAMWORTH 

able numbers from the north abnost daily, they marched 
into Northumbria, and seized York. Osbriht and Ella, 
two competitors for the crown, on the appearance of the 
common foe, prudently waived their own claims to unite 
for the preservation of their country. But they both fell 
in the attempt to retake the dty.^ 

In the next year, 868, the Danes, having permanently 
established themselves in the north, marched into Merda, 
under the command of two brothers, Ivar or Inguar 
and Ubba, and took the town of Nottingham. Buigred 
called in the aid of Ethelred, king of Wessex, and his 
younger brother Alfred, and beset the town. But the 
Danes refused to risk an engagement in the open fields: 
so that, wearied out by the protracted siege and unable 
to maintain his large army, Burgred was compelled to 
make a treaty with his foes; and they were permitted 
retrace their steps unmolested into Northumbria.' 

They soon began their devastating career again. In 
869, they passed through Mercia into East-Anglia, 
plundering the whole country in their march, slaughter- 
ing numerous religious bodies and destroying the convents 
and churches. The monasteries of Bardney, Croyland, 
Peterborough, Ely, and Huntingdon, were levelled com- 
pletely to the ground. The East-Anglians hoped that 
they should have escaped, on accoimt of their former 
treaty; but they soon discovered their fatal error. After 
a short and ineffectual stru^le, Eadmimd the king was 
taken prisoner at Henglesdon, the present Hoxon. 
Having stedfastly refused to redeem his life by the 
renunciation of Christianity, he was first beaten with 
staves and afterwards boimd naked to a tree and 
scourged. He was then made a mark for the arrows 

1 Sax. Chron., Will, of Malmsborr. 9 lb. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 85 

of his brutal victors; and at last his sufferings were 
terminated by decapitation. His martyrdom took place 
on the 20th of November, 870.* 

The Danes, having subdued that country, passed into 
Wessex, the sovereign of which, Ethelred, fell in opposing 
them. Alfred, who succeeded his brother, being borne 
down by his enemies and defeated at Wilton, entered 
into a treaty, by which he agreed not to afford aid to 
any other nation against them, if they would abandon 
his territories.* 

Accordingly they quitted Wessex, in 872, and re- 
entered Mercia. Burgred, knowing his inability to expel 
the foe, purchased their absence by numerous valuable 
gifts; and they retired into Lincolnshire. Incited by the 
ease with which they found that they could extort these 
presents, they threatened, in the same year, another 
invasion; and received a second bribe for the confirma- 
tion of the last treaty. Again they poured into the 
miserable country, in 874, and settled in winter-quarters 
at Kepton, in Derbyshire; where they destroyed the 
mausoleum of the Mercian kings. Burgred fled from 
his coimtry, and sought refuge in Rome, where he 
soon after died and was interred in the church of St. 
Mary belonging to the English college. His wife, the 
only sister of Alfred, who had accompanied her husband, 
then became a nun in a convent at Pavia, where she 
died in 888.* The Danes, now masters of Mercia, chose 
a Saxon officer, a traitor to his country, to be king as 
Ceolwulf II.; but, having excited their displeasure, he 
was deposed in 877,* after a reign of three years. With 
him, Mercia fell as a kingdom never to rise again; having 

1 Sax. Cbron. WUL of Malms. 2 Matth. of Westm. 3 lb., Sax. Chron. 
4 Will, of Malmsturjr. 5 Sax. Chron., Ingulf. 



86 TAMWORTH 

been established 292 years and ruled by twenty-one 
sovereigns. 

Britain thus became reduced to a most deplorable state 
of ruin. Alfred, himself, was compelled for some time 
to remain concealed in the depths of the forest. This was 
the period of the scene> celebrated in history, between 
the fugitive and disguised monarch and the herdsman's 
wife. The Danes, meeting with but little opposition 
and totally regardless of treaties, spread throughout the 
land and destroyed the principal towns and fortresses. 
Among these, Tamworth became the victim of their 
atrocities; was completely razed to the ground and lay 
a mass of blackened ruins for nearly forty years. The 
annalists give dreadful accounts of the ravages of the 
Danes ; and their narratives certainly have not been ex- 
aggerated. Their marches were accompanied by fire and 
slaughter, and famine followed in their trail. Men they 
slew without mercy, or degraded into slaves. Females 
shared the same unhappy fate, afiter having been subjected 
to the grossest insults which the passions could inflict. 
Infants too they did not spare; and it was frequently 
their savage sport to catch them on the spear's point, 
and after spinning them round aloft, to throw them on the 
ground to linger out their last few moments of life in 
agony.^ No part of the land was exempt from the visits 
of the murderers. The Raven-standard reared itself on 
every side. Wherever it flew, like the darkling bird 
of superstition, it betokened woe and desolation, and 
the fierce war-cry, which announced its presence, foreboded 
too truly that death was at hand. Hope seemed to have 
withdrawn her gladdening smile for ever. But she was 
lingering with Alfred in concealment as her last resort. 

1 Hist of the Northmen. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 87 

She accompanied him in every movement; and^ sustain- 
ing him imder every difficulty, drove away despair. She 
led him, in the harper's guise, into the midst of the 
enemies' camp to learn their secret schemes. She glided 
smiling over his lowly couch of sleep and whispered 
consolation in his ear. And sometimes, too, assimiing 
the fierce tone of desperation, she ui^ed the Saxons to 
the battle field and rallied them to the glorious struggle 
for lijfe and liberty. Hope, though unseen, still hovered 
round amidst the dreary scene. 

At last. Providence relaxed His chastening hand, which 
had lain so heavily on Britain because of her sins, and 
turned the scale of fortune in her favour. In 880, 
the magical banner of the Danes was struck down and 
captured, and one of their greatest chieftains killed, by 
Oddune, duke of Devonshire.' The loss of the celebrated 
Beufen or Raven filled them with consternation and 
dismay, and the Saxons with encouragement. Alfred, 
emei^ing firom his hiding-place, led on his soldiers, and, 
taking the enemy imawaies, cut the greater part of their 
army to pieces. The commander Gothrun and many 
others having been captured, an offer was made that, if 
they would embrace Christianity and assist in prevent- 
ing the incursions of other Danes, their lives should be 
spared and land assigned them to hold in peace. These 
conditions were gladly accepted; and the Danes, ex- 
changing the dark Raven-standard for the effulgent 
banner of the Cross, were established in East-AngKa, 
where they were soon engaged in the peaceftd arts of 
agriculture and commerce.* 

The remainder of Alfred's time was chiefly occupied 
in completing the subjugation of the Danes, whom he at 

1 WQl. of MalmslmiT. Aster. 9 Saxon. Chron. 



88 TAMWORTH 

last established in the towns of Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, 
Nottingham, and Stamford. From that drcumstanoe, 
these places obtained the name of the Five Burghes. 
He also now firamed and compiled his celebrated code of 
laws, which, alike characterized by justice and wisdom, 
has earned for him the distinguished and deserved title 
of '' the Great." He died in 901 ; and was succeeded 
by his son Eadweard the Elder/ 

Shortly after the destruction of Merda as a sovereignty, 
the government of it was conferred, by Alfred, upon a 
Saxon duke named Ethelred, to whom the king had 
given in marriage his daughter Ethelflseda. Upon this, 
he assumed the title of subregulus or viceroy, although, in 
many of his charters, he sdled himself indifferently dux 
and ealdorman.' The office was merely nominal, until 
the Danes were overthrown by the illustrious monarch of 
Wessex. Eadweard the Elder confirmed the government 
to this nobleman jointly with his wife; and they held 
it till the death of the former in 912. At that time, 
Eadweard permitted Ethelflseda to retain her jurisdiction, 
with the exception of the cities of London and Oxford, 
which he took into his own hands.' 

The ''Lady of the Marches" appears to have inhe- 
rited no contemptible portion of her father's wisdom and 
courage, and to have fully merited the high encomiums 
bestowed upon her by every historian, both ancient and 
modem. Bred up in the midst of continually impendent 
dangers and possessing an energy of mind which quali- 
fied her to take part in the state-co\incils both of her 
father and her husband, she imbibed the spirit of a 
warrior rather than that of a woman. After having 

1 Sax. Chron. 3 Codex diplom. «vi S«zon. Chut AagloMZ. 
3 Sax. Chron. 



CASTLS AND TOWN. 39 

given birth to a daughter, and suffered so severely as 
well nigh to have lost her life, she withdrew entirely from 
the marriage-couch and resigned all domestic concerns to 
aid in promoting the public welfare. Her heroic courage 
was particularly manifested in 916, when Hwgan, prince 
of Wales, attempted to regain the lands, of which Offa 
had dispossessed his predecessor. She completely des- 
troyed his army and besieged him in his royal castle 
at Breoenanmere, where she made his wife captive, with 
thirty-four of her attendants. Pursuing him in his 
flight to Derby, where he took refuge among the Danes, 
she beset the town and vigorously stormed it. Undaimted 
at the slaughter of four of her chief officers, the wardens 
of her person, who fell by her side, she continued to 
lead on her troops, until, one of the gates having been 
destroyed by fire, they entered the town and took the 
citadel, where the unfortunate Hwgan fell, maintaining 
an heroic struggle to the last.' 

One of the greatest cares of Ethelflseda to secure the 
prosperity of her dominions, was the restoration of the 
principal towns and fastnesses, which had been destroyed 
in the late wars by the Danes. Tamworth was one of 
those which came imder her earliest consideration, after 
the decease of her husband and her assumption of the 
whole government of Mercia. To this town she marched 
with her whole army, in the early part of the summer 
of 913. She caused it to be rebuilt : she restored the 
castle and all the fortifications; and, to increase its 
strength, raised a strong keep or dungeon upon a partly 
artificial mound, on which the present edifice has been 
erected in later times.' The town, after this happy 
event, became the general residence of the magnanimous 

1 Sax. Omni. a Sax. Cbion., John Rouse. 



40 TAMWOBTH 

princew; and regained once more its former celebrity 
and importance. 

Ethelflseda died at Tamworth on the 19 kalends of 
July, — ^the ISth of June, — 8S0,' being then upwards of 
sixty years of age. Her body was conveyed to Glouces- 
ter and interred by the side of that of her husband, in 
the eastern porch or aisle of the cathedral of St. Peter 
there. The tomb was subsequently destroyed with the 
whole church, by the Danes; but Alured, bishop of 
Worcester, who was also made archbishop of Canterbury, 
repaired both the edifice and the monument.* Over the 
latter, was subsequently placed the following panegyric 
on this princely lady ; written by Henry of Huntingdon, 
nearly two hundred and thirty years after her decease. 

" O Elfleda potent, O terror viifo Tirofuin, 

yictriz natune, nomine digna TirL 

Ta qno splendidior fieret, natnn poeUun 

Te probitas fecit nomen habere viri. 

Te mutare decet, led solom nomine, cexna, 

Ta regina potena, rezque trophca parana. 

Jam nee Csaard tantnm menMre triomphi; 

Cvaare iplendidior, viigo, Yirago, Tale." 

These lines have appeared repeatedly in various English 
forms; but we subjoin a new and very firee translation. 

O potent lady, great Elfled, dread of the alien host, 

The oonqnest e'en of natore'a laws, thy manlinets can boast. 

For though thon bear'at the soft impreia of woman's feeble frame, 

Thy martial spirit renders thee worthy a hero's name. 

Change then, O king and qnaen at onoe, thy stem and yalorons heart. 

The wonted mildness of thy sex let nature re-impart ; 

Or take the warrior's hardy form, mount on the restiff steed, 

And to the plains where battles rage, victorious armies lead. 

Casars in Tain their triumphs boast : a woman's deeds excel 

The splendid prowess Cnsar show'd. Chaste heroine, farewell. 

I Sax. Chron. 9 Holinahedl Chnmlclei. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 41 

Ethelflaeda was succeeded in the government of Merda 
by her daughter Healfwina or Alfvrin.' But Eadweard 
the Elder, to whom her guardianship had been com- 
mittedy finr reasons which are not clearly understood, 
thought fit to deprive her of all authority. Three 
weeks before midwinter, when she had held power 
about half a year, he came into Mercia and carried her 
finoeably with him into Wessex.' She is never again 
mentioned in the annals of history, so that her fate is 
unknown. It is probable that she died there, in the 
course of two or three years. 

But the deposition of Healfwina was not effected 
without a struggle in her fiivour: for a considerable 
dvil strife ensued. Inspired by an honourable grati- 
tude at least, Tamworth, with Nottingham, Derby, and 
some other towns, rose to assert the right of the only 
child of their noble bene&ctress. The implication of 
some of the five burghers in this commotion, appears, 
in some degree, to confirm the assertion of Castoreus 
and a few other writers, that she was divested of 
power in consequence of her having promised and 
contracted marriage with Reginald, the Danish king. 
However that may be, the insurrection continued for 
nearly two years. Eadweard was obliged to have re- 
course to arms. He first marched to Tamworth and 
subjugated it. From this place he proceeded with his 
army to Nottingham and took the town, when the in- 
surgents yielded. He afterwards rode back to the 
borough of Tamworth, where all the Mercian people 
previously subject to Ethelfiseda, and the kings of Wales, 
whom this martial lady had conquered, Howel, sur- 

I Stx. ChraiL, Flor. of Wore. a lb. 



42 TAMWOETH 

named Dha or the Good, Cledanc, and Jeothwell, 
acknowledged him as their sovereign lord.^ 

Eadweard died in 924; and was succeeded by his son 
Athelstan, who was crowned, with all wonted ceremony, 
at ELingston-upon-Thames, by the archbishop of Canter- 
bury.' The Danes, who held full possession of North- 
umbria, had no sooner heard that a new king sat on 
the Anglo-Saxon throne, than they made a fierce 
irruption into his kingdom; hoping that, under a fresh 
and inexperienced monarch, they might have success 
they could not gain before. But Athelstan delayed not 
to collect his' army; and, without spending his time and 
power in pursuing the spoilers from place to place, 
he marched boldly into the centre of their kingdom, 
weakened by the absence of numerous troops, and 
there obtained so great a victory, that the Danish king 
Sihtric or Sygtryg, son of the celebrated Yvar, was 
compelled to sue for peace. A treaty was then entered 
into between the two parties. To confirm the bonds of 
amity, Athelstan promised his sister Eadgitha in mar- 
riage to Sihtric, on condition that he should embrace 
the Christian fSedth. The kings came to Tamworth, 
where the solemnization of the marriage took place on 
the 8 kalends of February, — the 30th of Jan., — ^926, 
after the performance of the required ceremony, the 
reception into the church by baptism.' 

The insincerity of this politic conversion was soon 
apparent; for, on the first favourable opportunity, which 
occurred very shortly after, Sihtric renounced his fidth 
and broke through all the stipulations of the treaty. 
Athelstan gathered his forces to invade the dominions 

I Sax. Chnm., in ftnno 029., Flor. of Worcester, Ac. s Will, of Malmsburr. 
S SwL. Chron., WiU. of Malmsbory. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 43 

of the apostate; but, in the mean time, Sihtric died, 
and his two sons by a former wife fled, Onlauf or Anlaf 
into Ireland, and Guthfert or Grodefirid into Scotland. 
Upon this, the whole of Northmnbria was annexed to 
the Saxon dominions;' and Athelstan thus became the 
first king of England, though that title has been erro- 
neous ascribed, by numberless historians, to Ecgberht or 
Alfied. 

Eadgitha, or, as her name is generally spelt by later 
writers, Editha, after the decease of her nominal hus- 
band, retiring from the world, it is said, became abbess 
of a nunnery which she founded at Tamworth, and there 
was afterwards interred. But to her we shall refer more 
particularly in speaking of the monastery. 

In the year 938, Anlaf returned out of Ireland ; and, 
having received aid from Constantine, king of Scotland, 
and Howel, king of Wales, attempted to regain posses- 
sion of Northmnbria. Athelstan met him at a place 
called in the Saxon Chronicles Brunansburgh; but its 
situation cannot now be certainly discovered. Whilst 
the armies were preparing for battle, a curious incident 
occurred which may be worthy of relation, as materially 
affecting the fortunes of the contest. As Alfred had 
once done, Anlaf passed into the camp of Athelstan, 
in the disguise of a harper.' After amusing the king 
for some time and gaining the intelligence he required, 

1 WiU.ofMalmsbiUT. 

9 This story coiiceniiiis Anlaf is giTen on the authority of WiU. of Malmsbury \ 
bat by many it is considered as deserrinr of little credit. The old annalists, and 
eoofeasedly this writer, embodied in their works a great deal of matter derived only 
tnm the impure soorce of popular ballads and traditions. Much then has been given 
enthrely the result of bards* embellishments or malidons party spirit. Hence it is 
that these histories, owing to a simple-minded over credulity, contain so many pre. 
postcrooa legends and tales. Malmsbury*s work, though otherwise invaluable, is 
replete with anecdotes, some of which have led him astray in matters of history. 

Then are strong reasons for suspecting the accuracy of the implication of 
Qncndrid in the murder of her brother Kenelm. The tale of the dove every one 
would rejcctv though It is not improbable the revelation was made by the murderer 
or an accom^ce in St. Peter's at Rome. 



44 TAMWOBTH 

he was dismissed with a piece of coin far his pains. 
Actuated^ however, by the most bitter and deadly hatred, 
the moment he supposed himself to be out of sight, he 
threw the money from him with scorn. From this act he 
was recognized by a sentinel standing on guard near. 
The soldier let him pass unmolested, till he was com- 
pletely out of reach, when he infarmed Athelstan of ihe 
circumstance, and humbly urged the necessity ct the 
king's removing his tent that ni^t. Being reproached far 
permitting so deadly an enemy to go firee, the sentinel 
replied that he had once taken an oath of allegiance to 
the Dane as he had subsequently Acme to Athelstan, 
and that nothing would induce him to violate so solemn 
an engagement. The king expressed his admiration 
of such heroic virtue, and, as we fear would hardly have 
been done under the present enlightened system of 
military discipline, forgave the offender. But it was 
justly thought prudent to adopt his advice ; and the royal 
pavilion was accordingly removed to a distance. A bishop, 
coming soon afterwards to aid in the coundls of state, 
caused his tent to be erected on the spot which the king 
had occupied. As it was expected, the Danes, in the 
darkness of the night, passed silently into the middle of 
the camp, and, unaware of the change that had taken 
place, slew the prelate and his whole retinue as they 
slept, instead of Athelstan. The Saxons, being on the 
watch and fully prepared, inmiediately attacked the 
enemy. The engagement soon became general, and con- 
tinued imoeasingly throughout the remainder of the 
night and till sunset of the following day. The carnage 
that ensued was terrible, being imparalleled since the 
time when the Saxons first made themselves masters of 
Britain. After a long and fearful struggle, the Danes 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 45 

were completely routed; and Athelstan remained the 
glorious victor of the field.' 

The Saxon annalist has described^ in long poetic strains^ 
this scene of warfare, both during the night, and 

" After that the son 
Rom in the moraiiig hoar, 
The greatest star 
Glad abore the earth, 
God's candle bright. 
The eternal Lord's, 
THl the noble creatine 
Hastened to her Bettii«/' 

And when the Danes were completely vanquished and 
compelled to fly, 

" The Nortiunen, 

In nailed ships, 

The dreary rdics of injuries. 

On the stormy sea, 

Over the deep waters, 

Songht DifeUn' 

And their land, 

Disgraced in mind.' 

After this signal defeat, Anlaf dared not to return 
from Ireland, until the death of Athelstan in 941. But 
no sooner had Eadmimd the Elder succeeded his brother, 
than this restless Dane, in accordance with the usual 
custom of attacking a nation when somewhat weakened 
and disordered by the accession of a new ruler, passed 
again in Britain, accompanied by his cousin Reginald. 
Being assisted by Olaus, king of Norway, and joined by 
the Northumbrians, who were ill-satisfied with the Saxon 
domination over them, he seized on the city of York. 
From that place, he proceeded to Northampton; but 
being failed in his attempt to take it, and anxious to 

1 wm. of Malmsbiirr. 9 Dublin in Ireland. 9 Saz.Chron. 



46 TAHWOBTH 

harass the king by rapid and continued movements, he 
marched direcdy to Tamworth, which he ** stormed, and 
great slaughter was made upon either hand; but the 
Danes gained the victory, and carried a^ay much plun- 
der. There was Wulfirun taken in the spoiling of the 
town."' Anlaf then went on to Leicester, and took the 
place. There he came in contact, for the first time, 
with the army of Eadmund ; and a sharp but indecisive 
engagement ensued. Preparations were made for a re- 
newal of the struggle at the dawn of the next morning; 
but, through the intercession of the archbishops d[ Can- 
terbury and York, hostilities were suspended, and a 
treaty of peace proposed, in order to prevent, if possible, 
the farther devastation of the country and its almost 
certain ruin. It was finally agreed between the rival 
princes that all the kingdom north of the Watling street 
should be ceded to Anlaf and the south part retained 
by Eadmund. The survivor of the two was to have 
possession of the whole.' 

Before the close of the year, the Saxon king regained 
all his former territory, in consequence of the Dane 
having fallen in an insurrection of his own fierce 
and inconstant countrymen in Northumbria. The un- 
fortunate Eadmund himself fell by the dagger of an 
assassin, a short time subsequently, being stabbed in a 
scuffle with a man on the feast of St. Augustin, apostle 
of Britain, in 942.' He was then only nineteen years 
old. 

The disastrous siege and pillaging of Tamworth by 
the Danes, when it fell into their hands this second 
time, seems to have inflicted a blow upon it, from which 
it never wholly recovered. Henceforward it ceased to 

1 Sax. Chron. 9 Sim. of Dnriuin. a Will, of Malmibiiry. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 47 

foim a royal residence^ or to be directly connected with 
the annals of our country. This once famous and cele- 
brated place^ the chosen dwelling of the great Offa and 
the favoured seat of the Mercian government^ sank at 
once into comparative obscurity, and was scarcely again 
mentioned by historians for several centuries. Of it, till 
the period of the Norman conquest, we find nothing 
more recorded, except that there was a monastery here 
in the time of Etheldred II, and that the name occurs 
as a place of royal mintage. 

Tamworth had undoubtedly enjoyed, with other great 
places, the privilege of coining from a very early period, 
at least, from the time of Offa. It is impossible to 
recognize those previous to the middle of the tenth cen- 
tury: for, although it was customary, even in the time of 
Ecgberht, king of Kent, for the moneyer to have his 
name . placed on the piece, the places were not added 
untQ the reign of Athelstan, who ordained that all 
money should be struck within towns alone.^ 

The coins of Tamworth are now exceedingly rare, 
and consequently as highly prized by numismatists, 
The name is first found upon a penny of Eadweard the 
Martyr ; who succeeded' Edgar in 976 and was slain by 
his step-mother, three years afterwards. It occurs under 
the abbreviated superscription of tanwo. All the . money 
of this king, which has hitherto been discovered, is of the 
same type. The pieces bear, on the obverse, an ill-drawn 
portrait, with his title as bex anglobum sometimes 
given at length, though often in a contracted form. On 
the reverse, is stamped a cross pate^, with the names of 
the moneyer and of the mint.* 

Of the coins of Ethelred II, or the Unready, who 

1 RwUng^s Annalf of Coinage. 2 lb. 



48 TAMWOBTH 

ruled trooL 978 to 1016^ and of his immediate suooeasor, 
Edmund 11, sumamed Ironside^ who fell after a short 
reign of a few months, none have yet been found which 
issued from this town. But in the time of the next 
sovereign, Canute the Great, the mint was again in 
activity. Pitt, in his account of Staffordshire, says that 
** Kedar, a celebrated Swedish antiquary, has published 
a coin of this monarch struck here, having on the reverse 
EDBic ON tam; i. e. 'Edric, Moneyer in Tamworth.' 
The name of the same mint-master is found also on a 
coin in the Bodleian Cabinet at Oxford; but we have 
not had the good fortune to see either the representation 
of the coins, or the coins themselves."* Edric appears 
among the list of moneyers given by Ruding, although 
the town is not mentioned by this author. 

Canute, dying in lOSd, was succeeded by his son 
Harald Harefoot; who continued till 1042, when Hardi- 
Canute ascended the throne. In the reign of these kings 
are found no coins of the mint at Tamworth; but among 
those of Edward the Confessor this name occurs ; being 
spelt both Tonwvrth and Tonwyrth. "The types of 
his coins," says Ruding, " are more diversified than those 
of any of his predecessors. As * his coins, which have 
been preserved, are very numerous, nearly 500 varieties 
being known, so the manner in which his name and 
title are signified upon them, is likewise extremely 
varied by almost every possible mode of ill-spelling. 
They have chiefly the initial, or the whole of anolobtth 
upon the observe ; and the circle of the reverse is fiUed 
with the name of the mint and the Moneyer, except in 
one instance where Spraceling (the name of the moneyer) 
occupies the whole of it."* 

1 Topogxaphical Hiit of Sttftoiteh. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 49 

We have been unable either to procure a sight or to 
obtain a more particular account of these Tamworth 
pieces. The only specimen of the Confessor's coinage 
issued from this town, with which we are acquainted, 
is a silver penny, bearing, on the obverse, the inscription 
BDWAKD BEX, and, on the reverse, bevning on tam. 
We give a representation of it. 




Edward the .Confessor, dying on the 5th of January, 
1066, was succeeded by Harald II. 

Of the coins of this sovereign, three varieties have 
been found, which, notwithstanding his brief reign, are 
far from being of uncommon occurrence. On the obverse, 
they bear his name and title of king of England ; and 
on the reverse, the name of the moneyer and the place 
of mintage. All of them have the word pax across 
the centre.* In the catalogue of his mints given by 
Ruding, occurs the abbreviation tan, which this great 
numismatist conjectured to have been either Tamworth, 
or Taunton, in Somersetshire. Unfortunately he has not 
given the names of the moneyers in connection with 
those of the mints. Otherwise we might have decided 
the question; for, at the time, Bruning was the master 
of the mint at Tamworth. 

It may be well, whilst we are speaking of the coinage 
of the town, to conclude at once our account of it. 
Though the adoption of such a course may violate, in 

1 Radiof '• Annals of Coinage. 

H 



50 TAMWORTH 

some degree^ the strict order of narration, in a chro- 
nological point of view^ it will prevent the necessity of 
a recurrence to this subject. 

After the conquest, the royal mint at Tamworth con- 
tinued in activity until the time of Henry I., in whose 
reign it was discontinued.* The coins of William I., 
which were struck here, are not quite of so great rarity 
as those of the Anglo-Saxon monarchs. They are, 
nevertheless, of much value. The engraving, which we 
subjoin, is that of a silver penny of the Norman 
Conqueror of England.* 




On the obverse, is inscribed simply willbmu rex, and 
on the reverse brvning on tanwi. It will be noticed 
that the same mint-master continued at Tamworth, as 
in the time of the Confessor. 

Of the money struck at the town subsequently to 
the reign of this king, we have been unable to obtain 
the detailed information, which we might desire. Pitt 
says " In the reign of William the second, we find the 
Tamworth mint again employed, a coin of that sovereign 
(formerly in the collection of the celebrated Dr. Mead), 
bearing on the reverse ielfwine on tam; but as we 
know not where the coin now is, nor have seen either 
a similar piece, or any engraving of it, we are unable 
to gratify our readers by a more accurate account of it"' 

1 Ruding's Annals of Coinag^e. 
3 This penny was purchased at the sale of the late Rev. F. Slick's valuable collec- 
tion of cofais. in June. 1843, and is now in the possession of the publisher : Sir George 
Chetwyndt Bart., of Qrendon Hall, also possesses a similar piece. 
3 Topographical Hist, of £^ ~ ' 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 51 

The very great similarity of the pieces of this king to 
those of his father, renders it extremely difficult to 
distinguish their respective coinages. The types of 
Henry Ist's money are as diversified as in the reign of 
any subsequent sovereign. But the coins of William 
Bufiis and of Henry, which were struck at Tamworth, 
are so exceedingly scarce, that we have never met with 
them. 

After the Norman conquest, in 1066, Tamworth is 
first mentioned in Doomsday-book, completed about the 
year 1086. There is no direct survey of this town; but 
it is incidentally mentioned in the account given of 
other places. Ten bui^sses in Tamworth are said to 
have belonged to the manor of Coleshill, and eight to 
that of Draytoh; and, in the report concerning the 
village of Wigginton, four more are named as being 
here.* 

The omission of many important places in this cele- 
brated record, has furnished a subject of much debate; 
but no very satisfactory explanation has been given. 
Dean Lyttelton conjectured that towns, which were 
terra r^s, or rather royal boroughs, being well known 
as to their extent and value, it was needless to name, 
as they claimed the right of being taxed according to 
their ancient cess: and the Doomsday was only com- 
piled in order to know the true value of every man's 
lands, with a view to tax them.^ It will, however, be 
observed that not only boroughs, but extensive rural 
districts, have been left entirely unnoticed. The com- 
missioners, who traversed the country to make the 
survey, have been, by some, accused of partiality, allow- 
ing themselves occasionally to be influenced by gifts. But 

1 Doomsday .book, printed by royal authority. a Letter io Shaw*8 Staflbrdsh. 



52 TAHWORTH 

it is incredible, even taking it for granted thejr were 
willing, that they dared to make omissions of so great 
magnitude and frequency, as is found to be the case. 
The opinion of Lyttelton seems to approximate nearer to 
to the truth than any other which has hitherto been 
given. The Doomsday appears to have been composed 
for the purpose of regulating the tenures and imposts 
of places where they had not been previously arranged, 
or concerning which there might be some doubt: but 
those comparatively few localities, where the services had 
been already fixed, generally at the time of their grant 
to some Norman lord, were not unnecessarily surveyed 
by the commissioners. The Conqueror was not so 
mindful of the Saxon liberties, as to allow the towns 
to retain their old cess, or mode of tai^tion. 

The subjugation of England was accompanied by a 
complete overthrow of the ancient constitution of the 
country. The Saxons were every where deprived of 
power, and levelled, in the agricultural districts, to the 
rank of the humble farmer and artizan, who were called 
by their new masters villans. Thus, as if to show the 
degradation of the burgesses of Tamworth, after having 
spoken, under the head of Drayton, of the eight at 
this town, the Doomsday adds that here they laboured 
as other villans did. The people were no longer per- 
mitted to continue freeholders. The king, by right of 
arms, claimed the possession of the whole land; and 
he exercised his power of granting it away at will, in 
conformity with the feudal system, which he introduced 
into this country. Reserving in his own hands the 
greater proportion, that is, all the large cities and 
boroughs, he gave the rest of the towns and lands, for 
particular services rendered to him, to nearly 700 of his 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 68 

followers^ as tenants-in-chief. By them^ the lands were 
let^ for payments and charges^ at pleasure, to the humbler 
grades of men, or the great mass of the population. 

Their deprivation of all authority and reduction to a 
grade little superior to that of slaves, however oppres- 
sive and imjust to the Saxons themselves, served as the 
best means, whereby the king might secure permanently 
the conquest which he had made. He not only at- 
tached his own countrymen to his interests, by con- 
ferring immense possessions on them, but, by placing 
the inhabitants under their control, he prevented the 
Saxons from ever successfully rising to depose their 
conquerors and regain their liberties. It is evident, 
from the Doomsday, that even the guild-halls were given 
away in the division of the spoil. The church alone 
v^as allowed, for the most part, to retain her lands; 
and those undoubtedly would have been seized, had it 
not been in the power of the king to secure them to 
himself, by appointing Normans in all the greatest and 
most important ecclesiastical offices. 

But the Saxons were not only compelled to pay a 
rent-charge for their individual holdings ; they were also 
subject to arbitrary taxations, called tallages and aids. 
It was in the power of the king alone to demand them 
at pleasure, whenever necessity or caprice should require. 
The revenues of the Anglo-Saxon state were raised by 
similar contributions, but not without the full consent 
of the national council. They were collected, in each 
county, by the shire-reeve, and in each town, by the 
borough or port-reeve. The latter officer was elected by 
his own townsmen, in a general assembly, frequently 
held in the open air, but generally within doors, at the 
hus-tings, where the inhabitants were accustomed to as- 



64 TAKWORTH 

assemble, in order to frame bye-laws for their common 
good and the well-government of the town. William I. 
and his son Bufus took into their own hands the 
choice of the borough-reeves, and delegate to each place 
one of their own countrymen, to whom the title of 
bailiff was given. The appointments were usually con- 
ferred on those, who paid the highest sums for them; 
and they became matters of pecuniary speculation. 
The Norman bailiffs, having almost uncontrolled power 
of exaction, exercised the functions of their office in a 
most insupportable manner. This grievous oppression 
was felt more severely by the Saxons, on account of the 
freedom of election, which they had previously enjoyed, 
and the lenity which a countryman and fellow-townsman 
naturally showed towards them. In many places, revolts 
ensued, not only to abolish this abuse but to restore the 
good laws of Edward the Confessor. In the north of 
England, the insurrections were the most formidable; 
and they were only suppressed by acts, of which both 
Saxon and Norman historians speak in terms of great 
abhorrence and lamentation. Hence we may well con- 
ceive the nature of the measures taken against the 
unfortunate people, whose only crime was their endea- 
vour to maintain their wonted liberties. 

But the Saxons, in the mean time, did not neglect 
to have recourse to quieter and more politic methods of 
gaining some alleviation from the oppression which they 
suffered. The burgesses of towns, in order to free 
themselves from the great scourge of Norman bailiffs, 
offered higher sums for the liberty of choosing their 
own officers than individuals could usually afford, or 
was consistent with a profitable investment of money. 
The king, finding this an advantageous mode of more 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 65 

fully replenishing his treasury, at last fully adopted the 
mode of selling the right to the inhabitants for an 
annual payment. He had little cause to fear much 
difficulty in obtaining the stipulated amount, as a dread 
of the return of the Norman bailiff would naturally 
render the people punctual. Hence arose the custom 
of annual fee-farm rents being paid by boroughs to the 
crown. These places resumed at once their ancient 
form of free government; and the officer over each 
either re-adopted the old name of borough-reeve, or 
retained the later one of bailiff. Sometimes he was 
caUed, from the Latin^ a mayor, as he constituted the 
head of the little community. He was, in all cases, 
esteemed the officer of the crown, and was held respon- 
sible for the fee-fium rent and other payments, when- 
ever they should be demanded. But when any arrears 
occurred, it was customary for the barons of the ex- 
chequer, the king's attorney, or other officer, to sue the 
townsmen collectively, until the adoption of a select 
corporate body deprived the inhabitants generally of the 
power and right to legislate for themselves. This 
change did not take place before the 16th century.* 

In the sketch, which we have given, of the organ- 
ization and form of government of boroughs, at the 
period of, and a little subsequently to, the conquest, 
we have only dwelt on such points as were necessary 
to elucidate our subject. We now return more par- 
ticularly to the history of Tamworth. 

From the end of the reign of William II., to the 
time of Henry III., very little appears on record con- 
cerning this town, besides the payments of aids, and a 
visit which it received from Henry II. 

1 See Fenny Cydopadla :— Art. Borougli. 



66 TAMWORTH 

Of the royal presence here, nothing more is particu* 
larly noticed than that the king then signed the charter, 
confirming to the monks of Merevale the grant whidi 
earl Robert de Ferrers, for the soul of Robert his 
fitther, for the health of his own soul and of that of 
his wife, made to the church of the same place, to the 
intent that an abbey of the Cistertian order should be 
erected. For this purpose, the earl gave all his property 
in the forest Arden, and whatever he possessed in 
Whittington, with the manors of Weston and Overton 
(Orton-on-the-hill), also Crannockstone, with common 
pasture in Hertington and Pilsbury for sheep and other 
cattle. These the king established, with all subsequent 
purchases and acquirements, especially the gifts of 
Gerard de Lunese, Walter de Canwell, and Radulph 
and Paganus de Baskervile.' 

The royal charter was dated on the 12th of March ; 
but, as occurs very frequently in ancient documents, the 
year was not added, so that the precise time of the 
king's visit to Tamworth is unknown. We may, how- 
ever, ascertain the period within seven years; for 
Theobald, archbishop of Canterbury, who was a witness 
to the deed, with the bishop of Chester and the chan- 
cellor, was succeeded, on his decease in April, 1161, by 
Thomas ^ Becket. It must, therefore, have occurred 
between the accession of the king in 1154, and that 
event. 

It has been supposed that, after 15 Hen. II., and 
previously to the reign of Henry III., Tamworth had 
fallen so greatly into decay, that it ceased to exist any 
longer as a borough.' This is partly incorrect; but it 

1 Da(dale*B Monaat. AnfUcan. 
J Merewether tad Stopheaa* Hkt. of Boroaglu uid Moaidptl CoxporatioDt. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 57 

would be more than absurd to deny that the town 
declined in a yery considerable degree. This is clearly 
evident from several circumstances. The aid, which it 
paid in 1 Hen. L, — 1100, — amounted to 80s.; but it 
was reduced, in the Slst year of the same king, to 25s., 
when the burgesses were pardoned that sum by royal 
writ, on account, as it is expressly said, of their poverty. 
Also, in 1139, the burgesses paid two sums of 26s. each, 
one for a past, the other for a new aid; when they 
were again excused an equal amount for a similar cause. 
In 1155, the aid was the same; and three years after- 
wards, the town paid a donum of lOOs.^ AU these 
returns are for the Staffordshire side. Dugdale mentions 
aids of the part which came under his observation, as 
being rendered in 1 Steph., and 7, 11, 15, Hen. H., — 
1135, 1160, 1164, and 1168,— in the latter year, two 
marks, — ^26s. 8d., — ^being paid.' 

Hence it is evident, from the decrease of the aids and 
the subsequent pardons, that the town was declining, 
at least in wealth. After the year 1168, we do not 
find the payments of aids at all, even during the reigns 
of the first Edwards. In 1222, in the roll of tallage 
for Staffordshire, it is called ^' villata de Tameworde ; ' 
and, in 1315^ the sheriff of the same county, being re- 
quired to state how many boroughs there were within 
the limits of his jurisdiction, returned only Stafford^ 
totally omitting this town.' How for the situation of 
the place in two counties may have led to its exclusion 
remains for some consideration. 

But however Tamworth may have sunk, it is evident 
that it sflll remained a borough, although it did not 

1 Pipe roll for Staifordaliire.— Merewether and Stephens.— Mm1ox*s Hist. 

and Antiquities of the Bzcheqner. 

3 Dii(dale's Wwwickab. 3 Merewether and Stephens. 

I 



58 TAMWORTH 

call into action its priyileges as such until the time of 
Elizabeth. This will be clearly evident from our ensu- 
ing narrative. Pitt says that it was declared a firee 
corporation in the time of Henry III.; and the charter^ 
being forfeited, was restored by Edward II.* 

When Simon de Montfort, at the time he held 
Henry III. as a prisoner, in 1265, issued writs to each 
of the sheriffs of the kingdom to return two knights 
for each county, two citizens for each city, and two 
burgesses for each borough, to form a general council^ 
Tamworth was not included.' It was then chiefly in 
the power of one of the most faithful adherents to the 
king, Philip de Marmyon, — a circumstance which more 
than probably caused its exclusion. In similar assem- 
blages convoked by Edward I. and his successors, for 
the purpose of fSEU^ilitating taxation, the town was also 
omitted. When this body of representatives, gradually 
assumed full legislative powers, and formed the House 
of Commons, the management and control of it became 
a very important object to the kings. The sherifls were 
now directed to single out or omit any boroughs at 
pleasure, so as in fact to form a body as select and 
confined in numbers as possible. Every mode was 
adopted to render it submissive to the royal will. In 
1381, the Commons proceeded so far in the exercise of 
their power, as to impose fines on a sheriff omitting 
any place, and on the citizens or burgesses neglecting 
to return the required members. But even after this, 
excuses were admitted, for a very considerable period, to 
to be valid, as inability to pay the parliamentary wages 
of the representatives, loss from war, or any other cause.' 

1 Topographical, hist, of Staffordsh. a Merewether and Stephens. 

3 See Penny CydopKdia :— Art. Borough. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 69 

We accordingly find many boroughs, and among them 
this town, not exercising their powers of aiding in the 
councils of the country. 

The cause of the decline of Tamworth may be easily 
conjectured. From the Doomsday-book, it may be well 
inferred that the town, after the conquest, was in- 
habited chiefly by Lilians and sur£s, the tradesman, 
labourer, artizan, and the slave. The depression of 
the Saxons, the devastating wars between Stephen and 
the empress Maud, the absence of the nobles and the 
great land-owners in the holy wars of Palestine, the 
struggle between Henry III. and his barons, and finally 
the long and terrible wars between the houses of York 
and Lancaster, were, indeed, ill calculated to promote 
the advancement of agriculture and its dependent rustic 
arts, on which the inhabitants of this place almost 
wholly relied. But from the time of Edward I., we 
can trace an improvement in the general state of the 
town. Although very gradual, it continued with a 
steady and uniform pace, until within the last century 
and a half, when the changes became much more rapid. 

We must now turn our attention from the very 
general and enlarged view, in which we have been 
lately compelled to give the history of Tamworth, to 
subjects of more particular and limited interest. And 
this course of proceeding we adopt with the greater 
pleasure, as we enter into a field freer from the dry 
details^ which have demanded our chief consideration, 
since the period of the conquest. The first point, which 
will occupy our regard, is one connected with tales and 
legends, heard with intense interest and gratification in 
the vernal days of childhood, and remembered with 
pleasure, when the winter of life has chilled the energy 
of youth, and hoary made the head. 



60 TAIiWORTH 

According to the common tradition of the locality, 
Tamworth and the surrounding neighbourhood were 
the frequent resort of the famous outlaw, Robin Hood. 
By the name of his butts, have ever been known the 
Roman tumuli at Wig^inton and Elford. It has been 
suggested that they might have received this appella- 
tion, merely from their being the common arohery 
grounds, where the people practised the noble art, 
once so highly prized in this kingdom. But, had it 
been usual for such places to be so named, every town 
and village would have boasted of its Robin Hood's 
butts. There is not the least improbability in his 
visiting this place, as he so constantly haunted localities 
within about thirty miles distant. The extensive royal 
woods around this town would doubtless form a rich 
field for his adventures. The tale, hovrever, that he 
was able to shoot from one of these butts to the other 
seems to have been a modem addition, in order to ac- 
count for their designation. It was in fact a total im- 
possibility, as the distance is nearly two miles. The 
longest shot which Robin is recorded to have made, 
was when he was requested to exhibit his dexterity 
with the bow by Richard, abbot of Whitby, with whom 
he and his lieutenant. Little John, went to dine, most 
probably without waiting for the formality of a special 
invitation. From the top of the abbey, he and his 
companion let two arrows fly, which fell, one on either 
side of a lane, not far tram Whitby laths. The 
distance was about a mile and a quarter ; and it must 
have been very considerably increased by the elevated 
situation which the shooters occupied, as the abbey 
stood on the summit of a cliff. This feat occurred in 
1188. In memory of the transaction, the abbot caused 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 61 

two pillars to be erected^ where the arrows fell, on each 
of which was inscribed the name of the shooter.' 

We are^ indeed^ unwilling to lose the connection of 
Tamworth with the bold rover of the forests. He is 
the only male&ctor^ whose memory reflects no disgrace 
on those places, with which his name is associated. 
On the contrary, it has attached an almost sacred cha* 
racter to them ; for the very crimes of the outlaw were 
rendered hallowed to succeeding generations. His con- 
stant opposition to the tyranny of the Norman lords 
and his principles of equality endeared him, in the 
strongest manner, to the Saxons, who formed the great 
mass of the populaticm. For, according to the old 
historians, though an arch-robber, he was the gentlest 
thief that ever hved, and a man of unbounded charity. 
The opulent and noble he deprived of their wealth, to 
enrich the poor; and for the oppressed, he frequently 
obtained the redress, for which they vainly sought else- 
where. He was not destitute of the deep religious 
temper of those olden times, which influenced every 
action of life, and, however anomalous it might be 
thought, gave a peculiar tinge even to the commission 
of misdeeds themselves. The same source of all the 
refined feelings, which characterize Christianity, gave 
him, in common with the rest, that generous and noble 
disposition towards the tenderer sex, so universal in the 
isLjn of chivalry, whence it as descended to our times. 
For, according to the old ballad, 

Robin loved our dere Lady ; 
For doate of deddy aynne, 
Wolde he never do company harm 
That any woman was ynne. 

1 Chait(m*s Hist, of WhUby Abbey. 



62 TAMWORTH 

There has been much dispute respecting the title 
which Robin Hood is said to hare possessed of earl of 
Huntingdon. His real name is conjectured to have 
been Robert Fitz-ooth; and the conmion-people, drop- 
ping the Norman Fitz, modified it into Hood.' Robin 
might probably have been an alteration of Roving^ — a 
title most appropriate to him^ on account of the un- 
settled and wandering life which he led. All the 
ballads concerning him present the marks of changes 
in orthography, at different periods. If these opinions 
be. correct, he most certainly was connected with 
the family of Simon de St. Liz, earl of Huntingdon. 
But in the old legends, he is often styled simply a 
yeoman. Thus . one, entitled '^ a lytell geste of Robyn 
hode and his meyne, and of the proude sheryfe of 
Notyngham," begins 

*' Lithe and lysten, gentylmen, 
That be of fre-bore blode : 
I ihall yon teU of a good yenum, 
Hit name was Robyn hode."' 

This circumstance has formed the foundation of one 
of the greatest objections, which has been urged against 
his having held the title. A little consideration, however, 
will remove the difficulty, in a very great measure. A 
yeoman he might have been; for he does not appear to 
have possessed any estates. It is probable that the 
family property was confiscated in his father's time, in 
consequence of the rebellion of Robert de Ferrers 
against Henry II., in 1173. According to the collec- 
tion, called '' Robin Hood's Garland," he was a native 
of Loxley, which belonged to the Ferrers' family.' He 

1 Stakeler's Patoogn^liia Britannioa. 



S Percy's RaUqnM of andent En^liih poetry. 
S It was probably the loss of his patrimony, wUcb compelled Robin Hood to associate 
with men, whom the sererity of the Norman forest-laws had driven to extremes. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 63 

could not have assumed the title until the death of 
John Scott, tenth and last earl of Huntingdon (also of 
Chester), in 12S7. He was, at that time, an old man ; 
and his deeds of renown were almost brought to a 
close. Hence the ballads relating to exploits which 
occurred previously to this time might rightly denomi- 
nate him a yeoman. 

But even supposing that Robin Hood were Fitz-ooth, 
his right to the earldom of Huntingdon was of a very 
dubious nature. It would rather descend with the 
sisters and coheiresses of John Scott, than pass to him. 
It is not improbable that he might have assumed the 
title whilst it lay dormant, or it was assigned to him by 
the people, rather than that he properly possessed it. 
In tact, without regarding any other point, he was 
incapable as an outlaw of holding it. But here we 
are entering so deeply into the wide region of conjec- 
ture, that we shall draw this part of our subject to a 
conclusion. 

Bold Robin died when he must have attained an age 
of upwards of eighty years. The stone over his humble 
tomb, near the nunnery of Kirklees, in Yorkshire, still 
remains. It once bore this inscription, now effaced by 
time. 

l^ttttf uttHemealv tHa latil tfteant 
lat; tttbtvtj earl of j^untingtun ; 
lua arcj^ir ber a; j^fe tiae gtuHt 
an pipl kmin im i^loi^in ^tta. 
»itk utlalDj asf U an i| nun 
toil SnglanH nibir tfi agen. 

oi^tit 24 iial. ttefcemdruSt 1247.' 

1 Tlioretbj*! Daest. Leod. 



64 TAMWORTH 

In pursumg the early history of Tamworih^ it will be 
necessary to divide the town into the respectiTe parts in 
each county; for they were separated into two distinct 
manors^ each governed by its own officers, holding its 
own courts, and in short, acting entirely independently 
of one another. 

The Staffordshire part continued to be royal demesnes, 
a fee-farm rent of 51. being rendered annually for it, 
until the time of Henry III. In 1246, the king gave 
it and Wigginton, with the manor of Wolverhampton, 
in Staffordshire, and other lordships, in diffinnent coun- 
ties, to Henry de Hastings and Ada his wife, in 
exchange for their portion of the earldom of Chester.' 

This Henry de Hastings, who possessed extensive 
lands in the coimties of Warwick, Bedford, Leicester, 
Salop, Norfolk, and Suffolk, was of a very eminent 
and noble family, which came into England at the 
time of the Norman conquest. They derived their sur- 
name from one of the Cinque-ports, in Sussex, with 
which they were connected for a considerable period. 
The wife of Henry was of a still more illustrious ancestry, 
being of the royal lineage of Scotland. She was the 
third daughter of David, earl of Huntingdon and Car- 
rick, and Maud his wife, daughter of Hugh, and sister 
and coheiress of Ralph, who was the third earl of Chester. 
David, earl of Huntingdon, was grandson of David I., 
and brother of Malcolm IV., and William the Lion, all 
three of whom were kings of Scotland. His son John 
assumed the surname of Scott, and became, in the right 
of his mother, earl of Chester. But he died without 
issue; and his three sisters became his coheiresses, of 
whom Ada was one, and carried her share of the pro- 
perty to her husband. 

1 Rot. 31 H. III., m. 4 :'8baw'i Stallbrdih.— Coipontlon records. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 05 

Henry de Hastings was a distinguished person in the 
time of Henry III/ He accompanied this monarch in 
his expedition into France, in 1^2, to support the 
cause of Hugh de Lusignan, count de la Marche. This 
nobleman had married Isabella consort- of John and 
mother of Henry. Too proud to own allegiance to the 
French king, and indignant at being considered as the 
vassal of a foreign power, she persuaded her husband 
to refuse homage to Alphonso, on whom his brother, 
Louis IX., had conferred the French part of Poiteau. 
The count threw himself on the protection of Henry. 
But, as in most other undertakings, this weak monarch 
was totally unsuccessful; and Hugh de Lusignan was 
compeUed to make submission to his rightful liege. 
Louis speedily reduced the English division of Poiteau ; 
and he would soon bave driven his opponents entirely 
from all their possessions on the continent, had not 
conscientious scruples arisen in his just and upright 
mind. The English suffered a signal defeat at Xante; 
where many of the nobility were taken prisoners ; and, 
amongst them, Henry de Hastings. The king afterwards 
concluded a treaty with Louis, and returned to England 
in September, I2i8. On this occasion, he gratified his 
vanity by proceeding firom Portsmouth to London with 
the pomp of a conqueror, attended by all his military 
tenants. 

Henry de Hastings did not very long remain in 
captivity. He was exchanged, with others, by the 
French, for some of their party, whom the English 
had taken. Afterwards, with the principal nobles of 
the realm, he attended Richard, earl of Cornwall, who 

1 Hie acoooot of the Hastingi' family li chiefly derived from the works of Do^ale, 
Matth. of Wettmioeter, Weliiiigtism, and Froissart. 



66 TAMWORTH 

proceeded with a splendid retinue into France. The 
precise purpose of the expedition is unknown. In that 
journey, he died, about the end of the year 1250. He 
left a son Henry, then a minor, and two daughters^ 
Margery and Hillaria, who were then receiving their 
education in the nunnery of Alneston. 

At his decease, Henry de Hastings possessed Wi^;in- 
ton and the moiety of Tamworth. In an inquisition, 
without date, about this period, made by Galfrid, son 
of Warin, of the extent of the manor of Wigginton, 
it is stated that, in the town of Tamworth, there were 
burgesses who rendered annually 46«. 8d. for their 
burgages; three marks and a half, at the will of the 
king, for their courts; and half a mark, also at the 
king's pleasure, for view of frank-pledge: thus making 
altogether an amount of 5/. During the time that these 
places were held together, they were often considered as 
forming but one manor; although they were in reality 
quite distinct. 

The guardianship of Henry de Hastings, on the death 
of his father, was committed to Guy de Lusignan, son 
of the count de la Marche and half-brother of Henry III. 
Two years afterwards, this nobleman transferred his 
charge to William de Cantilupe, lord of Abergavenny, 
to whom the king confirmed it, with the custody of all 
the estates. In the tenure-roll of the hundred of Offlow, 
about 1255, it is said that Robert Waldrand held Wig- 
ginton, by reason of the heir of Henry de Hastings, in 
exchange for the part of the lands in Cheshire ; and it 
was estimated at the annual value of 30/.' 

Henry de Hastings, having attained his majority, did 
homage to the king, and took full possession of his father's 

1 Corpormtion Records. S Shaw's Staffordsh. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 67 

lands. He then married Joan^ daughter of William de 
Cantilupe, his guardian ; and became a person of great 
note and consideration in the country. 

In 1261 9 he was summoned to attend the king at 
Shrewsbury, on the feast of the Nativity of the blessed 
Virgin Mary; well famished with horse and arms, in 
order to march against Llewellyn ap Griffith, prince of 
Wales, who had risen in open rebellion. In the fol- 
lowing year, he had similar orders to repair to London, 
on the day after the feast of Sts. Simon and Jude. 
Again in 1264, he was commanded to be at Worcester, 
for the same purpose, on the ensuing Lammas-day : and 
he was summoned as first baron Hastings, to the parlia- 
ment about to be assembled on the 14th of December. 

But in this latter year, the great defection among the 
barons, mainly attributable to the weak and tyrannical 
conduct of the king, began to manifest itself in acts of 
violent opposition. Henry de Hastings now associated 
himself with Simon de Montfort, earl of Leicester, and 
other rebellious persons. With Henry and Simon, the sons 
of this nobleman, and others, he was included in the sen- 
tence of excommunication, pronoimced by the archbishop 
of Canterbury, on account of the great and formidable 
outrages, which they committed against the church and 
clergy. He afterwards became a most active and zealous 
leader of the disaffected party. When, by mutual con- 
sent, Henry referred the causes of contention for arbi- 
tration and adjustment to Louis IX., he was one of 
those named on the part of the barons, as a surety for 
their adherence to the determination which should be 
made by the French monarch. 

The decision of Louis, notwithstanding the strict 
jusHce and impartiality by which it was characterized. 



08 TAMWOBTH 

proved satisfactory to neither party: and the king and 
barons were at once invoWed in open warfare. In the 
battle fought at Lewes, on the 14th of May, 1264, the 
royal party was completely routed; and the king and 
his son, prince Edward, were taken prisoners by the 
rebels. Henry de Hastings, haying greatly distinguished 
himself by extraordinary feats of valour in the combat, 
xeceivedy as a reward, the honour of knighthood at the 
hand of Simon de Montfort; and he was invested with 
the office of governor of the castles of Scarborough and 
Winchester. 

After a short time, prince Edward efiected his escape 
from the guards at Hereford castle, where he had been 
detained in honourable captivity. Joined by all his 
former partizans, and by numbers who had taken offence 
at many of the actions of Simon de Montfort, he soon 
raised a large force to rescue his father and subdue the 
barons. The two armies met on a plain near Evesham, 
in Worcestershire. The earl of Leicester, as soon as he 
saw the nimiber of his opponents, and their orderly 
march, exclaimed in despair '^ God have mercy on our 
souls, our bodies are prince Edward's." All his hopes 
of success at once fled ; yet he determined on maintain- 
ing the struggle to the last. Gathering around him his 
friends and supporters, Hugh Spencer, Henry de Hast- 
ings, Ralph Basset of Drayton, and many others, he 
endeavoured to persuade them to provide for their own 
safety by flight, whilst he remained to sustain the brunt 
of the combat. They all refrised ; and, prepared for the 
worst fate, they commenced the battle, which took place 
on the 4th of August, 1265. The baronial party fought 
with a fury, which desperation could alone inspire. But 
they were completely oveithrown; and Simon de Mont- 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 69 

fort and Henry his son^ with innumerable others of the 
nobility, were slain. Simon, the eldest son of the 
earl, fled to Axholme and fortified it; but he was sooa 
obliged to capitulate to the prince. With his brother 
Guy, he was banished from the kingdom. Another 
party in Hampshire was headed by Adam de Gurton, 
a Tery yaliant man, who at length was made prisoner 
by Edward ; and receiving pardon, became one of his most 
faithful adherents. The majority of the rebels took re- 
fuge in the isle of Ely ; where they continued until they 
were compelled to surrender on the 15th of July, 1267. 

Immediately after the defeat of the barons, Henry de 
Hastings retreated, with the remainder of his troops, 
to the strong castle of Kenilworth, in Warwickshire, 
according to a hasty arrangement. There he shut 
himself up, resolved to hold out as long as possible, in 
hopes of succour from France. The place was soon in* 
rested by the liberated king, who . kept up a continued 
siege for nearly six months. Hastings harassed the 
besiegers exceedingly, and committed great havoc among 
them, by casting immense stones and collections of rub* 
bish from the engines on the walls, and by repeated, 
and most daring sallies from the gates, whenever any 
chances of success appeared. Henry, finding himself 
thus foiled in his endeavours to take the place, sent 
gracious offers of pardon and reward to him, if he would 
surrender peaceably. The fierce warrior refused to listen 
for a moment to any treaty, and caused the messenger 
of peace to be maimed in a most brutal manner^ 
Ottobon, the papal legate, afterwards elevated to the 
pontificial chair as Adrian V., thereupon thundered out 
an anathema against him, on accoimt of his contumacy 
and cruelty; but he paid no regard to the censures of 



70 TAMWORTH 

the churchy and continued his stubborn resistance. 
Soon afterwards, however, there broke out in the garri- 
son a violent pestilential fever; which, aided by the 
fiiilure of provisions, swept away great numbers of the 
troops. Finding it impossible to obtain supplies, 
Hastings was at length compelled reluctantly to capi- 
tulate, which he accordingly did on honourable terms : 
as the rebels were aU suffered to depart from the castle 
'' with their lives, members, and goods safe." Henry 
marched out of his strong-hold on the eve of St. 
Thomas the apostle, — ^the 20th of December. 

On account of the obstinacy which he had manifested, 
he was, however, excluded from participation in the 
benefits of the treaty between the king and the barons, 
called the Dictmn de Kenilworth. His estates were 
confiscated; and he received sentence condemning him 
either to seven years imprisonment, or to unconditional 
submission to royal clemency. The proud noble pre- 
ferred rigorous confinement to voluntary humiliation. 

On the forfeiture of Hastings' property, previously 
to the grant of part to other persons, an inquisition 
was taken at Tamworth, on the 20th of August, 1266, 
of the extent of the king's manor of Wigginton 
and Tamworth, before William de Clifford, escaetor 
beyond Trent, and Thomas de Thamenhom, Henry de 
Packington, Roger de Comberford, Simon le Sauvage, 
Robert de Cotes, of the county of Stafford, and others. 
They stated on oath, after describing the royal demesnes 
in Wigginton, that the rent of assize of the burgesses 
in this town, on the Warwickshire side, was 2/. 8s. 4J., 
and on the Staffordshire side, 21. lOs. : and the latter 
were wont to give for the paimage of their hogs' half 

1 licence to feed the animals on the fallen acorns in the king's wood. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 71 

a mark^ — 6*. 8rf.* The Staffordshire part with Wigginton 
was then bestowed on Philip de Marmyon, lord of the 
Castle^ for the term of his natural life. 

Before the expiration of the first two years of Henry 
de Hastings' imprisonment, the king was prevailed upon, 
by prince Edward, to grant pardon to his unyielding 
prisoner. He was accordingly liberated, and admitted 
to the full advantages of the Dictum; and the greatest 
portion of his property was restored to him. But 
Tamworth and Wigginton do not appear to have been 
given back to his family, previously to the year 1279.' 

Henry de Hastings died very shortly after his en- 
largement. The captivity, which he had suffered, seems 
to have chafed his turbulent and active spirit, and 
completely undermined his bodily health. He left two 
sons, John, who succeeded him, and Edmund, and three 
daughters, Audrey, Laura, and Joan. It is evident that 
his lady did not at all participate in the royal indig- 
nation, on account of the conduct of her husband: for 
we find that the king bestowed upon her many rich 
and fair lands for her support. 

John de Hastings was only six years of age, when 
his father died. On attaining his majority, in 1283, he 
took possession of all his father's estates; and then the 
moiety of Tamworth and Wigginton were doubtlessly 
yielded up to him. Being heir of his maternal imde, 
he acquired the castle and honour of Abergavenny, the 
castle of Kilgaran, and other considerable property. 

During the absence of Edward I. from England, in 
1287, when he had passed over into Gascoigne, on the 
succession of Philip the Fair to the throne of France, 

1 Bscaet. SO H. III., Ashmolean M. S. 859, p. 199 :— Shaw's Staffordsh. 
2 Se« Appendix ;~Note 1 . 



78 TAMWOBTH 

to renew his homage for his foreign domains^ the 
Welsh^ only a short time previously subjugated^ again 
rose in revolt for the recovery of their independence. 
As the king remained abroad about three years and a 
half, Edmund, earl of Comvrall, then regent, marched 
into Wales, and with some difficulty suppressed the 
insurrection. John de Hastings accompanied him. He 
also went with Grilbert de Clare, earl of Gloucester 
and Hereford, into Ireland, six years subsequently, on 
an expedition of somewhat similar import. 

The principal exploits of John de Hastings' were 
exhibited in the wars between England and Scotland. 
To the throne of the latter country he claimed a right. 
Alexander IH., grandson of William the Lion, had an 
only daughter, Margaret; who, in 1281, was married to 
Eric, the young king of Norway. She had but one 
daughter, also named Margaret, and distinguished by the 
appellation of " the maiden of Norway.'* The latter, on 
the death of her grandfather, in 1284, succeeded to die 
crown of Scotland. As she was then a mere infont of 
three years old, a regency was appointed. This young 
queen died in 1290; and with her the direct royal line 
of Scotland became extinct. Thirteen competitors laid 
claim to the vacant throne. These were John Baliol, 
lord of GaUoway; Robert Bruce, earl of Carrick and 
Annandale; John Hastings; Eric, king of Norway; 
Florence, count of Holland; John Cummin, earl of 
Badenoch; Robert Dunbar, earl of March; William de 
Vesey; Robert de Ross; Patrick Galyhtly; Robert de 
Pinkeny; Nicholas de Soules ; and Roger de Mandevile. 
The pretensions of the latter ten were too fiitile to 
merit consideration; as in most cases they were merely 
grounded on an illegitimate origin from the royal family. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 78 

The contest, therefore, rested between Baliol, Bruce, 
and Hastings, who were descended from David, earl of 
Huntingdon. They referred their claims to Edward I. 
Hie king, obUging them to renew the long acknow- 
ledged but evaded feudal superiority of England over 
Scotland, proceeded in his office as arbitrator. Hastings, 
being descended from the youngest daughter, could only 
assert his right to a third part of the kingdom as his 
share. But as it was decided that Scotland could not 
be separated into three distinct monarchies, his demand 
was laid aside. Otherwise Tamwortli might have en- 
joyed the proud distinction of forming part of the 
possessions of two royal personages, — the kings of 
England and Scodand. The competition thus remained 
solely between John Baliol and Bobert Bruce. The 
point of the dispute between them was, whether the 
light of the latter as grandson of David, earl of Hun- 
tingdon, by the second daughter, was not superior to 
that of the former, who was great-grandson by the first 
daughter. The enquiry lasted nearly two years; but, 
on the 16th of November, 129S, it was terminated in 
&vour of Baliol, to whom, without doubt, the throne 
properly belonged. On the ensuing morning, he took 
an oath of fealty to Edward ; and soon afterwards was 
crowned at Scone with a tributary diadem. 

John de Hastings, having possession of Tamworth and 
Wigginton, claimed, in 1S9S, free warren, and the right 
to all waifi and strays in these places. In the two 
manors, he also demanded the privileges of gallows, 
assize of bread and ale, pillory, tumbrell or cucking- 
stool, and a court leet' 

This nobleman submitted without reserve to the final 

1 Eot 34, 01 de quo war., Si K. I : --Corporation Reooids. 

L 



74 TAMWORTH 

sentence of Edward. In the subsequent attempts of the 
Scotch to free themselves from the yoke of England^ he 
afforded his aid, and continually took a very prominent 
part. But in 1297, he was summoned, amongst many 
others, to be present at London by the Sunday after 
the octaves of the feast of St. John the Baptist; wel) 
furnished with horse and arms, in order to attend 
the king very shortly in a military expedition into 
France. The design of this hostility was to regain the 
province of Guienne, which the French monarch Philip 
had seized, on account of the inhabitants having been 
engaged with the English in some piratical excursions 
against the Normans, in 1294. Edward had been dted, 
as duke of Guienne, to answer for these matters. Being 
very much occupied in Scotland at the time, he sent his 
brother Edmund, earl of Lancaster, to Paris, who was, 
however, unable to effect any amicable arrangement. 
In 1297, the king, having completely subjected Scotland, 
and, deposing John Baliol, annexed it to the English 
crown, determined on an attempt to recover his foreign 
territory. For this purpose, he did not march into 
Guienne, but resolved to ravage France from the 
Flemish border; and he accordingly landed at Sluys. 
After eight months' waifiEure, attended with very trifling 
success, he concluded a treaty with Philip, and returned 
home in the following March. 

Scarcely had John de Hastings arrived in England, 
when his services were again required in Scotland. He 
was ordered to resort to Carlisle, on the eve of Whit- 
sunday, in order to advance into that kingdom, to aid in 
suppressing the sudden and general revolt, of which sir 
William Wallace was the principal leader. He con- 
tinued in the Scottish wars during the five following 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 75 

yBais. There he performed military service for five 
knights' fees^ in ISOO; and the next year, he served 
onder Edward, prince of Wales. He was present at 
the celebrated siege of the castle of Caerlaverock in 
Dmnfiriesshire, in ISOS. The whole of Scotland was 
again subdued. WaUace, being captured, was conducted 
in triumph to London ; where, after a short trial, he was 
executed for treason. 

Soon after the taking of Caerlavertock, when the strife 
in the north had nearly terminated, Henry de Hastings 
was sent abroad into Grasooigne; but there he did not 
remain very long. He had special summons, amongst 
the nobility, to Westminster, in 1S06, on the morrow 
after Tiinity-sunday, to take into consideration an order 
concerning the aid for creating the king's eldest son 
Edward a knight. The conferment of the honour of 
knighthood upon the prince of Wales, was the prelude 
to another descent upon Scotland. Robert Bruce, 
grandson of the competitor in 1S90, was now in arms 
to vindicate his claim to that throne. John de Hastings 
had a grant from the king of all the county of Menteth 
with the isles, and the whole of the lands and posses- 
sions of Alan, earl of Menteth, who had rebelled against 
the English. Edward I. died before his arrival in 
Scotland. He besotight his son, as he dreaded his 
malediction, not to inter his body, until he had totally 
subdued the coimtry. The new monarch did not obey 
the command of his father. He totally neglected the 
Scottish affiurs for some time; and when at last he 
marched to the north, the fatal battle of Bannock- 
bum secured the national independence of the Scotch. 

John de Hastings was summoned as a baron of the 
teahns to the different parliaments from the SSrd of 



76 TAMWORTH 

June, 1295, to the 22nd of May, 1313. He was like- 
wise seneschal of Aqnitaine. He was twice married. By 
his first wife, Isabell, daughter of William de Valence, 
and sister and coheiress of Aymer, earl of Pemfaroke, he 
had three sons and three daughters. John succeeded 
him; William and Henry died without issue. The 
daughters were Elizabeth, married to Roger de Grrey 
of Ruthyn, Joan, and Margaret. By his second wife 
Isabell, daughter of Hugh Despencer, earl of Winches- 
ter, he had two sons, Hugh of Gressing-hall, in 
Norfolk, and Thomas. 

At the time of his decease, in 1313, he held, amount 
other estates, Wigginton, with a sixth part of Tamworth, 
of the king, in capite, by service of the fourth part of 
a knight's fee.^ The manor of Tamworth did not de- 
scend with Wigginton to John, son of this elder John. 
After passing, for a very brief space of time, to the 
crown,' it was assigned to Isabell, the widow of John,' 
for the term of her life, undoubtedly as a part of her 
dowry. In her right, it was conveyed, about 1320, to 
Ralph de Monthermer, earl of Gloucester and Hereford, 
to whom she was married.'' But she was again sole 
possessor in 1325; and she long survived her second 
husband.' She must have died soon after the year 
1334, when we find her mentioned, for the last tune.* 
This side of Tamworth then passed to Lawrence de 
Hastings, grandson of the first John. 

John de Hastings, father of Lawrence, succeeded to 
the greater part of the estates, when he was twenty-six 
years of age.' He was the third baron of the fiunily, 
being summoned to parliament firom the 26th of Novem- 

1 InquU. 6 E. II :— Shad's Staffordsh. 9 Court rolls, E. II. 3 lb., 7 £• H- 

4 lb., 13, U B. II. A lb., 19 E. II. lb., 8 K. III. 

7 1nqttis.6E. II:*Shaw'iStaiford8h. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 77 

ber, 1313, to the 20th of February, 1325, in which 
year he died. He was continually engaged in active 
service against the Scotch from 1310 to 1318; and he 
was present when the English received the terrible de^ 
feat at Bannockbum, on the 24th of June, 1314, — a 
blow to their pretensions, from which they were unable 
to recover. 

But in 1319, he was associated with the lords in 
their insurrection to compel the king to banish the two 
celebrated &vourites, the Despencers, whose imputed 
pride and covetousness constituted the motives of 
dislike. They were the &ther and brother of his 
mother-in-law. Very soon, however, he deserted the 
ranks of the discontented barons, and went over to the 
king, at Cirencester, by whom he was again received 
into confidence and &vour. He was, shortly afterwards 
dispatched on a fruitless expedition into Scotland. 
From whence having returned, he was, in 1322, con- 
stituted governor of Kenilworth castle; and that office 
he retained until his decease. He married Juliana, 
grand-daughter and heiress of Thomas de Leyboume, 
a baron of much note. By this lady he had an only 
aon. She survived him, and afterwards had two hus- 
bmds, Thomas le Blount, and William de Clinton. 
In the latter person, was revived, in 1337, the title of 
earl of Huntingdon, which had lain dormant since the 
death of John Scott, a century previously. 

Lawrence Hastings, at his fiither's demise, was only 
five years old. His tuition was committed to his father- 
in-law, William de Clinton; and he had the sum of 
200 marks allowed to him annually out of the royal 
exchequer. On attaining his majority, he was, by letters 
patent dated on the 18th of October, 1339, created earl 



78 TAMWORTH 

of Pembroke. This title had become extinct on the death 
of his grand-uncle Aymer de Valence. About the same 
time, he was sent into Flanders to aid in the cause of 
Edward III., who claimed the throne of France, in 
right of his mother Isabell, daughter of Philip the Fair, 
all the male descendants of whom were dead, except 
the English king. According to the Salic law, no 
female hand could wield that sceptre. Philip of Valois, 
brother of Philip the Fair, was chosen by the French 
peers. The decision gave great oflfenoe to Edward; and 
he determined to enforce his daim by the sword. 

In the following year, the king sunmioned the chief 
of his nobility to attend him in his enterprise. Hearing 
that a fleet of 200 ships lay prepared to intercept 
him at Sluys, he sailed directly thither. There he 
achieved the first great naval victory of England, in the 
glory of which the earl of Pembroke participated. 
Meeting with the enemy off the harbour of Sluys, about 
ten o'clock on the morning after midsimmier-day, the 
king grappled ship to ship and gave to the struggle 
the characteristics of a land-combat. The battle was ob- 
stinate and bloody. But in consequence of the English 
occupying the windward, their archers conmiitted dreadful 
havoc, insomuch that the French to avoid them leapt 
into the sea, and attempted to swim to shore. The 
whole of the fleet was taken or destroyed, and 30,000 
of the enemy, it is said, were killed or drowned. The 
next day, Edward entered the harbour of Sluys in 
triumph. 

The news of the terrible defeat was received at the 
French court with great consternation. No one was 
found to possess the moral courage or the rashness to 
break the intelligence to Philip, and endure the first 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 79 

ebuUition of royal anger. At last the court-fool, in the 
absence of a bolder man, was induced, with much per- 
suasion, to undertake the task. He went into the 
presence of the sovereign, exclaiming: — " Cowardly 
Englishmen, dastardly Englishmen, £unt-heaxted Eng- 
Ushmen." The king's attention being, at last, attracted 
by the continued repetition of the words, he demanded 
of the jester what he meant. *^ They durst not leap 
out of their ships into the sea, as our brave Frenchmen 
did," — ^was the reply. Philip was inmiediately aware 
that some very great misfortune had occurred to the 
fleet. His attendants, after some hesitation, explained 
the circumstances fully to him. The French attributed 
their defeat to one of their commanders, Nicholas 
Buchett, who had manned his ship with undisciplined 
men, because they served for a much smaller payment 
than knights or soldiers. 

The earl of Pembroke was present at the siege of 
Toumay; and he accompanied Edward in all his ex- 
ploits, until the English returned to their own country, 
in the same year. 

In 1S41, he was again engaged on the continent to 
assist Jane, countess of Montfort. This heroic lady, on 
the imprisonment of her husband by Philip, on account 
of a dispute concerning the dutchy of Bretagne, took up 
arms to support her family and prevent its ruin. For 
the purpose of carrying out her design, she implored 
the aid of Edward. Closely besi^ed in Hennebon by 
Charles de Blois, she was reduced to such straits, from 
the want of fresh troops and the shattered condition, to 
which the enemy had reduced the walls of the tow^i, 
that her council proceeded so far as to insist on her 
immediately surrendering. She entreated them to defer 



80 TAMWORTH 

only for a short time longer, and then, if no pros* 
pect of aid appeared, she would jrield to them. Day 
after day, she paced the ramparts, with her eyes 
bent on the long line of waters towards the P^wglMli 
coast The lonely warder was only interrupted by the 
challenge of the sullen guard, or the complaints of the 
people. But one day, whilst gazing on the ocean, and 
listening to the remonstrances of her friends, she was 
seen to start ; and a flush of gladness passed momenta- 
rily over her countenance. There was, she Said, a misty 
spot upon the bosom of the deep. It was invisible to 
all save her quick and interested eye. After she had 
remained silent in suspended hope, for some time, the 
object became more apparent; and she exclaimed in 
extreme joy : — ** Succours, the succours of England are 
coming, — ^no surrender now." The news spread instantly 
throughout the town ; and the inhabitants rushed to the 
walls to watch the dark speck spread, divide, and at 
last resolve itself into a fleet of many sail. After a 
tedious voyage, caused by contrary winds, sir Walter 
Manney, with a considerable force of knights and 
soldiers, landed. They soon forced their way into 
Hennebon, where they were right hospitably received, 
and feasted in the castle. 

Although the English were able to constrain Charles 
de Blois to retire from the siege, their forces were 
insufficient to afford much general assistance to the 
countess. Four months after, Edward himself went 
over with many nobles, among whom was the earl of 
Pembroke; and an army of 12,000 men. But, in the 
February following, a peace was concluded between the 
kings, through the mediation of two cardinals, the 
legates of pope Clement VI. As her cause had de- 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 81 

cHned, and was now nearly extinct, the countess was 
preyailed upon to take refiige at the court of England. 
She was consigned to the care of the chiyalrous Pem- 
broke and others^ during her passage to London. Un- 
suspicious that they would be compelled to defend 
themselves in the yoyage, they embarked in a small 
vesseL But when they were off the island of Guernsey, 
they fell in with sir Loyes de Spain, the ally of Charles 
de Blois. The shouts of the sailors first anneunced 
to the passengers that he was bearing down upon them 
with hostile intentions. All immediately flew to arms; 
the countess even took up the sword, and fought with 
the resolution of a knight. They had, indeed, need of 
all the forces they could muster; for their opponents 
were numerous. A fearfid combat ensued, in which all 
parties exhibited their valour. The close of day caused 
a cessation, and farther violation of the treaty by sir 
Loyes. At midnight, a storm of so great violence arose, 
that the English believed the day of judgment was at 
hand. Providentially its only effect was to prevent a 
renewal of the battle, by separating the combatants. 
The eaxl and heroine were happy to escape on terms so 
easy; and they afterwards landed in safety. Of her, 
we hear no more ; for her cause became absorbed in the 
interest which Edward's struggles for the crown of 
France created. 

During the remainder of his life, the earl of Pem- 
broke was engaged in the wars abroad. He shared in 
the splendid victories of Edward and the Black Prince, 
which are so well known from the conmion histories of 
our nation. He constantly gave proofs of his great 
and untiring bravery. He married Agnes, daughter of 
Roger Mortimer, earl of March. By her, he had an 

M 



82 TAMWOBTH 

only son and heir, named John. He died on the day 
after the decollation of St. John the Baptist, 1349, 
probably of the plague, which then raged violently 
throughout England, and cut off nearly half of its in- 
habitants. He was only a little more than thirty years 
of age. He then held, amongst other possessions, in his 
demesne as of fee, the Staffordshire part of Tamworth, 
for which was paid the accustomed rent of 5/.^ 

John de Hastings, second earl of Pembroke, was a 
little more than a year old at his father's death. On 
coming of age, in 1S69, he was despatched into France, 
to aid in the fresh war, which had broken out with 
England. There he manifested that he inherited a fuU 
share of the chivalrous spirit of those days. At the 
head of 300 knights and esquires he committed great 
havoc in Anjou, and amassed very great spoils. 

But it happened that, one day, whilst resting for the 
evening at the village of Puirenon, he was suddenly 
attacked by a troop of French, who rushed into the 
place with their cry of '^ Our Lady of Sancerre, for the 
marshall of France." Not being sufficiently vigilant, he 
was unprepared for the onset. Most of his men were 
killed or taken; and he lost the whole of his booty. 
The earl and a few knights and archers saved them- 
selves by a precipitate retreat into a preceptory of the 
Templars. They immediately barricaded the place, de- 
termined not to surrender so long as the most distant 
hopes of escape remained. This brave resolution they 
carried into ^ect ; and when the French attacked them, 
they defended themselves with success, until night 
closed in and gave them time to recruit their strength. 
Aware that he could not hold out long, unless he re- 

1 Inquis. aa E. Ill :— Corporation Records. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 88 

ceived succour, the earl, whilst the French were asleep, 
despatched an esquire to sir John Chandos, one of the 
principal English commanders, at Poitiers. The mes- 
senger lost his way in the dark. 

At the dawn of day, the French renewed the attack 
on the preceptory. They soon mounted the walls; but 
the earl and his band fought with such determination 
and fury, that the assailants were driven back: and 
they dispersed themselves to collect mattocks and pikes, 
in order to have recourse to the imknightly scheme of 
unhousing the little band of English by breaking down 
the waUs. Disappointed of the expected succour, the 
earl, in the absence of the foes, summoned another 
esquire and said to him : — ^^ Friend, take my courser, 
go out at the back postern, ride direct to Poitiers, and 
show sir John Chandos the state and danger that we 
axe in. Commend me to him by this token and deliver 
it to him, for he knows it well." At the same time, he 
gave to the messenger the signet-ring from his finger. 

About nine o'clock in the morning, the first esquire, 
having regained his path, arrived at Poitiers. He 
found Sir John at mass ; but he did not hesitate to 
disturb his devotions. The knight was so offended at 
the earl of Pembroke, that he refused to aid him, and 
deliberately heard mass throughout. Whilst he was en- 
gaged in his ablutions previously to dining, the second 
messenger entered, tired, pale, and covered with dust, 
and his steed in a foam from hard riding to avoid, cap- 
ture by the pursuing enemy. Kneeling, he presented 
the ring to sir John, saying, '^ Right dear sir, the earl 
of Pembroke commends himself to you by this token, 
and heartily desires your assistance to relieve him from 
his present danger at Puirenon." Chandos took the 



84 TAirWORTH 

signet^ merely observing that if the earl were in so 
great difficulties^ he could not assist him. He then 
proceeded to dinner. But during the meal, he was 
grave and silent; as were also his friends, who were 
vexed at his resolution. In the middle of the second 
course, he suddenly started up and said, — " Sirs, the 
earl of Pembroke is a noble man, and of great lineage: 
he is son of my natural lord, the king of England, for 
he hath married his daughter, and in every thing he is 
companion to the earl of Cambridge. He hath requested 
me to go to him, and I ought to consent to his desire.'' 
He then left the table, crying ** Grallant knights, I will 
ride to Puirenon." Every one rose and followed him; 
and soon the trumpets summoned all to arms. 

The earl of Pembroke still continued a successful 
defence, even against the French mattocks. He had, 
however, given up all hopes of relief. When on the 
point of surrendering because of weariness and the 
shortness of provisions, he espied the banners of his 
friends, with more than two hundred spears, glittering on 
the hills, in the rays of the evening sun. The French 
saw them, too, and fled. The English then joyfrdly left 
the village, and met the advancing droops about a league 
distant. Aft^r keeping company for nine miles, Chandos 
returned to Poitiers, and Pembroke went to Mortaigne. 
Thus ended this singular adventure, so characteristic of 
the bravery and spirit of the age of chivalry. 

Iq 1371, the earl had to lament the death of his 
friend, sir John Chandos, who was slain in the des- 
perate battle near the bridge of Lusac. And subse- 
quently he vntnessed, and unavoidably aided in, the 
decline of the English cause in France, after the 
decease of the Black Prince. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 85 

He was made commander-in-chief of the English 
forces in the principality of Aquitaine^ in 1272, when 
he was only twenty-five years of age. In June of the 
same year, he sailed with a fleet of forty ships for the 
continent Kochelle was then closely besieged by the 
French; and he determined to sail there to relieve his 
countrymen. No sooner had he arrived at the harbour, 
when he fell in with a powerful squadron, which was 
sent to the assistance of the enemy by Don Henry, 
king of Castile. Before he could completely arrange his 
vessels in the line of battle, the Spaniards commenced 
a furious onset The combat raged until the evening of 
the ensuing day ; when the Spaniards gained a complete 
victory, with comparatively little loss to themselves. 
Their ships were larger than those of the English, and 
possessed the novelty of being well armed with cannon, 
by which great havoc was committed. All the earPs 
vessels were lost, most of them being burned ; and the 
whole of the royal treasure of 20,000 marks, with the 
supplies intended for Edward's troops abroad, fell into 
the hands of the Spaniards. The earl himself and all 
his officers were made prisoners. This signal defeat 
proved the ruin of Edward's cause in France. He was 
unable to carry on the war with efficiency. Guienne, 
Ponthieu, and the other provinces became an easy prey 
to the constable of France; and finally very few places 
remained in the hands of the English. 

The earl of Ponbroke endured a long captivity in 
Spain; and his fate was, for a long time, imknown. 
At length, he contrived to send intelligence of his ex- 
istence to Bertrand Clekyn, constable of France; who, 
with the characteristic nobleness of the time, which 
honoured valour even in an enemy, negociated, and at 
length procured his release, for a large ransom. The 



Ob TAMWOBTH 

earl proceeded to Paris, in order to see his deliyeier. 
From thence he directed his course towards England. 
But before he reached Calais, he died so suddenly, that 
suspicion was entertained of his having been poisoned. 
This opinion, however, appears to have had little more 
foundation than surmise. The Spaniards were absurdly 
accused of having administered to him a fieital draught, 
the operation of which they were able indefinitely to 
regulate, until they had received the stipulated ransom. 

The earl of Pembroke was a knight of the most 
noble Order of the Garter. His decease took place on 
the 16th of April, 1S75 ; and his body, belog conveyed 
to England, was interred in the choir of the friar- 
preachers' church at Hereford. He was the first Eng- 
lish subject who followed the example of Edward IH. 
in the quartering of arms. On his escutcheon, placed 
upon the north side of that king's monument, in 
Westminster abbey, are found — Or, a mandie Qui., for 
Hastings ; Barry Arg. and Az., an orle of martlets 6u., 
for Valence. He married first Mai^aret Plantagenet, 
fifth daughter of Edward HI., who was accounted one 
of the most learned and accomplished ladies of the age, 
and was the great patroness of the poet Chaucer. She 
died without issue; and the earl took as his second 
wife Ann, only daughter and heiress of sir Walter 
Manney, K. 6. For this purpose, he obtained a special 
papal dispensation, on account of the lady being related 
to his first wife just within the d^ree of consanguinity, 
prohibited by the strict ecclesiastical laws. She was 
grand-daughter of Thomas de Brotherton, earl of Norfolk, 
the uncle of Edward III. By her he had an only son, 

John Hastings, third earl of Pembroke, who, at his 
father's death, was an infant. His guardianship was 
thereupon committed to his grand-mother Margaret, 



CASTUa AND TOWN. 87 

relict of sir Walter Manney.* At the coronation of 
Richard II., on the 16th of June, 1377, being then 
little more than four years of age, he asserted his right 
to the honourable service of carrying the great golden 
spurs. His claim was fully substantiated; but, on ac- 
count of his youth, the office was assigned to Edmund 
Mortimer, earl of March, as proxy, to whose daughter 
the young earl was even then espoused. 

In 1389, he attended the king during the time that 
the court was celebrating the Christmas festivities at 
Woodstock. There he met with an imtimely and me- 
lancholy death, on the 30th of December, when he was 
but seventeen years old. Whilst jousting with sir John 
St John, he received, owing to an accidental slip of his 
opponent's lance, a tremendous blow in the lower part 
of the abdomen. Being so severely injured that the 
intestines protruded fix>m the wound, he directly fell 
from his horse. The alarmed attendants immediately 
rushed to his assistance; but he expired almost directly 
in the greatest agony, before he could be removed from 
the spot. ' This unfortunate circumstance threw a deep 
gloom over the whole court, and effectually put a stop 
to the joyousness of the season; for he was highly es- 
teemed by all, being a nobleman of very great promise, 
and of an affable and generous disposition. He married 
Philippa, daughter of Edmund Mortimer, third earl of 
March; but he died childless, and with him the earl- 
dom of Pembroke became extinct. He was buried in 
the church of the Gbrey friars, near Newgate, in London, 
now called Christ church. There his monument, of very 
fiur and beautiful workmanship, stood, until it was 
defaced in the religious revolution of the sixteenth 
century. 

1 CoQxt rolli» 19 R. n. 



ARMS OF HASTINGS :«^R, a mancbi ocl. 



DAYldI.,k.or8oots. 



Robctt, portrere of lUitiiift, 

Wftlter de Hasttncs, stewmrd of Hen. LsHMtewiae. 

Hufh de HMtinKe, lord»Bnielmrfa, den. of Hugti* 
of nUoficley, oo. Wanr. I niece end helreee of Sob. 
de FUmvile 



HeDi7» prince sAde, dan. Hen. MwrferT.sWQUem deslde, dan. Rich. 



I 



of Scotland, e. 
of Hnnting. 



I. 



ofWni.,e. 
of Wanen 
ftSunrex. 



dan. of 
Rog. Btf • 
ot,e. of 
Norfolk. 



Haednca, 
■Coward of 
Hen. II. 
d. 1996. 



of Hen., 
e.ofKa. 



of Bar- deWf- 
wellfC. fonL 



Malcolm WUBam DaTld. e. of=Mand. slat, wmlamde 

IV., k. of the Uon, Hnntincdon i of Ralph, S Hastinft, 

ScoCa. kinc of and Canick e. of Chea- d. 199S. 

Scot!. I ter. I 

Margaret. sAlan,e. of laabcU 

I Qalloway. sRob. 

Bruce. 



Hen.d. niomaa, pro- 
llfK, geoitorofHaa. 
a. p. tinge, earla at 
Hoiittogdoo. 



I I I I I 

Hen. David. John Scott, last e. ADA.sHaNBT ds 

a.p. s.p. ofaie8ler,d.l937. | HAarinroe, 

a.p. d. 1250. 



I i i r 

Deryor-=JohnBa- Helene Roger Qoinci, Cbriatlana. HairaT Da= Joan, list, and 



gille. 



UoUe.of 
GaUowny. 



I e. of Wlnchea- 
ter. 



s Will. e. of BASTivoa, 



John 



I 



r 



d. 1908. 



Maxg. IwaAtSL Helen. Iiabell,3jonir DB3laABstL,sRALFi 



heireea of Geo. 
deCantiiape, 
lafldofAbefgn- 
vcnny. 



BaU. 

ol,k. e. Per. Com- 
of reraft inin,a. 
Boota. Derby, of 



tMuk aiat.ft 
lord coh.of 
ZoodL Aymer 
deVal- 
•nce,e. 
of Pen* 
broke. 



HAav- 
urea, of 
Aberga- 
venny, 
9baron 
Haat- 
inga, 
d. ISIS. 



', Bdm. Andry. 



. Bdw.L 
of DB a ba- Lama. k. of 
Hugh Mont- roo 
Deepen- bbb- 

OCT, e. of MBB, 

Winchea- e. of 
ter. «oac. 

&Heref. 
a. p. 



Roger: 
Moit. 


=rsr 


Johnde 
Haa^ 


imer. 


ofWilL 


iage,S 


le.of 


Mon- 


baron 


Marc. 


tagne. 


Haat. 


d.lSM 


eTof 


in**. 




Salia- 


d. 1995. 




bury. 





J i 1 I I I 1 

. WUL, Blisab. Joan, Hugh, Hio. Edw. Tho. 

d.andh. Hen. =:Rog. Maig. of II. k. of 

ofTho. ■.». lord Graea- of Bro- 

deLey- Grey of Ingball, . Eng- thcr- 

ban,n RhUp co.ef 



9, Tho. 
laBloont, 

=:S,WIU. 



lyn 



Noif. 



e. of Hon- 
tinfcdon. 



e.of 
Nor- 
folk. 



I 



d.y.p. aBTho.Bean- d. 9Sth 
champ, e. of of July, 
Warwick. 1S5S. 



Agnea.=LAWBBNCB DB Kdwardlll., Sir Walters Margaret, 



HAeriwoa, ere- k. of Bng- 
ated e. of Fern- land, 
broke, d. 1340. | 



Manney, 
K.G. 



I 
Roger MortlnMr, 
9e. ofMarch« 



■, Uonel,(l 



-1 I 

, d. of Margarets John HAenwoa, K. G. 
Caarencc. naniage- 1 9nd e. of Pembroke, 
I net, l8t I d. 1375. 

wife. a.p. 



ofNocf. 



Rdm. Mortimer, 9 e. of March. 



sPhiUppa. 



Ann, 9nd wife; d. 
on Palmeonday, 
1384. 



Roger Mortimer, 
5 e. of March. 



Bdmund. 
sAdan. 
of Owen 
Glendower. 



John. Elitabeth. 



I 



B Henry 
Hotspur. 



Philippe, 9 Rich. = John Hastings, 
fitz Alen, e. of I 3 and last e. of 
Arundel. =3 John Pembroke, slain 
St. John. I in 1389. 

B.P. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 89 

On the death of the last earl of Pembroke, his 
estates passed to his next heir, Beginald, lord Grey of 
Bttthyn, grandson of Roger, who, as we before said, 
married Elizabeth, daughter of John, second baron 
Hastings. Amongst them, Wigginton was included; 
though such was not the case with Tamworth. The 
moiety returned again into the immediate possession of 
the crown; where it ever after remained.' And here 
we leave the Staffordshire side of the town, to give the 
history of that part in the county of Warwick. 

From the time of the conquest nearly to the close 
of Henry Illrd's reign, the Warwickshire side of Tam- 
worth continued in the immediate possession of the 
crown. For it, were rendered the aids, which we haye 
before specified; and, in 1236, the annual fee*&rm rent 
amounted to 4/. 16«.' But in 1266, the king granted 
it, with all the royal demesnes in the other part of the 
town and Wigginton, to Philip de Marmyon, lord of 
the Castle, at a yearly rent of 34/. 6g. 9d. After the 
restoration of that portion belonging to the Hastings' 
fimiily, he still retained this mmety, and held it until 
his death in 1291. It then returned into the hands of 
the king.' 

Edward II., in 1317, bestowed it upon Baldwin Freyile, 
during the royal pleasure, for the old accustomed sum 
of 4/. 168. 

The lease to Frevile very soon expired ; for the king, 
in the next year, gave this part of the town to the 
inhabitants, under the title of men and tenants, their 
heirs and successors for ever; with all liberties, free 



1 Oomt rolto, 18 R. II. } 91, 29, H. VI. 
1 Thi& accfmiit of the Warwickshire part is derived from Dngdale's history of the 
covDty, except where other anthorities ai« mentioned. 
3 Court rolls, IS, so E. I. 



90 TAMWORTH 

cufitoms, commodities, profits, easements, and others 
belonging to it, which they and their ancestors had 
reasonably held. A reservation was made of the ancient 
rent, with 20«. increase, and of tallage, aids, and other 
customs usually paid to the crown in past times.' This 
grant subsequently leceiyed confirmation firom every king 
down to the time of Edward IV. Thus we have the 
letters patent of Edward III., dated in 13S1 ; of Richard 
II., in 1877; of Henry IV., in 1400; of Henry V., in 
1414; of Henry VI, in 1488; and of Edward IV., 
in 1467.« 

In 1817, the inhabitants obtained royal licence to take 
toll for all commodities brought here for sale, a half- 
penny for every quarter of wheat, &c., during the space 
of three years, to defray the expences of paving the 
town. At the expiration of the specified time, in 1820, 
the licence was renewed for a similar term. But it 
would appear that the profits of the toUs were insuf- 
ficient for the completion of the design; as grants, for 
the same purpose, were made by Edward II., in 1825, 
and by his successor in 1828, 1886, and 1841. 

Besides these concessions for the improvement of the 
moiety, the inhabitants, in 1887, obtained a charter 
fit)m Edward HI., empowering them to establish two 
annual fidrs, one to be held on the feast of St. Greorge 
the Martyr, the other on that of St. Edward the 
Confessor, with the usual courts of pie-poudre; and 
both to continue for three days afterwards. And in 
1441, another patent was granted for taking toll of all 
vendible articles, during the four ensuing years, towards 
the completion of the pavement, and the repair of 
Bolebridge. 

1 Ptt. 4 B. III., per iDtpeximiu :— Corpoimtion Records, 
fl Oorporatloii Reoorcto. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 91 

We find that on the Ist of July, 1609, the fee-farm 
rent of 5/. 168. was, amongst others, assigned for life 
as a part of the portion of the unfortunate but noble- 
minded and virtuous Catherine of Arragon, the first 
consort of Henry YIII. To her it was paid in half-yearly 
sums at Michaelmas and Easter. She enjoyed it until 
the period when the pride of the king, aroused at the 
probability of his family fidling in the male line, and 
the smiles and blandishments of a fairer rival, led to 
her divorce. The payment then, on the Slst of March, 
16S3-4, passed to the second wife of the king, Ann 
Boleyn. But when she too was supplanted by the 
arts which she had employed, and had terminated her 
short career by a mournful death, it passed to Jane 
Seymour, third wife of Henry. This lady held it until 
her decease, on the birth of a son, afterwards Edward YI. 
In 15S7, the rent returned to the crown, and rested 
there.' 

Having now spoken of each separate side of the town, 
we must return to the history of Tamworth generally. 

From the reign of Richard II., to the commencement 
of that of Elizabeth, very few incidents occur of par- 
ticular interest. We can trace little, except such cir- 
cumstances as are almost necessarily connected with the 
bare existence of the place. Situated in the very midst 
of the kingdom, £Eur removed firom the precincts of the 
court, and firom the busy strife of political movements, 
it continued in its wonted peaceful state, undisturbed 
and almost unobserved. Yet in one or two instances, 
the town emerged firom its general obscurity to obtain 
some degree of celebrity throughout the coimtry. On 
the first occasion, it comes before our notice in a more 

1 AGqatttanon, temp. H. VIII :— Corporatioii Records. 



92 TAmVOftTH 

^TniiBing manner than perhaps the whole history of 
other places could present^ whose names rank higher 
in the annals of our country. In the reign of Edward 
rV., an incident is said to have occurred, which has 
afforded the subject of a long ballad of very great fiime 
in olden times, entitled '' King Edward and the Tanner 
of Tamworth." It arose from the circumstance of the 
king's meeting, in an hunting excursion, a tanner, 
whose homeliness was made the butt of royal wit 
The poor man, mistaking his majesty for a robber, 
afforded him much amusement; but he was wril re- 
warded in the end. We will, however, aUow the quaint 
rhymes of our merry foie£EiiherB to relate the tale. Those 
of our readers who are acquainted wi& the locality, wiH 
at once recc^niae the place of meeting to have been on 
the recently enclosed heath, between Sutton Goldfield 
and Basset's pole; firom whence the tanner must have 
been journeying to Tamworth. 

In summer time, when leaves grow greene, 

And blossoms bedoeke the tree, 
King Edward wolde a hunting ryde. 

Some pastime Ibr to see. 

With hawke and hovnde, he made him bowne,' 

With home, and eke with bowe ; 
To Drayton Basset he tooke his waye, 

With aU his lordes a rowe. 

And he had ridden ore dale and downs, 

By eight of clocke in the day. 
When he was ware of a boM tanner 

Come ryding along the waye. 

A iayre russet coat the tanner had on, 

Fast buttoned under his chin. 
And under him a good cow-hide. 

And a mare of four shilling. 

" Nowe stand you still, my good lordes all. 

Under the grene wood spraye; 
And I will wend to yonder fellowe, 

To weet< what he will saye. 

1 i. e. ready. s i. e. to know. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 98 

God gpeede, God speede thee," laid our long, 

" Thoa art welcome, lir/' sajd hee : 
" Tlie readyest waje to Drayton Baaset, 

I praye thee to ihowe to mee/' 

« To Drayton Baiiet woldst thoa goe, 

Fro the place iriiere tiios dost itaiid ? 
The next payre of gallowea thoa comeat onto, 

Tome in upon thy right hand.'' 

" That ia an nnreadye waye," aayd oar king, 

<* Thoa doeit bat jest I aee: 
Nowe shewe me oat the neareat waye, 

And I pray thee wend with mee.** 

** Awaye witii a vengeanoe I" qaotii the tanner : 

"IhoUtheeootoftfaywIttt 
All daye have I rydden on Brocke my mare, 

And I am fiurting yett." 

*< Go with me downe to Drayton Baiaet, 

No dayntiea we will fpare ; 
All daye shalt thoa eate and drinke of the best, 

And I wia paye thy hn." 

** Grramereye Ibr nothing," the tanner replyde, 

** Thoa payeat no Ikre of mine : 
I trowe I're more nobles in my parse. 

Than thoa hast pence in thine." 

•* God give thee joy of diem,*' sayd the king, 

"And send them well to pridb." 
The tanner wolde fidne hare beene away, 

Fdr he weende^ he had beene a tfaiefe. 

" What art thoa," hee sayde, *' thoa fine fellowe. 

Of thee I am in great feare. 
For the doathes, thoa wearest apon thy baoke, 

Bfigfat beseeme a lord to weare.'* 

** I nerer stole them," qnoth oar king, 

" I tell yoa, sir, by the roode." 
** Then thoa playest as many an onthrift doth, 

And standest in midds of thy goode." 

" What tydinges heare yoa," sayd the kynge, 

*' As yoa ryde larre and neare ?" 
'* I heare no tydinges, sir, by the masse. 

Bat that cowe-hides are deare." 

'* Cowe-hidesl cowe-hidesl wlmt things are those? 

I marreU what they bee?" 
" What art thoa a Ibole ?" tiie tanner reply'd ; 

" I carry one onder mee.'* 

" What eraftnnan art thoa," ssid the king, 
'* I praye thee tell me tiowe." 

1 i.e. 



94 TAMWORTH 



'* I am a barker, air, by my trade ; 
Nowe tell me wbat art thoa ?" 

*' I am a poore coartier, air,*' qaoth he, 

" That am forth of aenrice wome ; 
And fiune I wolde thy prentiae bee. 

Thy cuminge for to feame." 

*' Marrye heaTen forefead,"! the tanner leplyde, 

** That thoa my prentiae were : 
Thoa woldat apend more good than I ihold winne 

By fortye shilling a yeare." 

" Yet one thinge wolde I,** aayd oar king, 

** If thoa wilt not aeeme atrange, 
Thoaghe my hone be better than thy mare, 

Yet with tiiee I fidne wolde change/* 

" Why if witfi me thoa fiune wilt diaqge, 

Aa change fdl well maye wee, 
By the tuSi of my bodye, tiioa proade idlowe, 

I will have aome boot of thee/' 

'' That were against reason,** aayd the king, 

" I Bweare, so mote I thee :* 
My horae ia better than thy mare, 

And that thoa well mayst aee.** 

'* Yea, air, bat Brooke ia gentle and mild, 

And softly she will five: 
Thy horse ia onrolye and wild, I wiss; 

Aye skipping here and theare." 

** What boote wiU thoa haTC ?" oar king reply'd ; 

•< Now teU me in thia stoonde.** 
'* Noe penoe, nor half pence, by my fiiye. 

Bat a noble in gold ao roond." 

** Here's twentye groatea of white moneye, 

Sith tiiott wilt haTe it of mee." 
** I woold have awome now," qaoth the tanner, 

*' Thoa hadst not had one pennie. 

Bat aince we two haye made a change, 

A change we must abide. 
Although thou hast gotten Brooke my mare. 

Thou gettest not my oowe-hide." 

'* I will not have it," sayd the kynge, 

** I sweare, so mought I thee ; 
Thy fottle cowe-hide I wolde not beare, 

If thou woldst giye it to mee." 

The tanner hee tooke hia good oowe-hide. 

That of the cow was hilt; 
And threwe it upon the king'a sadelle, 

That was soe fayrelye gilte. 

1 i. e. forbid. 9 So might I thrive :-« kind of oath. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 96 

" Now help me up, thou fine fellowe, 

'TU time that I were gone : 
When I come home to Gyllian my wife, 

Shed say I am a gentilmon." 

The king he tooke him np by the legge ; 

The tanner a f*** lettfaU. . 
'* Now, marrye, good fellowe," sayd the kyng, 

'< Thy oonrtesye is but smalL" 

When the tanner he was in the ktnges sadeUe, 

And his foote in the stimip was ; 
He marreUed greatlye in his minde, 

Whether it were golde or brass. 

Bat when his steede saw the cow's taile wagge, 

And eke the blacke cowe-bome ; 
He stamped, and stared, and awaye he ranne, 

As the devill had liim borne. 

The tanner he pnild, the tanner he sweat, 

And held by the pnmmil fast : 
At length the tanner came tumbling downe ; 

His necke he had weU*nye brast. 

*' Take thy horse again," with a yengeance he sayd, 

" With me he shall not byde." 
" My horse wolde have borne thee well enoughe. 

But he knewe not of thy cowe*hide. 

Yet if againe tiion fahie woldst change. 

As change ftill well may weci 
By the fidth of my bodye, thou jolly tanner, 

I will haye some boote of thee." 

** What boote wilt thon haye," the tanner replyd, 

" Now tell me in this stonnde ?" 
** Noe pence, nor half pence, sir, by my faye, 

Bat I will haye twentye poand." 

" Here's twentye groates oat of my parse ; 

And twentye I haye of thine : 
And I haye one more, which we will spend 

Together at the wine." 

The king set a bogle home to his moathe. 

And blewe both loade and shrille : 
And soone came lords, and soone came knights, 

Fast ryding oyer the hille. 

** Nowe, oat alas 1 " the tanner he cryde, 

" That eyer I saw this daye 1 
Thoa art a strong thiefe, yon come thy feUowes 

WHl beare my cowe-hide away.** 

'* They are no thieyes,'* the king replyde, 

'* I sweare, soe mote I thee : 
Bat they are the lords of the north coontrey, 

Here come to hant with mee.*' 



96 TAMWORTH 

And looDe before our king they came, 

And knelt downe on the gronnde : 
Then might the turner haye beene awaye, 

He had le?er than twentye ponnde* 

" A coUer, a ooller here," aajd the kii«. 

A collar he load gan crye : 
Then wolde he lever then twentye poond, 

He bad not beene ao nighe. 

" A ooller, a ooller/' the tanner he eayd, 

** I tfowa it will breed lorrowe : 
After a ooUer oommeth a halter, 

I trow 1 shall be hang'd to-morrowe. 

" Be not afraid Tanner," said our king ; 

*' I tell thee, so mooght I thee, 
Lo here I make thee the beat eaqoire 

That b in the north oonntrie. 

For Plumpton-parke I will give thee, 

With tenemenU faire beside: 
*Tis worth three hundred markea by the yeare. 

To mainuine thy good oowe-hide." 

*' Grsmercye, my liege," the tanner replyde, 

" For the fSsTOor iStoa bait me ahowne ; 
If ever thon oomest to merry Tamworth, 

Neatest leader shall doat thy shoen.< " 

1 i.e.oow*s 9 Ferer'sBellQttBsofanGlaitBogllsh poetry. 

Y Tliflra appear to have been aereral slight variatkNis fai dtftrent copies of the 
baUad. For histanoe, the author of the " Art of SofUdi poesle,'* IftSff. qaodnc the 
tennlnatiiig line of the fourth ytnt from the end, as an example of the Tidoos mode 



of speech, called by the Greeks, Acraoir, makes the tanner exclaim in his fright at 
the liberties which he had taken with the sorereign, " I hope I shall be hanged to- 
morrow,'* meaning, *' I am afraid I shall be hanged,**-« p e r i aishm of language not 
entirely extinct among the lower orders at thepresent day. Again, the next Terse is 
rsstored from 8elden*s *' Titles of Honoor.** Ims celebrated author brings forward 
the ballad as no contemptible authority to show that one mode of creating esquires, at 
the time, was by the tanpositlon of a coUari for it is worthy of notioe that no doubt has 
crer been expressed of ttM actual occurence of ttie adventure between the Ung and the 
tanner, or of the correctness of the popular relation. In other places, the vcne ran 

^^ '-' Awayv with thy ttm*, dm JeOy namr. 

For the BMrt thoa hut •hown to me, 
I w«MB DM haltiT than ■hah wwve, 
Bot dieo dudt ham • halKhfs fM. 

This seems to have been a later version; and is, in (act, far from being correct. Percy, 
before he met with the amendment in Selden's work, believed that the tanner wan cre- 
ated a knight, and that the rustic mistook the word '* acolade" for ** a collar;'* or that 
the imposition of a collar was the only ceremony needed. But these coi^ectures are 
wrong. A collar was really demanded ; and knighthood could only be conferred by 
giving the acolade, or blow with the sword, which is not directly stated to have been 
adopted on this occasion. 

It is, hideed. faicredible, that the king should have admitted into the rank of knights, 
then so esteemed and honoured, an ignorant and boorish tanner. The title of esquire 
was certainly the highest which he could have bestowed. It was left for sovereinu 
subsequently to ttie rei^n of Blicabeth to degrade the sword of knighthood by laying 
it, almost vrithout dlscriminatian, upon those alike unfitted in station and persooal 
qualitiea. Some other better and more suimble means of reward mig^t surely be de- 
vised for those whose only vreapon was the goose-quill, or whose greatest nat the 
presentation of a loyal address. Then the once dignified institntion of knights might 
be confined within its legitimate and proper limits, and oonstitnte a mark of distinctkm 
in the army for bravery, or at least in such cases, where deeds of prowess and tntre- 
pidity have been achieved. But truly the age of chivalry is fied, and its honours 
prostrated in the dust. 



GENERAL HISTORY: 

CONTINUED. 



In the time of Richard III.^ Tamworth again became 
a place of notoriety. Henry^ earl of Richmond^ with 
his forces, passed through it on his way to Bosworth, 
where he was about to encounter the army of the king. 

To the throne of England, Richmond had been in- 
duced to aspire, by the promises of support which he 
leceiyed from the numerous and powerful adherents of 
the house of Lancaster, who were discontented at see- 
ing one of the opposite fietction of York in possession of 
the regal authority. On account of his intrigues, he 
had been compelled to quit the coimtry; but, after 
a short time, his party having increased, he determi- 
ned to prosecute his ambitious schemes with the sword. 

For this purpose, on the 1st of August, 1485, Henry 
embarked for England at Harfleet, in Normandy, with 
about S,000 troops, in a few ships. Directing his 
course towards Wales, after seven days' sail, he arrived 
at Milford-Haven ; where he landed. It had been his 
first intention to direct his course to London, and 
attempt to seize the capital at once. But now, hear- 
ing that Richard was in the north, he changed his 
plans, and resolved to meet the king, in order by one 
great blow to decide the fortimes of the war. He 
marched to Shrewsbury, and afterwards to Stafford. 





98 TAMWORTH 

From thence he proceeded to Lichfield. His forces, 
during the whole time, received continual augmentation 
by desertions from the party of Richard. 

Breaking up his camp at Lichfield, the earl of Rich- 
mond, on the 18th of August, sent forwards his troops 
to Tamworth. He, himself, followed with a body-guard 
of twenty light-horsemen. Midway between the two 
places, he was met by sir Walter Hungerford and sir 
Thomas Bourchier, knights, with many others. They 
had secretly quitted the royal army, a little beyond 
Stoney-Stratford ; and fled, under the cover of night, 
by unfirequented and circuitous paths, until they en- 
countered the earl. After a few words of courtesy and 
kindness, Richmond sent on his new allies to join the 
rest of the company. Falling into a fit of deep ab- 
straction, whilst musing on his fortunes and reflecting 
on his hazardous enterprize, he lingered so far behind 
his troops that he entirely lost sight of them; and 
they arrived at Tamworth without him. It was then 
simset; and, night rapidly closing in, he missed his way, 
perhaps at Coton, near Hopwas. After wandering for 
some time, he came to a little viUage about three miles 
distant, probably Elford. Fearing that he might fall 
into the hands of Richard's scouts who were spread 
throughout the whole country, and alarmed at the re- 
port which he had heard of the king's arrival in the 
immediate neighbourhood, he dared not address any 
person to ask for a guide or enquire the direction of 
the town. He was, therefore, compelled to dismount 
and conceal himself as well as he could. Every mo- 
ment, afiraid that his horse should betray him, dreading 
the slightest sound, and frequently imagining that some 
foe was approaching, he spent the night in anxious 
watchfulness and perturbation. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 99 

The first faint glimmerings in the east^ which an- 
nounced the dawn of day^ must have been joyfully 
welcomed by Richmond. When the light had sufficiently 
increased, he re-mounted his horse. Fortunately dis- 
covering the town, he arrived there in safety to the 
great satisfaction of his followers. Amongst them, his 
unexpected absence had caused much wonderment and 
consternation. 

Henry considered it impolitic to confess the truth, lest 
his accident might damp the ardour of the soldiery. 
He, therefore, stated that he had been to an appointed 
place, and had received favourable intelligence firom 
some of his secret friends. After his accession to the 
throne, he first gave a true account of this singular 
adventure.^ 

After riding publicly through the streets of Tam- 
worth that his safety might be well known, and his 
troops reanimated by his presence, he again left them 
and went to Atherstone. There, in a small and retired 
field, he conferred with lord Stanley, his father-in-law, 
and sir William Stanley, concerning the measures neces- 
sary to be adopted in the impending battle.* Although 

1 Sach is the oommonly-reeeiTed TeraioD of RiclimoDd*8 snppoted stnmse and 
pcriloDS adTcntaie, in his march from Lichfield to Tunworth, on the eyening of Thun- 
imf, Anput 18, 1485. Bot it will not, we think, be dUHcnlt to shew that Richmond most 
probablf deriatcd from his path for the express purpose of secretly conferring with 
sooM frtenda of his cause, or Tisiting his mother, or other members of the Stanley 
tuoUj : and that he spent the night either at Whittington, or Elford, then the property 
and occasional residence of the Stanleys. This view of the snl^ect receives some 
conoboration frxnn the statement given by Richmond himself, of the canse of his 
portentous afaeence, on the morning of his arrival at Tamworth. The Author's Father, 
who has paid some attention to this cnrions and interesting point of historical research, 
has pronndsed to concentrate in a note, all the information which he possesses, or here- 
after may be enabled to collect, on tiie sataject. The result of his investigations will 
be given in tlie appendix. 

9 This memorable interview is stated by Hntton— Battlb of BoswoaTH-FisLD, 
p. 59-492.— to have taken place on the night of Saturday, August SO, in a UtUe field 
eaUedthe *HaU.Close,' "situated one hundred yards behind the Three Tons, Joining 
the Coieshill road on the left, through which the canal now passes.** It is, moreover, 
somewhat looedy intimated by the same writer that " Henry slept one night at least" 
at the said Inn, which formed his headquarters. If this statement be ooirect. Miss 
Strickland's account of Richmond having lost his way on the night of the 20th, upon 
AtherstODe-moor in returning frxnn his Interview with the Stanleys, must be utterly 
destitnte of fbnndatlon. Vrom what source, the highly-gifted and generally accurate 
histofian of " the Queens of England" derived her materials for this very improbable 
story, we are at a loss to conceive. The writers, to whose authority she refers— Speed, 
Rapfai, and Hvtton at least— do not, in the most distant manner, advert to it. 



534864 



100 TAMWORTH 

a secret friend and adviser, the former had not yet 
openly advocated Richmond's cause. Richard had re- 
tained lord Strange, as an hostage for the fidelity of 
his father; and had treason been suspected, the son 
would at once have been sacrificed. But in the battle, 
Stanley took the side which his paternal aflbction had 
prevented him from previously acknowledging. 

On the evening of the same day, Richmond was 
joined by sir John Savage, sir Brian Sandford, and 
sir Simon Digby. They had deserted with their friends 
and followers, from Richard's party, then vnth him at 
Leicester. Having returned to Tamworth, the earl 
marched thence with all his forces to encounter the 
army of the king: and the two rivals met in the neigh* 
bourhood of Market-Bosworth, in Leicestershire. On 
Monday, the 22nd of August, the battle was fought 
Richard, who, whatever may be the crimes laid to his 
charge, was a brave and accomplished soldier, displayed 
his courage in a remarkable manner. Discontent and 
treachery, however, were rife amongst his troops. His 
army was defeated, and he, himself, slain in the thickest 
of the fight. The battle thus decided, the army of 
Richmond sang the Te Deum. Clapping their hands, 
they saluted him with the title of Henry VH. And 
the crown of Richard was placed by lord Stanley on 
the head of the conqueror.* 

The connection of Tamworth with the history of the 
nation, at the translation of the sceptre fit)m the house 
of York to that of Lancaster has not escaped the notice 
of the mighty bard of the Avon. By his pen, the town 
has been recorded in the immortal page, which would 

1 Hall's Uuion.^HoliuBhcd's Chronicles of England, &c. 



TOWN AND CASTLE. 101 

transmit its memory, even if the place of its existence 
should be forgotten. In the play of Richard III., one of 
the most celebrated of his historical tragedies, a scene 
of the fifth act is laid in a plain near Tamworth. 
There Richmond is represented as thus addressing his 
followers, to inflame their minds, and urge them on, 
with greater boldness to the battle-field. 

" FellowB in armfl, and my most loving friends, 

Bniia'd nndemeath the yoke of tyranny, 

Thus far into the bowels of the land 

Have we march'd on without impediment; 

And here receive we from our fiither Stanley 

Lines of fidr comfort and encouragement. 

The wretched, bloody, and nsorping boar, 

That spoil'd your summer fields and fraitM vines, 

Swills yoor warm blood like vrash, and makes his trough 

In your embowell'd bosoms, this fonl swine 

Lies now even in the centre of this isle, 

Near to the town of Leioester, as we learn : 

From Tunworth thither is bnt one day's march. 

In God's name, cheerly on, conrageons friends, 

To reap the harvest of perpetnal peace 

By this one bloody trial of sharp war.'' 

Shakespeare, in designating Richard III. as a wild 
boar, has given him the opprobrious appellation, by 
which he was often distinguished amongst his adversaries, 
and the firiends of Richmond. The name was first 
suggested by the king's having a hog for one of the 
supporters of his arms. In 1484, William CoUingbume, 
of Lydiard, in Wiltshire, was hanged, drawn, and quar* 
tered, for high treason, in aiding the cause of the earl, 
and vniting the following satirical distich upon the 
king and the three royal favourites, lord viscount Level, 
sir Richard Ratcliffe, and sir William Catesby. 

" The cat, the rat, and Lovel the dog, 
Rule all England under a hog.'** 
1 HoUnBbed. 



102 TAMWORTH 

Until the period when Eliasabeth re-incorporated the 
town> Tamworth was placed under two distinct and 
independent, but similarly constituted, governments, for 
the two sides. Each of them consisted of two high- 
bailiflb, one low-bailiff, two tasters or victual«conners, 
and two chamberlains. There were, besides, a constable 
or head-borough, and numerous watchmen. We also 
find that, at a very early period, there existed a high 
and a low-steward. 

In the high-bailifSs, the government of the town was 
wholly vested; and, as in other places, they presided 
over the courts. They were elected every year, generally, 
although not invariably, on the first Monday in July. 
The oldest names, which we have yet found, are those 
of William Taylor and Adam Palmer, on the Warwick- 
shire side, about 1245. They were witnesses of a grant 
of several parts of burgages in the town, by William 
de Blackreeve to Philip de Marmyon, for 80s. paid by 
his wife, lady Joan. Of the names of many more, we 
have collected a list, down to the time of Edward 
YI., chiefly firom the court-rolls of the town, and firom 
amongst the witnesses of deeds. In one or two instan- 
ces, the days of election have been discovered firom the 
former source.^ 

There is very little worthy of remark concerning 
these officers, except a few bye-laws for their regula- 
tion. On the 20th of October, 1422, it was ordered 
that none should serve in the office, for more than one 
year.' In 1436, it seems to have been necessary to 
restrain their combative dispositions by a very heavy fine; 
for, on the 10th of July, it was ordained that any one of 
them, who should make an affiray in another borough, 

1 S«e Appendix :~Note 2. 2 Court rolls, i H. VI. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 103 

or assault any man in his own^ except in self-defence^ 
should pay 40«.^ half to go to the common box of the 
town^ and half to the benefit of the Church.^ Richard 
III. charged the bailifis and commonality no longer to 
pay regard to the custom of choosing them out of their 
burgesses and freeholders^ but to respect the sufficiency 
of persons' goods alone. The document was dated at 
Nottingham, on the 12th of October, 1484.' 

The low-bailiff was appointed annually soon after the 
high-bailiffi, apparently on no particular day. His 
office seems to have been to summon parties to the 
courts, and transact other similar business, under the 
direction of the superior officers. The names of several 
occur in the court-rolls of the town.' 

The two tasters were also chosen annually, the precise 
day being varied according to convenience or necessity: 
and they took an oath to perform the duties with fidelity. 
Their office was to supervise all ale, wine, and food of 
every kind, exposed for sale ; also all weights and mea- 
sures, and to report at the court-leet whatever they 
considered as bad or suspicious, for adjudication.^ 

To the chamberlains, the charge of all the public 
pecuniary transactions was committed. The date of 
their appointment was also imcertain.' 

Of the constable or head-borough it is needless to say 
anything. The names of some, in ancient times, have 
been preserved.' 

The town, during the night, must have been very 
strictly guarded ; for the watchmen were numerous. The 
inhabitants seem to have been obliged often to take 
the duty upon themselves, or to find so^ie substitute. 

1 CoartroUs, HH.VI. s lUrlMnM.S. 
3 See Appendiz :— Note 3. 4 See Appendix:— Note 4. 

ft See Appendix:— Notes. See Appendix :— Note 0. 



104 TAMWORTH 

There are many old bye-laws for their regulation, 
some of which are rather curious. May SOth, 1S79 : — 
Any person not prepared, at the summons of the bai- 
liflEs, to watch, and that fiiithfully, from the setting to 
the rising of the sun, according to the usual custom 
of the town, should incur a penalty of 4d. tot every 
omission. May SOth, 1390: — ^If the men ordained to 
watch, should sculk under the waUs of the houses, or 
behave iU, they should be fined 40d. And it was fur- 
ther ordered that every burgess of the town should send 
one able man to keep guard, or pay 40d. tor each 
de&ult May 12th, 1422: — ^Any one assaulting the 
watchmen of the lord king should pay 20«., half to go 
to the bailiffs, and half to the town-box. April 28th, 
1547: — No watchman should be in his house after the 
hour of nine at night, otherwise he should pay 6<. 8d.^ 
Although it was esteemed the most honourable of all, 
we have reserved until last the office of high-steward, be- 
cause its duties were little more than nominal, and only 
called into exercise on particular occasions and emer- 
gencies. It was usually given to some nobleman or 
person of rank in the neighbourhood ; who generally had 
a representative or low-steward in the town. The 
creation of the high-stewardship has always been at- 
tributed to queen Elizabeth. This opinion is, however, 
very erroneous. The first time we have yet seen it 
alluded to, is in May, 1382, when William de Caldewell, 
and William Wirley, baker, on admission to the freedom 
of the town, took the required oath before Richard 
Wolf, " tunc loco seneschalli," and the bailiffs of the 
Staffordshire ^de. Each of them paid half a mark, 
" according to ancient custom." On the other side of 

1 Court rolls, StaJVontalilre, 9, is R. 1I.| lo H. v.; i K. VI. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 105 

the town, on the 12th of June, 1420, Richard Caldewell 
was made firee in the presence of Richard Hilton, stew- 
ard, and the bailiffs. And again, in Staffordahire, on the 
SSrd of August, 1452, John Breton, of Lichfield, was 
admitted to the liberty of the town and sworn before 
the steward.^ 

This high appointment was held by sir John Ferrers, 
knt., lord of the Castle. It appears to have been pre- 
viously enjoyed by some of his ancestors. He died in 
1512; and was succeeded by his son Humphry; to 
whom a grant of the office was made under the great 
seal of England. The latter, in the exercise of his 
duties, appears either to have overstepped the bounds 
of prudence and legitimate authority, or to have excited 
the anger of those, against whom his power was exerted. 
There were many charges of assault upon different per- 
sons preferred against him, all in connexion with the 
stewardship. On these matters, however, we have only 
seen his general answers ; we cannot consequently state 
the predse nature or extent of the accusations brought 
against him.' 

John Ferrers succeeded his father in this office. After 
his decease, in April, 1576, it was bestowed on Humphry 
Ferrers, both by the crown, and by the corporation of 
the town, in the January following.' With him we shall 
leave the subject at present, to resume it hereafter. 

We have thus brought the general history of Tam- 
worth down to the end of the reign of Philip and 
Mary. We must now speak of the modified form of 
government, under which Elisabeth placed the town^ by 
ktters-patent dated on the 24th of December, 1560. 

1 Court rollB, 5 R. II., 7 H. V., 90 H. VI. 
a See Appendix:— Note 7. 3 Corporation Records. 



106 TAMWORTU 

The charter commenced by reciting that Tamworth 
was an ancient market-town: and the inhabitants^ by 
the name of bailiffs and commonalty, had, from time im- 
memorial, held it of the kings of England, at an annual 
fee-fiurm rent of 10/. 16s. And they had also enjoyed 
divers franchises, liberties, gifts, and acquittances, as 
well by prescription, as by royal concessions and patents. 
These charters being either lost or destroyed by fire 
or some other casuality, there were no sufficient letters- 
patent in existence. The inhabitants, therefore, humbly 
petitioned that the royal munificence might be extended 
to them, and the town incorporated anew. 

The charter then, resemng the old rent, proceeded to 
constitute the town a tree borough corporate, for ever, 
of two bailifSs and a commonalty of twenty-four capital 
burgesses, who were to form one body, called '^ the 
bailiffs and commonalty of the town of Tamworth, in 
the counties of Stafford and Warwick." They were 
empowered to hold lands and privileges, to plead and 
be impleaded, and to use a common seal in the trans- 
action of their business. They were to hold common 
halls, where they were to make bye-laws and ordinances, 
for the well-government of the town : and these, if not 
repugnant to the statutes of the realm, they might en- 
force by fine or imprisonment. They were to choose 
the two bailifi,* horn amongst their own body, eight 
capital burgesses being present at least, on the feast of 
St. Peter ad Yincula^ — the 1st of August, — annually, 
between the hours of nine and twelve in the morning. 
Any vacancy in the office, from death or removal, be- 
tween the periods of election, was to be supplied in a 
similar way, imtil the appointed time arrived. In like 

1 Peter BnMlockindHrarjmmper were nominikted in the charter M the flntbalU^ 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 107 

manner, they were directed to fill up, within eight days, 
all vacancies in their own body,^ occurring firom death, 
absence firom the borough for six months, or other 
cause. Two sergeants were to be appointed firom time to 
time, at will, to make proclamations, arrests, &c. within 
the borough, in a similar manner to those of the city of 
London : and each was to bear before the bailifb a silver 
mace, adorned with the royal arms. The boundaries of 
the borough were to remain the same as they had always 
been; and the bailifis and commonalty might make 
perambulations of it without impediment. 

The bailifSs were then constituted justices of peace 
within the borough. Before them was to be held a 
court of record on every third Monday. They were 
also to have a common jail for felons and malefiustors. 
On warrant under their seal, the sherifis of the counties 
of Stafford and Warwick were directed to receive any 
prisoners. 

A market was to be held on every Saturday. There 
were to be two annual fairs, one on the feast of St. 
Greoi^, the other on that of St. Edward ; and both to 
kst for the four subsequent days. During the time 
when the market and fairs were held, there were to be 
courts of pie-poudre, with all liberties and firee customs 
appertaining. The stallage, piccage, tolls, and all other 
profits, were to go to the personal advantage of the 
bailiffs. They were to have assize of bread, wine, ale, 
and victuals, as well as of measures and weights, and 
the correction of them, and of aU things belonging to 
the office of the clerk of the market of the queen's 
household. The profits accruing were also to be ap- 
propriated by the bailiffs. View of firank-pledge of all 

1 The namei of the lint capital burgesBes were given In the charter. 



108 TAMWORTH 

the inhabitants^ whether entirely resident or not, was 
granted. It was to be held twice in the year, onoe 
within a month after the feast of St. Michael, and again 
within the same limits after Easter, before the bailifi; 
who were to take the profits for their own use. And, 
finally, the charter empowered the corporate body to 
acquire lands and other possessions, of the annual yalae 
of 40/. or less, notwithstanding the Mortmain act, or 
any other statute.^ 

From the preamble of the charter, it is evident that 
the concessions which Elizabeth thus made were rather 
renewals of those previously enjoyed, than firesh grants. 
Yet the change introduced by her in the form of 
government of the town, by the appointment of a self- 
elective corporation, in whom she vested all local 
powers, was of very great importance, especially in the 
political aspect under which we shall soon have occa- 
sion to view it. With regard to other minor modifica 
tions, most of them will have been already anticipated 
by the reader. The queen included both sides of the 
town imder one jurisdiction; reduced the bailiflb to two; 
and altered the time of their election. She substituted 
sergeants-at-mace for the low-baili£Es ; and entirely 
abolished the victual-conners. The ancient office of 
chamberlains was continued, although not under any 
chartered provision. 

In the tremendous religious revolution, which occur- 
red in the middle of the sixteenth century, it became a 
most important object either to a Catholic or Protestant 
government, to gain over, and if possible control, the 
powers which the people possessed in the House of 
Commons. Both parties called to their aid the whole 

1 Chmrter, 3 Eliz. :~Corporation Records. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 109 

of the resources which they possessed. It became a 
time of the most actire employmeat of the discretionary 
powers of the sherifi of different counties^ as to what 
places should be considered parliamentary boroughs. 
None were now omitted, which, in public estimation, 
had a prescripiiye right. We accordingly find that, in 
the reigns of Edward VI., Philip and Mary, and EliMr 
beth, seventeen boroughs resumed the privilege, whidi 
they had once exerted, but permitted to &U into disuse; 
and forty-six more now first began to send representa- 
tives: thus making an addition of 1S8 members to the 
lower house. Amongst the latter, Tamworth commenced 
the exercise of its powers, in 1563. Ever since, it has 
continued to return members,' with the exception of a 
short period during the commonwealth.^ 

But the most novel assumption of power, at this 
time, was that of remodelling, by governing charters, 
the municipal constitutions of the new or revived 
boroughs. The local government of them was vested 
entirely in a small select body, ever afterwards to be 
self-elected. In many places, too, the return of the 
parliamentary members was given entirely to this cor- 
poration, or was adopted by it with the tacit consent of 
the crown. The latter appears to have been frequently 
the case vdth Tamworth, in Elizabeth's reign.' Thus 
the people were deprived completely of all mimicipal 
and political power, and placed imder the domination 
of persons chosen by the crown; over the actions of 
whom they possessed not the least control. 

The nomination of the first officers was always from 
the partizans and supporters of government. The peo- 
ple were thus secured to the interest of those in power. 

1 See Appeadiz :— Note 8. 2 Corpontton Records. 



no TAMWORTH 

Or> on the other hand, they were incapacitated from 
expressing their sentiments in a constitutional manner, 
or to act, at least with any efficiency, against the 
designs of their existing rulers. 

These were the sdiemes to which Edward VI., and, 
in a few instances, Philip and Mary resorted. But it 
was left for Elizabeth to adopt sudi courses to the 
greatest lengths which prudence would permit. They 
formed the first and most important step towards a 
subsequent attempt to overthrow the whole liberties of 
the people, and to establish a despotism. But the re- 
action, which, after some tune, took place, proved the 
madness of the design, and well nigh terminated in 
a way very opposite to that which was intended. The 
result was a long and terrible struggle between the 
crown and people, when the whole fabric of monardiy 
was shaken to its foundations, and, for a brief space, 
that power destroyed, which it had been sought so 
imduly to exalt.^ 

The year, in which Tamworth assumed its prescriptive 
right, and revived as a place of political importance, 
was one of misfortune to it, from another circumstance. 
The town was then visited by the plague, — that dread- 
frd scourge, which so frequently desolated other parts 
of the kingdom, and especially the metropolis. The 
notice of its appearance here, occurs in the Parish-regis- 
ter; but, at the same time, no account is given of the 
extent of its ravages. From the beginning of Novem- 
ber, 1560, to December, 1568, there are no entries in 
the record, nor is there any space left in the leaf; but 
this note occurs. ** The names of them y^ wer buried 
of y* plague in An^ d'ni 1568." The names, however, 

1 See Penny CycIoptedU .—Art. BorougAi, 



CASTLE AND TOWN. Ill 

are not given. ' Whether they were ever inserted^ or 
were omitted by the minister^ who transcribed the early 
part of the register^ cannot be ascertained. Deaths from 
the plague are again mentioned in July and August, 
1597 ; when the disease extended to Wilnecote, and the 
neighbourhood.' 

To the close of the reign of Philip and Mary, under 
the ancient system of goyemment, the fee-&rm rent for 
the Warwickshire side of the town appears to have 
been punctually rendered. But the new corporation 
neglected its payment for three and twenty years; un- 
til, in 1582, they were involved in a debt of two sums, 
one of 116«., the other of 127/. IZs. In the Michael- 
mas term of this year, they obtained an order that no 
legal process should be awarded against them, until they 
should have had time to bring in their charter and 
plead during the ensuing term.' 

For a short ^time, * we ' must recur^ to the details of 
chartered grants. - Elizabeth had already given to the 
corporate body, as the representative of the town, many 
of the privileges; which the inhabitants had formerly 
enjoyed. But there still remained others, for the con- 
tiniuuice of which she had not provided. A second 
application to royal bounty, therefore, became necessary. 
The inhabitants found a ready advocate in the cele- 
brated &vourite, Bobert Devereux, earl of Essex, who 
had then risen high in* his sovereign's favour, and 
possessed no small influence at court. He was closely 
connected with the town ; and took much interest in its 
wel&re. His mother resided at Dray ton-manor ; and 
there he spent a great part of his time. Through his 
mediation, the queen granted a second charter, bearing 

1 PBrJtli.recister, s Carporation Records. 



11£ TAMWORTH 

date on the 10th of October, 1588, by which many 
important concessions were made. 

By these letters-patent, the inhabitants were fireed 
from being put with strangers upon any juries, occurring 
without the limits of the town, unless they should hold 
possessions not within these bounds, for which they 
oi^ht to be empannelled. And no strangers were to 
be intruded upon those required in the borough, eyen 
though they possessed lands and tenements there, unless 
the matter should concern the soyereign of the realms. 
And the bailiffii and commonalty were empowered to 
elect, from time to time, at pleasure, a recorder of the 
town. They were also to haye a high-steward. This 
office was giyen to Robert Deyereux, earl of Essex, and 
his heirs male for eyer; in de&idt whereof, the bailiffs 
and capital burgesses might haye the choice. And be- 
sides, there was to be a town-derk, or prothonotary of 
the town, for all courts, and yiews of frank-pledge or 
leets. Preyiously to assuming office, he was to take 
the necessary oaths in the presence of the chief 
steward. The bailifb, high-steward, recorder, and 
town-derk, the three latter of whom were not to accept 
office without royal approyal, were to be justices of 
peace within the precincts of the town. The court of 
record was to be held on eyery third Monday, before 
any two of them, or the under-steward ; of whom, how- 
eyer, a bailiff was to be one : and they m^ht determine 
any cases as well of assizes of noyel disseizin, mort d'an- 
cestor and fresh force, as of all other actions, suits, and 
personal matters. A fiur was granted to be held on the 
feast of St. Swythen, and for four days after, with the 
usual court of pie-poudre. The bailiflEs and common- 
alty were to haye all waifs and strays, and employ 



CASTLE AND TOWN. US 

them for their common benefit. The baili£& were to be 
included in aU commissions of array of men-at-anns^ 
hobehos^ and bowmen, within the borough. And the 
corporate body was still to enjoy all rights, jurisdictions, 
franchises, liberties, privileges, lands, tenements, rents, 
commons, waters, fisheries, and other easements, profits, 
and emoluments, which had previously been given to 
them by royal grant, or private donation. 

The bailifb and commonalty were then constituted 
a body corporate, under the title of ** Guardians and 
Grovemors of the possessions, revenues, and goods, of 
the Free Grammar School of Elizabeth, queen of Eng- 
land, in Tamworth."' As the charter now enters into 
matters which regard the Church and School alone, we 
shall defer giving the remainder, until those fi>undations 
come tmder our immediate notice. 

Upon the concessions thus made by Elizabeth, no 
observations are needed, except in the case of the high 
stevrardship. This subject, indeed, is rather curious, 
and worthy of attention. 

When we formerly spoke of this office, we left it in 
the hands of Humphry Ferrers. By him, it was held 
when the queen conferred it on the earl of Essex and 
his heirs. This second grant, without any annulment 
of, or even reference to, the former one, caused some 
difference between the rival stewards ; which threatened 
to proceed to some lengths. Humphry Ferrers, who 
insisted that his patent was still of force, referred the 
matter to William Cecil, baron Burleigh, then lord high 
treasurer of England. He was, however, prevailed up- 
on by. this minister-of-state to forego all proceedings 
against the royal favourite, in a matter involving only 

1 Charter, 30 Bliz :— Corporation Records. 



114 TAimrORTH 

an honorary title. As a compensation, he was promised 
some other post of higher dignity and greater emolu- 
ment. Whether any reward were made to Hmnjduy, 
afterwards sir Humphry Ferrers for his forbearanoey 
we have not discovered. It is certain that, perhaps in 
continual expectation of receiving it, he consented to 
let the matter rest : and nothing more is heard of it fi» 
some time. But immediately on the attainder of the 
gifted but unfortunate Essex, for high tieason, sir 
Humphry resumed the office, by virtue of his old grant 
He was, however, doomed a second time to be dis- 
appointed; for it was given, under the great seal of 
Ei^land, to sir John Egertcm. It is only justice to 
add that this was done in ignorance of the previous 
circumstances. It was certainly somewhat anomalous; 
for the crown had assumed the appointment, which, 
by the charter, was placed principally in the hands of 
the corporate body. 

Sir Humphry Ferrers was, at this time, determined 
to carry on the matter, and vindicate his daim. He 
wrote to lord Buckhurst, first lord of the treasury, and 
to sir Robert Cecil, representing his case to them. He 
stated that the office had been previously held by his 
great-grandfitther, and others of his ancestors, and that 
it had also been given to him. He had, he said, ser- 
ved her majesty faithftilly and with great zeal, as a 
justice of peace in three counties, when the most ardu- 
ous exertions were required. He doubtless alluded to 
the period, when the unfortunate Mary, queen of Scots, 
remained a captive at Tutbury-castle, in Staffinrdshire. 
No cause of misdemeanor had been found in him, 
whereby his patent should be forfeited; and he trusted 
that, in regard to his services and his r^ht, the office. 



CASTLE AMD TOWN. 115 

which was valueless in point of emolument^ might be 
veatored to him.' 

The towns-people also actively took up sir Humphry's 
cause, on account of his residence at the Castle ; whilst 
sir John Egerton lived at a distance. They presented 
a petition in his fiivour to king James I. ; who had 
then just ascended the throne.' Aflter a little delay, the 
stewardship appears to have been given back to him. 
He did not live very long to enjoy the honour, of 
which he had been unjustly deprived for fifteen years; 
for he died in January, 1607. 

About the period when Elizabeth conferred her second 
charter on the town, there arose a considerable dispute 
between many of the inhabitants and Humphry Ferrers, 
llie latter held the Casde-miU situated on the Tame, 
for himself and his heirs for ever, of the queen, at an 
annual fee-farm rent of 10/. To it, these inhabitants 
owed suit and soke, and had all their com groimd 
there. But, during the space of more than three years, 
diey gradually adopted the use of small malt-miUs or 
querns, at their private residences: and latterly they 
carried all their grain to mills at a distance from the 
town. Humphry Ferrers was, at length, compelled to 
have recourse to legal measures to enforce his right. 

He accordingly preferred his complaint to the honour- 
able court of Exchequer. After some tune, he obtained 
an injunction to oblige the inhabitants to grind all 
their com at his place, and to restrain the use of the 
querns ; which threatened to prove a very serious detri- 
ment to, and even eventually to ruin, his mill.' 



Sec Appendix -.'Note 9. s See Appendix:— Note 10. 

3 Corporation Records. 



116 TAMWOETH 

A little previously, we gave a short outline of the 
mode in which Elizabeth, for the purpose of carrying 
out the designs of her government, foimd it necessary 
to exalt the royal prerogatives. There was now only 
one more step which she could adopt, in order to secure 
the parliament to herself, — to dictate to different cities 
and boroughs the persons who should be elected as 
their representatives. And, to this scheme, we find 
that she really had recourse, by means of her agents. 
The interference occurred more with regard to small 
places, or those where her partizans possessed much 
influence. The following letter, written by the earl of 
Essex previously to the election in 1592, contains some 
of the nominations for places in Staffordshire; and 
amongst them for Tamworth. Other coimties were 
similarly influenced: and hence is seen the great extent 
to which the practise was carried. 

Robert Deoereux^ earl of Essex ^ to Richard Bagoty esq. 

'^ Mter my hartie commendacions. I have written 
severall letters to Lichfield, Stafford, Tamworth, and 
Newcastle, for the nomination and election of certen 
burgesses for the Parliament to be held verie shortlie; 
having named unto them, for Lichfield, sir John Wing- 
field and Mr. Broughton, — ^for Stafford, my kinsman 
Henry Bourgcher and my servant Edward ReynoUs, — 
for Tamworth, my servant Thomas Smith, — ^for New- 
castle, Dr. James, — whome, because I do greatlie desire 
to be preferred to the said places, I do eamestlie pray 
your fiirtherance, by the creditt which you have in 
those towns, assuring them of my thankfulness, if they 
shall for my sake gratifie those whom I have com- 
mended; and yourself that I will not be unmindfuU of 



TOWN AND CASTLE. 117 

your Gouitesie therem. So I commend you to Crod's 
good protecjdon: from Hampton-Court^ the last daye of 
December, 1592. 

Your assured friend, 

ESSEX." 

''I send unto you the seTerall letters, which I praye 
you cause to be deliuered according to their directions."^ 

Of the persons thus named, sir John Wingfield, 
Bichard Broughton, Henry Bourchier, Thomas Smith, 
and John James, M.D., were actually returned; besides 
one of the knights of the shire, sir Christopher Bloimt, 
whom, in another letter to Sichard Bagot, the earl 
had pointed out as being considered a proper repre- 
sentatiye. 

Very shortly after this time, if we may credit a 
long series of heayy charges brought against them, the 
baOiffii of the town unfortunately did not adhere to the 
integrity of conduct, which should ever characterize 
those to whom the dispensation of justice is committed. 
The corrupt practices, of which several of them were 
accused in the execution of their office, are set forth 
in a paper written at the time, entitled, ''Notes of 
the abvses of the bailiffes of Tamwo'th." Nine are 
implicated by name, John Stokes, Thomas Ashlock, 
William Shemon, Robert Scale, John Wright, Peter 
Bradock, Nicholas Wilcox, John Turner, and Henry 
Baron. The document, from its singularity, has been 
inserted in the appendix: and thither the reader may 
turn for full information on this point.' Each may 
then judge as he thinks best of the guilt or innocence 

1 ErdMwicke't Surrey of StalRmlBhire, by Harwood, edit. 1844. This letter was, 
amongst others, broni^ht forward by Canning, to show the undue inflaence formerly 
ezerdied over etoctioos. in a speech delivered on the SAth of April, 18S2; when a 
motion for parliamentary reform was discussed in the House of Commons. 

s See Appendix:— Note il. 



118 TAMWORTH 

of the parties ; for, in the absence of any other record 
on this pointy it woidd be impossible to give any 
decided opinion. If the whole should be fiilse, we most 
censure the malevolence of the accuser: if true, we 
can only lament the circumstance^ and wish it had 
been in our power to present some points^ which 
would redeem the characters of those accused^ or miti- 
gate their condemnation. Shakespeare well remarks^ in 
speaking of cardinal Wolsey^ 

" Men's evil maniien lire in bnae ; their vlrtiiet 

We write in water." 

So concerning the bailiffs^ the bad remains on lasting 
record: whilst to learn the good, we fain must send 
our readers to the stream to see what they may find. 
We fear the watery page is bbmk; and that the 
cleansing flood, in opposition to its wonted course, has 
washed away the whole, and left the stain behind. 
Once, indeed, the hand which traced the stream with 
useless toil, wrote on the sandy shore, a short but 
pleasing word. It was ''Charity"; and Peter Bradock 
claimed it as Ins own. But oyer it now the swelling 
wave has passed, and scarcely left a single mark behind. 
The next incident worthy of notice, is the re-appear- 
ance of the pestilence in the town, in 1596. This 
dreadful disease seems to have raged with great fury, 
aggravated by the partial famine, which then prevailed 
in the country. The deaths were so numerous here, 
that the distress occasioned by the insufficient supply 
of com was, in some measure, alleviated ; according to 
a memorandum in the Parish-rqpbter, Mardi, 1597-8. 
*' Dyvers died of y« blouddie flixe. At w^ tyme the 
darth of come somwhat abated by reason of deathe 
& dauske Rye." 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 119 

In the last few years ot Elizabeth's protracted leign^ 
there oocuned a long and important law-suit between 
the bailiffs and commonalty^ and William Comberford, 
regarding the Staffordshire part of the town. To this 
moiety, the latter claimed a right. The grounds on 
which his demands were founded were — ^that frequently, 
whilst the Hastily' fiimily held it and Wigginton, 
these two places were considered as forming but one 
manor: — ^that, as owner of Wigginton, he received the 
fise-fiurm rent of lOda* firom the bailifb, in equal quarterly 
sums : — and that he had sometimes held the court-leet 
of Wigginton in the Staffordshire Town-hall : at which 
he had induced some poor inhabitants of the town to 
do suit. He, and his son Humphry for him, demanded 
the power of proclaiming the fidrs ; but the bailiffs pre- 
yented them Ikom carrying their intentions into effect by 
threats of immediate arrest. Mr. Comberford then sent 
men to dig and delve within the precincts of the town; 
tliereby asserting his right to it. The bailiffs and 
commonalty now commenced an action in common law 
law against him for trespass. Haying, by some means, 
obtained possession of numerous important documents, 
he caused no small d^ree of trouble to the corpcMration. 
But at length, an injunction, dated the Slst of May, 
1599, was obtained; by which he wai» compelled to 
produce the records. The bailifb and commonalty were 
then enabled to substantiate their rights, and com- 
pletely orerthrow their opponent's cause.' 

In October, November, and December, 1606, the 
town was re-visited by the plague; but it does not 
appear to have been very violent in its ravages.' 

During the frequent progresses which James I. made 

1 Corpoffatloii Reoonto. 2 Parish Register. 



120 TAliWORTH 

through the kingdom^ in the latter part of his reign^ 
Tamworth was fiiYOured seyeral times with the royal 
presence. The first visit is thus recorded in the Parish 
register: — 

''August, 1619. 

Kinge James ^ Prince charles. 

The 18th day. James, cure noble Kinge, & y^ wor- 
they prince Charles came to Tamworth. The Kinge 
lodged at y« castell; And y* prince at the mothalL 
Mr. Thomas Ashley & Mr. John Sharp, then be- 
lieffes, gaue royall entertaynment." 

On his host, sir Humphry Ferrers, the king had 
previously conferred the honour of knighthood, during 
his stay at Warwick. But the same distinction was 
not extended to Mr. William Comberford; whose house 
the prince made his residence. The kind of reception 
given to the royal visitors has been passed over in 
silence by historians. Imagination, however, may easily 
supply the void; and an acquaintance with ike festive 
customs of those times add the particulars. The king 
remained in the town during the whole of the 19th. 
On the following day, he created Philip Eaton a knight, 
probably just before he quitted the town on his way 
to Warwick, for a second time.' 

Two years subsequently, James I. paid another visit 
to Tamworth; whilst prince Charles remained at Kenil- 
worth. On the Slst of August, 1621, he came to the 
Castle ; when he knighted sir Edmund Windsor. Here 
he remained until the following morning ; and then he 
continued his progress to Warwick again. 

The king made a third and final visit to this town 
in August, 1624. On the 19th, he dined at Wichnor, 

1 Nicholi* ProffreMM of Junes I. a lb. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. ISl 

in Staffordshire. On his arrival here^ in the evening 
of the same day, at the seat of sir Humphry Ferrers^ 
he knighted sir John Skeffington, of Skeffington, in 
Leicestershire ; who was^ at that time, high sheriff of 
the county of Stafford. The prince did not accompany 
his father, but stayed at Kenilworth. In the ensuing 
day, the king proceeded to Bastwell-hall.' 

In the Parish-roister, there is no notice taken of 
either the second or third visits of James; but there 
occurs the following entry: — 

"August, 1624. 
S6, was bur. John Clarke, the King's servant." 

In 1626, the plague appeared again in the town, but 
finr the last time. In October of that year, there were 
eleven persons buried, " cum multis aliis ratione pestis," 
the names or number of whom have not been re- 
corded.' 

In the unhappy and disastrous dvil wars, which 
arose in the middle of the sixteenth century, Tamworth 
took a very active part. The long disputes between 
the parliament and Charles I., terminated in the as- 
sumption of royal prerogatives, totally incompatible with 
the constitution. The king, finding that he could not 
control the legislative body, at last . tried to rule inde- 
pendently of their authority: and the parliament as 
8ted£istly refused to yield up the power vested in 
them. The long series of encroachments on the free- 
dom of the people, which had been gradually carried 
on horn the days of Elizabeth, was brought to a crisis. 
No resource was left for either side, except the mainte- 
nance of their claims by an appeal to arms, or an 
unconditional submission to the other party. But nei- 

1 Nichols' FrogresMS. 2 Piurlth Register. 



122 TAMWORTH 

ther would compromise their cause in the least degree. 
The people now took the side which they believed 
correct, or which interest and passion indicated. To 
the king's standard, flocked the major part of the 
members of the old and noble &milies of the land. 

To the aid of the parliament, congregated immense 
numbers, especially of the middle and lower classes. 
Indeed, from a conscientious opposition to the despotism 
which the king endeavoured to establish, many attached 
themselves to the popular side, who equally disliked 
the democratical system which they were unawares 
aiding to set up, and who would have drawn back 
in dismay had they been able to foresee idtimate 
consequences. But neutrality was next to impossible. 
Such a course would have rendered a person the object 
of suspicion and dislike to both factions; and would 
have entailed certain ruin, which might have been 
avoided, partially at least, by joining either party. At 
first, the balance of justice was imdoubtedly on the 
side of the people. But soon it preponderated in &vour 
of the royalists, in consequence of the extreme lengths 
to which the parliamentarians resorted. Of Ihe two 
evils, a despotism and a democracy, the choice undoubt* 
edly lies vastly in favour of the former. 

Another great cause of the outbreak of the civil war, 
must be sought in the peculiar religious temper which 
prevailed very generally throughout the country. The 
doctrines of the puritans, although discountenanced by 
the state, and even attenipted to be extinguished by 
civil means, had spread like a pestilence amongst the 
people. At the same time, the high-church principles 
advocated by archbishop Laud, and which Charles endea- 
voured to enforce so long as he had any authority. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 123 

gave great scandal to these puritans and to the presby- 
terians. They also alienated many in the establish- 
ment, who had imbibed the spirit of these men. Such 
persons now took the opportunity of expressing their 
sentiments, and upholding their opinions in public. So 
greatly did these motives prevail, that the war, com- 
mencing at first in dvil causes, after a very short 
period, entirely assumed the aspect of a religious strife : 
and soon we have a mournful picture of the dread- 
ful lengths to which an erroneous and unbridled enthu- 
siasm is calculated to carry the human mind. 

The refusal of the governor of Hull to admit the 
king within the walls of that town, constituted the first 
signal for war&re between the royalists and the parlia- 
mentarians. Charles then went to Nottingham ; where 
he unfurled his banner on the 22nd of August, 1642. 
Directly the trumpet of war re-echoed throughout the 
whole land, and sounded the mutual defiance of the 
hostile companies. All the principal towns and castles 
of the kingdom were now garrisoned by the soldiers 
and friends of either party ; who prepared to assert and 
maintiiin their cause. Hence began the desolating 
commotions, which, after a time, terminated in the 
death of the unfortunate king, and in the subversion of 
the whole country. 

At what precise time troops were first placed at 
Tamworth, and to whom the command of them was 
given, we have not been able to discover with certainty ; 
but, in the autumn of 1642, the Castle was occupied 
by the king's party. About the same time, the dose 
of Lichfield cathedral, which was then walled round 
and capable of being well defended, was taken posses- 
sion of, by sir Richard Dyot and his friends. They 



124 TAMWORTH 

placed themselves under the command of the earl of 
Chesterfield^ a firm adherent to the cause of his 
sovereign. Nearly the whole of the surrounding neigh- 
bourhood declared itself in fitvour of Charles. It was 
soon a scene of active and stubborn warftre. On the 
Ist of March, the republican forces marched to Lichfield 
and invested the close. A fierce attack took place on 
the following day. Lord Brook, the parliamentarian 
general, whilst directing the si^e, was accidentally 
killed. He was struck in the eye by a stray shot, .fired 
from the body of the cathedral. His loss spread much 
consternation through his troops; but sir William Gell, 
with great promptitude, assumed the whole command 
of them. He carried on his measures so efficaciously, 
that, in three days, the royalists were compelled to 
surrender. On the 5th, the earl and his party mardied 
out of the close, to make way for their opponents/ 
Great hopes were at first entertained by some of the 
royal party, that they might be able to expel the 
rebels who were left to defend the place, befi>re they 
should be well recovered and settled after the loss of 
their general. For this purpose, colonel Hastings, then 
at Ashby-de-la-Zouch, wrote a most urgent lett» to 
the ear lof Northampton. He pointed out the success 
which might attend the attempt to take Lichfield, and 
the comparative ease with which it would be effected. 
He besought the earl, therefore, to march speedily to 
Tamworth; whither Scudamore, an officer, had with- 
drawn, on hearing of the enemy's advance towards 
Stafford. From this town, the latter also wrote for 
further direction, as to the manner in which he should 
proceed. 

1 Shaw's SUllbrdshire. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 125 

'< My most honoured lord^ 

I am extreamly joyed to hear you are at Hen- 
ley-in-Arden with your forces^ and beseech you to 
advance to Tamworth^ which will be the greatest ser- 
vice that ever was done the king ; for^ with God's 
blessings we shall beate them out of Lichfield^ or sud- 
denly starve them all^ beeing there is noe reliefe can 
come to them^ nor have they any provision for a day, 
nor horse to fetch in any, I having soe much the 
greater number. Their strength consists of several 
garrisons, which are now left very weake. I have a 
certainty of their niunber, by the confession of diverse 
prisoners, and confirmed by severall intercepted letters. 
Their number is as follows : — six small troopes of horse 
and dragoones, 300 foote came with lord Brooke, 400 
with Gell, and some SOO Morelanders; but part of 
them armed, and noe fighters. I, God willing, will 
attend your lordship with sixteene troopes of horse and 
dragoons, and can, upon a night's warning, call in 
1000 foote in Staffordshire, halfe of them armed, soe 
that, with your lordship's forces and mine, we shall 
make a good body of an army. And I have canon 
carrii^es, six pound buUets, and store of small pieces, 
and, within six dayes, can have culvering and demy- 
culvering. My lord, you know it hath ever beene my 
expressions and designs to waite upon you in any action, 
which I shall doe in this to the utmost of your com- 
mand. God hath given this faire opportunity to your 
lordship to make you the most glorious and happie 
servant to his majestic. The enemie we are to en- 
counter are full of distractions with the loss of their 
lord generall, and under severaU commands, and the 
souldiers raw and inexperienced, but rich w^ plundered 



ins TAMWORTH 

goods. My lord, I doubt not, with Grod's aBsbtance, 
of a most happie siiocem, and that you will letume, 
laden with honour and riches, and take all this side of 
Warwickshire in your way, who have beene great rebells 
to the Ung, and axe full of wealth, which will he the 
reward of your and your souldiers paines : your lordship 
may surveye your forces to take many armes and horses. 
Indeed, my lord, your presence will be of infinite 
advantage, and without it, this oountrey is in danger to 
bee lost, and the rebeUs grow to a great body, that 
now are not considerable; therefore let nothing divert 
you from this great and good worke. As soone as I 
know your lordship's resolution, God willing, I will 
suddenly waite upon you, and doubt not thus better to 
satisfie you then I can by letter. But I beseech you 
believe this, were not the designes grounded upon much 
reason and great probability of happie success, I should 
not thus earnestly press your lordship, that am to 
yourselfe, my lord Compton, and your gallant &mily. 
Tour most faithfoll and affectionate servant, 

H. HASTINGS. 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Wednesday, 7 o'clock.** 

[the 18th of March, 1642.] 
^'To the right honourable, my much honoured lord, 
the earl of Northampton, At Henley-in-Arden, with* 
in eight miles of ColshiU, present this." 
" My Lord, 

At 12 o'docke this present Wednesday, wee 
received intelligence from a boy that most of their 
forces, both horse and foote, with some pieces of canon, 
were marching towards Stafiford, which made us pre- 
sently draw all our forces to Tamworth; where we 
shall expect, by this night's intelligence, a certain place 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 187 

of rendezvous^ where we shall joyne with your lordship's 
fiirces, and so constantly march in one body. What 
intelligence wee shall receive this night, your lordship 
shall have present notice of; and we desire to have the 
like. My coloneU stais at Ashby this night, expecting 
some assistance from Newarke, there being the last 
night three of their prindpall gentlemen sent to him 
with full assurance (in my hearing) that they would 
march when he pleased into those parts of Leicester- 
shiie, or where he would appoint. These forces are all 
horse, which they may well spare, and doe his business 
for Leicestershire. Whereby hee may the better be 
spared from those parts to attend your lordship. Yes- 
terday wee received intelligence that eight cometts of 
horse were advanced from Derby to Leicester. And this 
day it is confirmed that they are returned backe, and the 
lord Gray is gone with a small partie for Northampton. 
I doe expect my coUoneU here by eight in the morning, 
and if your lordship shall appoint an earlier hower at 
the rendezvouse, I shall move with these forces towards 
you. I now speake with your lordship's messenger, 
and I perceive by him that you doe not know of out 
being here; but we shall have a care of the business 
this night. And if their cartes (as is reported) stand 
laden in Lichfield streets, it is likelier they will hasten 
for Barton rather than hither. Thus having no more 
at present, I kiss your lordship's handes, being 
Tour lordship's humble servant, 

B. SCUDAMOBE. 
Tamworth, 8 in the night." 

''I humbly desire that my service may be pre- 
sented to colonell Wentworth, and sir Thomu Byron."* 

1 Shaw*! Staflbidihire. 



128 TAUWOBTH 

The earl of Northampton was too much occupied in 
other parts of the country to adopt colonel Hasdngs' 
advice and march hither to afford aid in recoyering 
Lichfield. Both these gallant soldiers commanded the 
royal troops in the combat which took place on the 
19th of March, at Salt-heath, near Stafford, against 
those of sir John GeU and sir William Brereton. 
There the king's party was completely defeated; and 
the earl, himself, unfortunately slain.^ 

The royal forces at Tamworth, however, were a 
source of very great and incessant annoyance to the 
enemy at Lichfield. They did not encounter the repub- 
licans so much in set fights ; but they adopted the more 
harrassing and efficacious mode of continually sending 
out small bodies of men to attack them, when they 
were off their guard, or when any good prospect of 
success presented itself. This kind of warfere they 
kept up both day and night. One of the officers of 
the royalists, who amused himself by keeping a diary 
of his marches, says that this place, with Bushall- 
castle, another small garrison of the king's, ''did keep 
their holy brethren from dulling their spirits with over 
muche sleep, in giving them several alarams, no rest 
nor respite night and day, with some particularized 
skennishes."* But on the Slst of April, 1643, prince 
Bupert reduced Lichfield-dose, and compelled colonel 
Bussel, the republican commandant, to capitulate. The 
government of the place was thereupon committed to 
Henry Bagot; who remained there imtil his defeat, a 
little more than two years after.' 

Tamworth probably enjoyed a short repose firom war- 
fere for the space of two months ;- when its capture by 

1 Shaw't StaflbitlihlR. a M.S. quoted by SImw. 3 Shaw*! StaftnrOaUre. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



P29 



the enemy once again placed it in opposition to Lich- 
field. The parliamentarian troops, under the conmiand 
of colonel William Purefoy, marched from Coventry; and 
commenced storming the Castle, on Wednesday, the ^rd 
of June. It endured two days' siege; when the little 
garrison, after having made a very stout resistance, 
was compelled to surrender on the 26th.* 

Republican forces were then placed here; and the 
command of the Castle was given to captain Waldive 

piafl daughter and heiress of William 
grandton & heir of sir Humphry 
Franc, and was father of 

SiA Ralph db Willinoton. 
liYing 37 H. III. ; who m. Joan, dan. 
and heiress of Sir William Champer- 
nowne of Umberleigh, in Devon. His 
son. 

Sir Ralph dm Willimoton, 
styled by Risdon "a worthy warrior," 
was gOTemor of the castle at Exeter 
38 H. III., and sheriff of Deron 42nd 
of the same reign. He m. Juliana, 
dan. and heiress of Sir Richard de 
Lomen ; and had issue, 

I. John db Willington, sum- 
moned to Parliament as a Baron from 
3 Ed. III. to 12 of the same reign ; 
when he d,, leaving by Joan his wife, 
a son and heir 

Ralph db Willinoton j who was 
sammoned to Parliaioent as a Baron 
10 Ed. III. This Ralph was in the 
wars of Scotland and France. He 
m, Bljrnor, dan. of John lord Mohun 
of I>an8ter, bat d. S. P. in 1349. when 
the Baronjr became extinct. 

II. Sir Reginald, d, S. P. 29 
Ed. 3. 

III. Sir Henry, of whose line we 
have to treat, and 

IV. Thomas, living 22 Ed. 3. 
The third son. 

Sir Hbnby Willington, Knight 
Banneret, was with his eldest brother 
John made prisoner at the battle of 
Bannockbum. He subsequently took 
part with the earl of Lancaster, and 




John Williniiton, of Willing- 
ton, in the county of Derby, was 
lather of 

Nicholas Willinoton, who was 
contemporaneous with Robert, Ab- 
bot qf Bttrtm, in the reign of King 
Stephen. He was succeeded by his 
son, 

Nicholas Willinoton. Both he 
and his &ther were liberal benefac- 
tors to the convent of Repton. He 
waa father of Hugo Willington living 
38 H. III.; to whom succeeded next 
in the male line, 

Ralph db Willinoton, who 
settled in Gloucestershire, temp. 
long John; and afterwards founded 
St. Mary's Chapel in the abbey of 
St. Peter's at Gloucester, now called 
Um *' Lady-ChapeL" He m. Olim- 



I Parish Register. Hamper's Life of Dogdale. There is a letter, in the Harlean 
M.S., from queen Henrietta-Maria to the earl of Newcastle, informing him that 
T^HBworth was lost. 



180 



TAUWOBTH 



Willington. This gentleman was of a very ancient 
£Eunily, which, coming out of Gloncesterahire, was 
seated at Hurley-hall in the neighbourhood. Under 
him were appointed two deputy-governors, Thomas 
Hunt and Richard Harvey. Owing to the vigorous mea- 
sures and strenuous exertions of the able commandant, the 
royalists were never able to re-take the plaoe, notwith- 
standing all their endeavours. To those at Lichfield, 
Tamworth became as obnoxious as it had previously 
been to the rebels there. Hopwas-bridge over the 
Tame, connecting the town with that city, was broken 



was executed mt Bristol in 1322. 
He m. Margtret, dan. of sir Alexan- 
der de FreTiie, by Joan his wife, a co- 
heiress of the Marmyons of Tarn- 
worth ; and left a son and snocessor, 
Sib Hbnbt Willinotom, 23 
Ed. III. He m. IsabeU, daughter of 
sir John Whalesborough ; and was 
racceeded by his son, 

Sift JOHW WiLLINOTON. He 

m. Matilda, daughter of Sir Walter 
Carminow, and had issue 
I. KAhwm WiLLINOTON of WUlincton 
Conit, GlovoMtershlrei who d, S. P. 
lOCh of Aotust, IS8S. 

U. JOBN WiLLINOTON Of Vn]Ull(tOII 

Court, who 4. 8. P. 1S07. 
lu. ItANNL, oo-heir, acwt ss, 5. R. IV. 
1404} m. WUUam, son of air John 
Boanmont, of ShirwoU. 
IT. Maroakst, co.heir, m, John, eon 

of rir John Wrothe. 
John Willington, theoontinu- 
ator of the male line. By Margery, 
his wife, he left a son and successor, 
William Willington, co. Glou- 
cester, whoae will is dated 22nd 
January, 1500. He was lather of 

John Willington, co. Glouces- 
ter ; who by different wives had two 



I. William Willington of Bar- 
cheston, who (though the principal 
estates had passed to the Beaumonts 
and Wrothes) inherited considerable 
estates in the counties of Gloucester 
and Warwick, including lands at 
Brailes, co. Warwick; where the 



family had held land from an early 

period. (John V^IKngton, the first 

baron, and his iatiier Ralph both 

held property there, temp. H. 3. and 

Ed. 2.) He m. Ann, widow of 

Thomas Middlemore, esq., of Bdg- 

bsston, and daughter of Bichard 

Littleton, esq., of FlUaton, co. 

Stafford, by whom she had issue, 

I. Mabobbt WiLLMOVOiri ». fin^ 

Ukuum Holt, eaq., of Aaton; and 

•econdly, air Amhrooe CaVe, knight, 

chibcellorofthoDadiyof Laufrtsr. 

By her first htiihaDd, ahe had a aoB, 

Kdwwnd Hott I who m. Dorothy, daa. 

of sir John Fanen, of Tunworth 



II. GoDiTB WitLiiroTOir, ». to L 
Fielding, of Newnham. aacaatog of 
the carts of DcnUch. 

III. ElICABBTK WlLLIIfOTOir, «. to 

Xdward Booghton of Lawford. 
IT. Mabt WiLUVOTOK, w. to WllUsm 
Sheldon, eaq., of Beoley and BbbUm. 

T. MAaOARST WlLLINOTOH, W. tO ^T 

Kdward OrerlUe, aaeeator to the 
Kails of Warwick. 
Ti. Aim WiLLuroTOw. m. to Rands 

Mooatfort, eaq., of KlogBhurat. 
Til. CATflAaim WiLLiNOTOir, m. flrrt 
Bichard Kempe, eaq. aeoond wmiam 
BOB of rir Kldiard Cateahy, and 
third to Anthony, aom of sir Gearge 
Throckmorton. 

II. Thomas Willington, of 
Huriey.haU, 32 H. yill.l541.m. 
Joan, only dau. of Nicholas Night- 
ingale, esq., and heiress of her mo- 
ther Joyee, who was sister and 
heiress of John Waldyre,. By her 
he had issue, 
I. Waldttb WiLLINOTON, hls heir. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



181 



down. But this circumstance would only serve to 
render the parties bolder, and the skirmishing between 
them of a more daring character. Gk>Yemor Willington 
be^;ed aid from the committee of parliament at Coven- 
try, through the earl of Denbigh, as shewn by the 
following letter, that he might fortify the place in a 
more efficient manner, and be able better to withstand 
any assaults which might occur. 

A rough draught endorsed : — 
" My lord's Pre to y« Parliam* in behalf of the go- 
vernor of Tamworth." 



IX. JoBir WziitxiroToir of WhaMaji 
from whom mn desoended the Willing- 
tons ofWhatetey and Tunwoith.* 
TlMmiM Willington was locoeedMl 
by his eldeit son, 

Waldtyb Willinoton, of Hur- 
ley; who St. first Joyce dan. of George 
Vnnfter, esq., of Worthmgton, co. 
Leicester; and secondly, in 1563, 
Ifaigery, sister and co-hdress of Mi- 
chad Braeehridge, esq., and by her 



Thomas, his heir, two other sons, 
and a danghter, 

EX.ISABITH Willington, whom. 
William, son of sir Walter Aston, 
of Tizall, and nnde to Walter, first 
lord Aston, of Forfar. Waldyre Wil- 
lington J. in 1569. His eldest son, 

Thomas Willington of Hurley, 
at. 9th of July 1599, Alice, dan. 
of John Willington, of Whateley, 
and had issne, with two other sons 
and fire daughters. 



Waldtyb Willington, his heir, 
bt^i, 18th of April, 1600. The 
Ooffemor qf Tamworih CaitU. He 
d. in 1676 ; end was succeeded by 
his eldest son Waldyve Willington, 
who had issne three sons, WilUam, 
niomas, (grand&ther of the last 
Thomas "^HUington, of Hnrley, who 
d. S. P. in 1815,) snd Waldyre. 
William the eldest d. S. P., leaying 
his ymmgest brother, Waldyre his 
heir. This Waldyre was high sher- 
iif for Warwickshire 13 Geo. 1.; and 
dying 10th of September 1733, left 
a son William, who d. S. P. in 1752, 
and three dans., who became co- 
heiresses, only one of whom has left 
descendants. This was Susanna Wil- 
lington, whom. Charles Floyer,esq., 
of Hints ; whence by two daus. are 
descended the present liunilies of 
Floyer, of Hints, and Lerett, of 
Wichnor-park. 



• JolinWlttfngtonofWliatdey,AAiigiistl6l7. Be had Istoe (batidM a dao. Alice, 
who m. her ooualn, Tliamas WiUlnifton, of Hurley, the tether of Waldyve Willington, 
who wae foremor of Tunworth) Antlde Willington, of Whatdej, who had two sone, 
rtk a mu M and George, The elder, Thomas, was flitfaer of another Thomai} who, by 
Marr his wife, dan. of John Swynlien, Itoq., M.P. for Tunworth, hi the reign of 
Charles II., had a ion, Thomas Willington, who 4. t. r., and a daughter and 
ereotoal hdreee, Jane, who m. John 8k^ esq., of Ledhonr, hi^-sheriff for Warwick- 
iUre, nth Geo. 1st. } from this marriage deseends John Martin, esq., M.P. for TOwks- 
y, present owner of the WhatSlsj estate. 



hiiry,prei 
Ote^ge 



WUMmgtem, the yonnger son of Antlde, was ihfher of Bichard, and he of 
another Bichard j whoee son, John Willington of Tamworth, had, besides daughters, 
flve sons, John, of the Inner Temple j Bayly, lieutenant-general in the armyi 
R&diaRl) llxmias} snd Fhrnds, rector of Walton-oiuTtent ; all of whom are now 
deccaied without having left any issue male, except Ihomas, who had a son, the 
present Francis Willington, town-clerk of "nmiworUi, who m. in 1825, Jane Ann, dan. of 
the Iste Henry James Pye, esq., of Fsirlngdon-honsc, Berks, formerly M.P. for that 
ooaaty ; snd has issne, Frsncls-Pye, Waldyre-Heory, John-Baiph, and Henry-Edward. 



132 TAMWORTH 

'' My lords and gentlemen. 

Upon y* request of capt. Waldive Willingtcniy 
govemo' of Tamworth castle, I am become an humble 
suito'' to yo' lo'pps in his behalf, to bestow upon him 
a Saker and two Drakes, for the better strengthening 
of his garrison, fiir that he hath expressed his dutie in 
y^ place to y* Parliam^ with a great deale of care and 
vigilancy ; by w*"* meanes y* place wilbe much y* stronger, 
and be thereby more enabled to withstand any assayl- 
ants of the enemy in y* line of communicacon betwixt 
Stafford and \is, and without y* help of w^ none of 
our friends can safely passe for Lichfield garrison : and 
this £EiY0ur of yo** lo'pps to him herein shall much 
oblidge yo' most affect. & humble serv*, 

DENBIGH." 

The forces at Tamworth were maintained by contri- 
butions levied from all the surrounding neighbourhood. 
Weekly payments were demanded from every place, by 
each party. In return, protection from the ravages of 
the opposite faction was mostly expected. But it was 
often impossible to afford it continually and sufficiently. 
Then the piUaged people were compelled to render 
their aid to both rebels and royalists. The whole coun- 
try was parcelled out amongst the different troops. 
The parliamentarian committee at Stafford, on the 5th 
of January, ordered that the weekly pay of Bucknall 
and Fenton Magna, Biddle, Fenton and Longton, 
Tunstall-court, Hilton and Pencle cimi membris, should 
be assigned to captain Thomas Himt, for the payment 
of his officers and soldiers.' In the following month, 
Joseph Heath, * of Weeford, and William, his son, 
obtained a mandate from the same committee, directing 

1 Shaw'8 Staflbrdihire. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 133 

that no officer or soldier belonging to the king and 
parliament should plunder their chattels or estates, 
without special licence, as they had duly paid 50/. 
levied on them for the maintenance of the garrison 
here.^ In explanation of the expression ^'king and 
parliament" thus adopted, we may state that it was a 
common saying amongst the republicans that they were 
in reality fighting for the king, with the design of 
merely rescuing him firom the eril coundlkirs; by whom 
he was surrounded and led against his will. But 
their conduct when the king at last fell into their 
hands, prodaims aloud the fiilsehood of the plea, by 
which they attempted to ease their conscienoes and 
justify their actions. 

In the following March, a very great effort was 
made by the royal party at Lichfield to take the town 
again. They repaired the bridge at Hc^was, in order 
that about two thousand men might pass over with 
ease. Waldive Willington, the governor, was fore- 
warned by a trusty spy. He wrote to the earl of 
Denbigh and the parliamentarian committee at Coven- 
try informing them of the circumstances, so that mea- 
sures might be taken to counteract the attempt. 

*' E* ho»»"« and the rest of the Comittee, 

Wee have had a spedall frend that lay in 
lichfeild the last night, who brings us certen intelli- 
gence that this day wee shalbe fiercely assaulted by 
fifteene hundred foote and five hundred horse, and that 
fower peeces of ordinance are advanced upon their 
carriages towards us, and that their randezvous is upon 
Hoppas Hill; where wee doe now discover diverse 
troopes of horse, many great companies of fbote. 

1 Shaw*B StaflbrcUhire. 



1S4 TAMWOBTH 

Our scouts have discovered them makemg up Hoppas 
Bridge; w^ may be for the passage of the caniages 
and fbote. Our scouts and theires have fyred one 
against another. 

Yo» 

WaLDYVB WnXIHOTON, 

Thomas Hunt^ 
BicHAmn Habvbt." 
''Tamworth, 18 March, 1648, 
[1648-4] at 11 of the clock in the day." 

But the attempt of the royalists to regain the town 
was completely unsuccessful; and they weie obliged to 
return to Lichfield, disappointed in their hopes. 

On the 10th of May following, 1644, the earl of 
Denbigh, with a company of about two thousand men, 
marched from Coventry towards Tamworth.' 

On the S7th of October, an order was made by the 
committee at Stafford that captain George Bowes and 
all his soldiers should depart out of this garrison, by 
four o'clock in the afternoon; and not return without 
lawful order, at their peril. It was subscribed by 
Waldyue Willington, Thomas Layfeild, William Wood, 
Gilbert Dukeson, Thomas Voughton, Thomas Sawkin, 
Humphry Frodsham, Thomas Palmer, Thomas Knight, 
and Bichard Battman. 

Another order was made by this committee regarding 
lands at Haselour, laid under contribution for the troops 
here. *^ 19 November, 1644. Forasmuch as it is in- 
formed that the commanders at Tamworth doe assesse 
certen lands of the right hon^ the earle of Meathe's, 
within Hassleore, which by the 400,000^ subsedie was 
not assessed, nor, as is conceived, ought to be : it is there* 

1 Hampcr't Life of Dngdile. 



TOWN AND CASTLE. 185 

fore ordered that the said earle nor his tenants shall 
not be forced or constrayned to pay any levies or 
weekely pay to any of the Parliament fforces for the 
said land, untill such time as Mr. William Brookes 
and the inhabitants of Hassleore, haying notice of this 
order, shall appeare before us and show sufficient cause 
to the contrary.'*' 

The incessant struggles between Tamworth and Lich- 
field, impoverished the whole country around, and 
plunged it into the deepest confusion. The land lay 
lay mostly uncultivated: for, as might be expected, no 
one would incur the risk and trouble of raising crops, 
which were nearly certain to be pillaged or destroyed 
by either party. Hence the land-holders suffered most 
severely in the wars. The rents of Mr. Francis Wol- 
verston owner of Statfold, from his lands lying unoccu- 
pied, were reduced to less than 100/. a year. Yet out of 
this sum, he was compelled to give weekly 1/. Ss. 4d. 
to the support of the republican army at Tamworth. 
As it could not constantly afford him sufficient aid, he 
was likewise forced to contribute to the maintenance of 
the royalists at Lichfield. Being thus oppressed, Tam- 
worth alone taking nearly two thirds of his scanty 
income, he was compelled to apply to the parlia- 
mentarian committee at Stafford, for a reduction of his 
payment to their party. He accordingly obtained an 
order, dated on the S9th of October, 1644; by which it 
was diminished to lOs. weekly, until fiurther order.' It 
was principally upon the higher and middling classes of 
society that the heaviest calamities fell. Persons were 
often compeUed of necessity to take up arms, that they 
might maintain themselves, and preserve their families 

I to InteiwlekBi-^dit. 1844. 



1S6 TAMWORTH 

from actual poverty. The greater part of the lower 
orders had turned soldiers; and lived weU by plunder 
acquired by the sword. Not a few of them added to 
their military character, that of a puritanical preacher. 
The country was completely over-run with these fanati- 
cal men. Persons of every trade forsook their earthly 
calling, in order to follow the dictates of the interior 
spirit; whose colour, perchance, they had forgotten or 
neglected to examine. 

The warfare between Tamworth and Lichfield l<Hig 
continued with imabating fierceness. The hostile spirit 
of the two parties seems to have increased in acerbity 
and vehemence. Thomas Hunt, one of the command- 
ants here, who had been originally a tradesman at 
Coventry, sent a personal challenge to colonel Henry 
Bagot, the royaUst governor at Lichfield. It was 
couched in the most insulting terms, which its brevity 
would admit. 

'' Bagot, — thou Sonne of an Egiptian hore, meete me 
half the way to-morrow morning, — ^the half way betwixt 
Tamworth and litchfeald, if thou darest: if not, I 
will whippe thee whensoever I meete thee. 

THOMAS HUNT." 
"Tamworth this— December, 1644.** 

The combatants accordingly met on Whittington- 
heath; and a sharp encounter ensued. After some 
time, the challenger himself was compelled to turn 
round and fly before his opponent; who flogged him in 
his retreat, and very nearly succeeded in capturing 
him.* 

During the following year, the skirmishing with the 
royalists was incessant On the 4th of July, the 

1 Mercoritta AiiUcu8,-*a royiliit paper. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 137 

Scott's army came to this town. The next day, they 
passed on to Birmingham; from whence they went, on 
the 7th to AlcesterJ In March, 1646, lichfield-close 
was invested by the parliamentarian army, under the 
command of major-general Lothian. The garrison at 
Tamworth afforded all their assistance. The roy- 
alists were accused by the people of this town of 
cruelty in killing a man in cold blood, whom they had 
captured in a sally from their fortifications.* The siege 
was continued with great violence, until the 10th of 
July. Colonel Bagot was very severely wounded; and 
the royalists were driven to the necessity of capitula- 
ting. They made honourable terms with their victors; 
and were allowed to march out unmolested. The 
cause of the king was now very nearly extinct 
throughout the whole land. The fatal battle of Naseby 
destroyed the few hopes, which lingered amongst his 
adherents. Shortly afterwards, as a last refuge, the 
sovereign placed himself in the hands of the Scots. 
These mercenary men knew not how to show mercy to 
the confiding monarch; but basely betrayed and sold 
him to the parliament. The scaffold was soon seen 
standing by the gloomy prison walls. Then the axe 
was observed to gleam momentarily in the air; and, 
in the next instant, Charles had ended his eventful and 
unfortunate reign. Monarchy was completely abolished ; 
and democracy established.' 

On the reduction of Lichfield, Tamworth had no 
longer any adversaries to contend with; and it soon 
assumed externally its usual peaceable condition. The 
inhabitants^ so far as we can judge from the records of 

I Hamper's UISb of Dogdale. 9 Parish Register, 

a Clarendon's Hiatonr of the RebeUioD. 

T 



138 TAMWORTH 

the times^ appear to have been deeply imbued with 
the puritanical spirit of the age; and to have heartily 
supported the cause to which they were inclined. And 
it was a long time before the feeling completely died 
away. 

Oliver' Cromwell was chosen as the ruler of the 
realms ; and he assumed the title of Protector. Remem- 
bering how greatly castles and fortified places had 
impeded his progress in the wars, and harassed him 
in the execution of his enterprises, he ordered the 
principal of them to be dismantled or destroyed, in 
such a manner that they could not again be rendered 
capable of defence. Amongst them, the one at Tam- 
worth was included.' 

During the period of the Commonwealth, a very 
neat local token of Tamworth was struck, apparently 
under the direction of the corporation. It is of an 
octangular shape. On the obverse, it bears the inscrip- 
tion, * TAMWORTH . CHAMBERLAINS ; and in the field, 

THBIR 
HALFB 
PENNY. 

On the reverse, is inscribed, ♦por change and cha- 
ritie; and in the centre is placed a fleur-de-hz, — ^the 
ancient arms of the town. 

The political career of Cromwell, whatever may be 
thought of his private life, or of the means by which 
he attained power, was one characterized by very great 
ability and general success. An encroachment upon 
the representative powers of the people had first caused 
the out-break of the war. He, therefore, endeavoured 
to equalize the system, and to give to the nation the 

1 SbAw't StaffbnbbiR. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 139 

show, at leasts of political fireedoxn. For this purpose, 
he bestowed the right of returning members to some of 
the larger places^ which had not previously enjoyed it. 
At the same time, he deprived many of the smaller 
boroughs of the power. Amongst the latter, he included 
Tamworth. Consequently, from this town were not 
sent any members in 1654, 1656, and 1658.' 

Weary of the confusion, which had so long predomi- 
nated, and convinced, by dearly-bought experience, that 
in reality a democracy was as absolute as the ancient 
system of government, the majority of the people soon 
desired the restoration of monarchy. The accession of 
Charles 11. to regal power, in 1660, was hailed with 
the greatest pleasure. As in the natural kingdom, long 
and protracted exertion is followed by a period of deep 
repose, so in political life^ great commotions are suc- 
ceeded by a stillness more or less profound. Charles 
was soon enabled to establish an external tranquillity 
throughout the kingdom. But yet the calm which now 
ensued was not wholly undisturbed; for the occasional 
manifestations of an unquiet spirit, indicated the exist- 
ence of some horrid image; which still haunted, like a 
fearful dream, the public mind. Although the church of 
England had been re-established by law, as it was in 
the days of Elizabeth, the genius of puritanism long 
existed in the nation; and proved a source of constant 
irritation. In other matters, all was peaceable. Soon 
a monarchy was restored nearly as absolute as that, for 
the suppression of which the whole war had been com- 
menced, and torrents of blood shed. Thus prone is the 
human mind to run to the opposite extreme; after 
having been forced, in one direction, beyond the bounds 
of moderation and reason. 

1 Merewether and Stephens. 



140 TAMWORTH 

The long parliament^ to which latterly the appellation 
of ''rump'* was given, was first called together in 
1640. It was abruptly broken up by Cromwell; but 
after his death, it again met. Charles II. was re-called 
by an assemblage succeeding it. This was soon disper- 
sed; and another parliament was summoned; which met 
in November, 1660; when Tamworth resumed its poli- 
tical privileges, by returning members to it. But it 
only continued for a few weeks. A new one was assem- 
bled on the 8th of May, in the next year; which firom 
the length of its duration, was styled the second long 
parliament. Amongst the most remarkable of its early 
acts, was one for the well-governing of municipal cor- 
porations. It was required that all persons, who should 
hold any civil office, or become a member of a corpo- 
rate body, should take the oaths of allegiance and 
supremacy, abjure the republican solemn league and 
covenant, and assent to the doctrine of passive obedi- 
ence. It was soon found advisable to grant to numerous 
cities and boroughs, the privileges which they had 
previously enjoyed. Tamworth received firesh letters 
patent, dated on the 17th of February, 1668.* 

By the charter of Charles, no new privileges were 
conferred upon the inhabitants of the town. It merely 
contained a renewal of those given by Elizabeth, in 
1560 and 1588. But such alterations were made in 
the oaths prescribed, as the recent enactment required; 
and in the names of the officers, as the lapse of time 
demanded. The only new provision was one empower- 
ing the corporation to inflict a fine, not amoimting to 
more than SO/., on any member of their body, who, 
being duly elected baili£f, should refuse to act in the 

1 Charter, l6 Car. II. :~CDrporetioii Recorda. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 141 

office, or to taike the necessary oaths. The twenty-four 
capital burgesses were named; and also the bailiffs.^ 
James Compton, earl of Northampton, was mentioned 
as high-steward;' and John Allen, as town-clerk.' The 
recorder was not nominated:^ nor was there any provi- 
sion for the continuance of the chamberlains, although 
their election continued without interruption.' 

About this time, there were struck several local 
tokens of tradesmen in Tamworth. So many as four 
have come under our observation. None of them are 
remarkable for very great neatness of workmanship; but 
they are not inferior to the generality of sinular pieces 
issued in Charles's reign. The description of them is 
as follows: — 

1. Obverse: — ^A fleur-de-liz; with the inscription round, 

*KDWABD . WHITE. Bcvcrsc : — ^ IN * TAMWORTH ; and 

in the field, b w. 

1663. 

2. Obverse : — On a shield in the centre, the demi-figure 
of a king, crowned, and in the robes of state; 
around, the inscription *wiijjam*michell. Keverse: 
* OP * tamworth ♦ 1666 ; and in the field, 

' his 

HALFB 

PENNY 

« * * 

8. Obverse: — .William and rober* caw*; and in the 
field, the figure of a chandler in the act of dipping. 
Reverse : — ♦.of tamworth. 1668. ; and in the centre, 
• ♦ • 

THEIR 
HALFE 

PENT 

« 

1 See Appendix: -Note 19. 3 See Appendix :~Note 14. 

2 See Appendix:— Note 13. 4 See Appendix:— Note 15. 

S Sec Appendix :— Note 16. 



142 TAMWORTH 

4. In the fourth, the inscription reads very irregularly. 
Obverse : — ^bobbbt gbeekb* of ; and in the centre, 

HIS 
HALFE 
PBNNT 

1671. 
Keverse : — * tamwobth * merceb; and in the middle, 
a demi-figure of a king, placed on a shield. 
During the oontinuanoe of the second long parlia- 
ment, a writ was issued for the election of a member 
for this town, in place of John, lord Clifford. A con- 
test ensued between Charles, lord Clifford, and John 
Ferrers, esq. The former, having the majority of the 
votes of the members of the corporate body, was de- 
clared to have been returned. Against this proceeding 
Mr. Ferrers petitioned: and the right of election was 
brought before a committee of the House of Commons. 
The question raised was, whether the power belonged 
exclusively to the bailiffs and capital burgesses, or to 
the whole of the populacy and burgesses of the town. 
A report was made to the House on the S6th of May, 
1670, by Mr. sergeant Charleton. The decision of the 
committee, that the right belonged wholly to the bailifi 
and corporate body, was confirmed by a majority of 
six, the number of the votes being 90 to 84. Lord 
Clifford was, therefore, declared duly elected.^ The 
evidence, upon which the decision was made, is not 
given; but it is certain that, in the reign of Elizabeth 
the right was occasionally exercised by the bailiffs and 
capital burgesses alone. The same course was adopted 
just before the rebellion; for against it, eighty-seven of 
the inhabitants petitioned, but without avail.* 

1 M.S., copied flrom the JonmalB of the CtunmoDs. 
a See Appcodix :— Note 17. 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 143 

Amongst the numerous singular acts of Charles's 
reign^ his proceedings to bring more fully into the 
power of the crown the municipal corporations of the 
kingdom, hf issuing writs of quo-warranto against the 
principal of them, was not the least worthy of notice. 
Without regarding the justice or injustice of the design 
which he had in view, it was a very irregular course. 
For, by demanding by what right these bodies acted, he 
seemed to question the power of the crown to grant 
privileges by letters-patent. Yet^ at the same time, 
he was endeavouring to increase the royal preroga- 
tives. James II., when he came to the throne, not 
only adopted the same practice, but carried it out in 
its greatest degree. Indeed, his reign was very sadly 
marked by proceedings of the most arbitrary nature. 

Towards the close of the year 1687, most of the 
cities and boroughs of the realm were served with writs 
of quo-warranto. Tamworth was included amongst 
them. The bailiflb and capital burgesses held a meet- 
ing on the 7th of March, to debate upon the measures 
which it would be most advisable to adopt. Acting 
under the advice of lord viscount Weymouth, the high- 
steward, and sir Andrew Hackett, the recorder, they 
resolved, by twelve to five votes, to appear, by their 
attorney, in order to appeal against the surrender. 
But, on the 9th of April following, 1668, the subject 
was again brought forward, and taken into deeper 
consideration. With the consent of the recorder, it was 
resolved, without a dissentient voice, that the charter, 
and with it all privileges, should be given up to his 
majesty's pleasure, before the first day of the ensuing 
term. This was to be done by the high-steward; 
or, if he should not be able, by the recorder; or. 



144 TAMWORTH 

in hifi unavoidable absence, by the bailifi, Samael 
Buckland and William Harding. An instrument was 
accordingly drawn up, by which all authority and 
and liberties were returned into the king's* hands. But 
a prayer was subjoined that a re-grant might be made 
of such powers and privileges, as his majesty should 
think best fitted for the regulation of the town.^ On 
the 21st of May, it was ordered that William Harding 
should give up the charter. He accordingly carried it 
to London; and it was delivered to Mr. Brent, who 
had been authorized by James to receive it. 

The old corporation still exercised its powers, until 
the king's wiU might be determined as to the mode in 
which the town should be regulated. On the day of 
the annual election of the bailiflb, Buckland and Har« 
ding were requested to continue their office, for the 
ensuing year. But they declined; and William Wilcox 
and Francis Wright were then chosen. A few days 
afterwards, the town-clerk brought down a new charter. 
By it, the government of the town was vested in a 
mayor and a body of twelve aldermen. Two additional 
annual fairs were granted; and many other important 
advantages conferred upon the inhabitants. The whole 
expenses attendant upon its procurement, amounted to 
100/. Morgan Powell, the town-clerk, was nominated 
as the first mayor; and, on the 10th of August, he 
took the oath, before Matthew Floyer, esq., one of the 
justices of peace for Sta£fordshire, to perform his duties 
with fidelity, until the ensidng first of August, when a 
new officer should be elected. The aldermen were 
Walter Ashmore, William Ashley, Thomas Roade, Wil- 
liam Wilcox, Francis Wright, John Vaughton, George 

1 See Appendix :— Note 18. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 145 

Wright, Thomas Wagstaffe, Robert Green, Jonathan 
Symonds, Francis Wood, jun., and Edward Symonds. 
The majority of them had been members of the late 
corporate body. 

The new government endured only for a very brief 
space of time. James became so involved in difficulties, 
increased by a threatened invasion of the Dutch, that 
he was obliged to retract in many of his arbitrary acts. 
On the 17th of October, he issued a proclamation 
declaring that all forfeited charters, whereupon judg- 
ment had not been entered, should be restored to the 
condition in which they were in 1679. The old corpo- 
ration of this town consequently resumed its powers 
and liberties : and Harding and Buckland, being bailiffs 
at the time of its dissolution, were then induced to 
resume the office for the ensuing year. Wilcox and 
Wright were consequently displaced.^ 

But James had already proceeded too far to make 
any concessions of avail. He had forfeited for ever 
the &vour and confidence of his subjects. Before the 
termination of the year, he was compelled to abdicate 
the throne, and reluctantly to pass into exile. His fall 
was rendered doubly severe by the circumstance of his ri- 
vals being his own daughter Mary, and her husband. She 
could with apathy aid in the ruin of her parent, and 
with total indifference enjoy his state, who was now an 
outcast, and dependant upon the bounty of strangers 
for his support. 

At the general election, in 1698, a contest ensued at 
Tamworth between sir Henry Gough and John Chet- 
wynd, esq. The latter was returned: but against him 
a petition was presented by his opponent. The right 

1 Orders of Cominou Halls :~Corpor»tion Records. 

U 



146 TAMWORTH 

of election again came before a committee of the House 
of Commons. The question raised was whether non-re- 
sident freeholders had a right to vote, as well as those 
who paid scot and lot. Sir Roland Gwynn, on the 
17th of March^ reported the proceedings ci the com- 
mittee. 

The council of the petitioner maintained that both 
had an equal right. Several witnesses were called, who 
asserted that they, as non-resident freeholders, had been 
admitted to the privilege. Only one had been objected 
to, and this by John Allen, the town-derk; but the 
vote was allowed to pass. 

Upon the other hand, the council for the sitting 
member produced the verdict of 1670 in his fitvour. 
Witnesses were also brought forward, who gave evidence 
concerning several elections from the year 166L They 
said that the right was vested in the bailifb and capi- 
tal burgesses, and the scotters and letters; and that 
the out-freeholders did not pretend to the power until 
1679. At that time, lord Weymouth, then sir Thomas 
Thynne, presented himself as a candidate. Morgan 
Powell, his steward, was then a bailiff; and admitted 
to poll all who came, and amongst others the out-free- 
holders. They had continued to vote afterwards ; but 
they were never regarded as properly possessing the 
right. And for this reason, at the same election, 
Daniel Jordan, the other bailiff, refused to sign the 
poll. 

Notwithstanding the dear evidence which was pro- 
duced, that the introduction of the freeholders was a 
recent and intrusive act, it was resolved by the com* 
mittee that the right of election of burgesses to serve 
in parliament for the borough of Tamworth, lay in 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 147 

the inhabitants paying scot and lot, and in those 
persons who had freeholds within the borough, whether 
they were resident there or not.' This, according to 
the obsenration of Merewether and Stephens, was one 
of the earliest instances of the introduction of non-resi- 
dents, in defiance of the clear and express words of the 
statute, enacted in the reign of Henry Y.' In conse- 
quence of this decision, the returned member was 
unseated. 

But the verdict, of so opposite a character to that 
given in the reign of Charles II., was reversed after 
the election in 17SS. At this time, the petitioner 
asserted that Tamworth was a borough by prescription; 
and that the right lay in the inhabitant householders 
paying scot and lot. He adduced nearly the same evi- 
dence as had been brought forward nearly twenty-four 
years previously. The sitting member claimed the right 
for the non-resident freeholders ; and contended that the 
decision of 1698 could not be altered. But the verdict 
of the committee was against him. Thus, after the en- 
deavour upon one side to confine the right of voting to 
the small select corporate body, and on the other side 
to extend it to non-residents, it was constitutionally de- 
fined that to be a bui^ess of Tamworth it was necessary 
to be an inhabitant householder, paying scot and lot.' 

Questions concerning this matter were again raised 
after the contests in 1741 and 1818. On the former 
occasion, it was established that certificate men had not 
any right; and on the latter occasion, that it was not 
necessary to pay church rates as well as those for the 
poor.'' 

1 M. S., copied from the Joarnals of the Commons. 

2 History of Boroughs And Monidpal corporations. 

3 Merewether and Stephens. 4 lb. 



148 TAMWORTH 

For a very considerable time after the termination of 
the seventeenth century, the general history of Tam- 
worth presents very little worthy of record. Even du- 
ring the stormy epoch, when Charles Edward Stuart 
penetrated into England so &r as Derby, in bis attempt 
to gain the throne of his ancestors, no commotion was 
produced here, beyond the mere excitement, which 
must always be experienced, in every place, upon the eve 
of, or during, a great national revolution. Undoubtedly 
had the Pretender succeeded in his schemes, the town 
would have flourished in its wonted peaceable condition, 
as it did under the sway of the r^nant house of 
Brunswick. 

But although Tamworth remained thus quiet, it 
must not be concluded that it was declining, or even 
remaining stationary, in prosperity. On the contrary, 
it is evident that the town was now, with a quiet but 
accelerating speed, progressing in a manner which was 
soon destined to elevate its condition, and improve its 
general aspect. The erection of the greater part of the 
public edifices is referred to this period. The re-build- 
ing of the Free Grammar School was succeeded by 
that of the Town-hall. The Almshouses were founded 
and endowed; and, some years subsequently, an ade- 
quate Workhouse was added. The Church and Castle 
each underwent great alterations and repairs. The 
same also occurred with regard to the Bridges ; and one, 
at length, was wholly rebuilt. Many of the streets, 
previously unfinished, were completed; and all were 
very considerably improved. Most of the ancient half- 
timbered and small houses rapidly disappeared to give 
))lacc to others of a more modem character, and larger 
size. In short, during the early part of the eighteenth 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 149 

century^ we may date the commencement of those 
active improvements, which axe now taking place with- 
in the town. 

The progress in the condition of Tamworth naturally 
resulted from an influx of wealth, and an increase in 
the resources of the inhabitants. Several important and 
lucrative trades sprang up in the town. But the 
greatest impulse which was given to the place, was 
consequent upon the establishment, about the years 
1788-9, of the extensive cotton manu&ctures of Mr., 
afterwards sir Robert, Peel. He introduced them 
into this town and the neighbourhood, particularly 
about Fazeley, partly on accoimt of the eminent local 
advantages of this district, and partly because of an 
extensive strike amongst the workmen in Lancashire. 
The Castle and Castle-mill were taken for the purpose ; 
and buildings erected in Lady-meadow.^ A very great 
influx of working people took place. The inhabitants 
of Tamworth had now just cause to lament the opposi- 
tion which they had manifested to the passage of a 
canal close by the town. It was at first contemplated 
to have carried a line firom Fradley, near Lichfield, to 
Coventry, by way of Tamworth. But the people here 
dreaded so great an innovation on their antiquated 
ideas; and it was finally carried at a distance, by 
Fazeley. The production of a great traffic in this small 
village, almost simultaneously firom the canal and Mr. 
Peel's works, caused it soon to assume the aspect of a 
small town. So great was its increase that it became 
a very common belief that, in a short time, it would 
assume a superiority over Tamworth in every way. 
But the subsequent decline, in a great measure, of the 

1 Parish Recister. 



150 TAHWOBTH 

cotton manu&ctures, withdrew the chief cause of its 
prosperityj although the traffic ariaing from the canal has 
ever since been a great support 

Tamworth became a place noted throughout the country 
for the extreme gaiety of its company. It also obtained 
celebrity for its excellent fiure — so essential to the com- 
fort and happiness of Englishmen^ — particularly for its 
mutton-pies and ale. A great addition was made to 
the liyeliness of the town^ by the erection of a large 
and commodious theatre. Here some of the brightest 
stars of the stage^ and amongst them Mrs. Siddons, 
did not think it unworthy of their greatness to appear. 

Besides Mrs. Siddons^ we may enumerate as having 
graced, by their appearance, the stage at Tamworth, 
Miss Farren, afterwards the countess of Derby; Miss 
Harriet Mellon, who eventually became the duchess of 
St. Albans ; and, we believe. Miss Foote. Miss Mellon, 
during her stay in the town, had apartments in Market- 
street, at a house dose by the Casde-inn. 

Before the erection of a theatre, the Town-hall was 
occupied as a play-house; and also a large and com- 
modious bam nearly at the bottom of Lichfield-«treet. 

But, at the close of the century, Tamworth partici- 
pated in the gloomy feeling, which then overspread the 
nation. The storm, that had long been gathering over 
Europe, and given only few but unequivocal indications 
of its approaching fierceness, now burst forth with ter- 
rific violence. Its course was appalling and irresistible. 
Unhappy France, where had been fostered the demon 
of infidelity, was the scene of its greatest devastations. 
The altar and the throne were cast down ; and, for a 
time, the spirit of evil and desolation reigned trium- 
phant. Soon it spread on every side, and involved the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 161 

continent in a state of confusion and terror. England 
escaped^ however, chiefly on account of its fitvoured 
isolated position. But its rulers, too, stood aghast, and 
trembled lest it should partake in the common disaster. 
Threats of invasion, and dread of a civil insurrection 
alarmed the court. Great, indeed, must have been the 
panic which led to the conversion of the country into 
one vast military camp. Tet such was the fact. In 
every town and place, associations were organized for the 
purpose of preventing the occurrence of a revolution, 
either by the machinations of secret enemies at home 
or open ones abroad, for the support of the king and 
constitution, and for the protection of private property. 
In the spring of 1798, the gentlemen of Tamworth 
formed a voluntary armed association, supported at 
their own expense, and by free contributions: and to 
which the members for the borough very liberally 
afforded their aid. It consisted of a troop of cavalry, 
numbering nearly forty men, commanded by T. B. 
Paget, esq., bf Bole-hall ; and two companies of infantry, 
containing one himdred and twenty men, under the com- 
mand of Walter Lyon, and Edward Dickenson, esqres. 
. On the 26th of June, in the following year, there 
was a grand festival at Tamworth, on the occasion of 
the presentation of a standard and colours to the asso- 
ciation. They were first consecrated at the altar of the 
Church, by the minister, in the presence of the princi- 
pal gentlemen of the town and neighbourhood, and of 
innumerable spectators. . They were given by the mar- 
chioness Townshend, and the lady of Robert Peel, esq., 
to the different corps, when assembled on the Stafford- 
shire-moor. But, besides by the organization of these 
forces, the inhabitants of the town and parish rendered 



152 TAMWORTH 

asBistanoe to the welfare of their country, by con- 
tributing to the general subscription which was ndsed 
throughout the kingdom in aid of the supplies granted 
to his majesty for the defence of the nation, in 1798. 
The siun raised in the town amounted to 363/. 19«. 6d. ; 
besides £7/. 9«. 4^(/. collected at the Church-doors on 
the day appointed as a general fast and time of humi- 
liation. In the parish, 155/. Is, 6d. was added.* The 
voluntary armed association, in 1809, was replaced by a 
local militia. This force was not disbanded until all 
fears of invasion had vanished, in 1815 ; after the pride 
of France had been humiliated, by her fidl from the 
high position which she had dared to assume. 

Diuing the period, when private individuals and 
companies were allowed to circulate tokens, two Tam- 
worth pieces were struck, in 1799. One of them is a 
penny of John Harding, calico-printer; the other, a 
half-penny of the rev. Francis Blick, vicar of the 
parish. They were coined rather as specimens of the 
art, and for exchange amongst friends, than for circula- 
tion. In point of workmanship, they are very excellent, 
and creditable to those persons engaged upon them. 

The dies of Harding's penny-token were by Hancock. 
Four dozen pieces were struck in copper, and six im- 
pressions in silver. Of the latter, two are now in the 
collection of sir George Chetwynd, hart., of Grendon- 
hall, Warwickshire. The third, we believe, is in the 
possession of William Salt, esq., of Russell-square, Lon- 
don. The fourth was piirchased at the sale of the rev. 
F. Slick's collection, on the 1st of July, 1843, by the 
publisher. The fifth is in the possession of Miss Hard- 
ing, of BonehiU. And the sixth was in the possession 
of the late Mr. Shepherd, of Liverpool ; now uncertain. 

1 See Appendix :~Note 19. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



153 



The idea for the edge of the token was evidently 
taken from the famous petition-crown executed by Tho- 
mas Simon^ in the reign of Charles II. 




Of the rev. F. Blick's halfpenny^ the dies were by 
Wyon. Six dozen pieces were struck in copper^ and 
half a dozen in silver; so Mr. Blick told sir George 
Chetwynd, to whom we are indebted for our infor- 
mation. 




Those in silver were thus disposed of. 1 — Presented 
by Mr. Blick to the late marquis Townshend, in 1799. 
2 — ^Thomas Sharp, esq., of Coventry. It was sold to 
Mr. Shepherd, of Liverpool ; afterwards to Mr. Thomas ; 
and, in March, 1844, it was bought by Mr. Tindall, 
clerk to Messrs. Southby and Co., on commission, for 
the right hon. — Butler. 3 — Thomas Welsh, esq., of 
Birmingham ; now in the possession of George Barker, 



w 



154 TAMWORTH 

esq., of the same place. 4 — ^William Nickson, of Coren- 
try; now uncertain. 5— In Mr. Blick's private cabi- 
net ; it was purchased, in 1843, by sir George Chetwynd. 
6 — John Harding, esq., of BonehiU ; it is now in the 
collection of sir George Chetwynd, at Grendon-halL 

The fidelity of the engravings has rendered unneces- 
sary a particular description of these tokens. 

In 1807, the town underwent very great improve- 
ment, by the placing of flags and curb-stones along 
the pathways of all the principal streets. The expenses 
were defrayed by a general subscription, aided by 
liberal donations from the parliamentary representa- 
tives, sir Robert Peel, bart, and major-general William 
Loftus. 

Within the course of the present century, several 
useful institutions have arisen in Tamworth. In 1804, 
a Permanent library was established, which, in a few 
3^ars contained upwards of two thousand volumes, 
circulated amongst subscribers paying an entrance-fee 
of two guineas and a half, and an annual sum of one 
gidnea. In 1823, a Savings-bank was introduced into 
the town, and has ever since continued in a flourishing 
state. And, in 1831, a society was founded for the 
benefit and encouragement of those, whose occupation 
or taste led them to adopt horticultural pursuits. The 
acknowledged want of a literary institution had, several 
times, been attempted to be supplied; but all endea- 
vours were unsuccessful, until within the last few 
years; when, by the exertions of sir Robert Peel, one 
was formed and rendered permanent. Tamworth, how- 
ever, received a considerable check in its progress, by 
the failure of two private commercial banks, in the 
years 1816, and 1819 ; when many inhabitants sustained 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 155 

ezoeedingly heavy losses. It was some time before the 
town leoovered fix)m this blow. 

One of the most important occurrences in the recent 
history of Tamworth^ is the alteration produced in 
the political constitution of the town by the Seform-billj 
passed in 18S2. The provisions of this statute are too 
well known to need recapitulation here. It is sufficient 
to observe that it ultimately removes the right to vote 
fixim those who merely pay scot and lot^ and iuvests 
the power exclusively iu persons possessing houses of 
the value of 10/. a year and upwards. At the same 
time^ the limits of the borough were extended to the 
whole parish around. 

In 1835^ the '' Tamworth 'Gas-light and Coke Com- 
pany*' was established. Its capital was fixed at 2000/.^ 
divided into 200 shares of 10/. each. The inhabitants 
adopted in 1839 the act, Srd and 4th Will. IV. cap. 90, 
by which means the town is well lighted. The gas-works 
were erected at the lower end of Bolebridge-street. 

The Municipal Corporations Reform Act, passed in 
1835, about the termination of the year, it came into 
operation. At the time of the enquiries by the par- 
liamentary commissioners, not long before its dissolu- 
tion, the old governing body possessed an annual 
income of 147/. 19«. The rents of four houses within 
the borough, held from time immemorial, amounted to 
91/. Another house, purchased twelve years previously, 
was let for S8/. ; and a pew in the Church, belonging 
to it, for 1/. Is. Three more pews in the Church brought 
6/. 6s.; and various chief rents and ground-rents, 11/. 
12s. And the piccage, stallage, and other profits of 
two fidrs or market-money averaged 10/. The revenues 
were expended in the repairs of the streets, Market-hall, 



156 TAHWORTH 

and Bridges, and in the payment of a few small 
salaries for officers. There was a surplus of lOOf. in 
the chamberlains' hands. Some privileges of the corpo- 
ration had been allowed to fell into disuse. The three 
weeks' court of record had not been held within the 
memory of any man ; nor had the power of holding 
quarter-sessions been exercised for a considerable period. 
The reasons assigned were, the want of a sufficient gaol, 
and the wish to avoid the burden of wmintaiTtiTig such 
an establishment. It was a general opinion that the 
expense would outbalance the cost of sending the pri- 
soners to the county-towns. But in no respect did 
it appear that the corporation had abused its powers, 
or been guilty of simstei^ transactions. Such, unforta- 
ately, was not invariably the case throughout England. 

By the new bill, the government of the town is now 
vested in a mayor, four aldermen, and twelve council- 
lors. Under them, are appointed a town-clerk, auditors, 
assessors, and the minor officers required by the act' 
But, under its operation, the inhabitants of the town 
have lost one of their greatest ancient privileges. 
They are no longer exempt from serving on juries, 
without the limits of the borough. On the particulars 
of this statute, it is unnecessary to dwell. Its funda- 
mental principle is that of restoring to the people gene- 
rally, a voice in their own local government — a liberty, 
which had been principally intrenched upon, by sove- 
reigns of the house of Tudor. 

On the 4th of August, 1839, the Birmingham and 
Derby Junction Railroad was first entirely opened. 
It was commenced three years previously, and passes 
close to the town, on the eastern side. 

1 Sec Appendix : -Kotc 20. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 157 

In the autumn of 1889^ Adelaide, the queen-dowager, 
widow of William lY., during the period of her visit 
to the right honourable sir Robert Peel, bart., at his 
seat, Drayton-manor, fietvoured Tamworth with her 
presence. Of this event, the inhabitants of the town 
had previous notice; and meetings were held and 
committees organized for the purpose of making prepa- 
rations to give a fitting reception to her Majesty. Early 
in the morning of the 12th of November, — ^e day ap- 
pointed for the visit, — ^Tamworth exhibited a very 
pleasing and animated aspect. Grreat numbers of 
strangers resorted hither. Flags were placed upon the 
steeple of the Church, the tower of the Castle, and 
upon the Town-hall. With others, the principal inha- 
bitants decorated their houses; many of which were 
ornamented with flowers and evergreens, and appropri- 
ate emblems. The Church-bells sent forth merry and 
melodious peals, at intervals throughout the day. 

About two o'clock a royal salute of twenty-one guns 
firom the Castle, announced the approach of her Majesty. 
The procession advanced from Drayton-manor through 
Fazeley. First, there came a number of gentlemen on 
horseback, four abreast; then a carriage and four, in 
which were lord Adolphus Fitz-clarence ; earl Howe, 
lord-chamberlain of the Queen-dowager's household ; the 
earl of Denbigh, master of the horse; and Mr. Wood, 
her chaplain. The next was the royal carriage, drawn 
by four bay-horses. It contained queen Adelaide, 
accompanied by lady Clinton, and sir Robert and lady 
PeeL In the carriage and four which immediately 
followed, were the countess of Denbigh, Miss Peel, and 
Miss Mitchell, her Majesty's maid of honour. In the 
fourth carriage, were lady Jane Peel and family. The 



158 TAHWORTH 

procession was closed by a long line of curiages be- 
longing to different gentlemen of the town and neigb- 
bourbood. Sir H. Seymour, tbe rigbt bon. WilUam 
Tates Peel, and Edmund Peel, esq., aooompanied tbe 
royal party. Near tbe foot of Lady-bridge, at tbe limits 
of tbe town, a large triimipbal ardi, between tbirty 
and forty feet in beigbt, and twenty feet in span, bad 
been erected. It was made to resemble stone-woik, 
was entwined witb wreatbs of evergreens, and bore tbe 
inscription — ^weloomb qubbn adslaidb. On tbe sum- 
mit, was placed a decorated crown; and on eadi side 
of it was a flag, upon wbicb were emblazoned tbe 
royal arms. As the procession passed slowly beneatb 
ibis arcb, loud acdamations arose from tbe dense 
tbrong of spectators; and tbe band played tbe great 
national antbem of " Grod save tbe Queen." Tbe royal 
party proceeded along Market-street, and baited at tbe 
Town-ball, wbere tbe members of tbe town-council, in 
tbeir robes, stood awaiting tbe arrival of ber Majesty. 
Tbere, tbe mayor, Jobn Hall, esq.; tbe ex-mayor, Wil- 
liam Parsons, jun., esq.; and tbe town-clerk, Francis 
Willington, esq., were severally introduced to the Queen. 
Sbe was graciously pleased to express to the mayor ber 
pleasure and satisfaction at the handsome reception 
which she experienced from the inhabitants of Tam- 
worth. The mayor and council, preceeded by tbe 
horsemen, then accompanied the royal party along 
Greorge-street and Colehill, to the Church. There the 
Queen-dowager and her suit alighted, to inspect this 
noble building. The rev. Francis Blick, with other 
clergymen, received her majesty at the western entrance, 
and conducted her through the edifice; which was 
densely crowded with ladies. 



CA8TI.E AND TOWN. 159 

After viewing the Churchy the loyal party returned 
to their carriages^ and the procession passed along 
Church-street, and lichfield-street. Every window was 
occupied by persons. Another salute was now fired 
firom the guns at the Castle. At the limits of the 
old borough, an arch had been erected by Mr. Blick, 
bearing the inscription — ^we bid tot; god speed. Here 
the horsemen filed off on each side of the road, and 
the town-council took leave of her Majesty. As the 
Queen passed on, the horsemen raised a hearty cheer. 
The royal party returned to Drayton-manor by Hopwas. 

On the following day, her Majesty forwarded a letter 
through earl Howe, to the vicar, expressing the grati- 
fication which had been afforded to her on this occa* 
sion. The sum of 25/. was enclosed, for distribution 
amongst the poor, during the ensuing winter.^ 

But the most renowned occurrence in the history of 
Tamworth, since the reign of James I., was the visit 
which her gracious Majesty, queen Victoria, made to 
the town and neighbourhood, during her progress 
through the midland counties of England, in the 
autumn of 1843. The expectation that she would ho- 
nour the first lord of the treasury with her presence, at 
Drayton-manor, had, for some weeks previously, caused 
great excitement here. When the pleasing anticipation 
was confirmed, and the time made known to the gen- 
tlemen of the town, the most energetic measures were 
taken by them, to welcome their Queen, in a manner 
due to her exalted rank, as sovereign of the realms. 
A public meeting was immediately called, on the 21st 
of November, the mayor presiding, for the purpose of 
considering and arranging the plans for her reception. 

1 TlieCTpcMcg ■ttc n dant npon fhi« vlait were defrayed by a public Bobecription. They 
amovnted altogeUier to abont 60f . 



160 TAICWORTH 

A subscription to defray the expenses, was oommenoed 
in the room; which ultimately amounted to nearly 
400/. Many gentlemen^ more especially sir Robert 
Peel, made very handsome donations. 

In the decorations of the town^ very great taste 
was manifested by those, under the direction of whom 
the arrangements were conducted. Even the archi- 
tectural defects in the line of streets, along which 
her Majesty would pass, were rendered subsenient to 
some good purpose. At the station of the Birmingham 
and Derby Junction Kailroad^ where the Queen would 
alight, a neat pavilion, carpeted with crimson doth, 
was erected; and a flight of broad steps carried down 
the embankment. Throughout nearly the whole length 
of the road from the station to the town, platforms 
were erected on each side, for the convenience of 
spectators. About midway along this line, by the 
King's Ditch, at the limits of the old borough a large 
and elegant triumphal arch was erected, in imitation 
of stone-work. It bore, amidst a profrision of embellish- 
ments, and wreaths of evergreens, profiles of the Queen 
and Prince, and the fleur-de-liz. It was surmounted by 
a crown, the royal standard, and several flags. A se- 
cond but much smaller arch was placed between (reorge- 
street and the Market-place. A third one was situated 
on the south side of the Town-hall. It bore the 
legend — ^England's hopb; and upon it were placed the 
arms of the town properly emblaasoned, — ^Erm., a fleur- 
de-liz Or. Supporters, — ^two mermaids ppr., each hold- 
ing in her hand a palm branch: these are emblematical 
of the two streams.^ The fourth and last arch was 

1 Hie dcTloe npoD the Mtl of the town Is difltovDt Itooiiitetimerdyofalleiir.de 
lis, diapered all over with small flowers: and it bears around the inscription, — sio 

BTROI . DB . TAMWORTR . IN . COMITAT . WARWIC . BT . 8TAP . The Seal ttSClf, iS made 

of silver; and was presented to the corporation by sir Thomas Tbynne, bait., whilst 
he was higrh-steward. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 161 

placed at the foot of Lady-bridge. It was designed so 
as to harmonize with the architecture of the Castle^ 
which stood in noble grandeur above the scene. It 
consisted of two square towers with a large arch 
stretched between^ and bore many ornaments. The 
decorations of priyate houses by individual exertions, it 
would be totally impossible to describe. It suffices to 
say that every place, which at all commanded a view 
of her Majesty's prioress, was completely covered with 
flags, garlands of flowers and evergreens, and designs of 
every kind. The well devised emblem, and the short 
but appropriate motto, indicated the fervent feeling by 
which all were actuated, and their deep devotion and 
attachment to their beloved Queen. All united in the 
work, and the spirit of party was completely banished 
from the joyous scene. 

On Tuesday, the S8th of November, her Majesty and 
prince Albert commenced their progress to Drayton-ma- 
nor. At five minutes past nine o'clock in the morning, 
they quitted Windsor-castle, in a travelling carriage 
and four. They directed their course through Windsor, 
Eton, Slough, and Uxbridge, to Watford. During 
this time, they were accompanied by a detachment of 
the first regiment of life-guards. The suite in attend- 
ance, who occupied two carriages, consisted of lady 
Portman, lady in waiting; the hon. Miss liddeU, and 
the hon. Amelia Murray, maids of honour; the earl of 
Jersey, master of the horse; the marquis of Ormonde, 
lord in waiting; the hon. George Edward Anson, 
treasurer to prince Albert ; major-general William 
Wemmys, equerry in waiting ; and colonel Bouverie, 
equerry in waiting to his royal Highness. At the Wat- 
ford-station, on the London and Birmingham Railroad > 



162 TAMWORTH 

her Majesty was reoeived by many of the company of 
that line. There a delay of five-and-twenty minutes 
took place, whilst the carriages were being transferred 
to the trucks. From thence, at twenty minutes past 
eleven o'clock, the royal party proceeded by special train, 
towards Hampton-in-Arden. A splendid carriage had 
been provided for the Queen and Prince. The day, 
which at first had appeared very gloomy, and threat- 
ened to terminate in rain, had cleared up; and soon 
the sun burst forth in all its wonted splendour. It 
does not come within the limits of our work to detail 
the reception, with which the Queen met on her jour- 
ney to Hampton. She arrived there, after a short delay 
at Wolverton, in order to partake of refreshments, at 
twenty minutes past two o'clock in the aftiemoon. At 
that place, the directors of the Birmingham and Derby 
Railroad waited on her Majesty, and accompanied her 
along their line to Tamworth. 

Before the morning's dawn, on this day, immense 
numbers of persons flocked into Tamworth. They came 
from every part of the country, for twenty miles 
around. There was soon a scene of bustle and commo- 
tion, which the town can scarcely ever have previously 
witnessed, even in the days of its greatest celebrity. 
About noon, the streets through which her Majesty 
would direct her course, became intensely thronged. 
Every accessible place in the houses and buildings was 
occupied. As the appointed hour approached, the 
centre of the streets was with difficulty cleared by 
the Yeomanry and Staffordshire police, to permit a free 
passage. At twenty minutes to three o'clock, the right 
hon. sir Robert Peel arrived at the station, to await 
his illustrious visitors. He was accompanied by lug 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 16S 

son Mr. Sobert Peel^ the duke of Bucdeuch^ earl 
Talbot^ and lord Ingestre. The pavilion was occupied 
by numerous other gentlemen. About the same time^ 
the corporation and clergy took their station on a 
platforni that was erected for them. It stood upon 
the right hand side of the first triumphal arch^ within 
the limits of the municipal borough^ and was covered 
with crimson cloth. On the summit of this arch^ by 
the standard^ a trumpeter of the Staffordshire Yeomanry 
was placed^ to annoimce the moment when the royal 
train should come into sight. All were now in a state 
of the most eager expectation. Over the vast mul- 
titude, an imusual silence reigned, indicating the in* 
tense feeling which suspense created. 

After the lapse of a short time, the shrill trumpet's 
voice echoed over the town. Immediately the royal 
standard, presented for the occasion by lord Charles 
Townshend, was unfurled on the turret of the Castle, 
a salute was fired from the cannon on the green 
beneath, and the Church-bells commenced their merriest 
peaL At a quarter to three o'clock, the train stopped 
at the station, the journey of fifteen miles firom Hamp- 
ton having been performed in twenty minutes. On 
alighting, her Majesty was received by sir Robert Peel 
to whom she immediately bowed and presented her 
hand. The right honourable baronet conducted her 
to the carriage, which was awaiting below ; and the 
party then left the station-yard. 

The road to the town was kept clear by the Stafford- 
shire Royal Yeomanry-cavalry. Three troops of them, 
under the direction of colonel Monkton the com- 
mander, major Peel, and major Majendie, served as an 
escort. Sir Robert Peel, the duke of Buccleuch, and 



164 TAHWORTH 

the other noblemen followed upon horseback. Thomas 
Shawe Manley, esq., high-sheriff of Staffordshire, and 
many other gentlemen, also accompanied the royal 
party. Immediately that her Majesty and the Prince 
appeared into the public road, they were welcomed with 
the most enthusiastic shouts, which arose on every side. 
For the time, every other feeling seemed to be absorbed 
in that of unbounded loyalty. The Queen expressed her 
pleasure by continually bowing to the multitudes. 
Amidst re-iterated cheering, and the waving of hats and 
handkerchiefb, her Majesty proceeded slowly along the 
road. On arriving at ihe arch, the royal carriage was 
drawn up close to the platform, where the corporation 
and clergy were stationed. Thomas Bramall, esq., the 
mayor, now advanced, and, in a few words, presented 
the mace to the Queen, surrendering with it his local 
authority, at the presence of the fountain-head of 
government. The Queen laid her hand on the emblem 
of office, but was pleased immediately to return it, vrith 
the gracious compliment that it could not be in better 
hands. The royal party proceeded through the town. 
They directed their course through Gteorge-street ; the 
Market-place, on the south side of the Town-hall; 
Market-street ; and Lady-bridge-bank. The Queen and 
Prince rode with the carriage open, so that they were 
well seen by the crowds. As they passed along, the 
acclamations of the multitude increased ; and a scene of 
the most animated description presented itself. A tre- 
mendous rush took place, in order to gain a second 
sight of the Queen and Prince as they quitted the town. 
At the foot of Lady-bridge, the corporation, clergy, and 
gentlemen of the town, took leave of the august travellers. 
Another salute was now fired from the cannon on the 



CASTIiB AND TOWN. 165 

Castle-green. Quickening their speed, the royal party 
directed their course by Bonehill and the Watling-street ; 
and, at a little more than half past three o'clock^ they 
arrived at Drayton-manor, where royal standards were 
immediately raised on the tower, and other parts of 
the mansion. 

Her Majesty on alighting was received by lady Peel, 
and numerous distinguished ladies. With the Prince 
she retired to the apartments reserved for their accom- 
modation, to partake of refreshments after their long 
journey. The whole of the south front of sir Robert 
Peel's noble mansion was appropriated to the use of 
his royal guests. The suite of apartments consisted of 
a breakfSut-room, drawing-room, state-bed-room, and 
four other connecting rooms. All, especially the draw- 
ing-room, were fitted up in a very chaste and tasteful 
manner. A congruity between the ornaments and the 
Elizabethan architecture of the building, was observed. 
The state-bed was very fine ; the hangings were of 
chintz lined throughout with pink silk. 

At six o'clock, the noble circle at the Manor was in- 
creased by the arrival of his grace the duke of Wel- 
lington, who came direct from London by the railroads. 
Archdeacon Lonsdale, the bishop elect of Lichfield, also 
travelled to Tamworth by the same train : he took up his 
abode at the house of Edmimd Peel, esq., at Bonehill. 
Shortly after seven o'clock, the bishop elect of Lichfield; 
Thomas Shawe Manley, esq., high-sheriff of Stafford- 
shire ; Thomas BramaU, esq., mayor of Tamworth ; and 
a deputation from Lichfield, arrived at Drayton. When 
her Majesty and his royal Highness entered the library, 
at half past seven, these gentlemen presented loyal ad- 
dresses to them. The following were delivered from the 
borough of Tamworth. 



166 TAMWOBTH 

'' To the Queen's Most ExoeUent Majesty. 

The humble Address of the Mayor^ Magistrates, 
Aldeimen^ Councillors, and Burgesses of the Borough 
of Tamworth." 

" Most Gracious Sovereign, — ^We, your Majesty's most 
fidthful and dutiful subjects, the Mayor, Magistrates, 
Aldermen, CoundllorSj and Burgesses of the ancient 
Borough of Tamworth,— once the &voured seat of Roy- 
alty, — ^beg your Majesty's gracious permission to offer the 
sincere expression of devoted loyalty and attachment, 
which we at all times feel towards your Majesty ; and of 
the sentiments of delight excited in our hearts by your 
Majesty's august presence amongst us. 

May the Supreme Disposer of all events, be pleased 
to shed upon your Majesty and your Koyal Consort a 
continuance and increase of every blessing. May He 
protect your Majesty firom all harm, and long preserve 
your Majesty in health, for the wealth and happiness of 
these realms. " 

" To His Royal Highness Prince Albert. " 

" May it please your Royal Highness, — We, the 
Mayor, Magistrates, Aldermen, Councillors, and Bur- 
gesses of the Borough of Tamworth, deeply impressed 
with the many and exalted virtues which adorn the 
character of your Royal Highness, approach with senti- 
ments of the highest respect, to give expression to the 
unfeigned regard and admiration, we so strongly and 
justly entertain towards your Royal Highness. 

We cannot but feel proud of the distinction conferred 
upon our ancient and ever loyal Borough of Tamworth, 
by the visit with which your Royal Highness has been 
pleased to honour us. 

That your Royal Highness may be preserved through 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 167 

a kmg life of health, prosperity, and happiness, is the 
prayer of Her Majesty's most dutiful and ever loyal 
subjects. " 

The Bishop elect, then presented loyal and affectionate 
addresses from the rural dean and clergy of Tamworth 
and its neighbourhood. 

After this ceremony had been concluded, the Queen 
was conducted by sir Robert Peel, through the picture- 
gallery into the dining-room. Prince Albert and lady 
Peel, the duke of Rutland and the duchess of Buccleuch, 
with the rest, followed. A very sumptuous dinner was 
provided; and covers were laid for twenty-one persons. 
The Prince occupied the seat next the Queen, and the 
host and hostess were placed on the right and left 
hands. The guests besides were, the duke of Wel- 
Ungton ; the duke and duchess of Buccleuch ; the duke 
of Rutland; the earl of Jersey; earl Talbot, lord-lieu- 
tenant of the county of Stafford ; the bishop elect of 
Lichfield; the hon. Miss Paget; lady Portman; the hon. 
George Edward Anson; Robert Peel, esq., eldest son of 
the premier; major-general Wenmiys; colonel Bouverie; 
William Stratford Dugdale, esq., M. P. for North War- 
wickshire; Thomas Shawe Manley, esq. ; Thomas Bramall, 
esq.; and lieutenant-colonel Monkton. The high-sheriff 
occupied the top of the table, and the mayor of Tam- 
worth sat opposite to him. The dinner lasted for an 
hour and a half. At its conclusion, the right honour- 
able Baronet proposed the health of her Majesty, which 
was duly drunk. Immediately aft;erwards, the Queen, 
with lady Peel and rest of the ladies, withdrew into 
the library. There her Majesty spent some time in 
viewing many of the finest efforts of art in painting and 
sculpture. 



168 TAMWORTH 

A little befofe eleven o'clock, the Queen and Prince 
retired to their private apartments. 

On Wednesday morning, the S9th of November, the 
Queen and Prince, after break£uting together, at eight 
o'clock, in their private room, walked, for a short time, 
upon the terraces. At half past nine o'ckick, prince 
Albert, attended by sir Robert Peel, the duke of 
Buccleuch, major-general Wemmys, colonel Bouverie, 
and the hon. George Edward Anson, visited Tamworth 
Church. The rev. Robert C. Savage, vicar, with the 
curate and churchwardens, was in attendance there. 
After his Royal Highness had inspected this venerable 
edifice, he went to the railroad-station, and proceeded, 
by special train, to Birmingham, to view some of the 
principal manufactories and public edifices of that town. 

But sir Robert Peel and the duke of Buccleuch 
returned to Drayton-mauor. 

At eleven o'clock, her Majesty, with lady and Miss 
Peel, the duchess of Buccleuch, lady Portman, and the 
hon. Miss Paget, walked for half an hour, along the 
terraces, on the south and west sides of the mansion. 
They then visited the flower-gardens, £Birm-yard, and 
dairy; and afterwards went over the hothouses and 
kitchen-gardens. 

A little after two o'clock, sir Robert Peel rode down 
to the Tamworth-station, to receive many other il- 
lustrious visitors. Adelaide, the Queen-dowager, with 
prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar, earl Howe, and the 
countess of Brownlow, arrived by special train, and 
were escorted to Drayton by the Staffordshire Yeomanry. 

After a very pleasing reception at Birmingham, his 
royal Highness returned to Drayton about half past 
four o'clock. To the royal circle at dinner, besides the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 169 

Queen-dowager and her attendants, there were added 
the earl of Warwick, lord lieutenant of the county of 
Warwick; discount Ingestre; the hon. and rev. Henry 
Edward John Howard, dean of Lichfield; and Charles 
Newdegate Newdegate, esq., M. P. for North Warwick- 
shire. 

This day, at Tamworth, was spent in merriment and 
festivity. A dinner was provided in the Town-hall, 
at which the mayor, corporation, and principal gentle- 
men of the neighbourhood, were present 

On Thursday morning, the Queen, having breakfiEisted, 
at half past seven o'clock, walked out upon the ter- 
races, with his royal Highness. The Prince, after- 
wards, accompanied by sir Robert Peel, the duke of 
Buccleuch, the earl of Jersey, and the hon. G. E. Anson, 
went out to sport. He first went in a boat on the water, 
when he brought down two wild dudks ; but he soon re- 
sorted to the easier and more profitable plan of shooting 
in the preserves. There he killed sixty pheasants, twenty- 
five hares, eight rabbits, and a woodcock. About two- 
hundred head of game were killed by the whole party. 
After two hours and a half of sport, the Prince returned 
to the Manor, and partook of luncheon. At two 
o'clock, the royal visitors proceeded in closed carriages 
to Lichfield, in order principally to view its beautiful 
cathedral. 

By five o'clock, the party had again arrived at Dray- 
ton. After dinner, there was a select reception in the 
picture-gallery, when many gentlemen and ladies were 
severally presented to her Majesty, and spent the re- 
mainder of the evening at the mansion. Those who 
were present at this time besides the Queen and Prince 
Albert, were, Adelaide, the Queen-dowager ; Edward, 
prince of Saxe- Weimar ; Arthur Wellesley, duke of 



170 TAMWORTH 

Wellington ; Douglas Scott, duke of Buodeuch; Charlotte 
Ann Scott^ duchess of Buccleuch; John Henry Manners, 
duke of Rutland ; Heneage Finch, earl of Aylesford ; 
John, earl Brownlow; Emma Sophia, countess of 
Brownlow ; William Legge, earl of Darmouth ; Richard 
William Penn Curzon, earl Howe; Greorge Yilliers, 
earl of Jersey ; lady Portman ; the right hon. sir Robert 
Peel ; Julia, lady Peel ; Robert Peel, esq. ; Miss EKza 
Peel ; the hon. Gteorge Edward Anson ; the hon. 
colonel Fulke Greville Howard ; the hon. Henrietta 
Elizabeth Howard; major-general William Wemmys; 
lieut.-colonel Everard William Bouverie ; captain Edward 
Henry k Court, R. N-, M. P. for Tamworth ; William 
Stratford Dugdale, esq., M. P. ; Harriett Ella Dugdale ; 
lady Jane Peel; the dean of Lichfield; Mis. Howard; 
J. D. Watts Russell, esq., M. P. for North Staffordshire; 
capt. Charles Hause Jay, R. N. ; the rev. Robert C. 
Savage, vicar of Tamworth; the rev. W. M. Lally, L.L.D., 
rector of Drayton-Basset ; the rev. Cyprian Thompson, 
incumbent of Fazeley ; Thomas Greorge Lomax, esq., 
mayor of Lichfield ; and Nathaniel Thorn, esq. At 
half past eleven o'clock, her Majesty and the Queen- 
dowager retired into their respective rooms. 

During the afternoon, the poor of Tamworth, amoun- 
ting to upwards of two thousand persons, were feasted. 
For this purpose, the Castle, Town-hall, and National 
School-rooms were occupied. There were provided for 
the occasion, two thousand pounds of beef, six hundred 
pounds of pudding, and two thousand two hundred and 
fifty quarts of ale, besides bread and potatoes in pro- 
portion. Dinners were also given at Fazeley, Wilnecote, 
Wigginton, and the other hamlets in the parish, to the 
working classes. 

On Friday, the 1st of December her Majesty and 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 171 

his royal Highness concluded their sojourn at Drayton- 
manor. At twenty minutes past ten^ they departed 
from the hospitable mansion of sir Robert Peel, on 
their way to Chatsworth, in Derbyshire, the seat of the 
duke of Devonshire. They were escorted by the Soyal 
Staffordshire Yeomanry, the tenantry of sir Robert Peel, 
and the officers of the county constabulary force. Sir 
Robert Peel, himself, and the high-sheriff of Stafford- 
shire, rode immediately in front of the royal carriage. 
In the Manor-park, the children of the schools at Dray- 
ton-Basset and Fazeley were drawn up, to greet the 
Queen and the Prince : and the whole way was lined 
with spectators, anxious to obtain a final glance. The 
royal party proceeded through Fazeley, where a large 
arch had been elected, and the houses decorated. The 
streets of Tamworth were again crowded. Appropriate 
changes had been made in the decorations of the tri- 
umphal arches at the two extremities of the town. The 
one by Lady-bridge bore, on different parts, the mottos 

FARSWSLL, — TAHWOBTH'S LOYALTY AND DEEP DEVOTION 
OHEET YE WELL,— <K)D BLESS YE, — and OUB HEABTS OO 

WITH YE. Across the other by the King's Ditch, a 
banner was suspended, on which were inscribed the 
words, WE BID YE OOD SPEED. The Queen and Prince 
passed along the same way, by which they went through 
the town on Tuesday. At the last arch, they stopped 
to take leave of the mayor and corporation, who there 
awaited them. Her Majesty was then gracious pleased 
thus to address the municipal authorities. ''We thank 
you most heartily for the gratifying reception We have 
met with, in your loyal borough : and be assured that 
We have experienced great satisfaction and delight, from 
the strong feeling of attachment manifested by you on 
this occasion." The mayor, in reply, said, " Most gra- 



172 TAMWOBTH 

dous Sovereign, allow your Majesty's gratefiil and ever 
faithAil servant, the mayor, to express to your Majesty, 
on behalf of the council and inhabitants of Tamworth, 
how highly we esteem the honour conferred upon us, by 
the presence of your Majesty and your Majesty's royal 
Consort amongst us. May GrOD bless and protect your 
Majesty from all harm, and preserve your Majesty in 
health, long — ^very long — to reign over a free, loyal, 
and happy people." The Queen and Prince bowed 
in return ; and the carriage moved on. At the railroad- 
station, the frdl regimental band of the Yeomanry cavalry 
was in attendance. Her Majesty now took leave of 
sir Robert, Lady, and Miss Peel, and proceeded to 
Chatsworth, by a special train. 

Immediately after the departure of her Majesty, sir 
Robert Peel, by command, rode back to the town- 
council, who waited to welcome him, in order to ex- 
press to the inhabitants through the mayor, the Queen's 
satisfaction at the manner in which her Majesty and 
her royal Consort had been received in Tamworth. 
Later in the day, the right honourable Baronet made 
the following official communication to the mayor. 

" Drayton Manor, December Ist 184S. 
"Sir, 

I avail myself of the earliest oppor- 
tunity, in obedience to the express command of the 
Queen signified to me this morning, of conveying to 
you Her Majesty's entire approbation of all the arrange- 
ment made at Tamworth for the reception of her 
Majesty, on the happy occasion of her Majesty's visit 
to Drayton Manor. 



CAffTLB AND TOWN. ITS 

'^ Her Majesty expressed herself highly gratified by 
the combination of perfect order -with the enthusiastic 
demonstrations of loyalty and affectionate attachment 
to Her Majesty's person. 

'^ I need not say how happy I am to be enabled to 
make this gracious commtmication, on the part of the 
Soyereign^ to the chief Municipal Authority of the 
Borough of Tamworth^ and through him to the inha- 
bitants of the Town and adjoining Country. 

'' I have the honor to be^ 
Sir, 
Your faithful Servant. 

ROBERT PEEL." 

In the course of this day, the Queen-dowager, and 
prince Edward of Saxe- Weimar, after having witnessed 
the departure of her Majesty, left Drayton-manor, for 
Gopsall, the seat of earl Howe. The duke of Wellington 
followed the Queen, the same morning, by railroad. 

In Tamworth, during the evening, a grand dinner 
was given at the Town-hall, by the right honourable 
sir Robert Peel, to colonel Monkton and the Stafford- 
shire Yeomanry, in return for their constant services 
and vnlling exertions during the abode of her Majesty 
and her royal Consort at Drayton-manor. The festiv- 
ities in this town, consequent upon the Queen's visit, 
were not entirely concluded until the January following. 
For the committee, organized for the purpose of con- 
ducting the arrangements of the entertainments given 
to the working people, liberally resolved to divide the 
surplus of the money, remaining in their hands, amongst 
the different schools in the town, to provide feasts for 
the poor children there. The rest of the money was. 



174 TAHWOBTH 

therefore, distributed, according to the number of scho- 
lars in each, between the schools, whether attached to the 
Established Church, to the Ronuin Catholic Chapel, or 
to the Meeting-houses of any class of Protestant dissenters 
in Tamworth. 

Long will the recollection of the visit of her gracious 
Majesty and his royal Highness, her illustrious Consort, 
be retained at Tamworth. And long, too, we trust, 
will the intense and glowing feelings of derotion and 
loyalty, manifested in this town, be remembered by one, 
whom Providence has called to rule a nation of exalted 
wealth and strength. Betwixt a sovereign who exercises 
her power not by terror and oppression, but by gentle- 
ness and love, and her people, mutual confidence and 
attachment must ever exist, strengthened by acts of 
condescension on her part. Such feelings, and these 
alone, can the presence of her Majesty at Tamworth 
have tended to engender and confirm. 



THE NEW YORK 

PU13UC LIBRARY 



A8TOR, LENOX AND 
TILDEN FOUNOATIONa. 



STATE OF THE TOWN. 



To trace the gradual alterations which have taken 
place in the conditibn of Tamworth from an early 
period to our own times, is a subject/, in a local point 
of view, fraught with very great interest. The consider- 
ation of these changes form the object of the present 
portion of our history. We shall endeavour to portray 
in detail the ancient state of the town ; in a light as 
clear as the records which we have examined, will 
permit, and then review the great improvements which 
have been made, more especially within the last century 
and a half. At the same time, it is our intention to 
give other matters, arising out of our subject, which 
may prove usefrd to, and worthy of the attention of, 
the antiquary. 

Church STREBT....In the time of Henry VIII., Leland 
refers to Church-street as the principal one, and describes 
it as lying, in the general direction of the building of 
the town, by west and east; the north side, on which 
is the Church, being in Staffordshire, and the south, in 
the county of Warwick.^ In conformity with the usual 
custom regarding the chief thoroughfare of a town, it was 
often called High-street. Under that appellation, it is 
noticed in 1389, and again in 1439.' It has, however, 
in modem times, been superseded by the completion of 

1 Itia., YOL IV, fol. isg b. S Court rolls, IS R. n,, 17 H. VI. 



176 TAMWOBTH 

the Market-place; and, although longer, it now ranks 
inferior to it, both in width, and the general character 
of the houses. 

BuTCHEB St££ET....B7 this name was formerly desig- 
nated the part of Church-street eastward of the Church- 
yard.' The Butchery* lay dose by the residence of the 
dean, in the angle between this street and Gxmgate. 

June M, 14M:— *' aic*iw Dalton te TuBwoith» MBlor, mare*, . . raddit in nuta' 
BiJUaor* .. vnu* Buxm* .. iftC In le Boduty, int* Bomc* Joh*ia Oofean. .. mb% 
«sp*ta orlMtali. h wmit* oeel*le. ex pte ooddcnf } ft estand* m • tIa ngia rtq* 
daoanat' de TMnworth : ad opnt RIen daltan fllQ md, ft Joh'e tsIs «ali. her* ft 
MtiffB' rali lmp*p*m.**->'* Joh*M de Cotan de TuBwarth, tenior, redd* in mea* bdl' 
TBQ' Bunec* .. lac* in le Bochery int' Bnr(i«* Beldewiai TtwyU, en p*te ortent,* 
ft Bugec'Rlen Delton, een% expteooddent*j ft extend' ee • Yta regto Tsq* decaiMft* 
de Itenworth : .. ad op* Blet Dalton de Tuawottli, neroen, ft Joh'e txIs etai. '^ 

The Swine-market appears to have been held here. 
But, in this supposition, we are only guided by the 
mention of its existence on the Staffordshire side of the 
town, in 1S88, 1395, 1453, and 1505,^ and by the dr- 
cumstance that the Butchery is now partly used for 
that purpose. The rest is taken up by buildings, and 
by a large edifice, once the Theatre, but lately converted 
into a malt-house. In Io89, at the court-leet and view 
of firank-pledge, held on the S6th of October, it was 
ordered, under penalty of 40d., that the inhabitants by 
the Swine-market should keep the gutter there, near 
the pavements, clear, so that the path might not be 
obstructed.' 

Stoke Cross.... At the junction of Church-street, Gun- 
gate, and Colehill, stood, until about the reign of Edward 
YI., the Stone-cross, named so early as 1293.' 

Coort-lect, Warwickahire, held Nov. M, iao4 :^ ««prea* q'd Joli*ea to Sadder iedt 
perpieatQiam .. ^)*d le Stonenecraa i quia no* eit p*t* i*o distr*. "f Coait» held SepC s» 
1S7S:— *'Cart' irrotol* InhecT'ba. Sdant fte.q*d Baldewyniis de nrevill, miles, 
dedit fte. Ad*e Breton de Tamwoith. lie*d*. ft aaaign' •nia, ma* Borsac* .... ta 

1 Dorothy Feirers* grant for Masa of reqniem. 9 Court rolls, 10 H. VI.— U42. 

3 lb., 3 H. VI. 4 lb., 12, 19 R. II t SI H. Vl.i ai H. VII. 

5 lb., 18 R. II. 6 lb.. S9 B. I. 7 lb., as B. 1. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 177 

Com* 8t«flbrd*, p'at iaoet tpad le Stonoie Groi, int' t'nm p*d*ei Baldewyni, ex 
▼na pte, ft t'nm quond*m Will*! Matthew, ez alt'a; ft extend' ee in longi'e a ria 

leg* Tsq* fram Decani Eccl*ie coUenr* de Ta*worth Redd* inde Annuat* 

p'd*co Baldewyno, b*ed% ft aarifu* saJs, vna* floran Rose, ad Pm Nat* b>e Joh*is 
Baptiste **i 

Concerning the Cross^ itself^ we find nothing recorded, 
except an order made on the 12th of October, 1516, 
that butchers should no more sharpen their hatchets or 
knives upon it, under penalty of 12d. to be paid to the 
common box of the town.' An ancient family appear 
to have derived their surname from the proximity of 
their dwelling to this venerable monument.' 

Galfrid atte Cross or ad Cnicem. 

! 



Henry atte Cross, Margaret, 1317. Thomas atte Gross, 

1995; and, in 1S34, chaplain, keeper of the 

oneoftbe Joryofthe hoqiital of St. James 

oourt-toet, Staff.sh. here, 1S04 to IS17. 



Roger atte Cross, elect- William atte Cross, 

ed. May, 1348, collector perpetual ricar of Al- 

of minor toUs. rewas-church, 1350. 



Ralph atte Cross, 
chaphdn, 1303. 

The Three Tuns Inn, at the end of Church-street, 
is still known as the Stone-cross. 

GuifOATE.... Passing northwards from the east end of 
Church-street, is Gungate, or, as it was anciently 
written, Gumpiyate or Gumpigate. In May, 1369, there 
was a curious bye-law made, on the Warwickshire part 
of the town, that no man or woman from Wales should 
sell ale in this street, under liability of its being forfeited.^ 
At the court-leet, on the 12th of May, 1385, Philip de 
Bedford was fined 4rf., " p' obstup' in Gu'pegate, ex- 
opo'ito Rectore' eccl'ie de Bukkeby. '*' Gungate afforded 
a surname to a family in early times ; but we have found 
very little more than the bare names. 

1 Coort roUs, 44 B. III. 9 lb., 8 H. VITI. 

3 lb., S5 K. 1. ; 6, 1 1 E. II. ; 7> 31, S3, 85 E. III. 4 lb., 48 B. III. 5 lb., 7 R. H. 

Z 



178 TAMWORTH 



iigtfe iao4. ii88» 1SS6. 

\T7~zr: — ' -. I — ' .. r 



AUec.- Jolm ds Pkhford. Joha, Mm mad Malta. MO*. Sbbw. ilpf . 

aevend tSmn one lMir,iaos,iss0. i»ii. 

ortbebtiUftoiitlie 
WarwIckBhlreiide. 

Besides these, we have the following: — Alan de Gum- 
pigate, 1289, 1298; Henry, 1298, 1316; Ralph, 1S04; 
Thomas, 1804, 1825; WiUiam, 1817, 1845; Amice, 1328; 
and John, 1880, 1850.' 

Gnngate is a long, broad, and tolerably regular street 
The east side, where Guy's Almshouses are situated, 
is in Warwickshire ; and the west, with the Free Grammar 
School, in Staffordshire. In the latter part, we find 
the " Gumppeyerde " mentioned in 1507 ;' but the 
position of this place we have not ascertained. 

Stony Lane.... The northern part of Gungate, and 
the road continuing to the limits of the mimidpal 
borough, where it branches into three ways, leading to 
Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Wigginton and Edengale, Elford and 
Burton-upon-Trent, retained, until very lately, its ancient 
designation of Stony-lane.' The appropriateness of the 
name was indisputable, when the road was proverbially 
very dirty, irregular, and narrow; and the part of the 
street consisted of a very few poor scatteied and thatched 
cottages. But, within about the last twenty years, it 
has been much widened, and very greatly improved. 
Nearly all the old houses have disappeared; and a neat 
street has been built. The foot-path, on the western 
side of the road, beyond the houses, was formed along 
the summit of a hill, and was defended by some old 
wooden rails. But, it has been cut down to a .level 
with the carriage-way. During the past year, a stone- 

1 CoartrolU, 17toS4B. I.| StolQE. II.; 9tolO.,«SB. III. S lb.,S3H.VII. 
s Penonbalatioii of th« bomffh, 1097* 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 179 

wall has been erected at the side; and the steep bank 
bevelled off, in the same manner as, a few years ago, 
had been done on the eastern side. The road is, there- 
fore, inferior to none in the neighbourhood of Tamworth. 

At the northern extremity of this road, on the left 
hand side of the high-way, close to the spot where a 
dump of trees stands, was a piece of land called Bayly's 
grave, which belonged to the corporation until 1704, 
when it was sold.^ From what circumstance it obtained 
this name, we do not know. In the Parish-register, on 
the 18th of July, 1655, is recorded the burial of " Thomas 
Bayly, of Tamworth, who hanged himself. " It is pos- 
sible that he was interred at this place, near the meet- 
ing of the four roads. 

Old Chubch LANE....Or, as it is now usually called. 
New College-lane, ran from Gxmgate into the Church- 
yard. But, in 1848, the path within the cemetary was 
stopped by the Church-wardens. It is short, narrow, 
consists of small houses on the south side alone, and 
now forms a ''blind" lane. 

In 1337, it is called '' Chirchelone. '" To it extended 
the Deanery, before that building fell into decay; for, 
in 1420, we find that John ELingshurst was fined Zd., 
** p* carte tymbr', in venell* v'c* eccle'am, sT) muro 
decani."' 

New Church LANE....This also passes firom Gungate 
to the Church-yard, but northward of the last. It is 
exceedingly probable that it is Schoolmaster's lane re- 
corded, in 1384, as lying in Staffordshire. 

Coort held Oct 91, 1J84:~ '« Joh*M Sadeler de Thamworth ren* h lona* reddit 
biwui' balll'oi*, ad opai Joh'is de ClUton, capell', & Joh*}* Sadder, d'id', ha'da ft 
Mdcn' anoi*, tiiii* Cutflac' .. lute Com* Staff', iac* in Skolemayataone, int' Vf 
l^Anrjtty da TrjuOk, wm\ ez pte ma, ft Vf abbatiM* de FoUeswortb, ex p'te 
•»% ^ 

1 Corporatton reoorda. 9 Court rolls, lO E. III. s lb., 7U.V. 

4 Oonit roOs, 8 R. II. 



180 TAMWOBTH 

Where this lane can have been, unless it were here, 
we are unable to conjecture. It must otherwise have 
ceased to exist altogether. But the fact of there having 
been a School-master's lane, is important. It shows that 
there was some foundation for affording education, per- 
haps the Grammar School, which had been established 
for so great a length of time, that, at this early date, 
it had attained a considerable degree of eminence in 
the town. 

Salteb Street or LAKE....In Staffordshire, runs pa- 
rallel with the north part of Gungate, on the west side. 

June ii, IS94 :— " Waltenis de Giunpegate In mia, q* loluitc teoftuit vna' Bmra' 
In Saltantlons, md nocimmta* Itofto Tie.** March 17, ISU:— •'D*iia BnclNiiri 
[da HMdfMhaUj.AMwtiaM de FoUetworth, ooncenit d*nis Hear* de PoUcsworth & 
J6h*nl de Polleewortlu (Mpllit, qoodd* ten* in le Selt'done,. . *' October, 1S91 :— •< Rttd't 
de Wycford, Gtp*U*t* rentt In plena cor* & r*dd* In man* baUi'or* Tna* plac' tr*, en' 
edMc* rap*po*ltto,. . . .in Com* Staff*, in renclla q' dldt* le 8alt*slone ; int* ten* maTrl 
Rof»i de Appelb7, & ten* q*nd* Hugon' le Bnirn: Ad op* Simon* de Wydbrd. 
did, a he'd* iuor*...."! 

Salter's-lane is now merely a cart-road, terminatiiig 
at some brick-kilns, and bounded on each side by fine 
and plentiful orchards. 

Ald£Rgat£,....A corruption of the ancient name Eller- 
gate or Elregate,' — ^passes from Gungate to the west 
end of Church-street. About forty years ago, it was 
very narrow, dirty, and irregular. It contained only a 
few scattered houses in it, and was chiefly limited by 
gardens and fields. On the east side, towards Gungate, 
there was a large field, with several pits in it. Alder- 
gate, however, has been rendered tolerably regular, wide, 
and neat. Although it is not yet entirely filled with 
houses, it has lost its designation as a lane, and has 
assumed the higher and more honourable title of a 
street. The Castle-orchard was situated on the west 
side of it. 

1 lb., n E. I. : 8 E. n. ; S B. III. S lb., S9 B. I. -1S94. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 181 

St. John's STRSET....This is not improbably the Castle- 
lane^ leading to gardens, and amongst them to the 
Castle-orchard. Alexander de Frevile, on the feast of 
St. Clement the pope, 1322, on the payment of 50«. of 
silver, conceded to Simon de Wycford, clerk, for his 
life, the garden called Castle-orchard, lying between El- 
le^ate and the Walfurlong, and extending in length from 
the land of William de Gropshull to the pool of the dean 
of the Church ; with all the herbage and fruit growing 
there, and the ditch between the garden and the Wal- 
frurlong. But on the expressed condition that if, after 
the lapse of five years, Alexander de Frevile or his 
heirs, should pay to Simon de Wycford or his assignees, 
in the coU^ate Church of Tamworth, the sum of 
50*., the whole property should revert to its former 
owner.' By the dean's pool, was situated the dean's 
bam.' Both these have long disappeared. 

St. John's street is very modem, and even now con- 
sists only of houses on the south side. It is short, and 
was built after the erection of the Catholic chapel; to 
which it leads. The Meeting-house of the Independents 
stands at the comer of it and Aldergate. 

Cat LANE....Passing out of Aldergate towards the 
Church, and mnning parallel with Church-street, was 
once Cat-lane. It was sometimes called Parson's or 
Priest's lane ; but this was not its most usual designation. 

March », 1801 :— *< WiU'm'i de Hopewas, fir* & heres RobM de Hopewas de 
naawoath, Tenit In Cur' & reddit in nuunu BaU'or* Tiiam placeam tene en' ed- 
md^ anp'pocltis, .... in Tamworth, in Com' Staflbrd* p'at iaoet inf ten* Riclle 
Whelere. ez p*te Tna, & ten* qnond' WIll*i de Ireland, ez alt'a; & extend* ae in 
loBsttnd' a via, Begin riq* le P'sonedone . . . . Ad opna WiUH de Norton & Olino* 
Clede, cnpeU'or', hered* it aadgn' suor* imp*pet*m. . . . £t anp' hoc renlt D'oa Hofo 
de Hopewaa, canonicns eccl*ie Cathedral' lichefeld, flrat' iplna WiUH de Hopewas. 
k fai plena S'tina ip'or* Wmi de Norton & Oliueri Clede, eapell' remialt, rdazanit, 
k om* p* ae & heredib' inis imp>pet*m qoieta' damanit tota' Job ana' & dam«' 
1 Conxt roOa Sft H. VI.,— 1457. s Indentoze, I8». s Court xolla, SO E. m. 



182 TAMWORTH 

qa« haboit aea qnoqnoinodo habere potnit in p'd'ce plaoee t'n cu* ediflcUs sup'- 
posItU, ...." Cooit-leet, Nor. 15» 1379:— John Syenoote was fined 4d., becaoee 
**oocap* eoltt' .. on* imo, t(1s]. In Oettealone ft anhtos mar* dmiteff)." Jnne 12, 
14M : *' Thom't Archer de BannyBcham, flUna & herea Eadltbe, nnp> vxla WOn 
Archer de Burmyncham, .... reddidit in man* BalH'or* de Tunwoith, ex p'te Com* 
B U tf U i T imo* meenaK' .... pHit lacet in rioo Tocal* Chyrcheetrete, Jnxf le 
Wesmetece, int* ten' qnond' Bien de BoUnhnll, ex vna pte, ft ten* qno*dam angnet* 
Crek, ex al*tapite; ft extendit m aviaBeg' vaq* venella* Tocat* Catteslone : ad 
Gpns Henrld Lesson, alias Tocat* moilef de Tsmworth, ft Joha'e TX'is elns, ....** 
pet SI, 14M:— "Ad Tis* franc* .... Teait Thomas Oohnan .... ft reddit in man* 
ball* .. Tnn* Bargag* ft Tnn* gazdinn', .... in Com' Btaff'i ft p'dict' mes' iac' in 
cbnrcfaestret, int' ter* Com* Warr*, ex vna pte, ft t're quondam Joh*is Sadeler, ex 
p*te alt*a, ft extend' ae a regie Yia Tsq' Psononeslane : p*diot* Tero gardinn* in 
Fsononealane, int' t'r* qoond* Baldcwlni FTeTyU, miUt', ex pte Tna, ft t*r' BIcH 
Dalton, ex p'te alt'a, ft extend' se a Psonedane Tsq' ad t'r* qnond' p'dict* Baldewtaii 

nmryll: ad opas Johls Oobnan ** And in 1455:— "Joh* Ccdman, fllins lliome 

Oolman,....redd' in man' ball' vnu' Borgagin' cn'gardino adiac': ft diet' Bnrg* iac' 
in Tloo TOC' Chnrchestret inf Burg* Comitlsse de Salopp', ex pte yna, ft 
ten' Hnmph* Jacobe, ex pte airaj ft extend* a via regia Tsq' Catteslone: ft p*dict* 
gardinn* iac* int* gardinn' Bic'i Dalton, ex pte Tna, ft gardinn* Thome Ferrers, 
Armig*, ex p*te alt*a, ft abbntt' se vsq' yenellam p'dict' : ad opus Johls Stanley, 
armig'i, ft XUzabeth vx'is eins, ft hered* hit' eos legitthne p'creat* **i 

In 1460, ''Pristlone in le Chirchestiete," is recorded.* 
Cat-lane was abolished in the reign of Charles 11., 
and the land disposed of, by the corporation, to different 
persons.' 

CARREF0XJR....The meeting of the four wiiys. Church- 
street, Aldergate, lichfield-street, and Silver-street, was 
very anciently called the Carrefour. 

June so, 1S9S :— " Philipp* Drak ht seisfai* hi q'dam ptiela tie en* edUc* .. 
ex dimiasiane Simonis, fil* Sfanonls le Sannage . Jaoent ap*d le Qnaifbuk de 
Tsmeworth, fait* t*n' p*d*Gi Shnonis, ex vna p*te, ft Beg* sttam, ex alt'a,.. . . "< 

Lichfield STBE£T....This street continues on the same 
line with Church-street, to the road leading by the 
village of Hopwas to Lichfield. It was formerly di- 
vided by the bars or barriers,' — ^the outer fortifications 
of the town, — ^into two parts. The first was generally 
called lichfield-street, and the second Outwall-street. 
But in time, probably on the disuse and destruction of 

1 Court rolls. 85 B. III.} S B. n.{ 9, SS, 84, H. VI. 9 lb., 88 H. VI. 

3 Coiporationreooids, 1068. 4 Conitro]]s,98E.I. 6 Court ndls, 1836 to 1470. 



CASTLS AND TOWN. 18S 

the barriers, the former name became applied to the 
whole. At the open space, near the top, once stood 
the Town-hall; but it was removed at the commence-- 
ment of last century. 

April, iig»:— •<AlMi» d'on 4b WfgliitaD petf noTe h'edHar qaodd' tea* in 
OtewaUMtrete, de ten' quod* Bobtl SdieUte nup* defoncti." Jan^ 1900:—' 

•« Joh*M de CoUeehoU A Alic' rz* dna reddiderant in man' baUi'or*.. .Tna' 

aaeeiMg* .... In LicheiUdeetrate, Im' faizta tenm* lUdl SelTettr', A eztend* ee tA 
]0'gltadin« a ▼!» Regia veq* la WaUefortonri q'd qald* maevag* WUl' Melllhev 
qnond' tenoit : ad opoa Nleh*i de Kynchale, p'eone eodle de Drayton-Bafleet, 
Winn da NentoB, A Robti d« Mapde, o^mH', her» A anicn' eiioi' .... *• 
Jnl7 9, 1S70:— '* Sdaat .. q'd ego, Joh'ee Mattbewa de Tunworfh dedl .. Ad't 
da WytliordleTa A Joh'i de ajfton, capeUla, .. Ton' meraaf* .... in Comit' 
Staflbfd', p'at iaoet in Otewalestrete, .... A extend* ee in long' a via Regia Tiq' 

ad campii' del Walfoxlong Kt ea Uaf ecer un t ball'ls p* eeissi'a h'end' : A edam 

cQBcceair eat eiad'm Ad*e A Johl libtatem TOles A fwenut lideUt* in 
p^eeoc' Bog'i Betke, WSPi Keec, tone ball' i'bm, .. d*ni Henr* Caytewayte, 
Rector* ecel*ie de Karlebm, .. A moltor' al', Ac.*'— "Sdant .. q*d noe, Joh*ea 
da Bopewaa A Cbristlana rz' mea, dedimne Oliaero Clede de Tunworth, capdl'o. 

.. Ton' mcaoag*, .. in Com' Stodlbrd', p'nt iaoet in Otewalestrete, »• 

Megr, 1S8S:— •« Sdaat .. q*d noa, Jotafee BoHenhnll da Tonatyi A Joh'na rx* mm, 

dodim' RiCo de OMynton, fil*o Johls da Oldyngton .. duo mesoag* .... qna 

.. qnond' too* d'ni BaldewTuy FTeayle, mllltie, senioria, p'nt aimul Jacent in 
Otewaleetrete, inf meanag* Rogt da Pype A Amide, TX'is due .... A mee' 
Job'ia Cokeo. .... A eztendnnt .. a via regia Ttq' man'm d'ni lliame de 
Oldyngton, Cenonid ecd'ie OoMlaf de Tafworth. .... " May Si, 1470:— AUda, 
Bop^ rx* ThtatM BnuHey, Tcnit coram balli'a, in pnra vidnetate ena, A annn' red- 
didit in manna d'oor* balli'or' dno ootegia simnl jacanf .. in tIco Tocaf lidiefeld- 
itreta, aliaa d'co ez antiqno Otwalalrete, Int' fMa q^Mlam Robti DnnstaU, ex pte 
Tna, A rram medo Johfa Stanley, mlUt', ax pte albm} A extendit ee in longitndine 
ab alta via p'dta veq' ad la Walfnriong : ad opna Rie'i Kdyng de Wlgynton A 
Hizabcth, vxoria ine, .... "t 

lichfield-street is the finest one in the town, both in 
regard to its length and breadth. Lyiog very nearly 
parallel to, and at a little distance from, the Tame, the 
houses on the south side are provided with large and 
pleasant gardens abutting on the water. The agreeable- 
ness of the situation is thereby very greatly enhanched. 
Tet the street contains only two objects of interest, — the 
School founded and endowed by the late sir Bobert Peel, 

1 OoortlDils,18E.I.}4S,4S,B.ni.|5R.II.}10B.rV. 



184 TAMWORTH 

and the Moat-house. Within the last few years very 
great improyements have been made at the lower end, 
by the rebuilding of a number of houses, and the erec- 
tion of many more. 

Bbadfobd STRssT....The lower part of lichfield-street, 
by the plot of ground where the horsefEur ia now usually 
held, was formerly called Bradford-street It derived its 
name from the Broad ford leading to the island or 
Broad-meadows, over the part of the river known as the 
Wean-lake.^ 

May, lagot— "Simon to Wjrto dat .... Joh' fil' too .... tola' tcnra' toam in 
Bradford, ca» Mpto* acrii terra, ft t'dun pfe' de Stoekwaltomeddo, ft rdaa ^W 
vni' aore p*U in Btdkimar, ft t'dam p*te* Tni' aera pti in CUdefardniflddo : ft q' 
d'cos SImo' no' h't dgiUii' p'pom, ideo liffilla' Bic* Don e' aeonod*." Ftob. n, 

1S17:— "WlU't Boch'e, Muior raddlt in man' baU'or' medietatem vni' 

tnirfacQ fra, com Crofto adiaoante, in Bradefordeitrate, .... ad op' WIUI to 
Waoera de Tunwoith ft Itabdl' vx'to ei' .. **< 

In accordance with the very general custom of early 
times, a family assumed a cognomen from the Broad ford.' 

Robot do Bradford. 

I 

John de Bradford, -Matilda, 
ISM. ^1 1304. 

I 
Wniiam de Bradford,— Joan, 
1S86, 1310. 1310. 

Wyborne LANE....This lane runs from Lichfield-street, 
nearly at the top, to the river Tame. 

Jan. 80, 1317:— "Thom'atteCroea, eepeU'i, .... reddit in man' ball'or* vna* 
placeam t*re, ca* edific* lap'poeit* lux* Wybumelone, vna' plaoeam Vn cnitilaci) 
ad aquam de Tune iuz' Wybanelone : . . . . ad op' Marfarete, 111* Agn' Tx*te Joh'to 
toSaoace "4 

Peel STREET....This street is very modem; and takes 
the same direction as Wybome-lane, feirther down lich- 
field-street. In it is situated the Baptists' Meeting- 
house. 

Moor Lane and Ludoate Lane These are merely 

1 Ferambototlon, i807. 3 OoortroUa, le B. i.; ii B. n. 

a lb., 14,33 E. 1. 1 SB. II. 4 lb., 11 B. II. 



CASTLK AND TOWN. 185 

lanes leading principally amongst fields and gardens. 
Moor-lane^ named in 1470/ runs out of Lichfield-street, 
passes along the edge of the Staffordshire-moor, and joins 
Ludgate-lane, which continues towards the northern 
extremity of Gungate, and partly forms the boundary of 
the old borough.* 

Silver Street and Lady Bridge BANK....These were 
known, in former times, as Ladybridge-street' and the 
HoUoway.* They pass from the end of Aldergate to 
Lady-bridge; and lie, on the west side, in the county 
of Stafford, and on the east side, in that of Warwick. 

July St, 1371 :— " Sdant &c. q*d noa, Wm*i de Mdewych de Tamworth & AliC 
Tz* mea, dedim' .. Rlc'o Wysae de Lychefeld .. Tnu* messaag*, .. in Com' Staff* 
in Tico Tocat* Ladybrogge atr ete, p*at jacet int' ten* Baldewyni Fftuill, milit*, ex 
p*te Tna, ft ten' Ph*i de Bydeford, & Margaret* vx'is eina ex alt*a; & extend' ae 
ab alto Tico raq' foaaat' rocat* le Kengeadych .... " May S5, 14S9:— "WiU'a 
Dalton de Tamworth .... redd' in man' ball' run' Cotag' .... iac' in Tico toc' 

ladibrogeatret, int' ten* qnond' Johaune Breton & ten' Bicl Dalton ft Agnet' 

Tx*ia eioaj .... & extend' ae a via regia vaq' ad reneU* toc' Wybnm lane: ad 
opfoa Thome Seman .... " Oct. 18, 1547:— "Me'yt Wyll'm maaon ftTomaa dege 
ahall make ther yate of there croft on lade brege hyll, & ahall not dryne thorowe 
y» comyn lane, Tpon payne of x^ii. totiea q'otiea. "< 

Ladybridge-bank was once bounded, on one side, by 
fields, where the Workhouse now stands, and on the 
other by the Castle-ditch. It consisted of a narrow 
road, at the foot of a slight hill; along the brow of 
which an irregular pathway was cut, with some old 
wooden rails. It remained in a very delapidated state, 
until within the present century; when, through the 
liberality of the late sir Robert Peel, great improvements 
were made, and a respectable and fitting entrance into 
the town formed. The road was widened by cutting 

I Coort roUa. S Perambnlatlon, 1097. 9 Court roUa, 38 E. III. 

4 Ib.,8fiH.VI. 
5 lb., 44 E. III., 17 H. VI., H. VITI. The earlieat Engliah bye-law, which ia fonnd 
hi the Conrt-rolla, ia dated on the 32nd May, 1433. It ia to the effect that William 
BaiMhead should pat hia galea in orda, under liability of fine. '* Ordinatu' e* q' 
Wai*a Romeahed pnt hya geta 1* od' gofmmanna the* they bane bene befor tyme i, 
peyne of xtj<)., half to y« comn box, ft d* ball*ia. ** 

6 B 



186 TAMWOKTH 

away part of the hill; and^ as it waa impossible to 
avoid an elevated foot-path, it was paved, flagged, and 
defended by neat and strong iron palisades, the nde 
of the hill being bricked. We read of the bariers both 
in Ladybridge-street' and Ghingate.' 

Bell Lane... .There remains only one more place to 
be alluded to, before turning to speak of those parts of 
the town, situated entirely in Warwickshire. This was 
called "Yenella sub tintinabulo " ; and twice only have 
we seen it named. 



Ha. 10. 1101:— "Joh'i dt PIcklbrd ht MrriBm in qM* ptB ml' Barsif' 
en' ptln' Jaoente in yeneUa ■'b ttntinnahln, ex dono ft eoBeeadone Mag*ri Bobi de 
Pldiford, in plena Car*. " Sept 4, 131S :— " Joh*M Pjrdieford, Boifenais dc Tbaa- 
worUi.....icddit in mann* ]tam*iar* q'nd' p*tem yni* Bargf«|) Vn .. p*nt iacct in 
lliamiroith in q'd' renell' nib Tlntlnabalo : ad opuB D*ni Blc<l dn Tecoebnr', Guoaiel 
•cclle Collegiate de Tamwortli, ....*•* 

Where "the lane under the bell" can have been, 
we are unable to conjecture. 

Market Street and PLACE....These formerly con- 
sisted of a row of houses and shops on the north alone. 
The opposite side was occupied by the Castle and its 
surrounding ditch ; and was called the Castle-green. 
The houses erected on the south side, since the time of 
Henry YIII., are mostly built at the back on piles, 
within the ditch, which had been filled up previously 
with soil and rubbish. The consequence has been that, 
owing to the want ot a completely firm foundation, some 
of the older buildings have given way in a slight 



Market-street and place run parallel with Church- 
street; and communicate with it by King-street, and, at 
the top, by Lunn's entry. In the space around the 
Town-hall, at the east end, is held the market every 

1 Court roUa, S H. V1.»—14S4. S lb., 13 R. II.»— ISfiO. 

s Covrt roUs» BtalKBidahire, si E. I., 6 B. ki. 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 187 

Saturday; as undoubtedly it had been, on the same 
spot, from the earliest times. In 1285, it is said that 
PhUip de Marmyon made a certain perpresture or en* 
eroachment to the detriment of the king's market, by 
either part of the Castle, of eight feet in breadth, and 
forty feet in length.' In 156S,' and again in 1656,' 
the Market-cross is mentioned; so that it would seem 
there was an appropriate building on the site of the 
present Town-hall under which the people assembled. 
The part east and south of this edifice was formerly 
used as the ''Barley-market.^' In 1711, there was a grant 
from the corporation of Tamworth to Mr. Mainwearing 
of Drayton-Basset, steward to lord viscount Weymouth, 
of two dwelling houses, with '' culloms " supporting the 
over-hanging part, opposite this place. Buildings of 
this peculiar, and once common, construction are scarcely 
now found in the town. 

George STREET....This was anciently known as Bull- 
stake, or Bullstock-street. But it lost that designation 
on the disuse and removal of the Bull-ring, and re- 
ceived the name of George-street, perhaps from the 
George Inn. Under this alias it is designated in 1704/ 
On the south side, it was once principally occupied 
by crofts and gardens ; but it is now a regular and 
good street. It runs from the Market-place to the end 
of Colehill, nearly parallel with the river Anker and 
with Church-street, being connected with the latter by 
College-lane; where the National schools are situated. 

AGATEWATEK-LEAD£R....Water-leader in Agas or Agate- 
lane, or, as it was often called, Agatewater-leader,' lay 
by the Anker, between the Castle and Bolebridge. On 
the 8th of May, 1314, a bye-law was made that no 

1 Pladta corone, conun J. de Vane, rot. 40., 13 £. I :— Thomas'i DafdAle. 

S Cluaiberlftiii'B acooantB. S Puish Register. 4 TItle.deedt of that date. 

s Court rolls, 8ft E. I. 



188 TAMWOBTU 

person henceforward should wash the intestines of oxen 
or other animals at this place^ under pain of losing the 
whole property there washed^ besides being fined.^ 

8BOOBisoATE....This also lay by the same water, and 
perhaps may have been identical with the last place; 
but neither now exist.' In 1285, the abbot of Merevale, 
who possessed land at Tamworth, made a perpresture 
by obstructing the thoroughfiBure at a certain lane, where 
the burgesses of the town were accustomed to draw 
water.' It was undoubtedly at this place; for, on the 
11th of November, twelve years later, we find that the 
abbot of the same religious house and Cralfrid Wyne 
were both amerced at the court-leet, for obstructing, 
with their gardens, a lane leading towards the water at 
Segorisgate.* 

Jaljr 10. 1104:— •'Gttlfr'i WyM .... d«k Grcfor', fil* nio. Tan* met* .... in 
Thancwoith, lux* Tcndftm* que dadt u* •q'm qw roWt* Oncor, .... '*< 

CoLEHiLL....This was called, in the olden times, 
Cross-street, fin>m the Stone-cross at its upper end. 

Dec 8ft, IS81:— '•D'tuBiOdewTii' Fraojrle, mJln, tndldit .... Ric»o Mrdetton 
de Tunwovth, .... vnu' mesMc*! •••*>& com* Warr*, ■lc*t iacct in tIoo Tocf le 
GTOMcstrete, Int* niMvag' il*ni lUiin Buaet dc Dnyton, wSUtU, .... ft maiH«* 
p'd'd Baldewynyi .... & CKtendit m In loncKadi'e n tIa icgin viq' to kynsgcB- 
djrche ••• 

Colehill is rather short; but it would have formed one 
of the best streets in the town, were it not for the ir- 
remediable inconvenience of its steepness in passing to 
Gungate. The Unitarian Meeting-house stands on the 
east side of it. 

Bull RiNG....At the junction of Bolebridge-street, 
with Colehill and George-street, was placed the Bull- 
ring, with the Bull-stake, and Bullstakewell.' 



1 Court rolls, 6 E. II. a lb., 8ft E. I.,— 1297. 

3 Placita corone, IS B. I. :— ThoniM's Dagdale. 

4 Court rolls, ss E. I. ft lb., 89 B. I. 6 ludenture, 5 R. II. 

7 Court rolls, 84 U.VII.,— IMS. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 189 

May 0, 1314:— Joh'fls dt Tarkedych & Mazsareta rx' d' h'a*t iCTiiiiam de 

▼no ten* ez opp*o le Bolcstake i Sept. 90, 14S4:— "Hec indentara facta 

int* TlMina' de Paren, Anaig* Bog'ain de Aston, & Hngone' Wylugbby, Annlic'om, 
ex p*te Tna, & Rtceidn' Bazbnr de Tunworth, & AUanoie', rx*em cios, ez alt'ra 
p^, testat q'd p*dict' Thomas, Itog*Q8, & Hugo, tradidenmt .... p'ftOo Ric*o & 
JUianore duo traigacia inalmul iacentj la le Bolrjmf & m extend' de Bolstake- 
street vaq' kjngeMlycbe, *'< 

There are some curious particulars relating to this 
part of the town, and others in Warwickshire, in 
" The accountes of henry Baron and Will'm patchet, 
beyng Chamberlaynes of Tameworth within the County 
of warwyck, maid the second day of November, An'o 
d'ni 1668. " 

"Redyttes. 
It'm, Beceyued for the Bent of the comon grownd, 

iiij** xiiij* yj* 
It'm, Beceued for sheip pens, xxxviij" iiij* 
It'm, Beceyued of Thomas starkey, for lus firandus 

mony, iij* iiij** 
It'm, Beceyued of John borrowes, for the reste of his 

firanchis money, xx^ 
It'm, Beceyued of John Trayford, for the rest of his 

firanclus money, x*^ 
It'm, for the dong hyll at Catcheharm, ij" 
Some vij** viij** 
Paymentes & Allowances. 
It'm, Allowance for catcheharm buttes to Bobert 

Jeamo'd, iij* 
It'm, to be Allowed for henry Bichard's pentys, xij* 
It'm, to be Allowed for Mr. John Ferres, for catche- 
harm, yj* 
It'm, to be Allowed for Mr. John Ferres, for ij 
percels of ground, laite in the holdyng of will™ 
eds, xyj* 
It'm, to be Allowed for John Swyfte, ij* 

1 OoQZt roHi, 7 >• U* 2 Indenture, 3 H. VI. 



190 TAMWORTH 

[t'm, paid to thomas fieman xxvij lode of sand, vij* 
[t'm^ paid to Will'm BobjBson & to colman for xx 

loodes of stones, carrege, xj' viij^ 
[t'm, paid to the hird man, for lus waigs, xiij' iiij^ 
It*m, for makyng of ij comon ladders, ij* viij* 
[t'm, to the sargeants, for cheise, ij* iiij^ 
[t'm, to the bayly of the hundred, ij* 
[t*m, paid to Mr. Ferres* bayly, vij* yj*" 
[t'm, paid to christofer hollyer, for Tymber, makyng 
of ton well Crowles, with covers for the same, 
and for the Cowkstowle, xiiij* viij^ 
It'm, for workmanship of Raife baron's shop, xyj* 
It'm, for the Reperradons of the markyt crosse, j* iiij* 
It'm, for mendyng of bowlstok well, viij* 
It'm, for makyng the bull ryng, xyj* 
[t'm, to John Seide, for worke, yij* 
[t'm, to Richard myln', for worke, xv* 
rt'm, for pyles, iiij* 
[t'm, for carrying of the same, yj^ 
[t'm, for xviij sheip pens, vij* yj^ 
[t'm, paid for Tymber, viij* 
[t'm, for sawyng of the same, yj* yj* 
[t'm, for mendyng the pinfolde & pyllerye, ij* iiij^ 
Some v" viij' xj* 
And so Remayneth xxxj* ix* 
in the boxe xxxj* ix* "' 
The Bull-ring and Bull-stake, which were usually 
found in every town, were removed at the time when 
the cruel practice to which they were subservient was 
abolished. This change took place here in the course 
of the seventeenth century. It was once considered 
unlawful to slaughter a bull for the purposes of food, 
without it had been being previously subject to this 

I Corpontion Recorda. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 191 

unmerciful treatment Occasionally in the court-rolls of 
the town, at an early date, we find persons fined for 
haying killed these animals before they had been baited 
by dogs. 

July 15, 1907:— "Nich*s de Pieh' In m*iA. q* ooddlt q'ndun tanni* no' ftiimt* 
csnfb': ptoc* Joh> de Shep* & Ric* I>on.**i 

The pillory is first mentioned in 1294; when one 
Nicholas Alcus, by being sentenced to it, on his con- 
viction, for selling light loaves, the third time, was 
condemned to the memory of posterity.^ So late as 
1727, "it stood in firont of the Town-hall. 

Qnarter-MKkms court, Jan. 11, 1797:— "A bill of Indictment l>ein|r found 
bf 7* gnmd Jury •e' ^ohn Oloater, for a petty Larceny com'itted by him, & the 
Priaonr batrlnff pleaded ffoitty to yt eaid Indictmt, It is ordered by this Court that 
the eald John Olocter be pnblickly whiped at y« Pillory, in y" market place, on 
firiday y* Twellth day of this Instant January, between y« hours of elearen ft 
twdve of y* do ck , in y* forenoon* '** 

Of the cucking-stool, we have nothing to record. To 
the honour of the good dames of Tamworth in the 
olden times, we must say that we have not found any 
instance of this instrument of punishment having been 
called into use. 

BouBBRiDGB STREET....Bolebridge-8treet leads from the 
bottom of George-street and Colehill to Bolebridge, 
over the river Anker. 

Oct, 1SS4 :— *' m' il|i*. Inq*slco capta ex officio p' sac>mentu' duoded' Jur* : q' 
dlcn*t q'd Tbom* Dontesone ft Rob^ Maled de Bollemilne ft Thorn' tr* ei' Tencru*t 
de Tavena de domo Johls de Ooton, nocfat' die sabbtl p*x an' f 'm s'd Leonard!, 
ad oppotto' dom' Oalfr*! le Irenmon^'e, et ibi renit Itob*t'8 le Osrt'e de Midelton 
et cUs Insultn' fedt u'bis Utigiosis : ra* ip'm p'secuti ftieru*t Tiq' in domu' d'd 
Oalfr*!, quo renit Oalft's pd'c*s ad ftmnand' pace' int' p'tes} tu' p'd'co Galfir'o 
Insulta' ftccr't et in domu' sua' TerbaraTer't et T'ln'aner't inlnste . Id*o om'es 
p*d*el Bob', niom', et Thorn' et Bobt's in m'ia."^ 

Of an old family, that took their name fix)m this 
part of the town, little occurs, except that one of them, 
doubtlessly firom the rustic minstrelsy wherewith he 

1 Court rolU, 25 B. I. s lb., 2S E. I. 3 CorporaUon Records, 

4 Court rolls, 18 E. II. 



192 TAMWORTH 

delighted his neighbours, and cheered them at the close 
of their daily labour, was generally termed " le Piper."* 

Robert de Boltebrlttwtnte, 
ISll, ISIS. I 



NldiolH.sr ^ ■ " 



JoftB, a wU Clii1illaiia.s Richard to Plpcre 
dow in ISIS. ( d« Boltebritteatrcte, 

18l« to ISM. 



Bolebridge-street, in the middle of which, on the 
east side, stands the Methodists' Meeting-house, is the 
oldest part of the town now remaining, and the one 
which has, perhaps, undergone the least improvement. 
To render it a thoroughly good street, would require 
very extensiye alterations, on account of its narrowness 
in the middle. Still its character, within the last few 
years, has been greatly changed for the better. 

CocKET^s LANB....Cocket's-lane' and Cocket's-lane-end 
we cannot identify with certainty. 

May, 14M :— "No*imt vniu'ii .. me Joh*!!! Aatoo, 111* & Hered' Rob*ti Aatan 
d« Tuniroith, remlsiaM .... Ttuma TkUlo' da cad*m ft Agn' tx* eloa, .. tote* 
ina & damen' qae h'eo .... in mo omo ca' gaidi'o adiacent*, . . . p*Qt iaeet In 
Tunwortli, In Com' Warr*, lux* Coicetealone, Int* VT q*Bd» Baldewyny FMryll & 
t*r* d'd Thame, ex vna p'te, ft Tf Thome Fox ft tV q*nd* Rob*i da Artoo, ft tV 
Ttiome Symond, ft t*r' pHicnd' de Syreeeoto, ex alt'a p*te ; ft extendit le in Ion- 
fitadine a Tenella too' Coketeeloae vmi' Vf Henr* Jeke. .... ** Coiiit.leet, Got, 
1M8:— '*Ud. Joh'ce Rene h*ct vna* Stoke lae* in Regla via. apd Ooketyalone- 
Jnde."» 

Dead Lanes, Perrtcroft Lane, and Schoolhoxjsb 
Lane.... From the bottom of Bolebridge-street, some small 
lanes run northward, to a little distance beyond the 
top of Aldergate-street; and then a path turns off west- 
wards into Gungate. The part continuing on the same 
line is formed by the two Dead-lanes,* and by Perrycroft 
lane.' The mark of division between these two, is 
where they are joined by a short road, called School- 

1 Court rolle, S, 7» 9. U B. 11. S lb., 8 B. IT, 1S14. S Tb., ; H. V., 24 H. VII. 
4 PerambnlaUon, 1697. < CoortroUs, 7 H. V.,>14S0. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 193 

honse-lane/ leading from Gungate^ nearly opposite the 
Free Grammar School, and at the comer of the Ahns- 
houses. Perrycrofi-lane is so called from the numerous 
orchards and gardens situated in its neighbourhood. 
The Perrycrofts have held that name from time out of 
record. A very small portion of them lies within the 
precincts of the old borough. 

Gonit-keC May, 1S09:~ "It* p* q*d Jdfa*et de aynton, miles, indad' porta' 
Toe* perecroftefate, que defaent e'e ap'ta om'ib* tsnent', i*o In mia : ct p' est q*d 
aptat sob pena y)* TiUd*>t 

There was an ancient family sumamed "de Piricroft. " 
Victoria RoAD....There only remains for us, before 
we conclude this division of our history, to speak of 
the new road formed from the end of George-street, to 
the station of the Birmingham and Derby Jimction 
Railroad. It was made at the expence of the company 
to whom that line belongs, for the convenience of 
passengers. It is a neat and wide road; and promises, 
if well maintained, in a little time, to form a street. 
But lately some difference has arisen as to the 
parties who should keep it in repair. The directors of 
the company, compelled reluctantly to form an ex- 
pensive approach to the town, have refused to give 
their aid, as it had not been stipulated. The cor- 
poration have refused, because it is mostly out of the 
limits of their jurisdiction. And the inhabitants of 
Bolehall have declined to interfere, because the road 
affords no convenience to them. Some arrangement 
must soon be effected. 

After her gracious Majesty had passed along this 
road, on her way to and from Drayton-manor, it was 
determined that it should be named Victoria-road, in 

1 Fcnunbalatkm, 1897. S Court toUb, 49 E. HI. 

C C 



196 



TAMWOBTH 



CkNSOS TAEBN on TBI IOtH of MABCHt 1801. 



8TAFFOBD8HIEX. 




BomoooB. 

dmich-BlivMt 

Gongttte 

Chnrch-IuM .... 
Aldercate-luie .. 



PMl>lftF6Ct 

BUyer-ttnet, and Ladf. 

bridce-baak 

WorkbooM 



PABisa. 

Ftaelcr 

Bittcnoole, Buigtey, and 



WifglntDn 

Colon, AUennUla, ft the 

Moor 

Coinberfbird 

HopwM and Hopwai-liaxi 



Total In Stafltaddiiia 



WABW1CK8HIBB. 

BOBOVOB. 



GoDgate 

Poor-hoate 

AlinshoiiMS . . . . 
Silver-street . . . . 
Market-itipeet . . 
George-street 
Gollege-lane .... 

ColehUl 

Bolebrldce-ctreet 



Paaish. 

Amington and Stonydelph 

BolehaU 

Glascote 

Cattle-liberty 

Wilnecote 

DostbiU 

Two-gatea 



Total in Warwickshire 



Total in the town . 
Total in the parish . 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 197 

The Parish-register from the time of the dyil war, has 
been accurately kept. But they do not contain the 
whole of the baptisms, marriages, and deaths; for, in 
1801, out of 1105 families, 7 professed the Boman 
Catholic faith; 7, that of the society of Friends; 6, 
that of the Baptists; and 24 belonged to different 
forms of Protestant dissent. As, however, the Church- 
yard was the only place of sepulture, except for the 
Quakers, the number of deaths recorded in the register, 
must be very nearly equal to the number of births. 
To the account of the baptisms, those occurring in the 
24 &milies of dissenters have been added; so that the 
list only excludes Catholics, Baptists, Quakers, and 
those children who died before they were received into 
the Church, according to the rites of the established 
religion. Hence four or five should probably be added 
to the baptisms, to make them equal to the births. 

The annual average of baptisms and burials at 
Tamworth, within the first half of the eighteenth cen- 
tury, taken for seven years indiscriminately, is as follows : 

Males 56 Baptisms. 40 Burials. 

Females 47 „ 48 „ 

103 83 

Average of the ten years, from 1780 to 1790. 

Males 64 • 75 Bap. 43 Bur. 32 • 5 Mar. 

Females 67-75 „ 43-33 „ 

132 -6 86-33 

Average of the ten years, firom 1790 to 1800. 

Males 77 - 5 Bap. 51 Bur. 36 • 5 Mar. 

Females 84 - 5 „ 51-2 „ 

162 102 • 2 



198 TAMWORTH 

Hence, it is evident that a very considerable increase 
took place in the population of the pariah, particukulj 
during the last ten years. This circumstance was prin- 
cipally owing to the establishment of extensiTe cotton 
manufactories^ in the town and neighbourhood. The 
number of baptisms also became more disproportionate 
to the burials. This was attributed to the better 
mode adopted for presenring the lives of infiemts, when 
inoculation b^an generally to prevail. 

The number of burials annually, for the last seven 
years, was 1 in 52 persons, and the births, 1 in S ' 5 ; 
and the baptisms exceeded the burials by 402. There- 
fore, the proportion of births to burials was very nearly 
as 8 to 5. 

In the early part of the eighteenth century, the 
burials were annually about 1 in 40 persons; at the 
close, 1 in 52. 

The number of females baptised, within the last 
eleven years, exceeded the males by 96, being in the 
proportion of 9 to 8. But, in almost all former periods, 
the males were to the females as 12 to 11. 

The marriages, for the same time, were annually 1 
in every 142 persons. 

At the time of the census being taken, the number 
Of married persons in the parish was 1678 

Of children and persons grown up, but 
still living with their parents, with- 
out any separate establishment, . 2527 

Of widowers and widows, 308 

Of single independent persons, .... 870 
Of servants, apprentices, shopmen, or 
journeymen, living with their 
masters^ 454 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



199 



For the last four years, an account was taken of the 
ages of persons buried. 



Under 


2 


yean 




111 


Between 


2 


and 5 




48 


•••• 


5 


.... 10 




11 


.... 


10 


.... 20 




32 


.»>. 


20 


.... SO 




26 


.... 


30 


.... 40 




87 


.... 


40 


.... 50 




32 


.... 


60 


.... 60 




25 


«... 


60 


.... 70 




31 


.••. 


70 


.... 80 




. 45 


,,,, 


80 


.... 90 




25 


.... 


90 and upwards . 


4 



427 



This makes it appear that the general longevity of 
the inhabitants of the parish is very great, 74 persons 
out of 427 haying attained an age of 70 years and 
upwards : being an average of in every 5 * 77 persons. 

Several persons of this parish have been especially 
noticed as having attained the age of more than 100 
years. John Meggs died in 1772, aged 101 ; Thomas 
Fletcher, in 1690, aged 102; William Fasher, in 1785, 
aged 118; and William Farr, in 1769, aged 121. The 
latter person was a native of Birmingham, and employ- 
ed as the Tamworth-carrier. He had one-hundred and 
forty-four children, grand-children, and great^grand-chil- 
dren; but he survived them aU, and left 10,000/. for 
charitable uses. 

Instances of extraordinary longevity have occurred 
even recently within the town. 



aoo 



TAMWORTH 



Cbksvs taxeh <m thb 27m or Mat, 1811. 



nrAFFOEIMHIRX. 



BOBOUOH. 



OuDfate 

Churdi-lMie .... 
Alderial».lMM .. 
Lkhfleld-itrMt .. 

P«el.fttrMt 

BUTcr-ttnet, ate. 



Pabiib. 



Fludty 

BIttenooto, Bucler* DwuteU 



Wlcgtaitoii 



,ft thelloofj 
HopwaSy md HopwM-taftys 



Hoa 



S3 

41 
14 
IS 
IM 
SS 
16 



Total in BtaftKdthin 



WARWICKSHIRE. 

BOBOCOB. 



drarch'.tti'Mt 
OnniatB 



Gcorgc^itiMt . • . . , 

OoUefe-lanc 

ColetaiU 

Bo]«lnids»4tTCCt . 



§81 



Pabibh. 

Amlncton and Stonydelpli 

Oltfloote ....' 

OMtte-Ubertf 

WOnecote 

DoMhUl 

Two-CBtes 

Total in Warwickihire . . . 

Total In tbe town 

Total in the pariah 



S18 



43 
50 

1ft 

1 

106 

8 

11 



546 
681 
1187 



16 



I H | 1 J I fa 



S4| 
41, 
14 
Sft 
lift 
86^ 
»7| 
1 



873 



188 
11 
37 
ft8 



•97 



173 



lft7 108 88 



43 
ft3 

18 

1 
110 

8 
11 



S63 



ft97 



339 



609 



63 



47 



187 



174 



899 



i i 



33 

43 

16. 

96 

lift 



78 
867 
7ft 
31 
1ft 



877 



143 894 
84 

119 
118 
78 
46 



348 



619 18181786 111 



37s 



6D7 



650 



1886 



18 



881 



168 
187 
11 

8 
11 
116 
181 

178 



778 



1990 



111 - 



*: 14 

61 177| 

7 * 

4 IB 

84, 887 

11 141 

Si li 



-r- 



891 1887 



89' 

:s 

108 
ftl 
93 
13 



8 
6 
4 
18 

I 
ft 
8 



1838 88 



144 

1191 11 

18 8 

1& 8 

14 1 

198. Ift 

138 9 

86 4 

44i 3 

836 



189i 8 

134, 6 

49, 1 

1 8 

837 6 

9 8 

so' 8 



ft79 14 



1407 1884 149 



31941 815 



18 

K 
17a 

81 



I9IS 



311 
SSfl 



1664 



19 



8741 



9991 



CASTLE AND TOWN. gOl 

Census takxn on the 28th ov Mat, 1821. 



STAFFORDSaiKB. 



BOBOUOB. 

Chnrdi-strcct 



Chordi-lBiie . . . , 
AUorfBtfr^treet ' 
lidifieU-ttnet .. 
SilTer-ftreet, &c. 



Pabisb. 



Bittenoote, BBogtef, DonstBU 



WiniBtxa , 

Oota n, Ald cnnflls, ft ths Moor 
Comberfofd 



HopfWAB-taays . 



I Total in Staffonldiire . 



WARWICK8HIKB. 

BOBOUOB. 



QoiiMta 

SttTer-straet ,..'.'.'/.[',['.'.'. 

Market-Street 

Pag-rtreet.. 

OeorK^vtreet 

Coilege-laae 

ColefaUl 

Bolelvidge.4&reet 

Pabisb. 
Aaiiagtan and Stonydelpli . 



fniaaoote. 



Two gates 



TMal in Warwidcihiia 
Total in the town .... 
Total in tiie pariah. .. 



189 
la 

60 
60 
39 
19 
43 
1 
8 



411 



735 



893 



871 



004 



717 



1899 



19 



430 



768 



73 
78 

7 

40 

6 

60 

17 

k8 

119 



51 
83 

5 

139 



377 



065 



740 



FuniUei. 



Emplofcd in 



837 



187 



805 



91 



543 



AgH. 



105 



100 



143 



390 193 



400 



53 



77 



97 



107 



305 

isl 
5o; 

153 } I 



708 



409 



370 



085 



747 



3871453 



Peraone. 



837 



503 
50 
143 
115 
88 
49 
84 



1043 



180930373890 



917 



078 



1744 



800 



1318 



3300 



137 

334 

9 

310 



070 



1590 1091 



1830 



34593718 



103fl 



113S 

70 

379 

347 

339 

88 

106 

3 

41 



I93& 



357 

414 

19 

053 



1343 
3381 
3574 
7177 



D D 



202 



TAMWOBTH 
▲OBs OF nnaoMi. 



STAFFORDSHIRS. 


Maks under 








10 


90 


80 


40 


5o;«o 


70 


80 


?! 


100 


10 


90 80 


M"l* 


TtW 


00 


100 


BOBOVOB. 

Clrarch-strMt 

Qwngmito 


«7 
91 
14 
81 
1S5 
11 


97 
90 
8 
19 
100 
18 





18 


10 4 

11 19 


8 
8 
1 
9 
98 
5 


1 


9 8 
11 1 
9 9 




17 
80 

6 
99 

•1 


90| 91 


16 

Ifl 


7 4 
1911 
5 9 


8 9 

8 9 

9 1 
9 1 

99 9 
9 9 


1 
1 
1 


4 





Chuirh-lane. ......... 


'o S 


4197 


0! a 


Aldergmte^tticet 

Lidifield.s»reet,ftc. .. 
SttTcr-stTNt, aw. .... 

Pabim. 

Hopwrnft-hByi 

Wifrfnton, Comber- 
fonUOotoa,HopwM, 
itc 




10 
44 

8 


18 
87 
10 


95 IS 9 5 

8149 49 90 
19:i0 7| 1 


904 


01 

1 


159 

1 

68 

8 


101 


68 

6 


06 

I 

88 

9 


J: 

00 


98 


43 



94 


17 


81 

1 


8 


6 
1 


9 


8 





8 

994 



08 

5 


108 


106 


180 
70 


s 

03 


40 
8 


03 40 


39 97 


5 

10 


96 

1 


5 





1 





9 






Byowoto 


ei 

s 




5, 8 


1|> 




S 


S 


i 


8 


£ 


9 


« 


« 


' 


8 


5 


«? 


'1' 


5 

S 




M 




§ 


1 


8 


S| 




S 


n 


M 




1 


5 


; 


i 


5 


»>» 


^ 


Ok 




40 
41 

4 
10 
5 

«7 
16 

s 
01 


49 

V 

4 
18 

9 
89 

6 

9 
68 


99 
99 

1 
98 


80 

4 

6 

84 


90 

91 

3 

19 

9 
14 

4 

1 

SO 


18 
19 


19 






1 

4 

10 
9 

8 
15 


5 





9 


1 
1 
6 


9 





1 




1 




66 
59 


10 

4 

90 

8 

4 
00 


67 

89 

6 

98 

4 

88 

5 

10 

48 


87 

94 

9 

89 

9 
84 

^l 

69 


94 

97 


15 
19 


10 
19 








9 

; 
: 



1 




1 


WARWICKSHIRE. 

BOBOUOB. 

Chwch-itlMt 

Qangate 


11 

19 




17 


SUTcr-HiMt 

MBrk«t.ttKet 

Klnr-vtn^ T --T 


1 
1S| 5 

r 
9, 4 

?:i 

85 19 


0|3 

17,11 

1> 1 


9 
4 9 



7 5 

9 

«|1 
lOjJ. 


Qcof B C'Stncc *..>•.«. 

C6Uece-lBnc 

CotohlU 

Bolebrldce-fticct .... 

Pabibb. 

BotebBUandaiBMsols 

CBstle-Ubertf 

Wllneoote, Dottliffl. ft 
Two-gmtBt. 


17 
5 

4 
67 


17 

8 

6 

97 


3 

n 

09 

s 

109 


10 
SO 



67 


5 

1 

68 


15 
91 

1 

88 


10 
10 


85 


9 

10 

11 


99 


S 

19 


1 

95 


8 

8 
8 
8 

8 


9 



8 


1 




8 

80 
60 

1 

70 


S 

90 
51 
8 

04 


I 

98 
80 

69 


8 

19 
95 



49 


o 

18 
14 

1 

33 


s 

4 
10 


99 


10 

8 

9 


5 

9 


1 

11 


■o 

1 
9 


9 


1 
1 


Total in WBTwickBliln 

TOtBlintlMtOWB.... 

Total In tfaBpBiteh.. 


S 


•A 


M 


R 


2 


n 


^ 


1^ 


•o 


- 


§ 


2 


•o 


R 


s 


9 


' 


8 


o 


"" 


1 


s 


? 


B 


"1 


s 


9 


s 


^ 


s 


S 


i 


M 


^ 


8 


8 


£ 


= 


ff 


S 


2 


s 


s 




a; 


s 


9 


M 


e 


i 


& 


& 


8 


g 


S 


a 


S 
8 


e« 


" 


g 


£ 


§ 


i 


§ 


s 

^ 


R 


8 


_;; 


i 


g 


S 


1 


§ 




s 

- 


8 


« 



CASTLE AKD TOWN. 208 

From 1801 to 1811^ an increase of 664 persons had 
taken place in the parish j of which 205 were in the 
town. The number of baptisms and burials had accord- 
ingly increased; but they bore about the same relative 
proportion. 

Baptisms. Burials. 

166-6 106-6 

There was an addition of 34 houses^ of 60 families^ 
of 152 males^ and of 53 females in the town. 

From 1801 to 1821^ in the town, there had been an 
addition of 183 houses, of 147 families, of 489 males, 
and of 299 females; making an increase in population 
of 788 persons. From 1811 to 1821, there had been 
an addition of 149 houses, of 97 families, of 337 males, 
and of 246 females ; making an increase of 583 persons. 
But, in 1821, there were actually 12 families less em- 
ployed in agriculture than in 1811; and only 11 more, 
than in 1801. Yet, it must not be concluded that 
the agricultural interests of Tamworth were declining. 
The decrease in the number of families thus engaged, is 
explained by the increasing prevalence of the custom 
for persons occupying farms and lands to add to their 
resources, some manufacture, handicraft, or business of 
commercial nature. It is a great defect in the different 
returns, calculated to convey an erroneous impression, 
that the families should have been recorded under one 
or other heads of employment exclusively. Had the 
number of those combining both occupations been given, 
we are thoroughly convinced that agriculture, as well 
as trade, would have been foimd to have increased 
proportionally with the population. 

From the table of ages, it is seen that 99 males, and 
110 females, in the parish, had attained an age of 70 



201 



TAXWOBTH 



The females, theieforey were the longer liyen ; 
the proportion being 1 in S3 * 12, whikt with the men, 
it was 1 in S4 * 95. This gives an average of 1 peison 
in 84 * 29 surviving to 70 years, — a result very dif- 
ferent from that of the ages of those buried, recorded by 
the rev. F. Blick, as we gave them in 1801. 

Cbnbus taken om thb 30ni ov Mat, 1831. 
In the population returns for 1831 and 1841, we 
shall not enter into the full details, as we have previous 
done, respecting the town; but merely give the amount 
for the side in each county, and then add a few general 
remarks. 



STAFFORDSHiaS. 



IftlByijd >■ 



TVa. Afri. zr«l, 



J 

a 



u 



Flaele7 i 

Bangtef aad BondUU . . J 



Hopwss^taAyB 

WiggintoD, Coteo, ftc.. , 



110 

SISO 

SM 

600 

S470 



59 



1*7 



SSI 

s 

1 

IM 

8 



861 



1711 



585 1131 
II 

4 111 



163 



359 



7S7 
St 



Totid tn StaSbrdahira 



7SM 



787 81 



WARWICKSmSB. 

Tunworth 

Amington & StouTde^h 



CMUe.Ubert7 

WilMcote, wtth DootfaSU 

Total in Wanrickabize . 



891 
58 

98 
10 
138 



689 89 



718 



TMal in the town . 
Total in tho pailah. 



789 89 



769 



19980 



I47t 60 



41540 



887 



195 



9 814 411 

47 

87 

4 



41 68 
46 97 

3 11 
36| 140 



1947 



816 
139 
311 
S3 
348 



8981978 3917 



4S3 1010 189fl 



78 
lOS 

15 
156 



195 964 
910 491 



717 



1547 



775 



1718 3905 



874 



878 770 



1666 805 



1871 3SS7 



631 



653 1611 



'i'"1 



S494 



16678688 711 



In the census for 1881, there were other matters 
Stated, mostly r^arding occupations, which it is not 
very important to give. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. S05 

tNCRBAU IN POVULAnON OF THB TOWN. 



To 1831. 


HOMM. 


PUBilte. 


IblM. 


PMBdM. 


1VM>1. 




ITS 

88 


170 
ISO 
88 


411 

859 

* 


340 

887 

41 


751 
546 


frook 1811 


Fram 18S1 





But, firom 1821 to 1831, the males had decreased by 
78, leaving the population of the town 37 less in the 
latter than in the former year. 

From 1821 to 1831, although there was an increase 
of 23 families, the number of those exclusively employed 
in agriculture had diminished from 98 to 13. 
Cbnsub takbn on thb 7th or Junb, 1S41. 



STAFFORDSHIRB. 


HOQMS. 


Panons. H Ag«a. 


ofUrth.1 


1 




i 


i\ 


i 


1 


i 


Under 


Abofv 1 

aojMis. 1 


f 

1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


J 


Tnnwmth 


834 

3 

18 

08 

1 

1 

54 

48 

85 

59 

9 


14 


1 
1 












1 

870 

839 

3 

18 

03 

1 

54 

51 
35 
59 
9 


808 
538 

9 
80 
150 

4 

a 
ia7 

103 
59 

133 
88 


935 

588 
8 
84 

107 
a 
a 

117 

113 
03 

134 
18 


1797 
1190 

17 

44 

'1 

4 
844 

810 
138 

307 

40 


413 
339 
3 

74 
8 

04 
45 

S 


418 
877 
a 
9 
78 


49 
54 

9 


450 

•1 

14 
83 
3 
3 
03 
58 
33 
04 
13 


533 

811 


15 
89 

8 

8 

08 

59 

34 

73 
9 


1359 
701 

14 

81 

835 

3 

4 

339 

185 

110 

300 

38 


538 

359 

3 

13 

88 

4 



15 

31 

( 

7 

34 


Fir.H«7 ^a 


Buglef 




Bmiehlll 


1>niittB]1 


HopWM-haTB 


WlniBton 


gSS^".. :::::.;:::;;.: 


Cmnboford 


BopwM 


BfOBcoto 


l^italinStelfonlihire .... 

WARWICKSHIRE. 

Tamwoith 

AndDgtan and Stonyddiib 

CtetleUberty 

WOnecote, with DoMfaill, 
KcCtlebvook, &c 

Totia in Warwiduhin. . . . 


800 

419 
59 
no 

18 
151 


35 

80 

8 

1 

19 


a 

1 






1 


887 

440 
05 

lis 

13 
104 


3035 

907 
148 
340 
31 

301 


3171 

1085 
138 
849 
88 

357 


4300 

1993 

870 

495 

59 

718 


957 

413 
07 

107 
10 

108 


981 

481 
59 

108 
13 

170 


1078 

494 
81 

139 
15 

193 


1190 

004 

09 
147 

15 
187 


3118 

1418 

333 

313 

43 

504 


1088 

574 
54 

183 
17 

154 


751 


41 


a 


794 


1093 


1847 


3540 


771 


835 


983 


1033 


3558 


983 


Total in Um town 

Total in the pariah 


781 


tt 


8 


810 


1709 


aoao 


3789 


885 


894 


944 


1180 


8077 


1118 


1011 


M 


4 


1081 


3788 


4018 


7740 


™ 


1800 


8000 


3813 


5070 


ao70 



E E 



206 



TAMWORTH 



The return for the Staffordshire part of the town in- 
cluded 32 males, and 40 females in the Tamworth 
Union-Workhouse, and 1 male and 11 females in a 
private lunatic asylum. That for the Warwickshire 
part included 1 male in the town prison. 

INCRSA8E IN POPULATION OP TBB TOWN. 



To 1841. 


H«M«. 


-.^ 


POMlM. 


T«ttl. 


FhjmlSOl 


t47 
813 

<k 

41 


S14 
888 

85 

188 


489 
486 
198 
149 


1888 
798 
Sift 

sss 


Ynm IMI 


FhnnlflSl 


From 1 Wi. ......... t r 





From these five returns, and our remarks, it is 
evident that Tamworth has been gradually progressing 
in size and population, since the commencement of the 
18th century, and that the town is becoming, in an 
increasing proportion, a place of trade. 



TRADE, MARKET, AND FAIRS. 

Our researches have thrown very little light upon the 
condition of Tamworth^ as respects its trade and manu- 
fieu^tures, in olden times. It is probable that the 
inhabitants have ever been more deeply engaged in 
agricultural pursuits^ than in mechanical occupations. 
They have never cultivated any one branch of manufac- 
ture so extensively^ as to render it their staple article 
of trade. 

Tanneries have been established in the town^ from 
time immemorial; and have only ceased to exist within 
the last four years. During a considerable period^ 
narrow cloths of excellent quality^ were manufactured 
in large quantity. These works were abandoned^ and 
the mills eventually pulled down^ about a century ago. 
We have already mentioned the important benefits 
conferred upon the town by the introduction of the 
cotton spuming and calico printing into the neighbour- 
hood. For thirty years^ these manufactures, under the 
able superintendance of the late sir Robert Feel, 
flourished with the greatest success. They afforded 
constant employment to numerous families ; and sensibly 
increased the population of the town. The factories 
were situated principally at Fazeley, and BonehilL 
Here their enterprising owner, acquired a great portion 
of his property, and laid the foundation for the splendid 



208 TAMWORTH 

fortunes of his family. The fiEtctories, at Fazeley are 
still in operation; but the others have long been aban- 
doned. 

Fifteen or twenty years ago, there were several 
manufactories of net^ lace, and Brussels' carpets. StQl 
more recently, there was an extensive establishment for 
the making of patten-ties. These succeeded for a time, 
but sank, at length, under the depressed condition of 
the markets, and the effects of too successful competition. 
Many of the poorer inhabitants also earned a scanty 
addition to their means of subsistence, by plaiting 
straw, for the straw-bonnet trade. 

At the present time, the principal manufactories in 
the town and neighbourhood, are the tape-mills of Mr. 
Harding, in Bolehall, and Mr. Etienne B. Hamel, in 
Bolebridge-street. The Castle-mills have been enlarged, 
and are now used for the manufacture of paper; and 
there are extensive works of the same kind, and also 
for printing paper by patent machinery, for hanging 
rooms, at Alder mills. The £Bibrication of hats, cord, 
and string, and the process of dyeing, and tallow-chand- 
ling, are also carried on to some extent 

The shopkeepers of Tamworth are comparatively 
wealthy men. Although their shops do not vie with 
the showy '' establishments" of larger towns, they usually 
acquire an honourable independence, and not unfi:^ 
quently amass considerable fortunes. 

The greater part of the inhabitants, depend fox 
subsistence, however, directly or indirectly, upon the 
cidtivation of the soil. The town is surrounded, on all 
sides, by fertile, well cultivated land. This is laid out 
in farms, orchards, and gardens. The meadows yield 
abundant crops of hay, sometimes affording, in one 



CASTLE AND TOWN. £09 

year, two suooesdve harvests. The arahle land presents 
luxuriant fields of wheats barley, oats, turnips, and 
other Taluable produce. The orchards and gardens, in 
the immediate vicinity of the town, are very extensive ; 
and not only supply the wants of its inhabitants, but 
also furnish a prodigious quantity of fruit and vegeta- 
bles for more distant markets. More than fifty carts 
are employed in conveying the produce of this district 
to Binningham alone. 

The character of Tamworth, as an agricultural lo- 
cality, has been determined by various circumstances. 
A fertile soil,— copious streams of water, — facilities for 
effectual drainage, secured by the gentle inclination of 
the surrounding hiUs, — excellent roads, offering an easy 
communication with various markets, — ^form no ordinary 
combination of advantages. To these, may be added, — 
plentiful supplies of coal, firom the coal-fields of Kettle- 
brook and Folesworth, — stone, fix)m Dosthill and Aming- 
ton ; — excellent bricks and tiles, made fix)m the immense 
beds of clay, which constitute the hiUs north of the 
town, — and abimdance of timber. 

The fiomers of this district, are enlightened and 
practical men. Justiy regarding the proper cultivation 
of the soil, as the securest basis for their prosperity, 
they have neglected no means of taking proper advan- 
tage of the nattural facilities thus provided for them. 
The dreary tracts of heath and forest and the wide 
expanse of marshy meadows have disappeared, and 
given place to gardens, orchards, groves, and fields of 
waving com. 

With the view of communicating their experience, 
and introducing new and successful modes of agricul- 
ture, they have formed the "Tamworth Farmers' Club,*' — 



210 TAMWORTH 

well adapted to diAise practical infomiation in the 
important 8cienoe which form its object The right 
honourable or Bobert Peel, — the active promoter of 
every public scheme calculated to benefit the town, — 
is the patron of the society. 

The formation of the Birmingham and Derby Junction 
Railway, and the projected lines, — the ''Chumet-yalley" 
and ''Trent-Valley," — intended to communicate with 
that railway in the vicinity of the town, cannot fiul 
to give a firesh impulse, and a new direction, to its 
industry. Possessed of a rapid and cheap mode of 
transit to and £rom all parts of the kingdom, it is easy 
to foresee that the increasing population of Tamworth 
will undoubtedly, ere long, obtain profitable employment 
in trades and manufiictures hitherto neglected, or but 
feebly carried on. 

Tamworth possesses the advantage of an excellent 
Ma&kst for com, hay, meat, eggs, butter, earthenware, 
and other articles of general utility. It is held every 
Saturday, and appears to have been kept on that day, 
from a very early period. Leland names Tamworth as 
''havinge a celebrate Market/'^ In 1560, queen Eliza- 
beth rendered it a chartered right; and the grant was 
confirmed by the letters patent of king Charles U., in 166S. 

A careful comparison of the incidental notices con- 
tained in ancient records still in existence, has led us 
to adopt the opinion that, before the incorporation of 
the town by Elizabeth under one jurisdiction, Tamworth 
possessed two separate Markets. One was probably held, 
by the ancient Stone-Cross, at the junction of Butcher- 
street, Gumpegate, and Cross-street; and the other in 
the present Market-place. 

1 Itiiu, Tdl. IV, 1B9 b. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 211 

About the reign of Edward III., the Faibs held 
within the town were very numerous : indeed, they 
seem to have occurred nearly every month.^ Most of 
these were doubtless held by prescription. A great 
Fair, commencing on the feast of saint Swythen, for- 
merly belonged to the dean and prebendaries of the 
Church, who received the tolls and profits. It was 
instituted at a very early time, on the annual com- 
memoration of the dedication of that edifice, and named 
originally in honour of the sainted Editha, whose feast 
was celebrated on the same day as that of the canonised 
bishop of Winchester. It should, therefore, be called 
Saint Editha's, instead of Saint Swythen's, Fair. 

At the period when all the ecclesiastical property 
throughout England, was seized by the crown, this Fair 
came into the hands of Elizabeth. By her second 
charter, she granted it to the corporation; although she 
had previously sold the Church and prebends, with aU 
rights, to laymen. These having fallen into the posses- 
sion of Thomas Repington, Nicholas Breton, George 
Corbin, William Necton, and Alexander Morley, a dis- 
pute arose between them and the bailiffs ; and the latter 
obtained an injunction, in the high court of Chancery, 
dated upon the 18th of June, 1589, by which they were 
empowered to receive the profits of the Fair, imtil it 
should be otherwise ordered. The grounds on which this 
decision was made, were, that the fidr was expressly 
given to the bailiffii, whereas it was not named in the sale 
of the Church-property. It was afterwards, however, 
restored to those who held the deanery and prebends. 

It was formerly femous for the fnnta and v^;etable 
produce brought to it for sale, which obtained for it 
the general appellation of "Cherry Fair." 

1 Court rolls, temp. E. III. 



212 TAMWORTH 

Edward IIL bestowed two FaiiB upon the inhabLtants 
of the Town, on the feasts of St. Greorge and St 
Edward/ The three Fairs only are mentioned in the 
charters of Elizabeth. The remainder must have fidkn 
into disuse previous to the reign of Henry VIII. ; 
for Leland omits all mention of them^ but says^ — 
"There be 8 Fayres yearely in the Towne; whereof 
the Towne hath 2, and the CoUedge, one.'^ 

In consequence of the change of style, in 1752, St. 
Greorge's Fair is now held on the 4th of May, instead 
of the 23rd of April; St Swythen's, on the 26th, 
instead of the 15th of July ; and St. Edward's, on the 
24th, instead of the ISth, of October. They are now 
never continued during the four ensuing days. 

In 1792, two other annual Fairs were added, with 
the consent of the bailifb, — one on the Monday before 
the 2dth day of January; the other on the first 
Monday in September. 

A more recent alteration has increased the number 
of the Fairs to eight, as shown in the following table: — 

1 Monday before the 25th of January. 

2 First Monday in March. 
S First Monday in April. 

4 May 4th. St George's Fair. 

5 July 26th. St Editha's Fair. 

6 First Monday in September. 

7 October 24th. St. Edward's Fair. 

8 Third Monday in December. 

1 SeepifC90' 1 Itin., Tol. IV, ioL 90 a. 



THE CHURCH. 

HISTORY. 

The year 597 has been rendered one of the most 
memorable in the annals of our country. That time 
was signalized by the arrival of Augustin from Rome^ 
to announce and propagate the Christian faith. Regard- 
less of dangers and difficulties^ he hastened hither to 
raise a mighty voice to Heaven^ in places where pro- 
found silence had previously reigned^ and to dispel the 
midnight-gloom of idolatry by echoing the good tidings, 
and reflecting the celestial light, which watching shep- 
herds once had heard and seen. The success attendant 
upon the apostolical exertions of this great missionary 
and his fellow-labourers, was truly wonderful. Within 
the space of eighty-five years, Christianity had spread, 
not amongst a few inhabitants on the spot where Au- 
gustin had first landed, not in one royal court alone, 
but throughout all the kingdoms of the Saxon heptarchy. 
By the conversion of Peada, in 656, Mercia received the 
fiaith; and, six years afterward, it was permanently 
secured by Wulphere's adopting the great banner of 
the Cross. This event was speedily followed by the 
destruction of the places of pagan worship; and soon 
the religious aspect of the land was entirely changed. 

The existence of a Church. at Tamworth, within the 
course of a century after the introduction of Christianity 
into the centre of England, cannot well be called in 

F p 



214 TAMWOBTH 

question. At the period when Offa and other Mercian 
kings, with their councillors, amongst whom were 
bishops and other ecclesiastical persons, resorted to this 
place, particularly at great festivals, it was undoubtedly 
adorned with all the splendour which was adopted in 
those times. It is even not improbable that Edgar 
and Wigberht, witnesses to one of Coenwulf s charters, 
in 814, and Aetheluulf, who signed one of Berhtwulf s, 
in 845, were priests here; for their names are only 
attached to documents bearing date at this town. 

The first edifice, however, must have suffered total 
destruction, when the Danes over-ran the country, and 
razed Tamworth to the ground. In the Church which 
succeeded, Athelstan witnessed the reception of the Danish 
king, Sihtric, into the Christian fold : and there he bes- 
towed upon him the hand of her, in honour of whom, 
it is supposed, the building was subsequently consecrated. 
Under what saintly patronage the previous Church had 
been placed, is unknown. It is not unlikely that this 
second edifice suffered when Anlaf stormed and sacked the 
town. His bitter hatred of the Saxons and their fidth, 
would naturally direct his fury against the place, where 
his father had been compelled, from motives of policy, to 
embrace their creed, — an event in which originated his 
own ill-fortune. 

It has been stated that, about 963, Edgar, who 
reigned from 959 to 975, founded the present Church, 
and rendered it coUegiate.* It would, thence, seem that 
the edifice was then re-erected after Anlafs visit Were 
this matter indubitable, we might from it infer how 
greatly Tamworth had suffered at the hand of the ruth- 
less Dane. But this opiiiion is destitute of any very 

1 M.S. entmed " old notet of the Coltodce-hooM/* temp. Ov. I. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. S15 

good aad unquestionable authority; although there are 
numy circumstances which give it the appearance of 
truth. Leland was of a different opinion^ at least with 
regard to the College. He says^ ^'I could not leame 
of whose Erection the CoUedge was. Some thinke 
it was a CoUedge befor the Conquest, others that it 
was of the foundation of Marmion ; and that Opinion is 
more likely to be true. Marmions, without doubt, were 
the successe Lordes of the Casde."^ Camden also as- 
cribes to one of this family both the building of the 
Church, and the establishment of the College.' 

The suppositions of these eminent antiquaries are 
strongly corroborated by the facts of the oldest parts of 
the edifice exhibiting the Norman style of architecture, 
and of the deanery and prebends being originally in 
the gift of the possessors of the Castle. But, on the 
other hand, on account of the remains of the dean's 
house, which now stand, being certainly Saxon, the 
foundation of the College would seem to be referable to 
Edgar. Questions of a similar nature might be equally 
raised on both sides. We can hardly hope to arrive at 
a satisfiEictory determination, when Leland was unable 
to obtain any exact information. He possessed the ad- 
vantage of having visited the town before the dissolution 
of the College, and the loss or destruction of the records 
of the Church; to which he most probably had access. 
He also might then have conferred with ecclesiastics, 
who would be &i better acquainted with the institution, 
than any later persons could be. Perhaps the best and 
fidrest conclusion, which we can draw, is, that the 
Marmyons re-built the Church and extended the College, 
previously commenced by Edgar. 

1 Itin.,TOl.nr.,p.80b. 



216 TAMWOBTH 

Whatever may be the uncertainty regarding the foun- 
der, it is indubitable that the Church was rendered 
coUegiate at a very early period. The first time we 
have yet found the dean and chapter mentioned, is in 
1257. They then purchased from Philip de Marmyon, 
the advowson or right of presentation of the church of 
St John the Baptist, at Bfiddleton, in Warwickshire; 
which was afterwards served by a stipendary appointed 
by them. This they retained until the general dissolu- 
tion.' They ako possessed, it seems, the manor of 
Middleton; for, after its division between the three co- 
heiresses of Philip de Marmyon, a third part was held 
of the Church, in 1S2S, by Alexander de Frevile and 
Joan his wife, of the inheritance of the latter, by 
service of is. i^d., and the third part of a half-penny.' 
In the inquisition, taken in 1266, of the extent of the 
royal manor of Wigginton and Tamworth, which we have 
previously named,* it is said that the dean and canons 
received the profits of the fiurs and markets belonging 
to the king, worth annually il. \0$., on the Stafibrd- 
shire side of the town, and 50«., on the Warwickshire side. 

The next mention of the Church is in the taxation 
of pope Nicholas lY., about the year 1291. The 
Church of St. Editha at Thamwurth, in the deanery of 
Thomwurth and Tuttebur, was then valued at fifty-five 
marks, — 86/. 1S«. 4d., the tenth part being five marks 
and a half, — SL 18s. 4d. : ako, it was stated that the 
church of St John the Baptist, at BerkesweU, in 
Warwickshire, was valued at twenty marks per annimi, 
over and above the yearly pension of one mark, which 
the ooll^iate Church of Tamworth received out of it In 
what manner this payment was acquired, we do not know. 

1 Dotdate'sWtfwIduliiit. 9 Inqais.. 17 B. II. s FftfeTt. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 217 

The CoU^e consisted of a deanery and six prebends. 
These were^ Amington^ or the deanery ; Syerscote ; Wil- 
necote; Coton; Bonehill; Wigginton; and Comberford. 
The two ktter were usually associated together^ and 
often considered as forming but one prebend. 

The deanery, at first, lay in the gift of the lords of 
the Castle. To it, Alexander de Freyile presented 
Walter de Chetwynd, on the S4th of October, 1304; 
and Hugh de Babfaington, on the 15th of November, 
ISIO.^ But the next presentation, that of Henry de 
Cliff, on the 6th of January, 1316, was by Joan, wife 
of Thomas de Lodelow, and youngest daughter of Philip 
de Marmyon.' However, in 1328, we read that ^'Ma^ 
gistejr Bicardus de Oloucestre habet literas Begis de 
presentatione ad decanatum de Tamworth, ratione ter- 
rarum et tenementorum quae fuerunt Alexandri de Frevill 
defuncti.'" But it had returned to the same Joan in 
1348 ; for it is then said that ''Hen. Hillary et Johanna 
uxor ejus habent advocationes Decanatus de Tamworth 
et prebendarium ejusdem ecclesi® coUegiatee."^ After 
the death of this lady, without surviving male issue, 
the disposal of the deanery seems to have rested entirely 
iu the crown. 

We here give the names of the deans after Henry 
de Cliff/ 
1320 Isembard de LongeviUe. 

1328 Bichaxd de Oloucester. 

1329 Bobert de Chelcardo. 

1347 Baldwin de Whitney. He was presented to the 
prebend of Bishopshull in lichfield-cathedral, 
on the 18th of July, 1849.'' 

1 aMAppflndU:— Noteai. S Lkhftdd rw»nl8. 3 TaniMr'i Not ManMt. 
4 lb. ft Montft. AngUc.:— edit. 1880. Hanrood*8 Htot of Uch. 



218 TAMWOBTU 

1369 Walter Pryde. 

1S7S Beginald de Halton or Hilton. 

1889 Thomas Iberye or Ivorye. 

1891 William Cotingham. 

1891 John Massingham. 

1899 John Bernard. 

1408 William Fountefreyt. (Feb. 10.) 

1429 Clement Denston. 

1480 Thomas Budbome. 

1485 John Delabere. (Feb. 1.) 

1484 William Newport. (May 18.) He held the pre- 
bend of Longdon^ in lichfield-cathedral.^ 

1486 John Bate. 

1476 Balph Ferrers, living 1496. 

From what has been already said, it may be seen 
that the gift of the prebends was in the same hands 
as that of the deanery. But for the time, Wilnecote 
and Coton were at the disposal of Ralph Basset, lord 
of Drayton. To the former he presented Simon de 
Wycford, in 1898; and to the latter, Roger de Cloun* 
ginford, on the 22nd of June, 1801. But, on the Srd 
of September, 1842, Baldwin de Frevile preferred Tho- 
mas de Whitney to Wilnecote; as the king did John 
de Kendall, on the 18th of July, 1848, and Henry de 
Ingleby, on the 17th of September, four years subse- 
quently. To Syerscote, Richard de Tettebury was 
presented by Thomas de Lodelow, on the 12th o( 
October, 1808; and Hugh de Hopwas, by the king, in 
1849.' This latter ecclesiastic was a native of Tamworth^s 
and rose to some dignity in the church. On the 8th 
of August, 1858, he was inducted into the living of 
Clifton-Campvile, at the presentation of sir Richard de 

I II«nvood*8 Hilt of Lidu 9 Lk^Md noonis. 9 8m Appendix :—K«te 99. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. S19 

Stafibrd. He erected a chantry there^ in 1861^ for the 
spiritual welfare of his patron^ Maud his wife^ and 
Isahell his former wife.^ In 1858^ Hugh de Hopwas^ 
was elected chancellor or yicar-general of the diocese; 
and, on the 20th of May, 1S6S, he was appointed pre- 
bendary of Curborough, in the Cathedral-church of 
lichfield. He died in 1388.' To Wigginton and 
Comberfoid, Henry le Stoke de Solihull was preferred, 
on the 18th of June, 1811, by Ralph le Boteler. To 
the same prebends, Edward III. presented Thomas de 
Keynes, on the 28th of June, 1869.' This clergyman 
was constituted by the king keeper of his park and 
forester in the bailiwick of Ascit, for which he was 
allowed the sum of 2d. a*day, during the term of his 
natural life. His decease took place in 1867/ Con- 
cerning Coton, on the decease of Boger de Clounginford, 
there arose a dispute between lady Joan, widow of 
Alexander de Frevile, and Henry Hillary and Joan his 
wife. But by agreement, dated at Middleton, on the 
Saturday after the feast of St. Hillary, 1889, it was 
settled, that lady Joan or her heirs should present in 
this first vacancy and in the one ensuing ; Henry Hillary 
and his wife, in the third ; lady Joan in the fourth and 
fifth vacancies; and Henry and Joan in the sixth; and 
then they were to exercise the right alternately. To 
this agreement were witnesses, master Edmund de 
Hereford, master Soger Hillary,' master Roger Quili, 
John de Lee, John de Ixmgdon, and others.' In con- 
fonnity with this arrangement, lady Joan nominated 
Robert de Whitney, on the 26th of January next 
ensuing.' Of the prebend of Bonehill, we have not as 

iShair'sStefltartih. S Harwood*s Hiit. of Lidi. S Lidiflcldneordi. NotMonM. 

4 Brdcfwlck:--edlt. 1844. S In the court-rolls, iSlS, he is mentknied m bdng 
**Pinon of the chvch at Alrewlch." lotaitnie, la B. III. 7 lichlleid records. 



220 TAMWOETH 

yet seen any record previous to nearly the end of the 
15th century. The presentations to all the prebends 
seem to have wholly fidlen to the crown, at the same 
time as the deanery. The Church is very frequently 
mentioned as one of the king's free chapek from 
1S59/ to 1527. In this latter year, Henry YIII., then 
patron of the College, by letters-patent dated at Calais, 
on the 14th of July, granted to John Golde, derk, 
almoner of Mary, queen of Fnmce, the canonry and 
prebend here, then vacant by the death of Brian 
Darley.* 

Each of the canons had his substitute or vicar at 
Tamworth to officiate in his place, and perform his 
duties. It would appear that a dispute of considerable 
length arose between the vicars and the bailifi, relating 
most probably to the local courts. On one occasion, the 
matter proceeded so far that a bye-law was framed of 
a very singular and rather arbitrary nature. It vras 
ordained that no person should invite any vicar to his 
table, under penalty <3t 6s. StL This amusing order, 
infringing so greatly on the rights of hosjatality, was 
framed on the 28rd of May, 1429.* We think it 
questionable if it were ever carried into eflfect : no in- 
stance of its enforcement has been placed on record. Some 
years later, the king's writ, bearing date on the 7th of 
November, 1458, was directed to the bailiA, ordering 
that, as according to the statutes of the realm, ecdesi* 
astical persons were not compelled to come to vievrs of 
frank-pledge unless special cause should require their 
appearance, they should exempt the vicars of the royal 
free-chapel of Tamworth from those courts. The vicars, 
at that time, were William Bolton, David Duffield, 

I BrdMWlck. 9 Rymtr't FBBdcn. s Oooit-ioUB, 7 H. VI. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 221 

Richard Sturgeys, Thomas Allen, Thomas Hull, and 
Bichard Tatenhill.' 

The revenues of the Church at Tamworth were not 
at any time very extensive. In fact, its endowment 
was so small that, alone, it must have been insufficient to 
support the priesthood in a condition much above abso- 
lute poverty. The increase of property, during the space 
of about 150 years, did not much exceed the annual 
income of SO/. Hence it is evident that the mainte- 
nance of the dignity of the ecclesiastics here, the 
continuance of the magnificent solemnities of public 
worship, and the erection of the noble and splendid 
edifice, were due to the voluntary offerings of the fidth- 
fiil, occasional gifts dictated by the piety of private 
persons, or to the ardour of the clergy themselves. A 
few of the donations made by individuals to this Church, 
we have met with. 

In 1445, Nicholas Pydde gave to John, archbishop 
of Canterbury, and chancellor of England; to John 
Bate> dean of the Church, Robert Monter, William 
Pydde, John Lynton, William Rouse, Thomas Ashcombe, 
and John Longdon, clerks, and their successors, two 
burgages situated in Lichfield-street, for their common 
benefit.* 

A person of the name of Jekes, in the reign of 
Henry YI., obtained leave from the king to give a 
messuage and garden in the town, to be converted into 
a habitation for the use of the priests, who should 
officiate as vicars here.' 

Sir Thomas Ferrers, knight, by deed, dated on the 
10th of February, 1495, for the health of his soul, and 
the souls of Ann his wife, and of John his son and 

1 Coaitrolli,37H.VI. 9 Ib.,S8H.VI. 3 Old notes of the CoUefe-boue. 

G G 



t22 TAMWORTH 

heir^ and their progenitors, gave to the perpetual vicars 
of the Church, an annuity of 2l6s. Sd. The payment 
was directed to be made out of a water-miU called 
Astford-milly two pastures, and all the other lands at 
Claverley, in Shropshire, which sir Thomas Ferrers had 
lately acquired of the gift of Henry Colle. The donation 
was made on condition that the vicars and their suc- 
cessors should, every week, say three masses of requiem, 
and, on the anniversary of his death, celebrate for ever 
solemn obsequies for the repose of the souls of himself, 
Ills wife, his son, and their ancestors. The vicars were 
to receive the payment in equal portions on the feasts 
of Annunciation of the blessed Virgin Mary, of St. 
.John the Baptist, of St. Michael, and of St Andrew 
the Apostle. To the deed, were witnesses, Ralph Lawk- 
ford, and Thomas Gresley, knights; John Ferrers, heir 
of sir Thomas ; William Ferrers ; John Alcock, rector 
of Ibstock; John Blount; James Kayley; and others. 

The last grant, which we have to name, is that of 
lady Dorothy, widow of sir John Ferrers, knight By 
indenture, dated on the 20th of October, 1630, she 
made a feofiment to eight persons of the town and 
neighbourhood and their sons with their assigns for 
ever, of certain lands and tenements in Tamworth and 
Wigginton, for the uses which she should afterwards 
direct. Soon afterwards, she ordered that the bailiff of 
the town should receive all the rents of the possessions, 
and, on the 11th of July, cause an obit to be kept in 
the Church, with the whole choir. On the evening of 
tliis day, solemn dirge was to be sung, and mass of 
requiem on the next morning, specially for the soul of 

I Attached to thia deed, apart of the coinmonietl of the Church remaiiiBibiit no 

■undent to make out the detlcn. There may stiU be decjphered upon it lvm 

comivifB ic 



h 



^, i^tili^a'^ Btimtl), '^amtodrt'jj). 




(Time of Henry VIII.) 



Pubhahed by J. Thompson, Tamworth, 191G 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 223 

sir John Ferrers^ her late husband; her own soul; the 
souls of William Harper and Margaret his wife, her 
fiither and mother; and those of all Christians. After 
directing the payment of fees to several persons taldng 
part in the services^ and particularly for the vicars to 
pray for the persons above named in their beadroll^ lady 
Dorothy Ferrers directed that the Grey-friars at Lichfield 
should sing dirge and mass of requiem, at the same 
time of the year as at Tamworth, for ever. And each 
friar there, being a priest, was, on the same day or at 
least within a week after this time, to say one mass of 
requiem. Ako the friars at Atherstone were yearly to 
sing dirge and mass of requiem, in their convent. And 
&rther, if it should happen that there were three or 
four soul-priests at Tamworth during the celebration of 
the obit, each should receive a small payment, if he 
should assist. And, finally, all surplus of rents was to 
be employed in the maintenance and improvement of 
the property.* 

Henry YIH., in 1534, assumed to himself the title 
of supreme head of the church of England. Then by 
a statute of parliament, the first-fruits of all benefices, 
and spiritual dignities and the tenths of the annual 
income of all livings, were annexed to the crown for 
ever.* Consequent upon this act, a valuation of all 
ecclesiastical foundations throughout the kingdom was 
made by royal command, in the same year. The accoimt 
given of Tamworth Church is as foUows. 

'' Valuation of the Spiritualities and Temporalities of 
the College of Tamworth. 
The dean and canons of the collegiate Church afore- 

1 Sec Appendix :^Note 33. s liogard. 



224 TAMWORTU 

said, have together in common lands and tenements, 
called the Olebe of the prebends thereto, the yearly 
value of 4/. Bs. Sd. Of the true portion of which rents 
assigned to each canon, full mention is made under 
the name of the canons below described: to wit. 



THE DEANBBT. 

Master Thomas Parker ^ the dean there, 

Has and perceives yearly to himself 
and his successors, of the lands of the 
Glebe aforesaid, ISs^ id. 

And of tithes, oblations, and other spi- 
ritual emoluments, 20/. 6$. 8d, 



The tenth part thereof, 42^. 21/. 

STERSCOTE. 

Master John Fysheryprehendary of the prebend ofSyerscate, 

Has and perceives yearly to himself 
and his successors, of the lands of the 
Glebe aforesaid, 24». Sd. 

And of tithes, oblations, and other spi- 
ritual emoluments, 42«. 5d. 



The tenth part thereof, Bs. Sd. SI. 6s. 8d. 

MTILNBCOTB. 

M, Richard Pygot, prebendary of the prebend of WSnecote, 

Has and perceives yearly to himself 
and his successors, of the lands of the 
Glebe aforesaid, ISs. lid. 

And of tithes, oblations, and other spi- 
ritual emoluments, 7/. 6*. Id. 



The tenth part thereof, 16s. SI. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 225 

OOTON. 

Master T%amas Holly prebendary of the prebend of Ooton, 

Has and perceives yearly to himself 
and his successors, of the lands of the 
Glebe aforesaid, Se. 8d. 

And of a yearly pension paid by mas- 
ter Boger Dyngley, prebendary of Wig- 
ginton, 40s. 

And of tithes, oblations, and other 
emoluments, 5/. lis. 9d. 



The tenth part thereof, 16s. 8/. 

BONEHILL. 

Master John Wf/lkoks,prebendaryoftheprebendofBonehtll, 

Has and perceives in lands of the Glebe 
aforesaid, 16s. Sd. 

And of tithes and other spiritual emol- 
uments, 6/. 2s. 4d. 



The tenth part thereof, lis. 7/. 

WIGGINTON. 

M. Boger Dyngley, prebendary oftheprd^endof Wigginton, 

Has and perceives, in lands of the 
Glebe aforesaid, 10s. Sd. 

And of tithes, oblations, and other spi- 
ritual gifts, over and above 40«. which 
he yearly pays to master Thomas Hall, 
prebendary of Coton, and his successors, 9/. 9s. 9d. 

The tenth part thereof, 208.*'' 101. 

The following is one of the numerous subsidies of 
the clergy at Tamworth, paid, in common with other 
churches, to the rapacious sovereign. 

1 Valor KodctiMticui,S0H.VIU.:—TlniMlated. 



226 TAMWORTH 

''Mr. Thomas Perker, dean, paid zxx«. 

Mr. John Fyssher, prehendary of Syrescote, iij#. j^. ob. 

Mr. William Westoote, prebendary of Wylnecote, Yiij«. 
-id. ob. 

Mr. Thomas Hall, prebendary of Cotton, ix$. iiijcf. 

Mr. John Wylcocks, prebendary of Bownel, xxs. iiijcf. 

Mr. Roger Dyngley, prebendary of Wygynton, im. 
Vicars choral and stipendaries : — 

Mr. Greorge Plackeney and eleven others, y«. iiijd 
each.**' 

It is irrelative to our subject to speak of the altera- 
tion in the fidth of this country, or of the political 
movements by which it was effected. It must suffice 
to state that, in the time of Edward VI., a total change 
of ecclesiastical discipline was completed, the liturgy 
altered, images removed from churches, the altars 
abandoned for tables, and in short the church of 
England established on those foundations, upon whiah 
it remains at the present day. 

The College of the Church was, in accordance with 
a parliamentary statute, dissolved in 1547, and the 
whole of the property attached to it vested in the 
crown.* To each of the incumbents, a small stipend 
was assigned for life; and these pensions were enjoyed 
by the rejected dignitaries until 155S;' when, in conse- 
quence of the accession of queen Mary to the throne, 
the ancient faith was restored, for a short time. 

In 1548, Edward VI. issued a commission, dated on 
the 20th of June, directing sir Henry Mildmay, knight, 
and Bobert Kelway, esq., to provide for the maintenance 
and continuance of preachers here. Accordingly, after 

1 Had. M8S. :— Shaw'i SteUbnlBhlra. The prebend of Comberfonl U not men. 
tioned hen or In the Velor BcdedaBttcuB, beeanie It was onUml with that of Wissin^ 
% Old notea of the CcAlefe-hooae. 8 WiUis* toI. %* p. Sl8. 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. £27 

they had made a visitation, they drew up an order on 
the SOth of July following, by which they ordained, — 
that the Church should be permitted to remain and 
serve as a parish-church ; — that there should be appoint- 
ed a preacher or vicar, and two assistant curates; — ^that 
the former should have an annual stipend of 20/., and 
the latter 8/. each a year, payable by the receiver-gene- 
ral of the county of Stafford; — and lastly, that the 
preacher and curates should have for an habitation the 
house, which the vicars of the College had formerly 
enjoyed. 

In exercise of her power, soon after her accession, 
Elizabeth nominated a vicar to this Church. On his 
cessation, in 1578, she appointed Roger Molde. The 
name of the first vicar, we have not discovered with 
certainty. But, on the 10th of April, 1578, there is 
recorded in the Parish register the burial of ''John 
Wright, Sacerdos." Three years subsequently, Elizabeth, 
by letters patent, dated on the 27th of October, 1581, 
in consideration that sir Henry Darcy, knt., and Peter 
Ashton, gent, had conceded to her the late monastery 
and the manor of Sawley, in Yorkshire, and on the 
himible petition of this Henry Darcy, granted to Ed- 
mund Downing and Peter Ashton, inter alia, all the 
late College of Tamworth, with its rights, members, 
liberties, and appurtenances, and the whole deanery, 
and all the prebends of Wigginton, Bonehill, Wilnecote, 
Coton, and Syerscote, with all their rights and members. 
And all houses, buildings, lands, glebes, meadows, 
pastures, commons, tithes, oblations, and emoluments, 
belonging to the College, deanery, or prebends, and the 
advowson, donation, free disposition, and right of pat- 
ronage of the vicarage and Church of Tamworth. These 



228 TAMWORTH 

were to be held by Downing and Aahton, and their 
heirs and assigns in fee-farm, as of the manor of East 
Greenwich, by fealty alone in free soocage and not 
in capite or by military service. And they were to 
render annually 33/. 3«. Z^d. and 62/. Os. b^d. The 
latter sum was to be appropriated in the following 
manner. To the archdeacon of Tamworth, for synodals 
and procurations, ISs. Id.; to the bishop of Coventry 
and Lichfield, as a perpetual pension, S&s. 6d.; to the 
vicar of Tamworth, for his stipend or salary, 20/.; to 
two curates here, for their stipends, 16/. ; to the School- 
master of Tamworth, for his salary, 10/. ISs. Hd. ; and 
to the curate of TatenhaU, for his salary, 13/. 68. Sd. 
But the sum was to be paid into the hands of the 
receiver-general of the county, or into the Exchequer 
yearly, on the feast of St. Michael the Archangel only, 
and was to supercede aU other services and demands 
whatever. But it was farther provided that if the sti- 
pends should be paid immediately to the archdeacon, 
bishop, and the rest, the acquittances of these parties 
shown to the auditor should be a sufficient warrant to 
him to discharge Downing and Ashton of the simis.* 

Edmund Downing and Peter Ashton, having thus 
acquired the College, deanery, and prebends, and the 
advowson and right of patronage of the vicarage and 
Church of Tamworth, by deed dated on the 21st of 
February, 1582-3, granted the whole property, in fee 
simple, to John Morley and Roger Rant.' 

In the course of the ensuing year, — 1583, — John 
Morley, and Roger Rant who was his servant, sold the 
whole out in parcels to different persons. By indenture 

1 Letten-Mtent, as Blii. 
s The nst of the history of the Churcfi ia derived tmm Shaw*i Staflbrdihire, except 
in those cues when we have girm other authorities. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 229 

dated on the 10th of May, they granted, in fee-simple, 
the deanery or prehend of Amington, and that of 
Wigginton, with the tithes thereunto belonging, and 
the advowson and right of patronage of the vicarage 
and Church, to Thomas Repington, esq. The prebend 
of Bonehill was sold to William Necton; that of Wil- 
necote, to George Corbin; Coton, to Alexander Morley; 
and Syerscote, to John Breton. 

But queen Elizabeth, by her second charter to the 
town, dated in 1588, some years after the grant of the 
advowson and right of patronage to Downing and 
Ashton, gave to the corporate body, in their capacity 
of Guardians and Governors of the Free Grammar 
School, the nomination and appointment of a preacher 
of the word of God in the Church, and also of two 
ministers, so often as they should be required, subject, 
however, to the consent of the high-steward of the 
borough. And they were to receive the annual stipends 
of 20/. for the preacher, and 16/. for the curates, pay- 
able by the receiver-general of the county, in equal 
portions, at four terms in the year. And lastly, they 
were to hold a house and garden in Tamworth, that 
the late vicars of the College once inhabited, which was 
to serve for ever as an habitation for the ministers or 
curates.' 

This singular grant to the guardians of the School of 
power to nominate preachers and ministers, in opposition 
to the right previously sold to Downing and Ashton, 
caused some difference between the corporation and the 
occupiers of the prebends, as we have mentioned in 
speaking of the fairs. But between the guardians and 
the Repington family there were very great and long 

1 Charter, 90 EUs. 

H H 



230 TAMWORTH 

continued disputes, concerning the right of presentation. 
No legal decision was made, however, between the 
parties, until nearly the close of the last century. After 
some time, a compromise was entered into; and it was 
agreed that, as in the grant to Downing and Ashton, 
there was only specified ''advocationem, donationem, 
liberam dispositionem, et jus patronus VicarisB et Eccle- 
si» de Tamworth,'' and as the charter had expressly 
the word "curates," the Repingtons should enjoy the 
nomination of the vicars, and the guardians, of the two 
assistant ministers.' 

Nor was the difference between the Repingtons and 
the corporation, the only one that occurred. Katherine, 
duchess of Lennox, grand-daughter and heiress of sir 
Henry Darcye, claimed the patronage of the Church 
held by the former, the College-house assigned to the 
latter, and the whole property formerly given to Down- 
ing and Ashton, patentees in trust for sir Henry 
Darcye. In 1630, she granted her alleged right of 
presentation, and the College-house to Thomas Gore. 
He, after commencing two suits to substantiate his 
claim, one in the Exchequer, and the other at common 
law, sold his title to Mr. Comberford, about 1639. This 
last gentleman, on the Srd of February, two years 
afterwards, sealed a lease of the house upon the thres- 
hold to Augustine Fielding; and on the 4th of May, 
1642, served Thomas Blake, who then held the place 
both of vicar and curates, with a process out of the 
king's bench, for occupying the dwelling in defiance of 
him. Mr. Comberford eventually lost his claim.* 

We quit the account of these tedious disputes, for 
a time, to p\irsue our history in regular order. 

I MS., temp. Ctf. i. s Old notes of tlie GoUefe-hoiue. Corpontloii records. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



231 



Thomas Repington acquired^ as we have previously 
shown, more especially the deanery and deanery-house 
and the advowson and right of patronage of the vicarage 
and Church of Tamworth. By deed of settlement, dated 
on the 2nd of November, 1603, upon the marriage of 
John Repington his son with Margaret Littleton, he 
covenanted that he and his heirs should stand seized of 
the premises therein mentioned, of which the deanery and 
deanery-house, and the advowson and right of patronage 
of the vicarage and Church, as belonging to and usually 

RoosR DB Rbpinoton, of Reping- 
ton, in Lincolnshire, signalized him- 
self in the struggles between Stephen 
and Maud for the throne ; and was 
appointed cofferer to the Empress. 
He m. Susanna, dau. of Richard 
Scrope, of Bolton, in Yorksh. ; and 
had issue, 

I. Sir Ricbaed, of whom presently. 

II. Jonas, m. Mary dau. of John Cheek. 

III. John, m. Joyce, dau. of John de 
Longton. 

IT. Annabbll, m. John de Rochford. 

T. Rachabl, m. Christoph. deStannton. 

Sib Richahd db Rbpinoton, 
knight, 20 H. II. He was slain in 
a joust at Woodstock, in 1178 ; being 
then seized of Frankingham, Dalder- 
by, and Thorp-in-the- Willows, co. 
Lincoln. He m. 1st. Marian, dau. 
of sir John Lowther, knight ; 2nd. 
Alice, dau. of John Chaworth. By 
his first wife he had, 

I. Thomas, his snccessor. 

II. Matthbw. 

III. John. 

IV. Gbisaoon, m. to Henry de Sutton. 
T. Judith, m. to John Mounson. 
Thomas Repington, a soldier of 

note, fought in the great and glorious 
battle of Poictiers. But being dis- 
tressed and taken prisoner by the 
French, he was compelled to sell his 
lands in Lincolnshire, anno 1367, to 
sir Henry Marmyon, knight. He 
waa^r. in the monastery of Sem- 
pringham. By Ann, his wife, dau. of 
John Peyton, he had issue, 

I. Adam, who succeeded. 

u. Ralph, m. Audry, dau. of sir John 
Reppes, knight. 




The £unily of Repington was one 
of great antiquity, ori^nally seated 
in Uie county of Lincoln. 

Simon db Rbpinoton, living in the 
time of William I or II, was father of 

I. Rachabl, m. George Poyntz. 

II. Ralph, his snccessor. 

III. Gbbtaisb, m. a dan. of BoTile. 
IT. Anthont, m. Aflkbel, dan. of sir 

Robert de Worseley, knifht. 
Ralph db Rbpinoton, of the 
Leach, temp. Hen. I, succeeded his 
father. He m, Audry, dau. of John 
le Feame, and had issue, 

I. RooBB, continnator of the family. 

II. Hbnby, m. Joan dan. of sir John 
de BaskenrUle, knight. 

III. John, m. USA, Judith, dan. of 
Thomas Hacket, co. of Lincoln. 



832 



TAMWORTH 



enjoyed with them^ were part, to the use of this John 
and Margaret, and their heirs male, in special tail, 
with remainder to Humphry Repington, his second son, 
in tail mail, with divers remainders over. 



m. Tbom AS, m. JhUaimi, dun. of WilUun 
Holitoa. 

IT. Rom, m. Itt. John Blcnkcuopi 

tnd. Anthony StreUy, of Bench. 
Adam Rbpinoton, wu Jmtloe 
of the Peace and Cnstoi Rotolonun 
of the hondreda of KesteTen and 
Holland, co. of linooln, and itandard 
bearer to Richard II. Thia Adam, 
in 1397, 21 Rich. II., took the abbot 
of Crowiand pritoner ; for which aer- 
▼ice he waa rewarded by Robert 
▼iiooant Fitiwalter, general of the 
field, inth a demi Antelope Galea 
for hia creat, maned, bearded, taak- 
ed, aod homed Or and billetted Ar- 
gent Sana nombre, to be borne by 
him and hia posterity for erer. He 
had the wardship of Marian, dan. 
and h. of John Lambard. He m. 
this lady ; and in her right had lands 
in Long-Sutton, eo. of Lincoln, 
where she was bur. in 1399. He 
had issue, 

1. A DAU. ». sir John Camoys, knt. 

u. Alb RIO A, m. AciamIU«by, co. Dert>y. 

III. William, ton and heir. 
William Rhpinoton. In 1422, 

he purchased of sir William Clinton, 
knight, a messuage; 500 acres of 
land ; 100 of meadow ; 200 of pas- 
ture, at Amington ; and the right of 
fishing in the river Anker. This 
acquirement brought the family of 
Repmgton into connexion with Tam- 
worth. He was auditor to Richard 
Nevill, earl of Warwick ; and dying 
in 1451, left by Alice, dau. of Helby 
Acton, of Howleing, in Salop, 

I. William, aaccesaor. 

II. John m. Mary dau. of Ro|r. Blewltt. 
lu. CiiRisTorHSR, m. Emma, dau. of 

•ir Piers Vavasoor. 

IV. Emma, m. William En^eberd. 

V. Alick, m. John Mamhall. 
William Ribpinoton, m. Emma, 

dau. of John Thuretan of Great Wal- 
dingfield, Sufiblk; and by her had 
two daughters, and one son, 

John Repinoton, who m. Colet- 
ta, dau. and cob. of John Gold- 



smith, of Goldamidi-Grange, Leioes- 
tersh. He <f. in 1 4 72, leaving 

I. WtLUAM, histaoccHior. 

It. RosBRT, m. Jane, dan. of John Jann- 
c]r,of Fothferinca7,Nofthamptoii8hii«. 

ui. Jambs, m. Ann, dan. of sir William 
Calthorpe. 

IV. RicBAan, m. Eleanor, dan. of Rob. 
PateshuU. 

William Rbpixoton, eaq. of 
Amington, m. Juliana, dan. of William 
Stokes, of Foleahill, in the co. of 
Coventry. He d, on January 30th, 
1543, and liea bur,, with hia wife, in 
Tamworth-Church> He left 

1. Francis, his sQccesaor. 

u.-m. Paiur and lluMrnaBv^tf. youag. 

IV. Mabv, m. John Swynfen, of Swyn- 
fsn-hall, CO. of Staflbfd. 

V. Ann, ». Thomas Corbin. 

VI. EoiTBA, took the vows and habit 
of the order of St. Benedid, and be- 
came a nnn at Polesworth. 

vu. Katbbbinb, ». Robeit Burton, of 

liodley. 
Francis Rrpinoton, esq., in 
1537. obtained from Edwmrd, lord 
Clinton, a grant of the remainder of 
hu lands at Amington, and d. seized 
of the manor in 1551. By Maud, 
dau. of Richard Cotton, of Hamstall- 
Ridware, he had issue, 
1. Thomas, named presently, 
n. William. 
m. RicaARD, a barrister, A«ir. at Tsm- 

worth, July 1st, iSll. t.p. 
iv.-v.-vi. JoBN, EowARo, HoMmaar, 

unmarried, 
vu. Maria, m. 1st. Kendal, of Smithsbr, 
Sod. Clement Fisher, of PaiAinctoB 
Magna, co. of Warwick, M. P. for 
Tamworth. He died October 23. 1 819. 
His grand -daughler, sister of Cle- 
ment Fisher, of WUoeoote, m. Tho- 
mas, son of John Wighcwick, sergeaot 
at law, another M. P. of this town, 
and founder of a charity here. 
Thomas Rkpinoton, esq. He 
purchased, in 1583, the deanery and 
advowson and right of presentation 
to the vicarage and Church of Tam- 
worth ; and subsequently entailed it, 
with his estate at Amington, upon 
his heirs male. He d, 14th Dec., 
1615, and was bur, at Tamworth. 
His wife Frances, dau. of William 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



28S 



Upon the resignation of the yicarage by Roger Molde, 
John Repington and Margaret his wife^ on the 28th of 
August^ 1610, nominated and appointed Samuel Hodg- 
kinson to be vicar of Tamworth for life; and he was 
to preach there at least once a fortnight. This John, 
then sir John Repington, died in January, 1625-6, 
leaving a son and heir of the same name. 

The second sir John Repington, succeeding by virtue 



Stamford, one of the jiutioet of the 
common pleas, was aUo bur, here, 
Jmie 2, 1598. They left issue, 

L JoHH, taccessor. 

n. Mart, bapt. at Tamworth, Jaly 10, 

1507 j ter.April;, 1571. 
m. HuMpnar. 

IT. WiLUAM, hapt. at Tamworth, An^. 
18, iur, Feb. 13, 1570. 

SiK John Rbpinoton, knight, 
m. 1 James I., Margaret, dan. of 
sir Edward Littleton, knight, of 
FiDaton, co. of Stafford. This sir 
John bought an eatate at Atherstone, 
with the manor, and built a house 
i-alled the hall there. He d, January 
23rd, 1625, and was succeeded by his 
only son. 

SiK John Rbpington, knight, 
m. Elixabeth, dan. of sir Edward Se- 
bright, of Besford, co. of Worcester, 
baronet. He d, in June, 1662, and 
was succeeded by his son, 

Sebright Rbpinoton, who m. 
1st. Catharine, dau. of sir Thomas 
Bnrdett, baronet, of Formark, co. of 
Derby; by whom he had one son, 
Edward. He m. 2nd. Mary, dau. of 
Sherington Talbot, of Lacock, co. of 
WUts. He d. in 1698, and was bur. 
at Tamworth. By his second mar- 
riage, he had a son, Gilbert, (of 
whom hereafter) and many other 
diildren. 

Edwaiu) Repington, succeeded 
his father. He m. Anne, dan. oi 
William Basset, of Claverton, co. of 
Somerset, by whom he had two daugh- 
ters, who d, 8. p. He d. Feb. 23, 
1734, and was bur* in Amington- 
chapel. 

Gilbert Rbpinoton, esq., of 
Amington-Woodhouse and London, 



succeeded his half brother Edward. 
He m. Jane, 9th dau. of sir Thomas 
Vernon, knight, of London. He d. 
in Feb., 1738, and was bur. at Tam- 
worth. He had issue, 

1. Sbbkioht, d. jowckg. 

u. Bdward, of whom presently. 

m. John, d. t.p. 

IT. GiLBBar, a dergyman, ter. Sept. 
Srd, 1749. 

T. Cbablbb, named presently. 

VI. Ann-Cabolivb, Atcr. Mar. 30, 1731. 

vu. Elibabbtb, d, an inftmt. 

Edward Rbpinoton, esq., a 
major in the militia, succeeded his 
father Gilbert. He m. Maria, dau. of 
Theophilus Lerett, esq. ; and d. in 
1759, «. p. He was succeeded by 
his brother, 

Charles Rbpinoton, of Aming- 
ton-hall, a captain in the marines. 
He m. Matilda, dau. and coh., — 
with her sister Annabella, who m. 
general William ^ Court,— of Tho. 
Vernon, esq., of Twickenham-park. 
He d. December 8th, 1764, leaving 
a dau. Barbara, who d. at Stoney- 
Stratford, Bucks, March 15th, 1775, 
aged 22, unm,, and a son and heir, 

Charles Edward Rbpinoton, 
esq., of Amington-hall, b. October 
26th, 1755. He was magistrate and 
deputy-lieutenant for £e co. of 
Warwick. He m. June 20th, 1805, 
Catharine Jesse, eldest dau. of Henry 
Fane Cholmley, esq., of Whitby and 
Howsham, co. of York ; but had no 
issue. He <f. June 27th, 1837. 
By his will he passed his Amington 
estate to his cousin, Edward Henry 
k Court, a captain in the Royal 
Navy ; reserving an interest in it to 
his widow during the remainder of 
her life. 



234 TAMWORTH 

of the entail to the advowson and right of patronage, 
obtained firom Charles I. a confirmation of the gift of 
queen Elizabeth to Edmund Downing and Peter Ashton.^ 
Upon the cessation of Hodgkinson, in 1629, he appoint- 
ed, on the 12th of November, the rev. Thomas Blake 
to the vicarage for his life. To this cle]^;yman, was 
also given by the guardians of the School, the office of 
the curates, so that he became both vicar and perpetual 
curate, and resided in the College-house.' He was a 
divine of some celebrity, and an active partizan of the 
puritans, in the civil war. He died in June, 1657 ; and 
thereupon sir John Repington, on the 23rd of Novem- 
ber following, appointed Samuel Langley, M. A., to be 
vicar, provided that he should in person exercise the 
duties and preach in the Church once every Lord's day 
at least, unless some lawful occasion shoidd hinder 
him. Three days previously, the bailiffs and capital 
burgesses had elected him to the offices of preacher, 
minister, and curates of the Church.' This two-fold 
election of each clergyman continued until the final de- 
cision of the matter between the corporation and Re- 
pingtons: it was mainly occasioned by the scanty 
endowment of the Church. The rev. S. Langley did 
not become resident in the town until the 1st of July 
following.* He is mentioned in the most honourable 
terms, in the Memoirs of William Whiston, a divine 
well known for his Arian opinions. 

Sir John Repington died in 1662, leaving a son and 
heir, Sebright. Upon the resignation of Samuel Lang- 
ley in this year, Sebright Repington, on the 10th of 
November, nominated Ralph Astle, on condition that 

1 Letters patent dated ii Not. 10 Car. 1.,— 1640. S Coipoxation reooids. 
3 Indeatore, 1067. 4 Perish resistcr. 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 235 

he should exercise the iiinction in person^, and preach 
at least every fortnight, unless some unavoidable hin- 
derence should occur/ This minister did not remain 
very long here; for on the 16th of December, in the 
following year, he surrendered the cure of Tamworth. 
Thereupon, Sebright Repington, on the ensuing day, 
re-appointed Samuel Langley to the place of vicar, upon 
the same terms as his predecessor had enjoyed it. He 
continued incumbent for nearly thirty-one years; and 
died in 1693-4. Sebright Repington, on the 19th 
of June following, — 1694, — ^nominated Samuel Col- 
lins. And on the 1st of August, according to 
usage, the bailifb and commonalty made him a grant 
of the two curates' places; which the high-steward 
confirmed.' 

The rev. S. Collins, who from 1705 held the prebend 
of Graia-minor in lichfield-cathedral, died in 1710, at 
Tamworth. Edward Repington, having succeeded his 
fiither Sebright, then exercised his right as patron in 
favour of the rev. George Antrobus, whose appoint- 
ment was dated on the 8th of January. He continued 
sole incumbent, receiving the stipends of the vicar and 
curates, with all other payments and benefactions given 
by several persons, at different times, after the dissolu- 
tion of the College: and whilst he continued here, he 
inhabited the house appropriated to the minister. On 
his death, in 1724, Edward Repington bestowed the 
vicarage, the 29th of December, upon the rev. Robert 
Wilson, who retained the living on the same terms as 
those whom he had succeeded. 

Edward Repington left no male issue. Therefore, 
the advowson and right of patronage of the vicarage 

1 IndMitiiRi iMs. s Oorpantton ncordt. 



236 TAKWORTU 

and Church of Tamworth passed, in 1734, to Gilbert 
Repington, his half-brother. The latter died in 1738, 
and was succeeded by his eldest son Edward. 

This last mentioned Edward Reping^n had no issue ; 
and his brother Charles, being his heir, became in 1759 
seized of all the premises under the entail created by 
the deed of settlement. The difference existing in re- 
spect to the right of presentation to the Church, origi- 
nating in the double grant of Elizabeth, had been 
suffered very nearly to subside. But, when a vacancy 
was expected from the indisposition of Mr. Wilson, 
the dispute was renewed with great violence. On 
the 13th of March, 1758, the corporation, appre- 
hending that Edward Repington, under a plea of a 
prior right legally vested in him, intended to deprive 
them of power to present, ordered that the bailiffs should 
immedietely cause a caveat to be entered in the consis- 
tory of bishop's court to prevent any presentation from 
being entered there under his "pretended claim,'' in 
order that the right, on the decease of the incumbent, 
might be brought to a l^;al determination. On the 
1st of December, in the same year, immediately after 
the death of Mr. Wilson, the corporation elected Simon 
Collins, "as preacher and minister or curates," with 
all profits and stipends belonging to the offices: this 
appointment they confirmed on the 5th of January 
ensuing.' 

Charles Repington, after a short tune, claimed his 
right. By indenture, dated on the 5th of May, 1759, 
reciting, amongst other things, that the vicarage or 
created vicarage, with the perpetual curacy of Tamworth, 
had become void by the death of Robert Wilson, he 

1 Coipantlon records. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 237 

granted to William Sawrey, the vicarage with the 
curacy^ and appointed him to be vicar of the vicarage, 
and curate of the curacy^ for his natural life^ upon the 
terms that he should reside at Tamworth, and preach 
in the Churchy at least once a fortnight. 

The rev. S. Collins refused to surrender the living to 
the new incumbent. His opponent^ therefore, commen- 
ced legal proceedings against him and the guardians 
of the School who had presented him to the Church. 
A verdict was given at the summer sessions at Stafford, 
in 1761, in fiivour of the Bepington fiimily, and to the 
total exclusion of the corporation. And Mr. Collins 
was compelled to resign the incumbency in October 
of that year. Mr. Sawrey, who was also rector of El- 
ford, in Staffordshire, held the Church until 1793. 

Charles Repington, esq., dying on the 8th of Decem- 
ber, 1764, was succeeded by his only son, Charles 
Edward Repington. He, on the death of the last 
incumbent, presented the rev. Michael Baxter to the 
Church, both as vicar and perpetual curate. This 
clergyman continued here only two years; for his de- 
cease took place in 1795. Thereupon, Mr. Repington, 
in the same manner, presented the rev. Francis Blick. 

Charles Edward Repington, esq., died the 27th of 
June, 1837 ; and, as he had no issue, his family became 
extinct By his will, he bequeathed his estates, with 
the advowson and right of patronage of the vicarage 
and Church of Tamworth, to captain Edward Henry k 
Court, R.N., brother of William, lord Heytesbury. 
His connexion with the Repingtons arose from his 
grand-mother being sister of Mr. Repington's mother. 

The rev. F. Blick was rector of Walton-with-RoUes- 
ton, in Staffordshire; and also of Wisseth, in Suffolk. 

I I 



iS8 



TAHWORTH 



He, besides, held the stall of Pipa-parva, in lichfidd- 
cathedral. He died upon the Srd of April, 1842, at 
the age of eighty-seven years, after he had been the 
Ticar of the Church for nearly half a century. There- 
upon, Captain it Court presented the rev. Robert 
Chapman Savage, according to the customary form, both 
to the vicarage and perpetual curacy. Mr. Savage is 
the present incimibent' 

For some time, the living was considered only as a 
perpetual curacy ; but a decision of the House of Lords, 
towards the close of the last century, declared it to be 
a vicarage. 




Thii family is of Norman extrac- 
tion, firom which descended 

PiBRCS k Court, esq., of Ivy 
Chnrch, in the co of Wilts, who in 
1722, was parliamentary represen- 
tatire for Heytesbory. He had, 
amongst other issue, 

GsNRRAL William k Court. 
He was colonel of the elerenth regi- 
ment of foot ; and member of par- 



liament for Heytesbory. Heaaramed 
the additional surname of Ashe, ac- 
cording to the direction of the will of 
his great nnde Edward Aahe, esq., 
of Heytesbory. He m. 22iid Fdmi- 
ary,1746, Annabdla, dan. and coheir- 
esa— with her sister Matilda, wife of 
capt. Charles Repington, of AmiQg- 
ton,— of Thomas Vemon, esq., of 
Twickenham-park. By this lady, 
who d. 1761, he bad an only son« 

William Pibrcs Ashk i Court, 
esq., b. in 1747. He sat as M. P. 
for Heytesbory : and, on the 4th of 
July, 1795, was created a baronet. 
He m first, Catharine, dau. of lieuL 
col. John Bradford, who d. «. p. He 
m. secondly, 30th October. 1777, 
Letitia, dau. of Henry Wmdham, 
esq., of Salisbury, who d, in 1821. 
By her he bad, 

I. William, b. 11th July, 1779. 
He succeeded to the baronetcy upon 
the decease of his father. On the 
17th of January, 1828, he was created 
a baron of the realm by patent, with 
the title of Baron Hrttksburt. 
He became G. C. B.; one of the 
Privy council ; and was for some years 
ambassador firom England to the 
Imperial court of St Petersburgh. 



1 Set Appendix —Nott t4. 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 



239 



All the tithes^ and even the Easter-offerings, are 
alienated. The value of the Hying is now ahout 100/. 
a year. The stipends of 36/., the munificence of 
royalty settled upon the Church. By the procure- 
ment of lord Middleton, in 1707, 400/. was obtained 
of queen Ann's bounty. The interest of a similar 
sum is derived from several private benefactions; and 
800/. was granted by parliament. This small endow- 
ment is evidently a very inadequate remuneration for the 
incessant exertions needed ia this extensive and populous 
parish. 



During the pastyeer, he was appointed 
lord-lieatenant of Ireland, — a post 
which this nobleman still enjoys. 
He m. 3rd October, 1808, Rebecca, 
bom 1783, — 2nd dan. of the hon. 
IK^Iliam Henry BonTCrie, and grand- 
danghter of ^^lliam, Ist earl of Rad- 
nor. By her, who d. on the 6th of 
October, 1844, he had 
L William Hbvrt Abhb, b, nth Joly, 
isaOb who Msmned the sumaine of 
HdniM, on his manlage, Srd October, 
18SS, with Bizabeth, eldMt dan. and 
bcireat of sir Leonard Vfantley 
Hobmes, bart., of Weatorer, Isle of 
Wight, 
u. PanosBicx Asn, b. at Naples, 15th 

December, 1818. 
m. Cbcilia*Marl4. 
II. Edwakd Hsnbt 2t Court, b, 
10th December, 1783 ; many years 
M. P. for the boroogh of Heytesbory, 
a captain in the B^yal Navy ; and, 
since 1837, M. P. for the borough 
of Tsmworth. To him, Charlea Ed- 
ward Repington, esq., of Amington- 



hall, bequeathed his estates ; and he 
is now patron of the Church of Tam- 
worth. 

in. Cha&lxs Ashs ^ Coust, 
Major-general in the army, C.B. 
knight of the Gkielphie and other 
distinguished . foreign orders. He 
was b. 17th June, 1785 ; andm. 10th 
May, 1815, Mary, only dau. of Abra- 
ham Gibbs, esq. He has a son and 
a daughter, 

1. Charlss Hbhst Wtwdham. 

u. BLisAaaTH. 

lY. Lbtitia, m. the honourable 
Wmiam EUot, earl of St. Germans. 
She d. 1810. 

T. Annabklla, m., 1805, Richard 
Beadon, esq., son of the right rer. 
Ridiard, bi^op of Bath and Wells. 

Yi. Mabia, m. the honourable 
Philip Pleydell BouTcrie, youngest 
son of the earl of Radnor. 

Yii. Carolins, m. 1818, Stewart 
Crawford, M. D., of Bath. 



THE CHURCH: 

ooNTiinmD. 

DESCRIPTION. 

The peculiar features of its aichitectuie lead us to 
conclude that the Church of Tamworth was rebuilt yerj 
shortly after the Norman conquest; that it after e]t- 
hibited the usual crudform arrangement, and consisted 
of a Tower placed at the intersection of the NaTC, 
Choir, and Transepts. The Nave possessed, at least, 
a south Aisle, with a Crypt beneath it. Whether the 
Choir had any Aisle, we cannot determine; but, upon 
the south side, was placed the Sacristy or yestry. 

About two centuries and a half subsequently, the 
edifice underwent very extensive alterations. The Nave, 
Aisles, Transepts, and part of the Choir, were rebuilt ; and 
some parts, perhaps, then first constructed ; leaving only 
the Transept-arches, Tower, Crypt, portions of the Choir, 
and the Sacristy of the ancient structure. Shortly 
afterwards, a large Chantry-chapel was added, upon the 
north side of the Choir. It appears that it was erected 
— ^partly at least, — ^by one of the Comberfords, as a 
place of sepulture for the members of that fisunily, and 
for the celebration of services for them. The Porches, 
about this time, were either rebuilt, or first erected. 

Another gieat alteration was soon made by the 
erection of a laqpe and massive Tower, at the west end 
of the Nave. The one of Norman construction, if it 
had not been previously taken down, must now have 
been removed. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 241 

Hitherto the Church had retained acutdy pointed 
roofiu The xemovai of Ihese^ the sahitLtution of others 
of a much less jxitch, and the addition of clsrestory irin- 
dowB along the Nave and Choir, fimned tlie next great 
change in the general constructuxn of the edifice. The 
onginal form of the roo&, hoivever, is still discernible 
bjr the iveather-moulding on the east wall of Ihe Tower* 
That of the Nave is partly external and partly internal 
to the roof; and those of tiie two Aisles are traced 
upon the corresponding north and south buttresses of 
the Tower. This alteration, as might be expected, 
required fhe reconstruction of all the windows situated 
in the east and west ends of the Church. In hct, 
the greater part of the gables have very evidently 
been rebuilt. 

In these fisw preliminary remarks, it has been our 
intention merely to give an outline of the different 
changes that have been made in the general arrange- 
ment of the Church. Of the details, we must speak in 
describing its separate parts. The numerous alterations 
vdiieh hare taken jdaoe since the accession of Elisabeth 
to the throne, might, perhaps, be thought to demand a 
separate notice. But as all hare been merely modifi- 
cations of the existing structure, they, too, will be 
more appropriately given in the ensuing description. 

We shall speak first of the Nave. It is very spacious 
and lofty. It is separated from the Aisle on each side 
by four large equilateral poiuted arches, which are 
supported by piers formed of four semi-eylindrical shaflts 
united together, up the face of each a square-edged 
fillet runs vertically; with corresponding plain moulded 
capitals and bases. The hood-mouldings are oontinuous 
over all the arches ; and terminate at each end, generally 
in a plain corbel. 



£42 TAMWORTH 

At some distanoe above the arches, a stoing-ooune 
or projecting line of masonry runs along the whole 
length of the Naye, at the base of the clerestory windows. 
In the clerestory, there are six windows upon each 
side. They are large and of good proportion ; and their 
heads are fonned of the four central depressed arch, 
commonly known by the name of the Tudor-arch, 
although adopted some time before the reign of Henry 
YII. As occurs invaiiably in all the windows through* 
out this edifice, the mouldings of the jambs and 
architrave are continuous, without the least interruption. 
The two mullions, at the spring of the arch, simply 
divide each into two curved branches, the inner of 
which cross: and both the principal and subordinate 
lights are foliated. The tracery, altogether, has rather 
a heavy appearance. Externally each window is sur- 
mounted by an ogee canopy, sparingly ornamented with 
crockets, and finished at the spring by simple angular 
returns. 

Between each window, internally, stands a large 
shallow niche, with an ogee canopy ornamented with 
crockets and a final. Below it is provided with a semi- 
hexagonal moulded bracket, which once supported the 
image of some saint. Externally, betwixt each window, 
is a buttress, which rests upon the string-course below 
the window and terminates at the base of the parapet. 
It is divided into two stages by a plain sloped set-off. 
The upper stage is triangular, and, perhaps, was 
originally surmounted by a small pinnacle. 

The clerestory was similar on both sides. But, during 
the summer of 1887, the south side underwent great 
alterations. It was totally re&ced with stone, and the 
windows repaired with new mullions and tracery. But 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 24S 

the buttresses were omitted, and the canopies, being 
formed plain, were made continuous by their angular 
returns, except in every alternate one, where leaden 
pipes are placed to carry off the water from the gutter 
aboye. In all other particulars, the ancient design was 
obsenred. 

The roof of the Nave is now nearly flat, but appears 
to have been of rather a higher pitch, eyen after 
the adoption of clerestory windows. It is divided into 
bays by seyen horizontal tie-beams or girdlers faced 
with mouldings, which span the whole width and rest 
upon wall-plates. They were eyidently once supported 
by wall-pieoes, resting upon plain moulded semi-octago- 
nal corbels placed at the summit of the niches between 
the windows. Some of the corbels are destroyed. 
Those at the ends stand alone, there being no niches 
before the first and beyond the last window. A ridge- 
piece runs along the whole roof. The slanting bays are 
divided into four parallelograms, and each of these 
into four squares in a similar manner. Bosses formed 
of leaves and flowers are placed at all the intersec- 
tions. 

The parapets of the Nave are plain, horizontal, and 
entirely of a modem construction. 

In the year 1809, the Church underwent extensive 
alterations and repairs. The expenses, except those 
for repewing which were borne by the individual 
proprietors, were defrayed by a public subscription, 
amounting to 1,S00/. To this sum, were added the 
profits arising from a musical festival, which was held 
in the Church on the 21st and S2nd of September, 
under the patronage of the marquis Townshend. The 
receipts and donations amounted to 1,660/., 11^., and 



S44 TAMWORTU 

the expenses to l^8L ISs., leaving a sfapbis of SfM. 
I89. Duxing the festiyal^ the Church was illumuutted 
with lamps wreathed about the pillan, and was oma- 
mented with many devices/ 

At that time^ a new entrance was made into the 
Nave. The north Porch was stopped, and the principal 
access to the interior formed through the Tower. The 
old organ-gaUery supported by small pillars, which stood 
at the west end of the Nave, was removed, and a ves» 
tibule, with passages to the side-aides, was built of 
brick, with lath and plaster decorations. It encroaches 
upon two thirds of the last bay of the Nave. Over this 
entrance into the Nave, the organ, with the addition 
of a powerful choir-instrument, was placed; with 
several pews. A flight of stairs upon each side of the 
vestibule leads to the organ, and to the western end of 
the gallery in the respective Aide. 

The floor of the Nave seems to have been raised 
considerably above the ancient one, perhaps between 
two and three feet. It was flagged throughout in 1809. 
This part of the Church was with the rest then fitted 
up with firesh pews. Such seats were, we believe, first 
placed ui the building in the time of Elisabeth. They 
were removed in 1677, and new ones erected of every 
shape, firom a triangular nook for a single person, to 
others large and spacious for the accomodation of a 
family. Some remains, bearing the date, may yet be 
seen in the neighbourhood of the town. The pulpit 
stood by the second pier on the north side, until 179S. 
It was then removed, and a new one, with a large 
reading^esk, erected against the first pier on the 
south side. There it at present remains. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. S45 

The North Aisle is separated from the Transept by 
a large equilateral arch, similar, in every particular, to 
the arches of the Nave. This has, however, been entirely 
blocked up, in order to support an extensive gaUery. 
A modem square doorway leads into the Transept. 

The four windows, on the north side, are large and 
well formed, with simple-pointed heads. The two plain 
muUions in each are completely debased, and the origi- 
nal design cannot now be traced. They merely arch 
round into each other at the spring; and a midlion 
arising in the middle, and, immediately diverging into 
two curved lines, divides the head into three subordinate 
lights. The dripstone externally and the hood-moulding 
within terminate by simple angular returns. Beneath 
each window exteriorly, a moulded string-course protects 
the wall hebw from the wet. 

It is probable that these windows are referred to, in 
the following note, which occurs in the Parish-register. 
"1611. This yere, foure of the churchewindowes were 
repaxed by one Cottrell, a Mason/' 

The large west window has a four-centred, depressed 
head. The mullions are also debased. There are five 
which simply curve into each other; and a large oval, 
with a curved line on each side, forms the tracery of 
the head. The dripstone, hood-moulding, and external 
string-course, were once similar to those on the north side. 

Five buttresses strengthen the north wall of the Aisle 
externally, besides two placed at the north-west comer, 
at right angles with each other and the walls. Each of 
them is worked into two stages by a gabled set-off, 
formed laterally by five overlapping slabs. They termi- 
nate, in the same manner, immediately beneath the 
top of the parapet. The interval between the fourth 

K K 



S46 TAICWORTH 

and fifth buttresses is occupied by the north Porch. 
The parapets are plain and modem. 

The exterior of the north Aisle having in the lapse 
of time become much decayed, the buttresses west of 
the Porch were, in 1840, completely rebuilt, strictly 
according to the original design. The intervening wall, 
however, instead of being refaced with stone, was 
chiselled all over, and left in a rough state. In con- 
sequence of this treatment, all the mouldings of the 
jambs, architrave, and dripstone of the vnndow have 
been entirely destroyed. The west wall and window 
underwent a similar operation. 

The roof is somewhat similar to but flatter than that 
of the Nave; and has been painted a stone-colour. 
On each side of the six tie-beams, was sculptured the 
small figure of an angel; but nearly every one is 
now gone. The wall-pieces, with spandrells serving as 
braces, yet remain. Each was ornamented with the 
large demi-figure of an angel, habited in the alb, stole, 
and girdle; but, a few years ago, these fine pieces of 
carving were removed. How far the design of this roof 
corresponds with the original, we cannot tell ; for, since 
the prevalence of the debased style of architecture, it 
has undergone repair. This is evident fixmi the follow- 
ing inscription carved upon the second beam: — 

THIS ROOF MADE NEW BT A BRIEF ANNO: DOlC : 1731. 

The floor of the Aisle is bricked; and is on the same 
level with the Nave. The Aisle, itself, is pewed 
throughout. A large gallery, supported by six small 
iron pillars, occupies its whole length, and extends over 
two thirds of its width. This was erected in 1793, and 
altered and embellished in 1809. 
The North Porch is a stone structure, and like all 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 247 

the rest of the Church has undergone very great 
alterations. Until 1809^ it formed one of the entrances 
into the edifice ; but it was then stopped, and converted 
into a family burying-place. The front has been 
stuccoed over and whitewashed. The entrance appears 
to haye possessed an arch, or at least a canopy, of an 
ogee form; but it has been completely rounded off 
with plaster. Above this, and separated by a string- 
course, marking the two stories of which the Porch 
consists, stands, ornamented with crockets and finial, 
but now nearly filled up, 

« a Httle Gothic niche 

Of nicest workmanship ; that once had held 

The scnlptored image of some patron Saint, 

Or the Blessed Virgin, looking down 

On all who entered those religions doors." — Wordiwartk. 

On each side, two circular apertures seem formerly to 
have given light to the mimiment-room. The side-walls 
are quite plain. 

The interior of the Porch has been plastered over 
and whitewashed, so that it presents very little de- 
serving notice. The vaulted ceiling is elliptical in 
shape, and groined. The longitudinal, transverse, and 
diagonal ribs, spring, in each comer, firom a round pier 
and plain moulded capital. Four thistle-flowers are 
placed as a boss, at the intersection of the diagonal 
ribs. The floor is modem, and raised very considerably 
above the ancient level. The inner or inmiediate 
entrance into the north Aisle has a simple-pointed arch ; 
and the hood-moulding in the interior terminates in 
corbel heads. But this doorway has been built up as far 
as the spring of the arch, and the remainder converted 
into a window divided into three lights by simple 
curved mullions. 



S48 TAMWORTH 

The room over the entrance was aQoeasible only frota 
the interior of the Aisle. An <^ee headed doorway on 
the west side of the Porch^ led to a small spiral stair- 
case built in the thickness of the wall and buttress. 
The doorway in the Aisle had been built up for so 
long a time that the existence of the room had became 
sompletely forgotten. But^ in 1840, when some of the 
buttresses of the Aide were rebuilt, the staircase was 
opened on the outside. Nothing remarkable was found 
in the room : the floor was strewed with decayed hoUy, 
the remains of some Christmas decorations. The original' 
ceiling had been destroyed. The roof exteriorly is acutely 
pointed and slated. During the recent alterations, the 
ctaircase was entirely taken away, the buttress built 
up like the rest, and the wall made flat Access to 
the room is, therefore, completely stopped. 

In ancient times, the porch was not considered as a 
mere entrance into the consecrated edifice, but as an 
integral part of a church. Many different services took 
place in it. Parts of the ceremonies of baptism were there 
performed ; and near it, just within the Aisle, stood the 
font. It was formerly considered unfitting that a person 
should pass into the interior of the temple, until cleansed 
from original sin by the sacred waters of baptism. In 
this Church, the font retained its primitive position until 
1809, when it was removed into the south Transept 
The rite of matrimony, the churching of women after 
childbirth, and the solemn commemoration of our 
Lord's passion in Holy-week, were also here performed. 
Porches also served, in some instances, as places for 
public assemblies of the parishioners. When we read of 
the election of officers, and payments of money ''in the 
church," the porch .must be understood, and not the 



CASTIiE AND TOWN. 849 

naye or aisles.^ The room above the entrance was 
sometimeB used as a school; sometimes as a muniment- 
room, for the preservation of records and deeds of gifks ; 
and sometimes it was made the permanent residence 
of the sacristan. In the latter case, there was usually 
an aperture into the Aisle, fix>m whence the edifice 
might be overlooked, to ascertain its safety. Although, 
in this Church, such an aperture with an ogee head 
existed, this appears to have constituted a muniment- 
room, because it was only lighted by the two very 
small openings in fixmt, and was unprovided with a fire- 
place. 

The South Aislb, in form and general arrangement, 
is very similar to that upon the opposite side, but is a 
little longer. It is separated firom the south Transept 
by two small arches like those of the Nave, except 
that between the four semi-cylindrical shafts of the piers, 
a hollow moulding has been introduced. These arches 
have been built up to support the gallery, but a modem 
doorway leads into the Transept. The top of the 
southern arch has been removed, that a beam might be 
introduced to support the firame of the door into this 
gallery. Just above them, but at some distance below 
the roof, a moulded string-course runs along the 
wall. 

The south windows correspond in number and form 
with those of the other Aisle. But the two mulUons 
in each simply divide at the spring of the arch 
into two curved branches, the inner of which cross; 

1 ThiH,on tlM 9901 of April, 1374, it wu directed at the cooxt-leet, that the Jonr 
■hoold meet each week at the Church of Tamworth, "ad miuam roe* le Brothnr. 
nweac,** that ii on the Monday, then to order and amend the lawa, made bj them at 
thegnat conit: and none wereto omit thia, under penalty of 3«. 4tf. Ferhape the 
brother-maaa was a maaa cdehrated for the benefit of members of tiie Holy Onild of 
StOeonie. OcrtiinlyltiraiattadicdtosomeceBeralieUgloiiafiniiftemityinfhetown. 



850 TAMWORTH 

and a plain transom or horizontal bar separates the 
principal lights into two. In the four-centred depres- 
sed window, at the west end, the three mullions divide 
but do not cross; and there is no transom. The 
hood-mouldings aU terminate in corbel-heads. The west 
window is deficient of this appendage. Externally the 
dripstone of each of the windows is continued at its 
angular returns as a string-course along both walls, 
interrupted only by the buttresses. It passes, however, 
oyer the buttress at the angle. 

There are six buttresses. That at the angle is placed 
diagonally, and is worked into four stages, by plain set- 
oflb of two slabs. The head is gabled, and terminates 
below the parapet. The upper stage has had pilasters 
at the angles ; and the string-course passes oyer the top 
of the second stage. The fiye buttresses on the south 
side are deyoid of all ornament, are divided into six 
stages, by plain set-o£b, and terminate a little below 
the base of the parapet. Between the fourth and fifth 
buttresses, once stood the south Porch. The doorway 
into the Church has been bricked up; but externally, 
as the wooden doors haye been allowed to remain, the 
defect is somewhat concealed. The doorway is decorated, 
and has been very fine; but it is now so decayed, that 
the details can scarcely be traced. The surface of the 
wall, formerly occupied by the Porch, has been plastered 
over. In 1784, when this entrance was stopped and 
the Porch destroyed, the whole of the exterior of this 
Aisle was refaced with stone, the buttresses rebuilt, 
and the windows repaired, at the expense of the 
parishioners. Little of the original design, except the 
shape of the windows and the doorway, now remains. 

The roof of the Aisle is similar to the one on the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 251 

Other side of the Churcli; except that the six beams 
rest upon wall-plates alone^ there being no wall-pieces. 
Upon the fifth beam^ is the following inscription: — 
: THOMAS : : prat : and : : richard : haire : : chyrch : 

WARDS : : WALTAR : CHADBTRN : 1671 : 

The parapet is modem and plain; but at the west 
end it is embattled^ and an attempt made at three 
square pinnacles at the centre and ends. 

The floor is modern^ haying been bricked in 1809. 
In removing the old one, a quantity of the encaustic 
tiles, which had formed the ancient floor, was discovered. 
The greater part of them were placed in the Chancel, 
before the communion-table, but many were given away. 

The internal arrangements are similar to those of the 
other Aisle. The gallery was, we believe, erected in 
the time of Charles II., enlarged in 1793, and beauti- 
fied in 1809. 

There can be little doubt that, as was usually the 
case, an altar dedicated to God in honour of the blessed 
Virgin Mary,^ stood against the central pillar at the 
east end. It would be protected by open screening of 
wood, called percloses. In the north comer, yet stands 
a pedestal, with three faces, each ornamented with very 
fine panelling. It most probably bore the Virgin's 
image. Before being whitewashed, it was apparently 
handsomely painted. 

Previously to the reign of Edward VI., there were at 
least five altars within the Church. We have found 
mention of those of the Holy Trinity, of the blessed 
Vii^in Mary, St. George, St. Eatherine, and St. 

1 Altlioncli oommonly Qaed for wke of brerity, the expraMbm that a ehnrdi or an 
altar was dedicated to any uint or angel is emmeons, and liable to glye rite tomiaoon- 
eeption. Chnrdies and altars were always dedicated to Ood, in lionoiir of some holy 
belnt ; whose Intercessory prayers were more perticiilaily desired. 



262 TAMWORTH 

Nicholas.^ We can only point out the exact position 
of one, with any degree of certainty. 

Beneath the south Aisle, and of a much more ancient 
date than that part of the Church, is situated the 
Cbtft. It is entered through a trap-door in the floor, 
close underneath the last window on the south side. 
Thence a very narrow passage of considerable lengdi 
leads eastward. This is modem, and not so wide as 
the plain semicircular headed doorway, which forms 
the immediate entrance into the ^ault. The original 
access to it was unquestionably from the south Porch. 

The Crypt was only lighted by two small square 
splayed apertures, on a leyel with the surface of the 
Church-yard. The one nearer the east end is now 
obstructed. This place was originally designed to be a 
chapel, wherein to perfixrm the services for the dead; 
but, since the days of Elizabeth, it has been used as a 
receptacle £ofr the bones acci d entally disinterred in dig- 
ging new graves in the Church-yard. The aspect is 
certainly now very dreary. One is led to. exclaim in 
the modified language of a great poet, 

By t^ dim light, UieM relfet of tlie dead 

Hato ■omrthiiig gbastly, dflsolafte, and drad. 

But, in the mind of the Christian, other and brighter 

thoughts will arise; and, with the devout Prudentius, 

he may sing, 

*< VenioBt dto hbcqIa, earn jam 
Sodas calor oua revisat, 
Ammataqne nangninft tIto 
Habitacnia priitina gwtet. 

QiuB pigra oadarera pridem 
Tamidif putrefadA jaoebant, 
Volnena rafdentnr in aorai 

Animaa comitata priores."^-Clrea Sxegnioi D^fwuetorum, 
1 See Appndtz :— Note tft. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 



253 



The obscurity of the place is so greats that^ for some 
time^ the visitor^ descending from full day-light into 
this damp and dismal abode of the dead^ cannot discern 
its fiiU proportions. It is built of rag-stone^ vaulted, 
and groined. It extends to the east end of the south 
Aisle ; and is divided into four compartments or bays 
by octagonal piers half sunk in the vrall, vnth corres* 
ponding plain capitals and bases. These each support 
s^mental groining ribs of a similar form, virhich pass 
longitudinally, transversely, and diagonally. The floor 
seems once to have been paved with encaustic tiles, 
from the fragments which we have found in the earth. 




The bones are stacked up in very regular order, 
occupy the whole of the east end, and extend a little 
more than half along the vault. Many, according to a 
popular tradition, were brought from a field in the 
neighbourhood of the town, where some battle had 
once been fought. This we much doubt. They have 
for years past increased very slowly. 

L L 



S54 TAMWOKTH 



Coneenniig the east end of the Crypt* many vagae 
reports have been cunent. It was beUeyed that from 
it a long sabtenaneona passage eommnnicated with the 
Casde* The Author and his brother, ha^e, several times, 
explored the fiuthest recess of this dreary vault. By 
caxefolly {riling aside the bones in advance* and creeping 
at full length along the narrow track thus formed 
between them and the roof, the eastern extremity was, 
at length reached. We found nothing there, except 
the remains of the ancient altar; the stone slab of 
which is gone. The bones, at the end, are so rotten, 
that they crumbled to pieces beneath our weight 
We were unable to examine the floor at the base 
of the altar: there being no room to stow away the 
bones. In spite of all our efforts, they returned to oar 
feet^ and their dull clatter seemed a reproach to us, 
for disturbing their long and quiet repose in the 
sacred place. 

Lost to the living, — surrounded by the relics of the 
countless dead, the horrors of whose prison-house were 
feebly revealed by the dim light of a solitary candle, — 
listening to the distant and almost stifled sound of a 
muffled bell — ^for there was a funeral in the Church 
above, — ^we seemed to have intruded into the abode <rf 
the ''king of terrors." Imagination carried us back to 
the time when these dry bones lived, and their silent 
tomb echoed the solemn services of their church. In 
vain the dead crowd prostrate round the ruined altar, 
from thence no requiem follows them, for them no more 
ascends the oft-repeated prayer. 

On the wall of the second compartment from the 
west end, opposite the aperture for the admission of 
light, is a very ancient inscription. It is painted upon 



CA8TI.B AND TOWN. 865 

planter, and is now very much decayed. The foUot^ing 
18 a representation of it : — 



^Mnrvtair^m f&tl|iireVimiet$Mcl«)i 










The discoyery of its meaning had frequently but vainly 
been attempted. The decyphering of the greater part 
of it fell to our lot. The first sentence is evidently a 
Latin verse. 

"O D*NTJS niYESj NON 0M*I TB'FOBE VIVBS : 

FAC b'n' nu* V1VI8, POST mortb' viv'b si vis." 
This may be thus rendered: — 

O lord of wealth (and power,) 

Hum ahalt not Utq for evermorB ; 
Do weU whilst life thou haat, 

If thou would'st live when death is pait. 

The series of long letters underneath proved the greatest 
difficulty. But the words are clearly^ 

M'E JESU XP'E, 

a contracted form for ''Miserere, Jesu Christe." The 
warning that man shall not live for ever, the admonition 
to live well if he would attain life after death, and the 
short but fervent cry for mercy, form the most appro- 
priate sentences, which the walls of so solemn an 
edifice could record. 



256 TAMWORTH 

It was contemplated by the late marquis Townshend^ 
when he was earl of Leicester, to conyert the Crypt 
into a fiunily-tomb; but, there being no other place in 
which to deposit the bones, he was obliged to abandon 
the design. This vault narrowly escaped destruction 
during the repairs in 1809. It was found that, from 
the height of the roof, it would be necessary either to 
remove it or to leave a portion of the floor of the 
south Aisle elevated one step higher than the genend 
level. After some debate, good council prevailed; and 
the latter alternative was adopted. 

That part of the Church between the Transepts, 
where we stated that the Tower originally stood, 
is remarkable for the massiveness of the walls, in 
proportion to the rest of the Church. On either side, 
stands a large semicircular arch, thirteen feet in span, 
ornamented with indented and lozenge-shaped mouldings. 
It is supported by plain square piers; and the corres- 
ponding imposts or capitals give it a rather stilted 
appearance. These present altogether indications of the 
oldest form of the Norman style, and show that this 
part may be referred to about the reign of William 
Bufus. Up the edge of the wall feeing the Nave, 
for nineteen feet, a moulding composed of the indented 
a^d zig-zag forms is found. It is much concealed by 
whitewash. In the remainder of the edge to the base 
of the clerestory, a modem pannel has been introduced. 
Upon the south side, behind the pulpit, this moulding 
is destroyed. 

The clerestory and the roof are continuous with those 
of the Chancel. We shall describe them hereafter. 
The floor is similar to that of the Nave and Chancel, 
and lies upon the same level. This part of the Church 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 257 

is pewed. The Nonnan arches have been partially 
built up, and a pew placed in each accessible by stairs in 
the north and south Transepts. Some iron raib, bearing 
the Royal Arms of England, stand at the west end, in- 
stead of the east, where the rood-loft formerly was placed. 

The North Transept hardly extends out so &r as 
the Aisle, but is a little broader than the Chantry-chapeL 
It is separated firom the latter by a large arch, similar to 
those between the south Aisle and Transept, but rather 
more obtuse. The north window, in general form, is 
similar to those in the south Aisle; but the three 
mullions simply divide at the spring into two branches, 
without crossing, and there is no transom or horizontal 
bar. The dripstone terminates in simple angular 
retums. The buttress placed at the east angle, is 
worked into three stages, the second of which is orna- 
mented with a plain trefoil-headed pannel. The set-ofi 
consist of two or three slabs. The buttress terminates 
below the parapet. 

There is a modem flat ceiling formed of plaster. The 
roof has a double inclination, as in the Nave, and 
runs transversely. The parapet is embattled, like that 
at the west end of the south Aisle. When that part 
of the Church was repaired in 1784, this Transept 
underwent alterations of a similar kind; the expenses 
of which were defrayed by lord viscount Weymouth. 
The floor is bricked, and is below that of the Aisle. 

Internally, the north Transept presents nothing to 
attract attention. A large substantial staircase gives 
access to the east end of the gallery in the Aisle ; and 
a small wooden one to the pew in the Norman arch. 

The opposite Transept, or, as it is usually designated, 
the south Chancel, by being lengthened eastwards. 



268 TAMWOBTU 

astunifii the chancier of an Aiale. It is haxStj so 
faroad as the Aisle of the Nave, which it adjmns. 
There aze two broad simple-pointed windows on the 
south side. In the first, the three mallions simply aidi 
into each other at the spring; and the head is snbdi- 
Tided in the same manner as the west window of the 
north Aisle. In the second window, the oval subordinate 
light is omitted. The dripstones haye simple angular 
letums; as is the case with the hood-moulding of the 
first The western window, in 1784, was blocked up 
with stone as fiv as the spring of the arch, and a 
doorway made through the wall, in order to fi>rm an 
entrance into the Church, in place of the south P(»ch. 
This alteration was made to afford the clergyman mors 
convenient access to the Vestry, and the people to the 
south gallery. Below the windows externally, moulded 
string-courses run. The two buttresses are worked into 
five stages with plain set-oft. They do not rise the 
whole height of the wall, because an addition was made 
to it when the roof was rendered flat. 

The wall of the south Transept has been chiselled in 
the same way as that of the north Aisle. 

In the east wall, has been a large simple-pointed 
window. It has been blocked up, in order that the 
Vestry, when increased in height, might rest against 
it. Under it internally a moulded string-course runs, 
about twelve feet firom the ground. 

In the east of the Norman arch, a semicircular 
headed doorway, in which a modem square door has 
been inserted, leads into the Chancel. Above this, 
is a large long round-headed window, which evidently 
formed a part of the primitive Norman structure. It 
was no doubt blocked up, when the greater part (tf 



CASTLB AND TOWN. S59 

the Church was lebuilt, about the time of Edward III, 
or Bichard II. It has been richly ornamented; but 
three centuries' accumulation of whitewash has almost 
obliterated the details. 

The marks of the original high-pitched roof may yet 
be traced upon the east wall, on each side of the 
window. Parallel with the bottom of them, a few feet 
below the present roof, a series of plain corbels projects 
from the south and west walls. In the latter, they are 
opposite the string-course in the Aisle, above the two 
arches. Along the north wall, the corbels have only 
been partially placed, and pass through the head of the 
Norman window. It iei, therefore, very evident that, 
at the east end, the roof ran loi^tudinally, but, 
opposite the large Norman arch, it changed its direction, 
and ran transversely. The present roof is nearly flat 
It has four tie-beams ; and resembles very much that of 
the Nave, but is not so much ornamented. The wall« 
plates, on the north side only, rest on plain corbels. 
The floor is bricked, and raised a little above the 
Chancel, but on a level with the Aisle. 

The internal arrangements offer little worthy of 
notice. In the south-east comer, elevated by one step, 
now stands the font. It is large, octagonal, devoid of 
all ornament, and rests upon a stem of a similar shape. 
There is a large old wooden staircase leading into the 
east part of the gallery in the south Aisle, and a 
smaller one, to the seat in the Norman arch. 

There was once an altar at the east end. On the 
sill of the first window, stands a small hexagonal 
pedestal, ornamented on three sides with quatrefoils. 
At its base are the initial letters It if. To what these 
refer, it is impossible to conjecture. They were only 



260 TAMWORTH 

lately discovered by scraping off the whitewash; and a 
mason cut them out in a much bolder relief than they 
were found. The pedestal probably supported an image« 

Very recently, our attention was directed to some 
marks upon the south side of the east wall. On remo- 
ving a very thick coating of whitewash, we discovered 
that the wall is painted as &r as the place where 
the altar had stood, and as high as the string- 
course below the window. It is ornamented with 
firetwork, white, but black at the intersections ; and the 
large lozenge-shaped intervals are painted, in alternate 
transverse rows, red and green. The centre is of a red 
colour only; and, on this ground, are three female 
figures, kneeling in prayer with upraised hands, and 
turned towards the altar. They are each a little more 
than two feet high, and painted white, the outlines of 
the drapery being sketched in black, but the lineaments 
of the face and the hands in red. From the costume 
and style of execution, we should pronounce them to 
be of the time of Edward III. or Richard II., therefore 
nearly five-hundred years old. Unfortunately, the stone 
beneath is so decayed, that these interesting remains 
cannot long be preserved. In parts, the sweep of a 
brush would bring off the painting; which is conse^ 
quently much injured, but unavoidably so, in the 
exposure. The lower part of the first figure has been 
destroyed, by the carrying of a gas-pipe across it On 
the north side of the spot where the altar had been 
placed, we can find no traces of decorations such as 
these. 

The Chancel is of the same width and nearly of 
the same height as the Nave, but has rather a more 
northern direction. This part is not divided from the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 261 

rest of the Church by a Chancel-arch. This was often 
the case in large parish-churches, which had regular 
choirs with stalk. The separation then only consisted 
of the rood-screen. But here no trace of it is now 
to be found, not even of any ascent into the rood* 
loft.^ 

The whole of the lower part of both walls of the 
Chancel, is Norman, and buUt of rag-stone. The 
Norman part is mostly limited above by a string-course, 
running, fifteen feet firom the floor, on a level with 
the lower part of the Norman window. 

Beneath this window, in the south wall, is the 
Norman entrance into the south Transept. Farther 
eastwards, is the entrance into the present Vestry, 
having the square-headed trefoil arch, which prevailed 
during the twelfth and three ensuing centuries. And 
still farther on, close by the altar-piece, stood another 
similar doorway, now bricked up, which probably led 
into the ancient Vestry, now converted into a place 
for the deposition of lumber and rubbish. There are 
no traces of sedilia or seats used by the priests, during 
the chanting of the 'Gloria in ezcelsis' and of the 
Constantinopolitan creed. Very frequently they were 
merely formed of wood. The piscina or lavacrum, 
used only in the ceremonies of mass, remained boarded 
up until 1842. It is single, very plain, and pointed. 



1 Hw ioo«l.loft was a gaUCTT placed OTor the leracDfSepantiBffliec 
the nave, and nmainc the whole width of them. In the centre of it, itood the rood or 
croai hcarfaig the tgvat oi our Lord, and on either side Sta. Marjr and John. Iti 
porpoaca were manifold. It waa used for preacUng, prerlonBly to the introduction of 
palpits into chorchea ; which did not take place before the thirteenth century. Fkom 
it, were read the martjiology andkaaoni, and the foats and holidays announced to 
the people. The passion of our Lord, and the gradual and other parts of mass were 
sunt then, a snail organ being fixed there. On great festivals, lights were set up 
In the lood-Urfti and, at Christmas and Whitsuntide, it was decorated with flowers. 
It was ttsoany fcrmeid of wood j and waa considered requisite for every Church. 

M M 



26S TAMWORTH 

There appears to have been a shelf: but there is no 
basin. It probably projected from the wall^ and was 
removed when the piscina fell into disuse. 

In the Norman part of the north wall, has been 
formed a doorway, in which is inserted a modem door, 
and three fine arches of the decorated style, all com- 
municating with the Chantry-chapel. The heads of these 
are cinquefoiled, and each part again similarly divided. 
In the Chancel, the first has been built up, in order 
that the large monument of the Ferrers' fiunily might 
be placed against it. The hood-moiddings have 
circular returns: those of the second and third arches 
are continuous. The first arch is placed at a greater 
distance, and on a higher level, than the other two. 
Beneath all three arches, altar-tombs are now placed. 

Immediately above the string-course on each side, 
are three simple-pointed windows, in the decorated style. 
They are placed on the same level as the Norman 
window of the south side. The hood-mouldings have 
returns like those of the arches. The three windows 
upon the north side were blocked up, when the Chantry- 
chapel was built; they retain the ancient tracery. 
Each was divided into two principal lights; and the 
three subordinate ones were quatrefoiled. On the south 
side, the mullion of each divides into two curved 
branches: the dripstones externally are decayed away. 

Above these, stand the clerestory-windows, at the 
base of which a string-course runs. The first three 
windows are simple-pointed. The three muUions, merely 
divide each into two branches at the spring, but do 
not cross ; and all the lights are plain. The dripstones 
and hood-mouldings are ornamented with crockets and 
finials, and terminate by demi-figures, particularly fine 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 26S 

externally^ where they consist of persons and priests.; 
but some of them have been cut away, to admit leaden 
pipes. On the south side externally, they terminated 
in angular returns. Between these three windows, 
within are shallow niches or. pannels, with canopies 
ornamented with crockets and finials, and terminated 
in sculptured heads. They are very much smaller 
than those of the Nave. 

The four other windows, two of which are above the 
Norman arch on each side, are four-centred and depres- 
sed; and the muUions are disposed like those in the 
three. Above them, are ogee canopies terminated in 
corbel-heads within, and angular returns without. These 
windows are separated internally by niches like the 
rest, but larger, so that the corbel-heads, serve both 
for them and for the windows. 

Between the windows, externally, are buttresses exactly 
similar to those of the Nave. But there are none 
between the first three on the south side. Here, the 
Vestry and the Lumber-room are considerably lower 
than the Chancel and Transept. 

The large east window is four-centred and depressed. 
The details are wholly debased. The central mullion 
is very massive, and runs entirely through the head. 
On each side, the mullions, at the spring, arch over 
and intersect each other. A small perpendicular 
mullion then divides the head into two parts; in the 
inner of which a circular subordinate light is introduced. 
The dripstone and hood-moulding are decorated with 
crockets and finials, and terminate in demi-figures, 
those externally being carved as griffins. 

It is evident that the interior of the Chancel has 
once been very splendid. The red painting of the east 



864 TAMWOBTH 

wall may yet be seen by scraping off the whilewasb. 
On each side of the window is a niche^ sunnounted by a 
canopy which projects considerably in front, and is 
enriched with crockets and finial, and its interior 
groined with numerous small rib-mouldings. The lower 
part is hidden by the modem altar-piece. Immediately 
above this, another niche or pannel, with an ogee 
canopy, stands. A similar one, but much longer, and 
divided into two parts, is placed on each side the 
window externally: and a string-course runs along the 
wall, some distance beneath. The walls, on each side 
the window, have been refieu^ with stone, as low as 
the string-course. 

The two buttresses are placed diagonally at the angles. 
That at the north angle, presents most traces of the 
ancient form. It is divided into four stages, and has 
once terminated in a pinnacle. The two upper are 
placed triangularly; the inferior of these has been 
panelled; and the set-off dividing them is gabled, with 
crockets and finial. The other set-offs are plain slopes, 
the lower formed of three slabs. The south buttress is 
entirely square, and devoid of all ornament 

The roof of the Chancel is between two and three 
feet lower than that of the Nave. It differs from it 
in retaining the wall-pieces, and in being devoid 
of ornament. Of the wall-pieces supporting the eight 
tie-beams, the first four rest upon corbels sculptured 
into demi-figures and placed above the niches between 
the window, except at the east end, where there is no 
niche. The remainder rest on corbel-heads placed at 
the summit of the niches. The parapets are horizontal 
and plain. 

The floor of thu Chancel is flagged, and on a level 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 265 

with that of the Nave. The oommunion-nuk axe raised^ 
one step. Between them and the conununion-table^ 
are placed the encaustic tiles found in the south Aisle. 
They are charged with several devices and arms, the 
ground heing led^ and the figures yellow. Amongst 
them are, a fess between six cross-crosslets, for Beau- 
ehamp, earl of Warwick; — ^three chevronells; — a lion 
passant guardant, the letter M; and the fleur-de-liz. 

The wooden altar-piece is large, heavy, devoid of 
beauty, and in the Grecian style. It was put up in 
1787. It bears, besides the ten commandments, the 
Lord's prayer and the Apostles' creed, a painting of the 
''pelican in her piety." 

The Chantbt-cbapel, or as it is now most com- 
monly called the North Chancel, extends £rom the 
Transept to the east end of the ChanceL The four 
windows upon the north side are four-centred and 
depressed. The three mullions simply divide into two 
branches, which do not cross in the centre. All the 
lights are plain, except in the last window, where they 
the quatrefoil is introduced. The moulded dripstones 
terminate generally in corbel-heads. The large east 
window is segmental. It consists of seven lights; but 
the details are debased. The two central mullions 
ardi at the spring into each other and to the jambs 
of the windows. The next are continued through the 
head; but the others only reach so far as the large 
arch of the mullions. The central part of the head 
is subdivided by two curves and a horizontal line. The 
dripstone is ornamented with crockets, and ends in 
corbel-heads. 

On each side of the window, internally, is a niche, 
which has been very fine. It is groined within, and 



266 TAMWOBTH ' 

^surmoimted by a canopy, like those in the ChanoeL 
The bracket, that once gave support to an image, was 
sculptured into a cherub. Both are yery gready 
mutilated. 

The buttress at the angle is placed diagonally; and 
is worked into three stages by plain set-o£b of two and 
three slabs. The other three buttresses, upon the north 
side, consist of two - stages, the dividing set-off being 
formed of four slabs. All of them terminate at some 
distance below the parapet. 

The roof, which is very modem, is formed of seven 
tie-beams, resting upon wall-plates: and these are 
sujqported by plain corbels, except on the south side. 
A ridge-piece runs along the centre; and each bay 
is divided into squares by three purlins and four 
rafters. There are no bosses. The roof is not so high 
as that of the Transept. The parapets are devoid of 
ornament. 

The floor is bricked, on a level with that of the 
Transept, and below the Chancel. Internally the Chan- 
try-chapel presents nothing demanding attention, except 
the sepulchral monuments, which we shall hereafter 
give. An altar stood beneath the east window. 

The modem Ysstkt is as plain within as plaster 
and whitewash can make it. The window, upon the 
south side, is square-headed, and divided by a mullion, 
with some tracery at the top. The roof is plastered; 
and the parapet plain. 

The LuMBEB-BOOM, at the east end of the Vestry, 
and included under the same roof, is built of rag-stone, 
like the south wall of the Chancel. Externally it is 
debased; having been foced with stone, and a modem 
flat-headed doorway made on the south side, to afford 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 267 

an entrance from the Chuich-yaid. The small window 
upon the east side is also flat and debased. It is 
divided into three lights with semicircular heads. 

The last part of the Church, of which he have to 
speak, is the Tower, placed at the west end of the 
Nave. It is a square structure, very massive, and 
rather low when compared with the length of the 
Church. At the comers, are placed four square turrets, 
surmounted by lofty octagonal spires, and supported by 
a buttress at the two angles, placed at right angles to 
one another, and to the Tower. Each of these but- 
tresses is worked into four stages, and terminates at the 
base of the spire. The set-ofis are gabled, ornamented 
with crockets and finials, and formed laterally of two 
overlapping slabs. The second and third stages are 
ornamented with panelling. At the south-east angle, the 
buttress is continued into the west wall of the Aisle ; . 
but, at the north-east angle, it is built over the wall, 
and encroaches upon the window. However, that as 
Uttle light as possible might be obstructed, the lowest 
stage has not been made of so great width as the rest 
from the sill of the window upwards. This plainly 
shows that the Tower was erected after the Aisle, as 
otherwise this peculiarity would not have existed. The 
spires are now of considerable height. They appear to 
have been originally very much shorter, and to have 
been ornamented with crockets and finials. But they 
have been so often repaired, and lengthened at the 
same time, that they have acquired their present 
proportions. 

From their exposed position, ^ the spires have been 
subject to many accidents from the weather, particularly 
within the last fifty years. In June, 1795, part of the 



968 TAMWOKTH 

north-west one was thrown down by a stroke of lightening; 
which considerably injured other parts of the Churchy 
particularly the west window of the south Aisle. The 
repair of the spire cost 74/. On the last day of Dec^n- 
ber^ 1833, a high wind blew down a portion of the 
north-east pinnacle. The fragments considerably dama* 
ged the parapet of the Nave. On the 7th of January, 
1839, a violent gale blew down the top of the south- 
east pinnacle, and the south battlements of the Tower 
were greatly injured. The north-east one was also 
considerably displaced. Lastly, in the summer of 1843, 
one of the north pinnacles suffered during a violent 
thunder-storm. The two upon this side have since been 
rebuilt or completely repaired. The terminations of the 
buttresses at the north-west comer have been renewed, 
but the crockets and finials omitted. The pinnacles are 
• now surmounted by weather-fimes. 

The interior of the Tower, forming the entrance into 
the Church, has once been very fine. It was lighted 
by three very large windows, with four-centred depressed 
heads,— one between the Tower and the Nave, another 
on the west, and the third on the south side. All 
were similar in design, but now the last only remains, 
the other two having been bricked up. The deformity, 
however, has been somewhat concealed by the application 
of cement, and whitewash. The window which still 
exists, is remarkably shallow within. Externally the 
jambs and architrave, instead of being moulded, are 
ornamented with large pannels. The muUions are 
debased; and the principal lights divided into two. 
About midway, the three mullions curve round and 
intersect each other. The same disposition again takes 
place at the spring of the arch. The head is divided 



OASTLS AND TOWN. 269 

by two mullions conjoined below, and curved outwards, 
firom the middle on the outer side of which two others 
pass in a reversed direction downwards, thus forming 
five subordinate lights. The dripstone terminates in 
corbel-heads. Immediately below the window, the first 
moulded string-course runs completely round the Tower. 
Internally, there is a corresponding string-course carried 
along the four principal sides. 

A simple-pointed doorway forms the immediate en- 
trance from the Tower into the Church. The mouldings 
of the jambs and ardutrave, on die east side, are 
obliterated. On the west^ they consist of three engaged 
slender shafts, between the second and third of which 
is a cavetto, where, in the architrave, a four-leaved 
flovrer is inserted at interval. The first shaft, at the 
spring, separates into two branches ; the outer continues 
in a perpendicular direction to the string-course, thus 
forming a square head. The spandrills are filled with 
a circle, in which the quatrefoil is introduced, and two 
trefoils: these are mere mouldings^ perhaps entirely 
modem* 

The western entrance is panelled within, and is 
included under a square head, like the other doorway, 
to which it bears great resemblance. But the pannels 
have been greatly concealed by plaster. Externally the 
cavetto, instead of passing along the architrave, continues, 
v^ith the attached shafts, straight to the string-course, 
thus assisting in forming the square head. The span- 
drils are occupied by a circle, in which is a quatrefoil; 
and these are cut very deeply into the wall. The doorway 
is cemented. 

There was once a very fine, elliptical, groined, ceiling, 
formed of stone. Three small rounded groining-ribs 

N N 



270 TAMWORTH 

diverged longitudinally, diagonally, and transveraely, from 
slender shafts, which rose from the groirnd in each 
comer. But, some time in the sixteenth century, it 
was destroyed, in order to form a room for the greater 
convenience of the ringers, helow that anciently used 
by them. The floor of this new room intersects the 
three windows of the Tower; and two of them were, 
therefore, built up. The modem ceiling is still elKptieal, 
but is formed of wood and plaster. The removal of 
this stone ceiling must greatly have impaired the flim- 
ness of the Tower. This, indeed, is painfully evident, 
in the long cracks which have since appeared in ita 
sides. 

Although the loftiness en^toce of the Tower has thus 
been diminished, it is still considerable. The whole 
internally has been plastered and whitewashed. The floor 
is flagged. 

The staircase in the south-west angle, forming the 
ascent to the Tower, is a very peculiar structure, and 
forms one of the greatest curiosities of whidi the 
town can now boast. Staircases of this construction 
are said to be exceedingly rare, even upon the continent. 
It consists of two spiral flights of steps, winding, one 
above the other, round the same central pillar or newel, 
so that the floor of one forms the roof of the other. 
The whole is enclosed within a cylinder six feet in 
diameter, and is lighted from without by long apertures 
or loop-holes. The reader will gain a clearer idea of 
this piece of architecture than could be conveyed in a 
lengdiened description, from the engraving which is 
given of it. It will be evident that two persooB 
might ascend or descend, at the same time, and not 
see each other, provided they took different stairs. One 









l^v 



^^^^'^' 



>ea '^^' 



1 tTc^oi 



,Ti^P*^'' 



r^eJi^' 



.\VOl 






CASTLB AND TOWN. 271 

of the stairs^ of one-hundred and six steps^ opening 
below in the Chuich-yard, originally communicated only 
with the top of the Tower, and, about two-thirds up, 
with a short passage in the south wall. The other 
stairs, opening within the Tower below, and con- 
sisting of one-hundred and one steps, lead to all the 
internal parts. During the last year, this staircase, 
beuig much worn, was rebuilt throughout about two- 
thirds of its extent ; but the original design was strictly 
followed. 

Of the two door-ways, the internal is plain. The 
external one has been rather rich in ornament. The 
head is trefoiled; and above is a large niche, with a 
projecting canopy, and small groining ribs within. It 
anciently contained an image; but now the whole is 
very much worn away. 

The utility of this curious structure is entirely un- 
known, although it has afforded a subject for much 
speculation. Plott guesses that it might be in order 
that the Decani-copiatae, — ^in plain English, the sextons, 
— to whom was committed the charge of ringing the 
bells, and of burying the dead, and the diaconi or 
sacrists — ^the deacons or sacrists, — that made the respon- 
ses, and took care of the vestments and utensils of the 
church, might perform their duties apart, each having 
access to the tower without disturbing the other. Or 
else it might be that the clock-keeper might execute 
his office without troubling either of them.^ But, in 
spite of his pedantic and useless display of patristic 
knowledge, Plott shows that he either wrote without 
reflection, or was exceedingly deficient in observation 
during his survey of the structure. The incorrectness 

\ Flott'f SUffonbhlK. 



272 TAMWO&TH 

t)f bis suppositions is directly evident from the fiict that 
the outer stairs did not originally oommunicate directly 
with the internal parts of the Tower. Our own opinion 
incUnes us to consider the arrangement^ if it were 
not merely an architectural curiosity, as one asmnning 
somewhat of a defensive character. 

Such does this appear to have been firom the general 
construction of the Tower. The outer stairs might have 
afforded to the inhabitants of the town^ and to the 
watchmen of the Churchy' an easy access to the Tower 
without interfering with the internal parts or obstruct- 
ing the free passage to it from within the Church. 
The Tower^ being of a much greater height, and 
commanding a more extensive prospect of the sur* 
rounding country than the Castle, would be preferable 
as a place for watching and signals, and prove of great 
use during the troubled times of the wars between the 
houses of Lancaster and York. 

In ascending the stairs from the Church-yard, the 
visitor, about a quarter of the way up, comes to a 
doorway leading up into the ringer's room. This door* 
way is modem, the room being so. Perhaps the latter 
was formed in order that the ringers might have a 
place to which they could easily have access, instead of 
one higher up, to which the stairs from within only 
directly led. 

The ringer's room presents nothing, except the 
remains of the ancient vaulted ceiling in the comers. 

1 Then wan fonnerly nrnlar wmtehmcn tsppotafbtd ha this Ghnrchi Iww giMt 
fhdr number wm, we do not exacUy know. In October, lS99f the Goort-roUt slat* 
that a hkoodj affray took place, during the night, between John le Cartwrigbt. Robert 
his brother, WilUam Tack, and William son of William Symonds, and the wntchmen 
of the Charch, as well as those of the town. The persons, whose names are obsb. 
tioned, were very aeverely woonded and beaten. The cause of the dSstnibance is not 



CASTLE AND TOWN. S78 

A ladder afbrds the means of comxnunicatioii with the 
cfaime-Toom above. 

Nearly two-thirds of the way up the stairs, a narrow 
passage is cut in the south wall of the Tower. Here 
three large splayed apertures or • loop-holes overlook the 
town and Castle, with the surrounding country. The 
heads of these are trefoiled. Below them, is placed 
the face of the dock, put up about the dose of the 
last century: and underneath this, just above the great 
window, the second string-course of the Tower runs, 
which is foimd on all the four sides, but does not pass 
over the angles. Above these apertures, under the 
belfry windows, the third string-course, similar to the 
last, is found. The stairs terminate by the door leading 
to the summit of the Tower. 

A short distance up the other stairs, which commence 
from within, is a small square doorway. This was 
blocked up during the late repairs. It was formed in 
the lower part of the jamb of the south window, and 
led by an external passage in front of the window and 
above the first string-course, which is protected by a 
small embattled parapet^ into a small room or recess in 
the north-west angle of the Tower. 

These rooms, several of which occupy the angles of 
the Tower, are about five feet square. They are 
lighted by three small plain loop-holes. The ceilings 
are arched and groined. The semi-octagonal ribs spring 
from plain cubical corbels in the comers, and run 
transverse, diagonally, and longitudinally. 

About half way up these stairs, a passage made in the 
thickness of the wall, and lighted by two square 
apertures, which are placed a little above the second 
string-course, leads to another of the little rooms in 



S74 TAMWORTH 

the nordi-wett angle. Fiom this panage, two doorway 
communicated with the chime-room, the nordiein one 
of which is now nearly bricked up. 

The ohime-room contains the clock. The chimes hsve 
long been disused, and the zemains of the machinery 
are alone found. In the north-east ang^, a doorway 
leads into one of ihe small square rooms. From this, 
a passage in the east wall, lighted by two loop-holes^ 
which penetrate through into the chime-room, conducts 
to another of these rooms, in the south-east comer. 

In the north wall of the diime-room, is a recess lighted 
by a large trefoil-headed aperture, placed just above the 
second string-course, now half bricked up. In this recess, 
is a door fix>m which a flight of steps descends for some 
distance, and then conducts by a ladder to the leads of 
the north Aisle. From the bottom of these steps a pas- 
sage runs along the south wall, and at the end, turns 
eastward, conducting to the leads of the south Aisle. 
Midway, a doorway opens upon the Nave. This must 
have been formed after the clerestory; as otherwise it 
would have been placed in the valley of the high-pitched 
roof. 

Higher up the stairs than the passage into the chime- 
room, is the belfiry. This room is open to the roof, and 
very lofty. It is square below, but above assumes an 
octagonal 'shape. It is lighted by two large simple- 
pointed windows on each side. The jambs and architrave 
of each sie only moulded externally. The muUion divides 
into two branches at the spring; and the lights are 
foliated. In some of the windows, the mullion has been 
destroyed: in two, it has lately been restored. The 
dripstones are continuous, and terminate by angular 
returns. In each comer of the belfiry, raised consider- 



CASTLB AKD TOWN. £75 

ably above the ^oor, is one of the usual smaU rooms. 
Here they have rather lost their quadrilateral form, 
some of the comers being cut off. In this case, the 
corresponding corbel of the roof is deficient, and the 
groining rib appears to emerge firom the wall. 

There is a peal of six bell of considerable sise. They 
are tuned in the key of E., are melodious, and so loud 
as to be heard at a considerable distance firom the town. 
They all bear inscriptions, stating the time at which 
they were founded. 

First bell. 

I FOTJHBED WAS THROUGH CHARITIE, BT THOSB WHO 
LOVB SUOB MSLODIE • 1672. 

Second belL 

I H S. KAZARENUB BEX IVDSOBUM, FILI DEI, MIS-* 
BRERE MEI . 16S1. 

Third bell. 

OOD SAVE THE CHtTBCH . 16S9 . R W E W CHURCH^ 
WAR. 

Fourth bell. 

I SWEETLY TOLINO MEN DO CAIX, TO TASTE OK MEATS 
THAT FEEDS THE SOULE . 1628. 

W . SMTIH > I « ELLIS , CHtTRCHWARDBNS ; R . BRA*^ 
BIN , CLABKB. 

Fifth bell. 

BRTANU8 BLDRtDGE ME FECTT . 1656. T A N T. 

Sixth or great belL 

BOLAND FBANCE8 , HENBXE HIlL , OHUBCH WABDENS ; 
FETBB 9OBTON , SIDESMAN . 1607. 

BE . TT . KNOWN . TO . ALL . THAT . DOTH . ME . SEE . 
THAT . NEWOOMBE . OF • LmCESTER . MADE • MB . 1607. 

Two ancient customs are yet retained at Tamworth« 
The ringing of the bell at six o'clock in the morning. 



276 TAKWORTH 

which fbnnerly called the people to the emly maM, 
now serves to summon the inhabitants firom their night's 
repose. The curfew, once the signal for persons to put 
out their fires and lights, — a wholesome regulation when 
the houses were principally formed of wood, — is stiU 
rung at eight o'clodi in the eyening. But, although our 
good ancestors retired so early, they rose at dawn of day^ 
On the ISth of October, 1448, it was ordered at the 
court-leet that the dean of the Church should cause the 
bell to be rung every morning at three o'clock.* In 
these perverted times, it would only sound npon the 
listless ear of sleep. 

Higher up the stairs than the belfiry, there is a large 
aperture, somewhat like a doorway, which overlook the 
bells. The stairs then tenmnate at the door leading 
upon the top of the Tower.* 

The parapets are plain and embattled, with the coping 
moulding continued down the sides of the embrasures, 
and then returned horizontally. Beneath the parapet, 
a hollow cornice-moulding is carried along the four sides, 
in which a four-leaved flower and other ornaments have 
been introduced. Near the ends of each of these, a 
large gurgoyle, sculptured into a grotesque figure, served 
to carry off the rain from the gutters. Almost all of 
these gurgoyles are gone, and the rest greatly decayed. 
The summit of the Tower is occupied by a high octa- 
gonal basement, so large as to leave only a narrow path 
around. It is generally believed that it was intended to 
be the foundation of a large central spire; but, as is 

1 CoQit rolli, V H. VI. 
t 8tnB|«nwboTlitttlitChiinfli,iadeMndiBrlhmitli«1^0Wcr,anItalitoto 
AiiiiataktandtekttlMwnnic >tain» m that thej And th«inielv«ft, it last, wltiiliitlM 
Clnirdi,liiilMdoflBtlieClnirdi.y«id, llieaiiiioymnceoniaTiBttoreCnoetlialritepa 
win be ATolded bjr obtenrlnr that the itain oommeBdiif flOEtcraally tenninafee aerenl 
elept alMiTe the lerel of the oChen. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. S77 

often seen in large ecclesiastical edifices on the continent, 
it was capped, and left for completion at a subsequent 
period. When the shortness of the Tower in proportion 
to the length of the body of the Church is considered, 
this opinion does not appear to be destitute of foundation. 
The windows in this building were most likely filled, 
at one time, with stained glass containing many a figure 
of a saintly person or pious donor, and rich with illus- 
trations from scriptiural history and the legendary store 
of the chmrch.^ But of very few of these have we now 
any record, except in respect to the coats of arms, of 
which notes were taken in the years 1590 and 1597. 
They probably belonged to patrons and benefactors of 
the foundation, or to their families. 

1 Gu., three lions passant guardant Or; on a label of 
three points Az., nine fleurs-de-liz of the second. — 
Plantagenet. 

2 Arg., on a chief Az., a mullet of six points Or. — 
Clinton of Maxtoke-castle. 

8 Gu., a lion rampant Or. 

4 Or, three chevronells Gu. — Clare. 

5 Az., between four martlets, a cross flory Or. 

6 Az., a bend cotized Arg., between six lions- ramp. Or. 

7 Chequy Or and Az. — ^Warren. 

8 Quarterly, 1st and 4th Az., three fleurs-de-liz Or; 
Snd and Srd Gu., three lions passant guardant Or. 
— ^France and England. 

9 Gil., three bars wavy Or. — Basset of Blore. 

10 Or, a cross flory Gu. — ^Frevile. 

11 Gu., seven mascles conjoined 8, 3, and 1, Or. — 
Ferrers of Groby. 

1 Fngjntatt of pointed glass have fk«qaently been fonnd on opening sraTes in the 
Chorch ; bnt until lately no care has been taken of them. The hand of an episcopal 
pcnonage raised in benediction, part of the head of a priest, and some small pieces, 
were recently found bi opening a vault in the Vestry. 

O O 



278 TAMWORTH 

12 Plantagenet. 

13 Or, a chevron Gu, — Stafford, dukes of Buckingham. 

14 Gu., a fess between six crofis-crosslets Or. — ^Beau- 
champ, earls of Warwick. 

15 Or, three piles Gu; a canton Ermine. — Basset of 
Drayton. 

16 Arg., three bars Az. ; with a label of three points Or. 

17 Az., three crowns Or two and one. 

18 a border of fleurs-de-liz. 

19 Vairy Arg. and Az., a fess Or, with a....indented Gu. 

20 Fretty Arg. and Sa. 

21 Or, on a bend cotized Vert, three mullets Gu. 

22 Or, a saltire engrailed Sa. — ^Botetourt. 

23 Gu., on a cross engrailed Or, five roses of the first; 
impaling party per pale Or and Az. 

24 Arms for '^ Johannes Ferrers, miles, & Mat.. da 
. . or. d'na Dorothea ux . . p'fat* Jo' Harpur." 

25 And for "Johannes Ferrers, mil', fiP Tho' Ferrers. 
Anna ux' fil . . Hastings, mil', & Matild' fil' Stanley 
2 ux*." "Johannes Ferrers & Doro* ux' eius: 
obiit 1512." 

But these arms of the Ferrers were so mutilated and 
so badly made that they could not be well described.' 

Dugdale, about fifty years later, mentions only two 
pieces of stained glass. One, in the east window of 
the Chancel, depicted William the Conqueror in die act 
of conferring upon Robert de Marmyon the Castle of 
Tamworth and its demesnes. Below the representation 
was written, 

JUiCf per mnUtlmum Qtonqumovtm^ )9lo^ 
Itttnst imarmion i3omintt0 Qtmtlli effin'tur. 

1 Htfl. M.S. :-8haw*s Stailbrdsh. The inscripUona assigned to the liMt two 
anns have been inextricably conftiacd. They most have been rtry sadly broken. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 879 

The second representation given by Dugdale is of a 
lady and three daughters, and a knight and four sons, 
all kneeling in prayer ; with the fragment of an inscrip- 
tion below, 

(er«w mttitijjf tt 

H^na ttorot^ta 

On his surcoat were these arms. Quarterly, 1st. Fer- 
rers of Groby, with a label of three points. 2nd., 
Botetourt. Srd., Freville. 4th., Mountford. Upon the 
mantle of lady Dorothy Ferrers, were nearly similar 
arms ; but she bore those of Harper additional. 

The whole of this stained glass was destroyed about 
the middle of the seventeenth century, very probably 
by the hands of the fanatical puritans. For then — 

'*Tlie rererend pile lay wild and waate, 
Profaned, diahonoored, and defaced ; 
nuroagh storied lattioea no more. 
In loftened light, the Bonbeams poor, 
Gilding the Gothic sculptore rich, 
Of shrine, and monument, and niche. 
The ciril fury of the time 
Made sport of sacrilegious crime : 
For dark fanaticism rent 
Altar, and skreen, and ornament.'' — Scott. 

So that when Dr. Thomas visited the Church, the only 
anns that he foimd were two of Repington, in the 
east window, which still exist. 

At the present period, a very few pieces of stained 
glass remain, and those of exceedingly small dimensions. 
They are all placed in the large window of the Chancel ; 
and are as follows. 

In the head, is a quantity of purple and orange glass, 
not arranged in any very particular mode, which was 
given by Mr. Arthur Wyatt, in 1809. On the right 
hand, is a small but ancient piece. It bears the design 



280 TAMWORTH 

of a human skulls and under it a coffin maiked with 
a cross and placed upon a tressel. Along the sides, 
are short scrolls, thus inscribed: — 

iiflorsf et StOitoto' 
Vma toermfu^ 

VJollt et tfm 

numorare ludiiMima 

Over the coffin is a scroll. 

^ifinnt mti Htva. 

And another below. 

IBisfce modt ^la morier6f« 

Below this, are some fragments of painted glass formed 
into the shape of a church : and under the last another 
small but ancient piece, representing, as the title above 
it states, 

^dt lyes of Susmtnt. 

Christ is there depicted as sitting in judgment upon 
man. His right hand is raised in the act of 
benediction, and His left merely extended. He is 
attended, as usual, with an angel bearing the cross, 
others sounding trumpets, and the heavenly host. The 
right side of the piece is much mutilated; but there 
remain two vfords, 

9Mti» mtU 

of the short but glorious invitation to the mansions of 
everlasting rest On the left, stands a man, and over 
him a scroll containing the fearful sentence of con- 
demnation, 

5to maUttirtu^ V ijpie' et^mu^ 

Many bodies are rising from their tombs, some with 
only the head appearing, others half out. The prevailing 
colour of the two old pieces is yellow. 

On the other side of this window, are these arms, — 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 281 

Ghi., a fess indented Ermine, between six biUets Arg., 
— ^for Bepington ; impaling Az,, an eagle displayed Arg., 
anned Ghi., — ioft Cotton of Hanurtall-Bidware. Beneath, 
18 another chuich made np of fragments; and under 
diat a second coat of arms, — ^Bepington; impaling 
Arg., three bars Ac ; on a canton Or, a fess, and in 
chief three masdes Sa., — for Stamford. 

In the three blank decorated windows on the north 
side of the Chancel, some aims and designs have been 
painted, but are much fiided and discoloured, either by 
the lapse of time, or by the ignorance of persons who 
hate repainted them. 
In the first or eastern window. 

1 Bendy Arg. and Az., in the dexter chief a mascle. 

2 A chevron between three flenrs-de-liz Or. 
In the second window. 

1 Arg., a boar's head erased Verif; impaling Sa., a 
chevron Arg. 

2 Quarterly, three crescents, one in chief and two in 
base. These are only sketched in black lines. 

In the third window. 

1 Sa., a fess indented between three mullets Arg. ; 
impaling Arg., a chevron in a border Verif 

2 A very rough drawing of some part of this or 
another church, and only remarkable on account 
of the buttress at the end being depicted as 
pinnacled. 

There are a few other little pieces of painting in these 
windows ; but of them nothing can now be made out. 

When we discovered the painting on the east wall of 
the south Transept, the sheet containing the account 
of that part of the Church was in the hands of the 
pxinter, (see page 260). More extended research enables 



882 TAMWOBTH 

U8 now to give a better description of these inteiesting 
remains. 

The south half of the wall has been painted over with 
fiet-work, as we stated; and, in all the red loaoenge* 
shaped intervals, a black crescent has been introduced. 
This part has plainly repiesented the day of judgment 
Besides the three female figures fiidng northwards, 
CTidently placed for those who shall be living at the 
second advent of our Lord, there are opposite three 
naked demi-figures, priests from their shaven crowns, 
rising firom a tomb. These face in a contrary direction 
to the others. In the interval between them, has 
doubtless been a figure of Christ; but it has been 
obliterated, and the wall plastered. 

The remaining half of the east wall contains paintings. 
These are considerably later than the other piece, and 
are executed in a. much superior style. They are drawn 
upon plaster : and have been so greatly injured that the 
subject can only partially be made out. Under a four- 
centred depressed arch ornamented with crockets and 
finial, is the figure of a female kneeling by an altar, 
on the edge of which her conjoined hands are placed. 
Close to her and behind the altar, stands a bishop, 
holding in the left hand a closed book, and in the 
right a pastoral staff. The bishop's mitre is placed upon 
the altar. In the upper part of the arch, a hand is 
seen in the act of benediction, and seems significant 
that the blessing of Heaven rested on the act performed 
imdemeath. To the right, is another similar arch, with 
the benedictory hand; but the subject below is com- 
pletely gone. Under the left pillar of this arch, are 
the remains of a female figure praying and turned 
towards the bishop. The subject seems to be the 



CASTLE ANP TOWN. 283 

profession of a nun ; and may have related to the legend 
of St. Editha, the patroness of the Church. 

This piece has been very greatly mutilated by the 
removal of portions, and the plastering up of the 
crevices and hollows. Only one end of the altar 
remains, all the lower portion, including the greater 
part of the female figures, is gone, the bishop is 
imperfect, in fact nothing is complete. At the com- 
mencement of Elizabeth's reign, it was ordered that 
all '^ superstitious'* paintings should be obliterated, and 
appropriate sentences or texts from scripture written 
over the space which they had occupied. The injunction 
appears to have been fully carried out here. Parts 
were broken down, the whole whitewashed over, and 
sentences then written. We attempted to decypher the 
inscriptions before proceeding to investigate the remains 
beneath; but we found it impossible by any means we 
could adopt. All representations of any of the three 
Persons of the Blessed Trinity, even of the Son in His 
humanity, were especial objects of destruction: and 
hence we may account for the removal of the figure of 
Christ, in the day of judgment. It was the sudden 
termination of the piece, where this had been, which 
led us to conclude that beyond there was no more 
painting. 

Having devoted a considerable space to the description 
of the architectural details of the Church, we shall 
conclude the subject, with a very few remarks on it« 
general appearance. 

Altc^ther it is a noble and venerable pile. The 
Tower especially is remarkably massive and grand. 
Flanked by its tuxrets and bold buttresses, siumounted 
by four pinnacles of imusual dimensions, it bears an 



284 TAMWORTH 

aspect of greater me, solidity, and gnmdeur, than we 
have seen in any other parish-ehuich. 

Entering the principal door at the western end, we 
stand in a lofty yaulted hall, which, although gready 
robbed of its original proportions, yet retains a fine 
appearance. We pass into the Nave; and a long per- 
spective of pillars, arches, and deiestory, stands before 
us. Internally it is spacious and lofty. The clustered 
columns and pointed arches of the Nave and the decorated 
character of the remainder of the structure contrast 
strangely, yet not inhaxmoniously, with the heavy massive 
Norman architecture of the Transept-arches. 

The whole of the Church within has formerly been 
very fine; but the eye is pained, at every point, by 
evidence of the mutilation and destruction, which the 
taste and repairs of the last age have wrought. The 
walls are thickly covered and the fine moulding concealed 
by an almost incredible accumulation of colouring and 
whitewash. The original tracery of the windows has 
given place to wretched specimens of the modem gotfaic 
in its most debased condition. The carved oak roo6 
have been deprived of their noblest features. The 
ancient screen, forming the entrance into the Choir, 
has disappeared; and iron rails, with tawdry gilded 
scroll-work, obstruct the way. The eastern wall is 
graced with a specimen of domestic Oredan wood-work, 
intended as an altar-piece. 

The mantle of ''one Cottrel a mason" seems but too 
effectually to have descended on his successors. Every 
repair afforded to this venerable fabric, has been made 
the means of effecting injury — oft irreparable, — to its 
details ; and it stands, at this moment, a striking mon- 
ument of that dark age of architecture, from which 
we are happily just emerging. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 28& 

Thanks to the good taste now prevalent, the progress 
of desolation seems to be at length arrested ; and, in the 
style and execution of the most recent repairs, we 
recognise the dawn of a long wished for day, when 
every blow of the mason's hammer, every stroke of his 
chisel, shall assist in restoring to us, and perpetuating 
to our successors, the splendid memorials of the genius 
and piety of our forefathers. 

MONUMENTS AND TOMBSTONES. 

Contrary to what might be expected from the size 
and antiquity of the edifice, and from the residence of 
several eminent fSunilies in the town and its immediate 
neighbourhood, the Church does not contain a great 
number of sepulchral monuments. Those of a modem 
date, consisting, with but one exception, merely of 
tablets placed on the walls, are similar to those usually 
adopted at the present time, and do not rise very 
greatly above mediocrity. There are also many grave- 
stones placed in the floor, the majority of which pretend 
to no higher merit than that of recording the names of 
those who lie beneath. The few ancient tombs that 
still remain, are alone worthy of especial notice, not- 
withstanding the miserable mutilation which they have 
suffered. Indeed, to such a degree have they been 
defaced, that it is scarcely possible to trace their details, 
and ascertain to whom they originally belonged. 

The violation of these venerable memorials of the 
dead, has generally been attributed to the parliamentarian 
army, in the seventeenth century. The officers are said 
then to have converted this building into stables, to 
have caused the effigies on the monuments to be dis- 

p p 



286 TAMWORTH 

figured, and to have torn up the brasses diat they 
might enrich themselves with the paltry profits of thdr 
sale. But, whatever the republicans may have done, it 
cannot be doubted that a vast amount of injiuy must 
be referred to others, both anteriorly and subsequently 
to the civil war. The puritans are too often made a 
scape-goat to bear the sins of persons less excusable 
than they. 

But however deficient the monuments and tombstones 
may be in an architectural point of view, they are of 
considerable importance. For the inscriptions which 
they bear, convey much useful and interesting infimnation. 
We will give an abstract of the whole throughout, 
and describe those deserving particular attention. 

On the floor of the Nave, are only five tombstones. 
John Wilson, captain in the Royal Navy, died Sept 
Ist, 1797, aged 66 years; Frances, his daughter by his 
second wife, Dec. 15th, 1799, aged 22. Frances his 
wife, daughter of Thomas Broadley of Hull, died Feb. 
21st, 1769, aged 82. Mary Wilson, his second wife, 
died April 9th, 1805, aged 60. Thomas Yaughton died 
May 26th, 1759, aged 77 ; Mary his wife, June 6th, 
1719, aged 38. Mary Dyall died Feb. 25th, 179S, 
aged 75; John Yaughton, Oct 14th, 1777, aged 6S; 
Samuel Grrundy, Nov. 21st, 1803, aged 53. 

Sixteen tombstones are placed in the north Aisle. One 
illegible. Ann Harding died July 21st, 1768, aged 28 

years. John Watterson ; his wife Hannah died 

Dec. 25th, 1744. George Arthur Herbert, of Glanhafiren, 
in Montgomeryshire, died March 6th, 1821, ^ aged 36 
years. Seliza Alford died Feb. 3rd, 1811. (Godfrey's 
vault under the font. Mary Paull, died Dec. 27th, 1772, 
aged 61. Elizabeth Bradgate died Aug. 3rd, 1761, aged 



CA6TLB AND TOWN. S87 

86. J. Marshall, of Wilnecote, died Jan. 18th, 1800, 
aged 46. Josiah Marshall died April 6th, 1793, aged 
78. Philip Bearcroft, gent, son of Thomas Bearcroft, 
of Bradley, in Worcestershire, died Sept. Slst, 1695, aged 
88; Elizabeth his wife, daughter of William Frith, of 
Merevale, in Warwickshire, — she had issue five daughters, 
—died April 8th, 1692, aged 81. Between the second 
and third windows, is a large mural monument, the sum- 
mit hidden by the gaUery. On it is the figure of an 
in&nt, supporting and weeping over a medallion that bears 
a profile of the deceased. Below is this inscription. 

Quod laperert Johannis Hoicbr 

Hie JQXta deponi Toluity 

Unde oitom habait ibidem ut rediret. 

Qnalif ent in arte Medica et Chimrgiea 

Moltia non opus est loqni. 

Teftantnr MorU et partnrientitim Labores relerati, 

Piuriboa qnam ennmenure nunc est, 

Panperibiu cqae ac LocnpletibaB, 

Qnippe hnmani idbil a se aHenmn putavit. 

Com annos cerciter triginti apod Londinensia 

Fam« inaenriaaet, 

Comparatia interim et opibna et amicia, 

Et jam oedere poaset nti aator conviya, 

Hnic commigrana vicinist 

Ut aalati conauleret et otio, 

In ipao itinere anfaito eat oorreptna* 

Ang. 19, Anno D"*- 1769, iEutia 56. 

To the right of the west window, is a small mural 

monument. ftear 

tbia Place lyea 

tbeBodyof 

Edward Wolyeratan, Gent., 

who departed tf»S# Life 

May the 27th., 1761, Aged 69. 

He waa the second Son 

of the late 

Rer. Mr. Stanford Wolverstan, 

of Wooton, 

in the County of Warwick. 

Alao the Body of Alice Wolverstan, 

Rdict of the Said Edward Wolventan, 

who departed thu Life 7^- Jnne, 1766, 

ageH 76. 
Two stones below mark where the bodies lie. 



288 TAMWORTH 

On the opposite side of this window, is a laxge mnnl 
monument recording the deaths of Elizabeth, wife erf 
William Paull, May 26th, 1787, at the age of 2S 
J^ears;— of Mary and Jane, their in&nt children ;-— of 
William PauU, July 8th, 1816, aged 65,^— of Joseph- 
Samuel, his son, Jan« 2Snd, 1818, aged 14 ;— of Elia- 
beth, wife of William, Sept 20th, 1821, aged 50. 

Fourteen stones, several illegible, lie in the south 
Aisle. Walter Howe died Jan. 17th, 1798, aged 94. 
Margaret, wife of William NichoUs, died in March, 17S5. 
Elizabeth, wife of John Ball, died March 18th, 1742, 
aged 45 ; John Ball, 17 . . aged 4. . Mary, daughter 
of John and Mary Marriott, died Oct. 20th, 1790, aged 
28; Mary, wife of John, March 11th, 1792, aged 65. 
Ann Ball died Nov. 16th, 1778 ; her sister Elizabeth 
Matthews, Aug. Ist, 1800, aged 91. Dightonmathe, 
gent., died Oct. 16th, 1777. W. Lyon's vault. Steph. 
Fletcher, of Manchester, died Sept. 25th, 1779, aged 60. 
John Wilmot died Nov. 17th, 1821, aged 81. Walter Rose 
died Feb. 9th, 17S0, aged 61 ; Jane his wife, Jan. 2nd, 
1782, aged 68; Charles Rose, May Srd, 1770. At the 
east end, on the floor beneath the pedestal that once 
supported our Lady's image, are the remains of two 
gravestones which have been employed in forming the 
pavement. The date of one remains, 

luNBi Anno Dobc. 
1643. 

On the other, are some arms, over which a stove has 
been placed, — a fess, and in chief three mullets ; impal- 
ing a chevron between three swans. The destruction 
of the first stone is much to be lamented, as the date 
corresponds with the time that the Castle was besieged 
by the parliament's army, in the civil war. It is not 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 289 

improbably it bore the record of some person who was 
slain at that memorable period. At the west end^ is a 
stone, once enlayed with brass. There are the marks of 
the figure of a man, above him a coat of arms on each 
side of which is a child. In the comers, four squares 
are cut out, and around the whole is a marginal groove. 
On the east of the north Norman arch, is a small 
mural marble to the memory of William Brown, of 
Arkall-house, who died Oct. 16th, 1826, aged 47 years ; 
his son Benjamin Bickley Brown died March 16th, 1816, 
aged 9 months. On the opposite side of the same arch, 
is another small mural marble. 

IN THS NORTH CHANCBL 

OF THIS CHURCH y 

ARB DBPOSITKD THS RBMAINS OF 

CHARLES EDWARD REPIN6T0N, sga"., 

OF AICINOTON HALL, IN THS COUNTY OF WARWICK, 
WHO DSPARTBD THIS LIFS 

ON THS 27th of Junb, 1837« 

AOBD 82 YXAR8. 

Arms above: — Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Gu., a fess in- 
dented Ermine, between six billets A]i^., — ^Repington; 
Snd and 3rd, Arg., a firet Sa., and canton Ghi. — ^Vernon. 
Impaling Gu., two helmets in chief A]i^., and a garb 
in base Or — Cholmley. Crest : — a demi-antilope Gu., 
maned, bearded, tusked and homed Or, billetted Arg. 
Motto : — ^VTRTUS PROPTER SB. On the south wall opposite, 
is a marble monument, — ^Buth, wife of James Oldershaw, 
surgeon, and daughter of John WUcockson, of Works- 
worth, in Derbyshire, died March 15th, 1781, aged 46 ; 
James Oldershaw, Sept. 1st, 1788, aged 68. 

In the north Transept, are ten tombstones. John and 
Mary Ann, infant children of Will, and Cath. Alport, 
were interred Feb. 22nd, 1797 ; their daughter Marianne 
died May 15th, 1821, aged 21. Ann, wife of Richard 



S90 TAMWORTH 

Freeman, died Aug* 22nd, 1790, aged 47; Bichaid 
Freeman, Jan. 10th, 1807, aged 58. WilUama Bioe 
died June 10th, 1805, aged 64. John Freeman died 
Feb. 18th, 1814, aged S6; Bichaid Freeman, Dec. Slat, 
1822, aged 42; John Freeman, Sept 5th, 1828, aged 
72; Thomas Freeman, Sept. Srd, 1885, aged 58. Mary 
RoUnson died Jan. 80th, 1821, aged 64. Thomas 
Freeman died Dec. 2nd, 1822, aged 77 ; Alice Freeman, 
March 2nd, 1826, aged 85. Edward Powell died July 
Ist, 1787, aged 55; Ann his wife, Dec. 4th, 1792, 
aged 61. Ahoye the door leading into the Aisle, is a 
small mural marble stating that William Alport, of 
Comberfordy died Dec. 5th, 1818, aged 58. On the 
side of the stairs leading into the north gallery, is a 
small neat mural monument, which, at the end of 
the last century, was placed on the south wall of the 
Chantry-chapel. 

Hie sitam est Monmnentiim, dinteniitate Vero 

Temporii et beUls phuqatm dTilibu dinitwn» 

Famili», non ita pridem florentU GentU, 

amplne et honeitB CoBCBBRVOROiomuif : 

Qui da hoc Mnnidpio cnm in aliit torn 

in hoc Templo sdificando optime memenmt : 

Domini CoicBsmvomniJi indanere Anaif aeptingentis. 

In RoBsmTO aatem noviitimo atirpii Amouacji 

Sitfff^rditmrii Tiro Genu extinctam ploratar, 

Qtni ohyt A.D. 1671 ; et hie, com ooniorte 

Domina CxTHamiNA Batbs fitijaque doabni 

Mabia et Anna, rais Heredihne. Tvimilo 

oonditor. Nomen adhnc viget in stirpe 

Hibemlaca, quae Rcgem Jacobum atewMftMi 

In GaUiam aeeata eat ; atqne ibi Akolunls, 

in ProTinda de ChoK^agne Dominio. 

indgnitor 1725. 

Arms above : — Gtu, a talbot passant Arg., — Comberford ; 
impaling Sa., a fess between three hands erect A]i^., — 
Bates. Crest:— out of a ducal coronet Or, a peacock's 
head proper. 

On the floor below. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 291 

Samuel Bearoslky, 
of Wiffffington, Geot., late Town-CIark 

of this Borough > which Office he 

accepted in the Tear 1742, and executed 

with Ability, Proberty, and DUigenee, 

till, on account of hia Ul-state of health, 

he resigned in the year 1759. 

He died Noir. 13th., 1760, Aged 43. 

He married Elizabeth, ReUct of 

Thomas Bott, of Coventry, Gent. ; 

by whom he had no Issue. 

She, out of her eoigugal Affection, caused 

this Stone to be placed in Remembrance 

of him. 

Arms above: — ^Arg.^ two bars and a canton 6u. An 

escutcheon of pretence^ — Quarterly^ 1st and 4th^ Vaiiy 

Ennine and Gu., — Gresley; 2nd Gn.^ a lion rampant 

Arg. ; 3rd, Or, a chevron Ermine, between three mullets 

Gil. pierced of the field, — ^Bott. 

Twenty-six stones are placed in the south Transept. 

Mary Heath died Oct. S4th, 1780, aged 38. Of the 

children of Benjamin and Johanna Milchell, Elizabeth 

died Dec. 88th, 1725, aged 4 ; Mary, Jan. 4th, 1726, 

aged 1 ; Benjamin, Jan. 29th, 1726, aged 1. Littleton 

Wolverstan, gent., died Nov. 14th, 1769, aged 63. 

Dorothy, relict of Timothy St. Nicholas, died June 20th, 

1748; '^benevolentla, Pietate, ac predpue Charitate, 

nuUi secunda.'' John, son of Joseph and Ann Heath, 

died Oct. 29th, 1777, aged 11; John and Richard, their 

sons, died young ; Ann, wife of Joseph, died June 10th, 

1781, aged 40; Joseph, son of Joseph and Ann, Dec. 

3l8t., 1833, aged 70. Henry Wood Roby died Apr. 

6th, 1789, aged 1 year 11 mo. Sarah Dawes died Aug. 

14th, 1724. Anne, wife of Joseph Hood, died Nov. 2ndi 

1716, aged 28. The rev. Jonah Malkin died Aug. 

22nd, 1766, aged 76; Abigael his wife, Oct. 7th, 1781, 

aged 76. Timothy Vaughton died June 1st, 1778, aged 

78. Elizabeth Malkin died Sept. 20th, 1799, aged 64; 



292 TAMWORTH 

Sarah her sister^ Sept. 2l8t, 1800, aged 74; Margaret 
their siater, widow of Ralph Prentice^ May SQth, 
1821, aged 88. Johanna Heath died Oct 24th, 1801, 
aged 90; Joseph her son, July 10th, 1802, aged 71; 
Mary his daughter, Apr. 19th, 1798, aged 20 ; Thomas 
his son, Sept. 27th, 1821, aged 63. Ensign Benjamin 
Yaughton died June ISth, 1779, aged 6S. Thomas, 
son of Tho. Blood, of Bohall-st, died Jan. 16th, 17 . ., 
aged 21. Benjamin Blood, gent, died May 7th, 1796, 
aged 74. Abigael, wife of Thomas Homer, died Sept 
22nd, 1701, aged 21 ; Thomas Homer, Feb. 27th, 1750, 
aged 73 ; Mary his wife, Oct 4th, 1767 ; Dorothy their 
daughter, Nov. 26th, 1794. John Yaughton, gent, 
died Sept 24th, 1777, aged 78 ; Humphry his brother, 
Aug. 24th, 1785, aged 83. John Clarke, M.D.; Eliza- 
beth his widow died Nov. 10th, 1843, aged 82. Dinah, 
wife of John Meacham, gent, died Jan. 27th, 1790, aged 
62 ; John Meacham, gent., July 21st, 1798, aged 68. 
Tho. Ball, gent Harriott Fletcher died Nov. 29th, 
1838, aged 72. John Freeman, of Amington, died 
March 29th, 1822, aged 32. Catherine Bloar died 
June 16th, 1772, aged 88; Mary her daughter. Sept 
1st, 1772, aged 54 ; Jane Bloar, June 10th, 1781, aged 
61. Sarah Radford died Sept 13th, 1728. John 
G^errard, physician, died in April, 1698, in his 33rd year: 
he married Sarah, youngest daughter of Richard Taylor, 
of Ansley, and had one surviving son. Above the 
doorway into the south Aisle, is a small mural marble, 
bearing a female figure weeping over an urn, on which is 
inscribed, thy will be done. Below, is this inscription. 

8ACEBD TO THB MBICOBT OF 

JOHN CLARKE, M.D., 
OF London and of Wioointon lodob in this countt, 

BOBN DSCBMBBK 19*^, 1760 ; DISD AUGUST SI"*, 1S15. 

4f«eMcNi't kut MMe 
7b th* heti ^f Htuktmdi, if mofl wemphrp qf Men. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 29S 

Aniu:— Arg., on a bend Gu.^ between three pellets as 
many swans ppr. An escutcheon of pretence, quarterly, 
Ist and 4th, Az., on a bend between three lions' heads 
Aig., as many escallop-shells of the first; 8nd and 
Sid, Aig., on a chevron Sa., three fleurs-de-liz of the 
first Crest: — A lark with wings expanded ppr., hold- 
ing in the beak an ear of wheat Or. 

In the Chancel. — On the south wall of the Chancel, 
above the piscina, is a small tablet. 

HnS TNDSR LYSTH IN TBKBBD THE BODY OF 
HiNET MlCHBLL, GbNTL', AND MaKOARBT, HIS FIBST 
Win; BT WHOM HB BAD T88VB THBBB SONNBS AND 
IXATBK DAYOHTBBS; AMD BY KaTHBBINB, HIS 8BC0ND 

Wife, whom hb leftb liyinge, two daughtbbb. 
He was Iustice of fbacb, Yndeb Steward, and 

TOWNECLABCKB OF TaMWOBTHB 36 YEBE9 ; AND 

departed this life the 3. OF Dbcember, 1629. 
On the same wall, is a large monument. 

M. S. 

Tho. Wilungton de Whateley in agro Wanne>, Gronerosi 

Patru et m 

Ijadem nominibiis, fortona, tandem tomnlo 

Pk«matara aorte Hsredis ; 

JuTenia oniatiaaimi 

Ezimya tam natone qoam discipliiic dotibna instmcti, 

Pectoria, nimimm, candore niTeo ; 

Monun an'ma hnmanitate ; 

Fronte aperta, Fide integerrima. 

Studio in patriam, pro annia ardentiori ; 

Ingenio prestanti, Doctrina hand irnlgari ; 

Pietatis, deniq. (qnod snm'am decna eat) senan penitiori. 

Tali orbata filio 

lignbre marmor tenerrima erezit mater, 

Maria, filiaram altera Johannis Swtnfen, de Swynfen, amig'-, 

Viri gnfiiaimi* et inter huina aaltem oppidi monicipea satis oelebria, 

Utpote qnomm olim, in snm'o regni aenatn, 

Eximia cnm lande, din anatinnit vices. 

Fratri Chariaaimo, 

Hand proprina Sanguine ; 

Qnam moribna ijtdemy caatiaaimia, SnaYiasimis, 

Virtntnm conaenau, 

Et Pietatia neceaaitndine cognata ; 

Florentiaaima ilidem abrepta ^tate ; 

In eodem conqniescit Tnmnlo, 

Anna e aororibua lunior, 

Ob«- Nov 6», 1711. 

Q Q 



294 TAMWOBTH 

Anns above: — Gu., a saltire Tairy Axg. and Ax.; a 

crefloent Or, for a difference. Crest: — a pine tree ppr., 

fruited Or. 

On the north wall of the Chanoel, at the east end, 

is another large monument. 

Nere to thii pUee, 

lyechintemd 

J* body of Elixabbtr» dftugfata* 

of WiLUAM NoBi^ of KimKBT, in 7* 

County of Lbicb8TBB» Esq., 

Wife of Ralph AnDsmLBT of Aldshwas, 

in J* oonnty of Stafford, Eso. ; 

by whome ihe had isnie one sonne, 

CHAnute. 

She titer married to Ralph Fltbr, of Hints, 

in y* laid oonnty of Stafford, Esq., 

and departed this life 

the first day of May, A* D'ni mdclxi, 

aged Lxxxii yeares. 

To whose memory 

S* Cbarlxs Addsrlbt, of Haicics, 

in the comity of Warwick, K"^, 

(her only Mnne) 

erected this Monmnent 

Arms ahove : — ^Arg.^ on a bend Az., three masdes of the 

first; impaling Or, fretty Gu., a canton Ermine. 

On the ground, at a little distance, but within the 

communion-rails, is the stone of sir John Ferrers, knt., 

thus inscribed. 

If trot hast a mindr to knows 
wh08b corpbs intbrrbd libs bblowb, 

LbaST THOY TRINKB THBSB words IN 8T0NB 

Arb all that's lbft of him bbino oonb, 
glyb barb vnto thb vtrioht tongyb 
of whosobrb hb litbd amonob, 

ThBN FRBBD FROM DOUBTB THOT WILT CONSBNT 

hb i(bft a chorcbr moncmbnt. 
Anno domini 
1633. 

Arms above : — Vairy Or and 6u. : those below, Sa., a 

bend of lozenges cotized Arg. — ^Puckering. 

Close by the last, upright against the north wall, 

and enclosed in iron rails, stands the large modem 

marble monument of the Ferrers' family. However 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 295 

anomalous in regard to the appropriateness of the design, 
it is very good in point of execution, and serves to 
exhibit an excellent specimen of the style prevalent in 
later times. The two principal figures, of the size of 
life, are arrayed in the ancient Roman costume, with the 
flowing wigs worn in the time of Charles II. Both 
kneel upon one knee, one with clasped, the other with 
extended hands. Above each of these, is a cupid, 
kneeling in the same way, who supports a large wreath 
of fruits and flowers finely carved that descends over a 
kind of sarcophagus from below a large funereal urn, 
surmounting the whole. Beneath the principal figures, 
in the centre, are carved in alto-relief a group of spears, 
a bow, arrows, trophies, banners, a helmet, armour, and 
other insignia of Roman warfare, an inverted torch, and 
the ghastly head of Medusa with her snaky hair. 

Betwixt the two cupids, are the following arms. 
Quarterly of six; 1st, vairy Or and Gu. — Ferrers; 2nd, 
Frevile ; Srd, vairy Arg. and Az., a fess Sa. — ^Marmyon ; 
4th, bendy of six Or and Az. — ^Mountford; 5th, Bote- 
tourt; and 6th, Puckering. Supporters: — a horse, and a 
bear. On the right side of the alto-relief below, are 
the arms of Ferrers ; impaling Az., a bend engrailed 
between six martlets Or — Pigot: and, on the left side, 
are, Ferrers; with an escutcheon of pretence, Arg., on 
a bend Sa., three mascles of the field — Carleton. 

On a tablet between the two principal figures, is the 

following inscription, written by sir William Dugdale.* 

Hie situs est 

JoANKSS FsmftBRs de tamwokth-cabtro Arm., 

filios HuMFKiDi FsRaKRS eqa : aur : aniens ; 

sntiqnissinii FiRBAnioRVM stirpis 

(olim de Fbrrariis et Dbrbt Comitnm) heres mascnlns, 

ac pnedpni ijnsdem familiae germinis, nltimns. 

1 Hamper's life of Dogdale. 



296 TAMWORTH 

Qui qnidem Joakmbs, per haredei i 

de Pebtill, MAmnioN, moumttoko, et BorsToumr 

(quondam hnjiis Regni Btronibiu) oriimdiu. 

Ex ANNA ocnqiige 

DUDLiBi Cablstok, Equ. anrati, 

■erenisiimo naper Regi Cabolo ab intmiis conniyf 

Unios Clerioomm ; 

fllimn nnieain, HunraiouM, Eqpi. aiiratiuD, 

■c DomoTHBAM fitiam, 

pneaobiU Ricabdo, Abbanub (in Hibemia) Comiti 

(iUio nobUiaatnu Obmonls Dnds Jacobi 

nata-MCondo) enaptam soioemt. 

Diem obyt ziiu Angniti A" mdcucxx, ^tatis nm 52. 

Jnxta beie pariter sitoa ett 

HuMPBiDva FbbbbbSi Eqnei auratofl, 

pnefati Joannis fiUna nnigenitos ; 

qui Elizabbtbam, Gbbyasii Pigot de Thbumpton, 

in agro Notinohambmsi, filiam, in ozorem dozit : 

e qua filiam nnioam, nomine Annam, 

modo anpentitem genntt ; 

patre tamen yivo, die lezto Septembria, A* mdclzzviij, obgt, 

^tat : nue anno 25. 

Close below the last^ is an altar-tomb of finee-stone^ 
with ornamented compartments on the sides, in each of 
which is the figure of an angel, supporting before him 
a shield plain or defaced. On the top, lies a slab of 
Derbyshire marble, once enlayed with brass but the 
whole now gone. There are, however, the outlines of 
a knight in armour, with his sword by his side, and, 
on his left hand, of a lady ; the heads of each resting on 
a separate cushion. Under him, are the marks of seven 
children, and under her, of about as many more. The 
principal figures are placed beneath a double canopy, 
apparently once very rich; and, near the four comers, 
the marks of as many coats of arms remain. The 
inscription, also in brass, was once placed along the 
bevelled margin of the slab. From the circumstance of 
this tomb not being mentioned by Dugdale, it is 
probable it was destroyed before his time : and it is not 
known to whom it belonged. But we think ourselves 
correct, from its style and other circumstances, in 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 297 

assigning it to sir Thomas Ferrers^ second of the &mily 
who resided at Tamworth, and Ann his wife^ daughter 
of Leonard Hastings. By his will^ dated on the 10th 
of February^ 1496-7^ he bequeathed his body to be buried 
on the north side of the Choir^ by the side of his wife ; 
and directed that a marble should be laid over them^ 
with their portraitures and arms in brass, and such 
inscription as his executors shoidd think proper. He 
died on the 22nd. of August, 1498. 

Below this, and under an arch between the Chancel 
and the Chantry-chapel, is another altar-tomb of free- 
stone, with small plain shields on the sides alternating 
with a rose, oak-leaf, or another flower. It bears, on 
the top, the figures of a knight in armour, his head 
placed on a helmet and his feet on a d(^, and of his 
lady, on his left side. The hands of both were raised 
in the attitude of prayer. The figures are very much 
mutilated ; for, besides the loss of the arms of both figures, 
the legs of the man are completely gone down to the 
ancles ; and the whole is so worn that very few of the 
details remain. To whom the monument was erected, 
is unknown ; but it was probably to one of the Freviles, 
or to the first Ferrers. In Dugdale's time, 1640, it 
was in a perfect state; and he gives a drawing of it. 
Leland says, ''There be divers fayre Tombes of Noblemen 
and Women, in the Este Parte of this Collegiat 
Churche, where of one is of the Frevills, and Ids 
Christen Name, as some say, was Balduinus; and he 
was Lorde of Tamworthe Castle."' Perhaps this is 
the one to which the great antiquary alluded. 

In the middle of the floor of the Chancel, is a large 
tombstone once enlayed with brass, all of which is 

1 Itin., TOl. rv., fol. ISO b. 



298 TAMWORTH 

now gone, although a niiall portion remained about forty 
years ago. It bears the outline of a figure^ a priest 
apparently from the occurrence of the sacred chalice 
on each side of and beneath him. Out of his mouth 
issued a label that bore some brief ejaculation; and, 
at each comer, is the mark of a coat of arms. 
These are all surroimded by a broad groove for a 
marginal inscription, probably with the emblems of 
the four evangelist at the comers, from the circles there 
cut out. It is impossible to ascertain to whom the 
stone belonged: its original situation was at the west 
end of the edifice, from whence it was removed to the 
place which it at present occupies years ago. It is 
most likely the tombstone of one of the deans of the 
Church. 

Adjacent are eight gravestones. John Hurt, gent, 
died March 5th, 17S0, aged 82. William Brown died 
March 16th, 177S, aged 60; Beata Richards his wife, 
Sept. ISth, 1789, aged 73. Thomas, only son of 
William NichoUs, clothier, died Jan. 18th 1769, aged 
6S; his father, Jan. 18th, 176S. Mary, only daughter 
of William and Mary Nicholls, died June 14th, 1773, 
aged 59. Samuel Ball died Aug. 28th, 1772, aged 4; 
Frances, March 29th, 1779, aged 2 ; Elizabeth, Nov. 
15th, 1789, aged 19 ; Elizabeth their mother, Nov. ISth, 
1802, aged 56. Edward Ball, jun., died Feb. 12th, 
1784, aged 40. Samuel Crosland died May 2l8t, 1767, 
aged 72; Ann his wife, Jan. 7th, 1768, aged 70. 
Edward Ball died April 12th, 1779, aged 67 ; Mary his 
vrife, April 27th, 1782, aged 62. 

At the east end of the Chantry-chapel or north 
Chancel, in the right hand comer, is placed a large 
plain altar-tomb, on which lies a flat gravestone. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 299 

Under this Stone lies 

Airs, 

the wife of Edwabd Rbpinoton, 

of Amrngton-Hallt Esq., 

the Lest of y* Ancient Family of the 

BaueU of CbtYerton, in MmenetMkire. 

She died y« 21 of Octo., 1720. 
Reader, wonld yon know her Character, 

Ask the Present Age, whose 

Posterity will transmit it to y« Latest 

Times. 

Arms above : — ^Repington ; impaling Ermine, on a canton 
Gu., a mullet Or, pierced of the field, — Basset. 

Under a low simple-pointed arch in the south wall, 
is the recumbent figure of a female praying, the head 
resting on a pillow, and the feet, on a dog, and the 
hands raised in prayer. The whole is ancient: it is 
much worn, and broken, and the features have been 
completely chiselled away. It \b not known whom it 
represents. 

On the ground beneath, is a large alabaster tomb- 
stone once with figures and a black-letter marginal 
inscription cut in and filled with pitch. But the whole 
is now effaced, except a few letters. 

To the left adjoining, is a stone once enlarged with 
brass, bearing the outline of a man, with his sword 
by his left side. Near the upper comers, are the 
marks of two coats of arms, and near the lower, two 
circles are cut out : the whole is surrounded by a groove 
for the ma^;inal inscription. 

To the left adjoining, is an alabaster stone on which 
is cut, the lines being filled with pitch, the figure of a 
man praying, his head resting on a pillow, and a scrip 
by his right side. From Shaw, it appears to be the 
tomb of John, son of John Breton, esq., of Tamworth. 
Along the margin, is this inscription. 



SOO TAMWOBTH 

<9rate pro anf ma Slo^'itf 

qui 

ifbiit xf tie mm». maiU ^nno t'ni m< t^ b(| : 
ntitttc aU^e p^pfcietur Urate. 

To the left, against the south wall, is a large plain 
altar-tomb, devoid of any inscription. It appears to 
have belonged to the Comberfords, as the mural 
monument of that family was once placed over it. 

Above the last, and under the first arch commimica- 
ting with the Chancel, is a fine altar-tomb of marble, 
bearing the effigies of a knight in armour, and of his lady 
on his left side. His head rests on a helmet, and his 
feet on a dog. By the cushion, beneath the lady's 
head, is placed an infant: and at her feet a little dog 
crouches, holding her dress in its mouth. Along the 
side of the monument, are twelve fine canopied niches, 
once each containing a figure in the posture of prayer ; 
but the fifth and eleventh are now entirely gone. 
The tomb was originally painted, as well as the arch 
above. It bears the marks of malicious mutilation ; for 
the upraised hands have been broken off, and the &ces 
with other portions of the principal figures chiselled 
away, as well as the heads and greater parts of the 
smaller ones at the side. Around the margin, is the 
following inscription. 

l^ic iacent corpora Sloj^^(j$ d^tntt»f m\iiti»f tt 
Vnt iBorotj^ee uxovia tim* qui quttt^ ^oh't» 
obiit ib< Hit mm»i» ^uliif ^nno n^ni m^ H^^ 
xiU lEt Mcta li'na IBorotj^ea oibiit Hit 
mft' ^nno Vni m^ H^ ^mv aTaSivs 
propiciet' Hmti. ^men. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 301 

The monument originaUy stood in the Choir, before 
the image of St. Editha. It was perfect previously to 
the civil war; and is named by Leland. He says that 
the tomb of the father and mother of sir John was in 
the Church: it is now gone, and is unmentioned by 
Dugdale. 

Beneath the second arch, is an altar^^tomb of firee-^ 
stone, bearing the figure of a woman, her head resting 
on a pillow; and, at her feet, a dog. It is very much 
worn; and the* arms are broken away. The tomb 
exhibits the style prevalent in the middle of the 
fourteenth century. Along the side, are six compart- 
ments each containing a shield plain or ietaced. We 
have every reason, except direct testimony, to believe 
that this is the monument of lady Joan, wife of 
Alexander de Frevile, and one of the coheiresses of 
Philip de Marmyon. After her husband's decease in 
1328, she held the Castle for a considerable period. 

About the middle of the floor, is a large stone once 
enlayed with brass. It bears the outline of a man 
praying, his feet upon a dog. From his mouth, issued 
a label. On each side of him, are placed six small 
scrolls, and one beneath him. There is a groove for 
a marginal inscription, with circles at the comers. 

Adjoining the end of it, is a tombstone thus inscribed. 
^ / Son of Tho., t* bzcbll<* m' of 

H / MIDDLBWICH, IN ChKSHIRE, 

o ^ B'* of Tho., fbllow and 

ORNAMENT OF C. COL. CAM., 

Path' of Thomas, vie. of 

KiNOBBUBT, 






HUBBAND OF SaBA 44 
Jl [ TBAB8. 

CO \ From a fbixowship in C. C. Cam., 

INVITED TO SWBETBNHAM, IN 
Chbshibk; THBNCB HITHBB, WBBRB 
HB 8PBNT ONB HALFB OF HIS 
LIFB. Til WITHIN 4 TEARS OF 

R R 



302 TAMWORTH 

HIS DSCBA.8 WAS KSVSS HIlfDmBO 
rmOM P&BACBINO IN COUHSB 
TWICB BTBBT LoMO's DAT 80 
BLABOBATBLT AS TO INFORM THB 
LBARNBD IN DIWICULT TBXT8, 
AND TBT BDirr THB MXANBBT. 
HB OTBD Januaet 20*, 169f, 
MTAT, 72. 

On the north wall^ between the second and third 
windows, is a small monument recording that John 
Whyle died Jan. ISth, 1788, aged 82; Mary Hayward 
his sister, May ISth, 1788, aged 84. There are twenty- 
eight other flat stones placed in the floor. Charles 
Edward Repington. . William Kadford died March 8th, 
1766, aged 44. Edward, son of Edward Symonds, 
mercers, died Jan. 14th, 172S, aged IS ; Anne his wife, 
March 5th, 1748, aged 88. Ann, wife of Samnel 
Badford, died July 5th, 1728, aged 89; Samuel, July 
SOth, 17S5, aged 47 ; Sarah their daughter, July 22nd, 
1768, aged 50. Joseph Rice, sen., died April 8th, 
1780, aged 66. Edward Davenport died April 10th 
1752, aged 52; Elizabeth his wife, Dec. 21st, 1755, 
aged 60. Elizabeth, wife of the late John Meacham, 
died Oct. 9th., 1775, aged 66. Sarah, daughter 
of Richard and Sarah Bloody died Sept. 28th, 1775, 
aged 46. John Meacham died July 28rd, 1747, aged 
46; Mary, Penelope, and Thomas, children of John 
and Elizabeth, all died young; Fitz-William Meacham, 
their eldest son, died Aug. 12th, 1766, aged S8. Lieut 
James Gray died Nov. 25th, 1791, aged 77; Ann his 
wife, Dec. 17th, 1788, aged 68. Thomas Whitworth 
died Sept. 5th, 1686. Ann, daughter of John and Ann 
Shore, of Edstanston-hall, near Wem, Salop, died Nov. 
2nd, 1734, aged 7 years. Matthew Birch, gent., died 
Dec. 10th, 1778, egad 66. Anne, widow of Thomas 
Lort, gent., of Yoxall, died Aug. 6th, 1719, aged 79. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 

Ralph Triplet, gent, son and heir of Ralph, late of 
Salop, M.D., and Mary his wife, died Sept. 7th, 1701, 
aged 86: he left only two sisters, — ^Mary, wife of Tho. 
Langley, clerk, — and Elizabeth. Robert Bage died 
Sept. 1st, 1801, aged 72; Robert Charles Bage, March 
9th, 1802, aged 13 ; Elizabeth, April 21st, 1805, aged 
72. Samuel Green Jemson died Oct. 15th, 1794, aged 
28. Mary Birch died July 13th, 1775, aged 67. 
Samuel, second son of Samuel — ^minister of Tamworth 
— and Sarah Langley, died June 5th, 1681. Esther 
Langley, widow, died Aug. 16th, 1742, aged 85; 
Rebecca, her datighter, wife of James Taylor, died July 
3rd, 1755, aged 66 ; James Taylor of Birmingham, Sept. 
6th, 1758, aged 66. Susanna, daughter of Waldive and 
Susanna Willington, of Hurley-hall in Warwickshire, 
died June 27th, 1694, aged 24. Elizabeth, daughter of 
Samuel and Hannah Littlefear, died April 5th, 1725, 
aged 7. William, son of Will, and Denis Wooton, died 
Oct. 29th, 1686, aged 17. Elizabeth Nicholls, spinster, 
died Aug. 20th, 1768, aged 59. William Nicholls died 
Jan. 18th, 1763, aged 80. Thomas Rice died Aug. 
14th, 1793, aged 47; Eleanor his wife, Sept. 15th, 
1814, in her 72nd year. Alice, wife of Rich. Francis 
Alexander Freeman, died April 11th, 1815, aged 29. 
Joyce Flaisted, widow, 3rd daughter of Stanford Wol- 
verstan, esq., of Statfold, died Oct. 11th, 1775, aged 54. 

There are a few old tombstones mentioned by different 
writers, which are now gone. 

Lying within the communion rails. 

Here lieth Sir Hvmfrey Ferrers, Knight, who married Anne, one 
of the daughter! of Sir John Paddngton, of Hampton-LoYet, in the 
Coontie of Worcester, knight ; by whom he had issue three daughters 
and one son. His age was thirty and three years when he departed 
this life ; and he was here interred on the second day of NoTember, 
in the year of our Lord 1633. 



804 TAMWORTH 

A stone upright against the south wall of the Chancel. 

Here Uetfa interred the bodv of Clemeot Fliher, late of WDneooii, 
Gent. He married Ann, the daoghter of sir John SaTage senior 
of Wilncooat, knt. His second wife was EUnbedi, the danghter 
of Humphrey Arden, gent, of the family of Fkrfchall, in Warwick 
shire. God grant na a joyfiil resurrection. He dyed Sept the 
8th, 1689, aged 77. 

In the Chantry-chapel^ the flat stone of William 
Repington^ esq.^ of Amington, and Juliana his wife. 
He died on the SOth of January, m d xzxxiii. ''Cujus 
anime propidetur Deus." 

On another flat stone, with Bepington arms. 

HERE LIETH THE BODY OF SEBRIGHT RE- 

PINGTON, ESQ., LATE OF AMINGTON. HE 

DYED THE XVIII DAY OF SEPTEMBER, 

1698, AGED 67 YEARS. 

THE POOR RELIEV'D WERE AT HIS DOOR, 

THE RICH WERE CHEARFUL MADE, 
DEVOUT AND JUST HE WAS. WHAT MORE 
OF MANKIND CAN BE SAID ? 

Upon the north wall of the south Transept, aie 
placed two tablets, on which are inscribed the names 
of benefactors to the poor of the town and parish. 
These, however, it is unimportant to give. 



PARISH-REGISTER. 

The Parish-register was oonmienced during the reign 
of Philip and Mary, in 1556-7. Down to the year 1598, 
the original records have not been preserved; but they 
were copied by John Oldacres, curate, and William 
Wightwick and Nicholas Vaughton, churchwardens. 
The first eight pages contain baptisms alone. These are 
entered in the subsequent part of the book, and date 
only from the first year of queen Elizabeth. The copied 
part is not complete. There are some omissions, chiefly 
owing, it would seem, to deficiences in the old book. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 305 

There is, however^ only one place where the void is 
very considerable, — ^&om 1660 to 1563. 

In these records, there are numerous valuable and 
interesting entries, the principal of which we here give. 

Marche, 1558, Baptized. 
1 Will*m Stokes, j^ sone of John Stokes. [First entry.] 

Anno dom' 1556, Marche. 

4 where Christened[o ^^JHygg'es. [Earliest entry.] 

October, 1576. 
14 Was cr. Henry, sone of Mr. Cleme't Fysher. 
29 was bur. Henry, sone of Mr. Cleme't Fysher. 

January, 1576. 
4 was bur. Bichard Degge, derke of y^ churche. 

April, 1578. 

14 wer M. Bichard Walker, cler., & Ellen Hunter. 
November, 1578. 

26 was cr. Lettjrs, d. of Mr. Cleme't Fysher. 

Maye, 1579. 
22 was bur. John Shemond, Ve'bi minister. 

Januarye, 1582. 
21 was bur. Edward Richardson, al's Harison, who was 
slayn in y* market-place, y* 19*** day. 

November, 1590. 

15 was cr. Joice, d. of Roger Molde, preach'. 
Julye, 1592. 

14 was bur. Mr. Phillippe Repyngton, Gent. 
September, 1592. 
4 was bur. Thomas Wryght, y* clarke. 
April, 1599. 

mem' y* y« SO^ day of this Aprill, Robert, Earle of 
Essex, went fro' Drayton Bassett towardes Ireland, 
w^ an hoste of men, to make Warre againste y* Earle 
of Tyroone, an Irishma'. 



806 TAMWO&TH 

July, 1599. 

Mem' -f y* 19^ daie of July, was fSeumousIy solemnized 
at Kinsbury y^ honorable bur. of y* old Lady Feiiers, 
y* La. Willoughbie, mother of Mr. Edw. Devereux, 
of castle-Bromwiche. 
September, 1599. 
28 The same day, y* noble Earle of Essex came out of 
Ireland, w^ a motion of Peace. 
September, 1606. 

5 was bur. in a ditche William Tomlinson, papist. 
November, 1609. 

i was bur. Robert Michell, Clarke Church. 
Septembe', 1612. 
20 was bapt. James, sone of John Reade, preacher. 

August, 161S. 
IS was interred by night Thomas Orton, of Ami'gton, 
recusant. 
March, 1614. 
7 The same night before, was interred Ellen Aucott, 
recusant. 

Memorand' that in the moneth of november, one 
thousand six hundreth and sixteene. Was erected in 
the Church-yard of Tamworth, by the apoyntment 
of Mr. Martyn Fringe, a graue stone over the bodye 
of Margrett Sponer, wyffe of Lawrence Sponer, of 
Tamworth: shee being layd in p'sonall forme in 
brass, with a bowle and a spoone in hyr hands, w^ 
this inscription in latine, 'Quisquis eris qui transi- 
eris, Sta, perlege, plora,' recorded the sayd tyme 
wittnesses. 
Marche, 1618. 
15 The 16**^ day, was buried Leister, y* sone of S' Row- 
land Ridgley, Knight. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 307 

ApriU, 16S0. 
9 The ninth day^ was Bapt. Dorothe^ daught' of Mr. 
lohn Packington^ esq^ 
August, 1623. 
20 was interred Robert Freman, a Becusant. 
March, 1624. 
S was bur. Henry Baron, Sehoolemaster. 
Aprill, 1681. 
27 Mar. Thomas Blake, Minister of Tarn., & Jane Wag- 
staff, of Drayton basset. 
Nouember, 1635. 
2 Bu. Thomas Euorite, slaine by a fall, poynting y* 
steple. 

Wordey, the sonne of S' Henry Griffithe, Baronet, 
by Margaret his lady, borne the twentith day of 
January, and baptizd the eight and twentith of the 
same, anno 1636. 
May, 1637. 
19 In. Joseph, Sonn of widdow Deaine, who was 
drowned in striuing for to fatch his hat, in y® Anquor. 
ApriU, 1640. 
25 Bur. Mr. Sarles, Gent, fro' Coton Hall. 

From May, 1642, to June, 1644, the Register is blank, 
except a few memoranda. From November, in the 
latter year, it has been continued regularly. 
May, 1642. 

23 Desideratur hie catal(^us Baptizator', Marita- 

tor', Sepultorumq', quor' noYa hoc non inscribantur 
libro, propter incuria' Notarior' in sched'is apertis ea 
reliquentiu'. sic iniquitate temporu' perierunt. ita 
tester. 

Theoph. Lord, Mr. in Art. 
September, 1643. 
About the b^inning of this moneth, Mr. Theoph. 



906 TAMWO&TH 

Lord was called to be the preacher at Tamworth, 
both by the GoTemo' and Towne, but was forbad to 
doe any seruise publikly, exepting preaching, as his 
duty. 

May, 1644. 

About the latter end of this moneth of May, the 
ho'ble Comittee of safety for the County of Warw. 
at Coventrey sitting, desired Mr. Theoph. Lord, then 
preacher, to supply the whole duty of the min'r in 
Tamworth, — the former man that chall'nged the place 
to be his, goeing away about i months before, and 
never aquanting the Towne with his intention, for 
some .... time there was not any 1644. 

June, 1644. 
In hoc mense, Incepit Mr. Theoph. Lord offida 
publica p'agere; sed libro a clerico p'ochiali sibi 

negate, defectus nimiu' admiss' ; sed noTa 

quotquot hie fideliter inseruntur. 

The entries following are evidently written from me- 
mory or imperfect notes; for sometimes the date and 
sometimes the Christian name is omitted. 

November, 1644. 
At the beginning of this month, I tooke the booke 
into my owne hand; and here you haue not one 
name missing of such that were at Tamw' either 
Baptizd, buried, or married. This averrs, 

Theoph. Lord, minister. 

December, 1644. 
19 buried the body of Will^ White, a souldier vnder 
Captaine Tho. Layfield: he was slayn in the field. 

March, 1644. 
24 Cast into the ground, the body of Ellen wife of 
Rich*^ Ensor, a popeling. 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 309 

December^ 1645. 
S buried the body of Jonathan Toone^ a souldier vnder 
captaine Flower: he was slaine in the field ag^ y^ 
enemy. 
March, 1645. 
21 buried the body of Richard Vaughton, of Comber- 
ford: he was slain by the enemie at Lichfield, in 
fighting in y* wone. 
June, 1646. 

14 baptizd BobS son of Bobert and Mary Brabin, of Tarn. 
Bob^ the father was cruelly murdered by the enemye 
in Litchfield Close, after he was taken vpon the 
enemy's Sally. 

19 buried the body of Henry, son of Tho. Piccard, of 
Cumb., an infant: his fistther Thom. was shiine by 
the enemy in Lichfield Close, about March last ij 
day. 

89 buried the body of Bichard Harding, of Tamworth : 
he was once one of the company, but was put out 
bee. he was an Ale-seller. 
August, 1646. 

25 buried the body of Thomas Paget, a souldier vnder 
Capt. Bowes: he was slaine. 
January, 1650. 

15 Buried the Body of Mr. Theophilus Lord, Minister. 
July, 1651. 

24 William Bock, minister of the Gk>8peU, and Mary 
Boyes were married. 
June, 1657. 
11 was buried our rererend Pastor, Mr. Thomas Blake, 
minister of Tamworth. 
January, 1663. 

1 baptized William, the Son of 8^ William Boothbey, 

s s 



310 TAMWORTH 

Knight and baroni^ and Dame Hills bis wife, of 
Tamworth. 
November, 1665. 
14 Maryed Robert Beppington & Margery Crispe. 
October, 1666. 

1 Married Mr. George Antrobus & Mrs. Sarah Bnrgesse. 
August, 1672. 

1 Buryed Elizabeth, the wife of Thomas Sylvester of 
Bolehall street, together with foure male infants of 
hers borne before their time. 
September, 1676. 

3 buried Frances downe, of Tamworth, Clark of the 
Church. 

May, 1677. 
12 Married Symon Biddulph & Dorothy Beppington. 
ApriU, 1678. 

4 Buryed Mrs. Katherine Adderley, of Tamworth. 
July, 1679. 

27 Buryed Mary, the wife of Ralph Adderly, of Tamw**^, 
Esq^ 
April, 1685. 

22 Buryed Mr. John Allen, Towne-Clerk of Tamworth. 
September, 1689. 

10 buryed Mr. Clement Fisher, of Wilnecoate. 
January, 1693. 

23 Buried Mr. Samuel Langley, of Bolehall, and Minis- 
ter of the Gospell at Tamworth. 

July, 1708. 
26 Bur. Mr. George Antrobus, schoolemaster of Tam- 
worth, whose memory ought to be perpetuated to 
Eternity. 
October, 1710. 
16 bur. Mr. Samuel Collins, Minister of Tamworth. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 811 

July, 1724. 
16 Bur. Mr. Nicholas Parker, Town Clerk of Tamworth. 

August^ 1724. 
4 Bur. Mr. George Antrobus, Minister of Tamworth. 

December, 1724. 
10 About this time, began y« Small Pox in Tamworth. 

April, 17S0. 
24 Bur. Dr. Sam^ Shaw, Schoolmaster of Tamworth. 

May, 1781. 
9 bur. Robert Grarret, late parish Clark here. 

March, 1786-7. 

10 Bur. y« EeV* Mr. Thomas Worthington, a non-jurer 
of Tam. 

March, 1741. 
13 Bur. Beilby Laycock, Town Clerk of Tam. 
July, 1742. 

11 Bur. Jonathan Kendall, parish Clerk of Tam. 

CHURCH-YARD. 

Attached to the Church is a large Cemetary, in the 
south part of which the edifice stands. Originally, it 
was not so extensive as it is at the present time; for, 
from time to time, parts have been added to it, as cir- 
cumstances have required. 

A piece of ground on the north-east side, was given 
by Mrs. Grrace Wolverston, of Statfold ; and the dona- 
tion was afterwards confirmed by Edward Eggerton, esq., 
of Harlaston, in Staffordshire. On the 24th of July, 
1780, it was consecrated by the right rev. Edward 
Chandler, bishop of the diocese. In 1797, a considerable 
addition was made upon the north-west, and consecrated, 
on the 28th of July, by the bishop, — ^the hon. James 



S12 TAMWOBTH 

Cornwallis. For this enlargement, the earl of Leicester, 
and Robert Peel, esq., — the late sir Bobert»«*-«aeh pre- 
sented two houses to the parish. And a Uttle meve than 
fifteen years ago, a third piece was added on the west 
side, and consecrated by bishop Ryder. 

As in most other country-places, the Churdi«y«Kd was 
anciently separated from the surrounding land by low 
stone-walls, and was accessible by a lich-gate and stile.' 
These, however, as the enlargements took place, were 
removed, and gave place to quickset hedges, and walls 
on the west. In 1797, the walls were first eteeted 
along the north and east sides. The old south bound- 
ary, facing the street, once consisted of a sleep bank, 
with wooden rails and gates. In 1821^ the piesent stone 
wall was built, with iron palisades and gates at either 
end and in the middle. The path on the east side was 
stopped in 1843, with the entrance into the Chuxeh-yard 
by New College-lane. 

The Church-yard presents nothing worthy of notice. 
It is not even remarkable for its arrangement and 
neatness. The cross has long disappeared, in iconoclas- 
tic times; and none of the ancient tombstones have 
survived to our days. The mtgority of the grave-stones 
date from the middle of the past century: exceedingly 
few are so old as the seventeenth. The only stone, 
which would attract the eye of a stranger, is the 
obelisk, which was erected by public subscription to 
commemorate the unfortunate deaths of six females, in 
a fire at the Castle Inn, during the autumn of 1838.' 
It stands in the north-west comer, by the path, and 
within the piece of ground last added to the Cemetary. 

1 Court-rolls, 
a This melAncholy accident oocurred on the 2nd of Noyember, aboot four o'clock 
in the morning. The fire originated acddcntly, and was conflned pitacipailir to tiM 



CASTLE AND TOWN. SIS 

DEANERY. 

Between the east side of the Chnrch-yaTd and Gtm- 
gate^ are situated the ruins of the ancient residence of 
the deans. They are now Tery scanty, consisting only of 
two long parallel walls. These are built of rag-stone, 
with tiles very frequently inserted. In the north 
wall, there are some traces of a window ; and, at the 
end towards the Church, part of a fire-place, and of a 
chimney stands. The chinmey, notwithstanding its long 
exposure to the weather, is still blackened with soot. 
In Shaw's time, a wall on the west connected these two 
together: it was removed when the brick wall was 
built. Shaw, however, has fortunately preserved a 
drawing of it* There were two semicircular arches in 

btf and roomB B^Sacent. It brcike oat wben an Ihe faunates were aaleep. Hie six 
maid-aarrantBileptatthetopoftbeboiiM I all the others escaped. As the staircase 
had become faiacoessihle, attempts weremade to rescue the serranis bj a ladder, placed 
at thelrwiiulow} bat notiiing could be seen or beard of them. Unfortanatelj a report 
was spread, that thej were safe in a neiffhboniinff boose. The mistske was dis- 
covered when the iln was nearly sobdoed. A policeman entered their room, and 
foond fire iTlnff on the floor qnita dead. The Are had not reached them) bat the heat 
and smoke had been intense. Indeed, as a witness observed at the faiqaeet, they had 
been literally "baked to death." They were probably dead before their rescue was 
sitcmpled, perhaps before assistance airiyed to suppress the Are. They had endea- 
voured to escape, fortheir door was found open } but they had evidently been driven 
back. The bar-mald, too, wlio slept in a sepsrate room, had tried to make her escape. 
Her body was found upon the landing of the stain. She also had been suffocated. 
The names of the poor suflbren were, llary Ann Smith, bar-maid) Harriet Bonner, 
cook) Mary Gardiner, kitchen-maid) Mary Aim Booth, waiter) Harriet Buswell, 
chambermaid) and Mary Chatterton, kitchen-maid. One had come to hersitoation on 
the preceeding day, and another was to have left on the suoceedtaig morning. At the 
inquest the verdict of ''Accidental death " was given. 

This awfol catastrophe created great sensation in the town and surrounding country. 
Five of the unfortunate females were interred, on the 0th, in one large common grave 
in this Churdi-yard : the body of Mary Ann Smith was removed by her friends. Hie 
ftmeral procession was very long and solemn. Thirty females arrayed in white bore 
the flve cofllns. The dergy, the coroner's Jury, the parish-aathorities, and numerous 
gentlemen of the town, followed. Afterwards a subscription was raised, and the 
flBOttumcnt bunt, as a perpetual memorial of this melandioly accident As this stone 
is the only memorial of the accident, we may correct an error in the date which it 
bears. It is there said that the occurrence took place during the night of the and of 
November. It ought to have been the morning of the Snd, as the fire happened after 
midnight of the 1st of the month. 

1 This writer erroneously calls them the ruins of the nunnery. It has been asserted 
that the Church was erected on the site of the Anglo-Saxon Convent. This statement 
is not substantiated by any ancient authority) and we have great reason to discredit it* 



314 TAlffWORTH 

it It is evident firom these, and from the existing re- 
mains, that the Deanery was built in the Anglo-Saxon 
style of architecture, and must probably haye been 
erected before the Norman invasion. 

Between the two walls, there is at present a garden. 
Formerly a deep cellar existed here. But, some years 
ago, in consequence of the vaulted roo& haying begun 
to sink, they were completely filled up with soiL The 
ruins of the Deanery are now only used to give support 
to sties, outbuildings, and sheds. But, perchance, as 
they attract the antiquary's eye, they serve to bring 
to his mind the pleasing recollection of ages long past 
by, too fidr and good to be for ever flown. 



THE CONVENT. 

In the time of the Anglo-Saxons, during the reign of 
Ethelred II., there was a religious house in Tamworth. 
Wulfric or Al£ric Spot, a chief councillor of state, and 
nearly related to the king, in his will, made a bequest 
to it, in common with the monks of Burton-upon-Trent; 
of whose monastery he was the founder. The words of 
his win are these: — ^*'Item, do Conventui in Tamwur- 
thin fimdum ilium apud Langandtme, (Longdon co. 
Stafford) sicut ipsi (monachi) ilium mihi ante hoc loca- 
runt, et habeant ipsi usum fructiim (ejus) dimidium, et 
dimidium monachi Byrtonensis, cum in cibariis, tum in 
hominibus, tum in pecudibus, tum in rebus omnibus."^ 
Wulfiric Spot died in the year 1010.' 

But concerning this Convent, particularly as to the 
time at which it was erected, and the person by whom 
it was founded, there exists great diversity of opinion. 
Dugdale states his ignorance whether it belonged to 
monks or nuns.' All other great authorities are agreed 
that it was a house of religious ladies, founded by the 
Bsiat Editha, in honour of whom the present Church 
was dedicated. 

But another difficulty is here presented. There are 
three females named Editha, all members of the Anglo- 
Saxon royal fiunily, whose connection with Tamworth 
has been asserted by different writers. These are the 
daughters of Ecgberht the Great, of Eadweard the 

1 Doffdale's Mod. Anf L a SbAw's Staflbntoh. 3 Dafdale't Warwicksh. 



316 TAM WORTH 

Elder^ and of Edgar. To the latter^ the foundation has 
been attributed by Leland/ Camden/ and Speed.' It is 
remarkable, however, that both Leland and Speed, in 
other works, vary in their statements, and mention the 
daughter of Eadweard as the foundress. Tanner discredits 
their assertions respecting the daughter of Edgar, because 
there is " no mention of this in any old historian, nor in 
the l^^ends of that St Edith, nor in the traditionary 
account of the foundation of Polesworth : and if" he adds, 
''there was any St. Edith that bore relation to this place 
— ^Tamworth, — ^it must be she that was daughter to K. 
Egbert and sister to K. Ethelwulph."^ But it is evident, 
that the very same reasoning applied by Tanner against 
Leland, Camden, and Speed, may be directed against 
himself. History and tradition are both silent concern- 
ing the daughter of Ecgberht in reference to Tamworth. 
On the contrary, it is clearly evident that she never 
had anything to do with the town. 

John and Henry W. Roby, in the first and only part 
of their " History of Tamworth " which was published, 
have given reasons supported by the authority of some 
ancient writers, to prove that Editha, daughter of Ead- 
weard the Elder, was the foundress of the Convent of 
Tamworth. We quote their own words. 

'' The marriage of Sithrick, the Anglo-Danish King 
of Northumbria, with a sister of Athelstan (consequently 
a grand-daughter of Alfred, a daughter of Edward I., a 
niece of Ethelfleda, and sister of Edmund I. and Edred, 
and an aunt of Edwy and Edgar,) is recorded by almost 
every monkish historian who treats of that period, as 
Florence of Worcester, William of Malmsbury, John 

1 CoUflctTOl.l,p.ai. a Britaimta. s Catakvae of rdigioai hoaset. 
4 Notitte MohmUou 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 817 

Brompton, &c. The name of the bride is generaUy 
omitted, but Matthew of Westminster calls her Eadgi- 
tha; which name kter authors have generally softened 
to Editha, under which appellation she is noticed by 
Folydore Vergil. The scene of the bridal is stated in 
the Saxon Chronicle (noticed by Turner as the only 
history he has met with which particularizes the place,) 
to have been at Tamworth. Now it is perfectly conge- 
nial with the sjorit and feelings of those times for this 
Editha, after her divorce, to have selected the place 
where her earlier vows were given to an earthly hus- 
band, to dedicate her later vows to heaven. She probably 
considered this town as peculiarly marked out for her 
retirement from the world, as it had witnessed the two 
greatest misfortunes of her Ufe, the death of her excel- 
lent aunt Ethelfleda, and the marriage of herself with 
the brutal and irreligious Sithric. But it is not on mere 
probability that her return to Tamworth, and her religious 
profession in this town, rest. In the life of St. Edith, 
the daughter of Edgar (which Edith, by the concurrent 
testimony of all the old historians was a nun at Wilton, 
and certainly appears not to have had the slightest 
connection with Tamworth,) written by an uncertain 
author, preserved in Leland's Collectanea, mention is 
made of ''Eadgitha, Edgari germina, abbas de Tame- 
worth, in provinda Staffordensi." It will be remembered 
that Sithric's widow was aunt to Edgar. Hugh White, 
better known by his Latinized name of Hugo Candidus, 
after mentioning the burial places of many saints, adds, 
^'et in Thamwrthe sancta Edgitha."^ This can only 
mean the daughter of Edward I. for the daughter of 
Egbert was buried at Polesworth, and the daughter of 

1 Hiitoria CoBDcAU Bvrgensto. 

TT 



318 TAMWORTH 

Edgar at Wilton. Thomas Rudbome is most explicit 
on the point; he says, ''Genuit etiam iste Edwardus 
Senior ex Egwinna filiam nomine Edgytham quae nupeit 
Sirichro Comiti Northanhumbrorum, quse et requiesdt 
apud Tanwitham, et pro sancta colitur."^ Lambarde* 
gives implicit credence to the testimony of Rudbome, 
and states her residence and burial at Tamworth^ on 
his authority. Even Speed himself tells us, that Editha, 
daughter of Edward I. after the decease of Sithric^e, 
the Danish King of Northumberland^ *^ obtained of her 
brother's gift the castle of Tamworth, in the countie of 
Warwicke, where she began a monastery of nunnes, 
and therein lived, died, and was interred, and both the 
monastery and body afterwards was removed from thence 
to Pollesworth.'" If then, from his own history, the 
nunnery of Tamworth was foimded in the reign of 
Athelstan, or one of his brothers. Speed's subsequent 
statement, in the Catalogue of Religious Houses, that it 
was foimded by Editha, daughter of Edgar, was most 
probably copied, without consideration, from Leland or 
Camden. Baker, though of no great value as an 
authority, may yet be quoted as confirming our opinion. 
He says of the daughters of Edward Senior, '' the eldest 
was married to Sithricke, the Danish King of North- 
umberland, and he deceasing, she entered into a 
monastery which she began at Tamwor^ in Warwick- 
shire, and there died."^ It must not be concealed that 
Matthew of Westminster asserts that the widow of 
Sithric, "virginitate sibi reservata," retired, not to 
Tamworth but to Polesworth (Pollesberia.)' The subse- 
quent removal of her body to that monastery, together 

1 Ilift If^jor BcdctlK Wlntonlmrii. 9 IMctioiiaiiiun Anglte TbpogimphkuM 
s Hist, or QntA Britsln. 4 Chronicle of tlN Kinn of 1 



CASTLB AND TOWN. S19 

with the confusion of the same name in two saints 
venerated there^ may reasonably account for a mistake. 

The correct appropriation of these three royal and 
sainted recluses seems to be^ 

Editha, daughter of Egbert^ sister of Ethdwulf^ and 
aunt of Alfired^ was Abbess of Polesworth. 

Editha^ daughter of Edward I.^ sister of Athelstan^ 
and aunt of Edgar^ was Abbess of Tamworth. 

Editha, daughter of Edgar^ sister of Edward II., and 
aunt of Edmund II., was a Nun of Wilton. 

They all died, and were buried in their respective 
towns. 

We can add little to the authorities quoted in con- 
firmation of the opinions that Editha, daughter of 
Eadweard, was the foundress of the Convent at 
Tamworth, and that afterwards she was canonized. 
Rudbome's evidence upon this point seems conclusive. 
It is sufficient to say, that no author, to whom we have 
had access, directly denies these statements, or gives 
others that would invalidate them, except those whom 
we have mentioned. It is true that this Editha is not 
at the present time named in the calendar; nor is she 
mentioned in the extensive ''Acta Sanctorum" of the 
BoUandists, or in the more recent "Lives of the Saints", 
by the rev. Alban Butler. Numerous of the Anglo- 
Saxon saints were canonized, not by the pope, but by 
the local bishops. Hence many attained a very limited 
reputation; and after the English was separated from 
the Roman church, their invocation became frequently 
disused. 

The assertion of Matthew of Westminster deserves 
notice, for Editha of Tamworth is named in local records 
as a virgin saint. He states that the marriage of Editha 



320 TAMWORTH 

to Sihtric was only nominal. In those times, such was 
not uncommonly the case. Seyeral well known and 
illustrious examples might be cited: and this was 
more likely to occur when the political conversion of 
the chief party was more than suspicious. 

The confusion of the three saints seems principally 
to have originated with Leland. He certainly fiell into 
error in attributing the foundation of the nunnery at 
Polesworth to Robert de Marmyon; which shows he 
had no exact information on this point. Camden and 
Speed evidently followed him. The festival of Editha, 
daughter of Edgar, was kept annually in September; 
whilst that of the Editha of Tamworth v^as observed 
in the month of July. We may safely conclude they 
were not the same persons. 

The Convent did not remain very long at Tarn- 
worth. Soon after the Conquest, it was incorporated 
with the nimnery of Polesworth. The cause of die 
removal is easily understood, if the assertion of Speed 
be correct, that the brother of Editha bestowed the Castle 
upon her, which she converted into her dwelling. Robert 
de Marmyon must have displaced the nuns, to take 
possession of his newly acquired domains. But if an 
inaccuracy in Speed's statement should exist, we 
may still suppose that they were expelled, when tlus 
nobleman drove those of Polesworth firom his lands; 
and that, when he restored them, he incorporated both 
societies together. Perhaps he may have built the 
Church, in recompense for the injury which the nuns 
of Tamworth had received at his hands. 



THE CHAPELS. 

There are seyeral Chapels in Tamworth unconnected 
with the church of England. The first which demands 
our notice is the 

ROBfAN CATHOLIC CHAPEL. 

Before the erection of this building, the Catholics 
had a mission established in the neighbourhood, at 
Coton. There mass was celebrated weekly in a humble 
cottage. In 1828, the Chapel was commenced, and 
completed in the following year ; when it was opened, 
on the feast of St. John the Baptist, — in honour of 
whom it is dedicated, — ^by the right rey. Dr. Thomas 
Walsh, bishop of Cambysopolis, who presides over the 
Central district of England. 

The Chapel is a neat and tolerably large structure. 
It has no pretension to architectural merit, as it is 
in the Egyptian style. Adjoining it, is a commodious 
house for the residence of the priest The erection of 
the whole cost 2200/. 

Internally the Chapel is very plain. The painting 
oyer the altar is fine ; and was presented by the right 
hon. the earl of Shrewsbury. It represents our Lord 
healing the infirm man at the pool of Bethesda. It was 
painted by one of the Bolognese school, and was formerly 
in the collection of Luden Buonaparte. It was purchased 
by the noble donor at Rome. 



S22 TAMWOBTH 

Attached to this foundation is a school; and very 
recently a burial-ground has been consecrated. The 
Chapel was registered on the Ist of November, 1837, 
as a licensed place for the celebration of marriages. 

The rey. James Kelly has continued pastor from 
the erection of the building to the present time. 

UNITARIAN CHAPEL. 

The Unitarians erected a yery neat Chapel, several 
years ago. It was formerly rather obscurely situated, 
being placed on the east side of Colehill, and at 
some distance from the street. But since the formation 
of Victoria-road, it has been brought much more into 
public sight. 

The architecture of this Chapel is very unpretending ; 
it is built of brick. There is a school attached to it 

The rev. W. Parkinson is the present minister. 

BAPTISTS', METHODISTS', INDEPENDENTS', 
AND FRIENDS' MEETING-HOUSES. 

The Meeting-house of the Baptists, a small plain 
building, was erected about forty years ago. It is 
situated at the bottom of Peel-street. That of the 
Methodists, in Bolebridge-street, was erected in 1816; 
and the one belonging to the Independents, in Alder- 
gate-street, in 1827. The Friends' Meeting-house stands 
in lichfield-street. The existence of these institutions 
is all we can note. 



THE CASTLE. 

HISTORY. 

The information which we possess concerning the 
Castle of Tamworth during the time that England was 
held hy the Anglo-Saxons^ is very scanty. Its erection 
by Ethelfleeda^ — ^its capture by Anlaf^ — ^and its conjec- 
tured conversion into a Convent^ — ^are the only points 
which are known concerning it. These matters have 
been spoken of^ in other parts of our history. 

When the kingdom fell into the hands of William, 
duke of Normandy , after the battle of Hastings, in 1066, 
he bestowed this stronghold with lands in the neigh- 
bourhood, amongst which were the town and lordship 
of Polesworth with Waverton or Wareton and StipershiU, 
upon Robert de Marmyon, lord of Fontenay, in 
Normandy, a baron of great valour and fame. The 
king also gave this distinguished follower of his fortunes 
the manor of Scrivelsby and numerous possessions in 
Lincolnshire. 

It is true that no record of the grant has hitherto 
been found, and that the immediate proof is only 
based upon a faulty legend. Indeed, there are some 
circtmistances which seein actually to isryalidate the 
£Etct. In the Battle-abbey roll, professing to contain a 
list of those who came into England with the Norman 
adventurer, the name of the first Marmyon is stated to 
have been Roger, and not Robert ; and other documents 



S24 TAMWORTH 

contain the same assertion. The Doomsday is silent 
as to the grants and the name of Maimyon is unknown 
in it And we have positive evidence that, previously 
to the time of Stephen^ the Castle was held by Robert 
Dispenoer. 

These may appear to be very formidable objections; 
but a little consideration will remove them. Very slight 
doubt can be entertained^ that Robert de Marmyon was 
the same person as Rodbert or Robert Dispenoer or 
Dispensator^ brother of the noted Urso d* AUtot Those 
who are at all acquainted with ancient history, are 
awaxe of the frequent changes which were made in the 
names of persons from circumstances associated with 
them. An individual might alter his surname, when 
he removed his residence, or was appointed to any 
particular office* The name, Despencer, merely gignifigg 
that the person was the king's steward, — an honourable 
post which Marmyon must have held. Thence he 
would derive his common designation, in conformity 
with the general practice of his times. This conjec- 
ture is capable of being fully confirmed. The inmiediate 
successor of Robert Dispensator is nowhere recorded; 
and the estates named in Doomsday as belonging to 
him were aU, at least so far as they can be traced, in 
the tenure of the Marmyon fiunily, at a little later 
period. His possessions are enumerated as lying at 
four places in Warwickshire ; at fifteen, in Lincolnshire; 
at seventeen, in Leicestershire; and at one place, in 
Gloucestershire. Those in the county of Warwick, 
were at Marston, Filingelei or Fillongley, Leth or Lea, 
and Bertanestone or Barston. Finally, we have direct 
evidence that the Castle was held both by Robert de 
Marmyon and Robert Dispensator; therefore the only 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 826 

legitimate conclusion^ which can be drawn^ is that they 
were the same. 

Nor can we be surprised at the silence of Doomsday 
respecting the Castle. Polesworth is also omitted. In 
fact^ the minor possessions of Robert Dispensator seem 
alone to be noticed. This only strengthens our opinion 
that the Castle had been previously granted by the 
king^ and the service fixed^ so that the commissioners 
left it imnoticed.* 

We find; indeed; amongst some old documents^ and 
particularly in the Battle-abbey roll; that the name of 
the first Marmyon is not written Robert but R(^r. 
The authenticity of this celebrated roll is so small; and 
it contains so many errorS; discovered by comparing 
the various copieS; that no reliance can be placed upon 
it. It is generally agreed that a much more accurate 
list of the followers of duke William might be collected 
out of the Doomsday-book.' From the roll; other 
records probably derived the mistake. Besides; there 

1 See page 59. 
9 AniUoftntloncrftfaedUnerenceslnthecoiriesof thiiroU, nutynotbennlntex^^ 
log. Fuller, In his ** Chorcli-history of Britain/' has gilven seven lists, taken from the 
works of Holtnshed, Stow, Fox, and John Brompton, and an eightti, containing tb» 
names of persons who, after the battle of Hastings, were advanced to seigniorities in 
the land. T6 compare these together we select six names, chosen merely for their 
eminence, and on aocoont of them all being mentioned in Doomsday (except the last,)— 
Nigel de AlUny, Henry de Ferrers, Hagh de Orentemaisnil, Urso de Abitot, Robert 
Dispensator, and Robert de Bfarmyon. We shall find many diversities, omissions, and 
repetitiofis* 
1 Albcny. FinreroBB. Dabitot. Dlspencere. MarmUon. 



9 Albeny Dispencer. Bfarmiloa. 

t Henry, seignenrLe sire de Roger Marmion. 

deFerieres. Grantmesnil. LesiredeFOntenay. 

4 Henry, seig. de Le seig. de Leseig.de Le seig.de Fontnay. 

Ferrers. Orosmenil. Ivetot. Roger Marmion. 

5 Henry,sirede Rogier Marmion. 

Ferrers. Le sire Fontenay. 

6 Ferrer. Despenser 

Feieis. 

7 Ferecs. Spenser. Marmyoon. 

• H. Ferret. H.deAppe* H.deSpen 

R. de Ferrers. . tot. cer. 

U U 



TAMWORTH 

were in Normandy so many as nine commnnes of 
the name of Marmyon ; with one of whom Robert might 
easily have been confounded by historians.^ 

In conformity with the feudal system, Robert de 
Marmyon and his heirs had tenure of their lands by 
military or other serrices. The Castle of Tamworth 

Puller, whoM chief ezcdlence as a writer lies In bis wUty icnutfts, says fhat a 
eatslogne ftom Daonsdaf weie to te beUered oa Itswwrd, bcfcM Battte-ffoQ on it» 
oath. He comiiares the latter to Jason's weather-beaten ship so often patched with 
new boards that it was qoestionabls whether It were the saase with the flrsL 

» Oor readers wttltfi once pcaeelTe that we have been d&seosslnf one or tiie qnea. 
tioBs raised brT. C. Banks, in his " History of the andent noble ftmUy of Marmyun,** 
published In 1817: and perhapaChey nay expect as to follow him thsoochaH the pointSr 
in which he has endeavonred to InTalldate sir WlUlam I>n(dale*s aoeoont of the earty 
Norman lords of Tsmworth-Castle. 

Bat in reality we haye at once destroyed ail his oldeetieas by s isi ii ting, and we trast 
provinff, that Robert de Marmyon was steward to Wnilam I., and therefbte called Dis. 
pencer. This, Indeed, he seems to consider as possibly tnie. Onecr two points may 
be especially referred to. The Ihetthat Miliscent, wife of the first Robert de Marmyon, 
was associated with her husband in some pious donnUons, does not indicate that 
he acquired the lands by her, and thus fisTOur the coiUectnre that she was the dangh. 
ter of Dispenoer. The second RcAert de Marmyon, and his wills Maad, gnve to the 
monks of Fontenay lands which he po sse ssed In M* own right. Nor can the 
Marmyons have acquired the Ctetle of Tsmworth by this Mand; because to her 
hnsbaad was granted fkee- warren In all his land in Warwickshire, as his fhther had 
before him, and by name at Tamworth. nis at ones shows ttiat the flrst Marmyon 
had possession of notable lands at this town. 

In thus summarily relating the work of so eminent a writer, we must ivpndlaAe the 
charge of presumption on our part. We deny all intention to mi s r e p res ent any teeti 
wilfully, to suppress any poiirts which would militate against our oplnkm or in any 
way give a flctltioos honour to our native town. We have not made use of mere 
coqjectures, but have given our dear oonrictions derived from all the records which 
have fallen under our notice. There has long been a contest between Tsmworth and 
Scrivelsby regarding the questions, which was the 'caput baronls' and to which 
was attached the Championship of England. In 1814, Banks was engaged in mam- 
talning, before the House of Lords, the dami of his schod.fdlow and intimate friend, 
Louis Dymoke, esq., to the barony of Marmyon, by seizure of the manor of Scitveisby. 
He was, therefore, interested in the degradation of Tamworth-Castle. In his 'History* 
he has thrown down the gauntlet, and we have daredto take it up. Tlie public must 
be the umpire, and award the palm of victory. 

Of course, we can only give a one-sided view of the question. We have not seen 
the records of Scrirelsby themselveSf^the great distance of the place and other dr- 
cnmstanoes rendering such a course impractleable. We do not wish uiOostly to 
elevate Tsmworth at the expense of Scrivelsby } therefore we maintain that both were 
granted to Marmyon at the same time, and conjointly formed the * caput barooiK.* 
Such honours do we assign to Tamworth-Castle i and this seems the fsirest oondnsMn 
to which we can arrive. Banks considers the * ctfiat baronias * and the Championship 
to be inseparable. This we do not dispute. We trust that, before the conchuion of 
our account of the Castle, we shall have proved that. If baronies by tenure were now 
admitted, the present owner of the Castle of Tsmworth would be a baron of the realms, 
and ought, in strict right, to exercise the office of Royal Champion of England alter- 
nately with the Dymokea. 



CASTIiB AND TOWN. 327 

and the manor of Scrivekby conjointly were held by 
Boyal Championship^ — one of the most noble and 
distinguished offices in the kingdom. The lord of 
these places, or some person in his name if he should 
be preyented by any just cause, was, at the time of 
the king's coronation, to ride completely armed and 
sitting on a barbed horse into the royal presence; 
and there, causing to be proclaimed that he would 
defend the right of the king and the dignity of the 
crown, challenge to mortal combat any person who 
should dare to offer opposition. This honourable office 
the Maimyons are said to have possessed hereditarily 
in Normandy, and to have performed at the crowning 
of the dukes.^ 

Kobert de Maimyon, having thus acquired the Castle 
of TamT(^orth, with its demesnes, most probably con- 
verted it into one of his principal residences.' For this 
purpose, he may have removed from it the society of 
nuns, who are said to have occupied it' According 
to the ancient legend, of which we spoke as containing 
the only direct proof of the grant of the Castle^by the 
Conqueror, he was not content with the territories 
which he had acquired, but seized upon the possessions 
of other religious ladies. This is a poor authority 
whereon to charge him with sacrilege, but we must 
relate the tale as it is given. 

Directly after his settlement here, Robert de Marmyon 
expelled the nuns of Polesworth from their convent, 
and, driving them from their lands, retained their 
property. Being compelled to leave their peaceful 

1 Cunden's Britannia. 
9 Dngdale't Baronage has been oonsnlted in Uie text, and bit Antiqnitiet of War- 
fvidubire, in the notes, oaless we bave giyen references to other authoritiet. 
S See page S90. 



S28 TAMWORTH 

shelter, the holy Benedictine sisterhood took np their 
abode in a small cell at Oldbury, a tew miles distant, 
probably the only place that they slill held. There 
they remained, hoping that the days of adversity might 
soon pass by, and some providential incident restore 
them to their former state. It accordingly so happened ; 
for the cause which these weak Saxon females were 
unable to uphold against a potent Norman baron, was 
vindicated by extraordinary power. 

Within the space of a twelve-month, continues ibe 
legend, Robert de Marmyon made a very costly 
entertainment at this Castle, to which he assembled 
numerous noble iriends and guests. Amongst them, 
was his sworn brother-in-arms, sir Walter de Somervile, 
lord of Wichnor, in Staffordshire. Whilst Marmyon 
was reclining on his bed, St. Editha, habited as a veiled 
nim, and bearing a crosier in her hand, appeared to 
him in a vision. She upbraided him for his sacri- 
legious dispoliation, and announced to him that, unless 
the abbey of Polesworth were restored to her successors, 
he should eventually suffer an evil death, and go to 
hell. And in order to make him more sensible of her 
admonition, she smote him on the side with the point 
of her pastoral staff; and then vanished. Being aroused 
by the blow, he cried out so loudly that his friends in 
the house heard him, and immediately hurried to his 
chamber, to learn what had occurred. They found him 
extremely tormented with the pain of his wound, and 
the bed covered with blood. He related the circum- 
stances of the vision to them. They advised him to 
confess himself, and to make a solemn vow that he 
would restore the nuns, and make full compensation to 
them. After he had acted in accordance with their 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 829 

advice, his pain ceased^ and he recovered. In accomi* 
plishment of his vow, he rode to Oldbury, accompanied 
by his friends^ and sir Walter de Somervile. He asked 
pardon of the nuns for the injury which he had done 
to them ; and caused them to return to Polesworih. At 
the same time, he begged that he and his sworn 
brother-xn-arms might be reputed their patrons, and 
have sepulture for themselves and their heirs at the 
convent, — ^the Marmyons in the chapter-house, and the 
Somerviles in the cloisters. Thus the nuns were re- 
instated, and enjoyed their rights during the remainder 
of the reign of William the Conqueror, and in the 
times of his successors.^ 

There can be but one opinion concerning this legend. 
In it has clearly been embodied, long after the 
Conquest, a popular tradition containing as usual 
great error foimded upon some truth. We will leave 
the supernatural part of the narration alone, and dwell 
only upon the historical statements. In these, vnll be 
found some important mistakes. Walter de Somervile 
was not then lord of Wichnor; for, according to the 
Doomsday-book, it was held by Robert de Stafford.' 
But it is certain that it soon passed to the Somerviles. 
And again we have good grounds for asserting that one 
of the main incidents could hardly have occurred in 
the reign of the Conqueror. The fundamental truth of 
the legend seems to be the deprivation and restoration 
of the nuns. Their reinstitution cannot be questioned. 

I Dofdaie's Monatt. Anfl. The place of Mpoltare of any of the Mannyon 
family, we have not ascertained. The remains of the nunnery at Polesworth are very 
scanty, and have been conrerted Into small dweUing.honses and ontbolldlnffs. It is 
impoMible to discover the original destination of the parts. A large gate-way and a 
scmlorciilar arched passage leading towards the church, the fragments of a staircase, 
and the ashlar masonry at the anises of the walls, are almost all the partlcolars that 
wooM attract attention. Not a single tomb is now to be seen amidst the mlns. 
S 8haw*8 SCalltodsh. 



330 TAMWOBTH 

It expressly appears from the charter of Robert de 
Marmyon^ that^ for their re-establishment at Polesworth, 
he gave to Osanna, the prioress^ the church of St. 
Editha in that place, in order that the convent of 
Oldbury might remain there. The exact words are as 
follows: — ^^'Notum sit omnibus me ooncessisse Osannse, 
prioress®, ad religionem instaurandum Sanctimonialium 
ibi, Ecclesiam S. Edithee de Pollesworda, cum pertinen- 
tiis; ita quod Conventus de Aldeberia ibi sit manens."' 
Robert de Marmyon and MiUsoent his wife also bestowed 
on the sisterhood the whole town of Polesworth, with 
all their demesnes in Waverton.' The grant was 
afterwards confirmed by king Stephen. Hence Leland 
has attributed to this baron and his lady the foundation 
of that religious house. But the words of the charter, 
which we have quoted, show that it was a previously 
constituted community. It is generally believed to 
have been instituted by Ecgberht the Great, for his 
daughter Editha. She was afterwards canonized, with 
her great instructress Modwen, who came with Lyne 
and Osythe from Ireland.' 

But we cannot date the restoration of the monastery 
of Polesworth before the commencement of the reign of 
Henry I. Our reason is very simple. Osanna was 
prioress when Robert de Marmyon re-established the 
nuns ; and, in the time of Stephen, she gave licence to 
Elias le Sauvage to have a chapel at Pooley,^ Roger 
de Clinton being then bishop of the diocese. This 

1 Lelaiul's CoItoctauML 
1 WATBKTOMWMgiTaitotfaeniuMlathetlmeofHeniyl.oirthcitaJboatt. Robert 
de Marmyon enfeoilM Robert de Qrendon in certain lands in this Tillace, with Dobdon 
adjacent, to be held by aenrice of one kniffht*s fiw. Theie placet were Ions lield by 
the heln of Marmyon. 

3 Daxdale*a Warwickah. 
4 FooLiT, in the pariah of Poleaworth, waa granted to the Marmyona. The second 
baron of the Aunily, about Stephen's time, oontered it on Bnidet, in fee4hnn, at an 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 381 

prelate was consecrated in 1129, and died in 1148. If 
we assign the year 1084, — only four years before the 
Conqueror's death, — as the date of the legendary 
occurrence, and 1140^ as that of the licence, Osanna 
must have been abbess for a period of more than fifty- 
six years, and must have attained an extraordinary age. 
Truly if this is not beyond the bounds of possibility, it 
is certainly not within the limits of probability. Osanna 
was also prioress when Walter de Hastings^ and Hade- 
wise his wife, in the reign of Henry I., gave to the 
nuns the site of Oldbury and all Stipershill,' in 
fields and woods, down to the middle of the valley on 
that side of Mancetter ; and a certain part of the wood 
on the south-east of Oldbury, extending to the rivulet 
which runs from Hartshill; and also two grounds 

•nniud rent of ite. The latter Mon afterwards granted it to Saavage. Osanna, the 
abbess of Polesworth, with the consent of her fellow nans, gave pennisslon to Elias» 
son of GeoA«y 1e Sanvsge, to hare a du^el here, bat without serrlce,— for prayers 
without nutfs we sappose,— snd a chapel-yard. In return he gare to the conrent, the 
inheritance of four acres of the best meadow-ground in this Tillage; promised to pay 
annually daring his life ISil. upon St. Editha's alter, on the day of her festiTal ; and 
bequeath his body to be buried in the church of Folesworth. This agreement was 
made in the presence of Roger de Qintan, the bishop. 

But the tenure in fee-fisrm did not endure for a long time. Robert de Marmyon, 
probably the son of him who made the grant to Burdet, in consideration of ten marks 
and the yearly payment of a sore sparrow-hawk to himself and his heirs, released the 
rent of lOs. unto Geofty, brother snd heir of Elias le SauYage. Subsequently William 
Burdet acquitted to Philip, the last of the Mannyons of Tsmworth-Castle, all his ri^ht 
to the homage and services of William le Sauvage, grandson of the second Geoflkvy, 
for the lands of Fooley. Henceforward they were held immediately of the Mannyons, 
by senrioe of a sore sparrow-hawk, or in Ueu S«. to be paid on the feast of St. James 
the Apostle, in the nature of soccage-tenure. 

1 At the time of the genersl surrey, Fillonolbt was held by the bishop of Coa- 
tance, the church of Coventry, Alsi a Saxon, snd Robert Dispensator. Bach possessed 
half a hide} snd fax the portion of the latter was the church, with wood two miles 
long and one broad : valued altogether at 90s. 

Of the portion possessed by the Mannyons, Walter de Hastings, was enfeoffBd, in 
the time of Henry I. j and, at the end of that king's reign, it was held by his son Hugh. 
Bis descendants continued possessed of it, by service paid to the lords of TAmworth. 
CssUe : and there they most probably resided, until Henry de Hastings acquired, by 
marriage, the castle of Abergavenny, in Wales. See pp. 07 ond 88. 

1 SriPsasBiLi., near Folesworth, is said to have belonged to the Mannyons. 
Osmden erroneously states that they had their castle here: there was once a little 
fortlflcation. It continued for many ages fai the possession of the lords of Tam- 
worth-Castie} who, from the reign of Edward III. at least, kept their courts there. 



882 TAMWOBTH 

called Calf-croft and Biicbley. Hub might seem another 
evidence of the worthlessness of the legend in describing 
Oldbury as belonging to the nuns in the Conqueror's 
reign. But it appears from the declaration of Roger 
de Clinton the bishop, who witnessed the deed, that 
the grant was made, in order that Walter and Hadewise 
might not retain any of the property belonging rightly 
to the convent of Polesworth. This shows that the 
nuns had previously possessed it. The great error in 
the legend is the placing of the dispossession and 
restoration of the nuns so close together in point 
of time. If we date the latter circumstance about the 
middle of the reign of Henry I., no difficulty can be 
found in reconciling the other fiausts there given. In 
some of the laws of this king, the preambles acknowledge 
the manifold oppressions which religious bodies had 
suffered : and afterwards restitutions were very generally 
made. 

Nothing more than what we have related is known 
of the first Norman lord of the Castle, except that, 
with Miliscent, he granted to the monks of Bardney, in 
Lincolnshire, the adjacent town of Budegate, for the 
health of the souls of his father and mother, his own 
soul, that of his wife, and for the souls of their heirs. 
He died in the time of Henry I.; and was succeeded 
by his son, also named Robert.' 

1 The fint Robert wm not improbebly the tether of Rofer de Maimyon, whom 
DoKdale namei as being posiewed of Arrow. 

From Roger, Arrow descended to Robert his gnndchild, who afterwards passed 
it away to QtoBtej his onde. The daughter of the latter,— Albredat—oonTeycd It 
to William de CamvUe i who afterwards became her husband. He was a younger 
son of Richard de CamvUe, a ** devout and pioos man," who founded Combe-abbey 
for Cistertian monks. 

Lady Albreda purchased a mill at Stretton.soper>Dunsmore of these monks, for 
twenty marks. She afterwards assigned it to them again, on condition that they 
should solemnize the annirenaries of her husband, of herself, of William her son, 
and of the rest of her sons and daughters. To William her son, she gave a fourth 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 333 

Henry I.^ like his predecessors, was ardently fond of 
the chase. He increased the number of royal forests, and 
framed laws of the severest nature to prevent encroach- 
ments, and preserve the animals within them. Amongst 
these regulations, there was one by which the barons 
were forbidden to hunt, even upon their own lands, 
without royal permission. Most of the nobles were, 
therefore, compelled to obtain licence that they might 
indulge in a sport, which formed one of their most 
fiivourite amusements. Robert de Marmyon received 
from the king a charter, dated at Cannock, in Stafford- 
shire, by which free-warren was conceded to him in all 
his lands in the county of Warwick, in woodland and 
plain, as his father had before him, and by name here 
at Tamworth. 

This nobleman attained considerable note in the 
struggles between the empress Maud and Stephen for 
the crown of England. He was in Normandy when 
Geoffirey, count of Anjou, Maud's husband, attempted 
to gain that dukedom from the English king: and he 
fought in the cause of the latter. The command of 
Falaise was committed to him; and he bravely held it 
out against all the vigorous attempts of Geofirey to 
take it by storm. But in retaliation, the count besieged, 
and at length gained, his strong castle of Fontenay, 
and razed it completely to the ground. This occurred 
in the year 1139. 

part of a knifht'i fee in SecUncton, of the fee of Robert Bomu» earl of Leicester, 
wluch the had acquired of her ftither; a&other fourth part, of the fee of the earl of 
Warwick s and half a koif ht*s Cee there and in Weeton, which Simon de Barcheston 
held. For these, her son gave her forty marks and discharged her of twenty, due to 
the monks of Combe, for the performance of her husband's anniversary. Albreda 
certainly held Dostltill j she granted the senrioe of James de la Launde for this place 
to William her son. 

wniiam de Ladington held part of a knight's fee tai WUneoote of lady Albreda de 
MarmyoD, who held it of the earls of Mellent. 

W W 



SS4 TAMWORTH 

After this occurrence, Robert de Marmyon granted 
away his lands in Fontenay. With Maud de Beauchamp 
his wife, he gave permission to his tenants by military 
service there, to bestow the lands upon the monks of 
that place. This was not his only donation, in the 
course of his life, to ecclesiastical foundations* He 
gave a hide of land in Widefleet, with the mill there, 
to the monks of Bermondsey, in Southwalk: and he 
bestowed the church of Quinton, in Gloucestershire, on 
the nuns of Polesworth. After Stephen had been taken 
prisoner, in February, 1140-1, Maud became queen 
for a short time. Whilst at Oxford to celebrate the 
approaching festival of Easter, she began to manifest 
her haughty and vindictive spirit In spite of the 
remonstrances of her most attached Mends, she un- 
sparingly confiscated the property of those who had 
been the partizans of Stephen, and bestowed them upon 
her own adherents. Amongst other nobles, Robert de 
Marmyon shared in her indignation. She seiased his 
barony and possessions at this town; and granted the 
Castle and honour of Tamworth to William de Beau- 
champ, to hold as freely as they had ever been enjoyed 
by Robert Dispencer, the brother of Urso d' Abitot. 
Emeline, the daughter of Urso, was the mother of 
William de Beauchamp. On this accoimt, it would 
seem, he obtained the possessions of the son of his 
grand-uncle, — ^the first Robert de Marmyon. 

Whether William de Beauchamp actually enjoyed the 
Castle of Tamworth, we do not know. At all events, 
he can only have held it so long as Maud retained 
power, whilst Stephen was a prisoner. Robert de 
Marmyon did not live long after the liberation of the 
king, which took place in September, 1141. William 



CASTLE AND TOWN. SS5 

de Newbury speaks of him in no very gentle terms. 
He describes him as a quarrelsome person^ equalled by 
few of his time in ferocity and knavery. Between this 
noble and Balph, earl of Chester^^ a feudal war arose, 
in the prosecution of which he lost his life. 

Intent upon the destruction of this earl's house and 
family, the fierce baron of Tamworth, in 114S, marched 
with all his forces to Coventry, where his opponent's 
Castle was situated. He seized upon the priory there, 
and, driving out the monks, converted it into a fortress ; 
from whence he might attack the castle. For greater 
security, he caused numerous deep ditches to be secretly 
dug in the adjacent fields. These were lightly covered 
over with soil, so that if any one of the enemy should 
approach he might be ensnared. As the earl's troops 
rapidly drew near, Robert de Marmyon rode out to 
reconnoitre them. But it so happened that, whilst 
charging at the head of his own soldiers, he forgot 
where the traps had been formed, and his own horse 
fell into one of them. He was thrown down with great 
violence, and his thigh broken. A common soldier 
immediately rushed upon him, and cut off his head, 
before any of his friends could hasten to his succour, 
and rescue him. 

Kobert de Marmyon had a son, also named Robert; 
who succeeded, and became the third baron of the 
family. He must have been very young at his father's 
decease, as he survived him about seventy-five years. 

This Robert de Marmyon, having obtained his father's 
estates, had granted to him, by royal charter dated at 

1 B«^, Mil of Chester, gnated to Robert de Mannron and hii liein, about 
Stapben'a time, the eenrioe of Osbert de Arden rendered for the manor of Kimossubt. 
But, aotwithetandhig, thla place was afterwards hdd of the earl of Chester's heirs, 
as of the manor of ChUesmore in Coventry. 



SS6 TAMWORTH 

Bruges, free-warren in all his land in WarwidLshire, 
and by name at Tamworth, in woodland and plain, as 
his ancestors had in the time of Henry I. And no 
one was to hunt in it, or to capture a hare, without 
his licence, under penalty of 10/.' Upon the aasessment 
of the aid, in 1166, to provide for the marriage of 
Matilda, the king's eldest daughter, with Henry the 
lion, duke of Saxony, Bavaria, Angaria, and Westphalia, 
it was certified, according to the red book of die 
Exchequer, that he held eleven knights' fees, whereof 
his ancestors had been enfeoflfed in the time of Henry I. ; 
and three, which he himself had acquired. Banks, 
however, says that the black book gives a diferent 
account, and sets forth that the knights' fees were eleven, 
a fourth part, and a fifth part, de veteri feoffiimento; 
and five, and a fourth part, de novo feoffiunento: of 
which latter, Geoffrey de Marmyon held one. For these, 
within two years, when the marriage took place, he 
paid 7/, 12s. 8rf.» 

1 Rot ptX., V H. VI., per Inspez. 

3 We will here ipeek of the pceaeulont of the Mennxona at Otsk Wbitagkb aad 
Frbaslbt, in Warwickahlre. 

Id Doomsday, there is no distinction be tween Orer and Nether WMtacre. Tbey 
were held by TorchU de Warwick, Hogh de Grentemaianil, and Robert de Ved. 

The greatest part of these very soon came into the possession of the Itarmyons. 
Of Orer Whitacre the fether of Simon de Whitaere wasenfeolIM, In the time of Henry 
I., to hold by service of half a knight's fee. He also obtained the remainder from the 
family of Arden, immediately descended firom Torchtt de Warwick. This Simon de 
Whitacre, by mairlage with the sister and heiress of Robert de Kalli, aoqoiied Flneasiey. 
This place was oiicinally a member of Folesworth, and belonged to the Marmyons, 
who gave it to KaOi or his progenitor} as, in tiie rdgn of Henry II., Robert, the third 
baron, designated him his knight, because he owed him military scrrice fSnr it : and he 
confirmed the grant of Freaaley.mill, which KaOi had made to the nvns of Poie s w orth . 

Simon de Whitacre died in 1187» leaving Alan and Jordan his sons. To Alan, 
succeeded his son Simon ; who, removing his residence to Bardlieston, assumed tiiat 
as his surname. In isss, he passed Over Whitacre to Simon, son of Jordan and 
Isolds his wife, to be held of hhn by service of half a knight*s fee. In li38, it was 
agreed between the parties that Simon de Whitacre should perform the required 
military service, by taking the office of warder at the Castle of nunworth. But Simon 
de Barchestou and his heirs were to have ward, marriage, and relief, from Snnan de 
Whitacre and his heirs, whenever required. And the latter were to pertorm aoit at 
this Castle, for the former. Over-Whitacre and Freaaley, descended from Staaon to 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 881 

In the time of Henry 11., which was oompanitiyely 
free from war, Robert de Mannyon was only distin* 
gniflhed by the local dignities which he aoqpiixed. In 
1185, he was made sheriff of Worcestershire. At this 
time, he is mentioned as ^M*nas de Marmion, baxo de 
Tamworth:''^ whence it is evident that he was a baron 
by die tenuze of Tamwordi-Castle, whatever he might 
be in right of Scrivelsby. He continued in that office 
until nearly the close of 1188. In the year preceeding 
this latter date, he was a justice-itinerant in Warwick- 
shire and some other counties. And, in 1189, he was 
again constituted sheriff of Worcestershire. 

We do not know whether Robert de Marmyon 
attended Richard I., during his splendid exploits in 
Palestine. At least, we have not hitherto found him 
mentioned as participating in the holy war. But, in 
1194, after the liberation of the king from the hands 
of Henry VI., emperor of Germany, he accompanied 
Richard into Normandy ; who was determined to retaliate 
upon Philip, the French king, the injuries received 
from him by his favouring John, in fomenting discord 
amongst the English subjects, during their monarch's 
absence. The war continued for a long time. In 1197, 
Robert de Marmyon was one of those eminent persons 
who subscribed the confederation made between Richard 

Jonlan htoscm** a man potent in the Ooontrie'*} and to Richard, Ml BOB. Thelatter, 
ini«i, held then at the death af FhiUp de BfannroD. by Mrrtee of a kalKht«a Hm. 
(Inqvia. 90 B. 1.) Bnt, on the death of Joan Mortein, eldeet danghter of PhiUp, he is 
aaid to have held a lml(ht*s tat, and a iSoorth part, in theie plaoea, (Inqoia. 18 E. i.) 
The great giand^anghtar of thia Btehard carried Whitacie and rreaalejr to Alan de 
Waidhne i whoee two danghtaia and cohefafenee «cai ?e y ed them. tenp. Hen. VIL, to 
theftanlllesor Horeand Walah. In 1S75, air Baldwin de Frevile died aemed of two 
partaof akBii»ft>aiBefaiR«aele7*which Bichard de Whttacre, frand-eon of the laat 
named Bkhard, held. AIm half a knlghfa fee in Whttacre, that Jordan de Whitam 
once had (IwinlB. 4Q B. lU.) And, in 1887. anoClier air Baldwm de nwOe. at his 
de■a^ w«i oeiaed of the thnrd part of a knisfaes fee in Freaaley. and half a kaigfat's 
feelnWhttacR.'whichthahdnofBlcharddeWhltacreheid. (Inqnls. II R. 11.) 
1 Brdeswicke:->edit. 1844. 



388 TAMWOBTH 

I. and Baldwin, count of Flanders, against the French 
sovereign/ Richard died abroad in 1199. 

Again we find nothing particular named of the third 
Robert de Marmyon, for some years. But, in 1813, 
the then aged warrior accompanied John in the expe- 
dition made into Poiteau, to r^;ain the Engb'sh terntories 
which had been seized by the French, on account of 
the murder of Arthur, duke of Britanny, the claimant 
to the British ihrone. But, for some reason, Robert de 
Marmyon, after a short time, took oflfence, and joined 
the French king. John was highly incensed at this 
step. Out of revenge, in 1215, he commanded his 
chamberlain, Thomas de Erdington, to hasten with 
some forces to the Castle of Tamworth, and, taking out 
of it all the prisoners, horses, aims, and ammunition, to 
pull it down to the groimd.' Whether this order was 
attempted to be executed, does not appear: at least 
the edifice was not destroyed. John did not live many 
months afterwards. 

Robert de Marmyon was a bene&ctor to the church. 
He gave to the knights-templars at Balsall, the mill 
of Barston, in Warwickshire.' And, in 1175, lie con- 
firmed to the nuns of Polesworth the church of 
Quinton, which his father had bestowed upon them. 
He died about 1217, leaving Robert his eldest son and 
heir. By another wife, Philippa, he had two other 
sons, one also named Robert, the other William. His 

1 Rymer's FQedenu 9 Dncdite's WanHdnh.. 

3 At the genena mantj, Bamtov wbb held hr Robert de Olgi. Iqr « penoo neaed 
Robert, end hr Robert Dispensetor. The portion of the latter wet ttiemoetezteiMlTc, 
behig eathneted at ten hldee, indndinff a mill which paid ur. attogeOier Talued at 
100*. 

Tlic early hiitory of this place is imperfieetly known. It was partly giTen to tiie 
knlfhts-teni^laTB and partly to the knights-hoepltaUos. In 1185, the templars had 
lands here, amoontmc to the yearly Talue of u. 9d,, said to be of the fee of Robert de 
Marmyon. The donor's name is not expressed. 



CASTLE AHD TOWN. 889 

widow survived him for some years; for, in 1S20, 
Hemy de Armentiers and William de Gurli were joined 
in commission, with other persons of quality in War- 
wickshire, to be justices for taking an assize of novel 
disseisin, which she had brought against Robert de 
Marmyon the younger, concerning the dowery of such 
lands, as her husband was seized of at his death, in 
Tamworth and Middleton.^ 

Bobert de Marmyon, the elder son, took part with 
Philip Augustus against king John, and was in France 
when the latter died. On the death of his father, 
Bobert de Marmyon the younger gave 500/. to the king 
to have the custody of the Castle of Tamworth, and 
the lands which his father had held at the time of his 
death, until arrangements should be made that the 
English might peaceably enjoy their estates in Normandy, 
and the Normans, theirs in England. But if, before this 
should take place, Bobert the elder should make his 
peace with the king and receive the possessions of 
his father, he should pay to his brother, Bobert the 



1 Dofdate'tWanrickiUn. 

In tlM Oonqoflror's time, Miooutov bcloii(ed toHvgfa de Grantemainia end Adelix 
hie wife J tmt it eoaii ceae to tke Mttmfona. Peiliapa Ifdlioent wife of the lint 
Robert, WB8 their daughter. In 1185, the tem^lere held lends there, which had been 
bestowed npon fheni bjr QeuAejr de Mennjron* 

In the femtly it conttnoed. IniS85, Fhilipdaimedby praacrlptSanecoort-leetand 
gallowe there. These were sBowed. Bat to his demand for ftee-warren, the Jury 
answered that the earls of Warwick had free chase, tahinc fuifeitiu es for all oflbnces 
done therein, and that he had no warren, except by grant from Sla, countess of 
Warwid, dutaic the term of her life. Thereupon he was amerced for his nndne 



On the death of FhUp de Marmyon, It was dirlded amongst his three coheiresses; 
whooaiTeyedittottienrevllcs,BoleIers,and HlUarlee. Atthlstlme,itwascertataity 
hdd of the churdi of TSmworth, by serrice of (it. M. amraally. How It was 
aeqidred, we cennot say : this feet was mikaown to Dogdale. In 180S, the Freriles 
aeqaired Hillary's part, by porchase. In 19Q0, sir Baldwin de nerile procured a 
licence from Richard Scroope, bishop of Oorentry and Llchfleld, to hare an oratory 
or private ctu^l In his manor-hoose there. 

Bottler's part also came to the neriles) far Margaret, the youngest sister of the 
test sir Baldwin, carxled it entire to her husband i and by her It passed into the femily 
of wmonghby. 



340 TAMWOBTH 

younger, so much of the 600/. as the profits and 
of the lands might ML short of that smn. Bobert the 
younger was then to enjoy the lordships of Wintering^iam 
and Coningsby, in Lincolnshire ; Quinton, in Gloucester- 
shire ; and Berwick, in Sussex : and William, his junior 
brother, was to have Torrington, in Lincolnshire, and 
lands to the annual value of 10/. in Berwick. Of all 
these, they had special grants from thor h&er. 

And it was fiffther concluded, that Robert the 
younger should give to the king good security that he 
would keep this Castle for the royal use, and ddiver 
it up whenever it should be required. He aooordii^y 
found securities for the performance of these conditions, 
— ^Nicholas de Verdon, Geoffirey de Camvile, William 
de HaxdreshuU, Ralph Fiti Ralph, Thmnas de Offerton, 
John de Culi, Richard Russell, Robert de la Lande, 
Robert de Passi, William de Fou, and Matthew Char- 
nels, all of whom were men of note in the a^aoent 
country. These arrangements being completed, Robert 
the younger had a special royal precept to William de 
Harcourt, then governor for the king, to deliver up the 
Castle to him. 

Robert de Marmyon the elder did not immediately 
quit the king of France. But it does not appear that 
he aided Louis, in his attempts to gain the throne of 
England, to which he had been invited by the turbulent 
barons, when they were driven to seek a new sovereign, 
by the unprincipled conduct of John. After the defeat 
of the French and the conclusion of a treaty between 
England and France, Robert de Marmyon made his 
peace with Henry HI.; and, in 1S20, he received the 
Castle of Tamworth, with the rest of his father's lands ; 
as appears by the king's signification of his pleasure to 



CASTI^ AMD TOWN. 341 

all who held lands of it^ by military service or otherwise^ 
and to the sheriff of Warwickshire. Robert the younger^ 
therefore^ surrendered the possessions. His posterity 
long flourished in the county of Lincoln.* 

It is very probable that^ after the expiration of 
several years, Robert de Marmyon returned into Nor- 
mandy. For, in 1233, he assigned all his estates in 
England, for the space of seven years, to the. care of 
Peter de Rupibus, bishop of Winchester; with the 
guardianship of Philip his son and heir, whose disposition 
in marriage this prelate was to effect as he should 
think proper, without disparagement. The bishop, 
afterwards, with the consent of Robert and Philip, 
made an assignment of the wardship to William de 
Cantilupe, a great man of that time. Of Robert the 
elder, we find nothing more recorded, except that he 
died in 1241. 

Philip de Marmyon succeeded to all his father's 
estates. In 1243, he married Joan, one of the daughters 
and coheiresses of Hugh de Killpeck, of Killpeck-castle, 
in Herefordshire; whose guardianship and disposal in 
marriage had been committed to William de Cantilupe. 
For her lands, Philip paid relief in the following year, 
and, doing homage to the king, had livery' of them. 
In 1247, he paid a fine of six marks of silver to 

1 Robert d« Mannyon, Jimlor, became lord of WlnterinKbam, in Lincolnshire. 
He nanied a danghter of Jemefan Fits Hac:h, and had iaaae William ; whose son and 
heir John was smnmoned to Parliament as a baron firom the 8th of Jane, 1S04, to the 
Ufh of March, ISSI-S ; in which year he died. Hia son,. John, was summoned fh>m 
the ard of December, 1S90, to the 1st of April, 133A. He had issue, Robert, who died 
8. P., leavinir his two sisters his heirs,— Joan married to sir John Bemack, and Avice, 
the second wife of John lord Grey, of Rotherford,— between whom the baiony fell 
into abeyance. John, eldest son of Avice, assumed the name of Marmyon ; but he 
died S. P. in 1385, leaThiR hia niece his heir. 

WUUam, brother of Robert the younger, had a son William; who was summoned 
to Parttamient on the 24th of December, 1904, but never afterwards j and he appears 
to hare had no Issue. Nickolaa*a Peerage. 

8 From the Norman livrer : hence the word Delivery. 

X X 



S42 TAMWORTH 

Thomas de Clinton, that he and his heirs, his wife 
and their heirs, might enjoy the liberty of fishing with 
a boat an3rwhere in the water at Amington, with one 
net called a Fleunet, and a Tramil and Sayna, when they 
came to Tamworth or Middleton.' And he obtained a 
confirmation of the charter of free-warren, dated at 
Winchester, on the S4th of January, 1S48-9, which his 
ancestors had previously enjoyed in Warwickshire.' 

In the tempestuous reign of Henry III., Philip de 
Marmyon became a person of no mean celebrity in 
England. He was constituted sheriff of the counties of 
Warwick and Leicester in 1849: and he retained the 
office for three years. He was, at the same time, made 
governor of the castle of Sauvey, in the latter shire. 
But, in 1252, he was questioned finr sitting with Richard 
de Mundevile, and the rest of the justices ibr the gaol- 
delivery at Warwick, as he had no commission to 
assume that office. 

This nobleman attended the king into Crascoigne, in 
125S, to aid in the suppression of a general revolt in 
this province, which yet belonged to England. The 
inhabitants had even called in the king of Castile to 
take possession of their country. Henry arrived at 
Bourdeaux, on the 15th of August. His powerful amy 
soon subdued the rebels; and a reconciliation was made 
between the two kings, and confirmed by the conclusion 
of a marriage between prince Edward and Eleanor, 
princess of Castile. Henry returned to England at the 
close of the year, after having been magnificently en- 
tertained fcHT eight days at Paris, by Louis. But many 

1 ThomM'8 Dofdale. 
9 Rot p«t. 37 H. VI. In 1S48, he brancht in Mdw ■gsinit Ba, oonntMi of War- 
wick, for common of putore witliiii Uie lordsliip of SnttOD-CoMMd. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 84S 

of the English nofaility^ on their way back, in the 
following year, although they had letters of protection 
firom the king of France, were taken prisoners by the 
French in Poiteau. Amongst these, were John de 
Pkssets, earl of Warwick, Grilbert de Segrave, and 
Philip de Marmyon. 

The detention of the lord of Tamworth-Castle was 
not of a very long duration. For, in 1257, he joined 
the expedition made into Wales, to put down the 
rebellious natives. In the next year, he had summons, 
with other great men, to resort to Chester, on the eve 
of the nativity of St. John the Baptist; well furnished 
with horse and arms, to march against Llewellyn ap 
Griffith. And, in 1260, he was commanded, with all 
the chief nobility, to be at London on the day after 
the feast of Sts. Simon and Jude, for a similar purpose. 

At this time, the barons b^an more openly to intrude 
upon the royal prerogatives, by assuming powers, which 
Henry knew not how to weild with judgment. They 
fdaced sheriffs of their own election in numerous 
counties of the realm. Philip de Marmyon, as a baron 
in whose fidelity the king reposed great confidence, had 
then, by special patent, the counties of Norfolk and 
Suffolk committed to his care ; with the custody of the 
castles of Norfolk and Orford. In 1262-S, he received 
commands to attend at Hereford, on the Monday after 
Candlemas day, to resist Llewellyn ap Griffith; as also 
to be at Worcester, on the ensuing Lammas-day — 1263, 
well accoutred, for the same purpose. 

But, at this time, numerous of the most ^powerful 
baions rose in rebellion to compel the king to give 
his assent to the ordinances which they had drawn 
up at Oxford, tending so greatly to undermine the 



344 TAMWOKTH 

royal' authority. They seized numerous of the castles, 
and ravaged without mercy the lands of those who 
refrained from joining them. Louis, IX., who was con- 
stituted arbitrator, summoned the parties to Amiens, 
on the 2Srd of January, that he might hear them 
plead their respective causes. And he made both find 
sureties on oath for their adherence to the determi- 
nation which he should make. Philip de Marmyon, 
being a person of unshaken loyalty, was chosen on 
the part of the king. 

Louis, on the Srd of February, pronounced his 
sentence. He ordained that the provisions of Oxford, 
as opposed to the regal prerogatives and to the ancient 
constitution, should be annulled; the castles and lands 
restored to the king; and also the nomination of the 
great officers of state, and of the royal household. A 
general amnesty was to be granted to all subjects for 
past ofTences, and they should fully enjoy all the 
liberties and privileges given to them by former 
charters, the infraction of which had been the great 
incitement to the insurrection. This award was not 
agreeable either to the king or to the barons, but 
especially to the latter; who immediately rejected it. 

Hostilities were very soon commenced. Henry sum- 
moned all the tenants of the crown to meet him at 
Oxford. At first, fortune favoured his arms. He laid 
siege to Northampton ; and it was taken by assault on 
the dth of April, 1264; when Simon de Montfort, the 
son of the leader of the barons, with the whole garrison, 
was captured. Philip de Marmyon is named as being 
present upon this occasion, with all the power which 
he could raise. Leicester and Nottingham submitted to 
prince Edward without any struggle. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. S45 

Henry then marched into the sonth of England to 
relieve Rochester^ where the earl of Warenne was 
besieged by the earl of Leicester. On the approach of 
the royalists, Leicester retired to London. There he 
was joined by fifteen thousand of the citizens: and, 
with his forces thus augmented, he marched to encounter 
his opponents. The two armies met near Lewes, in 
Sussex, where a fierce battle ensued. Philip de Mar- 
myon fought there for the king. The issue was fatal, 
for Henry was captured, and Edward was soon compelled 
to surrender himself into the hands of the baronial 
party. 

The battle of Evesham restored Heni^ HI. to his 
throne. Philip de Marmyon appears to have joined in 
it: and he was afterwards present during the famous 
siege of Eenilworth-castle, which Henry de Hastings so 
stubbornly maintained, for four months. Immediately 
upon the surrender of this fortress, Philip was made 
governor of it, for the king.^ He obtained by confisca- 
tion the lands of Thomas de Endesore, a rebel; and 
also all the king's demesnes, in Tamworth, especially 
those of Henry de Hastings, as we have noticed in 
other parts of our History. The lands of Endesore were 
restored in consequence of the Dictum de Kenilworth ; 
those of Hastings, at a subsequent period; and the 
Warwickshire part Philip retained until his death. 

The remainder of the life of Philip de Marmyon was 
unmarked by any particular military exploits. In 1285, 
he claimed by prescription and was allowed a court-leet 
and gallows at Tamworth, with all waifs found in a 
certain place called Ashland, within this manor, and 

1 DiRctty after Uw siege, FhiUp de Bfannjron cairled aw»y from the castle, arms, 
lead. Iron, and other things, to the Taloe of 10/. The legality of this proceeding 
seems to bare been qoestloned. 



346 TAMWORTH 

also fiee-warren in his demerae-hnds here, and in those 
belonging to the nuns of Folesworth, as he and his 
anoestors had always had. He also then said that he 
had gallows belonging to his manors of Bas-Whitacre,' 
and Lea/ and at Middleton. And he, moreover, said 



1 Vwrmrnm. Whitacmb wm iiOMBWifl by tbe Mannyoaa. With tiie PntrnTCBom. 
olOM bf ItaBwortb. It WM gmntod, i*OTit tlw tlB0 or Slqihtt. or 11m beftaBlBK or 
the nlgiior Hony II., by Bobert do Moimyan. to wnUm Rte Balph, to bold by 
Mrrtoeofm kalglies fee. I9i Mm Balph File Italiib. hi ia96, wm coftified to bold 
tfalsmanoroftbo loidof TtaKWOrth-Oaide, bytbatMrHoe: he ate had the mmv 
or Glaicotb. Hla ton, Nidwias Flte Ralph, a knight, had iaaoe Gilea i wfaoee 
danghte and hdnn laabcU, MMrtid Rdbci^ a yoaa««r aikvittaMte) iOB or III^ 
BfannyoB* 

ThiBaobertdtManqranpooMaedHAi.i^Toif. IMhv.WhItaao wItt that plaoOp 
PBrrycrofti, and <»aaoole, he pawed away to Ralph, kird Baaaet of Dnytan, far an 
annoity of 401., to be paid daring hii natoialUfe. Robert gmve a yaid-buid in Whit- 
acre to the none of Polecworth. He had a dani^iter nanod Aniloe, nairied let to 
BaataoedeHardrahon,afterwBnlatoJ6bndeWhttacre. Bustace and Amioe, la iSM, 
pa we d awayatt tboir right and toterert in theee poeiesAipa to lord Baeeet. Ontho 
death of her aeoond husband. Amice releaaed tolord Baaeet only the moiety of Nether- 
WhItoQve. IfceothermohtypMBedtothefewttyortheWhitnega^ lAd Baaaet gnw 
aw. of land and rent in thiaWbitaore, tor the endowment of acbantry conflating or three 
prieetii founded by hfan to ttie chmch or Ilrayton.Bawet. For thii pmpoee, hi IS38, 
he obtained the khig*elio«nGe, and that of Baldwhi de Ftoirile,Baperiorlard of the fee. 
Two yeara after, he pawed away the rwldne to WBUam de Clinton, eail of Hontmc- 
don. The latter, aoon after, ezehanged It with Richard and AmabUde Whttacre for 
their moiety of the manor of Perrycrofta. Uabel, daughter or Amice and John de 
Whitocre, waa Burried to air Thonaa de Bimfaigfaam, knt. Of his two dangfatare, 
Kleana, married Kdmnnrt Fcrrera of Chartley, and Elizabeth. George LongvUe. 
Glaaoote pasaed in the same aaannar oa Whitacre. 

Dbakbnbdob was a member of Nether- Whitacre, and giren by the Mannyona to 
Nicholas Fits Ralph or his ancestor. Of Us bdrs, the fhaelly of 9fanoettcr hdd It, 
by service of a pair of gilt epors. 

In 1S91, it is eaid that Robert de Marmyonbdd of Philip, a knight*s fee hi Whitacre 
and Onkanedge, which Robeitde Manoetter had. In 1994, he heU thesame: and 
Joan Mortetai held the fee of the lord king. In 1344, William de CUnton had ttie 
moiety of the manor of Nether-Whitacrek except twenty pounds retain, of Baldwin 
Freyile, by military service. In 1S54, William de Clinton, eari of Hontingdon, held, 
at hia death, the moiety of amessoage, a canicate of land, six acrw of plantation, four 
acrea of meadow, and IW. retora in this place, of air Baldwin fterfle, by mllitajy 
senrioe. In 1387, sir Baldwto Frevile held, at his death, a knight's fee to Whitacre 
and Drakenedge, which the heirs of Thomaa de Birmingham had. And finally, in 
1435, Xdmuid Ferrers, of the Inheritance of Kleana his wife, had the moiety or the 
manor of Whitacre," by vnknownsenriee.'* (Inqnlaitlons.) 

9 LBA-juxTA-MAmsTON, WBs InTolved with Whitacre, and belonged to the Mar- 
myoBs. It was granted, with BmaTPoan, on the Watling-street, near Ftedey, now 
depopolated, to Thomas Fits Thiustan, cslled also Thomss de Teunworth, aa he lived 
here, and waa probably a retainer of the Marmyons. This Thomas by marriage with 
the daughter of Ketelbom [Kettlebrook] de Langdon, aoqnired the manor of Imng- 
don. Ris descendants sssnmed the name **dc la Launde.'* Lea, Stretford, and 
Langdon, passedtoThoxstan, hia son; Ralph, his son; and James, his sen, who passed 
away Langdon. Lea and Stretford went on to John, the son of Jaaewj and to James 
de la Launde, his son. Jamw waa the last of his family. In I8d7» hequltled aU the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 847 

that he held the C&stle of Tamworth; with mills, and 
meadows, and lands called Ashland, and the advowson 
of the Church, as belonging to his barony, of his own 
right and inheritance^ 

In his works of piety, he was not bx behind the 
custom of his times. He gave an annual rent of 20«., 
issuing out of certain houses in London, to the hospital 
of St. Thomas of Acres in that city. He also founded 
the hospital of St. James, close to Tamworth. In accord- 
ance with the directions of the king's writ, an inquisition 
was taken, in 1285, to ascertain the amount of damage 
which the crown would sustain, if licence should be given 
to Philip de Marmyon to assign to the master of the 
hospital, for the maintenance of five priests who should 
celebrate divine service there, five messuages, one mill, 
three carucates and thirty-eight acres of land, twenty* 
two acres of meadow, twenty-three acres and three roods 
of plantation, and the return of one pound of pepper, 
and one of cummin, with appurtenances, in Coningsby, 
Haltham, Wood-Enderby, Wilksham, Dalderby, Scri- 
velsby, and Lincoln, and the advowson of the church of 
Wilksby. And it was said, on the oaths of Peter de 
Dalderby; John de Weingworth, in Scrivelsby; Hugh 
Fraunkelayn, of Langton ; Robert Fits Nigel, of Hem- 
ingby ; Richard le Chapelayn, of the same pboe; William 
Cade, of Stretton; Wilfirid de Stretton; William de 

latcnstwIiiehheluulinLeatohismottierAliaiiore} and the, in 1870, by deed, dated 
■ft TuBwatth^pMcedawajr the same to fir Baldwin neriletloBt., and bis heln. Strat- 
ford had come to tlie nrerHes aboat 1345. Both these places belonged to the lords of 
the Ctetia lior many aces; vntfl the beginnfaiff of the reign of Ghailea I., whm Lea 
was sold by air John Ferrers, knt., to Charles Adderly, esq. 

MAmsTow, in the Oonqoeror's ttane, bdonged, as did Lea, to Robert Dispensator, 
and ooatahMd than nine hides. Torehil de Warwick had three hides there. It was 
loan all in the poaseoilon of the Marmyons, and received the disthictiTe appellation of 
Marston-Maraiyon. In 1934, Robert de Bfannyon answered half a knighfs fee for it. 
The MarmyonB were the sopcrior lords of the fee, and the family of Limesi of Maz- 
toke held it. 



348 TAMWORTH 

Wurthon, in Haltham ; Robert le Taiiiir^ of the same 
place; Robert de Thometon; Robert Colyer, of Coningsby ; 
and Thomas de Pyndur^ of the same place ; that all these 
possessions, being appurtenances of the manor of Scn- 
velsby long before, that is, in the time of king John, 
were held of the king, in capite, by Philip de Marmyon, 
who had reacquired them, after his ancestors had alien- 
ated them, at different periods. With the advowson of 
the church, they were, in all issues, of the annual value 
of 8/. Ids, l^d. : which would be just the amount of 
damage incurred by the king, if the manor of ScriYelsby 
were in his own hands.' 

Two years afterwards, Philip de Marmyon granted this 
hospital, with its appurtenances, and pasture in Ashfield 
for four oxen and two horses, to William de* Combery 
Hall, for a time, there to celebrate services for his soul, 
until he should place in it either religious men of the 
Fremonstratentian order, or secular priests, who should 
bear upon them signum cljrpei.' This hospital remained 
to the time of Henry VIII. ; and, in 15S4, when Rob^t 
Perrott was chaplain, was endowed with lands valued at 
3/. 68, Sd, annually.* The remains of the ' spital-diapel,' 
now converted into a small dwelling-house and bam, 
still stand at a very little distance firom the northern 
boundary of the old borough of Tamworth. 

Philip de Marmyon was the last of the elder branch 
of the family ; and died in 1291. By his first wife Joan, 
he had three daughters, Joan, Mazera, and Maud or 
Matilda. Joan was married to William Mortein ; Mazera 
died in her fEither's life time, but left by her husband, 
Ralph de Cromwell, a daughter Joan. Matilda was 

1 Inqnis., ISB. i.:~Buiks*8Hist. % TMiner*t Not Monast. 
s Valor EodflsiMt. 



CASTLS AND TOWN. S49 

married to Ralph le Boteler. By his second wife Mary^ 
who survived him until ISli, he had another daughter 
Joan. By the inquisition taken after his deaths on the 
13th of March, 1S91-2, it is certified that he held 
the Castle of Tamworth, with all its members and 
appurtenances, of the king> in capite, by military ser- 
vice, finding three knights, at his own costs, in the 
Welsh war, for forty days. And he held the manor of 
Scrivelsby of the king, by barony; and the manor of 
Langton, in Lincolnshire. And he had also the manors 
of Feme, Lastrin, and Bradford, in the county of 
Hereford, of the inheritance of Joan his wife.^ His 
next heirs were, Joan, wife of William de Mortein ; 
Joan, daughter of Mazera and Ralph Cromwell ; Matilda, 
wife of Ralph Boteler; and Joan his daughter, then 
only eight years old. 

Upon the partition of the lands amongst these coheir- 
esses, the Castle of Tamworth was assigned to Joan, the 
eldest daughter ; and, in her right, William de Mortein 
possessed it. Scrivelsby was given to Joan the youngest 
child ; she carried it eventually to Thomas de Lodelow ; 
and their grand-daughter, to sir John Dymoke; whose 
direct descendant still enjoys it. 

Joan Mortein died in 1294. As she had no issue, 
the Castle of Tamworth, by agreement made amongst 

1 In tlie Appendix, Note S8, we t^re a more detailed aceonnt of the poweeMione of 
the lords of the GMtle fhnn to E. J to 87 H. VI, taken fhnn the "Calendariwninqai- 
■ittaniiin poet mortem siTe eacaetarom,*' pnbliahed by royal command. 

9 Philip deManayon, it seans, had wme illegitimate tone, bom of the lame mother 
apparently, and, we shonld ooiUectare, between hie lint and second marriages. Of 
thase, the most noted was Robert, a yonncer son, whom we have had occasion else, 
where to mention. He was a knight, and bore for his arms,— three swords in pale, 
pointing downwards, with a chief vatary. 

To this tiunUy, we may, perhsvs, refer many indiridnals of the name of Manayon, 
of whom very little is known. Peter de Marmyon « de borgeny seooten, " is named 
in the ooort-roUs of Tamworth, in 13M. Galfrid was presented to the church of Great 
Parktngton, in 1819. Brother Robert de Marmyon was elected keeper or governor of 
the hoapttal of St. Thomas hi Birmingham, in issO. 

Y Y 



S50 TAMWORTH 

the rest of the coheiresses, was allotted to Alexander de 
Fievile, who had married Joan, daughter of Ralph 
Cromwell. 

▲RMS OP lUamrOM:— TAiKT am. amp as., a rsM ov. 

RoBBiiT DB MAiMTOW.lardorsiiiUsont. 
FWitenftT, in NonMmdy} ttew- 
ard of WUL I.; l«t butm of 
Tamworth-OMUs uul Sorlrals- 
by ; d. tenip» Hen. I. ^ . 



RoMET DB lCARMTOif,=MMHl dB Roeer. 

Snd teron of TiuBWQith 
CMttg,&C| ■lain 1 143. 

bRobbbt db lCA«MTOir,«Pliiltppa. OttOttr, Rklianl. 

kOfTMBWOKttl. (Snd^itfB, IIW., 



I Caatle» &c., d. about my. 



RoBBBT DB Mabmton, Robbbt, tbe Wnilim. Albreda, Robot Rkliard. 

tlM elder, 4t]i baron of yoonger, of I 18M.BWiL d. s. p. 

Tunwoith.Caafle,&c.,d. Wlnterinffbam. I deCamTOe. 

in 1S41. I 

I 



Joan, dao. sPbilip db Mabmt. sMary, wiuam. ?niHaa», ata- 

andooh.of i'ov,6UiaBdla8tba- 1 snd I ran ^ ^i*t 

Hacb do ron of Tunwnrtb- wllb. laO^ d- ••'• 

KOlpeck. I Oartle. d. ispi. | | 

I i — I I ( 

Joan, «Wiluam ICascra sRalpb Maud-sRalph Tho. dosJoansHenry Jcdu. « 



d. 1994. I DB Mob- d. t. p. 

TBIN. 



Ciom- le Bo. Lodelow BU- baron 

well. teler. isthost lary. by writ, 

I d. lasi. 

Joan, grand-dan. sAlbzandbb Tbomaa de Jolm, a Joan.B Arice. 
and eoh. of P. de I DB Pbbvilb. Lodelow. boron by Sir Jobn sjbtan 

Marmyon. I I writ, d. Ber. lord 

' ' ISU. nack. Grey. 



I 



MargaretsSIr John Dy- Robert d. 

moke, knt. FPom them t. p. 

•pring the Dymckn of 
Scriveliby, co. Unooln, 
rfi^mp in m of England. 

The fiEunily of Frevile^ originally of Camhridgeshire, 
was of great eminence, both before and aflter this time, 
although only one of them, Dugdale says, ever re- 
ceiyed simmions as a baron of the realms. This was 
Alexander/ who thus acquired the Castle: being heir 
of his brother, sir Baldwin Frevile, knt., he inherited, 
in 1289, many possessions in the counties of Norfolk 
and Hereford. 

1 In 1 Bdw. IU.,*13S7. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 361 

Alexander de Frevile was principally employed in the 
Scottish wars. In 1301^ he was engaged in the expedi- 
into Scotland ; and in 130S, 1304, and 1305, he served 
in that kingdom. And, in 1314, — the year in which 
the battle of Bannockbum was fought, — ^he received 
commands to repair to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by the 
feast of the Assumption of the blessed Virgin Mary; 
well fitted with horse and arms, in order to march 
against the rebellious Scots. We find Uttle more con- 
cerning his military exploits, except that he was included 
in a summons, dated at Ramsay, on the 5th of April, 
1827, to repair to Newcastle-upon-Tyne, with horse and 
arms, in order to serve against Robert Bruce. 

Upon the division of the lands of Isabell wife of 
William Waldraun, in 1809, Alexander de Frevile, 
obtained in right of Joan his wife, one of her cousins 
and heirs, the manors of Winterboume and Ashton, 
with other lands at Yatesbury, in Wiltshire. By his 
lady, he had a son and heir named Baldwin, to whom 
he, in 13S8, assigned the Castle of Tamworth, reserving 
it, however, to himself and his wife, during their natural 
lives, to be held by them directly of the king. For this 
purpose, Edward II. issued a writ to ascertain what 
damage the crown would sustain if the royal permission 
were granted. An inquisition was accordingly taken at 
Warwick, in the presence of the escheator of the king, 
on the Monday before the feast of the Nativity of our 
Lord: upon the oaths of William de Blithe, Anketell 
de Bracebigg, John de Longedon, John le Botiller, 
Henry le Bray, John de Sekindon, William de Blac- 
greve, Henry Skil, Robert de Aula, Henry Cuckeu, Ralph 
le Beauchaump, and Richard Vilars. They stated upon 
oath that it was not to the damage or prejudice of the 



852 TAMWORTH 

lord king, if he should concede to Alexander and Joan 
that they might enfeoff Baldwin of their Castle of Tarn- 
worthy with its appurtenances, which was held of the 
king in capite, to be held by Baldwin and his heirs of 
the king and his successors, by the due and accustomed 
services : so that Baldwin, having fiill and peaceable seisin 
of the Castle and its appiurtenances, might give it to 
Alexander and Joan, to be held by them their whole 
lives, immediately of the king and his heirs. And they 
farther stated that the Oastle, with its appurtenances , was 
held of the lard king in capite, by the sermces of coming 
to the coronation of the lord Idng, completely armed wUh 
royal arms of the lioery of the lord king, and siting 
upon the principal royal war-horse, and opposing himself 
against any person who should gainsay the royal coro- 
nation. If none shotdd offer opposition, throughout the 
whole proceedings, the arms and war-horse should revert 
to the royal use : but, if any should oppose themsdees, 
the arms with the war-horse should be taken for the use 
of the tenant, himself, of the CasHe. And the Castle, 
with its appurtenances, in all its issues, was valued, 
a-year, according to its true worth, at ten marks. It 
was also declared that there remained to Alexander and 
Joan, beyond the Castle, a third part of the manor of 
Middleton, in Warwickshire, of the inheritance of Joan, 
which was held of the Church of St. Editha at Tam- 
worth, in capite, by service of 2a. 2^. and the third 
part of a half-penny : and it was valued, a-year, in all 
its issues, according to its true worth, at 10/. Also they 
possessed the manor of Feme, in Herefordshire, with 
appurtenances, of the inheritance of Joan, which was 
held of the lord king in capite, by service of the fourth 
part of a knight's fee : and valued, a-year, according to 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 353 

its true worthy at 100^. They also held Crownest> in 
Worcestershire^ of the inheritance of Alexander^ of the 
abbey at Worcester^ by service of a rose annually : and 
valued^ a-year^ in all its issues^ according to its true 
value, at 40«. And finally they held Bughall, in Wor- 
cestershire, of the inheritance of Alexander, of the bishop 
of Worcester, by service of 5s. : and valued, a-year, in all 
its issues, according to its true value, at 40«.^ The 
annual value of all these possessions, therefore, was 251. 
ISs. 4rf. 

So &vourable an answer having been returned to the 
writ, letters patent were granted by the king, dated at 
Kenilworth on the last day but one of December follow- 
ing, in which, a fine of 20/. having been paid to the king 
by Baldv?in, licence was given to Alexander and Joan 
that they might enfeoff Baldwin of the Castle, to be held 
by him and his heirs of the king and his successors 
by the due and usual services for ever : and to Baldwin 
that he, having fiill and peaceable seisin, might give it 
to Alexander and Joan, to be held for the whole life of 
either of them, firom the king, by the accustomed 
services. And, after the death of Alexander and Joan, 
the Castle should revert entirely to Baldwin and his 
heirs, who should hold it of the king, and render the 
services to him.' 

But, very shortly afterwards, it would seem that a 
dispute arose between Alexander and Baldwin, appa- 
rently firom the latter having neglected to perform his 
part of the stipulation, to make a grant of the Castle 
to the former. However, Alexander and Joan retained 
a forcible possession. In the ensuing Easter term, a 
suit took place, Baldwin being plaintiff and Alexander 

1 Inqnis., 17 Kd. 11. s Letters patent, 17 Ed. 11. 



S54 TAMWORTH 

and Jotn deforaants of the Casde. An agieement 
was made by pieoept of the king himself. Baldwin 
granted the Oastle to Alexander and Joan, for their lites, 
and settled the reversion upon himself/ 

All these partictdars, except the decision of the suit 
which Thomas gives in his edition of Dugdale, have 
been hitherto entirely unknown. Interesting, however, 
as these circumstances may be, the testimony that the 
Castle of Tamworth was held by the Royal Champicm- 
ship is of fiir greater importance than any other point 
It must be observed that this is the earliest record of 
any nature tehaisoever which menUans such an office in 
this country as that of the hinges Champion. It forms 
the first link of the chain of evidence, which we shall 
adduce upon this point, in vindication of the honour 
of Tamworth. It is worthy of remark that, before the 
coronation of Edward III., no mention is made of the 
Champion having exercised his duties. This can scarcely 
excite surprise, as the accounts of the ceremony, in die 
majority of previous instances, have not been preserved. 
But, when Edward III. was crowned, on the 1st of 
February, 1326-7, Alexander de FrefoUe performed the 
office of Campion J in right of his barony and CasUe of 
Ihmtoorth* This circumstance, it is true, we give only 
on the authority of Collins : and it might be called in 
question, were it not supported by evidence which 
stamps with the mark of undeniable authenticity. 

Alexander de Frevile died in 1328, before his wife; 
leaving Baldwin his son and heir, then thirty-six years 
of age. Edward III. directed a writ to the escheator of 

1 Tbomu tttachfld the accoont of the tait in m note to the name of Baldwin, too. 
tfacr of Alexander. Had he paid attention to Dngdale^ naisiiMl nfefenoe^ he woaM 
have Men that this Baldwin had been dead some yean. 

9 OolUna*a Peerage. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 355 

the county of Warwick, commanding him to enquire 
what lands he held of the crown in capite, and by what 
service, on the day of his death. An inquisition was 
according taken. The jurors then stated upon oath, 
amongst other smaller matters, that he held, jointly with 
Joan his wife, the Castle of Tamworth of the lord king, 
in capite, by service of coming to the coronation of the 
lord king completely armed with royal arms of the livery 
of the lord king, and sitting upon the principal royal 
toarJwrse, offering himself to make trial of combat in the 
king's place against all persons gainsaying the coronation 
of the king. If no one should make cpposition, the arms 
and horse should belong to the lord king, but if any one 
should oppose himself and engage in encounter, they 
should remain to the tenant of this Castle.^ All the pos- 
sessions of Alexander were, according to custom, taken 
into the king's hands. Soon afterwards, the king directed 
his writ, dated at Clepston, on the 25th of August, to 
the escheator of Warwickshire, stating that, as it ap- 
peared by the inquisition, Alexander died seized of the 
Castle jointly with Joan, and that it teas held by Boyql 
Championship,* he should deUyer it up to Joan, who had 
done fealty for the same.' This inquisition and writ of 
livery have been regarded as the earliest records of the 
office of Champion. We have given a document several 
years older. 

Joan de Frevile continued in the possession of Tarn- 
worth-Castle, for a considerable time. She died in 
1340 : and the inquisition then taken states that she was 
seized of the Castle, which she held of the king in capite, 

1 Rotput 1 Rle.II.,paxBl.,p.liitpac. 
9 The wards an the Hune as in the inqniiitioii, except that "ftominaa res '* ie 
neoMsarfly changed hi " noeter.*' 

s Rot. pat., 1 Rlc. II., pan i », p. inipez. 



S56 TAMWORTU 

ijf service of acting as Champion,^ — ^tke same words being 
used as those in the inquisition at the decease of her 
husband.' 

Baldwin de Frevile, performing the customary homage 
to the king, had full possession of his mother's estates^ 
Of him, little is known, except that he held, for a very 
brief space of time, the Warwickshire part of Tamworth, 
granted him by Edward IL, in 1S17. 

In 1342, he borrowed of sir Fulk de Birmingham, 
knt., the sum of forty-eight marks ; for which he gave 
his creditor five mills at Tamworth. — 'three of which 
were situated on the Warwickshire side, and two on the 
Staffordshire side, — in lease for the term of one year.' 

He died three years after his mother; leaving by 
Elizabeth Ins wife, a son and heir, Baldwin, then twenty- 
six years old. 

Baldwin, in the following year, did homage, and had 
livery of all the lands of his inheritance ; which lay in 
the counties of Warwick, Hereford, Salop, Stafford, Wor- 
cester, Wilts, Norfolk, and Suffolk. In 1352, he was a 
knight, and bore for his arms, — Or, a cross flory Gu; 
and for his crest, — ^upon a chapeau, the leg of a man 
booted, spurred, and reversed. Not long afterwards, he 
substituted a plume of feathers for the latter. He fought 
in the warfiire with France: and was greatly esteemed 
by Edward the Black Prince. For his approved fidelity 
and service, the prince, in 1364, constituted him his 
seneschal of Xantoigne, during his life. 

In 1368, sir Baldwin Frevile went with the Black 
prince, in his wars of Gascoigne; and soon afterwards 
he accompanied John of Gaunt, earl of Lancaster, to 

1 By depntjr of ooune. S Inqnis. p. mort«m, la X. III., no u. 
s Dncdalo'g Wurwickshln. Thia wort has been mainly oonsnlted In the aoooont 
of the Fteyiles. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 357 

Mount-Paon^ and was present when it surrendered to 
the English. In 1372^ he was retained by indenture 
to serve prince Edward in the French wars ; with six 
men at arms^ — three knights and three esquires, taking 
SO/, a-year for the former, and ten marks for the latter. 

After the withdrawal of the Black-prince into England, 
on account of his increasing and eventually &tal ill- 
health, sir Baldwin continued in France. It happened 
very singularly, that he, being one of the leaders of the 
English, with others, accompanied by full six hundred 
men, entered Rochelle on the evening of midsummer-day, 
1S7S, when John Hastings, earl of Pembroke, was 
defeated and taken prisoner. The Spaniards, intoxicated 
with joy at their victory, had set sail that afternoon for 
their own country. Sir Baldwin and his companions 
were completely ignorant of the disastrous occurrence. 
When they heard the news, they were sorely afflicted, 
and considered themselves more unfortunate than they 
had ever yet been, in not having arrived at the place 
sooner to aid their countrymen.' 

Sir Baldwin died in 1375. He had three wives, — 
Elizabeth, sister and coheiress of sir John Mountford, 
knt., of Beaudesert, in Warwickshire; Ida, daughter of 

Clinton, a lady of honour to queen Philippa ; and 

Joan, daughter of lord Strange. By his first wife, he 
had a son and heir, Baldwin, who, at his father's 
decease, was a knight, and twenty-four years of age. 

At the coronation of Richard II., which took place 
at Westminster, on the 16th of July, 1377, the right 
of sir Baldwin Frevile to perform the celebrated service 
of Championship, was disputed by sir John Dymoke, 
owner of Scrivelsby. The latter petitioned that he 

1 Frolssart. 

Z Z 



358 TAMWORTH 

might be allowed the office^ as appertaining to him, in 
right of Margaret his wife, by tenure of Scriyelsby, as 
her ancestors had in the time of the king's progen- 
itors. Margaret was the grand-daughter of Philip de 
Mamiyon, by Joan his youngest child. Sir Baldwin 
Frevile immediately put in a counter-claim. He 
petitioned for his right, because he was one of the 
heirs of Philip de Marmyon, "qe come tient Chastell de 
Tamworth, en le Countee de Warrewyk, de n*re tres- 
doubte S' le Roi, come de Coronne, d'el Heritage le dit 
Philip a la dit file afferant en p'te de sa purp'tie, p' 
les services d'estre a la Coronement n're, dit S' le 
Roi, in ses Armures, & sur un des Destres le Roi; si 
nul Toleit contredire son dit Coronement de la deffiendre 
come a lui app'tient," &c.^ 

The cause was now brought forwards for adjudication. 
It does not appear that sir Baldwin produced all if any 
of his evidences in support of his claim. Sir John 
Dymoke did so; and thereupon the king commanded 
that he, *'ista vice," should perform the service, in 
right of the manor of Scrivelsby. But, if sir Baldwin, 
within three weeks after the feast of St. Hilary next 
ensuing, should come and show the reasons and eviden- 
ces by which he supported his demand, he should be 
heard, and full justice done to him. In consequence 
of this decision, sir John Dymoke acted as Champion 
at this coronation. Sir Baldwin afterwards produced 
his evidences: they were exemplified by the king, and 
enrolled upon the records of the court of Chancery.* 

Very little is recorded of this sir Baldwin Frevile. 
In 1879, he was appointed one of the commissioners 

1 Claiu. et Clam. Coronat. I Rlc. II. m. 44 :— Banka's Hist, 
a Rot. pat, 1 Rfc. II., pan I. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. S59 

for the arraying of men in the county of Warwick. 
On the partition of the lands of sir John Mountford, 
in 1385, to which he was heir in his mother's right, 
jointly with sir Thomas Boteler, knt., he had assigned 
to him, the manor of Ashtead, in Surrey; Gunthorpe 
and Lowdham, in the county of Nottingham ; and the 
reversion of the manors of Henley, Beaudesert, and 
Haselholt, in Warwickshire, which William de Beau- 
champ, lord of Abergavenny, retained for his natural 
life. He was espoused to Elizabeth, the daughter of 
sir John Botetourt, of Weorley-casde, in Worcestershire, 
in 185S, when he was about two years old; but she 
died very young. He afterwards married her sister 
Joioe. She eventually out-lived him, and took as her 
second husband sir Adam Peshale.^ This Joice became, 
in 1406, one of the coheiresses of Joice her niece, only 
child of John, son of sir John Botetourt; and thus 
were conveyed to Ferrers, owner of Tamworth-Castle, 
very considerable lands. 

Sir Baldwin Frevile died in 1387. The inquisition 
taken upon his decease specifies that he held the Castle 
of Tamworth of the lord king, in capite "/>cr seruicium 
vemendi ad coronaconem Domini Regis, in armis regiis 
de liberacone Domini Regis universaliter armatus, super 
principalem dextrarium Domini Regis sedens, offerens se 
ad probaconem pro Rege faciend* contra omnes coro- 
naconem Regis contradicentes : et si nuBus contradizerii 
sint arma et equm Domini Regis; si atttem aliquis se 
opponat et congressum faciat, remanebunt arma et equus 
dicto tenenti.** 

1 Adam PMliale» and Joice bit wife, in 1880, granted the manon of Lee and Stret- 
ford, near IWnwortb, and a third part of the manor of Mlddlcton, which were of the 
dofwcrr of Joice, to Baldwin FkwUe, for 900/. aterlinff. 

9 Such are the words in which the Mnrice of Champion ia named in the docn- 
mcnta bdonffisf to TUnworth-Castle, except in the inqniaition of 1398, which ia thna 



860 TAMWORTH 

Sir Baldwin bad a son and heir, named Baldwin, 
who sncceeded him. He was nineteen years old at his 
father's death: and, in the following year, he married 
Joan, daughter of sir Thomas Green, knt At the 
coronation of Henry IV., on the 18th of October, 1899, 
he exhibited his claim to the office of Champion, in 
opposition to that of Margaret, widow of sir John 
Dymoke. But she, by her son, was permitted to perform 
the service.' 

The last sir Baldwin died in 1400; and it was then 
stated that he was seized of the Castle of Tamworth, 
valued altogether at 12/. a-year, by the same service as 
his father,* — ^that of Royal Championship. 

As it is the last time that this distinguished office 
is mentioned in connection with Tamworth, we may 
here draw the subject of the Championship to a con- 
clusion. The claim in the reign of Henry IV. is the 
last upon record in favour of the Castle. The possessor 
when Henry V. ascended the throne was a minor; and 
the Castle afterwards passed by a coheiress to the 
Ferrers' family. As no records are now extant containing 
the proceedings on this matter, at any of the coronations 
from Henry V. to James I., it is impossible to ascertain 
if the claim were renewed or not. The Dymokes have 
continued to perform the office to the present time. 
The first document which mentions the service in con- 
nexion with Scrivelsby, is dated in 8 Edw. HI., — 1334. 
Tamworth- Castle possesses three older records upon this 



worded. *' Et (Joratores] dicu*t q'd d'c*in Cutru*. ca* p*tlB\ ten«t* de d'no B/egt, In 
cmplte, p' BcmicU veniendi «d ooronaco'em d*iii Regis, urmit regito de Ub'aoo'e d*ni 
Regis vnia'ssJit' annataB, sup' p'Dcipale' dextr*him regin' sedans, oni*ini* se appane'a 
coronacionl regie contradicentl: q'd sinnllnsse, p' totam dietam, oppoaaerit, arma 
p*d'ca & dextrMom in tsus reglos rea*tant. SI ante* aliqola se opposnerit, d*ca anna 
cu' dext'rio in Tsna tenent ipUns tenentis Cutrl p*d*d.** 

1 Rot. Senr. ad Coron. R. H. IV. 9 Inqnis. 2 H. IV. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 361 

paint. The inquisitions both of Tamworth-Castle and 
Scrivelsby state that they were held by the same 
service. The Intimate conclusion is^ that they were 
given to the Marmyons at the same time, and to be 
enjoyed by the same tenure. Therefore, the owners of 
these two places ought to exercise the office of Royal 
Champion aUematdy. Such is the case with various 
other services, where the property originally granted 
has been since divided amongst different owners. It 
may be asked if the laches would not extinguish the 
right ; which would then belong solely to the Dymokes, 
on account of their long enjoyment of it. This question 
the house of Peers alone can decide. In the case of 
lord Grey of Ruthyn, at the coronation of James II., 
it was agreed that the laches would not have that 
effect. Omissions were then proved for nearly three- 
hundred years.* 

Baldwin Frevile was succeeded by his son and heir 
Baldwin, at that time only two years old. This last 
sir Baldwin died upon the Thursday in the third week 
of Lent, 1418, being still a minor and unmarried. He 
left his three sisters his coheirs, Elizabeth, Joice, and 
Margaret. The eldest was married to Thomas Ferrers; 
the next, to Roger Aston; and the youngest, to Hugh 
WiUoughby, afterwards to sir Richard Bingham, knt. 

A partition of the possessions of which sir Baldwin 
Frevile died seized, is stated to have been made amongst 
the coheiresses, on the 17th of August, 1423; whose 
husbands, in their right, held them. To Thomas Ferrers, 
were given, — ^the Castle and manor of Tamworth, valued 
at 21/. 17*. ll^rf.; Taddington, at 16/.; Merston, at 17/. 
13*. ^d.\ Combe, at 10/. 6*.; Stivichall, at 11/. 2«. 

1 CoUins't Frecedoita. 



S62 TAMWOBTH 

4Elf8 OP FSXVILB:— om, a cso« vlobt ov. 

ALMXAM^mm^m F«aTiLa»inrittitBiOAM, daa. of Ratah Oromirtil; 
of hla wife, lord of Tunwoith- I graad-dao. and oo£. of Philip de 
Caattei d» I3M. | Utnajon, d. in lS4a. 

B^LDwiir OB FaariLa, » Witahaf h. Ilan;ant.s8ir 

b. in 199S} lord of T.- 1 Renry WilBngtan, 

Casae, d. in 1S43. | knL 

KUsabetli, alat =B» BAu>inir na FaaTii.B,=Ida,danof .... CHa^sJoan, dan. of 



and coh. of sir 
JobnMoantfbrdp 
luit.,ofBeand«». 
at,— itt wife. 



b. In l817;lordaf T.-Caatte; too ; a lady of honor lordStnuicei 
craatadaknU in 1S6S| d.in to Queen PhlUppa; Snlwife,lf7l. 
lS7ft> tDdwiHi, lt6l. 



Xlizabath,daa.of8irs8» Baldwiw PaaFiLB,sJaioa, aUtcr of his 1st 
JolinBotatDait,knt., b. In IMi) lord of T.. | wife. nMwasmar.affam 
of Weorley .caatte, Cartle) d in 1S87> I to air Adam Peahala. 

lUS. I 

Bin Bal»wi» PBsyiLB,sJoan, dan. of air 
b. In ladei lord of T,. I Tim. Gfen, knti 
' - -.in I - 



Castle ) d. in 1400. \ IS96. 



T 



8ia Baldwin Faa- XLi8ABBTn,aTB0MAa FaaMaa JalcesRo> MaifaialsiA. 
Sod son of Win. 1. get Atton. Hogh WQIonc^. 



▼iLB, b. in 1396) d. cota 
In 1418, aminor, 8.r. her 



cohelreis of 
brother. 



Femn of Gtoby . by =sndarRich. 

ard T' 
knt. 



8d.; Stretford, at lOU. 8d.; Coventry, at S4«. 6d.; and 
Waverton, at 4/. 12rf.— total 87/. Is. id. To Boger 
Aston, were assigned, — ^Ashtead, estimated at 48/. 9s. 
6Jc/. ; Henley-in-Arden, at 23/. 5s. 8 Jc/. ; Pinley, at 12/. 
Sd. ; Becknor, at S9s. Sd. ; and Yatesbury, at 43^. 4d., — 
total 87/. 18*. To Hugh Willoughby were given,— Mid- 
dleton, valued at S3/. 5s. 2^d. ; Gunthorpe, at 16/. 14«. 
9Jrf.; Wyken, at 16/. 10*. 8d.; Bradford, at 106«. Sd.; 
Feme, at 8/.; Whitnash, at 48*.; Maun, at 73/. Sd.; 
Whitley, at 9*. 4d. ; Coventry, at 9*. ; and the return 
of a fourth part of the manor of Ashtead, at 10*. lie/., 
—total 87/. 6*. lOrf.^ 

1 Snch It the ■tatementKlTen in an old parchniententitled'*Pticiot*re ft tenement' 
qae teer* Baldewyni FreTUe die obitns toi} videl't, int* Thorn* de Farrar* , . . . . Boc^nm 
Aston,.... ft Hogon' Wyloof hby, . . . . fsct' a^d Leyc*, XT^die Aognsti, A« R. B. 
Henr* seztt post conqnesta* p*mo. Yet it seems that no soch division was hi eOtet, 
but that the husbands of the three coheiresses had concurrent interests in the whole, 
although niOBias Ferrers inhabited the Castle. Perhaps the "paxtiCio'* was not 
adopted. But the document Is of great use, because It giTca the Talne of the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



363 



TUs Thomas Ferrers was second son of William, lord 
Ferrers of Groby, of the eminent family of the ancient 
earls of Derby. 

Pedigree of the Ferreks' family. 



Walcheline, a Norman. His 
son» 

Hekrt, assumed the surname de 
Ferrariis or Ferrers, from a small 
town in Gastenois, abounding with 
iron-mines. In allasion to his name, 
he bore six horse-shoes for his arms. 
He came into England with the Con- 
queror; and had granted to him 
lands in the cos. of Berks, Derby, 
Essex, Gloucester, Hereford, Lei- 
cester, Northampton, Nottingham, 
Stafford, Warwick, and Wilts. He 
seated himself at Tntbury-castle : and 
there, in 1080, he founded a monas- 
tery for Cluniaic monks. By Bertha, 
he had issue, 

I.-II. EOOBltVLFBand WlL., i(.«.p. 

m. BoBSRT, hit soccenor. 

IT. Amicb. m. to Jflgti de Albioi. 

▼.-TI. GtTNDBBDA, BOd EmMBLII^B. 

Robert de Ferrers, for his 
serrices in war against Maud's sup- 
porter, David k. of Scots, was, in 
1138, created earl of Derby, by Ste- 
phen. He d. in 1139 ; leaving, by 
Hadewise, 
I. Isold A, m. to Stepb. de Beauebamp. 
n. Matilda, m. to Bertimodde Yerdon. 
m. RoBBBT, his heir. 
!▼. A da v., m. to WBlcbeline Maminot. 
▼. WalcbeUne, baron of Okebam, co. 
of Rutland, 1 104 ; Uving 1191. He bad 
1. HvoH, baron of Okefaam, who m. 
the dao. and b. of Hu^b de Say ; Ht- 
ing 1197, bat d, t. p, n. Wil., d. v. 
p. and «. p. And m. Isabbll, m. to 
Bag. de Mortimer; belieM of ber 
brother. 

Robert de Ferrers, 2nd earl 
of Derby, styled himself " Robertus, 
comes junior de Ferrariis," end "Ro- 
bertus, comes junior de Notingham." 
He founded Merevale-abbey, oo. of 
Warwick (tee. p. 56), and lies bur, 
there. He was succeeded by his 
son and heir, 

William sb Ferrers, 3rd earl 
of Derby, living 1 167. He m. Mar- 
garet, dau. and h. of Will. Peverel, 
3rd and last lord of Nottingham; 
and had. 



1. RoBBKT, biB saccessor 
u. Walcbblinb, lord of Enerton, co. 
of Derby, who m. Goda, daa. of Rob. 
deTonl. 
Robert de Ferrers, 4th earl of 
Derby, sided with pr. Henry in his 
rebelUon against his father. Hen. II. 
He was pardoned ; but his castles of 
Tutbury and Duffield were demolish- 
ed. By Sibilla, his wife, dau. of 
William de Braose, he left issue, 
1. Wil. bis heir. 

n. MiuscBNT, m. to Rogrer de Morti- 
mer, of Wlffinore. 
m. AoATUA, mistress of k. John. 
IV. Pbtbowblla, m. to Harvey, lord- 

StaiTord. 
William de FERRERSwas depri- 
ved of his earldoms by Rich. I., in 
1189 ; but they were soon restored. 
He accompanied the king into Pales- 
tine ; and fell at the siege of Acre, 
in 1190. BySibella,hiswife,heleft, 

I. Wil., bis belr. 

II. Hbnry, m. Margsret, 

m. ROBBBT. 

William de Ferrers, 6th earl 
of Derby, noted for his firm attach- 
ment to John and Hen. III. in aU 
their troubles, d. Sept. 22nd, 1247. 
In that month, his countess Agnes d. 
She was one of the daus. of Hugh 
Cyvelioc, earl palatine of Chester, 
and sist. and coh. of Ralph Blun- 
devile, earl of Chester and Lincoln. 
By her, he had 

I. WiL., bis heir. 

II. Thomas. 
lu. Hugh. 

IV. ROBBBT. 

William de Ferrers, 7tii earl 
of Derby, held Chartley in his mo- 
ther's right. He sniTered from his 
fkther*s infirmity, the gout. Being 
unable to walk, he was driven out in 
a chariot ; which, through the driver's 
carelessness, fell off the bridge of St. 
Neot's, March 22nd, 1253-4. He 
soon d. of his bruises ; and was bur» 
in Merevale-abbey. His arms were, 
Vairy Or and Gu., a border Az. se- 



S64 



TAMWORTH 



Having thus acquired the Castle of Tamworth, he 
made it his principal residence. He was constituted 
sheriff for the county of Stafford, in 1447, and again in 



mee of horte-shoes Arg.^ By hit 
fint wife, SibeU, dau. and h. of WiU. 
Manhall, earl of Pembroke, he had 
7 danghten. — 1. Aombs, m, to Will, 
de Vead ; 2. Isabkll, m. to Gilbert 
Basset, again to Reginald de Mohun ; 
3. Matilda, m. to WilL de Kime, 
again to Will, de Vinonia, again to 
Emeric de Rnpe-Canardi ; 4. Sibbl- 
LA, m, to Frands de Bohim, of Mid- 
hnrst ; 5. Joan, m. to Rog. Agnilon, 
again to John de Mohun ; 6. Aga- 
tha, m, to Hugh de Mortimer, of 
Chelmarsh; 7. Alianobb, m. to 
WilL de Vsllibas, again to Roger de 
Qoinci, earl of Winchester, and again 
to Rog. de Leybnm. By his 2nd 
wife, Margaret, dan. and coh. of 
Rog. de Qnind, 2nd earl of Win- 
chester by Helen, dan. and coh. of 
Alan lord of Galloway, he had, 

I. RoBSRT, hit successor. 

u. WiL., of whom presently. 

RoBBRT DB Fberbbs, 8th and 
last earl of Derby, was a minor at 
his father's death. He sided with 
the barons against Hen. III. ; so 
that, in 1266, he was deprived of 
titles and estates. His lands were 
conferred on Edmnnd Plantagenet, 
the king's son. He d, in 1274, of 
the gont, in poverty. He had two 
wives, — Maria, dan. of Hngh le Bran, 
earl of Angolesme, and niece of Hen. 
III., 9, p, ; and 1269 Alianore, daa> 
of Ralph lord Basset, living at his 
decease; by whom he had a son, 
John, progenitor of the family of 
Ferrers, barons of Chartley. He 
bore his fiither's arms without the 
border. 

William db Fbr&brs, 2nd son 
of 7th earl of Derby, being armed 
against Hen. III., was taken at 
Northampton, in 1264 ; bat was par- 
doned. He had grant of the manor 
of Groby, co. of Ldcester, from his 
mother, and assumed the armorial 



bearings of her fiunily, — Gn, 7 mas- 
cles Or conjoined 3 3 and 1. He 
m. Helen, dan. of BCatthew lord 
Lovaine, of Stanes ; whod, in 1287. 
He was snooeeded by his son and 
heir, 

William db Fbebbbs, somnum- 
ed to parEsment as baron of Groby 
from Jan. 26lh, 1297, to Feb. 20th, 
1325, when he d. He m. Elixabeth, 
dan. of John lord 8c|grave. His aon, 

Hbnet db Fbbbbbs, 3rd baroo 
of Groby, was summoned to paxHa- 
ment from June 5th, 1331, to Nov. 
20th, 1341. He d, Sept. 15th, 1342. 
He m. 1st, Isabell, dau. and h. of 
Theobald, lord Yerdon; 2nd, Elisa- 
beth, dau. and coh. of Gilbert de 
CUre, earl of Gloucester, by Joan 
dau. of Edw. I. By his 2iid wile, 
he had, besides a dau. Philippa, as. 
to Guy de Beanchamp. 

William ob Fbbbjcbs, 4th baron 
of Groby, 11 yrs. old at his &ther's 
death, summoned as a baron from 
March 15th, 1344-5, to Apr. 6U^ 
1369. He d, in 1371. He as. 
Maig., dau. and h. of Rob. de Uf- 
ford, earl of Suffolk ; and again Mar- 
garet, dau. of Hen. de Percy, relict 
of Rob., son of Gilbert de Unfran- 
vile, earl of Angus. By the fiiBt» 
he had, 

Hbnet db Fbrbbbs, 5th baron 
of Groby, d. Apr. 16th, 1357, sum- 
moned from Aug. 4th, 1377, to Dec 
17th. 1387. He m. Joan, dau. of 
lord Foynings ; by whom he had, 

William Fbr&b&s, 6th baron of 
Groby, 16 yrs. old at his father's 
death, summoned from Nov. 30th, 
1386, to Dec. 3cd, 1441. He d. in 
1444. By Philippa, dau. of Roger 
lord Clifford, he had, 

1. HsNBT, who M. Isi^idl, Snd dan. and 
coh. of Tho. Mobray, duke of Nor- 
folk. He d. V. p. learing an only dan.. 
EuxABSTH, of whom we ifaaU imme- 
diatcly speak. 



I This lays sir WlUiam Dogdale. Bat we find that, la the amis of Win. de Fer. 
rariis, earl of Derby, in the nave of Westminater-abbey, the border is absent. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



365 



the following year. In HSS, after the death of his wife^ 
Elizabeth, a new division of the lands of the last sir 
Baldwin Frevile was made, bearing date upon the 5th of 



u. Thomas, of whom preaeatly. 

Ill, JoHW ; from who m descended the 
Ferieises of Mercnte, now extmct. 

Elizabeth Fbrrbks, sole hdresa 
of William, her grand-father, was in. 
to Edward Grej, ton of Reginald, 
3rd lord Grey of Rathyn ; who in her 
right, became baron Ferrera of Groby; 
and by that title he was sommoned 
to parliament from Dec. 14th, 1446, 
to Jan. 2nd, 1448-9 ; and, as baron 
of Groby, from Sept. 23rd, 1449, to 
May 26th, 1455. The great-grand 
son of this Elizabeth, Henry Grey, 
marquis of Dorset and dake of Suf- 
folk, was beheaded for treason in 
1554 ; and the barony of Groby then 
became extinct. 

Thomas Fzr&brs, the 2nd son, 
m. BUMoietht nr/«r md eoheireu of 
sir Baldwin F^emU, kni. He thns 
acqnired the Castle and Honoub 
or Tamworth. He had, 

1. Thomas, who succeeded. 

u. HuTBT, a knt., of Hambleton, co., 
of RaUand. nt>m him is descen- 
ded the (iunily of Ferrers of Baddes- 
ley.CUnton, co. of Warwick. 

Thomas Fbrrbrs, b. 1422, cre- 
ated a knt. in 1461. He m. Ann, 
dan. of Leonard Hastings, of Kirby, 
and sUter of Will, lord Hastings ; 
who d. before him. His decease oc- 
corred Aug. 22nd, 1498. His sons 
were, Lbonard ; Ralph, dean of 
the Church ; and 

Joun, the eldest, who 4. v. p. He m. 
MatildA, dan. of sir John Stanley, of 
Elford J and bad a son. 

Sir John Ferrers, knt., who 
snoceeded his grandfather. He m. 
Dorothy, dan. of Will. Harper, esq., 
of Rnshall-castle, co. of Stafford. 
He had sereral children, of whom, 

1. HuMPBKT succeeded. 

n. Awn was m. to John Peto, esq., of 

Chesterton, co. of Warwick. 
Sir Humphry Ferrers, knight, 
«. Ist, Maigaret, dan. of Tho. Pigot ; 
and 2iid, Dorothy, dan. and coh. of 
Tho. Marrow, and relict of Francis 
Cockain. He d, in 1554 ; leaving, 
by his 1st wife,^be8ides a dan. 



Jane, m. at Tamworth, June 22nd, 
1573, to Arthur Gregory, esq., — tL 
son and heir, 

John Ferrers, esq., who m. 
Barbara Cockain. She d. in 1560, 
and was bur, at Tamworth Ang. 12th. 
It seems he re-m ; for in the register 
of Tamworth is the entry that *' 7 
April, 1572, was bur. Mrs. Jane 
Ferrers, uz' Joh'is." By his Ist 
wife, he had, 

1. DoaoTBT, m. to Edw. Holt, esq. 

u. HuMPHav, his successor. 

m. Edwaed. 

IT. HSNKT, bur, 8epL Ufh, l802. 

▼. Thomas. 

▼1. GaoRos, bur. July S9th, lGl6. 
Humphry Ferrers, esq., suc- 
ceeded his fiither, who was bur. at 
Tamworth, Apr. 17th, 1576. He 
in., 1562, Ann, dau. of Humphry 
Bradboume, esq. ; bur. Jan. 29th, 
1599. Afterwards he m. Elisabeth, 
dau. of sir Ralph Longford. He was 
created a knight : and was bur, Jan. 
9th, 1607-8. By his Ist wife, he 
had a numerous family. 

I. John, his successor. 

II. WiL., bur, here July 3rd, U77. 
1U..1V..T. Waltse, Thomas, and Ed* 

waeo. 
VI. Elueabbth, m. at Tamworth, July 

6th, 1585, to WUUam Somenrile, esq. 

He was knighted. 
Tii. KATHsaiNB, m. atTamworth, Jan. 

isth, 1593.4, to Geo. Hyde, sent. He 

was created K.B. 
▼111. Brwobt, er. Auf, 9th, 1574 j m. 

to Robert Byre. esq. 

IX. Lbttick, er, Ist, bur. 4th of Sept., 
1577. 

X. Susan, er, Apr. 6th, 1583; m. to 
George Gresley, esq. 

Sir John Firrbrs, knight, m. 
Dorothy, dau. of sir John Puckering, 
knt. and bart. She was bur. here 
Dec. 19th, 1616 ; he, Aug. 5th, 1633. 
By her, he had, 

I. HuHPHar, son and heir. 

II. FaANCSs, m, to John Packington, 
esq. He was afterwards knighted. 

III. Ann, m. here, Oct. 13th, l6l4, to 
Simon Archer, Mq., of Tanwoith. 

!▼. Jans, m. to sir Tho. Rouse. 
Sir Humphry Firrkrs, knt., 
m* one of the daughters of sir John 

B 3 



366 



TAMWOBTH 



October. To Thomas Ferrers, then tenant by courtesy, 
and to Thomas, his son and heir, were given, — ^thc 
Castle and manor of Tamworth ; the manors of Lea near 
Marston, Stretford near Tamworth, and Harborough- 
magna, with the advowson of the church ; also the 
manors of Stivichall near Coventry, of Taddington in 
Herefordshire, with lands and rents in Waverton, Alles- 
ley, and Mereden, in Warwickshire, and in Wigginton 
in Staffordshire. To Robert Aston, son of Roger and 
Joice, the manors of Ashtead and Newdigate, in Surrey; 
of Becknor, in Worcestershire ; Yatesbury, in Wiltshire; 
of Pinley, near Coventry ; and the moiety of the manor 
of Henley-in-Arden, with the advowson of the adjacent 
church of Preston-Baggott. To sir Richard Bingham, 
knt., who had married Margaret, the widow of sir Hugh 
Willoughby of WoUaton, in Nottinghamshire, the manors 
of Middleton and Whitnash, with lands at Wilnecote; 
the manor of Wyken, near Coventry, with lands and 
rents within the county of that city ; and also the manors 
of Grunthorpe, Lowdham, Bradford, Feme, and Maun.' 



Packiogtoii. He was bur. here Not. 
2nd, 1633. He had one son, and 
three daughters. 

John Firmers, esq., b. 1629, m., 

about 1648, Dorothy, dan. and cob. 

of sir Dudley Carleton, knt. He d, 

in 1680 : and was bur. at Tamworth, 

Sept. 3rd. His children were, 

L-u. Two INFANTS, 6«r. Aug:. 6th, 1649. 

ui. Ann, ter. May 25th, l6ai. 

IT. DoaoTRT, who, in 1670, was m. to 

Rich. Batler, earl of Arran. Lady 

Dorothy, then ** coanteas-dowaKer of 

Arran in Ireland, and baroness of 

Wesson, hi Hantingdonshhw,** was 

bur, at Tamworth, Dec. 8th, 1710) 



beinir the last of the family of Fen«n 

of Tsmworth-Osstle. 

T. HuMpnar,^. 1053. Hewaa lmic1it> 

ed : and m. Elizabeth, dan.of Oerraae 

Pigot. She survtved her husband, 

resided latterly at Biamoote-hall, 00. 

of Warw., and was hur, here, Aug, 

90th. 1703. He was drowned in 1078, 

and AtM*. Sept. asth. He left an only 

dan., 

Ann Fkrrkrs, who, in 1680* 

succeeded her grand-father in the 

possession of the Castle and Honoor 

of Tamworth. These, in 1688, she 

conTeyed in marriage to Robert 

Shirley. 



1 Daffdale*s Warwicksh.— The only tomb of any of the Frerile-fkmUy, which we 
haTe been able to identify, is that of Margaret, and of her husband, sir Richanl Bing- 
ham. It lies in the middle of the chancel of the church at Middleton, and bears their 
portraitures in brass. Ttom the lady's arm, hangs a rosary. Below the flgorea, is 
this inscrtption, in black-letter, 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 367 

Thomas Ferrers died in 1458. He was then the 
principal of the male branch of the Ferrerses of Groby, 
and he bore his arms^ — ^vairy Or and Gu, — ^with a label 
of three points Azure. He was the father of Thomas, 
who succeeded to this Castle^ and of sir Henry Ferrers^ 
knt.^ of Hambleton^ in the county of Rutland; from 
whom is descended the present family of Ferrers^ of 
Baddesley-Clinton, in Warwickshire.' 

Thomas Ferrers was thirty-six years old at his father's 
death; and then he seated himself at Tamworth. In 
1460^ he was made sheriff of the counties of Warwick 
and Leicester; and also in the ensuing year. In the 
wars between the houses of York and Lancaster, he took 
part with the former, and signalized himself by his 
fidelity to Bichard, duke of York, father of Edward IV. 
But, in the battle of Wakefield, fought upon the 30th 
of December, 1460, when the duke was killed and his 
army routed by the forces of the queen of Henry VI., 
he was taken prisoner. He was liberated on giving his 
word that he would pay a fine of three hundred marks. 
When, shortly afterwards, the Yorkists gained the as- 
cendance, and Edward IV. obtained the throne, Thomas 
Ferrers was rewarded for his services. He was created 
a knight : and received a special precept firom the king 
to the barons of the Exchequer, commanding them to 
give him a remittance of two hundred marks of the sum 
for which he was then answerable on account of his re- 
ceipts whilst he was sheriff. From 1464 until his death. 



mC lACKT D'WS MCARDirS BINGHAM, MILBll, JVSTICIARIVS DB BAWCO D'Vf MBOIB, QUI OBUT 

xzu DIB Mau, awko Milling CCCC lxxvj, bt d'va Mabcabkta, sua conjvxi qvob' 

A*I*ABVS V*PtClB* DBU*. AMI*. 

In the four quarters were once coetB of arms. Those of Fterfle now alone remain. 
Dnsdale cives two more,~« ftet, for Bingham, and Bingham impaling Fterile. The 
ftmrth waa loct in his time. 

] Dngdale's Warwickshire. 



S68 TAMWORTH 

he was one of the commissioners for the conseiration of 
the peace in Warwickshire ; and, in 1468, he was again 
appointed sheriff of this county. In 1473, he was made 
a knight of the Bath, at the creation of Richard Pkn- 
tagenet, second son of the king and duke of York. He 
married Ann, daughter of Leonard Hastings of Kirby, 
and sister of William lord Hastings. By her, he had 
three sons, sir John, who died in his fiither's life time, 
and of whom little occurs, except that he was in the 
king's service in Normandy, in 1475 ; Leonard ; and 
Ralph, dean of the Church of this town. He died on 
the 22nd of August, 1498, leaving his grandson sir John 
his heir, who was son of John, and Matilda his wife, 
daughter of sir John Stanley, knt., of Elford.* 

Sir John Ferrers was one of the knights of the body 
to king Henry VII. ; and a commissioner for the peace 
in Warwickshire, from 1502 until his decease. He 
married Dorothy, daughter of William Harper, esq., of 
Rushall-castle, in Staffordshire; and had, besides a son, 
a daughter Ann, who was married, about 1541, to 
John Peto, esq., of Chesterton, in Warwickshire. He 
died in 1512. By his will, he bequeathed his body for 
burial within the chancel of the Church of Tamworth, 
before the image of St. Editha.' It is a singular coin- 
cidence that his decease took place upon the festival of 
that saint. His widow survived him for many years. 

Sir Humphry Ferrers succeeded his father. He 
married first, Margaret, daughter of Thomas Pigot, 
sergeant-at4aw ; and secondly, in 1540, Dorothy, daugh- 
ter and coheiress of Thomas Marrow, sergeant-at-law, 
who was the widow of Francis Cockain, esq., of Pooly. 
He died on the 13th of September, 1554, in the reign 

1 DuffdAle's Wanrlckshire. 3 Ibid. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 369 

of Philip and Mary, leaving, by his ixst wife, a son 
and heir, 

John Ferrers, esq., who had married, in 1539, Bar- 
bara Cockain, the daughter of his mother-in-law. He 
had issue, — ^Dorothy, who married Edward Holt, esq. ; 
Humphry, his eldest son and heir ; Edward ; Henry ; 
Thomas; and George. He died in April, 1576.^ 

Humphry Ferrers, esq., succeeded on the death of his 
father. He married, in 1562, Ann, daughter of Hum- 
phry Bradboume, esq., of Lea, in the county of Derby ; 
and towards the end of his life Elizabeth, daughter of 
sir Balph Longford, of Longford.* In 1577, and again 
in 1588, he was constituted sheriff of Warwickshire.' 
In 1585, he was one of the justices of peace for the 
county of Stafford ; and, on account of his occasionally 
residence at Walton-upon-Trent, in Derbyshire, he was 
one of the magistrates ordered to establish a watch 
and ward around the castle of Tutbury, where Mary, 
queen of Scots, lay imprisoned by the treachery of 
Elizabeth.^ For his services, he was afterwards created 
a knight. He had, by his first wife, a numerous family. 
His sons were, sir John, William, Walter, Thomas, and 
Edward : and his daughters, Elizabeth, who was married 
to William Somervile, esq., afterwards knt; Catherine, 
to George Hyde, gent, afterwards K. B. ; Briget, to 
Bobert Eyre, esq., of Highlow; Lettice; and Susan, to 
George Gresley, esq., of Drakelow, who was created a 
baronet. Sir Humphry Ferrers died in January, 1607-8.* 

Sir John Ferrers had been knighted, on the SSrd of 
April, 1603, at Beauvoir-castle, by James I., who was 

1 DugdAle't Warwickah. 2 CMtle-Inacriptions. a Burke. 
4 BrdMwicke :-edit 1M4. In Mareh, 1684, the Inlwbitanta of Tunwotth paid 3». 
towards tlic nudntenasce of the aoldicrs at Tatbiuy. 

s Dogdale't Warwicksb. Castte Imarliitkma. Paitoh Register. 



370 TAMWORTH 

on his way from Scotland to London, to assume the 
sceptire of England.^ When he succeeded to his fiither's 
estates, the possessions of his inheritance, and their 
value, are thus enumerated.' 

£ s. d. 

The Casile of Tamworih, with Waver- 
ton-warren, Stipershill, and the demesnes 
of the Castle in Warwickshire, held in 
capite, 12 6 10 

Lands and rents in the Warwickshire 
side of the town, 18 

Lea and Stretford, held of the Castle 
of Tamworth, by tmknown service, IS 9 4 

Lea and Marston, in Warwickshire, held 
in capite, by knight's service, SO 9 

Harborough-magna, with the advowson 
of the church, in Warwickshire, held of 
the duke of Norfolk, 7 

Fleckenho, in Warwickshire, held of 
the bishop of Worcester, 11 16 8 

Waverton, in Warwickshire, held of the 
Castle of Tamworth, which Edward Ferrers 
had for his life, 4 17 9 

Lands and rents in the Staffordshire 
part of Tamworth, forming part of the 
demesnes of the Castle, 5 5 

Tettenhall-Regis, in Staffordshire, held 
in capite, 5 6 

Newborough, in Staffordshire, held of 
the duchy of Lancaster, by unknown 
service, 8 4 

Glaverley, in Shropshire, held in capite, 17 4 4 

1 Erdeiwlcke :--«Ut 1844. a M.S., temp. Juc I. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 371 

Over and above one mill^ called Astford 
mill, in the bands of tbe crown ; to wbicb 
a rent was paid of 26s, 8d. 

Bradford, in Sbropsbire, held in capite, 6 

StivichaU, in tbe liberty of Coventry, 
beld of tbe tbe crown as of tbe earl of 
Cbester, 16 2 9 

Of tbis sir Jobn Brat, clerk, had an 
annuity of 5/. 68. 8d. 

Walton-upon-Trent, in Derbysbire, witb 
tbe advowson of tbe cbnrcb, beld in capite, 15 18 8 

Taddington-magna, called tbe World's 
end, in Herefordsbire, beld in capite, .... 15 9 7| 

Orton-on-tbe-bill, in Leicestersbire, beld 
of tbe lord Ferrers, by unknown service, 10 

Hetbe, in Oxfordsbire, beld of tbe duke 
of Buckingbam, by unknown service, .... 10 

Magna Blounts^ called '^yng gyng geo- 
berde laundre," witb tbe advowson of tbe 
cburcb, in Essex; and Harford Stok, in 
tbe parisb of Buttsbury, beld of tbe 
marquis of Dorset, by unknown service, 36 

Cbampion's priors and Joys, in Essex, 
held of the marquis of Dorset, by un- 
known service, 37 6 8 

Ilgers, called Lachley, in Essex, held of 
tbe marquis of Dorset, by unknown service, 13 6 8 

Marks, in Magna Dunmow, in Essex, 
beld of tbe duchy of Lancaster, by un- 
known service, 20 

Tbis 207. Thomas Ferrers had for the 

term of bis life. 

Total.... 285 IS 4i 



J 



S72 TAMWORTH 

Sir John Ferrers afterwards wM several of the fiunily 
estates, — ^Lea, Harhorough-magna, Stivichall, Orton-on* 
the-hill, and the Umds in Grreat Dunmow. He was 
sheriff of Warwickshire, in 1615 : and was returned as 
member of parliament for Tamworth, in 1586, 1S92, 
1603, and 1615. He married Dorothy, daughter of sir 
John Puckering, knt and hart, keeper of the great seal 
of England. He ha^ a son Humphry, bom in 1600 ; 
and three daughters, Frances, Ann, and Jane. Frances 
was married to John Packington, esq. ; Ann, to Simon 
Archer, of Tanworth, in Warwickshire, who was 
created a knight by James I., in 1624; and Jane, to 
sir Thomas Rous, bart. He died in 1633, and was 
buried in the chancel of the Church.^ 

Sir Humphry Ferrers, knt, who succeed his father, 
did not survive him very long, for he died in the 
autumn following. Little occurs of him except that he 
resided at the Castle, whilst his father took up his abode 
at the hall of Walton-upon-Trent. He was knighted 
on the 6th of September, 1617, by James I., just before 
the latter quitted Warwick, to which he had paid a visit : 
and he had the honour of entertaining this sovereign at 
at this Castle, in 1619, 1621, and 16184." He married 
Ann, one of the daughters of sir John Packington, knt, 
of Hampton-Lovett, in the county of Worcester; by 
whom he had one son, John, and three daughters. She 
survived him, and was married again to Philip Stanhope, 
first earl of Chesteifield.' 

John Ferrers, esq., bom in 1629, was a minor at 
his father's decease. By letters patent, dated on the 
8th of May, 1684, his guardianship and disposal in 

1 Datdalo*t Wanrickth. 2 See pp. U9, 190, ISI. 
3 Dardale's Warwickali. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 373 

marriage were given to lady Ann Ferrers^ and sir 
Richard Brooke^ knt. ; with an annuity of forty marks, 
to be assigned by the master of the court of wards and 
liveries, out of the site and capital messuage of the 
manor of Lea, in Derbyshire; the capital messuage of 
the manor of Bradboume, in the same county ; the manor 
of Walton-upon*Trent, in the counties of Derby and 
Stafford, and the manor of Tatenhall-regis, in Stafford- 
shire; and divers messuages, lands, meadows, pastures, 
and hereditaments, in the counties of Stafford and Derby ; 
all which sir Humphry held at the time of his death, 
of the crown, in capite, by military service.* 

John Ferrers married Ann, daughter and eventually 
coheiress of sir Dudley Carlton, knt: and quitted his 
minority in 1650. By indenture, dated on the 28th of 
February, 1652-3, he conveyed, the manor or lordship 
of Walton-upon-Trent^ and the several houses, lands, 
tithes, leasowes, pastures, feedings, woods, warrens, fish- 
eries, fowlings, and other rights belonging to it; 120 
acres of meadow near the river Trent, in Tatenhill, 
Barton-under-Needwood, and Walton; and several other 
houses, lands, and tithes, in Walton-upon-Trent, Barton- 
under-Needwood, Rolleston, Shuttington, Polesworth, and 
Waverton; and the advowson and right of patronage 
of Walton-church; to the behoof of sir Dudley Carlton, 
Matthew Carlton of Lincoln's Inn, and Thomas Carlton, 
their executors and assigns, for the term of ten years, 
firom the ensuing feast of the Annunciation of the 
Virgin, if Ann Ferrers, his wife, should live so long: 
and, after the determination of that estate, to the u^e of 
himself for his natural life; without impeachment of 
waste. And the Castle and honour of Tamwortb, widi 

Letters patent, lO Car. 1. 

c 3 



374 TAMWORTH 

all its rights, members, and appurtenances; and also 
the three com mills and one fulling mill standing 
under one roof, called the Castle-mills; and Castle- 
meadow, and Mill-meadow; and several other lands, 
tenements, and tithes, in Tamworth, Stretford, BolehaU, 
Amington, Glascote, Wilnecote, Drayton, Bassington, 
Waverton, Polesworth, and Wigginton; free warren 
in Waverton and Polesworth; the manor and court 
of Stipershill; the manor of Tatenhill-regis ; and the 
premises in that place, in Wightwick, Compton, Mergis, 
and Kingswood, he limited to the use of himself, 
during his natural life, and then to Humphry Ferteis, 
his son and heir apparent, and his heirs male, with 
several remainders over: with the proviso, that, at any 
time, he might make a demise, lease, or grant, of all 
the premises,— except those limited to sir Dudley Carle- 
ton for ten years, — for the maintenance of^ and the 
raising of portions for, all the daughters and younger 
sons of himself and Ann his wife.* 

John Ferrers had only one surviving daughter, Doro- 
thy. On her marriage with Richard Butler, earl of 
Arran, in Ireland, second son of James duke of Ormond, 
he, by indenture, dated upon the Ist of February, 
1670-1, in order to provide her portion, for certain con- 
siderations, granted, in trust to sir John Packington, 
hart., of Westwood, in Worcestershire, and Richard 
Aldworth, esq., of the middle temple, the Castle and 
honour of Tamworth, and all the premises which he had 
before limited to himself and his heirs male, to be by 
them held for the term of one hundred years, at the 
annual rent of a pepper-corn. But he should be able, 
at any time to revoke the term of years by any writing 

1 Indenture, i6ss.9. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 376 

under his hand and seal^ after having tendered the sum 
of 5«. to sir John Packington, and Richard Aldworth. 
This he accordingly did, a short time subsequently^ by 
a deed dated upon the 15th of Aprils 1673. 

John Ferrers was returned to parliament for Derby- 
shire^ after the restoration. His only son, sir Humphry 
Ferrers, knt., was accidentally drowned in the Trent, on 
the 6th of September, 1678, in the twenty-fifth year 
of his age: he had married Elizabeth, daughter of 
Gervase Pigott, esq., of Thrumpton, in Nottingham- 
shire; by whom he had an only daughter named Ann. 
John Ferrers, the last of the male line of the Ferrerses 
of Groby and Tamworth, died the 14th of August, 1680; 
leaving Ann, his grand-daughter, sole heiress to the 
Castle of Tamworth. 

Ann Ferrers, in 1688, became the second wife of 
Robert Shirley, eldest son of Robert, baron Ferrers of 
Chartley. By this marriage, the estates of the two 
branches of the family of Ferrers — those of Chartley 
and of Groby, — ^became re-imited, after a lapse of more 
than four centuries. She died upon the 27th of Sep- 
tember, 1697, leaving three sons and a daughter, — 
Robert, bom on the 28th of December, 1692 ; Ferrers ; 
Thomas; and Elizabeth. 

Robert Shirley died on the 25th of February, 1697-8. 
His father was then alive ; who, not suspecting that he 
should survive all the male children of his eldest son, 
obtained, in 1711, the titles of viscount Tamworth and 
earl Ferrers, intending that the dignities should descend 
with the elder branch of his family,— the lords of this 
Castle. But Robert his grandson, then viscount Tam- 
worth, died in July, 1714, unmarried. His two brothers 
also died; and Elizabeth Shirley became heiress of 




376 TAMWORTH 

Tamworth-Castle and all the estates. On the death of 
earl Ferrers, her grandiather, in 1717, she became 
baroness Ferrers of Ghartley; but the Tiscountcy and 
earldom, being as usual limited to males, passed to her 
uncle, and thus went to a branch of the family totally 
unconnected with this town. She also then became 
entitled to the baronies of Basset of Drayton, Lovaine, 
aud Bourchier. 

Lady Elizabeth Shirley, on the 8rd of March, 1715-6, 
was married to James Compton, fifth earl of Northamp- 
ton ; who, in her right, became lord of this Castle. She 
had two sons and five daughters. George, bom on the 
6th of July, 1718, died on the 28th of November, 1719. 
James, born in 172S, died in 1739. Ann died un- 
married, on the 13th of March, 1735-6. Charlotte, bom 
on the 8th of August, 1729, alone survived. Jane, 
bom in 1732, died in 1749, unmarried. The decease 
of Elizabeth countess Compton occurred on the 13th 
of March, 1740-1 ; and the barony of Chartley then fell 
into abeyance between her daughters, Charlotte and 
Jane. But, when the latter died, the dignity devolved 
upon her sister. 

Lady Charlotte Compton was thus, in her own right, 
baroness Ferrers of Chartley, and baroness Basset of 
Drayton, Lovaine, and Bourchier. She was married, in 
December, 1751, to the hon. George Towshend, son of 
Charles third viscount Townshend of Kaynham, in Nor- 
folkshire. By the deed of settlement made previously to 
the marriage, dated in the middle of the same month, 
the viscount conveyed several manors and hereditaments 
in the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, and Cambridge, to 
Charles lord Comwallis and the right hon. Henry Fox, 
in trust, in order to raise 20,000^. for the portions of the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



377 



daughters and younger sons' resulting firom the intended 
nuptials^ payable in such manner as George Townshend 
should by deed direct: die possessions were to be re- 




The fiunily of Townshend, of con- 
nderable antiquity and great celebrity, 
has been settled at Raynham, in Nor- 
folkshire, from the beginning of the 
12th century. 

RoGBB TowNSHBND, csq. wss crea- 
tedabaronetonthel6thofApril,1617. 

Sir Horatio Townshend, 3rd 
bart., was one of the leading mem- 
bers of the Presbyterian party, during 
the Commonwealth. Having xea- 
lously exerted himself in the cause 
of the Restoration, he was rewarded 
by Charles II., AprU 20th, 1661, 
with a seat in the house of lords, as 
baron Townshend of Lynn-regis. 
He was created Tiscount Townshend 
of Raynham, Dec. 11th, 1682. He 
d, in 1687 ; leaving a son, Charles, 
then ten years old. 

Charles Townshend, 2nd yis- 
oount and baron Townshend, K.O., 
was an eminent statesman in the 
reigns of Ann, Greo. I. and II. On 
taking his seat in parliament, in 1697, 
he first acted with the Tories ; but 



he soon went over to the Whigs, and 
ardently supported lord Somers. In 
1702, he was named for the lord 
priyy seal : and, in 1705, was one of 
the commissioners appointed to treat 
for the Union of Scotland. Two 
years afterwards, he obtained the 
post of captain of the yeoman of the 
queen's guard. In 1709, he was 
joint-plenipotentiary with the duke 
of Marlborough for the peace of 
Gurtruydenburg : and, in the same 
year, ambassador-extraordinary to 
the States-general of the United pro- 
yinces. On the dismissal of the 
Whigs, in 1710, he lost his post of 
captain. When Greo. I. ascended 
the throne, he was chosen secretary 
of state, with power to name a col- 
league. From this office he was 
dismissed in 1717, and appointed 
lord-lieutenant of Ireland; but he 
refused to proceed into that country. 
He was constituted, June 11th, 1720, 
prebend of the council : and in 1721, 
he was again made secretary of state. 
He resided the office, May 15th, 
1730, and withdrew into private life 
at Raynham. He m. 1st Elisabeth, 
2nd dau. of Tho. lord Pelham, and 
half sister of the duke of Newcastle ; 
and 2nd, in 1713, Dorothy, sister of 
sir Robert Walpole. He d, June 
21st, 1738, in his 63rd year. His 
son, by his first wife, 

Charles Townshend, 3rd yis- 
count and baron Townshend, m., 
1723, Audry, dan. and h. of Edward 
Harrison, esq., governor of Madras. 
He d, in 1764, leaving, 
I. Gborob, of whom preiently. 
u. Rt. how. Charlbs, bom Ui 1735, a 
distinffoished politician, who enjoyed 
sevend high oinces of state. He en- 
tered the house of commons in 1747 j 
was appointed a lord of the admiralty, 
1754) treasurer of the chamber in 
1750, which he resicned next year, 
bnt soon again resumed; secretary 
of state, in 17O5 ; paymaster of the 
forces, inlTM { and chancellor of the 
exchequer, in 17M. He m, Caroline, 
dau. and h. of John and carl of Ar- 



378 



TAMWORTH 



tainded to the use of the first and other sons daring 
the term in tale male^ with remainders over. And the 
fiither of lady Charlotte Compton, James earl of North- 



gyle and GiMnwich, and widow of 

the earl of Dalkeith, eldeat eon of 

the duke of Buceleach. 

Gbobob Townbbbnd, JUming m. 

Itdjy CkarMte Cfm^tomt mefitrtd 

THB CaSTLB and HONOUB OF TaM- 

woBTH. He became 4th Tifooiiiit 
and baaron Townahend, in 1764 : and, 
in 1786, waa created marquia Towna- 
hend of Raynham. Hie lit wife <f. 
l>ec. 14th, 1770 ; and he m. 2nd, 
May 19th, 177S, Anne, 3rd dan. of 
•ir Will. Montgomery, bart. ; and 
ahe aorriTed him, nntU 1819. Thia 
nobleman <f. in 1807, having had by 
hia 2nd wife a nvmerooa family, and 
by hia firat, — 

I. Gbobob, hia aooeeaaor. 

u. Chablottb, *. Oct. ISth, 17M; d, 
March ISth, 1760. 

m. JoBN, mentioned hereafter. 

IT. CAbolinb, 4. 70009. 

▼. Fbanobs, ft. March SSthj d. May 

nth, 1761. 
Ti. FEBOBRicK-PATBtcE, aderKymaa, 

b, Dec. 80th, 1707. 
▼u, Cbablbs. 

▼III. SuzABBTH, who M. Hvj 7th, 
1790, m^tor-reneral Will. Ixsftiu. of 
Wimpole-st., London, andKUhnde, 
00. Wicklow, in Ireland, colonel of 
the aecond drafoon rnarda, and Itent. 
of the tower of London. He tat 
auccessively in parliament, ftxnn I79d 
to 1818, for the boroufht of Great 
YarmonthandTamworth. He tf. July 
15th, 1831, havlnir had 8 sona, and 
4 dans., of whom Charlotte m. lord 
Charles- Vere-FenarB Townahend. 
Gbobgb Townshbnd, b, Apr. 
18th, 1 755, ancceeded to the baroniea 
of Ferrera of Chartley, Baasetof Dray- 
ton, Lovaine, fioarohier, and Comp- 
ton, on the deosaae of hia mother ; 
waa created earl of Leiceater in 1784 ; 
and became the 2nd marquia, 5th 
viacount and baron, and 7th baronet 
of the family of Townahend. He m. 
Charlotte, 2nd dan of £. M. Eller- 
ker, eaq.,--ahe d. Feb. 2nd, 1802 : 
he <f. in 1811.^ He had, 

I. Gborob, b. Dec. 18th, 1778. He m.. 
May 18th, I807, a dan. of Will. Dann 
Gardiner esq. 1 and saoceeded to the 
titles of the famUy. 

II. CnABi.oTTB-BABBABA,6.Jane9<(th, 



1781 ; A Oct. Srd. 1807* 8h« ■I.Apr. 
6th, 1808, It-col OecU Bishop, eldest 
son of sir Cedi Bishop, bait., after- 
wards lord Zoadi. 
m. HABBiBTT-Airir *. said May, 178S, 
d. Jane, 1845. She was si. March llth. 
1818, to Bdwaid Fsners, esq., of 
Baddesley-CUnton, co. of Warwi^ 
Uneally descended from the 1st no- 
mas FBRers of "nunwocth-Oastle. 
The issoe were, Msrmion-Bdward, 
Charles, Grotoy-Thomas, OomplDn. 
Gerard, Tamworth-Gcorfe, Henri- 
atta-BUsabcth, Maitaret.AiiBa, and 



IT. Eluabbtb-Maboabbt, *. Any. 
18th, 1784} who waa si. 1815, to 
Joseph Moore Bonltbee, esq. 

▼. Cbablbs Vbbb *. Apr. lOth, 178S. 
His lordship repcesented T^mworth 
in parliament for many years - and 
he now possesses hy imrchsse " 
Of Twagmt 



Castle and hoaoor 
A recent decision of the house 
of pens has dedarsd him entitted 
to the difnity of eari of Leices- 
ter, and consequently hereafter to 
the other titles of his Cunily, on ac- 
coont of irregularity in his elder bro- 
ther's fkmily. Lord Charles Towns- 
hend, who resides at Raynham, au, 
March 94th, 1819, Chartotte, eldest 
dau. of maiar-genersl WilL Loftos 1 
but his lordship has no issue. 
Lo&D John Townshknd, 2nd 
8on of the Ist marquia, b, Jan. 19Ui, 
1757, m. Apr. 10th, 1787. Georp- 
ana-Ann, dan. and h. of William 
Pointi, eaq., who had been deforced 
from William Fawkener, eaq. The 
iaaoe were, 

I. AuDaT-HABRiBTT, d. Feb., 1st., 1778. 
and SI., Oct lOth, 1890, to the rer. 
Rob. Ridsdale. 

II. Blibabbtb-Fbavcbs, *. Auc. and, 
I789i and si., Oct, aeth, 1819, capC 
Aufustus-Will.-James CUflbrd, R.N. 

III. Isabbll-Gboroiana; b, Feb. let, 
1791* and d. Sept. 17th. 1811. 

IT. Javb, b, Sept. 98th. 1709. 

y. Cbbalbs-Foz, b. June 98th, 179s, 
and d, Apr. 9nd, I8I7, s. r. 

▼I, Ann, b. Aug. Slst, 1790. and d. July 
soth. 1899. 

▼II. JoBN, b, Msich 98th, 1796. A cap. 
tain in the Royal Navy, and heir pre- 
sumptlTeof lord Charles Townshend, 
his cousin. He m. Elizabeth-Jane,— 
July 18th, ia09,>^ldest dau. of lord 
George Stewart, of Bote: and has 
a numerous fiuEdly. 

▼III. GBoaeB-OsBOBNB, a deisyman. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 879 

ampton^ engaged that, immediately after his decease, 
Thomas duke of Newcastle, Lionel duke of Dorset, and 
the right hon. Henry Pelham, or the surrivors of them, 
should receive from him 12,000/., in trust, as an addition 
to the portions. This sum, with the consent of Greorge 
Townshend and Charlotte baroness Ferrers, was to be 
invested in government or real securities, amongst which 
any part of the estates of viscount Townshend should 
have the preference: the interest was to be enjoyed by 
the latter during his son's life, then by his son if he 
survived, afterwards by Charlotte baroness Ferrers, and 
then by all the younger children. 

James Compton, earl of Northampton, died on the 
3rd of October, 1754, and lady Charlotte Townshend 
succeeded to the barony of Compton ; but the earldom 
passed to her imcle Geoi^e. 

George Townshend, thus, in the right of his wife, 
lord of Tamworth-Castle, became, in 1764, fourth baron 
Townshend of Lynn-regis and viscount Townshend of 
Kaynham, in consequence of the decease of his father, 
on the 13th of March. The latter, by his wiU dated on 
the 16th of October previous, reciting that he was seized 
of divers manors and hereditaments, in Norfolk, not 
included in the settlement, devised all his landed pro- 
perty to his son during his life, with remainder to 
trustees and their heirs during his life to support the 
contii]^nt remainders, with remainder to his first and 
every other son successively in tale male, with remainders 
over. And, after stating that he had paid off several 
sums of money charged upon his real estates, he be- 
queathed the same amounting of 24,000/. and all securities 
to Edward Bacon, William S. Powell, and Philip Case, 
in trust, to receive the yearly profits and place them out 



380 TAMWORTH 

to interest^ until a sufficient fund should be raised to 
pay 4fl00l. charged on his family-estates, 9,823/. 5s. 
charged on estates in Norfolk, and the iOfiOOl. directed 
to be raised under the settlement of 1751. And, after 
the fund should be raised and the sums paid, he willed 
that all the securities should be assigned over in trust 
to attend the inheritance, so that the monies might be 
merged in the estates. But, by a codicil, dated on the 
2nd of November, he appointed Colby Bullock to be 
trustee in place of W. S. Powell. 

George viscount Townshend had issue, by lady Char- 
lotte, — George, his successor; Charlotte, who died young; 
John; Caroline and Frances, who died infants; Fred- 
erick-Patrick; Charles-Thomas-Patrick; and Elizabeth. 
The decease of lady Charlotte Townshend occurred on 
the 14th of September, 1770 ; and her eldest son George 
became in consequence baron Ferrers of Chartley, and 
also baron Lovaine, Basset of Drayton, Bourchier, and 
Compton. 

By deed, dated on the 12th of February, 1776, the 
manors and hereditaments in the counties of Norfolk 
and Cambridge comprised in the indentures of 1751 and 
devised by the will; and also the Castle of Tamworth^ 
and the honour and manor of it; the three corn-mills 
and one fulling-mill standing under one roof and called 
the Castle-miUs; Castle-meadow, Mill-meadow, Secking- 
ton-meadow, leaward or Castle-park, the two Strerford- 

1 Copy rental and accoimt to Lady-dfty, 1777. 

Total net cash raodTcd at Tuniroitli, tnm tht old astat^ to Lady- 

day, I77r» «a 9 8 

Ditto, flpom the n«v attate, to the aama tinw, 19ft 8 a 

Ditto, flpom the new eatate, not hi settlement, t 18 u s 

Ditto, at Walton, to the lame time, 634 if 11 

Ditto, Bradboonie, to the same time, 381 16 le 

Total jff 1483 10 3 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 381 

fields. Suits-orchard, and all other lands and tenements 
appertaining to the Castle; all others whatsoever be- 
longing to George viscount Townshend and Greorge lord 
Ferrers, in Stretford, BolehaU, Amington, Glascote, Wil- 
necote, Drayton, Bassington, and Wigginton; all those 
belonging to the viscount and baron in Waverton 
and Polesworth, and the free warren in those places ; 
the manor and court of Stipershill; the manors of 
Bradboume and Lea; all their messuages, lands, and 
tithes, in Bradboume, Lea, Boylston, Parwich, Bentley, 
Kinteton, Tissington, Hognaston, Atlow, Brassington, 
Monteridge, Wicksworth, and Ashbourne, or elsewhere 
in the Peake; the manor of Walton-upon-Trent, and 
the advowson of the church there; and the meadow- 
ground, containing 120 acres, lying near the Trent in 
Tettenhill, Barton-under-Needwood, and Walton; were 
limited to the use of such persons and for such purposes 
as by George viscount Townshend and George lord 
Ferrers should afterwards by deed jointly, or by the 
latter if he survived, be appointed and directed. 

Accordingly by indentures of the 19th and 20th of 
March, in the following year, George viscount Towns- 
hend and George baron Ferrers assigned the above-named 
possessions, and other manors and hereditaments in the 
coimties of Norfolk, Warwick, and Stafford, to Thomas 
Beevor and the hon. Charles Vernon, to the use of 
the right hon. Thomas Townshend, Richard Jackson, 
and Henry Drummond, for the term of 2,000 years, 
without impeachment of waste, in trust, subject to a 
full yearly rent of 2,000^., to be paid to George viscount 
Townshend during his natural lifcj with remainder to 
Beevor and Vernon, for such persons and for such 
purposes as the viscount and baron should by deed 

D 8 



382 TAMWORTH 

appoint and direct, with or without power of revocation ; 
and^ until the appointment should be made^ to the use 
of the latter and his heirs male, with remainders oyer. 
And it was declared that the trust was vested in 
Thomas Townshend, Richard Jackson, and Henry Drum- 
mond, to raise, by sale or mortgage, the sum of 
7S,S00f., and another of 2,000f. to pay particular law- 
charges, of which 3,300^. should be given to George 
baron Ferrers for his own use, whilst the rest was to 
be employed in the discharge of all debts and 
encumbrances on the family-estates. And by indenture 
of the 5th of April following, reciting that certain 
persons had agreed to advance the required sums, — 
Charles lord Cadogan, 15,000;. and lOflOOl.; Yexe 
lord Yere, 20,000;. ; Thomas lord Pelham, 12,54R 1&. 
6d. ; Thomas- Walley Partington and Charles Grreen- 
wood, 758/. Is. 6d. and 10,000/. ; and John Willington, 
7,000/., — the three trustees named in the last deed, 
with the consent of the viscoimt and his son and at 
the appointment of the persons above-named, transfisrred 
all the property comprised in the term of 2,000 years 
to Robert Drummond and Richard Cox, in trust, for 
those who had advanced the money ; but with a proviso 
for redemption on payment of the sums, with due 
interest, by the viscount or his heirs. 

George viscount Townshend was advanced to the 
higher dignity of marquis Townshend of Raynham, by 
letters patent of the 27th of October, 1786. On the 
marriage of his daughter, lady Elizabeth, with William 
Loftus, in 1790, he assigned to her, on the 26th of 
April, 8,135/. 88. l^d., being her part of the accumulated 
sums secured to the daughters and younger sons. This, 
with 3,000/. given by him in addition, was, the next 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 383 

day, vested in lord Frederick Townshend and John 
Wolf, in trust, for lady Elizabeth, nntil the marriage 
should take place, afterwards for William Loftus and 
herself or tihe survivor; and then the sum was to be 
invested in government or real security for the benefit 
of their issue. The remainder of the portions was, 
by direction of the marquis, on the 2nd of August 
following, assigned to the three younger sons, John, 
Frederick-Patrick, and Charles-Thomas-Patrick. The 
latter died intestate in May, 1796, having then received 
2,500/. : his father obtained letters of administration 
and took the remainder all but 935/. Ss. l^d. 

Greorge marquis Townshend was a field-marshall ; and 
attained some political dignity, being, at one time, on 
the privy council, and also lord lieutenant of Ireland. 
He died on the 19th of September, 1807, and was 
succeeded by his son George, who, on the 18th of 
May, 1784, had been created earl of the county of 
Leicester, 

By indentures of the 30th and 81st of May, 1811, 
for specified considerations, Thomas lord Walsingham, 
Robert Blake, and John Robins, who had become 
trustees, by the direction of the second marquis Towns- 
hend, and with the approbation of the numerous persons 
to whom the sums raised had become due, released 
and confirmed to John Smith and Francis- Williams 
Sanders, all the manors, lands, and other heredita- 
ments, of which the marquis was seized in the counties 
of Norfolk, Cambridge, and Derby, to hold in trust, to 
complete certain contracts for the sale of part of the 
hereditaments ; and, out of those not already contracted 
for disposal, to raise, by sale or mortgage, so much in 
aid of the purchase-monies as would suffice to pay several 



S84 TAMWORTH 

sums mentioned^ according to their respectiye priorities, 
with due interest, and all expences. Amongst these sums 
were, — SOfiOOl. due to Edward-Miller Mundy, originally 
lent by Yere lord Yere; 6,000/. due to Frances and 
Frances-Dorothy Fumivall, the money unpaid lent by 
lord Cadogan; 8,135/. 8s. l^d. due to Robert Orme 
and Harrington Hudson, as trustees acting under the 
marriage settlement of lady Elizabeth Townshend ; 935/. 
88. l^d. due to Ann dowager marchioness Townshend 
as personal representative of lord Charles-T.-P. Towns- 
hend; 8,135/. 88. l^d. due to lord John Townshend; 
10,000/. due to Charles Greenwood; 758/. 7». 6d. due 
to Andrew-Berkley Drummond, Charles Drummond, and 
John Drummond, originally advanced by Tho.-W. Par- 
tington; and 7,000/. due to Thomas Willington, which 
had been lent by John Willington. John Smith 
and Francis-Williams Sanders were to hold such 
hereditaments as should remain unsold, in trust, for the 
marquis, his heirs, and assigns. And A.-B., C, and 
J., Drummond, then trustees, assigned over to Richard 
White all the premises comprised in the indentures of 
March, 1777, except those in the counties of Stafford 
and Wanvick, to hold during the remainder of the term 
of S,000 years, in trust, for John Smith and Frands- 
W. Sanders, to attend the inheritance. 

Greorge, second marquis Townshend married Charlotte, 
second daughter of Ellerker Mainwearing Ellerker, esq., 
of Risby, in Yorkshire; and coheiress of Roger her 
brother. By her, he had several children, — Greorge- 
Ferrers, Charlotte-Barbara-Ferrers, Harriett- Ann-Ferrers, 
Elizabeth-Margaret-Ferrers, and Charles- Yere-Ferrers. 
He died upon the 28th of July, 1811. His will was 
made on the 19th day previous. After having given many 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 385 

specific legacies, and bequeathed to Frances Warcup, 
spinster, his personal property at his mansion in Sloane- 
street, and at Richmond in Surrey, with all his lands 
and hereditaments at the latter place freed from encum- 
brances, he devised the rest of his personal property 
to lord John Townshend his brother, and Robert 
Blake, in trust, to be conyerted in money; which, after 
the payment of his debts and funeral expences, should 
be invested in the purchase of freehold or copyhold 
estates, to be applied as he ordered his real estates to 
be, except certain uses directed to be limited to his 
half-brother, lord James Townshend, for life, and then to 
the first and other sons of him successively in tail male. 
And the marquis devised to lord John Townshend and 
Robert Blake all his real estates not before disposed of, 
upon trust, that they, as soon as might be convenient, 
should, by sale or mortgage, raise so much money in 
aid of the personal property assigned to them as would 
suffice to pay his debts, legacies, and frmeral and 
testamentary expences. The estates not disposed of 
they should hold in trust, during the life of lord 
Charles Townshend, in order to preserve them. They 
were to apply the rents, — to pay all taxes, rates, and 
other outgoings for the estates whilst lord Charles 
lived, — to keep in repair the mansion-houses at Rayn- 
ham and Tamworth, — to pay the salaries of stewards 
and bailifb, — and to pay, during the term of twenty- 
one years, an annuity of 4,000/. to lord Charles. They 
should invest the surplus of the rents, with the profits 
of the timber, upon government or real securities ; and 
the dividends being added, they should allow the money 
to accumulate during the term. After the expiration of 
the twenty-one years, lord Charles Townshend should 



386 TAMWORTH 

receive the whole of the rents ; and, after hiB decease, 
they should pass to his sons according to age, in tail 
male, with remainders over. 

Very soon after the decease of the second marquis, 
serious disputes arose amongst the trustees of the estates 
and the other persons interested in them. Appeal to 
the high court of Chancery resulted. In one cause, 
lord John Townshend and Robert Blake were plaintifb; 
and George third marquis Townshend, lord Charles 
Townshend, lady Harriett Townshend, lady Elizabeth 
Townshend, and lady Arabella-Ferrers Townshend, and 
Charles-Fox, John, and (}eorge-Osbome Townshend, 
infiuits, by their guardian, and lord James-Nugent- 
Boyle-Bemardo Townshend, were defendants. In the 
other cause, John Smith, Francis- Williams Sanders, 
lord Frederick Townshend, lady Maria-Honoria Towns- 
hend, the hon. William Blaquiere and lady Harriett his 
wife, and John Robins, were plaintifb; and Edward- 
Miller Mundy, Frances-Dorothy Fumivall, Robert Orme, 
Harrington Hudson, lord John Townshend, Charles 
Ghreenwood, Andrew-Berkley Drummond, Charles Drum- 
mond, John Drummond, Thomas Willington, Richard 
White, Samuel Taylor, sir James Montgomery bart., 
Richard Dewing, Frances Grwyn, Anthony Gwyn, Gwyn 
Etheridge, William Stokes, Robert Blake, lord Charles 
V. F. Townshend, and Charles-Fox Townshend, John 
Townshend, and G^rge-0. Townshend, by their guar- 
dian, Edward Ferrers and lady Harriett-Ann his wife, 
lady Elizabeth Townshend, lady Arabella Townshend, 
lord James-N.-B.-B. Townshend, Ann dowager mar- 
chioness Townshend, Frederick duke of Leeds, and 
Greorge third marquis Townshend, were defendants. By 
a decree of the court pronounced in the two causes 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 887 

on the Ist of February^ 1814^ it was declared that the 
trusts of the indentUTes of 1811 ought to be executed ; 
and it was decreed that the will of the late marquis 
should be established and the trusts of it effected. 

Acting in compliance with these indentures^ by 
agreement of the Uth of March ensuing^ lord John 
Townshend and Robert Blake^ with the consent of lord 
Charles Townshend^ and in subjection to the sanction 
of the court of Chancery^ agreed to sell to John Robins, 
for 94,700/., including timber, the Castle of Tamworth 
and the honour of the Castle, and several manors, 
lands, and other hereditaments, and the furniture of 
the Castle and of the Moat-house, and all the other 
possessions of which the marquis had died seiz^ed in 
Tamworth, Bolehall, Wilnecote, Fazeley, Wigginton, 
Glascote, Bitterscote, Waverton, and Amington. And as 
the late marquis was indebted to Mr. Robins 26,000/. on 
mortgage, besides a considerable amount on simple con- 
tract, it was agreed that the purchaser should retain 
that sum, and pay the remainder in the name of the 
account-general of the court of Chancery to the credit 
of causes, on or before the 5th of April, 1815. On the 
6th of August, it was ordered by the court that the 
trustees, by sale of the estates, should raise 122,700/. 
to liquidate all the debts, and that the contract for the 
sale of Tamworth-Castle and the possessions aboye-named 
should be carried into effect. 

In August, 1816, it was found that the first encum- 
brances on the estates were the principal sums consequent 
upon the trust of 1790, amounting to 25,341/. 128. 6d.; 
and the second, raised under the trusts of 1776 and 
1777, to 42,758/. Is. 6d. By different orders of the court, 
these were soon paid; so that, on the 4th of August, 



TAMWORTH 

ISn, the parties to whom these sums had heen due 
quitted all claims upon the Castle, honour, manors, 
lands, tithes, and other hereditaments situated in the 
counties of Warwick and Stafford, and all comprised 
in the indentures of 1777, to Richard White and his 
assigns during the residue of the S,000 years, upon trust, 
subject to such charges, if any, mentioned in the inden- 
tures of 1811, for lord John Townshend and Robert 
Blake, to be by them disposed of from time to time, 
but in the mean time to attend the inheritance, in order 
to preserve the same from mesne charges and encum- 
brances, if such should exist. 

Mr. Robins was put into possession of the Castle and 
estates contracted to be sold to him, and of the receipts of 
the rents, on the 5th of April, 1815 ; but many diffi- 
culties arose, so that the transfer could not be completed 
by the specified time. Upon his petition, an order of 
the court was, therefore, made, on the 20th of July, 
1816, directing lord John Townshend and Robert 
Blake to convey to him certain lands and houses in the 
town and parish of Tamworth to the value of the debt 
of 26,000^.; freed from all encumbrances. To get rid 
of these, Mr. Robins, on the 26th of August ensuing, 
at the request of the trustees, paid to certain bankers in 
London 2,085/. Ids, bd. principal and interest due from 
the late marquis, who as security had given the title- 
deeds of some houses in Bolebridge-street and Church- 
street ; and to John-Broadley Wilson, 3,949/. is. 8d. for 
principal and interest in discharge of a mortgage for 
3,500/. on the Bolehall estate. And on the 21st of 
January, 1819, Mr. Robins petitioned the court that 
with the hereditaments he had mentioned others might 
be assigned to him, the value of which altogether did 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 389 

not exceed 39,684/. lis. 7d. This was the debt now 
due to him, — 26,000/. on mortgage, with interest from 
the 2Snd of September, 1810, amounting to 7,407/. 1^. 
6i/., after the deduction of property-tax and 2,600/. 
already paid to him; 2,085/. 19«. 5d. paid to the 
bankers, with interest from the 26th of August, 1816, 
amounting to 242/. 28.; and 3,949/. 9^. 8c/. On the 
following day, an order was made consonant with the 
petition: and, by indentures of the 19th and 20th of 
February, lord J. Townshend and K. Blake conveyed to 
Mr. Robins and his trustee the specified hereditaments. 
These hereditaments were as follows. The manor of 
Bolehall and Glascote; the capital messuage called 
Bole-hall, and several parcels of land belonging to 
them, and the Bow-mill, estimated to contain altogether 
150a., all which had formerly been the estate of Samuel 
Egerton, esq., afterwards of George viscount and first 
marquis Townshend; a messuage and lands contiguous 
of 14o. Sr. 24p.; closes called the AUports of 16a. 3r. 
SOp. ; several closes formerly part of an open field called 
Further field, but long since enclosed ; other lands taken 
out of an open field called Middle field ; and others out 
of another open field called Merry-hill field; the Over 
and Nether pieces in a meadow called the Oxhays, 
containing together 2a. 16p. ; a dole in a meadow 
named Broadmeath; Well-croft of la.; and two cot- 
tages with gardens; — all which together contained 82a. 
2r. 28 ., and were, with Merry-hill close of 5a. 25p. 
and a piece of waste land adjoining, neither included 
in these indentures, formerly the estate of Isaac Hawkins 
Browne, and afterwards of the second marquis; seven 
closes called the Grreat and Little Hopleys, New Close, 
and Stone-pits, of 80a. 2r. 4., with bam, garden, 

£ 3 



390 TAMWORTH 

orchard, and rick-yard, belonging once to John Willing- 
ton, afterwards to the late marquis; and the tithes of 
all these possessions, — ^which lay in the liberty of BolehaU 
and Glascote. Two pieces of the Castle-meadow, each 
containing 2r. ; several closes lying together eastwards 
of Fazeley-bridge, containing 15a. Sp,; two pieces of 
land forming the south part of Great Park, and the 
whole of Top-close, containing t<^ther 16a. Sip, ; all 
lying in the liberty of the Castle : two cottages fronting 
the Fazeley road, and three gardens and Cam's croft 
behind of Sr., in the liberty of Fazeley; all which 
possessions in the Castle-liberty and in Fazeley were 
formerly parts of the estate of Greorge viscount Town- 
shend, commonly called lord Northampton's, or the 
Castle estate. A piece of land out of Spittle and Flax-lull 
fields of 41a. 2r. Sip., and an old enclosure of 3a. Ir. 
87p., awarded to George viscount Townshend by the com- 
missioners under the enclosure act of 1771 ; a messuage 
and garden in Wigginton; and another old enclosure; 
all in the liberty of Wigginton. Several buildings 
lying behind the houses on the south side of Market- 
street, and extending to, but exclusive of, the Castle-wall ; 
a messuage on the same side; two messuages on the 
east side of the road leading to the Castle, with 
part of the Castle-court walled off; all in the Castle- 
liberty and borough : two messuages on the south side 
of George-street; another messuage, in the same part, 
with a garden down to the river; another at the comer 
of this street and Bolebridge-street ; one adjoining in 
Bolebridge-street ; and another messuage on the south 
side of Market-street : all which had formed part of lord 
Northampton's or the Castle estate. Part of the site 
of a messuage in George-street, by the Barley-market ; 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 391 

five messuages^ four with gardens down to the Anker^ 
in Bolebridge-street ; a messuage^ with a garden^ on the 
opposite side of the same street; three messuages on 
the north side of Church-lane^ with a garden or orchard ; 
one^ on the north side of Church-street^ with a walled 
garden; one^ with a garden^ on the south side; one^ 
with gardens^ in Colehill^ opposite the east end of 
Greorge-street ; one^ in Gungate^ with an orchard 
adjoining; two more^ with a garden, in the same part; 
and a cottage and garden here ; six messuages, and five 
cottages and one shop, with gardens, in Lichfield-street ; 
and the moiety of a messuage, formerly divided into 
four dwelling-houses, in Silver-street, on the east side; 
and another messuage in the same street : all these had 
been purchased by Greorge viscount and first marquis 
Townshend, from different persons. A messuage on the 
west side of Bolebridge-street ; and six messuages, in the 
same part, with Tenter croft behind them, which had 
been converted into gardens. 

There was still a considerable sum amounting princi- 
pal and interest to 22,379/. 15«. lid, due to Mr. 
Robins from the estates of the late marquis Townshend. 
On the 22nd of March, 1820, it was ordered that he 
should complete the contract of March, 1814, and, on 
or before the first day of the ensuing Trinity-term, pay 
the residue of the 94,700/., deducting off the remaining 
debt. On the 1st of June following, he accordingly paid 
82,635/. 11^. 6d. into the bank of England, in the name 
of the accountant-general of the court of Chancery, 
to the credit of the causes. 

But the matter was not yet settled. In the last debt, 
Mr. Robins had included 1,527/. 13^. expended, at the 
desire of lord John Townshend and Robert Blake, and 



392 TAMWORTH 

also of lord Charles Y. F. Townshend, in purchasing 
books^ part of the late marquis's personal estate sold 
by Frances Warcup, on the S9th of May, 1812, and 
751/. 65. in purchasing furniture sold by her, on the 
6th of July, which had belonged to Raynham, and 71L 
4s. 9d. for repairing the latter, and sending all to 
Raynham, with 769/. 8«. 8d. due on the first two sums 
as interest to the 29th of July, 1819. Exception was 
taken to the interest: and it was ordered that Mr. 
Robins should pay interest for the purchase-money, at 
four per cent, since he had been let into the possession 
of the estates, in 1815. 

Instead of 769/. Sa. 8c/., a sum of 289/. U. 4d. was 
allowed for interest to the 5th of April, 1815. Mr. Robins 
had paid on the 6th of December, 1819, to Robert Blake, 
999/. 10s. for interest on his purchase-money; on the 
25th of December, to Joseph Vincent and Ann Fenton, 
571/. 10s. in discharge of money lent to the late 
marquis on mortgage of two houses in Lichfield-street 
included in the contract ; and on the 4th of July, 1820, 
2,210/. 8s. Id. due to certain bankers in London fix)m 
the estates of the marquis. Taking all these sums into 
account, there remained due from Mr. Robins, proper 
deductions being made, 251/. 10s. 2d. and 13,987/. IO5. 
Sd. These sums he settled on the 26th of January, 
1821; but he was again charged interest on the 18,987/. 
IO5. Sd., from the 16th of December, when the last 
account was made. The amount, 61/. 19s. Id., he 
paid on the 14th of February following. The purchase 
of the Castle and estates was now effected. Accordingly, 
by indenture of the 28th of June, 1821, lord John 
Townshend and Robert Blake completed the contract of 
sale ; and thus the Castle was, for the first time during 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 898 

almost seven-huiidred years^ alienated from the family 
of its hereditary possessors. 

The property now passed to Mr. Kobins^ was as 
follows. The Castle of Tamworth, with the buildings^ 
yard^ court-bath^ plantation^ and garden^ containing 
altogether 8a. 2r. 16p. : the honour and manor of the 
Castle : the manor of Stipershill : and all rights belong- 
ing to them. The Castle-inn facing the Holloway 
and Market-street^ with buildings and yard extending 
to the Castle-wall. A piece of ground^ with buildings^ 
converted into a bowling-green and gardens^ lyiug on 
the west side of Silver-street^ containing altogether la. Ir. 
S7p,, and formerly called Hill-croft. A dwelling-house 
in Market-street, adjoining the Castle-inn ; two dwelling- 
houses on the south side of Geoi^-street, one formerly 
the Angel-inn, with gardens down to the Anker: these 
lay partly in the borough and partly in the Castle- 
liberty. In the Castle-liberty: — Seckington meadow of 
8a. Sr. 28p. : Castle-meadow of 12a. Sr. l^P* •' a 
plantation of 12p.; an ozier-bed of Sr. 1^.: Park 
meadow of 5a. SOp. : parcels of land formerly constituting 
the Leawood-parks/ — ^Lower park piece of 4a. 2r. 34p., 
Aqueduct piece of 5a. 3dp, Lower park of Sa. 5p., 
Crreat park meadow of 18a. Ir.y two pieces of Sr. 
I8p. and Sa. 3r. 1^. Lower park piece and Upper 
park piece of 2a. 5p. and la. Sr. SSp., two closes of 
2a. Sr. 19p. and 3a. 28p., two closes called Upper park 
dose and Lower park piece of Sa. Ir. S5p. and Sa. Sr. 
Sp., Park close of 6a. Sp., Great and Little coal-pit 
closes of 6a. Sr. 22p, and 4a. Sip. ; arable land of Za. 
9p. : two pieces of meadow called the Horse closes of 

1 Hie lands named fhe parks which lay within the liberty, once formed an eztenslTe 
park belonfing to the Castle. This remained in the time of Henry VIII. i for Leland 
mmtioaahia hftving passed it on the left, aa he proceeded from TMnworth to Ffcietey. 



394 TAMWOETH 

8a. Sr. 27p. and la. IQp. : parcels of land once fonning 
Brick-kiln close, — ^a piece of Ir. ISp., another of 4a. 2r. 
98p., and a third of Sa. Ir. Z7p.: a bam with yards 
and meadow called the Barn-piece of S2p. and 10a. 3r. 
4p. : part of the Bull's head inn and garden of Sp. : lands 
once constituting Nearer Priestley fields, being situated 
south of the Watling-street, — ^a cottage and piece of 
land of SQp., Aldridge's piece and a hovel and yard of 
Sa. ir. S7/9. and IQp., Great Brick-kiln close of 4a. ir. 
18p., the Five acres of 4a. 2r. S9p. : Hilly piece, once 
part of the Further and Nearer Priestley fields, of 5a. 
ip. : Snell's orchard of 9a. Ir. SQp. : waste land adjoining 
the Tame of Ir. I6p. : Fazeley-bridge dose of la. Sp. ; 
Nether Thistly field of 7a. 2Qp. : nine pieces of meadow 
formerly part of Further and Nearer Priestley fields, — 
Brick-kiln close of 2a. ir. 85p., Further Thistly field of 
6a. 16p., the Little meadow of ia. 8r. 7/?., Hilly piece 
of 8a. 8r. 5p., Lower Bam close north of 4a. Ir. 9p., 
Lower Bam close south of 8a. 8r. SQp., Upper Bam 
close south of 3a. Ir. 28p., Upper Bam close north and 
a newly erected messuage, with a bam, and yard of ia. 
ir. lOp. and Ir. 4p., Coal-pit close of 4a. ir. 26p.,— 
on these all the moduses or annual payments in lieu of 
tithes were to be charged to which all the lands in the 
Castle liberty had been subject, amounting to 1/. 6#. 
6d., of which lis. 6d. was paid to the prebend of 
Amington, 4s. to that of Coton, and the rest in equal 
sums to the prebends of Wilnecote, Syerscote^ and 
Wigginton : several closes formerly the two southernmost 
of those four called the Further Priestley fields, — a 
plantation of Ir. ilp.^ arable land of 11a. 5p., pasture- 
ground of 7a. 8r. 19p., two plantations of 9p. and ir. 
iSp., a paddock of 36p., and two gardens of 3r. S4p. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 395 

and 12p.; a plantation of 2a. 26p.; all lying near 
Dosthill-house. The Castle-mills heretofore described 
as three Corn-mills and one fulling-mill under one 
roof, the former with three water wheels, the latter 
with one wheel working two pair of fullers for fulling 
cloth, and another wheel for calendering and printing 
cotton-cloths, all now used exclusively as corn-mills; 
with land and premises of Ir. 14p., of which 19p. 
comprising the mill-house and part of the mill lay in 
the liberty of Fazeley, the rest in that of the Castle; 
and land called the mill-dam, with flood-gates, of 
la. 2r. IQp. In the liberty of Fazeley : — the site 
where two mills under one roof, called the Lady- 
mills, anciently stood on the bank of the Tame, at a 
place named Endall ford, with the bays and banks to 
the old mouth, and the water and fishery of the old 
mouth as descending to Lady-bridge, and the fishery 
from Lady-bridge to Dunstall, — which mills and fishery 
were subject to an annual fee-farm rent of 10/. paid to 
the lord of the manor of Drayton-Basset, but out of 
which the land-tax should be deducted: Mill meadow 
of 12a. lip., Mill holme of ^a. 8r. 7p., waste ground 
of Ir., East Endall close and a piece of garden of 3r. 
Sp. and I2p., a portion of Endall closes now converted 
into part of a wash-wheel cut of Ir. 89p., West Endall 
close and garden of 8r. lip. and 15p., Nether close of 
la. 2r. 8p., and piece of waste ground of Ir. 2Qp., — all 
appurtenant to the Lady-mills and fisheries: Bitterscote 
close of 3a. ^P* ; three parts of Thatch-holme meadow 
of la. 15p., ^p., and 85p. Several closes, including a 
dwelling-house and gardens, of 13a. 17^., with the 
tithes, situated in the lordship of Amington, and called 
the Ashlands. Koyalty close of 2r. 4p., in Drayton- 



396 TAMWORTH 

Basset. A croft of la. in Wareton or Waverton. The 
Castle and all the other hereditaments before described^ 
except Fazeley-bridge close, had formed lord Northamp- 
ton's or the ancient family estate. In the borough of 
Tamworth, — the Moat-house, and its appurtenances, with 
two cottages, and a bam partly converted into a surgery 
and tenement; two dwelling-houses, with gardens, in 
Bolebridge-street ; two messuages and a malt-house, two 
dwelling-houses and four messuages, with gardens, in 
Church-street; one dwelling-house, in College-lane; 
another with gardens, in Greorge-street; five dwellings 
with gardens, and a messuage, in lichfield-street ; three 
messuages with two shops and gardens, and four 
dwelling-houses, in Market-Street; garden ground of 
la. Ir. S9p. east of Ludgate-lane : three enclosures 
called the Bradfords of 8a. Ir. 15^., 4a. Ir. I2p., and 
la. Sr. S2p. ; and three enclosures called Broad-meadow 
of 8a. 88p., la. 2r. 89p., and la. Ir. S8p. ; — aU tithe 
free and situated partly in the borough and partly in 
the lordship of Wigginton: the Perrycrofts, in the 
lordship of Bolehall, with a house and croft, two 
gardens, and four crofts of la. Sr. 18p., Ir. 88p., SSp., 
Sa. 19^., 8a. 2r. 85p., 2a. 2Qp., and 8a. Ir. 20p. : all 
which had been purchased by Greorge viscount and first 
marquis Townshend. All the tithes and ecclesiastical 
payments whatsoever, hitherto due to the prebend of 
Amington, for the lands in Amington and Bolehall. 
In the borough: — Garden-field or Fenton's garden of 
7a. Ip.y near the Bradfords, exonerated from land-tax 
and tithes ; a dwelling-house, with garden, on the south 
side of Church-street ; two houses built on the site of 
the Bowling-green house, and four others, with a 
garden of 2a., formerly a bowling-green and garden, 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 897 

on the north side of lichfield-street ; an ancient mes- 
suage in lichfield-street^ converted into four distinct 
dwellings^ with gardens^ and another messuage and 
garden ; five dwellings on the Lichfield-road^ and Bam- 
close and two small gardens of 2a. 8r. 25p.; all free 
from tithes and land-tax. And thirteen pews in different 
parts of the Church. 

Mr. Robins^ who thus acquired this extensive property^ 
was an eminent auctioneer in London. Some parts of 
the estate he soon disposed of^ but the greater portion he 
retained until his decease in 1831. By his will, he 
bequeathed all his property to his children for life, and 
then to his grand-children. But between them some 
dispute arose, which ended in a suit in the high court 
of Chancery. After some time, it was ordered by a 
decree of the court, that the Castle should be disposed 
of, with all the hereditaments in and around Tamworth. 
The property was, therefore, divided into one-hundred 
lots, and put up to public auction, on the 10th, 11th, 
and 12th days of October, 1833.' 

Most of the lands were soon sold to numerous persons, 
and the estate thus broken up; but the Castle did not 
find an immediate purchaser. At length, it was bought 
by the trustees of lord Charles Vere Ferrers Townshend: 
and it thus once more returned into the £unily of its 
hereditary possessors. 



1 SwAppeadU, Note 97. 

F 3 



THE CASTLE: 

CONTINUED. 

DESCRIPTION. 

There are found very scanty vestiges of the Qiiginal 
Castle. The greater part of the edifice has long dis* 
appeared^ and little more remains than the mound and its 
superencumbent donjon. From the few notices of the 
ancient building which exist, it appears to have exhibi- 
ted the arrangements generally adopted by the Normans. 
It had its keep, its walls of the enceintCj its base-court, 
its mound and donjon, and its ditch. 

The principal part of the Castle lay eastward of the 
mound towards the Market-place. The entrance was 
situated in the lane now leading into the grounds. The 
Normans rarely constructed regular gate-houses; but 
they erected two towers near each other, and formed a 
gateway between them. Such would seem to have 
been the case here. The foundations of one of the 
round towers remained exposed at the close of the last 
century. The keep appears to have formed a part of 
the circuit of the walls on the east side : the site is 
taken up, partly by the Castle-garden, and partly by 
the yards and out-buildings of adjacent houses. All these 
parts gradually fell into decay during the fifteenth 
century, so that, when Leland visited this place, they 
had totally fallen into ruins. "The Base Court," he 
says, "and great Ward of the Castle is cleane decayed. 



GASTLB AND TOWN. 399 

and the Wall fallen downe^ and therein be now but 
Houses of 6ffice of noe notable Buildinge/'^ 

Of the walls of the enceinte^ very little can be traced. 
There is a very massive curtain-wall^ which passes from 
near the spot where the tower of the entrance once 
stood^ to the donjon upon the sununit of the mound. 
It has, however^ been very much lowered^ so that the 
summit forms a path^ protected by modem side-waUs, 
to the present Castle: this ascent is considerably less 
steep than the mound itself^ as the site of the ancient 
keep is placed on a much higher level than the base 
of the mound. This wall presents a very beautiful 
specimen of herring-bone masonry. In it is occasionally 
found the red tile.^ This style of architecture was 
occasionally used by the Romans^ and afterwards by 
the Normans; but it was most generally adopted by 
the Anglo-Saxons. It is a point not agreed on^ whether 
this wall at Tamworth should be referred to the Saxons 
or Normans: equally high names might be mentioned 
on either side of the question. The mound is similar 
to those of both these people ; but history refers its 
formation to the former: and the wall must be as old at 
least, as it is most probably founded so deep as the 
mound is artificial; because the newly-placed earth 
would not possess the solidity, — at least for many ages, 
—which would be required to support the ponderous 
masonry.' 

The south side, feeing the rivers, was, in all likeli- 
hood, protected by a wall, with a bank of earth behind 
it affording an easy access to the top. From this, a 

1 Itln., Tol. IV. fol. 189. b. 
a An enfrarinf of fhU maaonry la given in the •'Glossary of Ardhitectan". 
s On the north side, it had become so unsafe, that some years ago it was fonnd 
Bcoessary to tnpport It by massive stone bttttmses. 



400 TAMWORTH 

west wall very probably ran to join the donjon. 
Another surrounding the mound, and continuous into 
the north side, would complete the circuit of the Castle, 
and enclose a quadrilateral area of ground a little more 
than two acres in extent. 

The base-court contained, as was always the case, 
the garrison-lodgings and offices. 

The mound is of considerable height ; and is between 
forty and forty-five yards in diameter at the top. It is 
not wholly artificial, for its elevation was increased by 
excavating a fosse partially around its base, through a 
natural elevation of the ground. This is particularly 
evident on the east and west sides. On the north, the 
trench formed a part of the Castle-ditch. The only 
remnant of the ancient donjon is the base of the pre- 
sent tower, which is of very great thickness, and built 
of rubble-stone. It is probably founded as deep as the 
herring-bone wall: and, if examined, might be found 
to contain subterranean chambers. The present Castle 
has been erected upon the ancient site; yet its found- 
ations, in some parts, are remarkably shallow. The 
mound was crowned by a light multangular shell of wall 
for greater defence, the remains of which are now seen, 
although the greater part has been modernized. Leiand 
says, ''The Dungeon Hill yet standith, and a great 
round Tower of Stone, wherein Mr. Ferrers dwelleth, 
and now repaireth it."* 

A ditch surrounded the Castle on three sides, whilst 
the rivers on the south completed the defence. It 
appears always to have been a dry ditch: and, whilst 
the edifice was &lling to decay, it was cultivated as gar- 
dens. On the ISth of March, 1459-60, Thomas Ferrers, 

1 Itin., loc. ctt. 



CASTLE AXD TOWN. 401 

esq., granted to Thomas Croflia% weaver, and Juliana 
his wife, on a lease of forty-three years from the 19th 
of May ensuing, a piece of land in the Castle-ditch, 
seventy-two feet long, and extending in hreadth from 
the land of the lord king to the Castle-wall. For this 
was to he paid the sum of 18d. a year, at the usual 
term of the Castle-courts. And Thomas and Juliana, 
their heirs and assigns, were to keep in repair all the 
buildings erected or to be erected on the land.' 

The full breadth of the ditch, has evidently been 
about twenty feet. It has become gradually filled up ; 
and the greater part is now built upon. From the 
north-west angle to the bank of the Tame, scarcely a 
trace remains, although but few buildings stand upon 
it. On the east side, it is much more apparent, from 
the bank of the Anker until its approach towards the 
top of George-street, where houses begin to obstruct its 
course. Little more than ancient records can demon- 
strate its course parallel with Market-street 

The present Castle is situated entirely upon the 
donjon-mound. Down to the reign of Charles II., it 
constituted the chief residence of its owners, who, from 
time to time, introduced alterations and improvements. 
Humphry Ferrers, in Elizabeth's time, resided alternately 
here and at Walton-hall, in Derbyshire. Sir John 
afterwards rebuilt a considerable part: towards the end 
of his life, he retired entirely to Walton, and gave up 
this residence to his son and heir, sir Humphry. John 
Ferrers, esq., dwelt at Walton whilst this place was 
garrisoned by troops in the civil war; but afterwards 
he returned, and continued mostly here until the close 
of his life. Whilst the Castle was held by the Shirleys 

1 Indenture, 36 H. VI. 



402 TAMWOETH 

and Comptons, it was totally neglected; and remained 
deserted for nearly a century. Internally it fell into 
a state of great delapidation ; but it was maintained in 
external repair. The day of desolation was at length 
consummated; by its conversion into a manufactory. 
Mr. Peel took it for part of his works. The great hall 
was turned into a smith's shop. Yet the only per- 
manent damage which the building sustained, was 
confined to the destruction of the old floor of the hall, 
and the substitution of a modem one. About 1792, 
Mr. Peel abandoned the place. The late marquis 
Townshend, when he was earl of Leicester, contemplated 
its conversion into his family residence. With this 
design, he had it carefully surveyed; but, on account 
of the decayed state of the greater part, and the neces- 
sarily heavy expences which would be incurred by the 
restoration, he was obliged to abandon the scheme for 
some time. After he had succeeded to the titles and 
estates of his family, in 1807, he commenced the most 
extensive alterations and repairs. He erected the lodge at 
the entrance into the grounds from the lower end of 
Lady-bridge bank. The gardens were newly laid out, 
and the mound was planted. Parts of the interior 
of the building were re-erected, the ancient high-peaked 
roofs removed, and others of a modem character put up. 
Had this nobleman lived longer in possession of the 
edifice, he would have rendered it a very fine residence.^ 

1 The mArqnis Townahend was exceedini^r fond of thli CtsUe. He lued to 
dedue that he was never so proud as when he stood within the rates. Indeed, the 
titles which accompanied It Into his ftimily were many and very lUaatrtoos. One time, 
he accompanied the late prince of Wales on a visit to Warwick-castle. He took 
the opportunity of stating to the prince how dellflrhted he should be to reoelTe a visit 
from his royal highness In his Castle of Tamworth. Perchance, he nryed the sub- 
ject In a manner which was not perfectly agreeable. The prince tamed round and 
exclaimed hastily, " D— -n your Castle." The marquis never renewed the invltatioa, 
or forgot the Indignity ofltoed to himself. . He used to relate tiie anecdote with mudi 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 403 

The death of the marquis^ in 181 1^ stopped the 
progress of the repairs. The Castle remained empty for 
some years; but at length it was fitted up in an 
excellent manner^ by Mr. Robins^ as a residence for his 
son-in-law^ Thomas Bramall^ esq.^ It continued to be 
inhabited by this gentleman, until the property was 
sold; by a decree of the court of Chancery. After it 
had come into the hands of the trustees of lord Charles 
Townshend, it continued to be unoccupied. But, in 
1844; it was taken by Miss WoUerstan, late of Elmore 
Court; near Gloucester^ as her residence. This lady has 
caused it to be thoroughly repaired at great cost; and 
furnished in a style of splendour suitable to the character 
of the building; and to its dignity in olden times. 

The present Castle is of an oval or rather of a 
multangular form. The outer walls are very massive; 
although in the greater part of them are not presented 
the features of antiquity. They are entirely built of 
stonC; embattled at the top; and; where the galleries 
ruu; are furnished with loop-holes. The only access to the 
interior of the building lies on the east side; and is by 
a small; pointed; ancient doorway passing under the 
warder's house into the court-yard. The grooves for 
the portcullis may be still seen. The court-yard is small; 

Uttemen, not munlnf led with raipriae that tach an occonencs oonld posiiblj have 



The malediction of such a person as the late prince of Wales,~we allude to him 
strlctlj In his prirate capacit]r,-^has taken Its fall effect. In the manner that mi^ht 
be JQStlj expected. Bver since the memorable period, the Castle has been gradnallj 
emerfins from the degradation which it had longr snitared, and rislnir from the niins 
to which neglect and scorn had reduced it. 

1 Ifr. Robins boilt the lodge which stands dose to the site of the old tower near 
the lane leading from the Market-place. During its erection, an ancient stalrcastf 
beneath the surface of the ground was opened. The builder had neither the curiosity 
to examine were it led to, or the courtesy to inform any person who would have 
explored it, of his discovery } but he had it immediately dosed over. 

A small portion of a odlar attached to an a4}aoent house, is fiormed of an andent 



404 



TAMWORTH 



and is bounded on the east by the warder's house and 
the tower, on the south by the external wall, and on 




SaU «f Tttt 



the west and north by the principal portion of the 
edifice. 

A great part of the warder's house has been rebuilt of 
brick. Internally there are some tolerably good rooms, 
but none of these lie on the ground-floor. They appear 
to have been fitted up in the time of the Tudors, if we 
may judge firom the style of one of the chimney-pieces, 
which is handsomely carved. The windows facing the 
court-yard exhibit an ordinary character; those facing 
the east, which are divided into several lights, having 
been rebuilt in modem times. 

Adjoining the warder's house is the tower, a large 
square structure. At the base, the walls aie very 
thick, and are built of rubble-stone, according to the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 405 

Anglo-Saxon and Nonnan modes; above they axe much 
thinner, and formed of hewn stone, indicating that the 
greater part of the tower has been re-erected. A passage 
from a small modem wash-house communicates with a 
dismal room, thirteen feet square, and unprovided with 
any fire-place or window, which is traditionally called 
"the dungeon,'' — a purpose for which it was very 
probably destined. Above this, are some staircases con- 
nected with the main building; and, at the top, a large 
lumber-room, with windows at the sides, most of which 
have been entirely bricked up. The view from the 
leads is very fine, but it is not so extensive as that 
from the tower of the Church. 

On the north wall of the court-yard, are seen some 
chimney-pieces, where the late marquis Townshend 
b^fan to erect additional rooms. 

In the south wall, stands a doorway leading by a 
flight of steps into a small recess, lighted by a loop-hole 
from without. Thence the passage appears to have 
been continued aroimd the walls, whibt a branch 
turned to the left. But these have been bricked up, 
doubtless at the time when the great rooms of the Castle 
were rebuilt. At the top of this wall, a gallery runs 
from the warder's house to the main buildings. 

The entrance into the principal part of the edifice is 
placed opposite that into the court-yard from the exterior. 
It is ornamented with Corinthian pillars, and bears 
above, carved in stone, the arms of Ferrers; but the 
whole is very much mutilated and decayed. The porch 
is provided with stone seats. All the south part, in- 
cluding the porch and the two adjacent kitchens with the 
rooms above, was erected in the reign of James I. It 
is built of brick, with stone dressings. 

g3 



406 TAMWOBTH 

The kitchens have been completely modernized inter- 
nally. Above them are two very fine zooms, which 
fonned the principal apartments of the Castle. They 
are wainscotted with dark stained oak, carved and 
ornamented in a mixture of the Roman and Griedan 
styles. Along the cornice of the largest, around three 
sides, are placed numerous panels containing the arms 
of the Ferrers' family, of the lords of the Castle down 
to the late marquis Townshend when he was earl of 
Leicester, of Ferrers of Chartley to the Comptons, and 
those of Ferrers of Baddesley-CUnton to the time of 
James I., impaling the matches of these fiunilies. Under 
each of the arms, is an inscription stating the particular 
marriage.^ In the smaller room, are six similar panels, 
showing principally the matches of the sisters of sir 
John. These were put up when the rooms were built 
by sir John Ferrers, and continued at subsequent times. 
As they possess antiquarian value, we give the whole of 

them.' 
1. On a wreath Or and Ghi., an unicorn Enn., 

armed, maned, and queveed of the first. On each side, 

a horse-shoe Sa. 

HBRX FOLOWBTH TBB COATBS OF ARMBS AY'tIBNTLT BOB'b 
IN T> NA'b of FBRRBB8, WITH AN ABSTRACT OF 8VCH HOWSBS 
& AV'tIb't FAMILIB8 AS HAVB SINCB THB CO'qVBST BBBNB 
LTNIALLT DISCB'dBD FRO' HBNRT DB FBRRIBR8, LORD OF 
FBRRIBR8 IN NORMA'dT, WHO CA'b IN TO BNO' WITH WIL* 
T* CO'qVBRO', & TOOKB HIS FIRST DBNONMIATION FRO* THB 
SAID TOWNB CALLBD FBRRIB8, LYING IN T* DVKBDOMB OF 
NORMANDIB. 

S. Arg., three horse-shoes Sa. 

1 To these insoiptioni, we hare oocaaiomJly nkgnd is snllioritiee, in tbe Itistonr 
of the Cutte. 
3 In some of the earlier panels a fisw errors wfll be observed. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 407 

THX F0R8AID BBN* L* FBB* BAD OBYS' Hi' T* Bo'nOR OF 
TVTBVBT BY w' Co'q:. 

3. Arg.j six horsenshoes Sa., S^ 2, and 1 : impaling 
Sa., three bars yairy Arg. and Gu. 

BOBBBT 1. B : FBR : MA' 8IBBLL d' OF W : L : BBY8B OF BB'bXR 
KNAPB & QOWBB. 

4. Vairy Or and Gu., a border Arg.^ charged with 
eight horse-shoes Sa. : impaling quarterly, Gru, and vairy 
Or and Sa.; over all a lion rampant Arg., armed and 
langued Gu. 

W : BBLB FBB : L : OF TVTBVBT MA' MABOABBT d' & HBIB TO 
W: PBVBRBL. 

5. Vairy Or and Gu. :^ impaling Sa., three garbs Or. 

W' FBB : FIB8T B : OF DBBBT MA* AONIB 8I8TBB & COHBI'B TO 
RA' 3. B : OF CHB8TBR. 

6. Ferrers? impaling Gu., seven mascles conjoined 
3, 3, and 1, Or. 

W' FBR : 2. B : OF DBRBT MA : MAROARBT DA : & HBl' OF 
ROOBR QVINCT B : OF WIN'. 

7. Ferrers: impaling Gu., semee of billets Or, a 
fess Arg. 

W' L: FBB: OF GROBT MA* BLBNOR DA' OF MATHBW L: 
LOVAl' OF 8TANX8. 

8. Ferrers: impaling Sa., a lion rampant Arg. 

W' 2 L : FBR* OF OROBT MA* BUZ' DA* TO ZOBN L : 8BORAVB 
OF CALBDO'. 

9. Ferrers: impaling Or, a fret Gu. 

HBNRT 3 L. FBR* OF OROBT MA* I88ABBLL DA* OF TBBOBALD 
LORD Vb'dON. 

10. Ferrers : impaling Sa., a cross engrailed Or. 

w' 4 L : fbr' of orobt ma' marga' da' of w* vfford of 

8VFF0LKB. 



1 These are the usual anns of Ferrers, and most be ondentood whenerer we 
mention the name merely. 



408 TAMWORTH 

11. Ferrers: impaling barry of dz Or and Az, a 
bend Ghi. 

BBNRT 5 L : FSa' OV OBOOBT UPOY, lANB DA* : TO LTCAS 
Loan POTMl'OBS. 

12. Ferrers: impaling chequy Or and Sa., a fess Gu. 
w' 6 l : fsb* of oboobt mabibd philip na* to bogbb l : 
cufpo'db. 

18. Ferrers : impaling Frevile. 
b' tuo'ab fbb : of Tik'woBTH ma' buz' nA : & COHBIB to s' 

BALDWl' FBBYILL. 

14. Ferrers: impaling Arg., a manche Sa. 

s' THO : fbb' of tamwobth mab : ann da' to willia' l : 

HA8TINOB8. 

15. Ferrers: impaling Arg., on a bend Sa. three 
bucks' heads caboesed Or ; a crescent Ghi. for a difference. 

b' iohn fbb'bbb of tam : ma' mayob da' to b' iohn bta'lbt 
of blfobdb. 

16. Ferrers: impaling Arg., a lion rampant within 
a border engrailed Sa. 

b' iohn fbb : OF tam' ma : dobothib da' to wil : habpbb 

OF BYSHALL. 

17. Ferrers: impaling Sa., three pickaxes Arg. 

S' HYMFBBT FBB : OF TAM ' MAB* MABOABBT DA ' TO THo' 
PIGOT 8A : AT LAWS. 

18. Ferrers : impaling Arg., three cocks Gu., armed 
ppr. 

IOHN fbb' of tam : BBQ' BBP0Y8BD BABBABA OA' TO 

fbay'cib COCKIN. 

19. Ferrers: impaling Arg., on a bend Gu., three 
mullets Or. 

b' hy'fbbt fbb : of tamwobth mab' an' da' to 8 ' hy'fbbt 
bbadbybnb. 

20. Ferrers : impaling paly of six Or and Ghi., OYer 
all a bend of the first. 



CASTIiB AND TOWN. 409 

s' nVvRBT WWB. : ma' to hib 2 wtfb bliz' da : to b' aavfb 
lo'qm fordb of lo'. 

21. Ferrers: impaling Sa.^ a bend of lozenges be- 
tween two plain cotises Arg. 

B' IOHN FSB : OF TAM' ma' DOROTHIB da' to S : lOHN 
PVCKBRl'o L : KBBPBR. 

22. Ferrers, with a label of three points Gku : impaling 
party per cheyron Sa. and Arg., in chief three mullets 
Or, and in base three garbs Gu. 

HUMP^ FBR', BON & HBR OF V IOHN, MA' ANNB D' OF 8^ IOHN 
PACKINGTON, BAR^ : BHB AFTBRW^ MARRBD PHIL' BARLB OF 
CHBBTBRFIBLD. 

28. Ferrers: impaling Arg., on a bend Sa., three 
masdes of the first. 

lOHN FBRRBBS OF TAMWORTH BON & HBR MARBD ANNB 
DATGHTBR & COHBR OF 8^ DUDLBT CARLBTON^ K^. HB DIBD 
MDCLXXX. 

24. Ferrers : impaling Az., a bend engrailed between 
six martlets Or. 

a' BUMFRBT FBRRBR8 OF TAMWORTH K^., BON & HBR, DIBD 
BBFOBB HIB FATHBR : HB MARRBD BLIZ. DAYO' OF GBRVABB 
PIGOTT OF THRUMPTON, IN COM : NOTTINGHAM, BBQ'. 

25. Paly of six Or and Az, a canton Ermine and 
label of three points Gu. : impaling quarterly, 1st Ferrers, 
2nd Ferrers of Groby,* 8rd Frevile, 4th vairy Arg. and 
Az., a fess Gu. firetty Or. — ^Marmyon. 

ANNB, ONLY DAVO' & HBR OF tF HUMFRBY FBRRBRB, MAR- 
RIBD ROB^ 8HIRLBY, BLDB8T BON & HBR OF ROB^ BARL 



26. Quarterly, 1st and 4th Sa., a lion passant 
guardant Or between three helmets Ar. — Gompton ; 2nd 
and 3rd Arg., within a border Az. charged with eight 
bezants, a chevron Sa. : an escutcheon of pretence, 

1 Hie BUM urms as tlioie of Qninci, earl of W to c he rte r . 



410 TAKWORTH 

quarterly, lit paly of six Or and Az., a canton Er- 
mine — Shirley, Snd Ferrers, 3rd Ferrers of Groby, 4th 
France and England quarterly in a border Ai^. — ^Thomas 
of Woodstock. Impaling arms similar to the escutcheon 
of pretence. 

BLIZ., ONLT DAVQJ^ & HBia OF ROB^ BHIRLBT & ANNB rBBRBES, 
MARBIBD IAMBS COMPTON, FIPTH BARL OF NORTHAMPTON. 

27. Quarterly, 1st and 4th Az., a chevron Ermine, 
between three escallop-sheUs Arg. — ^Townshend; 2nd 
and Srd quarterly Gu. and Or, in the first quarter a 
mullet of the second — Yere. An escutcheon of pretence 
of six quarterings, 1st Compton ; 2nd Thomas of Wood- 
stock; Srd Shirley; 4th Devereux; 5th Ferrers; 6th 
Compton. 

QBOROB, YISCOUNT T0WN8HBND, CRBATBD MARQUIS TOWN- 
8HBND 27^ OCTOBBR, 1787, B8CAMB LORD OF THIS CASTLB IN 
RIGHT OF HIS WIFB, CHARLOTTB BARONB88 DB FBBRAB8, 
BOURCHIBR, LOVAINB, BA8SBT, & COMPTON, ONLT DAU'r & 
HBIR OF JAMBS BARL OF NORTHAMPTON & BLIZABBTH BARO- 
NB88 DB FBRRAR8, &C. 

28. Twenty-four principal quarterings. 1st Towns- 
hend: 2nd Vere: Srd Compton: 4th Shirley: 5th 
Basset of Drayton: 6th Az., a lion rampant hetween 
eight cross-crosslets Or: 7th Devereux: 8th Ferrers: 
9th Arg., five horse-shoes Sa: 10th Bourchier: 11th 
Lovaine of Staines : 12th Or, a lion rampant Az. : ISth 
Thomas of Woodstock: 14th Bohun: 15th Ferrers of 
Groby : 16th Gu., a cinquefoil Ermine : 17th Az., a lion 
rampant Arg: I8th Or, three piles Gu. : 19th Scotland : 
20th Az., a cross flory and five martlets Or : 21st Frevile : 
22nd Mannyon : 2Srd bendy of six Or and Az. : 24th 
Arg., a saltire engrailed Az. An escutcheon of pretence 
quarterly, 1st quarterly 1st and 4th Vert, a fiet A^. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 411 

and chief Gu.; Snd and Srd Arg.^ two bars Gu.: 2nd 
Ralph earl of Chester: Srd Az., a wolf's head erased 
Arg., langued Gu. : 4th Arg.^ an eagle displayed Sa. 

OBOROB TOWNSHBND, BABL OF LBICB8TBR, BARON DB FBB- 
RAR8, BOURCHIBR, LOYAINB, BAS8BT, & COMPTON, IN THB 
RIGHT OF HIS IIOTHBR, LORD OF THIS CASTLB, IIARRIBD 
CHARLOTTB 2^ 8I8TBR & COH' OF ROGBR MAINWARING 
BLLBRKBR, OF RI8BT, CO. BBOR. 

29. Vairy Or and Gu., a canton Ermine — ^Ferrers 
of Baddesley-Clinton : impaling Sa., on a chevron Arg., 
three slips of broom ppr. 

S^ BDWARD FBRRBR8 MA* CO'bTA'cB DA' & HBIR OF NICHOLAS 
BROOMB. 

50. Ferrers of Baddesley: impaling Arg., a saltire 
Gu., between four eagles displayed Sa., armed Gn. 

hbnrt fbrrbbs of baddbblbt ma* kathrinb da : of 8 : 
10 : ha'pdbn. 

51. Ferrers of Baddesley: impaling Gu., a saltire 
Arg., between twelve crosses crosslet Or. 

BDWARDB FBR' : OF BADB8LBT BBq' : MA* BRIDGBT DA* : OF 
WIL' L : WINDZOR. 

32. Ferrers of Baddesley : impaling Or, three hawks 
ppr., armed and membered Gn., in a border charged 
with twelve bezants. 

HBNRT FBR : OF BADBSLBT BSQ* MA* lANB DA : & HBIR OF 
HBNRT WHITB. 

33. Ferrers: impaling Az., a bend Arg. cotized Or, 
between six lions rampant of the last. 

ROBBRT FBR' B : OF DBRBT B8P0VBBD HBLANOR : DA* OF 
hvm' BOHVN. 

34. Ferrers : impaling Gu., a lion rampant Or, Tvith 
a label of three points Gu. 



412 TAMWOBTH 

lOHN L : rBftRBBS OF CHABTLST MA* AYICB DA : & HXIRB OF 

Ro' mrcso'oa. 

35. Ferrers : impaling^ — . 

ROBIKT L : FBRRBB8 OF CHABTLBT. 

36. Ferrers : impaling Or, a chevron Ghi. 

lOHN I. : FBBBBB8 OF CH4BTLBT BSP' BUZA : DA : TO BAFB 
BABLB STAFF*. 

37. Ferrers: impaling quarterly, Ai^. and Gu., in 
the £nd and Srd quarters a fret Or; over all a bend Sa. 

BOBBBT . L : FBBBBB8 OF CHABTLBT MA* MABOA : DA : TO BD' 
L: SPBNCBB. 

38. Ferrers : impaling Ou., three roaches naiant Arg. 

BDMT'd . L : FBBBBBS OF CHABTLBT MA* BLANOB DA* TO 
8' THO. DB LA BOCH. 

39. Ferrers: impaling — . 

will' L : FBBBBBS OF CHABTLBT MA* MUZ I DA* TO S' ADAM 
BBLKNAF. 

40. Arg., a fess Ou., and in chief three tcvteux: 
impaling Ferrers. 

s' wa' dbyobax, l : fbb' in bight of aonis HIS WTFB, da' 
& hbi' of w : L : fbb : 

41. Devereux: impaling Arg., a cross engrailed 
Ou. between four water-bougets Sa. 

8' lOHN DBYBBBTX L : fbb' of CHABT' m' CICBLT RBIBB TO 

hb' bovbchb' b' of bs*. 

42. Devereux: impaling Barry of six Arg. and Az., 
in chief three torteaux, a label of three points. 

8* WALTBB DBVBBBVX VISGOV*T HBBBFOBO MA* MABT DA* TO 
tho' OBAT. 

48. Devereux: impaling Hastings. 

S' BICHABD DBVBBBVX MA* DOBO' DA* TO OBOBOB HASTl'oS, 

B: OF hv'ti'odo*. 
44. Devereux: impaUng Az., crusily of crosslets, a 
cross moline voided Or. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 41S 

WALTBB S : OF B88BX L : FSB' OF CHAB : MA* LBTICB DA* TO 
8IB F&AV'CIS KNOYLBS. 

45. Devereux : impaling paly of six Ai^. and Sa.^ a 
fess Gu. 

BOBBBT B : OF BBSBX L : FBB' OF CHAB* B8P : FBAv'ciS DA* TO 
8* FBAV: WALSi'gHA'. 

46. Shirley: impaling arms of six quarterings, Ist^ 
Devereux; 2nd Ferrers; Srd Bourchier; 4th Loyaine of 
Staines ; 5th Thomas of Woodstock ; and 6th Bohun. 

LADT DOBOTHT DBVBBBUX, 2^ DAYO' & COHBB OF BOB^ B : OF 
B8BXX, MABBBD S' HBNBT 8HIBLBT OF 8TAYNT0N BABOLD, IN 
COM : LBICB8TBB» BABONBT. 

47. Shirley: impaling Ermine^ on a chief Arg.^ 
three torteaux. 

S' BOB^ SHIBLBr OF STAUNTON, 80N & HBIB OF S' HBNBT, 
MABBIBD KATHBBINB DAYO' OF HUMFHBT OKBOYBB, OF 0KB- 
OYBB, IN COM. 8TAFF0BD, B8Q'« HB DIBD MDCLYI. 

48. Six quarterings^ 1st Shirley; 2nd Basset of 
Drayton^ Srd Devereux ; 4th Ferrers ; 5th Bourchier ; 
6th Thomas of Woodstock: impaling Arg., two bars 
and in chief three mullets Gu. 

8^ BObS only SUBYIY'g SON & HBB, WAS SUM'on'd TO FABL^ 
AS lA FBBBI OF CHABTLBT &C. MDCLXZYII, CBBATBD BABL 
FBB" & YI8Ct TAMWO^ MDCCXI, MAB<^ BLIZ : D' & HBB OF 
LAUBBNCB WASHINGTON, o'd 1717. 

49. Shirley: impaling quarterly, 1st Ferrers; Snd 
Ferrers of Ghroby; Srd Frevile; 4th Marmyon. 

BOB^ SHIBLBT, BLDB8T SON & HBB OF BOB^ LOBD FBBB" MAB^ 

annb only dauo'^ & hbb of humfhby fbbb" of tamwobth. 
d'd bbfobb his fathbb, 1698. 

50. Arms similar to those in the 26th panel. 

BI.IZ% ONLY DAUO'^ & HBB OF BOB^ SHIBLBY, BUCCBBDBD HBB 
OBANDFA' in THB BABONT of FBBBBB8 OF CHABTLBY &C. : 
MABBBD IAMBS COMPTON FIFTH BABL OF NOBTHAMFTON. 

51. Quarterly, 1st Compton ; Snd and Srd quarterly, 

H S 



414 TAMWORTH 

Ist Shirley, 2nd Ferrers, 8rd Ferrers of Chroby, 4di 
Thomas of Woodstock; 4th Arg., in a border Aje. 
charged with eight bezants, a chevron Sa. 

likMBS LORD COMPTON. 
LADT lANX COMPTON. 
LADT ANNB COMPTON. 
LADT CHARLOTTB COMPTON. 

5S. Devereux: impaling Gu., a bend between six 
cross crosslets fitch€ Arg. 

BOBBRT B : OF BSBBX L : FBB : OF CHA* MA : FRAT'cIS DA : TO 
T^ B : OF 8UFF0LKB, WHO DIBD WITHOUT IBSI7B. 

Over the chimney-piece are three panels, each con- 
taining three escutcheon pendent from a rose-tree ppr. 

53. No. 1. Or, three piles Gu. — ^David earl of Angus : 
impaling the earl of Chester as in the 5th panel. 

No. 2. Or, a saltire and chief Gu., — ^Bruce : impaling 
David earl of Angus. 

No. 8. Sa., a lion rampant Arg., crowned with an 
earPs coronet, — ^Alan earl of Galloway : impaHng David 
earl of Angus. 

DAVID BABLB OF AN0VI8HB & HVNTINODON, ORAVND CHILDB 
OF DAVID KINOB OF 8COTB8, HAD T8BVB BT MAVDB SIBTBB 
AND COHBIRB TO RANDOLPHB THB 3 : BABLB OF CHB8TBB» 
I8SABBLL, & MABGABBT: ISSABBLL MA' TO BOBBBT LORDB 
BRV8B, AND MABOARBT BSP0V8BD ALBN BABLB OF OALOWAT. 

54. No. 1. Bruce : impaling David earl of Angus. 
No. 2. Or, a fess chequy Arg. and Sa., — Stewart: 

impaling Bruce. 
No. 3. Scotland. 

THB SAID BOBBBT LOBDB BRVSB AND lANB ISSABBLL HIS 
WTFB HAD IB8VB BOBBBT FATHBR OF ROBBBT BBV8B KINGB 
OF SC0TB8 ; WHICH KINOB HAD TS8VB MARION THAT B8POV8BD 
WALTBR 8TBWABD, THB PATBBNALL PBOGBNITOR OF ROBBRT 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 415 

BBYSB ; XIMOB OV BOOTS, VBOll WHOM OIBOBNDITH K^ IAME8 
0TB 80VBBI0NB. 

55. No. 1. Alan earl of Galloway: impaling David 
earl of Angus. 

No. S. Quinci : impaling David earl of Angus. 
No. 8. Ferrers: impaling Quinci. 

THB SAID ALBN BABLB OF GALOWAT AND LADT MABOABBT 
HIS WTFB HAD T8SYB BBLBN Ma' TO ROOEB QVINCIB BABLB 
OF WINCHB8TBB, WHO HAD TS8VB MABOABBT HIS BLDB8T 
DAYOHTBB AND COHBIBB, MABIBD TO WILLIAM FBBBBB8 
SBCo'd BABLB OF DBEBT ; OF WHOM LINBALLT DISCBNDITH 
lOHN FBBBSB8 OF TAMWOBTH, NOW LBTVINGB. 

In the smaller room. 

1. Gu.^ two chevronells Arg. : impaling Ferrers. 

8' OBOBOB HTDB, KNIGHT OF THB BATH, MA* KATHBBINB DA* 
OF 8^ HTM : FBB : 

2. Arg.^ on a fess between three annulets Gu., as 
many leopards' heads of the first: impaling Ferrers. 

b' WILLIAM SOMBBVILL MA* BLIZABBTH DAVOHTBB OF S' 
HVM : FBB : OF TAM : 

8. Yairy Ermine and Gu. : impaling Ferrers. 

OBOBGB OBB8LBT OF DBAKBLOWB BBQ* MA* 8VSAN DA* OF 8* 
BVM' FBB*. 

4. Arg., on a chevron Sa, three quatrefoils Or: 
impaling Ferrers. 

BOBBBT BTBB OF HIOHLOWB BSQ' MA' BBIOBT DA' OF s' 
HVM' FBB*. 

5. Barry of six Arg. and Az., in chief three tor* 
teaux : impaling Ferrers, with a label of three points. 

b' BDWABD GBAT ma' BLIZABBTH FBB*, IN WH08B BIGHT HB 
WAS L. FBB' of OBOBT. 

6. Ferrers of Baddesley: impaUng, quarterly, 1st 
and 4th Gn. ; 2nd and 8rd Sa. a fleur-de-liz Or. Over 
all a bend Arg. 



416 TAlfWOBTH 

8* HXNET VBE' OP CBILBBMORB. 3 SON'B OP S' THO' PUl* OF 
TAU', mV llAEQ4RBra HXCKBTALL. 

The chinmey-pieoe in this room is very fine, being 
carved in oak in an elaborate and beautiful manner. 
The details are mostly Grrecian. It is so large as to 
reach the ceiling, being thirteen feet high. It is sup- 
ported at the sides of the fire-place by Corinthian 
pillars. On the right above, is the figure of a man; 
on the left, a woman and a child: standing arrayed 
in the Roman costumes. In the centre, is a coat 
of arms, containing twelve principal quarterings of the 
Ferrers' fiunily down to sir John, in James's time; 
with the motto "only one." Around are six small 
panels. One of these bears the representation of Jupiter 
drawn in a chariot by eagles. Another represents a 
dragon at the foot of a tree, evidently intended for 
the monster Ladon that kept watch over the golden 
apples in the garden of the Hesperides. A third seems 
to refer to the punishment of Prometheus, inflicted on 
him by Jupiter for presiuning to form men of clay, and 
animating them by the sacred fire which he had dared 
to steal from heaven itself. He is depicted as lying 
upon the ground, whilst in the tree above the torment- 
ing vulture feeds on his liver, ever growing even whilst 
plucked by the voracious bird firom his side. The 
other three panels represent the tragic fate of the 
beautiful Adonis, with whom Aphrodite or Venus 
had left Olympus to dwell. In one, he stands by 
the chariot which awaits him, whilst his mistress 
vainly attempts to dissuade him from joining in the 
fatal chase. In another, he stands in the midst of his 
dogs, with the wild-boar. And in the last, he lies slain 
by the infuriated animal, and the dogs stand around his 
corpse. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 417 

The windows of these two rooms^ oyerlooking the 
country on the south side of Tamworth^ consist of many 
lights. This front of the Castle was re-fiEu^d with 
stone and repaired in 1783. 

Over these two rooms, are numerous chambers. One 
of them leads to the gallery which passes to the war- 
der's lodge; and another to the gallery on the west 
side of the edifice. 

Beyond the two kitchens, is a small back yard, in 
which is the Castle-well. It is of considerable depth, 
as it passes through the mound to a level with the 
river. It appears to have been thoroughly modernized, 
at least so far as we could ascertain. 

The great hall is almost entirely built of brick. 
It possesses a high-pitched roof, with finely carved 
timbers; but the hand of time has deprived them of 
much of their beauty. From the hall, the two 
principal staircases lead, one into the south rooms, the 
other into those on the north side. The steps of the 
latter are formed of solid blocks of wood. 

On the north wall of the haU, were once depicted in 
fresco, two gigantic figures; whilst the legends below, 

SIR LANCELOT DE LAKE, — SIR TARQVIK, 

proclaimed the subject of the piece. They were repre- 
sented as tilting together, just as they are described to 
have done in the old romance of ''Morte Arthur". 
The painting, however, was white-washed over so as 
to be scarcely discernible. In 1783, its obliteration 
was completed by the application of a second coat of 
white-wash.^ The wall is now wainscotted half way 

1 GcnUanan*! Magmslne, 1784. In fhU inTtlnable work, at the same date, is 
mcntianed an old octangular table which then remained in the Outle. Aroimd the 
margin, this inscription was cot rvry deep in the solid oak,— pbatss awd olobt 

AJIO WTSDOMS AND THANKS AMD HOVOR AND rOWMMM AND MTOBT BS TNTO OUaS 
, MIW. 1564. 



418 TAMWORTB 

up; and it is probable that the painting is wholly 
destroyed.^ 

The large kitchen behind the hall was erected by 
the late marquis Townshend, in the place of sereral 
rooms which had become greatly delapidated. It is a 
common brick structure, with an ordinary roo£ 

The north rooms are older than any other parts of 
the interior of the Castle. The wall separating them 
from the rest of the building, runs from the angle of 
the tower to the west side of the Castle, and is almost 
wholly built of stone. This part consists of three stories. 
On the ground-floor are cellars, originally only separated 
into two, but partitioned off into many. They are 
entered by doorways from the great kitchen, the hall, 
and the court-yard. The one connected with the 
kitchen is alone provided with a window. The second 
story contains three rooms. Of these the middle one is 
the largest. Its broad fire-place, its old carved chimney- 
piece, and its two deep-bayed windows, with stone 
balconies, present the same general architectural features 
as the warder's house. From the east room, an addi- 
tional flight of stairs leads to the rooms above. The 
third story contains numerous chambers, which were 
erected by the marquis Townshend. One communicates 
with the gallery of the western wall. At the opposite 
end, a staircase conducts into the lumber-room, and 
then passes to the summit of the tower. 

Some wordt at the end wen wanting, as that part of the table bad been broken and 
the piece lost. In the centre, was the horse-shoe, with the arms of Feners. 

The table, we believe, has been destroyed. 

1 Tliere is a ballad circulated in Tunwoxth, girms an acooont of the combat 
between sir Lancelot and sir Tarqoin,— the latter of whom had imprisoned many of 
the knights of king Arthur's round table in this Castle,~in Lady-meadow. No part 
of this celebrated and interesting romance can be referred to Tsmwoath. Hie baQad 
is an ingenions imitation of the ancient one, commenchig, 

" When Arthur first in court began,** 
which may be seen in Percy*s ReUques of Ancient Soglish poetry. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 419 

The Castle continues to be a iioble building. Its 
commanding position^ its situation amidst the trees of 
the well-planted mound, and its ivy-coyered walls, give 
it the aspect of an interesting and venerable edifice. 
There are many and great incongruities in the style of 
the internal buildings, yet these can hardly form a 
subject of deep regret, as great changes alone, by 
adding to the place the conveniences of a modem resi- 
dence, have alone preserved it from total destruction. 
Certainly a little more adaptation to the original plan 
might have been observed, without omitting any comforts 
required in the present state of society. But it is 
pleasing to reflect that the building does not exhibit 
the moumftil aspect of very many of our ancient military 
and ecclesiastical structures, now lying imder the ban of 
desolation. The prominent features of the Castle still 
present a sufficient memorial of the great Champions 
who once held it, and derived from its possession one 
of their proudest dignities. The mighty bard of the 
north, who sang, in long and pleasing strains of the 
brave but vicious hero, the 

« ■ Lord of Fontenajey 

Of Lntterward and Scrivelbaye, 

Of Tamworth tower and town." 

when he visited this place,^ was highly gratified with 

1 sir Waller Scott paid a yidt to TamworihpCastle in the eailypazt of the year 1828. 
Mr. Bramall and liia family were greatly dinppointed at not baring known of the pre- 
tence of so eminent and popolar a writer. His name waa only diKoyered by the 
riiitora' book. Mr. Bramall, when shortly after in London, wrote to inylte him to 
pay another yisit to the Gastla. Sir Walter Scott retomed the following answer. 

" Sir,— The nmneroos ayocations of this place hare prevented hitherto my 
retaining yon my sincere thanks for your kind invitation to Tamworth Castle ; of 
which I sincerely felt the polite kindness. I had great pleasiire in seeing the line old 
Tower, and should have i^oiced to see the possessor. 

My retom, as it tskes me to the cast side of the idand, wQl not permit [me] to 
accept of your very obligmf oflner to receive me at Tamworth. 

I am. Sir, 
34 Sussex place, Your obliged hnmble Servant, 

s« April. [1838.] Waltbr Scott." 



420 TAHWOBTH 

the venerable building. Perchance, as he paced the 
noble hall; he recalled to his mind his own lines, 
where he describes the Scottish monarch, James, as 
suggesting that, 

II jf wiOan TimtaUoii ttroiig, 

Hie good Locd Xannlon tazriei long, 

Percfaanoe our meetiBg next may lUl 

At Tamwortfa, In his caide-hiOL" 

Well did the haughty Marmyon reply, 

''Hnch honoured were my hvmble home, 
If in iti haDi King James should oome ; 
But Nottingham has archers good, 
And Yorkshire men are stem of mood ; 
Northnmbrian prickers wild and mde. 
On Deihj Hilla the patha are steep ; 
In Onse and Tyne the forda are deep, 
And many a banner will be torn, 
And many a knight to earth be borne. 
And many a sheaf of arrows spent, 
Ere Scotland's Ung shall cross the Trenf 

Yet, before a century had rolled by, Scotland's king, 
a weak yain pedant, did cross the Trent, without blood- 
shed or opposition. Soon, too, he feasted and revelled 
in this very Castle, to which his predecessor is 
represented in the pleasing romance as threatening so 
hostile and unwelcomed a visit. 



THE TOWN WALLS. 

The outer fortifications of the town consisted of a 
broad dry ditch^ inside of which was raised a high 
embankment crowned by a defensive wall. They were 
of considerable extent^ including the whole of the 
present town^ except about nine-tenths of lichfield- 
street, the part of Gimgate north of Aldergate-street^ 
and a very small portion of Bolebridge-street. With 
the Tame and Anker^ which formed the fourth side 
and completed the defence on the souths they enclosed 
an area of ground ahnost but not perfectly square ; for^ 
on account of a bend in the latter riyer, the east and 
south sides were longer than the rest^ and the north 
was rather shortest of all. It seems that the wall^ 
without the bank and ditch^ was continued parallel 
with the Tame from the extremity of the western side 
to the Castle. The posterns or bars^ affording exits 
from the interior^ were situated in Ladybridge-street or 
the HoUoway^ Lichfield-street^ Gimgate^ and doubtless 
Bolebridge-street^ although we have not expressly found 
a bar recorded there.^ The part of the fortifications 
from the north-west angle to Lichfield-street obtained 
the name of the Walfiirlong^ being about one eighth 
of a mile in length ; and some land parallel to it was 
called the field of the Walfurlong.' It is curious to 
remark in the existing lanes^ how paths were formed 

1 Frotebly there ww a pottem at the preeent SchooDunue-lane. 
2 Court RollB, etc., 

i3 



422 TAMWORTH 

close around the fortifications^ from postern to postern, 
affording ready communication from the town to all 
the surrounding fields. From lichfield-street bar, 
Wybume-lane ran down to the bank of the Tame; at 
the extremity of which a path by the river seems to 
have communicated with Lady-bridge. Another lane 
passed northwards from the same postern, and joined 
one from Gungate bar. A path ran eastwards from 
the latter, joining Perrycroft-lane, which through the 
Dead-lanes passed to Bolebridge-street bar. 

We cannot ascertain precisely by whom these exten- 
sive bulwarks were erected. The general form exhibits 
so great similitude to the camps constructed by the 
Romans, that only the want of direct historical evidence 
on the point has prevented us from maintaining our 
firm conviction that Tamworth was once a Roman 
station, and one of considerable importance. OfiiEt, when 
he fortified the town, and erected his palace here, very 
probably took advantage of the foundations of the old» 
structiire, and re-formed the ditch ; which, even to these 
days, has retained the name of Offa's dyke, or the more 
general designation of the King's ditch. Ethelfla^ 
repaired these defences ; and they must have again been 
renewed after the calamitous visit of Anlaf, probably by 
one of the early Norman lords of the Castle. 

We have not discovered how long the fortifications 
remained in a state fit for defence. They seem to have 
gone to decay from disuse at an early period, appa> 
rently between the reign of Richard II. and that of 
Henry VI.; as then the part of Lichfield-street once 
called Outwall-street, being external to the bar, became 
united in name with the rest. The soil within ditch 
has always been cultivated, but such a practice did not 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 428 

diminish its utility for defence^ and was far from an 
uncommon occurrence in this country. 

The fortifications may still be easily traced in the 
greater part of their extent, by the ditch and mound : 
all vestiges of the walls are gone. Of the western side, 
commencing by the Tame, a little below Lady-bridge, 
and running in a straight line to a level with the top 
of Aldergate, the part between the river and the 
Boman Catholic Chapel, — ^built on the embankment, — 
has been obliterated by the gardens near the stream, 
and by the houses in and about Lichfield-street But 
from this Chapel, the mound and ditch are very apparent, 
the latter being a broad but now shallow excavation 
in the general level of soil. At the comer, where they 
turn off at a little more than a right angle eastwards 
towards the Perrycrofts, the bank is of some height. It 
may be observed for a short distance along the north 
side, but it is soon lost: the ditch may be traced con- 
siderably farther. Eastwards of Gungate, the vestiges 
become more distinct than in any other part. The 
second angle is here situated in a field called Hill or 
Castle-croft.^ Along the east side, the bank and fosse, 
may be seen more or less distinctly, behind Gungate, 
Colehill, and Bolebridge-street, until the houses and 
buildings near the bottom of the latter interrupt them, 
and efface all traces of their course. Dugdale states 
that, according to his own observation, the ditch was 
at least forty-five feet broad.* Being now entirely taken 
up by buildings, crofts, gardens, and some of the sur- 
rounding lanes, it has become very greatly obliterated; 



1 Our readers will call to mind the Castle-lane and Castle-orcliard, situated near 
the Walftirlong, of which we have previonsly spoken. 
3 Dugdale's Warwicksh. 



424 TAMWOBTH 

but it is Tery evident that the width was not over-rated. 
The original height of the embankment, judging from 
the parts best preserved, would appear to have been 
from fifteen to twenty-five feet. 

Within the last forty years, many bones of horses 
and other animals have been found in digging within 
the entrenchment Even those of human beings are 
said to have been discovered; but this circumstance is 
extremely doubtful. K true, they were probably remains 
of persons slain when the Danes last besieged the town. 
Nothing, however, has been brought to light of any 
value or interest to the student of antiquities. 



THE FREE GRAMMAH SCHOOL. 

The Free Grammar School of Tamworth may be con- 
jectured to have existed in the fourteenth century; but 
its origin is involved in obscurity. It appears to have 
been under the control of the ecclesiastical authorities 
of the town. Leland mentions it in his interesting 
Itinerary. He says, ''there is a Guild of St. Geo.* in 
Tamworth, and to it belonged 5/. Land per an., and of 
late one Johne Bailie' gave other 5/. Land unto it ; and 
therewith is now erected a Ghrammer-Schoole.*'' This 
appears to refer to the building of the School-house. 

The Free Grrammar School came into the hands of 
the king, in 1547, at the same time with the College. 
The commission directed to sir Henry Mildmay and 
Robert Kelway included not only the Church, but the 
maintenance and continuation of this foundation, if they 
deemed it necessary. They ordered that it should re- 
main, and that one Nicholas Brooke should still enjoy 
the place of schoohnaster, receiving the annual stipend 
of 10/. IBs. &id., that had from old time been answered 
to him; which, should be paid by the auditor and 

1 Ws hftve found rery aaukty memorialB of th« Holy GaOd of St. George, a rery 
gOMnl reUgloiu oonfrtternlty in the town. TheconrtxoUsitatetliKtonthe ISthof 
October, 1610, John Lycett and Thomas Goldaon were elected wardena of the gnild. 
The wantana were, peihaq^alao keepers of the Uffht of their patron aalnt Ihepneat 
of St George in the Church waa the phaplahi. 

s A Ifr. Bailey founded a feUowahip in St. John's c6Uege, Osmhridfe, which waa 
anfmentedbyhisezecntarai appropriated tlrat to a native of the pariah of nmwarth, 
then to one of the county of Staflbrd or Deihy, and then to one of the diocese of 
lichlieid and Coventry. Hie peraon elected most be in lUl order at twenty-fbiir years 
of age, or within twelve months after. 

3 Vol. IV., fol. 189. b. 



426 TAMWORTH 

receiver of the court of augmentation and revenues of 
the crown of the county of Stafford. Elizabeth, when 
she granted the College to Edmund Downing and 
Peter Ashton, in the year 1581, retained the amount 
of salary to be paid, as part of the fee>farm rent. 

Queen Elizabeth, by her charter of 1588, reciting the 
order of the commissioners, directed that there should be 
a Grammar School in the town, which should be called 
''the Free Grammar School of Elizabeth, queen of 
England, in Tamworth,** for the education and instruc- 
tion of boys in grammar, to continue for all future time, 
and to consist of one master or pedagogue. And she 
appointed the baili£b and commonalty a body corpo- 
rate, by the name of ''the Guardians and Grovemors 
of the Possessions, Revenues, and Goods, of the Free 
Grammar School of Elizabeth, Queen of England, in 
Tamworth." She gave them the power, in this capacity, 
of nominating and appointing the schoolmaster. She also 
granted to the guardians and governors the annual rent of 
10/. ISs. 2|ef., for the salary of the master, which was 
to be paid in the manner prescribed in 1548.^ 

The School thus constituted and governed proved a 
good institution, and of much utility to the town 
and neighbourhood. The building occupied since the 
revival of the foundation was at first merely rented for 
the purpose. But by deed, dated the 26th of May, 
1594, sir John Bowes, knight, of Elford, freely granted 
to the bailiffs and commonalty the burgage known as 
the School-house, with the adjoining garden, to be used 
as a Grammar School for ever.' On the site of this 
the present building has been erected. 

We have not discovered the appointments of the 

1 Charter, 30 Eliz. 'J Deed, 30 Eliz. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 427 

earlier schoolmasters. One of them, Henry Baron, was 
buried on the 3rd of March, 1624-5.' William Black, 
it seems, was elected to the office in 1635. On his 
cessation in 1644, Mr. Ellis was chosen, whose nomi- 
nation by the guardians occurred on the 30th of May.* 
How long the latter continued to occupy the place, we 
cannot say. On the 7th of November, 1659, the 
guardians and governors elected George Antrobus, M.A., 
to be schoolmaster, during his life.' 

Charles II., by his charter to the town dated February, 
1663-4, confirmed the grant of the School made by queen 
Elizabeth, and formed the bailifib into a body corporate 
under the same name of guardians and governors. It 
was also directed, that they, with the consent of the 
high-steward of the borough, should have full power to 
frame statutes for the regulation of the School ; that the 
guardians and governors, with the twenty-four capital 
burgesses, assembled in common hall, should have the 
appointment of the master ; they should have the ancient 
annuity of 10/. ISs. Z^d. for his salary; and also the 
house and garden then used for the School, and called 
the School-house, for the residence of the master/ 

During the time that Mr. Antrobus presided over 
the institution, the School attained its most flourishing 
state. Several eminent persons were here educated by 
him, and amongst them the rev. William Whiston, 
whose religious publications and strong vindication of 
Arian tenets attracted so great attention in the former 
part of last century. He married his master's daughter.' 
Nor were the exertions of Mr. Antrobus confined to 
the literary dignity of the foundation. In 1674, he 

1 Pftiisb Reirister. 2 Corporation records. 3 Indenture, l6S0. 
4 Charter, iG Car. II. 5 Whiston's Memoirs. 



428 TAMWOBTH 

added a bay and a half of boildiDgs at the back of the 
master's residence, at his own expenoe, except 8/L 

granted for the purpose by the corporation.^ And in 
in 1677, he raised extensive contributions, by whidi he 

wajB enabled to rebuild the School-room^ and fit it up 
in the present style. 

The assistance then rendered, abstracted £rom a tablet 
placed in the room, was as follows: — 

if. 8. d. 
Tlie gaardians and governors of the Scfaool» out of the town 

ftmds 10 

Charlei lord Clifford of Lansborongh, eldest son of Bich. 

esrl of Burlington, and M.P. for Tamworth •• 10 

John Swinfen. esq., M.P. for Tamworth 3 

Sir Andrew Hacket, recorder 5 

John lord visooont Massareen 10 

Sophia countess Wimbledon 2 

Sir Edward Littleton, bart. .. 5 

Letitia, widow of sir Thomas Wendj,K3 5 

Sir Humphry Ferrers, knt 5 00 

Thomas, eldest son of Henrj Thynne, hart. 10 

Emma, widow of Francis Willonghby, esq 10 

Sebright Repington, esq 3 

Henry Leigh, esq 10 

William Pslmer, esq 3 

Catherine, widow of Clement Wlnstsnley, esq 3 

John Stratford, esq 3 

Francis Wolverstan, esq., gave the schoolmaster's seat and 

desk, which he erected in the School at his sole charge. 

Joseph Oirdler, esq. .. .. 5 

Johanna, relict of WaldiTeWlllington, esq. 10 

Susanna, widow of WaldiTeWillington, esq. .. 1 

GeorgeAlsop 10 

WilliamAshley 10 

Walter Ashmore 10 

Leicester Barbour 10 

George Barbour, M.D 10 

1 Corporation records. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 429 

John Barbour 2 00 

Thomas Barnes 2 00 

Lawrence Baskerville 3 10 6 

JobBeardsley 10 

Samnd Beardflley 10 

niomas Bearcroft 2 00 

Thomas Bearcroft, derk 2 00 

PhiHp Bearcroft 10 

Thomas Brook, derk 10 

Richard Cross, derk 10 

ThomasDeviU 10 

Samnd Dilke 2 00 

JohnDowley 2 3 

SamudFIoyer 2 10 

Peter Floyer 2 10 

Samnd Frankland 2 6 

Francis Cramer 10 

Thomas Cny 5 00 

JohnCny 2 

Nicholas Juxon 2 

Samnd Langley, derk 2 00 

Samnd NichoUs, clerk 2 

Nicholas Parker 10 

JohnPyott 10 

Morgan Powell 10 

William Pickard 3 

Thomas Pickard 10 

WilliamPretty 10 

John Rawlet, derk 6 

JohnSavage 10 

HenryStone 10 

William Symonds 100 

Edward Symonds 10 

John Vanghton, sen. . . 10 

John Vanghton, jun. .. 100 

Thomas Willington, besides a snffidency of stone, which he 

fredy allowed to be got out of his quarry 2 

Middlemore Wolverston 10 

William Wragg, derk ^0 <> 

158 16 6 

k3 




430 TAMWORTH 

About 40/. of this sum was procured by Mr. Antrobos 
from gentlemen, strangers to the town, who had been 
his scholars, or from the friends of those who were still 
under his tuition. Many other persons gave sums of 
money below lOs., which were not set down. Some 
also living in the neighbourhood assisted in the work 
with the gift of labour, and employed their teams to 
carry the materials. 

The rebuilding of the School was completed in 1678. 
It is a spacious convenient room, ootistructed of brick, 
with stone dressings. It has now acquired a sombre 
aspect externally, and, although not yet two-hundred 
years old, is beginning to lose its firmness. The 
master's seat and desk is a large oak structure, and 
bears carved upon it the admonitory sentence, 

VT IMFBRES PARSBB F. W. 

D18CA8. 
VT DICTITSS TACERS 1678. 

Shortly after these improvements in the edifice had 
been carried into effect, a scholarship was founded in 
one of the colleges of Cambridge, for a person educated 
at this School. Samuel Frankland, M.A., a native of 
the parish of Tamworth, where he was educated, who 
became head-master of the school at Coventry, by his 
last will and testament, bearing date the 21st of July, 
1691, demised to his wife, for her natural life, his 
messuage, lands, and hereditaments, lying at Cubbing- 
ton, in the county of Warwick; with all his personal 
property. And after her decease, he bequeathed the 
lands, and so much of his personal estate remaining as 
should be required to make up the amount of 600/., to 
the masters and fellows of Catherine-haU, in Cambridge, 
and to their successors for ever, upon these uses and 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 481 

trusts. The sum of 20/. a-year should go towards the 
maintenance of a fellow sent to the haU out of the gram- 
mar-school of Coventry, towards which object Matthew 
Scrivener, by his last will, had given an annuity of 201. 
These sums, with a convenient chamber, for which Mr. 
Frankland had already paid 80/. to the college, would 
form a handsome provision for the ^^ Frankland fellow- 
ship." And 10/. a-year should be assigned for the 
maintenance of one scholar, sent to the haU, at the 
recommendation of the minister and schoolmaster, out 
of the Free Grammar School at Tamworth, for whom 
had been promised a chamber free from charge. But if 
the sum raised should fall short of 600/., the scholar- 
ship should bear the loss, so that the fellowship might 
remain unimpaired.^ 

George Antrobus died in July, 1708, after he had 
been schoolmaster for nearly forty-nine years. On the 
16th of September following, the bailifb and common- 
alty nominated Dr. Samuel Shaw to the place, and 
directed that he should enter into his duties on St. 
Thomas' day ensuing; but his patent was not signed 
until the 7th of January. In the mean time, Mrs. 
Antrobus and her son Burgesse carried on the School.' 

Dr. Shaw maintained the School in the high repute, 
in which it was consigned to his care. He was the 
author of some good Latin works for the use of his 

1 Capyoffhewill. The Bcholarthip WM not diminiBbed. 

Dr. Robert Green, a natiye of Tamworth, who received his early education under 
Mr. Antrobus, and became a fellow of Clare-hall, Cambrid^, by his will dated the 
1 0th of October, 1731, bequeathed money for the pnrchase of two pieces of plate,— 
iUTcr cups,— of the Talue of (U, each, bearingr appropriate inscriptions, to be given to 
two scholars in tiieir sophisters* years, the first as a reward of piety, virtue, and good- 
ness; and the second for ingenuity, scholarship, and learning,— it being a more 
dlAcult task to be a real Christian than an excellent scholar. And if it should happen 
that, in the Judgment of the masters and fellows of the college, the same youth 
shonkl be the most eminent of his year for both the endowments of piety and 
lesmiDg, he should be presented with the two pieces of plate. 
2 Corporation records. 



4SS TAMWORTH 

scholan. He repaired the buildings of the School, 
in 1710, at a charge of 15/. Ids. 5d., of which 10/. 
was repaid him by the corporation; who, in 1728, 
allowed him 28/. 14«. for further improTements.^ He 
continued here until his decease, which occurred in 
April, 1730. Mrs. Shaw provided for the School, until 
a successor was nominated. 

Thomas Ebdall, M.A., was appointed schoolmaster, 
on the 15th of September following, by the guardians 
and capital burgesses. He remained in the office for 
a very short time, tendering his resignation on the 
8th of February, 1782-3; at which time the rev. 
William Sawrey was chosen to supply his place. 

William Sawrey continued to exercise his duties as 
schoolmaster about eight years; when he resigned. 

The rev. John Princep was immediately chosen in 
the place of Mr. Sawrey, on the 2l8t of January, 
1740-1, by the guardians and governors. On the 11th 
of October, 1752, he resigned into the hands of the 
corporation their gift of the Free School to him.* 

On the 26th of October following, the rev. Simon 
Collins was nominated to be the master. Under his 
superintendence, the School appears to have been in a 
prosperous state, there being numerous classical scholars 
on the foundation, and boarders admitted from a dis- 
tance. 

On the demise of Simon Collins, in 1793, the rev. 
John Oldershaw was chosen by the guardians, whose 
nomination occurred on the 25th of June. He remained 
here about thirteen years. 

The rev. Charles Edward, son of Simon Collins, was 
elected master on the Ist of August, 1805, when 

1 Corpontion recordt. 2 lUd. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 438 

his predecessor resigned the office. During his contin- 
uance here, the institution rapidly declined^'and at last 
the mastership became a complete sinecure. When he 
gave it up, there was a vacancy for half a year, and 
the operation of the School was wholly suspended. 

On the appointment of the rev. Samuel Downes, on 
the 17th of August, 1813, the guardians attempted to 
remedy the defects lately manifested, which tended so 
greatly to impair the utility of the foundation. These 
principally arose from the scantiness of the endowment, 
and the practice of granting the office of schoolmaster 
for the life of the person, without retaining the imme- 
diate power of removal at any time. Some rules were 
drawn up, with the consent of the high-steward, by 
which it was ordered that the master should instruct 
all the free scholars in arithmetic, and writing, and 
also reading English and the principles of English 
grammar, and that he should be entitled to a compen- 
sation of four guineas a-year from each of those who 
should receive such instructions. Mr. Downes also was 
made to give a bond to the guardians and governors, 
conditioning that he would resign within the space of 
six months after he should have been requested to 
do so in writing by them. The School began to 
revive for a little time. The building was put in 
repair, in 1814, at a considerable expence, 68/. lbs. 
being raised by public contribution, in addition to 
50/. which was granted out of the corporation funds. 
The late sir Robert Peel gave 20/. Mr. Downes had 
about a dozen scholars, of whom three or four were 
boarders. But he soon voluntarily ceased to receive 
more; and the School again sunk, insomuch that, in 
J, there were only four boys who attended for 



484 TAKWOBTH 

two hoxas in the morning, and then resorted to 
other schools to acquire knowledge in other essential 
branches of education. Afterwards the institution be- 
came entirely deserted, although Mr. Downes still 
resided in the house, and received the emoluments of 
his office. The building fell into a state of great 
delapidation. The disapprobation of the guardians and 
governors at the existing state of the institution was 
strongly expressed at a meeting held on the 29th of 
September, 1826; and, soon afterwards, Mr. Downes 
placed his resignation in their hands. On the 9ih of 
May, in the following year, the rev. Thomas Pearson 
Tiammin was elected master in his stead.^ 

The School-room and house adjoining were thoroughly 
repaired, at an ezpence of 169/. 78. 8d., which was 
defrayed by public subscription. Under the very able 
and judicious management of Mr. Lammin, whose exer- 
tions were ever unremitting, the School once more 
became a flourishing institution, numbering between 
thirty and forty day-scholars, and about eight boarders, 
the latter of whom paid thirty guineas a-year. 

In the order of the high court of Chancery made in 
1837, by which all the charitable gifts belonging to 
the town that had been consigned to the care and man- 
agement of the late bailifb and commonalty, were 
placed for administration in the hands of nine trustees, 
the Free Grammar School, being then under no legal 
governance, was specially included. In consequence, 
these trustees, — ^William Knight, Matthew Ingle, Richard 
Barratt, Shirley Palmer M.D., Thomas Cox, John 
Butler, Francis Hunter, Samuel Hanson, and B. K. 
Fallows, — received the control of this institution, with 

1 CorpoFition reoonU. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 486 

as full and ample powers as the late guardians and 
govemors had ever possessed under the charters of 
Elizabeth and Charles II. To them, the election of 
the master now appertains. 

The decease of the rev. T. P. Lammin occurred on 
the 16th of March, 1837. The School was vacant for 
a time ; but, towards the close of the same year, the 
trustees appointed Mr. Henry Handley to be master, 
by whom the office is still held. 

The School is only free for boys residing within the 
borough. Of the stipend paid by the crown, the master 
only receives 7/. 18*., the remainder being deducted for 
land-tax and fees of office. Several gifts in perpetuity, 
derived from the liberality of private individuals, have 
increased the amount to about 84/. These we shall 
especially mention, when we speak of the charities con- 
nected with the town. The School-house is held by 
the master rent-free. The efficacy of the institution is 
very much limited by the exceedingly small endowment 
attached to it. It is evident that, unless the emoluments 
be considerably increased, either by public grant or 
private benefitctions, this institution will never fully 
realize the intention of its establishment. Tet, from 
the absence of any large school of eminence for some 
distance around, the utility of the Free Grammar School 
of Tamworth would be incalculably great, not only to 
the town, but to the surrounding neighbourhood. 



SIR ROBERT PEEL'S SCHOOL. 

There had long been acknowledged in Tamworth a 
great deficiency, tending to retard the moral improve* 
ment of the people, in the absence of any pubUc 
institution, conducted on an extensive and liberal scale, 
for the education of the children of the poor inhabi- 
tants. The first great and successful attempt to remedy 
the defect, was made by the late sir Robert Peel, bart 




The family of Peel is of andent 
standing in the county-palatine of 
Lancaster. 

Robert Psbl, of Oswaldtwistle, 
Lancashire, d. about 1736, and was 
bur, at Blackburn. His son, by 
Anne his wife, 

William FKbl, of Oswaldtwistle, 
m. Jane, dan. of Lawrence Walms- 
ley, of Darwin, in Lancashire ; d. a- 
bout 1760, and was bur. at Black- 
bum, in the same county. His son, 



ROBBBT PeKL, 

was ». in 1722. 
He resided, dnriog 
the greater part of 
his life, at Ped- 
fold or Peel-cross, 
near Blackburn ; 
and was a farmer 
and cotton-manu- 
facturer. After his 
works had been 
attacked by a mob, 
he remoTed his 
gpiimiiig-trade to 
Burton-on-Trent, 
in Staffordshire; 
where heestablish- 
ed cotton-mills- 
He d. Sept. 12th,1795, and was bur. 
at St. John's, Manchester. By his 
wife Elizabeth, dau. of Edmund Ho- 
worth, of Blackburn, — she d, in 
March, 1796,^he had, 

I. William, of Church.lMmk, co. of 
Lancaster, who m. Mary daa.of Tlio. 
Howorth, of Blackborn, and had a 
large family. 

II. EoMuxo, who m., and had iuae. 

III. RoBBRT, of whom we shall imme- 
diately speak. 

IV. Jonathan. 

V. La wasNcs, who m., and had issue. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



487 



In the year 1820^ he founded^ entirely at his own 
expense, a School conducted on the national plan for 
the instruction of 100 poor boys, providing them at 



n. JoMVH, who d, in 1890, learing 



ni. JoMir, of Biirton-apoD>'nreiit. 
Till. Ajtm, who WM m., ist to the rev. 
Borlace ¥nilock, of HorwoocU in 
Lancashire; Snd to the rev. Geo. 
Park, of Hawkstead. Shetf.ininO. 
RoBS&T Pbsl, the founder of the 
fortunes of his family, was b, at Peel- 
fold, Apr. 25th, 1750. He was 
educated at Blacklmm grammar 
schooL Li 1778, he entered into 
partnership with Messrs. Yates and 
Howard, of Bnry, bringingin a share 
of 3 or 4,000/. of property to the 
firm ; who established a cotton 
mannfactory at Chamber-hall. The 
business was first limited to calico- 
printing; bat afterwards all the other 
branches were added. Uninterrupted 
success attended the concern; and 
soon the works were extended to 
numerons places, in different counties. 
Mr. Peel became a banker in Man- 
chester for a short time. In 1778, 
having acquired a large fortune, he 
pnrdMsed Drayton-manor from the 
marquis of Bath. He brought the 
ootton-trade'into Tamworth and the 
neighbourhood. He soon came from 
Chamber-hall to reside at Drayton. 
Mr. Ptel was returned to Parliament 
for Tamworth in 1790, and he con- 
tinued to represent the borough until 
1820. In 1797, he and Mr. Yates 
contributed 10,000/. towards defray- 
ing the expenses of the war; and he 
asSdstod in the formation and support 
of the Lancashire Fendbles and the 
Tamworth Armed Association. In 
1798, he took the command of six 
companies of men, called the Bury 
Loyal Volunteers, chiefly formed of 
his own work-people. For his ser- 
vices, he was created a baronet, Nov. 
29th, 1800. In 1818, sir Robert 
Peel retired from the cotton business, 
having realized, it is conjectured, no 
less than 2,500,000/. He d. at 
Drayton, May 3rd, 1830. His will 
was proved June 8Ui following. The 
personals were sworn at *' upper 



value" or more than 900.000/. ; the 
probate-stamp was 15,000/., and the 
legacy-duty paid exceeded 10,000/. 
Drayton-park, and other estates in 
the COS. of Warw. and Staff., were 
entailed on the title. To the 240,000/. 
previously advanced as gifts to, or 
settled on, his children, — exclusive 
of 9,000/. per annum secured to his 
eldest son, — sums were added in- 
creasing the portions of his five 
younger sons to 135,000/. each, and 
those of his daughters to 53,000/. 
each. His legacies to friends and old 
servants and his bequests to public 
institutions amounted to a very con- 
siderable sum. Of the residue, 
calculated at 500,000/., four-ninths 
were given tohis ddest son, and one- 
ninth to each of the younger ones. 
Sir Robert Peel was twice m. His 
1st wife, m. July 8th, 1783, was 
EUen, dau. of his partner Mr. 
Yates i—b. March 22nd, 1766,— by 
whom he had a numerous family* 
His 2nd wife, m. Oct. 18th, 1805, 
was Susanna, youngest sister of the 
rev. sir W. H. Clarke, hart., rector 
ofBury:shetf.Sept. 19th, 1824. s.p. 
X. Mart. b. Jane 17th. 1784; m. Jan. 

9th, 1810, to the rt. hon. Geo. Rob. 

Dawson, of Castle-Dawson, formerly 

aecretanr to the treasury. 

II. Elixabbth, b. Apr. isth, 1780; m. 
Dec. 30th, 1805, to the rev. Will. Cock, 
bum, dean of York; d. Jane 10th 1828. 

III. RoBBRT, the present rt. hon. 
baronet. 

IV. William Tatss, b. Ang. Srd, 1789. 
He m., Jane 17th, 1 81 9, lady Jane- 
Elisabeth Moore, Snd dan. of Stephen, 
e. of Moontcashel ; and has a nomer- 
oas family. The rt. hon. W. T. Peel 
has been M.P. for TSmwortb, and a 
member of the privy coancil. 

T. Bdmvnd, 6. Aag. 8th, 1791 ; m., in 
18IS, Jane, 2nd dan. of JohnSwinfen, 
esq., of Swinfen, co. of Staff. He 
was formerly M.P. for Newcastle- 



VI. Elbanora, d. an infant. 

Tii. Anvb, d. an infant. 

Tin. HARRiBTT-ELBAiroRA. b. BCaTch 
2Sth, 17^ j m. March lUl), I9i4, to 
the rt. hdn. kabtrt, iiiil lord H^nlry , 
a master in ChwacerYt wrio d,m Ui« 
early part of lUi, 



4S8 



TAMWOBTH 



II. JoBif, d. Atir. ttnd, 1798, in orden, 
bcinf a prebeDdary of (^ntertnur, 
and rlcw of Stone. Hem. May 0th, 
1894, Angusta, another dan. of John 
Bwinfen, eaq. 

z. Jonathan, b, Oct. Itth, 17P9{ a 
lleut..ootonel In the army* and M.P. 
for Hnntlncdon. Hem., March I9th« 
1884, lady Alida^ane Kennedy, 
yoongest dan. of Archibald, e. of 



the same time with clothes, and giving to each 
shilling loaf weekly. This excellent establishment 
supported by the founder during his life: and, in his 

he declared that thej oonld no longer 
be resiatad with Mfety to the national 
welfare, he lesomed ofSoe on theoon- 
didon of conceding them. ConKioae 
of the oppodtion of anch a meanitt 
to the aentimentB of his conetiftnenti, 
in the early part of 1S29, he raiigned 
hia seat for the nniveraity of Ozfiwd. 
His re-election wae loccenfally op- 
posed hy sir Rob. H. In|^ ; biit, 
March 5th, he was dected for the 
borough of Westhory. The Cadiolie 
Emandpetian-bill, whidi had king 
formed a subject of dispute and agita- 
tion, was carried, and, Apr. 13th, 
receiTed the royal aaaent. Mr. Feel 
sncceedcd to the baronetcy of his 
family, in May, 1830. In this year, 
he lost hia office of home aeoretaiy. 
on the aooeaaian of the Whig-party 
to power. From thia time, he has 
been returned to Parliament for Tarn- 
worth. At the cloae of 1834, air 
Robert Peel waa called upon to form 
a new government, and he became 
prime minister and chancellor of the 
exchequer ; but hia adminiatration waa 
of a short duration, as he resigned 
in the April foUowing. InMay,1839t 
he waa again elevated to the digmty 
of prime-minister; but, in a fow days, 
he resigned the important trust; wlMn 
the Whig sdminlstration resumed 
power, in the middle of die year 
1841, he was, a third time, called 
upon to aaaume the dignity of first 
lord of the treaaory : and, ttom that 
time to the present day, he has re- 
tained the govenunent of the Britiah 
Empire. The right hon. air Robert 
Peel m., June 8th, 1820, Julia, 
youngest dau. of general air John 
Floyd, hart., and hM, 

1. BoaaaT, b. May 4tfa, isn. 

u. Fbxdbbick, b, Oct. 99th, 1813. 

m. William, b. Nov. and, 18S4. 

IV. Jobn-Plotd, b. May llth, I8I7. 

V. Arthur. WBLLatLST»6Jluf Srd,l8a9* 

VI. Julia, m., 1841, Ocoiftt vtecouit 
VllUen, eldest ton of Geotse, earl of 
Jersey. 

Vll» 



r narattls of Ailaa, K.T. 
zi. ItAVRRMCB, b. £a 1800 1 m., July 

SOth, issa, lady Jane Lennox, 4th dau. 

of Charles, 4th duke of Richmond. 
RoBsnT Pbsl, esq.,— -the present 
right hon. sir Robert Peel, hart, — 
was b, at Chamber-hall, near Bury, 
Feb. 5th, 1788. He was sent to 
school at Harrow, and finished his 
education at Christ Church-college, 
Ozfbrd. In 1809, he was returned 
to Parliament for Cashel, in Ireland, 
and commenced the splendid political 
career, by which hia life has been 
since distinguished. His promotion 
in the state soon followed. In 1810. 
he was appointed under-secretary of 
Btate for the colonial department. 
In the administration of Uie eari of 
Liverpool, which succeeded that of 
Mr. Perdval, the rt. hon. Robert 
Peel, in Sept., 1812, waa constituted 
chief secretary for Ireland, under the 
viceroyship of the late duke of Rich- 
mond. At the general election, in 
the same year, he was returned to 
Parliament for Chippenham. And, 
in 1817, 1818, 1820, and 1826, he 
was returned for the university of 
Oxford. In 1818, he retired from 
bis office as Irish secretary ; but, 
Jan. 17th, 1822, was appointed sec« 
retary for the home department. 
This post he retuned until 1827, 
when Mr. Canning came into power 
for a short time. After the death of 
this statesman, in the same year, Mr. 
Peel again became home-secretary, 
under the administration of the duke 
of Wellington. Mr. Peel had hitherto 
been one of the most powerful oppo- 
nents of the claims of Catholics to 
emancipation ; but now, convinced 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



439 



wiU^ he bestowed upon it an ample endowment by 
leaving for its maintenance the sum of 6^000/. The 
complete control of it he placed in the hands of his 
eldest son^ the present right hon. sir Robert Peel. 

During the year 1837^ a neat commodious building 
was erected in Lichfield-street, to serve as a School in 
place of a large room^ which had heretofore been 
occupied for that purpose^ and was situated in Church- 
street^ adjoining the Church-yard. Here about 80 boys 
now receive the regular instruction^ which their station 
in life may demand. 




THE NATIONAL SCHOOL. 

The inconvenience resulting from the want of rooms 
amply sufficient in size and possessed of the necessaiy 
accommodations for Sundaj-schools in connection with, 
and under the control of the authorities of, the church 
of England, reasonably created a desire on the part of 
the persons belonging to the establishment for the 
erection of a building that would subserve a purpose of 
so great utility and importance. In order to remedy 
the manifest defect, active measures were adopted, in 
1826, by the rev. Francis Blick, then vicar, and his 
friends, to raise the necessary funds. A bazaar was 
then held in the Town-hall for the sale of small fiemcy 
or usefrd articles, the result of which was the realization 
of the sum of 323/. The success attendant upon this 
occasion, and the promises of liberal assistance which 
were tendered by influential and wealthy persons, led 
to the determination that the plan originally laid down 
should be enlarged, and a weekly School, conducted on 
Dr. fiell's system of education, established, and the 
rooms erected for such a purpose used on the first day 
of the week as a Sunday-school. The accomplishment 
of this extended scheme necessarily demanded an increase 
of outlay. To provide for this, a second bazaar was 
held in the early part of the year 1828, by means of 
which an additional sum of 853/. was obtained. Ezten- 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 441 

sive subscriptions were also raised throughout the town 
and neighbourhood. The National society bestowed 200/.^ 
and 50/. was given by that of Lichfield. A sufficient 
sum was thus obtained for the foundation of the School. 

The building stands in College-lane, on the site of 
the College-house of the ancient yicars. The erection 
and fitting up of the whole cost nearly 1^0/. It is 
a neat building, and consists of two rooms, the lower 
in front for boys, and the upper at the back for 
girls. Behind is another room used for the preparatory 
training of in&nts. 

The School is supported, partly by small weekly 
payments from each child, and partly by free contribu- 
tions. An annuity of 8/. is paid out of the rev. J. 
Rawlet's charity, for the education of twelve girls free* 
On the disbandment of the Tamworth volunteers, 400/. 
raised for their support was left in the hands of the 
late sir Robert Lawley. This sum was subsequently 
invested in the three per cents, in the name of certain 
trustees, to educate freely in this School for every 1/. 
of interest an immediate child or grandchild of the 
volunteers, at the nomination of the trustees : and after 
the failure of such children the interest should be ap- 
plied to the general purposes of this institution. The 
trustees appointed were, sir Bobert Lawley, bart.; 
Francis Lawley, esq., M.P. ; the vicar of Tamworth; 
and the perpetual curate or curates of Wilnecote and 
Wigginton, for the time being; and Bichard F. A* 
Freeman, esq. In case of the deceases of sir Bobert 
and Mr. Francis Lawley, two representatives of the 
same family should be chosen in their stead. 

The School is conducted in a very efficient manner, 
and is numerously attended. 



THE WORKHOUSE. 

The first attempt to provide a xemedy for the great 
inoonvenienoe which was occasioned to the town by the 
wants and the number of the poor, and to furnish a per- 
manent relief to the burden which such had created, 
was made in the reign of James 11. The right hon. 
Thomas lord yisooimt Weymouth,* by indenture dated 
the 26th of February, 1686-7, granted to the bailiA 
of the town and their successors, to sir Edward 
Littleton bart., Sebright Repington esq., Franda Wol- 
verston esq., Nicholas Parker gent., George Alsop 
gent, and Samuel Langley derk, their heirs and assigns, 
for the promotion and encouragement of industry and 
the provision of a place for the poor, a bam and fold 
on the south side of a lane leading from the School* 
house of Tamworth towards Amington*haIl ; upon trust, 
that they should convert the same into a Workhouse 
wherein the poor might be employed and their children 
instructed. 

The bam thus liberally bestowed by lord Wey^ 
mouth, was estimated at about SO/. A new building 
was erected on the ground by public contributions, 
which, with the value of materials and of labour freely 
given, amounted to 1192. its. 6d. Amongst the benefactors 
were, Samuel Port alias Porch, who gave 102.; sir 
Edward Littleton, 5/.; dame Elizabeth Ferrers, bl.; 



CABTLB AND TOWN. 44S 

Matthew Floyer^ four trees valued at 51. ; Thomas Guy, 
$/.; Sebright Sepington, 6,000 bricks valued at SI.; sir 
Henry Gough, 1/. 10s. ; and John Guy, 1/.* This 
building obtained the name of the Spinning-school. It 
was used only for children; and was mostly supported 
by voluntary subscriptions. The corporation usually 
gave 4/. a-year towards its maintenance; and, in July, 
1693, a similar annual sum was added by Thomas Guy.* 

The Spinning-school, in the course of time, — ^for what 
reason does not plainly appear, — ^fell entirely into disuse; 
90 that, in 1719, it was directed by the bailifb and 
commonalty that the building should be converted into 
a number of houses for the poor. This order was im- 
mediately put into execution.' 

The number of paupers continually increasing, and 
the burden of their maintenance becoming by degrees 
very great, it was thought necessary, in 1789, to erect 
a Workhouse within the borough for the benefit of the 
town ; and, on the 10th of May, the baili£Es and com-? 
monalty ordered that subscriptions should be raised and 
solicited for the promotion of such a purpose. The 
bounty of a nobleman saved the town from incurring 
the great expense of raising an edifice. James earl of 
Northampton, the lord of the Castle, purchased a mes- 
suage and piece of land containing Ir. Up. situated in 
Gungate, adjoining Colehill; and there he erected a 
large building fi)r a Workhouse. And by indenture of 
the 14th of December* 1741, he granted this to the use 
of the borough, for the lodging, maintenance, and 
employment of the poor of the borough and also of 
the Castle-liberty ; and for other charitable uses specified, 
the earl gave the land and messuage to William lord 

1 Langle7'tM*S*ilfl90* 9 QqipanOoiL B«oardt. s lb. 



444 TAMWORTH 

Andover and others, upon trust, to pennit the inha- 
bitants to use it, provided they employed it as a 
Workhouse. And in case it should be disused as such 
for the space of twelve months, the trustees should 
take possession of it: and they, vnth the minister, 
baili£Es, and town-clerk of the borough, should let the 
premises, and apply the rents, after deducting so much 
as should be requisite for repairs, to such pious and 
charitable uses as they should think proper, amongst 
the inhabitants of the borough and liberty having l^al 
settlements there, regard being paid to the greatest and 
most necessitous objects of charity. And when the 
trustees, by death or othervnse, should be reduced to 
three, the survivors should immediately elect four more 
new trustees, substantial inhabitants of the town of 
Tamworth or gentlemen of estate and condition in the 
counties of Stafford or Warwick. The expenses of the 
new deeds of trust, and all other charges incident to 
the charity should be paid out of the poors* levies 
whilst the building should serve as a Workhouse, and 
afterwards out of the rents and profits of the messuage.' 
But the new Poor-house was soon insufficient to 
afford all the relief which was required. The edifice 
in Gungate was abandoned in 1750 for the present 
Workhouse, which had been erected and completely 
furnished for such a purpose at the expense of Thomas 
lord viscount Weymouth and Francis lord Middleton, 
who, by deed dated the 4th of May, in that year, 
gave it to be used for the poor of the town. The gen* 
erosity of these noblemen thus spared the inhabitants 
the cost and trouble which they would otherwise have 
had to encounter. 

1 Chuitf GoDunlarionen* Report. 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 446 

Under the new poor law^ this institution has been 
constituted the Union Workhouse to serve not only for 
the poor of the parish of Tamworth^ but also for those of 
Austrey, Canwell, Chilcote^ Clifton-Campyile, Croxall, 
Drayton-Basset^ Edingale^ Harlaston^ Hints^ Kingsbury, 
Middleton, Newton-Regis, Seckington, Shuttington, 
Statfold, and Thorpe-Constantine, in the neighbourhood. 
As an increase of accommodation was requisite for this 
purpose, a smaller building has been added. 

The Workhouse stands on the west side of Ladybridge- 
bank, near to, but at some height above, the northern 
bank of the Tame. Its situation is exceedingly fine, 
and very airy. The old building is large and substan- 
tial, and is totally tree from that gloomy and prison-like 
appearance so sadly characterizing places of a similar 
destination which have been erected in recent times. 
Indeed, it presents more the aspect of a well-built 
and good hospital, and forms a prominent object at the 
southern entrance of the town far from disagreeable 
to the sight. It was once surmounted by a wooden 
bell-turret, in the centre of the roof, with a clock and 
weather-fane; but this was removed a few years ago. 
Internally the rooms are spacious and very comfortable, 
and the arrangements appear to be made in a superior 
manner. The new building stands detached a little to 
the west. It is entirely devoid of every ornament 
externally; whilst the small and few windows lead to 
to the conjecture that it is a very melancholy place. 
The association of such an idea with it is at once dis- 
persed by a visit to the interior. It is then perceived 
that the great defects in its appearance arise only 
from the absence of all architectural decoration and from 
want of the study of effect. 

m3 



THE ALMSHOUSES. 

This institution was founded by Thomas Guj, citizen 
of London, to whom the inhabitants of Southwark are 
indebted for the splendid hospital which bears his 
name. His mother was a native of Tamworth;^ and 
in the welfare of the town he took the deepest interest 
for the greater part of his life, and aided in the prind- 
pal improvements made whilst he was connected with 
the place. In 1678, he bought some ground in Gun- 
gate, and built the Almshouses, which he fitted up for 
seven poor women, giving to each a weekly allowance. 
One of the rooms, in 1688, he assigned for the library 
bequeathed to the town by Mr. Rawlet. As he wished 
to extend his foundation, the corporation, in 1692, 
granted him some land north of the building, and there 
he erected seven additional rooms that he might be 
able to accommodate seven poor men. The whole cost 
about 200/.' 

The charitable founder supported the institution so 
long as he lived, and provided an ample endowment 
for it afterwards. By his last will and testament,' dated 
the 4th of September, 1724, he devised to John Cheatly, 
John Blood, Joseph Blood, Arthur Alcock, Thomas 

1 Extract from the Pariah Refiiter:— 

"June, iMi. 
18. Muryed Mr. JoMph Seeley of OoTcntir & Mrs. Anne Quy of Tunwoith.'* 
Mn. Gay wm the daoirhter of WUUam Vaof hton. 

2 Corpontlon Records. S See Appendix :--Note M. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 447 

Orton, John Radford, Robert Blood, and John Osbom, 
his Almshouses situated partly in Gungate and partly 
in Schoolhouse-lane, to hold in trust that they should, 
from time to time, place there fourteen poor persons, 
men and women, inhabitants of the townships of Wil- 
necote, Glasoote, Bolehall-street, Amington, Wi^inton, 
or Hopwas,' — his relations being preferred if any should 
oflTer themselves, — ^whom they should think proper objects 
of such a charity ; and so often as any of them died, 
or were removed for misbehaviour, to place others in 
their stead. When any trustee should die, the survi- 
vors should choose another person to succeed him; and 
to prevent any legal interest in the premises from going 
to the heir of a surviving trustee, so often as the 
trustees should be reduced to two, these should convey 
the premises to other persons, upon the same trust. 
And as the masters, wardens, and commonalty of the 
art and mystery of Stationers, in the city of London, 
were bound, by a bond, dated the 3rd of February, 
1717, unto the governors of the hospital of St. Thomas 
the Apostle in Southwark, for the payment of 125/. for 
ever, half yearly, to the testator during his life, and 
after his decease, to such purposes as he should direct, 

1 It wiU be obMnredtiiattlw town of Tunwoithli excluded from lU benefit in tfali 
Inatitation. Tbomae Guy represented the borough in perliament from 1095 to 1707> 
Bat in the hitter yeer, the burgesees,— notwithftendiny the meny serricee of their 
"inoompereble benefactor,*' and his repeated promises that, if they would support him, 
he would leave his whole fortune to the town so that there should never be a pauper 
here,— retomed an opposing candidate. The cause of Guy's r^ection is said to have 
been his neglect of the gastronomic propensities of his worthy, patriotic, and enlighten- 
ed oonstitQents, by whom the virtues of fissttng appear to have been entirely forgotten. 
In the anger of the moment, hp threatened to pull down ths Town-hall which he had 
boat, and to abolish Oie Almshouses. 

The burgesses, repenting of their rash act, sent a deputation to wait upon him, with 
the oflner of reflection in the ensuing parliament) but he rejected all condUation. 
Being advanced hi age, he never represented any other place. He always considered 
that he had been treated with great ingratitude, employed his Immense fortune 
in enlarging St. Thomas's hospital, Southwark, and in building and endowing anothe 
there; and he deprived the inhabitants of Tamworth of the advantage of his Alms- 
booses here. 



448 TAMWORTH 

Mr. Guy appointed that tbe Bum should be paid^ by 
half-yearly payments at the feast of St. John the 
Baptist and the birth of our Lord God^ to his executors, 
until the formation of the president and governors of 
his hospital into a corporate body, who should then 
receive it. Out of this, 115/. a-year, at the same terms, 
should be given to the trustees of the Almshouses, who 
should employ SOI. of it in providing for the mainte- 
nance of the alms-people, two shillings a-week being 
given to each, and the residue applied in the reparation 
of the premises, or otherwise as might be thought fit 
The remaining 851, should be applied by the trustees in 
putting out children apprentices, nursing, or such like 
charitable deed, of four, six, or eight poor persons 
of the family of the Voughtons or Woods, or pro- 
ceeding therefrom, as the trustees deemed fit : and if 
none or not sufficient of such could be found, then of 
other persons as should be considered proper objects of 
charity. 

The building is said to occupy the site of the ancient 
Guild-hall of St. George. It is a plain substantial build- 
ing, presenting two sides of a square, with a garden 
behind common to the fourteen poor. Each of the 
alms-people occupies two rooms, having separate entrance. 
The front towards Gungate was rebuilt in 1827, and 
bears a tablet recording the foundation. The annuity 
of 115/. continues to be paid by the governors of Gujr's 
hospital, Southwark. Out of it accumulations have been 
made from the savings of weekly pay during vacancies 
amongst the alms-people and from the money destined for 
repairs, which, having been from time to time invested in 
the funds, ultimately amounted to 1,388/. ISs. Id. new four 
per cents. This stock was subsequently sold for 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 449 

1^416/. 188. 4d., which was laid out in the purchase of free- 
hold property in the parish of St. Martin's^ Birmingham, 
consisting of nine parcels of land and sixty new houses 
erected thereon, let upon building leases, — of which about 
66 years now remain unexpired, — ^producing a ground- 
rent of 68/. 68. The purchase money was 1,670/., of 
which 153/. was left as a debt bearing interest at 5/. 
per cent. Thus, in 1823, the commissioners found 
the income of the charity increased to 183/. 6«. This 
had enabled the trustees to raise the weekly pay of 
the poor people to $8. 6c/. a-week. The 85/. assigned 
by the founder to the benefit of his poor relations was 
distributed to such annually, without reference to their 
residence, in sums varying from 5«« to 2/.; and after 
insurance and all other incidental expences had been 
paid, the surplus was laid by for augmenting the endow- 
ment. 

Very lately the trustees have extended the property 
by the purchase of the premises called ^'Spinning School" 
mentioned in page 443. It is in contemplation to raise 
the amount of the weekly allowance assigned to the 
alms-people. 



THE CHARITIES. 

Of the charities which existed before the time of 
Edward VI., none now remain, all having been swept 
away with the eodesiastical property. But since the 
accession of Elizabeth, priyate individuals have left 
numerous gifts in perpetuity, which constitute an im- 
portant source of benefit, especially to the poor, who 
form the general object of them. Most of them continue 
to be administered at the present time; but some have 
been entirely or in part lost, from circumstances which 
have become mostly forgotten. 

The gifts were generally placed in the hands of the 
bailijflb, ministers, or churchwardens, occasionally of persons 
specially appointed as trustees. After the change of the 
form of government of the town, imder the act for the 
reform of municipal bodies, the charities originally 
intrusted to the bailifb for distribution were, upon the 
petition of Shirley Palmer M.D., and James Jackson, 
placed imder the administration of nine trustees, by an 
order of one of the masters of the high court of Chan- 
cery, dated the 24th of December, 1836, and confirmed 
by the lord chancellor on the SSrd of February following. 
The trustees nominated were, William Knight, John 
Butler, Matthew Ingle, Francis Hunter, Richard Bar- 
ratt, Samuel Hanson, Shirley Palmer M JD., Robert K. 
Fallows, and Thomas Cox. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 451 

The sources whence we have derived our informatioii 
concerning the respective charities^ are the original 
documents themselves^ or authenticated copies of them, 
and a manuscript book entitled ^^A Collection of Per- 
petual Gifts to the Town and Parish of Tamworth. 
By Samuel Langley, Minister there. 1690 :" with con- 
tinuations. We have also made use of the report of the 
commissioners for inquiring into charities, published in 1825. 
Henby Suckley's Gift. 

By indenture made on the 24th of July, 1564, Henry 
Buckley, citizen and merchant-tailor of London, a native 
of Tamworth, and Agnes his wife, conveyed to John Topp, 
his heirs and assigns for ever, after the death of the 
survivor of the two, a messuage called the Ram, in 
Watling-street, London; a messuage, garden, orchard, 
and dove-house, at Corbetstye, in the parish of Up- 
minster, Essex; and a messuage called Ryseley's, in 
Upminster; to hold to the use and behoof of the poor 
inhabitants of Tamworth, and of the adjoining hamlets. 
John Topp should, at his cost, before the first day of 
November ensuing, provide one good broad Kentish 
woollen cloth, twenty-eight yards long or more, to be 
woven with three threads through, being worth 6/., and, 
sending it to Tamworth, divide it, in the presence of 
the bailifb and conmionalty, amongst poor householders 
of the town and hamlets. And before the first of 
November, 1565, he was to provide canvas linen cloth 
to the value of 6/. or more, to be divided into shirts, 
smocks, kerchiefs, or aprons, and similarly distributed. 
In 1566, the woollen was to be given away; in the 
next year, the cloth; and so alternately for ever. The 
sum of 188. 4d. was to be given yearly to such preacher 
as should deliver a sermon on the 1st of November, 



452 TAirWOKTH 

between the hours of eight and eleven in the moming^ 
at the appointment of the dean and chapter of Lichfield ; 
who covenanted to select a person for such purpose that 
should deliver the gospel of Christ sincerely, purely, and 
truly. If John Topp, or the future possessors of the 
hereditaments, should neglect to supply the linen or 
woollen, he or they should pay a fine of twenty marks 
to the dean and chapter, for the first defiiult, to be 
divided, within a month after the receipt, amongst the 
poor of the town and hamlets, with the consent of the 
bailifis and commonalty, ISs. 4d. being reserved for the 
preacher: and on a second default, the dean and chapter 
might take full possession of the property, and hold it 
for the destined uses. If the dean and chapter, having 
possession, should neglect any part of the covenant, 
the bailifis and commonalty should complain to the 
bishop, that he might compel them by ecclesiastical 
censures to fulfil their duties. But if the bishop should 
be negligent, they should "make humble petition, & 
lamentable complaint, & lowly supplication," to the 
lord chancellor of England to oblige the dean and 
chapter. And the four parties concerned made promise 
to each other that they would fiiithfully observe the 
conditions, " on their fidelitys, fidths, & trouths to 
Allmighty God, as they intend to be saued by the 
merits of Christ's death, blood, & passion, at y* dread- 
full day of judgment ; when no secrets of man's deeds 
or acts wrought wrongfully shall be hid, but plainly 
and apertly opened, disclosed, & revealed, for synne & 
infidelity com'itted, perpetrated, & done.'* 

This gift is still received, the sum of 6/. ISs. Ad. 
being paid as a rent charge on two houses in Watling- 
street, and on a fiEirm at Corbetstye, although the property 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 453 

at the latter place originally granted to John Topp, 
cannot be identified. The alternate supply of cloth and 
linen had been abandoned long before - the inquiry of 
the GommiasionerSj in 1828. This gift is now at the 
disposal of the Charity-trustees. 

Fbteb Bbadock's Gift. 

Peter Bradock^ saddler^ by will dated in 1594/ gave 
6tf. 8dl to the poor in Tamworth^ yearly, for ever, issuing 
out of a messuage in Church-lane. This was to be dis- 
tributed yearly on Good Friday in boulted penny bread 
to poor householders baring a charge. 

Such are the statements in Langley's book ; but a note 
in the same says that 13«. 4d. was the amount originally 
bequeathed. It seems that afterwards the house was 
formed into two tenements, whence, perhaps, half the 
sum became lost. The gift is now extinct: and the 
house charged with the payment cannot be identified 
with certainty. 

RiCHABD BePINGTON'S GiFT. 

Bichard Bepington, esq., of Amington, by will dated 
the SOth of August, 1609, bequeathed to his brother 
Thomas Bejongton and to hb nephew John, son of 
Thomas, 120/. to purchase, in fee-simple, so much lands 
and hereditaments, as they and their heirs should out 
of the rents pay 6/. annually to the relief of twenty poor 
of the parish of Tamworth. To each of the poor, was 
to be paid the sum of 5^., at the chapel of Great 
Aming^n, upon the Friday befi>re Christmas-day, as the 
donor had been accustomed to do : and 68. 8d. was to 
be given to the reader of divine sendee in the chapel, 
at that time. But if any of the poor persons should be 
diubied finom attending, they should receive their pro- 

1 He WM boiled at TMDWorth, on tliA srd oTDMembcr, 1898. 

N 8 



454 TAMWOBTH 

portion at their own abode. The objects of the gift 
should be those given to serve Gk)d and living in good 
name and fiime; they should not be blasphemers, or 
drunkards^ or disquiet persons, but of honest and godly 
conversation, to the better example of others. 

No land was purchased, but 5/. 6s. Sd. has been 
annually paid to the vicar of Tamworth by the pro- 
prietor of the land at Amington formerly belonging to 
the testator. The 6/. is distributed equally amongst 
the poor of Amington, Bolehall and Glascote, Tamworth, 
and Wigginton; those of Amington receiving it at the 
chapel. 

John Wiohtwick's Gift. 

John Wightwick, esq., of the Inner Temple, London, 
by indenture dated the 7th of April, 1620, at the request 
of his fieither William, granted to the bailifb and com- 
monalty of Tamworth an annuity of 10«., issuing out 
of five lands and one headland of arable ground in 
Spittle-field, which he had bought of Nicholas Breton. 
The first payment was to begin on the feast of St. Mi- 
chael next after the decease of William Wightwick, and 
to continue on that day for ever. The bailiffs should 
yearly, on Gt>od Friday, distribute it equally amongst 
thirty poor of the town. For every de&ult of payment, 
after twenty days &om the feast, — the sum being 
demanded at the house then inhabited by William 
Wightwick, — John Wightwick, his heirs and assigns, 
should forfeit to the use of the poor S«. 4d. : and the 
bailiffi and commonalty might enforce payment by 
distress. 

The sum of 10«. is now received by the trustees 
appointed in 1837. 



castlb and town. 455 

Stephen Bayly's Gift. 

Stephen Bayly^ shepherd, of Tamhom, in Stafford- 
shire, by will, dated the 1st of May, 1620, left to the 
poor of Tamworth an annuity of 40^.. for ever, out of 
his freehold lands at Tamhome called Crowlake, which 
he bequeathed to Joan his wife for life, and then to 
his brother's daughter, Avice Bayly, who had married 
Richard Heely of Tamworth. The sum was to be paid 
by equal portions on the feast of St. Michael, and that 
of the Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin St. Mary. 

The bailifb were administrators of this gift; which 
has passed to the Charity-trustees. 

Thomas Cope's Gipt. 

Thomas Cope, yeoman, of Wigj^inton, by his deed of 
feoffment, dated the 5th of February, 1620-1, to Anticle 
Willington, gent. ; Michael Vaughton, yeoman, of Wig- 
ginton ; and other persons, gave 10«. a-year to ten poor 
people of Tamworth, to be distributed by the feoffees 
and their heirs, on Good Friday. Also he gaye 10^. 
to be distributed by the same parties to as many poor 
people in the lordship of Wigginton, on the Friday 
before Christmas-day. 

The two annuities of 10^. each are charged upon a 
close in the manor of Bolehall, the owner of which 
gives away the money, at pleasure. 

Mabgabet Finney's Gift. 

Margaret Finney alias Wade, of Eddiall, in Stafford- 
shire, by her will of the 8th of February, 1623-4, gave 
to the poor of Tamworth 4/., the interest of which was 
to be distributed by the bailifib and her executors, to 
the poorest householders in the parish, at 4c^. each, 
upon the 23rd of December yearly. By indenture of 
the 19th of March, 1624-5, her executors, Thomas 



466 TAMWOBTH 

Glazier, gent., of lichfield-closei and Hugh Deakin, 
Benior, of Chorley, having paid over the sum, tnaafeired 
all their power in the disposal to the bailiffs and 
commonalty for ever. 

How or when ihis gift was lost, we have not ascer- 
tained. It is not mentioned by Langley. 

Thomas Chbatle's Gift. 

Thomas Cheade, gent, of WoKester, having consigned 
to the bailifb and commonalty of Tamworth 1041., 
covenanted, by indenture made on the S2nd of Septem- 
ber, 1627, that they should hold the sum to the 
following uses. One hundred pounds should be let out, 
from time to time, for ever, on good security, at four 
per cent, to five or ten poor tradesmen, housekeepers, 
artificers, inhabiting the town, clothiers and makers of 
cloth of any sort, or such as should set the poor on 
work by using their stock being especially preened. 
The money, after repayment at the end of two or 
three years, should be let out again in a similar manner. 
The 4/. residue of the 1047. for the first year, and the 
annual interest afterwards paid at the end of every year 
to the bailifis, should be given annually on security to 
a baker in the town, who, every month, counting twenty- 
eight days to each, should deliver six dozen df good 
bread to twenty-four poor peojde of the town and 
parish selected by the bailiffs. The overplus of the 4£ 
and advantage of the poundage of the bread should be 
allowed to the person appointed to superintend the 
distribution of the loaves, and to keep a r^;ister-book 
of it. The bailifis and commonalty agreed that if, at 
any time, all or any part of the money should be lost, 
they would supply the deficiency out of the town funds. 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 467 

SO that the gift might continue ''w*Nmt dymynucon fsr 
ever to all posterytie." 

In 1750, only 18/. remained : it is conjectoied that 
the rest was lost through insufficient securities.^ The 
deficiency was never supplied: and this sum only came 
to the Charity-trustees. 

Henby Michsll's Gift. 

Henry Michell, gent., of Tamworth, by his will made 
on the Z2nd of May, 1629, bequeathed an annuity of 
40«., out of his lands and hereditaments in the town, 
and his bam and close adjoining to Stony-lane. Of 
this, aOs. was to be given on every Good Friday equally 
to forty of the poorest householders in Tamworth by 
his executor, after her decease by his children residing 
in the town, or else by the bailiffs. The other 20^. 
was to be equally divided, at the same time, between 
the curate and the schoolmaster. The bailifb should 
have power of distress for the sum, or for any portion 
remaining unpaid when due. 

The disposal of this gift has been committed to the 
Charity-trustees. 

Sib John Febbebs's Gift. 

Sir John Ferrers, knight, of Walton-upon-Trent, by 
his will, dated the 2nd of April, 1630, bequeathed his 
meadow-grounds, called Highfield-meadows, at Lea, in 
the parish of Bradbume, Derbyshire, to sir John Re» 
pington of Amington, sir Simon Archer, John lisle of 
Moxall, and John Wightwick, and their heirs for ever, 
that they, after his decease, should annually pay to the 
bailifb of Tamworth out of the rents and profits 10/., 

1 In the return made to parliament relating to the beneCutiont, in 1780, it wai 
stated that aU tat 18/. waa lott •< in pnmianoe of the direction of the donor*i wlIL" 
We have not teen this docoment, so that we cannot vouch for the accnracj of this 
curlona and obacore itatement* 



458 TAXWOBTH 

on or before the feast of St Thomas. The bailifi were, 
that day, to distribute the money equally and indiffer- 
ently amongst twenty of the poorest honseholders ' in 
the town of Tangiworth, not common beggars. 

Sir John Ferrers' donation is now in the hands of 
the Charity-trustees. 

Obsen's Gift. 

The original document of this gift is not to be found, 
and the date is unknown. In 1660, Henry Langley, 
of Whittington, a very old man, certified that Green, a 
tanner, gave 20^. a-year to the poor of Tamworth, tied 
upon the house in lichfield-street, wherein Thomas 
Gilbert lived, lately Mr. Bouse. Langley's grand-mother, 
father, and mother, paid it whilst they resided there. 
Samuel Langley says that Mr. Green charged upon the 
house which had been Mr. House's, but in 1689 was 
Mr. Gregg's, the payment of 13^. 4d. in bread to the 
poor on St. Thomas' day or Good Friday. 

Between 1778 and 1780, the payment was discon- 
tinued. Although the house could be identified, the 
conmiissioners, in 18S8, did not think that the gift 
could be revived; so it is now lost 

Edwabd Dratton's Gift. 

Langley says that ^'Edward Drayton, Yinter, gaue 
twenty shillings yearly to the poor of Tamworth tat 
ever, issuing out of closes or lands in Fasely, called 
Grosmore & Bely's Leap." 

^'note. The Bayliffs of Tamworth do lease these 
closes for 40 shillings per annum, and payment of the 
Lord's Kent to Draiton Bassett: one twenty shillings 
of this goes to Atherston, and the other to the 
poor of Tamworth." 



OA0TLB Am) TOWN. 459 

The oxigmal deed of the gift cannot be found, and 
nothing is known of the exact destination, except what 
Mr. Langley has recorded. The bailifi acted as land- 
lords, and, after paying 208. to the parish officers of 
Atherstone, applied the rest to the use of the poor of 
the town. About 181S, Gossmore-dose, previously let 
for 4/. a-year, was exchanged with sir Robert Feel for 
Ridge-lane close in Fazeley, containing about 3a., which 
brought in double that amount of rent. Very nearly 
at the same time, Bayley's Leap, preyiously let at 1/. 
Is. per annum, was disposed of to the Coventry canal 
company at a compensation rent of 1/. 6s. a-year. 
The sums are still applied as was formerly done by the 
bailiffi, by the Charity-trustees. 

Lord Chesterfield's Gift. 

Philip Stanhope, first earl jof Chesterfield, by inden- 
ture of the d4th of May, 1639, delivered to the bailifb 
and commonalty of Tamworth 85/., that, with the 
interest, should be provided twenty-four loaves of the 
coarser sort of bread, to be distributed monthly in the 
Church, by the appointment of the earl and his coun- 
tess,^ after their deceases by John Ferrers, esq., and 
after him by the bailifb, to twenty-four inhabitants of 
the Warwickshire part of the town nominated by them 
as should have been at morning-prayer. And 12d. was 
to be given to the officer distributing the bread. 

This charity is extinct. The commissioners could not 

learn what had become of the 85/. In the . return 

made to parliament, in 1786, it was stated that the 

sum appeared to have been lost through bad securities. 

Henry Smithes Gift. 

Robert Devereux, earl of Essex and Ewe, and others 

1 Ann, widow of rir Humphry Fonra. See p. S7S. 



460 TAMWOBTH 

of the Burviying feoffees of Heniy Smith, esq., late of 
SilverHBtreet, in London, deceased, — agreeable to the 
powers reposed in them by several conreyances of 
Henry Smith dated the 20th of October, 1620, the 
12th of June, 1624, and the 21st of June, 1626,— by 
deed of declaration of the uses of their trust, bearing 
date the 20th of December, 1641, gaye to the church- 
wardens and overseers of Tamworth, Lichfield, Stafford, 
and Newcastle-under-Lyne, their portions of the manor 
of Froddeswell, in Staffordshire, fiyr the benefit of the 
poor, — to Tamworth, the annual sum of 14/.; to 
Lichfield, 18/.; to Stafford, 14/.; and to Newcastle- 
under-Lyne, 12/. The directions given by Henry Smith 
in his deed of uses for the distribution of the sums 
were these. The churchwardens and overseers, before 
meddling with the receipt of the rent, should be bound 
in double the value of the sum to the vicar of the 
parish, to collect and bestow the same according as was 
ordered; the vicar should certify the obligation uncan- 
celled to the executors and feoffees: and in defitult, 
the parish should lose the gift for that time. The 
churchwardens and overseers were to distribute the 
money for the relief of aged poor and infirm people, 
nuurried persons having more children bom in lawful 
wedlock than their labours could maintain, poor orphans, 
poor people that kept themselves and their fiunilies to 
labour, putting forth poor children as apprentices, mar- 
rying poor maids, keeping a stock to set the -pwt to 
work; and not to any given to excessive drinking, 
whoremongers, common swearers, pilferers, or otherwise 
notoriously scandalous, or to any incorrigible persons, 
disobedient servants, vagrant persons, or such as have 
no constant dwelling, receive inmates to live with them, 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 461 

or have not inhabited the parish for five years preceding 
the distribution^ or to any persons refusing to work^ 
labour^ and take pains. The churchwardens and over- 
seers should^ once every month at least, upon the 
Sabbath, after evening prayer, meet in the Church, in 
order to consider the state of the poor, and who most 
needed relief; and between Easter and Whitsuntide, they 
should openly in the Church, after evening prayer, on 
a Sabbath, — ^notice having been given at the end of the 
morning prayer preceding, — ^make an account, in a &irly 
vrritten book, of all receipts and disbursements in the 
past year. The account should be read in the Church 
on the next Sabbath, after morning prayer; a copy of 
which should be affixed to a table on the wall of the 
Church, in some convenient place, there to remain for 
fourteen days, so that it might be publicly read, and 
exceptions taken if there should be just cause, in order 
to make amendments. This or another copy should be, 
within ten days after the fortnight, delivered to the 
vicar, and others to the executors and feoffees. If the 
churchwardens and overseers should fail in the perfor- 
mance of any of these directions, the poor should lose 
the gift for one year, and it should then go to Christ's 
hospital, in London. The money given to impotent 
and aged poor should be distributed in apparel of one 
colour, with some badge that the same might be 
known to be the gift of Henry Smith ; or else in bread 
and flesh or fish upon each Sabbath, publicly in the 
Church. 

The manor of Froddeswell was purchased by the earl 
of Essex and the other feoffees, with part of the 
personal estate of Henry Smith. The annual sum of 
1^. is now received by the churchwardens of Tamworth, 

oS 



462 TAMWOBTH 

from the right hon. sir Robert Peel, hart, as a rent- 
charge upon his manor of Drayton-Basset. 

Sib Francis Nethebsole's Gift. 

Sir Francis Nethersole, who died in 1659, by a 
codicil to his will, appointed, at the request of Thomas 
Fox, that 5/. should be paid yearly to the schoolmaster 
of Tamworth, on condition that children of Polesworth 
and Wareton desirous of learning the Latin and GredL 
tongues, — so that they did not exceed six at one time, 
and were approved by his trustees,— should be taught 
those languages at the Grammar School as freely as 
any of the town. 

This sum is received by the Charity-trustees from the 
treasurer of sir Francis Nethersole's charity, at Poles- 
worth. 

RiCHABD VaUGHTON's GiFT. 

Richard Vaughton, yeoman, of Tamworth, by his 
will dated the 28th of August, 1665, bequeathed to the 
bailiffs and commonalty and their successors iOs,, to be 
paid yearly out of his pasture called Gorsty-Perrycrofis, 
in Bolehall, on Candlemas-day; with power of entry 
and distress to the bailifib and commonalty, in case of 
default. They were to distribute the sum amongst the 
poor of the town, within eight days after the payment, 
at the direction of his executors, and of his four trustees 
named during their lives; and after the decease of all, 
by the baili£& of Tamworth. 

The Charity-trustees now receive and distribute the 
money. 

William Ashley's Gift. 

William Ashley, gent., of Spinkefield, Essex, a native 
of Tamworth, by his will, dated the 24th of July, 1666, 
bequeathed towards the maintenance of the master ^of 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 468 

the Free Granmiar School^ the annual rent of 10/. out 
of his lands called Jenkin-Malden^ in Essex. The first 
payment was to be made twelve months after the 
decease of his wife^ and was then to continue for ever. 
The annuity is still received. 

Kathebine Bttdd's Gift. 

Katherine Budd^ widow^ by will, signed on the 17th 
of May^ 1667^ bequeathed to William Cornish, Joseph 
Batman, James Trubshaw, and Nicholas Parker, — ^her 
executors and overseers, — all her lands in Baxterley, 
which she had purchased of Edward Swinfen, of Bad- 
desley. Her executors and their heirs should set the 
premises to the best advantage, and deliver the profits, 
as they became due, to the minister of the Church of 
Tamworth, to serve for his better maintenance and 
encouragement. But if this gift should be looked 
upon as mortmain, the premises should remain to her 
executors and overseers, and their heirs. 

The value of the donation is stated, on one of the 
tablets in the Church, to have been five shillings a-year, 
in 1726. There is no mention of it in the return to 
parliament concerning charities, in 1786, or in the 
commissioners' report of 1825. 

Richard Bbabdslet's Gift. 

Richard Beardsley, gent., of Tamworth, by his will, 
dated the 1st of June, 1669, bequeathed to Samuel 
Langley, then minister, and to Nicholas Parker, and 
their heirs, a cottage and garden in Tamworth, with 
40/. to purchase more lands, upon trust, that, supposing 
the rents should amount to 6/. per annum, they should 
pay to the mimster, poor, and schoolmaster severally 40s. 
a-year, as the rents became due; but each of the three 



464 TAMWOBTH 

parties should bear equally the increase or decrease 
of the income. 

The trustees with the 40/. purchased Further Kettle- 
brook-dose, in Wilnecote. 

Elizabbth Bbarimlet's Gift. 

Elizabeth Beardsley, widow of Richard, by wiD, 
dated the ISth of September, 1670, left to Samuel 
Langley and Nicholas Parker 10/. to be laid out with 
the 40/. bequeathed by her late husband, the whole of 
the profits to be given solely to the poor, as Bichard 
Beardsley had directed the 40«. to be distributed. 

The trustees purchased the Nearer Kettlebrook-doee. 

This gift and the previous one are now amalgamated ; 
and no distinction is known between the two Kettle- 
brook-closes. There is no cottage in Tamworth 
attributed to these charities, but the two houses 
assigned to the next gift are conjectured to have 
belonged to them. The close containing Sa. S8/»., at 
the time of the enquiry of the commissioners, was let 
at the annual rent of 6/. 6«. For a portion of the land 
of Ir. SSp., the Coventry canal company, who had 
taken it, paid a compensation of 1/. Ss. 5d. The vicar 
and town-clerk have always acted as trustees, making 
equal division of the sums, the part for the poor being 
distributed by the minister and churchwardens. 
John Yaughton's Gift. 

John Vaughton, known in his life-time as '^ Whistling 
John," left by will, in 1683, a croft in Gimgate, the 
rent to be equally divided between the minister, school- 
master, and poor children of Tamworth to set them to 
work or apprentice. 

The property considered to be attached to this gift, 
consists of Chamberlain's croft of about half an acre, two 



CASTLE AND TOWK. 465 

houses in Spizmingschool-lane, and Barber's croft of about 
l^a. adjoining to Gkmgate. It is probable that a 
part belonged to some other charity. In 1795^ the 
property was divided^ the minister taking Chamberlain's 
croft^ and the schoolmaster Barber's croft^ the two houses 
being assigned to the churchwardens for the poor. But 
they were again united, and placed under the manage- 
ment of the churchwardens. 

When the commissioners made their enquiries, the 
crofts were let for 181. a-year, and the two houses for 
5/. 48. After deducting 8«. 6d. for land-tax and stamps, 
the money was divided equally amongst those for whom 
it was destined. 

Sib Henry Gottgh's Giff. 

Sir Henry Gough, knt., of Perry-hall, in Staffordshire, 
by indentures of the 19th and 20th of July, 1686, 
purchased of Richard Weaman twelve lands and two 
headlands lying together in Flaxhill-field, in Wigginton, 
called Hungerhill. And by indentures of the 19th 
and SOth of October following, he conveyed the same 
to sir Edward Littleton, bart., and Mr. Devereux 
Littleton, and their heirs, to dispose of the rents and 
profits for the poor of Tamworth, to be distributed on 
St. Thomas' day, every year, after the next ensuing 
feast of that saint. If there should be £Eiilure after 
that day, the baili£b, churchwardens, and overseers of 
the poor, might make the distribution. 

By award of the commissioners under the act for 
enclosing the open fields in the manor of Comberford 
and Wigginton or prebends of Wigginton and Coton, 
dated the 19th of April, 1771, there was allotted to 
Stanford Wolverstan, esq., who had married the heiress 
of Devereux Littleton, an enclosure of 2a. Sr. 2Xp. ; 



466 TAMWOBTH 

the profits of which are now distriboted, aocording to 
the direction of the donor, by hiB grandson, Stanley 
Pipe Wolverstan, esq., of Statfold-hall. 

Rxv. John Kawlbt's Gift. 
John Bawlet/ derk, of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, by will, 
dated the gSrd of September, 1686, bequeathed to his 
mother, Mrs. Margaret Rice, a messuage in Church-lane 
which he had bought of Henry Davis, yielding a rent 
of S/. ; also a messuage and lands purchased of George 
Wright, and yielding annually about 102. 5i., for her 
natural life. To Mistress Anne Butler, of Newcastle, 
he gaye for life all the lands and messuages in the 
parish of Tamworth, purchased of George Sadler, and 
then leased for 10/. 10^. a-year. Afler their deceases, 
he bequeathed the same to his &ther-in-law William 
Rice, Samuel Langley, Nicholas Parker, and Joseph 
Batman, their heirs and assigns for eyer, upon trust 
that they should dispose of the profits to the following 
uses. To Mrs. Hannah White, 6/. a-year should be 
given, if she were not competently provided for ; to the 
minister of the Church, 4/., half to be given on Good 
Friday and half on the 6th of November, if he should 
preach a sermon on each of those days; to the school- 
master of Tamworth, 40s. for ever ; for putting out two 
boys yearly to some trade, 81.; for instructing ten 
poor children of the town in English, 40s. ; and what 
remained should be distributed, as far as it would go, 
on Good Friday, 12d. a-piece, to the poorest femilies of 
the town. After the death of Hannah White, 4/. of 
her annuity should be applied in apprenticing another 
poor boy yearly; and the 40s. residue should buy ten 

1 TlM bittonr of this clamrmaa is singalar. He slgntd his wffl on the numdey, 
being " in perfect heelth & soundness of body & minde;" on Satordajr. he manied 
Anne Butler i but on the Mondnr fSaUowing, the 97th of September, he was dead. 



CASTLE AND TOWK. 467 

bibles every year ^ to be giyen to the ten poor scholars 
when they could read them, or to any other poor family 
that would make use of them. Moreoyer, if the minis- 
ter and schoolmaster should think his books worthy of 
acceptance, and would fix them in some room belonging 
to the School or other convenient place, that they might 
be preserved for the use of the succeeding schoolmasters 
and scholars, and might serve as an encouragement to 
others to make additions, so that there might be a 
public library for the benefit of scholars in the town, 
he fireely bestowed all his books upon the School: 
otherwise he gave them to Margaret Bice and Anne 
Butler, to dispose of them as they pleased. And the 
testator directed that, upon the death of any trustee, 
the survivors should, within six or seven months, make 
choice of another, the original number not being ex- 
ceeded, and settle the premises on themselves and those 
chosen, firom time to time: and they should allow 
themselves all necessary charges out of the property. 

In the course of years, the property belonging to this 
charity became greatly augmented. In 1818, the pre* 
mises were as follows. In Tamworth, — two houses with 
gardens of lip. each, in Church-lane, erected on the site 
of three old ones comprised in the will, in 1809, at an 
expense of 240/.; and three messuages, one with a 
garden of dp., in Gungate, which, by indentures of 
lease and release, dated the 19th and 20th of June, 
1797, were conveyed by sir Bobert Feel and his trustee 
William Tates to the trustees of John Bawlet, in 
exchange for two small messuages and garden-ground in 
the same street belonging to the charity : in the lord- 
ship of Wigginton, — ^lands allotted under the endosiure 
act for those named in the will, which were the Slang 



468 TAMWOBTH 

of 2a. 4p., Windmill-close of 4a. lip., Ball's close of 
6a. 20p., the Biddens of 4a. Ir. VJp., the same of 4a. 
Ir. Sitp., and Robin Hood's butt of 4a. ir. Up.: in 
the lordship of Bolehall and Glascote^ — Poors' dose of 
2a. 8r., land taken by the Coventry canal company of 
If. 4p.f garden ground of 4C^.^ and Glascote-close of 
8a. 19p. awarded to the trustees under agreement of the 
9th of December, 1808, between the proprietor of, and 
persons interested in, the open field and other lands, 
in lieu of selions of land dispersed over them. The 
whole brought in a rent of 109/. lis 6d. 

The utility of this charity extended with the property. 
The number of apprentices put out every year was in- 
creased to three and then to four; and, in 1815, it was 
agreed to give 8/. with each, instead of 4/. The ten 
poor girls have been taught reading and needle-work by 
a mistress, who at first received 2/. as an annual salary, 
increased, in 1800, to 4/., and, in 1815, to 5/. A 
sum is now paid to the National School for the free 
education of such. An additional school was begun 
about 1802, for the instruction of twelve boys, a master 
being appointed with IS/, a-year for his trouble, untQ 
it was raised to 20/., in 1815. The boys, chosen by 
the trustees at about ten years of age, are taught for 
about three years, when they may be apprenticed, 
usually by the aid of this charity. The number of 
bibles prescribed in the will has been distributed. From 
1802, the sum of 10/., and firom 1815, 15/. has been an- 
nually given to sixty of the poorest families in the town« 

Mr. Rawlet's library was accepted by the minister 
and schoolmaster. Thomas Guy gave a room in his 
Almshouses for their reception, which was fitted up, in 
1688, for the purpose, at a cost of 10/. 19s. 4d. raised 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 469 

by public subscription. Two rooms^ it seems^ were 
subsequently used. The present schoolmaster^ a few 
years ago, with the concurrence of the yicar, remoyed 
the library to the Grammar School. A portrait of the 
donor is preserved there. 

William Sthond's Gift. 

William Symond, mercer, of Atherstone, in War- 
wickshire, bequeathed, in 1687, by will, all his enclosed 
lands at Twycross, in Leicestershire, which he had 
bought of Henry Budley, and three closes there bought 
of John Wheewell, producing an annual rent of 14/.; 
also the yearly sum of 5/. paid out of several grounds 
in Mancetter, occupied by Mrs. Hester Thornton, 
in lieu of tithes charged upon them: which sums 
of 14/., or so much as could be raised for the grounds 
at Twycross, and 5/. should be employed yearly, after 
his death, in apprenticing to good and lawful trades 
the children of poor men in Atherstone, Tamworth, and 
Nuneaton, such as could read the bible, and whose 
parents received no monthly collection from the towns. 
The apprentices on being put forth should have a bible 
and one of the assembly's catechisms of the larger sort 
bought out of the money for them by the churchwardens 
or overseers of the towns. The income, as it became 
due, should be annually received by the churchwardens 
or overseers of Atherstone, and should be equally divi- 
ded into three parts, and the due proportions sent to 
the churchwardens of Nuneaton and Tamworth, to be 
employed for the uses expressed, all charges and neces- 
sary expences of the collecting and receiving being first 
deducted* 

The value of this charity is now more than doubled, 
producing, in 1823, 14/. Is. 6d. paid to the church- 

F 3 



470 TAMWORTH 

wardens of Tamworth bj those of Atherstone, to be 
appropriated according to the donor's will. Bibles and 
catechisms haye not been nsnally gtren. 

Ann Osbuen's Gift. 

Mrs. Anne Osbum, widow^ of the Greorge Inn^ in this 
town^ by will, bearing date the 7th of November, 1688, 
bequeathed to the bailifi and their successors, 5/., the 
interest to be employed, for ever, towards buying mate- 
rials, or in some other good way, to set poor children 
to work in the Spinning-school. The interest should 
be disposed of as Mr. Langley and Mr. Nicholas Parker 
should approve as the most likely to perpetuate so 
useful and good a work ; and, after their deceases, by 
the bailiffs and their successors for ever. But if the 
School should not continue, the interest should be given 
to the poor of Tamworth in bread, in the Church, after 
morning prayer, on the Sunday before Christmas-day 
yearly. 

The gift is united with that of Elizabeth Michell 
following. 

RsBECCA Michell's Gift. 

By will dated the 9th of April, 1689^ Bebecca 
Michell bequeathed to the poor of the borough of Tam- 
worth 501., to be paid, by her executor, within twelve 
months after her decease, to Mr. Langley or his suooeaaor 
in the ministry, to be set forth at interest in safe hands. 
The proceeds yearly should be distributed by the minister 
and churchwardens amongst the poor inhabitants of the 
borough. 

This SO/, was laid out, with lady Clobury's gift, in 
the purchase of lands, and a third of the rents appro- 
priated to the intentions of Rebecca Michell. 



castle and town. 471 

Elizabbth Michell's Gift. 

Elizabeth Michelle younger sister of Rebecca^ by will 
dated the I9th of August, 1690, gave 50/. to the poor 
of the parish of Tamworth. 

This sum was equally divided between the town and 
the hamlets, and the portion assigned to the latter 
distributed by the churchwardens or overseers amongst 
the poor. The other 25/., with the 5/. left by Ann 
Osbum, and 5/. two years' interest on the gift of 
Kebecca Michell, was laid out in the purchase of a 
piece of ground in Beckmore-meadow of la. Ir. 20p., 
in the lordship of Wigginton, which Nicholas Parker 
conveyed to the baiUfb and commonalty, by indentures 
of lease and release made on the 18th and 19th of 
March, 1691-2, in trust, to apply the rents and profits 
as was most agreeable to the wills of Elizabeth Michell 
and Ann Osbum, — six parts to be disposed of yearly 
by the bailifb and churchwardens pursuant to the 
directions of the former donor, and the remaining 
seventh, according to the desires of the latter. This 
land, then let for Zls. 6c/. a-year was, by indenture of 
the 1st of August, 1758, exchanged with Samuel 
Beardsley for some ground in Broad-meadow, Wigginton, 
of la., but bringing in a rent of 30«., and lying nearer 
to the town than Beckmore-meadow. 

The land belonging to the united gifts, now held by 
the Charity-trustees, is a close in Wigginton of la. lip. 
assigned under the Wigginton enclosure act of 1771, 
and let for about 5/. yearly. 

Elizabeth Welch's Gift. 

Elizabeth Welch, widow, by her will, dated the 1st 
of February, 1692-3, bequeathed to the baili£& and their 
successors 10/., to purchase land or set out to interest; 



472 TAMWORTH 

and with the profits^ as they came in, to buy English 
bibles and distribute them amongst such poor of Tam- 
worth as would be likely to make the best use of them. 
After those wanting bibles should have been supphed, 
the profits should be laid out to help to apprentice 
poor children, or for bread to be distributed to the poor 
of Tamworth in the Church, or to uses most advan- 
tageous to the poor. And the donor desired Mr. 
Langley and Mr. Nicholas Parker to see her gift care- 
fully executed, so long as either lived. 

This charity is lost. 

Samuel Lakolet's Gift. 

Lamuel Langley, clerk, of Bolehall, by will dated the 
4th of September, 1698, bequeathed to the bailifb and 
commonalty 5/., the interest to go to assist the Work- 
house-school for poor children, if needed ; but if the 
School should fail, to the poor of the town, to be 
distributed yearly by the baili£b. 

The gift is lost. 

Ladt Clobukt's Gift. 

Dame Ann Clobury, in 1698, placed in the hands of 
Samuel Collins, minister of Tamworth, and of Nicholas 
Parker, 100/., to be laid out in lands which should be 
conveyed in trust to Charles Holt, baronet, of Aston, 
near Birmingham, to G^rge Alsop, and to themselves. 
The profits should be distributed for the relief of poor 
decayed housekeepers, and also widowers and widows 
within the town of Tamworth, such who had been 
labourious in their lives, and of honest conversation and 
good report, but by old age, sickness, lameness, great 
charge of children, or extraordinary losses, should have 
been brought to poverty; but not to common beg- 
gars, or such as received weekly allowance constantly 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 473 

from the town ; nor should any family or person receive 
above 10s, in one year. And if convenient^ once in 
seven years^ half of the rents should be expended to 
buy English bibles for distribution amongst poor fiimilies 
and persons of the town not able to obtain such^ who 
should be likely to make the best use of them. When 
any two of the four trustees should be dead^ then those 
remaining should^ within three months^ grant the pre- 
mises the use of themselves and two others; of whom 
the heir male of sir Charles Holt^^ and the minister of 
Tamworth should always be two. 

Lady Clobury's gift of 100/. and Rebecca MicheU's 
gift of 50/. were united in one purchase. By indentures 
of lease and release dated the Ist and 2nd of September^ 
in the same year^ Samuel Collins and Nicholas Parker 
conveyed the premises which they had bought^ — stated 
to have been, a messuage, a bay and a half of baming 
at the end of the bam next the messuage, a cow-house 
adjoining the bay of baming, two sheds next the bam 
used as swine-sties, eight ridges of land and one hemp- 
leek in the Over-field, ten other ridges of land in the 
Nether-field, twelve more in the same field, and 
several parcels of meadow called Broad-moor and Hell- 
rood, in Hollymoor-meadow, all situated in Glascote, — 
to Bdward Symonds and Edward Bradgate, to the use 
of SIT Charles Holt, Greorge Alsop, and of themselves, 
and their heirs, upon trust that they should yearly 
employ two-thirds of the rents and profits of the 
premises in the manner prescribed by lady Clobury, 
and permit the vicar and churchwardens to dispose of 
the other third as Rebecca Michell had directed. 

In 182S, the lands belonging to these charities con- 

1 The male ttoe is now extinct. 



474 TAHWO&TH 

siBted of a house divided into two tenements^ kt for 
1/. 10$. each; two fields of 7a. S^. allotted to the 
trustees on the enclosure of Glascote, in 1811, in lieu 
of the lands dispersed in the open fidds, let at an 
annual rent of 20/. ; a field of la. 3r. 7/>. allotted 
on the enclosure of Glascote, in lieu of oonunon 
right, and let for 81. ; and 1/. 9s. Id. paid by the Co- 
ventry canal company for land of la. 1^. taken by 
them in 1787. The third appropriated to Rebecca 
Michell's charity, being divided into three parts between 
the minister and two churchwardens, was distributed by 
them as they saw occasion. 

Walter Ashmorb's Gift. 

Walter Ashmore, gent., by his will dated the 8th of 
September, 1701, bequeathed to the bailifEs, minister, 
and churchwardens, and their successors, two cottages 
in Gungate, on the Staffordshire side, to hold for ever 
to these uses. They should pay to the diurchwardens 
6s. a*year for setting the cottages, taking the profits, 
and entering the same in their book of accounts; 194. 
to be spent by the bailifb, mimster, and churchwardens 
on the meeting, every half-year, to dispose of the same ; 
and the residue to be given to the poorest widows and 
fiimilies in Tamworth, not receiving common contribution, 
by lid. each, every half-year. The churchwardens 
should register in their book the names of such widows 
and families, that those who did not receive the sum 
one year might the next. No distribution of the rents 
should be made except by the parties named, of whom 
the minister should be one. 

The cottages having fallen into decay, a lease of the 
land was granted by the minister and churchwardens, 
for ninety-nine years, firom the 25th of March, 1771, at 



CA8TLB AND TOWN. 475 

the annual rent of 18s., the lessee covenanting to build 
two new cottages. 

Samuel Port's Gift. 

Samuel Port,, joiner or lorrimer, of London, by his 
will dated the 24th of July, 1705, gave to Joseph Stone, 
citizen and grocer of London, 400/., upon trust that he 
should, after the testator's death, with the approbation 
of his wife, lay out the sum to purchase lands in or 
near Tamworth, in fee-simple, and settle the same upon 
five or more good and able persons of the town nom- 
inated by Joseph Stone, and their heirs and assigns 
for ever: upon trust that they should permit his wife 
Anne Port to take the rents. And, after her decease, 
they should permit the minister and two bailiffs to 
receive the issues ; who should apply the whole, except 
20«., for apprenticing in London to some honest trade, 
two poor boys bom in Tamworth. Of the 20^., one 
half was to be spent yearly in a dinner or other accom- 
modation for the managers of the charity, and the 
other half to be paid to the minister, to read his will 
in relation to the gift, and to preach a sermon once 
a-year. But if the bailiff and ministers should neglect 
to perform the will, then the profits of the estate might 
be demanded by the mimster and churchwardens of St. 
Mary Somerset, London, to be employed in a similar 
manner. 

The legacy was laid out in the purchase of lands at 
Amington and Stonydelph, Hopley close, the Nether- 
close, four acres in Stonydelph field, and a piece of 

1 This pcnon, it U uld, mm a foundling, being ditoovend dtsoted in th« porch 
of Tunworth-Chnrdi. He mm broaght up at the expense at the perish, and recdyed 
the nme of Porch, which he afterwards conTCtted into Fort. He was apprenticed 
to a joiner J and, being saocessfol in life, he left this gift to the town as a return 
tat the Undnew which he had oiperieaoed. 



476 TAMWOBTH 

land in Far meadow. These were snrreyed in 1821» 
and then stated to be as follows: — Fleck, on the south 
side of the Coventry canal, of 7p. used as a garden; a 
bam, fold, and rick-yard of Ir. VJp. ; the FhiUy-moor 
of 11a. Ip.; Amington-meadow of Sr. SOp.; lower and 
upper Hopley closes of 5a. Ir. 9p.; Rotter's field of 
Sa. Ir. S^. ; the Segs or Stonydelph-flat of Sa. Sr. S7p. 
These were let, in 1823, for 45/. The Coventry canal 
company paid 1/. 18s. 9d. a-year for land of 8r. lOp. 
taken out of Hopley-close. Owing to unapplied surplus 
of income, there was then belonging to this charity 
1,864/. 165. three per cent consols, in the names of 
the trustees, and 50/. placed on the security of the toUs 
of the Tamworth turnpike road, at five per cent, making 
a total income of 88/. 8^. 10c/. A premium of 40/. 
was given with each apprentice; but it was found 
difficult, even for that sum, to procure good masters. 
Ann Willinoton's Gift. 

Ann Willington, by will, in 1711, bequeathed 40/., 
the interest to be given to the poor of the town, by 
the minister and churchwardens. 

This gift is extinct, as the sum was lost by the in- 
solvency of the vicar, the rev. George Antrobus, when 
he died in 1724. 

Thomas Willington's Gift. 

On the tablet of 1726 in the Church, it is recorded 
that Thomas Willington, gent., gave the interest of 5/. 
to the poor of the town. This is all we have found 
concerning the gift; which has been long lost. 
Thomas Blood's Gift. 

Thomas Blood, by will, dated the 14th of January, 
1724, bequeathed to Thomas Mousley and four others 
100/., in trust, to place the same out and pay the 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 477 

interest to his aunt^ the wife of Joseph Bloody during 
her life ; and after her death, either to the under-curate 
of Tamworth, or to any other charitable uses they 
should think fit. He also bequeathed to the same 
persons an additional 100/., to be placed out in the same 
manner, and the interest paid yearly to twenty poor 
housekeepers of the borough of Tamworth, not receiving 
weekly pay. And the testator required of the trustees 
that, after the death of any of them, they should choose 
another in his stead. 

With the two sums, was purchased a close caUed the 
Perrycroft containing Sa. Sr. 2Qp., in the liberty of 
Bolehall; which, in 1823, produced an annual rent of 
16/. The land-tax was redeemed^ in 1799, for 16/. 4s. 
7Jc/. 

Christian Orton*s Gift. 

Mrs. Christian Orton, by will, in 1736, left 201, the 
interest to be giyen annually to six poor widows of 
Tamworth. 

The money was lent to the trustees of the Tamworth 
turnpike roads : and the master of the Grammar School 
has always received and applied the charity, by what 
authority does not appear, as no copy of the will exists 
in Tamworth. 

Earl of Northampton's Gift. 

Of the institution of this charity, we have spoken in 
our account of the Workhouse. The premises, no longer 
used for the poor, were let, and the rent distributed by 
the minister, bailifb, and town-clerk, to the poor in the 
borough of Tamworth and liberty of the Castle. 
Mrs. Harcourt's Gift. 

Mrs. Harcourt, by will, the date of which is unknown, 
but which must have been between 1726 and 1786, 

qS 



478 TAMWORTH 

gave an annuity of 1/. Is. Sd., charged upon lands at 
Fillongley, to the hailiflb, to be by them distributed in 
coals and bread amongst twenty poor widows of Tain- 
worthy on St. Thomas' day. 

This gift is now in the hands of the Charity-trustees. 
Mabquis of Bath's Gift. 

An annuity of 10/. is received, on Old St. Thomas' 
day, from the bankers of the marquis of Bath, and paid 
in equal portions to two school-mistresses, for teaching 
eight young children to read and knit. 

The origin of this charity, and the property in respect 
of which it is paid, are unknown. It has been imagined 
that it might possibly hare been founded by Thomas 
viscount Weymouth, in 1686. This, however, we do 
not believe, as the gift would certainly have been then 
known to Langley. It is not mentioned in the tablets 
placed in the Church, or in the return to parliament 
in 1786. 

Elizabeth Beabdslet's Gift. 

Elizabeth Beardsley, widow, by will, dated the SOth 
of October, 1772, bequeathed 50/. which her late husband 
had lent, on the 8rd of July, 1760, to the trustees of 
the road leading from Tamworth to Ashby-de-la-Zouch, 
and from Sawrey-ferry to Swarcliff-lane, upon the credit 
of the tolls, which belonged to her as executrix and 
residuary legatee; also two sums of 25/. each lent by 
her, on the 5th of May and Slst of October, 1761, to 
the trustees of certain roads in the counties of Derby, 
Leicester, and Warwick, and amongst them of one from 
Tamworth to Fieldon or Feland-bridge and from thence 
to Measham, secured on the tolls; with all interest 
which might be due at her decease, to the bailifb and 
their successors, in trust, that they, either continuing 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 479 

the same securities^ or calling in the sums for reinvest- 
ment or purchase of fireehold property, shoidd expend 
the profits in bread, to be distributed in the Church, 
amongst poor housekeepers of Tamworth, every Whit- 
sunday and Christmas day, as they should think proper. 
And she willed that the interest due at her decease 
shoidd be disposed of amongst poor housekeepers, as the 
bailifb should deem fit. 

At a meeting of the commissioners of the roads held 
on the 27th of November, 1781, S6l. due on the 10th 
of October, 1778, for the two sums of 251. each was 
added to the principal, making 85/. seciired upon the 
tolls. The executor of Mrs. Beardsley assigned all the 
securities to the bailiff, on the 6th of June, 1782. 

This gift is now administered by the Charity-trustees. 

Elizabeth Matthews' Gift. 

Mrs. Elizabeth Matthews, by deed poll of the 9th of 
November, 1786, gave to George Godfrey, and, after 
his decease, to the churchwardens, an assignment of the 
tolls on the Tamworth turnpike road, for securing 20/. ; 
that out of the interest they should pay to the minister 
lOs. on the 6th of January yearly, for reading prayers 
and the communion-service, and preaching in the Church 
on that day; 5s. to John Scott, parish-clerk, and after 
his death, Zs. 6d. to his successors; 28. 6d. to the 
organist; and the residue to purchase bread for distri- 
bution in the Church, on the same day yearly, amongst 
such poor widows of the borough as should attend the 
service in the Church : with power to alter the securities. 

The interest of the money is applied as directed; but 
the payments are made on Midlent Sunday, no congre- 
gation attending on the 5th of January. 



480 tamworth 

Mart Donbs' Gift. 

By indenture^ dated the 24th of June^ 1788, Mrs. 
Mary Dones assigned to Thomas Bradley Paget and 
Greorge Godfrey 50/. lent by her to the trustees under 
an act, 10 Geo. III., for repairing and widening the 
roads leading through the borough of Tamworth, and 
others in the counties of Stafford, Warwick, and Derby, 
upon security of an assignment of tolls; the interest 
to be paid to the committee appointed to manage the 
Sunday-schools in Tamworth, in aid of the oontributicms 
for the support of them. But if, from any cause, there 
should not be a Sunday-school in Tamworth for poor 
children supported by voluntary subscriptions, then the 
interest should bo disposed of to educate so many poor 
children of the borough, either boys or girls, whose 
parents should have legal settlement here, as the profits 
of the 50/. would suffice for. After the death of Mr. 
Paget and Mr. Godfrey, the sum and security should 
be transferred to the master of the Grrammar School and 
the churchwardens, upon the same trusts: with power 
to change the security. 

The trust was thus transferred by indenture dater 
the 5th of August, 1819. 

Mary Dones also, by her will, dated the 24th of July^ 
1795, gave to Thomas Willington 60/. to pay the same 
to the master of the Grrammar School and to the church- 
wardens, who should put the sum out to interest, and 
from the produce pay to the minister 10«. on the Ist of 
January, every year, to preach a sermon in the Church 
on that day, occasionally explaining therein the nature 
and design of baptism, that poor people might be rightly 
informed of its use and importance, and to purchase 
bread with the residue and distribute it in the Church, 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 481 

on the same day> amongst the poor attending the 
whole of the service^ principal r^ard being paid to the 
aged and those having large fEunilies. If the minister 
should not preach the sermon, the 10«. should be dis- 
tributed with the remainder of the interest. 

Mrs. Dones, moreover, bequeathed to Thomas Wil- 
lington 100/. which she had lent on an assignment of 
the tolls of the Tamworth turnpike roads, to pay the 
interest to her tenant, Jenny Baker, during her natural 
life : and after her death, to transfer the sum and security 
to the master of the Grammar School and churchwardens, 
who should apply the interest either in putting out 
children of the poor inhabitants as apprentices, or in 
such manner as they should think proper for the benefit 
of the poor of the borough. 

The legacy of 60/. was invested in the purchase of 
100/. three per cent consols. The time of distribution 
was altered to Midlent Sunday, on account of the want 
of a congregation on New-year's day, and the distribution 
of the bread was made by orders given to bakers, because 
of the creation of some disturbance in the Church, 
•from the number of the poor. The annuitant, Jenny 
Baker, died about 1824. 

Mary Wilson's Gift. 

Mrs. Mary Wilson, who died in April, 1805, be- 
queathed 200/. to the vicar and churchwardens, to 
distribute part in money amongst poor housekeepers 
residing in the borough, as they should think proper. 
The remainder of the sum was to be applied for the 
benefit of such other poor persons residing in the borough 
as the vicar and churchwardens might deem the greatest 
objects of charity, by providing them with bibles, bed 
ding, provisions, or other necessaries; also in putting 




482 TAKWOBTH 

out poor children of the borough apprentices to some 
useful trade, under sober masters of good character. 

The sum of 1641., the remainder having been distri- 
buted to the poor in clothes and bedding, was iuTCSted, 
on the 19th of January, 1808, in the purchase of 200/. 
four per cent stock; and the interest is employed in 
apprenticing boys. 

Joseph Knight's Gift. 

Mr. Joseph Knight, by his will, dated the 14th 
of March, 1829, gave the sum of 1001. to be invested 
in government or other real securities, in England, in 
the name of the bailiffs of the borough of Tamworth, 
that they, and their successors for ever, should receive 
the interest and distribute it in equal proportions 
amongst ten decayed housekeepers of the borough of 
Tamworth, such as had been principals in business and 
were most deserving : the same to be paid in money on 
the day immediately preceding the old market 

Mr. Knight died in 1838; and the municipal 
corporation act having displaced the baihffi, the sum 
was invested in the S per cent consols, in the names 
of Bobert Fowler, John Hall, and Mary Grodwin Hall, 
who regularly pay over the interest to the Mayor for 
the time being, to distribute amongst the ten parties 
described, in sums of 6«. 8c^. each. 



THE TOWN HALL. 

There were anciently in Tamworth two public Halls, 
which were appropriated to the use of the governing 
bodies of the town. One situated nearly at the top 
of lichfield-street, served for the Staffordshire part ; the 
other, in Market-street, for the Warwickshire side. 
After Elizabeth had granted her charter of incorporation 
to the inhabitants, the latter fell at length into disuse. 
From the reign of Charles I., the other was let out by 
the corporation, from time to time, to different private 
individuals, who converted it to various uses ; a room, it 
seems, serving, when needed, for public purposes. But, 
in 1700, it was granted on a lease of ninety-nine years 
at an annual rent of 82s. to Richard Russell, on con- 
dition that he should, within one year, pull the whole 
down, and erect a good and substantial brick house in 
the place. In the indenture, dated the 11th of November, 
the Hall, with a garden and orchard, is described as 
being situated on the south side of Lichfield-street, 
adjoining the messuage of Richard Weaman on the 
east side, that of John Banks on the west, and abutting 
on the orchard of the right hon. lord viscount Wey- 
mouth.' 

The only clue we have hitherto found directing us 
to the situation of the Warwickshire HaU, is an inden- 

1 Indenture, 1700. 



484 TAMWORTH 

ture, dated the Slst of September, 1604, witnessing that 
Francis Freddeton had sold to sir Humphry Ferrers a 
messuage in Market-street, between the Town-hall on 
the east side and the street-way leading out of Tam- 
worth towards Lady-bridge on the west.* The edifice, 
therefore, would appear to have been where part of the 
King's Arms Hotel now stands. 

The destruction of the Staffordshire Hall was conse- 
quent upon the offer of Mr. Thomas Guy, the fi^under 
of the Almshouses, to build, at his own expense, a new 
edifice in the Market-place, for the use of the corporation. 
So liberal and generous a proposal on the part of their 
parliamentary representative, was eagerly accepted by 
the bailiffs and commonalty. In order that the new 
Town-hall might stand unattached in the middle of the 
Market-place, they made several exchanges of property 
for the houses adjacent to the intended site. Lord 
viscount Weymouth gave a piece of ground with a shop, 
which he directed to be pulled down and the materials 
sold for the benefit of the poor. The building of the 
Town-hall was commenced in 1701, and completed by 
the summer of the ensuing year.' 

The edifice thus erected by Mr. Guy consisted of a 
room of considerable dimensions, supported by three 
rows of large pillars of stone with semicircular arches, 
each row containing six pillars. The ascent to the 
room stood at the east end: and the space below was 
destined as a place wherein to hold the weekly market. 
In the centre of the roof, was placed a large wooden 
glazed lantern, with a weather fane; leading out upon 
a platform defended until lately by balustrades. 

The existence of only a single room in the Town-hall, 

1 Indenture s Jac. i. s Corpontion Recordi. 



CASTLB AND TOWN. 485 

was soon found inconvenient for the many purposes to 
which the building might occasionally be granted^ as con- 
certs^ or public exhibitions. In 1771^ two new rooms 
were added at the east end^ at an expense of upwards of 
270/. raised by subscription. These, however, on account 
of their small dimensions, did not wholly serve to supply 
the deficiency ; and, in 1811, it was determined to remove 
them, and erect two more of a larger and more conve- 
nient sixe. Towards this plan, the late sir Robert Peel 
mimificently contributed 500/., to which the corporation 
added 240/., on the completion of the alterations in 
1812. The enlargement comprised not only the building 
of the rooms, but also the addition of an underground 
dungeon beneath them. John Robins, esq., at the 
same time, added a clock in front, for the public benefit. 

The space beneath the large room occupied for the 
market was enclosed, in 1835. 

In the present year, another alteration has been made. 
The two rooms have been lengthened eastwards, the 
last bay of the space appropriated to the market-people, 
which had been built up, re-opened, and an entrance 
formed upon the south side; so that there is not only 
an increase of space for the accommodation of the mar- 
ket, but an addition to the size of the rooms. 

The Town-hall exhibits no particular pretensions to 
architectural beauty. It is a substantial edifice, the old 
part being built of brick, with stone dressings, the new, 
entirely of brick. It is large and very convenient, being 
the only building in the town suited to public purposes. 
The dungeon is smaU, but dry and clean. Prisoners 
committed for trial are usually removed to the jails 
in the county-towns, with very little delay. 



R 3 



THE BRIDGES. 




BOLEBRIDGB AND ANKER VIADUCT. 

Leland, during the reign of Henry VIII., says "Of 
the 2 Bridges that be at Tamworth, the Fayrer is Bowe- 
bridge, though it stande on Anker, a lesse River then 
Tame; and it is as it were towardes the North East 
End of the Towne, in the waye to Polesworth and 
Nuneaton. The other Bridge is called St. Mary Bridge, 
havinge 12 great Arches, and leadeth to Coventrye. It 
standeth on Tame, hard beneath the Confluence, and a 
litle beneath the Castle, and as it should seeme by a 
great stone upon the Bridge bearinge the Armes of 
Basset to be built by the Lord Basset of Drayton."' 

1 Itin. vol, IV., fol. 190 a. 



castlb and town. , 487 

Bridge of St. Mart. 
The ''Bridge of our Lady" is named in 1294. On 
the 11th of June in that year, a curious bye-law was 
firamed that ''fectores de Tripes" should no longer wash 
''leur Trypes" there, to the annoyance of the town, 
under fine of 12d^ When this structure was first erected, 
we have not been able to ascertain. At an early period, 
it was endowed with lands and other property, for 
maintaining and keeping it in repair. Shaw alleges a 
bequest to it, in 1470, by Richard Archer, erroneously 
referred by Collins to a church of St. Mary here, which 
never existed.' It was placed under the care and 
management of two wardens, elected annually at the 
court leet and view of frank-pledge. The names of 
several of these have been preserved, with the dates of 
their respective appointments.' After the formation of 
a select corporate body by queen Elizabeth, in 1560, 
the baili& and commonalty took charge of that part 
belonging to the town:* for the Bridge has ever been, 
half in the jurisdiction of the borough, and half in 
that of the county of Stafford. 

Lady-bridge was originally a low and narrow struc- 
ture, inferior, as Leland observes, to Bolebridge, which 
it resembled in a great measure, being very narrow, 
and provided with triangular recesses placed over the 
piers of the arches, for the convenience of persons 
walking over, during the passage of any large vehicle. 
Its inconvenience, in the present expanded state of 
commerce, would have rendered its removal necessary, 
even if the waters had not destroyed it. On the 10th 

1 Court rolls. s Shaw'B StalTordah. s See Appendix :~Note ag. 
4 In 1004 Richard Weunan agreed to repair tliat portion of tlie Bridge within 
the borongh, and to keep it in good order, for 40«. a-year. The agreement was to 
laet for 50 years, If he lived so long, and two years at first paid in adranoe, to 
defiray the immediate expenses of some requisite improrements. 



488 . TAMWORTH 

of February, 1796, several bridges on the Tame and 
Trent sustained great damage from a tremendous flood, 
caused by the sudden breaking up of the ioe after 
a long and very severe frost. Amongst them, this 
one at Tamworth received great injury, the second and 
third arches from the town being fairly lifted up by 
the ice, and then thrown down. The swaying of the 
Bridge for some moments befi>re the fall, gave the 
persons upon it timely notice of danger; but one vros 
swept down, and carried along the stream for a con- 
siderable distance; yet he was fortunately saved by 
being thrown on a sheet of ice, from which he was 
enabled to cross to the side. In the following year, 
a higher and much larger bridge, consisting of six 
arches, was erected jointly by the corporation and by 
the county of Stafford, at an expense of about 2,000/. 

The new Bridge, although far superior to the ancienti 
one, possessed one great disadvantage. The central 
third was made of a width amply sufficient, yet the ends 
were so contracted that two ordinary vehicles could not 
pass abreast. Several accidents at various times con- 
sequently happened. An improvement in this respect had 
long been greatly desired; but, on account of the 
expense, nothing was effected until 1887. At that 
time, an accident of a serious nature occurred. The 
right hon. sir Robert Peel took up the matter, and 
addressed a letter through the town-clerk to the coun- 
cil of Tamworth, to this effect. 

"Drayton Manor, Dec. 29, 1887." 
"Sir, 

I am desirous of making through you the following 
communication to the Council of Tamworth. 

I understand that there has been more than one 

1 Shaw't Stiffordsh. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 489 

practical proof of the inconvenience and danger arising 
firom the contraction of the passage-way at each extremity 
of Lady Bridge : and it appears to me that there is no 
improvement which would conduce more to the comfort 
of the inhabitants of Tamworth and to the general 
advantage of the Town and Neighbourhood than the 
rendering of so importa|it an approach to the Town 
perfectly commodious and safe. 

I write under the impression that one half of the 
Bridge is under the charge of the Town Council^ and 
the other under that of the County of Stafford; and 
being desirous of contributing to a public work of so 
much utility and convenience, I beg leave to make the 
following proposal to the Town Council. 

I will place the sum of 500/. at the disposal of the 
Town Council, to be applied to the widening of that 
part of the Bridge which adjoins the Town, upon these 
conditions. 

First That a sum shall be appropriated either from 
funds at the disposal of the Council or to be raised by 
public subscription, which, together with the sum above- 
mentioned of 500/., shall be sufficient to complete that 
part of the improvement of the Bridge in a handsome 
and effectual manner. 

And Secondly. That the County can be prevailed 
upon to complete in a corresponding manner that part 
of the improvement dependent upon them. 

It is obvious that there would be little advantage in 
a partial widening of the Bridge at one extremity ; and 
the co-operation of the County is, therefore, requisite. 
I trust, however, considering the accident which re- 
cently occurred on that part of the Bridge, which, if 
I am rightly informed, belongs to the County, the 



490 TAMWOBTH 

County will be dispoeed, on a proper representation 
supported by facts^ to give their consent and assistance 
towards an object of common concern and common 
importance to the County of Stafford and Town of 
Tamworth.** 

''I have the honour to be^ Sir, 

Tour obedient faithful Servant, 
ROBERT PEEL.*' 

In consequence of this letter and the munificent offer 
which it contained, the town-council adopted active 
measures for the purpose of effecting the intended im- 
provement of widening the ends of the Bridge to an 
equality with the central part. A presentment was, 
after some difficidty, obtained by the grand jury at the 
county quarter-sessions of the narrow and incommodious 
state of the Bridge; notwithstanding, much oppo- 
sition was raised to the alteration, on account of the 
expense which the county would thereby incur. But, 
through the influence and persevering exertions of one 
of the magistrates, Henry J. Pye, esq., of Clifton-hall, 
the requisite order was obtained at the sessions in April, 
1839. The improvement of the Bridge was immediately 
commenced, and was completed about the beginning of 
the following year. During these repairs, records and 
coins were formally deposited within the masonry, to 
serve for the wonderment and edification of generations 
yet slumbering in the embryo of time, that may live 
when these ages shall be viewed as we now behold 
those of ancient Greece and Rome. 

The great stone alluded to by Leland, probably 
formed at one time the pedestal either supporting an 
image of our Lady with the Divine Infant, or a large 
cross. In 1697, it was known as the cross and dial. 



i 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 491 

«o it appears then to have been sunnounted by such 
an indicator of the flight of time. It presented five 
unequal sides, bearing escutcheons and other devices. 
When Shaw saw this curious relic, the two largest 
shields were quite defaced, but over one of them a 
crown remained tolerably perfect. Either of them must 
have borne the arms of Basset of Drayton, — Or, three 
piles 6u., a canton Erm.^ In the compartment next 
the last, was the monogram formed by the union of 
the letters M and ft with a crown over, in allusion 
to the blessed Virgin Mary. On the two remaining 
sides, were inscribed the letters I Ip C, meaning 
Jesus.' The stone survived the destruction of the old 
Bridge. After the erection of the new one, it lay, for 
many years, amongst some rubbish, at the end near the 
Castle; subsequently it was placed in the groimd as a 
support for the stump of some wooden railings: and 
there, for anything that is known to the contrary, it 
may remain at the present time, neglected by those who 
scarcely seem to appreciate the feelings which they 
would fain awaken in the minds of distant posterity. 

BOLEBRIDOE. 

Bolebridge lies at the south-east end of the town, and 
not at the north-east as Leland inaccurately states. It 
is very narrow and long, consisting of twelve small 
arches, with triangular recesses over the piers. The 
end towards Bolehall is much wider than the rest. 
The structure appears to be as ancient as the old Lady- 
bridge was. It was similarly placed under the charge 
of two annually appointed wardens, of whom the 

1 TIm other probably bore the anni of MennTon. Tbe Bridge would sean to 
bare been erected by two peraons, pertly for the town and partly for the county, 
Tlie atone was tnuttt&onaUy known as "the Marmyon stone.'* 
s Shaw's Staflbrdsh. 



492 TAMWORTH 

names of those for one year only are preserved, Nicholas 
Brown and William Oowth, elected to the office in 
October, 1508, when they took the required oath. 
From the exaction of tolls on vendible commodities, it 
would appear that there was not an adequate provision 
destined solely for its maintenance. It is now, as it 
ever has been, partly under the care of the town, and 
partly under that of the county of Warwick. 

This Bridge, although once the finest of the two, is 
now very inferior in every respect. Its narrowness 
renders it ill-adapted for a thoroughfiu^ in these times, 
but it has been made as commodious as its original 
defective construction would allow. In the early part 
of 1820, the bailifi had the side-waUs increased in 
height, in consequence of an accident which then occur- 
red. Its improvement, either by widening it, or by 
building an entirely new one, has long been desired. 
This plan is calculated materially to improve the lower 
part of the town. But we fear that the scheme will 
not be carried into execution for a considerable time, 
unless, indeed, some unforeseen event should hasten the 
tardy operations of those, to whom the repairs of the 
Bridge are committed. 



THE MOAT-HOUSE. 

Amongst the private edifices within the town of 
Tamworth^ there is only one, besides the Castle, which 
demands especial notice. This is the Moat-house, a fine 
Elizabethan building, situated on the south side of 
lichfield-street, near the outskirts of the town. Here 
several titled persons and &milies of distinction have 
resided. 

The Moat-house was built about the year 1572, by 
Mr. William Comberford, of the very ancient and 
honourable race seated at Comberford and at Wednes- 
bury, in Stafibrdshire, and possessed of extensive property 
in the adjacent parts of the country. At first, it seems 
to have been inhabited by the family of Harcourt, 
allied to that of the Comberfords by marriage, as 
a map of Drayton, according to Shaw, indicated this 
as their dwelling;^ but at the end of the sixteenth 
century, William Comberford undoubtedly constituted it 
bis residence, and continued in it until his death in 
1625. Here he entertained prince Charles in 1619. 

From the Comberfords, the Moat-house passed to 
Thomas Fox, esq., who, settling here, on the 28th of 
September, 1654, married, at this town. Miss Judith 
Boothby. 

1 Intfae rdgn of FhmpaiidMarr,WaltarH«n»iirthadhiidwdlingin Udi^ 
•tract, new the Hone-fair or '* Tunworth Oreen." In tho Oourt-iolli of the town, 
from the Kign of Henry V. to Henry VIII., oonitut mention Is maide of the 
MotttbalUend, at tiM lower ertremity of this street. Was tbe Moat-hoiise only 
t In 157>? 

s 3 



494 TAMWOBTH 

Thomas Fox did not hold the property for a very 
long time. For^ by indenture of the 2nd of Aprils 1663^ 
he and his wife sold to sir William Boothby^ knt and 
bart.y for 1,540/., the Moat-hall, with the edifices and 
gardens belonging; the croft adjoining the court-yard; 
the moat, with the right of fishing in it and in the 
Tame ; — all these lay between the land of Thomas Fox 
then enclosed with palings and in the occupation of 
Thomas Grilbert, the garden belonging to Geo^ 
Wright's cottage, and the croft attached to the messuage 
of John Ferrers, esq., occupied by William Fawkener, 
on the east; Tamworth Green, on the west; and 
lichfield-street, on the north; — the seat in the Church 
belonging to the Moat-hall; the aisle or burying place 
in the Chancel on the north side of the Church, 
adjoining the Comberford-chapel ;* a messuage adjoining 
the Moat-court; Street-orchard, with a little cottage, 
situated between the land of Robert Comberford, that 
of Thomas Fox called the Challengewood closes, the 
common lane leading to the moor, and Lichfield-street; 
a wood-ground called the Piddings in Hopwas, between 
the common field, Hopwas-hays, and the Tame; the 
tithes of com, grain, hay, wood, wool, and lamb, and 
all others whatsoever arising out of the township-fields 
and meadow of Hopwas, Hopwas-hays, and Broad- 
meadow; and the liberty of keeping and marking six 
swans upon the rivers Tame and Anker. 

Sir William Boothby constituted the Moat-house his 
residence.' In 1671, he sold it to sir Edward Littleton, 

1 A part of the Church ia ittU marked out m belongfaiff to the Moet-honae, fbr 
•epoltore. It Indadee nearly half of the Transept and a oontiderahte portioii in the 
north- west comer of the Chantry-chapel. 

t Extract trom the Parith-refister. 

"Janaary, l(Ms[.4]. 

1 haptized WUUam the Son of Sr WUltaun Boothbey, Knight ft baitms and Dame 
Hilla hlB wife, of Tamworth." 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 495 

bart.^ then of PUlaton-hall, in Staffordshire. The ktter 
soon removed to Tamworth; and here numerous of his 
family were bom or buried^ as is attested by the Parish 
Blister. 
April, 1676. 

11 Baptized Devereux son of S' Edward Lytleton of 
T., & Joyce Ux'. 

July, 1677. 
S4 Baptized Thomas son of S' Edward Lyttleton of 
Tamworth, & Joyce Ux'. 
September, 1678. 

12 Baptized Fisher son of S' Edward Littleton of Tam- 
worth, & Joyce ux'. 

July, 1679. 

14 Buryed Thomas son of S' Edward Lyttleton of 
Tamw**"*. 

March, 1679[.80]. 
9 Baptized William son of S' Edward Littleton of 
Tamworth, and Joyce uxor. 
August, 1681. 

6 Baptized Jane daughter of S' Edward Littleton of 
Tamworth, and Joyce ux'. 
January, 1681[-2]. 

15 Buryed Jane daught' of S' Edward Littleton of 
Tamworth. 

December, 1682. 
12 Baptized Joyce daught' of S' Edward Lyttleton of 
Tamworth, & Joyce ux^ 
January, 168S[-4]. 
20 Baptized Charles son of S' Edward Littleton of 
Tamworth, & Joyce ux^ 
March, 1683[-4]. 
15 Buryed Charles son of S' Edward Littleton of 
Tamworth. 



496 



TAMWORTH 



October, 1685. 
26 Buryed Joyce daught' of S' Edward Lyttleton ot 
Tamworth. 
February, 1686[-T1. 
24 Baptized Henry son of S' Edward Lyttleton of Tam- 
worth, & Joyce ux'. 
June, 1689. 
7 Buryed Katherine daught' of S'. Edward Littleton 
of Tamworth. 
October, 1689. 




HaMON DBWoLFI&8TON,inl283y 

liad a charter of free- warren granted 
him by Edw. I., in Wolfreston, 
Preston, and Chelmnndeston, all in 
SnffoU. 

RooiR DB WoLPB&TON, in 1327, 
held a fourth part of a knight's fee in 
Wolferton. 

Richard Wolvsston, clerk. 
In 1363, the sum of 33/. was paid to 
his executors for a Missal. 

Roger db Wolfrston was 
eicheator for the counties of Essex, 
Suffolk, and NorfoU, in 1359-68. 

Richard di Wolvbston, in 
1380, held an " inquisitio ad quod 



dampnum "— " pro priore de Dooen- 
asshe," as to lands in Beigholte and 
Culfo. 

ROOBR DB WOLFBRSTON, "et 

alii,'* in 1392, held a similar inqui- 
sition "pro eocl'ie sancti Petri dc 
Gippewic," — Ipswich, — as to lands 
at the same places. 

ELIZABBTHWoLVBRSTON,in 1420, 

died seized of lands in Wolrerston, 
Preston, Benholte, and Caketon. 

Thomas wolfbrston, in 1433, 
held one knight's fee in Freston and 
Holbrooke of John de Mowbray, 
duke of Norfolk. 

Richard Wolvbrston, in 1497, 
died seised of lands in Chulpho and 
nine other manors. 

Robbrt Wolfbrston, esq., of 
Wolferston. in Suffolk, made his wiU 
in 1492. HU son, 

Thomas Wolfbrston, esq., of 
Culfye, Suffolk, m. Maud or Mary, 
dau. of sir Humphry Stanley, of 
Pype, knight of the body to Henry 
VII. His issue were, 

I. PmLip, of Wolferston-ban, Suflblk, 
who left an only dau^ter. 

II. HvMPBBT, of whom preMntly. 

III. Sampson, wbo m., Joljr, 1558, Jone 
Laranoe, and hadsevend children. 

IT, y, n, Tii. RoBBKT, Thomas, Si- 

Mour, John. 
Tm. Maboarbt, who m. Robert, atm 
and heir of Richard BTerard, esq., of 
Hether, oo. of Leicester. 
IS. Ann, who m. Hxxgh Maisye. 
Humphry Wolfbrston, esq., 
IN. Katherine, dan. of John Stanley, 
esq., of Grove, oo. of Nottingham, 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 



497 



15 Buryed Mr. James Lyttleton of Tamworth. 

Aprffl, 1690. 
S4 Baptized Adam son of S' Edward Lyttleton of 
Tamworth^ and Joyce nx'. 
August, 1690. 
12 Buryed Mr. Edward Littleton of Tamworth. 

January, 1691[-2]. 
eO Baptized Sarah, Daught' of S*" Edward Littleton of 
Tamworth, & Joyce ux'. 



by whom be acquired the manor of 
Statfold, m Staffordshire. He d, m 
1592, and had issae, 

I. Hbrct, his snoeetior. 

!■• III. Stanuy. Thomas. 

IT. HAtTiNos, who m. Alice Molde. 

T, Tl. HUMPBBT. JAHSS. 

TU. Maud, who m. Tho. Aiblaster, 
esq., of Longdon, co. of Stafford. 

VUU IX. DOROTBT, ELlBABBTn. 

z. Kathbbinb» who m. Ralph Thick- 
nease, esq., of Balterly , co. of Stafford, 
zi. Bbioxtta. 

Hbbct Wolpsrston, esq., m* 
18 Sept., 1593, Mary, dan. of Ralph 
Egerton, esq., of Betley. He was 
sometimes styled Captain, and is sup- 
posed to have been present at the 
tiddbog of Cadiz, in 1595. He d, 
July 28th, 1636, and had, 
I. Waltbb, who d, an infknt. 
XI. FBANnssB, his successor, 
lu. RiCHABD, who d. yonoff. 
IV. Katbbbinb, who m. John Brome- 

lleUl. 

Francibbk Wolpebston, bapL 
May 3rd, 1612, m. Sept. 29th, 1631, 
Frances, eldest of 22 ofaildren of 
George Middlemore, esq., of Hasle- 
well, and had a numerous family. 
Three sons and thxee daughters lived 
to maturity. 
1. Fbancm, his successor, 
u. MiODiJBilORB, b, Axig. I8tb, 1648, 

and d, uxun. 
m. Stanfobd, a dergTman, of whom 

immediately. 
IT. Obacb. d. nnm. in 1710. 
▼. Anw, m. in 1069, to Edward Arblas- 
tcr, esq., of Lyswis, i^andson of Tho. 
Arblaster before named, 
n. SLisABBra, m. to John Bott, esq., 
of DonstaU, co. of Stafford, and had, 
with three other daoffhters, Gbacb j 
who m. the rev. Homphry Pipe, M Jk., 
and had an only son Samubl Pira, 



in holy ordtrs, MA., of whom we 
shall prescotly speak. 

Francis Wolfkbstok, esq., 
purchased, in 1685, the manor of, 
and considerable lands iu, Harlaston, 
CO. of Stafford. He was a barrister 
of good practice until tbe resolution, 
but afterwards was a rig^d non-juror. 
He was a particular friend of Dr. 
Plot, the historian of Staffordshire, 
and a writer himself, producing a- 
mongst other pieces the translation 
of Ovid, De arte amandi. In 1667, 
he began to write his name Wolfer- 
stan, — a practice which his family 
has continued. He was twice m., 
but left issue an only daughter Ann, 
heiress to her father's purchased es- 
tates, by his first wife, Hester, dau. of 
John Bowyer, esq., of Biddulph. 
She m. June 14, 1703, sir John 
Egerton, of Wrindiill, oo. of Staff. 

Stanford Wolfbrston, the 
second son, M.A., in holy orders, 
vicar of Wooton-Wawen, and fellow 
of King's Collage, Cambridge, m. 
1st, in 1679, Isabella, dau. of John 
Hinckley, D.D., rector of North- 
field, eo. of Worcester, by whom, — 
who d, in 1680, — ^he had only one 
son Francis, who d. an infant ; and 
2nd, Susanna, dau. of John Creed, 
of Cambridge, by whom he left issue 
at his deoeaae,^Sept. 29th, 1698,— 

u Stavfobd, named presently. 

II « XawAnn, ^ In idpi, and il. «. p. in 
1701, and was bmr, at Tamworth. 

ui. Fbancis, rector of DrByton.Baaact 
and of Gxendon, who d. In 17S8 «. p, 

IT. NICBOI.AS, who resided at Berry, 
Deronahlre. He m, twice, but left 



498 



TAMWORTH 



January, 1712-S. 
15 Bur. Mr. Addam Littleton of Tamworth. 

Sir Edward Littleton's decease occurred in 1709 : 
and he was buried at Tamworth, on the Slst of July. 
The Moat-house descended to his grandson Edward, who 
made it his residence until 1751, when he died ; and he 
was buried at Tamworth on the 5th of October.' He 
had no issue, and his aunt Sarah, being heiress, con- 

diligent and leuned antiqauy : and 
IN., lit, Biaiswet, du. of Walter 
Biddnlph, eaq., of BartoD-mider- 
Naedwood ; and 2iid, Oct 4tfa, 1796* 
Elisabeth, eUeit dan. of PhOip Jer- 
▼is, eaq., tint oovain of John, eari 
of St Vincent. He had iane only 
by his tint wife. 

I. Stamlst, named ImBedfateiy. 

u. Maboabst, ■»., in 1817, to Chaites 
Salt, esq- 

StAMLBT PlFI-Woi.FBAaTAN, 

esq., b, March 2l8t, 1785, snooeeded 
to the estates on the decease of his 
frther, in 1820, and is the present 
proprietor of them. He m,, July 
21st, 1817, Elisabeth, eldest dsn. 
of Swinfen-Jerris, esq., of Kfnsii^* 
ton, snd grand-dan. of Philip Jenria, 
eao., of Nethenwale, co. of Leicester, 
beiore named. Mr. Wolferrtan has 
issue, 

L FBANOsJlTAFVoan, I. October I4tk, 
1885. 

n. Geacs. 

m. Aw maoMaeia. 

IT. Maboabst-Jaits. 

T. FBAirCBS-KUSABBVB. 

▼1. Hbstbb-Sauw, who 4. in 1844. 

▼n. 8TAirvoBi>>Wu.uAM. 

▼111. JoHN-KoBBTOV, who d, SB fotuL 

IZ. BoWAftD. 

Z. XMU.T-DOBOTBBA. 

zi. Hbbct. 

Amxs .—-Quarterly Ist and 4th, 
8a., B raas wavy between three 
wohes' heads erased Or,-— for Wol- 
ferstsn ; 2nd snd 3rd As., two oigan 
pipes in chefrunt between ten croas- 
GiossletB Or, — for Pipe. 

CnnsTS:— A wolf Or, under a 
tree ppr.,— for Wolforstan. A leo- 
pard's head erased Or ^ for Pipe. 



a only hf Us Snt wifc, KlisBbeth, 
dan. of Geo. FliiUtoa, caq., of Oocn- 
wall,— Bdwabb, who liBd two wlTee, 
but left iasoe only \ij the aeeond,— 
MBIT, dan. of Peter NldKda, etq., 
great Branileoii of Peter Nicholii, 
▼icar Of Bradwofthy, and Week St. 
Panaaa, In the coanty of Deron, la 
the year 1081. His temfly were,— 
let, MiCBOUke, A. in 177^, and 4, 
onm. la 17W i Hid, Mabt, ■». to the 
rer. WilUam Ghautar, B.D.. peipctaal 
curate of Hartland, who bad ueae i 
Srd, XUBA BBrB,m. to tiie rer.Thomas 
TlioaiBS, J.P. and Ticar of TMcnbam, 
Glooeeeterelilre, wbobadiaeoe; 4tb, 
FBAwcsei ftth, Sabab, wlio 4» onm. 
in 1814) dth, HBeTBB, late of Umore 
court, near Glonceitcr, and now reel- 
dlDv at the Caatte of Tamwarth. 
T. HvMVBBT, Bolicttor in Tamworth, 

4. num. June Ttb, 1754. 
STANVomD WoLnnsTAir, eeq., 
as heir in tail, succeeded his unde 
Francis in the Statfold property. 
He was a magistrate for the coe. of 
Stafford and Warwick t and «. Sa- 
rah, only dau. of sir Edward Little- 
ton, bait., by whom he acquired the 
Moat-houae in Tamworth, and the 
other purchased eatates of his fkther. 
He d. July 2nd, 1772 ; snd had 



I. LiTTLBTON, 4, la I7O9, in bis lbther*e 
life time «. p, 

n. DoBOTBT, m. Sept igtb, 1740, the 
rer. Samnel Pipe, yicar of Crazall, 
CO. of Derby, and rector of Walton- 
on-Treat Sbe 4. Oct. sUtb, 17M, 
and bad iasoe, with othera, Samubi. 
Five, to whom Mr. Stanliord WoUer. 



deoeaaeofbiswiie. 

in. IT. T. Tl. Sabab. 

CB8. XUBABBTB. 



JOTCB. FbAV- 



1776, by sign manual, the surname 
and arms of Wolferttan. He was a 



1 Paiiah Eeiiiter. 



CASTLB AND TOWK. 499 

veyed the Moat-house to Stanford Wolferstan^ esq.^ of 
of Statfold-hall> to whom she had been married on the 
7th of July, 171S.» 

In the year 1752, Stanford Wolferstan and his wife 
disposed of the Moat-house to William Abney, esq. He 
resided here \mtil 1767, when he sold it to George 
viscount Townshend ; whose steward, John Willington, 
esq., inhabited it for a considerable time. 

The history of this mansion is involved in that of the 
Castle from this period, until the time that property of 
the Townshend family in and around Tamworth was dis- 
posed of. The second marquis Townshend constituted 
it his residence until his decease, in 1811. Afterwards 
sir John Shee, bart., inhabited it for a brief space ; and 
in the year 1815, Robert Woody, esq., went to reside 
there. 

In 1821, the Moat-house, paddock, and gardens, with 
two houses and two bams in lichfield-street, inclu- 
ding altogether 8a. 2r.; the Uberty of keeping and 
marking six swans upon the rivers Tame and Anker; 
the right of fishing in the moat, and other the ancient 
privileges belonging to and enjoyed by the possessors of 
the property ; and the burial place in the North Chancel 
of the Church, were, with the Castle and other pro- 
perty, conveyed to John Robins, esq. 

Mr. Robins disposed of the Moat-house, in the same 
year, with the rights and privileges attached, to Robert 
Woody, esq., whose widow still inhabits it. 

The Moat-house is a very large, handsome structure, 
built of brick, standing upon the northern bank of 
the river Tame. It is approached from lichfield- 
street through a long avenue of noble lime-trees, of 



500 TAXWOBTH 

more than a century's growth^ and sonoonded by a 
paddock upwards of six acres in extent^ and large gar- 
dens.^ The northern front presents five gables, but they 
have been greatly modemiaed. The side fiuang the riyer 
retains more of the original state, many of the transom 
windows being preserved. Two large rooms were added 
on this side by Mr. Woody, who made many other 
improvements, particularly in the road along the 
avenue. The house is erected on large arches, for the 
sake of dryness. The rooms within are very spacious 
and comfortable: they have been mostly fitted up in a 
recent style. On the second floor stood a large room, 
used as a library, fifty feet long and eighteen feet 
broad; but it is now separated into two. The ceiling 
is divided into compartments of various sixes, which 
contain the following arms. 

1. Gu., on a cross engrailed Or, five roses of the 
field semee of the second, — Comberford: impaling Vert, 
semee of fleurs^^e-liz, a lion rampant Or, — ^Beaumont. 

S. Comberford : impaling Or, a chevron Gu., between 
three lions rampant Vert. 

3. Six quarterings on a mantle semee of roses Gu. 
Ist. Gu., a talbot passant Arg. , — ^the usual arms of 
Comberford; 2nd, per pale indented Or and Vert, 
in the dexter chief an escallop Gu.; 3rd, the first- 
named coat of Comberford; 4th, Or, a bend wavy 
between two cotizes Sa. ; 5th, Arg., on a bend compony 
Gu. and Sa. cotized of the second, a mullet Or, — ^Leven- 
thorpe; 6th, Sa., two lions passant Arg., crowned Or, 
— ^Heronvile. Crest, a peacock's head ppr., gorged with 
a ducal coronet Or. 

1 WUUam Gomberfard cndoMd the pmmds with Mek wiDs, that between the 
M oat-ganlen end TuBwoith.8Teeii,— the lait Itanned,— beinf erected la idM. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 601 

4. Beaumont: impaling Or^ a lion rampant double 
queued Vert, — Sutton, lord Dudley. 

5. Comberford : impaling Arg., a chief vairy Or and 
Gu., over all a bend Sa., — Fitz-Herbert of Staffordshire. 

6. England; oyer the shield a ducal coronet. 

7. Beaumont : impaling Leyenthorpe. 

8. Comberford (the talbot) : impaling the first men- 
tioned arms of the family. 

9. Scotland; over the shield a coronet. 

10. Leventhorpe : impaling Heronvile. 

11. Comberford: impaling per pale indented Or and 
Vert, in the dexter chief an escallop Gu. 

12. Hidden by the wall between the rooms. 

13. Heronvile. 

14. Comberford (the talbot). 

In the smaller room, are eight coats of arms. 

1. Beaumont: impaling Gu., a lion rampant vairy, 
— ^Everingham. 

2. Beaumont: impaling Gu., a cross moline Arg., 
charged with an estoile of the first. 

3. On a mantle semee of roses ppr., the first named 
arms of Comberford: impaling Beaumont. Crest, a 
peacock's head per pale Or and Gu., gorged with a 
ducal coronet of the first. 

4. Beaumont: impaling Arg., three garbs Or, — Co- 
min, earl of fiuchan. 

5. Beaumont: impaling quarterly Gu. and Or, in 
in the first quarter a mullet of the first, — ^Vere. 

6. On a mantle Ermine turned up flory Or, Beau- 
mont. Crest, an elephant bearing a tower, trappings Or. 

7. Comin: impaling Scotland. 

8. Beaumont: impaling England, with a label of 
three points Az., each charged with three fleurs-de-liz Or. 

t3 




t 



502 TAHWOBTH 

The moat^ with a wall^ surrounded the house^ passing 
close beneath the edifice in fronts but enclosing a piece 
of garden-ground on the south. The access was origi- 
nally formed by a draw-bridge. Only part of the moat 
now remains. In front it has been mostly filled up, 
and lately converted into a garden, with a terrace. 
Between the house and the river, it is still preserved, 
and also the branch at the south-west comer communis 
eating with the Tame. 

To the Moat-house, are attached spacious and excellent 
gardens. The pleasant and open situation of this 
mansion, its antique appearance, and its internal conve- 
nience, render it a fitting residence for a nobleman of 
the highest rank. 



ADDENDA ET CORRIGENDA. 

Pages 49, 60. We have been favoured by William 
Staunton, esq., of Longbridge-house, near Warwick, 
with a note of five silver pennies issued from the royal 
mint of Tamworth, which are in his collection, differing 
from any we have mentioned. 

Two of the reign of Edward the Confessor have these 
inscriptions :~^ 

Obverse: — ^edwabd re. 
Reverse: — goling on tam. 
Obverse: — ^bdwaed re. 
Eeverse: — ^brvning on tam. 
Two of William the Conqueror : — 
Obverse: — willelm rex. 
Reverse: — brvnig on tamw. 
Obverse: — ^willelm rex. 
Reverse: — iblfwinb on tan. 
One assigned to William Rufus: — 

Obverse: — ^willelm rex ang. 
Reverse: — ielfwine on tanv. 
Page 64, line 9. For 1246, read 1238. 
Page 67, lines 4 and 9. For 1261 and 1264, read 
1260 and 1263. 

Page 71, lines 11 and 25. Philip de Marmyon, by 
royal command, restored the manor of Wigginton and 
the Staffordshire part of Tamworth to John de Has- 
tings, on the 25th of June, 1285. 




504 TAMWORTH 

Page 76; line SI. Ralph de Monthenner, on 
marriage with Joan daughter of Edward I.^ was sum- 
moned to Parliament as "Comiti Gloucestr' et Hertf." 
But it does not appear that he retained the titles after 
her decease. 

Page 84; last line. For decease^ read departure. 

Page 85, line 2. For 1272, read 1872. 

Page 87, line 8. John Hastings also claimed to bear 
the second sword at the coronation of Kich. II. The 
earl of Arundel opposed him, but the right was 
adjudged to Hastings; and the earl of March carried 
the sword along with the spurs. 

Page 91, line 11. For 1633-4, read 1533-4. 

Page 117. The bailiffs thus replied to the earl of 
Essex. 

"May it pleas yo"" L*, we receaued yo' L'p*s Tre of 
the 28th of December last, Wherein your L' doth corn- 
end vnto. Ys your s'unt, Mr. Thomas Smith, to be a 
fitt man for one of the Burgesses to be imploied for 
our towne for the p'liam^; and we, on the behalf of 
o' selves & the rest of o*" brethren, do, w*^ all thanke- 
fulnes of yo' Pp's care had of our poore corporaoon, 
referre all o' assents to yC Lo*p's no'i'acon of the choise 
of two of three Burgesses no*i'ated and well liked of 
amongest vs. first Mr. Broughton is and of long tyme 
hath bene our recorder, who hath painefullie dealt in 
all causes that hath concerned vs ; and in the p'liament 
holden in the xxvij*** yeare of her Ma**» reigne, vpon 
my L' of Leic'*" great favo' shewed vs, we well liked 
of a Burgesse of his Comeudacon, and likewise willeng 
to gratifie yo^ L'p's first comendacon, did allowe of Mr. 
Bryttayne, by w'^*^ occasion Mr. Broughton relieng vpon 
vs, being o' recorder, was disappointed, & for other 



CASTLE AND TOWN, 605 

placs he making no sute was quite out: for w^ wee 
had good Cause to be sorye^ relyeng in all o' accons 
ypon his firindlie and paynefull travaills. Moreou' & 
it may pleas yo' Pp, S' Humfirey ferrers' Sonne, my 1* 
kep's Sonne in lawe, hath heretofore bene burgesse of 
the p'liam^ for o^ towne; and we haue foimde both his 
fath' & him thankefull for o^ good liking of the then 
choyseng of him, who doth now likewise make sute 
vnto vs to be one of o' burgesses. Vnto whom we 
haue given o' consents, if it may be w*^ yo' Lo' good 
likinge : and for the nominacon & choise of the other 
burgesse either to be Mr. Broughton or Mr. Smyth we 
wholly referre to your Lo* discretion, and will remayne 
to be certyfied of yo^ l*p*s choise against such tyme as 
Choise shalbe made: and thus humblie we pray for 
yo' L'p*s happie estate. 

Yo' Lordshyp's poore frinds.*' 
Page 121, line 19. For sixteenth, read seventeenth. 
Page 135. 

May 12°, "At the Comittee for safety of the 

1644. County of Warr% & for sequestracon of 

delinquents' estates within the county 

aforesayd. 

It is Ordered by the Comittee that Michael Baylyes, 

now prisoner at Tamworth, shall be sent forthwith to 

Coventry, to the Comittee: & the Tenants of Alcott 

are not to be arested for any of the rents of Alcott 

priory, without especyall Licence of the Comittee. 

ex p' Abraham Boune, 

clerke to the Comittee." 
"Gentlemen, 

We did Expect yo** would haue observed 
o' direction given for the discharge of Michael Bayleis ; 



506 TAHWORTH 

we haue Conaideied sufficyently of the busynes, and 
find the Money to be payable to 8>^ Hercules fiancis 
Cook^ in Trust for the Lord ffinch^ and the Tytle was 
also in him in trust. We Require that^ w^ut more 
adoe^ the said Bayleis be discharged^ that he may haue 
Libertie to Come & Acoompt here for the rents & debts 
of the Lands: we find it a Matter w^ makes men's 
estates lyable to Sequestation, to p'mote suites agaynst 
men for obeyinge the Ordynances of Parliament, pray 
trouble the Committee noe More Ti>on this occasion: we 
suppose yo^ will not absolutely denie ys this soe fitting 
a Comaund^ whoe are^ 

Coventry, 18® Yo* very Loveinge flUends, 

Maij, 1644. R. SKEFFINGTON. 

FFR. HALES, 
"ffor their ffnends, the WILLM COLMORR 

Bayleife of Tamworth, PETER BURGOYNE. 

these." THO. WHiLUGHBY." 

"Honored GentP, 

As we are not vnwilling to sett att lib'tie 
Michaell Bailyes vppon j(f Command, Soe we hope 
yo^ are as vnwillinge to haue vs sett att lib'tie a 
prisoner for a debt vppon specialtie, not giving vs any 
warrantie for (f discharge & indempnitie therein ; which 
we shall expecte from yo* before we shall dare to dis- 
charge the p'tie. But if we may receive your warrantie 
for 0' discharge, we shall most readily obey. And this 
Zele we hope will giue yo^ a full satisfaccon, w%ut 
any more trouble. And soe reste 

SO Maij, 1644. Yo' most readie to serue yo^ 

THOMAS KNIGHT, > 
THOMAS KEYE, \ ^*y*^- 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 607 

Page 148. This address was presented to Queen 
Ann, in 1710, in behalf of Tamworth, after the im- 
peachment of Henry Sacheverell, D.D., in the House 
of Lords for high crimes and misdemeanors, on account 
of two sermons he had preached, one at the assizes of 
Derby, on the 15th of August^ the second before the 
lord mayor at St. PauPs, on the 5th of November, 
1709 ; which, being printed, had been denounced in the 
lower house as ''malicious, scandalous, and seditious 
libels, highly reflecting upon her majesty and govern- 
ment, the late happy revolution and the Protestant 
succession as by law established, and both hoases of 
parliament, tending to alienate the affection of her 
majesty's good subjects, and to create jealousies and 
divisions among them." 

St. James's, May 18th, 1710. 
This Day, the following Address from the Borough of 
Tamtoofih was presented to Her Majesty, by Mr. Ser- 
jeant CHrdler, their Recorder, one of their Representatives 
in Parliament, attended by Sir TJiomas Lawley, Bart., 
Joseph Girdler, Esq., and several other Grentlemen of the 
Corporation, introduced by his Grace the Duke of Shrews- 
bunfy Lord Chamberlain of Her Majesty's Household, in 
the Absence of the Right Honorable the Lord Viscount 
Weymauihy their High Steward. 

''To the Queen's most Excellent Majesty. 
The humble Address of the High-Steward, Bai- 
liff, Recorder, Town Clerk, Capital Burgesses, 
Gentlemen, Clergy, and other Inhabitants of the 
ancient Borough of Tamiworthy in the Countieis 
of Warwick and l^fford*^ 




508 TAMWORTH 

"May it please Your Majesty , 

We^ Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal Subjects, 
make bold, in all humble manner, to Approach Your 
Presence with our firee-will offering; and being warm'd 
with a noble Zeal and Ardour for the safety of Your 
Majesty's most Sacred Person and Grovemment, and an 
Affection for our holy Mother-Church, do Unanimously^ 
and from the bottom of our Hearts, assure Your 
Majesty, That, being deeply sensible of the Obligation 
of our Allegiance to Your Majesty as God's Vicegerent, 
we will stand by and support Your Majesty, at the 
Expence of our Lives and Fortunes, in Defence of Your 
Most Sacred Person^ Rights, and Prerogatives, the 
Protestant Succession, and the Church of England as 
by Law Establish'd, against all Oppoeers, both at home 
and abroad, against Papery and Fanaticism, whether in 
Religion or Politicks; and against all such Persons, 
(if 'tis possible such Monsters there should be^) who 
make use of the Terms of LoyaUy and Moderation only 
as a Mask to cover Designs which they dare not pub- 
lickly own, and which, if ever they attempt, we hope 
the Experiment will prove dangerous only to the 
Authors. 

And as the best Discharge of that Duty we owe to 
our Country and Your Majesty, we wiU, on all Occa- 
sions, choose such Representatives in Parliament, as 
shall be most likely to Unite in Heart, and Voice, and 
joint-Endeavours, to promote every thing that may tend 
most effectually to the Preservation of God's holy 
Church and Religion among us, the Safety and Honour 
of Your Majesty's Person and Government, and the 
Discouragement of Vice and Prophaneness. 

That, therefore, our Church, which is built high upon 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 509 

a rock may never become low or abased; That Your 
Majesty, the Supreme Head and Ornament thereof, may, 
for their Comfort and Protection, govern long a willing 
and obedient People; That the length of Your Reign 
may be proportioned to the Glories of it, and as 
remarkable for the happy Fruits of Peace as it has 
been for those of War ; And the Piety of Your Exam- 
ple as universally imitated as it is commended ; are the 
daily Prayers of Your Most obedient Subjects, who 
have hereunto subscribed their Names, and Affix'd the 
Common Seal of this Your Loyal Corporation.*' 

The queen received the address very graciously; and 
Mr. Serjeant CHrdler and the rest of the Gentlemen had 
the Honor to kiss Her Majesty's Hand. 

Page 175, line 5. For form, read forms. 

Page 181, line 13. For assignees, read assigns. 

Page 192, line 21. We have discovered Cocket's lane 
to have been College-lane, in which the National School 
stands. 

There was once a holy well in the Warwickshire 
part of Tamworth; for, in 1276, it is said "Will's 
Chelle obstruxit viam q' ducit ad fontem S'ci Ruffiany." 
This is most probably St. Ruffin, who, with his brother, 
St Wulfhad, in 670, embraced Christianity. They 
were baptieed by St. Chad, bishop of Lichfield, and 
were slain, whilst at their prayers, by order of their 
father Wulfere, king of Mercia, on account of their 
having abandoned idolatry. 

Page 19S, line 6. For a very small, read no. 

Page 197, line 2. For they do not contain, read it 
does not contain. 

Page 198, line 11. For 35, read 32. 

Page 216. At his decease, in 1291, Philip de Mar- 

V 3 




510 TAMWORTH 

myon had the Church of Tamworth in his donation. 
John de Teford held the deanery, valued, in common 
years, at 10/. ; Robert de Pygford had a prebend valued 
at 7/. a-year; Ralph de Heneman, one valued at 61.; 
Hugh de Cave, one valued at 5/.; Michael de Ormeby, 
one valued at 41 ; and Adam de Waltone, one of the 
same value. 

Page 221, line 2. Amongst our late researches, it 
was our fortune to meet with letters patent of Henry 
YI., concerning the foundation of two chantries in the 
Church here, and the provision of sacramental wine. 
The document is dated the 9th of February, 1445-6. 

Henry YI. begins the charter by declaring that 
although his attention was usually centred on the 
welfare of the whole English church, — ^not on particular 
foundations, — ^yet it became him specially to direct eyes 
of compassion towards the collegiate Church of Tam- 
worth, and, extend his protection to it. It appears firom 
the statement of John Bate, the dean, that divine wor- 
ship here had considerably declined, particularly when 
the vicars choral, deputed to the cure of souls, and 
attached to the prebendal chapels, were necessarily 
occupied in the ministration of the sacraments out of 
the Church, at least at the principal festivals of the 
year. Thus, on account of their fewness from their im- 
avoidable absence, the canonical hours had been omitted, 
and the solemnities of mass laid aside, not only to the 
scandal of this Church, but to the detriment of Christ's 
faithful in it. This had caused the king on hearing it 
much sonow; and to remedy the evil in some manner, 
he made these concessions. He founded a perpetual 
Chantry of one chaplain, who, every day, should celebrate 
mass for the peace and happy tranquillity of his king- 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 511 

doms of England and France^ for his health and that 
of his dear consort Margaret during their liyes, and for 
their souls when they were dead, for the souls of his 
august £stther and mother^ of all his progenitors, and of 
all the faithful departed, at the altar of the Holy and 
Undivided Trinity in the Church, for ever. The chap- 
lain should serve in the canonical hours, high masses, 
and other divine offices to be celebrated daily by 
direction of the dean, that, by aid of this foundation, 
the divine worship so depressed might recover and 
flourish, and ever endure to the praise of God, by His 
abounding grace. The king assigned to the chaplain 
of the Chantry, for his maintenance, the fee-farm rent 
of 116^., which the men and tenants of the Warwick- 
shire part of Tamworth were accustomed to render to 
the crown annually through the sheriff of the county, 
to be paid yearly by the bailifb of that side of the town 
on the feasts of St. Michael the Archangel, the Nativity 
of our Lord, Easter, and the Nativity of St. John the 
Baptist, or otherwise according to the chaplain's will, 
at the four usual terms, by equal portions; notwith- 
standing any statute or ordinance to the contrary. The 
king commanded that it should be named his Royal 
Chantry. He gave licence to the chaplain to receive 
lands and other possessions from any person to the 
value of 100«., and to sell and alienate them without 
any inquisition by pretext of royal writ, and without the 
payment of any fee or fine to the king, the mortmain 
act not even interposing. He, moreover, gave to the 
dean the power of conferring the Chantry on any fit 
chaplain able to chant in the canonical hours, high 
masses, and the other divine offices ; who should first 
make oath of personal residence here and of the obser- 



51S TAM WORTH 

vance of the lawB and regulations of the dean. When 
by cessation there should be a vacancy, the dean and 
his successors should, in the same manner, firom time 
to time, admit another chaplain; and any of them 
might be removed for negligence as to residence or the 
keeping of the regulations, or for any notable crime 
which would induce deprival according to the traditions 
of the holy fathers and the sacred canons. Moreover, 
as the dean, in his care and vigilance towards the 
Church, for the decorum of worship and the keeping 
of the charge committed to him, was desirous of found- 
ing another perpetual Chantry at the altar of the blessed 
and glorious Virgin Mary here, to the praise of God, 
abo of the glorious Mother, and in honour and memory 
of the holy virgins Editha and Katherine, and to the 
augmentation of divine worship, the king granted licence 
to him to establish such a Chantry of one chaplain; 
who should celebrate mass daily at this altar for the 
peace and happy tranquillity of England and France, 
for the health of the king and that of his consort, also 
of the dean, in life, for their souls afterwards, and fiir 
those of Robert and Alice Bate father and mother of 
the dean, of their parents and bene&ctors, and of all 
the faithful departed for ever. The chaplain should 
assist in the canonical hours, high masses, and other 
divine offices. The king ordered that it should be called 
the Chantry of dean Bate, and granted licence to the 
dean, his heirs, assigns, or executors, to bestow on it 
any possessions, spiritual or temporal, to the value of 
twelve marks a-year, whether held of the crown or of 
others by military service or otherwise, for the chaplain 
at the altar, towards his maintenance, without any 
inquisition or fine or fee to the king, notwithstanding 



CASTLE aud town. 513 

the mortmain act or any other ordinance whatsoever to 
the contrary. And in order that the venerable and 
most excellent sacrament of the Body and Blood of our 
Lord Jesus Christ might be approached in the Church 
more frequently and diligently by the devout fidthful of 
Christy with pious delight^ prone wills, and sincere 
minds, the king granted to the vicars choral and chap- 
lains of the Chantries, every year, a hogshead of red 
wine, from the royal wines in the port of Bristol, to be 
delivered by the head butler, for the most sacred use 
of the celestial mysteries, according to the direction of 
the dean. 

Page 222, note and engraving. In reference to the 
seal of the Church, we have received a communication 
from William Staunton, esq., of Longbridge-house, near 
Warwick, stating that he had in his possession the 
matrix of the seal of Tamworth-Church, and offering, 
in a very kind and liberal manner, to give us an im- 
pression to engrave for this history. Of the opportunity 
we did not fail to avail ourselves. 

The seal is totally different frt>m the one to which 
we alluded in the note, as attached to the grant for 
mass of requiem by sir Thomas Ferrers. It is much 
superior in size, richness of the design, and execution. 
Of the three large central figures, one is doubtless that 
of St. Katherine, as she bears the wheel and sword,--> 
the instruments of her martyrdom. Of the other two 
figures, one, with the archiepiscopal crosier, is probably 
St. Thomas of Canterbury; the other, a bishop with 
the pastoral staff, cannot be determined, as there are no 
distinctive marks placed about him. In the upper 
compartment, is the Virgin with the Divine Infant; 
in the lower one, a bishop in prayer. On one side of 



514 TAM WORTH 

the latter^ is an escutcheon, with the initials T P; 
on the other side, one bearing the arms,— on a fess 
between three pheons, two and one, points downwards, 
a buck's head cabossed, between two pellets. The in- 
scription is, S COMVNE COLLEGIATE DE TO'- 
WORTH. From the style of the tabernacle work, we 
judge the seal to have been executed in the fifteenth 
century. The matrix is steel, originally gilt. 

There is a very curious circumstance observable in 
reference to this seal. It is very plain that it did 
not originally belong to Tamworth Church, but was 
altered to suit it. The depth to which the inscription 
and the shields have been cut, show that the original 
legend and arms were obliterated to make room for the 
substitution of others : and the representation of a bishop 
praying in the lower compartment, farther indicates 
this fact. On the shield with the initials, may be 
plainly traced the three fleurs-de-Uz of the arms of 
France and England quarterly, which have been only 
imperfectly erased. The later inscription betrays the 
unskilful hand of the second artist ; who was compelled 
to omit the word ecclesib in connection with colleoi- 
ATE, and to contract and greatly cramp the name of 
Tamworth. The adoption of Roman characters shows 
the late period at which the changes were made. The 
present arms are those of Parker; and the initials 
T P make it evident that the second owner of the 
seal was Thomas Parker, who was the dean of this 
Church at the time of the ecclesiastical survey in 1535. 

We have been unable to discover to whom this seal 
originally belonged. The adoption of a second-hand 
seal speaks very indifferently with regard to the finan- 
cial state of this Church: a similar practice is scarcely 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 515 

known except in connection with the most poorly-endowed 
institutions. John Gough Nichob, esq., of London, 
through whom we first received Mr. Staunton's commu- 
nication, mentioned as the only instances he knew of 
a similar practice, the corporate seal of Maidenhead, 
originally the priyate seal of a priest, and that of an 
Almshouse at Croyden, which had been made for Stoke, 
in Suffolk. 

Page 224, line 3. For 6«., read 7*. 

Page 225, Une 15. For 168. read lis. 

Page 262, line 14. Dele and on a higher level. 

Page 265, line 7. Dele three chevronells. 

Page 275, line 5. For rib appears, read ribs appear. 

Page 282. line 6. In attributing the subject of the 
painting to the Day of Judgment, we are guided by the 
opinion of an architect, and of some in whose ac- 
quirements we reposed much confidence. However, on 
showing him a drawing of the painting, an eminent 
Roman Catholic clergyman, distinguished by his profound 
knowledge of ecclesiastical antiquity, pronounced the piece 
to represent the legend of St. Nicholas. Subsequently 
he referred us to a book bearing upon the subject, — 
"Db Historia SS. Ihaginuh bt Picturarum, pro 
vero bartjm tj8u contra abusus, libri quatuor ; 

ATTCTORB JOANNB MOLANO. JOANNBS NaTALIS PaQUOT Rb- 
CENSUIT, ILLTJSTRAVIT, SUPPLBVIT. LOVANII, M.DCC.LXXI." 

In Lib. hi, cap. ijii, p. 387« our author treats, 
**De picturia sancti Nicolai.** — "Qui pingitur cum tri- 
Bus PuERis, sed tam obscure, ut vix sciam, quonam 
referenda sit ea pictura. Tres Juvenes milites naufragium 
passes a sententia Judicis liberavit, qui eos ob furtum 
injuste ad necem damnaverat ; tunc enim temporis Leges 
furtum non puniebant nece. Tres Filias prostituendas 



516 TAMWORTH 

sua clancularia mimificentia in pudidtia conserravit. 
Tres militiffi Principes, apud Constantiniim falso accu- 
satos eripuit a pemicioso jugolatu. Fertor etiam a 
plebeiis, mulierem quamdam vesperi ties pueios occidisse, 
& in vase pro salitis camibus reposmsse : eosque demum 
a Nicolao resuscitates esse. En quatuor temaiia. Sed 
ad quod eorum Pictores respexerint, nondum exprimere 
valeo.'* 

A note is here added which immediately illustrates 
our subject. ''Hand dubium^ quin plerique ad quartum 
temarium respexerint. Erat is, ut est adhuc, in ore 
vulgi : solebatque festivis dramatibus exhiberi ; quorum 
unum. Lector, accipe descriptum e codice XIII. seculi, 
ad Floriacense S. Benedicti Coenobium pertinente. De- 
beo illud Auctori libri, hoc titulo editi: Varietes 
hUtariqueSy Physiques, 8f Litieraires, 8fc. Paris, 1752. 
Ibmo III. Parte I. pp. 184-188. 

P&mus Clbricus. 
Not, quo8 causa diioendi littenw 
Apnd gentet transmiiit ezteraa, 
Dam sol adhue extendit radiom, 
Perqniramtts nobit hoipitinm. 

Sbcttndus Clbkicub. 
Jam sol eqnos tenet in litore, 
Quos ad pisoes merget nib vqaore : 
Nee est nota nobis hsc patria ; 
Ergo quBii debent hospitia. 

Tbktius Clbkxcus. 
Senem qaemdam, matomm moribns, 
Hie habemus coram Inminibns : 
Forssn, nostris compnlsns precibus, 
Erit hospes nobis hospitlbns. 

SiMUL OMNBS AD SbnBM SICUNT. 

Hospes carei qnsrendo Stadia, 
Hoc relicta Tenimos patria ; 
Nobis ergo pnestes hospitiami 
Jhun durabit boo noeds spatiam. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 517 

Sbnex. 
Hospitetur toi Factor omnium ; 
Nam non dabo Yobis hospitium ; 
Nam nee mea in hoc atilitas, 
Nee est ad hoc nee* opportonitas. 

CUIRICI AD VSTULAll. 

Per te, Cara, sit impetrabile, 
Qnod rogamus, etsi non utile : 
Forsan propter hoc beneficium, 
Vobis Deu8 donabit puerum. 

MULIBR AD SbNEM. 

Noshis dare, Conjox, hospitium, 
Qui sic Yagant qusrendo Studium, 
Sola saltem compellat caritas : 
Nee eat damnum, nee est utilitas. 

Senbx. 

Acquiescam tuo consilio, 
Et dignabor istos hospitio. 

Senex ad Cle&icos. 
Aooedatis, Scholares, igitur ; 
Qnod rogastis, vobis conceditur. 

Senex ad uzorem, Clericis dormientibus. 
Nonne Tides quanta marsupia ? 
Est in illis argenti copia ; 
Hsec a nobis, absque infamia, 
Possideri posset pecunia. 

Vetula. 
Paupertatis onus sustulimus. 
Mi marite, quamdiu yiximus : 
Hos si morte donare Yolumus, 
Paupertatem vitare possumus. . . . 
Eyagines ergo jam gladium ; 
Namque potes, morte jacentium. 
Esse dives quamdiu vizeris : 
Atque sciet nemo quod feceris. 

NiCHOLAUS. 

Peregrinus fessus itinere, 
Ultra modo non possum tendere •. 
Hiqus ergo per noctis spatium, 
Mihi pnestes, precor, hospitlam. 

* Forte: Nunc. 

w 8 



H 



518 TAMWORTH 

Sbksx ao MuLisasM. 
An dignabor istum hotpitio, 
Cara coi^nx, tao otmiiUo ? 

Vbtula. 
Hnnc penona oommendat niminm : 
Et est dignua ut des hoflpitiiEin. 

SSNBX. 

Peregrine, accede propitiiii ; 
Tir widens nimia egregini ; 
Si TiSi dabo tibi comedere : 
Quidquid Tolea, tentabo qiuerere. 

NiCBOLAUSy AO MBirSAM. 

Nihil ex his possum comedere : 
Camem yellem recentem edere. 

SSMBX. 

Dabo tibi camem quam habeo ; 
Namque came recente careo. 

NiCHOLAUS* 

None dixisti plane mendacinm ; 
Carnem habes recentem nimiom : 
Et hanc habes, magna neqnitia, 
Qnam mactari fedt pecunia. 

SbKBZ & MVLXXX. 

Miserere nostri, te petimns ; 
Nam te sanctnm Dei cognosdmas : 
Nostrum scelns, abominabile, 
Non est tamen incondonabile. 

NiCHOLAUS. 

Mortoorom afferte corpora, 
Et contrita sint vestra pectora : 
Hi resurgent per Dei gratiam : 
Et Tos flendo quaeratis Teniam. 

Orationxs Nioholax. 
Pie Deus, cujos sunt omnia, 
Caelum, tellus, aer, & maria 
Ut resurgent isti, prscipias : 
Et hos, ad te clamentes, audias. 

Et post OKiriB Cboxus x>icat 
Te Deum laudamui. 



CASTLE AND TOWN. 519 

In this play or mystery, a great deal was represented 
in dumb show, as the murder of the clerks, the con- 
cealment of their bodies in a tub, their resuscitation, 
&c., which the imagination of our readers must supply. 

The clerks in the piece at the Church are certainly 
made to rise from a place more like a tub than a tomb. 
The three figures of females, our kind informant consi- 
dered to be those of ladies who had caused the painting 
to be executed, and who are made to kneel imploring 
the patronage of the saint, whose figure was represented, 
and whose altar stood close by. 

Page 296, line 30. For heads, read head. 

Page 299, line 25. For enlarged, read inlaid. 

Page 322, line 8. The Unitarian Chapel was built 
in 1724. 

Page 360, line 4. Baldwin Frevile was involved 
in the rebellion against Richard II. By letters patent, 
dated the 9th of February, 1497-8, at Clifton-Campvile, 
the king granted him a firee pardon for all treasons and 
felonies committed by him previous to the 31st of 
January last past, — ^murders and rapes excepted,^ — ^unless 
he were convicted as a common thief, or were an accom- 
plice in the murder of any man. He was also forgiven 
the escape of felons, the chattels of felons and fiigatives, 
fines, forfeitures, and transgressions, which would have 
subjected him to pecuniary penalties and imprisonment ; 
also the disposal, alienation, and acquirement of lands 
and other possessions held in capite, without royal 
licence, and entrance into, or acquirement of, his or 
others' inheritance after the death of his father, without 
due process, yet except such as were alienated contrary 
to the mortmain act. Any sentence of outlawry promul- 
gated against him was revoked 

1 Thste and the oUier exoeptloiii were tnaerted m a mattar of fonn. 




520 



TAMWORTH 



May not his treason have caused his rejection as the 
Champion of the dignity of the crown, at the coronation 
of Henry IV? 

Page 877, line 28. For prebend, read president 

Page 878, line 22. For Apr., read Sept. Lady Ara- 
bella Ferrers Townshend was another daughter of the 
second marquis Townshend. She died unmarried. 

Page 888, line 28. For 2s., read 9$. 




APPENDIX. 



Note 1, page 71. 

"Coram Rege, £' primo, anno v indpien' y). 

Querela inter ho'i'es reg' de d'nico Reg' de Tamworth & 
Wiggintpn, & Fh'm de Marmyon, que eadem man'ia tenuit ex 
reuernone Reg', tangen' e'vicia & aU' cons', que ab eis exigit, 
non terminal'." — Corporation Rbcords. 





Note 2, 


page 102. 




NAMES OF HIGH BATTTFFS. 


A.D. 


STA770RD8HIRX. 


WARWICK8HIRB. 


1284 




Will. Wareman. 


1294 


Simon le Sauvage, 


Will. Wareman. 




Hen. de Billey. 


John de Pichford. (July 4.) 


1309 


John le Saavage, 


Ralph le Dester. 




Will. Ned. 


Rob. Jewet. 


1310 


Will. Matthew. 


John de Shepev. 




Ralph Drambel. 


John de Pichford. 


1312 




John Hendeman. 

John de Wycford. (July 2. 


1313 


John le Sauvage, 


John Hendeman. 




John le Cocks. 


John de Wycford. 


1314 


Will, le Chanoon. 


John Hendeman. 
John de Wycford. 


1315 


Will, le Chanouo, 


John de Pichford, 




John le Sauvage. 


John de Shepey. 


1317 


WiU. le Chanoun, 
John le Sauvage. 


John de Pichford. 


1321 




Rob. Jewet, 
Will. Batcock. 


1329 




Will, le Querdon, 
Tho. de Harlaston. 


1332 


John de Wridefen, 


John de Pichford, 




Ralph Jewet. 


Will, le Hayward. 


1338 




Will. Batcock, 
Philip GosB. 


1352 


Rich, le Wheeler, 
John le Hay ward. 





ii. TAMWORTH CA9TLB AND TOWN. 

A.D. nArfOftOSHIRB. WAEWICKSHIRB. 

1355 Rob.leWlieeler. 
Ralph le Prior. 

1357 Hidu le Wbeder, 
Rob. de Coton, 
John le Newman. 

1358 John le Hayward, Tho. Keek. 
Rob. le Wheeler. Rog. de Pipe. 

1359 John le Hayward, 
Rob. le Wheder. 

1360 Rob. de Cotan. 
John le Sadler. 

1366 Ridi. le Wheeler. 

John Newman. 
1368 Rog.le Homer, Rog. Bates* 

Jobi Matthew. Adam Breton. 

1370 John le Sadler, Rog^. Bates. 

John Newman. Will. Keek. 

1372 John de Loaghboroogh. 
John Matthew. 

1373 Ridi. Wheeler. (July 5.) 
John Newman. 

1375 John de Longhboroogh, 
John Matthew. 

1377 Rob. de Aaton. Adam Breton. 
Rog. Homer. WiD. Keek. 

1378 John Sadler. 

John Loughborough. 

1379 Ralph Sihreeter. 
John de Barton. 

1381 Ralph Siheater, Adam Breton. 

Jolm de Barton. John Taylor. 

1384 John Sadler. 

Tho. Sawyer. 
1387 John de BblknhalL 

John de Elfbrd. 

1 390 John de BoDenhiill. 
Tho. le Walker. 

1391 John de Ellbrd. 
John Sadler. 

1392 Tho. Walker. 
John Bate. 

1395 John de BoUodhnll. 

John Homer. 
1397 John Coton. 

John Horner. 



APPENDIX. 



lU 



A.D. 


BTArFORDBHIRB. 


WARWICK! 


1402 




Rog. Melewich, 
Tho. Tkylor. 


1403 


John Coton, 
Tho. Symond. 




1408 


Will. Cook, 
John Bate. 




1409 


Tho. Symond, 
Rich. Dalton. 




1411 


Tho. Lamb, 


Tho. Taylor, 




John Coton. 


John Helewys. 


1414 


Hen. Jekes, 
Will. Cook. 




1417 


Win. Cook, 
John Rnssel. 




1418 


Tho. Colman, 
Tho. Symond. 


John Stokes. 


1419 




Hugh Freeman, 
Hen. Barker. 


1421 


John RuBsel, 
John Rote. 




1424 




Tho. Taylor, 
Hen. Barker. 


1427 


Hen. Jekes, 
Will. Cook. 




1428 


Will. Marshall, 
John Russel. 




1430 


Tho. Colman, 
John Rote. 




1435 


John Russel, 
John Coton. 




1436 


Ralph Daniel, 
Tho. Colman. 




1438 


Peter Goabout, 
Tho. Colman. 




1439 


Hogh Colman, 
John de Coton. 




1440 


John Russel, 
Tho. ChaUoner. 




1442 


Peter Goabout. 




1444 


Peter Goabont, 
Tho. Challoner. 




1445 


Rich. Dalton, 




1448 


Rob. Stokes, 
Rich. Dalton. 





IV. 



TAMWOKTH CASTLB AND TOWN. 



A.O. 


8TAPF0E1MHI11X. 




1450 


Rich. Dalton. 




1451 


John Ruaael, 
John Coton. 




1454 


Rich. Dalton. 
John Colman. 




1455 


John Geffrey, 
John Goldaon. 




1456 


John Coton, 
Peter Goahout. 




1459 


John Geffrey f 
Tho. Matthew. 




1460 




John Hodn^t, 
John Seaman. 


1461 


John Geffrey, 
Rich. NichoUfi. 




1462 


John Breton, 
Nich. Rttgeley. 




1469 


Rich. Dalton, 
Peter Goabout. 




1470 


Hen. Jekes, 
Rich. Nicholls. 




1493 


John Chare, 
WUl. Green. 




1500 


John Irp, 
Nich. Bishop. 




1505 


John Repington, 
John Hill. 




1507 


John Jekea, 
John Irp. 




1509 


Tho. Goldson, 
John Hill. 




1516 


John Jekes, 


Will. Harrison, 




John Mason. 


Tho. Woodshaw. 


1530 


Hen. Scale, 
John Repington. 




1547 


Rich. Jekes, 


Humph. Towers, 




Hen. White. 


John Hewer. 




Note 3, 


page 103. 




NAMES OF LOW BAILIFFS. 


1332 




WUl. le Cook. 


1334 


John le Cokes. 





APPENDIX. 



A.O. 8TAPPORD8HIRX. 

1387 John Bate. 

1388 Hen. de Catton. 
1392 Nich. Rusael. 
1395 John Sulby. 
1410 

1411 Adam Brege. 

1430 John Walker. 

1451 John Walker. 

1505 Rich. Shemford. (July 21.) 



WARWICK8BIRB. 



John Baynton. 
John Melton. 



Note 4, page 103. 
NAMES OF TASTERS OB VICTUAL CONNERS. 



From the Ctntrt RoiU, 



1303 

1304 

1312 

1338 

1339 

1355 

1356 

1357 

1358 

1359 

1360 

1365 
1366 

1371 

1374 



Alan Symond, 
Ralph Silvester. 
John le Sadler, 
Ralph Silvester. 
John le Carter, 
Ralph Silvester. 
Rog. le Homer, 
Ralph Silvester. 
Rog. le Homer, 
Ralph Silvester. 
Hen. Matthew, 
Ralph Bear. (July 
Hen. Matthew. 
Rob. de Newark. 
John de Staunton. 
Ralph Silvester, 
Hen. Matthew. 
Tho. Walker, 
Rog. Taylor. 



John Hendeman, 
Rich, de Ireland. 
Rich, le Palmer, 
Hen. Clement. (Nov. 10.) 
Ralph Drambel, 
John Hendeman. 
John le Haywardf 
Rich. Page. (Oct. 11.) 
John le Homer, 
Adam le Mulward. 



Hen. Symond, 
John Jewet, jun. 



Will, de Querdon. 



1.) 

(July 14.) 



▼1. TAMWOKTH CABTLS AMD TOWK. 

A.O. CTAWOEDSBimS. WAEWlCKSBimS. 

1375 Rob. BuoDodk, 

Hen. BoDenhiilL 
1377 WiD. Baker. 

John Bete. (Oct 31.) 
1379 Hen.Ggttoii» 

John Miffftt 

1387 JohnSsvage. 

Tho. Symond. (July 15.) 

1388 Nich. Rnaadl, 

John de Hopwaa. (July 37.) 
1388 JohnBevage, 

John JeweL (Not. 9.) 
1889 Hen. Matthew. 

Nidu Draper. 
1397 Tlio. Lamb, 

Rbb.Newerk. 
1401-3 Tlio. Lamb, 

Rog. Gaidmaker. 
1403 Tlio. Lamb, 

Rog. Cardmakcr* 

1408 Tho. Lamb, 
John Kingahnral. 

1409 WiD.Gaover, 
WDl. Hatoogbton. 

1409 Wm. Gtorer, 
Rog. Cardmaker. 

1410 Tho. Lamb, 
John Kingahont. 

1411 wm. HaloQgfateo, John Rnndl. 
Win. Glover. Tbo. Gbalkner. 

1414 WiD. HakMgbton, 
wm. Glofer. 

1417 wm. HakmghtOD, 
John Ratter. 

1418 wm. Gtorer, 
John Walker. 

1419 Wm.Glow. Ridi.Wyan, 
John Rntter. ^^lch. Roo. 

1420 wm. Qover. 
wm. Jordan. 

1420 wm. QoTer, 
Hen. Ta]ior. 

1421 wm. Gbver, 
John Denby. 



AFFBNDIX. YU. 

A.D. STAFTORDSHIRB. WARWICK8HIRB. 

1422 Will. HaloughtOD, 
John Denbv. 

1423 WiU. Haloughton, 
John Denby. 

1424 Will. Glover. 
Hen. Cooper. 

1426 Will. Glover, 
John Denby. 

1427 Will. Glover, 
John Denby. 

1428 Hen. Cooper, 
John Denby, 

1431 Will. Haloaghton, 
John Denby. 

1432 Will. Haloaghton, 
John Halton. 

1436 John Fox, 

Nich. Borbache. 
1440 Tho. Green, 

Nich. Glover. 

1442 John Fox, 
John Lord. 

1443 Walt.Wirley, 
Rich. Baxter. 

1445 John Fox, 

John LfOrd. 
1448 John Belgrave, 

Tho. Green. 

1450 JohnCatler. 
Tho. Green. 

1451 John Joiner, 
John Belgrave. 

1452 Tho. Painter, 
John Fox. 

1454 Tho. Fbinter, 
John Cutler. 

1455 Tho. Green, 
John Cutler. 

1456 Tho. Green, 
Rich. Nicholls. 

1457 John Fox, 
Will. Taylor. 

1458 John Cutler. 
Rich. Nichollfl. 



VUl. 



TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWK. 



A.D. 


STAPVORMBIRS. 


WARWI 


1459 


Rog. Spicer, 
Will. Taylor. 




1460 




JohnBaiber, 
WiU. Gierke. 


1461 


Witt. Green. 
Witt. Taylor. 




1462 


Rob. Spioer, 
Witt. Taylor. 




1469 


Tho. Weaver, 
Tho. Tory. 




1470 


John Lamb, 
Tho. Tovy. 




1488 


John Lamb, 
Hen. WiUiamaon. 




1504 


Witt. Tovy. 
Witt. Moore. 




1505 


John Ellicote, 
WiU.Tovy. (July21.) 




1507 


WiU. Moore, 
WiU. Tovy. 




1508 




John Gierke, 
John Lago. 


1509 


WiU. Tovy, 
Witt. Cartwright. 




1511 


WiU. Tovy, 
John Chaddock. 




1516 


WiU. Tory, 
Nich. Webster. 




1517 




JohnLago, 
Tho. Wade. 


1530 


Tlio. Reeve, 
Nich. Webster. 




1547 


Hen. Osborne, 
Nich. Priest. 






Note 5. 


page 103. 



NAMES OF CHAMBERLAmS. 

From the Cottrt RolU, 

1455 JohnWattLcr, 
John Prince. 

1456 Nich. Rogeley, 

Rich. KeeUng. (Oct. 26.) 



APPENDIX. IX. 

A.D. 8TAPPORD8HIRX. WARWICKSHIRE. 

1470 John Cheadle, 

John Joiner. (Oct. 23.) 
1488 Rob. Goldson, 

John White. (Nov.) 
1505 Rich. Green, 

Tho. Goldson. (Oct. 21.) 

1507 Nich. Moore, 
Tho. Tovy. (Nov.) 

1508 Will. Harrison, 

Rich. Woodshaw. (Oct.) 
1511 Tho. Woodshaw, 

Rich. Green, (Nov.) 
1516 Rob. Wilcox, 

Fran. Gierke. (Oct. 12.) 

Note 6, page 103. 
NAMES OF CONSTABLES. 

From the Court Rotta. 

1 390 John de Coton, jan. (Ap. 26.) 

1441 Rob. Tovy. (Ap. 11.) 

1455 Nich. Rngeley. 

1470 Tho. Weaver. (Oct. 23.) 

1488 WiU. Camvile. (Nov.) 

1 505 John Green. (Oct. 2 1 .) 

1507 Rich. Gierke. (Nov.) 

1508 Rog. Ball. (Oct) 

1509 WiD. Gaudy. (Oct. 15.) 

1510 John Brown. 

1511 Ralph Lago. (Nov.) 
1516 John Swepson. (Oct. 12.) 

Note 7, Page 105. 

" Sup' Interr' ex parte Bett vers' Humfrid' Ferreys, mil', 
mi'strat. 

Ser Hnmfrey Ferreys, Knight, of the Gom' of Warwyk, 
swome : — 

To the fyrst, second, and iij^, he saith that he, accompanyd 
with one Thomas Swynton, s'unt to Sr. George Gryffith, knight, 
and no other p'sones, mett with the said Bett in the parishe 
church of Tamworth on the same Relique Sondaye, after evin- 
song, and demandyd of hym whye he did not wayte and geve 
attendaunce vppon this deponent as high Steward of the same 

b 



X. TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

Towne, on that daye, according to the custome. The aaide Bett 
answering ageine saide. That this depo't shuld comaunde theym to 
wayte uppon him to whome he gave mete and drinke to ; saying 
farther that he was bounde to wayte Tppon the Bayli^, and that 
the king's grace nor this deponent or my Lorde Bergeys had nooght 
to doo within the same towne, sayng that the king had gyren 
and grauntyd all his pryvilege w^in the same towne to the said 
Baylyffes ther. And this deponent, hering that, saide vnto the 
said Bett, ' Avannt, knave, wottest thowe what thow sayest ? ' 
and with that, he saithe, he gave him a lytel lyk on the cheke 
with his hand; and otherwise he dyd not assaute hym or bett hym, 
or had any other company then is abovesaide. 

verw* Jek '^^ *^® "y^' ^^» "*^ ^i*^» ^^'® deponent saith that 
•up*. . .firactu' he, beyng highe Steward of the same towne, beyng 
probat* coiim ^ccompanyd with Thomas Swynton, John Dorlaston. 
John Coke, and no moe p'sones, this deponent hauing a croese 
wafter in his hand, and thather hauing swerds, as they vse dayly 
to go withall, at ix of the clocke of the same night, came to se 
the king's watche kept there at that tyme ; and saithe that, as he 
was so passing by the dore of the said Jeks, y^ was tolde this 
deponent that ther wer certeyne p'sones at the said Jekes' howse 
in counsell upon the matter betweene the said Bett and this 
deponent. Wheruppon this deponent, to thentent that the said 
Jekes shuld knowe that he was ther p'sent, did knocke oene 
knocke at the said Jekes' dore, and merely bad him good night, 
and no otherwise dyd assaute or breke the same dores, or saw 
the same Jekes, as y^ is co'teyned in this Interogatorye. 
venus Bett. To the vij*^, viij^, ix**", and x***, he saythe the con- 
t™)^crborS- taynts of all this Interr* be vntrewe : and saithe y* he 
one. neu' assawted y* howse of the said Bett, or mad any 

other suche crye, as it is contayned in thes Inter'. And Saithe 
forther that he knewe not at that tyme whch the howse of the 
sayde Bett was. And otherwyse denyethe the contents of this 
Interr' to be trewe. 

veraut Bdys To the xj**», and xij*^, he saithe that he neu' spake 
de^ti^iT* ^y Buche words, or thretened the sayd £klys, as it is 
pontis. contayned in this Interr'; and saithe allao that the 

sayd Edys denyethe any suche words to have byn by this depo- 
nent. Before the Justice of peace and xij other honest p'sons 
beinge p'sent. 

▼emu Tigi. To the xiij*^, he saithe that he neu' assawted or bett 
^•to««- any of the kyng's wache at any tyme : howbeyt, he 
saithe that on Nicholas Smyth, beinge a newcome s'vaunt to this 
deponent, mett withe ij of the sayd wachmen which wold not 
speake to him, as the sayd Smythe reported ; and theruppon, 
susspectinge them to haye byn faulse knaves, drew his swerde and 



APPENDIX. XI. 

strake at them, this deponent vnknowinge of the same, vutyll the 
next daye that the Bayleffe of the towne complayned vnto this 
deponent theroff: wherupon this deponent, aft' the trewthe exam- 
yned, delyu'ed the same Smythe, his s'vant, to the sayd bayleffe 
to be therfor imprysoned and punysshed : and theropon was so 
Imprysoned. 

rmnaa To the xiiij^, and xv^, he saithe that, as it fortuned 

^^'**'- this deponent to be in Tamworth on Corpus X'pi day 
last, ther beinge a playe in the whiche the sayd Wyll'm Carre was 
disguysed and played the part of a dyvell, havinge great chaynes 
of Iron abowt hym, and so com'ynge rudly by this deponent 
streake this deponent on the shynnes withe his chaynes ; wher- 
opon this deponent sayd unto his sVauntes, ' Is ther none of 
yowe that wyll gyve hym a blowe ?' and ther opon the sayd 
Anderson, his s'vaunte, went to the sayd Carre and demawnded of 
hym why he hurt his master so withe his chayne. The sayd 
Carre answeringe aga3me, ' Why, knave, he might have stoude 
forther owt of my way then.' The sayd Anderson, heringe hym 
make suche a lewde answere, strake hym on the hede with his 
dagger. 

nmrabon? To the X9}^, he saithe he neu' assawted or bett any 
uitTisiiantes of the inhabytants of the same towne of Tamworth, or 
ley in wayt to bett them. 

Beneprobuit To the last, he saithe that he, as the high Steward 
nanteTfoOT- t^^r, hathe dyu's tymes walked in the night tyme to se 
tn.) the king's wache kept ; and suche as he halhe fownd 

neglygent, them he hathe punyssed." 

Note 8. page 109. 
LIST OF MEMBERS OF PARLIAMENT. 

From the CorporttiUm Recorda, and other Boureet. 

5 Eliz. 1563 Michael Harcourt« esq. 

Robert Harcourt, esq. 

13 Eliz. 1571 Edward Lewkner, esq. 

John Bidlock, esq. 

14 Eliz. 1572 Launcelot Bostock, esq. 

John Nuttal, esq. 
26 Eliz. 1584 John Breton, esq. 

Clement Fisher, esq. (Nov. 6.) 
28 Eliz. 1586 Walter Bagot, esq. 

John Ferrers, esq. 
30 Eliz. 1588 Edward Devereux, esq. 

Rob. Wright, esq. (Oct. 12.) 



Xll. TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

35 Eliz. 1592 John Ferrers, esq. 

Thomas Smith, gent. 
39 Eliz. 1597 William Temple, gent. (Sept. 8,) 

George Hide, esq. (Oct. 3.)^ 
43 Eliz. 1601 George Egioke, esq. 

Rohert Burdet, esq. 
I Jac. I. 1603 Sir Percival Willonghby, knt. 

Sir John Ferrers, knt. (Mar. 1) 
12 Jac. I. 1615 Sir John Ferrers, knt. 

Basil Fielding. 
18 Jac. I. 1621 Sir Tho. Puckering, knt. & hart. (Dec. 28.) 

John Ferrour, citizen & merchant of London. 
21 Jac. I. 1624 John Wightwick, esq. 

John Woodford, esq. (Jan. 19.) 
1 Car. I. 1625 Sir Thomas Puckering, knt. and bart. 

John Skeffington, esq. 
3 Car. I. 1627 Sir Thomas Puckering, knt. and bart. 

Sir Walter Devereux. knt. (Feb. 1 6) 

15 Car. I. 1639 George Abbot, esq. 

Sir Simon Ardier, bart. 

16 Car. I. 1640 Fernando Stanhope, esq. 

Peter Wentworth, K.B. 
George Abbot, esq. 

12 Car. II. 1660 John, lord Clifiord. 

John Swinfen, esq. 

13 Car. II. 1661 John, lord Clifibrd. 

John Swinfen, esq. (Apr.) 
23 Car. II. 1670 Charles, lord Clifford. 

[John Ferrers, esq.]* 
31 Car. IT. 1679 John Swinfen, esq. 

Sir Thomas Thynne. (Aug. 11.) 

31 Car. II. 1679 Sir Andrew Hacket, knt. 

Sir Thomas Thynne. (Feb. 25.) 

32 Car. II. 1680 John Swinfen, esq. 

— Turton, esq. (Feb. 28.) 
1 Jac. II. 1685 Richard How, esq. 

Sir Henry Gough, knt. 

1 W. & M. 1688 Henry Sidney, esq. 

Sir Henry Gough, knt. 

2 W. & M. 1690 Walter Chetwynd, esq. 

Sir Henry Gough, knt. 
5 W. & M. 1693 Michael Biddulph, esq. 
7 W. & M. 1695 Thomas Guy, esq. 

Sir Henry Gough, knt. 

1 The fonner of Uiese representativeB was elected for Ute put of the town in 
Staflbrdshire, the latter for that in Warwickshire. The wilts sometimes came down 
from both coanty-towns; bat generally, and always of late, from Staflbrd. 

2 The names within brackets arc those of ansucccssfdl candidates. 



APPENDIX. Xlll. 

10 W. & M. 1698. Thomas Guy, eaq. 

John Chetwynd, esq. 
[Sir Henry Gough, knt.] 

12 Will. 1700 Thomas Guy. esq. 

Sir Henry Gongh, knt. 
[John Chetwynd, esq.] 

13 Will. 1701 Thomas Guy, esq. 

Henry Thynne, esq. 

1 Anne 1702 Thomas Guy, esq. 

Henry Thynne esq. (Sept.) 
4 Anne 1705 Thomas Guy, esq. 

Joseph Girdler, esq. 

6 Anne 1707 Joseph Girdler, esq. 

Ricluuti Swinfen, esq. 
[Thomas Guy, esq.] 

7 Anne 1708 Joseph Girdler, esq. 

RiduEurd Swinfen, esq. 
9 Anne 1710 Joseph Girdler, esq. 

Samuel Braoebridge, esq. 

2 Anne 1713 Francis Willoughby, esq. 

Samuel Braoebridge, esq. 
[Richard Swinfen, esq.] 
[John Jarvis, esq.] (Mar. 24.) 
1 Geo. I. 1714 William Inge, esq. 

Samuel Bracebridge, esq. (Mar. 

8 Geo. I. 1722 Francis Willoughby, esq. 

George Compton, esq. 
iGeo. II. 1727 Lord Inchequin. 

Thomas Willoughby, esq. 
8 Geo. II. 1734 Lord John Philip Sackyille, 

Charles Cotes, M.D.^ 
15 Geo. II. 1741 Lord John Philip Sackville. 

Charles Cotes, M.D. 
21 Geo. II. 1747 Sir Henry Harper, hart. 

Thomas Villiers, esq. 
27 Geo. II. 1 754 Sir Robert Burdet, bart. 

Lord Villiers. 
1 Geo. III. 1761 Sir Robert Burdet, bart. 

Lord Villiers. 
6 Geo. III. 1766 Sir Robert Burdet, bart. 

Lord Villiers. 
8 Geo. III. 1768 Edward Thurlow, esq. 

William de Grey, esq. 

I He mazTied. on the 2nd of September, 17S8, the only daughter of Chesddeo, the 
celebrated surgeon. 



XIV. TAMWORTH CASTLB AND TOWN. 

10 Geo. III. 1770 Edward Thurlow. esq. 

Charles Vernon, esq. 
15 Geo. III. 1774 Edward Thurlow, esq. 

Thomas de Grey. Jan., esq. 
21 Geo. IIL 1780 John Coortenay, esq. 
24 Geo. III. 1784 John Conrtenay, esq. 
30 Geo. III. 1790 Robert Peel, esq. 

John Courtenay, esq. 
36 Geo. III. 1796 Robert Peel, esq. 

Thomas Carter, esq. 
42 Geo. III. 1802 Sir Robert Peel, bart. 

Major-Gen. William Loftos. (July.) 
45 Geo. III. 1806 Sir Robert Peel, bart. 

Major-Gen. William Loftos. CSor, 3.) 
47 Geo. III. 1807 Sir Robert Peel. bart. 

Major-Gen. William Loftos. (Mav.) 
52 Geo. III. 1812 Sir Robert Peel. bart. 

Lord Charles Townshend. 
58 Geo. III. 1818 Sir Robert Peel, bart. 

William Yates Peel. esq. 

[Lord Charles Townshend.] (June.) 
I Geo. IV. 1820 Lord Charles Townshend. 

William Yates Peel, esq. 
7 Geo. IV. 1826 Lord Charles Townshend. 

William Yates Peel, esq. 

1 Will. IV. 1830 Sir Robert Peel, bart. 

Lord Charles Townshend. 

2 Will. IV. 1831 Sir Robert Peel, bart. 

Lord Charles Townshend. 

3 Will. IV. 1832 Sir Robert Peel. bart. 

Lord Charles Townshend. 
6 Win. IV. 1835 Sir Robert Peel, bart. 

William Yates Peel, esq. (Jan.) 
1 Vict. 1837 Sir Robert Peel, bart. 

Capt. Edward Henry k Court, R.N. 

[Capt. John Townshend, R.N.] 
5 Vict. 1841 Sir Robert Peel. bart. 

Capt. Edward Henry k Court, R.N. 

[Capt. John Townshend, R.N.] (June 29.) 

Note 9, page 115. 

A rough draught endorsed : — 

" Sir Humfrey Ferrers, for Tamworth stewardship. S' Hum- 
frey's I'res to my lo. Treasurer & & Robert Cedll." 

"May it please yo' honor to be advertysed that whereas 
6' John Ferrers, my grete grandfather, & others of my aunces- 



/ 



APPENDIX. XV. 

tors, had & enioyed the stewardship of Tamw., by graunt vnder 
the 'xchequer scale, durant' benepl'lt' ; And the kte Lo. Treasurer, 
yo' Lo. p'decessor, p'cured me the like graunt thereof fi-om her 
niatte . ^ch Qfljce afterwards the Earle of Essex obteyned from her 
ma*^ vnder the grete seale. By meanes whereof, some contro- 
versie was like to have growne betweene him & me, for the same. 
Wherevpon I, being requested and advysed by yo' Lo. p'decessor 
not to oppose my self agaynst the said Ekirle for an office of so 
little value, I was contented to indure that wrong, during the 
Earle's life, but held my patente still in force. And after his 
decease, I entred vpon the said office as I was advysed I lawfully 
might. Since -w^^ my entrie, I vnderstand that S^^ Jo. Egerton 
(vpon informacon given to yo' lo. that the said stewardshipp was 
in her ma^^* hands, by the attaynder of the said Earle, & yo' lo. 
having no notice of my patente) he hath obtayned a graunt 
thereof, vnder the 'xchequer seale, durant' benepVit' ; And hath 
sent vnto me to geve me notice thereof, as a dischardge for me : 
w<^ I hope yo' lo. will not consider to be a sufficient dischardge, 
for that, as I am advised by my counsell, the like hath not beene 
scene that a second patent hath bene graunted to any man 
w^ut some cause of misdemeano' in the first patentee ; whereof 
I humbly pray yo'^ bono' to have consideracon, & the rather for 
that I have of long tyme done her ma^® faithfull service in the 
office of a iustice of the peace in iij Counties, & never made sute 
to her ma**« for any thing but this office, w«*» my aunccstors had 
before enioyed, and w^ I doe assure yo^ honor, vpon my creditt, 
is no more than the bare name of a steward, and not otherwise 
worth ijd. ; nor more wold I esteeme of it, but that my chef 
house adioyneth to the towne of ^amworth. And thus praying 
yo' hon**»*« fevo', that I may stUl enioy the said stewardshipp, for 
w<* I shall ever acknowledge my self bound vnto yo^ honor, 
w^^ due remembrance of my humble dutie, I take my leave, from 
my house at Tamw., this 23 August, 1602. 

yo' lor. in all dutie To the right honorable the lo. Buckhurst, 
to be commended. lord highe Treasurer of England." 

The letter to sir Robert Cecil, is substantially the same. 

Note 10, page 115. 

" To the King's most excellent m^e, the humble petition 
of the Baylies & Com'inality of yo^ Highnesse towne of 
Tameworth, in yo' countyes of Warricke & Staff. 

Shewinge y* wher', for the gouem^ of the same towne, 
ther is an ancient corp'acon of Baylies & com'inalty in the same, 
for whose ayd ther haue beene a Recorder & Townclerke or 



XVI. TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

v'd 8tew^, in the gift of the Baylies & oom'inalty, and a High- 
steward, in the gift of yo'^ highnesse & yo^ p'genitcxis. 

Wher* the same office of Highsteward hath anciently heene 
wonted to he granted to & Hum&ey Ferrers* knight, & his ances- 
tors, beinge gentlemen of worth & neighbors to yo^ seyd sahiects 
& their p'decessors, & therefore fittest to be' imployd in the 
affayres of the same, for the co'en good therof : and wher' 
the same sir Hamfrey Ferrers, having the same Highstewardship. 
at the request of Robert, the last Earle of Essex, a geantleoaan 
borne ther, yelded the same vnto him ; & by the death of this 
Earle, the same is now in yo^ m^es grant, yo^ seyd sabiectB 
most humbly beseech yo^ highnesse to grant vnto the same air 
Hamfrey Ferrers, & his heyres male of las body, the said High- 
stewardship, beinge a place of small value, w^ut com'odity, by 
whose neighborhciodde (wherby they have a felloo feelinge of 
yo' said sahiects' necessaryes, w<^ others further of cannot have 
a feelinge of) they may be comforted & releeved, to the increase 
of there litel co'en welth in the same towne : & yo' seyd sahiects 
will dayly pray for the p's'vation of yo^ most roiall p'son, longe 
to raigne ou' us." 

Note 11, page 117. 

[Endorsed] 

" Charges ag* the Bailifis of Tamworth : open requests 
mayd by Mr. F.^ vnto Robert Scale, and others of the 
bayliffs, y* y* matters might be talked of & ended. 

Yf ther be any matter consemyng my misbehavior towards 
the erle,' I desyer to satisfy y^ matter fyrst, desyring to 
know my p'ticoler accusers. 

desyeins to see y* Articles of grifies exhebitid vnto 
y* Erie, and who were y* devysors y'^of by name. 

Notes of the abvses of the bailiffes of Tamwo'th. 
Imp'mis. John Stookes and Thom's Ashlock, bailiffes, receaved 
by composicion for money a great company of egyptions into the 
said towne, and kept them there three dais, wherof one was the 
markett day : all w^ dais both the said Baylifies w^ same others 
of there brethren kept the chifie of the Egyptcions company in 
the taveme ; all w^ tyme, the other pikinge eg3rptcions were in 
the markett pikinge purses and pocketts, and cut dyvers parses 
from the bodies of dyvers p'sons, both men and women; and when 
the parties greaved complained them to the bailiffies and requested 
justice, the said bayliffes did commonly, in the said taveme, 
make composicion betweene the cutt purses and the parties 
greaved, and caused the parties greaved to have redeliu'ed 
vnto him or them sume p'te of his or theire goodes by anye [pro- 
1 Protebly Homphiy Ferren. s The earl of Baaex. 



AFPBNDIX. XVll. 

portion], sume tymes halfe, Bume tymes the thirde parte, and 
same tymea lease, and deliu'ed the aame egyptdona the thirde 
daye w»out any treble. 

It'm, the said Stoka and Will'm Shemon beinge bailifies, ^ppon 
A feer day there were dyvera poraea cntt and greate sumea of 
money in ihem ; and a man was seen, very aaspicionalie mnninge 
out of the towne'a ende, by one Richard Baylie, who followed 
him, for that he waa a auapected p'son ; and [he then] fled on the 
fyldea oat of any highe way aa fiaat aa he colde nmne, waa taken 
and brought back againe into the towne, and deliu'ed into 
the handea of the aaid Shemon, in hia owne house ; [the captor] 
dedaringe to the aaid Shemon the manner of hia runninge out of 
the towne, w**^ that the aaid auspected p'son offered him all the 
money in his purse and hia clooke ao that he wolde lett him goe, 
and not ddiu' him vnto the Bayliffes. notw^standinge, the aaid 
Bayliffes lett him goe w^ut any publick examinacion, or any 
punishme't at all, w^Nrat it were aecret punyshme't of the purse. 

It'm, one Henry Bucklande being slayne by dyvera persons in 
fight, w^ dwelt in Tamworth, wherof fyve or sixe of Uiem were 
Arested of murder by wiUiam Bucklande and deliu'ed into the 
bandes of the said Shemon and Stoka, who railed at the said 
Will'm Bucklande and lett the prisoners & feUous goe w^ut 
stayinge them, and threetened the said Buckland for diat he had 
arrested the said p'ties; w^ afterwards were indited three tymea 
of wilfiiU murder for the same cause, and the Queene . • . ed 
the bodies of them. 

It'm, Robert Scale and John Wright, beinge bailiffes, staid a 
fellon vppon suspicion of fellony for steelinge three horses, in the 
tyme of there last Bayliewicke ; w^ three horsea they toke from 
lum, and sent him away w^out any further punishment, and con- 
verted the horaea to ther own uses', and gave the theefe money to 
bye him a paire of shoes to goe hia way. 

It'm, the aaid Robert Scale and John Wright now being 
Bayliffes, ther cam a fellou to the towne of Tamworth vppon a 
fake day about m'helmas last past w^ fbwre fatt oxen, w^ were 
well worth xvi^. ; and solde them to a man of Ser George 
Hastings for xii'<. ; who, aa sone as be had bought them, said to 
the standers bye that he mistrusted they were trulie comen by, 
for that they were much more worth; not w^standinge [he] 
wente to the toole-both and entred them bought and sold ; and 
then the buyar and the seller drove them throughe the markett to 
the Inne of the Buyare; and aipter the theefe fled, and the 
Bayliffes aforesaid wdde have seised the oxen, but the buyare 
said he had toled for them, wherfore the p'pertie beinge changed, 
they colde not have them, But confessed he had not paid for 
them, and that he owede the theefe for them the sume of twelve 



XVIU. TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

poundes, which said sume of zii" the said Bailifies reoeaved of the 
said partie, by vertue of there office ; and w^^in three days after, 
the right owner of the aaide oxen came to inquire for them, and 
heiringe of the p'missea demanded the aaid Money ; but w^ much 
adoe, he got of them ifj'', and the rest he colde not gett of them, 
nether the oxen« 

The said Bayliffes, ▼nd'standinge that the theefe waa goen» 
made proclamacion in the towne that he ahnlde come to the 
Bwanne and receave his money, and after [he] receayed it ; and 
[they] gave ther wordea to save the bnyare harmeleaa, and never 
sent hue nor crye after the theefe at all, 

I*tm, Peter Braddock and Nicholas Wilcox, beinge Bailifiii, 
vnd'standinge that a smyth, servant to Mr. Robynso', had stolen 
a horse and had curtoled him, and that he was w^ the aaid horse 
at one Cullu'bines, in Tamworth w^in there libertie, they both 
went thither and toke away the said horse, and willingly lett the 
felloQ escape ; and Braddock kept the horse ij or thiee yeres ; 
after which [it] was worth v*. 

John Turner and Henry Baron beinge Bayliffes, a pooreman, 
by a capias from them, arested a detter of his for xx^ marks, 
who confessed the accion and Judgment geven by the said 
Bailifis and Greene there Stewarde : the p'tie beinge in there 
prison was after lett goe ; and the pooreman to this bower can 
not gett his money nor any p't therof, by meanes of the caviD 
w^ a rasure, — an error of the reoorde in Uiere owne court." 

Note 12, page 141. 

NAMES OF BAILIFFS. 

From the CorponMom ReeordM, ParUk Regiutert ^. 

1560 Peter Bradock, Henry Draper. 

1561 Walter Harconrt. Christopher Wiston. 
1569 Robert Batman. 

1580 John Coleman. 

1581 Richard Wright. 

1582 William Baron. 

1584 Thomas Hilton. Anthony Weyman. 
1588 Henry Baron, Thomas Ashley. 

John Wright. 
1592 John Allen. 

1597 Thomas Alcock, Christopher Ensor. 

1598 Francis Wood. 

1600 Ralph Onion, Thomas Sheall. 
Thomas Hilton. 
1 603 Thomas Alcock, Edward Vaughton. 
1616 Hugh Clarke. 
1619 Thomas Ashley, John Sharp. 



APPENDIX. XIX. 

1627 Clement Joell, Richard Lattymer. 

1628 Julius Aloock. 
1631 Thomas Wright. 

1639-40 Thomas Vaughton, Edward White, 

1646 Thomas Lawkin. 

1653 William Chitwell. 

1654 — Ashley. 

1659 Leicester Barher, Thomas Alcock. 

1662 John Clifton, John Lattimer. 

1 663 Walter Ashmore, Thomas Egginton . 

1 664 Robert Peake, Robert Jennings. 

1665 William Wikox, Thomas Carter. 

1666 Christopher Harthill, Robert Jeffrey. 

1667 William Cawne, Thomas Talbut. 

1 668 Thomas Key, John Bankes. 

1669 John Clifton, Thomas Pratt. 

1670 Gilbert Jordan, Cornelius Osbom. 

1671 Thomas Egginton, Francis Wright. 

1672 Morgan PoweU, Edward Drayton. 

1 673 Edward Symonds, Joseph Key. 

1 674 Robert Peake, William Ashley. 

1675 Thomas Roades, Charles Baynton. 

1676 John Welsh, John Vaughton. 

1677 Christopher Harthill, William Harding. 

1678 John Vamham, Francis Wright. 

1679 Morgan Powell, Daniel Jordan. 

1 680 Morgan Powell, William Wilcox. 

1 681 William Cawne, Thomas Talbut. 

1682 Josiah Newey, Charles Baynton. 

1683 Robert Peake, John Vaughton. 

1684 Francis Wood, Samuel Orton. 

1685 Thomas Roades, Edward Drayton. 

1686 Daniel Jordan, Richard Weaman. 

1687 Samuel Buckland, William Harding. 

1688 William Wilcox, Francis Wright. 
Samuel Buckland, William Harding. 

1 689 Charles Baynton, Thomas Talbut. 

1 690 John Vaughton, Josiah Radford. 

1 69 1 Richard Weyman, Edward Bradgate. 

1692 Thomas Wagstaff, David Read. 

1693 Samuel Orton, Robert Cawne. 

1694 Daniel Jordan, William Harding. 

1695 Francis Wood, John Vaughton. 

1696 Jonathan Backhouse, Charles Parker. 

1697 Joseph Batman, Samuel Dawes. 

1698 Robert Green, William Pickard. 



XX. TAMWORTH CA8TLB AND TOWK. 

1699 JoMph Batman, jnn., John Vanglitoo, m 

1 700 Daniel Jordan, John Vaoghton. 

1701 Edward Symonds, Samvel Qrton. 

1 702 John Radford, Ridiard Weaman. 

1 703 Thomas Monidey, George Hood. 

1704 Samuel Backland, John Vanghton. 

1 705 Daniel Jordan, John Vanghton. 

1706 Thomas Homer, Richard Knight. 

1 707 Edward Bradgate, Samuel Leigh. 

1 708 Charles Pteker, David Read. 

1 709 Jonathan Badchoose, Thomaa Docker. 

1710 Samnel Dawea. Samuel Shaw. 

1711 John Seal, Isaac Orton. 

1712 Charles Ptarker, RidiaTd Weaman. 

1713 Reginald Princeps, Joseph Hood. 

1714 Joseph Alport, Samnd Leigh. 

1715 Samnel Bnckland, Wflliam Pickard. 

1716 Thomas Batman, Sanraol Dawes. 

1717 Thomas Farmer* John lUhnt. 

1718 Charles Fuker, Jonathan Backhoose. 

1719 Samud Dawes, Jan., Nicholas Sihrester. 

1 720 Joseph Alport, Joseph Hood. 

1 721 Joseph Alport. John KeodaU. 

1 722 Samuel Shaw, Edward Lilly. 

1 723 Thomas Farmer, Beilhy Layoock. 

1724 Joseph Alport, Beilhy Layoock. 

1 725 Charles Holden, Joseph Hood. 

1 726 Samnel Dawes, John Kendsll. 

1 727 Thomas Vanghton, Beilby Laycock. 

1728 John Bradgate, Samnel Rice. 

1 729 John Mcacham, John Bntler. 

1 730 Charies Holden, Joseph Hood. 

1 73 1 Edward Lilly, Samuel Rioe. 

1732 John Lattimer, John Kendall. 

1 733 Charles Holden, Joseph Hood. 

1 734 Samuel Nickens, Abraham Waterson. 

1 735 Thomas Vanghton, Thomas Oakes. 

1 736 William Beech, Isaac Brocket 
Samuel Dawes. 

1 737 John Bradgate, John Osbom. 

1 738 John Meacham, Joseph Hood. 

1 739 John Lattimer, John Butler. 

1 740 Edward Woodcock, Samuel Nickins. 

1 74 1 Jdm Gibbons, John Osborne. 

1742 Joseph Hood, Samuel Prinoqi. 

1 743 Waiter Rose, Samuel Nickins. 



APPBNDIX. XXI. 

1 744 John Bindley» John Oshom. 

1 745 Samuel Dawes, John Pojrnton. 

1 746 Abraham WaterBon» John Kendal. 
John Meaoham. 

1 747 John Lattimer, Thomas Hinckea. 

1748 John Gibbons, Edward Woodcock. 

1 749 Peter Goodwin, John Vatighton. 

1 750 Samiid Princep, James OUver. 

1 75 1 Walter Rose, Joseph Barrow. 

1752 John Osbom, Jdbn Bindley. 

1 753 Samuel Dawes, Edward Woodcock. 

1754 John Latimer, John Kendal. 

1 755 John Gibbons, Thomas Hindces. 

1 756 Peter Godwin, Nathaniel Crosland. 

1757 Samnd PHncep, John Vaughton* 

1758 Samuel Pipe, John Gibbons. 

1 759 James Oldershaw, Rev* Sfanoa Collins. 

1 760 John Lattimer, Benjamin Price. 

1 761 Samuel Princep, James Oliver. 

1 762 Samuel Crosland, Joaeph Allport. 

1763 Edward Ball, John Kendal. 

Jdin Vanghton. 

1764 Thomas Hinckes, William Weston. 

1 765 John Vaug^ton, Walter Howe. 

1 766 John Willington, John Bk)od. 

1 767 James Oldershaw, Thomas Butler. 

1768 Edward Woodcock, Joseph Heath. 
Thomas Nichblls. 

Nathaniel Crosland. 

1769 Thomas Freenum, Thomas Hohnes. 

1770 Rev. Simon Collins, George Godfrey. 

1771 John Wilson, Walter Lyon. 

1 772 Job Hunter, Francis Woodcock. 

1773 James OKver, John Bindley. 

1774 Thomas Hinckes, William Dyall. 

1775 John Vaughton, Samuel Heath. 

1776 John WOlington, Walter Howe. 

1777 James Oldershaw, Thomas Butler. 

1778 Rev. John Halsted, Edward Ball. 

llMmas Hdmes. 

1779 Rev. Simon Collins, Edward Ball. 

1780 Thomas Hohnes, Richard Freeman. 

1781 James Gray, George Godfrey. 

1782 WUliam Gresley, Williams Rice. 

1 783 James Yeomans, Joshua Brown. 

1 784 Joseph Heath, Walter Lyon. 



XZU. TAMWORTH CAtTLB AND TOWK. 

1 785 Thomas Hinckee, Joshua Bindky . 

] 786 John Waiington, WiDiam Bmdley. 

1787 Walter Howe, John Brown. 

1 788 Richard ¥Veeman. Thomas WOlington. 

1 789 Rev John Halsted, Thomas Holmes. 

1790 Rev. Simon Collins, Samuel Whitehoose. 

1791 James Yeomans, Thomas Harper. 

1 792 Walter Lyon, Williams Rioe. 

1 793 John WOlington, Edward Bage. 

1794 Thomas Hawkesworth, John Harding. 

1795 FVancis Woodcock, Henry Bennet. 

1 796 Joshua Brown, Thomas WiUington. 

1 797 Joseph Heath, Thomas Holmes. 

1 798 William Bindley, James Yeomans. 

1799 Joshua Marshall, John Marriott. 

1 800 Richard Bird, lliomas Arnold. 

1801 Richard Freeman, Thomas Wallis. 

1 802 Williams Rice, Thomas B. Fkiget. 

1803 Joseph Heath, Thomas Hohnes. 

1804 Rev. Michael Ward, ^^Hlliam Parsons. 

1805 Edward Bage, Robert Nevill. 

1806 Robert Woody, John Harding. 

1807 Rev. Charles £dw. Collins, Daniel Harper. 

1 808 Henry Bennet, William Bindley. 

1 809 Joseph Knight, Samuel Tylecote. 

1810 William Alport, Thomas Bennet. 

1811 William Bindley, jun., Richard Pipe. 

1812 Richard Bird, Thomas Wallis. 

1813 Josiah Marshall, Thomas Arnold. 

1814 lliomaa B. Pbget, Joseph Heath. 

1815 Rev. Samuel Downes, Richard F. A. Freeman. 

1816 Rev. Michael Ward, William Pfeursons. 

1817 Rev. Fhmcis Blick, Edward Thurman. 

1818 Richard Bennet, Thomas Buckerfield. 

1819 Shirley Pftlmer, M.D., James Pipe. 

1820 Robert Nevill, Robert Woody. 

1821 John Harding, John Hall. 

1822 Joseph Knight, William Persons. 

1 823 Samuel Tylecote, Thomas Bennet. 

1824 William Robinson, Thomas Freeman. 

1825 William Bindley, jun., Robert C. Brown. 

1 826 Richard Bird, Charles J. Berry. 

1827 Joseph Heath, Francis WiUington. 

1828 R. F. A. Freeman, William Parsons, sen. 

1829 Thomas Buckerfield, James Pipe. 

1830 Robert Fowler, Henry Wood Roby. 



APPENDIX. ZXUl. 

1831 Shirley Palmer, M.D.. William Cox. 

1832 Robert Nevill, John Hall. 

1833 Joseph Knight, John Thompson. 

1834 Rev. Rob. W. lioyd. Thomas Arnold. 

1835 Thomas Bramall, Robert K. Fallows. 

Note 13. page 141. 
NAMES OF HIGH STEWARDS. 

FfOtn tht CofporsMoA Rtcords^ 

1663 James Compton, earl of Northampton. He was nominated 

in Charles's charter. 
1681 Sir Thomas Thynne, hart. (Dec. 22.)^ He was afterwards 

created lord viscount Weymouth. 
1715 lliomas Willoughby, lord Middleton. (Mar. 29.) 
1729 Lionel Cranfield Sackville, doke of Dorset. (Ap. 12.) On 

the 28th of June, 1733, he resigned in favour of his 

successor. 
1733 Thomas, Thynne, lord viscount Weymouth. (June 28.) He 

died on the 13th of January, 1750. 
1 750 John Carteret, earl of Grenville. (Jan. 24,) He was the re- 
presentative of the late lord Weymouth ; to whose son he 

resigned the stewardship, on the 25th of June, 1 756. 
1756 Lord viscount Weymouth. (June 25.) In 1789, he was 

created marquess of Bath. 
1796 George, marquess Townshend. (Dec. 10.) 
1807 George, marquess Townshend. (Nov. 27.) He succeeded 

upon the death of his father. 
1811 Sir Robert Peel, hart. (Sept. 24.) 
1830 Right hon. sir Robert Peel, hart. (May 19.) He succeeded 

his father ; and retained the office until its abolition. 

Note 14, page 141. 
NAMES OF TOWN CLERKS. 

From ike CorponMam Reeorig, 

1593 Henry Michell. He retained office to his death, in 1629. 

1664 John Allen. He was named in Charles's charter. 
1685 Morgan PoweU. (Apr.) 

1698 Nicholas Parker. (Oct. 14.) 

1 The times of the elecdoDs of hlgh-ttewwds, town-derkt, and racardcn, tre 
the dates of their nomlnattoii bj the corpontkm. not of their patents. 



XXIY. TAM WORTH CA8TLB AKD TOWN. 

1724 NicholuB Parker. (Jnlj 20.) He was son of the former. 
On bis decease, the next election was disputed ; as it 
appears from the following order made by the corporatioa 
on the 1st of Aogost, 1738. " Ord«^ that the law- 
charges. 39/. ld«. 4d., incarred in opposing Mr. Hum- 
phry WoWerstan's being Town Clerk, before the 
Attorney-General, be paid out of the town-box." 

1738 Beilby Laycock. (Aug. 14.) He was elected on the death 
of Nicholas Parker. 

1741 Samuel Beardsley. (March 16.) He resigned on the 11th 
of May. 1759. 

1759 Edward Wolverstan. jun. (May 11.) He resigned on the 
1st of August. 1763. 

1763 Charles Oakes. (Aug. 1.) He retained the oflke for fifty- 
two years. 

1815 Thomas Willington. (Aug. 1.) 

1834 Francis WiUin^on. (April 7.) 

Note 15, page 141. 
NAMES OF RECORDERS. 

f^wn the CorponMom Bec9rd$, 

1599 Anthony Dyott. (July 24.) With this office he had an 
annual sdarv of 4Ciir. He was a member of parliament 
for Lichfield in 1601, 1603, and 1614. 

1664 Thomas Flint. (Sept. 26.) 

1670 Sir Andrew Hacket. knt. (Sept. 19.) He resigned. 

1688 Francis Wolverstan. (Not. 19.) On the 26th of October, 
1691, he was displaced for having neglected to take the 
required oaths of office, 

1 69 1 Philip Pargiter, coundllor-at-law^Temple, London,(Oct. 26.) 

1699 Joseph Girdler, sergeant«at.law. (Sept. 21.) 

1724 Joseph Girdler, sergeant-at-law. (Nov. 21.) He was cho- 
sen on the death of his father ; but was removed by the 
corporation, and, at the same time, his successor ap- 
pointed. 

1740 Hon. Heneage Legge. (Sept. 26.) 

1759 Francis Mundy. (June 2;) 

1769 Edward Thurlow, (Aug. 1.) He represented this town 
in parliament, until his elevation to the peerage. He 
died in 1806. 

1807 William Hunt. (Aug. 1.) He continued in office until 
1835. A salary of 7/. a year had been formerly attached 
to the recordership. This gentleman had never received 
it; but, in 1835. he wrote to the corporation-commissioner, 
asserting his claim to it for twenty-eight years. 



APPENDIX. XXV. 

Note 16, page 141. 
NAMES OF CHAMBERLAINS. 

From the Corporaikm Reeor4$» 

1688 George Wright. (Aug. 28.) He was elected under the 
new charter of James II., but soon lost his office. 

1688 Daniel Jordan, Richard Weaman. (Dec. 19.) 

1 689 Richard Weaman was directed to continue in office (Jan . 1 6) 

and be accordingly did so until 1693. On the 2 1st of 
Julj, in that year, it was ordered that there should be 
two chamberlains chosen from the members of the cor- 
poration, and two from the inhabitants of the town. 

1693 Thomas Wagstaffe, David Reade, George Hood, Joseph 

Batman. (Aug. 1.) 

1694 Robert Cawne, Samuel Orton, John Dawes, lEUchard 

Knight. (Aug. 1.) 

1695 Daniel Jordan, William Harding. (Aug. 1.) The other 

two are not named. 

1696 John Vaughton, — Newey, Job Boston, John Radford. 

These four are mentioned as being chamberlains on the 
1st of August. 

1696 John Vaughton, Francis Wood, John Radford, Thomas 

Woodcock. (Oct. 6.) 

1697 Jonathan Backhouse, Charles Parker, Joseph Wilcox, Jo- 

seph Hood. (Aug. 1.) 

1698 Joseph Batman, Samuel Dawes, Edward Symonds, John 

Vaughton. (Aug. 1.) 

1699 Robert Green ; William Pickard ; John Dawes, jun. ; Job 

Boston. (Aug. 1.) 

1 700 John Vaughton, sen. ; Joseph Batman ; Thomas Mouseley ; 

John Hartwell. (Sept. 19.) 

1701 Daniel Jordan ; John Vaughton, jun. ; John Seal; John 

Toft. (Aug. 1.) 

1 702 Edward Symonds, Samuel Orton, Thomas Batman, Arthur 

Alsop. (Aug. 1.) 

1703 Richard Weaman, John Radford, Samuel Dawes, John 

Butler. (Aug. 2.) 

1704 Thomas Mouseley, George Hood, Joseph Radford, Henry 

Smith. (Aug. 1.) 

1705 Samuel Buckland, Richard Weaman. (Aug. 1.) 

1705 Samuel Buckland, Thomas Vaughton, John Jordan, 

John Onion. (Oct. 18.) 

1706 Henry Smith; John Vaughton^ sen. ; Thomas Cooper; 

Daniel Jordan. (Aug. 1.) 



XXVI. TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

1 707 Richard Knight, Thomas Homer, (Sept. 9.) The election 

of two inhabitants of the town was now abandoned. 

1708 Samuel Leigh. Edward Bradgate. (Sept. 16.) 
1710 Jonathan Backhouse, Thomas Docker. (Aug. 1.) 

1710 John Vaughton» John Radford. (Dec. 8.) 

1711 John Vaughton, John Hall. (Nov. I.) Jolm Vaoghton 

remained sole chamberlain, from 1712 to 1714. 
1714 Reginald Princep, Joseph Hood. (Jan. 19.) They con- 
tinued in office until 1724. 

1724 Samuel Dawes, Joseph Hood. (Aug. 10.) 

1725 Beilby Lay cock, Joseph Alport. (Dec. 31.) They con- 

tinned in office until 1 730. 

1730 Thomas Farmer, John Kendal. (Aug. 1.) 

1731 Thomas Farmer. (Sept. 20.) He continued until 1735. 

1735 Samuel Nickins, Abraham Waterson. (Aug. 1.) 

1736 Thomas Vaughton, Thomas Oakes. (Dec. 16.) They 

continued until 1739. 

1739 Joseph Hood, John Meacham. (Aug. 1.) Tliey contin- 
ued until 1 743. 

1743 John Osborne, John Gibbons. (Aug. 1.) They continued 
until 1747. 

1747 John Poynton ; Samuel Dawes, jun. (Aug. 1.) They con- 
tinued until 1753. 

1753 John Vaughton. Peter Godwin. (Aug. 1.) They contin- 
ued until 1 763. 

1 763 John Vaughton, Benjamin Price. (Aug. 1 .) They con- 
tinued until 1766. 

1766 John Vaughton, Walter Howe. (Aug. 1.) 

1767 John WiUington, Walter Howe. (July 30.) From 1768 

until 1797, the bailifi of the preceeding year were 
elected chamberlains, except in two instances. 

1769 Joseph Heath, Nathaniel Crosland. (Aug. 1.) 

1788 John Bindley, John Brown. (Aug. 1.) 

1797 Henry Bennet. (Aug. 1.) He continued sole chamber- 
lain until 1812. 

1812 Josiah Marshall. (Aug. 1.) He contmued until 1820. 

1820 Edward Thurman. (April 27.) He continued for two 
years. 

1822 John Harding, John Hall. (Aug. 1.) 

1823 Joseph Knight; William Parsons, sen. (Aug. 1.) 

1824 Samuel Tylecote, Thomas Bennet. (Aug. 1.) On the 6th 

of November, Joseph Knight was elected in the room 
of the latter, deceased. 

1825 William Robinson, Thomas Freeman. (Aug. 1.) They 

retained the office, until the old corporate body was 
abolished. 



APPENDIX. XXYli. 

Note 17, page 142. 

" The Coppie of the PeticoD. 

To the right hono^^ the Knights. Citizens, and Burgesses 
of the howse of Com'ons, in this high Conrt of Parlia- 
ment now assembled. 
The homble peticon of the Inhabitants of the Towne of 
Tamworth, in the Counties of Warwick and Stafford, 
whose names are underwritten and Indorsed : 
Showeing that whereas the said Towne is an Ancient towne, 
and the Inhabitants thereof bane, time out of mynde, bene Called 
by the name of Bailiffes and Cominaltie, and the Inhabitants 
thereof Ame, for the time being, have vsed, time out of mynde, 
to dect and Choose two fitt persons to serve in Parliam^ as Bur- 
gesses for the said towne. 

And whereas alsoe the said towne is a populous towne. Con- 
sisting of 300 howsehold", at the least, whoe ought to bane 
their voyces in the eleccon of the burgesses to serve in Parliam^ 
for the said tovme. 

Soe it is, may it please yon, that Thomas Vaughton and 
Edward White, the nowe Bailiffis of the said towne, together with 
21 others stiled, by a late Charter, by the name of Capitall Bur- 
gesses of the said towne, did, in the moneth of March last past, 
of themselues, without yo' peticoners and the rest of the Inhabi- 
tants of the said tovme or anie of them. And without any notice 
at all given of the time and place for Eleccon of Burgesses to 
serve for the said towne in this p'sent Parliam^, p'ceede to elect 
and Choose, and did, without any such notice at all g^ven, vndue- 
lie Elect. Choose, and retome one Georg Abbott, a Soioumer in 
Caldecote. in the County of Warwick, gent., and S' Symon 
Archer, of Tanworth, in the same Countie, knight* to serve in 
this p'sent Parliam* as Burgesses for the said Towne. 

In tender consideracon whereof, and for that yo' peticioners' 
right in Electing of Burgesses for the said towne is not onlie 
thereby much intrenched vpon, but the said Eleccon (as yo' 
peticoners Conceiue) is illegally and vndnly made, yo' peticoners 
humbly pray that the said Election may be declared to be void, and 
that a new writt may Issue out for the electing of two Burgesses 
to serve in Parliam^ for the said towne : And that such further 
order and Direction may be giuen for yo' peticoners' releife as 
to Justice shall appertaine. And your peticoners shall &c. 

Will™ Comberford. W« Gk)non. Thomas Onyon. 

William Brooke. Launcelett Smith. Thomas Roade. 

Richard Mowseley. James Prate. George Fox. 

Raphe Allyn. John Done. George Laykin. 

W™ Burbiq^e. John Fox. Nicholas Smith. 



XXYIU. 



TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 



Thomas Lakyn. 
Robert Blood. 
Raphe Onyoa. 
John Wilcox. 
Robert Baron. 
George Wolderidge. 
John Topham. 
Thomas Hewer. 
John Greene. 
Thomas Webb. 
W» Browne. 
Hugo Hardinge. 
Richard Smith. 
John Ashemore. 
Raphe Gibbons. 
Robert Wilkinson. 
Thomas Browne. 
John Hunt. 
Hughe Robinson. 
Henry Vnderhill. 
Richard Allen. 
Thorn* Bailey. 
W» Falconer. 
John Allen. 



WiH"" Darlaston. 
Richard Bowelworth 
James Alcock. 
W" Pigott. 
Will" Bott. 
Richard Johnson. 
Will" Key. 
John Hall. 
Michaell Browne. 
Henry Bailey. 
Rob^ Adams. 
W« Peate. 
Thorn* Newth. 
Richard Mogge. 
Steeven Reynolds. 
Robert Carter. 
Hnmfrey Dalton. 
Richard Wright. 
John Tirer. 
WiU» Ashbome. 
Thom» Heath. 
Richard Ensor. 
Thomas Kagington. 
Thomas Robinson. 

Note 18, page 144. 



W«Peares. 
John Wright. 
Henrie Sketchley. 
Thomas Cooper. 
William Tailo^ 
Randall Chadbome. 
Thomas Key. 
Raphe Plott. 
James Birde. 
William Archer. 
John Symons. 
W« Slater. 
Thomas Preist. 
Robert JeayugB. 
Henry Osborne. 
Hughe Latimer. 
Josephe Radford. 
Henrie Alcott 
John Woodcock. 
William Kedes. 
George Browne. 
X'fer HartiU. 
John Allen. 
Thomas Winfeild. " 



A COPY OF THE SURRENDER OF THE 
CHARTER. 

From the CvrporaUtm ReevrdB. 

"To all [to] whom these presents shall come. we» the Baylifls 
and Com'onality of the towne & Burrongh of Tamworth, in the 
Counties of Warr ' and Staff', send greeting. Know ye that con- 
sidering how much it imports the Govemm^ of the said Towne 
and Burrough to haue p'sons of known Loyalty and approved 
integrity to beare offices of Majestracy and places of trust there- 
in, We, the said Bayliffs and Com'onality, have graunted and 
yielded up, and by these p'sents doe graunt^ surrender, and yeild 
up unto his most gratious Ma^*, James the second, by the grace 
of God, of England, Scotland, France, & Ireland, King, his heirs 
and successors, all and singular the powers, franchises, Liberties, 
Privileges, and aucthorities whatsoeuer and howsoeuer graunted or 
to be vsed or exercised by us, the said Bayliffs and Com'onality* 
by virtue of any right, title, or interest, vested in or by any 
Charter, letters patents, custom, or prescription, in • . . of, or 
concerning the electing, nominating, constituting, being, or 



ABPBNDIX. 



XXIX. 



appoynting of any p'son or p'sona into or for the seaerall & res- 
pectioe offices of 6aylifis, High Steward, Recorder, Proth'notarj 
or Town .Clarke, and Capital! Burgesses of the said Towne & 
Borrongh. And wee, the said Bayliffs & Com'onality, doe herehy 
humhly heseich his ma^* to accept of this our surrender, and doe 
with all suhmission to his ma*^" good pleasure, implore his grace 
and favour to Regrant to ts, the said Baylifis & Com'onalty, the 
nameing and chusing of the said officers, and the said liberties 
and priviledges, or soe many of them and in such manner as his 
ma^, in his grace and wisdome, shall judg most conducing to the 
good of the said Towne and Burrough, and with and vnder such 
reserrasons, restrictions, and qnalificasons, as his ma^ shall 
please to appoynt. for witness whereof, we, the said Baylifis and 
Com'onalty haue hereunto fixed our com'on scale, the xzvij^ day 
of Aprill, in the fourth yeare of the raigne of our soveraigne Lord» 
James the second, by the grace of God, of £<ngland, Scotland, 
France, & Ireland, lung, defender of the faith, &c., Annoq' d'ni 
1688." 



Note 19, page 152. 

An account of the subscriptions raised in the parish 
worth, in aid of the supplies granted to his Majesty 
defence of the nation, in Uie year 1798. 



ofTam- 
for the 



TAMWORTH. 

T. Holmes, esq., bailiff 
C. Oaket, esq. , town-derk 
JohnWillington, eiq. 
John Meacham, esq. 
Messrs. Paget & Corgan 
Thomas Holmes, jnn. . . 
J. Humbenton, M.D. . . 
J. Harding 
Joshna Brown . • 
Mrs. Brown 
Ann Brown 

Senrants at King's Arms 
WiUiamsRice .. 
Miss Robinson .. 
Josiah Marshall 
William Marshall 
Daniel Harper . . 
C. G. Harper . . 
Gilbert Bradgate 
Mrs. Bradgate . . 
Mrs. Latham 
Mrs. Bale 
Senrants .. 
William Bindley 
Mrs. A. and M. Bindley 



10 

21 

5 

3 

21 



5 5 

10 10 

21 





5 

3 



10 10 

1 1 

5 

6 

10 10 

10 6 

3 3 

2 

5 

5 

2 

1 

1 

2 

2 

5 

5 



A. Bindley, jnn. 

Thomas Bindley 

Mrs. E. Bindley 

W. Bindley jnn. & Sisters 

Edward Jones • • • . 

Thomas Webb . . • • 

Francis Woodcock 

Richard Nerill . . 

Thomas Arnold 

Miss Dawes 

William Parsons, sen. . . 

William Parsons, jon. . . 

Robert Panton 

Edward Thorman 

Samuel Tylecote • . 

Walter Lyon 

Beiqamin Shelton • • 

Mrs. Crowley . . 

Miss Wright .. 

Mrs. Vincent .. 

Miss Gresley . . 

Miss Parr 

Servant of Mrs. Vincent 

Mrs. Wilson 

Miss Wilson 

Miss March . • 



£.9. d, 

10 6 
2 2 

2 
1 
3 
3 
5 
2 2 

1 1 
5 5 

1 1 

2 2 
2 2 
2 2 
2 2 

10 10 

5 5 
10 10 

5 5 

5 5 
10 

1 1 

10 6 
10 10 
10 10 

1 1 



























XXX. 



TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 







£. 


t. 


d. 






£.: 


4L 


BCIuPwry 




h 


5 





Thomas Britain 




5 




Birs. W. Brown 




h 


5 





George Basset .. 




5 




William Green .. 




1 


1 





Walter Thompson 




5 




Charles MasgreaTea 




10 


6 


Edward Brant .. 




5 




Mrs. Dawea 




s 


2 





William Johnaon 




S 




Mn.Matfaewa .. 




10 


6 


Thomaa Walthew 




5 




Riehaitl Peten 




5 


5 





Thomaa Walthew, carrier 


10 




MiasStoier and Slater.. 


10 


10 





John Tomlinaon 




1 1 




Pickard and Capenhnrtt 


15 


15 





James Eades 




5 




Elisabeth Jones 


, , 


1 







Joseph Temple .. 
Ridmrd Hidme 




10 




Other senranta of 


Bfr. 










2 




Pickard 












ThomasFsine .. 




5 




Ridiard Froeman 




2 







Samnel Freeman 




10 




JohnNewbold .. 




2 







William Vincent 




10 




Richard Bird .. 




2 







Mra. Bnckerfield 




10 




Mra. Chamberlain 




3 







John Wooton • . 




7 




Joteph Keeling.. 




2 







Henry Fldders.. 




5 




Jamea Keeling .. 




1 







John Waring .. 




1 1 




John Moore 




3 







SethWard 




2 




R. W., shoemaker 












Samnel HaU .. 




5 




John Batler .. 




1 







John Bailey 




10 




William Mooie.. 




1 







Thomas Marshall 




10 




Ann Bnggins 












Joseph Knight .. 




1 1 




Mr. J. Harding's serranta 










Samnel Aduna .. 




1 1 




Peter Harding .. 




1 







Joseph Vincent.. 




10 




Robert Proctor .. 




1 







Thomas Fenton.. 




10 




Thomas Coton .. 




10 


6 


William Clarke.. 




5 




Alexander Harding 







5 





Thomas Campion 




5 




John Rawlins .. 







5 





Robert Birch .. 




5 




Thomas HiU .. 







5 





John Marriott .. 




1 1 




Robert Kirby .. 







5 





William Hunter 




1 1 




William Norton, jnn. 







5 





John HaU 




2 2 




Other work-people 


of 








WILNSCOTB. 






the printing worki 


1 of 








Josiah Marshall 


, , 


5 5 




Messrs. Peel and Co. 


3 


3 





Mra. Marshall .. 


, , 


2 2 




Robert NetiU .. 




1 


1 





Mr. MarshaU's aerranta 


2 




Jeremiah Ackeroyd 







5 





Je£fry Paul 

Mr. PauVs servants 




5 5 




Richard Baker .. 




1 


1 







2 




Ann Baker 







5 





Thomas Fidgeon 




5 5 




Isaac Hare 




1 


1 





William Coton . . 




1 1 




Mons. Hamel . . 




10 


6 


Miss Wright .. 




5 5 




Thomas Jones .. 







5 





Miss Wright's senrante 


5 




Samuel Whitehoose 




3 


3 





Thomas Garratt 




10 




William SadUer.. 




10 


6 


Thomas Snape . . 




10 




Richard Bennet.. 




1 


1 





Mr. Moggs 




1 1 




Mrs. Hewitt 







5 





ObadMilles 




5 




— Wilkinson .. 







2 


6 


Samuel Spooner 




5 




Thomas Endsor, jnn. 







5 





Charles Handley 




5 




Richard Fielders 







5 





Mrs. Poultney . . 




10 




Thomas Chatterton 







2 


6 


Thomas Basset.. 




1 




John and Thomas Patrick 





5 





Thomas Birch . . 









Mrs. Eleanor Rice 


, , 


2 








William Spirea .. 




1 




Thomas Wallis.. 


, , 


2 


2 





William Martin 




2 




William BenUey 


• • 


1 


1 





Collected at the Chapel 


10 


6 



APPBNDIX. 



XXXI. 



VAXBUBT AMD BOMBHILL. 







£. #. 


J. 


Bev. FrancU BHck 


• • 


5 5 





Tbe youDg gentlemen eda- 






cated under the 


rey. 






F.BUck 


, , 


12 5 


6 


Servants to Mr. BUck .. 


10 





John Pipe 




5 5 





Thomas Alsager 




1 1 





Henry Wright .. 




1 1 





John Kendall .. 




3 3 





John Buttock . . 




10 


6 


William Webster 




10 


6 


Joseph Wilcox .. 




1 1 





Thomas Birch .. 




2 


6 


James Weston .. 




2 





Richard Sadiier 




1 





Thomas Lago .• 




5 





Samuel Yeomans 




1 1 





John Gloyer 




10 


6 








T. B. Paget, esq. 


, , 


10 10 





J. HastQow, servant to do. 


2 





William Paul .. 


, , 


10 10 





Richard Bamford 


, , 


3 3 





Thomas Padmore 


, , 


1 1 






AMINGTON. 



C. E. Repington, esq. . . 40 
William Seal .. ..550 



John Freeman . . 
WiUiam Hall .. 
Thomas Endsor.. 
Thomas Ordish . . 
William Key . . 
John Pratt 
William Marriott 
Samuel Daulman 



£, t. d. 



1 1 
2 




6 


6 

2 6 
10 6 
10 6 



HOPWASy COTON, WIOOINTOK, &C. 

John Roe .. .. 2 2 

Peter Birch .. .. 110 

Humphry Woodcock . . 5 5 

Miss C. Jervis . . . . 3 3 

Miss Knight . . 10 6 

EUzabeth Riley.. .. 10 6 

Elizabeth Jackson ..050 

Elizabeth Cox .. ..010 

Robert Arnold .. 110 

Elizabeth Glorer .. 10 6 

Richard Long .. .,026 

James Pipe 110 

Ralph Marlow .. 10 

Thomas Proudman .. 10 6 

George Hobday, sen. . . 110 

John Russett 5 

James Haskew . . . . 10 6 

John Haskew . . 2 6 
Collected at the Church 
doors on the £ut-day 27 4) 



Note 20, page 156. 

OFFICERS UNDER THE NEW FORM OF 
MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT. 

MAYORS. 

1836 Jan. 1. Robert NeviU. 

1836 Not. 9. Joseph Knigbt. 

1837 Not. 9. William Parsons, sen. 

1838 Nov. 9. William Parsons, jnn. 

1839 Not. 9. John Hall. 

1840 Not. 9. Thomas Bnckerfield. 

1841 Not. 9. WiUiam Robinson. 

1842 Not. 9. Thomas Arnold. 

1843 Not. 9. Thomas Bramall. 

1844 Not. 9. Thomas Bramall. 

ALDERHEN. 

1835 Dec. 31. William Parsons, sen. ; Joseph Knight ; John 
Hall; Thomas Bnckerfield. 



XXXII. TAKWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

1838 June 22. Robert Nerill in the room of Joseph Knight, 
deceased. 

1838 Not. 9. William Parsons, sen.; Robert NeriU; John 

Hall ; William Parsons, jun. 
1841 Nov. 9. William Pknons, sen.; Robert Nevill; John 

Hall ; William Parsons, jun. 
1844 Feb. 19. Thomas Backerfield in the room of William 

Parsons, sen., deceased. 
1844 Nov. 9. Robert Nevill, John Hall, ^^Hlliam Pkrsons. 

Tliomas Backerfield. 

C0UNCILL0B8. 

1835 Dec. 26. William Parsons, jun.; John HaU; Joseph 

Knight ; John Butler ; Richard Bennet ; Richard 
Bird, jun. ; Robert Kirkman Fallows; Robert 
Nevill ; Tliomas Arnold ; Thomas Budcerfield ; 
Francis Hunter ; Robert Fowler. 

1836 Jan. 9. Samuel Hanson, W. Flatts, William Henry 

Wain, in the room of Alderman HaU, Knight, 
and Backerfield. 

1837 Nov. !• William Pfeursons, jun. ; Samuel Hanson ; WOliam 

PktU ; John Butler ; Richard Bennett ; Richaid 
Bird, jun. ; Robert Kirkman Fallows ; Robert 
Nevill ; T. Arnold ; W. H. Warn ; Francis Hunter; 
Richard Barratt. 
1888 Nov. 1. Samuel Hanson ; William Flatts ; JohnBotler; 
Richard Bird, jun. ; William Robinson ; Thomas 
Arnold ; William Henry Wain ; Francis Hunter, 
Richard Barratt; Robert Fowler; Thomas Bram- 
all : R. K. Fallows. 

1839 Nov. 1. Samuel Hanson; William Platts ; John Butler; 

Richard Bird ; William Robinson ; William 
Henry Wain ; Fhmcis Hunter ; Richard Bar- 
ratt ; Robert Fowler ; Thomas BramaU ; Robert 
Kirkman Fallows; William Rnfie. 

1840 Nov. a. Samuel Hanson ; WOliam Platts ; John Butler; 

William Robinson ; William Henry Wain ; 
Francis Hunter ; Richard Barratt ; Thomas 
Bramall ; William Rufie ; Thomas Arnold ; 
Thomas Backerfield ; Joseph Gray. 

1841 Nov. 1. William Platts; William Robinson; William 

Henry Wain; Fronds Hunter; Richard Bar- 
ratt ; Thomas Bramall ; William Rufie ; Thomas 
Arnold ; Thomas Buckerfield ; Joseph Gray ; 
Etienne Bruno Hamel ; Samuel Woodcock. 

1842 Nov. 1. William Platts; William Robinson; Fhmds 



APPENDIX. XXXIU. 

1842 Nov. 1. Hanter; Thomas Bramall ; Thomas Arnold; 
(e<Mtmued.J Thomas Buckerfield ; Joseph Graj ; Etienne 

Brono Hamel ; Samuel Woodcock ; Felix John 
Hamel ; Thomas Brooke Bridg;es Stevens ; 
James Dufiy. 

1843 Nov. 1. William Platts; William Robinson; Francis 

Hanter; Thomas Bramall; Thomas Arnold; 
Thomas Backerfield ; Joseph Graj ; Etienne 
Bruno Hamel ; Samuel Woodcock ; Felix John 
Hamel ; Thomas Brooke Bridges Stevens ; 
James Dufiy. 

1 844 Feb. 23. Robert Cave Browne, in the room of Alderman 

Backerfield. 

1844 Nov. 1. William Platts; William Robinson; Francis 

Hunter ; Thomas Bramall ; Thomas Arnold ; 
Robert Cave Browne ; Joseph Gray ; Etienne 
Bruno Hamel ; Samuel Woodcock ; Felix John 
Hamel; Thomas Brooke Bridges Stevens; 
James Dufiy. 

1845 Mar. 20. Jonathan Thompson, in the room of James 

Dnfiy, deceased. 

AUDITORS. 

1836 Mar. 1. Thomas Wainwright, Samuel Watton. 

1837 Mar. 1. Thomas Wainwright, Samuel Watton. 

1838 Mar. 1. William Weston, Edmund Eaton. 

1839 Mar. I. William Weston, Edmund Eaton. 

1840 Mar. 2. Edmund Eaton, William Roe. 

1841 Mar. I. William Roe, George Flint. 

1842 Mar. I. George Flint, Edmund Ebton. 

1843 Mar. 1. George Flint, Edmund Eaton. 

1844 Mar. 1. George Flint, Edmund Eaton. 

1845 Mar. 1. George Flint, Edmund Eaton. 

ASSESSORS. 

1836 Mar. 1. Joseph Keeling, WDliam Weston. 

1837 Mar. 1. Joseph Keeling, William Weston. 

1838 Mar. 1. Joseph Keding, David Arnold. 

1839 Mar. 1. Joseph Keeling, David Arnold. 

1840 Mar. 2. David Arnold, John Riley. 

1841 Mar. 1. David Arnold, George Flint. 

1842 Mar. 1. David Arnold, James Wallis. 

1843 Mar. 1. David Arnold, James Wallis. 

1844 Mar. 1. David Arnold, James Wallis. 

1845 Mar. 1. David Arnold, James Wallis. 



XXXIY. TAMWOBTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

DSPUTT AS8B880S8. 

1838 George Flint, Joseph Arnold. 

1839 George Flint. Joseph Arnold. 

1 840 Joseph Arnold, John Shilton. 

1841 Joseph Arnold, Richard Bennett. 

1842 Joseph Arnold. Richard Bennett. 

1843 Joseph Arnold, Samnel Mottrsm. 

1844 Joseph Arnold, Samoel Mottram. 

1845 Joseph Arnold, Samuel Mottram. 

TOWN CLBBK. 

1836 Francis WOUngton. 

TUBASURBBS. 

Etienne Bruno Hamei, from the 15th of Jan. 1836, to Nov. 
1841, when he was dected a member of the cooncil, and 
William Bindley was ^ypointed Treasurer. 

Note 21, page 217. 

Hugh de Babbington is mentioned in the Court-rolls of the 
town, on the Stafibrdshire side; where a suit oocars between 
him and John le Bloond de Lichfield, in 1312. 
May 14. 

Hngo de Babinton, Decanns Eoc'e de Tliamworth, invenit 
pleg', vider WUl'm le Saltere & Will'm Mathen. ad pV ▼* Joh'm le 
Blound de Lychfeld, Capl'm, in p'to debiti. 

Hugo de Babinton, Decan' Eoc'e de Thamworth, q' ▼' Joh'em 
le Bloand de Lychfeld. Capell'm, de pl'o debiti, p' Will'm atte 
cros, p mo. 
Jane 4. 

Joh' le Blond de Xychefeld n* Hngonem de Babynton, 
Decanmn Ecd'e Beate Edithe de Tamworth, de pl'to debiti, p' 
Rob't'm de Brewode, j® : qui quid' Hugo, per Will' ad Cmoem, 
attorn' sua', op' se u' p'd'c'm Joh', qui h' ^m. 
June 25. 

Joh'nes le Bloand de lych', capell*, def ' n' Hug' de Babington. 
decanu' ecc'e de Tameworth, de pl'o deb'i, p' Joh* Hendema', ^, 
Et d'c's Hag' p'sens op' se, & h't die'. 
July 16. 

Joh'es Blound de Lichfdd, capell'. def' n' Hugon' de Bab- 
inton, decan' ecc'e de Tamworth. de pl'o debiti. p' Joh'm le Bloand 
de Tamworth. iij«. 
August 6. 

Joh'es Blounde de Lychfdd. Capell'. defend' p' attomatu' sua' 

v' Hugon' de Babmton. Tamworth. de pl'o 

debiti, et p'd'tus Hugo, p' attomatu' sua*, et Joh'es h't diem 
Tsq' ad p'z'm in Esson'. 



APPENDIX. XXXY. 

August 27. 
Joh'es Bloond de Lycbfeld et Hogo de Babinton concordat! 
sunt : et p'dVs Hugo ponit se in m'ia : pV de m'ia, Will' le Salt'e. 

Note 22, page 218. 

Many writen, especially Erdeswick and Shaw, have given mnch 
concerning the family, whose surname was derived from Hopwas. 
Perhaps the following particulars, taken from the Court-rolls of 
Tamworth, may prove of interest to antiquaries. 

Alanus filius G. de hop' is named 14 Edw. I. 

Nov. 17, 20 Edw. I :— Will's Matheu dat Ric', suo nepoti, 
t'dam p't* vni' Burg' in feodo in Com' Stafiurd, & Matill' fil' Alicie 
de Hopwas, q'rta' p'tem vni' burg* in Comit' Warwykye. 

May 23, 23 Edw. I :— Johannes de Hopwas. 

July 28, 3 Edw. II :— Staff. Tastatores present' Ric's de 
Hopwas, p' prava s'nica [cerevisia]. 

June 12, 3 Edw. II : — Ricardus filius Roberti de Hopwas. 

Nov. 6, 6 Edw. II :-*It' p' hu' leuatu' int' Ric' de Hopewas 
& Leticia', sororem suam, & Juliana de Hopewas, ad injuria' p'd'ti 
Ric' Id'o &c. 

June 8, 6 Edw. II: — Ric' de Hopwas in m', q' maledizit 
francipleg', in contemptu Cur' : pleg' w eel. Junior. 

Sept. 30, 8 Edw. II :— Willielmns de Hopwas. 

Nov. 10, 12 Edw. II:— Rog' le Coup'e traxit Will' fil' Job' 
de Hopewas iniuste. I'o in misericordia. 

Aug. 4, 20 Edw. II :— WiU's Herb't no' est p's q'rel' sua' u' 
Letidam de Hopewas* Id'o ip'e & pleg' suu' in m'ia, et Letic' 
sine die. 

Octob., 3 Edw. Ill:— Ric' de Hopewas facit Oleu' iux' 
vici*os suos, ad abominado'm & nocumentu' toti' vicinitat'. Et p'p' 
hoc p'hibet' s'b dj' marc' q' amplius no' tenet' ibi tale domu' &c. 
ad tale op'. 

March, 8 Edw. Ill : — Hugo de Hopewas. 

Octpb. 7, 10 Edw. Ill : — ^Agnes de Hopewas. 

Sept. 30, 16 Edw. Ill : — ^Alanus filius Alani de Hopwas. 

Octob. 13, 28 Edw. Ill :— m'ia ij» It' pr' q'd Will's xij'* s'uiens 
Hugonis de Hopewas, & Joh'es de Hopewas (xij^) t'xeru't sang' 
de Joh'e Juwet, [etc.] 

July 9, 43 Edw. Ill :— Sciant &c q'd nos, Joh'es de Hopewas 
& Christiana vxor mea, dedimus, &c.,01iuero Clede de Tamworth, 
capell'o, her' & assign' suis, vnu' messuag, cu' om'ib' p'tin' suis in 
Tamworth, in Com' Stafford', p'ut iacet in Otewalestrete [etc.] 

May 22, 2 Rich. 11. Thomas filius Johannis de Hopewas. 

Octob. 26, 13 Rich. II. John de Hopewas was one of the jury 
of the leet. 

Jan. 16, 14 Rich. II :^Joh' de Hopewas & C'tiana uxor eius. 



XXXVl. TAMWO&TH CASTLB AND TOWN- 

March 2, 16 Rich. II : — Radalphns de Hopewas. 

May 1, 3 Hen. VI :^WiUielmii8 Hopewas. 

May 11, 29 Hen. VI :*-TaiUtore8 pm' ij^. Nich' 

us Hopewas* p' obstup' j foesat' ap^ Walleforlong. 

Jan. 17, 30 Hen. VI :— Ad istam Cur*, venit Rad'ns hope- 
was & fee' fine' cu' Ball'b p' inqoisico'e h'end' qois est p'x' heres 
Ric'o Sampson & Joh'e fitio dos : & dicit q'd Ric'aa Sampson & 
Ric' Dawte descend' de doabns sororibQS,&dict' Ric'& Joh'es obier' 
sine hered' : & de diet' Ric'o Dawte descend' Alio' fil' eins, & 
nupt' fait Joh'i Hopewas, & de p'dict Alic' descend' Rad'o hope- 
was, modo pet' &c., per sacr'm Ric'i Dalton, Homfr' Jaccbe, 
Nich'i Smyth, Henr' Conper. Joh'is I^ynce, Thome Mathew, 
Joh'es Rote, Thome Jaet, Ric'i Rageley, Joh'is Starky, Job' Bel- 
grave, & Job' Gefirey, & Job' Joyner, inrat' sop' sacr'm sau' quod 
Radulpbns Hopewas est p'x' heres Ricardi Sampson. 

Henricus, dei gra' Rex Anglic & Francie, & IXos Hib'n', 
Balliais suis de Tamworth salotem. Precipim' vob' q'd inste & sine 
dil'one & s'c'd'm consnetudinem maneri] de Tamworth, plenum rec^ 
turn teneatis Rad'o Hopewas de vno mesoagio cum p'tin' in 
Tamworth, quod Joh'es Bate d'icus, Ric'us Goldeson, & Ric'os 
Erne ei deforc'. Ne ampl' inde dam' and' p' deftu'recti. T* me 
ip'o apud Westm., xxriij die Nouembr., Anno r.n. tricesimo. 

Feb. 6. 30 Hen. VI : — Rad'ns hopewas. qui tulit breue d'ni Reg' 
p'uu' v's' Job' Bate, cl'icum, Ric'm Goldesone, & Ric'm Erne, in 
pladto terre, mortuuus est. 

Feb. 27, 30 Hen. VI : — Henricus, dei grsada Rex Pre- 

cipimus vobisquod plenum rectum teneatis Will' o fil' Rad'i 

hopewas de vno mesuagio cum p'tin' in Tamworth quod Joh'es 
Bate d'icus. Will's Neweport Armig', Ric'us Goldeson, & Ric'us 
Eme ei'defore'. Ne ampl' inde clam' and' p' deftu'recti. T* me 
jp'o apud Westm', xxv) die Januarij, Anno r. n. tricesimo. 

October, 30 Hen. VI : — Nicholaus hopewas. 

Note 23, page 223. 

"To all men, to whom this p'sent wrytyng trip'tyd indentyd 
scbal] Come, Dame Dorothe Ferrers, widow, late the wyfife of S' 
John Ferrers, knyght, sendith gretyngin our lA>rd god £u'la8t3rng. 
Whereas I, the seyd Dorothe, By my Dede indentyd datyd the 
xx^ day of octobr in the xxij yere of y* Reign of our sou'eign 
Lord, kyng Henry y* viij, haue enfeofled WUl'm Repyngton of 
lytyll Amyngton, Gent., fraunces repyngton, his son and heire 
apparant, John Jeks of Tamworth, in the countie of Warr., Gen- 
tilma', Richard Jeks, his son And heire apparant, Thomas 
wodshaw of tamworth aforseyd, chapma', John wodshaw, his 
son and heire apparant, Thomas Golson of Tamworth, yema', 
homfrey Golson, bis son and heire apparant, Richard Coton of 



APPENDIX. XXXVU. 

Coton, yema', John coton, his son and heire apparent, nycholas 
Golson of Dntyton basset, yema', John Golson, his son and heire 
apparent, John Darlaston of wigginton, John Darlaston, his son 
and heire apparant, Nycholas melbom late of Wigginton, yeman, 
John melliam, his son and heire apparant, their heires And 
assignes, of and in eon Burgage in tamworth aforeeid, lying in 
the stret caUed le Batcher, And extendith in bred'e betwixt the 
burgage of humfrey Ferren, esqnier, my son and here, on the on 
p'te. And the Burgage of John Jeks on the other p'tie, and 
eztentheth in lengthe from the kyng's bye way to the Grounde of 
the Vicare of the colege of saynt E^th of tamworth, Wich I, the 
seyd Dame Dorothe, late p'chesed of on Richard Bowris of North- 
ampton ; And of all other my lands and ten'ts, medowes, lesees, 
pastur'. And other hereditaments, w^ thdr Appurten'nces, lying 
& beyng in The fee of Wiggynton, In the Countie of staff., wich 
I, the seyd Dame Dorothe, lately purchesed of oon Raffe lago to 
the vse of me, tiie seyd Dame Dorothe, and for the p'formance of 
my last will, know tx that my full mynde, will, and intent is 
that My seyd fefiees, their heire and assignes for eu', schall snffbr 
the balties of the toon of tamworth aforeseyd And their successore, 
for the tyme beyng, yerely to receyue and take all the rents, 
issues, and p'fits, comyng And Growyng out or by reson of the 
eeyd burgage, land, and ten'ts. And other the p'misses for eu', to 
the uses and intents hereaft' ensuyng : that is to sey, I will tiiat 
the same baillies And their successore, for the tyme beyng, schall 
for eu' the x} day of the Monyth of July, cause a obbit to be kept 
in the church of seynt Edith in tamworth aforseyd, with all the 
hool quere there. And to haue a solemn dirig to be song in the 
evenyng of the same day. And masse of requiem on the next 
morow, then specially to prey for the soule of the said Sr. John 
Ferren my late husband, and the soule of me, the seyd Dame 
Dorothe, the soules of willm. harp' esquier and margaret his 
wiff my fiftther & mother, and all Cristen soules. And I will 
y^ eu'y of the vicare seruyng in the seyd church And beyng at 
y* seyd Dirge and se3ring mass on the morow for the soules 
Aforenamed, have, for his labur, iTjd. It'm, to eu'y of the too 
Decons in the seyd church, iijd. It'm, for ryngyng of the too 
Cnylls, viijd. It'm, for the hyre of iiij tapure to bren about the 
herse, in the tyme of the seyd servis, viijd. It'm, to the belman 
of tamworth aforseyd, for the tyme Beyng, ijd. It'm, to be 
dely'd the seyd tyme yerly to pooer people dwellyng in the seyd 
toun of Tamworth att ther houses, by the discresion of the seyd 
baillies, for y* tyme Beyng, iTJs. viijd. It'm, my mynd is that 
Eu'y on of the iiij baillies of tamworth Aforeeyd schall offer, 
Eu'y on of them, a ob' at the seyd masse of requiem ; and Eu'y 
on of them to tske iiij for ther labur in executyng this my Will 



XXXVUl. TAMWOBTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

of suche money as they achaU receyue of the rents of the seyd 
Bnrgag and other the p'miaes. It*m, I will y^ they vican of tiie 
seyd church, for the tyme heyng, eehall yerely have Tiijd. to pn^ 
for the aooles aforeaeyd in their hedroll. It'm, I will y^ the aeyd 
bailies of Tamworth And ther aacoesaors, for the tyme Beyng, 
achall yerely pay vn to the Grey frerya stt lychleld iija. iiijd., aoo 
that y * same frerya for en', the aeyd xj day of the monyth of Joly, 
ayng dirig bv nite in the Monaat'y, And maaae of Reqoiem the 
next moroo toloyng, apecialy for my aeyd hnaband'a aonle. And 
Myne, and for Uie aooles of the aeyd will'm harp' and Mazg'et 
hia wiff my father & mother, & aJl Gristen aoolea. And en'y 
frere in the aaid houae there, beyng preeat, to aey, the aame Day 
or dla one day in the aame Weke, oon maaae of requiem for the 
aoulea aforereheraed. It'm, I will in lyke wise that the frerya att 
Aderaton achall yerely have ija. to ayng dirige. And maaae of 
requiem in ther monast'y, the aeyd Deys, for Uie aoolea of the 
p'aona afomamed. and farther, I will Uiat yff ther be iij or iiij 
aonll preeata, wich achall for fortune to a've in the aeyd church 
of Tamworth att anch tyme aa the aeyd yer' mynd or obit achal- 
be kept, then I will en'y of them bane iiijd., aoo that they sey 
dirige and maaae of requiem the aeyd tyma, for the aoolea aforre- 
heraed. And my fa'ther will and mynd ia y', aft' all thea 
paymenta and chaga in forme aforaeyd be payd borne and 
also aU eheif renta and other yerely chargea and suites hereaft' 
Goyng out or to be due by reaon of the aeyd Bnrgag, lands, 
t'enta. And other the p'misaea, be truly Content and payd, then 
the reaydne of the money, wich schalbe Beceyued and taken of 
the renta, iaauea, & p'fita, Commyng or growyng of, or by reson 
of, the seyd burgage, lands, ten'ts. And other the p'misses to be 
put in a Box lodiyd, whereof the seyd Baylliea to kepe the key, 
and then to be dely'ved to suche a preist in the seyd churche of 
tamworth, which is comjmly called seint Georg's preiste, for the 
tyme Beyng, and he safly to kepe the same, to thenteut that the 
aeyd Money, wich soo remaynyth schall maynteyn, beer, and kepe 
all man' of repparracons and other chai^, wich schalbe nesaesaary 
or ought to Be Doon upon or by reson of the p'misses or eny 
p'cell theroff. 

D. F. 

Note 24, page 238. 

Since we wrote the History of the Church, a clerical change 
has taken place. Early in the present year, the rev. R. C. 
Savage was presented by the Queen to the vicarage of Nuneaton, 
in Warwickshire ; and he has in consequence resigned this living. 
Captain it Court has subsequently appointed the rev. E. Haraton, 
M. A., both as vicar and perpetual curate of the Church. 



APPENDIX. XXXIX. 

NAMES OF CHURCHWARDENS. 

From the Court Rotti, PaHMh Begitter, ^. 

1455 John Fletcher. 

1456 John Goldson, John GeSrey. (Oct. 26.) 
1470 Peter Goabout, John Woodshaw. (Oct. 23.) 
1488 Richard Woodshaw, William Green. (Nov.) 
1505 Richard Breton, John Irp. (Oct. 21.) 

1507 Richard Breton, Thomas Goldson. (Nov.) 

1508 John Gillot, Nicholas Symond. (Oct.) 

1509 John Jekes, John Irp. (Oct. 15.) 

1511 Richard Breton, Richard Coton. (Not.) 

1598 William Wightwick, Nicholas Vanghton. 

1599 Robert Lysatt, Edward Taylor. 

1600 Ralph Dawman, Christopher Wilcox. 

1601 Robert Gratwick, Henry Hall. 

1602 Richard Cheatle, Thomas Vanghton. 

1603 George Onion, John Vanghton. 

1 604 John Keeling, Thomas Allen. 

1605 John Hall, Richard Scale. 

1606 Clement Joell, Richard Onion. 

1607 Rowland Frances, Henry Hill. 

1 608 Thomas Massy, Henry Wilcox. 

1609 Ambrose Hood, John Wright. 

1610 Richard Fletcher, William Farmer. 

1611 John Oldrich, Erasmus Mousley. 

1612 John Sharp, John Vale. 

1613 Hugh Gierke, William Elliott. 

1614 Richard Wright, William Earp. 

1615 Adam Tnrton, Richard Wright. 

1616 John Scale, Richard Lattimer. 

1617 John Bache, Christopher Harthill. 

1618 John Nicholson, Richard Harding. 

1619 Edward Willington, Christopher Wilcox. 

1620 Thomas Kebb, Richard Mousley. 
1628 W. Smith, J. Ellis. 

1635 George Orton, Francis Freeman. 

1660 Walter Ashmore, John Osbom. 

1661 Gerard Wagstaff, Comdius Osbom. 

1 662 Thomas Jones, John Sutton. 

1663 Thomas Carter, John Dawes. 

1664 Gilbert Jordan, John Vanghton. 

1665 Francis Wood, John Bankes. 

1666 Robert Peake, Edward Smith. 

1667 Edward Smith. 

1 668 John Clifton, Thomas Batman* 



xl. TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

1669 WiDiam WUcoz, Jotiali Newey. 

1670 Thomas Talbut, William Michell. 

1 67 1 Thomas Pratt, Richard Hair. 

1 672 Joseph Kej, Joseph Batman. 

1673 William Cawne, WHliam Harding. 

1674 Francis Wright. William Wikoz. 

1 676 Morgan Powell, Robert Green. 

1677 Charles Baynton, Edmand Chamberlain. 

1678 William Ashley, Isaac Orton. 

1 679 Edward Drayton, William Hazeldine. 

1 680 Thomas Roades, Joseph Radford. 

1681 John Vamham, Rob^ Cawne. 

1682 Samuel Orton, George Wright. 

1683 Daniel Jordan, David Read. 

1684 Edward Symonds, Ridiard Weaman. 

1685 Samad Bnckland. 

1686 John Vangbton, Francis Wood. 

1 687 Thomas Talbnt, Thomas Wagstaff. 

1688 William Harding. 

1690 William Harding, Charles Ptoicer. 

1692 George Wagstaff. 

1693 Edwvd Bradgate, John Bankes. 

1694 Richard Weaman, Joseph Batman. 

1695 Samuel Orton, John Dawes. 

1702 George Hood, Joseph Wilcox. 

1703 Thomas Homer, John Harthill. 
1710 John Vangbton sen., John Uby. 
1726 Beilby Laycock, Thomas Vangbton. 
1728 William Pickard, John Lattimer. 
1730 Joseph Hood, Abraham Waterson. 

1 759 John Vangbton, James Dawes. 

1 760 Thomas meman, Nathaniel Crosland. 

1761 John Kendal, John Waterson. 

1762 John Kendal, William Bishop. 

1763 John Kendal, William Bishop. 

1764 Nathaniel Crosland, William Bishop. 

1765 Nathaniel Croslahd, Walter Howe. 

1766 Thomas Nicbolls, Walter Howe. 

1 767 John Blood, Samuel Ball. 

1 768 George Godfrey, William Weston. 

1769 George Godfrey, Job Hunter. 

1770 Joseph Heath, Job Hunter, They continued 

until 1773. 

1 773 Edward Panton, WilHam Dyall. 

1 774 Edward Panton, WilUam DyaU. 

1775 John Bindley, Henry Watterson. 



APPENDIX. xli. 

1776 George Godfrey, Henry Watterson. Both 
continaed until 1 78 L • 

1781 George Godfrey, John Bindley. Both con- 
tinued until 1787. 

1787 George Godfrey, Joseph Heath. They con- 
tinued until 1789. 

1 789 George Godfrey, John Bindley. 

1790 George Godfrey, John Bindley. On the 4th 

of July, Thomas Shearshy was chosen, in 
the place of G. Godfrey, deceased. 

1791 Thomas Shearsby, Josiah Marshall. 

1792 Thomas Shearsby, Josiah Marshall. On the 

1 7th of December, James Yeomans was cho- 
sen in place of J. Shearsby, who left the town. 

1793 James Yeomans, Robert Panton. They con- 

tinued until 1797. 

1797 Robert Panton, Edward Thurman. They 
continued until 1800. 

1800 James Yeomans, Edward Thurman. They 
continued until 1804. 

1 804 Robert Panton, Edward Thurman. They con- 
tinued until 1807. 

1807 Edward Thurman, Josiah Marshall. They 
continued until 1813. 

1813 William Parsons, Joseph Knight. 

1814 Edward Thurman, Richard Bennett. They 

continued until 1819. 

1819 Edward Thurman, Richard Bennett. 

John Hall. 

1820 Edward Thurman, John Hall. They con- 

tinued until 1823. 

1823 John Hall, William Parsons jun. 

1824 John Hall, Thomas Marshall. 

1825 Richard Peters, Thomas Marshall. 

1826 Richard Barratt, Thomas Marshall. They 

continued until 1829. 

1829 Thomas MarshaU, Thomas Bindley. 

1830 Thomas Marshall, Richard Barratt. They 

continued until 1833. 

1833 Thomas MarshaU, Thomas Arnold. 

1834 Charles J. Berrie, Thomas Arnold. 

1835 Thomas Arnold, Etienne Bruno Hamel. 

1836 Thomas Arnold, Etienne Bruno Hamel. 

1 837 fVands Hunter, Etienne Bruno Hamel. 

1 838 Francis Hunter, Thomas Bramall. They con- 

tinued until 1842. 



xlii. 



TAMWOBTH CA8TLB AND TOWN. 



1842 John Batler, Thomas Bnunall. Tbej oon- 
turned until 1844. 

1844 John Butler, Etienne Bruno HameL 

1 845 John Felthouse. Job Castle Righton. 

Note 25, page 252. 
NAMES OF THE KEEPERS OF THE LIGHTS. 









Fnm the Cmrt R6Ua. 










HOI.T TBliriTT 


IB. V. Makt 


St. Oioaoi 8r. Katv- |SJricBOi.AS 












■Ellis. 




Oct S3 


1470 


Rob.GoldMn 


&6b. GoldMMI 




11io.WeaTflr 


T1io.Wei:f« 


Not. 


1488 


Rob. Shepherd 








Nidi. Moon 


Oct. SI 


1506 




]Udi.OolDii 


TluhToTy 




lli«di.Gtaike 


Not. 


1607 




Wm.Howfh 


John am 




Jiio.Lywtt 


Oct 


1608 




Italph Smith 


Rich.Alco<^ 




liio.8wipMa 


Oct 10 


1609 




8tMih.Bwnow 
NUSTwebstor 


Nlch. Bidiop 




RlduOottaa 


Not. 


1511 




JohnMMon 




Jno. Green 


Oct 18 


161« 


nio. DttlaBton 








JnoJtapinstai 



The fragment of a court-roll, the date of which is gone, but appa- 
rently of Uie reign of Henry VIII., gives the foUowing statement. 

Roger Ashwood was elected, for the year, keeper of the light 
of St. Nicholas ; and there remained in the box delivered to him 6«. 

Nicholas Webster was chosen, for the year, keeper of the light 
of the Holy IVinity ; and there remained in tiie box delivered to 
hun, 28. 6d. 

Henry Irpe was elected, for the year, keeper of the light of St. 
George ; and there remained in the box delivered to him, 1 Is, 6tf. 

Note 26, page 349. 

Extracts relating to the lords of Tamworth-Castle, etc., 
taken from the '*Calnedarium inquisitionum post mortem sive 
escaetarum." 

Anno 20 E. I., no. 36. 

Philippus Marmton. 
Lincoln'. Scrivelbymaner'&baroniaextent'. Lincoln' measnag' 
ib'm. Langeton maner' extent*. 

Warr'. Middelton maner' extent*. Sutton boscus cum chacea. 
Hbrbford'. Frene maner*. lastrys maner*. Bradford maner' 
extent*. 

Salop*. Kilpeck feod*. Purlebeck maner*. Hokelith baU*ia 
forest*. 

OxoN*. Ghakenden maner* extent*. Stoke Marmiun maner*. 
WiooRN*. Charleton feotC. 

Warr*. Dedon, Waverton Fresell, Witacre, Drakenegg, La 
Lee, Fellingley,— ;/«o(fa. 
Lbicbstr*. Langetoni Wanestanston maner*, Fleckney, Shake- 



APPENDIX. xliii. 

lesaton maner\ Snarkeston, Barton, Cnngeston, Odeston maner*, 

SattoQ, Wisteneatow ecd'ia, Stanton maner' eed'ia, Shameford, 

Schenesby, Aymeresthorp, Frodesworth, Monaeley, Somerdby, 

'Erehwrgh,'^eoda, 

Lxicestk'. Quinton maner* cum Rodbretf-^eoda. 

SussBx'. Berewike maner* ecd'ia,— 3/0O(fa. 

Stafford'. Tamworth eocFia cum sex prebend' in eadem & de 

Yalore eanim,^eoda. 

Lincoln'* Wintringham maner*, Wollingbam jozta Lincoln', 

Trikingham, Stowe, Kisebye, Fooleatowe, Sutblangeton, Scrivelby 

maner*, Thakewell,— /anfa. 

Warr*. Pirycrofte maner*,^ Glaacote maner', Tamworthe maner*, 



Anno 23 E. L, no. 55. 

Joh'a de Mortbtn. 
Salop*. Pulrebache maner* extent'. 

Warr*. Tamworth Castr' extent'. Poleye maner*. Aachelond 
4 acr* cmn piscaria in Auncre. Midddton maner* extent*. 
Freseley, Overwitacre, Netherwitacre, Drakenegge,— ^eocfo. 

Anno 8 £• IL, no. 45. 

Maria uxor Philipfi dx Marmton. 
Warr*. Midddton maner' 3 part' extent' tenetor de eccleaia 
a'ce £d3rthe de Thomworth. 

Lincoln*. Wilkyaby nnam croftam 36 acr' terr' 3 acr* dimid' 
rod' prat' &c. Dalderby una placea terr' & 9«. 2d, reddit'. Con- 
ingysby nna acr' & 3 rod* prat'. 

Feoda. 
Stafford'. Tomorthe prebend' in ecdesia coUegiali ib'm valens 
4/. &c. Lincoln*. Wintringham & Wylingham 4 feod*. Tri- 
kingham 4 part* feod*. Keaby onum feod*. Fouleatowe 2 part' 
feod*. Wilkesbye tertia presentatio ecd'ise. 

Anno 2 £. lU., no. 34. 

Albxandbr db Frxvill. 
Hbrbf*. La Feme, Bradeford,—- qnedam tenementa ib'm p 
aervic* 6te p'tia j feod' apud Kilpeck castmm. 
WiLTBs*. Wynterbume. Assherton maner*. 
Warr*. Tameworth caatr*. Midddton maner* 3 tia p'a. 

Anno 13 £. IIL,no. 14. 

Joh'a uxor Albxandri db Frbyill. 
Warwic'. Tamworthe castrum. 
WiLTBs'. Aaaerton maner'. 

1 At tUs time^ the manor of Penycroft wu hdd In caplte, by service of flndlns 
ftid end Utter for the 1dng*e duonber, whenever he ahoold come to Tunwortti. The 
Utter served for the royal carpet. 



xliv. TAMWORTH CASTLE AND TOWN. 

Anno 17 E. III., no. 37. 

Baldbwtnus dx Frtttll. 
NoRFOLc', Welyngbam maner' ext*. 

Hbbxford'. Tatiodon Magna ezt'. De la Feme maner' ezt'. 
Kylpeck maner'. 

Wilts'. Yateabury un' toft' &c. 

Wioorn'. Crowenste hamelet ezt'. Rughall maner* ext'. 
Warwic'. Tamworth caatrom & terr'. Middelton maner*. 
Statford'. Wygmton terr' parcell' caatri de Tamworth. Dray- 
ton molend*. Tamworth terr' &c. 

Anno 49 £. III., no. 57, 

Baldbwinus db Frbtill ch'r. 
WiLTBs'. Yateabury villa un' came' terr'. 
Lincoln'. Wilaeby & Conyngeaby 14 acr' terr'. 
Warwic'. Tamworth castram & maner'. Middelton maner' 4» 
pars. De la Lee maner' extent'. Pathelowe, Chesterton* Wy- 
shawe, Fresleye, Merston juxta Eynnesbory, Crodeshall, — terr 
8c ten*. Stretford juxta Tamworth maner'. Shortley maner'. 
Beandesert maner' & castrum. Henley maner'. Whitcherch 
maner'. Wellesbume maner'. Mountford maner'. 

Hbrbford'. Tadinton maner* extent'. Bradford maner^ ex- 
tent'. Mawene maner' extent'. 

Stafford'. Tamworth advoc' collegi