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INDEX 



EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS 



HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES 



FOR THB 



SECOND SESSION OF THE FOETY-FIPTH CONGRESS, 



1877-'78. 



IN aa VOLUMES 



VOLUME XIV.— No8. 34 to 72, except Nos. 34, 39, 51, and 61. 



WASHINGTON: 

OOYISBNMBNT PRINTING OKFIOE. 

1878. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



INDEX TO HOUSE EXECUTIVE DOCUMENTS. 



> 



N. 



CONTENTS OF THE VOLUMES. 






TOI. 1 

ToL. 2. 

Vox- 3. 

TOL. 4. 

Vol- 5. 

Vol 6. 

TOU 7. 

TOL. 8. 

TOL. 9. 

You 10. 



-FOREIGN RELATIONS : No. 1, pt 1. 
.WAR: No.l. pta, v.l. 

£!«Gl]rEEBS : Ka 1 , pt. 2, v. 2, pt 1. 
E2f GCCKKBS : Xo. 1. pt 2, T. S, pt 2. 
Obdxaxci : Na 1, pt 2, v. a 
Signal Offick : Na 1, pt 2, ▼. 4. 
NAVY AND POSTMASTER: No. 1, 

parts 3 and 4. 
.rS'TERIOR : Na 1, pt 5, v. 1. 

Education : Na 1, pt 5, v. 2. 
.No. 1. partB 6, 7, e, and Noa. 7 to 33, in- 

olasiTe. 
.KEPORT OF THE SECRETARY OF 
TREASURY : No. 2. 



'*lf^J 



Vol. 12..N08. 3 and 4. 

Vol. 13. .N08. 5, 6, 61, and 73. 

Vol. 14. .Noa. 34 to 72, except Noa. 34, 39, 51. and M. 

Vol. 15..No8.35and39. 

Vol. l«..Na51. 

Vol. 17.. Noa. 74 to 101, inclusive, ezcept^oa. 89 

and 90. 
Vol. 18.. No. 89, Fibiibrt Awards, ▼. 1. 
Vol. 19.. No. 89, Fishbbt Awards, y.2. 
Vol. 20.. No. 89, Fishbrt Awards, t. 3. 

VOU 21.. No. 90, COMMKRCB AKD NaVIGATIOX- 

VoL. 22.. No. 102, Commercial Relations. 



INDEX TO THE DOCUMENTS. 



Subject. 



Volume. 



AdjatADt-General, report of the freedmen's branch of ofiBoe of. 
Agneoltnre, message of the President, transmitting a special 

report on forestry by the Commissioner of 

Appointment of cadets by the President, letter from the Attor- 
nej-General, in response to a resolution of the House in re- 
gard to 

Appropriations, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 

transmitting estimates of 

Appropriations, deficiency in, for the Army, letter from the 
Secretary of War, transmitting estimates 

for 

deficiency in, for 1878 and prior years, letter 
from Secretary of Treasury, transmitting 

estimates for 

estimates of, for payment of claims due prior 
to July 1, 1875, letter from the Secretary of 

the Treasury, transmitting 

Arid regions of the United States, report of Maj. J. W. Powell 



Arisona, military roads in, letter from the Secretary of War 
in relation thereto 

Aikan^^ Hivcr^ ^^l^ort of Chief of ELi;^lueers upon the neces- 

aitj of tbe impravomentor , 

Ama^O«orge R., Letter frotn the SccTctniy of War, transmit- 

tlngreport of Adjiitant-Gfanisral iu tbi^ case of 

A11DJ appropriations, for certain dolioioaciea in 

Aimy^ieport of the Qeneral of the (voL 1) 

*uppl(*meDtal report of the (vol* I) 

report of the Jodgtr-Aiivocfitc-Geueral of the (vol. 1) .. . 

npoTt of the Quarter nia^ter-Ooueral of the (vol. 1) 

repoEt of the CommiBeary-^Gcneral of the Subsistence of 

th^fvoL 1) 

J^port of the Sorgeon-Goueral of the (vol. 1) 

rvporf of the Payraaater-Qeucral of the (vol. 1) 



2 

10 



No. Part. 



10 



14 



10 
13 
10 
10 



14 70 
13 5 



18 



45 



27 
73 
21 
22 



10 


12 




10 


18 




2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 


2 


1 


2 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



n 



IND£X« 



Subject. 



Volome. 



B. 

Barracks, letter from tlie Secretary of War, recommending ap- 
propriations for new, at Fort Monroe, Va 

Batfa, Me., letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting re- 
port of engineer upon the improyement of the "gnt" oppo- 
site 



18,19,20 



Blackwat er River, in Virginia^ letter from the Secretary of War, 
Iran^Diitting report of engineer npon the improvement of.. . 

Board of Health of District of Columbia, annnal report of 

Board of Visitors of Military Academy, report of (vol. 1 ) 

Board of Visitors of the Government Hospital for the Insane, 
report of (vol. 1) ,.. 

Board of Commissioners of the Soldiers' Home, report of (vol. 1) . 

Bonds, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, in response to 
a resolution of the House, in reference to the sale of United 
States, for outstanding legal-tender notes 

Bridge, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting report 
of engineer upon bridging the Saginaw River at East Sagi- 
naw, Mich 

Bureau of Statislics, annual report of Chief of, on the com- 
merce and navigation of the United States 

C. 

Cadets, letter from the Attorney-Greneral, in response to a reso- 
lution of the House, in reference to the appointment of, to 

the Naval and Military Academies, by the President 

Canal, Dismal Swamp, letter from the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury in reference to the Interest of the government in., 
ship. Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan, letter from the 
Secretary of War, transmitting the report of engineer 

on the improvements of 

Certificate of citizenship, to seamen during year ending Decem- 
ber 31, 1877, letter from the Secretary of State, transmitting 
an abstract of retnms made by collectors of customs of the 
number of seamen who had received 



14 



14 

14 

10 

2 

8 
2 



No. Part. 

I 



Aimj, report of the Chief of Engineers of the (being vol. 2, ' 

parts land 2) 1 3 and 4 

report of the Chief of Ordnance of the (being vol. 3).. .1 5 

report of the Chief Signal Officer of the (being vol. 4) . . . ' 6 

letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting esti- ' 
mates of appropriations for certain deficiencies in ap- I 

propriations for the 10 

letter from the Secretary of War, showing the distribu- ! 

tion of United States troops ' 14 

Attorney- General, annual reporter the 10 

letter from the, in response to a resolution of . i 

the House in reference to the appointment 
of cadets to the Naval and Military Acad- j 

emies, by the President I 14; 70 

letter from the, in response to a resolution | 
of the House in relation to snits against , * 

the Kansas Pacific Railroad ; 17 

letter from the, in response to a resolution j 
of the House, transmitting a list of nar- i 
* dons by the President between March 4, 

1877, and May 20. 1878 17 

Award of the Fishery Commission, aocnments and proceed- 
ings of the Halifax (3 vols.) 



14 
10 



14 



Chickahominy Kiver, report of the engineer upon the improve- 
ment of .' 



Chief of Bureau of Statistics, annual report of, on the com- 
merce and navigation of the United States 21 90 

Chief of Ordnance, annual report of the (voL 3) 5 1 

Cincinnati, harbor of, report of the engineer concoming the 
best method of protecting, from ice T^pizld by Cj^Ofei 



14 



16 

55 

7 



76 



100 



43 



56 

60 
1 



14 63 

14 ' 57 
21 I 90 



I 



70 
19 



44 



14 I 68 



60 



7 
2 

5 
2 



1.2 



INDEX. 



in 



Subject. 



ClAims, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmittiDg 

list of, allowed under act of July 4, 1864 

letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting 
an estimate of appropriations for payment of, origf- 
natinisc prior to July 1, 1875| under section 3687 and 

3689 Revised Statutes 

Clerks in the War Department, letter from the Secretary of 

Wtr, transmit ting a list of 

Coist Survey, annual report of Superintendent 

Colombia Hospital for Women and Lying-in Asylum, annual 

report of (vol. 1) 

Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, annual report of 

(vol.1) 

Colorado, letter from the Secretary of War, in response to a 
resolution of the House concerning the protection of resi- 
dents of, against the Indians 

Colorado and New Mexico, letter from the Secretary of War, 

transmitting report on lines of communication between 

Commerce and navigation of United States, report of Chief of 

Bureau of Statistics 

Commercial relations of the United States with foreign coun- 
tries, report upon the, for the year 1877 

Commission, Hot Springs, report (vol.1) 

letter from the Secretary of State, transmitting 
correspondence, &c., in connection with the, 
appointed by the President to visit Louisiana 

in April, 1877 

award of the Halifax Fishery (3 vols.) 

Venezuelan mixed claim, message from the Presi- 
dent, transmittingcorrespondence between Ven- 
ezuela and the United States in regard thereto.. 

Commissioner of Education, annual report of the 

0>mmis8ioner of Customs, report of 

Commissioner of Pensions, report of (vol. 1) 

Commissioner of Agriculture, message of the President, trans- 
mitting report on forestry by 

(Commissioner of Internal Revenue, annual report of, with table 

showing receipts from 

each specific source, <&c . . 

report of, with additional 

statements and tables . . . . 

Commissioner of General Land Office, report of (vol. 1) 

Commissioner of Patents, annual report of 

Coimnissioner of Indian Affairs, statements of disbursements 

for the Indian Department 

for 1877 

report of (vol. 1) 

papers accompanying the 

above report (vol. 1) 

Commissioners to treat with Sitting Bull, report of (vol. 1) . .. 
CoiDmisfti oners of the District of Columbia^ nDiiaal report of.. 

C<Mi)niiMriitry-Gt'nenil o{ Siib*iif«lijnci>, rt^port of , 

CoromotJilion uJlnvrwl otlk'<.'rF» in cortiiiii clti^^'^Jetti^r from the 
Stcr^tary of WikT^ tratiHttiJttinjr a. lUt of oflictirs wlnj roceived 

fiic^foT^Ve, sad qnaH«ra iu ttrfuiu citiort • 

CammotAUon of quartrrs, fijol, and fonij^e, kltrr from the. 
5scf*laTy of War, recommomlinK an ainendnn;ut of the stat- 

ttt<»iti relation thereto .-, 

^ur-irrut Biv«r, report of survey of^ tr»imuijri*>il by Secre- 

Uryt^f War 

Omp^nhtivt) 4&3chibit of dtiUc^ upon forti^n iml>ort^^, tScc, let- 
ha^lhkoi the S<«rretnry af thu TrofinnTy, ui answer to a reso- 
Totiim of lb4» Uoanp, relative tij dntii« upoti fi^nrijt^fu imports, 
4c.^ sJto-winjt propjjtttd ruto of duty, pn:«int tut^^<i and qnan- 
>itj arid vaJtio of importjccl oomixuMlitiiw ivhirh entered into 
«a«otD^it>ii in th« United States durltij; the year ending 
Jvu^JO^ IWl 



Volume. 



No. Part. 



I 



10 31 



10 27 



10 
11 

6 i 



17 
14 
21 



2 I 

1 

1 

91 
66 
90 



22 I 102 

8 ! 1 



17 ; 97 

18 89 



10 24 



12 

11 

8 

13 



2 

1 

61 



13 


6 


8 


1 


8 


1 


8 


1 


10 


1 


2 


1 



14 



10 



48 



17 



17 101 



DigitizQdl 



\^' 



10 . 


30 




9 


1 ! 


5 


11 


2 




8 


1 


5 



po 



gle 



IV 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



CompeDsation of inspectors of cnstoms, letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, transmitting a letter from the Commis- 
sioner of Customs proposing an alteration of certain sections 

of the Revised Statutes fixing the 

Comptroller of the Currency, annual report of 

ComptroUer of the Treasury, report of aggregate resources and 
liabilities of national banks from October, 1863, to October, 

1877 

Contingent expenses, letter from the Secretary of State, trans- 
mitting estimate of expenditure of con- 
tingent fund for the department 

letter from the Secretary of the Interior 
concerning deficiency in the, of the 

General Land Office 

Contingent fund of the Interior Department, letter from the 
Secretary, transmitting detailed account of the expenditure 

of the contingent fund of Interior Department 

Currency, annual report of Comptroller of *.. 

Customs, report of Commissioner of 

Customs officers, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 
transmitting a statement of emoluments 

and fees of 

letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 
transmitting a copy of letter from the Com- 
missioner of Customs proposing an altera- 
tion in the Revised Statutes fixing the 

compensation of inspectors of customs 

Customs revenue, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 

transmitting draught of a bill to prevent frauds in 

Customs service, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 
transmitting papers relative to the investigation of the 

D. 

Deaf and Dumb, annual report of the officers of the Columbia 
Institution for the (vol. 1) 

Decrease of receipts from internal revenue, letter from the 
Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting a communication 
from the Commissioner of Internal Revenue, showing a de- 
crease in the receipts of 

Deficiencies in certain appropriations for the Army 

Deticiencies in appropriations for 1878 and prior years, letter 
from the Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting estimates 
of 

Deficiency for the contingent expenses of the General Land- 
Office, letter from the ^cretary of the Interior concerning.. 

Director of the Mint, report of 

Directors of the Union Pacific Railroad, report of (vol. 1) 

Dibbursing clerk, letter from the Secretary of the Interior, rec- 
ommending that the disbursing clerk of the department be 
relieved from responsibility of the payment of certain forged 
vouchers 

Disbursements made from appropriations for the Indian De- 
partment 

Dismal Swamp Canal, letter from the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury in reference to the interest of the government in 

Distribution of United States troops, letter from the Secretary 
of War, showing the 

District of Columbia, annual report of Commissioners of 

annual report of the Board of Health . ., 

Dredge-boat McAllister, letter from the Secretary of War in 
relation to the disappearance of 

Duties upon foreign imports, comparative exhibit of, letter 
from the Secretary of the Treasury in answer to a resolu- 
tion of the House relative to 



Volume. 



No. i Part. 



14 I 36 
12 I 3 



11 I 2 



14 



10 
11 

8 



14 

13 

10 

14 
10 
10 

14 



17 



18 



14 ; 45 



10 


9 


10 


13 


14 
11 
11 


42 
3 
2 


14 


65 


14 


36 


17 


86 


10 


25 


8 


1 

1 



13 
2 

1 



54 



19 

55 
1 
1 

67 ! 



78 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



Subject. Volume. No. Part. 

E. ' ' 

EdacatioD , annual report of the Commissioner of 9 1 5 

El Paso troubles fn Texas, letter from the Secretary of War | j 

in response to a resolution of the House, transmitting re- • ' 

ports of the commission appointed to investigate the , 17 93 

£1 Psao troubles, letter from the Secretary of War, transmit- ; I 

tiog report from Colonel Hatch on ! 17 84 

Emanuel, Yictor I, King of Italy, letter from the Secretary of 
8tate, tranamitting a letter from the Italian minister, rela- 
tive to the respect shown the memory of | 14 ■ 69 

Employ^ of the War Department, letter from the Secretary of 
War, In response to a resolution of the House, transmitting 
a list of, who have rendered service in the Army and Navy { 
of the United SUtes 

Employes of the Navy Department, letter from the Secretary , 
of the Navy, transmitting a list of civil employes for the 
year 1877 

Employ^ in the Interior Department, letter from the Secre- ' 
tuy, transmitting a list of all employes who were honorably 
discharged from the military or naval service for disability 
aridng from sickness or wounds incurred in the line of duty.. 

£D|ineers, report of the Chief of (vol. 2, parts 1 and 2) 

Estimates of appropriations. (See Appropriations.) 

Expenditures and receipts of the United States, an account of, 
for the year ending June 30, 1873 

Expenditures and receipts of the United States, an account of, 
for the year ening June 30, 1874 

Expenditures in the State Department, letter from the Secre- 
tary of St|ite, transmitting statement of contingent fund for , 
the department 

Explosions, steam-boiler, message from the President, trans- 
mitting the report of the commission appointed under act of [ 
March 3, 1873, relative to the causes of 



17 

1 


99 


10 


29 


17 ! 

3,4 


94 

1 


15 


35 


15 i 

! 


39 


10 


9 


1 
14 1 


40 



F. 



i 



Fees of customs officers, letter from Secretary of Treasury, 

^ansmitting a statement of 14 65 

Fire, security of public bnildings against, message from the ' 
President, transmitting report of the commission appointed 
to examine into the security of, in the city of Washington . . 10 10 

Fishery Commission, award of the Halifax, of 1877, with docu- ; 

ments and prooeedings (3 volumes) 18,19,20 89 

Flashing Bay, New York, letter from the Secret-ary of War, ' 

transmitting report relative to improvement of ' 17 74 | 

Forage, letter from the Secretary of War, recommending an 
ameodment of the statutes in relation to commutation of. .. 10 17 

Foreign relations, papers relating to 11 1 

Appendix, containing correspondence rela- 
tive to the improvement of commercial 
interconrse between the Uuited States 
and foreign countries, preceded by a list 
of papers and followed by an index of per- ' 

sons and subjects 11 1 

Foreign countries, report upon the commercial relations of the 

United States with, for the year 1877 22 102 

Fishery Commission, docnments and proceedings of the Hali- 
fax (3 vols.) 18,19,20 89 

Forestry, message froni the President of the United States, 
transmitting a special report upon the subject of, by the | 

Commissioner of Agriculture , ' 10 24 | 

Fori Monroe, Va., letter from the Secretary of War, reoom- 

mtDding appropriations for six new buildings at 14 43 

Fcnda in customs revenue, letter from the Secretary of the 



tnmarj, transmitting draught of a bill to prevent 17 86 

hwdnea^s Hospital and Asylum, report upon the (vol. 1) Digitized ^yCjfeOQl^ 



I -.-. 



VI 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



Volume. I No. I Part. 



Fuel, letter from the Secretary of War, recoDimending an 
amendment of the statates in relation to commutation of 

G. 

Geological and geographical surveys, a letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, transmitting a report of Professor Pow- 
ell in regard t<o, in response to a resolution of the House — 

General of the Army, report of the (vol. 1) 

General Land Office, letter from the Secretary of the Interior 
concerning deficiency for contingent expenses of the 



H. 

Halifax Commission, 1877, award of the Fishery Commission, 
documents and proceedings of, under the treaty of Washing- 

ington of May 6, 1871, in three volumes 

Harbor at Cincinnati, letter from the Secretary of War, trans 
mitting a report of engineer concerning protection 

of, from ice 

Norfolk, Hampton River, Pagan Creek, and Hie 
Chickahominy and Blackwater Rivers in Virginia, 
letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting re- 
port of engineer on improvement of 

Hampton River, letter of Secretary of War, transmitting re- 
ports of engineer upon the improvement of 

Hayden, Pro^ssor F. V., preliminary report of the field-work of 
the United States geological and geographical survey of the 

Territories by 

Hot Springs (Arkansas) Commission, report of the 

Hnrtt, Captain F. W., assistant quartermaster, testimony and 
papers in case of, transmitted by Secretary of War 



10 , 17 



17 
2 



18,19,20 



14 



I. 

Illinois, survey of lake-beds, letter from Secretary of Interior 
in response to a resolution of the House In reference to the 

survey of 

Indian Afiairs, report of the Commissioner of (vol. 1) 

papers accompanying 

report of the Commissioner of, of disbursements 
for the Indian Department for year ending 

June 30, 1877 

Indiana, survey of lake-beds, letter from Secretary of Interior 
in response to a resolution of the House, in reference to the 

survey of 

Indians, letter from the Secretary of War, in response to a reso- 
lution of the House concerning the protection of the 

residents of Colorado against the 

letter from the Secretary of the Interior relative to 
land-entries by, in Michigan, and certain frauds 

practiced upon 

Informers, letter from the Secretary of the Treasur>% trans- 
mitting a detailed report of the sums allowed as compensa- 
tion to officers of customs and 

Insane, Government Hospital for, report of the operations of, 

by the board of visitors (vol.1) 

Inspectors of customs, letter from the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, transmitting letter from Commissioner of Customs pro- 
posing an alteration of certain sections of the Revised Stat- 
utes hxing the compensation of 

Interest paid to national banks, letter from the Secretary of 
the Treiewury, transmitting a statement of the sums paid to.. 

Internal Revenue, Commissioner of, annual report of 

Interior Department, accountability of disbursing-clerk of, 
letter from the Secretary, recommend- 
ing that he be relieved ' 

Digitized by 



14 
14 



8 
8 

17 



13 



17 



80 

1 



10 13 



14 36 



89 



41 



60 
60 



1 
1 

85 



83 

1 
1 



G I 



83 



17 91 



17 ! 82 



10 26 



I 



.14 I 54 T 



INDEX. 



va 



Subject. 



Interior Department, employ^ who have Berved in the mili- 
tary and naval service, letter from the 

Secretary, transmitting a list of , 

contingent fond of, letter from the Sec- 
retary of, transmitting detailed ac- 
count of expenditure of 

Interior, Secretary of the, annual report of the (vol. 1) , 

letter from, relating to land entries by Indians in Michi- 
gan 

annaal report of the Commissioner of the General Land 

Office (vol.1) , 

papers accompanying the above report (vol. 1) .... 

report of ttie Commissioner of Indian Affairs 

papers accompanying the same (vol.1) 

report of the commission appointed to meet the Sioux In- 
dian chief Sittioe-Bull, with a view to avert hostile 
incursions into the territory of the United States 
from the Dominion of Canada (vol.1) 

report of the Commissioner of Pensions 

report of the field-work of the United States geological 
and geographical survey of the Territories under 
Professor Hayden (vol. 1) 

report on the geological and geographical survey of the 
Rocky Mountain region by J. W, Powell (vol. 1) . 

report of the commission appointed under act of March, 
ld77, regarding the Hot Springs reservation in the 
State of Arkansas (vol.1) 

report of the government directors of the Union Pacific 
Railnid (vol. 1) 

report upon the Yellowstone National Park (vol. 1) 

report of the Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb 
(vol.1) 

report npon Freedman's Hospital and Asylum (vol. 1) 

report npon the Columbia Hospital for Women and Lying- 
in Asylum (vol.1) , 

report of the board of visitors upon the operations of the 
Government Hospital for the Insane (vol. 1) 

report of the Architect of the Capitol 

tabular statements of the disbursements made from the 
appropriations for the Indian Department for the 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1877, and of salaries and 
incidental expenses paid at each agency in the In- 
dian service during said period , 

deficiency for the contingent expenses of the General Land 
Office, letter from the Secretary of the Interior con- 
oemiiu; , 

contingent fund of the Interior Department, letter from 
the Secretary of the Interior, transmitting detailed 
account of expenditures of. , 

accoantability of disbursing-clerk, letter from the Secre- 
tary of the Interior, recommending that the disburs- 
ing-clerk of the department be relieved from respon- 
sibility of the payment of certain forged vouchers.. 

adoption of the metrical system, letter from the Secretary, 
transmitting report concerning 

Yellowstone National Park, letter m)m the Secretary in 
regard to the better protection of, from injury 

lands granted the State of ifichigan for railroad purposes. 
Tetter from the Secretary, transmitting information 
concerning 

geological and geographical surveys, letter from the Sec- 
retary, transmit tin|; a report of Professor Powell in 
regara ti surveys, m response to a resolution of the 
House 

geological and geographical surveys, letter from the Sec- 
tary, in response to a resolution of the House, trans- 
mitting a report of Professor Hayden 




94 



17 82 



11 54 
14 71 



17 80 



Digitized by Vj(3(JQIC 



Tin 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



Volame. 



No. Part; 



iDterior, Secretary of the, survey of lake-beds in lodiaoa and 
Illinois, letter from the Secretary 
in response to a resolntion of the 

Honse, in reference to the 

employes in the Interior Department who have served in 
military and naval service, letter from the Secre- 
tary, transmitting a list of 

ravage* of the locusts, letter from the Secretary, transmit- 
ting a report from the commission of entomologists 

on the, in Western States and Territories 

Iron, steel, and other metals, report of board for testing, trans- 
mitted by President 

Italy, letter from the Secretary of State, transmitting a letter 
from the Italian minister concerning the marks of 
respect shown to the memory of Victor Emanuel I, 
late King of 

J. 

Jetties, South Pass, Mississippi River, letter from the Secre- 
tary of War, relative to report of M. K. Brown, engineer, re- 
lating to the work on 

Joint commission, report of the, created to direct and super- 
vise the completion of the Washington Monument 

Jndge-Advocate-Qeneral, rejiort of 

K. 



17 

17 

17 
17 



10 
2 



83 - 

I 

94 I 

I 
I 
95 

98 



14 I 69 



14 37 



Kansas Pacific Railroad, letter from the Attorney-General of \ 
the United States, in response to a resolution of the House ' 

in relation to suits agaiust the 17 76 

Khed i ve of Egypt, letter from the Secretary of War, concern i ng 
a decoration conferred upon Assistant Surgeon Wilson, United , 

States Army, by the 10, 23 

King Victor Emanuel, of Italy, letter from the Secretary of I 
State, transmitting a letter from the Italian minister concern- < ' 

ing the marks of respect shown to the memory of 14' 69 

L. 

Lake-beds, survey of, in Indiana and Illinois, letter from the 
Secretary of the Interior, in response to a resolution of the 
House in reference to..,.. I 17 | 83 i 

Lake Michigan and Sturgeon Bay Ship Canal, letter from the I 
Secretary of War, transmitting report of engineer on the 
improvement of , 14 44 | 

Land-grant railroads, letter from the Secretary of War, rela- I 
tive to a decision of the Supreme Court upon the matter of ' 
pavmentsto I 10 20 

Land entries by Indians in Michigan, letter from the Secre- , 
tary of the Interior, relating to 17 | 82 

Land Office, letter from the Secretary of the Interior,concerning , 
deficiency for contingent expenses of the General Land Office. 10 13 

Land Office, report of the Commissioner of the General Land 
Office(vol. 1) 8 1 I 

Lands granted to the State of Michigan for railroad purposes, ' 
letter irom the Secretary of the Interior, transmitting infor- 
mation concerning lands granted to 17 77^ 

Leavenworth military prison, report concerning (vol. I) 2 1 ' 

Legal-tender notes, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 
in reference to sale of United States bonds for outstanding .. 14 63 

Locusts, ravages of, letter from Secretary of Interior, trans- 
mitting a report from commission of entomologists on the ... 17 95 , 

Loss of the steamer Metropolis, letter from the Secretary of ' 

the Treasury, transmitting report of the Life-Saving Service 
in reference to 14 58 

Louisiana, commission sent to, by the President, letter from the ^-^ 

^ Secretary of State, transmiitiug corresiwndence, ^c oigitized byCi005[lc 



8 
2 



INDEX. 



IX 



Snbject. 



Volaine. | No. 



M. 

MiO steamship service, letter from the Postmaster-General, 
in eompliaaoe with the resolation of the Honse, transmitting 

a tabalar statemeDt of the ocean, of foreign countries 

MaO& offer for carrying land and water, established, &g 

McAllister, dredge-boat, letter from the Secretary of War, in 

relation to 

Metrical system, letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, 
transmitting, in response to a resolution 
of the Honse, reports concerning adoption 

of the, of weights and measures 

letter from the Secretary of the Interior in 

regard to the above 

letter from the Secretary of War in regard to 

the above 

Metropolis, loss of steamer, letter from the Secretary of the 
Treasary, transmitting report of the Life-Saving Service in 

reference to 

Miehigan, land i^ranted to, for railroad purposes, lett«^r from 
Secretary of Interior, transmitting information con- 
cerning 

letter from Secretary of the Int>erior, relating to 

land edtries by Indians in the State of 

Military Academy, report of visitors to (vol. 1 ) 

letter from the Attorney-General, in re- 
sponse to a resolution of the House in 
reference to the appointment of cadets to 

the Naval and, by the President 

Military posta, abondonment of certain, letter from the Secre- 
tary of War concerning 

Military poet, site for in Texas, letter from the Secretary of 

Wsr relative to the donation of land as a 

Military roads in Arizona, letter from the Secretary of War 

io relation to certain 

Mint, report of the Director of 

Minssippi River, jetties. South Pass, letter from Secretary of 
War, relative to the report of M. R. Brown, 
engineer, relating to the work of Mr. 

Eads at 

improvement of Southwest Pass of, letter 
from the Secretary of War, transmitting 
report of engineer upon the improvement 

of 

South Pass of, letter from the Secretary of 
War, transmitting a report upon the im- 
provement of 

reservoirs to improve the navis^ation of, let- 
ter from the Secretary of War, transmit- 
ting information concerning the effect of., 
improvement of, letter from the Secretary 
of War, transmitting report of Chief of 

Engineers upon the necessity for 

S[>tith Piirt^ i>f^ repLirt of the engineer on the 

iraprovf^mt^iit of . .- 

mi^pj^VQttt of the biM for Hi*t^oiJil term of United States 



I 



tn^Motfage from tbo Pro^Ult'ot of the United States 

^A^golunattoiM for 

Wimifi ffiv«r, letter from ibe Sr:iT*'tary of War, transmitting 

t*pott of Chief of Eo^i niien* on f tu'^ i mnrovement of 

Wa<j Wator-Pnwer Company, kUt^r from the Secretary of 
Vir4r.tnitiftmitttTig«i>[nm(inii:fltinti tVom the president of, of 
Vobc«, IlU with nTwportof the i'fiief of Ordnance thereon.. 



14 
16 



10 
11 



14 



38 
51 



14 67 

14 71 

14 71 

10 ' 8 



14 


01 


14 


5-:> 


14 


40 


10 


22 


o 


1 


14 


62 


10 


22 



Part. 



14 


5y 


17 , 


77 


17 ! 
2 

1 


82 

1 


1 

14 1 


70 


1 


70 



10 14 



21 
2 



37 



IT . 87 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



INDEX. 



Subject. 



N. 

National banks, letter from the Secretary of Treasory, trans- 
mitting a statement of the samspaid for interest io coin and 
carrency upon bonds held by 

Naval Academy, appointment of cadets to, letter from Attor- 
ney-General in reference to 

Navy Department, civil employ^ in, letter from the Secretary 
of Navy, transmitting a list of civil employ^ in that depart- 
ment for year ending December 31,1877 

Navy, letter from the Secretary of War, in response to a res- 
olution of House, transmitting aliHt of persons in the em- 
ploy of that department who nave rendered service in the 
Atmy or 

Navy, Secretary of, annual report of the 

transmits list of civil employes io his de- 
partment 

Navy, State, and War Department buildings, report of the 
engineer upon the state or (vol. 1) 

New Mexico and Colorado, letter from the Secretary of War, 
transmitting reports on lines of communication between 

New York, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting report 
relative to improvement of Flushing Bay 

Norfolk Harbor, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting 
a report of engineers upon the improvement of 



O. 

Ocean mail steamship service, letter from the Postmaster-Gen- 
eral, in compliance with a resolution of the House, trans- 
mitting a tabular statement of, of foreign countries 

Officers, commutation allowed in certain cities, letter from Sec- 
retary of War, transmitting a list of, who received. 

Ordnance, Chief of, annual report of (vol. 3) 

P. 

Pacific Railroad, Kansas, letter from the Attomejr-General, in 
resj^nse to a resolution of the House in relation to suits 

against the 

Pagan Creek, Virginia, letter from Secretary of War, trans- 
mitting reports of engineers upon the improvement of, Slo .. 
Painting, message from the President, informing Cengress that 
he ha!d delivered to Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson a copy of the 

Joint resolution accepting 

Pardons, letter from the Attorney-General, in response to a 
resolution of the House, transmitting a list of, by the Presi- 
dent between March 4, 1877, and May 20, 1878 

Park, Yellowstone National, lett<)r from the Secretary of the In- 
terior in regard to the better protection of the 

Patents, annual report of the Commissioner of 

Paymaster-General, annual report (vol. 1) 

Payments to informers, letter from the Secretary of the Treas- 
ury, transmitting a detailed report of the sums allowed as 

compensation to officers of customs 

Pensions, annual report of the Commissioner of (vol. 1) 

Pennsylvania avenue, letter from the President, transmitting 

report of Commissioners upon the repavement of 

Postmaster-General, report of the 

transmits a tabular stotement of the 
ocean mail steamship service of foreign 

countries 

offer for carrying mail8, land and water 

mails established, &o I 

Powell, J. W., report on the geographical and geological sur- 
vey of the Rocky Mountain region 

(vol.1) 

on the arid regions of the United States.. 



Volume. 



14 

14 

10 



14 

14 
5 



14 
14 



14 



14 
16 



8 
13 



No. Part. 



34 



70 



29 



17 
7 


99 

1 


10 


29 


2 


1 


14 


66 


17 


74 


17 


60 



38 

48 
1 



76 
60 



47 



100 



17 


75 


13 


61 


2 


1 


10 


26 


8 


1 


10 


11 


7 


1 



38 
51 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



XI 



Subject 




Part. 



Preadent of the United States, traDsmits aoDoal mesHage and 

accompanyiDg doGumeDts, 
second session, Forty-fifth 
Congress 

transmits papers relating to 
the foreign relations of the 
United States, preceded by a 
list of papers and followed 
by an index of persons and 
subjects 

transmits report of the joint 
commission created to, direct 
and supervise the completion 
of the Washington Monu- 
ment 

transmits report of the commis- 
sion appointed to examine 
into the security of the pub- 
lic buildings in the city of 
Washington against fire 

transmits report of commis- 
sioners upon the repavement 
of Pennsylvania avenue 

transmits a special report upon 
the subject of forestry, by 
the Commissioner of Agri- 
culture 

transmits the recent correspon- 
dence between the Govern- 
ments of Venezuela and the 
United States, in relation to 
the Venezuelan Mixed Claims 
Commission, in answer to a 
resolution of the House 

transmits a report of the Attor- 
ney-General, in answer to a 
resolution of the House, upon 
the operation of the Union 
Pacific Bailroad and its 
branches 

transmits report of the com- 
mission appointed under the 
act of Congress approved 
March 3, 187S, relative to the 
causes of steam-boiler explo- 
sions 

informs Congress that he has 
delivered to Mrs. Elizabeth 
Thompson a copy of the joint 
resolution accepting a paint- 
ing tendered by her 

communicates, by message, his 
reasons for withholding ap- 
proval of the bill (H. R. 1093) 
entitled '*An act to author- 
ize the coinage of tbe stand- 
ard silver dollar and to re- 
store its legal-tender char- 
acter" 

communicates, by message, his 
reasons for withholding ap- 
proval of the bill (H. R. 3072) 
of the House authorizing a 
special term of the circuit 
court of the United States for 
the southern district of Mis- 
sissippi ^ 



1,1 I 



1 1 



10 I 1 



10 , 10 

I 
10 11 



10 I 24 



10 



10 



14 



30 



32 



40 



14 . 47 



14 I 59 



igitized by" 



Clo^^le 



XII 



INDEX. 



Subject. I Volume. 



No. Part. 



14 i 72 



17 I 96 



14 70 



President of the United States, transmits, in response to a res- 
olution of the House, a re- 
port from the Secretary of | 
State in reference to the 
seizure of the steamer Vir- 
ginius i 

transmits the documents and 
proceedings of the Halifax ' \ 

Commission, 1877 (Fishery . 
Commission), under the | ^ 

treaty of Washington of May, i ' 

1871, in three volumes | 18, 19,20 , 89 

transmits, by message, a oom- | 

munioation from the Score- I 
tary of State, in response to a 
resolution of the House, in 
relation to the convention 
for establishing an interna- 
tional bureau of weights and 
measures 

transmits letter from the Attor- 
ney-General, in reference to 
the appointment of cadets 
to the Naval and Military 
Academies by 

transmits letter from the Sec- 
retary of State, transmitting 
correspondence, &c., in con- 
nection with the commission 
appointed by the. to visit 
' Louisiana, in April, 1877 

transmits report of the board 
for testing iron, steel, and 

other metSs 

Public buildings, rej)ort of the commission appointed to exam- | 
ine into the security of the public buildings in the city of 
Washington against fire .« 

Q. 

Quartermaster-General, report of (vol. 1) i 

Quarters, commutation of, letter from the Secretary of War, | 
recommending an amendment of the statutes in relation to..' 

E. ' 

I 

Railroads, land-grant, letter from the Secretary of War, rela- 
tive to a decision of the Supreme Court upon the 

matter of payment to I 

lands granted the State of Michigan for, letter from 
the Secretary of Inteiior, transmitting informa- 
tion concerning I 

Union Pacific and its branches, message from the 
President, in answer to a resolution of the House, 
transmitting a report of the Attorney-General 

upon the operation of 

location of Southern and Texas Pacific, letter from 
the Secretary of War concerning the, through 
Fort Yuma reservation and across the Colorado i 

River 

Reappropriations for 1875 and ])rior years, letter from the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, transmitting estimates of 

Receipts, decrease of, from internal revenue, letter from Com- 
missioner of Internal Revenue, showing 

Receipts and expenditures, an account of, for the year ending 
June 30, 1873 



17 

1 


97 


17 


98 


'"i 


10 


2 ; 


1 


10 


17 



10 20 



17 77 



10 32 



10 33 

14 I 46 

14 50 

14 I 35 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



INDEX. 



XIII 



Subject. 



Volume. No. ! Part. 



Beeeipts and expenditaree, an account of, for the year ending | 

Jane 30, 1874 ; 

Bepain on the Speiden building, letter from the Secretary of i 

War, recommending an appropriation for 

B^Tement of Pennsylvania avenue, report of the commis- 

BioneTs upon the 

B^wrroirs, to promote the navigation of the Mississippi River, 
letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting information 

ooDceraing the effect of 

Beveoce, prevention of frauds in customs, letter from the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, transmitting draught of a 

bill to prevent 

inTestigation of the customs service, letter from the 
Secretary of the Treasury, transmitting papers 

relative to 

Boberts, Marshall O., report of the Quartermaster-General, rela- 
tive to the names, ages, &c., of the steamships purchased of, 
ind owned in part or whole by 



17 
10 
10 

14 

17 



79; 

15 

11 

49 

86 



10 I 25 



17 I 92 



Siginaw River, proposed bridge over, letter from the Secre- 
tary of War, transmitting report relative to 

Saint Croix River, letter from the Secretary of War, trans- 

mitting report npou 

Sale of United States bonds for outstanding legal-tender notes, 
letter from the Secretary of the Treasury, in response to reso- 
lution of the Honse concerning 

Seamen, certificates of citizenship to, during year ending De- 
eember, 31, 1877, letter from the Secretary of State, trans- 
mitting number of : 

Security of public buildings against fire in the city of Wash- 
ington, report of commission 

^pui OflQcer, annual report of Chief (vol. 4) 

Silver bill, veto of, message from the President, assigning rea • 

BODS for withholding his signature to (H. R. 1093) 

Sitting Bull, report of the commission appointed to visit 

(vol. l> ,,. 

Soldi^ra' Home, reiwrt of the Inward of commissioners (vol. 1).. 
AnQlh Paos of the MiaaJssippi River, improvement of, report 

of estgineer ( vol. 1) 

letter from the Secretary of War on above 

Scmthwest Patw of the Miasiseippi River, letter from the Secre- 

t*ry of War'oa the i m pro vt?njent of 

touthera Pacific Railroad, location of, letter from the Secretary 

of War 

^^widcn bnildin j:, n&paira of. 

Stite, War, and Navy Department building, report of engineers 

*ii{toL 1) 

St«le Depart nic^nt, esponditiue of^the, letter from the Secre- 
tary, iraDBmittiDg etatenient of , 

5Ut«, Secretary of, trati&iiiita statement of expenditures in his 

departmetib 

tranauiit^ abstract of returns made by the 
collector of customs of the nnmber of 
BcaTtL^D hAving received certificates of 

citizenship during 1877 

trana»LJta letter from the Italian minister, 
conieroing marks of respect shown the 
Diemory of Victor Emanuel I, late King 

ofltAly 

transmits correspondence, &c., in conneo- 
t Ujxi with the commission appointed by 
llio Prt^Hidont to visit Louisiana in April, 

ih;7 

t Iroiler e^pkalonSi report of commission 



14 
14 



14 



57 
53 



1,2 



14 6:i 



68 



10 
6 


10 

1, 


2 


14 


1 
59 , 




8 
2 


1 
1 


5 
2 


2 

14 


1 

59 ; 


2 


14 


1 C4; 




10 
10 

2 


1 33 
: 1; 


2 


10 


9 ! 




10 


9 i 





14 i 68 ! 



14 I 69 



17 97 1 

14 i 40 I 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



XIV 



INDEX* 



Sabject. 



Steamer Virginias, measage from the President, transmitting a 
report from the Secretary of State in reference to seizure of i 



the. 



Snite against the Kansas Pacific Railroad, letter from the Attor- ! 
ney-General of the United States, in relation to 

Sargeon-General, annual report of the, for the year ending 
June 30, 1877 (vol. 1) 

Surgeon at West Point, New York, letter from the Secretary I 
of War, transmitting teportof 

Surveys, geological and geo^phical, letter from the Secre- 
tary of tne Interior, transmitting report of Professor Hayden 
upon • 

Surveys of lake-beds in Indiana and Illinois, letter from the 
Secretary of the Interior in reference to 

Surveys by the War Department for the last ten years, letter 
from the Secretary of War relating to 



Volume. 



14 



Territories, preliminary report of the field-work of the U nited 

States Geological and Geographical Survey of the (vol 1) . .. 

Texas, letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting report 

of Colonel Hatch on the subject of El Paso troubles 

in 

letter from the Secretary of War, transmitting reports 
of the commission appointed to investigate the £1 

Paso troubles in 

Texas Pacific and Southern Pacific Railroad, letter from the 
Secretary of War, concerning the location of, through Fort 

Yuma reservation and across the Colorado River 

Texas, site for a military po»t in, letter from the Secretary of 

War, relative to the donation of lands for 

Thompson, Mrs. Elizabeth, letter from the President, in- 
forming Congrees that he had delivered a copy of a joint 
resolution of Congress accepting a painting tendered by her 
to 



Treasurer of the United States, annual report of, for year end- 
ing June 30, 1877 

Treasury, Secretary of, annual report of, on the state of the 

finances 

Papers accompanying the above : 

Report ot the Commissioner of Internal Revenue 

Report of the Comptroller of the Currency 

Report of the Director of the Mint 

Report of the First Comptroller 

Report of the First Auditor 

Report of the Treasurer of the United States 

Report of the Superintendent of the Coast Survey 

Report of the Commissioner of Customs 

Report of the Commiasioner of Indian Affairs 

Report of the Register of the Treasury 

Treasury, Secretary of, transmits estimates of apppropriations 

for fiscal year ending J uiie 30, 1879.. . 

transmits a statement in reference to 

the interest of the government in 

the Dismal Swamp Canal 

' transmits papers relative to the investi- 
gation of tne customs service 

transmits report of the sums allowed as 
compensation to officers of customs 
and informers for fiscal year ending 

June 30, 1877 

transmits estimates of appropriations 
for payment of claims due prior to 

July 1,1875 

transmits list of claims allowed under 
the act of July 4, 1864 



Digttfefed by 



No. Part. 



72 



14 
11 



13 I 

10 
10 

10 
10 



17 


76 


2 


1 


10 


28 


17 


81 


17 


83 


17 


88 



8 , 


1 


17 


84 


1 
17 1 


93 


10 1 


33 


10 1 


14 



47 



11 


2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 




2 



19 
25 



27 



INDEX. 



XV 



Sabject. 



1Veifiii7,Seeretary of, traDsmits answer to resolution of the 
HoQse, with statement of the snms 
paid for interesti in coin and cnrrency, 
upon bonds held by national banks.. 

transmits an acconnt of the receipts 
and expenditures for the year ending 
June 30, 1873 

transmits a copy of a letter from the 
Commissioner of Cnstoros, relative to 
the compensation of inspectors of 
customs 

transmits an account of the receipts 
and expenditures for the year ending 
June 30, 1874 

transmits estimates of deficiencies in 
appropriations for the year 1878 and 
prior years 

transmits estimates of amounts to be 
reappropriated for the year 1875, and 
for prior years 

transmits a communication from the 
Commissioner of Internal Revenue, 
showing a decrease of receipts for 
the current fiscal year 

transmits report of the Life-Saving 
Service, relatiye to the loss of the 
Steamer Metropolis 

transmits answer to a resolution of 
the House in reference to the sale of 
United States bonds for ontstAudlng 
legal-tender notes 

transmits a statement of emoluments 
and fees of customs officers 

communicates, in response to the reso- 
lution of the House relative to the 
adoption of the metrical system, and 
transmits certain reports in reference 
thereto 

communicates, in response to a resolu- 
tion of the House, relative to duties 
on foreign imports 

transmits draught of a bill to prevent 
frauds in customs revenues 

transmita annual report of the Chief of 
Bureau of Statistics 



Volume. 



No. ; Part. 



U. 

ilatro Ptciflc Eailroad, laeeaaKe from the President, transmit- 
tinj;, in nn^ivE^r to a resolution of the 
llouso, n n |K>rt of the Attomey-Qen- 

erfll upon Xht^ operation of the 

report of tlif* government directors of 
fbo, for tbii year ending June 30, 

lo:7, (vol, 1) 

fOTtftl fiutea troops, commtjoiciitiiju from the Secretary of 
Ww, stowing IbcdiatribotiuQ of 

V. 

^M»ii«t;ui Mixed Claims CommL^mon, mcRsage from the Pres- 
idttttf ID ooaw^r to a rfrwltitiou of the House, transmitting 
WnMDtoorrespottdencebetiXTeen tlnii Governments of Ven- 
«U(J««odfhe United State* in reliirion to the 

'*toM Iheftilver bill, mesfta^eor lb<j President, with his rea- 
•Hi* (at witbboJding his approval t^f the silver bill (H. R. 

wsaj 



14 I 34 



15 



35, 



14 ! 36 



14 



10 

8 
14 



39 



1^ ' 


45 




40 




r>o 


1 


58 




G3 




Cb 



14 ' 71 

17 j 78 

17 I 86 

14 90 



32 , 

i 
5 

55 



10 i 30 

I 



Digitiidlby Google 



XVI 



INDEX. 



Sabject. 



Veto of the bill for special term of United States coart in Mis- 
sissippi. Messaee from the President, assi|(nioR bis reasons^ 
for witbboldingbis approval of said bill (H. R. 3072) 

Virginios, steamer, message from the President^t ransmitting, 
in compliance witb a resolution of the Honse, a report from 
the Secretary of State in reference to the seizure of 




Part. 



W. 

War Department, surveys by the, letter frem the Secretary of 
War, in response to a resolution of the 
House, relating to surveys conducted by, 

for the last ten years 

list of clerks in the, letter from the Secre- 
tary of War, transmitting 

War Department building, report of the engineers in charge of. 

War, Secretary of, an nn^S report of (vol. 1) 

Papers accompanying the above : 

Report of the General or the Army 

Report of the Judge- Advocate-General 

Report of the Quartermaster-General 

Report of the Commissary-General of Subsistence 

Report of the Surgeon-General 

Report of the Paymaster-General 

Report of the Board of Visitors to the United States Mili- 

tarv Academy 

Report of the Board of Commissioners of the Soldiers' 

Home 

Report on the State, War, and Navy Department buildings. 
Reports upon the improvement of the South Pass of the 

Mississippi River 

Report concerning Leavenworth military prison 

Report cf the Ireedmen's branch of theAdjutant-Genemrs 

Office 

Report of the Chief of Engineers (volume 2, parts 1 

and 2) 

Report of the Chief of Ordnance (volume 3) 

Report of the Chief Signal Officer (volume 4) 

War, Secretary of, transmits reports of chiefs of bureaus upon 
the adoption of the metrical system, in re- 
sponse to a resolution of the House 

transmits report of the Adjutant-General in 

the case of George A. Armes 

communicates relative to the donation of 
laud as a site for a military post in 

Texas 

communicates, recommending an appropri- 
ation to repair the Speiden building 

transmits list of clerks in the War Depart- 
ment 

communicates, recommending an amend- 
ment of the statutes in relation to commu- 
tation of quarters, fuel, and fora^ 

transmits estimates of appropriations for 
certain deficiencies in the appropriations 

for the Army 

communicates relative to a decision of the 
Supreme Court upon the matter of pay- 
ments to land- grant railroads 

communicates relative to certain military 

roads in Arizona 

transmits report of Chief of Engiueers upon 
the necessity for the improvement of 
the Mississippi, Missouri, and Arkansas 
Rivers 



17 


88 




10 


16 




2 


1 i 


o 


2 




2 


2 


■■■ 1 


2 


2 


1 1 


2 


2 




2 


2 


1 t 


2 


2 




2 


2 




2 


2 




2 


2 




2 


2 




2 


2 







2 




2 


2 




2 


3.4 




2 


5 




2 


6 ' 




2 



10 
10 

10 
10 



10 

10 
10 

10 



8 
12 

14 
15 



10 16 

I 

10 17 



18 

20 
21 

22 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



INDEX. 



XVII 



Subject. 


Volume. 


No. 

23 

28 

33 

37 
41 
43 

44 

48 

49 

52 
53 

55 
56 
57 

60 

64 
66 

67 
74 
79 

84 

85 
87 


Parts. 


War, 


Secretary of, commnnicates concerning a decoration con- 
ferred upon Assistant Surgeon Wilson, 
United States Army, by the Khedive ot 
Egypt 


10 
10 

10 

14 
14 
14 
14 
14 

14 

14 
14 

14 
14 
14 

14 

14 
14 

14 
17 
17 
17 

17 
17 






transmits the report of the snrgeou at 
West Point.N. Y 






communicates concerning the location of 
the Southern Pacific and Texas Pacific 
Railroads through Fort Yuma reserva- 
tion and across the Colorado River 

commnnicates relative to the report of M. 
R. Brown, captain of engineers, relative 
to the work of Mr. Eads at South Pass, 
Mississippi River 






transmits report of the engineer concerning 
the best method of protecting the harbor 
of Cincinnati from ice ................... 






commnnicates, recommending an appropri- 
ation for six new buildings at Fort Mon- 
roe, Virginia.... 






transmits report of the engineer on the im- 
provements of Sturgeon Bay and Lake 
Michigan Ship Canaland Harbor 

transmits a list of officers who received 
commntation, fuel, forage, and quarters 
in certain cities 






transmits information concerning the effect 
of reservoirs upon the navigation of the 
Mississippi River 






transmits a report upon the improvement 
of the South Pass of the Mississippi River. 

transmits report upon Saint Croix River 

communicates, showing the distribution of 
United States troops 






transmits report of engineer upon the im- 
nrovement of the " Got " opposite Bath, 






transmits report of engineer upon bridging 
the Saginaw River, at East Saginaw, 


1.8 




transmits report of enc;ineor upon the im- 
provement of Norfolk Harbor, Hampton 
River, Pagan Creek, and the Chicka- 
homony and Black water Rivers, in Vir- 
ginia 




transmits report of engineer upon the im- 
provement of the Southwest Pass of the 
Mississippi River - 






transmits reports on lines of communication 
between Colorado and New Mexico 

communicates in relation to the disappear- 
ance of the United States dredge-boat 
McAlister 






transmits report relative to the knprove- 
ment of Flushing Bay, New York 

communicates concerning the abandonment 
of certain military posts 






transmits report of Colonel Hatch on the 
subject of the El Paso troubles 






transmits testimony and papers in case of 
Captain F. W. Hnrtt, assistant quarter- 
master.*-... ..•• .--•.. ...... .... ...••• -. 






transmits communications from the presi- 
dent of the Moline Water Power Com- 
pany, of Moline, 111., with report of the 
Chief of Ordnance thereon 





.H Ex — — 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



-II 



XVIII 



INDEX. 



Subject. 


Volume. 


No. 


Parts. 


War, Secretary of, commanicatea, in response to a resolation 
of the House, giviog iDformatton ooucern- 
log the surveys conducted by the depart- 
ment in the last ten years 


17 
17 

17 

17 

17. 
17 

17 
10 

10 

17 

8 


88 
91 

92 
93 

99 
101 

96 

28 

23 

75 

1 




communicates, in response to a resolution 
of the House, concerning the protection 
of the residents of Western Colorado 
against the Indians 




transmits report of the Quartermaster-Gen- 
eral relative to the names, ages, Ac, of 
the steamships purchased of and owned, 
in part or whole, by Marshall 0. Roberts, 
of "few York 




transmits report of commission on El Paso 
troubles in Texas 




transmits a list of persons in the employ of 
the departments who have rendered serv- 
ice in the Army or Navy of the United 
States 




transmits report of survey of Connecticut 
Hiver 




Weights and measures, international bureau of, messace from 
the President, transmitting a communication from the Sec- 
retary of State in relation to the convention for re-estab- 
lishing.. 




West Point, N. Y., sanitary report of surgeon at, transmitted 
by the Secretary of War 




Wilson, W. J., assistant surgeon United States Army, letter 
from the Secretary of War, concerning a decoration conferred 
nDon. bv the Khedive of Esrvot ..-.- 




Y. 

Yellowstone National Park, letter from the Secretary of the 

Interior in regard to the better 

protection of, from ii\i ury 

report on the(voL 1). 


5 







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45th Ck>N(»SES8, ) HOUSE OF BEPBBSBNTATIYES. /Bx.Doc. 
2d Session. f \ No. 34. 



INTEBEST PAID TO iTATIONAL BANKS. 



LETTER 



ntoic 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY 

TRAHSBOTTINO, 

III eamplianoe icitk House resolutionj a statement of the sums paid for 
interest^ in coin and currency^ upon bonds held by national banks. 



Jaiojakt 28, 1878.— Referred to the Committee on Banking and Carrenoy and ordered 

to be printed. 



Trbasuey Department, 

January 25, 1878. 
Sib : I have the honor to transmit herewith, in compliance with a 
reaolation of the House of Bepreaentatives, of date the 17th instant, a 
letter of the United States Treasurer stating ^'the snms, and the date 
thereof, which have been paid by the Government of the United States 
in interest, in coin and currency, to the national banks upon bonds 
held for the security and the redemption of the currency issues of 
said banks." 

Very respectfully, 

JOHN SHERMAN, 

Secretary. 
Hon. Samuel J. BAin)ALL, 

Speaker House of Representatives. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



2 INTEREST PAID TO NATIONAL BANKS. 

Statement of the dates of payment and the ennounts of coin and currency paid hy the Govern^ 
ment of the United States to the national banks on account of interest on the bonds held for 
the security of the circulating notes of said banks from July I, ldd3, to January 1, 1878. 

COIN INTEREST. 



Date of payment. 



Amonnt. 



By fiscal years. 



July 1,1863 

November 1, 1863 

Jaonary 1,1864 

May 1,1864 

Jnly 1,1864 , 

September 1, 1864 

November 1. 1864 . 

Janoary 1, 1865 

March 1,1865 

May 1,1865 

Jnlv 1.1865 

September 1, 1865 

November 1, 1865 t 

Jaonary 1, 1866 

March 1,1866 

May 1,1866 

Jaly 1,1866 

September 1. 1866 

November 1,1866 

January 1,1867 

March 1,1867 

May 1,1867 

July 1,1867 

September 1,1867 

November 1, 1867 

January 1,1868 

March 1.1868 

May 1; 1868 

Joly 1,1868 

September 1,1868 

November 1, 1868 

Jannary 1,1869 

March 1, 1869 

May 1,1869 

July 1,1869 

September 1, 1860 .• 

November 1, 1869 

Jannary 1, 1870 

March 1,1870 

May 1,1870 

July 1,1870 

September 1, 1870 

November 1, 1870 

Jannary 1,1871...., 

March 1.1871 

May 1,1871 

Jnly 1.1871 

AuKnst 1, 1871 . 

September 1, 1871 

November 1,1871 

January 1, 1879 , 

February 1,1872 

March 1,1878 

May 1,1872 , 

Jnly 1,1872 

Au)(U8t 1, 1872 V, 

September 1, 1872 

November 1, 1872 

Jannary 1,1873. 

Febrnary 1,1873 , 

March 1,1873 

May 1,1873 



$817 50 

175, 543 50 

0. 697 50 

887,890 50 



103. 812 50 

854.472 50 

1,335,873 00 

1, 088. 334 50 

897. 017 50 

8,171,175 00 



3, 379, 880 00 
1.859,916 25 
3, 815. 826 00 
8,926,537 00 
3, tSO, 705 00 
3. 915, 160 50 



3, 051. 852 00 
2, 243, 618 75 
4, 152, 174 00 
3, 201. 370 50 
9. 313, 880 00 
4, 121. 946 00 



3, 334, 227 00 
2, 305, 782 50 
4, 013. 793 00 
3,349,521 00 
9, 350, 418 75 
3, 970, 792 50 



3,292,2Hl 00 
8,320.258 75 
3, 899. 791 50 
3,251,853 00 
8,256,281 85 
3,802,372 50 



3, 2;i7, 464 00 
2, 366. 158 75 
3, 563, 817 00 
3, 329. 441 00 
3, 421, 352 50 
3, 489, 343 50 



3, 347, 458 00 
2, 452. 865 00 
3, 405, 927 00 
3, 490, 958 50 
2, 627, 990 60 
3, 329, 949 00 



3, 697. 759 00 
615. 970 63 
3, 628. 031 25 
3,324,089 50 
3,609,661 00 
1,172,296 35 
2,573,471 35 
3, 405, 342 87 



3, 593. 626 00 
1, 312, 464 38 
8. 645, 868 75 
a, 425, 685 62 
3, 642, 575 50 
1,332,298 13 
3,673,011 35 
3,899,062 62 



II, 073, 949 do 



5,850,085 OO 



16,448,024 75 



19,083,761 25 



19,324,534 75 



18,838.838 00 



18, 397, 576 75 



ie»655,147 50 



19,036,631 75 



19,984,503 94 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



IKTEBEST PAID TO NATIONAL BANKS. 6 

0/ the dmlet of jpoffw^emt and the amaunU of coin and currency paidj ^c— Cont'd. 
COIN INTEREST— CoDtioued. 



IHite of pAyment. 



^■lTl,l9n 

Anniat 1,1873 

SeofennbcT 1, 1873 . 
iMwntarl, 1873. . 

Juiurr 1,1874 

rwbraary 1, 1874 .. 

Min^ 1,1374 

Kij 1,1874 



Jalf 1,1074 

Aanstl, U74.... 
SepiMBber 1, 1874 . 
S«iMkh0rt,lt?74.. 
JsaoftTj 1.1875.... 
Tt^narj 1. 1S75 .. 

Marehl. IB75 

MafUUOi 



JbI; 1.1875 

AocBSt 1,1875.... 
Sep(«iDber 1, 1875 . 
Sorember 1, Vm . 
JauJV7l,187S ... 
Febnurj 1, 187S .. 

Maichl. 18U 

Mfty 1,1870 



Jotfl.U'Tt 

▲ofost 1, 1876 

Scpcember 1, lB7e . 
5 a tembw 1,1876.. 
December 1,1^6^. 
Jaaiwrf 1, 1877 ... 
Febnury 1, 18n .. 

Moreb 1,1877 

Msy 1,1877 

Joael, 1877 



/olj 1,1877 

▲ofM« 1,1877 

Sepiember 1, 1877 . 
0«Mb«r 1.1877.... 
VoTember 1,1877.. 
BMemberl. 1877. . 
Iwuury 1,1878.... 



ToUl coin interest . 



AmouDt. 



13. 641, 513 
1.539,566 
2,693,436 
2.251.110 
3,636,044 
1, 610, 608 
2, 697, 497 
2,263,075 



3,556.020 
1, 634, 173 
2,632,311 
2. 255. 721 
3,320.709 
1,741,928 
2, 572, 752 
2,289.828 



3,164.214 
n, 740. 296 
2.493,842 
2. 151, 267 
3, 017, 872 
1.807,853 
2,406,247 
1. 956, 909 



751,202 
738.308 
303,622 
804,301 
126.682 
7(>4, 381 
689.281 
387,001 
637.690 
447,932 



2, 386,9^9 
1,562,969 
2,395.466 

128,545 
1, 552, 724 

501,680 
2. 477, 391 



By fiacal year*. 



|M^332.851 75 



90, 00?, 503 86 



18, 738, 503 88 



17, 500, 494 ( 



11,005,766 31 



244.278,271 41 



CURRENCY INTEREST. 



Jaly 1,1865.... 
/MOftry 1. 1866. 

J«ly 1.1886 .... 
Jaaamrj 1, 1867 

Jalyl,18n.... 
Jaanary 1, 10OB. 

Jnly 1,1868.... 
Jamury 1,1860. 

/oly 1,1889.... 
jMomry 1, 1870. 

J«]y 1,1870 .... 
JttMxry 1,1871. 

Joly 1.1871 .... 
itaaftry 1, 1872. 

Jnly 1,1879 

Janary 1,1873.. 

Jaly 1,1873 

Aftowy 1,1874.. 



•7.500 00 
26.940 00 



92,040 00 
107, 310 00 



107. 310 00 
107. 310 00 



197. 100 00 
460,680 00 



555,690 00 
555.690 00 



532.200 00 
487,500 00 



467, 580 00 
455,280 00 



438,060 00 
423,000 00 



423,000 00 
422.640 00 



Digitized by 



•34.440 00 
199,350 00 
214, 620 00 
657, 780 00 
1,111.380 00 

1, 019, 700 oa 

922,860 00 
861,060 00 
, 845, 6^ oa 

Cjoogle 



4 INTEREST PAID TO NATIONAL BANKS. 

Statement of the datee of payment and the amounts of coin and currency paid, ^c — Coafd. 
C0KRBNCY DfTERKST— Continued. 



Date of payment 



Jnly 1,1874 

Janui^ 1,1875., 



July 1,1875 

January 1,1876., 



Jnly 1,1876 

January 1, 1877. 



Jnly 1,1877 

January 1, 1878. 



Total currency Interest . 



Amount 



1433,640 00 
399.310 00 



394.500 00 
378.535 36 



333.150 00 
389,140 00 



343. 610 00 
833,590 00 



By Aeoal years. 



1831,850 00 
773,115 36 
698,890 00 
475. 800 00 



8.559,885 36 



RBCAPITULATION. 


Coin Intereei 


1344, 378, 371 41 
8.559,385 36 




Currency Interest .-- - 










Total 




1958, 837. 556 77 







Tbbabuby of the United States, 

Janwury 35, 1878. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



4SfH GOKOBSSS, ) HOnSB OF BBPBE8EI<nATIV£S. ( Ex. Doc. 
2d8e$$i<m. f \ No. 36. 



COMPENSATION OP INSPECTORS OF CUSTOMS. 



LETTEK 



FROM 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, 



TRANSMITTINO 



A 0opy of a letter from the OommiMioner of CuetomSjprepoHng an altera- 
tion of certain sections ef ^ Revieed Statutes^ fixing the compensation 
of Inepeetors of Customs^ 4bo. 



Jakuary 29, 1878. — ^Referred te the Committee of Ways and MeaoB, and ordered to be 

printed. 



Tbi&asuby Department, 

January 28, 1878. 
SiB: I have the honor to transmit faerewitb a copy of a letter of the 
25th instant from the Commissioner of Gastoros, proposing an alteration 
of certain sections of the Bevised Statutes, fixing the compensation of 
inspectors of customs, and providing for the payment into the Treasury 
of the gross proceeds of old material Fold. Bis suggestions meet my 
hearty concurrence, and 1 respectfully recommend their adoption. 
Very resi^ectfullv, 

JOHN SHERMAN, 

Secretary, 
Hon. S. J. Randall, 

Sveaker llnu»€ of Repreiteniatives. 



[Copy.] 



Treasury Department, 
Office of Commissioner of Customs, 
Washington City^D. C, January 25, 1878. 
Siu : [ Iiave the honor to iur^tose herewith the form of an enactment 
tloMgued to make the law contained in sections 2733 and 2737, Revised 
Btatntt^K, relating to the ^nlary of inspectors of customs, the same as it 
was prior to the passage of tbe Revised Statutes, and of an amendment 
to section 3018, relating to thi^ sale of old material. 

I*rior to the passage of the Revised Statutes, the law allowed the Sec- 
retary of the TreK^iui y to fix the compensation of inspectors at such sum 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



2 COMPENSATION OF INSPECTORS. 

as he saw fit, not however tx> exceed the maxim am per diem of three 
dollars, with the power of increasing this maximum to four dollars. 

Under this law innpectors were in some cases paid as little as fifty 
cents a day, with perfect satisfaction both to the government and the 
party employed. 

In section 2733, Revised Statutes, the discretionary power of the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury in relation to the com|>ensation of inspectors is 
omitted, and a fixed sum — viz, three dollars — is named for every day's 
work by an insi)ector. 

In order to prevent an increase of the expenses of collecting the rev- 
enue from customs, and at the same time to keep the force of inspectors 
intact, the designation of those receiving less than $3 a day was changed 
from inspectors to deputy collectors, or the time to be employed limited; 
thus, John Smith, deputy collector and inspector, at $3 a day when 
employed, not to exceed $600 a year. It is believed, however, that 
many of the employes so appointed in reality perform service the whole 
time, and are laying the foundation for claims hereafter to be brought 
before the Treasury. 

It is to prevent the possibility of such claims, to allow greater econ- 
omy to be practiced in the collection of the revenue, and to restore the 
law to its former basis, that this change in the law is proposed. 

Under section 3618, as it is at present construed, if an officer of the 
Treasury is ordered to sell old material, he must do so at his own ex- 
pense, as the gross proceeds are required to be deposited without any 
deduction on account of charges, aud there is no appropriation for the 
payment of bills of this nature. 

It is to cure this palpable injustice that the amendment to section 
3618 is suggested. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

H. C. JOHNSOX, 
Commissioner of Customs, 

Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary of the TrecLSury. 



SUBSTITUTE FOR SECTIONS 2733 AND 2737, REVISED STATUTES. 

Each inspector shall receive for every day he shall he aotaally employed in aid of 
the castoms such sum as the Secretary of the Treasury may direct, Qot to exceed three 
dollars ; and the Secretary of the Treasary may increase the compensation of such 
inspectors as he may think advisable to a sam not exceeding four dollars for each day 
actuall^v employed. 

Sections 2733 and 2737, Revised Statutes of the United States, are hereby repealed. 

CONSTRUCTION OP SECTION 3618. 

Section 3618, Revised Statutes of the United States, shall be construed 
to allow the payment of all proper charges for the advercisement, stor« 
age, handling, and sale of old material or other public property, out of 
the proceeds derived from such sale before they are deposited and cov- 
ered into the Treasury. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



ISiB CoiroBESS, ) HOUSE OF BEPBESENTATIVES. ( Ex. Doo. 
2i8e$no». f \ No. 37. 



JETTIES SOUTH PASS, MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



LETTER 



FROM 



THE SE CRETARY OF WAR, 



RELATIVE TO 



Ike report of if. R. Brown^ captain of Engineers^ relating to the work of 
Mr. Eads at South Pass^ Mississippi Eiver. 



Ja5uart 29, 1878. — Recommitted to the Committee on Commerce and ordered to be 

printed. 



War Department, 
Wa^shington City^ January 16, 1878. 
Sot: I have the honor to report, for the information of Congress, that 
under the provisions of para|3:rapbs two and ten of the fourth section of 
the river and harbor act of March 3, 1875 (18 Stat., pp. 463-466), 1 have 
made requisition upon the Secretary of the Treasury for the second pay- 
ment of 1500,000 in favor of James B. Eads, and to transmit the docu- 
ments on which this action is based. 
In my annual report, dated November 19, 1877, 1 stateil as follows : 

In order to enable this department to carry into effect, on behalf of the United States, 
tke proTiMons of the act of Cong^rees an thorizing James B. Eads to construct sach jetties 
lod other aaziliary works as are necessary to permanently maintain a wide and deep 



I 



vater sad width of chAnnel aeonred and maintained. 

The netwrts *>f MaMi IH, lHr7, and July 34, 1877, showing the condition of the work at 
f^o^datHt A"d not lu^H'tufort? comu^onicated to Congress, are herewith transmitted. 
Oatbe 3Ut of Cktoburn Hii^nt^fpiezit rt^porr^ also transmitted herewith, showed a20-foot 
^Mttel %X sveroffp tlood-tjde through tlii' bar, and thronghont the pass and between the 
i*«i*ft, wi tb a loaj»t i* id tli of 'ilO ftet. J' he interrnption to navigation for a vessel draw- 
^i2fti«t xrn.^ 4-(0 f<(>et Lti l^n^th, atid tljf^ channel was, with this exception, at least 160 
Wvid«. When ■ ^^huntic^l 'itl f^e^t in depth and 200 feet in width shall have been 
uisined, a furthor sum ot' ^oOf^OiKJ wUl Ueoome due; and in respect to the time of the 
t w Uble attammont of t\\\A d^ptb, ih^ Kn^^ineer inspecting-officer reports : 

*U U pcobaUle that the aid of X\\^ n^^^v dredge-boat, if it is moderately successful, 
ft^TiorvQ enaMe Mr Eads Ut g»in i\ diannel 22 feet deep for a width of 200 feet, 
WMlfhuut tbe jetttoH^ and tbe (ihauces ;hre quite favorable for the attainment of such 
tihsntid in tbe efirlv stagt^s of litw river, by the help, possibly, of only an ordinary 
'j'^Qt^macbmeT ana Jatur, i>4irhaT^4. fiv^n without such aid. These statements are 
ttdtt becaiuo the !»«' (act approved MntroU 3, 1875) requires thit the honorable Secre- 
^o' ^V ■hull 'ecu body iu bia aunnai reports the probable time when other pay 
^^^U iriil bocomp du*?/ ^' 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



2 JETTIES SOUTH PASS, MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

Provision for this payment is made in the sundry civil act of March 3, 1877, vol. 19^ 
p. 358, provided it becomes due prior to Ist of Febmary, 1878. Should the contingency 
arise subsequent to that date, it would appear that further provision must be made by 
Congress for the payment. 

It having been officially reported to me that there was an open channel of greater 
depth than 18 feet at mean tide to and from the £ea throoffh the South Pass to the 
port of New Orleans, I directed, August 18, 1877, the tfuspension of the operations for 
the deepening of the Southwest Pass under the appropriation of August 14, 1876, in 
compliance with the provisions of that act. 

The accompaujing report of Gapt. M. B. Brown, the oflScer of Engi- 
neers detailed under the act to make inspections, &c. (vice Maj. G. B. 
Gomstock, on leave of absence), contains the certified statement required 
by the act above referred to, that on ^^ December 15, a channel 22 feet 
deep, thronghont a width of more than 200 feet at its narrowest pointy 
was obtained from deeper water in South Pass near the Head of Passes, 
through the jettied prolongation of South Pass to deeper water in the 
Gulf of Mexico." 

The inclosed copy of report of Gol. J. O. Barnard and Lieut. Gol. H. 
G. Wright, of the Gorps of Engineers, dated January 5, 1878, confirms 
the statement of Gaptain Brown above quoted. 

The conditions of law having been fully complied with, lam informed 
that payment of the sum authorized has been made by the Treasury 
Department. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GEO. W. McGRARY, 



Secretary of War. 



The Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



United States Engineer Office, 

Port Eads. South Pass, La., 

December 17, 1877. 
Sir : I have the honor, in compliance with the act of Gongress ap- 
proved March 3, 1875, entitled ^'An act making appropriations for re- 
pairs, preservation, and completion of certain public works on rivers 
and harbors, and for other purposes," to report, in confirmation of my 
telegram of yesterday, that '* yesterday, December 15, a channel 22 feet 
deep, throughoat a width of more than 200 feet at its narrowest 
point, was obtained from deeper water in South Pass near the Head 
of the Passes, through the jettied prolongation of South Pass to deeper 
water in the Gulf of Mexico." 
I have also furnished Mr. Eads with a duplicate of this letter. 
Not over one day's field work will be required to complete the pend- 
ing survey, and after a few days' ofiQce-work, following the taking of 
soundings in the Gulf near the ends of the jetties, certified charts with 
others will be forwarded to the honorable Secretary of War and to Mr. 
Eads, and at that time or soon alter a report to accompany the charts 
will be mailed to both addresses. 

I certify that the facts above stated, as to widths and depths of chan- 
nel, are correct, and in conformity with the results of my latest surveys. 
Very respectfally, your obedient servant, 

M. R. BROWN, 
Captain of Engineers j U. IS. A.. 
Hon. George W. McGrary, . 

Secretary of War^ Wa^hington^ D. C. 

Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



JETTIES SOUTH PASS, MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 3 

New Orleans, La., January 5, 1878. 

Sm : lu compliance u-ith yonr orders of the 2L8t ultimo, we proceeded 
to Port Eads, arriviu;; there Sunday evening, December 30, 1877, and 
made ^^a personal and thorough examination of the work now in prog- 
ress, under charge of James B. Eads, for the improvement of the South 
Pass of the Mississippi Biver," and have the honor to report as follows : 

Before proceeding to more general views and recommendations, we 
present the following answers to yonr interrogatories : 

Interrogatory 1. *^ What depth and width of channel have been secured 
through the South Pass of the Mississippi liiver to deeper water in the 
Gttlf of Mexico t" 

Answer. There is a channel nowhere less than 200 feet wide and 22 feet 
deep from the South Pass between the jetties to the deep water of the 
Galf of Mexico, the width between the 22 foot curves varying from 200 
feet to more than 500 feet. A practicable channel of 22.4 feet exists 
through the whole* extent of this portion of the pass. At the Head of 
the Pass a channel 264 feet wide and 22 feet deep exists, and a practica- 
ble channel of 23 feet deep is also found. As to the main body or length 
of the pass, we would respectfully refer to the report of July 24, 1877 
(the seventh), <^ upon the improvement of the South Pass of the Missis- 
sippi Biver." Some changes are shown to have occurred in widths and 
depths since Marinden's U. S. Coast Survey in 1875, but none material 
to be considered at present. 

Interrogatory 2. ^^ Flas such depth and width of channel been obtained 
by the action of such jetties and auxiliary works as are contemplated 
bj the terms of the act of Congress aforesaid t^ 

Answer. Section 4 of the aforesaid act authorizes James B. Eads and 
associates ^^ to construct such permanent and sufficient jetties and such 
auxiliary works as are necessary to create and permanently maintain, 
as hereafter set forth, a wide and deep channel between the South Pass 
of the Mississippi Biver and the Gulf of Mexico, and for that purpose 
he may construct in the river outlet or pass, and likewise in the Gulf of 
Mexico, sach walls, jetties, dikes levees, and other structures, and em- 
ploy suck boats, rafts, and appliances as he may, in the prosecution of 
said work, deem necessar3\'' 

Section 5 of same act provides (among other things) that '^ when a 
dianoel of twenty feet in depth and of not less than two hundred feet 
in width shall have been obtained by the action of said jetties and 
auxiliary works, five hundred thousand dollars shall be paid ; and when 
a channel of twenty-two feet in depth and two hundred feet in width 
shall have been obtained by the action of said jetties and auxiliary 
works, five buudrt^d tliousaiid tlollars shall be paid," &c. 

We have alreiidy, iu our Hii?*wer to the first interrogatory, reported 
tbat a channel ** twenty two feet in depth and two hundred feet in 
^dth'^has been obt^uit'd* Tlie interrogatory now to be answered is, 
"has sQch depth and width been obtained by the action of such jetties 
and aoxtliary works as are contemplated by the terms of the actof Con- 

The condition of payment, i. e.. that the specified depth and width 
shall be obtained by the actioEi of *'such jetties and auxiliary works,'^ 
I*adi^ ns into the con si deration of what is meant by auxiliary works. 
A^ tAc*e, in the language of tbe law, are coupled with the " permanent 
M)<1 sufficient jetties" which are to be constructed, and as further on 
^ is more specifically autbonzsd to construct in the river outlet or pass, 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4 JETTIES SOUTH PASS, MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 

and likewise iQ the Galf of Mexico, <' snch walls, jetties, dikes, levees, 
and other stractures," &c., all of which appear to be structures fixed in 
location and attached to the bottom of the river, outlet, or pass, or as 
levees to the dry land, a rigid interpretation would appear to exclude 
the use, or rather to prohibit payment for channel depths and widths 
obtained with the aid of the well-known processes of " scraping," " stir- 
ring up the bottom," or "dredging," and there can be no doubt that 
had either or all of these last-named means been the main agent or 
agents of obtaining the specified depths, payment could not, under the 
conditions of the law, be made for channel widths and depths so ob- 
tained, the jetty principle being notoriously the principle to be applied 
by the grantee. 

If, however, we refer to authoritative statements of the methods of 
applying that principle, we find it stated in the Physics and Hydraulics 
of the Mississippi River (p. 489, reprint)^ in treating of the "Elan of 
jetties," that the "erosive action should be ai<led at first by dragging 
and scraping the hard portion of the bar." 

The Board of Engineers appointed by the President of the United 
States, under the act of Congress of June 23, 1874, to make "a survey 
of the mouth of the Mississippi Hiver, with a view to deterpoine the best 
method of obtaining and maintaining a depth of water sufficient for 
the purposes of commerce, either by a canal from the said river to the 
waters of the Gulf or by deepening one or more of the natural outlets 
of said river," in recommending the opening of the South Pass by the 
application of the jetty system, states, " by aiding, if necessary, by 
dredging, we should be able to reduce at pleasure the time required for 
the process": and again : "This plan is then adopted, • * • to be- 
gin parallel dikes (i. e., jetties) at the banks, and carry them over the 
bar to 30 feet water outside, • • • allowing the river to erode the 
bottom between the dikes, • • • aiding the erosion by dredging or 
stirring, if it is not rapid enough." And in appendix to their report an 
item of $250,000 is found as the " estimated cost of dredging or stir- 
ring in aiding formation of channel between the jetties and at the Head 
of the Pass." 

The object of the act we are now considering is to "create and per- 
manently maintain a wide and deep channel between the South Pass of 
the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico"; and the Board of Engi- 
neers alluded to having been constituted expressly to determine the b^t 
manner of creating and maintaining such a channel, after having per- 
sonally examined the most important works of Europe, recommended 
the jetty plan to be applied to the South Pass; and the report and esti- 
mate of that board being the basis upon which the compensation to Eads 
and associates was determined, we do not doubt that the real intention 
of the proviso in question was that jetties and auxiliary works should 
be the effectual agents of obtaining the " wide and deep channel" in* 
tended, while at the same time the references we have made show 
that dredging is a legitimate auxilary. 

We conceive, therefore, that the true intent of the proviso does not 
prohibit the auxiliary aid of dredging ; that its spirit is as above defined ; 
and that, indeed, in the authorizing of the employment of such boats, 
rafts, and appliances as he may, in the " prosecution of said work, deem 
necessary," allows dredging, and should not prohibit payment for chan- 
nel widths and depths which the jetties and auxiliary works have, to 
all intents and purposes, really created, and to which dredging has been 
slightly auxiliary. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



JETTIES SOUTH PASS, MISSISSIPPI BIYEB. 5 

If we look at the actual facts presented by the prosecution of this 
work, we find that where, two and a half years ago, there was a bar at 
the mouth of the South Pass of over two miles of extent measured from 
22 feet water inside to the same depth outside, over about half a mile 
of which there was but eight feet of water, a <' wide and deep channel '^ 
of 22 feet depth now exists, and a result inferior in physical magnitude 
bnt no less in importance at the Head of the Passes has been obtained. 
And these resnlts are so exclusively due to the "jetties and auxiliary 
works," that the auxiliary aid of "appliances,^ if in such we include 
dredging-machines, is utterly insignificant, consisting mainly indeed in 
a slight widening at two points and widening and deepening at a third. 
By the erosion of the current, due entirely to the jetties and their fixed 
aoxiliariea, about two and one half millions of cubic yards of bottom 
material have been removed, leaving in its place the " wide and deep 
channel." Of this amount, one million of cubic yards have been removed 
by the same agency since the twenty feet of depth on the bar was ob- 
tained.* By the action of the dredge- boats (see Captain Brown's recent 
report to the honorable Secretary of War),/ro»i twelve to ticenty-eight 
tkouMnd cubic yards have nominally been removed by dredging, t But 
it cannot positively be asserted that (o the creation of the channel now 
existing even this insignificant amount has been contributed by dredg- 
ing. It is pertinent to remark, in this connection, that the creating of 
the 200 feet width of the 20foot channel, for which payment has already 
been made, is officially reported to have been, to a small extent, aided 
by dredging. (See Major Comstock's sixth report.) 

We have discussed the point of dredging at much length, because we 
oonceive it to be the real one involved in the third interrogatory ; and 
wecoDclode by answering that, according to the construction above 
given, the depth and width of channel has been obtained by the action 
of such jetties and auxiliary works as are contemplated b^*^ the terms of 
the act of Congress. 

Interrogatory 3. "Are the jetties and auxiliary works constructed or 
in process of constmction permanent, sufficient, and thoroughly sub- 
stantial, within the meaning of said act of Congress f 

Answer. In section 13, of the aforesaid act it is provided, " that while 
said Eads shall be nntrammeled in the exercise of his judgment and 
skill in the location, design, and construction of said jetties and auxil- 
iary works, the intent of this act is not simply to secure the wide and 
deep channel first above named, but likewise to provide for the con- 
stmction of thoroughly substantial and permanent works." 

And, further, that if the commissiou specified in same section " shall 
n^port that the works are being constructed upon a "design that will 
Dot be of a substantial and permanent character when completed," &c.; 
which seems to imply that at a stage of the work like the present it was 
not expecteil that the works should be brought to a condition of per- 
maoencj, bat only that, so far as they have gone, they should be of such 
a character as to be both substantial and permanent when completed 
aocording to the design. 

Moreover, the Commission of Engineers constituted by Special Orders 

* It most be remarked that the figures in the text by no nieanB exhibit the actual 
c&m«el.Movr due to the Jetties and auxiliary works. They exhibit merely the balanc$ 
between teowr modJUl, the fill ooenrring almost exclusively in the ultra-ohannel spaces, 
between the wiog-dams. By reference to Captain Brown's report, it will be seeu that 
so abnormal sconr of one and a half millions of cubic yards took place last summer in 
10 extent between jetties of only about 2,000 feet, between 4,500 and 6,500 feet below 
Estt Point. 

tWben dredging commenced, Captain Brown estimated only twelve thousand cubic 
Jifds o ezearation to be needed to produce the required channe^. wij^h {^(gl^g|^.[^ 



6 JETTIES SOUTH PASS, MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

No. 229, AdjutantOeuerars Office^ Washington, November 2, 1876, re- 
ported on this point as follows: 

We do not oonceire it to be required of Mr. Eads that each sta^e of the progreBS 
shall exhibit such *' Babstaotial and permanent work " as the law ultimately Contem- 
plates, but rather that each stage of the work shall show an adequacy to create a 
channel of the depth and width demanded, and, at the same time, snob a fair and 
honest prosecution of the work as shall be, as far as it has gone, so much really accom- 
plished toward the construction of works which, in the language of the law, may be 
maintained for all time after their completion. 

While we believe that Engineer officers, applying moneys appropriated to meet 
their estimates by Congress, would have ezecnt«xl their work differently, especially in 
applying freely stone to each layer of mattresses, we are nevertheless of opinion that 
the work is being constructed essentially according to the spirit of the act, as men- 
tioned in the tenth (thirteenth) section thereof. 

The above view of the case was approved by the honorable Secretary 
of War and sustained by the decision of the Attorney-Greneral of the 
United States. (See Ex. Doc. 28, 44th Cong., 2d sess., H. K.) 

Adopting the viewabove expressed, which, in oar judgment, in the only 
equitable one, we answer this interrogatory in the affirmative. No part 
of the jetties are as yet entirely completed, and some portions, especially 
the outer ends, will require extension of width and a large amount of 
stone before they are brought to that permanent and substantial condi- 
tion when completed which the act, in our judgment, requires. This 
additional work, we understand, Mr. Eads and associates propose 
to do from time to time, as payments are made to them by the United 
States. 

Interrogatory 4. '< Have the conditions prescribed in said act of Con- 
gress been fully complied with by said James B. Eads, in so far as be 
has proceeded with the work!" 

Answer. In onr judgment the conditions imposed by the act have 
been complied with by James B. Eads and associates, so far as they 
have proceeded with the work. 

Interrogatory 5. ^^ Is James B. Eads, in your opinion, entitled to re- 
ceive the $500,000 which, by the terms of said act, was to be paid to 
him when, having fully complied with the conditions prescribed by said 
act, a channel of twenty-two feet in depth and two hundred feet in 
width shall have been obtained by the action of said jetties and auxil- 
iary works f ^ 

Answer. We are of opinion that James B. Eads is entitled to receive 
the payment of $500,000 specified in the above interrogatory; and our 
reasons will be found in the answers already given to the first, second, 
third, and fourth interrogatories. 

In conclusion, we submit the following general views and recommend- 
ations: 

The recent report of the Engineer Officer in charge, dated December 
23, 1877, now in your hands, gives so exhaustively every detail con- 
nected with the work, that we need but refer to that report, and to those 
which immediately precede it, for foil information concerning the history 
of the work, the manner of construction, and the present condition. It, 
therefore, seems only necessary for us to take up two or three topics 
which have especial importance in the present stage of the work. 

We have already quoted from the report of the commission consti- 
tuted November 2, 1876, in reference to the clause demanding " sab- 
stantial and permanent works, by which said channel may be maintained 
for all time after their completion"; a provision which refers to the 
character of the works as incidental to the maintenance '* for all time" 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



JETTIES SOUTH PAS?, MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 7 

of tlie channel. In the paragraph following the qaotation referred to 
from the commission's report, the following occars: 

We would add ihftt tbe greatest variatioD from the sectional designs of the board of 
1874 for tbe jetties is to be foaod on tbeir sea-sides. Tbat board reoommeuded tbat 
tb« Jetties fhonld have on their sea-sides the same slopes as on the river or channel 
side. As actnally built npon the foundation mattressed, the sea-sides are vertical. 
This constmction appears to answer every purpose throughout most of the length, 
for the wide shoals on each side afford great protection, and there is, as had l^en 
expected, a great aconmnlation of river-sediment and loam deposit against tbe exte- 
rior of tbe jetties, by which that protection is augmented. The outer ends of the 
two jetties, and especially the end of tbe eastern one, extend beyond their protection, 
sod are ^^reatly ezpo^ed ; and we deem that an enlargement of section and a large 
application of stone to be essential to security. 

We have already remarked that we deem, not only an enlargement of section, but a 
Urge u»plio»tion of stone to be essential to the secnrity of the^ Jetties, their sea-ends 
Mpecially ; and we are of the opinion that this enlargement of sections at the sea-ends 
sad consolidation throughout by the application of stone should be undertaken at 
ooee, and a reasonable progress therein be made tbe condition of the second and all 
fiitore payments. The immediate and full consolidation of the Jetties should be neither 
required nor expected, as they will continue to settle for some time, both by subsi- 
dence of tbe bottom upon which they rest and by the compression of the mattresses 
of ubicb they are largely composed. But this settlement and consolidation should be 
hastened, aa has just been remarked, by the application of stone from time to time, so 
that they may be in condition to receive their final finish as soon, at least, as the ex- 
pected full depth of water in the channel has been obtained. 

Since tbe date of the report referred to, considerable quantities of stone 
(see Captain Brown's report of December 23, 1877, for exact quantity) 
have been laid along the jetties, some considerable portions of which 
may be regarded as requiring no further additions for a long time, if 
at all. 

With regard to the sea-ends, however, a much larger application of 
fitone will still be necessary, but the defect of vertical sea-sides has not 
yet been remedied, nor has the required enlargement of section, to any 
great extent, been made. Nevertheless, these ends have maintained 
themselves so as to suffer only from subsidence of the bottom compression 
of the mattresses and superficial abrasion by storms. 

It is understood to be Mr. Eads's intention to enlarge and strengthen 
these sea-ends in accordance with the views above expressed. 

The report of Captain Brown gives all the particulars attainable by 
biro concerning the ravages of the teredo. We caused to be broken by 
pull of a tug-boat one of the piles of the east Jetty head (a round pine 
stick about one foot in diameter, which had been in place more than 
two years), tbe fracture occurring about eight feet below low-water line 
and not far from the bottom. At this point the teredo had penetrated 
80 as to leave but five or six inches of sound central core, external to 
which tbe worms, some of large size, had eaten away much of the sub- 
stance. This fact confirms- what hHd been inferred by Captain Brown, 
that seaward of station 100, on East jetty, all timber five feet below low 
water, not buried in the bottom or surrounded by deposited sediment, 
will ultimately be consumed by worm?. But this fact does not imply 
that the foundation mattresses, well buried in the sand, will not remain 
sound; neither that those which, in the body of the jetties, are well 
packed around with sediment will not equally remain so. 

Further observation and longer experience are necessary to a full devel- 
opment «if tbe question involved ; but it is believed that when the lateral 
slopes of stone are fully provided the penetration of the worm into the 
interior of tbe jetties in these salt-water exposed parts will be checked, 
sod that to tbe extent to which they may be impaired, the remedy will 
be found in tbe increase of the quantity of stone. 

By reference to Captain Brown's report, it will be observed that the 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



8 JETTIES SOUTH PASS, MISSISSIPPI mVEB. 

ends of the opposite wiog-dams have generally a less interval between 
them than 700 feet. Section 9 of the act of Congress requires that the 
said jetties ^^ shall not be less than 700 feet apart.'' On this point Cap- 
tain Brown states, in the seventh report, ^' that it has been assumed by 
my predecessor, I think, and it certainly has been assumed by me, that 
any narrowing of the water-way to a less width than 700 feet was a tem- 
porary expedient, to gain an increase of velocity which should aid in 
scouring away speedily a material, mostly of hard clay, which has been 
compacted by years of inertness under both mechanical and chemical 
laws, and should secure the first desire<l depths sooner than they could 
be obtained without the diminution of the water-way; and I have as- 
sumed that it was the intention of Captain Eads to remove any obstruc- 
tions to a water-way 700 feet wide ultimately. In this assumption I am 
orally confirmed by Captain Eads himself." 

The letter of the law quoted above speaks only in prescribing the in- 
terval of 700 feet of the location of **the said je^tie*," the only instance, 
except one, in which in the numerous repetitious, the word jetties is with- 
out the sequence of the words ^^ and auxiliary works," and it seems clear 
that the language applies to the location of the main works, *^ the jet- 
ties," and not to auxiliary works {e, //., wing-dams, &c.). Whether or 
not a clear water-way of 700 feet is intended^ we are not now called upon 
to decide. 

The jetties themselves, as located and so far constructed, are really 
1,000 feet apart. The existing wing-dams are avowedly temporary ex- 
pedients, the ultimate removal of which — or, at least, of so much of 
which asmay be necessary to exhibit the aforesaid clear water-way — is 
the announced intention of the granjbee. With present channel-widths 
the contraction of total water-way is no detriment to navigation. 

Eespectfully submitted. 

J. G. BARNARD, 
Colonel of Engineers and Brevet Major-OeneraL 
H. G. WRIGHT, 
Lieutenant' Colonel of Engineers and Brevet Major-General, 
Hon. George W. MoCbaey, 

Secretary of War^ Wa^shington 2>. 0. 



Teeasurt Department, 
Office op the Light-House Board, 
Washington^ November 24, 1877. 
Sir : Referring to your letter of November 12, 1 have to say that the 
Light-House Board, at its meeting of November 23, considered the mat- 
ter of lighting the jetties at the South Pass of the Mississippi River, and 
while the board is of the opinion that lights are necessary for safe navi- 
gation, it is powerless to act in the matter for want of the necessary 
appropriation. The board is of the opinion that an appropriation of 
$10,000 should be ma'le for such lights. It will require but a short time 
to establish them after an appropriation is made. 
Very respectfully, 

PETER C. HAINS, 
Engineering Secretary. 

Capt. James B. Eads, 

Care of Mr. B. S. Elliott, 316 (7 Street^ Washington^ D. C. 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



45th Congkess, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. 

2dSea»ioH. i \ No. 38. 



OCEAX MAIL STEAMSHIP SERVICE OF FOREIGN COUN- 
TRIES. 



LETTER 



FROM 



THE POSTMASTER GENERAL, 



IN COMPLIAXCE WITH 



A resolution of the House of Representatives^ iransmitting a tabular state- 
ment of the ocean mail steamship service of foreign countries. 



Jaxuary 30, 1^8. — Referred to the Committee on the Post-Office and PoHt-Roads and 

ordered to be printed. 



PostOffice Department, 
Washington, D. C, January 29, .1878. 
Sir: I bave the honor to transmit herewith, in compliance with the 
resolation of the House of Representatives of the 25th instant, a tabular 
statement of the ocean mail steamship services of foreign countries, 
compiled from official data in the Office of Foreign Mails of this depart- 
ment, which comprises all the information in the possession of this de- 
partment relating to the organized ocean mail steamship services main- 
tauied by forei^u govern rrieuts, 

I am, very re3i>ectftilly, your obedient servant, 

D. M. KEY, 
Postmaster General, 
Hon. S^UfUEi. J. Randall, 

Speaker of the iloufie of Representatives, 



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OCEAN MAIL STEAMSHIP SEBVICE. 11 

Afpendix a. 

txibwsbfrom oomtraet with the Liverpool, Brazil and River Plate Steam Xavi^tion Com- 
/ny (/fwitf (f), ekowitig the conditions o/ the euboidy and the penaltiee impoeed for delapa, ^. 

Article 12. 

A. The govemmeiit gives up to the company the total amoant of the postal tax, ac- 
cnong to the national treaanry of Helginm, for the mails which it shall have conveyed 
bj ite packets, aa well for the correspondence originating iQ or addressed to Belgium 
ufoT that coming finom or addressed to foreign countries. 

B. The tariff of rates to \ye collected, and the amount of which is granted to the com- 
puy, forms hot one whole, oompriHiug : Ist, the sea-tax ; 2d, the Belgian territorial 
tix; 3d, the Belgian transit taxes due by foreign offices. 

C. Beginning with the date of putting into operation the service of three departures 
aiDODtb (provided for in the contract), the government will guarantee to the con- 
tnctois a minimum of postal revenue of 250,0$0 francs per annum, during a period of 
ax consecutive years, on condition that the company has adopted the Belgian flag. 

0. This guarantee shall cease its effects : Ist, if the service three times a month has 
hoNi interrupted ; 2d, beginning with the date on which it shall be verified that the 
postal reeeipts given up to the profit of the company shall have reached, during two 
ooBteeative years, the sums guaranteed. In either case, it cannot again be established. 

E. As soon as the proceeds shall exceed the minimum guaranteed, the administration 
ibill retain to the profit of the treasury ^11 sums exceeding that limit, even extending 
to the sums previously paid by the state. 

Articlk 14. 

A. The fees for pilotage, lights, and signals, collected by Belgium, both on arrival 
and departure of tne mail-packets, as well as the taxes that may be paid by the com- 
puy &r Ketherland pilotage, shall be reimbirsed to the company at the expiration 
of each qnarter. on production of the receipts for the sums paid therefor. 

B. No one of these taxes shall be reimbursed, if the commander of the vessel shall 
Bot ba?e made use of a pilot that he could procure. 

Article 47. 
Penalties. 

Except in cases of force majeure, and so considered by Belgian laws : 

A. Id ease of delay in the departure from Antwerp or Buenos Ayres after the hour 
He6. mider the contract, a fine of 50 francs per hour of delay will be imposed. If delay 
is beyond twenty-four hours, this fine will be increased to 100 francs per hour for the 
whole duration of the delay, and if it is proved that it had .for its cause either the tardy 
unbarkation of merchandise, passengers, or mails (except in the case of delay for mails 
anthorized under the contract), or the negligence or ill intention of the company, these 
fioes may respectively be doubled. 

Moreover, if the departure be delayed more than twenty-fonr hours, the agent of the 
^Teroment, and, in his default, the agents of the post-offices intrusting their mails to 
the packets of the contractors, in (execution of the present agreement, may take, at the 
expense, risk, and peril of the latter, all the measures necessary to assure the trans- 
portation of said mails by the most rnpM Tontc and means. 

B. Fur cTt-rv fltUij- beyond tlin titm- Trxi^d ninJer the contract for the duration of the 
^nf*ifw^ u tjatr ^*f i}6 fraijcs p*^r honr will hi} imposed. This fine will be increased to 
^ ffanca pe-r hour for tlie wIjoIu diirjUii)n oT the delay, if it is prolonged beyond three 
Vjo^ tu-tt^t^-foiir hours. It in nndtrst^H^tl rliitt a ship having arrived in the Flushing 



™4iBi% httuTA before the expirati*>n of thft time fixed for the duration of the voyage, 
4adji> F*?»^it» of fogs, ic*^, or Jack of jiilot, bring prevented from regularly pursuing its 
*vj>Jt^» ''hall be CO] ^ Ibid ere d uh having ^irrivid in time in Antwerp Roads.* It is also 
TW M Wtuud that a i^blp nrrivip^ t^elrt' Unum before the expiration of the time fixed 
^tbtdvmifou of tbti voyctii^^, at ttiu mouth of the river La Plata, and on account of 
■*ViA«r«r qaoraDttne* bniii^l prflvr^ritcd innu going up the river to Buenos Ayres, 
<Ui b« cotuidvred as bitviog arrived in time, if the company has delivered the mails 
tfivtiaatuiu withiu tTventy-foiir boiira. 

C^ FoTifvorv tlelay ia or call at n |Kjri in < contravention of the stipulations of the 
*«iti»ft, fk line of two thofwnod frarifr^ will be imposed, which will be increased to 
tttibMtaaiid franco in case mail^s^ merchantlise, or passengers have been embarked or 

A fWiivcry obligntoty oall not made th^'To will be a fine of ten thousand francs, 
'ifntt »t ntfT do Jiueiro, when qnuraniLiu^ ih imposed. But in this case the company 
■»mi|^ Ui traoMihtp the mails and pabdeji^t^re in order to send them to destination at 



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12 OCEAN MAIL STEAMSHIP SERVICE. 

its expense, risk, and peril, by the first ship leaving Montevideo for Rio. If this obli- 
gation is not fulfilled the fine shall be applied. 

F. For not replacing a vessel within the time prescribed in the contract, there will 
be a fine of five hundred francs per day of delay. 

G. For direct non-execution of every injunction addressed to the contractors by 
the administration the commission of surveillance named by the minister of public 
works, or the agent of the jE^overnraent, in conformity ^ith the clauses and conditions 
of the contract, there will be a fine of two hundred francs for each day of delay. 



Appendix B. 

Extracts from contract with Belgian- American Natngation Societg, representing the '* Inter- 
national Navigation Company of Fhiladelphiaf'' showing the conditions of the subsidy^ 
and the penalties imposed for delays, ^c. 

Article 10. 

A. The government gives up to the contractors the total amount of the postal tax, 
accruing to the nation^ treasury of Belgium, for the mails which they shall have con- 
veyed by their packets, as well for the correspondence originating in or addressed to 
Belgium as for that coming from or addressed to foreign countries. 

B. The tarifif of rates to be collected, and the amount of which is grant'Od to the 
contractors, forms but one whole, comprising: Ist, the sea-tax ; 2d, the Belgian terri- 
torial tax ; 3d, the Belgian transit taxes due by foreign offices. 

C. The government guarantees to the contractors a minimum of postal proceeds 
fixed as follows : 

1st. Beginning with the date of putting into operation the '' every twelve days *' 
service (provided for in the contract), two hundred and fifty thousand francs per 
annum. 

2d. Beginning with the putting into operation of the "every ten days" service 
provided for in the contract, three hundred and seventy-five thousand francs per 
annum. 

3d. Beginning with the eventual establishment of a weekly service, five hundred 
thousand francs per annum. 

D. If the proceeds should exceed the maximum guaranteed, the administration 
would retain to the profit of the treasury all sums exceeding that limit, even extend- 
ing to the amounts previously paid by the state. 

Article 12. 

A. The fees for pilotage, lights, and signals, collected by Belgium, both on arrival 
and departure of the mail-packets, as well as the taxes that may be paid by the com- 
pany for Netherland pilotage, shall be reimbursed to the company at the expiration of 
each quarter, on production of the receipts for the sums paid therefor. 

B. No one of these taxes shall be reimbursed if the commander of the vessel shall 
not have made use of a pilot that he could procure. 

Article 45. 
Penalties. 

Except in cases of force ronjenre, and so considered by Belgian laws: 

A. In case of delay in the departure from Antwerp, New York, or Philadelphia, after 
the hour fixed under the contract, a fine of fifty francs per hour of delay will be im- 
posed. If the delay is beyond twenty-four hours, this fine will be increased to one 
hundred francs per hour for the whole duration of the delay, and if it is proved that 
it had for its cause, either the tardy embarkation of merchandise, passengers, or mails 
(except in the case of delay for mails authorized by contract), or the negligence or ill 
intention of the contractors, these fines may be respectively doubled. 

Moreover, if the departure be delayed more than twenty-four hours, the agent of the 
government, and in his default the agents of the post-offices intrusting their mails to 
the packets of the contractors in execution of the present agreement, may, at the 
expense, risk, and peril of the latter, take all the measures necessary to assure the 
transportation of said mails by the most rapid route and means. 

B. For every delay beyond the time fixed under the contract for the duration of the 
voyages, a fine of fifty francs per hour will be imposed. This fine will be increased to 
a hundred francs per hour for the whole duration of the delay, if it is prolonged be- 
yond three times twenty-four hours. 

C. For every delay in or call at a port in contravention of the stipulaf ions of the 

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OCEAN MAIL STEAMSHIP SERVICE. 13 

footract, except in the case of forced delay, a fine of two thousand francs will be im- 
poaedf which will be increased to ten thousand francs if mails, merchandise, or passen- 
gers have been embarked or disembarked. 

D. For every obligatory call not made there will be a fine of ten thousand francs. 

£. For not replacing a vessel within the time prescribed in the contract, a fine of five 
hniidred francs per day of delay. 

F. For direct non-execntion of every injunction addressed to the contractors by the 
■dministration, the maritime commission named by the minister of public works, 
or tte agent of the government, in conformity with the clause and conditions of the 
ctsitracr, a fine of two hundred francs for eacn day of delay. 



Appkndix C. 

CORSICAN LINE. 

Penalties, 

Except in cases of force majeure duly verified, or when the packets have been 
t«nporarily detained by competent authority, infractions of the itinerary or other 
reinilAtioiis for the service subject the contractors to the following penalties: 

For^very delay in the hour of departure from or arrival at the terminal points, a 
fine of fifty francs per hour or fraction of an hour. If the delay is beyond six consecu- 
tive hours, the fine may be increased to one hundred francs fur each subsequent hour 
or fraction of an hour. 

If proved that the delay was caused by the embarkation of passengers or merchan- 
dise, the fine will be one hundred francs per hour or fraction of an hour, and after six 
hoars two hnndred francs. 

If the delay n more than twelve hours, the government agent at Marseilles or his 
depnties may take the necessary measures to assure the dispatch of the mails by 
another route, at the expense of the contractors. 

Embarkation of merchandise between the time of delivery of the mails on board and 
the normal hour of departure, will be punished by a fine of twenty-five francs for the 
first offense, and fifty rrancs if repeated. 

Neg^ligence in the service of receiving, delivering, or caring for the mails and movable 
boxas (K»r late letters) on board, will be punished by a fine of twenty-five to one hun- 
dred francs. 

For not posting in the places prescribed the notices furnished by the postal adminis- 
tration relative to the fraudulent transportation of correspondence, the contractor will 
be liable to a fine, the amount of which shall not be less than twenty-five francs nor 
exceed one thousand francs. 

Unjnstified delays or the embarkation or diselubarkation of passengers or merchan- 
d»e daring justified delays in the ports at which the packets may be obliged to touch, 
will be punished by a fine of five hundred francs for the first offense, one thousand 
francs for the second, and if a third occurs during the year, the minister of finance may 
anool the contract. 

The penalties provided in the last paragraph will a^so apply in the case of formal 
disobedience of the orders of the government agent, his delegates, or the permanent 
<B(iiuii«i^iinj of HurvuniADcf. 

Tbtt ttofi'tixec lit toil of a vi>yA|{e or even of a single trip, if the fault of the contractor, 
wUI 1w pnai^ihoil hy a ikdii^tioit of ii |mrt of the subsidy proportioned to the number 
of tti^Ttiii^i Jtiaf;iLf.-9 ijot travuniit^d, aiul tjhis without prejudice to a fine for delay calcu- 
taCt^d ^>r tw*ib« full hours. 

Evvry trip uudert^ken in ttccoriliiijt:^ with the itinerary, but interrupted by an accident 
WjomltL^ primer »f thecootrai^ti^r to jirt^^ent, shall be considered as accomplished, and 
mo pmrt ttf the HiilMi:dy ahaU Ur.^ deiiiu^ted therefor. But if the vessel returns to port, 
«n« tbe mitUs ar« intrudltid to anuthirr vessel, French or foreign, the expenses of the 
UMkvptRTlttti'ju sth&W be paid by tii(^ ooutractor. So, also, if the mails are transshipped 
■t Mtt ft^d «ent to dcbtination by ^iuother vessel. 

If Um contfactar fre4|iieLitly ox:p{>He<t himself to penalties, and it becomes evident 
tb«ft llie OOD tract is exeeuted with li^Lbitual negligence or bad faith, the minister of 
feKj i^B may annul the coutra4.t ivithout indemnity. 

If, ftrrjMiv othur c^xiim ttiau war, the contractor should suspend or abandon the service, 
Ibc vdaiiii ^UHtmu will citutiiiut^ it, ^^mploying the vessels belonging to the contractor 
M«d ^y htm JU Ihv ««rvioOt thti t^^pruses and risks thereof being at the charge of the 
wUaStor, vrbilttb«can f^laim no part of the subsidy, nor any indemnity whatever. 

If Um ruotractor dovs not curatneiu^ti the service on the date stipulated, it will be 
e£«c<;l«d at htm expeiiM, wUh Uw iuiutih that the government is able to procure. 

A^vr ft tt(tixi[i(iitu dt!l;i} ot Lwu oiijuihs, the contract will be forfeited, and anew 



*•"*** «i«<k- „,„ ,.^^^ ^y (^oog le 



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14 OCEAN MAIL STEAMSHIP SERVICE. 

^Appendix D. 

MEDITERRANEAN LINE. 

PenaJHes. 

Except in cases of force majeure duly verified, or when the veaseU have been tem- 
porarily detained by competent authority, .Infractions of the re/^nlations for the days 
and hours of departure and arrival, and the length of voyage, subject the company to 
a fine of fifty francs per hour of delay. 

For unjustified delay beyond six consecutive hours, the fine maybe increased to one 
hundred francs per hour. 

If proved that delay was caused by tardy embarkation of merchandise, the fine will 
be two hundred francs. 

After twelve hours, the postal agent, in concert with the local authorities as far as 
possible, shall take measures to assure the dispatch of the mails, and the expenses 
resulting therefrom will be at the charge of the company. 

In case of delay at a port not justified by circumstances of force majeure, the fine 
will be for first ofiense one thousand francs; for second two thousand francs, and 
for third may be increased to five thousand francs. 

The provisions of the last paragraph also apply, if the company or its agents have, 
except in cases of force majeure, embarked or disembarked passengers or merchandise 
in ports of delay other than those designated in the contract. 

If the delay in departure exceeds twenty-four hours, the government agent at Mar- 
seilles, or the postal agent at Constantinople and Alexandria, by accord wixh the 
authorities, shall have the right to dispatch another vessel, either government or mer- 
chant, at the expense of the .company. 

In case of loss of a vessel, if it is not replaced within the time specified in the con- 
tract, a fine of one hundred and fifty francs per day of delay will be imposed. 

For not commencing the service at the time prescribed in the contract, there will be 
a fine of five hundred francs per day of delay. 

If in any case other than that of war or force majeure, the company should suspend 
or abandon the service, the administration will, by the advice of experts, take pos- 
session of the vessels with all their material, &c., and a commission, appointed by the 
minister of finance, will determine the amount of fine to which the company will be 
8ubjecti5d, which amount may be as high as a million francs. 



Appendix E. 

BRAZIL AND LA PLATA LINE. 

Penalties, 

For every delay in departure from the terminal and intermediate points, except in 
cases of force majeure duly verified, or when the vessels have been temporarily de- 
tained by competent authority, a fine of fifty francs per hour of delay will be imposed. 

Beyond twelve consecutive hours of unjustified delay, the tine will be increased to 
one hundred francs per hour. 

If it is proved that the delay was caused by the tardy embarkation of merchandise,, 
these fines will be doubled. 

If the delay in departure should exceed twenty-four hours, the government ageot,^ 
or, in his default, the postal agents, shall, in concert with the local authorities, the 
company included, take the necessary steps to assure the dispatch of the mails at the 
expense of the company. 

If, for any cause, the mails can only be sent by the vessel making the next regular 
departure after the one not made, the number of leagues not traversed under these 
conditions shall give rise to a proportionate reduction of the subsidy. • 

If the time prescribed for the duration of the voyage is exceeded by a fortieth, 4 per 
cent, of the subsidy will be retained for the first fortieth, 8 per cent, for the second, 12 
per cent, for the third, and so on ; 4 per cent, for each fortieth. 

For delay in a port, not justified by circumstances of force ms^eure, there will be a 
fine of one thousand francs for the first ofi*euse, two thousand francs for the second, 
and f«>r the third the fine may be increased to five thousand francs ; and in these cases, 
if merchandise or passengers have been embarked or disembarked, the fines will be 
doubl* d. 

lu case of the loss of a vessel, if it is not replaced within the time prescribed in the 
contract, there will be a fine of three hundred francs for each day of delay, if the ves- 
sel to be replaced is of four hundred and fifty horse-power, and of five hundred francs 
if it is of two hundred horse-power. 

If the service is not commenced at the time prescribed in the contract, one hundred 
and fifty fr^ancs pur day of delay will bd retained from the amounts due the cojipaoy. 



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OCEAN MAIL STEAMSHIP SERVICE. 15 

Al*PBKDIX F» 
LINES OF THE UNITED STATES. ANTILLES, AND MEXICO. 

Penaltiet, 

ExMpt in oftses of force majeore duly proved, or when tbe Backets are temporarily 
detuned by competent anthority, evory delay in the departure from the terminal or in- 
termediate points will snbject the company to a fine of fifty francs per hour. 

Beyond twelve oonsecntive hours of unjustified delay the fine will be increased to 
OM bnndred fkmnos per hour. 

If it is proved that the delay was caused by the tardy embarkation of merchandise 
tkew fines will b« doubled. 

If the delay exceeds twenty-four hours, the government agent, or in his default the 
portal agents, ^adl, in concert with the local authorities — the company included — ^take 
tbe Dceessary measures to assure the dispatch of the mails, and all the expenses re- 
ultiiig therefrom shall be at the charge o€ the company. 

If, for any canse whatever, the mails can only be forwarded by the vessel making the 
next regnlar departure after the one not made, the number of leagues not traversed 
under these conditions shall give rise to a proportionate reduction of the subsidy. 

If the time fixed by the contract for the duration of the voyages is exceeded by a for- 
tieth, 4 per cent, will be retained from the subsidy for the first fortieth, 8 per cent, for 
tke second, 12 per cent, for the third, and so on ; 4 per cent, for each fortieth. 

In case of delay in a port not justified by circumstances of force migeure, the fine will 
be one thousand Aancs for the first offense, two thousand francs for the second, and for 
the third it may be increased to five thousand francs ; and in these cases, if merchandise 
or passengers have been embarked or disembarked, the fines will be doubled. 

Id case of the loss of a vessel, if it is not replaced within the time prescribed in the con- 
tract, the company will be liable to a fine of five hundred francs for each day of delay, 
if tbe vessel to be replaced is of seven hundred and fifty horse-power ; of four hundred 
freoes if it is of six hundred and fifty horse-power ; and of one hundred and fifty francs 
if it is of two hundred horse-power. 

If tbe company does not commence the service at the time piiescribed in the contract, 
ODe hundred and fifty francs for each day of delay will be retained from the amounts 
doe the company. 



Appendix G. 

INDO-CHINA LINE. 

Penalties, 

For every delay in departure from tbe terminal or intermediate points, except under 
circumstances of force majeure duly verified, or when tbe vessels are teiuporarily de- 
tsined by competent authority, the company is liable to a fine of fifty francs per hour 
of delay. 

Beyond twelve consecutive hours of unjustified delay the fine will be increased to one 
bnndred francs per hour. 

If it is proved that the delay was caused by the tardy embarkation of merchandise 
these fines will l>e doubled. 

If the delay io the departure exceeds twenty-four hours, the government agent or 
jwstaj ftgiptit shall take the tittcirtftrtn^ incaanres, in concert with the local authorities — 
lbs ontDpany included — to a-Hure rli<^ ^lispatch of the mails, and the expenses resulting 
Uierefttim wiU h^ at the cL^^rge of tb+' company. 

If, for nu J- caiiee, the mHiln aau only he Bent by the vessel making the next regular 
Jfr(»artore aft<;r t he ox*e i>oi mtnle, iU^ 'tiumber of leagues not traversed under these con- 
^titin» shall eiv^ riAe to a pro]tortioiinTt^ reduction of the subsidy. 

Ta caMof deliiy At a port, not JHsfiiird by circumstances of force majeure, the fine 
♦til U for rhe lirit oflensc oof^ iJumsLirnJ francs j for the second, two thousand francs ; 
ilot tbe third it may {n\ [Wn^ tLoiiaatiil francs; and in these cases, if merchandise or 
~ Bgtrs hikve Weo euitiurkf^d or ^ti^irUibarked, the fines will be doubled. 
Mseof Ibtj low of a vtSf^el, if it i?* uor replaced within the time prescribed in thecon- 
T»*rt, ihere will he M fine of tlirt^e Lmnir^^cl francs for each ^ay of delay, if tbe vessel to 
U rrjiUred is of foar haudre^l atiU tifty LorHC-power, and of one hundred and fifty francs 
tf ll » wf ]rnn power* 

U tht^ttiTvk'o is not oommt>ncud nt t\w time prescribed in the contract, a fine of one 
bsadrnt nufl fifty franco pi^rday of th^l.ij will be retained from the amouuts due the 



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16 OCEAN MAIL STEAMSHIP SERVICE. 

Appendix H. 

LINE OF DOVER— CALAIS. 

Penalties. 

Except in cases of force majeure duly verified, or when the vessels have been tem- 
porarily detained by competent authority, infractions of the regulations oonoernine 
the hours of departure and arrival will subject the company to a fine of one hnudred 
francs per hour of delay for the first six hours. 

K it is proved that the delay was caused by the tardy embarkation of passengers or 
merchandise, the fine will be two hundred francs per hour. 

Beyond six consecutive hours of ui^ustified delay, the fine may be increased to one 
thousand francs per hour of delay. 

Independently of these fines, after twelve hours of delay, the government agent at 
Calais and the postal agent at Dover may dispatch another vessel, either government 
or merchant, at the expense and risk of the company. 



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45th Cosgbess, \ HOUSE OF KErJBESENTATlVES. 

SdSetsioH. § \ No. 40. 



STEAM BOILEE EXPLOSIONS. 



MESSAGE 

* FROM THE 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 



TRA^^SMITTING 



The report of the commission appointed under the act of Congress approved 
March SjlSlS^relatire to the causes of steam-boiler eaplofiions. 



FKBRrARY 4, ltt78. — Referred to the Committee on Commerce and ordered to be 

printedk 



To the Senate and House of Representative^ : 

The commission appointed under the act of Congress approved March 
^ 1873, entitled *^An act to authorize inquiries into the causes of 
steam-boiler explosions," has addressed a report of progress made to 
date thereof to the Secretaries of the Treasury and ^avy Departments, 
which has been transmitted to me by these officers. The commission 
also present a copy of a report dated February 27, 1877, which they say 
^was mislaid, and did not reach the President." 

These reports are respectfully submitted for the information of Con- 



R. B. HAYES. 
Executive Mansion, February 4, 1878. 



Tbeasuey Depaetment, 

Office of the Secretary, 

January 22, 1878. 
Sir: We have the honor to transmit herewith, for the information of 
Congress, a report of progress made to date thereof by the commission 
appointed under the act of Congress of March 3, 1873, entitled ^'An act 
to authorize inquiries into the causes of steam-boiler explosions.'' 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, . 

JOBN SHEEMAN, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
R. W. THOMPSON, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
The President. 

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2 BTEAM-BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

Boston, Mass., December 31, 1877. 

Gentlemen : The commission appointed under the act of Congress 
approved March 3, 1873, entitled *' An act to authorize inqairies into 
the causes of steam-boiler explosions,^' desire respectfully to report prog* 
ress, and to call your attention to the report made by the commission 
February 27, 1877, a copy of which is herewith presented, which report, 
it now appears, was mislaid, and did not reach the President. 

The work of so far completing the electrical instruments as to enable 
the commission to resume operations in the field proved to be greater 
than was supposed at the time of making the above report, and they 
were only just ready for the final te its by the commission at tbe time of 
the decision of the honorable Secretary of the Treasury that the |;>alance 
of the appropriation must be covered into the Treasury. The instru- 
ments were then put in as good condition, to stand unused, as |)ossible, 
in the temporary structures erected for their adjustment in Cambridge, 
Mass. 

The watchmen in charge of the experimental grounds, boilers, tools, 
and apparatus at Sandy Hook and at Pittsburgh were notified of the 
decision, but, at the persuasion of the commission, they have consented 
to remain, and still remain, in charge and care of the government prop- 
erty, trusting that some proper mode may be arrived at by which they 
may hereafter be paid for their services. 

At the time of this decision of the honorable Secretary of the Treas- 
ury the indebtedness of the commission for materials received, for labor 
performed, and for rent of grounds at Cambridge and at Pittsburgh, for 
which contracts were made in reliance upon the use of the balance of 
the appropriation, was, aside f^om the expenses and services of the com- 
missioners, very nearly $1,700, most of which is due parties who arc in 
great need of the money. 

Tbe watchmen who have remained in charge of che property at Sandy 
Hook and at Pittsburgh should also be paid for their services from the 
1st of July, 1877, to the present time, the sum of $600, and they should 
also be ])aid for their continued services in the care of the property. 

Tbe commission most respectfully and earnestly request the reappro- 
priation of the balance, $4,064.96, covered into tbe Treasury, at as early 
a day as is practicable ; and, also, in order that all needed preparations 
may be made for the successful resumption and prosecution of the work 
in tbe field, as soon as tbe weather is suitable, an additional appropria- 
tion of $30,000. 

The commission will now be enabled by the use of the electrical 
instruments to know, at a safe distance from the boiler being experi- 
mented with, the exact condition of the water within it, as to its close 
contact with all partskof the heated surfaces, the exact temperature of 
tbe water and of tbe steam in all parts of the boiler, and also, by the 
use of tbe telephone, as recently modified by the commission to adapt 
it to the purpose, to hear, at this safe distance, the sounds made by 
alteration of form, and by the slipping or the breaking of the stays, or 
of the plates of the boiler. 

Tbe commission desire to say, in conclusion, that the examination 
and study of cases of explosion of working- boilers, siiHje the report of 
February 27, 1877, and the reexamination of results of the experi- 
ments already made by the commission, all tend to show that we have 



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{ STEAM-BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 3 

T«l very much to learn in relation to the causes of steam-boiler explo- 

SOIM. 

All of which is re^ectfolly sabmitted. 

JOHN D. BUNKLE. 
CHAS. W. COPELAND. 
J. R. ROBINSON. 
I. V. HOLMES. 
Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary ef the Treasury. 
Hob. R. W. Thompson, 

Secretary of the Navy. 



L 



Boston, Mass., February 27, 1877. 

Gentlemen : The commission appointed under the act of Congress 
spproTed March 3, 1873, entitled *' An act to authorize inquiries into 
tbecaasesof steam-boiler explosions," desire respectfully to report that ^ 
the electrical instruments upon which the commission has for over two 
years been engaged are now so far perfected that it is confidently 
bdiered that they will be ready for work in the field as soon as the 
weather is suitable. 

The commission also desire to give more fully than has yet been done 
the reasons for undertaking to devise these instruments. 

As is shown by the report made by the commission November 25, 
187S, the instruments used up to that time had proved unreliable. 

All the instmments that gave the most, promise were then procured, 
not only at home, but from abroad, but it was still found impossible 
vith them to obtain the desired knowledge of conditions within the 
boiler. In order to a more perfect understanding of the matter, but 
withoat going into it in detail, which will be done in the final report, 
it appears advisable that something should be said in relation to two 
of the most important conditions connected with these investigations; 
the first of which is, the condition of the water within the boiler, as to 
its eoDtact with the surfaces exposed to the action of the fire, whether 
n\B\u dose contact or otherwise ; and the second is, the condition of 
the irater as to its temperature, whether it has the temperature due 
the pressure, or otherwise. 

It has long been known, from the experimen ts of Leidenfrost, Klaproth, 
aod others, that when metallic surfaces are raised to certain elevated 
temperatures water will not remain in close contact with them, the con- 
lict being prevented by the action of the heat; Professor Tyndall siys, 
"by the recoil of the nioleculcir |>rojectiles discharged^ from the water 
oeit the heated aurftices. 

The iroromttt^e of tlie Franklin Institute found that when iron surfaces, 
lilte thff interior of a a team- boil t*r, were raised to a temperature of about 
1*10^ Fahrenheit, the reijulsiorj of the water was perfect. The ex peri- 
meuts of this committee wert^ nuicle with small quantities of water and 
atatpo.spberic pressure, and it was supposed th at pressure would tend 
to raise the temporatiire of pert'ecD repulsion. 

Eipehment-K mailu since tiie neport of this comnaittee tend to show 
tiat pre^fnure alone does not raise- the temperature of perfect repulsion, 
^'at that tbo matter is governe<l largely by the strength of the circula- 
Lwaof the water within the boiler. 

In reUtian to the second of tlie important conditions, that of the tem- 
iwitur^^ of tJic wfltf*r within tfje boiler, it is known from the experi- 
firtfiiai^f M>i;:tjnH, IJoaijy, Dufunr, and othi'is, that water may be raised^ 



4 STEAM-BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 

to temperatures mach above that dae the pressure without boiling, and 
that when ebullition commences under these circumstances the excess 
of heat above that due the pressure is given off explosively. 

It has been supposed by many that the temperature of water could 
not be raised within a steam-boiler because of the presence of solid mat- 
ter, but the experiments of Dufonr tend to show that solid matter, when 
present, soon parts with its air, so that it does not prevent the abnormal 
heating of the water. 

It is believed by investigators whose opinions are certainly entitled to 
great weight that these conditions of the water are the causes of a large 
proportion of all the explosions that occur. 

In relation to the first supposed cause. Professor Tyndall says : " We 
are more ignorant of these things than we ought to be. Experimental 
science has brought a series of true causes to light which may produce 
these terrible catastrophes, but practical science has not yet determined 
the extent to which they actually come into operation." 

And in relation to the second supposed cause of explosions, after call- 
ing attention to the great number that have occurred, after boilers have 
^ '^ remained for a time quiescent,'' and given reason for supposing that 
they were caused by the overheating of the water contained in them, 
Professor Tyndall says: ^^I do not say that this t^ the case^ but who 
can say that it is not the case. We have been dealing throughout with 
a real agency, which is certainly competent, if its power be invoked, to 
produce the most terrible effects.'' 

It is clear, in view of these things, that experiments for learning the 
causes of steam-boiler explosions without instruments to show whether 
or not all parts of the boiler exposed to the action of the fire are in close 
contact with the water within the boiler, or without instruments to show 
the tempierature of the water within the boiler, cannot be conclusive. 

The experiments with the western steamboat boiler at Pittsburgh, in 
1873, an account of which is given in report of November 25, 1873, was, 
however, of great value, as showing the weakness of the flues of those 
boilers, as compared with their shells, upon the calculated strength of 
which the working-pressure allowed was based, and upon the supposi- 
tion that the flues were of equal strength; for although the instrument 
used proved so defective that there was much question, even, as to the 
pressure of steam at which the flues yielded, there was so much water 
in the boiler that it was certain that the upper parts of the flues were 
covered, so that thefact that the flues were collapsed while theshell, which 
must have been subjected to the same forces, was entirely uninjured, was 
conclusive as to the weakness of the flues, whatever was the cause of 
their yielding. It is probable that these flues were collapsed by a gradu- 
ally increasing pressiy^e of about 350 pounds, and without any abnormal 
action whatever, but it is not possible to Jcnotc that this, in point of fact, 
was the case. 

These conditions, and the additional one that many of the experiments 
must be conducted at temperatures much above the supposed tempera- 
tures of perfect repulsion, led the commission to decide to make no more 
experiments with the large boilers till suitable instruments could be pro- 
cured. And while it is much to be regretted that this has taken so much 
time, and has been attended with so great expense, it is certain that 
all the information gained from the preliminary experiments, and from 
the study of the cases of explosion of working-boilers during the two 
years since that time, has tended to k^how, not only the great need of 
investigation in relation to the causes of explosion, but the wisdom of 
the decision in relation to the instruments, and to make it clearer that 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



STEAM-BOILER EXPLOSIONS. 



(he information contemplated in 
commission was created cannot 
Domber of steam-boilers^ nor by 
moits withoat sach instruments. 



Hon. Lot M. Mobbill, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 
Hon. Geo. M. Kobeson, 

Secretary of the Navy. 
H. Ex. 40 2 



the act of Congress under which the 
be obtained by the bursting of any 
the making of any number of experi- 
AU of which is respectfully submitted. 

JOHN D. RUNKLB. 

CHAS. W. COPELAND. 

ISAAC V. HOLMES. 

J. E. ROBINSON. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



45IH GoNQBESS, ) HOUSB OF BEPBESENTATTVES. ( Ex. Doo. 
2d8e$»um. f \ No. 41. 



HABBOB OP CINCINNATI. 



LETTER 



FROM 



THE SECRE TARY OF ¥AR, 



TRAN6BUTTINO 



i report of the engineer concerning the best method of protecting the harbor 
of Cincinnati from ice. 



January '23, 1878. — ^Referred to the Committee on Commeroe. 
February 5, 1678. — Recommitted to the Committee on Commerce and ordered to be 

printed. 



War Department, 
Washington Oity^ January 22, 1878. 
Ibe Secretary of War has the honor to transmit to the House of Kep- 
Rflentatives, in compliance with the resolation of the House dated 
March 2, 1877, a report, with accompanying map, by Maj. W. £. Mer- 
rill, Gorps of Engineers, on the best methods, by harbors of refuge or 
otiierwise, of protecting the river-commerce of Cincinnati from floes of 
ieeio the Ohio. 

GEO. W. MoCBARY, 

Secretary of War. 
Hie Speaker of the House of Representatives. 



I 



Office of the Chief of Engineers, 

Washington^ D. C, January 21, 1878. 
Sta ; To enable tbe honorable the Secretary of War to comply with the 
rc^uiremenu of the following resolatioQ of the House of Bepresentatives 
;t HiircU 2, 1877— 

Tint thn Srcrntno' of Wttr bo raqntfit nrt to reprnrt to Conrfross on tho liest methods, 
•ri^lKwi o( refittreor othwrwiaopOi pruteotingtbo river-iTouimort'Q of Cincinnati from 
bwtrfiof in the Obio — 

llwfif leave to snbmit thfi inclosed copy of a report on the subject, 
tilth ao-comimnying u\b,\\ by Maj, \\ iiliiitu E. Merrill, Corps of Engi- 
»WftT to whom The n^qnisite surveys in»<l examinations were intrusted. 

Ike report is full and as liomplete as t lie limited means at his dis- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



2 HARBOR OF CINCINNATI. 

posal would allow, and will doubtless afford all of the informatiou that 
may be necessary to a proper uaderstanding of the questions involved. 
The resolution of the House of Bepresentatives is herewith respect- 
fully returned. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. A. HUMPHREYS, 
Brigadier- General and Chief of Engineers. 
Hon. Geo. W. McCrary, 
Secretary of War, 



protection of the commerce of cincinnati from damage by ice- 
floods in the ohio river. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Cincinnati^ OhiOj December 28, 1877. 
General : I have the honor to submit the following report on the 
best means of protecting the commerce of Cincinnati from damage by 
ice-floods in the Ohio River. This report is made in accordance with a 
resolution which passed the House of Representatives March 2, 1877, 
and which reads as follows : 

Bssolved, That the Secretary of War be reqaested to report to Congress on the best 
methodsi by harbors of refuge or otherwise, of protectiog the river-sominerce of Cincia- 
nati from floes of ice ia the Ohio. 

HISTORY OF THE ICEFLOOD OP 1876-'77. 

Before discussing details of protection from ice-floods, it seems proper 
to give a history of the breakup of last winter, which was an unusually 
destructive one, and was doubtless the direct cause of the passage of the 
resolution in question, and also of two previous resolutions on the same 
subject, which will be mentioned further on in the report. 

The 'first obstruction by ice during the winter of 1876-'77 occurred on 
the 8th of December, on which day the thermometer fell from 34 degrees 
at 4 p. m. to zero at midnight, notwithstanding which a few steamboats 
left port. On Saturday, the 9th, the weather continued cold, and the ice 
became so heavy that the underwriters would assume no further risks, 
and ordered all boat^s into winter-quarters. During the next week a 
few trips were made between Cincinnati and Huntington, but, owing to 
ice gorges below Cincinnati, only one or two boats left for the South « 
and none of them succeeded in getting through to Louisville. A second 
spell of very cold weather began on the 16th of December, and entirely 
suspended navigation for the whole length of the river. 

At the Cincinnati Southern Bailway bridge, which crosses the Ohio 
near the lower end of the city, the Keystone Bridge Company had just 
completed the scaffolding for the main-channel span, and had notified 
the public that this space was closed to navigation, by an advertisement 
dated December 9, the very day that the cold wave arrived. It was on 
this day, also, that a strong up-stream wind dislodged some of the float- 
ing booms thrown out to protect the trestling, and left it unsupported to 
resist the whole weight of moving ice. As this trestling obstructed a 
width of upward of 500 feet in the middle of the river, it was to be 
expected that the ice would first gorge here. The gorge occurred at 
noon of the 11th, and at 4.45 p. m. had become so heavy that the trestle- 
work gave way, and all of the bents except one or two on the north 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



HARBOR OF CINCINNATI 3r 

side were carried off. No iron- work of the saperstracture had been put: 
ID place, and therefore the loss was confined to the timber false- works ;. 
it was estimated at $10,000, not including the damage caused by the 
delay in the completion of the bridge. The formation and movement 
of this gorge sunk several coal- barges, and occasioned a loss of $5,000* 
at the coal-landings between Central avenue and the site of the bridge. 
No other damage was reported in the vicinity of Cincinnati while ther 
river was closing up. Some losses were sustained at points above and 
below the city, but in all cases they were quite small. 

The weather continued cold, and the river remained low, so that on 
the 26th of December pedestrians and teams were crossing the Ohio 
00 the ices not only at Cincinnati, but as far south as Evansville. The 
characteristic feature of the winter was a month of continued low tem- 
perature from December 9 to about January 9, giving on the Ohio itself 
a bountiful crop of clear ice, which, in some places, was said to average 
14 inches in thickness. 

There are no safe ice-harbors at or near Cincinnati, and most of the 
steamboats in port were, as usual, crowded along the public landing, 
between the Newport ferry and the suspension-bridge. The danger to 
these boats from any movement of ice was early apparent, for they were 
so tightly frozen in that any movement of the ice-field would have in< 
evitably carried them along with it. In order to release them from the 
main body of ice, the underwriters, at an expense of $250, cut a chan- 
nel, just outside the boats, from the foot of Central avenue up to the 
foot of Sycamore street, which was afterward continued by the Pomeroy 
Packet Company up to Newport- Ferry Landing, thus leaving a narrow 
strip of open water outside of all the boats at the landing, and disen- 
gaging them from the main ice-field. This work was completed by the 
29th of December, and the strong current kept the channel open for the 
rest of the winter. 

Meanwhile, in the lower part of the harbor, the Fifth-street ferry-boat 
and the tow-boat Kate Waters had kept open the line of the ferry, and 
a space extending up-stream several hundred feet. 

On the 5th of January a narrow channel was out by hand from the 
wharf-boat of the Louisville Mail Line immediately below the suspension- 
bridge across to the coal-landing on the Kentucky shore. During the 
next day the field of ice below this cut, and above the foot of Fifth street,. 
moved down some 300 feet and then held fast on the pibint opposite Muel- 
ler's stone-yard, without doing any particular damage. This movemeni 
left a small section of open river below the suspension-bridge, and con- 
tracted, but did not close, the opening near the Jfoot of Fifth street. 
Taking advantage of the new situation, one of the Champion tow- 
boats, which lay in the mouth of the Licking, attempted to clear out the 
channel above the suspension-bridge and opposite the public landing. 
The ice, however, proved so heavy that she succeeded in getting only 
a abort distance from the shore, and accomplished no useful result. 

The cold term was followed by heavy rains on the northwestern slope 
of the Allegheny Mountains, which raised all the streams coming in 
from We«t Virginia and Kentucky, and caused a rise in the Ohio that 
forced out the heavy ice before it had begun to weaken. A break-up' 
under such conditions is, of course, much more dangerous to property 
than one occurring after the ice has become gradually rotted by mikji 
weather, and is, therefore, too soft to do any injury when put in motioirc 
It is a rare thing for ice to attain such strength as it did laat winter, and 
it is very seldom put in motion by so great a flood. The conditions were, 
therefore, favorable for heavy losses. 

The rise that started the ice began in the bend of the Ohio near the 



4 HABBOR OF CINCIKKATL 

moatbs of the Kanawha and Big Sanely, and it gradually foroed its way 
aoutbward, the ioe at each point holding the flood back until broken up 
by its irresistible pressure. On the 9th of January there was a more- 
ment at Ironton and Portsmouth, which sunk and carried away coal* 
boats and did mnch damage. The flrst serious movement at Cincinnati 
took place on the 12tb. At Louisville it b^an on the 14th^ at Evans* 
ville on the 15th, and at Sbawneetown on the Ittth. While this was 
going on in the middle and lower Ohio, a similar disastrons flood was 
pouring down the Monongahela and its tributary, the Youghiogheny. 

Owing to still water in the pools of the Monongahela slackwater, 
heavier ice forms in this river than in the Ohio, but as this ice has to 
pass over the dams, it generally reaches Pittsburgh so broken up as to 
be harmless to navigation. In the exceptional breakup (tf last winter 
the high water not only carried out the Monongahela ice^ while still re^ 
taiuing nearly its maximum strength, but it took along with it great num- 
bers of empty and loaded coal-barges, which were lying in tlte harbors 
and at the coal tipples in the several pools. This whole mass went 
together over the dams and passed Pittsburg^ on the top of the flood. 
It was, of course, almost Impossible to hold coaMiarges or steamboats 
against snoh a pressure. Eight steamboats were sunk and several oth- 
ers considerably damaged out of the sev^ity that were reported as win< 
tering in the vicinity of Pittsburgh. The papers at the time reported 
that one hundred and thirty-two barges, flats, and boat-houses passed 
out of the Monongahela between 6.15 a. m. and 7 p. m. of January 14. 
During daylight of the same day one hundred and fifty coal-bEirrges 
were reported as being carried along in the ice past Rochester, a town 
on the Ohio, 26 miles below Pittsburgh. The total loss from this ice- 
flood to the Pittsburgh navigation interests was estimated at the time 
at $1,500,000, which, however, is nndonbtedly considerably in excess of 
the true loss. There was considerable loss of coal and coal-baj*<r6s be- 
tween Pittsburgh and Cincinnati, but comparatively little below the lat- 
ter point. 

The movement of ice at Cincinnati commenced at 9 a. m. of Friday, 
January 12, when the icefield in front of the public landing broke 
away from the Newport and Cincinnati bridge, and moved down 350 
feet, closing up the opening below the suspension- bridge, and sinking 
the steamer Calumet, which lay at the head of the line of boats, ex- 
tending ill close cobtact from Lawrence street to Vine. The harbor-ice 
moved as one piece, and owing perhaps to the channel cut outnde of 
the boats for their protection, this heavy field got sufficient momentum 
toward the Ohio shoie to crush in the Calumet, the first object that seri- 
ously opposed it. After moving a few hundred feet the ice was checked 
by that below and the movement stopped. At 11 p. m. on the same 
evening, a second movement of this ice-field occurred which sunk the 
steamer Andes, lying at the foot of Main street. Both the Calumet 
and the Andes were sunk by the ice that formed in the harbor before it 
had moved a thousand feet. An early eflbrt was made by the Cham- 
pion No. 8, to cut her way across from the Licking to pump out and raise 
the Calumet, but the ice was so heavy that she was unable to break 
through it. On Sunday morning, January 14, the river was open 
(HrectTy in front of the city, but gorged above at the marine ways, and 
below at Cullom's. At 11.40 a. m. these gorges broke, and as the river 
was rising rapidly no new gorge could form, and no further damage 
occurred. Navigation was resumed on the 18th of January, after an ice- 
blockade of forty days. 

Besides the steamboats at the public landing and immediately below 
the suspension-bridge, there were four at the mouth of the Licking, 



HARBOR OF CINOINlfATL 5 

•od five filoag tlie right bmik below the marine railway and under the 
iee of the floating ice-breaker thrown ont to protect the dry docks. All 
of these boats escaped injury. The total number of steamboats in port, 
inelnding three on the ways at Covington, was 37 ; of these 7 were sunk 
or carried away, 3 of them, however, being small pleasure-boats, or 
ateam-lannchee, valued at $1,000 each. 

The amount of coal afloat was 220 barges, of which 8 were partly un- 
loaded. There were also held in port 407 empty coal-barges, which were 
distributed along both shores from the mouth of the Little Miami to 
SedamsviUe, and were tied up in fleets wherever there was any hope of 
.protection from the ice. 

Owing to the want of a tow-boat that could break through the harbor- 
lee, many of the empty barges were necessarily left in places wliere 
there was small probability that they could escape in case of a- bad 
break-op. The heaviest fleets of loaded barges were at Coal Haven (a 
point on the left bank of the river nearly opposite the mouth of the 
Little Miami), at the Queen City elevator, and on the left shore at 
Ludlow, below the Southern Railway bridge. The greatest loss occurred 
at Waters's Landing, the lowest landing at Coal Haven. The number of 
loaded coal- barges lost was 71 ; the number of empty barges cut down 
or carried away was 175. 

The loss on steamboats and wharf boats at Cincinnati amountetl to 
$73,650, and that on coal, coal-barges, coal-flats and floats to $202,895 ; 
making a total loss of $276,545. These figures have been obtained by 
personal investigation into each loss, and are believed to lie substan- 
tially correct Besides getting the actual value of property lost, I have 
had both sides of the river from the Little Miami to Sedamsville care- 
fully canvassed to ascertain the number and position of boats at each 
landing when the ice moved, and which of them were sank or carried 
•way. Several months, however, had elapsed since the ice-flood, aud 
there was much difficulty in getting the facts required. Discrepanciee 
between the ^statements made by the owners of coal aud by the foremen 
in charge of the flats could not always be reconciled, but the results 
obtained are thought to be quite accurate in the majority of cases, and 
approximately correct in the others. 

Accompanying this report is a nrap of the harbor of Cincinnati, 
which shows the position and kind of each boat in the harbor on the 
12th di^ of January, when the ice commenced moving. To make the 
information embodied in this map more iipparent to the eye, all steam- 
boats and barges that were sunk or carried away are colored red ; 
loaded barges are sbaded in black ; empty ones are indicated only in 
oaUine. 

Some barges that were carried away were recovered uninjured, but it 
was quite impossible to ascertain whence they started, aud therefore 
BO attempt has been made on the map to distinguish between those tliat 
were totally destroyed and those that were carried away and afterward 
recovered. Numbers of the latter floated out into the Mississippi before 
they were captured, and the expense of salvage and of bringing back 
socb barges was quite heavy. 

The information contained in the map is consolidated in the following 
table, the total loss sustained at each landing being summed up. Owu- 
era of coal-barges could often give their total loss of empty barges, but 
could not indicate the landings at which they lay; on the otber hand, 
owners of landings could tell the number of barges carried away, but 
oftentimes did not know how many of them were recovered. The loss in 
empty barges, therefore, although nearly correct in the aggregate, has 
probably some errors in detail which could not be avoided. viiOOQLc 



HARBOfi OF CINCINNATI. 



Table of coal-hargeSj coal-JlaU^ and similar craft iti fJkt harbor of Cincinnati during the ice- 
blockade of 1876-^7, giving (he landings at which they lay, and the number and value of 
those cut down or canied away at the l>reaking up of the ice. 





Name of hioding. 


AT LAXDINO. 


LOST. 




Bank 


Coal-barges. 


Flats, &C. 


Coal-hargcs. 


FUta,&c 


1 




1 


. 


1 


i 


n 


s 


1 


1 


1 


I^ft . 


Bfowd'h, upper 


17 
S4 

13 
3« 

7 
4 






j 


3 
3 

I 

26 

7 
4 


"Y 


.... 

"'4 

"3 




.... 


$5,850 
7,375 
1,470 


Do .... 


Stewart's 


'**2 


2d 
7 
9 

""3' 
3 
12 

4 




Do^.. 


Brown's, lower 


1 ;.,... 


.... 


.... 

1 


Do . 


Wsters's 


48 600 


Ei^t... 


Kellosff's 


1 


4 
2 


l-i,500 




7,000 


Left 








Ri^ht.... 


Qaeen City Elevator 

Gsrdner's. 


34 

1 


I 

""a 




4 
1 
1 

a 
3 

1 
I 


3 


1 


4 





4 


16,600 


Left 


Wolfs Rolling Mill 




2 


"3 


.... 


.... 


1,500 


'"f)S*::: 


Kevstone Elevator 




9 

a 

1 
1 
5 

48 
10 

1 




500 


Do<isworth'8 


3 








200 


Loft 


Williamson's 






1 
1 








Do 


Gordon's 










.... 


1 


250 


Do ... 


Ne wDort Barracks . - . . . 












Do 


Liokinff River 


9 
5 

1 




1 


23 
2 

1 
S 
3 


I 
1 


— 


6 

4 


1 


.... 


2,000 


Do 


Shinkle's .' 


3,700 


Do 


Kmntsler's 




?!??»••• 


Foot of Race street . .. 














D. Buchanan's 


5 





3 

1 
3 
4 
2 
2 




1 




2 


.... 


.... 


2,000 


B.^t.... 


St<>vens's 




Johnston's 


4 


""a 


•••• 


1 
2 

"5 

1 
2 
3 
3 

1 
2 


.... 


.... 


3 





1 


1,000 


Do 


Levy's 




Left 


Covington Saw-Mill 








"2 


.... 


**i 




Rlaht .. 


Marmet's 






500 


Do 


Ohio River Salt Company's. 












Do 


Coohnower's. npper 






4 
11 

3 
16 

8 

9 
















Left 


Montgomery's ..........<..< 










4 






1.000 


?.r- 


Buchanan's .^ 














Covington Docks 


1 


.... 


1 


.... 


4 
8 
9 






1,000 


Rlirht.... 


Gas Company's 


7,000 


Left 


Btteman^s 


4 


.... 


4 








16,000 
100 


Do 


Frenchman's 




1 
2 
6 
3 
3 
3 
2 
3 
3 
3 




1 
1 


«'e- 


RoUlngMill 






7 








7 


.... 


3,000 


Muftllftr's ............. ^ ., 










Do 


Philljps's 






6 
4 
4 
3 

10 
2 
2 

32 
7 
6 


















Do 


Serena &. Stone 


















Do 


Bard's 


S 


1 


"i' 


1 
"3' 








1,200 
.'iOO 


Do 


Collier, Bndd & Co 


3 
10 





"2 


Do..... 
Do 


Ciocinnati Coal and Coke Co 
Ross's 


1 


3 


5,000 


Do 


Fifth Street 










2 

32 

7 

5 




.... 


1,000 


Left 


McCoy's 










15,000 
5 (00 


Bight.... 


Coclino wer's, lower 




1 





4 
3 
3 

1 




1 




2 


Do 


Zimmerman's 




4,000 


Do 


Keek's 












3 


3,000 


Do 


Buckeye 


1 




2 
5 




1 




1 




1,150 


Do 


Mill Creek 


Do 


GaflTs 








1 






.... 


.... 


.... 




Left 


Walmer's 


3 


..'... 


38 






Do 


Keystone 




3 

1 
2 














Right. . . . 


Flemming's 


5 




7 


A 


4 


.... 


5 

6 

10 

23 


3 




9 000 


Do 


Twenty-flrst Ward 


6 -M 


1,200 
2,000 


Left 


Walmer & Pecklehelmer . . 
Crall Sc Wall 


*30' 


1 

:::::t 


2S 

27 

4 

401 








Do 


3 
10 


i 
7 


4 




3 


1 

6 


15,000 


Bight... 


Boldfaoe 


500 




Total 


SIO 


12 




1 1 








126 


69 


10 1 


173 


8 


29 


202,895 







Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HABBOB OF CINCINNATI. 7 

LUt &/ tteamhoats, wharf -hcfli^, and model barges in part, $homng their position and the Joes 

from ice. 



Name of boat. 



Podtion. 



Bstimftted 



Bemarks. 



TOdvood 

Eiobufa : 

Wanif and two modal bargea. 

LaonL. Davia 

L2t 



Hiram Watrnm . 
MfllieBobarta.. 



¥eviMni B^o and Float . 
Qaflbmati 



ati Belle and Float . 

C»Ioiaet 

TiDtSUalde 

G«W«naty..., 

Teiegrapb 



Hf Sand J. wharf-boat 

Hev Orieaaa, wharf-boat 

AsdyBaom , 

AadM 

M«yMm« 

EaiBaGrabMB 

SdaUe't wbarf boat 

Chaaipioii Xa 7 

Cbamptoo No.8 

CkampioB No. 9 , 

Beaf^klin 

ScTen model barres 

LonisnUa IfAU-Line wharf- boat. 



TToited States . 
GtaeralBiieU . 



Bobert Peeblea 

Ceitoal arenae ferry-boat and two 



Hellof NSek Longworth 

Kate Waters 

Uirk Twain 

Burioeaa 

MockiiicBird 

Faaay Webater and three floats 

Hianie Keenan 



Cincinnati dry-docks 

Cincinnati marine ways . 

Foot of Bird atreet 

Litherbary'a 

do 



Gardner's , 

N. and C. bridge, Newport. 

Newport and Cincinnati 
Ferry Landings. 



Between Lawrence street 
and the suspension-bridge. 



$30,000 00 



2,000 00 



20,000 00 



Month of Licking 

do .! 

do 

do 

Up the Licking 

Below suspension • bridge, 

Cincinnati. 

do 

Below snspension - bridge, 

Covington. 

Foot of Race street 

Foot of Central avenue 



Sampson's Landing 

On Cfovington docks 

do.:. 

do 

Collier, Budd & Co.'s 

Ludlow Ferry Landing . 



50 00 



350 00 



50 00 



2,000 00 
5,000 00 



5aami 

Water Lily 

Water Witch 

One model bai^re , 

Liberty, and four model barges. 



McCoy's Landing. 



Ladlow 

do 

Mill Creek.. 
Flemming's. 
Sedamsville. 



700 00 
500 00 
500 00 



12,000 00 



United SUtes light- 
house tender. 



Small boat, 
damaged. 
Ferry-wat. 
Do. 



Damaged. 
Sunk. 



slightly 



One slightly damaged. 



A dismantled hall. 
Ferry-boat. 

Slightly damaged. 



Propeller, sunk. 

Boat and two floats 

destroyed. 
Carried away and re- 
covered. 
Destroyed. 
Do. 
Do. 

Loss of two model 
barges, loaded with 
salt and flre-brick. 



SUMMARF. 



Class. 



Tr^ght and passenger steamboats. . 

T«w.boat« 

Ferrv-boata 

teall tnga and pleaanre-boats 

MedelbMicea 

Dtaaaotled hoU 

Wharf-boats and ferry-floats 

Uiited States light- house tender.... 



TMal. 



It 



B 

i3 



$50,000 

350 

3,500 

3,700 

12,550 



3,550 



73,«50 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



8 HJUtBOE OF CINCnraULTL 

HABOaB-BOOM BBQUIBBD. 

As it is manifestly impossible to determine wbat will be the fatnre 
amoant of the commeree of GinciQaati, it wiltbe assumed that harbbr- 
room' sufficient to provide for the craft that were actually in port on 
the 12th day of January, 1877, will answer the purpose of this report. 

A coal-barge may be taken as measuring 130 by 24 feet, or 3,120 
square feet The net area of the harbor-room required for 623 coal- 
barges will therefore be 1,943,760 square feet, or 44.6 acres. If to this 
we add 10 per cent, as the least possible allowance for waste room and 
pas8^;e-ways, we shall have 49 acres as the harbor-room required to 
contain all the coal-barges that were in Cincinnati last winter. 

The net area requir€^ to contain 135 flats, floats, and miseellaneons 
craft will be 270,000 square feet, or 6.2 acres ; which increased by 10 
per cent, becomes 6.8 acres. This added to the 49 acres previously 
found gives 55.8 acres as the area required to contain the water-craft 
included in our first table. 

In getting the area required for steamboats we may omit all ferry- 
boats, wharf-boats, dismantled hulls, and diminutive steamboats of all 
kiuds^ thus reducing the number to be provided for to 24 steamboats 
(including tow-boats) and 14 model barges. Each steamboat may be 
assumed to require an area of 12,000 square feet, and each model barge 
an area of 4,500 square feet. For 24 steumboats there would therefore 
be required a net area of 288,000 square feet, or 6.6 acres ; and for 14 
model barges a net area of 6,300 square feet, or 1.5 acres; adding 10 
per cent., as before, we find that the steamboats will require 7.3 acres, and 
the model barges 1.7 acres. 

OoUecting the areas found above, we have : 

Acre*. 

Area neoessary for 623 coal-barges 49.0 

Area necessary for 135 flats, floats, &,c 6.8 

Area necessary for 24 steamboats « 7.3 

Area necessary for 14 model barges 1.7 

Total 64. & 

It is thus shown that a water-surface of 64.8 acres, or in round num- 
bers 65 acres, would be required to accommodate the winter commerce 
of Oincinnati. 

AVAILABLE HABBORS. 

The only harbors, properly so called, that can be made on a river like 
the Ohio are such as can be excavated out of its banks. The large 
tributaries are generally as dangerous as the main river, and the only 
resource is to dig into the shores, wherever there are low areas that will 
reduce the cost of excavation. The valleys of the creeks and small 
streams are naturally the only places where such areas can be found. 

It is essential to the usefulness of a harbor that boats should always 
be able to get into* it during the proper season. 

The harbors herein discussed are solely designed for protection from 
ice-floods, as floods unaccompanied by ice are not dangerous. 

The ordinary demands of commerce require that steamboats and 
barges be at their usual landings as long as possible. Steamboats can 
transact their regular business until the very day the river closes, as 
they have the ability to propel themselves to any desired point at a few 
hours' notice, and even to force themselves through thin ice. A con- 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



HABBOS OF CIMOINNATI. 



9 






oderaMe anNmut of time would, ho^pvever, be reqaired to lay ap barge» 
for the winter. 

ft 18 thought ^tfattt 8t least one mon th * wonltl be ueueBsaiy for the 
tnnsfer to t^ harbors of refage of all the barges that are intended to 
be sbdtered there^ if the movement is to take place withoat confusion 
or Texatious delays. 

Tbe month in qnestion would evidently be the month immediately 
prooedin^ the closing of navigation. To ascertain at what date this 
any be iBxpeoted the files of the Cincinnati Commercial have been care- 
foUy examined, and the following table, giving the dates and duration 
of tlie stoppage of navigation at Cincinnati during the last twenty 
years, has been compiled therefrom : 



winter. 




i 

1 


1 


It. 


Remarks. 


MR.'M ! 1 




No Mrioas intermption. 

No Mriooe interruption ; river high. 


UH-'Se , . , 




IW-IM) 


Jan. 


8 






Jan. 


10 


m^nt 








No aerlons interrnption. 
Dc 


UD-IS , 




iM^m 




No Mrioas intermption ; rivor high. 




Jan. 


4 

19 
30 
15 
30 
19 
31 


Jan. 


17 


Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Jan. 
Feb. 


95 
93 

6 
90 

5 
93 
15 




1 Feb. 
Jan. 




OM-V 








mm 


1 F«b. 




Oooasional trips oonld be made 


UK-m 


' Dec 




igr-'BB 


1 Jan. 








Do. 


)«.« 






No serioos interruption ; river high. 


WI-*W _. ' 






If3».<7l 


Dec. 


94 
19 

9d 

9 

«7 

13 




Jan. 
Deo. 
Dec 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Jan. 


H 
94 
31 
19 
90 
4 


un."n 


' Dec 


Deo. 
Deo. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Deo. 


SI 
99 
10 
30 
93 




rro-Ts 

UO-*74 


Deo. 

Jan. 

Jan. 

Deo. 


Heavy iee running until February 6. 
No serious interrnption. 

loe began moving out January 13. 


WH-15 

18&.7I 


Jan. 


12 


Jan. 


31 


Jan. 


ao 


M»-"n 


\^ii 


9 


Dec. 


19 


Jan. 


18 



It will be seen from the above that during nine years out of the 
twenty examined, or daring 45 per cent of the winters, there was no 
stoppage of navigation by reason of iee. The earliest stoppage during 
tbe period in question was that of last winter (1876-77), which began 
00 the 9th of December. The next earliest was in the winter of 1872-73, 
which bewail on the 13tli of Dpi^ember. If, therefore, we make our 
IsrborH accessihle on autl after November 10, there will always be at 
tewt one month for bargea to entpr tbem. 

0£>aVbarges usaally draw (U feet, and ought to lie in at least 7 feet 
depth f>f water to pi'erent gronrjrUMg. It is therefore evident that the 
cuDdtTi^ms of tbe problem rerniirt^ that the proposed harbors of refuge 
tbflli have at least 7 feet of water from the 10th of November to the end 
fjf freezing weather. 

An tnsiKsction of the ganije reeonls kept at this city since June, 1858, 
M)on^ that the river is always hiji^her in the latter part of the winter 
DiflD ill Xijvember and J>wipmb(^r. 

The folio wihf^ table shows tin* dates, since 1858, at which the river 
toAMooi] ut lesH than 7 feet on the Cincinnati gauge between the 10th 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



10 



HARBOR OF CINCINNATI. 



of- November and the 3l8t of Decemberi together "with the correapond- 
ing gaage- readings : 



1858. 
:Nov. 23 


/ // 
6 9 
6 6 
6 4 ' 
6 2 
6 

6 10 

7 7 

4 9 

4 9 

5 
10 

7 4 

6 

8 2 

5 1 
5 1 i 
4 , 
4 9 
4 7 
4 6 
4 5 
4 4 
4 3 , 
4 3 

4 1 

5 8 
4 4 

4 
3 11 
3 11 ' 
3 ll«l 

7 
12 6 

6 4 

5 10 I 

6 9 

7 3 
6 3 1 
5 9 

5 7 , 

6 1 

8 9 

6 8 1 
6 9 
6 9 

6 11 

7 
6 11 
6 8 
6 7 
6 7 
6 7 
6 7 


1863. 
Nov. 21 


6 10 

6 11 
6 10 
6 8 
6 4 1 
6 1 
5 8 
5 5 ! 
5 8 
4 11 
4 10 
4 8 
4 7 
4 5 
4 3 
4 3 
4 2 
4 3 
4 5 
4 5 
4 2 
4 
4 1 
4 3 
4 5 

4 9 

5 6 : 

6 3 

6 7 . 

7 2 

6 4 
6 2 
S 11 

5 8 ; 

5 7 1 
5 5 1 

5 5 ' 

6 
6 1 1 
6 5 
6 7 

6 10 

7 3 

4 11 
4 7 , 
4 5 

4 3 I 
4 4 1 
4 8 
4 9 

4 8 ; 

4 5 ' 
4 3 


1871. 
Nov. 20 


/ If 
4 5 


24 


1867. 
Nov. 14 


21 


9 9 


25 


Dec. 10 


6 5 


26 


11 


5 10 


27 


15 


18 


5 6 


28 


16 


13 


5 5 


39 


17 


14 


5 4 




18 


15 : 


5 2 


1859. 


19 


16 

1 17 


5 1 


TSor. 10 


80 


4 11 


11 


21 


18 


5 


12...., 


22 


19 


5 


13 


23 


80 


5 2 


14 


24 


21 

82 


6 9 


1ft 


25 


5 11 


16 


26 


23 


5 11 




27 


24 


7 1 


1862. 


. 28 


25 


7 


Nov. 10 


29 


26 


6 10 


11 


30 


► 27 


8 9 


12.. 


Dec. 1 


S:::.:::;::::::::: 


6 9 


13 


2 


29 


8 8 


14 


3 


1877. 
Nov. 27 




15 


4 

5 




18 




17 


6 


6 8 


18 


7 


28 


6 3 


19 


8 


89 


5 11 


20 


9 


30 


5 11 


21 


10 


Deo. 1 


5 11 


22 


11 


2 


6 5 


23 


12 


3 


6 7 


24 


1869. 
Nov. 10 


4 


6 7 


25. 


5 


6 4 


26 


6 


6 


27 


11 


7 


6 


28 


12 


8 


6 


Deo. 14 


13 


9 


8 4 


15 


14 


1874. 
Nov. 10 




16 


15 




17 


-16 




18 


17 


3 


19 


18 


11 


3 


20 


19 


18 


8 11 


21 


20 


13 


2 10 


82 


21 


14 


2 11 




22 


15 


3 


1863. 


1871. 
Nov. 10 


16 


2 11 


Nov. 10 


17 


3 


11 


18 

19 


3 1 


12 


11 


3 3 


33 


12 


20 


3 7 


14 


13 


21 


3 5 


15 


14 


22 

23 


3 4 


16 


15 


4 8 


17 


18 


24 

25 


4 10 


18 


17 


4 11 


19 


18' 


26 


4 10 


20 


19 


27 


8 7 











The above table shows that the lowest water during the period under 
examination was in November, 1874, and that the lowest reading was 
2 feet 10 inches on the gauge. The next lowest water during the same 
period occurred in November, 1862, and read 3 feet 11 inches on the gauge. 
There was no serious interruption from ice during the winter of 1862-'63, 
and in the winter of 1874-75 the river did not close until January 
12 ) but these conditions could not have been foreseen, and we may there- 
fore still assume that had ice-harbors been available, coal-barges would 
have been in them at the times of these lowest stages. To have kept these 
barges from grounding in the worst of the two seasons, the bottom of 
the harbors should be 7 feet below the lowest gauge-reading given above — 
or, in'other words, they should be 4 feet 2 inches below the zero of the 
gauge. It will suftice,'however, to put them at an even 4 feet below this 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 






HARBOR OF CINCINNATI. 11 

lereJ, and this depth has, therefore, been taken for the excavation of the 
proposed harbors of refuge. 

Id order to avoid q& much as possible the construction of masonry, it 
is Assumed in the estimates that the sides of the basins will be payed 
slopes instead of retainingwalls. For the same reason the entrances 
have been considered as having paved slopes, although masonry walls 
voald undoubtedly be much better for this purpose. 

Several localities for harbors, otherwise desirable, are unavailable 
because they are on the convex bank of the river — in other words, because 
tbey are on the side where the tendency of the currents is to cause 
deposits and make sand-bars. Occasional dredging will probably be 
necessary in order to keep open the mouth of any recessed harbor, even 
though made on a favorable shore, unless a scour can be established 
throagh it by means of a large and continuous supply of water entering 
the basin from the land behind. It would be hopeless to attempt to 
keep open the mouth of a harbor which is both on the convex bank and 
is without an independent supply of water. A harbor that would prob- 
ably give continuous occupation to one or more dredges had better not 
be attempted. 

MOUTH OF THE LITTLE MIAMI. 

A harbor with an area of 31 acres has been surveyed on the right 
bank of the Ohio and the right bank of the Little Miami, at the mouth 
of the latter. Such a harbor is indicated on sheet A, the general map 
of the harbor of Cincinnati, and is also shown in detail on sheet No. 2. 
A much larger area than 31 acres can be obtained here, if desired, but 
the survey only included this amount, and as there are some strong ob- 
jections to a harbor at this locality, it has been thought best to prepaie 
the estimate on the area actually surveyed. The whole estimated space 
of 65 acres can be obtained here without difficulty. 

The design is to excavate in the lower angle between the Miami and 
the Ohio, using the excavated material to protect the excavation from 
floods in either river. In order to obtain the necessary water-supply, 
with sutiicient current to keep open the outlet of tbis harbor, it would 
probably be necessary to build a dam across the Miami and provide it 
with sluices leailing into the basin. The outlet would lead directly into 
the Ohio, as is shown in map No. 2. 

In this part of the Ohio the strongest current is along the left shore, 
the current along the right shore being comparatively slack. The Lit- 
tle Miami has across its mouth a bar of sand and gravel that is almost 
"Iryin low wat^r, Ir unty tli*.^refore be considered as certain that an 
rntraiice into the Ijjnlmr Llinmgh the mouth of this river would require 
1 latf^e amount of ihe<l;j;inij; each year to keep it open at all stages of 

l*h*i amoaot of excavation to make a basin of the area of thirty-one 
ftcres u>*iil(l be 2,31S,S0o cubic yards, which, at 30 cents per cubic yard, 
voqUI inoount to ^i^U^jfiAil 

JW- *ivt>ruge depth of the (excavation would be 41.1 feet. The surface 
lohe ifHveii uouki lj<^ 53,74^ .square yards, which, at $1 per square yard, 
tfluhl atnuiint to $ri;^,745. 

Tlie roht of buitdiitg a dani across the Little Miami, and constructing 
pra[H*r ^tuiccs into tUe ba^iin, would amount to about $60,000. 

If must l>c borne ia tnirjil tliat in order to procure 31 acres of harbor- 
twmHt low winter, it will !h- necessary to purchase enough additional 
^ io provide for the &Io|iJn;,^ sides of the basin. In the case in hand 
Mtin vd^litioual hinil miiouikr^ to 15 acres, thus compelling the purchase 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



12 HARBOR OF CINCINNATI. 

of 46 acres to aeeare a low-water harbor of 31 acres. At an assamed 
price of $100 per acre this laDci will cost $4,600. 

The total cost of a harbor of refhge at this point, having an area of 31 
acres, wonld therefore be $813,083, which is at the rate of $26,t258 per 
acre of harbor*room. 

CRAWFISH ORBEK. 

The next point examined is at the mouth of Crawfish Creek, between 
the railroad and the river. The area surveyed is shown on the general 
map, and the details of the ground on sheet No. 1. 

This harbor is favorably situated for access at all stages, as its outlet 
is through a concave bank, passing directly iuto the deep water that ia 
always found near such banks. There is no tendency to deposit along 
the shore near the mouth of Crawfish Creek, and the only dredging that 
would probably be required at this harbor wonld be the removal of the 
small deposits that would work iuto the entrance from the slight eddy 
that would naturally form there. 

In calculating the amount of excavation at this locality, and the 
available area for shipping, it was thought best not to pass beyond the 
bounds of the natural depression, as any digging into land whose sur- 
face is on a level with the river-bank would be exceedingly expensive 
without adequate result. With due allowance for side slopes, this mit- 
ural basin gives an available harbor-area of 13 acres. The nature of 
the material to be excavated was determined by lioring through it to a 
depth of 4 feet below low water. As shown on the map, the hole waa 
sunk in the bed of the creek nearest to the base ot the hills, where it 
was thought most likely that rock would be found. No rock was found^ 
however, and the material for the whole depth proved to be flue gravel 
and sand. The same kind of material probably prevails throughout the 
whole area of the basin. 

The amount of excavation required for the harbor pro|>osed would be 
922,000 cubic yards, which, at 30 centapereubic yard, would cost $276,600. 
The average depth of excavation would be 40.9 feet. The amouut of pav- 
ing would be 32,700 square yards, which, at $L per square yard, would 
cost $32,700. The land required would cost/as far as I can team, aliont 
$700 per acre; 19 acres will be required, ana the cost of the tract would 
therefore be $13,300. 

The total cost of a harbor at this locality would therefore be ^3)2,600, 
or an average of $24,815 per acre of harbor-room. 

Should this part of the city become thickly populated it might then 
be necessary to cross the outlet of the harbor by a draw-bridge, but as 
this is not a present necessity no allowance has been made for it in the 
estimates. 

MILL OR TAYLOR'S BOTTOM. 

The next point to be considered as we descend the river is Mill or 
Taylor's Bottom, which lies along Taylor's Creek, between the towns of 
Newport and Bellevue in Kentucky. 

A report on the proposition to make a harbor at this locality was 
made by me on the 5th of February, in respowse to a resolution of the 
House of Representatives, dated JjuiUciry 30, l.s77. This report is 
printed as Ex. Doc. No. 39, Senate, Forty-fourth Congress, second ses- 
sion. 

The chief obstacle to utilizing Taylor's Creek Bottom for a harbor of 
refuge is the sand-bar that lies across its nuMitli, and which in low water 
is dry to within one square of the Newport and Ciaciniiati bridge. This 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HARBOR OF CINCINNATI 13 

is the Datoral sand-bar of a convex shore, and there is no way of keep- 
ia^open a channel through such a bar, except by constant dredging or 
tkeooDdnaal aeonr of a large volume of water issuing from the month 
of tbe ereek. As the latter is usually very nearly dry in summer and 
Ml, it was manifest that the natural conditions at this locality were an 
iosoperable barrier to the creation of a practicable harbor, and there- 
fore no detailed survey was made. 

MOUTH OF THE LICKING. 

Tbe Licking River itself is much used as a harbor of refuge, but it is 
ooondered a hazardous one, as this stream is subject to rapid rises that 
Bake it unsafe even in summer. In obedience to the act of Congress, 
ipproved March 3, 1871, 1 made a survey of the mouth of the Licking 
» a harbor of refuge, and my report was printed in Ex. Doc. No. 252, 
House of Bepresentatives, Forty-second Congress, second session. It 
WIS also reprinted in the Annual Keport of the Chief of Eagineers, for 
1872, pp. 420-42d, and I would refer to these documents for further 
information, merely stating that the hirgest lateral harbor that could 
weO be made near the mouth of the Licking was estimated to give an 
ivailable area of 9.8 acres, and that its leastcoat was estimated at $741,000, 
of which $167,000 was the cost of excavating a channel through the 
▼iile rock-bar that now obstructs the inouth of this river. 

WILLOW EUN. 

Tbe next t>otnt that requires investigation is the basin of Willow Run, 
a mall stream on the Kentucky side that enters the Ohio at the lower 
orviesrem edge of tbe city of Covington. This location has the advan- 
ta|^ of deep water at the mouth of the creek, and of being nearly oppo- 
site tbe centre of Cincinnati. The detailed survey of this tract is shown 
« sheet No. 3. 

The area of tbe basin laid out in this bottom is 10.3 acres. The width 
of tbe entrance is taken at 100 feet, except at the crossing of Third 
itivel. Here a draw-bridge would evidently be required, and in order 
to ftvoid having so great a weight as to require the use of steam for turn- 
iof it, tbe width of clear opening has been placed at GO feet. 

The average depth of excavation is 46.4 feet, and the total amount to 
be excavated is 1,553,000 cubic yards. This, at 30 cents per cubic yard, 
vwiU cost $465,900. The total surface to be paved is 50,700 square 
Jiiils, which, at $1 peir sqnare yard, amounts to $50,700. The cost of 
ft* dniwlirid^^e at Tliinl street, with its abutments and pivot-piers, 
woqIiI be about $45^0{K>. The cost of the ground is an uncertain item, 
an Qon«i of it is utilized at present, and \t^ future value depends entirely 
upon Die growth of the city of Covington. But some price would have 
^li« i>»id for land if a harbor of refuge were made in this locality, and 
^WiYfore I have placed it at i^^^OOO per acre, which is about the average 
I'riev pat upon it by real-estafe dealers in Covington. As 27 acres would 
t<*rKtaire<l in order to secure 10.3 acres of harbor-room at low water, 
siftUital cost of the land woiiM be $54,000. 

Adfltng tb^^i^e iLeniii we tind that the cost of this harbor would be 
i|Sr>^iiOO for VXli acres, or at tlie rate of $31,900 per acre of harbor-room. 
] Theeatimatt) in based on ilie supposition that no rock will be found 
[^txcavatiii^ to tbe reijuirt*d depth. Two test borings (positions indi- 
1 the map) were niatle to a depth of 4 feet below low-water level 
F^KhoQt eiirountering any other material than alluvial deposits of gravel, 
\aftd elfty» / t 

Digitized by LjOOgle 



14 HARBOR OF CINCINNATI. 

MILL CREEK. 

The next available point is the valley of Mill Creek, an Ohio stream 
that enters the river in the lower part of Cincinnati. Both banks of thiR 
stream, within 5 miles of its month, are within the corporate limits of 
Cincinnati. 

A resolution of the Hoase of Representatives, dated January 17, 1877, 
called for a special report on the expediency and utility of construct- 
ing a harbor of refuge at this point By direction of the Chief of 
Engineers, I made such a report, and it was printed as Ex. Doc No. 
34, House of Bepresentatives, Forty-fourth Congress, second session. I 
would respectfully refer to that document for my reasons for considering: 
a harbor of refuge in Mill Creek bottom as impracticable. As a careful 
examination of this project, made subsequent to the report in question^ 
failed to develop any new points in its favor, no special surveys have 
been made iQ this bottom. The location is indicated on the general 
map. / 

PLEASANT RUN, BROMLEY. 

This was the lowest locality examined. Pleasant Bun is a small 
stream that enters (he Ohio from the Kentucky shore at a point one 
and a half miles below the Cincinnati Southern Bailway bridge. The 
point on the Kentucky shore, immediately opposite the lower boundary- 
line of Cincinnati, is 1,500 feet below the mouth of Pleasant Bun. 

The available low-water area for a harbor in the valley of this stream 
is 30.3 acres. The low area Is some distance back from the river, and 
is reached by an entrance 60 feet in width. The average depth of exca- 
vation is 40.8 feet, and the total amount is 2^031,000 cubic yards, which ^ 
at an average price of 30 cents per cubic yard, would cost 9009,300. 
The surface to be paved is 45,000 square yards, which, at $1 per square 
yard, will cost $45,000. As the mouth of the run is now crossed by a 
fixed bridge, this would have to be replaced by a draw-bridge. With the 
usual openings of 60 feet, such a bridg^ would cost, including masonry 
and piers, about $45,()00. 

Two test borings were made to determine the nature of the excavatioQ 
required. Their position and the particular nature of the materials found 
are shown on the special map of the site, which is marked sheet No. 4. 
Both holes were sunk to 4 feet below ordinary low water, and they show^ 
that, to the depth required, this basin, like the others, contains mainly 
an alluvial deposit of sand, clay, and fine gravel. The soft day-stone 
exposed in the bed of the creek on the south aide of the basin limits the - 
harbor on that side. It is believed that due allowance has been made 
for this rock, although the funds allotted for the work would not per- 
mit sufficient borings to determine its exact position. 

This harbor, like that at the mouth of the Little Miami, opens on a 
shore where the current is not strong, and where deposits are likely 
to appear if the present regimen is changed, either by excavating an 
outlet or by building dikes. It is therefore probable that the entrance 
to this harbor would have to be kept open by constant dredging. 

The value of the land is, as usual, indeterminate; but the best infor- 
mation puts its present price at $50 per acre, and as 41 acres would 
be required, its cost would be $2,050. 

The total cost of this harbor would, therefore, be $701,350, which is 
at the rate of $23,147 per acre of harbor-room. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



HAKBOB OF CINCINNATI. 
SUMMARY. 






15 



Somming ap in tabular form the results that have been determiued 
above, we have — 



Aren^ depth of eYCATAtioD feet.. 

AiMMmt to lie excavated oabio yards.. 

Coatof excATafeion , 

S«r&ee to be pared square yards 

CoeiefnaTlng , 

C«t of dam and sluices 



OMofbridieea 

Oartoflaod 

Tocaleost of harbor 

ATsUable aiea 

Coit per acre of harbor. 



Little 
Miami. 



41.1 

3.318,800 

$695, G40 

53,745 

♦.53,745 

60,000 



4.600 

813,985 

31 

f26,S56 



Craw- 
fish. 



40.9 

922.000 

$376,600 

33,700 

133,700 



13,300 

338,600 

13 

194,830 



Willow 
Ran. 



46.4 

1.553,000 

$465,900 

50,700 

$50,700 



45,000 
54,000 

615, 600 
19.3 

$31,900 



Fleassnt 
Ban. 



40.8 

9,031,000 

$609,300 

45,000 

$45,000 



45,000 

9,050 

701, 350 

30. .3 

$33,147 



It id proper to repeat that there is no difficulty in obtaining as much - 
harbor-room as may be needed at the mouth of the Little Miami, al- ' 
though the survey only embraced 31 acres, and that an increase in the 
area of harbor would reduce the cost per acre by apportioning the cost 
of the entrance and of the sluices among a greater number of acres. 

Oo aooonnt of the difficulty of keeping open their entrances, it is 
thought that neither the mouth of the Little Miami nor Pleasant Bun 
is available as a site for a harbor of refuge. Of the four sites to which 
our cshoioe is practically limited, the two just named have the additional 
disadvantage of having the most inconvenient locations, the former 
being above the upper boundary of the city, and 7 miles above the ; 
sospeoBioD-bridge (which is practically the middle point of the harbor of 
CinciDnati), and the latter about opposite the lower end of the city. The 
distance between the outlets of these two projected harbors is therefore 
10^ miles, the length of river between the corporate limits of Cincinnati 
being 9 miles. 

The only sites in this vicinity that are at all practicable are Crawfish 
Creek and Willow Bun, both of which combined would only give a harbor- 
room of 32.3 acres, instead of the 65 acres which our preliminary calcu- 
lation showed to be necessary for the complete protection of the shipping 
of Cincionati. We may, therefore, sum up by stating that our investi- 
gatioos have developed the fact that one-half the shipping of Cincinnati 
could be sheltered in harbors of refuge at a cost of 9940,000. The loca- 
tions of these two harbors are very good. Crawfish ice-harbor, 4^ miles 
above the suspension -bridge, would be of convenient access to the boats 
that frequent the upper part of the harbor of Cincinnati, and Willow 
Kan, three-quarters of a mile below the suspension-bridge, would ac- 
commodate the central and lower parts of the harbor. 

Afker consultation with persons interested in the river-commerce of 
CiodDnati, I have come to the conclusion that it is unnecessary to pro- 
vide for more than one-half of this commerce, as the majority of the steam - 
boats will remain at their landings until the river closes, trusting that 
the detention will be slight, or that, if it should be long, they will escape 
injury, as the greater number always do escape. As far as the steam- 
boat-interest is concerned, harbors of refuge are only needed for steam- 
boats that are not in commission when the river closes, and for the few 
others that may be able to reach these harbors after the river has 
frozen up. An allowance of one-half the calculated area will therefore 
probably suffice for the steamboat-interest. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



16 HABBOB OF CINCINNATf. 

The chief reason why the coal-interests desire a harbor of refuge is 
that they may obtain secnre shelter for their reserve supply, the greater 
part of which is now stored above and below the harbor proper. But 
even with harbors of refuge, the majority of coal-owners would always 
keep a large number of barges at their landings all winter in order to 
meet the ordinary demands of consumers, l^r this reason, I think 
that one-half of the estimated harbor-room would suffice for the coal- 
interest. It follows from the above that the projected harbors at Craw- 
fish Creek and Willow Bun would probably suffice to contain all the 
boats that would use them if constructed. 

OTHEB METHODS OF PROTECTION. 

This report would not be complete were it to omit to mention other 
methods of protection for boats that cannot or will not leave their land- 
ings and enter an artificial ice-harbor. 

Ice-breakers, — In the pools of the Monongahela, where many coal-boats 
and barges are harbored, protection from ice is seenred by ice-breakers. 
These are usually spur^dikes, projecting at right angles from the bank 
and extending into the river fa^r enough to cover as wide a fh>ut of 
barges as it is intended to shelter. These spur-dikes are not continuous 
strnotui'es, but ooosist of a line of disconnected cribs filled with stone^ 
and having intervening spaces usually as wide as the cribs themselves. 
The object of th€»e openings is to give passage to the current so as to 
prevent shoals from forming under the lee of the cribs. The down- 
stream faces of the cribs are vertical, and the up-stream faces have a 
vary gentle slope, so as to reduce as much as possible the shock of ice 
and drift 

{Such structures at the upper end of every coal-landing would greatly 
reduce the danger from ice. The best possible ice-breaker would be one 
that could be put in place in the autumn and be removed in the spring. 
It would thus give protection when protection is needed, and would be 
out of the way at times when its tendency to form a shoal below it 
would be a decided objection. Such an ice-breaker is, however, yet to 
be devised. 

Sheer-booms, — ^The United States river-monitors that lay so long at 
Mound City were protected from ice and drift by a sheer-boom of heavy 
iron-plated timbers that was attached to the shore at a point above the 
fieet, and extended down far enough to cover the boats to be protected 
by it. This system is free from the objection of causing deposits below 
it, and it seems worthy of serious consideration as a method of protect- 
ing steamboats and model barges. The shock of a field of ice against 
such a boom would be at once transmitted to the boate behind it, but 
it would be distributed over so great an area as to act rather as a push 
than as a blow. The injury to steamboats is usually caused by the im- 
pact of the corner of an ice-field against a small part of the hull that 
yields to the shock, and, by admitting water, causes the boat to sink. 
The same blow disttibnted over a wide surface of the same hull would 
be successfully resisted. 

For coal boats and barges the ice-breakers are apparently better than 
sheer-booms, as they afibrd much more reliable means of fastening the 
fieet. 

Harbor-boat — A harbor-boat that could be relied upon to break np 
the harbor-ice whenever such a course was deemed advisable, would, 
at times, be very useful. Whether its occasional use would justify its 
constant expense is a question that is open to argument. The strongest 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



HARBOR OF CINCINNATI. 17 

point against sach a boat is the fact that the city of Saint Louis bailt 
one, and after a trial of a few seasons ordered it to be sold. In any 
event, the constraction of ice-breakers and sheer-booms to protect either 
pabUc or private landings in Cincinnati does not seem to be a proper 
work for the general government to nndertake, and the purchase and 
management of a harW-boat apparently falls into the same category. 

Dike at Faur-Mile Bar. — It has been strongly asserted by several Gin- 
cinnati ooal-dealers that the government dike at Medoc, eighteen 
and a half miles below the suspension-bridge, has done them consid- 
erable indirect injury, by causing ice-gorges to begin at that point, and 
then gradually back up into the harbor of Cincinnati, which thus be- 
comes closed. They have suggested that if a similar, but slightly 
higher, dike were built at Four-Mile Bar, ten miles above the suspension- 
bridge, it would cause the river to gorge at that point before it did at 
Medoc, and that the effect would be to hold back the running ice so that 
the Medoc gorge would not receive sufftcient re-enforcements to enable 
it to extend back to Cincinnati. 

The theory is plausible, and ought to be tested, for the reason that 
Four-Mile Bar is greatly in need of improvement by dikes, being one of 
the worst bars on the river, and one that has often been selected for 
improvement, but laid aside for lack of funds. Dikes at this point are 
a necessity of commerce, whether they hold back ice or not. 

CONCLUSION. 

In closing this report, it seems proper to add that the chief cause of 
the great expense of any ice-harbor at Cincinnati is due to the great 
oscillation in the river-suriace. Three of the low areas which have been 
examined average twenty-seven feet below the level of extreme high 
water, which fact, considered by itself, would seem to indicate that but 
a small depth of excavation would transform any one of them into a 
harbor of refuge ; but when we learn that extreme high water at Cin- 
cinnati reads sixty-four feet on the gauge, and when we recall the fact 
that our preliminary investigation showed that we must excavate our 
harbors to a depth of four feet below the zero of this gauge, or to a 
depth of sixty-eight feet below high-water mark, we readily perceive 
how a level of twenty-seven feet below high water is compatible with 
an average excavation of forty-one feet. 

For the maps which accompany this report I am indebted to Mr. Wil- 
liam Weston, assistant engineer, and to his assistant, Mr. L. Petitdidier. 
To the former I am also indebted for the preparation of the very complete 
statistics, the collection of which, from innumerable sources, required 
ao unusual amount of patience, industry, and perseverance. 

BespectfuUy submitted. 

WILLIAM B. MEEEILL, 

Major of Engineers. 

Brig. Gen. A. A. HirMPHBETS, 

Chie/ of Engineers United States Army. 
H. Ex. 41 2 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



Om Congress, \ HOUSE OF llEPRESENTATIVES. ( Ex. Doc. 
idSestioH. i \ No. 42. 



CO>»TINGENT FUXD OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 



LETTER 

FROM 

THE SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, 

TRANSMITTING 

• Dttailed account of the expenditure of the contingent fund of that depart- 
ment. 



Febkuarv 5, 1878.— Referred to the Committee on Expenditures in the Interior Depart- 
ment and ordered to be printed. 



Department of the I^teridi*, 

Wasttiiif}ton^ D. C, Janitary 30, 1S7S* 
Slit: I have tlie banor to transmit bercwitli^ as rL*f|tnred l>y section 
USof thft Itevised Statutes, s^ttitemetits of the expcntlituies of the oon- 
lUgvBt fundus of thfi several bureaus of this deiiartment for the tisoiil 
:<«r ending June 30, 1877, 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 

San, SaMCEL J. KANDiLL, 

Speaker of the United JStates Bottle of Reprfscntativen. 



DEl'AKTMEXT OF THE LNTKKIOE. 



meni of thr Intrrior^fQt Ihejiacal ytrtir rnding June 3(^ 1^, 



P^vto wboni purvlttMd. 



5| 

ml 



G.iLVngk% 

Ohfeca ± Otabsni ^.-^^^ 

dtargib BynAkl, Jr 

K. J.Bayvw^ 

Addilkttod Pacifle Tvlc^^nph Co 
'^vMhliltf Sl«r 

ir.e.^aH. m*«xi*ob 

cr 



Xatnre af porcliuwd, ^ci. 



Atuount. 



I 



FnmHure $'U 00 

Lifer ¥ 25 00 

Prnifjlng poT-ltr 3d 00 

Wubln^ towfllB- _..».» ' ^ ;}! 

TflJp^tatd ,„ _ 4,1 

AdTflrtliiD£-.-. ,-.,.,,—„..—...-._.,. T5 rw 

EzpreuAge .....,....,_„ *,... hO 

do .- i .; W 

IaB«CtpDwd«r«ad beltDwv ww ^ TA 

Book^caaa ,.^....,.,„ SO 00 

A Co............,.! 8rthrtc] tptioDt BiifllsoM Guide of T^a^hln^. 5 (MJ 

I too. U. r. 
lbtt«po1t1aa JUtlroad ConpAtiy ..< C&rtJflt«tn..,. .,««..,.,.,...,..,..., ....,,„ ^^ 10 COk 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



2 CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

Statement of expenditurea on account of the contingent fund, ^c. — ContiDaed. 



Date. 



From whom purchased. 



Nature of pnrohaaee, &c 



Amoont 



1876. 
Aag. 20 



Sept 



Oct. 



Nor. 



Dec. 1 
2 
3 
2 
4 
6 
7 

e 

8 

It 

12 
13 
13 
U 
16 



Adams Express Company 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

E.M.Whitaker 

William Ballantyne 

Benjamin Moten 

Thomas Norfleet 

Adams Express Company 

E.J. Hayward 

Gheen & Osborn 

Robert Beall 

£.Q.Gnnson &,Co 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co 

Joseph L. Savage 

L. H. Schneider 

George Wooldridge 

Z.D.GIlman 

James St. John Stationery Co 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

WiUiam H. Dempsey 

JohnC. Hogan 

Washington Fast Freight Line . . . 

Willet&Libbey 

Adams Express Company 

Great Falls Ice Company 

Gheen & Osborn 

B. W. Reed's Sons 

E.J. Hasrward 

L. H. Schneider 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

J. G. Weaver 

G.W.Joy 

Adams Express Company 

George W. Knox 

Solomons 6c Chapman 

Joseph L. Savage 

G.M: Wight 

Adams Express Company 

George Herbert 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

Joseph Dixon Cmcible Company . 
American Library Joamal Co ... . 

George C. Mavnai-d 

Metropolitan Railroad Company . . 

Henry Compton 

Benjamin Moten 

Adams Express Company 

B. W. Reed's Sons 

W.D.Wyvill 

Gheen & Osborn 

Henry Badger 

Willet & Libbey 

W.D.Allen 

E. J. Hayward 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co 

Solomons & Chapman 

George D. Wood 

Herman Banmgarten 

Washington and Georgetown Rail- 
road Company. 

Westem Union Telegraph Co 

Henry Badger 

Walter Allen 

Perry & Bro 

The Nation 

A. D. F. Randolph 

D. Appletoo & Co 

Gheen & Osborn 

do 

William Smith 

George Herbert 

AV. S. Mitchell 

Henry Badger 

E. J. Hayward 

George W.Knox 

William Ballantyne 

Franklin Telegraph Company 

G.N.Rlder 

John McDermott Sl Bro 

Georjre C. Maynant 

The Pyramid Pin Company 



Expressage 

Telegrams 

Rq] ing pens and envelopes 

Stationery 

Paste 

Harness and repairs 

Expressage 

Washing towels 

Livery 

Stationery 

Books 

Telegrams 

Shears 

Scales, screws, and locks 

Soap 

Gnm arable and feather-dnsters . . . 

Stationery 

Telegrams 

Stationery 

Recovering awning 

Freight 

Lumber 

Expressage 

Ice 

Livery Tr 

Brooms, soap, sponge, and baskets . 

Washing towels 

Hardware 

Telegrams 

Putting down carpets 

Horse^oes 

Expressage 

Freight 

Stationery 

Hardware 

Fnmitni-e 

Expressage 

Books 

Telegrams. 

Stationery 

Subscription 

Repairing battery 

Car tickets 

Cartage 

Paste . 

Expressage 

Sundries 

New grate and repairs 

Livery 

Cartage 

Lumber 

Books 

Washing towels 

Telegrams 

Stationery 

Cartage 

Stamp 

Car tickets 



Telegrams 

Cartage 

Books 

Cotton 

Subscription 

Books 

do 

Horse 

Livery 

Repairs 

Books 

Carpets 

Cartage 

Washing towels. 

Freight 

Stationery 

Telegrams 

Books 

Repairs 

......do 

Pius 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 3 

Statement of expemUiuree on account of the contingent fund, fc, — Continued. " 






From whom pnrohaMd. 



. ! 1^ 



D* 18 
1» 
SB 
30 
» 
30 
30 
30 
» 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
15 
15 
16 

/IB. e 



10 
10 
16 
11 
11 
It 
13 
15 
15 
IT 
33 
» 

Fei 1 
1 

o 

3 
3 
3 
3 

« 
6 
8 

10 
13 
13 
W 
1< 
$0 
» 

Si 
d« 

M 
«7 

I 
I 



E.Q.6ansoii A Co 

George W. Knox 

M. JaooIm 

Western Fnion Telegraph Co 

W.H.NaUey 

Hunilum &^ Pearson 

Robert Beall 

Gbeen&Oebom 

ThomM Norfleet 

Great Falla loe Company 

William Ballantyne 

A. D. F. Randolph 

E.H.King 

Me^tipolitan Railroad Company . 

& W. Reed's Sods 

I P. Wilson and others 

! Daniel Knlb 

I E. H. WhitUker &^ Son 

George C Maynard 



! Evening Star 

, £.J.Hayward 

I Adams Express Company 

; L. H. Schneider 

John Markriter 

i D. S. Hoffard. agent 

; A. D. F. Randolph 

I £. Morrison 

Shmedtie Brothers 

' George W.Knox 

B.C Jones 

George Wooldridge 

Adams Express Company 

A^antio and Pacific Telegraph Co 

W.RDempsey , 

G. N. Wbittington 

J. Bradley A&ms , 

Adams Bxpreas Company 

Fnncis Miller 

J. W.Greeory 

Gheen dcOsbom 

National Repablican , 

do 

E. J. Haywsrd 

John C. Parker 



I George TT. Knox 

George Herbert 

R. McMarray 

I J. Bradley Adams 

I AdamuB Kxpreas Company 

Metropolitan Railroad Company . . 

J. Bradley Adams. 

McMenaway Sl Co 
I W.H.Dempfley... 
{G.N. Rider!?:..... 

I W.W.Farr 

> George W. Knox . . 
I R Jones 

* K W. JtPe+l ft SuiM. 

Robert li«AJi 



Natnre of porohaaea, Sec. 



Qtmn W. Knox . 



K*^lMrTt Bt^nJl 

! Thotnw lli'trie 

.?.!> MiBrWp 



Books 

Freight 

Stationery ^ 

Telegrams 

Repairs 

Orate-fender 

Books 

Harness, liTery, and horseshoes . 

Harness 

Ice. 



Books 

do 

Repairs 

Car ticketa 

Sundries 

Cleaning snow . 

Sandries 

Stationery 

Electric bell.... 



Snbscrlption 

Washing towels 

Expressage ' 

Hardware 

Shade i 

Book 

Books 

Stationery 

Repairs 

Freight 

Repairs i 

Soap , 

Expressage 

Telegrams : 

Stationery ' 

Books 

City Directories I 

Expressage .•... 

Brashes I 

Palls 

Livery and repairs \ 

Sabscription ' 

do • 

Washing towels ! 

Sabscription to New York Herald and 

Tribune. 
Freight , 



U 

U\ JaKi, MurtftW 



-^-^ Company - 



Lt^iJiinr 



^<iii.*^* „^. 



^tafttl^ Rftk and L«t«1 Cmupanj 



Booka 

Leaver straps 

Stationery 

Expressage 

Car tickets 

Stationery 

Book 

Stationery 

Books 

Repairs 

Freight 

Book 

G Din camphor 

J^DDdrlt« *,*,* 

Livt^ry Budroppiirs .*.-»*, 

BM^ktt. ,.-... 

Froleht 

WAnhini? toveb,.......* .-»-., 

Softp 

Atlas 

(']LTtagB .,,*.,**.* ..*... 

Mup .^.^ ^ ^.,^,^,-^» 

Lniiibt^r . * 

f^tHd-irin? cord and wrflw^yfts 

-SrflLli^mpry .. 

ELpreitaflt^H ., 

Hnnlwsrc 

lioo}^ ...^.^^ .^ .* ^ 

f^latumtiry .1, . 

Hard ware 

KTprr<flml;Ee --^^^-*,..,*^^ .. 

kvpAim ^..,.,., 



Digitized by 



Amount. 



$3 60 

1 52 

lOd 00 

1 98 

8 00 

n 00 

4 00 
106 50 

36 00 
59 08 

5 80 

36 48 
U 00 
10 00 

37 93 
51 80 

7 90 
909 K) 

46 00 

3 64 

4 35 
830 

85 11 

3 00 

4 35 

16 00 
10 58 

8 00 
50 

10 00 
32 50 

30 

3 39 
45 00 
45 00 
35 00 

80 

11 00 

6 00 
31 75 

8 00 

8 00 

»52 

24 00 

1 00 

2 00 
66 00 
39 55 

! 55 

10 00 
145 83 

1 SO 
34 56 

4 00 
; 500 
' 1 00 

4 25 

15 00 

, 12 m 

\ an 00 

4 M 

: 50 

4 ff5 

'iiti 00 
j 50 

H 05 

11 7i 
CD ^jO 

DO 

7 fi8 

17 00 

13 es 

: bS 75 

!) 00 

GooqI 



.gie 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTEEIOK DEPARTMENT. 
Statement of expenditurea on account of the contingent fund, ^c — Continaed. 



.Date. 



18T7. 



Maf. 



19 
21 
22 
22 
22 
23 
23 
23 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
24 
24 
26 
27 
2T 
2fl 
30 
31 
Apr. 7 

7 
9 
10 
12 
13 
17 
19 
19 
SO 



May 



22 
24 
24 
S3 
28 
31 
Jane 1 

8 
4 
4 

6 
6 
7 

7 
7 
8 
8 



From TV horn purchased. 



Oerroond Crandell 

MoFarland & Stephenson 

Wlswall & Gvnn 

A. U. F. Kandolph 

A.Hoen & Co 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co 

do 

J. W. Boteler & Bro 

George C. Ma.vnard 

Gheen & Osbom 

W.H.Dempsey 

do 

Great Falls Ice Company 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

Dobler, Midge &, Chapman 

George Wooldridge 

Metropolitan Icailroad Company .. 
W.B. Moses 

A. Arend ". 

George Wooldridge 

B. W. Reed's Sous ••-• 

W.H.NaUey 

John McDermott & Bro 

J. B. Adams 

George W.Knox 

E. Q. Gnnson <k Co 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

Norris Peters 

WlUlam Ballantyne 

Virginia Sentinel 

W.O.Lycett 

Washington and Georgetown Rail- 
road Company. 

W.H.Nallev 

J.M.Schriver 

Thomas Bowie 

Ida Bmmdgim 

E. fl.King 

J.F.Gedoey 

Mohan Bros 

Metropolitan Railroad Company.. 

A. H. Stockman 

Gheen dt Osborn 

E. J. Hayward 

William Ballantyne , 

do 

Charles Fischer 

Gheen &0«bom 

J. Distomell 

J.CLalng 

Solomons & Chapman 

George Wooldriage 

Armoar A, Montrop 

Adams Express Company 

Lockwood, Brooks ScCo 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

do 

W. W. Nottingham 

James H.Stone 

Leonard Scott Pablishlng Co 

Wash. B. Williams 

J.Gotthelf 

George Wooldridge 

AtUntlc and Pacific Telegraph Co 

S. Oppenheimer 

Reissner & Jenks 

J. F. Gedne V 

Mrs. J. C. fatten 

M.B.Mann 

Gheen & Osbom 

George C. Maynard 

J.G. Weaver 

E. J. Hayward 

B.W. Reed's Sons 

L. H. Schneider 

John Markriter 

Metropolitan Railroad Company .. 

Thomas Norfieet 

M.G.Copeland 

William Ballantyne 

do 



Nature of purchases, &c. 



Amoont. 



Books 

Cartage 

Towels 

Books 

Lithographing 

Telegraphing 

do 

Sandries 

Repairs 

Livery and repairs . 

Stationery 

do... 

Ice. 



Telegrams 

Stationery , 

Soap and sponge 

Car tickets 

Famitare 

Rubber stamp, ink, and pad. 

Soap and sponge 

Baskets 

Repairs 

do 

Books 

Freight 

Books 

Telegrams 

Photolithographing 

Books 

Advertising 

Making boxes 

CartiokeU 



Repairs. 
Book. 



Cartage. 
Book. 



Walnut case 

Engraving and stamping. 

Stationery , 

Car tickets 

Book 



Livery 

Washing towels.. 

Stationery 

Books 

Repairs 

Horse 

Books 

do 

do 

Soap and sponge . 

Painting 

Expressago 

Books 

Telemma 

Sawdttrt ."I"'!'. 
Ink. 



SubsorlptioB to British Quarterly BoTlew . . 

Furniture 

Fans 



Combs and brushes 

Telegrams 

Microscope 

Water-cooler 

Stamping paper and envelopes. 

Books 

Book. 



Livery and repairs. 
Repairs 

...rdo 

Washing towels — 

Tumblers 

Hardware 

Miscellaneous 

Car tickets 

Harness 

Awnings 

Books 

Stationery 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 
Statement of expenditures onaocount of the contingent fundj if-c, — CoDtinued. 



IMe. 



I?77. 
Jooe 9 
11 
II 

n 

12 
IS 
14 

15 
15 
16 
IS 

n 

23 

n 

36 
«7 
27 
37 
27 
29 
29 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
SO 

» 

30 
30 

30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 

13 

II 



From whom purohaiied. 



Natnre of parchases, &c. 



Amount. 



E.H.Kine 

George \l ooldridge 

W.RMoaes 

H.F.Beecher 

Western Union Telej^ph Co 

Franklin TelezrAph Company . . . . 

Solomons & Chapman 

Joseph L. Savaee 

E. W. Woodmff 

George Hill 

Mohan Brothers 

Germond Crandell 

E. M. Whlttaker 

J. Bradley Adams , 

Adama Exi»rem Company 

George C. Maynard 

Willuun Ballantrne 

George Wooldriage 

John C. Ho^n 

W.H. & O.H. Morrison 

W.aMitoheU 

W.BMosea 

Robert Beall 

George Herbert 

G-W-Joy 

J. L. Onderdonk 

G.M.WIrfit 

WiiUam Ballantyne.... 

Gheen &0«bom 

Jdm McDermott 8c Bro 

do 

A. H. Stockman 

Gebbie & Barrie 

Great Falls Ice Company 

E.J.Hay«rard 

SreDinffStaT 

W.W.Parr 

G.W.Joy 

J.W.Boteler & Bro 

Athmtio and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

W.H-Boyd 

Western union Talegraph Co 

John Markriter 

W.&WUliamfl 

Srif>titflit« 4t Ctianman. 

AP.FBandolpb * Oo 

E-\V. Woodruff. 

Ttuma* iiurtleel-- -..»--»*-* 



Desk and repairs. 
Soap. 



Fumitnre... 
Stationery . . 
Telegrams .. 

do 

Stationery .. 
Hardware... 
File holders . 
Stationery .. 

....... do 

Books 

Stationery . . 

do...... 

Expresaage . 

Repairs 

Stationery .. 
Soap. 



Repairs 

Books 

Carpeta and matting . 

Fnmitnre 

Books 

do 

Horseshoes 

Map. 



Famitore 

Books 

Livery and repairs . 

Wagon. 

Repairs h 

Books 

do 

Ice. 



Washing towels . 

Subscription 

Repairs 

Horseshoes 

MisceilaneouB... 

Telegrams 

Directories 

Telegram! 

Screen* 

Fumitnre* ...... 

Stitlotiwy* 

Bft*tv 

F»*^h*ldef ■•..,. 
It'^patrb' 



AmenaC t^xp^n^M .* 

Balance <ni hand uneKpea Jed. 

Anwnat appropriatnl 



1167 50 


15 OO 


46 50 


15 56 


7 37 


57 


60 91 


SI 00 


330 00 


9 10 


94 37 


5 80 


49 90 


62 03 


95 


10 50 


39 43 


34 00 


950 


73 00 


417 67 


50 55 


200 


9 60 


4 00 


1 00 


20 00 


11 40 


54 00 


160 00 


6 00 


1 00 


14 00 


52 64 


5 94 


3 64 


2 00 


4 50 


96 30 


95 


14 00 


11 14 


2 00 


14 00 


19 37i 


a W> 


, TJ. 3.1 


Q 00 


^w;i 77 


3*! 2J 



10, 0(W 00 



' These aoeoDDte were contra<it«d daring fiscal yent eiiUlng Jtii;e 35, ISTT. 



r/ tJtpendUaret OH noiiininf of the conliu^ftit fund tif (hi GeTfCraJ Land OJpce fitr 
the Jiavat ^tir ettdintj Jttjie Uu^ lf^77. 






Jfature at putchftMA, tit:. 



J.O. WoaTPir 

J. Brad^ry Ailams ^ 

Jiiuaa Hiiftwm..^. ...*... * 

J-ti. Weaver 

Cbrfj^iEe^a FnUtitatDg Cumftitny _ ' 

Ilnff 4 Tb^'TUU- ......| 

John r. B^i^an , . ,. : 

aM. RaMttln. Kspnrta 

ILJ >(*vwaT4 ...^. --.-.... ..! AV**1j Id jj towels r. 

Aila^itU^Au^ PaotQcTetegT«pbCv.| TelejEram* * 

J. O. Weaver ^...,.h.| PatDtht^naaes 

0«rtn<md Cr*inlrU ,.,, Staiionery 

Gtpr(>n4 Cutujiauy Fffllglit ..., ..,. 



Repairing fitmituro .,...,... 

fttaiienery.......... ,,.„-.-. .-.,, 

PulnllPifrnnniA.-..^ ..._-^.^ 

H<<pnlHij^ furuitnre *.*. 

Filp-o ftAft^ ^.,.^.. _. 

KU TUf>Qt}i4' nabbcrlptiou ia Ohnmiclo . 

MipuK'Uatiwxis 4... 

Awning auri ttpHtrs.... 



Antount. 



Digitized by 



fJl3 5rt 
100 00 

'jao 1)0 

KHJ 7o 
SM 00 
!; DO 
37 35 
AS DO 
.1 [i rX> 

J 7 il 

! 5 40 

r^o on 
1 in 

Googte 



6 CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

Statement of expenditures on account of the contingent fund, 4'^» — CoDtinaed. 



Date. 



From whom purchased. 



Katore of pnrchasei, &je. 



Amoont 



1«76. 

Aug. 9 
9 
18 
18 
21 
38 
29 
30 

Sept 1 

5 
6 

8 
9 



Oct. 



Not. 1 

1 
2 

2 
3 
3 
4 
7 
8 
14 

14 
15 
15 
16 
17 
18 
'21 
21 
22 
24 

25 

Dec. 4 

5 

6 

8 

8 

11 

15 

16 
19 



Herman Baamf^arten 

Mohan Bros .' 

J. Bradley Adams , 

J.G. Weaver 

H. Baamsarten 

Western union Telegraph Co 

E.MWhlttaker 

B.C.Soidmore 

Robert Beall 

Hoff & Thomas 

E. J.Hayward ....^ 

J. G. Weaver 

Solomons &. Chapman 

Henry K. Cmit 

Lorenzo Rice 

Adams Express Company 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

L. H. Schneider i 

W.HBreroton : 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

George Wooldridge 

James Cooper 

John Markriter 

Hoff dt Thomas 

Vernon Brotheis 

Great Falls Ice Company 

£. J.Hayward 

JohnSbelton 

Adams Express Company 

Solomons & Chapman 

W.HDempsey 

John G. Weaver 

William Ballantyne 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

Mohan Bros 

JohnC. Hogan 

E.M.WbitUker 

William S. MitcheU 

John G. Weaver 

John Pitt 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

W.S. Mitchell 

H.N.Copp. 
' " 'Jiei 



Dating stamp and brass dies 

Stationery 

, do 

Repairing fomitare 

Coanter 

Telegrams 

Stationery 

Bookcases 

Stationery 

Spittoons^ wash bowl, hair-brashes & oombs 

Washing towels 

Two wain at window-cases 

Stationery 

Plnmbing 

Cleaning carpets 

Expressage 

Telegram 

Blanks and locks 

Ink-pads and ink 

Telegrams 

Chamois-skins, sponges, Ate 

Paste 

Window-shades and flxtores, and repairs... 

Miscellaneons 

Stationery 

Ice 



Jnlios Bien 

Hoff & Thomas 

Mohan Bros 

John W. Jones , 

HKCrnit 

N.Cole 

W.D.Wyvill 

J.G. Weaver 

Adams Express Company . 

George H. Choato 

E. KiUpatrick 



J. K. Walsh 

W. W. Nottlugham 

E. J. Hay ward 

George Wooldridgo 

Alexander R Shepherd & Co 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

G. N. Whittington 

Robert Beall 

M.M. Kaighn 



J. G. Weaver 

Walter Allen 

J.W.Boteler & Bro 

Adams Express Company. . . 

E. J. Hay ward 

Morgan Envelope Company 

Wlluam Ballantyne 

John Jones 



26 



J. G. Weaver 

D.McCleUand 

George C. Maynard 

Western CTuion Tele;;raph Co. 



Washing towels. 

Cartage 

Expressage 

Stationery 

do.... 

Iklaking and repairing fumitare. 

Stationery 

Telegrams 

Stationery 

Repairing awnings 

Atlas , 

Matting, oil-cloth, and mats 

Making and repairing farniture 

Transportation 

Telegrams 

Carpets ^ 

United States Mining Decisions, 18 copies . 

Printing 3,000 copies Geographical Atlas. . 

Coal-hods, dust-brashes, and dust-pans 

Stationery 

Expenses as special agent General Land 
Office. 

Plumbing 

i E xpress 

I Repairing and resetting grates 

Making and repairing famitare 

I Expressage 

Stationery 

Expenses as special agent General Land 
I Office. 

' do 

j Sawdast 

' Washing towels 

I Hair-brushes and combs 

! Chandelier and globes 

I Telegrams 

' do 

i Horse-railroad tickets 

I Parchment paper 

Expenses as special agent General Land 
! Office. 

Making and repairing famitare 

Mechanical Dictionarv 

j Lamps, chimneys, and oil 

Freight 

i Washing towels 

) Stationery 

do 

, Expenses as special agent General Land 
Office. 

Making fumitare 

I Printing and engraving 

I Speaking-tubes, electric wires, and bells,.. 

Telegrams 



940 00 
63 00 

154 00 
38 47 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 7 

Bkiement of expenditures an aocouni of the contingent fund, ^c— Continned. 



DiS& 



I 



From whom pnrchaced. 



Nftture of pnrchaaes, d:c. 



Amount. 



VSSL 
Dm. n 
37 
30 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 
31 

31 
31 

ign. 

;». e 

9 

10 i 

" 
13 

13 

17 

^^1 
W I 

IB I 

23 {, 

23 

24 

28 

27 

31 

31 

1 
2 



T^moklin Telegraph Company 

Hoff Sc Thomas 

Alejcander B. Shepherd dc Co 

W.H.Boyd 

BobertBeall 

James Cooper 

J. G. Weaver 

H. Banmjcarten 

W.R Moses , 

W. W.Farr -.. 

&B. Lin ton 

Great Falls Ice Company 

M.H.Kidghn 



C.W.Kash 

Adams Express Company. 



Fck 



E.J.Hayward 

JohnMarkriter 

L. H. Schneider 

J. G. Weaver 

Qeor^ W.Knox 

John McDermott & Bro 

George Wooldridge 

Hohnn Bros 

JoUnsBien 

Western Union Telegraph Co .... 

J.G. Weaver 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

do 

Alexander R. Shepherd d:Co 

C.Schneider 

W.H.Dempsey 

B. Steele 

George F.Condron 

BobertBeall 

HoiT &. Thomas 

Root i& Co 

John W. Jones 



I I National Bepoblioan. 

I , J.G. Weaver 

\ ii J. UATvard « .-■ ^ - - 
MCW.JSMih 



f . J, DUttttutiU 

'■ I AdaDL4 EiprruCoupuiy. 
> SoJoiD^M it Ctkapmau ..... 

I I J, a WqiTC^^ 

»'4r.&A^am« 

I I MobnnBnn .,.^^.,„^„.^ 

ii W.&Uttcheill 

: I J.i^.WesTer 

I ' John Uju-kHl4r 

I E^iUU Uoloifitt 

t ! JflOi^ KdmTiuiU ._-.--,-.* 

^ Daold Xri«rfUi 

I , Aldu^iiler I{. 3huphii^ .. . 
I RoVrilteaU. 

I . J> G. WCATAT 

[ ! Juim Wurkrlter 

I IlfffT t TlK-Qia* 

: E^ J. Eis^ir-ira 

Mnuriti* A UbApuiui 

^ IL Al'ivtoiA 

I John W. pToTjew , , . * 

Adaaj« Expretii Cuinpsiiiy . 

J.<Jk vr#t*ver-*.,, 

(l«nrB« WooMlidgQ 

MamnclO^ Young ....,„,* 

J. C. WMTcr 

J. Rrwdtvy Adams 

iLJ.ftutti 

JO.WMTer 

^J«<«cv* Wootrtridge * . - 



Telegrams 

Base-bomer, hardware, Ac 

Grates ... 

City Directory, 4 copies 

Stationery 

Paste 

Making and repairing famitnre 

Coanter-die, retouching seal, and counter . 

Furniture 

Repairing clocks and winding same 

Map 



Ice 

Expenses as special agent General Land 
Office. 

do 

Bxpressage 



Washing towels 

Repairing sliades 

Looks and blanks . . . 
Making fnmitare ... 
Freight and cartage. 

Office truck 

Miscellaneous 

Stationery 

Cases for maps 

Telegrams. 



Henry Conp. 

G. K.Wbfttingtoii 

J*0. Wf^wor ,. 

JuLltl«Bien 



Repairing furniture . 
telegrams 



.do. 



Wire fenders and grate-linings . 

.nging go ' ' 
Stationery.. 



Hanging gong-bell 



rr 



Cartage 

do 

Ink 



Miscellaneoas | 

Washington Chronicle I 

Expenses as special agent General Laud i 
Offloe. I 

One year's subscription to Daily Republican 

Makins and repairing furnitare I 

Wnshiiiif tDiirciea : 

KTtjT'^nnr'tt lib n^iocjul uj^ent General Land \ 



0«u' 



I 



rttlterl Stall fi Ki'^ii^t*r^ fl copies. 

Frrlalii 

Sttitmnen' -- ! 

Alakin^ Jiml reT>tiJrii]^ fprniture I 

Caltbolla iftDd t wjuo 

StMioH(*ry * . . * ' 

Muk^Di; ittid t^;j:k]iitjjj Inrniture | 

ShadenxiiHv!i i\u*\ r^pM ring shades j 

Carlitire ...... ^... • 

('(ipp'jt LnJid ( Jutit i-j 3 volumes 

do I 

Ri'pAirlnj; jinr! lU'tUni; (rrates 

At.1ti4&i]il t*vHkt-[]jiu hitie I 

Rk^piiLrtTiir /ti 111 iti in> aij J varnishing maps. 

fthaile Uhi}4 1a . -,. 

UiarolUnicKiiiH . ,, 

Wsfthiii^ lutein 

f^hitlantry - 

EiprHTDAui an ApL^L-.iaL ii^eut General Land 
Omt:^ 
do. 
FjwtglJt 

Varniahlnt; find lioitiDi; mnps . 
Hair-bi'UhboA . 
DbUt;^iiI . 

WslDMt desk, r4ap;i;r^. &o . 
Stnttotipry - 
Bitlbolilvr. 
Making and n^piiirlDi; faraiture . 

Sponi;4<9 

Copp'» Laud Owiu^r. 1 usta.. 
Hnrwe^rallrrwd tick '^ Li.,*.. - 
Basing and HlUppiug luapn . 
Pucki^S CilHOS -.. 



13 65 


105 20 


193 90 


SO 00 


23 00 


18 00 


127 00 


15 00 


549 S5 


25 00 


10 00 


120 68 


311 10 


168 00 


1 65 


6 72 


2 00 


2 99 


47 00 


5 50 


75 00 


500 


301 57 


5 00 


5 09 


83 50 


11 85 


3 60 


61 75 


7 00 


383 80 


1 50 


4 25 


15 00 


19 90 


35 


307 50 


8 00 


116 25 


10 38 


24el 00 


300 


16 85 


365 81 


82 00 


16 40 


298 05 


344 11 


100 75 


31 80 


1 50 


3 00 


3 00 


55 03 


29 00 


274 75 


18 00 


18 50 


7 74 


160 36 


140 SO 


238 00 


16 70 


118 00 


12 CO 


7 50 


222 (0 


67 iO 


121 £0 


126 75 


12 25 


12 00 


20 00 


183 00 


21 00 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTINGEXT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

Statement of expenditures on account of the contingent fund, «fc. — Continned. 



Date. 



1877. 

Mar. 31 

31 

31 

31 

31 

6 

7 



Apr. 



9 
9 
11 

11 
1*2 
17 

le 

18 

18 
18 

19 
31 
23 
34 
35 
28 
38 
28 
30 
30 
Hay 2 

4 

5 
5 

7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
10 
11 

11 

11 

13 

14 

14 

16 

16 

16 

17 

17 

18 

21 

22 

24 

26 

28 

31 

Jane 1 

3 

4 

4 

4 

5 

6 

6 

7 

7 

9 
12 
12 
13 
15 
16 
16 



From whom purchased. 



Xatare of purohaies, Sco. 



W.H. Walker 

James Cooper 

Great Falls Ice Company 

Hoff& Thomas 

George C. Maynard 

Adams Express Company 

J. G. Wearer 

Vernon Brothers 

Mohan Brothers 

Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Co. 
C.W.Nash 



John W. Jon es 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

JnllusBien 

Mohan Brothers 

M. A. Carter 



Henry N. Copp. 
C.W.Nash 



M. A. Carter 

J. G. Weaver 

Colamhian Bank Note Company . 

Hoff dc^ Thomas 

T. H. Hamersley 

J. G. Weaver 

John Markrlter 

John C. Hogan 

Herman Baumgarten 

T. H. Hamersley 

E. J. Hayward 

S.B. Edwards 



Alexander R. Shepherd & Co., 

J. G. Weaver 

Mohan Brothers 

Harmon. Boswell & Co 

Henry N. Copp 

W.D.Smith 

J.W.Bixler 

L. Harrison 

Solomons Sc Chapman 

£. A.Protois 



do 

Robert Beall 

J. G. Weaver ^ 

G.W.Knox 

A. S. Barnes 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

do , 

W. H. & O.H. Morrison 

S.G. Yoang , 

W. W. Notungham 

J. Bradley Aoams 

William 8. Mitchell 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegn^h Co 

George Wooldridge 

J. G. weaver 

J.P.Libbey 

Chicago Tiibane Company 

GeorgeC. Maynard 

J. G. Weaver 

E. J. Hayward 

Henry^. Copp 

Rober^eall 

S. R. Edwards 

^National Railway Pablishing Co. . 

Hoffd: Thomas 

Adams Express Company 

J.B. Adams 



J. G. Weaver 

Franklin Telegraph Company. 
Western Union Telegraph Co. 

E. Carstens 

John Markrlter 

J. G. Weaver 

John C. Hogan 



Magnifying glasses.. 

Paste , 

lee. 



Miaoellaneons 

Speaking-tube whistle and battery 

Freight 

Repairing famitare 

Statioaery 

do... 

Freight 

Expenses as special agent General Land 

dS*. 

Telegrams 

Stationery 

do 

Expenses as special agent General Land 

Office. 

Copp s Land Owner, 130 copies 

Expenses as special i^ent General Land 

Office. 

do 

Repairing famitare 

Engraving scrip certificates 

Misoellaneoas 

Reports ....w 

File cases 

Shade fixtures 

Repairing and patting up awnings 

Seal and oonnter die 

Land Office Reporta i 

Washing towels 

Expenses as special agent Gteneral Land 

Office. 

Grate 

Making and repairing famitare .'. 

Stationery 

W'alnntcnair 

Land Owner, 130 copies 

Copp'sLand Owner, 1 volume 

Copp's Land Owner, 3 volumes 

, do 

Stationery 

Expenses as special agent General Land 

Office. 

......do 

Stationery 

Making and repairing famitare 

Freight and cartage 

A year's sabscriptum to International Review 
Telegrams 

.....rdo 

Law book 

Detergent 

Sawdust 

Stationery 

Cotton and rollers for maps 

Telegrams 

Miscellaneous 

Making and repairing famitare 

Miscellaneous 

One year's subscription to Daily Tribane. .. 

Work on wires and batteries 

Making and repairing furuitore 

Washing towels , 

Oopp's Land Owner 

Stationery 

Expenses as special agent Pension Office.. . 

Railway Guide 

Misoellaneoas 

Freight 

Six months' subscription to New Tork Trib- 
une. 

Making and repairing furniture 

Telegrams 

.^o 

Painting 

Shade-fixtures 

Repairing famitare 

A wnhigs, &c 



Amount 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 
Staiemrmt of expenditures on account of the contingent fund^ 4'C. — Continned. 



From whom parobmsed. 



Nature of pnrohaseB, Are. 



Amount. 



l»77. I 

■tat 16 Mohan Brothers 

. «, H.O. Towlea 

81 1 E.C«rsteu9 

iS Hoir& Thomas 

a J.G.AVeaver 

tf , ReisQier & Jenks 

a W.P.Moees 

« H.O. Towles 

Ti John C. Hoean 

27 J.P. Libboy , 

» W.S. Mitchell 

9 I Georjre W. Knox 

30 J.G. We«Ter 

30 I A. R. Shepherd &. Co. 

30 I James Cooper 

30 I James S. Topham 

30 Charles Fischer 

30 8.R.Bdwards 



30 

30 

»i 

30 
30 
30 > 

30; 

so' 

30 

July 14 ' 

16i 



H.N.Copp 

Great FaUs Ice Company . 
J. P. Bansman 



£.J.Havward 

J. W. Boteler &, Bro , 

AUantie and Pacific Telegraph Co 

Hohmi Brothers 

6. N. WhittingUm 

J. G. Wearer , 

Western Union Telegraph Co. ... . 

John Ifarkriter 

W.H.Dempsey 

J. G. Wearer 

IL A. Carter 



Aig. 1 JoUbs Blen . 
10 ; C. W. Nash . 

B 
S-ft 5 



G. W. & C. B. ColtoD & Oo. 
George K. Bradford 



Stationery 

AValnut desks and chairs 

Painting 

Miseelliuieoas 

Making aod repairing faruitore 

Water-cool er 

Walnnt chairs 

Chairs and wash*staud 

Awnings 

Ioe>pitoner 

Matting and oil-cloth 

Cartage 

Making case 

Grates, linings, &o 

Paste 

Leather bag 

Repairing fasteners 

Expenses as special agent General Land 
Office. 

Copp's Land Owner 

Ice . 



Expenses as special agent General Land \ 

Office. 

Washing towels 

Crockery 

Telegrams ' 

Stationerv 

Horse-railroad tickets 

Making and repairing furniture 

Telegrams'. , 

Shade fixtures 

Stationery 

Making and repairing furniture 

Expenses as special agent General Land | 

Office. 
Furnishing maps of States and Territories . > 
Expenses as special agent General Land 

Office. , 

One commercial map of the TTnit«d States. . . 
Expenses as special agent General Land 

Office. 



f38 50 


201 00 


98 50 


58 90 


69 83 


6 50 


63 50 


37 00 


18 00 


14 75 


689 45 


50 


140 00 


89 55 


18 00 


18 00 


1 75 


63 00 


13 50 


107 80 


110 34 


8 23 


5 50 


13 04 


19 00 


30 00 


166 25 


27 08 


8 55 


113 80 


364 40 


103 75 


740 20 


186 60 


15 00 


75 00 



A moont expended ; 27,449 85 

Balance on hand unexpended i 50 15 

Amount appropriated , 27,500 00 



^^^kmnti lij apenditurva OH atcount o/ thf corttiatjfHt fund of Th* VmirA States Pension 
Office for tht'jiamt year tading June liO^ 1^^7T» 






M 

n 

* 

4 
« 
4 

5 

« 

9 
ft 



From Tbom porcLoaed. 



Nature Df piirc1riMf>4. &a. 



8pucUT«erv]i^] 

Carting . 

SpeclarBAr\'Je« 

do 

Rfipttring mnrl-bac 



U. T.Parker Paint Ids sign 

Walter Dl Vaughn ......... ...... Caning «Lmira 

J«taiE, Wawer 

UwrRmoU 

H^iiAfLWa^r 

IL It. Iftitchina 

J'A^Tnptwa * , ---. „ ^.„.. „ 

U. Ita^ward .,.,*..>,...' Wafihin>f tow da 

lUintfeaDdl'aDlfit: TslegrapbOo. I Tetecraphlng . 

M. £. Jtnkrt ^ _,_.. «,. Special service. 

KflWrtHarke , ...i^.>,,^o .-,, 

V. D* Viiiglin . .,_ . . . . , ^^ . » >, J Canliig cbair^ . . 

I^Mhlngton Gas Li^t Company J Gan ...-. 

lXL^urp)iy H*»*.»,..,,, Special Mrdc« 

MLHbflpp I dr>. 

B^PfMct ■ do 

»n JCUfoCt Cjirtiiiff 

WMltbctOdUidGcotffttowDltail- Cat i\c^vtM 

]l4tiuM)liaa Biaitmad C^npaoy. j-.-.-nrtn „.._,., 
BLS«l4b tl[p«t:Ul Sfifvioa , 



Amount. 



— *i 

t 

1 



13 50 

4 25 
53 40 

2 00 
36 15 
87 63 

2 00 
25 14 

1 25 
107 87 

67 15 

1 35 

68 18 
123 73 
117 03 

4 25 

2 00 
10 00 

10 00 
191 20 



Digitized by 



Google 



10 CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

Statement of ejq^dituree on account of the contingent fund, ^'C — Continaed. 



Dftte. 



1876 

Aug. 



Sept 



Oct 



From whom pnrohAted. 



Adams Express Compmny . 

John liorau 

LRDann 

R. W.Famas 

T.P.Kane 

E.K.HatohiBs 

J. C. XVlesworth 

James H. Clements 

W. Do Vaughn 

Mohun Bros 

T. P.Kane 

J. ILWatfer 

Alex. Hull 

H. C.Elliott. 



A.F.KingBley 

Gostav Clemen 

K.W. Furnas 

Alex. Hall 

Metropolitan Railroad Company . . 

'Washfnffton and Georgetown Rail' 
road Company. 

Elmer H. Craig 

T. Lanston 

J. C. Aylesworth 

A.F.Kingsley 

Henry Hall 

J. F. Cole & Co 

E.J.Hayward 

Washington Gas-Light Company . . 

John H. Wager 

M.E.Jenk8 

R.W. Furnas 

D.I. Murphy 

Bei^amiu F. Shopp 

Isaac W. Vrooman 

do 

do 

H. R. McCalmont 

G. H.Ragsdale 

Robert Clarke 

Mohun Brothers 

E.H.Cra!g 

Gustav Clemen 

Isaac W. Vrooman 

Alex- Hull 

James H.Clements 

Isaac B. Dunn 

E. RHutchins 

H.J.H^rt 

G. A. L. Merrifield 

P.Fleming 

Adams Express Company 

W.H.Dempsey 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

C. H. McCathran 

Alex. R. Shepherd 

Western Uuion Telegraph Co 

E.RHutohins 

John ADarling 

John H.Benton 

Webb & Boveridge 

M.Judd 

Great Falls Ice Company 

R.L. Smith 

Henry Elliott 

J. C. Ajlsworth 

J.H. Wager 

C.Myers 

Benjamin R. Shopp « 

B.«J. Hayward 

Metropolitan Railroad Company .« 

Washington and Georgetown Rail- 
road Company. 

Isaac B.Dunn 

Webb ic Beveridge 

Frank W.Poor 

W.F.Eaton 

B.W. Reed & Sons 

H. P. Leech 

A. Hall 



Nature of purchases, Sec, 



Expressage 

Repairing water-coolers, Au).. 

Special service 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Caning chairs 

Stationery 

Special service 

.fTT^do 

do 

Cartage 

Special service 

......do 

do 

do 

Car-tickets 

do 



Special service .. 

do 

do 

do 

Freight 

Snnories 

Washing towels. 

Gas 

Special service .. 
...v.. do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Sutionery 

Special service. 
..V..do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Insect powder 

Spocialservice 

Horsehlre 

Express 

Stationery 

Telegraphing 

Mounting maps 

Heating Pension Office.. 

Telegraphing 

Special service 

......do 

do 

Spittoons 

Clock (repairing) 

Ice 

Special agent 

Cartiug 

Special service 

do 

do 

do 

Washing towels 

Car-tickets 

do 



Special service 

Basin and pitcher, &c 

Special service 

.. ...do 

Baskets, sponges, and sundries . 

Special service 

do , 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 11 

SUfUment of expentUturea on account of the contingent fundf ^c — Continued. 



Mb. 



From whom purchMed. 



Natare of purchases, Sec. 



Amount. 



50T. 



im. 

0* 7' 

i! 

7 
7 
7 
9 
9 
10 
10 
» 
13 
13 
13 
14 
I« 
1< 
17 
IB 
18 
19 
II 
» 
21 
SI 
S3 
34 
» 
27 
27 
31 i 
31 
2 
3 

3 I 
4| 

V\ 

c • 

6i 

6 

6 



s 

t I 
9\ 

li! 

II ' 

a ; 

M 
U' 
H I 

lil 

1.1 

11 
1.^ i 

r. 
]- 

Vi 
t^ 
I( I 

« 

«( 
51 



Chriatiao Exel 

M.£.JenkB 

James H. Clemeota 

G«orxe W. Bagsdale 

J. Braidley Adiuns 

Adams Express Compaoy 

WashiDgton Gas-Lighi Compaoy. . 

H. B. McCalmont 

Chrcmicle Pablisbing Company . . . 

Elmer H.Craiff 

aL. Smith 

Daoa, Parks & Co 

L. H. Schneider 

Adantio and Pacifio Telegraph Co 

do 

J. A. Darling 

M.6.Copeland 

Gostav Clemen 

Alonzo Weeks 

J.W. Vrooman 

H.P.Leech 

C.R. Conner 

CExel 

W.H.Orton 

D.LMorphy 

C. Myers 

Robert McHui ray 

P.Fleming 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

E.R.Hntchln8 

George C. Maynard 

W.RMoees 

John H. Wager 

F.H.Spragne 

A. K. Shepherd & Co 

W. H. Hutchinson 

D.LMorphy 

Benjamin R. Shopp 

W.t. Eaton 

Robert Beall 

Isaac W. Vrooman 

MLKJenks 

Gas Compaoy. 



Special service 

do , 

do 

do 

do 

Stationery 

Express 

Gai 

Special service 

Newspaper 

Special service 

do 

Blinds and fixtures 

Hardware 

Telegraph 

do 

Special service 

Awnings 

Special service 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Gold lettering 

Special serrlce 

do 

Document straps 

Livery 

Telegraphing 

Special service 

Moving telegraph, &.c... 

Famitore 

Special service 

.....do 

Heating Pension Office. 

Special service 

do 

do 

do 

Books 

Special service 

do 

Gas. 



T.y. Ur^i ,, 1 Spcclftl atrvico 



Jamc^ }[ Cli^pnents .^J.^mIt. 

IsMC iV Unnu *..,..'. do. .^ .. 

fl.P.L*fi;h ilf). 

i. C Ay|e«worth * .,,,*i|rp. ...,*,.... .. 

Umfr B. O^ii; ' d^t ,_......,.. . 

GpoFRt* H. lU£M^4ilu .......... .,,.|..„..i1m ._,.„,, 

U, *>. Copclanii A fl-iiin;:fi ,- . -.. . 

J;£l. Bobba , Sutcittl iflrvice 

Tul^*Ti LsAstynn .,..._,.,.... ! ijrj 

K. M. WhitT'Nker ,,... Sratlouf^rv 

JobD H. Wst^^er . ,4. * , ^iirrinl nri vi* « „ . , . 

ft.I^Wi"ltl< '..' ..»lo 

KK-fulior ,. I ilij 

.r*)tni a. Beiiton, ! i?o 

J a a. fctiiLtflr do 

W. ir. IV^jbitiiT llrv... 

W. K. Oaiin. J Hi 

F. It- SUtphHllWlA .--..; ..,*. do ,...,.. 

M T. Pwtkej- ,-,.,,..... .., Virnfuliiu;; rASti^... 

C. W. KiilUly. ,.,...,..._, .J i>pt'dftl drrvke 

Johu(i, oiu^rg.,,* ilo 

H^ W.M->Milbm.. I .. ilii 

tl. K Mt:C*lUHfdt |. 

JAtti' m. IV Scott » „ . , , , do 

K.yJ lUjfward * Wmhln^ 1r^w^^]fl, 

tl' BpiimgarUMi tlaa<l nljimp 

J^ A MhWiinli^j „ Spw:inl aetvictj . 

Tlmokaa W. i^mith .,„ .., Lnitibi'T- 

Wub Id cto II abd Qeor^eto wa Ka 1 1- 
twd Cimii>4oy. 

Ttrilllam UaUnlyD^^ 

GiMt*v Cl(*ni*^n ..,.„.,,,. 

\r«i«n> Uulon T* U-grsiib Co...* .^,..^...- 

JuhuM Comatock , fpcclal aerv 




172 15 

124 79 

101 50 

18 00 

140 55 
646 50 

6 4G 
63 45 

129 05 
2 25 

165 20 

174 70 
14 00 
26 93 
11 91 
2 05 
45 13 

323 00 

115 48 
S6 00 

153 48 
63 80 

160 05 
50 S3 
37 50 

143 39 
54 50 
52 08 

168 00 
23 67 

7 93 
85 00 

2, 356 08 

48 35 
208 65 

60 42 
114 70 
147 2d 
107 25 
lOcf 52 

14 50 
93 50 

107 03 
5 63 

21 50 
92 50 
92 90 
106 00 
133 40 
178 66 

141 75 
85 00 

49 05 
177 70 
704 23 
110 55 
li=*5 65 
100 27 
196 05 
262 55 
113 86 

85 40 

91 50 

1 00 

116 20 
26 50 

1^9 30 
152 23 

50 55 

8 58 
10 00 

145 92 
65 18 
5 00 

15 00 

5 96 

112 76 

17 92 

108 87 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



12 CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

Statement of erpenditurea on acoouni of the contingent fund, ^c— Continued. 



Date. 



From whom parohased. 



Nature of parohases, SiC 



Amoaot. 



1876. 
Kov. 21 
21 
2-2 
tK 
22 
23 
23 
24 
24 
24 
27 
28 
28 
^ 29 



Dec. 



H. Banm^rten ! Prepiring fitamps. 

Rig^IeA & Hopkins | Stationery , 

Frank Hodges Special service 

J. W.McMillan do , 

L. Holtzlander i do , 

S. C. McCandless Copies of records ., 

John G. Olberg , Special service 

John C. Parker i Newspapers 

W.C.Orton Glasssign 

J. W. Boteler&Bro | Basketn 

Isaac B. Dunn | Spwlal service 

Paul E. Williams 

J. W.Morris 

A. F. Kingsley 

Frank Hodges 

G. W.Frost 

M. £. Jenks 

N.F.Graham 

J. P. Llbbev 

Henry Pinckney 

Alexander R. Shepherd & Co ... . 

P. H. Berkan 

Alexander R. Shepherd S1.C0 .... 

Benjamin K. Shopp 

W. F. Eaton 

D. I. Murphy 

J.D.Smith 

do 

Solomons & Chapman 

Elmer H.Craig 

J. H. Clements 

E.J. Hayward 

Washington Gas-Light Company 

T.B.Hood ....:. 

O. B. Bloss 

Robert Beall 

Morgan Envelope Company 

H. P. Leech 

J. H. Wager 

George HTRagsdale 



do. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do- 

do 

Repairing clock 

Carting 

Heating Pension Office. 

Special service 

fixtures, fittings, 6cc.... 

Specif service 

do « 

do 

do 

do 

Stationery 

Special service 

do 

Washing towels 

Gas 

Special service 

Searching records, &jo . . 

lok 

Envelopes 

Special service 

do 

do 



E. R.Hntchln8 ; do 

R.L. Smith ! do 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. , Telegraphing . 
do ". i do. 



George Wooldridge . 
G. S. Thompson. 



Bureaa of Efngraving and Printing 
[ocliers .. 



Hair brashes and comba . 

Special service 

Engraving and printing. 
Ink extractor . 



John DesRocl 

R. H. McMurrav | Leather straps 

J. C. Aylesworth ' Special service 

Metropolitan Railroad Company . . ] Car*ticket8 . . . . . 

Washington and Georgetown Rail- 1 do 

road Company. 

O.N.Miller Special service. 

CM. Tompkins I do 

H. R. McCalmont do 

Isaac B. Dunn ; do. 

George H. Ragsdate { do 

T. Lanston 1 do 

Gu8t«v Clemen ' do 

George W. Richards j do, 

CM Tompkins \ do 

Henry Pinckney ^ 

Alexander R. Shepherd 

Walter De Vaughn 

Western Union Telegraph Co. .. 

E.R.Hutchins 

J. C. Aylesworth 

Albert Deyo 

William aMitchell 

Tucker 4& Sherman 



A. F. Kingsley . 
. Olberg . 



Carting . 

Heating Pension Office.. 

Caning chairs . 

Telegraphing . 

Special service. 

do 

Copy of divorce . 

Cleaning carpets . 

Lumber 

Special service. 

John G. Clbefg I do 

Phelon Robinson ' Carting 

Walter De Vaughn | Caning chairs.. 

W.F.Eaton ! Special service.. 

W.B. Moses ; Fuiniture 

M.E. Jenks Special service. 

Benjamin R Shopp | do 

F. H. Spragne do 

Great Falls Ice Company Ice 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 13 

lt4immt of expendUmreB on account of the contingent /tmd, ^c— CoDtinaed. 

I Amount. 



From when purcihiirirt 



Iht 31 
» 
30 
30 

31 
30 
31 

n 

8 



B<d»ertBean 

Root& Co 

B.Monie 

&W.R«ed'8Soo« 

JohiiM.Welty 

JA-MftCMtey 

Waahington Ga«-Ligbt Comnaay 
WillijunH.Bojd 



IXL Murphy 

John H.BeDtnD 

E.J.H«yward 

EH.Cna^ 

EKHatchiat 

H.P.Leech 

WMhinftOD ftsd Georgetown Rail- 
ma^ Company. 

Colambia Railroad Cooapany 

Metnmolitan Railroad Compaqjr . . 

JnhnH. Wager 

ImscB. l>nnn 

ay.MillCT 

Adama Express Company 

Duiel Smith 

Hermsa Banmgarten 

Wslter De Vaughn 

' Webb & Beverldge 

LH^Schndder 

B.L. Smith 

J.H.CIemeDts 

Tseker & Sherman 

George W. Richards 

W.DoYanghn 

Bareao EngraTlng and Printing . . 

Edgar Weas.Tr. *. 

i Weitem Union Telegraph Co 

I CR. Conner 

! JR. Van Mater 

Alexander R. Shepherd & Co .. . .. 

Oeorge H. Ragsdale 

S. R. Hntisfaina 

' aR.MeCaliBont 

T.RHood 

Topographer PosfrOffioe Depart- 

Alexander R. Shepherd Sc Co 

WsherDeVangha. 



il 



* Washington andGeorgetown Rail- 
I road Company. 

. Ben Use Railroad Company .... 

Metropolitan Railroad Company . 
' Heery Ptnekney 

l.M.Whittaker 

B.J.Hayward 

MK-Jeoks 

' T.D. Yeager 

D.LHarphy 

John H. Benton 

H.P.Leeoh 

T.L.Fracher 

F.H.ftpragne ^.. 

W.F.Eaton 

Bs^lamin R. Shopp 

IaaseB.Dann 

< Washington Gaa Company 

John W. Wheeler 

' Slmer H.Craig 

as. Miller 

• John H. Wager 

J.M.Welty 

, George H. Ragsdale 

' Isaac H. Vrooman 

, AS. Coleman 

Joa^Carr 

J. A.MaeanleT 

JateSivin Mason 

J.W.Morris 

CS. Conner 

Osarga W. Richards 

/. H. Cleaaeots 

aW.Mallaly 



Xatore of pnrohasea, Slc. 



Pincaahions 

Newspaper 

Oopyof wiU 

Knndries ^ 

Special aerrioe.. 

...^Vldo 

<»as , 

City Directory .. 

Special aerrice. . 

......do 

Washing towels. 
Special service... 

do 

do 

Car tickets 



do 

do 

Special service 

do 

do 

Express 

Lumber 

Repairing stamps 

Caning cnairs 

Wash-bowl, pitcher, &^ . . 

Hardware 

Special service 

.....do 

Doors 

Special service 

Caning chairs 

Engraving and printing. 

Certified copies 

Telegraphing 

Special service 

do 

Fittings. Ac 

Specisl service 

...\?.do 

do 

do 

Monntiagmaps 



Heating Pension Office. 

Caning chairs 

Car tickets 



do 

do 

Carting 

Straw 

Washing towels. 
Special service.. 

......do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



Gas. 

Special service . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



Id 2.5 


1 00 


800 


SO 92 


t»& 69 


89 63 


94 50 


30 00 


117 52 


74 yo 


9 24 


104 45 


70 45 


130 70 


10 00 


500 


500 


153 e5 


tl 24 


112 85 


2 00 


34 to 


14 50 


2 50 


3 45 


65 76 


46 50 


147 40 


8 00 


85 00 


850 


318 42 


1 75 


16 33 


90 80 


42 00 


81 35 


98 65 


77 06 


101 80 


88 87 


87 75 


•0 42 


8 50 


18 00 


3 00 


5 00 


11 75 


3 68 


10 38 


139 61 


42 29 


108 81 


107 33 


133 81 


64 95 


188 00 


187 05 


102 72 


38 50 


101 85 


49 43 


190 85 


132 90 


92 00 


124 60 


58 70 


77 30 


39 71 


51 88 


104 67 


41 30 


550 


103 40 



110 00 
LM 90 



•Dtgiti^ed-by 



. . l.>f VO T 



14 CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENf. 

Stattnient of expenditures on account of the contingent fund, 4^. — Continoed. 



Date. 



From whom parohaaad. 



Xatore of pnrchaaea, Ac 



Mar. 



18T7. I 
Feb. 14 
14 
15 
16 
16 
17 
82 
22 
22 
24 
26 
26 
2 
3 
2 
2 
2 
6 
6 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
9 



» 
U 
10 
10 
10 
10 
12 
12 
13 
13 
14 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 
15 

15 
16 
16 
16 
17 
17 
19 
20 
21 
21 
21 
22 
22 
23 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
24 
26 
26 
26 
28 
29 
30 
30 
31 
31 
31 



OattaT Cleroen 

Franklin Wood 

Walter De Vaughn . 

Charles Lncas 

J. H. Hobbs 

£. R. Hntchina 

H. P. Leech 

C. W. Mullaly 

D.J. Waters 

H. R. McCalmont. . . 

£.R. Hntchina 

do 

M. £. Jenks . 



A. S. Coleman i do. 



Special service 

do 

Canine chairs 

Mending mail-bag. 

Special service 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 



F. H. Spraene do 

Elmer Q.Craig do 

T.D.Yeager do 

W. F.Eaton do 

Franklin Wood do 

John H. Benton do 

J. W. Wheeler do 

H. P. Leech do 

G. H.Ragsdale do 

laaacB. Dunn do 

Joseph Carr do 

J. M^Welty do 

John H. \yager do 

N.B. Vineyard do 

O.N.MUler do 

Benjamin R. Shopp do 

Frank A. WordeU I do 

Alexander R. Shepherd < Heating Pension Office . 

C. R. Conner j Special service 



Gustav Ciemen .'...do. 

, do do 

D. L Mnrphy do 

C. W. MulUly do 

D.J. Waters do 

National Republican Newspaper 

T. L. Fracker Special service 

Root & Co Newspaper 

Alexander R. Shepherd ScCo Plambing 

do Repairing radiator . 

J. H. Clements | Special service 

J. A. Macanley i do 

W.R.Bates do 

Metropoliun Railroad Company . . I Car tickets 

Wavhington and Qeorgetown Rail- ' do 

road Company. 

Jolm Edwin Mason Special service 

Samuel G. Youngs Detergent 

John W. Wheeler Speciiu service 

Adams Express Company Express 

Washington Gas-Light Company.. Graa 

Robert fieall Ink 

George Ryneal Painting material .. 

A. S. Coleman Special service 

J. Disturnell Registers 

J. W. Boteler &Bro Sundries 

Estate F. S. Gathier, deceased Concentrated lye. . . 

H. P. Leech Special service 

George W. Richards do 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co.| Telegraphing 

William M. Shoster dc Bro Towels 

Perr>' Bros do 

Western Union Telegraph Co Telegraphing 

do ., do 

G. W. Wormelle Special service 



do. 

Lnmbsr 

Special service 

Engraving and printing. 

do., 



Isaac B. Dunn 

T. Edward Clarke & Co 

G. W. Wormelle 

Bureau Engraving and Printing . . 

do 

Alexander R Shepherd I Heating Pension Office 

H. R. McCalmont \ Special service 

J. G. Bates Clesning clock 

J. H. Hobbs 1 Special service 

Alexander R. Shepherd A^ Co • Fixtures 

D. W. Beveridge. Repairing elevator 

J. D. Yeager Special service.... 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTIKGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 15 

Siatement of expenditures on aooount of the contingent fttnd^ ^c— CoDtinoed. 



QUe. j 



From whom pnrohMed. 



Nature of pnrchatM, &o. 



Amcfant. 



Kit. SI 

SI| 

31 ^ 
31 
31 
31 

< 

f 



W.F.Eaton 

H«orT Piockney . 
K.J.Biddick.... 
F.H.Spngne... 
Ftenklin Wood . . 
D.LMorpby.... 
en» .. 



9 
I 

» 

10* 
16 
It > 

14 : 

"i 

16 
U 

a 

21 

s 
n 
& 

3| 
3 
4 
4 

4 , 
J . 
5 
5 

5 > 
5 ' 
5 
7 

7 i 
7 ' 
7 , 



ILKJenl 

E W. Reed'8 Sons 

T.L.Fracker 

do 

fi. W. Beed'fl Sons , 

Adams Kxpreas Company 

N.BVliwyard 

Beolamiu R. Shopp 

E-HTCraiir 

J.H.Ragadale 

F.A.WordcU 

R.MeHomy 

Samoel Hordle 

Robert Beall 

A.S.Coleman 

Inac B. Dann 

A.W.Fiiher 

J.B.Maaon 

J. H. Wager 

O.H.Miirer 

Kigglea^ Hopkins 

J.lTwelty 

WMhington Gaa-Ligbt Company. 

H.Baamgarten , 

Mohan Broe 

A.F.King«ley 

J. H. Benton 

H.P.L€Cch 

C.R. Conner 

W.B. Bates 

T.Edward aarke & Co 

FrankKndtCo 

Great Falls Ice Company 

T. Edward Clarke 

J. A.MacaaIey 

E. R. Hatchioa 

Joseph Carr 

W.B. Moses 

Gutsy Clemen 

W.E.Dalin 

W. L. Nicholson 

J. Bradley Adams 

H.P.Leech 

L. ABrandebory 

Phrlin Robinson 

A. H. Coleman 

M.E.Jenks 

EJ.Hayward 

A. H. Chase 

Henry Pinckney 

F.H.Spragae 

Jobs H. Benton 

W.F.Eaton 

WsshioKton Gas-Light Company. 

Benjsmio R. Sbopp 

JosnihCarr 

H. B. McCalmont 

J. E. Van Mater 

Wniiam Ballantyne 

H.PLeech 

P»nk AWordell 

Jowph Longbran 

D.B. Johnson 

D.I Murphy 

John Edwin Mason 

J.W.Morris 

jr. B. Vineyard 

I.B.Dnnn 

/•H.Clements 

Fnnklin Wood , 

Im a. BrBodebary 

JfAoH. Wager , 

AVsjicFoder ., 

A. W. Fisher 



Special servioe 

Carting 

Transcript of records 

Special service 

do 

do 

do 

Sundries 

Special service 

..fTTTdo 

Sponges 

Express 

SpMial service . 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Leather straps 

Masonry 

Ink...- 

Special service 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Sundries 

Special servioe 

Gas 

Stamps (band) 

Stationery 

Special servioe 

......do 

do 

A do 

do 

Lnmber 

Magnifyiog-glass 

Ice 

Lnmber 

Special service 

do 

do 

Famitnre 

Special service 

do 

Mounting maps 

Pincushions » 

Special servioe 

do 

Carting 

Special service .*. 

do 

Washing towels 

L>eatber cushion 

Carting 

Special service 

...v.. do 

do _ 

Gas 

Special service 

do 

do 

do 

Books and sundries 

Special servioe 

do 



.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
• do. 
.do 
do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 



1113 88 
7 50 
17 21 
114 93 
133 45 
^6 98 
118 23 

4 60 
SO to 

117 20 
15 75 

3 05 
141 70 
li)6 93 

76 79 
143 30 
126 77 

66 92 

5 00 
10 00 

34 65 
49 55 
84 30 

1U6 15 
148 85 
124 60 

5 80 
53 59 

87 75 
40 00 

107 61 
33 60 
79 23 
71 00 

137 55 

88 85 
62 65 

2 50 
59 08 

35 00 
121 06 

75« 

141 65 
809 18 

97 99 
64 36 
22 00 
9 00 
76 50 
59 60 

2 50 

118 31 
162 67 

43 93 

6 50 

3 75 

117 92 
103 66 

99 15 

76 50 

110 99 

121 87 

118 64 
29 09 
28 56 
86 75 

157 50 

137 05 

48 00 

95 90 

132 70 

100 05 

123 10 

147 10 

110 55 

ISO 13 

69 20 

142 55 
136 30 
126 55 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



16 CONTIKGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

Statement of expenditures on account of the contingent fund, ^*c. — Continued. 



Date. 

I 



From whotD purohAsed. 



1877. 
May 1 



2d 

29 

31 

31 

2 

2 

2 

2 

4 

5 

5 

5 

5 
6 
6 

7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 
7 

7 
7 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
8 
9 

dt 
>1 



•June 



O.N. Miller 

(^eorse H. Ragsdale 

Charlea R. Conner 

Metropolitan Railroad Company.. 

Belt Line Railroad Company 

George W. Richards ^., 

A. S. Coleman » 

C. W. Tbom 

Anna F.CraiK * 

W.De Vaughn 

George W. Ricbarda 

Western Union Telegraph Co .... 

do 

H. R. McCalmoxit 

D. B. Jihoson 

J. A. Macauley 

Elmer H. Craig 

Frank A. Wordell 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

John M, Welty 

J. A. Bentley 

Inaao B. Dunn 

WUliamTyrell 

Benjamin Robinson 

Charles Peters 

James Bradford 

Thomas Fraziec 

Harrison Ward 

William Swink 

Robert Carter 

Moses Robinson 

Manuel Webb 

W. U. Cushman 

C.R. Conner 

W.R. Bates 

C. F. Sawyer 

Walter De Vaughn 

A. Vangender 

Rigffles Sc Uopkins 

G.W. Odium 

W.E. Dulin 

Henry Pinkney 

M.a. Cokeland 

Geor^ W. Richards 

E.J. Hayward 

George W.Knox 

A.S.UoIeman 

W.F. Baton 

F. H.Sprague 

John H. Benton 

R. Leitch dc Son 

W. RCnshmanf 

George W. Odium 

H.P.Leech * 

George H.Ragadale 

N.B. Vineyard 

F. A. Wordell 

M.E.Jenks. 

L. A. Brandehnry 

John H. Wager; 

Joseph Longhran 

J.W.Morris 

L. H. Schneider 

T.Edward Clarke &Co 

Washington and Georgetown Rail- 
road Company. 

Washington Gss Company 

Adams Erpress Company 

W.R.Bates 

E. H.Craig 

LB. Dunn 

B.R. Shopp 

John E.Mason 

JosephCarr 

O.N.MUler 

A. Shepherd 

Franklin Wood 

D. L Mnrpby 

George Ryneal, jr 

James H. Clements 



Nature of purchaaes, d:c 



Special serrice 

...\r.do 

do.., 

CartickeU 

do 

Special service 

do 

Brushes and combs. 

Scrap-boolcH 

Caning chairs 

Special serviue . . ... 

Telegraphing 

do 

Special service 

......do 

do 

do 



do 

Telesrapbiog 

Special service 

, do 

do 

Services in moving. 
, do 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Special service ... 

......do 

do 

do 

Caning chairs .... 
SpeclM service ... 

Sundries 

Special service... 

...VT.do 

Carting 

Awnings 

Special service . . . 
Washing towels . . 

Carting 

Special tervioe . . . 

...\V.do 

do 

do 

Pipe snd fittings . 

Special agent 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do., 

do.. 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Hardvrare 

Lumber 

Carticketo 



Gas 

Express 

Special service .. 

..VT.do 

do 

do 

do 

, do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Glass, putty. Ac . 
Special service .. 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP IN^-E^IOR DEPARTMENT. 17 

Stakment of expendOurea on account of the contingent fund, ^o. — Contlnaed. 



Site. 



From wbom fmrehated. 



Kfttnre of porchasas, &a 



Amount 



U' 
13 
13 
13 

■ U 
IS 
IS 

J« 
16 
16 

18 i 
» 
21 
SI 

n 

28 

a 

25 

% 

SI 

ae 

30 

39 

3» 

30 

30 

30 

30 

30 

301 

30 

30, 

30 

30 

3l' 

30 

30 

30 

30. 

30^ 

30 

9 

9\ 
9 

I 

9 I 
W' 
11 ' 
14 I 
» 
23 
34 ' 
27 



WMtern TJnkm Telegraph Co. . . . 
FtaaUin Telegraph Compaoy . . . 

Gearce TV. Richards 

J.A.Maeaale7 

A.F.KiJigiiIe7 

H-Baamearteo 

G.W.Odlam 

H.B.MoCalmoiii 

Mohan Brother* 

do 

A.W.FUher 

do 

M.£:Jenkft 

Dtnid Smith 

J.H- Wager 

F.A.Wordefl 

J-H-Bfoton 

Alex. R Shepherd &Co 

George W. Richards 

Robert Graham 

iMsc&Danii 

W. T. Van DorcD, jr 

George W. Frost 

W.H. Slater 

H. L. Polooxe dc^ Son 

do 

ILHcMorraj 

KR-Sbopp 

George W. Richards 

V.Lammond 

W.F.Eaton 

W.fi.Coshmaa 

A. Brown ., 

J.D.Smith 

do 

iMseBDnnn 

F.A.Wordell 

Elmer H. Craig 

H. B. MoCatmont 

James H. Clements 

aN.Mlfler 

D.LKnrphj 

L. A. Brandebnry , 

FranUinWood 

Great Falls Ice Company 

G.H.Rsgsdale 

A. S. Coleman , 

John H. Wager 

Washington 6as-Light Company 

EJ. Hayward 

William Hntchinson 

M.E.Jenks 

Joseph Carr 

F.H.SpragQe 

Jos.L(raghran 

C.R. Conner 

P.H.Berhan 

J.W.Morris 

John Bdw. Mason 

A.W.Fisher 

W.RBates 

J.A.Macaaley 

A. T.Morgan 

JohoMoran 

Arth or Shepherd 

Wi»teTi Union Telegraph Co — 
B R. Shopp 



Telegraphing 

do 

Special service 

...\V.do 

do 

do 

Rabber stamps 

Special service 

...VT.do 

Gold pen and holder 

Eyelet bore 

Special service 

do 

do 

Tile boards...: 

Special service 

do ; 

do 

Fittings, &c..: 

Special service 

Carriage for Conunissioner . 

Special service 

:do : 

do ; 

Horse 

Rollers forT)rin ting-press. .. 
Bracket for printing-press. . 

Document straps 

Special service 

do 

Caning chairs 

Special service 

do 

Horseshoes 

Special service , 

do 



.do. 
.do- 
.do. 
.do. 
.do, 
.do. 
.do. 
.do. 
-do. 



Ice. 

Special service . 

..VTTdo 

do 

Gas . 



Washing towels . 
Special service* . 
do. 



do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

do 

Sundries* 

Special service* . 
Teleeraphing* .. 
Special service* . 



#41 91 
SO 

56 74 
5i 17 

157 90 

10 69 

5 00 

34 ti9 

115 65 

4 CO 

1 50 

80 10 

18*2 20 

147 40 

30 80 

7d 65 

57 60 
136 65 

90 48 

16 00 

550 00 

118 95 

113 40 

69 00 

160 00 

3 00 

1 50 
S4 00 

11-2 23 
37 04 
3 75 

73 44 
118 85 

2 00 
47 08 

159 31 

103 80 

69 30 

106 29 

138 50 

196 70 

138 30 

80 20 

110 41 

147 17 

123 17 

129 00 

141 86 

78 90 

44 55 

14 44 

168 55 

74 80 
132 90 
105 16 
115 10 
132 67 
112 35 

134 47 
136 95 

32 50 

135 07 
163 41 

75 37 
49 85 

SOO 05 
43 52 
2 00 



Anovnt expended , 

Balance on hand nnexpended. 



57, 796 90 
9, 703 10 



Amount appropriated I 67,500 CO 



* These accounts were contracted during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1877. 

H. Ex. 42 2 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



18 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 



Statement of expenditures on account of the contingent fund of the Education Office for ike 
fiscal year ending June 30, 1877. 



Date. 



1876. 

Jnlv 27 

Aug. 3 

7 

9 

10 

10 

10 

11 

11 

23 

•23 

23 

24 
2C 
2(5 
30 
30 
31 
Sept. 1 
2 

5 

9 

14 

In 

22 

•ii 

2'* 

27 

30 

30 

July 31 

Aug. 31 

Sept. 30 

Oct. 5 

5 

5 

19 

21 

21 

2:j 

28 

2H 

Nov. 1 

3 
4 

U 
13 
13 
15 
16 
1« 
16 
16 
21 
21 
21 
21 
21 
23 
24 
25 
27 
27 

28 
29 



Dec. 



From whom purchased. 



Nature of purchases, &c. 



F.G.Daris 

E. J. Hayward 

E. Q. Guhson 

Charles Warren 

E. W. Whittaker 

Western Union Telegraph Co. 

F. Leypoldt 

William T.Harris 

Hurd Sc Houghton 

F. S. Gaither 

Adaras Express Company 

C. H. Emmerson 6c Co 



A.N.Bell 

A. K. Williams 

Lorenzo Rice 

William Ballantyne. 

do 

Arthur Simmons — 

A. K. Williams 

J. G. Weaver 



Repairing cane^seat chairs 

Washing towels 

Books 

Car tickets and express charges 

Stationery and hooka 

I Telegraphing 

Trade List Annual 

Journiil of Speculative Philosophy' 

Public Health Report 

Corrosi ve suhlimate, alcohol, &c 

Expressage 

One year's subscription to Business Guide 
of Washington. 

Sabscription to Sanitarian 

Report Bureau of Education, 1867-'6S 

Cleaning carpets 

Stationery 

do 



E. J. Hayward 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

Lorenzo Rice 

Solomons «&. Chapman 

J.S. Kellogg 

S. R. Warren 

Manoel Philp 

Atlantic and Pacific Telegraph Co. 

J.G. Weaver 

BangM, Merwin &. Co 

itoy roU 

.?...do 

do 

Johnson Brothers 

Great Fall* Ic-e Company 

E.J. Havwood 

A.B.Shaw 

S. R. Warren 

C. A. SpofTord 

James bt. John Stationery Co 

A. Simmons, Jr 

H.M.Rogers... 

Adams Express Company 

Charles Warren 

E. M. Whittaker & Son 

A. Schumacher & Co 

E. M. Whittaker & Son 

Adaras Express Company 

L. W.Schmidt 

E. J. Hayward 

J. H. Jobnscm 

Atlantic and Piicific Telegraph Co. 
Franklin Telegraph Company ... 

J. H. Johnson 

Western Union Telegraph Co 

do 

Mohun Brothers 

Adams Express Company 

do 

Charles Warren 



.>JK>1C 

D. Mcintosh 

Adams Express Company. 
Mrs. 8. S. Gaither 



Adams Express Company. 
Peter Mosoley 



J.G. Weaver 

J.O.Parker 

Waller All«»u, jr 

James Anglim 

M^buo Brothers 

K. J. Hiiywftrd 

it tiradli V Adamii..., 

(SfbuniFirlieC Jk C(*. 

^Uu^ry 




Services as mes.««enger for August 

Report Vienna Exposition 

Mounting maps on rollers, and lumber and 
labor making box. 

Washiu g towels 

Telegraphing 

Cleaning carpets 

Stationery 

Reports Bureau of Education 

Car t icketji and express charges 

Servic?8 for seven days, at $1.50 

Tel egraph ing 

Upholstering — mounting mans on rollers . . 

Lot of early American school-books 

Collecting statistics 



.do. 



Coal 

Ire 

Washing toweW. '. 

PuHh-cart 

Car tickets and express charges 

Traveling expenses to New York and return 

Stationery 

Services as messenger 

Services as copy-holder 

Expressing 

Car tickets and express charges 

Books 

Freight 

Stationery 

Expressing 

German books 

Washing towels 

BrmkH 

Telegraphing • 

do 

Arithmetic (1) 

Telegraphing 

do 

Stationery 

Expressage 

do 

Car ticketa and express charges 

Subscription to American Library Journal 
Services as proof-reader 



Oil silk (for wrapping books for long sea- 
voyage). 

Expressage 

Washers for strengthening cart belonging 
to bureau. 

Packing-boxes 

Stationery 

Knight's Mechanical Dictionary 

Books 

Stationery 

Washing towels 

Stationery 

Expressage 

Express charges advanced .* . . .^^. .^^ ^. 

Digitized by VjOOQ 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 19 

Statmeni of expendUure$ on account of the contingent fund, ^c— Continued. 



Sfttc 



From whom parchated. 



Nature of pnrcbaaes, Slc. 



Igit 

Ike. 13 

» 

96 

» 

» 

30 

3U 

30 

30 

» 
Oct 31 
Sot. 30 
Dw. 31 do . 

Jib. e 

8 

9 , 
13 



Hoff AThomM 

E. C. Fairobild , 

Western Union Telei^raph Co 

J.Ormond Wileon 

A. Sehomacber & Co 

Atl#lic and Pacific Telegraph . . 

J. H. Johnson 

Charles Warren 

James Anjclim 

Great Falls Ice Company 

L.C. Campbell 

Adams Express Company 

Payit>ll.... !T7.. 

.do 



E. J. Harirard 

W.H. Barnes 

J.Dennis, jr 

YoaogMen'sCbrisliao Association 
Bord's Directory Company .... 
A. K. Williams 



15 George S. Moalton 

15 W.S. Tappan 

17, A. T. Barnes &^ Co 

» J.W.Gregory 

13 Atlantic and Paoifle Telegraph Co. 

23 W.S.Mitchell 

30 ' Charles Warren 

30 A. T. Barnes dt Co 

30iE. W.Kssh 

31 Tonng Men's Christian Association 
F«k 2 Chariesflsoher 



Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 

Solomons & Chapman 

£. J.Hayward 

E. K. Wbittaker 

National Bepnblican 

F. W.Christian 

Wmiam Ballantyne 

do 

J. Distomell 

, Adams Express Company. . . 

J. H. Johnson 

B. Westerman & Co 

MeHenamy dt Co 

E. U. Whittaker 6i Co 

MancelPhllp 

A. E. La Merle 

F.Cbatterton 

I A. Brown. 

J. Ormond Wilson 

1 W.H- Harrorer 

YotufrMBn^CHrtvUauA^sodaUoti 

y. K. StedNikii &Co 

E. T. Hm yurii nl. * 

, Wniiim BaiiAfttyne. 

Adami £tpr<>«i Company ..,.. 

Bvpnblid Newspa|icr Uaidpany 

J^H^ Johnson ..* ....... 

Ktr, Cturk A: TrntiaelL 

E.r.Triti«) 

J. H. J^Eldsdd 

E. St*ijEfT ,+ **.*M^**^**^. 

T«Tui^ Uvi sChriAtLaa AMOeJatloti 

Gtfsi FtXU loe Company , 

PvroU "»- 

do 

' dA 

EW. Woodruff 

AiUiDii EiprHs Compaay 

X E. Adi»nie.,,^,» ^., 

. SvIdidouji it Chspman 

C^Q Gudsod tL Co 

J. 



&0<«»d^Ce, 



nvnrr Haraanl . 
J ttJu 



Jultnfon . 



Diploma cases 

Third volume Johnson's Eooyclopedia 

Telegraphing 

Books 

Express charges and ocean freight on three 
boxes. 

Telegraphing 

Books 

Street-oar ticket! and express charges 

Books .• 

Ice. 



Hardware 

Expressage 

Coliectiag statistics . 

do... 

do 



Washing towels 

Books 

Text-books 

Old newspapers 

Directory 

Set of united States Reports on Vienna 

Exhibition. 

Magazines 

Repairing clock 

Sabscription to International Review 

Hardware 

Telegraphing 

Carpet-lining 

Street^mr tickets, &c 

Magazine snbscriptio*! 

Books 

Old newspapers 

Reading-glaas (for nse in deciphering man- 

ascript). 

Freight 

Books 

Washing towels 

Magazine sabucription 

SniMcription Daily Repablican 

Books 

Stationery 

Books , 

do 

Expressage 

Books 

do 

Periodicals 

Books 

Services compiling statistics 

do 

do 

Repairing pash-eart 

Books I 

Matches and hardware 

Old tiDwspapers I 

GrKy 9 Atlas 1 

WsH li Ing towels 

SUitlonery I 

Ei 1 rri'ssage i 

Kt>puhlio Magazine 

Bookfl I 

Towfls 



Book*.. 
do. 



J 



do 

DM unwspapers 

Ice , 

CuJ looting statistics.. 

......do 

do 

FHi^holders , 

Expressage , 

Stationery 

do 

r^rj<)dical8 

IV \{ books 

Book 

Uookn 

Tflitbookti , 



■L 



A moan t. 



$36 00 

12 75 
37 

7 00 

8 76 

3 44 

4 35 
20 99 
46 AH 
15 73 

20 ei 

10 65 
701 50 
537 30 
602 60 

1 35 

25 00 

1 80 

5 75 
5 00 
3 50 

1 40 

2 50 

5 00 
75 00 

1 00 

13 50 

11 85 
500 

13 25 

2 15 

3 SO 

11 70 
32 40 

1 65 
15 00 

8 00 
10 00 
15 00 
68 41 

300 
32 55 

6 10 
15 65 

4 80 
18 50 
15 00 

77 50 

15 00 

2 00 

12 50 

7 64 
1 65 

16 00 

1 38 

78 05 

13 80 
12 00 

2 75 

6 00 

7 00 
4 65 

12 00 

1 65 

7 47 

599 90 

583 20 

10 CO 

7 15 

112 84 

121 01 

420 

7 50 

10 00 

838 00 



big itized by \j O OylC 



20 CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

Statement of^^nditurw on aooount of the contingent fund, 4"^, — Continoed. 



Date. 



From whom purchased. 



1877. 

Apr. 28 

May « 

3 

3 

3 

4 

4 

5 

tj 

11 

12 

22 

29 

Jane 4 
5 
11 
13 
15 
15 
15 
15 
Apr. 30 
May 31 
June 18 
20 
21 
22 
23 
23 
25 
25 
2d 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 



J. H. Johnaon 

E. J.Hayward 

Yoong Men's Chrialian Aaaociation 
WUliara BalUntyne 

do 

F. Leypoldt 

A. Scnnmacher Sc Co 

Adams Express Ck>mpany 

Charles Waifen 

J. H. Johnson 

B. F.Stevens 

Metropolitan Railway Company. . . 
John £aton,Jr 



Nature of pnrchaaes, See, 



Amount. 



E. J.Hayward , 

KCFairchUd 

Webb & Beveridee 

Adams Express Company 

Edward Renaad 

C.H. Wye 

Rooks Tamer 

Charles Eriokson 

Pay-roll 

do , 

A. Sohamacher & Co 

E. W. Woodruff 

Charles Erickson , 

Mancel PhUp , 

A.N.Bell 

Edward Renaad 

J.B.Philp 

Young Men's Christian Association 
Columbia Street-Rail way Company 

L. O.Campbell 

Edward Renaud 

J.B.Philp 

William Gronert 

R J. Clarke..., i 

A.R.Shepherdf& Co ! 

John HcKenny I 

Great Falls Ice Company 

Adams Express Company i 

Pay-roll ' 

E.J.Hayward 

Western Union Telegraph Co. . 

Charles Warren 

Adams Express Company 

J. W. Boteler & Bro , 

W.B. Moses 

John Eaton 



Text-booka 

Washing towels 

Old newspapers 

Stationery , 

Books 

Periodicals -A-- 

Freight .T... 

Expressage 

Car tickets and express charges 

Text-books 

Booka, pamphlets, See 

Cartioketa , 

Ca«h expended while attending meeting at , 
flarrlsburg. | 

Washing towels 

Volume 4, Johnson's Enoyolopedia 

Water-set and match^safe ..y 

Express charges | 

Service unpaokiug and arranging library. . .! 

do 

Service assorting and arranging doooments. ' 

do 1 

Collecting statistics 

do I 

Ocean freight J.. | 

File-holders 

Unpacking and arranging library ! 

do 

Sabacription to Sanitarian 

Unpacking and arranging library 

do ' 

Old newspapers t 

Car tickeU | 

Hardware i 

Unpacking and arranging library { 

do 

do 

Window shades 

Wash-stands, ohandellers, shades, &c. 

Service in removing bureau i 

Ice I 

Expressage 

Collecting statistics 

Washing towels | 

Telegraphing .' 

Car tickets and hauling 



:i 



Dusters, drop-light, and water-set 

Window-shades and desk i 

Expenses Incurred in visiting institutions 
ot learning. | 



$5 30 


3 94 


1 50 


2 40 


16 99 


320 


125 


625 


12 95 


2 59 


529 59 


10 00 


14 35 


168 


12 75 


17 25 


3 05 


39 00 


12 75 


25 00 


95 00 


566 00 


56«00 


125 


90 00 


900 


900 


3 00 


91 00 


60 00 


270 


200 


504 


18 03 


18 00 


78 00 


66 43 


175 47 


6 00 


10 30 


890 


525 40 


1 12 


298 


770 


1 45 


90 85 


49 25 


37 65 



xpendc 
Balance on nand unexpended. 

Amount appropriated 



19,896 96 
1 04 

19,900 00 



Statement of expenditures on aooount of the contingent fund of the Indian Office for the fiscal 

year ending June 30, 1877. 




From whom purchased. 



E.J.Hayward 

Henry (iompton , 

>-* J^^press Company. , 

do 

do , 

Parker & Co , 

.John RGrisborne 

T.P.Connelly 

E.H.KiDg , 

Adams Express Company. . 
Jamea Hudson . 



Natiu*e of purchases, Slc. 



Washing towels.. 

Cartage 

Expressage 

do , 

do 

Ink 

Ruling-pens 

Notarial services. 
Cabinet-work, &c . 

Expressage 

Painting, &o 



Amount. 



Adams E xpress Company Expressage . 



Digiti 



zedby Google 



19 40 


75 


1 40 


60 


30 


90 


3 00 


50 


350 00 


10 00 


900 00 


40 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT 21 

Statement of expendiiurei on account of the contingent fund,'^% — Con tinned. 



BMe. 



From whom parchaMd. 



Nature of pnrobasea, &e. 



Amount. 



9 

14 
H 

14 
15 
16 

le 

19 

il 
a 

S9 
30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
Ott 5 
5 
9 
13 
U 
13 
14 



5n. 



Bet 



EXHimrmrd 

Adams ExpreM Company 

Henry KCrnit 

Oeon^ Rmeal.Jr 

W.H. Barnard 

lLE.rry 

Adamfe ExpreM Company 

W.F.Beadey 

J.E. Parker 

M.E.FrT 

Adama ExpreM Company 

Jamea St John Stationery Co . 
R. B. Fennaon ................ 

J.Brad. Adama 



GChellnl. 

George Byneal^jr 

Adama ExpreM Company 

JohnMalTin 

Adama ExpreM Company 

Great Falls lee Company 

JamM St John Stationery Co . 

G.Hartig 

EJ.Hajward 

Adama ExpreM Company 

George Francis 

G.CheMni 

B.A.HcGrair 

George C. Maynard 



J. L. Brown 

Henry Jackson 

W.F.Lntx 

ICohon Brothers 

Henry Compton 

Adams ExpreM Company 

do 

do 

J.C. Parker 

Adams ExpreM Company 

do". 

H.K.Cmit 

G.CbeUni 

Baltimore and Potomac Railroad Co 

W.D.WTTiU 

Adams l^xpreM Company 

W . Brewn 

Metropolitan Railroad Company. 

Adams ExpreM Company 

E.J.Hayw»rd rT.. 

W.S.TapfMai 

George Ryneal.Jr 

George Wooldridge 

HaUAHame..... 

Geoife Francia 

Adams ExpreM Company , 

RlLWhlttaker....rrr.. 

J.G.WMver 

W.W.Brown 

J. L Brown 

H.A.Jackaon 

EA-McGraw.. 

Cincinnati Commercial 

L.Rlce 

W.S-MitcheU 

Hoh on Brothers 

H.O.Towles 

E.J. Harward 

George G. Maynard 

Adams ExpreM Company 

Henry Compton 

W.F.^otx.. 

W.W.Brown 

F.P.May &Co 

Geor^ Francis 

W.H. Boyd 

James Cooper 

George Francis 

Great Falls Ice Company 

W.Smith 

George Francis 

Metmpditan Railroad Company . , 



Wuhinii: towels 

ExpresaasOr 

Plnmbins, &o j 

Gilt molding I 

' Electric pen, &« j 

j Envelope-raok 

Expresaage i 

Desk look j 

Stationery | 

Making caM for electric-pen apparatus 

ExpresMge i 

Stationery ' 

CheraicaU i 

Letter-proM and stand 

Repairing fiimitnre i 

Brush , 

ExpresMge , 

Cartage | 

Expressage 

Ice , 

Ink 

Setof caflters 

Washing towels 

Expressage 

Corkscrew 

Repairing famitnre, &c 

Candles 

I*otting in electric apparatus, annunciator, 

&c. 
Repair! ngcasM, hanging doors, graining, &c , 

Repairing chair , 

Dating-stamp ; 

Stationery 

Cartage 

Expressage 

do 

do 

Stationery 

Expressage , 

do , 

Plumbing, dec .• 

Repairing furniture , 

Transportation 

Grate, ^k^o i 

Expressage 

Cotton cloth 

Car tickets 

Expressage , 

Washing towels 

Repairing water-pitcher 

Paste-brush j 

Soap and camphor ; 

do , 

Tacks 
Expressage 
Stationery.. 
Repairing ftimitare 
Cotton cloth 
Map-sticks 
Repairing furniture 

Matches 

Subscription , 

Cleaning carpet 

Matting, carpet, dtc 

Stationery | 

Desks I 

WMhing towels | 

Repairing electrical apparatus, &c ' 

Expressage j 

Cartage i 

Repairing stamp [ 

Cotton cloth I 

Spri ng punches 

Tacka j 

City Directories 

Paste 

Coalsbovels i 

Ice ! 

Cart nfre t 

Rat-traps. .... 

Car tickets Oigrtrzed-by 



19 76 


300 


14 00 


1 09 


35 00 


15 00 


35 


24 00 


1 50 


7 00 


5 70 


648 OO 


4 85 


32 00 


40 00 


25 


1 85 


50 


3 pq 


43 66 


74 17 


40 


1 98 


30 


90 


43 00 


80 


501 50 


80 00 


1 40 


16 00 


508 70 


75 


75 


90 


1 35 


4 00 


3 30 


75 


10 51 


7 00 


1 67 


36 50 


75 


11 44 


10 00 


1 00 


304 


50 


1 40 


68 40 


14 38 


90 


1 35 


269 30 


18 00 


9 88 


83 50 


930 


3 50 


14 00 


3 75 


725 88 


1 75 


234 00 


3 79 


32 00 


80 


50 


1 00 


45 00 


36 00 


300 


10 00 


9 00 


1 20 


31 99 


75 


1 SOt 



Cjoogle 



L ^ 



22 CONTINGENT EXPENSES OP INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 

Statement of expenditures on aocount of the contingent fund, ^c — Continaed. 



Date. 



18T7. 
Jan. a 

8 



From whom parobaaed. 



Katare of pnrohasea, &c. 



Feb. 



e 

9 
U 
14 
17 
20 
80 
Mar. 7 

9 

15 

16 

17 

23 

24 

24 

27 

27 

28 

31 

31 

Apr. 7 

9 

10 

15 

17 

20 

21 

May 2 

2 

4 

5 

9 

10 

10 

11 

12 

14 

35 

16 

17 

18 

24 

25 

26 

28 

29 

31 

June 1 

2 

2 

4 

4 

5 

5 

6 

6 

7 

7 

13 

16 

20 

21 

23 

26 

30 

30 



Adams Express Company 

£. J. Hayward 

George Kyneal, Jr 1. 

John Markriter 

L. H. Schneider 

Henry Comptou 

S.Carroll 

H. Comnton 

National Kepublioan 

E.J.Hayward •- 

J. R Adams 

E. Morrison 

J. Distnmell 

Henry Compton 

Metropolitan Railroad Company.. 

J. G. weaver , 

E.C.Skidmore 

E. W. Woodruff 

W.B.WllUama 

Henry Compton 

£. J.Hayward 

J.B.Adams 

E. Morrison 

Mohan Brothers 

H. A. Jackson 

M. Badger , 

Metropolitan Railroad Company .. 

Henry Compton 

J. B. Adams 

T.C.Connolly 

D.Kolb 

Henry Compton 

Great Falls Ice Company 

G.CMaynard 

W.F.LntsB , 

H. Compton 

J. W. Freadman 

D.Kolb 

G eorire Savage 

J T.Bristow 

J. B. Adams..! 

E. J.Hayward 

D.Kolb 

F.P.May &Co 

Adams Express Company 

J. B. Adams 

L. H. Schneider 

Schmed tie Brothers 

W.B.Wimam8 

Webb & Beveridge 

H. A. Jackson 

T.E.McGraw 

Dally Nation , 

J. G. Weaver 

Henry Compton 

W. W. Burdette & Co 

E.C.Scidmore 

8. E.Smith 

D.Kolb 

George Francis 

John MMkriter 

D.Kolb 

George C. Maynard 

J. L. Brown 

J. G. Weaver 

B. J. Hayward 

G.eorge Breitbarth 

Willett & Libby 

L. H. Schneider 

E. Morrison 

D.Kolb 

Adams Express Company 

W.H. Barnard 

J. G. Weaver 

H. O.Towles 

George Ryneal, jr 

George Breitbarth 

Webb & Beveridge 

James Cooper 

Metropolitan Railroad Company. 



Expreasage- 

Washing towels 

Gilt molding, lamps, oil, &.C . 

Window-shades, ice 

Locks, thermometer, &c 

Cartage 

do 

do 

Snbscription 

Wasbing towels 
Stationery — 
Shipping-tags 
Bine Book (2 copies) 

Cartage 

Car tickets 

Repairing desks, Slc... 

Book-racks 

^e-holderg 

dhair 

Cartage 

Washmg towels 

Stationery 

Shipping-tags 

Stationery 

Repairing office-chairs 

Cartage 

Carticketo 

Cartage 

Stationery 

Notarial services 

Alcohol 

Cartage 

Ice., 



Amonnt. 



Connecting electric bell- wires 

Datlng-stamp and repairs 

Cartage 

Cotton cloth 

Hair-brash.. 

Twine 

Robber stamp « 

Stationery 

Washing towels 

Glycerine 

Spring punches 

Expressage 

Stationery 

Rat-trap 

Clock 

Furniture 

Basin and ewer 

Repairing furniture 

Matches 

Subscription 

Packing-box and map-sticks 

Cartage 

Towels 

Book -rack 

Putting loops on towels 

Glue 

Water-coolers, &c 

Wall-paper 

Indelible ink : 

Renewing batteries, &o 

Repairing file-cases 

File-boards, repairing furniture, &.c . 

Washing towels 

Office furniture 

Lumber 

Hardware 

Shipping-tags 

Glue 



Supplies for electrical pen . 
Book-case and step-ladder . 

Office-furniture 

Lamps 

Offlce-fumiture 

Umbrella-stand 

Paste 

Car tickets 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



CONTINGENT EXPENSES OF INTERIOR DEPARTMENT. 



23 



SlatemaU of expenditures on account of the contingent fund, cf-c. — Continoed. 



Drte. 



From whom porchaaed. 



Natare of parchaaea. Sec. 



;neao ; Great FaUa Ice Company > Ice 



Adams Expreaa Compaoy 

» EJ.Hayward 

S7 Georce C. Maynard 

» ' W.&MitcheU 

30 Webb dt Bereridge 

Jify 13 L.H. Schneider 

l-if, 6 Tr.H.Dmin i Fumitare 

UY. £ Morgan Envelope Company Stationery 

Jifr W T.E.McGraw I Candiea .. 



Eipressaj^e 

WasbinK towels 

Kenewin^; batteries and repalrinf; wires . 

MaUins, carpets, See 

nmbrella-stand 

Hardware 



I 



expends 
Balance on band nuexpended. 

Amoont appropriated 



Amount. 



132 34 


30 


3 65 


4 50 


149 34 


3 00 


M 93 


H 00 


68 60 


I 60 


5,637 04 


363 06 



6,000 00 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



45TH C050SB8S, I HOUSE OP BEPBBSENTATIVBS. ( Ex. Doc. 
2d8e$rio%. i \ No. 43. 



NEW BABBAGKS AT FOET MONROE, VA. 



LETTER 

FROM 

THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 

RfcCOMMENDIKC; 

Appropriation far Hx new buildings at Fort Monroe^ Va. 



FcBECARY 5, 1878.— Referred to the Committee on Appropriations and ordered to ]i)e 

printed. 



War Department, 
Washington City, February 4, 1878. 
The Secretary of War has tho honor to call the attention of the House 
of Representatives to the papers and plans concerning the erection of 
oeir barracks at Fort Monroe, Ya., transmitted on the 20th December, 
1S75, pabllshed in Hoase £x. Doc. No. 30, Forty-fourth Congress, first 
MssioD, and to renew the recommendation made at that time by his 
predecessor, that an appropriation of $100,000 be made by Congress 
^DT the six baildings required. 
Copies of papers and plans of the buildings are herewith submitted. 

GEO. W. McCRAEY, 

Secretary of War. 
The Speajcer of the House of Representatives. 



COPIES OF PAPERS RELATING TO. AND PLANS AND ESTIMATES FOR, THE 
ERECTION OF ^EW BARKACKS AT FORT MONROE, VA. 

Headquarters Artillery School, U. 8. A., 

Fort Monroe^ Va.^ March 1, 1875. 

6ni: J have the honor to transmit herewith the report of the senior 

kedical of!ic<*r of this post {Surgeon Joseph R. Smith, U. S. A.), dated 

^!27tb ultimo, on tbi^ ci>iiditiau of the barracks, kitchen, and laun- 

1 tettaes' quarters occnpied by this command. I am certain that I can- 

l^eQdoido Snrgeou Smitli-s statements and views too strongly. 

Although 1 have lepfjited Manually for the past six years the faulty 
[*ttnictiou, limited rapa<*ity, and decayed condition of these buildings, 
^bave urgently asted fur tiie erection of new buildings, I neverthe- 
' »lere r**peat **ome of I be details. Digitized by CjOOQIC 



2 NEW BARRACKS AT FORT MONROE, VA. 

These barracks and kitchens were built in 1862-'63, of unseasoned lum- 
ber, felled and sawed in the vicinity, by the labor of the enlisted men, 
on extra duty, at a cost for the fourteen buildings, as I am informed, of 
less than one thousand dollars. Built hastily during the early years of 
the war, they were intended to subserve only a temporary purpose. 
They soon began to fall into decay, and for the past Ave or six years 
have only been kept from falling upon the heads of the occupants by 
assiduous patching, supporting, underpinning, &c. They are leaky, 
insufferably hot in summer, and cold in winter, and are now become 
altogether too much decayed to admit of repair. 

Three years ago the Board of Engineers for Fortifications, made aware 
of the condition of these buildings by my frequent reports, digested 
and reported plans and specifications for new and permanent fire-proof 
structures. These plans, as I have been informed, received the approval 
of the Chief of Engineers and the Secretary of War, and would seem 
only to await the asking of the necessary appropriation by Congress. 

Last year Major Sawtelle, quartermaster United States Army, made 
a critical examination of the old buildings, and prepared plans for 
others to replace them. These last are not understood to be of the per- 
manent character that the location demands. 

Still, if the engineer plan is not to be put in execution at once, the 
plan of the Quartermaster's Department should be. 

The comfort, decency, and health of the garrison imperatively demand 
new buildings as soon as it is practicable to erect them. 

I beg most earnestly to invite the attention of the proper authorities 
to this subject. 

Very respectfully, vour obedient servant, 

WILLIAM F. BARRY, 
Colmiel Second Art tilery j Bvt, Major- General j Commanding* 

The Assistant Adjutant-Genebal, 

Headquarters Military Division of the 

Atlantic^ New York City. 



FORP Monroe, Va , Ftbruary 27, 1875. 

Sir : I have ibe boDor to report that I bave made tbe examinations required bj General 
Order 125, A. G. O., 1874. 

Tbe general sanitary condition of tbe post is good, and requires no comment or recom- 
mendation. 

I deem it my dntj, bowevor, to ask tbe special attention of tbe commanding officer to 
tbose bnildin^s occupied by tbe companies as quarters. Tbese are seven in number, wooden 
structures, with buildings of tbe same general character in the rear, serving as kitchen, 
mess, and wash rooms. 

These buildings are too small to answer tbe purposes for which used, and were so reported 
by my predecessor. Surgeon Cooper, in 1870. Were this tbe only fault of tbese builaings, 
I might not deem it so imperative upon me to attempt to disturb the status which has ex- 
isted for several years. But while, since 1870, this one fault has remained unchanged, in 
other respects the condition of these buildings has greatly deteriorated. 

Constructed of wood, on tbe outer side of the frame-work are nailed wide upright boards, 
the seams battened with narrow strips. Inside tbe frame are nailed narrow boards, tongued 
and grooved, The roofs are shingled and ceiled, like the inner wall, with narrow tongued 
and grooved boards, following generally the sfope and contour of the roof. In the ceiling 
of each barrack are two louvered ventilating openings. The floor is also tongued and grooved, 
and outside the buildings, from tbe floor to the ground, horizontal boards are nailed. 

The Tooh of all these quarters leak even when new-shingled within a year. The green 
material entering into the construction of tbe walls, floors, and ceiliugs, has now rotted 
and shrunk, so that many cracks exist, and the buildings are so open as to have made it im- 
possible to keep them comfortably warm daring the present winter. 

In consequence of this shrinkage, decay, and loss of strength, their outlines are deflected 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



NEW BARRACKS AT FORT MONROE; VA. 3 

fnm ftraigbt lines ; they are snnken ; they toiler with every moderate wind, and they are 
ia dugcr of failing, in case of a violent jirast, and imperiling the safety of their occupants. 

I therefore regara them as entirely onfit to be occupied by the troops, and I earnestly rec- 
OBoeod that they may be removed and replaced. 

I have not deemed it necessary to send, in company with this report, plan and specifica- 
tkni for suitable barracks, as I am informed that heretofore they have been made and for- 
irarded. 

Under these circumstances, I request the endorsement, by the commanding officer, of my 
itateaeats and recommendations, and ask tliat be will submit this report to the proper au- 
tbontj, with snch remarks as he may deem germane to the subject. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOS. R. SMITH, 

Surgeon, U, S,J. 
lieat. C. O. Howard, 

Pom A^^utamt, Fortrea Monroe, 



[First indorsement.] 

Hbai>quart£Rs Division op the Atlantic, 

New York, March 3, 1875. 

Respectfully leferred t j the medical director of tbe division for report and recomroenda- 
tioog. 
Bj command of Major-General Hancock : 

JAMES B.FRY, 
Aisittant Adjutant General, 



[Second IndoraemenU] 

Medical Division Ofpicf, Division of the Atlantic, 

New York, March \\, 1875. 
Sespectfully returned to headquarters Division of the Atlantic, concurring in the rerom- 
■e&dation and views of the post surgeon and commanding officer for the erection of suita- 
^ tmildiogs at this post, the necessity for which is very urgent. 

JNO. M. CUYLER. 
Butgcoji L\ S. A., Medical Director Division of the Atlantic. 



(Tldrd TDdonement.] 

Hradquarters Division of the Atlantic, 

New York CUy, March 12, 1875. 
&*prtrrfblly refenedl to the chief quartermflster of the division for report and recommen- 

Bj ooomiAnd of ATaJor-General Hancock : 

JAMES B FRY, 
Asiiatant ^djutant'General, 



IFouTib Indorsement.] 

HsADQtJAiiTicFt^ Military Division of the Atlantic, 
Ojite. Cid^'f Quartermaster^ New York^ March 13, 1875. 
Biipfccliiljy returned io tht» oMistajit adjutant-general Military Division of the At- 

I hiltjr cooctir in the within romarhs of Colonel Barry, and earnestly recommend that 
^ ^dtQtt b« («k«fL toward h&viii|; ^iiiuble quarters provided. 

IWbbUct hfte Ix^ua cnnsiJprcd by the Cjuartermaster-General, with whom I have con- 
W^l^ llMi«Kbj<^t. The plan pro;>o5ed by him I regard as a very good one, and cannot 
[^gWlty «rg« itA adoption aud tb« erection of the building at as early a day as possible. 
I «-py Bv iS RUFUS INgIlls; 

Col, mnd A. (I* M- QfiU., Bvt. Maj^Genl. U, S. A„ Chief quartermaster. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4 NEW-BARRACK3 AT FORT MONROE, VA. 

[Fifth ladcrwman'.] 

Headquarters Division op the Atlantic, 

New York CHif, March 15, 1875. 
Respectfally forwarJed to tbe assiatttnt adjatant-^neral, headqnarters of the Army, in- 
viting attention to the foregoing indorsement hereon, by the chief quartermaster of the di- 
vision. 

WINPD 8. HANCOCK, 

MajoT-General, Commanding, 



[Sixth IndortementJ 

Headquarters of the Armv, 

Saint Louis, March 20, 1875. 
Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant-General. 
By command of General Sherman: 

WM. D. WHIPPLE, 
Assistant Adjutant-Geneial, 



[Seventh indonement.] 

War Department, Adjutant-General's Office, 

Washington, March 24, 1875. 



Respectfully referred to the Quartermaster-Qeneral. 



E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Adjutant' General, 



[Eighth indonement.] 

Respectfully returned to tbe Adjutant-Qeneral United States Army. 

The barracks plan, of which a copy is with these papers, is certain to make an unwhole- 
some building, and the estimated cost is 9176,000. 

The Quartermaster's Department cannot legally undertake such an expense, and if the En- 
gineer Department has plans for permanent barracks, as part of the fortress, it will not be 
advisable for this department to lay other plans before Congress. I cannot advise the ex- 
penditure of twenty-three to twenty-eight tnousand dollars in building quarters for laun- 
dresses at Fort Monroe. Erection of so costly a building, and a permanent one, is prohib- 
ited by law. (Section 1 1 36, Revised Statutes. ) 

The Secretary has authorized construction of one block of buildings in pis6 to accommo- 
date four officers ; tbe plans have been modified accordingly. 

I inclose plans (herewith, marked B,) for accommodations for the same number of com- 
Banies on the published plan which occupies about the same space on the parade as the plan 
Irom headquarters Division of tbe Atlantic (herewith marked C). 

This would be less costly and much more healthy and comfortable ; but still its cost is 
beyond the means at present available, 

So much is wanted at Fort Monroe that I doubt whether full relief can be given until, on 
a well -devised plan. Congress can be prevailed upon to make a special appropriation, and if 
the Engineer Department is considering the subject of providing permanent quarters for 
its garrison, this department should not interfere, or both will fail. 

The whole amount of tbe estimate for quarters and barracks in Division of the Atlantic, 
according to the plans prepared at division headquarters under instructions to that effect 
from the Secretary of War of August 8, 1874, is $1,496,562. 

The plans are in many cases such as I could not advise the Secretary to lay before Congress, 
and the total is so great that there was no prospect of suc^sess at the late session. 

I attempted to simplify and economize in the cost of the officers' quarters, but as the Secre- 
tary decided that these less costly plans were still too costly, I have prepared, and this day 
submitted (in tbe Fort Whipple case), plans for quarters for officers of a company, in exact 
accordance with his views as^ recently communicated. 

The drawings fur the buildings already authorized at Fort Monroe will be ready in a 
few days. 

M. C. MEIGS, 
Quartertnuster-Gentral, Brevet Mojor' General, U, S, A. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



NEW IIARRICKS AT FORT MONEOE, VA. I 

[Ninth iadorMme&t] 

War Department, Adji-tant-General's Officf, 
H'Mshington, April 12, 18:5. 



He {KctfoU/ Bobmitted to the Secretary of War. 



E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Aiijutant-GeneraL 



MEMORANDUM. 



War Department, Inspector-General's Office, 

Washington, AprU 30, 1875. 
AflFort Monroe is one of the most important points in our ^system of sea-coast defenses, 
vluck will donbtless continne to be occupied for many years, besides possessing interest as 
tk loeatioo of the artillery school, it will probably, in the future, as It has been in the past, 
^nently be Tiaited by foreispi dif^nitaries. In view of which it seems no more than reason- 
able that its garriaon should be quartered in permanent, sightly barracks, built upon correct 
ssdtsry principles. 

I woaid therefore rery respectfully recommend that the Engineer Department be directed 
to prepare and submit to the Secretary of War suitable plans for such buildings, to be pre- 
MBtad 10 the next Congress for a special appropriation. 

R. B. MARCY, 
Inspector-GeneriU. 

War Department, April 24, 1875- 
Eeipectfully returned to the Adjutant- General 

The riews of General Marcy are concurred in, and recommendation will be made to Con- 
gTBiB tt its next session for building the necessary buildings, an estimate of which should 
be sent before August 3l8t next, so that it may be included in the annual estimates. 
By order of the Secretary of War : 

H. T. CROSBY, 

Chi^f Clerk. 



[Tenth Indoraement.] 

War Department, Adjctant-General'sOffice, 

Washington, April 29, 1875. 
Sespectfully referred to the Chief of Engineers, to cause the necessary plans and estimates 
^beprepaTi>a and submitted in accordance with the instructions of the Secretary of War, 
i^tvsed on the accompanying memorandum from the Inspector-General. 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Adjutunt-Gentral, 



[EleTenth indorseraenf.] 

Office of the Chief of Engineers, 

Washington, May 4, 1875. 
Sflspeetfnlly referred to the Board of Engineers for Fortifications for report. 
If the plans and estimates of the board of April 3, 187)t, do not, in its judgment, need re- 
Tinon, the board can submit them in answer to this communication. 
By coffimftiid of Brigadier-General Humphreys : 

TH08. LINCOLN CASEY, 
Lieutenant- Colonel of Enginurs, 



[Twelfth Indoraement.] 

Office Board op Engineers for Fortificatons, 

New York, July 23, 187'. 
&MpectftUlT returned to the Chief of Engineers with report of this date. 

J. G. BARNARD, 
Colonel of Enginurs, and Brevet Major-General, 

President Board of Engineers J or Fortifications. 

/Cjoogle 



Digitized by ' 



b NEW J ABBACKS AT POBT MONBOE, VA. 

Office Eoard of Engineers for Fortifications, 

Army BuUding, Neui York, July 23, 1875. 

General: In pursuance of your instractions of the 4th of May, indorsed upon the com 
miiDication of Col. William F. Barry, of the 1st of March last, to the adjutant-general Mili- 
tary Division of the Atlantic, the Board of £n|;^ineers for Fortifications, having carefallj con- 
sidered the subject of barracks for Fort Monroe, Ya., have the honor to submit the fol- 
lowing report thereon. 

Much study was devoted to the desig^ for barracks at that place, which was submitted 
to you with report of April 2, 1672, and in its arrangement the board had the benefit of the 
advice and suggestions of Col. W. F. Barry^ commanding at Fort Monroe, who approved of 
the design, as embodying all the requisites for the health and comfort of the soldier. The 
plan has again been examined, and the board recommends no change therein except in the 
spacing of the floor-girders, which should be spaced four feet four and a half inches apart, 
instead of eight feet nine inches, as shown in the drawing. 

The design is open to the objection of being costly, the estimate being (250,000, but it is 
not possible to make a single building, with any pretension to architectural effect, or fire- 
proof, and affording the same amount of accommodations, which shall cost much less than 
this sum*. It should be observed, moreover, that the dormitories will furnish accommoda- 
tions for a full company of 100 enlisted men, who will have both the cubical and floor space 
deemed absolutely essential for health by the Medical Department. Of course, with the 
present reduced numbers In a company, the men will have about double that amount of 
space. 

The design provides for a thoroughly permanent structure, fire-proof throughout, except 
in its Mansard roof; but if the floors are made of wood, iustead of iron, brick, and concrete, 
the cost of the structure will be reduced to pbout $210,000. 

A modification of the above design has been made, consisting In the substitution of a par- 
apet wall and flat roof for the Mansard roof of tliat project In all other respects the two 
designs are identical. The estimate is only about 1 12,000 less than for the former, while it 
loses the accommodations (dormitories for three companies), which the Mansard story affords. 
As the plans for the projects are the same, an elevation, only, of the modified one Is pre- 
sented. It has the advantage over the former in not rising so high above the parapets of the 
fort ; while, on the other baud, it does not present the architectural effect which the Man- 
sard roof affords. 

It is proper to say that in getting up the design of April 2, 1872, the board was influenced 
by the feeling which seemed to prevail that the structure should be imposing in its architect- 
ural character, a feeling similar to that recently expressed by Inspector-General Marcy in 
his memorandum aeconipanylng the papers referred to us and approved by the Hon. Secre- 
tary of War. 

Still, the prescription therein, *' permanent sightly barracks^ built upon correct sanitary 
principles," allows a wide rajige of interpretation. If an imposing building regardless of 
cost be meant, and if by *' permanent," nre-proof be meant, this board can offer nothing 
which so fully meets these conditions as the plan submitted in 1872, though even that plan 
derives most of Its architectural effect from the addition of its Mansard roof, not fire-proof 
(which, however, may be burnt off without endangering the rest of the structure). 

The modification which we now submit, as an alternative to the original (the character- 
istics of which have already been given), dispenses with this Mansard, and Is fire- proof 
throughout ; but, as will have been observed, the cost is but slightly reduced, while the 
sightliness is greatly impaired. 

Since the board submitted its first plan in 1872, a type or model for barracks for troops 
has been officially adopted ; and though not especially designed to be sightly in an archi- 
tectural sense, nor permanent, if by that term nre-proof be meant, or even to possess that 
degree of permanence which the word Implies when used in connection with our *' permanent 
fortifications, *' still it is especially designed with a view to ** correct sanitary principles,'* 
as they are now taught us, and the Board rather inclines to the notion that such structures 
will be far more comfortable for the men, while they may be made sufficiently permanent 
and sightly. 

A buildlne such as the original plan of the board provides for, while it would be very 
proper, if, like many great barracks Inpilurope, it were located in or near a gre^t city, may 
appear to be in high contrast to what must be its surroundings at Fort Monroe ; moreover, 
it towers 47 feet above the crest of the parapets of that great work. 

The modified design, now sent, takes off much of the height ; still, it is very costly, puts 
half of the men in a third story, and does not afford dormitories so comfortable as those of 
the model plan. ' 

Non fire-proof quarters are inadmissible in works so constructed, as are nearly all our 
sea-coast fprts. But Fort Monroe has such immense interior area that this rule does not ap- 

Ely ; if it did, all the existing officers* quarters, offices, and other interior buildings would 
ave to be rebuilt at an immense cost. 

In the light, therefore, of a question addressed to this board, as acting In its special sphere, 
to provide permanent quarters for Fort Monroe, the condition of mere permanence does not 
seem to compel us to incur the immense cost of making them fire-proof; the more espe- 

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NEW BARRACKS AT FORT MONROE, VA. 7 

mBj u, for our parpose, several distinct building are quite as admissible as asing;le grand 
M0, for which diwumsiaus alone enhance the necessity for fire-proofing. 

We therefore submit the plans herewith, with the remark that we are under the impres- 
■M that, if something on a less expensive scale, and not fire-proof, be considered adraisnible, 
bdlfings according to the design presented by the Board on the Revision of the Army Regn- 
ktioiis, and which will afford excellent accommodation when the companies do not exceed 
istj men, may be put up at an estimated cost of about $16,000 each, or say not exceeding 
1100,000 for six buildings. 

This design provides a separate two-story building for each company, and is supposed in 
tbeeitimate afa^Dve sriven to have exterior and partition walls of brick, with wooaen floors 
uA roof, the latter being covered with slates. 

Tke papers and drawings referred to the board in connection with this subject are herewith 
fetoiDed. The board's plan of 1872 was forwarded to the Engineer Department with re- 
pirti of hoard of AprU 2, 1872. 
Respectfully submitted. 

J. G. BARNARD, 
Colonel of Engineers and Brevet Major- General. 
H. G. WRIGHT, 
Lieutenant' Colonel of Engineers ^ Brevet Major-General, 

I concur with the board generally, but cannot recommend the plan of barracks with a 
XtafAid roof. Omitting this roof, which rises 47 feet above thi) parapet of the fort, the 
boikfing will have three stories, quite height enough, and will give ample accommodation 
ibrfire companies and the band. 

Z. B. TOWER, 
Colonel of Engineers, Btevet Major- General, 
Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineers U. S, A„ Ifashin^ton, D. C. 



Oppice Board of EKotNRERfl for Fortifications, 
Army Building, corker Houston and Grf^ne Streets, 

JVew York City^ April 3, 1872. 
Oeiteral : I have the honor to transmit herewith report of the board upon soldiers' bar- 
nek at Fort Monroe, Va., with accompanying drawing. 
The papers referred to the board in connection with this subject are herewith returned. 
Very respectfully, your most obedient, 

J. G. BARNARD, 
Col, of Engineers and Bvt, Maj, Oenl., President Board Enginursfor Fortifications, 

Brig. Genl. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineers U, S, A,, Washington D, C, 



Office Board of Engineers for Fortifications, 

Armjf BuHding, New York, AprU 2, 1872. 
Gbhekal : The Board of Engineers for Fortifications have the honor to submit herewith a 
proiect for soldiers* barracks proposed to be erected on the parade in rear of the curtain of 
hii 6 of Fort Monroe, Va. The artillerv school for practice, now at this fort, reouires an 
MODmodation for five companies, each of 60 enlisted men, and a band of say, 20, for which 
vt have amply provided in the three lower stories of the desij^ned building. The fourth or 
llansard story supplies half as much more dormitoiy room tor an increased war garrison. 
Tke Hiazimnm total of bunks for which there is sufficient room is 834, or for the enlisted 
Ma of an entire artillery regiment and one additional battery as now established by law. 

Tbii barrack of four stories including attic, is 471 feet long and 44 feet broad, except the 
!•««», which project beyond the front and rear, thereby giviog additional conveniences and 
yndndDg good architectural effects. In rear or on the shady side of the building are broad 
^■iadas to each of the three lower floors, from which all the entrances are made to the dor- 
■itiries, mess-rooms, company offices, dbc, and for communication to these are four iron 
tikvays in the rear ends of the towers. 

JAe masonry of the structure is designed to be of b^ton agglom^r^, or the walls (made 

v), floor, arches, and stacks mav be of brick, which, though increasing the cost, we 

d prefer in view of our limited knowledge of the power of b6ton agglom^r^ to with- 

I our changeable climate. 

^Inmroof was first contemplated, to make the barrack entirely fire-proof, but afler con- 

I with experienced bniloers, such roofs were found to be expensive, always leaking 

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8 N£W BABRACKS AT FORT MONROE, VA. 

and requiring constant and tronblesome repairs. For theee reasons we have adopted rafters 
and sheath inff, with slate for the steep, and tin for the ffentle roof slopes. There beinc no com- 
bnstible boildings near and this being designed to m warmed by famaces, the danger of 
fire is trifling, particolarlj as the three lower or habitually occupieid stories are const racted 
of iron and masonry, except the doors, windows, and floors (laid directly upon the concrete), 
which are wood. 

In the first story are six mess-halls, six kitchens, six bath-rooms, six company offices with 
adjoining apartment for orderly sergeants, two spare rooms in end towers, a sally-port through 
the central towers, two rooms for furnaces and heating apparatus, two commissary stores, 
and the private stairway for officers and their families visiting the lecture and concert room 
occupying the whole attic story of the central tower. 

As the furnace and commissary rooms adjoin the sally-port, they are accessible to carts 
conveying coal and provisions. 

The second, third, and attic stories are each provided with six dormitories with adjoining 
lavatories, each having 16 wash-basins ; twelve sergeants* rooms ; two spare rooms in end 
towers, and six of various dimensions in the middle tower, designed for clothing rooms, 
armories, shoemaker and tailor shops, and for such other purposes as are always needed. 
Each dormitory, intended for half a company, has provision for a maximum of 44 single 
bunks, or a minimum of 24 if the two middle rows be left out, thus providing 670 to 1,*225 
cubic feet of air-space per man. 

The sleeping accommodation, then, for each of the companies at the school will be— 

Dormitories, second and third floors 88 maximum or 48 minimum. 

Sergeants* rooms, second and third floors 4 maximum or 4 minimum. 

Oroerly sergeant on first story 1 maximum or 1 minimum. 

Married men lodged out 4 maximum or 4 minimum. 

97 57 

This shows liberal accommodation for a company la p^ace (nominally 60, but rarely 57), 
and sufficient for a company in nar (nominally 100, but rarely 97). Therefore for the artil- 
lery school, of five companies and a band, there is ample provision in the three lower stories, 
leaving the attic unoccupied except for a war garrison 

Iron tanlcs, three feet deep, are placed over all the sergeants' rooms of the third story to 
receive the rain-water from the room surfaces, and pipes convey it thence to the wash- 
basins below. As it is not probable the rain-supply will exceed that required for drinkiufr» 
cooking, and the lavatories, the water required for baths and the heatiug apparatus mast 
be furnished by wells. 

The mode of warming the barrack, whether by steam-coils in each apartment* or by hot 
air from a coil-room adjoining the furnace, will require a special study should an appropria- 
tion be made for erecting the building. 

As will be seen from the accompanying drawing, furnace, kitchen, and ventilating fines 
to the top of the barracks are provided. 

No water-closets are within the building, as we deem it far better, to avoid all disag^- 
able odors from their careless use, to place them outside in some secluded place, where they 
may be constructed at small cost. 

This structure, simple but effective in its architecture, provides both comfort and conven- 
ience for enlisted men, and at a reasonable cost; all that is wanted in peace for the artillery 
school for practice, and in war for a much increased garrison. 

Herewith is an estimate of the cost of construction, based upon prices furnished by Gen- 
eral Brewerton, while the constructing officer at Fort Monroe. 

This estimate, which is liberal, gives total cost, 9*200,000. 

If the walls, floor, arches, and stacks be built of brick, the additional cost will be |50,000, 
which is based upon the outer walls being two bricks, with a holiow space, in thickness. 

In concluding our report we would remark that while, as a general principle, we do not 
approve of constructing such buildings within permanent works, we make this an excep- 
tion in consideration or the magnitude of Fort Monroe, and the want of suitable space out- 
side where it will not mask its fires, and as being more convenient for the artillery school 
for practice. 

Respectfully submitted. 

J. G. BARNARD, 
Colonel of Engineen and Brevet Major- OenerMl, 

GEO. W. CULLUM, 
Colonel nf Engineers and Brevet Major- Oeneral, 

I would prefer the building limited to the three fire-proof stories. 

Z. B. TOWER, 
Lieatenant' Colonel of Engineers and Brevet Major-Gemeral, O, 8. A, 

H. G. WRIGHT, 
Lieutenant-Colonel qf Enginetrs and Brevet Mejor-Oenerai, 
Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineers U, 8. A., Washi$igton, D, C. . , 

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NEW BARRACKS AT FORT MONROE, VA. 9 

lTblrt««Lt^ iBdorwnMit.] 

Opfice op the Chief of Engineers, 

Wa$kington, August 2], 1875. 
Saipeet/iiUy returned to the AdiataDt-General, with repert of the Board of Engineers for 
Farti&iitionii, inclosinff pr^ect of pmaaoent barrackfl designed by il in 187*2, witn estimete 
of eoft (herewith, niarkM F), and which is again famiBhed bj the board as a desippi for the 
furtert needed at that post, which designs and report meet with mj approval. (Pmns here- 
ffitk, Barked D and £.) 

A. A. HUMPHREYS, 
Brigadier- Oeneral and Ckirf of Engineert, 



[Foartoenth IndMieiDent.l 

War Department, Adjutant-General*s Office, 

IFaMhington, Augutt 23, 1875. 
Sejpectfallj n tamed to the Secretary of War, with report and plans from the Engineer's 
I^partment. 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Adjutant' Genera!, 



[FlikMath tDdorwrntatJ 

War Department, Sepumber 16, 1875. 
Be^tedfally referred to General Marcy, Inspector General, for his consideration. It is 
fOKwnd that an appropriation will be required to be asked from Congress at its next ses- 
n» for the purpose indicated. 
Bj order of the Secretary' of War : 

H. T. CROSBY, 

Chief Clerk. 



f8izte«Dth indcrtemeiit.] 

War Department, In8pector-General*s Office, 

September 16, 1875. 
Betpf^ctfully retamed to the Secretary of War, concurring in the snggestioos of the board 
^ tofineefs contained in the latter part of their report of Jaly 23, 1875, namely, that build- 
iap according to the design presented by the Board on the ReTision of the Army Regulations 
til tSwd excellent accommodations for companies not exceeding sixty (60) men each, and 
viQ be much less costly, and, in my judgment, far more conyenient and suitable for troops 
^ the large fonr-stoiy buildings before recommended by the board of engineers, which 
vfoM tower 47 feet above the crest of the parapets of the work. 

Hence I rery reepeetfnlly recommend that an appropriation of (100,000 be asked for from 
C«rr«ss for the six buildings required, which it is believed will be amply sufficient to carry 
«t u» object. 

R. B. MARCY, 
Inspector- General. 



Fort Monroe, Va, March 30, 1875. 
^ : I have the honor to report that I have inspected the various buildings at this post 
ttoipied as quarters. The pnvy for the use of the laundresses and their children is in 
|BNM ef ooDstraoiion. 
TW soMUers' barracks are as reported last month. Two of the buildings occupied as 
9vt«s by officers (Captains Loder and Piper) need to be reconstructed, 
h fiKt the qoartexs occupied by officers at this post are very inferior, and I recommend 
^ipivters oe erected in quality and quantity suitable for at least such number of of^cers 
••» pemaneBt at this post. 

tWmlth of the command is good and the police of the post excellent. 
VifT reapectftilly, your obMknt servant, 

JOS. R. SMITH, 
Snrgean United States Army. 

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10 NhW BARRACKS AT FORT MONROE, VA. 

IFlnt inloriexneat.] 

Headquarters Fort Monroe, Va., 

Mmrch 31, 1875. 
Respectfnllj forwarded to headqaarters Millitary Division of the Atlantic. 
The two buildings herein referred to as occupied by Captains Loder, Fourth Artillery, and 
Piper, Fifth Artillery, are very old, much decayed, unhealthy, and unsafe. They should be 
torn down and replaced by new buildings of modern architecture and arrangements. 

Four-fifths of tne junior commissioned officers at this post live in casements which were 
built fifty years ago, and which are now leaky and generally unsuited for occupation. At 
least ten sets of new officers* quarters are essential at this post. 

WILLIAM F. BARRY, 
Colonel Third Artillery ^ Commanding, 

liBsonA iadors3meiit.l 

Headquarters Division op the Atlantic, 

New York CUy, iljinl 2, 1875. 

Respectfully forwarded to the assistant adjutant-general, headquarters of the Army, in 
connection with Surgeon Smith's report for the month of February, forwarded by me on the 
15th ultimo. On that report the chief quartermaster of the division indorsed as follows : 

''Respectfully returned to the assistant adjutant-general Military Division of the At- 
lantic I fully concur in the within remarks of Colonel Barry, and earnestly recommend 
that early action be taken toward having suitable quarters provided. The matter has been 
considered by the Quartermaster-General, with whom I nave conversed on the subject. 
The plan proposed by him I regard as a very g^d one, and cannot too strongly urge its 
adoption, and the erection of the building at as early a day as possible." 



INF'D S. HANCOCK, 
Major ' General t Commanding, 



[Thiri indonemoQt.] 



Headquarters of the Army, 

Saint Louis, April 5, 1875. 
Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant-General. 
By command of General Sbermsn : ^ 

WILLIAM D. WHIPPLE, 

Assistant Adjutant- Oeneral, 



War Department, December 20, 1875. 

The Secretary of War has the honor to transmit to the House of Representatives copies of 
papers and plans concerning the erection of new barracks, &.C., at Fort Monroe, Va., and to 
earnestly recommend that an appropriation of $100,000 be made by Congress for the six 
buildings required. 

WM. W. BELKNAP, 

Secretary of War, 



Headquarters Artillery School, United States Army, 

Fori Monroe, Va., September 12, 1877. 

Sir : I have the honor to earnestly request that the attention of the proper authority be 
drawn to the immediate necessity which exists for the erection of suitable permanent bar- 
racks for enlisted men at this station, and that necessary steps may be taken for speedily 
securing the requisite appropriation therefor. 

The barracks now occupied by the troops are cheap wooden structures of a very tempo- 
rary nature, and were built during the war of the rebellion on plans which were then in com- 
mon use for all temporary quarters, being cheaper than tents. They are now old, rotten, 
unhealthy, and entirely unsuitable for the purpose they are made (for lack of better) to 
serve. 

In reference to this subject I have to state that several attempts have been made to secure 
the desired end in times past, notably in 1872, 73, and '75, and that the matter has been 
laid before the Militanr Committee of the House of Representatives in the form of letters from 
the Hon. Secretary of War. and has received the favorable consideration of that committee. 
(VideCong. Rep. 1875.) 

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NEW BABBACKS AT FORT MONROE, VA. 11 

WbQe Um necessttj of permanent barracks has been tbns fully recognized, circnm stances 
liaTe indnoed a postponement of action in the premises up to tbis time. I now regard it that 
tbe time has arriTed for such action. 

In eonnection herewith, I respectfully inclose for consideration a plan for the desired quar- 
tan which is found among tbe post records (appended, marked C), and is believed to be the 
resalt of the deliberations of a oocud of officers heretofore held on the subject, though no rec- 
Old thereof is on file here, Other plans with specifications arc already on file in tbe Quarter- 
Blaster's Department. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

■ ^^ ^ GEO. W. GETTY, 

Colonel Third Ariillenf, Brevet Major-Qeneral^ C/. S. A.^ Commanding. 

To the Assistant Adjutant-General 

Military Division of the Atlantic. 

[First indonement.] 

Headquarters Division of the Atlantic, 

New York, September 14, 1877. 

Sespectfully refene^ to the chief quartermaster of the division. 
By com no At d of Major-General Haocoak : 

JAMES B. FRY. 
Astittant Adjutant- General. 

^ I Second iadorsemeut.] 

Headquarters Military Division of the Atlantic, 

Office Chief Quartermaster, 

New York, September 17, 1877. 

Respectfdlly returned to the assistant adjutant-general Military Division Atlantic The 
matter of tbe construction of barracks at Fort Monroe was represented in a report made by 
Major Sawtelle in December, 1874, in compliance with Special Orders 166, Militarv Division 
Atlantic, 1874. In this report it is remarked that " the quarters for tbe enlisted men are 
only temporary structures, built during the war of the rebellion, and are wholly unfit for 
the parpose.*' The plan suggested by Major Sawtelle contemplated one building with a 
tower, lairge enough ibr occupancy by six companies of artillery and tbe band, provided for 
bathing facilities for the men, and an ample supply of water (alw^s a troublesome question at 
this poet) to be obtained from the roof-surface of the building, and stored in a large tank in sec- 
end-fitory lower room, taken thence by pipes to company kitchen, bath-rooms, &c., and 
overflow conducted to dstams. The cost of this building, of brick, was estimated at $176,000. 
This plan was approved by Colonel Inealls and forwarded to division headquarters Decem- 
ber 14, 1874. A report on the subject of buildings at Fort Monroe was forwarded to division. 
hsadqusrtem Marcb 13, 1875, and on May 6, 1875, this o£B -e was furnished with a copy of 
a letter of the Adjutant-General of the Army to the Quartermaster-General stating that the 
Sseretary of War had approved General Marcy*s recommendation that the Engineer Depart- 
nent anbrnit suitable plans for a permanent and sightly barracks at Fort Monroe, to be pre- 
sukted to Congress for a special appropriation. MoSiing has since been heard of tbis matter. 
Hajor 8Awtelle*s report and the plans accompanying it are on file at the War Department. 
Nothioff ia known here relative to the inclosed plan. The question of new quarters for tbe 
mlistea men at Fort Monroe is an important and urgent one, and the necessity for providing 
them ahould be pressed on tbe attention of Congress until authorized. 

L. C. EASTON. 
Colond and Assistant Qnariermacter' General, Chief (Quartermaster, 

[Third indorsemeiit ] 

Headquarterrs Division of the Atlantic, 

New York, September 18, 1877. 
Respectfully forwarded to the Adjutant-General of the Army, inviting attention to fore- 
eoinff indorsements. 

WINPD 8. HANCOCK, 

Major- General, Commanding, 

[Fonrth indorsement. J 

Adjutant-General*s Office, 

Washington, September 21, 1877. 

fiespectfnily submitted ty the Secretary of War, with previous papers. 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 



12 NEW BARRACKS AT FORT MONROE, VA. 

[Sixth indonement] 

Respectfiiny retorned to the honorable Secretary of War. I recommend that another ap- 
plication be made to Congress to appropriate (100, 000 for constmction of barracks at Fortress 
Monroe, Virginia, in accordance with the printed plans of buildings recommended to the 
Secretary ofWar bj the Board on Revision of the Army Regulations, published September 
14, 1872. 

M. C. MEIGS, 
QmartermasteT'Oeneralt Brevet BSojor-General, United States Army, 

Q. M. G. O , November 14, 1877. 

Printed plan referred to, annexed, marked A. 

A. 

War Department, 
Quartbrmaster-General's Office, 

Washington, D, C, September ^ A, 1872. 
The accompanying drawings of military buildings were recommended to the Secretary 
of War by the Board on Revision of the Army Remlations. 

M. C. MEIGS, 
(Imartermaster' General, Brevet Major-General, I'nited States Armtf, 



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NUW BARBACKS AT FOBT MONROE, YA. 

F. 
Estimate of etut of proposed $oldier$^ barracks at Fort Monroe, Va* 



13 



DMoriptloa of workiBMiihip and nwterlali. 



rMndatlcmfl. floon of basomenli paTement aodor rerandai and through 
yoatora, MtoD oolgnet coble ▼ard.. 

Walla. ehimiMora* arelMa, teooad, third, and fcmrth floon, b6ton eoigaet, 
eable jmrd 

Qfonlta eoflbola for fopportlag Iron beami of fld, 3d, and 4th floora, put In 

.No.. 



W!!^ 



yiOQ^t'tron beams for glrderi and floor-beama for aopporting arohas, 
Mtloplaoa poandf.. 

Bofloed iron, one and one'elgfath inches by one and one-eighth inches, for 
ttos of beains. inelndiag workmanship and patting np pounds . . 

Befloed Iran, two IndMa b j one^half for straps over girders, workman- 
ship and patting ap poaads.. 

Oae44r<m oMomns supporting Kirders No.. 

Roof: the top tinaed and the sides slated saperfldal feet.. 

Corvee and Dorder for towers mnntaigfeet.. 

Upper eomioe. mafairoof running feet.. 

Large lower eomiee... running feet.. 

Down ipouU running feet.. 

Wrooght-iron Terandaa, one-lneh, two-indi, and three-luch floon, with 
ratting for eaoond and third floon running feet.. 

Iron Btolrs for rear towers, ineiudlDg hand-rail, complete .... running feet . . 

lion stain for front to leetnro-room on fourth floor, including rail, eom- 
ptols running feet.. 

Freight on Torandas and stain firom Philadelphia to Old Point, and flt- 
Uogap 

Yellow -pine flooring for seeond, third, and fourth floon, includiog work- 
aMaship superflelal feet 

Teilow-pltte flooring for Torandas, second and thfard floon, including 
workflMUsahip superflelal feet.. 

Wladow-f^amea complete No.. 

Wladow-fkamee complete No.. 

Window-framea complete 

Window-frames complete, three feet bj six feet nine inches 

Window-frames complete, four feet by tlz feet nine Inches 

Deon and frames oomplvte, four feet by seren feet three inches 

Doon aad fraoMs complete, three feet by seven feet three inches 

Wladow-frasBoa complete 



Window-frames complete 

Wladow-fraflMs complete 

TwelTc walor-tanks, fliteen feet by eleven feet by three feet, of one-eighth 

il»eet-lroa pounds.. 

Two hundred and eighty-eight basins for wash-rooms Na or rooms 

Sinks for kitchens.. No., 

8 apply, overflow, and waste pipes for tanks, basins, bath-tubs and 

sloks running feet.. 

Ranges for kittens No.. 

BAihtobs No.. 

Sleam-heatiny apparatus , 

geafftfldlng. arch-centering, painting, Ac , 



Conllngeaeies aft 10 per cent.. 



Total for bMon structure . 



Additioaal ezpenM If brickwork (esUmated at |l7>er cu1>Ic yard) be 
aiied In outer waIls(two bricks and air-space Uiiek), parUtions, chtm- 
B«>yB aad ventil4Uon, aad floor-arches, with 10 per cent, for contlDgen- 
cles 



Total for brick structure.. 



Quantities. 



923 
7,138 

449 

406,685 

4.883 

9,974 

50 

32,041 

508 

938 

1,191 

830 

381 
408 



58,051 

10,893 

36 

8 

78 

916 

6 

5 

102 

16 

4 

14 

99 

19,395 

18 

6 

9,106 

6 
94 



Rate. 



•6 00 
800 
500 

05 

05 
30 00 

30 

65 
1 00 
950 

75 

49 18 
25 30 

17 60 



10 

08 
90 00 
15 00 

14 00 
10 00 
19 00 

15 00 
14 00 
75 00 
90 00 
10 00 
30 00 

16 

50 00 

500 

50 

150 00 
90 00 



Amount. 



15,539 00 

56,976 00 

9,910 00 

30,516 37 

931 00 

148 70 
1,500.00 
9,619 30 

387 40 

938 00 
9,977 50 

478 50 

16,070 58 
10,393 40 

1,478 40 

7,875 00 

5,806 10 

855 36 

790 00 

190 00 

1,008 00 

9,160 00 

79 00 
75 00 

1.488 00 
1.350 00 

80 00 
140 00 

9.760 00 
3,103 90 

900 00 

30 00 

1,053 00 

900 00 

480 00 

5,000 00 

e, 540 38 

181. 818 19 
16, 181 61 



900,000 00 

50,000 00 
950,000 00 



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45th Congress, \ HOUSE OP EEPRESENTATIVES. / Ex. Doc. 
2d Session. i > No. 44. 



STURGEON BAY AND LAKE MICHIGAN SHIPCANAL. 



LETTER 



\/^W 



FROM 



TIE SECRE TARY OF WTAR, 



TRANSMITTING 



Bepart of the engineer on the improvements of Sturgeon Bay and Lake 
Michigan Ship-canal and Harbor. 



Febsuary 6, 1678. — Referred to the Committee on Commerce anJ ordered to be printed. 



; War Department, Washington City, 

! February 5, 1878. 

I The Secretary of War has the honor to transmit to the Hoase of Bep- 
liesentatives, in response to Hoase resolution dated the 17th ultimo, 
iTeqoeeting *< the latest information relative to the improvements made on 
the Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship-canal and Harbor up to the 
,elo6e of season's operation of 1877,'' the report of the Chief of Engineers 
!tnd copy of a report of Maj. H. M. Robert, Corps of Engineers, on the 
(•abject 

I The resolution referred to is also transmitted herewith. 
I GEO. W. McCRARY, 

Secretary of War. 
■ The Speaker of the Home of Representatives. 



, Office op the Chief of Engineers, 

I Washington^ D. C, January 31, 1878. 

Sir : The resolution of the House of Representatives of January 17, 
1878, <<tbat the Secretary of War be requested to procure the latest in- 

kformation relative to the improvements made on the Sturgeon Bay and 
Lake Michigan Shipoanal and Harbor up to the close of season's ope- 

,ratioDg of 1877, and furnish the same to the House as soon as practica- 
ble." referred to this office for report, is herewith respectfully returned. 
To enable Uie honorable the Secretary of War to comply with its 
teqoirements, I beg leave to transmit herewith a report on the subject 
from Mty. H. M. Robert, Corps of Engineers, the officer in whose dis- 
trict the canal referred to lies, which report, it is believed, will furnish 
the information desired. 

I Very respectfully, yoar obedient servant, 
A. A. HUMPHREYS, 
^ _ _ Brig. Oenlj and Chief of Engineers. 



Hon. Geo. W. MoCrary, / ^^^]^ 

Secretary of War. ^ Q'^'^^^ ^y ^^OOgie 



Z 8TUBGE0N BAY AND LAKE MICHIGAN SHIP-CANAL, 

impboyembnt of sturgeon bay and lake michigan ship-canal 

and habbob. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Milwaukee^ Wia.^ January 25, 1878. 

General : Id compliance with instructions contained in jonr letter 
of the 19th instant, referring to me the resolntion of the Honse of Rep- 
resentatives calling for information <* relative to the improvements made 
on the Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship-canal and Harbor up to 
the close of season's operation of 1877," I have the honor to submit the 
following report : 

Learning last summer that the Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan 
Ship-eanal and Harbor Company were vigorously prosecuting the work, 
I visited the scene of operations last September, in order to ascertain, 
fltnong other things, what were the probabilities of the canal's ever 
being completed. While the canal is in no way nnder government con- 
trol, yet upon its completion depends the advisability of continuiDg 
work on the government piers near the mouth of the canal. 

As the result of this examination, the work being about half com- 
pleted, my own opinion was favorable to the probability of the early 
completion of the canal. The most serious cause of doubt was the fol- 
lowing fact reported by the commissioners appointed by the State of 
Wisconsin in 1876 to examine into this very question : 

Tour commission believe that the first and second class lands were appraised too low, and 
the third and fourth class too hieh. Inasmuch as the company selected almost entirelj 
from first-class lands, we believe tiiey have obtained a patent for more than one-fonrth in 
value of the eutire grant We arrive at this conclusion from the testimony taken, which 
proves that a large amount of the land classified as third and fourth class is worthless, con- 
taining no pioe, and beine unfit for agricultural purposes, and that a considerable portion of 
the first and second class land is worth more than the averap^ price fixed by the appraisers. 
[See fuanual report of the secretary of state of Wisconsin £r 1876, page 53.] 

On this account I was anxious to see what the State would do this 
year about the land-grant. On November 26 the State inspector, Mr. 
John Nader (who was one of the commissioners above referred to), 
wrote me as to the results of his survey and inspection of the canal just 
made, as follows : 

I made a very thorough personal survey and very careful estimates, and find that there 
is done to exceed one-half the entire work, the amount of 58,100 cubic yards. I obtain 
this by computing the amount yet to be done, making due allowance for contingencies, and 
deducting 10 per cent, of what was done since last inspection (on account of its unfinished 
state), and deducting from inspector's estimate. I consider this a reasonable margin for the 
safety of the State, and sufficient warrant for continuance of the work. The progress has 
been greater than I or the company's officers supposed it to be. The lumbering interests of 
some of the stockholders would now be an incentive to complete the work. The goveroor 
is absent ; I will inform you further when he returns. 

And again, on the lltb of January, he wrote as follows : 

The governor has issued certificate for the second Quarter in quantity of the ••gjrant," on 
the decision and by advice of the supreme court and the attorney-general. I think, how 
ever, that the work will go on, as the same is sufficiently advanced to warrant its coutinoapce. 

I herewith transmit a copy of the full report of the State inspector to 
the governor, and also a communication from Mr. William T. Oasgrain> 
the engineer of the canal company, showing what has been done since 
the date of the State inspection, and a map. 

In conclusion, I would say that I think it exceedingly probable that 
the canal will be open for navigation by the close of the season of 
1879. The outside harbor, being built by the government, should be 
completed about the same time. 

No appropriation has been made by Con gres^f().rJh€(hi^l^Rp^ refuge 



STURGEON BAT AND LAKE MICHIGAN SHIP-CANAL. 3 

Buiee 1874, tbe appropriation tben made beio^ for the year ending Jane 
30y 1875. My prodeceBaor, Major Houston, stated that $60,000 would 
be required for tbe next fiscal year, provided the work on the canal, 
which had been suspended, be continaed. For tbe next year (1876-^77) 
I reeommended $40,000, provided the work was resnmed, and since then 
have only asked for $5,000 for repairs. The original estimate for this 
work was $180,000, of which $50,000 has already been appropriated. 
Of the remaining $130,000 I wonld now recommend that $60,000 be 
appropriated, to be made available as soon as possible. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

HENRY M. ROBERT, 

M^gor of Engineers^ U. S, A. 

Brig. Oen. A. A. Huimo^hbeys, 

Chief of Engineers^ U. 8. A. 



LBTTEB or MR. WILLUM T. CASGRAIN, ENGINEER STURGEON BAY CANAL COMPANY. 

Office of the Sturgeon Bay and Lake MicmoAN 

Ship Canal and Harbor Company, 

Miltoamkee, Jammr^ 24, 1878. 
SiB : I have the honor to submit herewith for joar ioforauUion the report of Mr. John 
Nader, oitiI eDgineer, inspector to his excellency Harrison Lndington, govemor of Wis- 
consin, relative to the completion of the second quarter of the work on the canal. 

More than one-hslf of the work had been done on November 14, 1877, at which time the 
inspection was made, and the condition of the work is fallj described by Mr. Nader. 

oinoe this report was made there has been removed 0,500 cubic yards, and the distance 
between the waters is 1,450 feet* 

Tbe contract for the entire work has been awarded to O. B. GreenJ esa., of Chicago, ^ho 
has acreed to complete the canal on or before the 1st of December, 1879. Mr. Qreen has 
now oo the work all the necessary machinery to complete the canal accordiBg to the terms 
of the contract. 

I weiild respectfnilv call your attention to the fact that, owing to the small amount of 
i^nmriations mtde from time to time by Congress for the construction of the piers to pro- 
tect the lake entrance to the canal, it will take at least five years to complete these works, 
and the canal is likely to be available before tbe United States works are finished. 

Breparations should also be made for tbe construction of the neoessary ligl^t-honses and 
beaconn in Sturgeon Bay and at tbe lake entrance to the canal. 
Very respectfully, 

WM. T. CASGRAIN, 
Engineer Sturgeon Hay Canal Company. 

M^. H. M. Robert, 

Corf of Emgintert, U, S, J, 



report of MR. JOHN NADER, INSPECTOR. 

Madison, Wis., November 23, 1877. 

Sir : I have the honor to inform yon that in accordance with your instructions of Novem- 
ber 9, 1877, I have made an examination and survey of the work of the Sturgeon Bf^ aud 
Lake Michigan Canal, and beg leave to submit the following report : 

Taking as a basis the quantities estimated by Mr. Leonard Martin, inspector for the first 
quarter m September, 1873, I find that tbe work done since that time is considerable in 
excess of one-quarter, and that the Sturgeon Bay and Lake Michigan Ship Canal and Har- 
bor Company is entitled to the benefits of a second quarter of work completed. 

My estimates are based upon tbe same dimensions as those of tbe first inspector, viz, 100 
feet width at the water-line, with slopes of 2 base to 1 perpendicular, and 13 feet depth of 
water, the plane of reference being taken at the level of tbe lowest water of 1847, the same 
being the lowest on record by -^^i feet. 

On arriving at the work and observing the progress made, 1 concluded to ascertain the 
amount remaining undone, in order to determine tbe exact progress of tbe work. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



4 STURGEON BAY AND LAKE MICHIGAN SHIP-CANAL. 

The contract for the entire work was let to Mr. O. B. Green, of Chicag-o, at the commence- 
ment of the season, and is oondacted nnder the superTision of the efficient chief engineer, 
Capt. William T. Caserain. The facilities renderea by these gentlemen enabled me to make 
a complete sunrej of the bay and canal. 

Three lines of soundings were taken in the cut of the canal, and in Sturgeon Baj as far 
as deep water, also levels on cross-sections of the canal at intervals of 50 feet. Soundinjgs 
and leveifi were reduced to the plane of the lowest water of 1847, and compared exactly with 
the engineer's recorded notes. 

A line of check-levels along the reference-marks upon which the work is based, exhibited 
only a difference within the limits of probable and admissible errors. 

I estimate the following amount of work remaining undone November 14, 1877 : 

Cubic yard 

From Sturgeon Bay to high-water line, Lake Michigan 297, 000 

Excavation from bermes and drains 37,000 

Excavation in mouth of canal, Lake Michigan 15,000 

Excavation in Sturgeon Bay to deep water 54,000 

Excavation for incomplete work to date 31, 70O 

Total remaioing undone 434,700 

Inspector's estimate for 1673 was— 

For clearing and grubbing 600 feet wide 38,400 

For excavation in bay and canal 960,000 

Total estimate of entire work 998,400 



The clearing and grubbing was reduced from 600 feet to 400 feet wide, which 
made a proportional difference in quantities, as follows: 

Clearing and grubbing. 25,600 

Excavation 960,000 

Revised total estimate of entire work 985,600 

Total done September 4, 1873 (from inspector's report) 255,000 

Remaining nndone September, 1673 , 730,600 

Remaining nndone November'l4, 1677 434.700 

Leavinga difference of 295,900 

From wnich deduct cleariog and grubbing 10,600 

Excavation done since September, 1673 285,300 

Total of all work since September, 1873 295,900 

Estimate of work done September, 1673 255,000 

Total of work done to November 14, 1877 550.900 

One-half of revised total estimate. .' 492, 60O 

Leaving an excess over two-fourths 58,100 

Remaining practically undone November 14, 1877 434, 700 

The first estimates were very properly made a little in excess to meet contingencies, as 
the nature of the material, although pretty thoroufl^hly explored, might not have been foand 
as stable as it proved to be. This excess of estimate has been nearly eliminated by the 
method adoptea by me, that of measuring the quantities actually remaining undone, bat 
will leave a corresponding discrepancy between my results and the engineer's measurements 
of perhaps 5,000 cubic ya^s, the difference being on the safe side. 

The condition of the work is as follows : 

From a point one mile out in Sturgeon Bay to the canal there is an average depth of 10 
feet ; from the head of the bay to station 3, 100 feet southeast in canal, the cut is full width 
and average depth of water over 11 feet ; thence to station 3,700 feet, the cut is two-thirds 
width ana average depth of over 7 feet ; thence to station 5,600 feet, a distance of 1,900 
feet, there remains to be cut an average of 23 feet from the surface to obtain 13 feet of water ; 



STURGEON BAY AND LAKE MICHIGAN SHIP-CANAL. 5 

thence to statioii 6,000 feet, the cut is two-thirds width and average depth of 5 feet of water ; 
thence to station 6,500 feet, the cat is full width and average depth of 7 feet of water ; thence 
to station 7,300 feet, at high-water line of Lake Michigan, the cut is two-thirds width and 
avera^ depth of 5 feet water. The ahove depths of water represent the depth helow the 
lowest water of 1847. 

Thm work of the season was not heg^n until July. Since that time it was pushed forward 
with energy and determinatfon. Four excellent Osgood dredges and three steam derricks 
were almoet in constant operation to their utmost capacity. 

The slopes and hanks are in an unfinished condition, the principal object being to remove 
as mnch as possible of the heavy excavation during the season, in advance of tne dredges, 
the surface excavation was removed with wheelbarrows, road-scrapers, and portable rail- 
road. 

The material removed was placed in spoil-banks not nearer than 20 feet to the top slope- 
stakes* so as to prevent a crowding of the banks. 

From the present advanced conoition of the work, it is safe to say that if the same be 
conthined with the same degree of energy as it has during the past season, the 1st of July, 
1878, will witness the canal open for the passage of tugs, dredges, and the smaller class of 
vessels. \ 

The United States have under constmction, but far from completion, an outer harbor on 
the lake end for the protection of the outlet of the canal, and also to serve as a harbor of 
reAige. This shoula he completed as early as possible, as it may be otherwise difficult to 
keep the canal open. 

"Aie company will be under the necessity of constructing pile and sheet- pile piers at the 
outlet, and for several hundred feet back into the canal, to prevent the waves from washing 
down the banks ; otherwise, the banks, which appear to withstand very well the action of 
the waves from the tugs, will need no further protection for some time after the canal has 
become navigable, as may be seen from Colonel Houston's report to the Chief Engineer, 
U. &A. 

The dumping-grounds for scow work are on both sides of the bay, and are far from the 
line of channel. The material in the bay is soft mud, and the slopes to the channel will 
have to be very small to prevent sliding of the material into the cut. 

In conclnsion, I would say that it is possible, when once the water flows through the 
canal, the mnd in the head of the bay, which will be stirred up by the action of boats, will 
tend to form a cementing material to the sand-banks of the canal that may give a stability 
which will render other protection unnecessary. 

I submit herewith a map showing location and progress of canal , November 1877, and 
depth of water in canal and Sturgeon Bay. 

' I am, most respectfully, your obedient servant, 

JOHN NADER, 
Citil Engineer^ Inspector, 
To His Excellency, Harrison Lddingtok, 

Ootemor of 1Vi9eonsim, 

B. Ex. 44 2 

O 



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s, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. ( Ex. Doc. 

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[ 45th Congress, ) HOUSE OF KEPBE8ENTATIVBS. i Ex, Doc. 
^ 2d Session. ] \ No. 45. 



DEFICIENCIES IN APPROPRIATIONS FOR 1878, AND PRIOR 

YEARS. 



LETTER 



FROM 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, 



TRANSMrmNO 



Estimates of deficiencies in appropriations far the year 1878, 
and prior years. 



Febrca&y 6, 1878.— Referred to tbe Committee on Appropriations and ordered to be 

printed. 



Treasury Department, 
Washington^ D. C, February 6, 1878. 
Sib: I have the honor to transmit herewith the estimates of appro- 
priations required by the varions Departments to complete the service 
of the fiscal year ending June 30, 1878, and prior years, amounting to 
$2,678,820 04. 

Very resi)ectfully, 

JOHN SHEEMAN, 

Secretary. 
Hon. Samuel J. Eandall, 

Speaker Rouse of Representatives. 



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Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



46 ESTIMATES OP APPROPRIATIONS. 

APPENDIX B. 

Hxplanation of estimate far Salaries^ Office of Sixth Auditor. {See page 4.) 

Office op the Auditor op the Treasury 
FOR THE Post Office Department, 
Wa^hingtonj December 11, 1877. 

Sm : I have the honor to request your attention to an error affecting 
the clerical force of this office, in the appropriation for salaries for the 
current fiscal year^ (19 Stat., p. 301.) as follows, viz., "twenty assorters 
of money-orders, eighteen thousana dollars." 

Under the act approved March 3, 1875, (18 Stat., Part 3, p. 397,) this 
of&ce is entitled to twenty assorters of money-orders at one thousand 
dollars per annum. 

By reference to the act of March 3, 1877, appropriating salaries for 
the current fiscal year, I find that the bill, as it originally passed the 
House of Eepresentatives, called for eighteen assorters and appropriated 
eighteen thousand dollars. Upon representations made to ^e Appro- 
priation Committee of the Senate, that committee agreed to restore the 
number to twenty, in accordance with the law, and did so restore the 
number, but in the final engrossing of the bill the amount appropriated 
was not changed, but remained at eighteen thousand dollars. That 
such was the intention of the law is established by the fact that in the 
total amount appropriated for this office, viz., three hundred and tea 
thousand four hundred and seventy dollars, the twenty assorters are 
included at one thousand dollars ea>ch. 

The question having been submitted to the First Comptroller, that 
officer decided that these assorters could be paid only at the rate of nine 
hundred dollars per annum, and they are now being paid at that rate. 

In view of the fact that these persons are but poorly paid at one 
thousand dollars per annum, that nearly all of them have fa^milies or 
other relatives dependent upon them, and that they are faithfiil and 
efficient employes of this office, I have the honor to recommend that the 
attention of the proper committee of Congress be called to this matter, 
in the hope that by proper legislation they may be enabled to receive 
their legal salary &om July 1, 1877, to the end of the present fiscal 
year. 

I am, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

J. M. MoGREW, 

A^idiior, 

Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



APPENDIX 0. 



Relating to estimate for Legislative Hxpenses, Territory of Dakota. {See 

page 4.) 

Teeasuby Depaetmbnt, 
First Comptroller's Offiocj January 18, 1878. 
Sib: I have the honor to return herewith an estimate of deficiency 
for legislative expenses, Territory of Dakota, 1877, accompanied by two 



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ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 47 

letters of the territorial secretary relating thereto, referred to me for 
recommendatioii. 

I find, upon examination, that of the amount of $20,000 appropriated 
by act of August 15, 1876, for the purpose and fiscal year referred to, 
the secretary has disbursed, and accounted for the sum of $19,998 57, 
leaving due the United States, $1 43. On his bill for public printing, 
amounting, originally, to $2,567 15, and reduced by measurement in 
Uiis ofiSce to $2,542 32, he has paid to the firm of Bowen & Kingsbury, 
printers, $1,466 07, leaving due them, $1,076 25, as stated in his esti- 
mate. The amounts entered on estimate for pay of porter, clerk-hire, 
and rent, comprise such periods as are not embraced in his account, 
and the amounts stated to be required for per diem and mileage of mem- 
bers of the legislative assembly appear also to be properly due. No 
information being in my possession on which to express an opinion as 
to the other items appearing in the estimate, as needed for miscellane- 
008 printing, blanks, and stationery, fuel, lights, postage, and incidental 
expenses of the secretary's office, amounting in all to $896 70, 1 have 
no recommendation to make. 

Very respectftdly, 

E. W. TAYLBR, 

Comptroller. 

Hon. JoKN Sherman, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



APPENDIX D. 



BehtHMg to the estimate for Legislative Expenses^ Territory of Idaho. 

(See page 5.) 

Treasuby Department, 
First Comptroller's Office^ January 29, 1878. 

8iB: I have the honor to return herewith an estimate of deficiency 
for legislative exi>enses. Territory of Idaho, fiscal year 1877, referred to 
me for recommendation, as shown by endorsement on the letter of E. J. 
Curtis, secretary of said Territory, accompanying the estimate. 

I have examined the account of the territorial secretary, and find 
that his payments for per diem and mileage of the members of the 
legislative assembly, and i)er diem of the subordinate ofiftcers of that 
body, as fixed by law, amounted to $17,545 20, and that he has dis- 
bursed in all, and accounted for, the sum of $19,784 84, leaving due the 
United States a balance of $215 16 of the total amount appropriated by 
act of August 15, 1876, for the purpose and fiscal year referred to, and 
advanced to him. 

The deficiency estimate, as submitted by Mr. Curtis, calls for 
$6,152 76, fix>m which I have deducted the amount of $511 46 on the 
WDs for printing the laws and journals, by the measurement of the 
Bpedmens furnished, leaving a balance of $5,641 30 to be provided for; 
Dot, as the territorial secretary has not asked my advice in anything 



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48 ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 

X>ertaiiiing to his expenditures, I respectfully decline to make any 
recommendation. 

Very respectfully, 

R. W. TAYLER, 

Comptroller. 
Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



APPENDIX E. 



Explanation of the estimate for Legislative Expenses^ Territory of New 

Mexico. (See page 6.) 

Treasury Department, 
First Comptroller's OfficCj January 25, 1878. 

Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of an estimate of 
deficiency in the appropriation for legislative expenses, Territory of 
New Mexico, accompanied by a letter of W. G. Ritch, secretary of said 
Territory, dated October 6, 1877, referred to me by the chief clerk of 
the Department under date of December 14, "for a statement of the 
amounts chargeable to legislative expenses. Territory of New Mexico, 
reference to which is made in the enclosed estimate and letter of the 
secretary of the Territory; and also for recommendation." 

Returning herewith the estimate, I recommend that Congress be 
requested to appropriate the amount of $1,448 13 due to Manderfield & 
Tucker, as therein stated. The bills for printing executed by that firm, 
for the 22d session of the legislative assembly, (fiscal year 1876,) 
amounted in all to $5,904 47 J ; they were reduced in this office by the 
measurement of specimens of laws, journals, bills, &c., furnished, to 
$5,448 13, of which amount I could only authorize the Secretary to pay 
$4,000 under the law limiting the disbursement for printing during any 
session to that sum. 

In recommending that the unpaid balance of $1,448 13 be provided 

for, I beg to state that New Mexico is one of the two Territories in 

which the printing is done in two languages. 

• • • • • • • 

Very respectfully, 

R. W. TAYLER, 

Comptroller. 
Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



APPENDIX F 

Explanation of estimates for the Internal-Revenue Service. {Seepage 8.) 

Treasury Department, 
Office of Internal Revenue, WofshingUm, October 31j 1877. 

Sir: I desire to call your attention, specially, to the two items recom- 
mended to be appropriated for deficiencies in the internal-revenue ser- 



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ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 49 

vice, viz: Forty thousand dollars on account of "salaries and expenses 
of collectors,'' and one hundred and fifty thousand dollars on account 
of "salaries and expenses of agents, surveyors, gangers," &c. 

The allowances for collectors that have been recommended for your 
approval have not created, and will not create, a deficiency in the ap- 
propriation, but the needs of the service are so urgent that I deem it 
for the best interests of the Government that this appropriation of forty 
^oosand dollars should be made. It is intended, mainly, for the pur- 
pose of suppressing frauds in the manufacture and sale of spirits and 
tobacco. 

The item of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars is necessary to 
provide for the pay of storekeepers and gangers during the current 
fiscal year. For the fiscal year ending June 30, 1877, the sum of 
|l/i90,000 was required for thflt purpose. 

The appropriation for the current fiscal year is $1,450,000, which I 
am satisfied is inadequate for the purpose for which it was designed. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully. 



Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



GliEEN B. RAUM, 

Commissioner. 



APPENDIX G. 



^ijHanation of the estimate for Punishment for Violation of Internal- 
Revenue Laws. {Seepages,) ♦ 

Treasury Department, 
Office of Internal Revenue^ January 16, 1878. 

8iE: The appropriation for "punishment for violation of intemal- 
revenue laws" for the year ending June 30, 1876, has been entirely 
expended; and there is a claim of J. D. Sanborn for $1,000, properly 
payable ftom this fund, being the claim in case of Erie and Pittsburgh 
Raihoad Company, approved by the Secretary in December for 
11,461 39; $461 39 of which has been paid, leaving $1,000 unpaid as 
stated. 

It is thought that there are also a number of similar claims accruing 
in the same i)eriod that will eventually be perfected, for which there 
will be no pro\ision for payment unless an additional appropriation is 
granted. These services were rendered under the provisions of Circu- 
lar No. 99, ottering a reward for information leading to the collection 
of unpaid and over-due taxes. In all such claims allowed, it is shown 
that the Government has realized the benefit from the information 
fomished, in the actual collection of the taxes; and although the oft'er 
in that circular is limited to the sum appropriated therefor, it was 
impossible to anticipate the amount of claims that might be presented^ 
Dnder that offer, so as to restrict the pro rata of the allowance of those 
tet presented and paid ; and in fac^i the aggregate of these claims is 
ttueh less than the amount of the appropriation, the balance of the 
appropriation having been expended in the unusual exi>enses incurred 
in that year in suppressing violations of internal -revenue laws. 

H. Ex. Doc. 45 4 



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60 ESTIBiATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 

In view of these facts I would request that Congress be asked to 
make an additional appropriation of $5,000 under the above title, for 
the period from July 1, 1875, to June 30, 1876. 

Eespectfully, 

GEEEN B. RAUM, 

Commissioner. 
Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary of the Treasury, 



APPENDIX H; 

Explanation of estimates for Contingent Expenses^ Treasury Departments 

{See page 9.) 

Treasury Department, 
Office of the Secretary ^ January 10, 1878, 

Sir : I have to request that you cause estimates to be made for a 
deficiency appropriation of six thousand dollars for gas, and two thou- 
sand dollars for horses and wagons, in contingent expenses of Treasury 
Department for 1877-'78. 

The appropriation for gas for the fiscal year 1877-'78 is $12,500. but 
owing to the extensive repairs made to the heating apparatus of the 
Department during the past eight months, necessitating the employ- 
ment of a large force of men during the whole of every night for that 
I)eriod, the consumption of gas has necessarily been nearly doubled, 
and now. at the expiration of six months of the fiscal year, more tham 
two-thirds of the sum appropriated for this item has been exi)ended, 
and it is a matter of absolute necessity that a deficiency appropriation 
of the amount above stated be made to defray the expense of gas during 
the remainder of the year. 

The appropriation for horses and wagons for the year 1875-'76 was 
$6,000, and for the year 1876-77, $3,400. At the close of the fiscal 
year 1875-'76 the carriages, wagons, and harness were in good repair, 
and the year 1876-'77 was entered upon with a frill supply of feed for 
the horses and a good outfit in wagons, harness, &c., thus enabling the 
custodian, by close management, to pass the year without requesting 
additional appropriation. 

The year 1877-78, however, was begun with empty feed-boxes, 
dilapidated harness, and shabby carriages and wagons, thus comi)elling 
an immediate outlay to replenish the stock of stable and to put in re- 
pair the carriages, wagons, and harness, from the smallest appropria- 
tion^-$3,200 — that has been made for horses and wagons for this 
Department for many years. , 

The sum of $3,200 is not suflBcient to meet the expenses attending 
the care and feeding of the horses, repairing carriages, wagons, and 
harness, and paying the salaries of two hostlers and one driver. The 
pay of three men — $720 each per annum — amounts to $2,160 per year, 
leaving for the purposes of repairs and purchase of harness, repairs to 
wagons and carriages, and bills for feed of horses, only $1,040. 

The expense for board per year for eight horses, the number fo,und 
necessary to keep, estimated at $20 per month, each, amounts to $1,920. 



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ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 51 

The items of salaries for two hostlers and one driver, $2,160, and board 
for eight horses, estimated at $1,920, would be $4,080. This sum ex- 
ceeds by $880 the amount appropriated, with no provision for expense 
of repmrs to carriages, wagons, and harness, and other incidental ex- 
penses necessarily arising in the maintenance of a stable for eight 
horses, two carriages, and three wagons. There is, at this date, a bal- 
ance of only $849 65. 

In view of the facts above stated, there is a most urgent necessity 
for an additional appropriation of $2,000, to meet expenses for horses 
and wagons during ^e remainder of the present fiscal year. 
Very respectfully, 



J. K. Upton, 

Chief Clerlcj Treasury Department 



O. L. PITNEY, 

Ctiatodian, 



APPENDIX I. 

Explanation of the estimate for Repairs and Preservation of Public Build- 
ings. {See page 10.) 

Treasury Depabtment, 
Office of the Supervising Architect^ January 12, 1878. 

8i»: I have the honor to call your attention to the advisability of 
secaring, if i)08sible, an advance appropriation for the repairs and 
]He6er?ation of public buildings. 

!njesum of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars ($150,000) was 
estimated as required for this service during the present fiscal year, 
Imt only one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) was appropriated, a 
8nm insnfficieiit to meet the requirements of about one hundred and 
fiffty (140) pablic buildings dependent upon this appropriation for the 
needed repairs and such iterations as are from time to time demanded 
by the exigencies of the public service. 

The appropriation for this purpose for the fiscal year ending June 
30, 1877, was one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, ($150,000,) and 
expenditures were authorized therefrom to cover the full amount. Au- 
thorizations from the appropriation for the present fiscal year have also 
been made to within about five thousand dollars ($5,000) of the amount 
appropriated ; and as the regular appropriation bill will not, probably, 
be passed for some months, and at this season of the year it is often 
necessary that repairs should be promptly placed upon buildings in 
order to prevent great damages, I would respectfully recommend that 
Congress be asked to make, at an early day, an appropriation of twenty- 
five thousand dollars, ($25,000,) to meet the demands of this service 
during the remainder of the present fiscal year. 
Very respectfully, 

JAS. G. HILL, 
Supervising Architect. 

Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



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52 



ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 



APPENDIX J. 



Statement of appropriations required to be used as transfers to close cus- 
toms officers^ accounts now standing on the books of the Treasury. {See 
page 10.) 



Name. 



Joseph Berry — 
Joseph W. Cake. . 



B. W. Daniels.... 

Perry Fuller 

Andrew Ji Gross. . 

E. B. Hunt. 

John H. Harmon. 



Charles James.. 
James Johnson.. 



Howard Stansbnry 
Sdward Spottswood 

W.G. Vance — 



Wylly Woodbrldge . 
F.A.Wilson.... 



J. B. Wheeler... 

Wm. A. Kewell — 

Patrick H. Jones.. 
F.A.Wilson 



Designation. 



Col. customs. 
do 



do 

do 

do 

Top. engineer 
CoL customs. . 



.do. 
.do. 



Top. engineer 
Surv. customs 

CoL customs.. 



....do. 
....do. 



Location. 



Top. engineer. 

Snpt Life-sav- 
ing Service. 
Disb. agent. . . . 
Col. customs... 



Bath, Ihlaine.. 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Buflklo, N. Y. 

New Orleans, La. 

St Augnstine, 
Fla. 



Detroit, Mich.. 



San Francisco, 
Cal. 

Savannah, Ga.. 



Dubuque, Iowa 
Key West, Fla.. 

Savannah, Ga... 

Puget Sound, 
W.T. 

11th light-honse 

district. 
New Jersey 



New York 

Puget Sound, 



Appropriation. 



Fencing, &c., site of custom-house, 
Bath, Maine. 

Revenue-cutter Service, 1869 

Appraisers' Btores 

ReiMurH and preserTation of public 
buildiogA, 1H69. 

Repaint and prpservation of public 
buildings. 1874. 

Re-establishing lights on sonthem 
coast. 

Repairs and preservation of public 
buildings. Ier74. 

Keeper's dwelling, Seine Rock, 
R.I. 

Lieht-bonse establishment; keep- 
ing buoys in order, 1857. 

Contingent expenses; construction 
of marine hospital. 

Custom-house, 1865 

Repairs, customhouse and marine 
hospital. 1866. 

Light-house establishment, 1671; 
supplies for light-houses. 

Light-house keepers' salaries 

Seamen's wageH, Sec 

Repairs. &,o., Tytiee light 

Repairs, light, pierhead, Huron . . . 

Contingent expenses; construction 
of custom-bouse. 

Fuel, &c.. 1871 

Fuel, Ac, 1873 

Furniture and repairs, 1879 

Light-house establishment: light- 
house keepers' salaries, 1871. 

Revenue-cutter Service, 1870 

Lighthouse esublishment; light- 
house keepers' salaries, 1870. 

Beacon-light, end of pier, Chicago, 

Salary 



Fuel, Ac., 1873. 

Contract for carrying the mails on 
Pontal Route No. 15.281, 8 qr., 



Amount 



•2,381 00 

192 85 
113 84 
176 00 

1.000 00 

17, 418 18 

7 18 

48 91 

105 71 

570 53 

1,974 09 
10, 155 SS 

56 90 

445 83 
1.985 07 
TJ6 98 
338 39 
236 14 

153 58 

954 08 

17 45 

794 50 

5^078 38 
6,198 35 

190 

910 06 

1,71140 
1,484 56 



55.896 69 



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ESTIMATES OP APPROPRIATIONS. 
APPENDIX K. 



53 



Sekedide of claims embraced in the estimates svhmitted by the Secretary of 
War. {See pages 12 and 15.) 

Army Transportation, 1873.— (DeficieDcy, $451,096 34; reappropriation, $281 32.) 



Ko.of 



40,527 
44,221 
40,480 
31,847 
44,313 



33,063 
45,103 



Claimant. 



A. A. Coffin 

Bofinger & Pegram, agents 

Estate of Owen Murray 

D. D. McFagden 

Virginia Sl Truckee Railroad Company, 

(whole amonnt, $192; balance under 

1874,75,76) 

Central Vermont Railroad Company, 

($2 75 under 1874) 

Atlantic and Pacific Railroad Company, 

(lessee of Missouri Pacific) 



Aggregate of sundry settlements : 
Union Pacific Railroad Co.. $313, 654 03 
Kansas Pacific Railroad Co. 86, 369 40 
Sioux City Pacific Railroad 

Co 2,914 69 

Central Pacific Railroad Co. 47, 601 66 



No. of 
sett 



2111 
4027 
3942 
4461 



4589 
4724 
4798 



Total. 



Date. 



Jan. 18,1877 
June 9, 1877 
June 5, 1877 
Aug. 12,1877 



Sept. 28, 1877 
Sept. 18, lb77 
Nov. 10,1877 



Various dates. 



Ajnoant. 



$130 00 

4 83 

25 00 

59 50 



65 50 

35 82 

517 23 



837 88 



450,539 78 



451,377 66 



Army Transportation, 1875. — (Deficiency.) 



44,112 

40,480 
42,857 
42,859 
42,861 
44,320 



44,019 

42,860 
43,959 
e,903 
».938 
44,145 

44.292 



Texas and Pacific Railroad Company, 
(in part) 

Estate of Owen Murray 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Richmond, Fredericksburg, and Potomac 
Railroad Company; $2^ 38 paid out 
of appropriation for 1876, leaving bal- 
ance of 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (for 
the part, $4,625 16, payable from ap- 
propriation for 1876, requisition has 
issued) 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (paid 
in part and part charged to 1874) 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (part 
paid from 1876) 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (part 
paid from 1876) 

Jeffersonville, Madison, and Indianapolis 
Railroad Company , 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (the 
1 residue, $5,432 30. is payable from ap- 
I priation for 1876, which is still ex- 
isting) 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (A. T., 
1874, $8,542 93; A. T., Itf76, $5,130 84) 



3853 
3942 
3662 
3745 
3663 



4242 

4203 
4204 
4191 
4224 
4353 

4548 
4567 



May 29,1877 
June 5, 1877 
Apr. 30,1877 
May 8, 1877 
May • 8, 1877 



July 17,1877 

Aug. — , 1877 
Aug. — , 1877 
Aug. — , 1877 
Aug. — , 1877 
Aug. 9,1877 

Sept. ll,18n 
Sept. 14,1877 



$11 50 

25 00 

10,301 73 

6,629 46 

14,774 60 



\22 21 

1,613 13 

7,356 84 

474 92 

383 53 

14 16 

6,037 31 
36,421 31 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



54 ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 

Schedule of claims^ &c. — Army transportation^ 1875 — Continued, 



No. of 
claim. 



44,313 
44,366 
44,344 

44,808 
45,148 
45, 152 
45,149 

44,iro 

44,947 

45,393 
44,842 



Claimant. 



Virginia and Truckee Railroad Company, 
(whole amount allowed is $192; the 
balance is under 1873, 74, 76) 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (am't 
of settlement, $40,619 63 ; the balance 
under 1874, 76) 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (am't 
of settlement, $53,959 65; the balance 
is under 1876) -. 

Lieut. Jaa. £. H. Foster, (settlement 
made by Q. M. Division) 

Central Vermont Railroad Company, 
($52 26 under 1876) 

Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad 
Company, ($6 80 under 1874) 

Annapolis and £lk-Ridge Railroad Com- 



pany 
Ltla 



Atlantic and North Carolina Railroad 
Company 

Union Pacific Railroad Co., ($23,764 98 
imder 1874) 

OttoUhlig 

M%j. J. H. Nelson, paymaster, (settle- 
ment by Q. M. Division) 

Memphis and Charlestown Railroad 
Company . * 

John W. Power, ($2,843 01 paid from A. 
T.,1876) 



Total. 



No. of I 
sett. 



Date. 



Amount. 



4r>89 I Sept. 28, 1877 



$17 50 



4592 



Sept. 28,1877 1 35,667 17 



I 



4591 j Sept. 28, 1877 | 

8,1877' 

18, 1877 I 

27,1877 i 

27, 1877 

3, 1877 I 



4616 
4722 
4761 
4760 

4778 



4799 
4861 

5010 

5062 



Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Nov. 



Nov. 
Nov. 

Nov. 

Dec. 



5240 Dec. 



10, 1877 
13, 1877 

30,1877 

7,1877 

22,1877) 



28,539 62 

184 00 

44 40 

18 40 

1 36 

572 

5,994 52 
2, 170 93 

104 35 

2 05 
7 35 

156,823 or 



Barracks and Quarters, 1871 and prior years.— (Deficiency, $33,433 44; re«p- 

propriation, $27 12.) 



35,760 
34,339 
39,634 
39,322 
42,459 
25,139 
33,874 
42,777 
23,390 
40,979 
40,586 

32,823 
42,187 

26,872 
43,658 
38,326 
39,673 
32,399 
36,060 
19,628 

35,848 
42,109 



Lucinda Trimble, administrator, &c — 

Michael Chester 

William Sefgmund, (in part) 

James Taylor 

J.T. D.Wilson 

Daniel McLean 

James D. Jones 

Jacob B. Braden, estate of 

Beniamin F. Brown 

Anthony Teetes 

Ira Lovelace, administrator of John 

Knox 

McClure & Buck 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, 

(in part) 

Mrs. Jane Hale 

John A. Lynch 

John N. Baaer 

Richard B. Posey 

Matt Seats 

Jacob Dietz 

William and Robert Gilmor, ($91 92 paid 

by requisition of June 14, 1877) 

William Hetch 

John Hazelrigg, trustee, &c 



3038 
1996 
2158 
2236 
2275 
2280 
2356 
2401 



Dec. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
F^b. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Teb. 
Mar. 



2417 Mar. 
2430 Mar. 



3544 
3738 

3767 
3861 
3872 
3900 
3945 
3950 
4013 

6038 
3860 
4095 



4,1874 

8,1877 

22,1877 

5,1877 

13,1877 

13, 1877 

22, 1877 

7.1877 

7,1877 

8,1877 



Apr. 18,1877 
May 7, 1877 



May 
May 
May 
June 
June 
Juue 
June 



11,1877 
29,1877 
31,1877 
4,1877 
5,1877 
5,1877 
7,1877 



Apr. 19,1875 
May 29,1877 
June 19, 1877 



$2,933 33 

791 66 

60 00 

1,000 00 

55 00 

35 00 
105 89 

1,004 13 

186 00 

4 00 

300 00 
49 00 

15 40 

36 00 
45 00 

4 07 
251 04 

4 00 
159 17 

4,358 08 
193 76 
450 00 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 55 

Schedule of claims j i&c. — Barracks^ cfec, 1871 and prior years — Contmued. 



No. of 



29,635 
^.597 
18,3(W 



Claimant 



24.965 



12,228 
23,801 
35,771 



9,408 



28,8jS 
29,146 

40.439 ( 

40.440 ( 
44,635 



W. F. Camden 

Marion Connty, Missouri 

Hamilton G. Fant 

Bank of Kentucky 

Wakefield & Son, (Q. M. D., ^35; 
total allowed — incidental expenses, 

$23 14— $46) 

I Brooke Mackall, Jr.^ 

j Etmer, Fonst & Co : 

, Joseph Trimble, (in lieu of settlement 
' 3039 of Dec. 1874 ; cancelled by Sec- 

' ond Comptroller Nov. 9, 1877 

! Joseph Rolette, deceased; Mrs. A. Ro- 
lette, administratrix 

I City of Memphis 

Wm. K.Griffith 

I J. W. Sprung and J. H. Eggers 

I R. C.Smith 



S. Benedict, deceased, $17 under Q. M. 
D. ; J. S. Cunningham, administrat'Or) . 



Tot^l . 



No. of 
sett. 



4454 
4463 
4501 
4495 



4498 
4533 

4807 



4897 

4896 
4980 
4964 
4998 

4999 



5192 



Date. 



Aug. 22,1877 
Aug. 22,1877 
Sept. 3,1877 
Sept. 1,1877 



Sept. 1, 1877 
Sept. 8,1877 
Nov. 10,1877 



Nov. 20,1877 

Nov. 20,1877 

Nov. 26,1877 

Nov. 27,1877 

Nov. 28,1877 

Nov. 28,1877 

Dec. 20,1877 



Amoant 



$12 50 

2,280 00 
l,a*J9 84 
3,346 67 



15 51 

2,748 94 
54 00 



1,200 00 

141 67 

9,358 99 

100 00 

60 00 

30 00 
231 92 



33,460 56 



IxdDKSTAi Expenses, Quartermaster's Division.— (Deficiency, $7,996 76; re- 
appropriation, $477 49.) 



42, m 
42,461 
^154 
42,148 
fi,151 
42,434 
«,150 
42,156 
42,147 
42,152 
42,158 
42,1.57 
42.486 
42,028 
40,687 

40,620 
42.784 
40,805 
42,315 
40,837 
40,837 
40,687 
40,211 
44,119 
«.761 
44,212 
44,226 
44,211 
4I.712 
44,144 
44,118 



J. N. .Ransom and one other 

Wm. McKinstry 

Charles £. Richards and one other 

Isaac Cox 

John H. Weldon 

B. F. Ferguson 

D. H. Smith 

F. W. Young and one other 

Conrad Bollinger 

Joseph Johnson 

R. 8. Hern wag and eight others 

0. M. Smith and one other 

Charles Conner and one other 

William Crane and one other 

Western Union Telegraph Company, (in 

part) 

John 0*Ryan and one other 

Olonzo Hedge 

August Gruhlke 

M. Bloomtield and thirteen others 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Central Pacific Railroad Company 

Kansas Pacific Railway Company 

Eliza C. Getty, widow of Vernon Getty. 

James Clarke 

Thomas H. Slatter and four others 

Harrison W^ilson 

Union Pacific Railroad Conipany 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Hn^h Frazer 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

•Coin. 



1975 


Dec. 


28. 1876 t 


$180 00 


2033 


Jan. 


12, 1877 


45 00 


2067 


Jan. 


15, 1877 


283 33 


2069 


Jan. 


16, 1877 ! 


105 00 


2073 


Jan. 


16, 1877 , 


108 34 


2085 


Jan. 


16, 1877 


22 34 


2088 


Jan. 


16, 1877 


8 33 


2090 


Jan. 


16, 1877 


176 00 


2092 


Jan. 


17, 1877 


112 50 


2096 


Jan. 


17, 1877 


108 33 


2099 


Jan. 


17,1877 


147 00 


2100 


Jan. 


17, 1877 


178 67 


2109 


Jan. 


18, 1877 1 


29 00 


2093 


Jan. 


17, 1877 


30 00 


2235 


Feb. 


5,1877, 


147 22 


2276 


Feb. 


13, 1877 i 


90 00 


2296 


Feb. 


14, 1877 1 


26 60 


2320 


Feb. 


16, 1877 


64 50 


2371 


Feb. 


24, 1877 


714 62 


2172 


Jan. 


24, 1877 


1,414 08 


2172 


Jan. 


24,1877 


1 19 


2235 


Feb. 


5, 1877 1 


452 03 


3851 


Mav 


29,1877 


•416 67 


4011 


June 


7,1877, 


62 50 


4018 


June 


7,1877 1 


55 00 


4021 


June 


7, 1877 ' 


15 60 


4255 


July 


19, 1877 


345 49 


4271 


July 


26, 1877 1 


298 81 


4347 


Aug. 


8, 1877 , 


433 33 


4422 


Aug. 


16, 1877 ; 


271 37 


4610 


Oct. 


8, 1877 , 


830 52 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



56 



ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 



Schedule of claims^ (&c. — Incidental expenses^ Q. M. Div, — Continued. 




44,923 

44, 386 i 



44,196 
44,316 



Fred. Sturaegk « 4700 

Western Udiod Telegraph Company .. "j ' 
KansaA Pacific Railroad Company,(pay- I ' ^^^2 
ment one-half, $18, to Western Union ( i 

Telegraph Company) J | 

Union Pacific Railroad Company | 4788 

Thomas M. De Lonza : 4840 

Total / 



Date. 

Oct. 15,1877 

Nov. 3, 1877 

Nov. 8, 1877 
Nov. 13,1877 



Amoant. 



$119 70 

r 14 7a 



35 9» 

1,011 2A 

119 17 



8, 474 25 



Horses for Cavalry and Artillery, 1871 and jprior years. — (Deficiency,. 
$9,902 86 ; reappropriatlon, $395. ) 



42,297 
42, 104 
33,308 
40,073 
42,782 
40,307 
42,087 
33,641 
39,928 
43,592 
40,071 
44,007 
41.071 
44,048 
42,082 
42,323 
38,174 
44,109 
43,996 
39,201 
44,108 
20,001 
38,276 
44,201 
44,002 
39,400 
40,871 
44, 412 
42, 040 
34,296 
42,353 
32,785 
44,647 
44,665 
32, 76;^ 
29,781 
44,799 
23,752 
40,662 
45,072 
45,074 
25,229 
16,983 

45,120 
38.065 
39,803 



Sarah A. Ackerman, administratrix 

H. B. Guthrie, (in part) 

Johanna Frost 

John Hertel 

John J. Edens 

Sarah P. Lee 

Emily T. Jackson, executrix, &c 

John W. McLeroy 

Wni. Rohertson 

William Hogan 

Michael Letterer, (Lederer) 

J. J. Osborne 

Mrs. Fannie Harding, (in part) 

A. P. Early ; 

Lewis Warren 

Allen Howard 

Mrs. Nancy Butler, (in part) 

Cord Myer 

Clans Steavens 

John Vance 

Claus Cordes 

Wm. H. Hughson 

Marion Minton 

RichM W. Jordon, deceased 

Diedrick Lutzen 

Wm. Floyd 

Henry Dobbins 

Adam Nolte 

Mrs. Mvra Cook, (formerly Montague ) . 

H. C. Hamilton 

G. Hanling 

Joel McKinney 

Robert liatimer 

Benjamin P. Dobson 1 

Jonathan Rucker 

R. B. Douglas 

J. W. Holoway 

Woodmfi" Parks 

John Ficken 

Chas. W. Tenant 

R. H. Jones 

D.G.Christian 

Volney Goodhue, deceased, by Jas. Hag 

gard, administrator 

Thomas P. Yates 

Thomas H.Bell 

Mrs. Ann Eliza Powell 



1970 
2101 
2113 
2086 
2298 
2300 
2310 
2422 
2428 
3507 
3523 
3667 
3706 
3732 
3737 
3862 
3898 
•39*38 
3951 
3956 
:^964 
4032 
4036 
4063 
4097 
4348 
4343 
4364 
4363 
4457 
4459 
4532 
4632 
4644 
4H41 
4646 
4630 
4576 
4667 
4817 
4811 
4806 

4847 
4863 
4831 
4856 



Dec. 


28,1876 


$7 m 


Jan. 


17,1877 


200 00 


Jan. 


18,1877 


150 00 


Jan. 


16,1877 


165 00 


Feb. 


14,1877 


150 00 


Feb. 


14, 1877 


155 OO 


Feb, 


15,1877 


130 OO 


Mar. 


8,1877 


150 00 


Mar. 


8,1877 


150 00 


Apr. 


16,1877 


120 00 


Apr. 


17, 1877 


165 00 


May 


2,1877 


112 00 


May 


4,1877 


260 OO 


May 


7,1877 


80 00 


May 


7,1877 


155 00 


May 


29,1877 


120 00 


June 


4,1877 


135 00 


June 


5,1877 


150 OO 


June 


5,1877 


125 00 


June 


5,1877 


300 00 


June 


5,1877 


130 00 


June 


9,1877 


115 00 


June 


9,1877 


145 00 


June 


13, 1877 


125 00 


June 


19,1877 


160 00 


Aug. 


8,1877 


300 00 


Aug. 


8,1877 


75 00 


Aug. 


9,1877 


100 00 


Aug. 


9,1877 


166 00 


Aug. 


22,1877 


155 OO 


Aug. 


22,1877 


150 00 


Sept. 


8,1877 


90 00 


Oct. 


9,1877 


160 00 


Oct. 


9,1877 


150 00 


Oct. 


9,1877 


140 00 


Oct. 


9,1877 


450 00 


Oct. 


9,1877 


160 00 


Sept. 


22,1877 


100 00 


Oct. 


12,1877 


80 00 


Nov. 


10,1877 


150 00 


Nov. 


10,1877 


120 OO 


Nov. 


10,1877 


240 00 


Nov. 


13,1877 


100 OO 


Nov. 


13,1877 


125 00 


Nov. 


13,1877 


60 00 


Nov. 


13,1877 


80 00 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 57 

Stkedule of daimsj Ac. — Horses j cfco., 1871 and prior years — Continued. 



Ho. of 



29,776? 

29,778 5 

44,814 

29,766 

45,342 

42,317 

39,804 

45,317 

96,633 

29,7^ 

45,280 

96,609 



29,736 
38,240 

39,278 

29,779 
29,780 
29,771 



CbdmMit 



45,394 
24,408 



MiB. Marina Doaglas, ($60, under A. T.^ 
1871.) 

John A. Patterson 

Gideon Giftbrd 

Micajah Carter 

James M. Adams 

James A. Lncas 

Mrs. C. W. Jackson 

John Hedrick 

A. H. Halbert 

Tho8.E. Mahon 

William Woodson, ($152 33 nnder sub- 
sistence; $118 nnder Q. M. D.; total, 
$580 33) 

Andrew Thompson ' 

Larkin Willis, dec'd; W.R. Willis, adm'r, 

John C. Magill, dec'd; Lydia A. Magill, 
administratrix 

Mildred Chapman 

A. J. Swaney 

Wm. Wilson 

Mrs. Mary E. Wormeley 

Geo. W.Allen 

Jno. R. Frow, deceased 



No. of 
sett. 



4935 
4941 
4937 
4956 
4924 
4977 
4973 
4970 
4966 
4982 



Dmte. 



Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 



26,1877 
26,1877 
26,1877 
27,1877 
27,1877 
27,1877 
27,1877 
27,1877 
27,1877 
28,1877 



5008 Nov. 28,1877 
5001 'Nov. 28,1877 
5004 I Nov. 28, 1877 



Total. 



5002 
5120 
5179 
5183 
5185 
5198 
5206 



Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 



6,1877 
17,1877 
19,1877 
19, 1877 
19,1877 
Dec. 21,1877 
Dec. 21,1877 



AmoQot. 



$130 00 
148 00 
125 00 
160 00 
125 00 
115 00 
250 00 
200 00 
125 00 
70 00 



310 00 

100 00 

90 00 

750 00 
100 00 
150 00 
125 00 
135 00 
150 00 
135 00 



10,297 86 



Kahoxal CiBBfBTERiES, 1871 AND PRIOR YEARS.— (Deficiency, $181 36 ; reappropria- 

tion, $2 49.) 



18,941 
38,188 
40,251 



Wm. J. Marshal], exec'r, et al., (part paid) . 

A. Jarrean 

J. H. Van Hage 



9444 
6862 
9151 



June 16,1874 
June 19,1875 
April 13, 1876 



Total. 



$120 00 

18 85 
45 00 



183 85 



National Cemeteriks, 1872.--( Deficiency.) 



26,653 
39,821 



James S. Fish 

Chronicle Publishing Company, (in part). 



Total. 



1671 
8546 



Sept. 8,1874 
Jan. 13,1876 



$40 00 
36 00 



76 00 



National Cemeteries, 1875. — (Deficiency.) 



44,790 J. H. Wilkerson 4670 Oct. 12,1877 



$18 00 



HOBSKS AND OTHER PROPERTY LOST IN THE MILITARY SERVICE— ACT OF MaRCH 

3, l&A9^Steamer8 and other vessels, — (Deficiency.) 



372 
133 



Steamer B. P. Cheney, Charles Latimer, 
owner 

G. C. Cmmbangh, administrator of J. W. 
Wills, value of a barge 



4107 
5121 



June 21,1877 
Dec. 17,1877 



Total. 



I 



$28,370 72 

400 00 

28,770 72 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



58 



ESTIMATES OF APPKOPKIATIONS. 

Schedule of claims j &c. — Continued. 
Horses and other Property. 



Kune of oUdmant 



Saml K. Vanghan. . . 
Sarah S. Madison . . . 

Adolph Ziperline 

H. Von Minden 

RoVt B.Jordan 

Jno. W.Sid weU 

Wm. Ashmead 

Wm. E. Fay 

Margaret Marshall . . 

S. C. Hodgnian 

J. S. Dolson 

Benj. McCluer 

Henry Jackson 

Christian Pickell 

T.Edgar Park 

C.B.Goodwin 

Thomas Cabom 

Columbns Moore 

H. N. Whitbeck 

Henry F. Sapp 

Geo. W. Moore 

Ezra Fitch 

Zach H.Hall ....... 

David R. Chumley . . 

John Devany 

Eliza Conden 

Edward P. Dawson . 

Henry T. Jones 

John Gordon 

Joseph R. Ward 

J. C. Bleck 

Lonis T. Grain 

Elsey W. Lewis 

James C. Harris 

John A. Nobletts 

Noah Castor 

Ellen M. Misner 

Elijah Pike 

Simeon D. Swan 

John A. Clark 

Nathaniel McCalla . . 
Nathaniel McCalla . . 
Richard E.Oliver... 

James Watson 

Harrison P. McBee . . 
Absalom McKinney . 
James W. Conley . . . 

C.W.Warren 

E. C. Leadyard 

E. C. Ledyard 

Daniel Mathew 

Jonathan E. Stoffer . 
Scott W. Harrington 

Fielding Hurt 

William Huff 

J. L. Paxon 

Otis E.French 

OtisE. French 

Harmon D. Hunt 



▲moant al* 
lowed. 



$127 00 
100 00 
200 00 

145 03 
120 00 
193 03 
115 00 
191 53 
100 00 

172 00 
175 00 
100 00 

173 43 
65 18 

115 00 
142 78 
150 00 
160 00 
150 00 
100 00 
100 46 
100 00 

127 40 

128 10 
92 85 

177 06 

175 00 
125 00 
150 00 

74 93 

75 00 
135 00 
170 00 
120 00 

95 68 

146 80 
50 00 

115 18 
200 00 

176 43 

150 00 
140 00 
125 00 
102 06 
134 25 

151 50 
90 00 

180 22 
150 00 
200 00 
109 00 
253 50 
200 00 
200 00 
125 00 
160 00 

152 00 
200 00 
125 00 



No. of 
setL 



3464 
3574 
3777 
3868 
3897 
4041 
4187 
4201 
4425 
4485 
4637 
4644 
4651 
4765 
4799 
4883 
4921 
4972 
4978 
4997 
4999 
5008 
5009 
5010 
5011 
5012 
5013 
5014 
5015 
5016 
5017 
5018 
5019 
5020 
5021 
5022 
5023 
5024 
5025 
5026 
5027 
5028 
5029 
5030 
5031 
5032 
5033 
5034 
5035 
5036 
5037 
5038 
5039 
5040 
5041 
5042 
5043 
5044 
5045 



B«in»rks. 



Father of claimant. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 59 

Schedfde of claims^ itc.— Horses and other j>rop«r<y— Continued. 



NuMof claimant. 



D.C.McKillip 

James M. Zumwalt . . 

Louisa George 

Wm. 8. Coleman 

Wm. C. Haman 

Bloomfield Logan . . . 

LeRoy Hatley 

A F. Jones 

Emeline Lunsford. . . 
Emeline Lonsford. . . 

John Conger 

William Hill 

William Hill 

Chas. F. Ferguson . . 
Chas. F. Ferguson . . 

Callom Mcintosh 

Chas. 8. Parish 

Saml Brockmire 

Joseph M. Jones 

John B. Lee 

John B. Lee 

JohnF. CtaUip 

JohnF. Cnlllp 

George Olenn 

Wm.H. Rolls 

InscM. C. Hays 

Ibiiiii McCnne 

JioMtT. Parshall... 

Jinwi H. Lajrton 

Hirriflon Hughes 

BetlS.ljam8 

LJ. Dillon 

Edward B. Hnfiman. 

D. B. Downing 

W.C. Human 

Jacob Casto 

8. L. Beaver 

EoVtA.Nnmnelly.. 
Wm. M.Mitchell.... 
Jno. W. Leathers . . . 

Wm. M. Smalley 

D.C.Nelson 

J.Baidfett 

Elias Chapman 

Daniel H. Oroves 

SamTD.Haight .... 
SamlD. Haight .... 

Chaa. W. Burris 

Fountain Thomas . . . 
Fountain Thomas . . . 
Richard G. Large . . . 

Jisper C. Avery 

Jno. 8. Baker 

Albert June 

A.J.Wmetts 

E.aCarroU 

LCHouk 

Wm.C.Pinkley 

Andrew Beinert 

Joseph Gehasky 

Martha A. Dever.... 



Amoant al- 
lowed. 


Xo. of 

Mtt. 


Remarks. 


• $110 00 


r,046 




75 00 


5047 




125 00 


5048 


Jno. B. Bannett. 


125 00 


5049 




100 00 


5050 




«0 00 


5051 




125 00 


5052 




125 00 


5053 




87 78 


5054 


Widow of J. C. Watson 


122 78 


5055 


Widow of J. C. Watson 


163 25 


50r»6 




125 00 


5057 




130 00 


5058 




85 00 


5059 




100 00 


5060 




90 00 


5061 


^^ 


200 (X) 


5062 


^'"-f^iiv 


100 00 


5063 


^: \\ if.'^ 


85 00 1 5064 


\=-^^ 


135 00 


5065 


150 00 


5066 


^J^^^y 


' 125 00 5067 


^^*^^ 


145 03 


5068 




367 00 


5069 




195 00 


5070 




177 06 


5071 




100 00 


5072 




176 10 


5073 




1.52 06 


5074 




70 00 


5075 




100 00 


5076 




125 00 


5077 




100 00 


5078 




93 18 


5079 




185 00 


5080 




75 00 


5081 




100 00 


5082 




125 00 


5083 




100 00 


5084 




130 00 


5085 




175 00 


5086 




107 06 


5087 




127 06 


5088 




110 03 


5089 




102 43 


5090 




150 00 


5091 




175 00 


5092 




120 00 


5093 




125 00 


5094 




120 00 


5095 




140 00 


5096 




140 00 


5097 




122 88 


5098 




70 00 


5099 




99 78 


5100 




162 78 


5101 




200 00 


5102 




125 00 


5103 




115 00 


5104 




96 00 


5105 




166 43 


5106 





Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



60 ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 

Schedule of claimsj &c. — Horses and other property — Continued. 



Name of olAinuuit. 



Sam'l M. Tinker .... 

Joseph Tiilfer 

Wm. H.Scott 

E.M. Church 

David Baker 

David Baker 

H.M. Deeds 

Joseph Mod tray 

W. L. Weeden 

W.H.Foy 

Sosan Churchill 

M. Y. EaRve 

J.J. Hall 

Brazillia P. Stacey . . 

B. W. Searle 

Andrew J. Berry 

James H. Bond 

John H.Foster 

Wm. R. Cook 

Joseph Effgers 

Benj. D. Fearing 

Laton Glover 

L.P.Hay 

Wm. Standiford 

George W. Stewart- . 

John S. Mowry 

J. A. Collins , 

J. A. Collins 

Wm. P. Innes 

Wm. P. Innes 

Juo. H. MUls 

E.T.Denny 

Homer C. Reed 

Homer C. Reed 

W.C. Hopper 

John Zier 

Isaac Winner 

Joel B. McGregor 

Marshall P. Thatcher 
James D. Thompson 

Cyrus Carter 

James P. Halett 

S. G.Clark 

S.G.Clark 

E.G.Rhea 

J. K. & G. R. Hines. 
Andrew C. Shepherd 

John E. Frank 

James A. Goforth . . . 

Oliver Vincent 

T. A. Sarasiu 

D. McWilliams 

A. Adams 

J. M. Coe 

J. M.DeFriese 

J. M.DeFriese 

D. M. Sprague 

J.S. Street 

Joseph McCoy 

John McLean 

Philip W. Cox 



AmonDt al- 
lowed. 




|90 00 

153 91 

85 00 

90 00 

140 00 

155 03 

158 95 

60 00 

75 00 

131 15 

177 78 

142 18 

150 00 

200 00 

120 00 

127 06 

107 78 

102 78 

ia5 00 

80 00 
100 00 

130 00 
135 00 

85 00 

131 43 
150 00 

130 00 
125 00 
200 00 
175 00 

82 78 

80 00 

165 00 

200 00 

47 00 

131 75 
175 74 
105 00 
150 00 

75 00 

90 00 

40 00 

200 00 

125 03 

140 00 

1,500 00 

255 56 

90 00 

29 59 

130 46 

55 00 

" 145 00 

85 00 

125 00 

174 78 
150 00 
169 25 
150 00 
251 00 
100 00 

175 00 



5107 

i 5108 

5109 

5110 

5111 

I 5112 

5113 

5114 

5115 

5116 

5117 

5118 

5119 

5120 

5121 

5122 

5123 

I 5124 

5125 

I 5126 

I 5127 

I 5128 

, 5129 

5130 

5131 

5132 

, 5133 

^ 5134 

5135 

5i:« 

5137 
5138 
5139 

I 5140 
5141 
5142 

I 5143 
5144 
^144i 
5145 

, 5146 

' 5147 
5148 
5149 
5150 
5151 
5152 
5153 
5154 
5155 
5156 
5157 
5158 
5159 
5160 
5161 
5162 
5163 
5164 
5165 
5166 



Bemarks. 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 61 

Schedule of elaimsj dkc. — Horses and other property — Continued. 



Name of claimant. 



AmouDt al- 
lowed. 



I No. of 

I sett I 



Bemarks. 



Salem Padgett 

J. P. JohusoD 

Joseph Stanley 

Joseph Stanley 

Joseph Stanley 

ClaoH Cords 

Caleb Bonn 

J.R«*itz 

Maria L. Yost, (administTatrix) . 

DavidRons 

Morton A. Pratt 

Morton A. Pratt 

Henry Scatee 

John Wickeaer 

John Wickeser 

James J. Davis 

James T. Tomer 

Samuel Keller 

Ira Pojifne 

A. B. Rowden 

Pollard Appleby 

Philip Fann , 

Charles Starkey 

Chma Stephens 

Heury Sisk 

J.T.Thomas 

J. T. Thomas 

J.D. Melton 

RE. Warren 

Janws Downing 

John Humphreys 

Hiram Reagan 

M.V. Teems 

8amael J. Tarver 

6. P. Clevenger 

W.D. Van Norman 

B.H.Dnnbar 

A.B Filsom 

James F. Gaylard 

James B. Harper 

Georee Million 

Charles A. Steinerd 

Hosea Springer 

Hosea Springer 

Nathan Akins 

F.W.Dyer 

AsaC. Hamm 

Isaac M. Lnsk 

J.A. Craft 

J.C.Abney 

John Evans. 

D. P. Simmons 

Samuel Gilbert 

Samuel Gilbert 

Henry E. Snow 

H. L. Averill 

W.O.Camp 

H.D.Roe 

Benj. Mills 

Joseph Ozenberger 

HenryV.Stall 



190 00 


5167 




150 00 


5168 




30 63 


5169 




80 00 


5170 




130 63 


5171 




70 00 


5172 




100 00 


5173 




120 00 


5174 




197 78 


5175 


T. H. Smith. 


1.35 00 


5176 




132 78 


5177 




100 00 


5178 




33 00 


5179 




135 00 


5180 




120 00 


5181 




150 50 


5182 




115 00 


5183 




153 53 


5184 




74 50 


5185 




141 88 


5186 




125 00 


5187 




125 00 


5188 




100 00 


5189 




60 00 


5190 




100 00 


5191 




80 00 


5192 




127 06 


5193 




140 00 


5194 




100 00 


5195 




80 00 


5196 




75 00 


5197 




100 00 


5198 




100 43 


5199 




120 00 


5200 




144 25 


5201 




85 00 


5202 




150 00 


5203 




90 00 


5204 




135 00 


5205 




125 00 


5206 




90 00 


5207 




143 93 


5208 




141 60 


5209 




115 00 


5210 




68 00 


5211 




148 18 


5212 




147 00 


5213 




150 00 


5214 




171 43 


5215 




125 00 


5216 




75 00 


5217 




50 00 


5218 




200 00 


5219 




200 00 


5220 




200 00 


5221 




113 75 


5222 




150 00 


5223 




174 05 


5 24 




150 00 


5225 




75 00 


5226 




169 25 


5227 





Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



62 ESTIMATES OP APPROPKIATIONS. 

Schedule of clmtns, &c. — Horses and other property — Continued. 



Name of d^mant. 



' Amount al- 
lowed. 




Bemarks. 



E.R. Brink 

E.R.BriDk... 

Robert M. McReynolds . . . 

P. K. Parsons 

Moore Richmond 

W. W. Higgins 

L. E. Irwin 

A. Woodcock 

Sarah Cooley 

S.R.Givin 

Qerrett S. Humphreys 

John M. Reynoms 

J.F. Thresher 

James A. Umpleby 

Wm. L. Farrow 

Benoni Mills 

J.F.Brown 

Fred.Slat« 

W. W. Foster 

A. J. Foster 

A. J. Foster 

W.J.Day 

J. W. Lncas 

P. C.Meyer 

Geo. M. Mark 

James C. Long 

J. W. Horn 

J.W.Hom 

W. C. Moegling 

Nancy Delany 

Edward Hatfield 

J. W. Heirington 

Wm. N.Wells 

M.M.Bamhart 

James Martin 

W.E.Wilson 

B.T. Waldrix 

S.B.Marks 

Wm. E. Yowell 

J. S. Donham 

F. Pharis 

F. Pharis , 

J. B. Williams 

Geo. L. Bone 

B. F. Morgan 

F. Leber 

F. Leber 

J. B. Newsome 

James E. Colville 

B.F.Crocker 

Fred. Pntzer 

John Gilbert 

Richard M. Hayes 

Rob't McDaniels 

David Rush 

J.F.Kent 

Mrs. M.J. Snibley 

W.R. Cook 

W.D. Higgins 

Cord Meyers 

J. W. Sheets, (lieut. col.). 



$150 03 
170 03 

85 00 
200 00 
137 50 

.55 00 
100 00 

90 00 
135 00 

120 00 
110 00 
105 00 

65 00 
160 00 

150 00 

137 18 
152 20 
122 78 
165 00 
122 78 

40 00 

154 68 
146 18 
115 00 

151 25 

124 81 
234 00 
200 00 

177 88 

121 78 
80 00 

122 78 
115 00 

48 68 

173 43 

150 00 

90 00 

90 00 

170 as 

100 00 

125 00 
90 00 

260 98 
100 00 

75 00 
125 00 

30 00 
100 00 
130 00 
135 00 
114 00 

155 83 

171 18 
125 00 

138 18 
144 18 

78 00 
173 43 

178 50 
100 00 
281 28 



5228 
5229 
5230 
5231 
5232 
523:^ 
5234 
5235 
.5236 
5237 
5238 
5239 
5240 
5241 
5242 
5243 
5244 
5245 
5246 
5247 
5248 
5249 
5250 
5251 
5252 
5253 
5254 
5255 
5256 
5257 
5258 
5259 
5260 
5261 
5262 
5263 
5264 
5265 
5266 
5267 
5268 
.5269 
5270 
5271 
5272 
5273 
5274 
5275 
5276 
5277 
5278 
5279 
5280 
5281 
5282 
528:J 
5284 
5285 
5286 
5287 
5288 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



ESTIMATES OF APPEOPEIATIONS. 63 

Schedule of claimsj dkc. — Horses and other property — Continaed. 



Name of el«imant 



Amoont al No. of 
lowed. sett. 



Robt Johnson 

H. Bryant 

H- Bryant 

Jno. Berry 

N.T.Casey 

M. Tbacker 

Jasper Coats 

J. W. Freeman 

J. K. Lones 

Fred. Joindt 

Benj. J. Eoath 

Thos. J. Wilson 

J.W. C.Brown 

J. W.C.Brown 

Jno. M. Basket 

Tho8.F. Hare 

D.M.Claggett 

J.F.Owen 

John H. Howe 

Wm. McMortry 

Orerton Mayes 

Timothy Minton 

Joel Boshing 

G.W.McDaniel 

A. Z. Gray 

Bob't G. Smithers. . . 

W.B. Chapman 

D. A. Hi^gins 

J.O.Lannom 

Jolm Whitting^n . . , 

J.W.Echohs 

D.C. Jennings 

W.ILCohoon ... 

Chas. A. Johnson . . . 

John A. Clark 

James J. McConnell. 

8.8.McFadden 

Jannett Taylor 

Wm.M.Leo 

Thos. McGregor 

R,B. Ellis 

James V. Powell 

R.H.Vandike 

Amos Nichols 

Fletcher M. Welpton 
Francis M. Pitts 



To which add claim of Thomas M. 
Davis, reaffirmed by the Second 
Comptroller January 5, 1878 

Total 

Steamers and other vessels , 

Horses and other property 

Total 



$125 00 
70 00 

70 00 
122 85 

75 00 
110 00 
100 00 
220 00 
150 03 
16G 43 

95 00 

85 00 
171 00 
160 00 
120 00 

85 03 
130 06 
150 00 

175 00 
125 00 
150 00 
125 00 
167 06 
165 00 
200 00 
140 00 

85 00 

40 00 

125 00 

75 00 

130 00 

125 00 

71 18 
200 00 

176 78 
135 68 
110 00 
147 78 
150 18 
100 00 
120 00 
100 00 
182 00 
122 00 
125 00 
102 00 



46,515 66 
135 00 



5289 
5290 
5291 
5292 
5293 
5294 
5295 
5296 
5297 
5298 
5299 
5300 
5301 
5302 
5303 
5304 
5305 
5306 
5307 
5308 
5309 
5310 
5311 
5312 
5313 
5314 
5315 
5316 
5317 
5318 
5319 
5320 
5321 
5322 
5323 
5324 
5325 
5326 
I 5327 
I 5328 
, 5329 
' 5330 
5331 
5332 
5333 
5334 



4711 



46,650 66 



$28,770 72 
46,650 66 



75,421 38 



Bemarks. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



64 



ESTIMATES OF APPEOPEIATlONS. 



Schedule of claimsy &c. — Continued. 

Commutation of Rations to Union Prisoners of War— Joint Resolatiooy 
July 25, 1866, 14 Stat, 364.— (Deficiency.) 



No. of 
claim. 



CUimant 



45, 
45 
45; 
45, 
45, 
45, 
.45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 

45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 
45, 

45, 
45, 
45, 



455 
457 
456 
459 
460 
458 
435 
437 
440 
436 
438 
422 
420 
419 
421 
423 
417 
418 
432 
451 
454 
453 
452 
449 

450 
446 
445 
448 
447 
444 
443 
416 
429 
426 
427 
428 
442 
441 
434 
433 
425 
424 
430 
431 
135 

439 
641 
647 



Henry Wi RhiDehart 

William West 

Peter Wendel 

Clement Williamson 

Hamilton White 

I Alvin T. Withers 

I David Harrington 

Julius E. Hamby 

Samuel Heineken 

James J. Hall , . . . 

John W. Hanselman 

Theo. T. Brummet 

John T. Bee bee 

Ancil Brandenburg 

David Beightler 

William W. Burnett 

James H. Baiuum 

Thomas Q. Blair 

Jacob Pfortner 

Otis D. Morehead 

Jamcis P. McGahey 

Daniel McCoUum 

John Moore 

Martin Manger 

(fJo. 2538 is not one of this class.) 

John C. Marshall 

George W. Lewis 

Phaon Laury 

Gamaliel J. Lund 

Peter Lloyd 

Peter Kremer 

Theo. Keller 

Robert B. Armstrong 

Robert T. Cooper 

Alex. C. Carman 

Thomas M. Christian 

Moses Coffey 

George Hudson 

Joseph Hough 

Jesse Gmbb 

Brisco Goodhart 

William H. Carpenter 

Fred. W. Cady 

Martin V. Day 

Gideon P. Douc^hman 

John W. Doughty, deceased, (Edward 
Douchty's father) 

Samuel C. Haines 



Benjamin Price. 

Silas B. Harrington, deceased. 

Total 



No. of 
sett. 



2514 
2515 
2516 
2517 
251« 
2519 
2520 
2521 
2522 
2523 
2524 
2525 
2526 
2527 
2528 
2529 
2530 
2531 
2532 
2533 

25:m 

2535 
2536 
2537 

2539 
2540 
2541 
2,542 
2543 
2544 
2545 
2546 
2547 
2548 
2549 
2550 
2551 
2552 
2553 
2554 
2555 
2556 
2557 
255tj 

2596 
2598 
2640 
2641 



Date. 



Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec 

Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec 
Dec. 
Dec 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec. 
Dec 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec 
Dec 
Dec 

Dec. 
Dec 
Dec. 
Dec 



Amount. 



1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 I 

1877 I 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 



$37 75 
21 00 

5 00 

6 50 

7 5» 
27 75 

74 50 
6 25 

6 75 
32 75 

29 75 
14 75 
26 50 

3 25 
2 75 

11 00 

625 

139 50 

5 00 

17 50 

7 00 
350 

55 25 
550 

225 

8 75 
21 00 

18 75 
103 75 

925 
21 00 
48 25 

5 25 
37 00 

75 50 
17 50 

4 50 

30 75 

56 00 
39 00 

7 75 

11 00 

> 95 00 

10 25 

76 25 
30 75 
17 50 

48 75 



1.348 75 



Ordnance Service, 1871 and prior years. — (Deficiency.) 

Certified by acconntin|j( officers : 
Thomas Slevin, hauhng pig-iron 



1102 75 



Digitized by CjOOQIC 



ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 65 

Schedule of claims^ &c, — Gontiuued. 

Belief of Certain Musicians and Soldiers for Losses at Fort Sumter in 
1861— Act of July 24, 1861.— (Deficiency.) 

Cerdfied by acconnting officers : 
EdmiiDd Walsh, late private, Company " H," 4th Artillery $15 00 

($194 carried to the snrplos fond Jane 29, 1672.) 



APPENDIX L. 

IhcpUmaiion of the eetimates of the Commissioner of Patents. (Seepage 16.) 

Department of the Interior, 
United States Patent Office, Washingtonj D. C, October 9, 1877. 

Sir: • • • I have asked for an additional appropriation of 
$43,600 for the contingent and miscellaneous exi)ense8 of the office for 
the current fiscal year. This is not in the nature of a deficiency, but 
to meet the extraordinary expenses resulting from damages by fire and 
water. I have itemized the purposes, and carefully estimated the 
amounts required for each outlay. I find that I can relieve to some 
extent the already over-crowded cases in the east and south hall, and 
provide for a time for the accruing models, by constructing a platform 
and second tier of cases on the south side of the F-street hall, similar 
to that upon the north side. For this I have estimated the cost of the 
latter $12,000. 

It having been determined to remove from the attics of this building, 
the drawings and specifications now stored there, amounting to sev- 
eal tons* I have estimated that $4,000 will be required to fit up rooms 
uid shdving, and remove and rearrange them in new cases. 

The awnings were all destroyed at &e time of the fire, some fumi- 
tore, imd many valuable drawing-instruments in use by tracers occupy- 
ing alcoves in the burnt portion of the model-room were abandoned 
Mid destroyed. The furniture and carpets, by repeated hasty removals 
and dn^chings, have become very much damaged and defaced, and 
extensive repairs are necessary. I have estimated the immediate ex- 
pense at $10,000. 

To carpet and furnish the rooms in the Wright building, occupied 
by the copying and tracing divisions of this office, will require $600. 

To restore and classify such metal models as were damaged but not 
destroyed by fire, heretofore mentioned, by skilled workmen, I estimate 
will cost $5,000. 

Much expense nas been, and more will probably be, incurred for 
labor, material, &c, in temporarily protecting the property of the office 
from damage by fire, the water tlm)wn into the building to extinguish 
it, and subsequent storms. This is an extraordinary demand upon the 
present contingent fund of the office. I have estimated it at $2,000, 
and asked its reimbursement. 

By reason of the loss and damage to models and drawings, and the 
derangement of models, drawings, files, and specifications, an additional 
<Mc^ and laboring iorce wiU oe necessary to rearrange them, and 
obtain necessary information for the use of the examining corps in the 

H. Ex. Doc. 45 6 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



66 ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 

current work of the office, and for responses to letters of inquiry. I 
have estimated the additional expense for this purpose for the present 
fiscal year at $10,000. 

By careful survey and actual estimate it is found that upwards of 
(6,000,000 copies of drawings and back issues of patents have been 
destroyed or «o defaced that reproduction is necessary. To reproduce 
these it will cost, at the rate paid for photo-lithographic drawings of 
current issues, $60,000. I believe that three-fourths of these can be 
reproduced during the present fiscal year, and have asked for an ap- 
propriation of $45,000 for this piupose. The balance ($15,000J is in- 
cluded in the estimate for the next fiscal year under the head ox photo- 
lithographing current and back work. 

For photo-lithographing current issues I have asked for $15,000 to 
meet a deficiency in the appropriation for this purpose for the cmreiit 
fiscal year. It has been impossible to secure a contract for the prompt 
and satisfactory execution of this work at a cost less than an aggregate 
of $40,000 per annum. 

For the " Official Gazette" I have also been obliged to ask for an 
appropriation of $15,000, to cover a deficiency in the appropriation for 
this work for the current year. I have explained, in referring to my 
estimates for the ensuing fiscal year, that the cost of the illustrated por- 
tion of the paper is $19,000 per annum and upwards, and the expense 
for employes is as much more. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

ELLIS SPBAE, 
Commissioner of Patents. 

Hon. Secretary of the Interior. 



APPENDIX M. 



Explanation of estimates for Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb. 

{See page 19.) 

Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 

April 26, 1877. 

Sir: Acknowledging the receipt of your esteemed favor of the 17th 
instant, I have the honor to forward herewith estimates of appropria- 
tions for the service of this institution for the fiscal year ending June 
30,1878. 

The amounts submitted were included in our estimates of September 
19, 1876^ designed to provide for the next fiscal year, but were not 
appropriated at the last session of Congress. 

The likelihood of our needing the amount asked to be added for the 
support of the institution, viz., $3,000, is now much greater than when 
it was originally asked for last September, for the reason that the esti- 
mate for the completion of our buildings was favorably acted upon by 
Congress. 

We expect our College building to be ready for occupancy in October 
next, and we have every reason to believe that the number of our 
pupils will be much increased over that of the current year. To pro- 
vide for this increase, and for the proper care, warming, and lighting 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



ESTIMATES OP APPROPRIATIONS. 67 

of the new building, we shall be sure to require the full amount esti. 
mated for, last September. 

The need for the appropriation for the enclosure, improvement, and 
care of our grounds, is more pressing than when the estimate was first 
submitted. No appropriation for this object has been made for several 
years, and many portions of our fences are in so dilapidated a condition 
88 to be at the mercy of every high wind. Tramps and marauders 
break through these old fences with ease, and we find it impossible to 
give even the appearance of protection to the grounds at many points. 

The front line of our grounds has been so interfered with by the 
grading and curbing of Boundary street as to present a very discredita- 
ble appearance, for the remedy of which we have no funds at our com- 
mand. 

The completion of our buildings will necessitate a considerable 
unount of grading of roads and walks to provide suitable approaches, 
uid it is veiy important to the health of the institution that we should 
extend and improve our system of drainage. 

The amount now submitted as an estimate will not be sufficient to 
complete all the improvements that are important for the final arrange- 
ment and 2)roper enclosure of our grounds ; it is, however, as much as 
we ought, perhaps, to ask in a single year. 

With a view of very greatly reducingthe ultimate expense of enclosing 
onr grounds, which should have a strong iron railing at least along the 
line on Boundary street, I venture to suggest that the railing around 
Lafayette square might be turned over to the institution, the expense 
of removal being met out of the appropriation now asked for. So 
bigh and heavy a railing is of no x>ossible importance where it stands, 
and, as a matter of taste, would be condemned by any competent land- 
scape architect, while, as a part of the permanent enclosure of the 
premises of this institution, its full value would be realized. I would, 
therefore, respectfully urge that Congress be asked to authorize its 
transfer to this institution. 

I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. M. GALLAUDET, 

President J &c. 

Hon. Secretary of the Interior. 



Columbia Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, 
Sir: August 2S^1S77. 

• • • • • • • 

1 also submit an estimate of five thousand dollars for the fitting up 
and furnishing of the buildings of the institution, [but two thousand 
five hundred dollars is submitted in the estimate, as a like amount was 
appropriated for this object in the deficiency act of December 15, 1877,] 
which I have placed on a deficiency blank, and i:equest that it may be 
inserted among the estimates asked to be appropriated for the service 
<rf the current fiscal year. 

The need for this appropriation grows out of the probable completion 
and occupancy of our College building by the first of l^ovember next, 
■mch new furniture and many fixtures of a more or less permanent 
dBuracter being necessary for the proper accommodation of those who 
win occupy the new building. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



68 ESTIMATES OF APPROPRIATIONS. 

I beg leave to call attention to estimates submitted under date of 
April 26, 1877, which I have not repeated, but which are needed for 
the reasons set forth in my letter of the date just named. 
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

E. M. GALLAUDBT, 

Presidenty &e, 
Hon. Secretary of the Interior. 



APPENDIX K 



Explanatuyn of the estimate under the head of Geographical Survey of the 
Territories. (See page 23.) 

Department of the Interior, 
U. S. Geographical and Geological Survey ^ Rocky Mountain Regionj 

Washington^ D. 0., August 24, 1877. 

Sir: Under date of May 8, 1877, I received instructions from the 
Secretary of the Interior as follows: 

"Sir: You are hereby notified that the lease of the building on the 
comer of Eighth and G streets, in this city, will terminate on the 3l8t 
instant, and that on said date this Department will quit possession of 
the same. 

"Very respectfiilly, 

"0. SCHURZj 8ecref4Jfy. 
"Major J. W. Powell, 

" Office of the U. 8: Geological amd 

Geographical Survey of the Territories,^ 

Since that time the materials of my office have been stored in the 
basement of the building known as the Patent-Office bmlding, and 
four rooms in a private dwelling have been occupied as offices. These 
rooms were not rented by the Department, and no pledge has been made 
for the payment of the rent by the Government, as there was no au- 
thority of law therefor, and no appropriation from which it could be 
paid. 

Heretofore the furniture used in the offices under my direction has 
been borrowed from other bureaus of the Intetior Department, and 
such fiimiture has been quite inadequate to the wants of my office, 
and finally it has been found necessary to return it. 

It is believed these statements will fully explain the necessity for 
the estimate of $4,000, for office-rent and furniture, which I submit 
herewith. 

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

J. W. POWELL. 

Hon. Secretary of the Interior, 

Washingtony D. C. 



Department of the Interior, 
IL S. Geographical and Geological Survey y Rocky Mountain Region^ 

Washingtony D. C, August 24, 1877. 

Sir: In the summer of 1875, by direction of the Secretary of the 
Interior, a survey was tnade of the Black Hills of Dakota. This survey 



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ESTIMATES OP APPROPKIATIONS. 69 

was made by Mr. Walter P. Jenney, assisted by several scientific gen- 
tlemeivEuid a preliminary report was published early in 1876. 

Mr. Henry Newton, the geologist, also prepared an elaborate and 
careful report on the geology of the district, and the geographers of 
the expedition prepared contour and hachure maps. 

In the meantime Mr. Jenney and the geographic assistants had re- 
tired from the work, and the preparation of the final report was left to ' 
Mr. Henry Newton, the geologist. In Maylast, Mr. Newton received 
the following instructions : 

" Depabtment of the Interior, 

" Washingtony D. C, May 26, 1877. 

"Sir: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of 
the 23d instant, relative to the material prepared for your report on 
the geological and mineralogical examination of the Black Hills, made 
by yourself in connection with Professor W. P. Jenney, in the summer 
of 1875, in which you express a desire to turn over such material to 
3fajor J. W. Powell, in view of its publication in his report. 

"Your letter and the accompanying papers, signed by a number of 
scientific gentlemen of your city, setting forth their views as to the 
value of your work, was referred to Major Powell, who reports that, 
from personal examination of the same, he deems it to be of great value. 
You will, therefore,, deliver to Major Powell the reports, maps, and 
illustrations of your work in the Black Hills, in order that the public 
may, at an early day, have the advantage of your labors. 
"Very respectfidly, your obedient servant, 

"C. SCHUBZ, Secretary. 

^Professor Henry Newton, 

" JTeir TorJc.^ 

He work having thus been placed under my charge, I have caused 
careful estimates to be made of the cost of engraving and printing the 
maps, and also of engraving and printing the geological plates, and it 
has resulted in the amount placed in the estimate which I submit here- 
with. 

The rei)ort is one of very great value, and the survey has already 
cost the Government many thousands or dollars, and it is deemed wise 
to ask for the small appropriation of $4,840 to complete the work, and 
to give the results to the world. 

I am, with great respect, your obedient servant, 

J. W. POWELL. 
Hon. Secretary of the Interior, 

Washington^ B. C. 



APPENDIX O. 

B3cplanaii(m of estimates for Expenses of United States Courts amd Sup 
port of Convicts. {Seepage 42.) 

Department of Justice, February 13, 1878. 

Sir :, I have the honor to transmit herewith estimates of existing de- 
Ikaencies in appropriations disbursed by this Department, with the re- 
quest that you will lay them before Congress for its action. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



70 ESTIMATES' OF APPROPRIATIONS. 

There will be needed the sum of one hundied and ten thonsand 
(110^000) dollars to pay unsettled accounts chargeable to the fund for 
paying the expenses of the United States courts for the fiscal year end- 
ing June 30, 1877. 

There will be required the sum of eight thousand (8,000) dollars to 
supply a deficiency in the fund for transferring convicts from the Dis- 
trict of Columbia, which is now exhausted. 

The reasons for applying for these sums are set forth in the accom- 
panying letter, dated this instant, and abstract of the First Comptroller 
of the Treasury, which are respectfully submitted. 
Very respectfully, 

CHARLES DBVBNS, 

Attamey OeneraL 

Hon. John Sherman, 

Secretary of the Treasury. 



Treasury Department, 
First Comptroller's OfflcCy February 12, 1878. 

Sir: In answer to your letter of the 1st instant, I have the honor to 
state that in my opinion an appropriation of one hundred and ten thou- 
sand dollars ($110,000) will be required to pay the unsettled accounts 
of ofiScers of United States courts and the miscellaneous claims which 
are chargeable to the judiciary fund of the fiscal year ending June 30, 
1877. I transmit herewith an abstract of the accountis and claims of 
this description which are now before this Department. Others are 
coming in daily, and it is impossible to state the exact sum needed. 

The abstract does not contain any of the accounts for which an ap- 
propriation was made on the 21st of November, 1877, and yet it amounts 
to $93,597 34. 

There is a balance of $15,553 62 to the credit of the appropriation on 
the books of this Department, of which about $5,000 is available for 
the payment of the accounts included in the abstract. The residue is 
appUcable to accounts previously received, which it has been imprac- 
ticable to settle up to this date. 

The appropriation for 1878 for support of convicts transferred from 
the District of Columbia is exhausted. It is estimated that at least 
eight thousand dollars will be required to supply the deficiency, and an 
appropriation of that sum is necessary. 

I am not at present advised of any other deficiency of appropriation 
under your Department than those above mentioned. 
Very respectfully, 

B. W. TAYLER, 

Comptroller. 
Hon. Charles Devens, 

Attorney General 



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ESTIMATES OP APPB0PBUTI0N8. 



71 



Abgtraei of wuetlled aeoounts and claims before the Treasury Departmenif for ex^penses of 
United States Courts, in the year ending June 30, 1877. 



DUiricts. 


< 


I 


• 

1 


Commissioners. 


1 


h 


1 

s 


a 


AUtmnft, TfATthfrm 












11, 181 13 
960 85 


195 90 




AUbttna, Middle 






199 60 


8158 35 






AlAtjama, Soathem 






110 50 


$736 39 


Arisona 






si 66 

69 30 
"iOM 


56 75 
90 00 
33 05 








Arkanns Saeten 














Caafoniia 












3,741 96 
150 60 


CotoitKlo 




1500 66 






1,789 95 


CouMctieot 






9 10 
94 95 
84 10 
40 70 




748 91 




DakoU 








Delaware 










Vktriet of Colombia 


389 90 










99 00 




Florida, Xorthem 




948 30 








Florida, Soathem 










930 06 


n««r£U , 






190 10 










1,655 94 


T4fdt? 






59 44 

494 90 
190 10 




■'544"75 




TlHnois. Northern 








3,000 00 


miooia. Soathem 










Indiana 


45 00 
1,900 00 




1,197 15 
345 15 








4,916 19 


Iowa 


940 95 
70 55 
116 50 
103 45 
90 45 




9,719 70 

28 50 

5,469 85 






307 57 




Keataeky 


•j,981 40 








T^ldana 








1,339 60 


M>^*Mr 














^••Ttand 










595 00 
3,016 09 






















IfW^Mgaa. Ktmifim .... 






1, 170 00 
1,187 55 


498 60 

48 65 

830 

55 80 








MfDiMw^ta 














Xisiissippi, Northern .... 















lOwmif "Eastern 










4,301 80 






IlkiMiil, Wostem 






106 60 








330 00 


375*66 


16 80 

114 75 

18 90 

1,000 70 


100 00 








SiSsfa :::::::::;:::::: 


^40 








9«vHampehir« 










345 41 


Xsw Jersey 


1,895 00 




74746 

933 60 

1,950 05 

775 00 




KewMezioo 






1,005 00 










1, 104 76 
317 00 






8,004 10 


5«w York, Soathem 










705 00 


496 50 


5«w York^ Baatem 


85 00 
40 00 

30 66 










North Carolina, Sastem.. 
North Carolina, Western. 
Ohto, Korthm 




158 83 
1,136 64 


45396 
3,476 75 








1,794 71 




473 50 




3, 017 41 
103 98 


Oblo, Soathem 


49 50 
10 00 






5,590 61 












33 95 


"5666 




1,405 61 


PoaasylTania, Sastem . . . 
PcnasTlTaaia. Western .. 










1,603 79 










154 35 

470 95 

87 10 

345 70 










Soath Caiolinm 
















Teaoessee, Eaatem 
















T«aneaB«ei Middle ....'... 


T7 80 










949 66 


Texas, Ksatem 






306 10 
375 00 








tezas^ Western 








901 50 
90 90 








rtsb.' 






99 85 

35 75 

1. 416 14 








Vennoat 














Virvinia. Weatera 








900 00 




458 34 




w«Sv£^ir^:: :::::: 






39 55 






WiseonsiL Baatem 










11 75 
688 79 






Wissonain. Weatem 






59 13 


98 05 






40 09 










Total 


1,380 80 


875 00 


11,106 04 


10,079 60 


1,031 10 96.183 30 1^ 


1,499 86 


33,455 55 






• 1 



RECAPITITLATION. 



Attorneys |6,380 80 

Assistant attorneys 875 00 

Clerks 11,106 04 

Cemniasioners 10,079 60 

Bent 1,031 10 



Board of prisoners |S6, 183 39 

MisceUaneoos 4,499 86 

Marshals 33,455 55 



^ggreg^te 93,507 34 



NoRL^The adoeeUaneoas claims are oomposed ptinolpally of contingent expenses 
aA hy the marshals, bat preeeoted direct to the Treasary Department. 



N4hy 



of ooorta not 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



45th Congress, ) HOUSE OF RBPEESENTATIVES. i Ex. Doc. 
2dSesnon. ] \ No. 46. 



BEAPPROPEIATIONS FOR 1875, AITD PRIOR YEARS. 



LETTER 



FROM 



THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY, 



TRANSMmXNG 



EHimates of amounts to be reappropriatedfor the year 1875, and 
for prior years. 



FiBRUART 8, 1878. — Referred to the Committee on Appropriations and ordered to be 

printed. 



Treasury Departscent, 
Washington^ I). C, February 6, 1878. 

Sir: I have the honor to transmit herewith, in compliance with the 
reqniremente of section 5 of ^^ An act making appropriations for the 
service of the Government for the* fiscal year ending June 30, 1875, and 
for other purposes," approved June 20, 1874, a statement of such of the 
balances of appropriations carried to the surplus fund, under the pro- 
visions of said act, as are required to be reappropriated for the service 
of the fiscal year 1875, and prior years, amounting, in the aggregate, 
to $477,636 21. 

Very respectfully, 

JOHN SHERMAN, 

Secretary. 
Hon. Samuel J. Randall, 

Speaiker of the House of Representatives. 



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APPENDIX. 



APPENDIX A. 

S^edule of dainu embraced in the estimates submitted by the Secretary 
of War. (See pages 6 to 10.) 

Pay, &c., of the Army, 1874.— (Reappropriation.) 

Anean of pay : 

Daniel Chase, late Major U. 8. A f2,437 50 

John McCaffrey, Company " M," 8th U. S. Cavalry 7 10 

Michael Cnllen, Company " M." 8th U. 8. Cavalry 27 61 

James Wilson, Company " I," 7th U. 8. Infantry 63 03 

C. W. Wingard, paymaster 4 16 

Total 2,529 40 

Medical and Hospital Departmbnt, 1871 and prior years. — (Reappropriation.) 

Services: 

8. S. Bicknell, late acting assistant surgeon $36 11 

Services as nurse : 

John C. L. Campbell, late private 80th Indiana Volunteers 28 75 

Hospital supplies : 

James Gormley 671 75 

Senrices: 

John W. Moore, M. D 33 50 

Medicines: 

James M. Perry 42 66 

Services: 

8. B. Thompson, M. D 106 66 

A. L. Taylor, contract surgeon 447 66 

J. B. Torbert, contract surgeon 50 00 

H. 0. Whitlock, contract surgeon 180 00 

George Q. Wheeler, contract surgeon 300 00 

Total 1,8OT 08 

Medical and Hospital Department, 1872.— (Reapivropriation.) 

Medical supplies : 

William WeUs & Co $134 55 

Medical and Hospital Department, 1875. — (Reappropriation.) 

Services, &.c. : 

Henry Lambert $198 00 

Expenses of Military Convicts.— (Reappropriation.) 

1872 $138 88 

^ : 2:W 00 

1«4 238 00 

(Being amounts due the Tennessee penitentiary for keeping military convicts from 
December 1, 1871, to June 30, 1874.) 

H. Ex. Doc 46 2 

Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



18 BALANCES TO BE EEAPPEOPEIATED. 

Schedule of clmmsy &o. — Continaed. 

Draft and Substitute Fund, 1871 and prior years. — (Reappropriation.> 

TranBportation services : 

Barnes & Co $49 20 

Erastus L. Gay, special detective 26 67 

The National Bank of Malone, New York, owner of nnpaid check 

issued by Captain F. H. BarroU, disbursing officer 95 

Friend Palmer, owner of check as above 7 44 

Riggs & Co., owner of unpaid check issued by Captain E. Lodor, 

disbursing officer 3 OO 

Gutterin Peterson, payee of check issued by Captain F. H. Barroll, 

disbursing officer ♦ 1 86 

Transportation : 

W. W. Sweetser 71 09 

Total 160 19 



Bounty to Volunteers, their Widows and legal heirs, 1871 and prior ykars — 

(Eeappropriation. ) 

• John Hanna, 6th Mich. Cav 175 OO 

• Francis M. Davis, 46th Ind. Vols 100 OO 

• Charles Young, 2d La. Vols 75 00 

• Thos. Turk, 1st Cal. Cav 200 00 

•Hy. H.Pillsbury, 148th N. Y. Vols 75 00 

• Milton Kemp, 6th W. Va. Cav lOO 00 

• Joseph A. DavU, 9th W. Va. Vols 165 00 

• Harlan P. Green, 7th Pa. Cav 100 00 

• Geo. G. Neiman, 52d Pa. Vols 100 00 

• Jas. Harkuess, 35th Iowa Vols lOO 00 

•Wm. S. Brown, IstM.M.B. Cav lOO OO 

*JohnKelly, 14 th N. Y. Cav 75 00 

• Sam'l Aladire, 13th Ind. Vols 145 00 

•Jas. J. Adock,:?3dIll. Vols 160 00 

•JohnW. Beverly, 1st Ohio Cav 33 33 

•H. P. Beaman,3d Vt.Vols lOO 00 

• John P. Benson, 1st Ill.Cav lOO 00 

• S. H. Barto, 104th Ohio 75 00 

•C. E.Bowen, 4th Mich 75 00 

•KarlBackert, 62dPa 100 00 

• E. W. White, 4th Vt lOO 00 

•G.F. Cowan, 12th Wis lOO 00 

• H. H. White, 9th Ohio Cav 60 00 

•Elry Boon, 32d Ohio.... ^ lOO 00 

•Dan Savage, 14th Ohio 340 00 

^ C. G. Lathams, P. T. Carlisle barracks, U. S. A lOO 00 

*Wm. H.J^uUer, 1st Mass lOO 00 

• Henry Bell, 77th U. S. C. T lOO OO 

• Solomon Hobbs, 12th U. S. C. H. A. 199 27 

• Hugh Cartan, 3d U. S. Cav 88 40 

• Daniel Jenkins, 2d U. S. Cav 20O 00 

• Daniel Pitchett, 10th U. S. C. T 100 00 , 

•PeterThreet, 10th U. S. C. T lOO 00 

• Bolton McLane, 5th U. S. C. H. A 289 00 

• Jacob Green, 4th U. S. C. H. A 100 OO 

• Matt Jackson, 4th U. S. C. H. A lOO OO 

• Samuel Malone, 4th U. S. C. H.A 100 OO 

• Nelson Holiday, 8th U. S. C. H. A 30O OO 

• John H. Gamer, 14th U. S. C. T 100 OO 

• Benjamin Key, 19th U.S. C.T 200 OO 

• Daniel McKelly, 14th U. S. C. T 100 GO 

•BenEoss,4thU. 8. C. H.A 100 OO 

• James Booker, 108th U. S. C. T 25 OO 

• Henderson Birt, 63d U. S. C. T 100 OO 

•FrankAnkram, 33dU. S. C.T 100 OO 

• Henry Adams, 33d U. S. C. T 100 OO 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



19 



Schedule of claimsy &c, — Continued. 

•PrinceWeathera, 33dU. 8. C. T $100 00 

•Michael Hinds, 97th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

•Joeeph Whitfield, 35th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

•Charles Mullen, 36th U.S. C.T 100 00 

•William Johnson, 23d U.S. C. T 300 00 

•Edward Proctor, 49th U.S. C.T 100 00 

•Jordan Grav, 35th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

•CharlesC. Kinman, 23d Ky 100 00 

•WiUiam H.Smith, 7th Tenn.Cav 100 00 

•Williams. George, 8th Mo. Cav 40 00 

•Adam Sander, Ist Mo. L. Art 310 00 

• Jas. K. P. Wilson, 2l8t Mo •. 100 00 

•Martin V.Peters, 11th V.R.C 140 00 

•Thomas J. Helbrigle, 10th Tenn, 100 00 

•ElrMeyenne, Istlndpt. Co. V. R.C 200 00 

William Battan, 56th U.S. C.T 100 00 

Thomas Lastry, 128th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

DsTid R. Conway, 102dU. S.C.T 160 00 

Lyman Small, 2l8t U. 8. C. T 100 00 

James Scott, 109th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

FnmkUn Johnston, 63d U. S. C. T 100 00 

John Malone, 36th U.S. C.T 100 00 

ABdrew Gardner, 58th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Scipio MUler, 33d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

William Harvey, 40th U. 8. C. T 300 00 

Alfred Walker, e2d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Thornton Ramsey, 123d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Anderson Bos well, 116th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

James R. Weeks, 60th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

lindsey Anderson, 60th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

8aniuelWiUiams, 31st U.S. C.T 100 00 

WiDiam Banion, 60th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Silas Samuels, 60th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Albert Stevenson, 106th U. 8. C. T t.... 297 80 

Kchd. Appleton, 111th U. S. C. T 300 00 

Floyd Bryant, 114th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

William Allen, 110th U. 8. C. T 200 00 

Robert Henshaw, 83d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

fiemnel Davis, 79th U. S. C. T 100 00 

Jacob Smart, 83d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Jamea MUler, 39th U. 8. C. T 300 00 

Jesse Norris, 39th U. 8. C. T 300 00 

Benjamin Brant, 83d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Anthony Roberts, 83d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Richard Salter, 116th U. 8. C.T 100 00 

JamesH.Johnson, 23dU. 8. C.T 100 00 

Charles Alexander, 13th U. 8. C. H. A 100 00 

Joseph Birdsong, IstU. 8. C. Cav 100 00 

Ridley Walker, 58th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Anderson Coulter, 40th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Hczekiah Patrick, 17th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Elias Broady, 89th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Lewis Hobnes, 87th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Henry Davis, 109th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Thomas Bowlin, 92d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Thomas Brown, 76th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

James Monton, 78th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Bobert Patterson, 84th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Geoeral CarroU, 101st U.S. C.T 300 00 

Dodc8taley,40thU. 8. C.T... 300 00 

8«nnel Bayard, 6th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Squire Route, 123d U. S. C. T 100 00 

*>ieph Wilson, 79th U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Dwfcl Ramsey, 63d U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Jtties Brawley, 60t.h U. 8. C. T 100 00 

B^ Burrows, 64th U.S. C.T 100 00 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



20 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPEIATED. 



Schedule of claims^ dec. — Continued. 

Cato Johnflon, 97th U.S.C.T $200 53 

Adam Myers, 76th U. S. C. T lOO 00 

Henry Mack, 87th U. S. C. T 100 00 

JohnDnncan, 107th U. S. C. T lOO 00 

Alfred Mitchell, 96th U. S. C. T lOO 00 

James Isaacs, 84th U. S. C. T 100 00 

Allen Bell, 52d U. S. C. T lOO 00 

James Stewart, 75th U. S. C. T 100 00 

Charles Ward, 17th U. S. C. T :.. lOO 00 

George Hamilton, 6th U. S. C. T 300 00 

Jacob Harlin, 1st U. S. C. T 100 00 

Milton Oendorf, I'ith U. S. C. T 100 00 

Alexander Brown, 13th U. S. C. T 100 00 

Festus White, 9th U. S. C. T 20O 00 

Frank Casey, 14th U.S.C.T 91 ^ 

Mitchell Wynn, 17th U. S. C. T 100 00 

Felix Cullom, 17th U. S. C. T lOO 00 

Peter Alston, 40th U. S. C. T lOO 00 

John Stokes, 52d U. S. C. T 300 00 

James Knave, 17th U. S. C. T .' lOO 00 

Jas. B. Dolanev, 29th U.S.C.T 140 00 

Dick Williams, 64th U.S.C.T 260 00 

Frederick Shields, 52d U. S. C. T lOO 00 

Jerrv Havs, 58th U. S. 0. T lOO 00 

Burl Head, 64th U.S. C.T....: 25 00 

Alford White, Uth U. S. C. H. A lOO 00 

Roach Turner, 11th U. S. C. T lOO 00 

Phillip McCrary, 13th U.S.C.T lOO 00 

James McClees, 37th U. S. C. T 290 00 

John A. Scott, 29th Conn 30O 00 

John Capehart, Ist. Ky. Cav lOO 00 

Edwin S. Sloan, 2d Mo. S. M lOO 00 

James Beale, 22d Mo. Vols lOO 00 

LorinS. Bodelle, 22d V. R. C 30O 00 

George F. Green, 5th Tenn. Cav 20O 00 

Henrv Wilson, 4th Ky. Vols 110 57 

Thomas Hereld, 17th Ky. Cav 3:i 34 

Porter H. Calbert, 11th Ky. Vols lOO 00 

Lonis Price, 2d Mo lOO 00 

George W. Prater, 14th Ky 75 00 

Andrew J. Salsman, 27th Ky lOO 00 

Jacob T. Bask, 22dKy lOO 00 

John Hoi loway, 2d Tenn lOO 00 

Lewis E. Musick, 13th Mo. Cav lOO 00 

William G. Anderson, 8th Mo. Cav 240 00 

Charles O. King, 16th V. R. C - 75 00 

William S. Kleckner, 8th Mo 100 00 

James F. Farrar, 11th Mo. Cav 20O 00 

William Wiant, 5th M. S. M 100 00 

William R. Young, 7th M. S. Cav 100 00 

Jacob Lano, 2d V. R. C la^ QO 

William Johnson, 10th Ky lOO 00 

David F. Cress, 2d M. S. M. C 100 00 

William H.Purcell, 39th Ohio and 18th Ky 200 00 

Henry Voorhies, 2d V. R. C 325 00 

John W. Curtis, Ist M. S. M 100 00 

Calvin Holston, 5th Tenn. Cav 75 00 

Charles Street, 4th Mo. Cav 100 00 

John Gallop, 9th M. S. M. Cav lOO 00 

Jones C. Molter, 19th V. R. C -. 75 00 

William L. McCannon, 10th Tenn 100 00 

Jeremiah McCoy, 45th U. S. C. T 17 19 

George Lawler, 115th U.S.C.T 100 00 

William Butler, 7th U. S. C. T 100 00 

Lewis Boughton, 12th Pa. Res 4^5 00 

Calvin Russell, 46th U. 8. C. T 100 00 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



BALANCES TO BE KEAPPROPRIATED. 



21 



Schedule of daimsy &o. — Continued. 

Victor Johnson, 73d U. S. C. T $100 00 

Monroe Walker, 5th U. 8. C. H. A 100 00 

David Simeon, 8l8t U. 8. C. T 100 00 

Daniel Spriggs, 5th U. 8. C. H. A 100 00 

Geo. W. Ulah, let Pa, Pro v. Cav 160 00 

Gnstav Sells, 15th Kan. Cav. and Ist Kan. Vols 400 00 

Dudley H. Pepi^er, Miss. Marine Brigade 50 00 

Jas. 8, Mnllen, Miss. Marine Brigade 75 00 

EU Gardner, 104th N. Y 100 00 

John B. Markley, 9th Mich 100 00 

Wm.Danlap, 145thPa 75 00 

Aaron Yoong, 6th N. Y. H. Art •. 75 00 

John W. Sage, 114th N. Y ., 66 67 

H. E. Brainerd, 5th N. Y. Cav 100 00 

Stephen Bush, 16th N. Y. Art 75 00 

R. J. Austin, 6th Mich. Cav 40 00 

Jacob Freas, 2d N. J. Cav 100 00 

Thos. Cnthbertson, 1st Mich. Cav 100 00 

Samuel A. Davis, 8th Pa. Res 100 00 

John T. Drouenberg, IstP. H. B. Md. Cav 100 00 

Wm.Dovle, 11th N. Y 100 00 

Ithamer Jenuer, 11th N. Y 100 00 

Decatur Childs, 8th Mich. Cav 33 34 

Jeremiah Bittner, 87th Pa 100 00 

Hiram W. Frazee, 2d Ky. Art 100 00 

John Angel, 15th Iowa 100 00 

John P. Decker, 13th N. ff 75 00 

Chas. J. Palmer, 144th N. Y 75 00 

Geo. Slater, 128th N. Y 4 75 00 

Jos. H. Marple, 11th Kan 75 00 

Wm. J. Pierce, 9th N. Y. Art 75 00 

Wm. E. Burlew, 109th N. Y 75 00 

John Burrows, 5th Pa. Cav 290 00 

Chester Kemp, Ist Mich. 8. 8 240 00 

Peter Lowry, 10th Pa. Res 100 00 

AMcKevitj (alias J. Burk,) 90th Pa 100 00 

J.J. Lei8,r alias L.Marsch,) 58th N.Y 200 00 

Michael CVNeill, 11th N. Y 100 00 

Jas. A. Austin, Ist Mich. S. 8 85 00 

Jas. S. Kiffington, 2d N. Y. Art 48 00 

Franklin SatU, 18:W Pa 100 00 

Joshua Adamson, 39th Iowa 75 00 

Allen Delezon, 8th Mich. Cav. and 4 Mich. Vols 175 00 

Simeon Bradley, 2d Pa. Prov. Cav 233 60 

W. H. Baldwin, 2d Pa. Heavy Art 100 00 

Jerre Burger, 6th Pa. Res 100 00 

Abel Cruson, 2d Mich. Cav 100 00 

Sam. H.Blackman, 89th N.Y 100 00 

George Eggers, 11th N. Y 100 00 

Richard Wilson, 11th N. Y 100 00 

W.L.Eflrgle8ton, 64th N.Y 100 00 

Anion Freeman, 10th Minn 100 00 

Samuel Cady, 74th N. Y 100 00 

T. C. Eastley, 1st N. Y. Cav 100 00 

J. H. Franklin, 6th N. Y. Art 100 00 

B. Goodspeed, 8th Mich. Cav 100 00 

Hiram E. Gruber, 8th Mich. Cav 120 00 

Richard Green, 7l8t N.Y 100 00 

Perry A. Goodall, 93d N. Y 100 00 

Henry H. Hamilton, 1st N.Y. Prov. Cav 100 00 

WUIiam Hogle, 9th Mich. Vols 50 00 

Anderson Huist, 2d Iowa Vols 100 00 

Joieph Kennessy, 8th N. Y. Heavy Art 100 00 

HinunC. Fulton, 2d N. Y. Cav 40 00 

WiUiamE. Helmer,7th Mich. Vols 100 00 

' » Heany, 11th N. Y. Vols 100 Oa 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 



BALANCES TO BE EEAPPEOPRIATED. 



Schedule of ctaimsj dko. — Continued. 

Sam. L. Jones, 30th Mich. Vols $33 33 

John Krieg, 74th N. Y. Vols 50 00 

Levi Lackey, 209th Pa. Vols 66 67 

J. J. Lautz, 52d Pa. Vols 100 00 

Charles Lyon, 190th Pa. Vols 115 00 

Ivory Lambert, 3l8t Iowa Vols 25 00 

C. C. Howe, 52d Pa. Vols 100 00 

Henry Hayden, 23d N. Y. Battery 300 00 

W. H. Mast,2d Pa. Art lOO 00 

Harrison Morse, 5th N. Y. Cav 100 00 

E. D. Conley, 6th Mich. Art lOO 00 

John Kilbourn, 3d Mich. Cav 33 33 

Phineas Malin, 13th Pa. Res .^ lOO 00 

William E. Martin, 3d Mich. Cav 200 00 

Benjamin Mathews, 6th Iowa Vols 240 00 

Pat. McNany, 22d N. Y. Cav 92 38 

John 8. Penrod, 76th Pa. Vols lOO 00 

John Qnirk, 6th Cal. Vols 30O 00 

N. M. Richardson, 2d Mich. Vols 20O 00 

John Rhinehart, 13th Pa. Res lOO 00 

John Rhinehart, 12th Pa. Cav 30O 00 

C. W. Yoxtheimer, 53d Pa. Vols 290 00 

Dan. Shiers, 98th Pa. Vols 162 03 

W. F. Russell, 12th Pa. Cav lOO 00 

John A. Smith, lllth Pa. Vols lOO 00 

Paul Smith, 188th Pa. Vols 45 00 

John SI ugg, 4th Pa. Res "•. lOO 00 

Ansell Adams, 27th Mass. Vols lOO 00 

S. Buchanan, 40th Ohio Vols 30 90 

John P. Bishop, 64th 111. Vols 80 00 

John W. Byers, 15th 111. Cav 240 00 

Chas. Brown, 149th 111. Vols 75 00 

A. L. Brown, 12th Iowa Vols 120 00 

John J. Bray, 1st N.J. Cav 75 00 

Angelo Burke, 5th Ohio Cav 190 00 

H. Chronister, 89th lud. Vols 75 00 

F. E. Curtis, 7th Wis. Vols 100 00 

Francis Cahill, 4th N. H. Vols 100 00 

Charles Curtis, 15th 111. Vol 100 00 

T. P. Carlin, 3d Vt. Vols 100 00 

E. Cawood, 150th Ind. Vols 33 33 

E. Crupper, Ist Ohio Cav 100 00 

J.L. Coffin, 4th Wis. Vols 100 00 

P. DeWolf, 9th III. Cav 100 00 

Levin Dodds, 18th Wis. Vols 100 00 

Carlos Duvall, Ist Vt. Cav 100 00 

R. H. Dinehey, 1st Conn. Heavy Art 100 00 

R. Deqtschman, 3d Ohio Cav 100 00 

Russell Delap, 23d Wis. Vols 75 00 

J. W. Densmore, 69th Ind. Vols 75 00 

E. P. Elsbree, 7th Mass. Vols 100 00 

A. J. Florey, 8th 111. Vols 300 00 

J. S. Favis, 50thIlF.Vols 100 00 

Sam. B.Fisk, 17th Vt. Vols 40 00 

Grovey French, 2l8t Ohio Vols 100 00 

Philip French. 32d HI. VoU 100 00 

W.W.C.Groatley, 13th Ind. Cav 75 00 

John H.Griffith, 15th 111. Vols 200 00 

Hay Grieve, 107th N. Y. Vols 75 00 

H. (Slasener, 57th 111. Vols 100 00 

Henry Grieder, 74th Ind. Vols 192 00 

A. B. Horton, 103d Ohio Vols 75 00 

William Harden, 18th Wis. Vols 100 00 

A.J. Hard, 6th Ind. Cav 200 00 

P. W. Hensley, 94th Ohio Vols 40 00 

H. S. Hodge, 3d Wis. Cav 100 00 

Digitized bV VjOOQIC 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



23 



Schedule of claimsy &c. — Continued. 

J. Q. A. Harlow, 32d Mass. Vols |190 00 

Charles Harroan, 12th III. Cav 40 00 

John Harris, 15th Ind. Vols 100 00 

George 8. Hoover, 61st Ohio Vols 100 00 

John Honghtaling, 3d Wis. Cav 100 00 

M.Hughes, 98th III. Vols 75 00 

H. E. Holcomb, 7th Wis. Vols 190 00 

John Ingold, 37th Ohio Vols 100 00 

Thomas James, 13th 111. Cav : 240 00 

H. F.Jacobs, 17tli lU. Vols 100 00 

George Jenkins, 33d lU. Vols 300 00 

Clouse Johnson, 37th 111. Vols 100 00 

George A. Johnson, 7th Marine Battery 120 00 

James T. Kelley, Ist Ind. Cav 100 00 

Alex'r Knife, 25th 111. Vols 100 00 

«.W. Keyea, 16th Mass. Vols 100 00 

DanKnansSy 15th Iowa Vols 76 56 

Levi Kelly, 5th W. Va. Vols 100 00 

Fred Keim, 84th III. Vols 75 00 

E. Kavanangh, 39th Ohio Vols 100 00 

Thomas Larkin, 43d Ohio Vols 100 00 

John Lafayette, bth Ohio Vols 100 00 

La Lane, ICth III. Vols i 100 00 

Scott Looker, 43d Ohio Vols 100 00 

John Lipp, 20th 111. Vols 100 00 

JncLyle, 1st W. Va. Cav 100 00 

Dan Llovd, 80th Ohio Vols 290 00 

L. Lassiter, 97th IlL Vols 75 00 

D. M. Morris, 33d 111. Vols 140 00 

Henry Mosier, 3l8t Wis. Vols 80 00 

J. H. McKenney, 6th Maine Vols 100 00 

Francis Moses, 18th Ohio Vols 100 00 

John McDanell, llth Ohio Cav 120 00 

Thos McLarnaer, 6th Co. Ohio S. S 160 00 

Geo. W. Miller, Ist Ind. Heavy Art 100 00 

Eaekiel Miles, 6th Vermont Vols 100 00 

Francis Mets, llth Ohio Cav 190 00 

John Mueller, 9th Ohio Cav 100 00 

8am Gow, r>3d Ohio Vols 140 00 

P. Z. T. W. Jensen, 13th lU. Cav 100 00 

William Moore, 18th 111. Cav 100 00 

J. R. Mulduner, 26th Ind. Vols 140 00 

a V. Mosher, 2d III. Cav 100 00 

James McCord, 3d Wis. Cav 100 00 

Thos, Mathews, 155th N. Y. Cav 75 00 

John E. Moore, 73d 111. Cav 75 00 

WUliam J. Mattingly, 35th ni. Cav 100 00 

A Monteffriff, 39th N. Y. Cav 100 00 

Jno. MathawH, 14th Mich. Cav 80 00 

B. Moy, 82d Ohio Cav 100 00 

W. McGuire, 2d Iowa Cav 100 00 

8.N.Neblack, 12th III. Cav 165 00 

F.Nappor, loth 111. Cav 1 82 50 

H.B. Nichols, llth Maine Vols 100 00 

Lncius Nash, 39th lU. Vols 100 00 

8. G. Nories, 22d Ohio Vols 100 Oa 

Martin Nelson, 5th Ind. Cav 100 00 

J. Nicholson, 9th Ohio Vols 100 00 

UriOren, 147th Ind. Vols 33 33 

Thos. O^rien, 3d Ohio Cav 45 00 

KF.Orem, 10th Ohio Cav 75 00 

Walter Palmer, 6th Conn. Vols 100 00 

Junes Pierce, 46th 111. Vols 100 00 

Jtaes Parker, 1st Ind. Heavy Art 200 00 

G. H. Phelpe, 6th Wis. Vols 100 00 

J. E. Perkins, 3d Mich. Vols 100 00 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



24 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



Schedule of claimsy dke. — Continued. 

Geo. Palmerston, Ist Wis. Vols flOO OO 

Philip Rizer, 150th Ind. Vols 33 3a 

H. C. Reed, 5th 111. Cav 100 4)0 

J. H. B. Reiifro, 48th III. Vols 124 86^ 

J. R. McMurtry, 56tb 111. Vols 100 Oa 

B, 8. McMurtry, 56th 111. Vols 100 00- 

B. F. Chandler, 29th lud. Vols 100 00 

JohnRickley, 157th III. Vols 24 29 

Charles C. Robbins, ist Ind. Heavy Art 300 00 

John Reynolds, 73d Ohio Vols 100 OO 

Daniel Webster, 3d Vermont Vols 82 98 

Thomas Smith, 17th Mass. Vols 100 OO 

Frank Partridge, Ist Mass. Vols : 100 00 

James Cain, 62d Pa. Vols 100 OO 

George Grinnell, 6th Pa. Res 100 OO 

Albert Phillips, 23d 111. Vols 100 OO 

W. V. Riggins, 22d III. Vols 100 OO 

T. A. Milhouse, 14th lU. Vols 100 00 

GUman Chase, 15th III. Vols 100 Oa 

B. F. Beck, 8th 111. Vols 100 OO 

William Darragh, 26th 111. Vols 100 OO 

C. C. Shobe, 6th Iowa Vols 100 00 

Adam Clark, 23d Ind. Vols 100 OO 

F. M. Walters, 17th Ind. Vols 100 OO 

W. L. Bronson, 5th Wis. Vols 100 00 

J. D. Graff, 25th Ohio Vols 100 OO 

Andrew Tailor, 8th Ohio Vols 100 00 

W.C.Suff,24th Ohio Vols 100 OO 

J. B. Davis, 5th Ohio Vols 100 OO 

Merserean Wood, 67th N. Y. Vols 100 00 

George Barrett, 1st Conn. Art 100 00 

J. O. Shaw, 3d Wis. Vols 100 00 

S. H. Hagadora, Ist Wis. Art 100 OO 

A. W. Rose, 14th Ind. Art 100 00 

William McCoubrey, 79th N.Y. Art 100 OO 

W. W. Brodie, 40th N. Y. Art 100 00 

L. W. Callaghan, 40th N. Y. Art 100 OO 

James Kirkman, 6th U.S. Cav 200 00 

Chas. Stafford, Ist N. Y. Cav lOO 00 

C.N. Case, 1 5th 111. Vols lOO 00 

E. T. Bristol, 84th N. Y. Vols lOO 00 

Henry Cowles, 13th Pa. Res lOO OO 

Charles Parker, 3d Mich. Vols lOO 00 

C. G. Bealea, 5th Iowa Vols UX) OO 

W. A. Critchfield, 23d Ohio Vols 100 00 

J. W. Johnson, 10th 111. Vols 93 70 

John Sarams, 21st 111. Vols 64 0& 

B. D. Ketts, 14th 111. Vols 100 OO 

J. H. Shoemaker, 26th Ind. Batty 100 OO 

D.D. Daily, Ist Mich. Lt. Art. ..: 100 00 

Hazelton Sannders, Ist Mich. Inf lOO OO 

H. C. Schney, 62d Pa 100 00 

E. H. Slocum, llthlN. Y 100 OO 

Silas Osborn, 50th N. Y. Engrs 100 00- 

William Rose, 3d Ohio Cav 100 OO 

WalterH. White, 50th N.Y. Engrs 100 OO 

James C. Armor, 10 Ist Pa. 240 00 

Wm. A. York, 25th Wis 75 00- 

Total 50,951 82^ 



Note.— (By Second Auditor'a Office,)— The sixty-one bounty claims marked (*) have- 
been certined by this office and confirmed by the Second Comptroller. The remaining 
bounty claims have been certified by this othce and are now in the Second Comp- 
troller's office awaiting confirmation. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPEIATED. 



25 



Schedule of claims^ &c. — Continued. 
Armt Transportatiox, 1871 AND PRIOR YEARS. — (ForreappropriatioD.) 



No. of 



20,378 
40,567 
42,104 
41,299 
85,762 
38,703 
41,973 
33,744* 

13,202 

40,301 
40,485 
38,748 
40,031 
«,067 
42,7^ 
42.787 
42,786 
40,872 
39,570 
42,635 
27,319 
38.551 
41.980 

42,216 
40,609 
42,105 
42,200 

4«,376 
43,968 
38,241 
42,932 
42,149 
39,031 
43,984 
«2,899 

43,964 

32,863 

42,314 

42.737- 

26.897 

44,024 

41,071 



43,664 
42,069 
0,035 
42.077 

44.036 

39,173 



Kame of oUlmant 



No. of 
sett. 



Illinois Central Railroad Company 

John Dowling, ($84 20 paid) 

H. B. Guthrie 

J.T. Bell 

Joordcn Peacock 

Wm. H.McAtee 

Jefferson Jones 

Elizabeth Jane Wirthlin and fourteen 
others 

Steamer "J. D. Swain'' and Edwin E. 
Sanderson 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company . 

Sloop " Pointer'* and owner 

Wesley Rhodes 

Joseph F. Dunn 

George Pollock 

A. H. Kennedy , 

Z. Lindsay 

Frank Skillem 

W.T.Anthony 

Wra. C. Lafferry 

P.V.Johns 

John Oden , 

David Gibson 

Ellsworth P. Scales, (in part,) Second 
Comptroller's settlement 

Rol>ert Kinningham 

R. D. McCracken 

Mary W.May 

Jesse Cheek and Stephen Dark, execu- 
tors, &c 

George Johnson 

Wm. A. Walker 

George La Rochelle 

George Gillespie, deceased 

Theo. A. Fisk, deceased 

Daniel McGuiney 

Frank Skillem 

T.J. Moore and seven others, (in part) — 
Jno. Henderson 

August Thieman 

William Bradford 

Kitty C. Sims, deceased 

James L. Coman 

Hugh J. Conby 

P. W.Cargile 

Mrs. Fanny Harding, (in part) 

Outstanding liabilities, '^transfer settle- 
ment) 

A. R. Alley 

John McCroskey, deceased 

T. P. Clement 

Hardin R. Wright and one other 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

P. E. Freeman, (Second Comptroller's 
statement) 

Ezekiel A. Neal 

* And others. 



2070 
2084 
2101 
2108 
2125 

2i:« 

2138 

2173 

2174 
22:^8 
2248 
2250 
2263 
2272 
2278 



Date. 



Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 



Jan. 24 



Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 



2279 Feb. 
2299 I Feb. 
2301 I Feb. 
2.381 I Feb. 
2386 Feb. 
2437 Mar. 
2488 Mar. 



2661 
,3503 
3518 
3519 

3517 
3526 
3541 
3546 
3597 

vm\ 

3602 
3604 



Mar. 2:^, 
April 14, 
April 17 
April 17 

April 17 
April 17 
April 18, 
April 18, 
April 21 
April 23, 
April 23, 
April 23, 



.3620 ; April 25, 
3670 May ^ 
3678 , May 
3684 May 
3688 I May 
3696 I May 
:^699 May 
3706 May 



3691 
3725 
3773 
3768 
3788 
7409 

3822 
3835 



May 
May 
May 11 
May 11 
May 12, 
Mar. 28, 

May 25, 
May 28, 





Amoant. 


1877 


$355 63 


1877 


315 80 


1877 


200 00 


1877 


187 50 


1877 


171 50 


1877 


229 97 


1877 


39 7& 


1877 


2,730 48 


1877 


6,850 OO 


1877 


15,228 9a 


1877 


161 00 


1877 


90 00 


1877 


73 75 


1H77 


2 00 


1877 


8 75 


1877 


42 50 


1877 


60 50 


1877 


210 00 


1877 


705 50 


1877 


10 50 


1877 


365 25 


1877 


270 OO 


1877 


565 OO 


1877 


33 00 


1877 


135 95 


1877 


72 50 



1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 I 

1877 

1877 

1877 

1877 



1877 I 

1877! 

1877 

1877! 

1877 

1877 I 

1877 

1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1874 

1877 

1877' 



I 



39 06 

160 00 

8 40 

114 50 

79 37 
75 00 
86 00 
27 56 

5 OO 

15 00 

180 OO 

155 60 

62 75 

80 00 
8 25 

540 00 

93 37 

17 IS 

443 00 

250 OO 

15 00 

2,000 00 

110 00 
103 25 



Digitized by CjOOQ IC 



26 



BALANCES TO BE EEAPPROPRIATED. 



Schedule of olaimSj itc. — Army transportationj 1871 and prior years 

Continued. 



No. of 
claim. 



Name of claimant. 



32,432 

42,934 

42,»99i 

40,097 

43,995 

38,174 

40, 113 

25,357 

38,928 

39,784 

25,381 

39,394 

37,486 

40,480 

44,267 

32,035 

44,074 



42,946 
44, 161 
39,561 
42, 145 
43,958 
23,068 
33,869 

12,817 



43,656 
42, 124 
38,673 
40,165 

44,935 
44,515 
44,825 
38, 311 
40,336 
26,387 

38,610 
38,635 
38,674 
44,011 
42,102 
34,766 



31,202 
42, 118 
43,426 
44,965 
45,168 

44,785 



I Greorge Thomas, (in part) 

I James Whitworth, (m part) 

Daniel 8. Tucker 

J. B. Pickens 

Emanael Snvder 

Mrs. Nancy Butler, (^in part) 

J. C. Bryan 

Wm. L.Fenix 

Meh-ba-ke 

Valentine Cleck 

Henderson Moore 

G. W. Moore 

J. M, Symons 

Estate of Owen Murray 

Gabriel Smith 

J. Condi t Smith 

I Annapolis and Elk-Ridge Railroad Com- 
pany 

S. 8. Van Vliet, Captain and A. Q. M., 
(settlement by Quartermaster's Div.). 

James Cox 

' Fanny Harding, (E. D. Hicks, executor). 
! Peter McClusky 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. 
! Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. 

1 Fitch burg Railroad Company 

I R. K. Young, (part under Q. M. Division, 
1871, and prior) 

William Lincoln, ($28 under Q. M. Di- 

' vision, 1871, and prior) 

I Richard A. Osmar, late Lieutenant 2d 
Cavalry, (settlement made by Q. M. 
Division) 

John H. Jackson 

I Louis Brown 

' Godfrey Nave, (or Knave) 

E. W. Murphy, (steam ferry-boat ** Wide 
Awake") 

H.B. North 

I Acher H. Farmer 

; Wm.T. Price 

i Central Vermont Railroad Company 

Margaret Voij^t, widow of B. Voigt .... 
1 Sinclair Garvin, deceased (J. W. Ed- 
wards, executor) 

D. J. Perin, widow of E. Perin, (or Parien ) . 

I Richard Taylor ) 

I Henry Dickinson J 

; James Wilson 

; J. P. Maxwell, father of C. O. Maxwell . 
I Buffalo and Erie Railroad Company, 
' (payment to Lake Shore and Michigan 
Southern Railroad Company) 

John P. Brown 

Wm. J. Carter 

Robert Rhinehart 

John Howard 

Annapolis and Elk-Ridge Railroad Com- 
pany 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company.. 



No. of 

Mtt 


Date. 

May 28,1877 


AmooDt. 


3842 


|15 00 


3843 


May 


28,1877 


230 00 


3854 


May 


29,1877 


200 00 


3892 


June 


2,1877 


125 00 


3948 


June 


5,1877 


28 00 


3898 


June 


4,1877 


125 00 


3901 


June 


4,1877 


75 00 


3921 


June 


4,1877 


5 00 


3936 


June 


5,1877 


31 00 


4010 


June 


7,1877 


71 76 


4035 


June 


9,1877 


90 00 


4038 


June 


9,1877 


72 49 


4039 


June 


9,1877 


11 00 


3942 1 June 


5,1877 


121 32 


4079 1 June 14, 1877 


32 37 


4146 


June 25,1877 


670 00 


4173 


June 29, 1877 


99 27 


4262 


July 


24,1877 


100 00 


4:i41 


Aug. 


9,1877 


44 06 


435H 


Aug. 


9,1877 


243 36 


4362 


Aug. 


9,1877 


50 00 


4355 


Aug. 


9,1877 


439 34 


4351 


Aug. 


9,1877 


23,133 29 


4381 


Aug. 


9,1877 


268 03 


4387 


Aug. 


9, 1877 


16 00 


4417 


Aug. 


15,1877 


2 00 


4447 


Aug. 


20,1877 


43 85 


4496 


Sept. 


1,1877 


156 00 


4528 


Sept. 


8,1877 


129 90 


4535 


Sept. 


8,1877 


66 00 


4571 


Sept. 


17,1877 


100 00 


4597 


Sept. 


28,1877 


199 00 


4627 


Oct. 


9,1877 


110 00 


46:i7 


Oct. 


9,1877 


14 50 


4573 


Sept. 


22,1877 


4 02 


4598 1 Sept. 


28,1877 


108 00 


4629 


Oct. 


9,1877 


60 00 


4638 


Oct. 


9,1877 


39 00 


4668 


Oct. 


12,1877 


5 63 00 
i 22 00 


4703 


Oct. 


15,1877 


123 75 


4690 


Oct. 


15,1877 


12 00 


8657 


Jan. 


31, 1876 


48 


4736 


Oct. 


22,1877 


735 00 


4804 


Nov. 


10,1877 


58 32 


4814 


Nov. 


10,1877 


76 90 


4809 


Nov. 


10,1877 


52 50 


4827 


Nov. 


13,1877 


7 78 


4832 


Nov. 


13,1877 


639 42 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



27 



Schedule of claims^ &c^ — Army transportation^ 1871 and prior years.- 

Continued. 



ycof 
daim. 



NMne of clainuuit. 



44,784 
44,301 

40,875 

45,180 

3?, 481 



»,776( 
29,778) 
43,98:2 

45,350 

44,938 
45,325 

%,550 



18,005 
31,425 



10,832 
45^247 
45,310 

17,129 
44,118i 
45,049 
45,516 

38,602 
43,425 
»,327 
38,614 
34,394 

40,695 
3B,a29 
24.944 
42,783 
44,845 
«,158 



' Baltimore and Ohio Railroad CompaDy.. 
ADDapolis and Elk-Ridge Railroad Com- 

I pany 

I Steam-tag '^Colambos/' (Jos. McLean, 

' owner) 

. Annapolis and Elk-Ridge Railroad Com- 

' pany 

I Mobile and Montgomery Railroad Com- 

I pany; (by oversight this item was 

omitted to be entered and included in 

the report made to Secretary of War 

December 19, 1876; $144 62 was paid 

* at time of settlement, leaving still 
due, $22 13) 

Mrs. Marina Douglas, ($130 under C. and 

A. horses, 1871) 

, Steplen Nickerson, (schooner '^H. P. 

Russell") 

John Waldron, deceased, (John Jones, 

executor) 

, F. A. Westmoreland 

Baltimore and Susquehanna Steam Com- 
pany, (tug "Atlas") 

* Central Pacific Railroad Company, 

$46 03: Union Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, $28 03 

A. Buchanan, (barge " Storm No. 3" ) 

Jack Foster, deceased, $92; Joseph Blair, 
deceased, $117 50; Morris Pettit, de- 
ceaflMsd, $35, (by Worcester Willey, ad- 
ministratrix) 

Steam-propeller *' Eclipse" 

W. S. Carclwell 

John GrifiSn, deceased, (Charity Griffin, 

administratrix; 

Thos. H. Halsey 

I Augustus Kernan 

j G. L. Hammond 

< Annapolis and Elk-Ridge Railroad Com- 
pany , 

M.D. Lylee 

I Mrs. R. H. Moore 

I Benj. Mills 

I David Prater 

I Geo. Starks; Inskep &, Co.; Donelly, 

' Skiner^ScCo 

4^ A. Walker 

I J. R. Wooten 

1 Morris L. Bond 

I Sami Hawkins 

Lieut. Henry Romeyn 

I William C. Hennegar 



No. of 
sett. 




Date. 1 


AmoQnt. 


4833 


Nov. 


13,1877 


$171 00 


4881 


Nov. 


15,1877 


14 76 


4898 


Nov. 


20,1877 


12,250 00 


4922 


Nov. 


24,1877 


1,341 22 



7973 Oct. 
4935 Nov. 



4989 

4943 
4921 



Nov. 

Nov. 
Nov. 



30,1875 
26,1877 

28,1877. 

26,1877 
23,1877 



5044 Dec. 6, 1877 



Total. 



5095 ; Dec. 
5113 Dec. 



5128 Dec. 

5135 Dec. 

5117 Dec. 

5131 Dec. 

5142 Dec. 

5150 Dec. 

5144 Dec. 

5139 Dec. 

5153 Dec. 

5162 Dec. 

5164 Dec. 

5172 Dec. 

5177 I Dec. 
5184 ' Dec. 

5186 Dec. 

5200 Dec. 

5210 Dec. 

5227 Dec. 

5260 Dec. 



12,1877 
15,1877 



17,1877 
17, 1877 
15, 1877 

17, 1877 

18, 1877 
18,1877 
18,1877 

18, 1877 ■ 
19, 1877 i 
19, 1877 
19,1877 

19, 1877 

19,1877 
19, 1877 
19, 1877 , 
20, 1877 I 
21,1877, 
22,1877 
28,1877 1 



22 13 

60 00 

100 00 

422 00 
45 00 

321 50 



74 06 
1,666 67 



244 50 
652 50 
190 46 

236 00 
73 60 
61 25 
60 00 

1, 114 28 

26 00 

129 00 

155 00 

34 50 

99 50 
14 00 
34 00 

150 00 
60 75 
93 10 

250 00 

82,969 93 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



28 



No. of 
oli^m. 



41.405 

42,043 

42,312 

43,950 
42,036 

44,038 

44,112 

40, 480 
42,857 
42,859 
42,861 
42,024 
44,291 
42,860 

38,489 
44,471 

44,292 

44,313 

44,366 

33.063 
45, 148 
44,170 
45,363 



44,679 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPEUTED. 

Schedule of claims j &c. — Continued. 
Army Transportation, 1874. — (For reappropriatioD.) 



Name of claimaiit 



No. of 
I sett 



Union Pacific Railroad Company, (in 
part) 

Sioux City and Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany 

Atcliison, Topeka, and Santa F^ Rail-| 
road 

Henry C. Lovell 

SioQx City and Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany 

Missouri, Kansas, and Texas Railway 
Company 

Texas and Pacific Railroad Company, 
(in part) 

Estate of Owen Murray 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Central Pacific Railroad Company 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, (part 
under 1875) 

Steamer " Mississippi" 

Atlantic and Pacific Railroad, (lessee of 
Missouri Pacific Railroad Company). .. 

Union Pacific Railroad Company, < A. T. 
1875, $36,421 31 ; A. T. 1876, $5,130 84). 

Virginia and Truckee Railroad Company, 
(amount allowed, $192; residue is un- 
der 1873,^75,76) 

Union Pacific Railroad Company,ramount 
of settlement, $40,619 63 ; the balance, 
is under 1875 and 1876) 

Central Vermont Railroad Company, 
($35 82 under 1873) 

Atlantic North Carolina Railroad Com- 
pany, ($18 40 under 1875) 

Union Pacific Railroad CompV, ($5,994 52 
under 1875) 

Atchison, Topeka, and Santa F6 Rail- 
road Company 



Total. 



2157 

2333 

3743 
3769 

2291 

3867 

3853 
3942 
3662 
3745 
3663 
3727 
4259 

4204 
4368 

4352 

4567 

4589 

4592 
4724 
4761 
4799 
5082 



DatA. 



Jan. 22,1877 

Feb. 20,1877 
I 
May 8, 18n i 
May 11,1877. 
X I 

Feb. 14,1877' 

May 29,1877' 

May 29,1877 
June 5, 1877 
April 30, 1877 
May 8, 1877 
May 1, 1877 
May 7, 1877 
July 23,1877 

July 9, 1877 
Aug. 9,1877 

Aug. 9,1877 

Sept. 14,1877 



Sept. 28, 1877 : 

Sept. 28, 1877 
Sept. 18, 1877 
Oct. 27,1877 
Nov. 10,1877 
Dec. 11,1877 



Amoant. 



$3,993 69 
344 46 

22 84 
407 47 

165 50 

23 74 

254 20 
25 00 
490 94 
872 86 
646 82 
6 50 
507 56 

46 35 

78 30 

99 72 
8,542 93 

60 00 

89 06 

2 75 

6 80 

23,764 98 

170 06 



40,712 53 



Barracks and Quarters, 1872. — (For reappropriation.) 

Aug. 22,1877 



J. F. Wade, ($54 88, under Quartermas- 
ters* department, 1872) 



4465 



$268 80 



Barracks and Quarters, 1873.— (For reappropriation.) 



38,323 



M. V. Plank, U. D. Ostrander, Thomas 
Harvey, and G. A. Lubert, ($4:J5 50 
each) ^ 



2423 



March 8, 1877 



$1,742 00 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



29 



Schedule ofclaimsy &c. — ^Continued. 
Barracks and Quarters, 1874. — (For reappropriatioD.) 



No. of 



Name of claimant. 



35,962 ' George VV. Hatchings. 



No. of 
sett. 



3858 



Date. 



Amoant. 



May 29,1877 



$30 00 



Bkoular Supplies, Quartermasters' Department, 1871 and prior years. — (For 

reappropriatioD.) 



40,472 
87,783 
27,8U7 
39,562 

40,321 
40,487 
42,209 
38, ISO 
32,300 
42,104 
42,486 
39,23:3 
40,050 
38,761 
41.678 
40,700 
40,921 
39,634 
40,322 
«,«24 
42,100 
40,698 
34,873 
40,650 
39,225 
35,693 
40,433 
41,934 
30,410 
35,882 
30,669 
^,396 
40,362 
40,470 
39,249 

25,968 

35,515 

38,779 

31.290 I 

3i,ll0 J 

38,004 

40,0-20 

«,8n 

«7,955 
40,^ 
42,870 
4fi,575 
«,5:6 
41.872 



W. D. Flauegan. 



Wesley Ooodln, administrator of Am- 
brose Goodin 

G. W. Williams 

Thomas Digges 

Hiram Harkins 

Mrs. D. Co<ley 

W. G. Colier 

H. B. Gathrie, (in part) 

John P. Bane 

Absalom Robinson 

D. C. Gates 

Margaret J. Garvin , — 

J. B. Bowling and one other 

William Hawkins 

James Harrison 

William Seigmnnd, (in part) 

D. T. HenxMl, administrator, &c 

Francis Jackson 

Charles H. Frimm 

Granville S. Pierce 

Thomas Veal 

John 8. Dodd 

James I. Elliott, deceased 

Amos Hall 

Alexander Monroe 

John W. Rokenbongh , 

G.W.Atkins. 

William Bottom 

Presley and Jas. Morehead 

A. T.Stokes. 

Geo. A. McClanahan and one other 

Orvil Vineyard 

Thomas Glascock, adminintrator, &c., 
(Second Comptroller's statement) 

John Pnrcell 

D. M. C leggett 

Jacob C. Gove, adm'r of J. P. Gove 

K, Jameson 



R. B. Lyle, administrator of J. R. Lyle. 

James Mitchell 

Joseph Moore 

John McMiller '. 

James Ryon 

Andrew Brock 

John Hunt 

H. C. MHHsey 

W. R. Dickerson 



1938 


Dec. 


19, 1876 


$26 10 


2016 


Jan. 


ll,18n 


125 00 


2031 


Jan. 


12, 1877 


24 00 


2037 


Jan. 


13, 1877 


15 40 


2046 


Jan. 


13, 1877 


25 00 


2061 


Jan. 


15. 1877 


33 75 


2062 


Jan. 


15, 1877 


7 50 


2101 


Jan. 


17, 1877 


70 00 


2107 


Jan. 


18,1877 


214 28 


2118 


Jan. 


19, 1877 


475 00 


2119 


Jan. 


19, 1877 


90 00 


2139 


Jan. 


19, 1877 


32 00 


2150 


Jan. 


20, 1877 


277 25 


2151 


Jan. 


20,1877 


7 00 


2152 


Jan. 


20, 1877 


15 00 


2158 


Jan. 


22,1877 


^ 63 


2201 


Jan. 


29,1877 


30 00 


8328 


Dec. 


4,1875 


139 00 


2271 


Feb. 


12, 1877 


9 00 


2277 


Feb. 


13, 1877 


87 50 


2284 


Eeb. 


13,1877 


130 36 


2304 


Feb. 


15, 1877 


15 00 


2305 


Feb. 


15, 1877 


60 00 


2:W8 


Feb. 


15, 1877 


7 00 


2311 


Feb. 


1.5. 1877 


18 25 


2:m 


Feb. 


20,1877 


16 00 


2:W7 


Feb. 


21, 1877 


30 00 


23.38 


Feb. 


21,1877 


41 50 


2341 


Feb. 


21, 1877 


128 86 


2349 


Feb. 


22. 1W77 


85 50 


2357 


Feb. 


21,1877 


85 00 


2367 


Feb. 


23,1877 


137 00 


2390 


Feb. 


27,1877 


92 50 


2.392 


Feb. 


27,1877 


14 85 


2393 


Feb. 


27,1877 


18 25 


2404 


Mar. 


7,1877 


372 62 


2408 


Mar. 


7.1877 


96 70 


2409 


Mar. 


7,1877 


115 40 


2410 


Mar. 


7.1877 


36 00 


2411 


Mar. 


7,1877 


31 50 


2413 


Mar. 


7,1877 


44 85 


2414 


Mar. 


7,1877 


11 00 


2416 


Mar. 


8,1877 


25 00 


2425 


Mar. 


8, 1877 


28 56 


2426 


Mar. 


8,1877 


29 00 


2447 


Mar. 


10, 1877 


120 00 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



30 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



Schedule of claims^ &c, — Regular supplies. Qmrtermasterf/ departmentj 
1871 and prior years — Continued. 



No. of 
claim. 



Xftnie of claimMit. 



40,715 

41,980 



26,920 
40,115 
39,446 
41,941 
40,870 
42,896 
42,184 
42,727 
40,569 
42,899 



42,931 

38,497 

26,820 

27, 816 

27,654 

41, 402 

44,014 

39,350i 

39,351 

44,006 

42,081 

30,693 

38,550 

27,630 

27,634 

39,991 

42,822 

38,248 

38,952 

42,7:J3 

38,796 

12,905 

42,186 

42,187 

34,108 
42, 131 
39,559 
33,028 
42,029 
26.856 
26,854 
40,226 
33,008 
42,837 
42,119 
38,148 
32,432 
42,934 



No. of I 
sett 



Date. 



Abraham Wilder 

Alexander (irant, Lt. «th Cav., (Book- 
keeper's settlement) 

Ellsworth P. Scales, (in part,) Second 
Comptroller's settlement 

J. A. P. Hampson, Capt. 10th Inf., (Book- 
keeper's settlement) 

W. M. Fish 

Lawrence Keller 

Wm.McConnell 

Lorena Martin 

Benjamin Taylor 

W.R.Taylor 

Irvine P. Walker 

Adam Dodd and five others 

Samnel Scott 

T. J. Moore and seven others, (in part) — 
J. W. Vinson, 8. M. Mort, J. A. Barton, 
Hugh Allen, G. M. D. Stoner, John 
Weatherspoon, Jno. Henderson 

Jas. Whitworth, executor of Thomas 
Bysor, deceased 

Mr. Moreen 

Clark M. Tompkins 

John E. Winn 

Mrs. Nancy Wynne 

Zachariah Taylor, deceased 

Greorge Boyd, deceased 

R. B. Bacon & Co |20 44 

John Agnew 19 00 

John H. Stevens 

Gideon E. Coates 

Peter Fer 

E. A. Fletcher 

Thomas Gallaher 

John Hobbs 

H. P. Barner 

William Caakey 

Sam'l A. Caldwell 

James Foster 

Joseph Golatt 

John Horn 

Thomas E. Quisenberry and two others . 

D. B.Merrill 

Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company, 
(in part) 

Thomas Smith 

Nancy Webb 

i S.M.Allen 

W.H.Bradford 

Moses Bell 

John M. Chyster 

John Glass 

Isaac Gray 

Mrs. P. A. Grey 

I G.W.Nicholas 

W. H. Oliver and two others 

, Mrs. Rebecca Smith 

j George Thomas, (in part) 

I James Whitworth, (in part) 



2450 I Mar. 10, 1877 
2443 ' Mar. 10, 1877 
2661 Mar. 23,1877 



31:^ Apr. 
3495 I Apr. 



3504 
3521 
3522 



Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 



3548 i Apr. 

3549 j Apr. 
3554 Apr. 
3557 ! Apr. 
3603 Apr. 



2, 1877 I 
14, 1877 
14, 1877 
17, 1877 ! 
17, 1877 I 
18, 1877 ' 
18,1877 
18,1877 
19,1877 
23,1877 



3620 Apr. 25, 1877 



3622 I Apr. 
3664 I May 
3669 May 
3672 May 
36r3 ! May 
.3674 I May 
3677 I May 

3681 May 

3685 1 May 
:}687 I May 

3700 I May 

3701 May 

3702 , May 
3705 May 
3726 ^' 
3729 
3730 
3733 
3734 
3735 
3741 



May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
^.^^ May 
3774 May 



May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 



3767 
3777 
3787 
3791 
3792 
3826 
3827 
3829 
38:50 
3832 
3834 
3838 
3839 
3842 
3843 



25,1877 
2.1877 
2,1877 
2,1877 
2,1877 
2,1877 
3,1877 

3, 1877 

3,1877 
3,1877 I 
3,1877 
4,1877 ' 
4,1877' 
4,1877 
7,1877 
7,1877 
7,1877 
7,1877 
7,1877 
7,1877 
7,1877 
11,1877 

11,1877 

12,1877 

12,1877 

12,1877 

12,1877 

28.1877 

28,1877 

28,1877 

28,1877 

28,1877; 

28,1877 

28,1877 

28,1877 

28, 1877 

28,1877 



Amount 



125 00 
129 56 
550 OO 

100 00 

7 50 

56 00 

322 00 
15 00 
18 20 
27 50 
18 00 

205 50 
40 00 



267 35 

105 00 

4 12 

30 00 

86 00 
69 50 

228 80 

87 50 

39 44 

170 00 
110 00 
66 88 
337 50 
45 00 
22 50 

17 50 
25 00 
1125 
16 00 

18 25 
20 00 

127 35 
300 

56 28 
58 00 
12 00 

247 20 

787 

82 40 

2167 

75 00 

104 50 
82 50 
15 75 
66 62 
10 00 
56 00 
79 00 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



31 



Schedule of cUUms, &e. — Regular supplies. Quartermasters* department^ 
1871 and prior years — uoutiaued. 



Ko.of 



36,193 

28,080 
24,484 

33,054 
37,131 
40,756 
42,838 
^200 
33,419 
32,612 
29,431 
26,445 

32,614 
27,648 
43,^3 
38,957 
42,183 
35,560 
44,078 
44,123 
^,550 
40,661 
32,736 
40,573 
44,013 
^,953 
33,231 
40,856 
24,881 
32,481 
44,189 
43,428 
27,816 
32,597 
42,111 
44,000 
39,525 
44,184 

42,022 

40,570 

51.512 

31,509 

31.508 > 

31,513 i 

44,121 

44,225 
40,556 
44,041 
31,510 
44,054 
U,066 
44»057 
»»237 
44.058 
44,059 
44,060 



Name of olainuuit. 



Peterson Johnson 

Martha Kennedy 

Wm. Hnnt. administrator of Nancy 
Trimble, aeceased 

B. W. Humphrey 

Mrs, (J. Mason 

John G. Johnson 

Mrs. Sarah Hammon 

Mrs. Hart 

John Hyer 

David Backman 

Sackford Brewer 

Heirs of Jacob Eley, (Asa Derrick, 

gaardian) 

Abram Dean 

Frank Dickens 

Byrd Douglas 

L. M.Ellis 

John English 

Isaac Garretson 

L H. Grainger 

Elizabeth W. Gleaves 

Cheney Finger Wid, of Stephen 

Adam H. Flesher and one other. 

James Rogers 

Perry Gant 

W. A. Johnson 

Mrs. Mary Murray 

John P. McKay 

S.B.Prichard 

Levi Pifer 

Preston T.Potter 

William Son 

K. D.Nicoll 

John E. Winn, (in part) 

R. C.Wright 

C. Zimmerman 

Adam Barley 

N. Carper 

J. W. Neely. deceased, (R. P. Moss, ex- 
ecutor) 

Smith Chadwick & Co 

J. M. Carmel 

Mary G. Dnnning 

Wiley Douglass 

George Elliott 

Robert Harper, deceased, (Jas. J. Tur- 
ner, executor) 

George Venable 

Jacob Williamson 

John Warren 

Sarah White 

Josiah Backhouse 

Fielding Berry 

George Brown 

Leonard Davis 

Peter Duflfy 

Sqaire Fltzwaters 

Wm. Groves.. I 



No. of 

sett 


Dftte. 


Amount 


3855 


May 29,1877 


$41 25 


3857 May 29,1877 


34 50 


3863 May 29,1877 


32 00 


3864 May 29,1877 


12 25 


3865 May 29,1877 


25 00 


3870 May 31,1877 


6 00 


3873 1 May 31, 1877 

3874 May 31, 1877 


. 22 50 


12 OO 


3876 May 31,1877 


3 75 


3899 June 4,1877 


13 50 


3903 June 4,1877 


13 00 


3908 1 June 4, 1877 


40 00 


3909 


June 4, 1877 


21 OO 


3910 


June 4, 1877 


10 OO 


3913 


June 4, 1877 


568 00 


3915 


June 4, 1877 


25 00 


3916 


June 4,1877 


22 40 


3917 


June 4, 1877 


30 OO 


3918 June 4,1877 


5 00 


3919 June 4,1877 


97 50 


3920 June 4,1877 


7 60 


3922 June 4,1877 


41 95 


•3923 June 4,1877 


4 00 


3931 June 5,1877 


10 00 


39:^3 June 5,1877 


7 00 


3939 June 5,1877 


49 14 


3943 ! June 5, 1877 


2 25 


:I944 , June 5. 1877 


30 00 


3946 


June 5, 1877 


36 00 


3947 


June 5,1877 


6 00 


3949 


June 5, 1877 


4 50 


3957 


June 5, 1877 


98 75 


3960 1 June 5, 1877 


19 50 


3962 


June 5, 1877 


19 55 


3963 


June 5, 1877 


42 00 


4009 


June 7, 1877 


13 50 


4012 


June 7, 1877 


21 25 


4016 


June 7, 1877 


50 00 


4019 


June 7, 1877 


250 00 


4028 


June 9, 1877 


10 00 


4030 


June 9, 1877 


20 00 


4031 


June 9, 1877 


4 20 


4033 


June 9,1877 


12 60 


4040 


June 9,1877 


65 00 


4041 


June 9,1877 


21 60 


4042 


June 9,1877 


50 40 


4043 


June 9, 1877 


25 00 


4046 


June 9, 1877 


15 00 


4066 


June 14,1877 


15 75 


4067 


June 14,1877 


7 70 


4068 


June 14,1877 


30 00 


4069 


June 14,1877 


98 20 


4070 


June 14,1877 


34 30 


4072 


June 14,1877 


40 00 


4073 


June 14,1877 


17 25 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



32 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



Schedule of clainis^ <fcc. — Regular auppUeSy Quartermaster^ department^ 
1871 and prior years — Coutinued. 



No. of 
claim. 



44,061 
44,063 
44,066 
44,(M34 
44,065 
44,067 
40,577 

23, 46a i 

40,330 
24,987 
26,821 
27,533 
30,257 
27,156 
38, 320 
39,520 
42,921 
38,506 
42,061 
44,188 
44,269 
30,558 
42, 098 
3:^,869 

25,912 
12,817 

38,:«8 
40,411 
40,276 
29,466 
31,406 
24,965 



42,068 
42,a'>3 
29,919 
44,9:m 
35,704 
38,953 
44,666 
44,6:^ 
38,948 
38,949 
44,622 
44, 455 
44,692 
38,:W3 

44,9:« 

44,956 
44, 658 
44,660? 
44, 662 S 
44,661 
26,900 



Name of claimant. 



JefFGrosse 

Jclfenion Jnckson 

Beiij. S. Kidmore 

J. B. Muucev 

H.W. Powell 

Eliza Tyree 

Henry Loudou 

H.B.Hardy 

Levi Putnam 

John Kamsour 

James Wickwire 

ParkcME. Ball 

John H. Dennis 

Neil i^reeding 

John Alexander 

John B. Edmoudsou.. 

John Turley 

Columbns L. Shelton. 



John Smith 

A. F.Taylor 

John Ward 

Wm. Thonibnrg 

Thos. L. Steger 

J«>hu McGinnis 

Miss Mary J. Leavell 

Mabel Poston 

K. K. Young, (part under Ar. Trans., 1871 

and inior) 

Maryland Gas Co 

William Lincoln, ($2 under Ar. Trans., 

1871 and prior) 

J. E. Manlove 

B. Marable 

Alfred Hutchinson 

Heurv T.Webb 

Thomas C. Ryall 

Wake6eld & Son, (incidental exnenses, 

$23 14 ; barracks and quarters, $15 51 ; 

total, $46) 

Thornton S. Pattie 

Joseph Paffenberger 

John Vaden 

K. S. I^igh 

Thos. W\'Ht 

Amos Gater 

Jno. Price 

Wm. J. Miller 

N. L. Chirdy 

Casson Sn«'il 

Jncob Shaver 

Jno. Dougherty 

Daniel Jones 

Mnthew Roberts 

Wm. M.Locke 

Peter C. Depanm 

Lucinda Mcclenden 

Philip Howell 

Wm. J. Orrick 

J. A. Donnelly & Co 



No. of 
Kelt. 



4074 
4075 
4076 
4077 
4078 
40^0 
4096 
4125 
412<) 
4128 
41:M 

43:{6 

4:t44 

4:mo 
4:i:i5 
4:i45 
4376 
4:370 
4:372 
4:378 
437i» 
4377 
4:375 
4:<61 
4:359 
4365 

4387 
4391 

4417 
4462 
4460 
4458 
4466 
4464 



4498 
4537 
45:36 
4539 
45(31 
4580 
4582 
4575 
46:35 
4572 
458:3 
4579 
4574 
4581 
4577 
463:3 
4643 
4634 

4631 

4636 
4645 



Date. 



June 
June 
.June 
June 
.June 
June 
June 
.luue 
June 
June 
June 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 



14,1877 

14,1877 

14,lrt77 

14,1877 

14, 1877 

14, 1877 I 

19, 1877 

2ii, 1877 

22, 1877 

22, 1877 

22, 1877 

8,1877 

8,1777 

9,1877 

9,1877 

8,1877 

9,1877 

9,1877 

9, 1877 I 

9,1877 

9,1877 

9,1877 

9,lJ-77 

9,1877 

9,1877 

9,1877 



Aug. 10,1877 
Aug. 10,1877 

Aug. 15,1877 
Aug. 22,1877 
Aug. 22,1877 
Aug. 22,1877 
Aug. 22, 1877 
Aug. 22,1877 



Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept- 
Sept* 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Sept. 
Sei>t. 
S<'pt. 
Sejit. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Sept. 
Oct. 
Oct. 



1,1877 

8,1877 

8,1877 

8,1H77 

1:3. 1877 

22, 1877 

22, 1877 

22, 1877 

9,1877 

22, 1877 

22, 1877 

22,1877 

22, 1877 

22,1877 

22. 1877 

22,1877 

9, 1>^7 

9,1877 



Oct. 
Oct. 



9,1877 
9,1877 



Amoani 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



33 



Schedule of claims^ dkc.^RegvUir supplies, Quartermasters' department, 
1871 and prior years — Continued. 




42,041 
42,047 
44,6H2 
44,735 
44,659 



30,361 
30,360 
30,367 
30,369 
30,370 
44,474 

30,396 
30,395 
30,388 
30,386 
30,385 
30,379 
30,377 
30,376 
30,375 
30,374 
30,373 
45,073 
44,937 
44,475 

42,046 
28,018 
45,159 
45,160 
44,107 
45,158 
45,164 
45,162 
45,161 
4S138 
44,040 
42,250 
24,478 
24,325 
31,956 
30,532 
26,658 
26,588 
22,628 



28,492 
39,257 
35,999 
39,445 



Cynthia Foster 

Walker Reynolds 

John Cooper 

Gillmore Randolph 

Zeph. C. Duncan 

Austin Cart in, Lieut., (settlement hy Q. 

M. Div.. Third Auditor's Office) 

William Bomar 

Matilda Brown 

J. E. Couch 

M. Dixon 

J. N. Dunaway 

William Williams, jr., exec'r of William 

Williams 

Wm. Word 

W. H. Wisener 

Isaac Troxton 

J. A. Denison 

Dr. Scott 

J. L. Rosborough 

P. Moppin 

R. H. Lewis & Co 

A. S. Lawrence 

Jacob Kyser ., 

W. A. Houston 

Absalom Miller 

William 8. We<ldle 

Geo. W. Charlton, (E. and L. Charltou, 

ndmioistrators) '. 

Thomas H. Reynolds 

R. W. Bogp 

Benj. F. CUastain, (see below) 

James Garrett 

John Austin 



Benj. F. Chastain, (see above) . 
filisha Sullivan 



J. Henry King . 

Jas. Harris 

Anson Lane 

John Alstadt 

J. J. Brown 

James Cather 

James Hott 

Polly Ann Kelly 

Chas. O'Hnra 

Jtunes Bmmfield 

G. C.C.Kerr 

Mrs. Nancy Call 

Thomas Murray 

R. Murry 

Geo. Miller 

W.H.Baker 

James H. Call 

Geo. A. Brown 

S.Cooley 

John Grimes 

Aaron Kemoll 

Alex. Crowder 

Wm. M. Abell 

Joseph Black 

H. Ex, Doc. 46 3 



4628 
4640 
4626 
4639 
4642 

4653 
4659 
4602 
4664 
4665 
4666 

4669 
4706 
4704 
4702 
4701 
4698 
4696 
4691 
4688 
4687 
4680 
4684 
4813 
4818 

4805 
4815 
4829 
48:^ 
4846 
4828 

48:^ 

4859 
4H52 
4849 
4Hr)0 
4920 
4930 
4952 
4968 
4974 
4979 
4926 
4975 
49:^2 
49:« 
4939 
4940 
4927 
4934 
4928 

49:w 

4936 
4976 
4957 
4925 
4931 



Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 

Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Oct. 
Nov. 
Nov. 

Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 



1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1H77 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 

1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1867 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1867 
1877 
1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 



|25 00 
50 00 

23 75 
85 00 
27 90 

12 15 
10 00 
5 00 
50 00 
20 50 
12 50 

141 00 

4 50 
12 00 
60 00 

15 50 
25 00 
12 50 

30 00 

5 65 
22 50 

31 00 
25 00 

162 60 

94 50 

30 00 
195 00 

24 00 
18 00 
22 00 

6 00 

16 00 
60 00 

95 60 
8 00 

40 00 
42 00 
3,600 00 
88 07 
104 00 
15 00 

24 00 
57 02 
40 78 

5 25 
3 20 

8 50 

9 00 

5 00 
2 50 

6 50 

7 00 
6 40 

a*^ 75 

25 00 
30 50 
12 50 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



34 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



Schedule of daimsy &c. — Regular suppliesj Quartemuuters* department^ 
1871 and prior year^ — Continued. 



No. of 
cUim. 



Name of claimuit. 



r 



44,618 
35,906 
35,878 
40,648 
37.985 
44,763 
35,950 
27,652 
33,797 
42,467 
40,484 
35,306 
28,990 
27.746 
29,716 
25,447 
43,970 
42,444 
26,594 
29,303 

26,609 

40,887 
45, 046 
39,434 
43,429 
40,460 
45,085 
27,636 
12,680 

32,857 
25,669 
38,074 
45,056 
35,705 

45,268 
44,953 
28,409 
27,857 
45,050 
45,603 
45,602 
41,925 
26,aS8 
45,270 
20,840 
45,235 
25,681 
45,283 
35,755 
45,324 
35,933 
35,531 
40,680 
45,086 
31,420 
45,020 



Mrs. Bridget Callahan 

Benj. Duvall 

J.T.Day 

Thoe. A. DixoD . .* 

Peter Fuqua, (W. D. Baker, executor) . 

Greo. Fisher 

G. R. Hays 

Mrs. Martha Mathews 

Samuel McPherson 

Isaac Masoner 

Jacob Mann 

J. M. Pennin^^n. 

John T. Rasnick 

W. G. Robinson 

Anthony Thornton 

E. G. W. Sellers 

W. H. Wood 

L.W.Williams 

James Tallant 

Samuel Wade and Benjamin Johnson — 
$24; |7 20 

William Woodson — subsistence, $152 63 ; 
C. and A. horses, $310 ; total, $580 33. . 

Jentile Braley 

Elizabeth Bradley 

Samuel Crawford 

G. W. Elliott 

J. M. Elkius 

J. W. Hawes 

James Eatherly 

Seaborn Jones, $75 ; Charles H. Collin, 
$26 25 ; William Walker, $75 

G. R.Hepley 

William G. Jenkins 

Samuel J. Alsup , 

Henderson Bohannan , 

A. Cobb, deceased, (Thomas P. Cobb, ad- 
ministrator) 

Boothe Dalton 

William Harvick , 

John Hubbard , 

S. B. Hawkins 

Madison Halfacre 

DelilaKelley 

Hiram Long.* 

A. J. McAlister 

George W. Matlock 

Mannen & Watson 

Thomas Long 

L. H. Machen 

George W. Watkins 

George W. Moore 

H.E.Miller 

F.McAtie 

Alexander O'Bryhen 

Townsly Pyott 

James Sewell 

John Thompson 

Daniel S. Tucker 

Samuel Zimmerman 



No. of 
sett. 




Dftte. 


Amoimt 


4951 


Nov. 


27,1877 


! $112 50 


4960 


Nov. 


27,1877 


33 75 


4959 


Nov, 


27.1877 


48 00 


4958 


Nov. 


27,1877 


; 6 00 


4961 


Nov. 


27,1877 


1 8390 


4963 


Nov. 


27,1877 


i 192 50 


4967 


Nov. 


27,1877 


60 00 


4983 


Nov. 


28,1877 


100 00 


4985 


Nov. 


28,1877 


114 50 


4988 


Nov. 


28,1877 


21 60 


4987 


Nov. 


28,1877 


1 390 40 


4991 


Nov. 


28,1877 


27 LO 


4992 


Nov. 


28,1877 


21 00 


4995 


Nov. 


28,1877 


! 15 00 


5000 


Nov. 


28,1877 


1 81 03 


4996 


Nov. 


28,1877 


30 00 


5005 


Nov. 


28,1877 


j 24 00 


5006 


Nov. 


28.1877 


39 00 


5002 


Nov. 


28,1877 


44 50 


500r 


Nov. 


28,1877 


1 31 20 


5008 


Nov. 


28,1877 


1 118 00 


5114 


Dec. 


15,1877 


• 15 00 


5116 


Dec. 


15. 1877 


i 11 25 


5122 


Dec. 


17,1877 


10 50 


5125 


Dec. 


17,1877 


8 60 


5129 


Dec. 


17,1877 


12 00 


5132 


Dec. 


17, 1877 


507 00 


5126 


Dec. 


17, 1877 


! 50 00 


5145 


Dec. 


1H,1877 


176 25 


5143 


Dec. 


18,1877 


25 00 


5146 


Dec. 


18,1877 


24 00 


5197 


Dec. 


21, 1877 


152 50 


5199 


Dec. 


21, 1877 


18 00 


5203 


Dec. 


21,1877 


125 00 


5204 


Dec. 


21, 1877 


46 00 


5208 


Dec. 


21, 1877 


6 00 


5211 


Dec. 


21.1877 


16 00 


5209 


Dec. 


31, 1877 


42 00 


5212 


Dec. 


21,1877 


39 00 


5213 


Dec. 


21,1877 


22 00 


5214 


Dec. 


21, 1877 


15 00 


5215 


Dec. 


21,1877 


13 50 


5216 


Dec. 


21, 1877 


2 25 


5218 


Dec. 


21,1877 


43 87 


5154 


Dec. 


20,1877 


20 00 


5457 


Dec. 


20,1877 


^232 50 


5158 


Dec. 


20.1877 


40 50 


5163 


Dec. 


20,1877 


50 73 


5165 


Dec. 


20.1877 


78 75 


5167 


Dec. 


20,1887 


91 00 


5169 


Dec. 


20,1877 


18 00 


5170 


Dec. 


20,1877 


15 00 


5176 


Dec. 


20,1877 


30 00 


5180 


Dec. 


20,1877 


36 60 


5181 


Deo. 


20,1877 


107 00 


5187 


Dec. 


20,1877 


25 40 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



35 



Schedule of claimSj &o. — Regular supplies^ Quartermastert/ department^ 
1871 and prior years — Continued. 



2ro.of 



44,635 



45,296 
44,680 
40,386 
28,406 
45,605 
44,827 
45,245 
45,267 
34,970 
45.614 
45,269 
38,078 



Name of claimant. 



Samael Benedict, deceased, (J. 8. Can- 
nineham, administrator,) ^1 92 un- 
der Barracks and Quarters 

D. G. Perdue 

George Parker 

Charles A. Redd 

Jesse Stribling 

John Thompson 

J. W. Wyatt 

Thornton B. Cooper 

James M. Lee 

William Mosely 

R. E. Biiles 

B. H. Sterrett 

A. B. C. Dickerson 



Total. 



No. of 
sett. 



5192 
5223 
5524 
5226 
5228 
5230 
5232 
5235 
5236 
5237 
5238 
5241 
5258 



Date. 



Dec. 

Dec. 

•Dec, 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 

Dec. 



20,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 
23,1877 



Amoant. 



$17 00 

6 30 

25 00 

86 50 

10 00 

11 10 

12 50 
22 50 
20 00 

29 32 
750 00 

30 00 
144 00 



23,359 84 



•Or December 92, 1877. 
REOtTLAR Supplies, Quartermasters' Department, 1872.-— (For reappropriation.) 



42,917 
44, (SO 
44,679 



Detroit DmIv Post Company 

Captain W. H. Wessels, Third Cavalry.. 

J. F. Wade, ($268 80, under Barracks and 

Quarters, 1872) 



Total. 



2492 
3553 

4465 



Mar. 16,1877 
April 18, 1877 



129 70 
281 52 

54 88 



366 10 



Rboular Supplies, Quartermasters' Department, 1873. — (For reappropriation.) 



32.787 
40,826 



United States Ordnance Department. . . 
F.C.Myrick 



Total. 



3954 
3778 



June 5, 1877 
May 12,1877 



$525 09 
157 50 



682 59 



Regular Supplies, Quartermasters' Department, 1874. — (For reappropriation.) 



43,661 
40.338 
42,032 
45,530 



Hagdalena Calderon, (part paid) . 

Joseph Miller 

8. B. Spotts 

William Memmott 



Total. 



3516 
3744 
3953 
5160 



April 17, 1877 
May 8, 1877 
June 5, 1877 
Dec. 19,18n 



$163 20 
280 93 

50 82 
10 00 



504 95 



RtouLAR Supplies, Quartermasters' Department, 1875. — (For reappropriation.) 



44,617 
45,284 
45,281 
45,494 



Myers &, Leonard . 

J. C. Hopkins 

William Curry.... 
QniriniBaca 



ToUl. 




Sept. 1,1877 
Nov. 27,1877 
Nov. 27,1877 
Dec. 15,1877 



$166 91 
37 68 
12 55 
30 75 

247 89 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



36 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



Schedule of claims^ dkc, — Continued. 



Incidental Expenses, Quartermasters* Department, 1871 and prior years.— 

(For reappropriation.) 



No. of 
claim. 



40,308 
41,556 
40,742 
39,560 
42,641 
42,153 
40, 446 
40,565 
40,634 
38,594 
42,071 
42.027 
25,247 
36,396 
29.185 

42,781 
40,779 
42,026 
41, 198 

42,818 

38,900 

40, 717 J 

40,560 
39,694 

42,915) 

40,544 
43,657 
42,849 
31,997 
42,899 

40,058 
40,756 
42,836 
38,559 
40,063 
42, 120 
44,003 
44, 167 
43, 662 
28,995 
44,192 
40,730 

42,841 
44, 162 
36,243 

40,598 
38,718 
36,212 
42,792 
40,559 



Name of claimant. 



No. of 
sett. 



S. J. Sargent '. 

Wm. Ashmead 

Cinciniiati Gazette Co 

Edward DuDdon 

Fletcher Stroud. 

Isaac Ramsey 

William Hummel 

David Auderson 

Oscar Martin 

Welcome James 

Michael Colligan 

James E. Guerius 

David Palmer, guardian, &c 

Joseph McPherson & Co 

Isaac W. Moisett, administrator of James 

Perry, deceased 

Chrest Bolous 

Levi Simpson and one other 

John James 

Estate of Wm. Wright, (G. B. Wright, 

administrator) 

Morty Downing, father of D. O. C. 

Downing 

John W. Parks 

Silas H. Hopkins 

James A. Sawyer, Lt. Sionz City Cav. .. 

Charles Johnson 

John W. McCoy 

Michael and Jerry Shea 

H. L. Rohinsou, Capt. and A. Q. M 

Charles Sidney Smith, Lt. 4th R. I. Vols. 

James H. Stark 

J. E. Braden, (in part) 

Chas. Theo. Potts, deceased 

William Pitts 

T. J. Moore and seven others, (i. e., Jno. 

Henderson ) 

John Gray and three others 

James McGraw 

Milton Newport 

Thos. J. Reidy 

Thos. F.Arnold ,.. 

John W. Horn 

Edward Simpson and three others 

J. A. McClure 

Charleston Harvey and two others 

Abel F. Kenney and one other 

Charles Henry Hastings 

A. Gallatin Lovell and twenty-nine 

others 

Sarah Ely, widow of Geo. W. Ely 

Wm. Bamemann 

Elias Cheatman 

Thomas Davis 

John Ryon 

James Livingston 

Washington Savage 

Duncan Ward 



1935 
2050 
2068 
2102 
2116 
2117 
2140 
2149 
2153 
2262 
2264 
2269 
2282 
2307 

2342 
2345 
2388 
2389 

2391 

2421 
2427 
2434 
2481 
2494 
2502 
2504 
2576 
3432 
3455 
3515 
3.s:w 
3562 

3620 
3624 
3666 
3668 
3670 
3683 
3703 
3779 
3833 
3859 
3871 
3875 

3890 
3891 
3897 
3905 
3912 
3924 
3934 
3952 
3961 



Date. 



Dec. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Jan. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 
Feb. 



Feb. 21 

Feb. 22, 

Feb. 27 

Feb. 27, 

Feb. 27, 



Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 
Mar. 15, 
Mar. 16, 
Mar. 16, 
Mar. 16, 
Mar. 20, 
Apr. 
Apr. 
Apr. 17, 
Apr. 18, 
Apr. 20, 

Apr. 23, 
Apr. 25 
May 2, 
May 
May 
May 
May 
May 12, 
May 28, 
May 29, 
May 31 
May 31 



June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 



1876 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 

1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1857 
1877 
1877 
1877 

1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 
1877 



Amoant 



123 75 
23 00 
32 00 
20 00 
46 00 
20 00 
25 75 
23 00 
40 00 

49 00 
45 75 
5100 
80 00 

44 20 

71 67 

31 50 

133 32 

25 66 

500 00 

446 60 
23 75 
78 00 

50 70 
2,850 00 

114 40 

25 00 

628 08 

116 90 

105 00 

38 75 

54 80 

75 

500 
42 40 
6 00 
53 33 
70 00 
42 00 
1,380 00 
140 00 

45 00 
66 02 
62 25 
84 34 

566 00 
66 80 
14 00 
18 00 

399 41 
16 20 
18 00 
30 31 

729 00 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



37 



Schedule of claims^ &c. — Incidental expenses^ Qtmrtemuister^ depart- 
mentj 1871 and prior years — Continued. 



Name of ohdmant. 



J. R. Alford 

W. McNames 

Merrick Sjkes 

Emma Jones 

George Watson 

J. M. Bates 

Fancher, deceased, heirs of Lewis H 

H. Petschow 

Peter Shell 

Robert Hays, $67 50; Thomas Lewis, $52; 
Lewis Jacobs, $16 67 

Miles Marshall 

Richard Robinson 

Simon Abeles, (Second Comptroller's set- 
tlement.) Total allowed, $529; paid 
by ridquisition of May 17, 1877, $524 87 ; 
leaving balance 

Wakefield & Son, Q. M. D., $7 35; Bar- 
racks and Quarters, $15 51 ; total al- 
lowed, $46 

Joshua B. Mead well 

Lieut. Wm. V.Wolfe 

Geo. B. Booth 

Joseph Woolridge 

August Thiemann, late ms^or; (settle- 
ment made by Q. M. Div.) 

Richard Coleman 

R.P. Lightbum , 

Henry fiirr 

Dudley G. Leavey 

Robt. Cochrane, deceased, (G.M. DamaU, 
administrator) 

John Casey 

Elijah Roberts 

San Antonio Express 

Geo. Hudson 

"Houston Union" 

James M. Ropes, lieutenant 8th cavalry; 
(settlement by Q. M. Div.) 

J. S. Clark, Chas. Boley, Samuel Spray, 
John Wiley, and Archibald McDonald, 
$25 each, (Daniel M. Adams, holder 
and owner) 

Bernard Fort 

Stephen James, $156; Thomas Ellis, $117. 

Total 



No. of 

Mtt 



4008 
4015 
4020 
40:M 
4045 
4082 
4346 
4366 
4373 

4356 
4360 
4367 



2237 



4498 
4596 
4652 
4660 
4705 

3171 
4835 
4851 
4830 

4858 

4953 
4955 
4993 
5134 
5140 
5141 

5046 



5207 
5205 
4512 



Date. 



7,1877 
7,1877 
7,1877 
9,1877 
9,1877 
15, 1877 
8,1877 
9,1877 
9,1877 



June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
June 
Aug. 
Aug. 
Aug. 

Aug. 9, 1877 
Aug. 9, 1877 
Aug. 9,1877 



Feb. 5, 1877 



Sept. 1,1877 
Sept. 28, 1877 
Oct. 12,1877 
Oct. 12,1877 
Oct. 15,1877 

April 3,1877 
Nov. 13,1877 
Nov. 13,18n 
Nov. 13,18n 
Nov. 13,1877 

Nov. 27,1877 
Nov. 27,1877 
Nov. 27,1877 
17, 1877 

18,1877 
18,1877 



Dec, 
Dec. 
Dec. 



Dec. 6, 1877 



Dec. 21,1877 
Dec. 21,1877 
Sept. 5,1877 



Amount. 



$98 99 
12 00 
11 20 

150 00 
23 75 
99 00 

176 66 

154 00 
11 20 

138 17 
22 50 
14 00 



4 13 



23 14 
48 00 
72 20 
266 80 
11 66 

10 00 

8 00 

650 00 

48 80 
745 50 

388 50 
48 80 
17 00 
42 00 

17 54 

18 00 

4 00 



125 00 

5 00 

273 00 



13,410 93 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



38 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



Schedule of claims j &c. — Continued. 



IxciDKXTAL Expenses, Quartbrbcastebs' Departmekt, 1873. — (For leappropiiA- 

tion.) 



No. of 
cUim. 


Name of oloimuit. 


No. of 
sett. 


Date. 


Amonnt- 


40,687 


Western Union Telegraph Company, (in 
part.) $79 94; Kansas Pac'fic RaU- 
road Comnanv. ft289 24 


2235 
2283 
2326 

2172 
3501 
3914 


Feb. 5, 1877 
Feb. 13,1877 
Feb. 17,1877 

Jan. 24,1877 
Apr. 14,1877 
Jnne 4, 1877 


$369 18 


31,783 

3l,:%6 

39,947 
43,989 


E. L. Violland and seven others 


506 30 


Capt. Theo. J. Eckereon 

Union Pacific Railroad Co» $1,434 04; 
Central Pacific Railroad Co., $36 84. . . 
Alex. Dever, (part paid) 


19 96 

1,470 88 
7 00 


44,190 


John Ernst 


12 20 


Total 






2,385 51 













Incidental Expenses, Quartermasters' Department, 1875. — (For reappropriA- 

tion.) 



44,176 


Union Pacific Railroad Company 


4256 


July 19,1877 


$467 83 


44,4.33 


Union Pacific Railroad Company 


4608 


Oct. 3 1877 


1,212 45 


44,386 


Western Union Telegraph Company, 
$138 17; Kansas Pacific Raib-oad Com- 


















pany, (one-half payable to Western 

Union Telemph Company,) $321 68. . 

Union Pacific Railroad Company 

Total 










4782 


Nov. 3,1877 


459 85 


44,344 


4783 


Nov. 6,1877 


551 est 




2,691 75 













Clothinq, Camp and Garrison Equipage, 1871 and prior TEAR8.^Reappropria- 

tion.) 



42,466 



Brogins &. Riley. 



4942 



Nov. 26,1877 



$58 05 



Clothing, Camp and Qarrison Equipage, 1873.— (Reappropriation.) 



45,291 



Capt. E. C. Bainbridge, 5th Artillery . 



4882 



Nov. 15,1877 



Clothing, Camp and Garrison Equipage, 1874.— (Reappropriation.) 



Lieut. Jas. E. Macklin, (settlement by 
Quartermaster's Division) 

Lieut. Gnstavus M. Bascom, (settlement 
by Quartermaster's Division) 



Total. 



1997 
.3895 



Sept. 26,1874 
June 4, 1877 



$8 57 
2 78 



11 35 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



39 



SehedtUe of claims^ &c. — Continued. 
TRAKSFOBTiNa OFFICERS' Baogaqb, 1871 AND PRIOR YKAR8.— (Reappropiiation.) 



Ko. of 



42,843 
43,637 
43,964 
44,335 
44,021 
36,208 
44,270 
45,172 
45,155 
45.127 
44,012 



Name of claimant. 



H. S. Kilborne 

J. £. Bradeo 

August Thieman, (in part) 

Frank B. Marehall 

Wm. Shields, by his widow, Sarah A 

Thos. Foster, late Captain 

Edw. S. Johnson 

S. S.Culbertson 

J.M.Lee 

Wm. J. Reed 

H. L. Taliaferro 



Total. 



No. of 

Mtt 



Date. 



Apr. 
Apr. 
May 
June 
Aug. 
Sept. 
Nov. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 



7,1877 
17,1877 

2,1877 
23,1877 

9,1877 
22,1877 
27,1877 
17,18n 
19, 1877 
19,1877 
22,1877 



Amount. 



$15 40 

1 80 

34 20 

247 10 
80 70 
25 14 
71 46 

103 07 

82 90 
178 00 

83 40 



923 17 



Relief of Persons suffering from Ravages of Grasshoppers. — (Reappropria- 

tion.) 



Capt. E. B. Grimes, A. Q. M., (settlement 
by Quartermaster's Division) 



2229 



Sept. 10, 1877 



1663 99 



Subsistence of the Army, 1871 and prior tears. — (Reappropriatlon.) 



41,932 
42,011 
80,548 
42,839 
38,919 
42,366 
33,816 
42,097 
35,309 
^,310 
42,888 
44,113 
41,202 
40,868 
44,158 
20,800 

43,589 
34,957 
35,560 

8.800 

44,125 
44,150 
»,816 
»,405 
44,053 
13,462 
«,185 
44,384 
38.451 
44,459 



Thomas H. Stone, administrator, Sea 

O. H. P. Beuuett 

Peter C. Talley 

S^rah A. Carter 

M. W. Hinkle 

W.R. Humbard 

Moses Cunningham 

John McKelvey, (A. W. Rect, H. and O.) 

I Boston Clapp $14 25 

! Jane Vienable 17 25 

I John Ammahaie 

I A. Henderson 

: George Johnson, deceased 

I P. B. Weir 

, Lafayette Turner 

I A. C. Barta, deceased, (Thomas Coghlan, 
administrator) 

Samuel Cottrell 

John K. Garner 

Mrs. Elinda Morrow 

William Thompson, deceased, (Meek and 
Keever, administrators) 

Samuel McElrath 

John L. Williams 

John E. Winn, (in part) 

E. P. Bums 

Julia A. Evans 

W.Sanford 

Anton Huber 

Elmore C. Argadine 

Ursin Bobin v 

Frederick Stein 



2286 
2303 
2313 
2369 
2387 
2407 
2489 
3435 

3621 

3710 
3771 
3772 
3786 
3841 

3904 
3906 
3932 
3935 

3940 
3941 
3959 
3960 
4062 
4124 
4127 
4144 
4334 
4338 
4369 



Feb. 14,1877 


$36 00 


Feb. 15,1877 


30 00 


Fob. 16,1877 


15 00 


Feb. 23,1877 


125 00 


Feb. 26,1877 


45 00 


Mar. 7,1877 


36 00 


Mar. 15,1877 


170 00 


April 9,1877 


40 00 


April 25, 1877 


31 50 


May 5, 1877 


156 58 


May 11,1877 


134 25 


May 11,1877 


180 00 


May 12.1877 


140 00 


May 28,1877 


37 75 


June 4, 1877 


49 17 


June 4, 1877 


43 84 


June 5, 1877 


10 50 


June 5, 1877 


14 40 


June 5, 1877 


47 90 


June 5, 1877 


6 60 


June 5, 1877 


69 75 




9 45 


June 13, 1877 


32 00 


June 22, 1877 


95 10 


June 22, 1877 


91 45 


June 25, 1877 


6 40 


Aug. 8, 1877 


55 08 


Aug. 8, 1877 


200 00 


Aug. 8,1877 


7 50 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



40 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



Sekeduk o/chiimN^ ifcc, — Subsistence of the Army, 1871 and prior years — 

Contiuued. 



KTaaf 



44,572 



4G,08S 

44,4(j7 
86,001 

44, 048 
44,670 
45,047 
40,37{) 

45,89:* 



»J>,7(M1 
45, L{:i«i 

44,r>:u) 

40,0r>4 

4/^t, 64tj 
4^/24:1 

lU, )^49 
2r>, (>48 
S4,447 



Kvntfi of ctAlmant. 



Susan Hinkle 

Junius M. Fulmer, late Capt. and C. S., 
(fK^ttlptueut. intule liy Subsistonce Di- 
vUiiUi ) 

Sum uol S. Kiiin>ij , 

Kli/aWi h Klmt*, ( widow of Ichabod Her- 

riJij?) 

Htnry IT utchiiiHoii 

nJi^hn W hill? 

J fu^nli 'Vn\ t>ot 

S. iL fStni r 

TlumijiH ^Fl kt:i ti . 

Siiliioj A. i[< ►ulthrop , 

]Urhiiril HiittH , 

N\ L. KuiLtri, (E^Atunel Parks, bolder and 

« w ijor ) 

Dpnit* N^^Iigiiri 

Wni. ^V JrtciM, ^$ll>t under Q. M. D. ; 

i:\Vt iiiiil^T {\ tind A. H. ; total, 

^:i?sO X\). 



John liurUo, ^Cl^th< N, Hurke, adm'x) ... 

U'ilUjun IMIyd*^ 

JiimrH J^i4 kHnit, ilo(^cutu>d, (Hannab Jack- 

nrm, hU wi(l<*w) , 

Jnhn \\\ Mnrgnii 

HyrniTi l.oijjif .-,,-. „ 

A." C\ htynn 

Houry tyhT 

Jm:nli I^iMg ..,-. 



Jiiliu A. lio.i'*\ ........ 

Andrew D, Cumpl^ell. 



No. of 
sett. 



Date. 



4:^7 



2162 
2225 

2272 

2278 

2:ui 
2;U3 
2:U4 
2315 
2:M58 
2401 

2415 
2428 



TotaL 



Aug. 8,1877 



AiiR. 20,1877 
Sept. 8,1877 



Sept. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Nov. 



28,1877 
2,1«77 
12, 1H77 
15, 1877 
15,1877 
15,1877 
10, 1877 
26,1877 



Nov. 27,1877 
Nov. 28,1877 



5008 Nov. 28,1877 
25(57 Dec. 15,1877 
2597 Dec. 18,1877 



18,1877 
19, 1877 
21,1877 
21, 1877 
22, 1877 
26, 1877 
26, 1877 
26,1877 
1,1877 



2599 


Dec. 


2615 


Dec. 


2625 


Doc. 


2628 


Dec. 


2639 


Dec. 


2646 


Dec. 


2647 


Doc. 


2644 


Dec. 


2192 


Sept. 



Amooot. 



$120 00 



108 25 
64 45 

78 75 
14 75 
30 00 
34 08 
92 00 
175 00 
89 90 
81 55 

560 
56 00 



152 83 

33 00 

210 00 

625 

26 33 

27 50 
72 05 
25 00 

880 

675 00 

1,494 60 

220 80 



5,818 71 



SUBSiaTEN'CK oy THE Army, 1873. — (Reappropriatlon.) 



44,667 } 
44,fi6S{ 



VMToit "Daily PoBt,-^(|l 90 under 1874) 



2270 



Sept. 28, 1877 



$190 



SUBStSTEXCK oif THE Army, 1874. — (Reappropriation.) 



44,667 ) 



Detroit '^ Daily Po«t,'» {|1 90 under 1873. . 



2270 



Sept. 28, 1877 



$190 



SoDSiSTKNCS OF THE Army, 1875. — (Reappropriation.) 



45,307 



Jowjph Si<rf;fTied, 



2429 



Nov. 28,1877 



$8 25 




Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



BALANCES TO BB RBAPPBOPBIATED. 



41 



Schedule ofoUUms^ Ae. — Oontinned. 

Pay, Transportation SbrvicbS) and Supplies, of Orbqon and Washington 
Territory Volunteers in 1855, '56.— (Reappropriation.) 



Ko.of 



Name of olaimaiit. 



No. of I 



Date. 



Amount. 



4,623 
4,624 



4,626 
4,^7 
4,628 
4,630 
4,631 
4,629 
4,633 
4,618 
4,622 
4,632 
4.635 
4,634 

4,636 
4,637 
4,638 
4,642 
4,643 
4,644 
4,645 
4,646 
4,649 
4,641 
4,650 
4,^2 
4,653 
4,654 
4,655 
4,651 
4,659 
4,662 

4,663 
4.661 
4,668 
4,567 
4,665 
4,660 
4,666 
4,669 
4,664 
4,647 

4,656 
4,675 
4,667 

4,677 
4,676 
4,673 
4,639 
4, WO 
4.674 
4,671 



W.H.Gate8,adm'ro£E.D. Byrne, decM. 1990 Jan. 8,1877 
A. M. Gibbons, administrator of Daniel 

Wilson, deceased 1998 i Jan. 8, 

Thomas Monteith and others 2065 ' Jan. 15, 

Jasmes Elkins and George A. Edes 2164 I Jan. 

William Dom 2163 ! Jan. 22, 

JohnH.Good 2166 Jan. 82, 

William Johnson ' 2177 Jan. 25, 

Andrew J. Miller 2178 Jan. 25, 

SamnelE.May 2246 j Feb. 9, 

ThomasFagan 2247 Feb. 9, 

Peter Miller, and Miller & Haney 2251 Feb. 9, 

Keith & Johnson 2252 Feb. 9, 

Isaac N. Bently 2573 Mar. 20, 

Samuel E. May 2660 t Mar. 23, 

Jefferson Bamp, Samuel Ritchie, and , 

Carlton A. Ge«r 3135 April 2, 

JohnGoldsby 3418 April 6, 

GeorgeA.Edes 3568 |April20, 

David Feese 3690 ; M!ay 3, 

Jacob McDaniel 3780 ' May 12, 

Jason J. Braman 3781 May 12, 

WilliamDaly 3782 ' May 12, 

John Springer 3800 ' May 18, 

James F. Cleaver :»66 I June 6, 

Jno.Williams,dec*d,(Nelson Hoy t,adm*r) 3971 June 6, 

George A. Coffin and Levi Gillam 4083 June 18, 

Will&m B. Eddins 4084 June 18, 

William Horsley 4085 June 18, 

Marshall R. Hathaway 4197 July 9, 

M. Spurgeon 4235 i July 16, 

John M. Shaw and six others 4655 * July 17, 

Nelson Hoyt 4243 , July 18, 

Oscar O.Gamyard 4323 ' Aug. 6, 

John Z. Wright, administrator of the 

estate of B(L D. Swegget, deceased 4328 Aug. 6, 

JohnM. Breck 4318 Aug. 4 

C.S.Drew 4321 Aug. 6, 

AbrahamFox 4322 | Aug. 6, 

C. W. Noblitt 4326 Aug. 6, 

Charles Hubbard 4324 Aug. 6, 

Thomas W.Beal 4332 Aug. 7 

L. Scovell 4327 Aug. 6, 

Monteith & Co 4325 , Aug. 6, 

WUliamCantraU 4333 i Aug. 7 

Silas D. Mazon, V. Probstel , Joseph Stan- 
ley, John Mcpherson, and Jos. Caples. 4388 I Aug. 10, 

Benjamin F. Goodwin 1 4450 Aug. 21 

Joseph W.Drew 4647 Oct. 11 

R. G. Allen, deceased, by Benjamin G. 

W.and R. G. Allen, heirs 4193 July 6, 

Johnson & Perkins 4773 I Oct. 31 

JohnPritchett 4774 Oct. 31 

George Wood 4775 | Oct. 31 

Richard Covington I 4792 Nov. 8, 

IsaacMQler i 4794 i Nov: 8, 

Andrew Jackson Young i 4794^! Nov. 8, 

N.P.Briggs 4791 Nov. 8, 

H. Ex. Doc. 46 4 



$570 40 



1877, 


73 46 


1877 


241 92 


1877 


379 00 


1877 


38 83 


1877 


15 20 


1877 


10 80 


1887 


7 66 


1877 


664 00 


1877 


72 00 


1877 


219 00 


1877, 


231 74 


1877 


337 50 


1877 


1,085 00 


1877 1 


844 00 


1877 


38 83 


1877 


632 22 


1877, 


17 53 


1877 1 


89 32 


1877 


100 14 


1877, 


8 40 


1877' 


50 40 


1877 


94 22 


1877 1 


292 67 


1877 1 


100 44 


1877 1 


19 67 


1877' 


12 78 


1877, 


16 18 


1877 1 


160 00 


1877' 


1,591 38 


1877 


203 33 


1877 


240 00 


1877 


33 33 


1877 


62 69 


1877 


178 80 


1877 


405 36 


1877 


74 40 


l'^77 


27 24 


1877 


272 60 


1877 1 


69 33 


1877 


26 66 


1877 


15 20 


1877; 


788 79 


1877 1 


323 75 


1877 


234 17 


1877 1 


38 83 


1877! 


350 00 


1877 1 


161 67 


1877, 


346 80 


1877 1 


42 00 


1877' 


276 66 


1877 


270 00 


1877 


134 50 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



42 



BALANCES TO BE REAPPROPRIATED. 



Svhedtth of claims, dkc, — Pay, ti^anspartationj services, a/nd supplies of Ore- 
gon and Washington Territory Volunteers in 1855, '56 — Continaed. 



No. of 
claim. 



4, era 

4,656 

4,OT9 
4,682 
4,tj80 
4,ft^I 
4, $40 



4,&t^ 
4,C7*J 



4,685 

4,684 
4,6W 

4,(jaa 

4,680 



Name of claimant. 



No, of 
sett. 



R. C. Hill, administrator of the estate 
of Elijah Hill, deceased 

Jc}«9eph Whitaker, (omitted to be entered 
in its proper order) 

William H. Perkins and others 

I.E^ban B. Fry, deceased, and others 

W. M. Powers 

J;i€ob McKinney 

Isaac Springer, $300; Joseph Latshaw, 
$332; Francis F.Loehr, 1927 43; E.L. 
Massev, $157 04; Thos. B. Scott, $65 34. 

Jacobs & Harbaugh 

Erftstnft Holgate, $30; John McCoy, 
|15 63 ; Martin Luper, $25 ; Christian 
Farlow, $26 66 ; William F. Dixon, 
tl31 12; Hugh Lee, $91 65 

John M. WaUan, $291 67; George W. 
Olds, $46 66 

John Perkins 

j Aiitoine Martineau 

I Jobo F. Sutherlan and Matthew Adams. 
I Jjibez Huelat 



4793 

4194 
4824 
4879 
4894 
4893 



4902 
4901 



4900 

I 5049 

5219 

5220 

I 5221 

i 5259 



Date. 



Nov. 8, 1877 



July 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 
Nov. 



6,1867 
12,1877 
14,1877 
19,1877 
17, 1877 



Nov. 20,1877 
Nov. 20,1877 



Nov. 20,1877 



Total. 



Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 
Dec. 



6,1877 
22,1877 
22,1877 
22,1877 
27,1877 



Amoant 



$72 15 

58 46 
220 33 
502 80 
150 00 

15 86 



1,681 81 
272 66 



320 06 



7 60 

65 68 

86 63 

1,176 52 



17,759 69 



APPENDIX B. 

Treasury Department, 
First Comptroller's Office, January 26, 1878. 

LUi of tt&iovnis of lands erroneously sold reported upon and certified to ihis office h}f (he 
CommiitifUmtr of the General Land Office, withheld for Congressional aottoii, ihi basis fifr 
rrjertinfr such accounts being the date of cancellation, (Seepage 12.) 



No. of 
report, j 

31,593 
3l^4ti4 

31,520 
31,5*21 
31,5^24 
31,525 
31,5l24i 
31,627 
31,528 
31, 594 
31,353 
31,595 
31,636 
31,635 
31,597 
31,433 
31,603 
31,631 



Sute. 



Alabama . . . 

-..,Do 

,,. ,Do 

|....Do 

...Do 

...Do 

...Do 

.Do 

.-..Do 

I California . 
! Florida 

Minnesota. 

.„.Do 

Mifisonri . . . 

1 - Do 

'.„.Do 

Nebraska.. 

Wisconsin . 



Name. 



Thomas M.J. Porter, assignee 

David Walker 

James B. Cook 

Edward F. Baun 

Nathaniel R. Daniel 

Richard Z. Foster, assignee . . 

Samnel Canthon 

John T. Long, assignee 

William F. WaUace 

Patrick Lynch 

William F. Russell 

Walter Gorman 

Jonas Eriokson 

Price Vestal 

James Brown, assignee 

Thomas Ervin 

Addison Carr 

Joanna E. Springer 



Canoelled. 



Oct. 

May 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Nov. 

Sept. 

Apr. 

June 

Sept. 

Mar. 

Sept. 

May 

Mar. 



8,1858 

24,1861 

8,1858 

8,1858 

8,1858 

8,1858 

8,1858 

8,1858 

8,1858 

7.1874 

5,1850 

7,1873 

24, 1873 

11,1860 

4,1875 

11,1860 

10, 1875 

11, 1872 



Amoant 



$60 15 
40 00 

159 84 

39 84 

160 64 
160 78 

79 88 

159 68 

167 14 

200 00 

202 85 

1100 

3100 

30 00 

200 00 

40 00 
100 00 

50 00 



Total I I I 1.8»80 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



BALANCES TO BE BEAPPEOPBIATED. 



43 



The following additional accounts were included in the amount presented to Con- 
gress in the special estimates of October 15, 1877, for appropriation under the head 
of ''Refunding money for lands erroneously sold:" 




30,783 
30,969 
30.970 
30,833 
30,860 
30,876 
30,874 
30,888 
31.209 
30,838 
30,972 
31,182 
31,187 
31,198 
31,117 
30,829 
30,798 
30,8^ 

31,131 

31,136 
31,151 

31,796 
31,132 
31,193 
30,822 
30,849 
31,130 
31,204 
31,208 
30,839 
30,834 
31.129 
30,872 
30,841 
30,830 
30,853 
31,189 



Alabama ... 

...Do 

...Do 

Arkansas . . . 

...Do 

...Do 

...Do 

...Do 

...Do 

California . . 

...Do 

...Do 

Do 

Colorado ... 

Illinois 

Kansas 

Michigan . . . 
...Do 



Name. 



I ^%^^ 



...Do. 



...Do 

...Do 



Minnesota 

...Do 

...Do 

Missouri 

...Do 

...Do 

...Do 

...Do 

Mississippi 

...Do 

Montana 

Nebraska 

Washin^n Ter 

Wisconsin 

...Do 

...Do 



Totol. 



Calviu L. Arant 

Geo. T. Burke, administrator. 
Matilda D. Smith, executrix. . 

Augus McDonald 

D. S. Greer, administrator . ., . 

Reuben Riggs 

Thos. C. McRae,*adm'r 

E.T.Richards 

William H. Pittman 

Francis M. Kittridge 

Robert Anderson 

Talitha Matthews, adm'r, &c. 

A. Hewel 

John Tittman 

Chas. Henrotin, attorney 

John H. Rudloff 

Lorenzo Anthony 

Isaac M. and D. F. Weston, 

assignees. 
Alfred N. Lawrence, self and 

assignees. 

D. Stewart, president, &c 

N. Ludington aud E. H. Den- 

ison, &c. 

O. B. Sturte V ant 

James G. Butterfield 

Niles Nilsson 

Adam C. Dyas, administrator 

Willis Burk 

Joel W. Thomas 

G.C.Land 

Geo. W. Dickson 

James R. Crosby 

Geo. B. Harper, adm'r 

L. B. Lyman, assignee, &c . . 

Chas. 8. Demary 

Lawrence Nessell 

D.W.Smith 

Alex, and D. D. McMillan . . . 
Fred. Carney 



Cancelled. 



Oct. 

Oct. 

Oct. 

Feb. 

Sept. 

May 

June 

Oct. 



8,1858 
8,1858 
8,1858 
5,1873 

24,1874 
6,1870 
4,1860 

23,1874 



May 
July 
Dec. 
July 
Mar. 
Nov. 
Sept. 
Dec. 
Jan. 



15. 1873 
9, 1872 

11. 1872 

14. 1874 
26,1873 
11, 1857 

18. 1873 
12,1859 
26,1869 



May 12,1874 

Aug. 29,1871 
Aug. 29,1871 



June 

July 

Dec. 

July 

Mar. 

Aug. 

April 

Sept. 

June 

June 

Oct. 

Aug. 

June 

April 

Mar. 

Feb. 



30,1873 
16, 1874 

18. 1873 
17,1860 

1,1870 
30,1871 

26. 1871 
1,1870 

25,1859 
25,1859 

14. 1874 
30,1871 

25. 1872 
22,1873 
13, 1869 

18. 1873 



Amount. 



$150 18 

160 03 

159 17 

50 00 

200 00 

40 00 
100 00 

10 00 

30 00 
116 44 
400 00 

41 70 
100 00 
205 26 
200 00 

19 40 

31 44 
102 22 

400 00 

222 81 
500 00 

33 50 
200 00 

17 19 
8 15 

34 61 
53 12 

100 00 
50 00 
30 15 
126^63 
175 19 
50 00 
75 62 
46 55 
50 00 
50 00 

4,333 36 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



45th Congkess, ) HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. ( Ex. Doc. 
2d8e8non. ( \ No. 47. 



PAINTING TENDERED CONGRESS BY MRS. ELIZABETH 

THOMPSON. 



MESSAGE 

FBOM THB 



PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 



INFORMINa 



Congress thai he had delivered to Mrs. Elizabeth Thompson a copy of the 
joint resolution of Congress accepting a painting tendered by her. 



February 11, 1878. — ^Referred to the Committee on the Library and ordered to be 

printed. 



To ike Senate and House of Representatives : 

In compliance with the resolation of Congress entitled ^^Joint resola- 
tion accepting a painting tendered to Congress by Mrs. Elizabeth 
Thompson,'' approved by me on the Ist instant, I have this day caused 
a copy of the resolution to be delivered to Mrs. Thompson. 

K. B. HATES. 

ExECUTiVB Mansion, February 11, 1878» 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



45th Gokobess, ) HOUSE OF EEPBESEKTATIYES. ( Ex. Doo. 
2d8es9ion. ] \ No. 48. 



COMMUTATION ALLOWED OFFICEES IN CERTAIN CITIES. 



LETTER 



FROM 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 



TRANSMnmiO 



A Hst of officers who received oommutaiion fuelj forage^ and quarters in 

centain cities. 



February 13, 1H78.— Refei red to the Committee on Military Affairs and ordered to be 

printed. 



War Department, 
Washington City^ February 11, 1878. 
Tbe Secretary of War has the hooor to traDsmit to the Hoase of Rep- 
reseDtatives, for the Committee on Military Affairs, in compliance with 
a request of Hon. E. S. Bragg, of sabcommittee^ for certain information 
as to the number and grade of ofQcers who received allowance for fuel, 
forage, and qnarteis in Washington, Kew York, Chicago, and Saint 
Paul, and the amount paid monthly for quarters in said cities, a report 
of the Quartermaster-General on the subject. 

• GEO. W. McCBABf, 

Secretary of War. 
To the Speaker 

of the Eovse of Beprescntaiives. 



Was, Department, 
Quartermaster General'3 Office, 

Washington^ D. C, February 6, 1878. 
Sir : Beferriug to a letter of February 4, 1878, addressed to the 
QoartermasterGeneral, United States Army, from the Hon. E. S. Bragg, 
Subcommittee on Military Affairs, House of Eepresentatives, requesting 
the following information, viz : 

Ist. The number and grade of officers who received allowance for fnel, forage, and 
qnftTters in tbe cities of Washington, New York, Chicago, and Saint Panl, classifying 
in each of said cities separately. 

2d. Tbe total paid monthly for quarters in each of said cities, stating for each city 
•epantely. 

4Ul What law or authority exists authorizing such payments— 

I have tbe honor to inclose herewith a statement of the number of 
officers on duty in tbe cities of Washington, New York, Chicago, and 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



2 



COMMUTATION TO OFFICERS IM CERTAIN CITIES. 



8aiDt Paul who receive fuel, forage, and qaarters from the Qaartermas- 
ter'ft Deparluient, showing the amount paid by offioers of the Quarter- 
maistcr^i^ Department to the owner of quarters occupied by them in the 
month of Dc'cembcr, 1877, that being the last month for which complete 
If* torus have been received at this office, classified separately, as requested. 
Tim hiw authorizing the supply of fuel, forage, and quarters is to be 
found in tho act of 15th July, 1870, section 24, and also in section 1270, 
I^evUed Statutes, as follows: 

Fuel, qiMrtcra, and forage may be famished in kind to ofiicerR by the Qaartermaster's 
Dfjiartmuut. according to law and regulations. 

Tbis Uw 13 carefully administered. Since it was enacted commutation 
of quarters, fuel, and forage to officers has ceased. 

Coder aoction 21 of the law of 15th July, 1870, and section 1273, 
Bevised Statutes, quartermasters are forbidden to make any payments 
of public money to officers of the Army on any account whatever. The 
Qnartermaster-Oeneral understands and believes that one at least of the 
objects of this enactment was to enable Congress by calling upon a 
Hifigle oSicc, that of the Paymaster-G^qeral, to ascertain what puhlic 
money was actually paid during any period of time to any or all officers 
of the Army. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

M. C. MEIGS, 
Quartermaster General U. S. A. 

To the Hon. Seoeetary of Wae. 



S^aUttunt ofthr nanther of officers on duty in the ciliea of Washington^ Netc York, Ckietufo, 
an4 Sdittt t\mt who receive fuel, forage, and quarters in kind, with ih^ number of each 
rntt.k^ tjtMo iht^ amount paid for quarters in the month of December j 1H77, in each of said 
citi<it. 

WASHINGTON. D. C. 





[Act approved July 35. 1866. and section 1270, Revised Statutes.] 




No-nl 


Grade. 


No. of 
rooms. 


Sent 


j 


Gt'Ufirfll ••...•.•....... ...... . ... .. ... . .. .- . ....... .. 




1850 00 


S' 


nr];;iuLit^r generals 


45 
65 
13 
93 
18 
96 
14 


610 00 


IJ 


(Ji>lnNpLa ,_ 


1,170 00 


:t 


r/ioiit(^ui)iiUcolonels 


M6 00 


^ 


Ml^nrn ..* 


1.65100 


fi 


CuptAiud 


'aMQO 


IH 


Licit tou lid tH 


OKiOO 


T 


Acting juwlfliant surgeons 


136 00 








M 


283 


5,300 00 



NEW YORK CITY. 



M»Dr n nersl 

ColoDeUi - 

Ueate anntrix>lonel8 
H^ors 

CiplStD4 

LleutenikitU 





6 
55 
20 
56 
27 
10 


1106 00 




990 00 




880 00 




1.006 00 




466 00 




IfiSOO 








174 


3,13100 



' ioeJtjdinn Rrta- Gen. O. R Paul, retired Febniary 16, 1865; he was cranted full pay and allowance! 
flf 4 Uri^»dl&r ^r^iuiral under authority conferred by resolution of the Senate and House of Repcesent- 
atW^N, apiiTxivoti Airril 13, 1870. 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



COHBIUTATION TO OFFICERS IN CERTAIN CITIES. 6 

SlaUmcHt of ike number of officers on duty in ike eiHes of Washington, New York, ^c, who 
receive fuel, forage, and quarters , jro, — Continaed. 

CHICAGO. 



Ko.o( 

tMh. 


Grade. 


Naof 
roome. 


Bent. 




Lieoimiaat-General 


6 

15 

20 

S4 

fi 

4 


•t08 00 




Colonel* 


S70 00 




Uenteuuit ooloDele 


360 00 




Majors 


433 00 




Genteim 


108 00 






T8 00 








19 


75 


1,350 00 



SAIKT PAtTL. 



Brf leadler-geaenl . . . 

Coktoel 

lieateoMii-eolonels 

MM^Ut% 

C*ptaiae 





5 
5 
8 

9d 
15 
6 


•90 00 




90 00 




144 00 




504 00 




870 00 




144 00 








69 


1,948 00 



TOTAL. 



Citiee. 



No. of 
ofBoen. 



Ko.of 
rooms. 



Rent. 



Waahfaifftofi 

KewTerk 

CUeifo 

SeialPaal 

Total in the four cities 



80 
45 
19 
90 



174 
75 
69 



164 



600 



15,800 00 
3,133 00 
1.350 00 
1,843 00 



10.994 00 



Jal 



Qoarters, fael, and forage are allowed and sapplled to officers of the Army under section 94, act of 
afy 19^ itno, also section 1370 Bevised SUtutes. 



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4ffTH CoiroBBSS, ) HOUSE OF BEPBESENTATIVES. ( Ex. Doo. 
2d8e»$ioH. f \ No. 49. 



BESEBVOIBS TO PEOMOTB THE NAVIGATION OP THE MIS- 
SISSIPPI BIVEB. 



LETTER 



FROM 



THE SECRETARY OF WAR, 



TRANSMnriNa 



Information concerning the effect of reservoirs upon the navigation of the 

Mississippi River. 



Fdsuart 13, 1878. — Referred to the Committee on Commerce snd ordered to be 

printed. 



War Department, 
Washington City, February 11, 1878. 
Sir : In compliance with the joint resolution of Gongress approved 
December 15, 1877, *' relative to reservoirs to promote the navigation 
of the Mississippi Biver," I have the honor to transmit herewith a com- 
manication from the Chief of Engineers of the 8th instant, and copies 
of the report on the subject from Majors Houston and Farquhar, of the 
Corps of Eogineers. 

Appendix OC, report of the Chief of Engineers for 1875, and Appen- 
dix T2, of his report for 1876, are herewith transmitted. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

GEO. W. McCRARY, 

Secretary of War. 
The Spbajcer of the House of Representatives. 



Office op the Chief of Engineers, 

Washington^ D. 0., February 8, 1878. 
Sir : To comply with the provisions of the joint resolution of Con- 
firess ^relative to reservoirs to promote the navigation of the Missis- 
i^pi Biver," approved December 15, 1877, which was referred to this 
office for report, I beg leave to submit a copy of a communication from 
Major D. C. Houston, Corps of Engineers, npon so much of the same as 
refers to the preliminary examination of the headwaters of the Wiscon- 
rin Biver, and a copy of a letter from Major F. U. Farquhar, Corps of 
Eninneers, upon that portion which relates to the examiuation of the 
headwat^B of the Saint Croix and Chippewa Bivers. 

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2 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

These reports are necessarily meager and indefinite, for the reason 
that no fnnds were available for making the examinations requisite to 
procure information, as well as for lack of time; but they will, it is 
hoped, furnish sufficient data upon which to base an estimate of the 
amounts that will be required for making adequate surveys for ascer- 
taining the extent and practicability of the proposed reservoirs. 

The question of the improvement of the navigation of Western riv- 
ers by means of reservoirs has attracted the attention of this office, and 
estimates have been submitted for the necessary surveys for ascertain- 
ing their practicability, cost, &c., as may be seen by reference to the 
reports of the Chief of Engineers for 1869, pages 188, 180; for 1870, page 
291 ; for 1875, part 2, page 434 et seq.j and for 1876, part 2, pages 288-9. 

Appendix G C, report of 1875, and Appendix T 2, report of 1876, are 
herewith. 

No appropriations have been made for the surveys in question. 

The joint resolution is herewith respectfully returned. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

A. A. HUMPHREYS, 
Brigadier-Oeneral and Chief of Engineers. 

Hon. Geo. W. McCeaby, 

Secretary of War. . 



besebyoibs on the headwatebs of the wisconsin bivee to 
pbomote navigation of the mississippi biyeb. 

United States Enoineeb Office, 

Milwaukee^ TTw., January 21, 1878. 
Genebal : I have the honor to submit the following report in refer- 
ence to reservoirs on the headwaters of the Wisconsin Eiver for the 
improvement of the Mississippi River, called for by your letter of the 
2d instant, inclosing copy of resolution of Congress, entitled : 

Joint resolatioD relatire to reservoirs to promote the navij^ation of the Mississippi 
Biver. Approved December 15, 1877. 

There being no funds applicable to a full examination of the country 
necessary to determine the questions involved, and if there were, the 
time allowed not being sufficient to make such an examination, this 
report is necessarily limited to presenting such information as' now 
exists, and I am able to obtain by inquiry of persons fiimiliar with the 
locality. 

There is no survey (to my knowledge) of the Upper Wisconsin, except 
the United States land-survey, which simply gives the course of the 
stream, and contains no information of any value whatever in this con- 
nection. 

The only report I can find which gives any information in reference 
to the character of the Upper Wisconsin and the adjacent eonntry is 
that of Dr. J. G. Norwood, which is found in Owen's report on the geology 
of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, published under direction of the 
Commissioner of the General Land Office, by Lippiuoott, Grambo & 
Co., Philadelphia, in 1852. 

Dr. Norwood made a journey in 1847 from Lake Superior to the head- 
waters of the Wisconsin Biver and descended the river in a canoe from 
a point where it was but 12 yards wide to its mouth. 

I forward herewith a copy of his itinerary from the starting-point to 

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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEE. 3 

Graod Rapids, which embraces the only portion of the river where 
reservoirs in this connection are deemed practicable. 

This part of the river rnns over the crystalline rocks; below Grand 
Baptds the country is sandy, the bed of the river being filled with sand- 
bars, rendering the formation of reservoirs for the purpose proposed 
impracticable. In view of the condition of settlements in the country 
I jadge that any reservoirs must be located above the mouth of Prairie 
Eiver« in the southern part of Lincoln County. 

Dr. Norwood describes this portion of the ri veras a succession of rapids. 

lu a number of places the river passes through high rocky ranges where 
tiiese rapids or falls are found. 

It would appear from his report that there are several places where 
reservoirs of large capacity could be cieated. 

His remarks on the general features of the country would indicate that 
it was practicable to dam up the river at different points, and probably 
some of the tributaries, so as to form reservoirs of any required extent 
sufficiently so to warrant a thorough examination of the country with a 
view to the location of reservoirs should such a system be thought ad vis- 
able. 

Dr. O. W. Wight, formerly State geologist of Wisconsin, who visited 
the upper waters of the Wisconsin in 1875, informs me from his knowl- 
edge of the country that it is entirely practicable to create reservoirs in 
tbat region of any needed extent. 

His plan would be to construct Sams at the outlets of some of the 
numerous lakes which discharge their waters into the Upper Wisconsin. 
This, he thinks, can be done at reasonable cost, and that very little land 
would lie flowed. 

I inclose report of Mr. E. G. Hinman, overseer, giving results of his 
inquiries of persons at Portage City and Stevens's Point. 

From the information I have gained I am of the opinion that at a 
moderate cost reservoirs can be created on the headwaters of the Wis- 
cansiii Biver which would be of great service in connection with th^ 
method of improvement by wing-dams in making that river navigable 
at all seasons of the year, and contributing with reservoirs ou otiier trib- 
utaries to the improvement of navigation on the Mississippi. 

A survey including measurements to ascertain the volume of discharge- 
of the river and its tributaries is nece.8sary to determine, even approx.- 
imately, the extent of such reservoirs and the character and value ofi* 
land which would be submerged. 

I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

D. C. HOUSTQN, 
Major of Engifieevs^ 

Brig. Gen. A. A. Humpheeys, 

Chief of EngineerSj United States Army, 



REPORT OF MR. E. C. UIKMAN, OVERSEER. 

Portage, Wis., January 17, 1878^ 

SETTLEMENTS AND MILLS ABOVE STEVENS'S POINT. 

. ^« flettlements above Stevens's Point are all lombering towns, arranged np the river 
■** we folio w ing order : 



I* Ban PleiDe, 12 miles above Stevens's Point ; population, 509. 
*> Knowlton,18 miles above Stevens's Point; population, 264. 
«. MoiiDee,26 miles above Stevens's Point; population, 200. 



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4 KAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

4. WaaBaa,41 miles above Stevens's Point; population, 1,500. 

5. Jenny, 56 miles above Stevens's Point ; population, 700. 

Jenny is the most northern t^wn on the Wisconsin River. It is 12 miles from Jeboy 
to Grandfather Boll Falls. The mills between Stevens's Point and Jenny are locutted 
on tributaries of the Wisconsin River, near their months, and at the several villages on 
the main river. They are located- as follows (going ap the river) : 

Little Eau Pleine River: 1 st«am-mill; 1 water-mill. 

Little Eaa Claire River: 1 steam-mill; 1 water-mill. 

Knowlton (village): 2 steam-mills. 

Big Ean Pleine River: 1 steara-mill. 

Mosi nee village: 1 steam-mill; 1 water-mill. 

Big Eaa Claire River: 2 water-mills. 

Big Saudy River : 1 water-mill. 

Waiisan (village): 1 steam-mill; 4 water-mills. 

Little Rie River : 1 steam-mill. 

Trap River : 1 steam-mill. 

Pine River: 1 water-mill. 

Jenny (village): 1 water-mill. 

Jenny is the most northern point on the Wisconbin River where lumber is manafaot- 
tir«d. 

The country is settled between Stevens's Point and Jenny, but above this point it is 
unsettled, except by lumber-camps, Indians, and trappers. 

CUTTING TIMBER. 

Timber has been cut on all of the headwaters of the Wisconsin as &r north as ** Lao 
Yienx Desert/' and on all tributaries east and west. 

DESCRIPTION OP LAND BORDERING THE HEADWATERS OP THE WISCONSIN RITTER. 

Nearly all of the land along this portion of the river and its tributaries is entered for 
the pine growing upon it. This land is low, marshy, and mostly impassable, exc^'pt iu 
winter. There are tracts of marsh-land covered with grass; also some upland cov- 
ered with hard-wood timber. The (pine) land that would be flooded is held by the 
owners only for the timber with which it is covered, and when that has been cat, the 
owner generally abandons the land, when it reverts to the State. This land, while tim- 
bered, is valued according to the estimated amount of manufactured lumber it will 
vield, to its nearness to the river, improvements made upon it or for it, such as build- 
ing roads, bridges, and dams, to assist in driving logs. The present value ranges from 
|l to (2 per thousand '* stum page", being so much per thousand feet estimated stood* 
ing on the land. 

RIVER-IMPROVBMENT COMPANY. 

There is a chartered river-improvement company, which has for its object the Im- 
provement of th ) numerous rapids in the Wisconsin River, by means of dams, to facil- 
itate in driving logs snd running lumber over them. This company have put in diMns 
at Grandfather Bull Falls, Big Bull Falls, Little Bull Falls, and other smaller rapids on 
the river and its tributaries. Tolls are collected on all lumber and logs passed over 
the sections of river thus improved. 

QRANDPATHER BULL PALLS. 

These falls in the Wisconsin River are 15 miles above Jenny. They are the largest 
on the river, are H miles long, and fall 105 feet in the whole length. The river at tbia 
point is about 500 feet wide, the banks on each side, as well as the bed of the river, 
are of granite roclt. The banks are from 20 to 40 feet high. Here would be the 
most favorable point on the Wisconsin River for a dam of masonry, on account of the 
natural rock foundation and abutments. The river is very rapid above the falls, and 
there are two smaller rapids at 6 and 12 miles, respectively, above Grandfather Bull 
Falls. The land has been cleared of pine to Irom 2 to 4 miles back from the river. 
The land ascends from the river gradually. 

On account of theswitt current and rapids above, and the consequent sudden ascent 
in the land goiug up stream, the question arises. Would a c^am bank high on the crest 
■ of Grandfather Bull Falls create a reservoir of sufficient capacity to hold enough water 
in time of a freshet to materially benefit navigation f Lumbermen acquainted witli 
the river at this point give opinions both in favor of and against the practicability 
and extent of such a reservoir, although a thorough investigation might result favor- 
ably. 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 5 

SAOLB RIVSR« 

The Eagle Rirer is a tribotary of the Wisconsin, baa its soarce in Maratbon Coanty, 
runs throagb acbain of large lakes, and joins tbe Wisconsin in towDsbip 40 north, range 
10, section 31. It is a wide, deep stream. Tbe land bordering it is timbered with piue 
ind bard wood. Considerable pine timber bas been out tbree-qoarters of a mile above 
itsmootb. The banks are from 18 to 20 feet bigb, composed of ''bard-heads" and 
frsTsI. Tbe bed of tbe nver is of tbe same material. Tbe river at this point is esti- 
mated to be 400 feet wide. Tbe land ascends from tbe river. A dam at this point 
eould be oonstmoted that would set back tbe water of tbe river into Catfish, Yellow 
fiireb. Eagle, Cranberry, and several smaller lakes. 

There is a fall from Long Lako into Cranberry, at wbiob point a dam could be con- 
stnieted which would raise Long Lake several feet. It is estimated that these two 
dams woald flow an area equal to three townsbips. The natural lakes cover one and a 
half townahips. 

It was estimated by tbe River-Improvement Company herein mentioned that a dam 6 
feet high at the point designated on Eagle River woald bold back water enough to 
aiakea three weeks' freshet in the Wiaconsin River. 

PELICAN RIVEB. 

Tbe Pelican River is a tributary of tbe Wisconsin ; it rises in Maratbon County* 
roDs through several lakes, and empties into the Wisconsin in townsbip 36 north, 
raof^ 9, section 6. There are rapids near its mouth, but above them the river is slug- 
Xisb. At the upper rapids the banks are 15 feet high, composed of rooks and gravel, 
as 18 the bed of the river. Estimated width of river 200 feet. 

It is thought a dam constructed at tbis point would create a large reservoir, having 
an area equal to two townsbipou There is pine timber along this stream, and consider- 
able lo)cgin|^ bas been done on it. There is a large tract of land without timber, tbe 
moat of which is entered for hay land. 

TOMAHOCK RIVER. 

Tbis river, a tributary of the Wisconsin, is a lumbering stream. It bas its source in 
^ Tomahock " Lake. It is without rocky banks at one point on both sides, and is not 
rseoamended as a good site for a reservoir. However, it might be possible to make a 
large reservoir on this river in conjunction with the headwaters ot the south fork of 
the Chippewa River ; but it is impossible from data at hand to determine to what 
extent 

OSKSRAT^ 

There are several other prominent tributaries of tbe Wisconsin River, on some of 
which large reservoirs could probably be made, but no favorable information could be 
obtained concerning them. 

Tbe opinion is prevalent that lumbermen would gladly relieve tbe United States 
from claims for damage to land on tbe site of contemplated reservoirs on account of the 
benefits which would be rendered them in driving logs and running lumber. 

SOURCE OF INFORMATION. 

This report is made up from information obtained in interviews on tbe subject with 
tbe following gentlemen, who concur in the practicability of reservoirs to the extent 
herein set forth : Hon. A. Eaton, land agent, Wisconsin Central Railroad, who was for 
fonrteen years receiver of the United States land-office, Stevens's Point; Mr. E. A. 
Williams, surveyor and land-looker; Mr. A.J. Hammacker, merchant, StevenH's Point, 
oonnected with the improvement company, and familiar with tbe Wisconsin River and 
its tribotaries; John Hawn, Stevens's Point, lumberman, land-looker, and guide, who 
has traversed tbe whole territory in question ; William Hayes, Portage, raft-pilot. 
Respectfully submitted, 

ED. C. HINBiAN, 
Overseer Fox and WUoonein Biters Improvement, 



UTRACT from narrative of explorations made in 1847 BETWEEN PORTAGE LAKE 
AKD THE HEADWATERS OF WISCONSIN RIVER AND DOWN THAT STREAM TO WINNI- 
BAGO PORTAGE.— BT DR. J. O. NORWOOD. 

[See Owens's €toologica] Survey of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, published under 
direction of tbe Commissioner of the General Laud Office, in 1652, by Lippincott, 
Qrambo & Co., Philadelphia.] 

• • • • • • • 

October 2.-^T\te ground was whitened by a heavy fh)et, and tbe atmosphere cool 
Aod bracing. Muscle Lake, upon which we began our voyage to the Mississippi, is about 

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6 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

one mile long and rather more than half as broad. A small stream about 150 yards in 
leDgtb led us iDto another lake rather more than half a mile in diameter. It discbarges 
its waters into the Wisconsin River through a small creek from one to five yards wide, 
running east. The creek is very shallow, very crooked, and much obetmcted by drift- 
wood, but without a rock of any description. Its whole course is through swampe, 
bordered by sand-banks covered with pine. The banks have quite a reddish appear- 
ance, although the sand in the bed of the river is white. The entire bed of the creek 
in many places is covered by several species of Unio. 

At half past twelve o'clock we entered Wisconsin River, which is 12 yards wide at 
the junction, and from 3 to 4 feet df-ep. Its course is south for several miles, bat 
gradually changes to southwest, which was the prevailing coi^rse during moat of the 
afternoon. 

We encamped about eighteen miles below the mouth of Muscle River, althongb 
in a direct In e, probably not more than six or seven miles, as the river is regaarkably 
crooked. It is from 10 to 15 yards wide, and is occasionally obstructed by dritt-wood. 
We did not see a rock or pebble of any kind until just before reaching our camping- 
ground, when a solitary bowlder showed itself, and a few minutes afterward the shores 
were fourd lined with pebbles washed out of the banks, which are composed of sand, 
and are from 3 to 20 feet high, and covered with pine, fir, and spruce, with a few aspens 
and small birch. The low grounds, which frequently intervene between the river and 
the high banks, suppon; elm, and, wnere very low, tamerack in abundance. The margia 
of the water is overhung by alders and cranberry bushes. At one point the drift was 
seen resting on a bed of reddish-colored indurat'Cd clay. The banks where elides have 
taken place present all the appearance of stratification, with a dip to the south greater 
than the fall of the river. A few first-rate and many second-rate pines were seen. 

October 3.— We left camp at 8.30 a. m., and at 1.30 p. m. reached the first rapids. They 
are made by a low range of gneiss and gneissoid granite, bearing northeast and soath- 
west, and are half a mile long. The fall is^otvery great, but the navigation was ren- 
dered rather diflBcult by the great number ot bowlders, some of them very large, which 
cover the bed of the river for nearly the whole distance. Above tlie rapids the river 
is 50 yards wide ; below them it contracts again to 30 yards in width. 

Three other rapids occur in the distance of a mile and a half. The first one is short 
but difficult to pass. The river is divided by a small island at the foot of the rapid. 
The channel for canoes is on the east side of the island. The second one is made up of 
granite, with j^neiss resting on it; and the third of gneiss and hornblende. In the 
iorenoon the river was much obstructed by drift-wood, and was very crooked except 
in the vicinity of the rapids, where its channel lay for some distance between the ele- 
vated ridges of rock. The country for a short distance above and opposite these rapids 
is open, bearing thickets of small birch, and a few stunted pines scattere«l through 
them. Occasionally a solitary large pine was seen standing on a sandy knoll, 20 or 30 
feet above the level of the river. Below the last rapids the country is made ap of 
sand, apparently destitute of pebbles, with sandy loam on top, and supporting a toler- 
ably good growth of pine, birch, and asx>en. 

October 5. — Ninety-six miles (according to our estimate of distances) below the mouth 
of Muscle River, we came to a high range of rocks consisting^ of hornblende, gneiss, and 

fneissoid granite. This range about 150 feet high, bearing northeast and southwest, 
he lapids formed by it have a descent of about 30 feet in a quarter of a mile. The 
}M}rtage-path is on the east side of the river, and is al>ont 500 yards long. 

On a small prairie, half a mile from these rapids, I measured a granite bowlder 78 
feet in ciroumierence and 10 feet high. 

The rocks continued to show themselves until, ten miles below the last range, we 
came to one about 300 feet high, composed of syenite and greenstone, traversed by veins 
of feldspar, quartz, granite, and titaniferous iron. The granite veins are from 2 to 3 
feet in width and porpbyritio. 

The average width of the river yesterday wa^ from 40 to 50 yards. The banks were 
of sand, from 10 to 30 feet iu height, and exhibit at some points extensive slides, simi- 
lar to those seen on the Chippewa, below the dalles of that river. 

I made an excursion into the country yesterday, commencing at the foot of a large 
island, the first one of any size met with in descending the river. I proceeded directly 
west, and found the country to present a succession of low ridges, and tamarack 
swamps. The ridges are sandy, with a thin soil, and from a quarter to half a mile 
w ide. On the more elevated grounds are some first-rate, and a great number of second- 
rate pines. 

A few miles south of this the Kewaykwodo portage begins. It passes for some dis- 
tance over a rolling sandy country, which is the general character of the region bor- 
dering the river for some miles above and below the beginning of the portage. A 
narrow strip of small pines lines the banks of the river at intervals, but as you recede 
ii>to the country there are few trees of any size to be seen. Clumps of very small 
birch and pine are scattered over it. This portage leads to Lac du Flambeau, by way 
of Swamp, Kewaykwodo, Leech, Thesebagomag, Wishekou, and La Roche qui Traine 

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HAYIOATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 7 

Ltkes. Just below the Kewaykwodo portage, the river is filled with bowlders, some 
of which are very large. 

The baoks of the river to-day were of fine drift, generally from 3 to 8 feet high, and 
resting on a bed of red clay, the thiokneea of which is not known, as it only rises from 
12 to 18 inches above the water-level. It is stratified, exceedingly compact, and in 
seams abont an inch thick. Some of the ridges, sections of which are made by the 
river, are from 50 to 60 feet high, and composed entirely of sand, with pebbles and a 
lew small bowlders near the top. 

Odober 6. — ^About eight miles below the last high range we came to one abont 150 
feet high, eompoeed of the same kind of rooks, syenite and hornblende. The rapids at 
this pitce are half a mile long, with an island dividing them at the lower end. At the 
foot of the island the water falls 2i feet perpendicular. There is a portage-path on 
\ht east side of the river. One canoe, however, descended the rapidB without much 
difficnlty. 

There is a snocession of small rapids for the next fonr miles, the rocks showing them- 
selves in the borders of the river at short intervals the whole distance. The river is 
very shallow, very wide, and the bed covered, with bowlders, many of which are from 
30 to 50 feet in circumference. In the afternoon we reached a poiiit where the river is 
from 400 to 500 yards wide. Up to this point it has been so shallow below the last 
lipids as to allow the canoe to pass with difficulty. Here it is deep, with no percep- 
tible current, and continues so for about six miles, when it is again obstructed by 
bowlders and a succession of rapids, which continue for about eight miles, the rock 
showing itself in place at several points in the middle of the river. 

The rocks are fine-grained granite, hornblende, and porphyritic syenite in low ranges, 
•11 bearing northeast and traversed by wide quartzose veins. The country, with the 
exception of the rocky ranges, is, in the immediate neighborhood of the river, mostly 
broken sand-prairie, with a few small pines scattered here and there ; and occasionally 
t few shrubby oaks, small birch, and aspen show themselves. 

The ridges are densely timbered with hatd and soft woods, among which, when the 
roeks approach the surface, a great deal of fine cedar is found. The river-bottoms, 
which are sometimes from a quarter to half a mile wide, are timbered with oak and 
elm of good size or covered with a luxuriant growth of grass. 

October 7. — We left camp this morning at seven o'clock, and two miles below came to 
slow range of trap-rocks bearing northeast and southwest*, and making rapids. One 
mile below this we reached the largest rapids of Wisconsin River, known among the 
traders and lumbermen as '* Grandfather Bull Falls." A fine section is exposed at this 
place. The top of the ridge is about 150 feet above the level of the water, which cuts 
through the rocks for the distance of a mile and a half. 

The fall of the water in this distance I had no means of ascertaining. At the upper 
psrt of the rapids the river is divided into three chutes by two chains of rocks, which 
rise from 10 to 15 feet above the water, and continue for some distance below the com- 
mencement. 

The rocks on the north side of the range are greenstone-trap, protruding through 
gneiss and hornblende slate, while the lower part of the rapids is made by gneiss, 
ioterstratified with mica slate and talcose slate. The stratified rocks above the rapids 
bave a dip of 20^ to the northwest. The river falls, for a great part of the distance, 
in a succession of small cascades, made by the tilted strata extending across the river 
in the line of bearing. A few of the cascades are 7 or 8 feet high, but generally from 
S to 5 feet, and from 60 to 80 yards apart. At the foot of the falls the gneiss and micji 
slate dip 57^ southeast. 

Fonr miles below the falls we reached the mouth of Skskweya or New Wood River, 
sod, much to our joy, found a trading-house established there. The person who occu- 
pies it intends opening a &rm, and has already made a small clearing. We obtained 
from him some pork and a lot of fine potatoes. As we had been without meat for 
several days, we found the sour pork quite palatable. The potatoes, which were 
nused here, are equal to any I have ever seen. 

About a mile and a half below the mouth of New Wood River a number of springs, 
strongly impregnated with iron, burst out of the west bank of the river. As tne 
spriogs are but a few feet above low-water mark, every rise of the river carries away 
liost of the ferruginous matter deposited ; still there is a deposit of considerable thick* 
Bees Uning the shore for the distance of a quarter of a mile. The hill in which the 
^Dgs originate is about 80 feet high, and extends back from the river from a 
Quarter to naif a mile to a deep ravine into which springs discharge from the same 
■ill. but present no indication of iron whatever. 

At the moath of Copper Rock River, 5 miles below the month of New Wood River, 
•tttp^dike crosses the Wisconsin, making an island in the river, 30 feet high, known 
MBock Island. This range makes dalles on Rock River several miles above its mouth. 
Tm walls of rock at toe dalles are from 40 to 50 feet high, and at one point approach 
^"ithin 6 feet, through which contracted space the water rushes with great swifoness. 
^^bete is a portage of twelve miles from the mouth of the river to a point above the 



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zedbyCjOOgle 



8 NAVIGATIOK OF THE MISSISSIPW SIVEB. 

dalles. The river is then navigable for canoes lo the lake of which it is the outlet, a 
distance of abont 40 miles. Greenstone continues to show itself in the river, without 
forming rapids, for the next three miles. 

Six miles below the mouth of Rook River, Prairie River comes in from the east, and 
Just below its mouth a range of hornblende-trap crosses the- Wisconsin, bearing east- 
southeast and west-northwest, forming Beaulieux's Rapids. At one point in these 
rapids there is a fall of 4 feet, affording excellent facilities for driving machinery. 

Seven miles below these rapids, near the mouth of Pine River, trap shows itself in 
the bed of the river without obstructing navigation. Abont 4^ miles below the month 
of Pioe River, Trap Rapids begin, and immediately below them a reddish-eolored, com- 
pact, fine-grained granite shows itself in the banks of the river. Three miles farther 
a range of hills from 350 to 400 feet high, and bearing northeast and sonthwest, skirt 
the river for some distance. IShey are, so far as observed, made up entirely of a green- 
ish-colored, compact, petrosiliceons rock, fusible, with difficulty, before the blow-pipe 
into a colorless enamel, and resembles very much some trachytio speoimens broaghc 
from the Euganean Hills, and from the Cantot. This rock extends to within a short 
distance of Big Bull Falls, and forms the most southerly range of hills in the eastern 
part of the Chippewa land- district, the corner of which strikes Wisconsin River, in 
latitude 45^, and abont six miles above the falls. 

We got to the faUn early in the afternoon, and having made the portage aronnd 
them, devoted the remainder of the day to procuring provisions for the farther prose- 
cution of our journey. 

The village at the falls consists of a number of very good frame houses, and from its 
position with regard to the lumber trade, in connection wirh the productiveness of 
the soil in its vicinity, bids fair to become a place of considerable importanoe at no 
distant day. An effort is being made to lay out and open a road from Green Bay to 
this place, which, when completed, will materially accelerate the settlement of the 
country, not only by affording facilities for immigration, but also by reducing the oost 
of provisions, which at present is a serious matter to new-comers, who have to pur- 
chase almost everything for the first year. 

One of the finest pine regions of Wisconsin enters the district at this point from the 
south, and extends for some distance above Spirit River. The general character of 
the lands, bordering Wisconsin River from near its source to the neighborhood of 
Grandfather Bull Falls, has been indicated. Below that point from a qnarter of a 
mile to a mile back from the river, ridges, bearing maple and other hard woods, begin 
and extend back into the country for many miles, while between the river^and maple 
lands good pine is abnndant. 

The rivers originating in the Chippewa land-district, down which logs can be ran, 
are Rib, Trap, Rock, and New Wood Rivers. On all these streams first-rate pi no 
abounds, and on all of them logging companies have been established. 

The country between them is made up of maple-ridges, interspersed here and there 
with marshes. 

Big Ball Falls are made by a ridge of syenite ^anite abont 30 feet high, traversed 
by a dike of greenstone, ana crossing the river with a bearing east-northeast and west- 
southwest. 

The river is divided bv an island, upon which three mills are erected. The perpen- 
dicular fall of the east chute is about fonr feet, that of the west chute about eight fiset. 
The rocks have a dip of 24<^ to the northwest. 

October 9.— Seven miles below Big Bull, a high granite range shows itself on the 
west side of the river ; and at several other points between that and Little Ball Falls, 
a distance of 13 miles, are exposures of the same rock. 

At Little Bull there is usually a portage made three-quarters of a mile long, on the 
west side of the river; but our voyagers descended the whole rapid in the canoe, with 
the exception of a few yards at the milt-dam. There is no perpendicular fall at this 

flace ; it is a mere rapid, falling, in its whole length of over half a mile, as nearly as 
could judge, 8 or 10 feet. The rock is a dark grayish and greenish colored compact 
syenite. The range is rather low, the rock being elevated, at the highest points ob- 
served, only about 10 feet above the water-level. 

October 10.— Nine miles below Little Bull, a low range of gneissoid granite is ex- 
posed, extending along the western shore of the river for the distance of 150 yardp, 
bearing east-northeast and west-southwest, with a dip of 6^ to the soath^southeast. 
The rock is traversed by numerous quartz veins, from 1 to 4 inches wide, and running 
in the direction of the line of strike. The direction of the cleavage joints is 15^ west 
of south, and due east and west. The rock is overlaid by 20 feet of fine drift, with a 
thin soil of sandy loam. 

The country is gently undulating prairie, with clamps of very small pines scattered 
over it. 

One mile below this we reached Du Bois's trading-house. Abont five miles below 
Bu Bois's, the grayish-colored gneissoid granite is again exposed for some distance 
along the west bank of the river, succeeded by a very fine-grained reddish granite. 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEB. 9 

The Toek is covered here with aboat 10 feet of fine drift, with » thin soil, supporting 
ft ftiDsll git>wth of oak, elm. and aspen, on the west side, while east of the river, a 
beaatifal andulatini; prairie extends as far as the eye can reach. 

One mile above Stevens's Point there is an exposnre of hornblende slate for hnlf a 
mile, succeeded by gnetssOid granite, which extends for some distance below the village, 
forming rapids. * 

The bearinji; of the rocks is northeast and southwest. The country in the vicinity 
of this plaee is undulating, with a tolerably good soil, supporting a growth of oak, elm, 
msple, and a few pines. 

Two miles further brought us to Conant's Rapids. This point is exceedingly inter- 
cstiog, not only on account of the great exposure of rock, but also in consequence of 
the foldings and contortions which have be«n produced in the stratified rocks at the 
time of the intrusion of the igneous rocks. 

Tb% prevailing rock is a very decomposable amphibolic gneiss, passingMnto a highly- 
ferrogioous mica slate, green, brown, and reddish mkj in different localities, and asso- 
eisted also with a very Tight-colored granitic gneiss. These rocks all have a vertical 
dip, and are compressed by lateral force into almost every possible wave-like form. 
Between the layers of gneiss, veins of feldspathio granite from 6 inches to 25 feet in width 
bftve intruded at intervals, and at many points overlie for a long space the vertical 
edges of the gneiss. Some of the veins are porphyritic. The direction of the plane 
of stratification is northwest and southeast. 

Nnmeroos veins of quarts and of feldspar, from an inch to an inch and a half in width, 
tnverse both the stratified and intrusive rocks, and have a northeast and southwest 
direction. Camped one mile below the commencement of the rapids. 

October 11. — Tnere is a fine display of gneiss on an island opposite our camp. It is 
a gray-colored, very fine-grained, compact rock, with a few regular crystals of feldspar 
disBemioated through it, bearing east-northeast and west-southwest, with a dip south- 
esst of 19^. It is traverst^ by many granitic veins following the curvatures of the 
Btrata^ and these veins are traversed in turn by veins of quartz from half an inch to 
so inch wide, having a northeast and southwest direction. The gneiss is overlaid for 
s considerable space at many points by a very fine«grained, reddish-colored granite. 

About two miles below Conant's Rapids, and about one-fourth of a mile below the 
noQth of Plover River, the gneiss is again exposed, bearing northeast and southwest, 
with a dip of ASP southeast. There is no bending of the strata at this place, nor did 
I observe any intrusive rock. Below the mouth of Plover River the drift-banks rise 
00 the east side of the Wisconsin to the height of 30 and 50 feet above the level of the 
water, and at the bends of the river sand-slides occur precisely like those seen on 
Chippewa River, some of which are more than half a mile in leuf^th. Very few peb- 
bles are mixed with the sand. The country is a rolling sand plain, with a few pine 
bashes and dwarf oaks scattered over it. 

The next exposnre of rock is at the commencement of the Grand Rapids, about 12 
miles below the mouth of Plover River. These rapids are 9 miles long. Their 
Urandenr consists not in cascades or bold escarpments, but in their length and the 
great number of low, picturesque rock islands, covered with trees, which dot the 
river and divide it into numerous narrow channels or chutes. The rock is a very com- 
pact feldspathic gneiss, with occasional wide veins of granite traversing it, gradually 
aisaming a true porphyritic character about the middle of the rapids, and toward 
ibeir termination merging into a gneissoid granite, and finally, at the village of Grand 
Sapids, into a fine-grained, reddish-colored granite of precisely the same character with 
that which overlies the sneiss at Conant's Rapids. The bearing of the rocks is east- 
■ortheast and west-south west. 



BSSBBYOIRS ON THE HEADWATERS OF THE SAINT OROIX AND 
CniPPBWA RIVERS TO PROMOTE NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI 
BIYBR. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Saint Paulj January 23, 1878. 

General : I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of letter from 

yoQr office, dated January 2, 1878, inclosing Pablic Besolation Ko. 2, of 

tbe present Congress, and directing me to report on the subject of the 

extent and practicability of constructing reservoirs, &c., at the head- 



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10 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

iraters of the Saint Croix and Chippewa Uivere from such informatioii 
as 1 might have in my possession or coald collect. 

The only information I have is derived from the United States land- 
survey maps, and from conversations with persons who have gone 
through the country. 

!•— THE SAINT CROIX RIVER ABOVE SAINT 030IX FALI^. 

The Saint Croix Biver above the Saint Croix Falls drains an area of 
6,000 square miles. 

TIr^ l^rincipal tributaries that enter from the right bank of the river 
are the Snake liiver, which drains an area of 1,100 square miles, and the 
Kettle Kiver, which drains an area of 936 square miles. 

Tb{> tributaries from the south are the Yellow River, which drains an 
arf^H of :M)0 square miles, and the Namekagon Kiver, which drains an 
are» <3t !H>8 square miles. 

The I jver is made up of rapids and intermediate reaches of slight 
slope* At the rapids it flows generally over rock in place. 

The average rainfall is a little more than 30 inches, or over the whole 
areii, 4 1 hS, 131,000,000 cubic feet. Owing to the area drained being for the 
most piirt wooded, the evaporation is probably a minimum, and it may 
be assumed that quite 40 per cent, of the rain fall passes over Saint 
Oroix Falls, which would give a mean flow per second for the year of 
5,300 cubic feet; 4,000 cubic feet per second gives a good stage of navi- 
gation below the falls, and could this be made constant it would be of 
great benefit to the Saint Croix and the Mississippi River. 

It is .li^erted by lumbermen that there are numbers of places where 
]sivffi^ reservoirs may be constructed, but only an instrumental examina- 
tion cati determine the matter. 

The amount and character of the lands that would be submerged can 
only be determined after the sites for the reservoirs are chosen. 

All examination to determine the practicability of creating reservoirs 
would cost as follows : 

1 aasisti^nt engineer, 8 months, at $200 $1,600 00 

7 Jabt^rt^rH, 5 months, at $50 1,750 00 

8ub«mti^iK«, Sniontbs.at $105 525 00 

Trainjporlation,5 months, at $100 500 00 

4,375 00 
Add 10 percent, for contlDgencies 437 50 

4.812 50 
2.— CHIPPBWA EIVER. 

The Chippewa River above Chippewa Falls drains an area of country 
of 5,600 square miles. It has many small tributaries. The only large 
one is Flambeau River, which enters from the east in township 33, range 
T we&t* At the headwaters of the Chippewa and Flambeau Rivers are 
tn»ny Inkes, which are natural reservoirs, but as they are at the extreme 
betid waters they cannot be enlarged, as they do not drain each any 
su til dent area from which to collect water. There are several falls or 
rapids on these streams between which the rivers have very gentle 
slopes. The country is generally wooded, large bodies of pine woods 
are still standing. The lumbermen have built several dams on the river 
fur storage of water for the purpose of driving logs at low stages down 
the river. These dams have been of great use to them, and they assert 
that there are many places where good reservoirs can be constructed. 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 11 

It would be worth while to examine the two large tribataries of the 
Chippewa Biver that enter it below Chippewa Fails, the Menominee or 
Bed Cedar from the west, and the Eaa Claire from the east, the former 
draining 1,152 and the latter 864 sqnare miles of land. 

The Chippewa Biver is subject to great floods and very low stages of 
water, and it would be well worth while to examine the stream and its 
tribataries for the purpose of determining whether its flow cannot be 
governed. 

The total area drained by the Chippewa Biver is about 8,000 square 
miles, and as there is at least a rainfall of 30 inches, there would be, 
sapposing that but | of the rainfall reached the mouth, a mean discharge 
of 5,900 cubic feet per second ; 3,500 cubic feet per second will give an 
excellent stage of water on the Chippewa, and, if this flow could be 
maiDtained and the remainder could be stored up, it would do much to 
ameliorate navigation at extreme low water on the Mississippi Biver. 

The practicability of constructing the reservoirs, and the amount and 
character, can only be determined by an examination of the river and 
its banks. The cost of such an examination would be about the same 
as above given for the Saint Cf oix Biver, or $4,812. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

F. U. FABQUHAB, 

Major of Engineers. 

Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphbets, 

Chief of Engineers^ U. S. A. 



Appendix G C. 

BEPOBTS ON TBANSPOBTATIONBOUTES TO THE SEA- 

BOABD. 

CO I. 

SECOND SUBDIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI TRANSPORTATION-ROUTE. 

PRELDONABY BEPOBT OP MAJOR P. U. FARQUHAB, CORPS OP ENGI- 
NEERS. 

United States Engineer Office, 

tSaint Paulj Minn.y February 4, 1875. 

General: I have the honor to make the following preliminary report 
of the results of an examination of the sites for reservoii's at the head- 
waters of the Mississippi Biver. 

This examination was made by a party under the charge of Assistant 
J. D. Skinner, who, notwithstanding the shortness of the season and 
the great difficulties of the ground, by his intelligent working and en- 
ergy, was enabled to gather all the necessary data called for by Con- 
grow, and leaves no doubt that large reservoirs may be constructed, 
which will retain the waters which prove often disastrous during fresh- 
^ and will furnish water at times when usually there is too little for 
itftvigation. It is to be regretted that no observations have been carried 
OB to determine accurately the annual rainfall in the region above, and 
discharge of the river at Pokegama Falls. The nearest post at which 
uy continuous records of rain and snow fall have been kept is Fort Bip- 

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12 NAYIOATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 

ley. It is believed, however, that the rain-fall above Pokegaina Falls is 
in excess of that taken as the basis for the computations. The season 
was a favorable one for the survey, as there was an average low-water 
stage, and at no time, save a few days in October, was there any ob- 
struction to navigation on the Mississippi Blver between Keokuk and 
Saint Paul. The steamboats made their trips without any great trouble. 
The field-work consisted, 1st, in a tested line of levels, commencing at 
the month of Crow Wing Biver, running thence by road to Leech Lake, 
and thence to the other lakes, and down the Mississippi to place of com- 
mencement; 2d, meanders of the lakes and rivers, wherever the United 
States land surveys had not been made ; 3d, careful gaugings of the 
rivers; and, 4th, a transit-line along the river, and detail survey of Po- 
kegama Falls. 

I«— DESOBIPTION OF OOUNTET AT HEADWATEBS OF THE MISSISSIPPI 

BIYEE. 

The Mississippi has its sources near Lake Itasca, in Beltrami County, 
Minnesota. 

From thence it flows northerly, and commences a great bend nntil it 
enters Cass Lake from the northwest, 135 miles* from Lake Itasca, in 
which distance it falls 172 feet. 

The river runs through many small lakes, and its banks are generally 
wooded. Cass Lake is an irregular sheet of water, 1,318 feet above 
the sea, and has an area of thirty-one and six-tenths square miles. The 
banks are from 10 to 20 feet high. From Cass Lake to Winnibigoshish 
Lake the distance is about twenty miles, and the river falls 10 feet 
Lake Winnibigoshish is a round sheet of water, surrounded generally by 
high banks covered with timber. It has a surface-area of seventy- 
eight and a half square miles. Just below its outlet the river flows 
between high banks only 1,000 feet apart — a very favorable location for a 
dam. About two miles below Winnibigoshish Lake the river widens out 
into Little Winnibigoshish Lake, which is about one and a half miles long 
and three-quarters of a mile broad. From Little Winnibigoshish to the 
junction with Leech Lake Biver, the river flows through a broad savanna 
from 1,000 to 5,000 feet wide, and is very tortuous. There are no ob- 
structions to navigation, except four miles below the outlet of Little 
Winnibigoshish, where there are a few bowlders in the river between 
Winnibigoshish and Pokegama Fall. There is a fall 11.1 feet from the 
lake to the junction of Leech Lake Biver, a distance by river of twenty- 
five miles. From the junction to Pokegama Falls, a distance of forty- 
five miles, the river falls only 13§ feet, and flows through high reeds and 
rice-fields in a most tortuous way. At White Oak Point the banks of 
the river separate to a width of more than two miles, and the space not 
filled by the current of the river is a vast reed field. Leech Lake is an 
irregular sheet of water, with a surface-area of one hnndred and ninety- 
five square jmiles. It lies just south of Cass and Winnibigoshish Lakes, 
and is separated from them by a ridge 30 feet high. Its outlet is the 
Leech Lake Biver, which connects it with the Mississippi. 

The distance between Leech Lake and the Mississippi Biver is about 
thirty-five miles, and the fall 13.555 feet. The river is very tortnons, 
and flows back and forth between its banks through high reeds and rice- 
fields. About four miles above its mouth it widens out into a vast rice- 
field, called Mud Lake. 

"See Ni€oUat^fl zeport, House Doo. S5, TweDty*eightb Coogrewi Bdoond SMaioa. 

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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 13 

At Poke^ma Falls the river falls over a ledge of sandstone. The 
8tone is a metamorpbic rock (qnartzite), and seems well fitted for build- 
lug parpones. The fall here is 14 feet in a distance of 880 feet. About 
three miles above Pokegama Falls is the outlet of Pokegama Lake. 

The water-surface of this lake is only 2.6 feet above the water-surface 
just above Pokegama Falls. The lake has a surface-area of fifteen and 
two-thirds square miles. The banks are generally high, except at the 
soQtbeast end and where the dividing ridge between it and the Missis- 
sippi River is only 8 feet above the lake. This low place is about one 
mile long, and the ridge is of sand. Any break through this ridge would 
be disastrous, as the fall is 30 feet to the Mississippi in only three miles' 
distance. Twenty -five miles above Pokegama Falls the Vermillion River 
enters from the south. Just below its mouth the banks of the Missis- 
sippi River are high and close together, and makes a good place for a 
dam. The whole country in the vicinity of the Mississippi River and 
the above-described lakes are densely wooded with Norway pine, on the 
highest ground, and a large amount of sugar and hard maples, birch, 
and poplar. 

These ridges traverse great tamarack-swamps and quaking bogs. The 
soil is generally sandy, but clay here and there crops out in the bankS| 
and undoubteilly underlies a great part of the basin. 

n. — SITES FOB BBSEBTOIBS. 

In considering the sites for reservoirs, I will commence at Pokegama 
Falls and consider the several available ones in their order, proceeding 
np stream. 

1. Pokegama Falls. — ^The height to which a dam may be built at 
Pokegama Falls is regulated by that of the watershed between its 
t ibutaries and the Mississippi below it. On examining the general map 
of the country (sheet 2 of the accompanying drawings), it will be seen 
that the lowness of the dividing ridge at the southeast end of Pokegama 
Lake will prevent any high dam from being built at Pokegama Falls. 

Assistant Skinner reports that — 

Pokegama Lake haa a snrface-area of fifteen and two-thirds sqaare miles. It is 
mostly HQiTouoded by high land, froita 25 to 150 feet in height, bat at the soatheast ex- 
tremity of the eastern arm of the lake there is a depression of abont one mile in 
length, which is but 8 feet above the level of the lake. It is the dividing ridge 
between the waters tributary to Pokegama Lake and those running eastward into the 
Mississippi, and is bnt 250 feet in width where the water-line of the lake wonld be if 
raised 6 feet. T^e small lake (marked b on sheet 2, accompanying tracing) is 6 feet 
above Pokegama Lake. There is no bank between it and the latter, which is distant 
from it sbont 500 feet. On the eastern bank of this lake the ridge spoken of rises 2 
feet, continnes at this elevation, or nearly so, for 250 feet, and then falls into a lake 
tiOO feet wide and only 2^ feet above Pokegama, and :H f^^^t below the small lake. 

The waters of this lake flow eastward into the Mississippi. The soil is loose and 
nndy, and there is no evidence of any rock in place near that locality. Immediately 
00 the east side of the ridge are marshes, through which streams flow directly into the 
Mississippi at the poiot marked c on tracing. 

It wonld not be pmdeut, withont a long dam on this ridge, extending to the high 
Isiid on either side, to raise the lake more than 6 feet above its level of this autumn, 
■s, in case of unnsnally high water, there may be risk of its finding its way across the 
Tidj(e; and once srarted, it wonld soon wear away the loose soil, form a new river, and 
pirtially drain Pokegama Lake. 

A dam raising the water at Pokegama Falls 7 feet wonld flow back- 
water over an area of twenty-three and sixty-one one-hundredths square 
ailes, with an average depth of 5.7 feet. 

2. The first place above Pokegama Falls at which it is practicable to 
dam the Mississippi for constructing a reservoir is just below the 

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14 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEB. 

month of the Yerinjllion Birer. Here the banks are from 15 to 20 feet 
high, and approach each other to a distance of 850 feet A dam at this 
point raising tbe water about 10 feet would form a large reservoir, 
backing the water over the extensive marshes near White Oak Point, 
and into Ball-Clnb Lake. This would give a reservoir of about thirty- 
four and a half square miles with an average depth of 6 feet. 

3. A dam just below Mud Lake, on the Leech Lake River, could be 
built that would raise the waters of Mud Lake 6 feet over a surface- 
area of seventeen and a fourth square miles. 

4. Leech Lake, — ^Tbis lake has a surface-area of one hundred and 
ninety-four and four-tenths square miles. Its outlet is very difficult to 
dam favorably or economically, 4,000 feet being the shortest distance 
between the high banks at any desirable point. 

At the point marked 6, a dam might be built that would raise the 
surface of the lake 6 feet were it necessary, but the scarcitiy of the sup- 
ply for so large an area renders the raising of its surface more than 5 
feet useless, as will afterward appear. 

5. CcLBs and Winnibigoshish Lakes. — The latter lake has a surface-area 
of seventy-eight and a half square miles. It can be readily raised 10 
feet above its ordinary level by a dam at its outlet. The fall from Gass 
Lake to this is 10 feet, so that the water would in fact be backed up 
into the former. No dam will be necessary at Lake Cass, as the lower 
lake can retain all its discharge. The location for a dam is favorable, 
the banks being high on either side, and not more than 1,000 feet apart. 

Jrea of water-sheda of affluents of Mississippi River above the Falls of Saint Anihonif. 

Ami in 
Name of baslDS : ■qnare milei. 

Missiseippi Ri ver, above on tlet of WinnibigoshiBh Lake 1,899 

Leech Lake, above its outlet 1,001 

Mi89i8Bippi River, between Pokegama Falls and ontleta of Leech and Winni- 

bi^oehish Lakes - 772 

Prairie River aud left bank of the Mississippi River to Wild Swan Rfver ... 365 

Wild Swan River 477 

Left bank of Mississippi Ri ver to mouth of Sandy Lake River 78 

Right bank of Mississippi River from Pokegama Falls to Willow River 166 

Sandy Lake 502 

Left bank of Mississippi River and Rice River 360 

Willow River 549 

Right bank of Mississippi River to Pine River 154 

Pine River 788 

Right bank of Mississippi River to Crow Wing 144 

Ijctt bank to a point opposite mouth of Crow Wing River 481 

Crow Wing River 3,562 

Left bank of Mississippi River, opposite Crow Wing, to Fort Ripley 157 

Left bank, opposite Fort Ripley, to Platte River 102 

Platte River 401 

Little Rock River, and left bank of Mississippi River, to Sank Rapids 121 

Little Elk, and right bank of Mississippi River, to Swan River 223 

Swan River 1«2 

Swan River to Sank River 414 

Sank River 981 

Right bank of Mississippi River, from Saint Clond to Crow River, including 

Clearwater River 434 

Left bank, from Sauk Rapids to Elk River 55 

Elk River 630 

Crow River 2,961 

Rum River 1,542 

Right bank of Mississippi River, from Crow River to Saint Anthony's Falls, 155 

Coon and Rice Rivers 254 

Total amount 19,903 

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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 15 

m— AMOUNT OF WATER TO BE RETAINED BY THE ABOYE-DESGBIBBD 

BESEBYOIBS. 

The data for the calculation of the rain fall are baaed on the average 
of the obserred rainfall for sixteen years, made at Fort Bipley. This 
average amount is 25 inches per year. The observed rainfall and 
snow-fall for 1874 amounted to about 35 inches. From the gaagings 
of the Mississippi Kiver at Sauk Bapids, and by means pf comparison 
with the gauge at Saint Paul, it was ascertained that 41 per cent of 
the computed rain-fall over the water-shed above Sauk Hapids was 
discharged at that point In the absence of more extended observa- 
tious, it may safely be assumed that there passes over Pokegama Falls 
at least 33 per cent, of the entire rain fall over the area above it The 
reservoirs and their water-supply are as follows : 

1. Lake Winnibigo8hi9h,—Th\9 lake has a water shed of 52,746,019,920 
sqaare feet One third of the rain-fall would give a volume of 36,6J9,- 
180,500 cubic feet. A dam would be required here not less than 14 teet 
high. 

2. Leech LaJc€.^Th\n lake has a total wtfter-shed of 27,906,278,400 
square feet Taking 8^ inches as the depth of water that can be gath- 
ered in and discharged annually from this water-shed, we would have a 
Bnpply of 19,379,359,983 cubic feet This would require a dam of not 
lesis than 4 feet above the present level of the lake. 

3. Mud Lake. — We have here a gathering-ground of 4,460,544,000 
square feet, which would furnish 3,097,600,000 cubic feet of water. To 
bold this would require a dam at least 6 feet above the level of the 
lake. 

4. VermWion River.— Avee^ of water-shed, 12.071,346,800 square feet ; 
amount of available rain-fall, 8,382,879,722 cubic feet, which would re- 
quire a dam at least 10 feet high. 

5. Pokegama FalU. — Area of water -shed, 4,990,223,600 square feet ; 
amoant of available rain-fall, 3,465.4*33,052 cubic feet Now the highest 
tha( the water can be raised at Pokegama Falls above the level of 
last October is 7 feet This would create a reservoir of 3,886,290,794 
cubic feet capacity. Total amount of watershed above Pokegama 
Falls, 3,365 square miles; total assumed quantity of rain-fall available, 
70,954,453,257 cubic feet. 

The Sandy Lake, Pine River, Gull Lake, and Mille Lacs regions were 
also visited for the purpose of determining their values as holding- 
grounds for surplus water. 

6. Sandy Lake. — Sandy Lake is a very irregular sheet of water, sur- 
rounded for the most part by sand-dunes. Its outlet is very broad, and 
would make the erection of a dam very costly, as the water would un- 
doubtedly sweep through the sand-banks if the surface of the lake was 
raised. The Sandy Lake River, its outlet, is a very tortuous stream at 
low water. The high water is due to the high water of the Mississippi 
Biver, which backs the water up intiO Sandy Lake. 

7. A good storage-ground for water was found on the Pine River. 
(See Detail Map No. 3.) Pine River runs through a series of connecting 
lakes. Just below Gross Lake there is a good place to build a dam. 
The watershed above the outlet of Gross Lake has an area of five hun- 
dred and fifty-one square miles. Estimating the annual rain fall at 25 
inches, and that 8^ can be relied upon, there will result a total discharge 
per year of 10,752,698,880 cubic feet The banks of the lakes are gen- 
erally high, and have a surface-area of 491,301,043 square feet If it 
were desirable to hold all the above water, it would require a dam 24 

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16 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 



feet high, but from present information it woald not be practicable to 
construct so high a dam. An additional dam at the mouth of White- 
fish Lake might be constructed, 20 feet high, and the other at the out- 
let of Cross Lake, 12 feet high. The latter dam would create a reservoir 
of 4,913,000,000 cubic feet capacity, which, during the low-water season 
of the Mississippi Biver, August, September, and October, would fur- 
nish 630 cubic feet per second. 

8. The system of lakes of which Oull Lake is the center (see Detail 
Map No. 2), and which discharge tbeir waters into the Grow Wing 
liiver, through the Gull Lake Biver, form an excellent storage for 
water. 

The discharge of Oull Lake River was, on the 10th of November lant, 
330 feet per second. The area of the 'water-shed of the Gull Biver 
above the outlet of GjU Lake is 7,582,924,800 square feet, and assuming 
that one-third of the annual rain-fall can be collected in the reservoirs 
and discharged therefrom, we would have 5,265,920,000 cubic feet. The 
area of Gull and adjacent lakes that can be used for storage purpose is 
501,841,200 square feet, on which the water can be stored for an average 
depth of 10 feet, and 223,087,200 square feet, on which an average depth 
of 5 feet can be stored, giving a total ca))acity of 6,133,548,000 cubic 
feet. A dam 12 feet high can be easily constructed to obtain the above 
capacity of reservoir. 

9. MWe Lacs. — This is a large lake, of one hundred and ninety-eight 
square miles in area. (See Detail Map No. 4.) It is the source of Bum 
Biver, which enters the Mississippi Biver at Anoka. 

There is a good location for a dam at its outlet. Area of water-shed, 
12,405,888,000 square feet ; quantity of water, 8,684,121,600 cubic feet. 
Supposing that this whole amount could be stored, it would only raise 
the lake 1.3 feet. 

The lumbermen have, from time to time, built temporary dams to aid 
them in getting a head of water which, when the dam was broken away, 
would carry their logs down the Bum Biver to the Mississippi. 

There may be some points on the Prairie Deer Lake and Crow Wing 
Bivers that might be available for storing water. 

To make a recapitulation of the above reservoirs : 



Betervoir. 



Area of w»- 
ter*«hed. 



Tokd water. 



WinniblKoehiah Lake 

Leech Lake 

Mad Lake 

VermillioD Rirer 

Pokegama falls 

Total aboTe Pokegama. 

PineKiver 

Gull Lake 

MilleLaoa 

Total 



Sq.miUt. 

1,001 
161 

179 



J6, 6«, 180. 500 
19.379,339.963 
3,097,600.000 
8,38^<>79.789 
3,4«S,«f3,0S9 



3,665 
551 
S79 



70,954,453.9iS7 
10. 667. 353, 750 
&, 965, 990. 000 
8. 684. 191. 600 



4,933 



95,571,648.607 



For purposes of navigation between Pokegama Falls and the mouth 
of the Prairie Biver there is required 2,474 cubic feet per second from 
May 1 to December l,or for 214 days, which will require a reduction of 
the above amount of water by 45,743,270,400 cubic feet, leaving availa- 
ble for distribution at times of low water, 49,828,577,907 cubic <feet. 

Kow there is a good stage of water on the Upper Mississippi Biver to 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



KAVIQATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 17 

StiDt Paal, when th^ amount of water passing Saint PanI is 12,000 cnbie 
fieet per second. 

The extreme low- water flow of the Minnesota River is 800 feet per 
seeond. The low- water flow at the Fallnof Saint Anthony daring 1874, 
«xcla8ive of the low-water flows from the conutry above described a« 
gatbering-gronnds for reservoirs, was 26 per cent, of the mean flow due 
Ui the entire raiu-falh As this percentage wonld not change very much, 
we may compute the low-water flow at Saint Paul to 800 cubic feet -f 
(26peroent of 27,547 •) +2,500 cubie feet to be uniformly discharged 
orer Pokegama Falls=s 10,4(52 cubic feet per second. Now this low water 
Dever obtains before July 1, generally not before August 15; so, suppos- 
iDg that the low water continues from July I to December 1, or 153 
days, it wonld only require a total of 20,331,129,600 cubic feet additional 
to be discharged Arom the reservoirs, not one-hal' of the above storage. 
Tke mean annual rain-fall, 25 inches, is, I think, quite small. 

The following are the observed rain-falls at Fort Bipley for the past 
three years : 

im .• 34.08 inches. 

W72 3609inche8. 

W73 40.7Hiuche«. 

1874, United SUtes si^al, Saint Paal 35.00 inches. 

The reservoirs should be, if possible, large enough to bold two sea- 
loos' water, for should there be a succession of high-water years, they 
tre likely to be followed by one or more low water years, and then the 
reservoirs will come into play. Further explorations at the headwaters 
of the Prairie, Willow, and Grow Wing Bivers may develop good sites 
for storing water. The Pokegama Falls reservoirs may be supple- 
mented by a dam at the outlet of Bass Lake^ should a favorable site be 
foQud, and it is possible that a large reservoir can be created by dam- 
ming the outlet of Deer Lake. 

IV.— OHA.BACTEB OP OONSTBUCTION FOB PAM8. 

Except at Pokegama Falls, where a masonry -dam can be constructed, 
the proposed dams will be built of timber and earth. The conditions 
to be observed in their construction are, 1st, that the apertures at low 
water shall be equal to the low-water section of the river, so that the 
reservoirs can be drained as low as possible; 2d, that the dams shall be 
as high as the adjacent banks and dividing ridges between the proposed 
reservoirs and the river below will permit of; 3d, that where dams can- 
not be built high enough to retain more than the highest stage of water, 
a sufficient weir be made to make the dam i^afe ; and, 4th, that the dams 
should be strong enough to resist any presumable pressure, and compact 
enoogh to prevent any possibility of percolation. 

From the showing of clay in the river-banks, it is hoped that it may 
be found underlying the sites of the proposed dams. If it is, the mode 
of constructing the dams will be to drive two lines of sheet-piling the 
entire length of the dam, reaching down to the clay ; after they are 
driven, to dredge out the material between them until the clay is reached, 
and then to fill up with a clay -puddle to the wood-work, and up to the top 
o( the earth embankment, when one is used. The lower slopes of the 
cvhankments to be 1 to I, and the upper, 2 to 1 ; the wood work to rest 
pit grillage which rests on piles. It will consist of a floor of 12 by 12 
nek Umber, resting on the grillage, and extending from above the piers 

* Low- water flow for 25 inches of rain-fall. 

H. Ex. 49 2 Digitized by CjOOglC 



18 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER* 

to 20 feet below them. On this floor will be the piers, the intervals be- 
tween them fortning the slaices throngh which the water will be dis- 
charged. The piers will be boilt of 12 by 12 inch timber, and will be 6 
by 12 feet at top; the upper slope being 1 to 1, with au angle on the 
upper face to break ice, and the sides and lower ends perpendicular. 
The piers will be filled with stone or earth. They will be placed 10 feet 
apart on the flooring, and well bolted to it. They will be connected with 
a crowning-piece, which will form the weir. Between the piers will be 
gates sliding up and down, which will be operated from a bridge sap- 
ported by the piers. 

There has been no time to work out all the details of these daois. 

At Pokegama Falls it is proposed to put in a needle-dam, on the left 
chute, at the head of the falls, and a solid masonry-weir over the other. 
(See Detail Map.) By blasting out the head of the ledge, a greater 
aperture of discharge can be gained. Assistant Skinner reports the 
following estimates of the cost of the proposed dams, supposing them to 
be of timber: 

WiDDibigosfaisfa Lake, 1,000 feet long $59,969 80 

Leech Lake, 4,000 feet long 177,555 64 

Mad Lake, 600 feet long 31,737 ») 

Vermillion River, 850 feet long 56/^45 20 

Pine River, 592 feet long 32,386 20 

GnH River, 442 feet long 25,786 20 

Mille Laos, 600 feet long 29,5.^ 20 

Pokegama Falls (masonry and needle-dam) 75,334 00 

Total 488,551 40 

I think that this estimate is large, and that fnrther examination of the 
sites of the dams will materially diminish it. Of course, the selection of 
the sites could only be made after the maps were finished, and borings 
and minute surveys must still be made. The estimates for these sur- 
veys are contained in my letter of January 30 ; besides which some 
extended observations as to quantities of wat-er Mliug and discharged 
should be made at and above Pokegama Falls. 

This report is made hastily, the maps and computations having only 
been finished a few days. 1 forward by express, today, to your address, 
a package containing six tracings, showing the results of the last sea- 
son's work, and one map showing the water-sheds of the several afflu- 
ents of the Mississippi Biver above the Falls of Saint Anthony. 
Very respecttuily, your obedient servant, 

F. U. FARQUHAR, 

Major of Engineers. 
Brig. Gen. A. A. HuMPniiBYS, 

CMefof Engineers^ U. 8. A. 

CCa. N5^ 

PART OF THIRD SUBDIVISION MISSISSIPPI TRANSPORTATION- ROUTE. 

report of major f. u. farquhar, corps of enoinebrs. 

United States Enoineer Office, 

Saint PauU Minn.^ February 8, 1875. 
Genbbal: I have the honor to make the following report of the 
results of an examination and survey of the Mississippi Biver, from 




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NAVIOATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 19 

Poke/3fama Falls to the Falls of Saint Anthony, made with a view to 
determine the cost of improving the same. *' so as to give from three to 
fire feet navigation above the Falls of oaint Anthony, at the lowest 
stages of water." (See page 243, part 1st, Report 307, Senate Doc., 1st 
session 43d Congress.) 

The three parties making the snrveys were nnder the charge of Assist- 
ants J. D. Skinner, A. E. Stevens, and L. Y. Schermerhorn. The first- 
named making the examination between Pokegaraa Falls and mouth of 
Mad River; the second, a survey from month of Mad River to mouth 
of Sauk River; and the third, from mouth of Sauk River to the Falls 
of Saint Anthony. Want of funds prevented a survey above Mud 
Itiver, bnt Assistant Skinner made special surveys at every obstruction 
reported by river-pilots. At the time (September 22 and 23) I passed 
over this part of the river, it was hard to recognize the so-called rapids, 
as there was a good stage of water over them, and the only steamer 
plying between Mud River and Grand Rapids made her trips without 
troable until the close of navigation. 

BEPOBT. 

L— DBSCBIPnON OP BIVEB PBOM POKEaAKA FALLS TO PALLS OP 

SAINT ANTHONY. 

The Mississippi River, below Pokegama Falls, has very different char- 
acteristics from those obtaining above. The banks are higher, marshes 
less frequent, and a true valley exists. The immediate valley Is quite 
narrow, and bounded by hills until the flat region in which Sandy Lake 
is situated is reached. The river is confined within its banks, except at 
extreme high water. The bottom- lands between the valley's sides are 
covered with a dense growth of elm, ash, basswood, birch, and spruce, 
while the high lands generally bear white and Norway pines. The aver- 
age fall of the river, from Pokegama Falls to Mud Biver, is about six 
inches per mile. The river is very crooked, and, as will be seen by the 
accompanying tracing, there are several places where the folds of the 
river approach very near each other. The most remarkable is where a 
portage of just 30 feet saves nearly three miles of canoe travel by the 
river. At one place, called the Cut-off, the river has but recently broken 
through, and the channel through the neck is quite deep and passable 
for steamboats. The lost channels are called by the river-men and In- 
dians ^' logans'' (lagoons). The banks of the river, whenever it impinges 
against the valley's sides, are of clay and gravel overlaid with sand or 
loam. 

The principal tributary streams between Pokegama Falls and Mud 
Biver are the Prairie, Wild, Swan, Sandy Lake, Rice, and Mud Rivers, 
from the east, and Split Hand and Willow Rivers from the west. 

Assistant Skinner reports the following obstructions to navigation 
between the foot of Pokegama Fails and mouth of Mud River, viz : 

1. Grand Rapids^ three and one-half miles below Pokegama Falls ^ 
bere the river falls over a bowlder slope 5 feet in 1,750 feet ; there is no 
rock in place. (See Detail Map No. 21 u.) 

2. Pine Eapid$^ section 12, township 51, range 24 (see Detail Map. No. 
21 m), gravel and bowlder bar ; fall, 0.45 iu 600 feet 

3. Crooked Rapids^ section 22, township 51, range 24 (see Detail Map 
Ifo.21 m), gravel and bowlder bar; fall, 0.43 in 500 feet. 

4. Ox Portage Rapids j section 2, township 50, range 24 (see Detail 
Hap No. 21 m), a succession of gravel and bowlder reefs \ fall, 0.6 in 

^ ^^^ Digitized by CjOOgle 



20 MAVIQATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIYEB. 

5. Sandy Lake Rapids, Rection 24, township 50, range 24 (see Detail 
Map No. 21 {), bowlder reef; fall, 0.6 in 900 feet 

6. Moose Rapids, section 23, township 49, range 25 (see Detail Map ' 
No. 31 l\ two bowlder reefs, 600 feet apart, extending from opposite 
banks of river; fall, 0.6 in 1,000 feet. 

7. Island Rapids^ section 15, township 48, range 26 (see Detail Map 
No. 21 1), wide, shallow river flowing over bottom covered with bowl- 
ders ; very slight fall, only 0.44 feet in 1,586 feet 

8. Large bowlders in bed of river at places marked A, B, O, D on 
General Map No. 21, amounting to about 14 cubic yards in alL 

9. As the river will very likely soon oat through at the point marked 
E on Tracing No. 21, Assistant Skinner recommends that a channel be 
dredged through it at once, to prevent the obstruction to navigation 
that will exist until the river-channel is entirely made through the neck. 

10. Sna'QS. — ^There are thirty-two suags to be removed between Grand 
Kapids and Mud Lake, and many overhanging trees. 

From Bice Biver to sixteen miles below mouth of Mud River, the 
Mississippi is a sluggish and tortuous stream, flowing through low, 
marshy ground. The river has a good chanuel of more than 10 feet 
deep. The immediate banks are about 12 feet high, on which there is 
a thick growth of soft-wood trees, while the adjacent country^ back 
from the river, is filled with small lakes, tamarack-swamps, and quak- 
ing bogs. 

The river is about 200 feet wide, with water slightly colored, and 
with a bottom of mud or sand. The fall of the river from Bice River to 
Pine Knoll is at the rate of 0.24 foot per mile. At Pine Knoll, sixteen 
miles below Mud Biver, the character of the river and country adjaoent 
changes. The river becomes more rapid and wider. The sandy blnffis 
here appear from 20 to 60 feet in height, covered with a growth of small 
pines and bushes, the more valuable pine having been entirely cut off. 
A large portion of this country has been scourged with the annual fires. 
On the bluffs are seen a few granite bowlders. 

From Pine Knoll* toTowhead Bapids,t the slope of the river for nine 
and one-half miles is ^ foot per mile. At Towhead Rapids the fail is, 
in 650 feet, 0.38 foot From the foot of Towhead Bapids, for eleven miles, 
the slope is 0.86 foot per mile. Here the Pine Biver comes in from the 
north. The general course of the Mississippi has been from Mad River 
to this point almost due west It now takes a sharp turn to soath by 
east. The Pine Biver is a rapid stream, which discharged, at the low 
water of 1874, 782 cubic feet per second. It has a water-shed of seven 
hundred and eighty-eight square miles in area. 

From the mouth of Pine Biver, for nine miles, to the head of Big Eddy 
Rapids, the average slope is 0.80 foot per mile. The adjaoent coantry 
is much more broken, especially on the right bank. There are many 
springs issuing from the foot of the banks, which are strongly impreg- 
nated with iron. Big Eddy Bapids j: occur in a straight part of the river. 
The right bank is 30 feet high, and the left bank 12 feet high ; the river 
is narrow and deep ; the slope is only 5.15 per mile for half a mile. Ex- 
cept for a few bowlders, there is a good channel over these rapids of at 
least 6 feet of water. At the toot of the rapids is the Big Eiddy.|« The 
river here widens to 730 feet, and the water is very shallow. One and 
a half miles below Big Eddy are Island Bapids % On these rapids the 
channel is only 3 feet deep for a distance of 3,000 feet. The slope, for 
the first 800 feet, is 4.62 per mile. At the toot of these rapids the Bab- 
bit Biver comes in from the east. 



' See Tracing No. 20. t See Tracing No. 19. X See Tracing Nb. ,18. 

Digitized by ' 



'racinff N&.,ia 

/Gaogle 



VAYIQATION Off THE MISSISSIPPI RIYBB. 21 

Six handred and twenty-two miles below Island Bapids are French 
Sapids;* here the river is straight and narrow, flowing between high 
bluffs. The channel across them is from 6 to 10 feet deep. The slope 
for 1,000 feet is 7.4 feet per mile, and for 3,100 feet 5^ feet per mile, 
ikiow the rapids is shallow water. Three-foarths of a mile below French 
Bapids is French Bar,* where, for 500 feet, the slope is 10 feet per mile, 
and the river broad and shallow. Three and one-third miles below French 
Bar is Brainerd,f at which place the Northern Pacific Railroad crosses 
tbe river. Tbe distance from Mud River to Brainerd by railroad is 
twenty-seven miles; by river, fifty-five and one-fourth. The elevation 
of the low water of 1874 at Brainerd was 1,169.60 feet above the sea. 
From above Brainerd to Crow Wingf the river is navigable at low- 
water, there being plenty of depth in tbe channel, and tbe slope being 
odIj 0.87 foot per mile. Tbe river flows through high banks of sand 
covered with Norway, white, and jack pines ; the country becomes more 
open as we leave Brainerd, some prairie approaching the river. Six- 
tt^D and a half miles below Brainerd tbe Grow Wing River enters from 
tbe west. It is the largest affluent of the Mississippi above tbe Falls of 
Saiot Anthony ; it drains a country of 3,562 square miles in extent. At 
tbe time of low water of 1874, its discharge per second was 2,699 cubic 
feet 

Just above tbe island, dividing it at its mouth, it was 250 feet wide. 
Its waters are very clear, and make a strong contrast witb those of the 
Mississippi, and tbey do not fairly mingle for a distance of about four 
miles below their junction. Tbe low-water discbarge of 1874, of tbe 
UissisKippi, three and three-fourths miles below the Crow Wing^ was 
7,099 cubic feet per second. From Crow Wing to Fort Ri|)ley,§ nine 
miles, tbe river has a slope of 0.8 foot per mile. Fort Ripley is on a 
blaff 20 feet high on the right bank of the. river, nearly opposite the 
Sokay^ppu 

From Fort Ripley to Fort Anthony there is a notable difference in the 
amount of timber and height of bluffs on tbe two banks of the river, 
the west bank being the lowest, with the most timber, until we reach 
Sauk Rapids, while below Sauk Rapids the west bank is the highest as 
well as the most timbered. From Fort Ripley to Saint Cloud £e river 
is a series of lapids, the intervening pools having also steep slopes. 
Two and a ha)f miles below tbe tort is Olmsted's Bar. (See Tracing No. 
11) Here is seen rock in place for tbe first time below Pokegama Falls. 
Tbe river is broad and shallow, with a slope of 4i( feet per mile. Tbe 
rock is a trap-dike, and extends 300 feet from the west bank into tbe 
stream. From the head of Olmsted's Bar, for four miles, the average 
8lq>e is 4.14 feet per mile. In this distance there are fifteen islands, all 
^vily timbered, which are overflowed at high- water. Of tbe 4 miles 
tbere are one and one-tburth miles with less than three feet of water in tbe 
cbannel. Below the bar the water continues rapid, tbe average fall being 
2.48 feet per mile. Nine miles below Fort Ripley (see Tracing No. 13 k) are 
Oouradi's Shoals. Just above them, for a distance of two miles, tbe 
8Joi)e of the river is only 0.93 foot per mile. Tbe bar is formed by tbe 
nver widening out over a coarse gravel-bank, the depth of water in tbe 
ebsDoel being only two feet. Tbe fall of tbe river in 1,500 feet is 4.74 feet, 
«r 16.68 feet per mile. From this bar to Little Elk Rapids is 2.1 miles. 
(SesUap No. 13 A:.) Here tbe bed of the stream is rock in place. The 
Hrer now fairly enters its passage across tbe outcrop of the great dike 
^e^stalline rocks, its exit from which is just below Saint Cloud. By 

*Beo Traciog Mo. 17. t Soe Tracing No. 16. t See Tracing No. 15. $ See Tracmg No. 14- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



22 NAVIGATIOK OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEB 

river this distance is sixty-one and one-fourth miles. Generally speak- 
ing, the rock does not show mnch above the water on either bank, being 
for the most part covered with drift 

Prof. David Dale Owen, on pages 165 and 167 of his report to the 
Commissioner of the General Land-Office of the results of his geological 
survey of Wisconsin, Iowa, and Minnesota, 1851, gives the following 
very interesting account of all the rocks crossed by the river between 
Saint Cloud and Fort Ripley : 

The rocks of this locality are of a character sach as have yielded valaable ores in 
some regious of the Old World ; bat their elevation is bat little above high water, and, 
except over limited tracts, they are entirely hidden from view by deep deposits of 
drift. 

Seven to eieht miles above Sank Rapids, a short distance below Little Bock, is a 
higher exposure of crystalline rocks. A ridge of hornblende and syenitic greenstone, 
with veins of granite, bearing north 7(P to 60*^ east, rises on the east side of the Mis- 
sissippi to the height of 30 to 40 feet; and a short distance farther back even to the 
height of 60 to 70 feet. 

Abont a mile and a half above Little Rock, a tongh, close-grained hornblende rock 
appears on both sides of the Mississippi in aitu, elevated from 2 to 4 feet above the 
water-level, and overlaid by sand and gravel ; similar rocks appear at intervals between 
Little Rock and Knife Rapids (now called Pike Rapids). From the occarrence of 
superficial orasts, in pools of water collected in the hollows of these rocks, it is evident 
that oxide of iron enters largely into their composition, and exists in a state easily 
acted upon by the water. 

Five or six miles above the month of Swan River, on the Mississippi, is an interest- 
ing exposure of gray-colored mica-slate, charged with large crystals of stanrotide. 
The surfaces of the crystals are, however, rather rough, which impairs their beauty as 
cabinet specimens. This rock is exposed at intervals for three or four miles. 

The mica-slate is succeeded still higher up on the Mississippi by maguesian slates 
a8Sociat>ed with a tongh, clase-graioed, hornblendic rock. The best exposure of these 
is on the rapids foor miles above the mouth of Elk River of Nicollet, where they have 
a bearing of north 20^ east, and in either nearly vertical or with a dip of 75° to dO^ to 
the southwest. The slate has quartz-veins rnnning through it. There is, however, 
but little opportuniry to investigate its mineral character, lor the banks of the river 
are quite low, only 12 to 15 feet above the water at the highest points, and 8 to 10 of 
this is soil and drifted materials. 

This is the last locality where I observed any rock in place on the 
Upper Mississippi. 

The fall at Elk Rapids is 7.2 feet in 5,100 feet. The steepest slope is 
15^ feet per mile tor a distance of 500 feet From the foot of Elk 
Bapids to Little Falls, the slope for 1.8 miles is 3.17 feet per mile. This 
part of the river is filled with bowlders. 

At Little Falls (see Tracing No. 13k) the stream is divided by Mill 
Island, and there is a fall of 5.03 feet in 1,800 feet; bnt there is one 
part in which the fall is 0.67 foot in 100 feet, and another in which the 
fall is 1.59 feet in 30 feet. The river rnns over slate-rock, having a dip 
of 80^ to the north, and a direction of north 80^ east. On the right 
bank the rock rises above the water for half a mile, and is from 2 to 20 
feet high. On Mill Island it is 15 feet above the water, and on the left 
bank it shows for 1,000 feet, but is only seen for 300 feet from the river. 

From Little Falls to Pike Bapids, 4.7 miles, the river has an average 
slope of 3.40 feet per mile, the first three miles having a slope of 4.20 
per mile. 

At Pike Bapids (see Tracing No. 12;) the river flows over a bed of 
gray-colored mica-slate, which does not rise above the water on either 
bank. Here commences a series of rapid and rocky places extending 
for 6.7 miles, the average slope being 5.43 feet per mile, the maximum 
being 25.37 feet per mile for a distance of 350 feet at Pike Bapids. 

Two miles below Pike Bapids is Gash's Bar (see Tracing 12j), where 
the river is only 2 feet deep, and flows over bowlders. Three thousand 
three hundred feet below Gash's Bar are Gash's Bips, where the river 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



KAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIYER. 23 

flows over rock in place with a slope of 7^ feet per mile. Then there is 
a slope of 4.01 feet per tnile to McDoagalPs Bips. (See Ti'acings Nos. 
11 and 12f.) ODe-fourth of a mile farther down stream are McDoagall's 
Bips, where the river flows over rock in place with a slope of 17.42 feet 
per mile for 850. 

The rock shows in both banks and rises above the water in the mid- 
dleof the stream, forming a small island. (See Tracings Nos. 11 and 12i.) 

Between McDoagalFs and Blanchard's Eips, a distance of 0.9 mile, 
the slope is 5.7 fef t per mile, with a maximam of 12.16 feet per mile for 
350 feet. 

At Blanchard's Rips, the river falls over a rocky bed 1.80 feet in 1,356 
feet (See Tracings Nos. 11 and 12f.) 

Between Blanchard's Eips and McDoagall's Eddy, a distance of 1.7 
miles, the slope is 3.97 feet per mile, with a good channel, ex(;ept in one 
place. Below McDoagall's Eddy there is good water for 20.8 miles, 
with an average slope of 1^ feet per mile. In this distance the affluents 
of any importance are the Two Rivers and the Platte Rivers, both com- 
iog in from the east. The latter drains a watershed of one hundred 
and ten square miles ; it extends into the pine regions, and is much used 
by lambermen. One and eight-tenths miles above the Little Rock 
Creek, rock in places appears. It is a tough, close-grained hornblende. 
Half a mile below the same creek, on the left bank, is a ridge of syeu- 
itic greenstone, rising 30 feet above the river. 

The country on the left bank, between Little Rock and Watab, is very 
rough, being broken up by irregular mounds of greenstone with granite 
veins. 

Watab Rapida (see Tracing No. 9) are formed by the river falling over 
a rocky bed two feet in 800 teet. 

From the foot of the rapids to Sank Rapids, a distance of four miles, 
the average alope is 2.51 feet per mile, with a maximum of 5.81 feet per 
mile for a distance of 1,525 feet. 

The low-water discharge (1874) at just above the mouth of Sauk River 
was 9,202 cubic feet per second. 

At Saak Rapids (see Tracings Nos. 8 and Sh) the river, passing over 
a rocky bed, falls 17 feet in 4,000 feet. There is no well-defiued channel 
h>T this distance. For nearly three miles the river banks are, on both 
sides, 60 feet high, but grow lower just below Saint Cloud. 

Assistant Schermerhorn makes the following report on the physical 
characteristics of the Mississippi between Sauk Rapids and the Falls of 
Baint Anthony : (See Tracings Nos. 1 to 8.) 

The river-bed reats in an eroded valley, seldom exceeding one mile in breadth^ and 
frequently rednoed to a litUe more than the width of the river. 

A CTOfls-aection of the valley generally shows a terraced bench from twenty to thirty 
feet above the river, intermediate in elevation between the river-banks and the table- 
laods. The river-bed inclines to the right of the valley oenter-lincy making the west- 
em slope more precipitous than the eastern. 

Bottom-lands are almost entirely wanting. Rock in place is fonnd at Sank Rapids, 
•od forms the bed of the river for a distance of two thousand feet ; disappearing from 
the surface it again rises over very limited areas— -at the head of the so-called Thoasaod 
Idands. 

The formation is syenitic granite of gray and gray- pink color. It is of even texture, 
sad is used in the construction of the custom-house and post-office at Saint Paul. 

Book in place is next seen at a point three miles above the Falls of Saint Anthony, 
vbere it occurs as Saint Peter sandstone. Disappearing; it again crops out at the head 
of Hicollet Island with Trenton limestone superimposed. In this position it forms the 
bed and banks of the river at the Falls of Saint Anthony. 

fh« river«banks are strongly defined, retaining floods entirely within their lines. 

At a few points the river flows at the foot of &ose sand and f^ravel slopes which rise 
nomthe water-sarface to the table-lands. At such points the river slowly but contin- 
^y encroaches apon the shore-line, producing an increasing width aud decreasing 

Digitized by VjOOQLc 



24 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVES. 

depth of river section. With these ezeeptions the banks »re exceedingly stable, and 
carry an unchanging shore-line. 

Islands are of* frequent occnrreuce. In the upper part of the river they are fonnd in 
groups of from three to five, bnt in the lower they are generally single and of increaMed 
area. They have originated from sand-bars and segregation from main-land. Tbe 
former are seen in all stages of growth, but no indications were found of the latter in 
process of formation. Further confirmation of the not recent origin of islands from 
the main-lands is fonnd in the difference of tree-growth, the islands oeing covered wiUi 
elm, linden, and maple, the main-land with oak. 

Cut-o£fo, except in a single case, were not fonnd ; hence the distarbance of the shore- 
line by the formation of chutes or cut-offs is not to be apprehended. The islands at 
times of freshets are submerged, bnt the dense trees and undergrowth protect them 
from erosion. 

The river-bed, except in the vicinity of islands, is composed of very coarse drift 
varying in size from pebbles of a few inches to bowlders of several feet in diameter. 
Among islands the bed is generally sandy, or of leas stable material than the undivided 
river. At rapids the bed is thickly covered with large bowlders. ^ At several points the 
banks bordering rapids, although having ample slope and elevation to insure qnick 
and efficient drainage, are yet impassable from ooze, indicating an inipervions stratam 
near the surface. The presence of ferruginous stains along the banks, and tbeabaenee 
of rock in place, suggests a cemented agglomerate as forming the true bed at these 
points, and upon which the erosive action of the water has been less effective than 
n|»on the more yielding material below. 

The diminished effect of this action over the harder areas wonld in time leave the 
river-bed elevated aa it now is and producing the present rapids. As a whole), the 
river-bed possesses the requisites for great stability. 

Tile low-water stage occurs near the last of October and is repeated with great r^- 
nlarity. The low- water stage referred to in this report is above tbe extreme low- water 
stage, but may be safely assumed to be below the average low-water stage of preceding 
years. , 

Average high water occurs between tbe months of June and August, dnnng which 
the river rises from 5 to 7 feet above the low-water stage. 

On July 16, 1864, the river rose to an elevation of 14^- feet above low stage; thia was 
an exceptional freshet, and is referred to as the highest known water. The breaking 
up of the ice in the spring is not accompanied with nnnsnally high water, and generally 
occurs between the first and middle of April. The river closes between the first and 
last of December, giving a navigable season of about two hundred and forty days. 

The exemption of the river from cut-offs, the absence of low bottom-lands, the strong 
coniinemont within its natural banks, tbe stable character of the material forming its 
"jbed, and the absence of silt, seem to furnish the requisites for a oonditiou of great sta- 
bility as regards its width, position of shore-line, and channel, enabling constrnctions 
and work to be planned with a degree of confidence not otherwise poss.ble. 

The followiDg are th« obstruetious to navigation between Sauk Rapids 
and tbe Falls of Saint Antbouy. At tbe Thousand Islands (see Tracing 
Ko. 8) the river is divided into several chauuels. The rignt-band one 
bas been cboseu as tbe one to be improved, and the wing-dams sbowu 
on tbe tracing were bnilt in 1874. Tbe only fnrther improvement bere 
is to close tbe left channel at the bead of the islands. Just below the 
Thousand Islands are tbe Mosquito Rapids, where tbe slope is excessive, 
and the depth of water insufficient. (See Tracing No. 8.) 

Tbe bed of tbe river is covered witb bowlders. Twenty-two and one- 
balf miles below Mo^qnito Rapids are Smiler's Rapids. (Se« Tracing 
"So. 6/1) The river falls here 2.1 feet in 1,160 feet, producing a very rapid 
current and sboal water. There is a rock in tbe channel just above tbese 
rapids, known as Smiler's Rock, wbieb is very troublesome to river men. 

Six miles below Smiler's Rapids are Cedar Island Ra])id8 (see Tracing 
No. 5e), where tbe river widens out and becomes shallow. The river 
bas a slope of 4.26 feet per mile, but this can be reduced, and tbe depth 
of water increased, by closing up tbe wide channel and using tbe right 
channel, thus gaining a distance of 2,000 feet. 

Six miles below Cedar Island Rapids are Battle Rapids. (See Tracing 
No. 5d.) Here tbe river runs over a bowlder-reef, and falls 2.3 feet in 
1,800 feet. Except Coon Rafuds, this is tbe most dreaded of all obstruc- 
tions to navigation between Saint Cloud and the Falls of Saint Anthony. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



HAYIGATIOM OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIYEB. 25 

HooghtoD Flats (see TraciD/a^s Nos. 4 and 5c), two miles below Battle 
Kapids, is a shallow reacb of tbe river, caused by its spreading oat, and 
its slope of 5.11 feet per mile for one and one-tbird miles. Spring Eapids, 
one and three-tenths miles farther down, are cansed by the river running 
over a bowlder-reef, and falling 1^ feet in 800 feet. The deep pool above 
will admit of the drodging of tbe crest of tbe bowlder-reef, and the con- 
sequent redaction of the slope. 

Dayton Kapids (see Tracing No. 3), twelve miles below Spring Rapids, 
are caused by a bowlder-bar, the removal of a part of wbicb would do 
away with all trouble to navigation. 

Anoka Bapids (see Tracing No. 2) are the next obstruction. They 
occur ten miles below Dayton Bapids, and are caused by bowlders in 
the channel, which can be removed by dredging. 

Ckx>o Bapids (see Tracing No. 2b) are two and one-half miles below 
Ajioka Bapids, and are the worst obstraction to navigation between the 
Falls of Saint Anthony and Sauk Bapids. Tbe bed of the river is thickly 
ciivered with bowlders, the worst of which were removed in 1874, and 
tbe river falls 6.9 feet in 3,600 feet. Tbe river widens from 675 feet 
above the rapids to 900 feet below. A long, deep pool above these 
rapids admits of dredging through .the crest of them to reduce the 
excessive slope. 

Fridley's Bar (see Tracing No. la), five miles above the Falls of Saint 
Anthony, is cansed by tbe excessive widening of tbe river. Tbe above 
are tbe principal natural obstructions to navigation on this part of the 
river. There are, however, many slight obstructions, which are shown 
on the tracings and which must be removed. They generally consist of 
sand-bars in wide portions of tbe river, and a judicious use of wing-dams 
it is thought will serve to correct the trouble. In many places tbe river 
is eroding the high banks of sand and gravel and carrying the materials 
into the river to form bars. In all such cases the banks must be pro- 
tected. 

The artificial obstructions consist of bridges, boom-piers, and running 
logs. The following are tbe bridges: 

Hensepin avoDiie, MiDoeapolis, lower chord 22 f«»et ftbore low water. 

Saiot Paal and Pacitic Railroad, 23 feet above low water. 

Foarth ayeDoe, 15.5 feet above low water. 

Saiot Paul and Pacific Railroad, Saint Cload, 35 feet above low water. 

Soad bridge, 40 feet above low water. 

The Minneapolis Boom Company have, in order to carry on their busi- 
ness of receiving, sorting, and storing logs, constructed many boom- 
piers just above the railroad bridge at Minneapolis, and use tbe large 
area of the river afforded for some miles above as boominggrounds. 
At times they occupy the whole water-way for more than a mile al>ove 
said bridge. By an inspection of the accompanying tracing it will be 
readily seen what an obstruction these boom-pierS are to navigation, 
not only just above Minneapolis, but at Anoka, Elk Biver, Monticello, 
Clearwater, and Saint Cloud. Where islands are in tbe river, one of 
the channels is used as boominggrounds, boom-piers being built at the 
lower ends of the islands. 

In improving the river it may be necessary to close or to use these 
nde-chutes, and thus the value of the boominggrounds will be destroyed, 
«od tbe rights, real or assumed, of the parties using the booms be inter- 
fered with. 

Tbe danger to steamboats by reason of the running of saw-logs down 
the Missimppi^ with no other guidance than the current of the river, is 
^ery great. The magnitude of this obstruction may be ap ireciated 
when it is considered that 225,000,000 feet, board-measure, of logs were^ 



26 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 



SO floated down to Minneapolis daring 1874, besides a large nnknown 
quantity floated to mills at Anoka, and above. 

If tbe government is to improve this great water-way, it mast cer- 
tainly prevent these moving obstractions, that no skill of the pilot can 
avoid. 

n.— IMPKOYEMBNTS NECESSARY TO OVEBOOMB THE ABOYE-DBSGBIBED 

OBSTBUOTIONS. 

The following is the list of improvements, together with qnantities of 
wing-dams and dredging necessary for a channel 200 feet wide and 5 
and 3 feet deep, with no slope greater than 5 feet per mile : 

Between the Falls of Saint Anthony and Saint Cloud, 



11 

11 


Character and location of obetraction. 


For five feet 
depth. 


For three feet 
depth. 


Dama. 


• 
Dredging 


Dams. 


Dredflng. 


MiUs. 
76.5 


• 
Bowlddr*bar8 


Lin./l 


OuMeyds. 
95.000 


Lin.ft 


Cvhicydi. 


75.5 


do 


110 
115 
460 
930 
160 
28U 
100 
900 
900 
120 
1,066 
600 




75.7 


do 






74.4 


Sand. ban (Istaod) 




300 




71.5 
71.2 


Rapidn (Monqulto) 

Sand-bar« (iitUud) 

do 


10.000 


10.000 


70.8 




• 


70.5 


do 








70.0 


Sand-ban 




--.... 




&.S 


...do 








6K0 


Grarel-bar 


* '50,006 






66.6 


Sand-bar (ioland) 






58.8 


Sand (BiicB^nd) 




53.0 


Rapids (SmUer's) 




40.000 


517 


Sand-bar (laland) 


470 


51.5 


Qra vel-bar 


9,000 
""16,060 






49.5 


do 


960 
800 
380 
615 
175 
220 
150 
fl 
380 
8J0 
950 
100 
450 
570 
400 
- 400 
50.» 

:too 

100 


"460 




47.4 


Gravel-bar (Cedar Raplda) 




46.0 


Sand-bar (ialand) 




45.5 


Gravel-bar 








44.4 


Sandbar (MontioeUo Creek) 








4a4 


Sand-bar (island) 








49.4 


Bowlder-bar 








41.4 


Rapids (Battle) 


35,000 


81 
I.V1 
700 

"166 


30.000 


40.3 


Bowlder-bar 


39. 


Saud bar (Houghton Flats) 






3a4 


Gravel-bar 


'■i5,'666 




37.7 


Rapids (Sprinir) 


10,000 


3&6 


A^iiil.l^ttr (island) , 


35l6 


B')wlder-bar 




34.8 


Sand-bar (inland) 




33.3 


do 






38.5 


.... do 




500 




31.0 


Sandbar *. 

Gravel bar 






99.5 








S7.8 


Bowlder-lMr 


5.000 
"**3.000 






S6.7 


Bowlder and sand (Island) 


875 






S5.8 


Rapids (Davton). 


"975 


3,000 


95.0 


Sand-bar (island) 


510 
550 
170 
180 
5«0 
460 


94.3 


Gra-v^I and sand ..,. 




90.6 


Sand-bar 






90.0 


do 




17.0 


Rapids and bar (Anoka) 


9.000 
"50*006 




1.000 


16.0 


Gravel-bar 


13.0 


Rapids (Coon) 




40.000 


19.2 


«»*avel-bHr (island) , 


1.000 

850 

16,467 


9.5 


Gravel-bar 






4.8 


Bar (Fridley's) 




850 






Total 


... ...... 




907.000 


3,356 


134 000 









2. To overcome the obstractions to navigation between the foot of 
Sank Bapids to the head of Gonradi's Shoals, recourse will have to be 
made to locks and dams and to some little dredging. Only approximate 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI EIVEB. 



27 



estimates are presented for this work, as exact surveys will have to be 
made of the sites for the proposed dams. For these surveys au estimate 
was forwarded in my letter of January 30, 1875. 

By examining Tracing No. 8^, it will be seen that the plan proposed 
to pass boats over Sauk Bapids is to build a masonry-dam over that part 
of the river not already dammed at Sauk Bapids, and to make a canal 
in the upper level along the west bank down as far as the old steamboat- 
landing at Saint Cloud. At the lower end of the canal a lock with a 
cbaml)er 5(Kx20(K and 17 feet lift is to be constructed; the canal to 
have a least width of 100 feet at the water-line, and a least depth of 5 
feet, and to be 5,000 feet long, the entrance to the canal to be protected 
by guard-gates. 

This improvement will cost as follows: 

If the look-chamber sides are of hammered masonry, backed with mbble- 

masoDry, iron gates, and crib dam $647,000 

Dilto. Concretein place of rabble-masonry 520,000 

Ditto. Concrete sidewalks protected with wooden fenders, except in hollow 
qooins and gate-recesses, where dressed stone will be used 464,000 

Between the head of Sauk Bapids and McDougall's Eddy there are 
some rock and bowlders to be removed and some wing-dams built, viz : 



4» 

1 




Wing-dams. 




6^ 


1 


1. 

II 
1 


1 


MQet. 


Watab to Island 100, 31 bowlders 


Oub.ydt. 


Oubyd9, 


(hA.fdM. 
414.4 




I-ftfl bank %o Itlaad 100 , , , 


000 

i,av) 

345 
840 
535 
695 
300 
460 
390 
500 
360 
600 
100 
810 








On«-bslf mite sboTe Tslsnd 100 








W»tob Rapids 






83 


At WaUb 








Kbrht bank to Island 93 








Oue-foarth mile above Pike RtTor 








T^fl ^^Ir ^ Msffd W , 








Island H8 to 80 








I<^ft bank to Island 83 








Left bank to Island 79 








One-balf mile below McDonKall'sBddy 








From nnper end of Island 78*.,.. .....T 








RSirlit liabk to Island 7i9 






lot 










Total 








7.495 




414 4 











Between McDougalPs Eddy and the top of Gonradi's Shoals three 
locks and dams will be necessary : One located at Blanchard's Rips, 
{«ee Tracings Nos. 12 and 11 and 12^), with a lift of 10 feet ; one at 
Cash's Island (see Tracings Nos. 12 and 12i), with a lift of 13 feet ; and 
Uie third at Little Falls (see Tracings Nos. 13 and 13;), with a lift of 22 
feet These locks will have chambers of 5(Kx200^. The dams will be 
of timber. 

The approximate estimates for these, supposing them to have timber 
bottoms and side and lift walls of concrete, will be as follows: 

Blanchard's Ript $332,352 

Cuh'tl^ilaDd 446,430 

Uttle Falla 695,127 

The estimates are only approximate, as detailed surveys of their sites 
will have to be made before the exact quantities of excavation and em- 
bankment can be obtained. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



28 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIYEB. 



This survey will also determine the exact lines on which the dams are 
bailt. 

Besides the locks and dams in the above interval, the following im- 
provements will be necessary : 



1 


Looaftion. 


Wiiig-dAma. 




1^ 

S a 


1. 

1 


1 

II 

1 


1 


MOet. 


Left bank to laland 77 


<^iS;- 


Oub.ydM. 


Oub.wda. 




T^Y»m* riffht. hAtilr nntwuritA TalanH ff2 i 


660 






Left bank to Inland 03 


1,740 
450 
4M 
300 
375 
300 






KisbtbAnk toIiiUnd61 






• 


Lefb bank to iBland 00 






At month of Pike Creek 








From Ifland 59 

Left bank toIslaadSO 










::'.:::::: 




Three-qaartera of a mile below Little Falla 




11.6 


11115 


One-anarter of a mile below Little Falla 


335 








Total 








5,000 


860 


1L6 









3. From above Gonradi's Shoals to the foot of Grand Bapids (see 
Maps Nos. 9 to 21) the improvements will consist of dredging and wing- 
dams or jetties. 

The following is a list of obstrnctions in this section of the river, to- 
gether with the qaantities and kinds of materials to' be removed and 
placed at each obstruction : 



1 


Loofttl(m. 


Wing-dama. 




II 


1. 
ft 

1 


■!» 


1 


MiUi. 


One-half a mile below Idaod 49 


300 

650 

595 

1,100 


Cub. yds. 


Cmb.ydm. 




Fr«»m Island 49 








L<>ft bank to Island 41 








Inland 42 to 41 








Oue half a mile below Big Bend 








Three-Quarters of a mile below Olmsted Bar 


370 




199.1 


Olmsted Bar 




9.6 




do 




5,ia5 






do 


4,615 
405 






One-half a mile above Nokay-slppi 








64.7 miles from Aitken 




11.8 




5«*.9 miles (3 6 below ) 


900 
400 








53.9 mileHfh>in Aitken , 






154.7 


French's Bar 


1,490 






Foot French Rapids , 


645 
630 

300 
150 
995 






Island No. 7 to left bank 




163.9 


Island Kaplds 






164.7 


Foot Bis Bddy lUpids 


......... 






37.3 miles from Aitken 









37.9 miles from Aitken 








36.4 ratlesfrom Aitken 








Onr.half a mile below PineBiver 


...... 


6wl 


179.3 


At mouth Pine Rivfr 


500 
175 
375 









Three-qaarters of a mile below Pine River ...•• 






181.3 


ToW'head Rapids 








Total to Mad River 








14,870 


7.055 


90.9 









Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEB. 29 

Li$t of ohBlruetUm$f 4^,,ftram Mud Bher to foot of Orand Rapid», 



<•• 
e 

s 


LocftUonu 


5 feet depth. 


3 ftfOt depth. 


Bowlders. 




Wing- 
dame. 


Dredging. 


Wing, 
dams. 


Dredging. 


9^ 

i 


Sand and 
clay. 




Sand and 
clay. 


Bowlders. 


To he 
blasted. 


JfiZtt. 


IiilaDdBftiyida 

D(TnM5io« No. —).... 


Ou,.^ 


(htb.ydt. 
9,S15 


0,ael5 


Oub.ydM. 


Cfub.ydi. 


Cub.ydt. 


Oub.ydi. 
10 








3 


t» 


MoieK.^ ...:... 






3,703 






1,234 


15 




C (Tiaeiiiff No. — ) . . . 










4 


153 


S^dj L4iko 






4.444 








20 




B CVncing Na — ) . . . 












3 




A (Tracinjf No.— )... 














4 


»7.5 


Ox Portag« KAi>ids. . . 
Crooknd Rapidii 


150 


4,213 


4.213 
2,969 
6,666 








25 


«3* 








30 


984 


Pine Riipids 












25 


m 


Cnt-Aflk to Im AXiMTAtfid 


2,699 




























Total 


3,067 


13.49$ 


31,303 


225 




1.234 


139 









Grand Bapids is three hundred and fifty-seven miles above the Falls 
of Saint Anthony. To extend navigation from the foot of Grand Kap- 
ids to the foot of Pokegama Falls, three and a half miles, a lock will 
be required. 

The total fall from the top of Pokegama Falls to the foot of Grand 
Bapids is 21 f feet. 

It is proposed to bnild a dam on Pokegama Falls to raise the water 
there 7 feet, so that to pass from the foot of Grand Bapids to above the 
falls will require a lockage of 28f feet, feet of which would be made 
at Grand Bapids and 19f at Pokegama Falls. No estimates are sub- 
mitted with this report, as there are not sufficient data for the purpose. 

Above Pokegama Falls the navigation is unobstrurted to Cass Lake, 
save a few tK>wlders below the outlet of Little Winnibigoshish Lake. 
Above Cass Lake the river is a series of rapids, with lakes between 
them, and any improvements will consist of locks* and dams. 

RfiSUMfi OF PROBABLE COST OF IMPROVING THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 
FROM THE FALLS OF SAINT ANTHONY TO GRAND RAPIDS, 357 MILES, SO 
"AS TO GIVE 5 FEET NAVIGATION AF LOWEST STAGES OF WATER." 

1. From FalU of Baitd Antkotty to S<dni Cloud : 

32,934 cDbic yards brush wing-dams, at $1.25 $41, 167 50 

207,000 cubic yards dredging, at 50 cenU 103,500 00 

Total - $144,667 50 

2. JVom Saint CUmd to Conrmdi'$ Skoah : 

Lock aad dam at Sank Rapids $464,000 00 

lioek Slid dam at Blanehard's Rips 332, 352 00 

Lock and dam at Cash's Island 446,430 00 

Lock and dam at Lit tie Falls 695,127 00 

12,495 cnbic yards bmMh wing-dams, at $1.25 15, 618 75 

42S.6 cubic yards bowlders, at $10 4,256 00 

Total 1,957,783 75 

3. From ConradCs Skoals to Grand Rapids : 

17,397 cubic yards bmsh wing-dams, at $1.25 $22, 421 25 

13,428 cnbic ya ds dredging, sand and clay, at 50 cents.... 6,714 00 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



"I: 

^ 



30 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 




31,203 ciMc jards dredging, small bowlders and grayel, at 

75.vtit9 23,402 25 

159 cubic jards bowlders to be blasted oat, at |10 1,590 00 

Total 54,12: 

Total cost for a channel 5 feet deep 2, 156,57i 

FOR A CHANNEL 3 FEET IN DEPTH. 

Ip Fh}m Saint Anthony to Saint Cloud: 

nTISi^tibic yards brush wing-dams, at $1.25 |8,390 00 

i:U,m{} (.uiljic yards dredging, at 50 cents 67,000 00 

TciMil 75,391 

2. Ff-om Saint Clovd to ConradVi ShoaU: 

Lock ;ind (latii at Sank Rapids $464,000 00 

Lnrk untl ilurn at Blanchard's Rips 332,352 00 

]^K]i MiuL i1:lmi at Cash's Island 446,430 00 

Lm:k qdiI iUin at Little Falls .*. 695,127 00 

U^R cubic vards brush and wing-dams, at $1.25 1,045 00 

42JJ.6 cubic ^ards bowlders to be bhisted, at $10 4,256 00 

Total 1,943,211 

'3, From Conradi?B Shoals to Grand Rapida : 

7,2^ Rtibj(j ^ards brash wing-dams, at $1.25 $9,100 00 

1 ;j:H fubw i^ ards bowlders and gravel, at 75 cents 925 50 

IbVi f^Mhu' yards bowldeistobe blasted, at $10 1,595 00 

Total 11, e» 

Total coftt for a channel 3 feet deep 2,030,22i 

The fineution of the cost of improving navigation above Gn 
EflpiflH cjiti only be answered after Congress bas determined wbet 
the Ff'seivoirs recommended by the Senate Select Committee ou Gb 
Tiaiisiiortation-Koates are to be constructed. 

in, — C03IMERCE TO BE SERVED BY THE ABOVE IMPROVElVrBNTS 

For tlifse statistics I would respectfully refer to tbe Report of 
Senutti S^lt^ct Committee on Cbeap Transportation-Routes to tbe & 
bo»nU (iioport 307, 1st sess. 43d Congress.) 

Iq cloiitiiLg this report, I would state tbat it is only preliminary t 
more complete one to be rendered when the detailed surveys of tbe si 
of pro])08ed locks and dams have been made. 

Great (Tedit is due to Assistants J. D. Skinner, H. E. Stevens, anc 
Y. Schermerborn for tbe able manner in which they performed tl 
work, nm\ the economy they exercised. 

Tbe general maps are numbered consecutively from 1 to 21, and 
on a scale of 48^0? ^^^ detailed maps of obstructions are lettered 
tlrey go up stream witb tbe number of the general map on whicb 
obfiUuctJou is found prefixed ; thus, 21k refers to detail-sheet k, and 
general sheet 21. The scales of the detail-maps are expressed u[ 
them, 

I t'orwurd this day, by express, a package containing the above t 
ciugSj thirty-three in number. 

Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

F. IJ. FAKQUHAR, 

Major of Engineers 

Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineers U. 8. A. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 




KAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 31 

CC 3- 

PART OP THE THIRD SUBDIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI ROUTE, WHICH 
COMPRISES THE IMPROVEMENT NECESSARY TO GIVE A NAVIGATION OF 
4i TO 6 FEET FROM FALLS OF SAINT ANTHONY TO SAINT LOUIS. 

REPORT OP COL. J. N. MAOOMB, CORPS OP ENGINEERS. 

By letter from the Chief of Engineers, United States Army, dated 
29th Jane, 1874, I was assig^ued to the duty of making two of the sur- 
veys under the above head, viz, that for the improvement of that por- 
tion of the Mississippi route designated as ^' Improvement .upon a sys- 
tem to be provided so as to give from 4J to 6 feet navigation at lowest 
stages from Falls of Saint Anthony to Alton" (afterward modified so as 
to oiake Grafton, 111., the southerly limit) ; and the survey of so much of 
the northern route as is designated ^^ the Hennepin Gaiial^ from some 
point on the Mississippi Biver near Rock Island to the Illinois Eiver at 
Hennepin.'' 

For this latter survey I employed Mr. F. 0. Doran, who organized a 
party and took the field in August, 1874. His report was sent in on 
25tb January, ]£75, and the maps to illustrate the same were forwarded 
OD 13th April, 1875. This report set^ forth the feasibility of making an 
improvement by which the Upper Mississippi Uiver, near Rock Island, 
eoald be connected with Lake Michigan at Chicago, via Hennepin, so 
aa to pass barges which are used for freight on the Upi>er Mississippi 
River. But to make the connection complete, it involved a costly im- 
provement of the Upper Illinois River and Illinois and Michigan Canal. 
^0 mone^^ having been granted for this work, the party was gradually 
redaced, and, after closing the records for the tiles of my office, the chief 
of the party was discharged on the 10th May, 1875. 

The survey of the Mississippi route was intrusted by me to Mr. Mont- 
gomery Meigs, who was employed as assistant engineer, and organized 
a party and took the field in the latter part of August, 1874. His pre- 
limioary report was sent in on I2th January, 1875 ; and, as I had minute 
8arve3*s in my possession incidental to the improvements in progress 
Qoder my charge at Rock Island or Upper Rapids, and at Des Moines 
or Lower Rapids of the Mississippi River, I sent in, on 11th January, 
1875, and on 26th January, 1875, reports touching the expense of making 
any change in these costly improvements which are now nearly com- 
pleted, and the plans of which are deemed perfectly satisfactory to those 
oonoerned in the navigation of the river. I beg leave to refer to the 
above-named reports, and to ask that they may be accepted as a part of 
this my annual report. 

1 have the honor also to submit the report of Assistant Meigs upon 
the survey of the Upper Mississippi River, as far as the party were en- 
abled to prosecute ^he work, viz, from Saint Paul, Minn., to La Crosse, 
Wis., by which it will be seen that he estimates the cost of improving 
tiiat portion of the river so as to afford a depth of 4^ feet at low water 
to be $348,670, and suggests that $100,000 should be asked for to defray 
the expenses of the first year's operations, which should be undertaken 
^ certain difficult points named between Saint Paul and Winona, 
HioD. 

It is proposed, with the funds remaining in hand, to push the surveys 
on the Mississippi River as far down as possible, in order to the prepar- 
ing of estimates for improving that part of the river between La Crosse 
And mouth of the Illinois River. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 






NAVIOATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 







Financial statement 

Anionnt allotted for nnrveys, ^o., intrasted to me $30.0 

Amotrnr t^iLpended for Hennepin Caual on northern ronte snrvey 9, ($ 

Atnnnnt expended for snrvey of MisAisAtppi ronte 16,3 

Kf itiHiiuEi^ on band 1st Jaly, 1875, which will be applied to continuing snr- 

vt'v of M^Hsissippt ronte 4,0 

AtJtuiiuL ruquired for fiscal year ending 30th Jnne, 1877, to he applied in 
cotiiNif'ric:iii|r the improvement of the Upper Missistiippi River, in accord- 
Auce vfiih. the scheme indicated in the report of the survey 100, 



REPORT OF MR. MONTOOMBRY MRI08, ASSISTANT ENOUnSER. 

United States Engineer Office, 
Bock Island, III, Mag 31, If 

Stn : I have the honor to present my report on the above-named ronte, together 
pUu» and tuitimates for the improvement of the river down to the vicinity of La C 
Wi»., ^ bich is an far as onr snrvey was carried last seat»on. 

The dA\a npon which snch plans are based are General Warren's majis of the 
fron^ h\H ^tirveys of 1866 to 1869, and the resnrveys of detached diflScnlt portions < 
ricor niAdt" last season nnder your directions. 

(^Ktiernl Warren's maps, tracings of which were sent to this offioelfrom Waabin 
are as follows: 

Man uf the Mississippi River, in 22 sheets, from mouth of the Minnesota Rii 
moiiT n uf Till) Ohio. Surveys, 18(S6-'69; scale 2 inches to the mile ; compiled from U 
StAtrH laiid snrvey, General Warren's survey, and existing anthori ies. 

MitiHiwiippi River: Separate maps of important localities, viz: 

Ka1I>^ uf >aint Anthony to Outlet Lake, Saint Croix, 10 siieeU, Nos. 1-10, 186&-'( 

Nci. II. Mouth of Cannon River. 

No, I'J. Channels at Head of Lake Pepin. 

Nt>. Itl'UJH Lake Pepin to Winona. 

iHo. IT. Tjempe k PEan. 

Nti. li^. Month of Black River. 

Nu, lU. Ln Crosse. 

No. UQ. lirownsville, Minn., to Bad Axe, Wis. 

Ntit^. \\i' and 16'. Resnrveys, at different times. 

No. -il. Vicinity of Lansini;. 

No. ^'i. Prairie dn Chien. 

Nil. 'ill. Giittenberg. 

Nob. 'J4 jiud 24'. Dubuque. 

Nf». vr». Vicinity of Clinton. 

Nci. 'if?, ^'icinity of Rock Island. 

No. *It* Vicinity of Burlington. 

No, ii^. Vtcinity of Keokuk. 

No.*21». Vicinity of Qnincy. 

No.no. \ i ci n i ty of Han n i bal . 

M i hfii^iii ppi River, in the vicinity of Fort Bulling, Minn., sbowiog remarkable cbi 
by Thi-lioudof 1867. 

1 bL-»^4^ [naps, made nnder the direction nf Qeneral G. K. Warren, in 1866-'69, and 
priHiii^; nW the information to be had at Headquarters, Engineer Department, in 'V 
ington. w>rc) forwarded to Rock Island, and placed at yonr disposal. They conta 
the iotorrnation concerning reference-points, benohnnarks, dec, which would be n 
in A reHiirvey. , 

On Jnl> *27, the construction of the quarter-boat for use of the surveying part] 
well uufltT wa^. Her hull was finished, but her cabin, equipment, d&c., were sti 
complete, and it was nut until August 27 that all was in readiness to proceed n\ 
rivtir aud U^^in operations. 

WLilu tlie building of the quarter-boat was in progress the details of oar plan of 
atioiiH ^: oit; studied. General Warren's survey having been made so long ago, an< 
riviT liuv iug since then changed its channel, at some places many times, the soun< 
ware iluL-iocd unreliable for the purpose of making plans and estimates for imp 
AkeEit, and some resnrveys considered indispensable. In view of the small amoa 
tinju a.t our disposal, and the fact that a good general map had already been ma< 
nuarl> all the point.s offering important ditlicalties to navigation, it was thought 
to tiiakii use of the old maps as much as possible, and only survey such lines as ^ 
be Ductibtiuiy for making accurate soundings. 

Geut:ral Warren's survey was made with compass (see General Warren's report, 1 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RTVEK. 33 

]«tterof General A. A. Homphreys, January 29, ld(>7» page 8 of report), hut it was thooght 
best to sabstitote the transit or theodolite for the compass in onr work, and to locate 
the aoandings in wide reaches of the river with angnlar measurements from bases on 
ihore, in order that the work might be more accurately referred for comparison in case 
Bt any time the study of the river sbould necessitate resurveys. 

It was found almost invariably that the reference-points indicated on General War- 
ten's maps had disappeared. In some cases the trees on which bench-marks had been 
tot were found to have been disturbed, either by the felling of the tree or caving in of 
(be bank, but in most cases no benches or reference points could be found, and the 
ftbsenoe of such marks was the more annoying, as it made difficult, if not impossible, the 
eomparison of the surveys as to stage of water and location. 

From Captain Davis, of the Montana (a river expert), a list of places was obtained 
where, in low water, steamboats usually had difficulty; and it was thought best, in view 
of the object for which the survey was undertaken, to restrict the new surveys to those 
places, and to endeavor to leave such marks on each detached work as would serve to 
eetablbh at least a few of its most important points. 

The rapid changes, which are of continual occurrence in the channel and banks of 
the Upper Mississippi, form an interest! ug engineering study. The causes leading to 
tueh changes are so obscure, and often, no doubt, so purely accidental, that our only 
hope of ever arriving at a knowledge of them will be to make surveys that can be 
eaiily reproduced at any future time, and from time to time repeat the work. The 
value of the surveys will be in direct proportion to the manner in which thtoe points 
have been "referred." 

It was impossible in most cases, with the means at hand during our survey of last 
jear, to do more than mark trees at a safe distance from the bank to serve as references. 

Some less perishable monuments should be erected to take the place of these. The 
best plan would he to triangulate the blufis of the river, and locate everything from 
tbem. 

This has been already advocated by yourself and General Simpson and others well 
leqoainted with the unstable condition of the bed of the Mississippi River ; but for tbe 
present stone blocks would be of small expense, and would serve to preserve the work 
already done. 

ORGANIZATION OP PARTY. 

The surveying party consisted of 1 chief assistant engineer, 3 assistants, 1 rodman, 1 
boat-steerer and recorder, 2 boatmen, 2 recorders of angles, 1 signalman, 2 chainmeu, 5 
axmen, 1 cook, 1 assistant cook — total 20 men. • 

Tbe plan of making the men manage their own subsistence department worked welL 
I think all were satisfied, and the expense per man was but $13 and a fraction per month. 
Oar plan of operations was for one assistant and party > o lay out the bases for the 
•oandiog-party and out out the line, and while the latter was engaged on the bases, 
tbe same assistint went back and ran the levels of each survey. 

I had not men enouj^h to rnn a continuous line of levels, and shall, if possible, connect 
the separate lines dnring the present season. As we started at Saint Paul, we had the 
advantage of moving with the current, and found no difficulty in managing the quar- 
ter-boat, except in high winds, when the large surface exposed by her cabin made her 
unmanageable. I think, however, that we lost in all less than one day's work from this 
eanae, and would have found a steamer, unless it had been a very ligbt-dranght steam- 
laaneb, an expensive and almost nselo'V a^JQoct. 

Since tbe completion of our field-work we have beeq engaged continuously in reduc- 
ing and plotting the notes. In the maps I have made the most extensive use of Gene- 
ral Warren's snrveys, which, I will add, we found remarkably reliable, except the sound- 
ings. The lines run by my party and the tnangulatioos are all indicated on my maps ; 
transit and theodolite lines in full black lines, compass lines in red. Tbe rest of the 
work, where no surveyrd lines are given, is taken from General Warren's survey. All 
the located soundings were plotted on a scale of 100 feet to the inch, and transferred to 
tbe finished map on a scale of 200 feet to the inch. The reduction and transfer were 
performed by means of a system of squares, brass ft amoM with ver^ fine steel cross- wires 
being laid on the drawings, and corresponding squares filled up m succession with the 
•onodings. As many as 2,500 soundings have been in this way transferred to the map 
by two men doting office-hours of one day. The original plotting proceeded at the 
tKe of about 500 a day for two men. 

THE MISSISSIPPI HIYEB. 

Quite a full description of the Upper Mississippi has already been written by Gene- 
ral Warren, and presented in his report of 1867. 

It will be unnecessary for me to do more than allude to the nature of the stream al- 
ready well deacribed. From Saint Paul to La Crosse its course is winding, flowing almost 
invariably over a sandy bottom^ which changes its shape after every rise, and at low 

H. Ex. 49 3 Pg.^.^^^ by C^OOgle 



4 



84 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

^at^r prrsenU serious, and sometimes impassable, obstacles to naTiffation. At 
&jr(j }n>v wiM9V 'A feet is aboat the depth on the bars; and as most or the large i 
6rH, uiid even the small ones, draw 3 feet 6 inches to 4 feet 6 inches, or 5 feet 1( 
they are stopped at the bars and obliged either to spar over, or, when that is in 
hit^f to fiUn op the navigation altogether. The large steamers are scarcely eve 
vetitt^d lit U»w water from getting to Prescott, though sometimes a bar below 
Pep^Jt n ill gnt so shoal as to detain boats for some hours, or even days. 

TIk" tt iriibJe generally occurs just after a rise in the river. The moment the 
bt!|si]]M rising the sand-bars begin to shift; old channels are filled ; the bottom ( 
etrrvmn ditltpus out, as it were, and when the water falls again, as it generall; 
after n ft^w days, the stream is spread over so great a width of river, and so 
boitoni, 1 1mt it is very shallow. In the course of time the water cuts for itself 
cbauii^J tluoagh the sand; and the concentration that thus takes place restor 
niiv^ij^ulivn lo its usual condition until the new channel is again disturbed by i 
Theso rOiAitges in the bed of the stream occasionally happen many times in the < 
of n s'-aHon. A boat may fight its way ux> to Saint Paul with the greatest dlfficn 
a fallinj; Htnge of water, lie there a day or so, and, retnrning down stream, fii 
iiav[^atioTt much improved, though the water has been falling all the time, ow: 
ih\i f oUiu^ through of the sand-bars. Any acceleration in the current of the 
iDinicfliHtt'ly causes a commotiou among the sand-barn, which begin to travel 
^rT4*unu To insure the stability of the channel, therefore, it seems best not to 
cut ntT btnds which occur in the same, but to endeavor, on the contrary, to redn 
current ut the name time that the volume in the channel-way is increased. 

I urji of opinion that the safest plan of improvement will be, in general, to fii 
iiMtiiral cliannel, and lead the water in that direction. An island in midstn 
iit^arly iiUvays, at its lower end, the seat of trouble. The two currents meet, ai 
iv>inlt ih ihat the greater part of the water and the channel cross the river froii 
to batik Ht a shar]) angle, and thus the section of the stream at right angles to il 
Ia ho uincli k^ngthened or flattened that a shoal is usually the result. At Crat's 
Ik cwm of this kind occurs. The channel on the left of the island, which carriei 
wfjtpr^ on^tises from the left to the right bank, and spreads out over the bars#l 
immcuae ian, with deep water off the> outer edge of the reefs and a very shoal p 
over thii trest of the bar near the foot of the island. As General Warren states 
r»^j»ort, ili*i object of any works for iui]>rovemeut should be to help the river to 
ILl* iTOfjhings. In many cases the closing of chutes would probably greatly in 
the navi^fition of the main river, and at Rollingstone Slough and some other 
tiuuh » ptiLU has been recommended. 

Tilt* iiM[irnvement of the Mi88i88i])pi River will require a good deal of time 
tlct<]lI>lp1i^lmu•nt, but need not be particularly burdensome to the Treasury, j 
puriitivtly small sum expended judiciously every summer, and at the most adva 
utis ^^tnge nf water, would, in the course of a few years, work great changes in it 
iii>; \hv ijuvjgation. This is the ])olicy of the European governments, and has, 
conra^* tif liinc, made rivers navigable for quite large steamers that would in thii 
try Ih^ thought scarcely worth improving. 
_ At pj i*s*^ut the dredging- steamers do good service, but a single steamer, as at ji 

11 i*ti)ploYid, would be utterly inadequate, in a ])rolouged season of low water, t"( 

'P tUo rt'lU (* necessary for uninterrupted traffic. 1 deem 4i feet the utmost limit to 

atiy runwMiably exi)en8ive system of improvements could be exi>ected to deepi 
w»vjj{iilih? luw- water channel. In this ojiinion I have the concurrence of most 
gm s1e:imboatinen and of those well acquainted with the Mississippi Kiver in it« v 

II Hla^^i;-!* Kveo should it be found impossible to obtain a greater depth, the plan 

prov(^mfTitn eubmiited would remain the same and only require extension to se 
greater doptb. 

CURRENT^ 

The cm rent of the Upper Misiissippi is remarkably gcutle. 

The subjoiued Table I gives the velocities measured by me at various points < 

8UtV43y, 

Thnt at Pig*8 Eye Island I expect to find a good deal increased since the comp 
of iho dATii which waa finished l«st season, after our measurements were made. 

Suiiii; of these velocities were measured with floats and some with current-i 
Tha fnffisci foments were made at mid-depth, as near as could be attained, rare 
than 4 f*vt bwlow the surface of the water. 

Tli*^ volumes of the river in cubic feet per second were measured at various | 
aad (be rf suits, together with the stage of water, as nearly as it could be gotten i 
«iubudKd ui Table II. 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



KAVIOATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 



35 



Tabu L^Skawimg velocities of ewrrenU at varUma localities on the Upper Mississippi Biver* 



LooaUtj. 



-a 



Is 



^•5 

5" 



I 



BemarlcA. 



FlmidiiiMii't Bar. 1| milet below Saint Paul . 



Pic's En 



Eye Island, or Island No. 1 : ifnt'n 



Ptg'i Eye Island: OhtUe 

K«Tport: O&ttte 

UstD ehaonel: <^vU.... 

Menimac"A" 

Hanmao "B" 

Hwtlngn 

HastincsBar 



WsbMha. 



^?1iiana"A" 

Wbona"B" 

Hoath of BoUingatoae Sloogh 



2.45 
9.55 
S.42 
2.55 
2.66 
2.63 
2.66 
2.63 
2.64 
2.65 
2.60 
2.78 
2.24 
2.26 
2.19 
1.89 
2.45 
2.87 
1.97 
3.11 
0.35 
2.53 
2.65 
2.80 
1.65 
2.17 
2.29 
1.64 
1.71 
1.72 
1.71 
1.67 
2.06 
1.74 
2.50 
2.67 
2.38 
2.53 
2.17 
4.08 
4.35 
4.17 
2.81 
2.30 
2.06 
2.04 
2.52 
2.73 
2.81 
2.15 
2.26 
1.93 
1.83 
1.77 
1.45 



1.81 



1.91 



1.49 



1.67 
1.95 
1.34 
2.11 
0.24 
1.72 
1.80 
1.91 
1.12 
1.48 
1.55 



1.17 



1.82 



2.96 



1.86 
1.91 



1.31 
1.25 
1.21 
0.99 



5. 8 By floats at mid-depth. 

5.8 Do 

5.8 Do. 

5.8 Do. 

5.8 Do. 

5i8 Do. 

5. 8 Do. 

5.8 Do. 

5. 7 CtuTent-meter. 

5.7 Do. 

5.7 Da 

5.7 Do. 

5.7 Do. 

.'>.7 r Do. 

5.7 I Do. . 

5.7 Do. 

5.2 Do. 

5.2 Do. 

5.2 Do. 

5.2 I Do. 

5.2 i Do. 

5.2 I Do. 

5.2 Do. 

5.2 Do. 

4. 3 By floats. 
4.3 Do. 
4.3 Do. 
4.3 Do. 
4.3 Do. 
4. 3 Do. 
4.3 Do. 
4.3 Do. 
4. 3 Do. 
4. 5 Do. 
4. 5 Do. 
4. 5 Do. 
4.5 Do. 
4.5 Do. 
4. 5 Do. 
4. 5 Do. 
4. 5 Do. 
4.5 Do. 
4. 5 Do. 
4. 5 Do. 
4.5 Do. 

3. 1 Corrent-meter 

3.1 Do. 

3. 1 Do. 

3. 1 Do. 

3, 1 Do. 

3. 1 Do. 

3.1 Do. 

3. 1 Do. 

3.1 Do. 

3.1 Do. 



I 



Table IL — Discharge of river in cubic feet per second. 



Looality. 



Discharge in 
cubic feet 
per second. 



Stai^e, ap- 
proxima- 
tion. 



Bemarks. 



^^oehmaa's Bar. ... 

|i«te«s 

5«la«sBar 

^Prseoottlaland 
Vihssha 



20.091 
15,332 
15. 516 
32.001 
45,209 



5.8 
4.3 
4 3 
4.5 
4.5 



September 3, 1874. 
September 25, 1874. 
September 28, 1874. 
September 30. 1874. 
October 9. 1874. 



LEYEIJ9. 



The levels not being as yet connected, I think it best not to present them nntil the 
K^ baye been filled^np And the necessary redactions made. From Saint Panl to 



Digitized by 



(Ljoogle 



86 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIYEB. 



Frosootti the fall of the water-surface is 13.8 feet. The distance measured on th 
iu the CL' titer of the river is about twenty-six miles. This f^ives an average fi 
xni\& of ilbZ feet = 6.4 inches. The air-line distance is only nineteen and on 
xnileH, which gives for the fall of the plane of the valley a slope of 8.5 inches pel 
ThLH is B little more than Ellet gives for the descent of the Mississippi YaUe; 
Cairo to the Gulf of Mt^xico, which he estimates at 8 inches per mile. 

Stean^bo^tmen call the distauce from Saint Panl to Prescott thirty-five mile 
takinj^ into account the many abrnpt turns which they are obliged to make in ki 
the obatiubl, it is probably not very far from the truth. 

WATER-GAUGES. 

It waa thougiit necessary to establish several water-ganges between Saint Pai 
La CruKHu, and the results of the observations, from the time they were put in 
closing 11]) of the river by ice, are embodied in the accompanying profiles. It ^ 
mttki'iX that at Wabasha the result of strong up-stream or down-stream wi 
vory aT>i'arent, owing, no doubt, to the influence of Lake Pepin, whose foot 
at>ovi> ^Viibasha. 

At ret-scott, as a matter of interest, the open water at the foot of Lake Salnl 
oftert^i mi opportunity for continuing gange-readiogs all winter, and the fact tl 
waUT frU to 0.3 feet of the scale allows the inference that its s^ro mnst hav 
pretty n* uily correctly placed. I hope that we may be able during the coming 
to ^«t »t the true low- water marks of these gauges by observations taken duri 
low-wat«r Meason. 

PLANS FOK IMPROYING RIVERS BY WINGS. 

There have been many attempts to regulate the channels of rivers in this c 
by meHn.H of wing dams. These attempts have not always been snccessfnl, an 
ai iH'fiill> l>een made on streams whose beds consist of rock or hard gravel bars. 
Kuropu that we mnst look for a perfected system of river improvements. Th 
hundreiU uf years, the regulation of streams offering all sorts of difficulties has 
nt-'ceKiaty. It has been a study for generations of engineers whose successes ai 
tiLe>» fonu an interesting chapter in the history of engineering. The French^ tl 
mans, Ahd the Dutch have ail contributed largely to the hydraulics of great rive 
h^ re paid dearly for the ' knowledge they have acquired. It will be proper 
l;iy livfore yon a few facts connected with the improvements made on £aro] 
wulL ftti American rivers to justify the plans and estimates 1 herewith submit. 

Thu jireference as regards cheapness of construction, facility of repairing, an< 
bility^ HieiDS, in streams with shitting sand-bars, to be given to those works 
wiug-flnms, dLC, are composed of brush and stones combined. In streams of th( 
cbtLracier the use of single wing-dams has often been fonnd a failure, and abao 
Tbey frequently fail altogether to guide water in the direction intended, and 
aiUL a Qui utr dangerous obetacle to the already difficult navigation. The pen 
dtit^pi^niiig of the channel across troublesome sand-bars has been very sooci 
secured by contracting the stream and causing scour to take place, the sand re 
beiii^ ilrpOBited in and between numerous wing-dams stretching out from the 

TbJH Adds to the security of the dams, and at the same time oonfiues the wate 
stilt^ctt-^d i^haunel-way. Iq the course of time, by successive deposits of sand an< 
setlitiif r;t, (he spaces between the wing-dams become dry shores, on which the j 
of willovTs is encouraged, and finally, when sufficient soil has been deposited ] 
wnter, the willows give place to meadow-lands or forest. The action of thes 
may be uumpared to that of snow-fences, the shifting sands being caught in the 
fonued by the dams. The object of the wings is to lessen the velocity of the < 
along ibti bhores so that it is forced to drop the matter carried with it in snsp 
and UuiM op new shores at the selected places. The production and regnla 
short«, tliL^n, is the proper designation of this kind of eng^ineering, though its ol 
the r(>^iiltition of the channel; art is substituted for main strength, and the i 
made nt the least expense to do the heavy work of moving immense quantities < 
and di|{;r3i]^ lor itself a deep and permanent channel. 

I subjoin, as an example of the Gorman practict), a copy of a plate to be fo 
Hngeii'ij Wasser ban Ktinst, a most thorough treatise on the regulation of 
imbUbhed in Kunigsberg, 1853, by the Brothers Borntraeger; also, later, by En 
Koni, H7'J, Berliu, Fig. 8. 

In thi4 example all the works were to be bnilt in one season. The old o 
shown i^y ihe dotted line was to be abandoued, and the current thrown into the 
hand II nil of the stream by closing up the chute on the left. 

Tho br^inuing of this work was at O, where a protection was execnted to p 
any ftiirLiLir caving of the banks, when the main body of the stream was d 
npoii it. At the same time the willows and brush upon the island were roote( 
far buck as the dotted line, to prevent any further deposit of sediment up 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI SIVEB. 



31 



idftnd, ftnd to facrilitoto its washing away. These works completed, the next step 
WM at J, where the upper wing-dam, heing constructed qnite strongly, allowed of 
the other two heing lighter and cheaper. This gave the first impulse to the pas* 
uf^ot the water down the right-hand chute, since, the deep hollow heing removed, 
the current had less tendency toward the left hank. 

Next came the construction of the works at K, to induce the silting up of the 
bead of the chute. Care was taken here not to entirely close the water-way, hut 
only to arrest the current somewhat, that the silting up might he gradual and distrih- 
Qted oyer the whole length of that arm of the river. To this end a low dam at F, 
allowing the passage of the water at quite low stages, is huilt, and at N three more 
iring-dams. 

Tfie effect of all these works on the left hank was to hnild out the shore to the 
dotted line designed as the new limit of the river, and gradually to silt up the whole 
of the chute. 

When sufficiently raised above low- water stages the planting of willows caused a 
soDtinual and rapid accumulation of sediment, and in the course of time put all danger 
of the return of the river to its former channel out of the question. The filling up of the 
cooeavities and irregularities at 6 and H was the last work of the construction. At 
LU it was found necessary to dredge a narrow channel for the passage of boats at the 
time when the river was first shut out of the It ft chute, and had not yet removed the 
bar at that place. 

This is an example of the general plan adopted in the more modern improvements 
of the German rivers, and has proved itself the cheapest and most certain of lastina; 
uocess. It will be noticed that in the accompanying plate the wings are all directed 
op stream at a slight angle with the axis of the current. 

The object of this is to prevent the water passing ovev the dam at high staj^es from 
ittacking the banks below the foot of the dam, and endangering its connection with 
the shore, thus : 




The distance between the dams is a matter of judgment luid experience. 





If too &r apart the dams are like single wing-dams, and the current snfifers all thMe 
tetrbanoes which single dams are liable to cause. If too close an unnecessary 
ABoont of money is expended to accomplish the desired results. Some writers have 
*tsted that the distance between should not exceed four to six times the length of the 
um$. The distance between is, however, more probably a function of the width of 
the ^ream (to be safe, not more than one-third of the width) and dependent on the 
dlieefion in whioh tne stream meets the works. If the current is normal to the 
vingi, th^ may be wider apart ; if direoted upon the heads of the wings so as to pan- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



38 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI EIVER. 



etrate between theniy then the intervals should be less. It often becomes necessary 
after the completion of a system of wing-dams, to add another win^ or two so as to 
check any too great tendency to form eddies and prevent the deposit of sand in the 
desired places. These cut-offs are of much lighter construction than the wings, which 
are opposed to the full current, as the subjoin^ drawings will show. The French have 
on a great many of their rivers bailt long wings for confining the channel. These are 




left open at the lower ends, and secure a good depth of water along their outside, bat 
are particularly liable to being undermined where the foundations are insecure (as in 
a sandy stream), and it is found that the deposit behind the wing is very slow in tak- 
ing place. The current at high stages, passing over the crest of the wings, attacks 
the banks along which it extends and runs with sufficient velocity to carry off the 
matter thus excavated. So much is this the case that they have often been obliged 
to build cross-weirs to connect it with the banks. At low-water the deposit ceases 
entirely, since no current enters, and the wing thus remains unsupported and liable 
to continual breaks and repairs. 

CONSTRUCTION OF THE WINGS. 

The brush construction tl)at I have before referred to as cheapest and best has a 
good many different varieties ; the brush is, however, nearly always made into Hascines 
of such a length that, placed on their butt-ends, their center of gravity shall be at the 
height of a man's shoulder when lie stoops slightly to raise them 6om the ground 
Fig. 10). The length of a single fascine is therefore about 10 feet. Large fascines are 
used in some cases w^here the core of the fascines consists of cobble-stones or coarse 
gravel. These are made from 12f to 18 feet long, and 2^ to 3 feet thick, and are rolled 
out upon the wing as it progresses. These fascines are apidied in many different ways, 
and are really but a substitute for rock in places where the latter is difficult to get. 
They are bound together by so-called " wnrsts,'* or brush-ropes, to which they are 
pinned with treenails. (See Figs. 11 and 9.) 

The crown of these wings should be built on an incline rising toward the shore, but 
always at the shore-end kept a little lower than the badk. This prevents the disas- 




trous effect of a thin, unbroken stream flowing over the whole length of the dam at 
medium stages, and keeps the water crowded toward the selected channel. The dama 
are customarily built 2 to 3 feet higher than the low stage of water, and in general it 
is necessary, in working from the banks outward, to have the crown out of water in 
order to build the successive layers of fascines. The batter given to the upper and 
lower faces of the wings varies considerably, but a slope of 1 to 1 is often assumed and 
answers very well, particularly as a very accurate preservation of any particular slope 
is out of the question and not of great importance. Figs. 1 and 2 show how the sno- 
cessive layers are built. At a (Fig. 2) we see the outer layer lying on the surface of the 
water ready to be loaded with sand and gravel and sunk. In Fig. 1 it is shown in 
plan as sunk. We see, also, that the immediate sinking of a layer is not to be desired, 
and the last five or six must be progressively sinking nearer and nearer to the bottom^ 
since in a swift current the possibility would be very small of holding such an easily- 
broken mass as that of a number of fascines pinned together, and keeping them from 
bein^ twisted away from the preceding and solid part of the construction. When the 
sinking progresses gradually, however, the .figure shows for itself how the fascinea 
mutually support each other. Care must be exercised not to get the slope of the layera 
of fascines too steep, otherwise the sand or gravel which is placed between falls out, 
and is carried away by the current. Each succeeding layer covers and protects the 
end on top of the preceding one from washing away. At the outer end a protection of 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 39 

riprtpy or of faacines filled with stone, is necessary to insure the stability of the last 
hjen. Finally, when the brush-work is completed a ooveriog of broken stone or 
cosrse grarel protects from injary by ice or floating objects. Lighter forms of wings, 
to be used in shallow places or where deposit has already taken place between the 
Biin wings, are shown in Figs. 5, 6, and 12. Little explanation of these is neces- 
•ary. 

The European oonstmotioiis mentioned above are adapted to both great and small 
depths. On portions. of the Rhine, where such dams have been constrncted, the 
▼ateris subject to a rise of 25 to 30 feet in twenty -four hours, and the fact of the 
dams holding their places under such circumstances is sufficient evidence of their 
•treogth. 

BANK-PROTECTIONS. 

Where quantities of loose rock are not attainable, brush protections are used, and 
are bailt in much the same way as those on the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers. The im- 
provements lately carried out on these rivers show the efficacy and stability of brush- 



The United States Engineers have there employed the fascine construction to 
great advantage, and so firmly does the brush become anchored in the sand that the 
removal of a dam, when this became necessary, has proved a difficult matter. They 
have withstood floods of 10 feet above their crests, under the most unfavorable circnm- 
itanoes. These were, however, nearly all low dams. In them the fascines were laid 
ade by side, with the butt-ends down stream, and lapping nnder each other so as to 
make a slope. They were built to 1 foot above low water, but it seems that this 
was afterward judged to be too little, and some of them were raised a foot. The 
fascines were made into rafts or mats by tying them together with light poles bound 
on with cord. 

ILLINOIS RIVER DAMS. 

On the Illinois River a simpler form of brush-dam, and one which has answered 
well, is constructed as in the annexed figures (Figs. 15 and 16). I think that for a 
stream with an even bottom this construction win be as stable as that made with 
fucines, and cheaper to build — the cost of labor required in making fascines being 
greater than it would be in Europe. The great dlnadvantage of the Illinois River 
dam appeiurs to me to be its want of elasticity by which to fill up hollows occurring 
under it. The bottom of the Mississippi is so even, however, in most places that I 
eonaider this disadvantage of le9S importance. I have made my plans and estimates 
npon the basis of the Illinois River construction, and with the bank-protection, as in 
Fig. 19, used at Alton Slongh by General Simpson. 

Brush, per cord |2 25 

Stone, per cnbic yard 2 00 

£artb, per cubic yard 35 

Piling, per linear foot 15 

The gentle current of the Upper Mississippi will, I think, give full security to these 
dams, but should they fail the fascine construction can be resorted to. These weirs 
will rarely be constructed in over 10 feet of water — a depth that will be continually 
diminishing with the age of the dam. The protection of the ends of the wings is to 
be secared by means of piling and riprap, as in Figs. 17 and 18. 

I think it possible that we may be able to reduce the cost of many of the wings by 
boUding them slighter where they are found to be in positions not much exposed to 
the current, but have not thought it advisable to take this into account in the general 
estimate. A number of the bars surveyed by us do not appear at present to require 
ftny improvement to secure 4^ feet of water, and it will be impossible to estimate for 
their improvement until such time as they may again become obstacles. 

The dotted red lines on the tracings show the shores which it is proposed to secure, 
md the wings or weirs are drawn in black. 

The shifting nature of the channel is well shown by the small sketches appended of 
Beef Slough and Rollingstone, which give the channels as run in different years. 
(Figs. 20 and 21.) 

A protection to the banks will, in many cases, prove necessary after the dams are 
hnilt It is impossible to predict with certainty the exact amount of work needed, 
Vnt I have added a sufficient sum to the estimates to cover the cost of such construc- 
tions. 

I append a description of the various bars between Saint Paul and La Crosse, 
^ieh will be interesting here as showing the number of points that will event- 
ually need improvement. These localities have been designated by pilots and river 
operts, and a good many places are mentioned where 4j feet at present could be 
M at low water, except, perhaps, in such extraordinarily dry seasons as that of 
18o4, 

Sach droughts occur so seldom as to be of scarcely any importance in our plans of 
improvement ; not oftener, probably, than once in forty years. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



40 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

DESCRIPnOK OF THB BARS. 

Frenchman'a Bar. — This is a reef jnst below Saint Paal, evidently caosed by the 
widening of the stream below Dayton's Blnff. The wiuge are intended to confioe 
the current, and are indicated on the tracings herewith presented. Cost of wings, 
$4,417.86. 

Fig*8 Eye Island ^ar«.— These bars have always been a serions obstacle to navigation. 
The spreading of the water above and below the island has formed shoals, on which 
steamers were at low stages frequently detained and oblij;ed to lighten or spar over. 

The equal division of the stream made bad navigation in either arm when the water 
was low, the channel being found sometimes on one, and sometimes on the other side 
of the island. 

A pile and riprap dam was thrown across the head of the left-hand chute last sea- 
son, and will, it is thought, have materially improved the channel on the right by the 
time low water sets in this ^ear. It was thought best to add wing^ above and below 
the island, in accordance with the general views already indicated in this report ; and 
should they be needed, will give, it is thought, a good 4]hfoot channel. Cost of wings, 
yi,91o.lu. 

Kapoaia Bar. — This bar, like those immediately below it, the Upper and Lrower Bed 
Rock Bars, is caused by the crossing of the channel from bank to bank. The Upper 
Red Rock Bar has at times been the worst on the river. The maps explain fully the 
plans for bettering the channel, and it is only necessary to call attention to the rocky 
ledge un the left bank. alon|; which the channel is from 12 to 20 feet deep, to show that 
the river is capable or furnishing abundant water for navigation wherever a narrow 
and permanent water-way can l^ secured. 

The stone is of quite excellent quality for riprap, and can be quarried and loaded 
into boats without difficulty. 

Cost of wings atKaposia 92,425 34 

Cost of wings at Upper Red Rock 3, 140 04 

Cost of wings at Lower Red Rock 2,796 12 

Newport Bar. — Above the little town of Newport the river divides, and pours part of 
its water through a chate. 

The map explains the method of improvement, as also at Merrimao, where a case of 
the same kind occurs. 

Cost of wings at Newport |2,259 36 

Cost of wings at Merrimac .' 2,798 36 

Bohinson'a laland J?ar.— This is sometimes called the "Head of Gray Cload," since 
Gray Cloud Slough leaves the river jnst opposite the small island. It is thought best 
to leave the channel as it at present exists, near the rocky cliffs of Gray Cloud Island, 
only confining the water somewhat by wings on the right bank, in order to cut out the 
bar at the upper end of the island and make a good raft-channel. There have been 
great changes here since General Warren's surveys of 1867, and the channel has shifted 
from the right to the left of the island many times. It is thought that the contraction 
of the water-way will cause the island to disappear ; but if it does not, it shonld be 
removed either by scraping, or, if rock is found, by blasting, and the rock used in the 
construction of the wings. Cost of wings, $3,414.20. 

Pine Bend Bar. — ^This plac^ is quite often very shoal. A large sand-bar forms a mile 
or more above the islands and moves down duriug successive seasons, so that about 
once in five seasons it reaches the narrow channel oetween the islands and the right 
bank and disappears. A new bar has in the mean time formed above, and goes through 
the same process. While these changes are going on the channel is continually shift- 
ing. The plan of improvement consists in straightening the course of the stream, and 
confining the water to the channel on the right bank. Cost of wings, $7,622.86. 

Gray Cloud Bar. — This is not often a bad ^lace, and it is not thought necessary at 
present to survey or render estimates for its improvement. 

Boulanget^a Bar. — This bar is seldom troublesome, but will rec^nire deepening. Our 
soundings along the left bank show rock, either bowlders or m place. The wings 
will, it is thought, give sufficient water without removing the rock. Cost of wings, 
$2,307.44. 

Head of Nininger Bluff Bar. — At this place a small island has formed, behind which 
the Nininger Slough heads, and withdraws quite a considerable quantity of water from 
the main stream. 

The steamers have lately been forced to take the narrow channel around the island, 
and so confined is it, that the banks are literally worn off by the rubbing of the steam- 
ers' guards. An old barge was loaded with rock and sunk in this channel last season 
by your orders, and it remains to be seen what effect it w.ll have upon the main chan- 
nel. The map explains the further improvements contemplated. Cost of wings, 

JSTminger Bluff— Nininger and ffastinga ^ara.— These are ordinary reefs, caused by a 



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KAVIGATION OP THB MSSISSIPPI RIVEB. 41 

wider reach of river thAn can be well sapplied with water at low Bti^ea. The maps 
Bpeak for themselves as to the mode of improvement. 

Coet of wings at Nininger Bluff f2,770 60 

Cost of wings at Nininger 6,399 40 

Cost of wingsat Hastings 2,850 08 

Preseott lakmd Bar, — ^The same trouble exists here as at the head of many of the 
islands of the Mississippi. General Warren, in his report, advised the closing of the 
light-band chute ; and that appears still to be the proper method of improvement, 
with a few wings above to somewhat contract the width of the river and assist in silt- 
ing op the head of the chute. Cost of wings, |5,335.66. 

Diamond Bluff, — ^At this place, some eight to nine miles below Prescott, there used to 
be a bar which, during one season, gave trouble. It has since disappeared, nor could 
we find any evidence of improvement at this place being needed. The bar was some 
two miles above the town. Jast at the town, I was told, a rocky ledge extends out 
into the river from the left bank, and at low water causes some inconvenience from 
the narrow water-way left for the passage of boats. The depth being, however, always 
abondant, I have not contemplated removing the rock. The river is good from this 
place to the head of Lake Pepin, at Wacouta, in all seasons. 

Waamta Bar,— A little hamlet, called Wacoata, is bailt at one of the mouths of the 
nrer emptying into Lake Pepin, and gives its name to a shoal and an arm of the delta 
which the Mississippi forms here. The shoal gives little trouble, and, as the middle 
channel, which pours the main volume of the stream into the lake, has excellent navi- 
gation at all stages, it is thought that a light placed on the sandy point, to enable 
steamers to find the entrance to the middle channel at night, will be all the improve- 
ment necessary. The light is now placed on a point bdow the Wacouta or South 
ChanneL It was first lit in May, 1875. 

Bar belino Bead's Landing. — The river receives here one of its largest tributaries, the 
Chippewa. Our survey shows no improvement needed at this place, nor at the '' Bar 
above Wabasha." 

Bar heJaw Wabasha,— Th\a is a bad and most inconvenient bar, where steamers have 
to eross the river almost at right angles to get into the chute to the left of Crates 
Island, and the navigation of large rafts is particalarly difficult. The channel on the 
right of the island is good until near its foot, where sand-bars make bad shoals in low 
ftages. As the upper part of this chute has a hard, gravelly bed, not subject to 
Ahaages, the "Bar at foot of Gratis Island," as well as at its head, can be avoided alto- 
gether, it is thooght, by the construction of wings, as given on the accompanying 
maps. ThiB plan nas the advantage of cheapness, and £so that it will not interfere 
with the working of boats in the present channel. Cost of wings, bar at foot of Crat's 
lalaod, $7,485.59. 

B»f Slough Bars. — ^This place has long been one of the worst on the Mississippi. 
The river widens and is divided by many islands. The small sketch. Fig. 20, gives a 
good idea of it, together with the plan for its improvement, and the various channels 
that have at different times been used by steamers and rafts. 

Some local interests may be injured by the closing of the Beef Slough Cut-off, as a 
•mall steamer runs from Alma to Wabasha by way of Beef River and this cutoff, and 
it is possible that the mill-owners and logging companies on Beef River may object to 
haying this convenient passage closed up. It will, however, be, no doubt, to the ad- 
▼anti^e of the general navigation, and, if found necessarv, means can be devised for 
allowing the passage of this small steamer (only 50 or 60 feet long), while most of the 
water is cut off from Beef River. It is not expected that after the wings are com- 
pleted the banks will remain stable in this locality, and it is better that they should 
he cut away in some places, and, when the regular shape indicated on the map has 
heen reached, riprap can be applied to prevent further wasting. Cost of wings, 

AUm Bar, — ^Above Alma the channel has changed in the last two years, and the best 
water is now found to the left of the islands, at the mouth of Beef River. The bars in 
this vicinitv belong to the general term of Beef Slough bars, given to the reach be- 
tween Crat's Island and Alma, and are at times troublesome. The old channel, which 
occupies the main river, appears the most natural to improve, and will iifford the 
^Miest navigation. I refer to the plans as explanatory of what is recommended for 
the improvement. Cost of wings, $15,130.94. 

Pine Island Bar,—Jio improvement was found to be necessary here, the depth being 
tt present sufBcient ; also in the same category were found to belong the following 

Above West Newton. 
Head West Newton Island. 
Above Minneiska. 

Mount Venum Bar. — ^The long shallow crossing at Mount Yemon will require a con- 
tnction of the width of the stream as in the plan. Cost of wings, 15,151.10. 
Chmnejf Boek Bar, — ^The river is here divided by islands, and with the usual result. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



42 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



I lenrn that there hae been for some years bat little trouble experleuoed at this pi 
and I tit: ^arvey shows 4^ feet at low- water at present. 

UoJl^fujiione Bars, — Here is a reach of the stream very similar to that at Beef Slo 
Tlit^ j)rt'!^iit channel is behind the islands, on the right bank, and is extremely nai 
and iiioonvenieut. There are lamber interests which would be in conflict witt 
clofiini; of the RolliD^stone chote. At low-water, howeyer, these people are oblige 
takb thiMr rafts down to Winona by the outside channel, and could of oourse do c 
oth<?r fit ages. 

8o]fii? adjustment of this difficulty will have to be made, as the plan recommei 
(lemundn the closing of the chute. Cost of wings, $1*2,706.06. 

Bt'Uttf's Slough Bar, — Island No. 65 here divides the river into two channels, w 
havo Hitertkately been used by steamers. Of late the bar at the foot of the left-1 
cbiite han become so shoal that large steamers have been obliged to take to the o 
Eiido of the island. A very shallow bar at the head of the right chite offers but a 
more irK'hes of water than the bar at foot of Betsey's Slough (left-hand chute), i 
the Intter excepting this bar being from V2 to 18 feet in depth in mid-channel. The 
t}[ iTi^provement is evident from the map. It is probable, though not certain, tl 
larju^o amount of riprap will have to be used on the concave bank below the islai 
prev*rTit abrasion alter the improvements have been made. Cost of wings, $4,651. 

}Vitd*n Bar. — This bar is just below Betsey's Slough, and is due to a lack of "? 
niorely. The plan which provides for leading the water off from the small chann( 
tbtr n^bt of the island into the main channel will, I think, give the needed n 
Coat of wings, $3,845.50. 

A r(jo fsUind. — Here there appears to be no improvement necessary at present. 
i^aRte JA tiiie of the bar above Winona ; Elevator Bar below Winona; bar above 
nt?npa, ;md bar below Homer. 

Mount Trempe d VEau Bar, — A slight improvement here will, it is thought, de 
the bnr ut the head of Island No. 81 sufficiently to give A\ feet of water. (See p 
Cwt of \v(ug8, $5,402.30. 

lifiv hdow Trempe d VEau, — This has been quite a serious obstruction in former y 
tbim^li not recently or at present. No improvement is now needed. 

^^m'fv-^ Bluff Bar, — The river here needs contraction, and is provided for as in 
Co«t *>r wings, $5,897.18. 

Hfir itifow DreeftacA.— Here is again one of those cases where an island (No. 
iDtmfiTee with the course of the stream. It is thought that the slight constructio 
the foot of the right-hand chute will give all the relief needed; and, as the ohannc 
straight though narrow one, it will be shorter and more convenient than that nc 
use. Cost of wings, $5,309.04. 

The two bars mentioned as Nos. 43 and 44 (head La Crosse Chute and bar a 
La Crosse) were not reached by my survey of last season, the cold weather oausii 
to f^QBpeod operations. 

Tablf) III gives the numbers and names of the various bars between Saint ] 
Mlu[k, and La Crosse, Wis.; the cost of wing-dams for each bar, exclusive of 
bbore-rtivetment or protection as may be found necessary after completion of dt 
and tlitf available depth on each bar, as given by pilots, at low summer- water. 

Table III. 



Xo, 


Name of bar. 


Cost of 
whigs. 


Dept 
low 1 


1 


Flinch mui's ■. - 


$4.417 86 
1,913 10 
3,495 34 
3.140 04 
2,796 12 
2,259 36 
Tt,T9B'36 
3,414 SO 
7.622 86 


1\ 


fl 


Pig's Kye 




:* 


Kji ijoa ia 




4 


Upjuir Rod Rock 




^ 


Lowpr Red Rook 




ft 


iCy wtHirt 




T 


Mnrrlinao 




R 


Rnl>iDAoii's laland - 




■> 


rino Hfnd 


10 


Oiiiv Cloud 


11 


tt4iiliit]ger'B 


2,307 44 
5,223 35 
2.770 60 
6,399 40 
2,850 08 
5,335 66 


M 


H*^fni Nininger Bluff 


Vi 


NinipijerBlufl 


H 


>Unliiger 


I*) 


U a&t liij^s 


1A 


Pi ^Hcuct Island 


IT 


ns iLiuund Bluff. 


IP 


W lie outa 




W 


Kelfjw Head's Landing 




W 


A 1j<> vc Wabasba 




^1 


He low Wabasha . .- 




vt 


CriLl'A iRland 


7,485 59 
12,747 28 
15,130 94 


^ 


B*?(^f filoagh 


fU 


Alma 










Digitized by CjOOQ 


le 





NAVIGATION OF THE IHSSISSIPPI BIVEB. 
Tabus III— Continued. 



4a 



No. 


Name of bar. 


Coat of 
winga. 


Depth at 
low water. 


?s 


Pm^T«1^<l . 




Feet. 

4 


96 


AboTe Weat Newton 




4 


»7 


Hftfld Wert Newlon Mand , 




4 


98 


MiDiieiaka 




4 


«9 


^OQDt V©rnofn ....... .....r...., ^. t..^. ....... .- 


♦5,151 10 


? 


30 


CliimDey Bock 


31 




12,706 06 
4, 651 04 
3,645 50 


4 


Jf 


Betaey^a Slouch 


5* 


» 


wS5K?r!n::::::::::::::::::::::;::;;::::::::;::;::::::. :::;::::::::: 


34 


ArffO Taland 


4 


a*) 


Above Winona 




4 


3n 


Klevator b^lo"w Winona. . ..^.........tt.^,..- --. ^-,,^^ ^,,^ ,-. 






37 


Abnve Mf lYDAopa .^-.^- ,..,,-rTT t-,- - ttxt 






.18 


Below Homer.! 






a» 


Mt. TT«mpe-«-16aa 


5.402 30 




40 


Below Trempe>a-16aa 




41 


Oneen'a Blu^ . - 


5, 897 18 
5,309 04 




4f 


Below T)reflbaoh' 




43 


Head La Croaee Chnte 




44 


Above La Crosae - - 








Total 








1.13,999 80 











No eBtimates are made for those bars against the names of which no snms are placed, 
ts they were fonud by as to be at present in no need of improvement, giving at least 
4^ feet of wat«r for low-water navigation. 

The ooet of riprapping, or otherwise protecting snch shores as appear to need it 
after the completion of the works, is estimated at $78,000. 

It will be observed that these improvements cover a stretch of river reckoned by the 
steamboat distances of nearly two nandred miles in length, and is the portion which 
has heretofore been either difficult or impossible to navigate daring the low-water 
leason. 

Below La Crosse obstructions exist, but they are far apart, some stretches of fifty to 
nxtv miles requiring no improvement to bring them up to the standard of 4^ feet. 

The completion of the Fox River improvement will make the improvement of the 
Upper Mississippi of even more importance than it is now, the trade between Chicago 
and the Northwest being immense. 

An appropriation of $50,000, to begin with, would enable us to test the soundness of 
the views expressed in this report, and I would suggest that the first improvements be 
made at CraVs Island and Betsey's Slough. 

These two points have long been among the worst bars on the upper river, and suc- 
cess here will fully justify the views set forth in this report, and prove that it is not 
impossible to secure 4^ feet navigation from La Crosse to Saint Paul, but actually 
quite possible, and at an expenditure far below what has ordinarily been thought it 
would involve. Those bars which at present have 4^ feet of water offer no peculiar 
difficulties, nor would the cost of improving them, should they become obstructions, 
be more than the average cost of those for which estimates have been made. 

My estimates apply only to those obstructions existing at the date of survey, and I 
rabmit them as follows : 

BSTDUTE OF COST OF IMPROVING THE CHANNEL OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER BETWEEN 
SAINT PAUL AND LA CROSSE, TO GIVE 4^ FEET NAVIGATION AT LOW WATER. 

Wings and dams $133,999 80 

Riprapping shores as needed 78,000 00 

Scraping with Long's scraper 75,000 00- 

Engineering 30,000 00- 

Contingencies, 10 per cent 31,699 98 

348,699 78 
In conclusion, I would remark that the cost of keeping up these works should not 
^ excessive, and it is thought that the United States steamer and crew now employed 
in removing snags, dec, could, without much additional cost, assume the duty of re- 
pairing the dams and riprapped shores whenever they required it. An appropriation 
of $100,000 would enable us during the first year to improve the very bad portions of 
^ river above Presoott, and also the two points, Betsey's Slough and Crat's Island, 
mentbned before as good places to test the method of construction advocated in this 
leport. I would, therefore, respectfully suggest that this amount be asked for. 

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44 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

The plans and estimatee for the Mississippi River improvement between La Crosse, 
Wis., and Alton, 111., cannot be completed until the close of the ensaing seaaoo. 
I remain, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

M. MEIGS, 
A$9istant Engineer, 
Col. J. N. Macomb, 

Corps of Engineers, U, S, A» 



PRELIMINARY REPORT. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Bock Islandj lll.j January 12, 1875. 

General : The following preliminary report by Assistant Engineer 
M. Meigs upon the survey of the Upper Mississippi River is respect- 
fully forwarded to the Chief of Engineers as showing the extent of the 
operatiops for the past working season, as fai* as the same can be ahown 
prior to the completioa of the maps and diagrams required for closer 
estimates. 

I approve of the suggestion of Assistant Engineer Meigs, that the 
work shonld be commenced and conducted by hired labor until such 
progress shall have been made as will show on what ba^s contracts can 
be safely let in case it should eventually be deemed economical and 
advantageous to do the work by contract. 

A steamer will be required expressly for this work ; but doubtless the 
United States steamer Montana could render valuable assistance in the 
outset, and hence the necessity of having her repaired as soon as possi- 
ble, as estimated for in another communication from me to-day. 

As dredging will be needed in conjunction with the building of wing* 
dams, the Montana is peculiarly fitted to assist in this work at once; 
but in case the water shonld be low in the river, her services would be 
demanded at various points for assisting the navigation, as has been the 
province of that boat for years past, and steamboac-men would probably 
protest against her being withdrawn from the general duty of keeping 
the channel open. 

It is therefore hoped that a steamer may be provided for according to 
the estimate for this special service.* 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. K MACOMB, 
Colonel of Engineers. 

Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineers^ U. S. A. 



report of mr. montgomery mbios, assistant en6inebr. 

Engineer Office, United States Army, 

Book Island, January 6, 1875. 

Sir : In the present uncompleted state of my maps and notes it is impossible to 
make any satisfactory estimate of the cost of the whole improvements contemplated 
by the Committee on Transportation -Routes to the Seaboard on the Upper Mississippi 

It is to be remembered that no improvements of the kind, or on the scale of those 
that would be necessary on the Upper Mississippi to secure 4i to 6 feet of water, have 
yet been constructed in this country. 

It is a work of such importance and magnitude that it should not be undertaken 
without some previous experiments. I would suggest that two or three points on the 
river which now impede navigation the most should be selected for improvement. 

RoUingstone Bars, Beef Slough Bars, and Betsy's Slough Bars are three such points^ 
or, perhaps, rather, some of the bars above Presoott where the river is smaller. 

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KAVIQATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 45 

Should it be found possible to secure 4^ feet of water at these points, I feel sure 
steamboat-men will feel satisfied, and they will be able to navigate these difficult 
points more readily than they now do the Rock Island Rapids, where 4 feet of water is 
proTided for. 

I woald sugg«>8t that in askini^ for an appropriation it be left discretionary with the 
En^neer Department what points on the upper river are to be improved, as from the 
shifting nature of these bars the difficulties are liable to cease at one bar and occur at 
some other place, after any great freshet in the river. Still it may be said that the 
serioos difficulties at low water are above La Crosse, and particularly above Winona. 

It might perhaps be better to begin up at Saint Paul and work downward. 

The Pig's Eye Bar has been improved experimentally already, and its results ought 
to be carefully considered. 

The United States steamer Montana might be used to do the necessary dredging in 
eonnection with these improvements, but it would be better to have an independent 
ileamer, since in case of low water the Montana would be required to do the usual 
work in which she has been engaged. 

The only successful improvements of streams with shifting sand-bars, such as the 
Hississippi, have been made in Europe on the Upper Rhine and Danube (see Stephen- 
son's Canal and River Engineering, 2d ed., p. 151). These works were of great extent 
sod attended with, perhaps, greater difficulties than those the Mississippi offers, owing 
to the greater height of their floods. The spurs, diversion-arms, &c., in these improve- 
moots were entirely constracted of bundles of fascines, weighted with stones and 
earth, and were maAe with great rapidity and economy. This style of improvement 
offers particular advantages on the Misbissippi, where the brush, &c,, can be had in 
any quantity, and it would, no doubt, be the most eoonomioal method that could be 
ooployed. 

I( would be necessary to make some resurveys for these improvements, and for a 
thorough examination of points of difficulty between La Crosse and the mouth of the 
Bluiois River. 

In view of these facts, I would suggest the constrnction of a light-draught steamer 
for dredging, &c,, at Pittsburgh. 

This will soon be necessary to replace the Montana, now pretty well worn out, and 
ean be employed for the present on the contemplated improvements. There are forty- 
three bars between La Crosse and Saint Paul, acknowledged as obstructions, more or 
loss serious, by the steamboat-men at present employed on the river. In my opinion it 
will cost at least $500,000 to improve these points, to secure 4^ feet water (abundant 
for the present requirements of navigation). 

I therefore submit the following estimate of the amount that could be advantage- 
ously expended next year, and suggest, for the more economical expenditure of the 
money, that the work be executed at first under the personal supervision of the Engi- 
neer Department, until some experience is gained that will be a guide for the letting 
of contracts. 

ESTIMATE. 

Engineering, completing maps, &c $15,000 

(^t of steamer, with Lang's scraper 35,000 

Expenses of same for one year • 20,000 

(^t of brush-dams, piling, &c 60,000 

Contingencies 13,000 

143,000 

I would say that I cannot complete my plans and estimates for the work above La 
Crosse until May, and examinations remain to be made below that point. 
1 remain, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant, 

M. MEIGS, 
Assistant Engineer. 
CoL J. N. Macomb, 

Corps of Engineers f U» S, A, 



ROCK ISLAND RAPIDS. 



Book Island, III., January 11, 1875. 
General : As bearinf^ apon the subject of plans and estimates for 
the improvemeDt of the 17pper,Mississippi Biver upoD the scale suggest- 



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46 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



ed ill the report of the Select Committee of the United States Sod 
II j>on TraDsportatiou-Koutes to the Seaboard, I beg leave to present h( 
with a tabular statement showing the cost of the work of improving R 
iF^Jand llapids, the amoant required yet to complete that work, and 
^idilitioual amounts that would be required to secure additional dep 
afl sn^^ffested in the report of the select committee above referred 
This tubular statement, which gives a clear exhibit of the cost of ei 
ing and additional improvements at this point, was drawn up by Asa 
ant Engineer E. F. Hoffmann, who has been identified with this worl 
improvement since its commencement; and it is founded upon his i 
vey^ made from time to time for the purpose of measuring contract 
work^ iind showing the best means of continuing the improvement. 

The work of cutting the channel through the rocky chains wl 
were found obstructing the navigation in this limited district of 8< 
fonrti^en miles of river was projected on the basis of affording a ch 
l^t}\ of 200 feet in width and 4 feet in depth below the water-surl 
of I he low stage of 1864. These dimensions were adopted by a Be 
of En^i^ineers after consulting with persons engaged in the river n 
gntioTi, and after considering the wants of navigation of the upper ri 
find were deemed ample as affording better navigation than could 
depei&ded upon as to be found in the river above. The plan as fai 
perfected has given great satisfaction to those engaged in navigat 
tbti river. 

It will be seen that a deepening of only six inches, so as to give c 
4^ fe*t at lowest water, would cost over half a million of dollars, i 
nwirl^: half as much as the satisfactory channel now nearly comple 
I would, therefore, respectfully recommend that the existing schemi 
improvement for Eock Island Rapids be adhered to, at least until a 
it whall have been shown that a greater depth can be secured and mi 
taiiicil through the ^and bars above. 

1 remain, very respectfully, vour most obedient servant, 

J. N. MACOMB, 

Colonel of Engineer 

Brif^, Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineers^ U. S. A. 



Rock Island Rapids of the Mississippi River. 

Tlie -work of improving the Rock Island Rapids of the Mississippi River, 
DOW iifiarly completed, has been condncted on the basis of affording a 
navigi^tion of 4 feet in depth below the low- water sarface of 1864, and 
httflct«t^ thus far, about $1,050 

Aintm L t n^quired to complete the project 80 

Tl> nllord G inches greater depth through the rocky chains, so as to give a 

iii'yi I L of 4^ feet, would cost an additional amount of 507 

To uA\in\\ I foot greater depth through the rocky chains, so as to give a 

dttpUj of 5 feet, would cost an additional amount of 1, 102 

To uhT<*rd ''2 feet greater depth through the rocky chains, so as to give a 
de^tb of 6 feet, would cost an additional amount of 2,403 



DES MOINES RAPIDS. 

Rook Island, III., January 26, 1871 

General : I beg leave to present herewith a report of Capt. Ai 

Stick ney. Corps of Engineers, made by my direction, toaching the < 

of the canal, &c., around Des Moines Bapids of the Mississippi Bi^ 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVESL 47 

and the cost of deepeniDg this canal, &c., 1 foot, so as to get a depth 
of 6 feet at low water through this improvemeot. 

Ad ezaminatioD of this report shows that this great work (which is 
DOW Dearly finished), when completed onder the existing plan, will have 
cost something over $4,000,000, and that to alter it so as to afibrd an 
additional foot of depth will cost nearly one-foarth as mnch as the com- 
pleted work, besides being attended with serious loss of time before the 
work can be availed of. 

The plan of this work was to give a depth of 5 feet at low water, and 
was adopted by a board of engineers, after duly considering the possi- 
bilities of the navigation of the Mississippi Biver above and below Des 
Moines Bapids. 

In view of the facts set forth above and in the inclosed report of Gap- 
tain Stickney, I would respectfully suggest that true economy would be 
opposed to any change in the plan of this work, at least until it shall 
have been satisfactorily shown that a depth of 6 feet or more, at low 
water, can be secured and maintained throughout that part of the river 
between Rock Island Bapids and Des Moines Bapids, and through the 
natural obstructions below Keokuk. 

I remain, very respectfully, your most obedient servant, 

J. N. MACOMB, 

Colonel of Engineers. 

Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineers U. 8. A. 



report of capt. amos stickney, corps of engineers. 

United States Engineer Office, 

Keokuk, lawa, January 10, 1875. 
Colonel: In accordance with your directions, contained in letter of 8th December, 
1^4, 1 have had prepared estimates of cost of increasing the depth of water through- 
«Qt this improvement to 6 feet in lowest- water stages of the river. The depth as at 
preeeot adopted is 5 feet, and to increase it 1 foot will cost as follows, viz : 

Ai middle lock, 

4fl0 cable yards of masonry to takedown, at $3 $1,440 00 

4(<0 cubic yards of masonry to rebnild, at $9 4,320 00 

300 cobic yards of dimension-stone, at $15.... 4,500 00 

300 barrels of cement, at $2.50 750 00 

100 cnbic yards of sand, at $1 100 00 

3,000 cobic yards of earth-excavation, at 50 cents 1,500 00 

4,000 cubic yards of rock-excavation, at $1.50 6,000 00 

4 gates, rebuilt, $2,000 each 8,000 00 

Bailingand draining 1,000 00 

27,610 00 

At guard-lock, 

250 cubic yards of masonry to take down, at |3 • $750 00 

250 cnbic yards of masonry to rebuild, at $9 2,250 00 

200 cubic yards of dimension-stone, at $15 3,000 00 

200 barrels of cement, at $-2.50 500 00 

75 cubic yards of sand, at $1 75 00 

3^ cubic yards of rook-exoavation, at $5 15,000 00 

1,000 cubic yards of rock-excavation, at $1.50 1,500 00 

4 gates, rebuilt, $2,000 each 8,000 00 

BMliogand draiuing 1,000 00 

32,075 00 

Tottlcost at middle lock $27,610 00 

Totalcostat goard-lock 32,075 00 

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48 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI SIYER. 



Prism cf oanal from guard to middle lock. 

160.000 Clitic yAtds rock-excavatioD, at 82.50 |375 

10,000 cubic juxds eartb-excavation, at 50 centB 5 

ChanneU at entrance to canal, 
22,700 cubic yards rock-excavation, at $4 90 

Channel at Montrose chain, 
42,000 cubic yru'ds rock-excayatioD, at $8 336 

866 
Add 10 per cbtkt.for contingenciea.. b6 

Total coat of increase of 1 foot in deptb 953 

Tbc work hu^ already cost, np to tbe present time, and including tbe ap- 

propriiHiaii itf Jnne23, 1874 $3,571, 

AtiioLint tUJtmiAted to complete it 480 

Tntal f<»»ti according to present plans 4,051, 

IncrcuAtid co«t for 1 foot additional depth 953, 

I ciontulf'Utly t^xpect to bring this work to snch a state of completion by the 
187^ UA Ut aUiiWF of the passag^e of steamboats; if, however, the plan is so chac 
tn rcrjiiire rbr udditional foot in depth, the completion of the work will be deb 
leiml twu ytiirs. 

Viiiy rcspectfnlly, yonr obedient servant, 

AMOS STICKNETi 
Captain of Engineers, Btt, i 
Co1.J.N.:Macomb, 

Cor^t ^f Engineers, U. S. A. 



CC 4. 

PART OF THIED SUBDIVISION OF MISSISSIPPI TRANSPORTATION- B 

report op col. jambs h. simpson, corps op engineers 

Engineer Office, United States Army, 
Saint Louis^ Mo,j January 20, 11 
General : In accordance with your letters of Jane 29 and Ja 
1874, lerjuiting me to sarvey that portion of the Mississippi River 
bi*lwei^n tbti inouth of the Illinois Kiver and the mouth of the 
Kiver, iniikT the act of Congress approved June 23, 1874, containii 
appiuiniation for surveys and estimates for the Improvements r( 
mended by the Senate Committee on Transportation-Routes to the 
board, &e.^ und to submit for approval a project for the improvem< 
the river between the points mentioned, I have the honor to preseo 
maps heiewith and the following 

REPORT. 



Tbe MissiKfiippi Eiver, between the Illinois and Ohio, is divid< 
tiHtiiral cbaracteristics into three sections. 

The tiiHt, extending from the Illinois to the Missouri, a distar 
tweat>'foar aud a half miles, is distinguished from the other sectio 
comparatively clear water, discolored by earthy and vegetable m 
but not sniljiiiently charged to afford a sediment when the river is 1 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISglSSIPPI RIVEE. 49 

the mean stagBi so long as the water is in motion ; becoming turbid as 
tiie river rises, sand, clays, and fine gravel are borne along in consider- 
able quantities; the alluvial banks are eroded, and this portion of the 
river becomes assimilated to the section below the Missouri when that 
section is below the mean and approaching the low stage. 

The average slope of this section at low water is 0.4i0 foot per mile, 
and the current strong. The slope and current depend very much on 
the relative stages of the Upper Mississippi and the Missouri Bivers, 
iDcreasing or diminishing as the relative volume of the Mississippi 
increases or diminishes. 

From the mouth of the Dliuois to Alton, a distance of sixteen and a 
half miles, the eastern shore of the river is a rock bluff rising to a height 
of from 75 to 150 feet, except where broken by ravines and the narrow 
vallejs of unimportant creeks. On the west the bank is continuously 
aUuvial, and the bottom-lands are common to the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri Bivers, here separated by a neck of laud from two to four miles 
in width. 

The second section extends from the mouth of the Missouri to Com- 
merce, a distance of one hundred and sixty-two miles. This section 
derives its distinguishing features from the Missouri ; turbid waters, 
shifting bars, and channels, rapid erosions of alluvial banks, and exten- 
sive accretions, building up and removing islands, tow-heads, and bat- 
tores, with great rapidity. 

Seen at the higher stages, the crumbling banks falling in masses, the 
spoil of the forests covering the surface, and the boiling, swirling cur- 
rent show the power to be encountered ; and seen at low water, the 
wide wastes of sand bars, bristling with suags and drifts of every size 
aDd sh^pe, with here and there the dismembered skeletons of man's 
work, memorials of disaster, as forcibly suggest that to undertake the 
control of the forces here developed is no light task. 

From the mouth of the Missouri to Saint Louis, a distance of fifteen 
miles, the river does not touch the bluff on either side. A prolongation 
of the rock-formation of the west side is exposed at the chain of rocks, 
where a ledge extends about one-third of the distance across the river- 
bed. The rock probably underlies the alluvium ou the Missouri side, at 
no great deptb, for a considerable distance below the chain. With 
these exceptions^ — and the latter is not positively proven — there is 
nothing to check erosion on either side of the river from the mouth of 
the Missouri to Saint Louis. 

Below Saint Louis the river follows the Missouri bluff closely for fifty- 
five mile^, the only exception being at Rush Tower Bend, where a former 
island has become connected with the Missouri shore. Above Saint 
Genevieve the river leaves the bluff, returning to it near Saint Mary's. 
Below Saint Mary's it trends to the eastward, meeting the Illinois bluff 
at the mouth of the Kaskaskia, and follows this bluff to Liberty, whence 
it again is turned toward Missouri, reaching the bluffs at Big Eddy, and 
followsclose at their foot to Cape Cinq' Homme. 

Here the valley is at its narrowest, and rock appears on both sides. 
The main Illinois bluff recedes from the river near Liverpool, and the 
river continues along the Missouri bluff. A few miles below, the isolated 
bluffs near Grand Tower are found, on the Illinois side. Low grounds 
to the eastward of these isolated islands of rock indicate that the river 
om^ flowed to the eantward of them, and that the opening through 
which the river now flows is the result of some unknown operation of 
nature. 

Below Grand Tower the river follows the Missouri bluffs closely for a 

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60 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI KIYEB. 

long distance, receding from them near Bainbridge, tonching again at 
Gape Girardeau. Here the main Mi^sonri blaflf recedes from the river^ 
and appears no more. A short distance below Cape Girardeau a de- 
pression allows the Mississippi waters in floods to escape into the swamps, 
and thence into the Saint Francis. Blnfb again appear on both sides 
of the river at Cape La Croix, continning for several miles, and termi- 
nating at Commerce, but the bluff on the west is isolated, and appar- 
ently has been detached from the Illinois highlands. 

l^ear Commerce the blaffs recede, and the valley expands into the 
great alluvial basin of the Lower Mississippi. 

ThroQghout the second section the river is, as a rule, held in on one 
side by rocky bluffs, and is remarkably direct in its general course; only 
when it leaves the bluffs, as noted, does it work out the long, sweeping 
curves to be expected in great rivers. 

Below the junction of the Missouri and Mississippi the waters of the 
two rivers flow for many miles side by side with a distinct line of divis- 
ion. As far down as Carondelet, muddy water from the Missouri may 
be dipped on one side of a boat, and the comparatively clear water of 
the Upper Mississippi from the other. Long after the line of division is 
lost to the eye, the difference in the water obtained from different sides 
of the stream is strongly marked. 

The river receives in this section two tributaries of considerable size, 
the Meramec from Missouri, and the Kaskasia from Illinois. But their 
contributions to the volume are too small at low stages to have much 
practical influence upon the navigation, and but little upon the im- 
provement of that navigation. The contributions of sediment, though 
considerable at times, are usually so small, compared with the immense 
quantities brought in by the Missouri, and excavated by the riner itself 
from its banks and bed, that its effect is not discoverable. 

The valley throughout this section, except near Grand Tower and at 
the Grand Chain, is from three to eight miles in width. Nearly the 
whole of this area is subject to overflow in time of floods. The gronnd 
generally slopes back from the river to the sloughs and lagoons with 
which the bottom is interspersed ; and, as in like manner the ground 
slopes from the farther bank of the slough or lagoon, the probability 
that these lagoons have at some time been channels carrying large vol- 
umes of water is established. Many think it proves them to be sites 
of old beds of the river, a conclusion which is possible but not neces- 
sary, since any considerable volume of water, escaping over the banks 
of a minor channel, would explain the terraced formation which char- 
acterizes these river-bottoms. 

The third section extending from Commerce to the mouth of the Ohio, 
a distance of thirty-seven and a half miles, derives its distinguishing 
characteristics from the entrance into the alluvial region, where the nni- 
form texture of the soil allows the river to shape its course without 
restriction ; and, secondly, from the influence of tbe Ohio. 

The times of flood of the Ohio and Mississippi are very different ; and 
as the Ohio alone is able to cause a rise to a stage 40 feet above low 
water, when the Mississippi is comparatively low, the phenomena of 
back-water are of frequent occurrence, and its ordinary influence ex- 
tends as far as Commerce, frequently farther. When the Ohio is high 
and the Mississippi low, the current through this section is slack, but 
when the conditions are reversed the current becomes very rapid. Owing, 
in a great measare, to these excessive changes of velocity, the channel 
is very unstable and the erosions extensive, as also the accretions. 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER » 51 

The foregoing are the principal distinctive featare of the sections as 
^y present themselves to the eye. 

It mast not be nnderstood that the description above refers to the 
Bftvigable channel, when the river is spoken of as following the bluffs, 
or in stating that the coarse of the river is remarkably direct. The bed 
of the river is so broad that the channel meanders from side to side 
witbin the bed jast as the bed itself meanders in the valley from bluff 
to Unf^ and as by erosions and deposits the bed of the river, in long 
periods of time, traverses the valley, so the channel traverses the bed 
from bank to bank, justifying the remark often heard, that ^' not a square 
rod of the bed ooald be pointed out that had not, at some time, been 
oov^ed by the track of steamboats." 

The movement of the bed is ordinarily so slow that the impression 
to a casual observer would be that, as a general rule, the changes of the 
river were comparatively slight and of no great importance, as they do 
not, within short periods, so completely alter the contour of the bends 
and reaches as to attract notice. Local observers, on the other hand, 
noting the disappearance of landmarks, realize that the changes are 
great, and, keeping no exact record, naturally take an exaggerated idea 
of the extent and rapidity of the changes. ' 

The shifting of the navigable channel is continual, sometimes in pro- 
gressive movement; often in sadden leaps; the water forsaking one 
eoorse and cutting out a new channel, in a very different direction, with 
Tery little warning. 

The unstable chiyracter of the bars and channels renders it impracti- 
esUe to execute surveys and maps giving in detail the hydrography of 
the river or the exact form of the bars. If, by elaborate survey, these 
ftatiires^were determined, by the time the maps could be executed the 
changes would be so great as to render them useless for any practical 
porpose. For this reason maps, descriptions, and plans relating to the 
Mississippi must of necessity be confined to general features ; details 
voold tend to confuse and deceive ratifer than assist in comprehending 
the real character of the river, and the inode of dealing with it practi- 
cally. 

The surveys executed under the act of Congress of June 23, 1874, 
famished only part of the material for the construction of the maps sub- 
mitted herewith, and could not do more because of the limited amount 
of the appropriation. The map from Alton to the mouth of the Meramec 
is ooDstrncted firom surveys made in 1870, 1871, and 1872, and does not 
show the present river as faithfully as could be desired. Very impor- 
tant changes have taken place at and below the mouth of the Missouri 
siDce these surveys were made. Below the Meramec, the shore-lines, at 
all points where improvements are desirable, were determined by actual 
sorvey during the season of 1874. At such parts of the river as are now 
luiobstructed by bars, the shores are taken from the best data of former 
BttTveys, corrected by reference to the points established by the trian- 
gola^on *made in 1873 and 1874. Although not strictly accurate in 
Btttters of detail, the fixed triangulation-points forbid errors of sufficient 
inportanee to vitiate any conclusions that will be drawn from these 
^ttfis. The small scale of the maps submitted, and the fleeting charac- 
toof hydrographic features in a silt- bearing river, prevent any attempt 
todiow soundings. A dotted line shows in important localities the 
chaanel as it existed at the time the surveys were made, and does not 
pt<Dfe88 to show the channel during the season, nor as it existed at any 
q>6dfied date for the whole length of river shown. A considerable por- 
tion of the survey was made when the water was at the mean stage, 

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52 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



another part at a stage approaching low water, but none at extreme low 
water. Consequently it must be borne in mind that the channel marked 
out is more direct than a low-water channel. 

Detail maps of the several localities have been prepared for special 
studies of localities. 

The surveys already executed aflFord much valuable information as to 
what the tendencies of the river are, but do not give any information as 
to what has been or what will be. It is essential that a continuoos 
series of surveys should be made henceforth, as long as the improve* 
ment of the river is incomplete ; and it is to be regretted that no sar- 
veys were made previous to 1873 which can be made available in the 
study of the physics and hydraulics of this portion of the Mississippi. 
Begrettiug the omisision of the collection of data in the past, the neglect 
of observations and full records now would be inexcusable. 

The value of the triaugulation lately made in fixing points of refer- 
ence, by whose aid each special survey can l>e located in its proper place 
and relations, and the exact changes of the river indisputably deter- 
mined, has been very great. The necessity for a triaugulation, indad- 
ing the whole valley from bluff to blufT, at an early date, is apparent, to 
secure and verify the position of points along the river, the greater part 
of which are liable to destruction. 

In iiddition to surveys, as ordinarily understood, full records of ob- 
servations of stage should be kept, frequent measurements of the dis- 
charge made, especially at the extreme stages, and special investigations 
of the movement of silt, in bodies and in suspension. 

Discharge-measurements were made during 1873 and 1874 whenever 
the surveying-party should find a suitable place and opportunity to take 
the necessary observations without too great sacrifice of other duties. 
The series is short, and observations were never taken twice in the same 
locality; consequently the results must not be considered final nor the 
conclusions indicated as auythii^ more than approximations. 

Table of approximats discharges, ^c. 



1 


LocaUties. 


i! 

a- 

Fut 
21.8 

19.6 

14.54 

11.75 

10. S5 

6.0 

6.9 


1 

1 


Sectional area. 
Width. 


1 

i 


i! 


1 


Semarks. 




Below foot of Carroll% 

Island. 
Brickey'amia 

On« mile above mouib 

of Ohio River. 
Phladelphia Point... 

TbretMinarters mi'e 
above ChoMier. 

Near foot of Araenal 
Inland. 

Cape Girardeau 


May 17, 1873 

July 23 and 

24. 1H73. 
July 13k 1874 

June 5 and 6, 

1874. 
Aag. 23, 1873 

Deo. 4 and 5. 

1874. 
Oct 23 and 

24, 1873. 


Sq.feet. Feet 
73,664 2,500 

54,152 1,850 

39,508 2,425 

42,187 3,740 

28,912 1,740 

26,281 2;500 

20, 756, 1, 730 

1 


Feet. 
29.4 

20.9 

1&3 

U.2 

15.5 

10.5 

12.0 


FeeU 
5.005 

5.209 

5.13 

3.51 

3.69 

2.80 

3.44 


Ou./eet. 
368.747 

282.108 

902,524 

148.103 

99,312 

7a»4ef7 

71, 413 


Biver riting 0.3 O. 
in 24 hours. 

in 24 hours. 
BiTerfiUling0.18fl. 
^ in 24 hoara. 
River £alling0.25 ft. 

in 84 boors. 
Biver falling 0.2 ft. 

in 94 hours. 



None of these measurements affording an extreme low- water discharge 
between the mouths of the Ohio and Missouri Eivers, we are compelled 
to deduce it api>roximately from the observations made at compara- 

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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEB. 65 

Uvelj low stages. Beferring to the table and comparing the two obser- 
Tations nntnbered 6 and 7, when the stages of water were, respectively^ 
6 feet and 6.9 feet above low water^ it will be observed that the amount 
of the first was 72,487 cnbic feet, and that of the latter 71,413 cubic feet, 
the former exceeding the latter hy 1,074 cubic feet, although taken ap- 
parently at a lower stage of water. 

Accepting these resalts as approximately correct, they suggest the 
&ct that the bottom rises and falls to a certain extent as well as the 
water-surface ; hence, it is not possible, having a true cross-section at 
one stage of water, and knowing the velocities at much lower stages, to 
obtain a discharge for those stages by making the proper reduction in 
depth and corresponding reduction of sectional area; for the area may 
be lessened by deposits or increased by the scour during the interval. 

Now, if a section of river could be found having an unchanging bot- 
tom, by the proper reduction of cross-section to the low- water stage, we 
might be able to obtain an approximate discharge for extreme low 
water. This condition is approximately fulfilled at the Chester section, 
where the bed of the channel proper is solid rock. The proper reduc- 
tion being made, the sectional area becomes 14,986 square feet. 

The velocity at this section for a low- water discharge is arrived at in 
the following manner : 

Comparison of the stages of water when the Gape Girardeau and 
Chester discharges were taken, shows that there is an apparent differ- 
ence of elevation of 3.35 feet. The Chester section reduced to this 
8tage gives a sectional area of 21,805 square feet. Comparing this area 
with that obtained at Cape Girardeau, by observation it was found to 
be 1,949 square feet in excess. Now, since this area obtained by reduc- 
tion is greater than that obtained by observation, the velocity must 
be less at Chester than at Gape Girardeau. Dividing the discharge ob- 
tained by observation by the sectional area obtained by reduction, we 
obtain for a velocity at this stage (6.9 above low water) 3.28 feet per 
second. Assuming that this velocity continues to diminish in the same 

ratio ^ aiia> ^=V'— V to a low-water stage, we obtain 2.44 

feet per second as the velocity for a low- water discharge at the Chester 
section. 

We now have the probable low- water area, 14,986 square feet ', and 
the probable low-water velocity, 2.44 feet per second ; their product, 
36,565 cobic feet, is the probable low-water discharge. We can now 
assnme any mean depth of water as a minimum ; 10 feet would prob- 
ably be nciost desirable. By using this depth (or any other desired) and 
the low-water dischar^re as constants, we can ascertain the proper width 
of water-way at different localities where different velocities exist. 

The following table is presented as an application of this : 



Dhakarg^ -t- velocity. =: seotiooal area — mean depth = width water-way. 



96. sn 
38,365 
38, MS 



% feet per seoond. 

3 feet per aeoond. 

4 feet per eocond. 



18,883 
la, 188 
9,141 



10 feet. 
10 feet. 
10 feet. 



1,888 feet. 

1,818 feet. 

914 feet. 



The fMacy in the reasoning by which the above conclusion is reached 
lies chiefly in the assamption that a stage of 6.9 feet above low water at 
one point corresponds to the same stage at a point seventy miles dis- 



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54 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

tant. The exact low- water reference being unknown as yet at the locali- 
ties where these discharges were taken, the conclasious reached are fieur 
from satisfactory, bat are the best approximations now available. 

No observations having been made during an extreme high-water 
stage, no data exist for determining the proper width between enter 
levees; therefore no attempt can be made to determine this until more 
extensive observations have been made bearing on the subject. 

From such observations as are on record, it is believed that at a bank- 
full stage, about 25 feet above low water, 3,500 feet is the proper ap- 
proximate width. 

The nnstable character of the Mississippi has its origin in the rapidity 
of the currents, the excessive variations of volume, and in the loose 
texture of the soil through which the river works its way. Since none 
of Uiese causes of instability can be changed or modified essentially, it 
is necessary to accept this character as an absolute condition, and study 
its phenomena, in order to gain acquaintance with the laws or general- 
ized facts, and thus be able to obtain the assistance of nature's forces, 
rather than contend against them. 

' Soundings, taken at various times and localities, prove conduaively 
that the depth of water in the river does not follow the rise and fall of 
the surface as given by gauge-readings. While one would not be justi- 
fied in asserting it as a fact universally, it is abundantly proven that the 
bars, at least, rise and fall with the water to a degree that can best be 
expressed in the statement that a wave of sand accompanies the wave 
of water in a rise, but moving at a slower rate. 

If a cross-section of the river be taken during high water, the sound- 
ings, reduced by the known height of the surface above low water, will 
b^me zero, or even a minus quantity in many sections, and always 
much smaller than the depth known to exist at the same locality at low 
stages. 

Again, comparing the depth at various low stages upon the same 
bar, it will be found that the depth upon the bar does not increase or 
diminish in the same ratio as the water rises or falls, but, contrary to 
what would be expected, the depth often increases as the river falls, 
and diminishes as the water rises on the gauge. In the language of 
boatmen, the bars ^' cut out " in a falling and '^ flatten out " in a rising 
river. 

Since we know that, at ordinary high waters, the low- water channels 
are completely tilled with sand, or very nearly so, the question is sug- 
gested whether in great floods the same is not true in a greater degree; 
in other words, whether a considerable part of the ordinary river-bed 
is not occupied by sand instead of water f If this be so — and facts, so 
far as observed, indicate that it is — the height reached by floods 
depends upon the amount of sand accumulated in the bed as much as 
upon the volume of water passing; and, moreover, it becomes probable 
that the influeuce of tributaries, in raising the river, often exceeds the 
ratio of the volume of water they contribute. As they come in at times 
very highly charged with sediment, especially the Missouri, a portion 
of this sediment is deposited, occupying and obstructing the water-way. 
The remainder, borne along mingled with the waters, and thus diminish- 
ing their fluidity, and therefore the velocity of the flow, also assists in 
the heaping up of the waters. 

At first thought the discussion of flood-phenomena may not seem per- 
tinent to the subject of improving the channel. Since navigation is not 
mpeded at floods, many hold to the opinion that, so far as navigation is 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER- 55 

^ODcenied, the river at its higher stages may be left to itself, and that 
practical operatioDS for improvemeot should be limited to the low- water 
bed, and look ooly to deepeDing the water over the bars. 

Bat if the sand- wave fills the ordinary bed at times of flood to any 
great extent, there is reason to apprehend that an entirely new channel 
may be made, flanking the works of improvement, and disturbing the 
channel above and below for considerable distances. Moreover, there 
mast always be a period, during the decline from a flood-stage, when 
tiie channel maintained by the flood must change, to adapt itself to the 
dimiDished volume ; for the floods, following the straightest cuts and 
along the shortest lines, convey the heavier and harder materials with 
them. The low-water volume, small in quantity and possessing less 
power, generally works its way through the softer portions of the bed 
along the bends, &c. 

T^ shifting of the channel, due to the varying volume of water, is a 
£bu^ observable in all rivers, and the Mississippi differs only in that the 
changes are more radical. During the transition period, the channel 
most be uncertain and comparatively shoal ; and the only remedy is to 
control the flow at all stages, at least to the extent of keeping the per- 
manent low-water channel within the width of the channel at ordinary 
high water. As the high-water channel is always much wider than the 
low, this would seem to be practicable, the main difQculty arising from 
the fact that the low-water channel is much more tortuous than the high. 

Considered as to hydrography and the direction of the currents, the 
Mississippi, when low, is not the same river as when high, and obviously 
the problem of a permanent and complete improvement involves the 
reconciliation of these diversities. 

The bars in the Mississippi are chiefly composed of movable sand, and 
travel down stream at a rate in proportion to the velocity of the current, 
changing their shape as they pass the bends of the river or meet with 
obstractions that lessen the velocity, or deflect the current from its uat- 
oral direction. 

These bars overlap each other so that a longitudinal section of the 
riverbed would show inequalities similar to the surface of a shingle roof, 
as shown by the full lines in Fig. 1. 

The dott^ line shows the changes that are constantly taking place in 
the surface of the bars. The material from a a a is deposited in the 
dead angle b b b^ the bars preserving substantially their shape, but 
traveling down stream. A plan of sand-bars upon a perfectly straight 
reach of river, which presents a cross-section approximating the trape- 
zoidal form, the crest of the bar being the highest about midwi^ be- 
tween banks, is shown in Fig. 2. 

Of course we do not find this regularity in all parts of the river. In 
iact, if it were possible to make the river perfectly straight, it would 
not long remain so, unless the banks were protected from erosion. 

We usually find reach^ which are straight in general direction, 
broken up into very short curves and approaching the form presented 
at well-defined curves, as shown in Fig. 3. 

The introduction of any foreign substances, such as snags, drift-piles, 
&c, will change materially the shape and movement of the bars ; so 
abo will the curves of the banks. When the river rises the movement 
of the bars is more rapid, and as the bottom of the river also rises and 
&U8 again with the water, a channel is then formed in a new place as 
the water recedes, the crest of the bar giving way at its lowest point, 
which is usually nearest the shore, generally leaving a pool of water 



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56 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



below each bar, and the low-water chanael winding from side to side 
nnder the crests of the bars and through the pools. 



Fig.l. 



rt 



Kg. 2. 




\''-'-iip^f:-' 


.•.//<rx- ■• 


••/•A• •• -V' 


•//••• • ; -\- 


v/- ••; ■ ; A- 


/;/.•':•:/ 


^■-.v. 




.: . rV 




Fig. 3. 



09 

(•}::tV*.v.\'::4| 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



NAVIQATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVBK* 57 

Tbe foregoing is given as a generalized statement of the form of the 
bars, and suggests that the position of the bars is determined by the 
outline of the banks. The freqnent apparent exceptions foand in the 
Mississippi are reconcilable by keeping in mind a distinction between 
the banks of the low-water river and those of the river at high stages. 
The diy bars form secondary banks at low stages, and to these banks 
tlie extreme low-water channels conform. 

It is a fact well known that in the case of rivers flowing throngh 
aDuvion the channel follows a succession of cnrves, convex connecting 
with concave, and that the deepest water generally follows the concave 
bank. The steamboat crossings are along diagonal lines, ranning from 
near the lowest point of one concavity to a point above the apex of its 
alternate opposite concavity. 

From some observations made npon the Garonne, the point of deepest 
water in abend was fonnd to be several handred feet below the apex of 
the cnrve, and the shoalest water along a convexity, at aboat tbe same 
distance below its apex ; even where bounded bv rocky banks, this effort 
at curvatures is apparent. , Two instances of it may be pointed out, 
viz: at Gape Ginq Homme, where the right-hand bluff above the 
point is slightly concave toward the river. The channel, following 
this bluff closely, makes, after passing the point, a reverse curve of con- 
siderably smaller radius, evidently limited to this degree by the rocky 
Fountain Bluff. At Gape La Groix the case is still analogous, though 
the channel curves sharply round the point and straightens down to the 
Orand Chain. 

Evea in rivers flowing throngh alluvial beds, tbe apparent anomaly 
of the channel being found directly under the point occasionally obtains, 
and can be explained by the fact that the velocity carries the gravel 
and other hard materials past the point, the inertia of the moving mass 
being so great as to keep it in its direct path until arrested by the 
opposite shore. 

The channel through the section between Gommerce and the month 
of tbe Ohio is subject to greater variations than the other sections 
because the soil is more uniformly alluvial, and the variations of velocity 
very great. As already stated, the current is slack when the Ohio is 
relatively higher than the Mississippi; at such times much of the sedi- 
ment brought to this section must necessarily be deposited by the com- 
paratively still water ; to be removed in whole or in part when, the 
conditions being reversed, the current through this section becomes 
more rapid than at any other part of the river. The changes consequent 
npon these variations of velocity differ in degree only from those occur- 
ring in other sections, and will require greater care and expense, in any 
works for its improvement, than elsewhere, but there is no reason to 
donbt that success can be assured in the application of the same general 
system. 

Tbe banks of alluvion in all the sections are light and movable, with 
strata of quicksand underlying or outcropping in many places. These 
banks are constantly changing from the action of the current npon them. 
In addition, the water, when high, saturates tbe bank, while, at the 
same time, it aids in supporting it. As the water falls, the saturated 
earth, under its increased weight, and its tenacity lessened by satura- 
tion, falls off in large masses, and is taken up by the current. The 
quicksand, semi-fluid as it is, when it moves laterally, removes the sup- 
port of the superincumbent mass, another cause of slides. 

Another patent cause of action upon tbe banks comes from the waves 
of passing steamers, and their action has been found energetic enough 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



58 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI EIVER. 

to aflfect the bank, even when revetted ii^ith stone, the wave action being 
propagated through the interstices of the revetment-stone. 

At what depth the bed-rock underlies the sand, graveli &o., of the 
river is only known for a few places where borings have been made. 
But the question cannot have much practical bearing, since the depth 
to the rock is usually so great as to forbid the idea of seeking rock- 
foundations. 

The transportation of sediment by running water is a topic that has 

been often discussed, and many theories advanced to explain the facts. 

The discrepancies of the theories even now held by different writers is 

proof that the facts have not been collected and studied to a degree 

' Justifying any statement being put forward as absolute truth. 

It is recognized that the power to abrade and transport is related to 
the velocity ; also to the character of material. Besides these obvious 
elements there are others— -continuity and change of direction and 
depth — ^which have an undoubted influence ; but the relative power of 
each element in producing the result is wholly undetermined ; nor is it 
certainly known whether all the elements have been discovered. 

A shade of the truth probably pervades all the theories, but mixed 
with much error, arising from their having been based upon the study 
of a single stream, and that presenting probably extreme conditions. 
From France comes the theory of the controlling influence of breaks 
in the continuity of the direction or in the changes of direction ; from 
India, the theory that water, flowing between banks or over beds of 
loose material, carries a load of sediment, bearing a fixed ratio to the 
velocity, subject to modifications by depth, and, of course, the character 
of the material carried. Briefly stated, in a river flowing in a bed whose 
material is uniform, the amount of sediment borne varies directly as 
the velocity and inversely as the depth ; and that the water passing 
any section is always charged with the full amount of matter which it 
is capable of carrying. Consequently, the load borne varies with every 
change of velocity, however slight; dropping a portion of the load when 
velocity is diminished Irom any cause, producing sand-bars, and reoov- 
^nng its load by attack on the bottom or banks when the velocity 
increases resulting in erosions ; while with a uniform velocity, neither 
erosion nor deposit can take place. According to this theory, uniform 
motion, with its attendant saturation with sediment, should be the 
object. 

According to the impact and friction or change of direction theory, 
deposits are inevitable if sediment is borne, and erosions must occur if 
the angle of impact exceeds a limit proportioned to the resisting power 
of the soil ; consequently, according to this theory, the object is to dimin- 
ish the amount of material in motion, to prevent deposits, and to check 
erosions by protecting the banks exposed to attack, and to prevent tlie 
occasion for injurious action by securing an unbroken continuity to direc- 
tion, and reduction of the angle of impact by regulating the outline of 
banks to a succession of osculating curves. 

Experience has shown that practice under the latter theory is attended 
with success. The former theory rests upon observations, but has not 
been tested by practical works for the improvement of rivers based upon 
the principles given. One prominent fact observable on the Mississippi 
is contradictory of the practical part of the equilibrium or India theory, 
for, as has already been stated, the waters of the Mississippi and Mis- 
souri Bivers flow side by side for many miles, with a distinct line of 
division between clear and muddy waters. Where the waters of these 
rivers first come in contact, the clear water of the Mississippi is pressed 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEB. 59 

agaiost the allavial bank on the Illinois side, which it cuts into rapidly, 
and in the clear part of the rirer is foand the deepest water and most 
riHIHd carrent. Passin;^ into Sawyer Bend, on the Missouri side, the 
Missoori water comes in contact with a bank similar to that previously 
pressed by the Mississippi waters, and, althongh thick with sediment, 
the erosion at this place fully equals that above; continuing past the 
dty of Saint Louis, the water comes to the bridge with the line of divis- 
ion yet distinct, and immediately below the clear Mississippi water 
presses upon a bar upon the Illinois side without any remarkable attack. 
Thus it may be traced until the difference in the waters fades out, but 
without developing anywhere the marked erosions of the Illinois bank, 
or the alternative extensive deposits on the Missouri side which the 
theory would demand ; for, according to it, it should be impossible for 
two neighboring fillets of water to flow over the same bed, and with 
equal velocities, without carrying an equal load. The case has been 
traced so far that each kind of water has undergone both increase and 
dimioution of velocity, and many changes of depth and direction. 

Many facts are required to establish a theory ; one, if unreconciled, 
ean disprove it. When the attention of the author of this theory was 
called to the fact here presented, he replied : 

* * * In the examples of the large American rivers you refer to, where the Mis- 
souri brings down water qnite tar-bid, while the Mississippi is nearly a clear stream, I 
woakl obsenre that, where the load of solid matter held in suspension is not probably 
the one-thousandth part of the weight of the water flowing down, it may be practically 
impossible to observe any retarding of the velociry on account of the load transported : 
bat with such torrents as above described,* bringing down a large percentage of solid 
matter, and with water loaded with sewage, I believe it is possible by experiment to 
discover a difiereoce in the velocities, as compared with pure water with the same slope 
md transverse section. 

The examples above given of water flowing at great velocities, pitching about bowl- 
ders, show that a certain power must be exert«d which offers some resistance to 
the flow of the water, and if so with rocks or bowlders forced to bound forward, so with 
ahingle, saod, or the finest particles of clay will the flow of every stream be somewhat 
Bstarded in some proportion, due to the quautity and quality of the load transported. 
In the case of the Missouri River, I believe that it will be found that the rock and soil 
of which its catchment basin consists is composed of materials that have already 
undergone the abrasion of water, while that of the Mississippi will be found more crys- 
telline, and sand will predominate instead of mud. In proof of the power of flowing 
water picking up its load, I may here state that in the cold season the water is quite 
clear, and a rupee can be seen at depths exceeding 10 feet at the head of the Ganges 
Csoal; at the sixth mile the rupee is lost sight of at 5 feet below the surface; at the 
twelfth mile, about 4 feet ; at 3 feet depth the rupee can be seen some twenty miles 
down the oaoal ; and so on did the muddiness of tne water go on increasing till aboat 
the fortieth mile, when a saturated load of solid matter was attained. It was there- 
fore in these first forty miles that all serious action on the canal bed and banks took 
pbee prior to the time I held up the surface of the water at the falls; and in my report 
of November, 1861. 1 estimated the cutting that had then taken place in the first forty 
mika at some eighty or ninety millions of cubic feet of earth. It was by observing 
this cutting in the upper portions of the canal, add the tendency of the stream to 
change its channel lower down, which led me to think of this abrading and transport- 
ing power of water ; and it was my native foreman. Sahib Sing, who first drew my 
•ttention to the fact that this abrading action on the bed only took place when the 



v^ber admitted into tiie canal was comparatively clear, and not when the Ganges was 

', passing down turbid water, which can only ' 
lix months in the year. 



is flood, passing down turbid water, which can only be compared to pea-soup, for nearly 



The writer of the above, in dwelling upon the turbidness of the water 
in qoestion, seems to have lost sight of the fact, or at least does not 
aeem to attach mach importance to it, that large quantities of matter 
niay be held in solution, the capacity for which varies with different 
•mis; also, of the fact that the capacity of a stream to abrade is mainly 
doe to its living force, (M V^) a function of its mass and velocity; and 

* Certain mountain-torrents in India, here referred to. 

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«0 



NAYIQATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI SIVEB. 



nn 



that the factors may change and the prodact remaia the same, 
resistance to abrasion depends upon the nature and shape of the bi 
aud bottom. The matter becomes complicated when taken np in 
shape ; and while Mr. Login's statement of facts is entitled to fnll res 
and belief for the locality to which he refers, it does not follow, by 
means, that the theory is applicable to the Mississippi Biver. 

In the first part of the foregoing extract Mr. Login is defending 
proposition that the transportation of sediment, being work, mast 1 
ttie expense of force, and, in the case of running water, gravity b 
the moving force, its expenditnre mast diminish the velocity. Whc 
this be accepted, or the view taken that mixture of foreign mi 
diminishes the fluidity of the water, is practically immaterial; 
velocity would be less in either case than for pure water, thoagh, s 
8a.YS, the effect woald be inappreciable except in extreme cases. 
propiDrtion of sediment in this part of the Mississippi Biver andei 
ciission has been stated, in a report made to the public-school boai 
Saint Louis, to be ^^W part in volume. Noting that Mr. Login li 
the sediment-saturated waters he observed to pea-soup, and remen 
ing that his idea of pea-soup is English, it is evident that the wate 
the Mississippi do not approach such saturation ; consequently, 
theory does not apply practically to the Mississippi. 

Mr. Login's observations show that the point of saturation is 8 
times reached ; and he does not assert that water flowing over an u 
ble soil is always «o saturated ; rather the contrary ; for he says ti 
r4.'qmred the active erosion for a distance of forty miles in the Oa 
Caual before the point of saturation was reached. The violent 
unwarranted assumption that a given current is always charged 
the full load of solid matter that it is able to carry has been add( 
his statement, and is abundantly disproven. 

Passing from theory to the practical question of securing the 6\ 
definitely placed before us by the order of Congress requiring this su 
to be made, which was to obtain plans and estimates for the improvei 
of the Mississippi, so as to secure a navigation affording a depth < 
least 6 feet, at the lowest stages of water, from the mouth of the 111 
to Saint Louis, and 8 feet from Saint Louis to the mouth of the Ohic 
first inquiry is concerning the character of the navigation desired. I; 
the requirement specifies the lowest stages of water, it must be ui 
stood that the same or a greater depth is expected at all stages a 
the lowest. The lowest stage known does not occur when navigati 
practicable in the section of river under consideration, being a C( 
qucnce of ice-gorges above the point of observation, acting as dai 
uniting off for a time the supply of water to the river below, wl 
therefore, drains out. Such abnormal occurrences cannot be prov 
against. 

Taking the lowest stage to mean the lowest occurring when navig 
13 not suspended by the rigor of the season, the obtaining of the dc 
specified at that stage does not necessarily imply the existence of 
or a greater depth at all higher stages; for, as has already been st 
the channel-depth sometimes increases as the river falls. 

The depth of a river depends upon the form as well as upon the 
of cross-section, and a large area may, from immoderate width, a 
less depth than a smaller but narrower section — a consideration of ( 
i[Dportauce in determining the plan of improvement. 

Another requirement of improved navigation is, that it should b 
1i£ible. The possibility that an improved navigation, after being a 
able for one or more seasons, may deteriorate, would forbid the in 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIV^ER. 61 

ment of capital in floatiDg stock and the other facilities requisite to the 
tensaction of business. Commercial relations are so extended and deli- 
cate that an inferior and more costly rente of transportation will be 
preferred to one having the advantage in these respects, but which can- 
not be relied on for fntnre engagements. This quality being in some 
degree wanting in the Mississippi route, is one of the principal reasons 
▼by the business of transportation upon this route has not kept pace 
with the development of the territory it drains. 

The demand, then, is, first, that a good navigation be obtained ; sec- 
ond, that it be maintained. 

The magnitude of the river and of the interests at stake, which occasion 
the demand for its improvement, measure, the one the task, the other 
the means of accomplishing it. How great these are, it is not the de- 
dgn here to consider; but it is assumed that they are in dne proportion, 
and that the only questions before an engineer are, what can be done, 
the plan of operations, and the mode of conducting these operations. 

The first demand, that a good navigation be obtained, is satisfied with 
depth of channel. Oombined with the second, that it be maintained, 
the continued existence of the channel is required, or the provision of 
ample and efficient means for its restoration, whenever impaired, so 
quickly, that practically no interruption shall occur. The first alterna- 
tive implies permanent works ; the latter may be satisfied by. tempo- 
rary. 

Many persons, as before adverted to, hold to the opinion that atten- 
tion should be confined to the amelioration of the low- water channel, as 
it defines itself year by year. Therefore, a consideration of the various 
modes of effecting a temporary benefit is necessary to a fair discussion 
of the subject before us. 

The effort for this purpose must be directed to opening a passage 
through each bar as required, and as the bars, or reefs, are compara- 
tively short in the direction of the channel, it is supposed that all that 
is needed is to make through the crest Of the reef an opening wide 
enough for navigation, and that the increased strength of current will 
keep it open for the remainder of the low-water season. If it were 
possible to consider the reefs as abiding in nearly the same position 
throughout a season, this mode of opening a channel would be simple 
and apparently easy ; as the appliances use<], after accomplishing the 
end at one locality, could be moved to another, and thus, in succession, 
a single equipment would answer for a considerable extent of river. 
But as the sand reefs have a progressive motion iu many cases, obliqde 
to the line of deepest water, the channel is crowded out of its first 
position, and a new crest is formed, a process which can repeat itself 
many times in a season. This tendency, in connection with the shitting 
of the channel already mentioned, as attending decrease of volume, 
will make frequent returns of the equipment to the same locality neces- 
nary, and instead of maintaining a good navigation over a long extent, 
it will be found in practice, that, to be effective, an equipment would 
find full employment upon two or three crossings, and while an opening 
is being made the appliances must occupy the channel ; which is a 
seiions objection. In order that these opened passages may maintain 
themselves, it Is necessary that the additional area obtained in the 
diannel should be compensated by the filling, or obstructing, of an 
equivalent area from some other part of the cross-section, outside of the 
channel ; otherwise, we expect the impossibility that a certain volume 
with unchanged or increased velocity should fill an increased area. 
These remarks apply with equal pertinence to two classes of appli 

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62 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

ances, viz, scraping, dredging, or agitating machinery, and portable 
dams. Comparing the merits of these classes of devices, the advan- 
tage woald be in favor of portable dams in first cost and operating ex- 
penses. Both classes have been tried, and have demonstrated their 
ability to open a way through a reef; bat the results have not been satis- 
factory hitherto, becaase not lasting. It may be objected to this state- 
ment that the permanency of channels opened by portable dams has 
not been tested, as the only extended series of experiments on the plan 
of opening bars has been with the Long scraper; but it must be admitted 
that the performance of an opened channel cannot depend upon the 
means by which the opening was made when the means are removed 
from the scene. The competition between devices for this purpose is 
limited to cost and efficiency in opening, and it is not the purpose here 
to discuss the relative merits of devices, but to consider the results 
which may be attained by their use. Experience indicates that to 
maintain a channel in this way would require an equipment for each 
section of 10 miles, to be kept in active operation daring the low-water 
season of each year for all time, and the results then uncertain, and 
a serious disadvantage attending the application of the system. 

A permanent improvement must of necessity be designed and exe- 
cuted in entire harmony with the natural laws of the river. A mighty 
river is impatient under restraint; can be led, but not driven. In one 
sense, the difficulty of executing a plan of improvement increases much 
more rapidly than the size of the stream ; in another sense, the potent 
forces, judiciously handled, can be made to do no inconsiderable part of 
the work. 

Permanent works may be considered as serving a twofold purpose ; 
first, to obtain and maintain a good navigable channel; second, to 
protect the adjacent lands from erosion and overflow. The navigation 
interest is without question the only one now to be considered ; but the 
landed interest will certainly derive important incidental advantages 
from the permanent improvement of the channel. 

The maintenance of a good navigable channel requires — 

1st. Sufficient depth at all stages. 

2d. A judicious location. 

3d. Stability in position. 

4th. Facility of approach to landings. 

5th. Easy changes of direction. 

6th. Moderate velocity of current. 

These requirements stand above in the order of their importanee. 
The first is a condition-precedent, and must be satisfied. In solving the 
problem of securing depth of water, we have to deal with certain ele- 
ments, all to some degree variable, either naturally or artificially, and 
the combination of the whole fixes the depth at any given time and 
place. These elements are width, volume, and velocity ; and the latter 
term depends upon the slope, or descent, and distance, as its controlling 
elements. Of the terms of this function the slope is fixed naturally, if 
we compare the elevations of geographical points connected by fixed 
lines ; but if the length of the lines can be varied, then to that extent 
slope is an element subject to control ; also, the same result may be 
reached by producing a different distribution of the fall. To deepen a 
channel by changing its slope would be equivalent to lengthening the 
river. (The change of distribution of fall involves its concentration by 
dnms, a method clearly inapplicable to a large silt-bearing river.) 

Volume is an element which, for periods of time, is fixed naturally ; 
but the discharge may be distributed artificially, so as to be more nearly 

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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 63 

miifomi than the supply. The proposition to feed rivers at low stages 
horn reservoirs filled at the higher is practicable with small streams, 
hot for large rivers, the areas required for reservoirs and the cost of 
retaining-dams become so enormous ' as to render the proposition 
impracticable. 

The element of width is so evidently within the range of control, that 
no argoment is required to establish the position that contraction of 
widths is the easiest and most practicable mode of increasing the depth 
of channel in all cases where the volume is practically beyond our abil- 
ity to control ; in some cases, in addition to contracting width, it would 
be advisable to lengthen the channel. It will be seen that shortening 
mast be avoided, as a rule ; for the effect of a shortened course is to in- 
crease the slope and velocity, which would require an inordinate con- 
traction of width to obtain the desired depth, and the increased velocity 
woald endanger stability. 

The second requirement, the judicious location of the improved chan- 
Del, includes the purely engineering consideration of following the natu- 
ral tendencies of the river, or at least the negative proposition, that no 
miDatnral changes of position should be made or unstable natural con- 
ditions be accepted, and also due consideration of the convenient use 
of the channel for all the purposes incident to navigation and commerce. 

In the consideration of this topic, we come in contact with many 
local and individual interests; also, with the opinions of many persons 
who have from observation and reflection arrived at fixed opinion 
concerning the course to be followed. Oonflict with the former is to 
he avoided as far as possible. The latter may be considered, but 
cannot be allowed to govern. There are two opinions (held by 
maoy who ^glory in calling themselves practical men, and delight to 
east contempt upon what they call scientific theories), which have 
ttieir foundation in very poor theory, because unscientific. One is that 
the channel should be straightened and canalized ; the other, that it 
shoQld, in all cases, he held along the foot of the bluffs, where such 
exist. Without entering into any extended discussion here, it is proper 
to recognize the existence of these opinions, and state briefly why they 
mn^t be rejected. 

The logical objection to straightening the channel has already been 
given : the velocity would be increased thereby, and increased destruc- 
tive energy be bronght to bear upon the banks and bed. It may be 
said that such increase of velocity would be temporary, as the river 
would adapt itself to the new condition, and, in time, regain its former 
slope. This can only be done by regaining its original length, or by a 
lowering of the bed, proceeding from the lower part of the river toward 
the upper. But where the bed is composed of material too hard to be 
readily moved, the accnmulated fall must produce a rapid. The cut-ofifs 
that have taken place in the Lower Mississippi have not permanently 
Bbortened its course, and many which were made in Europe, especially 
upon the Bhine and Danube, with the purpose of shortening the dis- 
tance between points of commercial importance, have defeated that 
design, by creating a current which proves a serious obstacle to ascend- 
ing boats ; and the lowering of the level in the reaches above the cut-off 
develops many new obstructions, while the deposits in the pool below 
canse similar diflBculties there. The idea of the advocates of straight- 
ening is that, with a shorter course, flood-waters will pass without 
entailing injury, and that the increase of current will not impede steam- 
navigation in a greater ratio than would be compensated by the decrease 
of distance. 

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64 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIYEB. 

The snggestioQ that the channel shonld be made to follow the bluff is 
made simply because the bluff presents an unyielding bank, against which 
it is supposed to be an easy task to hold the current. As the bluff-lines 
are very straight, this proposition is similar to the first-mentioned, and 
liable to the same objections. To hold the river to straight lines would 
be a work of great difficultyi and the difficulty would increase with 
increased velocity. One fear entertained by those favoring the bluff-line 
is, that if the channel be allowed to make a sweep out into the bottom 
it cannot be controlled, forgetting that it is easier to control a current 
following its natural course through alluvial soils than it would be to 
force it from that course by works which must rest on the same unstar 
ble foundation as the lighter structures required to restrain it within 
reasonable bounds. Another consideration, which would be fatal alike 
to both propositions, arises from the disturbance of existing business 
relations by the destruction of landings, which must result from their 
adoption. Moreover, if the bluff is followed, the landings would be 
chiefly limited to the side whose broken character forbids the expecta- 
tion of much agricultural produce being raised ; and, in any case, the 
landing would be difficult of access from the back country. In addition, 
the opposite alluvial side would be cut off from access to deep water 
almost entirely. 

Existing business relations have adapted themselves to the natural 
course of the channel ; and, in order to avoid individual claims for coui- 
pensation, it will be necessary to make the improved channel follow the 
natural course as far as possible, on the principle that riparian rights 
and benefits, which have been destroyed or changed by the action of 
natural causes, furnish no ground of claim in equity, if the privation be 
rendered permanent. 

Policy, then, would determine the advisability of following the exist- 
ing channel in all cases, and the same course would logically follow from 
a train of scientific reasoniug; for the law of a stream is the expression 
in general terms of the facts presented in nature and is necessarily ab- 
stract. To reconstruct the stream according to conditions imposed or 
assumed can be done successfully if we know all the facts and relations 
which enter into the problem. The omission of one m<iy ba fatal to 
success; hence all arbitrary changes are to be avoided. But nature Over- 
looks nothing, and we may confidently assume that the position and 
direction of the river at any time is the resultant of all the forces, and 
consequently is a concrete expression of the law of the stream, which 
we may modify and preserve, but may not safely destroy or radically 
change. To accept and follow nature is, in this case, the beginning and 
end of science. To attempt either to straighten the river or to compel 
it to follow the rocky shore would be alike presumptuous. 

The third requirement— stability in position — ^is a natural consequence 
of permanent improvements, and essential to the establishment of facil- 
ities for the traffic. To insure this quality, it is necessary that the ve- 
locity shonld be sufficient to carry the lighter material brought into the 
channel to a suitable place for deposit, but not great enough to cause 
erosion of the bank. 

The fourth requirement — ^facility of approach to established landings — 
is an important consideration, and since large towns cannot follow the 
river in its changes, the conditions presented are often antagonistic to 
the natural bent of the channel ; and in such cases the demand is abso- 
lute that the natural be changed. At times the conditions border npon 
the impossible. Take, for instance, the case of a town situated npon the 
convex bank of a river ; it is well-nigh impossible to maintain the chan- 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 65 

nel on the convex side, because analterable nataral laws fdrbid. If we 
try to contract the width to such narrow limits as to obtaiu a required 
deptb on the nou-chaunel side, which is the best, and, indeed, the only 
thing that can be done, we endanger not only the works themselves, 
but also the property, and lives even, of the people, when the waters of 
a migbty Hood demand passage through the narrow gateway ; and no 
sate contraction can assure the desired depth on the convex side. In 
tblM connection it may not be out of place to remark that the injudicious 
acts of individuals, or municipalities, may often endanger the improve- 
Qients made by the general government for {he benedt of the whole peo- 
ple to serve some local project, and that the establishment of regulations 
(iefiuing riparian rights and the privileges of town authorities is a sub- 
ject demanding the attention of Congress. The conservancy of naviga- 
tion being undeniably vested in Congress, the exercise of that power, in 
defining the limits of encroachment upon navigable waters, is proper 
and necessary. 

The fifth requirement — that changes of direction should be easy — is 
mainly in the iutei*est of stability, but also has a practical relation to 
the convenient use of the channels. A discussion of the bearing of the 
direction of currents in relation to the banks, if entered into, would ex- 
ceed the limits of this report. The result reached would be, that the 
current should be parallel with the banks whenever possible, and abrupt 
changes of direction avoided. Practically, it would not be proposed to 
make many changes in the present contour of banks by active interfer- 
ence, but rather to secure a favorable alignment when it exists ; and 
when it is imperfect to patiently wait for nature to work out the prob- 
lem of a good line. Accurate surveys of stable bends will determine 
the degree of curvature most favorable. When the character of the soil 
dues not furnish sufficient resistance, some form of artificial protection 
must eventually be resorted to. 

During this past season particular pains were taken to survey and 
delineate upon maps the jstrongly developed curves or bends known as 
Kosh Tower, Saint Mary's, and Cape Girardeau, the latter being consid- 
ered a good example of a curve of stable regimen. These three curves, , 
tt carefully studied by means of resurvey tor several years, may develop 
laws, the knowledge of which will be of the greatest importance in con- 
dactiog the improvements of the river. 

Datontaine, who devoted a number of years to careful study and im- 
provenieut of the Rhine, expressly ssiid, that the degree of curvature to 
he given to the bends on a river could only be predicated uponobserva- 
tiuQ of existing curves of known stability on the same stream. 

Maban, in his work on civil engineering (edition of 1867), says : 

From obaervations made upon the Rhiae, it is stated that elbows with a radiasof 
CfirTatnre of Dearly 3,000 yanls preeerve a fixed regimen ; and that the banks of those 
«hich have a radios of aboot 1,500 yards are seldom injared if properly faced. 

The fact that the natural course of a river, flowing through an allu- 
vial bed, follows a series of direct and reverse carves, merging in o 
^ah other, is universally admitted by all engineers of study and obser- 
TMtton, and the expediency of maintaining them in such course, where 
]<H^l interests of magnitude do not demand and warrant departure, ifr 
equally admitted. 

A cross-section in a bend will, generally, approach in shape a right- 
angled triangle, the right angle at the bottom and near the ooncave 
btiDk. Consequently, in a bend, the width may be greatly increased 
beyoDd that admissible for straight portions of the river, yet maintain- 
ing uearly the same area of cross-section, and sufficient depth in the 

a Ex. 49 5 ^'^'^"^' 'y boogie 



66 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI EIVER. 

channel. In bends, therefore, protection of banks is the iinproveraent 
required, and, considering navigation only, the work is by no means 
argent. 

The sixth and last requirement, moderate velocity, has been discuRsed 
incidentally already. There are localities, especially below Commerce, 
where the velocity is at times excessive, but beyond possibility of Mng 
changed for the better. The condition must be accepted and met by 
stronger works to insure permanence. 

Having in the preceding discussion shown that a system of temporary 
expedients would fail to secure the end, and also defined what a perma- 
nent system would accomplish, the question arises, can the superior per- 
manent system be carried out upon such a river as the Mississippi? In 
answering this question we have the benefit of the experience of Eu- 
ropean engineers, who have successfully improved silt-bearing rivers 
traversing alluvial valleys, and subject to great variations of volume, 
and the Mississippi differs only in degree from some of these successtul 
precedents. That this difference in degree does not present insaperalile 
difficulties, is proven by actual experience in works of the character 
proposed, executed during the last three years upon the Mississippi, 
which have proved successful. 

The problem, then, is solved as an engineering question ; the execu- 
tion is a question of time and money. 

The adoption of the permanent system is but a question of time ; for, 
as the country becomes older and more densely populated, aside from 
the requirements of navigation, the products of the fertile alluvial lands 
will be essential to the welfare of the country, and the state reasons 
wiiich have led to the regulation of European rivers will demand the 
same for the Mississippi, and, in time, its principal tributaries also. The 
completion of these works will require many generations ; but as the 
necessity is clearly foreseen, it would be inexcusable to ignore it now, 
since it is entirely practicable to make every step in the interests of im- 
mediate wants a step, also, toward the final end, without adding to the 
cost or delaying the realization of the benefit desired. Assuming that 
this course is to be pursued, it remains to consider the steps that come 
first in the system proposed, which will be the work for the years imme- 
diately before us. 

In the interest of navigation the improvement of the worst bars is 
•first demanded, and this consideration decides each year the points 
where work is to be done. As the worst bars now are at or very near 
•islands, or high bars that are as effective as islands in dividing the 
waters, the most useful work at present is the closing of the chutes, 
which, we may be confident, will materially help the navigation, as the 
oases are rare where a serious obstruction occurs when the water all 
tflowsin a single channel. After the closing of the chutes, the contrac- 
tion in width in wide reaches comes as the next step, and, when com- 
plete, good navigation is obtained, and must be maintained, by the pro- 
tection of caving banks. 

The closing oh chutes often involves more or less conflict with local 
and propriet>ary interests, and in some cases with matters which rise 
into the importance of state questions. 

The definition of the boundaries of States by the channel of the Mis- 
sissippi gives the jurisdiction over islands to the States to which they 
belongea at the time the boundary was defined, as decided by the 
United States Supreme Court in the Wolf Island case (Missouri rs, 
Kentucky, Wallace's Reports Supreme Court United States, volume 11, 
pp. 395-411). Several cases are kuo^rn where the present channel di- 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEB. 67 

Tides the island from the State to which it beloDii^d, and if the old chan- 
Del, DOW but an insignificant chate, is closed, the island will be territo- 
rially annexed to a State having no jurisdiction over its soil. It will 
readily be seen that serious complication may arise in such cases. Such 
aonezations are likely to occur from natural causes, and several will 
necessarily be made if the improvement continues, and the closing of 
ebntes is to be determined upon engineering considerations alone. 

It may not be out of place to mention here the general belief preva- 
lent among owners of land adjacent to island chutes, that the construc- 
tion of a dam across the chute or slough will insure accretions of laud 
to tbeir benefit. , 

This is true to some extent. In the case of a single dam, the accre- 
tions generally take place in the shape of a bar across the foot of the 
aioogh or chute ; another in the prolongation of the island ; and a de- 
posit at the head of the chute, extending some distance above the dam, 
frequently neglecting, however, the immediate vicinity of the dam al- 
together. A high dam just above the level of ordinary sedimenM>ear- 
iog floods would insure more deposit; but experience on the river Bhine, 
where, in most cases, the object was to make land, demonstrated the fact 
that three or more dams were generally necessary to insure sufficient 
depth and extent of deposit. In the case of a single low dam it was found 
better to locate it at a considerable distance below the head of the chute, 
in order to allow as much of the gravel and other material to enter the 
ehate as possible, not only to aid ip the formation of laud, but in addition 
to prevent the ma erial being swept into the channel. 

The formation of land not being an object of present consideration, 
▼e may say that as a general rule low dams and dikes should alone be 
used. In general terms, none of the works erected should interfere with 
the free discharge at high stages, but should begin to act at some inter- 
mediate stage. This should be before the want of depth is felt, and will 
probably vary for different localities. 

The meaning of the words ^' intermediate stage,'' in the last para- 
graph, requires definition. The idea is, that the dikes and dams should 
be of such height as to produce action upon the bed when the river is 
first approaching the low stage, so as to prepare the channel, in some 
degree, for the less powerful effect of the diminished low-water volume. 
Yet it must not be inferred from this that violent action upon the bed 
is by any means advocated. 

As before stated, the path of the heavy materials of floods is gener- 
ally along the most direct course. The low water, having to cut for 
itself a channel, seeks the line of least resistance, through the lighter 
and softer material, and this is one reason why Ihe low-water channel 
is, in nature, more tortuous than the high. 

Referring to what has been said on the subject of the partial fllling 
of the bed at high water, and the principle universally accepted, that 
depth of channel is easiest secured by contracting the width, the query 
arises, is it not possible to retain the high-water deposits in place as the 
vater falls over a part of the width, and thus contract the width at low 
vaterf Two modes of accomplishing this suggest themselves : first, to 
protect the areas which it is desired to convert into dry bars by inclos- 
ing them with barriers quickly and cheaply constructed ; second, by 
attacking the crests of the reefs upon the line it is desired to have the 
tow-wacer channel follow, and thus concentrate the scour upon that part 
of the bed which is to be the low- water way. In practice it might be 
fimnd advisable to combine the two methods, and thus open a field for 



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68 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

the nse of some of the devices discassed ander the head of the tempo- 
rary system. 

If, on trial, theiie sogsrestioDs shoald be found practicable, the benefits 
to navigation which woald follow a regulation of the river coold be 
more qnickly and cheaply attained than in any other way, for we have 
bat to secure the areas laid dry from being washed away, and the oppo- 
site bank from caving, to render the improvement permanent. Treated 
in this way, the immediate and temporary improvement woald be en- 
tirely consistent with the system of permanent improvement. 

The mode of constraction having been described in my annual report 
for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1873 (see fteport of the Chief of En- 
gineern, page 444 et seq.), it is not necessary to enter into details here, 
as in all essential features the plan there discussed is still followed. 

Variations in the minor features, of course, must be made, as circum- 
stances demand. 

In constructing dikes and dams upon the unstable foundations found 
in the Mississippi, the dififtculties to be encountered are the strength of 
the current and the liability of scour around and under the works dur- 
ing construction and after completion. The strength of the current is 
a difficulty to be overcome, and must increase with the progress of the 
works until they arrive at or near the surface of the water. The scour 
must be arrested at an early stage of the work, or the additional ex- 
pense incurred of placing foundations in deep water, and of the greatly 
increased prism of material required to reach a determined height, 
b^ettlement of the works during construction and even after completion 
is to be expected. 

Various modes of construction have been tried and most carefully 
8tudie<l, and decided preference is given to the general plan of brush 
foundations and riprap superstructures as adapting itself to any shape 
of bottom, and being able to endure settlement without injury. 

Brush foundations, besides fiexibility, have the merit of distributing 
the weight of superstructure over a considerable area, while the body 
of brush presents, when compacted by the superincumbent weight, 
small interstices for the passage of water close to the bottom. This 
material being found in large quantities along the river, can be obtained 
and handled at moderate cost. 

Extended opNerations would soon exhaust the present supply, and it 
may be found' advisable to encourage the growth. Under moderate 
appropriations, the natural production would suffice. 

Material suitable* for riprap is obtainable at many points along the 
river, insuring its procurement at very reasonable rates. It would be 
good policy for the government to acquire, by purchase or long lease, 
several quarries, to be operated under contracts or by hired labor, as 
may be found most desirable. 

In construction the utmost rapidity of progress is essential to eeon- 
omy, and it has been found practicable to carry the foundations across 
channels and bars so rapidly that no considerable deepening took place 
as the work advanced, by limiting the first work entirely to putting in 
an apron to protect the site of the proposed work. 

In closing chutes this class of work must be done when the river is at 
a low stage, and in any case cannot be done when drift is running. 

This limits the possibility of preliminary work to the fall season, and 
renders any loss of the favorable season a serious disadvantage. Tbe 
postponement of appropriations to the close of the session of Congress 
is unfortunate in that every alternate year a considerable part of the 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 69 

season ia oonsamed in preliminaries, a loss which coald in a measure be 
avoided if the amoant to be appropriated could be certainly known as 
early as March of each year. 

As already intimated, it is not pmcticable to present plans in detail, 
owin^ to the great changes which must occur between the time reports 
are made ftnd the commencement of work. In so extensive a field as 
the Mississippi from the Illinois to the Ohio the simultaneous prosecu- 
tion of works at all the points where improvement is desirable is not 
possible under the system of yearly appropriations, but might be done if 
the foil amount estimate<i were granted at once. As this course is not 
supposed to be possible, it is contemplated to prosecute the works in the 
order of their importance to navigation, selecting those places which 
present the most formidable obstructions for the first operations, the 
DQinber undertaken each year depending upon the extent of work re- 
qaired at the several places and the means available. 

The estimate of this report is based upon the present condition of the 
river. It is probable that some of the items included in the estimate 
will be found unnecessary, the desired end being reached naturally; 
others not estimated will as probably be found necessary ; it is, there- 
fore, thought best to name the aggregate sum for each locality, without 
8|)ecifying the items of the estimate. As the estimates are made upon 
the basis that certain lengths of dams and dikes will be required, and 
at a cost per unit taken from the actual cost of such works already 
constructed, the aggregate cost will probably not be materially changed 
by the changes in the position and length of individual proposed works. 

The list of localities is not final, if we consider the probabili:y, almost 
cercaiocy, that new obstructions will be developed hereafter. The esti- 
mate given by localities may be taken as the cost of obtaining the navi- 
gation desired. To maintain that navigation will require the revetment 
or other protection of caving banks. The estimated sum of $4,000,0<)0 
is intended to cover the cost of such works — to preserve the channel at 
those points where the necessity is likely to occur. 

Farther examination would be necessary to determine where works 
of this character are most needed. The greater part, we may safely say, 
woald be required between Commerce and the Ohio. The . estimated 
time for the execution of the improvement of the channel is four years ; 
the work of maintenance will never be complete. 

One million dollars could be judiciously used the coming year, and the 
appropriation of this sum is recommended. With such an appropria- 
tion, work would be continued at Saint Louis Harbor, Horsetail Bar, 
Turkey and Devil's Islands, and new works commenced at Piasa Island 
(above Alton), Perry's Towhead, Liberty Island, Power's Island, and 
Ureenleaf's, the bars at these localities being the ones which now most 
seriously obstruct the navigation. 

BSTIMATB. 
Looalltj. Sfttimated cost. 

f'tom the Illinois to the Miasoari River ^ |600,000 

Ftdd the moath of the Missoari to Saint Loais 150,000 

Upper »M3tion of Saint Loais Harbor 185,000 

Aitenal Island 100,000 

HonetailBar 100,000 

TiHo-Hollow Bar 80,000 

PlstinRock 72.000 

Wma 110,000 

Fort Chartres 75,000 

TorkeylsUnd 100,000 

Saint Genevieve 



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100,000 

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70 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



\f\\ 



h' 



Locality, Batimi 

Liliorty Island ^ t 

Hfit ThlaDd 

(>r*od Tower 

Hui^ging-Dog Island 

MmuAsin Springs and vioiDity 

r^Kvira Island and vicinity .A. 

HuiLilmrgh 

Ciinjmorce and vicinity 

B a Hulo Island 

Gnenleafs 

Add 10 per cent, for contingencies 

Bt? vetmeut between the month of the Missonri and mouth of the Ohio Biyera. 4, 

Total estimate 7, 

111 the coDdnct of operations upon the treacberoas foundations 
ct):iracterize tbe Mississippi, economy and success demand that 1 
^iiieer in charge should have entire liberty to modify his plans wh< 
nn-e^sary, and to have full control over his work ; to push it t\ 
when occasions demand, and to suspend when it becomes desirs 
to do. 

Contracting works of this character is attended with serious d 
tii^M : first, because all estimates are necessarily indefinite and unc< 
ULidf^r varying conditions the character of work is liable to chai 
tin' kind, proportions, and amount of material used, and what iw 
pitted to be easy may l)ecome difficult, or anticipated difficulti( 
di.sappear. These contingencies render it very difficult to frame i 
cations that will meet the practical conditions, and bids must \h 
:it a venture, which demands a wide margin in prices beyond \ 
dt^tluitely-described work can be done for. Under such conditic 
ri'>ult of a letting, under existing regulations, is almost inevits 
give the award to irresponsible parties, the guarantees and bonds 
stuisfy the requirements affording no sufficient security. Exp( 
hi\!^ tihowu that, with an inefficient or tricky contractor, works < 
cbiiracter are very expensive, for delay or neglect, intentional c 
rpj^ults alike in vastly-increased quantities of material ; and as the 
rojLtemplate the placing of foundations in water of moderate depi 
suspension of work for a few days will produce a local scour tli 
Ci tds the depth provided for, and compels resort to more exp 
methods not provided for in the contract. 

CJonsidering the matter in the light of experience, I cannot 1 
mtnid the contract system, so far as the preliminary work of aproi 
ft>undations is concerned. After these preliminaries are secured 
jw no objection to adopting the contract system for the delivery ( 
tiiiul in the body of a dike or dam. Necessity has compelled 
l^rovide the plant required for the construction of these advance ^ 
and, working under small appropriations, this plant suffices to 
the work ; and, it being unquestionably good policy to keep equi 
fully occupied, the work of the present year has been done by the 1 
St^ttes directly by hired labor, and the purchase of material in i 
unil state. Although compelled, by act of Congress, to pay twen 
{M^r cent, advance upon prevailing rates of wages tor labor, the i 
shfkw no increase of cost over the prices formerly paid contracts 
material delivered in place; and all the work and workmen bein 
in immediate control of the engineer in charge, he is made respc 
fOkT the success of his operations. 

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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI EIVER. 71 

Tbi8 system lias been found to work well ; do serious mishaps have 
occurred, and the work is done more cheaply than before, though, in 
part, this may be attributed to improvements in the methods and ex- 
perience in their application. Contrary to the prevailing impression, 
that faithful labor cannot be obtained from men directly employed by 
the government, the amount of work done compares favorably with 
that accomplished by equal numbers working for a contractor. Faith- 
fnl labor cjiu be ha<l under faithful overseers and foremen by any em- 
ployer, and with unfaithfulness or inefficiency in the higher grades no 
employer can secure faithful service. 

To c&rry on extended operations, such as are contemplated if this 
project meets the approval of Congress, it would not be practicable to 
do all the work directly by hired labor, on account of the extensive 
eqaipment that would be required at times, but which could not be fully 
employed at all times ; besides, the burden and' responsibility of making 
disbursements in small sams would be excessive. For the reasons 
stated. I would resi>ectfully recommend that, under annual appropria- 
tions of $300,000 or less, the system now practiced, to do the work 
directly by hired labor, and purchase of materials in open market, in- 
cindiog in the latter the privilege of purchasing material delivered in 
the work when it is to the interest of the government to do so, be con- 
tinned. Under appropriations exceeding $300,000, the conduct of all 
critical and uncertain operations to be by hired labor, and material pur- 
chased as above ; and the construction of works whose character is as- 
certainable to be let to contractors. 

The plant required to carry out these recommendations, under yearly 
appropriations of $I,<K)0,0<K), would consist of two tow-boats, two 
steam-launches, twenty barges, six pile-drivers, one Osgood dredge, and 
soch small tools as would be required for quarrying and handling stone, 
and procuring other material employed. Of this plant there is now on 
haud, owned by the United States, one tow-boat, one steam-launch, six- 
teen barges, three pile-drivers, and a stock of tools proportionate to the 
present scale of operations. . 

BBCAPITULATION. 

I briefly recapitulate the conclusions reached by the discussion, and 
which are the basis of my recommendations : 

1. Improvement must not only be made, but maintained. 

2. Temporary expedients fail to answer the requirements, for want of 
reliability. 

3. Permanent improvements are known to be practicable by actual 
experience in the case of other rivers similar in character, though of 
less siase, and the practicability of executing permanent works in the 
Mississippi is demonstrated by works already constructed. 

4. In an improvement the natural channel should be followed as a 
mle. 

5. The rights of individuals and municipal or other corporations 
should be defined, and all proposed works subject to approval by United 
States authority, as in the case now with bridges. 

6. The order of execution of work should be decided with a view to 
afford the earliest possible relief to navigation at difficult places. 

7. Improvement of the channel can be best secured by bringing all 
the water into a single channel of moderate width ; an early step would 
he the closure of secondary channels at islands and elsewhere ; closing 



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72 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI KIVER. 

chutes will raise qaestions of jurisdiction between States, which shoald 
be provided for at au early date. 

8. A combination of the appliances designed for temporary improve- 
ment with permanent works may be practicable, giving earlier results 
and at less expense. Estimates, however, are made npon the basis of 
improving by permanent works alone. 

9. The estimated cost of improving the Mississippi, so as to afford 6 
feet depth in the channel from the Illinois to Saint Loais, and 8 feet 
from Saint Lonis to the Ohio, is $3,159,200; and the estimate for such 
maintenance-works as can now be foreseen is $4,000,000. The improve- 
ment-division of the work can be completed in four years, and the ap- 
propriation of $1,000,000 is recommended for the first year. 

10. A mixed system of condncting the work is recommended; critical 
and uncertain operations by the United States directly, and those whose 
character can be definitely ascertained in advance, by contract. 

11. The removal of wrecks and snags from the channel will remain, as 
heretofore, an important part of the work of maintaining the channel. 
During tlje progress of the improvement the removal of many existing 
wrecks would be essential to success. These operations, not being un- 
der my charge, are not included in the estimate submitted, and the 
matter is not formally discussed in the body of my report. 

Before closing, I cannot omit mentioning the great obligations I am 
under for the very material aid I have received in the consideration of 
this report from my able assistants, Capt. Charles J. Allen, Corps of 
Engineers, U. S. A.; Eobert E. McMath, chief civil assistant ; and Civil 
Assistants I. D. McKown, conducting the survey of the river from the 
mouth of the Illinois to the mouth of the Ohio Eiver, and his assistant, 
Samuel H. Yonge; and D. M. Currie, CJiarles S. True, and S. E. 
McGregory, conducting the operations, respectively, at Devil's Island, 
Horsetail Bar, and Turkey Island, and Alton Slough, and the upper 
portion of Saint Louis Harbor. Every one of these gentlemen has 
contributed, from his intelligence, observation, and experience, to the 
results arrived at ; and it is a matter of congratulation that all concur in 
the principles presented, and the plan of operations pursued and pro- 
posed. 

I am also indebted to Mr. William Popp, civil assistant engineer and 
draughtsman, for the delineation of the maps submitted with the 
report. 

The map accompanying this report is in four sheets — 

1. Extending from the mouth of the Illinois to the month of the Mis- 
souri. 

2. Extending from the mouth of the Missouri to Turkey Island. 

3. Extending from Turkey Island to Cape Girardeau. 

4. Extending from Cape Girardeau to the mouth of the Ohio. 
All of which is respectfully submitted. 

J. H. Simpson, 
Col. of Eng.^ Bvt Brig. Gen.^ U. 8. A. 

Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphbeys, 

Chief of Engineers, U. 8. A. 



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NAVIOATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEE. 73 



C C 5. 

REPORT ON PORTION OP THE THIRD SUBDIVISION OF THE MISSISSIPPI 

ROUTE. 

Mississippi River from Cairo to New Orleans. 

report of major charles r. suter, corps of enoineers. 

Engineer Officb^ United States Army, 

Saint Louis J Mo.^ February 18, 1875. 

General: OongresSy at its last session, appropriated $200,000 for 
SQfvejs and estimates for the improvement of certain routes recom- 
mended by tbe Senate Select Committee on Transportation-Boates to 
the Seaboard. 

Among these rentes was the Mississippi Eiver, the idea advanced by 
tbe committee for that portion of the stream between Oairo and. New 
Orleans being to so improve it as to give from 8 to 10 feet navigable 
depth at all stages of water. 

The duty of reporting npon this subject was assigned to me, and 
tiO,000 was allotted to defray the expenses of the necessary examina- 
tion. 

As the sum was of course inadequate for the careful survey of one 
thousand miles of a great river like the Mississippi, it was necessary to 
conilne the work to a mere reconnaissance, which would enable a geueral 
map of tbe river to be made with approximate correctness, determining 
at the same time the nature and extent of the existing difficulties to 
free navigation, together with the methods most likely -to secure their 
removal. This plan, having been approved by the Ohief of Bngineers, 
was carried out during the summer and early winter of 1874. 

An engineering party was placed on one of the government steamers 
and sent into the Held, with instructions to sketch the river carefully 
from the pilot-house of the steamer, checking their work by frequent 
triangulations for widrhs, and by comparison with the best State maps 
attainable for lengths between known points. 

The party passed four times over the portion of the river between 
Vicksburg and Cairo, and twice over the portion between Vicksburg 
and New Orleans. The work was carefully done, and is quite satisfac- 
tory. The maps show all the topographical features quite fully, giving 
tbe size and position of islands and dry sand-bars, and the location of 
the low- water channel at the time of the survey. The river was not low 
enough for a good hydraulic survey, and, moreover, there was neither 
time nor money enough available for the purpose; but all available in- 
formation on this point was collected from pilots and residents along the 
river. 

Although the information obtained by this reconnaissance is not suffi- 
ciently detailed or extensive to allow estimates of the cost of the im- 
provement recommended to be made, yet it will, I hope, be sufficient to 
\mnt out the nature of the improvement required, and the means by 
which it can be effected. 

First in order is the absolute necessity of a careful survey of the 
whole river. We have at present really nothing definite to guide us 
either witb regard to the present situation, or to changes which have 
taken place in the past If a careful survey had been made thirty or 
forty years ago, it would be of inestimable value now, for the effect 

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74 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 

likely to result from caases now at work can only be rightly inferred 
from the effect produced in past times by similar causes. This infor- 
mation we have not yet got^ and hence mach is left to conjecture which 
should be known with certainty. This state of affairs should be reme- 
died as soon as possible, so that when in future any work may be needed 
on the river the data may be at hand for projecting it. 

There is probably no branch of engineering which offers more prac- 
tical difficulties than river hydraalics, nor is there another in which so 
many perplexing questions are involved, nor where so much patient ob- 
servation and experiment are needed to obtain successful results. 

This is mainly owing to the appalling vastness of the subject, arising 
from the fact that every stream, and in truth every portion of a stream, 
has its own special characteristics, not necessarily appearing elsewhere, 
which renders observers singularly liable to generalize on insufficient or 
erroneous data. 

It is only by long and patient observation, extended over long periods 
of time, and covering considerable lengths of many different streams, 
that we may eventually hope to assign definite values to the many vari- 
ables which enter the equation to be solved. 

A vast amount of information on this subject may be gathered from 
the works of foreign writers, and of our own engineers, but this informa- 
tion is much scattered, and often inaccessible ; it is moreover generally 
mixed up with many facts and features which are strictly local and hence 
not generally applicable. 

I have therefore felt justified in endeavoring to describe here, briefly, 
the more striking and important features and phenomena observable on 
our western rivers, before discussing the special subject confided to me 
for investigation. 

In two important features our Western rivers differ from those under 
improvement in the East and on the Pacific coast : first, their beds are 
formed of gravel, sand, or mud, instead of rock in place ; secondly, they 
are unaffected by tides. 

The nature of the beds and of the banks determines the characteristic 
features of all these streams, and accounts at the same time for the im- 
mense diversity everywhere observable. 

Two great classes are met with. 

First, we have the Mississippi north of the Ohio, which, as well as the 
Ohio and Missouri, all the northern and portions of each of the southern 
tributaries, show a well-defined valley sunk more or less below the gen- 
eral level of the country, and bordered by abrupt cliffs of lime or sand 
stone. Frequently these bluffs are partly or wholly concealed by great 
masses of drift, which form rolling hills and ridges extending often to 
the river-bank. This latter feature is especially characteristic of the 
Ohio and Lower Missouri, the bare, bold bluffs being principally con- 
fined to the Upper Mississippi and Missouri and their tributaries. Both 
features are found on the upper portions of Bed, Ouachita, Arkansas, 
and White Bivers, together with their principal tributaries. 

The width of the valley scored out of the general level varies from 
one to twenty miles, while its true bottom, the bed-rock, is found from 
sixty to a hundred feet and upward below the beds of the present 
streams. The bluffs themselves vary greatly in height, sometimes tow- 
ering 400 or 500 feet above the level of the water. 

These facts show that our present rivers are but puny representatives 
of their gigantic predecessors in prehistoric ages. 

It is through the immense deposits of sand and gravel accumulated 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 75 

by these aocieot streams that oar modern rivers straggle to force their 
way. 

The banks and beds are generally sand or gravel, now pore, now 
mixed with allavial matter broaght down by the stream and deposited 
daring the annaal overflows. Occasionally we find the bank formed by 
rock-blaffs or by the drift-hills and terraces before allnded to. These 
banks are comparatively stable, bat the others are constantly eroded by 
the water. The streams are therefore constantly changing their shape 
and direction, their lateral excarsions being, however, limited by the 
sides of the valley throagh which they flow. 

Secondly^ in the delta region, so called, that is, on the Lower Missis- 
sippi and the lower portions of its southern tribataries, entirely different 
conditions are met with. The river-banks are generally foand to be 
composed of alternate strata of sand and of very stiff blae clay, belong- 
ing to the Tertiary series. Above these strata we generally find about 
30 feet of a more recent alluvial formation. The bed proper, or rather 
tbe extreme limit of scour, is formed by one of the clay layers ; but, as 
far as the banks are concerned, there is nothing to prevent erosion taking 
place in any direction, and accordingly we find all these delta streams 
exceedingly tortuous in their courses. 

On all the streams of the first class, erosion of the banks, though often 
rapid, is still a gradual process ; the bank, as it becomes saturated, crum- 
bles and falls into the river, a few inches at a time. 

On streams of the second class, however, the process is different. The 
day layers are both impermeable and insoluble, but the heavy water- 
pressure in floods saturates tbe lower sand layers to a great distance 
from the water's edge. As the water falls the pressure diminishes, and 
tbe water in the sand layer returns to the river, washing out the sand as 
it goes. Tbe clay layers are thus undermined over large areas, and 
eventually the whole overhanging mass breaks off' and falls or slides 
into tbe river. In this manner the rate of abrasion may become per- 
fectly appalling under favorable conditions. Slight reflection will show 
that it most necessarily be worse after heavy and long-sustained floods 
than at other times, and observation shows this to be a fact. At low 
water a rapid rate of erosion may be developed by special causes, as a 
sharp local deflection of the current against the shore ; but, generally 
speaking, caving of the banks is confined to high water and the stages 
immediately following it. On the Mississippi itself, the continual ero 
sion of the banks gives rise to some carious phenomena, the true office 
aud explanation of which seem not to be generally understood. I allude 
to tbe eot-offs which from time to time are formed naturally, and which 
are constantly brought forward by speculative individuals and advo- 
cated as a panacea for the ills resulting both from floods and low water. 

In the first place it would appear, at a casual glance, that as the cat- 
ting action is greatest in the deepest recesses or apices of the*bends, 
there woald result an indefinite elongation to the right and to the left 
of the genera] direction of flow of the river, or at least it would be car- 
ried to such extent that the consequent reduction of slope would destroy 
both the velocity of the current and its power of transporting the mass 
of sediment poured into it; such would indeed be the case, although the 
consequent filling up of the bed would gradually raise the whole river 
and finally establish new conditions of equilibrium. 

But in truth the remedy is far more promptly applied; the cutting of 
tbe bank is not confined to the apex of the bend, but extends along the 
whole concave shore, aud, as the bends overlap each other, it follows 



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76 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

that the oecka of land separating them are eroded oo both Rides, and 
hence are rapidly reduced in width. 

In the course of time the dividing neck becomes so atteuaated as to 
be no longer able to sustain the pressure of the water against it, and, 
as the nature of the materials of which the bank is composed allows 
more or less water to leak through and wash out the sand-layers, finally 
the whole mass crumbles, and a wide breach is formed through which 
the river pours with resistless force. Davis'n, one of the most recent of 
these cut-o£fs, and also the largest, occuiTed in 1867. It cut off Pal- 
myra Bend, eighteen miles below Yicksburg, a bend which was eighteen 
miles long, while the distance across the neck was only 1,200 feet. The 
exact slope of the river at the time is not known, but it was probably 
not far from 0.3 foot to the mile ; therefore the difference of level on the 
two sides of the neck was about 5} feet When the river broke through, 
the whole of this fall had to be absorbed in the 1,200 feet of distance, 
making a rate of about 24 feet to the mile; and it can readily be imagined 
that the whole immense flood-volume of the Mississippi, flowing with 
the enormous velocity due to this great slope, produced very marked 
effects. The roaring of the waters could be heard for miles, and in the 
course of a few hours a channel a mile wide« certainly over a hundred 
and probably nearly two hundred feet in depth, had been excavated. 
Even then it was many weeks before the velocity of the current had 
sufficiently abated to allow boats to use the new channel. 

It is clearly evident that in such cases as this the stream cannot long 
remain in a condition so difterent from its normal regimen ; the length 
by which it has been shortened must be regained, so as to restore the 
usual slope, and this can only be effected in one way, viz, by the elonga- 
tion of bends lying above and below the cut-off. This result has fol- 
lowed in the case mentioned, and is and must be an inevitable accom- 
paniment of any similar occurrence. The influence of the Davis cut off 
is still telt far above and below Yicksburg. The rate of erosion iu the 
bends has been enormously increased, and to-day we are threatened with 
several more cut-offs between Memphis and Yicksburg. One in fact 
occurred during last summer, near Commerce, Miss. 

After the river has once formed a new channel for itself, the old bead 
fills up at the head and the foot and becomes a lake. The immense num- 
ber of these peculiar crescent-shaped lakes scattered through the bot- 
tom lands on both sides of the river, shows that this action has been 
going on ever since the Mississippi has existed in it« present state, and 
we would therefore seem justified in assuming that no material change 
has occurred, within recent times at least, affecting the slope, length, or 
general direction of the stream. 

Such being the well-recorded effects and results of cut-offs, it certainly 
is surprising to find that, from time to time, their formation by artificial 
means* has been recommended as a means of improvement, and some 
have actually been produced, or at least hastened, by ignorant persons. 
The amount of damage produced by a cut-off, particularly in those por- 
tions of the country where riparian plantations are numerous, must nec- 
essarily be enormous ; and, as I have attempted to show, no good is 
likely to result therefrom, as the river will in time be precisely in the 
same condition as before. 

On other streams the same phenomena occasionally obtain, but gen- 
erally the mode of action is different; thus, on the Missouri, the bends 
being more open, a bar generally forms on the lower side of the points, 
while the upper side is abraded, from which action results a gradual 
downstream motion of the bends, which follow each other like a series 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 77 

of waves, and in this manner lateral elongation is prevented. Similar 
action i8 observable on many other streams, but not to as great or as 
general an extent as on the Missouri. 

White, Ouachita, Bed River, and other similar streams are exceedingly 
tortnous, but the current being generally weak and the banks tolerably 
Ann, the amount of erosion is small ; consequently these streams change 
buMittle. On the Lower Arkansas, however, where the current is 
rapid, the general features of the Mississippi are reproduced. 

The beds of the tributary streams are composed of materials washed 
irom the banks or brought in by tributaries, and comprise bowlders, 
coarse and fine gravel, sand, and mud ; of these materials none heavier 
than coarse gravel are moved by the current; the others remain in posi- 
tion and form local obstructions. 

The heavier deposits are more common on the Ohio Biver than on 
any other of the large streams, and that river also moves quite coarse 
gravel in its upper portions ; lower down it transports fine gravel and 
<*oar8e sand. The Upper Mississippi carries heavy sand; gravel is rare. 
Both these streams have clear water. 

The Missouri flows over exceedingly fine sand mixed with mud ; the 
banks are of similar composition, and the water is very muddy. 

The Arkansas and Bed Bivers are also exceedingly turbid, the water 
being tinged a bright red from the colored earths with which it is 
charged ; the river- ^ds are of rather coarse sand in the lower portions; 
biisher up we find gravel. 

The other southern tributaries. White, Ouachita, &c., have clear 
water, and in their navigable portions transport only coarse sand. 

The Lower Mississippi being the general receptacle for all these de- 
posits, partakes of the character of all of its tributaries ; the bed proper, 
as before stated, is clay, but superposed on this are great masses of de- 
posits, ranging from very coarse gravel to fine mud. Its water is very 
turbid, having a grayish tinge, which becomes reddish after the waters 
of Arkansas and Red Bivers are received. 

All these streams have, therefore, the common feature of generally 
unstable banks and beds, the water-way beiug usually comiK>sed of 
materials which the flood-current, at least, is capable of transporting. 

The laws of flowing water are sufficiently well established to enable 
ns to settle questions which anse concerning the discharge of any 
stream, and its dependent phenomena, so that the point specially nee<l- 
ing investigation is the action of the stream upon its beds and banks, 
for to this action are mainly due those shoals, bars, &c., which are such 
grievous obstructions to the free navigation of our rivers. 

I wish, however, to remark here that the smaller and shallower the 
stream, the greater will be the care needed in measuring the discharge, 
as in this case we are surrounded by numerous sources of error, which 
are of far greater proportionate im}K>rtance than would be the case on 
large, deep streams. Also with regard to the velocity, which is gener- 
ally assumed to depend mainly upon the volume of discharge and the 
slope. This is only the case, even approximately, on very large, deep 
streams. On most of the rivers that we are considering, especially dur- 
ing their low stages, the velocity is greatly affected by friction, and 
therefore varies considerably according to the character of the materials 
composing the bed. With similar slope and discharge, the velocity will 
be greatest in streams having the most unstable beds, that is, beds 
composed of the lightest materials, as in this case the effect of friction 
must evidently be at a minimum. 

With regard to the slope, I wish to call attention to the grave error 



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78 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIV^R. 

of taking at its literal value the term " plane,'' by which the water-gar- 
face throughont the whole or a portion of the length of a stream is con- 
ventionally designated. Thus, it is customary to speak of the planes of 
high or low water, as though they were actually plane surfaces, which 
is far from being the case. In similar manner, the mean slope is spoken 
of and is obtained by dividing the total difference of water-level between 
designated points by the total length of the river between those same 
points. 

The so-called planes of high or low water are usually established by 
connecting with the level a series of water-gauges. Synchronous ob- 
servations on these gauges are assumed to give the shape and position 
of the water-surface at the time of the observations. It is thus found 
that the water-surface over a considerable distance is not a plane sur- 
face, but is composed of a series of plane or slightly curved surfaces, 
which are liable to great variations, even for the same stand by the 
gauge. During high water, these local variations arise from the fact 
that swells or freshets in the river have the section of a very much 
elongated wave raised above the general surface. The front and rear 
of the waves may make quite abrupt angles with the general surface, 
while the fact that several waves may be following each other, or may 
even be superposed, adds still more to the complexity of figure of the 
highwater-surface slope. 

The plane bf low water is even more irregular and uncertain than that 
of high water, for, while in the previous case we had only masses of water 
to deal with, in the present we have also to consider the effect produced 
by masses of sand and gravel. 

On examining a profile of the water-surface of one of these rivers 
during a low or medium stage, it will be observed that the mean slope 
for the whole length differs greatly from the mean slope of any one sec- 
tion of, say, one hundred miles in length ; and, again, the mean slope of 
this section will be found to differ greatly from the actual slope in differ- 
ent portions of the section. This complexity arises from two causes: 
first, the slope in the upper portion of any stream is much greater than 
it is lower down ; and, secondly, the slope in isolated fiortions of the 
stream varies in a curious but quite uniform manner. We invariably 
find a series of reaches, varying in length with tiie size of the stream, in 
which the slope is very slight, often scarcely perceptible ; these reaches 
are connected by short, abrupt inclines, on which the slope is relatively 
very considerable; in fact, nearly the whole slope of the stream is con- 
centrated on these inclines. The channel-soundings, if plotted on the 
same profile, will show that the depth on the inclines is very much less 
than in the level portions, and, on comparing the profile with the plan, 
it will be found that the level reaches lie alternately on opposite sided 
of the river, and that the steep pitches occur where the channel crosses 
from one side of the river to the other. 

These deep, level reaches, called pools, are separated from each other 
by masses of sand or gravel, over which the water flows as over a low 
dam. These masses of sand and gravel constitute the bars, and are the 
principal obstructions to the free navigation of these streams. 

The relative depth in the pools and on the bars varies much even on 
the same stream ; and the absolute depths are also very variable for 
different stages, and even for the same stage of water. In like manner, 
the absolute level of the pools and the difference of level between con- 
secutive pools are very variable even for the same stage of water, and 
the profiles of different years may be, and generally are, quite different 
for the same stand by any particular gauge. 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 79 

fl 

It 18, therefore, evident that great care is needed in projecting any 
plaD of improvement, lest certain local, and perhaps only temporary, 
conditions may have entirely altered the normal slopes of the river. 

To comprehend the cause of these irregularities and their practical 
effect on navigation, it is necessary to consider the laws governing the 
movement of the large masses of sand and gravel which are set in motion 
and carried along by the water of the stream. 

If we imagine a perfectly straight channel, with immovable bed and 
banks, but partly filled with sand, through which a constant stream of 
water flows with a velocity sufficiently great to move freely the sand 
below it, the effect will, of course, soon be to entirely remove the 
sand; if, however, the latter is supplied in sufficient quantity to com- 
pensate for that removed, our experiment will more nearly resemble 
cases met with in ordinary practice, at least sufficiently for what I wish 
to show. 

Under the action of the flowing water the sand will be found to form 
a series of ridges, like long shallow waves, which move forward with a 
velocity considerably less than that of the water itself, the rear slope of 
these waves being very long, while the front is usually shorter and may 
be quite abrupt. The sand rolls up the rear slope and falls over the 
crest, and in this manner the wave advances. The velocity at the sides 
of the channel must be less than at the center, on account of the fric- 
tion of the sides, and a moment's reflection will show that a greater 
mans of sand will be moved by the central current, and therefore that 
the length of the sand-wave measured on lines normal to its crest will 
be greatest at the center and least at the sides. Again, if the sand is 
not homogeneous, the heavier grains will be more readily moved by the 
strong current in the center of the stream than by the weaker current 
at the sides ; hence, the heavier sand will be accumulated at the center 
of the wave, and the lighter materials will be found at the sides. Now, 
8apxK>8e the supply of water to be diniinished until the decrease of 
velocity and scouring power render it unable to move the sand ; after 
a short time much of the water will be drained ofl^, leaving the sand- 
waves stretched across the channel like a series of dams, ponding back 
the water above them. The water remaining will flow over these dams 
in a shallow sheet, which will diminish in depth as the level above is 
drawn down, and by a continuance of this action a sensible difference 
of level between the water on the two sides of the dam is developed. 
When the head attains sufficient magnitude, the water will make a 
breach in the dam to find an outlet, the velocity due to the head attained 
determining the portion of the dam broken through. It evidently will 
not be the middle portion, because, as already explained, this must, 
from its composition, offer the greatest resistance ; but some point to the 
right or left will be selected. The outflow through this breach soon 
draws down the level above, and, the velocity consequently diminishing, 
the water is no longer able to move the sand through the gap, but drops 
it there and the breach fills up. Another outlet will after a time be 
formed, but, for the reasons before given, it will be farther from the cen- 
ter of the wave than before, and this action will be repeated as often as 
there is any disturbance of the equilibrium. In any case the rule is 
the same ; the breach is formed in the sand dam or bar as near the axial 
l\Qeof the stream as the composition of the bar will allow. In conse- 
qoence of this action, the water no longer flows parallel to the sides of 
channel, for, on emerging from behind the sand-wave, it necessarily 
strikes the side at an angle, and it will then be deflected back, and 
hence the breach in the next lower pool will take place on the side 

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80 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

opposite the first one. The channel now will follow a series of osculat- 
ing carves, whose degree of curvature will be mainly regulated by the 
relative amount and density of the sand and the amount of water in 
motion. 

If now the supply of water be restored to the original standard, the 
channel will return nearly to its original direction ; but if this operation be 
many times repeated, the lighter materials will, to a great extent, be 
sifted out of the central portions of the sand-waves, which will finally 
attain a density sufficient to oppose even the full strength of the cur- 
rent. This, therefore, will become more and more diverted from its 
rectilinear direction, and the curved channel-way becomes permanent, 
but will always be less marked at high than at low water. 

In this description I have assumed that the banks are too solid to be 
affected by the current, although in general practice this is not the case ; 
but I wished to show that, even under the very favorable and unusual 
conditiops assumed, the curved channel-way is inevitable in streams 
which flow over beds of movable materials. 

In nature the banks are generally very unstable and easily eroded by 
the current; they present, as a general rule, less resistance to the water 
than does its bed, and hence the curved shape, set up by the causes 
cited above, will soon be greatly increased and rendered permanent 

All the phenomena of bar-formation can be traced to the interaction, 
here described, of the force of the moving water and the resistance 
offered by the materials over which it flows, although we will not often 
find cases as simple as the one here presented. In actual practice there 
are generally many complicating causQS to discover and eliminate, but 
the general action is always the same. 

In considering now the case of actual streams, we must remember that 
their present beds, as well as their banks, furnish inexhaustible supplies 
of sand, gravel, and mud. The complications of water-flow due to their 
action cannot, therefore, ever be entirely eliminated, although it is a very 
serious question whether means will not have eventually to be taken 
to prevent the washing of the banks on the tributary streams at least, 
as many of these bring in quantities of sediment utterly dispropor- 
tionate to the amount of water which they contribute. 

I will now endeavor to describe the variations from the simple man- 
ner of bar-formation which are met with in practice: these vary greatly 
for different rivers, as might be supposed, but for the same stream they 
are measurably constant; the variations, such as they are, being due to 
the character of the materials moved and to the force and volume of 
discharge of the water. The streams which I select as typical are the 
Tipper Mississippi, the Missouri, the Ohio, and the Lower Mississippi. 

The Upper Mississippi flows over very heavy sand, and its banks are 
composed of similar material. Tiie general course of the river is quite 
straight, and the total fall is considerable. The volume of water dis- 
charged is also large, but the floods, although heavy, are not of very 
long duration. The banks are very easily abraded, while the material 
composing the bed is hard to move, and the stream has therefore at- 
t^iined an extraordinary width between banks, while great complications 
in the formation of the sand- waves have resulted. The floods being 
violent, but of short duration, the crests of the waves are generally 
above the low-water surface, and they speedily increase in size b.v the 
drifting of sand under the ac.tion of the wind; then follows a growth of 
willows or cottonwoods, and we have an island. Either an island or a 
dry bar will act like one of the natural banks, and an independent wave- 
formation will be set up in every separate chaquel thus formed. 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 81 

The Upper Mississippi has an immense number of islands, large and 
small ; hence, there are a great many channels and considerable com- 
plexity of bar-formation. The great extent to which the water is scat- 
tered prevents vigorous or sustained action on the sand ; the bed of the 
river is covered with different sets or systems of sand- waves, due to 
the numerous channels, and navigation is much impeded. Neverthelpss, 
DO stream with which I am acquainted shows so well the method of 
simple formation of bars which I have attempted to describe ; the com- • 
piieated channel is a natural consequence of the small supply of water 
and undue proportion of sand. 

The Ohio resembles the Upper Mississippi in many respects, but its 
floods are far more violent, and its low-water stages more general and 
lasting. The bed is generally composed of heavier materials, and much 
gravel is moved, while the banks are but little eroded. 

Islands are not very numerous, and the bars are usually simple iu 
their formation, but contain much gravel. The low-water discharg 
the river is so small as to be usually inadequate to the task of breaking 
throagh them ; hence, low-water navigation is very bad. 

Both on this stream and the Upper Mississippi the channel is not lia- 
ble to sudden and radical changes as on the Missouri. 

The Missouri, although not the greatest in volume, is nevertheless 
the tributary which most resembles the main-trunk stream. It is very 
peculiar in its action, although all the observed phenomena are easily 
explained. Its volume and slope do not differ materially from those of 
the Upper Mississippi, yet the velocity of the current is probably twice or 
three times as great. This fact can only be explained by the supposition 
already mentioned, that it is due to the great mobility of the bed, and 
consequent small amount of friction, which enables the velocity to ap- 
proximate, more nearly than is usually the case, to that due to the 
actual descent of the stream. The velocity varies from three miles to 
at least nine miles an hour. 

The bed and banks are composed principally of an almost impalpable 
sand ; heavy sand is rare, and gravel is usually only met with near the 
bluffs. As might naturally be expected, the amount of disturbance of 
the bottom is enormous, the water penetrating it to considerable depths, 
and whirling along great masses of sand, which is so tine that a very 
large amount is suspended and carried forward by the water, in addi- 
tion to that which rolls along the bottom. 

The rate of advance of the sand-waves is very rapid, but they are 
never allowed time to dam up the water to any extent. Their crests 
are always high and fiat, and the water, even at high stages, is obliged 
to force channels through them. These cuts at once become reservoirs, 
into which pours the greatest body and the heaviest of the moving sand ; 
consequently they soon fill up, and a breach is quickly formed at some 
other point. These sand- waves are generally greatly elongated down- 
stream, but their sha|)e is constantly changing, and they wash away 
and re-form with astouishing rapidity. 

The increased discharge of floods gives the current an enormous io- 
cr^se of velocity, and, hence, of excavating power, and the amount of 
material moved keeps pace with the iucreased volume of water, and in 
eonaequence there is not much difference iu the channel-depths at flood 
and at low stages. 

The navigable channel is of course constantly shifting, being now on 
one aide of the river, now on the other, and it requires the greatest skill 
Md judgment on the part of the pilots who navigate it. 

During very low stages the velocity is much reduced, and the pecu- 

H. Ex. 49 6 Digitized by CjOOglC 



82 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

liar cbaracteristics of the river are not so apparent, bat slight causes 
snfQce to disturb the eqailibriam and effect great changes. 

The banks are eroded with extraordinary facility, and as old logs and 
stumps are found buried throughout the valley, there seem to be good 
reasons for thinking that the river may have traveled over the entire 
width of its valley, perhaps more than once; at all events, land along 
its banks is held by a most uncertain tenure. 

From what has been said it may readily be inferred that the effect of 
any engineering constructions, as is also true of natural obstructionn, 
will be very marked and speedy, but not necessarily permanent uor easy 
to maintain. 

After joining the Upper Mississippi, the turbulent propensities of the 
Missouri are a good deal curbed by association* with its more orderly 
partner^ and the heavy sand of its new bed also tends to bring about 
this desirable result; but nevertheless, its influence is still quite appar- 
ent, and manifests itself especially in the instability of the channels 
during low stages. 

After passing Cairo we reach the Lower Mississippi proper. 

We have now left the rock-blufifs behind ; hence to the Gulf the banks, 
with a few exceptions, are uniformly composed of layers of sand and 
clay, surmounted by a stratum, about 30 feet thick, of 4illuvial soil. 
These banks, except where under ealtivation, are covered with a rank, 
heavy growth of timber, and the bars which emerge from the river are 
speedily taken ]K)ssession of by a dense growth of willows and cotton- 
woods. The curved formation being entirely unopposed, is very strongly 
developed, increasing, however, as we descend the river and as the ve- 
locity of the current diminishes. 

The bluff's which touch the river at Memphis, Yicksburg, and a few 
other points, the most southerly of which is Baton Rouge, are couiiK)sed 
principally of sand, with some clay and gravel ; the sand being often 
partially cemented with iron ore. 

There is quite a large number of islands, generally of considerable 
size and tolerably stable. The manner of their formation will be ex- 
plained further on. 

The bed proper of the stream is a peculiar tenacious clay, as already 
stated, but on this bed rest the immense deposits of all kinds ot material 
brought in by the tributaries or precipitated into the stream wUeu the 
banks are undermined, and it is the action of the water on these de- 
posits, moving them and heaping them up in certain localities, which 
gives rise to the bars. 

Although the principle governing the formation of these obstructions 
is precisely the same as in the similar cases, yet the peculiar circum- 
stances under which it occurs causes a good deal of ^nation from the 
simple type. 

The principal cause of variation lies in the curved shape of the 
stream, which is very marked and persistent; consequently, at all 
stages of water, the channel is more or Ichs curved, and this shape de- 
termines the manner of deposition of the materials moved by the 
water. 

In discussing the case of a straight channel-way, it was stated that 
the heavier materials would follow the thread of the strongest cnrreut. 
This is still true in the case before us, but, owing to the great curvature 
of the bed, the question of the location of this current is no longer as 
obvious as before. As a matter of fact,it varies with the stage of water, 
and will always be found following a path as nearly direct as possible, 
which throws it more or less directly from one point to another, and as 
the river rises it approaches more and more closely to the»d ndsits. 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 83 

The great volume and force of the river enables it to move both gravel 
aDd heavy sand, and these will be deposited u^ftv the points, or wher- 
ever the high-water channel may l>e. As the river falls the diminished 
velocity renders it incapable of moving these deposits, and the water is 
gradaally deflected by them toward the bends. 

These constant accretions of heavy material will, of course, gradually 
extend the points, thereby encroaching on the space occupied by the 
water at lower stages, and as the banks offer less r^istance than the bed 
they will be eroded and the bend will be elongatea ; it is thus that the 
carved form is perpetuated and constantly increased. 

in emerging from a bend the water spreads out in a fan-shaped mass, 
•the strongest current taking the shortest available route. It might be 
inferred from this that a section across the stream would show the great- 
est depth where the current is strongest, but the reverse is uf^uaily the 
case; the extra velocity simply moves more or heavier materials, and 
the depth is not increased. From one side of the fan to the other we 
have all grades of velocity, and similarly all grades of material. Finally, 
between the extreme edge of the sand- wave and the concave bank we 
have a very deep pool, in which the velocity is relatively quite small. 
These pools receive only the lightest deposits — principally mud; they 
are partially filled up at high water, but are scoured out at low stages, 
even down to the main clay-bed. ^ 

The sand- waves still retain their characteristic features, but the heav- 
iest portions, instead of being at the center, now lie alternately on op- 
posite sides of the stream and near the points. 

The erosion of the banks and the extension of the points gradually 
elongate the bends, and after a time the additional resistance thus 
offered to the free discharge at high water, and which is always repre- 
seDted by a ponding back and consequent increase of head, causes the 
current to cut a channel through the point-bar; this becomes a perma- 
nent outlet for flood-discharges, and the bar outside becomes an island. 
Outside of this, other bars form, and in their turn become tow-heads 
aud islands. 

There is no doubt whatever that all the Mississippi islands have been 
formed in this way, or el-^e by cut-oflfs. 

The channels behind them are called chutes, and are essentially high- 
water channels, and the absurdity of endeavoring systematically to turn 
the low-water channel into them should, it seems, be obvious ; never- 
theless it is constantly being proposed, not only by amateur engineers, 
bot aKso by men who should know better. The chutes are merely vents 
for the discharge of floods, and as they furnish the most direct route, a 
great portion of^he heavy material in motion, comprising not only 
gravel and heavy sand, but logs, snags, &c., naturally passes through 
them. The snags and logs often lodge, as the chutes are not usually 
deep, and in any case it is safe to count on finding the bottom composed 
mainly of grdvel and very coarse sand. These chutes are, as a general 
mle, dry at low water, and are only used by boats ascending the stream 
daring high stages. 

It frequently happens, however, that great erosion takes place in 
them, increasing their length to such extent that the maximum velocity 
of the cunent is no longer found in them ; in this case the chute no 
longer goe« dry at low water. Finally, by some means the high-water 
diadiarge way be diverted into the bend, which at once fills up, and 
the chute becomes temporarily, or even permanently, the main channel 
of the river. This shifting of the channel from one side to the other of 
a bar or island is not an uncommon occurrence at low water, provided 

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84 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER 

the length, and conseqnent fall, in the two channels does not materially 
differ. ^ 

As the variona actions here described are constantly going on, tbe 
bars on the points constantly advancing, and the shores of the bends 
receding by continual erosion, it may well be asked where this action is 
to stop, and what there la to prevent an indefinite lateral extension of 
the river-bed. 

If caving of the banks were only confined to the apices of the bendo, 
this action would g(n[>n until the channel had been so much lengthened 
that the current velocity would no longer be equal to the task of trans- 
porting the sand, and consequently the latter would accumulate until 
the whole bed of the stream would be raised, and new conditions of flow 
be set up. But, as already stated, this condition of affairs rarely ocenrs, 
for the caving of the banks almost always extends to a considerable 
distance to each side of the apex of the t)eud, and the neck of land 
between two consecutive bends, being eroded on both sides, gives way, 
and a cut-off is formed. 

In this manner, or the one previously described, the length of the 
river is preserved from any great variation. 

1 have as yet said nothing about the absolute size and extent of the 
sand-waves, and this I purposely left unsaid, for the greatest possible 
variety is to be found among thenf. It will not, however, be difficult to 
infer, from the foregoing remarks, that their absolute dimensions, as 
well as their position, will vary from year to year. Their dimensions 
must always express the difference between the carrying and depositing 
action of the stream, and this of course varies greatly accoiding to the 
relative amount of water and sand supplied each year. As already 
shown, the different tributaries furnish sensibly different materials, 
which difference influences this question greatly, and the length and 
extent of the floods is also a very important consideration. A short, 
violent flood creates a great disturbance on the bottom, and sets many 
large sand-waves in motion, but as the velocity of Ihe current is quickly 
checked by the rapid fall of the water-surface, it is quite unable to cut 
its way promptly through the extensive shoals created. Shoal water 
for the whole season invariably follows a sudden rapid fall. If the fall 
is gradual, the motion of the sand-waves ceases before the velocity of 
the current is too much reduced, and further supply of sand being thus 
cut off, the greater portion of the wave is carried off by the current, 
leaving only such a barrier as* can be broken through during low water 
with comparative ease. 

There are generally two floods in each year : the first occurs usually 
in March or thereabouts, and is called the spring use; the second is 
called, from the month in which it usually occurs, the June rise. 

The spring rise, being genemlly due to the melting of 8now,.&c., on 
the lower portions of the streams, may be considered as mainly lo(»l, 
and as the greater portion of this influx of water runs off or out of the 
banks, a great deal of soil accompanies it; hence, the spring rise is 
generally a very muddy one, and the quantity of material moving is a 
maximum. 

The June rise generally comes from the headwaters, and, owing to 
the distance that it travels, it brings comparatively little sediment with 
it; and although it sets the sand- waves again in motion, it rather 
decreases than adda to their magnitude, and is therefore of decided ad- 
vantage to navigation. In fact, when the June rise is small, or, as 
sometimes happens, altogether wanting, a shoal-water season inevitably 
results. 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 85 

So far we have looked upon tbe bars simply as evils to be deprecated ; 
bat there is another side to the qaestioo.. All the streams are liable to 
great floods, which carry off in a very short time a large percentage of 
the annual discharge. Daring the remainder of the season there are 
bat small additions to the volume of water, and were it not for the 
peculiar formation of these streams they would go dry, like ordinary 
torrents; but the shoals hold the water back, and it is stored up in the 
deep pools, to be drawn out gradually as tbe season advances. 

On the large streams, these pools always contain enough water to 
maintain fair navigation through the dry season, provided it be used 
with discretion ; but any attempt to tap them too soon, or too lavishly, 
will, by prematurely draining them, increase rather than remedy the 
erils complained of. 

When an improvement is projected, the bars must be looked upon as 
danis and treated accordingly, it being borne in mind that it is better 
not to increase the actual flow over the dam, but rather to decrease its 
width and increase its depth, the flow of water remaining the same. 
When proi>erly done, this need not disturb the normal state of affairs, 
while it will afford to navigation all the facilities required. Should, 
however, ill judged measures result in drawing down the level too 
rapidly, it will be found that other bars, which had before been too 
deeply submerged to attract attentidn, will now be sufficiently near the 
dorface to become obstructions in their turn, and to require works for 
Uieir removal. 

The pernistency of the principal bars is remarkable ; indeed, it is prob- 
able that manj' of them are only disturbed by the exceptionally great 
floods which occur at long intervals, and generally cause great changes 
throughout the whole length of the river. This persistency can only be 
aecoanted for by the sifting process before alluded to. Every minor 
flood sweeps out the lighter portions, leaving the heavier ones behind, 
and as this occurs year after year, it follows that the solidity of the bars 
must constantly increase, with the results stated above. 

The fact that these bars remain in one place does not conflict with 
the general motion of the sand-waves, as the latter are formed of the 
loose materials lying along the points, or in the pools, and which receive 
coostant additions every year from the caving of banks and the influx 
of the tributary streams. The permanent bars are deeply buried under 
this flood of sand, whose waves move on their course above them ; it is 
only when tbe river has fallen considerably that their location begins to 
be apparent. The first motion of the sand* waves, caused by a rise, fills 
up all inequalities in the bed of the river behind the main bars, and even 
the beds of the |>oo1s are greatly raised. 

It is always found that, during every low- water season, a limited num- 
ber of bars show considerably less depth of water than the others, and 
hence form the gauge to which navigation must adapt itself. 

As far as my experience goes, this is always due to local causes, as 
examination reveals the presence of an undue amount of gravel or other 
heavy deposit occupying not only the site of the high- water channel, 
bat that of the low-water channel al^o. This rule I l^lieve to be inva- 
riable; and I regard the proper apprehension of it to be of the greatest 
importance. 

Where bluffs are near the river much gravel is brought in by small 
creeks, and such localities are almost always troublesome, especially if 
they be near the mouth of some tributary which is liable to bring in 
considerable sediment. 

On the Lower Mississippi this cause is not of frequent occurrence, 

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86 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 

but it is, nevertheless, gravel in the low-water channel which causes 
the trouble. 1 account for this unlooked-for deposit as follows: in tbe 
constant changes which have been going on in the river, it has frequently 
happened that a combination of circumstances has directed the ordinary 
and low- water channels of the river over ground which had formerly 
been occupied only at high water, and in such cases great beds of gravel, 
due to old floods, are uncovered, either on the banks or in the bed of the 
stream, and being washed into tbe low-water channel, retard the proc- 
ess of cutting out, besides producing other complications. 

Another agency must, however, be noted here : As already stated, the 
sand-waves move on, irrespective of the permanent bars, below them, 
and it may, and quite often does, happen that a large wave may stop on 
one of these bars when the river falls ; when this occurs the crest ot the 
bar is of course much raised above its usual height, and it will become 
a prominent obstruction for the time being. As a general rule the next 
flood removes it, although in some spexsial instances several seasons have 
been required for the purpose. When an engorgement of this kind 
takes place at a bar which would be troublesome under any circum- 
stances, the effect is very marked, the ponding back of the water ex- 
tending over very great distances. Thus, in the low-water season of 
1871, the bar at Turkey Island, about sixty miles below Saint Louis 
was gorged in this manner, giving only 4 ieet available depth, with a 
very changeable channel. The water was so backed up that tbe gauge 
at Saint Louis read 5 feet above low water, although at all other iKiints 
along the river below the bar it seemed to be at its lowest stage. The 
bad bars between Saint Louis and Turkey Island never had less than 
7 feet of water over them while this gorge lasted, whereas their depth 
the next year was less than 4 feet. During the same season . Reeve's 
Bar, just below Memphis, was gorged in a similar manner, with a chan- 
nel-depth never exceeding 4^ feet, and in consequence the bars between 
Memphis and Cairo gave not less than 6 feet of water instead of 4^ feet, 
which is to be expected under ordinary circumstances. 

In all cases of bars which are habitually bad we And an unusual width 
of river. This is due to the action of the gravel-deposits before men- 
tioned, by which the low-water current is directed against the banks, 
rapidly eroding them, and the channel being already choked with sand 
keeps constantly shifting, while the current attacks both shores indis- 
criminately. In this way a great width is soon attained, and the regular 
bar-formation is entirely broken up. The gravel and other heavy ma- 
terials brought down by the flood-current are deposited without order 
or regularity, and as the great width of the river reduces the current- 
velocity, deposits of gravel, &c., arriving from above, are stopped in 
these wide reaches, as the current is not strong enough to keep them in 
motion. By the shifting action before mentioned the lighter materials 
are swept away, while the heavy ones remain, and they are frequently 
distributed across the whole width of the bed ; the low-water discbarge 
is obliged to force its way through these heavy deposits, the result being 
a very shallow channel, uncertain in location and constantly shifting. 

In cases like this, the obvious method of improvement needed is to re- 
store as much as possible the curved channel-way, which alone secures 
permanence or regularity of action, as by this means the high- water 
channel will be separated from that of low water, and will be at lit>erty 
to deposit its gravel, &c, where it will do no harm. Tbe width of the 
stream must at the same time be reduced to its usual amount, and the 
reach may also require to be shortened, so as to increase the slope and 
velocity to the proper extent. It is quite probable, too, that in a case 

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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 87 

of tbis kind, dred^ng on the line ,of the proposed low- water channel 
would be highly beneficial, as it would hasten the cutting-oat of this 
channel, and lessen the danger of the cntrent seeking some easier but 
less desirable outlet than the one selected. 

It is frequently asserted, and no doubt with truth, that navigation on 
these streams is constantly and steadily deteriorating; this, it is stated, 
is due to the fact that the floods are more violent, and of shorter dura- 
tion than formerly, the reason being that owing to the great increase in 
the extent of land under cultivation, the rain-water falling on it is at 
once absorbed, and 8|>eedily finding its way into the river runs off and 
is lost. Before the ground was cultivatecl tbe tough prairiesod was 
almost impervious to water; hence the rain-fall was stored up on the 
Mirface, and was only draincfl off by degrees. The floods were, there- 
fore less violent and of longer duration than at present 

But this is not tbe whole trouble. Violent freshets, as has already 
been explained, bring down greater masses of sediment and cause 
grater erosion ; the wash of steamboat- wheels, and the many influences 
which men exert u|>on these rivers, also cause a great increase in the 
rate of bank erosion, both on the tributaries and on the main stream. 
From all these causes it follows that the amount of sediment yearly 
poured into the Mississippi is steadily becoming greater, and tbe depth 
on the bars is decreasing. Many persons have inferred that there is 
even danger of the stream raising its bed, but tbis apprehension seems 
to be without foundation ; for as long as the banks ofifer so little resist- 
auce the stream has no difficulty in obtaining all the ciiannel-way needed, 
and hence no rise in the level of water-surface is likely to occur; it has 
to destroy the banks, leaving the heavy deposits of tbe bed untouched. 
From this action results a great increase of width, and the depth must 
be reduced in like proi>ortion, owing to the decrease in scouring force; 
moreover, the bed being wider, the channel is not forced to one detinite 
location, but has unchecked opportunity for annoying changes. 

Within tbe memory of living pilots the shoal water has extended down 
from Plum Point, one hundred miles above Memphis, to Lake Provi- 
dence, fifty miles above Vicksbnrg, a total distance of four hundred and 
fifty miles; and as these disturbing causes will act with more vigor 
every year, it is time that we should fairly face and realize the fact that, 
unless S|>ee4]ily checked, there are natural causes at work which will 
eventually destroy the navigability of the Mississippi and its tributary 
streams. 

From what has been said it may be readily inferred that a wholesale 
revetment of tbe Mississippi banks would entail the gravest conse- 
quences; the bed would infallibly be raised by the accumulation of 
deposits, and disastrous inundations would result. 

The influx of sand from above must first be stopped, then the river 
will have a chance to clear itself, and, as its width contracts, tbe shores 
can be revetted to prevent any further injurious changes. 

Before entering on the subject of improvement, however, it will be 
well to describe briefly the manner in which boats usually run, either 
from convenience or necessity, as this must necessarily have an impor- 
tant bearing on the subject. 

During extreme flood-stages the barc^are deeply submerged, and the 
current, as before stated, approximates in direction very nearly to the 
shape of the river. Down-stream boats run pretty nearly in mid-stream, 
occasionally nearing the bend shore when the curvature is considerable. 
Up-stream boats, however, keep as near the points as possible at this 
stage, and also use the chutes, for although they meet a stronger current 

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88 NAViaATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI HIVER. 

the distance saved is so ^eat as to compensate for the disadvantage of 
additional resistance. As the water falls the chutes soon get too sboal 
for safe navigation, and the water begins to draw away from the points 
and into the bends; downstream boats then have to run the concave 
shores or bends, Uut np-stream boats keep up over the bars as long as 
it is safe to do so. Finally, the water begins to pond ap behind the bars, 
and the depth on the crest decreases until a breach is formed, or, as 
the pilots say, *'the bar cut out,^ and through this gap both up and 
down-stream boats must pass, and as the water continues to fall this 
cut fills up, and after a time another one forms, but higher up stream, 
and generally of less depth. This process is usually repeated several 
times, till finally the channel may lead square across the stream, and 
be neither wide enough nor deep enough for the wants of navigation. 
Such is the usual programme, which, however, may be considerably 
varied. 

The cutting-out process explains the anomalous fact that the river 
may fall considerably with decided advantage to navigation, while a 
rise may produce diametrically opposite results by filling up the cuts 
tbrontjh the bars, without giving depth enough to go over them. Occa- 
sionally, however, the river falls so low as to be utterly unable to maintain 
a channel, and in this case a small rise generally does much good by 
increasing the volume of discharge and cutting out a good channel 
through the bars ; but to effect this it must not of course be high enough 
to flow over them. 

A long stand at one stage is also advantageous, as it gives time for 
the water to concentrate and gradually to cut out a channel. 

Such being the i^riucipal facts observed, it remains only to consider 
the principles upon which an improvement should be based. 

It must first be laid down as a cardinal principle that no work should 
be allowed which will interfere with the present navigation. As boats, 
during high stages of water, depend upon the use of the vnrious chutes 
and other similar channels, as an important means of saving distance, 
it would manifestly be improper to project any works which \\ould pre- 
vent this use, except in cases of absolute necessity, and it is thought that 
such cases will be very rare. 

As I have endeavored to show, the small depth on the bars is due to 
the reduction in velocity and sconring power which follows a diminu- 
tion of the discharge; hence it follows that the remedy should consist 
in increasing the velocity to the extent necessary to accomplish the work 
desired. 

No matter how low the Mississippi may be, there is always a sufficient 
amount of water passing to form and maintain a channel of the width 
and^depth deemed necessary for the wants of navigation, but this water 
is scalteral over so wide a channel that its capacity for work is nowhere 
utilized. It theiefore follows that, by a proi)er amount of contraction 
applied to this wide, shallow channel- way, the volume of water can be 
so far concentrated as to furnish the scouring ])ower needed. 

It must be remembered that all channels through the bars, whether 
natural or artificial, will be filled up when the sand-waves begin to move. 
The tardiness with which they again form naturally is the great impe- 
diment to navigation, and the ot»ject of any works of improvement must 
be to hasten and direct this process, so that the channel will always be 
found in the same location, will be formed promptly*, and will furnish 
the depth deemed necessary for navigation. 

From what has been said before regarding the distribution of the 
mateiials moved by the water, it must be evident that some portions of 

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NAVIQATIpN OP THE MISSISSIPPI KIVER. 89 

the bars will offer far more resistance to erosion than others, and as 
thef^ points are to be foand in the high-water channel or channels, it 
«roald therefore seem a matter of common prudence to avoid these chan- 
nels, in order to lessen the labor imposed upon the works of improve- 
ment If these works are so planned as to direct the new channel to a 
|H>int known to be in tlie line of high water deposits, the work of pre- 
liminary excavation will be manifestly far more difficult than if lighter 
materials only were to be moved; and, moreover, each flood will fill up 
the new channel with these same heavy deposits, which must so often be 
removed. 

It should, therefore, be laid down as a general rule, that, in the im* 
provement of these rivers, the artificial channels should never coincide 
with those of high water, unless the special advantages to be gained are 
SQcb as to balance the enormously increased expense and risk. It is 
not, of course, meant by this that the artificial channels should be made 
M indirect as is frequently the case when formed naturally; the increased 
scoaring force due to the works of improvement will, as a general rule, 
render this unnecessary, and there is, of course, opportunity in this, as 
iu most other things, for the exercise of good judgment. 

Having settled the direction of the new channel, the next thing is to 
determine its dimensions, which should not be unnecessarily great, lest 
the pool above be drained off too rapidly. A sate rule to follow is to 
80 |>roportion the opening that the total discharge over the bar may not 
be increased by the works of improvement, or, in other words, a suffi- 
cient portion of the water flowing over the bar must be cut off, and 
be made to flow through the bar and on the line selected. 

The works necessary to accomplish this purpose will consist of dikes, 
bailt out from one or both shores. 

Where sevenil channels exist, one or more may be closed by dams, and 
this method, where practicable, has many advantages; it allows both 
ends of the dike to be secured ; whereas in an ordinary spurdike only 
the shore-end has this advantage, and in general the work of construc- 
tion will be much easier. 

In deciding which channel to close, it is only necessary to find and 
choose those through which the flood- waters pass. As I have previously 
stated, these channels are generally only navigable at high water; they 
are filled with the heavy deposits of that stage, and should, therefore, 
riways be closed in preference to the others) In some instances there 
will be but little choice in this respect, and when this is the case, the 
channel offering the best general advantages may be left open. . 

The height given the dikes will depend upon the work expected ot 
them. They should obviously be kept as low as possible, both from 
motives of economy, and in order to impede the flood-discharge as little 
H8 |K>ssible. This matter also affects navigation very materially, c^spe- 
cially where ail^ of the minor channels are closed ; as these are navi- 
gated up stream at high water, or in fact whenever there is enpngh 
water to admit a boat, it follows that any works erected in them should 
interfere as little as possible with up-stream navigation. 

A certain height is, however, necessary, in order that the dike or dam 
may begin to defect the water in the desired direction before its volume 
and scouring capacity are too much diminished; and I think that a 
height of 10 feet above extreme low water will probably be sufficient 
lor this purpose, while the injury to navigation will be small. 

The precise manner of constructing these dikes must be largely a mat- 
ter of experiment. They will usually have to be built on sand or, at 
best, gravel, and must therefore have a broad bed of brush, to prevent 

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90 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

them from siokiog; above this, the dike shoald be composed of layers 
of brush, weighted down with broken stone. The root of the dike, that 
is, its junction with the bank, must be well secured, to prevent the water 
from getting around it. 

In some cases it is thought that training-dikes may be needed to de- 
flect the high-water discharge from that portion of the river-bed through 
which it is desirable to cut the low- water channel; these works will be 
more costly ami difficult of maintenance than those already mentioned, 
but the method of construction will be the same. They should only be 
resorted to where it is absolutely necessary. 

In order to hasten or assure the formation of the new channels on the 
selected lines, dredging will, in some cases, be of service, and this will 
especially be the case where it is necessary to take the channel through 
a bed of heavy deposits. These may be dredged out to advantage, for, 
if the contracting or training dikes are properly located, they will not be 
likely to deposit again ; but it must be distinctly understood that the 
dredging recommended is only conditional upon the erection of the other 
works. Without them it would be of no service whatever. 

In order to prevent injurious changes of channel which might destroy 
the effect of existing works or necessitate the construction of additional 
ones, a large extent of bank must be protected, and this item will be by 
far the most expensive and the most difficult portion of the improve- 
ment. The great height of the bank^, the depth of the water, and the 
treacherous nature of the banks themselves, all combine to form a prob- 
lem exceedingly difficult of solution. Either a succession of stone dikes 
or a continuous stone revetment may be used ; both are very costly, the 
latter the most so, more esi>ecially as all the stone required will have to 
come from the Ohio or Upper Mississippi. Experiment may determine 
some cheaper material or combination of materials, and it is very desira- 
ble that such should be the case. 

Finally, the security of navigation demands the removal of the snags 
and wrecks which incumber the bed of the river. 

The removal of snags is a work of indefinite duration, and a fleet of 
boats must always be kept up for that purpose. 

The removal of wrecks, although a good deal akin to the former, is 
nevertheless a work of far less extent, and may be completed in a few 
seasons. Special machinery is^ however, required, and a boat should be 
properly fitted up for this special service, and be kept at work until the 
wrecks are all removed. 

SPECIAL DESCRIPTION. 

Having now given a description of the general characteristics of the 
river and of the causes operating to the prejudice of navigation, I shall 
describe as briefly as possible those places of difficult nflvigation which 
give less than 10 feet water at all stages. They are arranged in tbe 
order in which they are met with after leaving Oairo, and their approxi- 
mate distance from that place is also given. 

Wolf Inland^ thirty miles from CairOy and just below ColumbuSy Ky. — 
This island divides the river into two channels, of which the left-hand 
one only is generally used. The right-hand channel is only available 
during high water. Just above here are bluffs, and the river is unusually 
narrow and deep. The washings from the bluff have obstructed tbe 
channel below to some extent, and have caused an undue erosion of tbe 
banks, thereby widening the river and shoaling it. Least depth of water 
8 feet. 



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zedbyCjOOgle 



NAVIGATIOK OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 91 

Phillips^i Bar, fifty-seven miles from Cairo, and five miles below the foot oj 
Island yo. 8 (Sketches Nos. 1 and 2).~-TLiis shoal is probably caused by 
gravel from the Hickman Bluffs, which is washed down througli the 
cbate of Island No. 8. As is usual in such cases, the width of the river 
has been greatly increased by bank-erosion, which in this instance, how- 
ever, seems to have been beueticial, by enabling the low- water chaanel 
to avoid the gravel deposits. In 1863 the channel led from Shotwell 
field to Phillips's house, directly through the gravel-bar, and the depth 
at low water was only 4 feet 2 inches. It is now, however, below this 
bar, and the depth has not for some years been less than 7 feet, and there 
will probably be no further trouble till the advance of the gravel shuts 
oat the present channel also. 

Island No. 10, sixty seven miles from Cairo. — ^The river here is very 
wide, and the bed is much obstructed by wrecks. Owing to those causes 
the channel is shifting, and gets down to 8 feet. The banks throughout 
the bend above are caving very badly, thus adding to the trouble 
below. 

New Madrid, eighty miles from Cairo. — In the bend below town, just 
above Dr. Martin's (Sketch No. 3), the river is much obstructed by rack- 
heapfi, and the hulls of steamboats that have been wrecked on tbem. The 
depth of water at low stages is 7 feet. 

Point Pleasant J eighty-seven miles from Cairo (Sketches Nos. 3 and 4).— 
This is one of the habitually bad places. The river, as will be seen, is 
Dearly double its usual width, and the bed is covered with gravel de- 
posits. This gravel is probably due to old changes in the river, as it is 
known that several islands have been lost sight of in this neighborhood, 
and it is quite possible that the present channel leads through some of 
the old high- water deposits. As might be expected from its general 
characteristics, the channel at low water is shifting and nncertain. It 
generally gets down to 6 feet, and has been as low as 4^ feet. 

TtptonvilUy ninety-one miles from Cairo (Sketch No. 4). — ^The river here 
is also very wide, and the channel is somewhat shifting. It gets down 
to 8 feet. 

Head of Island No. 16, one hundred and sixteen miles from Cairo 
(Sketch No. 6). — The river here spreads out to a width of one and one- 
half miles, and is pro|)ortionately shoal. There are two low-water chan- 
nels, as indicated, which have about the same depth of water. There 
are very extensive ra<*.k-heaps in the river opposite Bell's Point, which, 
by deflecting part of the water toward the Tennessee shore, may have 
caused the trouble here. The low-water channel depth is 6 feet. 

Island No. 18, one hundred and twenty -six miles from Cairo. — ^There are 
three channels here, although only the extreme left-hand one is now 
generally used. The best water is sometimes in one, sometimes in 
another, and the least depth is 8 feet. 

Island No. 21, one hundred and thirty-six miles from Cairo. — There are 
two channels here. The right-hand one alone is used. It is a good deal 
obstructed by wrecks, which have caused the formation of a large bar 
along the Missouri shore, above Mrs. Hickman's. The channel goes out- 
side of this bar and gets down to 7^ feet. 

Hmd of Island No. 26, one hundred and fifty-two miles from Cairo. — 
River wide and channel somewhat shifting ; sometimes becomes trouble- 
some, but the usual depth of late has not been less than 9 feet. 

Plum Potnt^^ketches Nos. 6, 7, and 8 show the river around Plum 
Point, which has always been regarded as the worst place on the river. 
The length of this reach, which extends from foot of Island No. 26 to 
the head of the bluffs at Fort Pillow, is twenty miles. The width of the 

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92 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 

river varies from one to three miles, and there are several islands and 
many immense sand-bars which are dry at low water. This reach ex- 
emplifies in the fullest manner the troubles attendant on excessive width, 
which have been described in a previons portion of this report. The low- 
water channel may be found anywhere between the two banks; it is con- 
stantly shifting and is often much divided. The bed of the river has 
become a receptacle for the gravel carried by the current at high v/ater, 
and the incessant erosion of the banks tends to keep up this bad state 
of affairs. The improvement of this place will require careful study. 

Foot of Island No, 26, one hundred and fifty-geven miles from Cairo 
(Sketch No. 6). — This is the first crossing in Plum Point Keach, and is 
liable to change slightly. It gets down to 5^ feet. 

The next crossing, Fletcher's (Sketch No. 7), is changeable, and some- 
times shoal. At present, it leads very squarely across the river, bat 
gives ]0J feet. 

Flmot Crossing (Sketch No. 7), the next below Fletcher's, is also 
changeable, but at present gives 12 feet. 

Foot of Island No. 30, one hundred and sixty-six miles below Cairo 
(Sketch No. 7). — This is the next crossing below Elmot's. It is very 
changeable and generally very shoal, often giving less than 5 feet. 

Osceola, one hundred and seventy miles from Cairo (Sketch No. 7). — ^This 
is next below the previous crossing, and has the sanie characteristics 
and depth. The last crossing in this reach, that at the foot of BullerDOQ 
tow-head (Sketch No. 8), is also frequently very changeable. Just now 
it is comparatively good. 

Island No. 34, one hundred and eighty four miles from Cairo. — There are 
two channels here, but the one down the chute is the best, and is now 
always used. It gets down to 8 feet. 

DeviVs Elhow^ ttco hundred and fifteen miles from (7atro (Sketch No. 9). — 
The channel has, for many years, been down the chute of Island No. 37. 
This has, however, caused gravel-bars in the old channel to produce an 
undue erosion of the banks below the island. 

The crossing from the foot of the chnte to Sexton^s ^etR down to 6 
feet; the lower crossing from Point Able to Charley Morris's gets down 
to 8 feet. 

This portion of the river is extraordinarily crooked, and the bends 
have become so long that they all have a tendency to fill up, the chutes 
thus becoming the main channels. As an example, Sketch No. 10 shows 
Brandy wine Bend, the next below Devil's Elbow. 

Fugleman's Chute, generally known as the Outlets, will, it is thought, 
become the main channel before many years. 

Island No. 40, two hundred and thirty four miles from Cairo (Sketch 
No. 11). — ^The bend here is also very long, but there will probably be no 
change of channel until one occurs above. The chute is now dry at the 
head in low water. Above Redman's Point the river is very wide, and 
there are two low-water channels. Depth of water, 6 feet. 

Just below Memphis lies President's Island, at the foot of which there 
are some very troublesome shoals. These are illustrated by sketches 
Nos. 12, 13, and 14. They are, I think, due, without any doubt, to the 
great masses of gravel which have been washed out of the bluffs at 
Memphis. The natural route for this gravel has been down the chute 
of President's Island, but enough has been deposited on the bar at its 
bead to keep up a rapid extension of the bend, which is still going on. 
The gravel which passes down the chute is deposited iu large uiasses on 
the bed of the river, from the foot of President's Island to the head of Cow 
Island, No. 47, and it is almost impossible for the low-water current to 

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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 93 

excavate a channel tbroagh it. There is a good deal of water goes down 
the chnte at low stages, which might be cut oft* and sent down the bend, 
to assist in maintaining a channel through the gravel, but this will 
necessitate reveling the shores of the bend, which are already caving 
hadlj. Deflecting dikes below may also be necessary; but the main 
point. I think, will be, first, to dredge a deep, wide channel through the 
graveU and then, if need be, to construct additional works to assist in 
keeping this channel open. The first of these shoals is at the — 

Foot of PresidenVs Island^ two hundred and fifty seven miles from Cairo^ 
and eight miles from Memphis (Sketch No. 13). — ^This crossing gets 
down to 6 feet. The next one is at — 

Uteres Bar^ two hundred and fifty-nine miles from Cairo (Sketches Nos. 
13 and 14). — This is the worst of all, as it gets down to 4^ feet, and the 
cbannel is constantly changing. 

Horn Lake^ two hundred and sixty-one miles from Cairo, — This is the 
lowest of these crossings ; it is also changeable, and at times quite shoal ; 
of late the least depth has been 7^ feet. 

BarklerodeSt two hundred and seventy-six miles from Cairo. — Gets down 
to 9 feet. 

Commerce^ two hundred and eighty-seven miles from Cairo. — Gets down 
to 8 feet. 

Below here the cut-off of last summer has completely unsettled the 
channel as far down as Bordeaux Chute. 

Sketch No. 15 is appended to illustrate what has been previously said 
reganiing the metho<l of formation of islands. This sketch shows the 
cut-off formed below Commerce last summer, which cut off Council Bend 
and made an island of Linwood Point. At the lower end, it shows an 
instance of the successive formation of islands outside of a point which 
accompanies the extension of a bend. This formation is a very old one, 
being shown on the maps of 1821 substantially as it is to-day, but, with- 
in a few years, the elongation for the given slope having become exces- 
sive, VValnut Bend filled np, and the main channel is now dtiwn Bor- 
deaux Chute. It seems quite probable that if the cut-off at Commerce 
had occurred earlier, this change might have been at least deferred, and 
it still remains to be seen how the channel here will ultimately be 
affected by the change above. If the filling up of WalnuD Bend had 
not been so far advanced, there would, 1 think, be little doubt chat it 
would have been reopened by this cliauge, but, as it is, the lost length 
will |>erhap8 be more easily regained by erosion elsewhere. 

Ship Island^ three hundred and eleven miles below Cairo (Sketch No. 
16). — The river here, as shown, is very wide; the channel is shifting, and 
gets down to 5 feet. 

Shoo fly Bar^ three hundred and fifteen miles below Cairo (Sketches 
Nos. 10 and 17). — Tbis is a very bad place. The river is exceedingly 
wide, and, as usual, a gravelly bed and sbifting channel are the results. 
There are de|K>sits of gravel along the shores, and as a good many 
changes are known to have taken place in this neighborhood, it is quite 
possible that the trouble here may have originated with some of the de- 
posits in the old high-water channels. Be that as it may, the present 
condition of affairs is such that further deterioration may be looked for, 
all the caoses being at work which have already been adverted to in 
general terms, and also described as in action at Plum Point. The low- 
water depth is 5 feet. 

Helena, three hundred and twenty-nine miles from Cairo (Sketches Nos. 
17, 18, and 19). — We have here a wide and comparatively straight reach 
of river, extending fh)m the mouth of the Saint Francis to the loot of 

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94 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

Montezuma Tow-head. The great width, probably dae to the iiiflax of 
thedei>osits of Saint Francis Kiver, renders the channel exceedingly 
uncertain and changeable. At varioas times, too, some of the crossings 
have been very shoal, although this has not occurred recently. The 
lowest depth reported was in 1863, 4 J feet. 

Montezuma Bar^ three hundred and thirty four miles from Cairo (Sketch 
No. 19). — This is also a very wide place ; the channel shifts a good deal, 
and gets down to 7 ieet. 

Island No. 63, three hundred and fifty-six mites from Cairo. — The river 
here is divided up into several channels, and the low- water depth is Sh 
Ieet. 

Head of Island No. 66, three hundred and seventy five miles from Cairo 
(Slcetch No. 20). — The river here attains an undue width in the bend 
abreast the shoulder of the island, and the water, being split up into 
several channels, generally fails to cut a passage of proper depth into 
the bend. The depth at low \Yater is only 6 feet, and the channel is 
liable to change. The trouble was probably originally due to accumu- 
lations of rack-heaps, which arrested the moving gravel, and cansetl the 
formation of bars which the current is now unable to remove or cut 
through. 

Head of Island No. 69, three hundred and ninety five miles fom Cairo. — 
The channel at the head of the island gets down to 7 feet. 

Choctaw Bendj four hundred and sixty miles helow Cairo (Sketch No. 
21). — ^Thisis a very bad place; the low- water channel is shitting and 
uncertain, and its liepth is only 5 feet. Eack-heaps at the head of the 
bend, and heavy gravel-deposits on the head ot Island No. 7S, have 
caused a great widening of the river at the expense of the Mississippi 
shore. From this has resulted a great decrease in scouring power, 
and the bed of the river is largely covere^l with gravel. The situation 
is so similar to that at Island No. 66 (Sketch No. 20), that it seems quite 
reasonable to infer that, similar causes being at work, the latter place 
will eventually be as troublesome as Choctaw is now. 

Greenvillej five hundred and seven miles below Cairo.— This crossing is 
sometimes shoal, but at present gives 8 feet. 

Yaucluseyfive hundred and fifteen miles helow Cairo. — ^Is liable to sud- 
den changes, but generally gives 9 feet. 

At Skipwith's Landing, five hundred and sixty miles from Cairo, 
begins a very troublesome piece of river, which extends to Short's 
Landing, below Lake Providence, a distance of about seventeen miles. 
In this distance there are usually five crossings, all of which are very 
shoal at low water, and are constantly changing. The river is very 
wide. Not more than 5 feet can generally be counted on at low water 
on any of these crossings. This is usually the lowest of the very bad 
places ; below here, from 7 to 8 feet can generally be found. 

The condition of the bars at Lake Providence has considerable influ- 
ence upon the condition of affairs at Choctaw Bend, one hundred miles 
above. When Lake Providence is very bad, Choctaw is usually good, 
while the amelioration of the lower shoal (Lake Providence) soon causes 
the bad water at Choctaw. This shows conclusively the effect of these 
bars in ponding back the water above them, and at the same time 
serves as an illustration of the results which would follow too lavish a 
tapping of these natural reservoirs. 

The first of the bad crossings is at the head of Island No. 93, five hun- 
hred and sixty-four miles from Cairo (Sketch No. 22). Channel depth 
at low water, 5 feet. 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 95 

The lowest crossing; is opposite Lake Providence, five bandred and 
seventy-two miles from Oairo (Sketch No. 23). Cbannel-depth^ 5 feet. 

Island No. 95^ five hundred and eighty-five miles from Cairo. — Tallala 
Bend is a good deal similar in general sbape to that of No. 66 and Choc- 
taw, but the channel-depth is not so much affected. It gets down to 8 
feet 

Terrapin-Hfeck Cutoffs six hundred and ten miles from Cairo, — There are 
two channels here of nearly equal depth. The least depth is 9 feet. 

The effect of very extensive bank-abrasion was well shown last sum- 
mer, in the harbor of Vicksburg, Miss. After the subsidence of the 
great flood of 1874, the shore of the point opposite Vicksburg caved 
in to an enormous extent. The sand thus precipitated into the river 
was washed down into tbe bend below, and the crossing from Vicksbarg 
to delta, which usually is over 20 feet deep, was shoaled to 8 feet. It 
is supposed that the next higb water will remove this shoal, and it is 
only mentioned to show what very exti^nsive and far-reaching effects 
may be produced by causes which at first sight may appear to be purely 
local. At the same time the bend of Diamond Island, sixteen miles be- 
tow Vicksburg, filled up, and the channel established itself permanently 
in the chut^". This change was also probably due to the excessive bank- 
erosion at Vicksburg. 

Bmjurant^s Point j six hundred atid ninety miles from Cairo. — The cross- 
ing from above the Point to Bruinsburg gets down to 9 feet. The river 
is wide. 

Hole in the-Wall^ seven hundred and thirty miles from Cairo. — The river 
here is very wide, and the channel-depth gets down to 9 feet. 

Natchez Island^ seven hundred and sixty miles from Cairo (Sketch No. 
24).— The river at the head of the island is quite wide, and there are 
several channels. At low water there is usually about 7 feet channel- 
depth, although it is said that there has been as little as 4^ feet. If 
this information is correct, there is of course a possibility of a recur- 
rence of this undesirable state of affairs. The bar is probably caused 
by gravel washed out of the Natchez bluffs, six miles above. 

Saint Catharines Bend^ seven hundred and sixty five miles from Cairo. — 
Tbe river here is very wide, and split up, the bars being probably in a 
large measure due to the same cause as the one at Natchez Island. The 
low-water channel-depth is 8 feet. 

GlascocJ^s Islandj seven hundred and seventy-nine miles from Cairo.— 
The river here is very wide, and recent changes in the channel have set 
the banks to caving at a rapid rate. Ellis Cliffs, six miles at>ove, have 
probably contributed largely to the formation of the bars here. The 
lowwater channel-depth is 7^ feet. 

JacksorCs Pointy seven hundred and ninety iJiree miles from Cairo. — This 
crossing gets down to 9 feet. 

Mouth Red River ^ eight hundred and twenty two miles from Cairo (Sketch 
No. 25). — A bad bar is frequently formed here by the deposits of Red 
Biver. The depth over this bar is often less than 10 feet, and is said to 
have been as little as 4^ feet, though it seems hardly probable that this 
is likely to occur frequently. It could only have been caused by a great 
flood in the Red River pouring out while the Mississippi was very low. 
Bdow Red River there is believed to be always at least 10 feet of water. 

From this list it will be seen that between New Orleans and Oairo 
there ai-e forty-three localities, scattereii over eight hundred and twenty- 
two miles of river, where less than 10 feet channel-depth may be looked 
for at low water. 

There are thirty-five places where less than 8 feet is to be expected, 

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96 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

twenty-two which give less than 7 feet, nineteen less than 6, and thir- 
teen less than 5 feet. At all these places from five to twelve miles 
of river will need to be improved, and there is no doabt that works will 
be needed at many phices not here enumerated, either to prevent injari- 
ons changes iu the channel or else to protect the works of improveuieot 
themselves. 

The cost of the work, if carried to the fall extent recommended by 
the committee, will therefore be very great, and, until some work of this 
description has been tried, it wouUI, I think, be quite unsafe to pro- 
nounce the undertaking feasible at any reasonable cost. 

It must be borne in mind that no such work has ever yet been eren 
attempted on the Lower Mississippi, so that we have really no experi- 
ence upon which to base a decision ; we only know that very great aud 
exceptional difficulties are to be expected. 

The cost of building and maintaining the dikes destined to contract 
the channel will not be nearly as formidable an item as that of the 
extensive bank revetments needed. These will be absolutely necessary 
to prevent the dikes from being cut loose from the shore, and also to 
stop the caving of the banks where injurious channel changes might 
result from a continuance of this action. As it is not an uncommon 
thing, even at low water, to find a depth along these caving banks of 50 
or 60 feet and upward, and as the caving usually extends over lengths 
of man}'' miles, the cost of protection, whether by continuous revetment 
or by spur dikes, will manifestly be enormous. It is, therefore, a matter 
of prime importance to keep this item of expense at as low a figure as 
possible, by care in locating the works of improvement, and by thoroagh 
experiments on different plans of bank revetment. 

It must be remembered that the success of an improvement based on 
the employment of dikes depends primarily on their stability, as they 
act in the manner of dams, and are liable to be undermined, to be over- 
turned by the water-pressure, or to be <]etached from the shore. The 
first danger is due to the treacherous bed on which the dike most be 
constructed, and can only be guarded against by the liberal use of brnsh 
as a foundation, in order to distribute the weight over as large an area 
as possible, and also to act as an apron in preventing scouring of the 
bed. In order to prevent overturning, a broad base is necessary, and 
the brush should be well ballasted with stone, and also further secured 
by piles. The danger of being fianked or detached from the shore is 
the most imminent, and arises from the instability of the banks. As 
before stated, the banks are eroded much more easily than the bed can 
be excavat-ed, and any great resistance to the freefiow of the water will 
be almost certain to increase the rate of bank abrasion at the site of the 
obstruction. This will render necessary the protection of the banks as 
stated, but I think that this expense maybe materially red uce«l by 
proper precautions. It should be remembered that the duty usually 
imposed upon the current by an improvement of this nature is twofold : 
in the first place, it is exfiected to excavate a channel, aud in the second 
place to maintain it; and of these two duties the first is infinitely the 
more difficult, while the second is the more important. The greater the 
amount of excavation required the greater must be the amount of con- 
traction ; in fact, usually far greater than would be necessary to keep 
the channel open when once formed. The protection of the banks must 
also be very thorough, or the dikes will be w^ashed away and the whole 
work will be very costly, and even liable to defeat its own object by an 
undue amount of scouring, which would unduly lower the pool above, 
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tbiw uuDecessarily brought in. For these reasons I think that the scour- 
ing efi'ect should be kept at a minimum, and hence the importance which 
I attach to separating the high and low water channels, in order that 
the latter may be filled only with light, easily moved materials, instead 
of gravel and the other heavy deposits of high water. For similar 
reasons I believe that the whole preliminary work of channel excavation 
should not be thrown upon tile dikes, but should be largely performed 
by dredges. After this channel is once formed, if properly located, it 
will only fill up with comparatively light materials, which will be easily 
swept out by the concentration of flow due to the dikes. Even should 
this force jiot prove sufficient, I would still advocate a sparing use of 
dredges every season in preference to increasing the dimensions of the 
dikes beyond the extent deemed necessary to simply maintain the chan- 
nel when once formed. I think that the rule already mentioned, viz, to 
maintain unchanged the amount of the discharge over the bar, but to 
concentrate it into a comparatively narrow and deep channel, will prove 
a 8afe one. 

1 trust that I have given reasons enough to show that on this rivor 
tiie necessity of a full knowledge of all the facts in the case is absolutely 
Decessary, before any estimate of cost can be made. Such knowledge 
can only be furnished by a thorough and exhaustive survey of the whole 
river likely to need improvement. 

While I consider that the attainment of 10 feet navigable depth at all 
stages impossible, I am very certain that the cost would be quite prohib- 
itory, if the full improvement were to be taken in hand at once. More- 
over, I think that the final cost would be very largely increased by such 
a procedure, owing to the great expense attendant on possible, and 
probable, mistakes in the location and construction. It is well, also, to 
remember that immense quantities of sand, the accumulation of years, 
most be moved out of the way before the work is completed, and (hat 
any very extensive and general disturbance of the bottom would cer- 
tainly break up the normal regimen of the river, and probably produce 
complications of the gravest kind. I think, therefore, that the proper 
coarse to follow will be to make the improvement gradual and iu a 
measure tentative. 

To increase the low-water depth from 4J feet to 6 feet, is, in my opin- 
ion, about as much as should for the preseut be attempte^l. This, in all 
ordinary seasons, will probably guarantee 8 feet, except for, probably, 
at the most, a few days in each year. 

After this depth shall have been obtained, it will be easy to gradually 
increase the scope of the improvement, and ultimately it may be brought 
up to the full standard deemed desirable. 

Experience gained in the preliminary work will form a certain guide 
for the more costly and extensive construction, and expensive and dis- 
astrous mistakes can probably be avoided. 

A thorough survey from Cairo to the mouth of Red Kiver cannot be 
made for less than $75,000. The work could all be done in one season, 
or spread over several, as might be deemed most desirable. 

The work of improvement, could, however, be begun on the small scale 
recommended on the upper portion of the river, say between Cairo and 
Memphis, during the coming season, as soon as the survey of that por- 
tion of the river had been completed. At all events, everything could 
he got iu readiness for work, and the necessary outfit of steamers 
liHTges, dredges, and other machinery could be procured; mateiial for 
the dikes could also be got together, so that no time need be lo>t after 
the work had been definitely laid out. 

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98 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 



I should therefore recommend for the coming season an appropi 
of $1*00,000 to be applied to the improvement of the river between 
au<l the foot of Reeves's Bar, jast below Memphis, a distance of 
2G0 miles. 

For the surveys necessary in this same section J25,000 will be m 
;)Dd for a survey of the remaining portion of the river $50,000 addi 

Tlie survey should be begun as soon as possible, and complete 
ing ihe summer low water. The work of improvement could pre 
be begun during the following winter. 

liespectfully submitted. 

CUAS. R. SUJER, 
Major of Engin 
Trig. Gen. A. A. Humpdreys, 

Chief of Engineers J U. S, A. 



C C 6. 

FIRST SUBDIVISION OF THE NORTHERN TRANSPORTATION-ROU 



refort of major d. c. houston, corps of engineers 

United States Engineer Office, 
Chicngo, IlLj January 6, : 

General: I have the honor to submit the following report 
improvement of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, Wisconsin, cal 
by the following letter: 

Office of the Chief of Enginekii 
Washington, D. C, June 29 
S[Ri The river and harbor act, approved June 23, 1874, contains appropris 
Aurvey and estimates for the improvements recommended by the Senate Coran 
Transportation-Routes to the Seaboard, upon four routes indicated in the repor 
committee, to be expended in snch manner as will secure the greatest auiount 
information for each of said routes. 

Tliti survey of that portion of the northern route designated "the Fox a 
couEitti Hivers improvement, by which 5 feet navigation will be secured dai 
tiiJtire season, from the Mississippi Hiver to Green Bay,'' is assigned to you. 

Tbe nature and object of this survey are fully set forth in the report of t 
miLt04d with its appendix and evidence, copies of which have been forwarded 
from ILis office for your information and guidance. Yoa should, as far as | 
carry out the views of the committee. 

Tbe expenses of the survey will be borne by the appropriation for the impn 
of tbti Fox and Wisconsin Rivera, it being understood that they are not to exc 
Hmftnnt of your estimate, viz, $10,000, and you will please enter upon this 
early as practicable. 

\<\M will submit for the approval of this office a project for the prosecutio 
work. 
By onmmand of Brig. Qen. Humphreys. 

\evy respectfully, your obedient servant, 

John G. Parkk, 
Major of Eng 
Ar^j. I). C. Houston. 

Corps of Enginetre^ 

In compliance with the foregoing, I submitted the following p 

United States Engineer Offic 

Chicago, III., July 9 

Grnkral: I have the honor to submit the following project for the prosec 

I bo hitrvey of the Fox and Wisconsin Rivers, called for by your letter of June 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 99 

It appears that the object of this survey is to secure the greatest amoaot of exact 
iofonnatioD in relation to the improvemeDt, and to procure data for accurate estimates 
of cost. 

The survey of the Wisconsin River, made under direction of Major Warren, in 1S67, 
eoDtaiDs all the information bearing upon this matter, so far as a survey can determine 
ir. The changes that have taken place in the river are of such a character as not to 
iffect the qnestiou of cost. 

The experience gained by our operations during the past three years will enable me 
to make accurate estimates for the improvement of tbid river.' 

Partial surveys have been made of the Fox River, which were necessary in order 
to carry on the work of improvement. I have a detailed survey of a portion of the 
Upper Fox. There are portions of the route which do not require any detailed survey 
for parposes of estimates, as, for example, the lakes Buffalo, Apuckuway, Butte de 
Hort; aud Winnebago, and portions of the rivers where there is sufficient depth of 
wat«'r for navigatiou at all times. 

I propose, therefore, to confine the survey to such portions of the river as require to 
be improved which are necessary in the progress of the work, and which will furni^ih 
all the information desired by the Senate Committee on Transportation. 

These surveys will show plans of the river with soundings, frequent cross-sections, 
and a prutile showing the declivity of the stream. 

The variations in the water-level will also be determined. Such surveys of the banks 
«ndarijoiuing country will be made as are necessary to determine amount of tiawage 
canned by our works. 

To do this work, I would request authority to employ an additional assistant at $150 
ptr month. 

Id conducting this survey in connection with the work of improvement, the cost will 
lerednced and caonot exceed the amount authorized, viz, $10,000. 
I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

' D. C. Houston, 

Major of Engineers f C S. J. 

Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphukvs, 

Chief of EuginetrSf U. S A, 

This project was approved, and tbe examinations and surveys have 
been completed. It will take some time to complete the maps of the 
sarvey, but I am able to submit revised estimates for carrying out the 
plan of improvement which has been set forth in previous reports. This 
plan consists in completing the system of slack- water navigation on the 
Foi River and the improvement of the Wisconsin River by confining 
the channel by means of wing-dams. The estimates cont<»mplate replac- 
iog altimately all the old locks and dams oil the Fox River by perma- 
nent works, the locks to be of stone masonry. 

The estimates submitted are in excess of former estimates; for the 
reason that they contemplate the rebuilding of all the old works, some 
of which will last for several years. 

Tracings of the Wisconsin River, showing work done and proposed, 
old channel and present channel, also plan of canal for connecting the 
Wisconsin River with the Mississippi, are in preparaiion. 

Owing to the character of the bar at the month of the Wisconsin, it 
is considered that the most economical and reliable method of connect- 
ing the navigation of the two rivers is by a short canal. 
I The maps giving the results of the surveys and examinations during 
1 the past season will be forwarded as soon as completed. 
I The total estimate for completing this improvement is $3,599,105. 
! The amount that can be advantageously expended during the next fiscal 
jear is $750,000. 

1 am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

D. C. HOUSTON, 



Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphbkys, 

Chief of Engineers U. S. A. 



Major of Engineers J U. S. A. 

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100 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

ESTIMATED COST OF IMPROVING THE IX)WEK FOX RIVRR, WISCONSIN. 

Part I. 
Woiks of construction : 

1(5 locks (cat-stone;, at ^0,000 each |gOO,000 

These works to replace existing works, as follows : 
1 at Depere. 
1 at Little Kaukauna. 
5 at Kaukauna. 

3 at Little Chute. 
1 at The Cedars. 

4 at Appleton. 
1 at Menasha. 
7 dams. 

These are drsigned to replace existing works; location and estimated cost 
of each as follows : 

1 at Depere $45,000 

1 at Little Kaukauna 25,000 

1 at Rapide Croche 20,000 

1 at Little Chute 20,000 

1 at The Cedars 25,000 

1 at Appleton 15,000 

1 atMeuasha 15,000 

165, 000 



Total locks and dams, Lower Fox 965,000 

Part II. 

Dredging, rock-excavation, canal, &c, : 

137,000 cubic yards dredging, at 20 cents $27, 400 

Distribnted as follows : 

4,500 cubic yards, Depere to Little Kaukauna. 

8,500 cubic yards, Little Kaukauna to Rapide Croche. 

4,500 cubic yards, Rapide Croche to Kaukauna. 
20,000 cubic yards, Kaukaun^ to Little Chute. 

9,500 cubic yards. Little Chute to Appleton. 
50,000 cubic yards, Appleton to Menasba. 
40,000 cubic yards, Menasha to Oshkosh 

33,500 cubic yards rock-excavation, at $2 67,000 

Distribnted as follows : * 
11,000 cubic yards at Depere. 

8,500 cubic yards at Kaukauna. 

3,500 cubic yards at Little Chute. 
10,500 cubic yards at Menasha. ^ 
Repairing and raising canal-banks 40,000 

Total dredging, canal-banks, &c.. Lower Fox 134,400 



• Eeoapitulation — Lower Fox. 

For 16 locks and 7 dams $965,000 

For 170, 500 cubic yards excavation, and repairing canal-banks 134. 400 



Total Lower Fox 1,099,400 

ESTIMATED COST OF IMPROVING THE UPPER FOX RIVER, W^ISCONSIN. 

Part I. 
Works of construction : 

9 locks (cut-stone), at $50,000 each t45<^, «<-a 

Of these, live will be new works and four to replace existing locks, as 
follows : 
1 near Eureka ' 



) near Berlin 

1 near White River . 

1 near Princeton 

1 near Grand River . ^ 
1 at Montello. 

1 at Governor's Bend. 

2 at Portage Cunal. 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI EI VEIL 101 

7 dams, at 112,000 each $84,008 

Fire of these to be bailt ia connection with the new locks ; two to re- 
place dams at Montello and Governor's Bend. 

Total for locks and dams 534.000 

Part II. 

Dredging, cnts-off, canals, &c. : 

5,000,000 cubic yards excavation, at 20 cents fl. 000, 000 

For widening, deepening, and revetting the npper portions of Portage 
Canal 35,000 

Total dredging, cuts-off, &c ,. 1,035,000 

BeeapiiMlation — Upper Fox, 

For 9 locks and 7 dams $534,000 

For5,000,000cnblc yards dredging 1,000,000 

Foropper section Portage Canal 35.000 

Total Upper Fox 1,569,000 

SUMMARY OF ESTIMATES. — COST OF IMPROVING THE FOX RIVER, WISCONSIN. 

Lower Fox, 

ForlClocks and 7 dams $965,000 

For 170,500 cubic yards excavation 94,400 

For repairini; canal-banks 40,000 

Total for Lower Fox $1,099,400 

Upper Fox, 

For 9 locks and 7 dams. ..^ $534,000 

For 5,000,000 cubic yards excavation 1,000,000 

For upper section Portage Canal 35,000 

Total for Upper Fox ^ 1,569,000 

Grand total Fox River 2,668,400 

TTie dredging is to be done by machines owned and operated by the government. 

BSTIMAJED COST OF COMPLETING THE IMPROVEMENT OT THE WISCONSIN RIVER. 

^141 running feet of wing-dams, at $5 $480, 705 

Bank-protection 50,000 

Canal connecting Wisconsin River near its month with the Mississippi 400, 000 

930,705 

RECAPITULATION FOX AND WISCONSIN RIVERS. 

Fox River $2,668,400 

Wisconsin River 930,705 

3,599,105 



CC 7. 

SECOND SUBDIVISION OF THE NORTHERN TRANSPORTATION-ROUTr — 

HENNEPIN CANAL. 

REPORT OF COLONEL J. N. MACOMB, CORPS OF ENGINEERS. 

KocK Island, III., January 25, 1875. 
General: I have the honor to present herewith the report of Mr. P. 
C. Dorau, assistant engineer, who was charged by me with the duty of 



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102 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

making the surveys and estimates for the Hennepin Canal route, and 
particularly for the extension to Chicago. 

In considering the Hennepin Canal as a part of the water-communi- 
cation desired for connecting some point of the Mississippi Biver, near 
Eock Island, with Lake Michigan, at Chicago, it appears that the basin 
at Hennepin is about 100 feet below the level of the Mississippi River 
in the vicinity of Rock Island, and nearly 140 feet below the level of 
Lake Michigan. 

A survey was made to ascertain if the lockage required to pass this de- 
pression of the Hennepin basin could be avoided. This survey led to 
the conclusion that, on every account, the Hennepin Canal and Upper 
Illinois Eiver, and enlarged canal from Joliet to Chicago, will afford the 
best through route for navigation between the Mississippi Eiver and 
Lake Michigan that can be secured in this vicinity. 

In the estimates originally made for a commercial canal, due consid- 
eration was not given to the necessity of having the locks large enough 
to pass such barges as are used for freight on the Upper Mississippi, 
and I therefore caused estimates to be prepared for locks of 170 feet in 
length and 30 feet in width, which will increase the estimate for the 
Hennepin Canal, or third division of the route, by some $641,284. 

For the great end to be attained, of effecting a transfer of freight- 
barges from the Mississippi, without breakin j bulk until reaching the 
elevators at Chicago, it would be useless to consider locks of any smaller 
dimensions than those above indicated. 

The most important and costly part of the route across this section 
of the country is the portion between Hennepin and Chicago ; for this 
part is essential as affording an eastern outlet for the Hennepin Canal 
traffic and for perfecting the navigation to Chicago from the Lower 
Mississippi Eiver through the Illinois Eiver, which is now being im- 
proved for steamboatnawgation from the Hennepin Basin down to the 
Mississippi Eiver. Indeed, the Hennepin Canal, without the improve- 
ment of the Upper Illinois Eiver and the enlargement of the eastern 
portion of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, would be useless as an oat 
let for the freights of the Upper Mississippi Eiver ; and a careful con- 
sideration of the subject has shown that the improvement of the Upper 
Illinois Eiver, to accord with the scheme of improvement now in prog- 
ress for its lower portion, is greatly to be preferred as a measure of 
economy in its broadest sense, rather than to undertake the enlarging 
of the western portion of the Illinois and Michigan Canal lying between 
Joliet and the Hennepin Basin. 

The improvement of the eastern portion of the Illinois and Michigan 
Canal involves the further cutting down of the summit-level and enlarg- 
ing the water-way so as to afford an unfailingsupply of water from Lake 
Michigan for the improved Illinois Eiver. 

It will be seen by the report of the assistant engineer that the estimate for the roote, 
as above sketched out, for a navifi^ble water-way from the Mississippi Kiver, near Rock 

Island, to Chicago, on Lake Michigan^ is $19,780,535 

To which should be added the amount of increase in estimate for locks of 

proper size on Hennepin Canal 641,284 

Making a grand total of 20, 421,619 

All of which is respectfully submitted by your most obedient servant, 

J. N. MACOMB, 
Colonel of Engineers^ U. S, A. 
Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineer 8y U. S. A. 

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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 103 

REPORT OF MR. F. C. DORAN, ASSISTANT EMGINEKR. 

Rock Island, III., January 9, 1875. 

Coix>nkl: I have the honir to submit the foUowinjf report upon the ezaraiDatioa 
and survey of a route for a oaoal between Lake Michigan and the Mississippi River, 
together with the survey of a portion of the Illinois River. This survey having been 
committed to ine, in obedience to your instructions, bearing date Rock Island, 111., July 
9,1874,1 proceeded to organise and equip a party for field-service. The whole time 
employed by the party in field operations was eighty-three days. Of- bis time, five 
weeks, or a little more than one month, were spent in examinations and surveys of a 
direct line joining the lake and the Mississippi ; the remaining six weeks were devoted 
to the snrvey of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and a part of the Illinois River. These 
sarveys have traversed quite a large expanse of country, having, within the time speci- 
fied, examined and surveyed lines to the extent of two hundred and twenty five miles. 

As will be seen, this report is intendeil t-o embrace a statement of facts in relation to 
tbe Illinois and Michigan Canal and Illinois River as they at present exist, with a 
description of the several improvements and enlargements proposed, together with a 
detailed tabular statement showing the estimated cost of the improvement thronghout 
the entire line, extending from the lake to the Mississippi. 

I wonld preface with a condensed statement of the results of my examination of the 
direct route first mentioned. One of the principal objects to be attained by the survey 
was to obtain data and accurate notes of the topography of the country lying between 
Lake Michigan on the east and the gpreat bend of the Mississippi on the west, and from 
tbe information obtained, to determine as to the practicability of a plan for a water- 
roote to connect the lake and the river at the points specified. 

lo compliance with yonr order, I commenced the survey of the proposed lino at the 
city of Chicago, Augnst 24, proceeding thence in a west and northwest direction, sur- 
moQDting tbe dividing ridge between the lake and Fox River, crossing the valley of 
Ibis stream and ascending the valley of Person's Creek, reaching the summit and pass- 
ing through a depression in the ridge dividing the valleys of the Fox and Rock Rivers 
at a point near the western boundary of Kane Coanty. 

Tbe topography of the country is snch that it would necessitate the location of the 
snmmit-level at an elevation of 250 feet above the lake. 

From this point the line followecl the course of the sonth branch of the Kishwankee 
River, descending with it to the valley of the Rock River. At this time it was found 
that the facts developed during the survey furnished sufficient evidence to demonstrate 
conclusively the impracticability of the route as proposed ; and, the object of the survey 
baring been attained, I suspended further operations, and terminated the survey of 
tbis line at a point near New Milford, Winnebago County, September 3'), the terminal 
point being eighty and five-tenths miles from the lake at Chicago. 

As my weekly reports to you contain detailed information as to thn physical char- 
acteristics of the country and its adaptability to the purposes in view. I will not revert 
to them again, but will proceed with the report of surveys of the other lines previously 
referred to. 

The snrvey of the Illinois and Michigan Canal and the Des Plaines and Illinois 
Rivers was commenced October 5, at the old lock in tbe canal at Chicago, and was 
continued along the canal and river to where the canal unites with the river at La 
Salle, buspendiug field-work at this point November 10. The entire distance, as meas- 
nred along the canal and rivor, is 99.28 miles. Of this distance 36.53 miles is canal 
and 62.75 miles river line ; 32.65 miles of the former lie between Chicago and Juliet ; 
the first 29.55 miles of this constituting the snmmit-level of the canal. The lockage on 
tbis rente is all descending from the lake, and amounts to an aggregate of 145.6 re;;t, 
as determined by our levels. 

In order to carry out your instructions, a thorough reconnaissance was made of the 
country, extending from the lake to a point in tbe present line of canal some eighteen 
miles out from the lake, known as Sag-Ridge, including the Calumet Feeder route. 
But as these examinations failed to discover any route pi>ssessiDg as favorable features 
utbe existing line of canal presented, and as this canal had been originally located 
with great care, it was detenniued to adhere to the present alignment. 

The original proposition in regard to tbe enlargement of this work to dimensions 
corresponding to those adopted on the Lower Illinois River improvement has been 
kept in view, and all quantities and the cost of the entire work have he-n calculated 
in accordance therewith. The dimensions there adopted, as you are aware, are as fol- 
lows, viz, lock-chamber, :J50 by 75 feet. A restriction to those dimensions is rendered 
necessary in order to produce a complete and homogeneous syHtem of navigation be- 
tween the lake and the great rivers of the West. 

It is believed the proposed plan of enlargement of the Illinois and Michigan Canal, 
combined with the improvement of the river and the construction of the Hennepin 
Caoal, will, when c<>mpleted, meet the wants of the commercial world, affording as 
well facilities for the passage of war- vessels from the rivers to the lakes, or vice versa. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



104 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 

The plan of locks adopted, although identical in size of chamber with tbone con- 
st rncted on the lower part of the IlRnois River, would diflfer somewhat in detail of 
construction and in the material employed in the gates. 

The general features of the country along the line of canal and river are so well 
known to you that any minute description in this report would seem superfluous. 
Yet, while refraining from such description, I deem it necessary to call your attention 
to the geology of the district, as it is believed that in ao other route between the lakes 
and the Mississippi River are the natural elements used in construction found in such 
abundance and in such accessible positions. In fact, the geological features of this 
route render it pre-eminent in the matter of economy of construction. 

In view of the fact that different styles of navigation are proposed on different parts 
of the route, I have divided it into three divisions. The first division consists of 
independent canal from Chicago to Joliet; the second division, extending from Joliet 
to La Salle, will consist of an improvement of the river by locks and dams, being vir- 
tually a continuation of the slack water navigation projected in the river below La 
Salle. The third division consists of independent canal, corresponding to the line 
adopted and known as the Hennepin Caual, extending from the Illinois to the Missis- 
sippi River. 

As it is proposed to draw the supply of water f r the canal and river from the lake, 
all elevations are referred to the low- water plane of Lake Michigan ; and as the course 
of the canal is la'd down on the maps, it will not be necessary to advert to that here. 

First division,-— The canal commences with an average water-section equal to 44H 
square feet, with a variable depth of from 6 to 8 feet of water. As will be noticed, its 
course coincides with a right line for a distance of seven and a half miles, at which 
point it is deflected to the south and continues parallel to the valley of the Des Plaines 
River nntil it nnit« s with the latter at Joliet. The physical dif&culties to be over- 
come along this line are of an ordinary character, being such as are common to works 
of this class in almost all parts of the country. 

The first fourteen and a half miles of canal are excavated through a compact blue 
clay to an average depth of 16 feet. On the latter half of the fif eenth mile ruck-exca- 
vation begins, and, with the exception of a few short iotervaln, this material continues 
to exist along the line to a point below Joliet. 

At Lockport a section of the valley of the Des Plaines River was taken, which will 
be shown on the sheets accompanying this report, from which it will be seen that the 
valley is a little more than one mile in width, with a thin drift of clay over the rock, 
the river-bed occupying at this point the central line of the valley. 

As this had previously been designated as a favorable point at which to leave the 
canal for the river, I examined the valley with great care, and submit a section to show 
the superiority of the present location and the impracticability of any plan tending to 
a change in the direction mentioned. 

As will be observed, the present channel is insignificant, the bottom of the river 
being but little below the general deviation of the valley; any channel of suflflcient 
capacity to accommodate heavy vessels would, therefore, be expensive compared to 
the present line of improvement. One-half mile in advance of the point where the 
above section was taken, and .30.65 miles from Chicago, lock No. 1, of 12 feet liH^, is 
met. One mile beyond, lock No. 2, of 10 feet lift, occurs ; a reach of less than 1,000 feet 
brings us to lock No. 3, of 10.67 feet lift, and 1.46 miles from lock No. 3, a combined 
guard and lift lock connects the water in the third level with the surface of the pool 
produced by dam No. 1 in the Des Plaines River at Joliet. The canal continues 
eight-tenths of a mile, joining the river at a point six-tenths of a mile above dam 
No. 1, and 32 65 miles oat from Chicago. The total lockage on this division is 34.7 
feet. 

Prior to the year 1872, the snmmit-level of the Illinois and Michigan Canal was some 
8 feet above the standard level of Lake Michigan, and the quantity of water requisite 
to maintain navigation on the summit-level of the canal was supplied from Lake Calu- 
met by a feeder and from the Chicago River by expensive pnmping-maohinery. 

Some time during the year 1866 the board of public works of the city of Chicago 
entered into a contract with the State to cnt down and reduce the summit-level of the 
canal to the elevation of the lake. 

The object of this work on the part of the city authorities was to obtain an outlet 
for the south branch of the Chicago River; that being a receptacle for the sewerage 
of a large part of the city. 

This contract was satisfied, the work completed, and navigation on the canal re- 
sumed Jnly 18, 1H72. The exertions'and labors of the ciry to rid itself of a nuisance 
were not in vain ; the residents of the city were relieved of a truly great evil, and the 
problem of securing a permanent and ample supply of water for thd canal was prac- 
tically solved. 

Happy as such results were, the work, from its contracted dimensions, ufibrded only 
partial iclief; and recent drainage iniproveuieuts in the vicinity of the city have 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 105 

prored quite detrtmeatal to and interfered v^ry seriotvily with the city's purposes and 
iotereiite io respect to this work. 

In view of the many benefits that would accrue to the city in case of a further en- 
IsTKemeot of this eaoal, as contemplated, the question is believed to bj pertiuent, 
Will the city assume her portion of the cost of such enlargement t 

One of the important duties of this surrey was to determine accurately the volume 
of warer to be drawn from the lake to maintain a depth of water in the river after it 
sboald be improved. 

Experience on the summit-level of the canal, since it has been Hupplied from the 
like, proves conclusively that the varying stages of water in the lake very materially 
iffectnaTiipUioD on this part of the canal. This fact is more noticeable during periods 
when the direction of the wind is parallel with the axis of the canal ; the fluctuations 
is tbeelevatiou of the surface of the water being directly traceable to this cause. 

As it was important to discover what relation this action of the wind bore to the 
Tolame of water discharged in different sections of the canal, I made a series of observa- 
tions with that end in view. The results of these observations have not only answered 
M a check upon theoretical deductions, but have also proven a valuable aid in decid- 
ing as to the depth and inclination to be given to a channel tba!) would be practically 
frMfrom the evil effects due to the cause mentioned. 

At an average stage of water in the lake, the present section of canal delivers, at 
Loekport, according to onr measurements, 17,800 cubic feet of water per minute. 
Under the present arrangement, part of this quantity is used to drive mHchinery ; a 
psrt is wasted into the river below ; the remainder beiug used to supply the locks and 
short reaches of canal between this point and Joliet. 

I have calculated the probable quantity of water necessary to supply the river and 
canal after improvement, and find that t{,064 cubic feet per seooad will l>e required. 
This amount includes losses from evaporation and filtration, aud a quantity equiva- 
lent to one lockage every ten miuutes. 

To meet these demauds and tfae wants of the proposed navigation, it will be neces- 
sary to construct a channel 160 feet wide at the water-liue and ti feet deep, with 
slopes of If to 1. These dimensions give a water area equal to I,IG8 square feet, the 
slope or fall to be 0.28 feet per mile. 

The proportions of this section would be variei somewhat where the rock excava- 
tioD occurs, the width being reduced to 150 feet and the side slopes i to 1, while the 
depth and inclination would remain constant. The mean velocity of the water in this 
ebaooel would be 106.2 feet per minute, or 1.21 miles per hour, with a discbarge of 
124,042 cubic feet per minute. 

U will be noticed that the areas of the proposed channel and the present channel 
ire as 2.6 to 1, while the respective capacities |>er minute are as 7 to I. 

Inspection of the profile shows the proposed grade of the canal at Loekport to be 
some 6 feet below the grade of the present canal at the same point. I have proposed 
to raise the level between locks Nos. 1 and 2, cou inning the summit-level to lock No. 2 ; 
also, to raise the level between 2 and 3, dispensing with the construction of one lock 
and reducing the total number of life-lock^ ou the division to three, with an average 
lift of 11..57 feet. 

Tfae estimate contemplates a gnard-lock and waste-weir on the summit. It i^ pro- 
posed to construct the former at the head of the canal at Chicago, and to locate the latter 
near lock No. 1, below Loekport. It also provides for revetting the side slofies of the 
ea6al where it is not in rocic excavation. A towing-bank has not been included in the 
estimate, as it is presumed that the most approved methods of propelling vessels will 
be adopted on this route. Ouo double-track railroad draw-bridge and two wagon-road 
draw. bridges are the principal accessory works on this division. The estimate covers 
others of minor importance. This division will cost $11,5:32,932.40, or an average per 
mile of $353,229.17. 

Second Dirinon, — ^This division will consist of slack- water navigation, except a short 
line of independent canal around the rapids in the river at Marseilles. 

From a point a short distance above the city of Joliet the Des Plaines River flows 
in a southwest direction for a distance of sixteen miles; here it unites with the Kan- 
kakee coming in from the soutbea«>t, and forms the Illinois. The latter follows a course 
almost directly west to beyond La Salle. 

On the first five miles ot this division the river has cut through the bottom of the 
drift, forming its bed in the limestone beneath. At the end of the fifth mile, counting 
from the eaat line of this division, the rock makes a dip and does not appear again until 
the fiftieth mile is reached. • 

Throughout the remainder of the distance, except one or two short intervals, the 
Ateeam flows over a rocky bed. 

The Des Plaines and Illinois Valley is from a mile to a mile and one-half wide, and 
^ftHes greatlv in its character in different portions of the country, which is due to the 
different geological formations that outcrop alon^ its course. 

On the upper portion of the stream, below Joliet, the rock underlying the valley is 



Digiti 



zedbyCjOOgle 



106 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEfi. 

covered with a stratom of yellow marly clay ; farther down this is again overlaid with 
a thin layer of hlaok mold, deposited during the periods of high water. Jast ahove 
and helow the town of Morris, the valley increases in width, and there is a greater 
depth of soil. At these points the valley, helDg very fertile, is advantageonsly culti- 
vated. Passing beyond this westward, near the eastern boundary of La Salle County, 
we find the Saint Peter's sandstone formation ; considerable areas of rock being laid 
bare in the valley, renders it unfit for cnltivation. 

Near Utica the oalciferous formation underlying the Saint Peter's comes to the sur- 
face. Some distance yet beyond this occurs one of those peculiar dtps in the stone 
formation known as an anticlinal axis. Here, as noticed by Professor Freeman, is a 
remarkable change ; the harder character of the calciferoos rocks has resisted the 
eroding action of the water in the valley better than the softer material of the coal- 
measures, and the surfnco of the valley is mostly above the level of the freshets of the 
river. But as soon as the coal-measures are reached, beyond Utica, the whole valley 
is denuded, so that it is annually overflowed by the rise of the river. 

Throughout the entire course of the stream as examined, it was noticed that there 
have been but few changes in the course of the bed through the valley. 

There is evidence of a change having taken place at La Salle. Opposite that city 
there exists a bayou, extending from the river, near the entrance of the canal, parallel 
with the general course of the valley up to a point near the Illinois Central Railroad 
bridge. This bayou presents the appearance of having been the main channel of the 
river in the past. The location relative to the present channel i;\ ill be shown on the 
maps. 

The principal atflnents of the Illinois which enter from the north are the Dn Page, 
An Sable, Fox, and Little Vermillion Rivers, while from the south come th'f Kan- 
kakee, Mazou, Waupecan, and Great Vermillion Rivers. As these streams have, like 
the large one, worn their way down through the drift, they have undoubtedly attained 
a constant regimen. 

It is thought that the amount of matter discharged by these during times of flood 
cannot have a very considerable effect on the condicion of the Illinois River after im- 
provement. 

Soundings were taken throughout the entire length of river examined, and cross- 
sections of the valley were run at intervals, and near the site of any proposed work 
or improvement the general contour of the valley was closely noted. The river is 
tolerably uniform in width, averaging a little more than 600 feet between banks. 
These latter are from 10 to 25 feet above the surface of low water. 

Although the width of the channel is, in a measure, constant, the depth of the sec- 
tion and the inclination of the surface of water varies greatly at different points. 
The maximum fall occurs at the Marseilles Rapids, being 9.36 feet per mile. The mini- 
mum is found through what is known as Joliet Lake, where the surface has an incli- 
nation of xihjs feet per mile. 

Owing to the great rise in the surface of water during freshets, it will be neqeseary 
to x)lace draw-spans in the bridges crossing the river. This estimate covers the cost of 
such draws where not already provided. 

Throughout the survey the river continued at its lowest stages. It was carefully 
gauged at diff'erent points while in this condition. At a section nine miles below Joliet 
the discharge was 523 cubic feet per second. At La Salle the discharge was 933 cubic 
feet per second. The total fall in the plane of low water was found to he 103 feet. 
The velocity varies greatly, being that due to the fall, with the necessary modifications, 
at different points. 

It is proposed to overcome the natural descent of 103 feet by means of eleven locks 
and dams ; the dams to be constructed of wooden cribs, filled with stone, to have stone 
abutments ; the locks to be of cut stone, and of the same dimensions as those on the 
first division; the whole to be built in the most substantial manner. Eight of these 
locks and dams will be founded on rock. At the sites chosen for the remaining three 
I found it impossible to ascertain accurately the outline of the rock. I have, thcre- 
forft, estimated for bearing-piles and concrete at each of these. 

Two of the dams necessary already exist ; one at Joliet and one at Marseilles. These 
will be slightly increased in height. 

^ The following is the location and height of the several dams, together with the posi- 
tion and lift of the accompanying lock, reckoning the distance of each from the east 
line of the division, or where the canal joins the river. y-"^ 

Commencing with the dam in the river at Joliet, belonging to the State, and known 
as Dam No. I, we find it is .65 mile beyond the jnnction of the canal. This dam will 
be raised four-tenths of a foot. Lock No. 4, of 13 feet lift, will be located here. One 
mile from this is the second dam, owned by the State. It is proposed to remove tbis, 
and also the stone arches that span the river at this point, aud replace them with an 
iron draw. 

Passing beyond, 2,000 feet, we find Dam No. 2. This dam was originally bnilt for 
milling purposes, and is not in good condition. It is thongbt advisable to remove this 



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zedbyCjOOgle 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 107 

dam, replacing it by another 12^ feet in height. Look No. 5, of I0| feet lift, will be 
located at tUiH point. 

The Bite of Dam No. 3 and Lock No. 6 is chosen on the tirst half of the fifth mile. 
This lock has a !UI of 9^ feet, the dam rendering the channel navigable for 2.7 miles. 

On the eleventh mile ooonrs Dam No. 4 and Lock No. 7, of 10 feet lift. This dam 
raises the surface of water S\ feet, the pool being 5.7 miles in length. On the eighteenth 
mile Dam No. 5 creates a pool seven and a half miles long. At this dam IjSok No. 6 
connects with a pool 12.4 miles in length, formed by Dam No. 6, located on the thirtieth 
mile. Here we have Lock No. 9, of 8 feet lift, falling into the pool of the Marseilles 
Dam. This dam, situated at the end of the forty-third mile, is to be raised 2.3 feet, 
fpving a navigation of 13.1 miles. Here Lock No. 10, of 14 feet lifl>, with a reach of 
independent canal 2.8 miles in length, forms the navigation around the Marseilles 
Rapids. The first dam below the rapids is known as No. 8. This dam produces a suit- 
able depth of water for 3.7 miles from the preceding lock to Lock No. 11, of 10 feet lift, 
which opens into a pool 6.4 miles in length, formed by Dam No. 9, located on the fifty- 
foorth mile. Lock No. 12, of 6 feet lift, corresponds to Dam No. 9. 

At the end of the sixtieth mile Dam No. 10 creates a pool of 6.9 miles in length. 
Lock No. 13, of 9 feet lift, opens into a pool five miles in length above Dam No. 11. 
This dam raises the surface of water 4.6 feet, and is the last of the series required to 
make the navigation complete. The location for this was chosen on the sixty-fifth 
mile. Here Lock No. 14, of 5 feet lift, joins the contemplated navigation with the 
existing slack- water improvement below. 

A more extended examination might result in a change in the final location of the 
dama ; yet such changes c-annot afiect the estimate to any considerable extent. 

Before the improvement of this division is commenced, a series of observations should 
be inaugurated, with a view of obtaining a more thorough knowledge of the river under 
its varving stages than could be obtained during the short period allotted to this sur- 
vey. Again, it would be of interest to compare carefully the real with the calculated 
efltecta produced on this portion of the river by the improvement of the division above. 
Soch a course might lead to an important modification of the plans proposed. 

As shown by the survey, the damages resulting from overflow of lands adjacent to 
the river amount to so little that they can be omitted here. 

This division will cost $4,347,679.80, or an average of $65,254.07 per mile. 

Third DivtBtoff, — November 14 I received an order to resurvey a part of the western 
division of the Hennepin Canal route, and to examine the country Iving between th» 
fiock and the Mississippi Rivers ; the survey to be conducted especially with a view to 
ascertain the most favorable point on the river at which to establish the western ter- 
mioQs of this route. 

With a small party I repaired to the field, but the inclement weather interfered very 
nrionsly with the work. The bad state of the weather continuing, and the close of 
the season being at hand, it was determined to i)ostpone this part of ^he work until 
the opening of another season. 

Doring a hurried examination of the country I fonnd another reason for deferring 
the work in the fact that this survey should, to accomplish the best result and to furnish 
the information desired, embrace a resurvey of the entire western division of tbis route. 

The notes collected are too meager to base an estimate upon, and I refrain from 
expressing an opinion as to the iirobable relative advantages of certain proposed ter- 
minal points. 

The prices of the various kinds of work here included were fixed after consulting 
the most reliable local sources. 

The surveys that have already been made of the principal part of this route render 
it possible to begin the location and actual construction of the work at as early a day 
as may be convenient to the authorities in charge. 

This division will cost (according to a former estimate for a commercial canal) 
$3,899,722.64. 

In closing this report, I desire to tender thanks to the State canal authorities for 
their cordial co-operation and for the many courtesies extended to us. 

The commercial importance of this groat route has been so thoroughly dincussed and 
80 aniversally conceded, that I deem it unnecessary to refer to that view of the subject 
10 this connection. 

The maps, plans, and profiles to accompany this report are preparing, and will be 
submitted as soon as completed. 

Appended to this report, as before mentioned, is a statement in detail of the cost of 
the tirst and second divisions of the work. 

The following summary shows the number of miles, the amount of lockage, and the 
total cost of the entire work complete, extending from Lake Michigan to the Mis- 
sissippi : 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



108 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI EIVER. 
SUMMARY. 



Length. 



Lock«g«. 



First dlvlftlon 

Second division 

Firatand aeoond diviaiont oombioed 

Third division 

The whole roate complete from Lake Michigan to 
the Miaairaippi River, embracing the flrat, aeoond, 
and third diviftiona 



MUbm. 
32.65 
06.63 
99. S8 
65.31 



164.59 



Feet 
34.7 
103.0 
137.7 
999.0 



I 



436.7 



Average coat 
per mile. 



$353,939 17 
65. 254 07 
1.59. 959 83 
59, 710 90" 



120, 180 66 



Ttotalccat. 



$11,533,93)40 
4.347,879 60 
15,88e.8lS« 
3,899,738 64 



19,780,534 84 



* Inclading the coat of the feeder. 



Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

CoL J. N. Macomb, 

CorpB of Engineers, (7. S. A. 



F. C. DOBAN. 

Civil Engineer, A89it1a9i, 



Digitized by CjOOQ iC 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 



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Digitized by VjOOQIC 



110 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

SECOND DIVISION. 

Sslimate of the cost of eleven dams and eleven locks between Joliet and La Salle^ to give l-feet 
navigaiionj the lode being of sufficient dimensions to pass the largest class of river-steam- 
boatSt viZf 350 /ecf between the gates and 7b feet in width. 

SECTION ONE. 

Lock No. 4 and Dam No. 1 : 

Cost of lock $187,424 

RaisiDg dam 5, l';j4 

Total 192,608 

SECTION TWO. 

Lock No. 5 and Dam No. 2 : 

Cost of lock $189. RH4 

250 linear feet of dam 40,284 

Two draws in road-bridges 20,000 

Removal of old lock and dam 2,000 

Removal of etone bridge and replacing with draw 12,000 

Draw in railroad-bridge 12,000 

Removalof Cat Island 2,490 

Total 278,658 

SECTION THREE. 

Lock No. 6 and Dam No. 3 : 

Cost of lock $207,9.'^ 

1,090 linear feet of dam 149,841 

Dredging at Joliet Bar 97,646 

Total 455,426 

SECTION FOUR. 

Lock No. 7 and Dam No. 4 : 

Cost of lock $199, 9S3 

445 linear feet of dam 59,446 

Dredging at bar8No8.2 and 3 9,875 

Draw in road-bridge 9,000 

Removal of Kankakee feeder aqnednct 1,000 

Total 279,304 

SECTION FIVE. 

Lock No. 8 and Dam No. 5 : 

Cost of lock $201,3.33 

950 liDcar feet of dam 152,098 

250 feet of dike across slongb « 1,250 

Draw in road-bridge at Morris 9,000 

Total 363,681 

SECTION SIX. 

Lock No. 9 and Dam No. 6 : 

Coat of lock 1 $204,317 

540 linear feet of dam 91,924 

Total 296.241 

SECTION SEVEN. 

Lock No. 10 and Dam No. 7 : 

Cost of lock $184,385 

Raising dam 13,950 

Excavation of independent canal aroaud rapids at Marseilles 613, 782 

Draw in road-bridge at Seneca 9,000 

Dredging at bars Nofi.4 and 5 959 

Total 822,076 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEK. 



Ill 



SECTION EIGHT. 

Lock No. 11 ftDd Dam No. 8 : 

Co«t oflock $206,714 

500 linear feet of dam 75,281 



ToUl 281,995 

SECTION NINK. 

Lock No. 12 and Dam No. 9 : 

Coat of lock 1208, 2a'> 

?00 linear feet of dam .•. 104,631 

Draw in road^bridge at Ottawa 9,000 

Draw in railroad-bridge at Ottawa 15,000 



Total 336,916 

SECTION TKN. 

Lock No. 13 and Dam No. 10 : 

Cost of lock ii20r>,959 

860 linear feet of dam 129,984 

Total 335,943 

SECTION ELEVEN. 

Lock No. 14 and Dam No. 11 : 

C«*t of lock 1210,830 

575 linear feet of <lam 98,940 

Total 309,770 

RecapitHlation of the cost of eleven dams and eleven loektfor the lUinoie RiveVf beUieen JoVxci 
and La Salle, designed to give J-feet navigation, the locks to be 350 feet between miter-sillSj 
and 75 feet wide in the chamber. 



Numbcmoflocltsa 
dam a.' 


nd 


Lift. 


1 Lf Dgth of dam. 


Length of pools. 


Cost of coDstractioD. 


Lock. 1 Dam 


Feet. 


Feet. 


1 Mile*. 


Amount. 


4 


1 


13.17 


: 300 


1 0.65 


1192, 608 00 


.•s 


i! 


9.00 


250 


i l.Ol 


2^8. 658 .30 


f, 


3 


11.00 


1.090 


8.69 


4.'V5, 426 00 


7 » 


4 


10.00 


440 


.5.69 


279, 304 00 


8 


5 


&00 


950 


7.46 


36;), 681 00 


9 





8.00 


540 


12.38 


296,241 00 


10 


7 


14.00 


> 930 


' , 13.08 


822. 076 00 


11 1 


8 


10.00 


[ 500 


3.67 


281,995 00 


13 


9 


6.00 


1 900 


6.44 


336.916 00 


in 


10 


9.00 


i 860 


6.86 


3.35, 943 00 


H , 


11 


5.00 


: 575 


4.96 


309, 770 00 


Total 










3, 952, 618 00 







Total coMt of construction 

Add 10 per cent, for contingencies. 



$3,952,618 00 
395,261 80 



Total 4,347,879 80 



CCS. 

THIRD SUBDIVISION OF THE NORTHERN TRANSPORTATION-ROUTE. 

bepobt op major j. m. wilson, corps op engineers. 

United States Engineer Oppice, 

Oswegoy N. T., December 2ij 1874. 
General: Tbe act of Congress approved June 23, 1874, directed that 
certain snrveys and estimates should be made of the various routes ot 



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112 NAVIGATION OF THE MlSSLSSIPl*! RIVER. 

transportcatioD recommended by the select committee of the United 
States Senate in their rei>ort of April 24, 1874. 

On the 2d of July I was notified by the Chief of Engineers that he 
had assigned to me, in addition to my other daties, the subject com- 
prised in the third subdivision of the northern route, viz, the examina- 
tion and formation of estimates of the probable cost of the enlargement 
and improvement, with the concurrence of the State of New York, of 
one or more of the three water-routes from the lakes to New York City. 

These include the Erie Canal from Buffalo to Albany, the Oneida 
Lake Ship-canal from Oswego to Albany, and the Champlain Shipcaual 
from Lake Champlain to deep water on the Hudson River, includiDg 
such connections as may be ett'ected between Lake Champlain and the 
Saint Lawrence River, with the co operation of the British provinces. 

In September I was instructed by the Chief of Engineers that, upon 
the Champlain route, Troy would be the southern limit of my field, as 
far as the Hudson River was concerned, and, at a later date, I was 
further directed to include in the consideration of that route the alter- 
native of leaving the river above the Troy dam, and continuing the 
route by ship canal to Albany. 

OBJECT OF THE SURVEYS. 

The object of these surveys and estimates was to secure the greatest 
amount of exact information in reference to the cost of enlarging these 
great water-routes between the lakes and tidewater, so that they 
should comply with the requirements of the present age, and affonl 
ample fiicilities to the rapidly increasing demands of the Great West 
for the transportation of her products to the markets of the East. 

CHABACTEB OF THE WOKK. 

The national character of this great work, the benefits to be derived 
from each route, and the combined benefits of the proposed system of 
improvements, have been so ably and thoroughly discussed by the United 
States Senate committee, and their views supported by such a mass of 
statistics, that I am satisfied that it is neither expected nor desired that 
I should enter into a discussion of its necessity, and I shall therefore 
confine myself entirely to a description of the routes and the engineer- 
ing operations required, and present necessary estimates of the cost of 
carrying out the end in view. 

Immediately after the receipt of my instructions, I entered upon the 
duties assigned to me, and proceeded to gather all possible data upon 
the subject. The limited funds at my command, $6,000, rendered it 
necessiiry that 1 should avail myself of all the information I could 
obtain from surveys already made, and through the great courtesy and 
kindness of the chief engineer of the State of New York and his assist- 
ants, who promptly placed the records of their offices at my service, 
I have only found it necessary to make new surveys over portions of 
the routes, but have caused complete and careful reconnaissances to be 
made over all three lines, and have personally examined the most im- 
portant localities. 

DIVISION OF THE WORK. 

The subject naturally divided itself into three parts, and to emzXh 
division 1 assigned capable and efficient civil engineers with proper as- 
sistants. 



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NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 113 

The r6|>orts of these gentlemen, transmitted herewith, are the result 
of earefal stady and close examination, and their reputations in their 
profession are such that the utmost reliance can be placed upon their 
conclusions. i 

It will be perceived that free use has been made of the reports of pre- 
vious surveys of these various routes, but every item has been closely 
and carefully studied before being offered as correct, and the rei>orts 
are replete with data never before presented. 

THE ERIE-CANAL ROUTE. 

History and description of the present eanaL— This great water route, 
passing through the garden-district of the Empire State, connects Lake 
Erie at Buffalo with the Hudson River at Troy and Albany. 

In 1808 the surveyor-general of New York was directed to survey a 
route for a canal from the Hudson River to Lake Erie. Three years later 
a commission reported that a continuous canal on '*an inclined plane' 
was practicable, and iu 18II the legislature directed the construction of 
the present route. The war of 1812 prevented the continuation of the 
work, and nothing further was done until 1816, when a new commission 
was formed. 

The work was commenced July 4, 1817, and completed in 1826. The 
prism of the canal was 40 feet at surface, 28 at bottom, with a depth of 
4 feet, and it was navigable at that time for boats of seventy-six tons 
burden. 

In 1834 the legislature of New York directed that double-locks should 
be constructed on a part of the line, and in 1835 its enlargement was 
authorized, so as to be navigable for boats of two hundred and forty 
tons. 

It is now three hundred and fifty-one and seventy-eight hundredths 
miles long, with seventy-one lift and two guard locks, and a lockage of 
654 A feet ; the lift-locks are all double except at one or two localities, 
and at those places it is anticipated that the work of doubling will soon 
be completed. These locks are 110 feet long, 18 feet wide, with a depth 
of 7 feet on the miter-still ; the maximum lift is 15^ feet, which occurs 
at Albany. 

The priam of the canal is 70 feet at surface, 56 feet at bottom, with a 
depth of 7 feet from Albany to Rochester; at Rochester, it is 71 feet 
wide at the surface, and 53 feet at the bottom, with a depth ot 7:^ feet ; 
it increases regularly from Rochester to Lockport, at the latter place 
being 98 feet on the surface and 79 at the bottom, with a depth of 7^ 
feet; the grade of the bottom between these last-mentioned places is 
forty-three thousandths of a foot to the mile. 

From Lockport, for three miles, the canal passes through a heavy 
rock-cutting ; the prism is 62 feet on the surface and 60 feet at the bot- 
tom, with a depth of 9 feet; to Tonawanda, twelve miles, using Tona- 
wanda Creek, it is 200 feet wide on the surface and 9 feet deep; to Black 
Bock, eight miles, it is 80 feet wide on the surface, 60 feet on the bot- 
tom, and from 8 to 9 feet deep. 

The boats now navigating the canal are 98 feet long, 17/j feet wide, 
and draw 6^ feet; the maximum burden is two hundr^ and forty tons; 
the trunk of the canal is capable of doing three times the business done 
with the present class of boats. 

Enlargement of locks. — In 1863 surveys and estimates were made under 
the direction of the State engineer of New York for coirstructing a series 
of enlarged locks alongside the present ones, so as to pass gunboats 

H. Ex. 40 8 Digitized by CjOOglC 



^, 



114 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIV£B. 

from tide- water to Lake Erie. This was done carefally, elaborately, and 
faithfully, and a fall aud detailed report submitted. 

To that report 1 am indebted for the most valuable information, and 
I have fully relied upon the data it contains, knowing the high char- 
acter and ability of the engineers engaged upon the work. 

Olject of the present examination. — The object of the present examina- 
tion and estimate is to determine the cost of enlarging one tier of the 
present locks, so as to pass boats 210 feet long and 25 feet wide, with a 
draught of 6^^^ feet, the burden being six hundred and ninety tons, and 
to deepen the canal to 8 feet, e:gcept upon mechanical structures. 

The enlarged locks are to be 225 feet long, 26 feet wide, and the depth 
upon the miter-sill will be 7 feet. 

Mr. Octave Blanc, assistant engineer, whose report is transmitted 
herewith, has most carefully studied the whole subject, and presents 
estimates for enlarging one tier of the present locks, &c. This plan is 
recommended by him, except in certain localities, and in this recom- 
mendation he is sustained by the most competent canal engineers. 

I have thoroughly examined the case and personally inspected the 
most prominent localities along the whole line, aud agree with him per- 
fectly. Although estimates have heretofore been made both for a new 
tier of locks and for enlarging the present ones, I earnestly recommend, 
should the work be undertaken, that the latter plan be adopted. In 
enlarging one lock navigation will.be only partially impeded, and if 
appropriations are made so that materials can be purchased in the sum- 
mer aud delivered at the proper localities, the work can be rapidly ad- 
vanced during the winter; moreover, boats of the size now navigating 
the canals will, in case the locks are enlarged, cease to be used in a few 
years, and then, if the demands of commerce render it necessary, the 
other locks can be readily improved. 

In accordance with my instructions, these estimates have been pre- 
pared for stone locks only, using the best class of materials. In a work 
of this magnitude only the most durable materials should be used. 

Deepening the canaJ, — In the advancement of science, it is certain that 
steam-power upon the canals will erelong be used entirely, and, there- 
fore, every facility should be offered for the rapid (uovement of boats. 
During the past season great progress has been made in the use of steam, 
and the fact has been clearly shown that, with extended facilities for its 
use, cheap transportation over this canal can be secured. The present 
boats, drawn by horses, consume from ten to twelve days in going from 
Buffalo to Albany, while the steam canal-boats used the past season 
have made the trip in six. For this reason I have thought best to esti- 
mate, also, for deepening the canal, so that there will he nowhere, except 
upon mechanical structures, a less depth than 8 feet. This will give 
sufficient water to allow steamboats drawing 6^ feet to navigate the 
canal without difficulty. 

Water-supply.^Mr. Martin King, assistant engineer, has given the 
subject of the water-supply the most careful attention, and the statement 
prepared by him, and submitted in Mr. Blanc's report, give^ sufficient 
data to show that a full supply can be maintained without difficulty. 

In the last report of the canal commissioners of the State of New 
iTork the following statement occurs : 

The whole number of boats cleared at Buffalo during the season of 1873 shows a 
daily average of nearly fifty, which may be classified as follows : 

Grain-boats, daily 30 

Lamber-boatB, daily 10 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI KIVER. 115 

Stoves, sblngles, and boops boaU, daily 5 

Ifiacellaneoas cargo boata & 

Totol 50 

Fifty boats clearing and fifty arriving, making one bnndred lockages per day, or nine- 
teen thonsand lockages in tbe agg^gate daring tbe past season, wbicb is eleven tboa- 
sand less tban can be made witb single locks alone. 

The new boats to be used will have a capacity of more than three 
times those now in use, and for this reason I have concluded that a 
water-supply sufficient for the passage of one hundred of these will 
accomnioilate the demands of commerce for many years to come, and 
have based my estimates accordingly. 

The main supply of the canal between Bufifalo and Clyde is derived 
from Lake Erie, and the source is ample for tbe purpose, if properly 
managed. 

The Montezama level, the lowest on the canal, drains from both sides^ 
and has never given trouble. 

The Port Byrou and Jordan levels, which have given rise to questions 
as to the sufficiency of their supply, are shown to have a surplus of over 
8,000,000 cubic feet per twenty-four hours, a fact certainly to be a source- 
of gratification, as all natural feeders have already been brought inta 
use. 

Upon the Rome or long level there is at present a large sniplas, and 
the Fish Creek feeder, for which estimates, based upou quantities a» 
given in the report of the New York State engineer lor 1864, have been 
made, can supply in addition over 10,000,000 cubic feet per twenty-four 
hours throughout the season. As the present Oneida Lake Canal is* 
also to be supplied from this level, but has not been considered in Mr* 
Blanc's report, allowance must be made for it; it will require about 
6,000,000 cubic feet per twenty-four hours, leaving still a large available 
surplus for the long level. 

From this level to Albany the supply is abundant and far in excess 
of the demand. I am therefore satisfied that a full and sufficient supply 
of water can be obtained to answer all the demands of commerce for 
many years to come upon the Erie Canal with its locks enlarged. 

Present project. — It is now proposed to enlarge one tier of the present 
locks throughout the whole line of the canal, except at Albany, West 
Troy, Lockville, and Lockport. 

At Lockville, the new canal, three-quarters of a mile long, as projected 
by 6tate Fngineer Stoiy, of New York, is recommended, with two locks 
of 12-feet lift each, thus cutting off the bend in the present canal, and 
overcoming the fall with two instead of three locks, as at present. 

At Lockport it is also deemed best to construct a new flight of locks, 
as recommended by the same engineer, alongside the present ones, and 
ovefcomiog the fall with three instead of five locks as at present. This 
is 80 arranged that, should it be demanded in the future, another tier 
can be constructed. A new race is also projected, with drop over 
breast walls instead of the inclined plane now used. 

Cost of the project. — The cost of the proposed work, which includes 
the enlargement of locks, changes in aqueducts, bridges, culverts, &c., 
incident thereto, and deepening the canal, so that there will be nowhere, 
except upon mechanical structures, a less depth than 8 feet, will be as 
follows : 

Locks $4,421,711 80 

Aqnedncta, culvert*, bridges, «&c 363,777 25 

Removing beoch-walls 710,000 OO 

WideDiDg canal near aqueducts 9,92S OO 

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116 NAViaATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

Deepening canal • $l,36t,24t 00 

Land damages 190,000 00 

Engineering and contingencies, 10 per cent 6{:)b,665 50 

Fish Creek feeder 430.276 00 

Total 8,173,596 55 

Or, without deepening the canal, $6,676,231.45. ' 

Time of completion, — In the opinion of the most competent engineers 
this work could be completed in two years if proper appropriations 
shonld be made. The summer could be used for transportating the ne- 
cessary materials to the upper localities, and the work would be done 
during the winter with but a partial interference with navigation for 
two seasons only. 

THE ONEIDA LAKE SHIP-CANAL ROUTE. 

History avd description of the route. — ^This route includes the Welland 
Canal, which connects Lake Erie with Lake Ontario, Lake Ontario from 
Port Dalhousie to Oswego, the Oswego Canal enlarged, to the mouth of 
Brandy Brook near Phoenix, N. Y., a new canal and Oneida Kiver to 
Oneida Lake, the Lake and Oneida Canal to Durhamville^ and the 
enlarged Erie Canal to Albany, thus making a through water-route con- 
necting Lake Erie with tide-water on the Hudson. 

The early history of inland navigation between Albany and the lakes 
shows that the regular line of communication was by way of the Mo- 
hawk Elver, Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, and the Oneida and Oswego 
Eivers, the only break being near Rome. 

The project of improving they Mohawk and cutting a channel across 
the portage near Home, attracted attention at a very early date, and 
reference was made to the subject by the surveyor-general of New York 
in 1724, and the governor in 1768. 

In 1791 the legislature directed surveys and estimates to be made for 
building a canal across this portage, and in 1808 the surveyor-general 
of New York reported that a canal could be constructed from Oneida 
Lake to Lake Ontario. 

In 1825 the construction of the Oswego Canal was commenced, and 
in 1828 it was completed to its junction with the Erie Canal ; in 1847 its 
enlargement was authorized, and this was finished in 1862 ; in 1832* a 
canal connecting Oneida Lake with the Erie Canal at Higginsville was 
authorized, and it was completed in 1836 ; in 1839 the improvement of 
the Oneida Kiver was undertaken, and upon its completion, in 1850, 
there was a direct water-line upon this route from the tide- wider to 
Lake Ontario for boats of seventy-six tons burden, drawing 3^ feet 
water. 

In 1867 a new line was located for the Oneida Lake Canal, intersect- 
ing the Erie Canal at Durham ville, and its construction, together with 
the improvement of the Oneida River, was ordered so that boats of two 
hundred and forty tons burden could pass from the Hudson at Albany, 
to Lake Ontario at Oswego ; the work upon this improvement is now in 
progress. 

The present route. — At present the route, including the incomplete por- 
tion, consists of the Oswego Canal to Oneida River, thence by that 
. river to Oneida Lake, thence through the lake and Oneida Canal to 
Durham ville, thence by the Erie Canal to Albany. The total length of 
this route is two hundred and seven and nine hundred and thirty-five 
thousandths {207^^^^) miles as follows : 



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, NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVEB. 117 

Hilet. 

From Odwego toPhcenix .• 20.5 

From PhcBDixto Ooeida Lake, via Oneida River 21.634 

Through Oneida Lake to canal 21.339 

Oneida Lake Canal to Darhamville 5.081 

Dnrhamville to Albany 139.380 

Total 207.935 

There are thirteen lift-locks between Oswego and Phoenix, with a lock- 
age of 112.67 feet ; upon the Oneida River there are two lift-locks, with 
a lockage of 7.13 ; upon the Oneida Canal, six lift-locks, with a lock- 
age of 62 feet ; and apon the Erie Canal, forty-six lifD-locks, with a lock- 
age of 426.96 feet; mtiking a total of sixty-seven locks, with a lockage 
of 608.76 feet, of which 181.08 feet ascends, and 426.96 feet descends 
eastwardly. 

The new project. — It is now proposed to enlarge this route, which na- 
ture has provided and art improved, by constructing a ship canal from 
Oswego to Albany. 

THE WELLAND CANAL. 

« 

The new Welland Canal, now in process of enlargement, will be 
twenty-seven and one-fifth miles long, with a lockage of 326 feet ; its 
prism will be 150 wide at surface, 100 feet at bottom, with a depth of 13 
feet; the locks, twenty-five in number, will be 270 feet long, 46 feet 
wide, with a depth of 12 feet on the miter-sill. This will admit the pas- 
sage of vessels 250 feet long, with a carrying-capacity of 50,000 bushels 
of wheat. Vessels of this size, passing through the canal and Lake 
Ontario, will transship their cargoes at Oswego to steam-barges with a 
carrying-capacity of about 25,000 bushels of wheat, or to barges to be 
towed with a capacity of 28,000 bushels; and for the passage of these 
barges through to the Hudson it is proposed to construct the Oneida 
Lake Ship-Canal. 

THE NEW CANAL. 

The survey and estimates for this route have been in charge of Mr. 
James S. Lawrence, a competent and careful engineer, whose report is 
transmitted herewith, and to which I refer for details. 

Mr. Lawrence has given the subject close study for the past four 
months, and his report is replete with Interesting data ; his estimates 
have been made for substantial structures of the most durable char- 
acter. 

THE ROUTES FROM LAKE ONTARIO TO ONEIDA LAKE. 

Two routes from Oswego to Oneida Lake are presented for considera- 
tion, the one by using the Oneida Biver throughout its whole length ; 
the other, by what is known as the '^cross-cut line," which leaves the 
Oswego Canal near Phoenix, makes a new canal, two and three-fourths 
miles long, to Peter Scott's swamp on the Oneida Eiver, thence along 
that river a short distance, thence again by a canal two and one-eighth 
miles long to a point on the river near Brewerton, thence by the river 
to Oneida Lake. 

By this latter route, the distance from Oswego to the lake is lessened 
nearly seven and one-half miles ; but the cost is about $962,000 greater; 
the advantage gained in distance is, however, so great that this route 
is considered the more preferable of the two, and is recommended as 
the one to be used. 



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118 NAVIGATieN CF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

Tke route propcsed, — The proposed route on this line is therefore as 
follows : 

From Oswef^o to moutb of Brandy Brook, near Pbcen ix, N. Y 20. 50 

From Dear PbcBnix to Oneida Lake, by canal and Ooeida River 14. 146 

Oneida Lake to Oneida Lake Canal 21.339 

Enlarged Oneida Canal to Dnrbamville 5.082 

Enlarged Erie Canal, from Durbamville to Albany 139.380 

Total 200.447 

Total distance, about two hundred and one-half miles. 

The prism of the canal and the locks. — The prism of the canal will be 
140 feet at the surface, 120 feet at the bottom, with a depth of 10 feet; 
the locks will be 185 feet between the quoins, 29 feet wide, with a depth 
of 9 feet on the miter-sill ; this will pass boats 170 feet long, 28 feet beam, 
■and drawing 8^ feet, with a carrying capacity of 28,000 bashels of 
wheat. 

There will be sixty-seven lift-locks between Oswego and Albany, with 
a lockage of G08.76 feet, of which 181.8 will be ascending and 426.96 
descending to Albany ; there will also be two side-cut locks to enter the 
Hudson River at Troy. 

It is, of course, not contemplated that lake-vessels of large tonnage 
and expensive equipment will navigate this canal, but that their cargoes 
will be transferred at Oswego to steam-barges carrying 25,000 bushels 
of wheat, or to barges of a little greater capacity, which will be towed. 
This subject is thoroughly discussed in the report of Hon. W. J. Mo- 
Alpine, who has fully considered the question of the cost of transporta- 
tion ; the whole appears in the report of the United States Senate com* 
mittee, and it is not deemed necessary to dwell further upon it here. 

The water-supply, — Mr. Lawrence has given close attention to the sub- 
ject of the water-supply upon this route, and presents an array of facts 
which conclusively proves that all the water can be obtained that the 
demands of navigation will require. 

The large area from which Oneida Lake draws its supply, together 
with the Oneida, Oswego, and Seneca Kivers, furnishes an abundant 
supply of water from Oneida Lake to Oswego, and the transfer of a por- 
tion of it through Fish Creek feeder to the long level would scarcely be 
noticed. 

The Eome or long level furnishes the supply for the Oneida Lake 
Canal, and the lockage upon this route near Utica ; the present supply 
upon this portion is shown by Mr. Lawrence to be in excess of the 
demand, but it is deemed necessary to recommend the construction of 
Fish Creek feeder, as planned by the New York State engineers, as an 
additional source of supply in case of accident. This will furnish over 
10,000,000 cubic feet daily, and a large portion of the supply thus 
diverted from Oneida Lake will be returned to it through the Oneida 
Lake Canal. 

Should circumstances ever render it necessary to obtain a still greater 
supply upon this portion of the route, reservoirs could be constructed for 
storingthe waters of the spring season at the headwaters of the Mohawk, 
of Fish Creek, of Black River, and among the Chenango Hills. 

From Utica to Albany, the principal supply is from the Mohawk ; 
additional amounts being received from minor feeders at various points. 
The supply upon this portion of the route is shown to be sufficient for 
the demand. 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 119 

COST OP THE ONEIDA LAKE SHIPGANAL. 

The estimates made for the construction of this canal show that the 
approximate cost will be as follows : 

From Oswego to mouth of Brandy Brook $2,652,736 50 

Frommovthof Braody Brook to Oneida Lake 1» 505,208 00 

Ooeida Lake, excavation and piers .' 83,025 00 

Ooeida Lake Canal to Dorhamville 782,899 00 

Engineering and contingencies, 10 per cent 502,386 85 

Land damages em route 397,341 50 

Total from Oswego to Durbamvillo 5,923,596 85 

Erie Canal portion of Oneida route. 

Dorhamyille to Albany, including side-cnt locks at Troy ....^ $17,012, 142 40 

Land damages en rottto 1,847,842 00 

Fish Creek feeder 430,276 00 

Total from Durhamville to Albany 19.290,260 40 

From Oswego to Dnrbamville 5,923,596 85 

From Durhamville to Albany 19,290,260 40 

Total from Oswego to Albany, N. Y 25,213,857 25 

Time of completion. — The time of completion would of coarse depend 
upon the amount of the annual appropriations ; if funds were promptly 
supplied, the work could probably be completed in four years. 

THE CHAMPLAIN SHIPCANAL ROUTE. 

This route, connecting Lake Erie with the Hudson River, includes the 
Welland Canal, Lake Ontario, the Saint Lawrence River and. canals to 
Gaughnawaga ; a new canal from Caughnawaga to Saint John's on the 
Bichelieu River ; the Richelieu River to Lake Ghamplain ; Lake Cham- 
plain to Whitehall ; a new canal in connection with Wood Creek to Fort 
fidward, and the Hudson River, by means of slack-water navigation, to 
Troy; from there the route is contiuued to New York, either by the 
Hudson River with increased depth, or by leaving the river above the 
Troy dam, and passing, by means of the Lower Mohawk and the Erie 
Canal enlarged, to deep water at Albany, N. Y. 

THE WELLAND CANAL. 

The new Welland Canal, as previously stated, will be twenty-seven 
and one-fifth miles long, with a lockage of 32G feet, and capable of 
passing vessels with a carrying capacity of fifty thousand bushels of 
wheat. 

THE SAINT LAWRENCE RIVEE AND CANALS. 

From Kingston to Caughnawaga, on the Saint Lawrence River, the 
distance is one hundred and sixty -nine and one-half miles; the canals 
around the rapids, above Canghnawaga, are five in number, with an 
aggregate length of thirty-five and one-eighth miles, a lockage of 162 
feet, and twenty-two locks ; upon the downward trip of steamers these 
canals are not used. At present, the locks are not capable of passing 
hoats of greater burden than seven hundred tons, but it is stated that 
theCanadian government proposes to enlarge them so as to pass ves- 
sels of the same size as will navigate the Welland Canal, and to improve 

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120 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIYEB. 

the river-channel so as to obtain a depth of not less than 12 feet through- 
out its entire length. 

THE PROPOSED CAUGHNAWAGA CANAL. 

The Canadian government has granted a charter to a private company 
to construct a canal from the Saint Lawrence River, at Caughnawaga, 
nine miles above Montreal, to Saint John's, on the Eichelieu River, in 
connection with the Chambly Canal, thus connecting the Saint Lawrence 
with Lake Champlain bj a new route. The prism of this canal is to be 
150 feet wide at surface, 100 feet at bottom, and the depth 13 feet; the 
locks are to be 270 feet long by 45 feet wide, with a depth of 12 feet 
on the miter-sill, so as to pass boats with a carrying capacity of about 
50,000 bushels of wheat. 

Survey and estimate of cost of Caughnatcaga CanaL — ^This canal will be 
thirty-two and one-fifth miles long, with three locks and a lockage of 2^ 
feet. The original surveys were made in 1848 by the late J. B. Mills, an 
engineer of great experience, and the route has been examined several 
times since by able men in the profession, and pronounced perfectly 
feasible. A recent approximate estimate of its cost, made by Hon. 
Walter Shanley, civil engineer, based upon the original estimate of Mr. 
Mills, places the cost of the construction of the canal at $5,500,000 
(gold) ; the cost of the necessary improvement of the Richelieu River is 
estimated by Hon. John Young, of Montreal^ at $35,000 (gold). 

OBJECT OF THE PRESENT EXAMINATION. 

The object of the present examination and estimates is to determine 
the method and cost of constructing a ship canal from Whitehall at the 
head of Lake Cbamplain to Fort Edward on the Hudson, and to improve 
the navigation of the latter river by locks and dams, so that, in connec- 
tion with the Saint Lawrence liiver and Canadian canals, steamers with 
a carrying capacity of about 50,000 bushels of wheat can pass directly 
from the lakes to deep water on the Hudson without breaking bulk. 

The surveys and estimates for this route have been in charge of Mr. 
Charles A. Fuller, an able civil engineer, of great experience upon pub* 
lie works. Mr. Fuller has personally examined the whole route from 
Caughnawaga to Albany, and has given the subject his earnest attention 
for the past four mouths. To his report, wliich is transmitted herewith, 
I refer for details. 

History of this route, — Immediately after the Revolutionary war, the 
suVject of a water-route from the Hudson to Lake Champlain ^ as brought 
forward, and in 1791 the legislature of J^ew York State directed surveys 
and estimates to be made for this purpose. In 1792 a company was 
organized with the intention of completing the water-connection through . 
the valley formed by the Hudson and Lake Cbamplain, and work was 
commenced upon a canal from Whitehall to Fort Edward; it was, how- 
ever, abandoned on account of the great cost of rising from the lake 
through the rock- formation to Wood Creek. In 1816 the New York 
State legislature authorized its construction, and in 1822 it was opened 
for navigation. 

The prism of the canal at this time was 40 feet at the surface and 4 
feet deep, and the locks 90 feet long and 15 wide. From time to time 
the depth has been increased, and in 1870 the legislature of New York 
directed that the prism throughout the canal should be 5S feet at the 
surface, 44 feet at the bottom, with a uniform depth of 7 feet. This- 
improvement is now in progress. 



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NAYIQATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIYEB. 121 

The proposed route from the Saint Lawrence to Troy, — ^The distances 
opoo this roate are as follows : 

HUM. 

From Caofi^hDawaga to Saint Joho^s 32.50 

From Saint John's to Roase^B Point 22.00 

From Souse's Point to Whitehall 111.00 

From WhitehaU to Fort Edward.: ^ 24.13 

From Fort Edward to Troy 39.80 

Total from Canji^hnawaga to Troy 229.43 

Of this distance, fifty-four and a half miles are in Canadian territoiy. 

From Rouse's Point to Whitehall, through Lake Ghamplain, no diffi- 
colty will be encountered in obtaining the full depth required, and the 
labor will therefore be upon the canal and river between Whitehall 
and Troy, N. Y. 

The proposed canal. — The summit-level of the present Ghamplain Canal 
is 147 feet above tide- water, and between the lake and Fort Edward 
there are seven locks, with a lockage of 51 feet. 

It was at first thought best to estimate for enlarging this canal to 
Fort Edward, and there to lock into the Hudson River. A survey for 
a new line, making use of Wood Creek, however, developed the' fact 
that a canal could be constructed with a summit-level of 135 feet above 
tide-water, and this has been adopted. 

This canal will be 24.13 miles long. The level of Lake Champlain 
is 96 feet above tide-water, and of the Hudson River, at Fort Edward, 
118 feet above tide. The rise of 39 feet from the lake to the summit, a 
distance of 9.38 miles, will be overcome with three locks, and the fall 
of 17 feet to the river, a distance of fourteen and three-fourths miles, 
with one. 

Oar attention was first called to this new line by Canal Commissioner 
Barkley, of New York, to whom I am indebted for most valuable in- 
formation and suggestions, and the survey made through his courtesy 
showed that it was eminently a desirable one. It has, therefore, been 
adopted; and it is proposed, in connection with Wood Creek, to con- 
stroct a new canal from Whitehall to Fort Edward, connecting with the 
Hudson River at the latter place. 

The prism of the canal — ^The canal will be 150 feet wide at surface, 100 
feet at bottom, and the depth will be 13 feet; the locks will be constructed 
of the best masonry, and will be 270 feet long, 45 feet wide, with a depth 
of 12 feet on the mitersill, and capable of passing vessels with a carry- 
ing capacity of about 50,000 bushels of wheat. 

Dams* — A dam, 125 feet long, across the mouth of Wood Creek, extend- 
irfg from the Whitehall lock to the east bank of the creek, will be required 
in order to raise the level to the next lock. 

Bridges, — There will be twelve highway, one tow-path, and two rail- 
road bridges required. Those for the highway and railroad will be 
swiog'bridges of 190 feet span. 

Th5 river improvement. — From Fort Edward to Troy the distance is 
39.8 miles, with a fall of 118 feet. 

It is proposed to render the river navigable for this distance by exca- 
vating wherever necessary, and by constructing suitable locks and 
dams. The channel will be 200 feet wide, with a depth of 13 feet. 

Locks and dams. — The fall of 118 feet will be overcome by eleven locks 
and dams, and five auxiliary breast-dams. The locks Vill be of the 
same dimensions as upon the canal. The dams will be constructed of 
masonry laid in cement, with aprons of timber and stone. Of the six- 
teen dams required, fourteen will be new ones, aggregating 7,037 feet in 

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122 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

lengtb. The dam at Troy, 1,100 feet long, will be raised about 2 feet. 
The new dam at Saratoga Falls, 846 feet long, will require no change. 

Water-supply. — Careful surveys of the region in the vicinity of the 
headwaters of the Hudson, from which the water for this route will be 
derived, have recently been made by Prof. F. K Benedict, and show 
that an abundant supply can be obtained. At present, the capacity of 
the Hudson to furnish the required amount is ample, and this could be 
greatly increased by a proper system of dams and reservoirs at the 
sources of the river to retain the surplus water until required. A large 
additional supply can be obtained by directing the flow into the Hudson 
of certain lakes that now empty into the Saint Lawrence. 

Professor Benedict states that at present there can be supplied, over 
and above the amount now flowing into the headwaters of the Hudson, 
*' 60,000,000 cubic feet per diem," or more than the entire amount 
required for the supply of the enlarged canal. 

In this connection, I quote the following from the report of Mr. Ver- 
planck Colvin, made to the legislature of New York in 1873, on the 
topographical survey of the Adirondack wilderness : 

It is to be remarked that if, at any fatare time, it should become necessary to have 
a greatly-increased sapply of water for the Hudson River or canals, even these distant 
lakes and rivers can be made tributary. The water of Smith's Lake, and of the lakes 
and streams emptying into it, could be turned by a dam and canal into Charley Pond, 
which empties into Ltttle Tnpper's Lake. By oorresponding treatment, the waters of 
the latter could be led into Stony Pond, which empties into Long Lake, and then by 
the dam and canal, long since proposed by Professor Benedict, lead to the headwaters 
of the Hudson, nearly doubling the upper water-shed of that noble river. In view of 
the proposed Champlain ship-canal, this source of water-supply may be of interest; 
but though the expenditure to render it available would be trifling, the consequential 
damages to mill-owners in the settlements, on the lower waters of the streams thus 
diverted, would be considerable. 

The amount now required for the use of the canal for a period of 220 
days, with one hundred lockages daily, is estimated at 57,119,794 cubic 
feet daily, or 39,666 cubic feet per minute. The report of the State 
engineer of New York shows the supply at present to be as follows : 

Wood Creek can furnish 6,671 cubic feet per minute. 

Glen's Falls feeder can famish 22,715 cubic feet per minute. 

Total supply 29,386 cubic feet per minute. 

Leaving a deficiency of 10,280 cubic feet per minute. This can be sup- 
plied by either enlarging Glen's Falls feeder, or by raising the water of 
the Hudson to the proper height by a dam above Fort Edward, and using 
the old Fort Edward feeder, which, since the construction of the Glen's 
Falls feeder by the State of New York, has been no longer necessary, 
the latter furnishing all the water required for the present Champlain 
Canal. The latter plan is recommended, being the cheaper of the two. 
There is no question but that an abundant supply of water can be ob- 
tained upon this route. 

Cost of the project — ^The following approximate estimate of the cost is 
submitted : 

Canal dtinnon. 

Dams $9,939 55 

Locks 5M,8ft7 84 

Prism 1,998,958 66 

Regulating-weirs 61,545 78 

Bridges 340,764 80 

Fort Edward dam and feeder 282,708 00 

Property damages 145,831 00 

Engineering and contingencies, 10 per oent 343,363 56 

Total 3.776,999 19 

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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 123 

Hirer dirhian. 

Dtms $733,318 32 

Locks 1,714,464 88 

Channel 4.157.r)96 00 

Levees and property damages 100,000 04 

EogioeeriDg and cootiDgeocies, 10 per uent 670,537 92 

Total 7,375,917 16 

Summary, 

Canal division 3,776,999 19 

River division 7,375,917 16 

Total from Lake Chaoiplain to Troy 11,152,916 35 

Time of completion, — ^The time required for the completion of this great 
work woold of coarse depeud upon the annual appropriations ; if funds 
were promptly supplied the route could be opened for navigation in 
three or four years, and operations could be made to keep progress with 
those upon the Caughnawaga Canal. 

CANAL FROM THE HUDSON, ABOVE TROY, TO DEEP WATER AT ALBANY. 

The result of operations upon the Hudson River rendered it question- 
able whether a full depth of 13 feet could be maintained between Troy 
and Albany ; and while the study of that subject was confided to that 
distinguished and accomp]ishe<l engineer, General John Newton, I was 
directed to prepare an estimate for a canal from near Troy to Albany, 
in order to complete the connections for vessels of a carrying capacity 
of 50,000 bushels of wheat, between the lakes and deep water upon the 
Hudson. 

This project being a portion of the Champlain route, the plans and 
estimates for it were assigned to Mr. G. A. Fuller. 

It is proposed to leave the Upper Hudson at what is known as the 
Lower Mohawk entrance, and, using the bed of the old stream, to lock 
np, with one lock of lOJ feet lift, into the present Erie Ganal, near the 
West Troy weighlock. The channel of the Mohawk will be 200 feet 
wide and 13 feet deep ; this will necessitate considerable rock and earth 
excavation. 

Leaving this channel near the Troy weighlock, the present Erie Ganal 
will bo widened to 150 feet at surface and 100 feet at bottom, and deep- 
ened to 13 feet. 

The locks. — There will be three locks ; one to rise from the river to the 
canal at West Troy, one between Troy and Albany, and the third at the 
exit into Albany Basin ; these locks will be 270 feet long, 45 feet wide, 
with a depth of 12 feet on the miter-sill, and capable of passing vessels 
of the same size as those with which it is proi)Osed to navigate the 
Champlain Ganal and Upper Hudson. 

The water supply, — ^The present water-supply is sufficient for the demand 
upon this portion of the route, if devoted to its legitimate purposes. 

The cost of this route. — The cost of this portion of the route, from the 
lower entrance into the Hudson River of the Mohawk, above the Troy 
dam, to deep water at Albany, is estimated as follows : 

Kobawk River diyision, two and one-fonrth miles $568, 210 64 

Erie Canal divisioD, six and six-handredtbs miles 1,670,754 58 

Property damages 4>4,650 00 

Eogioeering and coDtiogenoies, 10 per cent 269,361 51 

Total 2,962,976 73 

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124 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

Time of completion. — 'the time of completioa will depend upon the 
amoant of appropriation, and ttie operations can be made to keep prog- 
ress with those upon the other portion of the route. 

GENERAL REMARKS. 

In presenting this report, I desire to state that I hare given carefal 
study to the subject, and have visited the most important localities, go- 
ing over portions of the route on foot in order to thoroughly acquaint 
myself with the difficulties with which it would be necessary to con- 
tend. 

The gentlemen in charge of the various routes have given their whole 
attention for the past four months to the subjects assigned to them, aod 
present a large amount of interesting information. 

For the data upon which we mainly based our calculations I am in- 
debted to the reports of the canal engineers of New York State. These 
gentlemen, together with the canal commissioner in charge of the east- 
ern division of the State canals, have given me every possible informa- 
tion in their power. 

New surveys were made for the line of the proposed Ghamplain Canal; 
also of the Lower Mohawk, for the connection with the Erie Canal at 
West Troy ; of the Erie Canal from Albany to West Troy, and in the 
vicinity of Cohoes, and of portions of Oneida Lake. Cross-sections of 
the country along the route of the Oneida Ship-Canal were made between 
Lake Ontario and Oneida Lake, and from Durhamville to Albany. All 
the locks, aqueducts, culverts, weirs, bridges, &c., upon the existing 
routes were examined, and careful inspections made to appraise the land 
damages that would accrue should it be concluded to undertake the 
improvement upon either route. 

The survey for the cross cut from Phoenix to Oneida Lake was made 
by the State Engineers C. A. Sweet and M. S. Kimball, to whom I am in- 
debted for valuable information ; that of the new route from Whitehall 
to Fort Edward, by Mr. 6. T. Hall, assistant engineel*; those of Oneida 
Lake, the Erie Canal at Cohoes, and between Troy and Albany and the 
Lower Mohawk between Cohoes and West Troy, by Mr. W. P. Judson, 
assistant engineer. The latter has also rendered valuable assistance in 
the preparation of the estimates and charts on all three routes. 

For the estimates for improving the Hudson River the map prepared 
by Mr. S. McElroj, civil engineer, in 1866, was used ; full reliance being 
placed upon the data it contained. 

The subject of water-supply has been carefully considered ; the data 
for that now furnished upon the various routes were taken from the 
reports of the New York State engineers, where the amount available 
from each feeder is given in detail. The facts presented show that, for 
the objects in view, on each route the requisite amount of water can be 
obtained. 

In these estimates, evaporation has been taken at one-third of an inch 
in depth per diem. The allowance for filtration and evaporation has been 
determined by experiment to be two hundred cubic feet per mile per 
minute upon the Erie Canal, and has been deduced for the other canals 
from experiments on the Erie. Leakage through gates is a quantity 
only to be determined accurately by experiment ; with the improved 
tumble-gates it is said to be 50 per cent, less than with the old style of 
miter-gates ; it is only qecessary to take it into account once, as like the 
lockage, it passes from the higher to the lower levels, and is like a con- 
stant flow from one pool to another. It has been assumed here at 30 
per cent, of the lockage, which is consideied a liberal allow<ance when 
gates are properly constructed. , , 

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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 125 

In locks apoD the Erie and Oneida Ship-Canals, with 10 feet lift, this 
will average abont 20 cnbic feet per second, which is considered a far 
greater ainoaut than should be permitted upon any well-constructed 
canal. 

I do not feel called upon by the provisions of the law to discuss the 
relative advantages of these routes, nor to express an opinion as to which 
is the roost preferable. 

I have simply presented the facts as they have been found to exist 
upon each route, with the cost of carrying out the projects determined 
upon by the United States Senate committer; all three routes are 
practicable, {(nd each has its advocates and its own peculiar advantages. 
*Tbe following summary of the canals, as proposed, with approximate 
estimates of their cost, is submitted : 

ERIE CANAL ROUTE. 

From Buffalo to Albany. — Length, 351.78 miles ; 67 locks, with a lock- 
age of 654.8 feet ; prism from Albany to Rochester, 70 feet at surface, 
56 feet at bottom ; depth, 8 feet ; from Rochester to Buffalo, prism 
increases in width ; locks, 225 feet long, 26 feet wide, with a depth of 7 
feet on the mitersill. Navigable for boats capable of carrying 23,000 
bushels of wheat 

Approximate cost of entire improvement $8,173,596 55 

Approximate cost without deepening canal 6,676,231 45 

ONBIDA LAKE SHIPOANAL ROUTE. 

From Oswego to Albany. — Length 200.447 miles; 67 locks with a lock- 
age of 608.76 feet; prism 140 feet at surface, 120 feet at bottom ; depth, 
10 feet ; locks, 185 feet long, 29 feet wide, with a depth of 9 feet on the 
mitersill. Navigable for boats capable of carrying 28,000 bushels of 
wheat. 

Approximate cost of improvement $25,213,857 25 

OH AM PLAIN SHIP-CANAL ROUTE. 

From Whitthall to Troy. — Length, canal division, 24.13 miles ; river 
division,' 39.8 miles — 63.93 miles; 15 locks, with a lockage of 172 feet; 
canal-prism 150 feet at surface, 100 feet at bottom ; depth, 13 feet ; river- 
channel, 200 feet wide and 13 feet deep ; locks, 270 feet long, 45 feet 
wide, with a depth of 12 feet on the miter-sill. Navigable for vessels 
capable of carrying 50,000 bushels of wheat. 
Approximate coet of improvement $11,152,916 35 

SHIP-CANAL FROM THE HUDSON. 

From above Troy to Albany. — Length, river division, 2.25 miles ; canal 
division, 6.06 miles — 8.31 miles ; 3 locks, with a lockage of 35 feet ; prism 
of canal, 150 feet wide at surface, 100 feet at bottom ; depth, 13 feet; 
channel of river, 200 feet wide and 13 feet deep ; locks, 270 feet long, 45 
feet wide, with a depth of 12 feet on the miter-sill. Navigable for ves- 
sels capable of carrying 50,000 bushels of wheat. 
Approximate cost of improvement (2,962,976 74 

Respectfully submitted. 

JOHN M. WILSON, 
Major of Engineers, Brevet Colonel. . 



Brig. Gen. A. A. Humphreys, 

Chief of Engineefs TJ. 8. A. 



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126 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 

ERIE CANAL ROUTE. 

REPORT OF MR. OCTAVR BLANC, ASSISTANT ENOINBER. 

Oswego, N. Y., Deoemher 10, 1874. 
Sir: In compliance with yoar instrnctions of Aagast 20, 1674, 1 have the hooor to 
present herewith plans and estimates for the enlargement of one tier of the present 
locks of the Erie Canal, from Albany to Baffalo, except at Lockville and Lockport : 
also for obtaining a depth of not less than 8 feet throughout its entire length, and 
to submit the following report : 

In May, 1^63, the legislature of the State of New York directed that surreys sboold 
be made of the line of the Erie Canal between Albany and Buffalo, and plans and esti- 
mates prepared for constructing a new tier of locks alongside the present ones, for the 
Surpose of passing gunboats from the Hudson River to Lake Erie ; these locks were to 
e 225 feet long, 26 feet wide, with a depth of 7 feet on the miter-sill. 
In compliance with this law, the work was carried out under the supervision of the 
State engineer of New York, and a report, with elaborate plans and estimates, sub- 
mitted. To this report I am indebted for the most valuable information. 

THE PRESENT PROJECT. 

The locks of the Erie Canal at present are 110 feet long, 18 feet wide, with a depth 
of 7 feet on the miter-sill ; for a great portion of its length the depth is not greater 
than 7 feet ; the maximum capacity of boats navigating it is 240 tons. 

It is now proposed to construct enlarged locks throughout the whole length of the 
canal; to make the necessary changes incident thereto in aqueducts, culverts, and 
bridges ; and to deepen the canal so that, except upon mechanical structures, there 
shallnowhere be a less depth than 8 feet. 

The enlarged locks will be 225 feet long, 26 feet wide, with a depth of 7 feet on the 
miter-sill, and capable of passing boats of 690 tons burden. In accordance with your 
instructions, I have estimated for enlarging one tier of the present locks, except at 
Lockville and Lockport, and the connection with the Hudson River at Albany and 
Troy ; the admirable locations selected at those places by the New York State engi- 
neers rendering it advisable to adhere to them. 

The estimates are based upon the data furnished by the New York State engineers' 
reports, the localities having been carefully examined, the prices fixed at those now 
))aid for labor and materials, and deductions made for such materiab now in the locks 
as can be s^ain used. 

The opinions of all engineers with whom I have conversed coincide in approving the 
enlargement of one tier of the present locks, instead of constructing an entire new tier. 

The New York State engineers, in determining the best principle upon which the 
enlargement should be based, concluded, after the most deliberate consideration, that 
the most advisable plan to pursue would be that of lengthening and widening one tier 
of the present locks. This plan, if properly carried out, could be more easily accom- 
plished than that of an entire new tier, at less expense, with no great hioderanoe to 
navigation, and with a large saving of water, an item particularly to be considered 
upon the canal. 

THE ERIE CANAL. 

The Erie Canal navigation is divided into three reaches — the Eastern, Middle, and 
Western Divisions. 

THE EASTERN DIVISION. 

This division of the canal extends from Albany to Higginsville, N. Y., a distance of 
one hundred and thirfy-five miles, with 46 locks and a lockage of 426.96 feet; it also 
includes the side-cut locks at Troy for entering the Hudson at that place. The original 
surveys, x^laus, and estimates for gunboat-locks upon it were made in 1863, under the 
direction of Mr. D. C. Jenne, then engineer of the division, and to his report I am 
indebted for most of the data upon which I base these estimates, having carefully 
examined the various localities. It is proposed for this division to enlarge one tier of 
the present locks throughout its whole extent, except at Albany and West Troy; here 
it is found to be more favorable to enter the basins and river with looks upon new 
sites, and the estimates are based accordingly. 

At the junction of the Erie and Champlain Canals, and at the Lower and Upper 
Mohawk aqueducts, it becomes necessary to enlarge the canal, and some slate-rock 
excavation is incurred, together with the removal of several buildings. 

Removal of bench-walU, 

During the past few years the removal of bench-walls, and substituting therefor 
slope and vertical walls extending to the canal-bottom, has been carried on rapidly. 
These walls reduce the capacity of the canal and interfere materially with navigation, 
and must all be removed. At this time, according to the report of the canal oommis- 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 127 

•idoers of New York for 1674, there remaios upon this division, for whieli contraQts 
bftre not been made for removal, the followioj^ : 

Upon the berme baok 20.51 miles 

Upon the tow-path bank 21.69 miles' 

The removal of thfa is provided for in estimates. 

Aqueducts, 

The Lower Mohawk aqueduct, 1,132 feet long, the Upper Mohawk aqueduct, 607 feet 
long, and the Schoharie aqueduct, 627 f^et long, are only 40 feet wide at the bottom, 
Mid will have to be widened in order that boats may pass each other ; some of the 
others are but 50 feet in width, bnt are short; it is not deemed advisable to enlarge 
them, except where it becomes necessary for boats to enter a lock, as at Fnlmer's Creek 
tnd Myers's Creek aqueducts, near locks Nos. 43 and 45. 

Bridges. 

One new bridge at Albany and three new chain-bridges at Troy will be necessary ; 
the bridges in the vicinity of locks Nos. 22, 27, 30, and 46 require to be lengthened. 

Culverts, 

No rhanges will be required in the culverts now in use, except at the ujinnr connec- 
tion with the basin at West Troy, where it will be necessary to lengthen oue. 

Deepening canal. 

Estimates have been prepared for obtaining a depth of 8 feet throughout this divisiom 
except upon mechanical structure; steam-power will, ere long, be used entirely u]>on 
the canals, and it is desirable to offer every possible facility £r the rapid progress of 
boats. 

THE MIDDLE DIVISION. 

This division embraces a number of reservoirs and navigable feeders, and is the 
shortest division of the line of the Erie Canal. It extends from Higgmsville, twelve 
miles west of Rome, on the long level, to the Wayne County Hue, a total distance of 
seventy-two miles, with six locl^ and a lockage of 50.42 feet. 

Locks t InidgeSf and culverts. 

It is proposed to enlarge the locks on the berme side throughout this division. The 
original estimates were made in 1864, under direction of Mr. J. P. Goodsell, then divis- 
ion engineer, and the data for the estimates now submitted were taken from his report, 
the localities having been carefully examined. Since 1864, one of the double locks 
and two single ones upon this division have been widened to 20 feet, and loaded boats 
have since £den passed much more rapidly. No culverts will require to be disturb€»d, 
and bnt one bridge, at Syracuse, will require change. 

Bemoving bench-walls. 

The bench-walls upon this division must also be all removed, and slope and vertical 
walls extending to the canal-bottom substituted for them. At this time there remains 
to he removed, according to the report of the canal commissioners for 1874, the follow- 
ing, for the removal of which no contracts have been made : 

Upon the berme side 13.01 miles. 

Upon the tow-path side 1.31 miles. 

The removal of these has baen provided for in these estimates. 

THE WESTERN DIVISION. 

This division extends from the eastern line of Wayne County, N. Y., on the Monte- 
znma, or lowest level, to Lake Erie, a distance of 144.78 miles, with nineteen lift-locks 
and a rise of 177.42 feet. There are two guard-locks and also two lift-locks connecting 
the canal with t^iagara River. 

Locks, 

The original surveys, plans, and estimates for the locks proposed for passine gun- 
boats from the Hudson River to Lake Erie were made under the direction of Mr. C. 



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128 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER. 

TV. Story, division enffineer, in 1864, and to his report I am indebted for a great portion 
of the data from whicn my estimates are made, the localities having been oatefdlly ex- 
amined previous to preparing this report. 

When these surveys were made in 1864^there were only six double locks npon this 
division, five of which were at Lockport and the other. No. 61, at Macedon ; since that 
time extensive operations have been in progress, and at present all the locks are either 
double or in process of being doubled. Approximate estimates are therefore presented, 
based upon calculations for similar structures in similar localities, allowance being 
made for materials now in the locks. 

It is proposed to enlarge, throughontthe division, one of the double lift-locks, except 
at Lockville and Lockport. 

LockvitU, 

Mr. Story recommends in his report that the line of the canal at Lockville be changed 
by making a new cut three-quarters of a mile long, and using two locks of 12 feet each, 
instead of the present three ; this will necessitate considerable expense, but the benefit 
derived will more than compensate for the outlay. The new route is located north of 
the present canal, and avoids the curve ; it has been adopted in this improvement, and 
the estimates based accordingly. 

Lockport, 

At present there is a double tier of five combined locks at Lockport, and a raceway 
with a culvert-feeder over the falls. The canal engineers have given this subject much 
thought and study, and it is deemed best not to interfere with the present liight, but 
to construct upon the south side a new set, overcoming the fall with three locks of 
18.6 feet lift, each. This will necessitate the construction of a new race and feeder; 
and to obviate the damage that might accrue from the swift current npon the present 
inclined plane, estimates have been made for a succession of drop-over breast-walls. 
This plan is certainly a most admirable one, and after a careful examination of the 
locality, it seems impossible to offer a single suggestion as to an improvement upon it. 
In the construction of a new flight, room would be left for the construction of another 
tier, should it be found necessary in the future. 

Guard'hck at Sulphur Springs. 

Five miles west of Lockport, Sulphur Spring guard-lock has been constructed to 
prevent damage from the sudden riscof Tonawanda Creek, and to overcome the tfreat 
velocity incident thereto. It is proposed to constuct a new enlarged lock, to be placed 
in line of the present south space bulk-head. 

ConnectUmt with Niagara Biver, 

At Tonawanda, a new location, half a mile west of the present ono, has been selected 
for the connection with Niagara River. The present ship-lock at Black Rock is 800 
feet long by 37 feet wide, with a depth of from 11 to 14 feet on the miter-sill, depend- 
ing npon the height of the water; it will be only necessary to lengthen it. 

Bridges. 

Most valuable and interesting data, in reference to bridges, are found in Mr. Story's 
report. 

At lock No. 55 two bridges will require additional abutments and new superstruc- 
tures; below lock No. 56 one abutment will require to be removed and rebuilt. Upon 
the new cut-off at Lockville there will be required one road-bridge, and in order to use 
the present canal for passing the intersection two new change-bridges, and the length- 
ening of the bridge at Newark, will be necessary ; also, the rebuilding ot an abutment, 
and construction of a new superstructure upon the present tow-paih bridge, below the 
locks. The change-bridge below lock No. 61 will require lengthening. Two new iron 
bridges are proposed to replace the wooden one at Main street, Lockport ; also a new 
wooden bridge over the proi>osed new race, and new superstructure upon the Cottage- 
street bridge. These localities have been examined, and show the care and ability dis- 
played by the State engineers. 

Aquedticis. 

Careful survey has shown that the curve of the east end of the Rochester aqueduct 
is too short to pass boats of the enlarged size ; provision is therefore made for widen- 
ing and lengthening the curve. 

Deepening the canal. 

From Lockport to Black Rock, the canal has already a depth of 8 feet or over : from 
the Wayne County line to Lockport, the depth is from 7 to 7| feet; eitimutes have 
been made for obtaining the required depth. 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI RIVER, 129 

From the head of Blaok Rook Harbor to Buffalo, the width of the canal is only from 
70 to 90 feet ; tbroagb this narrow cbannelj nearly the whole sapply for the Erie Canal, 
to the MonteBama level, has to be forced, and the larf^e mills now on the pier at lower 
Black Bock Harbor use a great onantity of this supply. 

The canal engineers of New \ork have given this subject carefnl study, and have 
devised a plan to remedy the difficulty. 

The State engineer of New York, in his last annual report, after stating the difficul- 
ties I have mentioned, continues as follows: 

'^Another serious difficulty has been the low stages of water in the lake. In August 
1^71, the surface of the lake ranged from 18 to *Mi inches below its usual height, and 
dQriog the past season of navigation varied from 25 to 27 inches. On the reconmieoda- 
tioos of the division and resident engineers, and approval by Hon. John D. Fay, canal 
commissioner in charge, the canal board resolved to remedy these difflonltiee by chang- 
ing the original work, and adopting a general plan for constructing tbe canal through 
Black Rock Harbor, so as to make it independent of that harbor and the supply for 
the mills; in fact, by means of division-banks or cribs, to form two channels — one for 
tbe canal, the other for the mills ; the channel for the former to be abont 125 feet wide, 
aod through it the water for feeding the canal will pass, the prism being deepened, so 
SH to leave navigation nninterrupt^ by low wat^sr in the lake." 

Although this project is now being carried out by tbe State of New York, it was 
deemed best to add to this report an approximate estimate of the cost of com pie c- 
iogit. 

Coat of thU project, 

Tbe total cost of the project fer enlarging one tier of locks, and new structures at 
Lockville, Lockport, Albany, and West Troy, and for obtaining a depth of not less than 
eight feet, except upon mechanical structures between Albany and Buffalo, is, afrer a 
careful examination of the localities and revision of all data that could be obtained, 
presented, as follows : 

ERIB GANAL. 

Eastern division $4,485,776 65 

Middle division 817,260 20 

Western division m 2,440,274 70 

Fish Creek feeder, referred to under head of " water-supply " 4:10, 296 00 

Total 8,173,596 55 

ERIE CAKAL WATER-SUPPLY. 

The enlarged boat proposed to navigate the Erie Canal, as compared with the exist- 
ing boat, has a tonnage ratio of 690 to 210, as shown by the neat formula of W. B. 
Taylor in his Canal Report of 1864. This will give to the new boat a tonnage capacity 
of nearly 3.28 times greater than that of the existing boat. It is stated by the canal 
commissioner in his annual report for 1874, page 186, that the daily traffic oo the canal 
near Boffalo is accomplished by the use of one hundred boats, and be asserts that this 
Btatement is nearly veritied by the lockage-record at Schenectady. Therefore, one bun- 
died boats may be safely taken as the number of the existing class of boats making 
daily use of the navigation. A water-supply for one hundred boats of the contem- 
plated capacity is therefore assumed as more than sufficient for the accommodation of 
all existing traffic, and enough for the prospective traffic of many years to come. The 
number 100 also simplifies any calculations and comparisons that may be requisite for 
any further examination of the subject. 

The navigation remains open from 214 to 240 days ; has been as few as 205 and 202* 
days, and as many as 269 days. A fair averi^e season is about 210 days, as ohtnined 
from the records of nearly fifty years, extending from the year 1824 to 1873. This in- 
formation is t«ken from the Canal Commissioner's Report for 1874. 

Tbe following results have been obtained by using the foregoing information as a 
part of the necessary data, and they show an ample water-supply for the proposed 
canal enlargement, viz : 

The natnial divisions of the canal between Buffalo and Albany, for the purpose of 
showing the comparative sufficiency of supply for each, are arrauged thus: (See dia- 
gram on tabolar statement.) 

Frtfm Buffalo to Lockport, a distance of thirty-one miles, is supplied by the Lake Erie 
head, direct. Tbe supply being commensurate to the lake, of course this division re- 
qoiiva no comment. 

Frwm loekpari to jBodbettor, abont sixty-two miles, is a descending grade of T^^gir feet 
per mile. The water-supply on this reach is from Lake Erie, 35,000 cubic feet per 
minute; Oak Orchard Creek feeder, 1,400 cubic feet per minnte; Genesee CaufU 
(through look), 861 cubic feet per minnte; Genesee River, 350 cubic feet per minute — 
total, 37,611 cubic feet per minute. Tbia abundant quantity is the supply as far as 
Clyde, a distance of forty-nine miles below Rochester, or one hnudred and eleven miles 
fmn Lockport. This supply being direct from Lake Erie, tbe use of the additional 
feedara between Lockport and Booheater arrests attention. It appears tl 

H. Ex. 49 ^9 



.*i'b^'(j^ty(^ 



130 NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIYEB. 

dactioo IB for the pnipose of checking the cnrrent velocity created by the iDclioe alloded 
to, aud Dot directly for iDoreMin^ the supply. The Genesee Canal qnot«, throogb lock, 
is an accidental increment, but it is also availed of for reducing the current velocity 
created by the incline. In the Canal Commissioner's Report for 1873, page 114, it is 
substantially stated that the mill-owners, who have a perpetual lease of the wateri 
passing around Lookport, frequently use this water in excess of their requirements, 
and as it is discharged into the canal, at times proves unfavorable to navigation \>y 
increasing the velocity. 

The Montetuma level f extending from Clyde to Port Byron, a distance of twenty miles, 
being the lowest level between tne long level and Lake Erie, and being fed from two 
sources, has necessarily a sufficient supply. Its surplus is delivered into the Cayuga 
Canal. There never was any impediment to navigation on this level. 

The Port Byron and the Jordan levels extend from Port Byron to Geddee, a distance of 
about twenty-two miles, and are, like the long level, dependent on special feeders, 
which appear to be abundantly sufficient. Apprehensions have been entertained for 
the supply of these levels, but the enrplus supply, as shown in the acoompaoying 
" tabular statement,'* indicates that such apprehensions are certainly groundless. 

The feeders of this division are : 

Owasco Lake 10,267 cubic feet per minute. 

Of this the millers claim 5,612 cubic feet per minate. 

Balance owned by New York State >. 4, 655 cubic feet per 'minute. 

Putnam Creek feeder 200 cubic feet per minute. 

Nine-mile Creek feeder 800 cubic feet per minute. 

Carpenter Brook 200 cubic feet per minute. 

Skaneateles Lake 8,767 cubic feet per minote. 

Otisco Lake 5, 145 cubic feet per minute. 

Total 19,767 cubic feet per minute. 

equal to 28,464,480 cubic feet per 24 hours. 

After making the usual deductions from this daily supply, there remains, over and 
above the requirements of navigaffon, a surplus of 8,500,000 cubic feet (in round nnra- 
berB)4>er 24 hours. This is fortunate, beeause the whole of the rain-basi& in which this 
snbdivision of the canal is located is already availed of for the purpose of supply, and 
there is no ordinary way of supplying any additional natural feed. (See chart.) 

That portion of the canal from Geddee^ embracing Syracuse and continuing to the 
west end of the long level, a distance of about three miles, is similar (as to situation) 
to the Montezuma level. It is fed from the long level on the east and from the Jordan 
level on the west. These feeding-levels having a large surplus, it follows that this 
comparatively short division will always have a sufficiency of water. On this level 
at Syracuse, the connection with Lake Ontario is made throngh the Oswego CanaL 

The long level, extending easterly from the last-described division to Utica, a distance 
of about 55 miles, is supplied as follows, viz : 

CnMo feet per 
mlnuie fior 

Butternut Creek, Orville feeder 500 

De Kuyter, through Limestone Creek, 3,891 cubic feet per minute for 100 days ? q 195 

Limestone Creek, 500 cubic feet per minute for 100 days > ^ 

Erieville reservoir and Cbittenango feeder, 2,526 cubic feet per minute for lOO 

, days 1,263 

Cazeiiovia Lake reservoir, 3,1 15 cubic fee^per minute for 100 days 1, 507 

CnwaMclon Creek feeder 320 

Oiic'da Creek feeder 1,500 

Delta feeder, through Black Eiver canal-lock 1,1294 

Wood Creek, at Rome 125 

Mohawk feeder 11,766 

Butt's Creek feeder, 2^ miles east of Rome 1,400 

Ortskany Creek feeder A,5f,i 

Jamesville reservoir, 2,000 cubic feet per minute for 60 days 600 

Total perminnte 27,031 

An additional supply from Fish Creek was contemplated, and the mojeet matured 
so far as to have plans and estimates furnished for its construction. The work, how- 
ever, has not been executed. Should there, by any contingency, be an increase wanted, 
this feeder will give a flow of 7,400 cubic feet per minute, exclusive of flltratioD and 
evaporation. An estimate for its construction is hereto appended. It has been in- 
timated by the canal officers that this level is subject to ^eat disturbance during the 
prevalence of strong westerly winds; that under such influences oscillations to the 
extent of 9 inches are frequently observed, making navigation on the western end quite 
difficult, and sometimes grounding the beats. There is an erroneously-formed opinion 

^ — )5le 



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NAVIGATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 



131 



M to the proflpeotive insaffioiAnoy of water for this level. This opiaion has taken form 
principallj, if not altogether, from incidental causes, snoh as some break occurring or 
leservoir-dam giving way, and thus temporarily intercepting the ordinary supply, and 
eaosing boats to crowd on each other in passing through the long level. These draw- 
backs are being remedied by a better clans of struotnras. 

The next and last water-division, extending f^om Utica to the Hudson River at 
Albany, is about 110 miles long, with 45 lockn, with an aggregate descent of 423^<U\r 
feet, making a mean descent for each lock of 9iV (fe feet. TUis reach being similar in 
eb«raeter to that from Rochester to Ctyde (that is, all descent), the theoretic quantity 
of one lockage is the assumed requirement for the carriage of one boat through all 
the locks. 

The supply is obtained through the following feedersi vis : 

mon Creek 800 cubic feet per minute. 

Mohawk, at Little Falls 12,643 cubic feet per minute. 

Rocky Rift 10, 602 cubic feet per minnta 

Schoharie Creek feeder 6,800 cubic feet per minute. 

Roxford feeder 10,979 cubic feet per minute. 

Mohawk, at Cohoes 6,570 cubic feet per minute. 

Total 48,394 cubic feet per minute, 

equivalent to 69,687,300 cubic feet per 24 hours. 

In this approximation of the qnantity of water available for navigation the size of 
lock is ti^en at 225 feet X 26 feet X the corresponding lift, or mean of several lifts, 
IB the case may be, and this quantity only is called the lockage; the percentage for 
waste and leakage through the gates being considered sufficient to cover the small 
qnnntity of water comprising the sheet existing between the boat and lock- walls when 
s boat is entered. The amount for filtration and evaporation is taken at 200 feet per 
mile per minute. Where a series of locks is to be considered, the mean lift is taken« 
•Dd where two lockages are wasted, as on the long level, the sum of the two lifts is 
used. It is further assumed that the boats may pass through the locks in the most 
desultory order, so that if the supply is sufficient to fulfill these conditions the most 
•k««ptical should be convinced of the completeness and sufficiency of the whole water- 
sapply. 

The accompanying tabniar statement gives the supplies, filtration, and lockage- 
waste, net available supply, and amount needed to pass one hundred boats in twenty- 
fbar hours, together with the surplus water after accomplishing such passage, each of 
which resnlts is obtained in the manner stated. 

It is understood that if two boats, going in opposite directions, meet at the same 
lock, then one lockage will pass the two boats; and if this Were uniformly the case, 
the qnantity of water stated in ** the table" as necessary to pass one hundred boats 
will be sufficient to pass two hundred boats. 

This state of things is never realized completely, but it is of so freqient occurrence, 
that in practice it is safe to assume that two lockages will pass thtee boats. On this 
sssumption, the conclusion that the daily volume of water stated as the requirement 
f«>r the passagt^ of one hundred boats may be relied on to pass ooe hundred, and fifty 
boats. Then one hundred and fifty boats, each of 690 tons, gives a daily movement of 
103,500 tons, with the expenditure of water set forth in the tabular statement. 

Tabular statement of water-Bupply of Erie Canal from Buffalo to Albany, 



Watw-divialona of the Erie 
CaaaL 



II 

|§^ 
111 






82S 



f 



Bnffiilo to Lookport, indading 
Lnekport lockage. 

lockport to Boobeater , 

I^kpnrt to Clyde 

MoDtesoma level 

^ort Byroo and Jordan levela 
6«d(le8 to Lodi lock, near 8y. 

TieOM. 

u»K lewl, from near Syra- 

^^MetoTJUca. 

Uttea to Albany 



Oubiefttt. 
Extension of 
Lake Brie head. 
54. 159. 840 
54. 159, O40 
Sopply ftt>m lev- 
els Dotb ways. 
88,4«4,480 
Supply from lev- 
els both ways. 
38,984, MO 

80.667,360 



CubUfuA^ Oubiefeet. 
Made op by Lake Erie 
Lake Erie.! head. 



Cubic /eeL 
Noteesential 
to conaider. 



Oubie/UL 
Lake Erie. 



33, 547. 506 
5,760,000 

0,480.390 
864,000 

18,909,950 

33,340,800 



90, 61% 340 



5,965,000 



18,98i090 



10,481,300 



IS, 347, 340 
8,509,790' 



90.715,390 
36,346,560 



7,897,500 
5,536,000 



19,817,890 
30,810,5^ 



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132 NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 

GENERAL REMARKS. t 

Schednles, oomprising estimates id detail of several of the locks, are attached to this 
report. The estimate for Fish Creek feeder is also appended. Amplification is avoided 
as mneh as possible, and, in fnrtberanceof this principle, the details of locks, bridges, 
aqneducts, cnlverts, section-work, and other miscellaneous structures, which would 
unavoidably make this report unnecessarily voluminous, are excluded. 

COST OF TRANSPORTATION. 

Upon the vital point of this improvement, the cost of transportation, it is noticeable 
th*it at the time the ^-nlarKement of the Erie Canal was authorized (May 11. 1(S35) the 
engineers who fixed the dimensions of the prism and size of the locks eetimated that 
the enlargement would enable the carrier to reduce the cost of transportation fifty per 
cent. John B. Jarvis made a thorough investigation of the subject, and reduced it to 
a mathematical certainty. After a detailed statement, showing the progressive ad- 
vance of commerce on the Erie Canal, at various periods, with the relative cost of 
transportation, and the cost per ton per mile, on all the canals for a series of years, 
State Engineer Taylor, in his report upon the enlargement for gunboats, gives the fol- 
lowing result, which is a markea confirmation of J. B. Jarvis's conclusions : 

Cost of transportation by old boats 4. 16 mills per ton per mile. 

Cost of transportation by existing boats #... 2. 16 mills per ton per mile. 

Cost of transportation by propos^ enlarged boats 1. 4 mills per ton p^r mile. 

equivalent to a reduction of 50 per cent, in the cost of transportation by enlarging 
the locks to 225 feet between hollow qaoins, and increasing the width of chamber to 
26 feet at water-line. 

The boats now in nse on the canal have soperseded the old ones, and if the proposed 
enlarged locks are constructed, the large boats will in like manner supersede those 
now in nee. Those now existing could not successfully compete with boats of over 
three times their tonnage. Henoe, the increasing demands of commerce and the ad- 
vance of improvements will render the present boats inadequate, and the requirements 
of navigation will call for a commensnrately-sized boat. 

Taking into consideration the various views expressed in the several statements I 
have quoted irom the reports of the gentletuen who have been for many years and in 
many ways identified with the public works of the StAte of New Y<irk, and under 
whose directions special investigations were made in the year 1664 for the then oon- 
Vmplated improvement of the Erie Canal, after having made a personal inspection 
of the most important localities on the line, and having made a thorough revision of 
the several proposed plans of location for the enlarged locks and other stmctnres ; 
also, having given a great deal of consideration to the prevailing influences that from 
time to time have been directed to the improvement of this canal, it is inoambent on 
•me to state that the propo-«t^ work should be planned with a view to a complete en- 
largement of all the locks and structures where required. 

In most instances one of the existing double locks should be enlarged, unless a new 
location be adopted for improving the line of oanal. 

With regard to the estimates, I have relied, generally, upon the data afforded by the 
■actual surveys ami measurements furnished by the State engineers of 1&6A and 1864, 
carefully revisini; these data after examination of localities, and basing my prices upon 
those now paid for labor and materials. I have been associated with these State en- 
gineers for a number of years on the public works of that State, and should my opinion 
have any weight in this re^rard, I have no hesitation in saying that they are men of 
experience in their profession, whose statementa are perfectly reliable. 

The estimates are made for locks and all other stone structures, built of well-dresaed 
•limestone, laid in hydraulic cement, and I should recommend each work of its daaa 
to be constructed of the best materials and workmanship. 

A work of such importance should be carried out in the most substantial manner, 
and there should be as little resort as possible to the nse of wood for the principal 
ikjueducts and bridges connected with this project. 

In closing these remarks, I would consider my task unfinished should I not give Mr. 
Martin King, assistant engineer, due credit for the valuable assistance I have received 
from him, and particularly for the '* statement of water-supply," and for preparing 
^he chart, plans, and other drawings accompanying this report. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

OCTAVE BLANC, 

AaniUaU Sngweer. 

Maj. John M. Wii^on, 

Corps of Engineers, Brevet CoUmel, V. 8, A, 



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NAVIOATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIVEB. 



133 



KABrEBH DIVWION. 

Detailed eeUmatefor enlarging ame of thepreeent locks. 



Itemi. 



OrabbiDKftnd de^riog 

BAiUog aod draining 

SxcaratioD of earth oabioyftrda. 

Exearationof old look •walls do — 

Embaokmeot do.... 

LioiDic do — 

Paddling of earth do 

Loom Htonea do.... 

Vertical wall, in eement ^ do.... 

Vertical wall, dry do.... 

Maeoory in lock -walla do ... 

Concrete masonry do.... 

Wbite^oak timber, dlM> feet, board-meaanro 

White-pine timber do.... 

Hemlock timber do 

Beoringpilea linear feet 

BMaring-pilea, driren do 

Wrought iron • poonda. 

Cant iron do.... 

Spikes and nails do 

Solphar and sandoement per look. 

Pain tinis lock-gates 

Soabbing-posts linear feat. 



Dedoct atone fnmlahed cnbio yards 



Lock Na <S, 10 feet lift. 



Qoantity. Price. Amout. 



4.900 

1,963 

3,000 

1,550 

400 

M) 

1)20 

70 

S,833 

SUO 

94,000 

10.500 

194,700 

13,700 

10,000 

16.400 

11,850 

4,000 

1 

1 

100 



640 



10 98 

1 50 

98 

50 

30 

1 50 

600 

3 00 

13 00 

5 00 

60 00 

45 00 

iO 00 

15 

10 

19 

8 

6 

100 00 

30 00 

60 



600 



. 1900 00 

9,000 00 

1,379 00 

1,894 50 

840 00 

775 00 

190 00 

135 00 

790 00 

910 00 

36,P99 00 

1,500 00 

9,040 00 

749 50 

9,494 00 

1,905 00 

1,000 00 

1,968 00 

948 00 

940 00 

100 UO 

30 00 

60 00 



58,193 00 
5,040 00 



53,083 00 



Items. 



Orobbins and clearing 

Bailing and draining 

Ssoavationof old lock-walls cnbio yards. 

Kxcarationof blasted rock do — 

Embankment do.... 

Lining do.... 

Puddling of earth do.... 

Slope- w2l and payement do... 

loose stone do 

Vertical wall, in cement do 

Vertical wall, dry do.... 

Hssonry in lock- walla do... 

Concrete masonry do 

White-oak timber, Ac feet, board-measnre. 

White pine do.... 

Hemlock timber do 

Wroaghtiron ^ pounds 

Csstiron do.... 

Spikes and nails do 

Solphar and ssnd cement per look. 

Painting lockgatea, do... 

Soabbii^K-poaU linear feet 

Deduct stone famished cnbio yards 



Look Na 38, 9i feer lift 



Quantity. Piioe. Amonnt. 



1 

1 

1,978 

9,100 

9,800 

1,600 

370 

30 

90 

190 

990 

9,743 

300 

36,000 

16.400 

191,000 

16,100 

11,850 

4,00(1 

1 

1 

100 



660 



1900 00 


•900 00 


9,501100 


9,500 00 


1 50 


1,917 00 


1 00 


9.100 00 


98 


7H4 00 


50 


* 80000 


30 


111 00 


900 


60 00 


1 50 


135 00 ^ 


600 


790 00 # 


3 00 


870 00 


13 00 


35.659 00 


500 


1,500 00 


60 00 


9,160 00 


45 00 


738 00 


90 00 


9,490 00 


19 


1,939 00 


8 


948 00 


6 


940 00 


105 00 


100 00 


JO 00 


30 00 


60 


60 00 




69,984 00 


500 


5,160 00 



57.894 00 



Summary eeiimate, eaeiem divition. 

LockNo. 1, 15|feetlift |100,432 00 

LockNo. 2, 9ifeetlifl 68,402 30 

LockNo. 3, IH feet lift 61,026 00 

LockNo. 4, lli feet lift 60,425 00 

LockNo. 5, lOj feet lift 52,964 00 

LockNo. 6,10 feet lift 53,083 00 

LockNo. 7,10 ftjetlift 53,19150 

LockNo. 8,10 feetlift 56,617 00 

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134 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI BIVER. 



Lock No. 9,10 feet lift .' $69,320 00 

Lock N.'. 10, 10 f«etlift .. 53,159 00 

Lock No. 11, 10 feetllft 55,763 00 

Lock No. 12,10 feet lift 57,079 00 

LockNo. 13, 10 feetllft 51,560 00 

LockNo. 14, 10 feetllft 50,021 00 

LookNo. 15, 10 feetllft 52,662 50 

LockNo. 16, 10 feetllft 55,922 00 

LookNo. 17, 10 feetllft 52.798 50 

LookNo. 18. lOi feet lift 61,068 50 

LockNo. 19, 8i feet lift 47,170 50 

LockNo.20, 10 feetllft 54,471 25 

Lock No. 21, Hi feet lift 59,810 75 

Lock No. 22, Hi feet lift 54,176 00 

LookNo.23, 8 feet lift 51,306 00 

LcHJkNo.24, 8 feetllft 50,212 75 

LockNo.25, 8 feet lift 50,698 00 

LockNo.26, 8 feetllft 49,767 00 

LockNo.27, 8 feet lift 46.52150 

LockNo.28, 8 feet lift 50,644 50 

Lock No. 29, 7i feet lift 42,585 00 

L..ck No. 30, lOi feet lift 51.689 50 

LockNo.31, 6 feetlift 43,915 00 

Lock No. 32, 8 feetlift 47,995 00 

LockNo.33, 6 feetlift 43,052 50 

Look No. 34, 8 feetlift 47,674 00 

Lock No. 35, 8 feetlift 47,429 50 

Lock No. 36, 10 feetlift 50,003 50 

LockNo. 37, 10 feetlift 61,798 00 

LockNo.38, 9ifeetlift 57,824 00 

Lock No. 39, lOi feet lift 57,449 00 

LockNo. 40, 8 feetlift 46,308 00 

LookNo.41, 8 feetlift 45,52100 

Lock No. 42, 8 feetlift 51,118 50 

LockNo. 43, 8 feetlift 51,110 50 

Lock No. 44, lOi feet lift 54,945 50 

LookNo. 45. lOi feet lift 52.836 75 

LockNo.46, 3 feetlift 42.015 50 

Upper lock at West Troy, 11 feetlift.- 82,163 50 

Lower look at Weat Troy, 13 feet lift 92,664 00 

Enlarged aqaednotn : 

Schoharie aqueduct 32,726 00 

Piilmer's Creek aqnednot 7, 082 00 

Myenj's Creek aqueduct 8.240 OD 

Lower Mohawk aqueduct 60,215 00 

Upper Mohawk aqueduct 30,815 00 

Bridges: 

Bridge over lock No. 1 8,134 50 

Bridge at foot of lock No. 22 3,021 50 

Bridge at foot of lock No. 27 1,974 75 

Bridge at foot of lock No. 30 6,830 00 

Bridge at foot of lock No. 46 2,743 00 

Chaugf-hridge head of upper side-cut lock 3, 909 00 

Change-bridge head of lower side-out lock 3, 377 50 

Change-bi idge foot of lower side-cut lock 2, 243 00 

Culverts : 

LengtheniDg culverts • 1.599 00 

Removal of bench-walls : 

Excavation of earth slope- wall, and slope- wall rebuilt. .. 652, 000 00 

Eulargiug oanal at various points 9,925 00 

Deepening canal one foot 626,500 00 



12,640,370 80 



139,078 00 



31,233 25 
1,599 00 

661,925 00 
626,600 00 
4,000,706 05 

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NAVIQATION OF THE MISSISSIPPI BIYEE. 



135 



8Hmmar§ estimate for enlarging one of the present looks, eastern division. 

Locks Hoe. 1 to 46. inclosive, and two looks At West Troy. |2, 640, 370 80 

Enlarffing aqnednots i:i9,078 00 

Badges 31,233 25 

Culverts 1,599 00 

Eemoval of bencb-walls, &o 552,000 00 

Enlarging caoal at various points 9,925 00 

Deepening canal one foot 626,500 00 

Add 10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 400, 070 60 

Land damages and removal of buildings 85,000 00 



$4,000,706 a*) 



485,070 60 
4,485,776 65 



MIDDLE DIVISION. 



Estimates for enlarging one of the present looks. 

Lock No. 47, lOi feet lift $66,927 00 

Lock No. 48, lOi feet lift 64,849 00 

LockNo.49, 6 feet lift 55,546 00 

LockNo.50, 6Hfe«tlift 55,595 00 

LockNo.51, 5i feetlift 53,57100 

Lock No. 52, 11 feet lift 71,000 00 

$367,488 00 

Removing bencb-walls 158,000 00 

Bridge at lock No. 49 7,343 00 

Deepening canal one foot 210, 141 00 

375, 484 00 

742,972 00 
Add 10 per cent, for engineering and contingencies 74, 297 20 



WESTERN DIVISION. 

Detailed estimate for enlarging one of present locks. 



817,269 20 



It«mt. 


Lock Ka 61. 7 feet lift. 


Quantity. 


Price. 


Amoant. 


QrnbbiDgand clearing 






•100 00 


Bailineaod drainlDfl:? - 







3,0(10 00 

2,.^^ 00 

700 00 

1.875 00 

560 OU 

660 00 


Strth excaTation 


.onbio yards 


9.000 

700 

1,850 

3,000 

a,90u 

1.900 

S50 

200 

400 

S.390 

300 

31,200 

19.000 

94.000 

11.400 

^900 

3,00S 

1 

lOi) 


10 28 

1 00 

1 SO 

28 

3U 

50 

200 

8 00 

1 50 

13 00 

500 

60 00 

45 00 

20 00 

13 

8 

6 


Rock exoayation 

SxoaTation of old lock>walla 

Kmbaokment 

Paddllnff 


do.... 

do.... 

do.... 

do 


LioiM • 


do ... 


600 00 


Slope-wan 


do.... 


500 00 


Euhble-wall, in cement 

LooseBtone 

ManoiiTj in look-walla 

Concrete 

Oak 


do ... 

do... 

do — 

do.... 


1.200 00 

600 00 

30,160 00 

1.500 00 

1 872 00 


Pine 


..,, do.... 


540 00 


Hemlock 


do... 


1.880 00 

1.368 00 

632 00 


Wroogbtiron 

Cast iron 


ponndt. 

.............do ... 


Spike* 


do.... 


180 00 


8alphiir« tand, and cement 


..per look- 


100 00 


Jajntioglook.gatee 


do... 

linear feet. 




30 00 


SnnbbtDg.poeto 


60 


60 00 




oks, at #6 per cnbio yard 




LcM 870 cnUo yards stone in lot 


50.6:n 00 
5,223 00 






......... 




45, 417 00 



Digitized by VjOOQIC 



136 



NAVIGATION OP THE MISSISSIPPI RIVBB. 
Detailed eelimate of combined locks at Laekport, 



Items. 



Two 04»inbiD«d loo%i on new Vam 
at Lockyille, nach 18 feet lift 



Quaotlty. Piioo. Awoimt 



Grabbing and deariog 

Bailing and draining 

Earth excavation .cubio yards 

Embankment do.... 

Linirg do.... 

Paddling do.... 

Slope-wall do