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GIEN 

FOR THE 



ORKE 


















f 



CRAMPTON'S HYGIENE SERIES 

HYGIENE FOR THE 
WORKER 



BY 
WILLIAM H. TOLMAN, PH.D. 

DIRECTOR, AMERICAN MUSEUM OF SAFETY, NEW YORK CITY 
AND 

ADELAIDE WOOD GUTHRIE 

DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH, AMERICAN MUSEUM OF SAFETY 



C. WARD CRAMPTON, M.D. 

DIRECTOR OF PHYSICAL T|AINING, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 
NEW YORK CITY 

GENERAL EDITOR 

/ 




NEW YORK : . CINCINNATI . : . CHICAGO 

AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY 



COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY 
C. WARD CRAMPTON. 

COPYRIGHT, 1912, IN GREAT BRITAIN. 
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER. 

W. P. 2 



PREFACE TO THE SERIES 

THE teaching of hygiene fails when it is founded upon 
the assumption that a knowledge of anatomy is necessary ; 
it succeeds when it uses the ever-recurring affairs of daily 
life as the subject matter, and endeavors to regulate those 
affairs correctly. It should deal with the establishing of 
good habits, not with the learning of abstruse facts, and 
should seek to insure the carrying into practice, instruc- 
tions given in the classroom. In following out these 
principles, the teacher will make a daily inspection of 
hands rather than require that a composition be written 
upon the structure of the skin and the anatomical effects 
of dirt. 

To support this kind of teaching this series of books on 
Hygiene has been prepared. A book is provided for each 
elementary school year from the Fourth to the Eighth 
inclusive ; in addition there is, for older girls, a hygiene 
dealing particularly with the care of little children and the 
health factors of home life, and, for the older elementary 
children and for vocational and industrial high schools, a 
Hygiene for the Worker. 

Each of these books is based upon daily hygienic routine 
and the hygienic inspection which should begin the day's 
work in every school every day. In addition, the general 
topics, such as clothing, food, and exercise, assigned to the 
year's work, are treated in relation to alcohol and tobacco, 
anti-tuberculosis measures, home hygiene, and the particu- 
lar necessities of cold and hot weather. 



iv PREFACE TO THE SERIES 

The editor has spared no effort to obtain the services of 
those who really know the facts, and some of the writers 
have international reputation in the subjects with which 
they deal. Nevertheless, each manuscript has been sub- 
jected to repeated revision by prominent physicians and 
school men and women. For hygienic reasons, no half- 
tone illustrations have been used, and the specially pre- 
pared drawings aim to tell the story concisely. Emphasis 
is placed upon the positive constructive aspect of the illus- 
tration, and pictures of the distressing and disagreeable are 
not to be found. The books are short and emphatic in 
essentials, recurring frequently to important points, and 
no effort is made to exhaust the subject. 

It has been the editor's endeavor, one which the authors 
and publishers have strongly seconded, to provide a series 
of books adapted directly to the getting of results. 

c. w. c. 



PREFACE TO HYGIENE FOR THE 
WORKER 

IN preparing this volume the author has had access to 
the large collection of working models, special reports, 
and photographs of the American Museum of Safety, and 
to the collections and exhibits of the International Expo- 
sition of Hygiene at Dresden in 1911. 

Acknowledgment is made to Directors Hartmann, 
Karsch, and Mamy, of the Museums of Safety in Berlin, 
Munich, and Paris respectively, for their many helpful 
suggestions. Special acknowledgment is due to Mr. John 
H. Patterson of Dayton, Ohio, for his kindness in placing 
his unique collection of several thousands of photographs 
at our disposal for the purpose of selecting the most strik- 
ing examples of what is being done for safety and in- 
dustrial hygiene in the best American shop practice. 

The book is based upon actual shop conditions and en- 
deavors to set forth in a practical way matters of most 
importance to good health, happiness, and efficiency. 

W. H. T. 
EDITOR'S NOTE 

This book, the second volume of a two-book elementary 
school series, is designed for boys and girls from thirteen to 
eighteen years of age, for special classes preparing to pass 
examinations for labor certificates, and for vocational, 
industrial, and manual training high schools. It will be 
particularly useful in continuation and night schools, for 
it is adapted to the needs of all workers, old and young. 



vi PREFACE TO HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Prepared upon the plan formulated by the editor, this 
book is written by an expert of international reputation in 
industrial hygiene. Its facts have been verified by sound 
medical authority, and its method approved by teachers of 
experience. 

To equip the worker to care for himself under actual 
working conditions as they exist to-day and to add to his 
happiness and efficiency are the two purposes of the book. 

C. W. C. 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. APPLYING FOR A POSITION i 

II. PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK . . . . 9 

III. GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER . . . .18 

IV. SUITABLE CLOTHING 29 / 

V. FOOD AND DRINK . . . . . . -39 

VI. ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 53 

VII. THE NOON HOUR 63 

VIII. HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 73 

LX. FATIGUE 89 

X. AFTER HOURS 102 

XI. HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 116 

XII. CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 127 

XIII. OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS . . . 136 

XIV. OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES. . 153 

XV. FIRE .167 

XVI. FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 177 

XVII. WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT . 190 

XVIII. SEASONAL HYGIENE 204 

XIX. TUBERCULOSIS 213 

APPENDIX 223 

INDEX 227 



vii 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



CHAPTER I 



APPLYING FOR A POSITION 




About to go to work. The 

boy or girl about to go to 
work has reached one of the 
most important turning points 
in life. 

If he has finished the ele- 
mentary school course, he will 
be able to meet most of the 
demands of ordinary business 
life. If he is fortunate enough 
to have completed a high school 



training, he will find that he 
possesses an equipment that 
will overcome many an ob- 
stacle in the way of success. 
Some of you have been look- 
ing forward to this event, eager 
to know and to enjoy the in- 
dependence that comes only 




2 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

through the honest earning of your " bread and butter." 
Others, perhaps through necessity rather than choice, are 
about to enter the business world, with little realization 
of the trials and responsibilities to be met. But the 
overcoming of these new trials and the acceptance of 
these responsibilities will afford one of the most enduring 
satisfactions of life. 

Now that you are about to leave your school days and 
the more or less irresponsible period of life, you must take 
stock of yourself as it were to see what you have to 
offer in fair exchange for your first position. 

An opening is learned of, perhaps through a friend who 
knows of a vacancy, or through an advertisement. You 
decide to apply for that position. Now, how do you think 
you should go about it? When you present yourself for 
a position, bear in mind that you will be closely scrutinized 
by the man who may become your employer. 

The employer's inspection. Remember that the man, 
or firm, employing one or two, a dozen, a hundred, per- 
haps thousands of employees, has had a great deal of ex- 
perience in judging the character and possibilities of those 
who apply for work. The employer, naturally, must have 
his own interests at heart in engaging a boy or girl to work 
for him. He does not know, of course, what you can do, 
but he is able, from his business experience, to " size you 
up " and to form a pretty true estimate of what you may 
do or may be trained to do. 

Manner and appearance. An employer is always ready 
to consider the application of a boy or girl who comes to 
him with self-confident bearing. This, however, must not 
be taken to mean boldness or forwardness. 



APPLYING FOR A POSITION 



I 



He will pay more attention to the applicant whose person 
shows the unmistakable signs of cleanliness, than he will to 
him whose appearance is slovenly and untidy. He will 
choose the boy or girl who is neatly and plainly dressed, in 
preference to the one who comes to him in showy, elaborate 
garments, thinking he is making a good impression. 

The employer reasons in this way : 

" If the person I want for this job is clean and neat and 
self-reliant, I may be sure that his morals and methods of 
work are equally clean and straightforward. His personal 
appearance tells me 
he will have the same 
respect for his work 
that he has for him- 
self." 

Neatness of appear- 
ance is a more impor- 
tant business asset 
than most boys and 
girls realize. 

For example, a pro- 
fessional man who has 
had a wide experience 
in meeting all classes 

and Conditions Of The employer's inspection 

people, recently made the statement that, under no circum- 
stances, would he employ in his office a young person who 
came to him with unclean finger nails. 

It will not be a difficult matter for you to have confidence 
in yourself, or to show it in your carriage and bearing, if 
you carry about with you a clean, healthy body ; and such 




4 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

a condition of wholesomeness is within the reach of all. 
The confidence which comes from a knowledge of one's 
own efficiency, backed up by good health, is easily dis- 
tinguished from the self-assurance of one who is too lazy 
to keep well. 

The daily inspection. The only way to be sure that 
you will make a good impression under the inspection of 
the employer, is for you to inspect yourself critically before 
you apply for the position. The only way for you to be 
sure that you overlook nothing is to get in the habit of 
making such an inspection from top to toe every day 
before you leave home. 

Hair. Most boys and girls, ordinarily, do not value or 
pay sufficient attention to the little things that go to make 
up a good appearance. 

Take the hair, for instance. If you want to make a 
good impression, don't apply for a position with your scalp 
and hair so unclean as to be offensive. 

It has now become the rule, in certain large offices, to 
draw the line against the girls and young women whose 
hair is fantastically arranged in the extreme of style. Elab- 
orate head dressings suggest to the employer a certain 
vanity, self-consciousness, and frivolity that render a girl 
unable to put her mind seriously upon her work. 

Clothing. Here also should be mentioned the impro- 
priety of wearing, during business, clothing that seems 
suitable only for evening or home use. The type of waist 
known as the lingerie is one that the business girl should 
not wear in the office. It is neither sensible nor dignified. 
Nor is it an economy, for on account of its sheerness it 
requires greater care and expense in laundering ; hence, it 



APPLYING FOR A POSITION 5 

is seldom washed as frequently as it should be. There is 
nothing more distasteful to the average business man than 
unclean finery. 

Boys and girls both are inclined to run to extremes of style 
in their dress, usually preferring garments that are of the most 
up-to-date cut and shape to those of more modest appear- 
ance, which are generally found to be made better and 
of more enduring materials. This is equally true of hats 
and shoes. An employer will probably notice whether you 
are wearing elaborately cut and high-heeled shoes, run 
down, unbrushed, and with broken laces, or whether your 
feet are shod in sensible, well-fitting shoes, kept clean 
and neat. 

It is well for the boy and girl about to become wage 
earners to remember, in buying their clothing, the counsel 
of old Polonius to his son : 

" Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy, 
But not expressed in fancy." 

Cleanliness. Do not think there is any substitute for 
cleanliness of body. It is foolish to think that the neglect 
of the body can be long concealed. A famous physician 
once said that, as he walked along a busy city street, he 
could always pick out those persons who bathed daily. To 
his trained eye, the condition of the skin, the complexion, 
and a certain alertness in the carriage of the body, bore 
testimony to the habits of the individual. 

Do not get the bad habit of loading the body with cheap 
perfumes, expecting them to take the place of a bath. As 
one man, who has met all varieties of human nature in his 
business experience, puts it, " I instinctively distrust the 



6 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

person whose body reeks with the odor of cheap perfumes ; 
it seems to me like an endeavor to conceal uncleanliness." 

This may apply more to girls, but it is equally true that 
an employer is prejudiced against the boy or young man 
who comes to him smelling strongly of tobacco, particularly 
of cigarettes. The cigarettist is seldom a success in the 
business world, and, at the outset, he will learn that the 
best positions are open to the boys who do not use tobacco. 

So small a thing as chewing gum may also stand in the 
way of your securing the position you want. It is just as 
well to stop such foolish habits and to avoid all these hin- 
drances now, so that they will not interfere with your success 
later on or cause you to wonder why " the good jobs are so 
scarce." 

But even more important than these requisites is that of 
good health. 

Importance of good health. Good health is a prime 
factor in success. Not only will it help you to secure a 
good position, but it will enable you to keep it and to do 
your work well, without undue fatigue and exhaustion. It 
will enable you also to do your work with a greater degree 
of interest and pleasure. 

Good heal this at once apparent in the carriage and posture 
of the body, in clear eyes and clean complexion, in a quick- 
ness of thought and general alertness, and in steadiness of 
nerves. 

If you are not now enjoying the measure of good health 
you should have, it is within your power to attain and 
keep it. 

Later, we shall offer suggestions for hygiene and right 
living that will, if faithfully followed, put your body in the 



APPLYING FOR A POSITION 7 

best possible condition for meeting the demands of a work- 
ing day. 

You cannot afford to be ill, when once you become a 
worker, for even if you do not actually lose your position 
through irregular attendance due to sickness, you will prob- 
ably suffer a loss in wages ; and, once you have been initi- 
ated into the joy of pay day, with the wages of faithful 
work in your pay envelope, you will not wish to lose any of 
the substantial benefits of good health. 

Cheerfulness. We might, with profit, dwell upon the 
cheerful disposition that usually goes with a healthy body. 
We all prefer those friends who are cheerful and amiable. 
Isn't it just as probable that an employer will pick out the 
pleasant-faced, cheerful boy or girl to work for him, in 
preference to one whose expression is sour and gloomy 
and whose manner is short and surly ? 

Good health is indeed the greatest asset of the boy or girl 
who is about to go to work ; for good health enables him to 
do better and more useful work, and this, in turn, leads to 
greater happiness and success. 

THE MORNING INSPECTION 

1. Hair. Is it well brushed, well ordered, not greasy? 

For girls neatly and securely bound up, without 
any extreme in fashion? 

2. Face, Neck, Ears, Nose. Clean? For girls the 

skin should not be shiny or show any evidence of 
powder. 

3. Eyes. Are they red or inflamed? Is there dirt or 

matter in the corner? 



8 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

4. Hands. Clean ? Finger nails clean, trimmed, skin 

pushed back ? 

5. Collar, Cuffs, Shirt. Clean ? 

6. Tie. Well tied and neat ? 

7. Clothes. Clean, no spots, not mussed, well brushed, 

no buttons missing ? Pockets clean and nothing su- 
perfluous in them ? 

8. Clean handkerchief. 

9. Shoes. Brushed, laces not frayed or knotted? 

10. Are you starting the day with good posture? Have 
you clean skin, clean underclothes? Have you 
cleaned the intestinal tract of accumulated waste? 
Have you had enough sleep in good fresh air ? 



CHAPTER II 
PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK 

Getting out of bed. Have a regular hour for rising and 
stick to it. Start the day on schedule time without bor- 
rowing or losing a minute. It sounds easy, but all of us 
know how very difficult it is to leave our comfortable beds 
at an early hour, especially on cold, dark winter mornings. 

It really requires a great deal of will power to force one's 
self out of bed no matter how one feels at the same hour 
every day, summer and winter, in 
fair or boisterous weather ; but the 
good* results of this self-discipline 
are beyond calculation. 

There is always much to be 
gained from systematic habits of 
living, because to do the same 
thing in the same way, over and 
over again, relieves the brain of a 
lot of unnecessary thinking about 
what must be done. In this way, much time as well as 
nervous energy can be saved. 

How long to sleep. After experimenting a little in the 
matter, one realizes that it is easier to rise at the regular 
hour every morning, if the body has had sufficient sleep. 
In other words, we commence the day right by going to 
bed right the night before and sleeping with the fresh 

9 




10 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



air from the open windows invigorating the body for the 
next day. 

The time needed by the human machine for rest and 
repair varies according to the individual. Eight hours of 
sleep are required by the average person, but the nervous, 
highly strung people usually need more than this, and ten 
hours asleep are well spent. 

If one has rested comfortably during the night, breathing 
in plenty of pure, fresh air, he will rise refreshed by his sleep 
and ready for the day's work. That well-known condition 
referred to as " getting out of the wrong side of the bed " is 
always responsible for the fatiguing? 
unsuccessful day that follows ; but it 
is a physical rather than a mental con- 
dition. 

Let us be charitable enough to be- 
lieve that the " grouch " is the inevi- 
table result of wrong habits of living, 
which can and should be made over, 
if the individual is to enjoy success 
and happiness in his work. 

Exercises. Having jumped out 
of bed, close the windows and begin 
your exercises, for the room may 
be cold and your body should be 
in a glow before the bath. 

i. Place the hands on the hips and bend to one side, then 
to the other, a little at first, for the muscles are 
still sleepy. Begin by doing this exercise twelve 
times, but increase gradually till you are doing thirty 
vigorous bendings every morning. 




Exercise i 



PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK 



II 



2. Raise the arms slowly forward and 
upward as high as you can, 

rising on toes 

and inhaling ; 

pause a mo- 

mentwiththe 

chest full and 

exhale, bring- 
ing the arms 

slowly down 

to the side. 

Ten good 

breaths is 

enough. 
3. Next clasp the 

hands behind you and bend the 
knees so that your 
fingers touch the 

heels. This will re- / 

/ 

quire some practice 





Exercise 2 



Exercise 3 



4- 



before you can 
keep your balance, 
but it exercises 
muscles you will 
hardly use all day. 
Twenty times is 
enough. 

Take five full breaths 
just as described in 
the second exercise. 

Separate the feet well 




Exercise 5 



12 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

and swing the arms downward and under as far as 
you can, then rapidly swing them up and over the 
head, bending backward as far as you dare, then 
down again, counting up to twenty times. Go at 
this exercise gradually, for the trunk muscles are 
often the weakest of the whole body. 

6. If troubled with constipation, stand as straight as you 
can, and raise the knees alternately to the chest 
twenty times. 

Now your blood is in good circulation and you are ready 
for the bath. 

Bathing. Cleanliness is said to be next to godliness, 
but it is also very close to success, if we accept the advice 
of Benjamin Franklin, one of whose rules of life was to 
" tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or habitation." 
Having done your exercises, the next thing to do is to 
give the human machine a good cleaning. 

The skin of the body is filled with millions of little 
glands that are continually secreting waste matter, much 
the same as that cast off every day through the bowels and 
kidneys. It is evident, then, how very important it is to 
keep the pores of the skin from becoming clogged with 
the poisonous wastes of the body, as they are when we 
neglect to bathe regularly. 

Every man's tonic. If you haven't the time or the 
opportunity to get into the tub every day, then be sure to 
sponge off the body and give it a good rubbing with a coarse 
towel before putting on your clothing. If you can accus- 
tom yourself to it, a cold bath is far more beneficial than a 
warm one in the morning, for it stimulates and invigorates 
the body, puts the skin in a glow, improves the circulation, 



PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK 



and acts as a safeguard against colds and other diseases 
which result from a lowered vitality. A cold splash on the 
face, neck, and chest should be the rule for even the most 
sensitive. At least twice a week, take a warm bath, using 
plenty of soap. The best 
time for it is just before 
going to bed at night. 

Teeth. The mouth 
and teeth should be thor- 
oughly cleansed every 
morning. Wash out the 
mouth and gargle the 
throat. The teeth should 
be well brushed with a 
moderately stiff brush and 
an antiseptic powder, 
paste, or liquid. Spend 
most of your effort on the 
places you cannot see, and 
brush up and down, as 
well as along the row of 
teeth. 

Nose. If you are obliged to work in dusty places, the 
nose should be washed, morning and night, with warm salt 
water, a half teaspoonful of salt to a cup of water. If you 
have any trouble in the nasal passages, a physician will tell 
you how to use a nasal douche. But it is a simple matter 
to pour into the nostrils a spoonful or so of clean water and 
blow it out again. Be careful not to swallow while you are 
doing so, for the water many enter the passage which leads 
from the throat to the ear and cause serious trouble. 




Good teeth and happiness 
are likely to go together 



I 4 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Dressing. After you have drunk a glass of water, 
dress yourself quickly but carefully. Don't dawdle and 
don't rush. It is a good plan to brush and clean your clothes 
and lay them out at night so that you can put your hands on 
them at once in the morning and thus lose no time in hunting 
out a clean waist or shirt, the fresh neckpiece, or the missing 
collar button. To be obliged to stop and look for something, 
to sew on a button, or to replace a broken shoe lace, does not 
help in " starting the day right." 

Brush and arrange your hair before you put on your coat 
or waist, as it certainly detracts from a tidy appearance to 
have hairs clinging to the clothing. 

Be sure that your nails are trimmed and clean. It takes 
but a moment to do this, but the moment's care will add 
greatly to your appearance, as well as to your self-respect. 
Before leaving the house, see that you have a clean hand- 
kerchief with you. 

Wear clothing that is comfortable, appropriate for the 
work in hand, and suited to the weather. While your work 
clothes should be becoming and of as good materials as you 
can afford, they should be free from " frills " and eccen- 
tricities of style. The question of clothing suitable for cer- 
tain kinds of work and for the different seasons of the year 
will be taken up in greater detail in succeeding chapters. It 
is sufficient to point out here that the simpler and more 
businesslike your clothing is, the more quickly you can get 
into it in the morning. 

Breakfast. Breakfast need not be a hurried meal with 
the wage earner. It is better to eat a little less food and 
chew it thoroughly than to wash down quantities of half- 
chewed food with coffee and tea, which cannot be digested 



PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK 15 

readily and will cause trouble later on. By eating slowly, 
even the coarsest food tastes good ; you will get more pleas- 
ure and benefit from it ; and you will find that you do not 
need so much. Stop eating as soon as you have had enough. 
No one can say how much another should eat, as it is not 
how much we eat but how much we assimilate from our food 
that makes it nourishing. This must be a matter of in- 
dividual judgment, although we know that most of us eat 
entirely too much and that intemperance in eating causes 
much illness. 

In order to get the best results from it, it is important that 
food should be clean, fresh, and nourishing. This does not 
mean that it must be expensive. A breakfast of fruit, 
cereal and milk, with bread and butter, will give you more 
energy for the day, and do you more good than a meal of 
meat and fried potatoes and one or two cups of muddy 
coffee. Coffee and tea are only whips, and have no food 
value in themselves, except in the sugar and milk which are 
usually added to them. 

Water and milk are the best beverages, although the 
latter should really be considered as a food. 

Rise from the breakfast table clear-headed and feeling 
that your food has given you working power, rather than 
heavy and stupid, as a result of improper eating. 

Going to work. Try to get away after breakfast in time 
to avoid rushing. Too violent exercise, like running to 
catch a car, immediately after eating, should always be 
avoided. If it is at all possible, walk to your work. 

The most beneficial forms of exercise are those that can 
be taken in the open air. For this reason, apart from out- 
door games and sports, walking is at once the best, most 



i6 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



convenient, and cheapest exercise for the wage earner. If 
distance or the weather makes walking to your work im- 
possible, you should certainly get out of doors for a brisk 
walk at the lunch hour, if only for a few minutes. If you 
feel chilly or cold when walking, take a few long, deep 
breaths, which will help to quicken the circulation of your 
blood and make you warm. 

Walk with your head high and your chest up, with the 
feeling that you are looking the world in the face. Nothing 




On time and better ! 

will so quickly drive away " the blues " on a bad morning, 
or increase your stock of courage and self-confidence. 

Make it the rule of your business life to be on time. Delays 
are very often unavoidable, especially in the city, where the 
traffic conditions at the rush hours are responsible for much 
loss of time and, sometimes, of temper. But it is much 
better to start a little in advance of the actual time required 



PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK 17 

for the trip to your work, than to run the risk of being de- 
layed in reaching the shop or office. Always make up any 
time you have thus lost in the working day, by coming earlier 
the next morning, by " docking " yourself at your lunch 
hour, or by staying later in the evening anything to make 
your account good, whether it is noticed by your employers 
or not. It is the " keeping square " with yourself that 
counts, adds to your self-respect, and enables you to do 
honest work, the kind of work that invariably leads to real 
success. 

Habits which should become invariable. Make a 
placard of the following routine and hang it up where you 
can see it every morning : 

REGULAR MORNING ROUTINE 

i. Have a set time for rising and throw the bedclothes 

over the foot of the bed not a second later. 
2? Take the breathing and setting-up exercises. 

3. Cold splash on the face and chest at least; then a 

brisk rub with a rough towel. 

4. Clean the mouth; brush the teeth, get into all the 

corners. 

5. Drink a glass of water. 

6. Visit the toilet and wash the hands afterward. 

7. Make your regular inspection of your appearance. 

(See Chapter I.) 

8. "Work well begun is already half done." 



CHAPTER III 
GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER 

Forming good habits. The importance of good health 
and a neat appearance as factors in success cannot be over- 
estimated. In a general way, the employer's point of view 
in selecting his work people has been considered, but for 
those who realize that an improvement in health and per- 
sonal appearance is necessary before seeking positions, it 
will be well to put into practice at once those habits of care 
and cleanliness that will result in increased efficiency and 
self-respect. Incidentally, one of the most important 
habits a worker can form is the use of good English and 
the avoidance of slang. 

Hair. Starting with the hair, which is at once a pro- 
tection and an adornment, we notice that in very many 

cases it is grossly 
neglected. The hair 
should be kept clean 
and well brushed. 
The brushing is im- 
portant, because it 
brings the blood to the 
scalp and distributes 
over the hair the oil that is secreted at its roots. This 
makes the hair glossy and gives it a good appearance. 
The oil, however, should not be allowed to remain on the 

18 




GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER 



hair and scalp, and mix with the dust and impurities of the 
house and street, until the hair becomes heavy and greasy. 
It should be thoroughly washed with good soap, green or 
castile, at least once a. month, and the scalp massaged in 
order to remove the 
dirt and scales that 
may be clinging to it. 

Persons whose hair 
is naturally oily can 
afford to wash it more 
frequently than can 
those whose hair is 
light and dry, for the 
latter condition shows 
that the scalp is de- 
ficient in the natural 
oil. Brushing and 
massaging the scalp, 
will be of especial 
benefit in this case to 
increase the circula- 
tion; it is also well to 
rub in a very little 

pure vaseline occa- washing the 

sionally at the roots, but not in such quantities as to make 
the hair greasy and sticky. 

Dandruff may be cured by washing the scalp and 
rubbing in thoroughly a little thirty per cent sulphur 
ointment. 

Avoid wearing very heavy hats or those that fit too 
closely, for they are responsible for many headaches in 




20 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

women; while tight, unventilated hats cause premature 
baldness in many men. 

Eyes. If you have any doubt about your eyesight's 
being of normal keenness and efficiency, it will be well to 
consult a first-class oculist without delay. 

If you are obliged to strain your eyes to see objects clearly 
and to hold your book uncomfortably close while reading, 
or if you suffer from blinding headaches and nervousness 
resulting from eyestrain, it is necessary for you to have 
glasses fitted to your eyes to correct these defects of vision. 

People who have been suffering from nervousness, stom- 
ach disorders, and a general condition of poor health, fre- 
quently have found these troubles to disappear when they 
have been fitted with proper glasses. 

In many kinds of work requiring close application and 
accuracy, it is extremely important that the vision be keen 
and sure. So good eyesight becomes a commercial asset also. 

There are many ways, however, in which the eyes can be 
helped while working or reading. The importance of good 
light in the workroom will be discussed later on, but it is 
well to suggest here that one should never attempt to read 
after sundown while darkness is coming on, nor face a very 
bright light while reading or working. Endeavor to have 
the light come from behind and above you, and, for writing, 
to have it come from the left side. Avoid looking directly 
at artificial lights, as these put a great strain on the eyes. 
Occasionally rest the eyes while working, by closing them 
for a minute or two, by looking out of the window, or by 
focusing them on some distant object. 

If the eyes are weak and inflamed after the day's work, 
it is well to cleanse them with a solution of boracic acid, - 



GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER 



21 



the water will never take more of the powder than it can 
hold in solution. Use an eyecup for this purpose and have 
the water warm. 

Later on, we shall discuss the spread of germ diseases, 
including those of the eye, through the use of the public 
towel, and the importance of guarding ourselves against 
this danger. 

Teeth. Good teeth and a clean mouth are also essen- 
tial to the success of the wage earner. The president of a 
large steel company recently made the statement that, 
under no circumstances, would he employ a young man 
with diseased teeth. 

Unclean and decaying teeth seriously affect the health of 
the worker, for they serve as breeding places for all kinds of 
bacteria that become mixed up with the food and finally 




reach the stomach and intestines, where they cause fermen- 
tation and lead to bodily weakness, if not to actual disease. 
In addition to this danger, a greater burden is laid upon 
the digestive organs, when the food is not properly broken 
up in the mouth and well mixed with the saliva the first 
and perhaps the most important step in the process of diges- 



22 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

tion. This can be done only by thorough mastication, for 
which good teeth are necessary. 

Apart from the wear and tear of a lifetime or diseases 
that have weakened them, the decay of the teeth is pri- 
marily due to carelessness and uncleanliness. The mouth 
should be cleansed and the gums and teeth brushed every 
time they are used, if possible, but at least on rising, after 
breakfast, and before going to bed. Sticky deposits may 
be removed by running a bit of silk or dental floss about 
and between the teeth. 

When a tooth begins to decay, it should be filled at once. 
As we are not always able to determine for ourselves when 
this happens, it is wise to visit a good dentist once or twice 
a year. Have a settled time for doing this and never put 
it off. 

Nose. A good many people overlook the importance 
of keeping the nasal passages clean and unobstructed. If 
there is any serious obstruction and one has reason to believe 
that he is suffering from adenoids or any foreign growth in 
the nose, a physician should be consulted and the obstacle to 
proper breathing removed. Mouth breathing usually re- 
sults from a condition of catarrh or adenoids and seriously 
interferes with the health of the body. 

The nose has several important functions to perform. 
As the organ of smell, it protects the body from inhaling 
impurities in the air, poisonous fumes, and gases. The 
muscles of respiration begin in the nostrils. The nose 
serves to warm and moisten the inhaled air, and also acts 
as a filter to prevent germs and dust from passing into the 
throat and lungs. We must breathe through the nose if we 
would breathe properly and give the body the air it needs. 



GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER 



Breathing. The majority of people, especially those in 
cities, have never learned how to breathe properly ; their 
bodies are literally starving for air. The special office of 
the respiratory organs is to put oxygen into the blood and 
to keep it pure. In deep breathing, a plentiful supply of 
oxygen is drawn into the system, and the thoroughly ex- 
haled breath keeps the bal- 
ance true by carrying off large 
quantities of the poisons and 
wastes of the body. 

In shallow breathing, the 
blood does not get the oxygen 
it needs to do its work of 
carrying fresh and pure mate- 
rials to all the cells of the 
body ; the cell tissues there- 
fore are impaired or break 
down, and the general health 
suffers. 

Correct breathing is frequently interfered with by the 
manner in which one holds his body, or by clothing that is 
too tight. When the shoulders are habitually stooped, the 
lungs are crowded and cannot be filled with fresh air. Some 
of the air cells become inactive, and, finally, diseased. 
Clothing that binds the walls of the chest and the abdomen, 
preventing them from expanding freely, is injurious. The 
body should always be carried erect, with the head held 
high, the chin and abdomen drawn in. In order to stand 
properly, comfortable, well-fitting shoes should always be 
worn. In sitting, the spinal column should be kept 
straight and the shoulders even. Do not stoop over 




Test each nostril 



24 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

your work, so that your heart and lungs are crowded 
close together. 

Deep breathing exercises are very helpful to the worker 
and require but a few minutes' daily practice. It is espe- 
cially beneficial for workers employed in factory, shop, 
store, and office to cultivate the habit of holding the 
head erect and breathing deeply whenever they can, espe- 
cially as they go to and from their work. 

Hands and nails. Clean hands and finger nails are also 
factors in success. Not only is there an instinctive prejudice 




against the person who goes about with grimy fingers 
and with his nails dirty, but clean hands are a protec- 
tion against filth and germs that may be carried into the 
body, while taking up food, or touching the mouth with 
the fingers. Inflammation is frequently 
-CLEAN, caused by scratching the skin with dirty 




"SKIN PUSHED 

Nails may be easily kept clean if they 
are worn short. They should be allowed 
to grow long enough to protect the ends 
of the fingers, but not so long as to permit dirt to collect 
under them, or to run the risk of being broken and split. 
The hands should always be washed before eating. 



GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER 25 

Feet. The feet should be washed every day. Com- 
fortable stockings, without holes and seams to irritate and 
chafe the feet, shoulcl be worn, and changed frequently - 
especially if the feet perspire greatly. Wear shoes that fit 
and do not tire the feet, or produce corns or callouses. Thin- 
soled shoes do not afford sufficient protection against cold 
and dampness. If you are caught in the rain, change your 
wet shoes and stockings as soon as possible, and avoid the 
danger of chilling the body and developing colds. 

Bowels. It is highly important to one's health that the 
bowels move freely each day. If the wastes of the body are 
retained longer than this, their poisonous impurities get 
into the blood and lead to a train of evils. Among seden- 
tary workers, especially, there is a tendency to constipation, 
which must be counteracted by a greater attention to ex- 
ercise (particularly of the type given in Chapter II), by 
drinking plentifully of pure water, and by eating foods that 
contain more refuse matter, such as vegetables, whole 
wheat or graham breads, fruits, and other materials that 
cause the wastes to be easily eliminated. 

Sleep. To the wage earner, a proper amount of rest 
is as essential to health as food, water, and air. The nerv- 
ous system, especially, is in need of rest after the wear and 
tear of the working day, and there seems to be no way by 
which the delicate organisms of the body can be restored, 
except through sleep. 

Sleep is a mysterious process, about which we know very 
little, except that during the period of unconsciousness the 
muscles relax, the nerves are at rest, and most of the cell 
waste that results from the activities of mind and body is 
stopped ; and, if sufficient time is allowed for the process of 



26 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

repairing the worn-out cells, they will be built up for the 
next day's work. 

Without sufficient sleep the health will suffer. If we were 
not permitted to sleep at all, we should die. 

In this connection, it is well to speak of the benefit result- 
ing from observing regular hours for rest and sleep. If the 
body is accustomed to being put to bed at a certain hour 
every night, the habit of sleeping at that time becomes 
fixed, and one drops off to sleep easily and naturally. Social 
engagements, entertainments, late suppers, excitement, 
worry, and everything that prevents the body and brain 
from getting the needed amount of sleep, should be avoided, 
especially in the case of workers who must rise at an early 
hour. Ordinarily, the body requires at least eight hours of 
sleep. 

Sleep and air. It has been demonstrated that out of 
doors less sleep is required than when one is sleeping 
in a closed room. This is due to the fact that the process 
of rebuilding goes on more rapidly when more oxygen is 
taken into the system, as is the case when one sleeps out 
of doors. The need of oxygen in the rebuilding of the cells 
is imperative. So it is well, if you cannot sleep out of doors, 
to have plenty of fresh air circulating through your room at 
night. If you have but one window in your room, pull it 
down from the top and up from the bottom, so that the foul 
air may go out and the fresh air blow in. Never mind the 
cold ; put on more covering if necessary. Sleeping entirely 
in the open air is best, and any one can be almost out of 
doors on a sleeping porch or by using a window tent. (See 
page 218.) 

Better rest is secured through sleeping alone and in a 



GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER 



27 



comfortable bed. If your bed is narrow and the cold seems 
to come up from the floor, it is a good plan to cover the 
springs under the mattress with a thick pad of paper 
newspaper will do for the purpose. This will help to keep 
the body warm and comfortable. Warm bed clothing need 




Getting fresh air at night 

not be heavy. Very heavy covering often tires the body, 
and one rises feeling languid and unrefreshed. The pillow 
should always be low ; a very high pillow bends the spinal 
column to one side, interferes with proper breathing by 
cramping the organs, and frequently causes disturbing 
dreams. The bedclothes should be aired every day and 
exposed to the sunlight as often as possible. 



28 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

At night, after getting into bed, lie upon your back and 
stretch your arms and legs as far as possible. Then relax 
and take ten deep, long breaths, exhaling slowly but com- 
pletely. This will be found helpful in composing the mind 
and body for sleep, if you are restless. 

When we consider that one third of our lives is spent in 
sleep, it is wise to make the conditions for complete recu- 
peration the very best possible, and to allow nothing to in- 
terfere seriously with the intelligent cells in their nightly 
task of building up the body for the next day's work. 

EVENING ROUTINE 

1. " After dinner rest awhile." 

2. Spend the evening as profitably and pleasantly as pos- 

sible ; do not steal to-morrow's energy and waste it 
on questionable fun. 

3. " Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, 

wealthy, and wise." 

4. Wash to get clean; use hot water and soap, scrubbing 

brush and washcloth; wash the face, neck, ears, 
arm-pits, and hands, at least. 

5. Splash with cold water the face, neck, and chest, at least ; 

take a brisk rub. 

6. Brush the teeth and clean the mouth, using dental floss 

between the teeth. 

7. Visit the toilet and wash the hands afterward. 

8. Lay out the clothes for the morning ; hang them so that 

air reaches all sides. 

9. Open the windows, top and bottom. 



CHAPTER IV 
SUITABLE CLOTHING 

Work clothes. Clothes, first of all, should be comfort- 
able and should not interfere with the activity of the worker. 
If you are obliged to use your arms and hands constantly, 
reaching and stretching a great deal, it is evident that 
sleeves should be worn that do not bind the arms and seri- 
ously hinder your movements. Besides interfering with 
the speed and, consequently, the output of your work, they 
lead more quickly to fatigue. This may be said of any 
clothing that cramps the muscles, keeps the blood from 
circulating freely, and causes the wearer to work under diffi- 
culties. 

A great many accidents to women workers have resulted 
from the wearing of high-heeled shoes and narrow skirts. 
Such garments as these, during work hours, are positively 
dangerous and no safeguard can be found against them, 
except the common sense of the workers themselves. 

So frequent have such accidents become among trav- 
elers, that the Pennsylvania Railroad will no longer pay 
damages to any one injured in getting on or off their trains, 
if it is proved that high-heeled shoes or tightly fitting skirts 
were responsible for the injuries received. 

Appropriate clothing. There is no reason why the 
worker should not present a neat, businesslike appearance, 
without thinking it necessary to dress in elaborate, inap- 
propriate garments that may prove to be dangerous, as well. 

29 



30 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

If you are working in an office, of course your clothing 
need not be quite so plain and practical as when you are 
working in the factory or shop, because, in the latter places, 
not only are your clothes subjected to more dirt and strain, 
but you yourself may be exposed to certain dangers that 
are greatly increased by the kind of clothing you wear. 

Tight clothing of any sort is unsuitable for the busy 
worker, but running to the other extreme of loose, thin gar- 
ments may prove just as much a menace to health and 
safety. Women workers are more apt to be careless 
in this respect than men and boys. A business woman 
should not go to her work so thinly clad that she is blue and 
shivering all day. Very thin waists are, at best, inap- 
propriate for work; but while there may be some excuse 
for wearing them in midsummer, they are too light for wear 
in the winter time, as good health depends so much on keep- 
ing the body uniformly warm. In cold or wet weather, 
therefore, see that your legs, feet, arms, and body are well 
protected. 

Cautions for the machine worker. If you happen to 
work on a machine or near swiftly moving belts and 
wheels be careful never to wear loose sleeves, a flowing tie, 
or any frayed, torn garments that may catch in the mov- 
ing parts of the machinery. Many workers have been 
caught in cogs, or whirled to death around shafting, 
through such simple things as these. 

An insurance inspector tells the story of noticing on one 
of his visits to a certain factory a set screw which projected 
from a revolving shaft and which he considered very dan- 
gerous because the shaft was near a passageway, through 
which the workmen were obliged to walk. When he called 






Cap 



SUITABLE CLOTHING 31 

the manager's attention to the danger and suggested that 

some one would get hurt if the screw was not cut off or sunk 

into the shaft, the manager treated the matter lightly. 

" Oh," he scoffed, " that screw has been like that for 

years. Every one can see it, and the fact that it is ex- 

posfed makes it impossible for 

an accident to happen." He 

had a way of waving his arm 

as he spoke, and doing so 

this time, his loose sleeve Hair caught up 

caught in the projecting screw, 

and in an instant he was 

whirled to death. 

The inspector uses the story 
to illustrate the danger of pro- 
jections on revolving shafting Elbow Sleeves 
and the necessity of guarding Short 
the dangerous parts of machin- 
ery; but it also demonstrates 
the need of a little caution on 
the part of the worker who is 
obliged to work in proximity 
to such dangers every day. 
Keep your sleeves well rolled 
up, or wear them short, if your 
work brings you close to the moving parts of machinery. 

Clothes for women workers. Women workers in fac- 
tories should never be permitted to wear flowing sleeves or 
aprons with long strings, or to have their clothing of such 
light material that it may be blown into contact with ex- 
posed cog wheels, shafting, or belts running along the floor. 




Appropriate and attractive clothes for 
the woman worker 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 




Making a sleeve protector of paper 



Women and girls are also in grave danger of being scalped, 
if they wear their hair loose and unconfmed while working 
at machines running at high speed. Many serious accidents 

of this kind occur fre- 
quently in factories. 
Therefore, girls and 
women should wear 
caps, made of light, 
washable material, 
that completely cover 
the hair, preventing it 
from coming in con- 
tact with the machin- 
ery, or from being drawn into it through the electricity that is 
generated by the friction of the moving parts. The work 
apron should be heavy, not only to protect the dress from the 
grease and dirt of the machines, but 
also to keep the skirts from catching 
in them. It should have short 
strings, with no loose ends. 

In the office or for any light man- 
ual work, sleeve protectors may be 
worn by women workers, as coarse 
or fine as the work demands or the 
taste of the wearer dictates. These 
will prove to be a great economy, 
keeping waists fresh and clean for a 
longer period and also saving them 
from wearing out too quickly. 

Clothes for the machinist. It is possible for the young 
man working in an office to wear collars and cuffs, whereas 




The worker dressed for 

the shop 



SUITABLE CLOTHING 



33 



the machinist can dispense with them. In the latter case, 
he is better clad for his work if he wears a flannel or dark 
wash shirt, the sleeves of which can be easily rolled back, 
and trousers of strong, serviceable material. There is no 
reason, however, why he should not put on a collar with his 
coat, at the close of the day's work, 
adding to his personal appearance, 
as well as to his self-respect, when 
he passes on to the street from the 
shop. 

Linen. The wearing of clean 
collars and, sometimes, cuffs, should 
not be considered an extravagance 
or a sign of foppishness on the part 
of the young worker. The small 
amount of money spent in having 
linen laundered, if it is not done at 
home, does not begin to compare 
with what can be wasted on ciga- 
rettes in the course of a week. 

Don't, however, wear celluloid 
collars with the idea that they are 
economical and look just as well as 
the other kind. They may be 
cheap, but, too often, the wearer forgets to clean or change 
them as frequently as necessary, and they become very 
dirty and unsanitary, and may prove dangerous if they 
happen to scratch or chafe his neck. Besides, celluloid 
collars are always dangerous if brought very close to a flame, 
and many a boy or man has been badly burned when the 
head of a match has flown against his collar, setting it ablaze. 




The worker dressed for the 
street 



34 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Shoes. The feet of the worker are just as important 
as any other part of the body and demand just as intelligent 
care. In fact, a healthful condition of the feet is closely 
connected with a sound condition of body, nerves, and brain, 
and, consequently, with the happiness of the individual. 
Fatigue and nervousness are more often due to tired, aching 
feet than to any other cause. 

Shoes, especially the shoes of the worker, should be strong 
and comfortable. They should be kept clean and neat. A 
worker may find that so simple a thing as keeping his shoes 
well brushed sometimes leads to a promotion that remains 

a mystery to his fel- 
low employees, whose 
work, apparently, is 
just as good, but 
whose appearance is 
less tidy. 

Thin-soled shoes do 
not afford sufficient 
protection for the 
average worker, par- 

This shows a foot distorted by a pointed shoe and ticularly when he is 
a foot in a comfortable shoe of natural shape , 

obliged to stand and 
work for hours in a cold, wet, or drafty place. 

Results of ill-fitting shoes. The worker should wear 
shoes that fit and do not tire the feet. Do not try to make 
your feet fit shoes that are a size or so too small for them. 
Tight shoes and stockings hinder the circulation of the 
blood in the feet and legs, and crowd the joints and muscles 
so closely together that the nervous system suffers a strain 
and shock that is as cruel as it is unnecessary. Heels too 








SUITABLE CLOTHING 



35 



1 



high or too low may weaken the feet; pointed toes and 
narrow lasts are responsible for corns and bunions ; and the 
condition known as " flat-foot " or broken arch is due to 
the wearing of improperly made shoes, or to the fact that the 
worker is obliged to be on his feet all day long. 

Heels much too high or placed under the arch of the foot, 
throw the body into such an unnatural position when walk- 
ing or standing, that other muscles and organs besides the 
feet are seriously af- 
fected. A curious 
case of this sort came 
under the observation 
of a surgeon who dis- 
covered, after many 
experiments, that an 
obstinate eye trouble 
was directly due to 
wearing badly made 
shoes. 

Flat-foot. Physi- 
ologists tell us that a 
high-arched foot can 
be naturally developed and kept in shape by exercise in 
walking. The English people are great walkers, and that 
is why, it is said, so few are flat-footed. 

Special exercises and artificial helps are necessary if our feet 
are to be kept normal and we find it impossible to do much 
walking every day. The practice of rising on the toes for a 
few minutes each morning, bearing the body's weight toward 
the outer edges of the soles, has been suggested by foot spe- 
cialists, both as a cure and as a preventive of flat-footedness. 





Normal foot 



Flat-foot 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 




Exercise 1 



The signs of flat-foot 
are : the foot turned 
out, a low and tender 
arch, and pains in the 
heel, calf, hip, or back. 
The defect should be 
treated by standing, 
toes in, with the 
weight resting more 
on the toes. When 
walking, "toe in" a 
little and press on the 

t oes as fa e f oo t JeaVCS 

the ground. If special exercises are needed, the follow- 
ing are recommended to 
be performed once a 
day:- 



1. Rub and knead the 

foot under the 
arch, pressing up 
with the thumb 
and bending the 
toes down with 
the fingers. 

2. With the toes turned 

in a little, raise 
the heels high ten 
times. 

3. Rock back and forth 

on the outside 




Exercise 2 



SUITABLE CLOTHING 



37 



of the feet, with the soles turned toward each other, 
ten times. 

4. Turn the toes in and walk forward ten steps on the out- 

side of the feet, lifting the heels high, ten times. 

5. Rub and knead the foot as suggested in the first exercise. 

Do these exercises (2, 3, 4) twice the second day, three 
times the third, and so on until you run through the series 
ten times a day. These 
should be continued until 
the weakness has entirely 
disappeared. 

Special shoes. Per- 
sons suffering from corns, 
enlarged joints, and bun- 
ions, and serious cases 
of flat-foot, need special 
shoes to correct these evils, 
and they should make it 
a point to get those that 
provide sufficient length and breadth for the toes, and fit 
closely at the instep and heel. When necessary, the shoes 
should be braced to give special support to the arch and 
instep. 

Certain occupations demand shoes that give more than 
ordinary protection. 

Many laundry workers suffer from " flat-foot " and vari- 
cose veins, to relieve which special shoes and elastic stock- 
ings should be worn at work. For outdoor work, one should 
wear shoes that are thick-soled and heavy enough to keep 
out the cold and wet. 




Exercise 3 



38 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



CLOTHES FOR THE WORKER 

1. Underclothes. Wear linen mesh of different weights 

next to the skin all the year round. If necessary, 
wear wool on top of the linen mesh ; or light wool 
for winter. Change at night. 

2. Corsets. Unnecessary if the muscles of the waist are 

strong. They may be tight below the waist only. 

3. Collars. Neither tight nor high. 

4. Shoes. Comfortable and well fitted. 

5. Hats. Soft hats are better than the hard derby, which 

presses on the scalp. 

6. Outer Clothing. When buying clothes, consider the fol- 

lowing points : 

(a) Durability. How long before you will have to re- 
place it ? 

(b) Comfort. Do not buy anything that will be a 
continual discomfort, even if it looks well. 

(c) Style. Simple things are always in style. Striking 
clothes often outlast their appropriateness. 

(d) Warmth. Good material is more important than 
appearance. 

(e) Appropriateness. Is it suited to your work and 
age? 

(/) Economy. Can you afford it? 



CHAPTER V 

FOOD AND DRINK 

One is largely what he eats and drinks. The old saying 
of the philosopher, " Tell me the company you keep, and 
I will tell you what you are/' could be changed into, " Tell 
me the food you daily put into your mouth, and I will tell 
you the condition of your body and the ailments from 
which you suffer." 

This is, of course, from the physical standpoint only, but 
some food scientists have gone so far as to say that the kind 
of food one eats finally acts upon the brain and moral 
nature, so that, given a certain diet for a certain length of 
time, a great deal of human weakness and meanness would 
be corrected and many crimes would be prevented from 
taking place. 

The body an engine. The body is very much like a 
steam engine, which needs good fuel and plenty of it in 
order to get up a good head of steam. The food and drink 
that go into the body may be considered as fuel, which will 
be turned into power, or energy, to move, to think, and to 
work. 

Carrying out this idea, we may look upon the air that is 
breathed into the body as the drafts which regulate the heat 
and help to burn up the fuel, and the wastes of the body as 
the ashes and clinkers which must be raked out and not 
allowed to clog the furnace. 

39 



40 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

It has been said that one puts into his mouth his weight 
in food and drink each month. But there should be a bal- 
ance between what one takes in and uses in warming and 
repairing the body, and what passes off from the body as 
useless waste. Not to eat enough, or, as happens in many 
cases, not to get enough from the food eaten to make good 
blood, tends to make the body weak, if not actually ill ; 
while, on the other hand, it is just as bad to take into the 
body more than it can use and so keep it clogged and 
poisoned with waste. Plenty of exercise, fresh air, and the 
habit of drinking an abundance of water every day will help 
to shake down the ashes and keep the body in the best con- 
dition for using the fuel that is given it. 

How much food. It is impossible for one person to tell 
another just how much food he should eat each day, for 
exercise and very active work make it necessary to spend a 
greater amount of bodily heat and energy than are called for 
when the body is resting or engaged in lighter tasks. The 
size and particularly the age of the person must also be 
taken into account. A child demands more tissue-building 
foods than does the person who has stopped growing and 
who needs only enough of them to repair the cells that are 
worn out during each day. 

Every one needs food that keeps the body warm. Keep- 
ing the body at an even heat, not too hot and not too cold, 
is necessary to health and comfort, for we are continually 
giving off heat to the surrounding air. Food is also needed 
to repair the wear and tear upon the muscles and hard-work- 
ing organs of the body. In addition to the foods that warm 
and repair the body, we need food that will give an extra 
amount of strength and energy which may be used in think- 



FOOD AND DRINK 41 

ing, playing, or working. So you see we must consider 
what food we should eat, how we should eat it so that it 
will do the most good, and last but not least, we must be 
sure that the body machine is not clogged by the waste that 
is renewed daily. 

In general, those who are still growing need the most 
to eat, the young man and woman somewhat less ; the old 
man should eat still less and very carefully. 

The more exercise one takes, the more food is needed. 
A clerk needs less than a laborer, but he needs to be more 
careful in his eating. 

Choice of food. The question of diet is attracting more 
and more attention. What to eat and what to drink to 
make the body more efficient is being studied and discussed 
by many scientific writers. Nearly all of them claim that 
we eat too much, but that of course depends on the class 
of people and the kind of work involved. 

While a great many people may be suffering from in- 
temperance in eating and drinking, it is safe to say that a 
great number of persons in this world do not get enough to 
eat, or at least not the kind of food to give them health and 
strength. 

Quite apart from the theories on this subject, the question 
of diet should be of interest to every wage earner, as not 
only his health, but his efficiency and success may depend 
largely on the food he eats. 

The cost of food is something the wage earner should 
consider. Sometimes we think we cannot get the right 
kind of food, because it costs too much ; but this is a mis- 
take. Good, nourishing food, if carefully selected, need 
not be expensive. The average American worker is the 



42 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

most extravagant buyer of food in the world, probably 
because he knows so little about what food is of most value 
to him. 

The body is made up of at least fourteen elements, which 
are well-known in chemistry, but which need not be dis- 
cussed here, other than to say that all of them are necessary 
to the body and blood and must be taken in with the air we 
breathe and the food we eat. 

That is why a varied diet is the best to follow, and when 
we look around and see all the articles of food that have 
been so plentifully supplied by a wise Providence, we find 
none of the needed elements wanting. Moreover, we can 
find the fourteen elements in very simple foods. For in- 
stance, a grain of wheat contains all of them. 

A few general hints and suggestions may be helpful in the 
selection and combination of simple foods. 

Foods are usually classified under these three headings : 
proteids, carbohydrates, fats. 

Proteids. The living portions of the body, the organs, 
heart, lungs, liver, etc., and the muscles, are made of proteid 
material, and therefore when the body needs to grow or to be 
repaired, as it must constantly be, we need proteids to pro- 
vide the material. 

Of course, while we are growing we need much proteid. 
As we grow older, we need less and less. Again, those who 
do the hardest muscular work and use up much of the struc- 
ture of the body need more than those who do not work so 
hard. 

Meats and eggs are the most usual forms of proteids; 
fish, beans, peas, lentils, and cheese also contain a -great 
deal. Proteid food is the only kind that contains nitrogen, 



FOOD AND DRINK 



43 



and, therefore, is the only food that contains all the ele- 
ments of which we ourselves are composed. So it is ab- 
solutely essential to life. In this country, almost every one 




Proteid foods 

eats too much meat. Twice a day is enough for any of us 
and once a day for those who are middle-aged. Eating 
too much meat and other proteids causes headache and 
finally rheumatism in some form or other. This is where 
the worker can economize, for meat costs more than any- 
thing else, and too much does a great deal of serious harm. 
Carbohydrates. The heat and energy of the body are 
secured mostly from the carbohydrates and fats. Carbo- 
hydrates are also called the starch and sugar diet, which 
should make up the largest part of our daily food ; but the 
body cannot make good use of most of this starchy food 




Carbohydrate foods 

until it has been changed into a form of sugar by the saliva 
in the mouth. Hence we should chew the food enough to 
give the saliva a chance to mix thoroughly with it. 

In the carbohydrate class are found all the grains (wheat, 
oats, corn, rye, buckwheat, rice), potatoes, macaroni, 



44 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 




Fat foods 



bananas, dried fruits, and all kinds of sugar. Most of the 
vegetables may be put in this class, although they often 

contain a little pro- 
teid and fat, so that 
one could live en- 
tirely upon vegeta- 
bles if he so desired. 
Fats. The fat 
foods are principally 
butter, lard, olive oil, 
cream, etc., although many foods containing much fat may 
be included, as milk, cheese, pork, ham, bacon, and nuts. 

A mixed diet is natural. It has been said that the aver- 
age person should not eat more than four ounces of the pro- 
teid food each day, and that three ounces of the fats should 
be eaten. Many people eat much of their fatty food in the 
form of butter on their bread. Every one should eat a good 
supply of the starch and sugar foods, unless one is stout. 
Then, these foods may be used sparingly. On the other 
hand, if one wishes 

. , . EAT 

to gain in weight, a 
diet of the starchy 
foods, sweets, and 
milk will soon fat- 
ten one. All these 
three kinds of food 
are necessary to 
health, and we in- 
stinctively desire 
just about the proper proportion. We seldom make a meal 
of only one kind. For instance, a sandwich contains pro- 



MEAT 
(PROTEID) 







FOOD AND DRINK 45 

teid in the meat, cheese, or egg, carbohydrate in the bread 
(which also has a little pro teid), and fat in the butter and 
perhaps on the meat. Bread itself contains all three kinds 
of food, but is deficient in fat, so we naturally make it up 
by spreading butter upon it. 

Vegetables. We must be sure that we eat enough food 
not only of value for the fats, proteids, and carbohydrates 
it contains, but for the apparently useless waste in the form 
of fiber that naturally goes with it. The stomach and in- 
testines work best when there is enough coarse, indigestible 
matter to stimulate them to activity. Hence, we must be 
sure to have in the day's list of food green vegetables like 
lettuce, turnips, squash, tomatoes, spinach, 
and fruit. Neglect of this rule causes con- 
stipation, and constipation causes head- 
aches, indigestion, colds, and is at the root 
of most of our illnesses. 

Milk. Of all the foods, milk may be 
said to be the most complete. It contains water 
all the materials needed by the body : the 
fat, the sugar, and, in the cheesy part of 
milk, the pro teid or albumin, found in eggs, A b ^^T milk show . 
fish, and meat. In addition, milk con- ing the proportions of 

water, fat, sugfar, pro- 
tains some valuable salts which are useful teid, and minerals. 

in making bone. If it were necessary to (After Davison - ) 
do so, one could live for a time on milk alone, and this is 
why it is a perfect food for children. All of the other foods 
need to be taken in combination with something else in 
order to get the various kinds of elements needed and to 
make them palatable. 

It is because milk is unclean and full of germs or has been 




46 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

spoiled by standing or given in unclean nursing bottles, that 
so many babies are made ill. It should always be remem- 
bered that stale, dirty milk is dangerous. Many physi- 
cians advise that milk be heated, " pasteurized," not boiled, 
in order to kill the bacteria and to run no risks of injuring 
babies ; but if the milk is clean and pure and not thinned 
with water, it need not be sterilized. 

Most of the cities are now inspecting the milk that is 
used, and dairymen and dealers are not allowed to sell im- 
pure milk if the inspectors know about it ; but it would be 
well to find out, each one of us, just where our milk comes 
from, to be sure that we are getting the best. Don't buy 
milk "loose"; that is, from the dirty cans that are kept in 
grocery stores, open to the dust and flies, and which are 
seldom kept cool enough to prevent the milk from spoiling. 

Water. As the body, in normal health, is two thirds 
water, it needs a plentiful supply of water every day. Apart 
from the liquid contained in our food, we need to drink one 
or two quarts of water daily. If, besides water, we drink 
tea, coffee, cocoa, or chocolate, they should not be made 
too strong or rich. We should do without coffee if we can, 
for it often causes indigestive headaches and rheumatism. 

Pure water, the drink that has been provided by nature, 
is the best beverage. We need water to distribute the food 
and warmth throughout the body and to wash the waste 
out of every nook and corner. The best time to drink 
water is before and between meals. A half glass of water 
during the meal is often an excellent thing. The disad- 
vantage of drinking water at that time comes only from 
drinking too much and using it to wash the food down 
instead of chewing it. 



FOOD AND DRINK 47 

Wholesome food. In addition to food values, the 
wage earner needs to be interested in the wholesomeness 
of food and the manner in which it is prepared for the 
table. 

In 1910 the Department of Health of New York City 
condemned and destroyed as unfit to eat, 565,074 pounds 
of fish, 1,880,772 pounds of meat, and 12,137,375 pounds 
of fruit a grand total of 14,583,221 pounds. This enor- 
mous total shows how the idea of pure food is taking hold 
of our minds, and represents a wonderful saving in life and 
health to the community. 

Cooking. Food should be appetizing. In many house- 
holds, good foods, particularly meats, are spoiled by cook- 
ing until they are dry, flat, and tasteless. A great deal of 
discontent in our families might be avoided, if the house- 
wives selected food carefully, prepared it nicely, and served 
it in an attractive, tempting manner. The ill-fed body is 
restless and unsatisfied and likely to crave stimulants. 

One need not buy the expensive kinds of meat. The 
cheaper grade of steak, if well beaten and cooked, not fried, 
in a very hot pan, over a hot fire, and turned quickly to 
sear the meat and keep in the juices, may prove a much 
better steak than the high-priced ones that are served 
in the restaurants. A pot roast may be made delicious 
when cooked in an iron pot on top of the stove and turned 
frequently, in a little water at first, to keep it from sticking 
fast to the pot. When, later, more water is added for the 
soup and soup vegetables, one has a complete dinner in a 
single pot, at a much less price than a regular roast would 
have cost. 

Nourishing soups may be had from cracked soup bones, 



48 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

and made appetizing by the addition of vegetables and 
savory herbs. Clear soups are not nourishing. 

Vegetables may be ruined in the cooking, or prepared so 
that the natural salts and flavor are not retained. Some vege- 
tables are best when eaten raw, as celery, radishes, etc. The 
cooking of green vegetables should be begun in boiling water 
and salt added when they are about done. Vegetables 
should be served as soon as cooked and should not be 
allowed to stand in the cooking vessels. 

Potatoes, peas, green beans, asparagus, and other deli- 
cately flavored vegetables, should be cooked in less water 
than the stronger ones, such as cabbage, onions, turnips, 
and carrots, whose flavor may be softened by changing the 
water during the cooking process. 

Potatoes are more nourishing and digestible when baked, 
boiled, or mashed than when fried. Beans, peas, and len- 
tils, when dried and then cooked, are cheap substitutes for 
meat. 

Wheat, oats, rice, and corn are all cheaper than meat and 
contain more food elements. As breakfast foods, these 
cereals may be combined with sugar, milk, or fruits to make 
them more palatable and to give variety to the diet; as 
desserts, they may be used in combination with sugar, eggs, 
fruit, or milk, and baked. When these cereals, in the form 
of breads, are combined with butter, cheese, eggs, ham, 
peanut butter, or nuts, they furnish a more substantial fare. 

Buying. By buying staple foods in quantities and per- 
ishable foods only when needed ; by refusing to take stale 
meat, dirty and half-rotten fruits and vegetables, because 
they are "cheap"; by doing a little more cooking at home 
and less running to the groceries and delicatessen shops for 



FOOD AND DRINK 49 

small quantities of prepared foods at extravagant prices; 
by selecting foods wisely and with a view to the needs of 
the body; by preparing them in an appetizing manner; by 
eating only what the body requires ; and by chewing that 
thoroughly, we would soon do away with a great deal of 
the hard times and high prices which at present so seriously 
affect the wage earner. 

It is a striking sign of progress that our public schools are 
now teaching domestic science, and that our girls and young 
women are learning the economic, scientific side of cooking 
and housekeeping. They should be given every opportu- 
nity for development and practice in this branch of study, 
for the health and efficiency of our wage earners depend as 
much on " scientific management " in the kitchen as in the 
shop and office. 

Importance of chewing food thoroughly. As has been 
pointed out before, it is not what we eat, so much as what 
we make our own, and take into the blood to nourish us, 
that counts. Probably half or two thirds of what we now 
eat would be quite sufficient to nourish us, if we selected 
our foods carefully and took time to chew them thoroughly. 

The mouth is really the most important of the digestive 
organs, for it breaks up the large pieces of food and, by aid 
of the saliva, prepares the food so that the stomach and 
intestines can manage it. These organs cannot do the work 
of the mouth ; their work is entirely different. The stom- 
ach has no teeth. 

Food should be ohewed until it becomes a paste or liquid. 
Gladstone, the great English statesman, believed that his 
long life and health were due to his habit of chewing every 
mouthful of food forty times. Horace Fletcher, whose 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



system of eating for health is now widely known as " Flet- 
cherism," cured himself of ill health of long standing, and 
built up his body so well that, at sixty years of age, he 
showed greater strength and endurance than young Ameri- 
can college athletes. 

This, he claims, was done by following a very simple 
diet, eating only when he was hungry, and thoroughly 

chewing his food 
until it became a 
liquid in the mouth. 
Mr. Fletcher, who is 
what he calls a one 
third eater eating 
only about a third 
as much food as is 
usually taken- 
took the Yale Uni- 
versity crew work 
with the freshmen, 
who were all three 




For 
Grinding 



For 
Cutting 



For 
Moistening 

The first processes in digestion 



thirds eaters. At 
the end of seven 
days' training, he had lost no weight and was in as good 
shape as when he commenced. The younger men, on the 
other hand, had lost weight, some of them had to rest from 
the work, and they were not in as good condition as when 
they started the experiment. 

One of Mr. Fletcher's rules is : " Do not eat when you are 
mad or sad, only when you are glad." 

This shows the close relation between the mind and the 
ability to digest food. It is a well-known fact that indiges- 



FOOD AND DRINK 51 

tion will follow, if one eats when very angry or in great 
grief. 

We may not go quite to the extent that Mr. Fletcher 
does in his belief that chewing food into liquid form will 
cure all human ills, but we are quite certain that we neg- 
lect this matter too much and that proper attention to it 
will be repaid in better health and longer life. 

Thorough chewing does more than to break up the food 
and to help the saliva flow. It draws blood to the muscles 
around the mouth and leads to better formation of the 
jaws. People who chew their food thoroughly and also 
take plenty of exercise suffer little from digestive troubles 
and do not, as a rule, have appendicitis. 

Even fluid foods may be " chewed," that is, held in the 
mouth and thoroughly mixed with the saliva. In this way, 
they not only will prove more digestible, but will be much 
more enjoyed than when gulped down. Because soups, 
milk, mashed potato, and cooked rice can be easily swal- 
lowed, a great many people do not chew them at all, and 
then wonder why their food does not "agree" with them. 

The saliva itself, which flows abundantly as a result of 
chewing, helps to cleanse the teeth and is a killer of germs, 
or bacteria, which otherwise would pass into the stomach 
and intestines alive. This is the reason why so many 
people suffer from stomach and bowel troubles, particularly 
in the summer, when it is difficult to keep foods fresh. 

REMEMBER 

1. Good food is cheap and will taste as good as expensive 

food if you chew it long enough. 

2. If forced to economize, cut down on meat. 



52 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

3. Too much meat causes more headaches than does hard 

work. 

4. Well chewed and digested carbohydrates and fats will 

keep one warm. 

5.- Green vegetables keep the intestinal tract and the brain 
clear. 

6. Milk is the best food. He is wise who uses it. 

7. Water is as necessary to life as air, and almost as cheap. 

8. Hot, clear soup is a tonic to the stomach, not a food. 

9. Every one should know something about cooking. 

10. Unchewed food is so much loss. It is the stomach's 
business to digest, not to chew. 



CHAPTER VI 
ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 

The source of power. The power we have to do our 
day's work is the power generated within our bodies, just 
as power is generated in an engine, by the fuel consumed. 
The result is energy. 

Everything that can be converted into energy is useful to 
the human machine. Anything that cannot be so used, or 
that detracts from the regular amount of energy, is a tax 
and burden upon the machine, even when it is not actually 
harmful. 

Alcohol is not a food. There are many articles of food 
and drink which the physiologists tell us are of little or 
no value whatever to the body in its daily work of manufac- 
turing energy. But the most harmful of all these articles 
is alcohol. 

A great many people have the notion that anything that 
causes the human machine to act more quickly, in other 
words, to create heat and energy by a shorter route than 
usual, is useful. But it is as great a mistake to believe this 
as to think we must always turn a strong draft of air into 
a fire to get heat. We get the heat, to be sure, but in doing 
so we burn up the fuel very quickly, and the fire frequently 
goes out when we need it most. 

This is exactly what stimulants do to the food we take 

S3 



54 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

into our bodies. We may get a false kind of energy for a 
while that seems to enable us to do our work better, but a 
reaction always follows ; and, the next time, we find it nec- 
essary to take a little more of the stimulant in order to get 
the desired effects. 

While it may be true that stimulants have an occasional 
use in cases of emergency and sickness, it is equally true 
that the person who has been depending on stimulants for a 
long while is unable to respond to them when the crucial 
moment arrives. 

An acquired and dangerous habit. Why do people 
think they need a stimulant at all? It is a well-known 
fact that the taste of any kind of alcoholic drink is very 
unpleasant to a young child. The taste for alcohol is ac- 
quired, totally unlike the taste for fruits, sweets, and whole- 
some foods, to which the young are naturally attracted. 
Alcohol does not really quench the thirst, as so many 
people wish to believe, but brings a greater thirst in its 
train and often leads to regular habits of drinking and 
intoxication. 

It is only when people have wrong habits of living and 
do not eat a proper amount of nourishing food, or give their 
bodies a proper amount of rest and relaxation, that they 
feel the craving for stimulants. When nature calls for rest 
and food, they spur on the weakened, fainting body to 
greater exertion, through the excitation produced by beer 
or whisky. 

If this should happen only once or twice, no great harm 
might be done, and we should not need to take up the ques- 
tion so seriously ; but, if the practice is kept up, it soon be- 
comes a very dangerous habit. 



ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 55 

Alcohol and illness. Not only does the use of alcohol 
lead to exhaustion and a gradual weakening of the nerves, 
but it also reduces the ranks of that wonderful little army 
of fighting blood corpuscles, or phagocytes, that stand 
always on guard throughout the body to resist the invasion 
of disease germs. In consequence, a person addicted to 
the constant use of alcohol suffers from an impairment of 
vitality and a blood stream so poor in quality that he is 
unable to resist disease. Among adults, alcohol drinkers 
are the first to succumb to pneumonia, typhoid, and tuber- 
culosis. 

Alcohol and length of life. The person who uses alcohol 
in any of its forms is less likely to live as long or to 
work so efficiently as the one who does not. Alcohol quick- 
ens the circulation and weakens the walls of the blood ves- 
sels. Professor Metchnikoff, the eminent French scholar, 
who has been devoting his labors to the solution of the 
problem of " old age," advocates entire abstinence from 
alcohol, because it leads to degeneration of the arteries, a 
common cause of death among Americans who have been 
prominent in the business world and the professions. It is 
a combination of overwork, insufficient rest, and overstim- 
ulation that kills off the active, hustling American before 
his time and puts an end to his usefulness. In the city of 
Leipzig lived a man who wanted to know if the men who 
drink much alcohol are sick more often than those who 
are not habitual drinkers, and if the first set of men live 
as long as the others. He went to a prominent insurance 
company and obtained the facts about a large number 
of men, the sum of whose ages reached nearly one mil- 
lion (952,874) years. He arranged the ages at which these 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



men had been sick, and at which they had died, by periods 
of ten years, thus : 



AGE 


No. OF NON- 
DRINKERS SICK 


No. OF 
DRINKERS SICK 


No. OF NON- 
DRINKERS DYING 


No. OF 
DRINKERS DYING 


l5- 2 4 


364 


657 






25-34 


368 


973 


53 


122 


35-44 


422 


1196 


97 


284 


45-54 


487 


1270 


167 


372 


55-64 


56l 


1490 


298 


364 


65-74 


713 


2090 


580 


746 



Interpreting these figures by percentages, he found that 
for every 100 non-drinkers, between the ages of 15 and 24, 
who had been sick, there were 180 drinkers who had been 
sick. Arranged in columns (the black representing those 
who drink) the results were as follows : 




ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 57 

Study these tables carefully and work out for yourself 
just how much risk of disease and death you incur by 
drinking. 

Alcohol and accidents. Every effort, either mental or 
physical, involves the expenditure of a certain amount of 
energy, which, in normal health, is restored from day to day 
by proper attention to air, food, sleep, and hygiene. 

Even a moderate use of alcohol is dangerous, especially 
to the worker. " It interferes with the steadiness of nerve 
action and with normal judgment, and so becomes a fre- 
quent cause of accidents in the industrial world. 

It is believed that the largest number of accidents in 
shops and mills takes place on Monday, because the alcohol 
that is drunk on Sunday takes away the skill and attentive 
care of the workman. To prove the truth of this opinion, 
the accidents of the building trades in Zurich were studied 
during a period of six years, with the result shown by this 
table : 




The heavy black lines represent the accidents on Mon- 
days ; the light lines, the accidents on the other days of the 
week. There are thus about three accidents on Mondays 
to two on the other days. 



58 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Alcohol and assaults. A famous German scientist made a 
recent study of the days of the week on which a number of 
assaults occurred and the places where they were committed. 
He found that 628 assaults were made on Sundays and holi- 
days, 182 on Mondays, 95 on Tuesdays, 67 on Wednesdays, 
62 on Thursdays, 82 on Fridays, and 94 on Saturdays. 

Seven hundred and forty-two of the assaults were made 
in the saloon, 86 at home, 98 on the street, 87 at work hours, 
and 102 in unknown places. 

Tobacco. In connection with the use of alcohol, we 
must consider the question of tobacco and what it does not 
do for the human machine. 

While, as we have pointed out, in rare cases of sickness or 
emergency, an alcoholic stimulant may be considered of 
some value, it is very difficult indeed to find even so slight 
a reason for the use of tobacco. 

Tobacco a poison. Tobacco is not a food, nor a sub- 
stitute for food. It does not meet the body's need of water, 
and the smoker of tobacco is very likely to become a drinker 
of alcohol. Tobacco does not help the lungs to take in air. 
On the contrary, it hinders the work of the minute air cells 
in putting oxygen into the blood. The presence of oxygen 
in the human system is necessary to life, but the habitual 
smoker shuts down the normal supply of oxygen, so that 
his tissues become impaired or broken down. 

A noted physician says that tobacco is really a poison 
and that in the mode and intensity of its action it cor- 
responds to prussic acid. He mentions a case where a fatal 
result followed in three minutes, after a poisonous dose of 
nicotine had been given. In another case, death occurred 
in five minutes. 



ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 59 

The effects may be bad enough in the adult user of 
tobacco, but they are likely to be far worse in the boy and 
cause an impairment of growth and early physical pros- 
tration. 

Cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is the most 
harmful of all the tobacco habits. Because the cigarette is 
small and cheap, it is within the reach of the average boy. 
Most boys learn to smoke through using cigarettes, or the 
butts of cigarettes given them by older boys. Inhaling 
the smoke of cigarettes, that is, the taking of the smoke into 
the lungs, is especially dangerous. In this way, a greater 
quantity of the poison gets into the system. 

Cigarette smoking irritates the delicate membranes of 
the mouth, throat, and lungs, renders them unable to do 
their proper work, and also partly paralyzes the nerves that 
control the breathing, so that the blood suffers from want 
of air. It also interferes with the regular action of the heart, 
which is obliged to work much harder and yet is unable to 
pump as good blood through the body as formerly. It 
constantly overstimulates the stomach, so that the digestive 
juices are secreted when they are not needed and the stom- 
ach becomes tired and weak. As a result, a boy cannot 
digest his food properly and his body is half starved. 

Cigarettes injure his nervous system, so that he cannot 
sleep so much or so soundly as he should. He becomes tired, 
lazy, and unwilling to exert himself in the proper exercise 
a growing boy should have. 

All of these interruptions stop the boy's growth, and he 
becomes a weakling, stunted in body and mind, though per- 
haps with the appearance of brightness. Diseased in body 
and mind, is it a wonder that his moral sense also becomes 



60 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

perverted? Irresponsible and with no interest in sports, 
studies, or honest work, a cigarette fiend may soon drift into 
crime. The record of fifteen boys recently sentenced for 
crimes showed that ten of them had stolen to get the means 
of buying cigarettes. 

Tobacco and success. From a recent study made in our 
public schools, it was found that the cigarette smokers were 
more nervous, had poorer memories, poorer eyesight and 
hearing, worse manners, were more unclean in their persons, 
more untidy in their dress, took a lower rank in their studies, 
failed more often to make their promotions, were older, 
slower workers, more untruthful, and, altogether, were 
greatly inferior in physical, mental, and moral development 
to their classmates who did not smoke. 

It is stated by an eminent authority, that, in fifty years, a 
tobacco user never took first honors at Harvard. 

Napoleon III of France ordered an investigation of boys 
in the government training schools of that country, and 
found the smokers so inferior in physique, intellect, and 
morals, that the use of tobacco was strictly prohibited in all 
of the schools under government supervision. 

In the United States, it is found increasingly difficult to 
get suitable men for the army and navy. There are always 
plenty of men to enlist, but few of them are found fit for 
service. The most important cause of this unfitness is 
stated to be the " tobacco heart " from which so many of 
the applicants suffer. 

If a boy is ambitious to win a worthy, honorable success 
in life, he cannot be a cigarette smoker. There are so many 
competitors in the business world for the good positions, 
that an employer will always pick out the applicant who 



ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 61 

has the best equipment in health, brains, and morals. 
Many employers will simply glance at a boy's hands when 
he applies for work, and the telltale yellow stain on his 
fingers is enough. His limitations are at once apparent. 
He is told more or less politely that his services will not be 
required. 

How can a working boy afford to smoke ? The cost of a 
small cigarette is trifling, but, as the habit grows, the cost of 
" a smoke " multiplied by its frequency, by the days, months, 
and years, represents a very great waste in real money, to 
say nothing of the tremendous waste in physical and mental 
power. 

Nobody really needs to smoke tobacco or to drink alcohol. 
If you do it at first, " just for fun " or the excitement of it, 
you must face the fact that, in consequence of the habits that 
fasten themselves upon you, you will be obliged to give up 
very many of the wholesome, natural pleasures of life that 
mean so much to the boy and man. 

And, if you fall into the way of using these things, be- 
cause you think either is an aid or rest or stimulant when 
you are tired and discouraged, just reflect how many tonics 
and restoratives Nature supplies at no cost whatever. 

REMEMBER 

1. Alcohol is only a stimulant, a whip to the tired or ir- 

ritated body. It is not a realj food. 

2. A craving for alcohol and tobacco is caused by weakness 

or nervousness which should be combated by hy- 
gienic measures. 

3. The use of alcohol is due to lack of self-control. 



62 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

4. Alcohol decreases resistance to disease, and increases 

trouble of all kinds. 

5. Tobacco tends to cause sickness, malnutrition, laziness, 

and often moral depravity. It interferes with 
growth and success in school and in business. 

6. Very few business men will engage a boy who smokes 

cigarettes. 

7. If you need a tonic, spend more time out of doors. 

8. If your body is tired, give it more rest and sleep. 

9. Fatigue calls for rest or change in one's routine, and 

not the excitations produced by stimulants. 

10. Your body should be fed with wholesome foods, not 

with poisons. 

11. It does not make one more manly to smoke or drink. 

Every one, even the smoker and drinker, respects 
the man who does neither. 



CHAPTER VII 
THE NOON HOUR 

Getting ready for lunch. The noon hour is a welcome 
break in the working day, particularly if the worker has been 
obliged to sit or stand steadily throughout the morning, 
or if the nature of the work has cramped the body in an 
unnatural position. 

The first thing to do is to cleanse the hands and particu- 
larly the finger nails with hot water and soap. Ordinary 
dirt is bad enough, but some factory dirt is actually poison- 
ous. If you have your own towel as you should, wash your 
face whether it needs it or not, just for the sake of feeling 
better. As a simple sanitary precaution the washing of the 
hands before eating ought to become a life rule. Next 
cleanse the stomach by drinking half a glass of water, and 
you are ready for lunch. 

The place for lunch. Many workers in shops, and par- 
ticularly in offices, get their lunches outside. These are 
fortunately situated, for they have a chance to get a little 
change from the monotony of their work and to breathe in 
fresh air. A good many workers, however, choose their 
midday meals very unwisely. The lunch should be of more 
nourishing food than a piece of pie and a cup of tea, or a 
combination of coffee and doughnuts. Articles like these 
cause indigestion, headaches, constipation, nervous irrita- 

63 



64 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

bility, especially when they are swallowed hastily, half- 
chewed. 

Take time to eat slowly; even if you do not eat quite so 
much, your food will do you more good. Wholesome food, 
well digested, has more to do with energy and business 
ability than most young workers realize. 

It will not take you long to find out which restaurant or 
lunch room within easy walking distance of your work gives 




Choose the clean, airy restaurant 

the best quality of food, the neatest and cleanest service, at 
the most reasonable prices. Cheapness does not mean 
quantity. Your food should be clean, of good quality, and 
well prepared, in order to give the best results in the way 
of nourishment. 
Avoid the lunch room which swarms with flies, where the 



THE NOON HOUR 65 

tables are sloppy and dirty, the plates and dishes half 
washed, and where the waiters, in soiled, greasy clothing, 
and with dirty hands and unclean ringer nails, are allowed 
to serve food. 

In any clean, dairy lunch place, you will be able to buy 
good nourishing food very cheaply. A bowl of bread and 
milk, milk and crackers, bread and butter and fruit, cocoa 
and buns, sandwiches, or a dish of soup will give you more 
working power than pastries, meats, hot breads, tea, and 
coffee. As you must spend the rest of the day in active 
work, a few wholesome articles of food, well chewed, will 
do you more good than a variety of heavy foods. 

If you buy your lunch from the delicatessen shop or 
grocer, or from the street vender, apply the same rule of 
cleanliness. Don't forget to wash the fruit you buy from 
the pushcart man before you eat it. He may be a vender of 
disease as well as of 
oranges, grapes, and 
apples. The fine dirt 
of the street, rilled 
with the germs of 
all manner of disease, 
the dried sputum of 
human beings, and the 
excretions of animals, A cracker carton makes an excellent lunch box 
settles on the fruit that is sold to you. If you stopped to 
think, you would not be able to eat this fruit just as you buy 
it. The oranges and bananas may be peeled, the apples, 
pears, and peaches are sometimes pared, but grapes, cher- 
ries, and figs are usually taken right into the mouth. 

The lunch box. If you find it cheaper to bring your 




66 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



lunch from home, see to it yourself that your lunch box is 
emptied out every night, cleansed, and aired. Use a paper 
cracker box that you can throw away, or purchase a fold- 
ing box of tin from which you can wash the stale flavor 

of yesterday's lunch. 
Good bread and but- 
ter, cheese, fruit, sand- 
wiches made of eggs, 
peanut butter, Ameri- 
can or Swiss cheese, or 
any cheese that can 
be spread, homemade 
jams and jellies, are 
more nourishing and 
appetizing than 
lunches of rich, heavy 
cakes, pies, and pick- 
les. Vary the diet 
by having rye, whole 
wheat, or graham 
bread, sometimes, instead of the fine white kind. A little 
jar of prunes or other stewed fruit, apple sauce, or a baked 
apple will go well with the bread. If you have some one 
to make it for you, a cup custard occasionally will be a 
pleasant and nourishing change. If you buy something to 
drink with your lunch, by all means let it be milk, rather 
than tea or coffee. Milk is a food as well as a drink. In 
the long run beer never pays. 

Fresh air at noon. Whether you are a " time-worker " or 
a " pieceworker," whether your lunch time is thirty or sixty 
minutes, try to get out every day for a few breaths of fresh 




A folding lunch box is easily kept clean 



THE NOON HOUR 67 

air. Better to forfeit a little money at the noon hour, than 
to endanger your health by overwork and lack of pure air 
in your lungs. So, unless the weather is very bad and you 
are not protected against it, go out every day for a brisk 
walk, even if it is just around the block, and breathe. Keep 
your mouth closed and take in long breaths of air very 
slowly, exhaling them just as slowly. 

Don't go out to smoke. A great many boys fall easily 
into the habit of smoking cigarettes because they do not get 
enough to eat. After you become a wage earner, you are in 
a position to use your good sense and judgment and can 
select for yourself the foods that will build up body and 
brain. 

A nourishing lunch, well chewed, and a brisk walk in the 
fresh air will bring their reward in renewed energy, better 
circulation, steadier nerves, and happier spirits. You will 
go back to your machine, bench, or desk, feeling refreshed 
and equal to the afternoon's work, to say nothing of the 
work of to-morrow, next week, and next year. 

State laws. A few of the states have already regulated 
the time to be allowed for the noonday meal, but the law 
should be generally introduced, in order that the workers 
may have every opportunity to rest and relax from the 
morning's efforts, as well as to eat in comfort. 

The General Labor Laws of the state of New York specify 
that " in each factory at least sixty minutes shall be allowed 
for the noonday meal, unless the factory inspector shall per- 
mit a shorter time." 

As a result of the investigation made by the Secretary of 
Commerce and Labor of the United States into the condi- 
tion of women and children wage earners in the ready-made 



68 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

clothing industry in this country, it was found that very 
few out of many factories visited made any provision for 
lunch places for the workers. 

A model lunch room. In the best of these factories a 
room is partitioned off from the workroom and is fitted up 
with a gas range, coffee urns, and all necessary cooking 
utensils. The tables are covered with clean white table- 
cloths, and silver knives and forks are provided. The 
owners of the establishment, the foremen, and heads of 
departments usually eat here with the employees. Good, 
plain food, well cooked and neatly served, is furnished at a 
very reasonable cost and the bill of fare is changed daily. 
Pure milk is supplied in bottles. 

The employee takes a tin tray on entering the lunch room, 
goes to the serving table, where his order is placed on the 
tray, and then selects a place at one of the tables where he 
is able to eat his noonday meal in comfort. 

Management of the lunch hour. Where no room is 
specially set apart as a lunch room, some firms supply fold- 
ing tables which can be set up in the workroom, and allow 
their employees to make coffee at lunch time. In many 
shops it is the custom for peddlers to come around at noon 
and to supply the workers with fruit, sandwiches, cakes, 
candy, milk, lemonade, soda water, or whatever they wish 
to buy. 

This is especially the case in large cities, where food 
venders are numerous and a great many workers depend on 
them for the noonday meal. 

In many factories, a club of girls or men will send 
one of their number outdoors at the noon hour to buy the 
food needed. Sandwiches, salads, canned goods, bread and 



THE NOON HOUR 69 

butter, cakes, pies, tea, coffee, or milk may be brought from 
a nearby restaurant or delicatessen shop, while fruit and 
candy may be bought from the street vender. Sometimes, 
all of the food needed at the noonday meal is bought from 
the pushcart in the street. 

In the absence of lunch places, the workers eat their food 
in the workroom, but as so many factory workers are what 
is known as " pieceworkers," they take no more time than 
is absolutely necessary, sometimes eating their food with- 
out stopping their work. Even the employees who do not 
eat the noonday meal in the shop, usually hurry back and 
start working just as soon as possible, in order to lose no 
time. 

In cotton mills and glass works, men and women both eat 
in the workrooms, or out of doors, when the weather is 
pleasant. Many of the women workers in these trades are 
not provided with chairs or stools while at work, so they 
are obliged to use as seats, the tables, benches, boxes, or 
anything that happens to be at hand. 

Evidently this system is all wrong. The body cannot 
get good results from food eaten in haste and discomfort, 
in the midst of unattractive, if not positively unhealthful, 
surroundings. 

The importance of rest at noon. An interesting experi- 
ment was made by a physician, who gave his two dogs 
their breakfasts of the same food and under exactly the same 
conditions. Then one dog was put in his comfortable ken- 
nel to lie down and sleep, while the other dog was taken out 
with his master, who drove a long distance into the country, 
the dog running beside the carriage. On coming back, the 
physician examined the dogs' stomachs and found that the 



70 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

food given to the first dog had been digested and had passed 
into the blood, while the food of the dog that had been 
running was still in his stomach, undigested. 

This shows that when we work very hard, using the blood 
in active muscular or mental work, the digestive juices do 
not flow and digestion cannot go on. Under these circum- 
stances, food is nothing but a burden to the body. Many 
a worker digests his breakfast, lunch, and dinner, if at all, 
after he goes to bed at night. During his meals and be- 
tween them, he has been exerting himself, or is worried, 
hurried, nervous, and irritable. The stomach has no 
chance at all and has to wait until the worker is asleep be- 
fore it can commence to turn the food into blood, that will 
build up the worn-out cells and tissues. 

This manner of living certainly does not pay the worker, 
who has a right to such conditions in the shop or factory 
as will keep him in just as good working order as the ma- 
chine he runs. 

Aids to digestion. Music, cheerful conversation, rest, 
and leisure in eating are all aids to digestion and help to 
make the workers more efficient and happy. 

At a large manufacturing plant in the Middle West, the 
employees decided they needed a clubhouse, so they talked 
the matter over with the management and secured a house 
close by the works. The company furnishes room, light, and 
heat, and a committee of employees manage the club, serv- 
ing from 300 to 400 people every day with good, warm, 
nourishing food at a cost of 10 to 20 cents. The receipts 
pay for all expenses, and the committee are able to lay aside 
a few dollars each week towards future improvements. A 
phonograph fitted with records of the best classical and 



THE NOON HOUR 71 

popular music entertains the men during the noon hour, 
and they return to their work refreshed in mind and 
body. 

An attractive, well-furnished room, in which the women 
employees of this same firm can eat their lunches, rest, 
read, and have a social time during the noon hour, has 
proved profitable to the company as well as to the girls. 
Formerly, 50 per cent of the girls were constantly leaving 
their employ, but now the work conditions are so attractive 
that there are always applicants waiting for a vacancy. 

In another well-organized factory employing about 1000 
people, in addition to the comfortable lunch rooms for men 
and women employees, opportunities are given for dancing 
during the recreation hour, the musicians being volunteers 
from the working force. A reading room and library have 
also been installed, which are well patronized by the 
workers. 

Some of the best department stores also make provisions 
for lunch and rest rooms for employees, though at present 
it is the exception rather than the rule for employers to 
furnish lunch places for their workers, for the law does not 
require it. Employers are as a rule far-sighted enough to 
see the practical results of such" arrangements. 

THE NOON HOUR ROUTINE 

1. Clean up and take a drink of water. 

2. Get out of the shop if possible. 

3. Fresh air and change are quite as important as food. 

4. Eat clean food with clean hands in clean places. 

5. Don't eat street dirt on food purchased from pushcarts. 

6. How you chew is as important as what you chew. 



72 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

7. Good company and cheerful conversation are the best 

sauces. 

8. Milk is more nourishing than coffee and either is better 

than beer. 

9. Give the food a chance to do you good after you have 
spent your money for it, by taking a rest or a little 

quiet recreation after you have finished eating. 



CHAPTER VIII 
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM . 

Proper conditions for the workroom. A sanitary work- 
shop demands enough space in which the individual may do 
his work comfortably, an even temperature, a proper sup- 
ply of fresh air, neither too dry nor too moist, good light- 
ing, pure drinking water, a general condition of cleanliness, 
and proper facilities for the workers in the way of clothes 
closets, wash rooms, and toilets. 

Space. Many employers make the mistake of crowding 
too many workers into a small space. The passageways 
are too narrow for safety, and the operators of machines 
daily risk their lives by being exposed to gears, pulleys, 
belts, and other moving parts. If you know such condi- 
tions to exist in a factory, avoid working there, and do not 
sacrifice your health and possibly your life. The factory 
laws of New York allow 250 cubic feet of air space to each 
worker. 

It was Shakespeare who said, " I am in health I 
breathe." 

Ventilation. One can manage to live for days and days 
without food, as has been shown by explorers, and workers 
who have been trapped in mines and quarries; without 
water, one can exist for a shorter time ; but, if the air supply 
is completely cut off, one will die in less than ten minutes. 

The outdoor worker is likely to live longer and be more 

73 



74 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

healthy than the average indoor worker, because of his 
opportunity to breathe in a plentiful supply of pure air. 

Effects of impure air. There is no doubt that impure 
air is one of the most serious dangers to which the indoor 
worker is exposed. The air in houses and workshops is 




A light and well-ventilated workshop 

soon filled with the impurities and poisonous wastes cast 
out by the people who breathe it in and out, over and over 
again, to say nothing of the dust, germs, and countless tiny 
particles of injurious material ' that get into the air from 
the work itself. 



HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 75 

The breathing in of dirty air is just as harmful as the 
drinking of impure water. People who would not think of 
bathing in the same water in which another person has 
bathed, sit in crowded theaters or moving-picture halls, or 
work in close, dusty rooms, breathing the air that is loaded 
with the impurities cast off by other people. 

Working in dusty, badly ventilated rooms is responsible 
for many diseases, particularly of the lungs. The best phy- 
sicians prescribe pure, fresh air as the principal part of the 
treatment for tuberculosis. How much more important, 
then, is fresh air in the prevention of such diseases! 

Overheated, poorly ventilated rooms also tend, by affect- 
ing the digestive organs, to lessen the body's resistance to 
disease; for our food, if it is to do us good, must be combined 
with the oxygen in the air we take into the body. The 
headache, dizziness, faintness, loss of appetite, low vitality, 
and fatigue from which so many shop workers suffer may 
be traced to the same lack of the life-giving principle in the 
air that is breathed. Again, it is the oxygen that we take 
into our blood that enables the body to keep itself warm ; 
and when, instead of the oxygen, we breathe in air loaded 
with impurities, the blood becomes thin and poor in quality, 
making us much more liable, as the saying goes, to " catch 
cold." One does not keep warm by shutting up all the 
doors and windows in a room. On the contrary, it has been 
found that it takes more fuel to heat stale air than is needed 
to make a well-ventilated room comfortable, even on the 
cold days of winter. 

Ventilating system. The vice president of a well-known 
typewriter factory recently told this story, illustrating the 
advantage of having a ventilating system in their factory. 



7 6 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



" One day in August," he said, "I took the train from 
New York to Hartford. It was the hottest ride I think I 
ever took. ' Surely,' I said to myself, ' the factory will be 
closed this afternoon.' On the contrary, I found everybody 
in his place, the rooms comfortable. In fact, I walked about 
three miles in the factory on my tour of inspection, without 

the slightest discom- 
fort. This was all 
due to the ventilating 
system that had been 
put in." 

Proper ventilation 
is not so much of a 
problem in small fac- 
tories which are not 
overcrowded, or where 
open doors, windows, 
and revolving fans 
can keep a reasonable 
supply of fresh air 
circulating through 
the rooms. If you 

work in factories or offices of this kind, where the ventilation 
is controlled by the workers themselves, good sense and con- 
sideration for the other workers must be shown in the matter 
of keeping windows open or closed. As hot, impure air 
has a tendency to rise, the windows should be open a little 
from the top to allow the foul air to pass out, and they 
should be open at the bottom to allow the fresh air to 
blow in. 

Certain windows in a shop or office cannot be opened 




Removing bad air 



HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 



77 



without causing discomfort to some one through disagree- 
able drafts. In such cases, the windows may be fitted with 
boards across the bottom, or the window sash when raised 
may res ton a board that fits closely to the frame, or the type 
of window ventilator protecting from drafts and used in 
many offices and factories may be 
installed. An improved " window 
board " is made of glass and placed 
inside the window sill so that the 
window may be opened six inches or 
more and the air directed upward. 

In large factories, however, and 
especially in those in which there is 
a great quantity of dust thrown off 
by the work, a system of proper 
ventilation can be secured by forced 
drafts, by which the dusty, impure 
air is sucked out of the workroom 
and a current of fresh air blown in. 

Heating. A crowded workroom 
is much more comfortable if it is 
kept cool. Extremes of heat and 
cold should be avoided. For the 
average worker, who is properly 
clothed, the temperature should not be allowed to rise above 
68 degrees. On the hottest days of midsummer, the workers 
will do more and better work if there is a system of exhausts 
and cooling fans. 

Humidity. Excessive moisture and excessive dryness 
of the air are both harmful to the worker. An average hu- 
midity between 60 and 65 per cent has been found a good 




An improved window board 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



standard. There are simple instruments to determine the 
humidity of the air, just as the thermometer measures heat 
and cold, and these should be installed in every workroom. 
The health of the worker is closely related to safety, be- 
cause anything that tends to lower the vitality or make the 

worker less alert and 
watchful increases the 
chances of accidents. 
Statistics prove that 
more accidents happen 
when the worker is 
fatigued, or run down, 
than at any other time. 
Lighting. The ques- 
tion of lighting in work- 
shops is also of very 
great importance. The 
best light, of course, is 
that which makes it un- 
necessary to strain the 
eyes even on cloudy 
days. But in many 
factories and offices, 
particularly in cities, such an ideal condition is seldom 
to be found. 

In a badly lighted shop, the worker is obliged to bring 
his work too close to his eyes, thereby causing strain which 
may lead to chronic eye trouble. According to one author- 
ity on this subject, the area of the windows in a shop 
should equal at least one sixth of the floor space. They 
should reach almost to the ceiling, and the glass should be 




The hygrodeik, which measures the humidity 
in the air 



HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 



79 



pure white, ribbed or prismatic. In narrow streets, lined 
by tall buildings, windows made of prismatic glass, which 
refracts and diffuses the light, probably allow more light 
to enter the room than any other kind. The window glass 
should always be kept clean. 

It has been stated that at least 80 per cent of head- 

:hes are the result of eyestrain. As a great many people 
are obliged to work 
every day by poor 
light or artificial light, 
they suffer a serious 
loss of nervous energy 
that might otherwise 
go into their work. 

A dingy room may 
be greatly improved 
by the frequent wash- 
ing of windows and 
by whitewashing the 
walls at least once 
every year. 

Where artificial 
lights are absolutely 
necessary, they should 
be as steady as pos- An eye ' 

sible, not too glaring, and should not overheat the work- 
room or burn up the air. For these reasons, electric lights 
and those known as the mercury vapor lights are among 
the best. 

In addition to their bad effect on the air and the eyes of 
the workers, open flames in a workshop greatly increase the 




8o HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

danger of fire in those factories where light, flimsy, or ex- 
plosive materials are handled, and where the rooms are 
overcrowded, giving the workers little chance of escape if 
a fire does break out. 

Bad lighting is very often the cause of serious accidents, 
and statistics show that the greatest number of accidents in 
factories and workshops occur during the months of the 
year when the days are shorter and the natural light is less. 
For purely business reasons, therefore, many owners and 
managers have found it wise to install the very best type of 
electric lighting in their shops, thus preventing accidents 
and sickness among their employees. 

Water. Another matter of great importance to the 
worker is the provision of pure drinking water. Fresh 
water of good quality should be found in every office and 
workshop, if the management expects the workers to remain 
in good condition. The human body, in normal health, 
is two thirds water. Therefore, aside from the water 
contained in foods, we should drink freely of it every day. 
Drink as you commence work, before luncH, and at the 
close of the day at least, and if you can, in the middle of the 
morning and the afternoon. Water is needed by the blood 
to help it carry nourishment to every part of the body. It 
is also necessary in helping the body get rid of waste ma- 
terial. Many cases of catarrh, constipation, rheumatism, 
and colds, all of them due to accumulation of waste in the 
body, have been cured simply through drinking two and 
three quarts of water daily. 

So it is necessary that the worker find plenty of good 
water convenient during the day. But the water must be 
pure. It has been pointed out by a physician who is an 







HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 



81 



authority on preventable diseases, that 85 per cent of the 
cases of typhoid fever in this country are due to drinking 
impure water. Impure water also causes stomach and 



A 

square 
piece 

</ 
paper 



Fold 






the point 
F en the line A C 






DBI/HKf/SG CUR 



How to make a paper drinking cup (Chicago Board of Health) 

bowel troubles, which may make" it necessary for the worker 
to be Absent for a day or so at a time. This means a money 
loss to the worker and the employer loses the value of the 
worker's time. 



82 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



Several years ago, a factory owner put in a water steril- 
izing apparatus at a cost of $1500. He states that it has 
actually saved him $2000 each year since then, because of 
the greater efficiency of the workers and the greater regu- 
larity in their attendance. 

When water tanks or coolers are used, they should be 
cleaned every day, and the common drinking cup should 

not be permitted. According 
to the laws of New York and 
other states it has now been 
abolished. 

If the management does 
not supply the individual 
paper cups, it will cost each 
worker but a few cents to get a 
heavy glass or serviceable cup, 
which may be kept clean and 
strictly private. Too many 
dangerous and loathsome dis- 
eases have been spread through 
the use of a public drinking 
cup, to allow the worker to 
take any risks in the matter. 
Drinking cups may be made 
of little squares of paper. 

The sanitary drinking foun- 
tains of the " bubble " type 
are probably the best means of providing clean water. 
They are now in use in many public places, schools, and 
shops where a great number of people are employed. 
Towels. The hygiene of the workroom includes the 




Have your own towel, glass, and 
soap 



HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 



individual towel, as well as the individual drinking cup, as 
many people have been disabled or disfigured for life by 
using towels after they have been infected by other people 
suffering from contagious diseases. In this way painful 
skin diseases are spread, and the eyes may be infected and 
become blind. 

Recently, a very intelligent man, doing useful work as an 
inspector, was practically obliged to give up his position, 
because of blindness in one eye that 
came from using a towel that had 
been infected by some one else. 
Try to keep a towel for yourself in 
your own locker or drawer, if you 
have one, and take it home regu- 
larly to be washed. 

It is a good plan, which some 
factories are already following, to 
supply the workers with paper 
towels that are at once cheap and 
sanitary. These towels come on 
rolls ; each is perforated and can 
be easily torn off from the roll, 
for individual use. When soiled, 
they are thrown into the waste can or basket, and later 
burned. 

Waste. Each factory should be supplied with enough 
strong, metallic waste or refuse cans, to take care of all 
the trash that accumulates during the day. Not only does 
this plan result in keeping the floor in a clean and sanitary 
condition, but it positively reduces the danger of fire. Co- 
operate with your employers and protect yourself, as well 




Danger! 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



as your fellow workers, against such dangers, by putting 
into the covered receptacles provided all greasy rags, lunch 
papers, and the useless and inflammable waste that may 
come from your work. 

Going through the works of a large steel company, a 
visitor, seeing some rats scuttle off, asked the official who was 
showing him about, if the new cables were ever found 

broken or defective. " Why, 
yes," he replied, "it is a great 
puzzle to us to find out just why 
it is so, but it is true that many 
of the cables do not give the 
service they should." " Did it 
ever occur to you that you are 
raising a large family of rats on 
the lunch refuse that is left lying 
about the floors and yards? " 
asked the visitor. The official 
saw the connection at once and 
resolved to install strong, well- 
covered cans to take care of what 
had formerly been the food sup- 
ply of the rats. In a short while the works were free from 
these pests and the cords and cables were kept in better 
condition. 

Handkerchiefs. If you are engaged in handling dan- 
gerous or poisonous materials, be careful always to keep 
your hands away from your mouth and eyes, and thoroughly 
wash your hands, arms, and face before eating. Always be 
supplied with a clean pocket handkerchief; keep it for your 
nose and mouth and do not use it also as a polisher for your 




Metallic waste can 






HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 



shoes or as a wiping rag for your machine. Do not cough 
or sneeze into the air if you can help it. Many persons, 
unconscious of the fact that they are suffering from tuber- 
culosis, have spread the disease in a crowded shop through 
such carelessness as this. 

Spitting. A sanitary shop will be well provided with 
spittoons and will rigidly enforce the rule against spitting 
on the floor. The dried sputum on the floor is responsible, 
more than any other 
cause, for the wide 
spread of tubercu- 
losis in shops and 
factories. 

In this respect, as 
in so many others, 
you can cooperate 
with the management 
for safety and health 
by doing the right 
thing. Even if you 
are careless about your 
own health^ you have 
certainly no moral 
right to endanger the 
lives of your fellow 
workers. 

Lockers. The provision of suitable clothes closets or 
lockers should be regulated by state law, but a great many 
far-seeing employers are installing them on their own ac- 
count. These lockers may prove to be a guard against the 
spreading of contagious disease, as the clothing of the 




Well ventilated metallic lockers 



86 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

workers may carry the germs of diseases from which mem- 
bers of their families are suffering. Lockers should be 
strongly constructed and well ventilated, so as to keep the 
belongings of the workers in safe and hygienic condition. 
One employer has gone further than this, in connecting a 
heating system with the lockers, so that on cold or rainy 
days, the workers, when they are ready to go home, find 
their outdoor clothing warm and comfortable. 

In many shops, these lockers are connected 'with the 
wash room, so that a man may keep his belongings in the 
same compartment where he washes up after the day's 
work. Each man is given a key to his own locker. 

Wash rooms. Every shop and factory should be pro- 
vided with sanitary water-closets and good washing facili- 
ties. A plentiful supply of hot and cold water and soap 
is necessary, especially if the workers are engaged in very 
dirty or dusty trades. In those where the dust and fumes 
are poisonous, as in the case of lead, phosphorus, and mer- 
cury, every facility should be given for washing the hands 
before eating, for cleansing the body by means of shower or 
spray baths, and for changing the clothing before going 
home. One of the largest paint factories in the world pro- 
vides its workmen with clean clothing every morning. At 
night, the clothes the workmen have worn during the day 
are laundered. Baths are insisted upon, the workers being 
given time by the company for this purpose. In this way, 
the management protects the workers from much of the 
danger of lead poisoning. 

The factory inspectors complain that many of the water- 
closets connected with factories and shops are in very bad 
condition. There are usually too few for the number of 



HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 87 

workers employed, and are generally in an unsanitary and 
unclean condition. 

Already some states have taken up the question of regu- 
lating the number of toilets a factory should have, accord- 
ing to the number of people employed in it. Where there 
are both men and women, separate toilets are required. 
One state has distinctly specified that " when the number 
employed is more than twenty-five of either sex, there shall 
be provided an additional water-closet for each sex up to 
the number of 50 persons, and above that number in the 
same proportion." 

Water-closets should be light, well ventilated, and have 
floors that can be easily and frequently flushed out. The 
workers themselves are often responsible for the unsanitary 
conditions that exist, through carelessness or an indecent 
disregard for the rights of others. 

Here, again, the value of personal cleanliness and personal 
cooperation with the management must be pointed out, if 
you are to do your share in keeping the work place clean, 
safe, and healthful, not only for yourself but for all of those 
who work with you. 

RULES FOR THE WORKROOM 

1. If you cannot have out-of-door work, be a fresh air en- 

thusiast and get good ventilation for yourself and 
co-workers; keep out of doors as much as possible 
when not working. 

2. Get good light from above and behind, with no shadows 

on your work, if possible. Do not hold the work 
too near, and rest the eyes occasionally by looking 



88 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

at a distance. Wear an eye shade if the light must 
come from in front. 

3. Drink a glass of water at least three times a day. Avoid 

the common drinking cup ; have a cup of your own. 

4. Have a clean handkerchief and use it. 

5. Do not spit on the floor. 

6. Keep your clothes locker clean and in order. 

7. Do not subject yourself to contagion from a dirty toilet. 



CHAPTER IX 

FATIGUE 

The necessity of work. In order to live in a self-respect- 
ing manner, every one should make good his or her place 
in the world. Every one consumes something; therefore, 
every one should produce something. 

Next to being unable to work, the greatest misfortune is to 
be without work. Idleness not only causes want, suffering, 
and discontent, but it also leads to physical and moral 
degeneration, and, finally, to vice and crime. The worker 
usually lives longer and is healthier and happier than the 
idle person. 

The mechanism of the average human being creates a 
certain amount of energy over and above what is needed 
to keep the body in good running order. This fund of 
energy must not be allowed to go to waste. If it does not 
find an outlet in useful work, it will spend itself in ways 
that are harmful. 

Capacity for work. In itself, work is a good thing. On 
the other hand, there is a limit to every one's power to 
perform work. This limit varies in accordance with the 
nature of the work, the constitution, the personal habits, the 
frame of mind of the individual, and the -conditions under 
which the work is performed. 

If the body and brain are forced to work beyond their 
natural capacity, if the work is too severe, or kept up too 
long at a time, making it impossible to get the required 

89 



go HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

amount of rest and recuperation, then the vitality is weak- 
ened, and sickness and disability will result just as surely as 
in those occupations which are considered dangerous to the 
worker on account of dusts, poisons, and accidents. 

Under normal conditions, the human body as a machine 
is greatly superior to a steam engine. Out of the heat and 
energy created by the body in eight hours of work, one fifth 
can take the form of mechanical work. A steam engine or- 
dinarily is able to use only about one eighth of the total 
energy created, or set free. The body makes better use of 
food than the steam engine does of coal. 

Every machine, however, will sooner or later break down, 
if kept constantly at work, or pushed to the limits of its 
energy. Overworking the human machine to physical and 
mental exhaustion is one of the greatest evils of the present 
age. 

Removal of waste. As we already know, the human 
body is a great chemical laboratory or workshop, where 
changes are constantly going on and where food and air 
are being made over into tissues, blood, and energy. At 
the same time, there is a constant pulling down of worn-out 
tissues that are turned into waste material with every breath 
we breathe, every thought we think, every stroke of work 
we perform. 

We must get rid of these poisonous wastes through the 
exhaled breath, the kidneys, bowels, and skin. Health is 
really the keeping of a true balance between the income of 
the building materials of air, food, and water, and the outgo 
of the bodily wastes and refuse. An engine cannot work 
long unless the ashes and clinkers are removed; neither can 
the body. 



FATIGUE 



In working with the muscles or brain, an increased supply 
of blood is sent to the parts where it is needed. This is 
because the wearing out of the cells and tissues is going 
on more rapidly at these points. 

Work can be done only while a muscle is contracting. 
The mind flashes a command to a muscle, or set of muscles, 
to do a certain piece of work. The muscle contracts, using 
what it needs of 
the food in the 
cells and the oxy- 
gen in the blood 
and casting aside 
as waste what it 
cannot use. 

Cause of fa- 
tigue. -- The 
waste products re- 
sulting from the 
manufacture of 
heat and energy 
accumulate in the 
system very rap- 
idly. If the work 
is too long continued, if the supply of food in the cells is 
exhausted, if the oxygen in the blood is burned up, if the 
poisonous wastes cannot be removed quickly enough but are 
allowed to remain in the body for any length of time, then 
the worker shows the symptoms of fatigue. 

By a strong effort of will, we can force our tired muscles 
and brain to keep on working after the fatigue point has 
been reached; but in doing so, we only increase the fatigue 




Healthy brain cell 



Exhausted brain cell 



9 2 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

products in the blood and run the risk of seriously injuring 
the nervous system. 

When a muscle becomes fatigued, it cannot respond and 
contract so quickly, and is not able to set free the same 
amount of energy as in normal health. The structure of 
the nerve cells then undergoes a change, on account of the 
circulation in the blood of the poisonous fatigue products, 
and the kidneys and liver also become fatigued. It is 
always noticeable, in doing an unusual amount of work, or 
when the brain is working with great concentration of effort, 
that the kidneys are very active. This is because it is the 
function of the kidneys to drain off a large proportion of 
the wastes of the body, and, when these are being cast into 
the blood at an abnormal rate, the kidneys become over- 
worked. Were it not for the power that resides in our 
bodies to get rid of these waste products, we should die 
from the effects of the poisonous materials. 

It has been definitely proved that a condition of fatigue 
is due to the poisonous effects of the waste created by over- 
exertion of the body. Dr. Thomas Oliver illustrates this 
clearly in his account of the experiment made by injecting 
some of the blood of a fatigued dog into a perfectly healthy 
one. The dog receiving the fatigue poison shortly after- 
wards showed signs of weariness, crept into a corner, and 
went to sleep. 

The fatigue point. The fatigue point, as has already 
been shown, differs with the occupation, the constitu- 
tion, and the personal habits of the worker. Some persons 
are always more easily tired than others, as they have started 
out in life, evidently, with weak nervous systems. Some- 
times this condition of nerve weakness, or neurasthenia, as 



FATIGUE 93 

it is called, may be the result of great mental strain or 
effort. People who have suffered what is known as nervous 
prostration are usually afflicted with nerve weakness the 
rest of their lives. 

Many children, particularly in the congested districts of 
our large cities, are brought up badly nourished, badly 
clothed, and subjected to hardships that result in stunting 
the growth of their bodies and weakening their nervous 
systems. The children of parents who work very hard in 
certain occupations are usually smaller in size, less intelli- 
gent, and more feeble than the children born of healthy 
parents and brought up with the additional advantages of 
nourishing food, plenty of fresh air 7 , and play. 

Thus, it can be seen that every worker does not start out 
with the same physical equipment. Persons with weak 
nervous systems, who become exhausted yery quickly, 
need a greater amount of care, rest, and recuperation from 
their efforts than those endowed with more nervous endur- 
ance. 

Posture at work. There are many occupations where 
the effects of assuming a strained posture while at work 
are in themselves injurious, besides adding to the natural 
fatigue of the worker. 

Shoemakers, cigar makers, tailors, weavers, watchmakers, 
engravers, bookkeepers, all suffer from cramped muscles 
and a constriction of the chest that results in shallow breath- 
ing, which, taken in connection with poor circulation of the 
blood and other unhealthy conditions, makes these workers 
liable to tuberculosis of the lungs. 

The chests of shoemakers who do home work and of 
cobblers show the effects of the constant pressure against 



94 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



HEAD UP 



the last they are obliged to hold between their knees. In 
some cases the chest bone and ribs are driven in so far as 
to form a deep hollow. 

Sedentary occupations combined with monotonous repe- 
tition of 'the same muscular efforts are especially fatiguing. 
In addition to the danger of bronchial and lung diseases, 
these workers also suffer from indigestion and constipation ; 
as a rule, they do not live so long as those workers whose 

occupations allow 
greater freedom of 
movement. 

No one need allow 
the body to be dam- 
aged, no matter what 
the work may be. 
The one strict rule is 
this : keep the back 
straight from the hips 
to the neck; keep 
the chest high. If 
you must lean for- 
ward, bend at the 
hips. While this may 
be hard at first and 
fatiguing for a while, 
it is worth the effort; 
unless this is done, 
the body will become permanently bent, the chest contracted, 
and the organs of the body, heart, lungs, stomach, liver, 
and intestines, cramped and liable to disease. If the body 
becomes tired, use nature's method of relieving it : stand 



BACK STRAIGHT 



HIPS BACK 




Correct posture for work 



FATIGUE 95 

and stretch, putting the arms back of the head, press 
back, and take a full breath. This usually induces a nat- 
ural, restful yawn which relieves all tension. 

Many occupations might be enumerated which cause an 
abnormal strain upon certain muscles of the bodies. Those 
positions which require constant standing are very fatigu- 
ing; among the workers who suffer in this respect are the 
tenders of mangles and other machines in laundries, the 
salesmen and saleswomen in stores, those who are obliged 
to stand while working at machines in factories and shops, 
motormen, and others. In addition to fatigue, these workers 
also suffer from flat-foot, a condition we have previously 
considered. 

But there are other things that contribute to the fatigue 
of the body even more than the nature of the work and the 
posture of the body in doing it. 

Work, too long or too fast. Under normal conditions, 
a reasonable amount of work is never injurious to any one. 
But the expenditure of energy must be balanced by a proper 
amount of rest and relaxation. If the body is forced to 
keep at work after the fatigue point is reached, day after 
day, without sufficient sleep or opportunity to find health- 
ful recreation, the reserve fund of energy stored in the 
cells of the body is used up ; 'and, if the strain is continued 
up to the limit of exhaustion, there may be a sudden re- 
volt of the overtaxed organism and a collapse that may 
prove disastrous physically and mentally. 

In connection with the question of overstraining and 
overspeeding the human machine, we come naturally to a 
consideration of the proper length of a working day. This 
is a matter which is now being seriously studied in our 



9 6 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

country, and legislation regulating the number of working 
hours in certain occupations is increasing in the various 
states. 

The general opinion is that the working day in the 
majority of occupations is entirely too long, and that the 
same quantity of work could be performed in fewer hours 
with greater benefits to both employer and employed. 

Night work. In addition to the evils resulting from long 
working hours, we must consider the effects of night work. 

Since this requires sleeping in the daytime, it is 
always more or less injurious because the worker cannot 
get the sound, refreshing sleep he needs. Usually, when 
the workers live in small, crowded apartments, in congested 
districts, the noises that commence with daylight make it 
impossible to secure restful sleep. The weather at night 
is also more moist and chill than during the daytime, and, 
if the worker comes from a heated work place, he runs a 
great risk of being made ill by the sudden change of atmos- 
phere. 

In those industrial plants where the furnaces are kept 
going throughout the year, or working seasons, as in the 
case of glass works, two shifts are kept constantly at work. 
In many places where two shifts are worked, it is the cus- 
tom to have the employees alternate, that is, work one 
week during the day and the next week at night. This 
means that the worker must learn to sleep one week in the 
daytime and the next week in the nighttime. Many 
people find it hard to make this change in their sleeping 
habits, and, consequently, suffer from insomnia. The lack 
of sound, restful sleep, the irregularity of meals, and the 
discomfort of making the change from day to night work, 



FATIGUE 



97 



all tend to weaken the nervous system and to reduce the 
worker's powers of resistance to disease. 

The practice of keeping two shifts at work leads also 
to the evil of working many hours over time. For instance, 
in rush seasons, a laborer may work throughout his own 
shift and then part or all of the next shift, keeping at 
work continuously for twenty hours or longer. Such hours 
mean a terrible strain upon the vitality and nervous en- 
durance of any worker, and lead to exhaustion and early 
death. 

While some progressive employers are reducing the hours 
of work for humane and practical reasons, much remains 
to be done in the way of laws, strictly enforced, as protec- 
tions from the evils of overwork and industrial fatigue. 

Proper working conditions. Reasonable work hours, a 
proper amount of good fresh air and a system by which the 
bad or dusty air may be drawn off, good lighting, avoiding 
the fatigue due to eyestrain and the danger of accidents, 
pure drinking water, the providing of seats for employees, 
especially women, a lunch period long enough to allow the 
workers to rest and relax and to eat the midday meal in 
comfort, all of these sanitary conditions in the workshop 
will reduce a large part of the fatigue and weariness now 
felt by many industrial workers. 

The practice of allowing a brief recess in the middle of 
the afternoon, when most workers experience what is called 
" three o'clock fatigue," is now being followed by a few 
far-sighted employers who realize that the health and vital- 
ity of the workers is one of the most important factors in 
the success of the business. 

Remember that it is only the overfatigue that is harmful. 



98 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



A person healthily tired will quickly find recuperation in 
rest and sleep. For this reason it is highly important that 
the worker get enough sleep to repair the waste caused by 
the day's work. 

Personal habits. The personal habits have much to 
do with keeping one in good condition for work, or in adding 
to the fatigue due to other causes. It is well known that 
intemperance in eating and drinking or overindulgence in 
tobacco and alcohol or any of the physical appetites, uses up 
the vitality and nervous energy more quickly than the actual 
performance of useful work. Everything that tends to 
devitalize the body should be strictly avoided. 

The fatigue point, particularly in mental work or any- 
thing requiring concentrated care and attention on the part 
of the worker, may also depend largely upon the individual's 
state of mind. The body needs four fifths of the energy it 
creates to keep itself in repair and good working order, but 
if one hurries or worries at his work, he uses up more than 
one fifth of the energy left for activity of any sort. One 
could sit still all day, without doing a stroke of work and 
worry to the extent of using up all the energy in the body as 
fast as it is manufactured. 

Another reason why one should not worry while working 
is that the hurried, worried person cannot breathe prop- 
erly. His breath is quick and shallow and, in consequence, 
he cannot take in the supply of oxygen needed to purify 
the blood and help the organs do their work. He is usually 
irritable and nervous, and suffers from disorders of the 
digestive organs. He cannot do so much work, in the long 
run, as the cheerful, steady worker. Cheerfulness is always 
a factor in good health and successful work. 



FATIGUE 99 

As Carlyle has so well said : 

" Give us, oh, give us the man who sings at his work ! 
He will do more in the same time, he will do it better, he 
will persevere longer. One is scarcely sensible of fatigue, 
whilst he marches to music. Wondrous is the power of 
cheerfulness, altogether past calculation its power of en- 
durance." 

If, however, in spite of devices and precautions to pro- 
tect the worker from fatigue, in spite of sensible habits of 
living and an effort to keep in a cheerful frame of mind, the 
worker feels he is going beyond his strength and is steadily 
losing ground, then it is time for him to take a vacation or 
change his position. In a condition of exhaustion, one is 
of no use to himself or to any one else. No worker can 
afford to run the risk of passing beyond the limits of his 
strength and nervous endurance, and of becoming physi- 
cally bankrupt, with the prospect of never being able fully 
to regain his vitality. 

The worker should never take advantage of good hours 
and consideration on the part of the employer, but should 
show his appreciation by constantly doing more than is 
required. While laziness may in some cases be due to poor 
health, there is seldom any excuse for it. To shirk is 
poor policy, for it prohibits advancement and injures fellow 
workers more than it does the employer. 

FATIGUE 

1. " An idle mind is the devil's workshop." 

2. If you have no steady work, use your " off " time 

steadily to improve your knowledge of the next 



loo HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

higher job, working in the public library or cor- 
respondence course. 

3. At night the body must make good the day's wear 

and tear by the removal of waste products and the 
repair of tissue. This is best done by relaxation, 
rest, and sleep in fresh air. Do not add fatigue by 
late hours. 

4. Quick, hard, brilliant, nervous workers need more rest 

than slow, steady ones, and mustt>e more careful to 
get it. 

5. Get the habit of sitting well at work; it costs nothing 

but effort, and it pays. 

6. Always stand with chest up ; rise on the toes and shift 

the weight frequently. 

7. Accept lower wages at another job if your work is too 

hard or too long. No one can repair you if you are 
run down too far. 

8. If you must work at night and sleep in the day, get in 

your sleep first, putting cotton in your ears, if 
necessary. 

9. Do not worry. Attack troublesome problems bravely, 

reach conclusions quickly and as best you can, then 
dismiss the matter from your mind. " Work while 
you work, and play while you play." 

10. Do not be hurried. " Plan your work and work your 

plan." 

11. If you cannot sleep, you probably are not following out 

the evening routine of Chapter III. 

12. To avoid insomnia : 

(a) Clear the mind of the day's work. Think steadily 
of something different and pleasant. 



FATIGUE ioi 

(b) Before retiring, take a short walk in the open air 
and twenty full breaths with light exercise. 

(c) Drink a glass of water, cold or hot. 

(d) Do not toss, lie still on the back, arms over your 
head, and breathe deeply. 



CHAPTER X 
AFTER HOURS 

The end of the day. At the end of the day, remember 
always to leave your bench, machine, or desk neat and 
tidy. Leave everything in such shape as to indicate to any 




The work bench at the close of the day 

one who may see it what kind of worker you are. If, for 
any reason, you are prevented from coming in the next 
morning, there will be no cause for confusion or delay in the 



AFTER HOURS 103 

work. One never knows what a night may bring forth, so 
it is well to live each day " as though it were your last." 

Don't quit work before your time is up. Many workers 
watch the clock as the day draws to a close, and trifle and 
idle away the last quarter of an hour, if not longer, as if that 
time did not belong 'to the employer as much as any other 
period during the working day. 

When it is really time to leave, go quietly. In your 
eagerness to get out among the first, don't make the youth- 
ful mistake of pushing, crowding, and shoving aside your 
fellows. Apart from the rudeness and lack of consideration 
shown by such haste, it may bring serious results, especially 
where a great number of people are at work. Crowding 
and pushing frequently cause accidents at elevator doors, 
on landings or stairs, and at the exit doors of buildings. 

Going home. When you have finished the day's work, 
try to shut it out of your mind completely. The hours that 
belong to you before a new day commences should be used 
for rest and recreation. 

If you are still at school, plan your time so that you will 
get the needed rest and come to school with the tasks 
all prepared to make a businesslike profit of the day's in- 
structions. 

In proceeding to your home, apply the same suggestions 
for health and safety as when you went to work in the morn- 
ing. If you are an indoor worker, walk home if possible, 
giving your lungs a chance to expand and to get rid of the 
stale air of the workroom. If you live too great a distance 
from your work to do this, then get off the elevated or sub- 
way train a station or so before you reach your destination 
and walk the rest of the way home. This will cleanse your 



104 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



body, set your blood to circulating briskly, and give you an 
appetite for dinner. 

This little exercise will enable you to carry to the evening 
meal a fund of good spirits, that will add to your own en- 
joyment of the meal and cheer the other members of your 
family, who have also been working all day. 

If, on the other hand, your work has so tired your muscles 
that you do not feel physically able to walk home, then, by 
all means, before eating, lie down flat on your back and 
rest a little while. This will give the blood a chance to 




Make the evening meal a cheerful time 

return from the overworked brain and muscles, and will put 
the stomach in better condition to digest the evening meal. 
The evening meal. Put away your work and your wor- 
ries when you sit down to eat, remembering only the pleas- 
ant or humorous happenings of the day, which you can 
relate. 



AFTER HOURS 105 

Do not treat your family in the superior manner so many 
young people affect, regarding their relatives as necessary 
evils and hindrances that must be endured, somehow. 
Remember always that the family is quite as necessary to 
your happiness and development, as you are to the family's ; 
and that no matter what the environment is into which you 
have been born, it is within your power to make it better 
and brighter, if you desire to do so. 

Your future happiness will be much greater if you carry 
with you the realization that you are doing all that is in 
your power to add to the welfare of the home folks. You 
will never regret sharing with them your pleasures, inter- 
ests, and plans; while, on the other hand, they will be 
greatly benefited by being put in touch with the new 
methods and new ideas you are able to bring to them from 
the outside world. 

Importance of recreation. It is of the greatest impor- 
tance to the worker to know how to play and to relax after 
the strenuous efforts of the day. The child may not need 
to be stimulated to play, but it is usually difficult for the 
grown-up person to find recreation that will benefit both 
body and brain. 

Play keeps one active in body, mind, and spirit. Not only 
do games and sports improve the circulation, help to burn 
up the useless wastes of the body, and make the mind more 
active and alert ; but they have a social value also, bringing 
us in touch with other personalities and teaching us to ex- 
ercise self-control, fairness, patience, courtesy, and con- 
sideration for the rights and feelings of others. 

Billiards, basket ball, bowling, roller skating, and other 
indoor sports are valuable; but, for the worker who spends 



io6 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

most of his time indoors, the out-of-door recreations, such 
as walking, boating, swimming, croquet, tennis, baseball, 
ice skating, and football, are even better, as they afford 
better light and air along with the exercise. 

Every worker should have some one interesting recrea- 
tion or hobby, as a safety valve, or outlet for superfluous 
energy, as well as a rest and change from the regular work. 
As a rule, the hobby will present itself without much effort 
on the part of the young person to find it. It will probably 
be something in line with one's natural tastes and aptitudes. 

Music. For instance, many young people have a nat- 
ural talent for music and like to spend all the time at their 
disposal in practicing on some kind of musical instrument, 
or in singing. If you' have a fondness for music and some 
skill in expressing yourself, by all means you should make 
the most of it. 

You may find it helpful, as well as pleasant, to join or 
form, a musical club or society, where you can meet and 
practice with others who have the same liking for music. 
There will be an economy, also, in buying your music or in 
taking lessons, if you belong to a cooperative club of this 
kind. Every one so inclined should be able to procure in- 
struction at an evening recreation center, church club, 
settlement house, or an evening school. 

Whenever possible, go to hear good concerts or the opera, 
where you will be brought in touch with the works of the 
great masters. If you watch the papers, you will find that 
many fine concerts and organ recitals are given by the 
churches and other organizations, either free, or at very 
slight expense. During the summer months, many cities 
provide excellent musical programs, well played by bands 



AFTER HOURS 107 

or orchestras, in the various parks or on the recreation 
piers. But you will not need to be urged to do any of these 
things. Your hobby will naturally suggest to you anything 
and everything that will increase your pleasure in it. 

Amateur theatricals. The same may be said of dra- 
matic clubs and societies. If you have a talent for imitat- 
ing well-known actors, or for expressing ideas and emotions, 
you will get a vast amount of amusement and instruction 
from the study and acting of good plays. Not only will you 
improve your manners and speech by such study, but you 
will also give a great deal of pleasure to other people, whom, 
from time to time, you can invite to your amateur theat- 
ricals. You and the rest of your company will be bene- 
fited by the criticisms of your audience, and you will 
acquire ease and self-confidence. 

Moving picture shows. It may be well to speak of the. 
" moving picture " houses. This popular form of amuse- 
ment has developed within the last few years, and is at once 
so cheap and so attractive that it has become the principal 
amusement and recreation of a great number of people. 
The physical and sanitary condition of the moving picture 
hall is very important to the health of those who frequent 
it. Many of these places are very dirty and badly venti- 
lated, so that the effect is harmful ; many of them are also 
very dangerous traps, if a fire happens to break out. 

There is no doubt that moving pictures can be interest- 
ing, clever, and entertaining. They can also be made of 
great educational value. Scenes from foreign lands, pic- 
tures illustrating every step in the various great industries 
of the world, plays bringing to us a knowledge of the cus- 
toms and scenery, not only of other lands but of every 



io8 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

nook and corner of our own great, many-sided country, 
dramatized versions of the great novels and poems, and of 
the important historical events of all times and all coun- 
tries, pictures like these teach us something, at the same 
time that they hold our interest and attention. The manu- 
facturers of the best films in the market are beginning to 
realize the educational importance of moving pictures, and 
are giving us better plays all the time. 

You will be able to judge for yourselves whether a moving 
picture play, or any play, for that matter, is good or bad, 
by the effect it has on you. If you are rested, entertained, 
and instructed, the performance is a good one. If it has a 
silly, flimsy plot, with a lot of rough action in it, or if it is a 
story of crime and violence, you will have experienced no 
benefit from the performance. 

Economy. The question of expense is one that must 
necessarily enter into the amusements and recreations of 
many workers. When one is starting out in the business 
world, there is very little of one's wages left for indulging 
in amusements, after buying food and clothing. Perhaps, 
if you turn your money into the household, you will have 
nothing left, or only what can be spared from the household 
fund after expenses are paid ; if you pay all your expenses 
yourself, you will have greater freedom in spending your 
money, but you may not have much left for amusements 
after providing for the necessities of life. 

Dancing. Many young people, whose homes are 
crowded, or who lodge in small rooms, find their principal 
relaxation in going to the dance halls. Dancing is a splen- 
did exercise and is a social diversion as well ; but the ordi- 
nary dance hall is not a good place in which to spend your 



AFTER HOURS 109 

evenings. Many of the halls are mere excuses for selling 
drinks ; and undesirable acquaintances are made there who 
may lead one into vice and crime. It is better to form a 
dancing club of your own friends and acquaintances, meet- 
ing at the members' homes by turns, on the recreation 
piers in summer, or at some of the settlement houses and 
clubs where dancing is encouraged. In this way you will 
escape the dangers of the dance hall and will have a much 
better time with people you know. Don't visit any dance 
hall where drinks are sold ; make this a rule, and you will be 
glad of it. 

Walking. Walking can be made a very interesting ex- 
ercise in summer or winter, by forming a club of people who 
are fond of outdoors, and then starting off for some destina- 
tion agreed upon. Your Saturday half-holidays and Sun- 
days will give you opportunities for longer excursions. It 
is much pleasanter to walk in groups, or with a good com- 
panion, as the conversation, laughter, and song add enjoy- 
ment to the benefits received from this form of exer- 
cise. There are so many parks and interesting historical 
places to visit in and around most cities, that you could 
keep up this practice of walking to a different place each 
time, particularly on the half-holiday and Sunday trips, 
indefinitely. 

Gymnastics and athletics. For those who prefer sys- 
tematic physical training, the different branches of the 
Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations, 
and similar organizations, offer splendid opportunities in 
the way of gymnasium work. 

Of late years the school buildings are being used in the 
evenings for recreation, gymnastics, games, basket ball, 



no 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



checkers, literary clubs, debating clubs, chess clubs, and the 
like. In some places regular receptions are held weekly and 
social dancing is arranged for. If there is such a center in 
your neighborhood, you should attend it, by all means, and 
join yourself with those who have like interests. 

Provisions for rec- 
reation supplied by 
factories. Some 
large industrial estab- 
lishments, factories, 
and stores have de- 
cided that it pays to 





provide the employ- 
ees with recreation 
rooms, gymnasiums, 
swimming pools, li- 
braries, and reading 
rooms, for purposes 
of play and relaxa- 
tion after work 

hours. One of the largest pickling and canning plants in 
this country has an auditorium, where, every Monday, the 
employees meet for recreation and a social time. There are 
classes in dancing, cooking, sewing, and a swimming pool, 
gymnasium, library, and roof garden. In another estab- 



The evening recreation center 



AFTER HOURS 



in 



lishment a branch of the public library was installed, with 
books in five languages, and a reading room was equipped 
with magazines and papers, which has proved a popular 
resort for the employees. In addition, study courses have 
been started which the workers have taken up with much 
interest. 



,<*> .KKfek 





n w 



Yl 



Factory recreation grounds 

One large company engaged in the manufacture of wor- 
sted yarns have provided, in the vicinity of their plant, a 
piece of ground, which has been laid out for tennis and 
other forms of athletic exercise. Here they have also erected 
a clubhouse containing baths, reading and recreation rooms, 
and other popular features. The building has an open 
porch on the first floor and a balcony on the second, from 
which the games and contests that take place on the 
athletic field may be witnessed. 

Several of the large department stores have formed eve- 
ning classes of employees desiring to take up special studies, 
bands, orchestras, singing classes, dramatic and literary 
clubs, which have commencement exercises on the com- 



112 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



pletion of the course of study, or which give, from time to 
time, public exhibitions and concerts. 

Courses of study. It is not necessary for the worker 
to feel that, because regular school days are over, his edu- 
cational advantages, therefore, are at an end. The public 




The lecture courses are interesting and profitable 

school systems of many cities offer unusual opportunities in 
their night schools, where one may receive instruction in the 
arts and sciences, languages and literature, as well as in the 
more practical branches that are of distinct commercial 
value to the young man or woman who wishes to advance. 
Free lectures. In addition to the regular classes, there 
is also much to be learned from the free lectures which are 



AFTER HOURS 113 

given in the different lecture centers in some cities, under 
the direction of the Board of Education. Many of these 
lectures are illustrated with lantern slides. One may listen 
to very interesting accounts of travel ; studies of the art 
of great painters, musicians, and writers, illustrated in many 
instances with selections from their works ; popular science 
talks made easy for the comprehension of all; folk songs 
and stories; lectures on political movements and great 
events in history ; and many other interesting and instruc- 
tive subjects. 

Museums. In many cities there are museums of art, 
history, and science where a study of the collections gives the 
visitor more infoimation in an hour or so than could be 
obtained from the reading of many books on 'these subjects. 
These are usually open on Saturday evenings, as well as on 
Sundays, for the benefit of those who are employed 
during the week days ; and the present system of arranging 
exhibits according to historical periods is very valuable to 
the student who has not much time at his disposal. In 
New York City there is a Museum of Safety which is of 
special interest to those workers who are brought in daily 
contact with dangerous machinery and industrial processes. 
Here one may find all sorts of safety devices for the preven- 
tion of accidents and the safeguarding of life, limb, and 
health. 

Libraries. Then there is the inexpensive recreation 
and pleasure to be had from reading. The free library sys- 
tem of most cities and towns makes it possible for every one 
who wishes to do so to take out a reader's card. One may 
drop into a library for study and reference work, to look 
over the latest magazines, or to select books to take home. 



114 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

In this way one may keep in touch with all the best modern 
books as well as with the great books of all times. 

Benefits of play. Remember that a live interest in 
something outside your work will keep you healthy and 
happy. Every worker needs to get away from his work for 
a little while, in order to return to it with renewed interest 
and energy. The mind needs rest and change, by giving 
it something else to think about ; and the muscles need the 
rest and change afforded by exercise and play. Rest, 
change, and play, all of these will enable the worker to re- 
cuperate from the labors of the day and will put him in 
good condition to resume his work the next morning. 

Above all, the muscles, brain, and nerves need a reason- 
able amount o*f sound, refreshing sleep. Do not think you 
can stay up all hours, spending your evenings in dissipation, 
and then force your body and brain to do their work with 
the help of stimulants. 

The best restorative is sleep, the best stimulant is exer- 
cise or play ; and the happy, efficient worker is the one who 
has learned how to invest, and not to squander, his working 
capital of health and energy. 

AFTER THE DAY'S WORK 

1. Leave your belongings in order. 

2. Clean up and make yourself presentable; nothing is 

more refreshing. 

3. Think of something else besides work. 

4. Walk home, choosing companions who are cheerful 

and by whose association you may profit. 

5. If tired out, rest flat on your back before dinner. 



AFTER HOURS 



6. Make your family 

or associates 
at dinner 
glad you are 
present. 

7. In the evening, 

" find your 
hobby and ride 
it." Try to 
get some vig- 
orous exercise 
at least twice 
a week. 

8. Seek wholesome 

places and companions. Do not damage your self- 
respect in search of amusement. 

9. Follow some reading or lecture course, or study that 

will prepare you for the next higher job. If you 
have lessons, get them done before you do anything 
else. 

10. To bed early, observing the routine of Chapter III. 

11. Have you done a good turn to some one to-day? 




CHAPTER XI 
HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 

Effects of too much work. As has already been pointed 
out in the preceding chapter, a certain amount of play is 
absolutely essential to the health and well-being of the 
worker. Work in itself is a factor in good health and hap- 
piness, but an unusual amount of work or a repetition of the 
same monotonous efforts, physical or mental, may be re- 
sponsible for a breaking down of the body, or, at least, a loss 
of interest in the work performed. 

Physical exercise, or muscular activity, may be had in the 
worker's daily routine; but this kind of exercise becomes 
wearisome, and, besides, only one set of muscles or brain 
cells may be used. This calls for a complete change of 
activity. 

It is for this reason that habits of play are so important. 
They serve to equalize the body's various activities, not 
overstraining certain organs and allowing others to grow 
weak or atrophy, through lack of use. Play should natu- 
rally call into use and expression the neglected cells and 
tissues, giving them a chance to develop with the other 
portions of the body exercised in the day's work. 

Vacation. While the body and mind need change and 
rest after each working day to fit and equip them for the 
next day's labor, it is of the greatest importance to the 
worker to have, entirely for his own use and recreation, a 

116 



HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 



117 



certain period during the year, when he can drop all thought 
of work from his mind. 

Recreation really means a re-creating, a making over of 
tired muscles and brain cells. Mind and body alike need 
to be revitalized after a year of steady work. Employers 




A vacation camping party 

are coming to see, more and more, the practical benefits to 
be derived from allowing their workpeople opportunities for 
complete change of scene, rest, or play, and are allowing 
yearly vacations, with or without pay. 

The most successful vacations seem to be those which 
provide a complete change from the ordinary daily life, new 
scenes, new faces and interests, without taxing the physical 
powers of the individual to any great extent, and which 
allow most of the time to be spent out of doors. 



n8 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

It is a common fault of Americans that they take their 
play strenuously. Vacation often provides so much op- 
portunity for exercise and entertainment that many overdo 
and draw still further upon a vitality weakened by the 
long winter work. Early hours are always essential. We 
should never need to recuperate after a holiday or a vaca- 
tion. 

A change of scene. For those workers who are able to 
get away for one or more weeks each year, it is a wise plan 
to select a place and activities as different, or as far removed, 
as possible from the ordinary daily environment. The 
weary mental worker needs to spend the vacation out of 
doors and in ways that will exercise the unused muscles; 
on the other hand, the tired physical worker may receive 
greater benefit in resting from muscular exertion. 

Trips to the seashore, mountains, or other interesting 
places which one has no opportunity to see during the work- 
ing year should be indulged in and planned for during the 
rest of the year. It is not extravagance to include the cost 
of a vacation trip in the personal expenses, for the health 
and efficiency of any person constitute his working capital. 

Perhaps, if your wages are too small or the living cost 
too great to allow for the trip you would like to take, you can 
arrange a walking tour to some interesting place at such a 
distance as will permit a safe return within the limits of 
your vacation. In England and Germany, walking trips 
as vacation jaunts are much more common than in this 
country. Such a trip, with one or more congenial compan- 
ions, equipped with stout boots, walking sticks, and as little 
luggage as you can possibly get along with, will be less ex- 
pensive and bring you greater returns in the way of health 



HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 119 

and energy than the same time spent at some popular 
summer resort. 

Many workers are not given vacations with pay, and, 
therefore, feel that they cannot afford to take the time off 
from their work. This is a great mistake ; but if, for any 
reason, it seems impossible to take the rest and change of 
a regular vacation in the summer season, it still lies within 
the means of the most economical worker to find recreation 
at home. 

Saturdays and holidays. The majority of business 
places grant the Saturday half holiday to their employees, 
at least during the hot summer months of July and August. 
This half holiday with the succeeding Sunday can be profit- 
ably used by the tired worker in building up health and 
energy. 

An occasional boat trip to any near-by resort will give one 
several hours of rest and the benefit to be derived from the 
fresh air. These trips are usually not expensive, and if one 
wishes, it is possible to take one's lunch along, and avoid 
the high prices at which food is usually sold at these resorts. 
The quieter places, with which nearly all city boys and 
girls are familiar, are to be preferred to the noisier ones 
where the amusement tends to excite rather than to rest. 

People come from great distances to visit the summer 
resorts in the vicinity of large cities; but we who live 
nearest sometimes fail to appreciate them because we 
are so used to them or do not enjoy them in the right 
way. Going to Coney Island, for instance, is a habit with 
many young people in New York. If they would go to the 
quieter resorts, not so much with the idea of spending money 
on foolish shows and amusements as to benefit by the sea 



120 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

breezes, the bathing to be found along the beaches, and the 
change from the hot city, they would come home less tired 
and more refreshed. 

The Saturday half holiday can be spent to advantage in 
the public baths and swimming pools, in the parks, or in 
short trolley excursions. In almost every large city there 
may be purchased trolley guides which show scores of 
beautiful and interesting places which are easily accessible. 

There are so many such places to be visited in New 
York City, for instance, museums, parks, collections, his- 
torical places, and other points of attraction that serve to 
make it the goal of many people who come from great dis- 
tances to spend their vacations here, that we may find it 
to our advantage to use a little time in getting acquainted 
with our own city. 

Probably not half of the boys and girls in New York City 
are familiar with the interesting places within their city's 
limits which draw so many visitors. It would be a good 
idea for the stay-at-homes, or those who cannot afford to 
take a regular vacation, to begin to make little journeys to 
the places that are featured in the guidebooks. 

Many people do not know that the United States gov- 
ernment has made maps of almost every crossroad, river, 
hill, and stream in the United States, and that any one of 
these maps may be obtained by forwarding five cents to the 
Director of the Geological Survey, Washington, D.C. 

Trips about New York City. In New York City, one 
might plan a series of outings to historical places in the city 
limits, trying in imagination to retrace the events they serve 
to commemorate. To visit places like the Manor at Van 
Cortlandt Park, or the Jumel Mansion, both within easy 



HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 121 

reach, by means of the subway, gives one better insight into 
manners and customs long past than the reading of many 
books on the subject. The brief descriptions given by a 
good guidebook, however, will tell the main facts you want 
to know. 

Then there is the study of natural history afforded by 
the great Zoological Garden at Bronx Park. Quite apart 
from the Zoo, the Park is a pleasant, restful place in which 
to spend a day. Boating can be enjoyed on the river, and 
there are numerous places where one may sit down and 
enjoy luncheon out of doors. The botanical collections 
in Bronx Park will give much pleasure to those who delight 
in rare plants ; while the pleasant, shady walks, leading to 
the Falls and other interesting spots, will prove beneficial 
to body and mind. 

Making a vacation profitable. Even if you are obliged 
to stay at home when other workers, more fortunate or 
foolish, as the issue may prove, leave it in the summer sea- 
son, you have it within your power to spend your spare 
time in so pleasant and interesting a manner that you may 
be laying up a greater store of health and energy than the 
young people who come back tired and weary from having 
too good a time at the mountains and other regular summer 
resorts. 

Besides the economy of a vacation spent in this manner, 
you will have gained a store of first-hand information about 
your vicinity that may prove to your advantage later on, 
and will have demonstrated to yourself that, after all, the 
sources of amusement and recreation do not lie outside of, 
but within, the individual. 

Athletic fields. For those who wish to indulge in sports 



122 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



and games, there are plenty of near-by fields either in the 
parks or in the suburbs. 

Many persons who live in the country do not have the 
advantages for exercise and play that are afforded by the 
city parks and playgrounds provided for the express pur- 
pose of recreation. 

Boy Scouts. Connected with many churches and soci- 
eties are troops of Boy Scouts and similar organizations 

for girls. These plan to 
spend all available time 
out of doors in " hikes," 
tramps, and camp. 

No young man or woman 
will find a better opportu- 
nity for out-of-door recre- 
ation than these provide. 
If there is no such organi- 
zation in your vicinity, one 
can easily be formed by 
enlisting the interest of 
some older man who is 
willing to give his advice 
and assistance. 

What cooperation has 
brought about. Some 
firms have found it wise to 
offer exceptional inducements to their employees to spend 
their vacations sensibly, building up their bodies and laying 
up a store of energy and enthusiasm that will express itself 
in efficient, happy work during the remainder of the year. 
These employers provide special holiday outings during the 




Equipped for a "hike 1 



HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 123 

summer, or equip and maintain camps and seaside homes 
to which the employees may go for periods of one or two 
weeks. If your employer thinks it worth while, so should 
you. 

One large manufacturing plant arranges its vacation 
periods on the plan of one day's vacation with pay for every 
calendar month during which the employee has been reg- 
ular in attendance. Workers, therefore, who have been 
faithful through the year receive a vacation of two weeks 
with full pay. 

One of the largest publishing houses in the country en- 
courages regular daily attendance and punctuality among 
its employees, by giving the preference in making up the va- 
cation list to those who have been most prompt and regu- 
lar. Each absence from work counts two points and each 
tardiness of less than one hour one point against the record 
of the employee. The workers who have the least number 
of points charged to their records are given first choice in 
the selection of the vacation period. This system applies 
to those who have been in the company's service a full year 
and over. In the case of employees of less than a year's 
service, the points for regularity and promptness are reck- 
oned in proportion to the length of service. Employees 
who have been with the company for at least six months 
are entitled to a vacation, at a convenient time, between 
June first and September first in each year, on the basis of 
one week day for each month's service during the year. 

A large department store with branches in several cities 
maintains a summer camp of five acres for the use of its 
employees. The boys who comprise the cadet battalion 
live in tents during their summer encampment of two weeks. 



124 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

The house erected on this land as headquarters for the 
camp is used during the rest of the season as a vacation 
home by the men and women of the establishment. 

A great many firms follow the practice of arranging an 
annual outing or picnic during the summer for their em- 
ployees, either at their own expense or in cooperation with 
an association made up of the workers. These events 
usually take place in connection with athletic contests and 
games for which prizes are offered. 

For the purpose of encouraging athletic sports and games 
among the employees who are able to avail themselves of 
the privileges after hours and on Saturday half holidays, 
in addition to the special meets arranged each year, a great 
many firms are purchasing and fitting up vacant lots near 
the factory building. 

Cooperative outings. Cooperative outings can be ar- 
ranged successfully by the employees of large industrial 
establishments, for themselves and their families, at much 
less cost than if they were to undertake the trip separately. 
The Men's Welfare League of a manufacturing company 
of world-wide reputation has arranged these cooperative 
outings very successfully. Not long ago it planned a camp- 
ing trip to Port Huron, Michigan, for 1700 employees, 
their families, and friends. August was chosen as the best 
time for the outing, as the factory was closed during two 
weeks of that month. The campers were transported over 
500 miles and were lodged, fed, and had a good time for a 
period of nine days, at the low cost of $7.80 for each person. 

On arriving at the camp, the employees found their sup- 
per ready for them, having been prepared by forty cooks 
and waitresses from the establishment who had been sent 



HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 125 

on in advance. The meals were served in a large dining 
tent accommodating 900 persons at once. 

The camp was laid out in streets, with rows of tents 
numbered to correspond with the accommodations selected 
by the campers before leaving the home plant. Most of 
the baggage, which had been sent on ahead, was waiting for 
the campers when they reached their destination. 

During the vacation period, this small army of people 
lived in their tents, swam, rowed, danced, or spent their 
time walking in the woods, thoroughly enjoying the rest 
and change and laying up a supply of energy to carry tl^em 
through the rest of the working year. 

Of course a few cases of sickness were found to occur even 
in those healthful surroundings, but the factory nurses and 
doctor were on hand to care for those who became ill. 

This outing was so successful that it has been repeated, 
and the manufacturing company, believing in the practical 
benefits derived from the rest and recreation enjoyed by 
their working force, cooperates to the extent of paying a 
portion of the railroad fare of each employee and members 
of his or her immediate family. A married man is allowed 
one ticket for himself and one for his wife and each of his 
children ; a single man is allowed one ticket for himself and 
one for his father, mother, or sister. Other members of the 
immediate family may take advantage of a special rate for 
the outing. 

FOR THE HOLIDAYS 

1. Plan your Saturday, Sunday, or holiday well in advance. 

Get out of town. 

2. Do you know your own town and vicinity? 



126 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

3. Walking trips are more fun than trips by trolley. 

4. A good time comes from what interest we have in things, 

rather than in the things themselves. 

5. For a vacation : 

(a) If you live inland, go to the shore. If you live 
on the seacoast, go to the mountains. 

(b) Select a healthy place. Write to your State 
Board of Health for a list of approved localities. 

(c) Select a decent place. Your spiritual adviser, 
pastor or priest, will help you. 

6. Po not play so hard that you come home worn out. 

7. Our best times often come from helping others to 

enjoy themselves. 



CHAPTER XH 
CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 

Making a wise start. The successful career of an in- 
dividual depends largely upon the proper choice of an oc- 
cupation; for those in good physical condition, it is only a 
question of natural tastes and aptitudes. Boys and girls 
with slight physical defects, or who are predisposed to or- 
ganic troubles, should consider with the greatest care the 
effect the occupations selected by them will have on their 
future health. 

If a wrong choice is made, a second selection may become 
necessary and the worker lose time and training. This 
might have been avoided by a right start. 

Physical examination. Before you take your first job 
go to a physician and ask for a thorough physical exam- 
ination : eyes, ears, chest, nose, throat, heart, lungs, kid- 
neys, back, hips, legs, feet, and genital organs. It is better 
to know a weakness in advance than to suffer irreparable 
damage when it is too late. This examination may, in some 
cities, be made by the school physician before you apply for 
working papers. 

Lungs. Many industrial occupations are sources of 
diseases of the respiratory or air passages. The worker 
may be afflicted at first with only a simple cold, nasal in- 
flammation, or sore throat, but these may lead to irritation 
of the lungs, and finally to tuberculosis. Among the causes 
of diseases of the respiratory system may be mentioned : 

127 



128 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



i. Sudden chills, due to wet or overheated conditions 
of the body, which are most frequently met with in mines, 
smelting works, foundries, furnaces and kilns, glass works, 
earthenware and china works, sugar refineries, candy fac- 
tories, breweries, laundries, bricklaying, and stone masonry. 




The physical examination 

2. Gases and vapors, especially from acids, chloric, sul- 
phuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, phosphorus, iodine, 
bromine, and sulphurreted hydrogen, all of which are handled 
by workers in the chemical industries, metal foundries, metal 
oxidizing, lacquering, and the manufacture of cellulose. 

3. All the dusts which injure the delicate membranes 
of the air passages : 

(a) Those which are round and smooth and harmless in 
themselves, but which, inhaled in large quantities, 
are hurtful, such as rust, flour, etc. 



CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 129 

(b) Dusts which are uneven, rough, sharp, and pointed, 

such as stone, metal, glass, and wood dusts. These 
are met with in the textile industry, stonecutting, 
stone breaking, metal and glass grinding, wood- 
working, and similar trades. 

(c) Those dusts having chemical properties, such as lead, 

brass, basic slag, arsenic, etc. 

(d) All city, house, and factory dust, for it carries microbes, 

like the bacilli of tuberculosis, diphtheria, and germs 
of scarlet fever, etc. 

Therefore, weak, flat or narrow-chested persons, or those 
afflicted with catarrhal or bronchial troubles, and those al- 
ready in the first stages of tuberculosis, should avoid the 
trades where they come in contact with these irritating 
dusts. They should not work at file cutting, painting, glass 
and metal grinding and polishing, stonecutting, paper hang- 
ing, gilding, typesetting, woodworking, grinding and cut- 
ting of bone and mother-of-pearl, or in earthenware and 
china factories, because of the harmful dusts they are obliged 
to breathe ; neither should they seek employment as cigar 
makers, tailors, shoemakers, engravers, and jewelers, be- 
cause of the. stooped position they are obliged to take 
while at work, thus cramping the lungs ; nor should they, 
on account of the constant expansion and strain of the 
lungs, earn their livelihoods as glass blowers or performers 
on wind instruments. They should seek employment out 
of doors, and by all means the narrow chest should be 
made ample by regular exercise, deep breathing, and care- 
ful regulation of the daily life. There is always room 
for the worker in the country. 



130 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



Heart. Persons whose hearts are weak should not 
engage in occupations involving great strain upon this 
organ. Constant and heavy work does not necessarily 
bring about changes in the heart's activity or abnormal 
conditions of the heart muscles. A heavy strain, how- 
ever, makes the heart 
work faster, the beats 
increasing from 100 
to 1 20 per minute. 
In a healthy person, 
this expansion of the 
heart's activity re- 
sumes its normal 
condition during the 
period of rest and 
sleep. To equalize 
the expansion and 
the following reac- 
tion, the muscular 
fibers of the heart 

Heavy work requires a strong heart increase in number 

and thickness. 

If heart overstrain is continuous, the natural reaction 
through the increased size of its muscles may not be ef- 
fective. In that case the general health suffers and the 
heart itself is likely to fail. 

Those whose hearts are in any degree weak should not 
seek occupations where there is much lifting or carrying of 
heavy loads, or where there is a constant strain on certain 
sets of muscles. Such persons are not physically fitted to 
become bakers, brewers, butchers, coopers, woodworkers, 




CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 131 

metal grinders, millers, carpenters, weavers, stone masons, 
or machine operators. They should engage in some light 
muscular work, but never neglect regular daily exercise. 

Commercial occupations. In the various commercial 
occupations, the wholesale and retail trades, the dangers 
to health are not so great ; but there are certain conditions 
which the persons seeking employment in these positions 
should bear in mind. 

Retail stores for the most part require constant standing 
and, as a rule, long hours of work. Many commercial es- 
tablishments, particularly the importing and wholesale 
houses and salesrooms, are often damp and insufficiently 
heated. Under these conditions only the closest attention 
to health regulations will keep the body well. Inform the 
management of the trouble and look out for another place 
if your health is threatened. 

In the wholesale and storage houses, physical and mental 
exertions depend, of course, on the responsibility of the 
position. As a rule, the services required are varied and 
changing in character, giving the body greater freedom and 
exercise. In some warehouses and wholesale stores there 
is much handling of dusty materials, such as dyes, paints, 
and textiles, which is not so favorable to health. In addi- 
tion, the handling of heavy wares, such as iron, bales of 
cotton, and cases of goods, is unfavorable only to persons 
who have any kind of heart trouble. 

Sedentary occupations. Bookkeeping, correspondence, 
and clerical work in offices are sedentary positions, and ex- 
ercise must be taken regularly after hours and as often as 
possible to make up for inactivity and consequent slug- 
gishness. Attention to the proper posture for sitting 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



(Chapter IX), will prevent much ill health. Many offices 
are poorly ventilated and overheated, so that the change 

from the dry, inside 
air to outside condi- 
tions, particularly in 
cold or wet weather, 
may cause ailments 
and disease of the 
respiratory passages. 
The cold morning 
and evening splashes 
should prevent all 
of that. 

Persons who have 
flat chests or weak 
lungs should be par- 
ticularly careful 
about the posture if 
they must sit for 
many hours at a 

time > aS the Cram P' 

ing of the lungs and 
the lack of fresh air are favorable conditions for the devel- 
opment of tuberculosis. 

Feet. Persons who have broken-down arches or who 
suffer from varicose veins should not select occupations 
where they will be obliged to stand for hours at a time. 
They should not seek employment as motormen, conduc- 
tors, bakers, or in stores and laundries, as these occupations 
require continual standing. The wearing of special shoes 
to support the arch of the foot, and of elastic stockings to 




Proper posture for good health 



CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 133 

relieve the varicose veins, will make those who are already 
employed in these occupations much more comfortable. 

Eyes. Poor eyesight seriously interferes with one's 
success, particularly in those trades requiring close applica- 
tion. Many diseases of the eyes are the results of inflam- 
mation in very early youth, when, with a little care, the 
impairment of vision might have been avoided. For those 
who are nearsighted, or who have any other weakness of 
vision, the selection of an occupation is of great importance. 
There are certain trades which increase the diseased con- 
dition of the eyes. Dusty trades, or those in which one 
comes in contact with heat, steam, vapors, and fumes, are 
especially bad for the worker already suffering from weak 
or inflamed eyes. In occupations free from dust and fumes 
and where the worker has plenty of fresh air in a moderate 
temperature, the chances are that he will be able to do his 
work with comfort and satisfaction. 

Persons who have vision in only one eye should not select 
occupations where they are obliged to make accurate meas- 
urements on fine work requiring great care r or where they 
become subject to conditions which may cause the loss 
of the remaining eye. Watchmakers, engravers, tailors, 
dressmakers, chemists, and draftsmen, all require good eye- 
sight, as the strain on their eyes is greater than in most of 
the trades. Those who are color-blind should not make 
the mistake of entering occupations where a quick distinc- 
tion of colors is necessary. 

If there is any reason to suppose that the eyesight is 
imperfect, before entering any trade or occupation, the eyes 
should be carefully examined by a skilled oculist, as near- 
sightedness may be due to weakness of the eyes or to 



1.34 HYGIENE FOR JHE WORKER 

astigmatism, both of which conditions are easily remedied 
by the wearing of suitable glasses. With the aid of glasses, 
most of the trades and professions are open to all who are 
otherwise fitted or trained to engage in them. 

Throat. Persons suffering from throat troubles should 
not, of course, select occupations requiring unusual exertion 
of the vocal chords and muscles, as these may become per- 
manently paralyzed if overstrained. 

Skin. Many diseases of the skin affect the hands, arms, 
and legs or other portions of the body and so do not actually 
disfigure the sufferer; but such diseases may be serious 
enough to interfere with the selection of certain occupations 
which would aggravate the condition. For instance, brick- 
layers, tanners, and butchers are subject to skin disease 
through the handling of cement, hides, and much hot water. 
Persons afflicted with any inflammation of the skin should 
not engage in these occupations. 

Those who are liable to suffer from eczema should be 
careful not to come in contact with acids, dyestuffs, and 
other materials which might increase the trouble and make 
it necessary for the sufferer to give up his work entirely ; 
they are not fitted to become bakers, bricklayers, painters, 
lacquerers, polishers, cooks, or laundresses, or to do any 
work where 1 the hands are kept long in water. 

Persons with hands that perspire freely cannot do good 
work as engravers, watchmakers, fine instrument makers, 
or as workers in any of the fine metals. They are particu- 
larly unfitted for the handling of delicate materials, such as 
laces and linens, and for such fine and clean handwork as 
millinery, embroidery, sewing, bookbinding, and fine leather 
work. 



CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION '135 

So it is well to know your physical condition before decid- 
ing upon your life work. Do not rush into a position 
blindly, with little regard for your fitness for that particu- 
lar kind of work. Choose wisely, and if your physical 
equipment happens to be below the average, you may yet be 
able to do useful work and, in time, outgrow, rather than 
increase, your limitations. 

CHOOSING AN OCCUPATION 

1. Choose an occupation with reference to your own health 

and abilities. 

2. Get a physical examination from a physician ; find out 

any physical weakness which should keep you from 
any particular kind of work, even if you feel per- 
fectly well. 

3. Avoid trades where the worker is not protected against 

sudden change from hot to cold, gases which are 
poisonous, and dust of any kind. 

4. Seek the trade where your physical handicap will not 

count against you ; where you can put your best ener- 
gies into your work ; where you can study to rise to 
the next higher position. 

5. If forced to work under unhygienic conditions, make 

the matter known to your employer ; follow the more 
strictly all rules of health ; seek other employment if 
conditions are not changed. 

6. If you have " weak lungs," make them strong and try 

to get employment out of doors. Never go to a 
physician who advertises. 



CHAPTER XIII 
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS : ACCIDENTS 

On the way to work. On leaving home each day, pro- 
ceed to your work in the safest way possible. Take plenty 
of time. Do not rush and in your haste jump on or off 




Street traffic is regulated for your safety 

moving cars. Most of the street car accidents are due to 
this recklessness on the part of passengers. Don't try to 
interfere with the traffic regulations in crowded streets. 

136 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 137 

Wait for the signal of the police officer whose duty it is to 
guard the safety of the public, and go with the traffic. 

You may add your mite to the general welfare by kicking 
out of harm's way every bit of banana peel or fruit skin you 
find lying on the sidewalk. The banana peel has been 
the cause of more sprained and fractured wrists and arms, 
broken ankles and legs, and cracked ribs than the surgeons 
care to count. 

Do not cross a street of any description, particularly 
those with tracks, without first looking and listening for 
approaching cars, engines, and other moving machines. 
Do not catch or jump on cars and engines, or cross trains in 
motion, except when your duties absolutely require you to 
do so. 

Safety, the first consideration. In every industrial 
establishment, the question of safety should be the first 
consideration. The employer is benefited, in that he has 
the continuous service of skilled and careful employees and 
escapes the heavy expense of damage suits; on the other 
hand, safe conditions are only fair and just to the employee, 
who is able to work in greater security, free from the strain 
of fear which is connected with dangerous work. For ex- 
ample, a woodworker returning to work, after a serious 
accident to his hand, exclaimed : 

" Every time I put a board through the planer, I have a 
queer feeling at the pit of my stomach! I'm so afraid 
the wood will kick and hurt me again." 

Under such conditions, a man cannot do his best. The 
worker also fears a loss of wage-earning capacity which 
may throw him and his family upon charity. 

Many mills and plants are now giving a great deal of 



138 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



time and attention to questions of safety for their work- 
people. In 1906, one of the largest corporations in the 
United States, employing upwards of 200,000 people, de- 
cided that it must 
reduce the deaths and 
injuries due to acci- 
dents in its works. 

Not only were the 
managers and super- 
intendents of works 
instructed to plan for 
the greatest degree of 
safety in the mills and 
shops, but the work- 
men themselves were 
asked for suggestions 
in the way of making 
safe the dangerous 
machines and pro- 
cesses used in the 
industry. 

The result of this 
corporation's syste- 
matic efforts for safety 
is shown by the re- 
duction, in 1910, of at least 50 per cent of the deaths and 
injuries in their plants. One superintendent reported that 
he had reduced his accident list 60 per cent. 

Methods of cooperation. Committees of Safety, made 
up of officials and workmen, inspect the shops, mills, and 
yards regularly. They examine the tools of the workmen, 




Protected saw 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 139 

and workmen are also instructed to report just as soon as 
the heads of tools become burred or ragged. Chips flying 
from defective tools may cause serious eye injuries, although 
many employees think it foolish to take up a question of 
this kind, claiming they have never known any one to be 
injured in this manner. 

Another method of teaching safety and caution is to give 
warning to the man seeking employment that, unless he 
is willing to exercise care for himself and his fellow- work- 
men, he will not be given a job.- In one plant, such a 
notice is posted in the employment office in six different 
languages. 

Weatherproof signs, displayed just inside the gates, re- 
quest every employee to be on the lookout for defects in 
machinery or tools, carelessness of other employees, or 
dangerous conditions anywhere in the grounds or works. 
Any reports that are made are treated as personal matters 
between the superintendent and the person giving the 
information. 

Never become too familiar with danger. Do not stand 
too near or under hoists, cranes, conveyors, tackle, buckets, 
ladles containing molten metal, weights, or material of any 
kind that is being raised, carried, or lowered, if you would 
avoid accidents. 

Protections against danger. There is always a grave 
danger to the worker exposed to unprotected gearing or 
car wheels. If he stumbles and falls against them, he may 
lose a limb, or be ground to death. Dangerous wheels like 
these should be protected with cover guards, or shields. 
It is possible to do this and not to interfere with the opera- 
tion of the machine. All belting and shafting should be 



140 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



GLARING 



made safe by protecting guards or rails. That is the em- 
ployer's duty. But it is your duty, if you find dangerous 
machines unguarded, to use special care and caution and 
to notify your employer. You may lessen the dangers 

from protruding 
screws, unguarded 
belts and shafting, 
gears and cog wheels, 
by wearing neat, well- 
fitting work clothes 
and avoiding flowing 
ties, torn sleeves, and 
unbuttoned blouses. 
Do not wear jewelry 
on your hands or neck 
if you operate a ma- 
chine. 

If you are obliged 
to work near un- 
guarded saws and 
planers, flywheels, 
belts and shafting run- 
ning through or near 
floors, or other dan- 
gerous places, where 
the floor is worn and 
made slippery with grease and oil, you can save yourself 
from falls to a great extent by wearing rubber heels on 
your shoes. Do not walk through or over low running 
belts, or reach across rapidly moving parts of machinery. 
Do not attempt to stop a machine by grabbing at the belt. 




Danger reduced to a minimum 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 



No matter is too small to receive consideration and at- 
tention where safety is concerned. Worn floors, material 
piled too high or carelessly, the lack of railings, poor lad- 
ders, windows which should be cleaned to admit better 
light, all of these, directly or indirectly, may be the causes 
of serious accidents. 

There is a particular need for safeguarding presses and 
stamping machines, which are the cause of frequent acci- 
dents. A certain brass 
shop, in which 203 women 
were employed, showed an 
accident rate of 26.6 per 
cent among them, while 
another shop, employing 
129 women, showed an 
accident rate of 11.63 per 
cent. Both of these were 
what may be called high- 
class factories, but in the 
second one machines had 
been chosen with the least 
hazard and even then ad- 
ditional safeguards had 
been provided. 

A good illustration of the difference in safety caused by 
attention to a single detail is shown in a comparison of two 
factories using nearly the same number of presses and pro- 
ducing almost the same kind of goods. In one a safety 
device was used, which was not found in the other. In 
the first, in one year, out of 187 women employed, only 
3.21 per cent had been injured ; in the other, not using the 




Safety device for a stamping machine 



142 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

safeguards, out of 150 women employed, 13.33 P er 
suffered accidents. 

Causes of accidents. A great many accidents are at- 
tributed to " carelessness on the part of the worker." But 
very often it happens that an excess of care results in the 
same accident. And this is especially true in the case of 

new and inexperienced 
workers, who must use 
a great deal of caution 
and common sense, if 
they would escape in- 
jury. 

A power machine 
worker must, for the 
sake of safety and effi- 
ciency, become more 
or less automatic. 
He must not do his 
work with a tense ner- 
vous system. The 
unskilled beginner, 
knowing the machine 

Protected belting on a stamping machine *> be dangerOUS, and 

anxious to show him- 
self equal to the task, tensely waits for the movement of 
the machine or press, and frequently, in his anxiety, falters 
or makes a mistake, resulting in mangled fingers, a lost hand, 
or some worse injury. As practice continues, the tension 
gradually is lost, the worker can do his work more safely 
than when he was so painfully concentrated on it, and ac- 
quires a rhythmic movement in doing it. 




OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 143 

On the other hand, the trained, experienced worker is 
not free from accidents. For instance, in operating a stamp- 
ing press, the fingers adjust the object to be cut or formed, 
and then the foot presses a releasing lever. After a while, 
these motions become automatic. One follows the other 
without the worker thinking of them. Suppose, however, 
the machine fails to work or the material is rough or faulty, 
or something else interferes with the first motion. It is 
very seldom that the worker can instantly stop the second 
motion to which he has become accustomed. His nervous 
system has been trained to do the second part of the opera- 
tion automatically. A serious accident may result. 

In such a case as this, the only safety is in providing the 
worker with a safeguard. There are many good and simple 
styles of safety devices for presses and stamping machines. 

Such safeguards give the worker a feeling of security, re- 
lieve the tension, prevent accidents, and are an economy 
for the employer, for in addition to doing away with dam- 
ages, or the loss of a skilled employee, the output of the 
machine is greater. 

It is difficult to say just how far a worker is responsible 
for an accident, particularly on an unguarded machine. 
The effect of bad light, impure air, too great speed, weak- 
ness, and fatigue must all be considered before blaming 
the worker for carelessness or negligence. The conditions 
necessary for safety should be provided by the employer. 

Taking risks, Women are generally more careful than 
men, less given to removing the safeguards which are pro- 
vided them, and more attentive to their surroundings; in 
fact, they display a tendency to avoid danger when working 
on a machine which is known to be very dangerous. But 



144 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



in the matter of taking risks, they are much more reckless 
than the men. Taking risks includes a number of foolish 
actions, such as cleaning a machine while in motion, at- 
tempting to adjust screws and belts without stopping the 
machine, experimenting with another person's machine, and 
disregarding orders. 

The most important cause of accidents to both men and 
women is in connection with the material, either in in- 
serting the work, re- 
moving it, or clearing 
away the scrap, which 
brings their fingers too 
dangerously close to the 
descending die. In all 
these cases, safety de- 
vices would prevent 
accidents and loss of 
fingers or hands. 

If you work on 
presses, stamping or 
cutting machines, never 
try to remove material 
from under the die with 
your fingers while the 
power is on. If a hook 
is not given you for this purpose, you can easily make 
one from bent wire and so avoid the danger of cutting off 
or mashing your fingers. 

Inexperience. A great many accidents happen on the 
first day at work. In fact, a considerable proportion of all 
the accidents to press operatives happens during the first 




Protected gearing 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 145 

week at work, and over half of these during the first day. 
When going to work at a new job pay the strictest atten- 
tion to instructions, particularly those which relate to your 
safety, and follow them. 

Overspeeding. In most of the silk and cotton mills, 
overspeeding of the machinery is the most common cause 
of accidents to the workers. Accidents also result from 
improperly placed or unguarded belts and shafting and 
set screws. Even when made safer by using hollow set 





Hollow set screw Projecting set screw 

screws instead of projecting screws, a shaft still needs very 
careful guarding. For instance, not long ago, under the 
direction of the factory inspector, the projecting screws in 
a factory had been replaced by safer ones. A young worker 
passed under the shaft, combing her hair as she went. In 
a flash, a few strands were drawn around the shaft, her hair 
was entangled, and her scalp was torn from her head. 

Overcrowding. Textile machinery, if properly guarded 
and not crowded, has little danger for the worker. The 
worst danger, leading to accidents, is from overcrowding. 
Very often not enough space is allowed between machines, 



146 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



and the aisles are too narrow. The aisles may be made 
safe by a proper guarding of the ends of the machines, but 
more space should be allowed between machines. In the 
case of spinning frames, a woman operator, leaning over to 
reach the lower rail of spindles, is liable to have her hair 
caught in the upper rail of spindles on the 
frame in front of her, or to have her skirts 
caught in the lower rail of spindles belong- 
ing to the worker behind her. 

Oiling and cleaning. Perhaps one of the 
greatest causes of danger in any factory or 
shop where power is used to run the machines 
is the oiling and cleaning of the working 
parts while they are in motion. 

The oiling, cleaning, and repairing of 
machinery should never be attempted while 
it is in motion. Do not attempt to oil 
shafting or shift belts while they are in 
motion, unless you have been provided 
with a special long-stemmed oiler, or the 
belts are furnished with patent shifters. 
Do not wear torn, loose clothing while 
working on shafting, and be sure of your 
footing. The worker cannot afford to take 
chances. 

Bursting wheels. If a grinding or polishing wheel 
running at a high rate of speed should burst, the flying frag- 
ments are likely to cause the death of any one they happen 
to strike. Safety hoods and collars over the grinding wheels 
will protect the workers from this danger. The illustration 
at the bottom of the next page shows a wheel so protected 




A long-stemmed 
oiler 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 



147 



that it would prob- 
ably cause no injuries 
if it burst; the safety 
collar would prevent 
the pieces from flying 
about. 

Elevators. -- A 
great many young 
men become elevator 
operators. The posi- 
tion is a responsible 
one, as the lives and 
safety of many people 
are daily trusted to 




Dust exhausts on grinding wheel 



the operator's care. Never try to hurry 
the car. It should be started and stopped 
gradually. When not enough time is 
allowed to gain the re- 
quired speed, a severe 
strain is put on the ma- 
chinery; also, when the 
brake is applied too sud- 
denly, there is the risk of 
destroying it and causing 
a serious accident. Al- 
ways stop the car at the 
floor level, as many acci- 
dents occur in badly 
lighted halls and land- 
ings where the passengers 




Protected grinding wheel 



148 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



P 



cannot see the sill and trip over it. Do not run the elevator 
when the automatic stop device is broken or out of order. 
Pay strict attention to your work and keep your presence 
of mind under all circumstances. Always keep your hand 
on the controlling device and be in a position to stop the 
car immediately. Do not allow overcrowding in the car, 

as it puts too great a 
strain on the machin- 
ery. Always see that 
the doors are closed 
and locked before 
starting the car, and 
you will do away with 
a great number of 
accidents. 

Falling tools. If 
you are obliged to 
work above or below 
other workers, let 
them know you are 
there. Do not drop 
articles or tools from 
the top of machines 
or from scaffoldings. 
They may injure some 
one walking beneath. Do not pile up material until it is 
unsafe and may topple over on some one who comes near it. 
Toe guards should be put on all platforms, to prevent the 
falling of tools and materials on workmen below. 

Cleaning windows. Do not work at cleaning windows or 
in any high place without securing yourself with a safety belt. 




Safety belt for window cleaners 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 149 

Electricity. If you are an electrical worker, take no 
risks with "dead" apparatus, but treat it as if it were really 
charged with current. In working about switchboards, 
transformers, and other dangerous apparatus, it is a good 
plan to use only one hand and to keep your sleeves down. 
Your tools should be perfect and should have insulated 
handles. Use rubber gloves that will act as a non-conduc- 
tor when working on cables or around dangerous apparatus. 
When repairs are being made, switches should be locked 
and tagged, and the current should not be turned on again 
until the one making the repairs has reported to the proper 
authority. Every electrical worker should be provided 
with a rubber mat or shield upon which to stand when 
working on high tension wires. Do not work on poles or 
other high places without a safety belt. 

Disobedience and ignorance. Accidents are often due 
to the carelessness and recklessness of the workers them- 
selves; many of them are the result of the resistance to 
discipline which is said to be a characteristic of the Ameri- 
can workman. Many accidents are caused by ignorance. 
For accidents brought about by disobedience and reckless- 
ness, the guilty should suffer. 

Read and make yourself familiar with the rules and 
regulations for safety and use of machines and materials 
given into your care. If you are in doubt about any of the 
rules, ask some one in authority to explain them to you. 
You may be sure these rules are not arbitrary, but have 
resulted from years of experience, and, in many cases, have 
been made to comply with state laws. If you disobey such 
rules, do not be surprised to find yourself out of a job. 

Under no circumstances remove the safeguards from 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



dangerous machines. Use the safety devices that are given 
you, as well as the respirators, shields, spectacles, protec- 
tive garments, and all measures designed to guard you 
from injury. Watch your tools, machinery, and appli- 
ances, and if they are broken or defective, report the matter 

at once and secure new 
tools or have the old 
ones repaired. 

Pay strict attention 
to the work in hand. 
Don't talk or "cut up" 
with other workers 
while running a dan- 
gerous machine, or 
play with any part of 
a machine in motion. 
Do not try to run ma- 
chines other than your 
own without permis- 
sion from the foreman. 
Do not wander about 
the shop, or indulge 
in running, scuffling, 
wrestling, or the playing of practical jokes during working 
hours. 

On entering a place of employment, acquaint yourself at 
once with the means of escape in case of fire or any great 
danger.* Try the exits and fire escapes for yourself, to see 
if they are of any use and if you can get out quickly. If fire 
drills are not the custom of your shop, perhaps you can 
interest other employees and your foreman in the matter, 




A device for protecting railway frogs 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 151 

and so induce th'e management to organize fire brigades 
and to introduce regular fire drills and other measures for 
the safety of the entire plant. 

Disorder. Keep your place in the workshop neat and 
tidy. Do not go away at night, leaving your machine or 
bench dirty and disorderly with greasy waste, lunch papers, 
scraps of food, and other refuse, or inflammable materials. 
Such carelessness as this is the cause of many serious fires 
that break out in workshops and factories at night. Do 
not allow boards with nails sticking up in them, or sharp, 
broken scraps of glass and metal, to lie about on the floor, 
as they may cause injury to some one. 

Extreme care always necessary. The " new hand " 
soon becomes acquainted with his machine and tools ; prac- 
tice will give him skill, speed, and a certain freedom from 
the dangers due to ignorance and inexperience; but it is 
well for him to remember that there are always dangers 
connected with one's occupation, no matter what it may 
be, and that nothing should ever be taken for granted. By 
paying strict attention to his duties, by exercising care and 
caution, even the youngest worker may do his share in pro- 
moting safety and reducing the number of industrial acci- 
dents. 

AVOID ACCIDENTS 

1. Never allow yourself to take risks with moving street 

cars. 

2. Never pass a banana peel without kicking it into the 

gutter. 

3. " Stop, look, and listen " before crossing any street. 

4. Familiarize yourself thoroughly with your machine 

and your shop. 



152 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

5. Do not take risks; it is more clever to be careful than 

to be risky. 

6. Are there safety appliances on your machines? Is 

there any unguarded danger in the shop? If so, 
tell your employer. 

7. Is there a Committee of Safety in your shop? 

8. Play safe with a machine every time ; it is worth more 

than speed. One accident will counterbalance a 
year of speed. 

9. Obey shop orders. 

10. Do not " cut up " in the shop. 

11. Take care of your machine as you would your own pos- 

session, and clean it thoroughly, when it's not going. 

12. Get the habit of care. 



CHAPTER XIV 
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 

Poisonous workshop conditions. Any indoor occu- 
pation may be injurious to health, especially if the working 
conditions are bad. If the shop is overcrowded and kept 
too warm, if the air is impure, if the hours are too long, or the 
work causes a great amount of fatigue, the worker's health 
will suffer. Bad air is a poison as has already been shown. 
It is the cause of headache, faintness, loss of appetite, and 
a lowered vitality that renders the worker more liable to 
disease than a person with a greater amount of oxygen in 
his system, and, consequently, greater resisting power. 

Poisons. Besides the general condition of many work 
places which might be called poisonous, there are cer- 
tain occupations in which the worker is obliged to handle 
materials or to breathe in dusts, fumes, gases, and vapors, 
which are in themselves poisons. 

Among the best-known and most dangerous of these 
poisons are lead, arsenic, phosphorus, mercury, zinc, and 
copper, aniline dyes, acids, ammonia, naphtha and benzine, 
turpentine, varnish removers, carbon monoxide (better 
known as coal gas), sulphurous and other gases, to which 
may be added the dangers from handling the hides and hair 
of animals, and from excessive steam or heat. 

Lead. In addition to white and red lead works, china 
and earthenware potteries, many processes in the metal 
trades, glass works, some branches of the electrical indus- 

153 



154 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



try, type foundries, typesetting and printing, varnishing, 
and many other occupations may bring the worker in con- 
tact with some form of lead. 

Lead poisoning usually begins with a loss of appetite and 
weight, nausea, constipation, low vitality, sallow skin, bad 
breath, a blue line along the gums, and a sweet taste in the 




Various forms of lead 

mouth. The symptoms of chronic lead poisoning are pain- 
ful colic, pain in the legs, paralysis, wrist drop, and a gen- 
eral wrecking of the nervous system. 

One of the results of long exposure to lead is a hardening of 
the arteries, which brings all the feebleness and appearance 
of old age, cutting down a man in the prime of life. Very 
often the sufferer becomes unable to feed or dress himself. 

It is a mistaken idea that we have few cases of lead poison- 
ing in this country. As we do not have the system of record- 
ing such cases as is done in Germany and England, where 
the laws in this respect are very strict, we do not know just 
how many cases really occur, but a comparison of a few 
German, English, and American lead factories brings out 
some startling facts. 

In a German factory employing 150 men, two cases of 
lead poisoning were discovered in 1910. In an American 
factory employing 142 men, twenty-five cases were sent to 
the doctor in the same year. 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 155 

In an English white and red lead factory employing 90 
men, there was not a single case of lead poisoning in five 
successive years, while in an American factory of the same 
kind, employing 85 men, the doctors' records for six months 
showed 35 men suffering from some form of the poisoning. 

On the other hand, in an American white lead factory, 
where the " wet process " does away with dust, there is no 
record of lead poisoning. 

These figures refer only to red and white lead works, but 
other trades involving the handling of lead would doubtless 
show a high rate of poisoning in this country. 

Lead in paints. Lead poisoning in the painter's trade 
is probably well known to many people. The Commission 
on Occupational Diseases, appointed by the State of Illi- 
nois, found that 12 men were sent to hospitals in Chicago, 
in 1910, who had been poisoned by sandpapering the white 
walls of the lavatories of Pullman cars. In sanding the 
walls and ceilings they had breathed in great quantities of 
poisonous lead dust. In Germany, instead of the dry 
sandpapering, they have a wet process. 

The making of paints and varnishes, the manufacturing 
of the lead seals used for freight cars, the laying of electric 
cables and charging of storage batteries, the making of tin 
foil for wrappers and for bottle caps, the coloring, enamel- 
ing, and lacquering of various wares, in all of which lead is 
used, are more or less dangerous to those employed in 
these trades. 

Lead in other manufactures. In the manufacture of 
china and earthenware the lead is in the glaze that is put 
on the vessels. In England, where the public is better 
informed with regard to the dangers in lead glazing, pottery 



156 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

is made without lead, or with a very low per cent of car- 
bonate of lead in the glaze, and many English people insist 
on buying this kind of pottery. 

Workers in wire and wire cloth factories run the risk of 
being poisoned by the fumes that rise from the kettles of 
molten lead, through which the wire is passed in the process 
of tempering it. In one factory of this kind, several bad 
cases of poisoning were found, because proper ventilation 
and hoods over the kettles for carrying off the fumes had 
not been provided. 

In the polishing of cut glass and crystal, putty powder is 
used which contains 70 per cent of lead oxide. The putty 
powder mixed with water falls on the polishing wheels, 
which revolve at a high rate of speed. In consequence, 
a considerable amount of spray is thrown off, which 
falls on the workers' hands and clothing and on the floor. 
When this spray dries and rises as fine dust into the air, the 
work people who inhale it may become poisoned. 

The danger to the worker in any trade in which lead is 
used is, therefore, from the inhalation of lead dust and 
fumes. Sometimes, through ignorance, the worker comes 
into even more dangerous contact with lead than the work 
requires. One of the members of the Illinois Steel Commis- 
sion tells the story of a newly arrived Roumanian who was 
employed in a storage battery works and was severely 
poisoned at the end of 13 days. It was found that he had no 
idea the red lead paste he used was poisonous, and it was 
his custom to wet his fingers in his mouth as he worked. 

Fighting lead poisoning. The best lines upon which 
to work with a view to fighting the evils of lead poison- 
ing are : 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 157 

On the part of the employer 

To prevent dust as far as possible, by using a " wet process." 
To provide a good system of ventilation for carrying off 

the dust and fumes from the workroom and letting in 

fresh air. 

To keep a good temperature in the workroom. 
To furnish respirators for the workers exposed to fumes 

and dust. 
To provide, or to require, a special suit of clothing, to be 

worn during the work, laid aside at the close of the 

day, and frequently washed. 
To set aside places, properly fitted up, as wash rooms, 

where the workers may cleanse themselves and change 

their clothing. 
To provide suitable lunch places, where the employees 

may sit, away from the dangerous conditions of their 

work. 
To employ a physician, whose duty is to examine regularly 

the workers exposed to poisonous conditions, as is now 

required by the new law of the State of Illinois. 

On the part of the employee 

To cooperate in the use of respirators and other safeguards 
to health. 

To observe scrupulous cleanliness. 

To wash thoroughly the hands,, face, and nostrils on quit- 
ting work, and in addition, before eating and drinking, 
to rinse the mouth and throat. 

To bathe in hot water at least three times a week, using 
plenty of soap and scrubbing the flesh with a brush. 



158 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



To use sulphuric acid lemonade (very weak). 
To avoid touching the mouth with the fingers during the 
working hours, or before the hands have been washed. 
To keep the bowels open. 
To refrain from smoking during working hours. 

Arsenic. Arsenic is used in making green pigments, one 
of which is well known to us as " Paris green/' which enter 
into the manufacture of wall papers, boxes, cards, cretonne, 
and artificial flowers. It is also used in smelting works, 
especially in copper smelting; sometimes brasswork is 




These articles all contain arsenic 

dipped in an arsenic-copper solution to produce certain 
desired effects. White arsenic is used for the preservation 
of furs, in taxidermy, and for similar purposes. 

Arsenic is a dangerous poison, either in its dry, dusty 
form, or in fumes. The dust causes disorders of the stomach, 
sore mouth, great thirst, skin eruptions, ulcers, and finally 
a general breakdown of the system. The delicate mem- 
branes of the nose frequently become damaged as a result 
of inhaling arsenic dust. 

When arsenic fumes are inhaled, they cause headache, 
nausea, vomiting, jaundice, a general condition of discom- 
fort, and weakness. If the fumes are inhaled in great 
quantities, they may result fatally, death appearing to be 
due to heart failure. 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 159 



Many cases of arsenical poisoning result from the wrap- 
ping and packing of Paris green, which is usually done by 
women. Most of the workers seem to suffer, in some de- 
gree, from skin diseases, sore throat, and stomach disorders. 

So much arsenic is used in dark green wall papers that it 
frequently affects the health of people who live in rooms so 
papered. In the case of a lady who became very anaemic 
and suffered from stom- 
ach disorders, her physician 
found that the wall paper in 
her bedroom was the cause 
of her ill health and ordered 
it removed at once. 

To prevent poisoning 
from arsenic dust, wet pro- 
cesses should be used. 
Dusting green pigments 
upon artificial flowers from 
dredging boxes should not 
be permitted. A great 
many of these arsenic pig- 
ments could be done away 
with entirely and harmless 
coal-tar colors substituted 
for them. 

Workers who are exposed 
to arsenic dust and fumes should wear respirators, protect 
their hands with gloves, and pay careful attention to per- 
sonal cleanliness. 

Phosphorus. In manufacturing matches, white and 
red phosphorus can be used. White phosphorus is a danger- 




A respirator for protection against 
dangerous fumes 



160 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

ous poison and its use is forbidden by law in Germany, 
Great Britain, France, Italy, and other European countries. 
The red phosphorus is not poisonous and should be sub- 
stituted for the white, which is still used in this country in 
the manufacture of matches. A bill has been introduced in 
Congress prohibiting the use of white phosphorus in matches. 

The fumes given off by white phosphorus cause catarrh, 
indigestion, faulty nutrition, and weakness, leading, finally, 
to the painful and loathsome disease known as " phossy 
jaw," in which inflammation of the upper or lower jaw, tooth- 
ache, and decaying teeth are followed by abscesses and a 
gradual eating away of the bones of the jaw. 

Thorough ventilation, the use of respirators, and personal 
cleanliness in changing the clothing and washing the hands 
and mouth before eating and drinking are good preventive 
measures, but the use of white phosphorus should no longer 
be tolerated. 

Mercury. The poisonous effects of the vapor of mercury 
are best known to us through the nervous disease called the 
" shakes" which often affects hat makers. This results 
from exposure to dust in the fur which has been treated with 
cyanide of mercury, and because in the finishing of felt 
hats, the fine, mercurial dust gets into the air and is in- 
haled by the workers. If a good ventilating system is 
used, this danger can be eliminated. 

In brass foundries, where mercury is added to the alloy, 
the men who are obliged to stir the metal and inhale the 
heavy fumes that rise from it suffer from diarrhea, sweet 
taste in the mouth, sore gums, and loosened teeth. In 
this kind of work, the wearing of respirators would do away 
with the harmful effects of mercury. 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 161 

In card-clothing* factories, where the cards are tempered 
with mercury, a considerable amount of that metal may re- 
main in the teeth of the machine. In finishing the cards, a 
tool is passed between the rows of teeth, causing a fine metallic 
dust, which may be inhaled by the worker. In this case, 
where an ordinary exhaust system for drawing off dust 
may not be successful, it is Vise for the operator to pro- 
tect his clothing with overalls, to wear a respirator, and to 
pay strict attention to personal cleanliness. 

In the manufacture of thermometers, barometers, mirrors, 
dry electric batteries, in chemical works, lithographing, 
gilding, and in the making of ammunition for firearms, the 
workers must come in contact with mercury. In the mak- 
ing of ammunition, for instance, there is grave danger from 
the use of mercury in the form of fulminate. Even under 
the best conditions, the workers are taken only after physi- 
cal examination as to fitness. The fine particles in the air 
are a serious menace to the health of the average worker. 
In one establishment, about six years ago, a very efficient 
ventilating system was installed, by which the air is washed, 
tempered, and distributed by pipes so as to reach every 
part of the workroom. To show how the ventilating sys- 
tem improved the working conditions, the foreman of this 
workroom, who did not handle any of the material, was 
formerly obliged to give up work for months at a time, as a 
result of the mercury in the air. Now he is able to do his 
work without any of the distressing symptoms due to the 
influence of mercury. 

Thorough ventilation should be the rule for those who are 
obliged to work with mercury, and an eight-hour day would 
tend to reduce the risk. 



162 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Brass and bronze. Workers in brass foundries are ex- 
posed to the dust or fumes which result in what is known as 
" brass founders' ague." Seventy-five per cent of the men 
new to the work are said to be stricken with this disease, 
which, however, does not always have the symptoms of ague. 
The poisoned men suffer from pains in the back, chills, 
fever, headache, general weakness, and soreness in the chest. 
Thorough ventilation and proper washing conveniences 
should be provided by employers, but, as yet, these pre- 
ventive measures in brass foundries have not been given the 
attention they deserve. 

Workers in bronze are subject to headache, loss of appe- 
tite, nausea, and disturbances of the throat and chest. In 
many bronzing rooms, in spite of ventilating systems, the 
air is filled with bronze dust, and the workers are fre- 
quently covered from head to foot, as if encased in armor. 
In such places, special clothing should be worn, removed 
at night, and frequently washed. The hands, face, and 
mouth should be washed thoroughly before eating and 
drinking. 

Dyes. Dyeing, bleaching, and cleaning are all occu- 
pations more or less dangerous to those engaged in them, on 
account of the fumes and vapors rising from the dyestuffs 
and chemicals used in the various processes. 

The symptoms of aniline poisoning, in a mild form, are 
loss of appetite, headache, dizziness, and weakness, and the 
sufferer should promptly receive fresh-air treatment: The 
effects of a more serious form of aniline poisoning are weak- 
ness, nausea and vomiting, a disordered nervous system, 
palpitation of the heart, skin eruptions, and stupor which 
sometimes results, in death. 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 163 



Acids. The manufacture and the industrial use of vari- 
ous acids, such as hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric, and other 
corrosive acids, have an injurious effect upon the eyes and 
respiratory organs of workers who handle them. Persons with 
bronchial troubles are fre- 
quently obliged to give up 
work of this kind. Protec- 
tion should be given by a 
good system of ventilation 
to carry off the acid fumes, 
or the work should be in- 
closed so that no fumes 
may escape. Large spec- 
tacles should be worn to 
protect the eyes from 
drops of caustic liquids. 

Ammonia. The fumes 
of ammonia frequently 
overpower the workmen. 
Ample ventilation is nec- 
essary in ammonia works, 
and the men should be provided with respirators and 
helmets if exposed to any unusual danger from the fumes. 

Naphtha. Naphtha, which is used in cleansing and also 
in the rubber industry and the manufacture of patent leather, 
sometimes causes a condition very much like intoxication. 
New workers are especially susceptible and suffer from 
headache, dizziness, nausea, and hysteria. Acute naphtha 
poisoning sometimes results fatally. 

Petroleum. Petroleum and benzine vapors cause head- 
ache, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. Workers who 




Goggles used as a protection against acids 



1 64 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

handle petroleum, creosote,' coal tar, turpentine, wood 
alcohol, quinine, and chrome pigments used in tanneries 
are subject to diseases of the skin on the face and hands and 
inflammation of the membranes of the nose. Such workers 
should wear gloves and anoint the nose, face, and hands 
with clean oil or grease. 

Gas. Men who are employed in gas works, blast fur- 
naces, smelters, or about coke ovens, are frequently 
poisoned by coal gas. They suffer from headache, dizzi- 
ness, nausea, drowsiness, and loss of consciousness. If not 
rescued and revived in time, they may suffocate and die. 

Skins and hides. Anthrax is a parasitical disease that 
is contracted by workers who are obliged to handle infected 
wool, hair, hides, and skins. While anthrax is not very 
common among American domestic animals, the danger of 
infection is always present. When hides and hair imported 
from the Far East are handled, the danger is serious. 
Special methods of ventilation and dust removal should be 
provided for the fine particles of hair and wool. In spite of 
ventilating systems, however, a certain amount of dust will 
escape into the air, against which the workers can best 
protect themselves by the use of respirators. 

In some of the European countries, the raw material is 
disinfected before it is handled and used for manufacturing 
purposes; special hoods and ducts are installed to carry 
away the dust from the individual worker ; the work places 
are disinfected and prompt treatment is given to all cuts 
and slight injuries, to prevent infection. 

Intense heat. Stokers, cooks, bakers, firemen, black- 
smiths, men who handle molten metal, and workers in glass 
furnaces all suffer from the effects of intense heat. They 



OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS. POISONS AND FUMES 165 



are especially susceptible to rheumatism, catarrh, pneu- 
monia, digestive troubles, and heart disease, and seldom live 
as long as the average worker. 

Workers in laundries complain of the oppressive atmos- 
phere resulting from the steam and the vapors that rise 
from the chemicals used in bleaching and disinfecting cloth- 
ing. Starchers sometimes 
suffer from nausea as a 
result of the starching pro- 
cess, and the workers at 
the mangles and ironing 
machines complain of the 
intense heat. All of these 
conditions could be alle- 
viated if proper attention 
were paid to ventilation. 

Preventives. These in- 
dustrial poisonings and dis- 
comforts are largely pre- 
ventable. Dusts and 
fumes can be drawn off by 
effective devices, and, in 
most cases, the workers can 
be protected against those 
that remain by the wearing 
of respirators. Wet pro- 
cesses can be substituted for dry, dusty ones ; in some in- 
dustries, harmless materials may be used instead of the 
poisonous ones. Personal cleanliness on the part of the 
workers themselves and cooperation with the management 
in the use of respirators, shields, and hoods over machines 




Injurious vapors being drawn off through 
a ventilating hood 



1 66 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

and pots of dangerous substances will effect a greater 
degree of safety and health. It is also the duty of the 
worker, if he is to do his share in lessening the burden and 
horrors of industrial disease, to respect any sanitary rules 
and regulations that have been made for his protection. 

SUGGESTIONS FOR THE WORKER 

1. Find out if you handle lead, arsenic, phosphorus, or 

mercury in any form, and learn to avoid poisoning. 
No one is too healthy or strong to make reasonable 
care necessary. 

2. Familiarize yourself with the precautions which should 

be taken by the employer to safeguard your health. 
If these are found wanting, tell him about it. If they 
are present, avail yourself of their benefit and assist 
in making them effective. 

3. Follow carefully all rules laid down for your protection. 

4. Use respirators and other protections when you know you 

should do so, even if they are uncomfortable. 

5. Regular hygienic living is the most important protection 

for the health of the worker. 



CHAPTER XV 
FIRE 

Benefits of fire. Not only has fire served man in the 
cooking of his food and the warming of his dwelling against 
the inclemencies of the weather, but it has also enabled him 
to make glass for his windows, dishes, and vessels of utility 
and beauty; it has made possible the exploits and dis- 
coveries of chemistry, and, indirectly, through the telescope, 
microscope, and spectroscope, has brought within the range 
of human knowledge the marvels of the heavens and of the 
varied forms of life hidden from the unaided eye ; it has 
helped to fashion the tools of man, from the spade and pick 
of the laborer in the streets, to the delicate instruments of 
the surgeon and the scientific investigator; it has given 
him the means of transportation, " Twentieth Century 
Limiteds " and " ocean greyhounds," that have broken 
through the barriers of time and distance and made isolated 
communities and nations known to each other. 

So one might enumerate indefinitely the benefits of civili- 
zation directly or indirectly traceable to the agency of fire. 

Loss from fire. Now let us look at the other side of the 
picture. In spite of all its blessings, fire is the most de- 
structive, the most terrible, the most baffling of the enemies 
of mankind. 

The National Board of Fire Underwriters presents an 
interesting comparative study of fire loss in this country 
and abroad during the year 1910. 

167 



1 68 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

The United States Census population for 1910, of the 
297 cities reporting loss, is 29,996,723, with a total loss of 
$71,559,057, a per capita loss, as stated, of $2.39, as opposed 
to a per capita loss of 19 cents in Germany, for the same 
year. 

COUNTRY CITIES REPORTING Loss POPULATION PER CAPITA Loss 

United States 297 29,996,723 $2.39 

France 8 4,392,529 .92 

England n 2,335,847 .44 

Germany 13 5,616,822 .19 

$214,003,300 represents the total property loss from fire 
for the entire United States, for the year 1910. 

In New York alone, with its population of over four and 
a half millions, there occurred, in the year of 1910, more than 
14,000 fires, with a total loss, insured and uninsured, of 
$8,581,831. 

In Ex-Chief Croker's own words : " The Fire Depart- 
ment of Greater New York is greater than the combined 
departments of the next five largest cities, and in spite of 
this the fire losses in life and property and the dangers of 
frightful holocausts in New York are steadily increasing. 
The battle against flames has been a losing fight, all things 
considered." 

Between 1880 and 1910, our national population increased 
83 per cent, but our fire loss increased 186 per cent. And 
the number of fires continues to increase. As a nation, we 
burn up each year one half the value of the buildings we take 
the pains that year to erect. 

Human loss. Reliable statistics of the number of lives 
lost by fire in this country are wanting, as this phase of the 
question has never been made the subject of governmental 



FIRE 169 

or state inquiry ; but we do know that, since 1903, five fires 
alone, that at the Collingwood schoolhouse, the Iroquois 
Theater in Chicago, the moving picture entertainment in 
Boyertown, and, in New York City, the burning of the 
steamer General Slocum, and the latest tragedy, the Asch 
Building fire, are responsible for the deaths of 2100 inno- 
cent persons, to say nothing of the shock and injury to the 
thousands who barely escaped with their lives. 

The fact that the European rate of loss is far below our 
own clearly indicates that a sense of responsibility, intelli- 
gent supervision, better fire laws, and a more strict enforce- 
ment of them have much to do with the prevention of fires. 
Under the forms of government peculiar to the European 
countries the individual is held accountable, not only for 
fires occurring on his own property, but also for any damage 
or loss to his neighbors through a fire that results from a 
violation of responsibility. Wise building laws have been 
framed and enforced regulating the hazards of occupancy 
with great strictness, thus lessening the possibilities of dan- 
gerous conflagrations. 

Causes of fires. Ex-Chief Croker says : " At least 50 
per cent of our great loss in property and human life is 
preventable, and is directly due to inexcusable carelessness," 
and gives in his opinion the chief causes for fires occurring 
in a city like New York, in the following order : - 

1. Carelessness in factories, which, in most cases, means 

dirt and rubbish and oily waste. 

2. Carelessness in the use of matches. 

3. Bad electrical wiring. 

4. Careless housekeeping. 

5. Dark and dirty hallways. People, at night, light 



170 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

matches to find their way about, throw the matches 
into corners filled with rubbish, and a few hours later 
a call is sent in for the firemen. 

6. Dark basements. Tenants go downstairs after coal or 

wood, with a candle or with matches. A startling 
number of bad fires begin in this way. 

7. Oil stoves. 

8. Old-fashioned oil lamps. 

9. Cigar and cigarette stubs. 

Very great fires result from small beginnings. One recent 
tragedy resulted from the carelessness of a smoker. The 
factory and the people working in it were not fireproof, and 
143 girls were killed by a blaze that would hardly have 
been mentioned in the papers, but for the loss of life. The 
building was not deathproof, and " the best fire depart- 
ment in the world" was powerless to prevent the holocaust. 

It is plain to be seen, therefore, that, in addition to the 
fireproof construction of the building, it is imperative that 
other means be considered to make it deathproof. 

Preventive measures. Floor areas should be as small 
as the demands of the business will permit. Large floor 
areas increase the dangers of fire, on account of the wide 
sweep they give the flames. 

The floors should have as few openings as possible, and the 
walls, partitions, floors, and roof should be constructed of 
substantial, fire-resisting materials. Metallic doors and 
trim should be employed. 

The United States Government, realizing the importance 
of protection against fire, in its newest battleships, the Utah 
and the Florida, specified metallic doors and trim. 

Windows and doors should be protected by modern pro- 



FIRE 



171 



tective coverings to prevent the spread of fire from one 
room to another and from one building to another. Parti- 
tions of metal, fire doors and shutters, and wire glass win- 
dows now cost very little and ___ 
prevent the spreading of flames. 

Elevators and stairways 
should be separated and in- 
closed in brick and fire-resist- 
ing shafts with fireproof doors. 

Fire escapes should be con- 
structed with fireproof stair- 
ways, inclosed in brick or fire- 
resisting shafts, with outside 
balconies having doors swing- 
ing outward from the building 
and inward from the balcony to 
the stairway escape. 

It is now generally conceded 
that the old-fashioned skeleton 
iron fire escape is utterly inade- 
quate for use on a ten-, twenty-, 
or thirty-story structure, not 
only because such escapes are 
usually located in front of windows out of which smoke and 
fire may be pouring, but also because of the difficulty for 
great numbers of people in getting down the narrow stair- 
ways that are little better than ladders. It has been esti- 
mated that, in the case of one recent fire, the employees on 
the upper floors could not have reached the street by such 
an escape in less than three hours, and the fire allowed them 
about three minutes ! 




Fire door of metal 



172 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

State Fire Marshal. If the office of State Fire Mar- 
shal were created by every commonwealth and the fire mar- 
shal and his deputies given power to enforce good fire pre- 
vention laws, to investigate and, if necessary, prosecute 
cases of arson and criminal carelessness in the starting or 
spreading of fires, ascertain their causes, and by the distri- 
bution of literature educate the citizen to the real need of 
care and forethought in the protection of life and property, a 
great conserving of our national resources would instantly 
follow. 

In this connection, it is interesting to study the work of the 
State Fire Marshal's Department of Ohio, which has car- 
ried its campaign of education into the public schools of the 
state. Under the law, this department was instructed to 
prepare elementary textbooks on the chemistry of fire, the 
causes of fires in our homes, how to guard against them and 
how to hold the fire in check until the arrival of the firemen. 
The law further directs and makes it a duty of the teachers 
in the schools throughout the state to devote at least thirty 
minutes in each month, during the school year, to instruc- 
tion on this subject. The publication and distribution of 
these books is made under the supervision of the State School 
Commissioner. The opinion in Ohio, at the present time, is 
that the plan has more than met their expectations. 

Fire-fighting appliances. Complete equipment for dis- 
covering and fighting incipient fires will minimize fire losses 
and protect life. It is really an abuse of fireproof con- 
struction not to provide such apparatus. Every factory, 
warehouse, and loft building should be equipped with 
such appliances, which should be frequently tested with 
a view to their efficiency. These cover a wide range, 



FIRE 



173 



from the pails and casks filled with water or sand, up to 
the various styles of chemical extinguishers, standpipes and 
hose, fire pumps, automatic alarms, and automatic sprinkler 
systems. 

The automatic sprinkler is a device which is always pre- 
pared to extinguish a fire at the point and time of its break- 
ing out, as the heat 
from the flames sets 
it in motion. With 
proper water supply 
under necessary 
pressure behind it, 
this sprinkler, in al- 
most any locality 
where the delivery 
of its spray is unob- 
structed, has demon- 
strated itself to be 
the most efficient 
fire-fighting device 
yet invented ; it is 
always in the right 

A shop equipped with an automatic sprinkler 

place at the right 

time, ready for any emergency, and performs its work 

without dependence on the human element. 

Fire brigades and drills. In order, however, to secure 
from all these devices the most satisfactory measure of ef- 
ficiency in times of need, it is necessary that employers and 
workpeople should be familiar with their use. This can 
be accomplished only through the organization of private 
fire brigades and fire drills, by means of which the weaker 




174 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

members of the force may be immediately conducted to 
safety, while a selected few of the most strong and reli- 
able employees, who have been, thoroughly drilled in the 
use of the appliances, form a fire brigade for the protection 
of the factory until the arrival of the regular fire department. 

In any large building where a great number of people are 
gathered together, these drills can be carried out just as 
effectively as they are in our public schools. 

Personal efforts. But we need not be employers of 
labor or workers in a factory ourselves to assist in the cam- 
paign for fire prevention and fire protection. Each of us 
can start right now to add his individual efforts in putting 
a stop to the numerous fires, and in saving a part of the mil- 
lions of dollars which go up in flames and smoke every year. 

If we are householders or housekeepers, we can at once 
resolve to keep our premises always cleaned up. We can 
see that greasy rags, filth, and rubbish are not allowed to 
collect in closets, cellars, and dark corners. Oily rags may 
be kept in metal cans with covers. Gasoline, kerosene, and 
other explosive and volatile liquids we may keep in safety 
cans now manufactured for that purpose. 

We should never use gasoline in a closed room, or in a room 
where there is an open flame or fire. A lighted cigar carried 
into a room in which gasoline is being used will explode the 
air in it. 

We can exercise greater care in the trimming of our 
Christmas trees, selecting decorations that will not burn 
easily, and doing away with the customary tissue paper, 
cotton batting, and celluloid trimmings. We can see to it 
that a bucket of water stands near the tree, if it is lighted 
with candles. 



FIRE 175 

We can also resolve to be more careful in the use of gas for 
cooking and lighting purposes. Never turn on the gas unless 
you have a match ready in your hand to light it. Many 
explosions have occurred when the gas was turned on too 
long before the match was used. 

Smokers should be less careless in throwing away their 
matches and cigar stubs. Many a match tossed away 
while still lighted has been responsible for a serious fire. 

We should never use dangerous matches, the heads of 
which so frequently snap and fly off, setting fire to waste 
paper, lace curtains, and clothing, particularly the clothing 
of women. 

We cannot be too careful with matches. We should 
never leave them lying about loose. It is much better to 
use only " safety " matches, which will ignite only when 
scratched on the box in which they are sold, but if these 
cannot be procured as cheaply as the ordinary match, we 
should keep the latter in a safe place and exercise care in 
its use. 

We can make our Fourth of July a safe and sane holiday, 
instead of encouraging the excitement, useless noises, fires, 
and accidents now due to the sale of dangerous fireworks. 

Below are given ten rules suggested by Ex- Chief Croker 
for guidance in case of fire. 

TEN RULES FOR GUIDANCE IN CASE OF FIRE 

1 . Cleanliness in the home is an important preventive of fire. Accumu- 
lations of waste often cause fires by spontaneous combustion, while 
dust, rubbish, and similar material help to spread the flames. 

2. Get well acquainted with the surroundings. In strange houses or 
hotels, the location of fire escapes should be noted before going to bed. 



176 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Employees of large factories and tenants of large buildings should 
make it an imperative duty to know the location of all fire exits. 

3. At the first sign of fire do not run away from it. When first dis- 
covered, many fires could be put out by a bucket of water, or a rug 
thrown over the blaze. 

4. Fire drills should become a fixed law. They should be required in 
all places where a considerable number of people are employed, as 
they are required in the schools and on passenger and naval vessels. 

5. Everybody should learn to use fire appliances. This would result 
in the prompt extinguishing of many fires and a great decrease of 
personal and property injury. 

6. No matter how close the fire, make every effort to keep calm. Do 
not lose control of yourself and thus run additional risk. 

7. At any cost, calm the fears of little children. They are usually 
more excited by the fear shown by others than by the danger itself. 

8. Do not be too hasty to jump from high places. Many terrible acci- 
dents and fatalities have resulted from people "losing their heads" 
and jumping when a few moments' delay and a little coolness might 
have saved them. 

9. Do not resist a fireman attempting to rescue you. Many fatalities 
have resulted from men, and particularly women, refusing to be 
taken down the ladders because scantily clad. 

10. In case of much smoke, try to get a wet cloth about the mouth. A 
wet towel or sponge over the mouth and nostrils will enable one to go 
through a smoke-filled passage. Remember there is nearly always 
air free from smoke close to the floor. 



CHAPTER XVI 
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 

The importance of attending to slight wounds. No 
injury is too slight to receive immediate attention. In 
addition to lessening the soreness or pain that exists, a more 
serious disability may be prevented. 

The average man is careless about slight wounds and does 
not like to bring them to the attention of his foreman or 
superintendent; if these do not interfere with the work in 
hand, no attention is paid to them. This indifference on the 
part of the workman, however, may lead to serious results. 

The danger of blood poisoning is always present in the 
case of even the smallest wound. The worker's hands are 
usually dirty, and the wound is wrapped or plastered with- 
out being cleansed and disinfected; the nail upon which 
the worker's hand or foot has been torn may be rusty ; or 
poisonous dyes and other materials may get into the wound 
from contact with the work, and the result is a serious in- 
fection. 

Slight physical ills as well as minor injuries interfere with 
the regularity of the work. If taken in time, they yield at 
once to treatment and the workers suffer no loss of time 
and wages ; on the other hand, the employer suffers no loss 
from an idle machine and a lessened output. 

Factory hospital rooms. The best organized shops 
and workrooms now keep a supply of appliances and reme- 

177 



178 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

dies on hand for emergencies and have also found it helpful 
to drill a few reliable employees in the principles of first- 
aid treatment. 

One large manufacturing company decided to make a 
careful study of the number of men who were off from work 
on account of slight injuries, not serious in themselves, but 
which, through the lack of proper antiseptic treatment, had 
become infected and dangerous. Some of their most skilled 
and highest paid mechanics were obliged to quit work 
for several days on account of a cut or bruise that had 
become serious. The records showed that, on an average, 
as many as half a dozen men were away from work every 
day for this reason. As it was the policy of this company 
to pay wages for a portion of the time lost by employees 
through injuries, this meant a double loss to the company. 

They decided that they not only could do away with the 
dangers of such slight injuries, but also could save the 
employees' wages and the loss resulting from the decreased 
production and holding up of important work. 

So the company equipped an emergency hospital with 
every necessary appliance and convenience, and placed 
a physician and a trained nurse in charge of it. The 
doctor's entire time is given to the hospital work and the 
nurse assists him every morning in dressing and redressing 
wounds. In the afternoons, the nurse's time is given up to 
visiting the sick or injured employees at home, as well as 
any members of their families who may need her care. 

As a result of this emergency work, the company found 
that in one year, out of about four thousand cuts, bruises, 
sprains, etc., that occurred in their plant, only about four 
a month became infected. The company has kept a careful 



FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 179 

record of these cases and believes that the large number of 
minor injuries is not unusual in a plant like their own, which 
is one of the best-equipped with safety devices and measures 
for the prevention of accidents. They believe that any 
modern, well-equipped shop, employing the same number 
of workers, would have just as large a number of slight 
injuries and should give them the same care. 

With regard to the treatment of such minor ailments as 
colds, headaches, indigestion, sore throat, and cramps, this 
company believes it is more profitable to the worker, as well 
as to themselves, to treat the condition and relieve the suffer- 
ing in the factory hospital, sending the employee back to 
work within an hour, than it is to have him lose an entire 
day on account of illness. The company doctor is also in a 
position to prevent a great deal of illness that might other- 
wise prove serious, by prescribing for the employee upon 
the first appearance of the symptoms of any disease. The 
workers take the doctor into their confidence, and he is 
thus able to help them keep in better physical condition. 

One industrialist believed that it was poor economy for 
him to build and maintain a hospital for his own plant, 
located in a large city, so he hired a ward in one of the largest 
city hospitals, and installed his own surgeons and nurses. 

The cots or beds are inclosed with curtains, giving each 
patient the privacy of a separate room. As soon as a man 
arrives at this ward, his clothing is removed and he is fitted 
out with sterilized garments until he leaves the hospital. 
The patients are provided with games, reading, amuse- 
ments, and diversions during their convalescence. 

The visiting nurse. In addition to the company doc- 
tor or surgeon, and trained nurse, whose services are always 



i8o HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

available in the factory hospital or emergency room, many 
industrial establishments employing a great number of 
workers have come to look upon the visiting nurse as a very 
important factor in efficiency and of valuable assistance in 
promoting good will and understanding between themselves 
and their employees. 

According to the records of one manufacturing company, 
their visiting nurse made, in one year, 989 personal calls at 
the homes of employees, on account of illness or accident 
to the workers or to members of their families. This com- 
pany reports that it has many calls from homes of their 
employees on account of illness of the wife and children. 
Before the nurse was engaged, it was very common for some 
of the most valuable employees to be called away from work 
on this account. Now, instead of the men going home, 
the nurse is sent. Nine times out of ten she can be 
of greater assistance than the husband, father, or other 
relative. The nurse's work among the women employees 
is even more valuable, and her advice is sought at all times 
by those who go to her with their troubles, as well as their 
ailments. 

The visiting nurse also proves valuable to the manage- 
ment and employees when she acts as a go-between and 
medium of good will and interest, especially when an 
employee has been injured and is obliged to be away from 
work. At such a time, an assurance from the nurse that 
the company will deal fairly with the injured worker has 
created the proper mental attitude, and the worker has no 
desire to bring suit for damages against the company. 

A notice in a large leather factory calls attention to the 
fact that the company offers, free to its employees, or 



FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 181 

members of the employees' families, the aid of the com- 
pany's nurse in case of sickness or injury. Part of the no- 
tice reads : - 

" In case any employee or member of any employee's family is 
seriously sick or disabled, and wants the services of the nurse, 
the company will have its trained nurse visit the patient. 

THERE WILL BE NO CHARGE OF ANY KIND 

Report cases of sickness or disability, where the services of the 
nurse are wanted, to your foreman or to the Accident Depart- 
ment." 

Effective emergency work. First aid must be prompt 
to be effective. One plant has its own surgeon instruct 
classes of foremen and those having other men in charge, 
in the principles of first-aid treatment. They are taught 
just what to do in case a man is injured, and how to take 
care of the different kinds of injuries. The instructions are 
of benefit to these men, not only in the works, but in their 
own homes, on the street, or wherever they may be in the 
presence of persons needing emergency treatment. 

Emergency work to be effective should be systematized. 
Some one should be placed in charge of the supplies, whose 
duty is to see that they are kept in good condition in a clean 
place, that the stock does not run low, and that fresh mate- 
rial is procured whenever necessary. A complete inspection 
of the emergency outfit should be made at least once a month, 
to be sure that everything is in its proper place, instantly 
available in the moment of need. 

Instruction should be given to the foremen and to re- 
liable members of the working staff, who should be care- 
fully trained in individual and team work and given prac- 



182 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



tice drills as often as possible. Some kind of signal should be 
used as an emergency call to attract the attention of the first- 




Red Cross emergency outfit 

aid corps on any floor or building of an industrial establish- 
ment, in order that the members may instantly respond. 

Efficiency and quickness in emergency treatment should 
be encouraged by competition between different members 
and groups, prizes and medals being awarded for the best 
individual and team work. 

Some large companies, especially those operating rail- 
roads and mines, have encouraged this kind of work by 
having field days or meets, when the picked men and teams 
from the different companies are given an opportunity to 
show their skill, and to compete for honors and prizes. 

WHAT TO DO IN EMERGENCIES 

Send for the doctor at once- Until he arrives do all you can to 
relieve the sufferer. 



FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 183 

Fainting. The symptoms of fainting are unconsciousness, weak 
pulse, pale, bloodless face. 

Lay the patient down at once, in such a position that his head may 
be lower than the rest of the body, thus allowing the blood to flow to- 
wards the brain. If the patient is in a chair, it may be gently lowered 
until the back and head rest upon the floor, Keep away the crowd 




How to restore a fainting person 

and admit plenty of fresh air. Hold a handkerchief or bit of gauze 
saturated with aromatic spirits of ammonia to the patient's nostrils. 
When he regains consciousness, give him a drink of cool water and 
allow him to rest for a while. 

Sunstroke. The symptoms are complete unconsciousness, red 
face, skin hot and dry, and, sometimes, convulsions. 

Remove the patient's clothing, and either place him in a bathtub 
of cold water or wrap him in a wet sheet, kept cold by frequent 



1 84 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



sprinkling. Cloths wrung out in ice water and placed on the back of 
the head and neck, or the application of an ice bag to the head, will 
also help to reduce the temperature. Stimulants may be given, but 
not in excess. 

Heat exhaustion. This is a milder form of sunstroke, in which the 
face is usually pale, instead of red, and the skin more or less moist and 
cool. Loosen the patient's clothing, let him rest in a cool, quiet 
place, and give him stimulants in small doses. In this case, the tem- 
perature should not be reduced. 

Electric shock. In cases of electric shock, there may be instan- 
taneous death or only temporary unconsciousness, but the treatment 
must be given just the same, as life may not be extinct where the per- 




Performing artificial respiration 

son appears to be dead. If a person is shocked by coming in contact 
with a live wire or through a short circuit with some kind of electrical 
apparatus, he must be separated from the electricity immediately. Do 
not attempt to pull him away, however, with your bare hands. Your 
hands should be covered with rubber gloves and, if possible, you should 
stand on a piece of rubber. 



FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 185 

Take the patient immediately into the fresh air and perform arti- 
ficial respiration as follows: 

Loosen the patient's clothing at the neck and waist. Bare his legs 
and arms and have some one rub and slap them vigorously. Place the 
patient face downwards and turn his head to one side. Kneel astride 
the hips, placing your hands with the thumbs nearly touching, fingers 
out, just below the shoulder blades and over the lower ribs. Press 
down and forward quickly, with your whole weight, by swinging 
forward till your shoulders are above your hands. Keep up this pres- 
sure for three full seconds. Release the pressure and swing back, 
keeping your hands in place and the arms straight, and wait for three 
full seconds, then repeat. The movements should be quick and 
vigorous. Keep them up until consciousness is restored, or an hour 
and a half has passed after all signs of life have ceased. 

(Learn this process of artificial respiration carefully for it is of 
great use in treating drowning or asphyxiation by gas.) 

During the process of artificial respiration, the rubbing of the pa- 
tient's body should be kept up, and some one should apply spirits of 
ammonia to his nostrils. When he becomes conscious, give him a half- 
teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a third of a glass of 
water. Place hot bricks or bottles of hot water around him and let him 
rest. It is important to remember that persons apparently dead 
after some one has spent an hour in performing the motions of artificial 
respiration, have nevertheless been brought to life by the perseverance 
of the person in charge. 

Asphyxiation by gas. The symptoms are headache, dizziness, and 
nausea, if only slightly affected; but, in more serious cases, these are 
followed by unconsciousness. 

The patient should be taken immediately into the fresh air. In 
the lighter cases, loosen his clothing and give a dose of effervescing 
phosphate of soda, followed in about five minutes by a half teaspoonful 
of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a third of a glass of water. Walk the 
patient around until he recovers. 

In case of complete unconsciousness, perform artificial respiration 
until the patient begins to breathe. Rub his legs and pass the spirits 
of ammonia under the nostrils as long as he is unconscious. After 
he regains consciousness, give him the same dose of aromatic spirits 



i86 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 




Proper dressing for a burn 



of ammonia prescribed above, place bottles of hot water around him, 
and let him rest. 

Burns. Burns may be caused by fire, hot water, hot metals, or 
chemicals. The skin may be very red, blistered, or charred. If the 

burns are severe or much 
/ BANDAGE f ^ e surface of the body 

is injured, they may prove 
fatal. 

If a person's clothing 
is on fire, dash water over 
him and throw him down 
and wrap him in anything 
heavy that happens to 
be at hand, such as a 
blanket, a piece of carpet, a table cover, or a coat. 

Cut his clothing away with a pair of scissors, and if any part of 
it sticks fast to the flesh, do not attempt to remove it. To keep 
the air away from burns is the^first principle of treatment. The 
best way to do this is to keep^Je injured part in water till the doc- 
tor comes. A simple burn may be treated with a paste of water 
and baking soda, or vaseline, sweet oil, lard, cream, or a mixture of 
equal parts of limewater and linseed oil, covering it with a piece of 
oiled silk, light cloth, or 
paraffine paper, and fas- 
tening the whole securely 
with a bandage. 

Don't open blisters un- 
til 24 hours or more have 
elapsed. 

In case of acid burns, 
wash off the acid immedi- 
ately with large quanti- 
ties of water. After this, apply water and baking soda, limewater, 
or soapsuds, until all signs of the acid have disappeared. The paste 
of baking soda and water is best in this case, because the soda is an 
alkali. If the mouth has been burned by acid, or acid has gotten 
into the stomach, drink limewater, milk, lithia, or vichy water freely. 




cross-section of a blister, showing Nature's way 
of dressing a burn 



FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 



187 



In case of burns from alkalies, wash the burns with water and weak 
acids like lemon juice, vinegar, cider, etc., after which they may be 
treated and bandaged like other burns. If lime has splashed into the 
eyes and burned them, wash them with olive oil, or a very weak solu- 
tion of vinegar. 

Frost bites and freezing. If the ears, nose, fingers, toes arms, or 
legs have been frozen through exposure to extreme cold, do not bring 
the person near a fire. Rub the frozen parts with cold water or snow, 
and after they have been thawed out, the patient may be taken into 
a moderately warm room and given hot drinks. Sometimes, if the 
patient is unconscious, artificial respiration must be performed. 

Cuts and wounds. All cuts and wounds, no matter how small, 
should be washed and cleansed with warm water and some antiseptic 
solution such as a i to 
5000 solution of bichlo- COLLODION 

ride of mercury. If the \ 

wounds are very dirty, 
they should be washed 
with soap and water. 
Bring the edges of the 
wound together and bind 
with a compress, which is 
a clean folded cloth, usu- 
ally cheesecloth, that has 
been dipped in an anti- 
septic solution. If a wound is very slight, after the bleeding has been 
stopped and it has been cleansed, a bit of adhesive plaster is all that 
is necessary. Never put on collodion or "newskin" unless you are 
sure the wound is absolutely clean. 

Bleeding may be of three kinds; from the arteries, veins, or capil- 
laries. When an artery has been injured, the blood is bright red and 
sometimes spurts to a great distance. Such an injury is serious. 
While waiting for the doctor, try putting a compress on the wound, 
fastening it with a tight bandage. If the bleeding continues, twist 
a piece of elastic, a handkerchief, or a necktie tightly above the wound; 
that is, between it and the trunk, pressing the artery against the 
bone. When you place a lead pencil or stick between the cloth and 




Cross-section of the skin, showing collodion 
placed on a dirty cut 



i88 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

the limb, you make what is called a tourniquet, and by twisting it, you 
will stop the flow of blood. 

If a vein has been injured, the flow of blood is steady and dark in 
color. When capillaries have been injured, the blood seems to ooze 
out from many little openings. Apply compresses directly to the 
wound and fasten with a tight bandage. 

Nosebleed may frequently be stopped by chewing vigorously on 
a wad of paper. Never give stimulants for any kind of bleeding. 

Sprains. While waiting for the doctor, in the case of a sprained wrist 
or ankle, place the patient's hand or foot in hot water, increasing the 
temperature as much as possible. If hot water is not at hand, then let 
cold water run on the injured joint. This treatment reduces the swell- 
ing and lessens the pain. Place cotton batting over the joint and band- 
age it tightly. Pour witch-hazel or some other soothing liniment over 
the bandage, and place the limb higher than the rest of the body by let- 
ting it rest on a cushion or chair. Do not paint the joint with iodine. 

Drowning. To rescue a- drowning person, always try to pull him 
out with an oar, a rope, a coat, or, if you jump in after him, try to get 
your left arm around his neck with his back to you. Hold him away 
and swim on your back, so that he will not struggle and clutch you, 
thus impeding your movements and, perhaps, causing you to drown 
also. If life seems extinct, hold the drowned person with head down 
or roll him across a barrel for a moment only in order to empty his 
lungs of water. Loosen his clothing, rub the arms and legs, apply 
stimulants, and perform artificial respiration until his breathing is 
regular. Keep him dry and warm, placing him between hot blankets 
and surrounding him with bottles of hot water. 

Broken limbs and ribs. If an arm, leg, collar bone, or rib is broken, 
do not move the sufferer, but make him as comfortable as you can and 
send for a surgeon immediately. Never attempt to set the bone, 
but wait for the arrival of the surgeon. 

Poisoning. In most cases of poisoning, the principal thing to do is to 
empty the stomach and bowels of the sufferer and give an antidote for 
the poison that has been swallowed. Poisons may be taken by mis- 
take or with suicidal intentions, and you will find the victim suffering 
severe pains in the stomach and abdomen, or insensible, breathing 
heavily, sometimes in delirium and convulsions. 



FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 189 

If Paris green, sugar of lead, corrosive sublimate, rat poison, sul- 
phuric, muriatic, nitric, carbolic or oxalic acid has been taken, make 
the patient drink quantities of milk ; or give him the whites of a couple 
of eggs, or flour stirred in water. If an acid has been taken, give lime- 
water, baking soda, or magnesia ; if carbolic acid has been swallowed, 
wash out the patient's mouth with alcohol and give him whisky to 
drink. If the poison is an alkali, give lemon juice, or a tablespoonful 
of vinegar in water. 

In the case of poisoning from opium, morphine, strychnine, lauda- 
num, and other poisons that produce heavy stupor, give black coffee 
and endeavor to keep the patient awake. If he seems to collapse, per- 
form artificial respiration and put hot applications against the ab- 
domen and legs. 

Ptomaine poisoning is caused by eating meat or fish that is tainted. 
Give the victim a dose of Epsom salts or castor oil. If he is unable 
to keep the dose down on account of nausea, then give him 
a grain of calomel every hour for four or five doses. Do not give 
any food until a physician advises it. 



CHAPTER XVII 
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 

Laws protecting the worker. There are many laws 
which are designed to protect the young worker from dis- 
comfort, danger, and long hours. Every one should learn 
as much about these laws as possible before beginning work, 
so that he may protect himself and others. Employers are 
becoming more and more alert to regard the welfare of those 
they employ, but much that is important to you may escape 
their notice. It is the business of the worker to inform the 
employer of any matter of this kind which should be brought 
to his notice, and a committee representing the employees 
will no doubt be accorded a hearing. 

Each state has its own laws, but they cannot all be given 
here. The laws of the state of New York are typical. 
The laws of the state in which you live may be obtained by 
writing to the secretary of your state at the capitol or to the 
commissioner of labor. 

The most important of the laws affecting labor are those 
relating to employment certificates, and to the earliest age 
at which you will be allowed to work, and you should regard 
these long before you propose to begin. 

The compulsory education laws of the state of New York 
are given in the Appendix, pp. 223-225. 

The employment certificate. The most important thing 
for you to do, if you wish to go to work before you are six- 
teen years old, is to get an employment certificate. You 

190 



WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 191 

should have been graduated from the elementary school, or at 
least passed the sixth-year work. If not, you must ask your 
principal for an examination. If you were born abroad, you 
should send, with a fee, to the registrar of your town or to 
the parish priest, for your birth certificate, and for this you 
must allow at least six months, for there are many delays. 

An employment certificate must be signed, in the presence 
of the officer who issues it, by the young person in whose 
name it is made out. It must state the date and place of 
birth, the color of the hair and eyes, the height and weight, 
and any distinguishing facial marks of the one in whose 
name it is issued; it must also state that all the papers 
required have been examined, approved, and filed. 

Every person owning or managing a factory is obliged to 
keep a record of the name, birthplace, age, and residence of 
all persons employed under the age of sixteen years. These 
records and the certificates that have been received from 
the young persons must be produced on the demand of the 
commissioner of labor, if there is any doubt about the ages 
of any of the workers. 

Special provisions for women and minors. No person 
under the age of sixteen years is now permitted to work, or 
to be employed in or in connection with any mercantile 
establishment, business office, telegraph office, restaurant, 
hotel, apartment house, theater, or other place of amuse- 
ment, bowling alley, barber shop, shoe-polishing establish- 
ment, or in the distributing or delivery of articles of merchan- 
dise or messages, or in the sale of articles, more than six 
days or fifty-four hours in any one week, or more than 
nine hours in any one day, or before eight o'clock in the 
morning or after seven o'clock in the evening of any day. 



IQ2 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



No female employee between sixteen and twenty-one 
years of age is to be required or permitted to work in or in 
connection witfy any mercantile establishment more than 
sixty hours in any one week, or more than ten hours in any 
one day, unless for the purpose of making a shorter work 
day at some other time in the week ; or before seven o'clock 

in the morning, or 
after ten o'clock in 
the evening of any 
one day. This sec- 
tion does not apply, 
however, to the em- 
ployment of persons 
sixteen years of age 
and upward, be- 
tween the i 8th day 
of December and the 
following 24th day 
f% of December, inclu- 
sive. 

Not less than forty- 
five minutes must be 
allowed for the noon- 
day meal of em- 
ployees in such estab- 
lishments, and whenever any employee is permitted to work 
after seven o'clock in the evening, at least twenty minutes 
must be allowed for lunch or supper between five and seven 
o'clock in the evening. 

No child under the age of fourteen is allowed to work at all 
in connection with these establishments, while no one under 




Overtime work at Christmas is a pleasure 



WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 193 

the age of sixteen years can be employed in them, without 
having first secured the employment certificate already 
described. 

Under the age of sixteen years, no one is allowed to work in 
a factory in this state, before eight o'clock in the morning or 
after five o'clock in the evening of any day, or for more than 
eight hours in any one day ; or more than six days in a week. 

No boy under eighteen years of age is allowed to work in 
any factory more than nine hours in any one day, or more 
than six days or fifty-four hours in any one week (except 
in accordance with special regulations) or between the hours 
of twelve at midnight and four o'clock in the morning. 

No girls and women may work in a factory before six 
o'clock in the morning, or after nine o'clock in the evening of 
any one day, or more than six days or fifty-four hours in any 
one week, or for more than nine hours in any day, except 
in accordance with the special provisions. 

Special provisions are made by the commissioner of 
labor for certain factories which, on account of the nature 
of the work, believe it to be impossible to fix the hours of 
labor weekly in advance and are unable to post in the work- 
rooms the notice, giving the number of hours per day for 
each day of the week, as required by law. A young woman 
over sixteen years of age or a young man between sixteen 
and eighteen years of age may work in a factory longer than 
nine hours a day, under ceftain conditions. They may work 
longer on five days of the week, in order to make a short day 
or holiday on one of the six working days of the week ; or on 
not more than three days of any week, they may work over- 
time, provided that they do not work more than ten hours 
in anyone day, or more than fifty-four hours in any one week. 



I 9 4 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Dangerous trades prohibited to women and minors. 

Certain kinds of work considered dangerous are absolutely 
prohibited to women and children. No child under the age 
of sixteen years is allowed to work on circular or band saws, 
wood shapers, wood jointers, planers, sandpapering or wood- 
polishing machinery ; machines used in picking wool, cotton, 
hair, or other upholstery materials; paper lace machines; 
burnishing machines in tanneries and leather factories; 
job presses or cylinder printing presses that are run other- 
wise than by the foot ; wood turning and boring machines ; 
drill presses ; corner staying machines in box making ; stamp- 
ing machines used in sheet metal and tinware manufacturing 
or in washer and nut factories; machines used in making 
corrugating rolls ; steam boilers ; dough brakes ; wire or iron 
straightening machinery; rolling mill machinery, power 
punches or shears ; washing, grinding, or mixing machinery ; 
calender rolls in rubber factories ; or laundering machinery. 

No child under the age of sixteen years is permitted to 
adjust or to help adjust machinery belts, to oil, wipe, or 
clean machinery; to work with dangerous and poisonous 
acids ; to work in the manufacturing or packing of paints, 
colors, or red and white lead ; in dipping, dyeing, or packing 
matches ; in the manufacture, packing, or storing of powder, 
dynamite, and other explosives; in or about any distil- 
lery or brewery, or place where alcoholic liquors are made, 
packed, wrapped, or bottled. 

No girl under the age of sixteen is allowed to work in any 
capacity where she is obliged to stand constantly. 

No child under the age of sixteen is allowed to be in 
charge, to manage, or to run a freight or passenger elevator, 
while no one under the age of eighteen is permitted to oper- 



WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 195 

ate an elevator, either for freight or passengers, running at a 
greater speed than two hundred feet a minute. 

No woman under twenty-one or young man under the age 
of eighteen years is allowed to clean machinery while it is 
in motion. 

No young man under eighteen years, or any woman is 
allowed to run any kind of polishing or buffing wheels, in 
connection with the manufacturing of articles from iron, 
steel, tin, and other base metals. 

The length of the day's work. According to the labor 
laws at present in force in the state of New York, the term 
" factory " is used to designate any mill, workshop, or other 
manufacturing or business establishment where one or more 
persons are employed at labor. The term " mercantile 
establishment " means any place where goods, wares, or 
merchandise are offered for sale. 

In New York State eight hours constitute the legal work- 
ing day for all employees, except those persons working as 
domestic servants, or employed on farms. Exceptions are 
also made in the case of workers in brickyards, on street, 
surface, and elevated railroads, in drug stores and phar- 
macies. 

Ten hours outside of the necessary time for meals is a 
legal working day for brickmakers. Employees in brick- 
yards are not obliged to work more than ten hours in any 
one day or to commence work before seven o'clock in the 
morning. However, overwork and extra time before seven 
o'clock are allowed with extra compensation, if the em- 
ployer and employee agree upon the same. 

Ten consecutive hours, with a half hour for dinner in- 
cluded, are legal hours for all who work on street, surface, 



196 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

and elevated railroads, which are operated within the limits 
of cities of the first and second class. Employees of these 
railroads are not allowed to work more than ten consecu- 
tive hours in any one day of twenty-four hours, but in 
cases of accident or unavoidable delay they may work over- 
time for extra compensation. 

Ten hours is also the legal limit for workers on steam, sur- 
face, and elevated railroads in the state, except where the 
mileage system is in operation. Conductors, engineers, 
firemen, and trainmen may work extra hours, in case of 
accidents and delay on account of accidents, but for each 
hour of work performed in addition to the legal ten hours, 
the worker must be paid in addition to the regular wage 
at least one tenth of the daily compensation. No conduc- 
tor, engineer, fireman, or trainman who has been obliged to 
work for twenty-four consecutive hours is allowed to go on 
duty again or perform any kind of work until he has had at 
least eight hours of rest. 

In the case of block- system telegraph and telephone 
operators, and signalmen on surface, subway, and elevated 
railroads, the law prohibits a working period longer than 
eight hours in a day of twenty-four hours, " except in cases 
of extraordinary emergency caused by accident, fire, flood, 
or danger to life or property." For each hour of extra work 
performed by this class of workers, it is provided that they 
shall receive additional compensation of at least one eighth 
of the daily wage. 

These provisions do not apply, however, to railroads 
where not more than eight regular passenger trains pass 
each way in twenty-four hours, unless twenty freight trains 
pass each way in the same length of time. 



WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 197 

A new law provides that no apprentice or employee in 
any pharmacy or drug store shall be permitted to work 
more than seventy hours a week. A clerk may work 
overtime in one week, but the total number of hours 
worked in two consecutive weeks must not be more than 
one hundred thirty-two hours. Every worker is entitled 
to one full day off in two consecutive weeks. No pro- 
prietor of any pharmacy or drug store can require a 
clerk to sleep in any room or apartment connected with the 
store that is unsanitary and unhealthful. 

Unfortunately, these restrictions with regard to hours of 
labor do not include the prohibition of overtime, for the law 
distinctly states that, in the general provision made for an 
eight-hour day, it " does not prevent an agreement for over- 
work at an increased compensation." 

Special provisions. Every manufacturing, mining, 
quarrying, mercantile, railroad, street railway, canal, 
steamboat, telegraph, telephone, and express company, 
every company gathering and storing ice, every private 
water company and every person, firm, or corporation en- 
gaged as a contractor or subcontractor in any public work 
for the state or any city of the state must pay the wages 
of their employees in cash. No person, company, or cor- 
poration is allowed to pay wages in what is called " store 
money orders," obliging the workers to take out the equiva- 
lent of their wages in supplies bought from a store owned 
or controlled by the person, company, or corporation em- 
ploying them. The owning or managing of what is called a 
" company store " is prohibited by the state of New York, 
if at the time there is any other store within two miles of the 
place where the work is being done. 



198 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Sanitary regulations. Sanitary conditions in workplaces 
are regulated by laws providing for air space, lighting, 
cleanliness, ventilation, cuspidors, drinking water, wash 
rooms, toilets, time allowed for meals, seats for women 
employees, and dust removal. 

No more employees are permitted to work in a factory 
room, between the hours of six o'clock in the morning and 
six in the evening, than will allow to each 250 cubic feet of 
air space; and unless the written permit of the commissioner 
of labor allows otherwise, 400 cubic feet must be provided 
for each worker employed between the hours of six o'clock 
in the evening and six o'clock in the morning. 

Workrooms, halls, and stairs leading to workrooms must 
be properly lighted. 

The walls and ceilings of workrooms must be limewashed, 
or painted; floors must be kept clean and sanitary and suit- 
able receptacles provided for waste and refuse; buildings 
must be well drained and the plumbing kept in clean, 
sanitary condition. 

In every workroom, proper and sufficient means of venti- 
lation must be provided and maintained. In the case of 
excessive heat, steam, gases, vapors, and dust, or other 
impurities getting into the air from the work, the work- 
rooms must be ventilated in such a manner as to render 
these conditions harmless to the workers. 

Sanitary cuspidors must be provided and cleaned daily. 
This regulation, especially the number of cuspidors to be 
provided, lies within the discretion of the commissioner of 
labor. It is against the law to spit upon the walls, floors, 
or stairs of any building used in whole or in part for factory 
purposes. 



WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 199 

A sufficient supply of clean, pure drinking water must be 
provided; if it is placed in receptacles in the factory, these 
must be kept covered and frequently cleaned. 

Suitable and proper wash rooms and water-closets are 
required by law. Where women are employed in factories, 
dressing rooms must also be provided. In brass and iron 
foundries, provision must be made for drying the working 
clothes of the employees. Water-closets must be properly 
screened, lighted, ventilated, and kept clean and sanitary. 

In factories, at least sixty minutes must be allowed for the 
midday meal, unless the commissioner of labor permits a 
shorter time. The same rule for a lunch period when work- 
ing overtime applies to factories as in the case of mercantile 
establishments; that is, at least twenty minutes must be 
allowed for lunch if employees are obliged to work after 
six o'clock. 

Every person employing women in a factory or as wait- 
resses in a hotel or restaurant must provide suitable seats 
for their use ; in stores and other mercantile establishments, 
at least one seat for every three females employed must be 
provided and the use of such seats must be allowed. 

Grinding, polishing, and buffing wheels used in manu- 
facturing articles of the baser metals must be furnished with 
proper hoods and exhaust pipes to carry away the dust and 
impurities that are thrown off in the work. 

Other regulations. According to the laws of the state 
of New York persons in charge of any building, construc- 
tion, excavating, or engineering work, or of factories, must 
keep a correct record of all deaths, accidents, and injuries, 
and within 48 hours after the time of the death, accident, 
or injury make a report to the commissioner of labor, 



2OO 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



stating as fully as possible the cause of death, the extent 
and cause of injury, the place where the injured person has 
been sent, and such other information as the commissioner 
may require. 

A new law has been passed requiring every physician 
who is called upon to treat a patient suffering from lead, 
phosphorus, arsenic, or mercury poisoning, or from the 

effects of compressed air, 
or from anthrax, to report 
the case to the commis- 
sioner of labor. 

Regulations for safety in 
workshops include provi- 
sions for safeguards for 
vats, pans, belting, and 
other dangerous machin- 
ery. Machinery must be 
provided with loose pul- 
leys and mechanical belt- 
shifters wherever possible. 
If machinery is in a dan- 
gerous condition, or not 
properly guarded, the com- 
missioner of labor has the 
power to prohibit its use. 
Guards must not be re- 
moved from dangerous ma- 
chines except to make 
repairs, after which they must be promptly replaced. When 
the commissioner of labor prohibits the use of dangerous 
machinery, a notice is attached to it, which may not be 




The elevator operator is responsible for 
the safety of many 



WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 201 



removed until the dangerous condition is remedied or 
safeguards provided. Until this is done, the machinery is 
not to be used. 

In factories where elevators, hoisting shafts, or wells are 
used, these must be properly inclosed or guarded with auto- 
matic traps and doors. Proper stairways must be provided 
with substantial hand- 
rails, the steps of the 
stairs covered with 
rubber, and the sides 
and bo ttomof the stairs 
properly screened. 
All doors leading in or 
to a factory must be 
so constructed as to 
open outwardly, and 
are not to be locked, 
bolted, or fastened 
during working hours. 
Every factory must 
be provided with fire 
escapes. 

In the construction 
of buildings in cities, 
suitable scaffolding 
must be provided for the safety of the workmen. Scaf- 
folding that is twenty feet or more from the ground or floor 
must be furnished with a safety rail. Floors must be laid 
or planked over to within two stories of the height of a 
building in course of construction. 

More recent laws. Three special laws directly or 




Scaffolding with safety rails 



202 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

indirectly affecting the safety of workers in New York were 
passed recently. One of these provides for the increase of 
the force of state factory inspectors from 52 to 85, and for a 
better organization of the work of inspection. 

Another law created the office of State Fire Marshal, 
whose duty is to enforce all laws and ordinances of the 
state, except in cities having over one million inhabitants, 
with regard to the prevention of fire, the storage, sale, and 
use of explosives, the installing of automatic fire alarm and 
fire extinguishing systems, the inspection of steam boilers, 
the construction, maintenance, and regulation of fire escapes, 
the means and safety of exit in cases of fire in all places where 
people work, live, or assemble from time to time, and the 
investigation of the cause, origin, and circumstances of fires. 

A third law incorporated the American Museum of Safety, 
whose object is to help solve the problems of industrial 
accidents, largely by means of education as to the causes of 
accidents and the methods of preventing them. To the 
director of this museum any worker may apply for advice. 

POINTS TO REMEMBER 

1. Prepare in advance to get working papers by doing 

your school work as well as possible and obtaining 
your birth certificate before you need it. The 
better school education you have, the easier it is to 
make your way upward in any work. 

2. Inform yourself of the kind of work that is permitted 

to one of your age. 

3. Do. not become a lawbreaker even though it seems 

hard to be restricted in your choice. Laws are 



WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 203 

wisely made for your protection and do not reflect 
upon your courage or ability. 

4. By all means find out the legal length of the working 

day and week for your trade and get your due on 
overtime. Remember that you must preserve 
your vital capital of health and that overtime costs 
you all the added wages you get. Meet your 
employer more than halfway and make his interests 
your own. 

5. See to it that you know all the sanitary regulations 

concerning your work. If they are lacking, organ- 
ize a committee and inform your employer. 

6. Cooperate with your employer in improving conditions. 

He will always be won by the economic value of the 
welfare of his employees. 



CHAPTER XVIII 
SEASONAL HYGIENE 

Cold weather. Keeping well is mainly a matter of 
good daily hygienic habits. It is necessary, however, to 
make special adjustments to very hot and very cold weather 
to avoid discomfort and disease. 

The body is kept warm because chemical changes 
constantly occurring within it cause heat. The greatest 
of these processes is oxidation, which is just like the 
burning of a fire, only much slower. Oxidation occurs 
more rapidly when muscles are exercised and this is the 
reason why we thrash our arms, stamp, and run when we 
wish to get warm. It explains also why we shiver when we 
are cold, for the little muscles in the skin automatically 
contract many times a minute in their endeavor to warm 
the surface of the body. 

Food. We, must therefore exercise more when it is cold. 
To do this we need more food. The best foods for cold weather 
are the fats and carbohydrates, because these are oxidized 
into water and carbonic acid gas without leaving much 
waste behind. Proteids should be increased a little to 
replace worn-out tissue, but not very much. The Eskimos 
know this instinctively, and are fond of fats and feast 
upon the raw blubber of the whale. 

As we have seen, food is of little use unless well digested, 
so in cold weather particular care should be exercised in 

204 



SEASONAL HYGIENE 205 

eating slowly, in masticating thoroughly, and in avoiding 
constipation. 

The use of alcohol is particularly dangerous in cold 
weather, for it brings the blood to the surface, making us 
feel warm for a while, but really chilling the blood much 
too fast and reducing the vitality. 

Clothing. Linen mesh underwear is expensive, but the 
best ; cotton may be worn, but it retains moisture ; light wool 
underclothing is next best after the linen mesh. If forced 
to remain long in the cold, remember that an extra woolen 
shirt is worth more than an extra overcoat. A paper vest 
is better than a sheepskin jacket, and fur clothing is usually 
bad. If you are warm from work at the end of the day, wash 
with tepid water as thoroughly as possible, change the un- 
derclothes, and cool off before going out. This is very im- 
portant, for a tired man takes cold easily. 

Rubbers should be worn to avoid wet feet. If the 
clothing is wet, it should be changed at once and a brisk 
rub taken. 

Frost bite and freezing. When the cold is intense, 
rub the ears occasionally with the mitten or glove to re- 
establish the circulation, even though the operation hurts. 
If the tips of the ears get white, they are frozen and should 
be vigorously rubbed. 

If the feet are cold or frozen, rub them with snow, then 
with very cold water. Do not go near the stove or use warm 
water. Wrap them up carefully and chafe occasionally 
with cold water, treating them with great care, for they 
are easily injured. The feet once frozen are sensitive for a 
long time, and should be rubbed every night with cold water 
and salt to reestablish the normal resistance of the tissues. 



206 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

Chapped hands. Always dry the hands thoroughly 
after they have been washed. If they are rough, rub 
them with camphor ice (a mixture of vaseline, camphor, 
and lard) before going to bed. 

Bathing. Never neglect the cold douching of the chest 
and neck in cold weather. The time you feel least like doing 
it is the time it is most needed. There are many persons 
with whom a cold bath once a day does not agree; these 
should bathe only part of the body at a time, or use tepid 
water. There are many more who would be much benefited 
by taking the tonic bath, but who do not do so merely 
because of physical laziness. 

Colds. The common cold is a house disease. People 
who live an active out-of-door life seldom, if ever, suffer 
from colds. They are dangerous, even the least of them, 
for they are symptoms of a lowered vitality, and sometimes 
so affect the health as to lead to consumption. 

Causes. The most frequent cause is constipation, for 
the waste food, which should be passed away daily, remains 
in the intestine to decay, and the body absorbs poison from 
it. This reduces the vitality so that infection by microbes, 
which are always present, is made easy. Regular morning 
exercise (Chapter II), drinking enough water, and eating 
green vegetables will prevent constipation, headaches, and 
most colds. 

Fatigue and lack of sleep will lower vitality, so that the 
slightest exposure will cause colds. These result more 
often from staying up late nights than from working too 
hard. Changes of temperature rather than cold weather 
in itself will cause colds, and then only when the body is 
not trained to adjust itself to such changes. 



SEASONAL HYGIENE 207 

Preventive measures. The surest way to prevent 
colds is to train the skin and circulation to adjust them- 
selves to protect you from such changes. A traveler in 
the West once remarked to an Indian who strolled about in 
zero weather, protected only by his blanket, " I should 
think you would catch cold." The Indian replied, " Why 
you not cover your face ? Ugh ! Me all face." His whole 
body had been adjusted to cold, just as is the skin of the 
face, and he suffered no inconvenience. 

If we follow the directions of Chapter II and take a cold 
douche on the neck and chest, we shall train just so much 
of the body to resist colds. To make cold bathing more 
effective, add salt, preferably sea salt, which may be put 
in the water J Ib. to four gallons, and rub the body with a 
coarse towel. Train yourself up to cold water gradually, 
and bathe, rub, and dry one portion of the body at a time. 
This should be repeated at night. With the surface of the 
body well trained, you need not pile on clothes to keep 
warm. Too much clothing, such as furs or rubber gar- 
ments, leads often to overheating; a wrap is thrown off, 
the skin is cooled too suddenly, and a chill results. 

Wet feet cause many colds. If you come home with 
cold or wet feet, bathe them first in tepid, then in 'warm, 
then in cold salt water, and rub them very hard. Never 
neglect wet feet. A little care will save much trouble. 

Most colds are " catching," so avoid the person with one. 
Always cover the face with a handkerchief when you cough 
or sneeze. 

Cure of colds. Never neglect a cold. In the sneezing 
stage use douches of salt water in the nose and throat every 
three hours. Take a hot mustard footbath, a glass of hdt 



208 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

lemonade, and open the bowels with a mild cathartic. 
Stop work and rest flat in bed if you can, to allow the body 
to get in fighting trim. Quinine is useful in small doses, 
three grains every five hours as a tonic; spirits of cam- 
phor, two drops on a lump of sugar three times a day, may 
help a little. 

Very often a physician may relieve a cold for you by 
sprays of oils and antiseptics, and you should go to him, if 
possible. If there is a fever of over 100, stay indoors until 
it subsides. Many believe in a few drops of kerosene oil, or 
a teaspoonful of vaseline taken internally and rubbed on 
the face, neck, and chest. 

Nevertheless, colds will often take hold, and then nature 
effects its own cure. The treatment consists of as much 
rest as possible, keeping the bowels open, nasal douches of 
warm salt water, f teaspoonful to the glass, and three grains 
of quinine three times a day. Patent medicines and cough 
sirups are usually bad, for they decrease vitality and cause 
constipation. No change should be made in the diet, save 
the cutting off of coffee, tea, and red meats. Too much 
water is usually drunk on account of the dryness of the 
throat, but this only increases the discomfort. A rise in 
temperature over 100, sharp pain in the chest, a constant 
cough, or one that refuses to clear up in two weeks, and any 
earache whatsoever mean that you should have medical 
advice without fail. 

As a rule too much medicine is taken for the cold, and the 
body has more to recover from than it should. Our friends' 
advice is not so good as the doctor's. 

Hot weather. In hot weather the body has difficulty 
in ridding itself of its heat, and discomfort results. Heat 



SEASONAL HYGIENE 209 

is passed from the body mainly in the outgoing breath, but 
also from the surface of the skin. The loss of heat from the 
skin is quickened by the evaporation of the perspiration 
which is much increased in warm weather. In hot countries 
water is cooled by placing it in unglazed earthenware jars 
which allow it to pass slowly through the pores and evap- 
orate on the surface; our bodies cool themselves in just 
the same way. 

This principle should guide much of our habit of life in 
hot weather. The man who is quietly active on a very 
hot day and moves about at his work is cooler than one who 
sits still and thinks how hot it is. A current of air will 
increase the rate of evaporation and make us cooler. Great 
care should be taken not to sit directly in the draft of an 
electric fan, for a stiff rheumatic back or a summer cold will 
result. One should always keep out of the sun and never 
hurry. Rest is more essential, though sleep is often diffi- 
cult to obtain. Some people are made more comfortable 
by a cool or tepid bath a half hour before retiring. A very 
quick hot bath will bring the blood to the surface and will 
often result in cooling the body effectively. 

No one should sleep without bed clothing. Extra cover- 
ings should be ready to be pulled up when the cooler morning 
hours come. Much comfort may be obtained by making 
a tent of the sheet, open at the foot and head ; this seems 
to provide a circulation of air, even when little is stirring. 

Food. Less food is needed in hot weather than in winter. 
The fats and carbohydrates (Chapter V) , which are mainly 
useful for the production of heat and energy, should be 
decreased, and fruits and green vegetables should form 
the bulk of the diet. So much water is lost through the 



210 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

skin that much more must be drunk. One should never 
drink cold water quickly, for in many cases this has resulted 
seriously. Too much water injures the stomach and chills 
the organs of the body, resulting in a condition which 
gives rise again to thirst. If one glass of water, drunk 
slowly, leaves one thirsty, it is probable that another 
taken immediately will cause harm. 

Summer drinks are usually not harmful, although most of 
the cheap ginger ale, sarsaparilla, and such beverages contain 
too much sugar, and in addition are adulterated and positively 
harmful. Lemonade or plain carbonated waters are the best. 
Alcoholic drinks of any kind are invariably harmful, for they 
decrease vitality and weaken the body materially. 

Food spoils quickly in hot weather, and we can afford to 
be more particular in our choice for we eat very much less. 
" Made over " dishes should be viewed with suspicion. 
Any fruit that has been handled by another person should 
be washed with care or cooked. 

Nothing that flies have reached should be considered 
good food, for flies carry the germs of diarrhea, colitis, dys- 
entery, and typhoid. If this rule were followed, these dis- 
eases would practically disappear. 

Milk should always be fresh ; if it tastes the least sour, it 
should be refused. " Scientifically soured" milk is an ex- 
cellent summer food. Milk should always be drunk slowly, 
and preferably while eating something solid. 

Clothing. The underclothes should be of mesh, and the 
overclo thing light in weight and color. Light orange or khaki 
is the best color for those who must work in the sun. The 
best hat, next to the well- ventilated pith helmet of the tropics, 
is one that is oval in shape and raised from the head on a 



SEASONAL HYGIENE 21 1 

framework to allow the freest circulation of air. Most straw 
hats are not properly ventilated and do not keep all the sun 
out. They should be lined, preferably with black material 
and the air given free access to the head. 

Care must be taken that the body does not become chilled, 
and two places, the back and the abdomen, should be es- 
pecially protected. In India it is the common practice to 
wear a flannel band about the abdomen. This is called 
the cholera belt, as it is useful in warding off that disease. 
Although cholera is caused by a bacillus which attacks only 
those who eat or drink infected food, the cholera belt pre- 
vents the chilling of the abdomen, keeps the intestines in 
good tone, and thus helps them to resist the infection. 
Most summer diarrheas may be avoided with similar 
care. 

Mosquitoes. It has been proved that some mosquitoes 
carry malaria and others, yellow fever. The latter is 
rapidly becoming a thing of the past on account of the 
vigorous action taken in cities where it has existed to clean, 
fill, or cover all swamps and cisterns where the fever-caus- 
ing mosquitoes breed. 

Malaria is common in city and country, although about 
most wide-awake cities swamps have been drained. It 
usually brings with it a feeling of depression and a fever 
preceded by a chill on every other day, although the fever 
may be continued from day to' day without any interval or 
chill. If this occurs in spring or summer, one should, be- 
fore taking medicine, go immediately to a doctor or clinic 
and ask to have a drop of blood examined. If the disease 
is malaria, the germs will be found in the blood. It is im- 
portant not to take quinine before the investigation of the 



212 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

blood, for it will kill off the germs in the blood and prevent 
a successful examination. If malaria is present, it should be 
attacked, not by one dose of medicine, but with a thorough 
course of treatment which will search out and kill all the 
germs in whatever corner of the body they may hide. 

FOR SUMMER AND WINTER 

To keep well in winter : 

1. Keep up the good daily hygienic habits. 

2. Eat more fat and carbohydrate food and chew it well. 

3. Too much clothing is as bad as too little. Good vital- 

ity, based on good digestion, is better protection 
than a fur coat. 

4. Take care of chapped hands and wet feet. 
To avoid colds: 

1 . Keep the digestion in order and avoid constipation. 

2. Train the body to resist cold by the morning and eve- 

ning cold douche. 

3. Do not waste your vitality. 
To keep well in summer: 

1. Keep busy, do not fret about the heat, and rest when 

you can. 

2. Keep out of the sun and avoid the direct draft of the 

electric fan. 

3. Dress lightly, but protect the back and abdomen. Be 

careful to drink only clean water, not too cold and 
not too much at once. 

4. Alcoholic drinks are to be avoided. 

5. Do not eat too much; vegetables and fruits are the best. 

6. Do not eat anything that has been exposed to dust or 

flies. 



CHAPTER XIX 

TUBERCULOSIS 1 

Why you should be interested. There are many reasons 
why you should be interested in the subject of tuberculosis. 
You or some of your family or friends may develop the 
disease. By knowing something about it you can greatly 
lessen the chance of getting it ; if you do get it, you will 
know what to do in order to get well, and to keep others 
from getting it from you. 

What tuberculosis is. Pulmonary tuberculosis is a 
very common, and frequently a fatal, disease of the lungs. 
It is caused by the growth and multiplication in the lungs 
of a very small germ, called the tubercle bacillus, which is so 
small it cannot be seen without the use of a very powerful 
microscope, which magnifies it several hundred times. 
Twenty-five hundred of these germs placed end to end 
would not be one inch in length. 

These germs may gradually spread through the greater 
part of one or both lungs, destroying the usefulness of 
those organs, until finally the patient dies of the disease. 

The disease is often called consumption, for the reason 

1 This chapter, published by permission, is taken mainly from a booklet 
prepared by the Department of Health of the city of New York and the 
Committee on Prevention of Tuberculosis of the Charity Organization 
Society in consultation with the Department of Education. 

213 



214 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



that during its progress the patient loses weight rapidly, 
and hence seems to be consumed. 

Tuberculosis may infect any other part of the body 
besides the lungs, such as the bones, joints, intestines, 




Out-of-door treatment for consumptives 

glands, brain, spinal cord, and the skin, but of all forms 
of inflammation, that of the lungs is the most common. 

The tubercle bacillus is the only cause of the disease. 
Many people think that pulmonary tuberculosis comes 
from a cold or some other disease, or is inherited. This is 
not correct. The reason why people develop tuberculosis 
after a prolonged cold or pneumonia or other exhausting 
disease is because their systems have run down to such an 
extent that they are not strong enough to resist the tubercle 
bacilli taken into their bodies. 

The germs are widely distributed, and practically all 



TUBERCULOSIS 



215 



people breathe them in at times. If their systems are in 
excellent condition, the germs do not gain a foothold and 



j :: 1 

U.EN ST 

I "' JtTT ~| ( '":| C 

r ...... ... I [ ....!.. il 



I 4* ! ^d 
I !.-.. .. jl C.ii.i. .. i.i.'j 



I . .. '-...'I I .; J 



K \ | I '... '1 [ 3 



^ad3 C 




Map showing the extent of tuberculosis. Each dot means one case for 
that house 



216 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

start the disease. Any condition that weakens the body 
predisposes one to consumption. 

Extent of the disease. Tuberculosis kills more people 
than any other disease. Every three minutes some one 
in the United States dies from consumption. Every year 
more persons die in the United States from consumption 
than died in this country from yellow fever in a period of 
one hundred and fifteen years. Three or four times as 
many people die every year in the United States from 
this disease as were killed in both armies during the 
Civil War. Every seventh person who dies, dies from 
tuberculosis. 

Symptoms. There are a number of symptoms which 
might lead a person to suspect that he has pulmonary 
tuberculosis; namely, loss of weight, loss of appetite, loss 
of color, fever in the afternoon, cough and expectoration 
(spitting) lasting for several weeks, spitting of blood or 
streaks of blood in the sputum, chills, night sweats, dif- 
ficulty in breathing, and pains in the 
chest. In incipient tuberculosis the 
commonest symptoms are loss of weight 
with cough and expectoration. 

When these symptoms occur, it does 
not necessarily mean that tuberculosis 
exists, but it would be wise for a person 
having them to consult a physician. 

How we get tuberculosis. We can 
The fiy helps to spread g e t tuberculosis only by receiving into 

tuberculosis , i ^ ' 

the body the tubercle bacilli. One con- 
sumptive infects another, or gives tuberculosis of the lungs 
to another, by means of the tubercle bacilli in the material 




TUBERCULOSIS 



217 




On the roof in winter 



coughed up from the 
diseased lungs, which 
often contains mil- 
lions of these germs. 
The germs get out 
of the body of a person 
who has tuberculosis, 
not only in the mate- 
rial which is coughed 
up, but also in the 
little drops, too small 
to be seen, which are 
sprayed out when persons with tuberculosis cough or sneeze. 
Great care should be taken to destroy all material coughed 
up by the consumptive, and to avoid careless coughing and 
sneezing. If this is not done, and if the sputum is dis- 
charged on the floor or carpets or 
clothing, the germs may live for 
months, especially in dark, damp, 
unventilated bedrooms, living 
rooms, and workrooms. 

The germs live in the darkness and 
dampness for a long time and are 
stirred up in dusting and sweeping 
these rooms ; they float in the air 
and maybe breathed into the lungs, 
or may fall upon articles of food and 
be taken into the body in that way. 
It is not safe to move into a house or rooms in which a 
patient with tuberculosis has lived until the house or rooms 
have been thoroughly cleansed and disinfected or renovated. 




Scrubbing walls to get rid of 
germs 



2l8 



HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 



The people most likely to get tuberculosis are those who 
are run down or ill from poor or insufficient food, from living 
in dark, overcrowded, or ill- ventilated rooms, or from over- 
work, and those who are convalescent from other exhausting 
diseases. Their weakened systems cannot resist the disease. 

Working or living in 
dusty rooms may lead 
to the disease, espe- 
cially where the air is 
bad from poor venti- 
lation or overcrowding. 





Dr. Knopf's window-tent in position, and 
raised when not in use 



How to prevent tu- 
berculosis. In order 
to keep from getting tu- 
berculosis, the first and 
most important rule is 
to keep as strong and 
healthy as possible. 

When the tubercle 

bacilli get into the body or lungs of a healthy person, they 
do not multiply but are usually soon killed, while in the 
lungs of a weak or sickly person they increase in number 
and produce tuberculosis. 

. Of great assistance in keeping well and strong are quanti- 
ties of fresh, pure air both in the daytime and at night, in 



TUBERCULOSIS 



219 



the home, in the schoolroom, and in the workroom, to- 
gether with proper food, cleanliness, and temperance. 

One can get fresh, pure air by keeping out of doors as 
much as possible, by keeping the living rooms during the 
daytime well- ventilated, and by keeping the windows of 
the bedrooms wide open all night. 

Dust may be avoided largely by the use of damp cloths 
and brooms (never use a dry broom or duster). 

Children should be taught not to put anything into their 
mouths except food. Putting pencils, coins, or playthings 
in the mouth, and eating 
candy or chewing gum 
which other children have 
had in their mouths are 
dangerous habits, and 
should be avoided. 

Overindulgence in 
whisky or other forms of 




alcohol predisposes one to 
tuberculosis, and the use 
of intoxicants of any kind 
in tuberculosis is distinctly 
injurious. Alcohol weak- 
ens the body so that it 
cannot resist the disease 
germs. 

Every person should take a warm bath with soap at least 
once each week, and if possible, should have a cold bath 
every morning. 

Medicines. There is no medicine that will cure con- 
sumption. It is a waste of time and money to use so-called 



Use moist cloths for dusting 



220 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER 

" Consumption Cures." All advertised cures of this nature 
are frauds. Doctors who advertise should be avoided as 




\ 

The best cures are rest, plenty of fresh out-of-door air, and wholesome food 

much as medicines which are advertised. Reputable 
doctors do not advertise. The consumptive always feels 
stronger than he really is and often neglects treatment 
until it is too late. When a person learns that he has 
tuberculosis, he should go at once to a physician or a dis- 
pensary, and do as he is advised. He should not waste 
time and money on patent medicines. 

Treatment. The treatment for tuberculosis is rest, 
with plenty of fresh air and enough good, wholesome food. 

No medicine is necessary except in cases where other 
diseases are present. Tuberculous patients should eat 
three good meals each day, and in addition take milk in 
the mid-morning and mid-afternoon. They should get all 
the rest and sleep possible, and should avoid overwork and 
too much exercise. 

If treatment is begun early, tuberculosis can be cured by 
good food, fresh air, and rest. The best results are obtained 
in hospitals or sanatoria which are located in the country. 



TUBERCULOSIS 221 

It is not dangerous to live or work with a person who has 
tuberculosis if he is cleanly, and is very careful to destroy 




The careful consumptive washes her hands before and after eating ; coughs, spits, 
and sneezes into paper or cloth and burns it at once ; and always uses the 
same dishes, which are washed separately 

all the sputum which he coughs up. A person with tuber- 
culosis should not sleep in the same bed with any one else, 
and if possible, not even in the same room. 

HOW YOU CAN HELP 

1. By instructing others as to the nature, prevention, and 

cure of tuberculosis. 

2. By teaching others how to breathe deeply and to ob- 

serve the simple rules of health. 

3. By keeping the home clean and well ventilated, and by 

sleeping with the windows open. 

4. By keeping clean ; by putting nothing into the mouth 

except food, and by eating only wholesome and 
nourishing food. 

5. By staying as much as possible in the fresh air and 

sunshine. 



APPENDIX 

A SUMMARY OF THE COMPULSORY EDUCATION LAWS OF 
NEW YORK STATE 

1. Every child between seven and sixteen years of age, in proper 
physical and mental condition to attend school, shall regularly attend 
upon instruction, during the compulsory school year, or receive 
equivalent instruction by a competent instructor elsewhere. 

2. Children between fourteen and sixteen years of age who have 
employment certificates issued by the Board of Health and are regu- 
larly employed thereunder are exempt from school attendance, except 
that boys between fourteen and sixteen years of age, legally employed, 
who have not been graduated from the elementary course must attend 
evening school until sixteen years of age. Evening school attend- 
ance cannot be substituted for required attendance a_t a day school. 

3. It is unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to employ 
any child under sixteen years of age who does not legally possess an 
employment certificate. 

4. A certificate of school attendance or of graduation, without an 
employment certificate, gives a child no right to leave school. 

5. To obtain an employment certificate under Sec. 71 of the Labor 
Law, a child must have the following qualifications : 

First: He must be at least fourteen years of age. 

Second: He must have attended school 130 days within the year 
preceding his fourteenth birthday, or within the year preceding his 
application for the certificate. 

Third: He must be able to read and write simple sentences in Eng- 
lish, and be familiar with the operations of arithmetic " up to and in- 
cluding fractions" 

Fourth: The date of the child's birth must be proved to the satis- 
faction of the Board of Health, by the production of documentary 
evidence in the following order: 

(a) A transcript of a birth certificate filed in the office of a regis- 
trar of vital statistics. 

223 



224 APPENDIX 

(b) A certificate of graduation from an eight years' course in an 
elementary school, provided that the records of such school show the 
child's age to be fourteen years. 

(c) A passport or baptismal certificate. 

(d) Other documentary evidence of age, satisfactory to the 
Board of Health. (The unsupported affidavits of parents or guardians 
are not accepted under this subdivision.) 

(e) Physicians' certificates of probable age. In case other evi- 
dence cannot be produced, a parent or guardian may apply to the 
Board of Health for the certificate of two physicians as to the child's 
age. Ninety days must elapse after application before such certificate 
can be granted. 

6. To obtain a school record certificate a child must (i) have com- 
pleted the studies of the 5 A grade, or its equivalent; (2) be examined 
as to his educational qualifications. This examination need not be 
required of pupils above the 6 B grade. 

First : an examination of all applicants for a school record cer- 
tificate shall be held in each district every second week, at a time 
and in a certain school building to be designated by the district super- 
intendent. 

Second : Any boy or girl, between fourteen and sixteen years of age, 
who has completed the studies of the first half of the Fifth School 
Year (New York City Schools) or its equivalent, shall be eligible to 
take this examination. 

Third: The scope of the examination should be essentially as 
follows : 

(a) The writing of a bill which includes some simple work in frac- 
tions, with multiplication and addition in the extensions. 

(6) The solving of three or four simple problems in business arith- 
metic. 

(c) A simple exercise in dictation. 

(d) Oral reading by each applicant from a fourth reader. 

(e) The writing of an application for a position or some other form 
of letter writing. 

Fourth : In case the work of an applicant is satisfactory, the princi- 
pal may be so notified, and the pupil allowed to make formal applica- 
tion for a certificate. Pupils who fail should be compelled to return 



APPENDIX 225 

to school, and work faithfully to overcome their deficiencies. They 
may enter the next examination. 

7. The Department of Health requests that a principal before issu- 
ing the certificate of school attendance shall have the applicant exam- 
ined physically by the Department's physician assigned to the school, 
and that the applicant shall present the physician's certificate along 
with the certificate of school attendance when he appears for examina- 
tion at the office of the Department of Health. 

8. A boy between fourteen and sixteen years of age, legally em- 
ployed, who has not graduated from the elementary course, must at- 
tend an evening school or a trade school until he is sixteen years old. 

9. Children of school age who do not possess employment certifi- 
cates cannot be employed in stores, or other places, on Saturday, or in 
domestic service at any time. 



INDEX 



Accidents, 29, 32, 80, 138-151 ; 

and assaults, relation of alcohol to, 
57,58; 

causes of, 80, 142-151 ; 

fear of, 137 ; 

most important cause of, 144 ; 

reduction of, 137, 138 ; 

responsibility for, 143 ; 

use of safety devices against, 140- 

151- 

Acids, 163. 
Adenoids, 22. 
Air, and sleep, 26-28 ; 

dirty, breathing of, 75 ; 

impure, effects of, 74 ; 

space for workers, 73, 198. 
Alcohol, 98, 109, 205, 212, 219; 

and accidents, etc., 57, 58 ; 

and disease, 55 ; 

as a harmful agent, 53, 54 ; 

craving for, 54, 61 ; 

dangers of, 54-58 ; 

moderate use of, 57 ; 

points to be remembered in connec- 
tion with, 61, 62 ; 

tables showing effects of, on health 

and longevity, 55-57. 
Ammonia, 163. 
Anthrax, 164, 200. 
Applicant, manner and appearance of, 

2-4. 

Arsenic, 158, 159. 

Arsenical poisoning, prevention of, 159. 
Asphyxiation by gas, 185, 186. 
Athletic fields, 121, 122. 
Athletics, 109. 
Avoid accidents, summary, 151, 152. 

Bathing, 12, 13, 206, 209, 219. 
Bedclothes, 26, 27. 
Beer, 66, 72. 



"Be on time," 16, 17. 

Bleeding, 187, 188. 

Body, an engine, 39, 40, 53, 90. 

Bowels, 25, 208. 

Boy Scouts, 122. 

Brass, 162. 

Breakfast, 14, 15. 

Breathing, 23, 24. 

Broken limbs, 188. 

Bunions, 35, 37. 

Burns, 186, 187. 

Carbohydrates, 43, 44. 

Care, necessity of, 151. 

Catarrh, nasal, 22. 

Celluloid collars, dangers of, 33. 

Cereals, 48. 

Certificate, employment, 190, 191, 

222. 

Chapped hands, 206. 
Cheerfulness, 7, 98, 99. 
Chewing gum, 6. 
Chewing of food, 49-51, 64. 
Choosing an occupation, 127, 135. 
Cigarettes, 6, 33, 59, 60, 67, 170; 

general effects of, on body and mind, 
59-6i; 

injurious effects of, on lungs and 

throat, 59. 

Cigarette smoking, and the business 
world, 60, 6 1 ; 

dangers of, 59-61 ; 

in schools, 60. 
Cleanliness, 3, 5, 6. 
Clothes, care of, 14 ; 

dangerous to workers, 29-32 ; 

for machinists, 30-33 ; 

for the worker, summary, 38 ; 

for women workers, 29-32 ; 

suitable and unsuitable for work, 



29, 30- 



227 



228 



INDEX 



Clothing, 4, 5, 205, 210, 211 ; 

relation of, to breathing, 23 ; 

suitability of, 14. 
Clubhouse, employees', 70, 71. 
Coffee, 15, 46, 63, 65, 72, 208. 
Colds, 206-208; 

causes of, 206 ; 

cure of, 80, 207, 208;- 

prevention of, 207 ; 

wet feet and, 207. 
Commercial occupations, 131. 
Compulsory Education Laws, 223-225. 
Constant standing, evil effects of, 95. 
Constipation, 25, 45, 63, 80, 208; 

exercises for, 12. 
Consumption, see Tuberculosis. 
Cooking, 47, 48, 52. 
Cooperation, in avoiding accidents, 

methods of, 138, 139. 
Cooperative outings, 122-125. 
Corns, 35, 37. 
Corsets, 38. 

Coughing and sneezing into handker- 
chief, 85, 207. 
Crowding, 103. 
Cuts and wounds, 187, 188. 

Daily inspection of self, 4. 

Dancing, 108, 109. 

Dandruff, 19. 

Danger, protection against, 139-142. 

Day, close of, 102, 103. 

Day's work, after, summary, 114. 

Deep breathing, 23 ; 

exercises for, 24. 
Diet, 39 ; 

mixed, 44, 45. 
Digestion, aids to, 70. 
Disease and alcohol, 55. 
Disobedience and ignorance, causes of 

accidents, 149-151. 
Disorder, cause of accidents, 151. 
Domestic science, 49. 
Doors, factory, 201. 
Dress, neatness in, 3 ; 

simplicity in, 4, 5. 
Dressing, 14. 
Drinking cup, 82 ; 

common, 82 ; 

paper, 81, 82. 



Drinking fountain, 82. 

Drinking water, pure, 46, 80-82, 88, 199, 

208, 210. 
Drowning, 188. 
Dusts, 77, 128, 129. 
Dyes, 162. 

Eczema, 134. 

Electricity, 149. 

Electric shock, 184, 185. 

Elevators, cause of accidents, 147, 148. 

Emergency work, 181-189. 

Employer's inspection, 2-4. 

Employment certificate, 190, 191. 

Energy, 39, 53, 89, 98. 

Enlarged joints, 37. 

Evening routine, 28. 

Excursions, 109. 

Exercises, 10-12, 24, 28, 35, 36, 37, 131, 

132. 

Exhaustion, 99. 
Eyes, 20, 21, 133, 134; 

examination of, important, 134. 
Eyesight, defective, occupations to be 

avoided in cases of, 133. 
Eyestrain, 20, 79, 97. 

Fainting, 183. 

Falling tools, cause of accidents, 148. 

Fan, revolving, 76. 

Fatigue, accidents during, 78 ; 

causes of, 91, 92; 

point, 92, 93, 98; 

points to be remembered in connec- 
tion with, 99-101. 
Fats, 43, 44. 
Feet, 25, 34-37. 
Finger nails, 3, 14, 24. 
Fire, appliances for fighting, 172, 173; 

benefits of, 167 ; 

brigades, 173, 174; 

causes of, 167, 169, 170; 

drills, 173, 174; 

loss from, 168, 169; 

rules to be observed in case of, 175, 

176 
Fires, individual efforts against, 174, 175 ; 

means of escape from, 150, 151 ; 

measures of prevention against, 170, 
171. 



INDEX 



229 



Flat-foot, 35-37, 95- 
Fletcherism, 50, 51. 
Flies, 210, 216. 
Food, 204, 205, 209, 210; 

and drinks summarized, 51, 52; 

as fuel for the body, 40, 41 ; 

buying of, 48, 49 ; 

chewing of, 49-51, 64; 

choice of, 41, 42 ; 

cooking of, 47, 48 ; 

cost of, 41, 42, 51 ; 

kinds of, 40-47 ; 

quantity of, 15, 40, 41. 
Foods, classification of, 42 ; 

uses of, 40, 41 ; 

wholesome, 47. 
Foot weakness, 132, 133. 
Freezing, see Frost bites and Freezing. 
Fresh air, 9, 10, 66, 218, 219, 220. 
Frost bites and freezing, 187, 205. 
Fruits, washing of, 65. 

Gas, 128, 164. 

Good habits, 18, 98. 

Good health, importance of, 6, 7. 

Gymnastics, 109. 

Habits of living, systematic, 9. 

Hair, 4, 14, 18-20. 

Half holidays, 119, 120. 

Handkerchiefs, 8, 84, 85. 

Hands, 24. 

Hats, 38. 

Health, 90. 

Heart, effects of tobacco on, 59 ; 

weakness, 130, 131. 
Heat, 164, 165; 

exhaustion, 184. 
Heating, 77. 
Hobby, 106. 

Holidays, suggestions for, 125, 126. 
Hospital rooms in factories, 177-179. 
Hot weather, 208, 209. 
Humidity, 77, 78. 
Hygrodeik, 78. 

Insomnia, 96, 100, 101. 

"Keep square with yourself," 17. 



Laws protecting worker, 190 ; 

recent safety, 201, 202. 
Lead, 153-156; 

in manufactures, 155, 156; 

in paints, 155. 
Lead poisoning, 154-156; 

fighting, 156-158; 

symptoms of, 154. 
Lectures, 112, 113. 
Libraries, 113, 114. 
Lighting, 78-80; 

poor, cause of accidents, 80. 
Lights, artificial, 79, 80; 

for reading, 20. 
Linen, 33. 
Lockers, 85, 86. 

Longevity, effects of alcohol on, 55-57. 
Lunch, and rest rooms, 7 1 ; 

box, 65, 66; 

hour, 68, 69, 97, 199; 

kind of, 64-66 ; 

manner of eating, 64 ; 

place for, 63-65 ; 

preparation for, 63 ; 

room, 64, 65, 68, 71. 

Lungs, influence of occupations upon, 
127-130; 

injurious effects of cigarettes on, 
59- 

Machinery, electrical, 149. 

Machinist, clothes suitable for, 32, 33. 

Malaria, 211, 212. 

Manner of applicant, 2-4. 

Maps, 1 20. 

Matches, 159, 160. 

Meal, evening, 104, 105. 

Meat, 42, 43, 47, 51. 

Mercury, 160, 161 ; 

precautions in working with, 161. 
Metallic waste can, 84. 
Metchnikoff, Prof., 55. 
Milk, 15, 45, 46, 52, 65, 66, 210, 220; 

pasteurized, 46. 

Minors, provisions for, 191-193. 
Morning, inspection, 7, 8; 

routine, 17. 
Mosquitoes, 211, 212. 
Mouth, 21, 22; 

breathing, 22. 



230 



INDEX 



Moving pictures, 107-109. 
Museums, 113. 
Music, 106. 

Naphtha, 163. 

Nerves, effects of tobacco on, 59. 
Nerve weakness, 92, 93. 
Neurasthenia, see Nerve weakness. 
New York "City, Department of Health, 

47, 213; 
places of interest in and around, 120, 

121. 

Night schools, 112. 
Night work, 96, 97. 
Nitrogen, 42. 
Noon, rest during, 69, 70. 
Noon-day meal, State laws in regard to, 

67, 68. 

Noon hour routine, 71. 
Nose, 13, 22. 
Nurse, visiting, 179-181. 

Occupation, choosing an, summary, 135 ; 

wise start in, 127. 

Occupations, affecting the lungs, 127- 
130; 

beneficial to lung affections, 129, 130; 

commercial, 131 ; 

sedentary, 94, 131, 132. 
Oiling machinery in motion, 146. 
Outings, cooperative, 122-125. 
Overcrowding, 145, 146. 
Overfatigue, harm of, 95, 96. 
Overspeeding machinery, 145. 
Overstraining the human machine, 95, 

96. 

Overwork, 90, 95-97. 
Oxygen in air, uses of, 75. 

Paper, drinking cup, 81 ; 

towels, 83. 

Paris green, 158, 159. 
Pasteurized milk, 46. 
Patent medicines, 220. 
Perfumes, 5, 6. 
Personal habits, 98, 99. 
Petroleum, 163, 164. 
Phosphorus, red, 159, 160. 
"Phossy jaw," 160. 
Physical examination, 127. 



Play, benefits of, 105, 114; 

importance of, 116. 
Pneumonia, 55. 
Poisoning, 188, 189; 

industrial, prevention of, 165, 166. 
Poisons, 153. 
Porch sleeping, 26. 
Posture, 24, 93-95. 
Power, source of, 53. 
Proper working conditions, 97, 98. 
Proteids, 42, 43. 
Pushcarts, 65, 71. 

Recreation, 103, 105-110, 114, 117; 

in industrial establishments, 110-112. 
Red lead, 153, 155. 

Regulations, as to length of working day, 
195-197; 

for women and minors, 191-195 ; 

legal, 199-201 ; 

sanitary, 198, 199; 

special, 197 ; 

special legal, 201, 202. 
Respiratory system, effects of certain 

occupations upon, 127-129. 
Rest after meals, 69, 70. 
Rising hour, 9. 
Risks, 143, 144. 

Rules for guidance in case of fire, sum- 
mary, 175, 176. 

Safety, in industrial establishments, 137- 
142; 

on way to work, 136, 137. 
Saliva, 43, Si- 
Sanitary regulations, 198, 199. 
Scene, change of, 118, 119. 
Seats for employees, 199. 
Sedentary occupations, 94, 131, 132. 
"Shakes," 160. 
Shallow breathing, 23. 
Shoes, 5, 23, 25, 34, 35, 37, 132. 
Sitting, proper posture for, 94, 132. 
Skin affections, 134, 135. 
Sleep, 9, 10, 25-28, 114, 209. 
Smoking, 59-61. 
Spitting, 85, 198. 
Sports, outdoor and indoor, 105, 106 ; 

value of, 105. 
Sprains, 188. 



INDEX 



231 



Stairways, factory, 201. 

Starch and sugar foods, see Carbohy- 

drates. 

State fire marshal, 172, 202. 
State laws, 67, 68, 195-197, 199-202. 
Stimulants, harmful effects of, 53, 54. 
Stomach, effects of cigarettes on, 59. 
Study, courses, in, 112-114. 
Summer and winter, suggestions for, 

summary, 212. 
Sunstroke, 183, 184. 
Systematic habits of living, 9. 

Teeth, 13, 21, 22, 28. 
Theatricals, amateur, 107. 
Throat, injurious effects of cigarettes on, 
595 

troubles, 134. 
Tobacco, 6, 98; 

and success, 60, 61 : 

as poison, 58, 59 ; 

its effects upon the growing boy, 



points to be remembered in connec- 

tion with, 61, 62. 
"Tobacco heart," 60. 
Towels, 82, 83. 
Trades prohibited to women and minors, 

i94, 195- 
Trips, 118-120; 

about New York City, 120, 121. 
Tuberculosis, 55, 93, 129, 132, 213-221; 

bacillus of, 214; 

dried sputum, cause of, 85 ; 

extent of, 216; 

fresh air in, 218, 219; 

germ, 214-216; 

how to help it, summary, 221 ; 

how to prevent it, 218, 219; 

how we get it, 216-218; 

medicine in, 219, 220; 

symptoms of, 216; 

treatment of, 75, 220, 221; 

what it is, 213-216. 
Typhoid. 55, 81. 

Underclothes. 38. 

Vacation, 116-118, 121, 122-124. 
Varicose veins, 37. 



Vegetables, 45, 48, 52. 
Ventilation, 26, 73, 198; 
system of, 75-77, 161. 

Walking, 15, 16, 67, 103, 104, 109, 118, 

119. 

Wash rooms, 86, 87, 109. 
Waste, disposal of, 83, 84. 
Waste matter, 90-92 ; 

removal of, 90, 91. 
Water. 46, 80-82, 88. 199, 208, 210. 
Water-closets, 86, 87, 199. 
Weather, cold, 204; 

hot, 208, 209. 
Wheels, bursting, cause of accidents, 146, 

147. 

White lead, 153, 155. 
Window board, 77. 
Window cleaning, 148. 
Window tent, 26, 218. 
Windows, 78, 79. 
Women workers, clothes for. 31, 32; 

provisions for, 191-193 ; 

trades prohibited to, 194, 195. 
Work, 91 ; 

capacity for, 89. 90, 95 ; 

effects of too much, 116; 

necessity of, 89; 

night, 96, 97 ; 

physical condition in relation to, 
135; 

posture at, 24, 93-95 ; 

preparation for, i. 2. 
Work clothes, 29-33, 38. 
Workers' rights. 202, 203. 
Workers, suggestions for, 166. 
Working, conditions, 97, 98; 

day, 95, 96, I95~i97. 
Workroom, proper conditions of, 73 ; 

rules for, summary, 87, 88 ; 

space in, 73. 

Workshop, poisonous conditions in, 153. 
Worry, 98, 100. 
Wounds, 177, 187, 188. 

Young Men's Christian Association, 

109. 
Young Women's Christian Association, 

109. 



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