CRAMPTON'S HYGIENE SERIES
HYGIENE FOR THE
WILLIAM H. TOLMAN, PH.D.
DIRECTOR, AMERICAN MUSEUM OF SAFETY, NEW YORK CITY
ADELAIDE WOOD GUTHRIE
DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH, AMERICAN MUSEUM OF SAFETY
C. WARD CRAMPTON, M.D.
DIRECTOR OF PHYSICAL T|AINING, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION
NEW YORK CITY
NEW YORK : . CINCINNATI . : . CHICAGO
AMERICAN BOOK COMPANY
COPYRIGHT, 1912, BY
C. WARD CRAMPTON.
COPYRIGHT, 1912, IN GREAT BRITAIN.
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER.
W. P. 2
PREFACE TO THE SERIES
THE teaching of hygiene fails when it is founded upon
the assumption that a knowledge of anatomy is necessary ;
it succeeds when it uses the ever-recurring affairs of daily
life as the subject matter, and endeavors to regulate those
affairs correctly. It should deal with the establishing of
good habits, not with the learning of abstruse facts, and
should seek to insure the carrying into practice, instruc-
tions given in the classroom. In following out these
principles, the teacher will make a daily inspection of
hands rather than require that a composition be written
upon the structure of the skin and the anatomical effects
To support this kind of teaching this series of books on
Hygiene has been prepared. A book is provided for each
elementary school year from the Fourth to the Eighth
inclusive ; in addition there is, for older girls, a hygiene
dealing particularly with the care of little children and the
health factors of home life, and, for the older elementary
children and for vocational and industrial high schools, a
Hygiene for the Worker.
Each of these books is based upon daily hygienic routine
and the hygienic inspection which should begin the day's
work in every school every day. In addition, the general
topics, such as clothing, food, and exercise, assigned to the
year's work, are treated in relation to alcohol and tobacco,
anti-tuberculosis measures, home hygiene, and the particu-
lar necessities of cold and hot weather.
iv PREFACE TO THE SERIES
The editor has spared no effort to obtain the services of
those who really know the facts, and some of the writers
have international reputation in the subjects with which
they deal. Nevertheless, each manuscript has been sub-
jected to repeated revision by prominent physicians and
school men and women. For hygienic reasons, no half-
tone illustrations have been used, and the specially pre-
pared drawings aim to tell the story concisely. Emphasis
is placed upon the positive constructive aspect of the illus-
tration, and pictures of the distressing and disagreeable are
not to be found. The books are short and emphatic in
essentials, recurring frequently to important points, and
no effort is made to exhaust the subject.
It has been the editor's endeavor, one which the authors
and publishers have strongly seconded, to provide a series
of books adapted directly to the getting of results.
c. w. c.
PREFACE TO HYGIENE FOR THE
IN preparing this volume the author has had access to
the large collection of working models, special reports,
and photographs of the American Museum of Safety, and
to the collections and exhibits of the International Expo-
sition of Hygiene at Dresden in 1911.
Acknowledgment is made to Directors Hartmann,
Karsch, and Mamy, of the Museums of Safety in Berlin,
Munich, and Paris respectively, for their many helpful
suggestions. Special acknowledgment is due to Mr. John
H. Patterson of Dayton, Ohio, for his kindness in placing
his unique collection of several thousands of photographs
at our disposal for the purpose of selecting the most strik-
ing examples of what is being done for safety and in-
dustrial hygiene in the best American shop practice.
The book is based upon actual shop conditions and en-
deavors to set forth in a practical way matters of most
importance to good health, happiness, and efficiency.
W. H. T.
This book, the second volume of a two-book elementary
school series, is designed for boys and girls from thirteen to
eighteen years of age, for special classes preparing to pass
examinations for labor certificates, and for vocational,
industrial, and manual training high schools. It will be
particularly useful in continuation and night schools, for
it is adapted to the needs of all workers, old and young.
vi PREFACE TO HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Prepared upon the plan formulated by the editor, this
book is written by an expert of international reputation in
industrial hygiene. Its facts have been verified by sound
medical authority, and its method approved by teachers of
To equip the worker to care for himself under actual
working conditions as they exist to-day and to add to his
happiness and efficiency are the two purposes of the book.
C. W. C.
I. APPLYING FOR A POSITION i
II. PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK . . . . 9
III. GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER . . . .18
IV. SUITABLE CLOTHING 29 /
V. FOOD AND DRINK . . . . . . -39
VI. ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 53
VII. THE NOON HOUR 63
VIII. HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 73
LX. FATIGUE 89
X. AFTER HOURS 102
XI. HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 116
XII. CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 127
XIII. OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS . . . 136
XIV. OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES. . 153
XV. FIRE .167
XVI. FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 177
XVII. WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT . 190
XVIII. SEASONAL HYGIENE 204
XIX. TUBERCULOSIS 213
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
APPLYING FOR A POSITION
About to go to work. The
boy or girl about to go to
work has reached one of the
most important turning points
If he has finished the ele-
mentary school course, he will
be able to meet most of the
demands of ordinary business
life. If he is fortunate enough
to have completed a high school
training, he will find that he
possesses an equipment that
will overcome many an ob-
stacle in the way of success.
Some of you have been look-
ing forward to this event, eager
to know and to enjoy the in-
dependence that comes only
2 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
through the honest earning of your " bread and butter."
Others, perhaps through necessity rather than choice, are
about to enter the business world, with little realization
of the trials and responsibilities to be met. But the
overcoming of these new trials and the acceptance of
these responsibilities will afford one of the most enduring
satisfactions of life.
Now that you are about to leave your school days and
the more or less irresponsible period of life, you must take
stock of yourself as it were to see what you have to
offer in fair exchange for your first position.
An opening is learned of, perhaps through a friend who
knows of a vacancy, or through an advertisement. You
decide to apply for that position. Now, how do you think
you should go about it? When you present yourself for
a position, bear in mind that you will be closely scrutinized
by the man who may become your employer.
The employer's inspection. Remember that the man,
or firm, employing one or two, a dozen, a hundred, per-
haps thousands of employees, has had a great deal of ex-
perience in judging the character and possibilities of those
who apply for work. The employer, naturally, must have
his own interests at heart in engaging a boy or girl to work
for him. He does not know, of course, what you can do,
but he is able, from his business experience, to " size you
up " and to form a pretty true estimate of what you may
do or may be trained to do.
Manner and appearance. An employer is always ready
to consider the application of a boy or girl who comes to
him with self-confident bearing. This, however, must not
be taken to mean boldness or forwardness.
APPLYING FOR A POSITION
He will pay more attention to the applicant whose person
shows the unmistakable signs of cleanliness, than he will to
him whose appearance is slovenly and untidy. He will
choose the boy or girl who is neatly and plainly dressed, in
preference to the one who comes to him in showy, elaborate
garments, thinking he is making a good impression.
The employer reasons in this way :
" If the person I want for this job is clean and neat and
self-reliant, I may be sure that his morals and methods of
work are equally clean and straightforward. His personal
appearance tells me
he will have the same
respect for his work
that he has for him-
Neatness of appear-
ance is a more impor-
tant business asset
than most boys and
For example, a pro-
fessional man who has
had a wide experience
in meeting all classes
and Conditions Of The employer's inspection
people, recently made the statement that, under no circum-
stances, would he employ in his office a young person who
came to him with unclean finger nails.
It will not be a difficult matter for you to have confidence
in yourself, or to show it in your carriage and bearing, if
you carry about with you a clean, healthy body ; and such
4 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
a condition of wholesomeness is within the reach of all.
The confidence which comes from a knowledge of one's
own efficiency, backed up by good health, is easily dis-
tinguished from the self-assurance of one who is too lazy
to keep well.
The daily inspection. The only way to be sure that
you will make a good impression under the inspection of
the employer, is for you to inspect yourself critically before
you apply for the position. The only way for you to be
sure that you overlook nothing is to get in the habit of
making such an inspection from top to toe every day
before you leave home.
Hair. Most boys and girls, ordinarily, do not value or
pay sufficient attention to the little things that go to make
up a good appearance.
Take the hair, for instance. If you want to make a
good impression, don't apply for a position with your scalp
and hair so unclean as to be offensive.
It has now become the rule, in certain large offices, to
draw the line against the girls and young women whose
hair is fantastically arranged in the extreme of style. Elab-
orate head dressings suggest to the employer a certain
vanity, self-consciousness, and frivolity that render a girl
unable to put her mind seriously upon her work.
Clothing. Here also should be mentioned the impro-
priety of wearing, during business, clothing that seems
suitable only for evening or home use. The type of waist
known as the lingerie is one that the business girl should
not wear in the office. It is neither sensible nor dignified.
Nor is it an economy, for on account of its sheerness it
requires greater care and expense in laundering ; hence, it
APPLYING FOR A POSITION 5
is seldom washed as frequently as it should be. There is
nothing more distasteful to the average business man than
Boys and girls both are inclined to run to extremes of style
in their dress, usually preferring garments that are of the most
up-to-date cut and shape to those of more modest appear-
ance, which are generally found to be made better and
of more enduring materials. This is equally true of hats
and shoes. An employer will probably notice whether you
are wearing elaborately cut and high-heeled shoes, run
down, unbrushed, and with broken laces, or whether your
feet are shod in sensible, well-fitting shoes, kept clean
It is well for the boy and girl about to become wage
earners to remember, in buying their clothing, the counsel
of old Polonius to his son :
" Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not expressed in fancy."
Cleanliness. Do not think there is any substitute for
cleanliness of body. It is foolish to think that the neglect
of the body can be long concealed. A famous physician
once said that, as he walked along a busy city street, he
could always pick out those persons who bathed daily. To
his trained eye, the condition of the skin, the complexion,
and a certain alertness in the carriage of the body, bore
testimony to the habits of the individual.
Do not get the bad habit of loading the body with cheap
perfumes, expecting them to take the place of a bath. As
one man, who has met all varieties of human nature in his
business experience, puts it, " I instinctively distrust the
6 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
person whose body reeks with the odor of cheap perfumes ;
it seems to me like an endeavor to conceal uncleanliness."
This may apply more to girls, but it is equally true that
an employer is prejudiced against the boy or young man
who comes to him smelling strongly of tobacco, particularly
of cigarettes. The cigarettist is seldom a success in the
business world, and, at the outset, he will learn that the
best positions are open to the boys who do not use tobacco.
So small a thing as chewing gum may also stand in the
way of your securing the position you want. It is just as
well to stop such foolish habits and to avoid all these hin-
drances now, so that they will not interfere with your success
later on or cause you to wonder why " the good jobs are so
But even more important than these requisites is that of
Importance of good health. Good health is a prime
factor in success. Not only will it help you to secure a
good position, but it will enable you to keep it and to do
your work well, without undue fatigue and exhaustion. It
will enable you also to do your work with a greater degree
of interest and pleasure.
Good heal this at once apparent in the carriage and posture
of the body, in clear eyes and clean complexion, in a quick-
ness of thought and general alertness, and in steadiness of
If you are not now enjoying the measure of good health
you should have, it is within your power to attain and
Later, we shall offer suggestions for hygiene and right
living that will, if faithfully followed, put your body in the
APPLYING FOR A POSITION 7
best possible condition for meeting the demands of a work-
You cannot afford to be ill, when once you become a
worker, for even if you do not actually lose your position
through irregular attendance due to sickness, you will prob-
ably suffer a loss in wages ; and, once you have been initi-
ated into the joy of pay day, with the wages of faithful
work in your pay envelope, you will not wish to lose any of
the substantial benefits of good health.
Cheerfulness. We might, with profit, dwell upon the
cheerful disposition that usually goes with a healthy body.
We all prefer those friends who are cheerful and amiable.
Isn't it just as probable that an employer will pick out the
pleasant-faced, cheerful boy or girl to work for him, in
preference to one whose expression is sour and gloomy
and whose manner is short and surly ?
Good health is indeed the greatest asset of the boy or girl
who is about to go to work ; for good health enables him to
do better and more useful work, and this, in turn, leads to
greater happiness and success.
THE MORNING INSPECTION
1. Hair. Is it well brushed, well ordered, not greasy?
For girls neatly and securely bound up, without
any extreme in fashion?
2. Face, Neck, Ears, Nose. Clean? For girls the
skin should not be shiny or show any evidence of
3. Eyes. Are they red or inflamed? Is there dirt or
matter in the corner?
8 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
4. Hands. Clean ? Finger nails clean, trimmed, skin
pushed back ?
5. Collar, Cuffs, Shirt. Clean ?
6. Tie. Well tied and neat ?
7. Clothes. Clean, no spots, not mussed, well brushed,
no buttons missing ? Pockets clean and nothing su-
perfluous in them ?
8. Clean handkerchief.
9. Shoes. Brushed, laces not frayed or knotted?
10. Are you starting the day with good posture? Have
you clean skin, clean underclothes? Have you
cleaned the intestinal tract of accumulated waste?
Have you had enough sleep in good fresh air ?
PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK
Getting out of bed. Have a regular hour for rising and
stick to it. Start the day on schedule time without bor-
rowing or losing a minute. It sounds easy, but all of us
know how very difficult it is to leave our comfortable beds
at an early hour, especially on cold, dark winter mornings.
It really requires a great deal of will power to force one's
self out of bed no matter how one feels at the same hour
every day, summer and winter, in
fair or boisterous weather ; but the
good* results of this self-discipline
are beyond calculation.
There is always much to be
gained from systematic habits of
living, because to do the same
thing in the same way, over and
over again, relieves the brain of a
lot of unnecessary thinking about
what must be done. In this way, much time as well as
nervous energy can be saved.
How long to sleep. After experimenting a little in the
matter, one realizes that it is easier to rise at the regular
hour every morning, if the body has had sufficient sleep.
In other words, we commence the day right by going to
bed right the night before and sleeping with the fresh
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
air from the open windows invigorating the body for the
The time needed by the human machine for rest and
repair varies according to the individual. Eight hours of
sleep are required by the average person, but the nervous,
highly strung people usually need more than this, and ten
hours asleep are well spent.
If one has rested comfortably during the night, breathing
in plenty of pure, fresh air, he will rise refreshed by his sleep
and ready for the day's work. That well-known condition
referred to as " getting out of the wrong side of the bed " is
always responsible for the fatiguing?
unsuccessful day that follows ; but it
is a physical rather than a mental con-
Let us be charitable enough to be-
lieve that the " grouch " is the inevi-
table result of wrong habits of living,
which can and should be made over,
if the individual is to enjoy success
and happiness in his work.
Exercises. Having jumped out
of bed, close the windows and begin
your exercises, for the room may
be cold and your body should be
in a glow before the bath.
i. Place the hands on the hips and bend to one side, then
to the other, a little at first, for the muscles are
still sleepy. Begin by doing this exercise twelve
times, but increase gradually till you are doing thirty
vigorous bendings every morning.
PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK
2. Raise the arms slowly forward and
upward as high as you can,
rising on toes
and inhaling ;
pause a mo-
chest full and
ing the arms
to the side.
3. Next clasp the
hands behind you and bend the
knees so that your
fingers touch the
heels. This will re- /
quire some practice
before you can
keep your balance,
but it exercises
muscles you will
hardly use all day.
Twenty times is
Take five full breaths
just as described in
the second exercise.
Separate the feet well
12 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
and swing the arms downward and under as far as
you can, then rapidly swing them up and over the
head, bending backward as far as you dare, then
down again, counting up to twenty times. Go at
this exercise gradually, for the trunk muscles are
often the weakest of the whole body.
6. If troubled with constipation, stand as straight as you
can, and raise the knees alternately to the chest
Now your blood is in good circulation and you are ready
for the bath.
Bathing. Cleanliness is said to be next to godliness,
but it is also very close to success, if we accept the advice
of Benjamin Franklin, one of whose rules of life was to
" tolerate no uncleanliness in body, clothes, or habitation."
Having done your exercises, the next thing to do is to
give the human machine a good cleaning.
The skin of the body is filled with millions of little
glands that are continually secreting waste matter, much
the same as that cast off every day through the bowels and
kidneys. It is evident, then, how very important it is to
keep the pores of the skin from becoming clogged with
the poisonous wastes of the body, as they are when we
neglect to bathe regularly.
Every man's tonic. If you haven't the time or the
opportunity to get into the tub every day, then be sure to
sponge off the body and give it a good rubbing with a coarse
towel before putting on your clothing. If you can accus-
tom yourself to it, a cold bath is far more beneficial than a
warm one in the morning, for it stimulates and invigorates
the body, puts the skin in a glow, improves the circulation,
PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK
and acts as a safeguard against colds and other diseases
which result from a lowered vitality. A cold splash on the
face, neck, and chest should be the rule for even the most
sensitive. At least twice a week, take a warm bath, using
plenty of soap. The best
time for it is just before
going to bed at night.
Teeth. The mouth
and teeth should be thor-
oughly cleansed every
morning. Wash out the
mouth and gargle the
throat. The teeth should
be well brushed with a
moderately stiff brush and
an antiseptic powder,
paste, or liquid. Spend
most of your effort on the
places you cannot see, and
brush up and down, as
well as along the row of
Nose. If you are obliged to work in dusty places, the
nose should be washed, morning and night, with warm salt
water, a half teaspoonful of salt to a cup of water. If you
have any trouble in the nasal passages, a physician will tell
you how to use a nasal douche. But it is a simple matter
to pour into the nostrils a spoonful or so of clean water and
blow it out again. Be careful not to swallow while you are
doing so, for the water many enter the passage which leads
from the throat to the ear and cause serious trouble.
Good teeth and happiness
are likely to go together
I 4 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Dressing. After you have drunk a glass of water,
dress yourself quickly but carefully. Don't dawdle and
don't rush. It is a good plan to brush and clean your clothes
and lay them out at night so that you can put your hands on
them at once in the morning and thus lose no time in hunting
out a clean waist or shirt, the fresh neckpiece, or the missing
collar button. To be obliged to stop and look for something,
to sew on a button, or to replace a broken shoe lace, does not
help in " starting the day right."
Brush and arrange your hair before you put on your coat
or waist, as it certainly detracts from a tidy appearance to
have hairs clinging to the clothing.
Be sure that your nails are trimmed and clean. It takes
but a moment to do this, but the moment's care will add
greatly to your appearance, as well as to your self-respect.
Before leaving the house, see that you have a clean hand-
kerchief with you.
Wear clothing that is comfortable, appropriate for the
work in hand, and suited to the weather. While your work
clothes should be becoming and of as good materials as you
can afford, they should be free from " frills " and eccen-
tricities of style. The question of clothing suitable for cer-
tain kinds of work and for the different seasons of the year
will be taken up in greater detail in succeeding chapters. It
is sufficient to point out here that the simpler and more
businesslike your clothing is, the more quickly you can get
into it in the morning.
Breakfast. Breakfast need not be a hurried meal with
the wage earner. It is better to eat a little less food and
chew it thoroughly than to wash down quantities of half-
chewed food with coffee and tea, which cannot be digested
PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK 15
readily and will cause trouble later on. By eating slowly,
even the coarsest food tastes good ; you will get more pleas-
ure and benefit from it ; and you will find that you do not
need so much. Stop eating as soon as you have had enough.
No one can say how much another should eat, as it is not
how much we eat but how much we assimilate from our food
that makes it nourishing. This must be a matter of in-
dividual judgment, although we know that most of us eat
entirely too much and that intemperance in eating causes
In order to get the best results from it, it is important that
food should be clean, fresh, and nourishing. This does not
mean that it must be expensive. A breakfast of fruit,
cereal and milk, with bread and butter, will give you more
energy for the day, and do you more good than a meal of
meat and fried potatoes and one or two cups of muddy
coffee. Coffee and tea are only whips, and have no food
value in themselves, except in the sugar and milk which are
usually added to them.
Water and milk are the best beverages, although the
latter should really be considered as a food.
Rise from the breakfast table clear-headed and feeling
that your food has given you working power, rather than
heavy and stupid, as a result of improper eating.
Going to work. Try to get away after breakfast in time
to avoid rushing. Too violent exercise, like running to
catch a car, immediately after eating, should always be
avoided. If it is at all possible, walk to your work.
The most beneficial forms of exercise are those that can
be taken in the open air. For this reason, apart from out-
door games and sports, walking is at once the best, most
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
convenient, and cheapest exercise for the wage earner. If
distance or the weather makes walking to your work im-
possible, you should certainly get out of doors for a brisk
walk at the lunch hour, if only for a few minutes. If you
feel chilly or cold when walking, take a few long, deep
breaths, which will help to quicken the circulation of your
blood and make you warm.
Walk with your head high and your chest up, with the
feeling that you are looking the world in the face. Nothing
On time and better !
will so quickly drive away " the blues " on a bad morning,
or increase your stock of courage and self-confidence.
Make it the rule of your business life to be on time. Delays
are very often unavoidable, especially in the city, where the
traffic conditions at the rush hours are responsible for much
loss of time and, sometimes, of temper. But it is much
better to start a little in advance of the actual time required
PREPARING FOR THE DAY'S WORK 17
for the trip to your work, than to run the risk of being de-
layed in reaching the shop or office. Always make up any
time you have thus lost in the working day, by coming earlier
the next morning, by " docking " yourself at your lunch
hour, or by staying later in the evening anything to make
your account good, whether it is noticed by your employers
or not. It is the " keeping square " with yourself that
counts, adds to your self-respect, and enables you to do
honest work, the kind of work that invariably leads to real
Habits which should become invariable. Make a
placard of the following routine and hang it up where you
can see it every morning :
REGULAR MORNING ROUTINE
i. Have a set time for rising and throw the bedclothes
over the foot of the bed not a second later.
2? Take the breathing and setting-up exercises.
3. Cold splash on the face and chest at least; then a
brisk rub with a rough towel.
4. Clean the mouth; brush the teeth, get into all the
5. Drink a glass of water.
6. Visit the toilet and wash the hands afterward.
7. Make your regular inspection of your appearance.
(See Chapter I.)
8. "Work well begun is already half done."
GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER
Forming good habits. The importance of good health
and a neat appearance as factors in success cannot be over-
estimated. In a general way, the employer's point of view
in selecting his work people has been considered, but for
those who realize that an improvement in health and per-
sonal appearance is necessary before seeking positions, it
will be well to put into practice at once those habits of care
and cleanliness that will result in increased efficiency and
self-respect. Incidentally, one of the most important
habits a worker can form is the use of good English and
the avoidance of slang.
Hair. Starting with the hair, which is at once a pro-
tection and an adornment, we notice that in very many
cases it is grossly
neglected. The hair
should be kept clean
and well brushed.
The brushing is im-
portant, because it
brings the blood to the
scalp and distributes
over the hair the oil that is secreted at its roots. This
makes the hair glossy and gives it a good appearance.
The oil, however, should not be allowed to remain on the
GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER
hair and scalp, and mix with the dust and impurities of the
house and street, until the hair becomes heavy and greasy.
It should be thoroughly washed with good soap, green or
castile, at least once a. month, and the scalp massaged in
order to remove the
dirt and scales that
may be clinging to it.
Persons whose hair
is naturally oily can
afford to wash it more
frequently than can
those whose hair is
light and dry, for the
latter condition shows
that the scalp is de-
ficient in the natural
oil. Brushing and
massaging the scalp,
will be of especial
benefit in this case to
increase the circula-
tion; it is also well to
rub in a very little
pure vaseline occa- washing the
sionally at the roots, but not in such quantities as to make
the hair greasy and sticky.
Dandruff may be cured by washing the scalp and
rubbing in thoroughly a little thirty per cent sulphur
Avoid wearing very heavy hats or those that fit too
closely, for they are responsible for many headaches in
20 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
women; while tight, unventilated hats cause premature
baldness in many men.
Eyes. If you have any doubt about your eyesight's
being of normal keenness and efficiency, it will be well to
consult a first-class oculist without delay.
If you are obliged to strain your eyes to see objects clearly
and to hold your book uncomfortably close while reading,
or if you suffer from blinding headaches and nervousness
resulting from eyestrain, it is necessary for you to have
glasses fitted to your eyes to correct these defects of vision.
People who have been suffering from nervousness, stom-
ach disorders, and a general condition of poor health, fre-
quently have found these troubles to disappear when they
have been fitted with proper glasses.
In many kinds of work requiring close application and
accuracy, it is extremely important that the vision be keen
and sure. So good eyesight becomes a commercial asset also.
There are many ways, however, in which the eyes can be
helped while working or reading. The importance of good
light in the workroom will be discussed later on, but it is
well to suggest here that one should never attempt to read
after sundown while darkness is coming on, nor face a very
bright light while reading or working. Endeavor to have
the light come from behind and above you, and, for writing,
to have it come from the left side. Avoid looking directly
at artificial lights, as these put a great strain on the eyes.
Occasionally rest the eyes while working, by closing them
for a minute or two, by looking out of the window, or by
focusing them on some distant object.
If the eyes are weak and inflamed after the day's work,
it is well to cleanse them with a solution of boracic acid, -
GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER
the water will never take more of the powder than it can
hold in solution. Use an eyecup for this purpose and have
the water warm.
Later on, we shall discuss the spread of germ diseases,
including those of the eye, through the use of the public
towel, and the importance of guarding ourselves against
Teeth. Good teeth and a clean mouth are also essen-
tial to the success of the wage earner. The president of a
large steel company recently made the statement that,
under no circumstances, would he employ a young man
with diseased teeth.
Unclean and decaying teeth seriously affect the health of
the worker, for they serve as breeding places for all kinds of
bacteria that become mixed up with the food and finally
reach the stomach and intestines, where they cause fermen-
tation and lead to bodily weakness, if not to actual disease.
In addition to this danger, a greater burden is laid upon
the digestive organs, when the food is not properly broken
up in the mouth and well mixed with the saliva the first
and perhaps the most important step in the process of diges-
22 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
tion. This can be done only by thorough mastication, for
which good teeth are necessary.
Apart from the wear and tear of a lifetime or diseases
that have weakened them, the decay of the teeth is pri-
marily due to carelessness and uncleanliness. The mouth
should be cleansed and the gums and teeth brushed every
time they are used, if possible, but at least on rising, after
breakfast, and before going to bed. Sticky deposits may
be removed by running a bit of silk or dental floss about
and between the teeth.
When a tooth begins to decay, it should be filled at once.
As we are not always able to determine for ourselves when
this happens, it is wise to visit a good dentist once or twice
a year. Have a settled time for doing this and never put
Nose. A good many people overlook the importance
of keeping the nasal passages clean and unobstructed. If
there is any serious obstruction and one has reason to believe
that he is suffering from adenoids or any foreign growth in
the nose, a physician should be consulted and the obstacle to
proper breathing removed. Mouth breathing usually re-
sults from a condition of catarrh or adenoids and seriously
interferes with the health of the body.
The nose has several important functions to perform.
As the organ of smell, it protects the body from inhaling
impurities in the air, poisonous fumes, and gases. The
muscles of respiration begin in the nostrils. The nose
serves to warm and moisten the inhaled air, and also acts
as a filter to prevent germs and dust from passing into the
throat and lungs. We must breathe through the nose if we
would breathe properly and give the body the air it needs.
GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER
Breathing. The majority of people, especially those in
cities, have never learned how to breathe properly ; their
bodies are literally starving for air. The special office of
the respiratory organs is to put oxygen into the blood and
to keep it pure. In deep breathing, a plentiful supply of
oxygen is drawn into the system, and the thoroughly ex-
haled breath keeps the bal-
ance true by carrying off large
quantities of the poisons and
wastes of the body.
In shallow breathing, the
blood does not get the oxygen
it needs to do its work of
carrying fresh and pure mate-
rials to all the cells of the
body ; the cell tissues there-
fore are impaired or break
down, and the general health
Correct breathing is frequently interfered with by the
manner in which one holds his body, or by clothing that is
too tight. When the shoulders are habitually stooped, the
lungs are crowded and cannot be filled with fresh air. Some
of the air cells become inactive, and, finally, diseased.
Clothing that binds the walls of the chest and the abdomen,
preventing them from expanding freely, is injurious. The
body should always be carried erect, with the head held
high, the chin and abdomen drawn in. In order to stand
properly, comfortable, well-fitting shoes should always be
worn. In sitting, the spinal column should be kept
straight and the shoulders even. Do not stoop over
Test each nostril
24 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
your work, so that your heart and lungs are crowded
Deep breathing exercises are very helpful to the worker
and require but a few minutes' daily practice. It is espe-
cially beneficial for workers employed in factory, shop,
store, and office to cultivate the habit of holding the
head erect and breathing deeply whenever they can, espe-
cially as they go to and from their work.
Hands and nails. Clean hands and finger nails are also
factors in success. Not only is there an instinctive prejudice
against the person who goes about with grimy fingers
and with his nails dirty, but clean hands are a protec-
tion against filth and germs that may be carried into the
body, while taking up food, or touching the mouth with
the fingers. Inflammation is frequently
-CLEAN, caused by scratching the skin with dirty
Nails may be easily kept clean if they
are worn short. They should be allowed
to grow long enough to protect the ends
of the fingers, but not so long as to permit dirt to collect
under them, or to run the risk of being broken and split.
The hands should always be washed before eating.
GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER 25
Feet. The feet should be washed every day. Com-
fortable stockings, without holes and seams to irritate and
chafe the feet, shoulcl be worn, and changed frequently -
especially if the feet perspire greatly. Wear shoes that fit
and do not tire the feet, or produce corns or callouses. Thin-
soled shoes do not afford sufficient protection against cold
and dampness. If you are caught in the rain, change your
wet shoes and stockings as soon as possible, and avoid the
danger of chilling the body and developing colds.
Bowels. It is highly important to one's health that the
bowels move freely each day. If the wastes of the body are
retained longer than this, their poisonous impurities get
into the blood and lead to a train of evils. Among seden-
tary workers, especially, there is a tendency to constipation,
which must be counteracted by a greater attention to ex-
ercise (particularly of the type given in Chapter II), by
drinking plentifully of pure water, and by eating foods that
contain more refuse matter, such as vegetables, whole
wheat or graham breads, fruits, and other materials that
cause the wastes to be easily eliminated.
Sleep. To the wage earner, a proper amount of rest
is as essential to health as food, water, and air. The nerv-
ous system, especially, is in need of rest after the wear and
tear of the working day, and there seems to be no way by
which the delicate organisms of the body can be restored,
except through sleep.
Sleep is a mysterious process, about which we know very
little, except that during the period of unconsciousness the
muscles relax, the nerves are at rest, and most of the cell
waste that results from the activities of mind and body is
stopped ; and, if sufficient time is allowed for the process of
26 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
repairing the worn-out cells, they will be built up for the
next day's work.
Without sufficient sleep the health will suffer. If we were
not permitted to sleep at all, we should die.
In this connection, it is well to speak of the benefit result-
ing from observing regular hours for rest and sleep. If the
body is accustomed to being put to bed at a certain hour
every night, the habit of sleeping at that time becomes
fixed, and one drops off to sleep easily and naturally. Social
engagements, entertainments, late suppers, excitement,
worry, and everything that prevents the body and brain
from getting the needed amount of sleep, should be avoided,
especially in the case of workers who must rise at an early
hour. Ordinarily, the body requires at least eight hours of
Sleep and air. It has been demonstrated that out of
doors less sleep is required than when one is sleeping
in a closed room. This is due to the fact that the process
of rebuilding goes on more rapidly when more oxygen is
taken into the system, as is the case when one sleeps out
of doors. The need of oxygen in the rebuilding of the cells
is imperative. So it is well, if you cannot sleep out of doors,
to have plenty of fresh air circulating through your room at
night. If you have but one window in your room, pull it
down from the top and up from the bottom, so that the foul
air may go out and the fresh air blow in. Never mind the
cold ; put on more covering if necessary. Sleeping entirely
in the open air is best, and any one can be almost out of
doors on a sleeping porch or by using a window tent. (See
Better rest is secured through sleeping alone and in a
GOOD HABITS FOR THE WORKER
comfortable bed. If your bed is narrow and the cold seems
to come up from the floor, it is a good plan to cover the
springs under the mattress with a thick pad of paper
newspaper will do for the purpose. This will help to keep
the body warm and comfortable. Warm bed clothing need
Getting fresh air at night
not be heavy. Very heavy covering often tires the body,
and one rises feeling languid and unrefreshed. The pillow
should always be low ; a very high pillow bends the spinal
column to one side, interferes with proper breathing by
cramping the organs, and frequently causes disturbing
dreams. The bedclothes should be aired every day and
exposed to the sunlight as often as possible.
28 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
At night, after getting into bed, lie upon your back and
stretch your arms and legs as far as possible. Then relax
and take ten deep, long breaths, exhaling slowly but com-
pletely. This will be found helpful in composing the mind
and body for sleep, if you are restless.
When we consider that one third of our lives is spent in
sleep, it is wise to make the conditions for complete recu-
peration the very best possible, and to allow nothing to in-
terfere seriously with the intelligent cells in their nightly
task of building up the body for the next day's work.
1. " After dinner rest awhile."
2. Spend the evening as profitably and pleasantly as pos-
sible ; do not steal to-morrow's energy and waste it
on questionable fun.
3. " Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy,
wealthy, and wise."
4. Wash to get clean; use hot water and soap, scrubbing
brush and washcloth; wash the face, neck, ears,
arm-pits, and hands, at least.
5. Splash with cold water the face, neck, and chest, at least ;
take a brisk rub.
6. Brush the teeth and clean the mouth, using dental floss
between the teeth.
7. Visit the toilet and wash the hands afterward.
8. Lay out the clothes for the morning ; hang them so that
air reaches all sides.
9. Open the windows, top and bottom.
Work clothes. Clothes, first of all, should be comfort-
able and should not interfere with the activity of the worker.
If you are obliged to use your arms and hands constantly,
reaching and stretching a great deal, it is evident that
sleeves should be worn that do not bind the arms and seri-
ously hinder your movements. Besides interfering with
the speed and, consequently, the output of your work, they
lead more quickly to fatigue. This may be said of any
clothing that cramps the muscles, keeps the blood from
circulating freely, and causes the wearer to work under diffi-
A great many accidents to women workers have resulted
from the wearing of high-heeled shoes and narrow skirts.
Such garments as these, during work hours, are positively
dangerous and no safeguard can be found against them,
except the common sense of the workers themselves.
So frequent have such accidents become among trav-
elers, that the Pennsylvania Railroad will no longer pay
damages to any one injured in getting on or off their trains,
if it is proved that high-heeled shoes or tightly fitting skirts
were responsible for the injuries received.
Appropriate clothing. There is no reason why the
worker should not present a neat, businesslike appearance,
without thinking it necessary to dress in elaborate, inap-
propriate garments that may prove to be dangerous, as well.
30 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
If you are working in an office, of course your clothing
need not be quite so plain and practical as when you are
working in the factory or shop, because, in the latter places,
not only are your clothes subjected to more dirt and strain,
but you yourself may be exposed to certain dangers that
are greatly increased by the kind of clothing you wear.
Tight clothing of any sort is unsuitable for the busy
worker, but running to the other extreme of loose, thin gar-
ments may prove just as much a menace to health and
safety. Women workers are more apt to be careless
in this respect than men and boys. A business woman
should not go to her work so thinly clad that she is blue and
shivering all day. Very thin waists are, at best, inap-
propriate for work; but while there may be some excuse
for wearing them in midsummer, they are too light for wear
in the winter time, as good health depends so much on keep-
ing the body uniformly warm. In cold or wet weather,
therefore, see that your legs, feet, arms, and body are well
Cautions for the machine worker. If you happen to
work on a machine or near swiftly moving belts and
wheels be careful never to wear loose sleeves, a flowing tie,
or any frayed, torn garments that may catch in the mov-
ing parts of the machinery. Many workers have been
caught in cogs, or whirled to death around shafting,
through such simple things as these.
An insurance inspector tells the story of noticing on one
of his visits to a certain factory a set screw which projected
from a revolving shaft and which he considered very dan-
gerous because the shaft was near a passageway, through
which the workmen were obliged to walk. When he called
SUITABLE CLOTHING 31
the manager's attention to the danger and suggested that
some one would get hurt if the screw was not cut off or sunk
into the shaft, the manager treated the matter lightly.
" Oh," he scoffed, " that screw has been like that for
years. Every one can see it, and the fact that it is ex-
posfed makes it impossible for
an accident to happen." He
had a way of waving his arm
as he spoke, and doing so
this time, his loose sleeve Hair caught up
caught in the projecting screw,
and in an instant he was
whirled to death.
The inspector uses the story
to illustrate the danger of pro-
jections on revolving shafting Elbow Sleeves
and the necessity of guarding Short
the dangerous parts of machin-
ery; but it also demonstrates
the need of a little caution on
the part of the worker who is
obliged to work in proximity
to such dangers every day.
Keep your sleeves well rolled
up, or wear them short, if your
work brings you close to the moving parts of machinery.
Clothes for women workers. Women workers in fac-
tories should never be permitted to wear flowing sleeves or
aprons with long strings, or to have their clothing of such
light material that it may be blown into contact with ex-
posed cog wheels, shafting, or belts running along the floor.
Appropriate and attractive clothes for
the woman worker
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Making a sleeve protector of paper
Women and girls are also in grave danger of being scalped,
if they wear their hair loose and unconfmed while working
at machines running at high speed. Many serious accidents
of this kind occur fre-
quently in factories.
Therefore, girls and
women should wear
caps, made of light,
that completely cover
the hair, preventing it
from coming in con-
tact with the machin-
ery, or from being drawn into it through the electricity that is
generated by the friction of the moving parts. The work
apron should be heavy, not only to protect the dress from the
grease and dirt of the machines, but
also to keep the skirts from catching
in them. It should have short
strings, with no loose ends.
In the office or for any light man-
ual work, sleeve protectors may be
worn by women workers, as coarse
or fine as the work demands or the
taste of the wearer dictates. These
will prove to be a great economy,
keeping waists fresh and clean for a
longer period and also saving them
from wearing out too quickly.
Clothes for the machinist. It is possible for the young
man working in an office to wear collars and cuffs, whereas
The worker dressed for
the machinist can dispense with them. In the latter case,
he is better clad for his work if he wears a flannel or dark
wash shirt, the sleeves of which can be easily rolled back,
and trousers of strong, serviceable material. There is no
reason, however, why he should not put on a collar with his
coat, at the close of the day's work,
adding to his personal appearance,
as well as to his self-respect, when
he passes on to the street from the
Linen. The wearing of clean
collars and, sometimes, cuffs, should
not be considered an extravagance
or a sign of foppishness on the part
of the young worker. The small
amount of money spent in having
linen laundered, if it is not done at
home, does not begin to compare
with what can be wasted on ciga-
rettes in the course of a week.
Don't, however, wear celluloid
collars with the idea that they are
economical and look just as well as
the other kind. They may be
cheap, but, too often, the wearer forgets to clean or change
them as frequently as necessary, and they become very
dirty and unsanitary, and may prove dangerous if they
happen to scratch or chafe his neck. Besides, celluloid
collars are always dangerous if brought very close to a flame,
and many a boy or man has been badly burned when the
head of a match has flown against his collar, setting it ablaze.
The worker dressed for the
34 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Shoes. The feet of the worker are just as important
as any other part of the body and demand just as intelligent
care. In fact, a healthful condition of the feet is closely
connected with a sound condition of body, nerves, and brain,
and, consequently, with the happiness of the individual.
Fatigue and nervousness are more often due to tired, aching
feet than to any other cause.
Shoes, especially the shoes of the worker, should be strong
and comfortable. They should be kept clean and neat. A
worker may find that so simple a thing as keeping his shoes
well brushed sometimes leads to a promotion that remains
a mystery to his fel-
low employees, whose
work, apparently, is
just as good, but
whose appearance is
Thin-soled shoes do
not afford sufficient
protection for the
average worker, par-
This shows a foot distorted by a pointed shoe and ticularly when he is
a foot in a comfortable shoe of natural shape ,
obliged to stand and
work for hours in a cold, wet, or drafty place.
Results of ill-fitting shoes. The worker should wear
shoes that fit and do not tire the feet. Do not try to make
your feet fit shoes that are a size or so too small for them.
Tight shoes and stockings hinder the circulation of the
blood in the feet and legs, and crowd the joints and muscles
so closely together that the nervous system suffers a strain
and shock that is as cruel as it is unnecessary. Heels too
high or too low may weaken the feet; pointed toes and
narrow lasts are responsible for corns and bunions ; and the
condition known as " flat-foot " or broken arch is due to
the wearing of improperly made shoes, or to the fact that the
worker is obliged to be on his feet all day long.
Heels much too high or placed under the arch of the foot,
throw the body into such an unnatural position when walk-
ing or standing, that other muscles and organs besides the
feet are seriously af-
fected. A curious
case of this sort came
under the observation
of a surgeon who dis-
covered, after many
experiments, that an
obstinate eye trouble
was directly due to
wearing badly made
ologists tell us that a
high-arched foot can
be naturally developed and kept in shape by exercise in
walking. The English people are great walkers, and that
is why, it is said, so few are flat-footed.
Special exercises and artificial helps are necessary if our feet
are to be kept normal and we find it impossible to do much
walking every day. The practice of rising on the toes for a
few minutes each morning, bearing the body's weight toward
the outer edges of the soles, has been suggested by foot spe-
cialists, both as a cure and as a preventive of flat-footedness.
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
The signs of flat-foot
are : the foot turned
out, a low and tender
arch, and pains in the
heel, calf, hip, or back.
The defect should be
treated by standing,
toes in, with the
weight resting more
on the toes. When
walking, "toe in" a
little and press on the
t oes as fa e f oo t JeaVCS
the ground. If special exercises are needed, the follow-
ing are recommended to
be performed once a
1. Rub and knead the
foot under the
arch, pressing up
with the thumb
and bending the
toes down with
2. With the toes turned
in a little, raise
the heels high ten
3. Rock back and forth
on the outside
of the feet, with the soles turned toward each other,
4. Turn the toes in and walk forward ten steps on the out-
side of the feet, lifting the heels high, ten times.
5. Rub and knead the foot as suggested in the first exercise.
Do these exercises (2, 3, 4) twice the second day, three
times the third, and so on until you run through the series
ten times a day. These
should be continued until
the weakness has entirely
Special shoes. Per-
sons suffering from corns,
enlarged joints, and bun-
ions, and serious cases
of flat-foot, need special
shoes to correct these evils,
and they should make it
a point to get those that
provide sufficient length and breadth for the toes, and fit
closely at the instep and heel. When necessary, the shoes
should be braced to give special support to the arch and
Certain occupations demand shoes that give more than
Many laundry workers suffer from " flat-foot " and vari-
cose veins, to relieve which special shoes and elastic stock-
ings should be worn at work. For outdoor work, one should
wear shoes that are thick-soled and heavy enough to keep
out the cold and wet.
38 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
CLOTHES FOR THE WORKER
1. Underclothes. Wear linen mesh of different weights
next to the skin all the year round. If necessary,
wear wool on top of the linen mesh ; or light wool
for winter. Change at night.
2. Corsets. Unnecessary if the muscles of the waist are
strong. They may be tight below the waist only.
3. Collars. Neither tight nor high.
4. Shoes. Comfortable and well fitted.
5. Hats. Soft hats are better than the hard derby, which
presses on the scalp.
6. Outer Clothing. When buying clothes, consider the fol-
lowing points :
(a) Durability. How long before you will have to re-
place it ?
(b) Comfort. Do not buy anything that will be a
continual discomfort, even if it looks well.
(c) Style. Simple things are always in style. Striking
clothes often outlast their appropriateness.
(d) Warmth. Good material is more important than
(e) Appropriateness. Is it suited to your work and
(/) Economy. Can you afford it?
FOOD AND DRINK
One is largely what he eats and drinks. The old saying
of the philosopher, " Tell me the company you keep, and
I will tell you what you are/' could be changed into, " Tell
me the food you daily put into your mouth, and I will tell
you the condition of your body and the ailments from
which you suffer."
This is, of course, from the physical standpoint only, but
some food scientists have gone so far as to say that the kind
of food one eats finally acts upon the brain and moral
nature, so that, given a certain diet for a certain length of
time, a great deal of human weakness and meanness would
be corrected and many crimes would be prevented from
The body an engine. The body is very much like a
steam engine, which needs good fuel and plenty of it in
order to get up a good head of steam. The food and drink
that go into the body may be considered as fuel, which will
be turned into power, or energy, to move, to think, and to
Carrying out this idea, we may look upon the air that is
breathed into the body as the drafts which regulate the heat
and help to burn up the fuel, and the wastes of the body as
the ashes and clinkers which must be raked out and not
allowed to clog the furnace.
40 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
It has been said that one puts into his mouth his weight
in food and drink each month. But there should be a bal-
ance between what one takes in and uses in warming and
repairing the body, and what passes off from the body as
useless waste. Not to eat enough, or, as happens in many
cases, not to get enough from the food eaten to make good
blood, tends to make the body weak, if not actually ill ;
while, on the other hand, it is just as bad to take into the
body more than it can use and so keep it clogged and
poisoned with waste. Plenty of exercise, fresh air, and the
habit of drinking an abundance of water every day will help
to shake down the ashes and keep the body in the best con-
dition for using the fuel that is given it.
How much food. It is impossible for one person to tell
another just how much food he should eat each day, for
exercise and very active work make it necessary to spend a
greater amount of bodily heat and energy than are called for
when the body is resting or engaged in lighter tasks. The
size and particularly the age of the person must also be
taken into account. A child demands more tissue-building
foods than does the person who has stopped growing and
who needs only enough of them to repair the cells that are
worn out during each day.
Every one needs food that keeps the body warm. Keep-
ing the body at an even heat, not too hot and not too cold,
is necessary to health and comfort, for we are continually
giving off heat to the surrounding air. Food is also needed
to repair the wear and tear upon the muscles and hard-work-
ing organs of the body. In addition to the foods that warm
and repair the body, we need food that will give an extra
amount of strength and energy which may be used in think-
FOOD AND DRINK 41
ing, playing, or working. So you see we must consider
what food we should eat, how we should eat it so that it
will do the most good, and last but not least, we must be
sure that the body machine is not clogged by the waste that
is renewed daily.
In general, those who are still growing need the most
to eat, the young man and woman somewhat less ; the old
man should eat still less and very carefully.
The more exercise one takes, the more food is needed.
A clerk needs less than a laborer, but he needs to be more
careful in his eating.
Choice of food. The question of diet is attracting more
and more attention. What to eat and what to drink to
make the body more efficient is being studied and discussed
by many scientific writers. Nearly all of them claim that
we eat too much, but that of course depends on the class
of people and the kind of work involved.
While a great many people may be suffering from in-
temperance in eating and drinking, it is safe to say that a
great number of persons in this world do not get enough to
eat, or at least not the kind of food to give them health and
Quite apart from the theories on this subject, the question
of diet should be of interest to every wage earner, as not
only his health, but his efficiency and success may depend
largely on the food he eats.
The cost of food is something the wage earner should
consider. Sometimes we think we cannot get the right
kind of food, because it costs too much ; but this is a mis-
take. Good, nourishing food, if carefully selected, need
not be expensive. The average American worker is the
42 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
most extravagant buyer of food in the world, probably
because he knows so little about what food is of most value
The body is made up of at least fourteen elements, which
are well-known in chemistry, but which need not be dis-
cussed here, other than to say that all of them are necessary
to the body and blood and must be taken in with the air we
breathe and the food we eat.
That is why a varied diet is the best to follow, and when
we look around and see all the articles of food that have
been so plentifully supplied by a wise Providence, we find
none of the needed elements wanting. Moreover, we can
find the fourteen elements in very simple foods. For in-
stance, a grain of wheat contains all of them.
A few general hints and suggestions may be helpful in the
selection and combination of simple foods.
Foods are usually classified under these three headings :
proteids, carbohydrates, fats.
Proteids. The living portions of the body, the organs,
heart, lungs, liver, etc., and the muscles, are made of proteid
material, and therefore when the body needs to grow or to be
repaired, as it must constantly be, we need proteids to pro-
vide the material.
Of course, while we are growing we need much proteid.
As we grow older, we need less and less. Again, those who
do the hardest muscular work and use up much of the struc-
ture of the body need more than those who do not work so
Meats and eggs are the most usual forms of proteids;
fish, beans, peas, lentils, and cheese also contain a -great
deal. Proteid food is the only kind that contains nitrogen,
FOOD AND DRINK
and, therefore, is the only food that contains all the ele-
ments of which we ourselves are composed. So it is ab-
solutely essential to life. In this country, almost every one
eats too much meat. Twice a day is enough for any of us
and once a day for those who are middle-aged. Eating
too much meat and other proteids causes headache and
finally rheumatism in some form or other. This is where
the worker can economize, for meat costs more than any-
thing else, and too much does a great deal of serious harm.
Carbohydrates. The heat and energy of the body are
secured mostly from the carbohydrates and fats. Carbo-
hydrates are also called the starch and sugar diet, which
should make up the largest part of our daily food ; but the
body cannot make good use of most of this starchy food
until it has been changed into a form of sugar by the saliva
in the mouth. Hence we should chew the food enough to
give the saliva a chance to mix thoroughly with it.
In the carbohydrate class are found all the grains (wheat,
oats, corn, rye, buckwheat, rice), potatoes, macaroni,
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
bananas, dried fruits, and all kinds of sugar. Most of the
vegetables may be put in this class, although they often
contain a little pro-
teid and fat, so that
one could live en-
tirely upon vegeta-
bles if he so desired.
Fats. The fat
foods are principally
butter, lard, olive oil,
cream, etc., although many foods containing much fat may
be included, as milk, cheese, pork, ham, bacon, and nuts.
A mixed diet is natural. It has been said that the aver-
age person should not eat more than four ounces of the pro-
teid food each day, and that three ounces of the fats should
be eaten. Many people eat much of their fatty food in the
form of butter on their bread. Every one should eat a good
supply of the starch and sugar foods, unless one is stout.
Then, these foods may be used sparingly. On the other
hand, if one wishes
. , . EAT
to gain in weight, a
diet of the starchy
foods, sweets, and
milk will soon fat-
ten one. All these
three kinds of food
are necessary to
health, and we in-
just about the proper proportion. We seldom make a meal
of only one kind. For instance, a sandwich contains pro-
FOOD AND DRINK 45
teid in the meat, cheese, or egg, carbohydrate in the bread
(which also has a little pro teid), and fat in the butter and
perhaps on the meat. Bread itself contains all three kinds
of food, but is deficient in fat, so we naturally make it up
by spreading butter upon it.
Vegetables. We must be sure that we eat enough food
not only of value for the fats, proteids, and carbohydrates
it contains, but for the apparently useless waste in the form
of fiber that naturally goes with it. The stomach and in-
testines work best when there is enough coarse, indigestible
matter to stimulate them to activity. Hence, we must be
sure to have in the day's list of food green vegetables like
lettuce, turnips, squash, tomatoes, spinach,
and fruit. Neglect of this rule causes con-
stipation, and constipation causes head-
aches, indigestion, colds, and is at the root
of most of our illnesses.
Milk. Of all the foods, milk may be
said to be the most complete. It contains water
all the materials needed by the body : the
fat, the sugar, and, in the cheesy part of
milk, the pro teid or albumin, found in eggs, A b ^^T milk show .
fish, and meat. In addition, milk con- ing the proportions of
water, fat, sugfar, pro-
tains some valuable salts which are useful teid, and minerals.
in making bone. If it were necessary to (After Davison - )
do so, one could live for a time on milk alone, and this is
why it is a perfect food for children. All of the other foods
need to be taken in combination with something else in
order to get the various kinds of elements needed and to
make them palatable.
It is because milk is unclean and full of germs or has been
46 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
spoiled by standing or given in unclean nursing bottles, that
so many babies are made ill. It should always be remem-
bered that stale, dirty milk is dangerous. Many physi-
cians advise that milk be heated, " pasteurized," not boiled,
in order to kill the bacteria and to run no risks of injuring
babies ; but if the milk is clean and pure and not thinned
with water, it need not be sterilized.
Most of the cities are now inspecting the milk that is
used, and dairymen and dealers are not allowed to sell im-
pure milk if the inspectors know about it ; but it would be
well to find out, each one of us, just where our milk comes
from, to be sure that we are getting the best. Don't buy
milk "loose"; that is, from the dirty cans that are kept in
grocery stores, open to the dust and flies, and which are
seldom kept cool enough to prevent the milk from spoiling.
Water. As the body, in normal health, is two thirds
water, it needs a plentiful supply of water every day. Apart
from the liquid contained in our food, we need to drink one
or two quarts of water daily. If, besides water, we drink
tea, coffee, cocoa, or chocolate, they should not be made
too strong or rich. We should do without coffee if we can,
for it often causes indigestive headaches and rheumatism.
Pure water, the drink that has been provided by nature,
is the best beverage. We need water to distribute the food
and warmth throughout the body and to wash the waste
out of every nook and corner. The best time to drink
water is before and between meals. A half glass of water
during the meal is often an excellent thing. The disad-
vantage of drinking water at that time comes only from
drinking too much and using it to wash the food down
instead of chewing it.
FOOD AND DRINK 47
Wholesome food. In addition to food values, the
wage earner needs to be interested in the wholesomeness
of food and the manner in which it is prepared for the
In 1910 the Department of Health of New York City
condemned and destroyed as unfit to eat, 565,074 pounds
of fish, 1,880,772 pounds of meat, and 12,137,375 pounds
of fruit a grand total of 14,583,221 pounds. This enor-
mous total shows how the idea of pure food is taking hold
of our minds, and represents a wonderful saving in life and
health to the community.
Cooking. Food should be appetizing. In many house-
holds, good foods, particularly meats, are spoiled by cook-
ing until they are dry, flat, and tasteless. A great deal of
discontent in our families might be avoided, if the house-
wives selected food carefully, prepared it nicely, and served
it in an attractive, tempting manner. The ill-fed body is
restless and unsatisfied and likely to crave stimulants.
One need not buy the expensive kinds of meat. The
cheaper grade of steak, if well beaten and cooked, not fried,
in a very hot pan, over a hot fire, and turned quickly to
sear the meat and keep in the juices, may prove a much
better steak than the high-priced ones that are served
in the restaurants. A pot roast may be made delicious
when cooked in an iron pot on top of the stove and turned
frequently, in a little water at first, to keep it from sticking
fast to the pot. When, later, more water is added for the
soup and soup vegetables, one has a complete dinner in a
single pot, at a much less price than a regular roast would
Nourishing soups may be had from cracked soup bones,
48 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
and made appetizing by the addition of vegetables and
savory herbs. Clear soups are not nourishing.
Vegetables may be ruined in the cooking, or prepared so
that the natural salts and flavor are not retained. Some vege-
tables are best when eaten raw, as celery, radishes, etc. The
cooking of green vegetables should be begun in boiling water
and salt added when they are about done. Vegetables
should be served as soon as cooked and should not be
allowed to stand in the cooking vessels.
Potatoes, peas, green beans, asparagus, and other deli-
cately flavored vegetables, should be cooked in less water
than the stronger ones, such as cabbage, onions, turnips,
and carrots, whose flavor may be softened by changing the
water during the cooking process.
Potatoes are more nourishing and digestible when baked,
boiled, or mashed than when fried. Beans, peas, and len-
tils, when dried and then cooked, are cheap substitutes for
Wheat, oats, rice, and corn are all cheaper than meat and
contain more food elements. As breakfast foods, these
cereals may be combined with sugar, milk, or fruits to make
them more palatable and to give variety to the diet; as
desserts, they may be used in combination with sugar, eggs,
fruit, or milk, and baked. When these cereals, in the form
of breads, are combined with butter, cheese, eggs, ham,
peanut butter, or nuts, they furnish a more substantial fare.
Buying. By buying staple foods in quantities and per-
ishable foods only when needed ; by refusing to take stale
meat, dirty and half-rotten fruits and vegetables, because
they are "cheap"; by doing a little more cooking at home
and less running to the groceries and delicatessen shops for
FOOD AND DRINK 49
small quantities of prepared foods at extravagant prices;
by selecting foods wisely and with a view to the needs of
the body; by preparing them in an appetizing manner; by
eating only what the body requires ; and by chewing that
thoroughly, we would soon do away with a great deal of
the hard times and high prices which at present so seriously
affect the wage earner.
It is a striking sign of progress that our public schools are
now teaching domestic science, and that our girls and young
women are learning the economic, scientific side of cooking
and housekeeping. They should be given every opportu-
nity for development and practice in this branch of study,
for the health and efficiency of our wage earners depend as
much on " scientific management " in the kitchen as in the
shop and office.
Importance of chewing food thoroughly. As has been
pointed out before, it is not what we eat, so much as what
we make our own, and take into the blood to nourish us,
that counts. Probably half or two thirds of what we now
eat would be quite sufficient to nourish us, if we selected
our foods carefully and took time to chew them thoroughly.
The mouth is really the most important of the digestive
organs, for it breaks up the large pieces of food and, by aid
of the saliva, prepares the food so that the stomach and
intestines can manage it. These organs cannot do the work
of the mouth ; their work is entirely different. The stom-
ach has no teeth.
Food should be ohewed until it becomes a paste or liquid.
Gladstone, the great English statesman, believed that his
long life and health were due to his habit of chewing every
mouthful of food forty times. Horace Fletcher, whose
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
system of eating for health is now widely known as " Flet-
cherism," cured himself of ill health of long standing, and
built up his body so well that, at sixty years of age, he
showed greater strength and endurance than young Ameri-
can college athletes.
This, he claims, was done by following a very simple
diet, eating only when he was hungry, and thoroughly
chewing his food
until it became a
liquid in the mouth.
Mr. Fletcher, who is
what he calls a one
third eater eating
only about a third
as much food as is
took the Yale Uni-
versity crew work
with the freshmen,
who were all three
The first processes in digestion
thirds eaters. At
the end of seven
days' training, he had lost no weight and was in as good
shape as when he commenced. The younger men, on the
other hand, had lost weight, some of them had to rest from
the work, and they were not in as good condition as when
they started the experiment.
One of Mr. Fletcher's rules is : " Do not eat when you are
mad or sad, only when you are glad."
This shows the close relation between the mind and the
ability to digest food. It is a well-known fact that indiges-
FOOD AND DRINK 51
tion will follow, if one eats when very angry or in great
We may not go quite to the extent that Mr. Fletcher
does in his belief that chewing food into liquid form will
cure all human ills, but we are quite certain that we neg-
lect this matter too much and that proper attention to it
will be repaid in better health and longer life.
Thorough chewing does more than to break up the food
and to help the saliva flow. It draws blood to the muscles
around the mouth and leads to better formation of the
jaws. People who chew their food thoroughly and also
take plenty of exercise suffer little from digestive troubles
and do not, as a rule, have appendicitis.
Even fluid foods may be " chewed," that is, held in the
mouth and thoroughly mixed with the saliva. In this way,
they not only will prove more digestible, but will be much
more enjoyed than when gulped down. Because soups,
milk, mashed potato, and cooked rice can be easily swal-
lowed, a great many people do not chew them at all, and
then wonder why their food does not "agree" with them.
The saliva itself, which flows abundantly as a result of
chewing, helps to cleanse the teeth and is a killer of germs,
or bacteria, which otherwise would pass into the stomach
and intestines alive. This is the reason why so many
people suffer from stomach and bowel troubles, particularly
in the summer, when it is difficult to keep foods fresh.
1. Good food is cheap and will taste as good as expensive
food if you chew it long enough.
2. If forced to economize, cut down on meat.
52 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
3. Too much meat causes more headaches than does hard
4. Well chewed and digested carbohydrates and fats will
keep one warm.
5.- Green vegetables keep the intestinal tract and the brain
6. Milk is the best food. He is wise who uses it.
7. Water is as necessary to life as air, and almost as cheap.
8. Hot, clear soup is a tonic to the stomach, not a food.
9. Every one should know something about cooking.
10. Unchewed food is so much loss. It is the stomach's
business to digest, not to chew.
ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO
The source of power. The power we have to do our
day's work is the power generated within our bodies, just
as power is generated in an engine, by the fuel consumed.
The result is energy.
Everything that can be converted into energy is useful to
the human machine. Anything that cannot be so used, or
that detracts from the regular amount of energy, is a tax
and burden upon the machine, even when it is not actually
Alcohol is not a food. There are many articles of food
and drink which the physiologists tell us are of little or
no value whatever to the body in its daily work of manufac-
turing energy. But the most harmful of all these articles
A great many people have the notion that anything that
causes the human machine to act more quickly, in other
words, to create heat and energy by a shorter route than
usual, is useful. But it is as great a mistake to believe this
as to think we must always turn a strong draft of air into
a fire to get heat. We get the heat, to be sure, but in doing
so we burn up the fuel very quickly, and the fire frequently
goes out when we need it most.
This is exactly what stimulants do to the food we take
54 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
into our bodies. We may get a false kind of energy for a
while that seems to enable us to do our work better, but a
reaction always follows ; and, the next time, we find it nec-
essary to take a little more of the stimulant in order to get
the desired effects.
While it may be true that stimulants have an occasional
use in cases of emergency and sickness, it is equally true
that the person who has been depending on stimulants for a
long while is unable to respond to them when the crucial
An acquired and dangerous habit. Why do people
think they need a stimulant at all? It is a well-known
fact that the taste of any kind of alcoholic drink is very
unpleasant to a young child. The taste for alcohol is ac-
quired, totally unlike the taste for fruits, sweets, and whole-
some foods, to which the young are naturally attracted.
Alcohol does not really quench the thirst, as so many
people wish to believe, but brings a greater thirst in its
train and often leads to regular habits of drinking and
It is only when people have wrong habits of living and
do not eat a proper amount of nourishing food, or give their
bodies a proper amount of rest and relaxation, that they
feel the craving for stimulants. When nature calls for rest
and food, they spur on the weakened, fainting body to
greater exertion, through the excitation produced by beer
If this should happen only once or twice, no great harm
might be done, and we should not need to take up the ques-
tion so seriously ; but, if the practice is kept up, it soon be-
comes a very dangerous habit.
ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 55
Alcohol and illness. Not only does the use of alcohol
lead to exhaustion and a gradual weakening of the nerves,
but it also reduces the ranks of that wonderful little army
of fighting blood corpuscles, or phagocytes, that stand
always on guard throughout the body to resist the invasion
of disease germs. In consequence, a person addicted to
the constant use of alcohol suffers from an impairment of
vitality and a blood stream so poor in quality that he is
unable to resist disease. Among adults, alcohol drinkers
are the first to succumb to pneumonia, typhoid, and tuber-
Alcohol and length of life. The person who uses alcohol
in any of its forms is less likely to live as long or to
work so efficiently as the one who does not. Alcohol quick-
ens the circulation and weakens the walls of the blood ves-
sels. Professor Metchnikoff, the eminent French scholar,
who has been devoting his labors to the solution of the
problem of " old age," advocates entire abstinence from
alcohol, because it leads to degeneration of the arteries, a
common cause of death among Americans who have been
prominent in the business world and the professions. It is
a combination of overwork, insufficient rest, and overstim-
ulation that kills off the active, hustling American before
his time and puts an end to his usefulness. In the city of
Leipzig lived a man who wanted to know if the men who
drink much alcohol are sick more often than those who
are not habitual drinkers, and if the first set of men live
as long as the others. He went to a prominent insurance
company and obtained the facts about a large number
of men, the sum of whose ages reached nearly one mil-
lion (952,874) years. He arranged the ages at which these
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
men had been sick, and at which they had died, by periods
of ten years, thus :
No. OF NON-
No. OF NON-
l5- 2 4
Interpreting these figures by percentages, he found that
for every 100 non-drinkers, between the ages of 15 and 24,
who had been sick, there were 180 drinkers who had been
sick. Arranged in columns (the black representing those
who drink) the results were as follows :
ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 57
Study these tables carefully and work out for yourself
just how much risk of disease and death you incur by
Alcohol and accidents. Every effort, either mental or
physical, involves the expenditure of a certain amount of
energy, which, in normal health, is restored from day to day
by proper attention to air, food, sleep, and hygiene.
Even a moderate use of alcohol is dangerous, especially
to the worker. " It interferes with the steadiness of nerve
action and with normal judgment, and so becomes a fre-
quent cause of accidents in the industrial world.
It is believed that the largest number of accidents in
shops and mills takes place on Monday, because the alcohol
that is drunk on Sunday takes away the skill and attentive
care of the workman. To prove the truth of this opinion,
the accidents of the building trades in Zurich were studied
during a period of six years, with the result shown by this
The heavy black lines represent the accidents on Mon-
days ; the light lines, the accidents on the other days of the
week. There are thus about three accidents on Mondays
to two on the other days.
58 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Alcohol and assaults. A famous German scientist made a
recent study of the days of the week on which a number of
assaults occurred and the places where they were committed.
He found that 628 assaults were made on Sundays and holi-
days, 182 on Mondays, 95 on Tuesdays, 67 on Wednesdays,
62 on Thursdays, 82 on Fridays, and 94 on Saturdays.
Seven hundred and forty-two of the assaults were made
in the saloon, 86 at home, 98 on the street, 87 at work hours,
and 102 in unknown places.
Tobacco. In connection with the use of alcohol, we
must consider the question of tobacco and what it does not
do for the human machine.
While, as we have pointed out, in rare cases of sickness or
emergency, an alcoholic stimulant may be considered of
some value, it is very difficult indeed to find even so slight
a reason for the use of tobacco.
Tobacco a poison. Tobacco is not a food, nor a sub-
stitute for food. It does not meet the body's need of water,
and the smoker of tobacco is very likely to become a drinker
of alcohol. Tobacco does not help the lungs to take in air.
On the contrary, it hinders the work of the minute air cells
in putting oxygen into the blood. The presence of oxygen
in the human system is necessary to life, but the habitual
smoker shuts down the normal supply of oxygen, so that
his tissues become impaired or broken down.
A noted physician says that tobacco is really a poison
and that in the mode and intensity of its action it cor-
responds to prussic acid. He mentions a case where a fatal
result followed in three minutes, after a poisonous dose of
nicotine had been given. In another case, death occurred
in five minutes.
ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 59
The effects may be bad enough in the adult user of
tobacco, but they are likely to be far worse in the boy and
cause an impairment of growth and early physical pros-
Cigarette smoking. Cigarette smoking is the most
harmful of all the tobacco habits. Because the cigarette is
small and cheap, it is within the reach of the average boy.
Most boys learn to smoke through using cigarettes, or the
butts of cigarettes given them by older boys. Inhaling
the smoke of cigarettes, that is, the taking of the smoke into
the lungs, is especially dangerous. In this way, a greater
quantity of the poison gets into the system.
Cigarette smoking irritates the delicate membranes of
the mouth, throat, and lungs, renders them unable to do
their proper work, and also partly paralyzes the nerves that
control the breathing, so that the blood suffers from want
of air. It also interferes with the regular action of the heart,
which is obliged to work much harder and yet is unable to
pump as good blood through the body as formerly. It
constantly overstimulates the stomach, so that the digestive
juices are secreted when they are not needed and the stom-
ach becomes tired and weak. As a result, a boy cannot
digest his food properly and his body is half starved.
Cigarettes injure his nervous system, so that he cannot
sleep so much or so soundly as he should. He becomes tired,
lazy, and unwilling to exert himself in the proper exercise
a growing boy should have.
All of these interruptions stop the boy's growth, and he
becomes a weakling, stunted in body and mind, though per-
haps with the appearance of brightness. Diseased in body
and mind, is it a wonder that his moral sense also becomes
60 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
perverted? Irresponsible and with no interest in sports,
studies, or honest work, a cigarette fiend may soon drift into
crime. The record of fifteen boys recently sentenced for
crimes showed that ten of them had stolen to get the means
of buying cigarettes.
Tobacco and success. From a recent study made in our
public schools, it was found that the cigarette smokers were
more nervous, had poorer memories, poorer eyesight and
hearing, worse manners, were more unclean in their persons,
more untidy in their dress, took a lower rank in their studies,
failed more often to make their promotions, were older,
slower workers, more untruthful, and, altogether, were
greatly inferior in physical, mental, and moral development
to their classmates who did not smoke.
It is stated by an eminent authority, that, in fifty years, a
tobacco user never took first honors at Harvard.
Napoleon III of France ordered an investigation of boys
in the government training schools of that country, and
found the smokers so inferior in physique, intellect, and
morals, that the use of tobacco was strictly prohibited in all
of the schools under government supervision.
In the United States, it is found increasingly difficult to
get suitable men for the army and navy. There are always
plenty of men to enlist, but few of them are found fit for
service. The most important cause of this unfitness is
stated to be the " tobacco heart " from which so many of
the applicants suffer.
If a boy is ambitious to win a worthy, honorable success
in life, he cannot be a cigarette smoker. There are so many
competitors in the business world for the good positions,
that an employer will always pick out the applicant who
ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO 61
has the best equipment in health, brains, and morals.
Many employers will simply glance at a boy's hands when
he applies for work, and the telltale yellow stain on his
fingers is enough. His limitations are at once apparent.
He is told more or less politely that his services will not be
How can a working boy afford to smoke ? The cost of a
small cigarette is trifling, but, as the habit grows, the cost of
" a smoke " multiplied by its frequency, by the days, months,
and years, represents a very great waste in real money, to
say nothing of the tremendous waste in physical and mental
Nobody really needs to smoke tobacco or to drink alcohol.
If you do it at first, " just for fun " or the excitement of it,
you must face the fact that, in consequence of the habits that
fasten themselves upon you, you will be obliged to give up
very many of the wholesome, natural pleasures of life that
mean so much to the boy and man.
And, if you fall into the way of using these things, be-
cause you think either is an aid or rest or stimulant when
you are tired and discouraged, just reflect how many tonics
and restoratives Nature supplies at no cost whatever.
1. Alcohol is only a stimulant, a whip to the tired or ir-
ritated body. It is not a realj food.
2. A craving for alcohol and tobacco is caused by weakness
or nervousness which should be combated by hy-
3. The use of alcohol is due to lack of self-control.
62 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
4. Alcohol decreases resistance to disease, and increases
trouble of all kinds.
5. Tobacco tends to cause sickness, malnutrition, laziness,
and often moral depravity. It interferes with
growth and success in school and in business.
6. Very few business men will engage a boy who smokes
7. If you need a tonic, spend more time out of doors.
8. If your body is tired, give it more rest and sleep.
9. Fatigue calls for rest or change in one's routine, and
not the excitations produced by stimulants.
10. Your body should be fed with wholesome foods, not
11. It does not make one more manly to smoke or drink.
Every one, even the smoker and drinker, respects
the man who does neither.
THE NOON HOUR
Getting ready for lunch. The noon hour is a welcome
break in the working day, particularly if the worker has been
obliged to sit or stand steadily throughout the morning,
or if the nature of the work has cramped the body in an
The first thing to do is to cleanse the hands and particu-
larly the finger nails with hot water and soap. Ordinary
dirt is bad enough, but some factory dirt is actually poison-
ous. If you have your own towel as you should, wash your
face whether it needs it or not, just for the sake of feeling
better. As a simple sanitary precaution the washing of the
hands before eating ought to become a life rule. Next
cleanse the stomach by drinking half a glass of water, and
you are ready for lunch.
The place for lunch. Many workers in shops, and par-
ticularly in offices, get their lunches outside. These are
fortunately situated, for they have a chance to get a little
change from the monotony of their work and to breathe in
fresh air. A good many workers, however, choose their
midday meals very unwisely. The lunch should be of more
nourishing food than a piece of pie and a cup of tea, or a
combination of coffee and doughnuts. Articles like these
cause indigestion, headaches, constipation, nervous irrita-
64 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
bility, especially when they are swallowed hastily, half-
Take time to eat slowly; even if you do not eat quite so
much, your food will do you more good. Wholesome food,
well digested, has more to do with energy and business
ability than most young workers realize.
It will not take you long to find out which restaurant or
lunch room within easy walking distance of your work gives
Choose the clean, airy restaurant
the best quality of food, the neatest and cleanest service, at
the most reasonable prices. Cheapness does not mean
quantity. Your food should be clean, of good quality, and
well prepared, in order to give the best results in the way
Avoid the lunch room which swarms with flies, where the
THE NOON HOUR 65
tables are sloppy and dirty, the plates and dishes half
washed, and where the waiters, in soiled, greasy clothing,
and with dirty hands and unclean ringer nails, are allowed
to serve food.
In any clean, dairy lunch place, you will be able to buy
good nourishing food very cheaply. A bowl of bread and
milk, milk and crackers, bread and butter and fruit, cocoa
and buns, sandwiches, or a dish of soup will give you more
working power than pastries, meats, hot breads, tea, and
coffee. As you must spend the rest of the day in active
work, a few wholesome articles of food, well chewed, will
do you more good than a variety of heavy foods.
If you buy your lunch from the delicatessen shop or
grocer, or from the street vender, apply the same rule of
cleanliness. Don't forget to wash the fruit you buy from
the pushcart man before you eat it. He may be a vender of
disease as well as of
oranges, grapes, and
apples. The fine dirt
of the street, rilled
with the germs of
all manner of disease,
the dried sputum of
human beings, and the
excretions of animals, A cracker carton makes an excellent lunch box
settles on the fruit that is sold to you. If you stopped to
think, you would not be able to eat this fruit just as you buy
it. The oranges and bananas may be peeled, the apples,
pears, and peaches are sometimes pared, but grapes, cher-
ries, and figs are usually taken right into the mouth.
The lunch box. If you find it cheaper to bring your
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
lunch from home, see to it yourself that your lunch box is
emptied out every night, cleansed, and aired. Use a paper
cracker box that you can throw away, or purchase a fold-
ing box of tin from which you can wash the stale flavor
of yesterday's lunch.
Good bread and but-
ter, cheese, fruit, sand-
wiches made of eggs,
peanut butter, Ameri-
can or Swiss cheese, or
any cheese that can
be spread, homemade
jams and jellies, are
more nourishing and
lunches of rich, heavy
cakes, pies, and pick-
les. Vary the diet
by having rye, whole
wheat, or graham
bread, sometimes, instead of the fine white kind. A little
jar of prunes or other stewed fruit, apple sauce, or a baked
apple will go well with the bread. If you have some one
to make it for you, a cup custard occasionally will be a
pleasant and nourishing change. If you buy something to
drink with your lunch, by all means let it be milk, rather
than tea or coffee. Milk is a food as well as a drink. In
the long run beer never pays.
Fresh air at noon. Whether you are a " time-worker " or
a " pieceworker," whether your lunch time is thirty or sixty
minutes, try to get out every day for a few breaths of fresh
A folding lunch box is easily kept clean
THE NOON HOUR 67
air. Better to forfeit a little money at the noon hour, than
to endanger your health by overwork and lack of pure air
in your lungs. So, unless the weather is very bad and you
are not protected against it, go out every day for a brisk
walk, even if it is just around the block, and breathe. Keep
your mouth closed and take in long breaths of air very
slowly, exhaling them just as slowly.
Don't go out to smoke. A great many boys fall easily
into the habit of smoking cigarettes because they do not get
enough to eat. After you become a wage earner, you are in
a position to use your good sense and judgment and can
select for yourself the foods that will build up body and
A nourishing lunch, well chewed, and a brisk walk in the
fresh air will bring their reward in renewed energy, better
circulation, steadier nerves, and happier spirits. You will
go back to your machine, bench, or desk, feeling refreshed
and equal to the afternoon's work, to say nothing of the
work of to-morrow, next week, and next year.
State laws. A few of the states have already regulated
the time to be allowed for the noonday meal, but the law
should be generally introduced, in order that the workers
may have every opportunity to rest and relax from the
morning's efforts, as well as to eat in comfort.
The General Labor Laws of the state of New York specify
that " in each factory at least sixty minutes shall be allowed
for the noonday meal, unless the factory inspector shall per-
mit a shorter time."
As a result of the investigation made by the Secretary of
Commerce and Labor of the United States into the condi-
tion of women and children wage earners in the ready-made
68 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
clothing industry in this country, it was found that very
few out of many factories visited made any provision for
lunch places for the workers.
A model lunch room. In the best of these factories a
room is partitioned off from the workroom and is fitted up
with a gas range, coffee urns, and all necessary cooking
utensils. The tables are covered with clean white table-
cloths, and silver knives and forks are provided. The
owners of the establishment, the foremen, and heads of
departments usually eat here with the employees. Good,
plain food, well cooked and neatly served, is furnished at a
very reasonable cost and the bill of fare is changed daily.
Pure milk is supplied in bottles.
The employee takes a tin tray on entering the lunch room,
goes to the serving table, where his order is placed on the
tray, and then selects a place at one of the tables where he
is able to eat his noonday meal in comfort.
Management of the lunch hour. Where no room is
specially set apart as a lunch room, some firms supply fold-
ing tables which can be set up in the workroom, and allow
their employees to make coffee at lunch time. In many
shops it is the custom for peddlers to come around at noon
and to supply the workers with fruit, sandwiches, cakes,
candy, milk, lemonade, soda water, or whatever they wish
This is especially the case in large cities, where food
venders are numerous and a great many workers depend on
them for the noonday meal.
In many factories, a club of girls or men will send
one of their number outdoors at the noon hour to buy the
food needed. Sandwiches, salads, canned goods, bread and
THE NOON HOUR 69
butter, cakes, pies, tea, coffee, or milk may be brought from
a nearby restaurant or delicatessen shop, while fruit and
candy may be bought from the street vender. Sometimes,
all of the food needed at the noonday meal is bought from
the pushcart in the street.
In the absence of lunch places, the workers eat their food
in the workroom, but as so many factory workers are what
is known as " pieceworkers," they take no more time than
is absolutely necessary, sometimes eating their food with-
out stopping their work. Even the employees who do not
eat the noonday meal in the shop, usually hurry back and
start working just as soon as possible, in order to lose no
In cotton mills and glass works, men and women both eat
in the workrooms, or out of doors, when the weather is
pleasant. Many of the women workers in these trades are
not provided with chairs or stools while at work, so they
are obliged to use as seats, the tables, benches, boxes, or
anything that happens to be at hand.
Evidently this system is all wrong. The body cannot
get good results from food eaten in haste and discomfort,
in the midst of unattractive, if not positively unhealthful,
The importance of rest at noon. An interesting experi-
ment was made by a physician, who gave his two dogs
their breakfasts of the same food and under exactly the same
conditions. Then one dog was put in his comfortable ken-
nel to lie down and sleep, while the other dog was taken out
with his master, who drove a long distance into the country,
the dog running beside the carriage. On coming back, the
physician examined the dogs' stomachs and found that the
70 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
food given to the first dog had been digested and had passed
into the blood, while the food of the dog that had been
running was still in his stomach, undigested.
This shows that when we work very hard, using the blood
in active muscular or mental work, the digestive juices do
not flow and digestion cannot go on. Under these circum-
stances, food is nothing but a burden to the body. Many
a worker digests his breakfast, lunch, and dinner, if at all,
after he goes to bed at night. During his meals and be-
tween them, he has been exerting himself, or is worried,
hurried, nervous, and irritable. The stomach has no
chance at all and has to wait until the worker is asleep be-
fore it can commence to turn the food into blood, that will
build up the worn-out cells and tissues.
This manner of living certainly does not pay the worker,
who has a right to such conditions in the shop or factory
as will keep him in just as good working order as the ma-
chine he runs.
Aids to digestion. Music, cheerful conversation, rest,
and leisure in eating are all aids to digestion and help to
make the workers more efficient and happy.
At a large manufacturing plant in the Middle West, the
employees decided they needed a clubhouse, so they talked
the matter over with the management and secured a house
close by the works. The company furnishes room, light, and
heat, and a committee of employees manage the club, serv-
ing from 300 to 400 people every day with good, warm,
nourishing food at a cost of 10 to 20 cents. The receipts
pay for all expenses, and the committee are able to lay aside
a few dollars each week towards future improvements. A
phonograph fitted with records of the best classical and
THE NOON HOUR 71
popular music entertains the men during the noon hour,
and they return to their work refreshed in mind and
An attractive, well-furnished room, in which the women
employees of this same firm can eat their lunches, rest,
read, and have a social time during the noon hour, has
proved profitable to the company as well as to the girls.
Formerly, 50 per cent of the girls were constantly leaving
their employ, but now the work conditions are so attractive
that there are always applicants waiting for a vacancy.
In another well-organized factory employing about 1000
people, in addition to the comfortable lunch rooms for men
and women employees, opportunities are given for dancing
during the recreation hour, the musicians being volunteers
from the working force. A reading room and library have
also been installed, which are well patronized by the
Some of the best department stores also make provisions
for lunch and rest rooms for employees, though at present
it is the exception rather than the rule for employers to
furnish lunch places for their workers, for the law does not
require it. Employers are as a rule far-sighted enough to
see the practical results of such" arrangements.
THE NOON HOUR ROUTINE
1. Clean up and take a drink of water.
2. Get out of the shop if possible.
3. Fresh air and change are quite as important as food.
4. Eat clean food with clean hands in clean places.
5. Don't eat street dirt on food purchased from pushcarts.
6. How you chew is as important as what you chew.
72 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
7. Good company and cheerful conversation are the best
8. Milk is more nourishing than coffee and either is better
9. Give the food a chance to do you good after you have
spent your money for it, by taking a rest or a little
quiet recreation after you have finished eating.
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM .
Proper conditions for the workroom. A sanitary work-
shop demands enough space in which the individual may do
his work comfortably, an even temperature, a proper sup-
ply of fresh air, neither too dry nor too moist, good light-
ing, pure drinking water, a general condition of cleanliness,
and proper facilities for the workers in the way of clothes
closets, wash rooms, and toilets.
Space. Many employers make the mistake of crowding
too many workers into a small space. The passageways
are too narrow for safety, and the operators of machines
daily risk their lives by being exposed to gears, pulleys,
belts, and other moving parts. If you know such condi-
tions to exist in a factory, avoid working there, and do not
sacrifice your health and possibly your life. The factory
laws of New York allow 250 cubic feet of air space to each
It was Shakespeare who said, " I am in health I
Ventilation. One can manage to live for days and days
without food, as has been shown by explorers, and workers
who have been trapped in mines and quarries; without
water, one can exist for a shorter time ; but, if the air supply
is completely cut off, one will die in less than ten minutes.
The outdoor worker is likely to live longer and be more
74 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
healthy than the average indoor worker, because of his
opportunity to breathe in a plentiful supply of pure air.
Effects of impure air. There is no doubt that impure
air is one of the most serious dangers to which the indoor
worker is exposed. The air in houses and workshops is
A light and well-ventilated workshop
soon filled with the impurities and poisonous wastes cast
out by the people who breathe it in and out, over and over
again, to say nothing of the dust, germs, and countless tiny
particles of injurious material ' that get into the air from
the work itself.
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 75
The breathing in of dirty air is just as harmful as the
drinking of impure water. People who would not think of
bathing in the same water in which another person has
bathed, sit in crowded theaters or moving-picture halls, or
work in close, dusty rooms, breathing the air that is loaded
with the impurities cast off by other people.
Working in dusty, badly ventilated rooms is responsible
for many diseases, particularly of the lungs. The best phy-
sicians prescribe pure, fresh air as the principal part of the
treatment for tuberculosis. How much more important,
then, is fresh air in the prevention of such diseases!
Overheated, poorly ventilated rooms also tend, by affect-
ing the digestive organs, to lessen the body's resistance to
disease; for our food, if it is to do us good, must be combined
with the oxygen in the air we take into the body. The
headache, dizziness, faintness, loss of appetite, low vitality,
and fatigue from which so many shop workers suffer may
be traced to the same lack of the life-giving principle in the
air that is breathed. Again, it is the oxygen that we take
into our blood that enables the body to keep itself warm ;
and when, instead of the oxygen, we breathe in air loaded
with impurities, the blood becomes thin and poor in quality,
making us much more liable, as the saying goes, to " catch
cold." One does not keep warm by shutting up all the
doors and windows in a room. On the contrary, it has been
found that it takes more fuel to heat stale air than is needed
to make a well-ventilated room comfortable, even on the
cold days of winter.
Ventilating system. The vice president of a well-known
typewriter factory recently told this story, illustrating the
advantage of having a ventilating system in their factory.
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
" One day in August," he said, "I took the train from
New York to Hartford. It was the hottest ride I think I
ever took. ' Surely,' I said to myself, ' the factory will be
closed this afternoon.' On the contrary, I found everybody
in his place, the rooms comfortable. In fact, I walked about
three miles in the factory on my tour of inspection, without
the slightest discom-
fort. This was all
due to the ventilating
system that had been
is not so much of a
problem in small fac-
tories which are not
overcrowded, or where
open doors, windows,
and revolving fans
can keep a reasonable
supply of fresh air
the rooms. If you
work in factories or offices of this kind, where the ventilation
is controlled by the workers themselves, good sense and con-
sideration for the other workers must be shown in the matter
of keeping windows open or closed. As hot, impure air
has a tendency to rise, the windows should be open a little
from the top to allow the foul air to pass out, and they
should be open at the bottom to allow the fresh air to
Certain windows in a shop or office cannot be opened
Removing bad air
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM
without causing discomfort to some one through disagree-
able drafts. In such cases, the windows may be fitted with
boards across the bottom, or the window sash when raised
may res ton a board that fits closely to the frame, or the type
of window ventilator protecting from drafts and used in
many offices and factories may be
installed. An improved " window
board " is made of glass and placed
inside the window sill so that the
window may be opened six inches or
more and the air directed upward.
In large factories, however, and
especially in those in which there is
a great quantity of dust thrown off
by the work, a system of proper
ventilation can be secured by forced
drafts, by which the dusty, impure
air is sucked out of the workroom
and a current of fresh air blown in.
Heating. A crowded workroom
is much more comfortable if it is
kept cool. Extremes of heat and
cold should be avoided. For the
average worker, who is properly
clothed, the temperature should not be allowed to rise above
68 degrees. On the hottest days of midsummer, the workers
will do more and better work if there is a system of exhausts
and cooling fans.
Humidity. Excessive moisture and excessive dryness
of the air are both harmful to the worker. An average hu-
midity between 60 and 65 per cent has been found a good
An improved window board
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
standard. There are simple instruments to determine the
humidity of the air, just as the thermometer measures heat
and cold, and these should be installed in every workroom.
The health of the worker is closely related to safety, be-
cause anything that tends to lower the vitality or make the
worker less alert and
watchful increases the
chances of accidents.
Statistics prove that
more accidents happen
when the worker is
fatigued, or run down,
than at any other time.
Lighting. The ques-
tion of lighting in work-
shops is also of very
great importance. The
best light, of course, is
that which makes it un-
necessary to strain the
eyes even on cloudy
days. But in many
factories and offices,
particularly in cities, such an ideal condition is seldom
to be found.
In a badly lighted shop, the worker is obliged to bring
his work too close to his eyes, thereby causing strain which
may lead to chronic eye trouble. According to one author-
ity on this subject, the area of the windows in a shop
should equal at least one sixth of the floor space. They
should reach almost to the ceiling, and the glass should be
The hygrodeik, which measures the humidity
in the air
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM
pure white, ribbed or prismatic. In narrow streets, lined
by tall buildings, windows made of prismatic glass, which
refracts and diffuses the light, probably allow more light
to enter the room than any other kind. The window glass
should always be kept clean.
It has been stated that at least 80 per cent of head-
:hes are the result of eyestrain. As a great many people
are obliged to work
every day by poor
light or artificial light,
they suffer a serious
loss of nervous energy
that might otherwise
go into their work.
A dingy room may
be greatly improved
by the frequent wash-
ing of windows and
by whitewashing the
walls at least once
lights are absolutely
necessary, they should
be as steady as pos- An eye '
sible, not too glaring, and should not overheat the work-
room or burn up the air. For these reasons, electric lights
and those known as the mercury vapor lights are among
In addition to their bad effect on the air and the eyes of
the workers, open flames in a workshop greatly increase the
8o HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
danger of fire in those factories where light, flimsy, or ex-
plosive materials are handled, and where the rooms are
overcrowded, giving the workers little chance of escape if
a fire does break out.
Bad lighting is very often the cause of serious accidents,
and statistics show that the greatest number of accidents in
factories and workshops occur during the months of the
year when the days are shorter and the natural light is less.
For purely business reasons, therefore, many owners and
managers have found it wise to install the very best type of
electric lighting in their shops, thus preventing accidents
and sickness among their employees.
Water. Another matter of great importance to the
worker is the provision of pure drinking water. Fresh
water of good quality should be found in every office and
workshop, if the management expects the workers to remain
in good condition. The human body, in normal health,
is two thirds water. Therefore, aside from the water
contained in foods, we should drink freely of it every day.
Drink as you commence work, before luncH, and at the
close of the day at least, and if you can, in the middle of the
morning and the afternoon. Water is needed by the blood
to help it carry nourishment to every part of the body. It
is also necessary in helping the body get rid of waste ma-
terial. Many cases of catarrh, constipation, rheumatism,
and colds, all of them due to accumulation of waste in the
body, have been cured simply through drinking two and
three quarts of water daily.
So it is necessary that the worker find plenty of good
water convenient during the day. But the water must be
pure. It has been pointed out by a physician who is an
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM
authority on preventable diseases, that 85 per cent of the
cases of typhoid fever in this country are due to drinking
impure water. Impure water also causes stomach and
F en the line A C
How to make a paper drinking cup (Chicago Board of Health)
bowel troubles, which may make" it necessary for the worker
to be Absent for a day or so at a time. This means a money
loss to the worker and the employer loses the value of the
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Several years ago, a factory owner put in a water steril-
izing apparatus at a cost of $1500. He states that it has
actually saved him $2000 each year since then, because of
the greater efficiency of the workers and the greater regu-
larity in their attendance.
When water tanks or coolers are used, they should be
cleaned every day, and the common drinking cup should
not be permitted. According
to the laws of New York and
other states it has now been
If the management does
not supply the individual
paper cups, it will cost each
worker but a few cents to get a
heavy glass or serviceable cup,
which may be kept clean and
strictly private. Too many
dangerous and loathsome dis-
eases have been spread through
the use of a public drinking
cup, to allow the worker to
take any risks in the matter.
Drinking cups may be made
of little squares of paper.
The sanitary drinking foun-
tains of the " bubble " type
are probably the best means of providing clean water.
They are now in use in many public places, schools, and
shops where a great number of people are employed.
Towels. The hygiene of the workroom includes the
Have your own towel, glass, and
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM
individual towel, as well as the individual drinking cup, as
many people have been disabled or disfigured for life by
using towels after they have been infected by other people
suffering from contagious diseases. In this way painful
skin diseases are spread, and the eyes may be infected and
Recently, a very intelligent man, doing useful work as an
inspector, was practically obliged to give up his position,
because of blindness in one eye that
came from using a towel that had
been infected by some one else.
Try to keep a towel for yourself in
your own locker or drawer, if you
have one, and take it home regu-
larly to be washed.
It is a good plan, which some
factories are already following, to
supply the workers with paper
towels that are at once cheap and
sanitary. These towels come on
rolls ; each is perforated and can
be easily torn off from the roll,
for individual use. When soiled,
they are thrown into the waste can or basket, and later
Waste. Each factory should be supplied with enough
strong, metallic waste or refuse cans, to take care of all
the trash that accumulates during the day. Not only does
this plan result in keeping the floor in a clean and sanitary
condition, but it positively reduces the danger of fire. Co-
operate with your employers and protect yourself, as well
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
as your fellow workers, against such dangers, by putting
into the covered receptacles provided all greasy rags, lunch
papers, and the useless and inflammable waste that may
come from your work.
Going through the works of a large steel company, a
visitor, seeing some rats scuttle off, asked the official who was
showing him about, if the new cables were ever found
broken or defective. " Why,
yes," he replied, "it is a great
puzzle to us to find out just why
it is so, but it is true that many
of the cables do not give the
service they should." " Did it
ever occur to you that you are
raising a large family of rats on
the lunch refuse that is left lying
about the floors and yards? "
asked the visitor. The official
saw the connection at once and
resolved to install strong, well-
covered cans to take care of what
had formerly been the food sup-
ply of the rats. In a short while the works were free from
these pests and the cords and cables were kept in better
Handkerchiefs. If you are engaged in handling dan-
gerous or poisonous materials, be careful always to keep
your hands away from your mouth and eyes, and thoroughly
wash your hands, arms, and face before eating. Always be
supplied with a clean pocket handkerchief; keep it for your
nose and mouth and do not use it also as a polisher for your
Metallic waste can
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM
shoes or as a wiping rag for your machine. Do not cough
or sneeze into the air if you can help it. Many persons,
unconscious of the fact that they are suffering from tuber-
culosis, have spread the disease in a crowded shop through
such carelessness as this.
Spitting. A sanitary shop will be well provided with
spittoons and will rigidly enforce the rule against spitting
on the floor. The dried sputum on the floor is responsible,
more than any other
cause, for the wide
spread of tubercu-
losis in shops and
In this respect, as
in so many others,
you can cooperate
with the management
for safety and health
by doing the right
thing. Even if you
are careless about your
own health^ you have
certainly no moral
right to endanger the
lives of your fellow
Lockers. The provision of suitable clothes closets or
lockers should be regulated by state law, but a great many
far-seeing employers are installing them on their own ac-
count. These lockers may prove to be a guard against the
spreading of contagious disease, as the clothing of the
Well ventilated metallic lockers
86 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
workers may carry the germs of diseases from which mem-
bers of their families are suffering. Lockers should be
strongly constructed and well ventilated, so as to keep the
belongings of the workers in safe and hygienic condition.
One employer has gone further than this, in connecting a
heating system with the lockers, so that on cold or rainy
days, the workers, when they are ready to go home, find
their outdoor clothing warm and comfortable.
In many shops, these lockers are connected 'with the
wash room, so that a man may keep his belongings in the
same compartment where he washes up after the day's
work. Each man is given a key to his own locker.
Wash rooms. Every shop and factory should be pro-
vided with sanitary water-closets and good washing facili-
ties. A plentiful supply of hot and cold water and soap
is necessary, especially if the workers are engaged in very
dirty or dusty trades. In those where the dust and fumes
are poisonous, as in the case of lead, phosphorus, and mer-
cury, every facility should be given for washing the hands
before eating, for cleansing the body by means of shower or
spray baths, and for changing the clothing before going
home. One of the largest paint factories in the world pro-
vides its workmen with clean clothing every morning. At
night, the clothes the workmen have worn during the day
are laundered. Baths are insisted upon, the workers being
given time by the company for this purpose. In this way,
the management protects the workers from much of the
danger of lead poisoning.
The factory inspectors complain that many of the water-
closets connected with factories and shops are in very bad
condition. There are usually too few for the number of
HYGIENE OF THE WORKROOM 87
workers employed, and are generally in an unsanitary and
Already some states have taken up the question of regu-
lating the number of toilets a factory should have, accord-
ing to the number of people employed in it. Where there
are both men and women, separate toilets are required.
One state has distinctly specified that " when the number
employed is more than twenty-five of either sex, there shall
be provided an additional water-closet for each sex up to
the number of 50 persons, and above that number in the
Water-closets should be light, well ventilated, and have
floors that can be easily and frequently flushed out. The
workers themselves are often responsible for the unsanitary
conditions that exist, through carelessness or an indecent
disregard for the rights of others.
Here, again, the value of personal cleanliness and personal
cooperation with the management must be pointed out, if
you are to do your share in keeping the work place clean,
safe, and healthful, not only for yourself but for all of those
who work with you.
RULES FOR THE WORKROOM
1. If you cannot have out-of-door work, be a fresh air en-
thusiast and get good ventilation for yourself and
co-workers; keep out of doors as much as possible
when not working.
2. Get good light from above and behind, with no shadows
on your work, if possible. Do not hold the work
too near, and rest the eyes occasionally by looking
88 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
at a distance. Wear an eye shade if the light must
come from in front.
3. Drink a glass of water at least three times a day. Avoid
the common drinking cup ; have a cup of your own.
4. Have a clean handkerchief and use it.
5. Do not spit on the floor.
6. Keep your clothes locker clean and in order.
7. Do not subject yourself to contagion from a dirty toilet.
The necessity of work. In order to live in a self-respect-
ing manner, every one should make good his or her place
in the world. Every one consumes something; therefore,
every one should produce something.
Next to being unable to work, the greatest misfortune is to
be without work. Idleness not only causes want, suffering,
and discontent, but it also leads to physical and moral
degeneration, and, finally, to vice and crime. The worker
usually lives longer and is healthier and happier than the
The mechanism of the average human being creates a
certain amount of energy over and above what is needed
to keep the body in good running order. This fund of
energy must not be allowed to go to waste. If it does not
find an outlet in useful work, it will spend itself in ways
that are harmful.
Capacity for work. In itself, work is a good thing. On
the other hand, there is a limit to every one's power to
perform work. This limit varies in accordance with the
nature of the work, the constitution, the personal habits, the
frame of mind of the individual, and the -conditions under
which the work is performed.
If the body and brain are forced to work beyond their
natural capacity, if the work is too severe, or kept up too
long at a time, making it impossible to get the required
go HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
amount of rest and recuperation, then the vitality is weak-
ened, and sickness and disability will result just as surely as
in those occupations which are considered dangerous to the
worker on account of dusts, poisons, and accidents.
Under normal conditions, the human body as a machine
is greatly superior to a steam engine. Out of the heat and
energy created by the body in eight hours of work, one fifth
can take the form of mechanical work. A steam engine or-
dinarily is able to use only about one eighth of the total
energy created, or set free. The body makes better use of
food than the steam engine does of coal.
Every machine, however, will sooner or later break down,
if kept constantly at work, or pushed to the limits of its
energy. Overworking the human machine to physical and
mental exhaustion is one of the greatest evils of the present
Removal of waste. As we already know, the human
body is a great chemical laboratory or workshop, where
changes are constantly going on and where food and air
are being made over into tissues, blood, and energy. At
the same time, there is a constant pulling down of worn-out
tissues that are turned into waste material with every breath
we breathe, every thought we think, every stroke of work
We must get rid of these poisonous wastes through the
exhaled breath, the kidneys, bowels, and skin. Health is
really the keeping of a true balance between the income of
the building materials of air, food, and water, and the outgo
of the bodily wastes and refuse. An engine cannot work
long unless the ashes and clinkers are removed; neither can
In working with the muscles or brain, an increased supply
of blood is sent to the parts where it is needed. This is
because the wearing out of the cells and tissues is going
on more rapidly at these points.
Work can be done only while a muscle is contracting.
The mind flashes a command to a muscle, or set of muscles,
to do a certain piece of work. The muscle contracts, using
what it needs of
the food in the
cells and the oxy-
gen in the blood
and casting aside
as waste what it
Cause of fa-
tigue. -- The
waste products re-
sulting from the
heat and energy
accumulate in the
system very rap-
idly. If the work
is too long continued, if the supply of food in the cells is
exhausted, if the oxygen in the blood is burned up, if the
poisonous wastes cannot be removed quickly enough but are
allowed to remain in the body for any length of time, then
the worker shows the symptoms of fatigue.
By a strong effort of will, we can force our tired muscles
and brain to keep on working after the fatigue point has
been reached; but in doing so, we only increase the fatigue
Healthy brain cell
Exhausted brain cell
9 2 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
products in the blood and run the risk of seriously injuring
the nervous system.
When a muscle becomes fatigued, it cannot respond and
contract so quickly, and is not able to set free the same
amount of energy as in normal health. The structure of
the nerve cells then undergoes a change, on account of the
circulation in the blood of the poisonous fatigue products,
and the kidneys and liver also become fatigued. It is
always noticeable, in doing an unusual amount of work, or
when the brain is working with great concentration of effort,
that the kidneys are very active. This is because it is the
function of the kidneys to drain off a large proportion of
the wastes of the body, and, when these are being cast into
the blood at an abnormal rate, the kidneys become over-
worked. Were it not for the power that resides in our
bodies to get rid of these waste products, we should die
from the effects of the poisonous materials.
It has been definitely proved that a condition of fatigue
is due to the poisonous effects of the waste created by over-
exertion of the body. Dr. Thomas Oliver illustrates this
clearly in his account of the experiment made by injecting
some of the blood of a fatigued dog into a perfectly healthy
one. The dog receiving the fatigue poison shortly after-
wards showed signs of weariness, crept into a corner, and
went to sleep.
The fatigue point. The fatigue point, as has already
been shown, differs with the occupation, the constitu-
tion, and the personal habits of the worker. Some persons
are always more easily tired than others, as they have started
out in life, evidently, with weak nervous systems. Some-
times this condition of nerve weakness, or neurasthenia, as
it is called, may be the result of great mental strain or
effort. People who have suffered what is known as nervous
prostration are usually afflicted with nerve weakness the
rest of their lives.
Many children, particularly in the congested districts of
our large cities, are brought up badly nourished, badly
clothed, and subjected to hardships that result in stunting
the growth of their bodies and weakening their nervous
systems. The children of parents who work very hard in
certain occupations are usually smaller in size, less intelli-
gent, and more feeble than the children born of healthy
parents and brought up with the additional advantages of
nourishing food, plenty of fresh air 7 , and play.
Thus, it can be seen that every worker does not start out
with the same physical equipment. Persons with weak
nervous systems, who become exhausted yery quickly,
need a greater amount of care, rest, and recuperation from
their efforts than those endowed with more nervous endur-
Posture at work. There are many occupations where
the effects of assuming a strained posture while at work
are in themselves injurious, besides adding to the natural
fatigue of the worker.
Shoemakers, cigar makers, tailors, weavers, watchmakers,
engravers, bookkeepers, all suffer from cramped muscles
and a constriction of the chest that results in shallow breath-
ing, which, taken in connection with poor circulation of the
blood and other unhealthy conditions, makes these workers
liable to tuberculosis of the lungs.
The chests of shoemakers who do home work and of
cobblers show the effects of the constant pressure against
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
the last they are obliged to hold between their knees. In
some cases the chest bone and ribs are driven in so far as
to form a deep hollow.
Sedentary occupations combined with monotonous repe-
tition of 'the same muscular efforts are especially fatiguing.
In addition to the danger of bronchial and lung diseases,
these workers also suffer from indigestion and constipation ;
as a rule, they do not live so long as those workers whose
greater freedom of
No one need allow
the body to be dam-
aged, no matter what
the work may be.
The one strict rule is
this : keep the back
straight from the hips
to the neck; keep
the chest high. If
you must lean for-
ward, bend at the
hips. While this may
be hard at first and
fatiguing for a while,
it is worth the effort;
unless this is done,
the body will become permanently bent, the chest contracted,
and the organs of the body, heart, lungs, stomach, liver,
and intestines, cramped and liable to disease. If the body
becomes tired, use nature's method of relieving it : stand
Correct posture for work
and stretch, putting the arms back of the head, press
back, and take a full breath. This usually induces a nat-
ural, restful yawn which relieves all tension.
Many occupations might be enumerated which cause an
abnormal strain upon certain muscles of the bodies. Those
positions which require constant standing are very fatigu-
ing; among the workers who suffer in this respect are the
tenders of mangles and other machines in laundries, the
salesmen and saleswomen in stores, those who are obliged
to stand while working at machines in factories and shops,
motormen, and others. In addition to fatigue, these workers
also suffer from flat-foot, a condition we have previously
But there are other things that contribute to the fatigue
of the body even more than the nature of the work and the
posture of the body in doing it.
Work, too long or too fast. Under normal conditions,
a reasonable amount of work is never injurious to any one.
But the expenditure of energy must be balanced by a proper
amount of rest and relaxation. If the body is forced to
keep at work after the fatigue point is reached, day after
day, without sufficient sleep or opportunity to find health-
ful recreation, the reserve fund of energy stored in the
cells of the body is used up ; 'and, if the strain is continued
up to the limit of exhaustion, there may be a sudden re-
volt of the overtaxed organism and a collapse that may
prove disastrous physically and mentally.
In connection with the question of overstraining and
overspeeding the human machine, we come naturally to a
consideration of the proper length of a working day. This
is a matter which is now being seriously studied in our
9 6 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
country, and legislation regulating the number of working
hours in certain occupations is increasing in the various
The general opinion is that the working day in the
majority of occupations is entirely too long, and that the
same quantity of work could be performed in fewer hours
with greater benefits to both employer and employed.
Night work. In addition to the evils resulting from long
working hours, we must consider the effects of night work.
Since this requires sleeping in the daytime, it is
always more or less injurious because the worker cannot
get the sound, refreshing sleep he needs. Usually, when
the workers live in small, crowded apartments, in congested
districts, the noises that commence with daylight make it
impossible to secure restful sleep. The weather at night
is also more moist and chill than during the daytime, and,
if the worker comes from a heated work place, he runs a
great risk of being made ill by the sudden change of atmos-
In those industrial plants where the furnaces are kept
going throughout the year, or working seasons, as in the
case of glass works, two shifts are kept constantly at work.
In many places where two shifts are worked, it is the cus-
tom to have the employees alternate, that is, work one
week during the day and the next week at night. This
means that the worker must learn to sleep one week in the
daytime and the next week in the nighttime. Many
people find it hard to make this change in their sleeping
habits, and, consequently, suffer from insomnia. The lack
of sound, restful sleep, the irregularity of meals, and the
discomfort of making the change from day to night work,
all tend to weaken the nervous system and to reduce the
worker's powers of resistance to disease.
The practice of keeping two shifts at work leads also
to the evil of working many hours over time. For instance,
in rush seasons, a laborer may work throughout his own
shift and then part or all of the next shift, keeping at
work continuously for twenty hours or longer. Such hours
mean a terrible strain upon the vitality and nervous en-
durance of any worker, and lead to exhaustion and early
While some progressive employers are reducing the hours
of work for humane and practical reasons, much remains
to be done in the way of laws, strictly enforced, as protec-
tions from the evils of overwork and industrial fatigue.
Proper working conditions. Reasonable work hours, a
proper amount of good fresh air and a system by which the
bad or dusty air may be drawn off, good lighting, avoiding
the fatigue due to eyestrain and the danger of accidents,
pure drinking water, the providing of seats for employees,
especially women, a lunch period long enough to allow the
workers to rest and relax and to eat the midday meal in
comfort, all of these sanitary conditions in the workshop
will reduce a large part of the fatigue and weariness now
felt by many industrial workers.
The practice of allowing a brief recess in the middle of
the afternoon, when most workers experience what is called
" three o'clock fatigue," is now being followed by a few
far-sighted employers who realize that the health and vital-
ity of the workers is one of the most important factors in
the success of the business.
Remember that it is only the overfatigue that is harmful.
98 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
A person healthily tired will quickly find recuperation in
rest and sleep. For this reason it is highly important that
the worker get enough sleep to repair the waste caused by
the day's work.
Personal habits. The personal habits have much to
do with keeping one in good condition for work, or in adding
to the fatigue due to other causes. It is well known that
intemperance in eating and drinking or overindulgence in
tobacco and alcohol or any of the physical appetites, uses up
the vitality and nervous energy more quickly than the actual
performance of useful work. Everything that tends to
devitalize the body should be strictly avoided.
The fatigue point, particularly in mental work or any-
thing requiring concentrated care and attention on the part
of the worker, may also depend largely upon the individual's
state of mind. The body needs four fifths of the energy it
creates to keep itself in repair and good working order, but
if one hurries or worries at his work, he uses up more than
one fifth of the energy left for activity of any sort. One
could sit still all day, without doing a stroke of work and
worry to the extent of using up all the energy in the body as
fast as it is manufactured.
Another reason why one should not worry while working
is that the hurried, worried person cannot breathe prop-
erly. His breath is quick and shallow and, in consequence,
he cannot take in the supply of oxygen needed to purify
the blood and help the organs do their work. He is usually
irritable and nervous, and suffers from disorders of the
digestive organs. He cannot do so much work, in the long
run, as the cheerful, steady worker. Cheerfulness is always
a factor in good health and successful work.
As Carlyle has so well said :
" Give us, oh, give us the man who sings at his work !
He will do more in the same time, he will do it better, he
will persevere longer. One is scarcely sensible of fatigue,
whilst he marches to music. Wondrous is the power of
cheerfulness, altogether past calculation its power of en-
If, however, in spite of devices and precautions to pro-
tect the worker from fatigue, in spite of sensible habits of
living and an effort to keep in a cheerful frame of mind, the
worker feels he is going beyond his strength and is steadily
losing ground, then it is time for him to take a vacation or
change his position. In a condition of exhaustion, one is
of no use to himself or to any one else. No worker can
afford to run the risk of passing beyond the limits of his
strength and nervous endurance, and of becoming physi-
cally bankrupt, with the prospect of never being able fully
to regain his vitality.
The worker should never take advantage of good hours
and consideration on the part of the employer, but should
show his appreciation by constantly doing more than is
required. While laziness may in some cases be due to poor
health, there is seldom any excuse for it. To shirk is
poor policy, for it prohibits advancement and injures fellow
workers more than it does the employer.
1. " An idle mind is the devil's workshop."
2. If you have no steady work, use your " off " time
steadily to improve your knowledge of the next
loo HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
higher job, working in the public library or cor-
3. At night the body must make good the day's wear
and tear by the removal of waste products and the
repair of tissue. This is best done by relaxation,
rest, and sleep in fresh air. Do not add fatigue by
4. Quick, hard, brilliant, nervous workers need more rest
than slow, steady ones, and mustt>e more careful to
5. Get the habit of sitting well at work; it costs nothing
but effort, and it pays.
6. Always stand with chest up ; rise on the toes and shift
the weight frequently.
7. Accept lower wages at another job if your work is too
hard or too long. No one can repair you if you are
run down too far.
8. If you must work at night and sleep in the day, get in
your sleep first, putting cotton in your ears, if
9. Do not worry. Attack troublesome problems bravely,
reach conclusions quickly and as best you can, then
dismiss the matter from your mind. " Work while
you work, and play while you play."
10. Do not be hurried. " Plan your work and work your
11. If you cannot sleep, you probably are not following out
the evening routine of Chapter III.
12. To avoid insomnia :
(a) Clear the mind of the day's work. Think steadily
of something different and pleasant.
(b) Before retiring, take a short walk in the open air
and twenty full breaths with light exercise.
(c) Drink a glass of water, cold or hot.
(d) Do not toss, lie still on the back, arms over your
head, and breathe deeply.
The end of the day. At the end of the day, remember
always to leave your bench, machine, or desk neat and
tidy. Leave everything in such shape as to indicate to any
The work bench at the close of the day
one who may see it what kind of worker you are. If, for
any reason, you are prevented from coming in the next
morning, there will be no cause for confusion or delay in the
AFTER HOURS 103
work. One never knows what a night may bring forth, so
it is well to live each day " as though it were your last."
Don't quit work before your time is up. Many workers
watch the clock as the day draws to a close, and trifle and
idle away the last quarter of an hour, if not longer, as if that
time did not belong 'to the employer as much as any other
period during the working day.
When it is really time to leave, go quietly. In your
eagerness to get out among the first, don't make the youth-
ful mistake of pushing, crowding, and shoving aside your
fellows. Apart from the rudeness and lack of consideration
shown by such haste, it may bring serious results, especially
where a great number of people are at work. Crowding
and pushing frequently cause accidents at elevator doors,
on landings or stairs, and at the exit doors of buildings.
Going home. When you have finished the day's work,
try to shut it out of your mind completely. The hours that
belong to you before a new day commences should be used
for rest and recreation.
If you are still at school, plan your time so that you will
get the needed rest and come to school with the tasks
all prepared to make a businesslike profit of the day's in-
In proceeding to your home, apply the same suggestions
for health and safety as when you went to work in the morn-
ing. If you are an indoor worker, walk home if possible,
giving your lungs a chance to expand and to get rid of the
stale air of the workroom. If you live too great a distance
from your work to do this, then get off the elevated or sub-
way train a station or so before you reach your destination
and walk the rest of the way home. This will cleanse your
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
body, set your blood to circulating briskly, and give you an
appetite for dinner.
This little exercise will enable you to carry to the evening
meal a fund of good spirits, that will add to your own en-
joyment of the meal and cheer the other members of your
family, who have also been working all day.
If, on the other hand, your work has so tired your muscles
that you do not feel physically able to walk home, then, by
all means, before eating, lie down flat on your back and
rest a little while. This will give the blood a chance to
Make the evening meal a cheerful time
return from the overworked brain and muscles, and will put
the stomach in better condition to digest the evening meal.
The evening meal. Put away your work and your wor-
ries when you sit down to eat, remembering only the pleas-
ant or humorous happenings of the day, which you can
AFTER HOURS 105
Do not treat your family in the superior manner so many
young people affect, regarding their relatives as necessary
evils and hindrances that must be endured, somehow.
Remember always that the family is quite as necessary to
your happiness and development, as you are to the family's ;
and that no matter what the environment is into which you
have been born, it is within your power to make it better
and brighter, if you desire to do so.
Your future happiness will be much greater if you carry
with you the realization that you are doing all that is in
your power to add to the welfare of the home folks. You
will never regret sharing with them your pleasures, inter-
ests, and plans; while, on the other hand, they will be
greatly benefited by being put in touch with the new
methods and new ideas you are able to bring to them from
the outside world.
Importance of recreation. It is of the greatest impor-
tance to the worker to know how to play and to relax after
the strenuous efforts of the day. The child may not need
to be stimulated to play, but it is usually difficult for the
grown-up person to find recreation that will benefit both
body and brain.
Play keeps one active in body, mind, and spirit. Not only
do games and sports improve the circulation, help to burn
up the useless wastes of the body, and make the mind more
active and alert ; but they have a social value also, bringing
us in touch with other personalities and teaching us to ex-
ercise self-control, fairness, patience, courtesy, and con-
sideration for the rights and feelings of others.
Billiards, basket ball, bowling, roller skating, and other
indoor sports are valuable; but, for the worker who spends
io6 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
most of his time indoors, the out-of-door recreations, such
as walking, boating, swimming, croquet, tennis, baseball,
ice skating, and football, are even better, as they afford
better light and air along with the exercise.
Every worker should have some one interesting recrea-
tion or hobby, as a safety valve, or outlet for superfluous
energy, as well as a rest and change from the regular work.
As a rule, the hobby will present itself without much effort
on the part of the young person to find it. It will probably
be something in line with one's natural tastes and aptitudes.
Music. For instance, many young people have a nat-
ural talent for music and like to spend all the time at their
disposal in practicing on some kind of musical instrument,
or in singing. If you' have a fondness for music and some
skill in expressing yourself, by all means you should make
the most of it.
You may find it helpful, as well as pleasant, to join or
form, a musical club or society, where you can meet and
practice with others who have the same liking for music.
There will be an economy, also, in buying your music or in
taking lessons, if you belong to a cooperative club of this
kind. Every one so inclined should be able to procure in-
struction at an evening recreation center, church club,
settlement house, or an evening school.
Whenever possible, go to hear good concerts or the opera,
where you will be brought in touch with the works of the
great masters. If you watch the papers, you will find that
many fine concerts and organ recitals are given by the
churches and other organizations, either free, or at very
slight expense. During the summer months, many cities
provide excellent musical programs, well played by bands
AFTER HOURS 107
or orchestras, in the various parks or on the recreation
piers. But you will not need to be urged to do any of these
things. Your hobby will naturally suggest to you anything
and everything that will increase your pleasure in it.
Amateur theatricals. The same may be said of dra-
matic clubs and societies. If you have a talent for imitat-
ing well-known actors, or for expressing ideas and emotions,
you will get a vast amount of amusement and instruction
from the study and acting of good plays. Not only will you
improve your manners and speech by such study, but you
will also give a great deal of pleasure to other people, whom,
from time to time, you can invite to your amateur theat-
ricals. You and the rest of your company will be bene-
fited by the criticisms of your audience, and you will
acquire ease and self-confidence.
Moving picture shows. It may be well to speak of the.
" moving picture " houses. This popular form of amuse-
ment has developed within the last few years, and is at once
so cheap and so attractive that it has become the principal
amusement and recreation of a great number of people.
The physical and sanitary condition of the moving picture
hall is very important to the health of those who frequent
it. Many of these places are very dirty and badly venti-
lated, so that the effect is harmful ; many of them are also
very dangerous traps, if a fire happens to break out.
There is no doubt that moving pictures can be interest-
ing, clever, and entertaining. They can also be made of
great educational value. Scenes from foreign lands, pic-
tures illustrating every step in the various great industries
of the world, plays bringing to us a knowledge of the cus-
toms and scenery, not only of other lands but of every
io8 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
nook and corner of our own great, many-sided country,
dramatized versions of the great novels and poems, and of
the important historical events of all times and all coun-
tries, pictures like these teach us something, at the same
time that they hold our interest and attention. The manu-
facturers of the best films in the market are beginning to
realize the educational importance of moving pictures, and
are giving us better plays all the time.
You will be able to judge for yourselves whether a moving
picture play, or any play, for that matter, is good or bad,
by the effect it has on you. If you are rested, entertained,
and instructed, the performance is a good one. If it has a
silly, flimsy plot, with a lot of rough action in it, or if it is a
story of crime and violence, you will have experienced no
benefit from the performance.
Economy. The question of expense is one that must
necessarily enter into the amusements and recreations of
many workers. When one is starting out in the business
world, there is very little of one's wages left for indulging
in amusements, after buying food and clothing. Perhaps,
if you turn your money into the household, you will have
nothing left, or only what can be spared from the household
fund after expenses are paid ; if you pay all your expenses
yourself, you will have greater freedom in spending your
money, but you may not have much left for amusements
after providing for the necessities of life.
Dancing. Many young people, whose homes are
crowded, or who lodge in small rooms, find their principal
relaxation in going to the dance halls. Dancing is a splen-
did exercise and is a social diversion as well ; but the ordi-
nary dance hall is not a good place in which to spend your
AFTER HOURS 109
evenings. Many of the halls are mere excuses for selling
drinks ; and undesirable acquaintances are made there who
may lead one into vice and crime. It is better to form a
dancing club of your own friends and acquaintances, meet-
ing at the members' homes by turns, on the recreation
piers in summer, or at some of the settlement houses and
clubs where dancing is encouraged. In this way you will
escape the dangers of the dance hall and will have a much
better time with people you know. Don't visit any dance
hall where drinks are sold ; make this a rule, and you will be
glad of it.
Walking. Walking can be made a very interesting ex-
ercise in summer or winter, by forming a club of people who
are fond of outdoors, and then starting off for some destina-
tion agreed upon. Your Saturday half-holidays and Sun-
days will give you opportunities for longer excursions. It
is much pleasanter to walk in groups, or with a good com-
panion, as the conversation, laughter, and song add enjoy-
ment to the benefits received from this form of exer-
cise. There are so many parks and interesting historical
places to visit in and around most cities, that you could
keep up this practice of walking to a different place each
time, particularly on the half-holiday and Sunday trips,
Gymnastics and athletics. For those who prefer sys-
tematic physical training, the different branches of the
Young Men's and Young Women's Christian Associations,
and similar organizations, offer splendid opportunities in
the way of gymnasium work.
Of late years the school buildings are being used in the
evenings for recreation, gymnastics, games, basket ball,
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
checkers, literary clubs, debating clubs, chess clubs, and the
like. In some places regular receptions are held weekly and
social dancing is arranged for. If there is such a center in
your neighborhood, you should attend it, by all means, and
join yourself with those who have like interests.
Provisions for rec-
reation supplied by
large industrial estab-
and stores have de-
cided that it pays to
provide the employ-
ees with recreation
swimming pools, li-
braries, and reading
rooms, for purposes
of play and relaxa-
tion after work
hours. One of the largest pickling and canning plants in
this country has an auditorium, where, every Monday, the
employees meet for recreation and a social time. There are
classes in dancing, cooking, sewing, and a swimming pool,
gymnasium, library, and roof garden. In another estab-
The evening recreation center
lishment a branch of the public library was installed, with
books in five languages, and a reading room was equipped
with magazines and papers, which has proved a popular
resort for the employees. In addition, study courses have
been started which the workers have taken up with much
Factory recreation grounds
One large company engaged in the manufacture of wor-
sted yarns have provided, in the vicinity of their plant, a
piece of ground, which has been laid out for tennis and
other forms of athletic exercise. Here they have also erected
a clubhouse containing baths, reading and recreation rooms,
and other popular features. The building has an open
porch on the first floor and a balcony on the second, from
which the games and contests that take place on the
athletic field may be witnessed.
Several of the large department stores have formed eve-
ning classes of employees desiring to take up special studies,
bands, orchestras, singing classes, dramatic and literary
clubs, which have commencement exercises on the com-
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
pletion of the course of study, or which give, from time to
time, public exhibitions and concerts.
Courses of study. It is not necessary for the worker
to feel that, because regular school days are over, his edu-
cational advantages, therefore, are at an end. The public
The lecture courses are interesting and profitable
school systems of many cities offer unusual opportunities in
their night schools, where one may receive instruction in the
arts and sciences, languages and literature, as well as in the
more practical branches that are of distinct commercial
value to the young man or woman who wishes to advance.
Free lectures. In addition to the regular classes, there
is also much to be learned from the free lectures which are
AFTER HOURS 113
given in the different lecture centers in some cities, under
the direction of the Board of Education. Many of these
lectures are illustrated with lantern slides. One may listen
to very interesting accounts of travel ; studies of the art
of great painters, musicians, and writers, illustrated in many
instances with selections from their works ; popular science
talks made easy for the comprehension of all; folk songs
and stories; lectures on political movements and great
events in history ; and many other interesting and instruc-
Museums. In many cities there are museums of art,
history, and science where a study of the collections gives the
visitor more infoimation in an hour or so than could be
obtained from the reading of many books on 'these subjects.
These are usually open on Saturday evenings, as well as on
Sundays, for the benefit of those who are employed
during the week days ; and the present system of arranging
exhibits according to historical periods is very valuable to
the student who has not much time at his disposal. In
New York City there is a Museum of Safety which is of
special interest to those workers who are brought in daily
contact with dangerous machinery and industrial processes.
Here one may find all sorts of safety devices for the preven-
tion of accidents and the safeguarding of life, limb, and
Libraries. Then there is the inexpensive recreation
and pleasure to be had from reading. The free library sys-
tem of most cities and towns makes it possible for every one
who wishes to do so to take out a reader's card. One may
drop into a library for study and reference work, to look
over the latest magazines, or to select books to take home.
114 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
In this way one may keep in touch with all the best modern
books as well as with the great books of all times.
Benefits of play. Remember that a live interest in
something outside your work will keep you healthy and
happy. Every worker needs to get away from his work for
a little while, in order to return to it with renewed interest
and energy. The mind needs rest and change, by giving
it something else to think about ; and the muscles need the
rest and change afforded by exercise and play. Rest,
change, and play, all of these will enable the worker to re-
cuperate from the labors of the day and will put him in
good condition to resume his work the next morning.
Above all, the muscles, brain, and nerves need a reason-
able amount o*f sound, refreshing sleep. Do not think you
can stay up all hours, spending your evenings in dissipation,
and then force your body and brain to do their work with
the help of stimulants.
The best restorative is sleep, the best stimulant is exer-
cise or play ; and the happy, efficient worker is the one who
has learned how to invest, and not to squander, his working
capital of health and energy.
AFTER THE DAY'S WORK
1. Leave your belongings in order.
2. Clean up and make yourself presentable; nothing is
3. Think of something else besides work.
4. Walk home, choosing companions who are cheerful
and by whose association you may profit.
5. If tired out, rest flat on your back before dinner.
6. Make your family
glad you are
7. In the evening,
" find your
hobby and ride
it." Try to
get some vig-
at least twice
8. Seek wholesome
places and companions. Do not damage your self-
respect in search of amusement.
9. Follow some reading or lecture course, or study that
will prepare you for the next higher job. If you
have lessons, get them done before you do anything
10. To bed early, observing the routine of Chapter III.
11. Have you done a good turn to some one to-day?
HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS
Effects of too much work. As has already been pointed
out in the preceding chapter, a certain amount of play is
absolutely essential to the health and well-being of the
worker. Work in itself is a factor in good health and hap-
piness, but an unusual amount of work or a repetition of the
same monotonous efforts, physical or mental, may be re-
sponsible for a breaking down of the body, or, at least, a loss
of interest in the work performed.
Physical exercise, or muscular activity, may be had in the
worker's daily routine; but this kind of exercise becomes
wearisome, and, besides, only one set of muscles or brain
cells may be used. This calls for a complete change of
It is for this reason that habits of play are so important.
They serve to equalize the body's various activities, not
overstraining certain organs and allowing others to grow
weak or atrophy, through lack of use. Play should natu-
rally call into use and expression the neglected cells and
tissues, giving them a chance to develop with the other
portions of the body exercised in the day's work.
Vacation. While the body and mind need change and
rest after each working day to fit and equip them for the
next day's labor, it is of the greatest importance to the
worker to have, entirely for his own use and recreation, a
HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS
certain period during the year, when he can drop all thought
of work from his mind.
Recreation really means a re-creating, a making over of
tired muscles and brain cells. Mind and body alike need
to be revitalized after a year of steady work. Employers
A vacation camping party
are coming to see, more and more, the practical benefits to
be derived from allowing their workpeople opportunities for
complete change of scene, rest, or play, and are allowing
yearly vacations, with or without pay.
The most successful vacations seem to be those which
provide a complete change from the ordinary daily life, new
scenes, new faces and interests, without taxing the physical
powers of the individual to any great extent, and which
allow most of the time to be spent out of doors.
n8 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
It is a common fault of Americans that they take their
play strenuously. Vacation often provides so much op-
portunity for exercise and entertainment that many overdo
and draw still further upon a vitality weakened by the
long winter work. Early hours are always essential. We
should never need to recuperate after a holiday or a vaca-
A change of scene. For those workers who are able to
get away for one or more weeks each year, it is a wise plan
to select a place and activities as different, or as far removed,
as possible from the ordinary daily environment. The
weary mental worker needs to spend the vacation out of
doors and in ways that will exercise the unused muscles;
on the other hand, the tired physical worker may receive
greater benefit in resting from muscular exertion.
Trips to the seashore, mountains, or other interesting
places which one has no opportunity to see during the work-
ing year should be indulged in and planned for during the
rest of the year. It is not extravagance to include the cost
of a vacation trip in the personal expenses, for the health
and efficiency of any person constitute his working capital.
Perhaps, if your wages are too small or the living cost
too great to allow for the trip you would like to take, you can
arrange a walking tour to some interesting place at such a
distance as will permit a safe return within the limits of
your vacation. In England and Germany, walking trips
as vacation jaunts are much more common than in this
country. Such a trip, with one or more congenial compan-
ions, equipped with stout boots, walking sticks, and as little
luggage as you can possibly get along with, will be less ex-
pensive and bring you greater returns in the way of health
HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 119
and energy than the same time spent at some popular
Many workers are not given vacations with pay, and,
therefore, feel that they cannot afford to take the time off
from their work. This is a great mistake ; but if, for any
reason, it seems impossible to take the rest and change of
a regular vacation in the summer season, it still lies within
the means of the most economical worker to find recreation
Saturdays and holidays. The majority of business
places grant the Saturday half holiday to their employees,
at least during the hot summer months of July and August.
This half holiday with the succeeding Sunday can be profit-
ably used by the tired worker in building up health and
An occasional boat trip to any near-by resort will give one
several hours of rest and the benefit to be derived from the
fresh air. These trips are usually not expensive, and if one
wishes, it is possible to take one's lunch along, and avoid
the high prices at which food is usually sold at these resorts.
The quieter places, with which nearly all city boys and
girls are familiar, are to be preferred to the noisier ones
where the amusement tends to excite rather than to rest.
People come from great distances to visit the summer
resorts in the vicinity of large cities; but we who live
nearest sometimes fail to appreciate them because we
are so used to them or do not enjoy them in the right
way. Going to Coney Island, for instance, is a habit with
many young people in New York. If they would go to the
quieter resorts, not so much with the idea of spending money
on foolish shows and amusements as to benefit by the sea
120 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
breezes, the bathing to be found along the beaches, and the
change from the hot city, they would come home less tired
and more refreshed.
The Saturday half holiday can be spent to advantage in
the public baths and swimming pools, in the parks, or in
short trolley excursions. In almost every large city there
may be purchased trolley guides which show scores of
beautiful and interesting places which are easily accessible.
There are so many such places to be visited in New
York City, for instance, museums, parks, collections, his-
torical places, and other points of attraction that serve to
make it the goal of many people who come from great dis-
tances to spend their vacations here, that we may find it
to our advantage to use a little time in getting acquainted
with our own city.
Probably not half of the boys and girls in New York City
are familiar with the interesting places within their city's
limits which draw so many visitors. It would be a good
idea for the stay-at-homes, or those who cannot afford to
take a regular vacation, to begin to make little journeys to
the places that are featured in the guidebooks.
Many people do not know that the United States gov-
ernment has made maps of almost every crossroad, river,
hill, and stream in the United States, and that any one of
these maps may be obtained by forwarding five cents to the
Director of the Geological Survey, Washington, D.C.
Trips about New York City. In New York City, one
might plan a series of outings to historical places in the city
limits, trying in imagination to retrace the events they serve
to commemorate. To visit places like the Manor at Van
Cortlandt Park, or the Jumel Mansion, both within easy
HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 121
reach, by means of the subway, gives one better insight into
manners and customs long past than the reading of many
books on the subject. The brief descriptions given by a
good guidebook, however, will tell the main facts you want
Then there is the study of natural history afforded by
the great Zoological Garden at Bronx Park. Quite apart
from the Zoo, the Park is a pleasant, restful place in which
to spend a day. Boating can be enjoyed on the river, and
there are numerous places where one may sit down and
enjoy luncheon out of doors. The botanical collections
in Bronx Park will give much pleasure to those who delight
in rare plants ; while the pleasant, shady walks, leading to
the Falls and other interesting spots, will prove beneficial
to body and mind.
Making a vacation profitable. Even if you are obliged
to stay at home when other workers, more fortunate or
foolish, as the issue may prove, leave it in the summer sea-
son, you have it within your power to spend your spare
time in so pleasant and interesting a manner that you may
be laying up a greater store of health and energy than the
young people who come back tired and weary from having
too good a time at the mountains and other regular summer
Besides the economy of a vacation spent in this manner,
you will have gained a store of first-hand information about
your vicinity that may prove to your advantage later on,
and will have demonstrated to yourself that, after all, the
sources of amusement and recreation do not lie outside of,
but within, the individual.
Athletic fields. For those who wish to indulge in sports
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
and games, there are plenty of near-by fields either in the
parks or in the suburbs.
Many persons who live in the country do not have the
advantages for exercise and play that are afforded by the
city parks and playgrounds provided for the express pur-
pose of recreation.
Boy Scouts. Connected with many churches and soci-
eties are troops of Boy Scouts and similar organizations
for girls. These plan to
spend all available time
out of doors in " hikes,"
tramps, and camp.
No young man or woman
will find a better opportu-
nity for out-of-door recre-
ation than these provide.
If there is no such organi-
zation in your vicinity, one
can easily be formed by
enlisting the interest of
some older man who is
willing to give his advice
What cooperation has
brought about. Some
firms have found it wise to
offer exceptional inducements to their employees to spend
their vacations sensibly, building up their bodies and laying
up a store of energy and enthusiasm that will express itself
in efficient, happy work during the remainder of the year.
These employers provide special holiday outings during the
Equipped for a "hike 1
HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 123
summer, or equip and maintain camps and seaside homes
to which the employees may go for periods of one or two
weeks. If your employer thinks it worth while, so should
One large manufacturing plant arranges its vacation
periods on the plan of one day's vacation with pay for every
calendar month during which the employee has been reg-
ular in attendance. Workers, therefore, who have been
faithful through the year receive a vacation of two weeks
with full pay.
One of the largest publishing houses in the country en-
courages regular daily attendance and punctuality among
its employees, by giving the preference in making up the va-
cation list to those who have been most prompt and regu-
lar. Each absence from work counts two points and each
tardiness of less than one hour one point against the record
of the employee. The workers who have the least number
of points charged to their records are given first choice in
the selection of the vacation period. This system applies
to those who have been in the company's service a full year
and over. In the case of employees of less than a year's
service, the points for regularity and promptness are reck-
oned in proportion to the length of service. Employees
who have been with the company for at least six months
are entitled to a vacation, at a convenient time, between
June first and September first in each year, on the basis of
one week day for each month's service during the year.
A large department store with branches in several cities
maintains a summer camp of five acres for the use of its
employees. The boys who comprise the cadet battalion
live in tents during their summer encampment of two weeks.
124 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
The house erected on this land as headquarters for the
camp is used during the rest of the season as a vacation
home by the men and women of the establishment.
A great many firms follow the practice of arranging an
annual outing or picnic during the summer for their em-
ployees, either at their own expense or in cooperation with
an association made up of the workers. These events
usually take place in connection with athletic contests and
games for which prizes are offered.
For the purpose of encouraging athletic sports and games
among the employees who are able to avail themselves of
the privileges after hours and on Saturday half holidays,
in addition to the special meets arranged each year, a great
many firms are purchasing and fitting up vacant lots near
the factory building.
Cooperative outings. Cooperative outings can be ar-
ranged successfully by the employees of large industrial
establishments, for themselves and their families, at much
less cost than if they were to undertake the trip separately.
The Men's Welfare League of a manufacturing company
of world-wide reputation has arranged these cooperative
outings very successfully. Not long ago it planned a camp-
ing trip to Port Huron, Michigan, for 1700 employees,
their families, and friends. August was chosen as the best
time for the outing, as the factory was closed during two
weeks of that month. The campers were transported over
500 miles and were lodged, fed, and had a good time for a
period of nine days, at the low cost of $7.80 for each person.
On arriving at the camp, the employees found their sup-
per ready for them, having been prepared by forty cooks
and waitresses from the establishment who had been sent
HOLIDAYS AND OUTINGS 125
on in advance. The meals were served in a large dining
tent accommodating 900 persons at once.
The camp was laid out in streets, with rows of tents
numbered to correspond with the accommodations selected
by the campers before leaving the home plant. Most of
the baggage, which had been sent on ahead, was waiting for
the campers when they reached their destination.
During the vacation period, this small army of people
lived in their tents, swam, rowed, danced, or spent their
time walking in the woods, thoroughly enjoying the rest
and change and laying up a supply of energy to carry tl^em
through the rest of the working year.
Of course a few cases of sickness were found to occur even
in those healthful surroundings, but the factory nurses and
doctor were on hand to care for those who became ill.
This outing was so successful that it has been repeated,
and the manufacturing company, believing in the practical
benefits derived from the rest and recreation enjoyed by
their working force, cooperates to the extent of paying a
portion of the railroad fare of each employee and members
of his or her immediate family. A married man is allowed
one ticket for himself and one for his wife and each of his
children ; a single man is allowed one ticket for himself and
one for his father, mother, or sister. Other members of the
immediate family may take advantage of a special rate for
FOR THE HOLIDAYS
1. Plan your Saturday, Sunday, or holiday well in advance.
Get out of town.
2. Do you know your own town and vicinity?
126 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
3. Walking trips are more fun than trips by trolley.
4. A good time comes from what interest we have in things,
rather than in the things themselves.
5. For a vacation :
(a) If you live inland, go to the shore. If you live
on the seacoast, go to the mountains.
(b) Select a healthy place. Write to your State
Board of Health for a list of approved localities.
(c) Select a decent place. Your spiritual adviser,
pastor or priest, will help you.
6. Po not play so hard that you come home worn out.
7. Our best times often come from helping others to
CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION
Making a wise start. The successful career of an in-
dividual depends largely upon the proper choice of an oc-
cupation; for those in good physical condition, it is only a
question of natural tastes and aptitudes. Boys and girls
with slight physical defects, or who are predisposed to or-
ganic troubles, should consider with the greatest care the
effect the occupations selected by them will have on their
If a wrong choice is made, a second selection may become
necessary and the worker lose time and training. This
might have been avoided by a right start.
Physical examination. Before you take your first job
go to a physician and ask for a thorough physical exam-
ination : eyes, ears, chest, nose, throat, heart, lungs, kid-
neys, back, hips, legs, feet, and genital organs. It is better
to know a weakness in advance than to suffer irreparable
damage when it is too late. This examination may, in some
cities, be made by the school physician before you apply for
Lungs. Many industrial occupations are sources of
diseases of the respiratory or air passages. The worker
may be afflicted at first with only a simple cold, nasal in-
flammation, or sore throat, but these may lead to irritation
of the lungs, and finally to tuberculosis. Among the causes
of diseases of the respiratory system may be mentioned :
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
i. Sudden chills, due to wet or overheated conditions
of the body, which are most frequently met with in mines,
smelting works, foundries, furnaces and kilns, glass works,
earthenware and china works, sugar refineries, candy fac-
tories, breweries, laundries, bricklaying, and stone masonry.
The physical examination
2. Gases and vapors, especially from acids, chloric, sul-
phuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids, phosphorus, iodine,
bromine, and sulphurreted hydrogen, all of which are handled
by workers in the chemical industries, metal foundries, metal
oxidizing, lacquering, and the manufacture of cellulose.
3. All the dusts which injure the delicate membranes
of the air passages :
(a) Those which are round and smooth and harmless in
themselves, but which, inhaled in large quantities,
are hurtful, such as rust, flour, etc.
CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 129
(b) Dusts which are uneven, rough, sharp, and pointed,
such as stone, metal, glass, and wood dusts. These
are met with in the textile industry, stonecutting,
stone breaking, metal and glass grinding, wood-
working, and similar trades.
(c) Those dusts having chemical properties, such as lead,
brass, basic slag, arsenic, etc.
(d) All city, house, and factory dust, for it carries microbes,
like the bacilli of tuberculosis, diphtheria, and germs
of scarlet fever, etc.
Therefore, weak, flat or narrow-chested persons, or those
afflicted with catarrhal or bronchial troubles, and those al-
ready in the first stages of tuberculosis, should avoid the
trades where they come in contact with these irritating
dusts. They should not work at file cutting, painting, glass
and metal grinding and polishing, stonecutting, paper hang-
ing, gilding, typesetting, woodworking, grinding and cut-
ting of bone and mother-of-pearl, or in earthenware and
china factories, because of the harmful dusts they are obliged
to breathe ; neither should they seek employment as cigar
makers, tailors, shoemakers, engravers, and jewelers, be-
cause of the. stooped position they are obliged to take
while at work, thus cramping the lungs ; nor should they,
on account of the constant expansion and strain of the
lungs, earn their livelihoods as glass blowers or performers
on wind instruments. They should seek employment out
of doors, and by all means the narrow chest should be
made ample by regular exercise, deep breathing, and care-
ful regulation of the daily life. There is always room
for the worker in the country.
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Heart. Persons whose hearts are weak should not
engage in occupations involving great strain upon this
organ. Constant and heavy work does not necessarily
bring about changes in the heart's activity or abnormal
conditions of the heart muscles. A heavy strain, how-
ever, makes the heart
work faster, the beats
increasing from 100
to 1 20 per minute.
In a healthy person,
this expansion of the
heart's activity re-
sumes its normal
condition during the
period of rest and
sleep. To equalize
the expansion and
the following reac-
tion, the muscular
fibers of the heart
Heavy work requires a strong heart increase in number
If heart overstrain is continuous, the natural reaction
through the increased size of its muscles may not be ef-
fective. In that case the general health suffers and the
heart itself is likely to fail.
Those whose hearts are in any degree weak should not
seek occupations where there is much lifting or carrying of
heavy loads, or where there is a constant strain on certain
sets of muscles. Such persons are not physically fitted to
become bakers, brewers, butchers, coopers, woodworkers,
CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 131
metal grinders, millers, carpenters, weavers, stone masons,
or machine operators. They should engage in some light
muscular work, but never neglect regular daily exercise.
Commercial occupations. In the various commercial
occupations, the wholesale and retail trades, the dangers
to health are not so great ; but there are certain conditions
which the persons seeking employment in these positions
should bear in mind.
Retail stores for the most part require constant standing
and, as a rule, long hours of work. Many commercial es-
tablishments, particularly the importing and wholesale
houses and salesrooms, are often damp and insufficiently
heated. Under these conditions only the closest attention
to health regulations will keep the body well. Inform the
management of the trouble and look out for another place
if your health is threatened.
In the wholesale and storage houses, physical and mental
exertions depend, of course, on the responsibility of the
position. As a rule, the services required are varied and
changing in character, giving the body greater freedom and
exercise. In some warehouses and wholesale stores there
is much handling of dusty materials, such as dyes, paints,
and textiles, which is not so favorable to health. In addi-
tion, the handling of heavy wares, such as iron, bales of
cotton, and cases of goods, is unfavorable only to persons
who have any kind of heart trouble.
Sedentary occupations. Bookkeeping, correspondence,
and clerical work in offices are sedentary positions, and ex-
ercise must be taken regularly after hours and as often as
possible to make up for inactivity and consequent slug-
gishness. Attention to the proper posture for sitting
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
(Chapter IX), will prevent much ill health. Many offices
are poorly ventilated and overheated, so that the change
from the dry, inside
air to outside condi-
tions, particularly in
cold or wet weather,
may cause ailments
and disease of the
The cold morning
and evening splashes
should prevent all
Persons who have
flat chests or weak
lungs should be par-
about the posture if
they must sit for
many hours at a
time > aS the Cram P'
ing of the lungs and
the lack of fresh air are favorable conditions for the devel-
opment of tuberculosis.
Feet. Persons who have broken-down arches or who
suffer from varicose veins should not select occupations
where they will be obliged to stand for hours at a time.
They should not seek employment as motormen, conduc-
tors, bakers, or in stores and laundries, as these occupations
require continual standing. The wearing of special shoes
to support the arch of the foot, and of elastic stockings to
Proper posture for good health
CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION 133
relieve the varicose veins, will make those who are already
employed in these occupations much more comfortable.
Eyes. Poor eyesight seriously interferes with one's
success, particularly in those trades requiring close applica-
tion. Many diseases of the eyes are the results of inflam-
mation in very early youth, when, with a little care, the
impairment of vision might have been avoided. For those
who are nearsighted, or who have any other weakness of
vision, the selection of an occupation is of great importance.
There are certain trades which increase the diseased con-
dition of the eyes. Dusty trades, or those in which one
comes in contact with heat, steam, vapors, and fumes, are
especially bad for the worker already suffering from weak
or inflamed eyes. In occupations free from dust and fumes
and where the worker has plenty of fresh air in a moderate
temperature, the chances are that he will be able to do his
work with comfort and satisfaction.
Persons who have vision in only one eye should not select
occupations where they are obliged to make accurate meas-
urements on fine work requiring great care r or where they
become subject to conditions which may cause the loss
of the remaining eye. Watchmakers, engravers, tailors,
dressmakers, chemists, and draftsmen, all require good eye-
sight, as the strain on their eyes is greater than in most of
the trades. Those who are color-blind should not make
the mistake of entering occupations where a quick distinc-
tion of colors is necessary.
If there is any reason to suppose that the eyesight is
imperfect, before entering any trade or occupation, the eyes
should be carefully examined by a skilled oculist, as near-
sightedness may be due to weakness of the eyes or to
1.34 HYGIENE FOR JHE WORKER
astigmatism, both of which conditions are easily remedied
by the wearing of suitable glasses. With the aid of glasses,
most of the trades and professions are open to all who are
otherwise fitted or trained to engage in them.
Throat. Persons suffering from throat troubles should
not, of course, select occupations requiring unusual exertion
of the vocal chords and muscles, as these may become per-
manently paralyzed if overstrained.
Skin. Many diseases of the skin affect the hands, arms,
and legs or other portions of the body and so do not actually
disfigure the sufferer; but such diseases may be serious
enough to interfere with the selection of certain occupations
which would aggravate the condition. For instance, brick-
layers, tanners, and butchers are subject to skin disease
through the handling of cement, hides, and much hot water.
Persons afflicted with any inflammation of the skin should
not engage in these occupations.
Those who are liable to suffer from eczema should be
careful not to come in contact with acids, dyestuffs, and
other materials which might increase the trouble and make
it necessary for the sufferer to give up his work entirely ;
they are not fitted to become bakers, bricklayers, painters,
lacquerers, polishers, cooks, or laundresses, or to do any
work where 1 the hands are kept long in water.
Persons with hands that perspire freely cannot do good
work as engravers, watchmakers, fine instrument makers,
or as workers in any of the fine metals. They are particu-
larly unfitted for the handling of delicate materials, such as
laces and linens, and for such fine and clean handwork as
millinery, embroidery, sewing, bookbinding, and fine leather
CHOICE OF AN OCCUPATION '135
So it is well to know your physical condition before decid-
ing upon your life work. Do not rush into a position
blindly, with little regard for your fitness for that particu-
lar kind of work. Choose wisely, and if your physical
equipment happens to be below the average, you may yet be
able to do useful work and, in time, outgrow, rather than
increase, your limitations.
CHOOSING AN OCCUPATION
1. Choose an occupation with reference to your own health
2. Get a physical examination from a physician ; find out
any physical weakness which should keep you from
any particular kind of work, even if you feel per-
3. Avoid trades where the worker is not protected against
sudden change from hot to cold, gases which are
poisonous, and dust of any kind.
4. Seek the trade where your physical handicap will not
count against you ; where you can put your best ener-
gies into your work ; where you can study to rise to
the next higher position.
5. If forced to work under unhygienic conditions, make
the matter known to your employer ; follow the more
strictly all rules of health ; seek other employment if
conditions are not changed.
6. If you have " weak lungs," make them strong and try
to get employment out of doors. Never go to a
physician who advertises.
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS : ACCIDENTS
On the way to work. On leaving home each day, pro-
ceed to your work in the safest way possible. Take plenty
of time. Do not rush and in your haste jump on or off
Street traffic is regulated for your safety
moving cars. Most of the street car accidents are due to
this recklessness on the part of passengers. Don't try to
interfere with the traffic regulations in crowded streets.
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 137
Wait for the signal of the police officer whose duty it is to
guard the safety of the public, and go with the traffic.
You may add your mite to the general welfare by kicking
out of harm's way every bit of banana peel or fruit skin you
find lying on the sidewalk. The banana peel has been
the cause of more sprained and fractured wrists and arms,
broken ankles and legs, and cracked ribs than the surgeons
care to count.
Do not cross a street of any description, particularly
those with tracks, without first looking and listening for
approaching cars, engines, and other moving machines.
Do not catch or jump on cars and engines, or cross trains in
motion, except when your duties absolutely require you to
Safety, the first consideration. In every industrial
establishment, the question of safety should be the first
consideration. The employer is benefited, in that he has
the continuous service of skilled and careful employees and
escapes the heavy expense of damage suits; on the other
hand, safe conditions are only fair and just to the employee,
who is able to work in greater security, free from the strain
of fear which is connected with dangerous work. For ex-
ample, a woodworker returning to work, after a serious
accident to his hand, exclaimed :
" Every time I put a board through the planer, I have a
queer feeling at the pit of my stomach! I'm so afraid
the wood will kick and hurt me again."
Under such conditions, a man cannot do his best. The
worker also fears a loss of wage-earning capacity which
may throw him and his family upon charity.
Many mills and plants are now giving a great deal of
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
time and attention to questions of safety for their work-
people. In 1906, one of the largest corporations in the
United States, employing upwards of 200,000 people, de-
cided that it must
reduce the deaths and
injuries due to acci-
dents in its works.
Not only were the
managers and super-
intendents of works
instructed to plan for
the greatest degree of
safety in the mills and
shops, but the work-
men themselves were
asked for suggestions
in the way of making
safe the dangerous
machines and pro-
cesses used in the
The result of this
matic efforts for safety
is shown by the re-
duction, in 1910, of at least 50 per cent of the deaths and
injuries in their plants. One superintendent reported that
he had reduced his accident list 60 per cent.
Methods of cooperation. Committees of Safety, made
up of officials and workmen, inspect the shops, mills, and
yards regularly. They examine the tools of the workmen,
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 139
and workmen are also instructed to report just as soon as
the heads of tools become burred or ragged. Chips flying
from defective tools may cause serious eye injuries, although
many employees think it foolish to take up a question of
this kind, claiming they have never known any one to be
injured in this manner.
Another method of teaching safety and caution is to give
warning to the man seeking employment that, unless he
is willing to exercise care for himself and his fellow- work-
men, he will not be given a job.- In one plant, such a
notice is posted in the employment office in six different
Weatherproof signs, displayed just inside the gates, re-
quest every employee to be on the lookout for defects in
machinery or tools, carelessness of other employees, or
dangerous conditions anywhere in the grounds or works.
Any reports that are made are treated as personal matters
between the superintendent and the person giving the
Never become too familiar with danger. Do not stand
too near or under hoists, cranes, conveyors, tackle, buckets,
ladles containing molten metal, weights, or material of any
kind that is being raised, carried, or lowered, if you would
Protections against danger. There is always a grave
danger to the worker exposed to unprotected gearing or
car wheels. If he stumbles and falls against them, he may
lose a limb, or be ground to death. Dangerous wheels like
these should be protected with cover guards, or shields.
It is possible to do this and not to interfere with the opera-
tion of the machine. All belting and shafting should be
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
made safe by protecting guards or rails. That is the em-
ployer's duty. But it is your duty, if you find dangerous
machines unguarded, to use special care and caution and
to notify your employer. You may lessen the dangers
belts and shafting,
gears and cog wheels,
by wearing neat, well-
fitting work clothes
and avoiding flowing
ties, torn sleeves, and
Do not wear jewelry
on your hands or neck
if you operate a ma-
If you are obliged
to work near un-
guarded saws and
belts and shafting run-
ning through or near
floors, or other dan-
gerous places, where
the floor is worn and
made slippery with grease and oil, you can save yourself
from falls to a great extent by wearing rubber heels on
your shoes. Do not walk through or over low running
belts, or reach across rapidly moving parts of machinery.
Do not attempt to stop a machine by grabbing at the belt.
Danger reduced to a minimum
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS
No matter is too small to receive consideration and at-
tention where safety is concerned. Worn floors, material
piled too high or carelessly, the lack of railings, poor lad-
ders, windows which should be cleaned to admit better
light, all of these, directly or indirectly, may be the causes
of serious accidents.
There is a particular need for safeguarding presses and
stamping machines, which are the cause of frequent acci-
dents. A certain brass
shop, in which 203 women
were employed, showed an
accident rate of 26.6 per
cent among them, while
another shop, employing
129 women, showed an
accident rate of 11.63 per
cent. Both of these were
what may be called high-
class factories, but in the
second one machines had
been chosen with the least
hazard and even then ad-
ditional safeguards had
A good illustration of the difference in safety caused by
attention to a single detail is shown in a comparison of two
factories using nearly the same number of presses and pro-
ducing almost the same kind of goods. In one a safety
device was used, which was not found in the other. In
the first, in one year, out of 187 women employed, only
3.21 per cent had been injured ; in the other, not using the
Safety device for a stamping machine
142 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
safeguards, out of 150 women employed, 13.33 P er
Causes of accidents. A great many accidents are at-
tributed to " carelessness on the part of the worker." But
very often it happens that an excess of care results in the
same accident. And this is especially true in the case of
new and inexperienced
workers, who must use
a great deal of caution
and common sense, if
they would escape in-
A power machine
worker must, for the
sake of safety and effi-
ciency, become more
or less automatic.
He must not do his
work with a tense ner-
vous system. The
knowing the machine
Protected belting on a stamping machine *> be dangerOUS, and
anxious to show him-
self equal to the task, tensely waits for the movement of
the machine or press, and frequently, in his anxiety, falters
or makes a mistake, resulting in mangled fingers, a lost hand,
or some worse injury. As practice continues, the tension
gradually is lost, the worker can do his work more safely
than when he was so painfully concentrated on it, and ac-
quires a rhythmic movement in doing it.
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 143
On the other hand, the trained, experienced worker is
not free from accidents. For instance, in operating a stamp-
ing press, the fingers adjust the object to be cut or formed,
and then the foot presses a releasing lever. After a while,
these motions become automatic. One follows the other
without the worker thinking of them. Suppose, however,
the machine fails to work or the material is rough or faulty,
or something else interferes with the first motion. It is
very seldom that the worker can instantly stop the second
motion to which he has become accustomed. His nervous
system has been trained to do the second part of the opera-
tion automatically. A serious accident may result.
In such a case as this, the only safety is in providing the
worker with a safeguard. There are many good and simple
styles of safety devices for presses and stamping machines.
Such safeguards give the worker a feeling of security, re-
lieve the tension, prevent accidents, and are an economy
for the employer, for in addition to doing away with dam-
ages, or the loss of a skilled employee, the output of the
machine is greater.
It is difficult to say just how far a worker is responsible
for an accident, particularly on an unguarded machine.
The effect of bad light, impure air, too great speed, weak-
ness, and fatigue must all be considered before blaming
the worker for carelessness or negligence. The conditions
necessary for safety should be provided by the employer.
Taking risks, Women are generally more careful than
men, less given to removing the safeguards which are pro-
vided them, and more attentive to their surroundings; in
fact, they display a tendency to avoid danger when working
on a machine which is known to be very dangerous. But
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
in the matter of taking risks, they are much more reckless
than the men. Taking risks includes a number of foolish
actions, such as cleaning a machine while in motion, at-
tempting to adjust screws and belts without stopping the
machine, experimenting with another person's machine, and
The most important cause of accidents to both men and
women is in connection with the material, either in in-
serting the work, re-
moving it, or clearing
away the scrap, which
brings their fingers too
dangerously close to the
descending die. In all
these cases, safety de-
vices would prevent
accidents and loss of
fingers or hands.
If you work on
presses, stamping or
cutting machines, never
try to remove material
from under the die with
your fingers while the
power is on. If a hook
is not given you for this purpose, you can easily make
one from bent wire and so avoid the danger of cutting off
or mashing your fingers.
Inexperience. A great many accidents happen on the
first day at work. In fact, a considerable proportion of all
the accidents to press operatives happens during the first
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 145
week at work, and over half of these during the first day.
When going to work at a new job pay the strictest atten-
tion to instructions, particularly those which relate to your
safety, and follow them.
Overspeeding. In most of the silk and cotton mills,
overspeeding of the machinery is the most common cause
of accidents to the workers. Accidents also result from
improperly placed or unguarded belts and shafting and
set screws. Even when made safer by using hollow set
Hollow set screw Projecting set screw
screws instead of projecting screws, a shaft still needs very
careful guarding. For instance, not long ago, under the
direction of the factory inspector, the projecting screws in
a factory had been replaced by safer ones. A young worker
passed under the shaft, combing her hair as she went. In
a flash, a few strands were drawn around the shaft, her hair
was entangled, and her scalp was torn from her head.
Overcrowding. Textile machinery, if properly guarded
and not crowded, has little danger for the worker. The
worst danger, leading to accidents, is from overcrowding.
Very often not enough space is allowed between machines,
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
and the aisles are too narrow. The aisles may be made
safe by a proper guarding of the ends of the machines, but
more space should be allowed between machines. In the
case of spinning frames, a woman operator, leaning over to
reach the lower rail of spindles, is liable to have her hair
caught in the upper rail of spindles on the
frame in front of her, or to have her skirts
caught in the lower rail of spindles belong-
ing to the worker behind her.
Oiling and cleaning. Perhaps one of the
greatest causes of danger in any factory or
shop where power is used to run the machines
is the oiling and cleaning of the working
parts while they are in motion.
The oiling, cleaning, and repairing of
machinery should never be attempted while
it is in motion. Do not attempt to oil
shafting or shift belts while they are in
motion, unless you have been provided
with a special long-stemmed oiler, or the
belts are furnished with patent shifters.
Do not wear torn, loose clothing while
working on shafting, and be sure of your
footing. The worker cannot afford to take
Bursting wheels. If a grinding or polishing wheel
running at a high rate of speed should burst, the flying frag-
ments are likely to cause the death of any one they happen
to strike. Safety hoods and collars over the grinding wheels
will protect the workers from this danger. The illustration
at the bottom of the next page shows a wheel so protected
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS
that it would prob-
ably cause no injuries
if it burst; the safety
collar would prevent
the pieces from flying
Elevators. -- A
great many young
men become elevator
operators. The posi-
tion is a responsible
one, as the lives and
safety of many people
are daily trusted to
Dust exhausts on grinding wheel
the operator's care. Never try to hurry
the car. It should be started and stopped
gradually. When not enough time is
allowed to gain the re-
quired speed, a severe
strain is put on the ma-
chinery; also, when the
brake is applied too sud-
denly, there is the risk of
destroying it and causing
a serious accident. Al-
ways stop the car at the
floor level, as many acci-
dents occur in badly
lighted halls and land-
ings where the passengers
Protected grinding wheel
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
cannot see the sill and trip over it. Do not run the elevator
when the automatic stop device is broken or out of order.
Pay strict attention to your work and keep your presence
of mind under all circumstances. Always keep your hand
on the controlling device and be in a position to stop the
car immediately. Do not allow overcrowding in the car,
as it puts too great a
strain on the machin-
ery. Always see that
the doors are closed
and locked before
starting the car, and
you will do away with
a great number of
Falling tools. If
you are obliged to
work above or below
other workers, let
them know you are
there. Do not drop
articles or tools from
the top of machines
or from scaffoldings.
They may injure some
one walking beneath. Do not pile up material until it is
unsafe and may topple over on some one who comes near it.
Toe guards should be put on all platforms, to prevent the
falling of tools and materials on workmen below.
Cleaning windows. Do not work at cleaning windows or
in any high place without securing yourself with a safety belt.
Safety belt for window cleaners
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 149
Electricity. If you are an electrical worker, take no
risks with "dead" apparatus, but treat it as if it were really
charged with current. In working about switchboards,
transformers, and other dangerous apparatus, it is a good
plan to use only one hand and to keep your sleeves down.
Your tools should be perfect and should have insulated
handles. Use rubber gloves that will act as a non-conduc-
tor when working on cables or around dangerous apparatus.
When repairs are being made, switches should be locked
and tagged, and the current should not be turned on again
until the one making the repairs has reported to the proper
authority. Every electrical worker should be provided
with a rubber mat or shield upon which to stand when
working on high tension wires. Do not work on poles or
other high places without a safety belt.
Disobedience and ignorance. Accidents are often due
to the carelessness and recklessness of the workers them-
selves; many of them are the result of the resistance to
discipline which is said to be a characteristic of the Ameri-
can workman. Many accidents are caused by ignorance.
For accidents brought about by disobedience and reckless-
ness, the guilty should suffer.
Read and make yourself familiar with the rules and
regulations for safety and use of machines and materials
given into your care. If you are in doubt about any of the
rules, ask some one in authority to explain them to you.
You may be sure these rules are not arbitrary, but have
resulted from years of experience, and, in many cases, have
been made to comply with state laws. If you disobey such
rules, do not be surprised to find yourself out of a job.
Under no circumstances remove the safeguards from
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
dangerous machines. Use the safety devices that are given
you, as well as the respirators, shields, spectacles, protec-
tive garments, and all measures designed to guard you
from injury. Watch your tools, machinery, and appli-
ances, and if they are broken or defective, report the matter
at once and secure new
tools or have the old
Pay strict attention
to the work in hand.
Don't talk or "cut up"
with other workers
while running a dan-
gerous machine, or
play with any part of
a machine in motion.
Do not try to run ma-
chines other than your
own without permis-
sion from the foreman.
Do not wander about
the shop, or indulge
in running, scuffling,
wrestling, or the playing of practical jokes during working
On entering a place of employment, acquaint yourself at
once with the means of escape in case of fire or any great
danger.* Try the exits and fire escapes for yourself, to see
if they are of any use and if you can get out quickly. If fire
drills are not the custom of your shop, perhaps you can
interest other employees and your foreman in the matter,
A device for protecting railway frogs
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: ACCIDENTS 151
and so induce th'e management to organize fire brigades
and to introduce regular fire drills and other measures for
the safety of the entire plant.
Disorder. Keep your place in the workshop neat and
tidy. Do not go away at night, leaving your machine or
bench dirty and disorderly with greasy waste, lunch papers,
scraps of food, and other refuse, or inflammable materials.
Such carelessness as this is the cause of many serious fires
that break out in workshops and factories at night. Do
not allow boards with nails sticking up in them, or sharp,
broken scraps of glass and metal, to lie about on the floor,
as they may cause injury to some one.
Extreme care always necessary. The " new hand "
soon becomes acquainted with his machine and tools ; prac-
tice will give him skill, speed, and a certain freedom from
the dangers due to ignorance and inexperience; but it is
well for him to remember that there are always dangers
connected with one's occupation, no matter what it may
be, and that nothing should ever be taken for granted. By
paying strict attention to his duties, by exercising care and
caution, even the youngest worker may do his share in pro-
moting safety and reducing the number of industrial acci-
1. Never allow yourself to take risks with moving street
2. Never pass a banana peel without kicking it into the
3. " Stop, look, and listen " before crossing any street.
4. Familiarize yourself thoroughly with your machine
and your shop.
152 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
5. Do not take risks; it is more clever to be careful than
to be risky.
6. Are there safety appliances on your machines? Is
there any unguarded danger in the shop? If so,
tell your employer.
7. Is there a Committee of Safety in your shop?
8. Play safe with a machine every time ; it is worth more
than speed. One accident will counterbalance a
year of speed.
9. Obey shop orders.
10. Do not " cut up " in the shop.
11. Take care of your machine as you would your own pos-
session, and clean it thoroughly, when it's not going.
12. Get the habit of care.
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES
Poisonous workshop conditions. Any indoor occu-
pation may be injurious to health, especially if the working
conditions are bad. If the shop is overcrowded and kept
too warm, if the air is impure, if the hours are too long, or the
work causes a great amount of fatigue, the worker's health
will suffer. Bad air is a poison as has already been shown.
It is the cause of headache, faintness, loss of appetite, and
a lowered vitality that renders the worker more liable to
disease than a person with a greater amount of oxygen in
his system, and, consequently, greater resisting power.
Poisons. Besides the general condition of many work
places which might be called poisonous, there are cer-
tain occupations in which the worker is obliged to handle
materials or to breathe in dusts, fumes, gases, and vapors,
which are in themselves poisons.
Among the best-known and most dangerous of these
poisons are lead, arsenic, phosphorus, mercury, zinc, and
copper, aniline dyes, acids, ammonia, naphtha and benzine,
turpentine, varnish removers, carbon monoxide (better
known as coal gas), sulphurous and other gases, to which
may be added the dangers from handling the hides and hair
of animals, and from excessive steam or heat.
Lead. In addition to white and red lead works, china
and earthenware potteries, many processes in the metal
trades, glass works, some branches of the electrical indus-
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
try, type foundries, typesetting and printing, varnishing,
and many other occupations may bring the worker in con-
tact with some form of lead.
Lead poisoning usually begins with a loss of appetite and
weight, nausea, constipation, low vitality, sallow skin, bad
breath, a blue line along the gums, and a sweet taste in the
Various forms of lead
mouth. The symptoms of chronic lead poisoning are pain-
ful colic, pain in the legs, paralysis, wrist drop, and a gen-
eral wrecking of the nervous system.
One of the results of long exposure to lead is a hardening of
the arteries, which brings all the feebleness and appearance
of old age, cutting down a man in the prime of life. Very
often the sufferer becomes unable to feed or dress himself.
It is a mistaken idea that we have few cases of lead poison-
ing in this country. As we do not have the system of record-
ing such cases as is done in Germany and England, where
the laws in this respect are very strict, we do not know just
how many cases really occur, but a comparison of a few
German, English, and American lead factories brings out
some startling facts.
In a German factory employing 150 men, two cases of
lead poisoning were discovered in 1910. In an American
factory employing 142 men, twenty-five cases were sent to
the doctor in the same year.
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 155
In an English white and red lead factory employing 90
men, there was not a single case of lead poisoning in five
successive years, while in an American factory of the same
kind, employing 85 men, the doctors' records for six months
showed 35 men suffering from some form of the poisoning.
On the other hand, in an American white lead factory,
where the " wet process " does away with dust, there is no
record of lead poisoning.
These figures refer only to red and white lead works, but
other trades involving the handling of lead would doubtless
show a high rate of poisoning in this country.
Lead in paints. Lead poisoning in the painter's trade
is probably well known to many people. The Commission
on Occupational Diseases, appointed by the State of Illi-
nois, found that 12 men were sent to hospitals in Chicago,
in 1910, who had been poisoned by sandpapering the white
walls of the lavatories of Pullman cars. In sanding the
walls and ceilings they had breathed in great quantities of
poisonous lead dust. In Germany, instead of the dry
sandpapering, they have a wet process.
The making of paints and varnishes, the manufacturing
of the lead seals used for freight cars, the laying of electric
cables and charging of storage batteries, the making of tin
foil for wrappers and for bottle caps, the coloring, enamel-
ing, and lacquering of various wares, in all of which lead is
used, are more or less dangerous to those employed in
Lead in other manufactures. In the manufacture of
china and earthenware the lead is in the glaze that is put
on the vessels. In England, where the public is better
informed with regard to the dangers in lead glazing, pottery
156 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
is made without lead, or with a very low per cent of car-
bonate of lead in the glaze, and many English people insist
on buying this kind of pottery.
Workers in wire and wire cloth factories run the risk of
being poisoned by the fumes that rise from the kettles of
molten lead, through which the wire is passed in the process
of tempering it. In one factory of this kind, several bad
cases of poisoning were found, because proper ventilation
and hoods over the kettles for carrying off the fumes had
not been provided.
In the polishing of cut glass and crystal, putty powder is
used which contains 70 per cent of lead oxide. The putty
powder mixed with water falls on the polishing wheels,
which revolve at a high rate of speed. In consequence,
a considerable amount of spray is thrown off, which
falls on the workers' hands and clothing and on the floor.
When this spray dries and rises as fine dust into the air, the
work people who inhale it may become poisoned.
The danger to the worker in any trade in which lead is
used is, therefore, from the inhalation of lead dust and
fumes. Sometimes, through ignorance, the worker comes
into even more dangerous contact with lead than the work
requires. One of the members of the Illinois Steel Commis-
sion tells the story of a newly arrived Roumanian who was
employed in a storage battery works and was severely
poisoned at the end of 13 days. It was found that he had no
idea the red lead paste he used was poisonous, and it was
his custom to wet his fingers in his mouth as he worked.
Fighting lead poisoning. The best lines upon which
to work with a view to fighting the evils of lead poison-
ing are :
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 157
On the part of the employer
To prevent dust as far as possible, by using a " wet process."
To provide a good system of ventilation for carrying off
the dust and fumes from the workroom and letting in
To keep a good temperature in the workroom.
To furnish respirators for the workers exposed to fumes
To provide, or to require, a special suit of clothing, to be
worn during the work, laid aside at the close of the
day, and frequently washed.
To set aside places, properly fitted up, as wash rooms,
where the workers may cleanse themselves and change
To provide suitable lunch places, where the employees
may sit, away from the dangerous conditions of their
To employ a physician, whose duty is to examine regularly
the workers exposed to poisonous conditions, as is now
required by the new law of the State of Illinois.
On the part of the employee
To cooperate in the use of respirators and other safeguards
To observe scrupulous cleanliness.
To wash thoroughly the hands,, face, and nostrils on quit-
ting work, and in addition, before eating and drinking,
to rinse the mouth and throat.
To bathe in hot water at least three times a week, using
plenty of soap and scrubbing the flesh with a brush.
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
To use sulphuric acid lemonade (very weak).
To avoid touching the mouth with the fingers during the
working hours, or before the hands have been washed.
To keep the bowels open.
To refrain from smoking during working hours.
Arsenic. Arsenic is used in making green pigments, one
of which is well known to us as " Paris green/' which enter
into the manufacture of wall papers, boxes, cards, cretonne,
and artificial flowers. It is also used in smelting works,
especially in copper smelting; sometimes brasswork is
These articles all contain arsenic
dipped in an arsenic-copper solution to produce certain
desired effects. White arsenic is used for the preservation
of furs, in taxidermy, and for similar purposes.
Arsenic is a dangerous poison, either in its dry, dusty
form, or in fumes. The dust causes disorders of the stomach,
sore mouth, great thirst, skin eruptions, ulcers, and finally
a general breakdown of the system. The delicate mem-
branes of the nose frequently become damaged as a result
of inhaling arsenic dust.
When arsenic fumes are inhaled, they cause headache,
nausea, vomiting, jaundice, a general condition of discom-
fort, and weakness. If the fumes are inhaled in great
quantities, they may result fatally, death appearing to be
due to heart failure.
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 159
Many cases of arsenical poisoning result from the wrap-
ping and packing of Paris green, which is usually done by
women. Most of the workers seem to suffer, in some de-
gree, from skin diseases, sore throat, and stomach disorders.
So much arsenic is used in dark green wall papers that it
frequently affects the health of people who live in rooms so
papered. In the case of a lady who became very anaemic
and suffered from stom-
ach disorders, her physician
found that the wall paper in
her bedroom was the cause
of her ill health and ordered
it removed at once.
To prevent poisoning
from arsenic dust, wet pro-
cesses should be used.
Dusting green pigments
upon artificial flowers from
dredging boxes should not
be permitted. A great
many of these arsenic pig-
ments could be done away
with entirely and harmless
coal-tar colors substituted
Workers who are exposed
to arsenic dust and fumes should wear respirators, protect
their hands with gloves, and pay careful attention to per-
Phosphorus. In manufacturing matches, white and
red phosphorus can be used. White phosphorus is a danger-
A respirator for protection against
160 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
ous poison and its use is forbidden by law in Germany,
Great Britain, France, Italy, and other European countries.
The red phosphorus is not poisonous and should be sub-
stituted for the white, which is still used in this country in
the manufacture of matches. A bill has been introduced in
Congress prohibiting the use of white phosphorus in matches.
The fumes given off by white phosphorus cause catarrh,
indigestion, faulty nutrition, and weakness, leading, finally,
to the painful and loathsome disease known as " phossy
jaw," in which inflammation of the upper or lower jaw, tooth-
ache, and decaying teeth are followed by abscesses and a
gradual eating away of the bones of the jaw.
Thorough ventilation, the use of respirators, and personal
cleanliness in changing the clothing and washing the hands
and mouth before eating and drinking are good preventive
measures, but the use of white phosphorus should no longer
Mercury. The poisonous effects of the vapor of mercury
are best known to us through the nervous disease called the
" shakes" which often affects hat makers. This results
from exposure to dust in the fur which has been treated with
cyanide of mercury, and because in the finishing of felt
hats, the fine, mercurial dust gets into the air and is in-
haled by the workers. If a good ventilating system is
used, this danger can be eliminated.
In brass foundries, where mercury is added to the alloy,
the men who are obliged to stir the metal and inhale the
heavy fumes that rise from it suffer from diarrhea, sweet
taste in the mouth, sore gums, and loosened teeth. In
this kind of work, the wearing of respirators would do away
with the harmful effects of mercury.
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 161
In card-clothing* factories, where the cards are tempered
with mercury, a considerable amount of that metal may re-
main in the teeth of the machine. In finishing the cards, a
tool is passed between the rows of teeth, causing a fine metallic
dust, which may be inhaled by the worker. In this case,
where an ordinary exhaust system for drawing off dust
may not be successful, it is Vise for the operator to pro-
tect his clothing with overalls, to wear a respirator, and to
pay strict attention to personal cleanliness.
In the manufacture of thermometers, barometers, mirrors,
dry electric batteries, in chemical works, lithographing,
gilding, and in the making of ammunition for firearms, the
workers must come in contact with mercury. In the mak-
ing of ammunition, for instance, there is grave danger from
the use of mercury in the form of fulminate. Even under
the best conditions, the workers are taken only after physi-
cal examination as to fitness. The fine particles in the air
are a serious menace to the health of the average worker.
In one establishment, about six years ago, a very efficient
ventilating system was installed, by which the air is washed,
tempered, and distributed by pipes so as to reach every
part of the workroom. To show how the ventilating sys-
tem improved the working conditions, the foreman of this
workroom, who did not handle any of the material, was
formerly obliged to give up work for months at a time, as a
result of the mercury in the air. Now he is able to do his
work without any of the distressing symptoms due to the
influence of mercury.
Thorough ventilation should be the rule for those who are
obliged to work with mercury, and an eight-hour day would
tend to reduce the risk.
162 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Brass and bronze. Workers in brass foundries are ex-
posed to the dust or fumes which result in what is known as
" brass founders' ague." Seventy-five per cent of the men
new to the work are said to be stricken with this disease,
which, however, does not always have the symptoms of ague.
The poisoned men suffer from pains in the back, chills,
fever, headache, general weakness, and soreness in the chest.
Thorough ventilation and proper washing conveniences
should be provided by employers, but, as yet, these pre-
ventive measures in brass foundries have not been given the
attention they deserve.
Workers in bronze are subject to headache, loss of appe-
tite, nausea, and disturbances of the throat and chest. In
many bronzing rooms, in spite of ventilating systems, the
air is filled with bronze dust, and the workers are fre-
quently covered from head to foot, as if encased in armor.
In such places, special clothing should be worn, removed
at night, and frequently washed. The hands, face, and
mouth should be washed thoroughly before eating and
Dyes. Dyeing, bleaching, and cleaning are all occu-
pations more or less dangerous to those engaged in them, on
account of the fumes and vapors rising from the dyestuffs
and chemicals used in the various processes.
The symptoms of aniline poisoning, in a mild form, are
loss of appetite, headache, dizziness, and weakness, and the
sufferer should promptly receive fresh-air treatment: The
effects of a more serious form of aniline poisoning are weak-
ness, nausea and vomiting, a disordered nervous system,
palpitation of the heart, skin eruptions, and stupor which
sometimes results, in death.
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS: POISONS AND FUMES 163
Acids. The manufacture and the industrial use of vari-
ous acids, such as hydrochloric, sulphuric, nitric, and other
corrosive acids, have an injurious effect upon the eyes and
respiratory organs of workers who handle them. Persons with
bronchial troubles are fre-
quently obliged to give up
work of this kind. Protec-
tion should be given by a
good system of ventilation
to carry off the acid fumes,
or the work should be in-
closed so that no fumes
may escape. Large spec-
tacles should be worn to
protect the eyes from
drops of caustic liquids.
Ammonia. The fumes
of ammonia frequently
overpower the workmen.
Ample ventilation is nec-
essary in ammonia works,
and the men should be provided with respirators and
helmets if exposed to any unusual danger from the fumes.
Naphtha. Naphtha, which is used in cleansing and also
in the rubber industry and the manufacture of patent leather,
sometimes causes a condition very much like intoxication.
New workers are especially susceptible and suffer from
headache, dizziness, nausea, and hysteria. Acute naphtha
poisoning sometimes results fatally.
Petroleum. Petroleum and benzine vapors cause head-
ache, dizziness, and loss of consciousness. Workers who
Goggles used as a protection against acids
1 64 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
handle petroleum, creosote,' coal tar, turpentine, wood
alcohol, quinine, and chrome pigments used in tanneries
are subject to diseases of the skin on the face and hands and
inflammation of the membranes of the nose. Such workers
should wear gloves and anoint the nose, face, and hands
with clean oil or grease.
Gas. Men who are employed in gas works, blast fur-
naces, smelters, or about coke ovens, are frequently
poisoned by coal gas. They suffer from headache, dizzi-
ness, nausea, drowsiness, and loss of consciousness. If not
rescued and revived in time, they may suffocate and die.
Skins and hides. Anthrax is a parasitical disease that
is contracted by workers who are obliged to handle infected
wool, hair, hides, and skins. While anthrax is not very
common among American domestic animals, the danger of
infection is always present. When hides and hair imported
from the Far East are handled, the danger is serious.
Special methods of ventilation and dust removal should be
provided for the fine particles of hair and wool. In spite of
ventilating systems, however, a certain amount of dust will
escape into the air, against which the workers can best
protect themselves by the use of respirators.
In some of the European countries, the raw material is
disinfected before it is handled and used for manufacturing
purposes; special hoods and ducts are installed to carry
away the dust from the individual worker ; the work places
are disinfected and prompt treatment is given to all cuts
and slight injuries, to prevent infection.
Intense heat. Stokers, cooks, bakers, firemen, black-
smiths, men who handle molten metal, and workers in glass
furnaces all suffer from the effects of intense heat. They
OCCUPATIONAL DANGERS. POISONS AND FUMES 165
are especially susceptible to rheumatism, catarrh, pneu-
monia, digestive troubles, and heart disease, and seldom live
as long as the average worker.
Workers in laundries complain of the oppressive atmos-
phere resulting from the steam and the vapors that rise
from the chemicals used in bleaching and disinfecting cloth-
ing. Starchers sometimes
suffer from nausea as a
result of the starching pro-
cess, and the workers at
the mangles and ironing
machines complain of the
intense heat. All of these
conditions could be alle-
viated if proper attention
were paid to ventilation.
Preventives. These in-
dustrial poisonings and dis-
comforts are largely pre-
ventable. Dusts and
fumes can be drawn off by
effective devices, and, in
most cases, the workers can
be protected against those
that remain by the wearing
of respirators. Wet pro-
cesses can be substituted for dry, dusty ones ; in some in-
dustries, harmless materials may be used instead of the
poisonous ones. Personal cleanliness on the part of the
workers themselves and cooperation with the management
in the use of respirators, shields, and hoods over machines
Injurious vapors being drawn off through
a ventilating hood
1 66 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
and pots of dangerous substances will effect a greater
degree of safety and health. It is also the duty of the
worker, if he is to do his share in lessening the burden and
horrors of industrial disease, to respect any sanitary rules
and regulations that have been made for his protection.
SUGGESTIONS FOR THE WORKER
1. Find out if you handle lead, arsenic, phosphorus, or
mercury in any form, and learn to avoid poisoning.
No one is too healthy or strong to make reasonable
2. Familiarize yourself with the precautions which should
be taken by the employer to safeguard your health.
If these are found wanting, tell him about it. If they
are present, avail yourself of their benefit and assist
in making them effective.
3. Follow carefully all rules laid down for your protection.
4. Use respirators and other protections when you know you
should do so, even if they are uncomfortable.
5. Regular hygienic living is the most important protection
for the health of the worker.
Benefits of fire. Not only has fire served man in the
cooking of his food and the warming of his dwelling against
the inclemencies of the weather, but it has also enabled him
to make glass for his windows, dishes, and vessels of utility
and beauty; it has made possible the exploits and dis-
coveries of chemistry, and, indirectly, through the telescope,
microscope, and spectroscope, has brought within the range
of human knowledge the marvels of the heavens and of the
varied forms of life hidden from the unaided eye ; it has
helped to fashion the tools of man, from the spade and pick
of the laborer in the streets, to the delicate instruments of
the surgeon and the scientific investigator; it has given
him the means of transportation, " Twentieth Century
Limiteds " and " ocean greyhounds," that have broken
through the barriers of time and distance and made isolated
communities and nations known to each other.
So one might enumerate indefinitely the benefits of civili-
zation directly or indirectly traceable to the agency of fire.
Loss from fire. Now let us look at the other side of the
picture. In spite of all its blessings, fire is the most de-
structive, the most terrible, the most baffling of the enemies
The National Board of Fire Underwriters presents an
interesting comparative study of fire loss in this country
and abroad during the year 1910.
1 68 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
The United States Census population for 1910, of the
297 cities reporting loss, is 29,996,723, with a total loss of
$71,559,057, a per capita loss, as stated, of $2.39, as opposed
to a per capita loss of 19 cents in Germany, for the same
COUNTRY CITIES REPORTING Loss POPULATION PER CAPITA Loss
United States 297 29,996,723 $2.39
France 8 4,392,529 .92
England n 2,335,847 .44
Germany 13 5,616,822 .19
$214,003,300 represents the total property loss from fire
for the entire United States, for the year 1910.
In New York alone, with its population of over four and
a half millions, there occurred, in the year of 1910, more than
14,000 fires, with a total loss, insured and uninsured, of
In Ex-Chief Croker's own words : " The Fire Depart-
ment of Greater New York is greater than the combined
departments of the next five largest cities, and in spite of
this the fire losses in life and property and the dangers of
frightful holocausts in New York are steadily increasing.
The battle against flames has been a losing fight, all things
Between 1880 and 1910, our national population increased
83 per cent, but our fire loss increased 186 per cent. And
the number of fires continues to increase. As a nation, we
burn up each year one half the value of the buildings we take
the pains that year to erect.
Human loss. Reliable statistics of the number of lives
lost by fire in this country are wanting, as this phase of the
question has never been made the subject of governmental
or state inquiry ; but we do know that, since 1903, five fires
alone, that at the Collingwood schoolhouse, the Iroquois
Theater in Chicago, the moving picture entertainment in
Boyertown, and, in New York City, the burning of the
steamer General Slocum, and the latest tragedy, the Asch
Building fire, are responsible for the deaths of 2100 inno-
cent persons, to say nothing of the shock and injury to the
thousands who barely escaped with their lives.
The fact that the European rate of loss is far below our
own clearly indicates that a sense of responsibility, intelli-
gent supervision, better fire laws, and a more strict enforce-
ment of them have much to do with the prevention of fires.
Under the forms of government peculiar to the European
countries the individual is held accountable, not only for
fires occurring on his own property, but also for any damage
or loss to his neighbors through a fire that results from a
violation of responsibility. Wise building laws have been
framed and enforced regulating the hazards of occupancy
with great strictness, thus lessening the possibilities of dan-
Causes of fires. Ex-Chief Croker says : " At least 50
per cent of our great loss in property and human life is
preventable, and is directly due to inexcusable carelessness,"
and gives in his opinion the chief causes for fires occurring
in a city like New York, in the following order : -
1. Carelessness in factories, which, in most cases, means
dirt and rubbish and oily waste.
2. Carelessness in the use of matches.
3. Bad electrical wiring.
4. Careless housekeeping.
5. Dark and dirty hallways. People, at night, light
170 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
matches to find their way about, throw the matches
into corners filled with rubbish, and a few hours later
a call is sent in for the firemen.
6. Dark basements. Tenants go downstairs after coal or
wood, with a candle or with matches. A startling
number of bad fires begin in this way.
7. Oil stoves.
8. Old-fashioned oil lamps.
9. Cigar and cigarette stubs.
Very great fires result from small beginnings. One recent
tragedy resulted from the carelessness of a smoker. The
factory and the people working in it were not fireproof, and
143 girls were killed by a blaze that would hardly have
been mentioned in the papers, but for the loss of life. The
building was not deathproof, and " the best fire depart-
ment in the world" was powerless to prevent the holocaust.
It is plain to be seen, therefore, that, in addition to the
fireproof construction of the building, it is imperative that
other means be considered to make it deathproof.
Preventive measures. Floor areas should be as small
as the demands of the business will permit. Large floor
areas increase the dangers of fire, on account of the wide
sweep they give the flames.
The floors should have as few openings as possible, and the
walls, partitions, floors, and roof should be constructed of
substantial, fire-resisting materials. Metallic doors and
trim should be employed.
The United States Government, realizing the importance
of protection against fire, in its newest battleships, the Utah
and the Florida, specified metallic doors and trim.
Windows and doors should be protected by modern pro-
tective coverings to prevent the spread of fire from one
room to another and from one building to another. Parti-
tions of metal, fire doors and shutters, and wire glass win-
dows now cost very little and ___
prevent the spreading of flames.
Elevators and stairways
should be separated and in-
closed in brick and fire-resist-
ing shafts with fireproof doors.
Fire escapes should be con-
structed with fireproof stair-
ways, inclosed in brick or fire-
resisting shafts, with outside
balconies having doors swing-
ing outward from the building
and inward from the balcony to
the stairway escape.
It is now generally conceded
that the old-fashioned skeleton
iron fire escape is utterly inade-
quate for use on a ten-, twenty-,
or thirty-story structure, not
only because such escapes are
usually located in front of windows out of which smoke and
fire may be pouring, but also because of the difficulty for
great numbers of people in getting down the narrow stair-
ways that are little better than ladders. It has been esti-
mated that, in the case of one recent fire, the employees on
the upper floors could not have reached the street by such
an escape in less than three hours, and the fire allowed them
about three minutes !
Fire door of metal
172 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
State Fire Marshal. If the office of State Fire Mar-
shal were created by every commonwealth and the fire mar-
shal and his deputies given power to enforce good fire pre-
vention laws, to investigate and, if necessary, prosecute
cases of arson and criminal carelessness in the starting or
spreading of fires, ascertain their causes, and by the distri-
bution of literature educate the citizen to the real need of
care and forethought in the protection of life and property, a
great conserving of our national resources would instantly
In this connection, it is interesting to study the work of the
State Fire Marshal's Department of Ohio, which has car-
ried its campaign of education into the public schools of the
state. Under the law, this department was instructed to
prepare elementary textbooks on the chemistry of fire, the
causes of fires in our homes, how to guard against them and
how to hold the fire in check until the arrival of the firemen.
The law further directs and makes it a duty of the teachers
in the schools throughout the state to devote at least thirty
minutes in each month, during the school year, to instruc-
tion on this subject. The publication and distribution of
these books is made under the supervision of the State School
Commissioner. The opinion in Ohio, at the present time, is
that the plan has more than met their expectations.
Fire-fighting appliances. Complete equipment for dis-
covering and fighting incipient fires will minimize fire losses
and protect life. It is really an abuse of fireproof con-
struction not to provide such apparatus. Every factory,
warehouse, and loft building should be equipped with
such appliances, which should be frequently tested with
a view to their efficiency. These cover a wide range,
from the pails and casks filled with water or sand, up to
the various styles of chemical extinguishers, standpipes and
hose, fire pumps, automatic alarms, and automatic sprinkler
The automatic sprinkler is a device which is always pre-
pared to extinguish a fire at the point and time of its break-
ing out, as the heat
from the flames sets
it in motion. With
proper water supply
pressure behind it,
this sprinkler, in al-
most any locality
where the delivery
of its spray is unob-
structed, has demon-
strated itself to be
the most efficient
yet invented ; it is
always in the right
A shop equipped with an automatic sprinkler
place at the right
time, ready for any emergency, and performs its work
without dependence on the human element.
Fire brigades and drills. In order, however, to secure
from all these devices the most satisfactory measure of ef-
ficiency in times of need, it is necessary that employers and
workpeople should be familiar with their use. This can
be accomplished only through the organization of private
fire brigades and fire drills, by means of which the weaker
174 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
members of the force may be immediately conducted to
safety, while a selected few of the most strong and reli-
able employees, who have been, thoroughly drilled in the
use of the appliances, form a fire brigade for the protection
of the factory until the arrival of the regular fire department.
In any large building where a great number of people are
gathered together, these drills can be carried out just as
effectively as they are in our public schools.
Personal efforts. But we need not be employers of
labor or workers in a factory ourselves to assist in the cam-
paign for fire prevention and fire protection. Each of us
can start right now to add his individual efforts in putting
a stop to the numerous fires, and in saving a part of the mil-
lions of dollars which go up in flames and smoke every year.
If we are householders or housekeepers, we can at once
resolve to keep our premises always cleaned up. We can
see that greasy rags, filth, and rubbish are not allowed to
collect in closets, cellars, and dark corners. Oily rags may
be kept in metal cans with covers. Gasoline, kerosene, and
other explosive and volatile liquids we may keep in safety
cans now manufactured for that purpose.
We should never use gasoline in a closed room, or in a room
where there is an open flame or fire. A lighted cigar carried
into a room in which gasoline is being used will explode the
air in it.
We can exercise greater care in the trimming of our
Christmas trees, selecting decorations that will not burn
easily, and doing away with the customary tissue paper,
cotton batting, and celluloid trimmings. We can see to it
that a bucket of water stands near the tree, if it is lighted
We can also resolve to be more careful in the use of gas for
cooking and lighting purposes. Never turn on the gas unless
you have a match ready in your hand to light it. Many
explosions have occurred when the gas was turned on too
long before the match was used.
Smokers should be less careless in throwing away their
matches and cigar stubs. Many a match tossed away
while still lighted has been responsible for a serious fire.
We should never use dangerous matches, the heads of
which so frequently snap and fly off, setting fire to waste
paper, lace curtains, and clothing, particularly the clothing
We cannot be too careful with matches. We should
never leave them lying about loose. It is much better to
use only " safety " matches, which will ignite only when
scratched on the box in which they are sold, but if these
cannot be procured as cheaply as the ordinary match, we
should keep the latter in a safe place and exercise care in
We can make our Fourth of July a safe and sane holiday,
instead of encouraging the excitement, useless noises, fires,
and accidents now due to the sale of dangerous fireworks.
Below are given ten rules suggested by Ex- Chief Croker
for guidance in case of fire.
TEN RULES FOR GUIDANCE IN CASE OF FIRE
1 . Cleanliness in the home is an important preventive of fire. Accumu-
lations of waste often cause fires by spontaneous combustion, while
dust, rubbish, and similar material help to spread the flames.
2. Get well acquainted with the surroundings. In strange houses or
hotels, the location of fire escapes should be noted before going to bed.
176 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Employees of large factories and tenants of large buildings should
make it an imperative duty to know the location of all fire exits.
3. At the first sign of fire do not run away from it. When first dis-
covered, many fires could be put out by a bucket of water, or a rug
thrown over the blaze.
4. Fire drills should become a fixed law. They should be required in
all places where a considerable number of people are employed, as
they are required in the schools and on passenger and naval vessels.
5. Everybody should learn to use fire appliances. This would result
in the prompt extinguishing of many fires and a great decrease of
personal and property injury.
6. No matter how close the fire, make every effort to keep calm. Do
not lose control of yourself and thus run additional risk.
7. At any cost, calm the fears of little children. They are usually
more excited by the fear shown by others than by the danger itself.
8. Do not be too hasty to jump from high places. Many terrible acci-
dents and fatalities have resulted from people "losing their heads"
and jumping when a few moments' delay and a little coolness might
have saved them.
9. Do not resist a fireman attempting to rescue you. Many fatalities
have resulted from men, and particularly women, refusing to be
taken down the ladders because scantily clad.
10. In case of much smoke, try to get a wet cloth about the mouth. A
wet towel or sponge over the mouth and nostrils will enable one to go
through a smoke-filled passage. Remember there is nearly always
air free from smoke close to the floor.
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED
The importance of attending to slight wounds. No
injury is too slight to receive immediate attention. In
addition to lessening the soreness or pain that exists, a more
serious disability may be prevented.
The average man is careless about slight wounds and does
not like to bring them to the attention of his foreman or
superintendent; if these do not interfere with the work in
hand, no attention is paid to them. This indifference on the
part of the workman, however, may lead to serious results.
The danger of blood poisoning is always present in the
case of even the smallest wound. The worker's hands are
usually dirty, and the wound is wrapped or plastered with-
out being cleansed and disinfected; the nail upon which
the worker's hand or foot has been torn may be rusty ; or
poisonous dyes and other materials may get into the wound
from contact with the work, and the result is a serious in-
Slight physical ills as well as minor injuries interfere with
the regularity of the work. If taken in time, they yield at
once to treatment and the workers suffer no loss of time
and wages ; on the other hand, the employer suffers no loss
from an idle machine and a lessened output.
Factory hospital rooms. The best organized shops
and workrooms now keep a supply of appliances and reme-
178 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
dies on hand for emergencies and have also found it helpful
to drill a few reliable employees in the principles of first-
One large manufacturing company decided to make a
careful study of the number of men who were off from work
on account of slight injuries, not serious in themselves, but
which, through the lack of proper antiseptic treatment, had
become infected and dangerous. Some of their most skilled
and highest paid mechanics were obliged to quit work
for several days on account of a cut or bruise that had
become serious. The records showed that, on an average,
as many as half a dozen men were away from work every
day for this reason. As it was the policy of this company
to pay wages for a portion of the time lost by employees
through injuries, this meant a double loss to the company.
They decided that they not only could do away with the
dangers of such slight injuries, but also could save the
employees' wages and the loss resulting from the decreased
production and holding up of important work.
So the company equipped an emergency hospital with
every necessary appliance and convenience, and placed
a physician and a trained nurse in charge of it. The
doctor's entire time is given to the hospital work and the
nurse assists him every morning in dressing and redressing
wounds. In the afternoons, the nurse's time is given up to
visiting the sick or injured employees at home, as well as
any members of their families who may need her care.
As a result of this emergency work, the company found
that in one year, out of about four thousand cuts, bruises,
sprains, etc., that occurred in their plant, only about four
a month became infected. The company has kept a careful
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 179
record of these cases and believes that the large number of
minor injuries is not unusual in a plant like their own, which
is one of the best-equipped with safety devices and measures
for the prevention of accidents. They believe that any
modern, well-equipped shop, employing the same number
of workers, would have just as large a number of slight
injuries and should give them the same care.
With regard to the treatment of such minor ailments as
colds, headaches, indigestion, sore throat, and cramps, this
company believes it is more profitable to the worker, as well
as to themselves, to treat the condition and relieve the suffer-
ing in the factory hospital, sending the employee back to
work within an hour, than it is to have him lose an entire
day on account of illness. The company doctor is also in a
position to prevent a great deal of illness that might other-
wise prove serious, by prescribing for the employee upon
the first appearance of the symptoms of any disease. The
workers take the doctor into their confidence, and he is
thus able to help them keep in better physical condition.
One industrialist believed that it was poor economy for
him to build and maintain a hospital for his own plant,
located in a large city, so he hired a ward in one of the largest
city hospitals, and installed his own surgeons and nurses.
The cots or beds are inclosed with curtains, giving each
patient the privacy of a separate room. As soon as a man
arrives at this ward, his clothing is removed and he is fitted
out with sterilized garments until he leaves the hospital.
The patients are provided with games, reading, amuse-
ments, and diversions during their convalescence.
The visiting nurse. In addition to the company doc-
tor or surgeon, and trained nurse, whose services are always
i8o HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
available in the factory hospital or emergency room, many
industrial establishments employing a great number of
workers have come to look upon the visiting nurse as a very
important factor in efficiency and of valuable assistance in
promoting good will and understanding between themselves
and their employees.
According to the records of one manufacturing company,
their visiting nurse made, in one year, 989 personal calls at
the homes of employees, on account of illness or accident
to the workers or to members of their families. This com-
pany reports that it has many calls from homes of their
employees on account of illness of the wife and children.
Before the nurse was engaged, it was very common for some
of the most valuable employees to be called away from work
on this account. Now, instead of the men going home,
the nurse is sent. Nine times out of ten she can be
of greater assistance than the husband, father, or other
relative. The nurse's work among the women employees
is even more valuable, and her advice is sought at all times
by those who go to her with their troubles, as well as their
The visiting nurse also proves valuable to the manage-
ment and employees when she acts as a go-between and
medium of good will and interest, especially when an
employee has been injured and is obliged to be away from
work. At such a time, an assurance from the nurse that
the company will deal fairly with the injured worker has
created the proper mental attitude, and the worker has no
desire to bring suit for damages against the company.
A notice in a large leather factory calls attention to the
fact that the company offers, free to its employees, or
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 181
members of the employees' families, the aid of the com-
pany's nurse in case of sickness or injury. Part of the no-
tice reads : -
" In case any employee or member of any employee's family is
seriously sick or disabled, and wants the services of the nurse,
the company will have its trained nurse visit the patient.
THERE WILL BE NO CHARGE OF ANY KIND
Report cases of sickness or disability, where the services of the
nurse are wanted, to your foreman or to the Accident Depart-
Effective emergency work. First aid must be prompt
to be effective. One plant has its own surgeon instruct
classes of foremen and those having other men in charge,
in the principles of first-aid treatment. They are taught
just what to do in case a man is injured, and how to take
care of the different kinds of injuries. The instructions are
of benefit to these men, not only in the works, but in their
own homes, on the street, or wherever they may be in the
presence of persons needing emergency treatment.
Emergency work to be effective should be systematized.
Some one should be placed in charge of the supplies, whose
duty is to see that they are kept in good condition in a clean
place, that the stock does not run low, and that fresh mate-
rial is procured whenever necessary. A complete inspection
of the emergency outfit should be made at least once a month,
to be sure that everything is in its proper place, instantly
available in the moment of need.
Instruction should be given to the foremen and to re-
liable members of the working staff, who should be care-
fully trained in individual and team work and given prac-
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
tice drills as often as possible. Some kind of signal should be
used as an emergency call to attract the attention of the first-
Red Cross emergency outfit
aid corps on any floor or building of an industrial establish-
ment, in order that the members may instantly respond.
Efficiency and quickness in emergency treatment should
be encouraged by competition between different members
and groups, prizes and medals being awarded for the best
individual and team work.
Some large companies, especially those operating rail-
roads and mines, have encouraged this kind of work by
having field days or meets, when the picked men and teams
from the different companies are given an opportunity to
show their skill, and to compete for honors and prizes.
WHAT TO DO IN EMERGENCIES
Send for the doctor at once- Until he arrives do all you can to
relieve the sufferer.
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 183
Fainting. The symptoms of fainting are unconsciousness, weak
pulse, pale, bloodless face.
Lay the patient down at once, in such a position that his head may
be lower than the rest of the body, thus allowing the blood to flow to-
wards the brain. If the patient is in a chair, it may be gently lowered
until the back and head rest upon the floor, Keep away the crowd
How to restore a fainting person
and admit plenty of fresh air. Hold a handkerchief or bit of gauze
saturated with aromatic spirits of ammonia to the patient's nostrils.
When he regains consciousness, give him a drink of cool water and
allow him to rest for a while.
Sunstroke. The symptoms are complete unconsciousness, red
face, skin hot and dry, and, sometimes, convulsions.
Remove the patient's clothing, and either place him in a bathtub
of cold water or wrap him in a wet sheet, kept cold by frequent
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
sprinkling. Cloths wrung out in ice water and placed on the back of
the head and neck, or the application of an ice bag to the head, will
also help to reduce the temperature. Stimulants may be given, but
not in excess.
Heat exhaustion. This is a milder form of sunstroke, in which the
face is usually pale, instead of red, and the skin more or less moist and
cool. Loosen the patient's clothing, let him rest in a cool, quiet
place, and give him stimulants in small doses. In this case, the tem-
perature should not be reduced.
Electric shock. In cases of electric shock, there may be instan-
taneous death or only temporary unconsciousness, but the treatment
must be given just the same, as life may not be extinct where the per-
Performing artificial respiration
son appears to be dead. If a person is shocked by coming in contact
with a live wire or through a short circuit with some kind of electrical
apparatus, he must be separated from the electricity immediately. Do
not attempt to pull him away, however, with your bare hands. Your
hands should be covered with rubber gloves and, if possible, you should
stand on a piece of rubber.
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 185
Take the patient immediately into the fresh air and perform arti-
ficial respiration as follows:
Loosen the patient's clothing at the neck and waist. Bare his legs
and arms and have some one rub and slap them vigorously. Place the
patient face downwards and turn his head to one side. Kneel astride
the hips, placing your hands with the thumbs nearly touching, fingers
out, just below the shoulder blades and over the lower ribs. Press
down and forward quickly, with your whole weight, by swinging
forward till your shoulders are above your hands. Keep up this pres-
sure for three full seconds. Release the pressure and swing back,
keeping your hands in place and the arms straight, and wait for three
full seconds, then repeat. The movements should be quick and
vigorous. Keep them up until consciousness is restored, or an hour
and a half has passed after all signs of life have ceased.
(Learn this process of artificial respiration carefully for it is of
great use in treating drowning or asphyxiation by gas.)
During the process of artificial respiration, the rubbing of the pa-
tient's body should be kept up, and some one should apply spirits of
ammonia to his nostrils. When he becomes conscious, give him a half-
teaspoonful of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a third of a glass of
water. Place hot bricks or bottles of hot water around him and let him
rest. It is important to remember that persons apparently dead
after some one has spent an hour in performing the motions of artificial
respiration, have nevertheless been brought to life by the perseverance
of the person in charge.
Asphyxiation by gas. The symptoms are headache, dizziness, and
nausea, if only slightly affected; but, in more serious cases, these are
followed by unconsciousness.
The patient should be taken immediately into the fresh air. In
the lighter cases, loosen his clothing and give a dose of effervescing
phosphate of soda, followed in about five minutes by a half teaspoonful
of aromatic spirits of ammonia in a third of a glass of water. Walk the
patient around until he recovers.
In case of complete unconsciousness, perform artificial respiration
until the patient begins to breathe. Rub his legs and pass the spirits
of ammonia under the nostrils as long as he is unconscious. After
he regains consciousness, give him the same dose of aromatic spirits
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Proper dressing for a burn
of ammonia prescribed above, place bottles of hot water around him,
and let him rest.
Burns. Burns may be caused by fire, hot water, hot metals, or
chemicals. The skin may be very red, blistered, or charred. If the
burns are severe or much
/ BANDAGE f ^ e surface of the body
is injured, they may prove
If a person's clothing
is on fire, dash water over
him and throw him down
and wrap him in anything
heavy that happens to
be at hand, such as a
blanket, a piece of carpet, a table cover, or a coat.
Cut his clothing away with a pair of scissors, and if any part of
it sticks fast to the flesh, do not attempt to remove it. To keep
the air away from burns is the^first principle of treatment. The
best way to do this is to keep^Je injured part in water till the doc-
tor comes. A simple burn may be treated with a paste of water
and baking soda, or vaseline, sweet oil, lard, cream, or a mixture of
equal parts of limewater and linseed oil, covering it with a piece of
oiled silk, light cloth, or
paraffine paper, and fas-
tening the whole securely
with a bandage.
Don't open blisters un-
til 24 hours or more have
In case of acid burns,
wash off the acid immedi-
ately with large quanti-
ties of water. After this, apply water and baking soda, limewater,
or soapsuds, until all signs of the acid have disappeared. The paste
of baking soda and water is best in this case, because the soda is an
alkali. If the mouth has been burned by acid, or acid has gotten
into the stomach, drink limewater, milk, lithia, or vichy water freely.
cross-section of a blister, showing Nature's way
of dressing a burn
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED
In case of burns from alkalies, wash the burns with water and weak
acids like lemon juice, vinegar, cider, etc., after which they may be
treated and bandaged like other burns. If lime has splashed into the
eyes and burned them, wash them with olive oil, or a very weak solu-
tion of vinegar.
Frost bites and freezing. If the ears, nose, fingers, toes arms, or
legs have been frozen through exposure to extreme cold, do not bring
the person near a fire. Rub the frozen parts with cold water or snow,
and after they have been thawed out, the patient may be taken into
a moderately warm room and given hot drinks. Sometimes, if the
patient is unconscious, artificial respiration must be performed.
Cuts and wounds. All cuts and wounds, no matter how small,
should be washed and cleansed with warm water and some antiseptic
solution such as a i to
5000 solution of bichlo- COLLODION
ride of mercury. If the \
wounds are very dirty,
they should be washed
with soap and water.
Bring the edges of the
wound together and bind
with a compress, which is
a clean folded cloth, usu-
ally cheesecloth, that has
been dipped in an anti-
septic solution. If a wound is very slight, after the bleeding has been
stopped and it has been cleansed, a bit of adhesive plaster is all that
is necessary. Never put on collodion or "newskin" unless you are
sure the wound is absolutely clean.
Bleeding may be of three kinds; from the arteries, veins, or capil-
laries. When an artery has been injured, the blood is bright red and
sometimes spurts to a great distance. Such an injury is serious.
While waiting for the doctor, try putting a compress on the wound,
fastening it with a tight bandage. If the bleeding continues, twist
a piece of elastic, a handkerchief, or a necktie tightly above the wound;
that is, between it and the trunk, pressing the artery against the
bone. When you place a lead pencil or stick between the cloth and
Cross-section of the skin, showing collodion
placed on a dirty cut
i88 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
the limb, you make what is called a tourniquet, and by twisting it, you
will stop the flow of blood.
If a vein has been injured, the flow of blood is steady and dark in
color. When capillaries have been injured, the blood seems to ooze
out from many little openings. Apply compresses directly to the
wound and fasten with a tight bandage.
Nosebleed may frequently be stopped by chewing vigorously on
a wad of paper. Never give stimulants for any kind of bleeding.
Sprains. While waiting for the doctor, in the case of a sprained wrist
or ankle, place the patient's hand or foot in hot water, increasing the
temperature as much as possible. If hot water is not at hand, then let
cold water run on the injured joint. This treatment reduces the swell-
ing and lessens the pain. Place cotton batting over the joint and band-
age it tightly. Pour witch-hazel or some other soothing liniment over
the bandage, and place the limb higher than the rest of the body by let-
ting it rest on a cushion or chair. Do not paint the joint with iodine.
Drowning. To rescue a- drowning person, always try to pull him
out with an oar, a rope, a coat, or, if you jump in after him, try to get
your left arm around his neck with his back to you. Hold him away
and swim on your back, so that he will not struggle and clutch you,
thus impeding your movements and, perhaps, causing you to drown
also. If life seems extinct, hold the drowned person with head down
or roll him across a barrel for a moment only in order to empty his
lungs of water. Loosen his clothing, rub the arms and legs, apply
stimulants, and perform artificial respiration until his breathing is
regular. Keep him dry and warm, placing him between hot blankets
and surrounding him with bottles of hot water.
Broken limbs and ribs. If an arm, leg, collar bone, or rib is broken,
do not move the sufferer, but make him as comfortable as you can and
send for a surgeon immediately. Never attempt to set the bone,
but wait for the arrival of the surgeon.
Poisoning. In most cases of poisoning, the principal thing to do is to
empty the stomach and bowels of the sufferer and give an antidote for
the poison that has been swallowed. Poisons may be taken by mis-
take or with suicidal intentions, and you will find the victim suffering
severe pains in the stomach and abdomen, or insensible, breathing
heavily, sometimes in delirium and convulsions.
FIRST AID TO THE INJURED 189
If Paris green, sugar of lead, corrosive sublimate, rat poison, sul-
phuric, muriatic, nitric, carbolic or oxalic acid has been taken, make
the patient drink quantities of milk ; or give him the whites of a couple
of eggs, or flour stirred in water. If an acid has been taken, give lime-
water, baking soda, or magnesia ; if carbolic acid has been swallowed,
wash out the patient's mouth with alcohol and give him whisky to
drink. If the poison is an alkali, give lemon juice, or a tablespoonful
of vinegar in water.
In the case of poisoning from opium, morphine, strychnine, lauda-
num, and other poisons that produce heavy stupor, give black coffee
and endeavor to keep the patient awake. If he seems to collapse, per-
form artificial respiration and put hot applications against the ab-
domen and legs.
Ptomaine poisoning is caused by eating meat or fish that is tainted.
Give the victim a dose of Epsom salts or castor oil. If he is unable
to keep the dose down on account of nausea, then give him
a grain of calomel every hour for four or five doses. Do not give
any food until a physician advises it.
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT
Laws protecting the worker. There are many laws
which are designed to protect the young worker from dis-
comfort, danger, and long hours. Every one should learn
as much about these laws as possible before beginning work,
so that he may protect himself and others. Employers are
becoming more and more alert to regard the welfare of those
they employ, but much that is important to you may escape
their notice. It is the business of the worker to inform the
employer of any matter of this kind which should be brought
to his notice, and a committee representing the employees
will no doubt be accorded a hearing.
Each state has its own laws, but they cannot all be given
here. The laws of the state of New York are typical.
The laws of the state in which you live may be obtained by
writing to the secretary of your state at the capitol or to the
commissioner of labor.
The most important of the laws affecting labor are those
relating to employment certificates, and to the earliest age
at which you will be allowed to work, and you should regard
these long before you propose to begin.
The compulsory education laws of the state of New York
are given in the Appendix, pp. 223-225.
The employment certificate. The most important thing
for you to do, if you wish to go to work before you are six-
teen years old, is to get an employment certificate. You
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 191
should have been graduated from the elementary school, or at
least passed the sixth-year work. If not, you must ask your
principal for an examination. If you were born abroad, you
should send, with a fee, to the registrar of your town or to
the parish priest, for your birth certificate, and for this you
must allow at least six months, for there are many delays.
An employment certificate must be signed, in the presence
of the officer who issues it, by the young person in whose
name it is made out. It must state the date and place of
birth, the color of the hair and eyes, the height and weight,
and any distinguishing facial marks of the one in whose
name it is issued; it must also state that all the papers
required have been examined, approved, and filed.
Every person owning or managing a factory is obliged to
keep a record of the name, birthplace, age, and residence of
all persons employed under the age of sixteen years. These
records and the certificates that have been received from
the young persons must be produced on the demand of the
commissioner of labor, if there is any doubt about the ages
of any of the workers.
Special provisions for women and minors. No person
under the age of sixteen years is now permitted to work, or
to be employed in or in connection with any mercantile
establishment, business office, telegraph office, restaurant,
hotel, apartment house, theater, or other place of amuse-
ment, bowling alley, barber shop, shoe-polishing establish-
ment, or in the distributing or delivery of articles of merchan-
dise or messages, or in the sale of articles, more than six
days or fifty-four hours in any one week, or more than
nine hours in any one day, or before eight o'clock in the
morning or after seven o'clock in the evening of any day.
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
No female employee between sixteen and twenty-one
years of age is to be required or permitted to work in or in
connection witfy any mercantile establishment more than
sixty hours in any one week, or more than ten hours in any
one day, unless for the purpose of making a shorter work
day at some other time in the week ; or before seven o'clock
in the morning, or
after ten o'clock in
the evening of any
one day. This sec-
tion does not apply,
however, to the em-
ployment of persons
sixteen years of age
and upward, be-
tween the i 8th day
of December and the
following 24th day
f% of December, inclu-
Not less than forty-
five minutes must be
allowed for the noon-
day meal of em-
ployees in such estab-
lishments, and whenever any employee is permitted to work
after seven o'clock in the evening, at least twenty minutes
must be allowed for lunch or supper between five and seven
o'clock in the evening.
No child under the age of fourteen is allowed to work at all
in connection with these establishments, while no one under
Overtime work at Christmas is a pleasure
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 193
the age of sixteen years can be employed in them, without
having first secured the employment certificate already
Under the age of sixteen years, no one is allowed to work in
a factory in this state, before eight o'clock in the morning or
after five o'clock in the evening of any day, or for more than
eight hours in any one day ; or more than six days in a week.
No boy under eighteen years of age is allowed to work in
any factory more than nine hours in any one day, or more
than six days or fifty-four hours in any one week (except
in accordance with special regulations) or between the hours
of twelve at midnight and four o'clock in the morning.
No girls and women may work in a factory before six
o'clock in the morning, or after nine o'clock in the evening of
any one day, or more than six days or fifty-four hours in any
one week, or for more than nine hours in any day, except
in accordance with the special provisions.
Special provisions are made by the commissioner of
labor for certain factories which, on account of the nature
of the work, believe it to be impossible to fix the hours of
labor weekly in advance and are unable to post in the work-
rooms the notice, giving the number of hours per day for
each day of the week, as required by law. A young woman
over sixteen years of age or a young man between sixteen
and eighteen years of age may work in a factory longer than
nine hours a day, under ceftain conditions. They may work
longer on five days of the week, in order to make a short day
or holiday on one of the six working days of the week ; or on
not more than three days of any week, they may work over-
time, provided that they do not work more than ten hours
in anyone day, or more than fifty-four hours in any one week.
I 9 4 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Dangerous trades prohibited to women and minors.
Certain kinds of work considered dangerous are absolutely
prohibited to women and children. No child under the age
of sixteen years is allowed to work on circular or band saws,
wood shapers, wood jointers, planers, sandpapering or wood-
polishing machinery ; machines used in picking wool, cotton,
hair, or other upholstery materials; paper lace machines;
burnishing machines in tanneries and leather factories;
job presses or cylinder printing presses that are run other-
wise than by the foot ; wood turning and boring machines ;
drill presses ; corner staying machines in box making ; stamp-
ing machines used in sheet metal and tinware manufacturing
or in washer and nut factories; machines used in making
corrugating rolls ; steam boilers ; dough brakes ; wire or iron
straightening machinery; rolling mill machinery, power
punches or shears ; washing, grinding, or mixing machinery ;
calender rolls in rubber factories ; or laundering machinery.
No child under the age of sixteen years is permitted to
adjust or to help adjust machinery belts, to oil, wipe, or
clean machinery; to work with dangerous and poisonous
acids ; to work in the manufacturing or packing of paints,
colors, or red and white lead ; in dipping, dyeing, or packing
matches ; in the manufacture, packing, or storing of powder,
dynamite, and other explosives; in or about any distil-
lery or brewery, or place where alcoholic liquors are made,
packed, wrapped, or bottled.
No girl under the age of sixteen is allowed to work in any
capacity where she is obliged to stand constantly.
No child under the age of sixteen is allowed to be in
charge, to manage, or to run a freight or passenger elevator,
while no one under the age of eighteen is permitted to oper-
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 195
ate an elevator, either for freight or passengers, running at a
greater speed than two hundred feet a minute.
No woman under twenty-one or young man under the age
of eighteen years is allowed to clean machinery while it is
No young man under eighteen years, or any woman is
allowed to run any kind of polishing or buffing wheels, in
connection with the manufacturing of articles from iron,
steel, tin, and other base metals.
The length of the day's work. According to the labor
laws at present in force in the state of New York, the term
" factory " is used to designate any mill, workshop, or other
manufacturing or business establishment where one or more
persons are employed at labor. The term " mercantile
establishment " means any place where goods, wares, or
merchandise are offered for sale.
In New York State eight hours constitute the legal work-
ing day for all employees, except those persons working as
domestic servants, or employed on farms. Exceptions are
also made in the case of workers in brickyards, on street,
surface, and elevated railroads, in drug stores and phar-
Ten hours outside of the necessary time for meals is a
legal working day for brickmakers. Employees in brick-
yards are not obliged to work more than ten hours in any
one day or to commence work before seven o'clock in the
morning. However, overwork and extra time before seven
o'clock are allowed with extra compensation, if the em-
ployer and employee agree upon the same.
Ten consecutive hours, with a half hour for dinner in-
cluded, are legal hours for all who work on street, surface,
196 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
and elevated railroads, which are operated within the limits
of cities of the first and second class. Employees of these
railroads are not allowed to work more than ten consecu-
tive hours in any one day of twenty-four hours, but in
cases of accident or unavoidable delay they may work over-
time for extra compensation.
Ten hours is also the legal limit for workers on steam, sur-
face, and elevated railroads in the state, except where the
mileage system is in operation. Conductors, engineers,
firemen, and trainmen may work extra hours, in case of
accidents and delay on account of accidents, but for each
hour of work performed in addition to the legal ten hours,
the worker must be paid in addition to the regular wage
at least one tenth of the daily compensation. No conduc-
tor, engineer, fireman, or trainman who has been obliged to
work for twenty-four consecutive hours is allowed to go on
duty again or perform any kind of work until he has had at
least eight hours of rest.
In the case of block- system telegraph and telephone
operators, and signalmen on surface, subway, and elevated
railroads, the law prohibits a working period longer than
eight hours in a day of twenty-four hours, " except in cases
of extraordinary emergency caused by accident, fire, flood,
or danger to life or property." For each hour of extra work
performed by this class of workers, it is provided that they
shall receive additional compensation of at least one eighth
of the daily wage.
These provisions do not apply, however, to railroads
where not more than eight regular passenger trains pass
each way in twenty-four hours, unless twenty freight trains
pass each way in the same length of time.
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 197
A new law provides that no apprentice or employee in
any pharmacy or drug store shall be permitted to work
more than seventy hours a week. A clerk may work
overtime in one week, but the total number of hours
worked in two consecutive weeks must not be more than
one hundred thirty-two hours. Every worker is entitled
to one full day off in two consecutive weeks. No pro-
prietor of any pharmacy or drug store can require a
clerk to sleep in any room or apartment connected with the
store that is unsanitary and unhealthful.
Unfortunately, these restrictions with regard to hours of
labor do not include the prohibition of overtime, for the law
distinctly states that, in the general provision made for an
eight-hour day, it " does not prevent an agreement for over-
work at an increased compensation."
Special provisions. Every manufacturing, mining,
quarrying, mercantile, railroad, street railway, canal,
steamboat, telegraph, telephone, and express company,
every company gathering and storing ice, every private
water company and every person, firm, or corporation en-
gaged as a contractor or subcontractor in any public work
for the state or any city of the state must pay the wages
of their employees in cash. No person, company, or cor-
poration is allowed to pay wages in what is called " store
money orders," obliging the workers to take out the equiva-
lent of their wages in supplies bought from a store owned
or controlled by the person, company, or corporation em-
ploying them. The owning or managing of what is called a
" company store " is prohibited by the state of New York,
if at the time there is any other store within two miles of the
place where the work is being done.
198 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Sanitary regulations. Sanitary conditions in workplaces
are regulated by laws providing for air space, lighting,
cleanliness, ventilation, cuspidors, drinking water, wash
rooms, toilets, time allowed for meals, seats for women
employees, and dust removal.
No more employees are permitted to work in a factory
room, between the hours of six o'clock in the morning and
six in the evening, than will allow to each 250 cubic feet of
air space; and unless the written permit of the commissioner
of labor allows otherwise, 400 cubic feet must be provided
for each worker employed between the hours of six o'clock
in the evening and six o'clock in the morning.
Workrooms, halls, and stairs leading to workrooms must
be properly lighted.
The walls and ceilings of workrooms must be limewashed,
or painted; floors must be kept clean and sanitary and suit-
able receptacles provided for waste and refuse; buildings
must be well drained and the plumbing kept in clean,
In every workroom, proper and sufficient means of venti-
lation must be provided and maintained. In the case of
excessive heat, steam, gases, vapors, and dust, or other
impurities getting into the air from the work, the work-
rooms must be ventilated in such a manner as to render
these conditions harmless to the workers.
Sanitary cuspidors must be provided and cleaned daily.
This regulation, especially the number of cuspidors to be
provided, lies within the discretion of the commissioner of
labor. It is against the law to spit upon the walls, floors,
or stairs of any building used in whole or in part for factory
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 199
A sufficient supply of clean, pure drinking water must be
provided; if it is placed in receptacles in the factory, these
must be kept covered and frequently cleaned.
Suitable and proper wash rooms and water-closets are
required by law. Where women are employed in factories,
dressing rooms must also be provided. In brass and iron
foundries, provision must be made for drying the working
clothes of the employees. Water-closets must be properly
screened, lighted, ventilated, and kept clean and sanitary.
In factories, at least sixty minutes must be allowed for the
midday meal, unless the commissioner of labor permits a
shorter time. The same rule for a lunch period when work-
ing overtime applies to factories as in the case of mercantile
establishments; that is, at least twenty minutes must be
allowed for lunch if employees are obliged to work after
Every person employing women in a factory or as wait-
resses in a hotel or restaurant must provide suitable seats
for their use ; in stores and other mercantile establishments,
at least one seat for every three females employed must be
provided and the use of such seats must be allowed.
Grinding, polishing, and buffing wheels used in manu-
facturing articles of the baser metals must be furnished with
proper hoods and exhaust pipes to carry away the dust and
impurities that are thrown off in the work.
Other regulations. According to the laws of the state
of New York persons in charge of any building, construc-
tion, excavating, or engineering work, or of factories, must
keep a correct record of all deaths, accidents, and injuries,
and within 48 hours after the time of the death, accident,
or injury make a report to the commissioner of labor,
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
stating as fully as possible the cause of death, the extent
and cause of injury, the place where the injured person has
been sent, and such other information as the commissioner
A new law has been passed requiring every physician
who is called upon to treat a patient suffering from lead,
phosphorus, arsenic, or mercury poisoning, or from the
effects of compressed air,
or from anthrax, to report
the case to the commis-
sioner of labor.
Regulations for safety in
workshops include provi-
sions for safeguards for
vats, pans, belting, and
other dangerous machin-
ery. Machinery must be
provided with loose pul-
leys and mechanical belt-
shifters wherever possible.
If machinery is in a dan-
gerous condition, or not
properly guarded, the com-
missioner of labor has the
power to prohibit its use.
Guards must not be re-
moved from dangerous ma-
chines except to make
repairs, after which they must be promptly replaced. When
the commissioner of labor prohibits the use of dangerous
machinery, a notice is attached to it, which may not be
The elevator operator is responsible for
the safety of many
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 201
removed until the dangerous condition is remedied or
safeguards provided. Until this is done, the machinery is
not to be used.
In factories where elevators, hoisting shafts, or wells are
used, these must be properly inclosed or guarded with auto-
matic traps and doors. Proper stairways must be provided
with substantial hand-
rails, the steps of the
stairs covered with
rubber, and the sides
and bo ttomof the stairs
All doors leading in or
to a factory must be
so constructed as to
open outwardly, and
are not to be locked,
bolted, or fastened
during working hours.
Every factory must
be provided with fire
In the construction
of buildings in cities,
must be provided for the safety of the workmen. Scaf-
folding that is twenty feet or more from the ground or floor
must be furnished with a safety rail. Floors must be laid
or planked over to within two stories of the height of a
building in course of construction.
More recent laws. Three special laws directly or
Scaffolding with safety rails
202 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
indirectly affecting the safety of workers in New York were
passed recently. One of these provides for the increase of
the force of state factory inspectors from 52 to 85, and for a
better organization of the work of inspection.
Another law created the office of State Fire Marshal,
whose duty is to enforce all laws and ordinances of the
state, except in cities having over one million inhabitants,
with regard to the prevention of fire, the storage, sale, and
use of explosives, the installing of automatic fire alarm and
fire extinguishing systems, the inspection of steam boilers,
the construction, maintenance, and regulation of fire escapes,
the means and safety of exit in cases of fire in all places where
people work, live, or assemble from time to time, and the
investigation of the cause, origin, and circumstances of fires.
A third law incorporated the American Museum of Safety,
whose object is to help solve the problems of industrial
accidents, largely by means of education as to the causes of
accidents and the methods of preventing them. To the
director of this museum any worker may apply for advice.
POINTS TO REMEMBER
1. Prepare in advance to get working papers by doing
your school work as well as possible and obtaining
your birth certificate before you need it. The
better school education you have, the easier it is to
make your way upward in any work.
2. Inform yourself of the kind of work that is permitted
to one of your age.
3. Do. not become a lawbreaker even though it seems
hard to be restricted in your choice. Laws are
WHAT THE WORKER HAS A RIGHT TO EXPECT 203
wisely made for your protection and do not reflect
upon your courage or ability.
4. By all means find out the legal length of the working
day and week for your trade and get your due on
overtime. Remember that you must preserve
your vital capital of health and that overtime costs
you all the added wages you get. Meet your
employer more than halfway and make his interests
5. See to it that you know all the sanitary regulations
concerning your work. If they are lacking, organ-
ize a committee and inform your employer.
6. Cooperate with your employer in improving conditions.
He will always be won by the economic value of the
welfare of his employees.
Cold weather. Keeping well is mainly a matter of
good daily hygienic habits. It is necessary, however, to
make special adjustments to very hot and very cold weather
to avoid discomfort and disease.
The body is kept warm because chemical changes
constantly occurring within it cause heat. The greatest
of these processes is oxidation, which is just like the
burning of a fire, only much slower. Oxidation occurs
more rapidly when muscles are exercised and this is the
reason why we thrash our arms, stamp, and run when we
wish to get warm. It explains also why we shiver when we
are cold, for the little muscles in the skin automatically
contract many times a minute in their endeavor to warm
the surface of the body.
Food. We, must therefore exercise more when it is cold.
To do this we need more food. The best foods for cold weather
are the fats and carbohydrates, because these are oxidized
into water and carbonic acid gas without leaving much
waste behind. Proteids should be increased a little to
replace worn-out tissue, but not very much. The Eskimos
know this instinctively, and are fond of fats and feast
upon the raw blubber of the whale.
As we have seen, food is of little use unless well digested,
so in cold weather particular care should be exercised in
SEASONAL HYGIENE 205
eating slowly, in masticating thoroughly, and in avoiding
The use of alcohol is particularly dangerous in cold
weather, for it brings the blood to the surface, making us
feel warm for a while, but really chilling the blood much
too fast and reducing the vitality.
Clothing. Linen mesh underwear is expensive, but the
best ; cotton may be worn, but it retains moisture ; light wool
underclothing is next best after the linen mesh. If forced
to remain long in the cold, remember that an extra woolen
shirt is worth more than an extra overcoat. A paper vest
is better than a sheepskin jacket, and fur clothing is usually
bad. If you are warm from work at the end of the day, wash
with tepid water as thoroughly as possible, change the un-
derclothes, and cool off before going out. This is very im-
portant, for a tired man takes cold easily.
Rubbers should be worn to avoid wet feet. If the
clothing is wet, it should be changed at once and a brisk
Frost bite and freezing. When the cold is intense,
rub the ears occasionally with the mitten or glove to re-
establish the circulation, even though the operation hurts.
If the tips of the ears get white, they are frozen and should
be vigorously rubbed.
If the feet are cold or frozen, rub them with snow, then
with very cold water. Do not go near the stove or use warm
water. Wrap them up carefully and chafe occasionally
with cold water, treating them with great care, for they
are easily injured. The feet once frozen are sensitive for a
long time, and should be rubbed every night with cold water
and salt to reestablish the normal resistance of the tissues.
206 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
Chapped hands. Always dry the hands thoroughly
after they have been washed. If they are rough, rub
them with camphor ice (a mixture of vaseline, camphor,
and lard) before going to bed.
Bathing. Never neglect the cold douching of the chest
and neck in cold weather. The time you feel least like doing
it is the time it is most needed. There are many persons
with whom a cold bath once a day does not agree; these
should bathe only part of the body at a time, or use tepid
water. There are many more who would be much benefited
by taking the tonic bath, but who do not do so merely
because of physical laziness.
Colds. The common cold is a house disease. People
who live an active out-of-door life seldom, if ever, suffer
from colds. They are dangerous, even the least of them,
for they are symptoms of a lowered vitality, and sometimes
so affect the health as to lead to consumption.
Causes. The most frequent cause is constipation, for
the waste food, which should be passed away daily, remains
in the intestine to decay, and the body absorbs poison from
it. This reduces the vitality so that infection by microbes,
which are always present, is made easy. Regular morning
exercise (Chapter II), drinking enough water, and eating
green vegetables will prevent constipation, headaches, and
Fatigue and lack of sleep will lower vitality, so that the
slightest exposure will cause colds. These result more
often from staying up late nights than from working too
hard. Changes of temperature rather than cold weather
in itself will cause colds, and then only when the body is
not trained to adjust itself to such changes.
SEASONAL HYGIENE 207
Preventive measures. The surest way to prevent
colds is to train the skin and circulation to adjust them-
selves to protect you from such changes. A traveler in
the West once remarked to an Indian who strolled about in
zero weather, protected only by his blanket, " I should
think you would catch cold." The Indian replied, " Why
you not cover your face ? Ugh ! Me all face." His whole
body had been adjusted to cold, just as is the skin of the
face, and he suffered no inconvenience.
If we follow the directions of Chapter II and take a cold
douche on the neck and chest, we shall train just so much
of the body to resist colds. To make cold bathing more
effective, add salt, preferably sea salt, which may be put
in the water J Ib. to four gallons, and rub the body with a
coarse towel. Train yourself up to cold water gradually,
and bathe, rub, and dry one portion of the body at a time.
This should be repeated at night. With the surface of the
body well trained, you need not pile on clothes to keep
warm. Too much clothing, such as furs or rubber gar-
ments, leads often to overheating; a wrap is thrown off,
the skin is cooled too suddenly, and a chill results.
Wet feet cause many colds. If you come home with
cold or wet feet, bathe them first in tepid, then in 'warm,
then in cold salt water, and rub them very hard. Never
neglect wet feet. A little care will save much trouble.
Most colds are " catching," so avoid the person with one.
Always cover the face with a handkerchief when you cough
Cure of colds. Never neglect a cold. In the sneezing
stage use douches of salt water in the nose and throat every
three hours. Take a hot mustard footbath, a glass of hdt
208 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
lemonade, and open the bowels with a mild cathartic.
Stop work and rest flat in bed if you can, to allow the body
to get in fighting trim. Quinine is useful in small doses,
three grains every five hours as a tonic; spirits of cam-
phor, two drops on a lump of sugar three times a day, may
help a little.
Very often a physician may relieve a cold for you by
sprays of oils and antiseptics, and you should go to him, if
possible. If there is a fever of over 100, stay indoors until
it subsides. Many believe in a few drops of kerosene oil, or
a teaspoonful of vaseline taken internally and rubbed on
the face, neck, and chest.
Nevertheless, colds will often take hold, and then nature
effects its own cure. The treatment consists of as much
rest as possible, keeping the bowels open, nasal douches of
warm salt water, f teaspoonful to the glass, and three grains
of quinine three times a day. Patent medicines and cough
sirups are usually bad, for they decrease vitality and cause
constipation. No change should be made in the diet, save
the cutting off of coffee, tea, and red meats. Too much
water is usually drunk on account of the dryness of the
throat, but this only increases the discomfort. A rise in
temperature over 100, sharp pain in the chest, a constant
cough, or one that refuses to clear up in two weeks, and any
earache whatsoever mean that you should have medical
advice without fail.
As a rule too much medicine is taken for the cold, and the
body has more to recover from than it should. Our friends'
advice is not so good as the doctor's.
Hot weather. In hot weather the body has difficulty
in ridding itself of its heat, and discomfort results. Heat
SEASONAL HYGIENE 209
is passed from the body mainly in the outgoing breath, but
also from the surface of the skin. The loss of heat from the
skin is quickened by the evaporation of the perspiration
which is much increased in warm weather. In hot countries
water is cooled by placing it in unglazed earthenware jars
which allow it to pass slowly through the pores and evap-
orate on the surface; our bodies cool themselves in just
the same way.
This principle should guide much of our habit of life in
hot weather. The man who is quietly active on a very
hot day and moves about at his work is cooler than one who
sits still and thinks how hot it is. A current of air will
increase the rate of evaporation and make us cooler. Great
care should be taken not to sit directly in the draft of an
electric fan, for a stiff rheumatic back or a summer cold will
result. One should always keep out of the sun and never
hurry. Rest is more essential, though sleep is often diffi-
cult to obtain. Some people are made more comfortable
by a cool or tepid bath a half hour before retiring. A very
quick hot bath will bring the blood to the surface and will
often result in cooling the body effectively.
No one should sleep without bed clothing. Extra cover-
ings should be ready to be pulled up when the cooler morning
hours come. Much comfort may be obtained by making
a tent of the sheet, open at the foot and head ; this seems
to provide a circulation of air, even when little is stirring.
Food. Less food is needed in hot weather than in winter.
The fats and carbohydrates (Chapter V) , which are mainly
useful for the production of heat and energy, should be
decreased, and fruits and green vegetables should form
the bulk of the diet. So much water is lost through the
210 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
skin that much more must be drunk. One should never
drink cold water quickly, for in many cases this has resulted
seriously. Too much water injures the stomach and chills
the organs of the body, resulting in a condition which
gives rise again to thirst. If one glass of water, drunk
slowly, leaves one thirsty, it is probable that another
taken immediately will cause harm.
Summer drinks are usually not harmful, although most of
the cheap ginger ale, sarsaparilla, and such beverages contain
too much sugar, and in addition are adulterated and positively
harmful. Lemonade or plain carbonated waters are the best.
Alcoholic drinks of any kind are invariably harmful, for they
decrease vitality and weaken the body materially.
Food spoils quickly in hot weather, and we can afford to
be more particular in our choice for we eat very much less.
" Made over " dishes should be viewed with suspicion.
Any fruit that has been handled by another person should
be washed with care or cooked.
Nothing that flies have reached should be considered
good food, for flies carry the germs of diarrhea, colitis, dys-
entery, and typhoid. If this rule were followed, these dis-
eases would practically disappear.
Milk should always be fresh ; if it tastes the least sour, it
should be refused. " Scientifically soured" milk is an ex-
cellent summer food. Milk should always be drunk slowly,
and preferably while eating something solid.
Clothing. The underclothes should be of mesh, and the
overclo thing light in weight and color. Light orange or khaki
is the best color for those who must work in the sun. The
best hat, next to the well- ventilated pith helmet of the tropics,
is one that is oval in shape and raised from the head on a
SEASONAL HYGIENE 21 1
framework to allow the freest circulation of air. Most straw
hats are not properly ventilated and do not keep all the sun
out. They should be lined, preferably with black material
and the air given free access to the head.
Care must be taken that the body does not become chilled,
and two places, the back and the abdomen, should be es-
pecially protected. In India it is the common practice to
wear a flannel band about the abdomen. This is called
the cholera belt, as it is useful in warding off that disease.
Although cholera is caused by a bacillus which attacks only
those who eat or drink infected food, the cholera belt pre-
vents the chilling of the abdomen, keeps the intestines in
good tone, and thus helps them to resist the infection.
Most summer diarrheas may be avoided with similar
Mosquitoes. It has been proved that some mosquitoes
carry malaria and others, yellow fever. The latter is
rapidly becoming a thing of the past on account of the
vigorous action taken in cities where it has existed to clean,
fill, or cover all swamps and cisterns where the fever-caus-
ing mosquitoes breed.
Malaria is common in city and country, although about
most wide-awake cities swamps have been drained. It
usually brings with it a feeling of depression and a fever
preceded by a chill on every other day, although the fever
may be continued from day to' day without any interval or
chill. If this occurs in spring or summer, one should, be-
fore taking medicine, go immediately to a doctor or clinic
and ask to have a drop of blood examined. If the disease
is malaria, the germs will be found in the blood. It is im-
portant not to take quinine before the investigation of the
212 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
blood, for it will kill off the germs in the blood and prevent
a successful examination. If malaria is present, it should be
attacked, not by one dose of medicine, but with a thorough
course of treatment which will search out and kill all the
germs in whatever corner of the body they may hide.
FOR SUMMER AND WINTER
To keep well in winter :
1. Keep up the good daily hygienic habits.
2. Eat more fat and carbohydrate food and chew it well.
3. Too much clothing is as bad as too little. Good vital-
ity, based on good digestion, is better protection
than a fur coat.
4. Take care of chapped hands and wet feet.
To avoid colds:
1 . Keep the digestion in order and avoid constipation.
2. Train the body to resist cold by the morning and eve-
ning cold douche.
3. Do not waste your vitality.
To keep well in summer:
1. Keep busy, do not fret about the heat, and rest when
2. Keep out of the sun and avoid the direct draft of the
3. Dress lightly, but protect the back and abdomen. Be
careful to drink only clean water, not too cold and
not too much at once.
4. Alcoholic drinks are to be avoided.
5. Do not eat too much; vegetables and fruits are the best.
6. Do not eat anything that has been exposed to dust or
Why you should be interested. There are many reasons
why you should be interested in the subject of tuberculosis.
You or some of your family or friends may develop the
disease. By knowing something about it you can greatly
lessen the chance of getting it ; if you do get it, you will
know what to do in order to get well, and to keep others
from getting it from you.
What tuberculosis is. Pulmonary tuberculosis is a
very common, and frequently a fatal, disease of the lungs.
It is caused by the growth and multiplication in the lungs
of a very small germ, called the tubercle bacillus, which is so
small it cannot be seen without the use of a very powerful
microscope, which magnifies it several hundred times.
Twenty-five hundred of these germs placed end to end
would not be one inch in length.
These germs may gradually spread through the greater
part of one or both lungs, destroying the usefulness of
those organs, until finally the patient dies of the disease.
The disease is often called consumption, for the reason
1 This chapter, published by permission, is taken mainly from a booklet
prepared by the Department of Health of the city of New York and the
Committee on Prevention of Tuberculosis of the Charity Organization
Society in consultation with the Department of Education.
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
that during its progress the patient loses weight rapidly,
and hence seems to be consumed.
Tuberculosis may infect any other part of the body
besides the lungs, such as the bones, joints, intestines,
Out-of-door treatment for consumptives
glands, brain, spinal cord, and the skin, but of all forms
of inflammation, that of the lungs is the most common.
The tubercle bacillus is the only cause of the disease.
Many people think that pulmonary tuberculosis comes
from a cold or some other disease, or is inherited. This is
not correct. The reason why people develop tuberculosis
after a prolonged cold or pneumonia or other exhausting
disease is because their systems have run down to such an
extent that they are not strong enough to resist the tubercle
bacilli taken into their bodies.
The germs are widely distributed, and practically all
people breathe them in at times. If their systems are in
excellent condition, the germs do not gain a foothold and
j :: 1
I "' JtTT ~| ( '":| C
r ...... ... I [ ....!.. il
I 4* ! ^d
I !.-.. .. jl C.ii.i. .. i.i.'j
I . .. '-...'I I .; J
K \ | I '... '1 [ 3
Map showing the extent of tuberculosis. Each dot means one case for
216 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
start the disease. Any condition that weakens the body
predisposes one to consumption.
Extent of the disease. Tuberculosis kills more people
than any other disease. Every three minutes some one
in the United States dies from consumption. Every year
more persons die in the United States from consumption
than died in this country from yellow fever in a period of
one hundred and fifteen years. Three or four times as
many people die every year in the United States from
this disease as were killed in both armies during the
Civil War. Every seventh person who dies, dies from
Symptoms. There are a number of symptoms which
might lead a person to suspect that he has pulmonary
tuberculosis; namely, loss of weight, loss of appetite, loss
of color, fever in the afternoon, cough and expectoration
(spitting) lasting for several weeks, spitting of blood or
streaks of blood in the sputum, chills, night sweats, dif-
ficulty in breathing, and pains in the
chest. In incipient tuberculosis the
commonest symptoms are loss of weight
with cough and expectoration.
When these symptoms occur, it does
not necessarily mean that tuberculosis
exists, but it would be wise for a person
having them to consult a physician.
How we get tuberculosis. We can
The fiy helps to spread g e t tuberculosis only by receiving into
tuberculosis , i ^ '
the body the tubercle bacilli. One con-
sumptive infects another, or gives tuberculosis of the lungs
to another, by means of the tubercle bacilli in the material
On the roof in winter
coughed up from the
diseased lungs, which
often contains mil-
lions of these germs.
The germs get out
of the body of a person
who has tuberculosis,
not only in the mate-
rial which is coughed
up, but also in the
little drops, too small
to be seen, which are
sprayed out when persons with tuberculosis cough or sneeze.
Great care should be taken to destroy all material coughed
up by the consumptive, and to avoid careless coughing and
sneezing. If this is not done, and if the sputum is dis-
charged on the floor or carpets or
clothing, the germs may live for
months, especially in dark, damp,
unventilated bedrooms, living
rooms, and workrooms.
The germs live in the darkness and
dampness for a long time and are
stirred up in dusting and sweeping
these rooms ; they float in the air
and maybe breathed into the lungs,
or may fall upon articles of food and
be taken into the body in that way.
It is not safe to move into a house or rooms in which a
patient with tuberculosis has lived until the house or rooms
have been thoroughly cleansed and disinfected or renovated.
Scrubbing walls to get rid of
HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
The people most likely to get tuberculosis are those who
are run down or ill from poor or insufficient food, from living
in dark, overcrowded, or ill- ventilated rooms, or from over-
work, and those who are convalescent from other exhausting
diseases. Their weakened systems cannot resist the disease.
Working or living in
dusty rooms may lead
to the disease, espe-
cially where the air is
bad from poor venti-
lation or overcrowding.
Dr. Knopf's window-tent in position, and
raised when not in use
How to prevent tu-
berculosis. In order
to keep from getting tu-
berculosis, the first and
most important rule is
to keep as strong and
healthy as possible.
When the tubercle
bacilli get into the body or lungs of a healthy person, they
do not multiply but are usually soon killed, while in the
lungs of a weak or sickly person they increase in number
and produce tuberculosis.
. Of great assistance in keeping well and strong are quanti-
ties of fresh, pure air both in the daytime and at night, in
the home, in the schoolroom, and in the workroom, to-
gether with proper food, cleanliness, and temperance.
One can get fresh, pure air by keeping out of doors as
much as possible, by keeping the living rooms during the
daytime well- ventilated, and by keeping the windows of
the bedrooms wide open all night.
Dust may be avoided largely by the use of damp cloths
and brooms (never use a dry broom or duster).
Children should be taught not to put anything into their
mouths except food. Putting pencils, coins, or playthings
in the mouth, and eating
candy or chewing gum
which other children have
had in their mouths are
dangerous habits, and
should be avoided.
whisky or other forms of
alcohol predisposes one to
tuberculosis, and the use
of intoxicants of any kind
in tuberculosis is distinctly
injurious. Alcohol weak-
ens the body so that it
cannot resist the disease
Every person should take a warm bath with soap at least
once each week, and if possible, should have a cold bath
Medicines. There is no medicine that will cure con-
sumption. It is a waste of time and money to use so-called
Use moist cloths for dusting
220 HYGIENE FOR THE WORKER
" Consumption Cures." All advertised cures of this nature
are frauds. Doctors who advertise should be avoided as
The best cures are rest, plenty of fresh out-of-door air, and wholesome food
much as medicines which are advertised. Reputable
doctors do not advertise. The consumptive always feels
stronger than he really is and often neglects treatment
until it is too late. When a person learns that he has
tuberculosis, he should go at once to a physician or a dis-
pensary, and do as he is advised. He should not waste
time and money on patent medicines.
Treatment. The treatment for tuberculosis is rest,
with plenty of fresh air and enough good, wholesome food.
No medicine is necessary except in cases where other
diseases are present. Tuberculous patients should eat
three good meals each day, and in addition take milk in
the mid-morning and mid-afternoon. They should get all
the rest and sleep possible, and should avoid overwork and
too much exercise.
If treatment is begun early, tuberculosis can be cured by
good food, fresh air, and rest. The best results are obtained
in hospitals or sanatoria which are located in the country.
It is not dangerous to live or work with a person who has
tuberculosis if he is cleanly, and is very careful to destroy
The careful consumptive washes her hands before and after eating ; coughs, spits,
and sneezes into paper or cloth and burns it at once ; and always uses the
same dishes, which are washed separately
all the sputum which he coughs up. A person with tuber-
culosis should not sleep in the same bed with any one else,
and if possible, not even in the same room.
HOW YOU CAN HELP
1. By instructing others as to the nature, prevention, and
cure of tuberculosis.
2. By teaching others how to breathe deeply and to ob-
serve the simple rules of health.
3. By keeping the home clean and well ventilated, and by
sleeping with the windows open.
4. By keeping clean ; by putting nothing into the mouth
except food, and by eating only wholesome and
5. By staying as much as possible in the fresh air and
A SUMMARY OF THE COMPULSORY EDUCATION LAWS OF
NEW YORK STATE
1. Every child between seven and sixteen years of age, in proper
physical and mental condition to attend school, shall regularly attend
upon instruction, during the compulsory school year, or receive
equivalent instruction by a competent instructor elsewhere.
2. Children between fourteen and sixteen years of age who have
employment certificates issued by the Board of Health and are regu-
larly employed thereunder are exempt from school attendance, except
that boys between fourteen and sixteen years of age, legally employed,
who have not been graduated from the elementary course must attend
evening school until sixteen years of age. Evening school attend-
ance cannot be substituted for required attendance a_t a day school.
3. It is unlawful for any person, firm, or corporation to employ
any child under sixteen years of age who does not legally possess an
4. A certificate of school attendance or of graduation, without an
employment certificate, gives a child no right to leave school.
5. To obtain an employment certificate under Sec. 71 of the Labor
Law, a child must have the following qualifications :
First: He must be at least fourteen years of age.
Second: He must have attended school 130 days within the year
preceding his fourteenth birthday, or within the year preceding his
application for the certificate.
Third: He must be able to read and write simple sentences in Eng-
lish, and be familiar with the operations of arithmetic " up to and in-
Fourth: The date of the child's birth must be proved to the satis-
faction of the Board of Health, by the production of documentary
evidence in the following order:
(a) A transcript of a birth certificate filed in the office of a regis-
trar of vital statistics.
(b) A certificate of graduation from an eight years' course in an
elementary school, provided that the records of such school show the
child's age to be fourteen years.
(c) A passport or baptismal certificate.
(d) Other documentary evidence of age, satisfactory to the
Board of Health. (The unsupported affidavits of parents or guardians
are not accepted under this subdivision.)
(e) Physicians' certificates of probable age. In case other evi-
dence cannot be produced, a parent or guardian may apply to the
Board of Health for the certificate of two physicians as to the child's
age. Ninety days must elapse after application before such certificate
can be granted.
6. To obtain a school record certificate a child must (i) have com-
pleted the studies of the 5 A grade, or its equivalent; (2) be examined
as to his educational qualifications. This examination need not be
required of pupils above the 6 B grade.
First : an examination of all applicants for a school record cer-
tificate shall be held in each district every second week, at a time
and in a certain school building to be designated by the district super-
Second : Any boy or girl, between fourteen and sixteen years of age,
who has completed the studies of the first half of the Fifth School
Year (New York City Schools) or its equivalent, shall be eligible to
take this examination.
Third: The scope of the examination should be essentially as
(a) The writing of a bill which includes some simple work in frac-
tions, with multiplication and addition in the extensions.
(6) The solving of three or four simple problems in business arith-
(c) A simple exercise in dictation.
(d) Oral reading by each applicant from a fourth reader.
(e) The writing of an application for a position or some other form
of letter writing.
Fourth : In case the work of an applicant is satisfactory, the princi-
pal may be so notified, and the pupil allowed to make formal applica-
tion for a certificate. Pupils who fail should be compelled to return
to school, and work faithfully to overcome their deficiencies. They
may enter the next examination.
7. The Department of Health requests that a principal before issu-
ing the certificate of school attendance shall have the applicant exam-
ined physically by the Department's physician assigned to the school,
and that the applicant shall present the physician's certificate along
with the certificate of school attendance when he appears for examina-
tion at the office of the Department of Health.
8. A boy between fourteen and sixteen years of age, legally em-
ployed, who has not graduated from the elementary course, must at-
tend an evening school or a trade school until he is sixteen years old.
9. Children of school age who do not possess employment certifi-
cates cannot be employed in stores, or other places, on Saturday, or in
domestic service at any time.
Accidents, 29, 32, 80, 138-151 ;
and assaults, relation of alcohol to,
causes of, 80, 142-151 ;
fear of, 137 ;
most important cause of, 144 ;
reduction of, 137, 138 ;
responsibility for, 143 ;
use of safety devices against, 140-
Air, and sleep, 26-28 ;
dirty, breathing of, 75 ;
impure, effects of, 74 ;
space for workers, 73, 198.
Alcohol, 98, 109, 205, 212, 219;
and accidents, etc., 57, 58 ;
and disease, 55 ;
as a harmful agent, 53, 54 ;
craving for, 54, 61 ;
dangers of, 54-58 ;
moderate use of, 57 ;
points to be remembered in connec-
tion with, 61, 62 ;
tables showing effects of, on health
and longevity, 55-57.
Anthrax, 164, 200.
Applicant, manner and appearance of,
Arsenic, 158, 159.
Arsenical poisoning, prevention of, 159.
Asphyxiation by gas, 185, 186.
Athletic fields, 121, 122.
Avoid accidents, summary, 151, 152.
Bathing, 12, 13, 206, 209, 219.
Bedclothes, 26, 27.
Beer, 66, 72.
"Be on time," 16, 17.
Bleeding, 187, 188.
Body, an engine, 39, 40, 53, 90.
Bowels, 25, 208.
Boy Scouts, 122.
Breakfast, 14, 15.
Breathing, 23, 24.
Broken limbs, 188.
Bunions, 35, 37.
Burns, 186, 187.
Carbohydrates, 43, 44.
Care, necessity of, 151.
Catarrh, nasal, 22.
Celluloid collars, dangers of, 33.
Certificate, employment, 190, 191,
Chapped hands, 206.
Cheerfulness, 7, 98, 99.
Chewing gum, 6.
Chewing of food, 49-51, 64.
Choosing an occupation, 127, 135.
Cigarettes, 6, 33, 59, 60, 67, 170;
general effects of, on body and mind,
injurious effects of, on lungs and
Cigarette smoking, and the business
world, 60, 6 1 ;
dangers of, 59-61 ;
in schools, 60.
Cleanliness, 3, 5, 6.
Clothes, care of, 14 ;
dangerous to workers, 29-32 ;
for machinists, 30-33 ;
for the worker, summary, 38 ;
for women workers, 29-32 ;
suitable and unsuitable for work,
Clothing, 4, 5, 205, 210, 211 ;
relation of, to breathing, 23 ;
suitability of, 14.
Clubhouse, employees', 70, 71.
Coffee, 15, 46, 63, 65, 72, 208.
causes of, 206 ;
cure of, 80, 207, 208;-
prevention of, 207 ;
wet feet and, 207.
Commercial occupations, 131.
Compulsory Education Laws, 223-225.
Constant standing, evil effects of, 95.
Constipation, 25, 45, 63, 80, 208;
exercises for, 12.
Consumption, see Tuberculosis.
Cooking, 47, 48, 52.
Cooperation, in avoiding accidents,
methods of, 138, 139.
Cooperative outings, 122-125.
Corns, 35, 37.
Coughing and sneezing into handker-
chief, 85, 207.
Cuts and wounds, 187, 188.
Daily inspection of self, 4.
Dancing, 108, 109.
Danger, protection against, 139-142.
Day, close of, 102, 103.
Day's work, after, summary, 114.
Deep breathing, 23 ;
exercises for, 24.
Diet, 39 ;
mixed, 44, 45.
Digestion, aids to, 70.
Disease and alcohol, 55.
Disobedience and ignorance, causes of
Disorder, cause of accidents, 151.
Domestic science, 49.
Doors, factory, 201.
Dress, neatness in, 3 ;
simplicity in, 4, 5.
Drinking cup, 82 ;
common, 82 ;
paper, 81, 82.
Drinking fountain, 82.
Drinking water, pure, 46, 80-82, 88, 199,
Dusts, 77, 128, 129.
Electric shock, 184, 185.
Elevators, cause of accidents, 147, 148.
Emergency work, 181-189.
Employer's inspection, 2-4.
Employment certificate, 190, 191.
Energy, 39, 53, 89, 98.
Enlarged joints, 37.
Evening routine, 28.
Exercises, 10-12, 24, 28, 35, 36, 37, 131,
Eyes, 20, 21, 133, 134;
examination of, important, 134.
Eyesight, defective, occupations to be
avoided in cases of, 133.
Eyestrain, 20, 79, 97.
Falling tools, cause of accidents, 148.
Fan, revolving, 76.
Fatigue, accidents during, 78 ;
causes of, 91, 92;
point, 92, 93, 98;
points to be remembered in connec-
tion with, 99-101.
Fats, 43, 44.
Feet, 25, 34-37.
Finger nails, 3, 14, 24.
Fire, appliances for fighting, 172, 173;
benefits of, 167 ;
brigades, 173, 174;
causes of, 167, 169, 170;
drills, 173, 174;
loss from, 168, 169;
rules to be observed in case of, 175,
Fires, individual efforts against, 174, 175 ;
means of escape from, 150, 151 ;
measures of prevention against, 170,
Flat-foot, 35-37, 95-
Fletcherism, 50, 51.
Flies, 210, 216.
Food, 204, 205, 209, 210;
and drinks summarized, 51, 52;
as fuel for the body, 40, 41 ;
buying of, 48, 49 ;
chewing of, 49-51, 64;
choice of, 41, 42 ;
cooking of, 47, 48 ;
cost of, 41, 42, 51 ;
kinds of, 40-47 ;
quantity of, 15, 40, 41.
Foods, classification of, 42 ;
uses of, 40, 41 ;
Foot weakness, 132, 133.
Freezing, see Frost bites and Freezing.
Fresh air, 9, 10, 66, 218, 219, 220.
Frost bites and freezing, 187, 205.
Fruits, washing of, 65.
Gas, 128, 164.
Good habits, 18, 98.
Good health, importance of, 6, 7.
Habits of living, systematic, 9.
Hair, 4, 14, 18-20.
Half holidays, 119, 120.
Handkerchiefs, 8, 84, 85.
Heart, effects of tobacco on, 59 ;
weakness, 130, 131.
Heat, 164, 165;
Holidays, suggestions for, 125, 126.
Hospital rooms in factories, 177-179.
Hot weather, 208, 209.
Humidity, 77, 78.
Insomnia, 96, 100, 101.
"Keep square with yourself," 17.
Laws protecting worker, 190 ;
recent safety, 201, 202.
in manufactures, 155, 156;
in paints, 155.
Lead poisoning, 154-156;
symptoms of, 154.
Lectures, 112, 113.
Libraries, 113, 114.
poor, cause of accidents, 80.
Lights, artificial, 79, 80;
for reading, 20.
Lockers, 85, 86.
Longevity, effects of alcohol on, 55-57.
Lunch, and rest rooms, 7 1 ;
box, 65, 66;
hour, 68, 69, 97, 199;
kind of, 64-66 ;
manner of eating, 64 ;
place for, 63-65 ;
preparation for, 63 ;
room, 64, 65, 68, 71.
Lungs, influence of occupations upon,
injurious effects of cigarettes on,
Machinery, electrical, 149.
Machinist, clothes suitable for, 32, 33.
Malaria, 211, 212.
Manner of applicant, 2-4.
Maps, 1 20.
Matches, 159, 160.
Meal, evening, 104, 105.
Meat, 42, 43, 47, 51.
Mercury, 160, 161 ;
precautions in working with, 161.
Metallic waste can, 84.
Metchnikoff, Prof., 55.
Milk, 15, 45, 46, 52, 65, 66, 210, 220;
Minors, provisions for, 191-193.
Morning, inspection, 7, 8;
Mosquitoes, 211, 212.
Mouth, 21, 22;
Moving pictures, 107-109.
Nerves, effects of tobacco on, 59.
Nerve weakness, 92, 93.
Neurasthenia, see Nerve weakness.
New York "City, Department of Health,
places of interest in and around, 120,
Night schools, 112.
Night work, 96, 97.
Noon, rest during, 69, 70.
Noon-day meal, State laws in regard to,
Noon hour routine, 71.
Nose, 13, 22.
Nurse, visiting, 179-181.
Occupation, choosing an, summary, 135 ;
wise start in, 127.
Occupations, affecting the lungs, 127-
beneficial to lung affections, 129, 130;
commercial, 131 ;
sedentary, 94, 131, 132.
Oiling machinery in motion, 146.
Outings, cooperative, 122-125.
Overcrowding, 145, 146.
Overfatigue, harm of, 95, 96.
Overspeeding machinery, 145.
Overstraining the human machine, 95,
Overwork, 90, 95-97.
Oxygen in air, uses of, 75.
Paper, drinking cup, 81 ;
Paris green, 158, 159.
Pasteurized milk, 46.
Patent medicines, 220.
Perfumes, 5, 6.
Personal habits, 98, 99.
Petroleum, 163, 164.
Phosphorus, red, 159, 160.
"Phossy jaw," 160.
Physical examination, 127.
Play, benefits of, 105, 114;
importance of, 116.
Poisoning, 188, 189;
industrial, prevention of, 165, 166.
Porch sleeping, 26.
Posture, 24, 93-95.
Power, source of, 53.
Proper working conditions, 97, 98.
Proteids, 42, 43.
Pushcarts, 65, 71.
Recreation, 103, 105-110, 114, 117;
in industrial establishments, 110-112.
Red lead, 153, 155.
Regulations, as to length of working day,
for women and minors, 191-195 ;
legal, 199-201 ;
sanitary, 198, 199;
special, 197 ;
special legal, 201, 202.
Respiratory system, effects of certain
occupations upon, 127-129.
Rest after meals, 69, 70.
Rising hour, 9.
Risks, 143, 144.
Rules for guidance in case of fire, sum-
mary, 175, 176.
Safety, in industrial establishments, 137-
on way to work, 136, 137.
Saliva, 43, Si-
Sanitary regulations, 198, 199.
Scene, change of, 118, 119.
Seats for employees, 199.
Sedentary occupations, 94, 131, 132.
Shallow breathing, 23.
Shoes, 5, 23, 25, 34, 35, 37, 132.
Sitting, proper posture for, 94, 132.
Skin affections, 134, 135.
Sleep, 9, 10, 25-28, 114, 209.
Spitting, 85, 198.
Sports, outdoor and indoor, 105, 106 ;
value of, 105.
Stairways, factory, 201.
Starch and sugar foods, see Carbohy-
State fire marshal, 172, 202.
State laws, 67, 68, 195-197, 199-202.
Stimulants, harmful effects of, 53, 54.
Stomach, effects of cigarettes on, 59.
Study, courses, in, 112-114.
Summer and winter, suggestions for,
Sunstroke, 183, 184.
Systematic habits of living, 9.
Teeth, 13, 21, 22, 28.
Theatricals, amateur, 107.
Throat, injurious effects of cigarettes on,
Tobacco, 6, 98;
and success, 60, 61 :
as poison, 58, 59 ;
its effects upon the growing boy,
points to be remembered in connec-
tion with, 61, 62.
"Tobacco heart," 60.
Towels, 82, 83.
Trades prohibited to women and minors,
about New York City, 120, 121.
Tuberculosis, 55, 93, 129, 132, 213-221;
bacillus of, 214;
dried sputum, cause of, 85 ;
extent of, 216;
fresh air in, 218, 219;
how to help it, summary, 221 ;
how to prevent it, 218, 219;
how we get it, 216-218;
medicine in, 219, 220;
symptoms of, 216;
treatment of, 75, 220, 221;
what it is, 213-216.
Typhoid. 55, 81.
Vacation, 116-118, 121, 122-124.
Varicose veins, 37.
Vegetables, 45, 48, 52.
Ventilation, 26, 73, 198;
system of, 75-77, 161.
Walking, 15, 16, 67, 103, 104, 109, 118,
Wash rooms, 86, 87, 109.
Waste, disposal of, 83, 84.
Waste matter, 90-92 ;
removal of, 90, 91.
Water. 46, 80-82, 88. 199, 208, 210.
Water-closets, 86, 87, 199.
Weather, cold, 204;
hot, 208, 209.
Wheels, bursting, cause of accidents, 146,
White lead, 153, 155.
Window board, 77.
Window cleaning, 148.
Window tent, 26, 218.
Windows, 78, 79.
Women workers, clothes for. 31, 32;
provisions for, 191-193 ;
trades prohibited to, 194, 195.
Work, 91 ;
capacity for, 89. 90, 95 ;
effects of too much, 116;
necessity of, 89;
night, 96, 97 ;
physical condition in relation to,
posture at, 24, 93-95 ;
preparation for, i. 2.
Work clothes, 29-33, 38.
Workers' rights. 202, 203.
Workers, suggestions for, 166.
Working, conditions, 97, 98;
day, 95, 96, I95~i97.
Workroom, proper conditions of, 73 ;
rules for, summary, 87, 88 ;
space in, 73.
Workshop, poisonous conditions in, 153.
Worry, 98, 100.
Wounds, 177, 187, 188.
Young Men's Christian Association,
Young Women's Christian Association,
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO
Acme Library Card Pocket
Under Pat. " Ref. Index File."
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