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E\it ^ideological <Sd}ool in 
f&arbarl! Snibersitj 




ANDOVER-HARVARD THEOLOGICAL 
LIBRARY 

MDCCCCX 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 






THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 



> 



PRINTED 
MORRISON AND QIBB LIMITED, 

FOR 

T. & T. CLARK, EDINBURGH, 

LONDON : SIMPKIN, MARSHALL, HAMILTON, KENT, AND CO. LIMITED. 

NEW TORK: CHARLES SCRIBNER'S SONS. 

TORONTO : THE PUBLISHERS' SYNDICATE LIMITED. 



THE 

IDEAL OF HUMANITY 

AND UNIVERSAL FEDERATION 



BY 

K. C. F. KRAUSE 



A CONTRIBUTION TO SOCIAL PHILOSOPHY 

EDITED IN ENGLISH 
BY 

W. HASTIE, D.D. 

PROFESSOR OF DIVINITY, UKIYERSITY OF GLASGOW 



EDINBURGH 

T. & T. GLABK, 38 GEOBGE STEEET 

1900 



ANDOVER-HARVABD 

rHBOLOGICALliBRARl 
r.AMBRIDGE, MASS. 



Oebs 6 ironJ<ras rbv K6(Tfiov Kal Tdvra rk iv 
oj5t4J, o'^oi oifpavov Kal yTJs V7rdpx(»jv Kijpios ovk iv 
XeipoTToii/lTois yaoTs icaTotice?, o«/5^ vTb x^f-P^^ dvOpu- 
ttLvwv Bepaireierai Tpoffdedfievos Tivds, a&rbs didoifs Trdffi 
fcirJ/v Kal TTVO^v Kal rA irdvra, iTroirjiT^v re i^ ivbs 
iroiv idvos dv6p(bir(av KaroiKeiv iirl vavrbs Tpoacbirov 
T^s yijs oplaas Trpoffrerayfiivovs Kaipoifs Kal rds 
bpodefflas r^s KaroiKias airrGiv, ^TjreTv rbv debv, el 
Apa ye yl/rj\a<fyfi(r€iav adrbv Kal eVpoiev, Kal ye oi 
jJMKpdiv dirb Ms ^KdffTOv rnxGw i/Trdpxovra' ^v aiurip 
yb.p fw/^ev, Kal Kivoi^fieda, Kal ifffUv u>s koI rives tQv 
KaB' vfias ironjT&v elpriKaffC ToG yb.p koI yivos iafUv. 
St. Paul (Acts xvii. 24-28). 



B 
30'9| 



THOMAS M*KIE, Advocate, 

AUTHOR OF * LYRICS AND SONNETS,' 

THIS LITTLE BOOK IS DEDICATED, 

IN DEEP APPRECIATION OF 

HIS FAITHFUL FRIENDSHIP, 

AND HIS LARGE AND GENEROUS HUMANITY. 



' For a* that, and a' that, 

It's com in' yet, for a' that. 
That Man to Man, the world o'er, 
Shall brothers be for a* that* 



< Men, my brothers, men the workers, ever reaping something new : 
That which they have done but earnest of the things that they shall do : 

For I dipt into the future, for as human eye could see. 

Saw the Vision of the world, and all the wonder that would be ; 

Saw the heavens fill with commerce, argosies of magic sails. 
Pilots of the purple twilight, dropping down with costly bales ; 

Heard the heavens fill with shouting, and there rain'd a ghastly dew 
From the nations' airy navies grappling in the central blue ; 

Far along the world-wide whisper of the south-wind rushing warm, 
With the standards of the peoples plunging thro' the thunder-storm ; 

Till the war-drum throbb'd no longer, and the battle-flags were furl'd 
In the Parliament of men, the Federation of the world. 

There the common sense of most shall hold a fretful realm in awe. 
And the kindly earth shall slumber, lapt in universal law.' 



PREFATORY NOTE. 



Krause found me with his devout and comprehen- 
sive Philosophy years ago, during a period of storm 
and stress, when the other great systems of thought 
and even the great religions of the world could 
bring me little solace. Then, as through ' the 
blackness of darkness,' suddenly shone upon me 
the calm face of this gentlest and humanest thinker 
of the Nineteenth Century ; and out of the depths 
of his own suffering, — all irradiated with Divinest 
light, — and through many utterances of eternal 
hope and love, he bade me endure. For he too 
had had his long-enduring agony, yet had passed 
through it to perfect peace, — his philosophical 
serenity unclouded, his lofty Ideal unbroken, his 
sweet reasonableness unembittered, his consuming 
love of Humanity imquenched, and his all-embracing 
Vision of God undimmed and the very 'master 
light ' of all his seeing. And so he lit up many a 
dark hour, and led me softly from the narrowing 
torture of individual right and wrong, even beyond 

vii 



VIU PREFATORY NOTE. 

himself, and back again out of a certain self -limiting 
isolation to a deeper and wider apprehension of 
* the Kingdom of God and His Eighteousness.' 

It was in those days, when Kant and Hegel 
no longer suflBced, and when Darwin and Herbert 
Spencer could bring no relief, that the following 
pages were rendered into English, and even put in 
type ; but somehow I was withheld from publishing 
them then. I send them forth to-day, in the hope 
that they may find, and help to sustain, some weary 
soul whose inner Vision may have become darkened, 
and whose heart may have become distrest by 
the storm and stress of the time. Never, since 
the Christian era began, has the civiUsed world 
needed more the light and guidance and uplifting 
of the Divine Ideal of Humanity than it does to- 
day. For it stiU holds in it, amid its continued 
struggle for existence, all the worst barbarism of 
the past, and Christianity has as yet accomplished 
but a small part of its spiritualising and consum- 
mating work, even within Christendom itself. 
With the storm of brutal war raging on our border, 
and keeping alive a deep pain in our hearts, which 
no mere glow of patriotism or even victory can 
soothe ; with the seething imrest and burning 
hatreds of even the most advanced communities 
and neighbouring nations, which no crude socialistic 
advocacy or international convention can mitigate ; 



PREFATORY NOTE. IX 

with the growing pessimism and atheism that are 
penetrating into all classes and eating out the heart 
of our hope and faith, which no new science or 
poetry can restore ; it is becoming ever more clear 
that it is only the vital restoration of the Vision 
of God and the revivification of the Ideal of 
Humanity that will bring men again to real peace 
and rest. 

And here we have that Vision and Ideal presented 
to us once more in perfect faith and hope and 
love by one of the greatest thinkers of the modern 
world, and in a purity of thought and universal 
intelligibility that recall the greatest and most 
universal Teacher of all. To Krause God was no 
mere traditional name or metaphysical abstraction, 
but truly the most living Being of all; and he 
lived his own pure and noble life in God, in recog- 
nition of the Divinest life that has been lived on 
earth, and with a continuous consciousness and 
certainty of the Divine that has not been surpassed 
by any other thinker of the Nineteenth Century. 
With him God, in His self-conscious Personality, 
was in very deed at once the Alpha and the 
Omega, the beginning and the end, the essence and 
the life of all things. Never since Plato and 
St. John has Philosophy been so truly * divine,' in 
absolute identification with Theology ; never has 
God been so clearly revealed and so real in 



X PREFATORY NOTE. 

speculative thought; never has Humanity been so 
ideally transfigured, yet so practical, in the light 
of the Divine Idea, as in Krause. His enthusi- 
astic disciples claim for him that his system is 
the truest outcome of modern speculation ; that it 
brings all contemporary knowledge and science 
into completest harmony ; and that the Twentieth 
Century, understanding and appreciating Krause 
better than the Nineteenth Century has done, will 
find the certainty, security, and unity we long for 
in his profound rational * Panentheism/ 

Certainly Krause's system is profound, vast, all- 
comprehending ; and I would fain say something of 
it here, as was my original intention. But it seems 
wholly unnecessary to interpose between the 
reader and this popular fragment, which is all too 
lucid of itself to require further elucidation, and 
whose leading ideas have already become dififused 
through our intellectual atmosphere. Let the 
reader only beware of confoimding the spirit or 
method of this Ideal with any of the more fanciful 
and barren Utopias of the past; and, in view of 
what may appear even trite and commonplace in 
it now, let him take it on trust that what is here 
presented is based on a complete system of thought 
exceptionally well methodised, logically developed, 
original, and reverent ; and that it is associated all 
through with the deepest insight into the historical 



PREFATORY NOTE. XI 

movement, the social needs, and the final goal of 
our Humanity. 

Krause is above all to be regarded historically 
as the most truly intuitive religious thinker of 
the Nineteenth Century ; as the deepest and 
devoutest philosopher of Humanity, viewed as 
having its life and movement and being in God ; 
as the completest expounder of its social Ideal, 
when apprehended as the highest living organism ; 
as the most fertile elaborator of the modern 
principle of Federation in its manifold forms and 
applications; as the most suggestive and far-seeing 
advocate of the moral progress of Humanity in its 
widest range and relationship; and as in and 
through all his universal and reasoned harmony 
of thought, a veritable new prophet and preacher 
of the Divine righteousness. His system of philo- 
sophy lias been far too little studied in this country 
as yet, although some of our leading thinkers have 
well understood and appreciated its significance. 
The late Professor Lorimer, of Edinburgh, developed 
his own Philosophy of Law in keen sympathy with 
what Ueberweg calls 'the pearl' of Krause's system; 
and Professor Flint, with his usual thoroughness 
and care, has given us a masterly analysis of 
Krause's Philosophy of History, one of the most 
characteristic and interesting products of his 
genius. The general position could not be better 



Xll PREFATORY NOTE. 

put than in Professor Flint's opening sentences, 
which may be quoted as authoritative. *Krause/ 
says Dr. Flint, 'has been little heard of in this 
country. He studied philosophy at Jena under 
Fichte and Schelling, and the influence of both, but 
especially of the latter, may be distinctly traced in 
his works. He cannot, however, be described with 
any propriety as a follower of Schelling, or indeed 
as a follower of anyone ; he pursued a path of his 
own. After failing to find satisfaction for his mind 
and heart in the doctrines of his teachers or in 
older systems, he wrought out with quiet independ- 
ence and the most praiseworthy perseverance a 
philosophy which is as much entitled to be regarded 
as original as that of Fichte or Schelling or Hegel.' 
These well-informed words may suffice here by way 
of personal and comparative reference. What is 
presented in the following pages is but a specimen 
of Krause's popular exposition, and does not deal 
with the deeper and more fundamental categories 
of his system. Only the first part of * The Ideal 
of Humanity,' Krause's most popular and most 
readable work, is translated, and it is with regret 
that his full analysis of the ideal-real organism of 
society has been left out meanwhile, as well as the 
attractive introduction to it of the late Professor 
Del Rio of Madrid, which I have also ready. The 
second essay, on the Universal Federation of Man- 



PREFATORY NOTE. Xlil 

kind — Tennyson's * Federation of the World ' — 
exhibits an idea which Krause propounded and 
elaborated with peculiar predilection, and which 
is ever more evidently approaching realisation 
with the increasing consciousness of the Brother- 
hood of. Mankind. The third gives an indication 
of his large unwavering historical optimism. All 
contain cardinal elements of his system of thought. 
It may merely be mentioned that this first 
attempt to introduce Krause directly to English 
readers, carries with it the approval and interest 
of his most distinguished followers and expounders 
on the Continent. In my endeavour to under- 
stand and appreciate the System, I am specially 
indebted to Dr. Paul Hohlfeld and Dr. A. Wiinsche, 
whose devoted labours in editing Krause's works 
are beyond all praise, and to Emeritus Professor 
Tiberghien, the most lucid expounder of the System, 
who has so ably and faithfully taught and vindicated 
it for fifty years in the University of Brussels as 
the successor of Ahrens, the ablest and best known 
of Krause's students. Another opportunity may 
occur for saying something in a freer relation of 
the System itself, and of dealing with the peculiar 
difficulties with which Krause's later writings are 
encumbered, and which have so unfortunately 
repelled from its study. But meanwhile, with a 
sense of enduring sympathy and gratitude to- 



XIV PREFATORY NOTE. 

wards it, I rest in the simplicity of this popular 
Prelude, which gives at least a glimpse of 
Krause's spiritual and social Philosophy. 

And lest anyone unacquainted with the depth 
and breadth and height of Krause's thought, and 
mayhap prejudiced against all German Philosophy 
by the failure of other Systems to satisfy the 
present needs of the English mind, should turn in 
prejudice away from this System too, although the 
most cognate of them all to English ways of 
thinking, or should imagine that I have exaggerated 
its significance and value, I close this Note with the 
summary estimate of my revered friend M. Tiber- 
ghien, who has the best right of all men living to 
pronounce a judgment upon Krause's doctrine, and 
whose words are specially relevant to what follows : 

'La doctrine de Krause est un syst^me d'harmonie 
universelle: elle embrasse toutes les tendances qui se 
sont manifestoes dans la vie spirituelle et sociale de 
rhumanitO, elle les degage de leurs erreurs partielles et 
les unit, par un principe supOrieure de vOritO, pour 
raccomplissement de la destin^e humaine. Elle est le 
couronnement de tout le mouvement philosophique, et 
conclut Ogalement h. une thOorie sociale fondle sur des 
principes absolus et harmoniques qui tiennent compte 
<ie tons les besoins sociaux, de toutes les directions 
particuli^res dans lesquelles rhumanitO a cherchO k 
rdaliser son but social.' 

W. H. 
University of Glasgow, 
May Day, 1900. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

I. THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY ... 1 

II. THE FEDERATION OF HUMANITY . . 135 

III. THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY . 151 



ANALYSIS. 



Krause's Analysis of 'The Ideal of Humanity,' 

so FAR. 

PAGES 

Preliminaxy. — Knowledge and Love of God is the 

condition of Knowledge and Love of Humanity .* 2-5 

God. — There is one Supreme Being — God ; the World 
and all that is in it is a work and likeness of God. 
No Being is God but God alone. Every being iii 
God, including Man and Humanity, is limited ; 
but is in this limitation godlike, self-subsistent, 
and essential. Man, the most godlike creature. 
Time is essential as a form of Life. Religious 
view of things. One divine order in all. The 
Universe an organic whole. The fundamental 
forms and relations of the Universe . . 5-14 

Reason and the Spiritual World.— All the in- 
sight of man arises out of Self- Knowledge. Free 
activity is the essence of the Spirit, consciousness 
and self-consciousness its form. Tlie activity of 
the Spirit is one, but it is directed towards com- 
bination of Ideas with the individual, and to union 
of the individual with Ideas, or to both in har- 
monious proportion. Every spirit is an indivisible 
Being ; its activity is one, and it contains an 
organism of particular activities : Understanding, 
Imagination, and Reason. All spirits are homo- 
geneous, and originally one in Reason. Idea of 
the one Realm of Spirits, and of its organisation . 14-24 



CONTENTS. XVll 



Nature and Organic Species.— Extent and depth 
of human Knowledge of Nature. The organic 
Kingdoms, the inmost sanctuary of Nature. The 
whole realm of organic Nature an organism, a 
body. The activity fonning it is in Nature what 
the unity of the Realm of Spirits is in Reason. 
Eternal essentiality of the organic works of Nature. 
The all-harmonious work of Nature is the human 
species, whose parts are the human bodies ; it is a 
mirror of Nature itself, and the worthy point where 
God and Reason work efficiently into Nature . 24-30 

Reason and Nature united by God, and of 
Humanity. — Reason and Nature are united by 
God into one concordant Harmony. The inner- 
most and most glorious part of the two, in so far 
as they are combined and live, is revealed to us in 
Humanity. Spirit and Body are united by God, 
and are equally essential parts of Man. The 
Spirits united with Bodies are also members of the 
One Realm of Spirits, and in fact all who live upon 
the same earth form an organic part of it. Thus 
there are gathered in every individual man rays of 
the Life of God, of Reason, of Nature, and of all 
the spheres in them ; with them all He is in living 
connection. The individual man receives the 
Infinite ; but can give back in return only a little, 
yet what is beautiful and imperishable. The 
individual can perfect himself, as an individual, 
only as a member of Humanity. Humanity exists, 
and ought to exist on earth as one great Man, even 
as a sound and great mind in a sound and beauti- 
ful body, — a Child of God. This is the truth 
which we believe expresses the yrcat Life of History 
in the generation now Ucukj^ and which is now beintj 
made real ; and it is this Idea of Humanity which 
we aim at expounding here. Facts which go to 
show that men are capable and are destined to form 
One Humanity in all their strivings. Relationship 
of the Individual to Society. Social works. The 
b 



XVlll CONTENTS. 

PAGES 

earth and all life in and ui)on it is one whole. 
The original impulse in every man strives after 
sociality ...... 30-50 

The Original Works of Humanity.— Preliminary 
consideration of the reciprocal life and the co- 
operation of the Body and the Spirit . . 51-57 

Science. — Origin and nature of Science ; its division 
according to the Sources of Knowledge, according 
to its object, and according to the Kinds of Know- 
ledge. It is an organic whole . . . 57-68 

Art.— Nature and origin of Art. Its kinds. Fine 
Art an organic organism, and forms one beautiful 
Art-world. Inward Art is also one organic whole. 
Both united form the one harmonious Art. The 
unity of Art and the one great artistic work of 
Humanity on earth .... 68-80 

Harmonious Unification of Science and Art . 80-84 

Human Powers and their Forms. — The Soul. 
Power and primary Impulse are rational, intel- 
lectual, and both in Harmony. Sense, and Reflec- 
tion. The Soul weds Power and Sense as Sentiment 
or Heart. Pleasure, Pain, and Pleasurable Pain. 
Inclination and Antagonism, and both mixed. 
Desire and Abhorrence ; the Heart. The Spirit as 
Soul forms and rules the Heart. The Spirit acts 
freely in Time. The corresponding organisms of 
the bodily activities. United Life of the Powers 
of the Body and Spirit in Man . . . 84-90 

The Moral Law and Virtue.— Free Will. Moral 
Goodness and Moral Beauty ; Virtue. Moral Pe- 
culiarity of every Spirit, and of every Society of 
Spirits. What corresponds to the virtue of the 
Spirit in the organism of the Body (as vital power). 
Harmonious Virtue of Man . . . 90-95 

Right and Justice. — Deduction and exposition of 
the idea of Right and Justice. The Person and 
Obligation of Right. Humanity the greatest and 



CONTENTS. XIX 



first jural Person on earth. Righteous Sentiment. 
Tlie one Right of Humanity is an organic whole. 
One State embracing Mankind on earth . 96-105 

Love and Reciprocal Life. — Harmonious recipro- 
city of Life is the form of all Life in God. The 
living relationship of God and of Nature and 
Reason. Inner reciprocal Life of Reason, Nature, 
and Humanity, and all individual beings. Fellow- 
ship or community is the condition of reciprocal 
Life. Notion of reciprocity of Life and Sociality. 
Every Society is a work of art. Idea of a social 
work of art. Humanity is capable of universal 
Fellowship and Sociality. All Sociality of Beings 
is one. Primary idea of the Love of God and of 
all beings. Love of all beings to God. Origin 
and working of Love. Man's Love is all-embrac- 
ing. Love as free and pure from desire of pleasure. 
Love of Man to God, and his Religiousness. Man's 
Love to Reason and Nature, to other men, and to 
Humanity in general. Personal Love in particular. 
Shamefulness and Modesty. Peculiarity of every 
man in love. Harmony of all love. Hamiony of 
A'irtue, Justice, and Love . . . 106-133 



I. 
THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 



THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 



Preliminary. 

Man's pearl of greatest price is his capacity to 
think and feel God. And so it is that in the 
harmonious agreement of the mind and heart of 
man, God becomes present to him that he may 
live in God's light and love. Every human union 
flourishes in the power of God. It is God who 
joins together the inner links of the family circle ; 
it is upon Him that the might of States is based. 
Science is formed by the contemplation of God ; in 
Him it arises ; in Him it remains ; and to Him it 
returns again. The inspiration of the artist is 
divine ; for God and the divine form the very 
essence of genuine art. The true man so owes the 
dignity of his life and the fulness of his activity 
to Him that with his spirit and heart he becomes 
conscious of God. To the childlike understanding, 
as well as to mature thought, the inner harmony 
in Eeason and in Nature, as well as the union of the 
soul and the body, are conceivable only through God. 
That inward intercourse of man with God which is 



4 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

called Eeligion, is quickened into life when God is 
the vivifying principle of thought and where His 
love is the deepest life of the soul. Eeligion unites 
men into one living union with God. 

When the ideal perception of God is received as 
a principle into the soul and becomes deeply rooted 
in the heart, love awakens, and in its light there is 
unfolded a knowledge of the nature of things and 
joyfulness of life. The conviction of the existence 
of God is not obtained from theoretical proofs 
derived from yet higher truths ; for this conviction 
is itself the first of all truths. It is present to the 
spirit in immediate intuition ; it is the beginning 
and the essence of all truth, even as the love of God 
is the essential life of the soul. Such is the faith 
of a pure heart that it does not dread the testing of 
the understanding ; for insight and feeling, like 
light and heat, are one. Faith lives in the clear 
vision of the highest universal truth, which embraces 
all truth in itself in perfect harmony ; and hence 
knowledge coincides with genuine faith, and the 
ideal contemplation of God lives ineradicably in 
every spirit. In the organism of knowledge faith 
itself is transfigured and strengthened ; and in the 
harmony of believing and knowing, God is presented 
anew to man. Blessed is the man and blessed is 
the humanity that have attained to this harmony of 
the heart and of the spirit, to oneness of religion 
and of life ! It is only in such harmony that they 
can fulfil their destination ; and it is only he who so 
far rejoices in this harmony within, and who par- 



GOD. 5 

ticipates in that pure love of humanity which unifies 
his whole nature, who may venture with a joyful 
conscience to speak forth his thought regarding the 
highest interests of man. 

And as we now feel and know God in this har- 
mony of the heart and the understanding, and as we 
have discerned Him by presentiment in His works, 
we will renew our remembrance of Him within, and 
thus prepare ourselves for the contemplation of 
Humanity and its life in order that we may recog- 
nise what is eternal and essential in it, and may 
worthily sketch its Ideal, an Ideal which we would 
also pursue in life. 

And so we begin with God ! 

God. 

The heart feels and the spirit confesses that there 
is a God, One Supreme Being, infinite and eternal ; 
and that the world with all the beings and harmonies 
it contains is divine, a worthy work and image of 
God. From the fulness of the eternal power and 
wisdom and goodness arises all that is. Everything 
in His world is worthy of God, and becomes so. 
Hence every creature is independent, essential to 
the whole, and imperishable in its being ; for in 
its own way it bears the divine image in itself. 
Everything exists and lives in, with, and through 
God. No being is God except God alone. But 
what God Himself eternally created. He created in 
Himself, imperishable, in His own likeness. The 



6 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

world does not exist out of God, for He is all that> 
is ; but neither is it God Himself ; but it is in 
and through God. What God created in eternal 
sequence, without time and above all time, as a 
being living in an eternal subsistence, manifests 
and reveals in ever new forms what was originally 
implanted in its essence by God ; and God, as being 
before and above all time, and over all His creatures, 
works continuously into the life of all things, which 
same life subsists eternally in, with, and through 
Him as one universal life. The world is con- 
tinually in the power of the Creator ; nor does He 
cease to love His work, to maintain it, and to 
form it. 

God is the one infinite ideal Being, while every 
being in Him is finite and limited. Yet finiteness 
is not badness ; limitation is not imperfection. For 
all beings participate in God's Being ; they imitate 
the all-perfectness of God within their own limits ; 
and it is just in order to have this participation in 
their own way that they exist in determinate form, 
bound, and limitation. This in no way mars what 
is divine in them ; for they obtain thereby indi- 
viduality, beauty, strength. The original destina- 
tion of all beings is to form themselves harmoniously 
within these limits, and thus to live a divine life 
within them. The still plant with all its richness 
of form, the cheerful animal with all its fulness of 
life, and every being that is healthful within, loves 
the limits of its own nature and the form which 
it impresses upon them through the fulness of 



GOD. 7 

its inherent power; it lives thus in pure inno- 
cence according to God's law. Man, too, in his 
state of innocence, or when he has returned to 
it from his inner struggles, loves the limits of 
his being, and strives to fill them with life and 
to fashion them into beauty, in order thereby 
to exhibit in word and deed the divine image 
implanted in him. Man feels and loves beauty ; 
but beauty is the divineness of form, and in 
beautiful forms God mirrors Himself and the 
law of His universe. The forms of the human 
spirit and body are the richest, most varied, and 
most essential of all ; and hence they are capable 
of most and deepest harmonies, and of the most 
perfect beauty among all that is beautiful. To 
honour and to love oneself and all beings within 
the limits of finite nature, is inseparable from the 
religious disposition. We thus reverence all beings 
as equally essential members of the eternal creation; 
we recognise in the peculiar form and life of every 
existing thing the present God who represents Him- 
self in every one of His creatures, and thereby 
draws man to Himself. Time, too, is honoured by 
a religious soul; for it is the form of the life of 
finite beings and of their harmonies. The limits of 
every being regarded in itself, are capable of an 
infinite wealth of forms ; but no being can assume 
them into itself at once and bear them all thus 
upon itself ; for the one excludes the other because 
of their opposite characteristics. The infant has one 
life and beauty of form ; the child, another ; the 



8 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

youth, a third ; and so with full manhood and with 
old age. Each of these stages of life is, in its own 
kind, a conjplete expression of life and beauty ; it 
is the same man who bears them all in himself, 
one after tlie other ; but if they were combined in 
the same moment they would mutually extinguish 
each other. And yet it is only in a real and con- 
tinuous presentation of all the forms of which any 
being is capable, that the perfection of its nature 
and its whole likeness to God lies ; it is the same 
man thought of as in infancy, childhood, youth, 
manhood, and age, that truly gives the image of the 
whole man. In order that beings might be able to 
unite determinate peculiarities and manifold charac- 
teristics of form and life with completeness and 
universality, and that they might thus receive the 
whole divine image each after his kind, God has 
bestowed upon them a continuous and endless 
capability of form and life in time ; and thus does 
every creature according to the divine harmony of 
the world unfold itself in beautiful order from form 
to form till it has realised the satisfaction of its 
whole being within all its limits, when it closes the 
circle of the temporal existence and at the same 
moment begins another nev^ cycle of life. The life 
of every being of itself is therefore only a con- 
stituent factor, an actual presentation of all that it 
has worthy and divine in itself. 

To the religious man, then, every being in its own 
innocence, fulness, and joyfulness, appears to exist 



GOD. 9 

filong with himself in God. To liis pure eye, the 
essential form of the universe in its unity, plurality, 
xind harmony, radiates forth in all things. He 
finds it again in the forms of his own inner and 
outer life, and in these he lovingly sees witnesses 
of the divine love, outlines of the primal beaut3\ 
He rejoices to have received a spiritual eye and a 
spiritual ear, so that he can feel and know how God 
exliibits Himself lovingly in all His creatures, and 
how He makes every being an abiding and speaking 
monument of His wisdom and goodness. And when 
certain tones of the great harmony of the universe 
strike harshly and discordantly upon the ear, even 
in his pain he knows and believes that they are 
beautifully resolved in the symphony of all life, 
although their resolution may lie beyond the 
capacity of his hearing. Who can doubt that 
God animates and rules the world according to 
eternal and unchangeable laws, and that His work 
always succeeds in the least as well as in the 
greatest ? 

When we delight in the spectacle of the fulness 
of the life of Nature or turn to gaze into the inner 
sanctuary of the spirit, when we raise our eye to 
God or let it rest upon the world and man, we find 
one divine order and the same laws in all. Beings 
are not solitary and merely arranged side by side 
with each other; they live in universal sociality, 
in relations of strife and of love. The sphere of 
every being does not reach immediately to God ; 



10 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

for narrower and narrower spheres always draw 
together, and form one great organism in which 
some members are co-ordinate and others sub- 
ordinate to each other, as in the organic body. 
The insight of science consists in recognising this 
great organism of the world, and discerning the 
special life and the place of each of its members 
and their universal reciprocal life. The wisdom 
and virtue of any one consist in recognising himself 
in his proper place as a member of this organism, 
in loving the whole and himself in it, and in willing 
and living conformable to the wholesome laws of 
this whole and of each of its members. Even the 
sphere of the life of man is a subordinate one ; for 
there are still higher and wider spheres between 
him and God. But the subordinate is not therefore 
the worse ; nor does it thereby lose anything of the 
fulness and dignity of life. Man is dependent on 
external spheres of life and is socially united with 
them ; but in united life the special characteristics 
of the beings that are thus inwardly united in 
God*s power, do not perish ; their individuality and 
freedom are rather transfigured and conduce to 
create a higher sphere of life, so that the beings 
thus united exhibit God's image more completely 
and more inwardly. The universe is thus an 
organic whole, rich in free, self-dependent mem- 
bers; and all these members are everywhere well 
arranged and well connected, so that the whole is 
worthy of its Author. The human body is itself a 
likeness of the universe, and worthy and perfect in 



GOD. 11 

its kind. The religious Sense has rightly called it 
" the little world," the Microcosm. 

Every man of unbiassed mind can find in external 
and internal experience the cardinal factors of the 
universe and the fundamental relations of his own 
life; and men have so found them from of old. The 
ground of all true science, the object of the frequent 
failures of the profoundest Metaphysics, lies plain 
and clear before every eye that will see. Kext to 
God, Season and Nature are the first, the highest, 
and the most comprehensive objects which we come 
to perceive; and we experience that these two 
spheres of life livingly penetrate each other in 
manifold ways. We see the most intimate union 
of reason and nature in Man in whom the inmost 
works of both, in the form of Spirit and Body, con- 
stantly live together. Nature announces her life, 
and her love and beauty, through the senses to the 
spirit ; and the spirit appropriates her communica- 
tions internally in the living phantasy and returns 
them again to Nature, spiritually glorified through 
free beauty in the works of Art. Nor does Nature 
receive these works, and the love and beauty of the 
Spirit, heedlessly and ungratefully ; she unveils her 
mysteries to the inquirer, and opens the fulness of 
her treasures to him who searches for them. The 
sound religious mind of man recognises in Eeason 
and Nature, whose life streams into him on all 
sides, the two highest hemispheres of the world 
as they exist in God, bright and powerful as 
God's actual image and likeness. To the man 



12 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

who lives faithful to his own nature, Nature 
is as holy, as worthy, as divine as Reason; and 
the body is as dear to him and as worthy of 
tender care as the spirit. His pure eye is equally 
open to all the life and all the beauty that are in 
Nature and Eeason ; he is strengthened equally by 
them, and their harmony moves and animates him 
in his deepest soul. Thus does his moral sense 
and his love of righteousness become enlarged and 
extended to all the life and beauty around him. 
The life of Eeason does not appear to him lawless 
caprice, nor the life of Nature dead necessity ; in 
both he recognises divine freedom and beauty. 
Although in the supremacy of the Ideas themselves 
he is only conscious of the moral freedom of Eeason, 
yet he finds and honours in the sublime and tender 
works of Nature a not less divine, though still un- 
named, freedom in Nature, which appears as the 
organic supremacy of the individual. The joy 
which man feels in his love to Nature, and in his 
intercourse with her life, is a genuinely religious 
feeling ; and the tender care and cherishing of the 
body by which the spirit responds to the goodness 
of Nature, is honourable to it. Thus do God, 
Eeason, and Nature show themselves in their in- 
dependency and in their reciprocity as the highest 
spheres of being and of life; and independency, 
contra-position in antithesis with the higher and co- 
ordinate being, and union of this contra-position in 
harmonious reciprocity, are found to be the funda- 
mental forms of the universe and of all beauty. 



GOD. 13 

The religious man maintains a pure sense and 
faith for the reciprocal action of God with the 
world and each of His creatures, and especially with 
man His master-work. He believes in the inter- 
course of the creatures with God, without devising 
any ingenious miraculous belief to mar his view of 
the eternal order of the world or to blur the free 
ineffaceable beauty of the creatures. God has not 
shut up His work in time, nor put it as finished 
apart from Himself. He holds the world every 
moment in His hand; His eye rests with com- 
placency upon it; and new streams of life, love, 
and beauty are always poured into it and penetrate 
all its living parts. In this conviction the religious 
man lives, cheerful and joyous, and in loving re- 
lationship with God, with himself, and with all 
things. He fashions his own being into life and 
beauty in imitation of God ; he would fain deserve 
the love of God, and is certain of higher influences 
in the still repose of the soul, without deeming 
himself worthy of them or boasting that he has 
them. 

May we not find in the dignity of our purpose 
an excuse for confessing aloud the convictions and 
feelings of the religious man, and laying open the 
sanctuary of the soul ? We love our fellowmen ; 
we honour the living generation as the greatest, 
the richest in deeds, and the most receptive for all 
that is sublime and beautiful when compared with 
all its predecessors. What we utter here is, as we 
believe, what we owe in fact to it, what it has 



14 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

taught US. Why should we not openly confess' to 
our fellowmen that of which the heart is full ? 
Why should we conceal that which we believe it 
would be beneficial to be uttered ? And so we 
venture to set forth our inward and fundamental 
convictions concerning Eeason and Nature, and their 
harmony with each other and with God. 

Reason and the Spiritual World. 

The spirit desires to have light upon its own being, 
and to behold itself in itself as in a mirror. All 
insight and all virtue proceed from self-observa- 
tion and self-knowledge. It is therefore of primary 
importance to recall the chief characteristics of 
self-knowledge and self -observation, and thus to 
contemplate the spirit purely in itself. The spirit . 
of man can observe and form itself. It is conscious 
of itself; it can bring each of its activities into 
prominence so as to make it again the object of a 
still higher activity ; it can control and rule itself. 
It recognises free activity as constituting its proper 
being, and consciousness as its specific form. 
Much, indeed most, of its life proceeds in the 
depths of the spirit without coming individually 
into consciousness, the subordinate activities of the 
mind working as individual factors. It is only 
when the spirit enters with all its higher activity 
into its subordinate activities that consciousness 
arises ; and self-consciousness arises when it con- 
templates itself in them and in their working. The 



REASQN AND THE SPIRITUAL WORLD. 15 

more intimately and deeply a spirit enters into its 
work and production, the more unconsciously does 
it operate ; and although consciousness is constant 
and uninterrupted, yet self- consciousness only 
awakens in reflection and when the sudden appear- 
ance of the success of its work surprises the spirit. 

Every spirit is conscious of having Ideas, as it 
also perceives in itself a corporeal and spatial world 
which is proper to it. Whoever observes himself 
will find that his whole spiritual activity is at first 
solely occupied in perceiving these two inner 
worlds and putting them into reciprocal harmony. 
For, on the one side the spirit strives to obtain 
knowledge of truth and to give it form in many 
relations . as Science. Every science brings some 
one Idea along with the ideas subordinate to it into 
, consciousness, by combining with the intuition of 
the Idea a constant creation of individual forms 
which serve to give illumination and shape to that 
Idea. Thus Natural Science develops the Idea of 
Nature in its inner organism by setting it before 
our eyes in definite, individual, natural occurrences 
chosen and formed according to the Idea. In like 
manner Mathematics makes use of determinate 
figures and constructions in order to put the pure 
Ideas of the forms of all things into light. On the 
other hand, in contra-distinction to truth and science, 
the spirit gives shape to individual things in the 
inner natural world, in the wealth of a life according 
to Ideas ; or in other words, it creates new forms. 
As in the production of science, Ideas dominate 



16 THE IDEAL OF H^MA^TIT. 

what is inJividual, so conversely in internal creation, 
what is individual governs the idea. In the former 
case the individual element serves to elucidate and 
transfigure the idea ; in the latter the idea serves 
to animate and beautify the individual. The 
creative spirit wills either some individual thing of 
beauty, a work of that inward poetic power of the 
mind in which every outward product of art must 
be first conceived ; or it wills a free living thing in 
accordance with the internal laws of the inward 
natural world. And what the spirit thus recognises 
and creates in its inner sphere, it also recombines 
and rejoices over in free easy play of the spiritual 
life at moments in which it neither aims at insight 
into definite ideas, nor at the formation of any 
particular individual form. This free spontaneous 
converse of the spirit with itself is the more 
intimate, copious, and beautiful, the more the spirit 
possesses capability in science and internal art, or 
the more it knows and creates. The spirit is pure 
activity ; and it is only by the activity which 
belongs to the spirit itself, that it knows, creates, 
or occupies itself harmoniously with itself. But 
at the same time. Ideas and the world of natural 
individuality in reason are the objects which con- 
stantly stand open to its activity ; and tliese both 
appear subjected to the spirit in order to be brought 
by it into a constant reciprocal life. The spirit can 
of itself neither create Ideas, nor produce what is 
exhibited in embodied individuality as things of 
the world of phantasy, nor can it prescribe laws to 



REASON AND THE SPIRITUAL WORLD. 17 

them ; it finds them both already presented to it 
with all their immutable and eternal arrangement 
and organisation. Science in the process of its 
formation and in the series of its observations, must 
faithfully follow and imitate the eternal order and 
concatenation of the Ideas ; it can add nothing to 
them, nor take anything from them, nor alter 
anything in them ; it can only look on and discern 
and make the Idea visible by a world of images 
corresponding to it. It recognises the Idea when 
knowing it as it eternally exists before all know- 
ledge; and it is only thus that it really appre- 
hends truth. The world of Ideas subsists eternally 
independent of the co-operation of the human 
mind; every Idea is ever infinite; and all Ideas 
form a whole which is infinite on all sides. The 
whole spiritual world cannot exhaust the world of 
Ideas on all its sides, nor even bring it into con- 
sciousness in endless time. Whoever has at any 
time gone profoundly into any one science, will 
surely understand our meaning. In like manner, 
the internal world of individual objects which 
hovers before the phantasy, is just as little created 
by the individual mind or subjected to any new 
laws. It comes into consciousness in dreams, in 
states of ecstasy, in the deep spiritual concentration 
of every knowing and productive mind ; in short, it 
arises purely of itself, and apart from all external 
things, and herein follows its own laws. If the 
spirit could not move freely in this world and shape 
its creations according to Ideas, then it would be 

B 



18 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

also impossible to know Nature and to act in it ; 
for the images presented in the external senses pass 
through this inner world of phantasy in order to 
appear before the spirit In certain states, the 
spirit can also merely gaze upon the free life of 
this inner natural world so as to feed upon it, 
because it is not able directly to act in a modifying 
way upon it. This is seen in the involuntary play 
of the images that rise up of themselves in half- 
wakened states, and when the mind willingly sur- 
renders itself to the spontaneous play of thought. 
Manifold transitory images and ideas then arise in 
the mind, recalling and accompanying each other, 
and developing and superseding each other. Even 
in the case of the poet, where such images are con- 
trolled by Ideas, as well as in the constructions of 
science, the inner laws regulating the individual 
formations are constantly operative, and they have 
their share in the production of every spiritual work. 

Immediate experience itself teaches every spirit 
the unity and indivisibility of its essence. A 
certain fundamental feeling expresses the unity of 
all our spiritual activity. But this oneness in the 
activity of the spirit includes in it an organism of 
several subordinate activities, which become sym- 
metrically divided as they evolve the harmonious 
Ideas and unfold the world of individual things in 
a harmony which is produced by the spirit. 

The highest proper activities of the spirit are 
the Understanding in the noblest sense of this 
somewhat ambiguous term, then the Phantasy, and 



REASON AND THE SPIRITUAL WORLD. 19 

above both the so-called Eeason which controls and 
guides them both. But Eeason in this subjective 
sense is not to be confounded with that objective 
hemisphere of the world which stands in contra- 
position to Nature, and which we have designated 
with the same name. No one of these three 
faculties is ever alone, but they are all three 
simultaneously active at every moment both in 
knowing and producing, and also in the free 
converse of the spirit with itself: only that 
now one is predominant, and now another, and 
again a beautiful equilibrium of the first two 
arises; and this holds according as the mind is 
directed to science, or production, or free self- 
converse. In every case Eeason must rule the 
Understanding and the Phantasy, and bring them 
into beautiful and right relations. But these 
activities do not always rise distinctly into self- 
consciousness. And it becomes a chief part of 
self-culture to rivet oneself to consciousness and to 
detach oneself again from it at the right time for 
the right operation. 

Men expect from each other spiritual agreement 
as regards the True, the Beautiful, and the Good, 
when observing the conditions of rational activity 
and perception. This confidence rests on the 
conviction that the inner world of Ideas is one and 
the same for all minds, that the inner world of 
individuality is also formed for all minds according 
to the same laws, and that all minds have the same 
organisation in their spiritual activities. Infinite 



20 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

space, just because it is infinite, can only be one ; 
the inner creations of the phantasy of all minds are 
all in this one space; yet they are partly manifested 
in the same place, without penetrating or disturbing 
each other, as in the case of the mental representa- 
tions of a crowd of persons assembled at the same 
spot. They may even be in that same space which 
is filled by external nature, without at all disturbing 
or penetrating it. Now as the organic body appro- 
priates to itself a determinate corporeal sphere in 
external nature, without thereby disturbing another 
body or in any way impeding the great course of 
nature, so in like manner do spirits act within the 
one inner corporeal world that is common to them, 
and this according to the laws that are proper to 
the spirit and to this corporeal world. Thus all 
spirits or minds appear to us actively employed on 
the common ground and foundation of the world of 
Ideas and of individual things ; and every spirit 
forms an independent free series of spiritual 
activities, which produces a corresponding free series 
of knowledge, of production, and of free inner life. 
The possibility of Ideas and individual forms 
becoming harmoniously united through spirits, rests 
on the fact that these are two opposite inner spheres 
of one higher essential being, which is Eeason itself. 
Nor could spirits all work in the same way upon 
these two inner worlds of Eeason and combine 
them, did they not essentially and numerically 
constitute really one activity, forming, as it were, 
rays of one and the same spiritual sun. Nor could 



REASON AND THE SPIRITUAL WORLD. 21 

this one highest spiritual activity, of which spirits 
constitute the organic parts, immediately work upon 
the worid of Ideas and the natural world in Eeason 
itself, if it were not itself the activity of this one 
Eeason, which Eeason makes real in itself by the 
union of its two inner worlds. 

Pure self - observation thus directly leads the 
spirit to the true knowledge of itself; and this 
self-knowledge easily resolves in a general and 
satisfactory manner the mysteries of the inner 
spiritual being, although the spirit always retains 
other secrets in its inner depths. The spirit learns 
to regard itself and all spirits as inner parts of one 
single substantial Eeason, which stands freely and 
independently over against Nature. It recognises 
the world of Ideas and of all that is Individual, as 
its two inner spheres, and all spirits as members of 
the one whole of that activity in Eeason which, 
swaying over ideas and individual things, unites 
them both into a perpetual reciprocal life. And in 
this recognition Eeason draws its inner worlds into 
itself as a true whole, and thus it imitates within 
itself the relation of God to Eeason and Nature. 
The spirit further rises to the idea of a Spiritual 
World, or Kingdom of Spirits, which is the Idea of 
all Spirits as a whole, organised for the establishment 
of the essential harmony involved in Eeason, in 
which Kingdom the capacities and employments 
are symmetrically and rhythmically distributed to 
the individual spirits. Every spirit is free, inde- 



22 THE IDE4L OF HUMANITY. 

pendent, different ; no one is exactly like the other ; 
and what is proper to each individual has absolute 
worth. But neither can any one spirit live severed 
from all other spirits ; complete separation from the 
spiritual world would be spiritual death, just as the 
separation of a member from the body is its death. 
All spirits draw light and power from the ^me 
spiritual source of life, and the health of every 
individual spirit only flourishes in this beautiful 
sociality. The harmonious development of its 
proper independent life, and loving association with 
related spirits who surround it by a higher arrange- 
ment and in harmony with Eeason itself, constitute 
the dignity and blessedness of every spirit. 

The activity of every such spirit takes a one- 
sided direction, for it consciously forms a succession 
in time ; but this one-sidedness is not culpable, nor 
is it repellent in itself if it is only vigorous and 
vital. For it is at the same time arranged in the 
spiritual world with reference to all possible one- 
sided directions in order that the whole — in which 
they all, with all their several activities, are fit- 
tingly and harmoniously connected — may become 
the richer and more glorious. But while thus one- 
sided or limited, the individual spirit cannot but be 
active, because it bears in itself in its own way the 
whole organism of all the activity of Eeason and the 
spiritual germs of all rational formation. For the 
essential being of the spirit is indissoluble and 
organic. But in every individual spirit particular 
faculties predominate for the glorification of the 



REA.SON AND THE SPIRITUAL WORLD. 23 

whole, and all the other faculties are then found 
in diminishing strength and capacity as they are 
removed from those which are the ruling elements 
in its individuality. This may be described as the 
perspective symmetry and rhythm of the spiritual 
faculties, as well as of their operations ; and it is 
essential to every individual spirit and inalienable. 
The individual spirit cannot, however, owe it to 
itself, but can only attain it through free social 
intercourse on all sides with the spiritual world. 
For what it cannot bring forth by its own activity 
because of the limits of its individuality, it receives 
spontaneously from others, who communicate it out 
of the fulness of their own being. This ever new 
stimulus and nourishment of the proper life of the 
spirit, and the potential universality of all spiritual 
formation, thus lie in the social intercourse of spirits 
with each other. Although it is necessary to 
assume an infinite number of spirits, — and the realm 
of spirits must accordingly consist of an infinite 
number of spirits, — ^yet a determinate finite number 
of spirits may be a complete image of the one 
infinite spirit-realm, if the particular capacities and 
individualities of its members are symmetrically and 
proportionately distributed through the whole of its 
internal spiritual constitution. And from the uni- 
versal harmony of the world established by God it 
may be expected that the whole infinite realm of 
spirits is distributed according to higher laws un- 
known to us, into various subordinate, co-ordinate, 
and organic finite spiritual societies. Here we 



24 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITT. 

reach the limit of human knowledge, bnt not of 
religious certainty. Since God and reason are 
eternal, and the being and life of every single spirit 
are imperishable, so also must the intercourse of 
spirits with each other and the constitution of the 
spiritual world be eternal and constant and uniform. 
But the whole everywhere precedes all its parts by 
nature, and it dominates them without thereby 
injuring or weakening the independence and the 
proper life of the parts. And for the same reason 
the spiritual world itself, with its total life and 
every spiritual society contained in it, is likewise 
anterior and superior to every individual spirit, 
although the proper life of every such spirit subsists 
freely and undisturbed in the whole. In so far 
then as human society is also a portion of the 
spiritual world, Humanity, as a whole, is higher 
and earlier than any individual man ; and this 
whole is worthy to govern the individual man. 

As such an organic whole Eeason stands inde- 
pendently by itself in contrast to Nature, but fitted, 
adapted, and ready to be united with it. In order 
that we may be able to sketch the outlines of their 
reciprocal life, we must cast a further attentive 
glance upon Nature. 

Nature and Organic Species. 

In the senses of the body Nature mirrors her- 
self to the mind. When compared with the higher 



NATURE AND ORGANIC SPECIES. 25 

spheres of the life of Nature, and even with the 
earth, the size and power of the body vanish into 
comparative nothingness. But this way of judging 
it does not hold of the harmony and beauty of the 
formation of the body; nor in particular of the 
delicacy of the eye, that organ which has been 
created for the heavens. In the eye. Nature shows 
us the outlines of the structure of the heavens as 
well as the organisation of the infusoria. While 
we perceive by the eye sun-systems, milky ways, 
and nebular clouds, we also by means of it follow 
the detail of Nature into the most delicate organs 
of the smallest creature. Nature thus shows us 
the whole gradation of her internal spheres of life, 
and we are thus enabled to infer to a similar 
gradation in her vital powers. Unregulated as the 
firmament may appear to us when presented by 
the waves of light, yet the mind feels in virtue of 
a higher sense for beauty and life that there is in 
it an inimitably beautiful rhythm and symmetry. 
The aspect of the firmament thus fills the breast 
with pure and sublime feelings, and reminds man 
that he is not to chain his spirit to himself and to 
this earth ; and while the spectacle teaches the im- 
possibility of penetrating with distinct vision into 
all the depths of the heavens, it at the same time 
encourages us to live out all our powers in this life 
and to be a worthy citizen of the terrestrial world. 
The farther Natural Science has advanced, so much 
the more has the resemblance of the life of Nature 
with that of Eeason shown itself, and so much the 



26 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

more distinctly has the parallelism of their powers 
and works come into view. This parallelism is 
necessary and abiding, because both Nature and 
Eeason exhibit the same essential being of the 
Deity. Nature also contains two highest spheres 
in itself which correspond to the Ideas and the 
individualism in Eeason ; and the one imperishable 
activity of Nature unites the two from eternity to 
eternity. Natural Science and the universal human 
feeling for harmony and beauty, are thus seen to be 
in harmony when we regard the organic kingdoms 
as the inmost sanctuary of nature, and recognise 
in the human body the highest blossom of all 
organisations. 

The Organic Kingdom of the whole terrestrial 
nature shows itself as a single indivisible organism, as 
one great body which exhibits its glory in the riches 
of all the plants and species of animals, as well 
as in its free members. In like manner, the vital 
power of Nature which produces this great organism 
is only one ; and the free independent forces of life 
which generate and build up every individual plant 
and animal, are the organic parts of the whole 
organic vitality, and subordinate and essential to it. 
The eternal source of the life in Nature which 
adorns every planet with the variegated carpet of 
I)lants as soon as it has become ripe for it, and 
enlivens it with the free life of animals, is the 
same creative power in all; yet it is individual 
in its special manifestations, and it is free and 
independent in contra-distinction from that one 



NATURE AND OEOANIO SPECIES. 27 

activity in Eeason, of which spirits are single 
rays. 

The several works of this one organic vitality 
of Nature, including its choicest work, the body of 
man, are borne rapidly along in the changing stream 
of time ; but their true life and their essential beauty 
are not received from time, nor are they given back 
to it in death. At every moment the living body 
carries eternity in itself ; its whole life is a constant 
presence of what is essentially eternal. For over 
the body in life and death the organic force 
which constiTicted it sways free and immortal, as 
an essential part of the one organic vitality of 
Nature, just as the spirit, an original ray of the 
activity of Reason, hovers free and imperishable 
over its inner works in science, art, and their free 
harmony. In the one great whole of her organic 
life Nature, creating all the possible inner antitheses 
and characteristics of life, forms kingdoms, classes, 
species, families, individuals. And what she has 
set forth freely and independently in particular for- 
mations, she gathers again in beautiful proportion 
and certain equilibrium in one highest species which 
is completely developed. In this highest species 
Nature loves to fashion herself completely in a form 
embodying the harmonious equable interaction of 
all her powers, and thus to conclude and crown her 
inner creations with a pure and faithful image of 
herself. And so in this highest organic species she 
brings to Eeason and the Deity the purest mirror 
of herself in her infinity ; thus does she prepare for 



28 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

both a worthy meeting-place for them to unite with 
her in love, and to permeate her livingly so as to 
exhibit the most intimate harmonious relationships 
in the universe. All the individuals of this highest 
organic species are original and constant as a higher 
individual, as a whole race. All the single bodies 
of men fade and decay, but the life of the whole 
race takes on in each of them the organic distinc- 
tion of male and female ; and where this opposition 
is developed to maturity and is organically wedded 
in beautiful sociality, the vital force of the whole 
species works in its original power to the production 
of germinating fresh individuals ; and in them that 
opposition repeats itself anew and secures the life 
of the species. The new-born of the race blossom 
from intimate sociality into life, and their growth 
and organic development only proceed through the 
loving care of the parents and of the whole species. 
Every individual body bears in its form and move- 
ments, and in all the expressions of its life, the 
characteristics of the whole race, of the tribe, of 
the family, and of the parents ; yet these charac- 
teristics, when developed according to the special 
organic character of the individual, are no bar to 
each body being individually and specially destined 
to yet attain eternity in its own kind. And par- 
ticularly in man the same forms return with in- 
credible richness and individuality, in the most 
divers times and in different tribes and families. 
For while essentially similar they are yet never 
individually the same ; and out of their apparently 



NATURE AND ORGANIC SPECIES. 29 

unregulated combinations, determined through the 
love of the sexes, all these continually returning 
fundamental forms of the human body are yet made 
young again and maintained. In all this Nature 
follows deep, harmonious, and beautiful laws. She 
forms human bodies according to innumerable yet 
determinate individual ideals of life and of beauty, 
with unerring certainty. And although the spirit 
of man may be not yet ripe to penetrate into these 
depths, the indubitable fact urges him on to always 
deeper inquiries. Through the transgressions of 
these eternal laws thoughtlessly committed by 
men, whole families and tribes and peoples may be 
organically ruined or deteriorated in the form and 
expression of life. And on the other hand, when 
the social life of the sexes is naturally regulated, a 
healthy, vigorous, and beautiful race arises ; and 
even one that has become sunken and decayed may 
thus be elevated and made young again. 

In the formation of the human body, Nature 
authenticates herself as one living whole. Here, 
too, she has posited the whole before its inner 
organic parts. She wills the species, the whole 
race; and in it according to its laws she freely 
animates the individual body. Here, also. Nature 
wills a constant, regular, and universal reciprocity 
of the higher whole and of all its members : of the 
whole race, of the tribes, of the families, and of the 
individual bodies. The individual body lives only 
in the species. It is only in the species that its 
individuality and beauty can flourish. It is the 



30 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

one indivisible life of the species which properly 
takes shape in every separate body. 

In so far therefore as Humanity is an organic 
species, it is as a whole, as universal Humanity, 
superior and anterior to the individual man. The 
individual man has only life and dignity if he keeps 
himself in connection according to law with the 
whole of Humanity. 

Of Reason and Nature as united by 
God ; and of Humanity. 

Reason and Nature, the two hemispheres of the 
universe, do not live isolated and separate from 
each other, but God, who created them both and 
bestowed upon them their inner free life, unites 
them both socially into the highest, completest 
universal harmony throughout their whole being; 
and this eternally according to immutable laws. 
But our eyes are not capable of penetrating into 
the secrets of what occurs in the higher orders of 
the world ; it is vouchsafed to divine them religiously 
and to revere them in the heart, but it would be 
presumptuous to attempt to decide definitely upon 
them. Yet we are able to behold clearly the most 
intimate part of this interpenetration of Eeason and 
Nature, for we ourselves belong to it and all our 
spiritual and corporeal powers are consecrated to it. 
•As in fact mind and body are the master-works 
and the inmost sanctuaries of Eeason and Nature, 
so Man is the living unity of the two and the 



OF EEASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 31 

inmost and most glorious part of that harmony of 
Reason and Nature which is established by God. 
It is God who links together and maintains the 
alliance of minds and of bodies. Without Him 
they would remain isolated ; they would not seek 
each other, nor would they find each other, nor 
would they be able to influence each other. If 
God withdrew His power which now keeps them 
together, the bond between the body and the soul 
would suddenly break. Man is not merely spirit, 
nor merely body, nor even both together if they are 
considered merely as in juxtaposition ; but he is a 
new being formed out of body and spirit by God, 
destined to develop the life of Nature and Eeason 
as a common thing, and to exhibit it through the 
harmonious interplay of all the bodily and spiritual 
forces combined in their common operations. Spirit 
and body are therefore in man equally original, equally 
living, equally divine ; they claim to be maintained 
in the same purity and holiness, and to be equally 
loved and developed. A sound mind must dwell in 
a sound body, if the individual is to be a perfect man 
and to fulfil his whole destiny. The spirit of man 
wishes and requires from his body that it shall 
helpfully and lovingly co-operate with him in all 
his spiritual needs, that it shall enlarge his field of 
view, exercise his art, and unite him through speech 
with other men ; and kindly Nature does not 
disappoint this expectation, for the spirit is dear 
and precious to her, and she heaps love and good 
things upon it. But the body should be just as 



32 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

dear and precious to the spirit. Let the spirit 
esteem the body like itself, and honour it as an 
equally great and rich product of the power and 
love of God. Let it support, help, and delight the 
body in the organic process of its development to 
health, power, and beauty. Let it form it into the 
mirror of a beautiful soul ; and let it consecrate and 
hallow it for the free service of the purposes of 
Keason that are only worthy and good. 

Every spirit can subsist as an individual spirit 
only by being a member of the spiritual kingdom. 
This therefore holds likewise of all spirits who, 
from being united with organic bodies, are men. 
Insight and belief have led us to accept the idea 
of one spiritual kingdom or realm constituted of 
complete societies of spirits severally sufficing for 
themselves, which comprehend all th^ one-sided 
capacities and formations in their individual citizens, 
so that all parts of the inner determination of Eeason 
can be realised symmetrically and harmoniously and 
in regular growth. We also believe on the same 
grounds that a similar relation holds of the society 
of spirits which forms the Humanity on earth 
through a constant series of arriving and departing 
souls. Without trying to press rashly into the how 
and whence of this series, we believe that the 
individual spirits of the Humanity of all times 
come as accessions to mankind, each spirit con- 
stituted by a wise Providence with special capacities 
and with its whole individuality. In what connec- 
tion, however, the spirits living as humanity have 



OF REASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 33 

stood with the society of spirits from which they 
are taken, and how they will stand with it in the 
future, we do not venture to decide. The bodies 
of the men that appear on this earth live originally 
as one individual species with definite planetary 
characteristics; and every individual body has in 
its shape and life something essential and peculiar 
to it as its own which remains eternally unattain- 
able a second time, even to eternal Nature. 
According to this belief, certain societies of spirits 
are destined for certain organic races on the several 
planets; certain families of spirits for certain 
families of bodies; and individual spirits for indi- 
vidual bodies, through the harmonious individuality 
corresponding to them. Moreover, the vivid thought 
of God's wisdom and goodness further convinces 
me that it is He alone who unites the societies of 
spirits with their corresponding organic races. Nay 
more, that to every spirit He furnishes a body which 
is in harmony with its individuality. Without this 
belief that those events which occur in the higher 
order, into whose history no mortal eye can penetrate, 
do not happen by chance, but are ruled by the 
goodness and wisdom of God, all the hopes for 
humanity which animate us would fall to the 
ground as empty and vain. On the other hand, a 
society of spirits which united with an organic race 
conformed to it, lives a human life upon earth, 
may not only develop more inwardly and highly 
the characteristic qualities belonging to this humanity 
as a society of spirits, and give perfection to the 

c 



34 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

characteristics of the organic species, but may also 
form a really individual and higher whole as 
Humanity. This will be the case in so far as it 
harmoniously unites the spiritual characteristic of 
the society of spirits with the corporeal characteristic 
of the race, these distinctive characteristics being 
awakened, elevated, and enriched through each 
other, and both being exhibited in each other in 
the world of sense-perceptions presented in the 
spirit, and in the world of art presented in the body 
and in the whole surrounding nature. The indi- 
vidual man may also bring his own spiritual and 
bodily characteristics to maturity in themselves and 
in their harmony in this sphere, and attach himself 
as a worthy member to always higher and higher 
wholes of spiritual, corporeal, and harmonious social 
relationships. We see Humanity when thus re- 
garded, gathering rays of life from what is inmost 
in all spheres into the individual man, and 
completing in the universal reciprocal activities of 
humanity the inmost harmony of all things. For 
in humanity we find a free, all-sided influence of 
spirits upon spirits, of bodies upon bodies, of spirits 
upon bodies, and of bodies upon spirits; and in 
consequence also the most complete reciprocity of 
the individuals with each other, of individuals with 
all higher spheres of life, and of all these higher 
spheres of life in relation with each other. Origin- 
ally, indeed, every individual spirit finds itself 
united only with its body ; but through this body 
it communicates itself by its life and love to other 



OF REASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 35 

individual spirits who live as men, as well as to 
the whole society of spirits which lives as the 
humanity around it. And at the same time it also 
always receives from above new stimulus and new 
nourishment for its own inner independent life. 

Indissolubly and intimately united with its body, 
the spirit fashions itself into a spiritual work of 
art, a faithful expression and image of its spiritual 
health and excellence. Moreover, the spirit can 
maintain spiritual intercourse with the bodies of 
other men. It can extend its spiritual life so as to 
work for the ennobling and preservation of the 
whole organic species. Nay more, the spirit can 
through the body enter into living intercourse with 
the whole organic and inorganic nature on the 
surface of the earth, and it is possible for it even 
to enter into the spiritual intercourse of knowledge 
with the whole solar system, and even with systems 
of solar systems ; and from all the living spheres of 
Nature it receives her love and favour rendered to 
it in the sensations of the body which is the gather- 
ing-point, the focus, of all her beneficence. Similarly 
free and universal is the bodily intercourse of the 
members of the human race with each other, which 
has for its object the glorifying and beautifying 
of the species, as well as of the individual body. 
Nature likewise enters spontaneously into universal 
free intercourse on her side through the body with 
the spirit, both with the individual and with the 
whole society of spirits that lives in her. Finally, 
the individual can and ought as a man to associate 



36 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

himself socially with friends, with those he loves, 
and with always higher societies ; nay, a few are 
able pre-eminently to belong to the whole of 
humanity through their original thoughts and sub- 
lime deeds. Every man receives the treasures of 
the whole of humanity, so far as he is capable of 
receiving them, through the medium of education 
and social life ; and he is also impelled gratefully 
to offer his gift upon the altar of humanity out of 
the treasures of his own spiritual, bodily, and 
human life. He receives what is infinite, whereas 
he is capable of giving but a little in return ; yet 
it is beautiful and imperishable withal. Man wins, 
fills, and beautifies his own proper independent life, 
as a living member of the whole of humanity. He 
acquires depth, and dignity, and self-sufficiency only 
in living intercourse with the wonderful whole of 
humanity ; and his sole source of pride is to be a 
worthy living part of it. Accordingly the humanity 
on earth exists fundamentally and at the highest as a 
whole ; and all human societies and individual men 
are its organic, independent, worthy, yet subordinate 
parts, whose health and dignity consist in serving 
the whole through their own peculiar life, and con- 
secrating themselves entirely to it. Humanity is 
and ought to be one great man upon earth, as if it 
were one sound and beautiful spirit in one sound 
and beautiful body. Humanity as the whole is not 
fundamentally compounded out of certain ultimate 
portions or individual men, but it is prior to all its 
living parts ; it forms, maintains, rules each of these; 



OF REASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 37 

and it bestows on every man his own proper in- 
dependent life which he can lead cheerfully and 
freely only in the whole. It is the highest dignity 
of the individual man to be and live as a free con- 
stituent part of the whole of humanity, and to offer 
gratefully to the whole of humanity his life as thus 
attained and elevated in the whole. The essence 
and destination of humanity and of the individual 
man are originally one ; they are only distinguished 
as body and members so as to be one life. Man 
and humanity can only attain their destination in, 
with, and through each other in regular constant 
progress ; and the destination of every individual 
is a precious part of the destination of the whole of 
humanity. And as Humanity is superior and prior 
to every individual union and every individual 
man, while each of its parts essentially belongs to 
the health and beauty of the whole, it is therefore 
the dearest and holiest and first concern of the 
human race upon the earth to constitute itself as 
humanity, and to appear always more and more as 
humanity in one harmonious enclosed totality. The 
History of Humanity upon earth can become always 
richer in life, dignity, and beauty, only if men attach 
themselves more and more intimately to each other 
on all sides in order to become one humanity, one 
child of God, and in order thus to fulfil the will 
of God, of Eeason, and of Nature, and to realise the 
longing and aspiration of their own hearts. 

This is the truth which we believe is coming to 



38 THE IDEAL OF HUMANIfY. 

be expressed in the great life of history by the 
present generation, and which is now at last to be 
made real. Thinking in the spirit of this truth is 
the living power of the time-spirit, and it is also 
the substance of our own life. It is the very Idea 
of Humanity, the germ of which has been nourished 
and expanded by the influences of earlier ages, and 
which is now breaking forth into beautiful blossom. 
And this is the Idea which animates the present 
work. This divine Idea is now founding its 
supremacy on the whole of humanity, as well as 
in its parts ; it must, and will, become the ruling, 
animating, and creating power in science, in art, 
and in all the social relations of life, as well as in 
the State, in the brotherhood of love, in the family, 
in friendships, and in all free sociality. This Idea 
of Humanity which Thou, divine Founder of the 
religion of love, didst first cast as a spark of 
heavenly wisdom into new-born hearts, has now 
become a living and glowing flame ; and in its light 
thy divine institution will likewise be born again, and 
gain new life and new animating power. The holy 
fire which warms every heart, the pure flame which 
flickers upon the altar of every family to brighten 
and cheer their home, and the heavenly glow which 
streaming from the altar of humanity, diffuses itself 
through the whole race, all manifest the one eternal 
light, the one indwelling warmth of the power and 
love of God, as they pour from Him over all beings, 
and are shed forth to become the eternally new and 
joyous source of all life and of all love. 



OF REASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 39 

To seize this truth and to live in it, is not the 
special privilege of the learned scientist, but is the 
right of every thoughtful religious man. It is to 
such we turn as we now recall the inner and outer 
facts which prove that men are capable and are 
destined to form one humanity in all their strivings. 
They are facts which unceasingly call upon every 
individual to recognise and love and develop him- 
self as a member of this great whole, and to sacrifice 
liis body and life willingly- to it, if God and duty so 
demand. 

Every man is a free independent spirit and body, 
and bears the germs of all human excellence in 
himself. All men have fundamentally the same 
kind of bodies and spiritual constitutions ; in every 
individual the same natural capacities are all found, 
but in every one they are present in quite peculiar 
relations of inwardness, strength, and succession. 
Even were they found in the same equipoise by 
nature, yet on account of the different position of 
each individual in nature and in society, they could 
not be all developed uniformly nor diversely in any 
one in the same way. For this reason it is at once 
apparent that no individual man can at the same 
time perform all that is possible ; and even what he 
is capable of performing of himself cannot be done 
by himself alone without the co-operation of society. 
Nay, if only one single capacity is to be pre- 
eminently developed, the individual man cannot 
even in this attain by himself alone all that is 



40 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

possible to him in society. For all the objects to 
which any human capacity are related are like 
the capacity itself really infinite, as both stand in 
essential interconnection with infinitely many other 
objects and talents. Accordingly it is only when a 
multitude of things already accomplished are made 
available by others for the individual, and only 
when others labour for all his remaining spiritual 
and bodily wants, that he can give himself up to 
the development of a single talent Hence even 
in the sphere appropriate to this talent, he still 
requires the preparatory labour, example, and teach- 
ing of others in order to attain to any perfection 
during the short span of life. The infiniteness and 
the universal interconnection of all things and of 
all human strivings, are shown everywhere in 
science and art, and in social life. A calm and 
impartial examination will convince any one how 
much he owes to himself and to society, and that 
neither Nature nor Eeason undertake to give him 
form and maintenance as an individual being. The 
pure science upon which our previous statements 
are founded entirely denies that an individual man 
can either be, or be thought, merely as individual. 
It is only the social life that can guard against 
the mental and bodily diseases and weaknesses 
which must inevitably attack the solitary man and 
bring him to despair. It is only in society that a 
perspective opens and becomes intelligible to the 
individual in which his own being, and God, and 
the world are exhibited to him. Hence it is that 



OF REASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 41 

the highest wisdom and goodness has implanted in 
every breast a longing for other men and for their 
companionship and love; and this primitive im- 
pulse, which can never be extirpated, is the guarantee 
that men are designed to exist according to God's 
purpose as a social whole. 

And it is not merely that the individual as an 
individual only becomes complete in society, but 
society besides accomplishes things which the indi- 
vidual could not accomplish at all, even partially, 
and to which he can only contribute his part when 
socially united with others. We speak of all those 
works peculiar to society which by their very nature 
gain, the more numerous and the more effective the 
fellow- workers are who are able to take part in 
them, and which will only attain their splendour 
and their whole dignity when men shall have united 
themselves for their creation into one humanity. 
In such works the range of what has to be per- 
formed is either too wide for the individual, and is 
incapable of being overtaken from want of time and 
power, so that the contribution of the individual 
could amount but to something like a drop in the 
ocean; or, the participation of individuals in them 
must be of such varied dexterity and nature that 
only the most manifold applications of labour, when 
regulated and united according to definite laws, can 
produce the work. In every specifically social 
work both of these conditions always hold. But 
there is this difference, that in some instances the 
magnitude and duration of the work forms the 



42 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

predominating consideration, while in others it is 
the multiplicity of the labourers required that 
preponderates, and in some other instances both 
factors are equally striking and remarkable. Of 
the first kind may be specially noted the cultivation 
of the soil and all those works of art in which 
sublimity is the dominant feature, and whose com- 
pletion requires more than the lifetime of a genera- 
tion. To the second class belong all social 
expositions of science, of art, and of religion, which 
may perhaps be accomplished in a few days, years, 
hours, or even minutes, but in which talents of 
various kinds must be harmoniously united and 
must express themselves in an intelligent and 
artistic proportion in connection with each other 
so as to bring about the work in its proper form : 
such as in a symphony, a dance, an opera, a dialogue, 
or a social religious action. The most wonderful 
works of society are languages, national character- 
istics, the arts of travelling by water and on land 
and in the air, the sciences and arts generally, 
families. States, friendships, the art of social inter- 
course, brotherhoods, and religious unions. They 
are all infinite in their way ; all of them gain with 
the number and talents of the individual workers ; 
and they will be realised completely in an organic 
and beautiful form, only when all nations on earth 
shall have united into one humanity. 

The united combination of men into always 
higher social wholes and into as comprehensive and 
universal a social relationship as possible, is thus 



OF REASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 43 

demanded of spirits by Eeason, of bodies by Nature, 
and of the whole man by both. As a spirit cannot 
subsist without being maintained along with all 
other spirits in Eeason, and without drawing the 
salt and nutriment of its life from intercourse with 
other spirits, so- neither can the body pluck itself 
away from all nature, or from its planetary body, as 
the nearest higher environing whole of its life ; it 
exists only in fulness and beauty when all its 
relations to. all its higher spheres of life are in a 
healthy state. Without health of both body and 
spirit, the being of man, since it consists of both, 
cannot be healthful or sound. Nor can he exist as 
a sound spirit and a sound body, and still less be 
complete, unless he attach himself harmoniously as 
man to all the higher wholes of human society, and 
in this manifold social connection attach himself 
likewise to all the higher spheres of life, to God 
and to the world. Thus are men determined and 
required by God, and by Nature and Eeason, to 
form One Humanity. 

If we view the earth, too, as a whole, its fulness 
and beauty, and the pure harmony of its structure 
and its life, cannot be overlooked. But we cannot 
linger here at length in the contemplation of this 
elevating aspect of it. Its productions, when viewed 
by themselves and apart from human wants, are 
distributed and arranged in manifold beautiful, 
rhythmic, and, we might even say, musical relations 
that are unfathomable. The earth itself is engaged 
in evolving over its whole surface a universal inter- 



44 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

action of climates, a reciprocal communication and 
concatenation of its inorganic and organic products, 
and thereby reaching an orderly distribution of life, 
especially in the vegetable and animal kingdoms. 
But in this striving man far outstrips the earth 
itself. He needs all the other earthly things for 
his preservation and nourishment, and his love and 
care extend to all the productions of the earth. His 
own spirit and a providential fate drive him round 
the whole earth. His race spreads itself out to 
near the poles in order that life and joy may also 
be diffused thitherwards ; and man adorns Nature 
even in that inhospitable clime with her own master- 
work and with monuments of his spiritual being, 
even where she appears to have entirely forgotten 
herself and man. The united social life of men 
labours unweariedly to develop the climatic differ- 
ences of the zones of the earth where they are 
beautiful and useful, and to neutralise or make them 
harmless where they are hostile and hurtful. The 
efforts of man in society strive to warm and ennoble 
the cold regions of the earth by agriculture, to 
spread in an orderly way the fairest and most useful 
animals and plants wherever there is good or even 
tolerable soil, and often even to prepare laboriously 
for them a suitable soil and surrounding. And 
thus the magical power of the human mind, with 
the co-operation of God, beautifies the earth itself 
as a whole, and adorns it everywhere with its 
fairest, most vital, and most grateful inhabitant, 
Man. If Nature could be conscious of herself, she 



OF REASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 45 

could not but be charhied to see herself so purely 
npprehended, so well understood, and so intimately- 
loved and permeated by the spiritual world thus 
wedded to it by God, and to find the harmony of her 
universal life thus furthered by man in conformity 
with her own laws, whereby she is even raised 
above herself. But all this can only be achieved 
by men when united in society. Nature thus calls 
upon men for the sake of the beauty and fulness of 
their mutual and harmonious life to take form in 
her presence as a social harmonious whole in one 
humanity, so as thereby to win also her highest 
favour, and to be endowed graciously by her every- 
where and even to superabundance, according to 
their need and receptivity, with all natural goods. 

God Himself has completely separated our 
humanity by the natural limits of the earth, from 
all the other inhabitants of the universe, who to- 
gether make up the one all-comprehending rational 
life. It is only from God that the symmetrical 
and rhythmical realisation of the characteristics 
and gifts of genius can be expected to come, be 
justly and fitly, distributed in our humanity, and be 
found continually renewed and increased in posterity. 
The corporeal and spiritual longing of every man 
for love and society, and for a higher completion of 
his own being, and the preparation for humanity of 
a dwelling-place endowed with the highest gifts 
of Paradise and although separated from all the 
other celestial bodies yet sufficing by itself, are the 
means by which God has incited men to unite and 



46 THE IDEAL OP HUMANITY. 

develop themselves into one humanity on earth as 
a complete whole at once prospering, wholesome, 
and beautiful in all its parts. This dwelling-place 
so worthy of man, our terrestrial world, is the 
mother and guardian of all organic life. Through 
the wonderfully connected network and harmoni- 
ously arranged summits of the mountains, by the 
interaction of mountain ranges, floods, and volcanic 
struggles, and in the gentle or forcible invasions of 
that network by flowing streams, the terrestrial 
abode of man is divided into an innumerable multi- 
tude of mountains and rivers, forming connected and 
picturesque scenes, in one place surrounded by oceans 
or lying around inland seas. The large and bright 
aspects of its regular beauty, made up of the manifold 
symmetry and rhythm of heights, rivers, and valleys, 
solid land and sea, will charm the coming generations 
by its outlines and forms and its varied products even 
more than they do ourselves, when by the aid of 
the State and by well-planned far travels by water 
and land and through the air, they will be able to 
visit regions which solitary explorers and the more 
civilised peoples still vainly long to reach. The 
various mountain chains and river basins, with 
their differences of climate and position, offered to 
the spreading race of men so many complete and 
satisfying dwelling-places through which the segregate 
ing peoples became scattered. In these regions they 
were able to develop themselves in their own special 
way, according to the degree of their several spiritual 
capacities and the nature of their environment, and 



OF REASON AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 47 

gradually to become capable of being united by 
human art and law into lesser and greater national 
unions, co-ordinate and subordinate, and mutually 
serving and vitalising each other. These greater or 
smaller combinations of men are at last able to 
become united by love and established right into 
the harmonious supreme whole of One Humanity, 
in the age of the maturity of the peoples. In this 
ultimate Union every people which has acquired 
independence will also be able to purify, maintain, 
and socially develop what is special to itself. 

Even if humanity were not directed by God and 
by the nature of their dwelling-place to develop 
themselves on earth into one supreme social whole, 
and even if men were not urged on by natural 
wants and natural arrangements to form limited 
spheres of society as intermediate links between the 
individual and the whole of humanity, yet their own 
human constitution would necessarily impel men 
to seek universal human association, through both 
the spirit and the body, with as many individuals 
as possible. For to every man whose nature is in 
any degree developed, it appears plain that human 
destination both requires and on manifold sides is 
capable of an infinitely varied individuality, with 
an infinite richness of character in its activities and 
works. Every man who has come to true self- 
consciousness and to true self- appreciation, feels 
how little he can suffice for himself alone, and how 
far more sufficient he is, both for himself and for 
humanity, when united with others. I willingly 



48 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

admit that a comparatively small number of men, 
under a multitude of favourable conditions, might 
live in order, and not entirely without results for 
the whole human destination. A healthy and 
vigorous race on a solitary island, surrounded by a 
beautiful and bounteous nature, and undisturbed by 
tribes which a more savage nature had reared in 
wilder ways, while always consisting of only a few 
hundred individuals, might live gladsomely and 
happily in enviable innocence ; and it might so far 
develop its powers, and would advance slowly, yet 
surely, as the enjoyment of the blessings of Nature 
allowed, and in the direction which love and joy 
called it. Yet it has been quite otherwise, and far 
more beautifully and sublimely, willed by the 
eternal wisdom which rules the spiritual world and 
which has founded the earth and formed man. That 
wisdom compels the rising race of men by tragical 
means to begin a process of self-training, to spread 
themselves over the whole earth, and develop all 
their talents. And then it arouses in men, when 
their civilisation has been further advanced, the 
desire, the hope, and the power to multiply the 
forms of human society, and to make them nobler 
and more comprehensive. All the peoples who live 
upon the earth are at all times capable and worthy 
of certain social relationships, and they can always 
become more so by the educational influence of 
those peoples that are already matured. The con* 
dition of the culture and vitality of every people is 
elevation of the social life in itself and of the forms 



OF REASON. AND NATURE AS UNITED BY GOD. 49 

of association with other peoples. God and Nature 
and Eeason favour the production of always higher 
men and of what is the highest that can be exhibited 
on earth, namely, humanity; and the ever more 
and more self-developing nature of the spirit har- 
monises with this great striving. Our hope rests 
firmly on the idea that the peoples of this earth 
will yet be one social humanity, manifold and 
harmonious within itself. And if this idea has not 
yet become perfectly real, yet it deserves a historical 
examination, in which the torch of science must lead 
and light the way, to find whether men have not till 
now constantly, involuntarily, and in some measure 
successfully laboured towards the presentation of 
all peoples as one humanity. If this idea is verifi- 
able by fact, then we may be comforted by the 
thought that history is not yet concluded, that we 
are all livingly associated as a power of God, and 
that vital races will come after us who will be 
more perfect and will approach nearer the great 
goal before us; and this according as more of us 
seek to excel our fathers, and to carry forward the 
great work of humanity from where they have left 
it. This hope we impress on good grounds upon 
our age, which recognises the whole human destina- 
tion as originally that of one great man, or of the 
whole human society of all ages ; for our age can 
appreciate more correctly and more humanly than 
all former ages the powers which are bestowed upon 
humanity in every separate people and in every 
new-born citizen of the world. May the spirit of 

D 



50 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

the age happily advance in the endeavour to develop 
the powers of each individual and of every people 
in love and wisdom according to the idea of the 
whole, and whenever and wherever they are avail- 
able apply them to the great work of humanity. 
May all men always unite more intimately with 
each other that they may labour harmoniously and 
as inwardly called workers, in proper numbers, at 
the right time, and in the right place, and joyfully, 
to realise all the details of the destination of man. 
Thus all men and all peoples forming, as it were, 
the members of one organic body, will soon appear 
as a real, sound, and beautiful humanity developed 
in all its parts. And then will they appear to the 
eyes of the Deity as one man growing happily, as 
born with capacities all similarly great, and develop- 
ing them all with the same love and faithfulness, 
and as thus bringing the work after which all their 
powers are striving to a harmonious, beautiful, and 
powerful I'esult. 

Thus far we have sought to indicate the essential 
nature of man and of humanity, and their relation 
to God and the world ; and now we proceed to 
sketch in outline the practical destination of man 
and of humanity. We have therefore still to 
investigate what has to be done by man in practice, 
and with what powers, and how it is accomplished. 
Accordingly we must direct attention first to the 
Works of Humanity, then to the Organism of its 
Powers, and lastly to the rational Forms of all 
Human Activity, 



THE ORIGINAL WORKS OF HUMANITY. j51 



The Original Works of Humanity. 

In surveying the works, powers, and social life 
of man we must look to the constituent elements 
of his being. For he is not a simple being, but a 
harmonious compound ; he consists of soul and 
body and the harmonious union of the two. Activity 
of mind, activity of body, and the socially united 
activity of both, are required for the accomplishing 
of all his works. While the spirit in its thinking 
and productive operations spontaneously carries on 
its inner life, the body is also occupied independently 
of it and continually in vitalising and forming itself ; 
and at the same time the spirit is present in the 
body and the body in the spirit, in active co-opera- 
tion. This interaction takes place constantly 
through the whole of life, whether works are formed 
in common, or such as belong specially to the mind 
or to the body. All that the senses of the body 
experience in sensation is brought unadulterated 
before the mind through the world of phantasy, 
although it does not always nor completely come to 
consciousness; and all that the internal senses of 
the mind perceive is mirrored in the senses of the 
body, and is sensibly felt by the body. By this 
wonderful intercourse, the spirit gains in addition 
to its inner world another external world made up 
of the body and the whole of nature, which is 
represented in it ; and it appropriates it to itself in 
accordance with the laws of its own being. It 



52 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

makes the body an image of the mind and the 
executor of its will in nature. And, in like manner, 
the body receives into its organic life an external 
world belonging to the phantasy of the spirit that 
dwells in it ; and it thus appropriates to itself the 
inner essence of Reason in form and movement. 
The life of the body and of the spirit are mutually 
connected with each other ; they suffer and rejoice 
together ; they sicken and recover, strengthen and 
languish with each other. The spirit and the 
body, as one man, continually work in common with 
the corresponding activities involved in their respect- 
ive organisms when they co-operate in producing 
common works, and whether a work of the mind or 
of the body is formed. For even in the latter case, 
neither of them can exert any particular activity 
without a similar activity in the other corre- 
sponding to it. The spirit and the body may also 
mutually check and arouse each other ; they are 
receptive of influence from one another, and have 
power respectively to resist the natural consequences 
of these influences ; but they can neither create nor 
annihilate any activity in each other. And, in like 
manner, the activity of each is regulated by a certain 
sequence, and is equally essential and powerful in 
the production of such works as belong to Reason 
and to Nature : as is seen in every exercise of art 
which presents its product in Nature, and in all 
experiments. 

Still more intimately does the spirit realise its 
connection with the bonds of the body in the fact 



THE ORIGINAL WORKS OF HUMANITY. 53 

that the soul or spiritual part of man cannot hold 
intercourse individually with spirits except with 
such as are men, and that this is possible only by 
means of the body. For only through the appear- 
ances presented by bodies, through mutual percep- 
tion of their motions, and through the language of 
tones and writing, can souls communicate spiritually 
with each other and without coming into bodily 
contact and uniting with each other. The question 
has been raised whether spiritual intercourse can 
be possible without requiring the body, the natural 
powers, and a world of signs presented in bodily 
form among men as such, now, or hereafter in the 
distant future. Again, questions are raised as to 
whether certain traces of purely spiritual communica- 
tion which sliow themselves in certain psychological 
phenomena are real ; and whether certain presenti- 
ments of the purely spiritual sympathy of loved 
ones and friends are not deceptive. It is further 
asked whether our race is perhaps not yet developed 
enough for entering upon purely spiritual inter- 
course with spirits. The purpose of the present 
work allows us to leave these questions in the 
meantime at rest. Yet this much may be said 
regarding them that, as we have seen, the individual 
spirit has only a spiritual life properly so-called in so 
far as it is a member of a society of spirits ; and in 
the presept state of humanity no other spiritual 
society is directly accessible to it but that of other 
human spirits or fellowmen. Further, it is through 
their bodies that spirits discern each other, obtain 



64 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

knowledge of each other, and come to love each 
other. The human body and the world of nature, 
while both worthy in themselves of the respect and 
love of the spirit, obtain a new consecration by this 
special relation to its own inner life. 

As in these utterances a human spirit is speak- 
ing to human spirits with a view to quicken afresh 
a pure enthusiasm for the sublime interests of 
humanity, it is of pre-eminent importance to know 
what the spirits of men can and ought to accom- 
plish for the perfecting of individual men and of the 
whole of humanity by their own inherent power, or 
by the powers of the bodies belonging to them. 
Now the bodies of men do of themselves, and by 
their influence upon the spirits which obey them, 
exert an unquestionable influence on the whole of 
human destination. This human activity of bodies 
which we know in its eflects, and upon which we 
again exert a spiritual influence in consequence of 
this knowledge, falls as such outside of the sphere 
of consciousness. We may indeed call the body 
ours, for we really constitute one being with it ; and 
yet as spirits, our selves are only one part of the 
whole man. The spirit and the body constitute one 
man, but they are not resolved and blended into 
one ; the spheres of their activity are not fused into 
each other ; but they merely interpenetrate each 
other and act together and inseparably. If the 
body could say " I ** to itself as the spirit can, 
then it would on its side likewise regard the soul 
as belonging to itself in so far as it claimed to be 



THE ORIGINAL WOKKS OF HUMANITY. 55 

man, and yet as body it would distinguish itself 
from the spirit. 

Hence in no part of the human constitution can 
the spirit be merely subordinate and merely servile 
to the body, nor the body such to the spirit. 
Reason and Nature, the spirit and the body, hold an 
equally high place in the universe and in God ; and 
the life of each has an equal intimateness and beauty 
of its own. They are both worthful in themselves, 
and just on that account they are also capable of 
rendering mutual service to each other, yet not as 
slaves but as friends. The spirit, it is true, has the 
power and the right to repel and limit the impulses 
and enjoyments of the body of man when they are 
of such a nature as to impede, overthrow, or destroy 
the inner life of the spirit. In general, it has the 
right to put and keep the body in that symmetri- 
cal and rhythmical condition which is conformable 
to the inner life of its own spiritual individuality. 
But, on the other hand, a similar right and title also 
belongs to the body to save its health, its powers, 
and its beauty from the selfish pretensions of the 
spirit, which as regards the spirit may perhaps be 
very excellent and praiseworthy, but which, if they 
are injurious to the body, are at the same time pre- 
judicial to the man whose perfection consists in the 
harmony of a well-ordered soul with a well-ordered 
body. And although Nature and the body may be 
despised, as they have been at certain periods and 
amongst certain peoples, and may appear to fall in 
dignity beloW the spirit, and even to be unworthy of 



56 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

the spirit, or at least may seem to be designed 
merely for the spirit, yet we hold this to be an in- 
evitable, but passing, error in the development of 
the human race. Men must in this relation also 
become like children who exhibit an equal fondness 
for their bodies and their minds, in fact not even 
discriminating witli any partiality between the two. 
So far they must become like lovers and friends 
who are as strongly affected by the beauty of the 
body as by that of the mind ; or like the Greeks, 
whose high excellence in art and science grew up 
hand in hand with an equipoise of the spiritual and 
bodily life. With this recognition of the equal 
dignity of the body and the spirit, and with a har- 
monious combination of the activity of both founded 
upon it, a new life in history begins. 

As regards the works, the powers, and the social 
living of humanity, there therefore belongs as much 
of what is good to Nature and the body as to Eeason 
and the spirit. The works, powers, and unions of 
a properly spiritual kind which fall within the sphere 
of humanity are to be carefully distinguished from 
those which in contrast to them belong purely to 
the body ; and the two are in the first instance to 
be considered separately ; and then the works, powers, 
and social relations which are common to both may 
be rightly understood. We may leave it to Nature 
and the body to take care of what is their own ; 
nor have they ever yet repudiated or denied the 
spirit which operates rationally upon them. And 
so we shall speak here merely of the human work 



SCIENCE. 57 

spirits can accomplish, or at least prosecute, by them- 
selves and in association with bodies, in order to 
contribute their share in beautiful zeal to the one 
whole of human excellence, which can only be suc- 
cessfully attained by the combined efforts of spirits 
and bodies. 

In proceeding to review the works which appear 
as the goal of all human striving, we must first refer 
to Science, for it is the divine light which lights 
the way to all other human works, and diffuses over 
them a spiritual illumination of its own. 

Science. 

Man is always spontaneously thinking ; he strives 
to know, and at every moment cognitions are present 
to him in his states of waking and dreaming, in his 
scientific reflection as well as in the play of the 
lightest jest. With the increase of self-conscious- 
ness and with the growing completion of his being 
on all sides, his thirst for truth also grows, with a 
corresponding desire to search for it ; and in the joy 
of the satisfaction he thereby attains, the pleasure of 
seeking after truth is continually renewed. For to 
attain knowledge and to form science, is a funda- 
mental characteristic of the mental constitution of 
man ; there is a constant striving of the spirit to 
bring ideas transfigured through individual vivid 
images of the world of phantasy into consciousness, 
and to fix them in it. The mind opens the internal 
and external senses to the living influences of God 



58 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

and of all things. From the whole social life it 
obtains the illumination and transfiguration of Ideas ; 
and science having flowed out of life, returns into 
life again as a source of beauty and strength. 

The process of knowing proceeds in constant and 
inseparable alliance with the phantasy. The Idea 
is the ruling element in knowledge ; and the aim of 
thinking is to cognise the Idea in a corresponding 
individual form as in its image. The world of Ideas 
is an independent, eternal, and free repetition of the 
whole universe within Reason. It is infinite, com- 
plete, before all time, single, and accessible to all 
spirits so as to be capable of being wedded with 
the world of individuality. Its organisation is in 
accordance with God and the structure of the 
universe. All that it contains constitutes one Idea, 
the Supreme Idea of God. In this archetypal Idea, 
the ideas of all beings rest as free parts of it, in the 
same immutable order in which God has formed 
them. There is no before and after in time among 
Ideas, but an eternal order in accordance with the 
inner essential nature of the universe. The Idea of 
anything is the whole, indivisible, eternal essence of 
it, along with all its eternal, inner, essential parts. 
The opposition of the universal and the particular, aa 
well as the unification of this opposition, falls also 
within the Idea. In the cognition of the Idea, 
therefore, the cognition of its inner richness of being 
and life is never lost sight of; rather when the 
intuitive recognition of it has begun does the self- 
transfiguring Idea impel the spirit to complete tha 



SCIENCE. 59 

image of its inner fulness. And when an Idea, as 
it exists eternally in itself, has risen in its truth 
before the spiritual eye of the mind, it appears as a 
closed whole, rich in internal members and life. 
Thus the Idea of Nature is not the mere universal 
conception of what is corporeal, but it is the in- 
tuitive perception of one infinite and eternal world 
as an organic whole in all the richness of its eter- 
nally new life. The Idea of the State is a trans- 
figuration of the perception of a determinate society 
of men who exhibit unitedly the organic whole of 
right. The Idea of God comprehends God and His 
world, in His unity, infinity, and fulness of life. 
But when the Idea is regarded as a universal con- 
ception, it shrinks into the merely formal notion of 
a Thing in general. Yet the world of universal con- 
ceptions is an essential, but subordinate, part of the 
world of Ideas. 

As all things are in God, the Idea of God likewise 
contains all other Ideas in it as its subordinate 
parts. All knowledge is therefore a consciousness 
of the eternal Being of God ; all reflection in thought 
is a spiritual representing of that Being ; and science 
thus beholds in God the eternal essentiality of all 
things and their harmonious interconnected life. 
God, Reason, and Nature, and their universal har- 
mony, are the inexhaustible objects of all knowing. 
If knowledge is to have light, fulness, and truth, the 
mind miist imitate the eternal order of the Ideas in 
time. It must start from the intuition of God, and 
maintain itself always in this intuition; it must 



60 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

follow the eternal laws of the world, and thus range 
over Reason and Nature, and attain knowledge of 
both, not only in their inner independent life, but 
in their harmony with each other and with God. 
And as all that is, is in God, and God is in all that 
is, and as the order of the Ideas is infinitely mani- 
fold, the beholding spirit is likewise able to ascend 
and descend the graduated scale of beings, and to 
move through it on all sides. Thus does the spirit 
carry in itself, in a second creation, God, and the 
world, and itself, in the world of Ideas ; and thus is 
it raised in itself above itself. The life of God, of 
Reason, and of Nature is everywhere in accordance 
with the Ideas, and serves, whenever the spirit 
becomes possessed of its intuitional power, to trans- 
figure the Idea and to glorify knowledge. As the 
plant, and the animal, and all living beings are 
endowed with senses and with a receptive capacity 
enabling them to receive and respond to the influ- 
ences of life from above and from their own kind, 
so every spirit has likewise a sense and a receptive 
capacity for spiritual, natural, and divine influences. 
And thus does the high and wonderful fact become 
conceivable that the spirit can rise above itself and 
transport itself out of itself so as to look not only 
into other spirits and into Nature, but even above 
itself, into Reason and God, with a humanly limited, 
yet religious and certain vision. 

The first certain thing that is presented to the 
perception of the spirit, is itself with its own person- 
ality. The first knowledge is self-knowledge. This 



SCIENCE. 61 

knowledge comes into consciousness as often as the 
mind combines the image of its own life with the 
Idea of an individual spirit. This self-knowledge is 
the outer bond which connects all our knowledge ; 
and yet by its nature it carries the knower above 
his own personality. For in self-knowledge there 
is involved what is eternally essential to the person, 
as well as its individual limits. In the inner per- 
ception of the Idea of the spirit, it becomes clear to 
every spiritual person that his individual limits 
suflBce for the being of the spirit on one side, but 
not on all sides ; they are individual, not universal 
The Idea of a realm of spirits, or of a spiritual 
world, is thus first obtained, and the spirit is made 
fit to perceive and respond to the manifestations of 
the life of other spirits. When the spirit has come 
thus to know that the limits of the spirit do not 
exhaust its essence, it attains to the Idea of Eeason. 
When it further limits the essential of Eeason in the 
opposite way, it passes beyond it to the Idea of 
Nature ; and when it finally comes to recognise both 
these limits as such, Eeason and Nature then become 
ideally visible to it as beings contained within the 
unlimited God ; and thus the spirit soars aloft to 
the pure Idea of the Deity. If there were not one 
and the same essential Being in all things, and if 
all things were not a finite likeness of God, the 
mind would be able to know nothing except itself. 
Without special revelations, pure knowledge of God 
is possible to the mind only through the divine 
image which has been bestowed upon it. But even 



62 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY, 

with this internal recognition of God, of Reason, and 
of Nature, there is not yet vouchsafed to the mind 
any perception of their proper, individual and real 
life in themselves, i.e, of the life which they eternally 
lead out of the human spirit, and independent of it 
and of its knowledge ; just as the individual mind 
cannot without language have any experience of the 
individual thoughts and notions of another mind. 
The human spirit cannot charm forth from its own 
depths any immediate perception of any individual 
event whatever which is outside of itself ; but in that 
internal recognition of all beings through the pure 
inner source of knowledge, its internal sense becomes 
opened, and it becomes capable of receiving all the 
facts of experience and all the reciprocally related 
forms of life. 

Experience as such is the immediate perception 
of individual things and events which enter as parts 
of the being and life of external objects through 
faithful images into the world of what is individual 
in Reason; and these presentations are spiritually 
recognised and conceived by the mind through the 
already initiated intuition of the Ideas corresponding 
to them. The mind seizes the Idea of its own 
being in its inner personal life, but it cannot fully 
realise and complete it without taking along with it 
through experience the individuality of other minds. 
Without special revelations of God Himself, the 
mind can only recognise the universal Being of God, 
but cannot reach the individual manifestations of 
His supersensible life, of which a special experience 



SCIENCE. 63 

must testify. Spirits living without a body might 
and must internally recognise Nature in accordance 
with their being, and represent it in its internal 
corporeal world according to the archetype of the 
Idea, yet they could know nothing whatever, nor 
even divine anything, of the individual operations 
and living manifestations of Nature. But, on the 
other hand, how richly and forcibly does the life of 
Nature stream in upon the spirit through the senses 
of the body 1 Myriads of her manifold works in the 
whole fulness and freshness of life which no abstract 
knowledge can reach, are presented to the individual 
man, and his vision rises even to perception of the 
whole universe. Nature imprints herself on every 
sense, and her forms as they arise become livingly 
present in the world of phantasy. Here the spirit 
feels and comprehends Nature, and interfuses it 
with the individual internal images of phantasy 
which- readily receives the external image, and then 
brings it faithfully and completely to the Ideas 
in order to bring forth knowledge of real Nature 
and of the Idea of Nature. It is Nature herself 
which the spirit sees, and hears, and feels within 
itself. 

The whole sphere of experience is thus a precious 
gift of the Deity, calculated to reconcile us in our 
knowledge with the limits of our nature. As all 
Ideas form one whole of themselves, so all the life 
of the universe likewise constitutes only one whole ; 
and the eye of God beholds all living things in 
Que indivisible, eternal, and constant experience. 



64 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

Although the human spirit cannot view things with 
the eyes of God, yet it can recognise and develop 
the experiences presented to it as all external mani- 
festations of a great life that is equally worthy of 
being reverenced in all its parts. All the more 
important is it for the wise man, as well as for the 
whole of humanity, to keep the inner mirror of the 
mind as pure, the inner eye as living, and the vision 
as undimmed as possible, and thus symmetrically 
and rhythmically to exhaust and then enlarge the 
circle of experience on all sides. While respecting 
all the sources of knowledge, the wise man draws 
living knowledge from them all, a transfiguration 
of the world of Ideas ; yet without mixing up the 
various sources of knowledge, or letting them flow 
indefinitely into each other. Thus does the uncor- 
rupted and persevering inquirer attain to the whole 
system of the Ideas in his own special, limited, yet 
luminous and faithful, way ; and so he makes his 
spirit a mirror of the Deity and of the universe. 

Again, as all Ideas constitute the one Idea of 
God, all science is ultimately one. But in the 
supreme Idea, every subordinate Idea is enclosed 
by itself and organically at its determinate place. 
Every distinct Idea has a special science related to 
it ; and the extent and internal construction of that 
science is determined by the Idea which it finds and 
exhibits in the individual' things. Every Idea has 
in the supreme Idea an Idea opposed to it, sub- 
sisting by itself and wholly independent of that 
Idea ; and accordingly there is likewise a similarly 



SCIENCE. 65 

independent science in antithesis to every particular 
science. These opposing Ideas further unite among 
themselves in order to express in their harmony 
the essence of the higher Idea in which they both 
subsist ; and accordingly those sciences which stand 
freely opposed to each other likewise form a third 
harmonious science. And as God, Nature, and 
Eeason are the highest and sole Ideas, all science 
is thus divided by reference to its object into the 
science of God as the Supreme Being, into the pure 
science of Nature, and into the science of the har- 
mony and reciprocal life of Reason and Nature along 
with each other, and of both by themselves and 
united with God, In order to develop this Science 
regularly in all its parts as far as it is competent to 
human nature, all men in all ages must unitedly 
evolve it out of all accessible sources of knowledge. 
In every cognition or act of knowledge, the Ideas 
are perceived in combination with some correspond- 
ing individual thing ; for the Idea and the individual 
are inseparable in consciousness in every cognition. 
But two opposite ways are here open before the 
mind, and they are equally essential and good. Either 
the Idea is the dominant element and the train of 
thought keeps to the inner essence of the Idea, 
while the grounds of proof are taken from the inner 
nature of the Idea, and the individual element is 
freely delineated according to the Idea as its image. 
Or the mind gives itself to the contemplation of 
what is individual in its inner formative activity, 
and recognises what Idea is expressed in it and 

E 



66 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

how ; and then the train of thought keeps to the 
articulation and internal structure of the individual 
object, and the grounds of proof are borrowed from 
the individual thing itself. The former purely ideal 
knowledge is commonly called Philosophical Know- 
ledge; and the second purely real knowledge is 
called Experiential or Empirical Knowledge, because 
experience supplies most of the facts. But these 
two counter-directions of the mind coincide in a 
third mediate position where the Ideas which are 
purely known and the Ideas which are represented 
in the individual form are brought into relation 
with each other and put into harmonious unity in 
a harmonious cognition. These three modes of cog- 
nition are all related to the same whole sphere of 
cognisable things, and all three employ in their con- 
struction the immediate internal intuition of the 
cognising mind in itself, as well as found upon the 
whole domain of experience, each in its own proper 
way. As an example of purely ideal knowledge we 
may instance all previous metaphysics and mathe- 
matics. Thus mathematical science cannot take 
form without a world of individual images, although 
the order and the structure of the Ideas determine 
the order of their objects, and the grounds of proof 
are continually borrowed from the Idea itself and 
never drawn from individual determinations of the 
figures. The purely empirical physical sciences 
present an example of purely real cognition ; they 
apply themselves purely and without prepossession 
to the experience of the senses, and only receive 



SCIENCE. 67 

positions which Nature herself has expressed and 
proved. Excellent works on the philosophy of his- 
tory and the philosophy of religion, and on politics, 
prove how beautiful and beneficial is the knowledge 
which we have called harmonious knowledge, and 
how much it deserves to be regularly extended by 
the future generations over the whole domain of 
human knowledge. This harmonious knowledge 
seeks to resolve the conflict of the Idea and of the 
living thing in thought, and to put them both into 
harmony. It sketches an individual image called 
an Ideal drawn from the Idea brought into harmony 
with what is real and individual. It transports 
man into the heart and soul of all living things ; it 
recognises how God and Eeason and Nature eternally 
exhibit the Ideas in time ; and it kindles the heart 
and sets the soul aglow with the desire to join 
with all their powers in the symphony of beings. 
This harmonious knowledge is at once the true 
theodicy and unpretentious inward divination of 
the future. 

Thus science is one organic whole in itself. As 
regards its objects, it is knowledge of God, of 
Eeason and Nature, and of their harmony. As 
regards the sources of knowledge, it is drawn from 
immediate intuitions within the knowing mind, or 
from experience, or from both sources of knowledge 
together. Finally, as regards the kinds of know- 
ledge, it is purely ideal knowledge, or purely real 
knowledge, or harmonious knowledge. Every man 
must strive to bring as much of this infinitely 



68 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

infinite whole within the range of his own per- 
ception as his mind and his powers can embrace. 
Yet in its higher completeness it is only possible 
as a social work of the humanity of all peoples and 
times. Science is a work of history, and also a 
power in history. With every new departure and 
advance of science, all human things on earth renew 
their youth and become beautified. May science 
thus, like a strong sun, rise in always increasing 
brightness and strength on the horizon of the life of 
every coming generation ! 

Art. 

Art, the divine sister of science, is equal with 
it in worth and is equally infinite. All the 
noblest peoples in their fairest times have felt their 
spirits glowing for art; and for it the most cul- 
tivated peoples of Europe are still aglow to-day. It 
is the second original work of the spirit of man and 
of humanity. 

The world of phantasy, or what is bodily and 
individual in Eeason, stands purely and by itself 
in contrast to the Ideas. This world has its own 
inner life. Eeason produces forms in it according 
to its own laws, without requiring the influence of 
Ideas. But the spirit brings to it the law of the 
Idea ; it bestows a new ideal life on this world ; it 
works formatively upon it. Only what is formed 
freely according to Ideas in this world of indivi- 
duality, comes into consciousness. Nature even in 



ART. 69 

the organic world is eternally identical with herself 
in the invariable succession of her productions ; in 
each of her works the parts are fixedly determined 
in the whole and by the whole. She forms every- 
thing in one act at the same time : the part along 
with the whole, the form only in the living being 
itself, the human form only in the individual man. 
But when the spirit weds the individual thing with 
the Ideas, the laws of individuality take on the 
freedom of the Idea ; each of its formations subsists 
by itself, is the first member of its own series ; and 
it is only in order to exhibit a free Idea in its 
totality that several such formations constitute a 
higher living whole. The mind fashions in the 
order that pleases it, spring, winter, a flower, the 
sun, a human body, a pure world of colours, or a 
world of pure forms. The sculptor lends the human 
form to the stone ; the painter makes a surface 
into a mirror of life and its appearances ; and the 
musician communicates to the air the tender change- 
ful life of feeling. 

In artistic creation man is not limited to his 
inner spiritual world alone; out of it he fashions 
at will forms that pass into other minds and go out 
into Nature. What he has received and creatively 
produced in the sanctuary of the spirit, he is 
capable of exhibiting representatively in other minds 
and in Nature. The inner creation precedes every 
external work as its model or archetype. One who 
is a master of the internal art can also become so 
in the external sphere; and the elevation and 



70 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

intimateness of his internal art gives the limit up 
to which his external art may elevate itself. 

A work of this internal creation is complete as 
an inner work of art when it becomes embodied 
and vital according to the stage of its being and 
existence ; when it is truly shaped into form and 
individualised down to its least organic parts ; when 
reposing in itself, it owes its existence to the Idea ; 
and when, either subsisting in itself or through the 
Idea, it is connected as a free constituent part with 
a higher whole of the kind. The creative spirit 
freely following the Idea and its ianer order, creates 
all parts in the whole ; it breathes the life of the 
whole into every part till the whole completely 
responds in the life of its inward totality to it, like 
the artist whose work arises gradually and freely. 
But when a productive spirit has attained to 
beautiful dexterity, fresh growths of an artistic 
nature take form within him, as if by their own 
power and spontaneous impulse. Fresh, full, and 
sound life is the characteristic of every inner work 
of a creative kind, as well as of every external work 
of art which is conformable to its inner ideal. 

Every being exhibits the structure and funda- 
mental laws of the universe in its own proper way, 
as a closed and complete likeness of God in its own 
kind, according to the place it occupies in the series 
of beings. Nature and Eeason, spirit and body, 
the Idea and the individual thing, all bear this seal 
of their divine origin. The richer a being is in its 
formation and life, and the more numerous and 



ART. 71 

more inward the oppositions which are harmoniously 
united in it, so much the richer and more glorious 
an image of God it is. Thus the body as the 
master- work of the physical creation and as capable 
of receiving the most varied and inward exhibitions 
of the fundamental harmonies in the structure of 
the universe, is also the most glorious likeness of God 
in Nature. This pure, clear, and living resemblance 
to God of finite natures in their finiteness, is beauty. 
The supreme source of all beauty is God Himself 
and His power, in which all things move and have 
their being. In the beauty of the creatures, God 
beholds Himself and is well pleased ; and thus He 
regards the creatures as worthy of Himself. The 
world authenticates itself in its beauty as the work 
of the eternal Master. Where this divine excellence 
displays itself to the mind of man, he is inwardly 
moved and elevated ; a religious supersensible holy 
feeling streams through him : for he then feels the 
present God and his inner unity with Him. So does 
the spirit thrill with rapture under the heavenly 
harmony of music when the waves of melodious 
sound move in the fundamental relations of the ever- 
lasting numbers according to which the world has 
been formed and lives in God. The world of Ideas 
has also its deep quiet beauty, and it influences the 
wise man like truth. Every being is receptive of 
beauty when it fashions itself in innocence and is 
faithful to its own nature. Every joyous, rich, and 
inward life is beautiful of itself; but it lives in 
order to live, and not merely in order to be beautiful. 



72 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

And God has bestowed on every being sensibility 
and desire, according to its capacity, and an artistic 
impulse towards beauty. All beings are not to be 
merely formed portions, but forming and acting 
persons in the divine work of art which makes up 
the world. Beauty is most intimately felt and 
created by man, who is the fairest blossom of the 
creation. All that is dearest to man is clothed by 
him in beauty. The more cultivated a people is, 
so much the more universal and dominant is beauty 
in the life of that people, and so much the more are 
the lights of beauty asserted. Science, social inter- 
course, religion, and the State are all transfigured 
by their adornment with beauty. The inner spiritual 
life elevates itself to moral beauty and grace ; and 
beauty is the source and nutriment of love. 

The whole world of the inner creation of every 
spirit is likewise capable of special beauty ; and 
every one of its works and every higher whole of 
these works, can participate in it. If the spirit 
freely rules the formation of what is individual 
according to the Idea, then beauty arises of itself 
as by a beneficent necessity. But in this world of 
inner artistic creation there likewise prevails an 
inner opposition like that which holds between ideal 
and real knowledge in science. Its basis cannot be 
beauty; but as is the case with every being, so 
likewise every work of the inner creation is capable 
of it. This opposition rather rests upon an essenti- 
ally opposite relation of the Idea and the individual 
thing in the formation of the work that springs 



ART. 73 

from their union. For either the essence and inner 
eternal structure of the Idea is the dominant 
element, and determines the disposition and progress 
of the formation and the completion of the indi- 
vidual thing which is united with the Idea ; or the 
being and the inner structure of the individual 
controls the Idea which has to be exhibited in it, 
gives outline to the whole, determines the disposition 
of the parts, and leads the executing to its completion. 
In the first case, the individual element is formed 
as a living Idea, and every part freely formed in 
the whole according to its proper Idea is connected 
with the whole through the unity of the Idea, with- 
out weakening or injuring the individuality of the 
work. In the second case, the work is like a work 
of Nature ; it is an ideal living thing, in which the 
exhibition of the Idea is subordinated to the indi- 
viduality and determined and bounded by it. The 
parts are here individually determined by the whole 
according to their inner essence, without however 
injuring the ideality of the work or resisting the 
Idea which the work is designed to exhibit. Works 
of the former ideal order of artistic creation rejoice 
in a free ideal beauty, whereas works of the real 
order of artistic creation enjoy a bounded real 
beauty. The free beauty of the former appeals to 
the spirit more intelligibly and more powerfully, 
as freedom is the fundamental character of reason 
and of all mental activity. Free beauty is spiritual 
beauty. Accordingly ideal art is rightly called 
beautiful art by pre-eminence. And as real art 



74 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

inwardly completes its work according to the inner 
law of its independent life and reflects the Idea in 
inward life, we may call this form of art which 
worthily stands in antithesis to beautiful art, in- 
ward art. Now as every opposition desires to be 
harmoniously united, so likewise do beautiful art 
and inward art form a universal living union. The 
spirit which harmoniously unites these two directions 
of art, forms works which are equally excellent in 
inwardness and beauty ; for these two characteristics 
stand in them in equipoise, and are united in an 
accordant and skilful way into a higher work. A 
musically beautiful speech, a beautifully formed 
body moved within itself, or a product of beautiful 
architecture charms us both by its inwardness and 
by its beauty. This third harmonious art is in the 
world of art what harmonious knowledge is in science. 
In it, in fact, inward and beautiful art are presented 
in mutual limitation, but they are also reconciled in 
a relation of reciprocity that is fruitful in higher life. 
The human spirit does not produce its artistic 
creations in the utter loneliness of an inner world. 
Man receives through the senses the life of other 
spirits, of Nature,'and of God, and the products of 
their love and art He embraces the world in his 
heart with feeling and inclination, and he receives 
actively into himself what it reveals to him. He 
develops what is thus received according to its inner 
nature with the freedom of the Ideas, inwardly and 
beautifully and harmoniously, and elevates it so as 
to become the product of free rational art. Every- 



ART. 75 

thing, including himself, becomes the object of 
man's artistic strivings. The life of his soul as it 
is inwardly and beautifully moved, is expressed by 
him in speech, gesture, song, and dancing. All his 
activity may be adorned with moral dignity, grace, 
and beauty. All his social relations with God and 
men, and with Nature, may become harmonious 
works of art. Even science takes form at his hands 
in characteristic inwardness and beauty. Man 
spontaneously shows himself an artist of inward 
beautiful and harmonious power in the inter-related 
life of the creation ; and it is only when he is 
surrounded with life and beauty that he is pleasing 
to himself and feels himself blessed. 

When the whole world with all its many-sided 
life is embraced in a human soul and is livingly 
born again with affection and love in the world of 
phantasy, in accordance with the characteristic 
nature of the person and freely according to Ideas, 
there blossoms forth within him a beautiful poetic 
world, in the forming of which the human spirit 
imitates the free creation of God. This poetic 
world is inexhaustibly rich in free, separate, beauti- 
ful forms of every kind. For poesy is the magic 
power of the spirit by which it repeats the creation 
of the world in free beauty, and brings forth 
youthfully again the life of all things within itself. 
The world of poesy, through the continuous in- 
fluences of the life of the world in men, and through 
its intercourse with universal history, is continually 
fertilised by God, by human minds, and by Nature. 



76 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITV. 

What is spontaneously formed in it presses forth 
to the light, clothed in the imagery and harmonious 
art of speech in all its fulness and inwardness, and 
enlivened by the melody and rhythm of tones. Or 
it is presented with the truth of Nature as a statue, 
as a picture, as music, as mimic acting and 
dancing ; whether separately represented by one of 
these acts, or taking the form of a common product 
of their combination in song and drama. The 
poetic life when shed forth into Nature through 
all the arts, vibrates again as an echo of the soul 
into other souls who yield to the blessed influences 
of its beauty in order to beautify themselves. 

When the mind grasps the life of the world in 
its full pure individuality and vitality, and imitates 
it inwardly and freely in essential rational art, 
there rises before it a narrower or wider world of 
inward art in which all that is formed and vital 
is spiritually born again in inner individuality. 
Everything, even his own being, his heart, his 
thinking, his productive activity, becomes the object 
of iiiward art to man. The human spirit through 
its knowing and action, traces out the natural law 
of every being of organic and inorganic Nature, 
and even of the whole earth. As an external yet 
reconciled and sparing power, it enters into the 
laboratory of Nature and brings forth in it a second 
inward yet natural creation. The spirit manifests 
to Nature its power and dignity by completing and 
ennobling her own works. It skilfully tends and 
trains the world of plants and animals, and of the 



ART. 77 

human race. The mind of man actively works in 
the spirit of Nature herself in the procAgs of agri- 
culture and in industrial productions, as well as in 
the higher arts of chemistry, physics, gymnastics, 
the training of the body, and in the divine art of 
healing. All Nature testifies to the inward art of 
man ; for that art secures, guards, difiFuses, elevates, 
and perfects her whole life. It is not vouchsafed 
to Nature to liberate her powers from the bonds of 
the universal system in order to consummate single 
works. But the spirit of man delivers her from 
her chains. In the mechanical arts as a part 
of inward art, the spirit masters the masses of 
matter and the elements; and it regulates and 
directs their energies how and whither it will, in 
order to stimulate and forward all the higher life 
of Nature, with a view to the higher needs of the 
spirit. 

Thus beautiful art and inward art stand in 
contrast to each other, being equally excellent and 
independent; and they manifest themselves in a 
complete parallelism of the individual arts they 
embrace, from the shaping of the simplest things up 
to the artistic formation of the whole spiritual 
realm, of the whole earth, and of the whole of 
humanity. They imply special opposite moods of 
the soul and exclusive artistic dexterities ; and if 
their higher works are to succeed, they require 
the whole man as artist. A well-cultivated mind 
guarantees and develops the sense for both. 

And, lastly, when in a great spirit the world of 



V8 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITV. 

beautiful art becomes united and permeated with 
the world of inward art, there arises a harmonious 
world of art that is produced from their alliance 
and love. In this world the beautiful is formed 
inwardly, and the inward is formed beautifully ; it 
contains works in which, from their being at once 
inward and beautiful, the supremacy of the Idea 
and the impulse of the inward life are shown in 
equal power. The spirit itself and the body with 
all its faculties and powers, as well as their mutual 
life in man, can and ought to be completely shaped 
through harmonious training as harmonious works 
of art. Every social union of men and, chief of all, 
the humanity of all times, attain the highest dignity 
as inwardly beautiful works of art. Language is a 
worthy monument of the harmonious art of man. 
Architecture in individual works, as well as in their 
groupings in landscapes and in large beautiful 
cities, which is its highest triumph; the art of 
beautiful gardening in its several parts, as well as 
in the charming structure of whole regions and 
countries and continents ; and the higher power of 
both as exhibited in the sublime art of colonising 
the whole earth : all these are essential and wonder- 
ful parts of the one harmonious Art. The greatest 
and sublimest works of men in nature belong to 
harmonious art ; and in order to execute its works 
there is required social and well-calculated combina- 
tion of the most varied talents and of inward and 
beautiful artists. But above all it requires a great 
soul which, being cultivated harmoniously and . on 



ART. 79 

all sides, is able to grasp the idea of the work, to 
sketch it, and to guide the workers with wisdom to 
the goal. 

The earth with the kingdom of spirits inhabiting 
it as humanity, includes the one supreme sphere of 
art which contains beautiful art, inward art, and 
harmonious art in their activities and products, as 
well as in their independence and in the universal 
harmony of all their parts ; and this is the highest 
work of art that is capable of being recognised 
and represented by our humanity. This wonderful 
whole,- embracing the various peoples as socially and 
artistically combined into humanity, both when at 
rest and in beautiful movement, exhibits inward 
beautiful and harmonious growth in every age, and 
it constantly receives the higher artistic influences 
of Nature, of Eeason, and of God. This whole 
shapes itself freely in the bosom of eternity. In 
holy stillness it circles round the firmament. A 
faithful picture of the supreme art-work of Nature 
shines through the waves of light into our work on 
earth ; and it enables us to know the place and to 
divine the dignity which characterise this highest 
human work of art. May the coming generations 
combine into a more inward union as humanity, 
and fashion with advancing art and love, and always 
piore beautifully, inwardly, and loftily, the one 
great art-work of humanity upon earth. May they 
cultivate art and science with equal love and with 
equal success ; and along \vith these eternal works 
of man may they find that inward harmony which 



80 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

forms the glory of humanity and the relish of 
life. 

Science and art, while equally original and worthy 
products of the same spirit, spring from opposite 
activities. In both the object is to wed the world 
of Ideas with that of individuality, but in this pro- 
cess of union the activity of science is directed to 
Ideas and that of art to individual things. Science 
and art are opposed to each other as spirit and body, 
or as male and female, and this opposition is eternal 
as the world. They have each, however, an organ- 
ism corresponding to itself in all its parts, of which 
the main features could only be indicated here. 
And like all other really opposite beings, they are 
destined to combine with each other, and to express 
the unity of the Supreme Being in a harmonious 
unity. This harmony of science and art is the 
third work of humanity, and it closes the circle of 
the original works of the spirit of man. 

Harmonious Union of Science and Art. 

The spirit hovers freely over science and art ; 
and over the activities that produce them is the 
calm life of the will and soul which form them in 
love. Truth, inwardness, and beauty gladden the 
heart and furnish the spirit with pure satisfaction. 
In the social enjoyment of the resulting success, 
the pleasurable desire of new formation rises on the 
wings of the imagination. The spirit prosecutes its 
inquiry and artistic formations when and where it 



HARMONIOUS UNION OF SCIENCE AND ART. 81 

will, and carries on both with freedom. What it 
has accoinplished in science and art remains under 
its command in memory in every direction ; and 
by repeating the formations its creative activity 
becomes a beautifully formed dexterity. The spirit 
recognises the inner harmony of science and art, as 
they are made in their whole organisation for eacli 
other. What is similar in both calls and responds 
to each other in consciousness, and the spirit passes 
freely from the world of science into that of art and 
back again. It contemplates the works of art in 
the light of wisdom ; it enlivens the structure of 
science with poetry ; and it wisely and artistically 
exhibits the doctrines of science in the art of life. 
The life of every spirit embraces the deepening of 
the soul and its activity in science and art, and that 
effortless contemplation of the soul in which the 
spirit enjoys its whole being and unintentionally 
enters upon a spontaneous play of beautiful thoughts 
and ideas. What it has learned in science and 
what it has fashioned in art, become socially united 
in this unconstrained intercourse of the spirit with 
itself. Some minds prefer above all else to form 
science ; others are impelled by their disposition and 
inborn power towards art ; and others again are 
called to put forth equal efforts in science and art, 
and to give life to an inward harmony of the two 
through their free and beautiful interchange. Yet 
a spirit cannot live exclusively for science and 
entirely neglect art ; nor conversely can the artist 
entirely ignore or despise science. Neither can 

F 



82 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

the hannony of science and art be attained without 
being strong in both ; nor can either science or art 
or both flourish unless the spirit freely maintain 
itself at the same time above and in both, and 
harmoniously animate their formations. For the 
inner free life receives all its nourishment from 
science and art ; and neither science nor art would 
move man's whole soul or occupy his whole spirit 
without free intercourse with himself. In the free 
play of science and art, the spirit is as much a 
scientist as an artist ; and it is even more, for it is 
both of these in an equal measure. What every 
spirit is to itself in this free inner intercourse, it 
will also be to society. 

How the inner life of the spirit of man expands 
when it enters into intercourse with men, with 
Nature, and with God ! In all the spheres of human 
sociality, it is continually incited to social exhibi- 
tion of its inner life and to combination with other 
powers for common works. The blossoms of its 
own personal spiritual life and the fruits of its 
knowledge and productiveness, make it worthy of 
the society to which it communicates them ; and 
this communication and its capacity of receiving 
communication from others determine the range, 
the strength, and the dignity of its social life. The 
spirit expresses what is within it in words and 
deeds ; what its individuality prevents it from pro- 
ducing is received by it from the doing of other 
beings with whom it associates ; and it loves to 
recognise and contemplate this, and thus to refresh 



HARMONIOUS UNION OF SCIENCE AND ART. 83 

and beautify its own life. By receiving the in- 
fluences of all that lives around it, and giving them 
back clothed in its own characteristic forms, the 
spirit gains universality, fulness, and depth. It 
becomes conscious of its peculiar powers, and is 
animated with new love and energy for its inward 
vocation ; and it thus becomes always dearer to 
itself and to society. 

In the social harmony of all beings, the inter- 
permeation and the free reciprocal life of science 
and art are likewise ultimately one ; they con- 
stitute one whole of life, just as science and art 
each by itself is such a whole. The inner life of 
the spirit which springs from the union of its 
science and art is, without losing independence, 
likewise fused with the life of other spirits, with 
that of Nature, and with the life of God. Thus is 
formed upon the earth, as the universal theatre of 
human activity, a particular whole of this harmonious 
life which is full of character, and which, continuing 
essentially identical through all time, is yet also 
individualised at every moment, and takes pro- 
gressive form in accordance with law. The indivi- ' 
dual man in this relation bears also in his individual 
peculiarities the perspective, the chiaroscuro, and 
the complexion of his family, people, and age. 
But the harmonious life of humanity is a unity, as 
humanity itself is but one. The more closely and 
firmly the Union of Humanity is realised, just so 
much the more individual and yet universal does 
the single man become, and so much the more 



84 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

organic and glorious will the social harmonic life 
of humanity be. 

Science and art, and the free unity and harmony 
of both, are thus original works and products of 
every man and of humanity. Moreover, they are 
produced by determinate powers and in a deter- 
minate way ; and so we are now called to consider 
the Organism of the Human Powers and the Forms 
of Human Activity. 

Human Powers and their Forms. 

The spirit is a free, whole, self-contained life of 
Reason, an organism of spontaneous activities. It 
exists and works by its nature as a whole spirit in 
the fulness of its whole being ; and it is thus a soul. 
Every spiritual activity and creation proceeds from 
the soul. The spirit is the more perfect the more 
the harmony of all its individual efforts is animated 
by the soul, and the more manifold is the develop- 
ment of all its individual powers. 

The spirit becomes conscious of its original power 
as a primary impulse. Originally the one power of 
the spirit is directed inwards into the depths of 
Keason itself in order, as imagination, to quicken 
the original operations of the spirit. Its striving is 
then directed outwards, seeking after union with 
all life. It seeks union with God's power, for the 
spirit is an organ of God and knows and has a 
presentiment of God ; with all other spirits, too, 
for they are all of themselves one living whole ; and 



HUMAN POWEKS AND THEIR FORMS. 85 

also with the forces of Nature, for Eeason and 
Nature are destined by God to interpenetrate each 
other. The power of the spirit is called rational 
by pre-eminence in so far as it apprehends in its 
individual energy the whole of its work. It is called 
intellectual in so far as by its particular faculties it 
accomplishes every part of that work, while dis- 
tinguishing the parts well in the whole. And it is 
called harmonious in so far as its individual faculties 
are enabled to work well-proportioned in their whole 
energy in order to perform all the individual parts 
of that work, according to the idea of the whole, 
harmoniously, and for the glorification of the whole. 
And as conducive to power there is bestowed 
upon the soul sense and circumspection. It is 
capable of perceiving things and of representing in 
the mind the objects to which its energy is directed. 
Sense is also originally directed inwards toward 
Eeason in order to perceive the Ideas, what is in- 
dividual, and the harmoniousness in Eeason. But 
it likewise opens itself to God, to all Eeason, and to 
all other spirits ; and, as the external sense, it also 
opens itself to the body and to nature. The exter- 
nal sense is a receptive capacity for being moved 
by external things and for finding them present in 
itself, as soon as they exhibit themselves to the 
mind at the bidding of God. The spirit belongs 
with its sense no less than its power to itself, as 
well as to God and the world. Sense is compre- 
hensive, rich, and harmonious : for it apprehends 
the whole, and its parts, and the harmony of the 



86 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

whole with the parts, and of the parts with each 
other. 

The soul, as the living whole, weds the power and 
sense of the spirit, makes them permeate each other 
inwardly, and maintains their constant moving 
interplay. It determines the power of the spirit 
through the sense and the sense through its power, 
and apprehends itself in this reciprocal determina- 
tion ; and in this relation it is heart. When the 
power is determined by the sense, the heart feels 
pleasure and pain : pleasure when the power is 
moved in conformity with Eeason, and pain when 
the power is checked in its free movement. If the 
power is determined at the same time in both ways, 
the feeling is a mixture of pleasure and pain. When 
the power is aroused by the sense, it never rests in 
passivity, but reacts effectively upon what is pre- 
sented to it by sense ; and the heart feels this 
stirring of its power as inclination and aversion, or 
as love and hate. Inclination and aversion are 
related inwardly and outwardly to all beings who 
present themselves to the spirit in the sense. In 
so far as the spirit seeks to appropriate other beings 
by its power and to receive them livingly into its 
own being, or to turn away from them, the inclina- 
tion is desire and the disinclination is repugnance. 
Feeling and inclination are the two opposite mani- 
festation of the life of the heart, and the whole 
heart is able to make these permeate each other 
again so that they reciprocally heighten and mitigate 
each other, and enter into a balancing harmony. It 



HUMAN POWERS AND THEIR FORMS. 87 

IS this harmonious combination of feeling and in- 
clination which the term Heart properly expresses ; 
for this rhythmical, harmonious, and melodious play 
of feeling and inclination in the heart, animates and 
moves all the powers of the spirit as the source of 
all spiritual life. The human heart is open to all 
that is good and beautiful in and out of Eeason ; 
it beats for every being that works harmoniously 
upon the soul ; it is by its nature just, and full of 
love, goodness, and joy. 

Yet above the heart the soul lives and rules as a 
free, pure, holy Will. The stirrings and inclinations 
of the heart with its love and its hate are subject 
to the tribunal of the soul, as of the whole spirit. 
The "spirit becomes to itself the object of its own 
activity as spirit ; it unfolds its own senses like the 
body ; it has self-consciousness, and thus raises itself 
to be its own lawgiver and educator. The heart 
desires that the soul at every moment shall so guide 
and determine the powers of the spirit as may be 
beneficial to the heart. But the soul does not 
blindly follow this call ; it keeps its power and it 
gathers itself in itself in order to scrutinise and to 
examine its disposition and heart. It calmly and 
impartially compares the demands of the heart, 
without love and hate, with the idea of its whole 
rational nature ; it reflects and considers ; it resolves, 
and wills, and acts. The nourishment of life is con- 
tinually brought to the soul from the disposition 
through the heart ; but of this, it takes into itself 
only what is suitable and adapts it to itself, accord-r 



88 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

ing to the laws of the purely spiritual life, in moral 
excellence and beauty. 

The spirit works in time, but free from its 
fetters. The past is not dead spiritually ; it con- 
tinues present to the spirit so long as it belongs to 
its sphere of life. In its power, sense, and heart, it 
can make present to itself all that is, and arrange it 
freely according to Ideas, without being bound to 
the order of events in time. The spirit recalls to 
mind ; it remembers ; it recognises again. It lives 
its morally free life in the past, the present, and the 
future, as in one great present. 

To this organism of the spiritual activities and 
faculties, the organism of the bodily activities and 
faculties exactly and completely corresponds. The 
organic power of the body is conformable to the 
power of the spirit in all its subordinate powers, 
and these express themselves in a system of organs. 
To the spiritual sense corresponds the bodily sense ; 
to the disposition corresponds the unity of the bodily 
feelings and inclinations ; and the heart corresponds 
to the heart. And just as the will and its law 
govern disposition and heart, so there is likewise 
found in the body a supreme government of the 
whole principle of life from which all the motions 
and all the tendencies of every sense and every 
power proceed. This will of the body appears to 
be conceived under instinct. As it is with the 
spirit, the body likewise sets into its own senses, 
and it can likewise react in a formative and destruct- 
ive way upon itself. 



HUMAN POWERS AND THEIR FORMS. 89 

Accordingly the unity of the spirit and the hody 
as established by God, is so completely and so 
intimately knit together that the two can only be 
active and healthy together. With failure of the 
bodily sense, the corresponding spiritual sense fails, 
or becomes deficient, or is extinguished ; and, con- 
versely, the same holds of the bodily senses in 
relation to the spiritual sense. With injury of the 
spiritual power, the bodily power conformable to it 
is likewise maimed or annihilated ; and so of the 
spiritual power in relation to the bodily power. 
When a spiritual organ moves, the corresponding 
bodily organ likewise moves spontaneously ; and in 
like manner the spiritual organ moves along with 
the bodily organ. Spiritual emotions communicate 
themselves to the bodily organs, and bodily move- 
ments of the sensitive nature communicate them- 
selves to the spiritual organs. These facts are 
known and experienced generally by every man, 
but they are more intimately known by the student 
of Nature and by the physician. Even the languages 
of all peoples are monuments of this harmony of 
the body and the spirit. 

The body and the spirit are in constant spon- 
taneous fellowship. They are also able actively and 
voluntarily to receive mutually into each other the 
life of their whole organism, and every movement 
of the individual powers. Then they concur in 
common works according to common ideas; their 
powers mutually stimulate, kindle, and moderate 
each other; together they form in the individual 



90 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

man one life in blessed harmony. They energise, 
feel, love, and abhor in nnison, and strive after the 
common health of the whole man. It is only this 
sound harmony of the spirit and the body which 
can attain to exhibit the universal unity of the 
rational life and of the natural life. Pure spirits 
can only liave to take care of the spirit, but every 
man has the actual and immediate vocation to bring 
about this harmony of his body and his spirit. 
Yet the spiritual development is on that very 
account the most important and most essential task 
laid upon the spirit ; for this spiritual development 
is within its powers alone, and it is only through it 
that it can become capable of entering vigorously 
and intimately into that harmony. 

We have thus recalled in outline the Organism 
of the Human Activities that we might not enter 
unprepared into the Temple of Virtue, of Justice, 
and of Love, where we shall read the laws according 
to which man has to form all that is perfect and 
beautiful 

The Moral Law and Virtue. 

The inner law of the pure free will is the highest 
sanctuary of the soul ; for its life being higher than 
its power, sense, and disposition, it continually and 
imperatively holds up this law before itself, and as 
the whole Ego it forms its power, sense, and heart 
according to this law. The law itself, however, is 
immutable and eternal In its conformity with this 



THE MORAL LAW AND VIKTUE. 91 

law the will is pure ; for thus it follows only the 
proper nature of the spirit. It is also free ; for inde- 
pendently of fear and hope, of joy and sorrow, of love 
and hate, it wills only what is contained according 
to the Idea in its being and in its sphere of life, 
and merely because it is so found or because it is 
good. The whole life of Eeason and of the spirit, 
is free as the Ideas are. Every member of its 
activity and every operation begins its own series ; 
it has not proceeded from, nor is it explicable from, 
all that went before, but only from a new first 
influence of the whole spirit. It thus recognises 
only the law of its Idea. Only he whose will is 
pure and free has the sense open and tender, the 
disposition inward, and the heat pure and sensitive. 
A pure, holy will is the fountain of all life and of 
all joy in every spirit. 

Every human effort or striving which has sprung 
from a pure free will and is governed by it, is 
morally good ; and it is at the same time by its 
very nature, as an image of the divine activity, 
morally beautiful To live constantly and har- 
moniously in pure free will, is the virtue of the 
spirit. Virtue is the health and blossoming of 
the whole spiritual life. The morally good will is 
originally directed towards the spirit itself, with its 
whole being, in all its powers, its senses, its whole 
disposition, and all the inner harmonies of its 
nature. But the first commandment and the 
beginning of its virtue, is that the spirit shall con- 
tinually act as a whole spirit with all its soul, and 



92 . THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

with all its heart, and that it shall do every 
individual thing in well-proportioned relation to its 
whole being, and to its whole life. The virtuous 
spirit accordingly strives to be at home with itself, 
to know itself, and to keep the idea of its being 
continually present to itself. Virtue is thus at once 
the highest art and the most blessed state. To the 
virtuous man all his powers, his understanding, his 
reason, his perception, and his imagination, as well 
as all his senses and his whole disposition, are 
equally holy. He develops all his powers regularly, 
independently, and in harmony; he exercises and 
equally purifies his senses; and he forms and 
sanctifies his disposition and heart, not by suppress- 
ing his sensations and inclinations, but by purifying 
and transfiguring them, and bringing them into 
unison, and yielding to them only according to 
the requirements of the pure will. Thus does the 
virtuous man healthfully and livingly unfold in 
time the eternal excellence of Reason. The moral 
form of his life is of infinite value to the spirit, but 
this does not make him indifferent to the fruits of 
his efforts, or to the success of his works. These, 
indeed, can only succeed if his eflfbrt while accom- 
panied with moral perfection is at the same time 
conformable to the nature of the things upon 
which it is directed and to the Idea of the work 
which it aims at. Hence the virtuous man 
honours the nature of things; he investigates it 
and adapts himself carefully and lovingly to it 
in all that he undertakes. Virtue and skilful 



THE MORAL XAW AND VIRTUE. 93 

execution have both pure worth in themselves ; 
but they are both of the highest value when they 
are combined. 

'Every spirit is peculiar in soul, power, sense, and 
disposition. Virtue, indeed, strives in every spirit 
after all that is good and beautiful, of which the 
nature of the spirit is capable ; but yet only in so 
far as it can proceed from the peculiar capability of 
this very spirit. Every man has his own special 
ideal. In order to be conformable to this ideal the 
virtuous man examines his individuality, and puri- 
fies and hallows it, and shapes his life into an 
artistic, morally beautiful, organism. The essence 
of virtue does not consist merely in willing and 
practising the good in general ; it must also will 
this particular good, now and here, because and so 
far as it is conformable to the individual art-work 
of life; and it must execute it artistically with 
thoughtful intelligence and with pure love. Thus 
does every human spirit develop of itself its indi- 
vidual mode of life and its individual virtuousness ; 
and as all beauty, so likewise does virtue become 
real in infinitely many equally beautiful ideals. 
All the individual and essentially opposite char- 
acters of the several human spirits conceived as 
in reciprocity, form the one variously virtuous 
character of the spiritual society which they con- 
stitute. 

The organic vitality which builds up the body 
has also its pure, free, natural law, and the capacity 
in accordance with it of freely determining all its 



94 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

subordiuate powers and senses and emotions. This 
capacity in the body corresponds to the will of the 
spirit. Without requiring direction from the spirit, 
the body can realise its own proper goodness and 
beauty; and when the whole vital power directs 
itself independently, as instinct, only to the good 
that is essential to the body, this, according to the 
language of the sound understanding, is the virtue 
of the body. We see this virtue expressed purely 
and specifically in every healthy animal. The body 
of man can give to it the richest, tenderest, and most 
regular form ; but it can also be terribly shattered 
in the human body through the unsocial and im- 
moral influence of the spirit. The life and the 
virtue of every body is just as individual as is the 
case with the spirit and its virtue. 

When the spirit appears as a living man, its 
spiritual virtue also extends to its body. The spirit 
of man hears the virtuous voice of instinct, honours 
it, and conforms to it, so far as it is in harmony 
with purely spiritual virtue. The spirit never 
subjects the organs and powers of the body to the 
immoral desires of a disordered soul, nor does it 
destroy or desecrate the body through any exertion 
of its own powers. Eather does the virtuous spirit 
seek to increase yet more the health, beauty, and 
strength of the body and its pure virtue ; and it 
does this primarily because of the proper dignity of 
the body, and also in order to prepare for itself a 
pure temple for its spiritual life. It seeks to fuse 
the virtue of the spirit with the virtue of the body 



THE MORAL LAW AND VIRTUE. 93 

into one human virtue, which shall ennoble both 
and bring forth new beautiful fruits in the spheres 
of science, art, and social life. The special virtu- 
ousness of the spirit when combined with that 
of the body, thus establishes and maintains the 
characteristic virtuousness of every individual 
man. 

God, Reason, and Nature environ man with their 
higher life. The virtuous man opens his sense 
and heart to them in childlike innocence, and in 
submissiveness to the divine order of things. He 
thinks and acts in God's spirit ; and his inner and 
outer life moves in harmony with the life of the 
world. In intercourse with God and in loving 
sociality with all beings, his^ virtue gains inward- 
ness and beauty, strength , and grace ; and his 
character puts on that immovable steadfastness and 
that sublime magnanimity which alone can create 
the great works that properly belong to humanity 
itself. 

Thus does virtue make the whole man complete, 
pure in himself, and faithful to his own nature. 
His own nature itself enjoins him to respect and 
treat every being according to its nature, and to 
maintain all his relations with all beings pure 
and sound, according to the will of God. But this 
injunction is essentially part of one high injunction 
of God to the world, which is earlier and higher 
than spirit, body, and man. What is thus referred 
to is Eight, and the Eighteousness or Justice that 
proceeds from God. 



96 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 



Bight and Justice. 

We have seen that independence and the har- 
monious reciprocity of all things are the funda- 
mental forms of the structure of the world, and of 
all life and all beauty. According to God's uni- 
versal order in the world all beings are put into 
indirect or direct connection with each other ; and 
they thus enter into relations of community and 
sociality. But every being is maintained in its 
own nature ; and only when it develops its nature 
independently, freely, and vigorously, can it be 
received into ever higher and higher harmonies of 
things. The community and sociality of beings 
cannot conflict with, nor undo, their proper specific 
nature, but must rather establish them and transport 
them into a higher sphere of life : for otherwise the 
second act of God which sets beings into harmony, 
would annihilate the first act of God which eternally 
bestowed upon all beings their proper nature. 

Accordingly, all the relationships into which all 
beings are put with each other, must be so deter- 
mined that all the beings which are members of 
any relationship shall continue to exist in this 
relation with their proper nature. Moreover, these 
relationships must be so determined that in and 
through each of them the harmony, on account of 
which the relationship is formed, shall be really 
brought forth in conformity with the proper nature 
of its members and the eternal laws of the world. 



RIGHT AND JUSTICE. 97 

And, furthermore, in every relationship all its. 
members must be healthful and flourishing each by 
itself, and all of them in the harmony required by 
God. Again, as the harmony of all the beings in 
the world is a unity, all its relationships and the 
several harmonies produced in them must accord 
as organic parts so as to form one great harmony 
made up of the universal life of all things in God. 
Hence every relationship must not only be so 
determined in itself that all the members in it may 
be sound and may flourish by themselves and in 
their harmony, but it must likewise itself be put 
into harmony with all other relationships with 
which it comes into contact ; and therefore it must 
be so determined that so far as it reaches, the 
nature and harmony of every being and the divine 
harmony of all things, shall coexist along with it 
and be furthered by it. A relationship between 
two or more beings rightly and naturally determined 
in this way, may be called a sound relationship. 
Every relationship must therefore be sound in 
itself, and its relations to all other relationships 
must also be similarly sound. This Tightness, 
naturalness, or healthful soundness of all the re- 
lationships of all beings, is God's holy Will ; and 
hence that holy Will requires from every being that 
it shall so determine its own power in all its com- 
munity or fellowship with other beings, that the 
universal healthfulness of all relationships to the 
universal harmony of beings in God, shall on its 
part be maintained and furthered. 

a 



98 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

This natural conformity and health of all the 
relationships of all things with each other in and 
with God, constitutes the one Eight ; and the 
establishment and realisation of this Eight by God 
and by every being on its part, is the one Eighteous- 
ness or Justice. Eight is, therefore, the universal 
essential form of the relationships of all beings with 
each other, in accordance with which every indi- 
vidual is completed in his proper nature in the 
community of all beings ; and in it the harmony of 
all beings subsists and becomes real. When beings 
enter into community they come under mutual 
limitations ; and the sum of all the limitations 
which a being comes under through all other beings 
with whom it comes into community, and through 
the whole life of the world, may be called the 
universal limitation of this being in the world. 
These limiting relationships constitute the whole 
limitation of the world, and they must likewise be 
so determined that the nature of every being, limited 
and limiting, and their harmony, shall coexist with 
them, and belong to the one organism of Eight. 
The idea of Eight is therefore a universal divine 
idea ; it extends to all beings in the world, and not 
merely to man. Eight is eternal truth, and the 
source of the beauty of the world ; Wrong is false- 
hood and deformity. Justice builds up and adorns 
every life ; injustice disintegrates and degrades it. A 
being is just in so far as it produces and maintains 
Eight to the utmost of its powers and without 
selfishness, for itself and for all other beings. God 



RIGHT AND JUSTICE. 99 

is essentially just ; He upholds and fashions all 
things and their harmony in equal justice from 
eternity to eternity. The world is the Kingdom 
of God : God is the monarch, and all beings are its 
citizens. Hence all things exist in predetermined 
harmony, and justice is inseparable from their being. 
All the dissonances in the life of the world are thus 
to be resolved, for the one whole Right is real in 
itself ; and if seen with the eyes of God, it would 
also appear to us to be real For God, the Lawgiver 
and Judge of the world as His kingdom, is holy and 
infallible. The ground of the one Right, as well as 
of the rights of every individual being, and of every 
community of beings contained in it, is primarily 
God alone, and secondarily the proper nature of 
every being bestowed upon it by God, and the 
nature of the harmony of all things established by 
God. Every being, inasmuch as it is founded upon 
God, therefore, silently claims its right, and not 
in vain ; and its rightness is a part of the one 
righteousness of God. 

All creatures are free and independent persons 
with rights in the Divine State. Every being, for 
his part, must give every being his right, and is 
entitled to demand what is right for himself and 
for others from all beings, and to use all his power 
to make it real. Accordingly, God has implanted 
in every life an inextinguishable sense for right and 
justice. By this sense it is individually constituted 
like God Himself; for it raises itself through the 
divine idea of Right far above the limits of its own 



100 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

nature, and purifies itself, so far as it is just, from all 
narrow self-interest. The rights which a being has 
to carry out in practice, relate to the nature and har- 
mony of the beings toward whom they are discharged. 
Accordingly, every being is bound by right in rela- 
tion to God and the world. Hence all beings are 
likewise entitled to compel every other being to the 
performance of right in a way which is itself right- 
ful ; that is to say, to such performance of right as 
is conformable to the nature of those who perform 
it and of the divine order of all things, and there- 
fore to the one whole Eight itself. Right is abso- 
lutely required by God ; and every being is therefore 
a servant of the divine righteousness or justice, and 
takes part in its own way in the divine administra- 
tion of Right. The richer and more living a being 
is, and the more manilbldly and intimately it is 
interconnected with others, so much the wider and 
more many-sided in its Sphere of Right, so much 
the more complex, organic, and tender do its jural 
relations become, and so much the greater a par- 
ticipation has it in the divine administration of 
Right. 

Accordingly, Humanity, with all its included 
wholes down to the individual man, is the greatest 
and first jural person upon earth. The reve- 
rential feeling of Right speaks spontaneously in the 
breast of man. Man recognises this divine Idea, 
and sees it comprehensively and clearly ; he feels 
that it is consecrated by God, and through the world 
and his own nature. Man is compelled to honour 



BIGHT AND JUSTICE. 101 

Eight even before he loves it, even when his 
passionate heart still struggles against the sublime 
severity of Eight, yea, even when he has violated 
Eight. The feeling of Eight raises man above 
himself ; it purifies him by divine force from self- 
interest and selfishness ; and in this it makes him 
resemble the spirit and heart of God. Justice ought 
to animate humanity and every man equally towards 
all beings, so that they may make themselves com- 
plete by union with all other beings, and help with 
all their powers to bring forth the divine harmony 
of all things. 

The just man regards no being from a selfish 
point of view, as if it were merely destined for 
himself ; but he recognises it as a free fellow-being 
in God, as a fellow-associate of the life and harmony 
of the world. Accordingly, he treats even Nature 
in every one of her works as worthy and beautiful 
in herself, and not merely as a subordinate servant 
and handmaid of Eeason. He ascribes to the body 
as original rights as he does to the mind ; he lives 
in and through the body as with a being that is 
worthy in itself and beautiful, and is reconciled 
with it as standing in friendly relation with the free 
organ of Eeason. The just man does harm to no 
being whatever; he does not injure a flower, nor a 
worm, nor a brother ; nor does he offend against God. 
He renders and procures to every being what is its 
due so far as he can, and thus he lives fearless and 
rejoicing in his power, and in harmony with all 
things. If he suffers wrong, he does not on that 



102 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

account feel himself justified in repaying wrong with 
wrong ; for his obligations to Right rest upon the 
eternal nature of God and of the beings themselves, 
which are neither creatively made nor essentially 
altered by the behaviour of finite things ; and he 
leaves it to God Himself to adjust every wrong. 
The only weapon of the just man is justice; he 
undertakes nothing against the unjust man but to 
protect himself from him, and to bring him back in 
the right way to justice. 

Every sensible man feels that there is entrusted 
to him by God a part in the creation and vitalisation 
of Eight. Virtue itself, as the inner health of his 
whole being, recognises Right as the source of the 
health of the universal life of the world. The pure 
will consecrates the heart and soul to eternal Right. 
By a divine enthusiasm man is led to apprehend 
and comprehend Right as a work of art ; and he 
receives justice as an essential element into the 
art -work of his whole life. And as every art, 
wherever it may blossom and ripen, demands the 
whole man, so likewise does the work of Right con- 
secrate for itself among men a venerable class of 
jurists and statesmen. 

Since humanity at the highest constitutes in 
mind and body one humanity, and as it lives in 
itself as an organism in always narrower wholes 
down to the individual, there is originally only one 
highest sphere of human rights, one right of man, 
and one justice. But this one Right divides itself 
into determinate spheres of Right that are proper 



RIGHT AND JUSTICE, 103 

to the several social unions and to every individual 
man, without, however, being isolated in these. 
Hence every individual man, every family, every 
free social union, and every people, has its special 
right and its special cultivation of Eight and justice. 
But as all subordinate Spheres of Right are related 
to the Right of the whole of Humanity as organic 
parts to their organic whole, or as the limbs to the 
body, all the subordinate Spheres of Eight remain 
obligated, subject, and responsible to the >vhole 
sphere of the Eight of Humanity. These subordin- 
ate spheres must recognise the laws of the whole, 
and observe them each in its special sphere ; they 
must each determine its sphere of Eight conform- 
able to the nature of the whole of humanity, and as 
required by the Idea which, springing out of the 
one Idea of humanity, indicates the extent of the 
individual sphere of Eight. The higher Sphere of 
Eight has to determine how far the subordinate 
sphere has to be left to itself. But the higher 
Sphere of Eight, even out of regard to itself, may 
not injure or annihilate the freedom of Eight and 
the observance of Eight which properly belong to 
the subordinate sphere of Eight ; and no subordinate 
jural person can step ambitiously above its sphere 
without disturbing itself and the harmony of the 
spheres of Eight, or without injuring the healthful 
state of the one Eight of humanity. Every indi- 
vidual man has likewise his own proper cultivation 
of Eight ; for many acts of justice are still left for 
him to do even when he has voluntarily satisfied all 



104 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

the legal claims of his people, of his family, and of 
his class, and although he may not ultroneously 
intrude into the observance of Eight of any higher 
social union of men. 

The Humanity on earth is and becomes one 
whole. It must therefore also be and become one 
whole as a being constituting and practising right 
and justice. It thus becomes one great artist of 
right and justice, livingly realising the great whole 
of the one right of humanity in all its organic parts 
as one great work of art. The idea of human right 
is first mirrored in all its fulness and beauty in the 
pure soul of certain clear-visioned men. It is re- 
ceived by them as an art-idea, and by them it is 
diffused over the whole race, so that their humanity 
may become a worthy citizen in the Kingdom of 
God, and may in unison with all beings attach itself 
to the justice of God which, as an all-ruling just 
power, governs all times. Within humanity the 
peoples constitute the next greatest jural persons on 
earth. Every people must therefore freely develop 
its sphere of right as a work of art in its own way : 
each one independently of every other, in legislation 
of its own, with administrative powers of its own, and 
subject and responsible to no one but the greatest 
manhood upon earth, that is, Humanity itself. This 
terrestrial humanity shall hereafter as a whole de- 
termine the relationships of the peoples according to 
right, and form a higher organism of right, to which 
the peoples shall be related as each individual man 
to his own people. We speak of fuU-grawn peoples 



RIGHT AND JUSTICE. 105 

and of the mature age of humanity ; for until that 
humanity itself shall have hereafter constituted 
itself as the highest jural person, and shall rule as 
such, so long will the people owe their jural state 
to their general superior power, or to a common 
interest, or to the beneficent guardianship of 
powerful peoples connected with them. Only 
gradually will reason itself and humanity take the 
place of mere external force. 

Now, if we designate the social organ of each 
people for Eight as the State, we may designate the 
idea of a universal human State, including all the 
several distinctive national States as its essential 
harmonious parts in itself, by the name of the 
Terrestrial State, the Federation of Terrestrial Eight, 
or the Universal State. For although our earth is 
only a sniall part of the world, yet it is a complete 
image of the universe, and its dignity and beauty 
are founded primarily on the organism of its life, 
the number and measure of its parts, and their 
reciprocal relation, and not on its mere individual 
magnitude. 

The sublime idea of a Universal State extending 
over the whole earth, will have to be further 
developed at its proper place in our system ; but 
we now pass on to indicate its immediately related 
Ideas, namely, the Ideas of reciprocal Life, Love, 
and Beauty. For Virtue and Eight join hands in 
order to lead man to the Life of Love, and to 
make him perfect in the pure Beauty of likeness 
to God. 



106 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 



Love and Reciprocity of Life. 

If we would warm ourselves at the holy flame of 
love and look in its pure light through the labyrinth 
of human society, the spirit and soul must rise to 
God ; for God is eternal love itself. The social life 
of humanity follows the universal current of love 
which the love of God breathes into all beings ; and 
it also pays homage to the universal cosmic law of 
the harmonious reciprocal permeation of all life as 
one life in God. We see the reciprocal life of the 
highest whole and of all its members as perfectly 
expressed in the human body as is possible in a 
finite organism. In it the life of the whole and the 
independent life of all its members permeate each 
other ; the life of each organ rises up into the life of 
the whole ; and the life of every organ, possessed 
by the living impulse of the whole, permeates the 
life of all other organs. It is only in the health 
and strength of the whole life that the life of every 
individual organ grows, while the life of the body 
flourishes in the health and strength of all its 
organs. All the organs are really present in one 
another and in the whole, M^ithout surrendering 
their own free and independent life, which they 
receive and maintain only in healthful reciprocal 
life between each other and with the whole. This 
is the image of the one life of all things in God to 
which we now direct the eyes of the mind. 

Eeasoii and Nature are the highest works and 



LOVE AND EECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 107 

organs of God ; and the highest manifestation of 
His inner reciprocal life is livingly to permeate 
Eeason and Nature each by itself, to put the two in 
a relation of reciprocal life with each other, and to 
be also livingly present in this their reciprocal life. 
God is immediately present in them as their higher 
soul ; He takes them back unto Himself in constant 
free reciprocity as living organs without disturbing 
their free independent life, and without altering or 
suspending the laws which He eternally created in 
them. And both Reason and Nature continually 
draw through God's love the joy and power of their 
proper life from Him, the primal source of their 
being and existence. God*s love comes to them 
through higher influences, but their life in God only 
begins within them when they have become matured 
for it by their own power. Nature and Eeason are 
by their essence in God, and live in Him through 
His love; they are beings with a life indwelling 
in God. As thus living in God, they both find 
themselves existing with a mutual permeation of 
their characteristically opposite life ; God's love 
leads them to each other, so that they find each 
other and establish a fellowship through their reci- 
procal influences on each other. These influences 
they then voluntarily receive into each other, by 
responding to and maintaining them conformably to 
their own nature and the essential being of God ; 
and they finally carry up their fellowship and com- 
munity to the highest harmonious reciprocity of life, 
to the highest sociability of the world. Equably 



108 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

and rhythmically they permeate each other in all 
their inner spheres of life, and manifest themselves 
in living beauty. We stand here on the boundary 
of a world of facts of the highest order, of which we 
indeed know that it exists and whose inner nature 
we can indeed somewhat divine, but we are not able 
to see into it clearly. 

This reciprocal life of God and of His highest 
organs is repeated in a renewed but faithful image 
in Nature and in Reason, as well as in all the inner 
spheres of life. Humanity, the inmost and richest 
organ of the interpenneation of Eeason and Nature, 
presents the form of it both in itself and in its reci- 
procal life with all the higher spheres. Every free 
and independent being exists with every other free 
and independent being in mediate or immediate 
interpermeation of life ; and in this universal com- 
munity and intimate sociality, all beings authenti- 
cate themselves as divine organs, and only in it 
does the one organic life of God subsist. To God 
Himself, each of His organs is open to mediate and 
immediate influence. Every being, according to the 
stage of its existence, is capable of living in God. 
All beings move and live and have their being in 
God. Keason works as a whole into each of its 
inner spheres of life ; and each of these is fitted to 
enter into real unity of life with it. The same 
holds true of Nature. And in humanity, as the 
completest organ of their reciprocal life, the in- 
fluences of all the higher spheres stream together 
and join to celebrate the most intimate and 



LOVE AND EECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 109 

beautiful love, the richest social reciprocity of 
life. 

As Eeason and Nature are combined by God, and 
the community bestowed upon them by God is 
raised with freedom to a reciprocal social life, in 
like manner this relation is repeated in the case of 
all natures that are equally high, but opposite, 
branches of the tree of beings. They are brought 
into community or oneness through their next higher 
sphere, whose organs they are ; and in it, they re- 
cognise each other as organs of the same living 
whole, and then they lovingly permeate each other 
in the whole of their being. The sociability of the 
infinity of individuals, which are similar and yet 
specifically diverse, produces a specific character ; 
and the individuals thus form one organ of a har- 
monious universal sphere. This holds of the 
individuals of the realm of spirits in Eeason, the 
individuals of the organic kingdom in Nature, and 
of men as individual members of the one humanity 
in the universe. They also inwardly imitate in 
narrower and wider circles that supreme reciprocal 
life of God and of His organs. 

Every form of sociability presupposes community, 
and forms itself in it. The ground, however, of all 
community, fellowship, or association, is primarily 
God's prevenient love which wills and creates the 
harmony of all life in Him. Every association that 
is founded by God is inevitable in the experience 
of the beings united by it, as long as its higher 
grounds endure and so far as they extend. This 



110 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

holds good of the community of Eeason with Nature, 
of the spirit and the body in man, and of men in 
relation with each other on the earth as their 
common higher sphere of life. The fellowship of 
higher beings with lower beings is immediate and 
direct, whereas the fellowship of co-ordinate beings 
on the same plane, in and through their common 
higher spheres, is mediate and indirect. Community 
is everywhere present whenever the inner manifes- 
tations of the life of the beings meet, mutually 
influence, and limit each other ; and when at the 
same time they strive to maintain and to heighten 
their independence. Further, there is also a degree 
of community even where the beings reciprocally 
react upon each other without forming a real unity 
of life, or without recognising each other mutually 
as one being, and becoming incorporated into each 
other in the spirit of a higher unity. Even when 
several beings are useful in their community to each 
other, mutually further their inner life, and even 
produce common works with common powers, which 
are not however united into one life, there is com- 
munity merely as such, but in such cases there is 
no proper sociability ; for there is still lacking the 
true unity of a higher life consisting of them both 
in common. All communities of the latter kind 
are kept up merely by a common external interest, 
and have value and subsistence only when the 
beings in them do not lower themselves to be mere 
means, and when they are held together by justice. 
The community that is enforced upon coexisting 



LOVE AND EECIPROCITY OF LIFE. Ill 

beings through a higher sphere, as by a kind of 
fate, is the ground in which sociality flourishes; 
but it is also the basis of strife, and it abounds in 
sources of misfortune and corruption. For every 
one of the beings thus put into community works 
according to its inner vital impulse in inclination 
and desire upon the higher sphere of life that is 
common to all; and each moves freely in that 
sphere according to the law of his nature without 
regard to other beings. Thus the antagonistic 
powers of the beings thus standing in community 
come accidentally into contact even with each other ; 
and they hinder, limit, and disturb each other. 
Then it is that in vigorous heroic natures there 
stirs the struggle for independence and inner health. 
Yet this cosmic limitation, however terrible in its 
manifestations, needs no theodicy. For the con- 
flicting individuals thus learn to know their own 
and other's powers, and their idea of Right is 
thereby awakened. Just conflict produces respect ; 
it gradually purifies the community from all un- 
social elements ; and it subdues and silences 
selfishness and self-interest. Those who are carry- 
ing on the conflict then come to recognise each 
other as equally worthy organs of a higher life ; 
they become reconciled ; and a beautiful struggle, 
the rivalry of love and of joy, begins. Thus do 
they press through conflict to friendship and to 
fruitful sociality. 

True independence, perfection of one's own nature 
in itself, and individuality with fully developed 



112 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

characteristics, are the soil on which alone love and 
sociality can flourish. The yearning of every being 
to be independent and perfect in its kind, exists in 
it earlier than love. And equally primary and 
essential is the impulse to still this yearning and 
boldly and perseveringly to combat all the obstacles 
opposed to a joyful independence. For this is the 
heroism that is proper to every being, and without 
which it can neither love nor be lovable. This in- 
dependence is not higlier nor worthier than love, but 
it is prior to it ; without it, there is generally no 
worth, no life. All love and conflict would be 
equally contemptible without it, even if they were 
at all possible without some degree of independent 
being. Every grand nature forms itself through con- 
flict with all that is hostile to its own most proper life; 
and by a heroic struggle it purifies itself into love. 

When the community of beings is matured, and 
when higher and lower beings have found each 
other, and opposite beings have come in the course 
of the conflict to love each other, then only does 
their true reciprocal life begin, a life in which a 
constant harmonious interaction of their powers 
combines them into a higher mode of living. It is 
only this constant, inward living- together in love 
and unselfish justice, of free opposite beings as 
really one being, that I call Society ^ and it is the 
state of the beings in it which I designate by the 
term Sociality : these words being thus taken in a 
much higher sense than in the common usage. 
When once a social relationship has sprung up, it 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 113 

grows constantly; for when the combination has 
succeeded in taking form, there springs up the 
yearning or longing referred to, till the social 
members universally and uniformly permeate each 
other. This is that state of blessed satisfaction in 
which the beings exist as one heart and one soul ; 
and it lasts for ever, unless a higher fate dissolves 
their association. Every form of sociality rests 
upon the original unity of beings in accordance with 
which they are members of the same whole, and 
upon the ineradicable essential opposition which 
distinguishes them as organic members of that 
whole : the bases of their freedom and proper 
individuality. By their likeness they are capable 
of recognising the one-sidedness of their own nature 
and the equally essential excellence of the opposite 
member, and of entering with them into community 
so as to receive influences from them and to act 
upon them in return ; and by the opposition between 
them their reciprocal life is nourished and main- 
tained. Hence sociality will not weaken or ex- 
tinguish the individual characteristics of its members, 
nor disturb or deteriorate their character. Nor is 
it calculated to do this; it rather develops the 
individuals and introduces theni into the higher 
harmony of life which the associated members bring 
into being. Socially united beings constitute one 
being in the sphere of their sociality with common 
freedom and independence ; and they are accordingly 
also capable as a whole society of a still higher 
form of sociality, when they do not themselves 

H 



114 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

already form the highest kind of sociality. Then 
they struggle as one person against all the cosmic 
forces which work hostilely against their individual 
members, or against the whole society. Those 
associations which unite all beings are the most 
intimate and the most lasting ; but where only one 
organ, or only the powers of some organs permeate 
each other, the beings are only mediately embraced 
as whole beings. 

Every society, as the exhibition of one higher life 
in the reciprocal life of several beings, is a work of 
art of all its members ; and it is in fact a social 
work of art in which either inwardness or beauty 
predominates, or in which the two stand in equi- 
librium. It is in this social art-work of society 
that the most glorious things are born of which 
the associated beings are capable, each for himself 
and in combination with each other. Every society 
is rich in beautiful fruits, in inward and beautiful 
social works of art. Every form of sociality is 
indeed originally directed only to the combination 
of its whole life or of its individual organs, and 
only mediately to individual social works ; but the 
latter follow of themselves, as the fruit follows the 
blossom. If a work is to be distinguished as a 
really social work, it must be specially produced as 
such, or only proceed in common out of the 
social union. It must be enjoined upon every indi- 
vidual member of the society as incumbent by his 
own nature, but at the same time exceed the powers 
of the individuals as such, and be capable of being 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 115 

accomplished only by the harmony of the opposite 
powers of the socialised members. The more 
original and the fuller of character the members of 
the society are, so much the more capable are they 
of more excellent social works; and the higher, 
more varied and richer the work is, so much the 
stronger is it as an external bond of the social 
union. Works, however, to which the workers 
contribute equally with equal powers, are merely 
works in common. The sublimest and fairest works 
of the world are both social works and works in 
common. 

Humanity as the inmost life born from the most 
intimate union of Nature and Reason, is capable of 
the most varied community and sociality, and next to 
God is alone capable of a universal community and 
of sociality on all sides. As sociality generally is 
the soul of all reciprocal life in the universe, so 
likewise is human sociality the soul of all inward 
and outward harmonious reciprocal life of humanity. 
Humanity itself is destined to live as one whole in 
an encircled inward and outward sociality, or as one 
humanity on earth. For it lives in every individual 
man and in all men taken together, who, as origin- 
ally equal and essential organs of it, are called to 
enter into one great fellowship and society with 
each other and with all other beings external to 
them. God, Reason, and Nature, Science and Art 
and their Harmony, are all heard calling upon men 
to realise this union. Hence every man is capable 
of embracing all beings in one justice and love, and 



116 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

of receiving their influences reflectively in himself. 
Man is universal in his love and sociality, and can 
attain a balanced inwardness and harmony in this 
universality. He is capable of attaining a beautiful 
equilibrium between his own independence and a 
loving surrender to every being that is worthy of 
being loved. The external sociality of men is as 
wonderful as their inner sociality. But all human 
sociality bears the characteristic of humanity, 
namely, moral freedom of the spirit arising through 
supremacy of the Ideas in harmony with the 
intimate organic union of the body. In the world 
of Ideas, man perceives all beings as in a faithful 
mirror, so that he can recognise them in the rich 
domain of his experience and win them to love. 
When man is illuminated and warmed by the Idea 
of God, he knows and feels himself, and humanity, 
and all things, as organs and beloved works of God ; 
he then enters into a supersensible ineffable relation- 
ship of love and life with God, and receives the 
consecration of Eeligion. By religion that love 
which moves the heart of man becomes holy and 
harmonised with every other love ; by it every 
human social relationship grows conformable to the 
life of God and of the world. Eeligion alone makes 
man complete as a living social organ of God in 
unison with all beings. Only the man and the 
humanity are socially complete whose w^hole social 
existence has received unity, attachment, strength, 
and beauty through Virtue, Eight, and Eeligion. 
All the sociality of all the beings of the world is 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. Il7 

originally and eternally realised in its completeness 
as one social union in God, and as one full living 
intercourse in God. Love, a mighty ineradicable 
impulse, makes all men follow the universal law of 
sociality. Love is the living form of the inner 
organic unification of all life in God. Love is the 
eternal will of God to be livingly present in all 
beings and to take back the life of all His members 
into Himself as into their whole life. The one love 
of God with its eternal goodness, makes every being 
into an image of Himself; it completes all beings 
as one harmonious social creation. And from God, 
this eternal love pours itself forth into all beings as 
the divine impulse to rejoice in the perfection and 
beauty of every being, to fuse one's own life with its 
life, and blissfully to feel this unity of life. The 
love of all beings is potentially contained in the 
love of God as His one inner self-love. God brings 
all beings into community in order to awaken and 
nourish the impulse of love, to enable them to begin 
to realise themselves in the struggle of existence, 
and to purify them in the fire of affliction. Yet in 
this trying of their natures, the divine pity accom- 
panies them with fulness of love, and does not 
allow them to be destroyed or deformed by the 
limitation of the world, but rather enables them to 
become glorified and beautified. 

In every being there springs up a pure love to 
God to meet His prevenient love. God is present 
in every being according to the stage of its existence ; 
and hence every being finds its life as part of the 



118 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

divine life, and it yearns to be in itself like God. 
All healthful life rises upwards to God. Love to 
God is the most original and most inward element 
that animates every being ; and it is only this love 
that leads to the perfection of the individual life in 
harmony with God and the world. Every being 
has a natural tendency to love God and to live in 
intimate relationship with God. In this mutual 
love of God and of His beings springs up the pure 
love of all beings to each other, that love which 
gives form to all the fellowship and sociality which 
is pleasing to God. Yet is every being a free organ 
of God existing by itself, and glorious and beautiful 
in itself; and, accordingly, the love of beings to 
each other is also free, independent, and beautiful. 
They can rejoice purely, and not unpleasingly to 
God, in their love to each other before the love of 
God has yet consciously laid hold of them and 
developed itself in them. Through pure, cheerful 
love towards each other, men elevate themselves, 
so that they likewise love God purely; for they 
find God present in reciprocity with themselves and 
their social life. But when love to God has become 
the dominant and animating principle in beings, it 
also consecrates and strengthens and gladdens their 
mutual love to each other ; for they then become 
lovable to each other again, because they see 
themselves all loved by God. It is impossible 
really to love God without extending that love 
to all things; and thus does every being en- 
dowed with capability of love become filled by 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 119 

one love, namely, love to God and to all beings 
in Him. 

Love awakens in beholding the excellence and 
inner healthfulness and beauty of the loved being, 
as a yearning to become one higher life with that 
being. Love is the mother and the soul of all 
sociality. It anticipates the social union, maintains 
it, develops it, and survives it ; for it is not quenched 
even when this union is dissolved by a higher fate ; 
it follows after the being beloved as long as the 
influences of its sociality gladden the life of the 
being who loves. Thus is love both the inmost 
impulse and the most blessed of states ; it impels 
beings to complete themselves harmoniously, and 
leads them to the highest health and beauty. 

Man's love is as intimate and embracing as his 
sociality. In man the free ideal love of the spirit 
becomes permeated with the intimate organic love 
of the body ; and hence man is capable of embracing 
all beings in a pure love. Whatever is open to the 
spirit and the body and their mutual life, moves the 
heart of man by its excellence and beauty. The 
contemplation of what is perfect and beautiful is an 
inward joy; the whole man feels himself thereby 
elevated ; he forgets himself, and longs to receive 
the other life into himself, to sink his own in it, 
and to form with it one higher and more excellent 
being. When love has once been kindled in the 
breast of man, he cannot and will not live joyfully 
without the being beloved ; the joys and sorrows of 
the loved one become his own, and he is one spirit 



120 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

and heart with that being. Every really human 
love is benevolent; it lives in the spirit of pure 
goodness, for it feels the beloved being as part of 
its own higher self. 

Love is produced in the heart by free powers, 
and hence it is free. It recognises no compulsion 
but amiability through life and beauty ; it is even 
inaccessible to all external compulsion. The more 
inward the love a man bears, so much the more 
healthful is he in himself ; his beautiful love testifies 
of a beautiful soul ; it is the evidence of a tender 
receptiveness for all that is good and beautiful. By 
love man authenticates his divine origin. Whoever 
inwardly loves science and art and whose heart is 
pure and virtuous, is a priest of beautiful love. 
When in the vision of what is perfect and beautiful 
love is mysteriously and irresistibly kindled in man, 
he has an experience of something divine. Love is 
a divine, a blessed, state. But it would be to destroy 
love, were pleasure to be made its object; then 
would even the pleasure itself fade, for pleasure 
only blossoms forth when it spontaneously accom- 
panies the healthful play of the innermost life. 

The purest, most original, and most blessed love 
that lives in every pure heart, is love to God, accom- 
panied as it is with the impulse to know God, to 
feel Him, and to be inwardly one with Him. In 
this highest love, man becomes sacred to himself. 
He seeks divine wisdom in order that he may 
behold the Idea of God always more purely and 
more clearly ; he strives after divine art in order to 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. . 121 

imitate the life of God in what is living and beauti- 
ful ; and he searches in the wide domain of experi- 
ence for all that is living and beautiful in order to 
honour it as manifesting and speaking of the love 
of God. He becomes reconciled even to the limits 
of his individuality, and he seeks to fulfil their 
conditions as the sphere of his likeness to God and 
in a way pleasing to God, in order to make him- 
self worthy of God's love. He does not expect to 
become good and lovable by supernatural influences 
working without his co-operation ; rather does he 
examine and take the measure of his powers, and 
rouse them up to perform all the good and beautiful 
that is attainable by him. The man who loves God 
has God before his eyes and in his heart ; he sees 
and feels God everywhere. All that happens to 
him and all that the creation unfolds before him, 
whether conceivable or inconceivable, and whether 
it be fortunate or unfortunate, is regarded by him 
as a dialogue of God with the world and with him- 
self. History becomes a continual revelation to his 
mind of the divine righteousness and love. He 
consecrates his spirit and soul to God ; and virtue 
becomes sacred to him as the art of acting in the 
spirit of the divine love. He loves God above all 
things ; and he loves all beings, because God loves 
them, and because they are organs of God. He 
loves all other beings as himself, and himself only 
as a child of God, or as one of the members of 
the great family of all beings. Love to God makes 
him love the divine image in himself, and seek to 



122 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

develop it on all sides; and he strives to be as 
perfect within the limits of his finite nature even 
as the eternal Father of all beings is perfect in His 
infinity. He transports himself lovingly into all 
beings, does to all of them, and not to men only, 
all that he would experience from them ; and this 
not merely from a regard to justice, but from a pure 
impulse of goodness and love. 

When man feels himself inwardly moved by the 
riches and beauty of the creation, by the fates of 
humanity, and by the sufferings and joys of his 
own life, and when God meets him, as it were, 
visibly on the paths of life, and speaks audibly in 
him, then does love to God, combined with trust 
and hope, fill his whole heart and soul ; his spirit is 
raised to higher contemplation; his whole being 
responds to God in prayer ; and he feels the blessed- 
ness of living and being wholly in God. Then does 
new youthful vigour of life stream through him; 
his heart becomes pure and capable of all beautiful 
and great feelings ; and love strengthens its dominion 
over his whole nature. To speak of what corre- 
sponds in God to this religiousness of man, of tlie 
supersensible relationship which the God-loving 
man enters into with God, and how God in His 
love and pity manifests Himself to him, goes beyond 
the purpose of the present work ; and I feel that it 
also surpasses my power. May every holy soul in 
its own way have a foretaste of this blessedness ! 

Love to God and the God-like disposition that 
flows from it, with the inner blessed relationship of 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 123 

man to God, as of the child to the father, which is 
developed in that love, constitutes religiousness and 
forms the religion of man. Man is naturally re- 
ligious ; he is of all beings in the world the most 
vintimately related to God. Rays of the divine life 
streaming from all the world converge in man, so 
that his mind is the tenderest and strongest, his soul 
the richest and most sensitive, and his virtue the 
most beautiful and many-sided. Love is the soul of 
religion ; love is its first commandment. If love to 
God has become chilled in man, his knowledge 
likewise readily becomes dead and cold; his art, 
too, becomes empty and vain, and his life selfish 
and barren. It is only love that can lead him 
back to God; it is by love that God draws the 
fallen man up again to Himself. God makes the 
life and beauty in nature, and reason, and humanity, 
pass before the eyes of every man ; and, as friendly 
genii, they beckon him back to his heavenly home. 
Every man who really loves is on the way to God ; 
for in the one who is loved he unconsciously loves 
God's work and life. And as soon as love to God 
rises again upon him, he feels himself warmed and 
brightened, like the earth in the rays of the morning 
sun. 

The love of man not only directs itself supremely 
to God, but as freely and immediately to Reason 
and Nature, and to all the several beings which 
they contain. As soon as the Ideas of these two 
hemispheres of the world enlighten him, his inner 
love tends to them, even before he comes into 



124 THE IDEAL OF HUMAXITT. 

community with them or is distinctly conscious of 
them. But this inner prevenient love of man is 
not able to put him into fellowship and reciprocity 
of life with Season in so far as it is above him, nor 
with Nature in so far as it lives without and above 
his body. This fellowship and community, like 
every other relationship of the kind in the world, 
is a free work of the prevenient love of God. 
Through the conjoint life of the spirit and the 
body — which is essential to man, and which is 
founded by God and ennobled by love — man enters 
into rich fellowship with the organic species and 
with all the organic kingdoms, and into community 
with the whole earth, and even through the light 
into spiritual contact with the solar system and 
with still higher wholes of the sidereal heavens. 
As a spirit it is vouchsafed to him to look up into 
the pure Reason, and he can faintly discern a higher 
realm of spirits and a higher humanity ; but so far 
as our experience hitherto has reached, it is for- 
bidden him by divine fate to come into direct 
communication and reciprocity with them. More- 
over, the individuality of the spirits that live along 
with him as men, like their love, can only be known 
and felt by him through the body, in a world of 
images and through language. We owe it to Nature 
alone that we can develop ourselves spiritually in 
the spiritual society of living and departed men, 
and that we can unfold ourselves humanly in and 
to a humanity. So far, however, as the light of 
Ideas shines clearly on man, and so far as his 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 125 

experience in the realm of Reason and Nature 
extends, thus far likewise does the ruling and 
creating power of his inward love extend. 

Next to his love to God the inmost love of man 
is his love to man. For the harmoniously de- 
veloped man is the most lovable being of the 
creation, and he is likewise the most intelligible 
and perceptible image of God for man. The inward 
love of humanity is the creator of all inner human 
sociality; it is by this love alone that the inner 
all-sided unity of the life of humanity in body 
and spirit is formed and maintained ; and the 
feeling of human love is the most self-evident proof 
that men do actually constitute of themselves one 
being and one humanity. It is besides the surest 
guarantee that men shall develop themselves as 
humanity, and that after complete growth of the 
whole race they will constitute one individual upon 
earth rich in life and full of love. Love to the 
whole of humanity and to every man merely as a 
fellow-member of that humanity, is the highest and 
purest human love in every man's breast ; and in it 
all individual love to individual men is contained 
and transfigured. But it cannot burst into flame 
in the individual man, until he rises through, 
experience to perception of the. whole humanity 
on earth and of what is purely human in every 
man. 

All human love to higher social wholes of men 
proceeds, according to the order of its development, 
primarily from love to individual men, whose indi- 



126 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

vidualities are lovable, whose hearts are benevolent, 
and whose love is prevenient. Tliis individual 
human love which loves in the loved one not only 
what is purely human, but the most special 
characteristics of his whole being and life, is as 
essential and indispensable to man as human inter- 
course and sociality in general. This individual 
love is the ruling impulse which impels the indi- 
vidual to establish a true unity of life with the oppo- 
site beautiful individuality of the loved one in the 
sphere of his love, and to form with that individual 
one higher person, one heart and one soul, one man, 
and no longer two separated men. This personal 
love of man is also naturally prevenient ; it bestirs 
itself generally for the good of every man ; it would 
have every man good and perfect, of developed 
character, and beautiful in his own way, and desires 
that he may become worthy and participative of the 
happiness of personal love. Moreover, it endeavours 
to discover in every man what is specially worthy 
of being loved in him, and it takes him always on 
his beautiful side. But if intimate personal love is 
to unite men permanently together, they must in 
peaceful fellowship have found each other to be 
lovable, and they must have known each other to 
be good and beautiful and created for each other. 
The more intimate and the more beautiful a man's 
nature is, so much the more intimate and beautiful 
also is his love, so much the more livingly is he 
moved when he comes to know the loved one, and 
so much the richer in love and beauty is the 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 127 

sociality of his love. Nay more, only one who is 
full of life and beautiful and good in himself, is 
capable of a love for higher developed men, such as 
that of the child to its parents. In the higher loved 
one' he at the same time beholds and loves his own 
ideal, and the higher he sees him in the pure ether 
above himself, so much the more ardently will he 
put forth his pinions to soar up to him and become 
healed in his love. 

The man who is full of love embraces the whole 
of humanity ; he would fain forget himself in this 
beautiful love in order to win himself again trans- 
figured in it and blessed. His heart becomes cold 
to no man, however insignificant he may appear, or 
however marred by the unequal struggle with the 
powers of the earth and sky. Such a one still 
always recognises in the unfortunate a member of 
the whole loved humanity and an associate of its 
glorious nature ; for the human in man can never 
entirely fade away. Thus does love become inward 
pity and compassion; it keeps down the rising 
surge of wrath and revenge; and thus does love 
prove itself in active goodness and in immovable 
benevolence. Even the pleasure of a just conflict 
is mingled with mitigating goodness and softening 
compassion which shrink from doing harm to the 
enemy. True human love includes also the love of 
enemies, that love which transmutes an enemy into 
a friend and strife into sociableness. 

One who loves feels that he can only be a 
complete being, suflBcient for his own and a higher 



128 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

idea, in a life of reciprocity with the loved one ; and 
therefore love is affected with the feeling of its own 
need. Hence there springs up a strife between the 
pleasurableness of personal independence and the 
impulse to self-surrender for the sake of love, and 
this conflict is marked by the genuinely human 
feeling of shame. And so the first recognition of 
the loved object is combined with an inward 
thrilling of the whole nature and with holy awe 
and wonderment. The more excellent is the one 
who loves, so much the purer and more gracious is 
his bashfulness ; the higher the want and the more 
intimate the union striven after with the beloved 
one, so much the stronger is the feeling of modest 
shame. Modesty is the proof of inner excellence 
and lovableness, and gives the promise of a heaven 
of love. It is only love that can resolve this 
shamefulness in a chaste union. For in the recip- 
rocal life the individual independence is in part 
given up; but man can only do this to himself 
without shame if in the reciprocal life he wins 
a higher independence and personality, which can 
become his only by love. Bashfulness, like a 
guardian angel, accompanies love as long as it lives, 
that it may keep itself pure and chaste, that it may 
celebrate its reciprocal life in harmony with God 
and the universe, and that it may ward oflf every 
external loveless impulse of pleasure and selfishness. 
He who cannot find himself worthy of love in the 
contemplation of the Idea of Man and Humanity, 
he in whom shame before himself is quenched and 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 129 

the inner sense of chastity has died down, will 
never rise to true love in any social relationship, 
and will only live in despite of God, God*s works, 
and himself. Holy pure love, the love which 
establishes sociality pleasing to God according to 
the divine order of things, is the most elevating 
spectacle that can be presented to the heart of man ; 
but most revolting is it when sociality is desired 
from self-interest, or for the sake of pleasure, or 
when man is used merely as a means and when 
love is belied. Indulgence in pleasure and false- 
hood are the deepest stains on humanity and disgrace 
it, while erring and unhappy love in involuntary 
transgression deserves the deepest compassion. 

Man and humanity, then, are capable of love to 
God and to all beings in God. It is one love which 
impels them to all that is living and all that is good 
and beautiful; it is one intimate relationship of 
being that animates them. The inner goodness and 
beauty of man is reflected in his love. If he has 
reached in himself a beautiful and proportionate 
perfection on all sides, his love has also become all- 
embracing, beautiful, and harmonious. But in every 
man a part of the whole rational nature predomin- 
ates, in accordance with which the other elements 
of his being are proportionately developed, and as 
every man has a peculiar way of thinking, feeling, 
and acting which determines his own character ; and 
so likewise, in conformity with his special constitu- 
tion, a part of the one love which animates him is 
found predominating, while all his other partial love 

I 



130 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

follows it in relative intimacy and vitality; and 
his love has in all its manifestations a character 
peculiar to him alone, which is never again found 
repeated in another in the whole universe through 
all eternity. Now, where love in a man has come 
to perfection it is the one love of God unfolded into 
a rich beautiful organism embodying the elements 
of all human love. Yet even where love to God 
slumbers in still undeveloped germ in humanity, 
even there inward love to men, to Nature, and to 
their beautiful works may warm the human breast ; 
for all things are lovable in themselves as free like- 
nesses and organs of God. Among peoples who 
have not yet advanced to the pure religiousness of 
the life in God, a certain inward, genuine, human 
and blessed love to nature and humanity in all its 
branches may blossom richly and bear beautiful 
fruits. Whoever has any degree of pure love is 
capable of soaring up to the love of God; but who- 
ever is not moved by human beauty, nor by the 
beauty of nature, nor loves his brother, does not 
love God. But he who loves God, loveth also his 
brethren and all that is good and beautiful. In- 
dividual beings do not vanish from the religious man 
in God ; nor does his love to them disappear in his 
love to God; rather is his love to every lovable 
being born anew and purified in the divine love, and 
receives its just measure from it. In general no 
love of itself weakens another love so far as the 
receptiveness of the loving one reaches ; nor does 
love to a higher whole weaken the love to an organic 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 131 

part of it. So, in particular, love to humanity ought 
to live in all its subordinate wholes and in every 
man ; and love to every individual man ought in 
like manner to animate humanity itself as well as 
every higher person included in it. Personal love, 
family love, friendly love, national love, and pure 
human love, coexist in the same breast ; they temper 
and heighten each other wherever they are genuine 
and holy. 

As God's love founds the community and sociality 
of all beings, so should man likewise be in his own 
circle, a creator and priest of love. To produce 
lovableness around him, to unite those who love, to 
train men to love, to guide their love, and to protect 
it from inward and outward corruption : this is the 
most beautiful office of human love. 

We have thus recognised the three living Forms 
of all genuinely human life in the individual man, 
as well as at their highest in the whole of humanity : 
they are Morality, Justice, and Love. Morality 
completes the man as such in himself according to 
the law of his proper nature ; it forms the whole 
man as an independent being by himself, and in all 
his relationships to God and to the world. Justice 
impels him to establish, and to help to establish, all 
that belongs to the inner health of every being and 
to the harmony of all things, without regard to self, 
and in all his relations of community and sociality. 
And Love quickens man to found a disinterested, 
free, reciprocal life in beautiful and intimate sociality 



132 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

with all the beings that come in contact with his 
circle of life, and to make himself complete as an 
organ of God, of Reason, of Nature, and of Humanity. 
Justice and Love widen man's range of view through 
all beings and up to God ; they make his inner life 
complete, inward, beautiful. Virtue and Justice 
make a being lovable ; Virtue and Love make him 
just ; Justice and Love heighten virtue ; and all 
three are entirely, inseparably, and organically com- 
bined in every man who succeeds in expressing his 
ideal. In some characters. Morality predominates ; 
in others. Justice ; in others. Love ; and others again 
rejoice in a beautiful equipoise of them all. The 
range, the intimateness, and the reciprocal harmony 
of their moral striving, of their justice, and of their 
love, are the conditions which mainly determine the 
infinite variety in the characteristics of men. 

Eight does not conflict with Love ; it is in eternal 
harmony with it. For Eight prepares the way for 
Love, and is inseparable from it ; nay. Justice rules 
even where Love is extinct. Conflict with an 
opponent may even be combined with Love to him. 
For whenever an antagonist comes to perceive that 
his very enemy is estimable and worthy of love, he 
feels the first stirring of young love towards him, 
and shows himself disposed to settle the strife, and 
then he continues to carry it on only until he has 
infused love into the heart of his opponent too. 
Thus does love, combined with sympathy and com- 
passion, evolve peace out of conflict, and make fruit- 
ful sociality take the place of destruction. 



LOVE AND RECIPROCITY OF LIFE. 133 

Virtue, Justice, and Love can only make man- 
kind as perfect in their harmony as it has been 
destined to be in the Kingdom of God. They are 
the heavenly guardians of all that is good and beauti- 
ful in man, and they become themselves again the 
object of his inmost love and striving ; for he can 
rise with consciousness to them, and freely animate 
and develop them in himself. They complete the 
man in himself, making him lovable, and powerfully 
urging him to sociality on all sides ; and it is their 
spirit which sheds humaneness, beauty, dignity, and 
grace over the social life. We are thus led out of 
the temple of Virtue, Justice, and Love into the 
marvellous structure of the Organism of Human 
Society. 



11. 
THE FEDERATION OP HUMANITY. 



135 



THE FEDERATION OF HUMANITY. 



Man as the complete image of God is capable of 
an infinite number of individual perfections. He 
has to make his nature perfect in the sphere of 
Virtue, in a moral, free, and beautiful way. He has 
to embody Eeligion in his life, in, with, and through 
God; and he has to realise through Justice the 
living harmony of beings in his own sphere, and to 
resemble God in the beauty of a finite being. In 
Science, he has to attain knowledge of God and of 
the world ; in Art, he has to animate all individual 
things, so that they may become symbols of the 
whole of things; and in clear consciousness, he 
has to carry on his own self-culture. The striving 
after each of these several parts of man's destination 
is essential and laudable; but there is a higher 
striving than any of these, and one that has to be 
sought as supremely necessary. This is the efifort 
to make oneself complete as a whole man, as one 
organic, harmonious, entire being; to develop all 
these several essential perfections in, with, and 
through each other in the whole, and to do this 
harmoniously, symmetrically, proportionally, and in 



187 



133 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

proper order; and thus to live united with God, 
lieason, and Nature, and whole and complete in 
oneself. It is only in the knowledge of ourselves 
as a whole being living an organic life, and only in 
the pure sentiment of a harmonious humanity, that 
we can attain to this end ; and it is only in the con- 
stant endeavour to fashion human life according to 
this idea that every individual part of the destination 
of man can reach its pure and complete perfection. 

Men, as individuals, may and ought to attain to 
higher perfection by being united to each other 
through inner love, in friendship and in family 
relationships ; and it is thus that they realise through 
those who are the objects of their love what may 
be denied to themselves when standing alone. 
Those who are united by love really form at the 
same time one life ; they constitute a higher man, 
who exhibits the ideal of man in wider compass 
and with the greater richness of their several per- 
sonal excellences. The harmonious and equable 
perfection of the whole man is likewise the highest 
aim of the family and of friendship. Every indi- 
vidual member connected with them ought to exist 
and live socially in himself, and all men should exist 
and live as one higher, complete, harmonious man. 

In like manner, all higher unions of men, all 
tribes, peoples, and races, ought and are able to 
constitute one higher man. They can only flourish 
when, obtaining a clear perception of the ideal of 
man and of humanity, they recognise themselves 
as one whole harmonious being, and thus appreciate. 



THE FEDERATION OF HUMANITY. 139 

love, and strive to realise all that is human in one 
whole. In short, their destination is only attained 
when, in accordance with the ideal of the one life 
of humanity, they dififerentiate themselves into the 
whole domain of human destination, and complete 
every individual man, every subordinate social 
union, and every particular human relation, inde- 
pendently and harmoniously in the whole. 

It is the will of God, and Nature and Eeason 
accord with it, that wherever in any planet Nature 
exhibits the highest organic body, Eeason, conjoined 
with Nature, shall there live in the individual 
spirits as one humanity ; and that thus essentially 
united they shall both live their highest life with 
God. As God is the primal whole, and everything 
like Him is in Him, and as Nature and Eeason as 
whole living beings are in God, so the Humanity in 
the universe is likewise one Godlike whole, and the 
Humanity of every part of the universe is a member 
likewise of this whole and essentially connected with 
it. It is only in this whole, and in knowing and 
loving it, that the individual, as well as families, 
friends, races, peoples, and all the humanities of the 
universe, can really and truly live. 

It is already evident that the several elements of 
man's destination can only succeed in realising their 
end in society ; and so much the more essential is 
it for all the men of any particular world to conse- 
crate their social zeal to the harmonious perfection 
of humanity as a whole, as well as to that of all 
its subordinate social unions and of every indi- 



140 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

vidual man embraced in the whole. To this com- 
bined association and union they are all called by 
God, and by Season and Nature, purely as men 
and in virtue of the universal human nature in 
them, prior to all their personal differences, and 
above all of them. In every inhabited world a 
universal Federation of Humanity is thus essential ; 
and it has to combine all men wholly and purely 
as men in one higher man, and in their whole 
being and life, according to the Ideal of the one 
Humanity in the universe; and this so that all 
men may live healthfully, vigorously, and beauti- 
fully as one whole, complete, organic being, equable 
and harmonious in all its parts, and livingly united 
with God, with Reason and Nature, and with 
higher wholes of Humanity. This federal Union 
of Humanity must embrace the whole of humanity, 
purely as humanity, as one person prior and superior 
to the inner organic division into individual persons, 
members, and powers. This union is essential for 
the riper epoch of Humanity ; it has to combine 
men and women, all ages, and all tribes and peoples 
in love and peace, so that they shall unitedly explore 
the Ideal of Humanity, and the ideals of all the 
individuals in it, and so that they shall express and 
enkindle, by social science and art, in an inde- 
pendent beautiful constitution, the pure enthusiasm 
for all that is human. It will be theirs continually 
to trace out the plan of the whole life of humanity, 
to fashion everything individual purely and har- 
moniously in the whole, and to shape this whole 



THE FEDERATION OF HUMANITY. 141 

itself into a form that will become always richer in 
worth and beauty. 

Moreover, this earth and its humanity are an 
essential part of the eternal kingdom and life of 
God. The humanity of the earth is becoming 
perfected in its own special way and being made 
worthy of God ; and the Confederation of Humanity, 
being essential wherever men are living in the 
universe, will be established, developed, and com- 
pleted on earth whenever the time comes. This 
time could not be till humanity had completed its 
Age of Childhood, and entered into the first period 
of its Age of Youth. For just as the individual 
man only reaches a clear and full self-consciousness 
of his whole being in his maturer age, so the peoples 
and humanity at large likewise rise to it only after 
thousands of years. We now see this higher self- 
consciousness awaking on the earth. In the pol- 
itical sphere of the State, in religious society, in 
science and art, and in the family life, as well as in 
all particular human things, most of the peoples of 
Europe are now striving more than ever after unity 
and totality, organic development, and harmonious 
interconnected life. The Idea of God as the one 
Supreme Being, and the vision of all things in Him, 
is becoming recognised in science; this view and 
love of things is being renewed with purer and 
more inward sense in the minds of religious men ; 
and Humanity itself is being always more and more 
contemplated in the primal idea of God, while all 
human activity is being shaped according to it. It 



142 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

is now becoming more universally perceived that 
neither State, nor Church, nor Art, nor Science, 
separated from each other and by itself alone, can 
make men complete upon earth, but that they can 
only make themselves and humanity complete and 
perfect in an equable and mutual harmony. We 
have been privileged to attain an all-embracing 
knowledge of this planet as our dwelling-place ; 
we already perceive in all the peoples of the earth 
a single family of men enclosed in itself and re- 
lated with the universe ; and we can gaze upon the 
whole domain of human life upon this earth and 
the whole work in time which it has here to fulfil. 
And we see that as humanity has tried all one- 
sided directions, and has exhausted all the con- 
fliction of opposite human things, there is now 
awakening in the peoples of Europe who are richest 
in life, the idea that a higher unity must unite all 
those individual things, and must bring them into 
harmony with eacli other, and bring about their 
equable perfection; and with this insight a new 
Age in the life of the humanity of the earth is 
beginning. And now it is time that the Confedera- 
tion of Humanity, which is essential to its idea, 
should arise upon the earth, and that all who are 
full of this spirit shall begin a new higher social 
life for mankind and humanity at large. 

Yet not suddenly, nor without preparation, can 
this highest union on earth be established. Its 
ideal may and ought to be purely and completely 
known, and exhibited on all sides by social activity, 



THE FEDERATION OF HUMANITY. 143 

before a pure inward love of it can awaken in men. 
At first a few individuals will begin to live in the 
spirit of pure philanthropy according to the ideal of 
the whole man, and for the whole humanity of this 
globe ; then some others of like mind will joyfully 
associate themselves with them, and found the Con- 
federation of Humanity in earnest friendship ; and 
from them the association will spread over families, 
races, and peoples. 

The first germs of the Confederation of Humanity 
are by a pre-established condition in harmony with 
everything human that is real ; for all its working 
is by love and wisdom and patience, and is per- 
fectly open. Those who live in the spirit of pure 
humanity do not require to hide themselves from 
the State or the Church, or any other human union ; 
for they do not violently and illegally intermeddle 
with the arrangements and the inner life of any 
human institution. It is only by their pure teaching 
and example in love and peace that they promote 
the ennobling of all human things ; and they expect 
the improvement of all human institutions only 
from the pure human spirit becoming of itself power- 
ful within these institutions, and from their becom- 
ing shaped by their own inner free powers into 
forms worthier of humanity. 

Everything human which was and is and will be 
upon earth, is sacred to those who, beholding the 
Ideal of Humanity, live in the consciousness of 
God, and carry forward the cause of mankind in 
social activity. It is their essential calling to main- 



144 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

tain in fresh life and keep in grateful remembrance 
whatever has been worthily and beautifully accom- 
plished on earth in the State and the Church, and 
iu Science and Art; and it is theirs to re-establish 
it in confornuty with the higher spirit of the time, 
and to animate it in a higher degree. They feel 
the obligation to trace out, thankfully recognise, and 
wisely develop all the anticipations and social germs 
of the Federation of Humanity in past times and in 
the present. Their striving to found and prepare a 
Universal Social Union for mankind and humanity 
at large, is in harmony with all the pure and 
genuinely human strivings of all their noble and 
great contemporaries ; and the higher spirit of the 
time shows itself working in all directions to further 
this striving. 

Wherever the Ideal of man and of humanity has 
appeared, and the impulse to introduce it into life 
has awakened, the light of truth has streamed from 
spirit to spirit, and its love from heart to heart ; its 
essential doctrine has spread from people to people ; 
and everywhere over the whole earth all those who 
have lived socially for humanity, have gathered 
together in love and peace. All that has been 
hitherto dividing men. becomes then reformed in the 
harmony of the whole, and transformed into a closer 
and more inward bond of love. And wherever the 
Confederation of Humanity thus strikes its roots 
among the peoples, their whole separate and social 
life will be elevated and beautified in all its parts. 
One State will yet embrace these peoples in perpetual 



THE FEDERATION OF HUMANITY. 145 

peace; and one covenant with God will fill them 
with the blessings of God. In social activity, they 
will devote their lives to virtue, beauty, science, and 
art ; and in all this activity they will rejoice in one 
blessed harmony. The peoples who, thus united 
into one human union, harmoniously realise all that 
is human in it, will become the healthiest and the 
most vigorous ; no power of earth will move them ; 
and life and love will stream forth from them over 
the whole earth. In the fulness of time all the 
nations will yet constitute a single brotherhood, and 
become one true manhood upon earth, harmonious 
in itself, and conscious of a reciprocal life with God, 
with Eeason and Nature, and with the higher wholes 
of humanity in the universe. A truly divine Age 
will then begin upon earth, and will continue to 
exist unchangeably in always new fulness of life and 
beauty, till the whole eternal being of humanity has 
thus entirely unfolded and exhibited itself on this 
earth in its proper dignity and beauty, and till its 
period of life on this globe shall have passed and it 
is received, when made perfect, into the higher totality 
of life. 

The time of fruit, nay even the time of blossom- 
ing, is yet far off, but the season of sowing has come. 
Let us deeply examine the Ideal of Humanity ; and 
so let us make its light ray forth into all souls, and 
consecrate its pure love in the pure heart of man. 
Thus will the sure hope of a beautiful future fill and 
satisfy us. What we behold in clear anticipation, 
the coming races will unfold in their full life ; what 

K 



146 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITT. 

we have sown they will cultivate to ripeness, and 
will thankfully bless our diligence and our love. 

Of all human things which have ever shaped 
themselves freely and decidedly, we find in the early 
ages the undeveloped, dependent germs ; and these 
in progress of life take form in, with, and through 
each other, and then combine into an organic whole. 
The primordial, essential, and eternal unity of all 
men continues to exist in all times ; but the social 
union of all individuals into a totality of life only 
takes form according to the law of development in 
time. When the confederation of all men upon 
earth has at length been concluded, the culmination 
and perfection of life will then be reached ; humanity 
will flourish in all its strength for its determined 
time ; and like the individual in the evening of 
active life, it will be harmoniously resolved into the 
higher living whole whence it came, and will live in 
it a higher life. 

It would be unreasonable to look for what is 
highest on earth being carried out in early times ; 
but in all ages we may at least expect worthy 
endeavours of individual men and societies, who 
have essentially directed themselves towards the 
Ideal of the whole life of humanity and the Federal 
Union of Humanity, and their existence is intelligible 
only in it. It is an essential postulate, higher than 
all actual history, and one which is certain for eter- 
nal reasons, that in all times there should be mani- 
fested an uninterrupted series of freely initiated and 
interconnected strivings among all the peoples of 



THE FEDERATION OF HUMANITY. 147 

the earth to form the life of humaDity as a whole 
with conscious power into One Federal Union of all 
men with each other. Nay more, this knowledge 
diffuses a harmonious light over the whole history 
of humanity, and the enigmas of its life only receive 
solution through conviction of this truth. 

When we survey the history of our race in this 
spirit, these slumbering germs and those silent 
preparations for the highest achievement on earth 
disclose themselves plainly to us. We see them in 
the mysteries of the primitive peoples, and of the 
Hindoos, the Chinese, the Egyptians, and the Greeks. 
We discern them in the teachings and the leagues 
of Pythagoras and of the Essenes, in the science and 
life of Socrates and Plato, and in the teaching, life, 
and covenant of Jesus, who founded what is highest 
in religion upon earth for all time. We also find 
them in the fraternities of certain Christian parties 
that were independent of the Church, and in the 
Societies of the Knights and Masons of the Middle 
Ages connected with them. In all these the devout 
explorer of history honours the beginnings of a har- 
monious development of humanity, and likewise the 
fruitful germs of a Union devoted to tlie totality of 
human life. 

From the time when a higher life in science and 
art and religion awoke in Europe, we see this series 
of historical associations constantly carried on, and 
those early germs reanimated anew. Out of the 
antiquated and dying institution of the Masonic 
Guilds of the Middle Ages, two devout scientific and 



148 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

philanthropic men, Anderson and Desaguliers^ awoke 
to a new consciousness ; and the new Brotherhood 
of the Freemasons, established in London in 1717, 
spread itself thence irresistibly over Europe and all the 
countries with which Europeans came into contact 
At an earlier date. Lord Bacon had already planned 
his " Solomon's House; " Valentin Andrea had taught 
his ideal of a universal human society ; and Amos 
Comenius, the friend of the young, had written his 
" General Guide for the Improvement of all Human 
Things, Dedicated to Humanity." A succession of 
noble and original scientists, artists, and religious 
men then arose in Europe, and carried forward the 
great cause of humanity in a quiet predetermined 
harmony. Among them were Lessing and Herder, 
in whom that universal sense for human things beat 
in pure and vigorous life ; and they devoted their 
whole efforts to advance a pure and harmonious 
humanity. In their writings they indicated the 
relation of this idea to the earlier association, such 
as that of the Freemasons, which in unconscious 
presentiments did yet clearly point to the Federation 
that is now making way. 

In these strivings of all the peoples and of so 
many divinely inspired men, what was most sub- 
stantial and deserving to be recognised, was their 
relation to the eternal Ideal of the Humanity of the 
Universe ; and their attitude towards the proper 
vocation of mankind must be justly and truly appre- 
ciated. It remains to ascertain what has still to be 
done for humanity and the federative union of man- 



THE FEDERATION OF HUMANITY. 149 

kind, and to investigate how our efforts are to be 
wisely and skilfully attached to those of the past 
ages, how the truth that has been ascertained is to 
be publicly proclaimed, and how life is to be lived 
in fidelity to it. This is our highest calling, our 
holy duty ; and it is only in this spirit that all the 
efforts and works of the new Age of Humanity will 
win basis, fulness, strength, and beauty. 



III. 
THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 



161 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 



Is the Humanity of our earth continually making 
progress in what is good and beautiful and attain- 
ing to always higher perfection ? Is it destined, 
like the individual man, to reach the maturity and 
fulness of its life, and then, after a calm and happy 
old age, will it, with the extinction of the organic 
life on earth, pass into a higher whole in the 
Kingdom of God ? Does the divining insight which 
rises up to supersensible knowledge of God, and 
of Reason and Nature, justify such a hope and 
confirm it ? — These are questions which deeply 
move the soul of every noble-minded man, and 
earnestly occupy his understanding. The complete 
answer to such questions can only come from uni- 
versal scientific inquiry. That answer has already 
begun to be heard coming from the sanctuary of 
science as the result of pure inquiry ; and when 
unveiled of its severe scientific form, it may, even 
along with the grounds of it, be now made intelli- 
gible to every one who has appropriated the higher 
universal culture of our age. 

Interest in these questions may, however, appear 

158 



154 THE IDEAL OF HUVANnT. 

to be weakened bv the notion that it is enough 
fur any man to know what he ought to do in the 
present world out of a pure regard to duty, and that 
for this end he does not need the deceptive mirror 
of the future. Moreover, the fear or hope with 
which a clear insight into the universal march of 
the future inevitably affects the heart, may even 
apf»ear dangerous to the purity and freedom of the 
original moral impulse. — Yet it must be admitted 
tliat the individual has sprung from human society 
and only lives in it, and he feels himself connected 
with it on all sides. From it he receives the 
treasures of life which have been dearly won by 
probably far more than two hundred generations of 
men on the eailh ; and hence he feels himself grate- 
fully bound and impelled by pure love to consecrate 
his life to the whole human society to which he 
primarily owes his training and culture, and to 
devote it not only to the present but also to the 
future. The path of life determining the fate of 
our terrestrial humanity, affects every good man who 
regards it as his own. To contemplate this object 
as far as possible with clear insight and in devout 
anticipation, is essential to every good man, so that 
he may rightly order and fashion his own life, 
which is so intimately connected with the whole of 
life, and to which he should be bound so gratefully 
for its moral influences; and hence he ought to 
order and shape his life in conformity with the 
living plan and the future destination of humanity as 
such. And well it is with every one to whom from 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 155 

right answering of the above questions there buds 
forth a strong, clear hope: a hope which, although it 
may never be the motive of his free moral acting, 
yet grounds and maintains that animating harmony 
of the heart and the spirit, and of the intellect, 
the imagination, and the will, without which neither 
goodness nor joy can ever flourish on earth or in 
heaven. Even now, in the narrower circles of families 
and friendships, and already, too, in the classes 
and professions that are more limited and more 
closely associated, there is growing and spreading a 
right view of the future destination of Humanity, 
and it is producing a higher gladness of heart, more 
love, and purer zeal for what is good. But this in- 
sight is above all essential to those who, as scientists 
or artists, or ofificials and heads of the State and the 
Church, are called to work in wider circles upon 
the present and the future. 

The important problem of the destination, develop- 
ment, and final fate of the earth and of humanity, 
must draw its solution from all the sources of know- 
ledge. No clear insight into the real life of the 
individual is possible without supersensible know- 
ledge of what is eternally essential and ideal. On 
the other hand, ideal cognition cannot be applied 
to what is real without deep and full experiential 
historical knowledge. It is only the harmonious 
combination of ideal and historical knowledge that 
enables us to discern in general the essential sub- 
stance of the past, the present, and the future, while 
the particular and individual matters of fact which 



156 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

the future will unfold out of the depths of eternity 
remain hidden from the eyes of our finite spirit. 
The grounds of the decision of the question with 
which we are here engaged, are therefore partly 
contained in the eternal being of God, so far as it is 
knowable by us, as well as in Beason and Kature ; 
and they are partly to be drawn from the empirical 
and historical knowledge of the actual life of Eeason 
and Humanity as formed in the light of Ideas. 

All that can be discerned in the supersensible 
uplook to God regarding this important subject, is 
intelligible only to the religious man and to the 
scientific inquirer who recognises God as the first 
principle and sole essence of life and science. All 
that exists and lives, exists and lives in God as the 
supreme eternal Being. All things were created by 
Him according to an eternal decree, and are 
animated and preserved by Him in the flow of 
time; and everything follows the eternal and 
temporal laws of the divine creation. The world 
as the living work of God must be conceived as 
worthy of God, its Creator and Preserver; and 
accordingly every being in the universe must express 
even in time the essential element which God has 
created in it, and it must attain its destination 
within the limits of its life. The eternal wisdom 
has determined the essence of things, and animates 
them ; and the eternal love and omnipresent power 
will perfectly realise the destination of all things in 
time. Man and Humanity will therefore likewise 



THE MOBAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 157 

bring what is eternally essential in their being to 
perfection even in time. The structure and the 
whole of the individual life of the universe must 
thus be thought of as ordered by God, so that 
everything shall work together for the perfection in 
time of man and of humanity. 

If we consider the human mind, we indeed find 
it finite in every respect, but its limits are capable 
of enlargement without end on all sides. The more 
man's knowledge takes form, so much the more 
clearly is he convinced of the infinity of what is 
knowable by him ; and the more he develops his 
powers of knowing, so much the more does his 
capacity for heightening them grow. In like manner, 
the more mature and the more many - sided his 
artistic dexterity becomes, so much the more rapid 
is its growth. Although the human mind is not 
able to know all things, and may even be incapable 
of genetically explaining the origin of a single blade 
of grass, yet it is able to attain a knowledge of God 
and of the world in what is eternally essential to 
them; and going deeper and deeper without end, 
yet with certainty, order, and proportion, it is able 
to advance in the domain of truth, and with the 
light of this truth to press forward for ever in the 
sphere of the good and the beautiful. 

As it is with the mind of man, so the body 
shows itself by its nature to be likewise capable 
of an endless ennoblement and development. Its 
senses open themselves gradually to the whole life 
of nature. The structure of the heavens is mirrored 



158 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

ill its eye no less than the organisation of the most 
delicate creature. Its ear is capable of endless 
trainiDg for receiving impressions of the beautiful in 
music and speech. The form of the whole body 
grows in every man in its own way when there is 
careful nurture of its dignity and beauty. The 
power of all its members is capable of receiving 
unlimited refinement on all sides, and it always 
acquires more and more varied artistic dexterity. 

The body and the mind in their intimate union 
do, it is true, mutually limit each other. The 
sufferings and joys of the one are sufferings and 
joys of the other also ; and the defects and corrup- 
tions of the one likewise restrain and check the 
other in its play of lifa And, conversely, they 
both glorify each other if they are both healthful 
and active according to the laws of Eeason and 
Nature. The mind receives the image of the whole 
life of nature from the senses of the body and gives 
it form in itself; it weaves the beautiful and 
graceful elements which that life contains into the 
free creations of its own phantasy, and thuc forms 
a scientific whole out of the empirical knowledge of 
nature which had otherwise been unattainable by 
it. If the body separates spirits and excludes them 
from purely spiritual intercourse, it unites them the 
more beautifully in its own way through the lan- 
guage of gestures, tones, and writing, and weaves 
around them the threads of intimate spiritual love. 
And thus the body does not appear merely as the 
shell of the spirit, nor merely as its organ and 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 159 

servant, but as a work of nature that is noble and 
beautiful in itself, and in which nature discloses her 
inmost self to the mind of man. Human life is 
therefore to be regarded as so many spirits dwelling 
in the holy Temple of Nature, and in this view any 
idea of an imprisonment confining the mind dis- 
appears. This view indeed regards the body and 
the mind as finite, each by itself and both together 
in their conjoined life, but as also capable of a 
higher endless development. And when thus 
thought of along with God's eternal wisdom, love, 
and omnipotence, there arises in us the supersensible 
certainty that humanity and every individual man 
included in it, will actually attain, even upon this 
earth, that stage of finite perfection in which its 
eternal nature will be purely, healthfully, and 
maturely exhibited ; and, moreover, that this holds 
not only of the earth, but of every dwelling-place 
in the heavens which nature has prepared as an 
independent and separated whole. 

All life is conformable to what is perceived by 
the pure intuition of the eternal Ideas ; and who- 
ever with clear insight recognises what has just 
been said, is certain, before all experience, and 
before all historical observation, of the fact that a 
more perfect and more mature state awaits our 
humanity. Even the most terrible experiences of 
the present cannot shake him in this belief. Never- 
theless, history has to be investigated on its own 
account, and its undeniable facts are to be impartially 
examined as to whether they agree in confirming 



160 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

the truth of those supei-sensible intuitions. It is 
only then that we can correctly determine what are 
the definite expectations for humanity which can 
be grounded upon its past and its present existenca 
Let us first direct our look to the earth as the 
self-enclosed dwelling-place of the human race. It 
is placed at a mean distance from the sun or near 
the middle of the lesser planets, and accompanied 
by a moon which is relatively the greatest among 
all the satellites of the superior planets that have 
been observed by us. The earth sweeps round the 
sun, the higher source of its light and life, in a 
regulated equalised number of daily rotations 
around its axis, and in such a deviation from the 
circular path and inclination of its axis as produce 
only a moderate contrast of seasons and of its 
northern and southern hemispheres. The division 
of water, dry land, and air is definitely fixed, and 
is expressed in a regular proportion upon its sur- 
face. The ratio of the extent of water to the extent 
of the land approaches that of three to one. The 
symmetrical build of the land above the water 
appears to have a perfect foundation. The heights 
of the mountains, their contiguity and distance, and 
their network of forms, have relations to the valleys, 
the plains, and the surface of the sea which are 
extremely favourable for the development of vege- 
table and animal life ; and they prepare and secure 
for the human race habitable regions upon this 
great whole, in the highest variety and in such 
connection as to further man's bodily and spiritual 



THE MOBAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 161 

destiuation. The most violent and, in certain ways 
the most destructive, processes of nature are for the 
most part stilled ; and the agencies which form the 
solid land out of the sea now work more quietly 
and slowly in the depths of the ocean and on the 
coasts. The vegetable and animal kingdoms on our 
planet enjoy an almost uniform development ; and 
the naturalists of the last century have shown that 
each of them forms one distinct kingdom of life 
consisting of a network of related series which is 
continuous and unbroken, and that they are closely 
related to each other. The human species, the 
highest work of the organic creation, that with 
which nature penetrates into the depths of the 
spiritual world, has spread itself over almost all the 
land of the earth. More than a thousand millions 
of men are now living together, and some hundred 
thousand millions may perhaps have already lived 
upon the earth since the formation of the present 
dry land. 

Yet we see the earth and its life still engaged in 
a process of continuous development. Its primary 
formation of solid land and its elevation above the 
surface of the water, are very complete, but the 
retreating of the sea from so many coasts and the 
continuous emergence of new islands by the building 
of coral reefs and the volcanic process, show that 
an increase of the dry land is still going on. The 
expectation that this will continue is strengthened 
by the shape of the coasts of America and the lands 
of the South Seas, which are evidently still unfinished. 

L 



162 THE IDEAL OF HUMA^'ITr. 

Moreover, although as far as our experience Las 
hitherto gone, new species of plants and animals no 
longer arise, yet the existing species are still far 
from being regularly and proportionately distributed 
in their proper zones ; and, even apart from what 
man's mind and hand may add, there are still many 
lands that are but in the beginning of their vege- 
table and animal life. 

The human race has probably proceeded from 
one pair which was formed in Asia, perhaps soon 
after the most elevated regions towered forth above 
the sea. Its members are now spread over all the 
larger divisions of the globe, and over most of the 
islands, but not in equal proportion. Probably five 
times as great a population as now exists might 
dwell upon the earth in a manner worthy of their 
destination. The terrestrial life is in full blossom, 
and the fecundity of the human race continues 
unimpaired. Numerous colonies of civilised peoples 
are populating the unoccupied lands, and the un- 
civilised aborigines are being always drawn more 
into a social life. Further, with the increase of 
civilisation, the population, as well as the natural 
means of preserving it, is everywhere increasing 
till there is now a prospect of all the separate lands 
being completely filled. All these facts are reasons 
generally justifying the hope that the multitude of 
men on the earth will constantly increase till the 
whole globe will at last be fully inhabited; and 
there are no reasons against this hope. We now know 
at least about a fifth part of the whole surface of the 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 163 

earth with some geographical exactness; and so 
much is clearly known that America and the islands 
of the South Sea, which are still but sparsely- 
inhabited, present the most beautiful dwelling-places 
for the more perfect humanity, and the number of 
men upon them is daily and constantly increasing. 

The living generation presents in the various 
peoples all stages from the lowest barbarism up to 
the comparatively highest European civilisation. It 
is remarkable that the younger peoples of the Old 
World first attained a more complete, regular, and 
harmonious culture. While faithful to the natural 
disposition of their own regions and of Asiatic 
descent, they not only combined Asiatic and African 
civilisation, but by their own energies they trans- 
formed and increased what they had inherited. On 
the other hand, the primitive nations of Asia and 
Africa that survive, appear in comparison with these 
their descendants, as children, or as worn-out old 
men. The civilised Europeans, with their offshoots 
in colonies and elsewhere, may be reckoned as 
forming about a fifth part of the whole of mankind 
now living. They have made the higher civilisation 
mostly their own, and they show more receptivity 
for it, so that under the immediate influence of a 
comparatively small number of men of original 
genius, both of earlier and later times, they still 
give promise of making uninterrupted progress in 
all that is human. 

The state of the European civilisation and culture 



164 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITr. 

can only be rightly estimated and appreciated by 
reference to the Idea of Humanity. As regards 
culture of the body, it has been highly developed 
among certain classes of some of the peoples, and 
the Europeans are distinguished as being the most 
powerful in body. They have also most fully de- 
veloped their senses, having almost alone the merit 
of having artificially equipped the eye so as to 
discern the least as well as the farthest objects. 
They alone have a purely developed sense for cor- 
poreal beauty, although it cannot be denied that 
among them care for beauty of the body still 
lags behind that for the development of the mind. 
Through the teaching of Jesus the true knowledge 
and love of God has become spirit and life among 
the noblest of the Europeans ; and it has developed 
in them a belief in the unity of one loving God, 
universal philanthropy, and the continually advanc- 
ing perfection of man, and raised it to be the ruling 
principle in society, and to be the regulator of the 
self-education of mankind. The European peoples 
alone have attained the idea of the unity of Science, 
and of its pure harmonious development in constant 
social progress. They alone have formed a sym- 
metrical and harmonious world of Art. Music as a 
fine art is almost peculiar to them alone. The 
Painting of all the non-European peoples hardly 
deserves to be put in comparison with that of 
Europe ; and the most beautiful poetical works of 
Europe surpass the Oriental Poetry in the essential 
excellences of harmonious beauty and form and the 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 165 

development of all the varieties of poetical art. 
Among no people of the earth is the medical Art of 
Healing so far advanced, or making such rapid 
progress, as in Europe and some of its colonies. 
The European peoples alone have grasped the idea 
of Education as an art, and have begun to give it 
happy application. Navigation over all the wide 
oceans is peculiar to the Europeans. The printing 
press first gave wings to European thought; and 
the art of engraving and lithography was first 
employed extensively by them to represent the 
whole earth and to exhibit the ideas of the inner 
mind. The Europeans only have made war an art 
which, although still prejudicial to themselves, is 
becoming an indomitable physical force for securing 
the preservation and spread of their civilisation. 
The European States are already almost all built 
upon the basis of right Serfdom and the supremacy 
of irresponsible will are disappearing ; and a Con- 
federation of States is taking form, which will soon 
embrace Europe and its colonies in one political 
organisation, and which will thereby indirectly give a 
new impetus to its civilisation. The beginnings of a 
harmonious life of humanity have thus begun to be 
more fully realised in Europe. We may therefore 
hope that a pure, free, and regulated sociality in 
science and art, as well as in religion and right, is 
about to spring into new life ; that the foundation is 
now laid for a universal social conception of the 
destination of humanity as a whole ; and that advance 
is being made towards the harmonious perfection of 



166 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

all its particular parts in the whola Unhappily, 
the iron law of war and natural violence still weighs 
upon the peoples of Europe, and a more advanced 
stage of maturity will have to be reached before 
clear insight and free goodwill alone prevail among 
them. This at least we see that Europe is ap- 
proaching the condition when, united into one State, 
it will happily outlive the miseries of all internal 
w*ar, and banish it for ever from its soil, which will 
thenceforth be consecrated to humanity. 

This superior excellence of European civilisation 
appears in a still more favourable light when we 
consider that its best elements are all either ex- 
clusively and wholly proper to modern times, or at 
least that they are so in their higher degree and 
wider dififusiou. Although Phoenician, Greek, and 
Komau civilisation was in a manner exterminated 
by the lawless force of immature peoples, yet 
even in this process these young peoples not only 
received the germs of the higher culture into 
themselves, but also revived and reproduced the 
civilisation of the older peoples. The former hap- 
pened at the time of the dissolution of the ancient 
world, and the latter when the new peoples learned 
their culture from their literature and other monu- 
ments, and made it in their own way more universal, 
as well as increased it by new substantial inventions. 
Hence if we look upon Europe as forming a whole, 
which it does, there has never been any retrogression 
on this continent; nay more, a constant, regular 
building-up of humanity is unmistakably to be found 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 167 

upon it Our confidence, however, is strengthened 
and enlarged by the thought that all the mem- 
bers of the European life are always tending to 
support each other with more multiplicity and force, 
and that they thus mutually furnish a guarantee for 
each other. The strength of the military power 
and the completeness of the naval communications 
already make us secure against the devastations of 
any barbarous invasion from Asia or Africa. All 
the approaches from the outlying countries are 
strongly protected and watched by land forces, or 
by the outshoots of European colonies. It is also 
now evident that the light of science will never 
again be quenched, as it is finally secured by the 
printing press and the ever-increasing extension of 
education. 

If we now turn our attention to the state of the 
earth and of humanity at large, keeping the ideas 
of them both together in view, the humanity of our 
earth must appear as still in its childhood, and as 
just entering upon the stage of its first youth, when 
full consciousness begins and the perception of its 
whole destination is showing itself. It lies beyond 
our present purpose to review the instructive 
parallel that holds between the human race as a 
whole and the human child as an individual. 
Everything concurs to show that a much longer 
life still lies in promise before the whole of 
humanity than what it has already passed through. 
In the case of all living beings we observe that the 



168 THE IDEAL OF HUMAJBOTT. 

more perfect they become, their period of growth is 
far briefer than the duration of their mature age, 
and that their maturity is followed by as long a 
period of decay, till the dissolution of their life is 
reached. Now the individual man goes on growing 
about the fourth part of his natural life, and since 
humanity as a whole, whether looked at in its 
mental and bodily development or as regards its 
dispersion over the earth, has not yet completed its 
growth, it is probable that its life on earth will last 
for a period six times as long as what it has now 
lived through. The age of the earth as a member 
in the solar system, is undoubtedly determined by 
the higher periodic states of this system itself ; and 
seeing that there is nothing contingent in nature as 
such, and since the mean greatness of the duration 
of the life of every species of animal and of the 
human body is determined by the higher cosmic 
periods, we may confidently infer that the duration 
of the life of the human race on the earth follows 
definite higher laws according to the higher periods 
of the life of the sun and its formative powers 
within the solar sphere. Now as Nature in the 
midst of her creative energy upon earth formed the 
human species as her highest work in which she 
has harmoniously combined all the life and all the 
beauty of the earlier formations, and then halting 
exhausted herself in original generation of a second 
animal series, it is extremely probable that by the 
gradual decreasing of their fertility, the human race 
and the whole of the remaining organic creation, 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 169 

will iu the inverse order of its origination be ex- 
tinguished long before such another transformation 
of the earth will take place as the observation of 
nature teaches us occurred thousand of years before 
the present period of the earth's life. As to the 
higher cosmic periods, we know the period which is 
determined by the Precession of the Equinoxes 
according to which the terrestrial axis revolving 
round the axis of the ecliptic determines a larger 
revolution of the earth around the sun and forms a 
longer terrestrial year lasting about 25,700 common 
years; and besides, we know something of the 
proper motion of the sun in its higher sun-system, 
although its path and duration are not yet exactly 
determined. These longer periods, and the life of 
the earth and its duration, certainly stand to each 
other in a certain relation that is regulated by 
natural law, although we are not yet able definitely 
to demonstrate it. 

These conditions lead us to. expect that the 
history of mankind will show us the development 
of humanity up to the first beginning of self-con- 
scious youth, accompanied with all the phenomena 
that mark the immature life of the child, and that 
it will exhibit a rapid process of growth and an 
advancing education through God and itself. It is 
only natural to expect that humanity will be found 
spreading itself out spherically from the place of its 
origin, according to the laws of Eeason and Nature ; 
that, in conformity with the local modifications 
and qualities of the earth, it will return over the 



170 THE IDEAL OF HUMAXIIT. 

surface of the earth from all sides into itself ; and 
that the higher development of the whole h'fe of 
humanity will follow man eveiy where according 
to these same laws, unfolding itself in constant 
|[;rowth and always more completely and more 
hanuoniously. And we actually find that Histoiy 
does authenticate aU this by unquestionable facts. 
But in order to see them we must not confine oar 
view merely to one particular people, one particular 
oountr}% or some one continent, and take it as the 
centre of the whole and judge the whole by it 
(which would be contrary to the nature of the 
ease) : we must raise our view to the whole of the 
earth and the whole of the life unfolding itself upon 
it, and judge of everything by the whole and accord- 
ing to the visible plan of the whole. 

The human race must have spread itself from 
Asia over Europe in several branches, and at 
flifferent times and by different ways, after Africa 
had been populated from the south of Asia in still 
earlier times. The peoples in South-Eastern Europe 
and in Western Asia were favoured by the mild- 
ness and beauty of nature and by the Mediterranean 
and the neighbourhood of their cradle-land, and they 
soon attained a harmonious culture, such as probably 
had never been seen before upon earth. The most 
perfect type of the humanity then realised reached 
its highest blossom in the Greeks. The peoples of 
the south of Europe lived almost wholly un- 
acquainted with those related branches of their 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 171 

race which had likewise sprung from Asia and 
were settled in the east and middle and higher 
regions of Europe, and they strictly contrasted them- 
selves as civilised with those peoples as uncivilised. 
It was only the spirit of commerce and the impulse 
to conquest that drove them out of this opposition 
to make any approaches to the other still more child- 
like and more uncivilised peoples. But Europe was 
not yet jBlled by the peoples of Asia, as it was 
destined to be; and new streams of men from 
Central Asia drove the peoples in the north-east of 
Europe before themselves, and forced them on into 
the fairer regions of the south. Then the Eoman 
and Greek civilisation fell ; for not only the southern 
countries, but all Europe, was destined to rejoice 
in the possession of a harmonious development. 
Besides, the ancient civilisation carried the germ of 
death in itself in its polytheism and slavery. At 
the same time, when the two streams of the original 
European peoples, thus pressed by these new arrivals, 
became mixed in a common current of mutual life, 
the true religion founded by the teaching of Jesus 
became also deeply rooted in them as the germ of a 
new and higher life in Europe. 

About the same time there also proceeded from 
Asia in an opposite direction the stream of life 
that was to people the islands of the Pacific and 
America ; but these offshoots when separated from 
the mother peoples could only slowly produce a 
new life in these young lands. During this time 
all the peoples of Europe being united by Chris- 



172 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

tianity and animated by its humane spirit, developed 
themselves gradually, according to their capability, 
to always higher stages of life. Under the pro- 
tection and guidance of the Church, science and art 
flourished ; and free agriculture, manufactures, trade, 
and commerce began to take form. These peoples 
thus raised themselves to all those distinguishing 
characteristics which make them hold the first place 
on the earth ; and the hope of a fairer future is 
mainly attached to them. 

Under Mohammed the ancient power of the 
Arabians and the Western Asiatics took a new 
departure, and the hierarchy which he founded has 
the merit of having spread the doctrine of one all- 
merciful God over a great part of Asia and Africa. 
The Arabian power helped to preserve the sciences 
for some centuries ; and it brought Asia, and especi- 
ally Palestine, directly or indirectly into" living 
relations with the growing union of the European 
peoples. This empire exercised an injurious in- 
fluence upon the fairest countries of Europe, even 
before its later degeneracy through the influence of 
the Turks ; and we now see the deliverance of Europe 
from this alien Asiatic hierarchy ripening under the 
eflforts of France and Eussia. 

In the Fifteenth Century new sources of life 
were opened up by the ocean-route round Africa, 
the discovery of America, the invention of the art 
of printing, the organisation of standing armies 
equipped with firearms, and the preparations for 
the Eeformation. By these means Humanity was 



THE MOKAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 173 

brought substantially nearer its goal of harmoniously 
filling the earth and regularly advancing the 
destination of all its members. Then began a free 
intercourse of thought, wafted as on a thousand 
wings from land to land. The whole earth opened 
to the Europeans, giving up all its treasures for 
the glorification of Europe ; and the civilisation of 
Europe was received everywhere in return. The 
population had hitherto pressed more from the 
central lands to the coasts, and had merely fol- 
lowed the lines of the coast and the inland seas. 
But now European vessels covered all parts of the 
ocean ; the earth was sailed round ; and men 
attained a view of the whole of their dwelling-place. 
Everywhere from Europe as a centre the higher 
civilised peoples now pressed from the ocean to 
new coasts and from the coasts into the land. 
Europeans returned again to all parts of Asia, their 
cradle-laud, urged thither by the desire of external 
things, yet destined, without thinking of it, to spread 
their higher life there, and thereby to awaken and 
strengthen anew both themselves and the aboriginal 
inhabitanta In America at the same time there 
met those two original main streams of the popula- 
tion which had flowed from Asia to Europe and 
America; and although this meeting of men of 
culture and modes of life so different in degree and 
even wholly opposite in kind, was a hard and 
terrible experience to the weaker branch ; yet we 
now see a purer and larger Union growing out 
this combination, and excellent European colonies 



174 THE IDEAL OF HUKANmr. 

already furnish a guarantee of the higher vitalisation 
of humanity in America. 

It is manifest that Europe, Asia, and Africa, as 
well as America, are destined to form a harmonious 
whole of peoples, and to live a higher social life 
with each other. And intermediate between the 
two there is already appearing and daily taking 
more definite form the mediating humanity of the 
Pacific Ocean, the peoples of Polynesia, who seem 
destined by nature to attain hereafter the fairest, 
fullest, and best proportioned harmony of human 
life in regions which are adorned like Paradise. 
Then at last will humanity be completed in its 
proper way when it has been thus fashioned as an 
organic whole. And if we only see this happy Age 
as yet far off iu the future and separated from us 
by thousands of years, yet in the facts of the past 
and the present already referred to, we may recog- 
nise the universal preparations and arrangements 
for it. Humanity appears to us to be still only in 
the stage of a growing and hopeful child, and when 
viewed in its present beauty and strength it gives 
promise of its excellence both in mind and body in 
its maturer age. 

It is the task of a History of Humanity to 
prosecute these general outlines in detail and to 
produce a picture of the historical movement. The 
pure Ideal of the History of Humanity (which is 
exhibited by the Philosophy of History) furnishes, 
when applied to the history of humanity, the 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 175 

doctrines of historical wisdom; and these when 
combined with the Ideal of human life, enable us 
to discern the future generally, and help us to 
define the plan of our whole practical activity in 
regard to all that is human. Here, however, we 
limit ourselves to pointing out only such of these 
historical doctrines as confirm us in the hope of a 
better future. 

History shows us men spreading over the whole 
earth from their origin, in accordance with the 
natural divisions of the globe, and growing in 
numbers and civilisation. The peoples who take 
separate form in the various rays of this dispersion 
gradually attain independent life as they unfold 
themselves out of the family life in always greater 
diversity and in fuller power ; and this they do in 
undesigned contact with their neighbouring peoples. 
Then they penetrate through each other in savage 
conflict till their mutual independence inspires 
them mutually with respect ; and thus the relations 
of international right are grounded till the discern- 
ment of their lovable qualities lays a foundation 
for a real free unity in their life. At the outset 
several families unite into tribes, and then the 
tribes into peoples, till a federation or alliance unites 
the peoples of a whole continent into one social life 
in an order regulated in accordance with right, 
virtue, religion, and beauty. Europe is the first 
continent which has ripened so far as to be able to 
establish such a harmonious union of life among all 
its peoples. Now, as the earth with its habitable 



176 THE IDEAL OF HUHAXITT. 

land 13 a whole enclosed in itself, and as nature has 
prepared and is still preparing everything for this 
end, and as the human element is the same in all 
men, the hope is well grounded that advancing 
under the same law, all the peoples of the earth 
will yet constitute one associated life and form one 
organic Humanity. And this hope is all the more 
to be entertained seeing that reflection and self- 
consciousness, as well as a pure human disposition 
and i»ure g«x)d will, are always becoming more 
powerful and more generous factors in this pro- 
^Tcssive movement. 

It is essentially necessary that individuals, 
families, tribes, and peoples shall fashion themselves 
at first in a free, peculiar, and independent way, and 
only thereafter unite together socially through the 
free exercise of their powers ; and when this con- 
dition is taken along with the law that the indi- 
vidual can only become complete in society, as 
I'amilies can only become complete within the tribe, 
tribes only within a people, and peoples only within 
free national unions even as individuals, we have 
before us the primary ground of all that is inhuman, 
bad, defective, and destructive presented in the 
history of humanity till now. It is God's will that 
He shall be glorified in free beings who, guided by 
His supreme wisdom and power, shall fashion their 
life from within with independent freedom, and 
whose existence shall involve a struggle with the 
limitation of the world, until they come forth out 
of this struggle transfigured and worthier of higher 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 177 

love of God. According to the law above indicated, 
men have to unite into always more comprehensive 
societies, and in them human nature wins higher 
freedom and power. And as so much that was 
inhuman has already disappeared from the life of 
the European peoples which is still to be found 
among the peoples of Asia, Africa, and the South 
Seas, so the higher birth of Europe in our time 
will in increasing relation remove what is con- 
trary to human nature and all that still degrades 
us, and in place of it will freely produce what is 
worthy of man. 

The corruption and barbarism of the individual 
may be mainly ascribed to the limitation and oppres- 
sion which he experiences in his family, in his class, 
in his people; and the same melancholy law is 
repeated in the case of families, tribes, and nations. 
When corruption has once begun from without the 
inner tendency of the individual to it gets associated 
with it, and the nature of the individual thus 
degraded falls only too easily in with the public 
corruption. Hence it is that so many individuals 
and so many families and peoples must perish with- 
out having unfolded their human nature in its purity. 
And when we recall the law of the gradual dis- 
tribution of civilisation through the interfusion of 
the peoples, this also enables us to understand the 
hard necessity that individuals, and families, and 
whole peoples, when they become checked in their 
self-culture and corrupted in the blossom of their life, 
begin to retrograde or suddenly disappear. Yet the 

M 



178 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

causes of such misfortune are continually decreasing ; 
the truly human is not exterminated by misfor- 
tune, but rather awakened and purified. For, the 
higher men are, so much the less do they yield to 
the mischance occasioned by the limitation of the 
world, and so much the more do they advance to the 
appropriation of the whole theatre of life and the 
attainment of dominion over its external limits. 
The individual is most easily subdued. The family 
is already exposed to less misfortune; a tribe, a 
people, and a confederation of peoples are exposed 
to still less ; and the whole of mankind to least of 
all. Hence as soon as a higher union is formed all 
subordinate unions naturally gain in freedom, per- 
sistency, and permanence. Already a higher sociality 
is beginning and is spreading with blessed influence 
over the whole circle of the earth. Violence, 
oppression, retrogression are disappearing ; and indi- 
vidual life is always being unfolded more freely, 
more purely, more gloriously within the higher 
animated and invigorated whole. Whole peoples in 
former times, like children before they had reached 
their youth and the strength of their years, have 
passed away in the bloom of life and beauty ; and 
we are often depressed by the spectacle of the decline 
and relapse into barbarism of whole peoples and 
countries. In like manner, we see the fair hopes of 
individual men and nations often choked in the germ, 
or as they were springing up into beauty. Thus in 
the face of all these facts History, in the light of 
Ideas, shows how certain particular causes w^hich 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 179 

were necessary to give life to the whole, and which 
were essential in the plan for the formation and 
development of the whole, brought corruption to the 
life of even higher individuals. Yet nothing worthy 
of man has ever really been lost to the after-world. 
The peoples that have perished left their ideal of 
human nature to those that were springing into life ; 
and so" they have lived again in the after- world trans- 
figured in their own special way. Wherever any- 
thing great and glorious has perished on earth, we 
can see it reviving in a new form, or we can observe 
institutions arising out of its regeneration. Cen- 
turies ago Italy renewed its manhood not less glori- 
ously amid the ruins of the Eoman Empire ; and 
now the newly acquired culture that has taken form 
in the whole of western and northern Europe is 
already beginning gratefully to return to the south. 
It is on clear insight that we rest the hope that the 
favoured shores of the Mediterranean will awaken 
to new harmonious life, of which the life of the 
Phoenicians, the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the 
Eomans was only a beautiful and prophetic antici- 
pation. 

The development of the life of humanity as 
regards the whole destination of man and its several 
parts, follows remarkable laws that are unmistakable 
in history. What is individual in human life pro- 
ceeds successively and in determinate order out of 
the whole, so that the complex follows the simple 
and the higher the lower. The first pair of human 
beings formed by their union the first family, the 



180 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

beginning of the fundamental society in which every 
individual gets his life. Families then united into 
tribes ; the tribes next into peoples ; and the peoples 
into national unions; and these, when they have 
tilled the whole earth, will be united into humanity 
as the highest person on earth. In the beginning, 
the childlike peoples lived in the simplicity and 
innocence of the suckling, so that no single activity 
of mind or of body could be found predominating. 
Bodily strength was next developed, and thereafter 
prudent understanding. Hence it was that men 
outstripped women ; and in the first associations of 
the family and in those that are higher, corporeal 
power held sway. The first ideas of God likewise 
bore this impress. It was only by degrees that the 
cultivation of the mind flourished ; but science and 
art were not yet distinguished from the whole of life, 
nor was there a separation of the social classes made. 
When science and art afterwards obtained independ- 
ent life, they both reacted upon the individual, upon 
the families, and upon all the social relationships. 
A higher power became real in the outgoing of the 
inherent energy of the true and beautiful. In the 
l)olitical constitutions, the perception of what is 
right in itself expelled the crude force of arbitrary 
sovereignty. Women now entered upon their rights 
and began to lead their own independent life. The 
true knowledge of God began to dawn upon those who 
honestly inquired after truth and whose hearts were 
consecrated to the good and beautiful The life of 
humanity was now divided into its individual per- 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 181 

sonalities, members, and powers, without being 
essentially sundered, and it gradually unfolded its 
rich organism. Individuals, families, tribes, peoples, 
practical unions for science and for art, at length 
gained independent life ; and the social activity in 
connection with right, religion, science, and art, took 
form in free modes of working according to its own 
law. In a new beginning of things, one particular 
sphere of the life of humanity may be still contained 
in another, so as even to be ruled and represented 
by that other. But not the less does every part of 
the whole of the life of humanity strive towards its 
own life and struggle into its own freedom when it 
has become mature enough for it. Thus in our own 
day we see among some peoples the State and the 
religious union still unseparated in the form of a 
hierarchy ; among others the State is guided and 
supervised by the Church ; while among others the 
Church rules the State. It is only among a few, 
and only in the most recent times, that the inde- 
pendent life of the State and of the Church side by 
side with each other has begun. It is a benefi- 
cent law that those persons and social institutions 
which have already attained a maturer life, repre- 
sent the place of those in whom it is still deficient, 
80 that from their position they support the weak 
and improve the faulty. In Europe the State, which 
of all its institutions has already won the purest and 
most independent life, now stands in this relation to 
the Church, to education, to the family life, to 
scientific inquiry, and to the cultivation of art. But 



182 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

every human striving which is founded upon an 
independent idea and upon an independent impulse, 
is destined to unfold itself freely ; it constantly pro- 
ceeds in an original and special way from humanity ; 
and it can only become complete and perfect within 
its own sphere in a free relation with all other 
strivings. 

It is not till humanity has freely formed its 
highest essential parts that its self-consciousness 
arises. It then begins to refer its life to its eternal 
ideal ; it traces in all human things an artistic plan ; 
and it lives in everything with a certain reflective 
conscious activity. Thus does it acquire the art of 
giving itself form in always higher degrees in all 
human things ; and in this universal art of self- 
formation it also acquires the special art of educa- 
tion included in it as the art of voluntarily uniting 
with itself in all its changing generations. Where- 
ever the idea of education and of a whole self- 
culture flashes into life, all human powers are 
multiplied, and they increase in rapidity of action 
and in harmonious co-operation. This idea has 
become clear to the new time, and has now become 
deeply rooted in the life of the European peoples ; 
and it is the surest guarantee of a fairer future. 

But even with this secondary action, and with 
the independent unfolding of all individual powers, 
persons, and works, the life of humanity is not yet 
concluded. For being produced in one whole and 
maintained in it, all that is human essentially strives 
as a constitutive part to return to unity with the 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 183 

whole ; and consequently it strives after reciprocal 
and proportional harmony with all that is in 
humanity. Humanity has to become conscious of 
itself as a whole which is above everything in- 
dividual which it forms in itself. As a whole being, 
it has to exercise an animating and governing influ- 
ence upon everything individual ; it has to deter- 
mine and maintain the proper sphere of every 
individual in it, including its activity, its relations 
with every other individual, and the harmony which 
forms them all into one organic human life. When 
Humanity has attained this consciousness in the 
individual man, in families, in friends, in races, and 
peoples, it then comes to know and for the first time 
animate all that is individual in the whole; and 
thenceforward progress in all parts of human destina- 
tion will be more harmonious, more uniform, more 
constant, and more rapid. And now at last the 
time has come when this high consciousness is 
kindling among men, and when a free sociality is 
about to bd founded, whose members will live in 
this universal harmonious spirit of the whole of 
humanity, and will give form to everything human 
as one organism. 

This insight reconciles us with what, in the 
present state of humanity, is contrary to its Ideal. 
It awakens courage and power to complete what is 
defective, to improve what is faulty, and to realise 
the higher harmony of all human things. For in the 
measure of success which Humanity has actually 



184 THK roEAL OF HUMANITY. 

attained, we clearly recognise the healthful capacity 
for its organic, harmonious, and ever - ascending 
development, and we already see the powers work- 
ing which will yet bring about its higher maturity. 
It is easy to perceive that what is individually 
human, regarded as individual, can only become 
complete in the whole. And we further see that 
harmonious interaction of all that is individual can 
only come in gradually with the constant growth of 
Humanity, and can only be eflfectiye in the degree 
in which the human race lives as one Humanity, 
and united, as it were, into one man. It is now 
becoming evident that this can be realised only 
in the degree in which Humanity becomes self- 
conscious and mature through the perception of its 
own life, and then proceeds to fashion, rule, and com- 
plete everything individual in it as a harmonious 
part of its whole organism in one connected life. 

From this standpoint, the past and future appear 
in their true light. We do not regard the former 
times as mere attempts that have failed, nor do 
we view them as having been merely destined to 
prepare for the following ages. We recogm'se the 
essential dignity of Humanity even from the appear- 
ance of the first human pair. In the first unfold- 
ing of its life, as well as in all its struggle with 
the limitation of the world and in its pressing 
forward to its harmonious culture and fulness of 
power, it appears to us great and lovable all 
through. For just as the individual man shows 
even in infancy his own proper beauty, and as in 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 185 

every stage of life when ripeoing to full maturity he 
rejoices in his si)ecial form of life, so does Humanity 
similarly present itself to us. Beautiful was the 
first childhood of the primitive peoples on the 
Paradisian plains of Asia, when, like a babe on 
the breast of its mother, they lived in essential 
unity with God, with Eeason, and with Nature ; but 
it was the beauty of the yet unfolded bud, and not 
the beauty which unfolds and fashions all the indi- 
vidual elements harmoniously in the whole, as seen 
in the beauty of the opened blossom. And in the 
course of time, when the independent free develop- 
ment of the various human capacities and powers 
began, and the individual peoples, now scattered 
widely, had to struggle for their life in less beauti- 
ful regions, then, too, in this its early childhood 
Humanity was not without beauty nor without the 
joyousness of life, although it was often darkened 
and made sorrowful when its inherited power had to 
succumb to overwhelming antagonistic force. Even 
yet no people on earth has come to the ripe fulness 
of youth, or to the maturity of manhood ; most of 
the peoples have passed away in the age of their 
childhood, and have left to us only the memory of 
their childlike beauty and vitality. In the future 
we expect only development going on according to 
law, and no sudden transformation, and still less 
any finished self-perfection; for the recognised 
infiniteness of the destination of man in body and 
spirit, in science and, art, in himself and in his 
reciprocal life with Nature, Eeason, and God, teaches 



186 THE IDEAL OF HQMANITY. 

US that Humanity, even though it should live 
millions of years upon this earth, might always 
grow in goodness, truth, and beauty, without ever 
reaching or experiencing any diminution of its 
power and activity. The finite duration of the life- 
period of the earth also makes the life of its 
humanity merely of finite duration, and determines 
the highest measure of life and beauty attainable by 
it upon the earth. For it holds true of Humanity 
as it does of the individual man, that with the 
maturity of his body there is also determined for 
him in his lifetime the possibility of attaining a 
certain degree of spiritual and total culture beyond 
which he is not allowed to go in the present life. 
Accordingly, if we grasp the idea of the constant 
progressive growth of Humanity in a deep and real 
way in accordance with the analogy of the indi- 
vidual man, the past will not appear to us accidental, 
unsubstantial, or contemptible; neither will we 
estimate the worth of the present too high or too 
low ; nor will we exaggerate the demand of the 
Ideal upon the living humanity, or expect more 
from the immediate future than the eternal laws 
of the organic growth of humanity justify us in 
hoping for. 

Whoever vividly realises all that has been thus 
indicated, cannot but feel a firm conviction quickened 
in him by the view of the life of Humanity as it 
rises always higher and higher; and individual objec- 
tions will not be able to overthrow this conviction, 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 187 

even if he is not able satisfactorily to answer them. 
The objections which are usually adduced against 
the progressive development of the human race, 
spring mostly from the very fact of an inner con- 
sciousness of the higher destination of man. They 
are commonly based upon recognition of the yet 
incomplete state of the peoples in the present day, 
upon the perishing of so much goodness and beauty on 
earth, and upon undeniable relapses of some nations 
into a worse condition. The first requisite for a 
proper appreciation and solution of these objections, 
is apprehension of the eternal Idea and compre- 
hension of the earth and all the life upon it, includ- 
ing living men, as one whole. Only thus will the 
whole be recognised as the highest object, and as 
the one criterion of all individual things, including 
their life and fates ; and then will the solution of 
all that is mysterious in the case of the individual 
be found in the whole. By means of those uni- 
versal and eternally essential truths (with the con- 
sideration of which we began), and of the general 
results which history teaches in the light of Ideas 
(of which the most important and most intelligible 
have been indicated), we may find out the grounds, 
as well as the limits, of all existing imperfection, of 
every individual exception to the law of progress 
and of all apparent lawlessness. It may thus be 
shown that the causes and forces which have been 
prejudicial and at times obstructive to the indi- 
vidual, are the very causes and forces which 
promise higher maturity and constant growth in the 



188 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

future ; and it may be further demonstrated that all 
the causes of corruption and of hindrance are now 
actually decreasing, and have been for a long time 
decreasing. Nay more, a purely rational Science 
of History (or an a priori Philosophy of History), 
even prior to and without any historical knowledge 
in detail, at once recognises the necessity not only 
of that tragic perishing of the prematurely appear- 
ing individual, but also of those apparent interrup- 
tions of the whole of the formation of the life of 
Humanity. And if the light of this science be 
combined with the clearness of a profound know- 
ledge of history, the enthusiastic inquirer may be 
able not only to foresee generally the future dis- 
turbances, malformations, and relapses of humanity, 
and what is to effect the healing of them, but to 
see that these must happen to particular peoples 
and to separate human things in order that the 
whole may always flourish more regularly, more 
healthfully, and more harmoniously. The possi- 
bility of such a mode of judging of humanity cannot 
be objected to on the ground that it necessarily 
requires such a knowledge of history in detail as is 
unattainable by man. For as in order to obtain a 
knowledge of a human face, it is merely necessary 
to have seen its features at a proper distance and to 
take in the whole outline of it, so likewise the 
results of the past are contained in their essentials in 
the features of the present ; and the comprehensive 
knowledge of the whole earth and all its inhabit- 
ants, and of its state of civilisation in general, which 



THE MORAL PROGRESS OF HUMANITY. 189 

we now possess, enables us distinctly enough to 
recognise the whole face of our humanity in all its 
essential and characteristic features. 

On the other hand, no one has shown scientifically 
any necessity why Humanity may not constantly 
advance in goodness, and be capable of a regular 
perfection on earth. No such necessity has ever 
been demonstrated either from the idea of God, or 
from the ideas of Nature and Humanity. Much 
rather does the opposite appear clear from history 
as soon as it is viewed as a whole. If any one 
believes that he can harmonise the terrible thought 
that matters can never become better on the earth 
as a whole with the thought of God by maintaining 
that God predestined the earth only for a place of 
probation, it is manifest that this view rests upon 
the presupposition of certain divine decrees which 
man is not entitled to assume unless they are 
authenticated by historical facts. But the objec- 
tions taken to the progress of humanity as advanc- 
ing towards perfection, are necessarily opposed, 
above all, by the whole strength of the moral feeling 
and the unconditional obligation always to will what 
is good and best, and to do away with everything 
that is immoral and inhuman. This is a feeling 
which, whenever it awakens, at once scares away 
of itself all those comfortless views of humanity and 
of its life upon eartL Humanity is free; it can 
and ought to form itself in freedom of will, and 
thereby make itself worthy of God's higher aid. 
Every moment the pure goodwill begins a new series 



190 THE IDEAL OF HUMANITY. 

of what is good, independent of all previous states ; 
and just as the individual, however sunken and 
corrupt, when the moral feeling again awakens 
within him, can at any moment enter anew into 
the kingdom of the good, so likewise any people and 
humanity itself can and will play the manly part 
when the time comes, however deeply they may 
have sunk, seeing that the voice of God inevitably 
awakens and conquers in the breast of every man. 
The stronger the falling away, so much the stronger 
is the obligation of clear-seeing devout men to let 
their fellowmen know their corrupt state, to set 
before their eyes the Ideal of Humanity, and to 
awaken their moral feeling and resolute conscious- 
ness, so that at any moment they may begin a new 
moral and noble human life, and may thenceforward 
freely and voluntarily create a beautiful future well- 
pleasing to God. 

It would be going beyond our present purpose to 
enumerate and refute in detail all the arguments 
which have been advanced against the perpetual 
progress of Humanity. The object we have had in 
view has only been to show directly, by the pre- 
sentation of the Idea and from the common facts 
of life and history, that the hope of the ameliora- 
tion of mankind and of better times rests upon 
solid and universally intelligible grounds. For the 
present our purpose has been attained if, by calling 
attention to what is eternally essential in Humanity, 
and to the general outlines of its history, the con- 



THE MOBAL PllOGEESS OF HUMAKITY. 191 

viction is strengthened that Humanity will continue 
to develop its life upon the earth in conformity 
with the W'ill of God and the constitution of nature, 
and in fidelity to its own essential being ; and this 
always more independently, more vigorously, arid 
more harmoniously. We are convinced that from";^ 
this time onwards Humanity will always advance ' 
towards a condition of greater perfection, with 
always more maturity, more circumspection and 
skilfulness in its self-education, and greater rapidity 
in its movement. And so in the fulness of its years 
Humanity will yet fill the whole earth with love 
and peace, with righteousness, virtue, and beauty, 
and at the end of its days enter into a higher order 
of the divine life. 



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