Skip to main content


See other formats

U N % 

\ - N 

.'. '/V \ ; .; \' 

>Vx v3" : :-'. n \^ 

>'. ,',* j, '>., -iJV 



Co lorado 

New Mexico 


Public Health Service Division of Indian Health 

Washington, D. C. Program Analysis and 

January 1960 Special Studies Branch 




The Division of Indian Health has had a constantly recurring need for 
general summary information on the various Indian reservation groups which 
come under Its jurisdiction. Moreover, other governmental as well as non- 
governmental agencies have had an Increasing need for similar information. 
Unfortunately, no one source has been able to provide, briefly and simply, 
the variety of facts required. 

A series of "Digests" is, therefore, being prepared to present basic 
information about each Indian reservation group in the various Division of 
Indian Health Area and Sub-Area jurisdictions. The summaries are not 
Intended as comprehensive studies rather as fact sheets for quick and ready 
reference. Since they are aimed primarily to highlight the particular Interests 
of health personnel, they may omit items of more direct concern to persons in 
other fields of Interest. For example, no attempt Is made to describe reserva- 
tion conservation or development projects, business enterprises, educational 
endeavors, or Federal, State and local public assistance and welfare programs. 

The Digests are prepared In the Division's Program Analysis and 
Special Studies Branch. Mr. John Costley and Mrs. Laura Rosen shared 
responsibility for searching the wide variety of information sources, selecting 
the pertinent facts to be used, and developing the general format and final 
presentation. Special mention Is made of the Invaluable assistance given 
by Area Office staff members in Albuquerque and Window Rock, who not 
only carefully reviewed and checked the material but also provided 
considerable additional Information. Special acknowledgement is also ' 
made of the assistance and helpful suggestions of the members of the other 
Branches of the Division of Indian Health. 

James R. Shaw, M.D., 
Assistant Surgeon General 
Chief, Division of Indian Health 


(Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, Utah) 






*Hopl Rotctvalion with PUS Hoipital it KoonisCanyoii, AtJiOin, mulct lliu Jnrlscllcilon of llio Pliociiln AIOB OJIk 


Introduction and Summary .. ..<>. <,. ..,.. ..<> . . . a <<> o o . vi 

Principal Tribal Group Jndlqn Reservation Group 

NAVAJO The Eight Health Service Units of the 

Arizona Navajo Reservation ....... a ..o..o.....<i 1 

New Mexico 

PUEBLO Albuquerque Health Service Unit: 

New Mexico Isleta Pueblo . . 000 ,.... *..<>. 9 

Jemez, Sandla, Santa Ana, and 

Zia Pueblos <, . . . . . 11 

Puertocito and Canoncito Reservations 
(Navajo) ... oa ...<, , <. .> . . . o 13 

Laguna Health Service Unit: 

Aco ma Pueblo . . . a e , . . . 15 

Laguna Pueb lo . . , . . . <,.... a . . . . 17 

Santa Fe Health Service Unit; 
Cochltl, Nambe, Pojoaque, San Felipe, 
San lldefonso, Santa Clara, Santo 
Domingo, and Tesuque Pueblos .<...* 19 

Taos Health Service Unit: 
Picuris, San Juan, and Taos Pueblos 00 . 21 

Zuni-Ramah Health Service Unit: 
ZunI Pueblo and Ramah (Navajo) 
Allotments . a . o a <>..>o. 00. *<>. <,<,*.,>.. 23 

UTE and APACHE Consolidated Ute Health Service Unit: 

Utah Southern Ute Reservation . . fl . . . . 25 

Colorado Ute Mountain Reservation . .*.. a 27 
New Mexico 

Jicarilla Health Service Unit: 
Jicarllla Reservation .. . <. . a . 29 

Mescalero Health Service Unit: 
Mescalero Reservation . , 00 o, * *><> , . 31 

Genera I References . . . . . . . . , , . _ , . . . . fl , , . . , . - . , 33 


Of an estimated total Indian population In the United States (Including 
Alaska) of 534,000 In 1957, about 382,500 are potential beneficiaries of the 
Indian health service program now administered by the Public Health Service 
In the Department of Health, Education, and Weffare. Of these 382,500 
Indian men, women, and children, about 345,000 reside In some 240 Federal 
Indian reservation areas, principally located in 24 States (except Alaska) 
west of the Mississippi Rfver In Alaska, health services are made available 
to about 37,500 Aleuts, Eskimos, and Indians. 

Responsibility for the provision of health services for Indians and Alaska 
Natives was transferred to the Public Health Service from the Bureau of 
Indian Affairs, Department of the Interior, on July 1, 1955. The Service 
administers this program through the Division of Indian Health In its Bureau of 
Medical Services,, At the present time, the Division operates 52 hospitals for 
Indians and Alaska Natives Treatment for ambulatory patients and preventive 
health services are provided at hospital outpatient clinics, at 23 field health 
centers, 19 school health centers, and at several hundred smaller health 
service points. Extensive use also Is made of local community resources for 
hospital and medical care and preventive health services,, Hospital care is 
provided at about 300 community facilities either through contract with the 
Public Health Service or on a reimbursable basis. Contractual arrangements 
for service for Indian beneficiaries are also in effect with several hundred 
physicians and dentists. In addition, contracts are in effect with 6 local 
and State welfare departments for medical care, and with 16 State or local 
health departments for public health services. 

Other services relating to the economic and social well-being of 
Indians continue to be administered by the Bureau of Indian Affairs, with 
which the Division of Indian Health maintains close working relationships. 
In both agencies, program operations qre conducted through a system of 
Area Offices,, (See map, opposite page ) Basically, the Indian Health 
Area structure conforms with that of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. 

The jurisdiction of each of the Public Health Service Indian Health 
Areas Includes large numbers of Indian people with wide variety in cultural 
patterns and economic circumstances* Altogether, there are today in the 
United States several hundred Indian tribes and bands, each with distinguishing 
characteristics Sometimes members of a tribe are few in number, clustered 
together at one location; more often they are scattered over a broad area 
which may include a number of reservations. Once a vigorous people, 
totalling about 800,000, the Indian population was sharply reduced by 
tuberculosis, smallpox, dysentery, and other diseases brought by the early 
white settlers. Today the Indian people are still faced with a burden of 
disease far in excess of that found In the general population . Most of their 
illnesses are from preventable diseases which have long been under control 
in other groups throughout the country. 



PHS Indian Health Area Office 
422i South Main Street 

Bemidji, Minnesota 

PHS Indian Health Bemidji Office 

124 Beltrami Avenue 

PHS Indian Health Area Office 
220i -3rd Street, N.W. 

Window Rock, Arizona 

PHS Indian Health Sub-Area Office 

P O Box 188 

Window Rock 

PHS Alaska Native Health 

Service Area Office 
P. O. Box 7-741 

Mt. Edgecumbe, Alaska 
PHS Alaska Native Health 
Service Sub-Area Office 


PHS Indian Health Area Office 

301 Post Office & Court House Bldg. 


PHS Indian Health Area Office 

4110 North 16th Street 


PHS Indian Health Area Office 

P. O. Box 1729(208 - 5th St. S.W.) 

Billings, Montana 

PHS Indian Health Sub-Area Office 

P. O. Box 2143 (709 Central Ave.) 

^Services to the Seminole Indians, Florida, formerly administered through PHS Indian Health Area 
wince, UKlahoma City, now administered ihrough the PHS Regional Office IV, Atlanta, Georgia. 


In developing its program for improving the health of the Indian people, 
and in recruiting workers for this program, the Public Health Service has had 
a need for basic facts on the reservation groups which, tor health purposes, 
are under its jurisdiction. This series of Digests of information from a wide 
variety of sources has been prepared in an effort to meet this need. 

The present publication is comprised of material on Indian reservations 
in those portions of four States which fall within the Albuquerque Area 
Office jurisdictionArizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. (Other 
Indian groups in parts of Utah and Arizona fall within the Phoenix Area.) 
The series will include a Digest on the reservations in each of the Public 
Health Service Indian health jurisdictions. 

Indians residing within the Albuquerque Indian Health Service Area are 
generally known as the Navajo, the Pueblo, the Ute, and the Apache. 
Current estimates of the Navajo population for whom health services are 
administered through the Sub-Area Office at Window Rock, Arizona, range 
from 70,000 to 84,000. Estimates place the number of health service 
beneficiaries among the Pueblo Indians (Including the Zuni) at about 20,000; 
the beneficiaries among the portion of the Ute Tribe located In this Area at 
1 ,200; the beneficiaries among the Jicarllla and Mescalero bands of Apache 
at 2,400. 

Of the Indian people of New Mexico, only the Pueblo are Indigenous 
to the land on which they now live. The Pueblo are descended from pre- 
historic cave dwelling tribes who, to maintain land claims and to withstand 
invasion, designed their communities as fortresses. About 1 ,000 - 1 ,200 A. D 
the Pueblo were confronted with bands of Indians believed to have migrated 
by slow stages from Alaska and Canada. A substantial number of the invaders 
settled among the Pueblo or "village" Indians, making inroads into the Pueblo 
holdings and adopting many of their customs. These newcomers, called 
"Apaches de Naba|u" (Strangers to the Cultivated Fields) by the Spaniards 
in later years, eventually discarded the given name "Apache" and became 
known as the Navajo. 

Another segment of the invaders, the Utes, also pushed south and east- 
ward, but met with considerable resistance,, A third segment continued to 
roam as far as Mexico, emerging at a future date as the Jicarllla Apache and 
the Mescalero Apache. The Utes and the Apache, highly mobile peoples, 
adopted many of the ways of the Plains Indians and other primitive tribes they 
encountered along the Rocky Mountain route. In the course of time, however, 
they too were established beside the Pueblo and the Navajo. 

The various Indian reservations or Pueblos described in this publication 
are grouped geographically according to Health Service units so delineated 
to provide a practical basts for health program operation In this Area. 
Major groupings follow tribal lines with the Navafo, largest numerically, 
subdivided Into eight units, the Pueblo Into five units (In which are included 
three small outlying Navajo sites), the Utes and Apache Into three 
Health Service units. 


The Navajo 

The Navajo Is one of the best-known and the largest of the Indian 
tribes,, They, with the Apaches, belong to the Athabascan language family 
whose homeland has been traced to Alaska and the Province of British 
Columbia. A southward movement of numerous small parties of the 
Athabascan started, it is believed, as much as 1,000 years ago. By the 
mid-1 400's, their travels had brought them to the American Southwest, 
where two major and distinct groups evolved the Navajo and the Apache 

Griglanlly hunters and gatherers, the Navajo adopted many of the 
ways of the Pueolo Indians among whom they eventually settled agri- 
culture, weaving, and pottery making. Later, following contact with the 
Spanish, they turned to dependence on livestock raising, as well as the 
raiding of other Indian ana white settlements. It was not until the late 
1860's that they finally were regimented by U. S. Government soldiers 
and settled wltnin defined reservation boundaries 

The Navajo Reservation today extends over 15 million acres in 
northern Arizona, New Mexico, and southern Utah. Over this vast 
territory, striking In its beauty but low In productivity, are scattered 
smgll family groups of some 70,000 - 84,000 Navajo. Despite an ability 
to adapt readily to social or economic change, the Navajo cling to many 
of their traditional ways. Their religion, directed mainly toward curing 
practices, remains the center of their culture; their homes, or hogans, are 
much the same as the one-room log or earth buildings used by their ancestors; 
the matrllineal clan system still exists, and Navajo is the language generally 

In spite of the size of the Navajo Reservation, It no longer can 
support its people. Today, the great majority of Navajos live in poverty. 
Never a land that could offer a rich living to many people, overgrazing 
had destroyed the already limited land cover, and severe soil erosion 
resultedo The land reached such a serious stage of deterioration that, In 
1935, the Department of the Interior Imposed a program of stock reduction 
and grazing control a program bitterly opposed by the Navajos who were 
convinced that their security and livelihood were threatened. 

World War II brought outside work opportunities and contacts hitherto 
foreign to Navajo experience. With an abrupt end of wage work at the 
close of the war, ana with the effects of the accumulated neglect of their 
meager land and stock resources, the Navajos found themselves In dire 
economic straits In the late 1940's. Following some stop-gap measures, 
Congress in 1950 authorized the appropriation of $88,570,000 for a 
10-year Navafo rehabilitation program. Long-range objectives were to 
improve soil and range conservation; develop agricultural, timber, and 
other resources; establish opportunities for employment on the reservation 
and encourage employment beyond its boundaries; build roads; raise 
educational standards; and expand field medical services and medical 
facilities. Although none of these objectives has as yet been fully 
accomplished, remarkable progress has been made. 


Control of soil erosion is being fostered; much-needed wells are 
being drilled and equipped; Irrigation farming has been Initiated; timber 
and other resources are being developed; uranium, vanadium, copper, and 
coal mines are being worked, and efforts to attract industry to the reserva- 
tion and its environs have increased. In 1948, it was reported that there 
were school facilities for only 7,500 Navajo pupils 6,500 In Federal 
and 1,000 in mission schools. Raising of educational standards was promoted 
by a 1950 Congressional authorization of an appropriation of $25 million 
for school construction. By fiscal year 1958, 27,000 Navajo 6-18 years 
of age were enrolled In school. That year the Bureau of Indian Affairs was 
operating 49 boarding schools (with enrollments ranging from 20 to 1 ,090) 
on the Navaio Reservation; 7 off -reservation boarding schools attended by 
Navajo children, including Intermountaln at Brlgham Clfy, Utah, with an 
enrollment of over 2,200 students; 8 regular day schools, 23 trailers, and 
one hogan school on Ihe reservation. 

Attainment of the rehabilitation program's objective to expand field 
medical services and medical facilities became the responsibility of the 
Public Health Service on July 1, 1955. Since that time, marked changes 
have taken place on the Navajo. Health staff has been expanded 
substantially, including increases In the number of physicians, nurses, 
sanitarians, dentists, health education workers, medical social workers, and 
other professional and technical personnel. Rehabilitation of existing health 
facilities has been pushed. Recently 3 new health centers and 5 new field 
health clinics have been put Into operation. A new 75-bed hospital is 
being completed at Shlprock, New Mexico, and ground has been broken 
for a new 200-bed hospital and medical center at Gallup. Increasing 
numbers of Navajos are receiving preventive and curative services In 
Public Health Service Indian hospitals, in field health clinics, and In their 
homes. Local community hospitals and private physicians and dentists are 
also serving Increasing numbers of Navajos through contracts with the 
Public Health Service. Progress Is being made in environmental sanitation 
on the reservation ~ a cooperative endeavor of the tribe and the Service. 

There already is ample evidence of an Improved health picture. 
Dramatic gains have been made in reducing new cases of tuberculosis and 
deaths from this cause; in the saving of Infant lives; in lowering death 
rates from illnesses which can be prevented by modern control measures. 
With wider understanding of the need for good health, the Navaio are 
seeking treatment In the early stages of illness when treatment can be most 
effective. Although much work still remains, a long stride has been taken 
toward the goal of bringing the health of the Navajo to a level which can 
compare favorably with that of the Nation. 

Throughout the development of the various phases of the rehabilitation 
program, the Navajo Tribe itself, through its Tribal Council and special 
committees, has played an increasingly important role. The Tribal Health 
Committee, for example has taken an active part in furthering measures 
for meeting Maya o health needs. Funds authorized by the Tribal Council 
are helping to dri I and equip wells, purchase prosthetic appl ances 

provide health education and occupational therapy materials, support a field 
health research project at Many Farms In cooperation with Cornell University 
and the Public Health Service, develop a new low-cost frame house (designed 
in conjunction with the Public Health Service environmental sanitation 
staff), provide scholarships for Nava[o youth, purchase clothing for Indigent 
school children, and support various puollc works projects, including new 
road construction. The Council is well aware of the social and economic 
needs of the Navajo people, and of the necessity for sound planning to meet 
these needs D The Tribe, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the Public Health 
Service are joined in their planning to meet the long-term, as well as the 
Immediate, needs of the Navajo people. 

.The Pueblo Group 

Some hundred years after the Navajo had reached the southwest, 16th 
century Spanish explorers encountered the peaceful village Indians of this 
region, referring to them as the "Indies de Jos Pueblos," (Village Indians). 
Of countless earlier communities, 19 pueblo-type reservations remain in or 
near the Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico. Some are spectacular as, for 
example, 1,000 year old Acoma with Its terraced homes of sandstone, earth 
and lumber high upon a mesa; Taos with Its multi-floored, apartment-like 
dwellings,, For the most part, their homes are substantial one-story adobe or 
stone buildings, usually with 3 to 6 rooms, located witrjln a clearfy delineated 
village plan. Only in recent years have the Pueblo spread beyona the limits 
of the village proper. 

Each group was accorded a grant of land by the King of Spain. This 
grant was recognized by the Mexican Government, was confirmed by the 
United States Government In 1858, and soon thereafter was patented by 
President Lincoln. According to tradition, the current holder of the office 
of Governor at each Pueblo receives three canes the gifts of the King of 
Spain, the Mexican Government, and of Abraham Lincoln. 

Integral to the community plan are the klvas ~ ceremonial chambers 
dedicated to religious ceremonies and to council meetings. Each Pueblo has 
at least two kivas (except at Laguna where the kiyas are no longer In use). 
At Acoma, there are 7 Kivas, rectangular In shape; at Taos, 7 circular 
subterranean kivas; at Cochiti/ 2 circular klvas. At San lldefonso, there Is 
the old klva of the South Plaza and the rectangular two-story kiva of the 
North Plaza. Usually the Spanish Mission Church is focatea outside of the 
pueblo proper although at Isleta the village has gradually surrounded the 
Church. A deeply religious and an agricultural people, the basic faith is 
that "man and nature must live In harmony together. " Despite Spanish 
introduction of Christianity, tribal activities continue to be associated with 
ancient sacred rites that have lasted through the centuries. 

In addition to the pattern of their villages, the Pueblo Indians are 
known for their craftsmanship. Originally basket weavers, they turned to 
pottery making of great artistic merit. Some baskets styled according to 
tradition can be found today at Jemez; drums made of nollowed-out 


cotronwood logs can be found at Cochltl; and pottery Is designed at various 
places typically of black design on pink, at Cochltl; of abstract design 
on a black background, at San lldefonso; plain polished pottery both black 
and red, at San Juan; decorated pottery at Taos. 

Various techniques passed on to the Pueblo by the Spanish have 
patterned the Pueblo way of life: the use of draft animals, sheep and 
cattle; the use of steel tools; the planting of wheat and of fruit trees The 
Pueblo are essentially a farm people whose principal crops are corn, chill, 
squash, and beans, but some have diversified with sheep and cattle raising. 
A matrilineal clan system generally Is followed whereby family descent Is 
traced through the mother. 

Many Pueblo men find off-reservation work at Albuquerque, at 
Santa Fe, at Espanola, Grants or Taos, or on the Santa Fe Railroad. There 
is mining at Laguna. Atomic energy developments have provided employment 
at Los Alamos since 1940; the discovery of uranium at Laguna has also 
brought job opportunities. Even those who leave the Pueblo to earn a living 
commute great distances or return whenever possible to preserve identity 
with the home and the community. 

The combined population of the 19 separate' Pueblos today Is about 
one-third that of the Navajo. Pueblo land holdings are small, and are 
generally readily accessible, compared with those of the Navajo; they 
scatter about Santa Fe and Albuquerque, and many are within commuting 
distance of Los Alamos. Most can now be reached by all-weather roads. 

For many years the Bureau of Indian Affairs maintained a day school 
at the principal Pueblo villages. At the present time, however, these 
schools are gradually being transferred into the New Mexico Public School 
System. In fiscal year 1958, at least 96 percent of Pueblo aged 6-18 
attended schoo . Of the enrolled children, 41 percent were at Bureau of 
Indian Affairs day schools, 15 percent at Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding 

ur.f I' per . ent a r public schools / d the remainder at mission schools. 
With the excep ion of some of the very old people whose second language 
Is Spanish, English is in general readily understood in all the Pueblos. 

Respiratory infections and gastroenterlc diseases have, for long, been 

hh trvtVfAl he p alt u, f Pu6b i ndI 5 nS * WIth im P roved a " d Bended 
health services to the Pueblos, marked reductions have been made in the 

inc.dence of these cond.tlons. New cases of tuberculosis, for example, 
are reported to be only about one-third the number found during 1955- the 
year of the Indian health program's transfer to the Public Healft Service 
The mfan mortality rate has been substantially lowered and progress s 
apparent , reducing fata ities from gastroenteric diseases. E^Tonrnental 
amtat.on programs, in which tribal members actively participate aw 
showmg results m improved sanitary conditions among the Pueblos 


The LH-e and Apache Groups 

The Utes and the Apaches share the tradition of a strong and warlike 
people The Utes, from whom the State of Utah derives its name, probably 
migrafed from an original Great Basin habitat. Known to have been among 
the strongest and most warlike of the tribes who crossed the plateau, their 
fighting ability was later strengthened by acquisition of the horse. Ute 
Indians adopted much of the Plains culture, especially the war dances. 
Primarily occupied with hunting and raiding other Indian as well as non- 
Indian settlements, the Utes devoted little time to agriculture, handicrafts, 
or the development of elaborate ceremonials. Their numbers are fairly 
limited today. One segment has settled In northern Utah, on the Uintah 
and Ouray Reservation (under the Phoenix Area jurisdiction). The remainder, 
those who settled in the southern part of the State graze livestock on the 
isolated mountains reaching into Colorado, or farm the valleys farther to the 
east. Since 1950, restitution payments on behalf of the Confederated 
Bands of Ute Indians for lands taken from them by the Federal Government/ 
together with substantial returns from oil/ gas, coal, and uranium leases, 
have improved their level of living appreciably. 

The Apaches., together with the Navaios, are members of the Athabascan 
language group/ a linguistic family traceable to the interior of Alaska and 
British Columbia. Over hundreds of years, small bands of the Athabascans 
strayed from their homeland, moving gradually southward, adopting the 
habits and learning the ways of other Indian groups whom they encountered 
as they moved. With their eventual settlement In the American Southwest, 
the Apaches, for the most part, kept to the mountains, occupying themselves 
mainly with hunting and raiding other Indian camps and villages. Armed 
with an Arctic-type bow of Asiatic origin stronger than any bow known 
to the southwest at that time the Apache became the terror of the Pueblo 
and other Indian villagers, and later of the whites. The last Indian group 
to be subdued, the Apachos finally were forced to settle within prescribed 
reservation boundaries by the end of the 19th Century. 

Two well-known Apache groups are to be found In present-day 
New Mexico: The Mescalero, so-named from the mescal cactus or century 
plant which they roasted and ate; and the Jicarilla Spanish for the 
small basketry water bottle woven by Apache women. 

The Mescalero Reservation some 460,000 acres of open grazing and 
timberland -- lies in the center of the Lincoln National Forest in south 
central New Mexico. Today, the Mescalero Apaches are engaged principally 
In stock raising, lumbering, and to a very limited extent, farming. The 
tribe Itself, and the Bureau of Indian Affairs Agency offer some employment 
opportunities, but other employment is generally scarce. Since there 
has been reluctance among the Mescalero to leave home to obtain outside 
employment, the tribe is utilizing its resources and efforts to extend tribal 
enterprises and to attract industry to the reservation. 


The Jhotilk Apache patterned many of their ways of living from the 
Pueblo the planting of corn, beans, and squash; the ritual of certain 
religious ceremonies. In outward appearance, however, they resemble the 
Plains Indians, with braided hair and buckskin clothing handsomely adorned 
by fine beadwork. Recently, the tribe has been realizing considerable 
returns from oil and gas leases and from timber sales. 

Indinn Health Services 

Health services to Indians In the Albuquerque Area are provided 
directly by the Public Health Service through a system of 9 hospitals, 9 health 
centers, more than 100 field health clinics and some 30 smaller health 
service points, and school health centers at 3 Bureau of Indian Affairs 
boarding schools. Where it Is to the advantage of the Indian beneficiaries, 
or where no adequate Public Health Service facilities are available, 
contractual arrangements are made for services at community hospitals and 
with private physicians, dentists, or clinics, and with State and local health 
and welfare agencies. 

Hospital Cgre - The Public Health Service operates 3 Indian general 
hospitals for others than Navajo in the Albuquerque Area at the Mescalero 
Reservation, at ZunI Pueblo, and at Santa Fe near the Rio Grande group of 
Pueblos, For the Navajo, the Public Health Service operates 5 general 
hospitals at Crownpoint and at Shiprock, New Mexico; (the latter now 
being replaced by a new 75-bed facility); at Tuba City, at Winslow, and 
the larger medical center at Fort Defiance, Arizona,, The Keams Canyon 
Hospital on the Hopi Reservation in Arizona (under the Phoenix Area Office 
jurisdiction), is also used by Nava|os in that area. This facility is now 
being replaced by a new 38-bed hospital. All hospitals provide outpatient 
services and carry on extensive preventive activities, including dental care. 
In addition, the 108-bed Public Health Service Indian Hospital at Albuquerque 
serves tuberculous patients from the entire Area. Specialist and consultant 
services by private physicians are available at these hospitals through 
contract with the Service,, Construction is now under way on a new 200-bed 
hospital and medical center at Gallup, New Mexico. 

Throughout the Albuquerque Area, the Public Health Service arranges 
for utilizing community general hospitals for care of Indian patients, through 
contracts or other reimbursable arrangements . The largest and most 
extens.veiy used general hospital facility is the 215-bed Bernalillo County 
Indian Hospital in Albuquerque, Contracts for care of tuberculous patients 
are in effect t with 5 sanatoria: Cragmor Sanatorium, Colorado Springs, 
Colorado; Mesa Vsta Sanatorium, Boulder, Colorado; Oshrin Hospital' 
Tucson Arizona; for some few Navajo and the Mescalero, Fort Stanton 
Tuberculous Sarjatorium, Forf Stanton/ New Mexi Q , d n 

arrangement with the Presbyterian Hospital Center, Albuquerque, New 

rH JLhh f V ' - 6 TJ. aCt L f0r .T of I-?*" patlenh refiirea 1 from the 
ic Health Service Indian Hospital at Albuquerque. 


In New Mexico and Arizona, care of mentally ill patients is provided 
at the State hospital, through contractual arrangements,* In Colorado, 
Indians are provided care in State institutions, as are all other citizens of 
the State, without charge, 

in general, public health services are provided through the Service's 
own facilities However, in Colorado, the Ute group is provided with 
public health nursing services through PHS contract with the State Department 
of Health o Utes living in southern Utah are entitled to public health services 
on the same basis as other citizens of the State, 

Other Facilities and Services 

Throughout the Albuquerque Area, the Public Health Service provides 
general medical and dental care and preventive health services through 
several types of field health facilities outside of the hospital. Numerous 
field health stations are located in Indian home communities. Some are 
staffed by one or more Public Health Service staff, such as a public health 
nurse, a sanitarian aide or a community health worker,. Some are served by 
traveling teams of medical, dental, and allied health personnel whose 
permanent station may be an Indian health center or an Indian hospital. 
Others are served by local physicians and dentists under contract, who hold 
clinics at these stations. In addition to the provision of a substantial 
volume of diagnostic and curative services, an intensive preventive health 
activity is carried on by public health nurses, sanitarian aides, and health 
education workers. These health personnel reach the home, work with 
Individuals and their families, ana teach elements of good health practices., 

Indian health centers which are larger and more fully staffed are 
maintained at 5 locations in the Albuquerque Area outside of the Navajo 
Reservation at Ignacio, Colorado, serving the Southern Lite group and 
at 4 places in New Mexico; a t Dulce on the Jicarilla Reservation? at 
Albuquerque, 12 miles from Isleta Pueblo, within a 30-mile radius of the 
Jemez, Sandia, Santa Ana, and Zia Pueblos, and within reach of the small 
Puertoclto (Alamo) and Canoncito Reservations; at Laguna on the Laguna 
Pueblo; and at Taos on the Taos Pueblo, close to the Picuris and San Juan 
Pueblos. On the Navajo Reservation, 4 health centers 3 of them newly 
constructed --are at Chlnle and at Kayenta, Arizona; at Gallup and at 
Tohatchi, New Mexico. Services to the ambulatory at the health center, 
on a full-time basis, include general medical care, emergency minor 
surgery, prenatal and postnatal care, public health nursing services, dental 
care, and routine X-ray and laboratory services of the kind which are usually 
available in offices of private doctors and local health departments fl 

Health centers are also maintained by the Public Health Service for 
students at three large Bureau of Indian Affairs boarding schools at 
Shiprock on the Navajo Reservation, and at the Intermountain School, 
Brigham City, Utah (where there Is an Infirmary) and at the Albuquerque 
Indian School, both off-reservation. Navajo students are enrolled at other 
off-reservation boarding schools which have similar large health centers. 


Under contractual arrangements with the Service, local private physicians 
furnish medical care to students at Bureau of Indian Affairs operated 
dormitories at Aztec and at Bloomfield, New Mexico; at Holbrook, at 
Snowflake, and at Flagstaff, Arizona; and at Richfield, Utah. 

The Albuquerque Area Office or the Window Rock Office staff provide 
special consultant services and program guidance in all professional areas 
including public health nursing, medical social service, nutrition, sanitary 
engineering, and health education. A special feature of the health educa- 
tion services in the area, are the contracts with the two University Schools 
of Public Health University of California and University of North 
Carolina, through which orientation of health education workers and 
consultant services are provided within the framework of the Division's 

The Public Health Service encourages young Indian men and women 
to take an active part In providing health services to their own people. 
Through the PHS Indian School of Practical Nursing at Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, a one-year program of theory and clinical experience in 
nursing skills is offered to prepare Indian students for qualifying as trained 
practical nurses. The school is both nationally and State accredited,, 
Enrollment is open to young women throughout the continental United States 
who are one-quarter or more Indian and who have completed a 4-year 
high school course. Graduating classes, twice a year, number between 
30 and -40. Following graduation, students take the State Board 
Examinations to qualify as licensed practical nurses. All are assigned to 
Public Health Service Indian hospitals and field health centers. 

( In addition to training in practical nursing, special in-service 
training is offered to Indian youth to qualify them as sanitarian aides, 
community health workers, dental assistants, and nursing aides. 

Religious orders render valuable support in the educational and health 
programs m this region . Many church groups maintain missions on the 
Navaio and among the Pueblos. Some operate hospitals and support public 
health nursing programs. The largest of the Mission hospitals is the Sage 

The S^beKh Jh PnT?p' f rvln R ^ Va[ S in the Chinle ' Arizona area. 
The 30 bed Rehoboth (Dutch Reformed) Mission Hospital is located outside 

* Gallup. ^Some Nava,o finance their medical care in these 

.New Legislation 


in the construction of commupity general hospitals to provide integrated 
services to Indians and non-Indian citizens* This legislation has made 
possible a more fully planned use of community health resources, where 
the Public Health Service does not operate its own facilities. 

Of the major contributing factors to the excessive incidence of 
disease and premature deaths among our Indian citizens is the unfavorable 
environment in which many of them live. Through the field surveys of the 
program's sanitary engineering staff, the extent of environmental nealth 
hazards are well-defined Intensive efforts of the program's sanitary 
engineers, with the help of many Indian groups and the Indian sanitarian 
aides, are helping to overcome the unfavorable environmental conditions. 
On July 31, 1959, P.L. 86-121, was enacted, which in effect amends the 
transfer legislation, and authorizes the Public Health Service to provide 
sanitary facilities for beneficiaries of the program,. Included are domestic 
and community water supplies and facilities/and facilities for sewage and 
waste disposal The law permits the Service to make joint arrangements 
for participating in such projects with tribal groups, local authorities, 
and other public and nonprofit agencies, both in construction costs and in 
subsequent operation and maintenance This new measure will, In the 
long run, bring about major improvement in the Indian health environment. 









UJ ** 

cr ^ 

o a: 
~ > t/i 
< o 

> f- 

<C LlJ 

2! LU 



t H 


H u 
<! r 
fc P 

0) ft. fj 










LOCATION: Main Navajo Reservation is In parts of three States 
northeast Arizona, northwest New Mexico, southeast Utah,, 
Principal counties: Apache, Coconlno, and Navajo (Arizona) 
McKInley and San Juan (New Mexico); San Juan (Utah), 
Bordered by San Juan and Colorado Rivers on north and west, 
and by Little Colorado River on south and west, 
Principal settlements - In the past, few Navajo lived In 
settlements^ some families clustered about trading posts, 
hospitals, schools, and BIA facilities (Window Rock, 1957 
pop 400), New communities forming at mining and industrial 
locations: Glen Canyon Dam In upper northwest corner of 
reservation; Chlnfe, Arizona; Shlprock, New Mexico. 
Nearest off reservation towns - Albuquerque, New Mexico 
(1957 est, pop, 176,500), 166 miles from Window Rock. 
Cortez, Colorado (1950 pop, 2,680), Gallup, New Mexico 
(1957 est. pop 12,000], and Farmlngton, New Mexico 0957 
est D pop. 14,000) are 41 f 70, and 20 miles from Shlprocl< 

BIA F|eld Offjge - Navajo Agency, Window Rock, Arizona 

LAND AND CLIMATE: Nearly 24.000 square miles (15,088,227 
acres), mostly tribally owned. Acreage figures Include about 
1,600 square miles allotted to Individual Nava|o families In 
THE New Mexico just adjacent to extreme eastern and southern 

RESERVATION boundaries of reservation . This portion Is checkerboarded 

with lands In non-Indian or Federal ownership. 

Ranges from desert to rolling plains, high plateaus, flat top 
mesas, mountains. Inaccessible buttes, deep canyons, sand 
and gravel washes. Much land too rough, Inaccessible, or 
barren to be used for grazing. Climate varies from warm 
summer sunshine to cold, arid air of high altitudes. Low 
annual rainfall, usually In torrential summer showers, 
Thousands of acres damaged by soil erosion , 

For BIA purposes, Navajo lands are divided Into 19 land 
management districts grouped Into 5 BIA subagency adminis- 
trative units. Mostly, they follow watershed or natural 
contour lines. HopI Reservation, totally surrounded by Nava]o 
Reservation, includes Land Management District 6. 
Remaining 18 districts fall within 8 Public Health Service units: 

Gallup-Tohatchl (#14; #16? #18) Kayenta f*2i *8) 
Ganado-Cornfields (#17) Chlnle (#4; #10; #11) 

WInslow (*& #7) Shlprock<*9i 

Tuba City ( # 1? # 3) Crownpolnt(*15; ff 19, lower 




! rv:_i-i>i,.t Anncnyimntfl Size. 1957 

Land Management District 
and Focal Points, Q 950 pop.) 

Approximate Size, 1957 
and Topography 

Economic Factors 


Kayenta, Ariz. (pop. 35); 
Monument Valley, Ariz. 

Navajo Mountain, Utah 

2,166 square miles. 
Sparse grazing land. 
Monument Valley ele- 
vation 5,000 feet. 

Oil on flat lands. 
Uranium in Monument 
Valley region. 

1,711 square miles. Lowest income group among 

Elevations to 10,000 feet. Navajo. 
Deep canyons . 


Chinle, Ariz, (pop. 150); 
Many Farms, Ariz. 

Pinon, Ariz. 

Lukachukai, Ariz. (pop. 20) 
Round Rock, Ariz. (pop. 15) 

1,241 square miles. 
Valley farms. Canyons 
de Chelly and del Muerfo 

1 ,372 square miles. 
High mountains. 

678 square miles. 
Mathews Peak 9,000ft. 
Petrified forest. 

Abundant wheat. Navajo 
farming methods here 
copied from the Pueblo. 

Coal and mineral deposits. 

Uranium, also the Tsaile 
timber unit. 


Shiprock, N.M. (pop. 125); 
Aneth, Utah 

Red Mesa, Ariz. 

Fruit land, N. M. (pop. 300); 
Burnhams, N.M. 

Upper portion: Farmlngton, 
N.M.*(est. 1957 pop. 
14,000). Entire District out- 
side reservation. 

2,088 square miles. 
Mountain sides used as 
pastures. Flats at 4,000 
feet, covered with vol- 
canic rock. Farm land 
near San Juan , 

1 ,557 square miles. 
Mountains, farm land, 
some pasturage. 

619 square miles. 
Farm land. 

216 square miles. 
Farm land near San Juan 
River; grazing land to 
south . 

Helium production center 
and uranium processing 
plant at Shlprock. Veins of 
coal in mountains. Large 
irrigation project. Oil and 
gas In Aneth region. 

Vanadium, copper, and 
uranium mines In mountains; 

Some Irrigation, 

Sheep raising. Truck 
farming. Land In scattered 
tracts, owned by individual 
Navajo families. 


Lower portion: Pueblo Pintado, 

Crownpoint, N.M.*and 
Standing Rock, N.M. Most 
of District # 15 lies east of 
Navajo Reservation . 

(included above) 

615 square miles. 
Grazing land. 

(included above) 

Sheep raising. Land in 
Individual Navajo rather 
than tribal ownership. 
FinesIIvermlths at S. Lake. 


Land Management District Approximate Size, 1957 

and Focal Points, (1950 pop.) and Topography Economic Factors 


Gallup, N.M.M1957 
pop. 12,000); Fort 
Wingate, N.M. * and Reho- 
both, N.M. Most of this 
property is southeast of 
reservation . 

Tohatchi, N.M. 
(pop. 100). 

18,.. Fort Defiance, Arizona 

(pop. 645); St. Michaels, 
Ariz. (pop. 50); Window 
Rock, Ariz. (1957 pop. 
400); Crystal, N. M. 

805 square miles. 
Grazing land. 

995 square miles. 
Grazing land, Chuska 
Mountains to north. 

959 square miles. 
Grazing land at high 
elevation; small mountain 
ridges . 

Land in individual Navajo 

rather than tribal ownership. 
Sheep raising. Federally 
operated sheep laboratory 
at Fort Wingate. Gallup- 
Durango coal field. 

Sheep raising. Commercial 
timber in mountains. Coal 
a potential . 

Sheep raising; coal; tribal 
sawmill near Fort Defiance. 
New sawmill and town 
planned. Tribal timber 
managed on sustained yield 


Ganado, Ariz. (pop. 493); 
Cornfields, Ariz.; 
Holbrook, Ariz. * (pop. 
2,336); Kiagetoh, Arizona. 
(pop. 25). 

1,815 square miles. 
High timbered plateau. 
Irrigated farm lands at 
lower elevation. Grazing 

Larger sheep raising 
capacity here than at any 
other Land Management 


Winslow, Ariz.* (pop. 
6,518) is just south of reser- 
vation; Leupp, Arizona 
(pop. 25). 

Seba Dalkai, Arizona. 

1,228 square miles. 
Semi-desert grazing 

1,445 square miles. 
Sparse grazing land , 

Winslow is a stock raising 
and rail center. 

Nava|o here depend 1 on 
off-reservation employment. 


13. Tuba City, Ariz. (pop. 150J; 
Moenkopi, Ariz. (pop. 655); 
Moenave, Ariz.; Cameron 
Ariz. (pop. 20). 

Kaibito, Arizona 

2, 724 square miles. 
Sparse grazing steppes . 
Small agricultural oasis 
at focal towns, 

1 ,680 square miles. 
Dry washes that 
occasionally flood with 
torrential rains flowing 
down mountain sides. 

Sheep raising; farming. 
Uranium near Cameron. 
Natural gas near Tuba City, 
also rare metals industry. 

Some copper In elevated 
plateau west of Kaibtto. 

Beyond Navajo Reservation boundary. 




TRIBE: Navojo 

POPULATION: Current estimates range from 70,000 to 84,000. 

CHARACTERISTICS; Blood quantum - Mostly fully Indian, 1950. 
Homes.- One-room hogan of logs, earth, rock, or local 
materials, without windows. Grouped in family units. 5-6 
persons per dwelling. Waste disposal and refrigeration 
facilities generally lacking. Members of at least one-half the 
households haul water two miles or more. Through tribal 
program, with technical assistance of PHS Area sanitary 
engineering staff, demonstration project constructing a 
conventional rectangular frame house is under way. 

THE Education - 2 of 3 persons aged 25 and older had less than one 

PEOPLE year schooling. Less than 15% of persons aged 45 and older 

read, speak English (1950) D Under accelerated program, 89% 
of Navajo 6-18 years of age attended school, 1958, two- 
thirds at BIA schools. Tribal trust fund for education recently 
established. First use of interest ($200,000), F.Y. 1959, 
used for scholarship grants including vocational training,, 
Average, family income. - Extremely low. Source - Livestock 
(principally sheep and wool); farm, ranch, railway, construc- 
tion and mining wage labor. Some lumbering. A few fobs at 
nearby industrial plants. Arts and crafts. 
Tribal income - Substantial income from oil, gas, and mineral 
(coal and uranium) leases. Funds used for economic develop- 
ment of reservation * 


INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: Five general Public Health Service 
Indian hospitals serve the Navajo. In addition to PHS staff, 
specialist-consultative services rendered by private physicians, 
through contract with PHS. Also, at each hospital Is head- 
quartered' a staff serving field clinics. In fiscal year 1959: 

Beds Admis- Births in Av daily Outpt. 
PHS Indign Hospitoi avniL signs hospital inpt n load services. 

HEALTH Crownpoint, N. Ma 56 1,312 232 41 12,115 


Shiprock, N. M. 42 2,271 360 30 32,215 

Tuba City, Ariz, 75 2,020 452 53 20,163 

Winslow, Ariz, 51 1,148 226 29 13,622 

Fort Defiance, Ariz* 

GM&S patients 125 2,758 543 99 32,967 

TB patients 70 374 62 




Many Navajo also receive care at PHS Indian (Hopi) Hospital, 
Keams Canyon, Arizona, now being replaced by new 38-bed 
facility o New 75-bed hospital under construction at Ship- 
rock, scheduled for completion early I960. The new 200- 
bed PHS Medical Center that Is now under construction at 
Gallup, New Mexico will become the base Navajo hospital, 
Tuberculosis patients may go to the 108-bed PHS Indian 
(Albuquerque Sanatorium) Hospital, Albuquerque, New 
Mexico, which serves the entire Albuquerque Area; 173 
patients admitted Fiscal year 1959 . 

.Qkipnosfric, treatment, and preventive ser vice? provided at 
PHS Indian Health Centers at Chinle and Kayenta, Arizona, 
and at Tohatchi, New Mexico; also the PHS Indian Gallup 
Health Center, Gallup, New Mexico. 

Satellite to PHS Indian Hospitals and Health Centers where 
medical care Is available on full-time basis, over 90 Service- 
operated stations or locations are designated where Navajos 
may receive therapeutic and preventive health services on a 
regularly scheduled, part-time, or itinerant basis. These 
include newly constructed field health stations at Cornfields, 
Pinon, Pueblo Pintado, Round Rock, and White Cone. There 
Is also a PHS Indian School Health Center at Shiprock 
Boarding School, Shiprock, New Mexico, on the Navajo 

Dentnl services by one or more PHS dental officers and dental 
assistants headquartered at each of the five PHS Indian 
hospitals and four PHS Indian health centers. Staff from 
some facilities give care at various points on the reservation 
using portable equipment. 

Environmental sanitation activities conducted in Shiprock, 
Tohatchi, Chinle, Cornfields, Tuba City, and Kayenta 
districts Eight PHS sanitarian aides work with Indian 
families and communities to improve sanitation. PHS sanitary 
engineers and professional sanitarians furnish technical 
support to the aides and engineering assistance to the Navajo 
Tribe for development of cooperative communal water sources, 
water distribution systems, community planning, design and 
construction of transitional low-cost housing, and disposal 
of community wastes Tribal material and Navajo laoor used. 




OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: To supplement services at PHS 

facilities, hospital care at Federal expense may be authorized 
at community hospitals. For example, through contract 
arrangements, Navajo receive care in New Mexico T* the 

215-bed Bernalillo County Hospital (Including oral surgery, 
emergency dental services) ana the 118-bed Bataan Memorial 
Methodist Hospital, both at Albuquerque; at the 93-bed 
San Juan County Hospital, Farmington; at the 70-bed 
St. Mary's Hospital, Gallup; in Arizonn at the 48-bed 
Flagstaff Hospital, Flagstaff; and in Colorndn nf the 60-bed 
Southwest Memorial Hospital, Cortez, and the 95-bed 
Mercy Hospital, Durango. Some 20 other community 
facilities serve Navajo patients on a reimbursable basis 

At some communities local physicians and dentists serve the 
Navajo at clinics or at hospitals named above, through 
contract arrangement with PHS. 

Mission groups sponsor free medical care at many points on 
the Navajo Reservation and at the 88-bed Sage Memorial 
Hospital, Ganado, Arizona; the 30-bed Rehoboth Mission 
Hospital, Rehoboth, New Mexico; the Seventh Day Acfventist 
Clinic at Monument Valley, Arizona, and the Rock Point 
Mission Hospital, Rock Point, Arizona. 

VariQtJSprn[ects which contribute to the health of the Navafo 
are conducted through contractual arrangements with PHS 
The University of California has agreed to provide, within 
the administrative framework of the Division of InJlan Health 
serv.ces necessary for the implementation of a health 
traininn ! FT A *' ^ l Rese ^ation; in-service 
n ff h? t a *u ed ^ a . f '. nal methods and Procedures for 

on r# OUt **!? D ' V 8l n? and the co ^Inuous documenta- 
tion, reporting and evaluation of these activities, 

Cornell University Medical College, under contract to PHS 
and with additional funds from the Navajo TrZ Councr 
several foundations, and private industry 





A second feature of this study is evaluation of the changing 
Navajo attitudes and behavior toward their traditional 
medicine and current medical practice; doctor-patient 
relations, and community education to health needs with 
particular emphasis on developing more effective communi- 

A program for crippled children conducted in collaboration 
with the State of New Mexico provides orthopedic clinics at 
Chinle, Tuba City, and Winslow, Arizona; at Gallup, 
Shiprock, Aztec, Albuquerque, and Truth or Consequences, 
New Mexico. Children with other crippling conditions 
are also cared for. Treatment Is also provided in hospitals 
in Salt Lake City, Utah; Denver, Colorado; El Paso and 
Dallas, Texas; and at the Carrie Tingle/ Hospital, Truth or 
Consequences, New Mexico. 


HEALTH STATUS: Accidents were the leading cause of death 

among Navajos in 1957; influenza and pneumonia caused 
almost as many fatalities. Gastritis, duodenitis, enteritis, 
and colitis the leading cause six years ago now rank 
fourth o In 1957 the Navajo death rate from tuberculosis 
almost doubled that for all United States Indians. Although 
the Navajo infant death rate has dropped appreciably, it 
is almost three times higher than that for all infants in the 

SPECIAL country, with influenza and pneumonia, and diarrhea and 

PROBLEMS dysentery the main causes of death. 

Intensive case finding In 1957 revealed trachoma to be 
widespread on the reservation. Special health projects are 
now under way for prevention ana control of tuberculosis 
and trachoma. Clinical examinations at Many Farms also 
revealed need for special care of ear infections, skin 
infections (impetigo), and conjunctivitis. 




OTHER: Lack of water is the greatest concern of the Navajo, but 
isolation is another. Communication between Navajos and 
other people is hampered by language barriers, by the low 
economic status of the Indians on the reservation, and by 
poor roads. Completion of the final section of road from 

SPECIAL U. S- Highway *66 (about 6 miles east of Holbrook) through 

PROBLEMS tne Navajo Reservation to Keams Canyon on the Hopi 

(continued) Reservation makes possible an all-weather approach from 

the south. Funds authorized by Congress in 1950 (to be 
spent over a 10-year period). State funds, and funds 
appropriated by the Navafo tribal Council have enabled 
some improvements of other roads, among them Route ^3 
extending from Tuba City to Coalmine Mesa and Route #1 
leading from Shlprock, New Mexico, to Kayenta and 
Tuba City, Arizona. 



Albuquerque Health Service Unit 

LOCATION: Central New Mexico, principally in Bernalillo and 

Valencia Counties and a part oFTorrance County. The Pueblo 
is divided east and west by the Rio Grande River. 
Principal seti-leniqnts (1950 pop.) - Isleta (pop. 765); Peralta 
(pop. 573) on Rio Grande River. 

Nearest off-reservation towns In New Mexico (1957 pop. est.) 
- Albuquerque (pop. 176,500) 12 miles north of reservation 
center; Belen (pop. 4,000) 5 miles south of the reservation; 
Mountainair (pop. 1 ,750) 50 miles from Peralta; Socorro(pop. 
RESERVATION 4,000) 55 miles south of reservation. 

BIA Field Office - United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, N.M. 

LAND: Around 210,000 acres. Almost all tribally owned, remainder 
is Government owned. Principally open grazing and woodland, 
with subsistence farms. Irrigation along Rio Grande River. 
Some waste land . 


TRIBE: Pueblo 

POPULATION: 1 ,800 estimated in PUS service area in 1957 
1 ,566 enrolled tribal members in 1950 

CHARACTERISTICS: Blood quantum - 93% fully Indian in 1950; 

97% one-half or more Indian . 

THE Homes -Typical dwelling a 3-room adobe house. 3.9 persons 

PEOPLE per dwelling unit (median). 1 .3 persons per room (median). 

: Education - 57% of persons aged 45 and older read and speak 

English (1950) . Isleta children attend BIA day school at Isleta, 
nearby rural public schools, and public schools in Albuquerque, 
Avernge family Income - Limited, Source - Principally from 
wage labor in Albuquerque; livestock and farming. 
Tribal Income - Confined to interest on tribal funds, earnings 
of community cattle enterprise, royalty on volcanic cinder 
lease, sign board permits, fishing, and hunting permits. 


; INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: Public HealthJServlce Indian Health 
orcni rr<: I Station at Isleta where a public health nurse is stationed. 

KtbUUKC-tb j Medical, dental, and sanitation services are available from 


the PHS Indian Health Center, Albuquerque. Professional 
sanitary engineering service by Area sanitation staff. 

OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: Hospital care at Federal expense may 
be authorized at community hospitals, mainly the 215-bed 
Bernalillo County Indian Hospital, and the 118-bed Bataan 
Memorial Methodist Hospital, both at Albuquerque 12 miles 
from reservation center. 

Oraf surgery and emergency dental cafe provided at the 
Bernalillo County Indian Hospital through contract with PHS. 


OTHER SPECIAL PROBLEM: There are many non-Indian private claims to 

NOTES tracts of land within the Isleta Pueblo. Boundaries to these 

claims are not properly determined. 





Albuquerque Health Service Unit 


LOCATION: Four small Pueblos within a 30 miles radius northwest 
of Albuquerque In reach of Stqte Highway *44 which 
follows the Naclmlento Mountain Range, For the most part 
In south central Sandoval County, although a segment of 
Sandia Pueblo falls in Bernalillo County The original Santa 
Ana Pueblo Tract, 10 miles northeast of Bernalillo, Is almost 
abandoned. The present Santa Ana Reservation is about 5 
miles due north of Bernalillo. 

principal settlements - Carry same name as individual Pueblo. 
Nearest off reservation towns In New Mexico (1957 pop. 
est.) - Albuquerque (pop. 176,500), 10 miles south of Sandia, 
the southernmost of the four Pueblos; Santa Fe (pop 34,000) 
30 - 50 miles east of these Pueblos by winding road; Berna- 
lillo (pop. 2,230) about 5 miles due south of Santa Ana and 
qt the northernmost tip of Sandia. 


- United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, 

New Mexico 

LAND: Number of acres (Pueblo or Federally owned): Jemez - 
120,027; Sandia - 22,885? Santa Ana - 42,172; Zla - 
146,096. In general, the land Is arid open grazing and 
timbered. Irrigated subsistence farm land along the course 
of the Rio de Lps Vacas and Jemez Rivers (Jemez, Zia, and 
Santa Ana) and along the Rio Grande River (Sandia) . 


TRlBEt Pueblo 

Estimated in 
PHS service 



Santa Ana 







NEW MEXICO (continued) 

CHARACTERISTICS: Bioodmrnnium - 95% or more fully Indian in 

Homes - Typical dwelling a 2 or 3-room adobe. The median 
number of persons per dwelling unit ranges from 5 to 8, 
depending upon the Pueblo. Slightly more than 2 persons 
per room 

dugfltion - The percentage of adults 45 years or older who 
both read and speak English is higher at Santa Ana, 45% 
(1954) than at the other three Pueblos. Many speak Spanish 
in lieu of English. 

Avernge fnmjly inaojne, - Extremely low. Source - farming, 
livestock, wage work on and off Pueblos, Residents of 
Zla Pueblo supplement income with sale of handicrafts., 
Those who live close to Albuquerque or Santa Fe may go to 
those towns to find wage work 

Tribal Incoma - Small amounts principally from leases and 
permits. Some Pueblos receive tribal Income from sand, 
gravel, and volcanic cinder ash sales. Used to cover the 
cost of tribal government. 


INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: ^bHJi^lth^lini^held at Jemez, 
Santa Ana, and Zla by physician stationed at Albuquerque 
Health Center? public health nursing services available at all 
Four Pueblos. Referrals made to J^ilLUdsdJii^^ 

i th . rr^ ln AIbu qque, presently staffed by two 
medical officers, a dental officer and dental assistant, 
sanitarian afde clinic nurse, and eye specialist. A community 
HEALTH worker (health) serves the four Pueblos on an itinerant basis 


OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: JdospJtgJ^ at Federal expense may 
R!" *N r d ! c mu nitynospItalsT mainly the 2/5-bed 
Berna/.llo County Indian Hospital and the Ift-bed Bataan 

^ u f .u OS D pita J, ^ Qt Albuquerque, within 
of each o the Pueblos. Services of medical 

at these hosp!tals 


OTHER affeTc I b Residenh .. f these few mal I Pueblos are 

NOTES A IL ''r'r'u' runiTies or employment at Santn F^ 

" '"' '"" I *"* '" A cplp^^u. ____ I It A . **MI II U 1C 

Assistance needed m adjusting. 

Albuquerque Health Service Unit 


Puertocito and Canonclto Reservations constitute separate 
land holding Navajo communities In the Albuquerque Area. 
Located in the west central part of the State, these reserva- 
tions (along with Ramah) are commonly referred to as "little 
Navajo" to distinguish them from the Iqrge Navajo Reserva- 
tion, Window Rock Sub-Area, with which they share 
common characteristics. Although these minor groups are 
represented on the main Navajo Tribal Council, they are 
under separate BIA Agency administration . 

LOCATION: Canonclto Reservation is In Bernallllo and Valencia 
Counties, 30 miles from Albuquerque. It separates the 
northeast segment of the Laguna Pueblo from the Laguna 
Pueblo proper. Puertoclto Reservation Is in Socorro 

THE County with a small portion In Valencia County, In and 

RESERVATION north of the Clbola National Forest, 130 miles from 


Principal settlements. - Alamo on the Puertoclto Reservation 
and Canonclto on Canonclto Reservation . 

Kjagrftst off-rftSftrvntinn tnwns In New Mexico (1957 DOp. OSt .) 

Albuquerque (pop. 176,500) about 30 miles from Canonclto 
and 80-100 miles from Puertoclto by road. Socorro (1950 pop. 
4,334) 35 miles from Puertoclto. 

BIA Field Office - United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, 
New Mexico 

LAND: Puertoclto consists of 62, 000 acres; Canonclto, 69,842 
acres. Most of the land is wooded, open grazing with 
subsistence farm lands along river and creek beds. 


TRIBE: Principally Navajo 

POPULATION; 1f c .. . 

Estimated In Enrolled 

PHS service tribal 

Reservation .nreo in 1957 .members, 

n 1RR 

Puertoclto 450 388 

Canoncito 500 428 


NEW MEXICO (continued) 

CHARACTERISTICS! Ibodj^aatiun. - At least 95% of all New 
Mexico Navajos are fully Indian. 

Homes - Typical dwelling a one-room log hogan. Six persons 
per dwelling unit (median). 

Education - Residents of these reservations are isolated, and 
In the past had little educational opportunity., At Puertoclto, 
only 7% and at Canoncito 5% of adults aged 45 and over read 
and speak English (1950). About 40% of persons aged 18-44 
read and speak English at both reservations. Reservation 
boarding school at Alamo and day school at Canoncito 
maintained by BIA. 
Average family Income - LOW O 

Trlbnl Income - These groups participate in Navajo tribal 


INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: field health clinics held at Alamo 
and Canoncito by physician stationed at Albuquerque Health 
Center; public health nurse also In attendance. Indians 
referred to the PHS Indign Hospital at Fort Defiance, and to 
the PHS Indian Health Center, Albuquerque. The sanitarian 
aide stationed at Laguna provides services on these reserva- 
HEALTH tlons. 


OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: Hospitalise, at Federal expense may 
be authorized at community hospitals, mainly the 215-becJ 
Bernalillo County Indian Hospital and the 118-bed Bataan 
Memorial Methodist Hospital, both at Albuquerque 30 miles 
from Canoncito and 80 or more miles from Alamo (Puertocito); 
also at the 144-bed Sun Valley Hospital, Socorro, 35 miles 
from Alamo, 


OTHER 'r I*" 01 ! 9 hmd S 1 fy of ', ndlans at these reservations 

NOTES I y j* "^ ' CUSt0mS ' s * d *y, strengthened by 


Laguna Health Service Unit 

LOCATIONt West central New Mexico, in Valencia County, 

Part of the block of Pueblos and reservations west and south of 
Albuquerque. Adjoins Laguna Pueblo to east. South of 
San Fidel on Federal Highway 66. 
.Ednfilpa.1, settlements. (1955 pop.) - Acomlto (pop, I f 121), 
McCarty's (pop. 718), and the small community of Anzac, A 
few permanent residents at Acorna Pueblo proper. 
Nearest off-reservation towns In New Mexico - Albuquerque, 
(1957 pop, est. 176,500} 65 miles from Acoma Pueblo; Grants 
THE (1957 pop. est. 7,000), and small town of San Fidel, close to 

RESERVATION northern edge of the Pueblo. Laguna (pop. 500) Is an Indian 

settlement on the Laguna Pueblo ad[acent to the Acoma 

flgkf.Qfffcp - United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, 
New Mexico 

LAND: About 234,000 acres of high mesas and canyons, semlarid 
grazing land with some Irrigated farm land. 


TRIBE: Pueblo 

POPULATION: 2,000 estimated In PHS service area in 1957 
1,863 enrolled tribal members in 1955 

CHARACTERISTICS: Blood quantum .- 99% fully Indian in 1950. 

Homes - Typical dwelling a 2-room adobe house . 3 .4 persons 

THF BliStlm^Onlv 24% of persons aged 45 and older read and 

PEOPLE 'speak English (1950). Present-day educational standards 

Improve/. BIA day schools at Acomtta and McCarty's . 

* ***?** *J T *** / * ^_^ I * . M AM V n'nlt^ti*!'! in 1 Vl frQ 

AvQrffflB family T nf ? oma - Improved employment opporruninw 
in the development of uranium resources near the Pueblo. 
Other sources - Livestock, subsistence farming. 

_ Business leases, tourist fees; hunting and 

fishing permits. 


HEALTH INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: Public Health Service Indian Health. 

RESOURCES Si at Acomtta. A public health nurse is stationed at 



Acomita. Sanitarian aide stationed at Laguna pueblo nearby 
also serves the Acoma Pueblo; professional engineering 
services provided by Area sanitation staff. Medical and 
dental services available to the Acoma Pueblo group at the 
PHS Indian Health Center, Laguna. 

OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: Hospital care at Federal expense may 
be authorized at community hospitals, mainly the 215-bed 
Bernallllo County Indian Hospital and the 118-bed Bataan 
Memorial Methodist Hospital, both at Albuquerque 65 miles 
from Acoma Pueblo. 


HEALTH STATUS: Diarrheal diseases the greatest problem among 
Acoma children. Anemia, vitamin deficiencies, and over- 
weight noted In a clinical survey In 1956, 

OTHERi Scarcity of all modern conveniences at Acoma. There Is 
no telephone on the Pueblo; two-way radio system serves as 
community facility for communication . Almost 40% of homes 

SPECIAL are without electricity; almost 90% of homes lack water piped 

PROBLEMS from a protected well (and for a short period during the summer 

when the community water supply diminishes, residents of 
60% of households haul water in barrels or drums from distant 
sources); there are no flush toilets on the Pueblo. 

It Is difficult for the few Indians living at the old town 
of Acoma to reach the PHS Indian Health Station at Acomita 
over existing rough roads. 



Laguna Health Service Unit 

LOCATION: This reservation Is divided Into three sections. The 

main portion Is In Valencia County. The other, smaller parts, 
are In BernalMlo County and In Sandoval County. Adjoins 
Acoma Pueblo on west, Isleta Pueblo on east. A portion 
separated from main tract of land on northeast by Canondto 
Reservation . 

Principal settlements (1950 pop.) - Casa Blanca; Enctnal; 
Laguna (pop. 500); Meslta; Paraje? Paguate (pop. 520); Seama. 
THE Nearest off-rgsarvpHQn towns In New Mexico - Albuquerque, 

RESERVATION 0957 pop. est. 176,500) 45 miles east of Laguna; Correo 

(1950 pop. 35) and San Fidel, both 12-14 miles from Laguna. 

BIA Fteld Office - United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, N.M. 

LAND: Over 409, 000 acres, almost all trlbally owned. Open 
grazing and tlmberland, with farm land along the Rio San 
Jose and Rio Puerco Rivers (dry streams) . 


TRIBE: Pueblo 

POPULATION: 3,550 estimated in PHS service area in 1957 
3,083 enrolled tribal members in 1950 

CHARACTERISTICS: JJc^i^uantum - 97% fully Indian In 1950; 
99% one-half or more Indian. 

Homes,- Typical dwelling a 2-3 room adobe house. S.b 
THE persons per dwelling unit (median). 1 .9 persons per room 

PEOPLE (median). . ... , i i j i 

kufiOtten - 51% of persons aged 45 and older read and speak 
English Present-day educational standards improved. BIA 
day schools at Laguna, Mesita, Paguate, and Parole, 
^^gsjaj^^ - Formerly an impoverished aroup of 
Indians. Source- Farming, livestock, and wage tabor. 
Employment opportunities have Improved markedly as a result 
of recent uranium development In the vicinity. Farming has 
declined as result of work opportunities. 
THbnl Income. -Interest on tribal funds; business and mining 
from uranium mine on Indian owned property, 



Center at Laguna where part-time medical officer, a dental 
officer and denial assistant, public health nurse, community 
worker (health), and a sanitarian aide are stationed. 
Professional sanitary engineering service provided by Area 
Office staff. Regularly scheduled PHS field health clinics 
are held at Encinal ana Paguate . Public health nursing 

HEALTH service also available at Casa Blanco, Mesita, Paraje, and 


OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: Hospital care at Federal expense met 
be authorized at community hospitals, mainly at the 215-bed 
Bernalillo County Indian Hospital and the 118-bed Bataan 
Memorial Methodist Hospital, both at Albuquerque, 45 
from Laguna. 


SPECIAL PROBLEMS; Acute water shortage during summer months . 
OTHER Land is barren and unproductive, but due to new opporturiiri * 

NOTES for employment at uranium mine and off reservation, farming 

now less important than formerly as a source of income. 




Santa Fe Health Service Unit 


LOCATION: North central New Mexico \n parts of Rio Arriba, 
Sandoval, and Santa Fe Counties. CochiH, Santo Domingo, 
and San Felipe are to the south of Santa Fe (between Santa Fe 
and Bernalmo); Nambe, Pojoaque. San lldefonso, Santa 
Clara, and Tesuque are to tne north of Santa Fe. Most of the 
Pueblos border on the Rio Grande River which steers a course 
through this region from north to south, 

Principal settlements - Carry same name as Individual Pueblo. 
Pena Blanco also a ma|or settlement at Cochtti. 
Nearest off -reservation towns in New Mexico (1957 pop. est.) 
Santa Fe (pop. 34,000) and Los Alamos (pop. 13,098) are 10 
to 30 miles from northern group; Santa Fe and Bernalillo (pop. 
THE 2,230) 30 to 40 miles from southern group, 


BIA Field Office-United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, N.M, 

LANDt Number of acres (Pueblo or Federally owned): CochiH - 
25,854; Nambe - 18,791; Pojoaque - 41 ,126; San Felipe - 
48,788; San lldefonso - 26,079; Santa Clara - 45,750; Santo 
Domingo - 69,277; and Tesuque - 17,000. In general the 
land Is arid open grazing and timbered, except for irrigated 
subsistence farm land along course of Rio Grande River and 
creeks on Its watershed. Pojoaque Pueblo land Is divided Into 
two sections; 1 1 ,600 acre plot centered at village of Po|oaque 
and about 29,500 acres 230 miles away under lease to Nava|o 


TRIBE: Pueblo 

, , c j 

Estimated In Enrolled 

PHS service tribal 

in 1957 _ members, 1950. 

THE CochiH 500 425 

PEOPLE Nambe 150 1 

Pojoaque , 2 

SanFeV 1,000 830 

Sanlidefenso 250 W 

Santa Clara 700 609 

Santo Domingo 1,550 1 

Tesuqge 200 




CHARACTERISTICS: .Blood. quantum - Reportedly majority are fully 

Homes - Typical dwelling a 2 or 3-room adobe, badly over- 
crowded . 

Educntlon - Wide differences,, At Santa Clara all speak and 
read English; at Santo Domingo only 25%, and at San Juan 
32% of older adults read and speak English (1950). Spanish 
and Indian language heard frequently,, 
Avernge fnmily income - Income low in the past Some 
improved job opportunities at Los Alamos and at Santa Fe 
Source - farming, livestock, and wage work Cochiti, 
Tesuque, and Santo Domingo groups supplement incomes with 
sale of handicrafts (weaving, pottery, leather, bead and 
silver work). 

Tribal Income - Small amounts principally from leases and 
permits,, Some Pueblos receive tribal Income from sand, 
gravel, and volcanic cinder ash sales. Used to cover the 
cost of tribal government 


INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: Public Health Service Indian 

at Santa Fe, newly modernized, staffed by three medical 
officers, a dental officer, 8 graduate nurses, and a dental 
assistant. Public health services provided by three public 
health nurses, a sanitary engineer, sanitarian aide, and a 
community worker (health). Hospital also used by Jicarllla 
HEALTH Reservation group In 1959 fiscal year there were - 

RESOURCES 64 beds available (average for year); 

1,062 admissions and 147 births In hospital; 

29 average daily inpatient load; 
13, 297 outpatient visits., 

PHS Indion Health Stations nt Cochlti, Nambe, San Felipe, 
San lldefonso, Santa Clara, Santo Domingo, and Tesuque 
sanitarian aide is stationed at Santo Domingo. 


SPECIAL PROBLEMS: These Pueblos affected bv nearby atomic 

energy developments with increased employment opportunities 
OTHER and contacts with non-Indians Assistance needed in adapting 

NOTES to rapid social and economic shift 

Tribal groups cooperative regarding environmental sani- 
tation. Some have started garbage and refuse collection with 
disposal by the landfill method. 


Tcios Health Service Unit 



LOCATION: Picuris (San Lorenzo), Taos (20 miles to the northeast 
of Picuris), and San Juan (20 miles south of Plcurls) are in 
north central New Mexico. Picuris and Taos are surrounded 
by sections of the Carson National Forest, both In Taos 
County. San Juan Is in RJo Arriba County. 
Principal settlements - The Indians of Picuris (San Lorenzo) 
are grouped at Chamlsal and Picuris. Settlement at San Juan 
Pueblo is named after the Pueblo. The Indian community at 
Taos is to be distinguished from the larger off-reservation 
towns Don Fernando de Taos and Rancnos de Taos. 
Klftnrest off-reservntinn towns In New Mexico (1957 pop. 
THE est.) - Dixon (pop. 1 ,000) 28 miles west of Taos; Taos 

RESERVATION (pop. 5,500) 2 miles from the Indian settlement; Santa Fe 

(pop. 34,000) is 70 miles south of Taos, 50 miles south of 
Plcurls, and 30 miles south of San Juan. 

JUA FMd Office - United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, 
New Mexico. 

LAND: Picuris Pueblo (San Lorenzo) - 41 ,685 acres tribal ly owned; 
San Juan Pueblo - 20,601 acres; and Taos Pueblo - over 
47,000 tribally owned acres with, In addition, use rights to 
30,000 acres of national forest land. In general acreage is 
elevated, mostly forest and open grazing. Plcurls has some 
subsistence farm tracts. Some farming at San Juan near the 
Rio Grande River. Taos has about 2,500 acres of irrigated 
farm land. 


TRIBE: Pueblo 

POPULATION: , nir c . 

Estimated in PHS Enrolled 

service are in tribal 

ufihlo 1957 .members, 1950 

THE Picuris (San Lorenzo) 150 138 

PEOPLE San Juan ' 750 834 

Taos 1,200 990 

CHARACTERISTICS: Blood quantum - Reportedly, majority at all 
three Pueblos are fully Indian. 

H^mes - 2 or 3-room adobe (multi -floored at Taos); 4 to 5 
; persons per room at Taos , 



MFW MFX!CO ('continued) 

NEW MEXICO (continued) 

Education - A report on Taos In 1952 states 88 adults did not 

speak English, 120 could not read or write English. Business 

with non-Indians conducted through interpreter. PIcurls 

(San Lorenzo) group also culturally isolated. In 1950 at 

San Juan only 32% of adults 45 years or older could read 

and speak English. 

Average fondly income - Subsistence level. 

Tribal Income,- Sufficient only to cover cost of tribal 




.Heg(th Center at Taos, presently staffed by a medical officer 
ana 1 a dental officer, a public health nurse, a clinic nurse, 
and a community worker (health) . EfcLSJfidlnn Hflgith-StatLai 
at PIcurls (San Lorenzo) and at San Juan. Those requiring 
hospltalizatlon referred to PHS Indian Hospital, Santa Fe, 
65 miles from Taos. 

OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: H^pltaLxiatfi. at Federal expense 
HEALTH may be authorized at community hospitals, mainly at the 

RESOURCES 215-bed Bernallllo County Indian Hospital and the 1 1B-bed 

Baraan Memorial Methodist Hospital . Both are at 
Albuquerque, 132 miles from Taos and somewhat closer to 
Picurts (San Lorenzo) and San Juan. Occasional use made 
of 29 -bed Holy Cross Hospital at Fernando de Taos , Those 
eligible for care under the Crippled Children Service are 
referred to the Carrie Ting ley Hospital at Truth or Conse- 
quences, New Mexico. 

Dental cnre by local private dentist through contract with 


SPECIAL PROBLEMS; Taos homes are not equipped with gas or 
electricity . There has been some resistance on the part of 
older members of the tribe against piping water into homes. 
These tend to be traditional and conservative Pueblos. 
O i H ER 

NOTES Some improvements have been made In environmental 

sanitation, however. A new water well has been drilled at 
the BIA Taos Indian day school. At the request of the Taos 
Pueblo Governor, a PHS sanitation survey was made of the 
water shed of the Taos River from which untreated water is 
now being used for domestic purposes. Sanitary landfill 
demonstration requested at San Juan Pueblo. 


Zunl - Ramah Health Service Unit 

LOCATION: Situated In extreme west central New Mexico, 

McKInley and Valencia Counties. The Zuni Pueblo extends 
east from Arizona-New Mexico border into Ctbola National 
Forest. State Highway 53 runs east and west, and State 
Highway 32 runs north and south here, intersecting In upper 
half of the Pueblo* Ramah Allotments lie just east of Zuni 
Pueblo. It is a Navajo offshoot, directly south of the main 
Nava[o Reservation. Residents of Ramah Allotments are 
represented on the main Navafo Tribal Council. 
Princlpcii ffettlftments. - Zuni Is the population center of the 
Zuni Pueblo. Black Rock, Nutria, 0(0 Caliente, and 
Tekapo are farming settlements. The settlement at Ramah 
carries the Allotments name. 

THE Nearest off-reservation town - Gallup, N. M. (1957 pop. 

RESERVATION est. 12,000) 39 miles north of Zuni, 50 miles from Ramah. 

BIA Field, Office- Zuni Pueblo: Zuni Agency, Zuni, No M. 
Ramah Reservation; United Pueblos Agency, Albuquerque, 

New Mexico 


TRIBES: Zuni at Zuni Pueblo; mostly Navajo at Ramah Allotments 


Estimated in Enrolled 

PHS service tribal 

Pueblo .or Allotments qrftfl IP 1957 members 

Zuni Pueblo 3,600 2,922 (in 1950) 

Ramah Allotments 700 597 (In 1955) 

THE CHARACTERISTICS: .Bjood. quantum - Reportedly, majority are 

PEOPLE Mly Indian. 

Homes - Typical dwelling at Zuni a 3-room stone house; at 
Ramah a 1-room log hogan. At Zuni, 7.1 persons per 
dwelling; at Ramah, 6 persons per dwelling unit (median) . 
ducaiion - At Zuni, half of adults aged 25 and older had 6 A 
years or more schooling (1950); 80% of persons aged 6 and 
older read, speak English During fiscal year 1958, 94% of 
Zunl aged 6-18 attended school, about equally divided 
between BIA, public, and mission schools Children at Ramah 
attend public school, many living at BIA dormitory* 



>vgmge fomlly_incoma - Among the Sower ectrn \!?Jf * 
New Mexico Source - Livestock and subsJstet"**^ 
with wage work on and off Indian lands. Zunl 
silversmiths, and also do excellent 1 bead work 
Navajo are principally sheep herders gnd day 
Trihnl income - Zunt have small tribal income "j 
leases and permits Ramah group 'are represent^ 
Navajo Tribal Council and participate in Navd|<> 



at Zuni presently staffed by two physicians, a 
8 graduate nurses including a public health 

worker (health), a dental assistant, and a sanitaria 
In fiscal year 1959 there were - 

43 beds available (average for year); 
751 admissions qnd 193 births In hospltq 

19 average daily inpatlent load; 
9, 874 outpatient visits. 

HEALTH Patients requiring specialized diagnostic and surok 

RESOURCES will be referred to the 200~bed PHS Hospital ancl t\ 

Center at Gallup, New Mexico, when It Is compU 
Sanitary engineering service from Area sanitation s 

OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: H^splfcaLcnce. at Federct I e 

be authorized at community hospitals: 215 bed Be, 

County Indian Hospital and 118-bed Batactn 

Methodist Hospital, both at Albuquerque, over 1 0< 

SPECIAL PROBLEMS: Environmental sanitation has roceJ 
attention at Zunl. Area sanitation staff has worke 
with the Tribal Council and BIA Field representciti 
matters, Including: 

T . Work on improvement and extension of 

for Zunl Pueblo proper; 
2 Development of olans for a community 

OTHER 3 Mosquito control through drainage and spra 

NOTES breeding areas; 

4. Enactment by Zunl Tribal Council of ord!n< 
regulating food establishments on the Pub! 

5 . Outline of the development of a ref us oo | 
system . 


Consolidated Ute Health Service Unit 

LOCATION: Southwest Colorado In Archuleta, La Plata, and 

Montezuma Counties. Adjoins the Ute Mountain Reservation 
on the west. Northern boundary runs about 10 miles south of 
and roughly parallel to U S Highway 160. Southern 
boundary Is Colorado-New Mexico State line. 
Principal settlements (1950 pop.) - Jgnacio (pop. 526); 
Redmesa (pop. 135); Bayfield (pop. 335), and small farming 
communities including Oxford, Tiffany, Allison, and LaBaca. 
T .Nearest off-reservation towns in Colorado (1950 pop,) - 

_ ', ,._._. Cortez (pop. 2,680) 72 miles from Ignacio; Durango (pop, 

RESERVATION 7,459) 25 miles and Pagosa Springs (pop, 1,379) 55 miles 

from Ignacio. 

RIA Field Office - Consolidated Ute Agency, Ignacio, Colo. 

LAND: Covers more than 300,000 acres. Principally high elevation 
open wooded grazing tracts with some irrigated and dry farm 
land. Considerable waste and barren areas. Non-Indian 
holdings checkerboard reservation. 


TRIBE: Predominantly Southern Ute 

POPULATION: 500 estimated in PHS service area in 1957 
569 enrolled tribal members in 1956 

CHARACTERISTICS: R|QQCJ quantum - 87% fully Indian in 1950? 
95% one-half or more Indian. 

Education - 60% of persons aged 45 and older read and speak 
English. 86% of Consolidated Ute children aged 6-18 in 
school in 1958, mostly in public school. Tribal Rehabilitation 
Plan provides a college scholarship fund. 

frnnnmic stntns find jiving rnnrlltinns - Marked change since 

, mid-1950's, largely through resources available to tribe as 

PEOPLE a group. Notable improvement in housing. Old homes 

remodeled and new homes built or purchased, all equipped 
with electricity and modern conveniences. Homes without 
running water and interior plumbing are now the exception; 
previously they had been the rule. Substantial monthly per 
capita payments to all eligible members of the tribe from 
tribal funds in recent years have placed the Southern Utes in 
a favorable financial position although they had been among 
the lower income groups in Colorado for many years Any 



reduction In future tribal Income and assets will have an 
adverse affect on almost every Southern Ute family. 
TrJhnl Income.- Substantial returns from oil, gas, mineral 
(coal and uranium) leases and royalties; lesser amounts from 
timber, lease of farm and range land, livestock, and business 
rentals. In July 1950, Court of Claims entered judgment on 
behalf of Confederated Bands of Ute Indians for restitution 
payment of lands taken from them by the Federal Government , 
Or this sum, the Southern Ute Tribe claim amounted to 5.4 
million dollars plus Interest. Funds are being used to finance 
a Tribal Rehabilitation Program which includes per capita 
payments and other benefits for the social and economic 
development of tribal members. 


INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES; Public Health Service Indinn Henjfh 
.GenlfiLat Ignaclo. Staff currently Includes a medical officer, 
dental officer, clinic nurse, dental assistant, and a sanitarian. 

OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: .Pu.bllcJie.alth nursing services provided 
on a half-time basis by the San Juan Basin District Health Unit 
through PHS contract with State of Colorado Department of 
Public Health. 

HEALTH Part-time medical care to Indians in the vicinity of Durango 

RESOURCES by local private physician through contract with PHS. 

Hospital and medical services available through Blue Cross- 
Blue Shield contract financed from tribal funds. Services In 
excess of those provided through this contract financed by 
PHS. Hospltallzation mainly at the 95-bed Mercy Hospital, 
Durango, 25 miles from Ignaclo; a/id at the 60-bed Southwest 
Memorial Hospital, Cortez, 72 miles from Ignaclo. 



Consolidated Ute Health Service Unit 


and UTAH 

LOCATION: Southwest corner Colorado; La Plata, Montezuma 
Counties. Extends southward into San Juan County, New 
Mexico. Allen Canyon scattered tracts are in San Juan 
County, southeast Utah, just west of major reservation . 
Principal settlement - Towaoc (1958 pop. est. 500), 
Nenrest off-reservation towns (1950 pop.) - Cortez, Colo, 
(pop. 2,680) Is 16 miles from Towaoc; Cortez City Commercial 
Air Field is 10 miles from Towaoc. Blandlng (pop. 1,177) and 
Monticello (pop. 1,172) are both in Utah within the Allen 
Canyon group trade area. 
RESERVATION BIA Field Office-Consolidated Ute Agency, Ignacio, Colo. 

LAND: Main reservation more than 533,000 acres, all tribally 
owned . Mostly elevated grazing and timberiand. Some 
waste land. Mineral resources include oil, gas, and uranium; 
all such subsurface assets are tribally owned. The Allen 
Canyon and White Mesa tracts in Utah to the west include 
12,000 acres in individual Indian ownership checkerboarded 
with non-Indian land. 


TRIBE: Predominantly Ute Mountain Ute 

POPULATION: 700 estimated in PHS service area In 1957 

(excludes Navajo in Utah) 
675 enrolled tribal members in 1955 

CHARACTERISTICS: ..Blood quantum- 100% fully Indian in 1950. 
HnmK - Until mid-1950's typical dwelling a tent, a one- 
room brush hut, or log house; 4-5 persons per unit. More 
recently many modern houses have been constructed; 
conveniences include electricity. 

THE dufltifiD - One-third unable to read English; ^w speak 

English fluently. Situation improved currently . 86/0 ot 
Consolidated Ute children aged 6-18 in school, 1958, mostly 
public school. Tribal scholarship fund available, 
km-fig* family income. - Economic status and living conditions 
maTkedlyirnprovedTirrce 1951 when increased tribal resources 
enabled high per capita payments to tribal members. Financial 
position raised from one of most depressed to one of mos 
favorable Indian groups. However, any reduction in future 
tribal income and assets will affect almost every Mountain Ute 
family whose earnings are limited to work at sheep and cattle 


and UTAH (continued) 

raising, subsistence farming, and wage labor. 
Tribai income - Recent development of oil, gas, and minerals 
(uranium) yields considerable Income. Lesser receipts from 
lease of grazing land. In July 1950, Ute Mountain Tribe 
received about 6.4 million dollars in settlement for land claims 
from Federal Government, Income to finance Rehabilitation 
Program providing per capita payments and other benefits for 
social and economic development of tribal members. 

* * * * * * 

INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: Public Health Service Indian Health 
Location, Towaoc, Colorado is a joint PHS and Ute Mountain 
Tribal Council operation. Tribe finances a full-time nurse and 
a part-time clerk. PHS finances three scheduled clinic 
sessions weekly by local private physician through contractual 
arrangement; includes emergency services to Indians in 
vicinity and care of students (mostly Navajo) at Towaoc 
Boarding School. Dental services twice monthly by dental 
officer and dental assistant from PHS Indian Health Center, 

HEALTH Ignacio, Colorado. Sanitarian comes to Towaoc from Ignaclo. 

RESOURCES Male public health nurse stationed at Shlprock, New Mexico, 

provides limited nursing services to Allen Canyon Utes and 
Nava]os living In Utah, 

OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: public health nursing services on half- 
time basis by San Juan Basin District Health Unit through PHS 
contract with State of Colorado Department of Public Health; 
In Utah, public health services provided to Indians as other 
citizens by Utah State Health Department. 
Medical and hospital care financed through contracts negotiated 
and financed by Ute Mountain Tribal Council: Inpatient 
hospltalization at 60-bed Southwest Memorial Hospital, Cortez, 
Colorado, 16 miles from Towaoc; professional medical services 
by local private physician of patient's choice. 


HEALTH STATUS: Tuberculosis a major problem, as are accidents 

SPECIAL OTHER; Environmental sanitation problems exist in water supply, 

PROBLEMS sewage disposal, storage of food, garbage and rubbish 

disposal . Significant progress made at Towaoc with 
installation of $100,000 water supply-distribution system, 
1958. Few roads, and roads that do exist, are In poor 
condition. Ure Mountain group exceedingly isolated. 


Jicarilla Health Service Unit 

LOCATION: Northwest New Mexico, principally in Rio Arrlba 
County but small portion In Sandoval County. Extends from 
Colorado-New Mexico border on north (where it adjoins 
Southern Ute Reservation), almost to Cuba, New Mexico on 
south. Carson National Forest lies along northwest border 
of Reservation, the Santa Fe National Forest to southeast. 
Principal setHements - The small communities of Dulce and 
Otero . 

THE Nearest ^ff-reservafion towns In New Mexico (1950 pop.) - 

RESERVATION Cuba (pop. 733), about 65 mile drive from Duice; Lumberton 

(pop. 350) 5 miles from Dulce; Pagosa Springs and Tapicitoes 
(pop 100) 30 miles away, 

BIA Field Office - Jicarilia Agency, Dulce, New Mexico 

LAND: Covers some 750,000 acres, tribally owned. Rugged open 
grazing and Hmberland. Continental Divide runs north and 
south through most of this reservation . 


TRIBE: Almost all Jicarilla Apache 

POPULATION: 1 ,200 estimated in PHS service area in 1957 
950 enrolled tribal members in 1950 

CHARACTERISTICS: Rlnod quantum - 90% fully Indian In 1950. 
Homes - A 1-2 room log house. Five persons per dwelling 
unit (median) . 

Education - Majority of Jicarilla saSd to lack grade school 
PEOPLE education in 1954. Over 10% of adults illiterate. Under 

new program, of 395 children aged 6 to 18 (In 1958), 18 
attended BIA boarding school, 347 attended public schools. 
Tribe has recently established a scholarship fund. 
Average family Income - Low. Source - Livestock, wool, 
farming, wage labor. 

; Tr|bn I Income.- Returns from oil and gas; timber stumpage 

fees and timber sales. Tribal income utilized to cover cost 
of tribal government and other services . 



INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: Public Health Service Indian 

Health Center at Dulce staffed by medical officer, public 
health nurse, clinic nurse, and sanitarian aide. Dental 
staff from PHS Indian Health Center, Ignaclo, Colorado, 
come to Dulce to provide oral health services on a part- 
time basis. This dental service will be expanded as the 
backlog of care among the younger Indians at Ignacio is 
reduced. Itinerant sanitary engineering service from 
Santa Fe. PHS Indian Health Station from October to May 
HEALTH at Otero. Indians requiring more than outpatient care 

RESOURCES referred to PHS Indian Hospital at Santa Fe, HO miles 


OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: -Hospital cafe of Federal expense 
Is authorized at community hospitals, mainly at the 95-bed 
Mercy Hospital, Durango, Colorado, about 100 miles from 
Dulce or Lumberton; also at 93-bed San Juan Hospital, 
Farmlngton, New Mexico, 85 miles from reservation 
(contingent upon completion of new highway under construe, 
tion) . 


HEALTH STATUS: Accidents were the chief cause of death at the 
Jicarilla Reservation in 1955 and 1956, 

OTHERi The Tribe Is actively engaged In the solution of some of 
the reservation's sanitation problems. With guidance and 
supervision from PHS Area sanitary engineering staff, several 
springs have been developed and protected for safe domestic 
cp FriAI water supplies In addition, under sponsorship of the Tribal 

PROBLEMS 0UnCaPriVy C nstructio " ^> 'fl *!bal 

This Is a mountainous region which experiences considerable 
snow in the w nter time and which has afternoon temperature 
change and wind downdrafts In the summer. Roads are often 
Impassable, and although BIA construction of new airfield 
at Dulce has recently been completed, air transportation of 
patients to a hospital Is still contingent upon favorable 
weather conditions . 


Mescalero Health Service Unit 

LOCATION: South central New Mexico, Ofrero County. In the 
center of the Lincoln National Forest. 
Principal settlements - Mescalero (1950 pop. 200) and the 
smaller communities of Carrrzo and Elk Silver. 
Manresf nff-reservntion frowns in New Mexico (1957 popo) - 
Alamogordo (pop 16,494) 30 miles from Mescalero; Carrizo 
(pop. 2,700) over 50 miles from Mescalero; Cloudcroft 
(popo 800) 23 miles; Tularosa (pop. 3,000) 17 miles, and 
THE Ruidoso (pop. 2,500) 20 mifesaway. 


BIA Field Office - MescaJero Agency, Mescalero, N. M. 

LAND; More than 460,000 acres, tribally owned. Some land 
used for subsistence truck farming, out major topography Is 
elevated open grazing land and forest timoerland. Reser- 
vation is the "roof top" of watershed for surrounding 
counties. Most water for irrigation and other purposes 
within a radius of 100 miles has its origin on this reservation. 


TRIBE: Largely Mescalero Apache 

POPULATION: 1,200 estimated in PHS service area in 1957 
1,050 enrolled tribal members in 1950 

CHARACTERISTICS: Blond quantum - 90% fully Indian In 1950; 
96% one-half or more Indian . 

Homes - Typical dwelling a 2-4 room frame house. Many 
built as part of reconstruction program beginning in 1936. 
4 persons per dwelling unit (median) . 1 .1 persons per room 
(median). Serious housing shortage, particularly at 

THE Mescaiero; many families live in tents with no utilities. 

PEOPLE Education - 93% of persons aged 6 and older read and speak 

English (1950). Most children attend public school, a few at 
BIA boarding school . 

Average family income - Among lower income groups In 
New Mexico. Source - Mainly stock raising; only a few 
families engaged In farming* Some employment in forestry, 
fire fighting and on~reservatlon construction projects,, 
Little off-reservation employments 

Income - Principally from timber sales. 



INDIAN HEALTH FACILITIES: .Public .Hftoith Service.. Indian 

Hospital. at- Mescalero staffed by two medical officers, six 
graduate nurses including one public health nurse. In 
1959 fiscal year there were - 

25 beds available (average for year); 
759 admissions and 62 births in the hospital; 

13 average daily inpatient load; 
7,685 outpatient visits. 

Sanitation and sanitary engineering services provided by 
staff of Area Office, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 

HEALTH OTHER HEALTH RESOURCES: Hospital core at Federal expense 

RESOURCES may be authorized at community hospitals, mainly at the 

215-bed Bernalillo County Indian Hospital and the 118-bed 
Bataan Memorial Methodist Hospital, both at Albuquerque, 
139 miles from Mescalero (patients are transported by 
airplane, In emergency situations), and the 36-bed Gerald 
Champion Memorial Hospital, Alamogordo, 30 miles from 
Mescalero, and the 10-bed Ruldoso-Hondo Valley Hospital, 
Ruidoso, 20 miles from Mescalero. 
Limited dental care and oral health services provided 
through PHS contract with local private dentists at Holly- 
wood and Alamogordo, New Mexico, 


HEALTH STATUS: Accidents and diseases of early infancy are 
leading causes of death at the Mescalero Reservation. 
Serious malnutrition among children. 

Sewage and garbage disposal an increasing problem 

DDrnc because trend toward population concentration around the 

PROBLEMS town of Mescalero. High elevation and heavy snows render 

the small Indian settlements here inaccessible during the 



General References 

Breed, Jack. Better Days for the Nava|os. The National 

Geographic Magazine, Vol. CXIV, No. 6, December 1958. 
Page 809. 

Hadley, J. Nixon Health Problems Among Navajo Indians, 

Public Health Reports, Vol. 71, No. 11, September 1955 
pp. 83] - 836. 

Kelley, William H. Indians of the Southwest. Bureau of Ethnic 
Research, Department of Anthropology, University of 
Arizona, Tucson, 1953. 129 pp. 

La Forge, Oliver. A PIctoral History of the American Indian. 
Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, 1956, 265 pp a 

Leighton, Dorothea and Kluckhohn, Clyde, Children of the 

People, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, T948. 277 pp 

Official State Highway Maps for information on mileage, topography, 

Southern Ute Tribe Q A Report to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs 
by the Southern Ute Tribe January 1, 1958, pp. 32 - 33. 

Stirling, Mathew E., et n al. Indians of the Americas National 
Geographic Society, Washington, D. C., 1955. 43] pp Q 

U., S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Interior 
and Insular Affairs Report with respect to ... an 
Investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs* Pursuant to 
H Res. 698. House Report No. 2503, 82d Cong., 2d sess. 
Washington, D. C., U. S. GovK Print. Off., 1953. 

U S Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Interior 
and Insular Affairs. Report with respect to . . . an 
Investigation of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Pursuant to 
H. Res. 89. House Report No. 2680, 83d Cong,, 2d sess. 
Washington, D C., U. S. Govt, Print. Off., 1954. 
576 pp. 

U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public 

Health Service, Division of Public Health Methods , Health 
Services for American Indians. Washington, D C., U. S 
Govt. Print. Off., 1957. 344pp. (Public Health Service 
Publication No, 531.) 


General References (continued) 

U. S Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Public 

Health Service, Division of Indian Health, Health Education 
Branch. Social Organization of the Indian Tribes by Basic 
Cultural Areas, Washington, D. C , 1956 9 pp mimeo- 

U. S. Department of Health, Education, andWelfare Public 

Health Service, Division of Indian Health, Health Education 
Broncho The Indians of New Mexico (prepared by Albuquer- 
que Sub-Area). Mimeographed sheets. 

U. S. Department of the Interior,, Bureau of Indian Affairs. 
Krug, J. A- The Navajo, A Long-Range Program for 
Nava|o Rehabilitation. Washington, D. C., U. S. Govt 
Print, Off., 1948. 51 pp, 

U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Indian Affairs, 

Underbill, Ruth, Here Come The Navajol Haskell Institute 
Print Shop, Lawrence, Kansas, 1953. 285 pp 

U. S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Navajo 
Agency, Young, Robert W 0/ editor,, The Navajo Yearbook. 
Washington, D, C 0/ U S. Govt. Print. Off., 1957 
353 pp