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KANSAS CITY, MO. PUBLIC LIBRARY 




AN INTRODUCTION TO 

THE 

LITERATURE OF 
BRITISH DOGS 




Other Works by Clifford L. B. Hubbard 

THE OBSERVER'S BOOK OF DOGS 

EVERYBODY'S DOGS 

WORKING DOGS OF THE WORLD 

DOGS IN BRITAIN 

How TO LIVE WITH A DOG 

THE PUZZLE BOOK OF DOGS 

IL LIBRO DEI CANI (In Italian) 

With Baron Leuhuscn 

HUNDAR (in Swedish) * 

With Brian Vesey- Fitzgerald and others 
THE BOOK OF THE DOG 




From the MS. f. fr. 616 : Bib. Nat., Paris 

GASTON DE FOIX WITH HIS HUNTSMEN 



AN INTRODUCTION 

TO THE 

LITERATURE OF 
BRITISH DOGS 

FIVE CENTURIES OF ILLUSTRATED DOG BOOKS 



BY 



CLIFFORD L. B. HUBBARD 



Published by the Author at 

PONTERWYD 

1949 



Made and Printed in Wales for the Author 
at Ehiwgoch, Ponterwyd, Cardiganshire, 
Wales, by The Castle Press, Aberystwyth. 
Set in Monotype 12 pt. Old Face Special 
on paper made by John Dickinson and Co, 



CONTENTS 

Page 

PREFACE v " 

I. EARLY HUNTING TREATISES . . . . 1 

II. THE ST. ALBANS BOOK 7 

III. DR. CAIUS' CONTRIBUTION 11 

IV. TURBERVILLE AND MARKHAM . . 15 

V. EDWARDS AND TAPLIN 25 

VL EGAN'S SPORTING AGE 33 

VII. JESSE, WALSH AND SHAW 37 

VIII. THE EFFECT OF DOG SHOWS . , . . 41 

INDEX 49 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Facing 
Page 
Frontispiece. Gaston de Foix 

Plate 1. Hunting the Fox with Raches , . . . 4 5 

Plate 2. John Caius 9 

Plate 3. Hare Hunting in the 17th Century 1213 
Plate 4. The First Dog Book in English . 16 

Plate 5, Reinagle's Water Spaniel . , 2021 

Plate 6, British Setters, by Sydenham Edwards 25 

Plate 7. Thomas Gosden's famous Buttons 28 29 

Plate 8. Richard Badham ThornhiU .. .. 32 
Plate 9. The English Setter in Laverack's Time 3637 
Plate 10. John Henry Walsh (" Stonehenge ") . . 41 
Plate 11. Vero Shaw's " Smasher " (Bulldog) 4445 



vi 



PREFACE 



THE dog has thrust its nose through the apertures 
of literature and sniffed its way into even the 
most comfortable passages of the classics, there to 
settle and receive homage as only a dog can. From 
Homer who loved dogs to Joyce who was terrified of 
them, dogs have been in our good books constantly, 
and as they are such an integral part of civilized life 
they will remain. 

The appearance of dogs in verse and prose has been 
the subject theme of many writers, and British dog 
lovers do not lack anthologies and appreciations the 
scholarly essays of A. Croxton Smith stand out above 
all. And Hesketh Hubbard has recently given us an 
invaluable study of the dog's appearance in art, com 
parable to the studies of the horse in art by Lida 
Fleitmann and Lionel Edwards. But no one has yet 
contributed on the vast literature of the dog in its own 
rights, that is, the literature completely or mainly 
devoted to the study of dogs. There is no doubt that 
serious breeders of dogs study the available books on 
dogs (the activities of dog club libraries point this out 
clearly enough, as only one example) ; and biblio 
graphers are well aware of the substantial number of 
dog books which existed in the Schwerdt, in the 
Lonsdale, and in the Tweedmouth collections (to name 
but three recently dispersed libraries). And yet as I 
say, we have nothing more than a rare article or two on 
the literature of British dogs to help us sort out the 
good from the bad dog books. 

It is because of this that I wrote this introductory 
essay, although it is presented as the first word on the 
subject rather than a later one. The order in which 



vu 



I have dealt with, the more important works is chron 
ological running through five centuries of books, about 
or appertaining to dogs. There are allusions to other 
works, of course (natural histories and agricultural 
books), and it has been necessary to mention the many 
foreign treatises which were the source of most of our 
early works. Taking a very broad view of the relation 
ship between British and French work, as an example, 
it is true perhaps to say with Denis Saurat that Chaucer 
only used French themes as Shakespeare used Mon 
taigne, but with the specialist literature of dogs it is 
plain enough that our first writers from Edward, 
Second Duke of York, to Turberville exploited the 
existing French treatises to the full . . . hence my 
frontispiece portrait of Gaston de Foix, being the 
unwitting principal author of our first book describing 
breeds of dogs. 



CLIFFORD L. B. HUBBARD. 
PONTERWTD, 2.6th November, 1948. 



vni 



I 

EARLY HUNTING TREATISES 

FROM even a rough chronological list of works in 
manuscript and in print dealing wholly or in 
part with the origin, history and uses of dogs it 
is apparent that little had been written prior to the 
late fourteenth century of any real value to the student 
of British dcgs. The most important earlier references 
to dogs occur quite casually, in various chronicles, and 
especially in the ancient laws and institutes* in which 
dogs often figured with some importance, though, 
of course, the earlier works are in most cases of immense 
historical and artistic interest, 

If we could but find them we would no doubt be 
interested in the codices of the thirteenth and earlier 
centuries, for these manuscripts would positively 
tell us much of the methods employed in their time in 
hunting with the aid of dogs, most of which animals 
were the progenitors of dogs universally used to-day for 
much the same purpose. Incidentally, the very early 
manuscripts on venery invariably mentioned the five 

or six contemporary varieties of hunting dogs 

and, most unfortunately for the student, as often 
ignored any breed which was not actually engaged in 
the chase. 

Until the time of the publication in Latin of the 
researches of the celebrated Dr. Caius in 1570 (which 
we shall examine presently) the very titles of the early 

*The Ancient Welsh Laws codified by Hywel Dda in the early tenth 
century set a defined value on each Welsh breed of dog. 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

contributions dealing with dogs and their uses reveal 
the enormous interest in sporting dogs shewn by the 
sportsmen of Europe generally and the princes and 
nobility of central Europe in particular. La Cbace 
du Cerf, c. 1250 and Guillaume Twici's Art de 
Fenerie, c. 1320, are exceedingly important hunting 
treatises in which various Hounds figure. What may 
be the first book in Spanish to deal with dogs, the 
Libro d,e la Monteria, written by Alphonso XI, c. 1350, 
was also one treating the sporting use of dogs. Two 
later works which were also written or dictated by 
reigning monarchs of the Middle Ages are the Geheimes 
Jagdbuch of Maximilian, c. 1499, and La Cbasse 
Roy ale written by Charles IX. By a coincidence the 
publication of these royal treatises appears to have 
been delayed very considerably, for although 
Maximilian's brief advice was in print by the turn 
of the fifteenth century Alphonso's 'Spanish epistle 
-was left unpublished until 1582, while Charles' French 
contribution remained on the publisher's shelf until 
1625. 

The latter half of the fourteenth century produced 
several manuscripts (some of which were exquisitely 
illuminated) of which the outstanding specimen is the 
Miroir de Plebus, an excellent example of craftsman 
ship and a truly representative piece of contemporary 
French hunting literature. This manuscript was 
based to a fair extent upon earlier works, some of 
which have been already mentioned in this chapter, 
including the Poeme sur la Cbasse (particularly the 
second part) begun by Gace de la Vigne in 1359 at 
Hereford, and possibly the book usually known as 



EARLY HUNTING TREATISES 

Le Roy Modus* (the authorship of which is on good 
evidence credited to Count Tancarville). However, 
the Miroir de Phtbvs contains so much that is original 
that it easily became the outstanding sporting work 
of the period. Its author was Comte Gaston de Foix, 
Vicomte de B6arn, also known as Gaston III (son of 
Gaston II) or, by virtue of his passionate love of the 
chase, Gaston Phebus. Froissart describes this 
noble as a " brave, violent, and magnificent repre 
sentative of the age of chivalry." Gaston de Foix was 
born in 1331 and died in 1391. In those sixty years 
he rescued the Dauphin during the notorious revolt 
of the Jacquerie in 1358 and was also victorious in 
a battle against the Comte d'Armagnac .... all this 
in between his terrific hunting expeditions with his 
wife (Agnes, sister of Charles the Bad) and his cele 
brated Hounds, of which Froissarfs Chronicles tells 
us he possessed no less than 1,600. It is singular 
that superlative warrior, noble and huntsman as was 
Gaston Phebus his famous treatise has become the 
greatest hunting book of all times, and the parent of 
the very earliest English contribution on venery. 

So much then for the foreign literature of the dog 
upon which almost all the early treatises on dogs 
published in the English language were founded. 

It is at this point in our survey that we arrive at 
what is the very first work on hunting to be written in 
English the celebrated Master of Game by Edward, 
second Duke of York. 

As far as the manuscript is concerned the few 
cynological writers who appear to know anything 

*The full title is Le Livre du Roy Modus et de la Royne Ratio. 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

worth, while about it agree that it was written between 
the years 1406 and 1413, although for several reasons 
it was not published until as late as 1904, having 
remained a practically inaccessible manuscript for 
some five centuries of time. This " litel symple 
book/' of which only nineteen written copies exist, 
was almost a literal translation of the Miroir de Phebus 
(sometimes called Livre de Cbasse], to which adequate 
reference has already been made. However, of the 
thirty-six chapters of the Master of Game five are the 
original work of Edward himself, and as such afford us 
considerable information on the hunting methods 
of Plantagenet England. Furthermore, Edward dis 
creetly omitted many passages of the parent work 
which were likely to offend those not conversant with 
the more severe forms of hunting, and in the fifteen 
or twenty years which elapsed between the time when 
he received his copy of Gaston de Foil's work and the 
completion of his own he was also able to adjust quite 
a few material points in his translation. 

Now for lack of energy to investigate into the 
authorship of the Master of Game it appears that 
almost every well-known English canine writer (from 
Jesse to Elaine, from Vero Shaw and Dalziel to Wynn, 
and even through the present century to several 
authors in 1945, one of which should certainly have 
known better) has attributed this book to Edmund de 
Langley instead of to Edward, second Duke of York 
to the father instead of the son. Although Edmund 
was an " easy-going man of pleasure " who " wolde 
to hunte and also to hawekyng " (according to the 
Dictionary of National Biography, vol. xxxii, p. in) 




MS.f.fr. 616 : Bib. Nat., Pa. 



PLATE 1. HUNTING THE FOX WITH RACHES 



This illustration is taken 
from one of the illuminations 
of the celebrated treatise by 
Gaston de Foix. The manu 
script was written in the 
fourteenth century but the 
illuminations were probably 
added about 1440. The illus 
tration gives its a good idea of 
how Raches or " Running 
Hounds " were used in that 
time. Here we see four and a 
half couples of mixed white 
and tan Hounds. Four couples 
have apparently been slipped 
by the braconnier (extreme 
left), who carries the coupling 
leashes on his arm. The 
Rachys mentioned by Dame 
Juliana Berners were of the 
same type, and it was from 
hounds such as these that the 
English Foxhound has de 
scended. 



EARLY HUNTING TREATISES 

there is no excuse for even mentioning him in con 
nection with the book, for although he held the office 
of " Master of Game " he had nothing to do with the 
sporting work of that title. The author was quite 
definitely Edward Plantagenet (Edward of Norwich), 
grandson on his father's side of Edward III and, on 
the maternal side, of Pedro the Cruel, and himself the 
holder of the office of " Master of Game " to his 
uncle, Henry IV. 

We have not the space here to deal more than 
briefly with the Master of Game and its author, but 
it is interesting to note that the manuscript was 
written while Edward was imprisoned in Pevensey 
Castle for plotting against the King, not long after 
which he redeemed his name on the field at Agincourt, 
paying the supreme price. 

As already stated the manuscript remained un 
published for some 500 years ; and had it not been for 
William A. and- F. Baillie-Grohman it would in all 
probability be as inaccessible to-day as it was before. 
The Baillie-Grohmans edited an excellent edition 
in 1904 based mainly upon the Cottonian MS. 
Vespasian B.XII in the British Museum and the 
(parent) MS. f.fr. 616 in the Bibliotheque Nationale. 
Both the first and second Baillie-Grohman editions 
of Master of Game are scarce, the first excessively so : 
this was a limited issue of 600 copies (half of which 
were reserved for the British Isles and the rest for sale 
abroad) the first ten of which were priced at 30 each, 
having forty-five exquisite plates and numerous other 
illustrations. The volume certainly represents a 
masterpiece of research, literary honesty and devoted 

5 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

toil, and its appendix and bibliography add to its value 
as an important document on the uses, values and 
history of medieval British sporting dogs. 

Of other fifteenth century contributions to the 
literature of the dog only two are outstanding, the later 
one of which is Maximilian's Ge'heimes Jagdbuch, 
c. 1499, a short rather pompous treatise which, of 
course, has no material bearing on the dogs of the 
British Isles. However, the slightly earlier work is 
quite another matter, for this is the famous Boke of 
St. Albans compiled by Dame Juliana Berners. 



II 

THE ST. ALBANS BOOK 

IT is especially interesting to note that the Boke of 
St. Albans is one of the now priceless eight English 
incunabula printed by the anonymous school 
master of St. Albans ; works comparable with even 
those from the press of William Caxton. This book 
is supposed to have been written in 1481 but probably 
much earlier, although it was not printed until 1486 
when its original published title was Tbf Boke of 
Haukyng and Huntyng, being one of the earliest of 
English printed books. Certainly it is the first 
'printed book in the English language in which dogs 
feature, and remained the only one for close on a 
century .... a second edition appeared in 1496 by 
Wynkyn de Worde, and a score or more further 
editions have since succeeded the original. Dame 
Juliana Berners* is supposed to have been the prioress 
of Sopwell nunnery, but the records of the priory for 
this period are incomplete consequently little is 
known of the authoress of this metrical work, the first 
English book dealing with the then recognized breeds 
of dogs in the British Isles, though she is generally 
claimed to be the daughter of Sir James Berners who 
was beheaded in 1388 for his activities against 
Richard II. 

The 1486 edition of this work dealt only with 
hawking, hunting and coat-armour, but the second 

*A berner was originally one who fed bread to dogs, and who in the 
time of the authoress held office as a huntsman or kennel man of some 
standing. 

7 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

edition of ten years later included an added treatise 
on fishing . . . this probably an addition of Wynkyn 
de Worde's in order to make a general sporting guide 
of the book. Of the three original subjects dealt 
with by the authoress it is probably only the section 
on hunting which can honestly be said to be her own 
original compilation ; and even so the authority for 
this mainly rests on her signature at the end of the 
chapter (folio f. iiii, 1881 fascimile edition), "Explicit 
Dam Julyans Barnes in her boke of huntyng." 

The Boke of St. Allans is not particularly illuminating 
on British dogs of the fifteenth century, nor is it es 
pecially embracing in its classification of the known 
breeds, but what it obviously lacks in these respects 
it balances with quaint prescriptions for the hunt 
and many a pertinent pen picture of contemporary 
dog types .... the latter in some cases appearing 
to be more the ideal than the actual. The poetic 
description of the Greyhound (reverse of f . iiii) 
entitled "The propreteis of a goode Grehound,"* 
from which Caius is believed to have drawn the 
famous portrait first published in Conrad Gesner's 
Icones Animalism, 1553, is given below : 

A Grehounde shulde be heded like a Snake. 

and necked like a Drake. 

Foted like a Kat. 

Tayled like a Rat. 

Sydid lyke a Teme. 

Chyned like a Berne. 

*The variation in the spellings " Grehound " and " Grehownd " 
are typical of the period and consequently of as little importance as the 
nominative plural " houndis," " houndes " or " houndys." As the 
passage given above has very seldom been quoted correctly I have 
copied it verbatim. 




By courtesy of the Master and Fellows of Gonvttle ani Caius College^ Cambridge 



PLATE 2. JOHN CAIUS 

John Caius (sometimes known as John Kays or Keys) wrote what 
became the first book devoted entirely to dogs. Caius was the 
second founder of the Caius (later Gonville and Caius} College, 
Cambridge, and was also physician to Edward VI, Mary and 
Elizabeth, successively. This portrait is taken from the book 
Dogs in Britain, published by Macmillan and Co. Ltd. 



THE ST. ALBANS BOOK 

The Greyhound was, of course, extremely well known 
in fifteenth century England. Consequently when 
Dame Berners gave her list of breeds (one cannot be 
sure whether the list is her own or a space-filler lifted 
from another source by the printer) it began " Firft 
ther is a Grehownd, a Baftard. a Mengrell. a Maftyfe. 
a Lemor. a Spa/nyell. Rachys. Kenettys. Teroures. 
Bocheris houndes. Myddyng dogges. Tryndeltayles. 
and Prikherid curris./ and fmale ladies popis that beere 
a Way the flees and dyue/ris fmale fawlis". 

Now exactly what all these dogs were we do not yet 
know, though several can be recognized easily enough. 
Certainly some of the breeds Dame Berners listed so 
long ago are with us in the British Isles still : the 
Greyhound, the Mastiff, the Spaniel group, and many 
Terriers, and " Tryndeltayles " .... by which she 
probably meant long-tailed Sheepdogs such as Collies 
and Welsh Sheepdogs. These are not, of course, 
purely native breeds but they have been in the British 
Isles for a very long time ; in any case it is significant 
enough that Greyhounds and Mastiffs were widely 
known as such even five centuries ago, and that they 
took the lead in the first list of known breeds of dogs in 
Britain at the time. The Boke of St. Albans table of 
breeds was widely accepted, and by the sixteenth 
century it was well known ; and fragment though it 
was it nevertheless remained the sole printed con 
tribution on dogs in English until 1576 when Fleming 
published his " translation " of the Caius manuscript 
on British dogs. Beyond this it is only fair to bear in 
mind that, although the Fleming treatise went a good 
deal further in its classification and cataloguing of 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

dogs, when Shakespeare introduced dogs into his 
King Lear (Act III, Scene VI, 1. 71), 1606, he founded 
his reference on the Berners list : " Mastiff, greyhound, 
mongrel grim, Hound or spaniel, brach or lym ; Or 
bobtail tike or trundle-tail ". 



10 



Ill 

DR. CAIUS' CONTRIBUTION 

THE next work treating of dogs of the British 
Isles was one written in Latin by the learned 
scholar Dr. Johannes Caius (sometimes known 
as John Kays or Keys). This treatise was written by 
Caius expressly for his friend Conrad Gesner, the 
naturalist, for inclusion in the latter's large work on 
natural history. The treatise was also published 
separately, in 1570, under the title De Canibus Britan- 
nicis (the full title is, as was then customary, much 
longer but this is the correct abbreviated title). This 
contribution was based in part upon information given 
to Caius by sporting gentlemen known to him at Court, 
and represented a revision of a letter written to Gesner 
in 1565 on the same subject. Considerable informa 
tion on British and foreign dogs had been worried out 
and put into this treatise by Caius, and accordingly 
it was accepted as a standard work on dogs and a sub 
stantial improvement on the Boke of St. Albans. 

Caius himself was universally recognized as a scholar 
of the first grade. His contributions to medical 
science were valuable, and he was the physician-in- 
chief to Queen Elizabeth. Moreover, he was the 
second founder of the Gonvil^e and Caius College, 
Cambridge, and Master of the College from 1559 to 

1573- 
In his treatment of dogs Caius went as far as he 

could, and begged Gesner not to publish his earlier 
correspondence on the subject until his study had been 

II 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

completed as far as possible. However, in 1570, the 
published " winding up " of his finished letter to 
Gesner reads : " I have waded in this worke to your 
contentation, which delay hath made somewhat better 
and after witte more meete to be perused." The 
final list of " Englifhe dogges " drawn up by Caius 
was guardedly edited, as Caius found (as even present- 
day authors find) that the majority of contemporary 
breeds had several synonymy. However, Caius classi 
fied his various dogs into groups according to their 
uses and nomenclature* ; and even if this was not 
perhaps as scientifically correct as it might have been, 
it was at least far more satisfactory than the classifica 
tion by shade of colour (!) carried out two centuries 
later by Pye in his The Sportsman's Dictionary. But 
in order to study Caius' work and to appreciate the 
value of his contribution it is necessary (unless the 
student is quite at home with Cams' original Latin) 
to employ the " translation " of the treatise, as pub 
lished by Fleming in 1576 called Of Englifhe Dogges. 

The De Canibus Britannicis of Johannes Caius and 
the Of Englifhe Dogges by Abraham Fleming came to 
us practically hand in hand and they are even still as 
indivisible to the unlettered student as they were in 
Elizabethan times. To divorce one from another is 
neither practicable nor desirable, for whilst Fleming's 
work is so much his own that it can with some reason 
be regarded as an independent contribution, it should 
not be forgotten that it was intended as an interpreta 
tion of the master-work of Caius . . . the fact that it 
is an interpretation rather than a literal translation 

*See Dogs in Britain (1948), p. 14, for classification. 

12 




From the author's collection 



PLATE 3. HARE HUNTING IN THE 17th CENTURY 



Signed bv both the designer and engraver this plate p/ " Hare 
Hvnting'" by Francis Barlow and W. Hollar, published in 
London in 1671, captures the intense excitement of the chase. 
The activity of the sixteen couples of Harriers, the fortunate 
riders and ^the four not so fortunate foot-runners promise the hare 
a lively run. The original plate bears a subscribed quatrain : 
" The timorous Hare, when Started from her feat, 
by bloody hounds, to faue her life soe Sweet, 
With Seuerall Shifts, much terrour and great payne x 
Yet dyes fhe by their mouths, all proves but vayne ** 



DR. CAIUS' CONTRIBUTION 

does not detract from its close kinship with the parent 
work, or its extreme value as an instrument of invest 
igation of the master-hand. 

Therefore the observation of Cains on the dogs of 
the British Isles may best or most easily be followed 
by a study of Fleming's book. The title page of this 
famous little work, the first printed English book 
devoted entirely to dogs, reads : Of Englifhe Dogges, 
the diuerfities, the names, the natures , and the properties. 
It claims to be " A Short Treatife written in Latine 
by lohannes Caius of late memorie, Doctor of Phificke 
in the Uniuerfitie of Cambridge, And newly brawne 
[drawne C.H.] into Englishe by Abraham Fleming 
Student." The books have, it appears, been " Scene 
and allowed. Imprinted at London by Rychard 
Johnes, and are to be folde over againft S. Sepulchres 
Church without Newgate, 1576." It is not generally 
known that Fleming in his verbose and extravagant 
inscription dedicated the work to " his especial patron, 
E. Perne, most worthy Dean of Ely Cathedral church," 
who, as our author reveals, " shone on me as a ruddy 
star " . . . " This fact, by Jove, does not move me 
lightly," Fleming added in gratitude ! 

The original Latin version was reprinted time and 
time again, yet poor Fleming's devoted labours 
remained in the first edition until as late as 1880 when 
Bradley's of the Strand issued an edition which has 
since been reproduced in facsimile in the U.S.A. as 
late as 1946. 

It is interesting to see in his preamble that Caius 
stated : 

13 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

A gentle kinde, seruing the game, 
All English Dogges A homely kind apt for sundry 

be eyther of, necessary, vses. 

A currishe kinde, meete for many 

toyes. 

The " gentle kinde " naturally included the various 
sporting breeds then in the British Isles ; the " homely 
kind " (note variation in spelling see footnote, p. 8) 
were mainly " The shepherds dogge (and) The mastiue 
or Bandogge. These two are the principall " ; and 
the " currishe kinde " was the only group willing to 
embrace the canine miscellany that remained, such as 
Wapps, Turnespets and Dauncers. It is worth observ 
ing from this brief catalogue that the Sheepdog of the 
period (the " Shepherd's Dogge or Canis pastoralis ") 
was regarded as superior to the mongrel yet of a lower 
station than the sporting dogs and some pet dogs then 
in the British Isles. 

The first translation of this famous table of breeds 
into Welsh was published in 1858 from Denbigh. 
This was in the article " Ci, Cwn " in the second 
volume of T Gwyddoniadur Gymreig, edited by John 
Parry of Bala. Parry went to considerable length to 
interpret Caius correctly and in a generous survey of 
the history of British and foreign dogs even translated 
breed names into Welsh, some, I feel certain, for the 
first time. The entire Caius table is translated ; of 
the Welsh breed names " Mastiffgi ". strikes the scholar 
as a poor attempt (Sir John Rhys of Ponterwyd would 
certainly have done better than that), but the remain 
der are widely accepted and used wherever the Welsh 
language is employed. 

H 



IV 
TURBERVILLE AND MARKHAM 

EUROPEAN hunting books were, of course, 
being published in Caius 5 time. Few of these, 
concern us however, for they, like the earlier 
works, are mainly devoted to the rules of the chase, 
the seasons in which beasts might be hunted, the horn 
music to be played and the instruments to be em 
ployed : what dogs enter their pages are principally 
restricted to some rather ponderous Hounds (named 
according to colour or locality), the ubiquitous and 
inevitable Greyhounds, and various Spaniels, mainly 
Dutch, German, French and Italian breeds. Few 
British breeds feature in the foreign books of the six 
teenth and earlier centuries. 

Occasionally, however, chance references occur to 
British dogs, but few prove to be accurate. We have 
not the opportunity to mention more than a single 
example but it is typical of the period. This occurs 
in one of the drawings by Stradanus published in the 
Fenationes of 1578, engraved by the Galle family, but 
drawn probably about 1570. The plate's -legend 
describes rabbiting with the aid of the " swift English 
small dog," and shews four of the " breed " engaged in 
the hunt a fifth dog which apparently has had enough 
for the day sits on a horse's crupper while rider and 
mount return home ! Another dog is leaping towards 
its seat ready for home . . . the postillion transport 
of these dogs suggests that Stradanus had been advised 
that small Beagles (Pocket Beagles) were carried that 

15 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

way in England (though this custom is about all that is 
English in the picture). The importance of the 
picture (one of the large collection formed by Baillie- 
Grohman and reproduced in his Sport in Art) to us, 
however, is in the fact that although armed no doubt 
with some information on the " swift English small 
dog " Stradanus, like Lonicer, Hans Bols, Aldrovandus, 
and many others, nevertheless portrayed the dogs 
according to his own conception, with the result that 
they resemble some Dachshund-Pinscher crossbred 
rather than the sixteenth century Beagle. All five 
dogs are drawn in the typically generous Flemish 
style, as podgy a set of pups as one could find in any 
interior scene by any artist of that particular genre. 
The lesson of this example lies in the importance of not 
placing too great faith in the delineations of any breeds 
of dogs (especially in the early schools) executed by 
non-native artists. 

One of the earliest illustrated English books on 
hunting came out about this time. This is The Noble 
Arte of Venerie or Hunting, by George Turberville, 
published in 1575. Itself " stuft up with more Errors 
than Truths/ 5 as Blome a century later described it, 
the book has been wrongly described more consistently 
than any other English sporting work. The short title 
is The Art of Venerie, and it is often quoted thus, but 
the date and author usually described it, 1576 and 
Turbervile, respectively, are incorrect. The book 
has partly caused its own mischief, as apart from an 
almost concealed colophon which reveals it was 
almost certainly printed in June 1575 it bears none 
of the information usually printed on a title page. 

16 



theaiuer fities 
ft e nrfur*s,inrf tbe p 

A Short 
Treattfertttcn 

bj! Johannes CafUs flf Ifife HttUtO 



Scene and allowed. 

f Imprinted atLondon 

re fofo 




PLATE 4. THE FIRST DOG BOOK IN ENGLISH 

Having been " Scene and allowed " the first dog book printed in 
English duly made its appearance in 1576, being the modified 
translation by Abraham Fleming of the book by John Cains. 
This illustration is of the title page of Fleming's book, It is to-day 
excessively scarce and fetches an auction price many times that oj~ 
the original Latin work by Caws* 



TURBERVILLE AND MARKHAM 

Sometimes it is found alone, but generally it is bound 
together with. Turberville's The Booke of Faulconrie or 
Hawking, 1575 t ^ ie second editions of these two com 
pilations (1611) are also generally bound together. 
As The Noble Arte of Venerie or Hunting has little to 
say on dogs of the British Isles, and is practically a 
word for word translation of the French work La 
Venerie > by du Fouilloux* (1560-1), it is of relatively 
small importance to us. Besides, as the one-tenth of 
Turberville's book which was not written originally 
by du Fouilloux is (or at least suspiciously appears to 
be) the work of Carcano, Carsyon, Glamorgan, Malo- 
pin, Artelouche and Vicentino, it can hardly lay claim 
to being a true account of hunting in Britain ! . . . 
as an arch-cribber, Turberville did much to further 
harm the already degenerate literary morals of the 
time. 

About the turn of the sixteenth century we find 
another instance of where a French work is published 
in English still retaining its title. This is the Maison 
Rustique of Stevens and Liebault, which, in 1600, 
was issued as Maison Rustique by Richard Surflet . . , 
in this case more a translation above board, however, 
than an unblushing plagiarization as in Turberville's 
instance. Incidentally, the Surflet work was issued 
again in 1616 under the editorship of that prolific 
hack-writer Gervase Markham, and with the sub- title 
of The Country Farme. On approaching Markham's 

* Jacques du Fouilloux, whose La Vdnerie became a " Sportman's 
Bible'* in several languages, is famous as the jovial sportsman and poet, 
gallant and scallywag, who when welcoming his King on passing thru his 
province turned out with no less than fifty of his sons behind him one 
of whom was his legitimate heir ! 

17 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

peak period (about 1620) we find a series of indirect 
references to dogs of the British Isles appears in a work 
now exceedingly rare and seldom found in a sports 
man's library, namely, A Treatife and Difcourfe of the 
Laws of the Foreft, by John Manwood, published 
1598. 

This book, which Schwerdt described as " The first 
treatise of English Forest Laws, and invaluable to 
students of ancient sport " in addition to having been 
a good friend to Shakespeare as a source of forest lore 
has proved a veritable mine of information on the use 
and misuse of British dogs from the time of Canute 
until (in its fourth edition) Queen Anne. Manwood 
was a Justice of the New Forest, and the esteem in 
which his work is still held has proved him to have been 
a most careful writer. The author's copy of this work, 
is of the second edition, that is, the 1615 issue, having 
twenty-five chapters instead of the original twenty. 
The three chapters on " Of keeping of dogges within a 
foreft " (itself having twelve sections), " Of Hawking 
and Hunting within the foreft," and " Which are 
beasts of foreft, or beasts of venerie " reveal a wealth of 
detail on the ancient custom of expeditating and 
hambling dogs likely to pursue the kings' game in 
order to prevent their doing damage. Greyhounds 
and Mastiffs were particular sufferers under these 
excessively harsh laws. A study of Manwood's ex 
cellent work is commended to any assiduous student 
of the history of the British dog. 

Now it is a strange fact, but one which nevertheless is 
painfully apparent, that after the work of Fleming in 
1576 not a single English dog book appeared until 

18 



TURBERVILLE AND MARKHAM 

1800 an unbridged gap of two and a quarter centuries. 
In both the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries a 
few contributions on dogs appeared, it is true, and, of 
course, a good number of country-life and sporting 
works in which dogs were featured came from the 
presses of Paris, Leipzig, Niirnberg and Madrid, but 
none of these was a specific treatise on dogs in English. 
The Cynographia Curios a* of Paullini, first published 
in 1685, goes a long way towards being an exhaustive 
treatise on dogs, their physiology, classification and 
breeds, management, and uses, but has little on British 
dogs further than Fleming. 

A few dogs of importance to us appear during the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries from rather 
unexpected sources, namely, Topsail's The Historic of 
Four-footed Beastes (1607), Aldrovandus 5 Quadmpedibus 
(three volumes of his great work on natural history, 
1638-67), Cirino's De Natura et Sohrtia Canum 
(1653), an anonymous Book of Beasts (1665) consisting 
of illustrations only, RiedePs Icones Animalium (an 
important work of 1780), and the excellently illustrated 
history of British Quadrupeds (1790), so famous for 
the exquisite and almost cynologically accurate wood 
cuts by the Newcastle engraver, Thomas Bewick. 

In addition to the references to some British types 
by foreign naturalists, there are many others to be 
found (by the diligent searcher) in the annals and 
chronicles of travellers, historians, and diarists, such as 

*This rare book was apparently unknown to Ash and Watson. It 
certainly deserves a translation* for the wealth of information in it is 
largely original and of importance. This is the first book to my know 
ledge to refer to the Dachshund by name, antedating Ash's reference 
to an eighteenth century work by sixty-eight years. 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

Holinshed, Hentzner, Nichols, Stow, Blount, Crouch 
and Strutt (though the latter should not be relied 
upon too much), and, of course, the inimitable Pep7s, 
who mentions dogs far more often than is general!/ 
realized. All these writers should be consulted closely 
in any study of the more vulgar forms of " sport " 
in which British dogs played an important part ; from 
Queen Elizabeth to Queen Anne, bull- bear- and horse- 
baiting was carried out extensively in England, and as 
Mastiffs and Bulldogs had a high value during this 
morally degenerate age, the contemporary historians 
should certainly not be overlooked. However, the 
point in referring to these naturalists and chroniclers 
of the late sixteenth to the early nineteenth centuries 
lies in emphasizing the fact that although not a single 
English book solely on dogs appeared between 1575 
and 1800, the torn fabric of canine literary history 
may be patched in a fashion provided the student is 
assiduous enough. Even the travelling minstrel may 
become a source of information, as with John Taylor, 
alias " His Majesty's Water Pot/'* whose account of 
hunting published in the Pennyles Pilgrim (i6ae) 
throws light on the Scottish Deerhound, or as Taylor 
calls it, the " strong Irish Greyhound". 

If in studying the history of British dogs the student 
is able to keep a critical eye on him, Gervase Markham 
will be found a considerable source of information (and 
amusement) on British sporting dogs. The danger of 
Markham lies in his having copied, and believed, much 

'Making allowance for the frank humour of the period I am inclined 
to the belief that Taylor was His Majesty's Water Poet rather than 
His Majesty's Water Pot. The date 16t& which is usually given for 
his work is not correct. 1 y 

20 




From the author's celled ion 



PLATE 5. REINAGLE'S WATER SPANIEL 



From this J. Scott engraving of a painting by P. Reinagle, 
A.R.A., we see the Spaniel used bv wildfowlers of the time was 
much like the Springer Spaniel, except that the coat was rather 
curlv. In the coloured copy from which this illustration is made 
the 'dog is a rich liver and white. Although it is generally de 
scribed as being from Taplins The Sportsman's Cabinet 
(1803-4) this is one of the original twenty-eight Reinagle plates, 
which was omitted in later issue of the book. 



TURBERVILLE AND MARKHAM 

from early writers concerning dogs : his output was so 
enormous and Ms caprices so energetically applied, that 
it is not an easy matter to sift the wheat from his chaff. 
An author and poet, even in the reign of Queen 
Elizabeth, " G.M.," as he signed many of his editions, 
shewed a keen interest in country sports, and from 
1595, when he " reduced into a better method " The 
Book of St. Albans } for at least forty years he turned 
out many revisions and compilations on varied rural 
subjects, from Countrey Contentments (1611) to The 
Art of Archerie (1634). His most important works to 
us are the Countrey Contentments (consisting of the 
arts of riding, hunting and hawking Ash's date of 
1615 is really of the third edition), Hunger's Prevention ; 
or the whole Arts of Fowling by Water and Land (1621), 
and an undated thumb volume, The Young Sports- 
man's Instructor. According to Harte, Markham, 
whose thefts were innumerable, had stolen " some 
very good things, and in great measure preserved their 
memory from perishing". It is ironic that hard-up- 
and-happy Markham's work paid little dividends 
enough in his time, and yet to-day his The Gentle- 
man y s Acadamie commands a price of ^150. 

Markham appears to have sown the seeds of a vast 
crop of general sporting books which one might term 
" Sportsman's Companions " ; these appeared from 
the third quarter of the seventeenth well into the nine 
teenth century ; some remained in their first editions, 
yet others proved immensely successful. As the 
majority of the earlier books of this group do not 
treat the British breeds in any detail, and reveal little 
that was not already known of their origin and history. 

21 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

it is not intended here to more than very briefly men 
tion the few outstanding worts of the group. 

Without doubt the most successful book in English 
in the 1670*5 was The Gentleman's Recreation by- 
Nicholas Cox, first published in 1674. This was mainly 
a well assorted series of extracts from earlier writers, 
English and French, " rectified by the Experience of 
the most skilful Artists of our Times " (sic) compiled 
by Cox when he was not much of a naturalist, but well 
versed as a publisher " over against FurnivaFs Inn 
Gate in Holborn". Cox was one of the first British 
writers to advocate the use of " a different Hound 
for every chase," and although his descriptions of his 
dogs appear to have originated out of the imaginations 
of Turberville and Markham the book contains much 
good sense. 

Another The Gentleman's Recreation appeared in 
1686 this book edited by and printed for Richard 
Blome. Cox's book of the same title saw its third and 
much enlarged edition come out in this year, but the 
two books sold well enough nevertheless. Blome 
only edited his work it is true, but he edited it well, 
and, moreover, with the eighty-seven plates, three of 
which were designed by Francis Barlow,* presented 
English readers with a well-illustrated and fairly com 
prehensive work in which horsemanship, hawking, 
hunting, fowling, fishing and agriculture are dealt with, 
in two main parts ... a third part on the forest laws 
was added to the second edition (1709). Blome spent 

* Reproductions "of plates designed by Barlow have also been 
published by Watson in The Dog Book, (1906), Baillie-Grohman in 
Sport in Art (1919), and Ash in Dogs : Their History and Development 
(1927) and The Practical Dog Book (1930). 

22 



TURBERVILLE AND MARKHAM 

four years preparing his volume, and it is to his credit 
that he engaged Barlow to design several of the illustra 
tions, thus raising the artistic level of the British 
sporting book to that of foreign publications. Bar 
low's most famous animal etchings are those of which 
most perished in the Great Fire of London in 1666 
(the Aesop's Fables, published that very year), but 
another scarce series is the twelve plates entitled 
Severall Wayes of Hunting, Hawking and Fishing accord 
ing to the English Manner, published in 1671, of which 
five were probably engraved by W. Hollar the entire 
set is reproduced in half size in Sport in Art (1919, pp. 
198-209). 

Now, although some sporting dogs of the British 
Isles appeared fairly regularly in text and illustration 
during the rest of this period (that is, until 1800), it 
would be quite impossible to treat either them or the 
publications in which they appear at length, and so 
we must pass over the general sporting books of Giles 
Jacob, Thomas Fairfax, Arthur Stringer, William 
Blane and W. A. Osbaldiston without further reference. 
The pamphlet of a half-dozen " instructional letters " 
of John Gardiner (the forerunner of several similar 
publications), and the verbose volumes by " Ex 
perienced Gentlemen (of Dublin)," " A Gentleman 
of Sussex/' " A Country Squire " and " A Person of 
Quality " must also be neglected in a book of this 
compass. The only two publications of the eighteenth 
century as yet not mentioned and at the same time 
deserving recognition as having had a lasting influence 
on the use of British sporting dogs are the Field 
Sports (" Humbly addressed to H.R.H. the Prince ") 

23 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

of Somerville (1742), and the better-known Thought? 
on Hunting, a series of letters to young sportsmen by 
Peter Beckford (1781). Somerville is probably the 
most frequently quoted poet in hunting literature, and 
his The Chact (1735) has provided a source of material 
for many a sporting anthology. Beckford's book 
became a hunting classic and ran into many English 
and foreign editions. Beckford hunted as well as 
wrote and had a fine pack of Foxhounds, which was 
painted by Sartorius the picture (reproduced in 
Shaw-Sparrow's A Book of Sporting Painters) shews 
twenty-one and a half couples and the hunt Terriers. 




From the author's collection 

PLATE 6. BRITISH SETTERS, BY SYDENHAM EDWARDS 

Sydenham Edwards, son of a Welsh choir-master and organist, was 
responsible for the most important dog book of the nineteenth century. 
His Cynographia Britannica (from which this illustration is taken) 
was the first British dog book to have coloured plates. The work 
was never completed and is extremely scarce. Although the book itself 
is dated 1800 (it was originally issued in parts) the plate dates vary, 
that of the Setters being 1805. The three breeds above are the 
English (foreground), Irish (centre) and Gordon (or Scottish) Setters. 



V 
EDWARDS AND TAPLIN 

THE opening of the nineteenth century im 
mediately presented what has now become 
one of the rarest of dog books printed in the 
English language, and, moreover, one of the most 
important of all books on dogs in the British Isles, 
This work is the Cynograpbia Britannica by Sydenham 
Edwards (son of a Welsh organist), published in 1800* 
the first dog book to be illustrated by coloured 
plates. The set of twelve coloured engravings were 
drawn from life by Edwards and " Coloured Under His 
Immediate Inspection". The plates are, of course, 
the most vital feature of the book ; indeed they are of 
the highest order, considering the period and its 
difficulties. The artist has not only escaped from the 
conventional treatment and pose, but arranged his 
subjects in delicately balanced groups after the style 
of vignettes. It is possible, of course, to find fault 
with the plates, and if most dogs do shew the round, 
dilated eyes so noticeable, it is worth remembering 
that Reinagle, Edwards' contemporary, portrayed his 
dogs very wide-awake, too ; and after all this point is 
scarcely of any greater importance than the monotony 
of the " four-and-a-double " gates included in Bar 
low's etchings of an earlier period. 

*The date 1800 is generally accepted as correct, especially as it 
appears on the title page, and the Newfoundland engraving bears the 
imprint 1803, but other plates are dated earlier and later, the Setter 
and Mastiff plates being dated 1S05. 

25 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

The Cynographia Britannica illustrated as many as 
twenty-three distinct varieties of dogs in the twelve 
plates already described, the distinguishing features 
being in most cases readily discernible. Of these 
types, fourteen are certain British in origin, the 
Terriers, Setters, Bulldogs, Mastiffs, and Spaniels are 
easily recognized as early specimens of breeds existing, 
and in a few cases flourishing, to-day. It is not essen 
tial to this book to describe in detail each of the plates : 
it is sufficient to sum up on Edwards' work and repeat 
that although it is only the second dog book to be 
published in English, it represents one of the most 
advanced publications of its time in any field of natural 
history, being to the cynologist what Gould's exquisite 
plates are to the ornithologist. Almost all the Edwards 
plates have been reproduced* (mainly during the 
present century) and may be seen in the major works 
of Vero Shaw, Watson, Asht and Hutchinson. 

It will be noticed that so far all the books published, 
in which British dogs feature, are of a sporting nature, 
either directly concerned with the chase or dealing 
very widely with country sports and pastimes. And 
during the first half of the nineteenth century, the 
publication of sportsmen's vade-mecums was intensi 
fied with vigour. Indeed, it was not until the last 
half of the century when dog shows were popular, 

*A detailed chronological list of the reproductions of each plate 
appears in my forthcoming Bibliography of British Dog Books. 

f Of Ash's reproductions the best, of course, are in his Dogs : Their 
History and Development, and these may be examined easily without 
the aid of the hand-lens recommended (by Ash himself ') for use with 
his The Practical Dog Book, where most illustrations are hopelessly 
inadequate as far as size is concerned. 

26 



EDWARDS AND TAPLIN 

that dog books began to treat all classes of dogs, and 
their general histoiy, management and illnesses. 
After Edwards' pioneer coloured work several English 
books of importance appeared, and some sincere efforts 
of research were published. 

Keeping to the chronological path we have trodden 
well enough so far it is necessary to mention the 
undeservedly famous Rural Sports by William Daniel 
(1801-2). This work referred to British dogs in both 
volumes ; but as with many other Reverend gentlemen 
(especially the Rev. C. Macdona, whose tales of his 
St. Bernard were as tall as his tower built to com 
memorate it), Daniel suffered from an incurable form 
of story telling and, moreover, completely lacked 
the ability for original investigation. Still, in all fair 
ness to him, it must be admitted that most early 
writers on the dog were extravagant in their anecdotes, 
too fond of cribbing, and extremely careless. How 
ever, a few of the copperplate engravings in Rural 
Sports make up for the faulty text : the picture of 
Daniel's English Setter " Beau " by Reinagle is first 
class ; the Spanish Pointer by Stubbs is typical of both 
artist and dog ; the Gilpin painting of Colonel Thorn 
ton's brace of Pointers, "Pluto "and "Juno,"* reveals 
fine treatment on the one hand, but goggle-eyed and 
dish-faced dogs on the other. And of course the 
portrait of " Slut," the pointing pig, added in the 
Supplement is fascinating enough. 

Close upon the heels of Daniel's compilation, W. 
Taplin compiled a large two-volume work, called The 

*On the weight of all the evidence available I would say the claim 
that these dogs stood on point for an hour and a quarter while Gilpin 
made his preliminary sketches is true. 

27 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

Sportsman's Cabinet, or a Correct Delineation of the 
Canine Races (1803-4). This title could well have 
* dispensed with the first four words as the book is 
entirely a dog book . . . it is in fact the third English 
dog book to be published. Compiled by a sportsman 
who defied conciseness as he did the Game Laws (being 
an unlanded gentleman willing to pay the ^5 fine for 
every bird he shot !), the chapters are both long-winded 
and pedantic. However, the book is exceedingly 
valuable to the student of British dogs inasmuch as it 
contains excellent illustrations of every British breed 
mentioned in the work. This book has fifty illustra 
tions by Reinagle, Bewick, Rysbrack and Pugin. Of 
these the Reinagle plates and Bewick woodcut vignettes 
are nearly all of dogs . . . John Scott having engraved 
the Reinagle plates. Although it is rather late in the 
day to say so, the Reinagle paintings from which the 
body of the illustrations have been taken are excellent, 
and compare very favourably with the work of Gilpin 
and Cooper, all being far superior to the later dog work 
of Harvey, W. P. Smith, Radcliffe, Jesse and Land- 
seer. The plates of the Greyhounds, Bulldog, Mastiff, 
Shepherd's Dog, Springer Spaniel, Terriers (Old 
English Whites ?), " Irish Greyhound," and Fox 
hounds are the best of the British breeds ; and in con 
sequence have been reproduced (and plagiarized) ex 
tensively during the past century and a half. 

The centuries-old pastime of bull-baiting is not only 
dealt with at length by Taplin in the first volume of his 
The Sportsman's Cabinet (1803), but is also given a 
chapter in his The Sporting Dictionary (1803). This 
book claims to be a " Rural Repository of General 

28 



X? 4 




From the author's collection 



PLATE 7. THOMAS GOSDEN'S FAMOUS BUTTONS 



In 1821 the famous binder Thomas Gosden edited and issued 
impressions from a set of silver buttons relative to the sports of 
the field. Thev were designed by Abraham Cooper and engraved 
bv John Scott." The set from which this illustration is taken was 
the editor's own set, and the sixteen discs are pasted in position 
on the sheet so exquisitely decorated. Both the Large Paper and 
Small Paper issues are' practically unobtainable to-day, having 
been exceptionally rare even at the end of the nineteenth century. 
Gosden s initials appear in reverse on the powder-flask in the 
top left corner. 



EDWARDS AND TAPLIN 

Information upon every Subject Appertaining to the 
Sports of the Field " . . . its two illustrated volumes 
are scarce to-day. Bull-baiting lias been dealt with 
specifically by later authors as well, of course, and 
contemporarily by Strutt in his The Sports and Pas 
times of the People of England, (1801). 

In 1804 Richard ThornhilPs book, The Shooting 
Directory, was published. Although this work appears 
to have been quite unknown to Watson, Leighton and 
Ash, it contains considerable material on British dogs. 
While it is not possible here to discuss at length Thorn 
hilPs work (relatively much of which is original), it is 
interesting to note that this author not only criticises 
the " palpable falsehoods " in Taplin's The Sports 
man's Cabinet, but dares to challenge the authority 
of Buffon.* Thornhill dislikes "feather-bed gunners " 
and prefers a sportsman to carry and load his own 
guns, and above all to know his dogs well. He had 
some first-class English Setters himself (one brace of 
which were valued at 200 guineas) and took a keen 
interest in Irish Setters as well ... in referring to 
the old red-and-white Irish Setter (now being newly 
" discovered "), Thornhill states " There is not a 
country in Europe that can boast of finer Setters than 
Ireland." 

This book is excessively scarce to-day and very few 
copies of the first issue remain, in which the pages 
215-20 are intact : these contain the letters of the Duke 

*Despite ThornhilTs calling Buffon " a wonderful clever and 
intelligent person" he deserves recognition as one of the first British 
dog writers to disagree (and rightly so) with that naturalist's statement 
that the dog (Canis fantilaris) and the wolf (Canis lupus) belong to 
separate genera. 

29 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

of Richmond, when he was Master General of the 
Ordnance, in 1791, in which as Thornhill says, "His 
Grace wished to come the old soldier " over Joseph 
Manton, the gun maker of Berkele7 Square, London, 
in an effort to obtain Manton's rifling invention. 
Subsequent issues lacked these pages. The frontis 
piece of this book (of which the author has Thomas 
Gosden's personal copy of the first issue, exquisitely 
bound by him and bearing the Gosden bookplate, 
engraved by John Scott, and the engraving of "Doll," 
his celebrated Pointer) is a portrait of Thornhill with 
his Setter and Pointer. There are also six sepia 
aquatint engravings by T. Medland of shooting 
scenes in various parts of the British Isles, and shewing 
the local sporting breeds of dogs. John Scott was an 
outstandingly good engraver of dogs and sporting 
scenes. In 1810 another edition of Beckford's classic 
Thoughts on Hunting was published, this with eight 
Scott engravings. 

Later, John Lawrence published his dog books. 
These were a small " Monthly Remembrancer " called 
The Sportsman's Calendar (1818), British Field Sports 
(1818), a medium-sized book, and a large work mainly 
on dogs, but having fifty-two pages on horses, The 
Sportsman* $ Repository (1820). 

The Reinagle plates engraved by Scott are re 
produced in The Sportsman's Repository. The title 
page is illustrated by the Pointer " Scott " and two 
brace of birds (the frontispiece of The Sportsmarfs 
Cabinet, volume two, 1804). Numerous Bewick 
woodcut vignettes are uased as tail-pieces. The en 
gravings after Marshall, Gilpin, Stubbs, Cooper, 

30 



EDWARUS AND TAPLIN 

Sartorius the Younger, and Seymour, are, of course, 
of horses. Generally the same British breeds feature 
in this book, although Lawrence gives plenty of inform 
ation. 

The anecdotal and biographical volumes both large 
and small of British sporting dogs flourished during the 
first half of the nineteenth century. Numerous were 
the " Cabinets " and " Companions/' " Repositories " 
and "Guides," " Directories " and " Recreations " 
appearing under the distinguished patronage of 
scholars, divines and sportsmen of the period. But 
of these books, T. B. Johnson, in his preface to The 
Complete Sportsman (1817), writes : " On the subject 
of Field Sports, but little has made its appearance; 
and this little has not been more remarkable for the 
expensive manner in which it has been ushered into 
the world, than for its slovenly carelessness, want of 
connection, and frequent absurdity. None of the 
publications, in fact, on this subject, contain that 
plain introductory information so essential to the 
novice ; they are, for the most part, made up of com 
mon place observation, and unblushingly copied from 
one book to another." 

In this book Thomas B. Johnson* also naively 
summed up the prodigious hunting exploits of the 
early clergy by stating that the bishops and arch- 

* Johnson actually published The Complete Sportsman (1817) under 
the nom-de-plume of " T. H. Xeedham." Furthermore, his earlier 
book, The Shooter's Guide (1811) was issued under the nom-de-plume 
of B. Thomas " ; but his later works, The Shooter's Companion (1819) 
and The Gamekeeper's Directory (N.D.) were published over his own 
name. He was also editor of a monthly magazine, The Sportsman's 
Cabinet, from its birth in 1832 until its death the following year. 

31 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

deacons hunted too much, and tended their flocks too 
little: which is much the same criticism as that levelled 
at the Rev. John Russell (originator of the Parson 
Jack Russell Terrier), who was well known in the time 
of Thomas B. Johnson and his son John B. Johnson. 
Russell, whose hunting boots so often peeped from 
under his cassock, was said to be " equally good in the 
wood as in the pig-skin " (as expert in the pulpit as in 
the saddle). Arid much the same could be said of his 
reverend friends J. Froude, John Boyce, Pomeroy 
Gilbert, E. Clarke, W. H. Karslake, the Templers, 
and dozens of other sporting parsons of last century. 

Johnson's The Complete Sportsman was probably the 
first dog book to be published by the house of Simpkin 
Marshall, Ltd., who have been associated with British 
dog books about as long as any firm, although they 
have not published as much as they have distributed. 
Longmans Green & Co., (who published the first breed 
book, in 1872), Sampson Low, Marston & Co., L. 
Upcott Gill, Horace Cox, John Murray, William 
Blackwood & Sons, and George Routledge & Sons 
published most of the British dog books of the nine 
teenth century. 



32 







From the author's collection 



PLATE 8. RICHARD BADHAM THORNHILL 

The only book R. B. Thornhill ever wrote was at once the subject, of 
vicious suppression and later one of the rarities of dog literature. 
Although known to Arkwright and Schwerdt it was unknown to Watson, 
Leighton and Ash (even the Schwerdt copy was the expurgated issue). 
The portrait above is from the frontispiece of the first issue, engraved 
bv Medland after Bell, In error the owners name on the Pointer's 
collar reads " R. Thonhill " 




VI 
EGAN'S SPORTING AGE 

L BOUT this time interest in rat-killing and dog- 
fighting contests, in which Bulldog and Bull 
-Terrier types were matched, was becoming 
widespread. The Amphitheatre (or Cock Pit), Duck 
Lane, Westminster, was about the most notorious place 
of combat, and its candle-lit pit appears in many a 
sporting print. A great devotee of these pastimes was 
Pierce Egan, a prolific writer, whose sporting spiv 
vocabulary outshone even Arthur Heald perhaps his 
nearest approach of to-day. Accounts of many cele 
brated dogs appear in his books and are well worth 
studying if the student can spare the time and money. 
A racy sort of Gervase Markham, Egan's first 
important book is Sporting Anecdotes (1820). This 
work covers most sports from archery to cockfighting, 
but only concerns us as a record of dog-fighting con 
tests in the Westminster Pit. His next book is Life 
in London (1821 the first issue lacks the footnote to 
page 9), and this is valuable for the thirty-six coloured 
plates by I. R. and G. Cruikshank. Pierce Egan 
really deserves a study by himself, as this work holds a 
wealth of information and is packed with vitality. 
Unfortunately, Egan's books are very scarce, especially 
his Life in London and his article in Annals of Sporting 
(1822). In the first volume of the latter work, Egan 
has much to say on the " Bull-Terrier," and this is 
important as it is probably the earliest record of the 
breed being called by its modern name (without being 

33 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

pedantic, the hyphen need cause no alarm). Egan 
says, " The true bred Bulldog is but a dull companion 
and the Terrier does not flash much size, nor is suffi 
ciently smart or cocking the modern mixed dog 
includes all of these qualities, and is of a pleasant airy 
temper." 

The Bull Terrier came into some prominence partly 
as a result of the rat-killing contests of this period (as 
did the old Black-and-Tan Terrier* or Manchester 
Terrier), and in 1829 Thomas Brown gave the Bull 
Terrier a separate chapter under its own name in his 
Biographical Sketches and Authentic Anecdotes of Dogs. 
This, the first dog book to be published in Scotland, 
is now extremely hard to find . . . the best reports 
of it have been given by Jesse and Watson in their 
Researches into the History of the British Dog, and The 
Dog Book, respectively. The Bull Terrier appears a 
little later again, in colour for the first time, in Dogs 
(1840) by Hamilton Smith. From the lay point of view 
this book is the third dog book to be published with 
coloured plates (the second being The Sportsman's 
Annual 1836), but from a strictly cynological and 
bibliographical viewpoint, is the fourth, as Smith had 
published an earlier book called Dogs (1839) having 
coloured plates. 

*The most celebrated rat-killing dog of all time, " Billy/' is claimed 
by most authors as of the Black-and-Tan Terrier breed, and is described 
as such by Hignett in Leighton's New Book of the Dog (1907) . I am of 
the opinion, however, that this dog was practically a purebred Bulldog, 
as its pedigree and various prints shew. As depicted on an original 
coloured aquatint engraving shewing " Billy . . . Bailing 100 Rats in 
Five Minutes and a Half, on the 22nd April, 1823 " the dog is, in fact, 
almost identical with the famous Bulldog bitch " Rosa/' painted by 
Abraham Cooper (c. 1816), both in form and colour. 

34 



EGAN'S SPORTING AGE 

As some confusion among dog writers appears evi 
dent concerning Smith's books, it may be worth, not 
ing that his 1839 book is called Vol. I on the title page 
and is Vol. 9 of Jardine's " The Naturalist's Library " : 
His Dogs (1840) is, therefore, Vol. 2 of his own work, 
and is also Vol. 10 of Jardine's series, " The Naturalist's 
Library". Smith's Vol. I of Dogs (1839) appears to 
be unknown to dog writers, and his Vol. 2 of the same 
work (1840) is almost invariably given the wrong 
date of 1843, especially by contributors to encyclo- 
poedias who, in the main, have copied Arkwright, 
through Lytton and Ash, managing to get past the 
censorship of hard-worked editors. Whilst Vol. I of 
Dogs deals principally with wild dogs and Vol. 2 with 
the domestic breeds, each is of equal importance to the 
cynological student, and in any case the sections do 
not deserve being divorced as they form one unit 
which could well be termed Dogs (1839-40). 

In Vol. I there are thirty* coloured plates of canine 
forms from the Dingo to the Pariah : in Vol. 2 of 
thirty-four plates, twenty-three are of domestic breeds 
and in colour ; all the plates are engraved by Lizars 
after Hamilton Smith, and coloured by hand. 

So far our task of surveying the history of British 
dogs through its own and kindred literature has been 
simple enough,, the most difficult part having been to 
omit reference to many books both well known and 
obscure, which are either unreliable or do not treat 
the British breeds sufficiently for inclusion here. 

*The title page bears the hackneyed Landseer picture of two St. 
Bernards " reviving " a frozen traveller, a portrait of Pallas the zool 
ogist as frontispiece, and a plate of Newfoundland and other skulls 
making a total of thirty-three. 

35 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

However, from about the middle of the nineteenth 
century onwards the task becomes extremely complex 
and much too heavy to treat here. The appearance 
of scores of small books on specific breeds of British 
dogs clamour for inclusion in any review of this kind ; 
the innumerable volumes of anecdotes, biographical 
sketches of dogs, and anthologies and tributes require 
at least some sifting for the material information 
many of them contain on our native types. And an 
even greater labour lies in threshing the thousands of 
stud books, catalogues, tracts and pamphlets on dog 
shows, auctions and Trials in which our dogs have 
featured now for almost exactly a century. 

All in all such a comprehensive task is beyond the 
accommodation of an introductory survey of this type, 
and, therefore, from the middle nineteenth century 
onwards it becomes increasingly necessary to limit it 
to only the truly great works of the last hundred years* 
Naturally enough these are not many, yet in our 
particular field we have several really outstanding 
volumes which will remain standard works of reference 
on dogs of their periods. 




PLATE 9. THE ENGLISH SETTER IN LAVERACK'S TIME 



From the author's collection 



Edward Laverack wrote the first breed look in English, The 
Setter (1872). This was published by Longmans, who have 
published dog books for about a century and a half. The title is 
well known but the book is seldom seen, a facsimile printed in 
America having to serve as a working copy for most Setter 
enthusiasts. The illustration is of the better of the two coloured 
photographic plates from the original, the dog being " Fred 4th," 
a lemon and white Belton aged fifteen months by " Dash " out of 
11 Moll," one of the strain which Laverack founded and has since 
made his name famous. 



VII 
JESSE, WALSH AND SHAW 

THE first of these is the monumental compila 
tion of George R. Jesse,* Researches into the 
History of the British Dog (1866). This is the 
first work of its kind, and although as in most pioneer 
works it contains pitfalls for the unwary, it is an 
extremely useful book, which deals with every facet of 
the British dog, especially from the historical and 
literary viewpoints. Gerald Massey, one of our few 
authorities on British dog books, describes the work 
in his Catalogue of Dog Books (1945) as " An exceed 
ingly important book, the first to deal at any length 
with the history of Dogs from evidence supplied by 
earlier records compiled by man 3 '. 

The year 1867 saw the publication of the first edition 
of The Dogs of the British Islands, an important work 
on all the better-known breeds, and embodying the 
views of numerous British breeders. This book, 
which enjoyed considerable success through several 
editions, was edited by " Stonehenge " (J. H. Walsh, 
then editor of The Field) mainly from articles and 
letters previously published in his journal. The first 
edition (1867) contains twenty-nine woodcut engrav 
ings of selected dogs of exhibition breeding, and these 
were increased until the fifth and last edition (ii 



*This author should not be confused with Edward Jesse, who was 
responsible for Anecdotes of Dogs (1846), an undeservingly famous little 
book containing exaggerated tales and filched illustrations of numerous 
breeds. 

37 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

has fifty-eight generally good illustrations.* Among 
these are the fine engravings of the Greyhounds 
" Master McGrath " and " Bab at the Bowster," 
Captain Graham's Irish Wolfhounds " Brian " and 
" Sheelah," the Smooth-haired Fox Terriers " Olive" 
and " Bitters," the Deerhound " Bran/' Mr. Purcell 
Llewellin's English Setter " Countess," Mr. Hink's 
white Bull Terrier " Madman," and Mr. Pratt's Skye 
Terriers " Sandy Grant " and " Piper," all being 
British-bred specimens of considerable influence on 
their breeds. The contributors include Hugh Dalziel 
and George Krehl, two important writers of the time. 
Treatises on particular breeds had by this time been 
appearing over a period of half a century, especially 
on the Greyhound and the Irish Wolfhound, but in 
1872 a work of exceptional merit was published. 
This is Ike Setter, by Edward Laverack, who was the 
pioneer breeder of the strain of English Setters, which 
ever since has borne his name first in the British Isles 
and later abroad. This book is the first ever published 
on Setters and describes the English, Irish and Gordon 
breeds in detail, and also mentions the white Llanidloes 
Setter and the all-black Welsh Setters.! Moreover, the 
book is entirely free from what Fowler would have 
called " pomposities," being the practical" breeding 

*These are certainly far superior to the illustrations used in Walsh's 
The Dog in Health and Disease (1859), too many of which are taken after 
Youatt, while the remainder by Wells do not even approach the Baker 
engravings used in Walsh's later work. 

f At the time of writing there is an all-black Welsh Setter in Aber- 
ystwyth, and the white curly-coated Llanidloes dog is still in existence 
on the east side of Plynlimon. For descriptions of these two very old 
breeds see Dogs in Britain (1948), p. 241. 



JESSE, WALSH AND SHAW 

experiences of a sportsman writing in the " sear and 
yellow leaf " of his seventy-third year. The book has 
a coloured* lithograph portrait of the ten-year-old 
Blue Belton " Dash " as frontispiece, and a similar 
plate of one of this dog's progeny, the lemon-and- 
white " Fred 4th (see Plate 9)." A facsimile edition 
(1945) has to serve as a working copy in many libraries 
to-day as the original is quite scarce. 

The next really important work appeared in 1879- 
8 1 as The Illustrated Book of the Dog, by Vero Shaw. 
This is the largest work of the nineteenth century to be 
published in English, having coloured plates of cele 
brated show dogs. Like Jesse, Vero Shaw was a true 
cynological pathfinder ; and although his book con 
tains the winnowed data of Walsh and Pearce (and 
several foreign writers) there is a substantial amount 
that is original. It is not generally known that this 
book was so widely accepted as a standard work on dogs 
that its German edition, translated and enlarged by 
von Schmiedeberg, and illustrated by Beckmann and 
Sperling, won the 1883 State Medal in Berlin and first 
prize in Vienna in 1884. 

The twenty-eight coloured quarto plates of Shaw's 
great work portray most of the well-known breeds 
(some for the first time) ; with the exception of the 
Dalmatian, whose geometrically placed spots appear 
to have been conceived on the limestone plates,* all are 
valuable to the student of British prize dogs of the 
period. Some of the large woodcut engravings are 

*In all fairness to the book and the engravers I should add that 
even master craftsmen such as Bewick, Reinagle and Leney have 
depicted the Dalmatian in much the same design as Titian and the 
School of Giorgione painted leopards. 

39 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

obviously taken from Fitzinger's Die Hund und seine 
Rasen (1876). But no matter . . . they have them 
selves been widely exploited by later writers. 

Comprehensive dog books by Dalziel, Lee and Drury 
burst into print in the last two decades of the nine 
teenth century ; not with the hearty abandon of the 
literature of Gordon Stables perhaps, but nevertheless 
lacking the care, the consistency, and the planning so 
apparent in the few major works which followed. 
Although these books are not of vital importance to 
us to-day, they are quite worth a study. 



40 




/: u ^v-^iC:^&u : '^ 



By courtesy of The Illustrated London News 



PLATE 10. JOHN HENRY WALSH 

In his later life Walsh was better known as " Stonehenge," the 
author of books on dogs, rural sports, shooting and guns. He was 
editor of The Field magazine and an active judge at dog shows. 
Portraits of Walsh are scarce, there being none at the Bntish, 
Museum or The Field office. The above is from a woodcut 
published in 1888. 



VIII 
THE EFFECT OF DOG SHOWS 

BY the turn of the century the pastime of exhibit 
ing dogs was having a powerful influence upon 
canine literature, and accordingly most of the 
specimens selected for illustration in the new really 
large books were almost invariably of champion stock 
and well-known dogs. The sporting hobby of dog 
showing had developed over a period of at least fifty 
years, it should be remembered. Moreover, its 
growth had been phenomenal. It had developed 
from the shady exhibitions (or " leads " as they were 
at first called) held in public houses* about 1840 to the 
giant expositions held at Birmingham and the Crystal 
Palace, London. For at least a decade shows of 
Spaniels, Terriers and Toy Dogs were held under 
convivial but unsatisfactory administration before 
the really important open shows took place in New- 
castle-on-Tyne and Birmingham in 1859. These 
events were quite different from the early tavern 
" leads " which generally preceded rat killings and dog 
fights. These in fact were the forerunners of gigantic 
undertakings like the first Great International Dog 
Show held in the Agricultural Hall, London, from 
25-30 May, 1863, and the world-famous Graft's Dog 
Show (Cruft's " Canine Carnival," as it has sometimes 
been so aptly named), held annually until the begin 
ning of the Second World War and lately revived. 

*The " establishments " of Jemmy Shaw and Charley Aistrop 
near the Haymarket and in St. Giles, London, were roaring favourites. 

41 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

With the success of organized dog shows some form 
of control naturally came into being, and so in 1873 
the English Kennel Club was founded, in due course 
becoming the canine governing body of England, 
while other British. Kennel Clubs took over the reins 
of dogdom in the other countries of the British Isles. 
These bodies eventually stabilized dog showing and 
materially helped to eradicate the poor sportsmanship 
so apparent in the earlier contests. 

Relatively simple and by no means harsh, the rules 
of the Kennel Clubs do much to maintain a high 
standard of efficiency and fairness in British dog shows 
held under their jurisdiction. With such powerful 
forces having come into being during the last quartei 
of the nineteenth century, it was perfectly natural 
that the literature of the dog should by the turn of 
the century begin to shew almost revolutionary changes. 
A vast readership was awaiting books of a considerable 
higher standard than it had hitherto been given, and 
new and original work was needed. The old rehashed 
cynological potage of the last half century would not 
suit the twentieth century dog breeders, who in the 
main knew quite a lot about dogs and had the leisure to 
carry out individual research. Furthermore, various 
semi-technical journals and trade papers, as well as 
the Kennel Club Calendar and, Stud Book, kept British 
dog breeders reasonably well informed. 

The first of the great cynological works of the 
twentieth century was well timed, therefore, when it 
appeared in 1906. This book, The Dog Book, was 
written by James Watson, a Scot, who was probably 
our first sports editor of a daily newspaper. Watson 

42 



THE EFFECT OF DOG SHOWS 

carried out an incredible amount of research, and 
although this book by no means represents his first 
work it remains even to-day a monument to the 
prodigious labour his check-work involved. The Dog 
Book was originally published in ten parts in the 
U.S.A., but its first English appearance, over the 
colophon of the Heinemann windmill, was in 1906. 
Its quarter of a million words naturally embrace most 
well-known British breeds and varieties, some with 
detail and some without, for although this large work 
for some reason carries no index many breeds of British 
interest can be found therein if the reader is sufficiently 
diligent. Of the book itself, padded out on thick 
paper to two large volumes, it can be said that it is 
easily the finest book on dogs written by a British 
writer until Ash's superb Dogs : Their History and 
Development appeared in 1927. Moreover, Watson's 
book is copiously illustrated with reproductions of 
paintings and important early prints as well as the usual 
photographs of contemporary prize winning dogs. 

Watson quotes liberally from the best of the earlier 
authors and so saves the student of British dogs much 
wider reading. His chapters on Spaniels and Setters 
are extremely valuable and contain much of the now 
very rare book of Laverack's already dealt with, 
In this respect Watson's book is probably the fore 
runner of Ash's big work, as there is little doubt that 
Watson drew attention to important but obscure 
references to early British breeds which would other 
wise have been missed by Ash and even ourselves. 

Watson's The Dog Book was the first general work 
to publish reproductions of paintings and engravings 

43 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

of dogs on a liberal scale, but the extremely well- 
produced book by William Arkwright, The Pointer and 
His Predecessors (1902), had already included some 
forty such illustrations having connection with the 
Pointer. Now although this is essentially a one- 
breed book, it is of value in any survey of British sport 
ing dogs generally. Indeed, it is a most sumptuous 
work, lavishly produced, and in consequence, extremely 
rare. 

The next important general work by a British writer 
is that by our' penultimate authority, Robert Leighton. 
This book is The New Book of the Dog (1907), which 
will remain an important work for all time. Leighton 
wrote quietly and took great pains with his work. 
His book covered practically every well-known breed 
and was certainly the first British work to describe 
many of the varieties of the continental mainland of 
Europe and Asia.* Profusely illustrated with coloured 
plates and photographs, the book dealt with all the 
important British breeds of the time, some of the 
chapters being written by eminent authorities and 
breeders. Incidentally, Leighton too realized the 
important bearing of art (particularly as expressed in 
bas-relief, ceramic decoration, sculpture and paintings 
by the great masters) upon the history of dog breeds, 
and he reproduced hundreds of photographs tracing 
the evolution of canine types ; these, in addition to 
the numerous excellent coloured plates by artists of 

*Some of the articles by Leighton himself on relatively rare breeds 
appear to me to have been influenced by de Bylant's Les Races de Chiens 
(1894), of which incredibly comprehensive work an edition (the third) 
was published in 1905 with the text covering over 300 breeds and 
varieties written in French, English, German and Dutch. 

44 




From the author's collection 



PLATE 11. VERO SHAW'S " SMASHER " (BULLDOG) 



The larger dog (a sir iped-br indie and white Bulldog] is 
" Smasher" bv " Master Gully " out of " Nettle," the property 
of Vero Shaw, who later sold it to the president of the Bulldog 
Club. The smaller dog is " Doon Brae " (the property of 
Captain Holdsworth], a prominent winner in the eighteen 
seventies and descended from " Sheffield Crib," whose pedigree 
was disputed. The illustration is from a coloured plate in the 
first issue of the first edition (1879-81) o/The Illustrated Book 
of the Dog by Vero Shaw. 



THE EFFECT OF DOG SHOWS 

repute, including Maud Earl and Lilian Cheviot. 
The special edition prepared for subscribers (1907) is an 
unusually attractive set of four quarto volumes, having 
as frontispiece a coloured anatomical model which 
reveals the skeleton, muscles and viscera of a dog by a 
most ingenious folding device . . . consequently this 
is seldom found intact. 

British Toy Dogs feature in several books written 
during the first decade of the twentieth century, some 
of these being the first specialist literature on the group. 
Following these books came Toy Dogs and Their 
Ancestors* (1911) by the Hon. Mrs. Neville Lytton. 
This work, which is now excessively scarce, followed 
the trend of the cynological pathfinders in reproducing 
many of the great paintings and important prints con 
taining evidence of the antiquity of the Miniature 
breeds, and in its specialist field still remains a standard 
work on Toy Dogs of British and foreign extraction. 

The last and undoubtedly the greatest work on the 
dog ever printed in English is Dogs : Their History and 
Development (1927) by Edward C. Ash. Like Watson, 
Ash had learned not to place too much reliance on the 
earlier writers, consequently, although he took heed 
of their statements, he checked them himself from all 
available sources. Indeed, Ash went so deep into the 
eariy history of each breed that he accumulated a 
hitherto undreamed of mass of data, which he generally 
sorted out clearly and presented in a very . readable 

*This is not a general work on dogs but it is nevertheless of such 
immense importance that no study of British Dogs should be attempted 
without it. Judith Lytton's text is straight to the point, and although 
her bibliographical information is pretty haywire one can learn as much 
from her writings as from the 346 line illustrations. 

45 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

form. His best and permanent reference work 
is Dogs : Their History and Development. This is a 
terrific work published in two quarto volumes and 
illustrated by hundreds of excellent photographs of 
selected dogs and reproductions of paintings, prints, 
pottery and . relief work. 

There is no doubt that Ash's researches in the British 
Museum, paid handsome dividends although here and 
there errors crept into his books . . . especially into 
his smaller ones. His ready wit and cynicism is 
apparent in this book where, as on all other occasions, 
he ridicules many of the tall stories put forward in the 
nineteenth century by dog writers like J. C. Macdona ; 
and his criticisms of pictures like Landseer's rescue 
scenes in the Swiss Alps reveals a sensible approach in 
dealing with a subject which has too often been 
sentimentalized, yet too seldom given the dignity of a 
science. Ash had that rare faculty of seeing things 
through both ends of the telescope : where he sus 
pected a casual reference in an early manuscript of 
leading to matter of some consequence, he enlarged 
upon it and spent months of search (sometimes with 
success and sometimes without) through ancient 
records to verify his theories ; on the other hand, if 
common sense and a wide general knowledge of dog 
types suggested a hitherto undisputed " fact " might 
prove incorrect upon investigation, he would shrink 
its substance to a bare core and worry out the truth by 
dint of sheer hard work. 

Of all the published literature on the dog, in any 
language, Ash's Dogs : Their History and Development 
remains the supreme effort for original work and 
investigation. This great book is not the last word on 



THE EFFECT OF DOG SHOWS 

dogs (no book could possibly be), -but certainly it will 
reign supreme as a work of reference until well into the 
second half of this century. 

In concluding this retrospect of the dogs of the 
British Isles in literature, we can scarcely fail to bear in 
mind that since 1927 several rather large books on dogs 
have been published, the largest of these being an 
encyclopoedia of three volumes. However, it is not 
intended here to review the mass-produced works which 
are only naturally good in some parts and not good in 
others, and where inaccuracies may be laid at the doors 
of too many contributors. In any case as the encyclo- 
poedias are generally being revised it may be antici 
pated that the corrections will be sufficient to produce 
new books of greater value. 

From the growth of the very literature of British 
dogs alone, one certainty projects above all others : 
this being that with the rapid improvement in dog 
shows, the ever-widening attraction of dog breeding 
in the British Isles and abroad, and the present lack 
of reliable cynologists of a scientific turn of mind the 
literature of British and foreign dogs will tend to 
become more and more specialized. We shall have 
less general works and more breed books. 

The development of exhibitions, the multiplication 
of canine societies, the expansion of the dog-breeding 
industry, and its exchange of practical " know-how " 
through the medium of the canine Press all influence 
the general literature of the dog. Without these 
influences canine literature would tend to waver 
haphazardly near the borderline of sentimentality. 
Hence it is a good sign that breeders are beginning 

47 



THE LITERATURE OF BRITISH DOGS 

to pay more attention to genetics than hitherto. 
Our canine literature in its true presentation of in 
formation and its honesty of purpose and presentation 
(so far preserved us, as against say political literature) 
is on the whole the representative window through 
which British dogdom is seen the other shop window 
through which our goods are seen is the dog show. 
And it is as well to relate these facets of the whole as 
they should be, for the pedigree dog itself in all its 
hundreds of varieties, the dog show, the activities of 
the British Kennel Clubs and their subordinate bodies, 
the vast machinery of the really big industry of dog 
breeding, and the specialist literature of the dog world 
are irrevocably bound together. 



INDEX 



Note : Where the title of a book begins with the articles 
'A' or ' The ' (or with foreign equivalents such as ' Die *, 
' La ', ' Le ', ' Y ', etc.) the book is entered in this 
index under the first following objective word. 



Aberystwyth,38 
Aesop's Fables, 23 
Agincourt, 5 
Agnes, 3 
Aistrop, Charles (publican), 

41 

Aldrovandus (artist), 16, 19 
The Ancient Welsh Laws, 1 
Anecdotes of Dogs, 37 
Annals of Sporting, 33 
Anne, 18, 20 
Anonymous schoolmaster, 

the (printer), 7 
Arkwright, W., 35, 44, pi. 8 
The Art of Archer ie, 21 
Art de Venerie, 2 
The Art of Venerie, 16 
Artelouche, 17 
Ash, Edward C., 19, 21, 22, 

26, 29, 35, 43, 45, 46, pi. 8 



Baftard, 9 
Baillie-Grohman, F., 5 

, William A., 5, 16, 22 

Baker, A. (artist), 38 

Bala, 14 

Bandogge. 14 

Barlow, Francis (artist), 22, 

23, 25, pi. 3 > 
Barnes, Dam Julyans, see 

Berners, Dame Juliana 



Beagles, 15, 16 

Bear-baiting, 20 

Beckford, Peter, 24, 30 

Beckmann (artist), 39 

Berlin, 39 

Berner, 7 

Berners, Sir James, 7 

, Dame Juliana, 7, 8, 9, 

10, pi. 1 
Bewick, Thomas (engraver), 

19, 28, 29 
Bibliography of British Dog 

Books, 26 

Biographical Sketches, 34 
Bibliothque National, 5 
Birmingham, 41 
Black-and-Tan Terrier, 34 
Blackwood, W., and Sons 

(publishers), 32 
Blaine, D. P., 4 
Blane, WiUiam, 23 
Blome, Richard, 16, 22 
Blount, 20 

Blue Belton Setter, 39 
Bobtail tike, 10 
Bocheris houndes, 9 
The Boke of Haukyng and 

Huntyng, 7 
Boke of St. Albans, 7, 8, 9, 11, 

21 

Bols, Hans (artist), 16 
Book of Beasts, 19 
A Book of Sporting Painters, 

24 



49 



INDEX 



The Booke of Faulconrie of 

Hawking, 17 
Boyce, Rev. John, 32 
Brach, 10 

Bradley's of the Strand, 19 
British Field Sports, 30 
British Museum, 5, 46, pi. 10 
British Quadrupeds, 19 
Brown, Thomas, 34 
Buffon (naturalist), 29 
Bull Terrier, 33, 34 
Bull-baiting, 20, 28, 29 
Bulldogs, 20, 26, 28, 33, 34, 

pi. 11 



Caius, John, 1, 8, 9, 11, 12, 

13, 14, pi. 2. pi. 4 
Cambridge, 13 
Canis familiaris, 29 

lupus, 29 

pastor alis, 14 

Canute, 18 

Carcano, 17 

Carsyon, 17 

Catalogue of Dog Books, 37 

Caxton, William (printer), 7 

The Chace, 24 

La Chace du Cerf, 2 

Charles IX, 2 

the Bad, 3 

La Chasse Royale, 2 

Chaucer, viii 

Cheviot, Lilian (artist), 45 

Ci, 14 

Cirino (artist), 19 

Glamorgan, 17 

Clarke, Rev. E., 32 

Collies, 9 

" Come the old soldier," 30 



The Complete Sportsman, 31, 

32 
Cooper, Abraham (artist), 

28, 30, 34, pi. 7 
Cottonian MS. Vespasian B. 

XII, 5 

Countrey Contentments, 21 
The Country Farme, 17 
" A Country Squire/' 23 
Cox, Horace (publisher), 32 

, Nicholas, 22 

Crouch, 20 

Cruikshank, J 4 R., and G 

(artists), 33 
Craft's Dog Show, 41 
Cwn, 14 
Cynographia Britannica, 25, 

26, pi. 6 
Curiosa, 19 



Dachshund, 16, 19 

Dalmatian, 39 

Dalziel, Hugh, 38, 40 

Daniel, William, 27 

d'Armagnac, Comte, 3 

Dauncers, 14 

Dauphin, the, 3 

de Beam, Vicomte, see de 
Foix, Gaston 

de Bylandt, Comte Henri, 44 

De Canibus Britannicis, 11, 
12 

de Foix, Gaston, viii, 3, 4, pi. 1 

de Langley, Edmund, 4 

De Natura et Solertia Canum, 
19 

de Worde, Wynkyn (print 
er), 7, 8 



INDEX 



de la Vigne, Gace, 2 

Deerhound, 20, 38 

Denbigh, 14 

Dictionary of National Bio 
graphy, 4 

Dingo, 35 

The Dog Book, 22, 34, 42, 
43 

The Dog in Health and 
Disease, 38 

Dogs in Britain, 12, 38, pi. 2 

The Dogs of the British 
Islands, 37 

Dogs : Their History and 
Development, 22, 43, 45, 
46 

Drury, W. D., 40 

du Fouilloux, Jacques, 17 

Dublin, 23 



Earl, Maud (artist), 45 
Edward III, 5 

, Duke of York, viii, 3, 

4,5 



of Norwich, see Ed 
ward, Duke of York 

of Plant agenet, see 



Edward, Duke of York 
Edwards, Lionel (artist), vii 

, Sydenham, 25, 27, pi. 6 

Egan, Pierce, 33, 34 
Eley Cathedral, 19 
Elizabeth, 11, 20, 21 
English Setter, 25, 26, 27, 

29, 30, 38 
" Experienced Gentlemen " 

(of Dublin), 23 



Fairfax, Thomas, 23 

" Feather-bed gunners/' 29 

The Field (magazine), 37, pi. 

10 

Field Sports, 23 
Fitzinger, L. J., 40 
Fleitmann, Lida, vii 
Fleming, Abraham, 9, 12, 13 
" Fmale ladies popis/' 9 
Forest Laws, 18 
Foxhounds, 24, 28, pi. 1 
Froissart, 3 

Froissart's Chronicles, 3 
Froude, Rev. J., 32 
FurnivaTs Inn Gate, 22 



GalU 4 family (engravers), 15 

Game Laws, 28 

The Gamekeeper's Directory, 

31 

Gardiner John, 23 
Geheimes Jagdbuch, 2, 6 
" A Gentleman of Sussex/' 

23 
The Gentleman's Academie, 

21 

Recreation (Blome), 22 

ibid (Cox), 22 

Gesner, Conrad (naturalist), 

8, 11, 12 

Gilbert, Rev. Pomeroy, 32 
Giorgione, School of, 39 
Gill, L. Upcott (publisher), 

32 

Gilpin (artist), 27, 28, 30 
Gonville and Caius College, 

11 
Gordon Setter, 25, 26, 38 



INDEX 



Gosden, Thomas (binder), 

30, pi. 7 

Gould (artist), 26 
Graham, Captain (breeder), 

38 
Great International Dog 

Show, 41 

Grehound (e) , see Greyhound 
Greyhound, 8, 9, 10, 15, 18, 

20, 38 
Y Gwyddoniadnr Cymreig, 14 



Harte, 21 

Harvey, W. (artist), 28 
Heald, Arthur, 33 
Heinemann (publisher), 43 
Henry IV, 5 
Hentzner, 20 
Hereford, 2 
Hignett, 34 
Hinks (breeder), 38 
" His Majesty's Water Pot/' 

20 
The Historie of Four-footed 

Beastes, 19 
Holinshed, 20 
Hollar, W. (engraver), 23, 

pi. 3 

Homer, vii 
Horse-baiting, 20 
Hounds, 3, 10, 15, 22 
Hubbard, Hesketh, vii 
Die Hund und Seine Rasen, 

40 

Hunger's Prevention, 21 
Hutchinson, W. (editor), 26 
Hywel Dda, 1 



I cones Animalium (Gesner)> 

8 

ibid (Riedel), 19 
The Illustrated Book of the 

Dog, 39, pi. 11 
" Irish Greyhound," 20, 28 
Irish Setter, 25, 26, 29, 38 
Wolfhound, 38 



Jacquerie, the, 3 
Jacob, Giles, 23 
Jesse, Edward, 37 

, George R., 4, 28, 34, 

37, 39 

Johnes, Rychard, 13 
Johnson, John B., 32 

, Thomas B., 31, 32 

Joyce, vii 



Karslake, Rev. W. H., 32 
Kays, John, see Caius, John 
Kenettys, 9 
Kennel Club Calendar and 

Stud Book, 42 
Kennel Clubs, 42, 48 
Kennelman, 7 

Keys, John, see Caius, John 
King Lear, 10 
Krehl, George (breeder), 38 



Landseer (artist), 28, 35, 46 
Laverack, E. 38, 43, pi. 9 
Lawrence, John, 30, 31 
" Leads," 41 



INDEX 



Lee Rawdon, B., 40 

Leighton, Robert, 29, 44 

Leipzig, 19 

Lemor, 9 

Leney (engraver), 39 

Leopards, 39 

Libro de la Monteria, 2 

Life in London, 33 

Livre de Chasse, see Miroir de 

Phebus 
Le Livre du Roy Modus et de 

la Royne Ratio, 3 
Lizars (engraver), 35 
Llanidloes Setter, 38 
Llewellin, Purcell (breeder), 

38 
London, 13 

, Agricultural Hall, 41 

, Berkeley Square, 30 

, Crystal Palace, 41 

, Great Fire of, 23 

, Haymarket, 41 

, Holborn, 22 

, Newgate, 13 

, St. Giles, 41 

, The Strand, 19 

Longmans Green and Co. 

(publishers), 32, pL 9 
Lonicer (artist), 16 
Lonsdale collection, vii 
Lym, 10 
Lytton, Judith, see Lytton, 

Hon. Mrs. Neville 
, Hon. Mrs. Neville, 35, 

45 



Macdona, Rev. J. C., 27, 46 
Madrid, 19 
Maftyfe, see Mastiff 



Maison Rustique, 17 

Malopin, 17 

Manchester Terrier, 34 

Manton, Joseph (gunsmith), 
30 

Manwood, John, 18 

Markham, Gervase, 17, 20, 
21, 22,. 33 

Marshall (artist), 31 

Massey, Gerald, 37 

" Master of Game," 5 

Master of Game, 3, 4, 5 

Master General of the Ord 
nance, 30 

Mastiff, 9, 10, 14, 18, 20, 25, 
26, 28 

Mastiffgi, 14 

Mastiue, see Mastiff 

Maximilian, 2, 6 

Medland, T. (artist), 30, pi. 8 

Mengrell, see Mongrel 

Miroir de Phebus, 2, 3, 4 

Mongrel, 9, 10 

Montaigne, viii 

" Monthly Remembrancer/' 
30 

Murray, John (publisher), 32 

Myddyng dogges, 9 



Needham, T. H., 31 
The New Book of the Dog, 

34, 44 

New Forest, 18 
Newcastle-on-Tyne, 19, 41 
Newfoundland, 25, 35 
Nichols, 20 
The Noble Arte of Venerie or 

Hunting, 16. 17 



53 



INDEX 



Norwich, 5 
Nurnberg, 19 



Of Engltfhe Dogges, 12, 13 
Old English White Terrier, 

28 
Osbaldiston, W, A., 23 



Pallas (naturalist), 35 

Pariah, 35 

Paris, 19 

Parry, Rev. John, 14 

Parson Jack Russell Terrier, 
32 

Paullini, 19 

Pearce, Rev. Thomas, 39 

Pedro the Cruel, 5 

Pennyles Pilgrim, 20 

Pepys, 20 

Perne, E., 19 

" A Person of Quality," 23 

Pevensey Castle, 5 

Phebus, Gaston, see de Foix, 
Gaston 

Pig, the pointing, 27 

Pinscher, 16 

Plynlimon, 38 

Pocket Beagle, 15 

Poeme sur la Chasse, 2 

The Pointer and His Pre 
decessors, 44 

Pointer, 27, 30, 44, pi. 8 

Ponterwyd, 14 

The Practical Dog Book, 22, 
26 

Pratt (breeder), 38 



Prikherid curris, 9 
Pugin (artist), 28 
Pye, Henry, 12 



Q^iadrupedibus, 19 



Races des Chiens, 44 
Rachys, 9, pi. 1 
Radcliffe, C. D. (artist), 28 
Reinagle (artist), 23, 27, 28, 

30, 39, pi. 5 
Researches into the History 

of the British Dog, 34, 37 
Rhys, Sir John, 14 
Richard II, 7 
Richmond, Duke of, 30 
Riedel, 19 
Routledge, George and Sons 

(publishers), 32 
Rural Sports, 27 
ibid (Supplement), 27 
Russell, Rev. John, 32 
Rysbrack (artist), 28 



St. Albans, 7 

St. Bernard, 27, 35 

St. Sepulchre's Church, 19 

Sampson Low, Marston and 

Co. (publishers), 32 
Sartorius (artist), 24 
the Younger (artist), 

31 

Saurat, Denis, viii 
Schwerdt, vii, 18, pi. 8 



54 



INDEX 



Scott, John (engraver), 28, 

30, pi. 5, pi. 7 
t (writer), see Lawrence, 

John 

The Setter, 38 
Setters 25, 26, 27, 29 30, 38, 

43, pi. 6, pi. 8, pi. 9 
Severall Wayes of Hunting, 

23 

Seymour (artist), 31 
Shakespeare, viii, 10, 18 
Shaw, Jemmy (publican), 41 

, Vero, 4,- 26, 39, pi. 11 

Shaw-Sparrow, W., 24 
Sheepdogs, 9, 14 
Shepherd's Dogge, 14, 28 
The Shooter's Companion, 31 

Guide, 31 

Shooting Directory, 29 
Shows, early, see " Leads/' 
Simpkin Marshall, Ltd. 

(publishers), 32 
Skye Terrier, 38 
" Slut " (the pointing pig), 

27 
Smith, A. Croxton, vii 

, Hamilton, 34, 35 

, W. P. (artist), 28 

Smooth-haired Fox Terrier, 

38 

Somerville, 24 
Sopwell, 7 

Spaniel, 9, 26, 28, 41, 43 
Spanish Pointer, 27 
Spanyell, see Spaniel 
Sperling (artist), 39 
Sport in Art ,16, 22, 23 
Sporting Anecdotes, 33 
The Sporting Dictionary, 28 
Sports and Pastimes, 29 



The Sportsman's Annual, 34 

Cabinet, 28, 29, pi. 5 

(magazine), 31 

Calendar, 30 

Dictionary, 12 

Repository, 30 

Springer Spaniel, 28, pi. 5 
Stables, Gordon, 40 
Stevens and Liebault, 17 
" Stonehenge," see Walsh, 

J.H. 
Stow, 20 

Stradanus (artist), 15, 16 
Stringer, Arthur, 23 
Strutt, 20, 29 
Stubbs (artist), 27, 30 
Surflet, Richard, 17 
" Swift English small dog/' 

15, 16 



Tancarville, Count, 3 

Taplin. W., 27, 28, 29, pi. 5 

Taylor, John, 20 

Templer, Revs. J.and G.,32 

Teroures, 9 

Terrier, 9 24, 26, 28, 41 

Thomas, B., 31 

Thornhill, Richard, 29, 30, 

pi. 8 

Thornton, Col., 27 
Thoughts on Hunting, 24, 30 
Thumb volume, an undated, 

21 

Titian (artist), 39 
Topsell (naturalist), 19 
Toy Dogs, 41, 45 
Tov Dogs and their Ancestors, 

45 



55 



INDEX 



A Treatife and, Difcourfe of 
the Laws of the Foreft, 18 

Trundle-tail, 10 

Tryndeltayles, 9 

Turberville, George, viii, 16, 
17, 22 

Turnespets, 14 

Tweedmouth, collection, vii 

Twici, Guillaume, 2 



Venaiiones. 15 
La Venerie, 17 
Vicentino, 17 
Vienna, 39 
von Schmiedeberg, 39 



Walsh, J. H., 38, 39, pi. 10 
Wapps, 14 
Water Spaniel, pi. 5 
Watson, James, 19, 22, 26, 

29, 34, 42, 43, 45, pi. 8 
Wells, L. (artist), 38 
Welsh Setter, 38 

Sheepdog, 9 

Westminster, the Pit, 33 

Wolf, 29 

Wynn, Rev. M. B., 4 



Youatt, 38 

The Young Sportsman's 
Instructor, 21 



1 1 2 342