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Woar d(v 

The Journal of the Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland 

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Digitized by 


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C|)f ^td^olDjfual Insiitntt of 0uat fntain anb |rdanb, 


TRUBNER & 00., 67 & 59, LUDGATE HILL. 

All UighU Reserved. 

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ST. V abtiv'b LAVB. 

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Bbddob, Dr. John. Aborigines of Oentral Qoeenalaad 145 

Bbooa, Dr. Faitl. Opening Address to the French Association for the 

AdTBncement of Science at Havre Congress, 1877 • 187 

Bbowkb, Mr. A. J. Jitkbs. Flint Implements from Egjpt . • . • 396 

BuocLAifi), ItfjsB A. W. Frimitire Agricolture 2 

BuBTOV, Capt. B. F. Flint Flakes from Egypt 823 

More Castellieri. . 841 

Oasxiohabl, Mr. 0. H. E. On a Benedictine Missionary's Account of tho 

Katires of Australia and Oceania. . . . • 280 

Claphak, Dr. Oboohlby. The Brain-weights of some Chinese and Felew 

Islanders 89 

Clabkb, Mr. Hydb. The Himalayan Origin of the Magyar . . . . 44 

DAWKnrs, Prof. Boyd. The Evidence afforded by the Caves of Great 

Britain ae to the Antiquity of Man 161 

DiSTABT, Mr. W. L. Anthr jpobgical Gleanings • 54S 

EvAirs, Dr. Josv. On the Antiquity of Man 149 

— Discorery of Falseolithio Implements in the Yalley of the Axe . . 499 

Flowbb, Prof. W. H. Note on Eskimo Skulls 639 

Fox, Maj.-Gbk. a. Lakb. Discovery of a Dug-out Canoe in the Tliames 

at Hampton Court 102 

On Protection of Andent Buildings 186 

■ Preservation of Ancient Monuments and Antiquities in Ohio . • 186 

Observations on Mr. Man's Collection of Andamanese and Nicobar- 

ese objects 433 

HowoBTH, Mr. H. H. The Ethnology of Germany, Part IL The Ger- 
mans of Cesar . . . . . . • . 211 

The Ethnology of Germany, Part III. The Migrations of the 

Saxons 298 

The Spread of the Slavs, Part I. The Croats 829 

Hamiltok, Mr. A. Gatht. Customs of the New Caledonian Women . • 206 

Habbuok, Mr. J. Pabk. Additional Discoveries at Cissbury . . . . 413 

Hoi;t, Mr. Bobbbt B. The Earthworks of Portsmouth, Ohio . . . . 132 

HuoHBS, Prof. T. McK. On the Evidence afforded by the Cbavels and 

Brick-Earth 162 

HuvTBB, Capt. F. M. Notes on Socotra . . 864 

Kbowlbb, Mr. W. J. Flint Implements and Associated Bemains found 

near Ballintoy, co. Antrim 202 

Digitized by 




Laws, Mr. E. On a Kitchen Midden found in a care near Tenbj, Pem- 
brokeshire • • •• ' 84 

LswBS, Mr. A. L. Bude Stone Monuments in North Wales • • • • 118 

— — *^- Bude Stone Monument in £ent • • • • 140 

MoLsAir, Ber. Hbctob. The Scottish Highland Language and People . • 65 

MAN^Mr. £. H. The Andaman Islands 105 

Mabtik, Mr. B. B. Objects from a supposed Kitchen Midden in 

Smyrna 188 

MoBTDCBB, Mr. J. B. On an Underground Structure at Driffield, York- 
shire.. .. 272 

Bab, Dr. Johk. On Eskimo Migrations 125 

On Eskimo Skulls •^ 142 

Bobs, Ber. W. On Curious Coincidences in Celtic and Maori Toca- 

bularies ' 128 

Sncsov, Alvbbd. Notes on the Zaparos •• 602 

TiDDBMAir, Mr. B. H. On the Aee of the Hyena-Bed at the Tictoria 

Care, Settle, and its bounng on the Antiquity of Man 165 

TopiwABD, Dr. Paul. On Anthropolology 540 

TiTBirBS, Ber. W. Y. On the Ethnology of the Motu 470 

WAiaoirsB, Mr. M. J. On Non^epulchral Bude Stone Monuments •• 21 

Wbbtbqpp, Mr. Hoddbb M. On a Kitchen Midden at Yentnor • • • • 88 

Whithbb, Bey. S. J. On some Characteristics of the Malayo-Poly- 

nesians 872 

Annual General Meeting • . • • • 511 

Ind«( 549 

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February 13th, 1877, 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair, 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective doners for the same : — 

For the Library. 

From the Institution. — Journal of the Royal United Service Insti- 

tion. Vol. XX, No. 88. 
From E. W. Brabbook, Esq., P.S.A. — ^A Pamphlet on Friendly 

SocietieB and similar Institntions. 
From the Society. — Proceedings of the Royal Society. Vol. XXV, 

No. 176. 
From the Society. — ^Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal 

Society of Victoria. Vol. XII. 
From the Society. — Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society. 

Vol. XXI, No. 1. 
Fiom the Society of Aniiquaribs op London. — ArchaBologia : or 

Miscellaneous Tracts relating to Antiquity. Vol. XLIV, Part 


From J. Jeremiah, Esq. Jun. — Papers relating to the Urban Club. 
From the Society. — Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great 

Britain and Ireland. Vol. IX, Part I. 
From Prof. F. V. Haydbn, Hon. M.A. I.— Bulletin of the United 

States Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories. 

Vol. n, No. I ; Photographic Portraits of the Indians of U.S. 

North America, representing 70 of the Principal Tribes. 
From Captain Harold Dillon, P.S.A. — General Returns of the 
VOL. vn. B 

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2 A. W. BUCKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture. 

British Army for the year 1873 ; Report on Military Prisons 

for 1876, by Lieut.-Col. DuCane, C.B., R.E. 
From the Assocution. — Proceedings of the American Association 

for the Advancement of Science. Vol. XXIV, 1875. 
From the Society. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

No. 8, 1876 ; Jonrnal of ditto. Vol. XLV, Part I, No. 2, and 

Part IT, No. 3. 
From the Editor. — Revne Scientifique. Nos. 31 — 33, 1877. 
From the Editor. — ^Nature to date. 

A special vote of thanks was passed to Prof. Hayden for his 
present of an album (which was exhibited at the meeting) con- 
taining photographs of the Indians of North America, repre- 
senting 70 of the principal tribes. 

Miss A. W. BucKLAND read the following paper on Primitive 
Agriculture : — 

Primitive Agriculture. By A. W. Auckland, M.A,I. 

It has been justly remarked by Mr. Crawford that "no people 
ever attained a tolerable degree of civilization who did not cul- 
tivate one or other of the higher cereals," and yet, strange to say, 
the subject of Primitive Agriculture is enveloped in mystery. 
We know, indeed, that the cultivation of bread-stuffs dates from 
a most venerable antiquity ; that, as the author before quoted 
says, " The architectural monuments and the letters of Egypt, 
of ancient Greece, and of Italy, of Assyria, of Northern India, 
and of Northern China, were all produced by consumers of 
wheat. The monuments and letters of Southern India, of the 
Hindu-Chinese countries, of Southern China, of Java, and of 
Sumatra were the products of a rice-cultivating and rice-con- 
suming people. The architectural monuments of Mexico and 
Peru, and we have no doubt also of Palenqu^, were produced by 
the cultivators and consumers of maize." * But, when we ask, 
as we very naturally do, to what people are we indebted for the 
origin of agriculture, and where is the native land of the cereals 
thus so early known, so widely spread, and so successfully culti- 
vated in prehistoric times ? we are met with vague and uncer- 
tain responses, even from the most accomplished of ethnologists 
and botanists. 

Archaeological records prove that man in his earliest condition 
was no cultivator of the soil, no keeper of herds and flocks, but 
a wild and savage hunter, flitting from place to place continually 
in pursuit of Kis prey, but, judging from the habits of modem 
savages, as tribes multiplied it must soon have been found in- 
convenient to allow the women and children to accompany the 

• "Plants in reference to Ethnology." "Trans. Eth. Soc." vol. t, p. 190. 

Digitized by 


' A. W. BUCKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 3 

men in all their hunting expeditions ; these, therefore, were pro- 
bably left encamped in some convenient spot, to await the return 

' of the hunters from distant raids upon the wild denizens of the 


That agriculture originated with these watchers and waiters 
seems at least probable, for amongst them food must have been 

[ often scarce, and in time of famine strange diet becomes both 

necessaiy and acceptable, smd fish, bird, and insect, must often 

L have been supplemented by wild fruits and roots, and at last by 

f the grasses, tlie seeds being eaten without preparation. But as 

savages and animals, both wild and domesticated, learn by ex- 
perience what to eat and what to avoid, so experience must 
have taught these primitive peoples that the seeds of the various 
grasses which they found growing wild were not only good 8tnd 
sustaining food, but might be improved by being pounded and 
deprived of their husks, emd by being either parched or mixed 
with water smd baked or boiled ; and doubtless they soon learnt 
by observation that these seeds, scattered over the land, would 
reproduce their kind, and furnish them with food for another 
season of scarcity. The almost universal employment of women 
exclusively in agricultural pursuits among the lower races, may 
perhaps, be adduced in confirmation of this conjectural origin of 
agriculture, which certainly could never have originated with 
nomadic tribes, because they could not have remained long 
enough in one spot to sow the seed and reap the harvest. It is 
evident that the discovery of this eminently useful art, would 
be a powerful aid to the formation of settled tribes, and eventu- 
ally of civilized communities and powerful nations ; because the 
necessity for a wandering life would thus by degrees be done 
away with ; the long journeys in search of food would be gra- 
dually abandoned for the cultivation of the soil, and herds would 
be kept to supplement the uncertain products of the chase, 
rendeied yet more uncertain by the multiplication of man in one 
spot, and the consequent withdrawal of wild animals to a safe 
distance from their enemies. Thus man would become more 
and more dependent upon agriculture and upon the rearing of 
tame cattle, and from a hunter would become a husbandman. 
Taking this to have been the origin of agriculture, it is of course 
possible, nay probable, that the cultivation of the soil may have 
originated in many unconnected coimtries, and at various times; 
but it is remarkable that many peoples, some living in fertile 
countries, have yet remained in total ignorance of this earliest of 
the arts to the present day ; but then such tribes have either 
continued to be houseless, wandering savages, whose simple 
wants are supplied by natiiral products, or, like the Esquimaux, 
their climate has prevented any successM attempt at agriculture. 

B 2 

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4 A. W. BuCKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 

Then again, neither Australia, New Zealand, nor the numerous 
Pacific Islands would seem to possess any indigenous species of 
grain, although some of the wild barleys and oats are found in 
New Zealand, Easter Island, and the West Indies; and in 
Australia a grass abounds which they say is neither good for 
man nor beast, but which yet resembles so much in outward ap- 
pearance some of our cultivated grasses, that one is tempted to 
believe that this also might be developed into com, and even to 
wonder whether here, in this ancient land, we may not trace the 
origin of some of our cereals.* It is, however, generally agreed 
that we must not look to the southern hemisphere for that de- 
velopment of agricultural skill resulting in the cultivation of the 
cereals; for throughout all these scattered lands, agriculture 
where it does exist, consists in the cultivation of roots and trees 
indigenous to those lands. The growth of the cereals requiring 
greater skill, represents also a higher stage of development in 
the races who, from wild originals, brought them into a state fit 
for the noiirishment of man. That all our cereals sprang either 
spontaneously, or by cultivation from wild originals, cannot be 
doubted; but when we find that in the lake dwellings of 
Switzerland, belonging to the Stone Age, three kinds of wheat, 
two of barley, and two of millet were certainly known, we are 
forced to believe that the wild originals of wheat and barley 
must have merged into the cultivated, at an extremely early 
period in the history of our race, and that the art of agriculture 
must be of extreme antiquity.f This fact is, indeed, testified, 
not only by the knowledge of the art possessed by the lake 
dwellers, but by discoveries of corn with Egyptian mimimies of 
vast antiquity, by traces which have been found, not only of 
com, but of the furrows made for the cultivation of it, beneath 
bogs and peat mosses of great depth, and by the discovery of 
maize by Mr. Darwin on the coast of Pern, in a raised beach 
85 feet above sea level, and in tombs belonging to a race long 
anterior to the Incas. But the countries producing the wild 
originals of our cultivated cereals, and therefore by inference 
the races also to whom we are indebted for their cultivation, 
remain unknown. 

Mr. Crawford in pointing out the fact that the names for 
wheat and barley, vary in almost all languages, and that this 
variation in the names given to the cereals points to their having 
been independently cultivated in many different localities, says, 
that in Basque, the names for wheat, barley, and oats are purely 

* We find, indeed,- that the seeds of this grass {Pctnieum latnnode) are used 
by the natires of the interior to make a sort of paste, which is described as sweet 
and palatable. See " Tropical Australia," Lieut.-Col. Sir T. L. Mitchell, p. 98. 

t See Belt's ** Naturalist in Nicaragua," and Bennie on " Peat Mosses. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

A. W. BucKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture. 5 

Basque, while those for rye, rice, and maize are of Spanish 
origin. " The inference is," he says, " that the first-named plants 
were immemoriaUy cultivated by the Basques, and the last only 
introduced into their country after the Roman conquest of 
Spain." * The mention of oats among the earlier list would 
seem to be a confirmation of the theory of most archaeologists of 
the present day, that the Basques are the remnajat of that pre- 
Aryan race to whom we are indebted for the introduction of 
bronze, since we are told, that oats do not appear in the Swiss 
Lake villages before the age of bronze. Rice would seem to 
have originated in tropical Asia,, and never to have found its way 
in any considerable quantity into Europe in primitive times, 
either as an article of commerce or of agriculture.^ Even now 
it is very little cultivated, except in Asia where it forms the 
food of millions, and in tropical America where it has been in- 
troduced in modem times. It has been commonly accepted as 
an indisputable fact, that maize is indigenous to America, and 
was unloiown to the Eastern hemisphere before the time of 
Columbus. Whilst, however, allowing in the absence of proof 
to the contrary, that America was the native land of this most 
useful cereal, I cannot think that the date of its introduction to 
the Old Worid has, as yet, been satisfactorily ascertained. Res- 
pecting this plant Mr. Crawford says, " Maize is an exclusive 
product of America, and was as imlmown to the Old Worid 
before the time of Columbus as tobacco or the pine-apple. With 
a wider geographical range than any other of the cereals, it has 
invaded every country of the Old World from the equator to 
the 50th degree of latitude, and is now the bread of many mil- 
lions of people whose forefathers lived in ignorance of its ex- 
istence. It is extensively cultivated in the southern provinces 
of China, in Japan, and in the islands of the Malay and Philip- 
pine archipelagos. Speke and Grant foimd it the principsd corn 
in parts of the interior of Africa, which the feet of wmte man 
had never trodden before their own ; and in Italy and Spain it 
was a frequent crop within fifty years of the discovery of the 
New World. This wide and rapid exteiision, maize owed to its 
adaptation to diversities of soil and climate, its hai:xiihood, with 
consequent facility of propagation, and its eminent feoimdity." | 
Mr. Crawford elsewhere lays down, as a rule, that where native 
names are given to cereals, it is a proof that they are indigenous 
to those countries ; but in applying this rule to maize, he says, 
" The name as known to European nations is taken directly 

• " Flanto in reference to Ethnology." " Trans. Eth. Soc.," vol. t. 
t See ObBenrataons sa to the probability of its thriving in France, and the 
"Imperial Wheat" in Hue's " China" 

I " Plants in reference to Ethnology." " Trans. Eth. Soc.," vol. v. 

Digitized by 


6 A. W. BucKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 

from the Spanish, and it is to be presumed that the conquerors 
of the New World borrowed it from one of the many languages 
of that continent. In some of the Oriental languages we have 
specific names for it, which seem entirely native, such as bJmtta 
in Hindu, jagung in most of the languages of the Indian archipe- 
lago, katsalva in the Madagascar. This would lead to the belief 
that the plant was indigenous where such names are given to it ; 
but the probability is, that they were taken from some native 
plant bearing a resemblance to maize. Thus in the two prin- 
cipal languages of Southern India, maize is named after the chief 
millet cultivated in the peninsula, the cholu or ragi, to which an 
epithet implying its foreign origin is added. The Turks give 
it the name of boghdai misr, or the wheat of Egypt, which is 
not more amiss than the names given by the French and English 
when they call it Indian and Turkey com."* It does not seem 
incredible that maize should have been cultivated in Italy and 
Spain within fifty years of its discovery ; but why it should 
have been called from the first Turkish or Indian com, requires 
explanation ; neither can we imderstand how it found its way so 
quickly into China, Japan, Madagascar, the Malay Archipelago, 
and all parts of Africa (for it was also found in cultivation at 
the Cape at its first discovery, even as in the interior by Speke 
and Grant, and at Angola as recorded by Mr. Monteiro) before 
any intercourse had been established between those countries 
and Europe or America. 

A gentleman from the gold fields of South Africa informs me, 
that the Kaffirs beyond the frontier, who will not permit a white 
man to enter their territory, from the superstitious belief that 
the destruction of their race would follow immediately in his 
footsteps, yet cultivate maize largely, and have done so from 
time immemorial. It may also be interesting to observe that 
the same people describe minutely gigantic ruins existing in 
their land, the origin of which they do not know, but which 
many colonists believe to represent the Ophir of Scripture, but 
which no European has yet been able to visit, so vigilant are the 

Colimibus is said to have introduced maize into Spain in 1520, 
but it is a singular fact that the old black letter book, entitled 
" A Niewe Herball," translated by Henry Lyte, Esq., and pub- 
lished in London in 1578, gives a very full description of this 
plant, but without any reference whatever to its American 
origin. It is there said, " This grayne groweth in Turkic, wher 
as it is used in time of dearth." " They do now call this grayne 
Frumentum Turcicum and Frumentum Asiaticum; in French 
Bli de Turquie or B\6 Sarazin ; in High Douche, Turkic Korn ; 
* " Plants in reference to Ethnology." " Trans. Eth. Soc.," toI. v. 

Digitized by 


A. W. BucKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 7 

in English, Turkish com or Indian wheat." If we compare with 
this ibe following extract from Dr. Daubeny's " Lectures on 
Soman Husbandry " (1857), we shall perhaps come to the con- 
clusion that the Turkish name for that which we call Turkish 
or Indian wheat, may not after all be so very far wrong. Dr. 
Daubeny says, " The names given to wheat by Pliny were far 
adcrewm, halicasirum and zea. Although in modem books on 
botany the name zea is applied to maize, it certainly could have 
no relation to that now well-known article of food. For there 
can be no sort of doubt that maize is indigenous in America, 
and was not known in Europe tiU after the discovery of the 
New World. It is thought, indeed, that it is a native of Para- 
guay, where a variety is found differing in some respects from 
the cultivated kind, but not so essentially, as to be r^arded as a 
distinct species. Sir Wm. Hooker, however, relates a curious 
circumstance, namely, that some grains called mummy wheat, 
were sent him from Egypt, which proved to be maize, and 
maize of that variety wMch comes from Paraguay. It was re- 
ported to have been taken from a mummy, on as good authority 
perhaps as most of the specimens which have been brought 
over, a fact that ought to render us cautious in believing the 
reports of the Aral« in similar cases, for it seems next to cer- 
tain, that some fraud must here have been practised, as a 
valuable plant like maize, if ever known in Egypt, could not fail 
to have become general, in a country so well suited for its culti- 
vation. Nevertheless, it is certainly curious that it should have 
been, not the commonly cultivated variety, but the one indi- 
genous in Paraguay, which was passed off among the contents 
of an Egyptian tomb." In a note it is explained that " Mons. 
Bifault, a French traveller, reports that he obtained these grains 
of maize himself from an i^^tian catacomb."* In Chambers's 
Encyclopaedia, we are told that although maize is supposed to 
have be^ imknown in the Eastern hemisphere before the time 
of Columbus, yet a representation of the plant is found in an 
ancient Chinese book in the Eoyal library in Paris, and some 
grains of it are reported to have been oiscovered in ancient 
houses in Athens^ Indeed, I feel sure that if archaeologists will, 
look with xmprejudiced eyes, they will yet find representations 
of this plant among the sculptures of Egjrpt and Greece. 

To the objection that had this corn been known to the 
ancient Egjrptians it would have become generally cultivated, it 
may be answered, that supposing it to have been of foreign 
origin, the conservatism of the i^T)tians would have prevented 
its speedy adoption, and a land which produced so abundantly 

• ''LeotoresonBomanHuBbandry," bj0ha8.Daubenj,MJ>.,F.ILS.,M.B.I.A., 
Profaaor of Botanj, Oxford, 1857. 

Digitized by 


8 A. W. BUCKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 

the superior grains, wheat and barley, would not be likely to 
resign them for that which " The Niewe HerbaU " says was in 
1578 only cultivated in Turkey in time of famine, and of 
which it proceeds to say, " There is as yet no certain experience 
of the natural vertues of this come. The bread that is made 
thereof is drie and harde, having very small fatnesse or moys- 
ture, wherefore men may easily judge that it nourisheth little 
and is evill of digestion." We can, however, readily understand 
that it would spread quickly, and be a great boon in those 
tropical lands imsuited for the production of wheat ; but even 
now, after the experience of centuries, Europeans, except in 
Spain and Italy, cultivate this grain very sparingly, and rather 
as food for cattle than man. This question as to the knowledge 
of maize in the Eastern hemisphere prior to the time of Colum- 
bus, is most important in connection with the intercourse 
which many ethnologists believe can be proved to have existed 
between the Old World and the New, long ages before the birth 
of history. With regard to American agriculture, Sir John 
Lubbock says, " American agriculture was not imported from 
abroad. This is proved by the fact that the grains of the Old 
World were entirdy absent, and that American agriculture was 
founded upon the maize, an American plant."* But to this it 
may be replied that adventurers from the Old World, whether 
driven accidently to the New, or finding themselves there in the 
course of a voyage of discovery, would not carry with them 
grain for the purposes of cultivation, but being conversant with 
the growth of com, would seize upon that which they found 
ready to their hand as the basis of their agriculture. Even had 
they conveyed with them wheat, they would probably have con- 
sumed it, or have foimd it unsuited to the soil of the new 
country. American legends are unanimous in ascribing the 
introduction of agriculture to foreigners coming from the sea, 
who are minutely described as white bearded men, distinct in 
race from the aborigenes. Both Quetzalcoatl in Mexico, and 
Manco Capac in Peru, are distinctly venerated as instructors in 
the art of the cultivation of maize, and although attempts have 
been made to prove both these to have been sun myths, I 
believe the balance of probability is in favour of their being real 
personages, notwithstanding the myths which have since accu- 
mulated round them, and the truth of the legends relating to 
the cultivation of maize in America, appears to me to be con- 
firmed by the description given by Sir John Lubbock of the 
early traces of American agriculture. After describing these 
traces as consisting of irregular com-liills, he proceeds to say 
*' But Mr. Lapham has found traces of an earlier and more 

* " PrehiBtorio Times," 2nd editioD, p. 278. 

Digitized by 


A. W. BUCKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 9 

systematic cultivation, in low parallel ridges, as if com had 
been planted in drills ; they average 4 ft. in width, twenty-five 
having been counted in the space of 100 feet, with a walk of 
abont six inches between them ; they are found in the richest 
soil in patches of different sizes, from twenty to one hundred or 
even tln^e hundred acres ; they are found in several other parts 
of the State of Wisconsin, and are called garden-beds. The 
garden-beds have long been replaced by the irregular com-hiUs, 
yet according to Lapham the former are more modern than the 
moimds, over which they are sometimes carried." Hence Sir 
John Lubbock traces four long periods: 1st. That in which 
from an original barbarism the American tribes developed a 
knowledge of {^culture and a power of combination. 2nd. That 
in which for the first time mounds were erected and other 
great works undertaken. 3rd. The age of the garden-beds, 
which were probably not in use till the mounds had lost their 
sacred character, or they would not have been used for culti- 
vation. 4th. The period in which man relapsed into partial 
barbarism, and the spots above-named relapsed into forest once 
more."* Now it is evident from this extract, that three different 
agricultural systems have prevailed among the civilised races of 
America, the latest, that of the irregular corn-hills, belongs with- 
out doubt to a comparatively modem period, and to the cultiva- 
tion of maize, which is still planted in small hillocks by the 
Americans, and by those who have learnt the cultivation of this 
grain through them ; the second, that of the garden-beds, which 
though much older, yet dates only to a time when the cities of 
the great mound builders had already fallen into decay, or when 
the builders had been supplanted by a new race, and these 
garden beds probably bear witness to the cultivation of some 
other grain than maize, perhaps a millet, which was certainly 
cultivated by some American tribes, whilst of the third or oldest, 
that under which the moimd-builders lived and executed their 
gigantic works, no traces remain, probably because the agricul- 
ture then practised did not include any of the cereals, but con- 
sisted solely of roots and plants, such as still constitute the 
food of the South Sea Islanders, and of the aborigenes of many 
other lands, the wilder and more barbarous tribes contenting 
themselves with such things as grow spontaneously, whilst the 
more advanced cultivate such plants as are by them most highly 
esteemed. The mcmioc or Jairopha manioc, says Mr. Crawford, 
formed the principal bread of the rude inhabitants of native 
America, who had but one of the cereals, and that one not 
universally known and cultivated. Similar plants, we are told, 
form the chief food of many African tribes, and there seems to 
• "Prehistoric Times," pp. 274—277. 

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10 A. W. BuCKLAND. — Primitive AgrictUture. 

be sufficient evidence to prove, that prior to the knowledge of 
the cereals, roots, prepared by pounding, maceration, and dessicar 
tion, formed the universal food of the human race, and that the 
cereals were everywhere introduced by new and superior races, 
who had by some means acquired a knowledge of them in the 
land of their nativity. There is a singular passage in Herodotus, 
which tells us of a time when the Egyptians lived in this 
primaeval state on roots and fruits. After enumerating a great 
many points in which the Egyptians differ from other nations, 
he writes, " Others feed on wheat and barley, but it is a very 
great disgrace for an Egyptian to make food of them, but they 
make bread from spdt, which some call zea!'* And later he 
says of those who live in the morasses, " But to obtain food 
more easily they have the following inventions : when the river 
is full, and has made the plains like a sea, great numbers of 
lilies, which the Egyptians, call lotus, spring up in the water ; 
these they gather and dry in the sim, then having pounded the 
middle of ttie lotus which resembles a poppy, they make bread 
of it and bake it. The root also of this lotus is fit for food, and 
is tolerably sweet, and is round and of the size of an apple. 
There are also other lilies, like roses, that grow in the river, the 
fruit of which is contained in a separate pod, that springs up 
from the root in form very like a wasp's nest, in this there are 
many berries fit to be eaten of the size of an olive stone, and 
they are eaten both fresh and dried. The byblus, which is an 
annual plant, when they have pulled it up in the fens, they cut 
oflf the top of it and put to some other uses, but the lower part 
that is left, to the length of a cubit, they eat and sell Those 
who are anxious to eat the byblus dressed in the most delicate 
manner, stew it in a hot pan and then eat it" It is somewhat 
singular that not only do the Egyptians resemble the Chinese in 
many of those points in which Herodotus points out their 
difference from other men, but also in the food thus consumed 
presumably by the lower classes, for M. Hue says, " Water lilies, 
yellow, white, red and pink, are much cultivated, the seeds are 
eaten as nuts, and boiled in sugar and water ; the root is always 
excellent and wholesome however cooked, whether pickled with 
salt and vinegar to eat with rice, or reduced to powder and 
boiled with milk or water it is very agreeable, or eaten raw like 

Thus we see that in the two countries noted above all others 
for the cultivation of the cereals, there are evident traces of a 
time when the aborigenes lived as savages do now upon roots. 
Boot-eater, we are told, among the Malays is a term of contempt 

• "Herodotus," Book 11, 92 and 36, Gary's edition, 
t Hue's " Chinese Empire." 

Digitized by 


A. W. BucKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 11 

equivalent to barbarian, and doubtless it acquired this signifi- 
cance from the fact that the aborigines everywhere, either from 
old custom or from superstition, prefer the food of their fore- 
fathers. Thus we find even to the present day, the natives of 
Australia and the South Sea Islands, prefer their taro, yams, and 
manioc to the cereals, which, although now long familiar to 
them, are not extensively cultivated by them. Perhaps, the 
record of the sums expended in purchasing radishes, onions, and 
garlic for the builders of the Great Pyramid, and the absence of 
all mention of corn, may also be adduced as a proof of the truth 
of the statement of Herodotus, the luxuries above named being 
doubtless supplemented by the abundant lotus crop of the Nile. 
But then the question arises. What became of the vast quantity 
of com grown in Egypt ? It was, doubtless, partly consiuned by 
the sacerdotal and military castes, much was stored, as we know, 
for seasons of scarcity, and much, perhaps, was exported in ex- 
change for such articles of luxury as Egypt did not produce, 
until gradually but surely, the taste for bread became universal 
among them, even, as among ourselves, wheat has only gradually, 
and within tiie last century, entirely superseded the bjffley, rye, 
and oat bread familiar to our ancestors, and which is still eaten 
in Grermany, Eussia, and Scotland. It is a point especially 
worthy of note that races, however low they may be in the scale 
of humanity, have yet learnt to prepare native plants, many of 
them of a poisonous nature, and others of an acrid and unplea- 
sant taste, by soaking them long in water, by pounding and 
drying them so as to extract the unwholesome matter, whilst 
retaining the starch, which they then make into a paste and 
either bake or boil, but chiefly the latter. Du Halde teUs us, 
that the wheaten bread of the Chinese is chiefly prepared by 
boiling.* Even our Saxon ancestors retained a memory of the 
arts of savage life in the food they prepared from acorns, by 
pounding and soaking them long in water, to remove that bitter- 
ness which would seem to us to render them hopelessly un- 

The three nations of antiquity most celebrated for their know- 
ledge of agriculture, confining Uiat term to the cultivation of the 
cereals, are China, Egypt, and Peru, but in each of these, there 
are traces of a time when these cereals were unknown, and in 
each their introduction is distinctly ascribed to individuals 
who are likewise the foimders of the nation, and of the highly 
developed civilization subsequently attained. In China this 

• Hue's " Chinefie Empire," p. 304. 

t The fact that maize becomes more wholesome and palateable after long 
soaking in water and boiling, may perhaps account for its common use among 
the lower races. 

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12 A. W. BuCKLAND. — Prirmtive Agriculture, 

teacher of agriculture was not Fohi, but the second emperor, or 
head of the second dyn/isty, some historians reckoning seventeen 
emperors between him and Fohi The annals of Chma, indeed, 
seem to bear out in a remarkable manner the theory of the 
gradual development of civilization insisted on by modem eth- 
nologists. In the time of Fohi, men are represented as differing 
but Uttle from brutes, devouring every part of an animal, drinking 
the blood, and clothing themselves with skins ; but Fohi taught 
them to make nets for fishing, and to bring up domestic animals 
for food and sacrifice ; also he instructed them in music, and to 
use the 8 koua, or symbols of three lines each, instead of the 
quipus or knotted cords ; he also regulated the laws of marriage, 
forbidding a man to many a woman of his own name, whether 
related or not. Then Chm-nong introduced agriculture, invent- 
ing the necessary implements of husbandry, and teaching the 
people to sow five sorts of grain, and this he did, it is said, because 
the people had greatly increased, and the plants and animals 
were not sufficient for them. From hence he was called Chin- 
nong, which signifies Heavenly Husbandman. The five kinds of 
grain introduced by Chin-nong are still sown yearly by the 
Chinese Emperor at the great agricultural feast; they are wheat,* 
rice, millet, beans, and another kind of millet called Cao leang, 
which is, I understand, that sort of com called Guinea com, or 
Cafifire corn, which is so widely cultivated in Asia and Africa ; but 
Du Halde probably speaks of maize when, in describing the 
second government of Tartary,he says, "They have in particular 
a great quantity of millet, and a sort of grain unknown amongst 
us, called by the Chinese of the country mai-se-mi, as being of 
a middle species between wheat and rice, but whatever its 
proper name be, it is of a good taste and in great request in 
these cold countries. It would, perhaps, thrive in some places 
in Europe where no other grain wiU.'**!- 

In Egypt the inventor of the art of agriculture was Menes, 
the first earthly monarch ; in Pern it was Manco Capac, whose 
wife and sister Mama Oello, was the instructress in the arts of 
spinning and weaving. The analogies to be traced between the 
civilizations of these three countries are too numerous to be 
noticed here, but it must be observed that the great festival of 
the search for Osiris appears in China, where it is referred to a 
much esteemed Mandarin who was drowned, and in whose 
honour a yearly feast was instituted with small gilt barks moving 
on the waters in search of the Mandarin, with sports, feasts, and 
fights upon the river. J The feast also of Isis is represented, but, 
as it would appear, in the form of a survival. On the day that 

• Du Halde*8 " Hist, of China," vol. i, pp. 270 et seg, ; vol. iv, p. 94. 
t Ibid,, vol. i, p. 270. X Ibid., p. 210. 

Digitized by 


A. W. BuCKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 13 

the sun enters the fifteenth degree of Aquarius, which is the 
commencement of spring, a feast is held in honour of husbandry 
and celebrated husbandmen; numerous figures in connection 
with this art are carried in procession, and among them a huge 
cow of clay, so large that forty men can with diflBculty carry it ; 
behind this cow, whose horns are gilt, is a young child with one 
foot naked and the other covered, representing the genius of 
labour and diligence. The child strikes the earthen cow without 
ceasing with a rod, as if to drive her forwards. She is followed 
by all the husbandmen with musical instruments, and by com- 
panies of masquers. At the governor's palace this cow is broken 
in pieces, and the fragments, with a number of small cows taken 
from the larger one, are distributed to the multitude, whilst the 
governor makes a discourse in praise of husbandry.* The evi- 
dent connection between this ceremony and the festival of Isis 
represented in Greece by the wanderings of lo, and its having 
analogies in Indian mythology, must strike every ethnologist, 
and there is one point in it of peculiar interest, which is its 
connection with moon-worship in reference to agriculture. It 
has been said by Sir John Lubbock that agriculturists worship 
the sun, and himters the moon ; this, however is only partially 
true, for we find among agricultural races a triad representing the 
sun, the moon, and the earth. Wherever stone or brick pyra- 
mids are found, and it must be remarked that they are foimd 
only among agricultural, and, therefore, semi-civilized races, 
the largest is dedicated to the sun and the second to the moon. 
*Moon-worship in America Mr. Bancroft appears to assign to a 
later date than sun-worship, and thinks it has reference to that 
crescent land from which so many of the American tribes derive 
their mythical origin ; but in China, in Egypt, and throughout 
the east, the moon appears to have been the older deity, and 
to stand out distinctly as the especial goddess of agricidture.t 
The importance 'of the sun and the earth to agriculturists is 
easily understood, but why the moon should hold so prominent 
a position as the female or productive element in nature is not 
80 clear. In our cold northern clime we have come to look upon 
the moon simply as a light-giver and regulator of the tides, and 
to r^ard the ancient bdief in her influence upon vegetation as 
a superstition long exploded ; nevertheless it would appear that 
in wanner climates the influence of the moon is not altogether 
' mythical A gentleman long resident in the West Indies in- 
forms me that the growth of the sugar-cane during moonlight 
nights so greatly exceeds that which takes place when the moon 

• Du Halde, voL ii, p. 119. 

t It would appear to me that moon- worship originated with agriculturists, 
and sun-worship with metaUurgists, 

Digitized by 



14 A. W. BucKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture. 

is not visible, that planters arrange their plantings so as to secure 
moonlight for the young canes. The knowledge of this fact 
probably regulated the great agricultural feast in China, which 
was always on the twenty-third day of the moon, thus securing 
to the yoimg plants the fuU influence of the moon during the 
early stages of their growth. The observant Chinese also attach 
great importance to a fact unknown to us, namely, that some sorts 
of grain flower invariably by night, and others by day.* The sign 
taught to Chinese children as symbolical of the moon is a rabbit 
pounding rice in a mortar,f and this sign, when compared with 
the prominence given to the rabbit in American sculptures and 
hieroglyphics, seems an additional argument in favour of a con- 
nection between the hemispheres in prehistoric times, especially 
if, as BufFon says, that animal is not a native of America. It 
appears eight times on each face of the pyramid of Xochicalco 
(Mexico), in conjunction with other unexplained signs.^ Ban- 
croft reports it as among the rock carvings of Utah, and it forms 
the first sign of the Mexican calendar, the close resemblance of 
which to those of China and Tartary, has always been held as 
a strong argument for former intercourse between the widely 
separate peoples using them. 

In a former paper I endeavotired to prove that the introduc- 
tion of the arts of civilization, and particularly that of metallurgy, 
might be traced to a race of sun and serpent worshippers, having 
strong afi&nities with the Chinese, Egyptians, and ancient Acca- 
dians, a race which it is the custom to term Turanian. This 
race, which, however it may be denominated, was certainly pre-' 
Aryan, may, I believe, be credited with having carried the seeds 
of useful knowledge over the earth within a certain zone. Agri- 
culture, weaving, pottery, pyramidal structures, and metallurgy 
may be attributed to them, although of course it does not neces- 
sarily follow, that all these arts were invented at once, or spread 
at the same time over the surface of the globe, but the strong 
resemblances to be traced everywhere in the primitive stages of 
these arts, and the peculiar religion which invariably accompanies 
them, in which the serpent and human sacrifices play a promi- 
nent part, seem to point unmistakably to the influence of one 
race, whilst everywhere may be traced, beneath the originators of 
this peculiar civilization, one or more aboriginal races treated by 
the superior or dominant caste, as slaves or outcasts, yet retain- 
ing always their own superstitions, their own customs, and 'even, 
as has been shown, their own food, which in some cases appears 

• Bee Du Halde, vol. iii, p. 2. 

t ijnong some Aboriginal tribes in India the word for moon is the same as 
that for hare and roebuck. 
J See also Tyler's " Anahuao." Bancroft'^ " Natire Races of Pacific." 

Digitized by 


A. W. BuCKLAND. — Primitive Agricylture. 15 

to have been prohibited to the newer race, as, according to 
the statement of Herodotus, besms were forbidden to the priestly 
caste in Egypt, although fonning the chief food of the Aborigines 
there, as they did also in America and South Africa.* Pythagoras 
also forbade beans to his followers, deriviug his notions from 

A paper upon primitive agriculture, would evidently be in- 
complete without some notice of the modes of agriculture and 
the implements employed in early times. Singularly enough, 
although ears of com, grain of so many kinds, and even seeds 
of raspberries, have been distinguished among the relics of the 
Swiss lake dwellers, hitherto no agricultural implements have 
been discovered. It is probable, that the implements employed 
by early agriculturists were of the simplest form possible — that, 
in fact, they were only pointed sticks used to scratch the sur- 
face of the ground. Such sticks, used as picks or hoes, are re- 
presented on Egyptian monuments ; and pointed sticks are still 
the sole implements of some savage tribes ; but they appear to 
be used by them somewhat differently from the Egyptian sarcle. 

The Bushmen use a stick loaded with a perforated stone for 
digging ; and in a notice of New Guinea, by the Rev. S. Mac- 
farlane, as reported in the Sydney Morning Herald, of May 27, 
we find : " A large plot of land is turned over very systemati- 
cally and quickly by a number of men standing in a row, with 
a pointed stick in each hand, which they raise and plunge into 
the ground simultaneously, and then use them as so many levers 
to turn over the soiL It is surprising how quickly they can 
turn over an acre of soQ in this way." 

Bancroft describes the nearest approach to the plough among 
the Nahua natives of America, as being sticks, often tipped 
with copper, and there can be no doubt that the primitive 
plough was simply a pointed stick dragged through the ground 
by men, so as to form a furrow. Such a plough is represented 
on the Egyptian monuments, differing from the sarde only 'in 
having a cross-piece of wood for a handle, to which was attached 
ropes whereby it was dragged along by four men. The old 
Roman plough was but little better than this, excepting that the 
share was of metal, and even to the present day in India, China, 
and it may be said the whole of Asia, the ploughs used differ 
very slightly from the early Egyptian type. In America, we are 
told, that the natives still use, without improvement, the old 
Roman plough as introduced by the Spaniards, whilst in South 
Africa ploughs were imknown until the advent of Europeans, 
and are only just coming into use among the natives, whose 

* The Kafirs still culti?ate sparingly a peculiar bean which once formed a 
staple article of food among them. 

Digitized by 


16 A. W. BuCKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 

sole agrLcultural implement^ in addition to the digging sticks de- 
scribed above, was Uie hoe, an implement described by Burchdl 
as resembling the adze or pecklo, but larger, which the women, 
who alone till the ground, raise above their heads, bringing it 
down with great force upon the hard sun-baked earth, thus 
merely brealang the earth irregularly, and putting in the seed. 

The hoe described by Mr. Monteiro as the sole agricultural 
implement in use among the natives of Angola,* where also 
women are the only agriculturists, is made of iron, resembling 
an oyster shell in shape, with a short spike burnt into the 
knobbed stick which serves as a handle, and some of these are 
made with a double handle, so as to be used by two women at 
once. These hoes strongly remind one of the Mexican axes 
described by Tylor,f who says that, notwithstanding the skill 
displayed in knife and arrow making, the Mexicans " never dis- 
covered the art of making a hole in a stone hammer. The 
handles of the axes shown in the picture writing are clumsy 
sticks, swelling into a laige knob at one end, and the axe blade 
is fixed into a hole in this knob." It appears to me probable 
that many of the so-caUed stone celts, especially those of large 
size, may have been hafted in tMs manner, and used as hoes, 
but if the implements of the Swiss lake dwellers were as simple 
88 those described, it woidd be difficult after so many ages to 
distinguish the pointed stick used for ploughing or peckmg up 
the soil from those used in the construction of their dwelfings. 
It also appears to me possible that the innumerable flint flakes 
foimd among prehistoric relics may have been used in a wooden 
frame, as they still are in the tribulvm of the East, and as Dr. 
DaubenyJ tells us they were used in Gaul at the time of the 
Boman Conquest, as harrows or threshing machines. The same 
writer also describes a large hollow frame armed with teeth, 
which served the purpose of a modem reaping machine, and 
which may likewise have represented a prehistoric implement. 

The employinent of women in agricultural pursuits seems to 
have been continued from superstitious motives in semi-civilized 
countries, and prevails even now in China. According to M. Huc,§ 
it is no uncommon sight to see a plough drawn by a womau, her 
husband walking behind to guide it, whilst the great agricidtural 
festival in China, the use of terraces on the mountain sides, and 
the attention paid to irrigation, serve to connect the agricul- 
tural systems of China and Peru so closely, that Mr. Tylor ap- 

• See " Angola and the Biyer Congo ;" J. Monteiro and Burchell'B '* South 

t Tylor*8 " Anahuac." 

J " Six Lectures on Boman Husbandry :" Chas. Daubeny, M.D., F.R.S., &c. 

§ Hue's " Chinese Empire," ii, p. 303. 

Digitized by 


A. W. BuCKLAND. — Primitive Agriculture, 17 

pears to ascribe these usages in Peru to a Chinese colony. 
The use of ridges in agriculture seems to have been universal. 
Not only do they distinguish the garden beds in America, but 
Rennie describes them as underlying peat mosses in Scotland, 
where wheat cannot now be grown ; and Dr. Daubeny tells us 
that among the fiomans the com was sown on ridges in wet 
soils, and between them on dry soils.* The American corn-hills, 
described as used for the cultivation of maize, seem to be pecu- 
liar to that country, and although they have been adopt^ by 
Europeans at the Cape, the natives still sow maize on level 
ground ; nevertheless Mr. Monteiro describes the use of little 
hillocks in Angola for planting the mandioca.f It is a diffi- 
cult task to gather up the scattered threads presented to us 
by the study of Primitive Agriculture, but the somewhat 
meagre facts I have been able to collect appear to me to 
confam the general conclusions of modem ethnologists. We 
see everywhere primitive man, a naked savage, devoid of every 
art excepting those necessary to self-preservation, his first im- 
provements being the manufacture of implements of war and 
the chase. Man in this condition would seem to have spread 
gradually over the whole earth, for his relics are found every- 
where, and his descendants, still in the same state of utter bar- 
barism, are found in many outlying lands which have been cut 
off by changes in the conformation of the land from communi- 
cation with races who have gradually acquired civilization ; and 
may also be traced in low and outcast tribes down-trodden by 
conquering hordes. 

The origin of civilization, like the origin of races, remains an 
unsolved problem. From the similarity to be traced in the 
monuments, myths, customs, and religions of all early civilized 
or semi-civilized peoples, I have been led to the conclusion that 
it was never independently acquired, but was the result of con- 
stant intercommunication by channels long since become im- 
practicable, and when this intercommunication ceased, we find 
civilization arrested, as in America and China, and only con- 
tinually and increasingly developed among nations who from 
war and commerce have kept up continual and constant inter- 
course with each other. There can be little doubt that the first 
great stimulus to civilization was given when man, driven by 
necessity, began to till the ground. The first successful efforts 
in this direction would lead naturally to others ; but roots and 
fruits were evidently cultivated long before the cereals, and this 
early stage of agricultural knowledge is still represented among 

* DsabenVs "Lectures on Roman Hosbandrr," -and Bennie on "Peat 
t See " Angola and the Birer Congo/' p. 205, J. Monteiro. 

Digitized by 


18 Discussion, 

the South Sea Islanders and among some of the lower aboriginal 
peoples of Asia, Africa, and America, although it is vain to con- 
jecture when and where it first arose. 

The cultivation of the cereals, however, represents a great 
advance in agricultural skill, but that this also was acquired at 
a very early period, the records of Egypt and China, and the 
relics from the Swiss lake dwellings suflSciently prove ; and 
that it was not acquired independently by the lake dwellers is 
evident from the identity of the com found with that grown in 
Egypt. The independent acquirement of agriculture in America 
has been affirmed by many, but I venture to believe it to be not 
yet proven. The absence of wheat and barley prove nothing, 
for the earlier civilizations of America were confined to tropical 
and semi-tropical regions, where these grains if introduced would 
not supersede maize, which there grows to perfection. It must 
not, however, be forgotten that all American l^ends, and legends 
usually have some basis of fact, unite in ascribing the cultiva- 
tion of maize, as well as other customs wherein the civilized 
races of America resemble the ancient civilized races of the 
Eastern hemisphere, to foreign civilizers entering the country 
from the sea ; and if maize be indeed indigenous to America, its 
presence in Asia and Africa prior to the time of Columbus, if 
proved, as I believe it can be, would go far to establish the fact 
of an intercourse subsisting between the hemispheres in pre- 
historic times. Nor must we forget, that the absence of cereal 
agriculture in those islands which may be supposed to represent 
the ancient stepping stones between the continents, may be 
accoimted for, by prejudice and superstition, since the natives 
even now grow cereals very sparingly, whilst the cultivation 
of maize among races qidte as low in the human scale in Africa^ 
Madagascar, and New Guinea, would seem to point to the plant 
as a native of those regions as well as America, or to the extreme 
antiquity of its introduction to the Eastern hemisphere. 


The Pbssidbnt, in thanking Miss Baokland, thought that there 
was still much to be done before the origin and development of all 
the cereals now or formerly in use could be ascertained, and ex- 
pressed a hope that botanists would come to the aid of anthropolo- 
gists in investigating the question. With regard to the stone im- 
plements which had been used in early tunes for agricultural 
purposes, some remarks would be found in his work upon stone 
antiquities. The earliest reaping machine seemed to be that men- 
tioned by Pliny as in use in Gaul, by which the ears of com were 
removed and deposited in a cart which was propelled in front of a 

Digitized by 


Discussion. 19 

Mr. Htde Clares said that heliad had great pleaAnre in presiding 
at the British Association at Glasgow when Miss Backland's paper 
was first read, and that he wonld at the same time refer to a 
point in that paper as to Egyptian mnmmy maize, and to the 
weapons from the Amazon, exhibited by Mr. Henry Hyde Clarke. 
The languages of the Amazons appeared to belong to three groups. 
Those of the Ueanambea, <fec., approached the dialects of the short 
races reaching from the Grainea Coast to the Akkas or Pygmies on 
the Nile. The Carib languages, containing resemblances to the 
former, had a£Bnities witJi those of the fierce Dahomans and 
Whydans of West Africa. The third class belonged to a higher 
race, that of the Guarani or Tapi, reaching from the Plate river to 
Grniana. The language spoken in the lake villages, which had given 
name to Venezuela, was a Gnarani or Agua, which he had correlated 
with the Agau of the Ethiopian region, and with the prehellenic 
Achaian of Hellas and the Caucasus. Lake Prasias, mentioned by 
Herodotus as having lake dwellings, was near an Achaian region. 
Now the remarkable circumstance affecting Miss Buckland's state- 
ment, that the maize found in the mummy was of the Paraguayan 
variety, is this, that an allied langus^e is found in Paraguay and in 
the Ethiopian highlands near Egypt. Although he was of opinion 
that the line of migration by which the higher culture was brought 
into Peru and Mexico was by the South Pacific, he allowed full vsdue 
to the northern line and that by Behring's Straits, by which much 
of the population of North America and some of that of South 
America had passed. He was also inclined to think that there 
must have been a prehistoric connection between Soulli America 
and West Africa. 

Miss BucEiiAND replied briefly to the remarks of the President, 
expressing her regret that she hiad unintentionally appropriated the 
suggestion in " Stone Implements," as to the probable use of some 
of the stone celts and flint flakes for agricultural purposes. She 
also observed that maize was quite unknown excepting in a culti- 
vated form, no wild plant bearing any affinity to it having been 
recognized by botanists. 

Mr. H. Hyde Clarke exhibited some weapons from the River 
Amazon, on which Mr. Franks, Mr. Hyde Clarke, and others 
made some remarks. 

Lord Rpsehill then exhibited some remarkable(flint imple- 
ments from Honduras,)and briefly described them. 


The President, in thanking Lord Bosehill, congratulated him on 
the acquisition of so remarkable a series. He observed, that one 
of the implements bore a striking resemblance to those of what 
had been termed "the shoe-shaped type" from the river-gravels. 
It was remarkable that in more than one of the serrated instruments 


Digitized by 


20 Discussion. 

the groups of points or projections were either five or ten in 
number, and he inquired wnether this peculiarity had been observed 
in other specimens, and whether it was to be regarded as accidental 
or connected with Rome decimal system of counting. 

In reply to some observations by Mr. Franks, the President said 
that the only Honduras specimen in his collection besides a spear- 
head like those exhibited was a lance-head of chalcedony, of much 
finer workmanship, which was found at Comayagua. 

Mr. Hyde Clarke observed that Mr. Evans's suggestion as to the 
number of notches by fives on the Kreaslike weapon was well 
worthy of consideration. Although the arrangement was peculiar, 
there appeared to be a total of 28, which might correspond to a 
lunation. It was possible, as the two ends were of unequal size, 
that this sinuous weapon might represent a serpent. This was 
also to be taken into consideitbtion with Mr. Blackmore's proposi- 
tion that such instruments were used in human sacrifices. He 
did not, however, concur with him that Mexican practices would 
necessarily form an example for Central America. One reason he 
had for this conviction was, that more than one of the dialects of 
Lenca have a distinct relationship to the Konma and Logba of 
West Africa, and he had lately shown the like geoCTaphical re- 
lationship for the mythology of a language of the Bnbri of Costa 
Rica in Central America. The crescent weapon had twenty knobs, 
bat none of the instruments, except the sinuous one, appeared to 
bear symbolical numbers. As to the knife, which bore some resem- 
blance to a human figure, that was perhaps held as a dagger by 
the two legs, and should be regarded in reference to Mr. Black- 
more's suggestion. 

Mr. Blackmore, Mr. Franks, and others made observations on 
the exhibition. 

Thanks were returned to the exhibitors of the above, and the 
meeting separated. 

February 27th, 1877. 
John Evans, Esq., F.RS., President, in the Chmr, 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The following new member was announced : A. H. Kiehl, Esq., 
of Cardiff. 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective donors for the same. 

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M. J. Walhouse. — Non-Sepulchred Stone Monuments. 21 

Fob the Libbabt. 

Prom tlie Society. — Jahrbuck der K. K. Qeologischen Reichsanstalt. 

Vol. XXVI, No. 3; Verhandlungen, do. Nos. 11—13. 
From the Society. — ^Mittheilungen der Anth.i'opologisclieii Gesell- 

schaft in Wien. Vol. VI, No. 5. 
From the Association — Report of the G^eologi8ts Association for 

From the Academy. — Atti della R. Accademia dei Idncei Anno. 

CCLXXIV. Vol. I, Nos. 1 and 2. 
From the Academy. — Bulletin de TAcad^mie Imperiale des Sciences 

de St. Petersbonrg. Vol. XXII, No. 4; Vol. XXIII, No. 1. 
From the Editob — Materianx ponr THistoire de THomme. 
From the Society. — Annuaire de la Soci^t^ d*Bthnographie, 1877. 
From the Editob. — ^Revne Scientifique, Nos. 34 and 35. 1877. 
From the Editor. — ^Nature (to date). 

Miss Buckland presented a digging stone from the Cape of 
Good Hope, for which thanks were returned. 

Mr. M. J. Walhouse then read a paper entitled — 

On Non-Sepulchral Rude Stone Monuments. By M. J. Wal- 
house, F.R.A.S. 

Even in the earlier part of the present century, many fanciful 
theories were current respecting the nature and intention of 
m^alithic monuments, cromlechs, stone circles, and the like ; 
and much ingenious speculation was wasted in tracing the coils 
and windings of serpent-temples in the scattered stones of Wilt- 
shire and Somersetshire, or, as some would have it, in identifying 
them with Temples of the Sun or Bardic Circles. The Druids 
were seen everywhere ; " rock gnomons" indicated their know- 
ledge of astronomy, " rock basons" and " rocking stones," often 
natural, were ascribed to their skill in mechanics, and cromlechs 
were held to be the "altars" on which they celebrated their 
bloody rites ; whOe any chance marks on their surfaces were 
channels to drain off the blood of victims, and holes or chinks 
in the slabs were magical openings, through which auguries 
were drawn from their dying groans and cries. When search 
succeeded theory, the spade proved the revealer of the secrets 
of such monuments, and the incontrovertible dispeller of 
Druidical and Dracontian dreams; and their intention was 
shown to be sepulchral in such an immense majority of instances 
that theory swung perhaps too absolutely to the other extreme, 
and refused to see in them any other nature or purpose. It is 
desired in this paper to offer a few remarks upon some megalithic 
i-cinains that have come under my observation in India and else- 

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22 M. J. Walhouse.— Oti 

where, which may be ascribed to purposes other than sepulchral, 
and in many instances are connected with existing worship and 
obsei-vances. To begin with the simplest of monuments, the 
heap of stones or cairn — though usually sepulchral and piled 
over a tomb — it is occasionally rather memorial or ceremonial. 
Twice in India in wild mountain-passes I have seen cairns 
raised on spots where men had been carried away by tigers. 
Passers-by added stones to the heap, with the idea of propitiating 
the angry ghost of the imlucky man, which was believed to 
haunt the spot, and guide the tiger in its attacks on wayfarers. 
Such heaps are sometimes also raised at spots on the plains 
where travellers have died suddenly, from sickness, or in any 
unusual way, and where stones are scarce or have failed, bits of 
rag are tied to a neighbouring thorn-bush, after a custom that 
appears to prevail from China to Ireland, prompted possibly by 
an idea of propitiation. Though the Old Testament records 
three instances of caim-burial, when Absalom, and Achan, and 
the King of Ai were laid under " a very great heap of stones," the 
earliest mention of cairns is as boundary-marks.* In the agree- 
ment between Jacob and Labgui recorded in the 31st chapter of 
Genesis, they gathered stones and made a heap expressly called 
a " heap of witness," on which they sat and did eat, as a cere- 
monial compact, and declared the heap to be a witness between 
them, that neither would pass over it into the territory of the 
other. The late Professor H. H. Wilson has translated a hymn 
from the Rig Veda, addressed in the earlier verses to Mrityu or 
Death, and in the last to the Pitris or Manes, the 4th verse of 
which is remarkable as containing the earliest, and, so far as I 
know, the only Sanskrit allusion to rude stone monuments, 
and «Jso as seeming to intimate a purpose not sepulchral, but 
propitiatory, and, as in Genesis, boundary-marking. " I place 
this circle of stones for the living; on this account, that no 
other may go beyond it. May they five a hundred years, keeping 
death at a distance by this heap." In Livingstone's Expedition 
to the Zambesi, at page 229, there is an account rather curiously 
recalling the transaction between Laban and Jacob. On passing 
a large stone cairn in the country of the Batoka, the guide 
related that once upon a time a tribe was going to fight with 
another tribe, but sitting down there consulted and agreed that 
it would be more like men to raise this heap of stones as their 
protest against the wrong the other tribe had done them, which, 

* In old Greece heaps of stones, caUed Hermaia, were oommonly raised at 
crosswajs and on boundaries. They were sacred to Hermes, and each passer-by 
threw a stone on as an offering to the god. Homer (" Odjssey," xri, 471) men- 
tions such a heap near Ithaca. Strabo saw similar heaps on the roads in Egjpt 
(xrii, p. 818) 

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NonrSqmlchral Rvde Stone Monvments. 23 

having accomplished, they returned quietly home. And again 
in his Last Journals, page 90, "we passed two cairns this 
morning at the beginning of the very sensible descent to the 
lake. They are very common in all this Southern Africa in the 
passes of the mountains, and are meant to mark divisions of 
countries, perhaps burial-places, but the Waiyan who accom- 
panied us thought that they were merely heaps of stone col- 
lected by some one making a garden. The cairns were placed 
just about the spot where the blue waters of Nyassa first came 
fairly into view." This recalls the cairn piled by the Ten 
Thousand where the Euxine burst into sight, and the army 
raised the memorable cry. 

Closely akin to unsepulchral cairns must be the MSni, or 
long heaps of stones that excite the surprise of travellers in 
Thibet and Tartaiy. The late Mr. C. Home, of the Ben^ 
Civil Service, F.LS., F.EA.S., &c., who some years ago travelled 
over some of the highest Himalayan passes, wrote to me re- 
specting them : " The Lama Tartars build long walls of loose 
stones, usually about 6 feet thick and 5 high ; sometimes as at 
Nako, half a mile long. Every native passes them to his right ; 
none seem to know why : hence there is a path worn on that 
side, and every one adds a stone ; they must be the growth of 
centuries, every generation adding some yards. The heaps 
often have flags stuck on them and scraps of paper, with some 
sacred writing, as also horns of ibex, wild sheep, goats, &c., and 
round boulder-stones, inscribed with the Buddhist prayer in a 
circle, are often laid on the top. A great mystery attaches to 
them ; none can explain their uses certainly ; some say they are 
devotional, others that they were built on return from long 
journeys. The farthest object I saw in Tartary was a long 
double range of these walls." Mr. Wilson recently in his • 
" Abode of Snow" mentions having passed hundreds of these 
MAni on his journey, sometimes iu the most desolate situations, 
and remarks that the prodigious number of them in so thinly 
peopled a coimtry indicates an extraordinary waste of human 
energy. Mr. Home also mentioned that single heaps of stones 
abounded everywhere, " existing on every hill-top and pass ; some 
evidently of great antiquity; in some places they are called 
Thdr.* At the entrance of the province of Kurnawftr there is a 
large field of them, all set up by grateful hill-men returning 
safe from the plains. Another cause of them is the setting of 
boundary marks by petty chiefs in old times. Presents too 

* The miMloniiries, Hue and Gabet, encountered similar large beaps on the 
great platean in Chinese Tartarj, there caUed Oboest and stuck over with boughs 
on which stripe of inscribed paper are hung. MM. Hue and Ghibet say the 
Tariar» worship the Spirit of the Mountain at tlicm. 

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24 M. J. WALHOUSE.—On 

are sometimes given by wealthy people to erect stone heaps on 
apparently inaccessible peaks to commemorate their names. 
The highest I saw was on the Shatftl peak (17,000 feet), near 
Kumawftr. The climber was paid 100 rupees by a rich mer- 
chant, but dis^pointed his employer, as the ' Thdr* is called by 
his, and not the merchant's, name. I never heard of people 
being buried under these heaps." The foregoing examples will 
suffice to show how cairns, both in ancient and modern times, 
may have had other than sepulchral purposes. The legend of 
Izdubar or Nimrod, between 2,000 and 3,000 B.C., in the Baby- 
lonian tablets, says of him, " He collected great stones ; he piled 
up the great stones." 

A brief reference will be suflScient to perhaps the most ex- 
traordinary and enigmatical groups of megalithic remains, the 
great assemblages of stones disposed in rows, avenues, and 
alignments in the neighbourhood of Camac, in Britanny, and in 
Ei^land at Ashdown, in Berkshire, and in many places on the 

Somewhat analogous remains in the East have been described 
by the late CoL Meadows Taylor in Shorapiir, a province of 
Hydrabad, in the Deccan. The secret of these monuments has 
not yet been certainly read. Mr. Fergusson's conjecture that 
they are the memorials of battle-fields seems as good as any that 
has been proposed, with reference at least to most ; at any rate, 
there has been nothing discovered proving them to mark burial- 
places. I find it, however, difl&cult to accept Mr. Fergusson's 
view that the long parallel lines of stones on the Dartmoor re- 
presents an army, or two armies, drawn up in battle-array. I 
have personally examined a considerable number of these strange 
narrow paths and foimd them in all sorts of places, in hollows 
on hill-sides, and running over the brows of lulls. Many exist 
imnoticed amongst the fern and bushes of the rougher tracts, 
and hardly could denote battle-arrays. The avenues imder Kes 
Tor, near Chagford, in particular, referred to by Mr. Fergusson 
(" Eude Stone MonimientB," p. 56), as possibly representing a 
battle-array, which I carefully walked over last summer, did not 
appear to me to carry out the idea. The long double lines of 
stones starting from the " Long-stone," a tall menhir, bend round 
the sides of an eminence under the somewhat altar-shaped rocks 
of the Kes Tor, on the top of which a very large and regular 
rock-bason, till lately filled with and concealed by peat, has 
been discovered, and seem to stretch on. till disappearing, 
toward the great stone circle, indistinctly visible a long way 
below in a hollow on the other side of the Teign. These myste- 
rious lines of stones would often recall processional paths were 
they not so narrow, beginning and ending so abmptly, ap- 

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Nov^Sepulchral Rude Stone MonvmuTUs, 25 

parently without purpose or direction, and at times in situa- 
tions hard to reconcile with the idea : their meaning has not 
been penetrated, but they suggest nothing sepulclual.* In 
India the remains, apparently of this class, at Shahpflr, in the 
Sh6rap{ir principality, were considered by Col. Meadows Taylor 
more remarkable and interesting even than the cromlechs and 
stone circles which also aboimd in the neighbourhood and with 
which they are sometimes associated. Huge masses of granite 
are disposed in an exact parallelogram 400 feet by 260, or 
sometimes in squares, enclosing similar figures of smsdler rocks, 
and in the centre of some rises a tumulus, which excava- 
tion has shown to be sepulchral or possibly sacrificial These 
squares are grouped together over large areas ; the rocks com- 
posing the outer lines are from 7 to 10 feet long, nearly as 
broad, and from 4 to 7 feet high, and must have been brought 
from hills nearly two miles distant over a difficult surface ; an 
undertaking impossible in that coimtry at present. All the 
squares do not enlose tumuli; in one laige group there are 
but two, but as caims do accompany them in sever^ instances, 
it would not be safe to assert that they could be other than ap- 
purtenances at least to sepulchres. As to the multitudinous 
groups of upright stones that so remarkably characterise the 
Easia Hills bordering on Assam, Major Godwin-Austen, in a 
paper read before the Institute, has shown that they have no 
connection with funeral obsequies, but are memorials raised to 
propitiate the spirits of the deceased and to perpetuate their 
memories. Eegular trilithons often occur amongst them, and 
it is remarkable that amongst another aboriginal tribe, the 
Santhals, in Bengal, a triKthon that must be a very striking 
monument is at this day an altogether devotional object. It 
is described at page 192 of Dr. Hunter's "Annals of Eoyal 
Bengal" as "three huge monoliths of gneiss of great beauty, 
two upright, the third laid across them. The stones are upwards 
of 12 feet in length, each weighing upwards of 7 tons, quadri- 
lateral, 10 feet roimd, the horizontal stone kept in its place by 
a mortise or tenon. Origin unknown : worshipped by the San- 
thals at the West Gate of their Holy City in Bheerbloom." 

Trilithons that must be not dissimilar to this have been de- 
scribed by Dr. Barth in the regions about Tripoli, in northern 
Africa. Two are figured at pages 411-12 of Fergusson's " Eude 
Stone Monuments." Theire is no reason to regard them as sepul- 

* Sinoe writing the aboTO, I find that in the Appendix to rol. i of the Jonnie] 
of this Institnte, at page czi, et eeq., Mr. Spence Bardy has described these Dart- 
moor arennes, and tninks tbej may be " burial places for the honoured dead/' 
whUflt Br. A. CampbeU considered them to be "indisputable signs ni oultira- 
tion." All these so different opinions show that these rrmains are stiU enignat. 

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26 M. J. Walhouse.— (?7i 

chral, and Dr. Barth, a competent observer, thinks them " evi- 
dently connected with the religious rites of the ancient inhabi- 
tants of these regions.** And so it may be inferred was " the 
gigantic circle with huge upright stones, 15 feet high, and some 
with long blocks laid across," seen by Mr. Palgrave in the pre- 
viously unknown wastes of central Arabia, of which, it is to be 
hoped, more may be heard some day.* 

Professor Max Mtiller remarks, " Children all over the world, 
if building houses with cards, will build cromlechs ; and people 
aU over the world, if the neighbourhood supplies large slabs of 
stone, will put tluree stones together to keep out the sun or the 
wind, and put a fourth stone on the top to keep out the rain ;" 
and whenever a people become led to form a rude image and 
reverence it, or regard a rough stone with superstitious ideas, it 
was in such a structure they may be supposed to have been im- 
pelled to place it. This was strongly borne in upon the mind on 
first seeing the small cromlech-temples used to-day by the 
people in some parts of Southern India. I had become fixed 
in the belief that all cromlech-like structures were sepulchral, 
till once on emerging from a wild mountain-pass on to the 
table-land of Mysore I saw by the wayside a primitive temple 
consisting of back and side slabs set on edge, with a covering 
slab laid over, the front open, a rude image of HanumSln within, 
and a few fiowers strewn before it. The appropriateness of such 
a construction, and the readiness with which it could be imagined 
and raised by a rude people in a wOd locality, were at once 
obvious. I afterwards saw some more similar rude-stone temples 
always in imfrequented tracts. Of course these rustic shrines 
were not prehistoric, but their use and tradition may have come 
down firom prehistoric times.-f' Subsequently on the Shiar&i 
Hills, a fine mountain-range with a table-land of about 4,000 
feet general elevation, in the district of Salem, midway between 
Madras and the Malabar coast, I found these temple-cromlechs 
in common use by the Malayfilies = hill people, a harmless agri- 
cultural tribe, speaking Tamil, and not apparently materidly 
different from the TamU inhabitants of the plains, from whence 
they doubtless came. They have several villages and a consider- 
able amount of cultivation on the plateau and its lower slopes. In 
every village there is at least one temple-cromlech, constructed 
of slabs with one side open, usually under a tree, containing a 
crowd of lingam-stones, splinters of rock or long pebbles, mostly 

* In Tongataboo the officers of H.M.S. " Calliope " met with a monument 
" resembling the larger gateway stones of Stonehenge." 

t Close to Bangalore there is an ancient temple approached by a magnificent 
aTenne of trees, beneath which there is a number of sxnall hut-temples, so primi- 
tJTe as to consist only of three upright stones with a superincumb^t slab on the 
top, and inside a rude effigy of a deity caned on the stone forming the lack. 

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Non-Sepidchral Rude Stone Monuments. 27 

tipped with red paint, and occasionally a small image. In two 
places I saw a collection of eight or nine of these primitive 
temples arranged in a semicircle under a huge tree. The crowd 
of stones in them has a curious appearance, for the people 
api)ear especially to choose any of unusual description : splinters 
of milk-white quartz or black serpentine, water-worn pebbles of 
various colours, any long piece of stone or pebble tJiat particu- 
larly catches the eye, seems to have been picked up and added 
to the collection. Pieces of petrified wood, and what is most 
interesting, often quite a number of regular celts, examples of 
which may be seen in CoL Lane Fox's collection in the Bethnal 
Green Museum. I regret not having ascertained whether there 
was any particular name or idea associated with the celts. A 
rough sketch of one of these rude stone temples is annexed : in 
the centre there was a large splinter of black stone surrounded by 
some dozens of small pebbles, all tipped with paint, which is 
renewed on particular occasions; flowers, boiled rice tinged 
yellow with turmeric, and fruits are laid before them. Much 
further to the north, amongst the aboriginal hill tribes of Eaj- 
mahal, like structures and worship appear to be used. The Rev. 
Mr. Christian reports that "a large black stone in an enclosure 
like a hogdy (which must mean one of these cromlech-shrines), is 
a principal object of their worship." 

Experience indeed seems to show that open-sided structures 
of the above class were mostly free-standing and non-sepulchral, 
whilst cromlechs closed on all sides are tombs invariably con- 
taining signs of interment, and appear to have been always 
originally covered by a tumulus. Open-sided dolmens of the 
former class, though frequent in Wales and Cornwall, are rare 
elsewhere in England. Of the half-dozen or so recorded I have 
seen that by the Roll-right stones on the Warwickshire and 
Oxfordshire boundary, that at Drewsteignton in Devonshire, 
called locally the Spinster's Rocks, and Kit s Coty house, near 
Aylesford, known probably to many present None of these 
seem to me to have been sepulchral or ever covered by a 
tumulus, and I have never heard of anything having been 
found in them betokening interments. The difference between 
them and the great chambered graves at Uley, Stoney Tittleton, 
in Somersetshire, and in Guernsey, which I have also inspected, 
is very obvious. Though Kit's Coty House is commonly called 
Horsa's Grave, and that chieftain was doubtless buried in the 
neighbourhood. Professor Stephens, of Copenhagen, considers 
that Bede's description of his monument, " Monumentum sub 
nomine insigne," rather suggests a standing stone carved with 
his name. 

On the Nilgiii Hills, in Madras, there is a large number of 

Digitized by 


28 M. J. Walhouse. — On 

open-sided dolmens of this class, several of which present the 
special peculiarity of being sculptured inside with hunting 
scenes, processional groups, and figures commemorative of Satis or 
widow immolation. Usually a large dolmen so sculptured is 
surrounded by smaller plain ones, and consists of a single cell, 
or sometimes of two, three, four, or even five in a row. In the 
" Journal of Anthropology, No. I, p. 43, Major Eoss King de- 
scribes a two-celled sculptured dolmen, found by him on the 
southern edge of the Nilgiri plateau, as having the whole interior, 
that is to say, the inner face of each slab, covered over with car- 
ving ; and this is a rough sketch of one discovered by myself, 
which has, however, been subsequently thrown down and de- 
stroyed to make way for coffee planting. It consisted of three 
large central cells with a smaller at each end ; the middle cells 
were roofed with large covering stones overlapping one another 
at the edges, and the supporting slabs were covered within by 
rudely sculptured hunting and processional groups. Nothing 
denoting an interment has been found in any of these dolmens, 
whether carved or plain, though burial cairns of another type 
are abundant on the hills. The various Nilgiri tribes, who have 
been sufficiently often described before this Institute, lay no 
claim to them, and regard them with diverse feelings of super- 
stition. Thus the Todds will not Umch a sculptured dolmen, and 
the B&dSgas, the most numerous and recent of the hill tribes, 
have turned them into deities, not looking on them as temples, 
but as actual gods ; and when it was attempted to remove some 
of the carved slabs for a museum they petitioned strongly 
against the proceeding, saying, " It is our God." Nevertheless 
it is certain that they who are known to have migrated to the 
Nilgiri from Mysore, three centuries ago, neither raised the dol- 
mens nor sculptured the stones, any more than the Todas, who 
will not touch them ; and whether the builders of the dolmens 
also wrought the carvings is a debatable point. The latter are 
distinctly Hindu, and bear allusions to the BSsava creed, which 
originated about nine centuries ago. It may be that fugitives 
from the plains below, in those ages of which nothing is known 
but that they were filled with wars and turmoil, may have made 
those carvings on the stones of the temple-like structures they 
found standing, but the whole point is doubtful. At any rate 
there is nothing to connect them with burial purposes ; no ves- 
tige of urn or interment was discovered in the five-celled dolmen 
found by me, but in one of the large compartments, in which a 
man could easily sit, there lay along piece of polished leg bone, 
which the people with me said had been put there by the Ku- 
rumbars to denote a deity. That dwarfish half wild jimgle race, 
which with their near relatives the Inilas (= "children of 

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Non-Sepidchral Ricde Stone Monuments, 29 

darkness **) inhabit the most sechided densely wooded fastnesses 
of the mountain slopes, are to my mind not the least probably 
connected with the aboriginal bidlders of these monuments. 
Some threads of connection still exist. The Kurumbars of MuUi, 
one of the wildest Nilgiri declivities, come up annually to wor- 
ship at one of the dolmens on the table-land above, in which they 
say one of their old gods resides. Eegarded with fear and hatred 
as sorcerers by the agricultural B&d&gas of the table-land, one of 
them must nevei-theless at sowing time be called to guide the 
first plough for two or three yards, and go through a mystic pan- 
tomime of propitiation to the earth deity, without which the crop 
would certainly faiL When so summoned the Kurumbar must 
pass the night by the dolmens alone, and I have seen one who 
had been called firom his forest-dwelling for the morning cere- 
mcmy, sitting after dark on the capstone of a dolmen with heels 
and hams drawn together and chin on knees, looking like some 
huge ghostly fowl perched on the mysterious stones. 

Both the Kurumbju^ and Irulas, when one of them dies,- have a 
custom of depositing a long water-worn pebble (dewa kotta 
kallu) taken from the bed of a stream, as a memorial, in some of 
the sculptured dolmens. One large dolmen at Melkundah, in 
particular, was found filled up to the capstone with these 
pebbles, which must have been the accumulation of genera- 

Still pursuing the subject of open-sided dolmens. Colonel 
Meadows Taylor reports that they aboimd in Sorapur in the 
Deccan, '' open at one side, and formed of three large slabs for 
walls, and one for a roof. All such cromlechs I have seen are 
empty." Intermixed with them, however, are numbers of 
" kistvaens smaller than the cromlechs, constructed on the same 

* In Brehman funeral oeremonies there i» a usage curiouslj recalling this 
custom of a primitive outcast tribe, and perhaps retaining some vestige of stoue- 
worship. After a Brahman's body has been oumt, there are ten days' mourn- 
ing; on the third day the relations and friends re-assemble at the burning- 
ground and, after the bones and ashes have been gathered, a smaU bank of earth 
IS thi^own up, on which three stones are set, one called by the name of the 
deceased, another by that of Yama, the Lord of Hell, and the last is called 
Bndra, the causer of tears. The three stones are decorated with flowers, and a 
sacnfine offered them amid much lamentation. The leader of the funeral then 
takes the three stones home with him, and on the tenth day, after other cere- 
monies hare been ^ne through and the stones again worshipped, the leader 
takes them, and goins into water up to the neck, turns towards the sun and 
addresses it thus : *' Up to this day these stones haye represented the deceased ; 
henceforth let him cease to be a corpse ; be he now reoeiyed into Swarga : there 
let him be happy as long as Gbmges shaU flow." Saying these words, he oasts 
tho stones behind him, and returns to the bank ; so the mourning ends. Another 
allied primitire practice is that of the Kharrias, a yery wild jungle tribe of 
Singhbum in Bengal. This people, after a death, set up a tall rough slab of 
stone dose to the house, to which, as representing the deceased, they make daily 

Digitized by 


30 M. J. Walhouse.— Oti 

principle, but closed on all sides. G^neraUy a circular hole 
exists in one of the sides." These closed and holed dolmens 
always contain interments. Here the same principle obtains of 
open-sided dolmens showing no sepulchral character, and never 
having been covered with a mound ; but it is peculiar that in 
this instance the closed and holed sepulchral dolmens elsewhere, 
originally at least, subterranean, standmixed with the open class, 
and cannot have ever been underground. This is accounted for 
probably by Colonel Meadows Taylor's remark that " the whole 
of the ground covered by the erections is rock, into which the 
slabs have been fixed, resting upon the rock." Some unknown 
cause may have influenced the choice of such a spot, the nature 
of which made it impossible to construct the sepulchral cham- 
bers underground. In the mountainous province of Coorg closed 
and holed kistvaens, sunk undergroimd and filled with sepulchral 
deposits, are also abimdant ; but there is one remarkable group 
wMch shows no sepulchral character. Near Somawarpettah, on 
the rocky summit of a hill commanding a fine prospect all round, 
there are four large cromlechs, not closed, but consisting of huge 
overlying slabs supported by masses of stone. The largest slab 
is 11 feet 8 inches long by 8 feet wide. Each cromlech is 
surrounded by a circle of stones, stands out in high relief on the 
hill top, and has never been covered with earth. They were 
quite empty ; nothing connected with interments could be found 
in or about them, and their appearance is certainly suggestive of 
altars. Somewhat similar to th^e is a cromlech at PaUicondah, 
12 miles firom Vellore, in the Madras Presidency, the one single 
free-standing dolmen, with no kistvaen or subterranean character 
about it that I have seen or heard of on the plains. A figure in- 
adequately representing its massiveness and actual appearance 
will be found at page 491 of " Eude Stone Monuments." The 
capstone is 12 feet long by 8 wide, and about 2^ thick, and sup- 
ported, not by slabs, but by six lai^e rounded boulder-like masses 
of granite, two at the north end, two at the south, two smaller, 
not touching the capstone, on the west side, and the east side 
open. The capstone is elevated about 5 feet from the ground, 
and on its upper centre were four round depressions, placed 

thus, o 0, that to the right being smallest. Mr. Fergusson 

speaks of it as " a sepulchral mound," but it gave me no such 
idea, for it stands upon a granite platform that rises above the 
soil, with no means for interment beneath. Open-sided dolmens 
perfectly corresponding with the Indian and European examples 
are also abundant in Palestine upon the east side of the Jordan. 
Mr. D. Eobertson Blaine describes them in the " Athenaeum " as 

Digitized by 


Norv-Sepuldiral JRiide Stone Monuments, 31 

all formed on the same plan. " Three slabs of unhewn granite are 
fixed perpendicularly in the ground, closely and at a right angle 
to each other, thus forming three sides of a square. Upon these 
a fourth slab is laid, overlapping its supports, the south-east side 
always left open ; the supporting slabs about 6 feet high, the top 
slab an irr^ular square of -about 12 feet*' No excavations 
appear to have been made, -but judging from analogy they are 
not sepulchral The Arabs call them Beit el GhiU =s House of 
the Ghoul, and are terribly afraid of the spot. 

The peculiar class of megaliths called '' demi-dolmens,'' in 
which one end of the capstone always rests on the ground, 
also has no discoverable connection with interments.* The 
only example I have ever seen is one on the north coast 
of Jersey. Captain S. P. Oliver (" Journal of the Ethnological 
Society of London," voL ii, p. 66, New Series), speaks of it as " a 
doubtful demi-dolmen in the northern part of Trinity parish, 
called the Eoche k la Fee," which he was unable to visit It is 
on a rocky point of the high cliff between Petit Fort and Vicard 
Harbour, a beautiful and commanding spot overhanging the sea. 
The stone is of irregular shape, enormously large and ponderous, 
5 yards long, 4^ broad, and about 2^ in greatest thickness, and 
whereas all the other prehistoric remains in the island are of 
granite, this only is of a pudding-stone formation prevalent in 
the north-east part of the island, and it has no conceivable se- 
pulchral connection. Another Jersey antiquity is spoken of by 
Captain Oliver in the same page, thus : " There is some rumour 
of a trilithon, called the Pr^ des Trois Eoches, having existed 
close to the sea at St. Ouen, but I could find no trace of it." 
Indeed it is no easy matter to discover it. I was hunting for 
it more than half a summer's day in 1860, and found it at 
last in a field called Pr4 des Trois Boches, about 500 yards 
S.R of the piece of water called St. Ouen*s Fishpond. The two 
standing stones are thick and stumpy, nearly 5 feet high; a 
third stone, of the same apparent size, lies close by, on the 
north, flat, embedded in the groimd. Tkis megalith also seemed 
to me non-sepulchraL 

I would venture to say little upon stone circles. The far 
larger proportion of them is undoubtedly sepulchral Of course 
all that enclose tumuli or tomb-chambers are. Mr. Feigusson 
holds that all circles up to 100 feet are sepulchral ; when they 
become larger, consisting of stones rising several feet above the 
surface, and enclosing no form of grave, they may possibly have 
been devotional Of examples known to me, I cannot but agree 

* It is noir assertod, apparently with reason, that these megaliths are onlj 
dilapidated d<dmens that have lost some of their supports, and hare no claim to 
be regarded as a separate class. 

Digitized by 


32 M. J. Walhouse. — (hi 

with the late Rev. C. H. Hartshome; F.S.A., in considering the 
large circles on Comdon, on the Shropshire and Welsh border, as 
having rather a religious application : nothing, I believe, has 
been discovered in them denoting burials (see " Salopia An- 
tiqua "). The fine circle, too, on the border of the Dartmoor, 
on the bank of the Teign, above Chagford, seems to me non- 
sepulchral. On the Nilgiri hills, on the north declivity of the 
highest summit, on a spot of exceeding picturesque beauty, 
where several wooded slopes converge, there is a double circle, 
35 feet in diameter, of stones of rather small size, none exceed- 
ing 3 feet above the ground, except two, which form an entrance 
on the south side. The stones are placed rather close together, 
and the inner and outer rings are a yard apart. No trace of an 
interment has been discovered in this circle, the only one of the 
kind known to me on those hills. The Irulas previously re- 
ferred to have, however, two temples on the top of Rangaswami 
Peak, the highest eastern Nilgiri summit, where they twice a 
year worship Vishnu under the name of Rangaswami, with much 
ceremony. The temples are circles of rough stones, each enclo- 
sing an upright stone that represents the deity. One of the 
circles is of recent date. The Rev. Henry Baker, of the Tra- 
vancore Mission, informed me that though tumuli and kistvaens 
abound on the Travancore Hills, in the extreme south of India, 
he had only seen one stone circle, much dilapidated, and that it 
contained no marks of interment. The natives called it a Rfishi 
hill of Parasurama, from a tradition that when Parasurama (Rama 
of the Axe) created Kerala (the long strip of seaboard between 
the Western Ghauts and the Indian Ocean), rolling back 
the waters, he sowed the new land with rdsJiies (the small 
spangle-like gold Hindu coins frequently found all over the 
country), and buried the surplus in tins circle. The " Athenaeum " 
of 31st May, 1851, reported that Sir Robert Schomburgk had 
discovered in St Domingo " a granite ring, 2,270 feet in circum- 
ference. In the middle of this circle lies an idol, nearly 6 feet 
in length, formed likewise out of granite. In aU his travels in 
Guiana or the continent Sir Robert never met with such a 
monument." This too appears an instance of a devotional 

It may not be out of place to conclude this paper with some 
instances of worship arid observances, unconnected with funeral 
rites, paid to rough stones anciently and at the present day. 
Pansanias expressly affirms (lib. vii, 22) that in the most 
ancient times, universally amongst the Greeks, rough stones 
received divine honours instead of images* (avrl arfcCKfiArtufV 

* Lucian (de De& Syrii) affirroa that the Egyptians first attained knowledge 
of divine things and built temples, which the Assyrians learnt from them, but 

Digitized by 


Non-Seputchral Rude Stone Monuments, 33 

^t%ov apyol XiBot 6e&y Tt/tay), and in different passages he 
speaks of Hercules (Lib. ix, 24), Juno (id.), and even Cupid 
(lib. ix, 27) and the Graces (Lib. ix, 33), being represented by- 
rough stones " according to ancient usage." Apollonius Rhodius 
II, 1172, speaks of a great sacred stone in the temple of Mars 
at Orchomenos, worshipped by the Amazons. The pre-Mahome- 
tan Arabians were especially stone-worshippers, Maximus Tyrius, 
who says he saw it, affirms their idol was only a square stone, 
whether hewn or rough is not clear. Suidas says they worshipped 
the planet Mars at Petra under that figure. The ancient Lap- 
landers worshipped rough stones called Seiteh. The Israelites 
are warned against " setting up any image of stone in their land 
to bow down to it " (Levit. xxvi). The " image of stone " (Heb. 
Eben maskit; Septuagint, Xido^ (tkotto^; Vulgate, lapis insig- 
nis) may have been a rough stone piUar, perhaps a phallic 
emblem. Up to the 9th century A.D., there were several decrees 
of Councils and kings against popular stone-worship, evidently 
not of images, but of rude stones (saxa-lapides.) I think it not 
impossible one such stone may still be seen. In Devonshire, in 
the Chagford Valley, under the Kestor and the mysterious stone 
avenues, and not far below the meeting of the North and South 
Teign, there is a great stone, famous locally as the Puggie stone. 
It stands in a fairy-haunted spot above the wooded hollow down 
which the Teign rushes from the Dartmoor heights, and is a 
large rock-boulder 12 or 15 feet high, and little less in breadth. 
The outer side is plain, but on the inner side facing the river, 
there are natural rifts and hollows, so disposed as to give some 
idea of a gigantic human face, and grotesquely indicate eyebrows, 
nose, and mouth. On the top of the stone there is a large and 
regular rock-basin. Many stories cluster about the spot, and the 
name, Puggie Stone, is evidently derived from Pouke, the old 
term for a demon or evil spirit, whence too Puck. Cromlechs 
in the Channel Islands are still called '' poukelays." Possibly 
in prehistoric ages when the hut-dwellings, stone-circles and 
avenues on the Dartmoor above were inhabited and the scenes 
of unknown rites, this strange-looking stone may also have been 
worshipped, and regarded with an awe that reached far into 
Christian times, and is hardly yet extinct. The names of many 
places may also contain traces of stone-worship. In France 

that at first the Egyptian templee were without images — iftfavoi. The Tipperah 
hiU-tribes in Bengal, who now worship the Hindu gods, say that before the reign 
of the legendary ling Trilochun, they worshipped no idols, but objects of nature, 
such as stonee and trees ; and amongst the Oraons, another Bengal forest-tribe, 
dmnda is the god of the chase always inyoked before hunting. Any piece of 
lock, or aUme, or excrescence on a rock, serres to represent this deity ; for the 
Oraons must have something material to worship, and their most popular demon, 
Darha, is represented by a j^oughshare set up on an altar. — (Col, Balton), 

Digitized by 


34 M. J. Walhouse.— 0?t 

several towns bear the name of Pierre Fiche, which means an 
unwrought tall stone — a menhir. 

One source of the veneration paid to stones may have arisen 
from their use as land-marks or memorials of agreements — 
" stones of witness" — such as the pillar set up in witness of the 
compact made between Jacob and Laban, along with the heaps, 
in the passage of Genesis already quoted. Such, too, was the 
" Great stone " set up by Joshua under an oak before the 
Sanctuary of the Lord, " to be as witness unto us," and the 
Ebenezer stone set up by Samuel between Mizpeh and Shen. 
Herodotus relates that when two Arabians made a compact, they 
cut the inside of their hands with a sharp stone and rubbed the 
blood upon seven stones ranged between them. Amongst the 
Khasia hill-tribes of India, " when there was war between 
Cherra and Mausmai, they made peace, swore to it, and erected 
a stone as a witness." — ^Mausmai = Oath-stone. A promise 
made on the Odin-stone in the Orkneys was within living 
memory the most inviolable of engagements. On passing the 
Jordan 12 stones were set up in the midst of the river and 12 
in Gilgal, as a memorial, by command of Joshua, and it is pos- 
sible that " they are there unto this day." In Eamnad, Southern 
India, there are nine stones on the sea-shore, said to have been 
planted by Kama on his expedition to Ceylon to represent the 
planets, and worshipped by him ; they are emblems of prosperity 
to the country ; any of them breaking off or crumbling at the top 
is an omen of disaster. It is not difficult to conceive how stones 
placed for any of the purposes just enumerated would attract 
sentiments of awe and veneration.* Oil would be poured upon 
them, and they would become anointed stones, such as may be 
seen to-day by every road-side in India."f" Jacob both after his 
dream, and after he had talked with God, set up a stone and 
poured oil thereon. Theophrastus in his " Characteristics of a 
Superstitious Man," says, " if at crossings he should see an 
anointed stone, he falls upon his knees, pours oil upon it, and 
worships it" Lucian, too, in his " Pseudomantis," says of Ruti- 

* Such BentimentB would be increased when, as would not unfrequently 
happen, magical or healing yirtoes became attributed to the stones. Qeoffrey 
of Monmouth, in a well-known passage, tells a legend that when AureHus con- 
sulted Merlin as to what monument should be raised to the Britons treacher- 
ously massacred bj Hengist, the enchanter replied, ** You would have the giant's 
dance brought from Ireland ! Do not, Lord king, yainlj excite laughter ; those 
stones are magical, and virtuous in healing in many wajs ; giants broui^ht them 
of old from fiuth^ Africa ; thej heal sickness and cure wounds ; erery stone 
there has its own heaUng power/' In France, even to-day, women are said to 
sit on dolmens to cure sterility. In the West of England, almost up to recent 
times, children were passed through holed stones for various diseases ; and the 
Welsh Triads affirm that ** on the stones of Gwiddon-Gimhebon one could read 
the arts and sciences of the world." 

t This consecration by oil is in India termed NivMyam. 

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N(m-S^pulclvral Rude Stone Monv/ments. 35 

lianua> that he was an excellent man and of noted valour in war, 
but very superstitioua in religious matters, so that if he saw 
an anointed stone anywhere he would fall down and adore and 
ofler petitions to it. These passages show that rough stones 
were commonly venerated in classic times. In France to this 
day the inhabitants of the Haute-Loire are said to anoint with 
oil the " peyro martino " of livemon (a dolmen figured in *' Kude 
Stone Monuments/' p. 347), as in ancient times. Anointing 
rocks and stones Vith oil turns them black, and this may be one 
reason for the particular veneration paid to bkick stones, as well 
as that being the usual colour of aerolites, the fall of which on a 
large scale is a startling phenomenon, certain to excite strong 
superstitious awe amongst all primitive and ignorant peoples.* 
Captain R J. Burton, after lassing and handling the famous 
Black Stone of Mecca^ was convinc^ it is an aerolite, and so 
probably was the Phoenician Image of the Sim, called Elaga- 
balom, which Herodian says was worshipped by all the neigh- 
bouring kings, and was a large black cone-shaped stone said to 
have fallen from the sky. It is curious that the Ayeen Akbari 
(life and Deeds of the Emperor Akbar) mentions a pillar of 
black stone, 80 cubits high, as the most sacred object before the 
Temple of the Sun at JaganHth, and the idol is described there 
by Captain Hamilton as a huge black pyramidal stone.f The 
ancients called aerolites Boetylia, and held them mythically to 
be the stones palmed upon Saturn by Rhea for his children, 
and vomited up by him. Hesiod in his Theogony mentions a 
£Eunous sacred stone in Pytho under the heights of Parnassus, 
said to have been the stone palmed upon Saturn for Jupiter, and 
to have been planted in Pytho by the latter for a wonder to all 
men, probably some legend of a great meteorite. Other instances 
of black stone worship are the idol of the mysterious Siaposh in 
Central Asia, which Mr. Masson describes as " an erect image 
of black or dark coloured stone the size of a man." The Her- 
mansaule of the Germans seems to have been in its earliest form 
a tall black stone. Captain J. Cope, who travelled through 
Western India in 1758, describes a ceremony he saw in ** a 
certain grove on the coast of Canara, when several thousands of 

* In VehrnBrj, 1857, at noon, two aerolites feU in the diBtriot of Madura, 
Madras Presidency ; they feU about three miles apart, with a tremendous rerer- 
bention like prblonjjied thunder, but much buder, that was heard at a distance 
of 40 miles ; one weighed 37 lbs., the other was four times larger ; they struck 
coltiTatod ground and buried themselres more than two feet in the earth : one 
of them is now in the British Museum. The natiyes in the neighbourhood, 
when they feU, dropped on their faces and remained long prostrate with fear ; 
mfterward* great crowds came and worihipped tkem. In some temples in Bengal 
me lingam-idol is said to be a meteoric stone. 

t Antonio de Solis relates that a large black stone was placed More the idol 
on the pyramid of the great Mexican Sun-temple. 


Digitized by 


36 M. J. Walhouse. — On 

people assembled, and in the middle of the grove was placed a 
black stone of 300 or 400 lbs. weight, without any designed shape, 
but bedaubed with red lead mixed with oiL A little earthen 
pot of fire was placed before the stone, and a girl about ten 
years of age to attend it/' This was probably Vetal, an abori- 
ginal Bhuta or Demon ; his usual image is a rough pyramidal 
stone from 2 to 4 feet high, generally imder a tree on the east 
side, and sometimes surroimded by a cucle of stones which 
typify his retinue of attendant demons. It has been previously 
stated that the E4jmahal hill-tribes worship Eaxi imder the 
form of a black stone, and Col. Dalton (Ethnology of Bengal) 
reports that when a man-eating tiger infests the \Tllage, or a bad 
epidemic breaks out, Raxi has to be sought out, and with the aid 
of a priest or diviner, a black stone, which represents the god, is 
found, and set up under a large tree. Ch§l or ChSlnM is simi- 
larly sought when any calamity befalls a village, and he also is 
found as a black stone, and set up under a Mukmum tree. 

At the present day the most sacred amulets among the Hindus 
are the SSlagrams, black, smooth, water-worn ammonites brought 
from the G^ndak river in the Himalaya, and carried all over 
India ; they are held to typify Vislmu and all the gods. The 
shepherds of Languedoc are said to carry black stones pierced 
with holes as an amulet to preserve their flocks from the rot. 

Indeed, rude stone worship exists to-day perhaps to an imsus- 
pected extent. Mr. Masson relates that in the temple dedicated 
to the goddess at the foot of the Koh Assa Mahi (Hill of the 
Great Mother) near Cabul, " a huge stone is the object of ado- 
ration." Major Macpherson states that " a special deity of the 
Blhonds is a stone without shape, and weighing about 75 lbs." 
Nadzu Pennu, the village god, and Koda Pennu, the horse god, 
are represented also simply by stones placed under a large tree. 
Southwards, in the Peninsula, a large proportion of the agricul- 
tural and forest castes represent their deities by rough stones. 
One instance is noteworthy as showing on what occasions, and 
how easily, a new god may be set up amongst a primitive people. 
The late Mr. Breeks in his "Wild Tribes of the Nilagiri Hills," 
relates that a few years ago the Kotas, one of the tribes of the 
Nilagiri Hills, were visited by a virulent disease which carried off 
so many of them that the village was abandoned. As they are 
the ironsmiths of that region, their neighbours, the Badagas, 
probably foimd their absence inconvenient, and a Badaga passing 
one evening by the deserted village, received a mysterious com- 
munication from something in the shape of a tiger, that unless 
the K&tas returned the disease would spread ; so they returned. 
Now their only previous deities were Kamataraya and his 
wife, each represented by a thin silver plate, but now they set 

Digitized by 


Non-Septdchral Rude Stone Monuments. 37 

up a new god, an upright stone, and called it Magali, whose 
8i)ecial ofiBce was to protect them from the disease, which did 
not appear again ; and every year since goats and fowls are sacri- 
ficed to Magali. It has been already mentioned how another 
tribe, the Irulas, worship Kangaswami under the figure of an 
upright stone in a circle on the easternmost Nilgiri peak ; they 
too of late years have added another circle and stone to the old 
temple, and call the latter Great, and the former Little, Eanga- 
swami. Lower on the mountain slopes the still wilder Kurum- 
bas worship a rough round stone under the name of Hiria Deva, 
= Old Grod, setting it up either in a caVe or irregular circle. 
I will add a few more instances of existing stone-worship in 
those provinces most familiar to me. In Mysore when a new 
village is founded, the principal Gowda, or head-man, places a 
large stone in or near ttie site, called Kurfivu Kallu, or Calf- 
stone, this represents the tutelary village god, and receives 
annual worship and offerings. In the same province the Goalar, 
or herdsmen, have a small temple containing two shapeless 
stones termed Jinjappa and R&mappa. The Beid&ru, who are 
cultivators, worship a rode shapeless stone placed on a cairn, or 
sometimes in a cavity of a rock. The iron-miners have a deity 
named Mfiti Raya, = Pearl King, a shapeless stone placed 
in an open-sided dolmen about 6 feet square. Another caste 
that cultivates betel-leaf gardens has two deities, Sidday devaru, 
a stone set up in a betel-vine garden, and Urukati, a stone 
placed in a wood. 

In Malabar the goddess of the salt-makers is Nidamah 
Bhagavati, a stone placed in a cocoa-leaf hut ; that of the 
Poliars, a degraded slave-caste, is Paradevata, a rough stone 
placed on a mound in the open air. The goddess of the Pariahs 
is a stone placed in a small hut, called Mariti ; and of the Ku- 
rumb&lar, a stone named Madya devam, planted on a heap of 
pebbles. In Coimbatore the Pallies, a numerous caste, have 
two special deities, Manar Swami and Pachamma, both large 
stones ; the Maleiarasar, = Hill-kings, commonly called Mul- 
sers, of the Anamalay and Paulghaut jungles, have a god 
named Alallang, who is a stone surrounded by a low wall, and 
the Kaders, = forest men, who live in the depths of the 
forests, have a male god Mudeviran, and two female deities, 
Pey-koti Amma and Kali Amma, aU represented by rude stones 
placed in small huts. All these obscure deities receive bloody 
sacrifices, t.c, offerings of fowls, goats, or sheep,* but it must not 

* Mr. Home, however, informed me that in Himalayan yilhigee a stone is set 
up as a piUar in the centre, the top smeared with whitewash, and five finger- 
marks of red ochre hdd on, and on this flowers are ofiered for the prosperity of 
the field. 

Digitized by 


38 M. J. Walhouse. — On 

be supposed that they absorb the worship of the several castes 
and tribes enumerated ; many worship the ordinary Hindu gods 
as welL The instances just given are but from a very small 
part of India, and the list might doubtless be immensely in- 
creased, proving the wide prevalence of stone- worship there to- 
day. Mr. Hunter in his work " Orissa," voL i, p. 95, observes 
of this two-fold worship, " At the present hour in every hamlet 
of Orissa the common people have their shapeless stone or block, 
which they adore with simple rites in the open air ; while side 
by side with it is a temple to one of the Aryan gods, with its 
carved image and elaborate rites.*' So in the early ages in 
Europe, the rude stones of popular worship doubtless stood long 
by the first Christian churches. In our stage of intellectual 
advancement it is difficult to put ourselves in that mental 
posture which coidd directly and literally worship " stocks and 
stones." One may conceive how prayers and adoration might 
be offered to the statues that embodied the ideals of majesty, 
intellect, and beauty in old Greece, and imagine the stem unim- 
pressionable Eoman Consul shrinking abashed before the Zeus 
of Phidias, in EUs, exclaiming that he beheld God 1 We know 
how widdy over Europe iinages are regarded with feelings 
approaching adoration, and can conceive how the hideous idols 
of the South Seas inspire a worship prompted by superstitious 
dread, but it does not seem so easy to comprehend how mere 
rude stones — shapeless masses and splinters of rock-— could be 
taken to symbolise, or to be, a deity. Animals, terrible, useful 
or beautiful, trees, flowers, striking natural features, might sug- 
gest ideas of awe or veneration, and indeed vestiges thereof 
survive amongst civilised peoples, as well as amongst those 
tribes that most nearly represent the prehistoric races, who were 
presumably alive to the same influences. Still it is hard to 
think why dull lumps of stone and rock should be chosen as 
emblems of any supernatural power, yet the fact remains that 
a collection of lumps and splinters of stone by the wayside 
suffices for Hindu worship to-day, and might have sufficed for 
the men of the stone ages.* 

* Another cause of stone-woTBhip may be the influence of old legends. Amongst 
the feats of the god Siva, it is recorded that being angrj with tiie six nurses of 
his son, Eartikeya, because they were careless in learning the eight forms of 
prayer, he laid on them a malediction " that they should become large stones 
unaer the Banyan tree near Madura, for 1,000 years." Whilst undergoing this 
penance, they were worshipped as evidences of the power of the god. Moealiths 
in Europe are often populany held to be transformed men ; e.y., the BolL-ight- 
stones and the Cornish hurlers. Again, at the foot of a mountain in Trayancnre 
there stood a magnificent and gigantic timber tree : four men with outstretched 
arms could not compass its trunk. Sereral rude stones of no great size placed at 
its base had been worshipped from time immemorial and supposed to represent 
forest-gods who dwelt in it« branches. It was the blood ana ashes ana other 

Digitized by 


NoTi'Sepvlchral Rude Stone Monuments, 39 

There could be nothing in this of that nature-worship so 
largely developed in modern poetry and philosophy, of which 
"Wordsworth has been the great hierophant. Neither living 
savages nor men of the flint days can be thought of as finding 
sermons in stones, or thoughts that lie too deep for tears in a 
flower or tree ; and Kingsley's apostrophe — 

I cannot teU what ye say, red rocks ! 

I cannot teU what ye say, 
But I know that in jou too a spirit doth dweU, 

And a word in jou this daj ! 

would be taken by them in a very different sense. Such ideas 
indeed are the latest result of culture ; and to a higher plane of 
mental perception and reflection also would seem to belong that 
idea of generation, symbolised in so many ancient myths and 
religions by the pillar, spire, lingam, circle, cave, &c., of which 
rough stones might be the readiest emblems, and so become 

Were any clue possible to the dark labyrinth of prehistoric 
thought, it might be looked for amongst the most secluded, 
imcidtivated races, such as are described by the Eev. W. W. Gill 
(" Myths and Songs from the South Pacific "), in Mangaia, the 
most secluded of the Society Islands. One idea pervading Man- 
gaian mythology is that earthly objects are but the material 
bodies of spiritual powers or originals, so that if an axe cleaves 
or a club kills, it is because demons are invisibly present in 
them ; and the idea extends to supposing that all ordinary inert 
objects have spiritual doubles, or ghosts.* Thus when Indians 
bury a warrior with all his weapons, it is with the idea that the 
ghosts of the weapons may go with his to the Spirit-land. This 
helps us to conceive how tribes in India to-day can see deities 
in shapeless stones ; so may it have been with men in the 
unknown prehistoric past, in whose graves, too, weapons are so 
frequently found, deposited perhaps with the same idea. Another 

manure deposited there on sacrificial and festival occasions that had nourished 
and so wonderfuUjr enlarged this colossal tree. The missionaries wished to pur- 
chase it for tlie erection of a large chapel at Nejur, and after obtaining permis- 
sion, were obliged to oaH Christian woAmen from a long distance to cut it down, 
all the mountaineers refusing to assist, and yiewing its fellins with great alarm 
from a distance. All the wo<Klwork of the new chapel was made from this single 
tree, and the forest-people afterwards listened more readily to the preaching of 
(he missionaries. An occurrence like this in recent years probably represents 
manj similar passages in the early centuries of Christianity in Europe. 

• The idea underlying the primitive Vedic religion is that material objects 
have a spiritual as well as a physical potency, and may thence be addressed with 
prarer and hymns. So, too, Swedenborg's famous Doctrine of Correspondencies 
oedares that all physical things are but the types of things existing in the 
spiritual world. £yen so rude a people as the Karens of Cnittagonp, have an 
analogous idea ; every object amongst them has its kelah, or genius ; if the rice 
crop IS unpromising, its kelah has to be invoked. 

Digitized by 


40 M. J. Walhouse. — On 

aspect of the same primeval way of thinking seems to exist in 
the Gaftri, the most popular and universally observed festival, 
except one, in India. It is held in the beginning of September, 
when people of all castes and classes, from the Brahman to the 
Pariah, offer prayers and sacrifices to the tools and implements 
used in their several professions and crafts. Learned Brahmans 
and well educated clerks and ofl&cials put together their writing ' 
materials, paper or palm-leaves, pens, stylus, and ink ; the mer- 
chant and bazaar man their accoimt books and scales ; the culti- 
vator his plough, hoe, and harrow ; the carpenter and smith their 
tools ; the weaver his loom and shuttles ; the tailor his needles, 
&c. ; the barber his razors and hone ; the women their baskets, 
rice-pounders, pots, and household implements, £ind placing 
flowers and incense, prostrate themselves at length before the 
objects of their daily use, with thanks for having afforded the 
means of living, and prayers that they will continue to do so. Tliis 
worship is offered directly to the things themselves, and not to 
any deities symbolised,* and seems to contain the germs of the 
South Sea theory, and suggest how worship can be paid to 
"stocks and stones," whether in prehistoric or present times. 
More than the men of Athens, the Hindoos are Seto-tSat/ioveo-TC- 
pob (Acts xvii, 22) in the true sense of greatly prone t^ recognise 
the presence of supernatural powers ; and men versed in English 
literature, in law, and moral philosophy can roll up little baUs of 
cow dung and clay, give them divine names, worship them, and 
toss them aside. This disposition may have begun far back in 
prehistoric times. Some have held that religious sentiment was 
then a blank, arguing from certain tribes among whom travellers 
have reported no appearance of religion existed, but it is always 
questionable whether they had penetrated all the modes of 
tiiought about them. That sentiment must have originated 
some time, perhaps not very long after passing from Darwin's 
tailed arboreal stage, and rough stones might have been, and 
continued to be, as now amongst so many primitive tribes, the 
readiest symbols of beings imagined out of themselves. Sir John 
Lubbock (" Origin of Civilisation," p. 205) thinks that stone- 
worship is " merely a form of that indiscriminate worship which 
characterises the human mind in a particular phase of develop- 
ment." This, however, hardly explains why rough stones should 
be so generdly selected amongst all natural objects for adora- 
tion, but all Sir John Lubbock's pages on the worship of stones 
demand the highest consideration. 

Before quitting this subject, a word may in conclusion be said 
upon that^oldest of historic rough stones now in our midst — that 

* There are also two ceremonies conducted by woir.eD, iii wliich metal and 
earthen vessels are converted into gods, and worshipped aa such. 

Digitized by 


Non-Sepvlchral Rude Stone Monuments, 41 

Stone of Destiny brought in days beyond the ken of history 
fix>m Spain to Ireland as a talisman of national welfare. On it 
the ancient Irish Kings were crowned, when, if on being smitten 
it sent forth a clear ringing sound, the ceremony was auspicious. 
Carried to Scotland, it was long the palladium with which 
national independence was bound up, and brought thence in 
triumph, as the most certain token of victory it has for six hun- 
dred years rested beneath the Coronation chair at Westminster. 
The consideration and sacredness attaching to this famous stone 
in its various shrines and changes are almost a measure of the 
survival of stone-worship in the West. Were it lost or dragged 
from its present sanctuary, there would not be the same wide 
popular ^may that followed its last removals, but I think few 
here present would not experience a feeling deeper than simple 
antiquarian regret. 


The President observed that researches such as those of Mr. 
Walhouse on megalithic stmctares and stone worship of modem 
times were well calcxilated to throw light on the monuments and 
religious practices of far earlier times. He was inclined to think 
that some of the stones which were the subject of veneration at a 
remote date might have been of meteoric origin. The so-called 
** image " which fell down from Jupiter and jointly with Diana, was 
the subject of worship at Ephesus, might well have been a meteo- 
rite. He thought that the sites of many Christian chnrches had 
been determined by the spot where they were erected being already 
deemed sacred ; and the large blocks of stone which were built into 
the wall of the church as at Le Mans, or lay just outside it as at 
Treves, or were still erect in the close vicinity as at Rudstone in 
Yorkshire, might perhaps be the original rude stone idols which had 
hallowed the sites. 

Mr. Htdb Clarke said Mr. Walhouse had made a reference 
which was perhaps connected with a prehistoric belief which must 
have been widely distributed. In the Gnarani language of Brazil 
and Paraguay there were separate words for what had Hfe or soul, 
and what was dead. Thus a distinction was made between the head 
of a living and of a dead man or animal, and so throughout. Stones 
would receive worship on two grounds: first, divine stones or 
meteorites falling from heaven ; second, stones as being representa- 
tives of natural organs. Mr. Walhouse had well illustrated the 
parallels between the stone gods of (Greece and India. On examin- 
ing Mr. Ferguson's stone monuments, he bad been surprised to find 
the small evidence of astronomical or symbolical numbers, and this 
he considered was consequent on the paucity of our recorded' in- 
formation on the subject. 

Mr. Lbwis thought a distinction should be drawn between such 
allignments of stones as those of Camac and Ash down Park, and 

Digitized by 


42 Disciission. 

mere double lines or avenues, snch as exist on Dartmoor and else- 
where. Sacrifices were offered T3efore lines of stones in Southern 
India, and similar lines were erected as memorials in Northern India, 
and thej might therefore suppose that the European ailignments 
were erected for either purpose, as there was eveiy reason to believe 
that they were not sepulchral. The two slabs with one across 
forming a shrine or canopy for an image appeared to resemble Kit's 
Ooty House without the central stone, which occupied the place of 
the image, and it had often struck him that that stone being 
rougher than those which surrounded and covered it, might have 
been held in g^reater respect. The direction to the Jews not to hew 
the stones used for their altar was well known, and the same idea 
might have prevailed elsewhere. There were several instances of 
non-sepulchral dolmens in England besides those mentioned by 
Mr. mdhouse, and three upright stones, arranged like those of 
Kit's Coiy House, but without a capstone, were found in connection 
with some of the larger circles. Referring to the black stones 
pierced with holes mentioned by Mr. Walhouse, Mr. Lewis said 
some people in England still preserved stones with naturally formed 
holes, and called them lucky stones ; and referring to some remarks 
by Colonel Lane Fox, he thought he had recently seen it stated that 
the custom of attaching pieces of rag to certain objects prevailed in 
Russia. He thought Mr. Walhouse's paper a most useful one, and 
that the information about the dolmens used as repositories for 
sacred objects was particularly valuable. 

Mr. MoOGRiDOE said, I could have wished to have gone more fully 
into the subjects treated of in the very able paper which has just 
been read, and the remarks that have been made thereon ; but 
will confine myself to two points — 1st, the hanging of rags on 
bushes near to some spring or shrine supposed to be of potent 
power. These I believe to be votive offerings, testifying gratitude 
for cures whereby those rags were no longer required for dressing 
the x>arts affectea. This custom nrevails extensively, not only in 
England and Wales, but also on the continent, even down to the 
shores of the Mediterranean. — 2ndly, upright stones. These, 
whether monumental or not, frequently became objects of worship. 
On some of them may be seen the figure of a cross, cut by the 
early Christians, in order that the heathens, while paying their 
accustomed adoration to the maenhir, might, in fact, be worshipping 
the symbol of our faith : a pious fraud — but manifesting a kindly 

Mr. Walhouse in answer to the President expressed his opinion 
that the red marks oflen placed in India on sacred stones were 
analogous to the caste marks on the foreheads of Hindus. Every 
one amongst them must have some mark on his forehead. To have 
it bare is a sign of being in mourning or unclean, and it is dis- 
respectful to appear so in company. Hence all images of the gods 
have the forehead carefnlly adorned with caste-marks, and the 
custom is extended to daubmg stones, or anything sacred, with red. 
Colonel Forbes Leslie, however (Early Races of Scotland, ii, 464), 

Digitized by 


List of Presents. 43 

thinks the red marks are intended to represent blood. The author, 
-with respect to tying rags to a bnsh at a spot where a man had 
been killed hj wild beasts, said he had only met with two or three 
instances, and believed that the rags were tied to a bush in lieu of 
stones added to the stone-heap raised at first, after loose stones had 
become scarce around. In answer to Mr. Lewis, he said that he 
remembered no outlying stone near the circle described by him on 
the Nilgiri Hills, but there is a smaller circle at a short distance 
on the eastern side. 

CoL Lane Fox, Mr. Jeremiah and others offered some remarks. 

Major Wisden exhibited some bronze antiquities lately dis- 
covered in the neighbourhood of Worthing, consisting of pal- 
staves, socket-celts, and pieces of metal The palstaves, 29 in 
number, were looped, and those exhibited were without orna- 
mentation on the blades, and in form much like Evans's Petit 
Album, PL IV, No. 3. The socket-celts, 12 in number, were of 
the type PL V, No. 2, and the metal had been cast in cakes, 
which had subsequently been broken into pieces. The whole had 
been buried in an urn of burnt clay intermixed with coarse 
sand, or possibly flint, which had been pounded into small 
angular fragments. The urn was too much broken for its shape 
to be recognisable. 

The President remarked that the objects probably belonged 
to the dose of the bronze period in this country. 

The meeting then separated. 

March 13th, 1877. 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair, 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to»be retured to the respective doners for the same :— 

For the Library. 

From the Society. — Proceedings of the Royal Society. Vol. XXV, 
No. 177. 

From the Society. — J ahrbuch der K. K. Oeologischen Reichsan- 
stalt. Vol. XXVI, No. No. 4 ; Verhandlungen der K. K. Oeo- 
logischen Reichsanstalt. Nos. 14—16. 

From the Society. — Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Qesell- 
Bchaft in Wien. Vol. VI, Nos. 6—10. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

44 Hyde Clabke. — On the Himalayan Origin and 

Prom the Association. — Journal of the Royal Historical and 
ArcbsBological Association of Ireland. Vol. FV, No. 28. 

From John Evans, Esq., P.R.S. — Through Bosnia and the Herze- 
govina on foot during the Insurrection. By A. J. Evans, 
B.A., P.S.A. 

Petit Album de TAgo du Bronze en Orande Bretagne. Bj 
John Evans, P.R.S. 

Prom the Society. — Proceedings of the Royal Geographical 

Prom the Editor. — Revue Scientifique. No's. 86 and 37, 1876. 

Prom the Author. — Smoking. By Dr. J. C. Murray. 

From the Editor. — Nature (to date). 

The President exhibited a bronze socket celt from Italy of 
the usual form, but still retaining its original wooden handle, 
which had been preserved in consequence of its having been 
completely covered with thin plates of bronze. The entire 
length of the handle is about 10 inches. It is somewhat 
curved, and the projecting branch, which goes into the socket 
of the celt, forms an angle with the handle of about 80°. At the 
end of the handle is a small loop, as if for the insertion of a ring 
or string by which to suspend it. The wood appears to be oak. 
This hatchet, with another like it, was found in an um at 
Chiusi, with a long fibula of silver, a scarabaeus, and several 
bronze plates, each with a " fylfot " cross upon it, and probably 
forming part of a girdle. These are now in the Etruscan Museum 
at Florence. 

Captain Dillon exhibited some flint arrow heads, tools, &c., 
from Ditchley, Oxon. 

The President made some observations on them. 

Thanks were returned to the exhibitors of the above. 

Mr. Hyde Clarke then read a paper on the Himalayan Origin 

of the Magyars. 


Himalayan Origin and Connection of the Magyar and 
Ugrian. By Hyde JiLARKE, Vice-President of the Anthro- 
pological Institute. 

The Ugrian languages have become of the more importance in 
the advance of comparative philology on account of the relations 
between them and the Akkad or Sumerian cuneiform developed 
by Norris, Oppert, Lenormant, Sayce, Sayous, &c. 

My opinion still is that the relationship is less between Ak- 
kad and Ugrian, strictly speaking, than among Akkad, Ugrian, 
and many other prehistoric languages. The order to which the 

Digitized by 


Connection of the Magyar and Ugrian, 45 

Akkad more immediately belongs has been named by me Sume- 
rian or Khita-Peruvian, and is dealt with in my work on Pre- 
historic and Comparative Philology, and in my last book on 
Khita and Khita-Peruvian.* More or less belonging to this 
order are Etruscan, Lydian, Phrygian, the Georgian, many lan- 
guages of the Indo-Chinese peninsula, the Aymara and Quichua 
of Peru, the Maya of Yucatan. The Circassian and languages 
of Northern Mexico are in relation with this class. 

The determination of the philological and historical relations 
of Ugrian is, it will be seen, a problem of considerable interest. 

In this respect the object of the present paper is to propose 
an extension of the area of Ugrian, in districts the more attrac- 
tive to the anthropologist, because they embrace High Asia and 
the Himalayas. 

Thus the Ugrian languages are brought in contact with one 
great centre, which is by some regarded as the centre of the 
human race and tilie cradle of civilization,"!- but to my mind it is 
only one of several centres from which the migrations of the 
human race have taken place, as detailed in my Comparative 

K the Ugrian languages include the cultivated Magyar and 
the epic Fin, yet they also embrace those of some of the lowest 
tribes of Samoyeds, Ostiaks, and Lapps. This is one reason 
which leads me greatly to hesitate before assigning to the 
Ugrian the Akkad, as Lenormant is so strongly inclined to do, 
or the Etruscan, as the Eev. Isaac Taylor latterly suggested. 

In India, as within the Arctic Circle, the Ugrian order is found 
in close contact and relation with languages which are those of 
savages, and are prehistoric. 

There the relations of the Ugrian order are with the order 
which includes East Nepaul, and the languages round to the 
Assam border (find, indeed, to Arracan see Forbes), and including 
some scattered languages, the Bodo, Borro, Dhimal, and Kachaxi 
and the Abor and Sibsagur Miri. 

The true Ugrian of this region constitutes a Ugro-Nepaulese 
class, which may be that of a possible Tibeto-Ugrian sub-king- 

The Ugrian order, as here considered, includes the following 
families : — 




* See also, " On Khita, Canaanite, Sumeiian, Etrosoan, &o.," by me in Trans- 
acUuns of the Boyal Historical Society for this year. 

t See the yarious works of Ernest Ton Bunsen for the hitest derelopments of 
this system. 

Digitized by 


46 Hyde Clarke. — On the Himalayan Origin and 

Mordwin and Cheremis, 




The chief Himalayan congeners are in Eaat Nepaul. 
These languages are classed by Mr. Bryan Hodgson as the 
Kiranti group, but the most distinct member is the Chourasya. 
In Dr. W. W. Hunter's Non-Aryan Dictionary they are thrown 
together under East Nepaul, and this which is also under 
Mr. Hodgson's auspices is very convenient. 
In East Nepaul are — 



















On the Chinese frontier and Tibet are languages which more 
or less assimilate, but are of weaker affinities for the Ugrian than 
those of East Nepaul — 


In Nepaul (east to west) are others in the same condition — 

Among the Broken Tribes of Nepaul the language which 
most assimilates, but not uniformly, is — 

Digitized by 


Connection of the Magyar and Ugrian. 47 

Among the languages of north-east Nepaul are some which 
present an approximation, but are not of the same class. They 
include the prehiatoric — 





On the eastern frontier of Nepaul are the languages of the 
Miri, more distant in their relation — 


For Arracan, see the Appendix. 

The aflftnities of the Magyar and Fin are strongest for the 
languages of East Nepaul, and those of Samoyed and Ostiak 
strongest for the lower tribes of the Bodo and Miri — a feature 
well worthy of the attention of the anthropologist and the philo- 
logist, more particularly because in physical characters the Laps 
and Samoyeds present diversities from the fins and Magyars, 
and the Laps may be regarded as having acquired a Ugrian 
language after conquest. Li this as in other cases the influence 
of the development of culture is more persistent than the physi 
cal influence of race. 

The Vayu have a tradition that their people were anciently 
of very great importance (Hodgson). 

Li consequence of the prehistoric aflBnities disclosed, it has 
appeared to me xiseful to carry out a wider geographical investi- 

The Bodo, the Garo, the Dhimal, if they present some features 
identical with Finnic, contain more words of affinity with the 
African languages. In truth, however, the whole of the Hima- 
layan languages present these marks of affinity, as do what are 
ddled the Altaic languages, and also the Javanese. 

The relations between the hmguages of Lidia and Indo 
China and those of Africa wiU, however be dealt with in detail 
on another occasion. It suffices to say that there is nothing in 
the African languages opposed to the possibility of a centre of 
himian culture in the Himalayas. The varieties of the Hima- 
layan languages are partly dependent on these African features, 
and it is more than possible that ruder tribes have been absorbed. 
by more advanced Himalayans, conformably to what has taken 
place in the Caucasus, and apparently in northernmost Europe 
and Asia. 

On the other hand the Basques and their Caucasian kinsmen 

Digitized by 


48 Hyde Clarke. — On the Himalayan Origin and 

of allied speech, the Lssghians, and who are white, use languages 
still chiefly spoken by black races in Africa and India.* 

In Africa there are strong vestiges of conformity of type 
with the Himalayo-Ugrian, particularly as to the roots for sun 
and fire, but unless the languages of the Gaboon should furnish 
further evidences of conformity, there is no evidence of identity. 

Tne following languages of the Gaboon are to be named : — 











The following are examples, and these can be multiplied. 

Sun . . . . nyam. 


mu, mo. 
usi, uzi. 
sou, aso. 

It may be observed that many tribal names are common to 
the two regions of India and of Africa. Then much of what is 
said as to language applies of necessity to mythology. 

Among the Ainerican languages I have not been able to 
identify any congener of the Ugrian, saving the question of the 

The few roots which appear to conform are probably derived 
from the earlier stocks of languages, from which the Ugro- 
Nepaul languages have themselves been developed. 

Even with regard to the Vasco-Kolarian languages, I am 
still in the same position. There is, however, in many North 
American languages suflScient to indicate their common descent 
from the prehistoric stocks, but while I can identify in America 
Agaw congeners, I cannot determine those of Vasco-Kolarian 
and Ugrian. This appears imlikely to represent the real facts, 
because, taking into account the position of these two families 
in Europe, Asia, and Africa, it appears unlikely they did not 
send migrations into the other hemisphere, when the migrations 
of the Agaws and of the later Sumerians are so distinctly 

On the other hand there is no decided Ugrian language in 

• See further on, and also " Prehistoric Comparative Philology," p.'. 

Digitized by 


Connection of Hit Magyar ami Ugrian. iH 

Africa, and there are many appearances that the Ugrian migra- 
tions in western Asia and Europe have been comparatively late, 
and also that they may have proceeded from Central Asia north 
and west. 

As one object of this paper is to illustrate the subject of these 
migrations as affecting the Magyars, it will be well to consider 
this specific question. 

The points of identity between Ugrian and East Nepaulese 
are in some cases striking. 

The Sim, day, and sky names : — 

Nap, Ugrian . . . . Nam, Nepaul. 

The names for man present repetitions of three types. 

The words for eye illustrate each other, and the root appears 
to be a double one, with the syllables interchanged in each 

Four types for mouth are to be recognised. 

There are also four types of foot in contact. 

A curious interchange of the types for bone and horn, in con- 
formity with a practice of prehistoric philology or morphology, 
serves to earmark the order. 

Horn, sarwi, Finnic. Bone, sarwa, E. NepauL 

Wa, the type for water, is general in the Nepaul and Ugrian 
orders, but it is part of a double root, chu-wa or we-si (= wa- 

l!arth has two types. 

River has three types. 

Moimtain shows four types. 

Stone in the form kawa, or kiwi, reduced to kwa and ko, also 
is found in both orders, and the other element of the double root 
is also recognisable. 

Village has a common form. 

House has also a common form, even amongst the rudest 

Tree, leaf, and flower show each one type for recognition. 

Salt and iron have allied forms. 

The adjectives show many cases of similarity. 

The numerals, although of common origin in sjrstem, show 
great discrepancies in the Himalayan orders, so that the separa- 
tion might have taken place at an early period, and before the 
numbers were fixed, unless, as is equally possible, the main 
Ugrians derived their numbers, as is frequently foimd to be the 
case with regard to numerals, from some other race, under the 
'nfluence of commerce or conquest. 

VOL. vn. E 

Digitized by 


50 Hyde Clakke. — On the Hivudayan Oriyin and 

In general the roots in the orders are double, and are of course 
liable to separation and distribution. 

There is a general connection of the Ugro-Nepaul class with 
the Tibetan, and consequently with the Chinese and Indo- 
Chinese. It appears most likely that any influence of Tibetan 
on the Nepaul and other frontier orders has been posterior to 
the epoch of migration and separation, but the whole matter 
needs investigation in connection with Akkad and prehistoric 
inquiries. In the present state of our knowledge it is not yet 
possible to fix the prehistoric chronology, and as yet great ob- 
scurity rests on the true relations of Chinese, though so many 
scholars are now applying themselves to that language. 

In this day we find three masses of the Ugrian class : — 

The Nepaul or Himalayan. 

The main Ugrian, reaching from Siberia to the Black Sea, and 
thence to Lapland and the Icy Ocean. 

The Magyar in Hungary. 
. The Magyar has been apparently divided from the main Ugrian 
by the Slavonic migrations. 

The main Ugrian body may have extended further westward, 
but must have been checked by the Celtic migrations, and par- 
ticularly by the Germanic invasion, which drove it towards the 
north in Scandinavia. 

There is little likelihood that there was any extension to the 
eastward or towards America. The races on that side are all 

The consolidation of a Tibetan kingdom and of a Chinese 
kingdom would keep them off from the east, and perhaps was 
the operative cause of the separation of the northern Ugrians 
from the southern or main stock. 

The rise of the Manchoos, as Scythians, of the Mughak 
(Mongols), would tend to perpetuate the separation and to pre- 
vent intercourse. 

With regard to the southern border in India, the present 
narrow strip suggests that there might have been a southern 
extension, but when we consider the various races, anterior and 
subsequent, which have possessed India, the possibility of a 
Ugrian empire of India is diminished. 

There were the Minkopies, the Agaws, the Kols, and Dravi- 
dians, and the Sumerians. Of these we have testimonies in 
India, but of the Ugrians none, though this negative evidence is 
no more conclusive than the negative evidence is conclusive as 
to the various races which evidently from time to time occupied 
these islands. 

The relations of the Ugro-Nepaulese class have naturally come 
under the attention of philologists, and hence have arisen the 

Digitized by 


Connection of the Magyar and Uyrian. 5 1 

opinions as to a connection of the Ugrian with the Dravidian 
languages, and the formation of a Sub-Dravidian family. The 
valuable labours of Mr. Hodgson not only yielded the materials for 
the several Himalayan vocabularies, but led him in illustration 
of the affinities, to bring forward a mass of connections with other 
languages, including the so-called Turanian, which have pro- 
vided material for the determination of the comparative 

The apparent and real affinities of Dravidian are chiefly 
dependent on the action of the same original causes on the lan- 
guages, but these constitute no real connection. There is a dis- 
tribution of roots under circumstances arising from culture or 
mythology, which affords no necessary proof of community of 
relationship of languages. There are the same influences affect- 
ing grammar, which forbid the assertion of identity of genealogy 
Bishop Caldwell, in his new edition of the Dravidian grammar, 
does not appear to be desirous of annexing the Himalayan lan- 

M. Lenormant, in his last work, " La Langue Primitive de la 
Chaldee, 1875," in various places, and particularly at p. 302, has, 
on the authority of M. Sayous, a learned author on Ugrian sub- 
jects, given many illustrations of what he has been led to believe 
are Ugrian affinities of Akkad. 

A very cursory consideration by any competent prehistoric 
student is sufficient to show that they are as much prehistoric 
as they are Ugrian, unless they become Ugrian by their Hima- 
layan relatives. 

Akkad gud, repose. Compare gititea, Kolarian, gotolu, Kassans, 

Akkad dama, sleep ; dohomu, Kliond. 
Akkad sar, line, row = straight; sorichai, Chentsu; sirengi, 

Bassa (Africa). 
Akkfui mi, dark, night ; ama, Garo, night ; ami, Burman, do. ; 

amma, Kol, do. ; ma, Chentsu, do. 
Akkad aria, Wi?er; gBxm, Xolarian; ngare, Wolof; kuramina, 

Houssa ; kungoru, Gaddba, India, 
Akkad dib, dub, leaf; Ihaba, Dhimal ; lapa, Singpho. 
Akkad us, blood; azu, Naga; esi, Bali ; kesu, Rajmahali. 
Akkad lum, hojie ; elume, KamatiJca, 
Akkad du, mouth, is prehistoric. 

Akkad khar, ox; karra, Kolurian, buffalo ; goru, Miri, cow. 
Akkad kisim, ant ; gusala, Gadaba, India. 
Akkad gum, man ; kumi, Kumi; kame, Soso (Africaj. 

* See the republication of Mr. Hodgson's Himalajan Kesearches by Messrs. 

£ 2 

Digitized by 


52 Hyde ClaJIKK — Oii the Himalayan Origin and 

Akkad mulu, man ; male, Rajmahali. 

Akkad nene, Tnother; nana, Miri (a common prehistoric type). 
Akkad unu, dwelling ; nu, Bodo; hun, Khamii, 
Akkad uru, town ; uru, Kolarian and African. 
Akkad akku, very great ; okoko, Egbde, Af rica* 
Akkad kir, speech; kurr, Thocku, 
Akkad gan, stand; ginna, West Africa^ 
Akkad gam, crooked; kom, Naga Laos ; a common Himalayan 
word, also prehistoric. 

It is a remarkable circumstance that a zealous Magyar, Coros 
de Csoma, should have devoted himself to the mission of dis- 
covering the origin of his people in the Himalayas. The time he 
spent in Tibetan studies brought him no fruits, but had his life 
been spared he would have found in East Nepaul the e\ddences he 
sought, and which, with his knowledge and learning, would have 
been turned to good accoimt. He lies buried in the town of 
Darjeeling, amid the original lands of the Magyars and the 

Among the tribes of Nepaul are to be counted the Magar, 
and it is quite within the compass of possibility that this is the 
true origin of Magyar or Madjyar. At all events there are many 
Words alike in the two languages. Several tribal names have 
descended from prehistoric times, as that of the Agaw or Agua. 

It is to be remarked that although some words are preserved 
in Magar and Magyar, yet, as might be expected, there are words 
better preserved in the tribes near the Magar. 

The following are examples of words in Magar and Magyar : — 





















































Digitized by VJ 


Connection of the Mafjyar and Ugrian. 53 

Who, what \ 




Where ? 


Dr. Duka has pointed out to me a singular prehistoric pecu- 
liarity (see Sir J. Lubbock on relationship, passim) which affects 
Magyar, Magar, and limbu, and that is the possession of the 
terms for elder and younger brother and sister : — 












Elder brother .... 




Younger brother. . 

ocscs (otsch) 



Elder sister 




Younger sister . . 



nusSa pakwa 

It will be noticed that the Magar word for younger brother 
is borrowed from Hindustan. 

It is to be noted that the Hung, a branch of the limbu 
(Prof. Friedrich MuUer, on '' Man," p. 352, Vienna, 1874), near 
the Magar tribe, may be the Huns, who took part in the inva- 
sion of Pannonia, and gave name to Hungary. 

Mr. Howorth, who has dealt largely with the tribes of Asia, 
has entered on the question of the Khunzag of Caucasia, being 
the original of the Huns of Hungary, and this he has treated of 
in the Journal of the Anthropological Institute for 1874, p. 453 ; 
and at p. 472 will be found my own observations on this subject. 
The unfortunate Klaproth was one of those who first called atten- 
tion to the Khimzag, as he was first in many researches. Among 
the Lesghians, Awars, and Khunzag of the Caucasus he detected 
undoubted proofs of the connection of language in the names of 
the chiefs. 

The Lesghian languages are, however, not Ugrian, but accord- 
ing to my classification belong to another order, the Vaaco- 
Kolarian, their afiSnities being with the Basque, Kol, of India, 
Houssa, of Africa. (See my "Prehistoric Comparative Philo- 
logy," p. 13.) 

Dr. Leitner, distinguished as a scholar on Magyar as on other 
subjects, in his treatment of Dardistan, has pointed out the im- 
portance of considering the tribe of the Hunza as possibly con- 
nected with the Hims, as founders of the Hungarian nation. It 
would be nothing inconsistent with the other facts here brought 
forward, that Hun tribes should be found in the Dardistan, 
though at present speaking an Aryan language. In fact we have 
to observe that the Avar language has b^ lost in Hungary. 

Digitized by 


54 Hyde Claeke. — On the Himalayan Origin and 

My explanation of the invasion of Hungary is that in the 
Ugrian emigration from the Himalayas, Ugrian Huns had entered 

It is to be noted that Brian Hodgson enumerates as a tribe of 
Magar, in Nepaul, the KyapchakL This may have given name 
to the well known Tartar kingdom, and become associated with 
Lesghian tribes in joint expeditions. The chiefs were perhaps 
Lesghians, and the main body of the soldiery Ugrian, recruited 
from various tribes. On the occupation of Hungary the Les- 
ghian chiefs gradually died off, and the language of the majority 
prevailed. This will account for the union of Awars in the in- 
vasion and Huns, and for the people and language being now 
called Magyar. 

The phenomena would then be correspondent to those of the 
invasion and occupation of Britain by the English. 

If this view be correct, it opens up the subject of the Les- 
glaians, for, if these of old represented a warlike population, 
then they may have been connected with those movements to 
which the name of Pelasgian has been given, and which, it is 
supposed, led to settlements in many countries of the Asiatic 
and European Mediterranean. (See my " Prehistoric Compara- 
tive Philology," p 12.) 

Whether in the Himalayas or in Caucasia the tribes referred 
to, it may be pointed out, are warlike. The foimdation and 
maintenance of the kingdom of Nepul and the invasion of India 
suflftciently prove this. Such, too, were the assailants of the 
Eoman empire, and the occupants of Pannonia, and such are the 
present inhabitants of Hungary, 

I am indebted for corrections to Hungarian gentlemen. 
Dr. Leitner Bey, of the Lahore College; Mr. Bela Solymos; 
Dr. Duka, late of Darjeeling; and Captain Stab, Charg^ 
d' Affaires of Guatemala, in Turkey, 

Comparative Vocabulary. 

Ugro Himalayan. 

Sun, nap, Magyar. nam, in E. Nepaul. 

[numgy, Samoyed, Star], 
nai Ostiak. 

nyima Tibetan. 
„ kuya, Samoyed. chhowa, Nepaul. 

„ [kundom, Finnic, moon]. 

Digitized by 


Connection of the Magyar and Ugrian. 


Sun, syunk Vogul. 
shunda, Votiak. 

„ [kundom, Finnic, moon]. 
Day, nap, Magyar. 

yele, Samoyed. 

Moon, kuli, Koibal. 
ilio, Samoyed. 

yonkop, Vogul. 

kov, Mordwin. 

kou, Fin. 

kundoma, Fin. 
Light, walo, Finnic. 

vilag, Magyar. 
Star, numgoy, Samoyed. 
Sky, [nap, Magyar, sun]. 
„ nuont, Samoyed taiwas, 

Fire, tuli, Finnic. 

Man, hassawa, Samoyed. 
„ huweri 

kasa ,, 

„ ihmene, Finnic, 
ingemin „ 
innemine, Ostiak. 
„ mies, Finnic. 
Eye, saeu, Samoyed. 
silme, Finnic, 
sin, Votiak. 
shinsha, Chereraiz. 
szem, Finnic, 
sima, Samoyed. 

Tooth, all, Magyar. 

„ penk, Ostiak. 
Mouth, szaj, Magyar. 
8U Fin. 

„ kaukasi, Finnic. 

shan, Bodo. 

[songger, E. Nepaul]. 

san, Garo. 

sangdong, Kachari. 

hwan, E. Nepaul. 

nam, E. Nepaul. 

numa, Vayu. 

khola, E. NepauL 

[wujgalo, E. Nepaul, [light]. 

Ljal, Pahri, light]. 

khlye, Chourasya, E. Nepaul. 

lya, la, E. Nepaul. 

ali, Dhimal. 

nokhabir, Bodo. 

nakhaber, Kachari. 

wujyale, E. NepauL 
jalo, Pahri. 
nunggi, Pahri. 
nam, E. NepauL 
dwam, E NepauL 

domur, Miri. 

[tali, Dhimal, moon] 

J^^}e. Nepaul. 

hiwa, Bodo. 

mis, E NepapL 
visi, E. Nepaul. 
miksi „ 

michi, E. Nepaul. 
mas, „ 

mash „ 

gnalu, E. Nepaul. 
ipang, Miri. 
syeu, E. Nepaul. 
khouga, Bodu. 

Digitized by 


56 Hyde Clarke. — On the Himalayan Origin and 

Mouth, khurgo, Mordwin. 
„ na, Samoyed. 

„ agma, Samoyed. 
„ wan, Sirianian. 
Hair, bukka, Karelian. 

Head, paa, Finnic. 

Hand, kasi, Finn. 

kes, Magyar. 
Foot, lat, Vogul. 
lab, Magyar. 
„ kok, Siranian. 
„ pilge, Mordwin, 
„ yalka, Fin. 
Blood, hem, Samoyed. 

Skin, nakha, Finnic. 

bor, Magyar. 
Bone, czontak, Magyar, 

Horn, sarwi, Finnic, 
szarv, Magyar, 

Egg, toyas, Magyar, 

Water, wut, Cheremis. 
vit, Vogxd, 
bu, Samoyed. 
be, „ 

kuga, Kachari. 
igno, E. Nepaul. 
nui, Dhimal. 
napang, Miri. 
kwom, E. Nepaul. 

tagna, E. Nepaul. 

[tuku, Miri, head]. 

[taklo, E. Nepaul]. 

piya, E. Nepaul, 



puring, Dhimal. 

khar, E. Nepaul. 

khar, Dhimal. 

akhai, Bodo. 

lang, E. Nepaul. 

chaplap, Garo. 

khokhoi, DhimaL 

philu, E. Nepaul. 

syal, E. Nepaul. 

hi, E. Nepaid. 


hokwa, E. Nepaul. 

kwakte „ 

umhokwa „ 

bigur, Bodo. 

singga, E. Nepaul. 


ping, Kooch. 
sarwa, E. Nepaul, bone]. 

"saruwa „ „ 

sarukwa „ „ 

harwa, Kooch „ 

liara, Dhimal „ 

dai, E. NepauL 


tui, Dhimal. 

touchi, Garo. 

daudai, Bodo. 

wa, E. Nepaul. 

Digitized by 


CoiiTi4:cii&ti of the Magyar and Ufjriaa. 


Water, wa, Permian. 

wesi, Finnic. 

viz, Magyar. 
River, yoha, SamoyeA 

„ .as, Ostiak. 
„ kymi, Finnic. 

Earth, ya, Samoyed. 

„ maa, Finnic. 
„ ma, Samoyed. 
„ mou, „ 
Mountain, hegy, Magyar. 

domb, Magyar, 
sea, Samoyed. 

wuori, Finnic, 
bor, Samoyed, 

Stone, kiwi, Finnic. 
„ ko, Magyar. 
„ tang, Samoyed, 

Eat, syon, Finnic, 
en, Magyar, 

Laugh, nauran, Finnic, 

„ nevet, Magyar. 
Mouse, yar, Magyar. 

iBe silent, waikenen, Finnic. 
Speak» sanon, Finnic. 

assi, MirL 

yowa, E. Nepaul. 

asie, Miri. 

koma, E. Nepaul. 



daima, Kachari. 

ha, Bodo. 


among, Miri. 

hajo, Bodo. 

„ Kachari. 
hachur, Garo. 
danda, E. Nepaul. 
sani, E. Nepaul. 
sanggu, „ 
bhuri, E. Nepaul. 
bhar, E. Nepaul. 
hour, „ 


kawa, E. Nepaul. 

long, Garo. 
chanin, E Nepaul. 

rende, E. Nepaul. 

navir, Manyak. 
daran, Thochu. 
enna, Sokpa. 
biya, E. NepauL 
bege, Limbu. 
yay, Gurung. 
waitwaya, E. NepauL 

nena, E NepauL 

Digitized by 


58 Hyde Clarke.— On the Hiiaalayan Orig'in and 

Drink, juon, Finnic, 
in, Magyar 

To-day, tanapana, Finnic. 

To-morrow, huoiuenna, Finnic. 

kolnap, Magyar. 

Village, falu, Magyar, 
kyla, Finnic. 

House, kamodo, Samoyed. 
muat, „ 

mait „ 

kat, Ostiak. 
Tree, puu, Finnic, 
pa, Magyar, 
pea, Samoyed. 
Leaf, level, Magyar. 

Flower, vii*ag, Magyar. 

Salt, soak, Samoyed. 


suol, Finnic. 

so, Magyar. 
Iron, yese, Samoyed. 

dung, E. Nepaul. 



syanga, Brahmu. 

toin, Pahri. 

payam, E. Nepaul. 


bini, Murmi. 

banyar, Manyak. 

tingni, Garo 

dinesanche, Kachari. 

tanna, Nowgong. 

dinimeni, Deoria Chutia. 

thang-waynan, Talain. 

mangkokn, R Nepaul. 


minthe, Gyami. 

kallu, Darhi. 

kaUa, Pahri. 


ganap, Garo. 
ninap, Namsung. 
tel, E. Nepaul. 

dulong, Miri. 
[falan, Manchoo]. 
khim, E. Nepaul. 
kam, „ 

ekum, Miri. 
puwa, E. Nepaul. 

laba, E. Nepaul. 
laphowa, „ 
Ihava, Dhimal. 
puri, E. Nepaul. 
parr, Garo. 
yoksi, K NepauL 
syang, Garo. 

scl, E. Nepaul. 

Digitized by 


Connectioii of the Magyar aiid Uyrian 
Goat, kauris, Finnic. 


Mosquito, szunyog, Magyar. 
Hunger, ehseg, Magyar. 

1, Ostiak, ogy. 
Magyar, egy. 
Cheremis, iktit. 

Finnic, ak, yks. 
Lap, akt. 

2, Karelian, kaksi. 

3, Ostiak, kholym. 
Magyar, harom. 

4, Finnic, nelya. 
Magyar, negy. 

6, Finnic, kuusi. 
Ostiak, kut. 

7, Finnic, seitsemau. 

Cheremis, shimit. 

Mordwin, sisem, 

8, Magyar, nyolc. 

10, Finnic, Iqrmmenen. 
Mordwin, kamen. 

20, Mag}'ar, husz. 

40, Magyar, negy\eD. 

Bitter, Finnic, haikia. 
Magyar, keseru. 

gara, K Nepaul. 

sagoli, Miri. 

songgon, Miri. 

sago, E. Nepaul. 


eukta, K Nepaul. 





kat, Magyar. 

ako, Miri. 


yek, Pakhya. 

kichchi, E. Nepaul. 


sumchi, K Nepaul. 

aomko, Miri. 

laya, E. Nepaul. 



tukchi E. Nepaul. 

chhuning, Vayu. 
choi, Kooch. 
tuk, Sei"na. 
man. sim, Bodo. 
sining, Garo. 
man. shini, Kaehari. 

nema, Sokpa, 

kip, E. Nepaul. 




gis, Limbu. 

kong-usaug, E. Nepaul. 


kwong asing. 

naasang, E. NepauL 

napung cholok, Vayu. 

khika, K Nepaul. 



khacho, Magar. 

Digitized by 


i)0 Hyde Clauke. — On the Huaalayan Origin aitd 

White, fekete, Magyar. 
Fat, lihawa, Finnic, 
kover, Magyar. 

Good, kywa, Finnic, 
yo, Magyar. 

Green, wiheria, Finnic. 

Handsome, kaunis, Finnic, 
szep, Magyar. 

Hot, palawa, Finnic. 

!Raw, unsi, Finnic 

Hed, veres, Magyar. 

punaonnn, Finnic. 
Eipe, kypsi, Finnic. 

Little, waha, Finnic. 

kis 1 

kicsi > Magyar. 

kicsiny J 

kaso, Sunwar. 

khako, Tibetan. 

kn, Chinese. 

khachim, Vayu. 

khakha, Dhimal. 

gakha, Bodo. 

kha, Burinan. 

kekenia, E. Nepaul. 


leipa, E. NepauL 


chhuwa, E. Nepaul. 

choba, Gurung and Murmi. 

cliai^wa, Thochu. 

chopka, Dhimal. 

nuwo, E. Nepaul. 



hariyo, E. Nepaul. 
„ Pakhya. 
„ Kusunda, &c. 

haryo, Darhi, &c. 

kanni, E. Nej)aul. 

sangnya, E. Nepaul. 

shecheja, Magar. 

lepa, Murmi. 

Ihap, Thaksya. 

usuta, E. Nej>aul. 


warawaba, E. Nepaul. 



wolkya, Gurung. 

bala, Murmi. 

wala, Thaksya. 

phana, E. NepauL 

phaya, Brahmu. 

tupsako, E. NepauL 



gahai, Bodo. 

gohai, Kachari. 
fchisma, E. NepauL 
< kichem, „ 

l^kachhai, Gyarung. 

hocho, Pahri. 

Digitized by 


Connection of t/ie Magyar and Ugrian. 


Sour, savanju, Magyar. 

hapadu, Finnic. 
Straight, suora, Finnic. 

I, inina, Finnic, 
en, Magyar. 

Thou, sina, Finnic 

te, Magyar. 

He, han, Finnic. 

We, me, Finnic, 
mi, Magyar. 

This, ez, Magyar. 

tama, Finnic. 
And, ye, Finnic. 

Yes, igen, Magyar. 

There, ott, Magyar. 

hocho, Denvar. 

khoso, PahrL 

savo, E. NepauL 



sobu, Gurung. 

gapha, Bodo. 

sori, E. NepauL 

*anka, E. Nepaul. 



maha, Kuswar. 

ma, Pakhya. 

ang, Bodo and Garo. 

gna, Magar. 
*ana, E. Nepaul. 

sanre, Gyarung. 

tai, Darhi, &c. 

ta, Pakhya. 

hana, E. Nepaul. 

chana, Tliaksya. 

hami, Darhi, &c. 
„ Kuswar. 

gni mo, Gurung. 

gno me, Gyarung. 

isena, Magyar. 

iti, Dhimal. 

imbe, Bodo. 

imara, Garo. 

tern, E. Nepaul. 


ye, K NepauL 

ye, Gurung. 
*hegne, E. Nepaul. 

ongo, Bodo. 

wotho, Takpa. 

onthu, Horpa. 

hadu, Gyarung. 

uta, Pakhya 

uchi, Darhu. 

woti, Denwar. 

hudi, Brahmu. 

usho, DhimaL 

Digitized by 


62 Hyde Clarke. — On ilie Hinudayan Origin and 

Where, kusa, Finnic. ' khoda, E. NepauL 

hoi, Magyar. heche, Dliimal. 

kachi, Darhi, &c. 

khache, Tibetan. 

kalak, Magyar. 
That, az, Magyar. osena, Magyar. 

issi, Kusunda. 

uti, Dhimal. 

obo, Bodo. 

omara, Garo. 
tuo, Finnic. tya, E. NepauL 

uthoi, Dhimal. 

wotho, Takpa. 

outha, Horpa. 

wathi, Vayu. 

This paper was first read at the British Association in 1875, 
but the reading of it before the Anthropological Institute was 
delayed until the 13th March, 1877. On the 20th March a 
short paper was read before the Eoyal Asiatic Society by Mr. G. 
W. Forbes, F.R.G.S., M.A.S., Bengal, under the title of Affinities 
of the Chepang and Kusundah Tribes of Nepaul with the Hill 
Tribes of Arracan. 

By the courtesy of Mr. Forbes and of Mr. W. S. W. Vaux, 
Hon. Mem. Anthrop. Instit. and Sec. Eoyal Asiatic Society, I 
have seen this paper. 

It deals with the eastern relations of the Chepang, Kusundah, 
Vayu, and Bhramu languages of the Nepaul, included in Hodg- 
son's class of broken tribes. These are chiefly compared with 
languages of the Burman peninsula, Mru or Toung, Kyeng or 
Shou, Kami, Kumi, and Sak. Mr. Forbes classifies the Chepang, 
&c., as Lohitic or Tibeto-Burman with Naga and Karen. 

His table includes indubitable resemblances, and is of value 
as connecting Chepang, &c., with Mru, and, possibly, with Sak, 
in conformity with what I have stated on this subject. 

Among all these languages of the hiUs of India and of the 
Burman peninsula there are resemblances for a sufficient reason, 
because these languages all belong to the prehistoric epochs. 

In consequence of this paper of Mr. Forbes's, I considered it 
desirable to make a new investigation, and I find that though it 
is true the Chepang, &c., resemble the Mru, yet that the Finnic 
affinities hold good. The classification of Chepang, &c., as 
Finnic, is maintained, but as a result of Mr. Forbes*s researches 
the Finnic must be extended to include Mru. 

Mr. Forbes has not examined the Naga and Karen languages. 
These have distinct African relations, more so than the Finnic, 

Digitized by 


Connection of t/ie Magyar ami Uyrian, 63 

and I therefore place them earlier in the relative chronology and 

The following are a few examples of the connection of Finnic 
with Mru, &c. It may be observed that Magyar affords no 

Blood, weri, Finnic ; wi, Chepang ; wi, Mru. 

Crow, wares, „ wa-a, Mm. 

Dog, koira, „^ kwi, kui, Chepang ; ta-kui. Mm. 

Goat, kauris, „ cha guri, Kuswar ; ta-rau-a. Mm. 

Horse, hopa, „ sapu, Sak. 

Name, nimi, „ niing, Vayu ; emi, Mru. 

nami, Khyeng. 

Night, yo ; „ ya, Chepang ; ayan, Khyeng. 

Bad, paha ; „ poya, Khyeng. 

Strike, puk ; „ pok, Burmese. 

To-day, tanapana, „ ten, Chepang tunap, Kyeng. 

In following the subject up, I find that Finnic has borrowed 
in many cases from the Kolarian languages, a point in favour 
of placing the Kolarian earlier. 

3, harom, Magyar, is connected with 6, harum, Madi. 

4, nelja, Finnic, negi, Magyar, is connected with nal, Madi, 
nalu in Kolarian and Tamil, nakh, Uraon. 

20, husz, Magyar, is connected with hissi, Kolarian. 

100, sata, Finnic, and sean. Magyar, with Kolarian, sau. 

He, han, Finnic, with huni, Santali. 

We, me, Finnic, with mam, Madi, mamet, Gondi 

Ye, te, Finnic, with te, Chentsu. 

His, hanen, Finnic, with bona, Gondi. 

Yes, on, Finnic, with han, Kol. 

Yesterday, eUen, Finnic, with hola, Kolarian. 

It will be observed that with such facts it would be as con- 
sistent to class Akkad with Kolarian as with Ugrian. 

It may be well to give some illustrations of the mode in 
which roots and words have been sorted out from the prehistoric 

The same set of words, founded on the idea of Bound, furnish 
vrords for sun and moon, ear and eye, face, egg, and also bean. 
Secondarily, mouth, woman, &c., are connected with moon, and 
also cat, as in the Egyptian mythology. 

This is best observed in Africa, where we have such common 
forms as mot, turo, so (sun, suku ; moon and ear, barba ; bean, 
vei), na, woro, tali, calu, cam, anya, nyam, nap, eyi, bela, kan, 

In Malay eye is mata ; ear, talinga ; egg, talor ; the roots 
being thus selected. 

Digitized by 


G4 Discussion. 

Two, thou, that, and there are connected. 

A curious example of selection or sorting out is found in the 
Georgian — 2, ori and Basque ; that, ori ; Lepcha, ore ; Madi, orou. 

By another process I and eye are connected. 

Thus by selection a great variety of languages is created from 
one stock of words, which are more particularly modified by the 
special selection of pronouns and numbers. 

The difficulty of classification becomes, consequently, very 
great, because races have acted on others as the Kolarian on 
the Finnic, and on the Basque, and again been acted upon by 
conquering races, and by those with whom they are in com- 
mercial or religious intercourse. 


Mr. B. SoLYMOS — In reply to the remark that my coantrymen, the 
Magyara, themselves seem to know but little about their origin, I 
beg to state, not as a scholar, but as a mere witness, that they are 
at least remarkably interested in the numerous and elaborate re- 
searches in this field made and being made by the members of 
their Academy of Sciences. 

It is a popular tradition that their ancestors came across the 
Ural from Asia, and there were Magyar travellers, I believe, both 
in the last and in this century, who went to Asia specially for the 
purpose of ascertaining the birthplace of the race, with not much 
more result, however, than trophies of linguistic facts unknown 
before and bearing on the subject. Thongh no philologist myself, 
I recollect having been struck by all but identical words and 
sounds, in Hindustani and Magyar, of Jcutta and hUya for " dog," 
as well as by hajusz (moustache) and hapu (gate, &c.), which are 
the same both in Magyar and Persian, 

It is a cherished hope, not only of its students, but of the nation 
at large, still to find out that origin ; and to illustrate that fond 
longing they bear to their mythical home, I will further mention 
that the news some years ago of the *' English " comments and 
conjecture regarding the Babylonian cuneiform inscriptions re- 
ferred to by Mr. Hyde Clarke, ran like a thrill through all parts 
of the country and all ranks of society, on the wiugs of their 250 
newspapers and periodicals : for the popular mind, more or less 
educated by the men of science, clings also to this idea, that the 
Magyars, when they came to conquer their present country were an 
highly-civilised people, already in possession of letters of their own. 
They regret moreover the Vandalism of their first Christian zealots, 
who destroyed most of the monuments erected already in the new 

M. Bbbtin said : Thanks to the studies of several learned scholars 
during the last few years, the affinities of the Magyar language are 
well established now with the Finnic and Ugro-altaic tongues. In 

Digitized by 


Hkctob McLean. — The Scottish Highland, etc. 65 

comparative philological researches accoimt must be taken of those 
affinities as well as of the internal changes of language shown in 
the Magyar documents since the twelfth century (the oldest known), 
and of the immixion of foreign words, (German, Slaves, Ac. Now 
the problem of the origin can be fairly worked. I quite agree with 
Mr. Hyde Clarke's views as to this origin. The Magyars seem to 
have come into Europe with the Huns, and have left aU alonsf their 
road evidence of their passage. Besides, the cuneiform studies ap- 
pear to show in the very direction pointed out by Mr. Hyde Clarke 
the existence of nations not far akin to the Magyars. As for 
what Mr. Hyde Clarke says of the common existence of roots in 
those Hymalayan countries and American, I can say that lately 
several French scholars endeavoured to establish an affinity between 
the central American dialects and the Basque. The latter having 
affinities with the Ugro-altaic languages would explain this com- 
mon existence of roots in so far distant countries. 

Me. Bees, the President, and others took part. 

A copious and laborious paper on the classification of the 
non-Aryan languages of Metia was read at the last meeting of 
the Eoyal Asiatic Society by Mr. E. L. Brandreth, which I have, 
by his courtesy and that of Mr. Vaux, had the opportunity of 

The following paper by the Rev. Hector McLean was read 
by the Directors : — 

The Scottish Highland Language amd People. By Hector 


Traces of the Keltic languages are to be found from Spain to 
Denmark, and from the west of Ireland to the Crimea ; but of 
the ancient Keltic Icmguages spoken on the continent, our know- 
ledge is exceedingly meagre. The dividing of the ancient 
continental Kelts into two branches, the one Gadhelic, and the 
other Kimric, seems to me to be unsupported by a siifficiency of 
facts, and to lead to erroneous conclusions as regards Keltic 
tribes and peoples. To what erroneous conclusions a few test 
words may lead may be illustrated from the modem Keltic 
languages. The article in Cornish and Breton is nearer to the 
Gaelic than to the Welsh, n being the characteristic consonant 
in the former, and r in the latter. The name for " cresses '* in 
Welsh is 6erwT, in Cornish and Breton it is hder, and in Gaelic 
biolair. The Gaelic biolair is nearer the Cornish and Breton 


Digitized by 


66 Hector McLbak. — The Scottish Highland 

heler than the Welsh berwr is. Several such words could be 
chosen from these languages, and were they taken for tests, how 
false should the conclusions derived from them be ? Gaelic 
would be brought nearer to Breton and Cornish than Welsh ! 
In Manks the word for self is herie; in North Highland Graelic 
fhin = hene, and in South Argyllshire it is fhein = hane ; yet it 
would be a wrong conclusion to infer from this and a few other 
instances, that Manks was nearer to North Highland Gaelic 
than to Argyllshire. Mr. Skene has shown, in his first volume 
of " Celtic Scotland," to what fallacious conclusions the care- 
less use of a few test words has led with respect to the geogra- 
phical divisions of Gaelic and Eimric Scotland. The Keltic 
dialects of the east and south of Scotland have been lost ; the 
same is the case with those of the north, middle, and south-east 
of England. Could these be recovered, probably the ancient 
language of Britain might be united without a lH*eak, and oui 
present two branches of Kimric and Gaelic Kelts would consti- 
tute but the extreme varieties of one great continuous people. 
In the same manner were all the ancient continental Keltic 
dialects known, this people might, in all likelihood, be continued 
from the east and south of England, through several varieties, 
into Germany, Belgium, France, Spain, and Italy. Instead of 
trying to reduce those Keltic names that are to be found in 
ancient writings or the local names of Keltic origin that abound 
on the continent to two sister languages, the one Gadhelic and 
the other Kimric, it would, perhaps, be more judicious to con- 
ceive the ancient Keltic as consisting of numerous dialects 
varying gradually from the Baltic to the Mediterranean, and 
from the Alps to the west of Ireland. 

Tacitus informs us that the language of the Gothini, a naticm 
of Germany, was Graulish, while tiat of the Estii, another nation 
situated further east, was nearer to the British than to the 
German. From the remarks of Tacitus, it may be inferred that 
the British, or perhaps some dialects of it, were allied to the 
language of the Kstii, and differed somewhat from that of the 
Gauls, and that the language of the Estii was Keltic. Probably 
it was a Keltic dialect mudi mixed with Finnic and Teutonic in 
the time of Tacitus. 

There is some reason for believing that a Kelto-Finnic people 
occupied the whole of Germany at one time, and that these 
were the ferachycephalous people whose remains are found in 
the round barrows, while the old dolichocephalous race that 
preceded them are found interred in the long barrows. It is 
probable that the language of the brachyoephalous people was 
Keltic, with a large element of Finnic in its vocabulary, and 
that that of the conquered race was Euskarian, and allied to the 

Digitized by 


Ldngv^e and People. 67 

mother tongue of the modem Basque, Much of the language of 
the conquered would be absorbed into that of the conquerors ; 
8o that the language, in course of its development, would have 
a considerable portion of its vocabulary of Iberic or Euskarian 
origin. The arrival of pure Keltic tribes would give i^ more 
decidedly Keltic structure to the language, and cause a diminu- 
tion of non-Aiyan words and idioma 

In the modem Keltic languages there are numerous words 
which would seem to be non- Aryan and allied to Ugrian and 
Euskarian. Whether these can be satisfactorily shown to be 
such, or can be satisfactorily traced to an Aryan origin, is a 
question that is highly interesting and deserving of the con- 
sideration of the scientific world. There would appear to me to 
be an excess of Aryanising ^t present, so that I feel disposed to 
think that there is a tendency to make some languages more 
Aryan than they are, and among these the Keltic languages. 
The following is a list of words from non- Aryan languages hav- 
ing a close resemblance in form to Keltic words. It would be 
very gratifying to ascertain whether this resemblance is to be 
traced to a common origin of the words or to mere accident. 

Han, in Welsh, a yard, a church. Gaelic, lann, an inclosure. 
loUann^sithr-lann, com yard. Bolann, an ox-stall, a cow-house, 
&c. Basque landa, a garden. Gaelic ais, a '' hill." Basque astc^, 
a rock As, milk. Basque esTiecL Art, a stone. Basque Harri, 
a rock. Graelic aoil, "month." Basque dhol, Aon, good. 
Basque on. Q. AhhaU, "death." Basque hivU Ceo, "mist." Basque 
ywea, "smoke." ffa^w, a "lie." Basque, ^t^. Graelic Zar, the ground. 
Basque Iwrra, the " earth." Gaelic leanahh, a " child." Basque, 
Uinu. Graelic lot, a " wound." Basque lot. Ore, an egg. Basque 
arrac. Gaelic dona, "bad." Basque donge. Giar, "black." Turkish 
Kara. Toll, a "head." Non- Aryan languages of Central India, 
talla, tola, tid ; of Southern India, talei, tala, tale, tele. Gaelic 
faith, " heat." In the eastern langu^es of Ahom, Khamti, and 
Laos,/ai is *' fire." Lua, lat, a " foot." Magyard, lab. 

In several of the non- Aryan languages of Nepaul, foot is la, 
lasu. It, le. From lua, a foot, comes luaigh, to " walk cloth," 
which was formerly done in the Highlands' by pressing it with 
the feet. Gael, lair, a mare ; loth, a fiUy. Magyar, lo, a horse. 
Gaelic, greadh, a horse ; gearran, a work-horse ; greadhaire, a 
stalliTn. On the eastern frontier of Bengal, a horse is, in seve- 
ral of the non- Aryan languages, khor, kuri, gore, gv/re, gori; in 
some of those of Central India, goro, ghoro, gurram. Gaelic, 
onn, a " horse." N. E. Bengal, on, orihya. Gaelic,- ce, night. 
Basque, gau. Finnic, yo. Magyar, y. Turkish, gejeh. GaU, a 
rock. Central India, kal, kellu, a stone. Southem India, kal, 
kalla, kallu, kail. Sinhalese, gala, T\irkic, gnn, kun, "day," 

F 2 

Digitized by 


68 Hector McLean. — The Scottish Highland 

" sun." Basque, eguna, " day." Samojed, chu, " dawn." Breton, 
aann, "full moon." Scotch Gaelic, camhanoLch, Irish, cam- 
hcuoit, "dawn." Old Gaelic, eig, esga, easga, the "moon," ece, 
" clear," " manifest." Gaelic, luan, a " youth ; " limn, a " son." 
Bashkir Tatar, Ian, boy, son, child. Welsh, llan/:, a "youth," 
"llances," a "young woman," llwyth, a "tribe." Hungarian, 
leany, "girl," leanka, "daughter." Gaelic, BiaU, an "axe." 
Welsh Bwyell. Baltu means aiW* axe " in Yenessei and Samojed. 
Gftelic, tuagh, an "axe." Yenessei, Ostiak Tuk. Gaelic, cU, 
ceal, " death." Welsh, cdain, a " dead body." Gaelic, dasach, 
a "carcase." Welsh, cdain, Ostiak, kul, "death." Lapp, 
calme, the " grave." Gaelic, cSl, " mouth." Welsh, cgl, a " con- 
cavity." Lesghic, kol, a " mouth." Moth means the male of any 
creature, and is obviously related to Toodh, a man. Both words 
are now obsolete. Modh, a " man," would seem to be related 
to the Finnic mies and to mi, the name for " man " in Tibetan 
and other eastern languages. The mii in Osesmii, would appear 
to be a cognate name. From da, a " man," are formed coinne, 
" woman ; ' cear, " offspring ; " core, " children." Ceam, a man, 
or one of the tribe, is from cear, " offspring." Hence come the 
names of the old tribes, Coriondi, Camones, Creones, and Caerini. 
Connected with these words are gasradh, the " common people," 
gast, an " old woman." Welsh, gwas, a " youth." Cornish, 
cosgar, youths. Comparing these, we may infer that cas, in 
cassii, means " man," and that cassii means " men," and Tre- 
casses, Viducasses, Bodiocasses, Bajocasses, mean, respectively, 
" men of the town," " men of the wood," " dwelling-men," i.e., 
" natives." Bodio and bajo = Irish, beac, " to dweU,'* Manks, 
baghey, " dwelling." Tre = Welsh tre, a town, vidu = Gaelic 
fiodh, " wood." 

The Rev. Isaac Taylor says, in his "Etruscan Researehes," 
that "it is almost universally the case that primitive names 
of tribes and nations signify simply 'the men,' 'the people,' 
or ' the tribe.' " He remarks, also, " that the Samojedic dialects 
give us the two very instructive forms, lize and kasa, which 
both signify ' a man.! " We have here exhibited the transition 
frem the Finnic to the Turkic form. The Turkic ftw^^'man,' 
' person,' which again is identical with the Basque, gizon, ' man,' 
enables us to explain the names of the Kirghiz, the Karagass, 
the Tscherkes (Circassians), and many other tribe names." 

The Gaelic da, " man," gasradh, people ; the Welsh gvxis, a 
youth, and the ancient Graulish and British cas, are obviously 
cognate with the Basque gizon, the Turkic kis, and the Samojedic 

Nae is also an obsolete Graelic word, meaning " man," from 
which is derived the modem Gaelic word, neach, a " person." 

Digitized by 


Language and People, 69 

*' Widely spread throughout the Ugric area, we find a word 
which takes the forms sena, kena, ena, or aina. This word de- 
notes a ' man ' or ' person ' — Jiomo. 

" In the Aino language, ainu means a ' man/ In Tscheremis, 
en means ' people,' * nation.' In Mandschu, enen means ' poste- 
rity/ In Finn, a man is innimene, and in Samojed it is en- 
ndsehe!' Taylor's " Etruscan Eesearches/' 

From nae, " man/' are derived the following Gaelic words : — 
naing, " mother/' now obsolete ; Tuwidheain, a babe or infant ; 
nicuih, a champion, nuall, noble, literally manly. Nae is found 
in the two trilWl names, Namnetes and Nitiobriges, which res- 
pectively signify " sacred men " and " men of the land." Nam 
= naomh, sacred or holy. Brig ^ Irish brig, land. Dae is 
another obsolete name for " man," occurring in Eobogdii, the 
name of the ancient inhabitants of the north of Antrim, in 
Ireland. It means "the men that inhabit the promontory." 
Ro = Tudha, a " promontory/' or long, narrow portion of land ; 
bog as beac, to inhabit, and di = dde, " man." The words liidn, 
a " son ; " leanabh, a " child ; " Ituin, a " youth ; " laoch, a " youth ; " 
lachd, a " family ; " the Welsh words, llanc, a " lad ; " Uances, a 
" young woman ; " llwyth, a " tribe ; " would seem to point to 
an obsolete or lost word, meaning " man " in Gaelic and Welsh, 
cognate with the Lesghic les and Samojedic lize, each of which 
sipiifies " man." 

According to Mr. Taylor, " The names of the Lycians, the 
Ligures, the Leleges, and a host of Turanian nations, are, in all 
probability, derived from this root." From a kindred root, it 
would seem to me are derived Lugi, the name of an ancient 
tribe in the north of Scotland, and Luceni, the name of another 
ancient tribe in the south of Ireland ; also lioegr, the Welsh 
name for England. Mr. Taylor says that "the name of the 
Mardi,one of the Median tribes, contains the characteristic Finn 
gloss mart or murt, ' men/ which occurs in the names of a very 
large number of Finnic tribes, such as the Mord-win and the 
Komimurt" From these facts, it would appear that " Mertae," 
the name of an ancient tribe in the north of Scotland, bordering 
on the Lugi, is of Finnic origin. 

- A non- Aryan root, ar, meaning water, seems to be preserved 
in the obsolete Gaelic words, air-dhi, a " wave ;" airear, a " bay/' 
or "harbour;" arihrac, a "ship;" and artraighim, "to sail." 
This root is to be found in a great many river names. Irish 
history informs us that Islay was anciently in possession of the 
Mrbolg, a people identified by Mr. Skene, in his first volume of 
" Celtic Scotland," with the Damnonii of Scotland and England, 
and with the Silures, a supposed Iberic race. A place through 
which a streamlet flows in the west of this island is called ArU- 

Digitized by 


70 Hector McLean. — The Scottish Highland 

Aoradhy and a hill next the stream is called Cnoc an-AoraidJi, 
hill of the aoradh or " water." In the north of the island is 
another stream named Abhainn Araig. The last part aig, here, 
is a corruption of the Norse vie, a " creek." The Norwegians 
added vie to abhainn ar, to designate the creek at the mouth of 
the stream, and abhainn, a " river," was no doubt added to ar by 
a people to whose language the latter was a foreign word, in the 
same mctnner as the Gaelic people of the same island added their 
own nam3, abhainn, to Laxa, the Scandinavicui name of another 
stream in the same island, and made it Abhainn Laghsa. To 
the root ar are to be traced numerous river names in the British 
Isles and on the continent, e.g.. the Ayr, in Cardigan and Ayr- 
shire ; the Arre, in Cornwall ; the Aire and the Are, in Yorkshie; 
the Ajto, in Herefordshire and Warwickshire ; Aru, the name of 
two rivers in Spain ; and the Aray, in Argyllshire. Er and ir 
are names for " water," in some of the non- Aryan languages of 
Central India ; dr and dm are names for " river," in others ; 
and 6ru, in Teluga, in Southern India ; while wr is " water," in 
Basque. Cdrog is an old Welsh name for a brook. Gar is the 
name of a rivulet fidling into the Spey. The Garry is a river of 
Perthshire ; and the Gamoch is a river of Ayrshire ; and there 
are two rivers called Carron, in Scotland. In some of the non- 
Aryan languages of Central India, garra and khar are names for 
" river." Bath is an obsolete name for village. Numerous places 
both in Ireland and Scotland are called rath, to which some 
other word is usually added. Some of the oldest and rudest 
fortifications go by this name. The name seems to be allied to 
the Basque erri, iri, uri, a village or town. Ur, uru, liru, are 
names for village in several of the non- Aryan languages of 
Central and Southern Indiet. It may be objected to Ae words 
of which I have given a list here, that they are perhaps too like 
each other to justify us in inferring that they are of kindred 
origin ; but it would seem that when the words of one language 
are absorbed by another, that they become somewhat petrified, 
and do not change at the same rate as those that naturally 
belong to the language do. Gaelic names, which have for centu- 
ries been introduced into English, have changed but little, while 
in the language to which they originally belong, the change has 
been very great. Angus keeps very close to the old Oengus, 
while the modem Gfidic form of the same name, a^trnghaB, has 
entirely lost the g in pronunciation. The old Graelic of Malcolm, 
Maol-colum, has entirely lost the first part, changed the vowel of 
the second part, and is now Calum. MacDougaU, Mac DhAngaUl, 
has lost the soimd of the g in Gaelic. MuiSloch, MuireacUicfi, 
has lost the d and become Muirea^ch, Patrick, Padruig, has lost 
the d, which was originally t, and become Paruig. Words bor- 

Digitized by 


Langiuige and People. 71 

rowed by Keltic from the languages of the pre- Aryan inhabit 
tants of the British Isles may, I should tUnk, have retained 
their old forms with but slight alteration, and so bear a greater 
resemblance to cognate words in t^e languages of tribes descended 
from peoples of Mndred origin with the pre- Aryan inhabitants of 

The Graelic language at present fringes the west of the British 
Isles, from the north of Sutherland, in Scotland, to the south of 
Kerry, in Ireland. From the north to the south the dialectical 
differences are considerable, but the variation is insensibly gradual, 
and South Kintyre is nearer in language to Antrim than to 
Skye. Kerry men and Sutherland men would at first meeting 
find it difficult to understand one another, but a fortnight or so 
of intercourse would, I should think, enable the men of the 
south to converse freely with those of the north. The digraph 
ao has a peculiar sound in the Scottish Highlands. It is nearly 
the same sound as that of y in numerous Welsh words, such as 
the article y, yr. It bears some resemblance to the sound of e 
in the English word herd, and to that of u in churl. In South 
Kintyre, oo = ai in pain, and it has the same sound in Mimster. 
In ot^er parts of Ireland it sounds like ee in feel. As compared 
with old Irish, the pronunciation of numerous modem Irish 
words deviates more from the mother tongue than that of the 
Scotch Graelic does. The adh in such words aa deanadh, " doing f 
miUeadh, " spoiling ;" tilUadh, " returning," &c., are in modem 
Irish = oo ; but in Scotch Gaelic dh retains its peculiar sound, 
which is S3 gh, a sound like that of g in German words ending 
in berg. In some parts of the Highlands this adh = av, and in 
others it is the same as the Irish. Such verbal nouns as 
beannughadh, " blessing ;" suidhiugJuidh, " placing ;" gearughadh, 
" sharpening," are pronoimoed in two syllables, and the two last 
syllables in all of them are = oo. In Scotch Gfielic the corre- 
sponding words are beannachadh, suidheachadh, geurachadh, which 
are pronounced in three syllables, as old Irish was, ch being 
t= German ch, and dh, as already stated, ;= German g in bei^. 
Old Irish converted ch into g in such verbs 83 intonnaigim, 
''inundate,'" cunuictaigim, "to be able;" dephthigim, "to dis- 
agree," as appears from the adjectives from wMch these verbs are 
formed ; tonnach, " abounding in waves ;" cuma4JU(ich, " power- 
ful ;" dsUhaehy " disagreeing. The ch, which old Irish converts 
into g, and modem Irish into gh, is retained intact in Scotch 
Graelic This fact leads us to infer that old Irish is not direcdy 
the mother tongue of modem Scotch Gaelic, but a sister dialect 
of its mother tongue. Zeuss speaks of there being four roots of 
the substantive verb in Irish, one of which is JU for the present 
tense. From this root JU comes the modem Irish form bh/uilim. 

Digitized by 


72 Hector McLean. — The Scottish HigUatid 

'' am I." The Scotch Gaelic form, am bheil mi, " am I," is evi- 
dently not derived from the old Irish ^, as the north Highland 
form is am heU mi, " am I." Beil is surely derived from hi, " be," 
and would seem to be even an older form than the old Irish 

The negative cha, " not," in Scotch Gaelic and in Manks, takes 
the place of the Irish ni, " not," in negative propositions. Na^h, 
a negative interrogative particle, foimd in modem and ancient 
Irish, as well as in Scotch Gaelic, is compounded of the interro- 
gative particle an and the negative cha, " not." As cha is not 
found in ancient Irish, and the compound interrogative n^ative 
particle nach is, it is clear that Scotch Gfielic and Manks retain 
a word which became obsolete in ancient Irish. 

Adjectives and substantives, with respect to case endings, are 
inflected both in modem Scotch and Irish Gaelic, much alike ; 
the dative plural in ibh and aibh, however, has mostly disap- 
peared in spoken Scotch Gaelic. The nominative plural of jJl 
the substantives in Scotch Gaelic, except that of those that forai 
the plural by changing the radical vowel, ends in n. This is 
a form of the plural rather rare in Irish Gaelic, but frequent in 
Welsh. The synthetic present tense of the indicative has 
entirely disappeared in Scotch Gaelic, and its place is supplied 
by the analytic, which is formed by the siibstantive verb and a 
verbal noun. This may be accoimted for by the future having 
lost its characteristic consonant, f, which rendered it hardly dis- 
tinguishable from the synthetic present. The sound of the 
future f is now lost in Irish pronunciation. The tenses of the 
imperative and conditional only are inflected for number and 
person. The imperative mood in Scotch Gftelic is complete in 
aU the persons singular and plural. The Irish wants the first 
person singular of this mood. The first persons singular and 
plural of the Scotch Gaelic imperative are identical in form with 
the first persons singular and plural of the Irish present indica- 
tive. The Scotch Gaelic has no consuetudinal tense. Its con- 
ditional mood differs a little from the Irish, and is less inflected. 
Neither of the languages has an infinitive or present participle ; 
the place of both these is supplied by prefixing prepositions to 
the verbal nouns, e,g., Deanadh, " doing," Tha e ddeanadh, " he is 
at doing," do dheanadh, " to doing." The sound of English w 
is not found in Scotch Gaelic, but is found in Irish, mh and hh 
having that soimd in this language before a, o, and u. In Scotch 
Gaelic the sound of these digraphs is nearly that of English v in 
all cases. 

The Gaelic language wants a verb corresponding to the English 
" to have," and possession is expressed by the substantive verb 
^and the particle aig, " at ;" e,g,, Tha tigh agam, " I have a house ;" 

Digitized by 


Language and. People. 73 

literally, a house is at me. Tha airgiod aige, he has money ; 
literally, money is at him. There are some phrases that are 
peculiar, such as Tha e' na shlainte, he is in health, literally, he 
is in his health : Thae'na thuathanach, he is a farmer ; literally, 
he is in his farmer. There is but one inflection for the com- 
parison of adjectives, which serves both for comparative and 
superlative, e.g,, Tha e nios cruaidhe, it is harder ; literally, he is 
in that is hardei* : Au rud a*8 crtiaidlie, the hardest thing ; Ute- 
raUy, the thing that is hardest ; Tha lam mos laidire na Teumas, 
John is stronger than James ; literally, John is in his i^ stranger 
dt James. 

That change of initial consonants called by Irish grammarians 
eclipsis, by which the surd consonants are converted into the 
corresponding sonants, b into m, and d and g into n, is not to be 
found in Scotch Gaelic. It is peculiar to middle and modern 
Irish, and is not foimd in the old language. A similar initial 
mutation is to be found in middle and modem Welsh. It is 
very remarkable that although cultivated Irish was chiefly, in 
the middle ages, the written language of the Highlands, and that 
the Highland bards studied the principles of their art in the 
Irish bardic schools, yet this northern Keltic speech I'esisted all 
the influences that tended to produce this peculiar mutation of 
initial consonants. 

There are good groimds for believing that the Caledonii of 
Tacitus are not entirely identical with those of subsequent 
classical writers. Those larger-bodied, ruddy-haired men cannot 
certainly be considered as the ancestors of the black-haired, 
brown-skinned, dark-eyed little people that now abound in so 
many districts of the Highlands, and who so much resemble the 
people of South Wales, the south-west of England, and the west 
and south-west of Ireland. This dark people are evidently 
descendants of races that preceded the tall yellow-haired Kelts. 
There is no reason to think that the Caledonians of Tacitus either 
smeared their skin with woad as the Britons of Julius CaBsar 
did, or punctured it with the figures of various animals, as was 
done by the Picts mentioned by classical writers who wrote 
long after the age of Tacitus. Tacitus was not likely to pass 
over such a strange custom in silence, or several other customs 
peculiar to the Picts, such as community of wives. The Cale- 
donii of Tacitus were armed like the ancient Kelts, with small 
shields and large cutting swords, blunt at the point cmd not fit 
for stabbing. The dagger, which was as indispensable to the 
Highlanders of the middle ages as the broadsword, was wanting. 
In this respect they differed from the contemporary Germans, who 
were armed with the framea, a small pointed sword, and from 
the Caledonea and Picts of writers subsequent to Tacitus, part of 

Digitized by 


74 Hector McLean. — The Scottidi Highland 

whose anus were a dagger and a short spear. The Caledonii of 
Tacitus would appear to have brought their whole force forward 
to fight the Bomans under Mons Grampius. There, after having 
fought bravely, they were completely overthrown and ruined. 
They were evidently the dominant tribe of North Britain, and 
after this defeat it would seem the subject-painted people re- 
gained their independence, and amalgamated on equal terms 
with their former masters. 

In their mode of warfare both Picts and Silures resembled 
the Iberians. They did not engage the Bomans with all their 
force at onpe, but encountered them in guerilla warfare. Accord* 
ing to Polybius the Spaniards were armed with swords made for 
cutting and thrusting ; and from Eoman writers we learn that 
the Picts were armed with daggers and short spears. Strabo 
informs us that the Bomans found it more difiScult to conquer 
the Iberians than the Gauls, owing to their different modes of 
warfare. One battle broke down the Caledonians of Tacitus, 
while the Silures withstood the Boman arms for nine years. The 
Silures were a dark race, like the Iberians; the Caledonians 
resembled the ancient Gauls and Germans. In Ptolemy's time 
the name of Caledonii was confined to a tribe whose territory 
extended from the Beauly firth to Loch Long. This tribe 
bordered on tribes inhabiting that part of Scotland now called 
the West Highlands, and were obviously called Caledonii more 
especially to distinguish them from the tribes west of them, the 
Cruithnigh, Picts, or painted men, who were a commixture of 
several races, pre-Keltic and Keltic, and who latterly conquered 
their conquerors, with whose blood theirs was now commingled. 

The following is Mr. Skene's summary of Tacitus' account of 
the Caledonians ; — 

"He observes one of the peculiar customs of the Britons 
among the Caledonians — the fighting in chariots, which was 
now apparently confined to the ruder tribes of the north ; but 
it is remarkable that he alludes neither to the practice of their 
staining their bodies with woad^ nor to the supposed community 
of women among theuL He shows that, in the wedge-like shape 
attributed to Britain by previous writers, Caledonia was excluded 
as still unknown to them In the language put by the historian 
into the mouth of the Caledonian leader, Calgacus, he implies in 
the strongest manner that the tribes embrac^in the designation 
he usually gives them of inhabitants of Caledonia, were the most 
northerly of the British nations; that no other people dwelt 
beyond them ; that they had neither cultivated lands, mines, nor 
harbours ; and that he knew of no state of society among them 
resembling the promiscuous intercourse of women, as he men- 
tions their children and kinsfolk, their wives and sisters, in lan- 

Digitized by 


Language and People. 75 

goage only consistent with the domestic relation in greater 

Here we have a pnre Aryan people described, free from all the 
non- Aryan customs peculiar to the Picts. The hand-fasting of 
the Highlands, that loose kind of marriage, which James the 
Sixth found so difficult to eradicate, would seem to owe its origin 
to the community of wives that prevailed among the Picts. 
The Picts would seem to have been originally the brachycephal- 
ous people whose remains are found in the round barrows, and 
who were driven westward by pure Kelts in Scotland into the 
mountainous regions of the Western Highlands, the marshy 
plains bordering on the Forth and into Galloway, in Ireland, 
into Connaught, West Munster, and Ulster. Exogamous mar- 
riages converted them into a mixed Keltic people, or, if ori- 
ginally a mixed Keltic people, into a people more Keltic than 
they had previously been. They are always mentioned in old 
Irish writings as Cruithnigh, or painted men, who excelled in 
magic, poetry, and arts, and are distinguished from the Oaedheals 
or Scots, and the Firbolg. In old Welsh writings the Picts of 
Scotland are called Gwyddil Ffichti, a name which implies that 
Uie Picts were a commixture of Gaels and another race ; that, 
in fact, even after the battle of Mons Grampiua two peoples 
were united originally different from one another, the one of 
which were the Caledomi and the other the Picts. The name 
Caledonii is cognate with Celtae and GaediL The primary 
part of the name Celtae is Cel = Oal, as in Galatae and Galli, and 
Cai, as in Caledonii Oal in Irish means kindred ; gaol means 
the same ; and Braihair gaoU signifies one of the same tribe ; 
literally brother of kindred. Oaedal is formed by metathesis 
from Gaelad or Oael dde, a kindred man ; similarly Caledonii is 
resolved into Col or gal, kindred, and donii = ddvne, old Irish 
plural of duiney a man. Caledonii, then, is equivalent to GaidJir- 
eal, the name by which a Scottish Highlander of the present day 
calls himself, the modem Irish form of which is Oaoidheal, the 
name by which an Irishman calls himself in his native language. 
Had all the Picts whose name was changed into Scots in the 
twelfth century, been Cruithnigh, it is not likely that aU the 
people of the Scottish Highlands, in fact all the Gaelic speaking 
people of Scotland, who in the tenth century extended to the 
German Ocean, woidd have adopted a name peculiar to an Irish 
people who settled in Argyllshire, and were comparatively small 
in numbers. The name of Gael was not, therefore, introduced 
by the Dabriadic Scots, but was the name of the descendants of 
the pure Caledonii in the north-east of Scotland before their 
kinsmen, the Scots of the west, had acquired ascendancy over 
the Picts. The name Calgacus is purely Gadhelic, and is de- 

Digitized by 


76 Hector McLean. — The Scottish Highland 

rived from codg, an old Irish name for sword. Calgacus, there- 
fore, means swordsman or warrior, and is the same name as the 
old Irish name Golgach, Vacomagi means " sons or men of the 
plains." It is formed from Vaco = Gaelic /aicAe, a " plain," and 
mag = mac, " son." Horestii denotes the " men of the east," and 
is derived from Hor = Gaelic oir or h-oir, " the east." 

The Caledonii of Tacitus would seem to have been a more 
recent body of Keltic immigrants than the southern Britons, and 
to have come across the German Ocean ; probably from the 
Cimbric Chersonese or modem Jutland into the north-east of 
Scotland. The colonisation of Britain by Kelts was in all likeli- 
hood progressive, as was the case with the Angles and Saxons 
and lasted for some centuries. The pre- Aryan population was 
driven westward, as happened at a subsequent period to the 
Britons, and the pre-Aryan languages were supplanted by the 
Keltic as the British was by the Anglo-Saxon. 

Throughout the Scottish Highlands the ethnologist observes 
that a large portion of the population is dark-skinned, dark- 
haired, and grey-eyed, dark-eyed, and small in stature. In these 
respects the Highland people bear a strong resemblance to the 
Welsh, the south-western English, the western and south- 
western Irish. The dark population does not seem, by any 
means, to be homogeneous, but would appear to be a commixture 
of several races. A dolichocephalous skull is the more frequent 
among them, although round heads are not rare. One type is 
to be observed with straight profile and rather flat forehead, 
somewhat like the Basque ; a prognathous type, with prominent 
eyebrows and receding chin, is frequent. These types are occa- 
sionally found with flaxen, red, and yellow hair. A type is to 
be met with long head, long oval face, eyes various, and com- 
plexion varying from fair to dark Person rather slender ; often 
tall. This type I would call characteristically Keltic. Children 
are to be seen with flaxen hair and dark eye lashes. The hair 
of these children as they grow up darkens and becomes dark 
brown, and sometimes even black. These various types are 
found in the same family, derived fix)m father and mother with- 
out producing intermediate ones. Members of the same family 
are also found alternately flaxen-haired and black-haired, flaxen- 
haired and red-haired, black-haired and yellow-haired. I have 
found bright red hair and light red hair alternate in the same 
family. One brother had a long head, a long face, brown com- 
plexion and bright red hair, the other a round head, round face, 
light red hair, and a florid complexion. I have fi^uently found 
the occipital protuburance large in the heads of men of the Scan- 
dinavian type that I examined. I found this also to be the case 
in the head of a fair Icelander ; the only Icelander whose head 

Digitized by 


Language and People. 77 

I examined. I have found in many fair Highlanders the portion 
of the backhead joining the neck broad and flat, and, in long- 
headed dark Highlanders, that part flat, and the part imme- 
diately above it remarkably prominent. 

Bright red or bright yellow hair is not frequent in the Hebri- 
des, light red and light yellow hair abound, passing through 
several shades of yellowish and reddish-brown into reddish and 
yellowish dark-brown. In Islay the complexion varies from 
sallow to fair. The most frequent colour of hair is reddish- 
brown ; the most frequent colour of the eyes is grey and bluish- 
grey. In the south-west of Islay fair and sandy hair, accom- 
panied by a fair complexion, prevails. In Colonsay fair and 
sandy hair is frequent, and the complexion is usually fair. In 
Jura lithe men with dark hair, dark eyes, dark complexions, and 
oval faces strongly attract the attention of the ethnological 
observer. In Barra the people have usually dark and brown 
complexions, and the colour of the hair is reddish-brown, dark 
reddish-brown, and black. Very fair persons, however, are to 
be seen. In the little island of Minglay, two types struck my 
attention when I visited it sixteen years ago. The one had fair 
hair and a very clear skin, square face and head, and a fall 
round chest. The other was lithe in form, with dark complexion, 
long oval face, long arched eyebrows, long high head, and light 
grey eyes. I met with this type occasionally throughout tlie 
whole of the long island, and everywhere in those paints of the 
Highlands which I have visited. In South Uist and Benbecula 
dark hair, dark and grey eyes, and dark complexions predomi- 
nate. In the west of Sky, about Dimvegan, the people are fair 
haired and clear- skinned, and evidently belong chiefly to the 
Scandinavian race. In Stomoway the frequency of tall and fair 
persons strongly attracted my attention, and I was astonished at 
the number of tall and fair natives of Harris that I met at 
various places. 

It is evident that the racial characteristics of the people of 
the West Highlands, especially of the Western Isles and of the 
coast line, have been materially altered by the Norwegian occu- 
pation which commenced in the eighth century and ended in 
the thirteenth after the battle of Largs. I have looked at 
Danish, Swedish, and Norwegian sailors in the island of Islay 
side by side with Highlanders, and was surprised at the close 
resemblance that the former bore to the fair portion of the 
latter. I have been equally surprised at the close resemblance 
that a French crew bore to dark Highlanders seen along with 

Local names of Norse origin are to be found in all the isles 
and all along the coaat line. In Islay names of Norse origin 

Digitized by 


78 Diaemsion. 

constitute one half of the names of places, and in Lewis pro^ 
bably a great deal more than one-half. Some personal names 
are of Norse origin, which are at present frequent in the High- 
lands, such as Torquil, Tormod = Thormund, Anglicised Nor*- 
man. Somhairle = Somerled, Anglicised Samuel, and Eaonailt 
= Baginhilda, Anglicised BacheL Careful research, I have no 
doubt, would find numerous words of Norse origin in Irish, 
Scotch, Gaelic, and Manks. The Norse word for " neighbour " 
has supplanted the Gaelic name, eoimhearsnach in North High* 
land, Gaelic, and in Manks. In the former it has taken the 
form nabuidh, and in the latter naboo. Danish, nabo. 

Fir GaUliain or Gailiun, one of the names of the Fir bolg, 
brings us back to the stone period. Gaillian means a " dart," 
but literally, a " stone dart," and is derived from gath, a " spear," 
" dart," or " arrow," and lith, a " stone." Old Gaelic teaditiona 
frequently mention a weapcoi named gaih huilg, " bag dart." A 
variant of the story of Conlach and Guchullin relate that these 
two, father and son, fought one another with this weapon, which 
was thrown from the hand. The Fir bolg, or men of bags, or 
quivers, were evidently so called because they carried quivers, 
and were armed with this weapon. GcUk bolg and bolg-saighead 
are Gaelic names for quiver. The other name Fir Domhnon 
would seem to come from dumh, a " moimd," and those earth- 
works called ratha are usually attributed to the Fir bolg. Dam 
and dum in Dumnonii and Damnonii are evidently forms of 
dumb, a mound, and hence damnonii, dumnonii, and Fir Domh- 
non, as names which signify mound builders. 

The Scottish Highlanders of the present day are a commix- 
ture of several races, Keltic and Scandinavian, and it would 
seem to me that the pre-£eltic races could not have been fewer 
than three or four. 


In the discussion on the above paper Mr. Htds Clabke observed, 
that the zeal of the Celtic enquirers had brought to light many 
points of resemblance between their languages and those of other 
parts of the world. In the last century the Rev. Hugh Rowlands, 
m his Mona Antiqua, produced a list of 1,000 Hebrew analogues. 
At the British Association a paper was reskd on Polynesian confer* 
mities. The Rev. Professor John Campbell, now of Montreal, has 
illastrated these relations from Peruvian. Some of these approxi- 
mations were fanciful, some casual, but others were true ; because 
Celtic, like Sanskrit, is derived by development from the prehis- 
toric stock. They consequently deserve more attention than they 
have received, because the observation of these points will enable 
us in time to account for many of the phenomena of the Indo- 
European family for instance. There can now be no reasonable 

Digitized by 


Discussion, 79 

doubt that there were Bamenans in these islands, as elsewhere 
in Europe. As an illostration of these pr^istonc peculiarities in 
Celtic, it is worth while putting on record the observations of 
Professor Campbell, the learned explorer of the genealogies and 
chronology of the Bible. Prof. Campbell informs me that oat of 
95 words in my Peruvian vocabulary (** Prehistoric Comparative 
Philology," p. 64) he has found well-defined Celtic equivalents for 
above 70. He says 

"I connect the Aymara Stonehenge of Tiohuanaci with the 
Cymric Stonehenge of Emrys or Ambrosias. The point where 
Cymri and Aymara diverged north and west was Mauretania. 
There we find Gumeri, speakers of the Aquel Amazig, Ait Amor 
or Zimuhr, Pritchard's Celtic Cambrians. They became the 
Cimbri of Spain, and the namers of Gomera, Pliny's Ombrios, in 
the Canary Islands. Eivero Tschudi (chap. 2), connect the 
•Canary Islanders and the Aymaras physically, and by their 
customs. Flattened crania are found among the Celts. The 
Canary Islanders and the Berbers (Ait Amor, &c.) are the same 
peopla Their vocabulary is fundamentally Celtic, like that of 
the Aymaras. The Berbers are the Accad and Armenian Burbur. 
All (Aymaras included) are mountaineers. But the Berbers 
came firom Barbaria in Ethiopia. See Pliny, Strabo, Leo Afri- 
canus and Arabian authorities on Maghrib. There we have 
Amharas in your Danakil region. Nearer Egypt were Sembritae 
and Zeniris (Ait Zimuhr). The Amhara came from Himyarite 
Arabia, which is also the region of Pliny's Zamareni. All 
Himyarite culture and worship connects with Chaldsea. It was 
original in Chaldsea, not in Arabia. The Semtscritse are the same 
people, but were never in Arabia. Psammetichus placed these 
invaders of his northern coast as a barrier against Ethiopia. 
Semtscritse and Himyarites (not Sabacans, who are distinct) came 
perhaps through Pjdestine from Armenia, the Burbur region, 
which Mr. Boscawen (Trans. Soc. Bib. Archoeol., vol. iv, p. 293) 
connects with Gimirrai or Cimmerii. There is PHn/s Zimara. 
These, again, are the Zimri of the inscriptions, whose home was 
among the mountains of south-western Media. To this point 
they came from southern Assyria, about Hamra and the Hamran 
HiUs. They were then known as the Khamri and Khamarani. 
Their original home was either in the Hymer district about 
Babylon, or at Gomoreck, further south. Hammurali was their 
great ancestor, and he is the Zimran of my second paper on the 
Celts. There, also, we find the first Burbur race. Stonehenges 
in Ajabia, Media, &c., connect the people archasologically. In 
Accad, Danakil, and Aymara you have connected tiiem philo- 
logically. Add my Celtic connection, which I think the under- 
lined words will at least bear out. Try Berber. I have no 

Digitized by 




vocaublary, but here are a few words : — ^Tahuyat = covering, 
Welsh toad ; Amen, water, Erse amhan, river ; Athraar, Iddra, 
mountain, Gaelic torr ; Ahoren barley, Gaelic coma ; Ana, sheep, 
Celtic uan, oen, wyn, lamb ; Bukul, earthen pot, Erse bachla, a 
cup; Akfic, head, Erse cab, Welsh copa; Tigameen, houses, 
Gaelic tighean ; Tigarer, a place of justice, and Tigotan, heavens, 
are compounded of the same word. Had I a good vocabulary I 
do not doubt that the Berber would come very close to the 
Aymara. The Cymri were, I think, older than the Celts proper, 
at least as British colonists. Some of the words in your vo- 
cabulary that do not coincide with the Celtic do with the Latin 
(kkollo, collis), perhaps through Umbrian, which is Celtic, and 
with the Germanic (kkollo, kiigel; lappi, lamb; socco, A. S. 
suacga). The Cymri were the African branch of the Zimri, the 
Cimbri the European. Semitic roots appear, ucuichua cuspi, 
flies is the Semitic Zebub : Aymara lupi, sim is Semitic lahab. 
Himyaritic gives these and Aiaharic stages." 

Comparative Vocabulary : Peruvian and Celtic, 









— . 


»» • 











WomAn . 






»> • 


nuunni muireauy muirui 



H<»d . 



fei^he (top) 




»» • 


socca J 






dkanu cionnacha^ cainsi 















Mouth . 





it * 






Tooth . 









caemh (love) 



Hand . 




Haw, deanlaw 

tuthal (left hand) toiageal 

(right hand) 




caSf cos 

caa, COS. 


»> • 







. A.andQ. 








guar^ guairche 



» • 



leabthach (bedding ! of a 

kins) — 


. A.andQ. 


ion, ong 









»i • 



eac, eag, easga 











ur (sun) 




. A and Q. 


an, ain, ong 



Water . 

. A.andQ. 





f» • 



ean, an 









Digitized by 





Ebsb. Gablic. 



. A. and Q. 


dach, doch daoh, doch 





geag (branch) — 


>» • 



^uia — 





lag, lagau (cavity) 




uta, ata aii, aitcat, aUne^ tigh 


rt • 

. A. and Q. 


bocan, hmait — 

Sheep . 



caera caora 





uan uan 

ocu, wyn 




pocy hoc — 


Dog . 


anakara cu-cunaich (spaniel) — 


»> • 



callafl — 





nathcdr . nathair 




eigne, cagna — 


Good . 



seag (beauty) — 


Bitter . 



garu geur 





ceomhar (dark) — 



. A. and Q. 

ohu, ku 

base - 



. A. and Q. 

aacoadh (gift) — 





— — 





— — 



. A.andQ. 


cime imich 





— aithris 


»» • 



reim (call) reicim (tell) 




man manchaine 





samh meath 

gmado, masu 




gutach sgath egad 





cigim — 


Place . 



cuirim, creas — 





— — dwyre, dyddwyre 





»» • 




cia (cacb) — 





cha*n cha'n 





me mi 





tu thu 





— — 


ft * 



neach — 

— . 

Plural . 


gon — 


NOM . 


cenca, cinga cuinean (norteU) cuinean 





abuigh abuich 

— . 



— — 




meacan meas 




— laogh (calf) 




— currag 




— — 




coisein — 



coill ooille 




— fras 




unga — 




— oorm 



. Q. 


rogmhar — 


The meeting then separated. 

* Leaf — tongue, H.C. 


Digitized by 


82 List of PremUn. 

March 27th, 1877. 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.E.S., l^e-Fresidmt, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The following new member was announced : Capt. W. 
Samuells, Bengal Stafif Corps. 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective donors for the same. 

Foe the Libraet. 

From the Institution. — 59th Annual Report of the Royal Institu- 
tion of Cornwall, 1877. 

From the Author. — On the Peopling of America. By A. R. Grote, 

From Hyde Clarke, Esq. — The Eastern Origin of the Celts. By 
John Campbell, M.A. 

From the Society. — Transactions of the Asiatic Society of Japan. 
Vol. 17. 

From the Society. — Bulletin of the Buffalo Society of Natural 
Science. Vol. IH. No. 4 

From the Academy. — ^Atti della R. Accademia dei Idneei. Vol. I. 
No. 3, 1877. 

From the Authob. — Select Plants for Industrial Culture or Na- 
turalisation in Victoria, 1876. By Baron Fred. Von Miiller. 

From the Society. — Bulletin de la Soci6t6 Imperiale de Naturalistes 
de Moscow. No. 3, 1876. 

From the Editoe. — ^Archiv fiir Anthropologic. Neunter Band, 
Viertes Vierteljahrshaft, 1877. 

From the Editor. — ^Revue Scientifique. Nos. 38 and 39, 1877. 

From the Author. — L'et^ della pietra nelle province Napoletane ; 
Scoperte pre-istoriche nella Basilicata e nella Capitanata ; Ulte- 
riori Scoperte relative all' eta pietra nelle provincie napoletane ; 
Nuove scoperte pre-istoriche nelle provincie napolitane. By 
Prof. G. Nicolucci. 

From the Author. — Etud6s Paleoethnologiques dans la Bassin du 
Rhone. By Ernest Chantre, Hon. M.A.I. 

It was announced that the Council had voted special thanks 
on behalf of the Institute to M. Chantre, for his present " Age 
de Bronze." 

The following papers were read by the Directors : — 

Digitized by 


HoDDER M. Westropp.— Oti a " Kitchen Midden;' etc. 83 

On a " Kitchen Midden " at Ventnor. By Mr. Hodder M. 


In excavating for the foundation of a house at Gik Cliff, near 
Ventnor, a latchen midden was lately discovered. In it were 
found several fragments of pottery, bones, and shells. A fine 
example of a stone-hammer, or more probably a corn crusher, 
was dso foimd. It is 8 inches long, with a circular indentation 
in the centre. In shape it exactly resembles those found in 
Scandinavia and in Yorkshire, and as figured in Wilson's "Stone 
Age," and in Evans' " Ancient Stone Implements/' Higher up 
the cliff, the remains of a fireplace and a kitchen midden occur. 
Among the remains of the fireplace were found a large quantity 
of charcoal, and some large stones exhibiting deep traces of the 
action of fire, together with a number of small round pebbles. 
In close proximity to this fireplace was the kitchen midden, or 
refuse heap, where were found nimibers of limpet shells, oyster 
shells, cocldes, &c., thickly massed together ; and in conjunction 
with these were several bones of the ox, sheep, pig, &c. Inter- 
mingled in this heap were fragments of pottery of Eoman and 
Komano-British manufacture. Two rubbing stones also turned 
up. Several nodules of iron pyrites were also met with, evi- 
dently used, as Mr. Evans has suggested, for striking fire. The 
most remarkable find in this kitchen midden was a small cinerary 
um, five inches in width, nearly perfect. It is of an imusual 
shape, and presents a peciiliar and very rare style of ornamenta- 
tion, consisting of a band of coralline seaweed round it. A frag- 
ment of another um was also found presenting the same orna- 
mentation. Another kitchen midden was discovered some years 
ago, on making the new entrance to Steephill Castle. It con- 
sisted of heaps of limpet shells, intermingled with fragments 
of rude pottery, and the bones and horns of the ox. It is, doubt- 
less, of a very early period, and of a very rude and primitive 
age, as the pottery found in it is very rude and coarse, the orna- 
mentation being done by laying a string on the wet clay. From 
the marked difference of the pottery found in the kitchen middens 
near Ventnor, they evidently belong to different periods, sepa- 
rated by a wide interval of time. The pottery found in Gil's 
Cliff must be of a later date, as it is of a veiy fine clay, and of 
a black colour, while the ornamentation is very elaborate, and 
carefully traced in diagonals with a stick on the wet clay. Evi- 
dence .of a Boman period appears in the kitchen middens in 
Gil's Cliff, as Samian ware, and pottery of a very fine clay and 
of a dark red colour are found in them. The nide fragments of 

G 2 

Digitized by 


84 Edward Laws. — On a " Kitclien Midden " 

pottery near Steephill Castle evidently belong to the stone age, 
while those on Gil's Cliflf appear to be of the bronze age. Traces 
of several other kitchen middens occur near Ventnor. In digging 
for graves in the churchyard of the old church at Bonchurch, 
heaps of periwinkles and Umpet shells are turned up, evidently 
the remains of kitchen middens ; the tusk of a wild boar was 
also found there. Another was observed near the Ventnor 
railway station. Intermixed with oyster shells were a number 
of sheep's bones ; a human jaw bone of large size was also found, 
evidently belonging to some gigantic savage of primitive times. 
Traces of a rude kitchen were discovered at Underwath, about 
a mile and a half from Ventnor. A large stone was found ovei 
a heap of charcoal and ashes. The food to be cooked was placed 
on the heated stone, as done by the Australians and other savages 
of the present day. 

On a'* KrrcHEN Midden " found in a cave near Tenby, Pem- 
brokeshire, arid EXPLORED hy WiLMOT Power, M.R.C.S.E. 
By Edward Laws, late 35th Regt., Jan., 1876. 

There is in the limestone rock, about two miles inland from 
Tenby, a well-known bone cave called Hoyle's mouth, christened, 
I fancy, after a Flemish family, for though the name has disap- 
peared in South Pembrokeshire, I am informed it still exists in 
Cumberland, the site of the first colony from Flanders which 
was removed to West Wales in the 12th century by Henry First. 
Many scientific (and unfortunately, also, unscientific) folks have 
dug in this cavern. Among the former, Mr. Smith, rector of 
Gumfreston, has been the most successful 

He has found hyaena crocuta, ursus spelseus, rhinoceros ticho- 
rinus, cervus terandus, cervus elephas, equus spelseus. Human 
bones, the remains of domestic animals, chips of flint, and a re- 
markable homstone, copper coins of George Third, and an old 

What renders this medley the more confusing is that the 
objects were mingled together, and not distributed in layers as 
in the more fortunate caves. However, although the upper 
strata has been ransacked, there are, no doubt, treasures still 
to be found in the virgin breccia of some of the inner chambers. 

I dug for several days in this cave, and objects turned up, but 
they were evidently the overlooked leavings of others, and, 
having been displaced, appeared to me to be worthless. • 

So I determined to try another cave nearer to Tenby, and 
known as the " Little Hoyle," or " Longbury Bank.*' At first 

Digitized by 


found in a Cave near Tenby, tic, 85 

sight the latter name is suggestive of burial, but we must re- 
member that this appellation, not being Keltic, must have been 
given subsequently to the year 1100. For, so far as I can find, 
no Welsh traditions are embodied in the English nomenclature 
of South Pembrokeshire, and when we find that " bury " is used 
in this county to signify a fox-earth as well as a rabbit-hole, I 
think the fact that Long bury is a celebrated breeding-place for 
these animals, and that there are entrances to the earths on 
both sides of the rock which appear to communicate, will 
account for the derivation of the name. This I am the more 
anxious to trace, as competent persons have thought that this 
cave has been used for sepulchral purposes, a conclusion in 
which I cannot concur. 

Speaking of this place in " Cave Hunting/' Professor Boyd 
Dawkins says, " It was explored by the Rev. H. Winwood in 
1866, who found in it the remains of bos longifrons, goat, badger, 
and dog, as well as oyster and large limpet and mussel-shells. 
Some of the bones are burned. Several human vertebrae, and a 
metacarpal, probable traces of an interment of imknown date, 
and two flint flakes of uncertain age." He adds, " It was inha- 
bited in historic times, since it contained fine-grained pottery of 
the kind usually found in the ruins of Roman villas." 

When Mr. Power and myself began our operations in January 
last, it was quite apparent what portions of the cave had been 
explored, and what were untampered with. For, though owing 
to the dryness of the place, there is no stalagmite, yet a certain 
amount of surface-water, filtering through the roof, runs down 
the walls, and has cemented the angular fragments of limestone 
with bones and shells into a breccia, which, when the rubble 
and soil were removed, stood out like shelves or brackets from 
the sides ; in some places nearly meeting in the middle, and so 
rendering it impossible to work near the sides without partially 
destroying them. 

Under these shelves of breccia, and at depths varying from 
two to five feet below the uppermost, we found the remains of at 
least six human beings, bones of oxen, goat, sheep (?), horse, dog, 
swine, roebuck, shells of oyster, limpet, mussel, cockle, whelk, 
periwinkle, two fragments of coarse pottery, a bone needle, a 
portion of another bone instrument, a fine homstone scraper, 
formed of the same green stone, flakes of which were found in 
the Hoyle by Mr. Smith, a water-worn sandstone, about eight 
inches long, which, from its shape and the bruises on it, would 
seem to have been used as a hammer, several flint flakes, several 
water- worn sandstones, both red and grey, two ironstones, and 
several white water- worn quartz pebbles. 

These various substances, with the exception of the scraper 

Digitized by 


86 Edward Laws. — On a *' Kitchen Midden*' 

and needle, were contained in two different heaps of black vege- 
table mould, mixed with broken shells, bones, and angular frag- 
ments of limestone. 

The needle and the scraper were on the surface of the cLay 
immediately underlying the outskirts of the larger heap, and 
near where Mr. Win wood had previously dug ; not far from these, 
and also on the surface of the clay, there was a small deposit of 
charcoal. After removing the refuse-heap, another opening to 
the cave was revealed, leading into a depression, or roofless 

We found, on digging in this outside pit, a sort of path, almost 
paved with shells, and leading up to the surface of tiie field ; 
near to the top of this path there was a piece of iron alag and a 
considerable fragment of a Roman patera, simUar, I suppose, 
to that found by Mr. Winwood on the surface of the breccia, 
but very different to those dug from the middle of the heap 
by us. 

Now, as regards the objects accumulated in the midden. 

With scarcely an exception the bones were broken, and in no 
instance were they in position as they would occur after burial. 
On at least one there are the marks of a cutting instrument 
(vertebra of bos), many are spUt, and some burnt. But none, 
so far as I coiild see, were marked with teeth scores. 

The bones of man and beast were mixed up in a confused 
heap with shells, stones, black earth, and pottery in a sort of 
hotch-potch. The impression left on my mind is that these 
bones were all broken by man for food, 

A few words as regards the reniains themselves. 

Tlie ox bones have belonged to many indivi4uals, and were, 
without exception. Bos longifrons. This is the more interesting, 
as the modem Pembrokeshire cattle have been pronounced by 
Messrs. Darwin and Riitimeyer to be one of the 4omestic types 
which are in direct descent from Bos primigenius. I have, in 
my possession, some oxen's skulls, which were dug up in the 
town of Tenby, together with a poin of Vespasian, these are, 
some of them, Bos longifrons, but others resemble the modern 
Castlemartin oxen of Pembrokeshire. The bones clearly dis- 
tinguishable as goat are small. 

Those which may be sheep or goat would be about the size of 
the modern Welsh mutton. 

The dog, of which there are portions of several individuals 
(a perfect cranium being one of the few unbroken bones), must 
have been a formidable beast. 

I compared the head with the skull of a very large St. Ber- 
nard, and the cave dog was the bigger of the two. 

The swine, also, were very large, perhaps the ancestors of our 

Digitized by 


found in a Cave near Tenby ^ etc. 87 

modem Welsh pigs, which are sometimes as big as a small 
donkey, with ears like a newspaper. Or, peradventure, they 
may have resembled the old Irish greyhound breed which had 
wattles under the chin. 

Of the horse, there are but slight remains, and not of more 
than one individual ; it seems to me to have been a pony of 
about fourteen hands. 

Of the roebuck, there is but one horn. 

Fox, badger, polecat, hare, rabbit, and bird bones, were, also, 
present on the outskirts of the heap ; but these I put no trust 
in, thinking them to be recent. 

There were a very great quantity of oyster and limpet shells, 
many marked with fire, but some of the former unopened. 

The other shells, altogether, did not amount to a dozen speci- 
mens. The two fragments of pottery were very rough, and 
totally different from the Boman ware found above-ground. 
They seem to have been turned on a wheel, and one is marked 
with latitudinal lines. 

The needle is a beautifully perfect in^plenient, 3i inches 
long, with an eye, it would seem, to have been cut Irom the 
shin-bone of an ox, and nicely polished. The broken imple- 
ment may, I think, have been a borer, but this is only con- 

The scraper is chipped out of the same green honx stone, nu- 
merous flakes of which were fouiid in the Hoyle by Mr. Smith. 

The chips are of ordinary flint. 

The human remains consist of the lower jaw-bone of a person 
in the prime of life, the right squamosal of a skull, and an atlas. 

These were taken from the outskirt of the heap, and near the 
spot whence I fancy Mr. Winwood dug the vertebrae in 1866. 

From out of the heap itself (the skulls, generally, being low, 
the other bones scattered all through), were taken, the portion 
of a lower jaw, the wisdom-tooth not being cut. Two others in 
the prime of life, and two older jaws. The teeth were aU worn 
on the outer edge, slightly in the younger, and very much in 
the older ones. 

I also found scattered fragments of a dolicocephalic slaiU, 
which I have pieced together so as to make the cranium nearly 
perfect fix)m the superciliary ridge? to the occiput ; there were, 
also, fragments of other skulls (form unknown). Two astra- 
gali, right and left (very small), first phalanx of a little finger 
(very small), heads of three femurs, end of right humerus and 
fragment of shaft of humerus, head of left ulna, and piece of 
left clavicle. 

From comparison with recent bones, it will be seen at a 
glance that these remains must have belonged to a very small 

Digitized by 


88 Edward Laws. — Oii a " Kitchen Midden;' etc. 

people ; and as both Kelt and Scandinavian were a large-boned 
people, the former being also brachycephalic, I would venture 
to suggest that in this cave we may have found the dwelling- 
place of an allophyllian people, perhaps members of that Iberian 
tribe whom the Romans found established in South Wales, and 
whom the Welsh called Gwyddels or wild men of the woods, 
and afterwards seem to have confounded with their own Gad- 
helic cousins. 

Judging from what we find in this cave, they were unac- 
quainted with the use of metal, but turned pottery on a wheel. 
They were herdsmen, having oxen, goats, sheep (?), pigs, and for 
the protection of themselves and their flocks they kept a large 
breed of dogs ; and that these beasts did sharp service on occa- 
sion may be seen from the marks of a severe wound on the 
canine skull which I discovered. 

The only hunting trophy found in this cave was a roebuck's 
horn ; without, indeed, the horse was a beast of chase. 

But in an adjoining cave were brown bear teeth and bones, 
with the remains of man, ox, sheep or goat, dog, swine, and a 
flint flake. 

Our troglodytes would seem to have been longshore fisher- 
men, and greatly to have preferred oysters and limpets to other 

With regard to the charge of cannibalism I have brought 
against this people, it must be remembered that Diodorus, on 
hearsay evidence, declares that the Britanni of Iriu were an- 
thropophagi. History and tradition both continually associate 
Southern Ireland and South- West Wales. 

Formerly the base of the limestone rock in which these caves 
are placed, must have been washed by the sea ; but it has been 
expelled by several concurrent causes. 

First and chief, the gradual uplifting of the land, which is 
shown by an old beach raised some dozen feet above high- water 
mark. A very good specimen of this old shore may be seen 
above Merlin's Cave, on the South Sands, Tenby. Fragments 
of it also exist near the limestone quarries on Giltar Head. 

Secondly by drift sand which continues to accumulate to a 
great extent on the neighbouring burrows. 

Thirdly, by alluvial deposit. Just under the Longberry Bank, 
there are brickworks, and the proprietor informs me that under 
ten feet of clay (exactly resembling that found by me in the 
second cave I mentioned), he comes to sea-sand and shells. 

Fourthly, by man. Two embankments have been made at 
different times for the purpose of reclamation, and lately a rail- 
way bank has been added to the defences. 

That the diflerence in level has been in progress during recent 

Digitized by 


Dr. Crochley Clapham. — On the Brainiceiyhts, etc. 89 

years is ako proved by some ruined cottages of the kind called 
Flemish. These are known as " Old Quay," though they are 
now at least two miles from the sea. 


In the discussion on the above papers, Mr. Moggbidge said : 
Kitchen middens are still forming. One that occurs to me at this 
moment is within sight of Tenby, but on the eastern side of the bay 
at the village of Penclawd, in Gower. Its inhabitants live chiefly 
on the produce of the sea; and shells (especially those of the 
cookie) with other refuse accumulate, forming a large and growing 

As the caverns near Tenby and the remains found therein were 
spoken of in the paper, I may mention that the peninsula of Gower 
affords numerous caves rich in the bones of Ursus spelasus and 
others of those animals known as the " extinct." At the explora- 
tion of some of these I assisted : perhaps the most satisfactory was 
Bacon Hole (so called from a stalactitic mass resembling a ham), 
because Ve had here a continuous floor of stalagmite averaging 14 
inches in thickness ; stamping with considerable antiquity all that 
was found beneath it. 

The following paper was then read : — 

On, the Brain WEIGHTS of some Chinese and Pelew Islandehs. 
By Dr. Crochley Clapham. 

In a paper which I wrote some time ago on the Weight of the 
Brain in the Insane (WestEiding Asylum Eeport, vol. iii, 1873), 
I showed that the mere weight of the brain in this class of 
patients was fully equal to, if not greater than, that obtaining 
amongst sane individuals of all classes outside asylum practice. 

From the facts which presented themselves to my notice 
whilst engaged in the above researches, I was induced to adopt 
Wagner's conclusion that " superiority of size of brain cannot 
be regarded as a constant accompaniment of superiority of in- 
tellect," and I am now prepared to present some further iDus- 
trations of the truth of this conclusion. 

In the paper above referred to, I showed that the weight of 
the encephalon in 716 cases of insanity, of all ages and both 
sexes, was 46285 ounces avoirdupois ; for males alone 48149 
oz., and for females alone 43*872 oz. ; with a male maximum of 
61 ounces and a female maximum of 56 ounces. These figures 
are higher than those deduced by Dr. Robert Boyd from an 
examination of 2,086 sane brains (Philosophical Transactions, 
1860). I may state here that my tables now include 1,200 in- 

Digitized by 



Dr. Crochley Clapham. — On the Brainweights of 

sane brains, and that the previous estimate is not afifected by the 
addition. The remaining 484 brainweights will be published at 
an early date. 

The above figures relating to the insane have considerable 
significance, when taken in connection with the fact that all the 
cases were drawn from the pauper, and therefore presumably the 
least intellectual, stratum of society. 

The cases I have now to advance comprise 16 Chinese, 4 
Pelew Islanders, and one Bengalee constable, whose brains I 
weighed with much care, eliminating as far as possible all ele- 
ments of fallacy, the ventricles being tapped and the brain sub- 
stance allowed thoroughly to drain itself before being placed on 
the scales. Of the 16 Chinese 15 were victims to the fury of 
the great Typhoon which raged in Hong-Kong September 22- 
23, 1874, and the remaining one was the celebrated " Spark " 
pirate who was executed about the same time. Five were 
females and eleven males, and with the exception of one indi- 
vidual, they all belonged to the " Coolie " or lowest ^rade of 
Chinese society. 

On account of the excitement consequent on the state of 
Hong-Kong after the typhoon, I was unable to get any particu- 
lars as to age, and had to judge to the best of my ability from 
the appearance of each individual as to his or her probable age, 
which must therefore be taken as only an approximation to the 

The following is a table of the weights (Chinese brains) : — 































































s * 





















From the foregoing table I gather that the average weight of 
the encephalon in the 16 cases (men and women) was 48*890, 

&c., ounces ; for men alone 50*45 ounces, and for women alone 
45*45 ounces, with a male maximum brain of 56 ounces, and a 
female maximum brain of 49 ounces. 

The cerebellum, pons varolii and medulla oblongata, which are 
represented in the table by the letters C P and M, were weighed 

Digitized by 


soTTie Chinese and Felew Islafidcrs, 


together in each case and show an average, for the sixteen, of 

5*796, &c., ounces ; for males alone 5*90 ounces, and for females 
alone 5*55 ounces. 

An average taken of the ascribed ages shows a male average 

of 38*72 years, and a female average of 36*4 years. 

The average proportion which the cerebellum, pons, and 
medulla bear to the encephalon is in the case of males as 1 is 
to 8*538, and in the case of females as 1 to 8189. 

The Felew Islanders whose brains I examined, were four out 
of a canoeful of these people who were driven out to sea whilst 
fishing, and having lost their reckoning were picked up in a 
starving condition by a passing vessel and brought to Hong- 
Kong. They were taken care of by the Government, and the 
survivors ultimately returned to their homes. In the meantime 
the ones in whom we are interested died in the Government 
Civil Hospital, and were subjected by me to careful post-mortem 
examination. They were all males, and all died of pulmonary 





















This table furnishes an average encephalon of 49*375 ounces, 
and a C. P. and Af. average of 5*875 ounces for an average age 
of 33*25 years. 

The ratio of the C, P. and M. to the encephalon is as 1 to 

The Bengalee constable had an encephalon of 54 ounces, and 
C. P. and M. of 6J ounces, which is in the proportion of 1 to 8. 

Judged by the popular standard of weight of brain for wealtli 
of wit, these people should all have been possessed of superior 
intellectual powers. The Chinese males should have been at 
least Mandarins, and the Pelew Islanders should surely have 
held high posts in the government of the limited kingdom of 
Pelew. But upon examining the brains more carefully, the 
solution of the problem involved in the want of correspondence 
between the capacity of the skull and capacity of intellect was 
at once rendered apparent. The primary convolutions of the 
cerebrum were too well defined, there being a marked deficiency 
in the number and depth of the secondary gyri, and an almost 
Simian symmetry of the two hemispheres — this was especially 
the case in the Pelew brains. In other respects the brains were 

Digitized by 


92 Dr. Crochley Clapham. — On the Brainweights, etc, 

fairly developed, the frontal lobes projecting anteriorly well be- 
yond the olfactory bulbs, and the occipital lobes covering the 
cerebellum. In the Pelews, however, the tempero-sphenoidal 
lobes were rather short, and the island of Keil more than usually 

Although destitute of any means of accurately measuring the 
depth of the grey matter of the cerebral convolutions, I am con- 
vinced that it was appreciably shallower than is the same struc- 
ture in the average European. 

Of course of the amount of intellect displayed during life by 
the 16 Chinese whose brains I weighed I can say nothing, but 
judging by their fellows of the same order, I am I think justified 
in placing it very far down on the intellectual scale at least as 
regards acquirements. Of the capacity of the Chinese coolie class 
for learning I am not inclined to speak so lightly, but on the 
contrary, am convinced of their natural aptitude in this direc- 

The skuUs of the Pelew islanders were markedly dolichoce- 
phalic. One, of which I preserved the measure, was 7 4 inches 
in its greatest length, and 5*5 inches in its greatest breadth, 
being in the proportion of 74 to the length taken as 100. All 
my other measurements, together with two of the Pelew skulls 
which I cleaned and carefully preserved, were lost at sea in the 
wreck of the " Mongol," much to my chagrin. 

The Pelews were rather short, slight men, with fair muscular 
development, good teeth, and presenting quite an orthognathous 

The hair was dry, harsh and frizzy, standing up from the head 
in one case as much as 18 inches. The nose was straight, and 
the tip prolonged downwards beyond the alae nasi after the 
Papuan manner. No hair on face. The lower extremities were 
tattooed closely in a geometrical pattern from tlie middle of the 
thigh to the middle or lower third of the leg. The ears were 
slit for ornaments, and had evidently sustained heavy ones, as 
they were much elongated and distorted. Their favourite pos- 
ture was squatting, and they showed a rooted objection to remain 
covered up in bed. 

The only explanation which I can offer of the large size of 
the brain in these cases is that it was essentially musculomotor 
in function, — the Chinese especially being very liberally en- 
dowed by nature with muscular tissue, much more so indeed 
than any European nation ; — ^that it was in no wise an index of 
the amoimt of intelligence possessed is, I think, sufficiently 

Digitized by 


Discussion. 93 


Mr. Distant : — This short paper is a valuable one in anthropology, 
as ererj fresh fact which bears upon the average weight of brains 
of other races of mankind is greatly to be desiderated. The brain 
weights of these 16 Chinese men and women are exceedingly inte- 
resting in two respects. Firstly, the general height of the -average 
weight, and, secondly, which interests me the more, the considerable 
difference between the weights of the male and female brains, a 
subject I have already had the honour of bringing before the Insti- 
tute. Both these facts are somewhat inter-dependent, as it seems 
now well established that there is a greater difference between the 
average weight of the male and female brain in the larger brained 
peoples of civilised areas than exists between the sexes in the 
smaller brained or more uncultivated and primitive races. This 
cannot be ascribed to the physical conformity of savages being more 
on an equality between the sexes. Professor Bolleston, in his paper 
on "The People of the Long Barrow Period," describes their 
skeletons as exhibiting in the males an height of about 5 ft. 6 in., 
as against a height of 4 fl. 10 in. attained by the females. A 
similar disproportion may be seen between the sexes of the Anda- 
mauese, as shown in the plates to Dr. Dobson's paper in our Journal, 
and further evidence of the same kind can be found by any one 
who cares to search for it. These tables being actually weights of 
brains, and not merely capacities of skulls, are the more valuable 
on that account, but the average appears very high, which for these 
16 Chinese is — 

Now the researches of Dr. Barnard Davis on 33 Chinese skulls, 
made by filling those crania with sand, which was afterwards 
weighed, with an allowance of 15 per cent, for drainage, Ac., was — 

For 25 men 47*87 oz. \ t^ - . . ^ ^^ 

Q «,«^«« Ao.n-i ) Mean of series 4700 oz. 
„ o women 4io 71 „ J 

This shows not only a lighter average, but also, as is usual in such 
cases, a less disproportion between the sexes, but there can be little 
doubt that racial types of brain weights are valuable in relation to 
the extent of the series from which they have been made. As re- 
gards the great weights of these 16 Chinese brains, which Dr. Clap- 
ham tells us have a somewhat Simian superficiality, we must 
remember that the average is the result of a short series, and that 
whereas no great mental work has been found to be achieved by a 
brain below the average in development, yet a large brain may 
exist without being the organ of uncommon intelligence and mental 
power. I will merely express a hope that the cause of physical 
anthropology may be advanced by more papers of this kind, written 
by equally competent observers. 

Digitized by 


94 Mr. Shaw. — On Righthandedness. 

Mr. MoGGBFDGE: The intellectaal capacity does not, I believe, 
depend so much upon the size of the brain as upon the nomber of 
its convolutions, very low down in creation the earliest manifesta- 
tion of brain occurs in a simple thread of grey matter. The first 
advance is indicated by the formation of ganglia, i.e,, swellings out 
of that thread at certain distances. Rising still in the scale, the 
head becomes the receptacle of the brain. Finally that mass of 
brain is convoluted, and the greater the number of those windings 
and turnings, the greater the opportunity naturally afforded for the 
development of the intellect. 


If asked what part of the body seems chiefly affected by ad- 
vancing civilisation, I should be inclined to reply that it is the 
right hand. 

At first sight the four-handed mammals may be thought to 
have an advantage ; but because four hands are employed both 
for prehension and locomotion, while in man there is one pair of 
organs for each ; man's two hands are worth more than the ape's 
four. As man rises from the rudest stages — such as digging 
roots, hunting, and tending cattle, to arts which are highly me- 
chanical — the right hand becomes a more special and serviceable 
organ than the left, so that the loss of it to an engraver, a clerk, 
or an artist, would be a much more serious affair than it would 
be to a drover, who could clutch his stick or gesticulate to his 
dog almost as well with the one as the other. Admitting that, 
physiologically, there is a slight reason for tiie preference of the 
right hand ; all our tools and fashions lend themselves to en- 
courage its further dexterity. Screws, gimlets, &c., are made to 
suit the supinating motion of the right hand. Tools of the 
scissor kind are also made of the right hand, and I have seen a 
print-cutter's gauge made specially for a left-handed person fetch 
a very low price when it came to be sold. The slant in writing, 
the shed of the hair in boys, the place of buttons and hooks in 
clothes, and the system of writing from left to right, all seem 
related to right-handedness. 

In drawing, the pupil is recommended to begin at the upper- 
most comer of the left hand, where the ornament is of a small 
and repeating character, so as to avoid fingering the part 
already finished. I used to be able to detect my left-handed 
boys when learning to write, if they had used the left hand 
against orders, by the writing either being straight or slanted 
the wrong way. Most boys know that it is easier drawing a 

Digitized by 


Mr. Shaw. — On Righthandedness. 95 

profile with the face looking towards the left hand ; yet in look- 
ing over the hieroglyphs in the British Museum tie faces will 
be generally found towards the right. 

I believe there is a constitutional reason for the preference 
given to the right hand, but I also believe that habit has 
strengthened nature's tendency, and that as the touch of the 
hereditary Hindoo weaver has become proverbially fine, and his 
eyes short sighted, so the aptitude of the right hand over the 
left is greater with advancing civilisation, than in a state utterly 
savage. At that period of a child's life, when creeping seems a 
more natural mode of progression than walking, there is no ap- 
parent dexterity of the right hand more than the left, and when 
man was almost without arts, I can believe his state to have 
been very nearly ambi-dexter, or perhaps rather ambi-sinister. 

The elephant has been known to employ one tusk more than 
another in rooting, &c. It is on that account called by the 
Arabs the " servant," and is not so much esteemed by the traders 
as being oftener broken or mutilated. 

When I asked Sir Samuel Baker which tusk, the right or the 
left, went by the name of servant, he informed me that it was 
the right tusk generally, but the exceptions to the rule were 
far more numerous than was the exception of lefthandedness 
with human beings. 

We have no reliable statistics of the proportion of left- 
handed to right, either among ancients or modems. If Judges 
XX, 15, 16 is to have any weight in the matter, the proportion of 
left-handed in the tribe of Benjamin seems to have been greater 
than at the present day. 

Lefthand^lness is very mysterious. It seems to set itself 
quite against physiological deductions and the whole tendency 
of art and fashion. 

Prof. Buchanan of Glasgow, who wrote an able memoir on 
Righthandedness, in 1862, thinks that lefthandedness may be 
due to transposition of the viscera, and tells me that Dr. Aitken 
foimd such a case. But surely transposition of the viscem must 
be far rarer than obstinate lefthandedness. In cases of left- 
handed persons which I have examined, the limbs of the left 
side were proportionally larger, just as those of the right side 
are in normal cases. The greater aptitude as well as size of the 
left foot was also to be noted, as well as the fact of the excep- 
tion being hereditary. I may mention in opposition to Professor 
Buchanan's theory of transposition of the viscera, or at least of 
the great arteries of the upper limbs accounting for lefthanded- 
ness, that several cases of transposition of viscera are recorded 
in which the persons afTected were righthanded. 

Digitized by 


9C Mr. Sih\w. — Memoir on i/te Mental Progi'e^ of 


Mr. DiSTJLNT : Thougli righthaiidednesfl is hereditary and almost 
universal, there is considerable doubt whether it is not nevertheless 
a positive disadvantage to the development of the race. From the 
researches of Dr. Brown- Sequard in particular, we know that the 
power of reasoning depends upon the left side of the brain more 
than on the right ; an injury to the left side of the brain being more 
or less fatal to proper reasoning, as a lesion on that side is also 
concomitant with aphasia. The left side of the brain is also supe- 
rior in size, and receives a larger share of blood than the right. 
The emotional faculties are likewise shown to be centred in the right 
side of the brain, as the reasoning powers are in the left. It is 
scarcely necessary to repeat the well-known physiological fact that 
the two sides of the brain and the two sides of the body react on 
each other from opposite sides. Now in exercising principally the 
right side of the body, Dr. Sequard considers we develop princi- 
pally the left side of the brain, which thus becomes the chief con- 
trolling centre, whilst if the left side of the body was used in an 
equal proportion to the right, the two sides of the brain would be 
equally developed, and who can doubt that such must be a positive 
advantage to the race. The question of righthandedness is thus a 
deeper one than that of mere hereditary habit, and touches that 
truly anthropological subject intelligencey its limits and its causes, 
of which we still know so little. 

Memoir on the Mental Progress of Animals during the Human 
Period. By Mr. Shaw. 

Very eflfective rhetorical passages could be selected from our 
classical writers elucidating the change wrought by the human 
race on the face of nature. Certainly the contrast of seas over- 
spread with ships; lands intersected by railways, roads, and 
canals, or covered with arable fields and towering cities, is, com- 
pared to imcultivated heath, primaeval forest, and lonely sea, a 
very vivid one. 

But it is not so much the change wrought by our race on 
mountains, seas, and rocks of adamant, as the change eflfected by 
man on the forms of life that is most to be wondered at The 
relation of organism to organism is a relation the importance of 
which can scarcely be understated. 

It is a common belief that the instincts and intelligence of 
the lower animals is, within certain narrow limits, fixed, un- 
changeable, and unprogressive. Such statements take too much 
for granted. The conclusion from many facts gleaned in con- 
nection with the subject point diflferently. The relative size of 

Digitized by 


Animals during the Hvman Period, 97 

skull of many of the earlier and middle tertiary quadrupeds to 
that of their existing representatives, warrants us in concluding 
that the former had less brain-power. 

Much of what we term cunning in the mental disposition of 
animals will be found to have been sharpened and made tangible 
in quadrupeds and birds, owing to the new necessities imposed 
upon them by man the tamer, or man the destroyer. 

For it is imder one of these two characters that man ap- 
proaches animals, afifecting them in the most complex and vivid 
manner. No bird or quadruped with the dociUty and tract- 
ability of the dog, with the highly susceptible and generous 
nature of the horse, and the wariness and boldness of the fox, 
rat, rook, or sparrow, has been found in the lonely oceanic isles, 
or in the untrodden prairie or forest, free, or all but free from 
human influence. This is not because in these quarters such 
animals could not exist, for after being imported tfiither, as the 
horse into South America, or the rat in New Zealand, they have 
thriven and multiplied, but because the original fauna had no 
opportunity for the improvement of its wits by coming in con- 
tact with an enemy or friend so complex, so dreadful, and so 
ingenious as a human being. 

One of the first impulses communicated to the wits of wild 
animals is that derived from the sense of new wants. Now, 
this is what man supplies by the cultivation of his fruits and 
cereals. A feast is spread before quadrupeds and birds, richer 
and more nutritious than that supplied by the frugal hand of 
nature. But this banquet is guarded by its possessor, and often 
becomes a baited trap in which the simple thief is caught and 
perishes. With the more sagacious robber the matter is dif- 

A very slight Increment of sagacity is often enough to turn 
the scale, and this quickness of wit is again met by improve- 
ment of trap. Both improvements go on slowly. Necessity on 
the side of the wild quadruped and on the side of the savage is 
the mother of invention. Gradually wary, vigilant animals, as 
having the best chance of surviving, hang roimd the skirts of 
kraals and wigwams, approach in twilight the crops near 
stockaded villages, prowl about places of interment, lodge in 
sewers, enter cellars ; and, keenly alive to every sign of danger, 
multiply in spite of poison, trap, and gun, and in spite of trained 
animals of its own and allied species, and of that division of 
labour which gives us special hunters. It is these two condi- 
tions — ^man enlarging the means of livelihood, and at the same 
time more keenly aiming at the life of those who would share 
his harvest — ^that gives a new importance to brute cunning, an 
importance which could not be of such primal consequence in a 

VOL. vn. H 

Digitized by 


98 Mr. Shaw. — Memoir on the Mental Progress of 

world of comparatively stupid creatures in a world into which 
man had not yet arrived. 

The fear of man is a slowly-acquired instinct, both by birds 
and mammals. Travellers in South America have struck down 
strong- winged birds from trees with poles. I recollect the shy- 
ness of a pack of seals basking on the long low rocks of the 
coast of West Kilbride, Ayrshire. They plunged into the ocean 
long before I could approach near enough to observe their habits. 
How different from this were the seals observed by members of 
the Challenger Expedition in the lonely oceanic isles, who gam- 
bolled with their calves, allowing the stranger's foot almost to 
be set upon them. The wolf-like dog of the Falkland Islands 
came quite near the crew of Byron's vessel Compare these 
stupid traits with the admirably organised plimdering expedi- 
tions of the Abyssinian baboons — the nocturnal adventures of 
elephants in quest of water in the dry season, or the rude laws 
and customs known and acted upon, for self-preservation, of the 
half-wild dogs of Constantinople, the Peninsula, and the East, 
wherein the care of the weak and young, the usefulness of sen- 
tries, the value of signals, and the difiference between sham and 
real danger seem all to be understood. 

These depredators know the usefulness of confusing traces of 
retreat and the value of a strong or inaccessible city of refuge. 

In these circumstances it seems safe to conclude that man 
the thinker is at the bottom of their wiles, and that his acute- 
ness has sharpened the faculties of his foes. 

Hitherto we have glanced chiefly at wild or partially domesti- 
cated animals, and when we turn to our domesticated animals 
we can dimly see how slow the process and how immense the 
pains by which they have been tamed, from the time when our 
far remote ancestors instinctively killed the wilder and more 
troublesome ones, and preserved the most easily managed, just 
as Galton saw in Africa at the present day, that the irreclaim- 
ably wild beasts of a flock escaped or were utterly lost, those a 
little less wild were selected for slaughter, and those which 
seldom ran away, that kept the flocks together, and led them 
homewards, were longer preserved alive and had better chance 
to become parents of stock and bequeath their aptitudes to the 
future herd. The dog is perhaps the wisest of quadrupeds, 
and certainly his wisdom bulks in most considerations of his 
price. Old shepherds in my own pastoral district have ex- 
pressed to me a conviction that the sheep-dog, even within the 
present century, from careful selecting, has become more docile 
and intelligent. Yet in other conditions, as in China, where the 
dog is kept like the pig for the table, he is said to be quite a 
stupid animal. An idiot cow may be tolerated in a dairy, though 

Digitized by 


Animals during the Human Fei^d. 99 

even with such a one there is trouble scarcely worth its milk ; 
but an idiot collie is nowhere. Our domestic list of mammals, 
from having been acted upon by special circumstances, exhibits 
the highest brutal attainments, and none of them are so brutally 
d^raded, or slow even at learning their names, as those caged 
from the untrodden forests. 

In conclusion, were we in vision to behold that wonderful 
Miocenic Age, when as yet no traces of man have been found on 
the planet, when vines and magnolias grew in Greenland, and 
long-armed apes traversed the forest of Europe, we should be war- 
ranted in believing that in their habits and manners of life, the 
higher birds and quadrupeds would be more uniform and less in- 
teresting than their surviving representatives who have been for 
ages exposed to the struggle for life with man. In the prehimian 
world there would be a dull monotony of hunger, fight, flight, 
and feeding — wherein the horn, the mailed coat, the heavy hoof 
and sharpened talons, and, above all, the terrible beak or tooth, 
would do work now accomplished by slyer agencies. Nor have 
brutes come out of the combat sole gainers in genius. Man has 
learned something from their ways. In the myths of nations 
their opposition made the earliest of heroes. Man's supreme 
faculty of language, so that now he can speak by telegraph, is 
also, ever widening the gidf which separates hun from those 
inferior beings, whose docility he has developed, and whose cun- 
ning he has so gradually evoked. 

Colonel Lane Fox, Mr. Hyde Clarke and others offered some 
The meeting then separated. 

H 2 

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In vol. Y of the Journal of the Anthropological Institute, at page 
408, et 8eq,f an account was given of a leaf- wearing race surviving 
on the Western Coast of India. As supplementary to that account, 
the following extracts from Col. Dalton*s ** Ethnology of Bengal," 
describing an apparently still more primitive leaf- wearing tribe, are 
of much anthropological interest. The Juangs are a tribe found in 
the most secluded tracts of Persia, speaking a language of the 
Kolarian family. Col. Dalton says of them : " The Juangs are in 
habits and customs the most primitive people I have met with or 
read of. They occupy a hill- country, in which stone implements, 
the earliest specimens of human ingenuity that we possess, are 
still occasionally found ; and though they have now abandoned the 
use of such implements, it is not improbable that they are the 
direct descendants of those ancient stone-cutters, and that we have 
in the Juangs representatives of the stone age vn sUu. 

*' Until foreigners came amongst them, they must have used such 
weapons or none ; for they had no knowledge whatever of metals. 
They have no word in their own language for iron or other metals. 
They neither spin nor weave, nor have they ever attained to the 
simplest knowledge of pottery. Their huts are amongst the 
smallest that human beings ever deliberately constructed as dwell- 
ings, measuring about 6 feet by 8, and very low, and even this scanty 
interior is divided into two compartments, one of which is the 
store-room. The Juangs cultivate in the rudest way, and in regard 
to food are not in the least particular, eating mice, rats, monkeys, 
tigers, bears, snakes, frogs, and even offal. 

" The females had not amongst them a particle of clothing ; their 
sole covering for purposes of decency consisted of a girdle com- 
posed of several strings of beads, from which depended before and 
behind small curtains of leaves. Adam and Eve sewed fig-leaves 
together and made themselves aprons. The Juangs are not so far 
advanced ; they take voung shoots of the Asan (Terminalia tomen^ 
to8a)y or any tree with long, soft leaves, and arranging them so as 
to form a flat and scale-like surface of the required size ; the sprigs 
are simply stuck in the girdle, fore and aft, and the toilet is com- 
plete. The girls were well developed and finely formed, and as 
the light, leafy costume left the outlines of the figure entirely nude, 
they would have made good studies for a sculptor. 

** They made their first appearance by night and danced by torch- 
light; it was a wild and weird sight. The men sang as they 
danced, accompanying themselves on deep-sounding tambourines; 

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Anthropological Miscellanea, 101 

the g^ls holding hands and circling round them in a solemnly- 
grotesque manner. The disarrangement of their leaves was a 
source of great anxiety to them, compelling them fi^quently to fall 
out of their places and retreat into the darkness to adjust their 

" Next day they came to my tent at noon, and whilst I conversed 
with the males on their customs, language, and religion, the girls 
sat nestled in a comer together, for a long time silent and motion- 
less, but after an hour or two had elapsed, the crouching nymphs 
showed signs of life and symptoms of uneasiness ; and more atten- 
tively regarding them, I found that great tears were dropping 
from the downcast-eyes, like dew-drops, on the green leaves. On 
my tenderly seeking the cause of their distress, I was told the 
leaves were becoming dry, stiff, and uncomfortable, and if they 
were not allowed to go to the woods for a change, the consequence 
would be serious, and they certainly could not dance. It was a 
hot, dry day, and the crisp rustling as they arose to depart con- 
firmed the statement. 

" When they returned, arrayed in fresh leaves, we induced them 
to perform a varieir of sportive dances, some quite dramatic in 
effect, and it was altogether a most rateresting ' ballet.' In one 
figure the girls moved round in single file, keeping the right hand 
on the right shoulder of the girl in front ; in another with bodies 
inclined, they wreathed their arms and advanced and retreated in 
line. Then we had the bear dance. The girls, acting independently, 
advance with bodies so much inclined, that their hands touch the 
ground : thus they move not unlike bears, and by a motion from 
the knees the bodies wriggle violently, and the broad tails of green 
leaves flap up and down in a most ludicrous maimer. 

" The pigeon dance followed. The action of a love-making-pigeon 
when he struts, pouts, sticks out his breast, and scrapes the ground 
with his wings, was well imitated, the hands of the girls doing duty 
as wings. They concluded with the vulture dance — ^a highly 
dramatic finale. One of the men was made to lie on the ground 
and represent a dead body. The girls, in approaching it, imitated 
the hopping sidling advance of the bird of prey, and, using their 
hands as beaks, nipped and pinched the pseudo-corpse in a manner 
that made him occasionally forget his character and yell with pain. 
This caused great amusement to his tormentors. In the eveoing, 
seeing the women return from work with dishevelled hair, dusty 
bodies, and disordered attire, i.e., leaves somewhat withered, was 
like a dream of the stone age, but each lady brought back with 
her fresh material for her evening dress. 

"The Juangs have no terms for * Gk)d,' for * heaven,' or *hell;* 
and, so far as I can learn, no idea of a future state. They offer 
fowls to the sun when in distress, and to the earth to give them its 
fruits in due season ; they have no obligatory religious ceremonies. 
The Juangs are divided into tribes and exogamous. They burn 
their dead and throw the ashes into any running stream ; but erect 
no monuments, and have no notion of the worship of ancestors ; 

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102 Anthropological Miscellanea. 

their mourning is an abstinence of three days from flesh and salt. 
Thej swear on earth taken from an ant-hill — a sacred object — and 
on a tiger-skin." 

There are several stories to account for their leaf -wearing habits, 
but apparently of Brahmanical concoction, told for the Juangs 
rather than by them. Their own idea simply is, that the fashion of 
dress should never change, and that for women it should be simple 
and cheap. The males have, however, abandoned leaves of late, 
and use in lieu the smallest quantity of cotton cloth that can be made 
to serve the purposes of decency. They appeared to Col. Dalton 
the most primitive of all the tribes he encountered, and he seems 
to think that in them we have a veritable survival and example of 
a prehistoric people, in situ, as he expresses it. 

Discovert of a dug-out Canoe in the Thames at Hampton Court. 

Towards the commencement of the present month, June, 1877, a 
boatman of the name of Walford fishing in the river just opposite 
Hampton Court Palace discovered a large block of wood, as it ap- 
peared to him, embedded in the river bottom, near the bank on the 
side opposite to the palace. Being very familiar with this part of 
the river on account of his boats being kept for hire on the oppo- 
site side, and knowing that the block in question must be a new 
arrival in this spot, he determined to hawl it up. He had re- 
peatedly sounded the river bottom in all directions, and nothing of 
the kind had attracted his observation up to that time ; the block 
in question must, therefore, have been recently uncovered or must 
have been washed there from some part of the river higher up. 
On bringing it to the surface it was found to be part of a canoe of 
oak dug out of the solid tree, and in an advanced state of decay. 
Some portions were wanting, but sufficient remained to determine 
its size and form. Having heard of the discovery through the 
kindness of Lord Arthur Knssell, M.P., 1 went to see it on the 
29th of the month, about three weeks after its discovery. It is 
flat-bottomed, the bottom rising slightly towards the front and 
stem, the bow is rounded, the stem has evidently been square, but 
the back-piece is wanting ; the sides are perpendicular, 15 inches 
in height, interior measurement, and the top has been level from 
end to end, not rising at the bow or stern ; the greatest width, 
interior measurement, taken along the flat-bottom, is 2 feet 
6 inches, but this diminishes in front to 2 feet at the place where 
the scooped out bow commences. 

One side only is perfect from the bow for a distance of about two- 
thirds of its length, the whole of the starboard side is deficient 
except at the bottom ; the sides and bottom are about 2 inches in 

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Anthropological Miscellanea. 103 

thickness ; the stem is strengthened along the bottom at 1 foot 
from the end hy a raised ridge or " knee,*' 3 inches in width hj 
1^ in height, carved out of the solid ; whether this ridge ascended 
the sides or not cannot now be ascertained, as the sides are want- 
ing in this part ; towards the bow on the perfect side, at about 
2 inches from tiie top, is a circular hole 2 inches in diameter, 
which maj have been used to fasten a stay, or may have served 
for the loop of a rowlock. The total length of the vessel from stem 
to stem is 14 feet, and the whole is carved out of one piece. The 
surface of the oak having been exposed to the sun for some time, 
was cracked and peeled so that it was impossible to discover any 
marks of the tool by which the interior had been excavated, and 
it is to be feared that further damage may be caused by exposure. 
Canoes of this form have been occasionally found elsewhere, and 
Sir William Wilde mentions the form with the rounded bow and 
square stern as one of three varieties that are frequently found 
in Ireland. The ridge curved out of the solid, appears to be 
common to all the forms, and was, no doubt, intended to give 

The original position of the canoe is not difficult to determine. 
The river between the bridge and the palace makes a re-entering 
bend on the south side just below the spot where the Mole runs in. 
Large quantities of the delta ground at the point were washed 
away last winter by an unusually strong flood, and there can be 
little doubt that the canoe which had originally grounded and 
become covered at the point, had then been washed down with 
the earth for a distance of about 100 yards into the place in which 
it was discovered. Waif ord also informs me that when the water 
is low, two rows of piles may be seen in the bottom, crossing the 
river, one at the point and the other at the spot near which the 
canoe was found. Many flint and stone celts, he tells me, have in 
his time also been found at this spot, showing that, in all proba- 
bility, this place was much frequented during the stone age, or, 
at any rate, the age in which stone implements continued in use,* 
and proving, as in so many other instances of prehistoric discove- 
ries in the Thames, that the river has changed its course but little, 
if at all, since that remote period. The bearing of this upon the 
question of the erosion of valleys by their rivers is important, and 
any evidence which tends to throw light on the length of time 
that rivers have flowed in the same channels, is worthy of record 
on this account, apart from the archesological interest that may 
attach to the objects discovered. 

A. LA.NB Fox. 

* My informant described these implements in such a manner as to leave no 
doubt of their being Celts, and stated that they were, to the best of his belief, 
found only in this spot. — ^A. L. F. 

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104 Anthropological Miscellanea. 

The Ancient Bueul Ground at Kintburt. 

A NOTICE of the ancient bnrying-ground at Kintbuiy by Professor 
Rupert Jones having appeared in the Journal, vol. vi, p. 196, the 
following account of a further examination of the cemetery by 
Mr. "Walter Money of Newbury has been communicated by Prof. 
Bupert Jones. 

These graves, which are cut in the chalk, appear to have extended 
over the whole area between the present footpath and the River 
Kennet. The greater part has now been excavated. As mentioned 
by Professor Jones, the graves were sunk to the depth of about 
3 feet. Since that gentleman's communication, another cist has 
been met with, containing three or more skeletons, which having 
been disturbed when I saw them, the original position of the bodies 
could not well be ascertained. Near the remains I found sherds of 
pottery, the jaws and tusks of the boar, with other animal bones ; 
and amongst the earth which was thrown out I picked up a rough 
flint implement, being a coarse flake which would serve for both 
knife and scraper, but near the bottom of the grave I detected some 
iron slags, which prove, 1 think, that these interments are not pre- 

The sloping banks of the chalk pit are strewn with fragments of 
Roman pottery — ^ums and other vessels ; the ware is black, brown, 
and red, but principally of a dark-bluish grey colour on fracture, 
and somewhat coarse in texture. One piece, which is glazed, has 
an ornamentation formed of parallel intersecting lines, and is of the 
kind of pottery much used tor sepulchral purposes. Fragments of 
glass vessels also occur. Amongst some 30 or 40 pieces of ware 
which I have found on this spot, are two portions of hypocaust 
tiles, one a hollow flue tile with vertical lines, and the other flanged, 
with waved scoring, together with a fluted brick, the plaster on the 
outer face still adhering to it. Tiles were frequently used in Roman 
graves, but 1 am not competent to say if tiles such as represented 
by these fragments were ever applied to such purposes. 

The dead during the Romano-British period were disposed of as 
in ancient British and Celtic times, both by inhumation and crema- 
tion ; and so indiscriminately were these usages adopted in England 
that both are found in the same burial places, and indeed, as in 
those of the Celtic period, in close proximity to each other. The 
suggestion therefore naturally occurs, might not this have been a 
Roman burial place, and are not those bits of pottery fragments of 
sepulchral urns, and the graves now brought to light, those of the 
Saxon people who continued to bury their dead on the site of the 
Roman cemetery until the time of their conversion to Christianity ? 
The whole chfu*acter of this burial ground, so far as my slight 
knowledge of such subjects informs me, is quite in accordance 
with that of Anglo-Saxon cemeteries in the south of England. In 
East Kent, for instance, where they are found in the greatest abun- 
dance, the Anglo-Saxons chose for the burial place of their particu- 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Joum. AnthiDpolog. Inst Vol "^TE^ 11 




-^ ":.^UTTLE 

OBa rrm I* (wcleiavo) 


12 «= 


' 1 3hek*n &U3LB^ 








uigitizea oy vjCTt^jE^ Itx>.i«»JiC< 


Anthropological Miscellanea, 105 

lar tribe the top of a chalk down, where they cat their erayes into 
the chalk exactly as they appear to be cat on the summit of Kint- 
bury Cliff. Long after the establishment of Christianity in this 
island, the ecclesiastical laws and canons complain of the difficulty 
of restraining the Christianized Anglo-Saxons from carrying their 
dead to be buried in the neighbouring unchristian cemeteries of 
their pagan forefathers, therefore the proximity of the church to 
this bunal ground at Kintbury is to be accounted for by the fact 
that such a building would instinctively be placed near a spot so 
hallowed by its associations. 

That Kintbury was in Roman occupation admits of little doubt ; 
it was a minor station probably, on the road from Aqua Solis 
(Bath) and Cunetio (near Marlborough), which proceeded through 
Hen's Wood to Hug's Ditch, and through Lawn Coppice, Cake 
Wood, Standgrove, Hungerford, and Kintbury to Spinae, this last 
station, I believe, occupying the present site of the town of New- 
bury. This last place has been most productive, when ground has 
been disturbed, of Roman antiquities, and is situate at the point of 
convergence of the great ways from Londinium (London), Cal- 
leva (Silchester), Corinium (Cirencester), Sorbiodunum (Old 
Sarum), Yenta Belgarum (Winchester), Aqua Solis (Bath), and 
other important Roman roads. The camp on Speen Hill, as ob- 
^ served by the Rev. J. Adams at the Arch. Congress in 1859, **has 
nothing to prove a distinctive Roman origin," and may be regarded 
as British ; but from its important position it was no doubt utilised 
by the Romans as a military outpost. 

The strongest argument against Kintbury being a Saxon burial 
place is the entire absence of the usual objects accompanying their 
dead ; and unless we conclude the pottery found was used for this 
purpose, or that these early settlers at Kintbury were compelled by 
their poverty to let their dead take their chance in the mysterious 
life into which they believed they were going, there is really nothing 
in the graves I have examined to conclusively settle the question as 
to the people to whom this cemetery belonged. 

I may add that this burial-ground has been recentlv inspected by 
those distinguished antiquaries Canon Greenwell and Colonel Lane 
Fox ; and several of the skulls and bones have been sent to Prof. 
RoUeston at Oxford, to whom, in the interest of science, Sir Richard 
Sutton, the owner of the land, has given permission to make these 

The Andaman Islands. By E. H. Man, Esq. Communicated by 
Col. A. Lane Fox, F.R.S. 

The map, Plate III, and a statement accompanying it, of the dis- 
tribution of the several tribes inhabiting the Andaman Islands, have 
been forwarded to Colonel A. Lane Fox, F.R.S., by Colonel Man, 
and were sent to him by his son, Mr. E. H. Man, who is in charge of 
one of the native homes in the Andamans, together with a transleu 

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106 Anthropological Miscellanea. 

tion of the Lord's Prayer in the vemactdar of the South Andamans. 
Mr. Man is preparing a vocabulary of the South Andaman language, 
which promises to be of great anthropological value, and he has 
promised to draw up a paper on the anthropology of the islands, 
which will be sent to the Institute. Mr. Man proposes shortly to 
make a tour of the islands, commencing with the Little Andamans, 
where there have been three bloody encounters between the Euro- 
peans and natives during the past few years. He will endeavour 
to enter into friendly communication with them, and leave some 
presents, after which he will start for the South Centinel {see map), 
and ascertain if there are signs of life there. He will then proceed 
to the North Centinel, which is known to be inhabited, and it is 
said by the same tribe as the Little Andamans, but as there is 40 
miles of sea between the two islands, he thinks they must (judging 
by past experience) probably speak a different dialect from that of 
any other tribe in these islands. About ten years ago an attempt 
was made to land upon this island, but the inhabitants proved hos- 
tile. Prom the North Centinel he proposes to go to a village near 
Flat Island, on the west side of Middle Andaman Island, where he 
will land a few natives belonging to the tribe there, who have been 
partly civilized by Europeans, together with presents of rice, corn, 
cooking vessels, <ic. The huts here are said to be large and sub- 
stantial, and very different from anything met with elsewhere. He 
will then proceed to Interview Island, and from thence make the 
circuit of the North Andamans, visiting some tribes already known 
there, and return by Port Comwallis and Sound Island. On his 
return he hopes to be able to visit a place called Wot^Emida, 
which is somewhere on the south-east comer of Middle Andaman 
Island, and which, according to the tradition of the natives, is the 
scene of the Creation. They say that there is a stone there on 
which Tawmoda (the first man) wrote many commandments, and a 
history of Creation, which is still to be seen in hieroglyphics, but 
which none are able to decypher. This rock is said to be on the 
sea shore, and Mr. Man hopes to be able to photograph it, the 
people of that part being friendly. Being now able to converse 
with ease in the South Andaman language, he has obtained from 
one of the natives an account of a deluge, the details of which will 
be conmiunicated to the Institute on a future occasion. The photo- 
graphs of natives of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which 
Colonel Man has kindly forwarded to Colonel Lane Fox contain 
much useM information. 

The Names of the Several Tribes inhabiting the Andaman Islands. 

"1. Ak4 ChAriar 

-\r«»4.v. I 2. Ak& Jar6 . . 
North I ^j^ ^^^^ , 

^^^*^-' 3. ^Interview ' 

Being their own name for them- 

They (i.e., all three) are called 
** Yere wada" by the tribes near 

(^ Island tribe l^ Port Blair. 


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Anthropological Miscellanea, 107 

H^.j r4. Awko jfiwai. . f Being tlie names by whioli they are 

Andaman i ^' ^^^ ^^^ "{ ^^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ " jnnglies " (t.e., 
Andaman. )^g^ ^j^ Bdjigiab L ^^^e South Andaman tribe). 

(I.e., their own name for them- 
Small off- shoots of the Little An- 
daman tribe ( J^rawada) exist in 
the localities marked; they live 
apart from and at enmity with 
onr tribe. 
8. Bala wada. 

finclnding North Centinel (9a), 

J^rftwadft ^^°*^ Centinel (9b), Cinque 

SfAnda- } ^"^^^ (^^)' ^^ intervening 

4. -K. \ < islets ; also in Batland Island 


Vide the parts marked. 

It is impossible at present to do more than guess at the nume- 
Ticsl strength of each tribe. There is every reason to believe that 
the tribe with which we are best acquainted (South Andaman) 
numbered considerably more on our first settlement here in 1858 
than it does now. It at present probably numbers about 500 or 
600, but I have never had means of visiting the encampments at 
the northern extremity of South Andaman. The Little Andama- 
ners are believed to be the most numerous, but whether they 
number 200 or 2,000 (more or less) no one can at present say. 
The belief of those who have visited the numerous islands and made 
inquiries on the subject is that the whole group contains probably 
some 5,000 or 6,000 souls. These are probably pretty equally dis- 
tributed, the most thinly populated in proportion to its size being, 
I should &ncy, this island (South Andaman), where the exposure 
induced by our clearings, coupled with the increased mortality 
during the past 19 years, consequent on their change of habits, has 
possibly reduced the number of the inhabitants by one-third or 
even more. They are scarcely ever allowed to taste liquor of any 
kind. Tobacco, of which they are passionately fond, is the only 
thing in which they are indxdged which may be calculated to affect 
their health. These remarks refer to some 300 of their number 
living near Port Blair, and in a lesser degree to those living over 
ten miles irom. the harbour. The condition of those living more 
than 30 miles from Port Blair has probably not been appreciably 
affected, except favourably, by our settlement here, for we have 
done little more for them than supply them from time to time with 
presents of iron, bottles, fruit seedlings, matches, beads, looking- 
glasses, Ac., being all articles which they highly prize. It will of 
course be understood that I have only attempted to show approxi' 

Digitized by 


108 Anthropological Miscellanea. 

viaiely the extent of territory occupied by each tribe. As those 
inhabiting adjoining districts are more or less on friendly terms 
with each other, it often happens that they regard certain islands 
or suitable camping grounds which are situated midway between 
their respective territories as neutral soil. Hence they state that 
they are unable to point out definitely in some cases where the 
border line between certain tribes is supposed to run. 

The Lord's Prayer translated info the Vemacvlar of the District (South 
Afidaman), by E, H. Man^ August, 1876. 

PM-^ lia &rla-lik-y&b. 
God his prayer. 

Hd maw-r6 kdktftr-len y&td m611&rd^r{L ia ab-m4y61a. Nria 

O Heaven in (is) who our (lit. all of us-of) Father. Thy 

ting-len dai-ij-i-mAgii-en-inga it&n. Ng611a-len m611ArdArd meta 

name to be reyerence paid Let You (to) we all our 

m&y61a ngenlike ab-ch&nag iji-la b^dig. Maw-r6 k6kULr-len tegi- 
chief wish for supreme only and. Heaven in is 

l&t-malin y&t^ ngia k^nik, k4-iibada Hrla-len ftrla-len &rem-len 
obejed which thy will in the same way ever (daily, always) earth on 

it&n. Ka-wai m6Mrdiirii-len &rla-naikan jii m&n. MdllHr- 
Let This day all of us to daily (lit. daily-Uke) food give. We all 

d&rt mol-oichik-len tigr^l jkt& 61oichik-len l^diibiiy kichi- 

us (to) i.e. agst offend who them to forgive in 

kan-naikan met ftryenami &riidiibii. Mdllftrd&r&-len 6tig-iij{biga 
the same way our offences forgive us all (to) be tempted 

it4n ya-ba, d6na mdll&rd&rd-len abja-bag-tek 6tr&j. 
let not but us all (to) evil from deliver. 

Ng61 kichi-kan k&nake. 
(Do) thou thus order (i^. Amen). 

€hd*s Prayer. 

O Father of us all Who is in Heaven. 

Let (may) reverence be paid Thy name. 

We all wish for Thee as our supreme and only Chief. 

Let (may) Thy will which is obeyed in Heayen be ever in the same 

way (obeyed) on earth. 
Give us aU this day our daily food. 
Forgive (us) our offences in the same way (as) we forgive them 

who offend against us. 
Let none (lit. not all) of us be tempted, but deliver (protect) us all 
from evil. 

(Do) Thou thus order (it). 

Lit. So be Thy wilL 

Lit. So be it. Lit. Amen. 

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Anthropological Miscellanea. 109 

a asm 



btrd, Ciir, mtrfch, mercy 




(Soot) man. 




(Pr.) p^re. 






police, obliqne. 












boy, foible. 


aught, law. 


houae, cow. 


(G«rm.) bans. 

Recent Anthbopologt. Compiled by W. L. Distant. 

^^ ObseryatiouB on the Nile between Dofli and Magungo." By 
Col. C. E. Gordon. Proc. Roy. Geo. Soc, vol. 21, p. 48. Col. 
Gordon writes, " At the distance of 50 miles to the south of Dufli 
the natives wear each a skin, farther on they clothe themselves with 
the bark of a tree. I believe that, taking Katatchamb^ as a centre, 
and describing a circle with a radius reaching to Fashoda, that 
circle would include all the tribes that go entirely naked — a zone 
outside of that circle would include those half clad — and a zone 
outside that would contain the tribes who fully clothe themselves." 

" Description of a Trip to the Gilgit Valley, a Dependency of the 
Mah&rdj4 of Kashmir." By Capt. H. C. Marsh, Joum. As. Soc 
Beng., voL 45, p. 119. " The name Bot6, as the people call them- 
selves, is not to be confounded with the Bhtitias or Tibetans. The 
name is derived from the cap, so that all who wear this head-dress, 
be they Shi'ah, Sunni, Astori, Gilgiti, or Chil&si, Shin, or Tesbkun, 
are Bot^ ; although the difference of language is great between all 
these countries, especially the latter of the two castes, if one might 
BO call them ; the Shin is the highest, and forms a comparatively 
small, but influential body throughout Astor, Gilgit, Gnaris, and 
parts of Chilas. They are careful to intermarry only among them- 
selves, but of late years the Tesbkun, or mixed breed, is unavoid- 
ably increasing, owing to the pressure put on by the Kashmiris, 
who all like to intermarry with Shin families if possible." A national 
dance is described, pp. 124-5; method of making wine, p. 1B4; 
manufactures and dress, pp. 127 — 137: unacquainted with the 
manufacture of pottery, p. 135. 

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110 Anthropological Miscdlanea. 

" An Account of the Island of Bali." ^j R. Friederich. Joum. 
Roy. Asiat. Soc., vol. 9, p. 69. This is a continuation of the 
subject from vol. 8, p. 218 ; and this instalment is altogether de- 
voted to the "religion of the island of Bali,'* which is treated 
very exhaustively under the following arrangement of subjects : — 
"The creation," "religious ceremonies a^d offerings," "dress of 
the Panditas," "dress of the eods," "feasts," " further details of 
the religious worship," " Resis (a religious dignity), " Trimiitri " 
(trinity), "cremations," "castes," "Brahmans," "Xatriyas" (the 
second caste), " Wesyas " (most important caste). 

" On the Galchah Languages " (Wakhi and Sarikoli). By R. B. 
Shaw. Joum. As. Soc. Beng., vol. 45, p. 139. " The dialects, of 
which a brief sketch is here given, are spoken in valleys which 
descend to the east and west respectively from the Pamir Plateau. 
They are members of a group of kindred dialects which prevail 
about the head waters of &e Oxus, the Sarikoli being the only one 
of them whose home is on the east of Pamii*, on one of the affluents 
of the Ydrkand River." A comparison is first made between the 
Ghalchah and the Dard dialects ; this is followed by " the sounds 
and their representations." The dialects of Sarikol and WakhAn 
are not found in a written form. They exist only as spoken by the 
people. For all literary purposes Persian is used by the sufficiently 
educated. A sketch is given of Wakhi and Sarikoli grammars, a 
comparative table showing the connection of the G-halchah language 
with neighbouring tongues, and a very copious vocabulary of Wakhi 
and Sarikoli words. 

" On Ruins in MakdLn." By Major Mockler. Joum. Roy. As. 
Soc., vol. 9, p. 121. "Makran is the name of the southernmost 
portion of the country marked Baluchistan in our maps." These 
ancient remains the author considers Scythian, and perhaps monu- 
ments of the ancestors of the Br4hui tribes who now occupy the 
eastern border of Baluchist4n. Excavations were made which 
discovered pottery, charcoal, bones, flint knives, <fcc. 

" Indian Burial Mounds and Shell-heaps near Pensacola, Florida." 
By G. M. Sternberg, Surgeon U. S. Army. Proo. Am. Ass. (Detroit), 
1876 (Nat. Hist.), p. 282. These burial mounds were two in 
number. In the first, called "Bear Point Mound," there were 
great accumulations of " shell-heaps," which were almost entirely 
composed of oyster shells, and from the fact that these were the 
shells of large and well-developed oysters only, Mr. Steinberg con- 
siders it not improbable that " our aboriginal predecessors " may 
have cultivated them, or that at least the mode and time of pro- 
curing them was regulated by law or custom. As regards the age of 
these shell-heaps, decayed stumps of live-oak trees, of from two to 
three feet diameter, are found in many places in situ above the 
shells. From the remains in this burial mound the author con- 
siders that cremation was practised before burial. His theory is. 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscellanea. Ill 


*' The mound was built by gradual accretion in the following man- 
ner : — That when a death occurred a funeral pyre was erected on 
the moand upon which the body was placed. That after the body 
was consumed, any fragments of bones remaining were gathered, 
placed in a pot and buried ; and that the ashes and cinders were 
covered by a layer of sand brought from the immmediate vicinity 
for that purpose. This view is further supported by the fact that 
only the shafts of the long bones are found, the expanded extremi- 
ties, which would be most easily consumed having disappeared ; also 
by the fact that no bones of children were found, their bones being 
smaller, and containing a less proportion of earthy matter, would 
be entirely consumed." In the second, " Santa Bpsa'' Mound, the 
skeletons were complete. 

** On the Peopling of America." By Aug. R. Grote. Bull. Buff. 
Soo. of Nat. Science, vol. 3, p. 181, 1877. In^ previous paper the 
author had already arrived at the conclusion that we should find 
colonies of Arctic man upon mountains - in the temperate zone of 
North America had all the conditions for his survival on these ele- 
vations been fulfilled in his case as they have been in that of certain 
plants and animals, and that the Eskimos are the existing representa- 
tives of the men of the American glacial epoch. He had also considered 
that glacial man would be found to have suffered an equal fate with 
the &una of the ice-period by a study of migrations. These migra- 
tions Mr. Grote proposed to distinguish as *' a primitive migration, 
one influenced solely by physical causes affecting man's existence, 
and which must have been in more extensive operation in early 
times when he was unprovided with means of his own invention 
against unfriendly changes in his surroundings. A culture migra- 
tion, one arising out of a certain stage of intellectual advancement, 
when the movements of man are determined by ultimate and not 
immediate considerations. Besides these was distinguished an 
accidental migration, which man has submitted to against his 

Mr. Grote does not believe that man originated in America, but 
rather that America has always been for man the new world, and is 
in favour of the view that man entered upon possession of the 
American continent during the Pliocene and before the ice-period 
had interfered with a warm climate in the north, the idea being 
suggested that the ice-period acted as a barrier to inter-communi- 
cation between Asia and North America. The part hitherto allowed 
by anthropologists to accidental migration in the peopling of North 
America is considered as exaggerated. It is proposed by Mr. 
Grote that this peopling was effected during the Tertiary period ; that 
the ice modified races of Pliocene man existing in the north of Asia 
and America forced them southward, and then drew them back to 
the locality where they had undergone their original modification, 
and that other than Arctic man may have existed across the main 
belt of this continent during the Pliocene period, and that his sub- 

Digitized by 


112 Anthropoloffical Miscellanea. 

sequent inteUectaal development, as we find it recorded in the 
West, Mexico, and South America, &c., is the result of his enyi- 
romnent acting upon his isolated condition. 

''Observations on the Membral Musculation of Simla Satyrus 
(Orang), and the comparative Myology of Man and the Apes." By 
W. S. Barnard, of Canton, 111. Proc. Anou Ass. (Detroit), 1875 
(Nat. Hist.), p. 112. This paper commences with the remark that 
considering the many dissections of 8. satyrus, made by eminent ana- 
tomists, our knowledge of its membral muscles and their homology 
with those of man and the higher apes remains astonishingly in- 
complete. Mr. Barnard prefers to compare the limbs in a posi- 
tion extending laterally, at right angles to the vertebral column, 
and parallel to each other, beHeving that all appearances of either 
" syntropic " or " antitropic " symmetry in the limbs are secondarily 
developed for functional purposes, and that care must be taken not 
to give those characters too great morphological value. He is 
also convinced that muscles are much more constant as to the rela- 
tive position of their origins than as to that of their insertions ; 
that the position of the origin has the greater morphological and 
homological value, and this leads him, contrary to ^e systems of 
anatomists genendly, to base the main groups of muscles on the 
groups of origins as limited by the osseous segments and parts on 
which they exist. Each of these are to be subdivided into subordi- 
nate groups, based on the groups of insertions as limited by the 
osseous segments or bones, of which he gives a tabular scheme. A 
fact of the greatest importance set forth in this paper is that most 
(and probably all) special, apparently distinct (so called "pro- 
prius'') muscles of the fore and hind limbs belong to, and are 
morphological partes of, certain of the so-called ^' communis " 
muscles, from which they have become differentiated off^ or isolated 
by loss of intermediate purts, so as to appear like distinct muscles 
in many animals, while in others they are still found in their primi- 
tive condition, being 'mere factors of " communis " forms, as is 
shown in these studies ; e.g,, extensor indicia longus proprvus and esc- 
tensor medii digiti are but parts of an extensor digitorum comnvunds 
profwndus; flexor polliois longus propriiM is only a part oiflsxor digi" 
torvm commtmis profundAis; extensor halluds hrevis is a factor of 
extensor digitorum brevis, <fec., &o. In the relationship of man to 
the apes the following conclusion is arrived at by Mr. Barnard, 
'' thskt physiologiccdly and teleologicaUy man stands &rther from the 
higher apes than those do from the lower ones of their kind, whereas 
morphologicaMy the higher apes rank nearer to man than to the lower 
apes." The muscles of Simia satyrus are then exhaustively con- 
sidered seriaMm and comparatively. 

" On the Mechanism of the Intervertebral Substance, and on some 
Effects of the Erect Position of Man." By A. H. Garrod, M.A. 
Proc. Zool. Soc. Lon., 1877, p. 48. An explanation is given of the 
mechanical advantages in the structure of the disks of fibro-elastic 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscellanea. 113 

tissue which intervene between the bodies of the vertebrae, and 
attention is then drawn to one or two points which are associated 
with the erectness of the carriage of man, in contradistinction to the 
horizontal and obliqne attitndes assumed by lower animals. 

Mr. Garrod considers "the simple cnrve, concave ventraUy, of 
the vertebral column of the higher apes was most certainly shared 
by the human progenitor. In the young child it is found to exist. 
In its attempts to assume the upright carriage this progenitor must 
equally certainly, have thrown the centre of gravity of its body 
directly above the hips, to do which it was necessary to bend the 
spine backwards. On account, however, of the thoracic region being 
rendered rigid by the attachment of its cage of ribs, and the sacrum 
being unmodifiable from its ankylosis, this flexion of the spine could 
only occur in the neck and loins ; consequently the spinal flexures 
in man may be explained upon the assumption that the dorsal and 
sacral ventral concavities are the similar curves of the ancestral 
type, retained on account of the mechanical obstructions to their 
removal, whilst the ventral convexities of the yielding cervical and 
lumbar regions are the means by which the centre of gravity in the 
erect position is carried to a point directly above the hip-joints. 

Mr. G^arrod further remarks that this assumption of a vertical 
attitude by a creature originally differentiated for a horizontal posi- 
tion of its body, has produced but marvellously slight inconvenience* 
If it had resulted in many, man could hardly have survived. One 
or two are, however, considered by the author as certainly traceable 
to this cause, including the painful tendency to prolapse, antiflexion, 
and retroflexion of the uterus in women, as well as crural hernia in 
both sexes, and inguinal hernia in the male. 

Other comparisons are made in this valuable anthropological 

The Straits Times and Overland Journal, dated Singapore, 
January 11, 1877, contains a notice and extracts from a pamphlet 

Snblished by Messrs. Thieme and Company, Sourabaya, written by 
Ir. P. C. L. Hartog, and addressed to the Sourabaya Trade Club, 
containing short extracts from the report of the voyages of the 
steamer '* Egeron '' through the Malayan Archipelago to New Guinea 
and the * ' Papoea " Isles, On the first voyage of the " Egeron," Cap- 
tain Hartog made an offer of a free passage to any official who might 
be deputed by the Governor- General of India to accompany him, and 
as the offer was accepted, an official report will doubtless be made 
upon the result. Amongst other interesting items may be mentioned 
some notes on the little known island of Timor-laut, situated between 
7° and S"* S. lat. and 132° and 133^ E. long. Agriculture prevails 
to some extent, maize and tobacco being cultivated. The natives 
are numerous, are a very lively and active people, and though they 
have been represented as crafty and treacherous, Mr. Hartog did 
not find them so, and also adduces, as an example of their character, 
that an English vessel was some time ago wrecked off the isle, and 
the survivors of the wreck were hospitably entertained by the 
VOL. vn. I 

Digitized by 



Anthropological Miscellanea. 

natives for a period of eight months. There nnfortunately seems, 
however, to be no attempt to describe the physical peculiarities of 
these people. 

These voyages being made purely for trading specnlation, and 
the results apparently being very satisfactory, we may expect soon 
to hear very much more of the islands and their inhabitants, but at 
the same time we must remember the inevitable alteration in primi- 
tive manners and customs which soon ensues after the advent of 
the trading company. Mr. ELartog also visited the north-west and 
west coast of New Guinea, and remarks on the extreme fertility of 
the soil and the great quantity of nutmeg trees. Along the coast, 
he says, " are the camps of the natives, called Papuans, who have 
direct intercourse with the merchants of Macassar. This people 
get the nutmegs from the Alifurus, the owners of the nutmeg 

" Ethnical Periods." By Lewis H. Morgan, of Rochester, N. Y., 
Proc. Am. Ass. (Detroit), 1875 (Nat. Hist.), p. 266. Mr. Morgan 
proposes the following classification of ethnical periods : — 


I. Period of savagery. 
II. Opening period of barba- 

III. Middle period of barbarism. 

IV. Closing period of barbarism. 
V. Period of civilisation. 

I. Status of savagery. 

n. Lower status of barbarism. 

III. Middle status of barbarism. 

IV. Upper status of barbarism. -< 

V. Status of civilisation. 


I. Status of savagery. 
II. Lower status of barbarism. 

III. Middle status of barbarism. 
rV. Upper status of barbarism. 
V. Status of civilisation. 

' From the infancy of the human 
race to the invention of pottery. 
''From the use of pottery to the 
domestication of animals in the 
Eastern Hemisphere; and in 
the western to the cultivation 
of maize and plants by irriga- 
tion, with the use of adobes 
and dressed stone in houses. 

From the domestication of ani- 
mals, Ac., to the manufacture 
and use of iron. 

From the use of iron to the in- 
vention of a Phonetic alpha- 
bet, with the use of writing in 
literary composition. 

From the use of alphabetic 
writing in the production of 
literary records to the present 
tiihe. It divides into ancient 
and modem. 

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Anthropological Miscdlama, 115 

" Arts of Subsistence." By Lewis H. Morgan, of Rochester, N. Y., 
Proc. Am. Ass. (Detroit), 1875 (Nat. Hist.), p. 274. The author 
commences by remarking, "The same great fact that mankind 
commenced their career at the bottom of the scale and worked their 
way up to civilisation through growth of knowledge, is revealed in 
an expressive manner by their successive arts of subsistence. Upon 
their success in multiplying the sources and increasing the amount 
of food, the whole question of human supremacy on the earth de- 
pended." Mr. Morgan considers it probable that the great epochs 
of human progress have been identified, more or less Erectly, with 
the enlargement of the sources of subsistence. Five of the sources 
are enumerated : — 

I. Natural subsistence upon fruits and roots in a restricted 

II. Fish subsistence. 

m. Farinaceous subsistence through cultivation. 

lY. Meat and milk subsistence. 
V. Unlimited subsistence through field agriculture. 

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07 THB 



April 10th, 1877. 
John Evans, Esq., F.E.S., Prmdmi, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective donors for the same. 

Foe the Libraet. 

From the SociiTT. — Proceedings of the Royal Society. Vol. XXV, 
No. 178. 

From the Editoe. — Mat^rianx pour FHistoire de THomme, Feb- 
ruary, 1877. 

From the Acadbmt. — Bulletin de T Academie Imp^riale des Sciences 
de St. Petersbourg. Tome XXIII, No. 2, 4to. 

From the Authoe. — Brochs and the Rude Stone Monuments of the 
Orkney Islands, By Dr. James Fergusson. 

From the Assocution. — Transactions of the Social Science Associa- 
tion, Liverpool, 1876. 

From the Royal Academy of Sciences, Amsterdam. — Verslagen en 
Mededeeungen der Koninklijke Akademie van Wetenschappen, 
Tweede reeks DeelX; Jaarbock, 1875 ; Proces-Verbaal, 1875-6. 

From the EorroE. — Revue Scientifique. Nos. 40 and 41, 1877. 

From the Editoe. — Nature (to date). 

The President exhibited two stone adzes from Bunnah, 
Captain Dillon exhibited flint arrow heads from Oxfordshire. 
The President and Colonel Lane Fox remarked on the above 

The following paper was read by the author. 

VOL. vn. K 

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118 A. L. Lewis. — On some 

On Some Eude Stone Monuments in North Wales. 
By A. L. Lewis, M.A.I. 

Last summer, during a stay of a few days in North Wales, I 
was enabled to visit some of the rude stone monuments with 
which the country abounds, and to observe the following 
particulars concerning them : — 

In the park of Plas Newydd, so beautifully situated on the 
Anglesea shore of the Menai Straits, stands a dolmen, pictures 
of which are perhaps more nimierous than of any other rude 
stone monument, Stonehenge and Kit's Coty House possibly 
excepted. It has often been called a Druidic altar, but it is 
obviously a sepulchral dolmen, and was doubtless covered with 
earth or stones in part or entirely. It consists of two chambers 
in a line running about N.E. and S.W., but not communicating 
with each other. The larger is at the north-east end, and has 
six upright stones still in position, two others being prostrate ; 
its dimensions are about 9 feet by 8 by 4J high, the extreme 
measurements of the covering stone being 12 feet by 10 by 4| 
thick. The smaller chamber is about 6 feet by 4 by 2\ high, 
and is covered by a stone 6 feet square by 1^ thick ; four of its 
supporters remain upright, and one is fallen, while a few frag- 
ments lie round about, which probably formed part of the walls 
of the chambers. The total length of the dolmen is about 24 
feet ; some of the stones are of a slaty nature, in consequence of 
which two have split beneath the weight of the covering stones. 
At a little distance in a north north-westerly direction is a 
pentagonal flat-topped stone, 5 feet high and 8 feet in thickness, 
which might possibly have served as an altar, but which has no 
apparent connection with the dolmen. 

On about the middle of the top of the Great Orme's Head is 
a tumulus, from 30 to 40 feet in diameter, and 10 or 12 feet 
high, at the southern edge of which stands a little dolmen, 
consisting of four upright stones, forming a pentagonal chamber, 
about 5 feet across and 4 high, the side to the south-east being 
open. Tliis chamber is only partly covered by a capstone 4 to 
5 feet in diameter and not more than one foot thick, and in its 
present appearance and dimensions is singularly like some of 
the Antas of Portugal, described and figured by M. Pereira da 
Costa, but it may be only part of a larger structure. Its most 
peculiar feature is its position, not in, nor upon, but by the side 
of a tumulus. It is not improbable that it may have been used 
like the Indian dolmens recently described by Mr. Walhouse, 
and which it seems to me to resemble, as a kind of shrine or 
covering for small objects of a sacred character. In this case 
its position by a probably sepulcliral tumulus might indicate 

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Rude Stone Monuments in North Wales. 119 

that it was a sort of memorial chapel. According to Stukeley, 
Kit's Coty House stood at the end of a long barrow, of which no 
trace now remains ; but this dolmen is much more like a 
sepulchral chamber than Kit's Coty House, which in my opinion 
never differed materially from its present condition. 

The third monument of the kind which I visited, is situated 
at Tyn-y-coed farm, Capel i&armon (above Bettws-y-coed), and 
differs from the two I have already described. It consists of 
three chambers, in a line nearly east and west, and communi- 
cating with each other. The western and central chambers are 
about 10 feet long, and the eastern 8^ ; the width varies 
from 5 J to 8^ feet, and the height is about 5 feet, 3 J of which 
are below the present surface of the surrounding tumulus. The 
western chamber is constructed of large, thin, slaty slabs, and is 
covered by a similar stone, 14 feet by 11, and not more than 
one foot thick. The other chambers are not now covered, but 
have preserved in them much more of the small, loose, flat 
stone work with which the spaces between the larger stones 
were carefully filled up. The north-east comer of the central 
compartment is cut off by two stones, and forms a little chamber 
by itself, and from the southern side of the central compartment 
a passage, some six yards long by one wide, runs to the outer 
edge of the tumulus. This passage is constructed, like the 
chambers, of slabs mingled with small uncemented masonry, 
and, as it narrows towards the top, the walls may have been 
continued upward till they met, at a height of 4 or 5 feet. 
This passage may remind us of the "portals," described by 
Dr. Lubach in connection with the " Himebedden " of Holland, 
being, like them, at the south side of, and at right angles to the 
chamber to which it conducts. Perhaps if it were carefully 
explored with the spade it might disclose some few relics of the 
builders. The remains of the tumulus are now surrounded by 
an uncemented stone wall, which did not, however, appear to me 
to be part of the original structure. 

At Aber, by the side of the road to the waterfall, is a single 
stone, 5 feet high by 3 by 2, in the middle of a circle, 18 feet in 
diameter, of small stones piled together and overgrown with 
vegetation. Looking nearly due south from this stone the 
beautiful fall of Aber is clearly visible, and looking in the 
opposite direction the sea appears between two hills, the stone 
being placed in the direct line between the two, but with regard 
to its antiquity and object I cannot say anything with certainty. 
The last monument which I have to describe, is a circle 
called Y Meineu Hirion,* on the Cerrig-y-Druidion, or hill of the 
Druids, next Penmaenmawr. I have not been able to ascertain 

• See wood-cut on page 120. 

K 2 

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Rude Stone Monuments in North Wales, 121 

how long the name Cerrig-y-Druidion has been in use, but if it 
could be traced back for even three centuries it would go far to 
show that the association of the Druids with the rude stone 
monuments is not, as has been suggested, a mere invention of 
the antiquaries of the last century. Y Meineu Hirion is 
composed of a small low bank of earth and stones forming a circle 
80 feet in diameter, on which stood some larger upright stones ; 
of these seven now remain upright, their dimensions varying 
from 3 to 5^ feet in height, and from 1 to 5 feet in breadth and 
thickness, and one, 8 feet long, lies prostrate; there are also 
sundry fragments and stumps. This monument, described in 
Grough's Camden's Britannia as one of the most remarkable in 
North Wales, is not unlike the Eoll-rich in character, but is 
smaller, and, so far as regards the circle itself, even insignificant. 
There is, however, one feature of very great importance, which 
is not noticed by Gough or Camden, but to which I will now 
call your attention. In my former papers on Rude Stone 
Monuments, I have dwelt often and at some length on the very 
frequent, if not entirely uniform, occurrence in connection with 
our British circles of a special reference to the north-east, either 
by single stones placed in that direction or otherwise, and on 
the probability, deducible from this circumstance in particu- 
lar amongst others, that these circles were places of resort, or 
in other words, temples, for sun-worship ; and I am gla^ to 
be able to say that this little circle of Meineu Hirion is no 
exception to this rule, but a rather curious exemplification of 
it. At Stonehenge and the EoU-rich, the outlying stones are so 
placed as to stand between the circle and the sun as he appears 
above the horizon on the morning of the longest day, but on 
the north-east of the circle of Meineu Hirion, the ground falls 
rapidly away into a deep hollow, on the other side of which are 
lofty hills, yet, 500 feet to the north-east, down in the vaUey, 
is a large stone, now prostrate, 9 feet long, by 5 by 2, and in 
the same direction, but about 400 feet further, is another pro- 
strate stone, 9 feet long, by 5 by 4. It might be suggested 
that, as the sun would not light these stones up in rising on 
Midsummer Day, the solar theory would be at faidt, but for the 
fact that they lead the eye directly to two hills on the other 
side of the valley, over the top of one of which, or more pro- 
bably between the two, the sun would rise on the longest day ; 
and, even were it not so, the reply would be obvious that 
customs often survive without strict regard to their original 
causes, and I think therefore that I am fuUy justified in claiming 
this case as a strong proof in support of what I have so 
frequently urged on former occasions. 
About 250 feet in a north-westerly direction from this circle 

Digitized by 


122 Discicssion. 

is a collection of small stones, without form or probable use 
that I could discover, but which I presume is one of the smaller 
circles said to exist in the neighbourhood of Y Meineu Hiriou. 


Mr. MoooBiDOE said : South Wales is especially rich in the so- 
called Dmidic remains ; and as far as mj own experience of 
cromlechs goes, I can testify in support of what has been so well 
said by Col. Lane Fox, that, out of many that have been visited by 
me, not one presented any indication of having ever been covered by 
a mound. The cromlech and a small space around are sometimes 
included by a ditch ; which would appear to negative the existence 
heretofore of a mound. It has been suggested that if ever that 
structure was covered, the earth may have been used as manure, 
but many of these cromlechs are on the wild mountain-top, and 
far away from any cultivation. 

Mr. Walhousb observed : That the small cromlech placed at one 
end of the long tumulus much resembled the rude shrines noticed 
by him in Southern India, where a capstone supported by a back 
and two side-slabs covered a rough image or lingam stone. 
Supposing the tumulus represented in the model to be sepulchral, 
the cromlech, which appears never to have been covered over by 
earth, might have stood as a shrine or sacellum at its end. The 
model of a large composite cromlech, apparently half-sunken in the 
earth, reminded him of the great cromlechs in Guernsey, that on 
FAncresse Common and the one called TAutel du Grand Sarazin, 
which were certainly originally subterranean and sepulchral. The 
other model exhibited by Mr. Lewis, a large tabular stone, sup- 
ported by lumps rather than slabs, seemed very like some remark- 
able structures on a mountain-top in the province of Coory in 
South India, which strongly suggested devotional or sacrificial 
rather than sepulchral purposes, and showed no traces of interments 
or of having been ever covered by a mound. 

Mr. Lewis, in reply, said there were no doubt stone chambers 
that had never been intended to be covered, and there were prob- 
ably others which had been left unfinished from some cause. He 
believed, in some parts of India, chambers were covered to the level 
of the capstone, leaving that stone itself exposed, and if such had 
been the case in Europe, those chambers which had been so slightly 
covered, would probably be the first to be denuded. The Pl^ 
Newydd dolmen might have been such a one, but he had no doubt 
it was intended to be more or less covered, and the ground inside 
was still a foot lower than the park outside. The Tyn-y-coed 
dolmen was still buried half its height in a tumulus. 

The President and CoL Lane Fox, and others, took part in the 

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Rev. Wm. Ross. — Gdtic and Maori Vocabulary. 123 

Models constructed by the Author of the dolmens described 
by him were exhibited in illustration of the paper. 

The following paper was then read by the Director : — 

Curious Coincidences in Celtic and Maori Vocabulary. 
By Rev. Wm. Ross, F.S.A.S., M.R.I.A. 

It may be difficult to find a race that does not, or did not a 
some st^e of its history, believe itseK to be aboriginal, its 
language the primitive speech, and its people autochthones 
avTox0ov€9. The more cultivated and literaiy of their 
chroniclers, historians, and scholars, have endeavoured to trace 
connexions and afl^ties between the tongues of their own people 
and those most highly esteemed, or generally regarded as of the 
highest antiquity. No language has in this respect, perhaps, 
a more curious literary history than the Celtic. David Malcolm 
of Duddington, thought that Hebrew, Syriac, Arabic, and Talmu- 
dico-Rabbinic were largely, indebted to the Celtic for some of 
their distinguishing characteristics, and that this ancient tongue 
was fitted to throw light on their structure and idiom. That it 
was closely allied to the original language spoken on the Isth- 
mus of Darien, he had little doubt of. Twenty-three words, 
most of them twisted into the most incongruous forms to suit 
his purpose, led him to this conclusion. One writer traced a 
connection with the Jaloffs in Africa, and another with the Leni- 
Lenappe of North America. Others maintained it was the 
parent tongue of Greek, Latin, Sanscrit, &c. Some maintain it 
is Aryan, and some as strongly assert it is not. I shall not now 
enter into that question, although I think Dr. Prichard's work as 
well as the labours of subsequent writers in the same direction 
has decided the question once for all. 

The following curious coincidences in form and meaning 
between the Celtic and Maori, while not given as a proof of 
affinity in the ordinary acceptation of the term, are suggestive, 
as prompting inquiry in a different direction, a direction in 
which philologists have as yet done little, if we except some of 
the interesting papers read for several years by Dr. Hyde Clarke, 
one of the Secretaries of this Section. 

Celtic. Maori. 

Ci, dog. . . . . . . . ku-ri, dog. 

Duine, man 

Beani ^^^„„ 
jj^^ I woman. 

lasg, fish 
Tri, three 

tane, a male. 

wahine, Venus. 

ika, fish, 
torn, three. 

Digitized by 


124 Rev. Wm. Ross. — Cdtic arid Maori Vocahdary. 

Nasg, tie 
Geur, sharp 
Thig, come 
Chi, see 
Gairm, call 
Seadh, yes 
Cend, first 
Cia, as, whence 
Thinge, towards 
Agus, and 
Ma, if 

Miann, desire 
Anmhuinn, weak 
Eirich, to rise up 
Gradh, love . . 
Suiridh, to woo 
Tuthadh, to thatch 
Cabhaig, hurry 
Cach, remainder 
Gib, to bend 
Coire, a kettle oven 
Gearradh, cutting 
Meanglan, branch 
Teth, hot 1 

Teothadh, warm J 
Uth, udd^r . . 
Rann, verse . . 

nika, tie. 

oro, sharpen 

tiki, to fetch. 

kite, see. 

karanga, to call. 

se, yes. 

katahi, for the first time. 

kohea, whither. 

whaka, in a direction to. 

hold, and also. 

me, if. 

amene, desire. 

anewa, weak. 

ara, to rise up. 

aroa, love. 

amaru, to woo. 

ato, thatching. 

kaika, to be in a hurry. 

k6ha, remainder. 

kopi, to bend. 

kori, oven. 

koripi, to cut. 

manga, branch of tree or river. 

tahu, to set on fire. 

u, udder, 
raranga, verse. 

The list might be very considerably extended. We know 
nothing of these words to connect them with Celtic. We do 
not know as yet their composition, roots, or history. They are 
coincidences worthy of at least being noted. Do they not suggest 
to us the possibility if not probability that many laiiguages and 
families carry with them still some of the characteristics of a 
pre-historic and primeval speech, the common patrimony of the 
human race ? They cany the form and feature, but the colour 
is different. So the language may still have much of a primi- 
tive character, while the exigencies of time, circumstances and 
relations have tended to mould, or modify words and expressions 
which originally own the same parentage. 

Digitized by 


Dr. John Rae. — Eskimo Migrations. 125 

A report by Mr. A. Mackenzie, on the Australian Languages 
and Customs, forwarded to the Institute by Her Majesty's 
Colonial Office, was then read, by the Director, but its publica- 
tion is unavoidably postponed, from press of matter, till the next 
Number of the Journal, 

April 24th, 1877. 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective donors of the same : — 

For the Libbart. 

From the Academy. — Atti della R. Academia dei Lincei, Vol. I, 
No. 4. 

From the Association. — Journal of the East India Association. 
Vol. X, No. 2. 

From the Author. — Sketch on the Origin and Progress of the 
United States* Geological and Geographical Survey of the 
Territories. By Prof. F. V. Hayden. 

From the Society. — Bulletin de la Soci^t6 d'Anthropologie de 
Paris. Vol. XI, No. 4. 

From Prof. F. V. Hayden. — Bulletin of the United States Geo- 
logical and Geographical Survey of the Territories. Vol. Ill, 
No. 1 ; Catalogue of Publications of ditto. Second edition. 

From the Editor. — Revne Scientifique. Nos. 42 and 43, 1877. 

From the Editor. — Nature, to date. 

Dr. John Rae read the following paper : — 

Eskimo Migrations. 

In the month of March, 12 years ago, two papers were read 
before the Ethnological Society, in which very different views 
regarding the migrations of the Eskimos were expressed. In 
the one, conclusions were arrived at and deductions drawn from 
known facts, without calling in the aid of fancy. In the other, 
theory and imagination * were the chief elements, supported by 

• Terms used by the author. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

126 Dfi. John Rae. — Eskimo Migrations, 

one or two facts of little or no value, towards verifying the 
writer's opinions, as I shall endeavour to point out. 

Mr. Clements R. Markham, the author of the last-mentioned 
paper, upheld the idea that the Eskimos, called Arctic High- 
landers, inhabiting the north-west part of Greenland, reached 
that place in almost a direct line vid the Parry Islands, from 
Siberia, without touching the American continent, as the 
following extracts will show. 

See "Arctic Papers for Expedition of 1875," folio 167. 

" The ruined yourts of Cape Chelagskoi (in Siberia) mark the 
commencement of a long march ; the same ruined yourts again 
appear on the shores of the Parry Group. A wide space of 
1,140 miles intervenes, which is as yet entirely unknown. If 
my theory be correct, it should be occupied either by a con- 
tinent or by a chain of islands, for I do not believe that the 
wanderers attempted any navigation, or that they indeed 
possessed canoes at aU. They kept moving on in search of 
better hunting and fishing grounds along unknown shores, and 
across frozen straits, and the march from the capes in Siberia to 
Melville Island, doubtless occupied more than one generation of 

"There is some evidence, both historical and geographical, that 
the unknown tract in question is occupied by land. A chief of 
the Tuski nation told Wrangell, that from the cliffs between 
Cape Chelagskoi and Cape North, snow-covered mountains 
might be descried at a great distance to the north. There are 
geographical reasons, which have been pointed out by Admiral 
Osborne, for the supposition that land, either as a continent or as 
a chain of islands, extends to the neighbourhood of the Parry 
group. The nature of the ice floes between the north coast of 
America, off the mouths of the Colville and Mackenzie and 
Bank's Lands, leads to a conclusion that the sea in which such ice 
is formed must be, with the exception of some narrow straits, 

" The ice is aground in 7 fathoms water, and the floes even 
at the outer edge, which are of course lighter than the rest, are 
35 to 40 feet thick. The nature of the ice is the same ^ong 
the west coast of Bank's Land. Such awful ice as this was 
never seen before in the arctic regions. The only way of 
accounting for its formation, which must have taken a long 
course of years, is that it has no suflScient outlet, and that it 
goes on accumulating from year to year. It must therefore be 
in a virtually landlocked sea, and this of course implies land to 
the north, as well as to the east, south and west. 

" Her© then is my bridge by which these people passed over 

Digitized by 


Db. John Eae. — Eskimo Migrations. 127 

from the frozen tundra of Siberia to the no less inhospitable 
shores of Prince Patrick Land, to the head of Wellington 
Channel and Baffin's Bay, and far into the unknown region. 
The theory of Eskimo migration is thus illustrated by facts in 
physical geography ! !" 

Before going further, it may be asked where are these facts in 
physical geography which Mr. Markham mentions with so 
much confidence ? 

We have not a single fact, except it be the report of the 
Tuchi Chief to Wrangell, that land had been seen far to the north 
of Siberia, which at the utmost stretch of the imagination could 
not be much more than 100 miles distant, or only one-twelfth of 
the distance separating Siberia from the Parry Islands. 

With regard to Admiral Osborne's views as to the great accu- 
mulation of large masses of ice on the west and north-west of the 
Parry Islands being caused by the sea being land-locked, no 
evidence could be more unfortunately chosen to prove Mr. Mark- 
ham's theory, as it indicates to my mind the very opposite state 
of things, namely, a vast extent of ice-covered sea, having little 
land, as I shall attempt to expledn later on. 

Let me now quote from Mr. Markham's paper, printed in the 
" Ethnological Transactions of 1865, folios 125 to 137." 

" First, the Arctic Highlanders are by evidence, n^t branches 
of any Eskimo tribe of America or its islands. The American 
Eskimos never go from their own hunting range for any 
distance to the inhospitable north. The American Eskimos 
live in snow huts, the Arctic Highlanders in igloos built of 
stone. The former have bows and arrows, the latter have none. 
The Boothians have sledges of rolled up sealskin, the Arctic 
Highlanders have sledges of bone." 

I must endeavour to reply to Mr. Markham's arguments in 
favour of his theory, taking them in detachments as it were. 

Mr. Markham says that the American Eskimos always live in 
snow houses. In the first place, this is at variance with fact, 
for all the Eskimos of America, west of the Mackenzie, along a 
coast line of many hundreds of miles, buQd their winter houses 
of wood. 

There are probably none of the human race that so readily 
adapt themselves to circumstances as the Eskimos. Assuming 
it as a fact, that they had formerly lived on the shores of 
Siberia, we find that their winter dwellings there had been 
formed of stone, earth, bones, &c. ; these bones are of such 
description as to prove that large marine animals formed a great 
porticm of the food of the people when in that locality, and con- 
sequently they had an abundance of oil and blubber to bum 
and keep their yourts warm. When these people in their 

Digitized by 


128 Dr. John Eak — Eskimo Migrations. 

migrations crossed Beliring Straits to America, they found 
quantities of drift wood, which they learnt, probably very soon, 
to use for house building, although up to the present time 
(according to Dr. Simpson) they bum no wood, but have oil lamps 
for heating and lighting purposes, because walrus, whale, and 
seal abound along this coast/ When some distance east of the 
Mackenzie Eiver, the wood and the whale, and the walrus 
disappear wholly, or are not easily obtainable. Then what does 
the Eskimo do under these changed circimistances ? He cannot 
build a wooden house, for he has not the materials ; if he built a 
house of stone, earth, bones, &c., such £is his ancestors used in 
Siberia, he has no oil with which to heat it ; his chief- food now 
being venison and fish which yield no blubber. He therefore 
does the wisest thing he could do, and builds a snow hut, 
which he knows is much warmer and more comfortable than a 
stone one, when he has no artificial means of heating it. 

Wandering eastward, to the shores of Hudson's Bay, we find 
the natives still using the snow dwelling. But when they 
reach the Greenland coast, what happens ? The Eskimos again 
finding themselves among animals that jrield them the same 
kind of food and large quantities of fatty matter, as they are 
believed to have had (on the evidence of the bones of animals 
found there) at their old quarters on the coast of Siberia, 
resume their ancient form of winter habitation, because with 
fuel, it is warmer than the house built of snow. 

One curious fact has struck me, and that is : the Eskimos from 
the Mackenzie Eiver, westward to Behring Straits, use the large 
woman's boat or Oo-miak ; eastward from the Mackenzie for a 
couple of thousand nules or so, no Oo-miaks are seen, until we 
come to Greenland and Hudson's Straits, where we again find 
them. One reason for this may be that when the Eskimos live 
chiefly on land animals and fish, they have not so much use for 
these luggage boats, which are sometimes large enough to carry 
several tons weight. 

This is rather a long digression, but I hope you will excuse it. 

The statement that the American Eskimos do not go far from 
their hunting range is not in accordance with fact, for I have 
known them travel northward some hundred miles in one 
season, and then had they heard of game still farther north, 
they would have followed it up. 

The American Eskimos use bows and arrows, because they are 
the weapons best suited for killing most of the land animals 
which form their chief food ; whereas the Arctic Highlanders 
employ harpoons and lances, because these are best for killing 
seals and walrus, &c., for which bows and arrows would be aU 
but useless. 

Digitized by 


Dr. John Eae. — Eskimo Migrations, 129 

The Boothiana use sledges of rolled-up sealskin, not from 
choice but of necessity, because they have little or no wood, and 
no large bones of the walrus or whale with which to construct 
them, as the Arctic Highlanders have. 

Mr. Markham goes on to say, " In proving that the Arctic 
Highlanders are distinct from the American Eskimos, I do not 
mean that they are not all of the same race, but that they have 
had no communication, since their ancestors left Siberia, and 
crossing the meridian of Behring Strait, wandered to the east- 

" The American Eskimo migrated at some remote period from 
Siberia, by way of Behring Strait. The migrations from the 
northern coast of Siberia were later. Their exodus took a distinct 
and more northern route along the coast of the Parry Islands to 
Greenland. We may infer that they (the Arctic Highlanders) 
did not come from the south, for the same reason that the 
American Eskimos have never gone north to the Parry Islands.'' 

So much for Mr. Markham's opinions in 1865. Let us now 
hear what he says in 1876 (see " The Academy," 2nd December, 
1876), when writing about the recent Arctic Expedition. 

" The existence of this sea of mighty floes to the north of 
Grant's Land, has caused a revolution in our notions of arctic 
geography, and has dissipated many cherished theories ! ! In the 
belief that there might be land, and occasionally navigable sea, 
over part of the unknown area, we had in imagination led the 
tribes which some centuries ago disappeared from Siberia, partly 
along the shores of the Parry Islands (an undoubted route), but 
partly also across the open polar sea and bird-frequented lands, 
which inaccurate information led us to expect in the far north. 
We now know that the latter was impossible. No wanderers 
ever crossed this sea of ancient ice. 

"Those vestiges which are scattered so thickly along the 
shores of the Parry Islands and Bank's Land, were doubtless left 
by wanderers from Siberia, but their route must have been along 
the edge of the Palaeocrystic Sea, not across its rugged and impas- 
sable surface. 

" The emigrants must have travelled along the coast of North 
America, crossed the strait to Bank's Land, and so have found 
their way along the shores of Parry Islands, where such 
numerous vestiges of them remain, to Baffin's Bay, &c." 

Thus the lapse of 12 years, or more probably the results of 
the recent Expedition, appear in a most unaccountable manner, 
to have changed completely every thought and opinion expressed 
by Mr. Markham in 1865, as the numerous and lengthy extracts 
from his writings show. 

His geographical and historical facts, upon which he built so 

Digitized by 


130 Dr. John Rae. — jEskimo Migrations. 

fine a superstructure, he himself has thrown to the winds, and 
liis imaginings, by his own showing, become the " baseless fabric 
of a dream," yet he endeavours to excuse his mistakes, by saying 
that he was led away by inaccurate information, information of 
" bird-frequented lands, &c.," of which no one could have known 
anything, for Mr. Markham tells us himself, that the whole 
distance of 1,100 miles from Siberia to the Parry Islands was 
" totally unknown ; *' where then can " the inaccurate informa- 
tion" have come from, unless conjured up by his own fertile 
imagination ? 

How the discoveries made by the Expedition of 1875-76, 
could have led to or produced so total a change in Mr. Mark- 
ham's opinions, it is most diflBcult to understand, unless it be 
that he is desirous of showing that sledge travelling over these 
so-called ancient floes, is perfectly impossible to healthy ex- 
perienced men, because it baffled a band of most gallant, but 
inexperienced sailors, not in health, but suffering from one of 
the most debilitating and painful diseases with which anyone 
can be aflBicted. I give this reason, at a venture, for I really 
can find no other. 

The scene of the labours of the recent Expedition was fully 
GOO miles distant at its nearest point from Mr. Markham's 
imaginary migration route, so that the state of the ice at or 
near the north shores of Grant's Land, could not have had the 
most remote bearing on the practicability of such route between 
Siberia and the Parry Islands, made apparently so easy by 
Mr. Markliam 12 years ago. 

Permit me to trespass a very few minutes more on your 
indulgence, by reading an extract from the paper read by me 
before the Ethnological Society in March, 1865, to which I have 

" All the Eskimos with whom I have communicated on the 
subject, state that they originally came very long ago from the 
west, or setting sun, and that in doing so they crossed a sea 
separating the two great lands. 

" That these people (the Eskimos) have been driven from their 
own country in the northern parts of Asia by some unknown 
pressure of circumstances, and obliged to extend themselves 
along the whole northern coast line of America and Greenland, 
appears to be likely, and that the route followed after crossing 
Behring Strait was of necessity along the coast eastward, being 
hemmed in by hostile Indians on the south, and driven forwaid 
by pressure from the west. When they reached the meridian 
of Bank's Land, they had in part crossed to it, and to Wollaston 
I^nd, and thence northward to the Parry Islands, on all of 
which we know that animal life in the form of musk cattle, 

Digitized by 


Dr. John Eae. — Eskimo Migrations. 131 

reindeer, and smaller game, abound. Travelling eastward, they 
finally reached Greenland by crossing the intervening straits 
and sounds, or by coming roimd by North Somerset, and thence 
across Lancaster Sound or Barrow Strait. 

"An ingenious theory has been started, to endeavour to 
show that Greenland may have been peopled by the Eskimos 
coming direct across the ice-covered sea from Asia to Bank's 
Land and the Parry Islands, but the, idea seems to have little to 
support it, beyond the supposition that there are many islands 
or much land not far distant to the north and west of these 
places. The reason assigned for this belief is the immense 
thickness of the ice forced on or ilear to the north-west shores 
of the Parry Islands, which it is supposed would drift away if 
not held in by land. 

" From the fact of the very great accumulation of ice in this 
position, I should arrive at the very opposite conclusion, namely, 
that to the north-west and west there was, instead of land, a 
large extent of sea, and that the pressure of great bodies of ice 
driven by the prevailing north-west gales had forced it into 
large heaps, so hard and fast aground, that for a great length of 
time no winds from an opposite direction could remove it." 

Such were my opinions twelve years ago, and their correctness 
has been rather confirmed than otherwise, by aU that we have 
since learnt, even to the conversion of Mr. Markham liimself. 

A Discussion took place, in which the President, Mr. Hyde 
Clarke, and others took part. 

Dr. Bae, in reply to questions by the President and others, said 
that he was not suflSciently conversant with the subject to offer an 
opinion of any great value as to whether the ancient people who had 
used the stone and bone implements found in France ana elsewhere, 
were Eskimofr or not. 

That question could be better decided by those distinguished 
men who had made the subject of Anthropology their special 

He should, however, infer that they were a different people, 
because, although the implements resemble each other, they do not 
do so more than might be expected, where a race of men, although 
not the same, have lived a similar kind of life, and had the same 
materials of which to construct their tools and weapons. 

The stones of which the lamps and kettles are made is found at 
various parts of the coast, frequently some hundred miles apart, 
and these form a valuable article of barter by the Eskimos in the 
neighbourhood of such localities. These lamps are found in use 
along the whole north coast of America, from Behring Strait to 
Hudson's Bay, and also, he believed, in Greenland. 

Digitized by 


132 R. B. ROLT,^ Earthworks at Portsmouth, Ohio, U.S. 
Mr. R. B. Holt then read the following paper : — 

The Earthworks at Poktsmouth, Ohio, U.S. 

Mr. G. S. B. Hempstead has sent a plan of the Earthworks 
at Portsmouth, Ohio, PI. IV, and a pamphlet respecting them. 

These works were evidently constructed by a very ancient 
people, and consist of extensive terraces, enormous mounds and 
ditches, long lines of parallel embankments, and models of 
animals on a gigantic scale. The terraces contain many 
hundreds of acres suitable for agricultural purposes, and were 
probably formed to facilitate such operations. The first rises 
47 feet above the water level. The second 19 feet above the 
first, and the third 37 feet above the second terrace. About the 
centre of the third terrace is the principal mound, which rises 
in its highest part 328 feet above the water level. Its length, 
including the arms, is 20,014 feet, and the width at its base 
from 100 1,320 feet. The north and south ends have been 

To the west is a large cross now wanting an arm, while point- 
ing towards the rising sun is a very long arm, which still retains 
the cross form most perfectly. 

Mr. Hempstead considers this mound is artificial, because 
"The stratification of the adjacent hills is wanting in this, 
and because the quantity of earth that has been removed 
between it and the river, is about what would be required for 
its formation." A most extensive view is obtained from the 
summit, particularly down the Scioto vaQeys to the Franklin 
country. Along this route is a series of moimds, which Mr. 
Hempstead suggests may have been used as signal stations, and 
from this he infers that at the time of their construction, 
the whole district was under one government. 

About two miles N.E. is an embankment from 12 to 15 feet 
high, about 2 miles long, and over 200 feet wide at the top. 
It is remarkable for having two semicircular indentations, and 
a mound near the middle of it. A short distance from the 
end of the long cross is an apparently defensive work, probably 
the citadel It consists of a circle with four openings, facing 
N.E. and S.E., N.W. and S.W. The walls are now only about 
2 feet high. Within this circle are two horse-shoe formations 
12 feet high, and measuring 105 feet at the open ends. Outside 
the S.E. gate are two other horse-shoes, 3 feet high, and 
measuring 12 feet at the open ends. These, with other mounds 
in the neighbourhood, seemed formed to guard the entrance to 
the space between the parallel embankments, which begin here 
and run parallel S.E. for about 4 mUes, much resembling the long 

Digitized by 


Jc AHT.AirtLpJt" "ioglg-'^t ,Vai.Vll .H..'.' 

uigiiizea Dy x,jv^v/v iv^ 

Digitized by 


R B. Holt. — Earthworks at Portsmouth, Ohio, U.S. 133 

walls of a Greek colony. He says, "I examined them 
as early as 1806, when they were from 3 to 8 feet high. 
When riding over these embankments, my horse would 
frequently break through the surface, and sometimes feU. 
This 6ccurred so often, that I became curious to know why 
they were so insecure. On examination, I foimd a cavity which 
had been occupied by two pieces of timber parallel to each 
other; these had decayed, and left the surface earth without 
support. This, with some other facts tending to the same 
conclusion, has convinced me that the parellel walls, and 
perhaps the mounds, were first constructed of timber, held 
together by cross ties, and then fiUed with surface earth. 
Constructed in this manner, there is sufficient material to have 
made a wall 4 feet thick, and 20 or 30 feet high. These 
dimensions seem a little out of proportion, and it would have 
been far easier to have constructed a waU of less height cmd 
greater thickness." 

The embankments run down to the river, and are continued 
on the opposite side till they reach a large circular work, which 
was probably a temple of the sun. Apparently a mistake has 
been made in constructing this part, as about half way a slight 
deviation is made, in order that the entrance into the sacred 
circles may face due west. This way edone gives access to the 
centre of the structure, the north, south and east entrances 
terminating outside the inner ditch. 

The outer circle measures 640 feet, the second one about 400, 
and the third about 300. In the centre of this innermost circle 
is a mound which rises 45 feet above the surroimding surface^ It 
has a spiral graded way leading to the top, which measures 50 
feet east to west, and 75 feet north to south. This probably was 
the high altar, and the ceremonies performed on it could be readily 
witnessed from the surrounding moimds. The temple then, con- 
sists of three embankments pierced by ways leading N.S.E.W., 
a centre mound and four ditches, the last to be passed only 
by the road leading from the citadel, the entire length of which 
was protected by parallel walls. 

About a mile and half west of the temple is a circular 
embankment, about 6 feet high, and an inner ditch about 12 
feet deep. It has a centre mound about 7 feet high and the 
entrance is from the south. 

Beside it is an enclosure in the form of an irregular hexagon. 
It measures 120 feet by 75 feet. When first observed the 
embankment was 4 feet high, and the ditch, which is also inside, 
3 feet deep. There are two entrances facing N.W. and S.E. 
Three quarters of a mile west is a mound 18 feet high, without 
either ditch or embpiikmen\ 

VOL. vu. L 

Digitized by 


134 R B. Holt. — Farthiaorks at Portsmouth, Ohio, U.S. 

All these had probably some connection ^idth the temple. 

From the end of the long cross the temple would mark the 
spot at which the sUn rose at the winter solstice, and a square 
enclosure, situated N.W., would mark sunset at the summer 

This enclosure has also four entraces, and they, like those of 
the temple, face N.S.E.W. Close beside it is an ovoid enclosure, 
measuring 459 feet by 390 feet. Within it is a mound in the 
form of a tapir. Whether this was an object of worship, a record 
of some event (like our own White Horses), or merely a work of 
art, cannot now be determined, but certainly such mounds were 
not sepulchral, as many have been removed without ever finding 
any remains of the dead. 

In this locality were several iron works which are now 
obliterated. Among others were the remains of furnaces, broken 
stones, burnt clay, ashes and coal, and, on excavating for the 
Ohio and Erie Canal, large sheets of mica were found here 
deposited in piles as if for use. Some industry may have been 
carried on, but as no actual implements seem to have been dis- 
covered in connection with this people, more probably it was a 
place for sacrifices or for burning the dead. Besides the parallel 
embankments going S.E. from the long cross, there are others 
running N.W. and S.W. from an oval enclosure, situated about 
a mile to the west of the citadel. Tlie N.W. ones reach the 
extreme west of the great mound. The S.W. ones terminate at 
the river, and in two places are expanded so as to form con- 
siderable enclosures. SmaU moimds are constructed at aU the 
ends, as if to fortify the entrances across the river, and nearly 
facing the end of the S.W. parallels is what has been known as 
the Old Fort. 

Of this Mr. Hempstead says, " The title ' Old Fort ' I consider 
a misnomer. A careful examination of this work must satisfy 
anyone that it was never intended as a protection against enemies 
from without. It is placed far from what was the centre of 
population (and there are no e\ddences of any occupants S.W. of 
it for many miles), so had the people found it necessary to repair 
to this place for protection, they would have found it very incon- 
venient. Admitting that the parallel waUs, extending S.W. from 
the main settlement, would have protected them in their 
retreat, a large river to pass would have been a great impediment 
to their progress. But the work was evidently never intended to 
keep anvtliing out, and is calculated to keep anything in after it 
has once been decoyed or placed there. The whole work is 
commanded from the River Hills, which are in close proximity 
on the S.E. side, where the wall is only 2 or 3 feet above the 
adjacent surface, while on the inner side it is 25 feet in height 

Digitized by 


R B. Holt. — Earthworks at Portsmouth, Ohio, U.S. 135 

An enemy having gained this eminence could annoy those 
within from all parts of the embankments, and could only be 
assailed from the gateways or the top of the walL There are 
many strong reasons for believing that this structure was intended 
to entrap those large animals which roamed over the hills and 
ranged through the valleys at that time. There are long arms 
extending more than a mile N.E. and S.W., with parallels only 
about 100 feet apart, and numerous gateways which furnish 
abundant means of entrance from without. As regards the 
people, Mr. Hempstead says, "that there were two races, a 
dominant and a servile one, cannot be doubted ; the skulls foimd 
in the small mounds are always brachy cephalic, while others 
foimd in gravel banks and other places, where the interments 
were apparently made without ceremony, are of the dolicho- 
cephalic cast. Some sixty years ago I assisted in opening 
eighteen or twenty mounds, whose elevations were from 3 to 
9 feet. In two of the small mounds we found two skeletons, 
in both cases a male and a female. 

" In the others were foimd remains of the dead. In the larger 
mounds were proofs of cremation, charcoal, ashes, burnt earth 
and burnt bones, only the phalanges of the feet and hands 
remaining entire (Qy. why ?). These were quite numerous, 
indicating that more than one body had been burned. An 
occasional lower jawbone in an entire state was found ; these 
were so large as to pass freely over the lower jaw of the largest 
and best-developed young man of our company. Besides the 
mounds, large burial pl^es are found. One field, containing six 
or seven acres, situated on the second terrace due west of the 
termination of the north-west parallels, was, fifty years ago, 
such a mass of human bones, that after ploughing, the surface 
was quite white with them ; another field of eight acres is of 
similar character. 

" Both these fields are very productive of stone axes, pipes, 
arrows, and spear heads, as well as a great variety of stone 
ornaments and implements. There are also isolated interments 
in the gravel beds, which lie a few feet below the surface near 
the top of the second terrace, and here entire skeletons 
are frequently obtained. 

" There are also cairns, situated in all cases upon the tops of 
the highest headlands. They are conical in form, and consist 
of stones, none of which are larger than a man could easily 
handle. These are thrown together promiscuously. The cairns 
never contain more than one skeleton, and are destitute of eCnj 
of the paraphernalia of burials of tliat period ; no aiTOw or spear 
points, no axes, no ornaments, not even a pipe, to console the 
occupant on his last journey. 

L 2 

Digitized by 


136 Discussion, 

Mr. Hempstead considers that an immense population once 
occupied this locality ; that they were good cultivators of the 
land, were acquainted with geometrical forms, and were more 
civilized than any prehistoric race yet discovered. 

The following note by Professor Busk on the photographs of 
skulls exhibited was also read. 

"The photographs show that the skulls belonged most 
probably, at any rate one of them, to a brachycephaUc race, 
and the contours correspond very closely with those of the 
brachycephaUc tj^e of Eed Indiems of which the Chinooks, 
Flat Heads, ancient Peruvians, and many other of the Indian 
races, afford Such well-known examples. The other photograph 
appears to belong to a different type, and is probably dolichoce- 

" Its chief peculiarity is the great o^ipital development The 
forehead is not reclined, as in the other figure, and is tolerably 
well developed. The face, however, would seem to indicate a 
somewhat savage type, i.e., one in which the facial region is 
largely developed ; and the opening of the nares would seem to 
indicate a broad coarse nose. On the whole, there can be little 
doubt that this man belonged to an Indian race, and with r^ard 
to the form of the cranium, it should be remembered that many 
more or less dolichocephalic races of Indians exist or have 
existed in the interior of the continent, though not, I believe, 
near the sea-board. 

"The Mandans,now, I imagine, extinct, belonged, if I remember 
rightly, to this form, and a similar conformation, according to 
Mr. Wilson, is still found in Canada, &c. 

" So far, therefore, as we can at all judge from such scanty 
evidence as that of the present photographs, it woidd seem not 
improbable that the same two forms of crania co-existed among 
the mound builders." 


Mr. F. A. Allen said that he had alluded to the antiquities in 
the Mississippi and Ohio valleys in a paper which he contributed to 
the Congres International des Am^ricanistes held at Nancy in 1876. 

The vast antiquities of the Mississippi valley might, he thought, 
be referred to a colony of the Brown Indians or Toltecs, who, in 
pre-Aztek times had occupied Mexico as far as the Colorado canon, 
and passed through Texas into the Mississippi valley, thence 
ranging as far north as Lake Superior. He thought all the 
earthworks, embankments, mounds, &c., might be illustrated by 
reference to the colonies and pueblos^ or communal houses of the 
Pueblo Indians, now rapidly dying out in Arizona and New 
Mexico, these Indians being probably the successors and imitators 

Digitized by 


List of Presents. 137 

of a more civilized race. In these 'pueblos we find large terraces, 
irrigated artificially, systems of defensive walls (like those of 
Ilnscala, China, &c.), watch-towers, temple mounds, and relics of 
son- worship. 

The Indians of Kentucky record traditionally the conquest of this 
superior race by their ancestors, and some details of the conflict. 
The Indians of Florida and G-eorgia had temples and palaces on 
high artificial mounds at the time of the conquest, and some of the 
others were probably "totems" or tribal-crests, and burial-mounds, 
analogous to the " huacas " of Peru." 

Mr. Holt, in reply, said he thought Mr. Hempstead was right in 
supposing that the structure known as the " Old Fort ** was a place 
for the capture or detention of large animals. 

He could not agree with Mr. Hyde Clarke, in believing that these 
coims were the burial places of heroes. The great men of this people 
seem to have been buried in mounds, and, as usual, with the arms, 
ornaments, and articles supposed to be of use to them in their long 
journey ; while in the cairns the interments were made without 
any such mark of respect. 

Dr. Eae exhibited an Eskimo lamp, and explained its use. 

May 8th, 1877. 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective donors for the same, 
and a special vote of thanks to the Vienna Government, and 
also to Dr. Karl de Scherzer for a complete set of volumes 
relating to the voyage of the " No vara ": — 

Foe the Library. 

Prom the Institution. — Journal of the Boyal United Service 
Institution. Vol. XXI, Nos. 89, 90. 

From the Academy. — Proceedings of the Davenport Academy of 
Natural Science. Vol. I. 

From the Institution. — Annual B»eport Smithsonian Institution, 
1875; Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge. Nos. 259 
and 287. 

From Professor F. V. Haydbn. — ^The Grotto Geyser of the Yellow- 
stone National Park. 

Digitized by 


138 Objects from Refuse Heap at SmyrTia, 

From the Society. — ^Verhandlungen des Naturhistoriscli-Medicmi- 
sclien Vereins zu Heidelberg. Vol. I, No. 1. 

From the Academy. — Bulletin de TAcad^mie Royale de Copenhagen. 
No. 2, 1876. 

From the Authors. — Caracteristique physique de la population de 
la Galacie. By Dr. J. Majera and Dr. I. Kopernicki ; Des 
pr^jug^s medicaux et des croyances superstitieuses du peuple 
en Cologne ; Le congres d'Arch^ologie et d*Anthropologie pr6- 
historiques k Buda-Pesth. By Dr. T. Kopernicki. 

From the Berlin Anthropological Society. — Zeitschrift fur Ethno- 
logie. No. VI, 1876. 

From the Austrian Grovemment. — ^Voyage of the " Novara." Anthro- 
pologischer Theil 1, 2, und 3 ; Zoologischer Theil 1. Bd. 1 
und 2, Abth., A. B., Text und Atlas ; Botanischer Theil, Bd. I ; 
linguist. Theil 1867; Geologischer TheU 1 und 2, Bd., 
Statistisch Commerciller Theil 1 und 2 ; Nautisch Physicali- 
scher Theil 1, 2 und 3 ; Medizinischer Theil 1, Bd. 

From the Editor. — Mat^riaux pour THistoire de THomme, March, 

From the Society. — P roceedings of the American Philosophical 
Society. Vol. XV, No. 96 ; XVI, 98. 

From A. H. Lewis, Esq. — Chart of West Africa. 

From the Editor. — ^Nature, to date. 

From the Editor. — Revue Scientifique. Nos. 44 and 46. 1877. 

Mr. Martin exhibited objects from a large refuse heap in the 
neighbourhood of Smyrna, and made the following remarks 
thereon : — 

On the 20th May, 1876, I visited Smyrna, and spent part of the 
few hours I was in that city in inspecting, at Mr. Hyde Clarke's 
suggestion, the supposed kitchen-midden. It is situated about a 
third of the way up the hill towards the castle. The hill is of hard 
rock, barely covered with soil, which rock is extensively employed for 
building purposes. The road is principally used by men quarrying 
the stone, and has exposed a large section of the heap. I had no 
means of measuring it accurately, but it is certainly several hundred 
feet long, and from 8 to 12 feet thick. 

In it I found bones, pieces of pottery, and layers of oyster and 
other shells, the oysters were remarkably massed together. Here 
and there were layers of charcoal, but I could find no trace of flints 
or of flint implements. 

The whole of the country at the back of the city is arch89ologically 
unexplored, sjid any light that can be thrown on the early history 
of Asia Minor is vcduable. 

I may mention that being above the city and wp the hill, the heap 
cannot be the refuse of the city of historic times, which appears 
always to have occupied its present position, and it would not have 
been possible that the thrown-out rubbish would be put up hill and 

Digitized by 


Discussion, 139 

not down, and we have no record of any city earlier than the one 
now existing, which has had a continuous life from the earliest 
historic times. 

Mr. Hyde Clarke, whose long acquaintance with the country 
makes him familiar with this place, will give you far more informa- 
tion than I am able to do, and I may conclude by saying that aU 
the fragments I have placed on the table were found in situ^ and 
none picked up from the surface. 

Mr. Hyde Clabke : The remains which Mr. Martin describes were 
on Mount Pagus, the Castle Hill, at Smyrna. What they are I do not 
profess to know, and I can account for them on no hypothesis. They 
have been observed by travellers, and have been described as a geo- 
logical formation, with beds of fossil oyster shells. My specimens are 
unfortunately lost, as are my notes, which I suppose I communicated 
to Mr. Murray. My attention was only called to this place during 
the latter time of my stay in Asia Minor. Speaking from memory, 
the deposits extend about 600 feet in length, and are in one place 
perhaps 100 feet broad. The essential peculiarity is the three thin 
layers of oyster shells, lying perfectly parallel for long distances. 
It is impossible to account for them by the supposition of the oysters 
being eaten in situ, or the shells being flattened by compression. 
With regard to the pottery, it is not easy to define the age, and 
it cannot be treated as Boman, because such pottery was made for 
ages in Asia. Samian ware is so called from the neighbouring island 
of Samos, where were found the clay beds in my time, and Samian 
and other potterv-making was learned by the Romans from the 
Greeks and Asiatics, and not by the Asiatics from the Romans. It 
would very naturally be supposed that the rubbish was thrown over 
the walls, or carted outside of the walls ; but then comes the question 
why were the oyster shells so carefully arranged ? It may be men. 
tioned that in Wood's *' Ephesus," a layer of oyster shells on a foun- 
dation is described. The date of the deposit must be Byzantine, or 
very ancient, possibly praa-hellenic, as the city of Smyrna has in most 
periods, as now, been on the sea-shore, and the Mount Pagus 
enclosure has only been occupied at the two epochs referred to. 
It is most desirable this place should be examined by visitors to 
Smyrna, as also the better-known monuments of the tomb of 
Tantalus opposite, described by Texier, the Niobe, and Mount 
Sipylus, the pseudo-Sesosti^is at Ninfi (Nymphae), and its lately 
discovered companion ; the site near Smyrna of the colossal head, 
brought to the British Museum by Mr. Dennis, and the remains 
behind Boujah. I long since pointed out Smyrna as a preB-hellenio 
r^on, and then I connected it with what I now call the Sumerian 
or Kiita-Peruvian epoch. The discoveries of Dr. Schliemann 
render it most desirable consequently to have a re-examination of 
the Smyrna district under another aspect, because it has been 
hitherto regarded as simply Greek. The name of Smyrna is most 
remarkable, and none the less that Samoma was a name given to 
an ancient quarter of Ephesus. It is undoubtedlv a Sumerian 
name. Sipylus is remarkable as possibly taking its name from 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

140 A. L. Lewis. — On a Bude Stone Mormment in Kent 

Suburu, Accad. a scnlpture, referring possibly to tbe Niobe. 
NymphsB is another notable name. To tbese most be added the 
neighbouring Ephesns, Samoma, Pygela, Maeander (Mdinare, 
Georgian, river), and a host of others. Smyrna and Ephesns were 
Amazon cities. Smyrna is the place most accessible from England 
where monuments of the proto-historic epoch, probably Khita- 
Lydian, can most readily be seen. 

Col. Lake Fox : The pottery exhibited by Mr. Martin has all the 
characters of Roman workmanship ; the piece of the handle of a jug, 
Ac., the lip of a bowl especially so, the small fragment of red Saraian 
certainly so ; none of the fragments at all resemble pottery belonging 
to the archaic period of Greece. The observation made by Mr. Hyde 
Clarke as to the layers of shells being stratified more or less, seems 
to me not at all improbable in the view of the mass being a refuse 
heap or a kitchen-midden. I have cut out several kitchen-middens 
at different times, and have usually found such deposits to present 
a stratified appearance. Shells or other refuse of a particular kind 
are often shot down in quantities at a time, then other rubbish comes 
upon the top, and the weight of the superincumbent mass presses 
the various deposits down into seams as if laid by water. 

The Peksidbnt, judging from the presence of so-called Samian 
ware among the pottery, the shape of some of the fragments, and 
the character of some wall-plaster, was inclined to regard the 
objects exhibited as of Roman date. He thought that the deposit 
was rather of the nature of a rubbish heap, such as frequently found 
in the neighbourhood of Roman sites, than of a kjokking-modding 
properly so-called. 

Mr. A. L. Lewis read a Note on a Rude Stone Monmnent in 
Kent, of which the following is an abstract. 

On a Rude Stone Monument in Kent. By 
A. L. Lewis, M.A.I. 

It may be doubted whether, out of every 10,000 visitors to 
Elites Coty House and the fallen dolmen called the *' Numbers," 
100 visit the stones in Addington Park (some 7 miles oflf), 
which are figured by Camden £is two circles, but which were 
more probably dolmens, one of which had an avenue at least 
180 feet long, running in a south-westerly direction from it, 
and both which have been more fully described by me in 
" Anthropologia " (p. 511 et seq.), 

K, however, 100 visitors out of 10,000 go as far as Addington, 
not more than 1 out of that 100 goes to or even hears of a yet 
more curious collection of stones at Colderham or Coldrum 
Lodge, which is about 2 miles from Addington, and one and 
a-htdf from Snodland Station, 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Discussion. 141 

Here, on the summit of a steep slope, some 20 feet or more 
above a private roadway belonging to the farm, lie thirteen stones 
of a medium size, almost touching each other, which may have 
formed the north-western half of an oval; and about 15 feet 
from which to the north-east lie three stones, which, if any of 
them are in their original positions, foUow the rule for outlying 
stones which I have so often shown in previous papers to exist 
in our English circles. About 12 feet from the spot where 
the south-eastern half of the oval (if oval it were) would have 
stood, are the remains of what was no doubt a sepulchral 
chamber. Two stones, 9 to 10 feet long, 5 to 7 feet high, and 
1-| to 2 feet thick, stand about 5 feet apart, forming the sides 
of the chamber, and parts of the stones which formed the end 
nearest the oval also remain, but the other end projects over a 
small precipice about 10 feet deep, caused by the slope 
before-mentioned having been dug away or having slipped ; and 
at the bottom of this precipice are scattered about ten stones of 
various sizes, which have no doubt fallen or been thrown down 
from above, where they probably formed part of the chamber or 
of the oval, which seem to have been two distinct erections. 

While speaking of the Kentish monuments, I may mention 
that the proprietor of a small domain about a mile from Seven- 
oaks Station has thought fit to adorn it, at great expense, with 
(inter alia) a great number of large blocks of granite, arranged 
in circles and otherwise. At the present time there is no danger 
of these being mistaken for ancient monimients, but in the 
course of years they may become less readily distinguishable 
from the genuine articles, and in that case some speculation 
may be aroused by the unusual manner in which they are 
arranged ; and the presence of a classic pillar amongst them 
may even be brought forward as evidence in support of 
Dr. Fergusson's theories. I think it may, therefore, be worth 
while to put on record the true origin of these spurious imita- 
tions, the construction of which is, in my opinion, as much to be 
regretted as is the occasional removal of original monuments 
from the place where they were erected to some other, for the 
gratification of the fancies of those who have unfortunately 
become their proprietors. 


Mr. Htde Clabke said that the name Colderham suggested the 
association of Cold Harbour. The application of Cold in Cold 
Harbour, and in such names of Germanic places, remained undeter- 
mined. He had greatly extended the copious list begun by Mr. 
Hartshome, and had added other members to the series. So far as 

Digitized by 


142 Dr. John Rae. — Eskimo Skulls. 

he had seen, a Cold Harbour, or a " Cold " site, was commonly near 
a Roman road or site ; but looking to our present knowledge, he 
thought there was ground for further investigations. Harbour, in 
most cases, signified militarj station or camp. " Cold '* was a dis- 
tinctive term applied by our forefathers to the harbour and other 
sites. The suggestion he would make to pre-historic and archa90- 
logical inquirers was this : Is the term cold to be found, as in Mr. 
Lewis's case, in the neighbourhood of a pre-historic monument, and 
if so, did our forefathers distinguish between a Roman camp, or sta- 
tion, which was a Chester, and the abandoned pre-historic camps, 
or stations. Although he had stated now aud previously that Cold 
Harbours were situated near Roman roads and sites ; yet these 
would in many cases represent pre-historic or Sumerian sites, for 
just as the Roman civilisation was destroyed by the English 
invaders ; so was the previous civilisation of Sumerian epoch de- 
stroyed by the Celts in Britain and Ireland. 

Mr. Lewis said, in reply, that the name Colderham was also, and 
perhaps more frequently, spelt Coldrum. The greatest objection 
to viewing the stones in their present position, as forming part of 
the original plan of one monument of any form whatever, was that 
while those which he had called the oval and the sepulchral 
chamber were on a level plateau, and probably in sitdy the remainder 
were at the foot of a steep slope 20 feet deep, down which they 
had probably fallen or been thrown. 

Dr. John Rae then read the following paper : — 

^ Eskimo Skulls. 

I HAD the privilege of attending the series of admirable lectures 
so ably given by Professor Flower at the Royal College of 
Surgeons a few weeks ago, on the " Comparative Anatomy of 
Man,'* from which I derived much useful information, ami on 
one point, very considerable food for thought. 

I allude to the wonderful difiference in form exhibited between 
the skulls of the Eskimos from the neighbourhood of Behring 
Strait, and of those inhabiting Greenland, the latter beiuj^ 
extremely dolichocephalic, whilst the former are the very 
opposite — brachycephalic ; the natives of the intermediate 
coast, from the Coppermine River eastward, having meso- 
cephalic heads. 

Why this difiference ? and which is the true Eskimo type ? 

We have no knowledge, as far as I am aware, of the Eskimos 
using any means in the form of bandages or otherwise, to change 
the shape of the skull; indeed, the heads of the Eskimo children, 
whenever I have seen them, have been left singularly free in 


Digitized by 


Discussion, 143 

infancy from pressure of any kind, less so than most little ones, 
their usual cradle being the hood of the mother's coat. 

It is well known that the Western Eskimo, by which I mean 
those near Behiing Strait — are now and have been for a very 
long period of time, on terms, if not of friendship, at least of 
acquaintanceship sufficiently intimate with the Indians to visit 
and barter with each other, and there is said to be evidence of 
mixture of the races. If this is true, it may have aided 
in producing the form of head found among these Eskimos ; the 
head of the American red man being brachycephalic. 

We know that for at least a hundred years, and it may be for 
a much longer period, the Eskimos frequenting the American 
coast from the Coppermine Eiver eastward to Hudson's Bay, 
have been at constant and deadly feud with the Indians, and 
that no friendly relations of any kind has taken place between 
them until very lately. There is, however, a tradition among 
the Indians near the Coppermine, that the Eskimos on one 
occasion carried off a yoimg girl of their tribe. This may be true, 
for there is one family of Eskimos in that locality which struck 
both Thomas Simpson and myself as having something unusual 
in their appearance, being taUer than, and having features different 
from those of their neighbours. This, however, was the only case 
of the kind we noticed. 

But how do the Eskimos of Greenland get their long heads ? 
If the ancient colonists who went from Iceland to Greenland 
many hundred years ago, and who were believed to have been 
all destroyed by the Sknelings (Eskimos), were dolichocephalic, 
the question might perhaps be answered ; for it is by no means 
improbable that these lost people may have had Eskimos as 
domestics, or may have taken their women as wives, in the same 
manner as is done at the present day by the Danes, whose blood 
is now so largely mingled with that of the natives there. The 
Sknelings also when they destroyed the settlements may have 
carried away some of the women and childi-en as captives, a 
common occurrence in all (especially savage) warfare. 

If there is any foundation in fact for the theory I have sug- 
gested, the pure type of Eskimo is to be found among those 
inhabiting the coast from the Coppermine River, eastward to 
the shores of Hudson's Bay, who are said to have heads inter- 
mediate in form between those on the extreme west and the 
natives of Greenland. 


Mr. Harrison : Is the deformation artificial ? 
Dr. Bae : No, as far as I am aware. The head of the Eskimos 
child is never tied up like that of the Indian of America. 

Digitized by 


1-44 Discussion. 

Mr. Clarke : Has Dr. Bae observed difference between half- 
blood and trae Eskimos ? 

Mr. Evans : Might not the carrying in the hood produce the 
ridge shape ? 

Dr. Rab : I can only give ideas, as I have no measurements. I 
take a fact for showing perpetuity of type in them by the Fair 
Isle people, who are said to resemble the Basques, in consequence 
of a mixture of blood when one of the Spanish Armada was 
wrecked on that island. They still dye with native dyes and 
manufacture woollen in the same manner as the Basques are 
said to do. I believe the GreenJanders came from the west. 
They conld only get it (the form of head) by crossing. The hood- 
carrying of children applies to all Eskimos, as far as I know, and 
would bkely affect all alike. 

Col. Lane Pox : Do they differ in stature or colour ? 

Dr. Rae : Not greatly. They are not a small people, their legs 
being comparatively short make them appear so. 

Some discussion followed on the change of physical form in 
America and Australia. 

Dr. Bbddob: It is possible that there was an admixture of 
Norse blood in the Eskimo of Greenland, prior to the Danish settle- 
ment there. The Eskimo traditions lately published by Dr. Rink, 
in his recent work on "Danish Greenland,*' supply additional 
and more direct evidence in favour of this view, not by any direct 
statement as to intermarriage, but by the kind of intercourse which 
they seem to imply as existing between the Norsemen and Skrall- 
ings. The long roof-shaped skull of the Eastern Eskimo, could 
hardly however have resulted from an Icelandic cross. There are 
two types in Norway, round-headed and long-headed respectively, 
the longer heads abounding near the coast, and belonging to the 
ruling and colonising race. One would expect the Icelanders to 
belong chiefly to this long-headed type, and some measurements 
of Dr. HjaltaJin, taken for me, rather bear out this view ; but 
Captain Burton speaks of them positively as broad-h^suied. 
Certainly they would not be so long-headed as to account for the 
Greenland form of head. 

Col. Lane Fox : The fact introduced to our notice by Dr. Rae, that 
the skulls of the western Eskimo are brachicephalic; those of Green- 
land and Labrador, dolichocephalic, and those of the intermediate 
tribes of transitional form between the two, is, so far as I know, new 
to Anthropology it is at least new to me, and if founded on sufficient 
observation, appears to me very important; I concur with Dr. 
Beddoe in thinking it hardly possible the mixture of Norwegian 
blood in the East could have been sufficient to produce so marked 
a change. All observation and tradition seems to point to the 
West as the source of the Eskimo migration ; and it would be 
curious if it turned out that in America as in Europe, a brachy- 
cephalic people followed and pressed outwards a smaller dolicho- 
cephalic race. I should be glad if Dr. Rae could tell us whether 

Digitized by 


Dr. Beddoe. — On the Aborigines of Central Qiieensland. 14'5 

there is any difference in the stature or colour of the Eastern and 
Western Eskimo. 

Mr. Lewis would ask Dr. Beddoe whether the broad-headed 
people of Norway, to whose Lappaffinities he had alluded, were 
not of a much greater stature than the Lapps ? Dr. Simms, of 
New York, a very intelligent observer, considered the mixture of 
Bed Lidian blood in the United States to be much greater, both in 
amount and influence, than was generally supposed. 

Dr. Bbddob : Not conspicuoubly. I judge from physiognomy 
that the round-heads are darker, and are partly of Lappish or 
Finnish descent. As to stature I cannot speak. 

Dr. Bae, in reply, said : Never having myself taken measure- 
ments of Eskimo skulls, I am wholly dependent upon, and take 
my facts from, skulls shown and most ably described by Professor 
Flower at the Museum of the Boyal College of Surgeons, believing 
such information to be the most trustworthy that could be obtained. 
This very short paper does not profess to discuss the subject of 
which it treats, its chief if not its only object being to draw atten- 
tion to what appears to the writer to be an interesting question in 

Dr. Beddoe then read the following paper : — 

On the Aborigines of Central Queensland. 
By Dr. Beddoe, F.RS. 

The subject of the brief paper I am about to read, is not one 
with which I have any personal acquaintance : I have merely 
put together some of the materials which have been imparted 
to me by Mr. Eobert Christison, who holds a large tract of land 
near the head- waters of the Thomson and Landsborough Rivers, 
stocked chiefly with sheep, but partly with cattle and horses, 
and who has been settled in that part of the colony about thir- 
teen years. I think it probable that there is no man in Queens- 
land (unless it be a few who are oflBcially connected with the 
aborigines) who has had so much to do with these people in what 
•may be called their wild state. 

It is important therefore to state that in Mr. Christison's 
opinion, the current estimate of the moral, if not also of the 
intellectual status of these people, is very much too low. The 
aborigines of Queensland, and indeed of aU Australia, are 
stigmatised as irreclaimable, and incapable of gratitude, affection 
or attachment to their white masters or neighbours ; as thievish 
and bloodthirsty, and thus dangerous to the property and lives 
of the whites • as incapable of anything like steady, honest. 

Digitized by 


146 Dr. Beddoe. — On the AhorigiTies of Central Queensland. 

continuous work, and therefore useless to the settlers ; and 
finally, as very sparingly endowed even with those social virtues 
whose objects are limited to their own people, such as conjugal 
and parental afifection. 

Mr. Christison's experience traverses every point of this 
indictment more or less completely. 

Within a few years of his settlement on the lands he 
occupies, where he was the earliest European invader, he 
succeeded in establishing friendly relations with a tribe who 
had dwelt there, called Dalleyburra, and nimibering about 300 
in all; and by a judicious mixture of firmness, justice and 
kindness, established himself as their ruler. Considerable 
numbers of them have been employed since then, in tending 
herds, sheep and cattle, in sheep-washing, bark-stripping, timber- 
cutting, and various other occupations. 

Women and children have been employed as weU as men ; 
and, as might perhaps have been expected, the women are at 
least as useful as the men for hard or continuous work, such as 
attending sheep in the lambing season, and the like. Consideiv 
able alterations in their other habits have of course taken place, 
more or less directly connected with the acquisition of new 
habits and methods of labour. One of these is that of course 
they have learned to smoke and enjoy tobacco, and have thus 
estabHshed a new artificial want, which, as it links them on to 
the European dispenser of this luxury, is useful as supplying a 
motive to labour, and may conceivably be morally beneficial. 
The use of alcohol remains happily unknown. European 
clothing is adopted to some extent ; shirts and blankets at aU 
events are highly appreciated ; and the cleanliness of the 
natives employed about the station is said to be decidedly in 
advance of that of the lower class of Europeans.* 

Sheep-stealing occurred, and caused some trouble, in the early 
days ; cases of this kind were always carefully investigated 
and punished ; and nothing of the kind has now happened for 
several years. 

Conjugal and parental affection appear to be strongly 
developed in both sexes. Quarrels of course occur, and 
occasionally the husband may chastise the wife ; but this is * 
not common, and the tie between them is in the main one pf 

• It is noteworthy that they are rapidly dropping the use of their own lan- 
guage as they acquire the English, or a form of English ; and that their own 
commimications with each other are largely carried on in the new tongue. The 
same is the case with imported Polynesian labourers. When we know that the 
number of Englishmen employed on Mr. Christison's stations has always been 
very small, the work having been almost entirely performed by natives or by 
Polynesians, we must recognise in this rapid change of language a very remark- 
able fact. 

Digitized by 


Dr. Beddoe. — On the Aborigines of Central Queensland. 147 

affection. Instances have happened in which a father or mother 
has sold a boy to a travelling squatter or other European ; but 
inasmuch as the property supposed to be alienated invariably 
re-transfers himself, according to a previous arrangement, in the 
course of a day or two, such transactions are evidence of what 
Uncle Sam would call smart dealing, and not of want of 
parental feeling. 

When kindly, justly, but firmly treated, individuals become 
strongly attached to their white master. When accompanying 
him on exploring expeditions, they have been known, provisions 
running short, to refuse their scanty rations for successive days, 
rather than suffer their master to want. It is noteworthy, con- 
sidering the nature of the country and climate, that in Mr. 
Christison's opinion the so-caUed blacks are less able to bear 
thirst and the deprivation of water than white men, though they 
can go longer without solid food. 

Many of the men are of good stature, some perhaps 6 feet 
high, with good muscular development, even of the legs, but no 
fat. They are like a well-known personage, not nearly so black 
as they are painted : the deep colour being in a great measure 
due to the constant use of an unguent of powdered charcoal and 
snake-fat, or iguana-fat, not with a view to adornment, but to 
comfort, as it prevents the cracking of the tender skin in their 
hot and dry climate. Snake-fat is highly valued, and much of 
it is husbanded for this purpose, though from the scarcity of fat 
in most kinds of food attainable, it is also esteemed a great 
culinary luxury. In fact, snakes furnish a great portion of their 
food ; all kinds are eaten, venomous and harmless ; but the 
blackman always carefully smashes the head to pulp with a 
stone. In the treatment of snake bites he shows a knowledge 
and skill hardly to be expected. Thus, a bite having been 
received near the ankle, he ties a ligature roimd the limb, and 
then scarifies it deeply in a circle above the wound. 

I have already mentioned that the Australians cannot long 
endure thirst. The fact that numbers of them have been found 
in districts where Europeans perished, or ran the risk of perisliing, 
for lack of water, is to be accounted for solely by their minute 
and accurate acquaintance with the signs of tlie presence of 
water, which enables them to discover it where white men fail 
to do so. They are knowing as to the qualities of water, and 
are aware of the risk of drinking cold water too hastily in large 

Their spears, tomahawks, waddies and other weapons much 
resemble those used in other parts of Australia. Their boome- 
rangs, in the use of which they have a skill quite unattainable 
by a white man, are small, and have a smaller cur\^e than some 

Digitized by 


148 Discicssion. 

brought from South Australia. The same curious quadripartite 
division of the tribe exists here as elsewhere in Australia, with 
the recognized object of preventing in-and-in breeding. 


Mr. Evans : Is it the fact that these people are lighter than the 
South Australian blacks ? 

Mr. Christison : Yes, I think so. 

Mr. Harbison : Are the infants fair P 

Mr. Christison : Yes, almost white. 

Dr. BsDDOE : But the hair is always black ? 

Mr. Christison : Yes, always black and curly. 

Dr. Beddoe : They talk English to each other P 

Mr. Christison: Yes, the young people do, and even the old 
ones sometimes. 

Dr. Rae : Are they ffreat eaters ? 

Mr. Christison : Omy at first ; but when they have become used 
to rations and regular meals, including bread or damper, they are 
very moderate eaters, perhaps more moderate than Europeans. 

Col. Lane Fox having taken the chair, said: He felt sure the 
meeting would wish to return their thanks to Dr. Beddoe for his 
interesting communication, as well as to Mr. Christison for the infor- 
mation upon which the paper had been based. In a country where 
the arts of the aborigines are bo generally uniform as AustraHa, 
minute differences, sach as a resident only is likely to notice, are 
of great interest ; by such observations, we shall in time be able to 
map out all variations that have taken place in the different parts 
of the continent, and perhaps trace them to their sources. The 
remark that natives suffer more from thirst than Europeans, is 
singular and unexpected; one would imagine, that in a country 
where such great scarcity of water exists, natural selection would 
liave produced a race capable of great endurance in this respect, 
but the reverse appears actually to be the case. 

Mr. Lewis remarked that the skins of the natives of Queensland 
seemed to be much lighter than those in South Australia, judging 
from the photograph of the former then exhibited, as compared 
with photographs of the latter in his possession. 

The meeting then separated. 

Digitized by 


The President. — Antiquity of Man, 149 

May 22nd, 1877. 
John Evans, Esq., F.R.S., Prmdent, in tJie Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

Francis A. Allen, Esq., of Clapham, and Thomas Palmer, 
Esq., of Chislehurst, were elected members. 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective donors for the same : — 

For the Library. 

From the Author. — The Physical Requirements of Factory Children. 

By Charles Roberts, F.R.C.S. 
From the Author. — Historique de TAnthropologie. By Dr. Paul 

From the Sociitt. — Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania 

for 1875. 
From the Society. — Proceedings of the Royal Society. Vol. XXVI, 

No. 179. 
From the Academy. — Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei. Vol I, 

No. 5. 
From the Association. — Journal of the Royal Historical and 

Archaeological Association of Ireland. Vol. VI, No. 29. 
From the Society. — Bulletin de la Soci^t^ d'Anthropologie de 

Paris. Vol. XII, No. 1. 
From the Editor. — Revue Soientifique. Nos. 46 and 47, 1877. 
From the Editor. — ^Nature, to date. 

• The President 

Bnt addressed the meeting on the present state of 
the Question of the Antiquity of Man. 

We are met this evening for the purpose, not so much of 
reading papers before this Institute, as for a conference on the 
present state of tlie question of the antiquity of man. The state 
of that question is very different now from what it was in 
the year 1859, when the late Dr. Falconer, Mr. Prestwich and 
myself first brought it forward before the British public. 

It is now no longer difficult to get evidence accepted as to the 
antiquity of man. The danger rather lies in the other direction, 
and we are liable to have evidence brought forward relating to 
discoveries bearing upon the subject which is hardly trustworthy. 
In all questions of this kind extreme caution is necessary. We 
may in the course of the discussion this evening hear something 
with regard to the development of language and civilisation, and 
the time necessary for producing those results which we find to 
have been attained in the earliest liistorical periods; but after 

VOL. vn. M 

Digitized by 


150 The President. — Antiquity of Man, 

all, our chief points of discussion and the proofs of the antiquity 
of man will principally lie within the domain of the archaeologist, 
the anthropologist and the geologist. No one of those it appears 
to me is sufficient by himself to offer a very strong opinion on 
any given discovery unless he possesses the somewhat rare 
combination of the acquirements of alL The archaeologist, 
for instance, may determine an object as being a work of human 
art, or the anthropologist may say that a certain bone belongs to 
the human frame, but imless the geologist is satisfied as to the 
nature of the deposits in which the object was found, there is an 
end to the question. In the same manner the geologist may 
testify to the antiquity of deposits, but if the archseologist 
pronounces the stone found in them to be merely a product of 
nature, or the anthropologist determines the bone exhumed from 
them to belong to some other memimal than man, again the 
question drops. The question, however, whether ceitain beds 
are pre-glacial, inter-glacial, or post-glacial, lies entirely within 
the province of the geologist, and we may hope to hear 
something definite with regard to at least one disputed case from 
the eminent geologists who have favoured us this evening with 
their company. Besides observations as to the objects, above 
all things care and caution must be observed with regard to the 
facts of the discoveries themselves, for there lies what appears 
to me to be a very possible and indeed fertile source of error ; 
for human bones, or humanly- worked implements may belong to 
far more recent periods than the deposits in which they are 
foimd, and in which they might have been buried. Objects 
from the surface are also liable to get mixed with those from 
lower beds, and we cannot always trust to the observations of 
ordinary workmen. This source of error should more especially 
be guarded against in the case of cave deposits, in which may 
be foimd interments of a later date than the flint or bone 
instruments in the surrounding soiL I am not at present going 
to enter into any question or arguments as to facts. After these 
papers have been read, the whole subject will be open to 
discussion, and if at the close of the discussion I can oflFer any 
remarks of service in unravelling the question, I shall be happy 
to do so. I may, however, even now allude to discoveries in 
other countries of similar character to those made in England. 
I may for instance cite the discovery of the Abb^ Bourgeois at 
Thenay near Pontlevoy, of implements to which he attributes a 
miocene age. There are also discoveries by Capellini in the 
neighbourhood of Sienna, of bones of a whale which he regards 
as having been cut by the hand of man. In this case there is a 
question as to whether the objects found are of pliocene age or 
of more recent date. There is also the discovery of the human 

Digitized by 


Boyd Dawkins. — Antiqmty of Man, 151 

skull, " the Crano dell' Olmo," in a bed regarded as pliocene ; but 
there appears to me to be a doubt as to the position of the skull, 
and, moreover, there appears to have been found with it a very- 
fine flint lance-head which is probably neolithic. Then again, 
there is that interesting discovery at Wetzikon, in the neigbour- 
hood of the lake of Zurich, described by Professors Eiitimeyer 
and Schwendener. In this instance what are regarded as cut 
staves of wood, and others with shavings twisted round them, 
have been found in lignite presumably belonging to an inter- 
glacial period in Switzerland. Then again there are the 
quartzite implements which have been discovered in the 
lateritic deposits of Madras. 

In these discoveries the whole question turns upon the 
geological age of the deposits, and all are fair elements in the 
case to be brought forward this evening. There is but little doubt 
that inasmuch as the human race had, in a climate such as that 
of Britain in quaternary times, been able to subsist, to fabricate 
such implements as we now find, and even to have attained no 
moderate skill in the art of sculpture, they may have been 
colonists or wanderers from the original stock whose home was 
under a more favoured clime. 

There is little doubt also, that of these earlier members of the 
human race, remains will eventually be found. In the meantime 
each successive discovery or even presumed discovery must be 
received in a cautious, thought candid spirit, even if eventually 
we have to carry it to what is called in the City a " suspense 
account ;" but looking to the many sources of doubt and error 
which attach to isolated discoveries, I cannot but think that our 
watchword miLst for the present be " caution, caution, caution." 

The following papers were then read by the authors: — 

On the Evidence afforded by the Caves of Great Britain 
AS TO the Antiquity of Man. By Professor BoydDawkins, 
MA, F.E.S. F.G.S., F.S.A. "" 


I. — Introduction. 

II. — ^Nature of Evidence. The Caves of Creswell. 
m. — ^Mixed Fauna xmiversal in British Bone Caves. 
rV. — ^Mixed Fauna cannot be accounted for by Glacial -^ons. 
V. — ^Mized Fauna can be accounted for by Seasonal-Migration 

VI. — ^PalsBolithic Man of the Caves belongs to Northern Ghroup of 

Pleistooene Animals. 
VII, — ^Pabdolithic Man of Late Pleistocene Age. 

M Z 

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152 Boyd Dawkins. — Antiquity of Man. 

Vni. — Belation of Pleistocene Species to Glacial Age. 
IX. — Arctic and Temperate Species both Pre- and Post- Glacial. 
X. — Some Caves liave been inhabited by Man in Post-Glacial 

XI. — Evidence of Victoria Cave as to relation of Man to Glacial 

period nnsatisfactory. 
XII. — Some PalflBolitbic Caves probably older tlian Post-Glacial 

Xm. — Alleged proof that Palaeolithic Man is not Post-Glacial 
fonnded on Southern Forms and distribution of Species. 
XIV. — Glacial Phenomena no guide to Age in Non-Glaciated 
XV. — Palasolithic Man of Caves of Late Pleistocene Age, Post- 
Glacial, and possibly Pre-Glacial as well as Glacial. 

I. Introduction. 

It falls to my lot this evening to open the discussion on the 
antiquity of man, by bringing forward the evidence offered by 
the discoveries in pleistocene caves in Britain. It has been 
recently argued that all palaeolithic deposits both in caves and 
river-beds are of pre- and inter-glacial age, or in other words, 
date back to an antiquity vastly more remote than that post- 
glacial period to which they have been referred by Lyell, 
Prestwich, Evans, and others. 

The argiunent is based on the mammalia, their distribution, 
and on those conditions of life which are said to be inconsistent 
with those of post-glacial times. This I propose to examine so 
far as relates to the cave-fauna, leaving that of the river-beds, 
and whicli may be dealt with by physical evidence, in far abler 

Before, however, dealing with the subject, I would say that 
the antiquity of man is one which is not to be measured by the 
system of chronology used by the historian, but by the sequence 
of those physical and biological changes which are so familar to 
the geologist. 

Beyond the historical record, past time can not be estimated 
in terms of years, because we do not know the length either of 
the interval separating any two events, or of the time necessary 
for the changes which mark the hour — to use a metaphor — on 
the geological dial 

II. Nature of Evidence. The Caves of Creswell. 

The nature of the evidence offered by the bone-caves may be 
best estimated by taking a particular case. I shall, therefore, 
take as a type of palaeolithic caves in Great Britain, those of 
Creswell Ci-ags, which have recently been brought before the 
Geological Society by the Eev. J. M. Mello and myself, not 

Digitized by 


Boyd Dawkins. — Antiquity of Man. 153 

merely because they were the last explored, but because, in 
many respects, they oflfer evidence of singular value. 

The well-wooded crags of Creswell rise on either sid'C of a 
small lake, and are penetrated by a series of horizontal caves, 
two of which, the Eobin Hood and the Church Hole, furnished 
palaeolithic implements, in strata which were arranged in the 
same order in both. On the rocky floor a layer of light coloured 
sand, without fossils, the result of the decomposition of the rock 
below, formed the baae of the lower ossiferous strata, which 
consisted of red sand and clay, averaging about 3 feet in 
thickness, and containing numerous stones and fragments of 
fossil bones and teeth. These were all scored and marked 
by teeth, in such a manner as leaves no doubt that the animals 
had fallen a prey to hysenas, and been dragged off to be eaten 
piecemeal in their dens. They were scattered irregularly 
through the sand and clay, which was the result of the 
flooding of the caves from time to time, when the stream flowed 
past their entrances at a slightly lower level, instead of some 
20 feet below, as the present stream would do were it not 
formed into an artificial lake. They belong to the following 
ftniTnala : — 


Irish Elk. 

Spotted Hysena. 










To this list must be added Man, who left behind him a few 
roimded quartzite pebbles and flakes of quartzite, of the rudest 
and roughest sort. The whole group points out that savages of 
a low order visited the district from time to time following the 
chace, that they drove out the normal inhabitants, the hyaenas, 
which returned, however, to their dens after he went away. In 
this manner the intimate association of the implements and the 
fragments left by the hyaenas, may be satisfactorily explained. 

Above the red sand there was a fine red loam, the 
upper part of which was in some places represented by a 
limestone breccia. Throughout these numerous fragments of 
bone, some gnawed by hyaenas, others broken and scratched by 
man, were associated with charcoal and burnt bone, and 
implements of quartzite, fliint, and ironstone, of types well 
known in this country £tnd on the continent. Some of those of 
quartzite and ironstone were of precisely the same form as those 
from the river-gravels of Brandon, Bedford, and Hoxne. They 
are identical with those found in f ituice, from St. Acheul, near 

Digitized by 


154 Boyd BiLWKim.—Antiquitij of Man. 

Amiens, as far south as the district round Toulouse, and always 
in association with mammoth, reindeer, and woolly rhinoceros. 
Implements of flint were very numerous, flakes, scrapers, lance- 
heuds like those of Solutr^, awls or borers, and the like. There 
were also bone awls, a well-finished bone needle, variously cut 
and notched bones and cylindrical rodg of antlers. And lastly, 
the incised figure of a horse, drawn with remarkable spirit upon 
a rounded and polished fragment of rib, of the same type as 
those found in the caves of France and Switzerland. 

The animals associated with these remains are the fol- 
lowing : — 

Machairodus. Eeindeer. 

lion. Irish Elk. 

Wild Cat. Bison. 

Leopard. Horse. 

Spotted Hyaena. Woolly Rhinoceros. 

Fox. Mammoth. 

Wolf. Hare. 


Above the strata contedning these remains was a layer of 
stalagmite ranging from 1 foot to a few inches in thickness. 

From the distribution of the implements in these strata, it was 
evident that the human occupation consisted of three distinct 
stages. The few rude and rough implements in the red sand 
imply the use only of quartzite. During the time of the deposi- 
tion of the lower part of the red loam, man used quartzite and 
flint, the latter of which, according to Mr. Binney, is to be met 
with within a distance of 40 miles. While the breccia and the 
upper cave earth were being accumulated the implements and 
weapons were fashioned out of flints, although quartzite was 
stiU used for hammer-stones. To this stage belong the figure of 
the horse, the most elaborately-worked flint implements, and the 
greater part, if not all, of the implements of bone and antler. 

A sequence of palaeolithic remains of this sort has not, so far 
as I know, been obtained from any other bone-cave either in this 
country or on the continent. To my mind at least it implies a 
distinct progress in the arts among the cave-dwellers, while the 
fauna above-mentioned remained on the whole without change. 
In Kent's Hole also, the implements found in the breccia at 
the bottom are of a ruder form than those which have been met 
with in the cave-earth above. 

III. Mixed Fauna Univebsal in British Bone Caves. 

In the list of mammalia given above, it will be observed that 
there is a mixture of species, some of which are extinct, such as 

Digitized by 


Boyd Dawkins. — Antiqwity of Man, 155 

Ae mammoth, the woolly rhinoceros and Irish elk. Others are 
now living in temperate climates, such as the horse and bison; 
others in hot countries, such as the spotted hyaena and the lion ; 
while one, the reindeer, which is very abundant, is now only living 
in the cold region of the north. This mixed fauna is one which is 
to be met with imiversally in the bone-caves of this country, 
and with one exception, that of Baume in the Juiu, in those also 
of France, Germany, Switzerland and Belgium. 

In some caves in this country, such as Kirkdale, Victoria 
and Raygill, in Yorkshire, and in those of Cefh near St. Asaph, 
and in those of the Mendip Hills, we find the hippopotamus 
associated with the remains of the above-mentioned species, while 
in others we meet with northern forms, such sua the lemming, 
lagomys, arctic fox, and glutton, in like association. In the caves 
of Auvergne, Professor Lart^t detected musk sheep along with the 
same forms, an arctic animal found in this country in the river 
strata along with the mixed faima above-mentioned. The species 
composing this mixed fauna occur in the caves of Britain in the 
closest possible relation to each other. In none do we find 
the southerp group of animals in one situation and the northern 
in another ; 'bat they are found mingled together either just aa 
they were left by the hyaenas or by palaeolithic man, or as they 
were introduced by a stream, or by the falling in of animals 
into swallow holes, as the case may be. 

On this point the experience of Buckland and Falconer is 
amply confirmed by my own. Nor is the reputed case of the 
Victoria Cave an exception, in which a southern fauna with 
h)rBena, rhinoceros, and hippopotamus is stated by Mr. Tidde- 
man to be met with below the horizon of reindeer. While the 
exploration was under my charge, the reindeer was determined 
from the stratum in question, in 1872, and published in the 
British Association Eeport for that year, which apparently haa 
been overlooked in the succeeding reports. It is not to be seen 
in the collection from the cave in the Giggleswick Grammar 
Schocd. The same intimate association of northern and southern 
forms is observable in a large number of river-strata, as may 
be seen by my lists published in 1869 ("Quarterly Journal 
Geological Society,*' p. 199). 

rv. This Mixed Fauna cannot be accounted for by 
Glacial -^ns. 

How can we account for this remarkable association of animals ? 
The question relates directly, as will be seen in the sequel, to the 
age of palaeolithic man. Is it to be explained by the hypothesis 
of Messrs. James Geikie, Croll and others, that the southern 

Digitized by 


156 Boyd Dawkins. — Antiquity of Man. 

animals inhabited Britain in a w£irm inter-glacial period, while 
the northern forms were here at another time after an interval 
of 5,000 (Geikie, " Ice Age," 2nd edit., p. 523), or of 12,000 (CroU, 
" Climate, and Time ") years, or a glacial seon ; and that the strata 
containing their respective suites of remains have afterwards been 
mixed up together ? This conclusion is negatived by the fact 
that there is not the least mineral difference to be observed 
between the remains of the southern and northern forms. Were 
it true, surely some one of the numerous British bone-caves 
would offer us some fragments of the imdisturbed strata necessary 
to the hypothesis. When we £ire asked further to apply this 
explanation, not merely to the caves but to the river-strata, it 
seems to me that we are asked to believe more than we can 
reasonably be expected to believe without having some proof 
of the existence of the undisturbed strata in question with 
separate suites of animals. "De non apparentibus et non 
existentibus eadem est ratio." In the case of one animal, how- 
ever, the spotted hyaena, the co-existence of which in Britain 
with the reindeer, is considered by Mr. James Geikie an impos- 
sibility (p. 512), we have full proof that northern and southern 
species lived in Britain at the same point of time. In twenty- 
eight out of thirty-one ossiferous caverns the two are found side 
by side, and in the great majority of tl\ese the gnawed- bones 
and antlers of the reindeer show that that animal was the 
common food of the hysena. 

The fact that the southern and northern forms are associated 
together, not in one, but in aU the British bone-caves, seems to 
me to be fatal to the view of migrations, at widely separated 
intervals of time, a view which is unsupported by any of the 
numerous discoveries in caves on the continent' north of the Alps 
and Pyrenees. 

V. Mixed Faunas may be explained by the Seasonal- 
Migration Hypothesis. 

The intimate association of northern and southern forms in the 
caves and in the great majority of river deposits, may reasonably 
be accounted for by the seasonal-migration hypothesis held by 
Lyell, and worked out in detail in my treatise on " Cave Hunt- 
ing," by the overlapping of northern and southern faunas, accord- 
ing to the ever- varying summer heat and winter cold, over what 
was then a vast continent extending from Northern Africa to 
the hundred-fathom line off the coasts of Ireland and Scotland. 
In the summer the lion, CaflBr cat, spotted hysena, and hippopo- 
tamus would advance northwards ; in the winter, the reindeer, 
musk sheep, lemming, tailless hare, glutton, and arctic fox would 
swing southwards. 

Digitized by 


Boyd 1)awkins. — Antiquity of Man. 15? 

K reference be made to my map of the distribution of pleisto- 
cene mammalia over Europe ("Quarterly Journal Geological 
Society," 1872, p. 436), it will be seen that Europe is divided into 
three zones ; (1) that north of a line passing eastwards from York- 
shire in the direction of Hamburg, in which no southern forms are 
met with; (2) that south of the above line, and ranging as fax as the 
Alps and Pyrenees, in which the faunas are mixed ; (3) and lastly, 
that to the south of the above mountains, in which no northern 
forms occur. The middle zone then is the debatable ground 
between the northern and southern faunas, and every inch of it was 
probably contested not once but many times, according to the 
many and little-understood changes in the climate during the long 
period in which the pleistocene faunas had possession of Europe. 
The evidence seems to me to prove that the zoological provinces 
respectively of the reindeer and of the hyaena and hippopotamus 
were throughout this period contiguous, but that the position 
was continually shifting as the climate changed. 

VI. Palaeolithic Man of Caves belongs to Northern Group 

OF Animals. 

With which of these faimas are we to associate the paleeolithic 
man of the British caves, with the northern or the southern ? The 
answer is no uncertain one. On the one hand, we find that the 
remains of the reindeer are found in every cave in this country, 
and on the continent north of the Alps and Pyrenees, in which 
palaeolithic remains have been recorded. They are so abundant 
in those of central France, as to have given rise to the 
term, " the reindeer period." On the other hand, the only case 
on record of palaeolithic implements being found in a cave, side 
by side with hippopotamus, is in that at Pont Newydd (Cefn), 
about 3 miles from St. Asaph. They are invariably associ- 
ated with reindeer, and casually with the hippopotamus, Elephas 
antiquus, Rhinoceros hemitcechus, and the other southern species 
in the mixed fauna of the middle zone. 


At what time then in the pleistocene age did the reindeer 
invade the area under consideration ? 

The pleistocene fauna, as I have shown in another place, may 
be divided into three groups : — 

1. The early pleistocene, represented mainly by the faima of 
tlie forest-bed of Norfolk, and characteiised by the presence of 
most of the temperate fauna of the cave and river-bed, of animals 
such as beaver, stag, roe, Iiish elk. The cert^idie principally 

Digitized by 


158 Boyd Bawkins. — Antiquity of Man, 

belong to the tropical fauna of the axis and rma types, 
which are survivals from the pliocene age. No northern 
mammalia are present. 

2. The middle pleistocene, represented by the brick-earths of 
Erith, Crayford, Ilford, and Grays Thurrock in the lower Thames, 
and the deposit at Clacton. Deer of the axis and rusa type are 
absent ; lUiinoceros megarhinus is present; Elephas 7)iei*idionalis 
and Rhinoceros etruscus had retreated to the south. The stag, 
elk, roe, fallow-deer {Var Cervus Broumi), bison and urus are 
among the more important of the even-toed ruminants. 

3. The late pleistocene, characterised by the true arctic 
mammalia, the reindeer, musk sheep, and others being the chief 
inhabitants of the middle zone. 

It is obvious that the palaeolithic men of the caves belong to 
the least of these three divisions. 

VIII. Relations of Pleistocene Species to Glacla^l Age. 

The cause of these changes in the pleistocene faima is to be 
sought in the lowering of temperature in the north, which culmi- 
nated in the ice-sheet, or confluent glaciers of the glacial period. 
As the ice crept southwards it would push the animals south- 
wards also. First the temperate group appeared among the 
pliocene survivals, and the arctic group was pushed as 
far as the Alps and Pyrenees and the shores of the Medi- 
terranean. When the temperature rose, and the ice retreated to 
the north, or to the top of the higher mountains, the arctic 
group retreated also. 

IX. Aectic and Temperate Species, Pre- and Post-Glacial. 

On this view, the temperate and the arctic pleistocene species 
must have invaded Britain, fleeing before the advance of the ice, 
and following up its retreat ; in other words, must have been 
pre- and post-glacial. Proof of this is offered on the one hand 
by the forest-bed fauna of Norfolk, and by the mammoths and 
reindeer found in the Scotch drifts, and on the other, by the 
animals found in the river-gravels, wliich are later than the 
boulder-clays of Bedfordshire and Essex, and which extend with 
scarcely a break through the non-glaciated ai'eas of the continent 
to the southern limit of the middle zone. 

X. Some Caves have been inhabited by Man in Post- 
Glaclax Times. 

It is obvious therefore that it is impossible to infer either the 
pre- or post-glacial age of man from a consideration of the 

Digitized by 


Boyd Dawkins. — Antiquity of Man, 159 

mammalia associated with paleolithic implements, apart from 
physical evidence in each paulicular case. Evidence of this 
kind is to be seen in the Pont Newydd Cave already alluded to, 
in which palaeolithic implements are associated with remains of 
hysena, bear, reindeer, Rhinoceros hemitcechus and Ulephas aniiquus. 
dioncUis and Rhinoceros Etmscers had retreated to the South, &c. 

The strata in which these are found are composed of materials 
derived firom the sands and gravels of the middle drift, 
which underlies the upper boulder-clay of the surrounding 
districts, and occupies large tracts in Cheshire and Lancashire. 
This point is proved by the discovery of felstones in the lower 
strata, to which Professor Hughes called my attention last 

It is therefore certain that here we have proof of the cave 
having been filled after the deposition of the " middle drift ; " and 
since man and the animals found in it could not have inhabited 
the district while the upper boulder-clay was being accumulated 
upon it, we may conclude that they were in Denbighshire after 
the deposition of the upper boulder-clay, or in other words, that 
they are post-glaciaL 

XI. Evidence of the Victoria Cave as to relation of 
Man to Glacial Period Unsatisfactory. 

The Victoria Cave adds nothing to the evidence or to the 
relation of pakeoHthic man to the glacial period, since the small 
fragment of fibula, what is taken by Mr. Tiddeman to prove that 
" the Cavern savage lived before the great-ice sheet, and before 
the great submergence," is considered by Professor Busk to be 
doubtful, and insuMcient to be a basis for any such conclusion. 
I believe it to be ursine, on grounds which were recently brought 
before the Geological Society. Were it human, it may be 
remarked that the relation of the deposit in which it was found 
to the glacial age is a matter of dispute, on which opinions 
are about evenly balanced. 

XIL Some PALiEOLrrHic Caves Probably older than 
Post-Glacial Times. 

It does not however follow that because Pont Newydd Cave 
was probably inhabited by reindeer after the glacial period, that 
all palaeolithic caves are post-glacial. While the ice crowned 
the higher hills of Wales and Northern Britain, caves and caverns 
further to the south, such as Kent's Hole and Brixham and 
those of the Mendip Hills, may have sheltered the palaeolithic 
hunter. And even during the maximum development of the ice- 

Digitized by 


160 Boyd t) awki:^s. — Antiquity of Man. 

sheet over Northern Europe, man may have hunted, and pro- 
bably did hunt, the reindeer in Aquitaine and Provence. There 
he may have been, to use the nomenclature of the glacialists, 
pre- inter- and post-glaciaL 

XIII. Alleged Proof that PALiEOUTHic Man is not 
Post-Glacial, founded on Southern Forms and Distribu- 
tion of Species. 

It remains now to examine the alleged proof that palaeolithic 
man is not post-glacial, advanced by Mr. James Geikie.* The 
argument is founded on the assumption, first, that the hyaena, 
lion, and hippopotamus associated with him could not by any 
possibility have lived in the same area with the reindeer and 
other northern creatures, be the seasonal extremes what they 
may, and that therefore they lived here at a warm period, of 
which there is no evidence after the glacial age; and that 
therefore this period is pre-glacial, coincident with an inter- 
glacial seon. 

" By slow degrees," he writes, " the cold of winter (glacial) 
abated, while the heat of simimer increaaed. As the 
warmth of summer waxed the arctic mammalia gradually 
disappeared from our valleys, and sought out northern and 
more congenial homes. Step by step the climate continued to 
grow milder, and the difference between the seasons to be less 
distinctly marked, until eventually something like perpetual 
summer reigned iu Britain. Then it was that the hippopotamus 
wallowed in our rivers, and the elephant crashed through our 
forests ; then, too, the lion, the tiger, and hyaena became denizens 
of the English caves ;"* 

" Such scenes as these continued for a long time. But again 
the climate began to change. The summers were less genial, 
the winters more severe. Gradually the southern mammalia 
disappeared and were succeeded by arctic animals. Even these, 
however, as the temperature became more severe, migrated 
southward, until all life deserted Britain, and snow and ice were 
left in undisputed possession. Once more the confluent glaciers 
overflowed the land, and desolation and sterility were every- 
where I"* 

By a similar method as that by which the perpetual summer 
is inferred, by a judicious selection of animals from among the 
cave-fauna, a perpetual winter may be argued for the reindeer, 
musk-sheep, and the like, or a temperate climate from the 

• " Ice Age I " 2nd edit., p. 662. The tiger has not yet been found in 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

Boyd J) a.-wki'^s.— -Antiquity of Man. 161 

stag, bison, horse, and most of the wild animals now living in 
Britain. And when we add further, the fact that palaeolithic 
remains in the caves north of the Alps and Pyrenees, are 
invariably associated with the reindeer, and that that animal 
supplied the men of the caves with food and materials for 
implements, it will be seen that the perpetual summer 
hypothesis is untenable. I know of no facts, either physical 
or biological, in support of any warm climate in central and 
northern Europe since the disappearance of the deer of the 
types of Axis and JRusa, and the antelopes of the pleiocene. 

The distribution also of the mammalia is urged in support 
of the view that palaeolithic man is not of post-glacial age, and 
therefore either inter- or pre-glacial. There are certain areas in 
Britain in which the marks of recent glaciation are the freshest, 
and in which the fauna of the caves and river-beds is conspicuous 
by its absence. This is taken to prove that originally the 
animal remains were distributed alike over the mountains of 
Wales, Scotland and Cumberland, and the high grounds of the 
North generally, and that they have been removed from those 
areas by the extension of the ice. The view which I advanced 
in 1871 (" Popular Science Eeview " and " Cave Hunting," 1874) 
still seems to me a better explanation of the facts, that the 
non-glacial lowlands were inhabited by the animals, while the ice 
covered the glaciated areas, in the second ice, or glacier period. 

XrV. Glacial Phenomena no Guide to Age in Non- 
Glaclal Districts. 

The physical changes of the glacial period are so little under- 
stood even in such a limited area as Britain, that they are a fertile 
subject for discussion among geologists. Even if they were 
thoroughly mastered, it seems to me that they would offer no 
means of testing the age of palaeolithic man in non-glaciated areas, 
or those in which the majority of the ossiferous caves and river- 
strata are to be found. The glacial period further, is not a hard 
and fast line dividing one fauna from another. The classifi- 
cation by means of ice is one thing, and the classification by 
means of animals is quite a diflferent thing. 

XV. The PALiEOLrrnic man of Caves of late Pleistocene 
Age Post-Glaclal, and possibly Older. 

In these remarks, I have approached the subject of the 
antiquity of man from the stand-point offered by zoology, and by 
the principles of homotaxy. According to the evidence of the 
associated mammalia, the palseolithic man of the caves belongs 

Digitized by 


162 T. MoKenny Hughes. — Antiquity of Man. 

to the late stage of the pleistocene, when the arctic animals were 
present in this country and on the continent in full forca 
He may have been in Europe before, and while the ice covered 
large tracts of land in this country, North Germany and 
Scandinavia, or in pre-glacial and glacial times, and he was 
an inhabitant of the Denbighshire caves after the ice of the 
second ice-period had passed away from that r^on. 

On the EvfeENCE afforded by the Gravels and Brick-eabth. 
By Prof. T. McKenny Hughes, M.A. 

Prof. Hughes said: I will confine my remarks to the East 
Anglian district, in which it has been stated that evidence of 
the existence of man before the close of the glacial period has 
recently been found. I have no reason to doubt the finding of 
the implements in the beds from which they are said to have 
been procured. Their occurrence in the section near Brandon 
has long been known, and also in many similar deposits through- 
out East Anglia. The only point that is new, is the assertion 
that these beds are of glacial age. 

The question is entirely geological, and must be answered by 
an appeal to sections. I mil endeavour to explain these in such 
a way that any one who wishes to go into the details may 
readily find the important points. 

I shall use the word glacial in a wide sense, so as to include 
everything, from the b^inning to the end of the last time, when 
conditions of extreme cold prevailed in the area in question, or in 
adjoining areas so situated that by supplying ice, or influencing 
the climate they must have directly and greatly affected the area in 
question, I avoid entering into the controversy as to whether 
there were one or more periods of extreme cold in late geological 
times, and also whether man may not have lived in France or 
Africa or a lost land in the Indian Ocean, while glacial conditions 
prevailed in Britain, just as man now lives in North Britain 
and Norway, while glacial conditions prevail in the interior and 
oflf the coasts of Labrador and Greenland. 

We have in East Anglia deposits of post-tertiary age which for 
our present inquiry may be conveniently grouped under two heads. 

B, The older, consisting of (1) an irregular lower boulder-clay 
succeeded by (2) stratified sands and gravels with subordinate 
loam or boidder-clay, and (3) an upper boulder-clay. 

A, The newer deposits, being the products of the denudation by 
sea, rivers, rain, &c., of the above, and of any still older beds 
exposed. The beds belonging to the older series B, which occur in 

Digitized by 


T. McKenny Hughes. — Antiquity of Man. 163 

the area of which I propose to speak, are to be referred chiefly to 
the middle group (2), which, to avoid repetition, I may speak of as 
the Hatfield Beds (probably the equivalents of the Middle 
Glacial of Searles Wood), and well seen in the railway cuttings 
north of Hatfield and elsewhere in that neighbourhood. 

They may be traced from Hatfield, over the chalk spur l^ 
Welwyn, by Hertford and Ware {see "Quarterly Journal Geological 
Society," August, 1868) into the valley by Pajndon and Harlow. 
They are seen at intervals, e.g., by SafiBron Walden, Chesterford, 
Whittesford, &c., assuming, as they go north, more and more of 
the character they have in the Brandon and Thetford districts. 

It is obvious that these deposits partially filled the valleys 
and hollows, and that since their emergence, extensive valleys 
have been scooped out through them, generally along the old lines. 
The earUer products of this denudation are of course of very 
great antiquity, and to them I would refer all the beds in East 
Anglia in which flint implements have been foimd. 

Loams occur at various horizons in the older series B, and 
loams of various age and origin, are found in the newer series A. 
These loams are generally all so much alike, that it would be 
quite impossible to identify them with any certainty in separate 
sections by their lithological character alone. 

Moreover, where an overljdng loam is derived from an imme- 
diately underlying loam, it is often impossible to draw any line 
between them in one section, especially if the section is so small 
that the discordant overlap cannot be made out. 

Even in chalk, the remands top part cannot be distinguished 
from the somewhat weathered lower part, except where surface 
flints are found embedded. How much less can we expect to 
distinguish the resorted from the undisturbed material in the 
case of loam ? Fortxmately, however, most of the sections ap- 
pealed to for evidence of the glacial or inter-glacial age of man 
in East Anglia are of considerable extent, and owing to various 
happy circumstances tolerably clear. 

I will now give my interpretation of them. In the large pit 
at the new Waterworks for Thetford, there is a loam on blue clay, 
which rests on a loam similar to that above, and below this, 
boulder-clay has been proved to 60 feet. All these I refer to £. 
In the adjoining pits it can be seen that a newer loam, sand and 
gravel rests irregularly now on one, now on the other of the 
above-mentioned beds. These I refer to A, 

In an old pit, north of Thetford Station, gravel (A) may be 
seen resting irregularly on blue gault-like clay {£). In a large 
pit north-east of Thetford Station there is a section about 
32 feet deep, in which the upper loam, sand and gravel (A), is 
seen resting irregularly on boulder-clay (-B), which is here often 

Digitized by 


164 T. McKenny Hughes. — Antiquity of Man, 

composed almost entirely of chalk. At the base of the troughs and 
pans of the upper loam, &c. (-4), there are generally lines of sifted 
or sorted material, such as, e.g., sometimes a bed which seems 
derived almost entirely from the Kimmeridge clay, or from the 
Neocomian. The different specific gravity of the material 
would probably be sufRcent to explam such washing together 
of different material out of the drift to various positions in the 

In the Culford brick pit (near West Stow, Bury St. Edmimds), 
boulder-clay is seen resting on buff loam, with often a bed of 
sand to 3 feet in thickness between the clay and the loam. 
There was not much evidence, but it seemed to me that all the 
deposits in this section should be referred to the lower series {B), 
So far, I have given sections in which any one may see what I 
mean by the series A and B, 

looking from Culford, across the alluvium of a small tribu- 
tary of the Lark, and above the obvious terrace of gravel at the 
base of the hills on the other side, we see far up the slope 
traces of an obscure terrace, becoming more and more clear and 
well defined as we follow it to the left towards Icklingham. 
Near the faim at the Icklingham end, there is a deep pit in 
brick-earth, with pupa, pisidium, bones and antlers. In the 
upper loams {A), all along this terrace, pupa and pisidiimi are 
not uncommon. I am not aware that they have ever been 
foimd in the imderlying series {B), Underneath the brick-earth, 
and exposed at the surface in a pit a little nearer the Beeches 
Pit, is a bed of gravel just like any ordinary gravel along the 
river terraces of that district, or of the Thames or the Somme. 
Further on, where the terrace is almost obliterated, the Beeches 
Pit occurs. In this pit there is a yellowish loamy boulder-clay 
(E)y and in distinct and well-defined hollows in this boulder- 
clay, a series of loams, sands and gravels (A), at the base of 
which occur bands coloured by black and red oxides of iron 
and manganese, in which I saw bones and antlers, and in which 
the flint implements are said to have been found. Patches of 
rainwash (or head or nm of the lull), derived from boulder-clay 
or chalk or loam, as the case might be, rest irregularly on either 
A or B. But no undisturbed boulder-clay overlies the im- 
plement-bearing bed. 

The next section I shall refer to is that on Broomhill, at 
Botany Bay Brickworks, near Brandon, in which also flint 
implements have been found. The workman has been collecting 
for some time, but has never had a genuine specimen when I 
have visited the pit. He pointed out the exact position from 
which he had obtained them, which was in a band of clayey 
gravel coloured by oxides, and in all respects resembling that 

Digitized by 


R H. TiDDEMAN. — A ntiquity of Man, 165 

which forms the lining of the troughs and hollows in the 
Beeches Pit. It seems to be an old deposit, in the upper part 
of what is now a dry valley, which has been scooped out 
through a great mass of loam, boulder-clay, &c. {B), which had 
partly lilled it. Implements are said to have been found also 
in the south comer of the same pit where the beds are let 
down in pipes, and somewhat contorted. Such contortions are 
often due to the removal of part of the calcareous matter, of 
the chalky gravel or loam or the underljdng chalk itself, and 
the consequent dropping in of the earthy residue and overlying 
beds. Some of the curves are apparent, not real contortions, 
being due to the alteration of colour by infiltering water. 
But this section is not clear. 

On the whole, the evidence goes to show that from the first 
emergence of land out of the glacial sea, sub-aerial and aqueous 
denudation have been working at it and cutting it down often 
along the lines of old pre-glacial valleys, leaving a river terrace 
here, a mass of rain wash or other talus there ; estuarine silt 
in one place, pond-mud in another, and that man appeared on 
the scene early in this post-glacial period. 

Before that emergence, icebergs and coast-ice carried their 
load south, and dropped it in the sea (witness the boulder- 
clays with shells or shore shingle or beds of sand). Sometimes 
the ice grounded (witness the great furrows and the contortions). 
Sometimes the sea sifted the material (witness the sorted and 
stratified gravel, and sand, and loam, and clay). Sometimes the 
ice dropped it as it got it (witness the boulder-clay with 
moraine-like masses). Even in the midst of such unfavourable 
conditions man may have been a not unfrequent visitor, as now, 
along the shores of arctic seas, but as a matter of fact, there is 
as yet no evidence that man was there. 

On the Age of the HViENA-BED at the Victoria Cave, Settle, 
and its hearing on the Antiquity of Man. By R H. 
TiDDEMAN, M.A., F.G.S., of H.M. Geological Survey. 

It was lately remarked in a discussion at the Geological Society, 
arising upon Messrs. Mello and Dawkins' papers, on the Cres- 
well Crag Caves, that the " whole matter " of the antiquity of 
man, so far as the the Victoria Cave bore evidence, resolved 
itself into a very small point. The speaker. Dr. Murie, went on 
to state, that " he had examined a certain bone from the cave, 
hitherto supposed to be a human fibula, and in his opinion it 
might be aunost any bone, and that all ideas of the habits of the 

Digitized by 


166 R. H. 'hDDlMAN.— Antiquity of Man, 

cave-dwellers founded upon it were therefore mere fictions." 
This second remark may be considered superfluous, for no such 
ideas foimded upon it have, I believe, made their way into 
any scientific works or periodicals. Without at all calling 
in question Dr. Murie's skill and judgment, we may remark 
that the latest expressed opinion is not, ipso facto, the most 
correct, and it will remain to be seen whether it will have 
greater weight than the previously expressed opinions to the 
contrary, by Professor Busk, Mr. James Flower, Professor 
Rupert Jones, ancjl others. 

Be this as it may, the chief value of the Victoria Cave Kes in 
the opportunity which it gives of correlating the ancient faimas 
contained in it, and which are elsewJiere associated with the bones 
or handiwork of man, with certain great events in geological 
time. But supposing that the fibula cannot be regarded as a 
certain proof of man's presence in that district at the time when 
the hyaenarbed was being formed, we have not yet come to the 
end of the evidence bearing on this particular point ; objects 
bearing marks made by man are as good proofs of man's presence 
as his own bones. 

On the 10th of June, 1875, when the Rev. Mr. Crosskey and 
I were at the cave, a small bone turned up bearing upon it marks 
which cannot be considered to have been made by other than 
himian agency. It lay in 2-foot parallel 1, under the datum- 
line, from which the position of the " finds " is measured, and at 
a depth in the deposits of 25 feet from the original suri'ace.* 
It is about 2^ inches of the dorsal end of a rib, but the articu- 
lating surfaces are broken off. There are at least nine transverse 
nicks, with others less distinct, joining them obliquely, and one 
longitudinal nick near the head. They appear to have been 
made by some climisy instrument drawn backwards and for- 
wards. They are quite unlike the gnawings of either rodents or 
carnivores. Professor Busk considers the bone to belong to a 
small ruminant. 

About eleven months later, on the 2nd of May, 1876, another 
bone, a small humerus,t was found bearing very evident tool- 
marks. It occurred in parallel 17, at 17 feet right of the datum- 
line, at a depth of 15 feet. The marks are very clean cuts as if 
made by a sharp instrument, so sharp indeed as almost to suggest 
that they may have been done with a metallic tool. The cuts 
however are evidently not made subsequentiy to the discovery 
of the bone, for the smfaces therein exposed are of the same 
colour and have the same dark and ochreous staining and 
incrustation as the general surface of the bone. Its occurrence, 

• Its register number is rfy 
t Begister number ^. 

Digitized by 


R H. TiBDWAXS,^ Antiquity of Man, 167 

however, at the depth of 15 feet, in the hysena-bed, and surrounded 
by bones and teeth of hyaena, bear, elephant, and rliinoceros, pre- 
cludes us from assigning to it a modern origin in spite of the 
sharp nature of the cuts. It may be a question whether a sharp 
flint flake properly hafted may not be capable of producing in a 
bone of a freshly-slaughtered animal marks similar to these. In 
the absence of Professor Busk, I forwarded it to Mr. William 
Davies, of the British Museum, and he says the humerus " is that 
of a very small goat, but evidently of an adult. It is smaller 
than the humerus of a true Shetland sheep with which I com- 
pared it, and besides the narrower fossa which you refer to, there 
are other points in which it differs from the same bone in the 
sheep." Mr. Davies goes on to remark upon the good preservju- 
tion of the bone, which leads him to think it must be of com- ' 
paratively recent age. This, however, is a common condition in 
bones from the hysena-layer. 

On this point it may be well to remark that no fact has been 
more strongly brought out by the exploration, than that the con- 
dition of a bone is no test of its age ; cceteris pcmhvs, of course, a 
newer bone will be fresher than an older, but the nature of the 
matrix in whiqh a bone is buried has a far greater influence over 
its destruction or preservation than the mere lapse of time ; for 
this reason, that it may either, if permeable, expose it to des- 
tructive influences, or, on the other hand, if impermeable, entirely 
arrest decay. The bones of the Eoman layer in the loose cUbns 
outside the cave are in a far worse condition than the greater 
part of the much older remains in the stifi' clay of the hysena- 
bed. Many bones from the stiflf clays of the lias and oolites are 
better preserved than the bones of sheep which have been 
bleaching on the moors during the brief space of our own life- 
time. These remarks are strikingly exemplified by different 
portions of a pair of reindeer antlers found scattered about the 
upper beds in the cave ; some portions which had been exposed 
on the surface or imbedded in lighter material, had lost their 
outer coating and were very friable, whilst other fragments from 
a stiff clay were in good condition. To have assumed that their 
portions were of different ages would have been wholly wrong, 
and the fitting together of them undeniably proved it.* 

There is perhaps another objection which should be considered. 
It is commonly supposed that goats, with some other domesti- 
cated breeds, had not found their way into Britain during pleisto- 
cene times, and that they were subsequently imported for the 
first time by neolithic herdsmen. A priori, it does not seem 
impossible for goats to exist and even flourish outside the pale 

^ See also " L'Homme pendant lee Ages de la Pierre." Far M. E. Ihipont, 
p. 197. 


Digitized by 


168 K. H. TiDDEMAN. — Antiqmty of Man, 

of civilisation. There can, I think, be scarcely any doubt that 
in the Victoria Cave remains of goat are not uncommon in the 
hyaena-bed associated with elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, 
&c. The same fact has been observed by M. E. Dupont in many 
of the Belgian bone-caves.* It seems therefore at least unreason- 
able to suppose that the goat was living on the continent in 
pleistocene times, with this ancient fauna, and yet did not 
accompany them to this part of the then continent, when they 
overspread it. Putting all these circumstances together, and 
regarding them as impartially as possible, it is by no means 
easy to escape the conclusion that we have in the Victoria Cave 
evidence of man's co-existence in the North of England with 
the ancient fauna already mentioned. This is a fact which the 
cave holds only in conmion with other caves, and in itself 
would be of comparatively little importance, did not the possi- 
bility arise of correlating the existence of these early congeners of 
man with the occurrence of widespread physical changes. 

It is my intention now to treat of this question. In doing so 
I shall confine myself to the broad outlines of geological know- 
ledge bearing on the matter. It would be out of place to bring 
before this Society the minuter details, ascertained in the exca- 
vation of the cave and carefully noted from time to time. These 
have already appeared in summary in the British Association 
Reports, and prove without room for doubt that the hysena-bed 
in the cave has glacial deposits resting upon it, and therefore is 
in a sense pre-glacial. Ingenious speculations have been brought 
forwarded by Professor T. McK. Hughes and others to show that 
imder certain circumstances it is just possible that these glacial 
beds were not deposited where they have been found by glacial 
action ; but none of these suggestions tally with all the facts 
recorded, and in seeking to lay what is a difficulty to some minds, 
they really raise others which are greater. 

The older bone-bed, or hyaena-bed, in the Victoria Cave, con- 
tainsamongst others, beside hyaena, thetoUowing.JSlephas a7itiqutis, 
Rhinoceros, leptorhinvs, hippopotamus.^ These constitute a weU- 
marked fauna, about which no doubt is entertained by geologists 
that they are contemporary. They are found in old river-gravek, 
in France, in Switzerland, and in the South and East of England, 

• See alflo " L*Homme pendant les Ages de la Pierre." Par M. E. Dupont, 
passim. In a letter to the author, bearing date August 24, 1877, M. Dupont 
writes: "La ch^vre de nos cayemes ne pent Stre distingu^e de la ch^rre 
ordinaire. EUe j est associ^e au Mammouth, au RhinocSros iichorhinusy I 
VUrsus speliBUSf etc. J'en maintiens absolument la co-existence ayeo ces 
espies perdues. Gee observations corroborent done la ydtre, et je ne doute pas 
qu'eUes ne soient constamment confirm^ ^ TaTenir.*' 

t The remaining species are not so accurately determinable, or, occiurring as 
they do aboTe as well as bebw the glacial drifts of tJie North- West of England, 
give no definite indications of time, and therefore cannot assist us in this inquiry. 

Digitized by 


R H. TiDDEMAN. — Antiquity of Man. 169 

and in each of these countries are associated with the remains of 
man or his works. In Belgium they occur in caves similarly 

The geologists who have worked cLiefly in the South of 
England, and studied the superficial deposits there, maintain 
as a body, and I think rightly, that these remains are there post- 
glacial But some go further, and do wrongly in assuming 
because they are post-glacial in the South of England, they must 
be so in the North. At first sight this appears almost an axiom, 
but further study will show that it is a great error, and I believe 
it is to this apparent discrepancy between the age of these 
deposits in the North and South of England, that much of the 
scepticism which has prevailed as to the pre- or inter-glacial 
age of man is owing. I must, therefore, beg permission to examine 
this matter, for there is really no need for such great differences 
between the opinions of the geologists of the South of England 
and those of the North. In the North our opinion that these 
animals are pre-glacial subjects us to the accusation of putting the 
cart before the horse. We may accept the metaphor and justify 
the deed. Horses usually in the South of England are put before 
the cart, and were I to say that in the North I have seen the 
horses harnessed to the backs of the carts, my statement would 
probably be received by some with derisive incredulity. The 
fact is none the less true, and when I state that in these cases 
there is a horse also in the shafts in front, the difBculty vanishes 
and the fact may be admitted. We have perhaps in the North 
drawn more attention to the horse behind the cart than to that 
in front, because its position is not so generally recognised. At 
the same time, we admit most fully that the shaft-horse of the 
South is an admirable and necessary institution, which we 
cannot dispense with in the North, though we reserve to ourselves 
the right to retain a horse also behind the cart (as a drag) when 
the steeper gradients of our hills and dales render its assistance 

To drop metaphor, we may admit that man as a contemporary 
of this particular fauna is in the South and East of England 
post-glacial, whereas in the North-West he is pre-glacial, and yet 
there is no contradiction in these two statements. We have, in 
short, evidence of two strongly-marked glacial periods, of which 
the earlier left its traces far down into the South of England, 
whereas the latter did not extend its icy fingers further south 
than the Midland Counties, probably not so far.* This is by no 

* Mr. Searles Wood, junior, I belieye, first expressed an opinion that the 
drifts of Scotland and the North of England were of later age tnan those of the 
Eastern Ck>unties, but on somewhat different grounds. See Geological Magasine, 
Tol. ix, p. 171, 1872. 

Digitized by 


170 B. H. TiDDEMAN. — Antiqv4iy of Man, 

means an easy thing to prove, for glacial deposits of one age 
are very similar to those of another ; yet there is, I think, a clue 
to the difficulty. 

In 1871 I had the honour of reading a paper to the Geological 
Society of London, in which I endeavoured to prove the former 
existence of a wide-spread ice-sheet in the North-West of Eng- 
land* The conclusion that I came to from the evidence which 
I had been collecting for some years, was that nearly the whole 
of that region south of the Lake District and west of the Pennine 
Chain hsui been covered with an extensive ice-sheet which had 
worked over the country in the main southward. The direction 
of the travelling of such a sheet was shown by the scratches on 
the rocks and the movements of materials, which appeared to 
have a general trend irrespective of all but the greatest physical 
features of the district. 

The valuable papers of my colleagues, Mr. Dakyns,f which 
appeared at the same time, and Messrs. Ward, J and Groodchild,§ 
which came out subsequently, have demonstrated a similar state 
of things in the districts to the East, North, and North-East 
respectively, and farther to the south the conclusions have been 
supported in the main by Professor Eamsay,|| Messrs. John 
Aitken,1^ and Thomas Tate,** and have received the assent of 
most geologists. 

If any be sceptical of these conclusions, let them at least 
consider what would be the effect of such a sheet of ice of the 
great thickness which it must necessarily have been, moving 
over the ground slowly but irresistibly. AU previous surface- 
accumulations, such as soil, screes, or talus, older glacial drifts, 
and river-gravels would be removed from their position, ground 
up and worked up into glacial drift. The greater part of this 
would be carried long (^stances in the direction of the ice-flow. 
On a change from a cold to a more genial climate, as the ice 

* '* On the Evidence for the Ic&^beet in North Lancashire and adjacent parts of 
Yorkshire and Westmoreland.*' Quarterly Journal Qeological Society y vol. 
xxviii, p. 471-191, 1872. 

t "The Glacial Phenomena of the Yorkshire Uplands." Quarterly Journal 
Qeological Society^ toI. xxyiii, p. 384, 1872. 

X " The Glaciation of the Northern part of the Lake District." Ihid., toI. 
xxix, p. 422, 1873. 

§ " The Glacial Phenomena of the Eden Yalley and the Western part of the 
Yorkshire Dale District." Ihid.^ toI. xxxi, p. 55, 1875. 

II "Physical Geology and Geography of Great Britain." Third Edition, 
p. 161, 1872. Also, " How Anglesey became an Island." Quarterly Journal 
Qeological Society, vol. xxxii, p. 119, 1876. 

% " On the Unequal Distribution of Drift on opposite sides of the Pennine 
Chain." Ibid., vol. xxxii, p. 184, 1876. 

** *'The Glacial Deposits of the' Bradford Basin." Proceedinge Qeo- 
logical and Polytechnic Society o/ the West Siding of Yorjcthire ; Hem Serim^ 
part ii, p. 101, 

Digitized by 


R H. TiDDEiAXii.—Antiquiti/ of Man. 171 

slowly receded, it would leave the solid rocks bare of all previous 
drifts, covered only by the mud and boulders and rubbish melting 
out of it, which itself had made, and the coarse gravels formed by 
the streams flowing out of the ends of the glaciers in their slow 
retreat. And in thus losing all earlier surface-accumulations, 
we should also certainly lose all traces in the open country of 
aU its former inhabitants, whether man or beast.* Flint imple- 
ments would disappear, if they had existed, equally with the 
less durable remains of man. Only in the shelter of caves 
or rock fissures would there be a chance of any traces of the 
older inhabitants remaining. And just this state of things 
which should residt if an ice-sheet had passed over a portion of 
the coimtry, is precisely what we do find in the North- West of 

Professor Boyd Dawkins, I believe, first called attention to the 
fact that those areas in Great Britain in which the marks of 
glaciers were the freshest and most abundant, coincided with 
those which were barren of the remains of the pleistocene 
mammalia, and inferred in the then state of our knowledge 
that the areas in question were covered by ice at the time that 
pleistocene animals were so numerous in the caves and river 
deposits of Southern and Eastern England.f 

The subsequent discovery of the hyaena-bed and its contents 
at Settle, and still later the finding of the same fauna in an old 
river-gravel overlain by glacial deposits in a cave in Lothersdale 
near Skipton, both in well-glaciated districts, showed that these 
animals had existed there before the last great glaciation. Had 
they existed in that country after it, we could not fail to have 
found their remains somewhere in the river-gravels of that 
district, which must have been at one time as fully occupied by 
them 83 the South of England, where they are now found so 
abundantly in the river-gravels.} 

Our ice-sheet of the Northern Counties could not spread south 
for ever, and must have had a limit somewhere, and we find 
evidence of that limit in districts which bear no distinct traces 
of glaciation. The high country of the peak and the Mountain 
Limestone of Derbyshire is free from those extensive sheets of 
glacial rubbish which occupy the country to the east, west, and 
north, of it as may be seen in the valuable drift-map by 
Professor A. H. Green, in the Geological Survey Memoir on that 

• First sugeested by ProfeBsor T. F. Jamieson, on d priori grounds, in, I think, 
bis paper, ** mstary of the Last Geological Changes in Scotland." Quarterly 
Journal Geological Society, toI. xxi, pp. 161-203, 1866. 

t " Popular Science Reyiew," October, 1871 . 

X See remarks on this by the author, ** Geological Magazine," toI. x, p. 11 ; ibid., 
p. 140 ; " Nature," vol. ix, No. 210, p. 14, 

Digitized by 


172 R. H. TiDDEMAN. — Antiqvdty of Man. 

county* The outlying patches of drift which do occur in it are 
probably the worn remnants of an old and earlier glaciation. ' 

It seems likely that this district, and some other patches of 
high ground a little further north, were like the so-called islands 
forming the coast of Greenland, described by Dr. Eobert Brown 
in his invaluable paper.f These are only insulated by the^ice 
and separated from each other by the great broad tongues of ice 
which drain the universal sheet of the interior. He likens 
Greenland and its interior ice-field to a broad-lipped shallow 
vessel with chinks in the lips here and there, and the glaciers, 
like viscous matter, pouring out through them, the broad lips 
being the " islands." 

The ice-sheet must have been melting away and thinning 
away considerably when at its maximum both to the west and 
east of the Derbyshire hills, and there is nothing unreasonable in 
supposing that such high ground may have been comparatively 
free from ice, whilst its sides were hugged by the broad sheet 
flowing from the Lake District and elsewhere, but thinning away 
to- its final limit a little further south. Professor Dawkins' 
interesting discovery of rhinoceros in the screes or talus of the 
steep lull-sides near Castleton in the Peak District, is evidence 
that no ice-sheet or glacier has passed down that valley since 
that beast was feeding there ; and in that fact the superficial 
deposits show their similarity to those of the south country and 
differ from the state of things existing in the weU-glaciated 
region to the North. This occurrence, though at firat sight 
exceptional, may really be regarded as a strong confirmation of 
this view. 

To sum up, we may say that, even supposing we had never 
found traces of man in the Victoria Cave in the older pre-glacial 
beds, his great antiquity would be there fairly proved. A set of 
animals which are well known to have existed with man else- 
where, is there shown to have lived before an age of great land 
glaciation, and to have had its remains swept from that country 
by it. That ancient fauna lived in the South of England and 
the Eastern Counties upon a land-surface covered with the 
vestiges of a still older and more extensive glaciation, of 
which the traces have been swept away in the North by 
that later glaciation.* This glacial period, which I consider to 

• "The Otology of North Derbyshire and the adjoining Parts of Yorkshire," 
p. 134. See also on this subject the papers aboye cited, bj Messrs. John 
Aitken and Thomas Tate. 

t "On the Physics of Arctic Ice," Quarterly Journal Geological Society ^ 
vol. xxvi, p. 677, 1870. 

{ It is here unnecessary to enter into the question as to how much of the 
East Anglian drifts are submarine or sub-a6rial. It does not much affect the 
matter with which we have to do, and may well be left to the eminent geologists 
who are studying that part of the kingdom. 

Digitized by 


E. H. TiDDEMAN. — Antiquity of Man. 173 

have been later than man's introduction into Europe, would 
appear to be the same which spread the whole of Scotland and 
perhaps of Ireland, with a sheet or sheets of land-ice, and was 
succeeded in the North of England by a submergence whose 
utmost depth is disputed, but was not, in my opinion, greater 
than 400 or 500 feet .♦ 

These views are in the main what I have held for some years. 
They seem to me almost entirely to reconcile the facts which 
have been gleaned, and to harmonise many of the discordant 
opinions which have been held by geologists in all parts of the 
kingdom. The details, of course, require filling in, but the broad 
views thus roughly stated may claim at least to be founded upon 

A letter from Mr. Whitley was read, and photographs of flint 
implements from Brixham Cavern were exhibited, and thanks 
voted to Mr. Whitley for the same. 

The following letter from Dr. Nicolucci was read. 


4th May, 1877. 
My Dear Friend, — 

I am grieved at not yet having made any communication to 
you upon the men of the caverns of Italy. I can assure you 
that the traces of troglodyte man are not rare in Italy. They 
have been met with in a grotto near Torino di Sangro, in others in 
the Valley of the Vibrata of Viletta, Barrea and of Cappadocia, in 
the Abruzzi, as well as in Mount Ajsperano, near Eoccasecca, and 
at Cape Leuca (Pouilles). Of all these grottos which have been 
inhabited in the neolithic age, I possess in my collection almost 
all the objects met with in stone, in bone, and pottery. 

Another grotto in the Island of Palmaria (in the Gulf of 
Spezia, G^noa) has been explored by CapeUini and Eegalia, and 
here have been met with, among the dSbris of animals, 
fragments of human remains and object of human industry of 
the stone age. 

The grotto of Mount Tignoro, near Livourre, has furnished to 
the Marquis Strozzi two crania of the polished stone period. 
Others have also been given to the late Eegnoli from the grotto 
of the Chateau on the mountains of Pita, and still others have been 
met with by the Curate Don Perrando Deo Gratias in the cavern 

• I am here referring to the " middle-sands and mvels ** of Lancashire. I 
haTe for three jears seen good reason for supposing that the undoubted marine 
deposits at much higher elevations, such as those of Moel Trefaen and Maccles- 
field, have reallj nothing to do with this, but are relics of an earlier submergence 
which surriyed the later glaciation of the North of England ice-sheet, but my 
reasons must be reserved £r another occasion. 

Digitized by 


174 Disctission, 

of the Matti near Pertd, in the territory of Savona (liguria). All 
these crania have been described briefly by myself in the report 
already published upon the Anthropological Exposition, and of 
Pre-h^toric Archaeology at the Congress of Bologna. (" L'Age de 
la Pierre dans les Provinces Napolitaines," Par M. NicoluccL) 

An important 'discovery is that which has been made by 
M. Issel of many skeletons in the grotto of Finale, in liguria. 
These skeletons, which have unfortunately suffered many 
injuries in their transmission from Finale to Geneva, have not 
yet been studied. They are destined for the pre-historic museum 
at Eome, and I am engaged to go there to study them. 

A complete cranium, with fragments of many others have 
lately come into my hands. It has been withdrawn from a 
grotto near Matera (Basilicata), in the same stratum which 
contained a great quantity of objects worked in flint, in bone, 
and in pottery. 

K more precise descriptions of all these crania would interest 
the Anthropologic£il Institute, I wiU endeavour to collect the 
different notices, and to communicate them in an express work 
addressed to the learned Society to which I have the honour 
to belong. 

I do not doubt that the discussion which is to be opened on the 
22nd of May, at the Anthropological Institute, upon the present 
state of the question of the antiquity of man, will be very 
important, and I shall read with the greatest interest the details 
of this discussion. 

I have pleasure in repeating it that I am your very devoted, 



Prof. Bu3K wished to explain, before the discnssiOn commenced, 
the circamstances connected with the interesting filament of bone, 
fof the deter nination of which he was personally responsible. This 
" bone of contention " was represented by the cast which he held in 
his hand. He was surprised that such a large superstructure bad 
been raised upon that particular piece. It was merely a fragment, 
evidently of a fibula, one of the most variable bones in the body. 
It was received by him, together with a large collection of other 
remains, from Mr. Tiddeman, and for a long time remained an 
insoluble problem. At last, after many conjectural determinations 
by himself and others, Mr. James Flower, the well-known articulator 
to the Royal College of Surgeons, discovered in the College a human 
fibula of unusual size, and with which, as he pointed out, the Victoria 
Cave bone corresponded in many particulars. This determination, 
with the reasons for it, and illustrated by figures, was published in 
the Journal of the Institute. At the same time, Mr. Busk was per^ 

Digitized by 


Discussion, 175 

feotlj open to be convinced tbat it might be orBine. But although 
Prof. Boyd Dawkina had been good enough to show him bones of 
fossil bears of surprising size, none of them quite came up to the oue 
in question. Nor at Toulouse, where there is such an enormous 
collection of ursine remains, did Mr. Busk observe any of correspond- 
ing dimensions. He was himself still disposed to regard the specimen 
as a fragment of an abnormally large human fibula, but thought that 
at present it would be unsafe to build any strong conclusions 
upon it. 

Professor Rollbston: I have been much impressed with the 
liability to disturbance of the fibula. Once in digging out a British 
skeleton, buried in the usual contracted fashion, before coming 
down to the skeleton we came upon a fibala standing vertically. 
When we came down to the skeleton, I cleared all the stone and 
earth away from it, and found that the fibula in question, instead of 
being a bone from some previously interred and removed body, was 
actually one of the fibula of the skeleton lying horizontally at the 
bottom of the grave. Yet it is easy to see how this bone is 
eminently liable, as the flesh round it and the ligaments binding it 
decay, to be acted upon as a lever by stones settling down upon it. 
Then its pointed ends favour its moving. So Professor Busk, 
writing (Congress of Pre- Historic Archaeology, 1868, p. 152) of the 
Genista cave at Gibraltar, says, *' There were about thirty thigh 
bones, and eighteen to twenty tibia, but strange to say, portions of 
only ikreG fibulcB were observed." 

As regards the judging of climate from the presence of mammals, 
I rather disbelieve in it. The reindeer lived in Germany in the 
time of Julius CaBsar, and was spoken of by him as hos cervifigura, 
as the Canadian reindeer is called "Carriboo" (Cerfboeuf) now. 
The hippopotamus and rhinoceros have been supposed to indicate 
warmth of climate, but they appeared to me to stand the late 
wretched weather in the Zoological Ghu*dens at least as well as most 
smaller animals. "Why should they not ? The power of resisting 
cold and g^erating heat depends on bulk, and bulk increases as 
the cube of the linear dimensions. But Schrenk, in his excellent 
work on ** Amoorland," 1858, tells us that the tiger, an animal 
connected, however wrongly, with notions of tropical heat, was to be 
found in the island of Saghalin, which was in the cold weather 
connected by a bridge of ice with the mainland ; and that its food 
there was not the buffalo nor the roe. but the reindeer. The roe 
was not found in Saghalin, not on account of the cold, but on 
account of quite another reason, the presence of pinewoods at the 
point of crossing from the mainland over to the island. This shows 
now much care is required in arguing to the presence of climatic 
or other inorganic condition from the presence or absence of 
particular animals. Reptiles are more surely indicative of 
temperature than most other animals; non-metabolous insects 
again than insects with perfect quiesence as pupce to protect them 
during winter, but vegetable life was a surer guide as a whole than 

Digitized by 


176 Discussion, 

Professor Prbstwich: Yon, Sir, have justly observed that to 
consider this question thoroughly requires the knowledge of the 
palsdontologist, the archsBologist, the anthropologist, and the 
geologist. I think it especially concerns the geologist in regard 
to the sequence of events. Palaeontologists have been rather apt 
to overlook the geological conditions under which these specimens 
are found. We have to deal with the sequence of man from his 
first appearance in time geologically to that period when it comes 
within the range of ethnological inquiry. I will confine myself to 
the evidence in the South of England and in the North of Prance. 
In the South of England it is particularly clear and decisive. Our 
datum-line is positive ; it is afforded by the spread of the boulder- 
clay, which ranges as far as south as London. That represents the 
glacial period. The post-glacial period I consider to be subsequent 
to the period of the deposit of the boulder-clay. 

The first discoveries in this country were made in those districts 
of the South of England which had been covered over by the 
boulder-clay. It is in the drift and gravel of the valleys excavated 
in this boulder-clay that palaeolithic fiint implements have been so 
commonly found, consequeatly, it is clear that in all that area, man 
is of post-glacial age. If we get two levels, one on either side of a 
valley, a certain number of feet above sea-level, with masses of 
boulder-clay cut off on either side, then, of course, the debris at the 
bottom of the valley will consist of sand and gravel, derived from 
materials formed by the destruction of the boulder-clay and other 
strata which originally traversed the valley. The materials so 
spread out are newer than the boulder-clay, consequently, man in 
these valleys is post-glacial. There are sometimes as many as two 
or three successive levels in those valleys. If a valley excavated 
to a certain depth and the gravel-beds spread on that level, contain 
no flint implements, while at a lower and second level, flint imple- 
ments are found, then we assume that man was introduced into 
this area only when the valley was excavated to the greater and 
later depth, and when the gravel was spread out on the level now 
occupied by our present rivers. It is interesting, therefore, to 
determine what may be the character of the mammalian remains of 
the successive terraces. Unfortunately the mammalian remains of 
all this period are so alike that it is impossible to determine from 
such evidence the age of those terraces. In the case, however, of 
bone-caves found on the sides of valleys and in districts where there 
is no boulder-clay, we are necessarily left to the palaeontological 
evidence alone. In looking at the correlation of the deposits of 
the South of England, with the deposits which preceded, the glacial 
period in the North, there is evidence in both areas of the land 
having been inhabited previous to the boulder-clay period by 
animals which were likely to serve as the food of man. There is 
no d priori reason why man should not have existed before that 
period in the North of England ; much, however, will depend upon 
that more complete evidence, which possibly Mr. Tiddeman may 
have to bring before us at some future period. 

Digitized by 


Discussion. 177 

I am disposed to consider, with Mr. Tiddeman, that the cave 
which he is now investigating at Settle may be of pre-glacial age. 
I think it is not conclusive, but the evidence rather tends to show 
that it is pre-glacial. Further research may, I hope, decide on that 
particular point. 

Taking the lower valley of the Thames, the evidence is this : 
We find in the valley, on terraces resting some 20, 30, or 40 feet 
above the present level of the Thames, palsBolithic flint implements. 
At the Reculvers such gravels are found at an elevation of about 60 
feet above the river, but as we ascend the valley we find that the 
evidence of the existence of man is confined to the lower levels. 
At Beading, in the high-level gravels on the banks of the Kennet, 
no flint implements have been found. Again, in the neighbourhood 
of Oxford, mammalian remains and flint implements are found only 
in the low level, and not in the higher level river-gravels. 

Thus at the mouth of the Thames Valley, at the point nearest to 
the coast of France, we find evidence of man's existence in the 
higher level older river-gravels capping the Reculver Cliffs. He 
does not then appear to have penetrated into the Upper Thames 
Valley. It is evident that at the period that these higher terraces 
were deposited in the upper part of the valley of the Thames, very 
cold conditions yet prevailed, though post-glacial and subsequent 
to the boulder-clay. In the neighbourhood of Oxford, boulders of 
several tons in weight, carried down from a long distance, are 
found in these beds ; and I have recently observed in the neighbour- 
hood of Blading that this gravel where it rests upon a surface 
which cannot be dissolved away, such as a stiff clay, in which there 
is no calcareous matter, presents a very peculiar eroded surface, 
and it fortunately happened the last time I was there, a superficies, 
the size of this room, was exposed, and the flat surface of the clay 
presented a succession of pits or hollows apparently caused by the 
impinging of masses of gravel-laden ice, evidently the result of 
mechanical force. Thus the data for carrying man back to the 
boulder-clay period, may be considered as an account audited and 
passed. But it seems i^ me there is also an important suspense 
account now accumulating. In France there is an important series 
of observations which have been made by competent men and good 
observers, and it will not do to ignore some of the points they have 
brought forward. I have reason to believe from my own observa- 
tions in the North of France, that there is evidence of man being 
pre-glacial even in the North of France. There is also one specimen 
which I have had in my possession for many years. I can only 
answer for the locality and the condition of the bone, but not for 
the labelling, and from the pecuhar way in which it has been cut 
and then broken, it certainly bears all the appearance of having 
been artificially worked ; but I must put it to a suspense account. 

One further remark I have to make. Some may think from the 
observations of my fidend. Professor Dawkins, that the oldest flint 
implements we know are ruder than the later ones. Mr. Dawkins 
relies upon the evidence from Creswell Cave, but the cause why 

Digitized by 


178 Discussion. 

those implements are so rude is that they are made of quartzite, 
which camiot be finished in so neat a way as flint. In some part of 
the older deposits of St. Achenl, for example, the flint implements 
are better made than the newer ones found in the lower gravels of 
the Somme Valley. 

Col. Lane Fox wished to say a few words upon a point not yet 
tonched upon in any of the papers which had been read, viz., the 
means by which valleys had been eroded, and the time necessary to 
accomplish it. The nnif ormitarian theory, by which it was assumed 
that all the work of excavating valleys had been performed by means 
of their rivers flowing under the same conditions as at present, had 
been a good deal mcxlified of late years, and he thought he could 
add a few facts from personal observation tending to show that 
some modification of the theory was necessary. With respect to 
the valley of the Somme, there was evidence afforded by relics of 
the Eoman and bronze age found in the peat in the bottom of the 
valley, that the river had not materially lowered its bed since those 
relics were deposited, and therefore it must have taken an enormous 
time to work out the whole valley by means of a river which flowed 
with the same eroding power as at present. The valley of the 
Somme, however, was comparatively so narrow that it was possible 
the whole of it might have been eroded by such means, if sufficient 
time were allowed. But if it could be shown that the same condi- 
tions prevailed in other very much larger valleys where the work to 
be done was much greater, that would alEordfair presumptive evidence 
that the eroding force must have been greater. He could mention 
one or two facts which showed that the Thames like the Somme had 
never shifted its bed since the bronze period. The first of these was 
that the river some way below Oxford, at the village of Dorchester, 
made a great bend ; the ground on one side was high, and on the other, 
in the space inclosed by the bend perfectly flat and low ; there was 
an ancient intrenchment running across this low ground from bank 
to bank, and converting the promontory formed by the bend of the 
river into a fortress. It had been ascertained by means of the 
relics, consisting of pottery, flints, bronze implements, <fcc., 
associated with this intrenchment, that it was certainly as early 
as the bronze period, and perhaps earlier, no relic of Roman work 
having been found there, although Dorchester, close by, was a 
Bioman station. The intrenchment in order to serve its purpose 
must have rested its flanks on the river at the time it was made, and 
the fact of their resting on the banks at the present time, although 
they are only a foot or two in height, showed that the river had not 
shifted or lowered its bed since the bronze age. Other evidence 
giving the same results was found in the same river lower 
down. Between Richmond and Battersea the Thames makes 
three or four bends in the comparatively flat bottom of the 
valley, which is here more than four miles wide. He had found 
flint implements of the drift type deposited in sedimentary sand 
and gravel at Acton 80 feet above the present river, the discovery 
of which was communicated by him to the Geological Society and 

Digitized by 


Discussion, 179 

pnblisHed in their JoumaL The river then since these implements 
were deposited must not only have lowered its bed 80 feet, 
bat, according to the nniformitarian theory, must at each 
Buccesive level have shifted its bed repeatedly so as to work ont the 
valley, here more than four miles wide. Yet bronze and stone imple- 
ments have been fonnd in considerable numbers in all the various 
bends of the present river, dredged up from the gravel at the 
bottom by the dredging machines that have been employed of late 
years, and proving that the river had neither lowered nor shifted its 
bed since the bronze period, but if anything it has risen since that 
time. Was it possible, he would submit, that at this rate of 
progress, if progress it could be called, the erosion of the vaUey 
could be attributed to the present river flowing under the same 
conditions as at present? But if, as believed by Prof. Boyd 
Dawkins and Mr. Tiddeman, man existed in these parts during the 
subsidence of the glacial epoch, that would account, he thought, for 
a much greater flow of water having passed down these valleys in 
palasolithic times than was the case at present. In the valley of 
the Solent the same class of evidence was obtained. Mr. Evans 
had shown what a large amount of depression and erosion must 
have taken place in this valley since drift implements were 
deposited on the hill at Southampton. The valley of the Solent, 
from Portsdown to the Isle of Wight, is nine miles wide, and we 
have evidence in the Roman fortress at Porchester, how little it has 
changed in modem times; yet in the centre of this valley near 
Southsea Common, Col. Fox had some years ago discovered 
a flint station of the neolithic age, including celts, scrapers, and 
flakes in great abundance, the site of which was less than 10 feet 
above the present high- water mark, showing that flint implements 
continued to be fabricated in the valley after land and water had as- 
sumed its present distribution. All these facts, he thought, fi&voured 
the opinion that powerful eroding forces must have been at work 
before that time. The very valuable papers which had been 
read treated only the geological aspects of the question, but as 
the President had observed, there were ethnological and sociologi- 
cal problems to be solved, how long would it have required 
for the various races of man to diverge, and the earliest traces of 
culture to be evolved ? He trusted that even if no other result 
came of the conference, it would show that we had not yet exhausted 
the subject. 

The Rev. Professor Satce : I must begin by confessing that the 
evidence of language, as regards the antiquity of man, is not so 
decisive as that of geology. The history of language shows that his 
antiquity is very considerable, not that it must be measured by 
geological epochs. The condition of the civilised languages of the 
world, when we first become acquainted with them, implies a 
previous development of many thousands of years. It is only under 
certain conditions that the vocabulary of a language changes 
rapidly ; under other conditions it changes slowly. The g^rammar 
of a language, on the other hand, may be said, roughly speaking, to 

Digitized by 


180 Discussion, 

change never, and its Btructnre to change very rarely. If we apply 
these conclusions to two or three languages belonging to the 
principal families of speech, I think we shall arrive at the follow- 
ing results. Take for instance the Semitic class of languages. By 
means of the Assyrian monuments, we are able to get back to about 
2,000 B.C. for a starting-point for these. But at that date these 
languages were already pretty much what they are to-day. They 
have changed scarcely at all in either structure, or grammar, or 
vocabulary. At the same time, we can see plainly enough that they 
pre-suppose several earlier stages of existence ; and when we cooiC to 
compare their grammar with that of the old Egyptian, it would 
seem that there was a time when the parent language of the Semitic 
tongues was but the sister of the parent languages of the old 
Egyptian. Now in order to allow for the changes that must in this 
case have taken place in the structure of the Semitic languages on 
the one side, and in that of the old Egyptian on the other side, before 
they become known to us, we must pre-suppose an undetermined but 
very great period of time. 

Next, let us glance at the Aryan family. Here the different 
dialects can be traced back to a parent speech spoken in some part 
of Western Asia, probably on the table-laud of the Hindu- Cush. 
This parent speech can be hypothetically restored by a comparison 
cf the later liuiguages and dialects which have descended from it. 
In all points of grammar and structure this parent speech was as 
fully developed as the Sanscrit, or Greek, or Latin of a later day. 
The people who spoke it were in a comparatively advanced state of 
civilisation, and the language itself was in a highly advanced condi- 
tion. Not only had the distinction of number, gender, and case been 
elaborated in the noun, but the verbal conjugation, the last product' 
of the grammatical intelligence, had been pretty fully worked out. 
The numerous words denoting spiritual, moral, or intellectual con- 
ceptions, which originally had a purely sensuous meaning, had 
already come to have their later and metaphorical sense. As soon 
as we analyse the grammar and vocabulary even of this ancient 
parent speech, it becomes quite plain that it is the last result of a 
long series of successive stages of growth. 

Take again another language — the old agglutinative language of 
Babylonia. The earliest monuments that contain it must be placed 
between 3,000 and 2,000 B.C. On those monuments the language 
already appears in a state of the most utter decline and decay. And 
since this language was one of those literary and cultivated dialects 
which, as a rule, change but very slowly, we have ia it evidence of 
an idiom which has behind it a long undetermined past. If, as 
several scholars believe, this langaage, the so-called Accadian, belongs 
to the Ural-Altaic family of speech, in order to get back to a period 
when the parent of Accadian, and the parent of the modern Ural- 
Altaic languages were one and the same, we must assume an 
enormous period of time. 

There is another consideration connected with the evidence borne 
by language to the antiquity of man, which must not be overlooked. 

Digitized by 


Discussion. 181 

The scieDce of language seems to show that most languages, what- 
ever their present structure may be, were at one time in a condition 
similar to that in which the Eskimo, or North American languages, are 
at the present day, that is to say, a condition in which the word 
was not as yet distinguished from the sentence in which it waa 
incorporated. In the case of languages so highly developed as 
defined, and those of the Aryan family, where the individual words 
are sharply marked off one from an other by grammatical suflSxes, 
as far back as our data carry us, we must be allowed an 
amount of time not to be accounted by hundreds but by thousands 
of years, if we are to get back to the primitive stage of polysynthe- 
ticism with which all languages, I believe, may be shown to have 

These, so far as I can see, would be the general conclusions to 
which the evidence at present furnished by the science of language 
as to the antiquity of man would seem to point. 

Mr. T. K. Callaed : Do I understand that the outline of a horse 
represented in the diagram, belongs to the paleeolithic age, and was 
found in the cave-earth in association with extinct animals ? 

Professor Dawkins : Yes. 

Mr. Callard : We have always been led to think that palseoHthic 
man was a rude savage who could only chip his flint implement, 
and knew not how to smooth it. We seem now to be getting 
evidence about palaeolithic man of a different character. We htfve 
heard to-night of a bone needle being found in the cave- earth of 
Creswell caverns. A bone needle suggests to one*s mind at once 
some step in civilisation. Men don't make bone needles unless they 
intend to use them, and that leads our thoughts to a palcBolithic 
tailor, and in this very cave-earth we find evidence that artists 
existed at that time, and no mean artists either. Not one in three 
persons in this country could make a sketch like that of the horse 
before us. At any rate they had artists, and one thing strikes me 
that this Royal Academician of the palaeolithic age had for his 
model a horse that had had his mane clij)ped. If so this indicates 
another stage of civilisation. We are very far advanced now, and 
it leads me to ask the question whether, finding the works of man in 
close proximity to the extinct mammalia, the mammoth and the 
woolly rhinoceros, justified us in saying that man therefore lived at 
a very remote period. I should be inclined to think that this does 
not so much prove the antiquity of man as it proves that the extinct 
mammalia are more modem than they are supposed to be. 

The co-existence of man with the extinct mammalia tells nothing 
of the period of man's existence, unless it is also proven when the 
mammalia referred to became extinct. Of this there has been no 
proof adduced, and therefore to my mind the argument for man's 
antiquity based on the contemporaneity of man with the extinct 
fauna has not been sustained. 

Mr. Habrison said the palaeolithic character of the flint imple- 
ments found at Cissbury in connection with the remains of existing 
fauna, including goat and pig, showed that the form and finish of 


Digitized by 


182 Discumon, 

prehistoric tools and weapons were not of themselves a safe criterion 
of age. Though the earliest implements would necessarily have 
been the rudest, the converse was by no means true. There were 
doubtless art-centres in early times, as there are now, and Cissbury 
would not appear to have been one of them, but rather belonged to 
the far larger class of village manufactories. Some of the pits, he 
wished to say as the result of personal observation, may have been 
opened but a short period before our era. Their age does not 
directly afEect the question of the antiquity of man in this country, 
which depends for its solution on geological facts. 

The President : — I will, before calling on the authors of the 
papers to reply, make one or two remarks. One of the questions 
which have been principally discussed is this : whether in the first 
place we are to assign any implements found in this country to a pre- 
glacial, or inter-glacial period, or must we restrict them to a post- 
glacial period. There is one argument which has not been insisted 
upon to such an extent as it may deserve. It is, that some of the 
implements found in the gravels in glaciated districts, are made 
from materials derived from glacial drift, and are therefore post- 
glacial. The form and character of these implements give a guide 
by which I think you may fairly argue that others of a similar 
character belong to approximately the same date. Some forms of 
implements are no doubt very persistent in their type, but if in a 
certain part of England you find implements associated with a 
certain fauna, and if you nnd them associated with the same fauna 
in other parts, both deposits are presumably of the same date, and 
if one be post-glacial, the other is also. The more we examine the 
theory of Mr. Dawlons, the more difficult it will be to determine 
from examination of the associated fauna, whether implements are 
pre- or post-glacial. In cave deposits, however, there are certain 
distinctions to be pointed out. In the cave described by Mr. 
Dawkins, there was a succession of beds one above the other, and 
I think it is in the upper beds of more recent date that relics of the 
primaeval tailor, and the primeeval artist were found. Similar relics 
have been found in the caves of the south of France, and a needle 
has been found in Kent's Cavern, but at a higher level than imple- 
ments which are of forms characteristic of the river-gravel. Loolang 
at the enormous lapse of time comprised in the paleeolithic period, 
which is evidenced by the amount of time requisite for the erosion 
of the river valleys, it seems possible that we shall eventually be 
able to establish some chronology for the palsBolithic relics. If we 
could form any idea of the amount of time that waa requisite for 
the excavation of a valley such as that of the Thames, we could 
approximately judge of the antiquity of man in this country, but 
for the last 2,500 years, the variation of the river-bed and its level 
is practically nothing, and therefore we are entirely at a loss for 
any measure of the power of the denuding agent, and fall back on 
some hypothesis as to variation in the climate. Geologists are 
pretty well agreed that there must have been a much greater 
rainfall at that period than at the present time, and the more 

Digitized by 


Discumon, , 183 

constant saturation of porous rocks would, by preventing the 
infiltration of rain, increase the eroding power of rivers. 

I have akeady mentioned some of the discoveries which have 
been made abroad, the accounts of which must be received with 

Some of the evidence of cut bones is, to my mind, by no means 
satisfactory, for I have seen what appeared to be incisions, induced 
by natural causes. Some here may, for instance, remember a pair 
of horns of the Irish elk which were embedded in each other, 
and were exhibited to the Geological Society. 

Under certain conditions, bones seem susceptible of receiving an 
impression, almost as sealing wax would from a seal. 

Still, all the evidence of various classes must be collected, and it 
will become to a certain extent cumulative. In the case of the 
bones discovered by Professor Capellini, the incisions are very 
sharp, as if made by metal. If they were executed by metal imple- 
ments, it is an argument against their antiquity, but my own 
impression is, that they are due to the teeth of some kind of shark. 
The question as to the distinction between the glacial period in the 
South of England and that of the North, is one of great interest. 
If either in the North or South we can carry back the appearance of 
man in this country to a time but little removed from the glacial 
period, we may safely infer he must have existed in other parts of 
Europe at a still earlier date. I will not however detain you by 
offering any further remarks, but will call upon the authors of 
the papers for their replies. 

Thanks having been voted to the authors of the papers^- 

Prof . Boyd Dawkins said that the first point to be considered was 
the antiquity of man in the Victoria Cave, based upon a small 
fragment of fibula, and two fragments of goat*s bones which 
presented the appearance of having been cut. The fibula seemed 
to him to be ursine rather than human, and in size came within 
a very little (two-tenths of an inch) of the circumference of one 
of JJrsua speUxus from Loz^re. "With regard to the goat*s bones, he 
shared the.opinion of Mr. Davies, of the British Museum, that they are 
not fossil, but recent, in other words, he did not believe that they 
were originally imbedded in the stratum containing the remains of 
the hysBuas, but were derived &om an upper stratum of post-Roman 
age in the cave, in which they are exceedingly abundant. The 
goat hitherto has not been found in any pleistocene strata in this 
country or in France, all the repeated cases of its occurrence 
turning out on examination to be the result of the mixing of two 
suites of animal remains, the one pleistocene, and the other historic 
or pre-historic. This is very generally done by the workmen, and this 
was probably the case in the Victoria Cave. But if these equivocal 
data be assumed to prove that man was living in this district while 


Digitized by 


184 Discussion. 

bjee DS occuied the cave, the evidence is still miBatisfactorj as to 
their pre- or post-glacial age. The hyiena stratnm itself appeared to 
him, while the explorations were under his direction, not to be of 
clearly defined pre- or inter-glacial age ; and his doubts as to this 
point were, he believed, shared by Prof. Hughes. The rudeness of 
the palsBolithic implements in the CresweU caves from the lower 
strata as compared with the more highly finished ones found above 
them, seemed to him to imply a progress in the arts in that district. 
A priori^ the more highly finished should succeed the ruder 
implements, although of course many cases of their being mixed 
together were on record. Into the other avenues of discussion 
he would forbear to enter. 

Professor Hnghes, in reply to a question put in the course of the 
discussion, said he thought the evidence of antiquity upon which 
they could rely most was that derived from the amount of geo- 
graphical change that had taken place since the deposition of beds 
containing remains of man. Observing the rate at which such 
changes take place at the present time, we must, assuming conditions 
to remain the same, allow a proportionately longer time for the 
greater changes which have taken place since the first appearance 
of man. But it all depended upon the assumption that conditions 
remain the same, as a small upheaval, for instance, would cause 
a rapid cutting back all along the Thames Valley and a small 
depression wotild have the contrary effect. 

Keferring to the remarks of Colonel Lane Fox on the age of the 
present channel of the Thames, he pointed out that it was probable 
that man had interfered more with the free course of the river 
during the period which has elapsed since the bronze age, than he 
had in all previous time, and therefore, in that case, conditions had 
not remained the same. 

Referring to the observations of Professor Prestwich on the 
occurrence of pipes and pans in non-calcareous strata, he thought 
that they might often be explained by the settling down of stones 
and sand into the soflened and puddled surface of the clay, the 
muddy water from the bottom oozing up through the stones and 
overflowing, and the process being repeated with greater effect each 
time as the pan grew deeper and the load of stones heavier. He 
thought that this was the explanation in the case adduced by 
Professor Prestwich, and in all such pipes in the valley brick- 

With regard to the evidence from the gravels and clay found in 
caves, he had already in a paper read before the Society, brought 
forward evidence to prove that in the case of the Pont Newydd Cave 
referred to by Professor Dawkins, which contained remains of the 
great extinct mammals and of man, the deposits containing the 
]S>S8ils were certainly post-glacial. ^ Journal Anthropological 
Institute," December 9, 1873.) 

He thought that a stronger ca«e had been made out from the 
evidence found in the Victoria Cave near Settle, but even there he 
was convinced that the deposits containing mammalian remain^ 

Digitized by 


Discussion. 185 

were post-glacial. He had watched the excavations from the com- 
mencement, and was of opinion that the bonlder-claj which aver- 
lapped the cave deposits had fallen from formerly- existing pits or 
choked swallowe-holes, such as were so common on the limestone 

• Mr. TiDDEMAN : As to the boulders at the cave's month, I thought 
it unnecessary to bring the question forward to-night, but as 
Professor Hughes has raised it, I must follow him. There 
is one very important point he forgot in his section of thp cave. 
We found a mass of talus lying beneath the cliff and dipping out- 
wards ; it was 20 feet thick, and at the base of the talus we had the 
deposit of boulder-clay, and at the back of the boalder-clay was 
the hyaana-bed. Professor Hughes says this boulder-clay fell from 
the top of the cliff at a time subsequent to the age when the bones 
were deposited, and might therefore have been recent. We have 
above that clay 20 feet of limestone fragments weathered from the 
clifF above by the rain and frost of successive seasons : that repre- 
sents a very considerable lapse of time since the botilders were 
deposited there. If the boulder- clay fell at a subsequent period, 
how is it that it was not mixed up with the talus ? If it fell 
immediately after the ice melted av^ay and before the talus formed 
in any quantity, why that implies all that I maintain. 

J may remark that the fibula and the cut bones are after all the 
smallest and most insignificant part of the evidence. The matter 
we have to consider is whether that fauna which has been found in 
Europe and in our own isles with works of man, and in some places 
with his remains, lived at a time which we are able to correlate 
with certain great physical events. As to Pont Newydd Cave, the 
implements made from travelled boulders to which Professor 
Huglies has referred, are no evidence at all that the men who made 
them lived there since the last glaciation of that district. That 
they were made in or after glacial times does not prove that they 
were not prior to certain other glacial times. 

With regard to a fibula making its way down into the earth, I 
will not dispute the fact that a bone might do that in certain cases, 
especially after Professor Bolleston's experience, but in the 
Victoria Cave it would have had great difficulty in getting down. 
In soft mud, it might have a chance of getting down, but if it 
were modem, you would have other modem things going down 
with it unless it had a start at the first. 

Professor Rollbston : It is pointed at both ends. 
Mr. TiDDEMAN : I do not think there could be a possibility of its 
working its way down. There were large blocks of stone and beds 
of stalagmite which we had to blast in opening the cave down to it, 
and it lay at a depth of 25 feet. I sincerely hope geologists will 
bear in mind, as new facts crop up, the suggestion that we have 
in England evidence of two great glacial periods, and test it by them. 

The meeting then terminated. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Society /ar the Peotection 0/ Aucibnt Buildings. 

A New Society has been formed for the above object, and in the 
prospeotns, wnich has been circnlated, the founders say: "No 
donbt within the last fifty years a new interest, almost like another 
sense, has arisen in these ancient monuments of art ; and they have 
become the subject of one of the most interesting of studies, and of 
an enthusiasm, religious, historical, artistic (and it may be added, 
anthropological), which is one of the undoubted gains of our time ; 
yet we think that if the present treatment of them be continued, 
our descendants will find them useless for study and chilling to 
enthusiasm. We think that these last fifty years of knowledge and 
attention have done more for their destruction than all the fore- 
going centuries of revolution, violence, and contempt. For archi- 
tecture, long-decaying, died out, as a popular art at least, just as 
the knowledge of medieaval art was born, so that the civilised world 
of the nineteenth century has no style of its own, amidst its wide 
knowledge of the styles of other centuries. From this lack and this 
gain arose in men's minds the strange idea of the restoration of 
ancient buildings ; a strange and most fatal idea, which by its very 
name implies that it is possible to strip from a building this, that, 
and the other parts of its history, of its life, that is, and then to stay 
the hand at some arbitrary point, and leave it still historical, living, 
and even as it once was. In earlier times this kind of forgery was 
impossible, because knowledge failed the builders, or perhaps because 
instinct held them back." The Society starts with 160 members. 
The annual subscription is half -a-guinea, and the Honorary Secre- 
tary, W. William Morris, 26, Queen*s Square, Bloomsbury. 


Pbesbbvation of Ancient Monuments a/nd Antiquities in Ohio. 

Valuable records of the pre-historic earth- works of Ohio are to be 
found in the " Smithsonian Contributions to Knowledge,** vols, i and 
iii. The plans and sections of ancient fortifications and other ancient 
monuments described by Messrs. Squier, Davis, and Whittlesey, are 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscellanea. 187 

examples to all pre-historic archaBologisfcs of the detail and accaracy 
required for such purposes. 

Notwithstanding this, however, it appears a great number of these 
monuments, in which the State of Ohio is so rich, are passing away 
under the operations of agriculture, without having been duly 
described. The State Archaeological Association of Ohio was 
originated at Mansfield in September, 1875, and held its first annual 
meeting at Newark in October last. Its cabinet has been located 
at the Capital, and will be kept in the State House, with its perma- 
nence and safe-keeping ensured by the Gk)vemment. The *' Cleve- 
land Leader'* of the 3rd of June, contains an appeal from the 
Society to the citizens of the State to aid them in the objects of the 
Association. A State Museum of Antiquities is to be formed at 
Columbus, and the next annual meeting will be held at Cincinnati, 
on the 3rd September, 1877. Any person may become a member by 
forwarding to the Secretary, Mr. Stephen D. Peet, of Ashtabula, 
three dollars as initiation fee, which will entitle him to an equal part 
in the discussions, and a copy of the annual proceedings. 


The folloicing is a Translation * of the greater part of the Address 
delivered by M. Broca, President, at the Opening Meeting of the 
French Association for the Advancement of the Sciences, at the 
Havre Congress, 1877. 


The eaiiiest memorials of man carry us back to a time when 
societies were already organised, and in which nations had already 
acquired a certain amount of civilisation. Savages have no 
history ; their oral traditions change and alter their original form 
in each generation, and at last become lost, to make room for 
traditions equally transient, and the most i mpo rtant events are 
thus sooner or later consigned to oblivion. Writing alone fixes 
memorials on a monument or in a book. Narratives more or less 
historical cannot then go back beyond the invention of writing, 
and this invention, which implies culture to a certain extent, has 
of necessity been very slow in progress. 

Some of the nations of antiquity it is true boasted of numberless 
ages for their past history; they pamded in their chronologies 
periods of tens, and hundreds of thousands of years, but criticism 
has without difficulty disposed of their claims. In these days, spite 
of the discoveries of Champollion, and the labours of Lepsins and 
Mariette and their followers, who have restored upwards of twenty 

* By pennission of the author. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

188 Anthropological Miscellanea. 

centuries to the arcliives of ancient Egypt, no actual date, can be 
assigned for the commencement of the historic period beyond six or 
seven thousand years. 

Thus if we only consulted history, we might well suppose that 
man is quite recent in his appearance on the globe, and much later 
than those geological phenomena which have modified the conditions 
of life, and, by the change in climates, have also changed the floras 
and faunas. These opinions were everywhere accepted when geolo- 
gists undertook the vast work of reconstructing the past ages of 
our planet, when our illustrious Cuvier created the paladontological 
system, when his genius reanimated the extinct species, and 
summoned before the tribunal of Science these mute but eloquent 
witnesses of the successive phases of our globe. Though still 
devoted to the hypothesis of sudden revolutions and universal 
cataclysms, Cuvier understood what an immense lapse of time is 
represented by a geological period, and, as the shortness of the 
historic period contrasted to such a degree with the incalculable 
antiquity of the fossil animals, was it not natural to believe that 
man had not appeared till long after them ? This was Cuvier's 
conclusion, and it conformed with received ideas to such an extent 
that it at once became classical. Some went even further than 
Cuvier : the author of the " Discours sur les revolutions du Globe " 
(1825), confined himself to saying that there was no proof of 
the existence of fossil man, and added that it was improbable ; 
but even this was not enough, and on all hands it was pronounced 
impossible. For all this, many facts opposed to this opinion soon 
appeared, but they were met only with doubts and scorn. It was 
in vain that, either in the floors of caverns, or in pal89ontological 
deposits, human bones mingled and confused with those of animals 
of the quaternary age were discovered ; systematic objections were 
always presented ; the floor must have been rearmnged by up- 
heaval, sinking, or landslip ; man might have dug there to bury 
the dead ; he might have been entombed by earthquakes in the 
caverns in which he sought shelter; he might have fallen by 
chance to the bottom of a deep and narrow cleft ; his bones rolled 
about by torrents might have been deposited by accident in old 
water-formed channels. It was fortunate when the authenticity of 
the discovery and the competence and sagacity of the observer were 
not impugned. Thus were cast aside the discoveries made in 1828 
by Tournal of Narbonne in the cavern of Bize (Aude), in 1829 by 
Christol of Montpellier in the caverns of the Gfard, afterwards by 
Eniilien Dumas and Dr. Pitore in two caverns of the Gard and of 
the Herault, and by M. Ami Boue, of Vienna, in the quaternary 
deposits of Lower Austria. The vast researches of Schmerling in 
the caverns near Li^ge (1833), and notably in the Grotto of Engis, 
HOW so celebrated, had no better reception. The remaricable cranium 
of Mont Denise (Haute Loire) found in 1844, by M. Aymard, in a 
bed of mud-lava which conceals the remains of many lost species, 
did however at last attract attention, but it was always urged in 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscellanea, 189 

objecidon, that this human relio might, through some displacement 
of the soil, have slipped to the bottom of a fissure. 

Facts of this nature, in those days made no impression, however 
decisive they may appear to us. They were, so to speak, challenged 
beforehand. To overcome such an opposition, an overwhelming 
amount of evidence was required. To afford this, it was necessary 
to prove the presence of man, not only in caverns of the quaternary 
epoch or in ossiferous breccias, or in earth on the surface of decli- 
vities more or less liable to slip, but also in the soil of ereat valleys, 
in horizontal and undisturbed strata still in situ^ and under saoh 
conditions as to render the hypothesis of their having undergone 
any kind of '' remaniement " altogether impossible. The extensive 
beds of sand or gravel deposited in the bottoms of existing valleys 
by the powerful streams of the quaternary age most often combine 
these conditions. It was there that Boucher de Perthes sought for 
proofs of the existence of ancient man. There it was he discovered 
lying mingled with the bones of the rhinoceros and mammoth the 
flint weapons used by man in his struggles with these monsters of 
another age, and the innumerable implements fashioned by his hands 
to supply his wants. 

Boucher des Perthes was not a certificated savant, and for a long 
time his assertions were not believed. His illusions were smiled 
at, and the dreamer who wasted his life in search of an impossible 
goal was pitied. But this dreamer possessed a conviction which 

fives courage, and a perseverance which leads to success. From 
840 to 1858 he struggled patiently with the indifference 6f some 
and the scoffs of others. He only asked for examination and veri- 
fication, but he could not obtain even these, for Dr. RigoUot, the 
only believer he had convinced, was not in earnest. At last, after 
eighteen years of struggles, he saw the day of justice dawn. 
The celebrated English paladontologist. Falconer, willingly went 
to Abbeville in 1868 to examine at one and the same time the sites 
explored by oar indefatigable compatriot, and the rich collection of 
worked flints and fossil bones there found. Other English savants, 
Messrs. Prestwich, Evans, Flower, and Lyell followed close at hand. 
They themselves made successful searches at different points in the 
valley of the Somme, particularly at St. Acheul, near Amiens, in a 
site already in 1854 pointed out by Rigollot. Stimulated by this 
example, Frendh savants in their tarn arrived; and M. Gaudry, 
M. George Pouchet, and others were able to obtain with their own 
hands axes of worked flint from the quaternary deposits of the 

The facts discovered by Boucher des Perthes were thus fully 
confirmed. The sanction of public discussion alone was now needed. 
This was given them by the Societe d* Anthropologic of Paris. In 
thet body a savant whose prudence was equal to his good faith, 
Isidore- Geoffrey Saint Hilaire, declared that the last objections to 
the antiquity of man had vanished. The question was examined 
in all its aspects at several meetings, and all hesitation was removed. 
The discussions, published in the papers even before the appearance 

Digitized by 


190 Anthropological Miscellanea, 

of the Proceedings of the Society, had a great effect. Fossil man 
henceforth had an estahlished place in positive science, and the 
glorious name of Boncher de Perthes resounded through all Europe. 

This name will for ever be connected with one of the greatest dis- 
coveries. History is under obligations to all who have cleared the 
approaches to important truths, to all who have had but glimpses 
of those truths, as also to those who have supplied the proofs, bnt to 
him who has enabled her to triumph, a yet higher place is assigned. 
History will recount how before Boncher de Perthes, the fact of the 
existence of fossil man already rested on authentic grounds. It will 
record notably the discoveries made in the caverns of Li6ge by the 
learned and courageous Schmerling, and published by him in a work 
of the highest merit. To the names already mentioned, history 
will add those of Eberhardt of Wiirtemberg, of Esper, of John 
Frere, who in the 18th century, before the classification of the 
geological epochs, dug up human remains and worked flints now 
recognised as belonging to the quaternary deposits ; justice will be 
rendered to Jager, who in 1836 recognised the great antiquity of 
the Canstadt skull (discovered upwards of a century earlier, and for 
long considered apocryphal) ; but with due praise to these workers 
in the advanced guard, it is Boncher de Perthes who will receive 
the homage due to the bold wrestler who maintained the final 
struggle and came off the victor. 

The year 1859, which beheld the theory of the antiquity of man 
burst upon the scientific world with irresistible force, marks the 
commencement of an era rich beyond others. New and boundless 
horizons opened out before savants. All Europe, geologists, archseo- 
logists, anthropologists, threw themselves into the work with start- 
ling energy. Only eighteen years have elapsed, and never perhaps 
in so short a time has such a rich harvest been garnered. Who can 
forget those days of new life when from the bowels of the earth, 
from the depths of caverns, sounded the voice of the past ; when the 
fossil communities lived again, became again alive : — 

" When the old world., like LazaruB, upheayed 
The stone which held his now reriying youth 
Within the tomb." 

Boucher de Perthes had only lifted a comer of that mysterious veil 
which hides the origin of man. He had proved that man had 
existed throughout the quaternary epoch, that he had been in our 
country, the contemporary of the i-eindeer and of animals which now 
only exist elsetvhere, of the manmioth and other extinct animals. But 
was this all ? and was not the human race even yet more ancient ? 
This last question, more important than the other, presented itself 
at once. More important, I say, for each of the three periods of the 
tertiary age was of much greater duration than the quaternary. I 
will not here recount the researches concerning tertiary man. The 
discoveries of M. Desnoyers at St. Prest, near Chartres, and of 
Professor Capellini in many tertiary sites in Tuscany, tend to 
establish the fact of the existence of man in the pliocene age ; those 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscellanea, 191 

of the Abb6 Bourgeois, in the commane of Thenay (Loir-efc-Cher), 
would carry back even to the miocene age, that is to say, to the 
middle tertiary, the existence of an inteUigent being who could 
work flints, and could only be man. 

But these facts, though collected by highly competent observers, 
and accepted after careful discussion by many enunent scwants^ are 
not yet sufficiently numerous or unopposed to constitute a definitive 

Tertiary man is as yet only on the threshold of science, and he is 
in the same position that quaternary man held some twenty years 
back. Will another Boucher de Perthes arise to prove his exist- 
ence by evidence convincing to all P That is one of the secrets of 

Quaternary man, on the other hand, has now become classical. 
He has been found in most parts of Europe, and in many places in 
the New World. His weapons and implements, preserved in many 
public and private collections, are numbered by hundreds of thou- 
sands. The diggings in the valley of the Lesse, in Belgium, have 
alone supplied 80,000 worked flints. These innumerable d/hris of 
quaternary manufacture have been got, sometimes from the earth 
of valleys in which the relative position of the strata is enough to 
mark their date: at othei*s from deposits rich in natural flints, 
where man had established his workshops ; here in the rock shelters 
where he camped ; there, in the caves in which he lived. In the 
cave dwelling places the finds have been most abundant : in these 
last we have been able to study even the details of the life of a 
tribe, the remains of feasts, the weapons for the chase and for 
fishing, the sewing implements, all the products of the flint worker, 
to which may be added at a certain period, handsome implements of 
bone and reindeer horn : then, the symbols of power, ornaments, 
objects of commerce, and lastly, wonderful to relate, the works of 
artists, sometimes rude and uncivilised, at other times full of grace, 
motion, and truth, representing by engraving or sculpture the 
animals hunted in those davs — the bull, horse, aurochs, reindeer, the 
great cave bear, and even the gigantic mammoth. 

Thanks to many discoveries, the authors of which are too nume- 
rous to be named, quaternary man is now-a-days better known than 
many historical nations. He has his chronology, not one of years 
or epochs, like ours, but of archasological and pal»ontological 
periods, vast spaces of time, taking date according to the various 
fossil species which predominated successively around him, and 
according to the different types of implements marking the gradual 
evolution of his work. He has his history also, not indeed political, 
but anthropological; not that of peoples and chiefs who became 
celebrated, but that of races who supplanted and succeeded one 
another on the same soil. 

These races are distinguished by the skulls and bones which have 
been found in the quaternary deposits. We cannot say we know 
them well, or even their exact number, for the valuable remains 
which represent them are as yet too scarce, and often too much 

Digitized by 


l92 Anthropological Miscellanea, 

damaged to be of use as a f oandation for complete descriptions. Wo, 
however, know enough to be certain of a great number and variety 
of quaternary races, and although the regions hitherto examined 
comprise only western and part of contral Europe, we can hence- 
forth, in this small comer of our globe, recognise and distinguish 
at least three fossil human races which may be referred to two essen« 
tially dilEerent types. I will first say what are these two types, and 
then what are these three races. 


Under the name dolichocephalic, which means long-headed, are 
classed the skulls of a long shape, and under that of brachycephalic, 
or short-headed, those of a round shape. 

The horizontal contour of the h'ead, an idea of which may 
be formed by looking at the opening of a hat, is a kind of oval, 
longer than it is broad, of which the form, in other respects very 
variable, depends principally on the relative extent of its two 

When it is much longer than it is broad, or in other words, when 
the antero-posterior diameter much exceeds the transverse diameter, 
the skull is dolichocephalic, or long. On the other hand, when the 
difEerence of these two diameters is sHght, it is brachycephalic^ or 

Between these two extreme types there is a medium shape, called 
mesaticephalic, or intermedial. In order to obtain, according to 
this classification, an exact definition, we measure the two diameters 
with a compass; we divide the second by the first, and obtain a 
decimal fraction called the cephalic index. The two first figures of 
this decimal are the characteristic of the index. We thus reduce the 
long or short-shaped skull to a numerical expression. Those are 
dolichocephalic in which the cephaHc index is less than the fraction 
J, or as 777 : 100, the brachycephalic are those in which the cephtflic 
index is greater than the fraction ^, or as 80 : 100, and the mesa- 
ticephalic are those whose index lies between these two limits. But 
the variations of the cephalic index are so numerous that it has 
seemed advisable to distinguish two degrees of the dolichocephalic 
type, i.e., the dolichocephalic proper, whose index is below 75 : 100, 
and the sub-dolichocephalic, whose index is above this point,. In 
the same way, in the brachycephalic, we distinguish between the 
brachycephalic proper and the sub-brachycephalic, according as the 
index is less or greater than the fraction f, or as 83*3 : 100. 

In consequence of the numerous mixtures of race during the 
historic period, these different forms of skulls exist to-day amongst 
nearly all the European populations to a varying degree of fre- 

Most often, however, there is a certain cephalic type, which pre- 
vails to a greater extent than any other, and which points to the 
greater influence of such and such a race. In France, for instance, 
Uie brachycephalic predominates from the Alps to Brittany, through 
the region occupied in Julius Gsasar's time, by the celebrated Celtic 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscellanea. 198 

confederation, whilst to the north of the Seine and the Mame in 
the ancient Belgic Granl, the population is mostly snb-dolichooe- 
phalic. From this fact, and researches of a similar kind which have 
been made in other conntries, we may conclude with certainty that 
the peoples of Europe are derived from many races, differing much 
in the shape of the skull. 

The illustrious Swedish anatomist, Retzius, who first in 1842 
established the difference between the brachy cephalic and dolicho- 
cephalic forms, thought that this continued division of cephalic 
types might be attributed to the mixture of two races only, the 
one brachycephalic, the other dolichocephalic. At this date the 
existence of fossil man was not yet admitted, though many years 
previously Thomson already had discovered the succession of the 
ages of industry, stone, bronze, and iron, and it was no longer 
doubted that before the period of the Indo-European migrations, 
Europe had autochthonous peoples. Combining this idea with his 
craniological studies, Retzius supposed that the primitive European 
race was brachycephalic, and that the dolichocephalic type was first 
introduced by the conquering Asiatic race. The obscure and com- 
plicated problem of the origin of the European race was thus 
reduced to a charming simplicity and clearness, and never had 
hypothesis such a general and rapid success. For nearly twenty 
years, Retzius's ethnogenic theory was admitted without opposition, 
and some few facts favourably interpreted, seemed to strengthen it : 
but when it was decided to investigate it more closely, these facta 
faded away one after another, and this brilliant theorj^ already 
much shaken, was finally upset by the discovery of the fossil human 

The difference between the races of Europe does not date from 
the almost recent era of the Asiatic invasions, nor from that long 
age of polished stone which preceded the introduction of metals 
and succeeded the reindeer age. It goes back to the quaternary 
age. In that fact, Retzius*s hypothesis would lose much of its 
importance ; but further, the dolichocephalic type, so far from being 
the last arrival, is the earliest of all ; the emigrations and mixtures 
of races far from developing, only weakened it, and these brachy- 
cephalic people considered till lately as autochthones, overcome and 
dispossessed by stronger and more civilized races, were, on the 
contrary, the invading strangers whose slow and progressive immi- 
gration modified, in a manner as decided as durable, the ethnology 
of Western Europe. They only appeared on the scene in the last 
days of the quaternary age. Before them two dolichocephalic races 
had successively occupied the land, and we shall now show the chief 
characteristic difierences between these three races, recovered by 
science after so many centuries of oblivion. 


By what names shall we designate them ? A race of which there 
are no records, can only have a conventional name. The most 
suitable one wOl be that of the place whence the first authentic 

Digitized by 


194 Anthropological Miscellanea, 

and characteristic facte conceming them were derived. On this 
plan, borrowed from geologists, MM. de Quatrefages and Hamy have 
called the three principal fossil races hj the names Canstadt, 
Cromagnon, and Furfooz. The Canstadt race is the oldest of all, 
and its remains are the scarcest ; by chance, however, they were the 
first discovered. In 1700 Duke Eberhard of Wiirtemberg, a gi*eat 
antiquary, had some excavations made in an oppidum of the Roman 
period at Canstadt, near Stuttgart. The workmen drove their 
picks into the neighbonring earth, and discovered there a certain 
quantity of fossil horns and bones, amongst which was a large fr&g- 
ment of a human skull. But no attention was paid to this precious 
relic. It was only 135 years later, that is in 1835, that the 
learned palaeontologist, Fred. Jager, rediscovered it in the collection 
of»tho Princes of Wiirtemberg and recognised its value. He ventured 
to conclude from it that man had been the cotemporary of the large 
quaternary animals. He was answered, that excavations of so remote 
a date were not to be relied on, but to-day the genuineness of the 
Canstadt skull is undisputed, and this cranium, so long disdained, 
has had the honour of conferring its name on the first fossil race. 

Six or seven other skulls, very imperfect, some fragments of 
jawbones, and some portions of long bones are up till now the only 
remains of the Canstadt race. 

Two of these relics have owed their great celebrity to the discus- 
sions raised conceming them : these are the skull found in 1857, by 
Dr. Fiihlrott, in the Neanderthal cave, near Diisseldorf, and the 
lower jawbone, discovered in 1865 by M. Dupont in the Naulette 
cave, in the valley of the Lesse (Belgium). The jawbone of 
Nanlette presents a combination of marks of inferiority truly sur- 
prising, and tl;e general shape of the Neanderthal skull, its low and 
retreating forehead, the enormous projection of the superciliary 
arches, which recalls that of anthropoid apes, is not less startling. 
It is well, however, to add that the characteristics of the Canstadt 
race are shown in an exaggerated way in these two fragments. 

The examination of the fragments of the long bones which have 
been rediscovered shows that the Canstadt race was very robust, 
but of small stature, probably not more than 1 m. 68 c. to 1 m. 70 c. 
(5 feet 614 inches to 5 feet 693 inches). The skulls, for the most 
part much damaged, can only be partially studied, still th^ can be 
clearly distinguished from all that have succeeded them. One word 
will describe their characteristic ; it is doHchoplatycephcdic^ i.e., it is at 
once dolichocephalic and platycephalic. By this name platycephalic 
(the etymology of which is not quite correct) we designate skulls 
whose roof is very fiattened, and which consequently have a very 
small vertical diameter. 

The dolichocephahsm of the Canstadt men reaches a point 
which for a long time, has ceased to exist as a mark of race in 
Europe, and which is only seen in modem races among the Austra- 
lians and Esquimos. A dolichocephalism, almost as marked, is 
found in the second or Cromagnon race, and even in one of the races 
of the polished stone age ; bnt in them it coincides with a much 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscellanea. 195 

loftier form of skull, which contrasts in a striking way with the 
platycephalic race of Canstadt. This platycephalism is dne mainly 
to the great reclination of the forehead, which instead of rising 
above the face in an elegant curve, slopes rapidly backwards, in 
consequence of which additional volume and prominence is appa- 
rently given to the whole sub-orbital region, including the naturally 
voluminous and strongly-curved orbital arches^ together with the 
strongly developed superciliary eminences and glabella. The frontal 
region of the skull is thus considerably diminished; whilst pos- 
teriorly, on the other hand, the occiput projects very considerably. 
But notwithstanding this compensation, the cranial capacity remains 
veiy small, being apparently less than that even of the Hottentot 
and Australian. And it is still further diminished, it may be added, 
by the great thickness of the cranial walls. Other marks of infe- 
riority are evident in the lower jawbone. These are the proclivity 
of the incisors, the great size of the molars, the total absence of the 
projection of the chin, and the elliptic form of the alveolar arch, 
which has a tendency to contract behind, like a horseshoe. 

The only skull in which it has been possible to study the face in 
its entirety, is one found in the Forbes Quarry at Gibraltar. I think 
with MM. de Quatrefages and Hamy that this skull belongs to the 
Canstadt race ; with which its connection is shown chiefly by the 
conformation of the superciliary eminences, the forehead, the occiput, 
the thickness of the walls, and the smallness of the brain-case; 
unfortunately the absence of characteristic fossils prevents our being 
able to determine the date of the deposit in which it was found. 

Be that as it may, the Forbes Quarry skull exhibits extremely 
curious characteristics in its facial region ; the very oblique line of 
profile, the very wide and deep nasal orifice, the great width between 
the cheek bones, the rounded and truly immense orbits, exceeding 
by more than 100 square millimetres the largest orbital area up to 
this time measured on any human skull, ^.nd lastly, what is still 
more strange, a strongly-marked convexity, in place of the canine 
fossa. Such are the principal features of this facial region, which 
has nothing analogous in other known races, and which would be a 
type in itself if we did not class it with that of Canstadt. 

The Canstadt race was decidedly very savage, more so without 
doubt than any existing race; it possessed none but very rude 
implements, and its wandering tribes struggled painfully with the 
hardships of life on a soil of which the powerful quaternary animals, 
the great Bear, the Rhinoceros, and the Mammoth disputed the 
possession. Nevertheless its geographical spread was immense. It 
has been met with at Brux in Bohemia, at Canstadt in Wiirtemberg, 
and Neanderthal in the Rhenish Provinces, at La Naulette in 
Belgium, at Eguisheim in Alsace, at Paris in the lowest gravels of 
Grenelle and CHchy, at Arcy-sur-Cure in the department of the 
Yonne, at Mont Denise in that of the Haute Loire, at Olmo near 
Arezzo, in Tuscany, and lastly, probably in Gibraltar. It occupied 
therefore a large part of Western and Central Europe, where it kept 
its hold from the beginning of the quaternary age till near the 

Digitized by 


196 Anthropological MiscdUmea. 

middle of that period. But then appeared another race more 
powerful and more capable of improvement, which possessed itself 
of its domains, and doubtless only succeeded it on its almost exter- 
mination. This second fossil race is that of Cromagnon. It derives 
its name from a rock-shelter discovered in 18G8, near the village of 
Les Ejzies in the valley of the Vez^re, Dordogne. The celebrated 
Engis skull, found by Schmerling in 18B4, belongs to the same race, 
as also do the two skulls found in 1867 by M. Brun in the shelter 
of Lafiaye, near Bmniquel ; but Schmerling had referred the Engis 
man to a negro or a negroid race ; and the Lafaye skulls were not 
sufficiently characteristic to reveal the existence of a special race. 
It is then the Cromagnon discovery which for the first time allows 
us to distinguish and describe the second fossil race, since then 
found in a host of other places. 

This race represented in our museums by a score of skulls, some 
of which are perfect, by some skeletons almost complete, and by a 
very large number of bones more or less isolated, is now well 
known. It is dolichocephalic, like that of Canstadt, and almost to 
the same degree, but in other respects it differs widely from it. Its 
stature is much taller, the Mentone skeleton, which M. Riviere was 
able to preserve entire, measui^es Ira. 85c. (6ft. "83 in.). The 
Cromagnon old man is more than 1 m. 80 c. (6 ft. 10*86 in.), and 
the mean height of the men is as high as 1 m. 78 c. (5 ft. 10'08 in.). 
The skull is very large, and its capacity is equal to, if not greater 
than, that of the modem Parisian. Tne strong superciliary ridge 
which characterises the Canstadt race is not found here. The fore- 
head is not retreating, on the contrary, it is Bti*aight and high, 
forming as far as the bregma a fine curve, below which the frontal 
eminences and the glabella, reduced to a moderate size, form an even 
surface. The vertical diameter is well developed, and the lofty well- 
arched roof contrasts with the platycephalic roofs of the skulls of 
the first race. The occipital region is always roomy, and still con- 
siderably vaulted, but it is only moderately prolonged behind the 
parietal bones. 

The facial region presents distinct characteristics quite as marked 
as the foregoing. The chin, instead of retreating, as in the cases of 
La Naulette and of Arcy, stands well out, and the lower incisors 
have become vertical. The superior orbital borders are no longer 
strongly. arched; on the contrary, they are much flattened, and the 
orbital opening considerably developed in width, is of slight height. 
The nasal region, long and narrow, shows the leptorthinian shape 
common to all Caucasian races. Nevertheless, the cheek bones are 
very wide apart, and though the face on the whole is but little 
slanting, the region of the upper incisors presents a marked obliquity. 
The Cromagnon race is not only distinguished bj the conformation 
of the skull and of the face, but also by that of the principal bones 
of the limbs. It would take too long to describe here the pilaster- 
like femur, the flattened or platycnemic tibia, the grooved fibula, the 
bowed ulna ; these special forms, which are still found now-a-days 
in certain individuals, not combined — but isolated, and besides more 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscellanea, 197 

or less unprononnced — were normal in the Cromagnon people, 
-wLich was in that respect distinguished from all modem races. 

Those who consider the volume of the brain as an element of the 
intellectual power ; those who know that in this respect there are 
mean differences of 130 to 150 cnbic centimetres and more, between 
the superior and inferior races, have been somewhat surprised to 
find that the character of the mean cranial capacity, places the Cro- 
magnon people on a level with ourselves. 

But it must be noted that we are here dealing only with averages, 
for the study of individual cases show that on the contrary our 
maxima exceed theirs* Civilised societies support among them 
those who are weak and feeble^ and infirm in mind or body. These 
outcasts of nature could not carry on the struggle for lifb in the 
earlier societies, where every individual could only reckon on him- 
self, and where each day his existence depended on his own strength, 
sagacity, and foresight ; in each generation the stem law of selection 
eliminated the weakly ; and it is their absence which gives an appa- 
rent superiority, not alone to the Cromagnon race, but also to one 
of those which succeeded it during the polished stone period. 

Besides, if we study the relative development of the anterior and 
posterior portions oi the skull according to the Abb6 Fr^re's 
method, we find that the anterior portion, which contains the nobler 
part of the brain, is markedly smaller in these prehistoric races, than 
in our modem races perfected by education. 

If these observations be true, the large cerebral volume of the 
Cromagnon race ceases to be a paradox, but it is still of the greatest 
importance. It shows us that this race must have been very intel- 
ligent, and we know in fact that it was so. To it was due the 
remarkable perfecting of the working in flint. It was this race 
which first learnt to work the reindeer horn, bone, and ivory ; and 
rising to the conception of art, discovered drawing, carving, and 
sculpture. Such progress in such an age, is evidence of the intel- 
ligence of the race that effected it. 

This race does not seem to have spread as far eastward as that of 
Canstadt. Traces of it have been found in Sonthem Italy, and 
probably also in Great Britain, but it chiefly occupied France and 

The south-west of France, between P^rigord and the Pyrenees, 
seems to have been its chief dominion. Its chronology embraces 
about the second half of the great quaternary age ; its most ancient 
stations correspond with the mean level of the valleys, that is to 
say with the so-called intermediate age, and its latest bring us up to 
the end of the reindeer age, which was the third and last of the 
quaternary period. This reindeer age was the epoch of its pros- 
perity, I might almost say its splendour. But when the dis- 
appearance of the reindeer, and the increasing mildness of the 
climate, marked the end of the pals^ontological period, and the com- 
mencement of the present geological epoch, the Cromagnon race 
heard the knell of their deci^ence sound. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

198 A nthropological Miscellanea. 

It was reiBdeer flesh which supplied their chief food ; the reindeer 
horn was the first material of their industry and arts. 

The manner of life, choice of dwelling places, division of labour, 
social constitution of these tribes, all depended on the supplies 
afforded by their hunting grounds, and when these were insufficient, 
the society of these reindeer hunters was thoroughly disorganised. 

The chase henceforth could not supply the wants of a numerous 
population ; the future belonged to pastoral and agricultural peoples 
and tjie men of the polished stone age, who had arrived at this 
pitch of civilization, speedily supplanted the Cromagnon race. If 
we only consulted archceology, it might be thought that this last 
race vanished at the same time as the reindeer. It is certain, in 
fact, that the localities which characterise it, and the industry and 
arts connected with its name, are not found in the polished stone 
or neolithic age ; but the race itself, though considerably weakened, 
had not quite perished. Some tribes, as that of the Homme Mort 
cave in Lozere, maintained themselves for a long time, even in the 
midst of the neolithic population. Elsewhere, as at Solutr6, the 
survivors mingled with the new races ; and in this cross their influ- 
ence was sufficiently strong to leave a lasting anthropological stamp. 
Their anatomical characteristics, doubtless rendered fainter, but 
always recognisable, persisted for a certain number of generations ; 
and even at the present day they sometimes re-appear, following 
the laws of the remote heredity, designated atoAjiam. 

The Cromagnon race has brought us down to neolithic times. 
The study of the third fossil race, or that of Furfooz, will bring us 
back to the reindeer age. 

The Furfooz race was discoverd in 1866 and 1867 by M. Dupont 
in several caves situated on the right bank of the Lesse, near 
the village of Furfooz, Belgium. A burial cave afibrded skulls 
and bones which characterise the race, and the dwelling caves have 
enabled us to observe the industries and manners of the population. 
The Furfooz is quite different from the large Cromagnon race. 
The height, much less, varies between 1 m. 53 c. and 1 m. 62 c. 
(5 ft. "23 in. and 6 ft. 3*78 in.), descending as low almost as among 
the Laplanders. The bones of the limbs do not show in their con- 
formation any of the remarkable characteristics which distinguish 
the men of Cromagnon. The femur, tibia, fibula, and ulna, are 
exactly similar to onr own, and the sole peculiarity to be noticed is 
the degree of ft^quency of the perforation of the humerus in the 
olecranon fossa. This perforation, which has been wrongly con- 
sidered as a simian characteristic, or at least one of inferiority, has 
no rank- signification either in man or in apes. It is not constant in 
any race, and is found more or less commonly or more or less rarely 
in both. It is now somewhat exceptional in Europe, but was much 
less so formerly. Thus it is only found in about 4 per cent, of the 
bodies in the Paris cemeteries, while in some burial places of the 
neolithic age it amounts to 15 or even 25 per cent. In the Furfooz 
race it occurs in 28 to 30 per cent. It is worthy of remark that 
the perforated humerus has not yet been found in the first two 

Digitized by 


Anthropological Miscdlanea. 199 

fossil races. If it existed among them it was only as an exception, 
and we may suppose that this interesting characteristic was intro- 
duced into Western Europe by the Fnrfooz race. 

But it is in the form of the skull particularly that this race 
differs from those which preceded it. With it appeared for the 
first time a rounded type of skull which is not quite the true bra- 
chycephalic, but which heralds the approach of the brachycephalic 
people. The skull on the whole is small, particularly so in the 
anterior portion; the forehead is narrow, low, and retreating, the roof 
but little elevated ; in these respects the Fnrfooz skulls take place 
below those of Cromagnon, and are a little allied to the Canstadt 
type. The face, in comparison with the Cromagnon one is smaller, 
the cheek bones less prominent, the orbits not so broad, and higher, 
the nasal opening shorter in proportion to its breadth, the lower 
jaw bones smaller and less thick. That would be quite sufficient to 
distinguish the two races, even if the cephalic index did not mark 
the difference between them. 

In the Cromagnon race, which is highly dolichocephalic, this index 
is only 73 on an average, whilst the two perfect skulls of Fnrfooz, 
with their indices of 7l> and 81, the average of which is 80, are on 
the border of the mesaticephalic and the sub-brachycephalic, and 
it even seems probable that in these two skulls the cephalic? index 
had been lessened by a mixture of race, for in the same grave and 
near them, a less perfect skull was found, which was very dolicho- 
cephalic, and belonging apparently to the Cromagnon race. 

The Fnrfooz race only appeared in Belgium in the latter part of 
the reindeer age. No remains of the large mammal contemporaries 
of the mammoth have been found in the remains of its feasts. The 
reindeer even is rather rare, and it is evident that this animal was 
about to disappear. The Fnrfooz people only lived by the chase, 
and dwelt in caves. They had that much in common with the Cro- 
magnon race, but were far inferior to it in other respects. They 
were not acquainted with drawing or sculpture, their industry was 
very backward, their worked flints careless in execution, their 
weapons of reindeer horn shaped without taste; nothing reminds 
US of the handsome daggers, and barbed arrows of the troglodytes 
of the V^zere. It may be questioned even if they were acquainted 
with the use of the bow ; but they could make articles of pottery, 
very rude, it is true, but no trace of which is found in the stations 
of the Cromagnon race, and which marks a date little anterior to 
the polished stone age. At the same period that this mesaticephalic 
or sub-brachycephalic race inhabited Belgium, men with rounder 
heads, true brachycephalic p)eople, with indices of 83, 85, and even 
more, penetrated into France on the eastern frontier. At Solutr6 
in the Macon country they mingled with those we can hardly call 
the reindeer hunters, for the reindeer was already scarce, and now 
it was horse flesh that formed the chief diet. In this locality, where 
the perfection of the flint working is remarkable, we find side by 
side with the Cromagnon skulls, some which are quite brachyce- 
phalic. Those found by Emile Martin in the upper sands of Crenelle, 

Digitized by 


200 Anthrcypologiccd Miscellanea, 

tend to prove that tlie brachycephalic race had then advanced as far 
as the Paris district, but there is some doubt as to the degree of 
antiquity of this station, in which Emile Martin has not found the 
remains of any quaternary animal. Be that as it may, the discovery 
made in the loess of Nagy-Sap near Gran^ in Hungary, proves that 
the true brachycephalic people already existed on the Danube in the 
middle of the quaternary age. It is easy to understand that towards 
the end of that period they may have struck westward, but their 
ethnogenic influence was then much restricted. Their immigration 
did not actually take place till the following ages, which belong to 
the existing geological period, and do not enter into the present 

Should we consider these brachycephalic people as forming a 
fourth fossil race ? Yes, no doubt ; if we give a purely morpholo- 
gical acceptation to the word race^ but, if we join to that the idea of 
filiation^ the result will possibly be different. It is, in fact, neither 
impossible nor unhkely that the Fnrfooz race was nearly affiliated 
to these true brachycephalic people, that it was a first swarm from 
them, modified by intermixture, after a long residence in the midst 
of the dolichocephalic race of Belgium, and actual community ot 
habitation, as the fact of their common burials clearly proves. 

Since the quaternary period of which I have spoken, many cen- 
turies have elapsed; numerous populations and many races have, 
before and since the historical period, clashed and supplanted each 
other on our soil ; and it is not the lightest task of Anthropology to 
determine amongst the physical, intellectual and moral characters 
of the existing population, the respective influences of so many 
diverse elements. Nations, like families, are fond of counting up 
their ancestors, of enhancing the length of their genealogv, and of 
regarding the antiquity of their origin as a title of nobility. Our 
complex nation, which derives its modem name from a Germanic 
people, its civilisation from the Latins, its chief glory from the Gauls, 
may now add to its past an incalculable series of ages. 

If it does not blush for the barbarism of the Celts, why should it 
be ashamed to number among its ancestors those neolithic Triptolemi 
who knew how to render the soil fruitfxd by agriculture ; those rough 
quaternary hunters who had skill to wrest its possession from 
animals more terrible and more real that the monsters with which 
Hercules fought — and above all those intelligent Troglodytes of 
the Vez^re who, first of mankind, were able to kindle the torch of 
Art long before the Assyrians and Egyptians ? 

Barbarous no doubt they were, but are not we also barbarous in 
some degree ? we who can only settle our differences on the battle- 
field. They were not acquainted with electricity or steam, they had 
neither metals nor gunpowder; but wretched as they were, and with 
only weapons of stone, they carried on against nature no mean 
struggle ; and the progress they slowly effected with such efforts, 
prepared the soil on which civilisation was hereafter destined to 
flourish. P. Broca, 

Professeur a la Faculty de Medecine de Paris. 

Digitized by 


Case Shelf . 

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Feabody Mnsetun of Amerioan Arohaology and 




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Seceived Jt^tUy Z^/tT/. 

Digitized by 


lorn.. Ar^lJrr.WJnslJoiyil sLf' 





Digitized by 






June 12th, 1877. 
Col. a. Lane Fox, F.R.S., Vice-President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The election of Dr. Crochley Clapham, Yorkshire, as member 
of the Institute, was annoimced. 

The following presents to the Library were announced, and 
thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors for 
the same. 

Fob the Libbabt. 

Prom the Academy. — ^Bulletin de T Academie Royale de Copenbague 

No. 1, 1877. 
From the Academy. — Btdletin de TAcad^mie Imperiale des Sciences 

de St. Petersburg, Vol. XXIH, No. 3. 
From the Author. — Una Microcefala. By Dr. Carlo Gracomini. 
From the Authob. — ^Nowy Przyczynek do Antropologa Przed- 

historycan^j ziem Polskich. By Dr. J. Kopemicki. 
Tijdschrifl voor Indische Taal-Land-en Volkenkunde. Part XXIV. 
Verslag, van eene verzameling Maleische, Arabische, Javaansche 

en andcre Handschriften. By L. C. Sanden Berg. 
Notnlen van de Algemeene en Bestuurs-Vergaderingen Van Het 

Bataviaasch genootschap. 
From the Authob. — Papers relating to the Mandan and Pawnee 

Languages. By Prof. F. V. Hayden. 
From the Author. — The Growth of Children. By Dr. H. P. Bow- 

From the Institutk. — The Journal of the Canadian Institute. 

Vol. XV, No. 6. 
From the Manx Society. — Bliam Dh6ne and the Manx Rebellion, 


Digitized by 


202 W. J. Knowles. — Flint Implements, and Associated 

From the Society of Arts and Sciences at Batavia. — Tijdschrift 

XXIII, afl. 5, 6— XXIV,afl. 1, 2, 3; NotulenXIV, 1877, afl. 

2, 3, 4; Het Malush der Molukken. By F. S. A. de Clercq; 

Verslag van eine Verzameling Handschriften. By L. W. C. 

Yon den Berg ; CataJogus der Ethnologifiche Af deeling van hat 

Mnsenm 2 drub. 
From the Editor. — Nature (to date). 
From the Editor. — Revue Scientifiqne. Nos. 48 and 50, 1877. 

Mr. W. J. Knowles then read the following paper, and exhi- 
bited many objects referred to therein. 

FuNT Implements, and Associated remains found near 
Ballintoy, Co. Antrim. By W. J. Knowles. 

On making an excursion some time ago roimd the nortk coast 
of Ireland, in search of antiquities, I visited a place called 
Whitepark Bay, near Ballintoy — a quiet recess enclosed on the 
land side by steep cliffs — and found lying exposed on banks of 
sand a great quantity of flint implements. In a short visit of 
less than three hours, I collected 114 scrapers, and 52 other flint 
tools ; besides hammers, cores, a grain rubber, having both upper 
and under portions, and bone implements. I got associated 
with these a large quantity of bones and teeth, some of which 
were human, the others being those of horse, ox, deer, pig, d(^, 
&c. The objects were found not in hollows, as at Portstewart, 
but on the top of a bank of sand extending for about half-a- 
mile in length, quite close to the sea, and about 30 feet above 
the sea-leveL In several places along the top of this bank, 
there is a layer from 3 to 12 inches thick, more solid and 
coherent than the surrounding sand bank, and coloured dark by 
carbonaceous matter. The greater quantity of the implements 
and bones were lying exposed on the surface, though some 
appear never to have been disturbed since exposed, the upper side 
having a white porcellanous crust, while the underside shows a 
clean unweathered surface; but a considerable number of imple- 
ments and bones, with shells, chiefly patella and littorina, were 
found more or less embedded in the dark coloured matrix. On 
the surface of this dark layer there are several collections ot 
stones, similar to ordinary building material, arranged mostly in 
a circular form, which I believe to be the remains of ancient 
dwelling-places. I measured the diameter of one of the best 
defined of these, and found it 27 feet. The floor inside this 
circle is darker and of greater thickness and solidity than the 
ordinaiy dark layer, and as far as I examined, I found very 

Digitized by 


Remains faumd near Ballintoy, Go. Antrim. 203 

few remains of any kind in it. The dark layer outside the 
dwelling corresponds more or less with the Danish kitchen 
middens, and may have been a little thicker at one time, having 
lost somewhat in thickness by denudation. At one time this 
layer and the objects it contained had been buried to a consider- 
able depth with sand, as is evident from a small remnant of tliis 
covering, about 20 feet in thickness, still remaining at one 
comer. This has been well protected by a thick covering of vege- 
tation, including masses of bramble, wild rose, &c^ but a breach 
has at some time been made which enabled the wind to com- 
mence its work of destruction, and all the CQvering has been 
removed much faster, I conceive, than it ticcumulated. I 
imagine the covering to have beeA heaped up in this way. 
When no longer used by the ancient people, the a^urface, owing 
to its being a rich soil, would quickly get covered with vegeta- 
tion. Of the sand that would blow on to this surface the 
greater portion would be blown away agaiq, but a few grains 
would become entangled among tlie blades of grass, and as the 
v^tation would grow up farther, a little more sand would be 
retained, and so on, the increase in thickness being an exceed- 
ingly slow process, and depei^ding on the quickness of the vege- 
table growth, and the quantity of sand it would be able to 
detain and protect from the wipd. 

The scrapers are in greater abundance than any other im- 
plement, showing I thmk, that the prepai^ation of skins for 
clothing was the next essential occupation to the procuring of 
food. They are mostly of good size, and none of them very 
small like some of those found at Portstewart. In many 
instances they are roughly made, having teeth-like prominences 
projecting from the edge. Perhaps a certain roughness may 
have been sometimes necessary in a preparatory course of 
dressing, and the more finely-made scrapers may have 
been used for finishing. Some of the scrapers are neatly 
dressed all round, resembling in some respects long flakes, which 
are frequently foimd dressed round the edges and over the back. 
I found one or two of the latter, and I think their use is not 
veiy well known, but I believe them to be a more highly 
finished form of scraper. 

There is another class of implements which I found to be 
pretty abundant, though not so numerous as the scrapers, that 
I would invite special attention to. They are much larger than 
the scraper, and are not of any weU-delbied shape, but all have 
a thick back and cutting edge, and could be held in the hand 
and used for chopping. Seen singly or found in a different 
situation, one might not feel inclined to acknowledge the greater 
number of th^n to be implements at all, but when compared 


Digitized by 


204 W. J. Knowles. — FliiU Implements, and Associated 

together they have a common chaj^cter, and being found with other 
remains, evidently undisturbed since first laid there, I have no 
doubt in my mind that they were used as tools, the marks of 
use, and in some cases of dressing, being quite visible. I have 
tried some of these in cutting a branch from a tree, and find 
that they may have been very useful to the ancient people for a 
similar purpose. I also found some small flint axes, and several 
pointed and coarsely-dressed implements usually described as 

The fields around this place are covered with flint flakes, 
scrapers, cores, &c., similar to those found on the sand, but the 
sandbank has the advantage of having many remains of the 
pre-historic races associated with the flmt implements. Among 
these we have the hammers used in chipping the flint, but the 
quartzite pebbles seem to have been scarcer here than at Port- 
stewart; and basalt, greenstone, and altered lias have been 
resorted to. In the wall of one of the dwelling-places, I found 
one of the oval tool-stones. It appeared to me as if it had been 
laid carefully in a crevice of the wall, and lain there since 
last used. It is hollowed on both sides, and has a small piece 
broken off one end, but there is no evidence of its having been 
used as a tool Two of these objects have been found with the 
flint implements at Portstewart, and this is another instance, 
going to prove, I think, the oval tool-stone to be of the stone age. 

The bone implements are not in any way peculiar, I believe. 
One is a pointed bone, and was probably used as an awl ; another 
is flat, pointed at one end and indented at the other, but the 
indenture may have been part of a hole left by the other end of 
the implement breaking off; tlie third is a portion of a tine of 
deer horn, with a single hole bored through it near the thick 
end. I also found the end of an antler, which though not a tool, 
has marks of sawing on it. Near to it was a flint flake, which 
fits into the cuts, and was I believe the implement used in mak- 
ing them. If so, the flake and antler must have lain together 
undisturbed from the time when the operator, perhaps by some 
sudden impulse, dropped them, until they were recently picked 
up. I also think it deserving of notice that the upper and 
under portions of the grain rubber that I have already mentioned, 
were found quite close to one another. 

There are two other objects which I found lying on the sur- 
face detached from the matrix, which may not be of the same 
age as the objects already described, though I am strongly in- 
clined to believe that they are. The one is a piece of wood, a 
slightly crooked branch, very roughly dressed all over, with a 
piece broken off at one end. It is just such a piece as one 
might expect to be made for a handle to a stone implement, and 

Digitized by 


Beinains found near Ballinioy, Co. Antrim. 205 

that a flint tool might make. The other is a portion of that 
part of the bark of the birch that peels off while the tree is 
growing, rolled up into a cylindrical form, 4|- inches long, and 
} inch in diameter. It has been neatly dressed, and has its 
edges cut thin and overlapping. I submit these with the other 
objects for the examination and opinion of the members of the 
Institute, and on farther examination of the dark layer I may be 
able to state whether there is anything to show that it has a 
preservative nature for objects of wood. I may mention that to 
make sure that flint implements could cut and prepare a piece 
of substance so corky in its nature as the cylinder of bark, I 
procured a similar piece of bark from the cherry, and I was able 
to make as clean cuts and sharp edges as I pleased. Indeed, in 
all cases in which I have made trial of flint tools, I found them 
most efficient ; so much so, that I consider our predecessoi-s who 
had no better implements are not at all to be pitied. 

I found a considerable quantity of pottery scattered about, 
and as I recently foimd some bronze objects at Portstewart, I 
was inclined to beKeve that the pottery was all derived from 
burial urns that had, in the bronze age, been deposited in the 
sand that covered the flint objects, and that on the sand being 
removed by denudation, the objects of the stone and bronze ages 
got intermingled. This may to some extent be the case, but on 
examining the dark layer where still covered with 20 feet of 
sand, I found fragments of pottery along with the flint imple- 
ments and bones, and also lumps of clay such as pottery would 
be made from, which leads me to believe that the fragments I 
have so frequently found are the remains, not of burial urns, 
but of vessels in daily use among the people of the stone age. 

I have not yet had a professional opinion on the bones found 
with the other objects, but with regard to the human bones, I 
found them in two places — a heap, which has apparently been an 
entire skeleton, but now greatly broken up, at one place, and 
two single bones far removed from them. There was no dark 
layer where I found the heap of human bones, but I got horses' 
bones and teeth on the same level. One might readily suppose 
that the human bones were the remains of some drowned person 
cast on the shore in a storm, but I found among the heap three 
teeth having their crowns worn quite flat, which leads me to 
believe that the person had been accustomed to such gritty food 
as would likely be the fare of the dwellers among the sand-dunes, 
and that therefore he was probably one of the flint implement 

Col. A. Lane Fox made some observations on the paper and 

Digitized by 


203 G. HA.MILTOX. — Customs of the New Caledonian 

The following paper was then read by the Director, in the 
absence of the Author. 

CcrsTOMS of the New Caledonian Women belonging to the Nan- 

CAUSHY Tine, or Stuart's Lake Indians, Natotin Tine, or 

Babine*s and Nantley Tine, or Fraser Lake Tribes. 

From infoiination suppUed by Gavin Hamilton, chief 

factor of the Hudson's Bay Company's service, who has 

been for many years among these Indians, both he and his 

wife speaking their languages fluently. Communicated by 

Dr. John Rae. 

Girls verging on maturity, that is when their breasts begin to 

form, take swans' feathers mixed with human hair and plait 

bands, which they tie round their wrists and ancles to secure 

long life. At this time they are careful that the dishes out of 

which they eat, are used by no other person, and wholly devoted 

to their own use ; during this period they eat nothing but dog 

fish, and starvation only will drive them to eat either fresh fish 

or meat. 

When their first periodical sickness comes on, they are fed 
by their mothers or nearest female relation by themselves, and 
on no account will they touch their food with their own hands. 
They are at this time also careful not to touch their heads 
with their hands, and keep a small stick to scratch their heads 

They remain outside the lodge, all the time they are in this 
state, in a hut made for the purpose. During aU this period 
they wear a skull-cap made of skin to fit very tight ; this is 
never taken off until their first monthly sickness ceases ; they 
also wear a strip of black paint about 1 inch wide across their 
eyes, and wear a fringe of shells, bones, &c., hanging down from 
their foreheads to below their eyes ; and this is never taken off 
till the second monthly period arrives and ceases, when the 
nearest male relative maJ]:es a feast ; after which she is considered 
a fully matured woman ; but she has to refrain from eating any- 
tliing fresh for one year after her first monthly sickness ; she 
may however eat partridge, but it must be cooked in the crop of 
the bird to render it harmless. I would have thought it impos- 
sible to perform this feat had I not seen it done. The crop is 
blown out, and a small bent willow put round the mouth ; it is 
then filled with water, and the meat being first minced up, put 
in also, then put on the fire and boiled tiU cooked. 

Their reason for hanging fringes before their eyes, is to hinder 
any bad medicine man from harming them during this critical 

Digitized by 


Women hdongitig to the Nancavshy Tine, etc. 207 

period : they are very careful not to drink whilst facing a medi- 
cine man, and do so only when their backs are turned to him. 
All these habits are left off when the girl is a recognised woman, 
with the exception of their going out of the lodge and remain- 
ing in a hut, eveiy time their periodical sickness comes on. 
This is a rigidly observed law with both single and married 

When about to have a child, the woman is also expelled the 
lodge, and lives in a hut until thoroughly recovered, and is 
attended by another woman when able to pay for such attendance. 
This horrible custom causes many deaths, as a woman is often 
taken unexpectedly with no hut made, and then she must bring 
forth in the snow, perhaps in the dead of the night, and remain 
there imtil some humane person raises a shelter for mother and 
child. On her recovery she re-enters the lodge, but for a few 
days after if an Indian kill an animal, it must not be taken into 
the lodge through the door, but through the smoke-hole in the 
roof, and tail firat, in order to dissipate any bad influence the 
newly recovered squaw may bring ; afterwards things resume 
their usual routine. No woman will ever eat lynx meat, as it 
assists to make them ugly and to hasten old age.* 

Langley Legend. — No. I. 

In ancient times there lived a very bad and cruel man of extra- 
ordinary size, who ruled over every place and acted as he chose ; 
he was also a great medicine man. This chief held in bondage an 
Indian, to whom he was very cruel, never giving him any water, 
there being none on the earth but what tliis great chief htid, 
and this was carefully kept in a large birch basket. During the 
absence of his master, the Indian stole and ran oflF with the 
basket of water, but was soon missed and pursued by his master. 
The Indian as he ran used to put his hand in the basket and 
spill the water along ; very often owing to the jolting, a large 
quantity would fall out ; he ran this way for a long time, until 
at last he was nearly overtaken ; he then upset all the remainder 
of the water, broke the basket in pieces and escaped. The great 
medicine man made the water thus last thrown out bad, and 
not fit to drink, thinking thereby to pimish the Indian. The 
water sprinkled out with the hand formed the rivers, what was 

* NoTB by Db J. Bab. — The lynx is rather a fayourite food of the Indian, being 
deUeate eating^ and white like reaL Probably some medicine man has got up 
the story on purpose to deter women from eating it, as is done with the moose 
nose, the reindeer heal, and certain parts of other animals and birds, which are 
tabooed to women. 

Digitized by 


208 G. H AJfliLTON. — Customs of the New Caledonian Women, etc. 

spilt by jolting the lakes, and that last thrown out, the sea, made 
salt by the medicine man. 

The broken basket drifted in pieces, and formed the islands 
visible from the mouth of the Fraser, namely Vancouver Island 
and others. 

The Indian wandered about until eventually he settled on the 
Fraser River, and built his lodge. Feeling lonely, he took his 
canoe and went fishing, caught a sturgeon, and bringing it ashore, 
and with the aid of what he had learned from his old master, 
the great medicine man, changed the sturgeon into a woman, 
and thus began the Quaitlan or Fraser River Indians. 

Langley Legend.— No. II» 

Many ages ago the Fraser River flooded its banks and covered the 
whole country with water, drowning every living thing that lived 
on the land, and tliis was caused by a very great medicine man. 
One of the Fraser River chiefs had a large war canoe, into which 
he went with his wives and family. After floating about for a 
long time) they found shore and landed. However, owing to all 
the deer, bears, &c., being drowned, they ran the risk of being 
obliged to go naked — aplenty of food being obtained from the fish 
in the river. The Indian had in his possession a large variety 
of furs, BO he took a bearskin and sewed up one of his wives 
(who was in the family way) in it, by which means she was 
changed into a bear. He did the same with another of his 
wives, only substituting a deerskin for the other. Not wishing 
to part with more of his wives in this unpleasant manner, he set 
his medicine wisdom to work to produce other animals on the 
earth. The only animals he could find were the beaver, otter, 
musk-rat, and mink. 

Whilst drifting about in his canoe, he found a squirrel half 
drowned, which fived and had young. The squin-els became 
quickly numerous, and by coaxing and medicine he managed to 
pair the squirrels with the mink, producing a family of martens 
thereby. Then the marten paired with the otter, making the 
fisher ; the fisher then cohabited with the bear and produced the 
wolverine, for which the Indian was very sorry, as he turned out 
such a bad animal In this way he managed to stock the 
country with difierent animals, with the skins of which to clothe 
the Indian^. 

Digitized by 


Dr. Messer. — Reputed Poismums Nature of Arrows, etc. 209 

The following remarks were made by Dr. Messer, E.N. : — 

On. " An Inquiry into the Eeputed Poisonous Nature of the 
Arrows of the South Sea Islanders." Published by 
authority of, and communicated by, the Eight Honourable 
the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty. 

The recorded results of wounds by the arrows of the South 
Pacific Islanders, appearing to me inconsistent with the generally 
accepted belief that these weapons were poisoned, I was led 
during my visits to these islands, in 1865-6, to institute some 
inquiries as to the means used by the natives in preparing their 
arrows. All accounts stated that the wounds were followed by 
" tetanus " cxfter an interval of from five to ten days ; while it was 
generally asserted that the arrows were poisoned by immersion 
in a dead decomposing human body, or by smearing them with 
different vegetable juices. 

If the first process were really adopted, we should expect to 
have heard of the well-known symptoms of septicocima, or blood 
poisoning, following ; but as far as I was able to learn, no such 
symptoms had ever been observed after wounds by these 
weapons. The second process is certainly adopted by several 
savage races, aa where Woorali, Coroval, &c., are used ; but we 
know that none of these substances, or in fact that no other 
substance, will produce tetanus after a period of five or six 
days* incubation in the body. 

During my second visit to these islands, I was suddenly 
afforded an opportunity of witnessing the effects of the arrows 
of Santa Cruz Island in seven cases of wounds by these weapons, 
on my own shipmates, two officers and five men ; the result being 
that three of the wounded were attacked by tetanus on the fifth 
and sixth days, and died within seventy hours. 

This enormous proportion of cases of fatal tetanus after most 
trivial wounds, seemed at first sight to point to poison as a very 
probable explanation of such an unusual result. I accordingly 
extended my investigations by means of a series of written ques- 
tions addressed to the various missionaries and others resident 
among the different islands in the South West Pacific, from whom 
I obtained much interesting and valuable information, which is 
embodied in the two papers published in the " Statistical Eeports 
of the Health of the Navy, for 1875 and 1876." It will there 
be seen that my informants, with one exception, declare that 
none of the natives poison their arrows by decomposing animal 
matter, and that the only animal part of a poisoned arrow is the 
point, which is almost always made of some portion of a human 
bone, simply for want of any better material in the islands. It 
would also appear that some of the natives place considerable 

Digitized by 


210 Dr. Messer. — JReputed Foisonoics Nature of Arrows^ etc. 

faith in the " tml'mm'' or supematural power of the bone, especially 
if derived from some famous warrior or sorcerer. The stories 
generally current that arrows are poisoned by immersion in a 
decomposing human body, may be traced to the fact of visitors 
having seen dead bodies lying above ground for the purpose of 
obtaining the long bones, where the natives have informed them 
that they were for making arrows. 

There seems to be no doubt that in many of the New 
Hebrides, Banks, and Santa Cruz islands, the natives smear their 
arrows with the juices of different plants, which they mostly 
believe to be poisonous. I have obtained samples of several of 
the substances prepared from the juices of several plants, the 
native n^^nes of which only I have learned ; but the chief of 
the plants seems to be an Euphorbium named " Loto " or " Natoto'* 
With two of the reputed poisons, and with four different arrows 
procured from as many different islands, I performed fifteen 
experiments on three dogs and two rabbits, and obtained results 
which although not quite conclusive, are yet such as to throw 
the gravest doubts on the poisonous nature of any of the articles 
used by the natives. 

There also can be no doubt that most of the natives hold 
these weapons in great fear, and observe the greatest precautions 
in preparing and preserving them ; at the same time there is 
much evidence to show that they also combine a large amount 
of superstition with their belief in the poison, and in this may 
perhaps be found an explajiation of the frequency with which 
tetanus follows wounds by these weapons. 

This disease is naturally very prevalent in hot climates, and 
especially among the black races ; and we know that where terror, 
despondency, and other depressing mental influences are combined 
with wounds in such climates, it also frequently attacks white 
people. A firm belief then in the insiduous and fatal nature of 
these poisoned ftrrows, will be natmully associated with much 
fear and morbid mental disturbance, even among white people, 
however well informed, but lacking definite medical knowledge, 
and will be most likely to induce a condition suitable for Uie 
development of tetanus. 

My chief object in this inquiry has been to endeavour to 
dispel this belief in the poisons, and thereby minimise the risks 
of tetanus ; for it is asserted by many missionaries and others, 
that this and other allied diseases of the nervous system, have 
become much less frequent among those islanders who have 
renounced superstition and have embraced Christianity. 

Besides my own experiments, I may mention that Professor 
Busk, F.R.S., has analysed the substance found on an arrow 
from MaUicolo (New Hebrides group), without detecting any 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethrvology of Germany. 211 

tetanising ingredient. Professor Leverridge of Sydney University, 
has obtained an alkaloid from the substance used in Efate 
Island (New Hebridas), which was innocuous to guinea pigs. 
Professor Halford of Melbourne University, has failed to produce 
any bad symptoms on dogs and rabbits with the same substances 
used by me. These gentlemen have all arrived at similar con- 
clusions, viz., that the tetanus observed after wounds by these 
poisoned arrows, is the ordinary traumatic disease, and not the 
result of the poison on the arrows. 

We may therefore, I think, in the meantime, be justified in 
looking upon these rqDuted poisons with the greatest doubt as 
to their potency. At the same time, it may be premature to 
state positively that none of the substances used by the South 
Pacific Islanders possess poisonous properties. But that these 
natives possess a poison that will produce a disease identical 
with traumatic tetanus, after an interval of five or ten daj-s, and 
after only a short contact with the living body, is a fact yet to 
be proved. 

The Director then read the following paper, in the absence of 
the Author. 


The Ethnology of Germany, Part II. 

The Germans of CiESAR. By H. H. Howorth, Esq., F.S.A. 

The first Germans whom Caesar encoimtered were the Germans 
ruled over by Ariovistus. His army was not a mere collection 
of warriors making a raid across the Rhine, but was apparently 
a migration of a whole people, consisting of six coi5*ederate 
tribes. Such migrations became frequent enough two or three 
centuries later, and had we sufficient information about the 
earlier period, we should doubtless find that they were common 
enough then also. They are not to be explained by a mere 
wanton habit of wandering. It is not for this cause that whole 
peoples desert their hearths, desert the homeland endeared to 
them as their birth-place, containing the sacred fanes of their 
gods and the graves of their ancestors. They moved because 
they were compeDed to move, either by the pressure of physical 
circumstances or of more vigorous tribes ; and it was doubtless 
one of such causes that set the people of Ariovistus in motion. 
As we shall see presently, the time at which he lived was 
marked by the aggressive advance of the great Suevic or 
Suabian race in central Germany ; and just as this was the 
cause of the migration of the Tencteri, the Usipetes and the 
Ubii, so I believe it to have been the cause of the migration of 
Ariovistus and his people. The confederacy which he led con- 

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212 H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Gei^any. 

sisted of the tribes named Haxudes, Marcomanni, Tribocci, 
Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusii and Suevi The Suevi doubtless 
forming only a contingent, being one of those contingents 
mentioned by Caesar, which they were accustomed to send out 
annually for purposes of plunder. 

The Harudes again were apparently no part of the original 
invaders. They came in afterwards, as Ariovistus himself 
told the Sequani (vide infra); we may therefore discard 
them for the present. The Suevi again belonged to another 
kingdom, they were merely a contingent of the main race in 
central Germany ruled over by Nasua and Cimber, as Caesar 
says. (I, 37.) These also we may for the present discard. 

We have left five tribes, the Marcomanni, Nemetes, Tribocci, 
Vangiones and Sedusii. The Marcomanni bear a name meaning 
originally Marchmen or Mercians, but applied by the classical 
authors just as the term Mercia was by our early chroniclers, in 
no generic sense, but specifically to the ancient inhabitants of 
Bohemia. They were, I believe, the ancestors of the modern 

The Marcomanni formed a powerful empire in central 
Germany, which a few years later was ruled over by Marobo- 
duus; and it is exceedingly unlikely that they should as 
a body have migrated at this time into Gaul, or that Ariovis- 
tus should have been their king. They doubtless, like the 
Suevi, furnished a contingent to the invading host, a posse of 
that warlike youth which was ever ready for an excursion if 
fighting and plunder might be expected. 

We have left for consideration the tribes of the Nemetes, 
Tribocci, Vangiones and Sedusii. They were, I believe, the 
special subjects of Ariovistus, and the Germans proper of 
Caesar's first book. Let us first say a few words about the name 
German. It is, in the first place, not a native name. The 
people of Germany called themselves Deutsch, and Grimm, ^ 
Zeuss, and others are at one in urging that it is a name applied * 
by outsiders to the people of Germany. In the' next place, it 
is a generic name, applied not only to the people of the upper 
Ehine, but also to those of the lower Ehine. Thus Caesar, 
speaking of certain tribes there, says the Condrusi, Eburones, 
Cseroesi, Poemani, who were collectively known as Germani (II, 4) ; 
and in another place he speaks of the Segni and the Condrusi of 
the race of the Germans. (VI, 32.) We find the name occurring 
also far from the Teutonic frontier of Gaul, and in fact on its 
opposite borders, for we read in Pliny of a tribe living on the 
Iberian frontier of Gaul called the Oretani, who he says 
were also called (jermani (Pliny, III, 3.) Ptolemy tells us 
their chief town was called Oreton Germanon. (Zeuss p. 59.) 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Germany, 213 

We may go a step further, and in examining the neighbours 
of Gaul on the side of Germany, we shall find that the name 
Grerman was not applied to them all, but only to a certain 
portion of them : thus Tacitus says, speaking of the people of 
the middle Ehine, " Quidam ut in licencia vetustatis, plures deo 
ortos pluresque gentis appellationes Marsos, Gambrivios, 
Suevos, Vandilios affirmant eaque vera et antiqua nomina. 
Ceterwm Germanice vocahdum recens et nuper additum, quoniam 
q^ci primi Rhenum, transgressi Gallos expulerint ac nv/nc Tun- 
gri tunc Germani vocati euni. Ita nationis nonien, non g&rUis 
evaluisse paulatim, ut omnes primum a victore ob metum mox a $e 
ipsis invento nomine Germani vocarentur.'* (Tacitus, " Germ.," II.) 

Again the term Germani is used in early times in a very loose 
way ; indeed, so much so, that in a passage of Seneca, " consoL ad 
Helv.," VI, and others of Pliny, Par. 4, and Dio. 5, 3, 12, it 
was apparently applied to Celtic tribes. 

Tacitus argues that the name was adopted by those who were 
styled Germans from their victories, " ita nationis nomen, non 
gentis evaluisse paulatim, ut omnes primum a victori ob me- 
tum mox a se ipsis invento nomine Germani vocarentur" 
(" Germ.," II) ; and it has been suggested that the name may be 
connected with such a word as guerre-man or war-man ; but Zeuss, 
whose etymological instinct, and whose knowledge of Celtic and 
German was profoimd, disclaims a Teutonic explanation of the 
name, and says that the explanation of Tacitus, like the parallel 
explanations of the names Suevi and Vandilii, which he deiives 
from the names of their gods, is not probable ; and he argues with 
considerable force, that when Tacitus himself says that those 
who were formerly called Timgri, were named Germani after 
crossing the Ehine and coming in contact with the Celts, that 
he shows the name was adopted from their new neighbours, just 
as the Slavic tribes adopted the name Wends from their 
Teutonic neighbours. (" Die Deutsche," etc., 60.) Zeuss shows 
that if the name were connected with the French guerre, or 
the German wirre (confusion) or wehre, the old German weri 
or wari, the name ought to be Virromani or Varimanni, 
and not Germani {id., 59, note) ; nor does he coimtenance 
the derivation from the old German man's name Germ, 
another form of Gorm or Guthrum, whence we have the local 
names Germenze or Germize in the Lorsch annals. (Id.) 

Gsesar is the first author who uses the name for trans-Ehenane 
peoples ; before his time its use was clearly very uncertain ; thus 
Aristotle is quoted by Stephen of Byzantium as naming a tribe 
Germani, which he teUs us was of Celtic race. {Id., 60.) 

In the Fasti Capitolini, a famous chronicle of Eoman affairs, 
reaching from 120 A.u.c. to 765 A.U.C., we read, in the year 

Digitized by 


214 H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Gefrmany, 

222 B.C., M. Claudius M.F., M. N. Marcellus, An. Dxxxi Cos. de 
Galleis Insubribus et Germaneis K. Mart, isque spoUa opi (ma) 
rettulit duce hostiiun Vir (domaro ad Cla) stid (ium interfecto) 
(Grsevius, " Thes. Antt. Rom./' II, 227 ; Zeuss, loc. dt.) Polybius, 
who describes this event, speaks of the allies of the Insubres as 
Gkiesati, and teUs us they were mercenaries from the Rhone 
Valley. (Id,) The term Germani therefore here, as in the case of 
the Tungri, seems to be an appellative, and in this case perhaps 
applied to a Celtic tribe ; for the names of its leaders, as given by 
Polybius, are, as Zeuss has shown, Celtic; they were, Kogkolitanos 
and Aneroestos. On the other hand, it would seem that the 
upper part of the Rhone Valley was in early times occupied by 
certain tribes whose Teutonic aflSnities are not improbable, and 
whom we hope to treat of in a future paper. It is these tribes 
to whom livy applies the term " semi- Germani" (21-38.) The 
burden of my argument is to show that the name Germani was not 
indigenous to the Teutonic tribes themselves. This view seems 
to be now held by all the best authorities. The most general 
notion among these same authorities is, that the name is of 
Celtic origin, and was given to the Teutonic peoples by their 
neighbours the Gauls. The term Celtic is in this case vague, 
and may include a good deal from the Romans themselves to 
the Belgse. With this extension of the term Celtic, I am dis- 
posed to think that the view that the name Germani is of Celtic 
origin is a true ona That the name was the usual aud ordinary 
name however given by the Gauls to their neighbours beyond 
the Rhine, I cannot so readily admit. The French name for 
Germany is Allemagne, and for Grermans Les Allemands, and I 
have small doubt that these are old Gallic names for the country 
and the people, as I shall argue when we come to treat of the 

What if the name Germani be Latin, and originated with the 
Romans themselves ? Gernuxnus is a very good and ancient 
Latin word, meaning brother, and Festus connects it with that 
Latin root which we have adopted into English in the word germ 
and germination ; while the very word itself in its sense of close 
relationship is used constantly in the phrase cousin-german. 
Varro ap. Serv ad Vii^. V, 412, explains Germani as meaning 
that the individuals answering to tiie description were sprung 
from the same genitrix. In the sense of brother or close rdation 
the word is used by the earlier writers, such as Virgil, Cicero 
and Terence, and so essentially Latin is it, that it occurs in several 
puns, as for instance in regard to two consuls who had a mutual 
struggle. " De Germanis non de Gallis duo triumphant consules." 
(Velleius II, 67.) Cicero makes a similar joke about a Cimbrian 
who killed his brother, " Germanum Cimber occidit" ('*Cic. ap 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Germany, 215 

Quin." VIII, 3) ; and the authors of the great Latin lexicon of 
Facciolatti, argue that the name was applied to the people of Ger- 
many by the Eomans, either because they called each other 
brothers, or because they deemed them so like in manners, &c., 
to the Gauls, that they styled them German!, viz., brothers or 

I am disposed to accept this view, and to conclude that the 
names Germani and Germania are of Boman origin. 

I may add in a parenthesis, that the towns Germanicia in 
Commagene, and Germanicopolis in Paphlagonia, doubtless 
derived their names, as has been said, from Germanicus. 

Having discussed the name German, let us now turn to the 
various tribes called German by Caesar, and begin with the four 
already named who were the subjects of Ariovistus. 

First in regard to the etymology of their names. Zeuss, whose 
tendency to make everything German is somewhat marked, 
allows that the name Tribocci is not Teutonic but Celtic. The 
particle tri is so essentially Celtic, that with pol and pen it has 
served as a shibboleth by which to mark Cornish names. It 
means place in Celtic (Latham, " Germania," 98) ; and we may 
adduce a series of Celtic names, such as Trecassi, Trinobantes, 
Treveri, etc., in which it occurs. The syllables Bocci or Bocchi 
may be compared with similar syllables in the name Teuto 
Bocchus, and the latter again with the Teutobodiaci of Pliny, a 
Gallic tribe of Asia Minor. Bocci or Bocchi I take to be a mere 
form of Boii, which occurs as Bogi and Bogii, and in composition 
as Tolistoboji or ToUstobogi (Zeuss, " Der Deutsche," etc., 181- 
182), all Gallic tribes ; and this is much strengthened by the fact 
that on a stone found near Marbach the names Boii and Tribocci 
occTir together. I have no hesitation therefore in afiSrming that 
the name Tribocci is a Celtic name, and one which connects the 
people more or less closely with the great Celtic tribe of the Boii. 

The Nemetes also bear a name which is unquestionably Celtic ; 
not only is the particle et, the Gallic plural, as Zeuss has shown 
{op. cit, 220, note), but the name may be compared with such 
Celtic names as Dryncmetum, Augustonemetum, Nemetacum, 
Neraetobrigas, Nemetati, Nementuri, Nemosus, Nemeto- 
ceima, Nemavia, Vememet (fanum ingens, Venant Fort, I, 9), 
Nimidse (sacra silvarum im Indie supers.) ; (Mehlis " Studien," 70), 
(Zeuss, 220, note). The names are in fact closely related to the 
Latin nemus, a wood, and Nemetes probably has a similar mean- 
ing to Catti, and means woodmen. 

There is a general admission that these two names are Celtic 
in form. Zeuss claims the name Vangiones as German, mainly, 
I believe, because of its likeness to Yangio, the name of a king 
mentioned by Tacitus. It must be aUowed that the names are 

Digitized by 


216 H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Oerniamj. 

in fact the same, but Tacitus does not make Vangio a Suabian, 
as Zeuss says, {op, cit., 219) ; Vannius was the king of the Quadi, 
and Vangio was the son-in-law of Vannius (Tacit. " Annals," XII, 
63, XII, 29-30), and he perhaps founded the old city of 
Vania, called Bana by the Slaves, Banya by the Magyars, and 
Schenmitz by the Germans. That the Vangiones were closely 
connected with the Quadi I am very willing to believe, but this 
does not make them in my view necessarily Teutons,. I 
believe they represent the old Celtic population of Bohemia ; 
but to them I hope to return in another paper. 

Of the Sedusii mentioned by Caesar, we know nothing more 
from any other author, but the name may be compared with 
that of the Seduni, a tribe of Switzerland, which was no doubt 

It is curious that Tacitus in his accoimt of the war which the 
Treviri carried on with the Eomans, mentions as their allies the 
Vangiones, Caeracates, and TriboccL This is apparently another 
curious instance of the different way in which the German 
tribes are described in the " Annals " and the " Germania," for it is 
exceedingly probable that these Cseracates, also spelt Caerataces, 
are the Nemetes already mentioned. Zeuss compares the name 
with the Celtic man*s name Caractacus mentioned by Tacitus, 
and it may be further compared with that of the tribe Cerasi, to 
which I shall refer presently. 

So far the philological evidence is clearly in favour of mak- 
ing the Germans of Ariovistus Celts rather than Teutons. But 
we have not yet done with our evidence. In the time of 
Ptolemy, the three tribes of the Tribocci, Nemetes and Vangiones 
were settled on the left bajik of the Ehine in Alsace, and he 
gives us the names of certain towns within their borders whose 
etymology is also instructive. 

Within the territory of the Nemetes, were the two towns of 
Noviomagus and Argentoraton. See Mehlis, op. dt., 57-8, who 
reverses the usual reading of Ptolemy, which gives Novio- 
magus and Eufiana to the Nemetes. Noviomagus was 
probably the modem Spire. {Id., 64-5.) The name Spire in 
the form Sphira seems to occur first in the geographer of 
Eavenna. (Bachmeister, " Alem. Wand.," 25.) 

The termination magus is purely Celtic, and meant field, 
(Mehlis, 59.) It occurs in the composition of many Celtic towns, 
as Brocomagus, Rigomagus, Dumomagus, Marcomagus, etc., etc., 
and in this sense may be compared with similarly constructed 
Teutonic names, as Konigsfeld, Hirschfeld, FUrstenfeld, Zaber- 
feld and Eheinfeld. 

The first particle of the name is common to the Western 
Arian languages, in the sense of new, and occurs in the Greek 

Digitized by 


H. H. HOWORTH. — The Ethnology of Germany. 217 

Neapolis, the Eussian Novgorod, the German Neustadt, the 
English New Minster, etc. The old Irish form of the particle is 
nu. (Bachmeister, " Alem. Wand./' 12, note.) 

Argentoratum, caUed Argentaria by the Geographer of 
Eavenna, is also a Celtic gloss', meaning the silver town. The 
last syllable being the well known Irish word rath, meaning a 
town. (Mehlis, op. dt.y 65.) It is called Argentaria, and also 
Strasburgum by the geographer of Eavenna, and is doubtless to 
be identified with Strasburg, the Stratisburg, or town on the 
Eoman road. (Mehlis, 65 ; Bachmeister, " Keltische Briefe," 

Silver in Irish is arget, in Welsh aryant, in Cornish argana. 
and in Armorican argant; and we have another town com- 
pounded with it within the borders of Guul, in Argentomagus, 
the modem Argenton (Bachmeister, id., 120) ; while the second 
syllable occurs in the Gallic names. Eate, Eatomagus, Barderate, 
and Corterate. {Id., 59.) 

Among the Vangiones were the two towns of Eufiana and 
Borbetomagus. Eutiana is held by Mehlis (" Studien," 62) to be a 
distinctly Celtic gloss, derived from the Celtic word rufius, a 
wolf; and he fixes its site with great probability at the 
ruins, partially of. Eoman origin, situated not far from Neustadt, 
and known as Wolfsburg, which name is a mere translation of the 
Celtic name. With the other towns on the Upper Ehine Eufiana 
was destroyed by the AlemannL It was again occupied, and 
received the name of Neustadt, which became a walled town in 
the beginning of the thirteenth century. (Mehlis, op. cit., 62-63.) 

Borbetomagus is a distinctly Celtic gloss of the same form 
as the Noviomagus which we have already discussed. It is 
now represented by the city of Worms, which is often in old 
documents called Wormaz-felda, Wormaz-feld, a mere translation 
of the Celtic name. (Mehlis, op. cit., 59.) The first part of the 
word ia probably derived from the Eiver Pfrimm. {Id.) 

Among the Tribocci Ptolemy mentions the towns of Brenko- 
magus and Elkebos. 

Brenkomagus, like Noviomagus and Borbetomagus, is an 
undisputed Celtic gloss. The town is now represented by 
Brumt in Alsace, which in mediaeval documents is named Broc- 
magad, Bruchmagat, Brumagad, and Pruomad. (Bachmeister, 
" Kelt. Brief e," 58.) A Bromagus (? Viromagus) occurs in the 
Celtic area of Switzerland. (Bachmeister, " Mem. Wand.," 23.) 

Bachmeister connects the first syllable of Elkebos with the 
Eiver 111, a Celtic rivemame which occurs in Ptolemy under 
the form Ila in Britain (" Kelt. Briefe," 117), but this seems some- 
what doubtful, and I do not see my way to a Celtic explana- 
tion of the name. 

VOL. vu. R 

Digitized by 


218 H. H. Ho WORTH. — The Ethnology of Gefrmany, 

Let us now examine the account of the campaign of 
Ariovistus given by Caesar. The country between the Jura and 
the Saone was occupied by the Sequani. Beyond the Sa6ne 
was the land of the -^ui. Between the two tribes an 
old jealousy had existed ; the JEdui, who were the j^oUgis of 
the Eomans, lorded it somewhat over their neighbours, and there 
was also a quarrel about the tolls on the Eiver Sa8ne. (Long's 
" Caesar," 34.) 

The Sequani allied themselves with the Arvemi, and also 
with the Germans, who we are told at first crossed the Eiver 
Ehine to the number of about 15,000. They speedily occupied 
the country, however, with a body numbering 120,000. The 
MAmi and their clients were terribly beaten, and lost all their 
nobles, their senate and their knights, and were compelled to 
gives hostages to their rivals the Sequani. (Caesar, I, 3.) 

As Grimm points out, this passage shows that Ariovistus and 
his people came from the country of the Upper Ehine, since they 
were called in by the Sequani. (" Geschichte der Deutch. Sprach." 

The country of the Sequani was bounded by the Safine, the 
Ehone, the Jura and the Ehine. It comprised therefore the 
southern part of Elsass or the Suntgau on the Ehine, Franche 
Comt^, part of Bourgogne and Brene, or the following depart- 
ments, part of Haut Ehin, Haute Sa6ne, Doubs, Jura, Aix, and 
part of Saone et Loire. (Long's " Caesar," 72, note.) Divitiacus, 
entitled Vergobretus, the head of the -^Edui, now repaired to 
Eome to ask assistance there for his countrymen, and there he 
met and had intercourse with Cicero. {Id,, 34.) Meanwhile the 
Sequani had speedy reason for repenting. Ariovistus demanded 
one third of their country for his people to settle in ; and after^ 
wards on the plea that he had only a few months before been 
joined by a body of 24,000 Harudes, who needed homes, he 
asked for another third of their coimtry. When this was 
refused, he fought a terrible battle at Magetobria, where having 
vanquished the enemy, he ruled them in a cruel and harsh 
manner. (Caesar, etc., I, 31.) These facts were told Caesar, and 
we are also given in this same chapter an explanation of the 
attempted migration of the Helvetii, which had been prevented 
by Caesar himself, namely, that they were afraid of the Ghrman 
invasion, and wished to move farther away. 

Caesar sent envoys to Ariovistus, and communications passed 
between them, in which the German chief by no means shows 
to disadvantage. Meanwhile envoys went to Caesar from the 
iEdui complaining that the Harudes had already entered their 
borders, that is, had advanced beyond the Sa6ne. Caesar 
marched in all haste to prevent Ariovistus being reinforced by 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Germany. 219 

the remaining Suevi, who were threatening to cross the Rhine 
into the land of the Treviri. When he approached the camp of 
the German chief, he sent him messengers, asking him to with- 
draw once more into his own country. He replied that he had 
not crossed the Ehine to please himself, but at the request of 
the Grauls, nor had he left home without severe sacrifices, etc., 
etc. ; and he declined to go. The fight accordingly proceeded 
and eventually the Germans were terribly beaten ; the battle in 
all probability being fought near Basle. A fearful slaughter 
followed, only a few escaping, among them being Ariovistus 
himself, who crossed the river in a small boat. We are told he 
had two wives, one a Suevan or Suabian, whom he had married at 
home, the other a Norican, the sister of Voctio, the king of 
Noricum, who was sent to him, and whom he married after he 
entered GkuL Both perished in the flight. Of his two 
daughters, one was killed and the other captured. When the 
news of this battle was reported beyond the Rhine, the Suevi, 
who had advanced as far as, and were threatening to cross over 
the river, returned homewards, and many of them were killed 
by the Ubu. (Long's " Caesar," I, 54, note.) As Druman says, the 
question whether Gallia should be a German or a Roman pro- 
vince, was decided for some centuries by the campaign of B.c. 
58. (Long, id., 100, note.) 

Let us now turn our attention once more to the immediate 
problem before us. Csesar tells us that the Rhine divided the 
Helvetii from the Germans. (I, 2.) He also tells us in another 
place, that the Helvetii were like the Belgse, braver than the 
other Gauls, inasmuch as they were engaged in constant 
struggles with the Germans. (1, 1.) 

This proves that the country of Caesar's Germans was in close 
proximity to the Helvetians, and in' fact divided from them 
only by the Rhine ; and as I have said, the country meant was 
evidently the country opposite the Sequani on the Upper Rhine; 
that is the modem Grand Duchy of Baden, once thickly planted 
with dark woods, the well known Schwarzwald of the maps. 

The inhabitants of these woods and of this country I believe 
to have been the Nemetes or woodmen, and thus I explain the 
statement of Caesar that the Hercynian forest commenced from 
the borders of the Helvetii, Nemetes, and Rauraci. " Oritur ab 
Helvetiorum etNemetum et Rauraconmi finibus." (Op. eU., VI, 
25.) I agree with the argument of Mehlis (op. cit. 39), that Caesar 
here implies that the Nemetes occupied the right bemk of the 
Rhine ; I therefore take the Duchy of Baden to be the old land 
of the Nemetes. 

In regard to the Tribocci, who I have argued were a section 
of the Boii, T have already quoted the fact that an altar was 

R 2 

Digitized by 


220 H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Germany, 

found at Marbach, with their name inscribed upon it (Zeuss, 
op. dt., 121, note) ; I may add further, that Tswitus tells us in his 
" Germania" " that between the Hercynian Wood, the Maine, and 
the Rhine, there formerly dwelt the Helvetii and the Boii, both 
Gallic tribes." " Igitur inter Hercjniiam silvam Rhenumque et 
Manum amnes, Helvetii ulteriora Boii Gallica utraque gens 
tenuere." {Op. eU., VI, 25.) 

This coimtry then, the modem Wlirtemberg, may well have 
been the land of the Tribocci The Vangiones, perhaps, lived 
further east in Bavaria. 

The country beyond the Rhine comprised in the modem 
districts of Baden and Wiirtemberg, was largely comprised in the 
ancient territory known to the Romans as the Agri Deoumates. 
The migration of the Nemetes and their two related tribes to the 
west of the Rhine, apparently left this district vacant, and it 
acquired the name of the Helvetic waste, by which name it was 
known to Ptolemy. 

It was occupied eventually by adventurers from GauL (Tacitus, 
" Germania," xxix.) These settlers from paying tithes or tenths 
were styled Decumates. Cicero says all the soil of Sicily was 
decuman. "Omnis ager Siciliae decumanus est." (Murphy's 
" Tacitus "VII, 308.) And Gibbon tells us that to protect these new 
subjects a line of frontier garrisons was gradually extended from 
the Rhine to the Danube. (Op. dt., II, 46.) Niebuhr suggests that 
the existence of a place called Arae Flavise on the military road 
from the Maine to Augsburg, proves that probably under Domi- 
tian the Romans had already taken possession of that " sinus 
imperii," and adds in a note, that Frontinus (" Strateg.," I, 3, 10) 
expressly describes the constructionof the limes RomanustoDomi- 
tian. (Latham " Germania of Tacitus," 163.) This limes or forti- 
fied ditch extended from Neustadt on the Danube as far as 
Wimpfen on the Neckar, and on to the Rhine. There are still 
remains of this work between the bend of the Neckar and the 
upper part of the Altmuhl in the neighbourhood of Ohringen. 
They can be again traced on the upper Altmuhl, and re-appear 
on the Danube between Pforing and Kelheim. It is called the 
TeufeVs Mauer or Devil's walL {Id., 104 ; Gibbon II, 46-77.) 

This was long the great frontier rampart against the barbarians 
to the east and north. Tacitus tells us, as I have said, that it 
was settled by Gauls. 

But we may go further. The land beyond the Rhine was an 
old Gallic land, according to the information collected by Caesar. 
He teUs us that the districts about the Hercynian forest, which 
were the most fertile, and whose fame was known to Eratos- 
thenes and the Greeks, and which they called Orcynia, were 
occupied and settled by the Volcae Tectosages, who, he tells us, 

Digitized by 


H. H. HOWORTH. — The Ethnology of Germany, 221 

still occupied this country in his day, and being surrounded with 
the stune hard circumstances as the Germans, also emulated 
their martial qualities. (Op. cit., VI, 2.) He argues that these Gauls 
were colonists who had crossed the Ehine; we, on the other 
hand, have good reasons for believing that, like the broken 
I'emnants of the Boii, &c., they were the original inhabitants of 
the South German area, and hold that the Volcse Tectosages, 
who lived in Gaul itself, about Toulouse, were colonists from the 
other side of the Ehine. These latter seem to have had close 
relations with the Cimbri and Teutones of earlier times. (See 
Long's "Csesar;" introduction, 30.) The presence of these Gauls in 
the Hercynian Forest in Caesar's day, and the short mention of 
the Boii there which I have quoted from Tacitus, increases the 
probability that the Germans who lay between them and the 
Ehine in Baden, were partially of the Celtic stock, and not a pure 
Teutonic race, and wero at least very different from the Teutonic 
Suevi of later days. 

We have not yet exhausted the evidence pointing in the same 

Thus we are told by C^ar, that he chose envoys to go to 
Ariovistus, who knew the Gallic tongue, '' qua multa," he adds 
"jam Ariovistus longinqua consuetudine utebatur." (I, 47.) 
These words are assuredly intelligible enough, if we consider 
Ariovistus as the king of a nation bordering closely on Gaul, and 
having close relations with it, but entirely incredible if we apply 
them to some leader of Suevic or true Teutonic blood, who would 
deem the Itinguage of the indigenes an unworthy object of 

It may be remarked as at least curious, that that not very 
accurate writer, Dion Cassius, makes Ariovistus a chief of the 
AUobroges, and calls his people Celtae. 

Again, of the two wives of Ariovistus, one was a Suabian, 
whom he married at home. The Suabians would be the next 
neighbours to his people south of the Maine. The other was a 
Norican princess ; surely an improbable alliance for a chief of 
fierce Germans to medce, not as the reward of some victory, but 
to be sent to him by her brother, when he, Ariovistus, was in 
(Jaul ; but most consistent if he was the chief of the border tribes 
of Vindelicia and Noricum, whose aflBnities were Celtic. 

Lastly, we have the name Ariovistus ; surely not a Gennan 
name of the type of which we have an immense number of those 
chiefs who led the various invaders and enemies of the Eoman 
Empire from Arminius to Charles the Great, but a name to 
b^ compared with a Celtic tribal name like Aravisci, and a 
Celtic place like Ariolica, the modem Pont Arlier in Switzerland* 

I remember also reading somewhere of a Gallic chief, Beri- 

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222 H. H. HowOETH. — The Ethrwlogy of Gei^many. 

bistes, the form of whose name is singularly like Ariovistes, 
bufc I have mislaid my reference. For these various re€isons, 
and, I take it, they far outweigh what may be urged on the other 
side, I cannot avoid the tentative conclusion that the Nemetes, 
Tribocci, and Vangiones were not of purely Teutonic origin, 
but more or less quasi Celtic. 

Let us complete our account of them. Ariovistus seems to 
have only survived his defeat a short time. His death is men- 
tioned in Caesar's Fifth book, chapter xxix, which describes the 
events of the year B.C. 54. 

When the army of Ariovistus was defeated, it would seem 
that the whole of his forces were not driven across the Ehine. 
A portion of the Tribocci at least remained behind ; for he tells 
us in describing the course of the Rhine that it flowed through 
the territory of the Nantuates, the Helvetii, the Sequani, 
Mediomatrici, Tribocci, and Treviri. {Op, cit., IV, 10.) 

Here therefore he names the Tribocci between the Medio- 
matrici and Treviri. Long argues that the Mediomatrici origi- 
nally held all the country between the Vosges and the Rhine, 
but were to some extent displaced by the invasion of the Tii- 
bocoi, whose northern limit he fixes near Straaburg, and their 
southern one probably at Artzenheim near Markolsheim. (Op, 
cit,, 187, note.) 

The next author who mentions the three tribes of whom we 
are writing, was Strabo, who was probably bom about 60 B.C., 
and died A.D., 24. He probably wrote his " Geography " about 
A.D. 20 (Bohn's translation, preface iii, 1), and he tells us, *' After 
the Helvetii, the Sequani and the Mediomatrici dweU along the 
Rhine, among whom are the Tribocci, a Grerman nation, who 
emigrated from their country hither . . . After the Medio- 
matrici and Tribocci, the Treviri inhabit along the Rhine." 
{Id., i, 288-289.) 

Strabo does not name either the Nemetes or Vangiones, and 
unless the name Tribocci is used genericaUy to include both 
those tribes, it would seem that they had not crossed the Rhine 
when he wrote. 

Pliny is the next author who names them, and he mentions 
all three of them as German tribes living on the Rhine. (Pliny, 
IV, 17). This is what Tacitus in fact says. Li contrasting them 
with certain quasi Gtennanio Gauls, he adds, " Ipsam ripam Rheni 
hand, dubie Germanorum populi colimt Vangiones, Tribocci, 
Nemetes.'' ("Germania," XXVIII.) Ptolemy enables us to fix 
their sites by naming their chief towns, whose nomenclature we 
have already discussed. In addition to what I then said, I may 
add that Worms is made the chief town of the Vangiones by Am- 
mietnus Marcellinus, and in the " Notitia." (Zeuss, 219.) 

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H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Germany. 223 

The three tribes were henceforth comprised in the Roman 
provice of Germania Prima, and became to all intents and pur- 
poses Eoman citizens. Like the rest of the inhabitants of Gaul, 
they apparently became docile provincials of the Empire. This 
fact again militates against their having been real Teutons. 
Lastly, we may conclude with tolerable certainty that the greater 
part of the Teutonic inhabitants of the modem Elsass are 
descended not from them, but from the Alemanni. 

Let us now consider some of the other tribes to whom Csesar 
applied the designation of German, and begin with the northern 
confederacy of five tribes. We are told of the Eburones and 
Condrusi that they were clients of the Treviri (Caesar, IV, 6), 
who did not differ much from the Germans in culture, &c. The 
Treviri were famous for their cavahy. {Id,, II, 24.) The interest- 
ing fact to us is that the Eburones tind Condrusi were their clients. 
Cfients, that is, of a Belgic tribe, and the greater part of the 
Eburones lived between the Rhine and the Maas (Caesar, V. 24), 
and were the next neighbours of the Menapii {Id., VI, 5.) The 
modem towns of Tongres and Spa are within their borders. 
Their chief town was Aduatuca, the modem Tongres, showing 
that they were intruders into the country, from which they dis- 
placed the Aduatuci, their western neighbours. (Id.,Y, 38 ; Zeuss, 
213.) They were the most famous of the five tribes we are now 
dealing with. Their name is not of German etymology; but 
Celtic. It may be compared with that of the Aulerci Uburoviees, 
who gave their names to Evreux, etc. The names of the two 
chiefs of the Eburones who fought against Caesar, namely 
Ambiorix and Cattivolcus, are, as Zeuss says, unquestionably 
Celtic. (Zeuss, 212, note.) Between the Eburones and the Treviri 
were the two tribes Segni and Condmsi (Caesar, LXI, 32.) The 
Segni were the Sinuci of Pliny ; their name, as Long says, is 
probably preserved in the little town of Sinei or Signei, in the 
county of Namur. (Caesar, 128, note.) The name of the Condrusi 
is no doubt preserved in that of the strip of country south of 
the MaaA, and stretching from Namur tow8uxls Liittich, which 
is stiU called Condroz and le Condros, the Pagus Condrosius, 
Condruscus, Condrust, Condorusts of mediaeval times. (Zeuss, 
213.) The Poemanni doubtless gave its name to the district of 
Famen, the Pagus Falmenna, and Pagus Falmenensis of 
mediaeval writers. (Zeuss, 213 ; Long, op. cU., 182, note.) 

Lastly, the adjoining district, formerly called the Pagus Caro- 
ascus or Carascus, took its name from the Caeraesi. (Zeuss, 213.) 
The important thing for us however to notice, is that these 
names, so far as we can see, are all Celtic, and none of them 
Grerman. This is admitted by the most exacting of German 
Ethnologists, Zeuss. The name Segni may be compared with 

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224 H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Germany. 

the Celtic names Segontiaci, Segovellaimi, Segovii, Segugini, 
and Segusiani 

The first particle of Condrusi may be compared, as Zenss says, 
with the Con in Conbennones, and Consuanetes, while the 
second half of the name is clearly Celtic. Speaking of the 
name Drusus, Cicero says, "Pronepos est Drusi qui primus 
cognomen hoc ab interfecto Druso, Gallorum duce, tulit." (Cic. 
" Brut," 28.) Ceresium and Ciresiimi occur as names of Gallic 
places (Zeuss, 212), and may be accepted as traces of the Caeraesi. 
Lastly, the manni in Poemanni, as I shall show afterwards, has 
claims to be a Celtic gloss. 

We thus find that such evidence as we can adduce makes the 
most northern Grermani of Caesar if not pure Celts, as they clearly 
were not, at least considerably affected with Celtic afl&nities. 

Caesar first came into conflict with the Eburones in B.C. 54 
We are told by him that he planted a legion and five cohorts 
in winter quarters in the country of the Eburones, who for the 
most part lived between the Mass and the Ehine, and were 
ruled by Ambiorix and Cativolcus. These troops were com- 
mandad by Q. Titutrius Sabinus and Lucius Aurunculeius 
Cotta. (Op. cit.j V, 24.) The two chiefs of the Eburones were 
induced by Indutiomarus, the chief of the Treviri, whose clients 
they were, to attack the Eoman camp. They were badly beaten, 
upon which they asked for a parley, at which Ambiorix 
addressed the Eomans, and said that what had been done had been 
against his i^Tsh and advice ; he having special reasons to be 
grateful to Caesar for having relieved them from the tribute they 
had formerly to pay to the Aduatuci, and for having liberated 
his son and nephew who were detained by the Aduatuci as 
hostages. The cause of the strife was the policy of the Gauls, 
which was to have a perpetual feud with the Romans, and to 
attack separate legions or otherwise, and that it was impossible 
for one tribe to stand out against the common policy. He also 
warned them that they might be joined by a large contingent of 
Germans from beyond the Rhine. (/rf.,V, 2.) The Eburones were 
evidently a weak tribe, and are referred to as " civitatem ignobi- 
lem atque humilem Eburonum." (Id., 28.) The Romans having 
held a council, determined to retire from the country of the 
Eburones, but on their way through the woods they were 
attacked and terribly cut to pieces ; a portion only returning in 
safety to their camp. The two commanders perished. {Id., 36- 
37.) Ambiorix now marched into the country of the Aduatuci 
and Nervii, and urged them to a common action against the 
Romans. Envoys were also sent to summon the Centrones, 
Grudii, Levaci, Pleumoxi, and Geiduni, who were subjects of 
the Nervii The confederates marched to attack the winter 

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H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethmhgy of Oermany, 225 

quarters of Cicero, which they assaulted night and day. Pre- 
sently the Nervii made overtures to Cicero, but it was not the 
Eoman habit to make any terms with an armed enemy. {Id,, 41.) 
They accordingly determined to hem him in, and built a huge 
ditch 15 feet wide, and a vallum 9 feet high, so as to enclose 
him and his army. On the seventh day of the siege they fired the 
camp by means of burning missiles. They then attempted an 
assault, but were repulsed with loss. But things were growing 
desperate, and the Eomans sent letters to Caesar ; these were 
carried by a Nervian named Verticus. When Caesar received 
the news, he immediatelv sent word to Labienus to march into 
the country of the Nervii ; C. Fabius to enter that of the Atre- 
bates, and M. Crassus to march against the Bellovaci, while 
he himself marched quickly to join Labienus. He sent letters 
to Cicero, written in Greek, so that they might not be of service 
to the enemy if waylaid. The confederated tribes having heard 
of Caesar's advance, now marched to oppose him. He defeated 
them in a serious struggle, and speedily released his lieutenant 
(id., 51-52.) Meanwhile the Treviri were badly beaten, and 
their chief Indutiomarus was killed. Ambiorix now became 
the head of the GraUic confederacy, and in B.o. 53, he summoned 
to arms the Nervii, Aduatuci, Menapii, and the Cis-Ehenane 
Germans, i.e., the Eburones, etc. Caesar entered the country of 
the Nervii with four legions, with which he ravaged their lands 
and exacted hostages; he then returned. Ambiorix found 
shelter among the Menapii, while the Treviri summoned the Trans- 
Rhenane Germans to their help. Caesar compelled the Menapii 
to submit and to give hostages. Labienus at the same 
time marched against and defeated the Treviri, while the 
Germans who had gone to their assistance went home again, ie., 
crossed the Ehine (6, 7) ; and Caesar having himself marched 
into the land of the Treviri, determined to cross the Ehine to 
punish the Germans who had assisted the Treviri, and to 
prevent Ambiorix from taking shelter among them. {Id,, 9.) 

The latter was again among his own people, and Caesar having 
made a demonstration across the Ehine, did not fail to pursue 
him ; and he sent on L. Minucus Basilus with the cavalry to 
penetrate the Ardennes. The people of Ambiorix were surprised, 
and by his advice some were sheltered in the marshes, and others 
in the woods and the islands on the coast Cativolcus, the joint 
chief with Ambiorix, who was too old to work, fight, or fly, 
having cursed his colleague for bringing so much misery on his 
country, poisoned himself. {Id,, VI, 3.) The Segni and Condrusi 
now sent envoys to Caesar, praying him not to confound them 
with the other Cis-Ehenane Germans, with whom they had not 
taken part in the recent war. He sent orders to them not to 

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226 H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Germany. 

give asylum to the Eburones if they wished to be spared, and 
having collected all his forces he marched upon Aduataca, the 
capital of the Eburones, and almost in the middle of their 
country. He divided his army into three sections. One he 
sent under Labienus northwards against the Menapii ; another 
under 0. Trebonius to ravage the country of the Aduatuci; 
while he with the rest marched towards the Sambre, where 
Ambiorix had taken refuge. There were no fortresses or towns 
to capture, and the people were everywhere scattered and 
apparently almost destroyed; the neighbouring tribes were 
summoned to plunder and spoil the Eburones, a work in which 
the Germans beyond the Rhine were eager enough to join ; and 
we read that 2,000 Sigambri joined in harrying their relatives 
the Eburones. They crossed the Bhine in rafts and boats 
30 nules below the bridge ; they captured a large number of 
cattle, and intercepted many of the fugitives. Learning that 
Caesar was some distance away with his legions, and had left 
but a poor garrison behind at Aduatuca, tibey determined to 
surprise that station, and to capture the booty there collected. 
They deposited what they had themselves secured in a wood, 
and then proceeded to besiege the fortress ; but they failed to 
capture it after a brave attempt, and accordingly withdrew with 
their booty. On Caesar's return, he proceeded systematically to 
ravage the country ; all the villages and houses he could find 
were burnt, their cattle were driven oflF ; their com was consumed 
by the men and beasts, and laid by the rains, so that if any of 
the enemy had concealed themselves they must have died of 
himger when tte Eoman army was withdrawn. Ambiorix him- 
self was pursued from hiding-place to hiding-place with the 
greatest pertinacity. The hunters took prisoners who reported 
^ey had just seen the king ; but it was cdl in vain. He eluded 
their grasp, and with an escort of but four men, managed to 
escape from marsh to forest and forest to marsh, and finally to 
get away. (C^. cit., VI.) 

Two years later, namely in B.o. 51, disappointed apparently 
at not being able to catdi his prey, Csesax having once more 
entered the territory of Ambiorix, ravaged what remained 
mercilessly in all directions, slaughtering a great number of the 
inhabitants. (VIII, 24-26). 

Loi^ compares this terrible campaign of Caesar's with those 
of Europeans against African savages and Indian rebels. It 
seems to have well n^h, if not completely, exterminated the 
Eburones, who now disappear from history, and Caesar thus 
revenged the slaughter of his men and the treachery of the 
Germans. (Op. dt., note to chapter xliii. Book VI.) 

The Eburones disappear from history, as I have said, and were 

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H. H. HowORTH. — The Ethnology of Germany. 227 

replaced by the Tungri. The mention of the Tungri carries us 
across the Ehine, where we have some other of Caesar's GrermanB 
to consider. 

Immediately north of the Maine were the Ubii. 

The Ubii are first mentioned by Caesar in the year ac. 55. 
He tells us they were the next neighbours to the Suevi, who 
bounded them on one side ; he describes them as forming a large 
and flourishing nation, as it were the head of the Gfennans. 
(caput Germanorum.) They bordered on the Rhine, and were 
consequently more cultivated than the other Germans, being 
nearer to Gaul, and more visited by traders. They had been 
much harassed by the Suevi, who, although they had not 
succeeded in expelling them from their country, had yet made 
them tributary. (Op. ciY., IV,3.) They applied accordingly to Caesar 
to send them assistance. {Id, 16.) When Caesar made Ms famous 
bridge cross the Rhine, one end of it was placed in the country 
of the friendly Ubii. (Long's "Caesar," 18 note.) North of them 
were the Sigambri, another German tribe. {Id, 18.) Caesar, 
having crossed the river, liberated the Ubii from their depen- 
dence on the Suevi, and promised them assistance. {Id, 12.) 

The land of the Ubii was situated opposite to that of the 
Treviri, and probably extended from the Maine in the south, to 
the borders of the Sigambri, in the north. 

The Ubii also migrated to the west of the Rhine, thus imi- 
tating the example of the three tribes we have described. Strabo 
tells us they were moved across the Rhine by Agrippa with their 
own consent (Book IV, chapter iii, §. 44.) Tacitus also men- 
tions this migration both in the " Annals" and the " Germania." 
In the former he tells us that, having crossed the Rhine, they did 
allegiance to Agrippa, the grandfather of Agrippiua. ("Annales" 
xii, 27.) In the " Germania" he tells us they were transferred 
across the Rhine ut arcerent, non ut custodirentur. {Op. cit,, 
xxviii) Agrippina, the daughter of Germanicus, having been bom 
in their chief town, it was made a Roman colonia, and named after 
her, Colonia Agrippinensis, now the famous city of Cologne, 
while the Ubii were styled Agrippinenses. (Zeuss, 88.) 

They stretched northwards as far the Ardennes, and their 
frontier town was Gelduba (the modem village of Geldub, near 
Kaiserswert) ; another of their towns was Tolbiacum (Zulpich), 
(Zeuss, 88.) 

Their close aUiance with the Romans, and antagonism to the 
Suevi, and the close relations they apparently had with the 
Treviri, point to their having had other than purely Teutonic 
affinities. Their name seems to me to be a distinctly Celtic 
gloss, and to be the same word forming the second element in 
the names Danubius, Mandubii, Esubii, Gelduba, Abnoba. 

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228 H. H. HowoRTH. — The Ethnology of Germany. 

Caesar seems to use the name generically, and hisphrase " fuit 
civitas ampla atque florens," shows that the Ubii, in his mind, 
were a very important race. Nor is it likely that, being so, they 
should have all been transferred across the Ehine and been 
comprised in the Roman colonia. It must be remarked also, 
as Zeuss has pointed out, that when they migrated across the 
Ehine, they occupied seats to the north of their former territory. 
On these grounds, I am disposed to believe that only a section 
of the race migrated westward, and that the rest remained 
behind under some other name. This section I am disposed to 
identify with the Catti or Chatti, a famous generic name of 
tribes occupying the old land of the Ubii and the country 
further east, of whom the Mattiaci were probably a section. I 
hope to reveit to these Catti in a future paper. Here I would 
merely remark on the fact, that the name is apparently Celtic. 
The difficulty of explaining it from German sources is shown by 
the curious etymology of Leibnitz, who would derive it from 
cat, the race being so called because of its agility. I believe, 
on the contrary, that it is derived from the Celtic coit, a wood, 
and that, like Kherusci, it means merely the woodmen. 

The mention of the Catti leads us naturally to say a word or 
two about the Batavi, who lived in Caesar's time on the island 
formed by the Ehine and the Waal, and which was known as the 
*' insula Batavorum." Tacitus tells us they were a section of 
the Catti who had migrated after a domestic feud (" Germania," 
xxix.) As they are named specifically by Caesar, it is clear that 
this migration had taken place when he wrote. It is fiirther 
clear that the Catti, although not mentioned by him eo n^omine, 
were then existent in Germany. The fact of his not naming 
them has given rise to many surmises, among others the most 
popular is that they were the same people whom he names 

To this I altogether demur. The Suevi were a very distinct 
section of the Teutonic race, nor do we find any trace of 
Suevic occupancy on the Lower Ehine. In favour of their 
being connected with the Ubii, I may mention that the name 
Batavi was preserved in the Gau name Batua, and the two dis- 
tricts of Over and Nether Betuwe, and that the ua or uwe of 
these names seems distinctly connected with the name Ubii, 
Again, within the territory of the Ubii was the modem district 
of Nassau or Nassavi, a name formed on the same principle, 
and whose latter portion is identical with the latter portion o^ 
Batavi. I may add that the ancient Danubius has become 
Donald in modem German, as Nassavi or Nassuvi has become 
Nassau. Again, between the land of the ancient Ubii and th^ 
island of the Batavians, we find a tribe borderijig on the Jlhine 

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H. H. HOWOETH.— :7%^ Ethnology of Germany, 229 

called Hattuarii, i.e.. Hat-were, or the people of the Catti We 
also find Batti and Subatti in the old Ubian territory, and a 
place called Battenburg, on the Eder. 

These facts make me inclined to identify very closely the 
Ubii with the Catti. The Batavi, as I have said, were a section 
of the CattiL The curious fact I wish to draw your attention to 
is, that the towns which we know to have been planted among 
the Batavi bore distinctly Celtic names. Thus we have Lug- 
dunum, the modern Leyden, which bore the same name as the 
capital of the Provincia, the modem Lyons; Trajectum, the 
modem Utrecht and Batavodurum, whose termination durum is 
most characteristically Celtic. 

One section of the Batavi is called Canninefates, a name very 
unlike Teutonic names, but singularly in form like Atrebates ; 
and although it is the fashion to give Betuwe a Teutonic 
etymology, and to explain it as the good land, there are others 
who would explain it as a Celtic gloss. 

It is a curious fact about the Batavi, that they were so faith- 
ful to their Eoman allies; we find their contingents serving 
constantly in the Eoman armies, and they are called " fratres et 
amici " in Eoman inscriptions. (Zeuss, 103.) This fact also mili- 
tates against their being of purely Teutonic descent. 

Let us now turn to two other tribes who occupy a consider- 
able place in Caesar's narrative, namely the Usipetes and Tencteri, 
both of whom he describes as Germans, and as driven foward 
by attacks of the Suevi. 

The name Usipetes has a distinctly Celtic termination, like 
Nemetes. This is the plural particle et. Zeuss long ago 
pointed this out, and the name divested of this becomes simply 
Usipii or UispiL It survives undoubtedly, as Grimm has 
suggested, in the modem name Wiesbaden ; Tencteri resembles 
in its termination Bructeri, in each case eri being qualifying 
pendants to the names ; the former of which occurs at Tungri, 
whence Tongres, and the latter as Brocmanni Sections of 
both tribes are placed by Ptolemy in the country of the Ubii 
or its borders, and it is very probable that they formed a portion 
of the same race. 

Caesar tells us that the Usipetes, and also the Tencteri, 
having been for many years molested and attacked by the 
Suevi, were at length driven from their country, and having 
wandered about in various places in Germany for a space of 
three years, came to that part of the Ehine inhabited by the 
Menapii, and not far from where the river falls into the sea, 
(Caesar, VI, 1-4.) This was in the year B.c. 56. 

The Menapii who occupied both banks of the river, transferred 
their people to the left bank, and posted guturds to prevent the 

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230 H. H. HOWORTH. — Tke Ethnology of Germany. 

fugitives from crossing. As they had no boats the latter were 
constrained to return once more to the south, (/rf., IV.) The 
Menapii having returned to their homes on the right bank of 
the river, the Tencteri and Usipetes returned again quickly and 
surprised them, and seized their boats, with which they crossed 
the river. {Id) At this time therefore it would appear that the 
Batavian isLemd was occupied by the Menapii Presently the 
fugitives advanced still further on the west of the Rhine, into the 
country of the Eburones and Condrusi, and as far as the borders of 
the TrevirL Their envoys told Caesar how they had been driven 
from their homes, and asked him to give them fresh fields to 
settle in, or to grant them those which they already occupied. 
Caesar refused the request, but said he did not object to their 
passing over into the country of the Ubii, from whom envoys 
had also gone to him to complain of the attacks of the Suevi. As 
the Ubi would not consent to this, they had sent a portion of their 
cavalry across the Maas to forage. Caesar attacked the remain- 
ing portion of their army, defeated them, and drove them to the 
confluence of the Rhine and Maas, where they were destroyed. 
That section which had crossed the Maas on hearing of this, 
hastened eastwards and crossed the Rhine into the land of the 
Sigambri, with whom they allied themselves. (7d., VI, 16.) Caesar 
sent to demand tiieir surrender, but they replied that the Roman 
dominion stopped at the Rhine, and that the Romans had no 
rights on the other bank. (16.) Caesar was not to be thus 
bearded; he constructed the well-known bridge jujross the 
river, and appeared in the country of the Sigambri. The latter 
meanwhile had persuaded their dangerous guests the Tencteri 
and Usipetes to leave their land, and to seek shelter in the 
forests and wastes. {Id., 18.) Having spent a few days in their 
country and ravaged it, Caesar passed into that of the Ubii, to 
whom he promised succour if they should be molested by the 
Suevi. The latter, who had heard of Caesar's campaign, ordered 
a general evacuation of their settlements ; arranged that their 
wives and children should take refuge in the woods, and that their 
young men capable of bearing arms should assemble in one place 
to await and repel the Roman attack. But he returned in a few 
days back into Gaul, having accomplished what he wished, 
namely, the punishment of the Sigambri, the freeing of the Ubii 
from their vassalage, and the ma^g of a display of his power 
to the Germans. {Id., 19.) 

From this account we gather two important facts ; first, that 
the Usipetes and Tencteri were closely related to the Sigambri ; 
and secondly, that they settled down in the country east of the 
Rhine, and in close neighbourhood to that tribe. I have small 
doubt that only a predatory force crossed the Rhine into the 

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H. H. HowoRTH. — The Hthnology of Oermany. 231 

country of the Menapii, and that the main body of the nation 
remained and settled down in the various districts of Holland. 

For the next notice we have of the movement of these tribes, 
we are indebted to a late writer, namely Procopius, who tells us 
how the Tungri, i,e., the Tencteri, crossed over and settled in 
their new quarters west of the Ehine, in the time of Augustus. 
*' Secundum quos ad orientum Tungri barbaii concessam sibi ab 
Augusto imperatorum prime regionem incolebant." (Procopius, 
"BelL Goth.," I, 12.) ("Histoire des Carolingiens, Wamkceing, 
and Gerard," i, 4) They settled in South Brabant and the neigh- 
bouring districts, and gave its new name to Aduatuca, which 
was afterwards known as Tongres. Pliny tells us that Spa was 
within their territory. Tacitus tells us that those who first 
crossed the Ehine were then called Tungri, and afterwards 

The name occurs in other forms, thus. Gregory of Tours calls 
them Thoringians, i,e. Thuringians (" Hist. Franc. " I, II, chap, ix.) 
He also tells us that the old Frank king Clodion, lived at Dispar- 
gum, on the borders or within the pagus of the Thuringians. It has 
been read either way, the expression being "in termino 
Thoringorum " (" Wamk. " etc., 40.) 

Another form of the name I believe most firmly, is Toxandri. 
The name occurs in PUny for the first time. He tells us merely 
that they dwelt beyond the Scheldt under v8trious names. (Pliny 
"Nat. Hist.,*' IV, 17.) Their name still survive in the village of 
Tessenderloo, close to Diest, already mentioned, and, therefore, if 
they were not identical with the Tungri, they were next neigh- 
bours. But I believe them to have been the same people ; for, 
while PHny does not seem to mention the Tungri in his general 
description of Germany, Tacitus does not name the Toxandri. 
It was common to get rid of the nasal ng or nk, thus Franki 
was altered into Frakki, etc., and it may well be that Toxandri 
was a Celtic corruption of Tungri. The former gave their name 
to the Grau of Toxandria, which comprised the present districts 
of Campine and Kempen, north of limburg. 

All the Tencteri did not, however, cross the Rhine, nor yet the 
Usipetes, but I hope to treat of them bs w^ll as of the Sigambri 
and of their neighbours in a future paper on the Catti. 

My object in the present paper has been to call attention to 
certain points in the ethnography of the early Germcms, of which 
sufficient notice has not been hitherto taken, namely, of the veiy 
marked influence the Celts must have had in their composition 
or ocmstitution. It will be admitted that the facts I have 
adduced merit some explanation. To find the names of all the 
towns within the borders of certain of these tribes of Celtic 
etymology, to find that they were led by chiefs of Celtic race. 

Digitized by 


232 Amtralian LwngvAiges and Traditwtis, 

may mean no more than that, in the one case they had overrun 
and appropriated a Celtic area ; in the south the tertitory of 
the Mediomatrici, and in the north probably that of the Morini 
and Menapii ; while, in the other case, it may be that the chiefs 
were of cQflFerent race to their followers, or bore names given 
them by their mothers, who may have been Celts. 

On the other hand, it may be, as I believe, and as everyone 
will, I fancy, conclude, who has compared the flaxen-haired, and 
very purely Teutonic Frisians with the black-haired Dutch and 
Flemings, in their own country, that the latter are essentially a 
very mixed race, and that the facts I have mentioned are so 
many factors in the proof of their being so. I only offer my 
conclusions as tentative ones, and hope to prosecute the inquiry 
further on another occasion, when I hope also to be able to profit 
by the criticism which these remarks may call forth. 

Mr. Atkinson exhibited for the Eev. C. J. Eoger, rubbings 
from a Bunic inscription in Cunningsburgh Churchyard^ and an 
Ogham inscription from Lunnacting, Shetland Isles. 

Thanks were ordered to be returned for the above, and the 
meeting separated. 

The following paper was read on the 10th of April, as men- 
tioned, p. 125 of the Journal, 

Australian Languages and Traditions. 
To the Honov/raUe the Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, 


I have the honour to lay before you, as a supplement to my 
reports on the Aboriginal Languages and Traditions, the following 
additional information recently obtained from different quarters. 
The reports transmitted in 1871, for which I had the honour of 
receiving the thanks of the Right Honorable the Secretary of 
State for the Colonies, were as I am informed, welcomed as a 
contribution to philological and ethnological science, and I 
believe those who were interested in the former reports will 
prize the information here given, especially that furnished by 
the Rev. Charles Greenway, of Bimdarra, in the north-western 
district of this colony. Mr. Greenway has been acquainted 
with "Kamilaroi" from his youth, and both as a philologist 

Digitized by 


AtistrcUian Languages and Traditions. 233 

and as a minister of the Christian Faith has taken a deep 
interest in the weKare of the aborigines and in researches 
concerning them. 

N.B. — ^The letters are used as in my former reports ; a as a 
in father, e as ey in obey, i as in mctrine, ii as oo in moon, ai for 
the sound of eye, ao as ow in how, p and ^ for the sound of 
ng in ring. G has always the hard sound as in go. 



Rev. G. G. Qreenway, on Kamilaroi . . • . , « , « 233 

Mr. Thomas Honery, on Wailwun or Ziumba . . • • , . 246 

Mr. MacDonald, on the Natives of the Page and the Isis . . 255 

Mr. John Rowley, on the Language of Georges Biver . • 258 

Malone (half-castes), on the Language of Sydney, and Illa- 

warra.. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 262 

Dr. Greed, M.L.A., on the North Coast • . . • . . 266 

Kamtlaroi Lajjguage and Traditions. By Rev, Charles 
C. Greenway. 

I. Nouns. 
Man, kiwirr. 
Woman, yina or yinar. 
Boy, beri (boys, beriberi). 
Girl^ miai (girls, miaimiaL 
Child, ghai or kai 

Infant, kaipal (hence the verb kaiguni, to bring forth). 
Youth, that is young man having yet boyhood, beridul. 
Maid, young woman having yet girlhood, miaiduL 
Young woman whose breasts appear, pamurawiiri ; from pamur, 

breast, and wiirur, swelling. 
Father, buba. 
Mother, ^umba. 
Spouse, wife or husband, kolia. 
Elder brother, tai-ardi. 
Younger brother, kullami 
Sister, bo-wardi 

Son, wiirumi ; wiirur, filling (the arms). 
Daughter, pamurr (borne at the breast). 
Unde, kaxodi 
Childless one, meraidul; merai, borne of, dul (diminutive 

Unmarried man or woman, kolia-taliba (wife or husband-less). 
Spirit, demon, or white man, wundah. 
[The Aborigines thought white men to be spirits. " Guram*' 


Digitized by 


234 Australian Languages and Traditions. 

is used by a coast tribe, with the same signification; and 

*' bukra " by the African negroes.] 

Head, gha or ghah. 

Hair (of head), kaogha. 

Hair (of the moustache), butL 

Hair of the moustache, butibri (with conjunctive affix ri). 

Chin, or beard on chin, yari. 

Tooth or teeth, yira. 

Eye or eyes, mil. 

"Ebx or ears, bina, or binar, or wuta. 

[In one tribe " wuta " is the act of hearing, and " bina," in the 
ear. ^aia wiita = I hear. In another *' bina '* is the act of 
hearing, and " wuta " the ear : thus gaia binanalli =s I hear.] 
Knee, dhinbirr. 
Bones, bura or burar. 
Nails (of hands or feet), yiitii. 
Tongue, thuli, or tahli 
Eibs, tura. 
Vein, beran. 
Breast, gamu. 
Nose, muru. 
Hand or hands, murra. 
Foot or feet, dhina or dina. 
Arm, bupum. 
Shoulder, walor. 
Thigh, turra. 

Leg (below the knee), buyu. 
Loms, ghulur. 

[Ghulur, or ghula, also signifies the girdle or waist belt]. 
Skin, yiili 
Blood, gui or gue. 
Forehead, jutu. 
Head band, gulughet. 
Left hand side, warragal. 
Eight hand side, turiaL 
Kangaroo, bundarr. 

Sheep, jimba {i.e., jumper, no native name). 
Kangaroo rat, gunurr. 
Paddy-melon, meriirra. 
Striped iguana, yiUiali. 
Opossum, muti. 

Horse, yeraman (yera or yira =s teeth, man = with). 
Homed cattle, nulkainulka. 
Milking cows, miUimbrai (suffix rai, belonging to). 

Digitized by 


Australian Languages and Traditions. 2*35 

Birds, Tighara. 
Eagle hawk, mullian. 

Owl (having a cry like its name), bukutakuta. 
Crow, wharo. 
Pelican, gulambulain or guliah (from guli = net or fish bag, and 

afiftx all = having). 
Laughing jackass or great kingfisher, kukubnrra or ghukughagha. 
Emu, dhinawan or puri (dhina = foot, wan = strong). 
Native companion, burah gha (booral « large, gha = head). 
Black duck, kurranghi. 
Wood duck, giinambi 
White cockatoo, moral 
Squatter, or white-cheeked pigeon, muntoibi. 
Crested pigeon, guluwiin. 
Bronze-wing pigeon, tamur (or tahmoor). 
Cockatoo pigeon (a small grey pigeon), wirriah. 
Very smaU green parrot, ghidjirigha. 

Animals (not fish nor birds), Ahl 

Ground lizard (ruffed), bullawhakiir. 

Iguana (tree climber), tuli (tree = tulu). 

Brown or grey snake, nibi. 

Black snake, nurai. 

Carpet snake, not venemous, yebba. 

Hedgehog, murrowal or butteii. 

Fish, Guya. 

Cod, kudu (very large kind, kukubul). 
Perch (jew fish or black fish), kumbal 
Herring (abundant in the Barwon), cheringa. 
Mussek (large\ tunghaL 
Mussels (small kind), Idnbi 
Lobsters, or large shnmps, kirL 

Insects, Kao. 

Mosquito, mupin. 

Bug, bhuttha. 

Flea, biriji 

Bed stingless ant, karlan. 

Bee, warrul (the word also means honey). 

Trees, Plants, &c. 

Oak, bila, or bilarr (hence bilarr =a spear, made of oak). 
Sandalwood (and what is made of it), karrwi 


Digitized by 


236 Austrcdian Languages arid Traditions. 

Pine, gorari (high). 

Accacia pendula, bum (hence burrin = shield). 

Kurrajong (and lines or cords made of it), nunin. 

Edible fiag (in swamps), burara. 

Mistletoe, bhan. 

Wild orange or guava, bnmbul, or bnmbla 

Other trees, ghidjm: and mulka. 

Wood, tulu (also a spear). 

Trunk or stem, warrun (warina = standing). 

Branches (arms), bugun. 

Main branches (thighs), turra. 

Bark, tura. 

Skin-bark, bowar. 

Leaves, karril. 

House, gundi 

Bes^ing-place, camp, native place, tuckramab. 

Clear place, Idllu. 

Mud, millimilli. 

Sun, yarrai. 

Moon, giUi. 

Stars, miri. 

Sky, gunakulla. 

Cloud, kunda. 

Water, kolli 

„ kurug. 

„ wallon. 
Fire, wi. 

Daylight, gurran. 
Darkness, giiru. 
Night, bOlui 
Smoke, toh, or dhu. 
Dust, yu. 

Morass, marlawah (a place difficult to walk through). 
Net or bag, gulag. 
Net or girdle, gulur. 
Yard or enclosure, whunmid. 
Door (what shuts out), ghirinaL 
Hook, yinab (hence yinabi = caught). 
Thistle, kurraman. 
Grass, ghorarr. 
Herbs, ghian. 

Sword, kutilan (corruption of cutlass). 
Axe, yundu. 
Stone, yarrai. 

Mountain, kobba or kubba. 
Hill, tiyiU. 

Digitized by 


Australian Languages and Traditions, 237 

Plain, gupiaL 

Long plain, swamp or glade, gorahman. 

River (large), bukhi 

Bivulet, maian. 

Water-course, including trees along the banks, warumbui. 

Flood, wukawa. 

Eain, ynron. 

Thunder, tulumi. 

Lightning, mi. 

The wind rises, miar diirL 

The Pleiades, Miaimiai, or Murunmiiran. 

Orion, Beriberi. 

[N.B.— The Pleiades are " the girls," Orion " the boys."] 
Venus, Zaijikindamawa (ie., I am laughing. Sometimes they 
call Venus " Sindikindaoa," or " Ijindikindamawa," you 
are laughing. She has been their goddess of laughter"). 
Tail, or any pendant, dun, or dhun. 
Cap, kabiimdi or kabukan, a corruption of the English. 
Fat, ghori. 
Lean, bunnarr. 

Belts or pendants round the waist, tubilka. 
The milky- way, warrumbul, also burribeauduL 

[The milky-way is a watercourse and grove abounding in all 
delights, to which good men go when they die]. 
Food, yOl. 

Water vessel, walbon (from wallum = water). 
Seed basket or bucket, kiiliiman (from kiilu = seed). 
The place of Initiation into manhood, burah. 

[There the biirr, or mystic cord is used, and the initiated is 
invested with the burr or belt of manhood.] 
Gooseberry-like fruit, piban. 
Eed-stone fruit, goedtha, or guadtha, or warroba. 

[This fruit grows in the scrubs of the Darling jmd Namoi. 
It is red, and outwardly resembles a Siberian crab. It tastes 
like tamarind. The stones are much used as ornaments. The 
word is from gui = blood, or red.] 


Clothed with fur, turunbrai. 

Clothed with feathers, wirilarai, 

Stinking, hateful, nui. 

Small (as a hair) buti, orbiitiandul. 

Small (as a child) khaiaudul, ghaiandul, or ghaidul. 

Slow, lazy, bullawa. 

Quick, eager, kiahbar. 

Digitized by 


23& AtisPralian Langtutges and Traditions, 

Large, expansive, munguL 

Angry, sharp, yili. 

Bald, bare, balal (balal kawga = bald-head). 

Bare, destitute of anything, childless, or hungry, mirade or 

[Foodless, nubal, meraid, fireless, merade wl ; taliba also means 

Kolia-taliba = without a spouse. 
Wi-taliba = without fire. 
Kolle-taliba = without water. 
Strong (standing against attack), warringal. 
Tall (long), gordi. 
Tall (high), kuddo. 

Sick, weary, wibil, or burning with pain, wiwi. 
Ugly, nasty, vile, kah-ghil. 
Bitter, stinking, bhutah or butta. 
Sweet, nice, beautiful, murraba. 
Good, honest, desirable, weU conducted, koppa. 
Tired, worn, sore, iughil. 
Tired, slow, knocked-up, marlo. 
[Mario jai ghini = I*m knocked-up.] 
Afraid, alarmed, faint-hearted, ghil ^il, from ghi, the heart 
Cowardly (inclined to cry out for fear), gurri gurri. 
Grey, old, dira, or dhira. 
Old fellow, man, woman or brute, diraduL 
Stupid, deaf, cross, obstinate, wambah. 
Sensible, hearing, binal (from binar, the ear). 
Dead, balumi, or balo, or bhalo. 
[Wi baloni = the fire is gone out.] 
Angry, yili, or yilian. 
White, bulah or bhullah. 
A white thing, bhuUaduL 
Black, dark, bului. 
A black thing, biiluiduL 
Fasting, or bound, from religious considerations, to abstain from 

certain food, buiialL 

Names of Places. 

CoUemungool, or Kollemupgul, a station on the Barwon ; from 

kolle (water), mupgul (expansive) = Broadwater. 
Kooroongorah, or Kurungora = Longwater. 
Wallongorah also means Longwater. 

Drilldool (a corruption of Taiildiil) = reedy, from taril as reed 
Tarilarai, having or abounding in reeds. 

Digitized by 


Aiistraiian Lcmguages arid Traditions, 239 

Yalaioi (a corruption of Yarralarai) = stony, from yarral, atone 
or rock, and arai, possessive affix. 

Bukkulla, place of the leopard-wood tree, or Australian ash. 

Moorkoodool, Murdudul, place of oaks (muritu). 

Wee Waa, or Wi Wa, fire thrown down ; from wi (fire) wha 

Gundimyan, or Gundimaian, house (gundi), on the river 

Breepa, or Biru)a, or Biriji, or Biridya, place of fleas. 

Pokotaroo, or Bukkitaro, river (bukki), going (aro) wide or far. 

Piliga, or Bilagha, scrub oak (bila), point or head (gha). 

Gramau, i.e., gorah mahn,long plain or glade. 

Warra, left-handed, i.e., on the way from Murrurundi 

Barwon (river), great, wide, awfuL 

Breewarrina, Buii warina tree (accacia pendula) stamding up. 

Briglow, Burreeagal, burree (tree), gal (related to) ; buiia^];alah, 
habitat (ah) of the burreeagal 

Namoi, or nuni, or jamu, breast. The river is curved like a 
woman s breast. 

Goyder, or Guida (river) ; red (gui), banks, (a) place of. 

Gk)oneewaraldi, or gunyawaraldi, white stone spread. 

Bc^abri, or Bukkibrai, place of rivers or creeks. 

Gunedah, or Gimida, place of white stone (guni). 

Culgoa, running through, or returning. 

Cobbedah, or Kobada, place of a hill. 

Manilla (river), or Munila, round about. (Munila pai yani = I 
go round about.) This river makes almost a circle, and 
returns to the Upper Namoi 

Millee, or Mili, white (from pipe-clay, silicate of magnesia). 

Tooloodoona, or Tuluduna, made (with a chisel) of wood, as a 

Cc^hiU, or Kugil, bad, nasty (water). 

PaUal or Balal (on the Horton), btu^e. This station is remark- 
able for bare patches, rocks, &c. 

Bundarra, the place of kangaroos. 

Molroy, properly Murrowfdarai, abounding in murrowal (hedge- 


To chop (with an axe), bhai or bai ; chopped = baialda 

To cut (as by a saw), kurrila. 

To cut (with a knife), or to skin, bhi or bhini. 

To thrust, or stick (as with a spear), duni 

To hoist, as cord, win. 

To pour out, spiU, yahree, or yarl 

Digitized by 


240 Australian LanigiLages arid IVadUions. 

To spread, let out, wharu, or warriL 

Cease, stop, desist, kurria (kurria goalda = cease talking). 

Be quiet, let go, don't, tahbaa, or tubia. 

To see, jumilli (pai pumiUi, I see ; junna pumilli = I am 

To want, pin (hence yulpin = I am hungry, I want food (yup), 

kollo pai pin = I am thirsty, or I want water). 
To mind, guard, watch, puminil-mali. 
To drink, to absorb, purrughi. 
To eat, to swallow, taldini or tiddini (tul = tongue). 
To hear, winupgallL 
Eise, get up, (unper. warrea). 
To catch, kunmulli (imper. kunmulla). 
To rob or take by force, karramulli (imper. karamulla.) 
To make (in any way), ghimabilli. 

To make, or shape by chopping, bh^alli (imper. bhaiamulla). 
To split, bharuni (I split the wood, tulii pai bharuni). 
To (fig, or scrape out (a pit), moaghi. 
To draw out (as to milk a" cow), niinmuUi 
To suck (the breast), pamugh. 
To taste (from talli or tulli = tongue), tatuUi. 
To blow (as to smoke a pipe), bubilli (qbI bubilline = I am 

To ask, or inquire of, taialdinL 

To carry, or bear off, kargi (imper. kargilla, or kalghilina). 
To catch (as a fish with hook), yena billi (imper. yenabilla). 
To thrust through with a spear, dixrilli. 
To sew (with a needle), ningilli or pipilli 
To strike, knock down, overthrow, bunialli. 
To stand up (as a man or a tree), waddlini, or warrum (imper. 

To enter (as one stream into another, or water into a vessel), 

yarimulli or yarumuUi (imper. yarrayarra ; yardlina, it does 

pour into). 
To sit, pari (imper. paria). 
To swim, kubi. 

To take up, lift, djeamuUi (imper. djeamulla). 
To call, to shout, khakulli (imper. khakulla). 
To weep, to wail, yughi. 
To rejoice, to dance, yiigali. 
To laugh, or make fun, kindami, or kurdainulli. 
To walk, tarrawulli. 
To climb, ascend, kulhae. 
To hear, winnupalli. 
Get up (imper. warria). 
Tf sing, baoilli. 

Digitized by 


Australian Languages and Traditions: 241 


To-morrow, jurukas (night over). 

Some time hence, yeral or yerarl. 

Yesterday, ghimiandi (past day). 

Very long ago, or very far oflf, jaribii. 

Near, close, kuimbu. 

Immediately, yelaaho, or yilhaatho. 

There, beyond, putta. 

Here, nialli. 

Far (distant in space or time), berii, or beruji. 

In this place at any side or cheek, nabQ, or nabbu. 


We two, jallL 
Mine, our own, our tribe, our land, ghuryugun. 


Aral or rai signifies possession, and has the sense of ous. Thus 
yina-arai = having a wife ; kolia-arai = having a spouse ; kiwira- 
rai = having a husband ; yiramanarai = having a horse ; millim- 
brai = milkers, cows having milk ; junbabrai = shepherd, having 
sheep ; yularai = having food ; full, opposite to yulgin = hungry; 
ul or dQl = like, having the quality of. 

Phrases and Sentences. 

I sleep, pai baubillani. 

Verily I did sleep, kir (or kearr) gai baubillini 

I hear, gai winnuggilun (or winnuggi). 

I have truly got honey, or " cut out " honey, warriil keargai 

bhaialdona (or bail). 
I have well slept, gai guraraghinye. 
I fish (hook fish), ghuya gaia yenabilli. 
I split wood, tulu gai bharuni 

We two are friends (or belong to one another), guyuggun galli. 
Friendly people, gujriiggundiU murri. 
Enemies, yilian murri 
So, in this way, yellina. 
In this manner, yilakwai. 

What do you say ? what is it ? mienya ? or mien yarig ? 
Why do you do this ? mienya go ? 
Ejaculations of surprise, how great! how grand! kuttabull 

kuttabul ! 
How strange ! gi pai ! 

[The idea of intensity in greatness, distance, proximity, etc., is 

Digitized by 


242 AtLstralian Languages ajid Traditions. 

expressed by prolongmg the i&nal syllable, sometimes the root 

syllable, as garrib u ! very far off indeed.] 

Kai-medul, very youi^ and small indeed. 

Yes, yo ; kirr is used as an emphatic yes. 

Yes, aiyo, kirraol or kerraol = truly (uttered with solemnity). 

Hither, this way (come), tai. 

That way, arrigo. 

Here, numma. 

At your hand, murru. 

This side (of a river, &c.), uriaUina. 

The other side, garigallina. 

The far side, mulanda. 

Soon, yela ; immediately, yeladtho. 

Before long, or not long ago, yelambo. 

like, resembling, kerrt or kearrt, as pukadi kearrt (like a squirrel) , 

bhan ghearrt (like the appearance of mistletoe). 
I am abstaining from cod, nai wanall kudu. 
Me bound to abstain from kangaroo, punna wanall bundarr. 


Bhaiami, Baiame (or Bhiahmee) is regarded as the maker of all 
things. The names signify " maker ** or " cutter out," from the 
verb bhai, baia'di, baia. He is regarded as the rewarder or 
punisher of men, according to their conduct He sees all, and 
knows all, if not directly, through the subordinate deity Turra- 
mulan, who presides at the Bora. Bhaiami is said to have been 
once on the earth. Turramulan is mediator in all the operations 
of Bhaiami upon man, and in all man's transactions with 
Bhaiami " Turramulan " means " 1^ on one side only," one- 

Turramulan has a wife called Muni Burribian (Moonee 
Burrebean), that is, egg or life, and milk or nourishing, who 
has charge of the instruction and supervision of women. For 
women may not see or hear Turramulan on pain of death. 

The "tohi" (smoke, spirit, heart, central life), that which 
speaks, thinks, determines within man, does not die with the 
body, but ascends to Bhaiami, or transmigrates into some other 
form. It may be a wandah (wunda) or spirit wandering about 
the earth. The " bunna," flesh or material part, perishes ; the 
" wundah " may become a white man. The transmigration of 
the "tohi" is generally to a superior condition; but those 
who are very wicked go to a more degraded and miserable 

Forms of incantation are used. The Deity is supposed 
to be influenced by charms, worked through the agency of 

Digitized by 


Atistralian Languages arid Traditions. 243 

certain stones and magical cards (" burr "). It is also supposed 
that men are capable of acquiring magical or supernatural 
powers, and pretenders often self-deceived have arisen. As 
among Christians, many are grossly ignorant of Christ and of 
Grod, and become slaves to their own imaginations and to 
degrading superstitions, it is not to be wondered at that blacks 
should be ignorant of Bhaiami, of Turramulan, and of their 
moral and religious code. 

Tradition concerning Orion and the Pleiades. 

The Pleiades, Miai Miai (meaning girls), were jaribu 
ghibalindi (i.e., a very long time ago), living on earth. They 
were young women of extraordinary beauty. Orion, " Berriberi " 
(meaning young men) becoming bural winupilan (enamoured) 
of these young women, pursued them, one particular warrior 
being foremost. Miai Miai fled and prayed for deliverance. 
They were favourites of Bhaiami and of Turramulan, who granted 
their request. They climbed to the top of some very high trees ; 
and by the help of Bhaiami sprang up into " gunakuUa " (the 
sky, or heaven), where they were changed into beings of light. 
One of them not being so beautiful as the rest, or being less 
favoured, hides behind the other six ; and it is said to be " gurri 
gurri " (shy or afraid), that is the pleiad which is scarcely 
visible, or less conspicuous than the rest. 

Soon after the elevation of Miai Miai to the heavens, 
Berriberi, or the leader of the young men, was taken up, and 
now appears as a constellation (Orion) with his "burran" 
(boomerai^) and "ghutur " (belt). 

The sun, " yarai " or " yuroka," is masculine. 

The Bora (or Boorrah). 

This is an institution for the admission of youth into the 
rank of manhood. Meetings for the Bora are summoned at 
irregular periods, as emergencies arise. The youths who are 
initiated are instructed in the mysteries of their supernatural 
beings ; and their moral and religious codes are enumerated with 
much solemnity. Symbols are used, rites are practised, fasting is 
enforced. Tuxrumulan is represented by an old man, who is 
learned in all the laws and traditions, rites and ceremonies, and 
assumes to be endowed with supernatural powers. It is certain 
that most of those who have passed tlo^ugh the Bora 6ire 
profoundly impressed with a sense of obligation to observe the 
moralities and spiritualities there enumerated. 

Here instruction is given in the law of consanguinity 
and intermarriage. In one respect this law agrees with the 

Digitized by 


244 Australian Languages and Traditums. 

Mosaic code, it allows not marriages with a wife's sister 
during her lifetime. Polygamy is fpermitted under certain 
restrictions. The infraction of these is pimished by corporal and 
spiritual penalties. It is generally observed more sacredly than 
the Christian code among the whites. In connection with the 
Bora abstinence from particular kinds of food is enforced, in 
some cases for years. 

It is called the " Boorrah/* or place of the " boorr," because 
the boorr, or belt, is used in the incantations. The neophyte is 
solemnly invested with the " boorr," or belt of manhood 

It is unlawful to mention the Bora, or anything connected 
with it, or the name of Turrumulan in the presence of women. 
Most of the Murri imagine that evil influences are exercised 
by means of the "boorr;" when sickness occurs they say 
*' uemna boorr wfirlah " (those people are throwing the belt). 
For instance, the Murri on the Barwon River and on the Bree, 
attribute the prevalence of smallpox (of which some of them 
retained marks a few years ago) to the throwing of the boorr by 
a hostile tribe on the west. 

Songs, Baoilli. 

Bacilli (song of derision of one of the same tribe). 

^ndu-nago turri ghilliana 
Buzbun mulligo zo zin bularr 
toai murrin jaia warranbraia 
l^irrego ma toh dirraldaia. 

"Who comes ? large head of hair. 
Arms crooked, like cockleshells two, 
It is one of my people, on the road he is, 
Forth smoke is proceeding. 

Baoilli II (an EngUsh scene. The song illustrates the 
aborigined art of constructing new words from the 

Publikaor wiritheah 

Djeamillia nuri mir 

toummildiago karniwaiandi 

Dnmghilla tranal a dimi 

Public house* shouting or screaming, 
Grasping hips or thigl^ 
He appears, tripped by a stick, 
DrxuJfen, stricken with fits. 

* The aborismes catrnot sound s ; the name Yass on our mapi was originaUj 

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Australian Languages and Traditions, 245 

Baoilli III. Yugal, or song composed for dancers. 
Burran burin belar bundi 
Muraea berar kami 
Wakara waroi tubilkah Bundin 
Ymnba yumbu gumil 
Warakel munan 

Shield of Burree, spear and club, 
Throwing stick of Berar bring ; 
The broad boomerang of WaroU, 
Waist-belts and pendants, aprons of Boodon. 
Jump ! jump ! use your eyes. 
With the straight emu spear. 

Baoilli rV; another Yugal. 

Mum goriah 
Yeraman buraldi 
Wi wi kurralah 
Millimbrai kakullah kirawa 
Black man very fat. 
Horses driving. 
Firewood cutting. 
Milking cows, lowing. 
Seeking for them. 

Baoilli V ; a ghiribal or song imitative of animal sounds and 

Beralah, black musk duck, or diver. 

Ya paia paripga (repeat ad libitum,) 

Pumba gar, go (repeat and transpose ad libitum) 

Mingo aha karai (repeat ad libitum), 

Ibbiribi tar wapgah whoogh. (At this word the cheeks are 
filled with breath like a bladder, and then suddenly as it were 

Baoille VI ; ridicule of one of another tribe. 

RMost of the words of this song are of the Warlarai (Wolaroo) 
dialect, which has a close affinity to the Ghummilarai or 

Mullor mulla gha ibbeliam buli 

Bunnakunni, bunnakunni 

Eiramai gunman 

Dhuddi gaia 

Inghil bunmalumi 

Biinda wahni 

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246 Australian Langtioges and Traditions, 

Spirit like emu, as a whirlwind 

Pursues (or hastens) ; 

Lays violent hold on travelling (wandering). 

Uncle of mine (derisively) 

Fires out with fatigue, 

Then throws him down (helpless). 

End of Mr. Greenways's information. 

Wailwun Language and Traditions. 

(Information derived from Mr. Thomas Honeiy, Upper Hunter.) 

Wailwun or Ijjiimiba is the lai^age spoken along forty miles 
of the Barwon, from the junction of the Namoi downwards. 
It is called (Wailwun) from the negative " wail " (sounded like 
the English word " wile "), meaning " no " it is called " giumba " 
from pia = to speak (Mr. Honery prefers the name " giumba," 
which he says is that generally used by the people as the name 
of their own language. They call themselves " Wailwun," and 
sometimes use this word for the language. 

There are about a thousand blacks now speaking ^umba. 
The next language down the Barwon is " Burrumbinya," and the 
next " Kuno which is spoken at Fort Bourke. The neighbour- 
ing languages are " Miiruwurri " spoken on the Bree ; the CalgSr 
and the Narran Yualari, on the Balonne ; and " Kuamu," on the 
Warrego. "Yualwai" differs from "Wolaroi" spoken on the 
Gwy dir. In " Yualarai " no is woggo ; in Wolaroi the negative is 

NiUMBA, Words. I.— Nouns. 

Man, tahur. Chin, kir. 

Woman, wiriip^. Throat, nuggi 

Women, wiriiggal Neck (back), nirrimirri. 

Many women, wirtipgamboi. Shoulders,, wurru 

Boy, murrukugga. Arm, nurru. 

Girl, mariyngga. Foreeirm, pi 

Baby, wiiru. Elbow, gunuka. 

Little baby, wiirudhCd. Hand, murra. 

Maiden, virgin, kuma dhiliu. PoU, nan. 

Blackfellow, mai or maiai. Eye, miL 

White man, wimda. Nose, muru. 
Male (man or beast), mundewa. Mouth, gundal. 

Digitized by 


Australian Langtuxges and Traditions. 


Father, buba, 
Mothef, guni. 
Brother ^nan), kukka. 
Sister (woman), katl 
Brother (boy), kukkamin. 
Sister (girl), gidura. 
Wife,* juan. 
Uncle, kani. 
Aunt, mama. 
Cousin, puldngan. 
Truant wife, yanawe. 
Head or skull, kuboga. 
Head or hair, wulla. 
Forehead, pulu. 
Beard, kir. 

Moustaches, mulagin. 
Whiskers, narma. 
Cheek, tdhukaL 

lips, Willi. 

Teeth, wira. 

Tongue, tulle. 

Ear, kirigera. 

Finger, wurria. 

Thumb of the fingers, guni. 

Toe, wurria. 

Great toe, guni 

Chest, wirrL 

Belly, buri. 

Armpit, kilkulbiiri. 

Breast (woman's), pummu. 

Navel, gindyiir. 

Thigh, dhurra. 

Calf or leg, kaia. 

Leg (below knee), piyu. 

Foot, dhina. 


Kangaroo, murm. 

Opossum, kuraki. 

Emu, puri. 

Bat,t wibullabulla. 

Swallow, millimaru. 


great kingfisher J^^^^^^™' 
Crow, waru. 

Native Companion, burulga. 
Cod (fish), kuddu. 
Black bream, bugulla. 
Yellow bream, bidyup. 
Jew fish, tup-gur. 
Cray fish, wipgar. 
Boa, mupun. 
Black-snake, yukL 
Brown snake, tdhurii. 

[This yam is sweet, juicy, and very agreeable. It grows to the 
size of a large water melon, and as many as sixteen yams are 
found one on root. It grows in sandy ground, and has above 

* That IB what is called in Eamilaroi " giltir " one who may lawfnllj be taken 
aa a wife ; thus " Ippatha idhoru*' is " nnan " to *' Ippai guri." 

t The bat and the swaUow are sacred, and are neyer kUied. 

t The name of the whip-snake and death-adder is the same; both are deadly. 
The name of oodutoo differs onl;^ in the length of the a. 

§ In Bammbnrga language, mirri means a horse. 

Whip-snake, murai. 

Death-adder, muraij 

Pigeoa (squatter), muniimbi. 

Pigeon (top-knot), lao'ilgera. 

Duck (wood), gunambi 

Horse, yiraman. 

Sheep, tumba. 

Dog, mirri.8 

Eagle, muUion. 

Swan, burrima. 

Pelican, wirea. 

Cockatoo, murai. 

Pigeon (bronze-winged), yamur. 

Duck (in geperal), wiruwarra. 

Duck (black), biidamba. 

Duck (teal), buiga. 

Yam, kunowa. 

Digitized by 



Australian Languages and Traditions, 

the surface only a small vine ; informant never saw jmy seed or 


flower upon 

Ironbark, bigur. 
Boomerang-tree, mulga. 
Sun, dhuni 

Namoi (river), kimmwi. 
Sacred stone, wiar. 
Gum-tree, guara. 

Yellow-box, mulli. 
Moon, kiwur. 
Boomerang, bier. 
Myal {acca^da pend,), biiri. 
Bastard myal, yimma. 
Venus (emu), piirL 

[This stone is in the king's (chiefs) possession, and by putting 
this in his mouth and spurting it out at anyone, he can cause 
his death. One of his men goes and kills the person thus 
marked out for destruction.] 

Friendship (or friends),maindyuL Enmity (or enemies), kulgiurun 
Astonishment, puduwimdubaigu. or kulgipan. 

North-west, miriiraka. 


Good, yiada. 

Alive, muun. 

Bad, wurai. 

White, buzoba. 

Great, thurugaL 

Black, biUul 

Small, buddhudthuL 

Blue, biiluL 

One, magu. 

Bed, girawiL 

Two, bCilugur. 

Yellow, gunaigguna. 

Three, kuliba. 

Green, gidyungidyun. 

Four, biilugurbiaugur. 

Brown, dhugnngnlia. 

Old, bugaia. 

Five, wirungunmurra. 

Young, dhulupaimba. 


I, gattu. 

Ye, gindnguL 

Thou, pindu. 

He, mundewu. 

Ye two, pindula. 

We, geene. 


Yes, garu. 

Above, gunaowa. 

No, wail 

Below, gunadhur. 

Many words are the same in Kamilaroi and Wailwim, but a 
large number are different. 


Did you see me ? gamandu ahi gani ? 

Yes, I saw you, garu gu dhu gani 

Ippai built a house, Ippaudu wiime gnnu. 

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Australian Languages and Traditums^ 249 

Mum pulled it down, Murm)gu wirune. 
Kubbi killed Kumbo, Kubbiggu giine Kumbupu. 
Kumbo killed Kubbi, Kumbugu Kubbipa gume. 
What for ? minyapgo ? 
The greatest of enemies, kulkiwunwungan. 

Genealogy and Marmage. 

like the Kamularoi, they have four family names of men, and 
four of women ; Ippai, Murri, Kumbo and Kubbi ; and Ippatha, 
Matha, Budtha and Kubotha. 

These we also divided into murui or muruwi (kangaroo), guri 
(emu), tdhuru (brown snake), and kuraki (opossum). There 
are therefore four dasses of Ippai, namely, Ippai muruwi, Ippai 
puri, Ippai tdhuru, and Ippai kuraki, and so of the others, 
making sixteen classes of men, and sixteen of women. Kum- 
bugga is a young kumbo, murripga a young murri 

When tribes go to war, each carries its own representative 
animal stuffed, as a standard. 

According to Mr. Honery, the only rules observed as to 
marriage and descent, are these two : that a man cannot take a 
wife of the names corresponding with his own, and that parents 
may not give their cluldren their own names. Thus Murri 
Kuraki may not marry a Matha Kuraki, but he may marry 
Matha Tdhuru, or Ippatha Kuraki, or any woman except Matha 
Kuraki Ippai Tdhuru may marry any woman but an Ippathu 
Tdhuru ; the children of the kuraki and a tdhuru, must be either 
murui or juri It is likely enough that in some families the 
rules are more or less relaxed. The two rules above given are 
carried out in the more complete system, which has been 
described in former reports. Mr. Honery also states that 
brothers and sisters have different animal names. Thus all 
brothers of Ippai Tdhuru are also Ippai Tdhuru ; but his sisters 
are not Tdhuru, though they are all Ippatha. Sometimes the 
brothers are Ippai Tdhuru, and the sisters Ippatha Kurabi 

When Ippai Tdhuru marries Kubotha Murui, their children 
are Murri Kurabi and Matha ^uri ; when Kumbo Ijuri marries 
Matha Kurabi, their children are Kubbi Tdhuru and Kubotha 


Bai-ame made all things. He first made man at the Murula, 
(a mountain between the Narran and the Barwon). Bai-ame 
once lived among men. There is, in the stony ridges between 
the Barwon and the Narran, a hole in a rock, in the shape of a 
man, two or three times as large as an ordinary man, where 

VOL. vn. T 

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250 Australian Languages and Traditions. 

Bai-ame used to go to rest himself. He had a large tribe around 
him there, whom he fed at a place called " MidSl." Suddenly 
he vanished from them and went up to heaven. StOl though 
unseen he provides them with food, making the grass to grow. 
They believe that he will come back to them at some future 

There was formerly a bad spirit, called Mullion (the eagle), 
who lived in a very high tree, at Girra on the Barwon, and was 
wont to come down and devour men. They often tried to drive 
away Mullion by piling wood at the foot of the tree, and setting 
fire to it. But the wood was always pushed away by an 
invisible hand, and the fire was of no avail Bai-ame, seeing 
their trouble, told a black feUow to get a murruwunda (a little 
red mouse), and put a lighted straw in its mouth, and let it run 
up the tree. This set fire to the tree, it blazed up, and from the 
midst of the smoke they could see Mullion fly away. He 
never returned to vex them. The smoke that arose from the 
burning of that tree was so dense, that they could see nothing 
for some days. 

*' Kinirkinir," the spirits of the departed, are supposed to 
wander over the face of the earth. " Buba" (father) is used as 
the name of an old kangaroo, father of the whole race of 
kangaroos, whose thigh-bone is preserved and carried about by 
one of the tribes. This bone is 4 feet long, 7 or 8 inches round,* 
and tapering in form. 

It was found long ago in the Murulu ridges. The Murui of 
the tribe have charge of it. " Youi " is a spirit that i*oams over 
the earth at night. " Wawi " is a snake in the water, that used 
to eat black feUows. They could never kiU it. " Murriula," a 
dog-like monster, formerly in the waters, not seen lately. They 
say the water was formerly all over the r^on between the 
Barwon and the Narran. 


Each tribe chooses its king. There is no formal act of 
choosing or appointing a king. The tribe gradually recognise 
the superior activity and prowess of their ablest man ; and by 
general consent he becomes king. A king can always find some 
one to carry out his wishes, in killing those whom he dislikes. 
In one instance a king was killed in revenge for killing his 
wife's baby. He had sent his wife away, and she came with a 
baby. He said it was not his child, and beat his wife and drove 
a tomahawk into the head of the child. The woman's brother 
then came and killed the king with his spear. The tribe 
coming up, and seeing their king wounded to death, attacked 

Digitized by 


Atistralian Langitages and Traditions. 251 

the wife's brother. Some took his part, and in a fight which 
ensued this man and his partisans prevailed. He was then 
made king in place of the man he had killed. 
He was called " Waiaburra Jackey." 


At their carrobarees, or festivals of singing and dancing, they 
sometimes have stuffed birds on their Imcks ; pelicans, swans, 
emus, &c. They hop and run about in imitation of the birds. 
The women sit down and sing. 

When the Black Police first appeared on this river, thd 
following song was composed and sung at carrobarees : — 

Murago muginga dhi 

Guria bai go 

Dhiniligo Dunuligandhu inini 


Go on, blind, all of ye. 

Go on for ever, I hope 

To Sydney, to Sydney for ever, 


Of the following Carrobaree song he could not give the 
meaning. It may serve to illustrate their ideas of metre. 

Ibiruna ibaigfluni 

l^uranindhul mindhuloni 
Bugagudi nunmunnunm\ira 
Ijjei gurri 

The Bora. 

In 1862 Mr. Honery was present at a Bora held between the 
Barwon and the lower part of the Castlereagh River. He was a 
boy at the time, and is one of the very few Europeans who have 
been allowed to witness the mysteries of the initiation. There 
was a place cleared and surrounded with bushes laid as a fence, 
like a sheep yard. Within were three old men. About twelve 
youths were to be " made men ; " they had been for seven or 
eight months compelled to eat only one kind of food. When 
they came to the outside of the yard, at the conmiand of the 
old men they lay flat upon their faces, and were covered with a 
cloak. Then two of the old men came outside, the third 
remaining within. 

T 2 

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252 Australian Langtuigea arid Traditions^ 

The youths were called up, one at a time. Each youth, as he 
came up, leapt over the fence, and took up a piece of string 
with a bit of wood at the end, which he whirled round with a 
whizzing noise three times. He then jumped out, and another 
jumped in. While one was inside, the others remained lying on 
the ground, with their heads covered, and as soon as one came 
out, he fell on his face, and was covered up again. 

A w$dc after this preliminary ceremony, the old men all 
went inside, and called in the youths one at a time. As each 
came in they flogged him as hard as they could with a strip of 
bark 2 feet long and 6 or 8 inches wide. Then, with two 
Btones, one used as a peg, the other as a hammer, they broke off 
and knocked out one of his front teeth, leaving the roots of the 
tooth in his jaw. All this time the young man uttered not a 
sound. He went out, and hid his head as before ; and another 
came in to undergo the same process. For the next four days 
they were allowed to eat nothing but a very little bit of 
opossum. They were closely watched by the old men, to 
prevent their rambling about and perchance getting food con- 
trary to law. At the end of four days, they were brought, one 
by one, into the enclosure, and were compelled to eat the 
excrement of old women mixed with " tao " (the root of a plant 
called pigwood), in basins of bark. 

This revolting ceremony has been often ascribed to the 
blacks ; some of them have strenuously denied the truth of the 
charge. I have no reason to doubt the truth of Mr. Honery's 
statement, though he is the only person who has told me that 
he saw it done. It may be a partial custom, limited to a few of 
the most degraded tribes. Coupled with flagellation and the 
knocking out of the tooth, it seems designed to complete the 
proof of manly endurance, as if they required those who aspired 
to the privileges of manhood, to prove their fitness by submitting, 
without a murmur, to the most painful and also the most 
nauseous processes imaginable. 

After these things are done, the young men were turned out, 
but for three or four months were not allowed to come within 
300 yards of a woman. Once in the course of this time, they 
make a great smoke with burning boughs, then the young men 
come up on one side, women at a distance on the other side. 
Then the young men go away for another month or so. At the 
end of that time they meet and take part in a sham fight, which 
completes the long process of initiation. From that time they 
are free to enjoy all the privileges of men; they may eat 
kangaroo, and emu, and may take wives. 

Digitized by 


AustrcUian Langiiages and TradUions, 2S^ 


Besides their tribal names, they have distinctive names founded 
on some personal peculiarity or accident. Thus " Kubbi Tdhuru " 
is called Kuakumboan, another ia " l^uluman " (bald), from the 
bald hill near which he was bom. An " Ippai Tdhiiru '* is called 
Dhinawurai (crooked thigh). A woman "Butha Tahuru," is 
called ''Mugumilla" (blind) ; another woman is " Winuluvurai" 
(ako crooked thigh, in the Burrumbinya language) ; another is 
" Wullubungabia " (grey-headed). A *' Muiri " who is a king is 
called " DinabukuL 


Tribes seek to increase their numbers by accessions from other 
tribes. They steal children from other tribes ; and treat these 
adopted children very well If an adult blackfeUow runs away 
from his own tribe and seeks to join another, the young men of 
that tribe will try to kill him ; but if the old men are present 
when he comes up, they will restrain the young men from attack- 
ing him, and will receive him kindly. 

They practice barter ; one man makes boomerangs for others, 
another makes spears, another opossum rugs ; everything bears 
its maker's mark ; there are curved, zigzag, and diamond-shaped 
marks. Such exchanges take place as an opossum rug for a 
spear, a fishing net for a boomerang, &c. They had no fish- 
hooks before the whites came. 

Betrothal and Marmage. 

When a girl is bom, she is at once given by the father or mother 
to some man, to be his wife in due time. It is common for old 
men to get young girls for wives, and for old women to become 
wives to young men. Some yoimg men never live with any 
woman. A man often gets wives, by flighting, from another tribe. 

Funeral Rites, 

They make great wailing over the dead, and sometimes keep up 
the nightly wail for a brother or sister, for years. Both men 
and women plaster their heads over with mud or pipeclay, and 
then cut themselves with tomahawks. At the funeral they 
dress up in different styles, some with head-dressea When a 
fat man dies, they put his body up in a forked tree, and catch 
the fat dropping from him to anoint themselves; this they 

Digitized by 


254 Australian Languages and Traditions. 

suppose makes them partakers of his former health and strength. 
When the fat has been drawn ofiP, they take the body down, and 
sometimes carry it about for years. They eat the heart and 
liver of the dead, in order to appropriate his virtue. They never 
eat a man because of enmity. 

They bury most of their dead in round or oblong graves. 
There are burial-groimds where there are hundreds of graves. 
The Kamilaroi tribes cut figures on the trees round the graves 
as memorials of the dead. 


When white men first came to the Barwon, the blacks were 
most amazed at the bullock drays. They thought the chains 
were tied round the bullocks' legs, not understanding the use of 
the yokes. They called them " wunda," and tried to kill them, 
as evil spirits. When the whites fired their guns at them, they 
ran up to the mouths of the guns to stop the smoke from com- 
ing out, and several of them were shot dead. That was at 

After that, they watched the white men to kill them. The 
first whom they killed was caught by them while milking the 
cows. They stuck up his body on three spears, cut him with 
glass bottles, found at the station, and mutilated him horribly, 

Dhinabukul, a king, was a native of the Bree ; he was very 
bold, and became powerful After the white people came, he 
was very friendly with them. He sought their favour, and 
killed any black feUow whom they wished to get rid of. 

(End of Mr, Honerj/s Statement.) 

Digitized by 


Australian Languages and Traditions. 255 

The Aborigines on the Page and the Isis. 

Near the junction of the rivers Page and Isis, tributaries of the 
Hunter, not far from the town of Aberdeen, Mr. Macdonald, a 
squatter of the place, showed me the spot where the blacks held 
their boras. It was in a pleasant glen at the foot of one of the 
highest hills in the neighbourhood. On the ground is the rude 
figure of a man, formed by laying down sticks of wood and 
covering them with earth, so as to raise it from 4 to 7 inches 
above the level of the ground. It is 22 feet long, 12 feet wide 
from hand to hand, and of the shape here given, ^ 1. 

Fig. 1. 

While the young men are waiting the ordeal of the bora, they 
are made to lie flat on the ground upon their faces, in the 
lK)8ition of this figure. Near by is a tree bent, as is not imcom- 
mon in this coimtry, so as to be almost horizontal for some 10 
feet, about 5 feet above the ground, down a branch and along the 
trunk of which the blacks have cut marks like the foot-prints 
of an emiL When a bora is held, a stuffed emu is carried along 
this tree, cleverly, so as to appear like a living one, and then 
walks round the company, along a raised path about 150 yards 
in circumference. In the centre is a large fire, roimd about 
which they dance. 

The young men are initiated at the age of 16 or 17. There 
is no knocking out of a tooth in this part of the country, nor 
any such revolting process as that mentioned by Mr. Honery as 
practised among the Wailwun tribe. But there is an ordeal of 
pain. They say that on these occasions their god comes down 
by a tree, and makes a great noise, and tosses the candidates for 
initiation up into the air to test them, and if they are bad he tears 
them to pieces. Hound about this place, for a considerable 
distance, are about one or a hundred and twenty trees marked 

Digitized by 



Avstralian Langiiages and Traditions, 

with tomahawks as in the subjoined sketch ; fig. 2 is 18 inches 
in diameter. There are many trees marked exactly in this way ; 
on some the marks reach as high as 15 feet above the ground ; 
fig. 3 is 2 feet 6 inches in diameter ; figs. 4 and 5 are different 
sides of the tree, about 4 feet. 

Fig. 2, 

Fig. 8. 

Fig. 4. 

Fig. 5. 


When a man wants to get a wife, he goes to a camp 
where there are men and women, and throws in a boomerang. If 
it is not thrown back at him, he walks in quietly and takes a 
wife ; if a boomerang is thrown at him, he has to fight Sorcerers. 
Their Krodjis profess to drive away rain by taking a large 
cinder out of the fire and beating it with a stick till it flies to 
pieces ; they then gather round it and shout " cooey." When 
any one is sick, the Krodjis come around him and sing ; they 
also burn the dung of kangaroos and lay it burning hot on 
wounds. They seek information in dreams, sleeping with their 
heads under logs. 


If a man steals anything the tribe kill him. If a man 
murders any one, they believe the murderer will pine away 
and soon die. 


In order to bury the dead, they dig a round hole like 
a weU. They make a fire in this hole, and when it is burnt 
out, they carefully sweep up the ashes on a piece of bark and 
throw them out. When they put the dead in the hole, in a 
sitting posture, whatever belongs to him (spears, boomerangs, 

Digitized by 


Avstralian Languages and Traditions, 257 

opossum rugs, &c.) is buried with him. They lay large logs 
across the top of the grave, level with the ground, and roof 
them over with bark, on which they raise a mound of earth. 
They carve serpentine lines on two trees, to the north-west of 
the grave. They say black will rise up white fellows. 


They speak " Kamilaroi," varying slightly from that of 
the Namoi and Barwon. Here is a song sung at their Corrobarees. 

Murrab a dai, biinmilde 
pa dinga dingai 
Duon dimi woldina 
Gulir bain de ye 

"Bulimardyi" is something sacred; "Wunda" something 


The deity who comes down at their " Bora " is very good 
and very powerfuL He is very ancient, but never gets 
older. He saves them by his strength. He can pull trees 
up by the roots, and remove mountains. If anything attacks 
them he tears it to pieces. 

The origin of the rivers was thus : — Some black fellows were 
very thirsty, looking for water ; and coming to a tree with a 
gulagur (opossum's hole), cut it with a tomahawk ; on which 
rivers flowed from it. 

The white cockatoo was formed thus ::— A piece of white 
bark was taken from a tree and thrown up, while in the air it 
was turned into a cockatoo. 

They tell of a chief who sent out some of his people to strip 
bark. They came back, and told him they could not get any. 
These men had broken the laws, and for their sin a terrible 
storm came down upon them. The chief took his tomahawk 
and stripped off a sheet of bark, and told them to get under it. 
They said it was not large enough. He stretched it each way, 
malang it longer and broader. Then getting them under it, he 
threw it down, and killed them all. Another chief lived in a 
cave, and kept a dog. 

Original Home of the Murri. 

The aborigines here say their fathers came long long ago from 
the north-west This is the tradition told on the Barwon, 300 

Digitized by 


258 Australian Langv/ages and Traditions, 

mQes westward, and remarkably corresponds with the statement 
of Andrew Hume, that the blacks near the north-west coast of 
Australia say the first men who ever came to this continent, 
landed on that coast, and that the righteous and prevailing part 
of the population, afterwards drove away a multitude of 
offenders against their sacred law towards the south-east. 

(End of Mr, ifcDonald^s information,) 


Language of the Aborigines of George's River, Cowpasture 
and Appin, that is from Botany Bay, 50 miles to the south-west 
(From Mr. John Rowley, of Scone, formerly resident on Cook's 
River, near G^oi^'s River, son of Lieutenant Rowley.) 

Black man, dullai [duggai is a Husband, moUimii). 

man at Moreton Bay.] Wife, jinmai). 

Black woman, wirawi. Brother, bobbina. 

White man, jib agulay or jib- Sister, bunnis * or wiap. 

bagulop. Brother-in-law, jumbL 

Boy, wongra, or wangena, or Sister-in-law, jumbip. 

wuni)ara. Comrade, mittigar. 

Girl, wSrowi Head, kobra, or kobbera. 

Forehead, kobina. Rain, wallan. 

Eye, mai Thunder, murongal. 

Nose, nogra. Frost or snow, talara. 

Mouth, midyea midge, or burra. Grass, durawi. 
Teeth, torra or terra. House or hut, gunyu. 

Ear, kurra. Ship, murri noo-L 

Breast, nabuz. DriLk, wittama. 

Stomach, bindi. Victuals, kamdo. 

Arm, minnig. Spear (small), diiaL 

Hand, buril. Fish spear (with prongs), muttig. 

Finger, berriL Boomerang, biimarin. 

L^, mundowo, or muirdao-L Shield, hefiman or hilamun. 
Semen, nallun. Throwing stick (to throw spears), 

Coition, nutta. w8mm. 

Cloaca, gunara. Net, rao-roa. 

Deaf, kiirabiindi. Black duck, yuranp. 

Having bad eyes, kiijamai. Hawd, biinda. 

* The 8 here must, I think, be a mistake. Nowhere in Australia hare I heard 
the sound s in any aboriginal word. The sound of dj (in hidjard) approaching 
to j, or g in Boger, is sometimes mistaken for s, so is rr. I regret to saT 
Mr. Bowleg left shortly before I receired his collection of words, so that I 
could not consult him on the point. 

Digitized by 


AiiStralian Languages <vnd Traditions. 


Kangaroo, borru. 

„ (old man), kao 

Kangaroo (mountain K.), wolaril 
„ (black brush), wolaba. 
(red), gorea. 
Horse, yaraman (from "yara," 

throw fast). 
Homed cattle, kumbakuluk. 
Sheep, jimbuk. 

Eock kangaroo, wirine or wirain. 
Kangaroo rat, kami)im. 
Native bear, kula. 
Namesake, damolai or damilL 
Stranger, mai-aL 
Father, biana. 
Mother, waiana. 
Child (baby), gurp. 
Doctor (sorcerer), karraji. 
Foot, tunna. 
Urethra, wingi. 
Testicle, kulga. 
Buttocks, biltra. 
Emus, buna or quimara. 
Pudendum midiebre mundifi. 
Menstrual period, mulamiindra. 
To make water, jilabbi 
Big-bellied, bincfimari. 
Stanunering, kurukabundL 
One-eyed, wogulmai. 
Emu, birribain, or birabain, or 

Blue pigeon, wonga wonga. 
Crested pigeon, mirraL 
Green pigeon, baoma. 
Bronze-winged pigeon, gotgag. 
Laughing jackass, kogunda. 
Cockatoo, karabi or karibi 
Sosella parrot, bundeluk. 
Quail, maunlai 
Crow, wargon. 
Hawk, biinda. 
Opossum, wai ali. 
I^g-tailed opossum, bukari. 
Ground bear, wombat. 
Iguana, jindaola. 

Blue shark, eon. 

Groimd shark, quibito. 

Schnapper, wallaml 

Kingfish, wolloguL 

Flathead, kaoari. 

Mullet, worrijaL 

Bream, yerrermurra. 

Blackfish, kururma. 

Black snake, cherribit 

Mosquito, dubip. 

Eel, burra. 

Oyster, bifctongi. 

Mud oyster, denya. 

Fish, mogra. 

Lightning, mangamanga. 

Ewth or groimd, bimmall. 

Wind, gura. 

Canoe, naoi. 

Club (large headed), nuUanulla. 

Club, woddi (waddy). 

Spear, karmai 

Path or road, muril 

Hill, bulga. 

Back, gili. 

Humpback, bulga-gili. 

Stone hatchet, mogo. 

Knot of a tree hmlowed out to 

hold water, colSmin. 
Oar, narrawan. 
Gun, jererburra^ 
Smoke, kudjeL 
Sore, boil, biika. 
Itch, gaibalL 
Flyblows, tullibilog. 
Opossum rug, budbilli. 
Egg, carbin. 
BlS:)d, mula. 
Paper (called from the inner 

bark of the tea tree, which 

resembles paper), kurunderup 

or kurundulup. 
Bubrush, woUogolin. 
Cooking, kuninma. 
Name, nante. 
Pity or sympathy, mudjevQ. 

Digitized by 


260 Australian Lcmgwouges and Traditions, 

Dog, jungho or dinga Hoarseness (in speaking), kurak 

Pig, tarra mue. ' a bundi 

Sun, keun, kjnin, or yiluk. Ceremony of knocking the front 

Moon, julluk. tooth, yella bl daiSlog. 

Stars, kimberwalli Disease like smallpox, which 

Morning, winbin. carried off many before the 

Night or darkness, minni colony was settled, gul guL 

Water, bardo, or nijog or naijig. Bmshf (thick wood), tuga. 
Fire, goyog* Scrub (thick wood), jerematta. 

Sea, burrawaL South wind, tugra gora. 

Dust (flour, &c.), duria or dirir. North wind, yurokaj gSra. 


I, naiya. We, jumna. 

You, nindL That, mungan. 


Hot, yiiruka (used also for north Two, bulla (the universal Aus- 

and on the Barwon yuroka = tralian root). 

sun). Three, bulla waigul (two-one). 

Cold, tugra (used also for south), or (1) wagul, (2) buler or 
Large, murri, or marri (this word blaveri, (3) blaoeriwagul, (4) 

means great all over Eastern blaoeriblaoerL 

Australia. Four, buUabulla. 

Small, narag. Five, buUubullawarguL 

Good, Budjeiy. Old, kaoaU or kaiun. 

Bad, weri Young, muddi. 

Brave, muttog. Afraid, jerron. 

Deaf, kurakubunnL Greedy, tulliz nug. 

Bald (on the head), kombrukno. Fat, goral 
Stupid, bimup-garai Lean, wararg. 

Angry, kulara. Stinking, kuji (coogee, or bad 

Toothless, tarrabundi. generally). 

Grey-headed, warringi kobbera. Near-sight^ (bad eyes), kuji 
One, wargul (at Newcastle, mai 

wakol). Cross-eyed, kuragain. 

• Gk)yofi, fire, is the same root as " koijung " at Newcastle, " kaijtin " and 
" kadan " at Moretjon Bay. 

t ** Brash " is genoraUj about a wateroourse, the underwood is rery thick and 
dark, yines load the branches of trees. " Scrub" is a drier and less luxuriant 

X *' Turoka** means " sun " on the Barwon. The sun is north, not mid-day^ 

Digitized by 


Australian Langtiages and Traditions. 



To give, toga 

To steal, karama. 

To fight, durella. 

To throw, yanah. 

To cry, yunga. 

To laugh, winna. 

To shout (coowhee), kumba. 

To tell (make known), paialla. 

To fish, mogra. 

To hunt, wolbunga. 

To sleep, nangri. 

To dance, korrobra. 

To sing, beria. 

To die, boi (this root is found at 

Moreton Bay). 
To take^ mahan. 
To strike, paibao. 

To bum, kunnet. 

To swim, bogi. 

To drive, naUa bogi. 

To hide, tua billL 

Look out (beware), quark quark. 

Stop here, wallawa. 

Sit down, nallawilli. 

To go, yan (common root). 

Let us go, nalla yan. 

To squint, kuragaine or kurgain. 

Make haste, barrao (in Kami- 

laroi, barai). 
To spear, turret. 
Come here, quai bidja. 
Eun away, whii kamdi 
Come, quai. 
Eun, wu. 


No, bel or beal. 
Far away, warawara. 
Close by, winnima. 
Bye-and-bye, karbo* 

Yes, yuin. 
Where, buwut. 
Here, bija. 
Away, loiundi. 


Tell me your name, paialla gaia nanti. 

Your brother, mindi (or pindi) bobina, 

My brother, nyah (or gdia) bobina. 

Strike me, paibao gaia. 

The baby is burnt, make haste gurug, kunut, kuai, bija. 

A hunting song about Wallaby, bandicoot, rock kangaroo, 
bush, rat, bear, and blue pigeon. 

Wolba, wolba minya munde 
Agawe y kole birog 
Mute mutte wire 

Wuggor, wuggor 
Kolle, mirog 

Ato, mute 

Digitized by 



Australian LangtMtffa and Traditions. 


Female children are betrothed as soon as they are bom ; and 
from that time the future son-in-law must x>ever look at his 
destined mother-in-law. 

During the menstrual period, women are most careful to 
seclude themselves, sleeping at a separate fire, and in any way 
avoiding association of others. The karadji or doctor, when 
called to the sick, warms his own foot, and then presses it on 
the sick, where the pain is felt. 

(End c^ Mr. BowUifs information,) 

Specimens of the language of the extinct Sydney Tride (from 
John Malone, a half-casle, whose mother was of that tribe). 

Father, babunna. 

Mother, guburp. 

Child, chagug. 

Son, babup. 

Daughter, ^djerug. 

Sister, midjan or mitjun. 

Your father's .children, babmun- 

Your are mine (my daughter), 

Old man^ bangui). 
Old woman, miilda. 
Water, bahi. 
Fire, wS. 
Head, kabura. 
Eyes, me. 
Nose, nugulbundi. 
Mouth, kommi 
Tongue, tullug. 
Hand, nurramuL 
Knee, pumug. 
Foot, dunna. 
Kangaroo, burral. 

Food, dunmigup. 

Night, purra. 

Sun, wirri 

Simshine, wiripgulla or wirip 

One, wakuL 
Two, wakulwakuL* 
Three, dugul 
Ground, murrup. 
Dog, jugup. 
Magpie, gurugup. 
Crow, metiba. 
Duck, kundyeri 
Black-snake, yupga. 
Deaf-adder, nyambutsh. 
Hut, kurya. 
Creek, turagup. 
Sand, wetyut. 
Grass, bumbur. 
Wind, kiimguma. 
Boat, yeenera or bulinjup. 
For a wiirugul 
(Jood, kuller. 

• ThiB mtut be a subfltitute fo^ a forgotten bftlSr, Or some sooh word. 

Digitized by 


Australian Languages and Traditions. 2G3 

Opossum, kuruera. Bad, wirra. 

Sky, dulk». Large, kainn. 

Sea, kulgura. Small, murriiwiilug. 

Eain, bunna. Red and yellow, kubar. 

Clouds, kurru. White, tibuira. 

Smoke, kurujgery. Black, punda. 

Dew, kibir. 

I see a kangaroo, gandagu burru. 

Where, wutta. 

There he is, go, go, ga guUai. 

He has caught some schnapper, manma wulimai. 

He killed a snake, bunma munda. 

Run, come here, quick, clawa, ye, ye chobug. 

Go away, take the dog away, yunda gaindina mirrigug. 

Bring it here again, gaigulug ga mirrigug. 

Give me some water, binigug batu. 

I will give you some water, gai gai pindwagug biitu. 

Over the river, wagu yanbagal. 

You must, no ! gindigug mulli, meira. 

What do you want, mistress ? unijeioinbi munkd ? 

What are you looking sulky for ? punmakuno wottowiye ? 

You mxist be so disagreeable, gullai rumka wirimigunin. 

Our father here will pray for us, kur aguluk tualene. 

He brought his sister home, gaigulai ia mitjungun. 


The Language of Illawarra. 

(l^m Lizzie, a half-caste, whose mother was a Shoalhaven, 
aboriginal, and who is now the wife of John Malone). 

The language formerly spoken from Port Jackson to 
WoUongong was called " Turawal ; " that spoken from thence to 
the Shoalhaven River, " Wodiwodi*' 

God, MirriruL Sky, mirir. 

Spirit or ghost, guun. Cloud, kurru. 

White man, jiruggalug. Ground, murug. 

Old man, buggun. Water, gaitgug. 

Yoxmg man, yurug or baglug. Fire, kanbi. 

Young woman, yirawiug. Sun, bukurug or wurrL 

Chin, wulliL Moon, tedjug. 

Teeth, irra. Stars, jinjinuurug (sparkling). 

Ear, kiiTi. Venus, burara. 

Hair,jirra, Sirius, kurumul. 

Digitized by 



Atistralian Langtcages and Trdditions, . 

Tongue, tullun. 

Throat, kuru. 

Head, wollar or wullar. 

Forehead, i)idu (same in Kami- 

Eyes, mobura or mer. 

Nose, nuggur. 

Mouth, kommi. 

Child, kudjaguz. 

Liitle child, murra kaii)gug. 

Boy, bunbari. 

Shoulder, kogo. 

Arm, murrui). 

Hand, murramur. (This root 
all over the east of Aus- 

Thigh, turra. (A still more 
extended root in the forms^ 
durra, durrup, &c.) 

Nails, birrii)ul or bimup* 

Knee, pummu. 

L^ (calf), gurri 

Kangaroo, bOrru. 

Opossum, kuraora. 

Black-snake, mundar. 

Cockatoo, yambaiimba. 

Dog, mirigug. 

Diamond-snake, mokka. 

Pelican, kuruguba. 

Iguana, gindaola. 

lizard (small), dillug. 

Fish, dun. 

Pleiades, mullamullug. 
Sea, gurrowun, or kaiug. 
Bain, bunna, or ySwi 
Foot, dunna. 
Emu, biribain. 
Top-knot pigeon, guralga. 
Laughing jackass, kukara. 
Padymelon, buluwa. 
Brown-snake, gubatag. 
Black cockatoo, gaoara. 
Horse, yaraman. 
Deaf-adder, mujuwich. 
Native companion, guradawak. 
Pigeon, wongawonga. 
Smoke, kuruggurig. 
Canoe, yamera or mudyeri. 
Tree, kiindu. 
Bark, kuninda« 

Hut, kimdi, or gurnl. 
Road, yo-wug. 
Spear, maiagug. 
Fish-spear, kullar. 
Boomerang, wuragaig. 
Tea tree, banban. 
Iron-bark tree, barima. 
Swamp oak, mumbara. 
Forest oak, wiralug. 
Honey suckle, kdrija. 
Pigeon-berry, wulugunda. 


Good, nukkiig. 

Bad, buUin. 

Large, kaiyug. 

Small, muruwailug or murragug 

Alive, murungulla (moron or 

murun in KamilaroL) 
Dead, bulier or bulyar. 
Awake, baitba. 
Asleep, nuggun. 
One, mittug, or middug. 
Two, bular. 

Six, WowuUi bo wowulli. 
Seven, wowulli bo wowulli mit- 
White, taoerug or jirug. 
Black, gundur. 
Blue, gundur. 

Red, wurugurug or gurugurug. 
Green, nuringurug. 
Grey, yeruggada. 
Hot, bukurig. 
Cold, maug. 

Digitized by 


Australian Langttages and Traditions, 265 

Three, wowulli. High, or far, worri. 

Four, bularbular. True, kubya. 

Five, bularbular bo mittug. False, murui. 


Speak, kamup. Eun, jowu. 

Beat, bulmugan. Make run (causative), jomunja. 

Leave ofif, nawalinna. Go down, irriba. 

lift up, kaitbaya. Throw down, yurrer. 

Jump up, baitba. Lie down, muzgui>. 

Sing, yuzgamup. 


I, gaiagup. He, dulla. 

We, ni^up. That one, naiadulla. 

You, pindjgui). 


Yes, pe. Here, yai. 

No, naiyup. 


Sit down quietly, puUari jungiri. 

Take them, mundanaia. 

Go and play, yimda waipiri 

Come here, yai yunmalup. 

Don't iight, play quietly, junbunya warpri. 

Gro away, yundanaia warityuip. 

Let us go, nilgup yurriniup, or nilgup. 

I like you, gidlenmigun. 

I am glad, muiye pe. 

I am sorry, purrumbaipe. 

Give me a (kink, wundumaia pummi. 

Give me some food, dunmun (fieri. 

I hate you, kunnundigui or wiminmigun. 

I will tell you the truth, putbai egu. 

He will come soon, yunula nulimun. 

He stayed a long time, dimup alle. 


They say that "Mirrirul" made all things. Their old men 
have told them that there is, beyond death, a large tree, on 
which Mirrirul stands to receive them when they die. The 
good he takes up to the sky, the bad he sends to another place 

VOL. vii. u 

Digitized by 


266 Australian Langttages and Traditions. 

to be punished. Mrs. Malone remembers when a Kttle child, 
hearing the women in the camp say to disobedient children, to 
deter them from being naughty, Mirrirul wirrin munip, 
Mirrirul will not allow it. 

A Vision. 

Mrs. Malone's aunt, her mother's sister, a pure aboriginal, 
was once in a trance for three days. At the end of that 
time her brother or husband (Mrs. Malone's uncle) let off a 
gun ; on which she awoke out of the trance. She then told 
them she had seen a long path, with fire on both sides of it. 
At the end of this path stood her father and mother, waiting 
for her. As she went on, they said to her, " Mary Ann, what 
brought you here ? " she said, " I don't know, I was dead." Her 
mother said to her, " you go back" She saw it all quite plain. 

Notes from Dr. Creed, M.L.A., of Scone, on the Aborigines of 
^Ae North Coast. 

Dr. Creed accompanied the expedition round the North Coast 
of Australia, in the steamer " Eagle," in 1867, and has furnished 
the following information concerning the aborigines. 

Cape York. 

The natives at Cape York call themselves Gudag* Westward 
of that tribe are the Kokiliga ; south-west of the Gudag are 
the Ondaima; and due south, are the Yaldaigan, who have 
almost exterminated the Gudag. 

AU these tribes have canoes with outriggers, which they have 
obtained by barter, from the islanders between Australia and 
New Guinea. Each canoe is cut out of one log of wood, then 
one side is heightened by a board sewed on with strips of cane, 
(rattan). These people have no boomerangs. Their weapons 
are spears, some heavy wooden spears, others light, made of reeds 
and thrown by means of the woomera (throwing stick). The 
Gudap fish for turtle by means of spears with laige bulky 
shafts. When the spear is driven into the turtle, the shaft, 
being of small specific gravity, floats on the surface. It is 

Digitized by 


Australian Languages and Traditions, 267 

connected by a rope of twisted bark with the spike. They 
also catch turtle with a noosed rope. They dive and catch hold 
of a flapper of the turtle, slip the noose over it and drag the 
turtle to shore. They also employ a remora for this purpose. 
Having made fast a Ime to the tail of the remora, they let him 
go among the turtles. He makes direct for a turtle, and fastens 
upon it by the suckers on the back of his head The men then 
draw in the line, and secure their prey. 

The Gudag wear no clothes, but on their heads they have 
wigs. They smoke a herb that grows there, with bamboo pipes 
obtained from the islands. They consider it a greater injury to 
be struck than to be killed. The first disturbance with the 
natives at Cape York arose from the flogging of a black feUow 
who had been caught stealing. And when Mr. Jardine, P.M., 
proposed to flog a boy who had behaved iU, the boy's father 
said, not from want of affection, but from abhorrence of the 
indignity of a flogging, " No, but kill him." 

Tte Korariga, the people who inhabit the Prince of Wales 
Island, north of Cape York, use bows and arrows, which they 
obtain by barter from islands further nortL The Korariga had 
a European living with them for twenty years. He is supposed 
to be a Frenchman. He made fish-hooks for them with iron 
obtained from wrecks. The Gudag have spears made with a 
piece of bone pointed at both ends, and lashed to the end of the 
shaft, so that one end of the bone forms the point of the spear, 
and the other serves as a barb. When this spear sticks in the 
flesh, the heat melts the gum upon the lashing, and loosens the 
bone from the shaft, so that the bone is left in the flesh. 

There is no cultivation at all on the mainland of Australia, 
nor on any of the islands this side of Warrior Island, near the 
coast of New Guinea. The people live chiefly on yams and fish. 
The Malays come down with the beginning of the N.W. mon- 
soon in December, to the Australian coast for trepang, and 
return in March by the S.E. trade wind. There is some barter 
between them and the natives. The party in the "Eagle," 
found at Cadell's Straits, an Australian black fellow, who had 
been with the Malays to the Dutch Colony in Java. Many of 
the people along the coast have iron tomahawks, obtained from 
the Malays, some have also spear heads of iron. One came off 
to the ship with tortoiseshell for sale ; they also offered yoimg 
women for sale, as if they had been so many kangaroos. On 
the Bligh River, three or four hundred blacks came swimming 
and wading towards the " Eagle ; " when the steam-whistle was 
sounded they were cowed, dived and retreated, but after a while 
one old man came to them, offering them twelve young girls of 
16 or 17 years. Some of the men in several tribes were 


Digitized by 


268 Australian LaTiguages arid Traditions. 

circumcised, but in no tribe was the practice general. Even as 
to knocking out the front tooth, a thoroughly Australian rite, 
there were many exceptions. In summer they use no hats. 
In winter they make huts of sheets of bark, about 30 feet long 
and 6 to 8 feet wide. Inside one of the huts, Dr. Creed saw, 
drawn on the bark with charcoal, figures of animals, and of 
guns, the latter designed evidently to convey to other blacks an 
idea of the weapons carried by the white men. At one place 
they found platforms about 8 feet high, made of saplings, for 
sleeping on. On some parts of the coast they make canoes of 
pieces of bark sewed up at the ends, and kept in shape by a 
frame-work of sticks inside. But the canoes in general use are 
obtained from the Malays, and have keels. 

They make weirs of stakes to catch fish. Besides several species 
of the finny tribes, they catch crabs, and get oysters. Yams 
are their staple vegetable food ; they also eat the root of a water- 
lily (nymphaea). At Cape York they eat turtles and turtles' eggs. 
Tobacco, for smoking, has been introduced among them by Malays. 

They are very careful of the blind, of whom there are many. 
These they supply with abundance of the best food, and lead 
about with gi-eatj attention. The dead are buried, in some cases 
at all events, in clefts of the rocks. 

On the Roper River they saw a conical-shaped hut, 8 feet 
high, thatched with grass, there was nothing inside. The blacks 
there told them that there was a white man, with a very long 
beard, living thereabouts, who was then gone a fishing. Dr. 
Creed received from them a spear-head, wrapped carefully in 
native canvas. They told him any one pricked with this would 
siu^ly die. Some of the people there were pitted with marks 
as if of smallpox. 

The man who seemed to have chief authority on the liver- 
pool River, was KalTIT, a young man, and a splendid mimic. 

The people on Sweer*s Isknd and on Bentinck Island, are 
stunted in growth, and wretched in appearance. They have no 

In the hope that these fragmentary illustrations of the speech 
and thoughts and ways of the ancient race of Murri may be 
deemed an acceptable contribution to the materials of Anthropo- 
logical science, I place them at your disposal 

I have, &c., 

Paddington, Sydney, WILLIAM RIDLEY, M.A 

2\st July, 1873. 

Digitized by 


Australian Langvuges and Traditions. 269 

Copy of further Communication from Mr. Mackenzie;. 


Wenkin yanilla marumbulingo ; "kuri maundtharulinga, 
wurrumbra ; marum minamiigolo, thunnumbamnyidtha." " Ji ! 
birikiilumbra yenna. MigSi, mipali, mipSli, mara, mara, 

"luanga nenjiwata, weritbumaraggiana Pullir yabunyarimal- 
laoramarumburai. PQlinda Ttn'm'Uft mara braganga, tethungajkiiro 
mundala. Niingailaora naiagagguli jiga ! " '* Wanjawan juagga 
gubija gaiui) indigapguti ! " Niingailaora ; ithungro, kiinambiilo 
Uialolo, thogunko Niingailaora, ah, ah, ah, ah ! Navainyella Gua- 
yaminji yetndthavalolo "Wurrin nun^na, yandthaoga Purri- 
Imaiguna yauQa yakupa Guayaminya, yammbula waung&la 
meriraji, nyambala thogun yenna "Kawai-i; Guayamin 
wurrija-nya," "Karrindthabatdlawa wurrumbra nyello yuin, 
wenkin, wurrin, miriga, pijur. Minimbara no mundabain, 
pairinidtha, minimbanla yakiiga yuin kummai, mundabain 
kullara, kiijuro, minimburabuiUa yakCipa Bingala wenkin, yuin, 
wurrin, pijur Minailulo wurrumbra, waukurara thokaialulo, 
imniguro yunambarila yanila yakiiga Hulalawa yakuga, munda- 
bain jer^awa banda kunamulawa, kutara kulalawa. Ya 
paialla Guayamin "tungurkurri, kulitkurriwa kurkurriwa." 
Ilimbarilyana birimburra kiilaliyena yuinji, wunnumbulilawa 
Nagamrarai Karugambila Guayamin " mudjerya bunguthitha ! " 
Mudjeri tharatkila ! nya, nya, nya, " Yai, yai, yai ! wir, 
wir! bukara yenana. Wurragainji gawavgun, kurawunda, 
purrinji pa gidiai" Bungathilla yakuga, purilla wunnamila 
yakuga, wurri wurrigalwala. "Nadjinkaila mudjeri kana, 
purapimyilluga, miiriikaiali " gamadtha kiirawunda, giilai 
purrainji. "Ya paiallina," guragunjawe nyima yenawuka 
" YenaUa yakuga wurri thavali thogun dunno. lirapurilla 
nummo yamla thogunda. Nunnaridtha jiamiino yandthaonid- 
tha gaianji, mimijambramimmo jirapurikolo" "Migai mumij- 
ambra yendthanolo, numma gaiir baowerigo jirapulolo." Holi 
Yanilla wurri gaiamo, nyulla," Wudthaoro imdaji?" Minilla 
karuga " Thukaia jimbalumna ; mudbo nyerra g\mdi, gundi ! 
kalitbimdtha laora nyi murrilaora gundi Mimnibarila yakuga 
Guayamin wurragainji "Pulla, pulla, pulla, pulla! Bingala 
bauwerino, jump Yabumbililla mulidthaggana. Mithunathaln 
yarrurikula, yanaila Guayamin thogumkunno. Nangai la wanda, 
Kurungambila mundijanbaraono. Thunnumbarinabagugga, 
Eh nangaiuga ithullabumbatijaluiloga/' 

J jiamamiilawa kuruyi banda "Ya pukerig-mya makuUa 

Digitized by 


270 Australian Langtuiges and Traditions, 

Yellibunila yakuna, kunaiala maiyur" A-a-ai, ban kunana 
kuwai ! " Kutthila yakupa Guayamin, milidthu minilla ban 
irinula yakimji kunilla yakai, yakai, yakai, yakai I thiinnadtha, 
joali kunnaiwoniga warranoga." Warrailamunya mana wurrin- 
burritbundthimbula yakunyo waori kaiadtha banda knna- 


A woman went to fish. " My two boys, wait for me at the 
rock, ril catch you fish. We'll eat them." 

" There are two yellow-tails for us, our mother has got fish. 
This fish is mine, we'll play with them." 

The fish slipped out of their hands. The younger took the 
fish, the elder took it away. They began to cry; " that's my fish ; " 
"no, that's yours, the little one." They cried. Their mother 
took them to the camp. They cried all day. Guayamin came 
for them. Children are crying. I must go to Purrilmai. 
Guayamin went all the way. He rose up on top of the hiU, 
looked down on the camp. " Oh dear ! there's Guayamin." 
They covered up the children with men, women, children, dogs, 
cloaks ; brought tomahawks to kill Guayamin, brought spears, 
tomahawks, fish-spears, clubs, they brought all these. He 
threw to one side women, men, children, doaks. He got the 
two boys, put them in the net, lifted them on his shoulder, 
went away with them. They tried to spear him, cut him with 
tomahawks, bum him with firesticks, pierce him with the fish- 
spear. Guayamin said, "All your weapons break, all your 
spears." They took a band of warriors, left him at Nagannarai 
(Crookhaven heads). Guayamin called out, " bring the canoe." 
" The canoe has a hole in it, look I look 1 look ! " " Come ! come ! 
come ! make haste ! make haste ! the sun is going down. I'll 
give you boomerang, necklace, waist-tasselfl and sash." He 
paddled over to him, he jumped out, he put him across to the 
other side (Guayamin looked round to the canoe). " The canoe 
is dry, we nave come across dry, you told a lie." " Give me the 
necklace, sash, waist-tassels." He said, " you told a falsehood, 
I'm going away." He went right away to his camp. He put 
them upon a nummo, went to the camp. " You two teU my 
mother-in-law to go over there for my two meats. I put them 
on the nummo." " Mother, you go and get the two meats ; your 
son-in-law has put them on the nummo over there." " Ay ! " 
she went away, looked. " Where are they ? " She took the bag, 
"the/re not here, see here, the net! Look! look! they've 
broke it, they've run away." Guayamin took the boomerang. 
This way ! this way ! this way ! this way I " He threw the 
boomerang, the old woman stooped down. He flung once more. 

Digitized by 


Australian Languages and Traditions, 271 

Guayamin went to his camp. They nfiight be asleep. He 
was vexed about the meat." I should like to eat now. Oh 1 I 
must sleep, I*m hungry/' They made a fire right round him. 
It is hot weather, getting summer.'' The fire approaches, 
scorches him. " Oh dear, the fire burns me 1 " Guaymin leapt 
about, pushed away the fire with his shield. " Oh I oh ! oh ! oh ! 
my feet ! they're killing me outright with fire ! I'm dying ! " 
He dies. He would have devoured all the children, only for the 
fire burning him. 
Version by aboriginal of the Jerry Bay tribe. 

Jerra Tharumba Tutawa. 

"Yanaons marupgo, mudgeririwunno, niaga mundijop maia- 
mboga, ma Korugamadatha." "l^aiai!" "Mundija wudtha- 
thungi ? matha l^uriiwoga thungi-Kanoga nyellanji Kailugo. 
Unanji tharinnowa, kolga, imur, worringu, bumbunowa !" Wand* 
thola bukkunda, thunbiila mudjikurug, warri thunganuggo ; 
pindala iimupgo ; minilla kumma, wommir, warri yarillanya ; 
thurranthurra kanijiUi MurrindajaUila, kulitbugiUa kumma, 
bujtoibila iranii-ThubbundtheUa Tutawai ; warri thulibiirunldiro ; 
gujina puUara ; thalibugila wakarup yamudtha !^aiunji-Biinga- 
millala ^^dupunda kimmiawal ; warri kiirara kumma jura-lila; 
jirumbunyila waxri bingala. Thurila Tutawanya, murrundthfla, 
kiindu minamiila, murrundthila, paiiUa kul ! paigula Kobbuj, 
warri wankarrain. Jirrainji biingutbula piinanji; yanillanya 
warri thogundtha-Maiilla, yuinbra ilimburulaora maranji kunnan- 
gai, ^amcJlaorarMaiillowa ; jamiliilii " bungutbiilaga kolga, jiia 
yandthaonyi" "Jakwaialiga, yanaonyi nenjina" "Jin darana 
banyena." Yirimala, l^urumbud-jinula, minillaora bango, igaUa- 
ora, ]|^arinyuga jergallaora, benjinu l^amillaora mariwa Tutawa. 

A Tharumba Story, Tutawa. 

"You go fish, you that have canoes, I look about for meat, for 
there's a westerly wind." " Very well." " Where's the meat ? 
for I'm looking long. I'U try on that flat. There they are 
standing, a buck, a doe, and young one, all three." He crept on 
the ground, went behind the bushes to their foot, rose on his 
knee, took spear and throwing-stick, and threw, speared him in 
the ribs. He bounded away, he broke the spear, the prong stuck 
fast, Tootawa followed far to a little waterhole, too shallow (for the 
kangaroo to take refuge in). He (kangaroo) came out on the 
shore just over there, stooping down. He fitted the spear to the 
wommir, it entered deep into the shoulder, came out at the 
breast. Tootawa stood, went to him, got a stick, went to him, 

Digitized by 


272 Australian Languages and Traditions. 

struck him, whack I struck him dead. He fell on the ground. 
He covered him with bushes and little logs, went away to the 
camp. He sate down, two blacks brought him fish retidy 
cooked, and gave to him. They sate down. He told them 
" I've covered up a buck, we'll go for him." " I'm ready, we'll 
go for him now. You kindle a fire!" They gathered wood, 
lighted a fire. The two held him to the fire and singed him, 
cut oflf the two legs, gave the guts to the game-killer Tootawa. 

Version by Noleman, aboriginal of the Wandandian Tribe. 
Jerra Tharumba. 


Wunna, piiru miniUa wanekundi Tutawanyella ; Kuritja- 
bunjila, ilUla thogunko ; Kunamlmbulilla ! gubija mirigambila ; 
jukundai mummdthila Puliingul; ^arinmadthai, jambinuro 
mundija Kunda bimdilla. " Bu ! Puliingul, l^arinma !^arao- 
undtheL" " Mimdija yandthaono binyaro ! " " l^urawunko bunga- 
iluwa thaorumbrao, Bungaluwa ^urawan, Tutawa pururungala, 
pu-ru-ru-ru-ru. Biithiilala Tutawai thulinyo : thitbulo wakara, 
guia, l^urawan, kurru, Kurugama yanaila ; yaukui)a " Kuwai-ai- 
ai 1 Pulungul ! Kununga-luni yai yaukarag, l^armma Kunnum- 
baithali mundijain-purajain. Ninma bimna, Kuruguma! 
" Bithai-gala KarugandthUla Piilungul," Pulungul, wunnamakoin 
yaowe!" "Bu! indygaga bimdiigan jinna." Pulungul Karambila. 
"Wimnama naruga, wunnama narugaa!" Yamlowa yakuga 
wankao. Yerrimbulo, jeUa, jeUa, jella, jella ; jiik, jiik, jiik, jiik, 
yapoiUa warn wakarain : jeUajellunkawedthu kudjir wurrakain- 
YaowaUi piirapundo, kunyii, bethaigal, pa kuna, pa torn, pa 
munda, pa mara. Jurabawulara birura, birrimbaimin, Jurabai- 
wimnaora mara, numbulo, jeriwan taora yakunjo waoari-Kiimari 
yenna thukia, kaor-BimbiUa purawan Tutawai punyirimula 
kumariwaindo yakunjo waoari, bimira, guia, Ijurawunda, kurru ; 
yibuqdaido yakunjo waoari. 

The oven-hoje, Tootawa brought the kangaroo out of the oven- 
hole, carried it on his shoulder, took it to the camp, roasted it, 
gave a little to his dog, and carried the biggest part to Pooloon- 
gool, brought stinking meat to his father-in-law and brother-in- 
law. " Hush ! Pooloongool, your son-in-law will hear you." 
" Go for meat, bingara." They paddled to the sea, the whole 
party. They paddled to the sea ; Tootawa jumped about with 
rage, jump, jump, jump, jump, Tootawa split his tongue, spate 
the blood west, south, east, and north. The west wind came. 
They said, " Oh, dear, Pooloongool, you must try to get ashore 

Digitized by 


Aiistralian Languages and Traditions. 273 

with us. You said a bad word this morning to your father-in- 
law about the meat. Look at the rain and the wind ! " The 
pelican called out to Pooloongool, " Pooloongool, come here, 111 
put you in my canoe." "Get along! I'll carry you in my 
canoe." Pooloongool was getting drowned. "Put me in the 
canoe, put me in the canoe ! '* Those went to the shore. The 
musk duck bailed the water out of his own canoe, dip, dip, dip, 
dip, drip, drip, drip, drip ; went that way to the shore, flapped 
the lake aU the way. They dived and came up again, the 
black shag, the shag with the white breast. They dive now for 
the fish, they fish, they feed in the water all day long. There 
was no wind in former times, all was c«dm. Tootawa brought 
all that wind that's blowing now all the time from the west, 
south, east, north, it blows now all the while. 

Version by Hugany, aboriginal of the Wandandian Tribe. 
Terra TharOmba. 


Nadjigajop, Murrumbul, Miindtha. 

Yanilla Kolumbri yetbugillawa Kollyaga Mujai; Thogun 
yenna ; yanillawa bunguto ; " nyeminya,-maurro ; iribaoga miri- 
gandtha, wenkinbra, Murnimbul, Mundtha." " Thunnamagali 
kimjawogtupSla ; tukaoga, yanuiga warri thogundtha." Jiga 
yanmjiana warri ; jiga tharar. IjeUa tukaUgga Murrumbula pa 
mugai" ^irilla munduga mungala ; mandtJbilla jirai kumirgu- 
rigo ; minilla mirigano warri punanjiwona ; mijilla jerai tharar ; 
yanilla !burri thogundtha. " Yanaonyi ^iunko weukinbra." 
"Pukerigji, jurabaonyi." Yanillawa wurrigala. "Ma! jura- 
baona ^atenwaUa yaoalia, naiaga tiilunya." Kiilala jerabaddi 
yaoalia !^atenwalla ; jerumbaddi murrilaora merero. Munaora- 
ggarila ; yaoalia yuinyumbiilo Wunbulerila. 

A Tharumba Story. 

WuNBULA. Three stars in a line in the constellation Canis 


The Bat, the Brown Snake, and Black Snake. 

He went away from Colimibri. Passed CoUijaga to Monga 
Camp there, He went to look for wombat. " There it is, you 
stop here. I'll go in with my dog, my women Murrumbul and 
Mundtha." "Our husband makes us tired taking us about, 
we'll shut him up, well go to the camp." That fellow went in 
far ; that fellow came back. *' Those have shut me up, Mur- 

Digitized by 


274 Hyde Cla.bke. — Note on the Australian 

rumbul and Mundtha." He heard the fly buzz, waited for him 
going out at the little hole, took the dog a long way under his 
arm, went outside, went right away to the camp. Let's go for 
ngaium* women. " Its hot, let's bathe." They went close to 
the bank " Come on, let's bathe, you on one side, and you on 
the other, I in the middle." The jerumbaddyl' spear then on 
this side and that. The jerumbaddy were sticking up. They 
went to join the MunouraJ Wunbula their huslwud on the 
other sida 

Version by Noleman, aboriginal of the Wandandian Tribe. 


Colonel A. LAins Fox drew attention to some customs which 
appeared to resemble those of the Andamanese, and also to the 
questions raised upon the discussion which took place on a former 
occasion relating to the use of the bow by the natives of Gape York. 
It appears by the evidence of Dr. Creed, that the inhabitants of the 
Prince of Wales' Island, Cape York, use bows, whioh they obtain, 
not from European traders, but from islands farther to the north. 

Note on the Australian Reports from New South Wales. 
By Mr. Hyde Clarke. 

In reference to the position taken by Prof Huxley as to his 
three black groups in Australia, India and Africa, it may be 
interesting to state that according to the evidence here given, 
the elements of culture are the same. 

The language of Australia conforms to the aboriginal lan- 
guages of Africa, and these latter to those of India. In the 
Journal of the Institute will be found the papers of Uie 
lamented Dr. Bleek. 

A good illustration is afforded by the words for axe : — 

Aufltfalia. Africa. 

Y\mdu, KamUaroi . • . . Yondo, Nkele. 

Gana . . . - . . . . Kuno, Gbandi, etc. 

Batiyu . . . . . . . . Putewi, Pepel, etc. 

Gi . . » Go, Dewoi, etc. 

Nogo Ogo, Uaso. 

* The larvffi of the ant, whioh are eaten by the aborigenes. 

t Barbed spear. 

X The consteUation of the Pleiades. 

Digitized by 


Reports of New South Wales, 275 

The probability is, that these are among the pre-historic words 
used for the stone weapons, as the words for club and spear are 
those for wooden weapons. 

The animal names are of the same origin. Those of the beasts, 
contained in these vocabularies, are nearly all to be found in 
Africa. The names of the kangaroo, kangaroo-rat, opossum 
dog, etc., are found in those of the dog, rat, and monkey. 

Kew South Wales. 


Kangaroo, burru 

Eat, mpore, Bwmbete; bera, Eoussa, 


„ domuru, Pvlo, etc. ; monkey. 

emere, Bini, 


Dog, gbandi, Ourma; boandi, 



„ wulu, Kono, etc,; rat, wolu> 

Kav/re, etc. 


„ olombua, Pangela, 


„ kura, YaUiy etc,; rat, guru, 


Kangaroo-rat, kamimin 

„ kamei, ffoussa. 

Opossum, kuraki 

Eat, ikeriku, Tgala, &c. ; kereku, 



„ akura, Ashantee, 


Monkey, koara, Mendi, etc. 

Bear, kula 

Dog, galu, Marawiy kale, Houssa, 

Some of the snake-names show conformity: — 

Kew South Walee. Africa. 

Snake, dharu . . . . Snake, ntare. Mere, 

munun . . Fish, monga, Pangela, 

Snake, mone, Mano, 

mokka . . „ omngena, P^el. 

nyambuch . . „ nome, AnJcaras, 

Eel, burra . . . . Fish, ombera, Pangela. 

Fish, dun . . . . „ ndon, Melou^ 

The Kamilarii paper of the Eev. C. C. Greenway is valuable 
for its comparative notes, and affords us some equivalents. 

Thus the limbs of a tree include the arm, as with us, but a 
thick branch is a thigh. The applications of the human terms 
may have something to do with the notion of a Dryad. The 
leaf sometimes equals tongue, and the bark, skin. 

White man equals demon or spirit, the first white men having 
been taken for spirits. Mr. Greenway says that bukra among 
the Africans has the same meaning. 

Digitized by 


276 List of Fresents. 

Spear in Australian, as in some other languages, equals tree, 
wood, and honey, as in Africa, equals bee. 

The evidence now accumulating, shows more copiousness of 
language in the pre-historic epoch than has been allowed for. 
There is a poverty and a richness, sometimes one word for three 
or four ideas, but as a compensation, three or four words for one 

A curious example is given by Mr. Greenway, two words are 
used for ear and hear, but these are interchanged in the several 

As the pre-historic languages of America conform with those 
of the other regions, we have to allow chronologically for the 
universal diffusion of successive emigrations, and for the wide 
space by which the members are now separated. 

The dissimilarity now observable in the Australian dialects 
arises from independent development carried over a large epoch, 
and the phenomena are conformable to those which occur in 
the emimal world as displayed in natural history. 

June 26jh, 1877. 
John Evans, Esq., D.C.L., F.RS., President, in tlie Chair, 

The Minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The election of the Eev. F. S. Davis, of Godalming, Lieut. Fox. 
RN.R., Penang, and Dr. Messer, RN., as members of the Insti- 
tute, was announced. 

The following presents were announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective donors for the same. 

For the Library. 

From the Academy. — ^Atti della R. Academia dei Lincei, Vol. I, 

No. 6. 
From the Editor. — Mat^riauz pour rHistoire de f Homme, May, 

From the Association. — Journal of the East India Association. 

Vol. X, No. 2. The Eastern Question in its Anglo- Indian 

Aspect, by Rev. J. Long. 
From the Society. — Proceedings of the Royal Society. Vol. XXVI, 

No. 180. 
From the Association. — ^Proceedings of the Geologists Association 

Vol. V, Nos. 1 and 2. 
From the Ewtor. — Revne Scientifiquc. Nos, 51 and 62. 1877. 

Digitized by 


An Underground Structure at Driffield, Yorkshire. 277 

Prom the Author. — The Tribes of the extreme Noi*th West, by 
W. H. DaU. 

From the Author. — Pre-historic remains found at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
hj Robert Clarke. 

From the Academy. — Proceedings and Transactions of the Cracow 
Academy of Sciences. 

From the Author. — The Natural History of the Straits of Magellan 
and West Coast of Patagonia, by Prof. R. 0. Cunning- 
ham, M.D. 

Prom the Author. — Studii Craniologici sui Cimpanz^; Odoardo 
Beccari ed I suoi viaggi ; Cenni Storici ed Etnologici di un 
popolo estinto. 2 parts. Instruzioni per lo studio della psico- 
logia comparata; Studi suUa Razza Negrita; Nel cuor delP 
Africa, by Enrico Hellyer Giglioli. 

Mr. Burt exhibited the figure-head of a New Zealand war 
canoe^ supposed to have belonged to the canoe which met Captain 
Cook on his second visit to those islands. 

Mr. G. M. Atkinson exhibited a piece of gold so-called Irish 
ring money, and an ancient ring. 

The President made some observations on these exhibitions, 
and thanks were returned to the exhibitors. 

The Director then read the following paper, which was illus- 
trated by a small model of the object referred to. 

An Underground Strijcture at Driffield, Yorkshire. 

A very remarkable underground microlithic structure was 
recently discovered on elevated ground, about one nule south- 
west of the village of Langtoft, and seven miles north of Drif- 

On November 15, 1875, the son of Mr. H. Wilson, of Lang- 
toft-field, whilst making stakeholders for a sheep-fold, found 
that his gavelock sank suddenly into the ground. This very 
unusual occurrence induced him to procure tools and dig down. 
At a depth of about 18 inches he came upon some flat chalk 
stones forming the roof of a hollow trench. The trench was 
neatly walled in with two parallel walls of chalk built without 
any kind of mortar or cement, about 13 inches apart, 5 feet in 
length, and 2 feet in height. 

It contained nothing but one or two inches of dark sooty 
matter lying on the bottom, in which were a few small bits of 
burnt wood. On the morning of November 17, Mr. H. Wilson 
made this discovery known to me, and in the afternoon I visited 
the place. It is situated on the northern brow of an elevated 
chalk range running nearly east and west. 

I observed that Mr. Wilson, junior, had explored for a short 

Digitized by 


278 An Undefrground Structure at Driffield, Yorkshire. 

distance a branch of like fonn and construction running north 
at right angles to the original opening from its centre. After 
personally exploring this passage, which was also roofed in with 
slabs of chalk, and contained a stratum of dark matter at the 
bottom, I found that after a distance of about 5 feet it ran into a 
somewhat circular cavity, excavated 4 feet in the chalk rock, 
some 3 inches lower than the passage. 


Stotlon on A.B« 



SOIL A omr 




MALI, or Fsrr 
? ^ f 

The cavity measured 3 feet in diameter at the bottom, and 5 
feet at the top ; its sloping sides were formed by the naked rock, 
and there was no trace of any covering stones as in the passages. 
On the bottom was an accumulation of the dark sooty substance 
already mentioned, fully 6 inches thick, containing portions of 
carbonised wood, a naal-shaped bit of iron, and fragments of 
three vases known as Boman ware ; some of which were much 
flaked and splintered as if by the action of fire. The remainder 
of the cavity was filled with rubbly chalk mixed with soil, in 
some places showing traces of burning, containing portions of 
animal bones burnt. 

The walls of the passages or flue-like portions of the structure 
showed deep traces of the action of fire. The surface soil, of 
gritty texture, 18 inches in depth, contained potsherds of a 
bluish colour, and unbumt animal bones, amongst which we 
recognised teeth of the pig, sheep or goat, and portions of the 
horn-core of the ox. 

The day after our exploration, Mr. Wilson, junior, pulled down 
the walls, which averaged 12 inches in thickness, and found that 

Digitized by 


A. Carmichael. — A Benedictine Missionary* s Account, &c. 279 

the heat had been sufficiently intense in certain places to pass 
through the wall and redden the packing of soil behind. 

A similar structure to this was discovered in the summer of 
1874 on one of Lord Hotham's farms at Etton, near Beverley, in 
the occupation of Mr. Whipp. The discovery was made known 
by Dr. Stephenson, of Beverley. It was visited at the time by 
the late Mr. C. Monkman of Malton, and by him described in the 
** Malton Messenger " as a " Bortontinus formed of two parallel 
walls of cheJk and sandstone, 11 feet in length and about 2 feet 
high, the hoUow space or trough being nearly 2 feet wide, etnd 
showing many traces of charcoal and burning. The roofing was 
of slabs of sandstone, bearing marks of fire. Mixed in the soil 
over and around it were a large quern or miUstone, animal 
bones, and many fragments of pottery, seemingly of Boman 
date." These, the account goes on to say, " axe deposited at 
Lord Hotham's mansion at South Dalton." Mr. Monkman 
adds, " this structure was discovered while ploughing, and the 
opening was imfortimately carried on through motives of 
curiosity alone, and its true form was not satisfactorily made out*' 

From Dr. Stephenson's account, however, and that of othera, 
who saw it when first discovered, I find that there were clear 
indications of a third arm running in a northerly direction, and 
ending in a dish-shaped excavation in the rock. 

These descriptions show clearly that the Etton find was in 
every way simflar to the one since discovered on Langtofb Wold, 
except in point of size, the Etton one being the larger of the 
two. Whatever may have been the use of these (so far as I 
know) unique structures, the fragments of pottery found in 
them seem to fix their date somewhere between the first and fifth 
centuries. That they were not "Bortontini " there is little doubt. 

It is hardly probable that the Eomans would form such 
structures for land-marks and then cover them up. 

They may be the remains of small potters' kilns, or possibly a 
kind of oven or cooking-place. 

But most likely these rudely constructed underground flues 
were used (after tiie Eoman mode of heating rooms), as hypy- 
causts for warming some humble dwellings of the Eomanised 
peasantry of the neighbourhood. The miUstones, potsherds, and 
bones of animals scattered in the soil above and around the flues, 
seem to bear out this surmise. 

In conclusion, I trust by^ making this communication, to 
induce others to put on record their knowledge of any similar 
structures in other parts of our island. 

The President and Mr. Brabrook, F.S. A., remarked on the above. 

Digitized by 


280 A. Carmichael. — A Bmedidine Missimiary's 

Mr. Carmichael, F.RS.L, than read the following paper. 

A Benedictine Missionary's Account of the Natives . of 
Australia and Oceania. 

From the Italian of Don Rudesindo Salvado. (Rome, 
1851.) By C. H. E. Carmichael, M.A. 

We are indebted to the Press of the College of the Propaganda 
in Rome, for the work which forms the subject of the present 
paper.* With a considerable portion of the volume, of which 
the courtesy of Her Majesty's Secretary of State for the 
Colonies has enabled us to estimate the value for Anthropologi- 
cal purposes, we are not directly concerned. Writing for a 
general rather than a scientific public, and with a view to 
exciting interest in the Australian missions, in which he had 
borne no small part, Monsigr. Salvado necessarQy devotes many 
pages either to matter with which we are familiar, such as 
the history of the rise and progress of our Australian Colonies, 
or to subjects more immediately connected with his missionary 
work. The general impression, I may remark, which is left 
upon my mind by a careful perusal of the more purely scientific 
portions of the book, is that, so far as his personal observation 
extended, the accounts given of the aborigines by Bishop Salvado 
are trustworthy, although I might be inclined to suggest the 
allowance of a certain margin for the favourable view likely to 
be taken of a race which yielded the first two children to the 
family of St. Benedict from "Terra Australis." The seat of 
the mission of New Nursia was in Western Australia, north of 
the Swan River, in the diocese assigned to the Roman Catholic 
Bishop of Perth, in 1845, when the ecclesiastical separation 
from Sydney took place. The company of missionaries of 
which Don Rudesindo Salvado was a member, seems to have 
been very mixed in its nationalities. At the head was the new 
Bishop of Perth, Monsigr. Brady, an Irishman. Next came 
Don Serra and Don Salvado, both Spanish Benedictines ; then 
Don Confalonieri, from the Italian Tyrol, followed by three 
French Priests, another Irishman, an English sub-deacon, a 
French novice, and a Roman, while the student catechists, and the 
Sisters of Mercy, who accompanied the mission, were all Irish. 

* Memorie Storiohe dell' Australia, partdcolarmente della Missione Benedettina 
di NuoTa Noroia, e degli xm e costumi degli Australiani, per Mgr. D. Budeeindo 
SaWado, O.8.B., VescoTo di Porto Vittoria. Eoma, Tip. 8. Cong : de Prop : Fide. 

Digitized by 


Account of the Natives of Australia and Oceania, 281 

Sailing on the 17th September, 1845, from Gravesend, it was 
on the 7th January, 1846, that the cry of " land " was raised, and 
the ship which bore the Benedictine Mission cast anchor in 
Fremantle Bay. 

Landing in Australia entirely ignorant of the language of 
the aborigines, the method adopted by the missionaries was to 
write down in a pocket-book every word of which they found out 
the meaning. The first word whose repetition struck them was 
"maragna,"* which they discovered to mean "food." And 
the firat opening of friendly relations with the natives, on the 
foundation of the mission station of New Nursia, was due to 
the offering of bread and sugar, by which the amicable inten- 
tions of the Benedictines were made manifest to the native 
intelligence. Indeed, Don Rudesindo repeatedly affirms the 
necessity of providing missionaries with means to clothe and 
feed would-be neophytes, and to reclaim them from a nomad 
life. "What you tell us may be true, very true," says the 
native, "but I am hungry, will you give me some bread?" 
And if the missionary could not give it, the native would turn 
his back at once upon Christianity and civilisation. The 
Benedictines appetu* to have found the natives ready to work, 
for they owed the completion of their mission-hut to the help 
which was willingly offered after they had once established con- 
fidence by means of " maragna." 

The feelings of gratitude and affection seems also to have been 
drawn out by the missionaries. After curing somfe of their 
native friends, they received the expression of their gratitude 
in a shape that must have been somewhat trying to the gravity 
of Benedictine monks. " We are altogether yours," said their 
late patients, "our wives are your wives, our children your 
children, all that we have is yours.'* The principal medicines 
used are stated to have been salt, English tea, and rice, and 
fortimately, they always seem to have acted favourably on the 
sick, so that the missionaries were on thoroughly friendly terms 
with the natives. They did not hesitate to interfere between 
them when they saw two parties about to fight. Sometimes the 
mere presence of the missionaries stopped the intended conflict. 
When, as happened at other times, the passions of the contending 
parties were too much roused to admit of so easy a pacification, 
the monks placed themselves, crucifix in hand, between the two 
sides, and let the darts hurtle by them until they brought about 
a truce. 

Though often consenting only with a bad grace, the natives 

* The word sounded suspiciouBlj in tlie ears of the Spanish monk, for in his 
native Galician dialect it happens to mean " deceit" '* Memorie," p. 168. " Mar- 
agna nel mio dialetto Gallego significa inganno." 


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282 A. Carmichael. — A BenedidiTie Misswnar^s 

never either absolutely refused to give up their weapons into 
the hands of the missionaries, or fled to avoid giving them up. 
Their ill humour found a suflficient vent in repeated leaps into 
the air, and loud cries. 

The first attempt made by their diocesan to visit the mission- 
station of New Nursia proved a failure, through the Bishop 
loosing his way in the scrub. Upon this Don Eudesindo remarks 
that although Europeans who lose their way may not see a 
single native, they are constantly observed by numbers hidden 
in the bush, who watch their every movement, but never think 
of coming to their assistance, because it does not occur to them 
that the white man cannot find his way as easily as themselves * 
This seems a probable explanation of what might otherwise be 
set down to suspicion of the European. 

In regard to their religious beliefs, the Benedictines found 
their native friends singularly and obstinately reticent. If they 
inquired of a young man, even though he might be more than 
thirty years old, he professed to be too young to be able to tell 
them anything, and recommended them to ask the old men. 
When the elders were questioned, they answered with jests, or 
pretended not to understand. The most favourable time for 
talking unconsti'ainedly with the natives, and learning something 
from them, was found to be the evening meal, when the men 
return from the day's chase, sit round the camp fire and tell 
stories like the Arabs. "These," says Monsignr. Salvado, 
" are moments worth many months of tramp among the scrub to 
the missionary who knows how to make use of them." Even- 
tually, the way was found by Don Eudesindo to make some 
investigations into the question whether his neighbours believed 
in the immortality of the soul. His procedure was as foDows.t 
" I am not one," he said to some of the natives, " as you think, 
but two." Upon this they laughed. "You may laugh as 
much aj3 you like," continued the missionary, " I teU you that 
I am two in one : this great body that you see is one ; within 
that there is another little one, which is not visible. The great 
body dies, and is buried, but the little body flies away when the 
great one dies." To this some replied," Caia, caia (i.e., "yes, yes "). 
We also ai-e two, we also have a little body within the breast." 
On asking what they called this little body, the answer was 
" C^in." Then they were asked where the little body went 
after death, to which various answers were given ; some saying 
behind the bush, others into the sea, and others again that they 
did not know. Don Eudesindo very wisely did not press the 
natives further on this occasion, knowing how tenacious they 

• Op. dt., p. 196. t Ojp. eU,y pp. 208-9. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

AccoutU of the Natives of Australia and Oceania, 283 

were of the secrecy of their beliefs. But on a subsequent 
occasion he heard the legend of" Cicin " from some other natives 
who were on confidential terms with him, and he gives its sub- 
stance in the following words.* 

When* a native dies, his soul remains on the branches of a 
tree,t s in g ing mournfully like a bird, imtil someone takes her up. 
When it is known that a soul is going from tree to tree, the 
natives approach, bent and in single file, beating two little sticks 
against each other, and making with their voices the sound 
"ps, ps, ps." Often the soul remains among the trees; but 
sometimes it comes down, and enters the mouth of the nearest 
native, remaining within him if he is alone, but if there are 
others, passing out at his back, through the next, and remaining 
in the last man. 

From the accounts given him by one of the natives, named 
Bigliagoro, who became attached to the missionaries, Don 
Eudesindo acquired the conviction that in cases of extreme 
hunger the Australian aborigines are anthropophagous. By 
the close of 1848, the Benedictines heard no more of this 
custom, and hoped that they had succeeded in putting an end 
to it, as well as to the killing of the third or fourth child by its 
mother. The natives no longer fled from the white man, but 
even sought permission to build houses for themselves and their 
families near the mission station. Of the honesty of the 
Western Australians the missionaries evidently entertained a 
very high opinion, never having experienced any losses either of 
goods or cattle at their hands, and having always found them 
zealous in going in quest of any cattle that had strayed. 
Speaking generally of the impression which appears to have 
been made upon Monsignr. Salvado and his companions by 
the aborigines among whom they had lived, it is in favour of 
the possibility of raising the Western Australians to a fairly 
high pitch of civilisation. The idea of the Benedictine mis- 
sionaries concerning the best means to begin efforts in this 
direction, was to make their station the centre of an agricultural 
and industrial village, in which the natives should dwell, each 
family receiving from the missionaries what was necessary to 
start them in work on their own account. So the Benedictines 
hoped they might eventuaDy see around them a village of pro- 

• Op, cU., p. 209. 

t With this idea may be compared that of the Land DajakB of Upoer Sanwak, 
of whom, in a paper under that title in yoL iii of Memoirs read before the 
Anthropological ScKcietj of London (Longmans, 1870), p. 199, Dr. Hou^^iton says, 
'' The Dajas (sic) beheye yery dimly in a future life ; they say the soul is changed 
into a spirit, which hovert about the hills and places in the jungle. These spirits 
are objects of fear and superstition. Customs are obseryed on account of them." 
(The italics are minei not the author's.) 

X 2 

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284 A. Carmichael. — A BeTiedictine Misswrum^s 

prietors of land, tillers of the soil which they owned, or rented, 
and also artisans, so far at any rate as the needs of the village 
required. This, no doubt, would be, as Don Rudesindo truly 
observes, a work of years, but it would be a work not unworthy 
of any missionaries, and would add a fresh title of honour to 
those already assigned in the pages of history to the illus- 
trious order of St. Benedict of Nursia, for many centuries famed 
for its protection of learning and civilisation in Western 

Besides the details scattered through the main body of the 
*'Memorie Storiche dell' Australia," Monsignr. Salvado gives 
further information in the last part of his volume (p. 277 et seqq.), 
from which I shall add a few extracts, so far as they are the 
resixlt of his personal observation. 

In Western Australia the Bishop says that he never met 
more than one native who was black. Their hair he found in 
the west to be not woolly (capelli lanuti) but smooth (lisci 
e biondi), and often so fair that it would have been envied by a 
native of Northern Europe.* 

He observed this fair and smooth or glossy hair also in a 
native of the eastern portion of the continent. The Bishop's 
testimony on this point is rendered stronger, I cannot but 
think, by the fact, incidentally mentioned, that he had constantly 
washed and combed the hair of the natives, amongst his varied 
missionary labours. 

As to the probable numbers of the Australian aborigines, 
Monsignr. Salvado will not venture upon a guess. But what- 
ever they be, he sees with regret that they are rapidly diminishing. 
This is, indeed, so much the case, that at a meeting of the 
Anthropological Society of Paris in 1872,-f- shortly after the 
reading of M. Topinard's Paper on the Australians, a member 
quoted the foDowing extract from an English colonial news- 
paper, the "Australasian," of Melbourne, under date 16th 
December, 1871, given as an item of news: "A wild man has 
been seen in the Inigeva Ranges." And as long ago as 1845, 
the report of a Select Committee on the condition of the 
aborigines, published in Sydney, gave statistics which are 
quoted by Monsignr. Salvado,J showing that a tribe in the 

* Monsignr. Salrado was probably thinldng of the ScandinayiaBs when he 
wrote this sentence. But it maj be worth while to note in connection with it an 
assertion made by Virchow, at a meetingof the Anthropological Society of Berlin, 
to the effect that in certain parts of Finland, where there is no trace of any 
immigration, there are inhabitants so fair as to hare given rise to the proyerb 
•'as fair as a Fin." (" Revue Scientifique," 2nd January, 1875, p. 642^ 

t Bulletins de la Sod^t^ d'Anthropologie de Paris, Tome vii (11* Serie), 
p. 420. 

X Report, &c., Sydney, 1815, pp. 1-2, quoted, op, dt,, p. 281. 

Digitized by 


Account of the Natives of Australia and Oceania^ 286 

neighbourhood of Sydney had dwindled from about four 
hundred to four, viz., one man and three women. Why the 
Australian race should have died out at such an excessively 
rapid rate after the settlement of the European colonists, is not, 
I think, quite obvious from the account of it given by the 
Benedictine missionary. I should be inclined to think that his 
estimate of the power of the race and of the position which it is 
capable of filling, may be somewhat coloured, however uncon- 
sciously, by the apparent success of his mission. 

When Monsignr. Salvado speaks from his own personal 
knowledge of the physical and mental characteristics of the 
natives, whether of the western, northern, or eastern parts of 
Australia, with whom he had come into contact, I think his 
statements worthy of acceptance as those of a careful and 
intelligent observer. But I am unable to reconcile the indubit- 
able fact of the total extinction of one portion of the Australian 
race,* viz., that which inhabited Tasmania, and the extreme 
attenuation of the numbers on the mainland, as testified by 
authoritative sources of information, with the relatively high 
estimate of their capacities formed by Don Rudesindo. Perhaps 
a solution may be found for this difficulty in M. Topinard*s 
view of the co-existence in Australia of a superior and an 
inferior race. It would then be quite according to analogy that the 
inferior race should die out before the European, and that the 
superior race should remain, only perhaps receding more and more 
into the interior as the European advanced. Indeed, it might 
be questioned whether the expression cited by Monsignr. 
Salvado from Byrne's " Emigrant's Guide," t that such and such 
tribes of three or four hundred souls had " disappeared " within 
ten years, is not as consistent with simple retirement into the 
interior, as with disappearance by death. But it is only fair to 
Monsignr. Salvado to state his argument in reply to the 
objection that education has been tried with the Australian and 
has failed. To this he replies that a purely intellectual 
education alone has been tried, and that after tlie savage had been 
caught in his childhood, and sent to school, where he learned 
to read and write, and even to perform some of the operations 
of arithmetic with unexpected rapidity, he has then been taken 
by the shoulders and thrust back into the bush, where he finds 
that reading and writing will not enable him to satisfy his hunger. 

* I leave this phrase as I oriffinallj wrote it, notwithstanding some criticisms 
passed upon it in the course of the discussion, because I hope to return to the 
subject and show that there is some authority for its use in the ethnolo^'oal 
sense which I had in view. Meanwhile, it may be taken by its opponents in a 
purely geographical connotation, to which there can be no objection, I oonceiye. 

t " £nigrant's Quide," p. 70, quoted in op. oit^ p. 281. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

286 A, Carmiohael. — A Berudictine Missionary's 

Now although intellectual education is one of the constituents 
of civilisation, in the case of the savage it ought to be a 
secondary one. The first step, continues the bishop, should be 
to give the Australian the power to supply himself readily with 
the means of existence through a knowledge of agriculture and 
the simpler crafts, and afterwards to open his mind to learning, 
and the outer polish of civilised society. This is in accordance 
with the system partially carried out by the Benedictine 
himself, and it seems, mutatis mutandis, to have been adopted 
with good results among a much lower race, the natives of 
Tierra del Fuego. In that wildest and bleakest part of the 
American continent, a mission station, established by the 
English Bishop of the Falkland Islands at Oostrovia, on the 
Fuegian coast in 1868, has, we learn, increased from a single 
hut to a settlement of more than one hundred Fuegifins, while 
it is resorted to at certain seasons of the year by several 
hundreds of the natives.* 

As to the quickness with which the Australians learn their 
letters, Monsignr. Salvado beai's a very decidel testimony. 
He states that one of the boys whom he taught learned in ten 
minutes forty letters, partly capitals, partly small text, of 
various types, comprising five diflferent kinds of letters. 
Another boy, after a few lessons, would repeat backwards or 
forwards any numbers composed of from two to nine numerals, 
augmenting them in succession, but not progressively. A third, 
of about the same age as the first (imfortunately it is not stated 
what this age was), learned some arithmetical operations in a 
few weeks, although the numbers known to the natives do not 
go beyond three. From a captain of a ship, the Bishop heard of 
an Australian lad, not yet ten years old (non ancora bilustre), 
who from merely seeing the master take his meridian with a 
sextant, accomplished the experiment himself successfully, and 
repeated it several times in the presence of many persons, to 
show that it was no mere chance. This last incident of course 
did not occur within Monsignr. Salvado's own knowledge, 
but what he does vouch for is sufficiently remarakable to suggest 
a doubt whether the influence of the " glorious Patriarch St. 
Benedict " may not sometimes have been supposed to intensify 
the mother-wit of the pupils of the mission of New Nursia. 

But throughout his work, Don Rudesindo asserts the great 
quickness and intelligence of the Australian race. The acute- 
ness (perspic6icia) of the natives, he says, is so great, that they 
read in the face the wishes of those who are conversing with 
them, and answer their questions, even, it would seem, on trivial 

• " PaU Mull Giwette," 22nd June, 1877. 

Digitized by 


Account of the Natives of Australia and Oceania, 287 

matters, as they think the interrogator desires. If asked 
whether it is likely to rain the following day, or not, instead of 
answering in accordance with their experience, they reply as 
they thiii the questioner wishes. 

Two letters, written by natives of Western Australia, whom 
Monsignr. Salvado took to Italy with him in 1849, and placed 
in the great Benedictine Monastery of Triniti di Cava, seem to 
me worth recording in our Proceedings, as specimens of the 
mastery over writing in a European language which can be 
reached by this race. The first, written soon after their arrival 
in Europe, when they were, it is stated about (forse) eleven 
years old, is couched in short, imperfect sentences, and exhibits 
the use of the infinitive, probably the first part of a verb which 
they learned, both for the imperative and indicative. The 
second, written a year later, displays veiy marked progress. I 
am only afraid that it is a little too perfect for the time that 
had elapsed between the two letters, and I should like to be 
certain that some of the good monks of La Cava had not 
touched it up, before sencEng this specimen of their pupils' 
progress to the guardian who had placed him under their charge. 
It is only fair, however, to mention that Monsignr. Salvado 
professes to transcribe both the letters faithfuDy (fedelmente). 
They are, perhaps, the first of the kind brought to the notice of 
the Institute. 

Lettefr I, 

Carissimo Eudesindo, molto noi place ricevuta lettera tua, 
e molto noi place state bene. Noi molto pregare Dio per 
Australiani e voi. Perchi tu niente venuto monastero luna 
nuova? Tu venir subito subito a noi fare grande piacere. 
Noi stare bene assai e contenti. lo Francesco studiare bene ; 
Giovanni cosi cosi, ma sempre portare meglio. Tu baciare 
piede Papa, per Francesco e Giovanni Padre Maestro tutti tre. 
Tu pregare per Francesco e Giovanni a messa. Noi volere una 
figura pure. P. Maestro baciare mani te, e tutti miei compagni. 
Noi baciata lettera tua, baciata mano te e dona benedizione. 

Cava, 25 Gingtco, 1850. Francesco Conaci, 

Giovanni Dirimera.* 

Letter II. 

lUustrissimo Monsignore, Con sommo piacere ricevemmo la 
vostra carissima con la data Luglio per mezzo della quale 
conoscemmo che stavate bene in salute, lo stesso vi assicuriamo 
di noi Speriamo che le vostre faccende vi lasciassero libero 

• "Memorie," pp. 2^3-4. 

Digitized by 


288 A. Carmichael. — A Benedictine Missionary's 

almeno pochi giomi, affinchfe potessimo avere la consolazione 
di rivedervi e baciarvi la mano. Per darvi un attestatx) della mia 
condotta nello studio vi rimetto iin decreto, che ebbi nei saggi 
pubblici di Settembre insieme alia medaglia di aigento col grado 
di raoto bene, la qual le tiene conservata il P. Maestro. Vi 
ingraziamo dell figurine di santi che ci avete mandate, e vi 
preghiamora e portarci un libretto di orazioni dove vi sia il pre- 
paramento per la SS. CJomuione. Vi baciamo caramente la mani 
e fanno lo stesso e miei compagni, specialmente D. Silvano; 
e chiedendovi la santa benedizione mi soscrivo. 

Cava, 18 Luglio, 1857. Vostro Affmo. in Cristo, 

Francesco Saverio Conaci.* 

To the question, what is the religion of the Australian abori- 
gines, Monsignr. Salvado gives an answer based, as he tells 
us, on close study of the subject during three years of mission 
life at New Nursia. The conclusion at which he arrived is that 
they do not adore any deity, whether true or false. Yet he 
proceeds to tell us that they believe in an Omnipotent Being, 
creator of heaven and earth, whom they call Motogon, and 
whom they imagined as a very tall, powerful, and wise man of 
their own country and complexion. His mode of creation was 
by breathing, e.g., to create the earth, he said, " Earth, come 
forth,'* and he breathed, and the earth was created So with 
the sun, the trees, the kangaroo, &c. ; unfortunately, the Bishop 
does not mention whether he had told the natives the Mosaic 
account of the creation before they gave him this version as 
their own. Montogon, the author of good, is confronted, accord- 
ing to Monsignr. Salvado's report, by Cienga, the author of 
eviL This latter being is unchainer of the whirlwind and the 
storm, and the invisible author of the death of their children, 
wherefore the natives fear him exceedingly. Moreover, as 
Motogon (possibly worn out by his goodness) has been long since 
dead and decrepid (the epithets are those supplied by Monsignr. 
Salvado, and I do not pretend to explain how a dead person, 
or spirit, can be decrepid), it is no wonder that they no longer 
pay him any worship. What is remarkable, however, says Don 
Eudesindo, is that, dthough the natives believe themselves to 
be afflicted with calamities by Cienga, they do nothing to 
propitiate him. The Bishop's words on this point are unequi- 
vocal, and all the stronger from his evident surprise. Never, 
says he, did I observe any act of external worship, nor did any 
indication suggest to me that they practised an internal worship. 

When a sudden thimder storm comes upon them, they raise 

• Op. ctV., p. 294. 

Digitized by 


Account of the Natives of Atcstralia and Oceania. 289 

hideous cries, strike the earth with their feet, imprecate death 
and misfortune upon Cienga, whom they think the author of it, 
and then take refuge under the nearest trees. The Bishop, who 
is here evidently speaking from recollection of such a scene, 
says that he remained out in the storm, rather than shelter 
himself under the dangerous cover of the trees ; but the natives 
assured him that the lightning never struck the bent and 
twisted (tortuosi) trees under which they took refuge. And 
this the Bishop found to be the case, so that it may be said of 
the Australian native, that there is a method even in his seeming 
madness. One day the Bishop met a young girl after sunset, 
standing still in terror, because she said that Cienga was on a 
neighbouring tree, looking at her. The Bishop, thinking it might 
be a bird, threw some pebbles at the tree, and finally took the 
girl's hand, and led her towards it. Before reaching the tree she 
cried out in a loud and glad tone of voice, " there he goes." But 
the Bishop saw neither bird nor demon. The general belief, he 
says, is that Cienga prowls about at night among the trees, and 
for this reason the natives can scarcely be got to stir from their 
fire after simset. Only mothers who have lately lost a chUd 
will brave these dangers to go in quest of its soul, and if they 
hear the cry of a bird in the bush, will spend hours there calling 
upon it, and begging it to come to them. So strong is the 
Australian mother's love. 

If a native is killed by a thrust of the " ghici," a wooden 
spear, about 9 English feet long, and pointed at its thickest end, 
lus countrymen think that his soul remains in the point of the 
weapon which caused his death, and they bum it after his burial, 
80 that the soul may depart. They think that the soul feels the 
night chiUs, and therefore light large fires after the burial, and 
sometimes keep them up for about a month. 

They believe that anyone who dies from sickness dies under 
the influence of their medicine men, whom they caU " Boglia," 
and whom they believe to be able to kill at great distances. 
This power to slay is considered to reside in certain stones in 
the stomach of the '* Boglia," and to pass from father to son 
among that class. 

They regard the sun as a friendly, the moon as an unfriendly 
power. They consider the moon to be masculine, and the sun to 
be its consort. The moon is accompanied on its passage through 
the heavens by numerous hounds, whom it sends on the earth to 
procure it food. When it comes down itself for food it often 
carries off the children of the natives, but is compelled by the 
sun to restore them. They abuse the moon in the very strongest 
language they possess. They think that the stars are married, 
and, like the sun and moon, have large families. They believe 

Digitized by 


290 A. Caemichaeu — A Benedictine Missionary's 

the stars are offended at being named ; the morning star they 
call " Tonder." They seldom mention the names of the dead, 
and then only in a low voice (sotto voce). 

To cause rain, they tear off the skins that they wear, and 
breathe upon them, so as to blow them in the direction from 
which they want the rain to come. When they wish to stop 
rain, they set fire to a piece of sandal wood, and strike the ground 
sharply with it They are afraid to drink water at night from 
any large pool, because they think it the habitation of 3ie great 
serpent Uicol,* who will kill them if they drink. Monsignr. 
Salvado found that they would not go, and at first they would 
not tell him the reason. At last one native said to him, " if we 
go and take the water we shall be killed ; if you go you will not 
be killed." Seeing that some superstition was at the bottom of 
this terror, the Bishop went towards the water and quenched 
his thirst, the natives following him in a row (tutti infila\ and 
in silence. When he had drunk as much as he wanted, and 
moved away from the pool, the natives immediately called out 
to him to stop. In going home they ran ahead of him in a body, 
so that he should be the last ; and when he scolded them for 
their foolish belief, they answered him scornfully, " you know 
nothing about it.*' For fear of this same serpent U6col, the 
natives never bathe in pools whose dark colour is a sign of their 
depth, as they say he lies at the bottom, and they dread him 
even in daylight. 

Concerning the native system of government, Monsignr. 
Salvado thinks the ordinary application of the word tribe, which 
many people, he says, apply to any body of more than half a 
dozen natives, is inaccurate. According to the researches which 
he was able to make, each family is an independent society, 
governed by its father or head, and he was unable to perceive 
that any such head claimed the right to command other chiefs, 
or those subject to them. If a native is injured, he himself takes 
vengeance, and if he is weaker than his enemy, calls upon his 
relations and friends for help. According to Bishop Salvado, 
therefore, the Australian aborigines live under the family rather 
than the tribal system. Although each family is subject solely 
to the laws of its own chief in most matters, there are yet certain 

* A somewhat similar superstition regarding the occnpancj of pools and 
swamps hj a gisantic serpent, is related of the Indians of the Mosquito Territory, 
in a paper bj Mr. John CoUinson, C. £., in vol. iii of the Memoirs read before the 
Anthropological Society of London, p. 158. "These mythical reptiles are called 
wowlvahs, and are befieved by the natires to inhabit certain out-of-the-way 
swampy pools and marshes, where they grow to an enormous size, liye for ever, and 
haye the capability of swallowing a canoe full of men at a time. No Indian will 
stop near their supposed abode for fear of arousing their anger, and so compassing 
bis own destruction." 

Digitized by 


Account of the Natives of Australia and Oceania. 291 

laws of general application, which might be termed laws of the 
community, in so far as the aggregation of families in a loose 
sort of tribal federation may be held to constitute a community 
beyond the limits of the family. There is, for instance, a general 
law that no young man shall marry under thirty years of age, 
and if one confess that he has done so, he may be killed by any 
of the eders who hates him. It might have been expected that 
imder such a system land would have been held by the family, 
rather than the tribe, or the individual. But Monsignr. 
Salvado asserts that each individual has his own portion of land, 
where he may hunt and gather gum and roots. " Often," says 
the Bishop, " have I heard a native say to another, this is my 
country, yours is C^turbi (a place near New Nursia), go away." 
But here, I think, there is a contradiction in the Bishop's own 
language, as well as an inexactitude, for immediately afterwards 
he says, "each family, therefore, forms, as it were, its own 
peculiar and exclusive district, which is used in common by 
other neighbouring families who are at peace with it." What 
the Bishop's testimony seems to indicate is family ownership, as 
distinguished both from tribal and individual OT^ership. It is 
an adverse possession, for if a stranger or an enemy is foimd 
within its limits he is put to death. But I think the Bishop's 
language is consistent only with the conclusion that the indi- 
vidual has not yet emerged among the Australian aborigines, 
and that the ownership of the soil is in the family. Of the 
language of the natives, Monsignr. Salvado says that it 
possesses both the gravity of the Spanish, and the softness of the 

The general similarity of the language* in different parts of 
the continent, leads him to believe that aU the dialects spring 
fix)m a common stock. He also believes the race to be one, 
while M. Topinard and others have argued strongly in favour of 
the existence of two races in Australia. In their poetry, says 
the Bishop, there is a repetition which would be irksome to us 
Europeans, while to the Australians it is a source of delight. 
Some of their songs are improvised as occasion gives rise to 
them, but othei-s have been handed down by traditions, or have 

* In proof of this sunilaritj and original identitj, Monsignr. Salyado 
adduces at p. 804 the following table of the words for hand and eje in yarious 
parts of Australia: 



King Oeorge^B 




The Eye 








Digitized by 


292 Discussion, 

come from distant parts, so that it happens not unfrequently 
that the musical motive alone remains, while the words of the 
song have been altered. When a native returns from some dis- 
tant part of the country, he brings back with him some of the 
songs which he has learned among the tribes whom he was visit- 
ing. If he likes them he sings them in their original form, but 
if he does not like them he is apt to change both the words and 
the air, and make them ridiculous. Their war songs rouse them 
to frenzy ; their laments move them to tears. For the himt and 
the dance they have songs that make them merry. They accom- 
pany their singing with the clash of arms, and with the same 
accompaniment they mark the rhythm of their dance. Of the 
songs of the Australians, Monsignr. Salvado does not* give us 
any specimen, but he quotes one fragment of a funeral song of 
the natives of Oceania, which may not unfitly conclude my brief 
and, I fear, imperfect summary of the Benedictine Missionary's 
interesting volume. 

" The time that remaineth is a perpetual night unto us, 
The sun that cheered ub is eclipsed. 
The moon that lightened us is darkened. 
The star that led ns has vanished. 
We have lost our all. 

What will become of us without the glory of our land ? 
Our life henceforth wiU be a burden to us." 


Mr. Cornelius Walford suggested that the dying out of the 
native race referred to in the paper, was not necessarily due to 
contact with civilisation. Other inflaences came into operation. 
It was indeed stated in the paper that the natives killed their 
third child if it chanced to be a female. He assumed from that 
fact that polygamy did not prevail with the race in question. 
Polygamy and infanticide combined would reduce the population of 
any country. Under such conditions more girls than hoys would 
be produced ; and if the female children were killed off, of conrse 
the numbers must in time die out. Again, where the means of 
snbsistence were precarious, small families were regarded as a 
necessity. So too in countries where property was divided equally 
among all the children. The parents in such cases thought two 
children, to take the place of themselves when they died off, were 
sufficient. But those who were familiar with the law of mortality, 
knew that in order that two childreu might survive their parents, 
something like an average of four childien in each family would be 
needed — two would die off in their parents' Ufetime ; the other two 
would survive, and take the place of their parents. France, by a 
neglect or disregard of this fact, presented, at least in the towns, 

— ^-Op. «>o p. W. - - - ' — 

Digitized by 


The Ethnology of Germany, 293 

a decreasing population. The cjonntry districts compensated by 
haying larger families ; and so the population of the country waB 
prevented from going backwards. In France indeed the smallness 
of the families was not due to the scarcity of the necessities of 
existence, it was rather due to the luxurious tendencies of the people, 
coupled with the law regulating the division of property among 
all the children of the family equally. It was remarkable to see 
the opposite conditions of savage life, on the one hand, and the 
refinements of luxury on the other, leading up to the desire for 
limitation of families, and so operating, in the end, to the restriction 
of population. He considered the paper a valuable one, and threw 
out the preceding suggestions with a view to its main features being 
properly considered. 

In reply, Mr. Cabmichael said: That he thought Monsignor 
Salvado attributed the decrease in the numbers of the Australian 
aborigines rather to habits of intemperance, and to diseases 
acquired by contact with Europeans, than to the custom of 
infanticide in certain cases. With respect to the tenure of land, 
there seemed to be a confasion in Monsignr. Salvado's language, 
which led him to doubt whether the individual, in the judicial 
connotation of the word, had emerged as an owner of the soil among 
the Australians. 'Monsignor Salvado certainly maintains the unity 
of the race as well as of the language, while Topinard and other 
foreign Anthropologists believe that they have found in Australia 
signs of the co-existence of a superior and an inferior race. 

The Ethnology of Germany. — Paet 3. By Henry H. 
The Migration of the Saxons. 

The Saxons are first mentioned by name by Ptolemy, who 
wrote about A.D. 90. He tells us that the Frisians occupied the 
sea coast beyond the Busacteri (i.e., the Bructeri) as far as the 
River Ems. After them the Lesser Kaukhi as far as the 
Weser, then the greater Kaukhi as far as the River Elbe; 
then on the neck of the Kimbric Chersonese, the Saxons. Then 
on the Chersonese itself, beyond the Saxons, the Signlones, on 
the west ; then the Sabalingii, then the Kobandi ; beyond whom 
the Khali, and even beyond these, more to the west, the 
Phundusii; more to the east, the Kharudes; and the most 
northern of all, the Kimbri. And after the Saxons, from the 
River Khalusus to the Suebos, the Pharadini. (Latham's 
" English Language," 42.) In another place he speaks of three 
islands situated near the estuary of the Elbe and called Saxon, 
the largest of which was in long. 31® and lat 57®. Let us 
examine these passages carefully. Ptolemy tells us the Pharadini 

Digitized by 


294 The Ethnology of ixermany. 

lived beyond the Saxons, between the River Khalusus and the 
Suebos. Zeuss says the Kialusus can only mean the Trave 
(" Die Deutschen, etc./* 150) ; and it seems to me that it must 
be either the Trave or the neighbouring Swentina. The 
Suebos, he suggests, and is foUowed in doing so by Latham, is 
the Oder {id,, 154, Latham's "Grermania," cxxix); but Ptolemy 
has a special name for the Oder, namely, the Wiados, and it is 
quite gratuitous to suggest, as Zeuss does, that he has blimdered 
in usiog the two names {op, cU,, 154) ; and I believe the Suebos 
is the Wamof. This is more probable, because the Trave and 
the Wamof are to this day the political boundaries of a famous 
old State, namely, Mecklenburgh. This is, however, a minor 
difference, and there can be no question that Mecklenburgh, 
whether as far as the Oder or not, was the country defined by 
Ptolemy as that of the Pharadini. Zeuss has argued that 
Pharadini is a corruption of Spharadini, and would connect the 
name with the Suardones. (C^. cit., 154, note.) But this is very 
far fetched, and the postulating of corruptions is an unsatis- 
factory method, and especially when, as in this case, the true 
solution seems so obvious, that one cannot understand how it has 
been overlooked. TMs district was the old homeland of the 
Varini, and traces of their name are no doubt to be found in 
those of the district of Wagria, and of the River Wama 
which gives its name to Wamof and Wamemunde. Now 
Pharadini is merely another form of the name Varini, which 
varied a good deal ; the indigenous form being almost certainly 
Varing or Waring, and the important root-syllable of the name 
being Var or Phar ; and I have no doubt that the Pharadini 
of Ptolemy are the Varini of other authors. This view is 
confirmed by the fact that it makes the eastern limits of the 
Saxonland of Ptolemy coincident with those of the Trans- 
albingian Saxons of medisBval times. We thus limit the 
Saxons on two sides, namely, on the east by the Swentina or 
the Trave, and on the south-west by the Mbe. Let us now 
examine their northern neighbours. From the fact that the 
Eyder is not named by the classical authors, it has been urged 
that it was then a tributary of the Elbe, or rather that both fell 
into a common basin; and we know that the whole coast of 
North Friesland has been greatly shattered by inroads of the 
sea. Ptolemy's position for the mouth of the Elbe is in fact 
where the Eyder falls into the sea, namely, one degree north from 
the mouth of the Weser, and three and a-half south of the 
nortliern point of the Danish peninsula; while he plants the 
three Saxon islands of which he speaks, one degree from the 
mouth of the Elbe, and so far northwards that Heligoland must 
have been the most southerly; and he separates them from 

Digitized by 


Ths Migration of the Saxons. 295 

other Cimbric islands, which he C6tlls the Alokian Islands. 
(" Die Gens Langobardorum," by Friedrich Bluhme, pp. 8-9.) 

Let ns turn once more to Ptolemy's description. He tells 
ns that beyond the Saxons, on the Chersonese itself, and 
on the west, lived the Sigulones. The River Eyder was 
known in mediaeval times as the Egdora, and the letter G in 
this form seems to be a euphonious addition. It may well be 
the same in Sigulones, and we then have the name Siulones 
or Siyulones ; and it is very satisfactory that in regard to this 
name I had quite independently arrived at the same conclusion 
as Dahlmann. In the descriptions of Otheres* voyage, there 
is mention made of a district of Sillende, which as Porthan 
and Dahlmann agree, meant the present Duchy of Schleswig, 
otherwise known as South Jutland or Schleiland ; and in the 
anonymous " Vita Hludovici," and also in Eginhardt, sub ann. 
818, we are told how the soldiers, when they crossed the 
Eyder, came into a district called Siulende. (Dahlmann, 
" Forschungen," 437-9 ; Hampson, 36.) The stune district is 
called Sin Jutia by Petrus Olaus, and answers to the modem 
Duchy of Schleswig. 

I have therefore no hesitation in identifying the Sigulones 
of Ptolemy with the inhabitants of Schleswig, and we are 
thus enabled to fix tolerably accurately the original homeland 
of the Saxons in the time of Ptolemy as conterminous with the 
district of Hoktein. While the three Saxon islands are very 
probably to be identified with three of the islands of North 

As we know from subsequent notices, the Saxons were 
essentially an aggressive and warlike race, and given to pushing 
their fix)ntier and elbowing out their neighbours, and there is no 
reason to believe that this faculty was first developed in the 
fourth century. It would seem, on the contrary, from their not 
being mentioned by earlier writers than Ptolemy, especially by 
Tacitus, that they were new comers into the district of Holstein 
when Ptolemy wrote. I hope to try to trace them to their earlier 
seats in anotiier paper of this series. As I have said, their 
country in the time of Ptolemy was Holstein. 

When we next hear of the Saxons, we find them making 
descents upon the coasts of the empire. We will first consider 
their attacks on the borders of the Finglish Channel. 

This question has been well treated by Schaumann in a tract 
which lies before me, entitled " Zur G^chichte der Erobening 
Engbmds durch germanische Satmme," Grottingen, 1845. He 
tells us the Bomans named tlie whole north of Gaul which 
bordered on the Bay of Biscay and the English Channel 
Annorica, a name of Celtic etymology, meaning situate along 

Digitized by 


296 The Uthnology of Germany. 

the sea; and the name was apparently in use among the 
indigenes before the Eomans arrived. " Universis civitatibus, 
qu8B Oceanum attingunt, quaeque e^rum consuetudine Armoricae 
appellantur " (Caesar, VII, 75). This use of the name, according 
to Schaumann, still survives ; peoples peaking of " TArmorique de 
Plougerneau." (Op. cit, 5.) 

The tractus Armoricanus of the Eomans apparently connoted 
the whole strip of country on the coast from the Loire to the 
Scheldt. More lately it was divided into five provinces, thus 
described in the " Notitia Dignitatum Imperii," a work apparently 
composed in the time of the Emperors Arcadius (382-408) and 
Honorius (390-423). " Extenditur tamen tractus Armoricanus 
per provincias quinque, per Aquitanicum I et II ; Senoniam, 
Lugdunensem II et III." (Schaumann, op. cit., 5-6.) 

It would seem that during the third century this tract was 
subject to piratical attacks from Saxons and Franks, and it was 
placed in charge of an officer named " the comes maritinii 
tractus," a kind of " warden of the Cinque Ports," whose duty 
it was to command the local militia and the local fleet, with 
his head-quarters at Gessoriacum, the later Bononia or Boiilogne. 

The most important of these conmianders was named Carausias, 
who was appointed by the Emperors Diocletian and Maximian 
(287-96.) (Lappenberg, 1, 44.) He is called a Batavian by 
Eumenius, and a Menapian by Aurelius Victor. As there 
was a Menapia in Wales as wdl as in Belgium, some of our 
annalists make Carausius a Briton, and this has been made 
the subject of much ingenious writing. But there can be small 
doubt he belonged to Menapia in Gaul, and was perhaps of 
German or quasi German origin. The fullest account of him is 
given by Eutropius, who wrote about the year 360 a,d. He 
teUs us that Carausius, who was a person of ignoble birth, who, 
having created a considerable military reputation, was given the 
command at Boulogne, with the duty of protecting the coasts of 
Belgica and Armorica (i.e., the northern seaboard of Gaul), from 
the attacks of the Franks and Saxons, who then infested that 
coast. He made many captives, but as he did not return the 
booty which he recaptured either to the people who had been 
plundered, or to the emperor, suspicion arose that he was 
in league with the robbers, and that he allowed them to 
escape. And Maximian having ordered him to be put to death, 
he made himself emperor, and took possession of Britain. (Mon. 
"Hist. Britt.," Ixxii.) The same story is told by Orosius, 
id,, Ixxix and Ixxx. 

Carausius was a much more important character in western 
history than is generally supposed. It would seem that as 
guardian or count of the maritime district, he had charge of 

Digitized by 


The Migration of the Saxons. 297 

hoth sides of the Channel, both being infested by the pirates, and 
both being protected by one Channel fleet. As Mr. Dircks says, 
the country on either side formed one " littns," one government, 
entitled comitis maritimi tractus. (Dircks, " Les Anglo-Saxons et 
leuis petits deniers dits Sceattas.") The command of the Channel 
and the fleet made him absolute master of Britain when he 
raised the standard of revolt there. He was also wealthy enough 
to buy the allegiance of the local legions. M. Grenebrier has 
calculated, from a study of the numbers of the legions on his 
coins, that he could command an army of 64,000 men. (Dircks, 
op. cU,, 15, note 2.) He adopted the title of Augustus, defeated 
the troops of Diocletian and Maximian, and constrained them 
to resign to him the government of the country he had con- 
quered. And coins were struck with the heads of the three 
emperors on their obverse, that of Carausius radiated, the other 
two bare, and having the inscription " Carausius et fratres sui " on 
them. (Dircks op. cit., 14, note 1.) He retained his power for 
about seven years, and was assassinated about 293 by Allectus, 
who only kept his position for three years, when he was in turn 
overthrown by the troops of Asclepiodorus, the general of 

The ten years' usurpation had, however, left its mark on the 
western world. Carausius was apparency on terms of close 
friendship with the Saxons and the Franks ; and while we read 
in the pages of the panegyrist Mamertinus, how Maximian 
drove a body of mercenary Franks from London, we do not read 
of any attacks from the Saxons during the usurpation ; nor did 
they apparently dare to make many descents during the reign of 
the succeeding powerful emperors. We have, in fact, to pass on 
nearly a century before we again meet with them. 

The author who next names them ia Ammianus Marcellinus, 
who flourished about A.D. 380. He describes how about the 
year 364, the Picts and Saxons, the Scots and Attacots ravaged 
the coasts of Britain. (Op. cit., Bohn's trans., 413.) Four years 
later he teUs us that the Picts were divided into two nations, 
the Dicaledones and the Vecturiones, and that while they with 
the Scots and Attacotti were ravaging one part of Britain, the 
Franks and Saxons who lived on the frontiers of Gs^ul, were 
also ravaging the coimtry wherever they could effect an entrance 
by sea or land, plundering and burning and murdering all the 
prisoners they could take. (Id., 453-4.) Here it will be noted 
that the Saxon attacks are specifically said to have been made 
by invaders from the borders of Gaul. 

The same author teUs us that in the year 360 a vast multitude 
of Saxons burst forth, and having crossed the difficult passage of 
the ocean, made towards the Boman frontier by forced marches. 

VOL. vn. Y 

Digitized by 


298 The EtTmdogy of Gemiany. 

The first brunt of their attack fell upon the Count Nannenus, a 
veteran general of great merit and experience. He waa wounded 
in the struggle, and asked for assistance of the Emperor, who 
sent Severus. According to Ammianus the Saxons were so dis- 
concerted at the brilliant appearance of the stcuidards and eagles, 
that they implored peace and pardon. This was granted them 
after some discussion, one of the terms being that they should 
supply a certain number of young men for military service. 
They were then allowed to withdraw to their own country, on 
leaving their baggage .behind; the Romans, with the basest 
treachery, having agreed to their terms, planted an ambuscade 
in which they expected to entrap the unwary strangers ; but 
some of their people were too eager, and the Saxons being 
warned in time, fell upon them with a terrible yell, and 
committed a dreadful slaughter. Another body of Bomans 
however, came to the rescue ; the battle was renewed, and was 
fought desperately. None of the Saxons, says Ammianus, 
returned home, for not one of them survived the slaughter ; and 
although, says the candid historian, an impartial judge will blame 
the action as treacherous and disgraceful, still if he weighs 
all the circumstances, he will not regret that a mischievous 
band of robbers was at length destroyed, when such an 
opportunity presented itself. (Id., 493-4.) I am afiraid 
posterity hardly endorses the complacent conclusion of the 
Eoman historian, and wiU be apt to say that when the coasts 
of the empire were presently harried most bitterly, and their 
towns burnt, that it was not without ample provocation. One 
important fact mentioned in this paragraph, to which attention 
must be attentively directed, is that we are told the Saxons 
when they made their descent on the empire, came by sea, and 
after a long voyage. This is surely consistent with their 
having come from Holstein and the borders of the Elbe, but not 
with their having come from Nether Saxony, which at no point 
touches the sea. 

Ammianus Marcellinus again mentions the Saxons a few 
years later, and tells us how about the year 374 they 
attacked the empire with extreme ferocity, making descents 
in every direction where they were least expected, and 
penetrated into the inland districts. They were, he tells us, 
attacked by Valentinian, and destroyed, but again by treachery, 
and he recovered all the booty which they were carrying off. 
(Id,, 567.) 

Our next author is the poet Claudian, who flourished about 
the year 400. In his panegyric on the fourth consulship of 
Honorius, A.D. 398, he says : — 

Digitized by 


The Migration of the Saxons. 299 

*' Quid rigor stemuB ofoli, quid sidera prosont, 
Ignotumqae fretum ? Maduerunt Saxone fuso 
OrcadeB, incaluit Fictorum sanguine Thule 
Sootorum cumulos flevit gladalis leme." — (Saxones, Com* 

mentatio, etc., MoUer, 10 { Latham's " English Language," 46 ; Mon. Hist. 

Brit., zoriiL) 

Again, in his address to Eutropius, in 399 : — 

" Turn sic orsa loqui (Boma) Quantum te prindpe possim 
Non longinqua decent ; domito quod Saxone Tethys 
Mitior, et fracto secura Britannia Picto." — (Afon. Hist. Brit., 
loc. eit.) 

Again, in his poem on the first consulate of Stilicho, in 

A.D. 400:— 

** niius effeotum curis, ne tela timerem 
Sootica, ne Piotum tremerem, ne litore toto 
Prospicerem dubiis renturum Saxona Tentis." — {Id.) 

Lastly, in his Epithalamium on Palladius and Celerina, he 
says : — 

"... Constringit in unum. 
Bparsas imperii vires, ouneosque recenset 
Dispositos : quss Sarmatiois custodia ripis 
Que sffivis objecta Gctis, qu» Saxona franat 
Tel Sootum legio," etc. — {id.) 

These rhetorical passages are rather of value as showing how 
wide-spread the terror of the Saxon arms was, and in whose 
compmy they generally were, than for aught else. 

We now come to the time when the famous survey of the 
empire was made, which is known as the " Notitia Dignitatum 
Imperii," which, as I have said, was written about the b^;inning 
of the fifth century. We find in that document, that a part of the 
littus Maritimum had acqiured the name littus Saxonicum; 
thus we read, "sub dispositione viri spectabilis ducis tractus 
Armoricani et Nervicani tribunus cohortis primae novaa 
Armoricae, Grannona in litore Saxonico." Grannona has been 
accepted by the antiquaries of Normandy as without doubt 
identical with Granville in the Cotentin, (Schaumann, op. 
eU., 6.) 

Eastward it extended at least as far as Marcq, in the 
neighbourhood of Calais ; *' Marcis, in litore Saxonico," as it is 
called. This name, which means march or frontier, doubtless 
points to their eastern limit. We may take it therefore with 
Schaumann, that the Littus Saxonicum in Gaul comprised the 
whole of Normandy, a part of Artois, and also the northern part 
of the Roman province of Lugdunensis Secunda. {Op. dt., 6 ; 
Dircks, 16, note 5.) 

On the opposite site of the Channel was a second Littus 

Y 2 

Digitized by 


300 The EtTmology of Germany. 

Saxonicum, which is described as "sub dispositione viri 
spectabilis comitis Littoris Saxonici per BrittaniancL" The 
names of the stations within the jurisdiction are given as 
Branodunum (i.e., Brancaster in Norfolk), Grariannonum 
(Yarmouth), Eegulbio (Reculvers), Eutupiae (Richborough), 
Dubris (Dover), Anderida (Pevensey), Portus Adumi ; so cdled 
from the River Adur, and now represented by Bramber Castle 
(Lewin, in " Archaeologia," 439) ; Othon8B,the Ithancester of the 
Saxons, situated at Saint Peter's Head, in the parish of Bradwell in 
Essex (Lewin, op. ci^. 439); and Lemanis (Lynme). (Mon; 
Hist. Britt., xxv.) 

As Dr. Latham says, it is safe to say that the whole line of 
coast from the Wash to the Southampton water, was in the reign 
of Honorius, if not earlier, a Littus Saxonicum. Although 
there was a Littus Saxonicum on either side of the channel, it 
was only on the British side that we find an oflScial count of 
the Saxon shore, and this leads Schaumann to the conclusion 
otherwise probable, that at this time the maritime tract of 
northern Cfaul was a dependence of Britdn. (Op. cit,, 7.) It 
would seem that Eutupiae or Eichborough had taken the place 
of Boulogne as the station of the fleet. We thus find the 
borders of the English Channel on either side named Littus 
Saxonicum. Whence did it derive this name ? Some writers 
would have it that it was derived from the fact that this tract 
of land was subject to the attacks of the Saxon pirates, and 
was thence designated Littus Saxonicimi ; but as Lappenberg 
says, this appears as contrary to the principles of sound philo- 
logy, as it is unhistorical. (Op. cU., I, 46.) As Palgrave says, it 
would be an anomalous thing to find a country called after its 
invaders, and not after its inhabitaots ; and the view would pro- 
bably never have been urged unless with the intention of 
bolstering up the traditions and fables about the early colonisa- 
tion of Britain contained in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. The 
only reasonable conclusion is, that the Littus Saxonicum took its 
name from the people who settled there, who, as Dircks says, 
came from the neck of the Danish peninsula, and passing by 
the land of their relatives, the Frisians, who were a brave race, 
and much attached to their coimtry, pljmted themselves as 
colonists in the lands of the empire, which was growing weaker 
and decaying. This view is tiie only reasonable one. That 
many of the Saxons were not mere pirates at this time, but 
were in close relation with the empire, we may gather from the 
same " Notitia," wheife in describing the garrisons of the eastern 
part of the empire, we read of an Ala Saxonica being 
stationed in Phoenicia. (Schaumann, op. ciL, 20.) They thus 
furnished recruits to the Eoman armies, like their relatives the 

Digitized by 


The Migration of the Saxons. 301 

Batavians, etc., and were therefore at this time in all probability 
settled on the Boman frontier. 

This fact is again supported by Jomandes, who tells us that in 
the campaign which ^tius fought against the Huns in 431, he 
was assisted irUer alia by detachments from the Saxon colonies 
of Armorica. 

We may be certain therefore, that at the commencement of the 
fifth century, the coasts of the channel on either side were either 
partially or completely settled with colonies of Saxons. 

Dr. Quest, in a famous paper published in the Salisbury 
volume of the " Transactions of the Archaeological Institute," and 
which is not less remarkable for its learning than for its extra- 
ordinary reasoning, has attempted to answer the arguments of 
Kemble and others on this head. He argues in the first place, that 
there is no evidence of the opposite coast of Gaul having been 
occupied by Saxon colonists before the invasion of Hengist in 
Kent ; but the " Notitia " proves the contrary, if our arguments 
are sound, since it was written fifty years before the arrival of 
Hengist as given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Doubtless, feel- 
ing this. Dr. Guest proceeds to argue against the usual and natural 
interpretation of the phrase " Littus Saxonicum." He argues as 
if littus and limes connoted the same thing. limes unques- 
tionably meant a march or frontier, and was applied in the 
phrase " limes Saxonicus " to the frontier line between the 
Danes and the Saxons in Holstein; but littus means shore, 
and as I have already mentioned there was actually a mark 
proper, bounding the Saxon shore on the east, and still repre- 
sented by the village of Mark : " Marcis in Littore Saxonico," is 
the phrase in the " Notitia," and Mark, be it noted, is not a Celtic 
or I^tin gloss, but a Teutonic one. 

Dr. Guest strengthens his contention by a statement that in 
one instance, and that, according to him, the most important, the 
Count of the Saxon shore in Britain is styled not Comes littoris 
Saxonici, but comes limitis Saxonici. His words are, " when 
the officer commanding in this district is formally mentioned, 
and his authority defined, he is styled comes limitis Saxonici per 
Britanniam." In two other places where he is merely men- 
tioned as one of the subordinates of some imperial officer of 
higher grade, he is distinguished as Comes littoris Saxonici per 
Britannias. The use of the plural number seems to show, that 
in this phrase the compiler was using vague and general 
language. The more definite title was no doubt the official 
one." {Op. cit., 33.) I am afraid that even this ingenious argument 
must be surrendered, for I find from the later and more critical 
edition of the " Notitia "by Boking, that the reading of limes for 
littus in one place is not sustainable. (Schaumann, op. cit., 8.) 

Digitized by 


302 ITie Ethnology of Oermany. 

The arguments of PaJgrave, Kemble, Schaumann, and Dircks 
on this head seem to me imanswerable. I will quote what 
Kemble says as singularly apposite. " The term littus Saxoni- 
cum/* he says, " has been explained to mean rather the coast 
visited by or exposed to the ravages of the Saxons, than the 
coast occupied by them : but against this loose system of philo- 
logical and historical interpretation I b^ emphatically to pro- 
test ; it seems to have arisen merely from the uncritical spirit in 
which the Saxon and Welsh traditions have been adopted as 
ascertained facts, and from the impossibility of reconciling the 
account of Bede with the natural sense of the entry in the 
" Notitia ; " but there seems no reason whatever for adopting an 
exceptional rendering in the case ; and as the Littus Saxonicum 
on the mainland was that district in which members of the 
Saxon confederacy were settled, the Littus Saxonicum per 
Brittanias unquestionably obtained its name from a similar 
circumstanca" (" Saxons in England," edition Birch, I, 14) 

We may add to the arguments here and previously employed, 
another drawn from the names of the towns mentioned as the 
stations within the Littus Saxonicum. Several of these, as 
Dr. Haigh has pointed out, bear names of distinctly Teutonic 
type, and were doubtless derived from their Saxon holders. 
Thus Eegulbium, the modern Reculvers, seems undoubtedly 
compoimded with the Teutonic name Eaculf, Anderida with the 
Teutonic name Anderid. " The name of Dover, latinised into 
Dubris," says Mr. Isaac Taylor, " reminds us of Dourves on the 
Saxon shore, near Bayeux ; and of Dovercourt in the intensely 
Teutonised district near Harwich, as well as of Dovrefield in 
Norway. Mr. Lewin, however, derives it from the river Dur, 
which flows close by. (Archaeologia, 41, 436.) Thanet, also a 
Teutonic name, appears in the pages of Solinus, an author not 
later than the fourth century." (" Words and Places," 146.) 
These facts seem to show overwhelmingly that the English 
shores were settled by a large Saxon colony long before the 
time of Hengist. 

Having discussed the notice in the " Notitia," we have now to 
resort once more to the panegyrists, and shall quote from Sido- 
nius ApoUinaris, who wrote about 455, He tells us in one of 
his epistles, that an envoy from Saintongne reported upon the 
new ships and tactics adopted against the Saxons, whom he 
designates archpirates, and further tells us they were not only 
acquainted with the sea, but were at home there. (Moller, 
op. cit., 10, note, 32.) 

To these epistles of Sidonius ai-e added certain verses ; among 
them we find the following : — 

Digitized by 


TJie Migration of the Saxons. 303 

" Istic Sazona ccerulum yidemuB 
Assuetum ante salo solum timere 
Cujus Teoticis extimas per oras." 

Addition to Epistle ix : — 

" Non contenta suos tenere morsus 
Altat laninem marginem comarum 
Et sic crinibus ad cutem reciflis 
Decrescit caput aditurque vultufl." 

Again, at the end of Epistle viii : — 

" Quin et Aremoricua piratam Bazona tractus 
Sperabat, cui pelle suum sulcare Brlttanum 
LuduB et assueto glaucum mara findere lembo.*' — 

(Moller, op, eU., note.) 

Again :— 

". . . . Victricia Cesar (i.e., Julius) 
Signa Caledonios transTexit adusque Britannos 
Fuderit et quanquam Sootum et cum Sazone Fictum." — 

(Mon. Hist. Brit., C.) 

We must now have recourse to another set of authorities, 
namely, the orthodox accounts of the landing of the Saxons in 

When we compare the various notices we have mentioned, 
with the traditional accounts preserved in the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle, we shall indeed wonder at the credulity of some 
modern historians. 

Let us commence with the South Saxons. We have three 
notices of them in the Chronicle before the arrival of Augustine. 
In the first we are told how, in 477, iEUi, with his three sons, 
Cymen, Wlencing, and Cissa, landed in Sussex ; we are then 
told they defeated the Welsh in 485, and lastly, that in 491 they 
destroyed the people of Anderida. 

Now in regard to the first notice, we are told the invaders 
came in three ships. Hengist and Horsa are likewise said to 
have invaded Kent with three keels. The West Saxons also 
arrived in three ships. The three Gothic tribes of the Ostrogoths, 
Visigoths, and (Jepidse also went in three ships to the mouth of 
the Vistula. The Longobards migrated in three divisions. " The 
readiest belief in fortuitous resemblances and coincidences," says 
Kemble, " gives way before a number of instances whose agree- 
ment defies all the calculation of chances." (Op. cit., i, 16.) 

JFiWi, the invader, bears a name quite foreign to the Saxons, 
while it is a well-known name among the Angles, two of their 
kings having borne it. I have small doubt that his name has 
migrated from some northern source. " It is remarkable," as Lap- 
penberg says, " that iEUi of Sussex is the only one of the founders 
of Saxon kingdoms whose genealogy is not given, which is in 

Digitized by 


•304 The Ethnology of Qtrmany, 

itself a very marked fact. Again, we are told by Bede, he was 
the first Bretwalda. It is strange that a second one is not named 
for a century ; and if, as Lappenberg urges, we accept the state- 
ments of Bede and the Chronicle as to the facts of the inva- 
sion, and if we take into consideration the narrow compass of 
the Germanic possession in Britain at that time, we may safely 
ascribe the Bretwaldaship of -^EUi to the liberal pen of the poet 
who has left us so circumstantial an account of these early con- 
flicts." (Op. cit, i, 106.) 

I believe that he has been manufactured out of some mis- 
understood reference to the northern uElli, the son of Ida, who 
was a Bretwalda. 

.^mi's three sons, we are told, were called Cymen and Wlencing 
and Cissa. As Mr. Earle and others have pointed out, these names 
appear to be only fanciful, the offspring of rude etymological 
speculations, answering as they do to the names of three Sussex 
townships (" Parallel Chronicles," Introduction, ix^ ; Cissa at 
Chichester (Cissan Ceaster) and Cisbury; Wlencmg at Lan- 
cing ; and Cymen, according to Mr. Daniel Haigh, at Keynor 
(Cymenresore), in Selsey. (" Conquest of Britain," 270.) The 
charter in which Cymenesora is mentioned, is however marked as 
spurious by Kemble. 

It is curious that the capital of the South Saxons should in 
the legend have been called after Cissa, and not after his father 
iEUi, who was living, according to the Chronicle, in 491. 

It may be that -^lli has also been created out of Elstead in 
Sussex. (Haigh, op. ci^., 270.) The names of -Dili's three sons 
are not mentioned by Bede, nor by the Welsh annalists, and 
were, there can be no doubt, manufactured like so many other 
eponymous names were elsewhere, from geographical sites. 

It is well nigh certain &om another argument, that the names 
ol two of the sites referred to were given them in Boman times. 
This follows from the second elements of the names being Latin, 
6.^., ora in Cymenes-ora, and ceaster in Cissan-ceaster. It was 
not the habit of the Saxons after their landing to found new 
settlements on Koman sites, and to give them mongrel names 
compounded of those of their chiefs and of Latin particles. Where 
we find the latter, we find old cities which date from before the 
Teutonic c&nqv/est, although some of them no doubt date from 
the times of Teutonic settlement in Eoman days. Again, 
Anderida, which the invaders are said to have besieged in 491, 
and killed all the Britons there, was, as we have shown, one of 
the towns of the Littus Saxonicum, and colonised no doubt by 
them long before. 

The whole account of the foundation of the South Saxon 
State is in fact a fable, to be classed with the fables about the 

Digitized by 


The Migration of the Saxons. 305 

descent of the Britons from Brutus, and of the Danes from Dan ; 
and I have no doubt that the plantation of that district, and 
perhaps also of the country north of the Weald, dates from the 
colonisation of " the Saxon shore *' in the days of the later 
Boman empire. 

Let us now consider the Saxons further north. Here they 
in later times apparently formed two sections, the Middle 
and East Saxons, in Middlesex and Essex. 

" No territory," says Lappenberg, "ever passed so obscurely into 
the hands of an enemy, as the north bank of the Thames, where 
the kingdom of the East Saxons comprised the counties of 
Essex and Middlesex, of which the latter continued, probably 
for some time, in a state of independence." {Op, city i. 112.) 

I can find no evidence anywhere of Middlesex ever having 
formed a separate kingdom, and the conjecture that it did so, 
which is very general, has no doubt arisen on A priori grounds 
only. I believe, on tiie contrary, that the Middle Saxons were 
formerly in contact with the South Saxons, and probably 
occupied Kent, whence they were forced inland by the invasion 
of the Jutes, who when they landed, landed on the Littus 
Saxonicum. It was when the Jutes interposed a barrier 
between Sussex and Essex, that the names South, Middle and 
East were doubtless applied to the various sections of the 
Eastern Saxons. It seems incredible that if we accept the 
date of the Chronicle, namely, 477, for the foundation of the 
kingdom of the South Saxons, that the former should have 
been called South Saxons at aU. They were the first Saxons 
to come. They would have styled themselves Saxons simply, 
and given qualifying names to the others. But such was not 
the case ; and we can only explain it by supposing that all 
were fragments of a homogeneous race which was scattered 
and broken. Again, if there had been any early annals and 
traditions about the royal races of South Britain, we may be 
certain that Middlesex, with its chief city of London, the capital 
of the country, and its most famous centre, would not have been 
left blank. 

Again, in reference to the East Saxons. It is to be remarked 
that no account of the foundation of their kingdom is given 
either by Bede or in the Chronicle, a proof that no traditions 
survived. It is only when we come down to the twelfth century 
that we find Florence of Worcester, Henry of Huntingdon, and 
William of Malmesbury, constructing genealogies for their kings, 
which are clearly fabulous. Henry of Huntingdon dates the 
commencement of their kingdom in 527. (Mon. Hist. Brit., 
712.) William ofMalmesbury dates it in 587. The former calls 
their first king Ercanwine, while the genealogical table attached to 

Digitized by 


306 The Ethnology of QerTnanyJ 

Florence of Worcester, makes their first king be named iEscwine. 
The Ercanwine of Huntingdon is no doubt a corruption, as both 
he and Florence agree in making him the son of Offa. Both 
agree in making ^cwine's son Sledda, and Sledda is made the 
first king of the East Saxons by William of Malmesbuiy. 
-iEscwine is said to have reigned the fabulous time of sixty years. 
His name is merely a corrupt patronymic, connected with JEac, 
the stem father of the Jutish race in Kent ; and this explains 
our difl&culty. The first re^y historical person in the history 
of the East Saxons was Sebert, the nephew of Ethelbert, the 
king of Kent, in whose time Christianity was first planted in 
Essex. And I have no doubt that the later race of Essex kings 
was derived from the Jutish kings of Kent The Chronicle in 
fact tells us Sebert was appointed king by -Ethelbert. Pre- 
viously to the Jutish invasion, Essex formed a portion of the 
littus Saxonicum, as Lappenberg has in fact suggested. {Op. dt., 
112.) Then it had no separate kings or chiefs, but was subject 
like the rest of the Saxon shore to the Roman rulers of Britain. 
And when it had separate kings, they seem to have been merely 
administrative oflBcers appointed by the rulers of Kent. As 
Palgrave says, though Sebert was king of Essex, yet Ethelbert 
joined in all important acts of government This was the fate of 
Essex ; it was called a kingdom, but it never enjoyed any poli- 
tical independence, being always subject to the adjoining kings. 
(Palgrave, " History of the Anglo-Saxons, 40.") In regard to both 
the South Saxons and East Saxons, in confirmation of my con- 
tention that they were never independent kingdoms, but merely 
appanages or dependent viceroyalties, is the very extraordinary 
fact that neither of them had a coinage ; all the really indepen- 
dent sovereignties of Britain at this time, such as Wessex, Kent, 
Mercia, East Anglia, Deira and Bemicia, had a coinage. 

As the error is a very perverse and general one, I am tempted 
to strengthen my position still further by a quotation from 
Palgrave, that most able scholar, to whose researches we owe more 
than one can well calculate. He says, " Concerning the con- 
quest of the eastern shores of Britain, the British bards are as 
dumb as the Anglo-Saxon chroniclers. No conquests in the 
ancient territories of the Iceni are claimed by the victors ; no 
defeats lamented by the vanquished. Both parties, both nations 
are equally silent. If, as is very probable, this part of the 
Littus Saxonicum had begun to receive a permanent Saxon 
colonisation during the existence of the Boman empire, we 
may suppose that these settlements spread the way for 
additional colonies, who occupied the coimtry without further 
struggle or conflict, for it is very remarkable that the Britons 
have not even preserved a tradition respecting this coimtry." 

Digitized by 


The Migration of the Scucons, 307 

("History of the English Commonwealth," i, 384-5.) "Again" 
as Mr. Isaac Taylor says, " in Essex and Suffolk there is a 
smaller proportion of Celtic names than in any other district of 
the island, and this would indicate that the Germanisation of those 
counties is of very ancient date." (" Words «uid Places," 144.) 
I hold therefore that in regard to the South Sajcons, the Middle 
Saxons, and the East Saxons, they made no conquests from the 
Welsh, but were descendants from colonies planted along the 
channel in the days of the Eomans. This opens up a new vista 
of inquiry, which I hope to prosecute further when we deal 
with the Jutes in a future paper. Having examined the littus 
Saxonicum in Britain, let us turn to its complement across the 

Schaumann argues, as I think, very forcibly, that the 
settlement of the Saxons on both shores of the Channel was 
the work of Carausius, who we learn from Eutropius (IX, chapter 
xxi) was on terms oif friendship with the Saxon and French 
pirates. Their settlement on either coast was accompanied by 
the foundation of new towns, and alterations in the topo- 
graphical nomenclature. Of a famous old station in the land 
of the Viducassi, nothing more is now heard. Its site has been 
fixed by the Eoman antiquaries at Vieux. Alauna, the chief 
town of the UneUi, probably now represented by Valognes, also 
disappears, while Gessoriacum, the chief port on the coast, is 
renamed Bononia. 

That the new people on either shore of the Channel were 
planted as colonists, and did not occupy the land as hostile 
invaders, appears from a curious fact to which suflBcient 
attention has not been drawn. In the districts of Bayeux and Cou- 
tances, were planted, according to the " Notitia " " Leeti gentiles," 
and also Franks and Suevi, the latter a generic name, probably 
including Saxons. In the district of Senonia Lugdunensis, there 
was a ftaefectus Lsetorum Teutonicianorum, which Schaumann 
explains as the superintendent of the German colonists. This 
being one of the earliest instances of the use of the word 
Teutonic in a generic sense. (Schaumann, op. cit, 15.) I 
would like to add to these facts, one overlooked by M. Schaumann, 
namely, the existence of the well-known Lathes in Kent, no 
doubt derived from these Lseti. These Lathes existed elsewhere 
in England, and were perhaps general in those districts forming 
the Littus Saxonicum. They were, at all events, found in old 
times in Warwickshire. (See Dugdale's " Warwickshire.") 

The Saxons then, as I contend, were planted as colonists, 
like other similar colonists, they retained no doubt their own 
institutions, religion, and organisation, and furnished the empire 
with a contingent of irregulars, were in fact rather feudatories. 

Digitized by 


308 The Ethnology of Germany, 

than subjects; while the Comes Littoris Saxonici filled a 
position probably similar to that of the late Austrian Governor of 
the military districts of Slavonia. 

When the Eoman authority became weak and impotent, the 
various miHtsiry colonists apparently broke away from their allegi- 
ance, slowly but definitely, and haviug no one to control them 
efficiently, became dangerous neighbours. It is thus we explain 
the passages in Ammianus Marcellinus about the Saxon inroads 
in the reigns of Valentinian the First and Second. (Schaumann, 
18.) These attacks are contemporary with another very 
eloquent one. Among the Eoman stations in Normandy, 
Bayeux was probably the most important, and there there are 
still found an immense number of remains; but their date 
does not come later thjm the time of Valens and Gratian, when 
they suddenly cease, as if the Eomans were then ousted by their 
unruly colonists. Still, as I have mentioned, we find a cohort 
of Saxons among the Eoman troops in the east, mentioned in 
the " Notitia,'* while Jomandes reports that a contingent of the 
race assisted -Stius in his wars, but that they had ceased to be 
subjects, and were now allies. From the narrative of Zosimus, 
we learn that not only Britain, but also Armorica (which term, 
probably, was used in its wide sense), was free from Eoman 
control. The Eomans returned for a short interval in 416, under 
the prefecture of Exuperantius and Littorius (Schaumann, 21). 
But a more vigorous foe was at hand. We read how in 428 
Chlodio, the chief of the Franks, who was settled with his 
people at Duysburgh, advanced by Cambray as far as Arras, and 
in near neighbourhood therefore to the Littus Saxonicum. 

The auxiliaries furnished by Armorica to -^tius in 457, among 
whom the Saxons are specially named, as I have mentioned, 
are referred to in a very important phrase by Jomandes. He 
says of them, "quondam milites Eomani, tunc vero jam in 
numerum auxiliariorum acquisiti," i.e., the former subjects had 
now become allies. 

The Eoman hold upon Gaul was now reaching its term, and 
the Franks finaUy overwhelmed it. Inter alia, they no doubt 
came into conflict with the Saxons of the maritime tract, a race 
too proud to bend easily to the yoke of the Franks, and we 
accordingly find that a section of the Saxons was busy 

.^idius, the Eoman ruler of Gaul, was dead, and the Franks 
were governed by the licentious Childeric, father of Clovis. It 
was now, and about the year 464, that we are told by Gregory 
of Tours, that Odoaker (Adovacrius in his orthography) with his 
Saxons went to Angers, which with other towns gave him 
hostages. At Angers he was apparently soon joined by the 

Digitized by 


The Migratum of the Saxons, 309 

Frank chief Childeric, who put the Count Paul (doubtless the 
Boman Governor) to death. A struggle now ensued between 
the Franks and the Saxons, in which the latter were defeated, 
and fled, leaving many dead behind them. Their islands, we are 
told, were taken and ravaged by the Franks, who killed many of 
their inhabitants. Childeric, we are told, made a treaty with 
Odoaker, and they together subjected the Alemanni who had 
invaded Italy. {Op. cit, II, xviii, and xix.) The islands^ here 
mentioned were, according to some, the islands in the estuary 
of the Loire. (See Spener " Notitia Grermaniaa Antiquse," 362, 
note; Moller, op. dt., 29.) But Schaumann identfees them 
more probably with the Channel Islands. (Op, dt,, 24.) 

The " Chron. Moissiacense," in reporting the same event, says 
Odoaker went by sea with a naval host to Angers. (Moller, 
op. cit., 29 ; note, 79.) 

I have small doubt that it was the pressure of the Franks 
that set Odoaker in motion. He went, as I have shown from 
the Chronicle of Moissiac, with a naval host. The Saxons were 
still sea folk, and I have no doubt whatever that the same 
pressure which sent him away, drove many of the Saxons beyond 
the Channel to settle on the opposite coasts of Britain. I shall 
refer to these fugitives again presently. 

It would seem that a large body of the colonists from the 
Littus Saxonicum must have gone, for we now find them reduced 
to much narrower limits. A proof of their former extension 
inland is to b6 collected from the fact that in the " Gesta 
E^um Francorum," the pagus Suessionensis is on one occasion 
called Saxonegus, and Fredegar, in his chronicle, calls the town 
of Soissons Saxoms. (Schaumann, 28). 

The chief settlement of the Saxons which remained was in the 
district of Bayeux. On turning to Gregory of Tours we find him 
in the year 578 describing the campaign of the Frank Kin g 
Chilperic against the Bretons. He teUs us the men of Tours, 
of Poitiers, of Bayeux, of le Mans, and of Angers, marched with 
many others into Brittany to attack Waroch, the son of Malo, 
and halted on the River VUaine. We are told that Waroch 
there fell unexpectedly upon the Saxones Baiocassenses, ie., the 
Saxons of Bayeux, and killed the greater part of them. He 
afterwards made peace with Chilperic, gave his son as a hostage 
and also surrendered the town of Vannes. {Op. cit.) Here we 
find the Saxons of Bayeux mentioned as an integral part of the 
people of the Frank kingdom and fighting, under the royal 

A few years later, namely, about the year 590, during the 
reign of Childebert, we are told how the Bretons committed 
great ravages in the neighbourhood of Nantes and Eennes, and 

Digitized by 


310 The Eihrtology of Oermany, 

thereupon Guntran, the king of Burgnndy, the uncle and patron 
of Childebert, ordered an army to march against them, headed by 
Beppolem and Ebrachain, who quarrelled on the way. Beppolem 
was a persona ingrata to Fredegunda, the famous Messalma of 
these times ; and we are told she sent the Saxons of Bayeux, who 
wore their hair cut short like the Bretons and also dressed like 
them, to the assistance of Warock Beppolem marched against 
these confederates alone, and fought against them for two days, 
killing many Bretons and Saxons. Meanwhile, Ebrachain 
remained behind, and determined not to join in the fray until he 
heard that Beppolem was killed. This happened on the third 
day after many of his men had perished and he had himself been 
wounded, when we are told Waroch and his Saxons fell on him 
and killed him. On the approach of Ebrachain, Waroch tried 
to escape with his treasures by sea " to his islands," t.e., probably 
to the Channel Islands ; but his ships were wrecked, and he had 
to sue for peace. (Gregory of Tours x, 9.) 

Several names which occur at this time seem to me to have 
belonged to Saxons of this maritime colony. Thus Leudovald, 
bishop of Bayeux, and Marculf, the missionary to the Channel 
Islands, &c., while it is not improbable that Waroch, who has a 
very Teutonic looking name, was also a Saxon. 

The adventure last described was the last in which the 
Saxons of Gaul took a conspicuous part. They now became 
(such of them as remained behind at least), subjects of the 
French Empire. The notices we have collected, and the 
positions they occupied, prove that they must have been a very 
important element in the population of Northern Gaul, and their 
influence upon Breton history has not been sufficiently 
appreciated. This is a subject, however, beyond our present 

In order to complete my survey of the Continental Saxons, I 
will now add one or two further notices of them which I have 
met with. 

The Saxons, as I have shown in a previous paper, although 
not Kheruskans proper, occupied the land of the Kheruskans, 
and became in consequence Kheruskans, as the English became 
Americans. We thus explain how it is that in the life of the 
missionary Saint Eligius, who spread the faith among the Saxons 
of Gaul, we are told that in order to make himseK understood 
among them, he sought out an interpreter who knew the Blhe- 
ruskan speecL (Schaumann, 16.) 

The Saxons, as I have said, were thickly settled in Brit- 
tany itself. This we learn from Venantius Fortunatus, in 
his poem addressed to Felix Bishop of Nantes, speaks of his 
civilising and converting the Saxons. (Spener, op, cit, 365, note.) 

Digitized by 


The Migration of the Saxom, 311 

Let us now come down a little later. We find in a capitulary 
issued by Chwles the Bald in 844, that he ordered sevend missi 
dominici to visit Neustria or Normandy ; and among the districts 
he orders them to visit, were two named the Otlingua Saxonica, 
and the Otlingua Harduini. (Dupont, " Le Cotentin et ses Hes," 
83.) In another document of the same reigii, we find the king 
granting certain estates in the same district of Otlingua Saxonica. 
(licquet's " Normandy *' i, 33.) This district was probably sit- 
uated in the district of Calvados, and was no doubt named from its 
Saxon settlers. I shaU revert to it agan presently. 

In the memoirs of the Society of Antiquaries of Normandy, 
we read that a coin of Charles the Bald was found in the year 
1818, at Caen, with this inscription on the obverse, Karolus 
D.6. Rex ; on the reverse J. Curti, Saxonien. 

In the same district are still two parishes known as Haute 
and Basse AUemagne, the latter was formerly known as Notre 
Dame des Champs d' AUemagne. (Schaumann, 27.) 

In the May number of the " Ausland'* for 1845, an account of 
various customs prevailing in northern France along the shores 
of the channel is given, which, as Schaumann says, are surpris- 
ingly like those found in the valley. He specially names among 
these the gathering or knots of spinning girls, the employment of 
summoners to wedding feasts with their staves (?), the ceremonial 
at banquets and on festive occasions. These customs do not 

Erevail all over Normandy and Brittany, but only in secluded 
amlets, and these are found within the limits of the ancient 
Littus Saxonicum. (Schaumann, 27-8). But perhaps the 
most striking testimony to the former presence of a large Saxon 
population along this coast, is to be gathered from its local 

The advance of the Franks caused, as I have said, a conaider- 
able migration from (Jaul. 

The migration took place probably from certain districts only, 
while we have every reason to believe that in the neighbourhood 
of Boulogne and also of Caen considerable colonies remained 
behind. In regard to the former locality, Mr. Isaac Taylor has 
examined the question with great care and ingenuity, and has 
given a very eloquent map. He says in the old French pro- 
vinces of Picardy and Artois there is a small well-defined 
district, about the size of Middlesex, lying near Calais, Boulogne, 
and Saint Omer, in which the name of tdmost every village and 
hamlet is of the pure Anglo-Saxon type ; and not only so, but 
they are most of them identically the same with village names 
to be found in England. 
Thus we have he says : — 

Digitized by 


312 The Ethnology of Oermany. 

Fsssaa Distbiot. Oosbbspofdiko Ekglish Naxss. 

Warhem . . . • . • Warham, Norfolk. 

Battekot Radcot, Oxon. 

Le Wast • Wast, Q-loucestersliire, Northumberland. 

Frethim Freton, Norfolk. 

Cohen, Oahem and Cuhen Cougham, Norfolk. 

HoUebeque . . . . Holbeck, Notts, Yorkshire, Lincoln. 

Ham, Hame, Hames . . Ham, Kent, Surrey, Essex, Somerset. 

Werwick , , . . . . Warwick, Warwickshire and Cumberland. 

Appegarbe. . . . . . Applegarth, Dumfries. 

Sangatte • • . . . . Sand^te, Kent. 

Quindal . . . • . . Windle, Lancashire. 

Inghem . . . . . . Ingham, Lincoln, Norfolk, Middlesex. 

Ore £je,Suffolk, Hereford, Northampton, Oxoa. 

Wimille Windmill, Kent. 

Gkrisendale . . . . G-risdale, Cumberland, Lancashire. 

" We have also," he says, " such familiar English forms as 
Graywick, the river Slack, Bruquedal, Marbecq, Longfosse, 
Dalle, Vendal, Salperwick, Fordebecques, Staple, Crehem, 
Pihem, Dohem, Roqueton, Hazelbrouck, and Eobeck. Twenty- 
two of the names have the ch€u:acteristic ton^ which is scarcely 
to be found elsewhere upon the Continent, and upwards of one 
hundred end in ham, hem, or hen. There are also more 
than one hundred patronymics ending in vng. A comparison of 
these patronymics with those found in England, proves beyond 
a doubt that the colonisation of this part of France must have 
been effected by men bearing the clan names which belonged to 
the Teutonic families which settled on the opposite coast. 
More than eighty per cent, of the French names are foimd in 
England, etc.'^ (" Words and Places, '' first edition, 138-41.) It is 
very curious to find that the village of Marck, the Marcis in 
littus Saxonicum as I have already mentioned, is on the eastern 
boundary of this colony of names adding another proof that the 
Littus Saxonicum was a district really colonised by the Saxons. 
The second colony of names, which represents no doubt the 
Saxones Baiocassenses of Carlovingian times, can still, according to 
Mr. Taylor, be sharply defined by means of its local names. 
" It will be seen that in the departments of the Eure and of the 
Seine Inf^rieure, where the Danish names of a later period are so 
thickly clustered, hardly a single Saxon name is to be found, 
while in the department of the Calvados, and in the central 
position of La Manche, where the Danish names are com- 
paratively scarce, their place is occupied by names of the Saxon 
type. The Northmen seem to have respected the tenure of 
their Teutonic kinsmen, and to have dispossessed only the Celtic 
tribes who dwelt to the east and north-west of the Saxon 
colony. In this neighbourhood we find Sassetot (SaxonVfield) 
Hermanville, Etreham, or Ouistreham (Westerham), Hambze, 

Digitized by 


The Migration of the Saaxms. 


Le Ham, Le Hamelet, Cottun (Cow's-yard), Elainhns, Hewland 
(Haylaad), Plumetot (Bloomfield or flowerfield), Douvres, 
which reminds us of our own Dover, and Caen, which was 
anciently written Cathem and Catheim. There are also about 
thirty patronymics. It is curious to observe in how many 
cases we find the same families on the opposite coast of Hemts, 
Dorset, Devon, and ComwalL In the whole of Cornwall there 
are only two patronymic names, and both of these are also found 
among the thirty on the opposite coast. 

Nbab Batbttx 

{Berengeville "1 
Beringuy J 
. • Bellengreyille . . 
. . Bazenrille 
. . Baubignj 
. . OaUgn J 
. . Chayigiij 
. . Cayignj 

. . Oaitign J 

. . Hardinrast « . 
. . Jayigny 

. . Potipi J 
» . Sangny 
. . Sonlangy 
. . Thoogny 

Ik ENGLAirik at 

Bemngton, Durham^ QUQwsester, 

Salop, Worcester. 
BeUinger, Hants. 
Basing* Hanta« 
Bobbing, Kent. 
CaUington, ComwaU. 
Chalymgton, Sussex } Chenogton, Suffolk. 
Covington, Huntingdon. 
rCa^di^gton» Beds, Salop; Cardington, 

Qraringham, Lincoln. 
Hardinghuisb, Wilts^ 
Jevington, Hants. 
Marrington, Salop« 
Fodington, Dorset^ 
Sevington, Kent. 
Sullington, Sussex^ 
Tonrington, Deron, 

Familibb of 
















("Words and Places," 148-9.) 

These two colonies, one in Artois and Picardy, the other in 
Calvados, were, I believe, the fragments which remained behind 
of the former Saxon population of Neustria, who once in all 
probability occupied the whole land firom Marck near Calais to 
the frontier of Brittany. The gaps represent where the Saxon 
population migrated ; and where they migrated to is the next 
and final subject of this paper. 

We have still left for consideration an important section of 
the English Saxons, namely those of Wessex. Their settlement in 
Britain I believe to have been different to that of the rest of 
the Saxons there. They did not occupy a part of the " Saxon 
shore," and the traditions about their first settlement and 
spread are more definite, but as we shall see, they are, if not 
fabulous, quite untrustworty. First in regard to their great leader 
Cerdic. I have not seen it before mentioned, but it is a very 
strange fact that this is apparently not a Teutonic name at all, 
but a British name, the well-known name Caradoc, or Ceredig, 
as it is otherwise written, and which gave its name to Cardigan ; 
and further, there seems to have been a British chief living at 
this very time who fought against the invaders, and whose name 

VOL. vn. z 

Digitized by 


314 The Ethnology of Germany. 

has apparently been borrowed by the later fabulists and anna- 
lists, but not perhaps directly. Just as we have a Cymenes 
ora in Sussex, where Cymen is said to have landed, so we are 
told that Cerdic landed at Cerdics ora, which has been identified 
with Charmouth. Here again ora is a Latin termination, making 
it almost certain that the name Cerdics ora is older than the 
Saxon invasion. These two facts make us entirely doubt the 
existence of Cerdic as a Saxon leader. I had written so far, and 
arrived at this conclusion entirely independently, when on 
turning over the pages of Palgrave, I came upon the sentence, 
" It does not diminish our perplexities to find that the Saxon 
name Cerdic is evidently the same as the British Ceretic or 
Caradoc, and that some of the British princes claimed their 
descent from this very Gewissa (ie., Cerdic's ancestor in the 
third degree), whom they describe as a female (" English Com- 
monwealth,'' I, 398, note.) 

It is not perhaps very extraordinary that I should have come 
independently to the same conclusion as Sir Francis Palgrave, 
in regard to the etymology of the name Cerdic, but it is surely 
very strange that so many recent writers should have treated 
Cerdic as a bond fide Englishman. The remark of Sir Francis 
Palgrave about Gewissa is a very fertile one. Not only was the 
name used by the Britons, and given to one of their princesses, 
but it is quite evidently not a Saxon name at all in form, but is 
in all probability of Celtic origin. The name is an interesting 
one, and for once I believe the pseudo Asser's statement to be 
a reasonable one. On naming this Gewissa, he adds a '' quo 
Britones totam illam gentem Gegwis nominant" (Mon. Hist. 
Brit., 468.) And we find a confirmation of this in the 
" Annales Cambrise," where we read under the year 900, " Albirt, 
i,t.y Alfred rex Qiuoys moritur." (/rf., 836.) Lappenberg and 
Geoffrey of Monmouth in reporting the old Welsh traditions, 
mentions the Gewissians more than once. On the other hand, 
the name is quite unknown to the English writers, except 
Bede, who tells us the West Saxons were formerly called 
G^rvissi Here, as in other places, he proves whence he derived 
his materials, namely from the old Welsh writers, among whom 
alone the name was home-grown. But Gewissa and Cerdic 
are not the only British names in this genealogy. We are 
told in it that Cerdic was the son of Elesa, Elesa of Esla and 
Esla of Giwis. Elesa and Esla seem forms of the same name, 
and neither of them have a Teutonic look, and one of them 
at least is assuredly British. Helised is named by the pseudo 
Asser as one of the Welsh kings who was contemporary with 
Alfred, while Heli is the name of a British king in Geoffrey 
of Monmouth. 

Digitized by 


Tlie Migration of the Saxons, 315 

It is almost certain therefore, that a number of the names 
in the genealogy of Cerdic as given in the Chronicle, are of 
British origin. It is very strange, as I have said, that Cerdic 
does not occur in Bede, nor is he named, so far as I can find, 
in the Welsh accounts of the invaders as one of the chiefs 
of the latter. It is further a remarkable fact, that in the 
various notices of the founders of the West Saxon monarchy 
in the Chronicle, witli one exception, the people of the island 
are called Brettas and not Walas, as in t^e narratives of the 
other invaders. All these facts make it almost certain to me, 
that the account of Cerdic is a distorted, if not utterly fabulous 
version of some Welsh tradition. But let us examine the story 
somewhat further. We are told Cerdic landed at Cerdics ora 
with his son Cjmric, in 495, and the same day fought with the 
Welsh. Nothing more is said of the invaders till the year 501. 
We are then told that Port and his two sons Breda and Magla 
came to Britain with two ships, and landed at Poilsmouth. 
Hitherto nothing is said in the Chronicle about the West Saxons ; 
but uifder the year 514 we read, that " the West Saxons came to 
Britain with three ships at the place which is called Cerdics ora, 
and Stuf and Wihtgar fought against the Britons and put them 
to flight. Elsewhere, "sub. ann. 534." Stuf and Wihtgar are 
called Cerdic's nephews ; and we are told that having conquered 
the Isle of Wight, Cerdic and Cynric gave the island to their 
two relatives. (Mon. Hist. Brit, 301.) These names and state- 
ments have been the subject of much criticism. Dr. Latham has 
made some pertinent remarks about them. " In regard to Port or 
Portus, he says it must have been simply the Latin name of 
Portsmouth, long anterior to A.D. 501. But the landing of a 
man named Port at a place called Portsmouth, is no impossi- 
bility; granted; it is only highly improbable; the improba- 
bility being heightened by the strangeness of the name itself, 
heightened also by the following fact Just as a man named 
Port hits (out of all the landing places in England) upon a spot 
with a name like his own a man named Wihtgar does the 

Now Wiht is the Anglo-Saxon form of the name Vectis, a name 
found in the Latin writers long anteiior to 530, while gar 
is a fonn of ware or waras as inhabitants. Hence just as 
£ent s= the County £ent, and Cantware = the inhabitants of 
that county, or Canticolae ; so does Wiht = Vectis, and Wiht- 
gare =: Yecticolse. Yet the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle makes it a 
man's name. The names of Port and Wihtgar give us the 
strongest possible proof in favour of the suggested hypothesis, 
viz., the "ea? post foLcto evolution of personal names out of local 
ones." (" English Language" fifth editon, 28.) 

z 2 

Digitized by 


31G The Ethnology of Oermany. 

It seems quite clear that the whole story has been manu- 
factured at a later period ; the names where the battles were 
fought as Cerdicsford, Cerdics lea and Cerdics ora are variously 
forms of Charmouth, Charford, etc. The very dates are outrageous. 
Cerdic, like Hengist, is made to reign forty years in Britain, and 
after his death Cynric, who arrived with him, reigned twenty-six 
years more." (Kemble, op. cit., 30, note). 

Port the eponymos, formed from Portus, we are told, came 
with his two sons, Bieda and Magla. I have small doubt 
myseK that Bieda and Magla are also merely eponymous names, 
and I shall have more to say about them when I come to treat 
of the Jutes. 

We are told that in 508 Cerdic emd Cynric fought with the 
British Prince Natanleod. If one wishes to see how far 
perverse ingenuity can go in building up a fabulous story, 
I would commend my hearers to read Dr. Guest's remarks on 
this name in his famous paper in the Salisbury volume of the 
" Transactions of the Archaeological Institute." It is sufficient 
here to state that such a person as Natanleod is not only 
unknown to Bede and the Welsh Chroniclers, but, to add a note 
of Mr. Earles, which I cordially endorse, he says, " In 508, a 
local name Neatanleah (now Netley) which probably means 
a pasture for oxen, is ambitiously associated with one of the 
most famous of British dynastic names." (Eaxle*s " Chronicles," 
introduction, ix.) 

Natanleod, in fact, is another name made up and constructed 
in the same fashion as Port. In 514, we are told the West 
Saxons came to Britain with three ships, and landed at Cerdics 
ora. This seems like another version of the story told in 
495 of the arrival of Cerdic and Cynric with five ships, at Cerdics 
ora. If it be not, then it is clear that Cerdic and Cynric were 
other than West Saxons. Again, as Mr Guest himselSf has said, 
it seems strange that nineteen years after the arrival of the two 
chiefs, the West Saxons should have found Britons to oppose 
them. And yet another curious fact turns up in 519, when we 
are told Cerdic and Cynric took possession of the West Saxon 
kingdom. Again Stuf and Wihtgar are made the nephews of 
Cerdic in the " Chronicle," which also makes them rule over 
Wight after it had been conquered by Cerdic, while Bede tells 
us Wight was conquered and held, not by Saxons, but by 

The fact is, the story ftx)m end to end is utterly ridiculous, 
and it is almost incredible how so many writers should have 
blindly followed it. I shall not prosecute this criticism further. 
It is enough to have shown that the Saxons, when the " Chronicle" 
was written, were in the same position as they were in the days of 

Digitized by 


T)v6 Migration of the Saxons, 317 

Bede, and had no reliable traditions about their first arrival in the 
island. Dr. Guest enlarges on runes, and conjectures at large 
upon the calendars kept with runes, but he nowhere adduces any 
evidence that runes were known to the Saxons at all. I believe 
they were utterly unknown to them, and so was writing, until 
their conversion to Christianity. The Angles used runes un- 
doubtedly, but the Angles were not Saxons, and I am confident I 
am speaking justly, when I say that neither in Westphalia, 
Engem, or Ostphadia, nor in the Littus Saxonicum of Gaul, nor 
yet in the districts occupied solely by the Saxons in England 
has a rune been found ; and further, it seems pretty certain that 
if any written calendars had existed, they woiild have existed in 
Nether Saxony and in the Gallic Saxonia, no less than in 
Britain ; nor would Bede, as he certainly did, have gone to the 
pages of Nennius and the Britons for his account of the invasion 
and of the early invaders. It is thence modem historians must 
derive an accoimt of the history of the fifth and sixth century 
in these latitudes, and not from the fables of the " Chronicle," 
which are of the same value in regard to the foundation of the 
early Saxon States, as is Livy with his stories of Romulus 
and Eemus. This, however, we cannot prosecute at present. 
Having however rid ourselves of certain fables and fabulous 
tales, we have a comparatively talmla rasa to begin our story 
with. Whence then did the West Saxons come from ? 

Bede, as we all know, tells us the Saxons came from Old 
Saxony. He tells us further the Old Saxons were otherwise 
called Ambrones. 

By Old Saxony, Bede undoubtedly understood Nether Saxony. 
His use of the sjmonym Ambrones has been a puzzle to most 
inquirers, nor am I satisfied with any of the received explana- 
tions. The nucleus of Nether Saxony was, as I have said, 
Engem, or as I would rather call it, the Weserthal, the valley of 
the Weser. Now one of the feeders of the Weser in the very 
heart of Engem, and not far from Paderbom, is the Ambra or 
Embrine. It is not unresisonable to suppose that the Nether 
Saxons who settled in this district were known as Ambrones ; 
but let us on with our story. Bede, as I have said, derives the 
Saxons from Old Saxony, by which he understjuids our Nether 

Now we have shown whence the Saxons of the Littus 
Saxonicum came, whence also the Nether Saxons came, and 
that they were both offshoots of the seafaring Holsteiners of the 
second century A.D., which was not the Old Saxony of Bede. 
And on turning to the oldest traditions extimt among the Old 
Saxons themselves, namely, those reported in the account of the 
translation of Saint Alexander, we do not find a syllable about 

Digitized by 


318 The Ethnology of Germany. 

the English Saxons being a colony from that district, but the 
reverse. The Old Saxony of Bede was shut out from the sea by 
the Frisians, except in the narrow district of Hadeln, between 
the Weser and the Elbe. Whence then did the West Saxons 
come from, whom we have reasons for believing arrived later 
than their western neighbours, and when the littus Saxonicum 
had been colonized ? I cannot find a more plausible or likely 
solution than that propounded by Schaumann, that they came 
from the other side of the EngUsh Channel. Opposite to 
Wessex lay the Otlingua Saxonica, and the ot in this phrase 
has been explained by Schaumann and Dircks as equivalent to 
oret, that is old. The former writer argues that the Old Saxony 
of the tradition was this (Jallic Saxonica, this Otlingua 
Saxonica in Normandy ; and that when the distracted Britons 
sought succour against the Picts and other invaders, they did 
not go to Nether Saxony, which was far beyond their reach, and 
doubtless also their Imowledge, and inhabited by terribly 
barbarous races, but went across the channel to the Saxon tract 
there, whose inhabitants must have been well known. I quite 
concur in this conclusion, but not in the etymology of Otlingua, 
favoured by Schaumann. I much prefer the ex^anation of it 
given by Depping and Grinmi, who derive it from Atheling or 
Etheling, the Saxon for a noble. Taylor i3ompares the name 
with Athelney, formerly Athdinga igge. ('* Words and Places," 
147.) We must remember that the beginning of the sixth 
century was synchronous with the occupation of Central and 
Northern Graul by the Franks. The latter, who were inveterate 
enemies of the Saxons, seem to have pushed them to a large 
extent from their homes along the channel, as I have already 
mentioned. One section of them, under odoaker, we find at 
Angers. We have a very interesting trace of another section in 
the life of Saint Marculf Saint Marculf was bom in 483 at 
Bayeux, and was doubtless himself a Saxon. In 511 he left 
Bayeux as a missionary, and was ordained a priest in 513 at 
Coutances. He then 3?etired for a while to a secluded spot, 
where he founded a monastery. The site was afterwards weU 
known under the name of Nanteuil. There his fame collected 
many religious about him, among others. Saint Helier, the 
proto-martyr of Jersey, an island then called Angia or Augia. 
Saint Helier, with his companion Domard, set sail after a while 
for Jersey ; and some years afterwards Saint Marculf paid them 
a visit there. (" Le Contentin et ses Hes," by Dupont, 25-34) 
It was while Saint Marculf was there that, according to the 
narrative of his life, 3,000 Saxons (no doubt a gross exaggeration 
in numbers) came in ships driven both by oars and sails to the 
island, and began to devastate it. The islanders who did not 

Digitized by 


The Migration of the Saxons, 319 

numbei more than 30 were panic-stricken, and repaired in their 
distress to Saint Marculf. He bade them trust in God and go 
out against the enemy, for God who had overwhelmed Pharaoh 
would assist them. They accordingly attacked the invaders, 
who, we are told, perished partly by the sword and partly by 
the tempest, so that none of them reached their country again. 
The lord of the island hearing of what had happened, made a 
grant of half of it to the missionary. (" Acta Sanctorum ordinis 
S. Benedicti," 1, 132.) The Saxons, were however, by no means 
all destroyed, for Saint Marculf having returned once more to 
Nanteuil to get materials for a monastery he meant to build in 
Jersey, the Saxons attacked Saint Helier while hiding among 
the rocks, and decapitated him. (Dupont, op, cit, 45.) We thus 
find the Saxons in the earlier half of the sixth century, making 
a descent upon the Channel Islands, where, judging from the 
topography, they must have settled in large numbers. 

I have small doubt myself that imder the same pressure of 
the Franks, to which I have alresuiy referred, a large body of 
the inhabitants of the Littus Saxonicum in Gaul migrated also 
across the channel and became founders of the West Saxon 
kingdom, and were the Gewissi of the Welsh authors. And 
this is in curious agreement with certain facts otherwise 
puzzling. Mr. Isaac Taylor has remarked of the country about 
Caen, "that it is divided by thick hedgerows into small 
irregular crofts> and the cottages are unmistakably English 
rather than French in structure." 

And no one can travel even cursorily through Lower 
Normandy, with its apple orchards, its cider, and its red cattle, 
without being reminded of Devonshire and Somerset. If the 
argument be of value urged by Mr. Kemble, that the simple 
patronymics ending in ing, represent the parent settlements, 
and those with the additional syllables of ham, ton, &c., the 
offshoots, then it is a strange confirmation of our contention that 
in the counties of England, comprised in the old Littus Saxoni- 
cum, the proportion of the former should be so great, while in 
the Western counties, comprised in Wessex, there should hardly 
be any of them. {&e Isaac Taylor, " Words and Places," 138.) 
This testimony is not of less value, in that it is quoted there 
in support of an entii-ely different position. 

1 have now completed my survey of the migration and settle- 
ment of the Saxons along the borders of the ChanneL In the 
next paper I hope to deal with the Saxons east of the Bhine. 
The conclusions I have arrived at are at issue with those of the 
school of history now dominant, and are of far wider importance 
than as mere ethnological facts. If the Saxons in Britain 
settled there for the most part as colonists and not as conquerors. 

Digitized by 


320 List of Presents. 

we must revise very largely the notions of our early history now 
current I hope to prosecute the fertile inquiry farther when 
we come to treat of the Jutes. 

November 13th, 1877. 
John Evans, Esq., DCL., F.RS., President, in the Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The election of Eev. J. A. Bennet, of Cadhury, Somerset, 
and F. V. Dickens, of Yokohama, was announced. 

The following list of presents was announced, and thanks were 
ordered to be returned to the respective donors. 

For the Library. 

Prom the Author. — De la difiR&rence f onctionnelle des deux hemi- 
spheres c6r6braux ; Snr la tripanation du Crane. By Dr. Paul 

From Professor F. V. Hayden. — Ethnology and Philology of the 

Hidatsa Indians. By W. Mathews. Bulletin of the United 

States' Geological and Geographical Survey of the Territories, 

Vol. Ill, Nos. 1-3. Miscellaneous Publications, Vol. Ill, No. 6. 

Bulletin of the United States Entomological Commission, Nos. 

1 and 2. 
From the Editoes. — Ueber den queren Hinterhauptswulst am 

Schadel verschiedener aussereuropaischer Volker. By Prof. 

A. Ecker. Zur Kenntniss des Korperbaues f riiherer Einwohner 

der Halbinsel Florida. By Prof. A. Ecker. 
From the Anthropological Society of Berlin. — Zeitschrift fur Ethno- 

logie. Nos. 2 and 8, 1877. 
From the Author. — Scoperte Antropologiche in Ossero. By 

Captain R. F. Burton. 
From the Authob. — La Grotta cblapresso petrella di Cappadocia 

nella pro vinda dell' Abruzzo EUerioie. By Dr. G. Nicolucci. 
From C. Eobbbts and G. L. Stbbl, Esqs. — St. George's Hospital 

Report, Vol, VIII, 1874-6. 
From the Society. — Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 

Vol. XLVI, 1876. Proceedings, ditto, Vol. XXI, Nos.4-6. 
From the Institution. — The Canadian Journal, Vol. XXV, Nos. 

6 and 7. 
From the Association.— Transactions of the American Medical 

Association, Vol. XXVII, 1876. Supplement to ditto, 1876. 

Digitized by 


List of Presents, 321 

From the Cldb. — Proceedings of the Berwickshire Naturalists* 

Clnb, 1876. 
From the Socibtt. — Proceedings of the Royal Society, Vol. XXVI, 

Nos. 181-3. 
From the Society. — Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, 

Vol. XLV, Part I, No. 3 ; Part II, No. 4. Vol. XLVI, Part I, 

No. 1 ; Part 2, No. 1. Proceedings ditto, Nos. 9 and 10, 1876, 

Nos 1-4, 1877. 
From the Editob. — ^Mat^riaux pour THistoire de THomme, June 

to August, 1877. 
From the Socibty. — ^Bulletin de la Soci6t6 d'Anthropologie de 

Paris. Vol. XII, No. 2. 
From the Society of Antiquibiss. — ^Archsaologia, or Miscellaneous 

Tracts relating to Antiquity, Vol. IV, Part. I 
From the Commission. — Comte-rendu de la Commission Imp^riale 

Arch6ologique 1872-4. Ditto, Atlas. 
From the Instituti. — Proceedings of the Boyal Colonial Institute, 

Vol. VIII, 1876-7. 
From the Authob. — ^Imperial Federation. By Frederick Young. 
From the Academy. — ^Atti della R. Accademia dei Lincei. Vol. I, 

No. 7. 
From the Academy. — Bulletin de TAcad^mie Lnp^riale des Sciences 

de St. Petersburg. Vol. XXHI, No. 4; Vol. XXIV, No. 1. 
From the Society. — Bulletin de la Soci6t6 Imp6riale de Naturalistee 

de Moscow. No 1, 1877. 
From the Assocution. — Journal of the East India Association. 

Vol. X, No. 4. 
From the Institution. — Journal of the Royal United Service 

Institution. Vol. XXI, Nos. 91-2, Appendix to Vol. XX. 
From the Society. — Journal of the Bombay Branch of the Royal 

Asiatic Society. Vol. XXII, No. 34. 
From the Institute. — Transactions and Proceedings of the New 

Zealand Institute. Vol. IX. 
From Mbs. Mobgan. — Coptic Researches. By Dr. Carl Abel. 
From the Society. — Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society. Vol. 

IX, Part II. 
From the Society. — P roceedings of the American Philosophical 

Society. Vol. XVI, No. 99. 
From F. A. Allen, Esq. — The Tribes inhabiting the Neilgherry 

Hills, 1864. 
From Jambs McClelland, Esq. — ^Morton's *' Crania Americana.*' 
From the Association. — Report of the British Association, 1876, 

From the Association. — Report and Transactions of the Devon- 
shire Association. Vol. IX, 1877. 
From the Authob. — Lecture on the Antiquity of Man. By Prof. 

T. Rupert Jones, F.R.S. 
From the Society. — Mittheilungen der Anthropologischen Qesell- 

Bchaft in Wien. Vol. VII, Nos. 4-6 
From the Society. — Jahrbuch der K. K. G^ologischen Reichsan- 

Digitized by 


322 IHscussiatt. 

stalt. VoL XXVII, No. 2. Verhandlungen, ditto, ditto, 

Nos. 7-10. 
From the Authob. — Origin of the Chinese Race ; Early Maritime 

Intercourse of Ancient "Western Nations ; Japanese Wrecks, 

&c., in the North Pacific Ocean. By. 0. W. Brooks. 
From the Editor. — Nature, to date. 
From the Editob. — Revue Scientifique. Nos. 1-19, 1877. 

Fob thb Museum. 
From Pbof. Bogdanow. — 40 casts of skulls made of pa^pier^mdchJ. 

Special thanks were voted to Professor Bogdanow for his 
"collection o£^0 papier-mdehSc^ta of sknlls, and to Mr. McLennar 
for his copy of Morton's " Crania Americana.'* 

Mr. Hyde Clarke made the following observations on Prof. 
Bogdanow's gift. 

Mr. Hyde Glabke said this collection had been offered to the 
Institute by Prof. Bogdanow with equal delicacy and liberality, 
and on every ground deserved the special tribute the President had 
proposed. Prof. Bogdanow, who had achieved a well-merited 
reputation as a man of science, had particularly devoted himself to 
the formation in the University at Moscow of a Department of 
Anthropology, which under his auspices had made successful 
progress and acquired importance. Indeed, it had justified its 
founder in proposing for next year an Anthropological Exhibition 
at Moscow. It was in connection with the Anthropological Depart- 
ment, that the Professor had formed the collection of typical skulls 
of the neighbouring Asiatic tribes, and to render it more useful to 
the world of science, he had caused these carefully prepared models 
to be formed. Of the value of them the President had spoken, and 
it had been acknowledged by the most distinguished authorities in 
this country. Prof. Bogdianow considered it to be his duty to 
offer a series of models for the acceptance of the Institute ; but in 
making this proposition, he had particularly desired him not to 
communicate it to the Institute until a decision had been obtained 
on the question of the co-operation of English Anthropologists at 
the Moscow Congress, lest Prof. Bogdanow should be refused as offer- 
ing a bribe instead of a free gift. Mr. Clarke had consulted the 
President, who considered that with the pledges already given for 
the Exposition at Paris, our colleagues here could give no effective 
assistance. This was a matter of regret to Anthropologists, but 
some suitable opportunity may present itself of assisting our friends 
at Moscow ; but at all times we should be ready to manifest our 
esteem for our fellow- worker, Professor Bogdanow. 

Digitized by 


R F. Burton.— ^/i?i^ Flak&ifroni Egypt 323 

Major General A. Lane Fox exhibited some flint flakes from 
Egypt, and the following note thereon by Captain R Burton was 


FROM Egypt. 

The little collection of 50 flakes was made by Mr. W. P. 
Hayns, of the Numismatic Society (Messrs. Greenfield, 
Alexandria Harbour Contract), who kindly forwarded it to me 
for your Museum. 

The site of the '^find*' is Helwan (les Bains), 15^ miles 
by rail south of Cairo, on the right bank of the Nile Valley, 
which irrigation would render immensely productive, and some 
2\ miles from the river. The place is well known, having of 
late years become a kind of Sanitarium. Its only interest to 
archaeologists is the presence of what appears to be a flint 
manufactory. The ** finds " have caused much sensation. The 
thorough-going Egyptologist, who holds that "art had no 
infancy in Egypt," has a personal aversion to the stone age; and 
he readily accepts the theory of Drs. Schweinfurth and Giinfeldt, 
Herr G. Eohess, and Dr. Zittel (" Bull de llnst Egypt," 
No. XIII, pp. 56-64), namely, that sudden and eocenic changes 
of temperature have produced by expansion and contraction 
what is attributed to the oMier. On the opposite side. Sir John 
Lubbock and other naturalists, finding preneolithic silex-types 
at Thebes (Valley of the Kings); at Jebd-Kilebizzeh, near Esneh; 
at Girgeh, Abydos, etc., consider the stone age proven 
in the hill-valley. They are supported by Dr. GraiUarsdot, of 
Cairo, who declares that work^ silexes have been picked up at 
Assouan (Syene), at Manga, and in the crevices of Jebel 
Silsileh ; this savant sees no reason why man should not have 
been coeval with the powerful quaternary vegetation bordering 
on the great rivw. The highly distinguished M. Auguste 
Mariette is exceedingly reserved upon the subject, and he is 
evidently right to speak only of what he has seen when actually 
working the groimds. M. Arcelin has published, in the 
" Correspondent" of 1873, " La Question PnShistorique," and has 
replied to objectors in "TAge de la Pierre et la Claasification 
Pri^hiatorique, d'apr^ les sources Egyptiennes." 

Mr. Hayns further writes to me that the exact site of the 
^find" is the stony tract surrounding the sulphur and soda- 
springs of Helwdn, extending two or three miles along the 
right side of the Nile. A friend of his when walking over the 

Digitized by 


324 H. H. HowoETH.— rA« Spread of the Slaves. 

grounds some three years ago, picked up a fine specimen of a 
saw, measuring two and a-haJf inches; and arrow heads are 
spoken of. Worked flakes and roughly-shaped spear-points 
have also been collected on the opposite river-bank. At 
Zawiyat, Ariydn (naked men's comer?), about five miles 
above the pyramids of Gi'zeh, lies the platform of a similar 
feature, now ruined ; and here, near the place where the saw 
came to hand, Mr. Hayns lately discovered a flake which appears 
to be a scraper. 

For remarks upon the collection of flint implements at Buldk 
see the '* Notice des Principaux Monuments," &c. Le Cairo, 
Moriris, fifth ed.,pp. 81-2. 

I have great doubts concerning the little collection which is 
herewith forwarded. To me only one flake, round which I have 
tied a thread, appears as if worked. The others look like mere 
6clcU8y which may be due to the causes which have overspread 
the Libyan desert with millions of specimens, numbers which, 
as Drs. Schweinfurth and Giinfeldt remark, completely forbid our 
attributing them to art. However, your practised eye may 
correct my hasty judgment, and I am anxious to leaxn the 
result of your examination. 

Trieste, June 19, 1877. EICHARD F. BUETOK 

The following papers were then read by the Director in the 
absence of the Authors^- 

The Spread of the Siaves. Part I. 

The Croats. 

By H. a HowoRTH, Esq., F.S.A. 

By your favour I have recently commenced a series of papers 
on the ethnography of Ghermany ; I find it difficult to proceed in 
this work without at the same time considering the mictions 
and changes which the Slavic races have been subject to. 
Germans and Slaves being close neighbours, with frontiers 
frequently shifting and overlapping, it is almost impossible to 
understand the revolutions which have overtaken the one race, 
nor to map out its details correctly, without at the same time 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH.— rA6 Spread of the Slaves. 325 

surveying its neighbours. I therefore propose to write a number 
of papers concurrently with the series on the Germanic races, in 
which I shall treat of the ethnography of the Slaves : and I 
find it convenient to begin with the Croats. 

The synonymy of the Croats has been collected with great 
patience by Schafarik, and from his classic work I take the 
following list of synonyms. By the Emperor Constantine 
Porphyrognitus, they were called Chrobatoi; by Cedrenos 
Khorbatoi; by Zonaras, Krabatoi; by Nicephorus Bryennios, 
Elhorobatoi by £honiates, Khrabatia; by Elhalkokondylas 
Krokatioi. The Arab Masudi caUs them Khorwatin. A gau 
in Karinthea is called Crawati in aQ early document. In deeds 
of 954 and 978 they are called Khrowat ; by Dithmar Khru- 
uati ; by the " Annafista Saxo," Krowate; in the Saxon Chronicle 
Kruwati; a village Crubate is mentioned in 1055; another 
Gravat in 1086 ; the land of Kurbatia by Lupus Protospathes ; 
Chrowati by Cosmas of Prague; Cruacia by Martin Gallus 
Croatii by Kadlulek. Alfred the Great calls them Horithi; 
Croat® and Croatia occur in native documents of 892, 925, 
1076, and 1078 ; Chrobatae in a deed of 1059, etc. In the 
Cyrillian legend of Saint Wenzel, dating probably from the 
tenth century, the name is written Khrbate, Khorbate, Khrabate ; 
Khrobate by Nestor in the copy written in 1377 ; Khrbate in the 
oldest Servian MSS. ; Khrbaten in an old Bulgarian MS. ; 
Harwati, in the Dalmatian Chronicle of Diokleas, Kharwati in 
Dalimil, etc. 

The Croats pronounce their own names Hr'wati, Horwati, 
The Serbs and Ulyrians call them Hr'wat, plural Hr'wati. In 
both cases, as in the words hrabren, hrast, hren, hvala, hud, 
etc., h stands for the old ch. The Hungarians call them Horva- 
tok, the Germans, Eroats, and Krobats. 

The original form of all these names is Ehr'watin in the 
singular, and Khr'wati in the plural, and according to all 
authorities known to me, including Schafarik, is derived from 
the Carpathians, which in old Slavic were named Krib, or 
Klhrebet. This word means a mountain or hiU, and occurs in 
composition in many Slavic localities, as Slovenski hribi in 
Steiermark ; also several places in Russia, as Ehriby, a village 
on the Eolpinka, and the Khribian woods and marshes in the 
same district ; Khrebine, a village west of Vladimir, etc. From 
Ehrib we get Khrebet, the term applied generally to \m^ 
mountain ranges by the Russians, as Yablonoi Khrebet, Uralskoi, 
Khrebet, Kamskatskoi Khrebet' etc. (/d., i, 488.) Croat 
therefore means merely em inhabitant of the Carpathians. 
According to Schafarik, the whole of the northern slopes of 
these mountains, stretching from the Sutschawa to the sources 

Digitized by 


326 H. H. HowoRTH.— 5^ Spread of the Slaves, 

of the Vistula, was known from the fifth to the tenth century as 
Khrby, and sometimes, by the permutation of consonants, Khrwy, 
or Khrwaty {id), and this is the region, according to the best 
authorities, whence the Croats originsdly came. 

The auUior to whom we are indebted for the first notice 
of the migration of the Croats, is the Emperor Constantine 
Porphyrogenitus whose notice has been sifted with great 
critical acumen and skill by Schafarik, the author of the 
" Slavonic Antiquities." Constantine tells us how in the reign of 
the Emperor Heraclius, the Avares having driven the Eomans 
out of Dalmatia, and that province having been converted into a 
desert, the Chrobati, by the Emperor's invitation, entered that 
country, drove the Avares out, and settled there. Schafarik 
dates tiie invasion of the Avares about the year 630, and their 
expulsion about 634 (Op. dt.^ ii, 241.) "Previously the 
Clux)bati lived," says the Emperor, " beyond Bagibaria, whei-e 
still live the Belo Khrobati " (i\e., the White Khrobati), which 
doubtless means the Free Khrobati, as distinguished from the 
Black or subject Khrobati. In another place he tells us that in 
his day these White Khrobati still lived in their own land, near 
the Franks, and subject to Otho the Great. In a third place, 
where he describes tie old country of the Servians, he teUs us it 
was situated beyond the land of the Turks (i.e., the Magyars), and 
was called Boiki, and was near Francia and Great or White 
Khrobatia. (Stritter, ii, 157 and 390.) As SchafiEirik says, 
there is much ambiguity in these apparently distinct statements. 
Boiki has been often supposed to represent Bohemia; but the 
land whence the Servians came was called Boiki by themselves ; 
while as is well known, Bohemia has always among the Slaves 
been called Cheky. Again, Constantine does not write the 
name Boik6, as he would have done if he wished to connect it 
with the Boii, hut Boiki (indeclinable, as was the custom of 
the Greeks in writing barbarous names). Schafarik concludes, 
as I think most justiy, that by Boiki there is no reference 
to Bohemia, but a reference to the Bussinian tribe of the 
Boyki (Eussin. Boyki, singular Boyok), who still live in 
Eastern Gallida from the Dniester to the Pruth, in the dis- 
trict of Sambor and Stryi, in the lower part of Stanislawof, and 
Kolomyi, and also scattered in the district of Chorkof and 
very probably still fiuther north, Constantine's putting 
Borki in the neighbourhood of the land of the Franks, was 
perhaps due to some confusion in his own mind between Boiki 
and Bohemia. 

Constantine in another place describes White Croatia as 
situated beyond the Turks, which with him means the Hun- 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH.— 7^ Spread of the Slaves. 327 

Again, as to Bagibaria, some would make it equivalent with 
dwellers on the Wag or the Bug; others. a corruption of Babi- 
egorbo, an old name for the Carpathians ; (Stritter, ii, 389, note.) 
Others again connect it with Bavaria ; Bavaria then stretched 
as far as the Danube, and GaUicia might well be described as 
being beyond Bavaria and the land of the Turks (i.e., of the 
Magyars). {Id., ii, 243.) 

On turning to other authorities, we find this conclusion amply 
supported. Nestor, the first Bussian chronicler, in speaking of 
the times before the arrival of the Varagians, names the Khorwati 
in close proximity with the Dulyebii, who lived on the Bug, and 
the Tiwertzi who lived on the Dniester. And he distinctly 
calls them Khrobate biele, or White Croats. In describing the 
campaign of Oleg against the Greeks, in 906, he mentions how 
he was assisted by contingents of men from the Varagians, the 
Slovenians, the people of Novgorod, the Chudes, the Kriwichi, 
the Mera, the Polani of Kief, the Derewani, the Eadimiches, the 
Severani, the Wiatiches, the Khorwati, the Dulyibii, and the 
Tiwertzi " These Khorwati," as Schafarik says, " no doubt were 
the White Khorwati, who lived beyond the Carpathians. In 
981 Vladimir declared war against Mechislaf of Poland, 
apparently to reconquer certain places in GaUicia which had 
been won by Oleg, but had been re-occupied by the Poles. He 
took the towns of Cherwen (now called Czermo), on the river 
Guczwa, Peremysl, etc. Oppressed on all sides, the Croats tried 
to regain their independence." (Schafarik, ii, 105.) 

In 993 we find Vladimir undertaking a fresh war against 
them, whose issue is not stated. 

Besides these proofs, we have as remains of the former 
occupation of this district by Croats, the names of certain 
places, as the villages of Horb, Horbok, Horbof, Horbowiza, 
Horibatche, Zahorb, Hrbitschi, Hribowa, Hrichowze, and more 
doubtfully, Khrewt, in the circle of Sanock ; Kharwin, and four 
villages called Kharsevitze in Eastern and Western Gallicia, 
etc. (Schafarik, op. cit.y ii, 106.) 

Zeuss argues very forcibly that the name patria Albis given 
by the (Jeographer of Eavenna to the fiat country north of 
the Carpathians, is not to be explained as the country of the 
Elbe, but as the white land, and as equivalent to the White 
Servia and White Croatia of the Byzantines. (" Die Deutschen 
und die Nachbarstanmie," 610.) He also mentions that north 
of the mountains, although west of the ancient White Croatia, 
we meet in mediaeval times with traces of the Croats ; thus we 
find Cosma^ of Prague, imder date 1086, in mentioning the 
border districts of the diocese of Prague north-west of Bohemia, 
near the gau of Troppau, speaking as follows, " Ad aquilona- 

Digitized by 


328 H. H. HOWORTH.— TAe Spread of the Slaves. 

lem hii suut termini: Psouane, Glirouat, et altera Clirouati, 
Zlasane, Trebouane, Boborane, etc." {Id., 610.) These Croats 
are probably referred to in the legend of St. Wenceslans, where 
we find that Drahomira fled to Croatia. This was in 936. 
(Schafarik, op. dt, ii, 444.) They would also seem to be the 
Horithi of Alfred. (Id.) It is possible that these Croats were 
not a section of the White Croats, but received their name 
merely from living in the chribty or mountains. There can be 
small hesitation however in accepting the neighbourhood of 
Gkdlicia north of the Carpathians as the cradle land of the 

Invited by the Emperor Heraclius, as I have mentioned, the 
Croats set out under the leadership of five brothers, named 
Klukas, Lobel (LobelosV Kosenetz (Kosentsiz), Muchlo, and 
Elhrwat (Khorvalos), and two of their sisters, named Tuga and 
Buga. Some suspicion has been cast on these names. Ehrvat 
seems to be the eponymos of the race; two others of 
them mean tarrying; while the two girls' names are 
equivalent to joy and sorrow. (Evans, "Bosnia," etc., xx.) 
But the names do not seem to me to be other than per- 
fectly natural ones. They entered Dalmatia, and having 
fought for some time against the Avars, who inhabited that 
district (i.e., from about 634 to 638), they killed some and some 
they subdued, and from this time the Croats occupied that 
country. The Avars were not entirely dispersed, and the 
emperor tells us that when he wrote, three centuries later, 
remains of them were still to be found there who retained 
their name of Avars. (Constan. de adm. Imp., 30; Stritter 
ii, 389.) Schafarik suggests that the Morlaks, who have been by 
several writers made out to be of Tartar or Kirghiz origin, are 
really descended from these Avars. He also suggests that it 
was from this fact that Avar, title of Ban, was first adopted 
among the Croats, and afterwards by other Slavic races. (Op. cit, 
ii, 278, and note 2.) 

In regard to these Morlaks, Sir Gardner Wilkinson collected 
some curious information. He says the first notice of them is 
abouG the middle of the fourteenth century, when they would 
seem to have been the occupants of the mountainous district of 
north-western Bosnia. After that period they migrated with 
their families and flocks Ax)m Bosnia as the Turks advanced 
there; and immediately before their settlement in Dalmatia, 
their principal abodes were in the districts of Corbavia and 
Lika, to the north and north-east of the Eiver Zermagna. 
" Though of the same Slavonic family as the Croatians," he says 
" and others of that race, some have supposed a diflerence in 
their appearance, and a superior physical conformation." This he 

Digitized by 


a H. HowoRTH.— rAc Spread of the SUwes, 329 

assigns to their hardy life and pure climate. Farlati supposes 
the name to be compounded of Greek and Slavonic, and that it 
was originally Makro vlahi, and that they received the latter 
name from their dark or black colour. Some have indeed 
called them Black Latins. (" Historicus Dalmata," vi, 5.) This 
etymology is much more reasonable than that adopted by 
Wilkinson from mor the sea ; and vlah, a term given in Slavonic 
to all those who do not speak German, and even to the 
Latins, and which is the root of Valachi Wallachians. 
(Wilkinson, "Dalmatia and Montenegro," ii, 296.) An inland 
race of mountaineers would scarcely receive a name derived 
from the sea; and the former derivation is very consistent 
with the theory, quoted from Schafarik, which makes the 
Morlaki descendants of the Avars. It would be curious 
to examine their dialect from this point of view, and now 
that so good and enthusiastic a student of Slavonian as Mr. Evans 
lives at Bagusa, we may perhaps hope that an inquiry in this 
direction may be made. As to the title of Ban> Schafarik 
says, that Bayan was a title in use among the Avars, and 
was used of a subordinate dignity to that of E^akan or Khan, 
and it is almost certain that the Slaves derived it from the 
Avars. {Id,, ii, 278, note.) He adds elsewhere that it is 
probably derived eventually from the Persian Bayan. (Id^ ii, 
257, note 3.) Wilkinson says the principal nobles of Hungary 
Bohemia in the middle ages were called Fan; the same 
title was given in Poland to tiie first dignities of the State, and 
it now means Lord, Mr. or Sir. (Op. dt., i, 25.) The Austrian 
Governor of Croatia is still known as the Ban. 

So far as we know, the Croatians were the first Slaves who 
permanently settled in Dalmatia, in Pannonia beyond the 
Save, and in Prawallis. There had been several previous raids 
of Slavic invaders into these districts in 548, 550,. 551, and 552, 
but these were only temporary invasions, and the Croa^ were 
the first to actually settle there. (Schafarik^ ii, 237.) Although. 
Constantine does not tell us that they settled down as dependants 
of the empire, it seems almost certain from their subsequent history 
that they did so. {Id., 278, note.) A portion of the Croats who 
entered Dalmatia detached itseK from the main body, and 
occupied Illyria and Pannonia. (Const. Porphyr, op, cit,; 
Stritter, ii, 391.) This detached body seems to have settled, in fact, 
in that fetit of Pannonia situated between the Danube and the 
Save, and known as Pannonia Savia, with its chief town at 
Sisek, and partly also in lUyria, where there was subsequently a 
Croat gau. {Id, 279.) 

There were thus constituted two Croat States, one in Dalmatia, 
with its chief towns of Belgrade (Zara Yecchia), on the Adriatic^ 

VOL. viL 2 a 

Digitized by 


330 H. H. KowOKm.—TJu Spread of the Slaves. 

and Bihatsch on the Una ; and a second whose capital was Sisek 
at the junction of the Kupa (Kulpa) and the Save. According to 
Constantine, the boundaries of the land possessed hj the Croats of 
Dalmatia were, on the south, the river Zetina and the towns of 
Imoski and Liwno. On the east, the Urbas, with the towns of 
Yazye and Baynaluka. On the north the Drave, the Kulpa, the 
town of Albunon, and the Arsia in Istria ; and on the west the 
Adriatic. (Stritter, ii, 395, note; Schafarik, op. cit., ii, 279.) 
They also doubtless occupied several of the Dalmatian islands 
and the Istrian peninsula, whose inhabitants speak the Croatian 
dialect. (Schafaiik, id.) In Croatia, Constantine says there 
were eleven Zupas, t^, gaus: Chlewiana, i.e., Chlewno (the 
modem liwno, in Herzegovina) ; Tsentsina (Zetina) ; Imota 
(Imolski near the Zetina) ; Plewa (the modem Pliwa) ; Pesenta 
(the mountain of Wesenta, south of the Yayze) ; Parathalassia 
(Primorye, a district between the Zetina and th^ Krka) 
Brebera (Bribri, between the Krka and Lake Karin); Nona 
(Nin, on an island in the strait of Puntadur) ; Tnina (Kmu, on 
the river Krka); Sidraga (the district of Belgrade or Zara 
Vecchia); Nina (the distiict on both sides of the Dzrmanya, 
including the town of Byelina); Kribasa (the later county 
of Krbarva) ; litsa (the military district of Lika) ; Gutsika 
(the open country of Gazko.) (Schafaiik, op. dt., ii, 295-6.) 
The three last gaus were subject to the Ban^ an officer of 
whom I shall have more to say presently. 

From the names of these gaus and the towns which they 
enclosed, it would seem, says Schafarik, that the division of 
Dalmatian Croatia did not reach northwards to the Sen and the 
Otoschatz ; and this northern frontier strip from the Arsia and 
from the mountain Albunon (Yawonirk ?) to the Kulpa, belonged 
to the other section of Croatia, whose princes had authority as far 
as the Danube and Syrmia. Croatia therefore was bounded on the 
north by the Wends, who as early as 631 had gained possession 
of Friauli on the norths-east (Schafarik, by a lapsus penicilli 
gays north-west) by the Pannonian Avares, and on the east and 
south by the Serbs ; from whom the latter were separated by the 
rivers Urbas and Zetina ; and it included the modem districts 
of Turkish Croatia, Dalmatia and some of its islands, a part of 
the military frontier, and of Austrian Croatia, Istria and 

Schafarik remarks that it is well to remember that there were 
certain towns on the coast which having been for a long time 
subject to the Greek Empire, secured for a while their 
independence, but ended by becoming tributary to the Croats. 
These were Bausium or Eagusa, called Dubrownik by the 
Slaves; Trangurium, t.e., Trogir or Trau*; Diadora, i.e.. 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH.— TA^ Spt^ead of t?ie Slaves. 331 

Zader or Yadera ; and the islands of Arbe, i.e., Bab ; Wekla, i.e., 
Kark or Kerk ; and Opsara, ix., Osero or Absorus. To these towns 
and islands and the neighbouring district, the name Dalmatia 
now became more and more restricted, in order to distinguish 
them from the neighbouring Croatian districts proper ; and their 
inhabitants, as Constantine tells us, retained the name of 
£om{tni or Bomans. (Schafarik, ii, 280.) Their descendants 
are still well known as the so-caJled Italians of the Dalmatian 

Having considered their country, let us now turn to the 
history of the invaders. When he had persuaded them to 
settle down on his frontiers, the next thing which the Emperor 
HeracUus was solicitous about was the conversion of the Croats 
to Christianity. He accordingly applied to the Pope, who sent 
a number of priests to baptise them. Their prince at this time 
was named Porga, the son of one of the five brothers already 
named. Porga is a curious and uncommon name, apparently 
not Slavic ; and Schafarik compares it with Purgas, the name 
of a Mordwin chief mentioned in the year 1229 (op. cit., ii, 
280, note), a fact which makes it probable that the Croats were 
at this time subject to alien princes, perhaps of Avar descent. 

The conversion of the Croats by missionaries of the Latin 
Church, and not by those of the Eastern Church, became a very 
important fact in later days, and a fact which still forms a notable 
element in that congeries of political dif&culties, the Eastern 
Question. The Pope who was reigning at the time was John 
the Fourth who entered into close relations with the new converts, 
put them under the protection of the Holy See, and made them 
promise, probably, at the instance of the Byzantine Court, to 
abstain &om making any attacks on other countries. This 
promise they further ratified in writing, and it was honestly 
carried out Being restricted from making aggressive wars, 
they partly occupied themselves in agriculture, and partly in 
trade, their ships frequenting the various towns on the 
Adriatic. (Schafarik, ii, 281.) They accordingly became rich, and 
their country populous. Constantine tells us they had a force of 
60,000 cavalry, and 100,000 infantry; 80 ships, each manned by 
40 hands, and 100 others, with lesser crews of 20 and 10 men. 
(Stritter ii, 396). He tells us also there was an archbishop and 
a bishop among them, with priests and deacons. Through their 
influence and that of several other ecclesiastics, notably John of 
Bavenna, Archbishop of Spalato, they were not only grounded 
in the faith, but were also closely attached to the Empire. 
According to Thomas, Archde8UX)n of Spalato, the first bishoprics 
created in Croatia were those of Dubno (Deluminium) and Sisek 
(Siscia). (Schafarik, 281, note.) We thus find the Croats attached 

2 A 2 

Digitized by 


332 H. H. HowoRTH.— 7%e Spread of the Slaves. 

politically to Byzantium, while their religious ties wel^ with 
Eome. Unlike their Slavic neighbours, they were never subject to 
the kings of Bulgaria, with whom, however, they lived on amicable 
terms. We have hardly a notice of the Croats during the next 
one hundred and fifty years ; in fact, the only reference to them 
during this interval, given by Schafarik, relates to an invasion of 
Apulia by a host of Slaves who came from the Adriatic. " De 
Venetiarum finibus," are the chronicler's words ; as they are said 
by the annalists to have gone with a multitude of ships, it is 
probable they were Croals. (Schafarik, 282, note 1.) We do 
not meet with any further references to their country till we 
come to the days of the Frank conqueror "Karl the Great." 
Having conquered the Lombard kingdom in 774, and ravaged 
Friauli in 776 ; he then in his struggle with the Bavarian prince 
Tassilo and his Avar allies, overran the Wendish districts on 
the Ens in the Tyrol, Earinthia, and Istria. This extension of 
the Frank arms led inevitably to their speedily overshadowing 
the Croats. The rivalry between the Byzantine and Eomish 
churches had begun its work, and was at this period intensified 
by the ill-feeling between the Greek Emperor and his grandees. 
On the bloody defeat of the Byzantines in Italy in 788, the 
Franks overran Istria, Libumia, and Pannonia on the Save. 
They annexed these districts as far as the Danube, and appointed 
Marquises or Margraves and Counts there, on whom the native 
Slavic chiefs became dependent. This was in 789. Thus the 
Grand Prince (Veliki Zupan), who had his seat at Sisek, became 
a Frank subject. The Franks gave him the title of rector, and 
made him immediately dependent on the Marquises of Friauli. 
It was probably from this event that the district of Syrmia was 
called Frankokhorion, while the town now called Mandyelos, the 
Budaliia of the Romans, received the name of FrankaviUa, 
{Id., 283.) Hitherto the Dalmatian towns had not been inter- 
fered with ; according to Eginhardt, this was because of the 
friendship of his master for tlie Byzantine Emperor (Egin. 
" Vitse Car. :" Pertz. i, 451) ; but in the year 806, Paulus, Duke of 
Zara, and Donatus, bishop of the same town, went to him with 
rich presents, and also apparently with their submission. (Egin- 
hardt ; Pertz, i, 133.) This change of masters led to considerable 
ill-feeling between Karl and the Emperor Nicephorus. This 
was terminated by a treaty in 810, by which the latter trans- 
ferred his now merely nominal sovereignty over the Dalmatian 
Croats to the Frank Emperor, while he retained control over the 
towns of Zader, Trogir, Spalato, Eagusa, and the islands 
of Osero, Rab, and Kerk, i.«., of the district now called Dalmatia. 
(Schafarik, 282-3). 
Thus the Croats became to a large extent subjects of the 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH. — The Spread of the Slaves. 333 

Frank Empire. On the death of the Great Karl, the Franks 
began a somewhat persecuting policy towards them. In 
817 a dispute arose between Kadolach, Duke of Friauli, and 
the Byzantine Emperor Leo the Armenian, as to the boundaries 
of Dalmatia. The Greeks presented their complaints on this 
matter to the diet held in 817 at Aachen, and the Emperor sent 
Albgar the son of Miroch, to settle matters on the spot. (Egin- 
hardt, " Annales " sub ann. 817.) 

Kadolach appears to have treated the Croats on the Save very 
arbitrarily, and liudewit their prince sent an embassy with 
complaints to the diet at Vannes. (Eginhardt, ** Annales," 818.) 
No notice having apparently been taken of his complaints, 
he rebelled, and an army was sent against him, which seems 
to have been partially successful, and Liudewit sued for 
peace. As his terms were not reciprocated by the Emperor, he 
persuaded the neighbouring Wends and also the Timociani, who 
had recently fallen away from their allegiance to the Bulgarians 
and submitted to the Emperor, to rebel. Meanwhile, Kadolach, 
the Mai-quis of Friauli, caught the fever and died, and was suc- 
ceeded by Baldric, who marched into Carinthia, where he 
encountered the army of Liudewit, and having defeated it on the 
Drave, drove him out of that province. 

He was attacked on another side by Boraa^ the chief of the 
Dalmatian Croats, who was s^pwrently in alliance with the 
Franks. The struggle took place on the River Culpa, but 
Boma was deserted by the Guduscani, and was defeated. In 
this battle Dragomus, the father-in4aw of Liudewit, who had 
been treacherous to his son-in-law, and had deserted him, 

Boma, on his retreat homewanls, succeeded in reducing the 
Guduscani once more to obedience. In the winter Liudewit 
invaded his borders^ and ravaged Uiem with fire and sword. Boma, 
however, revenged hims^, killed 3)000 of the enemy, captured 
300 of their horses^ and recovered much booty. (Eginhardt, 
"Annales," 819; Perta, i, 205-6.) Thus did the Croats 
imitate a very comm<m policy among the Slaves, and tear each 
other^s throats, while the Empire stood by approvingly. 

In January, 820, it was determined at an Imperial diet, to 
send three armies simultaneously into the country of Liudewit. 
Boma assisted at this diet with his advice. One of these armies 
marched through the Norican Alps ; a second by way of Carin- 
thia ; while the third went through Bavaria and Upper Pannonia. 
The first and last were obliged to return again, but the 
one which marched through Carinthia defeated the enemy 
three times, and crossed the Drave ; but Liudewit defended 
himself bravely, shut himself up in his capital ; and the Franks 

Digitized by 


334 H. H. HowoBTH.— rA€ Spread of the Slaves. 

contented themselves with devastating the country round, and 
then retiring. They had however struck terror into some of 
the rebels, for we read that the people of Camiola who lived 
about the Save, and close to Friaufi, submitted to Baldric ; and 
the Garinthians, who had sided with Liudewit, also submitted. 
(Eginhaidt, " Annales," ad ann. 820.) 

Meanwhile Boma the chief of the Dalmatian Croats, died. He 
is called dux Dalmatiae et Libumiae by Eginhardt. He was 
succeeded by his nephew LadislavL The Franks once more 
entered the country of Liudewit and ravaged it in 821. In 
822, they sent another army, on the approach of which he was 
constrained to fly from his capital Sisek, and to escape to the 
Servians (Schafarik says probably to Bosnia) ; E^nhardt tells 
us he there murdered one of the princes of the country, and 
appropriated his territory. He then sent envoys to the Franks, 
(i^hardt, "Annales,'' 822; Perta i, 209.) He had however 
again to fly, and now escaped to Dalmatia, where having lived 
for some time vrith Liudimyal, the unde of Boma, he was at 
length put to death by him. This was in 823. 

This ended the independemce of the Croats on the Save, who 
were now united with the Dalmatian Croats. 

This internecine war among the Croats was due no doubt 
partly, as Schafarik says, to the jealousy created by a section of 
them being subject to the Franks, and another section 
independent ; but I believe another reason not referred to by 
that historian was, that the Croats of the north were still very 
largely pagans, while their southern brothers were CSinstians. 
The Frankish raids to which it gave rise were accompanied 
with terrible barbarity, and the Emperor Constantino teUs us 
how even children at their mothers^ breafsta were killed and 
thrown to the dogs. They kept up the struggle however with 
the persistence of their race, killed their j^uice liudimysl the 
Frankish proUgi, and also, according to Constantine, the Frank 
commander KoziUmis. This war took place during the years 
825-30, and during the reign of Prince Porin. Being cmce more 
free the Croats turned to the Pope, asking him to send people to 
baptise them, and also asking for bishops. (Constantine Porphy.; 
Stritter, ii, 392.) Porin ruled over the whole of the Croats on 
the Adriatic, whose borders extended probably as far as the 
modem Slavonia ; under him was a Ban who had authority over 
three gaus* Slavonia itself, i.e., the country between the Drave 
and the Save, or at all events its eastern portion, was at this 
time subject to the Bulgarians, who had pushed their authority 
beyond the Drave. (Schafarik, ii, 286.) 

The various towns of Dalmatia which had been subject to the 
Greeks, fell away during the reign of Michael the Second 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoRTH. — The Spread of the Slaves. 335 

(820-29), and Zader set up an independent dux or doge 
of its own. (id,, 286; Stritter, ii, 88.) On Porin's death, 
he was succeeded for a short space by Moislaf, who in 836 
renewed the peace with Peter Tradonico the Doge of Venice. 
His successor Trpimir in 837 ratified the gift of certain 
revenues which had been made by his predecessor Moislaf 
to the church of Split or Spalato, and the deed by which he 
did it is the oldest one extant relating to the Croatian princes. 
In his days there came from the neighbouring Frank districts 
{ix., fix)m Istiia and Camiola) a pilgrim named Martin, dressed 
in secular garb. He did many wonders, and although a pious 
person, he was infirm and lame in his feet, and was carried 
about by men. He devoted himself to the conversion of the 
people, and was so sucxiessful,that they desisted from acts of piracy 
on their neighbours, and ceased attacking them except in self- 
defence, and we are told the Croats became attached to 
seafaring, and frequented the coast as far as Venice. (Constantino 
Porphyr.; Stritter, ii, 394-5.) Unlike the neighbouring 
Slaves, the Croats were never subject to the Bulgarians, nor did 
they even pay them tribute. They only had one struggle with 
them, in the days of Michael Boroses of Bulgaria, who failing to 
beat them, made peace with them, and gifts were interchanged. 
(7rf., 395.) 

Between, 868 and 878, we find that Sedeslaf or Sdeslaf, a 
relative of Trpimir's, and a proUg4 of the Byzantine Emperor 
Basil, the Macedonian, was Prince of Croatia. He was probably 
a usurper, for Trpimir left sons behind him. During his reign, 
the Croats again became dependent on Byzantium, and trans- 
ferred their ecclesiastical sympathies from the Pope of Home 
to the Patriarch of Constantinople. {Id., 287.) 

The chief reason for this, was the publication of the Slavic 
Liturgy in the Cyrillic chai-acter in Bulgaria, Pannonia and 
Moravia, which so pleased the neighbouring Croats and Serbs, 
that they sent to ask teachers from the Emperor Basil, and 
accepted baptism from them. It is probable that the Slavic 
liturgy was at the same time promulgated in Croatia, as would 
appear from a papal brief issued when the Croats retiimed to 
their alliance to him. (Schafarik, ii, 287.) 

At this time all the mainland of Dalmatia was occupied by 
Slaves, and the citizens of the town were chiefly Romans, who 
also isiiabited the islands off the coast. As the latter, however^ 
were terribly harassed by pirates, no doubt Saracens, and were in 
danger of extermination, they appealed to the Croats to allow them 
to move to the mainland ; but they refused permission, unless they 
paid tribute ; upon which they appealed to the Emperor Basil, 
who ordered that they should pay the same tax to the Croats 

Digitized by 


336 H. H. HowoRTH.— 7%e Spread of the Slaves. 

which they had paid to the imperial prefect ; and JErom this date, 
Aspalathuff, i.e., SpaJato paid 200 gold pieces ; Trogir, 100 gold 
pieces; Diodora(t.«.,Zader), 110 gold pieces; Opsara (Osero), 100 
gold^ieces ; Arbe (Eab), 100 gold pieces ; Becla (Wkla), 100 gold 
pieces. This was in addition to a certain tax on wine and other 
products. (Const Porp. ; Stritter, ii, 398-9.) In return 
apparently for this favour, the Croats and Servians sent a 
contingent to help the Greeks at Ban, in the year 888, when 
they were attacked by the Saracens. (Schafarik, ii, 287.) 

In May, 879, Sdeslaf was killed by Branimir, who broke off 
the connection with the East, and placed the Croats once more 
imder the ecclesiastical authority of Eome, and sent Theodosios, 
the " Diaconus " of Nin, to Borne to be consecrated a bishop. 

John, Archpriest of Solina; VitaUs, Bishop of Zader; Dominicus, 
Bishop of Osero, and others who were referred to, did not wish to 
receive their authority from Borne, and it may be mentioned as a 
proof of the strength of the Eastern party, that Maximus, the 
new Archbishop of Spalato, was consecrated by Walpert, the 
delegate of Photius, Patriarch of Aquileia. And it was a long 
time before the Greek cult was completely driven out of Croatia. 

During Branimir's reign, the Croats were independent, both of 
the Byzantines and the Franks. In 882, Branimir was succeeded 
by Mutimir or Muntimir, the younger son of Trpimir, who had 
defeated his elder brother Kryesimir. In a deed of his, dated 
in 892, we first meet with certain high dignitaries, as the 
Maccecharius {? Magnus Cococus* or chief cook), Cavel- 
larius, Camerarius, Pinzenarius, Anniger. (Scha&rik, ii, 288-9.) 
Mimtimir must not be confused with the prince of the same 
name who was ruling at this time in Bervia. 

Muntimir was apparently succeeded by his elder brother 
Kryesimir, whose authority he had usurped. The latter was 
reigning in 900, and continued to rule till 914 (id., 289), 
when he was succeeded by his son Miroslaf, who was killed 
three years later by the Croatian Ban Pribina. (Stritter, ii, 
396.) He was not dlowed to keep his ill-gotten throne long, for 
in 920 we find a prince named Tomislaf, who is known from a 
letter to the Pope John the Tenth. During his reign, and in the 
year 925, a synod was held at Spalato, where the use of the 
Slavic Liturgy was forbidden. At another synod in 928, three 
new Croatian bishoprics were founded at Skradin, Sisek, and 
Duwno. In 924, the Serbian prince Zacharias, with a great 
number of his people, sought shelter in Croatia from the attacks 
of the Bulgarians. These emigrants did not return home till 
ten years later. It was this close alliance of the two peoples, 

* Or perhape Cbtyiger, from mediseral Greek Matoouka and low Latin 
Maxuga, mazuca, a key. 

Digitized by 


H. H. SowoKm.— The Spi^ead of the Slaves, 337 

which probably led to the invasion of Croatia in 927 by 
Alogoboturs, tie general of the Bulgarian king Simeon ; an 
expedition which had an unfortunate end, the invaders being 
badly beaten. In 940, Grodimir, or Chedomir, became the ruler 
of Croatia, and he was succeeded in 958, by his grandson 
Kryesimir the Second, called the Great, who restored his country 
to its ancient prosperity, which had much decayed during the 
recent revolutions. He was succeeded by has younger son 
Drzislaf. He was the protigi of the Greek Emperors Basil 
and Constantine, and as a consequence of the doubtless renewed 
prosperity of the country, we find him fors6ddng the ancient 
title of Veliki Zupan or Great Zupan, and adopting that of 
king, which was borne by his successors. According to the 
frail testimony of Thomas of Spalato, says Schafarik, he joined 
Keretwa and Zachlumen to his kingdom. On the other hand, 
we find that the coast towns of Dalmatia, Zader, Trogir and 
Spalato, and the islands of Kerk, Sab, and Kortschula, which 
had been for one hundred and twenty years tributary to the 
Croatians, were now conquered by Peter Urselus the Second, 
Doge of Venice, who styled himseK Dux Dalmatiee. (/rf., 291.) 

Wilkinson, in reporting the results of this war, says, " The 
Croatians were also expelled from the Isle of Pago, which was 
restored to Zara, and Surigna was sent by his brother Mucimir 
(? Drzdslar of Schafarik) on a mission to the Doge at Trau, 
with instructions to make peace on any terms. A treaty was 
therefore concluded, by which the King of Croatia promised to 
abstain from all acts of aggression in Dalmatia, and sent his son 
Stephen to Venice as a hostage for his fidelity. He there 
received an education worthy of his rank, and afterwards 
married Nilcea, the daughter of the Doge. {Op, dt,, ii, 227.) 

In the year 1000, Drzislaf was displaced by his elder brother 
Kryesimir the Third (the first as king). Catalinich says he was 
kiUed in an attempt to relieve the island of Pasmaus. 
(Wilkinson, op, cit,, ii, 226, Kryesimir.) He had been 
previously granted the title of Patrician by the Greek 
Emperor. He tried to drive the Venetians out of Dalmatia, 
but was defeated by them in 101-3. Bulgaria and Servia 
had both submitted to the throne of Byzantium, and according 
to Zonaras and Cedrenus, their example was followed by that 
of the Croats. But Schafarik has shown that these writers have 
used the term Croat in a mistake for Serbian. (Op, dt, ii, 291.) 
Kryesimir the Third was succeeded in 1035 by his son (? his 
nephew, Wilkinson, op, ciL, 227-8), Stephen the First, whose 
wealth is proved by the rich presents he made to the ChurcL 
By his second marriage with Wetenega, the widow of the 
Patrician Dojm of Zader, he had two sons ; one of whom who 

Digitized by 


338 H. H. HowoRTH.— 7%e Spread of the Slaves, 

succeeded him as Peter Kryesimir the Fourth (or second as 
king), was the most famous of all the Croatian rulers. Soon 
after his accession in 1050, he recovei-ed the Dalmatian towns 
from the Venetians ; the archbishop and city of Spalato, and 
the Bishop of Rab acknowledged him as their suzerain. He 
thereupon took the title of King of Dalmatia. In 1066 Zara 
was again wrested from him by the Doge Domenico Contarini 
{Id,y ii, 229,) He introduced several ecclesiastical reforms. 
He planted new bishoprics at Belgrade on the coa^st, and at 
Knin ; and his sister Cica founded the nunnery of Sta. Maria at 
Zara, of which she became the first abbess. The Bishop of 
Kief was nominated High Chancellor of the realm. His 
diocese reached as far as Drau. Under him a famous synod was 
held at Spalato, where the Slavic Liturgy was again prohibited 
Methodeus was proclaimed as a heretic, and the Cinreliian writing 
was denounced as an invention of the Arian Goths. It was 
probably less from its Ariem quality than from its having 
originated with the Greek Church that it was unpopular. Before 
his death, which happened in 1074, Stephen adopted his 
nephew Kryesimir as his successor ; but this was not carried 
out, for the throne was seized by one named Slawisha, of whose 
history little is known. We read however that in November, 
1075, he was captured and carried off as a prisoner to Apulia 
by the Norman chief Amikus. Wilkinson says the Normans 
were called in by the partisans of the dispossessed Stephen, who 
had retired to Spalato to the Benedictine convent of Setint Stephen. 
{Op, cit., ii, 229.) The throne was then occupied by Demeter 
Zwonimir, who had been Ban of Croatia, and had married the 
daughter of St. Stephen of Hungary and sister of Vladislaf, but had 
been deposed by Slawisha. (Wilkinson, ii, 230 ; Schafarik, 292.) 
To strengthen his position, he, by the advice of the Archbishop 
Laurence of Solina, acknowledged the Pope as his suzerain, who 
thereupon sent him the emblems of the royal dignity, and 
he was duly crowned on the 9th of October, 1076> in the church 
of St. Peter at Old Solina. (Id., 293.) But tMngs were now 
going badly with the Croats. The Normans appeared in crowds 
on the coast, while the Venetiatis endeavoured to recover their 
lost authority on the Dalmatian shore. On Zwonimir's death in 
1087, he was succeeded by Stephen the Second, the exiled 
nephew of Kryesimir the Fourth, He had taken refuge in a 
monastery, as I have said from which he now withdrew, and was 
duly crowned at Sebenico by the Archbishop on the 8th of 
September, 1089; but he died the following year, the last 
representation of the race of the Drzislafs. His death was 
followed by a terrible civil strife, in the midst of which one of 
the Zupans offered the crown to the brave Hungarian king 

Digitized by 


H. H. HowoBTH.— J%« Spread of the Slaves. 339 

Vladislaf. Accepting the invitatioii, he marched with an anny 
to Modrush, overran the country, and nominated his nephew 
Almus as its king. Later he founded the Bishopric of Agram 
(the Slavic Zagreb). On the death of Vladislaf, he was 
succeeded by Koloman, who seized upon Bielogorod (now called 
Zara Vecchia) (Wilkinson, 231, note), and apparently displaced 
Almus. The Zupan Peter thereupon rose in rebellion against 
him, and he in turn marched an army into Croatia. The 
Croats in the presence of this danger seem to have stopped 
their civil strife, and divided the land among twelve Zupans. 

They collected their warriors, and awaited the attack of 
Koloman on the Drave. Not being certain of victory, the latter 
made proposals of peace, in which he engaged to jjrotect their 
liberties. These overtures were successful, and peace was duly 
ratified, and the Croats acknowledged Koloman and the 
Hungarians «s their masters ; and he undertook to resx)ect their 
rights, freedom, and laws. A Zupan (probably Peter is meant) 
who was discontented with this pecKje, was slain in a fight in the 
mountains of Gwozdansko; and Koloman was crowned at 
Bielograd by the Archbishop Crescentius, of Spalato, with his 
bride Bussita, a daughter of the Nonnan Count Boger. (Wil- 
kinson, ii, 231.) TMs was in 1102. Thenceforward Croatia was 
governed by a deputy of the Hungarian king, who was styled 
the Ban of Croatia, and the Hungarian kings took the title of 
kings of Croatia and Dalmatia. Some of the Dalmatian islands 
were seized by the Venetians, who after many bloody struggles, 
planted their authority also in several of the towns on the 
coast {Id,, 294.) The story, and a very interesting one it is, of 
the fierce strife between Hungary and Venice for these Dalmatian 
towns, has been told in detail by Sir Gardner Wilkinson in the 
work already quoted {op. dt^ chapter ix, passim), but it 
forms no part of our present ^subject. 

Modem Austrian Croatia is divided into two well marked 
sections: Provincial Croatia, comprising the three districts of 
Agram (Zagreb), Warasdin, and Kreutz, with the maritime 
district adjoining ; and secondly, Military Croatia, until recently 
divided into two generals' commands, and comprising eight 
regiments. Besides these, to which alone the name of Croatia 
is now generally applied, there were comprised in ancient 
Croatia the northern part of the modem Dalmatia as far as the 
Zetina, the north-westem part of Bosnia as far as the Urbas, 
and the modem Slavonia. In early times it also included Istria, 
and although the latter was detached from Croatia about the end 
of the eighth century, it still retains a Croatian dialect. Over 
all this district the Croats were the dominant race, and it was 
all known in early times as Croatia, and included, as I have 

Digitized by 


340 H. H. Ho WORTH.— 1%^ Spread of the Slaves. 

said, three well marked divisions, namely Pannonian Croatia, 
or Croatia on the Save, Provincial Croatia, and Dalmatia. 

The eastern portion of ancient Croatia is now called Slavonia; 
and it is interesting to trace the history of this name. From 
the earliest times to the days of Matthias Corvinus (t.e., 837- 
1492), the rulers of Croatia bore no other title than tliat of 
princes and kings of Croatia and Dalmatia. Foreigners, how- 
ever, occasionally applied the generic name Slavi to them. 
Thus in a letter from the Emperor Louis the Second to the 
Emperor Basil, in 871, they are called Slavini, and their country 
Slavonia. In a brief of Pope John the Tenth, 914-29, to John 
the Fourteenth, Archbishop of Spalato, it is called Slavinorum 
terra, Slavinia terra, and in another brief of Ilmocent the 
Fourth, Slavonia terra. (Schafarik, op, dt., ii, 307.) 

During the reigns of Bela the Third, 1170-96, and Andrew 
the Second, 1205-35, the section of Croatia lying between the 
Drave and the Save was carved out into an appanage, and was 
called the Duchy of Slavonia (ducatus Slavoniae). King Vladislaf 
probably suspicious against John Corvinus, who ruled the Duchy 
of Croatia, took in 1492 the title of King of Slavonia. After the 
battle of Mohacz, a portion of Slavonia was occupied by the Turks, 
and we then find the name Gratia limited to that portion of 
it cx)mprising the districts of Agram, Warasdin, and Kreutz, 
which still remained subject to the Hungarians; while the 
other portion, which was occupied by the Turks, and was only 
recovered at a later day, namely, the districts of Verocze, Posega, 
and Syrmia, received the name of Slavonia, which it still 
retains. {Id,) 

AU the Croats, except a section who occupy the north-western 
mountain district of Bosnia called Kraina, and often called 
Turkish Croatia, as far as the river Urbas, are now subject to 
Austria. Kraina was a part of the ancient Croatia, and was 
probably detached from it at the end oi' the fourteenth century, 
when Tuarko founded the kingdom of Bosnia, and appropriated 
considerable districts from his neighbours; and it fell appa- 
rently with the rest of Bosnia into Turkish hands. 

The Croats were originally no doubt a homogeneous race, and 
hardly distinguishable from the Servians, of whom, in fact, they 
formed a section. 

At present there are^ however, two weU-marked Croatian 
dialects ; one prevails in Provincial Croatia and in the country 
of the St. George and the Kreutz or Cross Segiments, while the 
other prevails in the other districts of Croatia in the Litorale and 
in Slavonia. The latter apparently hardly differs from the 
dialect of the districts occupied by the Servians proper. The 

Digitized by 


The Seaboard of Istria. 341 

former perhaps originated in a mixture of the invaders with the 
Slovenians of Oarinthia, etc., otherwise known as Wends. (Id., 

As I have said, the Croats and the Servians were originally- 
one race, speaking one language, and having one history. The 
great distinguishing feature which has made their history run 
in separate grooves, has been the fact of the former being Roman 
Catholics and the latter attached to the Greek Church. This has 
given an entirely different direction to the sympathies of the 
most patent social force in the country, namely, that of the 
priesthood. The Croats also being further removed from such 
dangerous neighbours, were not so sophisticated by Bulgarian or 
Turkish domination, and retained their practical independence, 
although subject to the Hungarian Crown. 

But we must never forget that in origin and in race they 
belong to the great Servian stock, which will, we trust, occupy us 
in our next paper. 

More Castelueri. By Richard F. Burton and Messieurs 
Antonio Scampicchio (LL.D.), of Albona, and Antonio 
CovAZ, of PisiNO (Deputy to the Diet, etc.). 

Section L — ^The Seaboard of Istria. 

I HAVE obtained the consent of Dr. Antonio Scampicchio, and 
associated his name with my own, in these pages, of which 
many are translated from his letters and notes. He has also at 
my especial request, been good enough to write out for me the 
rustic Slav songs common about Albona, of which short 
specimens conclude the next section, and to translate into 
Italian my first paper, "Notes on the Castellieri.'' I have also 
ventured to add to these pages the name of Sig. Antonio Covaz 
of Pisino, Deputy to the Istria Diet ; most of the excursions in 
the southern peninsula were undertaken by his advice, and 
many of the most important details come from his practised 

The little Istrian peninsula, which still preserves its classical 
name Istria or Danube-land, and is shaped on the map like a 
greatly reduced Africa, as the poet says, is geographically 
distinct from the rest of the Austrian world. 

To north, west, south and south-east, this Xth. Regie of 
old Rome is bounded by the Gulf of Trieste, by the Adriatic, and 
by the Quamer or Quamero. Sinus Flanaticus (not Fanaticus) 
of which the Florentine Francesco Berlingeri says : — 

Digitized by 


342 Th/t Seaboard of htria, 

** £ Flanatico Capo e pttnta esoorta. 
Per le molte tempeste ora e Carnaro 
Da naufraga detta gente morta." 

The eastern frontier, which connects the isosceles triangle with 
south-eastern Europe, and separates it from the adjoining 
province Unter-Elrain, is strongly marked by a sub-«uige of 
the mountains primarily named Albia, Alpionia, and Okra, the 
foot-hills, called by the Slavs Verchia, and now Monte della 
Vena : viewed from the summits to the east, they appear a long 
blue-green line, trending from N.N.W to S.S.E. with the 
Trieste-Fiimie high-road running along their western fort-hills. 
From the Tricomo, or Dreihermspitze, the Latin TuUum, Slav 
Triglava, corrupted Terglou, the apex (9036) feet of the Julian (not 
the Camian) Alps extends to the south-east a massif, broken by 
the Adelsberg-Lubach river-valley cut by the Vienna-Trieste 
Eailway, and again rising to its culminating point (5,322 feet), 
Mons. Albinus or Albianus, Mont Albiano, Monte Albio, or 
Neviso ; the German (Krainer) Schneeberg, and the Slav Sneznik, 
both signifying the same thing. The Vena, which must be con- 
sidered as the western buttresses and foot-hills of the great knot, 
begins north-west or near Trieste,* with the Monte Tajano, the 
Slav Slavnik, which may mean the " glorious,*' the two paps 
rising immediately behind the great Austrian Emporium ; it 
trend^ S.S.E to Monte Oscale, or rather Monte Sia (1,238 
mfetres), near Sijane, and then bending with many a curve due 
south, and eventually to S.S.W., it subtends the eastern arm 
of the triangle ; culminates in the monarch of Istrian moimtains 
n.,394 metres), Monte Maggiore, and finally sinks into the 
Quarnero at the Punta N^ra necur Albona. 

From this chain with a double name. Vena and Caldiera, the 
surface of the Istrian peninsula falls gently westward in sub- 
ridges and foot-hiUs and gradual inclines, till it meets the tepid 
blue waves of the Adriatic. The complexion area, variously 
estimated at 3,410 to 4,945 «quare kilometres, is physically 
divided into three regions, bands running parallel with the Vena 
range ; the upper or Okran of dove-grey nummulite ; the central, 
sub-Okran, or Pedemontan, of variously-tinted eocenic sandstones; 
and the lower or maritime, where the monotony of growths, 
light green and dark green, are relieved by the bone-white 
chalk, barren of petrifactions, and the fire-bleached fertilising 

I have often travelled through and round the Istrian penin- 
sula by land and sea, and few pictures known to me are more 

* Baron Carl yon Ozoemig ( iun.) estimates this apex at 1,700 metres, in his 
paper " Der Krainer Schneeberg. 

Digitized by 


The Seaboard of Isiria. 34? 

amene and interesting. The scenery is Italian^ yet not quite 
Italy, because it haa a cachet of its own. Tiie port-towns are 
pure Bomano- Venetian, but with a peculiar tjrpe, suggesting 
fragments of the sea Cybele, built not among the waves, but 
upon rocky headlands. The inner towns preserve the wild and 
romantic aspect of mediaeval fortresses in the Apennines. Both 
are cities in miniature, the village being unknown ; and both 
may be of immense antiquity ; here pre-historic remains are 
brought to light ; there we find classical inscriptions and reliefs 
built up in' the wcdls. Nor is the people less picturesque than 
its surroundings ; there is a regular Italo-Istrian type, with short 
and straight features, pale-oUve skin, and black hair, often 
curly ; tdl and slender figures, like the Guanche Spaniards of 
Tenenffe, and chests and haunches comparatively narrow. Small 
as it ia, the peninsula is held by a dozen different races, mostly 
Italo-Venetian and Slavs, introduced between a.d. 600 and 1657. 
The Austro-Germans are found at Trieste, Capodistria, Pola, 
and the other Government establishments. The Slavenes or 
ancient Wends (Krainer Slavs), hold most of the northern 
regions. The Cici, mostly charcoal burners, and generally held 
to be Wallachs of ancient date, now Slav speakers, but retaining 
vestiges of an older tongue, are settled in High or Eastern 
Istria^ at the head of the Rjeka (upper Timavus River), and 
extending into the middle regions ; whilst more modem Wal- 
lachs occupy the Valarsa and Bedo, Susgueirzza and the lands 
to the north and north-east of the Lago di Cepi^ (Lacus Arsice) 
Istna's only lake. Fianona is known to have been captured and 
occupied by Uzkoks, Uscoichi, the " Jumpers," or pirates of Sign, 
Signia, or Zengg, the Senia of the Gallic Senones ; and Serbo- 
Croats hold the ancient Albonese Bepublic and that part of old 
libumia which extends from Fiumara to Fiume. The Morlaks 
(Morlacchi)* occupy the Polisana and the country extending from 
Dignano to Pisino; they are the worst of the race, bandits 
when they can be, and at all times assassins. Finally, a single 
village, Peroi,f near Pola, as has been said, is Montenegrin, and 
its population is d}dng out, they say, from persistent inter- 
marriage. A very polyglottic peninsula! Even Trieste is 
trilingual : the Government speaks Austro-German ; the citizens 
Yeneto-Italian, and the suburbans Slovena 

Each of those races has not only its own dialect, but its 
peculiar costume, its habits and manners, its favourite industry, 
and its political prepossessions. As a rule, they are remarkable 

* I have offered a few details concerning the Uzkoks and the Morlaks, in 
"Sosirizka" etc. (" Comhili Magazine," No. 191, Noyember, 1876.) 

t See first paper ^. 23), conoeming the "little Ghreek Oolonj of Peroi. 
TKsj came from Oermsza of Montenegro in a.d. 1657. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

3 44 The Seaboard of Istria. 

for hard work, orderly conduct and civility, and even courtesy, 
to strangers. 

As in the Crimea, the principal productions are salt and wine, 
the climate being somewhat too dry for cereals ; the saUnas are 
mostly on the northern coast, and the vine is everywhere. A 
few head of cattle, sheep, and goats are bred on the barren up- 
lands; a Uttle grain, especially the hardy maize (fromenton, 
kukuruz) on the damper lowlands ; and pisciculture, which like 
viticulture, is being civilised and developed, occupies the coast. 

There eire mines of lignite coal at Carpano, Pedena, and other 
places; pyrites, alum, and vitriol at S. Pietro di Sovignano; 
silex (sjddame) for glass works about Pola; mineral springs, 
cold at Isola, near Capodistna, and hot at S. Stefano, near Pm- 
guente ; while clays for fire-proof bricks, and quarries of excellent 
stone, freestones') lithographic limestones, and marbles are found 
fdmost wherever they are wanted. The harbours were declared 
free-ports in 1861. The roads are tolerable and often good ; 
diligences traverse the country, and a branch railway, opened on 
the Imperial and Eoyal birthday (18th August, 1876), bisects 
it, running from Divaca on the Siid-Bahn or Great Southern, to 
Canfanaro, on the southern edge of the gorge-like Canale di 
Leme) ; here it forks ; one line running westward to Eovigno, 
the other south to Pola. Almost every village haa its inn, and 
these are no longer what they were a few years ago : — 

"Naatjr, dusty, fusty, 
Both with smoke and rubbish mustj." 

(As old Richard Brath wait's " Itinerary" complained). Spring and 
autumn are delightful, as might be expected in these latitudes, 
with an altitude ranging from sea-level to an average of over a 
thousand feet, and the traveller should know that a fortnight 
can be spent in Istria with pleasure and profit. 

In this paper I propose to take the " Lloyd's" steamer fix)m 
Trieste to Fiume, landing at the places where pre-historic finds 
invite, and returning to whence we came by. carriage through 
the heart of the country, via Pedena, Pisino, Corridico, and 

Irving Trieste, we steam across the Bay of Muggia, where 
the new Port of the great Emporium should have been ; the old 
MugUa, Mugila, Mugla, or Monteamulio, rich in antique remains 
where Mgr. Tomasini, Bishop of Cittanuova (nat. 1595, 
ob. 1654), and Petroni place one of the tria Oppida, Mutila, 
Faveria and Nesactium, destroyed by the Romans (Livy, lib. 
LI, pa^m). We then open a sister form, the Bay of Capodistria ; 
the classical (Egida, afterwards Capraria and Justinopolis ; onee 

Digitized by 


Tlie Seaboard of Istria. 345 

the head-quarters, as its name shows, of Veneto-Istrian jurisdic- 
tion ; then a favourite garrison of the French invader, who by a 
fine causeway converted it from an island to a headland ; and 
now a kind of Triestine suburb, well known for its ergastolo or 
reformatory prison. Artistically speaking it was a mistake — 
valcU defimdiis — to exchange the picturesque ruin on the 
Castle-Mound for the huge square yellow pile, which catching 
the eye from every approach, forms the marking feature of the 
venerable miniature city. 

Thence the course lies past Isola of old Halicetus, the lump 
of limestone in a region of sandstone, to the headland of Pirano, 
which much resembles that of Serafend or Sarepta, although 
introduced into the Argo of the Venetian Pietro Contarini. 

Et Muglam, et Machium, quin CalligynaBca Pyi'henum, it is 
comparatively modern, and the jibe "Piranese pirati,'** excites 
great indignation. The approach is charming from the south 
and west. The quaint homes of the old town hug the 
tongue-tip and the western strand; the large new buildings, 
tinted in " blonde's colours," salmon and tender-green, affect the 
tongue-root. St. George, with huge belfry and detached 
baptistery, resting like S. Francesco d'Assisi, upon tall arched 
buttresses, caps the bluff cliff east of the point, and the well- 
wooded shoulders of the mainland, whose high, bare, and scarred 
sea-face looks down upon the waves, support romantic mediae- 
val ruins, a battlemented wall, and shells of towers which 
suggest a stage-scene. The background is glorious ; the purple- 
blue edge-line of the Carso or limestone-plateau,, apparently over- 
hanging Trieste, and above it, in the far background, the " King 
Mountain," more familiarly called Na-nos, or " the Nose," vdth 
its aquiline bridge bearing in winter sparkling snows. 

We now cross the mouth of the third great bight, known near 
the town as the Eada di Pirano ; to the east is the Porto Eose, 
a corruption of Porto Glorioso ; and inland or southwards, as La 
Dragogogna, more commonly La Dragogna. This, the Italianized 
incremental of Draga, a valley or seabight, is believed to be, 
like Largone, a corruption of " Argaion," the Thracian name of 
the indentation, from the number of white (argos) streams that 
feed it. We should be grateful to the Slavs, who by slight 
changes so as to make them significant in their own tongues — the 
Italians call it bisticcio or punning — ^have embalmed so many 
classical names instead of barbarizing them like the Grermans. 

The north-western shoulder of the Istrian triangle is called 

* They need hardly be ashamed of this ancient and honourable calling ; and 
perhaps jealousy gaye the name. In Paolo Ramutio (de peU. constant.), we 
read " Histriani pirati," and indeed all this coast has been as famous for eea- 
thieTes as that of Western India. 

VOL. VU. 2 B 

Digitized by 


346 The Seaboard of Istria. 

Point Salvore, and here the redoubtable Bora or Nor-Nor-Easter 
is first felt by ships coming from the southern Adriatic. The 
term is popularly explained as denoting the escape of a king 
(Salvo Rfe), Otho IV, son of Frederick Barbarossa, who in 
A.D. 1179, fought the Venetians in Porto Eose. The word, 
however, is bastard Latin, Salburium, from sal ; Salbera being 
still used by the Venetians. Two " old men " of whitewashed 
stone show the deep-water channel between them. On the west 
of the baylet are the ruins of a squAre Venetian tower, and a 
deep moat upon the rising ground, suggests that it had once 
been an entrenched camp. Opposite lies the dwarf mole, 
whence a newly-made ramp leads to the church. This ledge is 
a thick stratum of debris underlying the grass; a stick can 
hardly scratch it without turning up bones, fragments of pottery, 
especially clay spindle-whorls, bits of glass and coins, mostly 
of the lower Roman Empire and of the Venetian Republic 
The church of S. Giovanni, which existed in Otho!s days, was 
dowered with many indulgences by Pope Alexander III, as the 
first two lines of its inscription tell us : 

" Heus, populi, celebrate locum, quern tertius olim 
Pastor Alexander donis coelestibus auxit etc., etc.** 

It was restored in 1826, at which time, probably its celebrated 
battle-picture, by Tintoretto, found its way to Vienna. The 
comfortable parsonage shows signs of agriculture, apiculture, 
and sericulture, but the wintry blasts are a grievance. The 
south-westernmost point dons the usual maritime tricolor, the 
terra rosea (red soU), veiled in spring by smooth turf, the sun- 
bleached slabs of limestone, and the brown-black edging where 
the sulphates of the sea water tarnish the component oxide of 
iron. Here are the lighthouse (Fresnel system) and steam- 
horn, the former built in 1817, and the latter wanting more 
power to its voice. i 

Beyond the Lighthouse, we turn due south, along a coast here 
almost clear of islands. The first object of interest is the drowned 
city of Siparia, whose site is now denoted by the Sicche (shoals) di 
Sipar. It was destroyed probably by the gradual submergence 
of the coast levels, about a.d. 740, when Arupinum, the island 
bearing Old Rovigno, disappeared. In 1770, when, accordii^ to 
the Abb^ Laugier, a dangerously low ebb-tide on this coast 
threatened Venice with a flow in proportion {una Jiera marea), 
the ruins, covering some two miles, showed their mosaic floors, 
and well-built walls pierced with doors and windows. 

The land here belongs to Dr. F. Venier of Pirano ; and the 
Government Engineer, Sig. Righetti, was kind enough to act as 
guide when we visited it (15th October, 1876), in company with 

Digitized by 


The Seaboard of Istria. 347 

Baron Pino di Friedenthal, Statthalter of Trieste. At the 
Pnnta Catoro, the southern spit of land projecting westward, 
with a neck only twenty feet broad, we inspected the Eoman 
villa tmcovered in 1875 ; it might have been a balneum, only 
there were no water tubs. We then rowed to the bottom of the 
bight past the shell of the three-storied Venetian building called 
the Castello di Sipar, and landed on the slippery rocks of 
Zambrattia, two fisher^houses and a chapel belonging to the 
Venetian Counts Botta. A long '' leg," up a rough Umestone 
lane, to the manor-house '' Soumania/' beautified by some fine 
old almond-trees ; and a second leg to the south, up a broken 
avenue, placed us upon the shallow dome of bush-clad hills, 
where stands the CasteUier di Roumania. The position is north 
(mag.), with a little easting, from Umago, and viewed fix)m 
^e sea abreast^ it appears a second distance of rounded hill, 
feathered at the horizon-line, with filmy trees. Here the land, 
being calcareous, well preserves the shape of the pre-historic 
rampart, a double concentric circle, the interior diameter 
measuring two hundred and twenty feet (English), with a 
circumference of seven hundred and eighty five ; the thickness 
of the inner vallum is twenty-two feet and a-half ; and the 
moat, which is distinctly traceable, between twenty and twenty- 
five feet. It must be very old; the "black malm" (terrido 
nero), which characterises such places;* and the cotti {pot- 
sherds) have been buried by the decay of the vegetation, grass, 
oak-shrub, and the Spina Marruccaf {Pcdiurus dcuUaius), 

The Lloyd's steamer stops, though not long enough to land, at 
Umago and Cittanova. They are the normal second-class 
ports of this coast, built on rocky spits, almost sea^^t, and 
defended by walls, which in classical and mediaeval days had a 
sacrosanct character, being annually lustrated and placed under 
the protection of the god, and their successors the saints. These 
" honours of the city " are still garnished with bastions or with 
round towers, and pierced with what the Arabs call a Bah-el- 

• First paper, pp. 15 and 39. 

fin my firtt paper (p. 27) mkprinted Spina Morooco; in Slar, Draoa or 
Diraka, and in German Judendom. This EhamnuB has lon^ ago effected a 
lodgement on either side of the Adriatic, and many a place in Italj is caUed 
"The Mamicatone." The bright yellow blossoms and the delicate folia^ 
conceal formidable thorns shaped like partridge-spnrs ; in winter, when their 
fierceness b not mitigated bj the leafery, they are true " wait-a-bits." According 
to the learned Dennis (" Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria," vol. ii, p. 251, a book 
whose reappearance in a second edition the world will welcome), it is probably 
referred to br Polybius (ii, 28), when describing the battle near Uuselle. 
The Bomans, he tells us, were obliged to strip lest Uieir clothing should proTent 
their passing through the thickets. Throughout Istria I hare found it as 
troublesome as in Syria ; the appearance of the thorn, bowerer, is pretty and 

2 b2 

Digitized by 


348 The Seaboard of Istria, 

Barr (land-gate) and a Bab^l-Bahr (water-gate.) The body of 
the place consists of a huge church, which could lodge half the 
population, of a belfry, often detached, whose bells were to the 
citizen what the tvha was to the soldier ; of a small bilious-yellow 
masonry box labelled Sanitk (health office) ; of a dwarf mole, 
locally called La Porporella, projecting from a neat quay of cut 
stone ; of a marina or old town, a dull mass of grey-white houses 
with dingy tile roofs ; and of a few big bran-new tenements on 
the claret-case model, showing the " new town," which belongs 
to this our age of great cities. Cittanova, besides its pier, owns 
a modem promenade with infetnt trees, apparently never visited 
by a promenader ; the lands are rich, especially those belonging 
to the Counts Eighi ; yet the saying is, " Cittanova, chi porta 
trova," you find only what you carry, in the way of food. Of 
old Amonia, where Bishop Tomasini, whilome Eminensis, would 
place, despite Pliny and Ptolemy, debated Nesactium, its 
position promises better things. It stands at the northern jaw 
of the Porto Quieto, the gape of the valley of the same name, 
the largest and most important of the four great quaquaversal 
features which drain the peninsula ; and here, if anywhere, is the 
stream which the Captain commanding the First Periplus of 
the Orhis Vetertbvs Notus, mistook for a branch of the Ister. 

Here, about the Val and Porto Quieto, Istria looks her best. 
Tl»e regular slope from east to west, shows, 

" A ripple of land, such little hills the sky 
Can stoop to tenderly, and the wheat fields dimb." 

The rounded outlines are clothed with vivid green during 
spring and early summer, and the slopes are studded with 
vineyards and oliveyards ; the clumps and scrub patches, mostly 
of oak, Uex, and thorns, and dotted with whitewashed villages. 
The gradual rise, which resembles a " rake " or stage slope, sets 
off the mountain back-ground of Lower Krain ; we shall see 
Nanos of the snowy nose almost as far south as Parenzo ; then 
Monte Maggiore appears in ermine to the south-east, and north- 
wards tower the glorious peaks and pinnacles of the eastern 
or Julian Alps fronting Trieste : stedfast forms played over by 
the changing suns and clouds. 

The principal settlements are Buje to the north, and Castellier, 
with its towering campanile, to the south of the Val Quieto. 
The former, connected by diligence with Trieste, from its 
position at the edge of a commanding height, is popularly known 
as T-a Spia {Specula Vedetta), or the look-out, and it was one of 
the nine Istrian bishoprics, under the title Evelensis. Mgr. 
Tomasini (p. 294) thas accounts for its Slav name. When the 
people of a certain "gradina" near the Val Quieto were flying 

Digitized by 


The Seaboard of Istria. 349 

from their enemies, they rested on this hill, and one of them 
said. Tote boglie state, "here better we stay." Hence Boglie, 
Buglie and Buje, a derivation not faultless, but at any rate better 
than that proposed by Giovanni Battista Bivago — Bugia in 

The next halt is at Parenzo, fifteen years ago a "deserted 
town," now the seat of the Istrian Diet. Its ''Basilica Eufrasiana'* 
or cathedral, which in ecclesiological interest " perhaps yields only 
to Rome and Ravenna," has been copiously described by a host 
of writers, amongst ours by Neale and Freeman. Before the 
date of the historian's visit (1 875), the seaboard of Istria, like 
that of Dalmatia, was almost a terra incognita to Great Britons ; 
the w£ir of 1876 has now made it a favourite trip. The new 
town stands at the root of the spear-headed rock-tongue that 
projects boldly to the W.N.W. It is of unusual size and 
importance ; and it is the seat of the Istrian Diet, and the centre 
of economic energy. An QEnological Department has lately been 
established under two officials, paid partly by imperial, and 
partly by provincial funds. 

About Parenzo and Rovigno, the grape is mostly of one kind ; 
in other parts of the peninsula, the peasant will plant red and 
white in a single field. The phylloxera has affected many vine- 
yards near Rovigno, and the unprc^essive people, who will not 
believe in the sulphur-cure, have -uprooted their infected vines 
like the Madeirans during the eidium attack of 1865. On the 
Isola S. Andrea, further south, the French plant was introduced, 
but it did not prosper. As a rule, the small proprietor is utterly 
ignorant of viticulture ; he looks only to quantity, not quality ; 
he mixes vfuious sorts, he uses the unripe as well as the rotten, 
he neglects his produce during the delicate process of fermenta- 
tion, and he is too careless to rack it off the lees. Hence the 
yield may be good vinegar, but it is execrable wine. Many of 
the wealthier landowners have turned their attention to 
improvements, and the result is a sound and wholesome article. 
In the Zaole Valley, an hour's walk from Trieste, a Swiss 
proprietor, M. CoUioud, who not only grows his grapes, but also 
buys them from the neighlwuring cultivators, can command for 
his red wine a florin and a half (three francs) per bottle, and for 
an ama, which yields a"bout eighty bottles, we pay thirty florins 
or three pounds. It is clear and palatable, but it has not the 
petit goiU rosi of the French vin ordinaire, which is remarked by 
every traveller from Italy, when he tastes it at Modane. My 
conviction is, that first-rate light wines are not to be made south 
of Germany and France ; wliere the suns scorch, and the rains 
are rare, the inevitable result is to develop alcohol. 

Opposite Parenzo, where the seaboard-profile breaks into 

Digitized by 


530 Tlic Seaboard of Istria, 

lumpy hillocks, contrasting with the long sweeping curves and 
lines further north, begins the false-coast of islets, reefs and 
crags, which fringes the peninsula to its southern apex. As is 
shown by the ossiferous breccias, which are found even upon the 
smaUer features, they were once part of the mainland, which still 
sinks in the Istriam and Dalmatian shores, whilst Italy rises, as 
is proved by the Adriatic ports, Eavenna, Venice, and EiminL 

The general aspect is a shallow dome, with a base of white 
cretaceous lime, capped by green turf, bush and trees ; almost 
every one has its own plants, as though it were a separate 
continent, and aU are valuable as breakwaters, forming the safe 
and commodious roads of Parenzo, Bovigno, and Fasana, with 
northern and southern entrances. At least three have been 
inhabited in pre-historic days, one, Scoglio Marafor (ssMartis 
Forum) opposite Parenzo, retains its cla^ical name, and many 
of the others show villages or convents, churches or chapels, 
the latter in preservation, or in ruin retaining only the cypresses. 

With the islands begins a melancholy and almost deserted 
tract which stretches to near Pola. Much of the land is 
uncultivated, showing bush and scrub scantily clothing the grey 
white rock and red soil, which the three rainless months of 
summer bake to terra cotta; here water often costs as much as 
wine. The necess«uy, supplied only by the winter showers, is 
allowed to form perennial ponds and swamps {laToe lagi and 
paludi) that poison the air; hence even in the Boman days 
votive tablets were inscribed pro febribvs, against tertians. 
The pools cannot be drained, because wanted for watering cattle, 
and the province has not yet attempted to grow eucalyptus. 
Since pauper huts instead of handsome villas are remarked upon 
the best " stanzie ** (estates),* and " La Torre " has been allowed 
to fall in ruins, no one sleeps a-field. At 6-7 A.M. you see the 
labourers with their carts and beasts leaving the towns, in which 
fear of fever compels them to night We may say of this land as 
of the Campagna di Boma, 

" LoBtan da Cittii 
Ionian da SaniU.** 

Passing the Canale di Leme (CuUeus Lemenis), a sea-arm 
seven miles deep, we touch at Bovigno, which, after Trieste, is 
the largest and most populous of Istrian towns. It stands upon 
a tall rocky headland, trending as usual to the N.N.W. ; and 
it begins conspicuously with its pre-historic modem Daomo, 
whose prodigious attached belfry has won many a wager from 
priests proud of and ready to back their own Campanili. The 

• First paper, p. 24. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

The Seciboard of Istria. 351 

northern or back-bay (Porto val di Bora) is dangerous ; not so 
the southern, formed by the Isola di S. Caterina ; this sea-hohn 
which, from above, appears three-lobed, and on paper a lance 
head pointing landwards, bears an old steeple and some two 
hundred and eighty species of plants, including the asphodel and 
the Avtrva hirauta. The old town, lately a fishing village, 
with streets and alleys, closes and wynds, high and narrow, 
stepped and foul ; with open drains and slimy green tanks, 
has half a dozen churches and chapels in as jnany piazzette ; a 
lai^e monastery, with about a dozen Minori Osservanti, and a 
big white penitentiary. The new town at the Riva or marina 
shows a chief piazza, with caf^s and telegraph ofl&ce ; a neat 
quay, pierlet and SanitJi, and, to the extreme south, a barrack- 
like and bran-new tobacco-manufactory, emplojdng some five 
himdred hands. The railway station is in Back Bay, as usual 
here, so far from the centre that the unregulated carriage-hire 
will cost more than the fare. The pretence ia to leave room for 
the towns to grow ; the real object is that the line, laid out by 
Imperial engineers, should serve chiefly, if not solely, for 
Imperial purposes. Let us hc^e that the effect will be that 
proverbially ascribed to faithfully studying the ingenuous arta 

There is indeed room for improsrement. The Rovignese, 
numbering some eleven thousand, are the most turbulent and 
troublesome of the Italo-Istrians, even the women being fond of 
using the knife. 

They speak a dialect of their own, which Dante terms barbaro 
incongruo e crudele. They are of peculiar type, dark and red- 
cheeked ; their unfriends derive them from the Roman cohort, 
which was doomed, after the Crucifixion, to wander Cain-like 
over earth, till Arupinum gave a shelter. Hence are explained 
such street names as Gerusalemme, Beilehomme, and Calvario 
— which, by-the-by, suggest the ecclesiastic, rather than the 
anti-ecclesiastic tendency. 

Their pride has lately had a queer fall : they applied for a 
bishop to the Government, and the latter supplied t^em with a 
" Boja ; " hence the hangmafi is now called, in cruel "woggery, tlie 
" Vescovo di Rovigno " (Episcopus Arupini). 

The environs of the unpeaceful city are not without pre-his- 
toric interest. On April 30th, 1874, guided by one Pietro 
Genovese, a treasure-seeker, who made no secret of his craft, 
I accompanied MM. Tommasini and Marchesetti to inspect 
a sepulchre lately opened near the Canale di Leme. Twenty 
minutes' walk past Back Bay, led us to the Lago di Ran (frog- 
lake), a foul tank which spreads wide after rain, and which con- 
tracts in the " dries " with copious malaria. To the north of it 

Digitized by 


352 The Seaboard of htria, 

rises Monte Ricco*, where there are old latomice of good stone 
facing west, and where a Boman cemetery has supplied lachry- 
matories and sarcophagi. About thirty minutes' walk north- 
east of the Frog Lake, and bearing three hundred and forty-five 
degrees (Mag.) fix)m Orsera, the taJl town on the northern jaw of 
the Culleus limenis is Monte Longo, where the usual limestones, 
nummulitic and hippuritic, become distinctly dolomitic. De- 
scending by a ladder a rude shaft twenty-nine feet deep, we 
found a cavern-doorway nine feet high by four feet wide, with 
signs of a door, square bevel-holes in the rock sides for bars, and 
two uninscribed cippi at the threshold-flanks. A tunnel, twenty- 
four feet long, and very low, till lately cleared by the " Tesoriero," 
led to a vaulted circular room, whose ceiling stili bore marks of 
the small pick, like the caves of the kings near Jerusalem ; an 
upper spiracle admitted the air ; one of the shallow lateral bays 
was marked with a cross, and a hollow sound suggested that 
grave vaults might be below, A single rough cippus stood 
inside. The yield had been sepulchral lamps, inscribed with 
the maker's name, or adorned with the dolphin, and two spindle- 
whorls of clay, which the fishing population unanimously de- 
clared to be net-weights. The general aspect was that of the 
Etruscan Sala, in which the annual Silicemium (death-feast) 
was eaten, and the learned Prof. Carlo di Courbi, has found in 
the Istrian peninsula other traces of the mysterious Rasne or 

Allow me to offer a few words upon the Tesoriero or treasure- 
hunter of Istria. Although by no means ashamed to own that he 
has tried his luck — and failed — he is beginning to suffer from 
the jibes of men, and thus he will presently decline and die out. 
As in Syria and Egypt, the Maghrabi (north-west African) is the 
successful magician, so here the " Grego " is the adept : there 
are everywhere legends of Greeks landing by night, marching to 
the local ruin : consulting a plan in writing on parchment, and 
disappearing with their booty. Doubtless during the Byzan- 
tine occupation, and during the general stampede which followed 
the fall of Constantinople (a.d. 1453), many Hellenes fled to the 
Adriatic shores — Whence possibly the tradition. Like the Eastern 
alchemist, the gold-hunter demands from his dupe fat capons 
and turkeys, barrels of wine, and perphaps the favours of some 
fair member of the family. *' II Diavolo di Pedena,'* who is still 
quoted, used to appear in fiendish form, and, with the most 
terrible of voices, assure his victim that the profits would be 
cent, per one (if largesse) : hence the " devil " was imprisoned, 
not for " unlawfully using certain subtle crafts, devices, &c.,'* 
but for truffa (raising money on false pretencas), and his employer 

* In the Austrian Gt>Ternment maps, Monte Bicco, probably a misprint. 

Digitized by 


The Seaboard of Istria. 353 

bore through life the title of Cento per uno, Ehabdomancy is 
also practised, but the magic " Baguette '* (bacchetto magico), 
hazel-rod, is thrown, I am told, upon the ground, instead of being 
held by the forked end as in northern Europe. 

Beyond Eovigno, the Monte Aureo (Punta di Monte Auro) has 
been identified with Mons. Taurus, and the Isola di S. Andrea, 
with its castelliere and its old convent, now manufactures 
hydraulic lime. 

A little south is the rock of S. Giovanni, in Pelago, a two- 
lobed form, over whose central depression the wrecked ship of a 
pious skipper was miraculously carried into smooth water ; hence 
the chapel dedicated to the Evangelist Point Barbariga, of old 
Cissana, shows ruins identified with the old Thracian city Cissa ; a 
purple manufacture (Baphium) is noted in the "Notitia utriusque 
Imperii" The maritime lands are still barren and sim-browned. 
They improve about Dignano (Adinianum or Atinianum), and 
yet there is hardly a tree between that village and the shore. 
Presently we shaU enter the regions of evergreens, the ilex 
and terebinth, the "cistus (three species), the arbutus and erica 
(arborea) ; the pffiUyrea (latifolia) ; the myrtle and the oleander, 
the wild caper being the most common of the dozen varieties. 
Here the people, as has been said, are Morlaks ; they are dis- 
tinguished like the Cici by their long Gace (braghe or tights) 
of white woolien stuff, which they appetu* never to change. 
Gfureis says of them, " Der Slave hier ist unwissend, aberglaubisch 
(superstitious), misstrauisch, und besitzt eine ^iemliche Portion 
von Faulheit" 

We leave to starboard the Brioni Islands (Insulae Pullarisp, 
Pliny iii, 30), whose two main features^ the Scogli Grande and 
Minore, contain more than one castelliere (Kandler) ; an 
ossiferous breccia has lately been foimd about four himdred 
yards east of the new Pharos at Point Peneda. We pass 
between the little Prellarian archipelago and the mainland by 
the Canale di Fasana, which, it is said, would have formed a 
far better harbour for ircmclads, than Pola, haunted by the Biscia 
or Teredo. 

As we approach this new Portsmouth, which owns its 
existence as " principal station of the L R Marine " (1863), to 
the unfortunate "Archduke Max.*^ We remark that Strabo 
(V. 1, § 9) is still correct when he asserts " Pola is situated in 
a gulf forming a kind of port, and contdning some small islands 
(not the Brioni of our translations), fruitful, and with good 
htirbours." Passing fortified Punta Cristo, and within it Sanci, 
we find a host of quasi-modern works on the northern jaw 
crossing fire with the Brioni batteries, and with the defences of 
the southern Point " Compare." And now, as Berlingeri says — 

Digitized by 


354 The Seaboard of Istrta, 

" Pola poi s^appruova 
Petta da' Colchi privi d'ogni Speme 
Prender Medea, che da lor non si tniova : 
Oh quanto il nome suo a lei oonTiene ! 
(Jtt» apfireflto a knr * OitU d'esuli ' impoiia 
£ il nome suo Tetasto ancor ritdene. 

On such a day aa this, Sir Humphry Davy thought the 
harbour " one of the most glorious visions in the world ; " it is 
equaUy admired by Tumbull in 1840 ; and Neale found the 
entering a "moment never-to-be-foi^tten." But since those 
days it has greatly changed by the growth of a new Pola, 
numbering some twelve thousand inhabitants, and almost 
equalling that of the Augustan age. As we steam past the 
Battery Island, we remark that the Scoglio (deglt) Olivi (map 
delle olive or oliveninsel), aliaa S. Floriano, which anciently 
supported the mausoleum of Basparaganus, king of the Sar- 
matian Bhoxolani (a.d. 120) and where, a score of years ago, 
goats browsed, now boasts of the most modem appliances in 
slips and balance-dock The marking features are the citadel, 
the Eoman capitol or hauteville, which presided over the 
other six hills, and below it the Franciscan co\ivent (built A.D. 
1285) now a military magazine ; while ranged along the shore- 
line are the column^ Palazzo Stabile, or ** Festungs-Commando- 
gebaude;" the cathedral, *'of marvellous interest," with the 
several riding-school windows ; the large new barracks opened 
in 1875, the Eena or amphitheatre which, fronted by houses 
which did not exist in Davy's day, has now lost all its grand 
isolation, and the little railway station in the valley of S. Ketro, 
vulgarly Valle Lunga. 

Several antiquarian discoveries have lately been made at 
Pola, and the finds have been deposited in the local museum, 
the Temple of Rome and Augustus, facing the Piazza, which was 
once the Forum. And there are improvements since I visited 
the Arsenal in 1873. The *' Coliseum,*' whence Mr. Neale 
"turned sorrowfully away after thinking of the Christian 
martyrs," has been defended (1875) by iron railings seawards, 
and a solid wall inland. The municipality has also enclosed 
the funereal gateway of the Sergii, or Minerva-gate, which 
opened upon the Via Flavia, the latter once a line of sepulchres 
like the Appian Road; its modem name is Porta Aurata or 
Aurea, and vnlgarly " Porta Kata." But the Soman single arch- 
gate to the East, opening on the military road to Albona, and 
now bridging the citadel-moat, is still, despite the complaints of 
Gareis (p. 72) and others, the common cess of the neighbour- 
hood ; in this matter the Slavs of Istria are incorrigible. At 
last (October, 1876) the " Maximilian's Monument " has been 
finished, with ttie legend " Von der Kriegsmarine in dankbarei 

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The Seaboard Df Istria, 355 

Erinnerung ; *' but it is hardly worthy of the gallamt Austrian 
navy, or of the Prince which raised it to its present rank. 
And, what concerns the traveller far more, the two inns have 
been brushed up ; and they are no longer " filthy pot-houses : " 
where the people are civil, but charge exorbitantly. 

South of Pola, the shore is subtended by a line of lumpy hills, 
green and bush-grown, to the north and southwards of naked 
limestone. From the offing we see over the nearest distance 
the bare head of Monte Goly (Monte Calvo or Bald moimtain) 
and the dark flank of Pxmta Negra, while the whole is crowned 
by the wall, jagged-edged and crateriform, of Monte Maggiore, 
capping an elevated plain. We pass Medolino, the town- 
let S.S.E. of Pola and in the Agro Polense, identified by 
Coppo and most antiquaries with the Mutita deteta by the 
Bomams. The fine quarries are reached by a good highway 
from Pola, a restoration of Vespasian's Via Flavia ; and near the 
modem settlement is rising ground about the old castle, where 
the old Thracian city probably stood. We steam outside the 
once dangerous limip of limestone called the Scpglio Porer, 
with its lighthouse and buoys distinguishing the channel from 
the Secca Pericolosa, Thence the course doubles the southern 
apex of Istria, the low dome " Punta di Promontore ** (Polaticum 
IVomontorium) ; in a Venetian map of 1572, it is called Punta 
di Compare, the former term being assigned to a north-eastern 
headland. Crossing the Golfo di Medolino, whence Pola lies 
completely open to a land attack, we pass the Punta Merlera 
(Point Scallop), and the various projections between it and the 
Arsa mouth, known as Le Merlere ; it is a good description of 
these hogsbacks with black-green vegetation based upon ruddy 
calcareous soil, with chalky-white snouts, gnawed, burnt and 
blackened by the ever restless Quamera 

Our course now shifts to the N.E. We shall presently return 
to the Qords known as the Valle di Bado and the Canale del 
Arsa, where, as has been said, Augustan Istria ends and Libumia 
begins. We sight the lone tower of S. Giovanni in Bosca 
(S. Ivanaz), over the gloomy Punta Negra, the Fax tectum of some 
maps. This, the last buttress of the Caldera-Sissol range, has 
been pnJVided with a small lighthoase. The next feature is the 
little port of Bubaz, to which we shall return ; it is separated by 
a rounded mastif Monte Usir, fix)m the Fjord of Fianona. The 
latter is a long inlet, ending seawards in a " swatch," or long 
narrow gorge, which suggests the action of an ancient river. 

At the southern end of the now shrunken Lake Apich, there 
was till latehr a " Katabatiiron," like that of Aphalons, an 
ArgostoU sufficiently strong to work a mill, but the mouth 
filled up, and the building is in ruins. Since then we have, or 

Digitized by 


356 The Seaboard of Istria, 

rather we had, a lake with two outlets, the submarine and the 
subaerial, the latter being the important and well-defined 

At the head of this fjord stands the grim townlet of Fianona, 
the Slav " Plomin," looking like the nest of pirates and 
smugglers that it was, and contrasting strongly with the 
comparatively open settlements, and their riant surroundings. 
It clings to the southern flank of Monte Zucchero, Sissol, 
or Mala Uzka (2,600 feet), a mountain of highly-contorted 
outlines, which, after a slight depression connects northwards 
with Monte Maggiore. Upon this block, near the chapel of 
Santa Barbara, is the traditional site of an ancient castle called 
Lisborna or Lesborna (Liburnia ?) 

Oflf Fianona we enter the narrow Canale di Farasina, which 
parts Eastern Istria from the north-western end of bleak and barren 
Cherso Island, whose snows sometimes, as in Iceland, descend 
to the sea. Here we open the glorious Gulf of Fiume, no mean 
rival, especially when both wear their winter suits, to the 
Bay of Naples. We steam along the Libumian shore, under 
the shadow of Monte Maggiore, the Saint Angelo of our 
Adriatic Parthenope, which adds grandeur to the picturesqueness 
of the scene. It is this culminating point of Istria 
(4,400 feet), the Mons Major of the Romans; the 
Monte Caldera, Caldier, Caldeera, Caldaro, or Gaidar of the 
Italo-Istrians, and the Vela Uzka of the Slavs ; some derive 
the latter name from the village to the west ; others translate it 
the " big narrow," from the shape of the culminating spine, and 
opposed to the " little narrow " (Mala Uzka) Sissol. Very rich 
and luxuriant are the eastern slopes and fort-hiUs of this 
monarch of Istrian moimtains ; the amenity of the climate and 
the extreme beauty of the vegetation made this section of the 
Libumian coast a favourite with the conquerors of the world. 

Still hugging the shore, whose tall limestone walls are 
pierced with many a cave bored by the blue-rocks, we pass 
Bersetz town, remarking its fine bathing sands, where boats ride 
at anchor through the winter. We admire the eccentric cities of 
the high road to Fiume, whose white ribbon in long line stripes 
the dark green, without the slightest regard for levels. Beyond 
the tall town of Moschienizza opens its draga which, under the 
name Val di S^ra, runs up to the southern base of Mons Major. 
Here we expect to see the water power made useful, and are 
told that " it is proposed." The meuth divides the Commune 
from that of Lovrane (Laucetum) where the evergi'een which 
named it, has apparently yielded the palm to the edible chesnut : 
this Marrone is looked at in a variety of ways. Bay tree town, 
famed for its battle in A.D. 695, beifig upon the sea-board, has been 

Digitized by 


The Seaboard of Istna, 357 

defended from pirates by walls and two fortlets ; now we remark 
only its mole and Mandracchio (mner port). From this point 
we strike neariy due east, and with a glance at the high-placed 
church of Saint Peter ; at the beautiful grounds of the Abbazia 
Villa; at tall Castura, at low-ljdng Voleska and its portlet 
Priliika, where the timny enters the chamber of death, we make 
old Tersatica Fiume. 

We have then, in little more than twenty-four hours, passed 
round the three sides of the Istrian peninsula. The Lloyd's 
steamers stop at Pola between five and ten P.M., and thus they 
double the southern point during the dark. By taking the 
carriage-road to Trieste, in an eight hours' drive, you may encircle 
Adriatic Istria. 

Istria is small in stature, great in fame. Its climatal and 
jetturic accidents have made it, like Syria and Palestine, a 
manner of earth's epitome. The mountainous region bounding the 
east suffers from the cold of England ; the lowlands to the south 
and west enjoy the tepid warmth of Italy ; the aloe flourishes 
at Eovigno, and the bush feathers Monte Maggiore, distant only 
thirty direct miles. In Boman days the peninsula was a 
meeting-place of nations, being traversed by two great highways > 
the great south-eastern connecting York and Aqmleja with Con- 
stantinople and the Levant; and the eastern line between 
Ancona, Pola, the rival of Bavenna, Zara £md the Danube to 
Pannonia Hence it was the chosen abode of Emperors, like 
Vespasian, and of patrician families like the Crassi (Licinii) 
the Sergii (Castro Poise), and a host of darisdmi viri and of 
darissimcB foBmiTUB, whose villas not only lined the shore, but 
extended to the centre. Hence, too, the attention paid to it by 
the poets, the geographers and the historians of antiquity. 
Of late years it has been unduly neglected. 

Section II. 

Bubaz, the marina or port of Albona, is a settlement with half- 
a-dozen houses, including a little inn ; it has a stone-reveted 
quay, a dwarf mole of good masonry, and two stepped landing- 
places. A life-boat, the "• Felis " has been presented to it by a 
patriotic citizen, and the civil " deputate " (health-oflBcer) Sig. 
Lorenzo Domini^, by his friends called the Admiral, takes a 
pleasure in showing us everything. The harbour is connected, 
by a good can'ozzabile made by the commune, with its town 
Albona, the latter looking from afar like a huge mediaeval castle 
eyried on a moimtain-top, with the tall belfry acting land-mark. 
The road runs up the left side of a rugged ravine, called in the 
town part the Valle di Bipenda, from the district (comune) 

Digitized by 


358 Ihe Seaboard of LntHa. 

which subtends the seaboad ; about half way up, a bridge 
spanning a northern branch influent which drains the upper bed, 
and which rolls a cataract after rains, separates Eipenda 
from Albona; and here the main gorge becomes the Valle 

The steep and stony flanks are seamed with paths ; and in 
places the Fiumara works mills under difficulties; during 
summer the bed is bone-dry, and in winter it pours a furious flood 
after heavy rains. 

The Bipenda-Albona ravine is sunk in the normal aeries of 
Istrian limestones (eocene nunimulitic), and forcibly reminds 
the traveller of similar features in the Anti-Libanus. Below 
the nummulites, hippurites, and radiolites (Rudisten-Kalk), lies 
on both sides of the valley, with a sharp dip, a band of limestone 
full of the bivalve {'pema)y which polishes like marble; the 
thickness varies from eighteen inches to two feet The eocenic 
sandstone appears on either side. About half way up (five 
hundred feet), we find on the left flank a quarry of sandy marl 
{gr^ mamSes), which strikes to the N.N.W. ; burnt and mixed 
with sand, it forms, like the Santorin earth, a fine hydraulic 
cement. Formerly it was fired on the spot, but the fomo did 
not pay, and now it is shipped raw to the Rovigno works. 

Reaching the Col, we bend from north-west to south-west, and 
stand upon the Altipiano (plateau) of Albona, a swelling ridge 
of extreme fertility, broken westward by two great gorges ; the 
first is the Val di Carpano, a copy of the Ripenda- Albona ravine, 
draining the prison, and the second is the Valarsa (Val d' Arsa), 
in former times the subaerial drain. of the Lacus ArsisB, the 
now stagnant Cepich, which breeds fatal fevers. The inland 
view also has its attractions. Almost due north stands Monte 
Maggiore, simulating a cold Vesuvius; like the Julian Alps 
seen from Trieste, it is a local barometer, whose cap of clouds 
promises rain. A little further east rise the belfries of Pedena 
and Gralignana, thrown in relief by the pure blue sky. The 
narrow plateau, of red calcareous soil, is covered with vineyards, 
and three villas now represent the three towers that defended 
the northern approach. Along the eastern side of the rock- 
mound, here bluff, there sloping, upon which Albona stands, we 
easily trace the now grassy ramp of Roman days, and we see 
the classical arch*, at present blocked up, which pierced die tall 
ivy-clad waUs of the oldest fortress. 

Following the modem communal road, which communicates 
with Fiume and Pisino, as well as with Rabaz, we pass on the 
right the type of an Istrian chapel, della Madonna, whose long 

• Nrar the north eastern entrance, PortB S. Btngio. 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 

The Seaboard of Istria. 359 

tiled porch, supported by thin monolithic colonnettes, received 
under its slabs the dead, before the new cemetery was laid out 
south of the town. High above us to the left are the old palaces 
which form the enceinte of the ex-republican capital; three 
square bastions have also been converted into dwelling-houses, 
and a long curtain of jball tenements, with fourteen windows, stiU 
belongs to the Depanghes, Manzini and Negri families. The 
BoTgo or new town, whose chief square (Piazza del Borgo) con- 
tains the Loggie of Venetian days, and the modem Casino di 
Societit, is approached by new bmldings ; conspicuous amongst 
which is that of Sig. G. de Furlane, detto U Capetto, with one 
half by no means reflecting the other. 

We find rooms in the old hostelry, " Albergo al Cittadino " of 
Francesco Yladissovich : there is a new establishment in the 
upper town, but it wants the fair view of its ancient rival 

Albona, by the Greeks called Alouon, emd the Slavs Labin, 
has been frequently described, and it has its monographer. The 
latter was " Bartolomeo Giorgini " of Asola, who calls himself an 
Aromatario (apothecary) ; domiciliated in the town ; he printed 
his twelve chapters in 1733. He places the city in north lati- 
tude 44° 40', and ''grade" 37° 30' (Ptolemy, east longitude 36°), 
in the fourteenth parallel, and at the extremity of the seventh 
climate, with a maximum length of day of fifteen hours twenty- 
four minutes. The territory measures sixteen by a maximum of 
ten (Italian) miles, and its circumference of seventy is bounded 
north by the Lago di Cesliano, and south and west by the Arsa. 
The foimders may have been the Colchians, who, in B.c. 1222 
(= A.M. 2731, and a.u.0. 500) "settled in Japidia, which they 
called Istria." But he places, without any reason, the first 
Albona at Starigrad (" old town "), six miles from the present 
site, and eight miles from the sea : the people, finding the air 
bad and water scarce, removed to the present hill-top. After 
the capture of Istria by the "Eerum domini," Albona, as is 
shown by frequent inscriptions, was a republic, and a municipium 
with the -^Idiles and Duumviri, and a Concilium Decurionale. 
She is said, on very imperfect grounds, to have embraced 
C!hristianity in A.D. 65. The territory suffered severely from 
the Marcomanni,and Quadi (A.D. 373) ; from the Visigoths (a.d. 
380) ; from the Heruli (aj). 487) ; from the Ostrogoths, under 
Theodoric the Great (a.d. 489) ; and from the Longobtuds (a.d. 
526). After belonging for thirty-two years to the Empire of 
the East, she in common with Istria, was united by Carolus 
Magnus with the Western Empire (a.d. 788-909) and finally, 
imder Frederick Barbarossa (a.d. 1172), she was transferred to 
the Patriarchate of Aquileja. 

About the fourteenth century, the "oppidum" had been reduced 

Digitized by 


360 The Seaboard of Idria^ 

to a mere castle, about half the size of the present " Old Town." 
After various sufferings from the Saracens and other barbarians, 
it was happily united (a.d. 1420) with the then Be^na del Mare, 
of which men wrote dominium Venetorum non defidet usque ad 
finem mundu It retained its liberties, was ruled by its Podestks, 
or Eettori, and obtained for arms a cross gules on a field argent ; 
moreover, the extent was more than doubled, thus forming a new 
Old Town : the ericeirUe being strengthened by a curtain and 
five square towers, which still remain, except that to the north- 
east, fallen a few years ago. In 1587-1600, the chief entrance 
of the new or south-western town — not to be confounded with 
the BoTgo or suburb outside the walls — was further protected 
with two propugruwida or haluarte, roimd towers of which the 
Terrione is a specimen, and with a Bevellino, here meaning the 
flanking wall : they were furnished with twelve cenea tormenta 
(bronze patereros),for which Doge Marino granted one thousand 
gold sequins. Over the inner gate, where stands the now secu- 
larised chapel of San Fior (Bishop of Cittanova, A.D. 524), was 
placed the lion of Saint Mark, with a movable ball of stone in 
mouth. On the night of January 19th, 1599, Albona was 
attacked by seven hundred to a thousand Uzkoks or pirates 
of Signa, sent by the Archduke Ferdinand of Gratz to worry 
Venice by harrying Istria ; they were beaten off with a loss of 
seven, and they seized the dependency of Fianuma, then unfor- 

I must refer readers to Giorgini's volume for the discovery, 
about A.D. 1817, at a place called Calich (one MS. gives Calick), 
of the " giant of Albona," whose bones where three times the 
size of the biggest man; and concerning the origin and the 
armorial bearings of the families Battiala and Negri, Luciani and 
Scampicchio, Coppe and Frankovich, Ferri, Dragogna, Munzini, 
Manzoni, and Tagliapietra. 

The Museo Scampicchio had acquired since my last visit, three 
fragments of stone implements, two found at Fisino, and one in 
diggings south of Albona, near the smaller Cistern. These 
hardly deserve illustration, but I forward a tnujing of a bronze 
(copper ?) dagger blade, it was dug up by the treasure-seeking 
family. Cento per uno, a little north of the Pervodraze farm-house, 
about fifteen minutes' walk to the south-west of Cunzi. The 
sides, which converge with the slightest catenary curve, are 
sharp, and the raised surface, with a margin of one-eighth to a 
quarter of an inch, want the ornamental lines and points 
which distinguish the most finished weapons. The "part 
wanting " has been rubbed oflF probably by the rude trials of the 
treasure-seeker, and it is suspected that the handle was thrown 

Digitized by 


7%« Seaboard of Istria. 361 

My first step was to the CastelKere di Cunzi, the type of its 
kind, where one seems to stand in the presence of proto-historic 
man. Again we enjoyed the view from the Krizni-berg,* or 
cross hill, one of many little heights which, however, was not 
occupied by the old race. We explained the water supply of 
the Istrian settlement, which stood on a limestone plateau over- 
lying the " Tasello," like the heights south of Albona, and from 
the junction of these formations the element is plentifully 
supplied. Again I saw no trace of the dreaded vipera del Como, 
the gat of the Slavs, which is described as a xmicom with a red 
taiL We gathered quantities of Cotti, pot-sherds whitened hy the 
deposit of lime in the walls. The earthenware in the castellieri 
is mostly of one kind, thick, massive, and heavy. The fracture 
shows a dark and often an almost black core, the result of im- 
perfect baking with thorn fire in the open air, such being the 
general custom of barbarians. The redcUsh-yeUow outer coat is 
dotted with bright points of silex, or of limestone; these 
dimini s h in the improved forms, of which specimens were 
collected at Corridico ; and they entirely disappear from the 
Eoman pottery, so abundant on the Istrian seaboard. Finally, the 
unbroken specimens are aU of the rudest shape, ignoring the 
wheel, and the lips and handles are equally coarse, massive and 

My friend Sig. Emeste Nacinovich, of the Hospitale Santa 
Dominica (formerly Dubrova), who on our first visit showed 
us the Starigrad di Prodol, had discovered the remains of 
another castelliere, about a mile north-east of his father's house, 
at the place called in the Austrian map " Erschiscze " fpron. 
Ersiskic). The site belongs to the Comime of Kanona, the 
gorge of that name bearing 130° (Mag.) from, and close to, the 
whitewashed " ViUa Erschiscze." His attention was aroused by 
the country folk bringing him two fragments of a massive 
human skulL Tall limestone rocks weathered to nakedness 
occupy the centre of the area, and the enceinte was apparently, 
according to general rule, divided into two unequal parts, by a 
wall of rough blocks, six still lying on the ground, and trending 
nearly north and south (Mag.) There are also signs of an 
entrance. The northern arc of the vallum shows two natural 
projections, which may have been useful as rude bastions, whilst 
in the southern face there are three. Excavations in the mound 
produced the characteristic black earth ; pottery, including 

♦ See first paper (pp. 18 — 20), 'when, however, the misprint Krini-brek occurs. 
Mj collaborator has supplied me with a pUm of the enceiwtey the work of a 
(qualified engineer, Sig. Enrico Sontzek. I am rejoiced to saj that it eatab- 
bshes the correctness of the rude sketch facing p. 20. This jear the oak-copses 
will be cleared off, a septennial operation when money is not scarce, and there 
will be a good opportimity of taking the long-promised photograph. 

VOL. vn. 2 C 

Digitized by 


362 The Seaboard of Istria. 

several fragments with handles, bones of man, beast, and teeth of 
cattle, sheep or goats, swine, and apparently rabbits. 

Late in August 1876, Dr. Scampicchio and I proceeded to 
examine the cave of Trddcina (pron. Terdazzina), the " place of 
great cold," on the Strada S. Giovanni (del lago), almost due 
south of, and almost an hour's easy walk, from Alboha. Cav. 
Luciani has long been of opinion that these features, so abundant 
in the limestone formations of Istria, would yield troglodytic 
remains, a theory in which I had little confidence. Immediately 
on leaving the town, the limestone clifflet capping the sandstone 
shows signs of occupation ; here probably was some defence for 
the important line leading to Porto Traghet, the Ttaghetto or 
Ferry of the Arsa. Immediately below, and to the east of the 
HauteviUe, to the left of the road, lies La Cistema Grande, of 
Roman date, solidly built of fine brick, with square pillars, 
vaults and rounded arches ; a little further on is a second, which 
remains blocked up, and a third, La Cistema Piccola, or La 
Zuecca, used by tanners, is imder the Campo Santo in the place 
called Alle Fontane. Also on the left is the chapel of S. Mauro, 
where were found cinerary urns, and the funerary inscriptions 
of the Gavillius or CaviUus family, of which one is now preserved 
in the Loggie of Albona. Further seaward lies S. Gallo, which 
yielded a stone inscribed " to the Holy Nymphs," on a balneum 
built for the use of the Municipium ; while southermost of all, 
lies Grasischie, a position commanding the roads to Eabaz, 
Portolungo and Santo Marintt. 

Passing to the left the chapel of Santa Maria Maddalena, 
belonging to the Scampicchio family, we leave on the opposite 
side that of S. Michele upon a height. We see near us the 
village Castelliere de S. Antonio di Monte on the right bank of 
the Albona gorge, all its antiquities having been destroyed, and 
far below us appears the long bare point of Portolimgo, the 
northern jaw of the fjord immediately south of the Eabaz bight. 
A wall of large stones across the narrow neck, and another cistern 
for rain-water, suggests that this was the site of a Roman villa, a 
common feature on the seaboard of Albona, where the con- 
querors of the world, having no fear of pirates, enjoyed their 
bathing, and breathed air 4 (F.) warmer than the temperature 
of the upper elements. Before, however, proceeding to 
Trd&,cina, I will translate the last communication upon the 
subject of these caverns sent to me by Cav. Luciani, with my own 
remarks upon his long list. 

Doctor Scampicchio sent on half-a-dozen labourers, and 
whilst they sank their shaft, we measured the cave. Its length 
is twenty-four metres, by seven to eight broad, and the average 
height may be five. One of the Negri family had converted it 

Digitized by 


List of Presents, 363 

into an ice-house by paving the floor, by running across the 
mouth a dry-waD provided with a doorway, eind by similarly 
protecting the sm«dler and deeper end. Various holes picked 
in the ceiling and in the sides, showed the familiar signs of the 
treasure-seeker. But our search was utterly unsatisfactory. 

The calcareous red earth was found undisturbed ; only the 
narrowest stratum, about a foot below the level, denoted the 
black mould, and it was probably due to temporary occupati^on 
by shepherds or robbers ; a few mouldered bones of beasts, and 
fragments of old pottery, which might have been transported, 
formed the sole emd the unsatisfactory find. We dug down to 
the ground rock, one mitre or so below the surface ; then we 
gave up Trdacina as hopeless ; and with it all hopes of finding 
troglodytic man in the Istrian peninsula. 

I had always doubted, despite the robust belief of my friend 
Luciani, that a race of cave-dwellers would be found in this 
region. As a rule* the troglodyte affects climates which are 
either very hot and rainless, as near the Red Sea, or cold, as in 
the north of France. Moreover, cave-dwellers do not, even in 
our day, readily give up their cheap and comfortable abodes ; 
this may be seen throughout La Beanee, and even at Saint Clme, 
within an hour's railway-travel fix)m Paris. Again, the per- 
petual infiltration of rain, which doubtless was more abundant 
in the days before Istria-land was disforested, must have made 
them damp and malarious, in fact very uncomfortable compared 
with those of the chalk. The essentially temperate climate of 
the fair peninsula, also, would suggest subaerial habitations, 
and it offered peculiar facilities for building ; limestones whose 
natural fracture saves the trouble of blasting and cutting, and 
abimdance of wood for the rude wigwam. Finally, the 
large number of the pre-historic or proto-historic " CasteUieri," 
which may amount to a score in the smaU territory of Albona, 
is adverse to the existence of a troglodytic race. 

NovEMBro 27th, 1877. 
Mr. John Evans, D.C.L., F.E.S., PresidcTUy in the Chair. 

The minutes of the previous meeting were read and con- 

The election of the following gentlemen as ordinary members 
was announced — Professor Flower, F.RS. ; Count General 

* There are exceptions, for instance at Qrend Canary, and other places ivhich 
readily suggest themselTes. 

2 G 2 

Digitized by 


364 F. M. Hunter. — Notes on Socotra. 

Menabrea, Italian Ambassador in London; M. Elie Beclus; 
Rev. Edgell Wyatt Edgell ; M. G. Bertin. 

The following presents to the Library were announced, and 
thanks were ordered to be returned to the respective donors for 
the same. 

For thb Library. 

Frdhi the Berlin Anthropological Socieiy. — Zeitschrifi fur Eth- 

nologie. No. 4, 1877. 
From the Association. — Jonmal of the Bojal Historical and 

ArchsBologioal Association of Lreland. Vol. lY, No. 30. 
From the Societt. — Bulletin de la Soci^t^ Imp^riale des Naturalistes 

de Moscow. No. 2, 1877. 
From the Institution. — Journal of the Eoyal Institution of 

Cornwall. No. XIX, 1877. 
From the Society. — Journal of the Royal Geological Socieiy of 

Ireland. Vol. IV, Pt. 4. 
From the Royal Academy of Vienna. — Sitzungsberichte philos.- 

histor. Classe 82. Band, Heft 3; 83. Band, Heft 1-4; Classe. 

math.-naturw, 1876, I Abtheil., Nos. 1-7 ; ditto U, Nos. 4-7 ; 

ditto m, Nos. 1-5. 
From the Indu Office. — Statistics, Agriculture and Commerce; 

Census of the Bombay Presidency, 1872. 
From the Edftor.— Revue Sdentifique, Nos. 20 and 21, 1877. 
From the Editor. — ^Nature to date. 

Major-General A Lane Fox, F.RS., exhibited various objects 
from Istria and Scinde. 

The President read a communication from M. Liibavsky, on 
the Civilising results of Russian Conquests. 

The following paper was then i-ead by the Director, in the 
absence of the author. 

Notes on Socotra. By Captain F. M. Hunter, R.N. 

Wellsted's description of Socotra is very accurate as far as it 
goes. The appearance of the plateaux between the north and 
south of the island from Jebel Hagair to Ras Kat^n is very 
peculiar. The whole surface is composed of an extraordinary 
soft limestone, which seems to be in slabs ; a curious effect is 
produced by these being here and there cracked and forced up 
into irregular piles ; in other places the surface has been worn 
and eaten into by rain, until it is perfectly honeycombed ; some 
parts are free of stone, and are covered with a rich red soil ; 
everywhere vegetation exists, and where the slabs are more 

Digitized by 


F. M. Hunter.— JVb^^ on Socotra. 365 

broken, M is luxurious ; metahin mithra, a bush resembling 
laurel; mmeeroo, lakaharn^ and a sort of babool are the chief 
trees and shrubs ; dragon's-blood trees £ire numerous, as also are 

On the western plateaux of Schiebaham and Doftai, down to 
Eas Rakoof on the range of Jebel Tsobrahi, there are numerous 
lumps of limestone, smooth and round, about a foot or so in 
diameter, the action of rain, or rather water, collecting in cavities 
in the topside of these, has gradually hollowed them out into 
large stone bowls, the edges of which are roimded oflf with such 
regularity as to suggest hunmn agency. 

The map prepared by Wellsted is not a very satisfeictory 
guide in rambling about the island, the altitudes are not in 
accordance with ^ose exhibited by an aneroid barometer, the 
difference being in some cases nearly 1,000 feet ; again, the valleys 
intersecting the plateaux are not shown, and many hills of up- 
wards of 500 feet in elevation are entirely omitted ; the slopes 
are not graduated^ €md an attempt to follow the routes indicated, 
would occupy very much more time than an inspection of the 
distances as laid down would lead one to expect 

Of the portion visited, the very extensive valley between 
Tidhau Maak and Tidhau Mataala on the west> and the Shiebsr 
ham range on the north and west, appears eminently adapted 
for cultivation. The extent of this plain cannot be less than 
100 square miles, and it receives the drain^e of all the hills 
which surround it on every sida The outlet is through a narrow 
gorge on the north-west side, whence the flood passes into 
another though smaller valley containing perhaps 20 to 25 
square miles ot cultivatable area; thence the torrent rushes 
through a gorge about a quarter of a mile towards the sea, into 
which it pours close to Khor Ogahim. It is said this stream 
runs down for about a mile from the outlet in a body of water 
about 20 feet deep, carrying everything before it. It is aug- 
mented in the lesser valley by the drainage of aU the westerly 
hills which skirt the valle^y running out to Eas Shaab. The soil 
of both these valleys is apparently a red loam, and even after a 
very dry season they are the only part of the western portion of 
the island where good pasturage is to be found. They are 
covered with a sort of stiff long grass, that grows in bimches and 
the whole plain or vcdley is sprinkled with bushes, almost all of 
which afford pasture for camds. 

The climate during April is exceedingly warm in the plains, 
although the thermometer only ranged from 78 to 88 degrees at 
sea level. On the higher parts of the island the nights and 
mornings are cool and occasionally cold, and an exceedingly 
heavy dew begins to fall after simdown. The heat of the sun 

Digitized by 


366 F. M. Hunter. — Notes 07i Socotra. 

during the day is very oppressive ; there is little or no breeze, 
and the rocky surface absorbs and emits great heat. 

The flora is not so varied in appearance as would be supposed ; 
some trees and shrubs repeat themselves so frequently as to 
weary the eye. On the northern slopes of the lulls, metaJdn, 
dragon's-blood trees, and a sort of babool are very prevalent. 
On the southern slopes and on the plateaux, besides the above- 
mentioned, adenium obesum, a kind of milk bush, and the 
shrub resembling laurel, are obtrusively apparent. On the 
southern side of the island, adenium, obesum^ mithra, and a 
few so-called laurel shrubs are all that grow ; and the weaker 
bushes are bent over by the violence of the south-west Monsoon 

In the centre of the table-land ameroo and lakahim trees 
abound. It is said the dragon's-blood tree is foimd of two species, 
or, as the natives say, of two sexes ; but as there does not seem 
to be any such operation necessary to fecundate, as is the case 
with the date palm, it would be more proper to say that there 
are two species, one barren, and the other producing a berry from 
which no doubt seed is disseminated. Observing very closely, all 
young trees appeared to belong to the so-called female or fruit- 
ful descnption, and it is not until a certain age is reached that 
it becomes apparent into which species the tree will eventually 
develop. Wellsted has well described both trees, but he does 
not notice the last-mentioned peculiarity. The radical difiPereace 
between the two species is the presence or absence of the short 
stumpy branches from which the umbel of spiky leaves springs, 
and the greater length of the latter in the fruit-bearing kind. 
The branches, never more than a foot long, develop and throw 
out fresh branches, so that a very old tree has the appearance 
of an umbrella or mushroom. The tree is occasionally incised, 
and a portion of the bark scraped oflf about 2 inches square. 
This space fills with gum in a fortnight or three weeks, which is 
collected in the end of April. The gum sometimes exudes of 
its own accord from cracks and fissures in the bark. 

The amuroo is a coarse description of frankincense tree, 
it has the same curly indented leaf, but of a much larger size, 
the trunk is also thicker than the Luban tree, and the foliage 
is even more scanty ; the leaves are frequently of a brick-r^ 
colour. The bark is very thick, and is of a pinkish-brown hue 
where the outer green covering has peeled oflf; this last is always 
hanging about in strips, giving the tree the appearance of being 
in tatters. The bark is used by the natives to make buckets 
for holding water ; by what process it is joined, shaped, and 
made water-tight, there was not time to discover. The fruit is 
a berry about the size of a marble, and the gum exudes freely 

Digitized by 


F. M. Hunter.— iVb^es on Socotra, 367 

when the bark is incised. It has a strong aromatic smell and 
taste, is of a clear white transparent colour, and might no doubt 
be found commercially valuable were it collected and exported. 

ZaJcahim is another tree which yields an aromatic gum. 
At a distance it somewhat resembles amuroo, except that the 
leaves are smaller and not curly, and the berry is different. 

The aloe of Socotra needs no discription. The collection of 
the juice is entirely in the hands of the Sultan, who assesses 
each landowner in a fixed quantity per annimi. Great care- 
lessness is frequently practised in expressing the juice, and 
many impurities are mixed with it by the Bedouins to increase 
the weight; but the Sultan has a novel way of pimishing this 
attempt at fraud when discovered, by pouring the contents of the 
skin of impure aloes over the head of the culprit. Judging from 
the appearance of the hands of the persons employed in working 
the plant, this must have an uncomfortable effect on the skin. 

The Island of Socotra is divided into lots, and there is great 
jealousy as to boundaries, which are carefully marked. An average 
assessment of about four keilas of ghee is exacted from each 
male adult per annum. The collection of this rent in kind is 
attended wifli so many difificulties, that perhaps one-half of the 
Bedouins do not pay regularly. 

The herds of sheep and cattle are not nearly so numerous as 
might be expected from previous accounts, at least in that 
portion visited, but it is possible that the flocks actually 
observed, were not fairly representative as regards the actud 
numbers of sheep and cattle on the island. 

The value of the ghee received by the Sultan yearly by 
payments in kind, is estimated at five hundred dollars ; aloes 
bring him in two hundred emd fifty dollars, and dragon's-blood 
eighty dollars ; dues on the mother-of-pearl fishery, etc., make 
his total income up to about a thousand dollars per annimi. 
The dragon's-blood trees on one tract of land are the exclusive 
property of the Sultan, the remainder of the trees are in the 
hands of the Bedouins, who lease the several tracts. 

The Bedouins of the interior are divided into numerous 
families, but there are only a few principal tribes. Unfor- 
timately time did not allow, or opportunity serve, for a complete 
investigation into the various " fakhidahs " as tJiey are called, 
but one tribe who occupy the western portion of the island 
claim to be decendants of the Portuguese. They are caDed 
" Kisshim," and are tall, finely made, wiin lipped, straight-fea- 
tured, pleasant looking men. The women are very like gypsies, 
and are not darker than Goanese, whom they much resemble. 
It must be remembered that the Portuguese probably inter- 
married with the Arabs and aborigines, and it is hardly fair to 

Digitized by 


368 F. M. Hunter. — Notes on Socotra, 

draw conclusions from the appearance of descendcmts after five or 
six generations, especially as there does not seem to have been 
any attempt to preserve purity of descent by marrying only 
descendants of the same stock. 

The " Momi" who reside in the eastern portion of the island 
are said to be the result of intermarriage between the aborigines 
and Abyssinians. Certainly some Bedouins that were observed 
resembled Gallas in every way. 

The " Camabar," who occupy Hajair and the higher ranges 
above Tamarida, are supposed to be the result of marriages 
between the aborigines and the Mahri Arabs. Very many of the 
latter take wives from among the Bedouins, the women being 
nothing loth to become the inmates of harems, where they can 
lead a life of comparative idleness and luxury, in place of 
wandering about in the heat of the day with the flocks, returning 
'at night only to have to toil afresh in milking the goats and 
cows, churning butter, and cooking for their lazy male relatives. 

The Bedouin women of Hajan, wear the usual Arab long 
blue chemise, confined at the waist by a belt as described by 
Wellsted, but those to the westward improvise a petticoat from 
the coarse blanket they themselves weave. On the upper part 
of the body a loose jumper, with short sleeves, is worn, which 
has a hole for the head to pass through. 

The hands and feet of the women are large, the legs are very 
stout and thick in the ankle, even among the younger females. 
No extraordinary abnormal development of the posteriors was 
noticed, such a Wellsted describes. The women wear their hair 
in two long plaits, to lengthen which, frizettes of goat's hair are 
used, and the ends are joined together, the braids hanging down 
the back in a loop. The hair over the forehead is cut short, 
leaving a fringe about an inch long across the brow, very much 
like the present fashion in England. The only ornaments worn 
are the common Arab ear-ring and armlet. Sometimes a neck- 
lace composed of glass beads, bits of amber, agate, dragon's- 
blood, &c., with rupees as pendants at intervals, is hung roimd 
the neck. While herding the flocks, every woman carries in her 
hand a spindle, spinning as she goes along sheep and goat's hair 
into coarse thread, eventually to be woven into blankets with 
the simplest of hand looms. The very young children are 
carried in a blanket or cloth slung over the mother's back, 
while those just able to walk are hoisted on their father's or 
mother's shoulders, sitting three with the legs dangling in front, 
the balance being preserved by a firm hold of the parental 
head. The few children seen appeared very scrofulous. 

The teeth of both sexes are kept beautifully clean by a tooth- 
stick of a kind of wood which tastes like licorice root. 

Digitized by 


r. M. Hunter. — Notes on Socotra. 369 

The girls do not marry until they rectch the age of seventeen 
or eighteen. The "malar" or dowry is nsutJly ten dollars, 
and the "dafa,** or preliminary present, consists of twenty 

The men, as already noticed, are well built There is among 
the western tribes great diversity of feature, but no African 
taint is yet visible. It was observed that nearly all the 
"Kisshim" had overhanging jaws and prominent teeth, the 
broad shoulders, lean fleuiks, and stout well-formed legs, seem to 
bear out their claim to descent from an European stock. They 
are also very much taller than any of the other races on the 
island. The " Kisshim " were delighted to welcome a " Feringe," 
whom they hailed as brother, and hastened to entertain with 
milk and goat's flesh ; an invitation to dinner was declined 
reluctantly on the score of want of leisure. In no instance 
was more clothing worn by the men than the ordinary Arab 
" maawiz,*' or kilt of American cloth ; in the hand is carried a 
few yeirds of sheeting or a blanket, which is cast over the 
shoulders to protect them from the fierce heat of the noonday 
sun. Nothing is ever worn on the head. The hair in the 
"Kisshim*' is generally straight, though sometimes wavy, but 
never crisp and curly as is the case with the " Momi," and some 
of the " Camabar." 

Although the Bedouins of Socotra take advantage of the 
many natural caverns which are found all over the island, yet 
they are not always troglodites. 

The houses, however, are of the rudest description, being built 
of rubble walls, with a flat roof of earth, which is supported on 
rafters and branches of trees. In almost every instance where a 
habitation is found, there is also a large circular erection of similar 
construction for the protection of the sheep and goats in wet 
weather. Each of these covered folds has also an open court- 
yard with high walls, topped with branches, in which the 
flocks are placed at night The portion roofed in is usually 
nearly circular, and is perhaps 30 to 40 feet in diameter, the 
open court is rather larger ; the human dwellings are the same 
shape, but only 15 to 20 feet in diameter. 

The food of the Bedouins consists chiefly of milk and the 
flesh of goats or sheep, varied by dates, rice, emd bjri when 
attainable. A kind of land snail, which is foimd at the roots of 
trees, is baked and eaten. There are two distinct species of 
these snails, each of which is of three difierent sizes. The 
smallest size, of the elongated spiral shelled species, climb trees, 
8Lnd branches are occasionally covered with them so as to leave 
hardly any space bare. This does not appear to have the 
immediate efiect of killing the tree. 

Digitized by 


370 F. M. Hunter. — Notes on Socotra, 

Religion seems to set slightly on the Bedouin, he only prays 
when he has an audience, and even in the very act of prostra- 
tion he will turn round, join in the conversation, and again con- 
tinue his devotions, until the requisite outward observances 
have been completed. 

Circumcision is not universally practised, and each little 
community has its own place for performing the rite, as in some 
parts of Arabia. This ceremony seems to be the occasion of 
the only festival of any note amongst Bedouins, who then feast 
and dance. Unfortunately, no opportunity occurred of ascertain- 
ing the description of dance practised. It was observed that 
the mark of the cross is still used on the headstones of graves. 
Several rude crucifixes and upright tombstones were noti^d. 

The camels of the island are well worthy of mention for their 
agility and surefootedness, in which they rather resemble mules 
than the ordinary *' ship of the desert." In appearance they 
are in no way peculiar, except perhaps that the neck is heavier 
than is the case with the ordinaxy camel of burden in Africa and 
Arabia. The saddle is simple, and well sidted to the coimtry. 
It consists of two inverted Vs of wood joined at the top and 
middle as in the sketch; this frame only covers the hump. 

not being much more than a foot long or high. Behind and 
over this are placed a succession of thick rugs, like blankets, of 
gunny, to the number of seven or eight, lying one over another 
backwards and forwards, for each blanket is only three-fourths 
of the length of the saddle. These rugs are then forced up by 
a rope being passed round about a foot from the top as in the 
sketch. Across the saddle two long mat bag panniers are slung 

Digitized by 


F. M. Hunter. — Notes on Socotra. 371 

by two transverse sticks attached to the panniers. Each bag 
is capable of containing about three one dozen claret cases, and 
a Socotrine camel can easily carry three or four hundred pounds 
weight over any ground. 

Upon the range which runs along the southern coast, and 
about 14 or 15 miles east of Eas Kattani, there stands the ruins 
of a very extensive Portuguese fort. It consisted apparently of a 
main bmlding with outworks, and had square towers at three of 
its angles. Eound it are the remains of what must have been a 
settlement of perhaps one himdred houses, as also of a large tank, 
which can hold a considerable quantity of water when fulL 
Buins of houses are to be found at and near Ferigho at the 
head of the valley which runs down from Hagair A(Sha to the 
south coast. Standing on the latter ridge, the sea is visible 
on both sides of the island. In the bed of the stream ia 
a line piece of water which has evidently been deepened and 
retained by artificial means. Wellsted states that similar 
remains exist on Jebel Bummel south-east from Tamarida 

The inscriptions mentioned by that traveller could not be 
discovered, but the hieroglyphics were seen and copied. They 
are cut on the surface of an extensive flat layer of rock 
(apparently limestone), which crops up about a quarter of a mile 
from the seashore, two miles east of Ogahim on the road to 
Tamarida. The surface on which t^he marks are cut is about 
50 yards long, and 25 or 30 broad. No two figures are in line 
with one another, so as to give the idea of a continued 
sentence; they lie at all angles, some distant from the next 
nearest 20 or 30 feet. It must be left to others to decypher or 
attach a date to these hieroglyphics, as well as to discover their 
authors. They in no way resemble the inscription at Hisu 
Ghorah, which had been visited only two or three days 
previously, and which continues in a good state of preservation. 
It were perhaps frivolous to remark that the impression left on 
the mind after seeing the marks on the beach as Socotra, was 
that someone had stood with bare feet together and drawn a line 
round them. The figures of human feet in this position being 
very numerous, and constituting perhaps three-fourths of the 
total marks on the rock. 

The route followed on the occasion of the visit to the island 
when the above notes were collected, can easily be traced on 
Wellsted's map. Landing at Tamainda, the first day's march 
was to Hajair Adiha, 3,200 feet above the level of the sea, on the 
ridge which connects the Hajair range. Thence the hills were 
descended to Ferigho in the valley, which Wellsted shows 
as lying between Killiem and Scraiou. From Ferigho, after 
following the valley for a few miles, the track turned off to the 

Digitized by 


372 Rev. S. J. Whitmee.— Oti some 

westward over Kelliem down into the next valley, which was 
ascended a few miles ; when again a turn was made to the 
westward over Daftai, into a sort of deviVs punch-bowl. After 
leaving the latter, the plateau Schiebahane was ascended, and 
finally a halt was made for a day near the head of the pass 
south-west of Raggian. The height of this pass, by the way, is 
nearer 3,200 feet than 1,500 as shown in Wellsted's map. From 
hence a short trip was made across the island in a south- 
westerly direction, to near Bas Kattain, and again northwards 
across the large valley into the smaller, which finally debouches 
at Khor Ogahein, or as WeUsted calls it, Haggien. 

A collection of a few words of the language peculiar to the 
island was made ; but the results are so poor as to be hardly 
worth recording, and it must be reserved for a future occasion 
to investigate the interesting problem of the origin of the 
Socotrine dialect. It will suffice to notice one peculiarity in 
pronunciation which a foreigner strives in vtdn to overcome ; 
many words commence with a sort of combination of s, h and 1, 
and have a peculiar sibillant twang as if they were being spat 
out ; thus, " Shlhang," milk, is pronounced as if spoken by a 
person with a hare Up, very many words seem to be uttered as if 
the mouth were full. 

In the discussion on the above, Major-Gen. A Lane Fox, and 
Mr. Hyde Clarke took part 

The Director then read the fbllowiiig jpapfers in the absence of 
the authors. 

Notes on the Zapahos. By Alfred Simpson, Esq. 

In consequence of tke autlior's absence from England, the 
publication of this paper is postponed till the next number of 
the Journal, 

On some Characteristics of the Malayo-PolynesianBv By 
Eev. S. J. W^™^, F.R.G.S., C.M.Z.S. 

There are, I believe, many indications that the bro\m Poly- 
nesians have descended from a higher intellectual and social 
level than that they: at present occupy. In this paper I intend 
to notice ,a.few of these, especiaily such as occur among the 
natives -df •Samoa. 

1. The comparatively high social position occupied by 

Digitized by 


Chardderistics of the McUayo-Polynesians. 373 

women is one of these. It is something very mnch above 
the lowest savagery, in which woman is simply the slave and 
tool of man. Among the black Polynesians (Negrito-Poly- 
nesians), as among other savages, her position is worse than that 
of the dog, whose food— the leavings of the lords of creation — 
she shares. But among the brown race, throughout the whole 
of Polynesia, woman maintains a position of importance, 
perhaps only a little inferior to the relative position held by 
our "better-halves" in our own homes. 

Some time ago, I read an account of a visit made to the New 
Hebrides by a gentleman who was, apparently, unacquainted 
with the fact that women hold such different positions in the two 
races. In those islands, there are two or three colonies of brown 
Polynesians, who, although they are surrounded by the blacks, 
keep themselves to a great extent free from mixture with them. 
This gentleman visited one of the brown Polynesian colonies, 
and was at once struck with the strange difference between the 
women of the colony, and those of the other islands. This 
is one of the most constant distinctions between the two races. 

The same rule is found to hold good on the south-eastern 
portion of New Guniea. On that island, where the black race 
is found, woman occupies a low position. On the other hand, 
where tiie brown race exists, she occupies a position nearly 
equal to that of man. This is likewise true of Madagascar, 
the Hova population of which island appears to have affinities 
with the brown Polynesians. 

Among these Polynesians (as also among the Malagasy) 
women may hold the highest position, and they inherit titles 
just as men do. In fact, rank is more often communicated by 
the mother than by the father. The son of a lady of rank will 
always take rank with his mother, even if his father be of no 
rank. But the son of a man of rank is not necessarily entitled 
to rank unless his mother be a chieftainess. 

I am aware that this fact of rank being transmitted on the 
mother's side in preference to the father's, usually indicates a low 
state of morals, but it is also an indication of the superior 
position held by women. 

2. The existence of hereditary ranks and titles among the 
brown Polynesians, appears to me to indicate a former condition 
higher than what is usually understood as a savage state. 

Among them we find nearly as many ranks and grades as are 
found in our most civilised countries. Bank is hereditary ; a 
long and good pedigree is of as much importance in Polynesia 
as in any part of the world. In some islands, although there is 
no Heralds' College, there is something which answers the same 
purpose. A special study is made of pedigree. In disputes 

Digitized by 


374 Rev. S. J. Whitmee. — On some 

about ranks and titles, which afe of not infrequent occurrence, 
the old men who are specially up in questions of this kind, and 
who are looked to as the keepers of the heraldic records, will 
trace the pedigree of a family backward through all its ramifi- 
cations, fiom generation to generation, until they come to the 
bluest of the blue-blood in some ancestor of the heroic age. 

The aspiring scion of an upstart family, which has been 
ennobled for only a few generations, is scornfully looked down 
upon, and " snubbed " by the representative of what we may, 
for convenience, call, one of the old Norman families. 
Although he may be able to trace his pedigree to a real hero, he 
may be told, at a public gathering of the people, by a rival 
chief, that his family is but of yesterday. 

One cause of a recent dispute about the title to royalty in 
Samoa, is a thing of this kind. The most popular and most 
powerful family, which claims a right to provide a king for the 
islands, is of comp>aratively recent origin. The founder of this 
family obtained his title during one of the wars between the 
Tongans and the Samoans, of which the traditions of the latter 
people are fulL The story may be worth giving. It is as 
follows. The Tongan people, under the leadersMp of their 
king, invaded Samoa, and overran the island of Upolu. This 
man determined to drive away the invading foroe. He d^eated 
the Tongans, and drove them the entire length of the island. 
The defeated king was much impressed with the bravery, and 
also with the magnanimity of his opponent, for he had scorned 
to slay or in any way injure the women who accompanied the 
invading force. B^ore leaving the island, the king sought a 
truce and made friends with the warrior. They met ; and the 
defeated king greeted his conqueror with these words : 
" Malietoa ! Malietau !" which mean, enough of bravery ! 
enough of war ! From that time the first exckmation — enough 
of bravery — was adopted as the title of nobility for the brave 
warrior. It is the Maliteoa of the present day who is the 
popular candidate for the kingship. 

3. The tenure of landed and other property ; the systematic 
division of all the land, even to the tops of the mountains, 
among the people; and the hereditary transmission of such 
property from generation to generation, all seem to me to point 
to something far above mere savagery. I have explored a good 
many of the moimtains in the Samoan Islands, but I never 
found a peak, or a valley, a mountain torrent, a water-fall, or 
even a remarkable rock, which had not a specific name. Many 
of the most remarkable places and objects have interesting 
myths connected with them, which point back to the distant 
past of, what I say call, their heroic age. 

Digitized by 


Characteristics of the Malayo-Polynesians. 375 

4. The taraditional and mythological poetry of the Malayo- 
Polynesians also indicates some intellectual elevation in former 
times. It appears certain that the former intellectual status 
of the people was much superior to the present. Some of 
their myths and poems have a considerable amount of beauty in 

The keeping of these myths intact has always been considered a 
matter of very great importance by the people in past times. 
But the dilligence of the keepers of these records has, in a great 
measure, died out in the islands where Christianity has been 
long introduced. The old men retained their knowledge of 
them ; but a younger generation, growing up with many new 
ideas of new things to occupy their attention, have, almost as a 
matter of course, neglected to leaiii and retain these traditional 
songs and myths of their country. It is the old story of new 
things displacing the old, which we constantly find wherever 
we go. 

It is doubtful whether it would be possible, under the new 
conditions obtaining in the islands, for the present generation to 
retain aU their old myths with the verbal accuracy with which 
they have been retained in the past. The mere labour of fixing 
them in the memory could scarcely be gone through by the 
present generation. The possession of books, which they can 
read and refer to at all times when they wish to refresh the 
memory, has made them unwilling to take the trouble of com- 
mitting to memory tihese long stories and poems. The only way 
of securing them would have been by writing. But no native 
seems to have thought of this until it was suggested to some of 
them very recently. And the jealousy with which the choicest 
myths were guarded by their recognised keepers, presented a 
great obstacle in the way of committing them to paper. 

These keepers usually belonged to a few families, and it was 
their duty to retain intact, and transmit from generation to 
generation the myths and songs entrusted to their custody. The 
honour of the families was involved in it It was the hereditary 
duty of the elder sons of these families to acquire, retain, and 
transmit them with veibed accuracy. And it was not only a 
sacred duty, but the right of holding such myths and songs was 
jealously guarded as a valuable and honourable privilege. 
Hence the difficulty of having them secured by writing. Care 
was taken not to recite them too frequently or too fully at one 
time. Sometimes they have been purposely altered in order to 
lead the hearers astray. Missionaries and other foreign residents 
who have manifested an interest in these myths, have often been 
deceived in this way. Only a person thoroughly familiar with 
the language, quite conversant with the habits of the people, and 

Digitized by 


376 Rev. S. J. Wuitmee. — On same 

who had their confidence, could secure a trustworthy version. 
And this was usually secured only after a promise made to 
the keepei'S of these treasures not to make it public in the 

But notwithstanding these difficulties^ some missionaries and 
others have succeeded in making large collections of choice 
myths and songs, and I am not without hope that before very 
long we may succeed in collecting them together for the for- 
mation of a comparative mythology of Polynesia. 

I have myself given little attention to this branch of study, 
having been fully occupied with other work. But for some time 
I have been trying to induce others, who have large stores of 
such treasure, to arrange and translate their material so as to 
make it available when the time arrives for utilising it. I have 
also tried to induce the most intelligent of the natives in Samoa 
and some other islands, to commit to writing all they can 
possibly obtain. In this way I have already secured some 
material from Samoa, the Tokelau, Ellice, and Gilbert Islands. 

I have recently learnt with great pleasure that Mr. Triibner is 
about to publish an important work on Polynesian Archaeology* 
foimded on legends, chants, &c., which have been collected in 
the Hawaiian or Sandwich Islands. From the preface to this 
work, a proof of which (by the courtesy of Mr. Triibner) I have 
read, I gather that it will be a valuable contribution to the 
subject on which it treats ; although probably some of the author's 
theories founded on his material, may not meet with universal 
acceptance from students of Polynesian archaeology. 

Being specially interested in the languages of Polynesia, I 
regard with great interest, the collection and publication of the 
ancient myths, and songs of the people, on account of the light 
they throw on the changes which the various dialects have 
imdergone. Most of these l^ends and songs contain archaic 
forms, both idioms and words, imknown to most of the present 
generation of the people. Hence they furnish the ethnologist 
and philologist with earlier and more valuable material for 
tracing the affinities of the Polynesian dialects with other 
languages than anything which can be obtained from a study of 
these (ualects as at present spoken. 

The way in which verbal accuracy in the transmission of the 
legends and songs has been secured is worth mentioning. In 
some islands all the principal stories, indeed all which are of 
value, exist in two forms, in prose and in poetry. The prose 
form gives the story in simple language. The poetic gives it 

• The title of this work has since been changed to " An Acconnt of the Poly- 
nesian Bace, its Origin and Mimiions, and the Ancient Hi8t<Mr7 ol the 
Hawaiian People." Bj A. Fornander. 

Digitized by 


Characteristics of the Malayo-PotynesiaTis. 377 

in rhjrthm, and usually in rhyme also. The poetic form is used as 
a check on the more simple and more easily changed prose 
form. As it is easy to alter and add to the prose account, that 
is never regarded as being genuine, unless each particular has 
its poetic telly. An omission or interpolation in the poetic form 
would, of course, be easily detected. Thus the people have 
recognised the fact that a poetic form is more easily remembered 
than a prose form, and that it is better adapted for securing the 
strict accuracy of historical myths. May not this have been 
what gave origin to poetry in all parts of the world ? 

I conclude this short and imperfect paper with a few verses 
from the commencement of a Samoan song of great antiquity 
on the creation of land out of the waste of water. 


1 Ghilu lolo ; ma galu f&tio'o ; 

2 G^u tau, ma gdu fe&tia'i ; 
8 O le auau peau ma le sologft ; 
4 Na ona ^umia, a e le fati peau. 
6 Peau taoto ; peau taalolo ; 

6 Peau m&lie ; peau lagatonu ; 

7 Peau a lili'a ; peau la'aia j 

8 Peau f atia $ peau taulia ; 

Peautautala; peau lagaya'a ; 

10 Peau tagata ; peau a Sisifo mai Qagae \ 

11 O loua soa le auau tata'a. 

12 E mapu i lagi tull* mai yasa. 
18 Tan^oa fia malolo, 

14 Tft hlia i peau a laid. 

16 Fea le nuu na mua'i tupu, 

16 Tangaloa e taumuli ai ? 

17 Mann'a-tele na mua'i tupu. 


1 Boilers flooding ; rollers dashing ; 

2 Boilers fighting ; rollers clashing ; 
8 The current of wares sliding along, 
4 Surging hi^h, hut breaking not. 

6 Wares recuning ; wares uniting } 

6 Wares agreeable } wares gentle ; 

7 Wares affrighted ; wares orerleaping ; 

8 Wares breanng ; wares waning ; 

9 Wares roaring ; wares storming } 

10 Wares hmnan ; eastern wares marching west. 

11 His attendant the wanderinff current. 

12 Bests in hearen the plorer Irom ocean. 

* The tult is the bird, CharadrtuM fulvus Ghaol., which is known as Tanga- 
loa's plorer, tull a Tan^paJoa. 

VOL. vn. 2d 

Digitized by 


378 Rev. S. J. Whitmee. — Malayo Polynesians. 

13 O Tangaloa * ! I fain would Test, 

14 These lower wares affriebt my breast. 

15 Where is the land which first sprang up, 

16 Where Tangaloa holds the hehn? 

17 Manu'a-telef first sprang up. 

In the discussion of the above, Major-General A. Lane Fox, 
and Mr. Hyde Clarke took part. 

* Tangaloa, the great Polynesian deity. 

t Manu'a, the eaatem ialandB of Samoa, mentioned in many Polynesian 

Digitized by 


Jir _= 

The following notice of the life and labours of the late 
Dr. Campbell, will doubtless be of interest to the Institute, of the 
Council of which he was so distinguished a member. 

Dr. Archibald Campbell, late Surgeon-Major in the Indian 
Army, was the son of Archibald Campbell, Esq., of Ardover, 
in the Island of Islay, North Britain, where he was bom on the 
20th April, 1805. He'studied in Glasgow University, then Edin- 
burgh University, from 1824 to 1827, where he graduated, M.D. 
He was appointed an Assistant Surgeon in the Honourable Com- 
pany's Service in 1827 ; and in June, 1828, joined the horse 
artillery at Meerut, then a strong corps of six troops of Europeans 
and natives, with a large establishment of native followers attached. 
With this distinguished corps he served four years, during which 
he suffered much in health from exposure to the climate, in hospital 
and out-door duties. During his service with the horse artillery, 
he was twice appointed to do duty at the European Convalescent 
Dep6t, then recently established at Landour, in the Western 
Himalaya, and here the exposure out of doors to the climate in the 
rainy season, and in damp newly-constructed barracks and hospital, 
seriously affected his health. 

Prom the horse artillerv he was appointed in 1832 to be surgeon 
at Katmandhoo in Nipal. Here he had the good fortune to serve 
on the staff of the British Resident, Mr. B. H. Hodgson, 
whose influence, interest, and example, greatly contributed to 
determine his future career, both as an oflBcer under Government, 
and a zealous collector of information on many subjects connected 
with the Himalayan people and productions, etc. Mr. Hodgson was 
at that time actively engaged upon those inquiries into the litera- 
ture, history, language, and customs of the Cis- and Trans- 
Himalayan i*aces, and into the geology of Nipal and Thibet, which 
have placed him in the foremost rank of oriental scholars and 
naturalists. Campbell did not fail to profit by the brilliant 
example set before him, nor did he neglect his duties for these 
pursuits ; on the contrary, he so rapidly gained the confidence of 
his superiors, that within a little more than a year, namely, 1833, 
on the recommendation of his chief, he was appointed Assistant 
Resident, which he retained during the remainder of his sojourn in 
that country. 

Of the zeal, ability, and assiduity with which his political duties 

2 d2 

Digitized by 


380 Anthropological Miscellanea, 

were performed, the following official comiminications, addressed by 
his able and accomplished superior to the Political Secretary to the 
Government of India, bear ample and generous testimony from 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Resident to the Gk)vemment of India. 

" Sib, " Bated October ISth, 1834. 

"I have the honour to forward to you, herewith, the required 
narrative of our political relations with this Durbar, drawn up by 
Dr. Campbell, who commenced it at the time he officiated as my 
assistant, and whom I permitted to complete it, in mere justice to a 
zeal and merit which seemed to me deserving of that encourage- 

" I trust that his Honor in Council will have the kindness to 
submit this performance to the favourable notice of the Right 
Honourable the Gk)ver nor- General of India ; and I have no hesita- 
tion in saying, that it is extremely well executed, and calculated to 
reflect much light upon our existing unsatisfactory position in 
regard to Nipal." 

(Signed) " B. H. Hodgson." 

Nor was the Government of India slow in responding to the 
encomium of Mr. Hodgson. Thus in 1853 the Secretary to the 
Government writes to Mr. Hodgson, under date April 6th, 1836. 


" I am directed