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Bombay Natubal Histoky Societi 


MBER and L. C. H. YOU&e^^aQj nsf/fr] 


Consisting of Five Parts and containing Sixteen Coloured Plates 
Twenty-seven Lithographed Plates and One hundred 
and twenty-seven Blocks, 

Part I (Pages 1 #« 258) ... 

„ II (Pages 259 £o 554) «. 

., Ill (Pages 555 to 856) ... 

„ IV (Pages 857 to 1015)... 

.. V (Index, &e.') ... 

Dates of Publication. 

••r ... 

... f 

... *• 

... .a 

... ... 

23rd Apl., 1906. 
... 20th Sept., 1906. 
... 15th Feb., 1907. 
... 29th June, 1907. 
... 17th Pec, 1907. 

$ m h a n : 




A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. Part II. 
By Capt. F. Wall, r.M.S., c.m.z.s. (With Plate II and 
Diagrams TV, V and VI.) 1 

On some New Species of Silver Pheasants from Burma. By- 
Eugene W. Oates 10 

Snake Venoms and their .Antidotes : an account of recent 

research. By Capt. George Lamb, m.d., i.m.s 13 

Samber Horns. By J. D. Inverarity. (With 4 Plates) 23 

A New Snake ^Melanelaps mcfhersoni) from the Aden Hin- 
terland. By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s , C.M.Z.S 27 

A New Himalayan Snake (Lycodon mackinnoni). By Capt. F. 

Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 29 

The Orchids of the Bombay Presidency, Part III. By G. A. 

Gammie, f.l.s. (With Plate 1 J.) 31 

On the Species of Bean-Geese. By Eugene W. Oates, f.z.s. 

{With a Plate).. 38 

The Poisonous Snakes of India and how to recognize them. 

Part I. By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 51 

The Oology of Indian Parasitic Cuckoos. Part I. By E. C. 

Stuart Baker, f.z.s. (With Plate A) 72 

Tub " Pectinate Organs " of Trapa bispinosa, Roxb. ( Water- 
Chestnut). By E. Blatter, s.j 85 

On the Tenthredinid.^e and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected 
in Baluchistan by Major C. G. Nurse. Part I. By P. 
Cameron 89 

Birds of the Provinces of Kashmir and Jammu and adjacent 
Districts. Parti. By A. E. Ward 108 

First Hints on collecting Butterflies (being a Supple- 
mentary Papkr to the Articles on the Common Butter- 
flies on the Plains of India). By L. C. H. Young, b.a., 
f.z.s., f.e.s 114 

Notes and Observations on Mammals collected and observed 

in the Darjeeling District, India. By Gordon Dalgliesh. 122 



What is a Species? By L. C. H. Young, b.a., f.e.s., &g 128 

Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. Part II. By E. 

Meyrick, B.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S 133 

Notes on Small Mammals in Kashmir and adjacent Districts. 

By A. E.Ward 154 

Notes on Andaman Birds with accounts of the Nidification 

of several species whose Nests and Eggs have not been 

hithkrto described. By B. B. Osmaston, i.f.s 156 

The Moths of India (Supplementary Paper to the Volumes 

in "The Fauna of British India"), Series III, Part III. 

By Sir George Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s 164 

A List of Birds found in the Myingyan District of Burma. 

By K. C. Macdonald 184 

The Origin of Anonas, Anona squamosa, L. ; Anona reti- 
culata, L. By Col. Fernando Leal 195 

A list of the Marine Mollusca in the Bombay Natural 

History Society's Collection. By E. Comber, f.z.s 207 

Catalogue of Fresh Water and Land Mollusca in the Bombay 

Natural History Society's Collection 216 

A Note on the Preservation of Bamboos from the attack of 

the Bamboo Beetle or " Shot-borer." By E. P. Stebbing, 

f.l.s., f.e.s 219 

On a New Vole from Kashmir. By J. Lewis Bonhote, m.a.... 224 
Review : The Inaugural address of the President of the Mining 

and Geological Institute of India , 225 

Miscellaneous Notes — 

3..— Pearls in the Tbana Creek (W. India). By E. L. Sale, 

i.c.s 228 

2. — Nesting of the Malayan Banded Crake {Rallina fasciata). 

By P. F. Wickham (p. w. d.) 228 

3. — Food of the Himalayan Nutcracker (Nucifraga hernispila). 

By L. L. Fenton, Lt.-Col , 229 

4. — Occurrence of the Butterfly Talicada nyseus, Guerin, at 
Khandala— Western Ghats. By G. W. V. de Rhe- 
Philipe 230 

5. — Measurements of Buffalo {Bos bubalus) Horns. By A. 

F. Mackenzie, Major, 93rd Highlanders 230 


6. — The Protection of Wild Birds in the Bombay Presidency. 231 
7, — The nest oi' the Brown-backed Indian Robin (Thamnobia 

cambaiensis). By Stanley Pershouse, 2nd Border 

Regt, attached 5th Mounted Infantry 231 

8. — Late breeding of the Black Partridge (Francolinus 

vulgaris). By S. L. Whymper 232 

9. — Report on the destruction of Rats in Rangoon during 

August 1905. By Harry L. Tilly, Officer-in-Charge 

of Plague Operations 232 

10. — Note on two Black Leopards in the Kolhapur Collection. 

By W. B. Ferris, Lt.-Col 234 

ll.~ The straight-horned Assam Buffalo 235 

12.— The Ceylon Chital. By R. Lydekker 235 

13.— Sites of Birds' Nests. By S. L. Whymper , 236 

14, — Note of the Burmese Button Qrail 237 

15.— The * Booming " of the Button Quail. By Seth-Smith... 238 
16. — Plumage of young male Pintail Duck (Dafiln actita). 

By F. Wall, Capt., i.m.s., c.m.z.s , 238 

17. — Albinism in the Kakar or Muntjac (Cervulus muntjac). 

By J. Manners Smith, Major 239 

18.— Food of Predaceous Flies. By H. R. G. Hasted 239 

19. — Mangroves and Paroquets. By B. B. Osmaston, i.F.s. ,.. 240 
20. — The early stages of the Moth JRhodoprasina Jloralis. 

(With a Plate.) By C E. F. Manson 241 

21.— -Occurrence of the Moth Dudgeona leucosticta in Ceylon. 

By W. Vaughan, f.e.s .. 241 

22. — Note on the Malay Tapir (Tapirus indicus) in captivity. 

{With an Illustration.) By W. B. Ferris, Col 242 

23. — Notes on the occurrence of certain Birds in the Plains 

of N.-W. India. By C. H. Whitehead 243 

24. — Occurrence of jEgithaliscus coronatus, Sev^rtz, in Sind. 

By T. R. Bell 244 

25. — A large Dhaman (Zamenis mucosus). By F. Gleadow, { 
i.f.s 245 

26.— How Tigers kill their Prey. By F. 0. B. Dennys, 

Assistant Controller of Forests 245 

27.— Note on the Magpie Robin (Copsj/chus saularis). By E. 

O. Cholmoudeley 247 


28. — Occurrence of the Bittern in South India (Botaurus 

stellaris). By G. E. Rhenius 247 

29. — Size of bill of Common Teal {Nettium crecca). By 

Gordon Dalgliesh 248 

30. — Nesting of the White-bellied Drongo {Dicrurus ccerules- 

cens). By W. Howard Campbell 248 

31. — The Stork-billed Kingfisher (Pelargopsis gurial) at 

Cawnpore. By Arundel Begbie, Major 248 

32. — The Gfreen Thrush (Cochoa viridis) breeding in Burma. 

By J. C. Hopwood.... 249 

33. — The Falcated Teal (Eunetta falcata) in Upper Burma. 

By J. C. Hopwood 249 

34. — Albinism in the Malay Spotted Dove ( Turtur tigrinus) 

near Kindat, Upper Chindwin. By J. C. Hopwood. 249 
35. — The Variation in the Colour of the Eggs of the Dark 
Grey Bush Chat (Oreicola ferrea). By H. H. 

Harington, Capt 249 

Proceedings of the Meetings held on 23rd November 1905, 

25th January and 15th March 1906 251 

A Popular Trrattse on the Common Indian Snakes. Part III. 
(With Plate III & Diagram VII.) By Capt. F. Wall, 

i.m.s., c.m.z.s . c 259 

On the Tenthredinidjs and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected 
in Baluchistan by Major C. G. Nurse. Part II. By 

P. Cameron 274 

On the TenthredinldvE and Parasitic Hymenoptera 
collected by Major C. G. Nurse in Kashmir. By P. 

Cameron 4 289 

The Kashmir Termite (Tebmopsis wroughtoni). By J. Desneux. 293 
The Poisonous Snakes of India and how to recognize them. 

Part II. By Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S., c.m.z.s 299 

Flowering Season and Climate. Parti. {With 3 Plates.) 

By E. Blatter, s.j 334 

The Oology of Indian Parasitic Cuckoos. Part II. ( With 

Plate II) By E. (5. Stuart Baker, f.z.s 351 

The Snake and its Natural Foes. By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., 
c.m.z.s 375 



Some Hints for Beginners on Collecting and Preserving 
Natural History Specimens. Part IV. By E. Comber, 
f.z.s 396 

Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. Part II. By 

E. Meyrick, b.a., f.r.s., f.z.s 403 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part II. 

(With Plate H.) By L. C. H. Young, b.a., f.e.s., f.z.s.... 418 

[nsect Life in India and how to study it, being a simple 
account of the more important families of tnsects "with 


and Indigo Concerns, Fruit and Forest Trees in India. 
Chapter VII, Part IV. By E. P. Stebbing, f.l.s., f.z.s., 
f.e.s • 4=24 

The Moths of India (Supplementary Paper to the Volumes 
in " The Fauna of British Indta "). Series III, Part III. 
By Sir George Hampson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s 447 

Birds of the Provinces of Kashmir and Jammu and adjacent 

Districts. Part II. By A. E. Ward 479 

Notes on Andaman Birds, with Accounts of the Nidification 
of several species whose nests and eggs have not been 
hitherto described. Part II. By B. B. Osmastun, I.F.S. 486 

A List of Birds found in the Myingyan DisTRicr of Burma. 

Part II. By K. C. Macdonald 492 

A List of Publications relating to India from the " Zoolo- 
gical Record," 1903 and 1904 505 

Notes on the Genus Tatera with descriptions of New Species. 

By R. C. Wroughton 511 

Miscellaneous Notes — 

1. — Breeding habits of the Great Crested Grebe (Podicipes 

cnstatus). By Gordon Dalgliesh 515 

2. — Packs of Wolves in Persia. By J. W. Watson, Capt., 

i.m.s 516 

3.— Urial in Perfia. By J. W. Watson, Capt., I.m.s 517 

4. — A Panther placing its kill up a tree. By E. Comber ... 517 
5. — Tigers hamstringing their prey before killing. By P. 

Hudson 518 

6. — A brown Crow. By A. C. Logan, i.C.s 519 



7. — A brown and white Crow. By E. Blatter, s.j 519 

8. — A malformed Black Buck Head. ( With an illustration.) 

By R. H. Rattray, Lieut.-Col 519 

9. — Fascination by Lizards. By St. George Gore, Col., r.e. 520 
10. — Occurrence of the Indian Red-breasted Fly-catcher 

(Siphia hyperythra) in Bengal. By Chas. M. Inglis. 520 
11, — A note on the migration of the Common Indian Bee- 
eater (Merops viridis). By D. Dewar, i.c.S 520 

12.— The boldness of Panthers. By F. Field 522 

18. — The occurrence of the Scorpion Spider (P/irynichus) 
(Karsch)in the Shevaroy Hills. By H. S, Riving- 
ton, , * 523 

14. — The brown Wood Owl (Syrnium indrani). By S. L. 

Whympar • 523 

15.— Habits of the Tapir. By L. C. H. Young 524 

16. — Occurrence of Remiza (jSgithalus) coronatus in Kohat. 

By H. A. F. Magrath, Major ..' 524 

17.— Flocking of Kites. By C. E. C. Fischer 525 

18. — Notes on the " Shot-borer " in Bamboos. By Norman 

F. T. Troup 526 

19.— Black Panthers. By W. B. Ferris, Col 526 

20.— A remarkable Tree. By C. E. C. Fischer 527 

21. — Habitat of the Green Keelback (Macrophisthodon plum- 

bicolor). By O. E. C. Fischer 527 

22. — Bird weather reporters. By K. R. Bomanji, I.C.S 528 

23. — How Tigers kill their prey. By A. A. Dunbar Bran- 

der, i.p.s. 528 

24. — The sense of smell of Tigers. By A. A. Dunbar Bran- 

der, i.f.s 530 

25. — The nesting of the Black-crested Baza (Baza lophotes). 

By A. M. Primrose 531 

26. — The nesting of the Blaok-backed Forktail (Henicurus 

immaculatus) . By James Marten 533 

27.— The larva of the Firefly. By P. Gerharct 533 

28."— A Whale near Bassein (Bombay Const). By W. S. Millard. 533 
29. — A fortunate escape and recovery from Cobra bite. By 

R. W. Burton, Capt 534 



30. — An unusual displacement of the heart in a Whistling 

Teal. By W. B. Bannerman, Lieut. -Col., i.m.s 535 

31. — On the Indian species of Bean-goose. By E. C. Stuart 

Baker 537 

32. — The breeding of the Bengal Florican (Sypheotis ben- 

galensis). By E. C. Stuart Baker 538 

33. — The plumage of the Cock Purple Honeysucker (Arach- 

necthra asialica). A Query. By D. Dewar, i.c.s.... 540 
34. — Some notes on Heterocera . By H. W. Kettlewell, Lieut. 541 
35. — Parasites in Sparrow Hawks. By J, S. Bogle, Capt... 542 
36. — Cannibalism amongst Panthers and Tigers. By L. B. 

Montresor, Capt., R. F. A 543 

37. The nesting of the Crested Honey Buzzard (Pernis 

cristatus). By H. N. Coltart „ 545 

38.— The Sand Wasp {Sphex hiatus). By C. B. Beadnell ... 546 
39. — Nesting of the Ibis-bill (Ibidorhynchus struthersi) and the 
Common Sandpiper (Totanus hypoleucus). By S. L. 

Whymper , 546 

Proceedings of the Meetings held on 28th June and 16th 

August 1906 548 

A Note on Podoces pleskei, Zarudny. ( With a Plate.) By R. 
Bowdler Sharpe, ll.d., &c, Assistant Keeper, Department 

of Zoology, British Museum 555 

On a new species of Grey Duck (Polionetta haringtoni) 

from Burma. By Eugene W. Oates 558 

A new Tortoise from Travancore. ( With 2 Plates). By G. 

A. Boulenger, f.r.s - 560 

Acta et Agenda by the Bombay Botanists. By E. Blatter, s,j. 562 
On the Parasitic Hymenopteea collected by Major C. G. 

Nurse in the Bombay Presidency. By P. Cameron 578 


species of Bean-Geese 598 

On Bean-Geese. By S. A. Buturlin, f.m.b.o.u 603 

A new Kraft from Oddh (Bungarus walli). ( With a Plate.) 

By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 608 

Some new Asian Snakes. (With 2 Plates.) By Capt. F. Wall, 

I.M.S., C.M.Z.S ; 612 




A new species of Indtan Wax-produoing Bee. By Major 0. 

G. Nurse, IndiaD Army 619 

Estuary Fishing. Some Remarks on its decadence, as an 

industry, in the Konkan. By W. A. Waliinwer, .„ 620 

Protective Legislation for Indian Fisheries. By E. 

Comber 637 

The Moths of India. Supplementary Paper to the Vo- 
lumes in lt the Fauna of British India." Series III, 
Part III. By Sir George Hampson, Bart., f.z.s , f.e.s. ... 645 

The Oology of Indian Parasitic Cuckoos. Part 111. {With 

Plate III.) By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.z.s 678 

Flowering Season and Climate. Part II. {With 4 Plates.) 

By E. Blatter, s.j 697 

The Climatal changes of Melanitis leda. By Lieut.-Col. N. 

Mandere, F.z.s., f.e.s 709 

The Fauna of India — Insecta 721 

Birds of the Provinces of Kashmir and Jammu and adja- 
cent Districts. Part III. By A. E. Ward 723 

Descriptions of Indian Micro -Lepidoptera. By E. Meyrick, 

B.A., F.R.S., f.z.s 730 

Some Birds of Singapore. By Major H. R. Baker, 73rd C. I. 755 

An enquiry into the Parasitic Habits of the Indian Koel. 

By D. Dewar, i.o.s., f.z.s 765 

Birds of the Khasia Hills. Part I. By E. C. Stuart Baker, 

F.Z.S, M.B.O.U. 783 

On a new race of Sciurus Lokriodes from Burma. By J. 

Lewis Bonhote, m.a 796 

On a new Enchytr^id Worm (Henlea Lefroyi, sp. n.) from 
India — destructive to the Eggs of a Locust ( Acridium, 
sp.). By Frank E. Boddard,M.A., f.r.s., Prosector to the 
Zool. Society, Lond 797 

On a collection of Mammals brought home by the Tibet 
Frontier Commission. By J. Lewis Bonhote, m.a., 
f.l.s., f.zs 800 

Miscellaneous Notes — 

1. — Pelican breeding in India. By C. E. Rhenius..., 806s 

%,— Food of Predaceous Flies. By T. R. Bell, i.f.s.. ........ 807 


3. — Snake-bite inflicted by ALelanelaps mc])fiersoni. By 

Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.M.z.8 807 

4. — Note on the breeding of Russell's Vip9r ( Vipera russelli) 
in captivity. By Lieut.-Col. W. B. Bannerman, M.D.,, f.r.s.b, l.m.s. (Director, Bombay Bacteriolo- 
gical Laboratory) 808 

5. — Recovery from a Cobra bite. By C. Grenville Rollo... 811 
6. — Occurrence of the Cheer Pheasant {Catreus wallichi) in 
the N.-W. F. Province. By Major Walter Venour, 

58th Rifles 812 

7. — A new species of Tree- Partridge (Arboricola batemani) 
from the Chin Hills. (From the Bulletin of the 

British Ornithologists' Club, No. CXXI1I.) 812 

8.— A Mouse-Hare. By Major G. S. Rodon 813 

9. — Locusts, Bears and Dogs. By Major G. S. Rodon 815 

10. — A note on an Edible Puff-ball from fhe Thana District. 

By Lieut.-Col. K. R. Kirtikar, i.m.s. (retd.), f.l.s. ... 816 

11. — Some notes on Birds' Nesting in Tehri-Garhwal. By 

S. L. Whymper 817 

12. — First hints on collecting Butterflies. By Lieut.-Col. 

N. Manders, r.a.m.c 819 

13. — Reduction in the species of the Genus Polyodontophis, 

By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 823 

14. — Hodgsons' Hawk-Eagle {iSpizaetus nepalensis). By C. 

H. Donald 824 

15. — Early arrival of Duck. By Chas. M. Inglis 825 

16. — The bolduess of Panthers. By Lieut.-Col. G. R. 

Rundle, r.f.a 825 

17.— The boldness of Panthers. By Capt. J. B. J. Tyrrel, 

i.m.s 827 

18. — Further notes on Birds' Nesting round Qnetta. By 

Major R. M. Betham, 101st Grenadiers 828 

19. — Destruction of Mosquitoes and their Larvae by Fish and 

Lime. By Lieut-Genl. H. Osborn, i.a 832 

20.— A clumsy killer. By C. H. Donald 833 

21.— A Bear's kill in a tree. By C. H. Donald 834 

22. — A Panther placing its kill up a tree. By L. V. Bagshawe. 835 


23. — Do Bats capture and eat birds ? By E. Ernest Green 835 

24.— A white Muntjac. By S. H. Charrington 836 

25. — Cause of fear shown by Tigers. By C. E. C. Fischer 836 
26. — Note on Clania variegata, Snell. By T. R. Bell, i.f.s. 837 
27. — Abnormal antlers of the Chital or Spotted-Deer 

(Cervas axis). By Lieut. J. A. Field, e.e 840 

28.— -The Oology of Indian Parasitic Cuckoos. By Chas. M. 

Inglis r , 841 

29. — A strange foster-mother. By F. Young, Supdt,, N. S. 

(Survey ,,, , 8-41 

30. — Nesting of the Hobby [Falco severus) in India. By 

O.H.Donald 841 

31. — A live Takin (Budorcas taxicolor). {With an Illustra- 
tion.) By Lieut. F M.Bailey 842 

32. — Breeding grounds of the Common Locust. By E. H. 

Aitken 843 

33.— The small Civet Cat in Sind. By E. H. Aitken 844 

34.— A malformed Black buck Head, By Col. W B. Ferris 844 

35. — Abnormal Sambar Horns. By F. Field 845 

36. — Malformed Sambar and Gaur Horns. By 0. Scot 

Sldrving , 846 

37. — Note on the Arabian Gazelle {Gazella arabica). By 

Major S. E. Prall,i.M.s 847 

38. — Breeding of the Common Grey Quail (Coturnix com- 
munis) and the Desert Lark (Aloemon desertorum). 

By Major R. M, Betham, 101st Grenadiers 848 

39. — The large red Flying-Squirrel {Pteromys inornatus) 

and Walnuts. By C. H. Donald 848 

40.— The StuHy of Birds. By E. Comber 849 

Proceedings of the Meetings held on 4th October and 13th 

December 1906 8&1 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. Part IV. 

{With Plate IV). By Major F. Wail, c.m.z.s., i.m.s .. 857 

The Importance of Blood-Sucking Flies as Transmitters 
of Disease to Man and Animals. By Lt.-Col. W. B. 
Bannernian, M.D.,, i.M.s., Director, Bacteriological 
Laboratory 871 



Additional Cuckoo Notes. By B. C. Stuart Baker, f.z.s. ... 876 

The Flora of Aden. By E. Blatter, s.j 895 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part III. 

(With Plate C.) By L. C. H. Yonng, b.a., f.e.s., f.z.s. ... 921 
Notes on Small Mammals in Kashmir and Adjacent Dis- 
tricts. By Col. A. E. Ward 928 

What is a Species?" By R. S. Hole, f.l.s., f.e.s 930 

The Orchids of the Bombay Presidency. Part IV. ( With 

Plate III.) By G. A. Gammie, F.L.S 910 

Birds of the Provinces of Kashmir and Jammc and adjacent 

Districts. Part IV. By Col. A. E. Ward , 943 

On the Bean-Geese. By Eugene W. Oates 950 

The Freshwater Mollusca of Tirhoot, Bengal. By Gordon 

Dalgliesh 955 

Birds of the Khasia Hills. Part II. By E. C. Stuart 

Baker, f.z.s., m.b.o.u 957 

Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. Part IV. By 

E. Meyrick, b.a., f.r.s., f.e.s 976 

Suppression of Melanelaps mcphersoni. By Major F. Wall, 

o.m.z.s., i.m.s 995 

The Poisonous Snakes of India and how to recognise them. 

(Correction). By Major F. Wall, c.m.z.s., i.m.s 995 

Notes on some Rats of the Mus metada group. By R. C. 

Wroughton , 997 

Description of a New Genus and some New Species of 

Hymenoptera captured by Lt.-Col. 0. G. Nurse at 

Dbesa, Matheran and FEROzroRE. By P. Cameron 1001 

Miscellaneous Notes.— 

1. — Note in regard to the habits of the Praying Mantis. 

By A.A.Dunbar Brander 1015 

2. — Nesting of the Coot (Fulha a'ra) in India. By Gor- 
don Dalgliesh 1013 

3.-~Melanitis bethami in Pachmarhi. By H. W. Kettlewell, 

Capt., 85th King's Light Infantry...,. 1013 

4.— The Bronze-capped Teal (Eunetta falcata) in Tirhut. 

By Chas. M. Inglis...... 1015 


5. — Some notes on Tigers and Panthers. By R. G. Burton, 

Major, 94th Russell's Infantry , 1015 

6.— An injured Monkey. By H. R. G. Hasted 1017 

7.— Panther kill up a tree. By H. R. G. Hasted 1017 

8. — Encounter between a Snake and Lizard. By F. Wall, 

Major, c.M.z.s, i.m.s 1017 

9. — The vitality of Snakes. By H. V. Biggs, Lt.-Col., 

R. E 1018 

10.— The boldness of Panthers. By S. E. F. Jenkins 1019 

11. — Abnormal Sambur horns. By J. Archibold Field 1C20 

12. — An abnormal Hog-deer head. By R. Clifford, Lt., 

22nd Punjabis 1020 

13. — The food of Pythons. By Arundel Begbie, Major, 

13th Rajputs 1021 

14.— Bats feeding on small birds. By A. M. Primrose 1021 

15.— Bats feeding on birds. By F. Gleadow 1022 

16. — Curious behaviour of a Panther in connection with a 
kill. By H. E. Drake-Brockman, Major, f.zs., 

i.m.s 1022 

17. — On a new species of Fulgorid from Darjeeling. By 
Chas. B. Antram, Entomologist, Indian Tea 

Association 1024 

IS.— Cantecona furcellata, Wolff. By Chas. B. Antram, 

Entomologist, Indian Tea Association 1024 

19.— The Distribution of the different varieties of Himala- 
yan Markhor (Capra fahoneri) {Willi a Plate) By 

H. P. Browne, Capt., 5th Gurkhas Rifles 1025 

20.— "Shot-borers" in Bamboos. By R. Barton Wright, 
Assistant Manager to the Lessees, Shivaganj 

Zeminduri...,, 1026 

21.— A remarkable tree. By C. E. C. Fischer t 1027 

22. — The nesting of the rufous-bellied Hawk-eagle (Lopho- 

trior Ms humeri) By A. M. Kinloch 1027 

23. — Vernacular names of some Indian Ducks. By P. R. 

Cadell, 1.0. S 1028 

24. Occurrence of the Butterfly Chilavia othona in 

Salsette. By L. C. H. Young, b.a., f.e.s., f.z.s.... 1030 

contents. xv 


25. — A nofe on an edible fungus from Lahore, By K. R. 

Kirtikar, Lt.-Col., F. l.s., I.m.s, (Retired) 1030 

26. — A further note on the distribution of the varieties of 
Cobra in India. By W. B. Bannerman, Lt.-Col., 
m.d., i.m.s., B. Sc, Director, Bombay Bacterio- 
logical Laboratory , 1031 

27. — Hatching of Dhaman (Zamenis mur.osas) flggs, and 
observations on the egg tooth. By F. Wall, Major, 
cm. z. s., I.M.S 1033 

28.— Tuctoo and Snake. By F. Wall, Major, c.m.z.s., 

i. m. s 1033 

29. — Peculiar colouration in the Indian Sloth Bear 

{Melursus ursinus) By W. W. Baker, Lt.-Col., r.e.. 1035 

30. — Cassia renigera, Wall (With an illustration). By E. 

Blatter, S.J. ... , 103b* 

31. — Occurrence of the bittern (Botaurus stellar is) in 

Southern India. By E. Comber, f.z.s 1037 

32. — Occurrence of the Waxwing [Ampelis garrulus) at 
Bannu, N. W. F. Province. By H. A. F. Magrath, 

Major 1037 

Proceedings of the Meetings held on 24th January, 7th 

March and 30th May 1907 - 1038 




AlTKEN, E. H. ; Breeding grounds 
of the Common Locust 843 

; The Small Civet 

Cat in Sind 844 

Antram, Chas. B. ; On a new 
species of Fulgorid from Darjee- 
ling 1024 

■ ■ ; Canteeona 

faro, lata, Wolff -.. 1024 

BagshaWe, L. V. ; A panther 
placing its kill up a tree ... 835 

Bailey, Lt. F. M.; A Live Takin 
{Budorcas tuxicolor^) 842 

Bakeb, E. C. Stuart, F.Z S., M. 
B. 0. U. ; The Oology of Indian 
Parasitic Cuckoos 72,351,678 

; On the Indian 

Bpecies of Bean-Geese 537 

; The breeding 

of the BeDgal Florican (.Sypheotis 
hengalensis 638 

; Birds of the 

Khasia Hills 783,957 

; Addit i o n a 1 

Cuckoo Notes 876 

Baker, Major H. R. ; Some Birds 
of Singapore 755 

Bakep, Lt.-Col. W. W., R.E.; 
Peculiar colouration of the 
Indian Sloth Bear (_Melursu» 
ursniu^ 1035 

BanneBman, Lt.-Col. W. B., 
l.M.iS.; An unusual displacement 
of heart in a Whistling Teal ... 535 

; Note on the 

breeding of Russell's Viper 

( V ipt ra rustelli") in captivity ... 808 

; The impor- 
tance of Bloodsucking Flies as 
transmitters of disease to Man 
and Animals 871 

; A farther 

note on the distribution of the 
varieties of Cobra in India ... 1031 


Barton-Wright, R.; " Shot- Bor- 
ers 1 ' in Bamboos 1026 

Beadnell, (!. B. ; The Sand Wasp 
^phtix lobutut) 546 

Beddaed,FbankE ,M.a.,F.R.S.; 
On a new Enchytracid Worm 
(Jlcnlea lefroyi, gp. re.) from 
India— destructive to the eggs of 
a Locust {Acridium gp.~) ... 797 

Begbie, Major Arundel ; The 
Stork-billed King-fisher {Tela- 
raopsis gurial) at Cawnpore ... 248 

. The 

Food of Pythons 1021 

Bell, T. R., I. F. S. \ 
of AegithnUicus 
Severtz, in Siud .. 

predaceius flies 


Food of 

Note o n 




C'ania voriegata, SneLl ... 

BethaM, Major R. M. j Farther 
Notes oa Birds' Nesting round 
Quetta 828 

; Breeding 

of the Common or Grey Quail 
(Coturnix covimvnis) and the 
Desert Lark QAlaemon de- 
seitorvm') 848 

Biggs, Lt.-Col. H. V., R. E. : The 
vitality of Sr akes ... .,. ... 1018 

Blatter, E., S. J. ; The " Pecti- 
nate Organs" of Trapa bispinosa, 
Roxb. (Water-Chestnut) ... 85 

■ — - — ; Flowering 

Season and Climate ... 334, 697 

■ ; A brown and 

white Crow 519 

; Acta e t 

Agenda by the Bombuy Botanists. 

: The Flora of 


gera (Wall). 



Cattia rent- 



Bogle, Capt. J. S. ; Parasites in 
Sparrow-Hawks 542 

Bomanji, K. R., I. C. S. ; Bird 

weather reporters 528 

Bonhote, J. Lewis, M.A., F.L.S, 
F.Z.S. ; On a new race of 
Sciurus lokriodes from Burma ... 796 
; On a collec- 
tion of Mammals brought home 
by the Tibet Frontier Commission 800 

. ; On a new 

Vole from Kashmir ... ... 224 

Boulenger, G. A., F.R.S. ; Anew 

Tortoise from Travancore ««. 560 

Bbowne, H. P., Capt., 5th Gurkhas; 
The Distribution of the different 
varieties of Himalayan Markhor 
(Cjpra falemeri) (With a Plate). 1025 
Burton, Major R. G. ; Some notes 

on Tigers and Panthers 1015 

Burton, Capt. R. W. ; A fortunate 
escape and recovery from Cobra 

bite 534 

Buturlin, S. A., F. M. B. O. U. ; 

On Bean-Geese 603 

Cadell, P.R. I.C.S. ; "Vernacular 

names of some Indian Ducks ... 1028 
Cameron, P. ; On the Teuthredi- 
nidceand Parasitic Hymenoptera 
collected in Baluchistan by 

Major C .G. Nurse 89, 274 

; In Kashmir... 289 

■ ; On the Parasi- 

tio Hymenoptera collected by 
Major C. G. Nurse in the Bombay 

Presidency 578 

; Description of 

a new Genus and some new 
Species of Hymenoptera captured 
by Lt.-Col. C. G. Nurse at Deesa, 
Matheran and Ferozepore ... 1001 

Campbell, W. Howard ; Nesting 
of the White-bellied Drongo 
(Dicrurut ooerulescens) 248 

OhaRRINOTON, S. H. ; A White 
Muntjac 836 

Oholmondeley, E. C. ; Note on 
the Magpie Robin (Copyschus 
iaularis") 247 

Clifford, R., Lt., 22nd Punjabis ; 
An Abnormal Hog-deer Head ... 1020 

i j a«e 

Coltart, H. N. ; The Nesting of 
the Crested Honey Buzzard 
(Pernix eristatus) 

Comber, S. , F.Z.S. ; A List of the 
Marine Mollusca in the Bombay 
Natural History Society's Collec- 
tion ... ... ... ... ... 

. k s ome hints 

for beginners on collecting and 
preserving Natural History 
Specimens, Part IV 

; A Panther 

placing its kill up a tree 
■ ; Pro t e c t i v e 

Legislation for Indian Fisheries. 
; The Study of 








; Occurrence of 

the Bittern QButauruv stellaris') 
in Southern India 

Dalgliesh, Gordon ; Notes and 
observations on Mammals col- 
lected and observed in the D^r- 
jeeling Districts, India ... 

; Size of bill 

of Common Teal (Nettmvi ereeca) 

; Breeding 

habits of the Great Crested 
Grebe {Podicipes cri&tatus") 

-— j The Fresh 

Water Mollusca of Tirhoot, 







Nesting of 

the Coot QFuliea atra~) in India. 1013 

Dennys, F. O. B , How Tigers kill 
tbeir \xey 245 

Desneux, J.; The Kashmir Ter- 
mite (Tcrmojisis wrought oni~) ... 293 

DewaR, D,, I.C.S. ; A note on the 
migration of the Common Indian 
Bee-eater QMerops viridis) ... 520 

; The plumage 

of the cock Purple Honeysucker 
(Arachnecthra astatic o), A 
query ? ... ... # 540 

•■ ; An enquiry 

into the parasitic habits of the 
Indian Koel 765 

Donald, C. H. ; Hodgson's Hawk- 
Eagle (Spizcetus nepalensis") ... 824 



Donald, C. H. ; A clumsy -killer. 833 

; A bear's kill in a 

tree 834 

1 — ; Nesting of the 

Hobby (Falco severus) in India. 841 

; The Large Red 

Flying-Squirrel {Pteromys in- 

omatus) and Walnuls 848 

Drake-Brockman, H. E., F.Z.S., 
Major, I. M.S.; Curious beha- 
viour of a Panther in con- 
nection with a kill ... .. 1022 
Dunbar Brander, A. A., T.F.S.; 
How Tigers kill their prey ... 528 

; The sense of 

smell of Tigers 539 

; Note in re- 
gard to the habits of the Praying 

Mantis ... 1013 

Fenton, Lt.-Col. L. L.; Food of 
the Himalayan Nut Cracker 

{Nucifraga hemispila) 229 

Ferris, Lt.-Col. W B. ; Note on 
two Black Leopards in the 

Kolhapur Collection 234 

; Note on the 

Malay Tapir ^Tapirus milieux') in 
captivity (With an Illustration)... 242 
; Black Pan- 
thers 526 

; A malformed 

Blackbuck Head 844 

Fikld, F. ; The boldness of Pan- 
thers 522 

Abnormal Sambar Horns 845 

Fteld, J. A., Lt., R. E. ; Abnormal 
antlers of the Chital or Spotted 

Deer (Cervus axis) 840 

. . ; Abnormal Sambar 

Horns 1020 

Fischer, C. E. C, I. fe\ S. ; Flock- 
ing of Kites 625 

; A remark- 

... 527, 1027 

; Habitat of 

the Green Keelback {Macropis- 

thodon plumbicolor) 527 

-— ; Cause of 

fear shown by Tigers 836 

able tree 


GAMMIE, G. A., F. L. S. ; The 
Orchids of the Bombay Presi- 
dency .. 31,940 

Gerhakbt, P. ; The larva of the 
Fireay .-,33 

Gleadow F., A large Dhaman 
(Zamenis mucosas) 245 

; Bats feeding on 

Birds 1022 

Gore, St. George, Col., R. E. ; 
Fascination by Lizards 520 

Green, E. Earnest ; Do Bats cap- 
ture and eat Birds ? ... ... 835 

Hampson, Sir Geo., Bart., F. Z. S, 
F.E S. ; The Moths of India 
(Supplementary Paper to the* 
Volumes in "The Fauna of British 
India' 1 ) Series III ... 164,447,045 

Harington, Capt. H. H.; The 
variation in the colour of the 
eggs of the Daik-grey Bush Chat 
QOreicvla ferrea) 249 

Hasted, H. R. G. ; Food of preda- 
ceous flies 

: An injured 

Monkey ... ... 

. ; Panther kill 

up a tree *. 

Hole, R. S., F. L S., F.E. S. ; 
What is a Species? 

Hopewood, J. C. ; The Green 
Thrush (Cotfioa viridia) breeding 
in Burma 

; The Falcated 

Teal QEunetta falcata) in Upper 

; Albinism in 

the Malay Spotted Dove (Tur- 
tur tigrinus) near Kindat, Upper 

Hudson, P. ; Tigers hamstring- 
ing their prey before killing ... 

Inglis,Chas. M.j Occurrence of 
the Indian Red-breasted Fly- 
catcher (_S/ph?a ryperythra) in 
Bengal ... 

; Early arrival 

of Duck m 

; The Oology of 

Indian para?itic Cuckoos 








Inglis, Chap. M,; The Bronze- 
capped Teal (.Eunetta falcata) 

in Tirhut 1015 

Inverarity, J D. ; Sambar Horns 

(With four Plates) — 23 

Jenkins, S. E. F. ; The boldness 

of Panthers 1019 

Kettlewell, Capt. H. W. ; Some 
notes on Heteroeera 541 

anitis htthavii in Pachmarhi ... 1013 

Kinloch, A. M.; The nesting of 
the Rufous-bellied Hawk-Eagle 
{Lophotriorohis kieneri) 1027 

Kirtikab, Lt.-Col.K. R M I. M.S. 
(Rrtd.), F. L. S. ; A Note on an 
edible Puff Ball from the Thana 
District ... 816 

, . ■ ; A note on an 

edible Fungus from Lahore ... 1030 

Lamb, Major George, M.D..I.M.S.; 
Snake Venoms and their anti- 
dotes : An account of recent 

Leal, Col. Fernando. ; The Ori- 
gin of Anonas, Anona squamosa, 
L., Anona reticulata, L 

Logan, A. C, 1. C.S.; A brown 

Lydekker, R. ; The Ceylon 

Macdonald, K. C. ; A list of 
Birds found in the Myingyan 
District of Burma 184, 492 

Mackenzie, A. F., Major, !>3rd 
Highlanders ; Measurements of 
Buffalo {Bus bubalus} Horns ... 

M agraTH, Major B. A. F. ; Occur- 
rence of Remizi {JEgithalusf) 
coroiatus in Kohat 

^___ — ■ ; Occur- 
rence of the Wax wing (Amptlis 
garrnln*) at Bannu, N.-W. F. 
Province 1037 

Mandeks, Lt.-Col. N., F.Z.S., 
F.E.S., R.A.M.C.j The Clima- 
tal changes of Melanitix Ma ... 709 

. .—■ ■■ ; First hints 

on collecting Butterflies 819 







Manson, C. E. F. ; The early stages 
of theMoth( Rhodoprasina floralis, 

(With a Plate) 241 

Marten, James ; The nesting of 
the Black-backed Forktail (Heni- 

curus immaculatus) 533 

Meyrick, E., B. A., F. R. S., F. Z. S.; 
Descriptions of Indian Micro- 
Lepidoptera ... 133,403,730,976 
Millard, W. S. ; A Whale near 
Bassein (Bombay Coast) ... ... 533 

Montresob, Capt. L. B., R. F. A. ; 
Cannibalism amongst Panthers 

and Tigers ... 543 

Nurse, Major C. G. ; A new 
species of Indian Wax-producing 

Bee 619 

Oates, Eugene W.,F.Z.S.; On some 
new species of Silver Pheasants 

from Burma 10 

; On the species 

of Bean-Geese (With a Plata) ... 38 

; On a new 

species of Grey Duck {Polionetta 
haringtoni) from Burma... .?. 558 
— ; On the Bean- 
Geese 950 

Osborn, Lt-Genl. W. ; Destruction 
of Mosquitoes and their Larvae 
by Fish and Lime... ... ... 832 

Osm aston, B. B., IF. S. ; Notes 
on Andaman Birds with accounts 
of the Nidification of several 
species whose nests and eggs have 
not been hitherto described. 156, 486 
— , ; Man- 
groves and Paroquets 240 

Pershouse, Stanley. The nest 

of the Brown-backed Indian 

Eobin (JThamvoMa cambaiensis'). 231 

Prall, Major S. E., T. M. S. ; Note 

on the Arabian Gazelle {Oazella 

arabica) 847 

Primrose, A. M. ; The nesting of 
the Black-crested Baza {Baza 

Inphotes) 531 

; Bats feeding on 

small Birds 1021 



Rattray, Lt.-Col. R. H. ; A mal- 
formed Blackbuck head. (With 
an illustration) 

RHENitre, C. E. ; Occurrence of the 
Bittern in South India ffiotaurus 
stellarix) ... ... 

■ ■ ; Pelicans breed- 

ing in India 

Rhe-Paillipe, G.W.V. de; Occur* 
rence of the Butterfly TaUcada 
nygeus, Guerin, at Kbandalla, 
Western Ghats 

Rivington, H. S., B Sc. ; The 
Occurrence of the Scorpion Spider 
(Pliryiuc^vs') (Karscb) in the 
Sbevaroy Hills ... 

Rodon, Major G. S. ; A Mouse-Hare. 

; Locusts, Bears 

and Dogs 

Rollo, C. Grenville ; Recovery 
from a Cobra bite 

Rundle, Lt.-Col. G. R., R. F. A. ; 
The boldness of Panthers 

Sale, E. L., I.C. S. ; Pearls in the 
Thana creek, W. India 

Seth-Smith ; The <c Booming " of 
the Button Quail 

Shaepe, R. Bowdler.L.L.D., etc. ; 
A Note on Pod ces pleskei, Zarud- 
ney (With a Plate) 

Skirving, 0. Scot ; Malformed 
Sarnbar and Gaur horns 

Smith, Major J. Manners ; Albi- 
nism in the Kakar or Muntjac 
(Cervulus muntjac) 

StkbbiNG, E. L., F.E,S.,F.L.S. ; 
A Note on the preservation of 
Bamb os from the attack of the 
Bamboo Beetle or " Shot Borer ". 

Insect Life in 

India and how to study it, being 
a simple account of the more im- 
portant families of Insects with 
examples of the Damage thf-y do 
to Crops, Tea, Coffee and Indigo 
concerns, P'ruit and Forest Trees 
in Iadia, Chapter VII, Part IV... 

Tilly, Harry L. ; Report on the 
Destruction of Rats in Rangoon 
during August 1905 


















Troup, Norman, F. T. ; Notes on 
the " Shot Borer in Bamboos " ... 526 

Tyrrell, Capt. J. R. J., I. M. 8. ; 
The boldness of Panthers ... 827 

Vaughan, W.,F. E. 8.; Occurrence 
of the Moth Dudgejtia leu- 
Cfsticta in Ceylon 241 

Venour, Major Walter ; Occur- 
rence of the Cheer Pheasant 
{Catreus wallichi) in the N. W. 
F. Province 812 

Wall, Capt. F., I.M.8., C.M.Z.S.; 
A Popular Treatise on the Com- 
mon Indian Snakes ... 1,259,857 

, . j a New Snake 

(Melanelaps mephersoni) from 

the Aden Hinterland ... ... 27 

; A new Hima- 
layan Snake QLycodo/i mackin- 
noni) 29 

; The Poisonous 

Snakes of India and how to re- 
cognize them 51,299,995 

— ;• The Snake 

... 875 

and its Natural Foes 

; Plumage of 

young male Pintail Duck ... 
; A new Krait 

from Oudh (Bunparus tvalli) ... 
; Some new 

Asian Snakes 

; Snake-bite in- 
flicted by Mtlan-laps mephersoni. 
; Rednction in 

the species of the Genus Polyn- 

', Suppression of 

Melandaps mephersoni 

; Encounter be- 
tween a Snake and a Lizard 

• Hatching of 








Dhaman (Zamenis mucosus") eggs 
and observations on the egg tooth 1033 

; Tuctoo and 

Snake 1085 

Wallinger, W. A. ; Estuary Fish- 
ing. Some remarks on its deca- 
dence as an industry in the 
Konkan < 620 




Ward, Col. A. E. ; Birds of the pro- . 
vinces of Kashmir and Jammu 
and adjacent Districts . 108, 479, 723, 


; Notes on small Mam- 

als in Kashmir and adjacent 
Districts 154,928 

Watson, Capt. J. W., I.M.S, ; 
Packs of Wolves in Persia ... 576 

— ; Urial in Persia. 517 

Whitehead, C. H, ; Notes on the 
occurrence of certain Birds in 

the plains of N. W. India 

Whympeb, S. L. ; Late breeding 
of the Black Partridge (Franco- 
linus vulgaris) 

. ; Sites of Birds' 


; The Brown Wood 

Owl {Syrnium indrani) 

; Nesting of the 

Ibis-bill (Ibidorhynchus stru- 
thersi) and the Common Sand- 
piper (Tot anus hypoleucus) ... 

; Some notes on 






Birds Nesting in Tehri-Garhwal. 817 

Wick ham, P. F. ; Nesting of the 
Malayan Banded Crake (Rallina 
fatciata) ... 

Wroughton, R. C. ; Notes on the 
Genus Tatera with descriptions 
of new species 

; Notes on some 

Rats of the Mus mettada group. 

Young, F. ; A strange foster-mo- 
ther ... ... 

Young, L. C. H., B.A., F.E.S., 
etc. , First hints on collecting 
Butterflies (being a supplemen- 
tary paper to the articles on the 
Common Butterflies of the Plains 
of India) 

— ; What is a 

Species ? ,. ... 






— ; The Common 
the Plains of 
418, 921 

— ; Habits of the 

■ ; Occurrence of 

the Butterfly Chilaria othona in 
Salsette 1030 

Butterflies of 


voh.tjivi:e xvn. 

To face 

The Green Keelback QMacropistJtodon plumbicolor'j, Plato II 1 

Diagrams of Macropisthodon plumbicolor 2 

„ „ DryopMs prasinus, DryopMs fronticinctus and DryopMs dispar ... 6 

„ „ Coluber oxycephalies, Coluber /remains and Lachesis macrolepis ... 8 

Samber Horns, Plate 1 ") 

,, ,, ,, o .... ... ... ... ... 

,, „ „ * ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... J 

Dendrobium barbatulum, Lindl., Plate 'II 31 

Bills of Bean Geese 38 

Indian Cuckoos Eggs, Plate I 72 

Trapa bispinosa, Roxb 86 

Ehodoprasina floralis 241 

The Malay Tapir (Tapirus indicus) .. 242 

The Common Teal (Nettion crecca), Plate XXIII , 259 

Diagrams of Zamenis mucosus ., 270 

The Dhaman or Indian Rat-snake {Zamenis mucosus), Plate III 272 

Diagrams illustrating Flowering Season and Climate, Plates I, II and III ... 848 

Indian Cuckoos' Eggs, Plate II ... ... 364 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India, Plate B 418 

Malformed Blackbuck Horn (A ntilope rervicapra) 519 

The Persian Grouud-chough (JPodoces plesikei") 555 

A new Tortoise from Travancore (Testudo travancorica") (Two plates) 560 

New Indian Snake QBungarus loalli) 608 

New Indian Snakes, Lyeodonflavomaculatus^ Tropidonotus xenura 612 

Diagrams of Lycodon fiavomaculatus 614 

New Snake from Thibet (Tropidonotus baileyi) 618 

Indian Cuckoos 1 Eggs, Plate III 680 

Diagram illustrating Flowering Season and Climate, Plate IV 698 

„ ,, „ „ „ V ... ... ... 700 

„ „ „ ,, „ VI and VII ... 704 

Malformed Gaur Horns 846 

The Cotton Teal, Nettopus coromandelianus ... , 858 

The Checkered Water Snake, Tropidonotus piscator, Plate IV 860 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India, Plate C 921 

Phajus albus, Lindl., Plate III 940 

Photo of abnormal Sambhar Horn and abnormal Hog-deer Head 1020 

Photos of varieties of Markhor (Capra falconeri) 1026 

Cassia renigera, Wall 1036 


A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. Part II. 
By Capt. F. (Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s. {With Plate 11 and Diagrams 
iV, Vand VI.) 1 

On some New Species op Silver Pheasants from Burma. By 

Eugene W. Oates 10 

Snake Venoms and their Antidotes : an account of recent 

research. By Capt. George Lamb, m.d., i.m.s 13 

Samber Horns. By J. D. Inverarifcy. {With 4 Plates) 23 

A New Snake (Melanelaps mcphersoni) from the Aden Hinter- 
land. By Cape. F. Wall, lma, c.m.z.s 27 

A New Himalayan Snake (Lycodon mackinnoni). By Capt. F. 

Wall, r.M.s., c.m.z.s 29 

The Orchids of the Bombay Presidency, Part III. By G. A. 

Gtammie, f.l.s. {With Plate II.) 31 

On the Species of Bean-Geese. By Eugene W. Oates, f.z.s. {With 

a Plate) , 38 

The Poisonous Snakes of India and how to recognize them. 

Parti. By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s 51 

The Oology of Indian Parasitic Cockoos. Part I, By E. 0. 

Stuart Baker, f.z.s. {With Plate A) , 72 

The "Pectinate Organs" of Trapa bispinosa, Rosb. (Water- 

CxIEStnut). By E. Blatter, s.j ?5 

On the Tknthredinid.® and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected 
in Baluchistan by Major C. G, Nurse. Part I. By P. Cameron. 8y 

Birds of the Provinces of Kashmir and Jammu and adjacent 

Districts. Parti. By A. E. Ward 108 

First Hints on collecting Butterflies (being a Supplementary 
Papek to the Articles on the Common Butterflies on the 
Plains of India). ByL. C H. Young, b.a.. f.z.s., f.e.s 114 

Notes and Observations on Mammals collected and observed in 
the Darjeeling District, Lndi a. By Gordon Dalgliesh 122 

What is a Species ? By L. C. H. Young, b.a., f.e.s., &c 128 

Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. Part II. By E. Mey- 

rick, b.a., f.r.s., F.z.s • 133 

Notes on Small Mammals in Kashmir and adjacent Districts. 

By A. E.Ward 154 

Notes on Andaman Birds with accounts of the Nidification of 
several species whose Nests and Eggs have not been 
hitherto described. By B. B. Osmaston, i.f.s, 156 

The Moths of India (Supplementary Paper to the Volumes in 
" Thk Fauna of British India "). Series III, Part III. By Sir 
George Ham] son. Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s lf?4 



A. List of Bikds found in the Myingyan District of Burma. By 

K. 0. Macdonald 184 

The Origin of Anonas. Anona squamosa, L.; Anona reticulata, L. 

By Ool. Fernando Leal 195 

A List of the Marine Mollusca in the Bombay Natural History 

Society's Collection. By E. Comber, f.z.s 207 

Catalogue of Fresh Water and Land Mollusca in the Bombay 
Natural History Society's Collection..-., 216 

A Note on the Preservation of Bamboos from the attack of the 
Bamboo Beetle or " Shot-borer." By E. P. Scebbing, f.l.s., 

F.E.S o 219 

On a New Vole from Kashmir. By J. Lewis Bonhofce, m.a 224 

Review : The Inaugural address of the President of the Mining and 

Geological Institute of India 225 

Miscellaneous Notes — 

1. Pearls ia the Thana Creek (W. India). By E. L. Sale, I.c.s^ 228 

2. Nesting of the Malayan Banded Crake QBallina fasciata). By P. F. 

Wickham (p. w. D.) 228 

3. Food of the Himalayan Nutcracker {Nueifraga hemispila). By L. L. 

Fenton, Lt.-Col 229 

i. Occurrence of the Butterflv Talicada nyseu,*, Gueriii, at Khandala 

—Western Ghats. By li. W. V. de Rhe-Philipe 230 

5. Measurements of Buffalo (Bos bubalus) Horns. By A. F. Mackenzie, 

Major, 93rd Highlanders , 230 

6. The Protection of Wild Birds in the Bombay Presidency f>31 

7. The Nest of the Brown-backed Indian Robin QThamnobia cambaiensis). 

By Stanley Pershouse, 2nd Border Regt., attached 5th Mounted In- 
fantry 231 

8. Late breeding of the Black Partridge (Francolinus vulgaris). By 

S. L. Whymper 232 

9. Report on the destruction of rats in Rangoon during August 1905. 

By Harry L. Tilly, Officer-in-Charge of Plague Operations 232 

10. Note on two Black Leopards ia the Kolhapur Collection. By W.B. 

Ferris, Lt.-Col , 234 

11. The Straight-Horned Assam Buffalo 235 

12. The Ceylon Chital. By R. Lydekker 235 

13. Sites of Birds 1 Nests. By S. L. Whymper , 236 

14. Note of the Burmese Button Quail 237 

15. The " Booming " of the Button Quail. By Seth-Smith 238 

16. Plumage of young male Pintail Duck (Dafila acuta). By F. Wall, 

Oapt., i.m.s., C.M.z.s 238 

17. Albinism in the Eakar or Muntjac (Cervulus muntjac). By J. 

Manners Smith, Major 239 

18. Food of Predaceous Flies. By H. R. G. Lasted 239 

19. Mangroves and Paroquets. By B. B. Osmaston, i.f.s 240 


Miscellaneous Notes — contd. 

20. The early stages of the Moth Rhodoprasina floralis. (With a Plate.) 

By C. E. F. Manson 241 

21. Occurrence of the Moth Duclgeena leuco&ticta in Ceylon. By W. 

Vaughan , F.E.S 241 

22. Note on the Malay Tanir (Tapirus indicus) in captivity. (With an 

Illustration.-) By W. B. Ferris, Col 242 

23. Notes on the occurrence of certain Birds in the Plains of N.-W. India. 

By C. H. Whitehead 243 

21. Occurrence of JEgithaliscns coronatus, Severtz, in Sind. By T. R. 

Bell 244 

25. A large Dhatnan (Zamenis mucositis). By F. Gleadow, i.f.s 245 

26. How Tigers kill their Prey. By F. 0. B. Dennys, Assistant Controller 

of Forests 245 

27. Note on the Magpie Robin (Copsychus gaularis). By E. C. Cholmon- 

deley 247 

28. Occurrence of the Bittern in South India (Botaurus stellaris). By 

C. E. Rhenins 247 

29. Size of bill of Common Teal (Nettium crecca). By Gordon 

Dalgliesh , 248 

30. Nesting of the White-bellied Drongo (Dierurus) ccerule>cens). By W. 

Howard Campbell 248 

31. The Stork-billed Kingfisher QPelargopsis gurial) at Cawnpore. By 

Arundel Begbie, Major 248 

32. The Green Thrush (Cochoa viridis) breeding in Burma. By J. C. 

Hopwood 249 

33. The Falcated Teal QEunetta falcata) in Upper Burma. By J. C. 

Hopwood 249 

34. Albinism in the Malay Spotted Dove (Turtur tigrinus) near Kindat, 

Upper Chindwin. By J. C. Hopwood 249 

35. The Variation in the Colour of the Eggs of the Dark Grey Bush Cbat 

(.Oreieola ferrea). By H. H. Ilarington, Capt. 249 

Proceedings op the Meetings held on 23rd November 1905, 

25th January and 15th March 1906 251 

Journ. Bomb ay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

Plate II 

lAjAjLAjLLiixi rvvvrirr 

J. Green- del. 

Macr opi sthodon plumb 1 c ol or ("har ml ess) 

Man.-fcern.Bros .Clvro3n.o . 






; ^ocirfu. 

Vol. XVII. 


No 1. 



Illustrated by Coloured Plates and Diagrams. 

By Captain F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. 

Part II. — With Plate II, and Diagrams IV, V and VI. 

(Continued from page 554 of Vol. XVI.) 

The Green Keelback. 

Macropisthodon plumbicolar. 

Nomenclature. Scientific. — The generic name is derived from the 
Greek words " makros" great, "opisthe" back, i( odous" tooth, and 
calls attention to an unusual feature in the dentition of this snake 
inasmuch as the maxillary at its hindmost extremity is provided with a 
pair of very large teeth separated by a short interval from the normal 
array met with in other snakes (see Fig. 1). These troth may be very 
easily mistaken for poison fangs, but a careful scrutiny will show that 
they possess neither canal nor groove. Until recently this snake was 
included with the genus Tropidonotus, several member's of which have 
enlarged teeth similarly situated (see Fig. 2) notably among familiar 
kinds the common buff-stripes (Stolatus), and the painted Keelback 
(Subminiatus). None, however, exhibit a development of these teeth 
to the degree which has led Mr. Boulenger to separate this snake with 
its two Malayan congeners under the generic title of Macropisthodon. 


The specific name is derived from the Latin words "plumbum" lead, 
and "color" colour, a title for which Cantor is responsible, hut it is a 
most inapt and misleading one, since its prevailing colour is a dark 
foliage green. 

English. — The Green Keelback is, I think, the best name for it, 
closely allied as it is to the genus Tropidonotus* and manifesting in its 
scales a degree of keeling in no way inferior to any representative of 
that genus. 

Vernacular. — I know of none. 

Dimensions. — The largest specimen I have heard of is one 
obtained by Col. Light at Poona which measured 3'1". Bou- 
lengerf gives 2'6", but I think the majority of adult specimens range 
nearer 2'. 

Bodily configuration.' — Head subovate. The eye is set laterally 
with a very slight inclination forwards, the iris exhibiting a bright 
golden pupillary margin which clearly reveals the rounded contour of 
the pupil. The body is stoutish, subcylindrical, and thickest near the 
middle from which spot the snake attenuates in both directions. The 
tail which is short and tapers rather rapidly, measures from one- 
seventh to one-ninth of the total length, being longer in males than 
females. The upper surface is rough with ridges in its whole length 
formed by the pronounced keeling of the dorsal scales. 

Colour. — The prevailing colour is grass-green (often dull olive-brown 
in spirit specimens). Young specimens have a well defined, lamp- 
black, chevron-shaped collar with the point directed towards or on to 
the frontal shield. Behind this is a broad gorget of bright yellow or 
orange (dirty whitish in old spirit specimens) abruptly defined behind 
by a lamp-black bordering. A black fillet extends from the eye to the 
gape, and usually some black or blackish spots or markings are present 
in the forebody with a tendency to a transverse distribution. With age 
the green acquires a more dusky tone, but I have never seen a specimen 
that deserved the cognomen plumbicolor. Many of the black marks 
become obscured, or lost with age, but the fillet from the eye to the 
gape is, I think, always more or less in evidence. The belly which is 
usually uniform in colour may be whitish, yellowish, plumbeous green, 
or even blackish. The throat and chin are yellow or buff. 

* Tropidori'itus is derived from the Greek " tropis " signifying keel and ' ; notns" back, 
f Fauna of Brit. Ind., J890, p. 351. 

Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc 

01 AG RAW. 'V 


Fig. I 

Fig, /. Maxillary of Macropisthodon flavi&ps. f After Boulenger.) 

^ S^^^i^^i^^^^^ ^^' 

Fig. 2, 

Fig Z. Maxillary of Tropidonotus tigrimis. f After FouZengerJ 








JiigT 5.a. 

Fig! 5 b. 

Fig 3, 4, 5. MdcrvpistAodori plumbicolor f Xt£ ./. 



Identification. — Any grass-green snake which has 17 rows of scales 
in the hind body {i.e., two heads lengths in front of the vent), and has a 
frontal shield in contact with 6 shields only must be Macropisthodon 
plumbicolor. With a very little attention to scale characteristics and 
shape o f pupil it could never be confounded with either of the fore- 
going snakes discussed in this series. The round pupil serves to dis- 
tinguish it as readily from all the Green Pit-Vipers, as it does to separate 
it from all the Green Whip-Snakes. The appended remarks at the con- 
clusion of this paper will serve to differentiate this from all other 
green snakes in which the pupil is round. 

Habits. — Flaunts, — Its prasinous coloration indicates a foliaceous 
environment, but: it is not in the foliage of either bushes or trees that 
it is met with, but among low terrestrial vegetation, and especially 
grass. It not infrequently, however, strays from the kindly protection 
which verdure offers it. Mr. Kinlock says that about Kotagiri 
(Nilgiri Hills, 5,700') he usually finds it in grass among scrub jungle, 
and not necessarily in a marshy vicinity. Mr. Gray tells me that at 
Coonoor (Nilgiri Hills, 6,000') he has now and then known it wander 
into his rooms, and has frequently seen it about habitations. Gunthor,* 
too, remarks that it frequently enters houses. 

Disposition. — The formidable armature of its upper jaws (see Fig. 1), 
belies its disposition, for not only is it a perfectly harmless snake, 
but it possesses a singularly gentle and inoffensive nature. Mr. Kinloch 
remarks on it? gentleness, and says it never attempts iO bite. A 
remarkable feature in the behaviour of this snake, a.vl cne hardly 
likely to escape observation is its habit of crouching on the ground when 
molested. Tha wbola body down to the vent is involved in this flattening 
effort, the object of which does not seem clear. It appears to be a mani- 
festation indicative of fear. I have noticed the same behaviour to an 
equal degree in the Himalayan Viper (Ancistrodon himalayanus), the 
common Chinese Viper {A. blomhofii) and to a lesser degree in 
Siebold's Water-Snake (Ilypsirhina sieboldii) and the common Burrow- 
ing Snake (E>'i/d' conieus). In several other snakes a muscular effort 
akin to this is evinced locally but whilst the creature is in an attitude 
of menace with the forebody erect. The cobra displays this peculiarity 
in a very pronounced degree, in the production of its so-called hood 
and the hamadryad does too, to a lesser degree. Many others behave 

* Kept., Brit. Ind.. 1SG4, p. 27?. 


similarly to these la4 two under excitement, but the flattening is far 
less pronounced. Among these may be enumerated the common Pond 
Snake ( Tropidonotus piscator), the common Buff-stripes or Robed Snake 
( Tropidonotus stolatus), and several others of this genus, also Helicops 
seliistosus, and Pseudoxenodon macrops which last Giinther has figured* 
so as to emphasise this peculiarity. 

Food. — Both Mr. Phipson and Mr. Kinloch tell me it feeds on toads. 
Mr. Gray mentions frogs, and says he knew one eat a small earth-snake 
on one occasion. 

Breeding. — Mr. Phipson tells me it breeds during the S.-W. monsoon 
about Nasik (Deccan), and produces eggs which he has found, and kept 
till they hatched out. 

Distribution. — Geographical. — It is found throughout the Peninsula 
of India, including Ceylon. Its northern boundary may be taken 
rouohly as the 30th parallel, and its western and eastern limits are 
comprised roughly behween the 70th and 85th meridians. 

Local and numerical. — It is not nearly so abundant in the plains as 
in certain uplands, in fact my own experience teaches me to regard it 
as an uncommon snake in the plains. Russell's work, which may be 
taken as dealing with a fairly representative collection of the common 
snakes of India, makes no allusion to this species. Mr. Kinloch and 
Mr. Gray tell rr.e it is quite a common snake in the Nilgiris (Kotagiri 
an I Coonoor 5,700-6,000'). Mr. Phipson says it is perhaps the 
commonest snake about Nasik in the Deccan ( 1,900' ). Col. 
Light mentions it as fairly common around Poona ( 1,800' ). Nichol- 
sonf says it is a very common snake about Bangalore (3,000'), and 
Ferguson mentions it as fairly common in Travancore both on the hills 
and in the plains. 

Description. — Rostral contact with six shields, of which the anterior 
nasals form the longest sutures (see Fig. 56). Intemasals a pair. 
Suture between them subequal to, or rather shorter than the 
suture between the prefrontal pair, subequal to or rather shorter 
than the suture between the internasal and prefrontal of each side. 
Prefrontals a pair. In contact with the internasal, postnasal, 
loreal, upper preocular, supraocular, and frontal, on each side. 
Suture between them subequal to or rather less than the suture 

• Rept, Brit. Ind., PI. XXII., C. 
f Indian Snakes, p. 94. 


between the prefrontal, and frontal on each side. Frontal in 
contact with six other shields of which the supraoculars form the 
largest sutures. Length subequalto the supraoculars. Breadth opposite 
centres of eyes twice or nearly twic3 each supraocular. Parietal* 
a pair. Each in contact with one postocular. Nasals two placed 
laterally on each side, and completely divided by a suture in which the 
nostril occupies the upper two-thirds to three-fourths. In contact 
with the 1st and 2nd supralabials. Loreal single. Sometimes con- 
tinued backwards to touch the eye, more usually not. Prceoculars two. 
Postoculars three or four. Temporals two. The lower in contact with 
the 5th and 6th supralabials, the suture made with the 5th being 
about f that with the 6th. Supralabials 7 of which the 3rd and 4th 
touch the eye. Infralabials. The first meet behind the mental to 
form a suture about half the length of that between the anterior sublin- 
guals. 6 (rarely 7) come into contact with the sublingual shields, 4 or 
5 with the anterior pair, the rest with the posterior pair. The pentagonal 
is usually the tith (rarely the 7th) of the series. It is about as bread 
as the posterior sublinguals of the same side, and touches 3 scales behind.* 
Posterior sublinguals are longer than the anterior, and are quite 
separated by one or two small scales succeeded by a pair. JJorsals 
anteriorly in 23-25 rows ; midbody 25-27 • posteriorly 17.f 
The vertebral row is similar to its contiguous rows in size and form. 
The last row is largest. The scales are longer than broad, have 
straight margins, rather acute apices set pointing directly backwards, 
and are keeledj and facetted. Lines drawn across the apices of alternate 
rows are about vertical. The keels are pronounced in all rows except 
the last where they are absent for a variable extent anteriorly. 
They extend completely from base to apex of each scale. Apical facets 
are present in pairs, but often are difficult to see. Supracaudals 
are in even numbers of rows numbering six in the middle of the tail, 
and ending in a very few twos. Keels are present in all rows from 
base to tip of tail, also apical facets as in dorsals. Ventrals 144— 1 60 

* This does not appear so in Fig. 3, as the posterior sublinguals are overlapping the inner 
part of the pentagonal. 

t Wherever referencs is made to anterior and posterior parts of the body in this paper it is 
to be understood that the former refers to a point two heads lengths behind the bead, and 
the latter to a point two heads lengths in front of the vent. Midbody is to be reckoned 
exclusive of the tail. 

X The presence of a ridge on the scale similar to the midrib on the underside of a leaf 
is technically called a keel. 


(Boulenger). Evenly rounded from side to side and so broad that when 
the snake is laid on its back, only part of the last dorsal row is visible 
on each side simultaneously. A nal usually divided. Subcaudals 85 — 50 
(Boulenger) are in pairs. Dentition. The maxillary supports 12 — 13 
small teeth anteriorly which are succeeded after an interval by a pair 
of large teeth behind. Mandibular teeth subequal (Boulenger). 

The grass-green snakes that inhabit India and its Dependencies are 
thirteen in number. Three of the commonest of these have been dis- 
cussed, and figured in this, and a preceding paper. A few remarks will 
now be made about the remainder so as to facilitate their recognition. 

Three of this number are pit-vipers and differ from, all the rest in 
having aloreal pit, a vertical pupil, no labial touching the eye, and only 
one pair of sublingual shields which touch 8 infralabials. In two of 
these (viz., Purpureomaculatus and Gramineus) the head is covered in 
front with small scales about the same size as those on the body and 
in the third (Macrolepis, see Fig. 13) the enlarged shields are a modifica- 
tion of the arrangement normally S3en in colubrine snakes. Should, 
however, a specimen be brought with the head so mutilated that none 
of these characters can be discerned, the following additional points 
mentioned with each will differentiate them. 

(1) Lachesis gramineus has been described in a preceding paper. 
The arrangement of the dorsal scales which number 21 normally (rarely 
19) in the anterior and middle parts of the body, and 15 in the pos- 
terior part of the body will suilice to distinguish this from the rest. 

(2) Lachesis purpureomaculatus. — The green variety of this snake 
(bicolor) is extremely like gramineus, in fact it is probable the two 
have been frequently confounded. The arrangement of the dorsal scales 
which number normally 25 (rarely 23 or 27) in the anterior and 
middle parts of the body, and 19 in the posterior part will distinguish 
this from the rest. This snake is as far as I know similar to the last in 
habits, rarely exceeds three feet in length, and within our limits has 
been recorded from the Himalayas, Bengal, Assam and Burma. 

(3) Lachesis macrolepis. — In this the scales number 18-15 anterior- 
ly, 14-12 in mid-body, and 11-10 posteriorly. The ultimate (or lowest) 
row is much the smallest, and this feature alone will, I believe, distinguish 
this from every other snake in India. It is arboreal in habit, grows to 
two feet, and inhabits hills in Travancore (Ferguson), Malabar, and S. 
India, 2,<?,, Anamallays and Pulneys. 

Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 


_J -"' 

Dryophis pra^imos. (XHj 

Fig a. 

Lor.*,* f^ 




Dryvphis prasinus. (X Hj 


Dryopjus fnmtuusictus ( *■ 2 


Fie- 8. 

JJryopTus dispar f 'X 2 J 


& F. C.0BTE7 i r t ITH BOMB 


Of the remaining ten, five are Whip-Snakes, and distinguished from 
all other snakes by their horizontal pupil (see Figs. 7, 8 and 9). Their 
tails are extremely long and slender, measuring more than a quarter 
and in some species (mycterhans and prasinus) even more than a 
third of the total length of the snake. Should the head be damaged, 
the dorsal scales which number 15 in the anterior, and middle parts of 
the body, and 13 to 11 in the posterior part will suffice to proclaim the 
specimen a whip-snake, and the species may often be guessed at from 
the habitat. 

(4) Dryophis mycterizans, — Has been already described. 

(5) Dryophis frontie'mctus (see Fig. 8).— Has like the last only one 
labial (the 5th or 6th) touching the eye, but has 3 or 4 loreals, and no 
nasal appendage. It grows to about 3 feet, takes readily to water, and 
is found on trees and bushes about rivers in Assam and Burma where 
it is often locally abundant (Moulmein and Rangoon rivers). 

(6) D. dispar (see Fig. 9). — Resembles the preceding in having only 
one labial (the 5th usually) touching the eye, but differs in the absence 
of a nasal appendage and in having one or two loreals. It grows little 
more than two feet and has been recorded from hills in Travancore 
(Ferguson), and the Anamallays in S. India. 

(7) D. pevroteti — Is distinguished from the rest of the Whip-Snakes 
in that two labials (the 4th and 5th) touch the eye. It grows to 
about 2 feet, and inhabits the Nilgiri Hills and N. Canara. 

(8) D. pmsinus (see Figs. 6 and 7). — This differs from the other 
Whip-Snakes in having three labials (the 4th, 5th and 6th) in contact 
with the eye. Its longth exceeds 5 feet, and it is found in the Eastern 
Himalayas, Hills of Assam, and also in Burma where it is more 
abundant in the upper than the lower part of the Province, and is not 
confined to uplands. 

The remaining five snakes agree in having the pupil rounded in con- 
tour, they are — 

(9) Macropidhodon plwnhicolor (see Figs. 3, 4, 5) which has been 
dealt w r ith in this article. If the head is intact the labials which num- 
ber 7, of which the 3rd and 4th touch the eye, will suffice to separate 
this from all the rest. The frontal is in contact with 6 shields. Should 
the head be too mutilated to observe these, the dorsal scales must be 
counted and will be found to number 23 to 25 in the anterior, and middle 
parts of the body, and 19 to 17 posteriorly. If in addition the median 


rows of scales in the anterior part of the body are boldly keeled, its 
identity will be established. 

(10) Coluber oxycephalous (see Figs. 10 and 11) has 8-10 upper labials 
three of which usually (rarely two) touch the eye, and a frontal in 
contact with 8 other shields. It may be identified by the co-existence 
of two characters which are (i) the dorsal scales number 23-27 
anteriorly, 23-25 in the middle of the body, and 17-15 posteriorly; 
(ii) the median scales in the anterior part of the body are not keeled. 
It grows to 7 feet, and is known from the Eastern Himalayas, Tenas- 
serim, Burma, Andamans and Nicobars, extending into the Malayan 
region. It is, says Dr. Stoliczka, generally seen on bushes near 
brackish water creeks, and is always ready to take to water. 

(11) Coluber frenatw (see Fig. 12) is peculiar in having no loreal, 
its place being occupied by the extension of the prefrontal so as to 
meet the 2nd or 2nd and 3rd labials. This in itself would distinguish 
this from all the other snakes, but if the head is mutilated the dorsal 
scales should be counted, and will be found to number 19 in the 
anterior, and middle parts of the body, and 15 posteriorly. It grows to 
3 feet, appears to be rare, and is peculiar to the Khasi Hills in Assam. 

(12) Coluber prasinus. — Like the last two, has three labials touch- 
ing the eye, usually the 4th, 5th and 6th, and has a frontal which is 
usually in contact with 8 other shields. The dorsal scales number 19 
In the anterior, and middle parts of the body and 15 posteriorly. It- 
appears to be uncommon, grows to 3 feet, and has been recorded from 
the Eastern Himalayas, Khasi Hills and Burma. 

(13) Ablabes dorm is easily distinguished from all the rest by the 
dorsal scales numbering 15 throughout the body. This is a rare snake, 
until recently only recorded from the Kachin Hills in Burma. I dis- 
covered a young specimen in 1901 in a Museum in Shanghai, which 
has extended its known habitat into China (Yangtse Valley). It grows 
to 3 feet. 

(To be continued.) 

Journal Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 


y% JO 


Fig: /Z 

p a Pro,. Prf. 

Zar. Ttf. 

Coluber oxycephalus (Life sixej 

Cohvber frenatas (XzJfJfier Boiilmger.) 

Fig- S3 

Su,: fin'. 
Zackesu macrolepis (x ^J (After Gdntfarj 





A.S. Anterior sublinguals. 

F. Frontal. 

In. Internasals. 

Lor. Loreal. 

M. Mental. 

Na. Nasals. 

Pa. Parietals. 

Pe. Pentagonal. 

Po. Postoculars. 

Pra. Prgeoculars. 

Prf. Praefrontals. 

P.S. Posterior sublinguals. 

R. Rostral. 

S. Supraoculars. 

Su. Suboculars. 

T. Temporals. 

.1, 2, 3, etc. Supralabials. 

I, II, III, etc. Infralabials. 



By Eugene W. Oates, F.Z.S. 

(Head before the Bombay Natural History Society on 
25th January 1906), 

During the past twelve months I have received a considerable 
number of Silver-Pheasants from some of my correspondents in Burma 
and among them are three well-defined new species. 
Gensleus prendergastt, sp. n. 

The adult male is entirely black except that the rump-feathers are 
terminally fringed with sullied white or pale cream-colour and the 
upper tail-coverts margined with white. Length about 24 inches ; 
wing 9-2 inches ; tail 10*75 inches. 

The female is of an umber-brown colour, very finely vermiculated 
with black, and each feather having a, pale shaft and a grey margin. 
The wing-coverts are conspicuously tipped with white or pale rufous. 
The four middle tail-feathers are of a chestnut colour ; the remaining 
feathers are rufous progressively more and more suffused with brown, 
the outermost feather becoming brown with a rufous tinge. Length 
about 20 inches ; wing 8*4 inches ; tail 8 inches. 

The legs in both sexes are brown in the dried skins. 

Two pairs of this bird, which appears to be the ordinary common 
Silver-Pheasant of Northern Arracan, have been sent to me by 
Mr. 0. M. Prendergast, the Deputy Commissioner of the Arracan Hill 
Tracts, and I have much pleasure in naming this species after him. 


The adult male has the crest black. The head, sides of neck, back 
of neck, mantle, back, scapulars, wing-coverts and secondaries are 
black closely and firmly vermiculated with white across the feather ; the 
feathers of the mantle and back with dark metallic blue margins. The 
rump is black, each feather broadly fringed with white and with several 
very firm distinct white vermiculations separated from each other and 
from the white fringe by black bands as wide as the fringe itself. Tho 
primaries have the outer web mottled with white, the inner web plain 
black. The two middle tail-feathers are black closely vermiculated with 
white ; the others are black more or less vermiculated with white on 
the outer webs, the inner webs being almost entirely black. The 


whole lower plumage is glossy black. Length about 24 inches ; wing 
92 inches; tail 11 inches. Young males have the white vennicu- 
lations on the upper plumage less firm, and the shafts of many of the 
feathers of the breast are white. 

A hen bird which, there can belittle doubt, is the female of this 
species has the crest umber-brown. Tho whole upper plumage is 
umber-brown with pale shafts and greyish margins, very finely and 
obsoletely vermiculated with black. The wing-coverts are tipped with 
white and the longer feathers have a blackish patch in front of this 
white tip. The primaries are brown, the outer webs paler than the 
inner. The secondaries are brown, the outer webs vermiculated with 
black. The two middle tail-feathers are pale chestnut mottled with 
brown ; the others are black cross-barred with white. The whole 
lower plumage is very dark brown, almost black on the breast, each 
feather with a broad rufous- grey streak and a grey margin. Length 
about 20 inches ; wing 8'5 inches ; tail 8'S inches. 

In both sexes the legs are of a brown colour in the dry skin. 

The male has a close general resemblance to the male of G. williamsi 
but differs in many respects, among which may be noted the absence 
of white bars or mottlings on the inner webs of the primaries, and the 
aspect of the under surface of the closed tail which is black with little 
or no trace of diagonal white barring. The female differs in having 
the lower plumage of a dark-brown colour, not. umber-brown like the 
upper plumage, and in having streaks, not mere pale shafts as in 
G. williamsi. 

This species inhabits the Chin Hills and eastern slopes from Mount 
Victoria to Fort White. I have received specimens from Mr. A. 0. 
Bateman, Mr. P. F. Wickham and Mr. K. C. Macdonald, and I wish 
this pheasant to bear the name of the last mentioned gentleman in 
recognition of his kindness in sending me this and other Silver- 

Genn-EUS batemani, sp. n. 

The male is black throughout with the exception of the rump, the 
feathers of which are terminally fringed with white. Length about 
26 inches ; wing 9 inches ; tail 13 inches. 

The female has the chin r.nd throat grey with paler shafts. The 
general colour of the whole plumage, including the crest, is umber- 
brown, each feather with a pale shaft and a white or greyish margin. 


The wings coverts are conspicuously tipped with white. The primaries 
are plain brown. The whole plumage is finely vermiculated with black. 
The two mid lie tail-feathers are chestnut, either plain or finely barred 
with black ; the others are plain black. Length about 21 inches ; 
wing 8'5 inches ; tail 9 inches. 

In the adult male the legs are light green ; iris hazel ; bill greenish 
Nisbett). In a female the legs were brownish blue ; iris hazel ; weight 
2| lbs. (Nisbett). 

The male of this species differs from the male of G. hnrsfieldi in 
having a pointed and much longer tail of 13 inches against a tail of 1 0*5 
inches in the oldest male of G. horsfie'di that I have been able to 
examine. It also differs in having the rump-fringes narrower, thus 
causing the rump to exhibit more black than white, whereas in G. 
horsfieldi the contrary is the case, the fringes being so broad that the 
rump appears more white than black. 

The female differs from the female of G. horsfieldi in having the tail 
constantly longer by half an inch. 

Many years ago, just after the annexation of Upper Burma, a collec- 
tor that I sent to Bhamo brought me a pair of Silver-Pheasants. The 
male was young, as shewn by the rufous margins to many of the 
feathers of the upper plumage, and the tail was short. Ever since I 
got this bird I have been much puzzled by its narrow rump-fringes 
which I could not match with any specimen of G. horsfieldi, young or 
old, from Assam and Munipur. Quite recently, however, Mr. R. 
Clifford sent me a fine old male of this species from Sad one and Captain 
Nisbett has also sent an old male and a female from the Myitkyina 
district and also a female from Katha. The six birds thus available for 
study, establish the fact that G. batemani, which 1 have named after 
my friend and correspondent Mr. A. C. Bateman, is a perfectly recog- 
nizable and distinct specie?, taking the place of G. horsfieldi in the 
Katha, Myitkyina and Bhamo districts. 




Captain George Lamb, M.D., I. M.S. 

(Head before the Bombay Natural History Society on 'lord 
November 1905.) 

On two previous occasions within recent years yon have had to listen 
to papers which had as their subject matter an account of the physio- 
logical actions of snake venoms and of the anti-bodies which scientists 
have given us to combat intoxication from these poisons. And now 
I have been asked by our Honorary Secretary to bring this fascinating 
subject again before you, so that you may be thoroughly abreast of 
the times and know exactly what progress has been made, and in what 
directions we have still to seek knowledge, in order that we may be in a 
better position to turn to therapeutic use all the resources of science. 

Let me, in the first place, carry you back to the 21st January 1902, 
when I placed before you a short resume of the position of the subject 
as it stood at that time. I, then, gave you a description of the methods 
of scientific research and of the procuring of venoms ; I indicated a 
few of the important physical and chemical properties of venoms and 
of the effect of heat upon these poisons. Further, we considered 
the physiological actions of two venoms, namely, those of the 
Cobra (Naia tripudians) and of the Daboia ( Vipera BusseUii), and 
saw the great and broad differences which exist between these 
two poisons as far as their effects on the animal organism are con- 
cerned. Finally, I told you of the scientific antidote which had been 
prepared for one of these poisons, viz., that of the Cobra, by the French 
savant, Dr. Calmette. I stated that while Calmette claimed that his serum 
was equally effective against every kind of snake venom, we had good 
reasons, both a priori and experimental, for combating this claim. In fact, 
this serum, even at that date, had been shown to be practically specific 
for cobra venom, that is to say, that it neutralised cobra venom but no 
other poison. Nearly two years later, namely, on Guy Fawke's day 
of 1903, Colonel Bannerman, I. M.S.. took up the wondrous tale and 
brought your knowledge of the subject well up to date. He tabulated 
in three parallel columns the physiological actions of the venoms of 
the Cobra, of Russell's Viper and of the Banded Krait (Bungarus 


fasciitus), and again emphasized the fact that these poisons encompass 
the death of their prey in very different ways. Colonel Bannerman 
was also able to state authoritatively that antivenoms, that is, serums 
prepared with different venoms, were practically specific. He told 
you that Dr. Tidswell of Sydney had prepared a serum with the poison 
of one of the Australian species (Noiechis scutatus) and that this 
serum while effective for its homologous venom was quite useless for 
the poisons of three other Australian species and also for the poisons 
of three of our Indian snakes, viz., Naia tripudians, Bungarus fasciatus 
and Vipera Russellii. Further, at that date, I had already tested 
Calmette's serum against three Indian venoms and had found it to be of 
no value whatever in the treatment of bites from these snakes, namely, 
Vipera Russellii, Bungarus fasciatus and Echis carinata. Such then 
was the position of our knowledge two years ago. 

Since that time a considerable amount of work has been done in the 
direction both of elucidating the exact physiological actions of the 
venoms of the different species, and of preparing various anti-serums. 
In view of the fact that we are commencing in the Journal a series of 
■articles with coloured illustrations on the Snakes of India it appears to 
be an appropriate time to bring our knowledge of these other questions 
up to date. Let us begin then with the physiological actions of the 
poisons, first dealing with the colubrine snakes. 

On the two previous occasions on which this subject was brought 
before you the actions of the poisons of the Cobra and of the Banded 
Krait were considered somewhat in detail and the differences which 
exist between them were pointed out. We saw that probably these 
two venoms were poisons which act chiefly on the central nervous 
svstem. This probability has now been fully confirmed by the demon- 
stration histologically of marked changes in the large nerve cells of the 
brain and spinal cord. These changes are the move marked the longer 
the animal lives after the injection of the poisons and are especially well 
marked in the case of those animals which show the chronic nervous 
symptoms of intoxication after an injection of Bungarus fasciatus venom. 
If the animal dies within three hours of the bite no changes such as I 
have mentioned are to be observed, but when death is delayed longer 
than this period unequivocal changes can be easily demonstrated. 
Further, cobra venom has been shown to have a direct action on 
the heart and circulatory apparatus. This action is, however, quite 


subsidiary, as far as we are concerned, to its effect in causing paralysis 
of the muscles of respiration, through which action death takes place in 
the great majority of cases. 

While the researches with the two venoms mentioned above have 
b33n extended the poisons of other species have also received a consid- 
erable amount of attention, especially the venoms of the King Cobra, 
of Bungarus cceruleus (common Krait), and of Enliydrina valahadien 
(the common Sea-Snake). 

The venom of the King Cobra closely resembles that of Kaia tripu- 
dians, but finer differences in the physiological action are to be observed. 
It causes gradual paralysis throughout the body, death taking place 
from interference with the respiratory apparatus. As regards tjie 
symptoms resulting from this action no difference can be observed between 
the symptoms caused by this poison and those resulting from the venom 
of the ordinary cobra. While it is most probable that we are here also 
dealing with an action on the cells of the central nervous system, no 
actual demonstration of this hypothesis has yet been made in the manner 
which has been done in the case of the venoms of the Cobra and of the 
Banded Krait. When I am relieved of my present duties I propose to 
take up this point. Its action on the blood cells and on the coagulabi- 
lity of the blood is similar to that of cobra poison. It breaks up the red 
blood corpuscles and prevents the blood from clotting. While this is so 
in a general way, there are minor differences in these actions of the 
two venoms which show the scientist that the constituents which brine 
abont these effects are not absolutely alike. 

The differences between the two venoms are well brought cut when 
we test them side by side against an anti-serum prepared with pure 
cobra venom. Such a serum neutralises well all fhe actions of cobra 
venom. It has no hindering action on the venom of the King Cobra, 
as far as the effects of this venom on the red blood corpuscles and tne 
blood plasma are concerned. But when tested against the general 
action in vivo of this latter poison, it is found that cobra venom anti- 
serum delays death considerably but does not, even in large amounts, 
completely ward off the fatal issue. Therefore the most delicate phy- 
siological test which we possess shows at once that the constituents of 
the two poisons are not of an identical chemical composition. 

When an animal is injected with the poison of the ordinary Krait 
(Bungarus co&ruleus) symptoms very similar to those ssen in cases of 


cobra venom intoxication are observed. Still these symptoms differ so 
much in relative degree as to render it doubtful if they can be spoken 
of as identical. Further when we come to consider the question of 
antivenomous serums, we shall see that cobra venom is quite different 
from the poison of the Krait. 

Nevertheless, experiments show that death by krait poisoning is due 
to failure of the respiratory mechanism, probably due to a direct action 
of the venom on the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata. 
There is no doubt that this poison has also a direct action on the heart 
and on the circulatory apparatus through the nervous system. There are, 
however, many problems still to be solved. We have, nevertheless, been 
able to demonstrate that Bungarus cceruleus poison also causes a break- 
ing up, chromatolysis as it is technically called, of the nerve cells in 
the spinal cord and brain. Further, this poison has no action on the 
coagulability of the blood, but has a power to break up, under certain 
circumstances, the red corpuscles of the blood. 

There is no doubt that bites from Bungarus cceruleus are extremely 
dangerous and that a considerable percentage of the total deaths frcm 
snake bite in India, especially in Northern India, is due to this snake. 
Although the snake is small and injects only a comparatively small 
quantum of poison, the venom is very deadly, being at least four times as 
strong as that of the cobra. It is of interest here to put down in tabular 
form the minimum lethal doses for rabbits, of the more important poisons 
expressed in milligrammes per kilogramme of weight, when the injection 
is made subcutaneouslv. 

Species of snake. 

Minimum lethal dose in mil 
grammes per kilogramme. 

Naia tripudians (Cobra) 
Naia bungarus • King Cobra) 
Bungarus cceruleus (Common Krait) 
Bungarus fasciaius (Banded Krait) 
Enhydrina valakadien ^Sea Snake)... 
Notech's scutatus (Australian Tiger Snake) 
Vipera Russellii (Daboia or Russell's Viper) 
Echis carinata (Phoorsa or Kupper) 




2-5 — 3 





From this table it is seen that the most poisonous of all snakes are 
the common Sea Snake and the Australian Tiger Snake : then comes the 
Krait followed by the Cobra and the King Cobra. The Banded Krait 


is tli3 least poisonous of all, its venom being about half the strength of 
the poisons of the two common Indian Vipers. 

I have now to say a few words on the venom of the common Sea- 
Snake (Enhydrina valakadien) , 

This snake is very abundant along the coasts of India and Burma to 
the Malay Archipelago and New Guinea. 

The poison, as we have just seen, is very deadly, being about eight 
times stronger than cobra venom. 

There are no authentic cases on record of bites in the human subject, 
so that any description of symptoms and of physiological action must be 
taken from animal experiments. The symptoms observed are very 
similar to those of cobra venom intoxication. The local reaction is, 
however, very slight, and further no symptoms pointing to any action 
of the poison on the coagulability of the blood or on the red cells 
occur. There is progressive paralysis, accompanied by difficulty in 
'breathing, which latter symptom is much more marked than in cases of 
cobra venom poisoning. The heart goes on beating for several minutes 
after the respiration has ceased. While, however, the action of this 
poison is similar to that of cobra venom there are slight differences 
which show that the two poisons are not identical. These differences 
are too technical to enter into here. Suffice it to say that the respira- 
tory mechanism appears to be the part of the organism which is chiefly 
affected by Enhydrina venom, while some of the actions which cobra 
venom has on the circulatory apparatus are wanting in the case of the 
poison under consideration. These differences are clearly brought out, 
as we shall see later, when the two poisons are tested against a serum 
prepared with one of them. 

I have little to say about the viperino poisons, which now claim our 
•attention. I have already given you a description of the symptoms 
and of tho physiological action of the venom of Vipera RusselUi. The 
venom of Echis carinata has to all intents and purposes a similar action 
but again shows slight differences, which we shall see are of great 

© © ' © 

importance in connection with the problem of serum-therapeutics. 
This poison has a much more powerful action on the coagulability of 
the blood than any other venom with which I have worked. A very 
small quantity injected directly into the blood stream of an animal 
causes solid ©lotting throughout in a few seconds. This action of tho 

© © 

viperine poisons, an action which is also exhibited by those poisons ot 


the Australian colubrine species which have been investigated, is of the 
greatest interest and importance. For a long time no satisfactory 
explanation of the phenomenon was forthctming. It has now, however, 
been definitely proved that the coagulation which takes place is due to 
the action of a katalyst or ferment, which in some way or other brings 
about the formation of fibrin, a phenomenon analogous to the foimation 
of curd which takes places on the addition of rennet to milk. 

Another point which has been settled as regards the action of the 
viperine poisons is that they, at least the venom of Vipera Itussellii, 
had no chromatolytic action on the nerve cells of the brain and spinal 
cord, such as we have seen can be demonstrated in the case of the 
venoms of the cobra and of the Bungari. There is still another point 
which is of special importance as regards the treatment of cases of bites 
from these two vipers. It is well known, and I have mentioned it to 
you before, that these poisons cause great faintness and collapse. These 
symptoms are due to an action of the poisons on the circulatory appaia- 
tus, a rapid, well marked and persistent dilatation of all the small arteries 
throughout the body taking place. This action no doubt helps to bring- 
about the serious and alarming bleedings which take place in such cases 
from almost all the orifices of the body. Now there is one drug which 
has an effect antagonistic to this, and that drug is adrenaline chloride, a 
preparation made from the small ductless glands which are placed like 
caps on the upper ends of the kidneys. I have just heard from a friend 
on the Baluch Frontier that he has found this drug to be of immense 
value in the treatment of these symptoms ; in fact, he assured me that it 
was the only drug which was of any use. We have here an. instance of 
research pointing the way to therapeutics. 

While these are the main actions of the Indian venoms which have 
been investigated, there are, of course, other problems of the greatest 
interest and importance to those working at the subject. It is, however, 
not only on account of its intrinsic interest that snake venom research 
has received so much attention from scientists. There is another and 
most important aspect of the subject. For owing to the analogy which 
has been found to exist between venoms and the toxins elaborated by 
some micro-organisms, such as diphtheria and tetanus bacilli, the results 
of experiment with snake poisons have taken a not unimportant place 
in the development of our knowledge of immunity. For, it has been 
shown that by continued treatment of an animal with injections of 


venom one is able to produce an anti-toxic serum. I have already indi- 
cated to you how such a serum is won and the use to which it can be 
put. I have told you that Calmette was the first to prepare a serum 
for therapeutic use and that this serum, claimed by Calmette to be effica- 
cious against the venoms of all species of snakes, was soon shown to be 
practically specific for cobra poison, the venom which preponderated in 
the mixture with which it was prepared. Dr. Martin was the first to 
show that tliis serum was of little or no value for any of the Australian 
snakes against which it was tested, and in India it was soon demonstrat- 
ed that Calmette's serum, while anti-toxic to cobra venom, had no neu- 
tralising effect for the venoms of the following snakes : — Bungarus fas- 
c/atus, Vipera Riissellii and Echis carinata. 

I have already indicated that Calmette's serum was at first prepared 
with a mixture of venoms, the constitution of which mixture was uncer- 
tain, -but in which cobra venom greatly preponderated. You will, 
tberefore, understand that in order to test thoroughly this question of 
specificity it was necessary to prepare different serums, each with a 
single pure venom. This has now been done in Australia, in America 
and in. India, and the results obtained are in complete harmony with 
each otber. Lat me in a few words summarise these observations. 

Dr. Frank Tidswell in Sydney has prepared a serum with the pure 
venom of the Australian Tiger Snake (Notechis rcutatus). Tins 
serum was found to be active for the corresponding venom, lint 
failed to neutralise the poisons of three other Australian snakes, namely, 
the brown and the black snakes and the death-adder. Further, this 
serum was found to be inactive against the venoms of the followino- 
Indian snakes: — cobra, king cobra, krait, banded krait, Enhydrina 
valakadien, Kussell's viper, phoorsa, green pit-viper and also the 
Californian rattle-snake. 

Two pure serums have been prepared in India, one with the venom of 
the cobra and the other with the venom of the Russell's viper. 

The cobra venom anti-serum was found to be strongly anti-toxic for 
the venom used in its preparation ; in large quantity it has a neutra- 
lising power for the venom of Enhydrina valakadien; further, it delays 
death in cases of intoxication with the venom of the king cobra, a 
species belonging to the same genus as the cobra, and also in cases of 
intoxication with the venom of Bungarus fasciatus. It does not, how- 
ever, even when used in large quantities, completely neutralise these 


poisons. The serum, therefore, would be of little or no therapeutic value 
in cases of bites from these three snakes. Finally, this serum contains 
no anti-toxic substances which are active against ihe venom of Bungarus 
eceruleus or against the venoms of the following viperine snakes : — 
Vipera Russellii, Echis carinata, Lachesis gramineus and Crotalus 

With the daboia venom anti-serum very similar results were 
obtained. It was found that this serum has no action whatever on any 
of the colubrine poisons, five in number, against which it was tested ; 
that it neutralises well its homologous venom ; that it has a certain, but 
not very marked, neutralising effect on the venom of another viper, 
namely, the American rattle snake : and that it has no anti-toxic action 
for the venom of a closely allied viper, Echis carinata, nor for that ot 
another Indian viper, Lachesis gramineus. 

These results which I have collated above only refer to observations 
made in animals, that is to say, when the life of an animal is used as 
the index of the neutralisation of the poison by the serum. In other 
words these experiments only refer to the neutralising power of the 
serums for the complete general actions of the venoms on the organism. 
But there are other and very delicate methods outside of the animal 
body of testing this specificity question. We can test them in test-tubes 
against the actions which the various poisons exert on the red blood 
corpuscles and on the coagulability of the blood plasma. This has 
been done with the three serums mentioned above. When tested against 
the hemolytic actions of the different venoms, that is to say, the actions 
which they exert on the red blood corpuscles as evidenced by the dis- 
solving up of these bodies, cobra venom anti-serum was found to have 
a high neutralising effect for its homologous venom ; to prevent, 
when used in relatively large amount, this action of the venom of 
Bungarus cceruleus, but to have no hindering effect at all on the 
hcemolysing actions of eight other venoms, amongst which was 
the poison of the King Cobra. Very similar results were obtained 
with Tidswell's serum which, however, proved not quite so specific 
in its action as the serum prepared with cobra venom. The 
serum prepared with dahoia venom has also been tested against 
this action of the various venoms. It was found to have no 
neutralising effect for any colubrine poison ; to neutralise the venom 
of Echis carinata as well as it did that of the poison with which it was 


prepared ; to have a marked but not equally great effect on the venom 
of* Crotalus adamanteus ; and to have no neutralising action on the 
venom of another viper, namely, Lachesis gramineus. 

These three serums have also been tested in vitro against the action of 
the different venoms on the coagulability of the blood. In this respect 
specificity was well marked. Thus, it was found that cobra venom anti- 
serum neutralised well its homologous poison, but had no effect on this 
action of the venom of the King Cobra; that notechis and daboia 
anti-serums neutralised the fibrin ferments of their respective poisons but. 
had no effect in preventing the clotting actions of the other poisons 
which possess this remarkable property. 

I have still to refer to the anti-serums which have been experimented 
with in America. Flexner and Noguchi have prepared serums with 
the venoms of Crotalus adamanteus and of the water Mocassin. After 
testing these serums in detail, they conclude that the action of anti- 
venines is highly, if not strictly specific, both in vivo and in vitro, a 
conclusion which is in perfect harmony with the results 1 have put 
forward above. 

We have now in conclusion to consider the bearing which these 
observations have on the problem of the serum therapeutics of cases of 
snake bite. It is very evident that at the very outset we are met with 
the almost insurmountable difficulty that only the specific anti-serum 
must be used in any case of snake- venom intoxication. Therefore, for 
India alone we should require at least six different anti-venines, 
namely, serums for the venoms of the coin a, the king cobra, the krait, 
the banded krait, the daboia and thephoorsa. There is no difficulty in 
the actual preparation of these anti-venines, but there are other diffi- 
culties in the way. In the first place, it seems almost impossible to 
collect these poisons in quantities sufficient for the purpose of immuni- 
sation of large animals. For the last five years arrangements for the 
collection of venoms, backed by the Government of India and complete 
in every detail, have been working in the Laboratory at Parel. Even 
under these most favourable conditions only a very small, quite insuffi- 
cient, amount of venoms, except the poisons of the cobra and the daboia, 
has been collected. In the second place, granted that it was possible to 
prepare serums for these different poisons, the practical use of them 
would ba beset with difficulty. For when a person, especially a native of 
India, i> bitten by a snake, he is rarely able to tell the species of snake 


which has inflicted the bite and further, as an anti-venomous serum to 
be of much practical utility must be injected before any symptoms of 
intoxication have set in, the medical man who is called on to treat a 
case of snake bite with anti-toxin is not as a rule in a position to form 
an opinion, either from the history of the case or from the symptoms, as 
to the nature of the venom which has been injected. He would have, 
therefore, either to use one of the anti-toxic serums at haphazard or to 
inject the whole of them at once, neither of which methods would 
commend itself as a trustworthy or scientific therapeutic measure. 

As far as is possible we have already overcome these difficulties. 
At the Pasteur Institute at Kasauli a polyvalent serum is now 
prepared with a mixture of equal parts of cobra and daboia venoms. 
This serum is highly efficacious for both the poisons with which it is 
prepared but it would be of little or no value for the bites of other 
Indian poisonous saakos. It is now the only anti-venine issued from 
that Institute. It is supplied free to all Government Hospitals and 
Institutes and at a small charge to private individuals. Let us hope- 
that it may be used freely and that it may save many lives which are 
now lost for lack of scientific treatment. 



J. D. In vb rarity. 
( With 4 Plates.) 

(Read he/ore the Bombay Natural History Society on 
25th January 1906.) 

The antlers of the Indian Samber (Cervus unkolor), like others of the 
<deer of the Rusine group, such as the Cheetul and Hog Deer, are of a 
simple character, having normally three tines only on each horn the brow 
•antler and two at the top. The object of this paper is to illustrate the 
different types of antlers carried by the Samber, all of them from mv 
own collection. The first thing to be observed is the different manner 
of growth of the upper tines. In the Cheetul and Hog Deer I think 
the outer tine is invariably the longer. I speak only of good adult 
heads. In the Samber, on the contrary, in the great majority of 
instances the inner tine is the longest one. The head pictured as 
.No. 1 is a very typical head, length 44 inches, span between outer 
upper points 33^ inches and round burr 10 inches. No. 2 is a 
specimen of the wide spreading head, and measures, length 42 inches, 
span 41 1 inches, round burr 10^ inches. This is a remarkable 
head for stoutness of horn, the thinnest part of the beam being 7 
inches in circumference, gradually thickening to a circumference of 10 | 
inches just below where the upper points divide. The weight of this 
head with the small piece of skull attached six months after it was shot 
was 19 lbs. I do not think the piece of skull can weigh 1 lb. An 
•ordinary 40-inch head with a similar small piece of skull attached, 
-only weighs about 12 or 13 lbs. A single horn picked up, 41 inches 
long, thinnest part of the beam 8 inches, weighs 7 lbs. 13 oz. 

Both the heads, Nos. 1 and 2, have the inner upper tine the longest. 
No. 3 has the outer tine the longest and measures, length 40 inches, span 
3G inches, round burr 9 inches. It is very seldom one meets with a 
head where ihe horns are not symmetrical, the longer tine being 
on the outside of one horn and on the inside of the other. I 
.have only two heads of this description, and. curiously enough, 
.got them both within a few days of each other. No. 4 is one of 
them and measures, length 43 inches, span 34 inches, round burr 
:9 inches, an inch or two is broken off the outer tine of the left 


horn. Jhere are some good Samber heads, about a dozen, in the* 
Natural History Museum at South Kensington, but they are placed so- 
high up that it is difficult to see them properly. With one or two 
exceptions, the inner upper tine is the longest. The stuffed Samber 
there is a moderate specimen : judging by the eye the horns appear to 
be about 3 feet long. Samber occasionally have an extra tine in one of 
the horns at the top. There is a remarkable head in the Natural 
History Museum at Kensington, where each horn shoots out at the* 
base of the upper points an extra very thick tine which again divides 
into two. A small extra point also sometimes appears at ihe base of the 
brow antler. I have 3 heads, one of which has an extra point in both 
brow antlers sticking up between the brow antler and beam, the other two- 
throw the extra point below the right brow antler proper, in each case- 
it is about 3 inches long. I have never seen a switch horn in Samber,. 
i.e., a horn without any tines at all. I have one head, the left horn, 35* 
inches long, bifurcates in the usual manner. The right horn, 34 inches 
long, does not bifurcate but consists of a single beam. The brow ant- 
lers are normal. Of course very young stag's horns are simple spikes 
"in the first year of growth. The next illustration. No. 5, is 
of an unusually narrow spreading head. Length 38 \ inches, span: 
between outer points 19 inches, between inner points llf inches,, 
round burr 9 inches. The horns curve so little that although the. 
measurement round the curve is 38^ inches in a straight line frorm 
tip to burr, it measures 34 inches. This stag had both brow antiTera 
broken off. He jumped up close to me. Seeing the points of his horns-- 
were close together, I did not fire as I thought he was a small one r . 
so he nearly escaped, as he had run a long way before I saw he was. 
worth shooting. No. 6 I consider to be an unique head as it has no- 
brow antlers at all, nor any trace of any, in other respects the horns; 
appear normal, although the left horn has a twist in it. The outer- 
tines of this head are the longest ; 2 or 3 inches are broken off the- 
inner tine of the left horn. It measures, length 38 inches, span- 
31 inches, round burr 8 inches. This stag had hardly any hair on its, 
neck ; it had all been rubbed off in fighting. The want of brow antlers, 
had allowed the brow antlers of his opponent to scrape his neck.. 
Although you could clearly see the scoring along the skin made by the- 
points of the horns, very few of these thrusts had drawn blood. No. 7 
is another instance of no brow antlers, but the horns are abnormal. 

journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XVII. 

Plate I. 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

Journ.. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XVII. 

Plate II. 

No. 3. 

No. 4. 

Journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XVII. Plate III. 

No. 5. 

No. 6. 

journ., Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. XVII. 

Plate IV. 

No. 7. 

No. 8. 


The pedicle on which the left horn grows instead of being perpendicular 
to the skull, grows outwards ; the horn also grows outwards for & 
inches, and then turns at a right angle to the usual position. The 
pedicle of the right horn is also abnormal ; except at the lower portion 
it cannot be seen, the horn appearing to grow straight out of the 
skull. The inner tine of the left horn has been broken off. The 
beam of the right horn splits into a fork in a curious manner. This 
head measures, length 08 inches, span 40-^ inches. Both Nos. G and 
7 were well grown stags in good condition, and there was nothing to 
indicate any reason for their peculiar heads. No. 6 was a solitary stag. 
No. 7 was in company of two hinds and two calves. No. 8 is an 
instance of a third horn growing on a separate root or pedicle of its- 
own — a rare kind of malformation. The third horn is a mere knob, 
nearly an inch from the left horn ; this space was covered by skin. The 
left horn seems to have little or no pedicle. The base of the left horn- 
is 1^- inch lower than the burr of the right horn. There is no burr to 
the left horn, except at the front. The right horn measures 32 inches, 
the left horn 26 inches, and the knob 1\ inches at the rear and 1 inch 
at the front. I have no heads of which the upper tines are of equal 
length. I do not think you will ever find this to be the case in good 
heads of over 3 feet in length. There is no means of knowing 
exactly at what age a Samber has his best head. Animals in captivity 
are not under natural conditions. It is well known that all deer grow 
worse horns after they are past their prime. Their heads go 
back. When in their prime, their antlers are thicker, longer 
and better beaded than in old age. An old stag's head may h& 
known by its smoothness and worn appearance. I have often had 
it remarked to me by those who know no better when looking at a very 
good head, " that must have been a very old stag. " On the contrary 
the best heads are those of stags in their prime. Some of the very old 
stags are hardly worth shooting. A Red Deer kept in a park begins to 
go back in his head, I believe, when he is about 8 or 9 years old, so it 
seems probable that a Samber is at his best when about that age too. 
Samber usually shed their horns in April, but on the 2nd January 1903, 
I saw a voung stag in velvet. His horns were about 8 inches long- 
cylindrical, with the thickening at the top characteristic of the growing 
horn. As he stood for several minutes within 40 yards of me, I 
had a good look at him with glasses. I do not think I could kave made 


a mistake. In the month of January 1905, I also saw a young stag with 
horns a few inches long which appeared to be in velvet; but as he 
was more than 1 00 yards off, I am not certain of it. 

Sambers are very fond of rubbing their horns against trees long 
after the horns are hard. The front of the beam above the brow antler 
is generally worn smooth by this practice. The interstices between 
the beads on the antlers are packed tight with bark from the trees. 
The horns are seldom of equal length, one being one or two inches 
longer than the other. 1 have one head the horns of which are exactly 
the same length viz. 40 inches. Toe custom is to measure the longest 
horn. The thickest horn round the burr I have seen is a single shed horn 
in our Museum which measures 12f inches in circumference at the burr. 
The longest upper tine I have measures 22 inches. The longest brow 
ftntler measured from the burr is 24 inches. In the jungles I know 1 
see no diminution in tli3 number of Samber since I first came out to 
India nearly 35 years ago. Fair shooting at good heads only will, in 
my opinion, never do any injury to the stock of deer. I often see old 
stags with poor heads that I do not fire at that ought to have been shot 
long ago. Hinds are numerous. On one occasion I saw a single stag- 
lying out on an open bank in the sun, which is quite unusual as they 
generally sit in shade. I fired at him and missed ; I tracked him some 
way and came to a place where he had galloped across a small stream ; 
the water being about 2 feet deep. A small fish, 4 inches long, was 
iloating on the surface, and I found it had been cut nearly in half by the 
Samber's hoof. It was not crushed, so had not been trodden on. The 
hoof must have struck it when swimming in the water. x\nother stag I 
hit plunged into a long deep pool of a river and swam up and down 
the pool saveral times. He swam with his body low in the water, 
horns thrown back and only the top of his face and points of his 
antlers showing. The pictures one sees of deer swimming usually 
show the whole head out of the water, which appears to be incorrect. 
This particular stag had a 40-inch head, and he eventually swam to the 
opposite side ofth.3 river and stood in deep water, which enabled me 
to shoot him through the neck, when he sank to the bottom. 




Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s,, c.m.z.s. 

Ulead before the Bombay Natural History Society on dtk October 1905.) 

An interesting addition to the Asian fauna lias recently been made 
Jjy the discovery of a new poisonous colubrine snake by Captain G. 
McPherson, I. M.S., at Dthali in the Aden Hinterland. It presents a 
•combination of external characters so distinctive that I consider it 
deserves generic rank, and I have accordingly called it Melanelaps 
in conjunction with the discoverer's name. Whether this opinion will 
b3 supported by osteological peculiarities must remain sub judtce until 
more specimens have been obtained. The mandibular and palatine 
teeth appear to be singularly few and small, but the fang unusually 
well developed for members of the Elapin?e. 

It must be placed in the Family Colubridpe; Series Proterogiypha; 
Sub-family Elapin?e. 

Judging from external characters (the scales, subcaudals, rostral, 
frontal, supralabial, and posterior chin shields), it has no very close 
affinities with any of the Indian poisonous colubrines, nor indeed with 
any other known members of this sub-family. 

Description. — Rostral unusually large. Breadth fully twice height ; 
projecting ; in contact with 6 shields, of which the internasal sutures are 
the largest (about one- third greater than the anterior nasals), and the 
1st labial sutures smallest, and inferior. Internasals a pair. Suture be- 
tween them rather less than that between the prefrontal pair ; about 
•one-third the internaso-priefrontal suture. Prefrontals a pair. The 
suture between them about half the prsefronto-frontal suture : in con- 
tact with, internasal, postnasal, prreocular, supraocular and frontal. 
Frontal very large. In contact with (3 shields, of which the supraocu- 
lars make the smallest sutures (about -J the rest which are subequal ) : 
length greater than parietals and much greater than distance to end 
of snout. Supraoculars. Length about | frontal; breadth about \ frontal. 
Xasals two, divided ; in contact with the 1st, 2nd and 3rd supralabials ; 
nostril slitlike, placed almost entirely in the anterior shield and occupy- 
ing the upper ? of the suture. Loreal absent. Prceocular one, smal'. 
Eye small. Its horizontal diameter rather more than half its distance 


to the nostril, vertical diameter about half its distance to the labial 
margin ; pupil round. Postocular one, large. Temporals three ; the- 
lowest largest, and in contact with the 4th and 5th supralabials. 
Supralabials 6. The first very small, second rather larger, third and 
fourth very deep, fifth and sixth moderate. The third and fourth 
touch the eye. Mental very broad. Anterior sublinguals large. Posterior- 
sublinguals small and widely separated by 5 scales. Infralabials 3 
touch the anterior sublinguals on the left side, 4 on the right; the 3rd' 
and 4th touch the posterior sublinguals on the left side; the 4th and 
5th on the right ; the 4th is the largest of the series on the left side, the 
5th on the right; the suture between the 1st is about half that between 
the anterior sublinguals. Scales 2 heads lengths behind head 26, miclbody 
25, 2 heads lengths in front of vent 21; smooth, no apical pits; the 
vertebral row is not enlarged, and the last row very slightly so. Supra- 
caudals in odd rows. Ventrals 229 rounded, broad. Anal entire. Sub-, 
caudals 30, all entire, except the first which is divided. Colour uniform 
glossy blue-black everywhere. The head is broad, blunt, and declivous 
from occipital region. Neck not constricted. Body subcylindricaL 
Tail short. 

Melanelaps mcphersoni. ( x 2 ) 



By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., o.m.z.s. 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on bth October 1905.) 

J have lately received from Mr. P. W. Mackinnon a few snakes col- 
lected by him in the neighbourhood of Mussoorie, among which is a 
small snake of the genus Lyccdon hitherto undescribed. The specimen 
was killed in his own garden at an altitude of 6,100 feet. 

Unfortunately, the specimen has been badly mutilated about the head. 
With some difficulty I have managed to clean and repose the parts suffi- 
ciently to make drawings which, though accurate, I believe, in the 
actual relationship of the shields, are probably not quite so with regard 
to the shape of the head. The following is a description of it : — 

Rostral, in contact with 6 shields, of which the nasal sutures are 
the largest, and about twice the length of the internasals. Inter- 
nasals, a pair. The suture between them subeqnal to that between 
the prefrontal fellows ; less than the internaso-pr?efrontal suture. 
Prefrontals, a pair. The suture between them subequal to the prse- 
fronto-frontal suture. In contact with the internasals, nasals, 1st, 2nd 
and 3rd supralabials, preeocular, supraocular and frontal. Frontal in 
contact with 6 shields, of which the sutures are subequal. Supraoculars 
are half the breadth and about two-thirds the length of the frontal. 
Nasal whether divided or not uncertain ; in contact with only one supra- 
labial (the first). Loreal absent. Prceocidar one- Eye with vertical 
pupil. Postoculars two, subequal. Temporal two ; the lower in 
contact by equal sutures with the 6th and 7th supralabials. Supra- 
labials 8, with the 3rd, 4th and 5th touching the eye on the left side ; 
7 with the 2nd, 3rd and 4th touching the eye on the right side (owing 
to a confluence of the 1st and 2nd ? ). Anterior sublinguals subequal 
to the posterior ; in contact with 5 infralabials. Posterior sublinguals 
in contact with the 5th and 6th infralabials. Infralabials. The first 
form a suture about § the length of the suture between the anterior 
sublinguals ; the 5th and 6th are subequal and largest and the 6th pen- 
tagonal, and in contact with 2 scales behind. Scales. Two heads lengths 
behind the head 17 ; mid body 17 ; two heads lengths before the vent 
15, At the step where the scales reduce from 17 to 15 behind the 
middle of the body, this is effected by the blending of the 3rd and 4th 


rows above the ventrals. Ventrals 192, slightly ungulate. Anal 
divided. Suhcauclah 54 divided. Colour chocolate, with short white 
linear streaks copiously distributed dorsally. Head blackish-brown 
with white streaks. Labials white. Belly yellowish-white, with a row 
of lateral spots one on each ventral. Length about 1 foot 1-| inches. 
It thus approaches nearest to the effrenis of the Malayan fauna, in 
that there is no loreal ; the scales are in 1 7 rows, and three labials 
touch the eye. The only other Indian species without a loreal is 

Lycodon macldnnom. ( X 3 ) 



By G. A. Gammie, p.l.s. 
Part III. (With Plate II.) 
{Continued from page 569 of Vol. XVI.) 

5. Dexdrobitjm barbatulum, Lindl. Fl. Br. Ind , V M 719 ; Dalz. 
and Gibs., p. 261. 

Stems usually more robust and shorter than the last, also bearing- 
flowers on the second year's leafless steins. Leaves lanceolate 
acuminate. 3 to 4 inches long, racemes lateral and terminal, many 
flowered, bracts very small. Flowers 1 inch in diameter, white more or 
less suffused with rose, dorsal sepal narrow, lateral lanceolate falcate, 
petals larger elliptic lanceolate, spur conical acute, Up flat, side lobes 
enclosing the ovary short, midlobe large ovate acute, disk hairy and 
with a short ridge between the side lobes. 

Distribution. — Throughout the Ghats and Konkan to Coorg. It flowers 
during the hot weather from March to May. 

Plate II. Fig. 1. An entire plant. Fig. 2. Li}) (enlarged). Fig. o. 
Column (enlarged). Fig. 4. Pollen masses and cap (enlarged). This is 
an unusually bright-coloured specimen drawn by Mr. Bhide. The 
colour has been exaggerated in reproduction. As a rule the flowers 
are only flushed with rose-pink. They are fragrant and have the habit 
of almost closing up in the evenings and during the night, a fact which 
I have never observed in any other orchid. 

[2. Dendrobium barbatulum, Lindl. — 

The native name of this plant is not known. "Bechu, " or " Nangli," is the 
native name of D. crepidatum, Lindl. Dalzell and Gibson say that it is 
common in the North and South Konkans. Mr. H. M. Birdwood has found it 
on the Matheran Hill. Hooker says, at p. 719, Fl. B. I., that the flowers are 
whitish. They are generally pale pink, and shining bright in appearance, 
when fresh. The brightness vanishes in drying. Unfortunately, our plate is 
printed by Mintern Bros, in a deeper pink colour. This pink colour, deeper 
than natural, is often met with when the flowers have remained in bloom 
for some time under a strong sun after the first opening of the flowers. 
They are to be met with in Thana on the branches of the Mango in a 
bed of Lichen, named generically the Parmelias. It is found in Dapoli 
(Ratnagiri District). A couple of plants of this species were brought to me 
from Dapoli in 1904 by Mr. T. S. Greenaway, then the District Superintendent 
of Police, Ratnagiri District. The plants flowered in my Outram House 
Gardeu, under a shed of cocoanut palm jhowlis in the open air at the beginning 
of the hot weather, March of 1904. I am therefore able to say that the 


•colour of the flowers is not deep but light pink, bright shining, The petals are 
almost translucent. 

Nairne says that the flowers, in racemes, are " cream-coloured with some 
:green." Not so ! The colour is distinctly rosy like that of Dendrobium 
Fytcliianum, Bateman, found in Moulmein (Burma). 

There is a natural hybrid named Dendrohium barbatulo-clilorops, Rolfe, 
between D. barbalulum, and D. shlorops mentioned by Williams (p. 326 op. cit.) 
which would account for the confusion made as stated already in my foregoing 
remarks on the colours of D. cMorops and D. barbalulum. There is yet 
room for a fresh examination of the D. barbatulum from specimens either 
fresh obtained, or examined in their natural condition. — K. R. K.] 

(c) Stems slender, excessively branched, flowers small, white. 

6. Dendrobium herbacbum, Lindl. Fl. Br. Inch, V., 719 ; D. 
ramosissimum, Wight. Dalz, and Gibs., p. 261. 

A much branched plant, branches slender, pendulous, their lower 
parts naked and shining, the upper with short sheaths, branchlets leafy, 
leaves linear, lanceolate, soon falling, up to 2 inches long, racemes 
terminal on the branchlets, very short, usually three-flowered, bracts 
very small, flowers white with a greenish tinge, \ inch broad, sepals 
and petals subequal, linear oblong obtuse, spur very short and rounded, 
lip oblong, side lobes almost obsolete, granular, midlobe smooth, ovate. 

Distribution. — The Western Ghats and Konkan to Coorg ; Godaveri District 

and Parasnath in Behar. 

A common orchid at Mahableshwar. Flowers in the hot weather. 

Section III. — Endendrohrium. 

Stems tufted, flowers yellow or pink in short racemes or in pairs 
from the joints of the leafless stems. 

7. Dendrobium macrostachyum, Lindl. Fl. Br. Ind., V., 785. 
Stems 1 to 2 feet long, pendulous, slender, leaves thin, 3 to 4 

inches long, ovate oblong acute, racemes short, from leafless stems of 
the previous year's growth, bracts small. Flowers 2 to 3 on moder- 
ately long stalks, fragrant, 1 inch long, not spreading, sepals and 
petals subequal, broadly lanceolate acute, yellow tinged with pink, 
nerves greenish, lip convolute, obovate, disk strap-shaped, slightly 
ribbed, limb with purple nerves and with thick soft hairs on its upper 
surface and margins, spur formed by the united bases of the lateral 
sepals, thiek, shortly funnel-shaped. 

Distribution. — Common on trees on the Belgaum and Kanara Ghats, also 
recorded from Travancore and Ceylon. 

Flowers during the hot weather. 


8. Dendrobium crepidatum, LindL Fl. Br. Ind., p. 740. ; D. 
Lawanum, Dalz. and Gibs., p. 261. 

Stems fleshy, forming erect tufts, about a foot high, surfaces loosely 
sheathed and elegantly striated with green and white. 

Leaves 2 to 3 inches long, linear lanceolate, acute, falling away at 
the end of the first season. Flowers in small clusters, from the joints 
of the leafless stems, up to 1^ inch in diameter, of a waxy texture and 
a shining rose colour, sepals oblong obtuse, petals almost obovate, spur 
short and obtuse, lip yellow, side lobes short broadly obovate, pubescent 
or ciliolate. 

Distribution. — Common on the Belgaum and Kanara Ghats especially on the 
branches of trees overhanging ravines. It is also recorded from the Easterri 
Himalayas, Assam and the Khasia Hills. 

Flowers during the hot weather. 

Dendrobium crepidatum, LindL, var. nov. avita. 

Differing from the type in the flower being composed of six abso- 
lutely equal perianth segments, the side lobes of the lip forming short 
ascending spurs on each side of the lower part of the column. The 
midlobe of the lip is of exactly the same colour and texture as the sepals 

and petals. 

This is not an accidental variation, as some plants I have in cultivation 
produce these flowers normally every year. 

Found throughout the Belgaum and Kanara Ghats in association with tho 


Pseudobulbs cvoid arranged on a creeping stem. Leaf solitary 
Raceme rising from the base of the pseudobulb. Flowers crowded 
towards the apex, dorsal sepal short and broad, lateral sepals much 
longer and narrower, petals very short, lip jointed on the foot of the 
column, mobile, recurved, column short, with two awn-like teeth at the 
top, anther 2-celled, pollima 4. 

1. BULBOPHYLLUM KILGHERRENSE, Wig7it. Fl. Br. Ind., V., 761. 

Pseudobulbs If inch long, ovoid, leaf 4 or 5 inches elliptic oblong, 
base of raceme sheathed, peduncle and rachis up to 5 inches long 
bracts lanceolate acute, sheathing the base of the ovary which they 
slightly exceed in length, sepals dull yellow suffused with red at their 
bases, dorsal short broadly ovate, lateral ovate oblong acute, petals half 
as long as the dorsal sepal, triangular ovate acuminate, pale yellow, 
lip yellow, side lobes short purple, midlobe triangular ovate yellew. 


Distribution. — On the Belgaum and Kanara Ghats ; also recorded from the 
Nilgiri Hills. Flowers in December. 


Pseudoibulbs clustered, ovoid, compressed, leaves absent at the 
flowering period. Inflorescence an umbel of 5 or more flowers radiating 
from the apex of a peduncle which rises from the base of a pseudobulb 
on which are a few scattered bractlike scales. Dorsal sepal small, 
lateral very long, petals small densely fimbriate, lip small, thickened, 
strap-shaped jointed on the foot of the column. Apex of column 
with two horizontally spreading acute teeth, anther 2-celled, polliiAa 4. 

1. ClRRHOPETALUM FIMBRIATUM, LdL Fl. Br. Ind., V., 774 ; Dalz. 
and Gibs., p. 261. 

Dorsal- sepal yellow suffused with red, triangular ovate caudate, 
margin long fringed, lateral petals np to 1^ inch long, green, linear 
acute, coherent throughout their length, petals almost white with long 
purple tails which also bear long fringes of the same colour. Lip ruddy 
brown with a lighter disk. Column yellow, suffused with red. 

The so-called umbrella orchid of Mahableshwar, flowering in the cold •weather. 

Distribution. — Throughout the Ghats, the Konkan and Kanara. 

7. TRIAS. 

Small epiphytes with the habit and foliage of Bulbophyllum. Scape 
lateral, one-flowered. Sepals subequal, spreading, 7-nerved, lateral 
adnate to the foot of the column. Petals small, oblong or linear. 
Lip small, coriaceous or fleshy, jointed on to the foot of the column, 
inflexed, incumbent, mobile. Column short, bread, tip angled, 
winged or toothed ; anther erect, caducous, 2-celled, produced into a 
long horn ; pollinia subcoherent in pairs in each cell. 

1. Trias Stocks! i, Benth. Fl. Br. Ind., V., 781. 

Pseudobidbs f inch. Leaves 1 inch, elliptic acute. Scape \ inch. 
Flowers \ to § inch in diameter, sepals obtuse, petals ovate lanceolate 
erect, lip oblong, convex, smooth, shoulders convex, tip rounded, horn 
of anthers slender, lip entire. 

Distribution. — Kanara, N. and S. Konkan. 

I have not met with this plant. The foregoing description is from the Flora 
of India, I.e. 

8.— ERIA. 

Epiphytes of various habits. Sepals usually free, adnate to the 
elongate foot of the column and with it forming a short or long and 
spur like saccate mentum. Lip sessile on the foot of the column. 


E. reticulata. 


E. lichenora. 


E. reticosa. 


E. Dalzellii. 


Eria microchilos. 


E. mysorensis. 


Anther imperfectly 4 or 8-celled ; pollinia normally 8, pear-shaped 
or broadly obovoid, attached in fours by narrow bases to a viscus. 
Section I, P or pax (character given in list of genera). 
Flowers dark, purple, bell-shaped ... 
Flowers yellowish, 2-lipped 
Section II. ConcMd'mm. 

Flowers solitary, large white 
Section III. — Bryobium. 

Flowers green, sepals and petals without 

glandular hairs ... 
Flowers green, sepals and petals with 
glandular hairs .,,. 
Section IV. — Hymeneria. 

Sepals and petals white, lip yellow, side 
lobes purple 
Section I. — Porpax. 

1. Eria reticulata, Benth. Fl. Br. Ind., V., 786. 
Pseudobulbs button-like, f inch in diameter, densely crowded on the 

bark of trees, grey with darker blotches. Leaves 2, broadly oblong, 
less than one inch long. Flower solitary, f inch long, dark purple 
brown rising from between the leaves, stalk very short, sheathed and 
with a large orbicular retuse bract. Sepals united into a bell-shaped 
3-lobed tube, spur almost obsolete, petals spoon-shaped, lip half the 
length of the petals, fiddle-shaped, margins crenulate, base with a 
short erect spur, pollinia 8, pear-shaped. 

Distribution. — Throughout the "Western Ghats. Flowers appear in June. 

As the pseudobulbs are small and disk-like and so closely resemble the bark 
on which they rest, this humble plant is very difficult to discover. 

2. Eria Lichenora, Lindl. FL Br. Ind., V., 787. 
Pseudobidbs depressed, disk-like, small, covered with a fibrous network. 

Leaves 2 on each pseudobulb, orbicular, ovate, ciliate, up to 1 inch long, 
brownish purple beautifully tessellated with green. Floicers % inch 
long, yellowish, two-lipped, dorsal sepal orbicular, ovate, lateral united, 
hairy, petals linear, spur small, rounded, Up very small, shortly clawed, 
ovate cordate, sides toothed, tip acute. 

Distribution. — Found by G. M. Woodrow in flower at Sampkund, N. Kanara, 
in July and by T. J. Spooner, during the same month, on the Belgaum and 
N. Kanara Ghats ;also recorded from the Bababuden Hills and Travancore. 


Section II. — Conchidium, 

3. Eria reticosa, Wight. Fl. Br. Ind., V., 787 : E. braceata, 
Dalz. and Gibs., p. 262. 

Pseudobulbs disk-like, f inch in diameter enclosed in a network 
of fibres. Leaves 2, about 3 inches long, linear, oblong. Flowers soli- 
tary, on a thread-like stalk, lj inch in diameter, bract below the flower 
large, boat-shaped. Sepals white lanceolate acute, the lateral falcate 
and joined at the base into a short, broad sac. Petals white lanceo- 
late acute, slightly shorter and narrower than the sepals, lip near- 
ly as long as the sepals, linear oblong acute, 3-lobed, side lobes white 
flushed with pink long rounded, midlobe ovate acute, yellow at base 
and white towards the end, margins slightly crenulate, disk between the 

side lobes with two crested ridges. 

Distribution. — Throughout the Western Ghats and Nilgiris. Flowers in July. 
This plant is difficult to find during the greater part of the year, but in the 
rainy season it is a conspicuous object, as its large white flowers often completely 
clothe large parts of the branches of trees. It is very common round Lonavla. 

Section III. — Bryobium. 

4. Eria Dalzellii, Lindl. FL Br. Ind., V., 789 ; Dalz. and 
Gibs., p. 262. 

A very small plant, scarcely ever more than 3 inches in height. 

Pseudobulbs flattened ovoid, up to | inch in diameter, reticulated, 
principal venation pinnate. Leaves two, 1 to 2 inches long, oblanceolate 
obtuse, raceme rising from between the leaves, few flowered, flowers 
oreen with a yellow tinge ^ inch in diameter, bracts longer than the 
ovary lanceolate abruptly long pointed, sepals subequal, lanceolate acute 
recurved towards apex, the two lateral cohering into a short, broad, 
blunt sac, petals shorter and narrower than sepals, lip about half the 
length of the petals ovate, lanceolate side lobes long, narrow, midlobe 
acute with a crenulated margin, two distinct callosities at base of lip, 
anther imperfectly 8 -celled, pollinia 8, pear-shaped. 

Distribution. — Throughout the Ghats and Konkan. Flowers in July. 

5. Eria microchilos, Lindl. Fl. Br. Ind., V., 789 ; Dalz. and 
Gibs., p. 262 ; E. Dalzellii, Lindl. var. fimbriata, Hoohf. Fl. Br. Ind., 
V., 789. 

Pseudobulbs flattened, irregularly shaped, up to \ inch in diameter, 
reticulated, principal venation flabeliate. Leaves two (with one or two 
reduced ones at base) oblong, lanceolate obtuse, up to 2 inches long, 
raceme rising from between the leaves and scarcely exceeding them, 


flowers few, ^ inch in diameter, bracts lanceolate, not abruptly pointed, 
longer than the ovary, flowers green, sepals and petals ciliate with 
gland-tipped hairs, sepals lanceolate acute, the two lateral conniving at 
base into a short, blunt but distinctly forward pointing spur, lip half the 
length of the petals, fiddle-shaped, lateral lobes almost obsolete, midlobe 
broadly ovate rounded, margin crenulated, disk with almost obsolete 
ridges which coalesce in a single line towards the apex, pollinia 8, pear- 
shaped, unequal. 
Distribution. — Throughout the Ghats and Konkan. Flowers in July. 
These two species have been treated as varieties of one in the Flora of British 
India. They are, however, quite distinct. The venation of the pseudobulbs 
differs in both. The lip of Eria DalzeUii is ovate lanceolate with two thickened 
ridges near the base, while that of E. microchilos is fiddle-shaped and the almost 
obsolete ridges extend to the middle of the lip where they join to form a single 
line towards the apex. The coloration of the lip of E. microchilos is yellow on 
the lower half and white on the upper ; that of E. DalzeUii is green suffused 
with yellow on the basal half and white on the upper ; the column in the 
former is nearly white, in the latter it is green. 
Section IV. — Hymeneria. 

6. Eria mysorensis, Lindl. Fl. Br. Ind., V., 793. 
Pseudobulbs cylindric when young, slender, with equitant scales, sud- 
denly passing into the 5 membranous leaves, older pseudobulbs thicker, 
fusiform, 3 inches long, with a strongly wrinkled skin. Leaves lanceo- 
late, from 4 to 8 inches long by f inch broad, main parallel nerves very 
distinct. Racemes generally two on each pseudobulb springing from 
the axils of the two lowest leaves. Floioers about 12, \ inch in dia- 
meter, bracts lanceolate acute, equalling the pedicels and ovary, sepals 
white, lanceolate acute, distinctly nerved, the two lateral just conniving 
at base, petals similar to but a little shorter than the sepals, Up shortly 
clawed, almost fiddle-shaped, lateral lobes narrow rounded purple, mid- 
lobe shortly apiculate, yellow, disk with two slightly raised ridges 
which meet at the apex. Anther imperfectly 8-celled, pollinia 8, pear- 
shaped, equal. 

Distribution. — Throughout the Western Ghats. Flowers in July. It is a 
common orchid at Mahableshwar. 

(To be continued.) 




Eugene W. Oates, F.Z.S. 
{With a Plate.)* 
(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 25th March, 1906.J 

Of all our Indian birds, the Bean-Geese are in the most unsatisfactory 
state, owing to their comparative rarity and, probably, to the fact that 
they are not recognised by sportsmen and consequently not preserved. 
There is not a single specimen in the Hume collection. 

When some years ago I was about to write the ' Game Birds of 
India ' it became necessary for me to investigate this group. I could 
not find anywhere an Indian-killed skin, but bearing in mind what 
Blyth, Jerdon, Hume and, more recently, Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker had 
written, I felt bound to recognise the Pink-footed Goose as the sole 
Indian Bean-Goose, improbable as its occurrence in India was. 

The acquisition of a specimen of a Bean-Goose from Burma, kindly 
sent by my friend Captain J. H. Whitehead, gave an additional impetus 
to my work. The British Museum also about this time received a con- 
siderable number of Bean-Geese, of two species, from Holland, and I was 
therefore in possession of plenty of material for study — not quite 
enough, but about as much as one could reasonably expect. 

When Mr. E. Comber was in England, he saw some beautiful co- 
loured drawings of the heads of these geese that were in my house and 
he suggested that I should contribute an illustrated article on the Bean- 
Geese to the pages of our journal. "Although the time has hardly arrived 
for it to be possible to write a full and satisfactory account of these birds, 
yet a beginning can now be made, and I think that my imperfect paper, 
for such it is, will answer one purpose, — that of enabling sportsmen to 
recognise a Bean-Goose and also to determine the species. 

The Bean-Geese are found only in Europe and Asia : in summer, far 
north ; in winter, as low down as the Mediterranean, Persia, India and 
China. They are not very dissimilar to the Grey Lag-Goose in colour, 
but they are darker ; have no black bars on the lower plumage • and 
their bills are coloured with a combination of black and yellow, or black 
and red, as shown on my plate. 

I have dealt with eight species of Bean-Geese, of which one, A. sege- 
tum, is not represented in the British Museum and I have not been 
• For explanation of Plate see page BO. 


able to examine a specimen anywhere. Mr. Frohawk, however, has 
found a skin from which to draw the bill (fig. 2). 

There is a ninth species of Bean-Goose, A. came ir ostitis, of Buturlin, 
of which I can learn little at present. I do not wish to ignore or sup- 
press it, but I simply have no details of it, and consequently I cannot 
include it in this paper. It is said to be like A. segetum, but with the 
pale parts of the bill flesh-coloured. Unless the bill also differs in 
size and shape, it is hardly likely to prove a species. 

Bean-Geese, under very various names, are of course repeatedly 
mentioned in books and papers relating to ornithology, but the authors 
fail to indicate by any precise description the species of Bean-Goose 
they are writing about ; consequently it is impossible to get any correct 
notion of the distribution of these birds. Careful writers like Nau- 
mann, Middendorff, Stejneger and a few others fix their species either 
by a careful description or by a figure of the bill, and these are the 
only authors that can be understood. 

Owing, therefore, to the general confusion prevailing about these 
geese, I determined from the first to deal only with well ascertained 
facts and to base my paper entirely on the British Museum specimens 
and those records in which the geese mentioned could be correctly and 
unhesitatingly identified. Consequently, my paper will be found to be 
very defective in the matter of the distribution of the species and in 
many other respects, but it is not intended to be anything more than a 
sketch, and no further apology is necessary for its shortcomings. 

The identification of the Bean-Geese presents no difficulties if the 
proper characters are looked for. These consist solely of the size 
or length of the bill and the relative proportions of its various parts. 
The length of the bill in each species varies with the age of the bird 
and may be taken as varying about half an inch in the larger- 
billed species and a quarter of an inch in the smaller-billed 
ones. The proportions of the parts are, as far as my experience goes, 
absolutely constant, and every specimen shot in India will be found to 
have a bill which corresponds with one or other of the bills figured. 
I have given measurements of the length of bill in each species. This 
is taken by a pair of compasses and is the direct straight distance from 
the edge of the feathered portion of the forehead on the culmen^ or 
central line of the head, to the tip of the nail of the upper mandible. 
The other dimensions of the bill, or the proportions of the several 


parts, are best taken from the figures : the eye should suffice for this. 
The height at the forehead ; the greatest depth of the lower mandible ; 
the curve or outline of the edge of the lower mandible ; and the depth 
of the bill just behind the nail are the chief points to observe. I 
believe that this side-view, or elevation of the bill as it may be termed, 
is the only character of any real value. 

Other characters in these Geese to which importance is sometimes 
* attached, are entirely fallacious, and obscure what is otherwise quite 
simple. The colour of the plumage is useless, for all the species are 
so similarly plumaged that the existing slight differences cannot be 
made out without actual comparison of specimens, and even then 
there is not much to be made of it. Size is also of doubtful value, unless 
the bird is sexed, for the males of the smaller species approach in size 
the females or younger males of the larger species. When the bird 
is sexed, size, as shewn by the length of the wing, is no doubt of some, 
but not of extreme, value. It merely serves to corroborate the identi- 
fication from the bill. 

Then there are other characters of the bill which many writers harp 
Upon and think of great importance. First, there is the colour of the 
bill. The black portion always remains black, but the pale portion, he 
it orange or some shade of red, soon after death, becomes of a dingy 
yellow colour. It is obvious, therefore, that the colour of the bill 
cannot be of any use. It may be recorded on a label and it is no 
doubt satisfactory to know how the bill of a specimen was coloured 
in life; yet the fact remains that birds must, as a rule, be studied 
and identified as dry skins, and consequently the colour of the bill, 
though interesting to be known, cannot be treated as a character of 

Secondly, there is the amount of and the distribution of the two 
colours on the bill of a Bean-Goose, the black and the pale colour. 
The proportion of each of these varies with age. Generally speaking, 
the younger birds have merely a ring or zone of pale colour behind the 
nail. With increasing age, some of the black disappears and is re- 
placed by the pale colour under the nostrils and along the edges of the 
upper mandible ; and in an extreme case, such as A. arvensis, the pale 
colour occupies nearly the whole bill in very old birds. It is plain that 
the distribution of the two colours on the bill cannot be made of any 
practical value. 


Then there remains another character, the number of teeth on the 
edges of the mandibles. The teeth, I believe, vary greatly in number 
and are, moreover, so difficult to count that no two persons will arrive 
at the same result. I attach no importance whatever to the number of 
the teeth. 

It may be gathered from the above remarks that the characters 
for the identification of a species of Bean-Goose are really very few. 
There is, first, the size and general outline of the bill as seen from the 
side. This ought to suffice. Corroborative characters are : length of 
wing in a sexed bird, and the colour of the pale part of the bill in life. 

When, therefore, a sportsman has shot a Bean-Goose and he has 
neither time nor inclination to skin the whole bird, he should preserve 
the head. He should, if possible, also note the sex and the colour of 
the bill, and, in the event of his preserving the head only, the length of 
the wing. 


I wrote this paper more than a year ago, and its publication has 
been delayed owing to difficulties connected with the reproduction of 
the plate. In the meantime an English translation of Mr. Alpheraky's 
work on " Russian Geess " has appeared. The translation, entitled 
"The Geese of Europe and Asia, " does not, as might be expected, 
enlarge the scope of the book. It is still a monograph of Russian Geese 
as found in the Russian Empire, and most of the information given by 
the author is from Russian sources. 

Twenty-two species of Geese, afterwards finally reduced to twenty, 
are treated of in 195 pages and the book is well illustrated by 24 plates 
executed by Mr. Frohawk. The book is of quarto size. Notwith- 
standing the large amount of space devoted to each species, the author 
does not give us the full synonymy, but refers us in his preface to Count 
Salvadori's British Museum Catalogue of the Ducks (Vol. XXVII), 
a very inconvenient course to adopt, and for which there is little or no 

The Bean-Geese naturally occupy a considerable amount of 
Mr. Alpheraky's attention and space in his book, but with, I am sorry 
to say, little success. He has rendered the study of these birds more 
difficult in future by suppressing one species and ignoring r.roth(r.r s 
I have shewn in my remarks further on. There is reason to suppose 



that Mr. Alpheraky has never seen a specimen of either species, and to 
act in the manner he has done is in direct opposition to the sensible 
remark he makes in his preface, that '• J cannot regard the present 
work otherwise than as preparatory to future investigation." 

Altogether I do not see my way to incorporate Mr. Alphe'raky's 
conclusions regarding the Bean- Geese with my own brief remarks on 
these birds, and I have thought it preferable to adhere to my resolution 
to treat these birds entirely from the point of view I have kept before 
rue, namely, to deal only with the British Museum specimens and to 
avoid speculation and conjecture. 

1. Anser arvensis, Brehm (fig. 1). 
The Common Bean-Goose. 
This Bean-Goose is a winter visitor to many parts of Great Britain. 
The British Museum contains numerous specimens shot in Holland and 
a single skin obtained by Seebohm on the Petchora river. It appears 
to be spread in winter over a considerable portion of Northern and 
Central Europe and probably Western Asia, breeding in the extreme 
North of Europe. 

The length of the bill in a large series of this goose varies from 2 to 
2*45 inches, but Mr. Frohawk has figured a larger bill, probably that 
of a very old gander. The pale parts of the bill are of an orange- 
yellow colour. At first, probably for two or three years, this colour 
is confined to a ring or zone behind the nail as shewn in the figure of 
the bill of A. segetum (fig. 2). It then increases in extent, spreading 
out under the nostrils, and then upwards, until nearly the whole bill is 
yellow, the only parts remaining black being a band on the basal half 
of the culmen and small lines and patches elsewhere, as in fig. 1. 

This is one of the larger Bean-Geese, the wing reaching a length of 
19 inches. The feet in life are orange-yellow. 

Two of the specimens in the British Museum, sexed as females, 
have the chin white as in my type of A. mentalis from Japan. 

Mr. Alpheraky would have us call this species the Yellow-billed 
Bean-Goose, but I do not think that many persons will care to follow 
him in this. 

2. Anser segetum, Gmelin (fig. 2). 
The European Bean-Goose. 
This species is so rare in collections that I have never seen a specimen, 
and I have had to trust to Mr. Frohawk for the drawing of the bill 


of this Goose, taken from a bird which he had the opportunity of exa- 

Naumann very carefully explained (Naumannia, 1853, p. 5, pi. i.) the 
differences between this species and A. arvensis and figured the bills of 
both. Mr. Frohawk has recently (Zoologist, 1903, p. 41, pi. ii.) also 
given us an account of the two species, and from these sources I am 
able to give some particulars of A. segetum. 

It will be seen that the bill of A. segetum (fig. 2) is of a different 
shape from that of ^4. arvensis, being much shorter, but at the same time 
of the same depth at the forehead. In A. segetum the combined length 
of the culmen and nail is considerably less than four times the length of 
the nail itself. In A. arvensis, it is considerably more. The pale parts 
of the bill of A, segetum are orange-yellow, but this colour appears to 
be confined at all ages to a ring or band behind the nail and does not 
spread over nearly the whole bill as it does in A. arvensis when old. 
Mr. Frohawk states that the number of teeth on the upper mandible of 
A. segetum is about twenty, whereas in A. arvensis the number is 
about twenty-eight. I do not know if this character will prove of any 
value. The two species are of much the same size and colour. 

It will be noticed that the bills of A. segetum (fig. 2) and A. oatesi 

(fig. 8) appear to be very similar, but it must be remembered that the 

former bird is a large Goose, the latter a small bird like A. brachy- 


3. Anser brachyrhynchus, Baillon (fig. 3). 

The Pink-footed Bean-Goose. 

This Goose has such a small bill that it is hardly possible to confound 
it with any other species. A considerable number of birds in the 
British Museum from Holland have the length of the bill varying from 
1*6 to 1*8 inches. The colour, in life, of the pale part of the bill is a 
beautiful rosy-pink, crimson-pink or carmine, and this spreads back with 
age under the nostrils, almost to the gape. The wing measures from 
16*3 to 17*5 inches. This species when in good plumage has the 
mantle of a rather bright fulvous colour and the greater part of the 
wing a fine grey. The feet appear to be coloured like the pale parts of 
the bill. 

This is the species which has for very many years figured as the sole 
Bean-Goose of India, and in recent years Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker has 
confirmed the occurrence of this species in the North-East of India. 


But in turning back to Mr. Stuart Baker's descriptions of the birds he 
has on two occasions recorded from India as A, brachyrhynchus we are 
met by a very grave difficulty. In the latest record (Journ., Bombay 
Nat. Hist. Soc, XV., p. 718, 1904) he states that the bill was of a 
" brilliant crimson-pink ; commissure of mandible yellowish ; nail black, 
but the edges paler." Now in this description no mention is made of 
any portion of the bill (except the nail) being black, and consequently 
I am under the impression that the specimen could not have been a 
Bean-Goose at all, but rather an example of Anser erythropus, the 
Small White-fronted Goose. Of course I go on the assumption that 
Mr. Stuart Baker's description of the bill is correct and that there was 
no black on the bill. 

Again in his previous description of another specimen shot in India 
(torn. cit. XI., p. 359, 1898) he states that the bill of the specimen in 
question, a dry skin, was " now of a uniform dirty grey-white," and he 
accounted for the bill of a Pink-footed Goose being of this peculiar 
colour by stating that the skin had passed through a series of accidents. 
I feel bound however to express my opinion that no accident of any 
kind could ever obliterate the black colour which is found rather ex- 
pensively on the bill of a Pink- footed Goose and of every other kind 
of Bean-Goose, or convert it to a dirty grey-white colour, uniform with 
the remainder of the bill. Under these circumstances I shall now expel 
the Pink-footed Goose from my list of Indian birds. 

This species visits Great Britain in winter and at that time of the 
year also occurs generally over North- Western Europe. It breeds in 
Spitzbergen, whence I have seen specimens with nest and eggs. It 
appears also to breed in Iceland. Of all the species of Bean-Geese, it 
is the one least likely to be shot in India. 

4. Anser neglectus, Sushkin (fig. 4). 
Sushkin's Bean- Goose. 

This is an excellent species, easily separated from the others by a mere 
inspection of the bill, which is much larger than that of A. brachyrhyn- 
chus, much smaller than that of A. arvensis and more slender than that 
of A. segetum. The bill is still more markedly different from that of the 
following four Asiatic species (figs. 5 — 8). 

The pale parts of the bill of this species in life are pink, and this 
Goose is probably the species which Blyth and Hume recorded as 
A. brachyrhynchus. The pink colour is chiefly confined to a ring 


behind the nail and spreads out under the nostrils with age. The legs 
are pinkish flesh-colour. 

In the British Museum there is a skin of this species from Russia 
(Sushkin); one from the valley of the Yenesei river in Siberia, latitude 
66$° (Seebohm) ; one from Novaya Zembla (Markham) and lastly a 
specimen which is said to have been procured in Great Britain (register 
number 222a). 

The bill of this species varies in length from 2*4 to 2*6 inches and the 
wing from 17'5 to 18'6 inches. 

This Goose breeds in Novaya Zembla, Markham *s specimen recorded 
above having been shot in July and being in full moult. In winter it 
has been found in Russia and Hungary. From the fact that this 
Goose occurs in the valley of the Yenesei river, it is highly probable 
that it may be found in India in winter. 

5. Anser middendarffi, Severtzoff (fig, 5). 
Middekndorff's Bean-Goose. 

In 1902 Captain J. H. Whitehead sent me a skin of a Bean- Goose 
which he shot on the 24th December of the previous year at Myitkyna 
on the Irrawaddy river. It was in the company of a Barred-headed 
Goose and two Brahminy Ducks. It was sexed as a male and turns 
out to be a Goose of the present species. It weighed seven and a halt 
pounds ; the pale parts of the bill and the legs were orange; the iris 
was brown. The bill measures 2"75 inches in length and the wing 18 

It is very satisfactory to have got a good skin of a Bean-Goose from 
Burma for we now know of at least one species which undoubtedly 
occurs in the Indian Empire. I have deposited the specimen in the 
British Museum. 

Middendorff obtained this species in the Taimyr Peninsula in Siberia 
and tigured the head very well in his book of travels in Siberia. 

A very fine specimen of this Goose procured by Radde on the 5th 
May is in the British Museum. From its size it is presumably an old 
male. It was shot on the Tunka river in Trans-Baicalia in approximate 
latitude 50° and longitude 115°. The length of the bill is 3-25 inches 
and the wing measures 18'5 inches. Middendorff describes the feet 
and the pale parts of the bill as being of an orange colour. 

This Goose has probably a wide range in Siberia and Central 
Asia. It is a very fine large species with a long and somewhat slender 


bilJ. In summer the head and neck, as exhibited in Badde's specimen, 
are of a beautiful golden fulvous colour, and a slight trace of this tint is 
present on the head of Captain Whitehead's example. 

I find that Mr. Alpheraky has bestowed a new name on this Goose 
on the ground that we do not know to which species of Bean-Goose 
Severtzoff's name of A. middendorffi applies. I have not the least 
doubt in my own mind that Severtzoff meant to apply the name to the 
Goose which Middendorff figured so well, and for my part I shall con- 
tinue to use Severtzoff's designation for this Bean-Goose. 
6. Anser mentalis, Oates (fig. 6). 
The Japanese Bean-Goose. 

It seems probable that there are two species of Bean-Goose in Japan. 
Messrs. Blakiston and Pryer (Ibis, 1878, p. 212) say: — "There are 
two forms, a large and small, possibly separable." Again, Blakiston, 
writing of the Bean-Goose in Japan (Trans. As. Soc. Jap., p. 94, 1882), 
says : — " This Goose seems pretty generally distributed throughout 
Japan. Specimens in all the museums. There seem to be two forms, 
a large and small, possibly separable." 

In the British Museum there are two specimens of this species, one 
procured by Pryer at Yokohama, another procured by Blakiston at 
Hakodadi in October, sexed as a male. Both these birds are obviously 
of the larger form. The smaller form has not come under my notice. 

The Japanese Bean-Goose may be known by its large size and thick, 
massive bill with a strong, curved lower mandible. 

The Yokohama bird, the type of A. mentalis, has the bill 2'85 inches 
in length and the wing 19"5 inches. Its plumage is of the ordinary 
bean -goose colour, but its chin is white. The orange of the bill extends 
in a broad band under the nostril. 

The Hakodadi bird is smaller. It is a male, but probably a young 
one, for the reason that the orange of the bill does not extend back but 
is confined to a ring behind the nail. The bill of this bird measures , 
2*7 inches in length and the wing 18"7 inches. 

The meaning of a white chin in some specimens of Bean-Geese is not 
apparent at present, but may be discovered when some one takes the 
trouble' to collect these birds in large numbers, I have already stated 
that two specimens of A. arvensis in the British Museum have their 
chins white. It is not a character of species, but is probably assumed 
at a certain age only, or at a certain season. 


A most interesting account of this Goose has been written by 
Stejneger (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 29, p. 141, pi. vii, fig. 1, 
1885) accompanied by a figure of the bill which fixes the species at once 
without any doubt. In fact his figure and the one drawn for this paper 
might have been taken from the same specimen, so similar are they. 

Stejneger obtained three of these Geese on Bering Island, off' the 
coast of Kamtchatka. The first, a male shot on the 10th May, had the 
wing 495 mm. (19'48 inches) in length. The iris was dark brown. 
The bill was brownish black with a clear yellow band across. The feet 
were orange with the webs more yellow and the nails were black. 
There was no trace of white on the feathers bordering the bill. 

The second bird was a female, shot on the same date as the above 
male. The wing measured 46o mm. (18*22 inches) in length. The 
iris was dark brown. The bill was of much the same colour as that of 
the above male, the yellow, however, being of a paler shade and not 
extending behind the nostrils. The feet were as in the above male. 
The feathering along the base of the bill exhibited faint traces of white 
semi-lune?, these being strongly tinged with rusty. 

The third example was shot on the 22nd May and appears to have 
been a female. The wing measured 435 mm. (17*12 inches). 

None of the above birds apparently had a white chin as in ray 
type specimen. 

So far as we know therefore this species winters in Japan and is 
found in summer in the islands off Kamtchatka. 

Mr. Alpheraky does not admit this species. It seems doubtful, how- 
ever, whether he has ever seen a specimen of the Large Japanese 
Bean-Goose, He speaks of a skin of a Bean-Goose from Manchuria as 
a specimen of .1. mentalis, but I entertain doubts of this. Then he has 
a copy of Stejneger's paper quoted above, and a drawing of the goose 
which is in the British Museum and served me as the type of J. mentalis. 
Equipped with these materials which Mr. Alphe'raky terms " three 
specimens," he proceeds to show that J. mentalis is only a large form 
of A. serrirostris. 

Mr. Alpheraky is entitled to hold this opinion, but he is not entitled 
to present his readers with my original description of this Goose in a 
mutilated form. He quotes my description, but suppresses the only 
portion of it to which I attach particular importance, viz., the measure- 
ment of the wing and the dimensions of the bill. These important 


characters, which show how distinct this large goose really is, are 
omitted and their place taken by asterisks. What is left of my original 
description, as presented by Mr. Alpheraky to his readers, is mere 
commonplace and of no interest whatever, and yet this omitted 
matter, a few words only, would not have occupied more than a line of 
type in Mr. Alpheraky's ample pages. 

7. Anser serrirostris, Swinhoe (fig. 7). 
The Large Chinese Bean-Goose. 

Nearly all that we know of this Goose is derived from Swinhoe's 
writings in the " Ibis" and in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society 
of London from 1860 to 1871. It is obvious from what Swinhoe states 
that he was acquainted with only one Bean-Goose, the present species. 
He met with it between Takao and Peking, at Foo-chow and at Amoy 
and Canton. 

He gives the following account of an old gander : — " Length 31*5 
in., wing 18*5 in., measured with the curve, 17*6 in. from carpus across 
to tip. When closed, the wing extends to over 5 in. beyond the tail which 
is of fourteen feathers and about 7 in. long. Bill black with a pinkish 
red ring behind thedertrum, "5 in. broad on the upper and *25 in. on the 
lower mandible. Legs very bright orange with black claws. Bill from 
vertex of frontal angle 2*8 in., from rictus 2*6 in., depth at base 1*5 in. 
Tarse 3*4 in., middle toe and claw 3"2 in." 

A specimen in the British Museum, obtained by Swinhoe at Ningpo, 
has the wing 18'2 inches in length, and the measurement of the bill is 
2*45 inches. 

Another specimen obtained by Mr. Styan at Chinkiang has the wing 
18*6 inches in length and the bill measures 2'5 inches. 

Both these specimens have the pale part of the bill confined to a band 
in front of the nostril ; and in both, this part is now of a dull yellow 

Mr. F. W. Styan (Ibis, 1891, p. 495) remarks of this species : — 
" The commonest goose at the mouth of the Yangtse and (except A. 
erythropus) on the upper reaches too. The size and shape of the bill 
vary much and I do not think species can be founded on it." It is 
probable, however, that Mr. Styan shot both the present species and 
the next, but did not discriminate them as Mr. Rickett has since done. 

The Large Chinese Goose may be recognised by the great depth of 
the lower mandible when compared with the length of the bill. 


Mr. Alpheraky has represented the bill of this goose as of a yellow 
colour (pi. 23) and he states that the bill of this goose is always describ- 
ed as being of a yellow-orange colour. I have failed to find anything 
to support this ass3rtion, nor does Mr. Alpheraky himself quote a single 
observer to confirm his statement. On the contrary, we find that 
excellent naturalist Swinhoe, whom Mr. Alpheraky never quotes, 
telling us that the pale part of the bill of A, serrirostris is of a pinkish- 
red colour. 

8. Auser oatesi, Rickett (fig. 8). 
The Small Chinese Bean-Goose. 

Mr. C. B. Rickett described this Goose in 1901 in the following 
terms : — "Similar in size and plumage to ..4. brachyrhynchus, but with a 
much larger bill and a white chin. The upper mandible, measured in a 
straight line from the feathered edges of the forehead to the tip of the 
nail is 2*3, and the depth of the bill at the forehead 1*3 inches, similar 
measurements in Anser brachyrhynchus being 1"8 and l'O in., respec- 
tively. Other measurements of A. oaiesi are : wing 16*4 inches, tarsus 
2i> and mid-toe and claw 3*1 inches. 

" This description is taken from a single specimen shot near Focchow, 
Fohkien Province, South China, in January. The bird was unfor- 
tunately not sexed, and only the head and neck, one wing and a leg 
have been preserved.'' 

Another specimen sent to the British Museum by Mr. Rickett is a 
complete skin, and is a larger bird than the one (-escribed above. The 
wing measures 17*2 inches in length and the bill 2'5 inches. 

1 do not think this Goose requires any further description. Mr. 
Rickett informs me that he has a recollection that the pale part of the 
bill was yellow in life. 

The bill of this species appears to be similar in many respects to that 
of A. segetum, but is longer and higher at the base. The length of the 
wing will, I am of opinion, suffice to separate the two species. Of 
course, geographically, they are very widely divided and will not bo 
found to encroach on each other's limits. 

No attempt is made by Mr. Alpheraky to deal with this species. 
He devotes neither a remark nor a word of comment to it, and disposes 
of it in his book as a synonym of A. neplectus, with two notes of inter- 
rogation preceding the name. 



Explanation of Plate. 
Figure 1. Bill of Anser arvensis. 



,, segetum. 



,, brachyrhynchus. 



,, neglectus. 



„ middendarjfi. 



,, mentalis. 



,, serrirostris. 



„ oat est. 





Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. 

Part I. 

[Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 
the 25th January 1906.) 

Introductory Remarks. 

During the last decade a vast advancement in our knowledge of 
snake venoms has been acquired, both in the province of toxicology 
and in the all-important one of therapeutics. 

Whilst many observers have been engaged in the intricate, laborious, 
and minute researches connected with the investigation of the toxic 
properties of various venoms, very little, if any, advance has been 
achieved in that equally important and sister branch of the subject 
which deals with the identification of snakes, and especially with the 
distinction of the poisonous from the non-poisonous varieties. 

In the treatment of snake-bite these two fields, though very distinct, 
are mutually interdependent. It is of little use to have the knowledge 
derived from one set of investigators at one's finger's ends, and its 
fruits— viz., antivonene — to hand in all our hospitals, if the medical 
attendant is incompetent to recognise a poisonous snake. It is only this 
knowledge in conjunction with the other that can make rational treat- 
ment possible, by teaching him wheu to withhold antivenene, and when 
to administer it. 

It is to meet the unsatisfactory state of our knowledge on the subject 
of the identification of snakes, that these papers have been contemplat- 
ed, in the hope that they may bring this part of the subject up to the 
standard approaching that to which we have arrived in the study of 
snake venoms. Fully appreciating the already over voluminous 
and ever-increasing subjects which the profession of medicine embraces 
I have endeavoured to make the subject as practical as possible to the 
oriental practitioner by avoiding technicalities, or, where this cannot be 
done, explaining them with the aid of outline drawings, by which 
means I hope to bring the matter of identification within the easy grasp 
of hospital assistants and assistant surgeons, a? well as medical officers. 


In Volume XIV of the Bombay Natural History Society's Journal 
I wrote a paper on the distinguishing characters between poisonous and 
non-poisonous snakes, and appended a key in which I attempted to 
frame easy rules for their separation. This key far from satisfied me 
at the time, its length and complexity detracting from its practical 
value ; however, in spile of its shortcomings it has been favorably 
received, and I have been repeatedly asked for spare copies till my stock 
is exhausted. Recently the Inspector-General of Civil Hospitals in the 
Central Provinces wrote asking if he might circulate this paper in his 
Province, and the compliment conveyed in this request has caused me to 
revise it. Since its publication, in 1901, I have examined many 
hundreds of snakes collected by myself and others as well as large 
collections in various institutions, including the British Museum, and 
I am, therefore, now better qualified to deal with this subject. As a 
result I find that I can simplify and curtail the original key so as to 
considerably enhance its practical utility. 

The good reception accorded to this first brief paper has prompted 
me to extend my remarks, so that in the present paper I propose to 
deal in detail with every known poisonous snake within our Indian 
possessions. The easy identification of these is my first object, and one 
which I hope to assist by means of outline drawings, but I hope to 
do more, and to incorporate with each species a few remarks so as to 
make the paper useful to the medical profession as well as to the 

The abbreviations marked on the shields in the outline figures attach- 
ed to these papers are the same throughout, and read as follows : — 






Anterior sublinguals. P.S. 

Posterior sublinguals. 







































Arabic numerals — Supralabials. 


numerals — Infralabials. 


With reference to midbody the point indicated is midway between 
the snout and the anus or vent (a transverse slit in the hinder part 
of the belly). Anterior with reference to scales indicates a point 2 head 
lengths bshind the head ; posterior similarly implies a point 2 head 
lengths in front of vent. 

The conception of a poisonous snake, as alluded to hereafter, demands 
some remarks on the classification of these reptiles. 

Boulenger considers the Ophidia (snakes) a suborder of the Order 
Squamata (which includes lizards and chameleons). He divides snakes 
into nine families based on osteological peculiarities which can only be 
made apparent by the minutest and most careful dissection or dis- 
integration of the soft tissues, and hence are of far too complicated a 
character for the general enquirer to readily investigate or comprehend. 
I venture to think the same end may be equally well attained by 
attention to external characters alone. The recommendation for such 
a method is obvious, since it enables the enquirer to ascertain at a 
glance the requisite points by an examination of the creature as it lies 
dead before him. I divide them, therefore, as follows: — 


(i.e., not flattened like an eel's— see fig. 1 B and C.) 

Fig. 1. 



A — Highly compressed tail typical of the seasnakes (Hydrophiidae). Poisonous. 
B and C— Slightly compressed and round tails of landsnakes (including fresh water 
forms) seen io both harmless and poisonous specieB. 

A — VENTRALS Family. Small blind snakes 

ABSENT. worm-like, and living 

Snakes in which the belly beneath the ground. 

and back are clothed with 1 Typhlopidae. HARMLESS. 

identical scales (see fig. 2). 2 Glauconiidae. 



Snalces with the belly 
covered with transverse 
plates (yentrals) which how- 
ever do not extend com- 
pletely across the belly, so 
that when the specimen is 
laid on its bach the whole 
of the last costal row, or 
even many costal rov;s are 
visible on each side {see 
figs. 3 and 4). 


Snakes with the belly 
shields stretching so far 
across as to permit only 
part of the last costal row 
to be seen when the specimen 
is laid on its bach {see 

fig- 5). 


3 Boidee. 

4 Ilysiidae. 

5 Uropeltidas. 

6 Xenopeltidse. 

7 Colubridse. 
{Subfamily Homalop- 



Sea snakes. 

7 Colubridse (except the 
Sub-families Homalop- 
sinse and Hydrophiidee.) 

8 Amblycephalidae. 

9 ViperidJfi. 

{i.e., flattened like an eel's — see fig. 1 A.) 
Family Oolubridse. Subfamily Hydrophiidse. POISONOUS 


Fig. 2. -Belly of Typhlops (X 5) 



FIG, 3. — Belly of Hipistes nydrinus (nat. size). 



last costafo 


Fig. 4.— -Xenopeltis unicolor. 

Z astrewofcostats 




Fig. 5. — Belly of Russell's viper. 

A glance at this simple key will enable the enquirer to isolate two 
large groups of harmless snakes, by an inspection of the belly shields 
abova, and a third group of poisonous snakes by the conformation of 
the tail (sea snakes). 

It is a somewhat difficult matter to decide where to draw the line 
between the so-called non-poisonous and the poisonous varieties. To 
begin with, all the viperine snakes are poisonous, and from investigations 
conducted by Alcock and Kogers* in Calcutta in 1902 it appears 
probable that all colubrine snakes contain in their saliva a toxic element 
identical with that to which the poisons of the cobras, kraits, and other 
deadly colubrines owe their lethal properties. If this is so, strictly 
speaking, all colubrines are poisonous, and their various salivas merely 
differ in degrees of toxicity. 

The Colubridai are divided into three groups : (1) Aglypha, 
characterised by the absence of a poison fang, (2) Opntlioglypha, snakes 
furnished with a specialised tooth in the form of a grooved fang situated 
at the back of the maxilla (upper jaw bone), and (3) Proteroglypha, 

* Proceedings of tbe Royal Society, 1902, p. 446. 


snakes endowed with a specialised grooved tooth (fang) in the front of 
the maxilla. It is to the third group that I reserve the term "poison- 
ous," purely as a term of convenience however, for although all the 
snakes whose bite is known to prove fatal to man fall into this category, 
many of the group are known to produce baneful effects usually falling 
short of death, whilst the effects of many others remain in obscurity. 

The difficulty in laying down hard and fast rules by which to distin- 
guish the poisonous varieties and separate them one and all from their 
non-poisonous allies may be appreciated from the fact that there are no 
less than 290 species already known within our limits, of which 62 are 
poisonous. All the poisonous species fall into one of the following 5 
groups with one solitary exception, viz., Azemiops feae the existence 
of which may be ignored for all practical purposes since only one 
specimen is known. It was found in the Kachin Hills, Burma. 

Key to distinguish the Poisonous Snakes. 

1. Tail compressed (i.e., flattened like an eel's) Sea snakes ^ 

(see fig. 1A). Snout and crown covered (29 species), 
with large plate-like shields (see fig. 6). 

'2. Tail round (see fig. 1C ) Median row o Kraits (7 

scales down the back distinctly enlarged species). 
(see fig. 7). Only 4 infralabial shields, 
the 4th largest (seel to IV, fig. 8). 

3. Tail round (see fig. 1C). 3rd supralabial Cobras and 

touching the nasal shield and the eye coral snakes 
(see fig. 12). (10 species). 

4. Tail round (see fig. 1C). A conspicuous Pit vipers 

opening in the side of the face between (12 species). 
the eye and the nostril (see fig. 24 B). 

5. Tail round (see fig. 1C). Snout and Pitless 

crown covered with small scales as on vipers 

back of body (see fig. 37). Only part of (4 species.) 
the last row of costals visible on either 
side of the ventrals when the specimen 
is laid on its back (see fig. 5 and 
contrast with figs. 3 and 4). J 

A specimen which cannot be brought into one of these five groups 
is harmless. 

y p 

' o 









Group 1 — Sea Snakes. 
Identification.— Tail compressed* {i.e., flattened like an eeVs — see fig. 
lA). Snout an. I crown covered with large plate-like shields (see fig. 6). 

Fig. 6.— PJaturus laticaudatns ( X 4 ). 
Thesea,snak3s (Hydrophiidae) areall reputed highly venomous. Recent 
investigations by Rogers t show that the venom of our commonest 
species (Enhydrina valahadyen) is eight times more potent than that of 
the binooellate cobra ! There are many published records of fatalities 
owing to bites from sea snakes, but the name of the offender is rarely, 
if ever given, so that our knowledge of the venoms of this family of 
snakes is extremely meagre, — in fact, we have no certain knowledge of 
any one of them with the exception quoted above. The recognition of 
many of the species is extremely perplexing, and in consequence the 
confusion in terminology is great. Even our best books are very 
disappointing, and fail to make the recognition of many of them 

I hope before long to be in a position to simplify the methods now 
in vogue, but a larger material than that to which I have had access is 
necessary so enable me to complete my work on these creatures. I hope 
by means of a supplementary paper to fill this gap in due course ; in the 
meantime I will pass on to the kraits. 
• Group 2 — The Kraits (Bungarus). 

Identification — (1) Tail round. (2) Median row of scales down the 
bach distinctly enlarged (see fig. 7). (3) Only 4 infralabial shields, 
the 4:th largest (see I to IV, fig. 8 $). 

• Oniy one harmless snake has a compressed tail, viz., Chersyd/rus grariulatw, an aquatic 
species found in rivers and seas. In this the Fnout and crown are covered with small sca'es 
t " The Lancet;" February Cth, 1904. 

JWith reference to this latter point, care must betaken not to count the first median shield 
which is called the mental (M). Again, the last shield along the border of the lower lip 
which touches the posterior sublinguals (P.S.) is invariably to be considered the last infra- 


Fig. 7.— Back of Common Krait (Bungarus candidus) (X 2). 
Val = Vertebrals. 
C = OoBtals. 

FxG, 8. — Chin shields of Bungarus candidus (X I5). 

A. S.— Anterior sublinguals. 

P. S. — Posterior do. 

M.— Mental. 

R. — Kostral. 

I. to IV. — Infralabiah. 
The first essential point in the identification of a krait is to find tbe 
enlarged vertebral row of scales The enlargement is very obvious, and 
without this tbe specimen cannot be a krait. Unfortunately, however, 
for our purpose this distinction is not absolutely confined to the kraits, 
since a few harmless snakes are similarly distinguished, viz., the genera 
Dips ado morphus, Dendrophis, and Dendrelaphis, some species of Am- 
blycephalus and Xenelaphis hexagonotus, and it is due to this fact that 
other supplementary characters are necessary to formulate a rigid 
rule. As the recognition of a krait is of the greatest importance I offer 
an ^alternative diagnosis which demands the co-existence of the three 
following points : — 

(1) Enlarged vertebrals {see Vol., fig, 7). 

(2) Entire anal {see An., fig, 9). 

(3) Round pupil* (see fig. 1 0). 

* Id most of the kraits the iris is so intensely black that the shape of the pupil cannot 
be discerned until the head has been soaked an hour or two in spirit, when the Jens becomes 
opalescent, and reveals the true pupillary form. 








V.— Ventrala.— An.-Anal. — Sc.-Subcaudals. 
Fig. 9. 

A. Bung-arm fasciatus. 

B. „ Candidas. 

C. „ flaviceps. — Subcaudals entire at base, divided at tip of tail. 

D. Niia tripudians, — Subcaudals all divided. 

E. Hemibungarus nigrescens. — Anal divided. 


Subcaudals all entire. 


Supplementary generic characters. — Other important characters to be 
observed in the scale arrangement of kraits, but not necessarily peculiar 
to them, are as follows : —The nasal shield touches the 1st and 2nd 
supralabials, but never the 3rd. Loreal a'bsent, so that only two 
scales intervene between the eye and the nostril. Temporal, a single 
shield touching the 5th and 6th supralabials. Supralabials 7, the 3rd 
and 4th touching the eye. Posterior sublinguals touch the 4th infra- 
labial shield (rarely 3rd also). The 4th infralabial is the largest of the 
series, and touches only 2 scales behind. The scales are the same 
number in the whole length of the body, Anal entire. Subcaudals 
entire throughout, or in some species only at the base, the remaining 
shields being divided. The iris is black in all species except B. fasciaius, 
in which the pupillary edge is thinly margined golden, and the pupil 
which is round inform is only discernible during life in this one species. 

The shields on the heads of all kraits are so closely similar in number 
and form that they are of little if any assistance in separating the seven 
species. The numbers of rows of scales over the back, however, vary 
from 13 to 19, and the vertebral row varies in breadth in some of the 
species. The colour, too, is very distinctive in certain species, and 
habitat is of great importance. 

Every known member of the genus occurs within our Indian limits. 
Two are common, viz., Bungarus Candidas and B. fasciatus, but the rest 
are local and uncommon, some being specially rare. 

They may be distinguished from one another as follows: — 

SCALES IN 13 ROWS (see fig. 7) Bungarus flaviceps. 

SCALES IN 15 ROWS {see fig. 7). 


THE TAIL DIVIDED (fee Jig. C. and D) „ bungaroides. 

ENTIRE (see fig. 9— A and B). 

(a) Alternate black and yellow bands right round body „ fasciatus. 

(b) Uniform black ,, lividus. 

(c) Black with white lines or bars. 

Habitat. — Ceylon ... „ ceylonensis. 

„ lohole of British India , exclusive of Ceylon... „ candidus. 

SCALES IN 17 OR 19 ROWS (see fig. 1) ... „ sindanus. 

Bungarus flaviceps — The Yellow -headed Krait. 
Identification. — It is the only one of the genus with the scales 
arranged in 13 rows. 


Supplementary characters. — The vertebral scales are as broad as 
long, or even broader in the middle of the body. The subcandals are 
entire at the base, and divided towards the tip of the tail {see fig. 9 C). 

Distribution. — This rare snake belongs to the Malayan fauna, but 
extends through the Malay Peninsula as far north as Tenasserim, 
where it encroaches upon our Burmese Province. 

Poison. — Nothing seems to be known about the effects of its poison. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 6 feet and over. 

Colour. — I quote from Boulenger*: — u Black above, with or with- 
out a yellow vertebral line, two outer rows of scales black and yellow ; 
head red or yellow ; tail and sometimes posterior part of body orange 

Bungarus bnngaroides — The Northern Hill Krait. 

Identification. — It is the only krait with scales in 15 rows, that has 
any shields beneath the tail divided. In all the others these shields 
are entire throughout {see fig. 9). 

Supplementary characters. — The vertebral scales are as broad as long, 
or rather broader in the posterior part of the body. 

Distribution. — This is a very rare species, and a very local one. 
Hitherto it has only been recorded from the Himalayas in the vicinity 
of Darjeeling, and the Khasi Hills in Assam. 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 3 feet. 

Colour.— Black with white linear chevrons or crossbars. 
Bungarus fasciatus — The Banded Krait. 

The " Raj samp " and " Sankni " of Bengal. Fayrerf says it is 
called " Koclea Krait" in the North- West. I presume he means 
N.-W. Bengal, for I do not think it exists in N.-W. India. According 
to Russell it is called " Bungarum pamah " on the Coromandel Coast. 
In Burmah it is known as " Gnandawja," " Ngan-wa," " Ngan-than- 
kwin-syut," " Nat-mywe," and " Mywe-min." 

Identification. — Its colour is very distinctive, but, as I have often 
pointed out, colouris a very fallacious guide to the identity of any snake. 
The only snake I know which on the score of colouration might 
reasonably be confused with it, is the Lycodonfasciotus, an uncommon 
harmless Burmese species. This also is completely banded yellow and 

* Cat. Snakes. Brit. Mus., Vol. Ill, p. 371. 
t Thanatophidia, p. 11. 


black. It grows to about 20 inches, and it lacks all the points gi 
above as peculiar to kraits. 



Fig. 10,~ Bungarus fasc atus (x 2). 

Supplementary characters. — The vertebral row is more enlarged than 
in any others of the genus, the scales being considerably brcader than 
long. The back is ridged along the spine, and the tail is blunt, and 
finger-like {see fig. 9 A). 

Distribution. — Extending from the Malayan region, this species is 
found distributed over an extensive area oh the eastern side of our 
Indian possessions. It is common in Upper and Lower Burmah and 
Assam, and extends westward to Bengal. Its extreme southern and 
western limits in Peninsular India are somewhat doubtful. I believ 


the Godavery and Son rivers approximately demarcate its bounds in 
these directions. South of .the Godavery its occurrence in Southern 
India appears to rest on the single specimen in the British Museum, 
procured, according to Colonel Beddome, from the Anamallay Hills. I 
have never seen nor heard of this snake in the Madras Presidency except 
north of the Godavery, where I found it common in Orissa (Ganjam 
District). I have lately written to several observers in the South who 
are familiar with the plains and hills, and all without exception have 
never heard of, nor seen this snake in that part. It is also very signifi- 
cant that no Southern Indian example exists in the Museums — in 
Calcutta, Bombay, or Madras, nor in the Medical College collection, 
Madras, nor those of Travancore and Bangalore. The Jesuit Fathers at 
Trichinopoly and at Shambaganur in the Palneys possess no specimen 
in their collections. 

It occurs plentifully in the plains throughout the area indicated 
above, and it would be a very striking circumstance if it were restricted 
to a single isolated upland region of another large tropical area as 
Colonel Beddome's specimen makes it appear, so that I cannot help 
thinking there has been some mistake in labelling the habitat of this 

Poison.— Rogers* estimates the virulence of the poison at about ^ 
that of the common krait B. candidus. Burmans, who as a race are 
good observers and not given to romancing like so many of tneir 
oriental brethren, declare that the bite is not fatal to man, and as the 
snake is a very common one in their province, and very distinctively 
coloured, I think this testimony worthy of credence. Fayrerf mentions 
one case of bite from this snake. A wcman at Tavoy was bitten en 
the dorsum of the right foot. She suffered tingling, and swelling 
locally, and some pain in the leg and thigh of that side, but 
recovered without any constitutional effects. She was treated with 
ammonia internally, and ipecacuanha, chloroform, and ammonia locally, 
none of which we know have the slightest beneficial effects in 
snake bite. 

Russell'sJ experiment on a fowl caused it to die 26 minutes after 
being bitten. Fayrer § tested its effect on fowls, death being caused 

* " f ancet," February 6th, 1904, p. 349 el seq. 

t " Thanatopbidia,'' p. 45. 

+ Indian Serpents, pp. 4 and 5. 

§ Ibid, pp. 84, Po, 101,120,134. 


in 17, 18 and 26 minutes, 1 hour 55 minutes, and 26 hours 18 

Again Fayrer's* experiments on dogs produced a fatal issue in in- 
tervals varying between 4 hours and 28 minutes to 10 days. All these 
creatures were bitten in the thigh. They appeared to suffer little pain, 
but exhibited restlessness, and then walked a bit lame. Dejection of 
spirits followed, and salivation, retching, or vomiting were very constant, 
and in one case persistent cough. The gait became uncertain, and 
staggering, till muscular weakness prompted a recumbent posture. The 
breathing became affected, and in two cases some muscular spasms were 
noted. In at least 3 cases the animals partially recovered or the symp- 
toms abated for a time, but death supervened after some days. In one 
case there was diarrhoea, and in another some mucosanguineous dejecta 
were occasioned. The blood in all cases coagulated firmly after death. 
These experiments all tend to confirm the veracity of Burmese state- 
ments. Compare for instance these with experiments with cobra and 
daboia poisons (q. v.). 

Dimenions. — It grows to 6 feet and over. 

Colour. — Alternately and completely banded black and yellow. 
Bungarus lividus. — The Black Krait. 

Identification. — Its uniform black colour combined with the habitat 
should make its identity easy. Two other uniform black snakes, which 
somewhat resemble it, are the poisonous Melanelaps mcphersoni \q. v.), 
and the harmless Xenopeltis unicolor. The former I have only very 
recently had the privilege of describing for the first time. Its verte- 
brals are not enlarged, nor is it like a krait in several other shield 
characters. The latter is a common snake in Burmah. The extreme 
northern range of its distribution is uncertain. It presents none of the 
characters given above as peculiar to the kraits. 

Supplementary characters. — The vertebrals are less enlarged than in 
any of the other kraits, so that in the middle of the body the breadth 
of these scales is rather less than their length, still the enlargement is 

Distribution. — A rare snake. Of 4 specimens in the British Museum 
3 are from Assam, and 1 from India; precise locality not stated.- 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to about 3 feet. 

* " Thanatophidia," pp. 68, 69, 84, 99, 101, 107 and 118. 


Colour. — Uniform glistening black. 

Bungarus ceylonicus — The Ceylon Krait. 

Identification. — The habitat alone will suffice to declare its identity. 
It is the only krait found in that island. 

Supplementary characters. — The vertebral row is unusually large, 
the breadth of the scales considerably exceeds the length, and in this 
respect it almost compares with B.fasciatus. 

Distribution. — Peculiar to Ceylon. 

Poison. — I can find no allusion to the effects of its poison. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 3 feet, and over. 

Colour. — Glistening black with white cross bars. 

Bungarus Candidas — The Common Krait. 

(Synonyms — B. cceruleus and B. arcuatus.) 

The "Karat" and " Dhomum chitti " or "chitti" of Bengal. 
" Valla pamboo " of Malabar. " Kattoo virian " and " Anali" of Madras. 
The " Godi nagera" of Mysore according to Rice, and the "Gedi 
paragoodoo" and "Pakta poola" of the Coromandel Coast (Russell). 

Identification. — The colour, habitat, and the fact that all the shields 
beneath the tail are entire suffice to declare its identity (see fig. 9 B). 
One important feature for those to note who in spite of all precautions 
persist in trying to identify their specimens by colour and markings 
instead of by conformation and relationship of shields, is the fact that in 
all the snakes which resemble this species in colour, viz., Lycodon aulicus 
(certain varieties), L. striatus, and L. jara, together with Dryocalamus 
nympha, D. gracilis, and D. davisonii, the white cross bars are most 
evident in the anterior part of the body, and gradually fade posteriorly 
till they are often lost. It is characteristic of the krait, however, at 
least the com :i, on Indian colour variety, that the white bars are most 
distinct posteriorly, and fade away anteriorly, — in fact, the anterior 
one-third or one-half of the body is frequently without marks in adults. 

Supplementary characters. — In the vertebral row the scales are about 
as broad as long in the middle of the body (see fig. 3). 

Distribution. — It ranges throughout the Indian Peninsula from Cape 
Comorin to the Himalayas. On the west it extends into Sind, and on 
the east through Burma into the Malayan region. It is not found in 
Ceylon. East of Calcutta it is uncommon, but in the Indian Peninsula 
it is almost everywhere an abundant species. It prefers the plains, but 
has been found in hilly regions up to 4,000 feet. 



Fig. 1], — Bungarus Candidas. 

Poison. — This is known to prove fatal to man, but the literature on 
this very common species makes remarkably few references to cases 
of its bite. The reason must be assigned, in great measure, to the 
inability of medical men to recognise it. Rogers'* estimates that the 
poison is nearly twice as virulent as that of the binocellate cobra. 

* Ibid,, p. 349 et seq. 


Fayrei* records a case where 4 men were bitten by the same krait. 
This occurred at night, all men being prevailed upon to submit them- 
selves to the bite of a specimen about 3 feet long in the possession of 
some snakemen, who vouched that no evil effect should befall them. 
The first man bitten, complained of thirst and foamed at the mouth, 
and died before dawn. The second and third men died at about noon 
the next day. and the fourth man recovered. He described his 
symptoms as giddiness, perspiration, pain in the stomach and un- 
consciousness, and he remained in hospital 5 or 6 days. Fayrert 
records another case where a cbowkidar was bitten in the forefinger. 
He suffered burning pain in the finger, later on in the head, and then 
over the whole body ; he became weak, could hardly articulate, and 
then got drowsy. He vomited after some native medicine, then lost 
the power of swallowing, and died in 6 hours. Again FayrerJ records 
the case of a man bitten in the finger who experienced great pain in 
the wound, and the hand swelled up to the wrist. His breathing became 
short and hurried, he complained of constriction round the chest, 
became drowsy, and then insensible He died in 3 hours, frothy 
mucus oozing from the mouth and nostrils, Elliot§ records a case 
where a sepoy was bitten on the inner side of his ankle, and death 
supervened in 31 hours. 

The results of Fayrer's experiments on fowls were that death super- 
vened in 4, 7, 17, 20, 32, 43^ and 44 minutes, 1 hour 48 minutes, and 
2 hours 22 minutes. On dogs, death occurred in 52 minutes, 2 hours 
15 minutes, 3 hours 42 minutes, and on the third day after the bite 
was inflicted. These dogs exhibited the following symptoms: — rest- 
lessness, salivation, vomiting, depression, paralysis, involuntary dis- 
charges, laboured breathing, convulsions passing on to death. In all 
cases where mention is made of the blood both in fowls and in dogs it 
clotted firmly after removal from the blood vessels. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 4^ feet. I have measured a skin 4 feet 
6-| inches. 

Colour. — Glistening black with linear, narrow, or broad white cross 
bars, usually most apparent in the posterior part of the body. 

* Ibid., p. 51. 
t Ibid., p. 54. 
% Ibid., p. 60. 
§ Trans. Brit. Med. Association, S. Ind. Bi\, 1895, p. 31. 


Bungarus sindanus — The Sind Krait. 

Called by the natives of Upper Sind " Pee-un". 

Identification. — This is the only one of the group that has the scales 
over the back in 17 (or 19) rows. 

Supplementary characters. — The vertebrals are about as broad as 
long in the middle of the body. The subcaudals are sometimes divided 
towards the tip of the tail (as in fig. 9 C). 

Distribution. — Peculiar to Sind, where it is reported to be common 
in the upper part of that region. 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 6 feet. 

Colour. — Black with white cross bars most evident posteriorly. It is 
exactly like the common krait, B. candidus, its chief distinction being 
in the number of the scales across the body. 

Group 3 — Cobras and Coral Snakes. || 

Identification. — (1) Tail round. (2) The 3rd supralabial shield 
touches the nasal, and the eye (see fig. 12).* 

Fig. 1?.— Naia tripudians (X 1£). 
This second feature alone separates the members of this group from 
all other snakes. The group comprises 5 genera, and includes 10 

|| The name cora! snake is applie.l to a South American poisonous species, Elaps corcdlinus. 
I use the title here for those snakes which are allied to the above and to which I think the 
term singularly appropriate, sines most of them have bellies adorned with a most beautiful 
colouring resembling pink coral. This, however, disappears after a day or twu's immersion in 

* I am only aware of one harmless snake in which the 3rd supralabial touches the nasal 
shield, viz., Xenopeltls unicolor, and in this case it fails to touch the eye. (See fig. 13.) 



FlO. 13.— Xenopeltis unicoTcr (x 3). 
Key to Identification of the Species. 
ANAL ENTJKE. (See An, fig. 9 A). 


SUPRALABIALS ONLY. (See T, fig. 14). Melanelaps mcphersoni. 
RALABIALS ONLY (See T, fig. 15 B). 
Intemasal not touching prseocular (See 
Int. andPra.,yfy. 15 B). 

Belly uniform red Doliophis bivirgatus. 

Belly barred with black .... Doliophis intestinalis. 

Internasal touching prseocular. (See Int. 

and Fra,. fig. 16 B). ,, Naia tripudians. 

SUPRALABIALS. (See T,fig. 18 A). 
Subcaudals at base of tail entire (See Sc., 

fig. 9 C) Naia bungarus. 

Subcaudals divided throughout (See Sc., fig. 

9 D) — Callophisbibronii. 

ANAL DIVIDED (See An, fig. 9 E). 


SUPRALABIALS ONLY. (See T,fig.20 B). Calhphis macclellandii. 
SUPRALABIALS. (See T, fig. 18A). 

Supralabials C only. (See fig. 21 B) Callophis trimaculatus. 

Supralabials 7. (See fig. 22 B). 

Tail icitk 2 black bands Callophis maculiceps. 

Tail loith no black band Hemibungarus nigrescens 


Melanelaps mcpliersoni — McPherson's Coral Snake. 

Identification, — The anal entire, and the temporal touching only the 
4th and 5th supralabials will isolate it from others of the group. 
(For Fig. 14, see page 28 of this number .) 

Supplementary characters. — Pfcefrontals touch the internasal, 
posterior nasal, prseocular, supraocular, and frontal. Temporals.—?). 
The lowest largest, and touching the 4th and 5th supralabials. 
Supralabials. — 6. Anterior sublinguals touch 3 or 4 infralabials. 
Posterior sublinguals widely separated by many scales. Scales ante- 
rior 26, midbody 25, posterior 21. Anal entire. Subcaudals entire. 

Distribution.- — The only specimen known was discovered by Captain 
McPherson, I.M.S., at Dthala in the Aden Hinterland. 

Poison.— Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — The specimen is about 18 inches. 

Colour. — Uniform glistening black. 

Doliophis bivirgatus — The White-striped Coral Snake. 






Fig. 15. — Doliophis bivirgatus (x 1). 
Identification.— This and the next species agree in having only 6 
supralabials, and the anal .shield entire, which characters serve to dis- 


tinguish them from all the rest of the group. The belly in this snake 
is, however, uniform red in colour. 

Supplementary characters. — Prcefrontals touch the internasal, pos- 
terior nasal, pneocular, supraocular and frontal. Temporal. — One, 
which touches the 5th and 6th supralabials. Supralabials 6. Anterior 
sublinguals touch the 1st, 3rd and the 4th only of the infralabials. 
Posterior sublinguals touch the 4th infralabial only. Infralabials. — The 
4th is the largest of the series, and touches 2 scales behind. Scales 
are 13 in whole body. Anal entire. Subcaudals divided throughout. 

Distribution.-^- -This Malayan form extends into our Burmese terri- 
tory, where, however, it is rare. 

Poison. — Nothing is known about it. The poison glands in this and 
the next are peculiar ; unlike all our other poisonous snakes, instead 
of being confined to the temple they extend back into the abdominal 
cavity as far as the heart. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 5 feet. 

Colour. — Blackish above with two or four white lines down the 
back. Head and tail red, Belly red. 

Doliophis intestinalis — The Belted Coral Snake. 

Identification. — Like the last it has only 6 supralabial shields, and 
the anal is entire, but the belly is barred with black. 

Supplementary characters. — Prcefrontals touch the internasal, 
posterior nasal, prseocular, supraocular and frontal. Temporal. — One, 
which touches the 5th and 6th supralabials. Supralabials 6. Anterior 
sublinguals touch the 1st, 3rd and 4th infralabials. Posterior sublinguals 
touch the 4th infralabial. Infralabials. — The 4th is the largest of the 
series, and touches 2 scales behind. Scales are 13 in whole length 
of body. Anal entire. Subcaudals divided throughout. 

Distribution. — This like the last belongs to the Malayan fauna, but 
extends into Burmah. 

Poison. — Nothing known as far as I am aware, though it appears to 
be fairly common in parts of the Malayan region. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 2 feet. 

Colour. — Boulenger* says: " Brown or blackish above, with darker 
or lighter longitudinal streaks; tail pink or red beneath; belly with 
black crossbars." 

{To le continued,} 

* Cat, Saake?, British Museum, VoJ. Ill, p. 402. 



By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.z.s. 

(With Plate 1.) 

Part I. 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 25th January 190(3.) 

To those who follow Indian Oology either as a hobby or as a science 
there cannot well be a more interesting branch of it than that pertaining 
to our parasitic Cuckoos. It is one in which lam specially interested, and 
I have long been very anxious to collect all the information obtainable 
and compile it into one article, such as would be easy for reference to. 
our collectors. It is only, however, during the last few years that 
information of a sufficiently sound character and of sufficient volume has 
been obtained to make it worth while putting into print. Even now 
the following article is intended more to induce people to take the 
subject up and try and fill some of the numerous existing gaps, than 
it is to shew how much is already known. 

The great difficulty to be overcome in collecting Cuckoos' eggs is not 
so much to get hold of eggs which are Cuckoos' beyond all doubt, but 
to obtain proof as to what particular Cuckoo they may belong to. 
For this reason it is absolutely necessary to get eggs direct from the 
oviduct of the female, and, because Cuckoos' eggs vary so much, it is 
no use getting one only, but series are required. We already know 
how enormously the eggs of the Common English Cuckoo (Cuculus 
canorus) vary, and our knowledge, as far as it goes, shows that some of 
our Indian Cuckoos vary to a greater extent still. 

Those who would get oviduct eggs must also avoid the mistake made 
by a friend of mine who shot every Cuckoo he heard calling during the 
breeding season and was grievously disappointed to find he got no 
eggs. Of course, with the majority of Cuckoos it is the male only 
who is so persistently noisy, but, though it is no good shooting the 
callino- bird itself, the call may often show that a female is somewhere near. 

I owe to Colonel R. Rattray, Major Buchanan, Messrs. B. B. 
Osmaston, Chas. Inglis, Bell, Colonel Wilson and others thanks for all 
they have done to help in this article, not only in supplying me with 
notes, but also, in many cases, for giving me specimens of eggs and birds. 
Colonel Rattray's success in the collection of authentic eggs must stand 
almost, if not quite, without parallel, "and to him I owe special thanks 

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

PI. I. 

■M «. .'j 









1-6. Cueulus eancrus. 4. C. eanopus ex oviduct. 
7-8. C. satupatus. 9-12. C. poliocephalus. 


for help and specimens and for the generosity with which he has given 
me the use of all his notes and the loan of his fine series of eggs. 

I feel that apologies are due in advance for the risk run of hurting 
the feelings of anyone who has helped me with notes and specimens by 
the appearance of doubt. I hops, however, that they will understand 
that my intentions are of the best, and when they see how I rate the 
value of the evidence which I myself can produce, they will realize that 
a verdict of " non proven " carries no insult with it, and is merely an 
incitement to the production of such proof as cannot be gainsaid, viz., 
an actual oviduct egg. 

I have shot Cuckoos off other birds' nests which contained Cuckoos' 
eggs, yet the bird I shot might possibly only have been exploring and 
the egg laid by some other Cuckoo ; I have trapped Cuckoos on other 
birds' nests which contained undoubted Cuckoos' eggs, yet the same 
trapped birds, again, might have been intent on pilfering, &c, and not 
have laid the eggs so found. Of course, when such captures take place 
twice, and the eggs and birds are identical in the two cases, there is a 
very strong presumption that the identification is correct. 

Our Indian Cuckoos of the family Cuculidce are divided by scientists 
into two sub-families — the Cucidinai and Phcenicophainai : the genera 
composing the former have the shanks or tarsi more or less feathered, 
whereas those of the latter have them quite naked. The only parasitic 
Cuckoo belonging to this second group is the Common Indian Koel 
(Eudynamis honorata), all our other parasitic Cockoos belonging 
to the former. 

As this article is one on eggs more than on the layers of them, no 
minute description of the birds will be given, but it is hoped that the keys 
will suffice to enable the genera and species to be identified without 

The general outward appearance of the family is passerine, but the feet 
are zygodactyle, i.e., the first and the fourth toes both point backwards, 
as in woodpeckers and others. The feet and legs are also, as a rule, 
exceptionally feeble, but the wings are strong, and generally long and 
pointed, so that Cuckoos have swift flight : the bill is slightly curved 
throughout, the gape rather wide and frequently conspicuously coloured. 
The species of the genus Cuculus, containing the Common English 
Cuckoo, and of the genus Hieromccyx, which contains the Brain-fever 
Bird, are very hawklike in their barred and banded plumage. 


Our Indian parasitic Cuckoos, numbering 17, are divided into eight 
genera which may be distinguished as follows : — 

Family Cuculidje. 
4.. Tarsus partly feathered. 

a. No crest. 

a'. Plumage neither metallic nor black. 
a". Wing over 5*6. 
a'". Secondaries in closed wing about up to 

half primaries Cuculus. 

b". Secondaries | length of primaries or more.. Hierococcyx. 
b". Wing under 5'2. 
c'". Bill compressed, tail feathers equal 

throughout... Cacomantis. 

d"'. Bill not compressed, tail feathers narrow- 
ing towards tip Pentlxoceryx. 

V. Plumage partly metallic green or violet Chrysococcyx. 

c'. Plumage all black and white Surniculus. 

b. Head crested . ..=, Coccystes. 

B. Tarsus quite naked Eudynamis. 

The genus Cuculus contains four species which differ mainly in size, 
all having dark ashy or brown backs and barred under plumage, with 
unicoloured breasts (in old birds) and barred inner webs to the primaries. 

They may be distinguished as follows : — 

A. No sub-terminal black band on the tail. 

a. Wing 8" or over C. canorus. 

b. Wing under 8" 

a'. Edge of wing white C. saturatus. 

V. Edge of wing ashy , t ., ... .. G.poliocephalus. 

B. A black sub-terminal band on the tail C. micropterus. 

The two large Cuckoos canorus and micropterus may always be 

distinguished from one another at all stages by the band sub-tipping 
the tail. 

The young of C. saturatus (the Himalayan Cuckoo) and canorus (the 
Common Cuckoo) may be difficult to discriminate, but the former very 
rarely has the white nape patch which is always present in the latter. 

The edge of the wing in the Common Cuckoo is mixed brown and 
white, and is not pure white as in the Himalayan Cuckoo. The two 
birds when compared together also vary in the barring of the lower 
parts, the former having these bands considerably narrower and more 
numerous. This, of course, is a matter of comparison only, so is not of 
much use unless one has specimens of both species. 


C. poliocephalus (the Small Cuckoo) can always be recognized by its 
comparatively small size, the wing seldom exceeding 6" and never 
reaching 6"'5, — a size always exceeded by all three of the other species 
of Cuculus. 

Cuculus OANORUS (Linn.). 
The Common Cuckoo. 

Cuculus cariorus. Jerdon, B. of I., I, p. 322; Cock and Marsh, 
S. F. 5 I, p. 351 ; Adam,, ibid, p. 373; Hume, ibid, IV, p. 288 ; XI, 
p. 69 ; id., Cat. No. 199 ; Butler, S. F., VII, p, 181; Ball, ibid, p. 206 ; 
Scully, ibid, VII, p. 253; id., Ibis, 1881, p. 430; Legge, B.of C.,p. 221 ; 
Oates, B. B., II, p. 103 ; Barnes, B. of Bom., p. 124 ; St. John, Ibis, 
1889, p. 159; Oates, ibid, p. 355; id., Hume's Nests and Eggs, 2nd Ed., 
II, p. 379 ; Shelly, Cat. B. M., XIX, p. 245 ; Blanfurd, F. B. I., Ill, 
p. 205 ; Stuart Baker, Jour., Bom. X. H. Soc, X, p. 365 ; Yerbury, ibid, 
XI, p. 75 ; Inglis, ibid, p. 476 ; Davidson, ibid, XII, p. 51 ; Butler, 
ibid, p. 565. 

Within Indian limits the Common Cuckoo breeds freely throughout 
the Himalayas and Sub-Himalayas, the Burmese Hills, the Hilly Forest 
Country of Chota Nagpur and the Neilgheries. It also breeds in the 
plains of Assam at the foot of the Hills and extend some way into the 
plain districts. Col. McMaster found it in Saugor, Kamptee and Chikal- 
dor during the breeding season, and at this season also Adam obtained it 
at Sambhur. 

Kashmir is par excellence the breeding ground in which its eggs are 
to be taken, and my notes thence are very numerous ; but Col. Battray, 
Col. Wilson and others have worked the neighbourhood of Mnrree with 
great success, and it is thence that most of the specimens have come 
which have passed through my hands. 

From Col. Wilson I have received 4, from Col. Rattray 4 and have 
seen others from his collection : 3 have been taken by myself, and some 
20 others have passed through my hands, so that altogether I have notes 
on about 40 eggs of Cuculus canorus taken in India. 

So tar I have totally failed to obtain a blue egg or to get any notice 
of an Indian-taken blue egg, about which there was m doubt. As, 
however, it is accepted by some naturalists now that this bird does some- 
times lay blue eggs, collectors will still have to take this possibility into 
consideration Avhenever they may come across a blue cuckoo's egg ; 
should they do so, the texture of the egg may help them moro than 


anything else to determine to what species it may belong, and this matter 
of texture is one which will be minutely dealt with for each species. 

Mr. J. Davidson is the only collector who has taken a bine cuckoo's 
effor in India, about which the collector himself feels confident. I have 
not seen the egg myself, so can pass no opinion on it. He wrote to me: 
"I also got there (Kashmir) a pale-blue egg from a nest of Hodgson's 
short-wing (Hodgsonius phoenicuroides), which lays dark-blue eggs. The 
nest contained one egg. also of phoenicuroides. I am sure that the egg 
was that of canorus, as I saw a cuckoo flying about in the underwood 
several times that day and two days previously. There were several 
more nests of Hodgsonius in the immediate neighbourhood, either building 
or with one or two eggs, and, if I could have stayed a day or two longer, 
I have no doubt I should have got more of the same type." We all 
know Mr. Davidson to be such a close, accurate observer that due weight 
must be given to his opinion ; but, I am afraid, "non-proven, though 
probable, " is the most that can be said for it, and, in the light of later 
discoveries, it looks as if this egg might have been that of mkropterus. 
Other descriptive notes of blue eggs have been sent me, but. the senders 
have, generally, on hearing the evidence obtainable, come to the conclu- 
sion that they were micropterus' eggs, so I leave their notes unquoted. 

The British Museum possesses a magnificent series of cuckoos' eggs, 
numbering no less than 277 specimens ; yet, out of this huge number 
there are only four reputed cuckoos' eggs which are blue. These are all 
continental eggs, except one in the Crowley Collection, and were all 
taken in the nests of Ruticilla phosnicura, the exception is an egg taken 
in Dorkino-, Surrey, which was purchased. This last cannot be accepted 
as authenticated beyond all doubt ; and the history of the three Crowley 
eo-gs, taken in Finland, I do not know. It is very noticeable, however, 
that all the eggs, 8 in number, found in nests of the Hedge-sparrow, 
are of the ordinary type and not blue. 

Another eo-c, calling for remark in the above collection, is one of the 
many contained in the Seebohm Collection, and is described by Reid 
(Cat. of Eggs of B.M.) as " blue, sparingly spotted at the broad end 
with pale-blue, and closely resembling the fosterer's eggs." It was 
taken in a nest of Saxicola melanolema in Greece. 

The normal cuckoo's egg, as taken in India and exemplified by the 
specimens passing through my hands, is a stout, blunt oval, seldom at 
all compressed towards the smaller end ; still they are all oval, and I 


have seen none of the semi -spherical or elliptical shape which is so 
often typical of cuckoos' eggs. The texture is somewhat coarser than it 
is in the egg of any other of the Cuculinse known to me, and though it 
is sometimes close and may exhibit a very faint gloss, it never has the 
b3;iutifnl satiny texture of some cuckoos' eggs or the fine gloss of some 
of the others. 

Tne ground colour varies between pale-stone, pink or yellowish, and all 
the lighter shades of grey, olive, olive-yellow, olive-brown and brown, 
and the markings seem, as a rule, to follow the general tone, though of 
course much darker, of the ground colour. Thus, an olive-green ground 
colour will probably be profusely spotted with various tints of olive- 
brown and brown, a grey will be blotched and spotted with grey-brown 
and purple-brown, a pink or yellowish ground colour with speckles of 
reddish and reddish-brown. As a rule, I have found that the more 
sparse the markings, the paler the ground colour. 

All eggs, nearly, in addition to the primary markings, have secondary 
ones of a pale-purple, grey or inky character. 

In the great majority of eggs the character of primary markings is 
rather indefinite and very seldom at all bold ; they consist for the most 
part of speckles, spots and tiny blotches, heavy blotches being un- 
common, and are distributed fairly evenly all over the egg, in a few 
cases being more numerous at the larger end and, on still more rare 
occasions, forming a ring or cap. 

The most common Indian type — vide Davidson, Rattray and Buch- 
anan, &c. — is one which is, on the contrary, most uncommon in English 
eggs. The ground colour is a pale clear cream, pink or yellow stone 
colour ; and the markings are very sparse and indistinct, consisting of tiny 
freckles, specks, and spots of reddish with underlying ones of grey. In 
most cases the markings are pale and scattered over the whole surface of 
the egg ; in a few they are bolder and darker, and are more numerous 
towards the larger end where they may form a ring. The boldest marked 
egg in my collection is one taken by Col. Rattray from the oviduct of a 
female and very kindly given to me. This is shown in Plate I, fig. 4. 

Figs. 5, 6, PI. I, show types of the most common-coloured form of 
Indian-taken cuckoos' egss. 

Dresser gives the average size of eggs as "88" by -65". The Museum 
collection specimens vary between *76" and *98" in length and '57" to 
•73" in breadth. 


An egg lent me by Major Wilson measures "1" by *69", and is the 
longest egg I have seen. One of Col. Rattray's eggs measures *75" in 
breadth, this measurement also exceeding that of any European egg. 
Those which have passed through my hands average '91" by '61", so that 
it would appaar that tropical-laid eggs exceed in average size those laid 
in temperate regions. 

Oates (Nest and Eggs) gives the size of the eggs as ranging between 
•93" and -1" in length and 'V to '73" in breadth, whilst Blanford 
(A. of B. I.) gives the average as being *97" by *72''. This seems far too 
bio-, as eggs of this siza are quite the exception amongst those which have 
passed through my hands. 

In India the cuckoo lays its eggs in the nests of Pipits, Larks 
and Stone-chats perhaps more than in those of others, but eggs have been 
found in nests of all the following birds : — 

Pratincola maura. The IndiaD Bush-Chat. Davidson, Rattray, 

Brooks, Ward, Scully. 
Pratincola caprata. The Common Pied Bush-Chat. Davidson, 

Hodgsonius phamicurokles. Hodgson's Short-wing. Davidson. 
Petrophila cinclorhyncha. The Blue-headed Rock-Thrush. Wilson, 

Oreicola ferrea. The Davk-grey Bush-Chat. Rattray, Ward, 

Marshall, Scully. 
Larvivora brunnea. The Indiau Blue-Chat. Rattray. 
Molpasles leucogenys. The White-cheeked Bulbul. Rattray. 
Merula unicolor. Tickell's Ouzel. Rattray. 

Henicurus maculatus. The Western Spotted Forktail. Rattray. 
Henicurus schistaceus. The Slaty-backed Forktail. Baker. 
Anthipes moniliger. Hodgson's White-gorgeted Flycatcher. Baker. 
Drymochares nnj)alensis. The Nepal Short-wing. Baker. 
Craterojpus canorus. The Jungle Babbler. Cock. 
Lanius e'-ythronolus. The Rufous-backed Shrike. Cock. 
Copsychus saularis. The Magpie-Robin. Brooks. 
Oreocorys sylvanus. The Upland Pipit. Hume, Rattray. 
Antlius similis. 1 he Brown Rock-Pipit, a arshall. 
A. rosaceus. Hodgson's Pipit. Whymper. 

Suya crinigera, The Brown Hill-Warbler. Baker. (Supposed to 
be saturatus at the time when taken.) 
From the above it will be seen that the common cuckoo usually selects 
a nest which contains eggs that are not very conspicuously coloured and 
which are much the same in size as its own eggs. Exceptions are the 
bright blue eggs of Larvivora and the much greater eggs of Petrophila 
and Merula. I have not, however, found that there is any proof of the 


cuckoo trying to match its eggs with those of the intended foster-mother 
or that it selects a foster-mother whose eggs shall match its own. Not 
one of my correspondents has advanced this suggestion, and there appears 
to be little doubt that convenience of site and propinquity to the cuckoo 
about to lay its egg is the main requisition. We may, probably, also 
assume that, under normal circumstances, the female cuckoo lays its egg- 
on the ground and carries it in her mouth until she finds a suitable nest 
in which to deposit it. Hume actualty shot a cuckoo carrying an egg- 
in its mouth, and the situation, or shape, of the nest selected in many 
other cases shows that the cuckoo could place her egg in it by no 
other means. This mode of procedure is greatly facilitated by the 
fact that most cuckoos lay eggs which are very small in proportion to 
themselves and are provided with wide mouths and curiously flexible 

An egg of the Cuckoo taken by Mr. S. L. Whymper in the nest of 
Anthus rosaceus in the Liddar Valley, Kashmir, so closely resembled the 
four eggs of the fosterer that it was some time before Mr. Whymper 
realized that he had a Cuckoo's egg and put down the clutch as an 
abnormally large one of Anthus rosaceus. 

In the Ibis for 1889, p. 219, is given a translation of an article from 
" Gartenlaube," Vol. XXVII, showing that the cuckoo sometimes 
hatches its own eggs and rears the young. It is too long to quote in 
extenso, so only extracts are taken. 

" On the morning of the 16th May, 1888, ... a cuckoo rose 

suddenly out of the bushes close tome ... ...I soon discovered 

in a slight depression of the ground ... ...three eggs, which 

attracted my attention from not being all of the same colouration, and 
from one of the three being of considerably smaller size than the other 
two ... ...I resolved to conceal myself under a neighbouring 

hedge in order to watch the bird more closely. After I had been there 
for a few moments, I saw the cuckoo alight on the ground and crawl 
towards the place where the eggs were ... ...I remained in my 

hiding place at least three-quarters of an hour without seeing the cuckoo 

take its departure I therefore cautiously approached the 

spot and soon saw the cuckoo again rise from the ground 

"' I quickly withdrew to a rather more elevated position in the under- 
wood of the beech forest Within six minutes the cuckoo came 

back, alighted near the resting-place, and proceeded with a characteristic 


waddle on to the nest. For more than an hour and-a-half I kept the 
spot in view. During all this time the cuckoo sat quiet on the nest, so 
that there could be no further doubt in my mind that it was sitting on 
its own eggs. 

" Until the 25th May I left the cuckoo to sit undisturbed. On the morn- 
ing of that day I visited the spot again, and, on the bird flying off, found 
to my great joy a young cuckoo in the nest." 

In Europe the foster-parents selected, cover a large assortment, rang- 
ing from the Fire-crested Wren to the larger shrikes. Dr. Key gives 
a list of 146 such. 

The Himalayan Cuckoo. 

Cuculus saturatus. Blyth, J. A. S., XII, p. 942 ; Blanford, Fauna 
of B. I., Ill, p. 207 ; Reid, Cat. of Eggs, B. M., Ill, p. 114 ; Sharpe, 
Hand. L., II, p. 158 ; Dresser, Pal. Birds, p. 470. 

C. himalayanus. Jerdon, B. of I., I, p. 323. 

C. striatus. Hume, S. F., II, p. 190 ; IV, p. 288 ; XI, p. 70; id. 
Gat. No. 200 ; Blyth, B. of Burm., p. 79 ; Hume and Davis, S. F., VI, 
p. 156 ; Scully, S. F., VIII, p. 254 ; Davison, S. F., X, p. 359 ; Oates, 
B. of Burm., II, p. 105 ; id., Ibis, 1889, p. 356. 

C. intermedins. Shelly, Cat. B. M., XIX, p. 252 ; Oates, Nests and 
Eggs, 2nd Ed., p. 381 ; Stuart Baker, Jour., Bom. N. H. Soc, X, 
p. 365. 

The first authentic egg taken of this species was one extracted from 
the oviduct of a female Himalayan Cuckoo by Brooks who shot the bird 
at Ruttun Pir in Kashmir on the 17th June. This egg is described by 
Oates (in he. cit.) as follows: — " Is a very perfect elongated oval, a shade 
narrower at one end. The ground colour is a pure white, with a slight 
gloss. The markings, which are every where very sparse, are somewhat 
more numerous towards the larger end, and consists of minute specks and 
tiny lines, not more than 0*05 in length, of dingy olive-brown and very 
pale inky-purple or purplish-grey. 

" The egg measures 0'8F; by 0*6 inch." 

An eo-o- in the British Museum is described as " pinkish- white colour, 
thickly freckled with purplish-grey. It measures "67 in breadth." This 
is probably wrongly ascribed to this cuckoo and is more likely a canorus's 


Col. Rattray lias given me most important notes on this bird, and I 
quote these in full : — 

•'•'On 10th June 1903 I saw a bird (Cuculus saturatus) harrying a 
pair of Acanthopneuste occipitalis (the Large Crowned Willow- Warbler) 
near where I knew they had a nest, so I shot it. It was a female and 
contained a broken egg ready for expulsion. 

" On 15th June 1903 I shot a second female in a similar condition. 

" On 17th June 1903 I again shot a third female containing an egg 
ready for laying. All these eggs were broken by the shots or fall, but 
they were exactly similar to those found on the 17th of May and 9th 
and 11th June, all in nests of Acanthopneuste occipitalis. 

•'*' They are pure white, rather long eggs with a fine shell with a lot of 
tiny black and brown specks." 

Col. C. L. Wilson wrote me : — " On the 9th June 1889 I found in an 
old tree stump above Sonamurg a grass nest containing four eggs, three 
of which proved to be of Phylloscopus humii (Hume's Willow- Warbler). 
The fourth egg was a long oval, somewhat blunt at both ends, pure 
white, a faint ring of brownish specks at the larger end and a few 
scattered elsewhere. There was barely room in the diminutive nest for 
this egg, which measures '85" by "6", the other three eggs being of the 
normal Warbler's size. 

'•' I was much puzzled to account for it until, after a long wait, I 
noticed a cuckoo which kept hovering round. 

•' It would have been impossible, from the nature of the nest, for the 
egg to have been laid in it : it must have been placed there after laying. 

" I took a similar egg, measuring *82' / by *58", in a nest of Acanthop- 
neuste occipitalis (on the 16th June 1898) in a hole atthe roots of a pine. 

" At Murree I took a third on the 17th July 1899 in a nestofthe 
same species of Warbler in a similar position. " 

This third egg, which I have seen, measures *83" by *53". 

Finally, Mr. B. B. Osmaston, writing from Darjeeling, notes : — " They 
were both laid in the nests of Niltava sundara (the Rufus-bellied Niltava 
in one case along with three eggs of the latter and in the other alone, 
the eggs of tin Niltava having evidently been ejected (the shells were 
lying in the ground below the nest). The eggs are similar in shape to 
the cuckoos' eggs described by you, i.e., almost elliptical in section. 
Tiny are pure white, with a few small reddish or brownish specks near 
th } big end. I found tham at 6,000 ft. elevation, and the only cuckoos 



which occur here at that elevation are Cuculus canorus, saturahis, 
poliocephalus and micropterus and Hierococcyx sparverioides." 

Colonel Rattray's and Brooks' discoveries settle once and for all what 
is the main type of the egg laid by the Cuculus saturatus, and so far there 
is no reason to suppose that this cuckoo lays any other type of egg. 

The eggs mentioned above are for the most part almost perfect 
ellipses in shape, one or two inclined to be somewhat pointed at both 
ends, and in one case the egg is perhaps more oval than elliptical, the 
smaller end differing distinctly in size from the other. 

The ground in each case is the same pure satiny-white, and the specks, 
which are the only form of marking, except for a few microscopical 
lines, are of dark amber or black, occasionally lighter and reddish. 
They are generally sparsely scattered over the whole surface, sometimes 
more numerous towards the larger end, where they rarely form a zone. 

The only egg I have seen differing from these was one brought to me 
in a nest of Henicurus schistaceus (the Slaty-backed Forktail), which con- 
tained four eggs of the owner of the nest in addition to the cuckoo's. It 
is a perfect ellipse in shape, but the ground colour has a faint tinge of 
green in it, and the markings are more numerous and larger than usual, 
and are of a dull light reddish with a few underlying ones of purple-grey. 
The texture is like that of the others, and it measures "84" by '58". This 
egg may not, of course, be saturatus, but it is a cuckoo's egg of some 
kind, and is more like the authentic ones of that species than any other. 

All the eggs have an exceedingly fine, closely grained shell, very 
smooth and very fragile for their size, the shell being very thin, 
although so compact. 

The eggs which have passed through my hands, or about which I 
have obtained measurements, vary between '80" and "89" in length and 
•52" and '&' in breadth, the average of a dozen being *85" by *55". 

Dresser, quoting Taczonowski, describes the eggs as " pale-greyish, 
marked with innumerable irregular pale violet shell-spots and brown 
surface spots or blotches which are more numerous round the larger end, 
and measure 0'92" by 069", that is to say, the eggs are said to be just 
like a common type of egg of Cuculus canorus. I leave my readers to 
judge for themselves whether these can be accepted or not. 

Almost as curious as the " Ibis " history of the common cuckoo 
hatching its own egg are Oapt. Hutton's remarks on the manner in which 
this cuckoo sometimes returns to feed young birds of the same species, 


either its own or some other birds'. He writes (Oates' Nests and Eggs, 
II, p. 381) :— " When the young bird is old enough to leave the nest, the 
foster-parents feed it no longer, and it is then supplied by the old cuckoo, 
or, at all events, by one of its own species. This I have myself repeat- 
edly witnessed . . At Jeeripanee, below Mussooree, I have seen 
the young cuckoo sitting for hours together on a branch waiting for 
the return of the adult which continued every now and tl^en to bring 
supplies of caterpillars wherewith to satisfy the apparently insatiable 
appetite of the nestling until at last both would fly off to another spot. 
To satisfy myself that it was really this cuckoo that fed the young, I 
shot one in the very act." 

Capt. Hutton seems to consider it probable that it is the usual thing 
for the parent cuckoos to return to feed their young, but the experience 
of a great number of observers has undoubtedly proved that such is not 
the case. The return of the cuckoo to its duties must be quite excep- 
tional, though Capt. Hutton appears to have been very fortunate in 
coming across these exceptions. 

The Himalayan cuckoo may be found during the breeding season 
throughout the Himalayas and, possibly, in the Hills of the Chota Nag- 
pur District. South of this, it is not found, as far as records go at pre- 
sent in India proper, but it extends right through Burmah, and prob- 
ably breeds wherever there are hills of any size. From Burmah it 
extends southwards and eastwards throughout the Malay Peninsula, 
Borneo and again to New Guinea and even Australia. In this portion 
of its habitat it seems to be more or less resident and remains to breed 
oven in the plains. I have had eggs sent me from Borneo and Java 
under the names of other cuckoos which I very strongly suspect to be 
of this cuckoo. 

Its cry is a four-syllable one of four deep whistles or hoots, very 
much like that of the hoopoe, but rather higher in tone. It is a pleasant 
musiGal call. Jerdon says that prior to these four notes it gives 
higher whistle which cannot be heard unless one is very close by. This 
note I have seldom heard until this year, when I found the bird very 
common on the North bank of the Brahmapootra in this district. I 
was repeatedly able to stand within a few yards of the calling bird, and 
then heard the preliminary high note quite distinctly. 

{To be continued.) 




E. Blatter, s.j. 

( With a Plate.) 

(Bead before the Bombay Natural History Society on 26tli January, 190G.) 

Cooke in his excellent " Flora of the Bombay Presidency," when de- 
scribing Trapa bispinosa speaks of " numerous opposite pairs of root- 
like spreading pectinate organs," and adds immediately "(?floating 
roots ")i. 

" I think it is well known that the uppermost leaves with their 
rhomboidal blades lie on the surface of the water and are grouped 
into rosettes. There are, besides, for each leaf a pair of scaly, deeply 
divided stipules 2 , and just from below these stipules arise those ' pecti- 
nate organs,' which have caused so great a variety of opinion." 

In the " Genera plantarum " the genus Trapa is described as follows : — 
" Herbce nat antes, Folia 2-formia, submersa opposita, pinnatisecta, 
radiciformia ; emersa rosidata, petiolata, rhombea, dentata, petiola infiaia 
spongiosa." 3 Baillon writes to the same effect: "The slender floating- 
stems bear two kinds of leaves. The lower, submerged, are opposite, 
pinnatisect, not unlike finely pectinate roots." 4 W. Roxburgh 
gives the following description : — " Stipules two pairs, the superior are 
simple, semi-lanceolate, and caducous, the inferior pair at first simple 
and filiform, but becoming ramous by age, permanent." 5 The same 
opinion as regards Trapa bispinosa is expressed by Trimen in the fol- 
lowing : — " The more submerged part of the stem," he says. " is thick- 
ly set with pair of green pectinate spreading organs ( ? roots ) coming 
off from immediately below the position of stipules of fallen leaves, and 
1 — i^ i n . long." 6 Later on he continues : "The pectinate submerged 
organs cannot be considered as leaves (as in Flora British India, following- 
Wight) ; their position suggests a stipular nature, and they are so called 

1 Cooke," Flora of the Bombay Presidency," Vol. I., p. 518. 

2 There haa crept in a .mistake in Cooke's Flora (p. 515) where the author describes 
the order Onagracem as extipulate, though, later on, he speaks t f the stipules o! Trapa bis- 
'pin os a. 

3 Benthim et Hooker, Genera plantarum, Vol. I., p. 793. 
* Baillon, Natural History of Plants, Vol. VI., p. 477, 

1 W. Roxburgh, Flora Indica, p. 144, 

6 Trimsn, Flora, of Ceylon, Vol. II., p. 235. 


by Roxburgh, who has well figured and described them (Roxb. PI. 
Cor., t. 234), but there are real stipules also present with the young 
leaves." 7 

In the Flora of British India, alluded to by Trimen, I find these 
lines : " Leaves (of the genus Trapa) dimorphic ; submerged opposite 
root-like, pinnatipartite, with filiform segments." 8 Duthie gives the 
following characteristic of the genus : " Stem long, flexuose, ascending 
in the water, the more submerged portions giving off at intervals pairs 
of green pectinate spreading organs from below the margins of the 
scars of fallen leaves. Leaves alternate, approximate in the form of 
rosettes" 9 . Loudon speaks of Trapa natans as of a" curious aquatic 
with long brown and green roots and floating leaves, with petioles 
inflated into a tumour as in the marine algoe." 10 According to 
Cooke those " pectinate organs " are termed " adventitious floating- 
roots " by Barneoud. 11 De Candolle gives this description of the 
genus Trapa : " Herbce aquis innatantes. Radices fibrosa?, folia 
infima opposita, cetera alterna, inferiora pinnatipartita, capillacea, 
fere tit in Myriophyllis, summa in rosulam conferta." 1 " Cooke, too, 
calls those submerged organs pinnatipartite, 13 and adds in a note, 
that " considerable diversity of opinion exists as to the exact function 
of the pectinate organs." 14 

From the foregoing we may collect that there exist different opinions 
not only with respect to the morphology but also the function of the 
pectinate organs. They are considered by some to be stipules, by 
others true leaves, and, again, by several even roots. As regards their 
outer morphology they are described as being pectinate, pinnatipartite, 
pinnatisected, radiciform, capillary, ramous, as resembling the leaves 
of the Myriophylla. 

In the following I shall give the external and internal morphology 
of the " pectinate organs" of Trapa bispinosa, and by drawing the con- 
clusions from the given data, I shall try to arrive at a satisfactory 
explanation of those interesting organs. 

7 Trimen, 1. c., p. 236. 

8 Hooker, Flora of British India, Vol. II., p. 590. 

T. F. Duthie, Flora of the Upper Gametic Plain, p. 357. 

10 Loudon, Eucycloptcdia of Plants, p. 104. 

11 Mem, l.i Trapa natans, Ann. Sci. Nat. sc'r. 3, v. P. [1S-18] p. 222. 
}£ De CandoPe, ProJromus Stfat. Nat, Regni Vcgclabilis, III., p. 63, 
13 Cooke, 1. c, p. 515. 

** Cooke, 1. c, p. 518. 


The so-called " pectinate organs " arise as cylindrical bodies from 
below the scaly stipules and on the sides of the floating leaves. (Fig. 1.) 
They grow to the length of | — 1 in. without showing any external 
differentiation ; but, then, there appear round the lower half of the 
cylindrical axis small globular protuberances, apparently without any 
regular distribution. Growing in acropetal succession these globular 
bodies assume an elongated shape, but still remain comparatively 
stout. When the main axis has reached its full length, i.e. 2 — %\ 
in., and the lateral structures have attained \ in., the most regular 
arrangement of the latter can be detected very easily, and even 
batter than after their full development. The lateral processes are 
arranged in four spiral rows, all turned to the right. Fig. 2 gives 
the successive stages of development, and Fig. 3 a diagrammatic 
view of the arrangement of the lateral cylindrical bodies on the main 
axis. As soon as the aerial leaves have fallen off, a rapid growth of the 
lateral structures begins till they attain capillary thinness. Their 
bases are now reduced in diameter compared with the same in their 
immature state. Their shape is not quite cylindrical, but slightly 
flattened, whereas the main axis is cylindrical. In this state of deve- 
lopment it is extremely difficult to make out the arrangement of the 
lateral members. I was not able to trace their angular divergence 
and it seems to me that they are scattered irregularly on the spiral lines. 
It cannot, therefore, be said, that those organs are pectinate, or 
pinnatisected, or pinnatipartite, as the lateral processes are distinctly 
arranged in four spiral rows; and even with the leaves of Myriophyllum 
they may be compared only so far as also in this water-plant simi- 
lar capillary processes occur, though in a less perfect form. If the 
lateral members were arranged in two parallel opposite rows only, no 
objection could be raised against calling them pectinate, and even if 
they were located in two spiral rows, the difficulty could perhaps be 
overcome by explaining the spiral arrangement as effected by the 
torsion of the main axis ; but as there are four distinct spirals, the best 
term applicable seems to be Roxburgh's " ramous ", if we do not want 
to introduce an entirely new name for this special arrangement, which, 
s far as I know, has not been observed in any other phanerogamic plant. 
The internal morphology exhibits, likewise, some peculiar features. 
Only one vascular bundle, situated in the centre, extends through the 
main axis, and smaller ones through the lateral processes. Eesides, there 

Jouroai Borr>bay Nat, Hist. Soc VOL. XVII. 

, - Stem 

Scaly stipule 
Young submerged leaf 

Point of attachment of 
the floating leaf 

FIG. 1. 

FIG. 4. 




is no differentiation into palisade tissue, or spongy tissue, the vascular 
kindle being simply imbedded in a parenchymatous tissue. The 
epidermis consists of elongated cells (Fig. 4) which are possessed of 
extremely thin outer walls. This is the reason why the submerged organs 
begin to wither already after some minutes when exposed to the open 
air. Stomata could not be detected and most of the chlorophyll bodies 
were found to be located not in the tissue below the epidermis, but 
chiefly in the epidermal cells themselves. 

Some of these characters seem to be incompatible with each other ; 
but a closer examination of the relations between those internal and 
external contrivances and the surrounding factors will show that those 
organs are nothing but the most excellent adaptations to the medium in 
which they live. A differentiation of the mesophyll into palisade tissue 
and spongy tissue would be quite superfluous, as leaves submerged in 
water do not transpire. That the chlorophyll corpuscles are chiefly 
contained in the epidermal cells, is due to the circumstance that the 
light to which the leaves are exposed is not very intense, because it has 
to pass through the water before it reaches the tissues. The gradual 
decrease of the intensity of the light with the depth of the water is 
shown to evidence in the colour of the submerged organs. The chroma - 
tophores of the uppermost organs are dark- green : they become paler 
and paler as we follow the stem in a downward direction, and assume 
finally a brownish colour, where every assimilatory function of the 
chromatophores is rendered impossible for want of light. On the one 
hand the absence of stomata seems to indicate that respiration does 
not take place ; but, on the other, the presence of chlorophyll corpus- 
cles is a sufficient proof that the processes of photo-synthetic assimi- 
lation of carbon dioxide and, consequently, of respiration are going on 
in the usual way. It is just in order to facilitate these processes and to 
give at the same time a compensation for the absence of special respira- 
tory organs, that the outer walls of the epidermal cells are so extremely 
thin as to allow not only the exchange of gases, but also the passage of 
salts dissolved in water. In order that the organs may present as large 
a surface as possible, they do not develop in the form of flat expansions, 
as the floating leaves do, but are much divided and extended into 
capillary processes. 

The question now arises, whether we shall call these organs roots, 
leaves, stipules, or branches. If we take into consideration all the 


anatomical characters of the submerged organs and compare them 
with the submerged leaves of other aquatics, we find that they agree 
in all the essential points. Nobody will doubt that the submerged, 
myriophyllum-like leaves of the Cabomba aquatica are true leaves, 
though they vastly differ from the disc-shaped floating leaves of the same 
plant. It is easy to adduce other examples of heterophyllous plantsof 
which it is equally sure that their submerged, finely divided leaves 
are true leaves, e.g., Potamogeton heterophyllus, rufescens, spathulatus, 
Ranunculus aquatica, bandotii, hololeucus, species of the genera 
Helosciadum, Ceratophyllum, (Enanthe, Slum, etc. Tbe submerged 
organs of Trapa bispinosa agree with all these leaves in their anatomical 
structure, and exhibit also some common characteristic features in their 
outer appearance, though, of course, they differ as much from them as 
their floating leaves do in their external morphological development. 
An objection might be raised from the unusual position of the submerged 
leaves of Trapa bispinosa. I think, however, if the anatomical structure 
is such as to induce us to call a certain organ a true leaf, a mere displace- 
ment of the organ cannot be decisive in this question. If this were 
the case, we might as well say that the extra-axillary branches are not 
branches because they do not arise from the axils. 





By P. Cameron. 

Part I. 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on25th January 1906.) 
Up till now our information regarding the Tenthredinidce and 
Parasitic Hymenoptera of Baluchistan has been a complete blank. The 
collection, small though it is, made by Major Nurse at Quetta and 
Peshin, forms a welcome addition to our knowledge of the Hymen- 
optera of that part of our Indian Empire. As we know practically 
nothing about the species inhabiting North- West India, of Afghanistan 
ou the north and of Persia on the west of Baluchistan, it is useless to 
discuss the geographical relationship of the species. It may, however, 
be remarked that the affinity of the species appears to be with the 
Palsearctic, rather than with the Oriental Zoological Region. The 
occurrence of a species of Nematus (a large and typical Palaearctic 
and Nearctic genus, and found, too, only commonly in the northern 
parts of these regions) is very interesting. The occurrence of the com- 
mon European Ichneumon, Bassus Icet'atorius, Fab., is not of much 
importance in deciding the geographical affinities of the Baluchistan 
species ; for the reason that it has now spread itself (probably in 
comparatively recent years) all over the globe, following its host, some 
wide ranging Dipteron, no doubt. 

The species in the collection are of small or medium size. The 
large species of Ichneumonidce (Ichneumon, Amblyteles, &c.) appear 
to be comparatively rare. Undernoted is a summary of the 
collection : — 

Tenthredinidce 1 species. 

Cynipidse 1 fJ 

Chalcididae 11 

Proctotrypidse 2 

Evaniidse 3 

Braconidse 13 

Ichneumonidae 25 

Bethylidee 1 

Total ... 57 



Nematus orientalis, sp. nov. 

Pale straw-green (probably bright green when alive), the centre of the front 
and vertex and the mesonotum fulvous. The antennae, a mark at the base of 
the scutellum on either side, a large elongate mark on its sides, a narrow line 
bordering the cenchri behind, a large mark behind them, a narrow line 
bordering the blotch and one or more transverse marks on the base of the abdo- 
men, black. Wings hyaline, the costa and stigma green, the nervures bkck- 
Legs coloured like the body, the tarsi blackish. £ . 

Length 5-6 mm. 

Quetta, August. 

The 3rd joint of the antennae is as long as the 4'th. Head smooth and 
shining ; frontal area flat, clearly defined laterally, the sides being raised, the 
raised part reaching to the inner side of the laterally ocelli ; at its end are 2 
large round tubercles, below which the front is depressed. Ocellar region 
raised ; there is a deep furrow between the ocelli. Apex of clypeus rounded. 
Mandibles fulvous at the apex ; the apical tooth long. Palpi green, infuscated. 
Middle lobe of mesonotum furrowed on the basal half in the middle. Cerci 
long, infuscated. Sheaths of saws broad, projecting, its apex infuscated, roundly 
narrowed from the top to the bottom. The 1st transverse cubital nervure 
faint in the middle ; the 3rd cubital cellule is fully one-third longer than its 
width at the base, not much wider at the apex than at the base; the 2nd 
recurrent nervnre is received not far from the 2nd transverse cubital — about 
one-fourth of the length of the latter. Tarsal joints not spinose at the apex ; 
patellae distinct, becoming gradually longer ; claws bifid, 

The $ is black above, including the middle of the vertex and front broadly 
and the occiput still more broadly ; the antennas are thicker, distinctly closely 
pilose ; brownish, black above, longer than the body, the mesopleuras are ful= 
vous, as are also the hind femora ; the hind tibiee are broadly infuscated. It is 
smaller (3*5 mm.) than the ?. 

The occurrence of a species of Nematus in Baluchistan is of much interest. 
The genus is one of the most abundant in arctic and Northern Europe and 
America, being rare in the temperate regions and very rare in the South of 
Europe. Its occurrence clearly indicates the presence of a Palasarctic element 
in the Fauna. The species belongs to the group of N. miliaris, Pz. 


Onychia rufithorax, sp. nov. 

Black ; the antennee, thorax except the mesosternum, and base of abdominal 
petiole rufous, the forelegs rufous, the 4 posterior black, their coxse rufous ; 
wings clear hyaline, the nervures pale fuscous, the areolet knob-shaped, 
darker coloured. $ . 

Length 3 mm. 

Quetta, August. 


Head and thorax densely covered with white pubescence. Face cloi-cly, fine- 
ly punctured ; from each antenna) a stout keel runs down to shortly below the 
face ; they converge below, the converging parts being much thinner than the 
upper. A stout keel runs down from the lower, innerside of the outer antenna) 
along the innerside of the eyes ; on the upper part of the front are some irre- 
gular oblique stria?. Ocelli large, placed in a curve on the edge of the vertex. 
Occiput transverse ; on its top are 2 stout and a thinner, lower curved keel. 
Basal slope of pronotum smooth, the sides bordered by a stout keel ; the 
propleurae irregularly, somewhat strongly striated. Mesonotum with 4 stout 
longitudinal keels, the central stouter than the others ; it is irregularly trans- 
versely striated. Sides and centre of scutellum stoutly keeled, the central 
keel stouter than the others. There are 2 keels down the centre of the 
metanotum. Meso- and metapleuras smooth and shining ; the latter thickly 
covered with white pubescence. Abdominal petiole with the dilated basal 
part as long as the hind coxae, smooth. The mesosternum is bordered 
laterally by a shallow furrow. Antennas longer than the body, the 3rd 
joint twisted, slightly longer than the 4th ; they are 14-jointed. 

I have described in Manchr. Memoirs, 1888, an Onychia siriolala from Bengal ; 
it may be known by the thorax being entirely black, besides the structural 

L'eucaspis quettaensis, sp. nov. 
Black, the sides of the head in front broadly, from the ocelli to shortly 
below the eyes, the pronotum except the basal slope and a broad tranverso line 
in the middle, a large markiin the centre of the mesonotum, transverse at the 
base and apex, and gradually, but not much, narrowed towards the apex, the 
scutellum, except at the base, the black on the base projecting as a triangular 
wedge into the yellow, a mark, longer than wide, on the sides of the metanotum 
its innerside straight, the outer gradually narrowed to the middle, a small 
conical spot — the narrowed end below— under the wings, a large pyriform 
mark, extending from the top to the bottom and with the wide end below 
on the base of the metapleura?, a broad band on the apex of the 1st 
abdominal segment, the mark commencing near the top of the apical slope • 
following this are 2 broad transverse bands, the narrower, extending to 
the sides and curved ; the 2nd broader, not reaching to the sides, not so 
curved and with the sides more rounded, followed by a large, longer than 
broad, mark, broadly rounded at the apex, and the apical three-fourths of the 
ventral surface, yellow. Legs yellow ; the greater part of the 4 front coxce, the 
hinder coxae except for a triangular mark on the innerside at the base above 
the sides from shortly below the middle and the underside from behind the 
middle and the teeth, all of which are black. Wings hyaline, suffused with 
fulvous at the base, the apex with fuscous ; the basal nervures fulvous. The 
3rd to 5th and the apical joints of the antennas are fulvous ; the scape is 
fulvous red. $ . 


Length 12 mm. 

Quetta. August. 

The markings on the head, antennal scape, thorax atcl legs are vermilion ; 

probably this is owing to discolouration by cyanide of potassium. There 

are 10 teeth on the hind femora ; the basal 5 are thick, blunt, closely pressed 

together ; the following 4 are longer, sharper, more curved and clearly separated ; 

the last is widely separated and is shorter than any of the others. The post- 

scutellum projects distinctly over the median segment ; its apex is unequally 

bidentate. The entire body is covered with a short white pubescence and is 

closely, somewhat strongly punctured except the metanotum which is closely 

reticulated. The joints of the flagellum are distinctly longer than thick, 

except the 4th to 6th, which are about as wide as thick. There is a smooth 

broad transverse keel near the apex of the pronotum. The eyes do not 

converge below ; the malar space is nearly as long as the antennal scape. In 

the centre of the face are 2 furrows which converge roundly towards each 

other in the centre. The centre of the clypeus is roundly incised, the sides 


Leucaspis nursei, sp. nov. 

Length 9-10 mm. $. 

Quetta. May to August. 

<J This species is almost identical in colouration and markings with the 
preceding, but it is smaller ; and may readily be known by there being only 
8 teeth on the hind femora, namely, 3 stout, longish basal closely pressed, 
a stouter one near to them, but clearly separated, 2 longer and sharper ones, 
widely separated from it and from each other, and still more widely separated 
is a short stump ; the post-scutellurn is not so distinctly bidentate ; the 
apex of the clypeus has the lateral lobes more distinct, and broader. As 
regards colouration the mark below the tegulse is 3 times larger and pyriform, 
the black line on the pronotum is half the length and thickness, the post- 
scutellnm is marked with yellow, and the 2 marks on the metanotum are much 
larger and more particularly broader, being not much longer than wide ; the 
lines on the sides of the face are broader and are united at the top by a mark 
which projects upwards between the antennae ; the striation on the vertex is 
stronger and closer. 

If there were only the colouration differences I should feel inclined to regard 
the 2 as forms of one species ; but the structural differences are too great 
to warrant one in looking upon them as varieties of one species. 

The $ is larger (14 mm.); the dark markings on the thorax are smaller and 

are brown rather than black ; only the clypeus is black ; the antennae have to 

black ; the black transverse marks or lines on the abdomen arc narrower ; the 

3rd is broader than the others, especially on the sides ; the ovipositor reaches to 

the middle of the basal segment ; the post-scutellum is more distinctly bilobate ; 

the lobes rounded. 

Dirrhinus crythroceras. 

Black ; the antennas, the 4 anterior femora, tibia? and all the tarsi rufcus, the 


body and legs sparsely covered with silvery white pubescence ; wings hyaline, 
the nervure fuscous, $ . 

Length 3-5 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Centre of head above strongly punctured, the punctures round and clearly 
separated, the centre of the vertex with a broad, strongly aciculated longitudinal 
band. Occiput broadly roundly incised, the centre depressed. Frontal lobes twice 
longer than the width of the base ; they are narrowed towards the apex, 
the inner edge has a distinct margin ; it is depressed, the inner and apical edges 
raised, the outer less distinctly margined; the frontal incision becomes grad- 
ually widened towards the apex, it being there fully twice the width of the 
ba^e. Pro- and mesonotum strongly punctured ; the former has the apex 
smooth in the middle, this being also the case with the centre of the scutellum 
which is largely impuuctate. Metanotum closely reticulated-striated ; there is 
a short keel in the centre of the apex ; on the sides are 2 keels which converge 
and unite near the apex, forming a longish triangular area. The sides, at the 
base, are broadly roundly dilated, in the middle is a stout triangular tooth ; the 
apex projects into a shorter tooth. Propleurse (especially above) strongly 
punctured ; the base of mesopleurse much less: strongly and less closely 
punctured, opaque ; the apex is somewhat strongly, but not very regularly 
striated, the two parts being separated by a curved keel. Metapleurse distinctly 
irregularly reticulated. Abdominal petiole broader than long, the top with 4 1 -- 
stout, longitudinal keels ; on the base of the 2nd Segment, extending from the 
base to near the middle, is a closely striated space ; the apical segment is broadly, 
deeply, roundly incised in the centre. The hind coxeb are flat above and finely 
closely striated in the middle ; the basal joint of the trochanters is raised, 
compressed, oblique, and appears almost to form part of the coxge ; the lower is 
shorter and projects below into a ball-like mass, longer than broad, and appear- 
ing as if it were attached to the under side of the base of the femora. 

This cannot well be confounded with any of the described species. Charac- 
teristic is the roundly, deeply incised apex of the abdomen. In the species 
known to me, e.g., D. excavatus, Dal. and D. rujicornis, Cam., the apex is 
trilobate, it having a large central, bordered by a small lateral lobe. 

Megacolus pruinosus, sp. nov. 

Black, densely covered with silvery pile, the hind coxpe and femora bright 
red ; the 4 anterior tarsi of a darker red ; the hinder tibife of a darker red 
colour ; the wings hyaline, the nervures black. $ . 

Length 7 mm.; terebra 2 mm. 

Quetta. August. 

Head rugosely punctured, the cheeks and temples densely, the vertex more 
sparsely covered with long silvery hair. Malar space almost as long as the 
eyes ; the inner side bordered by a distinct keel. Fro-mesothorax and scutellum 
strongly punctured, the punctures distinctly separated ; the pleurae closely 
rugosely punctured. Metanotum laterally bordered by a stout keel ; the lower 


spine obliquely turned upwards ; the upper shorter, bluntly rounded ; the 
central part is stoutly irregularly reticulated, the sides are more closely, irregu- 
larly, and less strongly reticulated. The apices of the abdominal segments are 
punctured, the basal weakly, the apical much more strongly and widely ; the basal 
part of the ovipositor closely, weakly punctured ; the sides of the segments, 
except the basal, are densely covered with silvery pubescence. Legs densely 
covered with silvery pubescence ; the tarsal spines are rufous. 

The hind femora are minutely closely serrate and densely pilose. The 
antennae are inserted opposite the lower part of the eyes ; the top of the 
antenna! scape reaches to the ocelli. Parapsidal furrows distinct. 
Chalcis responsator, Walk. 

Specimens from Quetta and from Deesa (Bombay) taken by Major Nurse 
agree fairly well with Walker's description (Trans. Ent. Soc, 1862, 355) of this 
species from " North Hindostan ". The apex of the scutellum is bilobate ; 
the lobes .are broader than long and are separated by a rounded incision. 
Walker calls the apex " bidentate ". 

Chalcis fulvitarsis, sp. nov. 

Black; the apices of all the femora — the apical third of the anterior, the 
others more narrowly, the base and apex of the 4 posterior tibiae broadly, 
all the tarsi and the anterior tibiae, rufo-fulvous ; the black on the tibiae 
bordered by fulvous; wings hyaline, the apical nervures black ; tegulae yellow. $. 
Length 5 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Apex of antennal scape broadly obscure yellow below, piceous above ; the 
flagellum is stouter than usual, densely covered with white pile. Front and 
vertex reticulated-punctured ; the outer orbits to near the bottom coarsely 
punctured ; the lower part is smooth, shining ; this smooth part, above, becomes 
gradually narrowed from the inner to the outer side ; on the inner side it is 
bordered by a keel. Pro- and mesonotum with the scutellum closely covered 
with round punctures, each with a raised point in the centre ; on the scutellum 
the punctures are more widely separated ; and there is a smooth line down 
the centre of the basal half ; its apex is broadly bilobate. Metanotum irregu- 
larly reticulated ; the areola deep, about 3 times longer than wide. Basal 

4 segments of abdomen smooth and shining ; the 5th and 6th strongly, 
deeply punctured. Upper part of propleurae smooth, the middle aciculated, 
the lower irregularly punctured. Base of mesopleurae smooth ; the middle with 
3 large foveae, below which are 3 pairs of irregular ones. Metapleurae strongly, 
irregularly reticulated ; below, the apex of metanotum roundly projects at the 

Oncoclialcis quettaensis, sp. nov. 
Black ; the apical two-thirds of the fore femora, the apical third of the 
middle and the fourth of the posterior, the tibiae, tarsi and tegulae bright 
lemonyellow, the wings clear hyaline, the nervures black. 9 an( 3 $• Length 

5 mm. 


Quetta. June to August. 

Densely covered with long, glistening white pubescence, except on the base 
of the abdomen. Apex of scutelluni with a broad, rounded, smooth and 
shining, undivided projection. Metanotum stoutly, widely reticulated. The 
central basal area fully twice longer than wide ; the sides rounded, not toothed. 
Femora with 12 teeth ; the basal close together, the apical (except the 
penultimate, which is smaller and less clearly defined) larger and more widely 
separated. Basal segment of abdomen smooth and shining ; the 2nd 
sparsely and not very strongly, the others strongly and closely punctured. 
Centre of face strongly, but not closely punctured above, the lower part 
smooth and shining ; the sides strongly and closely punctured, more or less 
reticulated, this being also the case with the sides of the front and vertex ; 
middle of front widely, deeply excavated, very smooth and shining, bare. 
Hinder ocelli separated from each other by more than double the distance 
they are from the eyes. The antennal scape and pedicle are shining, sparsely 
haired ; the other joints opaque, stout, the third is narrowed at the base, twice 
the length of the pedicle and not much longer than the 4th, the apical joints 
are brownish. Pro- mesonotum and scutelluni strongly, closely punctured. 
Upper part of propleurse smooth, obscurely striated ; the lower strongly, but 
not closely punctured. Meso- and metapleuraa coarsely, reticulated-punctured ; 
the greater part of the base smooth, shining ; of the former, the extreme base 
is bordered (except near the top) with a row of large foveas, the one below 
the other. The inner side of the hind tibia? is black. Parapsidal furrows 
shallow, broad. 

Comes near to C. marginata, Cam. ; the latter species has the abdomen much 
less strongly punctured ; the mesopleurae much more distinctly striated ; there 
is only a small smooth space in the centre of the face and all the femora have 
the apices narrowly yellow, the yellow marks being of the same size on all of 
them. It is a larger and stouter species ; the metanotal aieola is longer, acutely 
pointed above and with a stout keel near the middle, and the reticulations on 
the apex of the metapleuraa are wider. 0. cleeace, Cam., is also closely allied ; 
the smooth space on the face is very small ; the structure of the metanotal 
arese is very different ; there is no large central areola ; there is a row of large 
basal areas ; the abdominal segments in deesce are not punctured. 

This species is not unlike C. lilobatus, Cam. ; that species may be known by 
the weaker femoral teeth ; by the me^opleuraa being only weakly striated 
above ; by the face being more strongly punctured, the middle being also 
punctured, and by the much more strongly and regularly reticulated metanotum 
on which the areola is clearly defined, deep and triangular ; and the sides do 
not project into a blunt tooth behind : in the present species they project into 
a broad, rounded tooth. 

Oncoclialcis rafescens, sp. nov. 
Rufescent, densely covered with silvery pubescence; the vertex darker 
coloured, infuscated, the pleurae brighter in tint than the mesonotum ; the 


tegulas, apical half of fore femora, apical fourth of the 4 hinder, the 4 anterior 
tibiae and tarsi, and the posterior tibias, except for a rufous band near the 
middle, pale bright yellow ; the hind tarsi yellow, tinged with fulvous : wings 
clear hyaline ; the costal nervure fuscous, the others black. $ . 

Length 5 mm. 

Quetta. June. 

Head closely, rugosely punctured. Frontal ■ depression smooth, shining, 
not quite so wide as the sides, there is a thick, smooth, wide keel 
on the centre, bordered on either side by an oblique, somewhat pyriform, 
raised smooth and shining space. Pro-mesothorax and scutellum closely, 
strongly punctured ; the scutellum large, somewhat broader than long, 
the apex broadly rounded above, projecting and bluntly bilobate above ; 
the apex is more densely haired than the rest. Metanotum short, vertical, 
shining, widely reticulated, the central area long, extending from the top 
to the bottom, sharply, obliquely narrowed above ; the bottom slightly roundly 
narrowed. Propleuree closely, minutely punctured, a stout oblique keel 
below the middle. The upper part of the mesopleurae at the base is smooth : 
in the centre are 5 round, deep foveae ; its apex is raised, it being thus 
separated from the posterior part, which is depressed above, raised below and 
stoutly irregularly striated, or keeled at the base. Metapleurse reticulated 
clostdy ; their sides behind broadly rounded. Abdomen closely minutely punc- 
tured, the 2nd and following segments densely covered with a longish silvery 
pile. The ovipositor is broad ; it projects slightly beyond the top of the apical 
dorsal segment. Hinder femora closely serrate, pilose below. 

Neochalcis f forticaudis, sp. nov. 

Black, densely covered with silvery pubescence, the hind eoxas and femora 
bright red, the hind tibiffi of a darker red, darker behind, the 4 anterior tarsi 
red, tinged with yellowish fulvous ; wings hyaline, the nervures black. 9 . 

Length 7 mm. 

Quetta. August. 

Head rugosely punctured, the front laterally reticulated ; the frontal depres- 
sion finely closely transversely striated, except shortly below the middle and 
above the bottom. The temples are more closely reticulated, the malar space 
more strongly ; it is stoutly keeled on the outerside ; above, below the eyes, is 
a raised triangular space, sharply pointed below. Apex of scutellum not 
quite rounded, slightly roundly incised in the middle. Metanotum stoutly 
irregularly reticulated, with a small smooth triangular area near the top in the 
middle ; the sides are broadly rounded, dens«,ly covered with long white hair. 
The basal 5 abdominal segments are shining, closely, finely punctured ; 
except at the base the 6th segment is coarsely, rugosely reticulated-punctured ; 
the apical segments on the sides are thickly covered with long white pubes- 

Neochalcis is the only described genus into which this species will fit. The 
single large tooth on the centre of the hind femora is bluntly pointed ; the rest 


is minutely serrate. The ovipositor is short, stout, obliquely narrowed at the 

Etro:cys xanthopus, sp. nov. 

Green variegated with brassy and blue tints, the metanotum indigo blue ; 
the abdomen of a brighter colour than the thorax ; the antennal scape dark 
fulvous ; the flagellum fuscous ; legs pale straw yellow ; the anterior coxa?, 
except at the apex, dark golden ; wings clear hyaline, iridescent, the nervures 
pale testaceous. 9 . 

Length 3 mm. 

Quetta. June. 

Head closely, distinctly punctured, the front and vertex slightly more 
strongly than the face ; the clypeus indistinctly separated from the face, 
closely, longitudinally, slightly obliquely striated. Palpi yellow. Pro- and 
mesothorax with scutellum punctured like the head ; the metanotum is much 
more obscurely punctured ; there is a keel down the middle ; at the base 
laterally is a distinct fovea, the obscure punctuation is intermixed with fine 
stria?. On the centre of the metapleura? is a deep, wide longitudinal furrow, 
which is narrowed at the base. Abdomen as long as the head and thorax 
united, smooth and shining, gradually narrowed to a fine point at the apex. 

The antennas are more slender and the parapsidal furrows less distinct than 
they are in the British species of Etroxys. I have used the original spelling 
of this word as used by Ashmead in his " Classification of the Chalcid Flies." 
It has been spelled Aetroxys and Hetroxys. 

Etroxys ? marghiicollis, sp. nov. 

Dark coppery green, the abdomen of a brighter green colour, largely tinged 
with coppery patches ; the antennal scape and base of mandibles rufo- 
testaceous ; the flagellum fusco-testaceous, darker above ; the legs dark green,, 
with coppery tints ; the apex of femora, the tibia? and tarsi pale straw 
yellow ; wings clear hyaline, the nervures pale yellow. $ . 

Length 3 mm. 

Quetta. June. 

Head closely, finely, distinctly, but not deeply punctured ; the clypeus not 
separated from the face, closely, regularly, distinctly striated. Thorax punc- 
tured like the head, the punctures running into reticulations, especially on the 
mesonotum ; the sides of the metanotum are smooth, shining and bright green ; 
its centre is somewhat more strongly punctured than the scutellum. Pleura? 
darker coloured than the scutellum ; the apex of the pro- and meso- smooth 
and shining ; the rest closely punctured-reticulated. Abdomen not quite so 
long as the head and thorax united ,• the apical half is gradually narrowed 
towards the apex, and is covered with a white pubescence. 

Apart from the difference in the colouration of the legs this species may be 

known from E, xanthopus by the shorter and broader abdomen and by the 

much more strongly and regularly punctured-reticulated metanotum. The 

abdomen is shorter and broader than it is in typical Etroxys ; and it may not 



Teally belong to that genus. The mandibles are 3-dentate ; the apical tooth is 
larger and more clearly separated than the other two. The antennal scape is 
shorter, it not extending to the hinder ocelli as in xanthorms ; the hinder ocelli 
are separated from each other by a slighter greater distance than they are 
from the eyes. The head is wider than the thorax. The pronotum is 
transverse and margined at the base, not broadly rounded, and narrowed 
laterally as in xanthopus, which has a larger prothorax. In the forewings, the 
stigmal branch is nearly as long as the ulna. The apical 3 joints of the 
antennae are thickened. 


Sparasion albo-pilosellus, sp. nov. 

Black, densely covered with long white pubescence ; the antennal scape and 
the legs, except the coxa?, bright rufo-fulvous ; the antennal flagellum fuscous 
below ; wings hyaline, the nervures fuscous, the stigma black. $. 

Length 4-5 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Frontal ledge broad, smooth, shining, the edges broadly rounded ; the 
front is raised above it, broadly rounded and with a raised border ; 
immediately behind the border it is smooth ; between this border and the 
ocelli it is irregularly, mostly obliquely striated. Except on the sides 
in front, the vertex is irregularly transversely striated-reticulated. Pro- and 
rnesonotum shining ; the hairs issue from punctures ; there are no furrows, 
except on the apex, where they are deep. Scutellum smooth at the base, 
the rest strongly punctured ; it is semicircular, large ; the basal furrow is 
stoutly crenulated. The centre of the metanotum is depressed, bordered by a 
keel which, at the apex, curves outwardly, then runs backwards obliquely 
to the base of the segment, there being thus formed 2 arese ; shortly beyond 
the middle of the inner keels is a stout transverse keel, with a more irregular 
one on either side, besides a few broken keels ; the sides have a stout keel whioh 
broadly projects and is united to the apex of the central keel ; the apical slope is 
almost smooth. The upper part of the prothorax is margined on the outer side, 
broadly rounded ; the basal slope is smooth. The base of the mesopleurae 
is punctured, the rest smooth, except the apical half above which is raised 
and strongly striated. The upper part of the metapleurse is strongly closely 
striated ; the striae curved and interlacing ; the base above is punctured, the 
lower part stoutly striated, the upper apical smooth. The basal 3 abdominal 
segments are closely, strongly longitudinally striated ; the 4th is weakly and 
irregularly striated and the 5th still more so ; the segmental divisions are 
distinct and crenulated. 

The post-scutellum is flat and strongly striated ; the ventral segments are 
weakly striated at the base. Palpi rufo-testaceous. 

Helorus striolatus, sp. nov. 
Black ; the tegulae, tibiae and tarsi testaceous, the hinder pair darker coloured ; 


•mandibles and palpi dark piceons, the wings clear hyaline, the nervurcs 
black. $. 

Length 4 mm. 

Quetta. June. 

The ')rd joint of antenna? as long as the 4th. Head and thorax covered 
with a minute white pile. Face closely, distinctly, the clypeus more sparsely 
punctured ; it is separated from the face by a broad curved depression ending 
laterally in a round fovea. Front and vertex laterally closely punctured ; 
in the centre they are more sparsely and less strongly punctured ; above, and 
between the antenna?, is a large, broad fovea ; there is a curved furrow behind 
the hinder ocelli. Mesonotum and scutellum shining, only minutely punctur- 
ed ; the apex of the latter has on the sides a few short keels. On the sides of 
the post-scutellum, at the base, are 3 deep fovea? clearly separated by keels. 
Metanotum stoutly irregularly reticulated. Upper part of propleura? smooth ; 
the lower part at the base rugose, on the apex are 5 stout keels which become 
gradually shorter from the top to the bottom. On the base of the mesopleura? 
is a stout keel running from the top to the bottom, it is longitudinally irregular- 
ly striated on either side. Metapleurae irregularly closely reticulated, almost 
rugose. Abdominal petiole nearly half the length of the rest of the abdo- 
men ; it is irregularly punctured-striated on the sides ; on the basal half above 
are 2 keels, which unite at the apex and converge, but do not unite at the base; 
the dilated part is thickly covered with white pubescence. The basal abscissa 
•of tbe radius is dilated below. The abdominal petiole is longer than usual. 


Evania nurseana, sp. nov. 

Black, covered with a white down ; wings clear hyaline, the nervures black ; 
the metasternal process stout, long, widely diverging. 9 and $, 

Length 6-7 mm. 

Quetta. June to August. 

Face shining, strongly but not closely punctured ; the sides of clypeus widely 
depressed, the central part gradually narrowed towards the apex, which is 
transverse. Malar space smooth, fully half the length of the eyes. Front and 
vertex almost impuuctate ; smooth, shining ; from the ocelli a deep furrow 
runs down to the antenna? ; below the middle they curve obliquely inwardly, 
then run parallel, close to each other, downwards ; outside these a narrower 
furrow runs obliquely from the outerside of the ocelli to the outerside 
of the antenna?. Hinder ocelli separated from each other by a distinctly 
greater distance than they are from the eyes. Middle of mesonotum strongly, 
deeply, closely punctured ; the sides almost impunctate ; the furrows deep. 
Scutellum strongly, but not very closely, punctured all over. Metanotum 
strongly reticulated, more closely at the base ; the apical slope covered 
with white pile. Abdominal petiole smooth, shining. Antennal scape long, as 
• long as the pedicle and the followiug joint united ; these two united are as long 
as the 4th and 5th joints united. Tibia? and tarsi sparsely, minutely spinose. 
The base and lower part of the propleura? are strongly deeply punctured, the 


apex above smooth. The basal, upper half of the mesopleurse is smooth and 
shining ; the raised lower part bears round, clearly separated punctures, the- 
apex bears stout, longitudinal keels and is more or less reticulated. 

The tarsi are covered with a dense white pile ; the long spur of the hind 
tibiae does not reach to the middle of the metatarsus by a perceptible space ; it 
is as long as the 2nd joint. Sides of thorax at the base broadly rounded, as- 
are also the sides of median segment. Temples short, sharply oblique. 
The $ is similar ; it is, if anything, more densely pilose. 
This species, in Schletterer's tables, as regards the ft, would come in near 
E, verrucosa, Schl. ; the $ near E.princeps with which it cannot be confounded^ 
In size and appearance it is not unlike E. appendig aster, but that has not the 
tibiae and tarsi spinose and the scutellum is not strongly and closely punctured 
as it is in the present species. 

Gasteruption baluchistanense, sp. nov. 
Black, the 2nd to 5th abdominal segments red ; a line on the underside of 
tin: four anterior tibiae and tarsi and a short ring near the base of the hind 
tibiae, white ; the end of the sheaths of the ovipositor white ; wings clear 
hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. $ and ft . 
Length 13 ; terebra 15 mm. ; ft 11 mm. 
Quetta. May-July. 

Head and thorax densely covered with white pubescence. The 3rd joint of 
the antennae is distinctly shorter than the 4th ; it and the 2nd together are not 
much longer than the 4th. The apex of the clypeus is shortly, roundly incised; 
the centre is depressed. Malar space as long as the 2nd antennal joint. Eyes 
parallel, not converging. Hinder ocelli separated from each other by double 
the distance they are from the eyes ; the anterior half of the hinder are 
placed behind the eyes. Temples long, roundly narrowed. Occiput roundly 
incised, sharply margined. Collar short, as long as the width at the apex. 
Middle lobe of mesonotum somewhat strongly, but not very closely, punctured ; 
the lateral are much more sparsely and finely punctured. Scutellum sparsely 
punctured along the sides. Metanotum irregularly reticulated, more widely 
and distinctly on the apex than on the base ; on the apex are 2 longitudinal 
keels. Pro- and mesopleurse finely rugose, densely covered with white pubes- 
cence ; the apex of the latter is smooth above ; the lower part is striated ; the 
striae are clearly separated. 

In one specimen there is a white line on the apical half of the metatarsus.. 
The upper discoidal cellule is closed and is longer than the lower. Ccmes near 
to G. sabulosum in Schletterer's arrangement. 

Gasteruption, sp. nov. 
Length 7-8 mm. Ovipositor longer than the body. 
Quetta. May to August. 

This species is much smaller than the preceding ; has the abdomen much less 
narrowly red ; may otherwise be known by the occiput not being incised, but 


Head smooth, the upper part sparsely, the lower thickly covered with white 
pile. Hind ocelli separated from each other by double the distance they are 
from the eyes -, they are placed slightly behind the hinder edge of the eyes. 
Temples about one-half the length of the eyes, roundly narrowed behind. 
Malar space about as lon^ as the pedicle of the antennas. Thorax alutaceous, 
•opaque, covered with a white down ; the metanotum almost rugose, a smooth 
shining line down its centre. The lower part of the propleura? is shining, 
sparsely punctured and is separated from the upper part by a narrow furrow. 
The 3rd antennal joint distinctly shorter than the 4th ; it is twice the length of 
the pedicle, the scape is not twice longer than wide. The 4 front tibia? and tarsi 
are for the greater part white ; there is a narrow white line at the base of the 
tibia? and a wider one on the base of the metatarsus. 

The amount of red colour on the abdomen varies; the $ appears to want 
the white mark on the metatarsus. Probably the quantity of white colour on 
the 4 anterior tibia? and tarsi varies. The stigma is fuscous ; the posterior 
discoidal cellule is shorter than the anterior. The punctuation on the thorax 
is sparse, but distinct. 


Mic rogas terince. 

Dapsilotoma, gen. nov. 

Antenna? 36-jointed. Radial cellule long, narrow, lanceolate, extending to 

the apex ; areolet triangular, the basal nervure roundly curved, the apical 

straight, oblique ; transverse median nervure received distinctly beyond the 

transverse basal ; the recurrent nervure in the 1st cubital cellule clearly 

•distant from the first transverse cubital. Basal abscissa of cubitus distinct. 

Eyes hairy ; there is a distinct malar space. Clypeus separated from the face 

by a narrow furrow. Median segment reticulated, keeled down the middle. 

Basal two abdominal segments longer than the others ; the 1st longer than 

wide, longer than the 2nd, which is square. 

There is a crenulated furrow on the mesopleura? ; the legs are stout, the 
spurs short ; the stigma large, broad ; the radius issues from its middle ; there 
as a distinct cubitus and radius in the hind wings. Ovipositor short, its sheaths 

This genus should be readily known by the large number of joints in 
the antenna?. 28 is the largest number hitherto recorded, namely in the 
Brazilian genus Oligoneurus, the other genera having from 14 to 21 joints. The 
affinities of my genus are with Microgaster and JlicropUtis. 
Dapsilotoma testaceipes, sp. nov. 
Black, the flagellum of antenna? rufo-fuscous ; the legs rufo-testaceous ; 
the coxaa black ; wings hyaline ; the costa and apical two-thirds of stigma 
black, the base of stigma white, the nervures testaceous. Mandibles and oral 
•region rufous ; the palpi testaceous. Head and thorax obscurely, minutely 
punctured, covered with a white down. Metanotum strongly reticulated ; 
<the upper side of the pleura? obliquely, closely striated. Abdomen smooth, 


shining ; the C3ntr3 of the 1st segment raised, clearly separated from the sides.. 
Hind tarsi stout, pilose ; the metatarsus slightly longer than the following 
two joints united ; the long spur of the calcaria about one-third of its- 
length ; the last joint of the hind tar.-ji is longer than the penultimate; the- 
pulvillus large , $ . 

Length 2f mm. 

Quetta. June. 

Protapanteles ? nigrescens, sp. nov. 

Black, smooth and shining, covered with a white down ; the base of 4" 
hinder tibiae and anterior tibiae and tarsi testaceous as are also the palpi ; wings- 
clear hyaline ; the costa and stigma fuscous, the nervures pale. $ 

Length 2 mm. 

Quetta. August. 

Antennae much longer than the body, stout, the joints elongated, the 3rd' 
shorter than the 4th. Face with a broad smooth, impressed line down the 
middle. Eyes densely haired. Mesonotum and scutellum minutely shagreened ;- 
the metanotum smooth and shining. Central region oi 1st abdominal segment 
narrowed towards the apex ; the sides are paler coloured ; the 2nd segment" 
with oblique furrows enclosing a triangle, the apex of which is at the base of 
the segment. 

Except that apparently Protapanteles does not possess grooved lines oni 
the 2nd abdominal segment this species agrees better with it than with any of 
the Ashmeadian genera. Protapanteles is not adopted by Szepligeti, who sinks- 
also 4 other of Dr. Ashmead's genera. Cf. Gen. Ins. Brae. 105. 


Cardiochiles nigricollis, sp. nov. 

Black, the apex of the fore femora and their tibiae and tarsi testaceous ; wings- 
hyaline, the apex of the anterior from the 2nd transverse cubital nervure 
and the apex of the posterior more narrowly, dark fuscous ; the stigma and 
nervures black. $ . 

Length 6 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Smooth and shining, except the metanotum, which is coarsely rugosely punc- 
tured. In the centre of the latter is a large area which is wide in the middle-,, 
gradually narrowed to a sharp point at the base and apex ; its sides are 
bordered by a stout keel. Pro- and mesopleuras smooth and shining ; their 
apices crenulated ; below the middle of the latter is a curved striated band. 
Metapleurae rugosely punctured, more strongly below than above. 

The occiput is transverse. Middle of mandibles testaceous. Suturiform 
articulation and the oblique furrows on the 2nd abdominal segment deep, 
clearly defined. Calcaria black, the long spur of the hinder reaching to- 
shortly beyond the middle of the metatarsus ; the tarsal joints are densely 
pilose below. 

Cardiochiles eryihronotus, sp. nov. 

Black, the mesonotum red ; the apex of the fore femora, the tibiae and tars£ 


and a narrow band on the base of the middle tibiae and the calcaria rufo- 
testaceous. Wings hyaline, the apex smoky from the apex of the stigma ; costa 
and stigma black, the middle nervures testaceous. < J. 
Length 5 mm. 
Quetta. May. 

Smooth, shining, densely covered with white pubescence ; the base of the 
metanotum irregularly rugose ; the areola widely separated from the base,, 
semicircular. Pro- and mesopleurae smooth ; the meta-smooth at the base ; 
the rest closely rugosely reticulated-punctured ; the centre at the base with 3 
longitudinal keels. Temples roundly dilated ; the occiput roundly incised. 

Apart from the differences in colouration this species may be known from 
C. niqricollis by the areola being semicircular and by the occiput not being 
tranverse. In colouration it agrees with C. ruficollis, Cam., from Bombay. The 
differences between them may be expressed thus : 

Areola extending from the base to the apex of the segment, widened 
in the middle, narrowed towards the base and apex; a large 

square area on either side ; occiput transverse ; calcaria black ruficollis. 

Areola not extending from the base to the apex, semicircular ; no 

area on either side ; occiput not transverse, calcaria testaceous erythronotus* 

Ruficollis has the pubescence denser and longer, and the tubercles are red. 

Chelonus areolatus, sp. nov. 

Black, the 4 anterior knees, tibiae and tarsi, the basal half of the hind 
tibiae and the base of the tarsi narrowly, yellowish testaceous ; wings hyaline,, 
the costa and nervures pale testaceous, the stigma black. Base of metanotum 
with a large area, somewhat longer than wide, in the centre ; it is slightly 
roundly narrowed at the base and apex. 9 • 

Length 3 5 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Antennae 20-jointed. Face closely punctured ; the clypeus shining, its apex 
depressed, broadly rounded. Front and vertex finely, closely punctured ; below 
the ocelli finely closely transversely striated. Mesonotum finely closely punctur- 
ed ; the apex and sides of the scutellum closely striated. Metanotum closely 
rugosely punctured-reticulated ; in the centre are 2 keels, roundly curved at the 
base, forming an area which is longer than broad ; it is irregularly reticulated 
and has a stout keel down the centre ; the apical slope is closely, strongly 
punctured : the lateral teeth short, broad. Pleura? closely punctured, more- 
or less striated. Radius short, not reaching to the apex of the basal third of the 
apical part of the wings ; it is roundly curved ; the basal two abscissae are 
equal in length. Striatiou-reticulation on the abdomen strong at the base, 
besoming gradually weaker towards the apex. 

Chelonus for tispinus, sp. nov. 
Black, the apex of the 4 anterior femora, their tibia? and tarsi testaceous, a 
broad band at and behind the muidle of the hind tibiae, the basal two-thirds 


•of the metatarsus and the calcaria, white. Wings hyaline, the costa, stigma 
und apical nervures black, the basal nervures and metatarsus white. 9. 

Length 5 mm. 

Quetta. August. 

Antennae 28-jointed and over, as long as the body. Face transversely rugose- 
ly punctured. Clypeus closely punctured, broad at the base, gradually narrow- 
ed towards the apex; the latter is smooth, transverse. Malar space closely 
transversely rugose. Sides of front stoutly obliquuly striated ; the sides of the 
vertex longitudinally rugose, the posterior part transversely striated. Meso- 
notum longitudinally rugosely punctured, most strongly and coarsely 
behind. Middle of scutellum smooth at the base, the rest rugosely punctured ; 
its sides keeled. Apical slope of metanotum keeled above, its sides projecting 
into sharp, longish teeth ; the base is deeply depressed, crenulated ; the basal 
part is closely reticulated ; in the centre are 3 longitudinal keels, of which the 
central is thinner than the others ; the apical slope is closely, strongly trans- 
versely reticulated-punctured. Propleurae closely reticulated-punctured, 
below, at the base, striated. Mesopleurae closely, the metaplenrae more strongly 
and widely reticulated. Base of abdomen strongly longitudinally striated, 
intermixed with weaker transverse striae ; the striae are strongest at the base ; 
the striae are continued to the apex, becoming gradually weaker. The trans- 
verse basal nervure is thickened and white at its junction with the stigma ; 
the basal abscissa of the radius is tbickened and is not much shorter than the 
2nd ; the 3rd does not reach to the middle of the space between the stigma 
and end of wing and is slightly, but distinctly, longer than the 2nd abscissa 
of cubitus ; the recurrent nervure is interstitial. 

The puncturation and striation vary in strength. 


Macrocentrus rufo-testaceus , sp. nov. 

Rufo-testaceous, the metanotum and the greater part of the back of abdo- 
men black ; legs rufo-fulvous ; flagellum of antennae blackish, the basal joints 
fuscous ; wings clear hyaline, the stigma fuscous, its base broad, the apex 
narrowly white ; nervures testaceous. 9. 

Length 4 ; terebra about 2 mm. 

Quetta. July. 

Smooth and shining ; the median segment thickly covered with white pubes- 
cence. Middle lobe of mesonotum clearly separated ; the part at its apex 
rugosely striated. Third joint of antennae clearly longer than the fourth. 
Second cubital cellule much narrowed at the apex ; the lower part of the 1st 
transverse cubital nervure and the 2nd abscissa of the cubitus at the base are 
faint, almost obliterated, the latter on the basal half ; the transverse median 
nervure is received shortly beyond the transverse basal. 
Macrocentrus fuscipes , sp. nov. 

Black, shining, smooth, the legs fuscous ; the 4 anterior paler, more testaceous 
in colour than the hinder pair, the coxae black ; clypeus and mandibles, except 


•the teeth, f ulvo-testaceous ; palpi fuscous ; wings hyaline, the stigma and 
nervures fuscous ; the base of the former broadly, its apex narrowly -white. £ . 

Length 4 mm. 


Antennal scape black, suffused with testaceous ; the flagellum blackish, 
paler below, densely covered with a short pile ; its first joint is not much 
longer than the second. Metanotum closely transversely striated, the base 
smooth and shining ; the smooth part triangularly dilated laterally. Pro- and 
raetapleurfe shagreened ; the base of the former is testaceous below ; the 
raesopleurae obscurely punctured below. The lower part of the 1st transverse 
-cubital and the basal half of the 2nd abscissa of the cubitus are pale. 


Orgilus nigromaculatus, sp. nov. 

Rufo-testaceous, antennae, ocelli, median segment except for a broad band 
on the sides, narrowed behind, a large mark on the apex of the mesopleuras 
in the centre, a mark in the middle of the 1st abdominal segment, the apex of 
the 2nd and the greater part of the others, black. Anterior legs rufo-testace- 
ous, their coxae black at the base j the middle black, the coxte, femora and 
base of tibiae broadly dark red ; the posterior black, the base of the femora 
and tibiae dark red ; the calcaria rufous. Wings clear hyaline, the costa and 
stigma black ; the nervures white. 9. 

Length 4 mm ; terebra 2 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Densely covered with a white pile ; minutely closely punctured. Antennao 
29-jointed ; the third joint a little shorter than the 4th ; the flagellum densely 
covered with a dense white pile. Malar space fully as long as the antennal 
scape. Clypeus less closely punctured than the face and more shining; its 
apex is broadly rounded. Scutellum broader than long, its apex broadly round- 
ed. Metanotum sparsely irregularly striated, its base depressed. Pleura? close- 
ly punctured; the lower part of the mesopleurae smooth and shining ; the 
longitudinal furrow wide, crenulated. First abdominal segment sessile, slightly 
widened towards the apex ; it is nearly as long as the 2nd and 3rd united ; 
these are wider than long ; the 2nd longer than the 3rd ; it has a narrow smooth 
line down the middle. Calcaria short. Stigma broad compared with its width 

The transverse median nervure is received beyond the transverse basal ; it 
is therefore an Orgilus sensu str. 


Bracon queitcensis, sp. nov. 
Rufo-testaceous, palpi, antennae, a large spot on the sides of mesonotum at 
the scutellum at the base, base of metanotum broadly, mesosternum, a mark 
at the base of the basal 2 abdominal segments and the sheaths of the ovipo- 
sitor, black. Wings light fuscous, the stigma and costa testaceous, the nervures 
•of a darker testaceous eolour. 9 and $ . 

Length 3 mm. the ovipjsitor slightly longer, 


Quetta. May to August. 

Shining, the head and thorax smooth ; the abdomen closely minutely punc- 
tured and striated. Body and legs thickly covered with short white pubescence. 
There is no area on the base of the 2nd abdominal segment. Sheaths of 
ovipositor thickly covered with short stiff black hair. 

The amount of black on the legs varies. In the male they may be testaceous, 
with the femora lined above with black ; the apex of the tibiae broadly and 
the tarsi black. The mark on the base of the metanotum may be entire 
or divided ; its stigma, too, is darker. The apical abscissa of the radius is 
about one-fourth longer than the basal two united. , 

Br aeon iridipennis, sp. nov. 

Rufo-testaceous, the antenna?, ocellar region, palpi, mandibles, occiput 
broadly, apical half of mesonotum broadly on the sides, sternum, metanotum, 
the basal abdominal segment and the others, less distinctly in the centre, black. 
Legs black, the knees broadly testaceous, the spurs black. Wings hyaline,, 
highly iridescent, the stigma dark fuscous, the costa and nervures black. ft . 

Length 3 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Head and thorax smooth and shining, sparsely covered with white pubes- 
cence. The 2nd and 3rd abdominal segments are closely finely punctured,, 
more or less obscui'ely striated laterally. Third abscissa of radius nearly twice- 
the length of the basal two united. Suturiform articulation and the fuirow at 
the base of the 3rd segment closely striated. 

Apart from the differences in colouration this species should be known from. 
quettaensis by the longer third and shorter second abscissa of the radius. 

Vipio nursei, sp. nov. 

Rufous, the antennae, ocelli, a small spot on the base of the middle lobe of" 
the mesonotum, a broad line on the apical half of the lateral, the meso- and 
metasternum, the 4 hinder coxae below and the posterior at the apex: 
above, the apex of the hind tibiae and the hind tarsi, black. Wings dark 
fuscous, the nervures, costa and apical half of the stigma black, the basal half 
of the latter yellow. 9 and ft. 

Length 8-12 mm.; terebra 40 mm. 

Quetta. June — August. 

Face minutely closely punctured ; malar furrow distinct ; there are a few 
long hairs over the clypeus. Mandibles covered with long fulvous hair.. 
1 horax smooth ; the metanotum punctured, but not closely or strongly ; the 
apical slope with a shallow furrow. Basal two abdominal segments coarsely 
rugosely punctured ; the 3rd less strongly on the basal two-thirds, the 4th 
on the basal half. The basal triangular area on the 3rd segment smooth ; the- 
furrows, tranverse and the curved ones on the base of the 3rd crentllated ; the- 
apical segments are smooth. Hypopygium large, cultriform, projecting largely 
beyond the dorsal segment. The middle ventral segments are marked with, 


The $ is similar. In size the species varies considerably, 
Vipio unicolor, sp. nov. 

Rufo-testaceous, the flagellum of antennae black ; the wings fuscous, with the 
usual hyaline spots, the basal half of stigma ochraceous. £ . 

Length 13 mm. ; terebra 28 mm. 

Quetta. August. 

Face closely punctured, the front and vertex smooth. Mesonotum strongly, 
but not closely punctured ; the scutellum almost impunctate. Metanotum 
deeply closely punetured, almost reticulated in parts. Pleurse smooth. Basal 
3 abdominal segments closely rugosely reticulated-punctured ; the furrows- 
closely crenulated, wide. 

(To be continued?) 





A. E. Ward. 

Part I. 

Years ago I made out a list of birds that might be found in the 
Jammu and Kashmir State, but as research progressed it was found 
needful to add many and to eliminate a few. From this list a 
catalogue was prepared, in 1903, for the use of the Pratab Singh 
Museum of Srinagar, during the last two years progress has been 
made with the collections and as the catalogue has now been brought 
up to date I venture to publish it in the Bombay Natural History 

Probably some few additions may have to be made, and possibly it 
will be hereafter found that a few birds will have to be struck out, at 
present it is preferable to keep these on the list with the remark 
' doubtful ' against them. 

The area dealt with is approximately 70,000 square miles ,• from the 
plains of Jammu to the Mountains of Ladak and Baltistan, &c, is a far 
cry, and every variety of climate is met with, hence we naturally expect 
io meet with a large number of birds. Many migrate through Kashmir 
in the spring, of these some stay to breed in Baltistan, Gilgit and Ladak 
whilst oihers doubtless go to far distant countries. 

Some few of the species entered are excessively rare, and this claim 
to entry depends on one or two occurrences only. We have still a 
good deal to learn regarding the breeding places of larks, finches, 
chats, thrushes and warblers. 


(1). Corvus corax. — The Raven, is common in Ladak and Baltistan, confined 
to high altitudes. A single specimen was shot at Chattasgul, Sinde Valley, 
during a severe winter. 

( '>). Corvus corone. — The Carrion-crow, is resident in Kashmir, nowhere have 
plentiful. Eggs have been taken in May and June in the side valleys at alti- 
tudes varying from 8,000' to 10,000'. 

(4). Corvus macrorhynchus.— The Jungle-crow, is the commonest crow in 
Kashmir, &c. Breeds from March to May from 5,000' to 9,000'. 

(5). Corvus frugilegus. — The Book, is migratory, and is found on the banks 
of the Jhelum and on the Murree Road in winter only. Mr. Blunt shot two 
near the Anchai Lake in winter 1905. 


(6). Corvus comix. — The Hooded-crow, is a rare visitor ; observed in Gilgit 
and near Domel, Jhelum Valley, A single specimen shot Febnary 1905 in 

(7). Corvus splcndens. — The Indian House-crow, is chiefly confined to 
Srinagar in Kashmir, but, of course, is common in the low country. 

(9). Corvus monedula. — The Jackdaw, is abundant ; eggs are found in the 
early spring, this bird ascends to about 8,000', but, as a rule, breeds in the main 

(10), Pica rustica. — The Magpie, is excessively rare in Kashmir and the only 
record is from the Sinde Valley. Very common in Ladak and parts of Baltistan. 
Eggs taken May and June. 

(13). Urocissa flavirostris.. — The Yellow-billed Blue Magpie, is common in 
Kashmir and the neighbouring districts, eggs found throughout May and June 
at elevations of about 6,000' to 7,000'. 

(16). Dendrocitta rufa. — The Indian Tree-pie, is apparently confined to 

(18). Dendrocitta himalayensis. — The Himalayan Tree-pie, is found in the 
Jhelum Valley, a solitary specimen recorded from Kashmir Vale Febuary 1905. 

(26). Garrulus bispecularis. — The Himalayan Jay, obtained at Allahabad. 
Sarai Poonch, at 8,000' in April and September. Breeds in the outer ranges. 

(24). Garrulus lanceolatus. — The Black-throated Jay. Common in Poonch 
and the outer ranges. 

(28). Nucifraga mult./ punctata. — The Larger-spotted Nut Cracker. Common 
in the larger forests. Breeds from May to July at altitudes varying from 8,000' 
to 10,000'. 

(29). Graculus eremita. — The Red-billed Chough, descends into the main 
valley in winter : in summer breeds at about 12,000', in Ladak, but at lower 
elevations in Kashmir. Eggs taken on May 14th in Ladak ; young birds on 
Gangong, 26th June. 

(30). Pyrrhocorax alpinus.— The Yellow-billed Chough, is found at 5,500' in 
winter but ascends to great altitudes in summer ; it is said to breed in inaccessible- 
cliffs in May and June. This bird is often caught in winter in traps set round 
carrion for foxes, &c. 

(31). Par us atriceps. — The Indian Grey Tit, is common. 

(34). Parus monticola— The Green-backed Tit, is common. 

(35). jSSgitkaUsGus erythrocephalus.— The Red-headed Tit, appears to be con- 
fined to moderate altitudes, when it is plentiful. 

(37). Afgithaliscus leucogenys.— The White-cheeked Tit, is resident in Kash- 
mir and is found in Gilgit and Baltistan. 

(38). JEgitlialiscus niveigularis— The White-throated Tit, is rare. Three 
were obtained in willow trees on February 19 at 6,000' and one at 11.000' 
on 25th August 1905. 

(40). Sylviparus mcdeslu*.—T\\Q Yellow-browed Tit, recorded from Kash- 
mir and Kishtwar. 


(42). Machlolophus xanthogenys. — The Yellow-cheeked Tit, not observed 
.personally but is recorded. 

(44). Lophophanes melanolophus. — The Crested Black Tit, is a common bird 
at about 7,000'. 

(47). Lophophanes rufinuchalis. — The Simla Black Tit, is widely distributed 
;at various altitudes. 

(49). Lophophanes dichrous. — The Brown-crested Tit. I am very doubtful 
about the locality of a specimen said to have come from Kishtwar. 
Fam: Crateropodid-E. 

(76). Garrulax albigularis. — The White-throated Laughing-Thrush, is 
recorded from Domel, Jhelum Valley Road. 

(80). Ianthocincla rufigularis. — The Rufous-chinned Laughing-Thrush, a 
solitary specimen recorded from the Lolab. 

(82). Trochalopterum erythi'ocephalum, — The Red-headed Laughing-Thrush, 
is said to be found in Badrawar. 

(91). Trochalopterum simile. — The Western Variegated Laughing-Thrush, is 
widely distributed in the Kashmir side valleys, eggs found as late as 8th August 


(99). Trochalopterum lineatum. — The Himalayan Streaked Laughing-Thrush. 
This bird is fairly common throughout iKashmir ; constructs its nest amongst 
bushes ; it is also found in Gilgit and Baltistan. 

(105), Argya caudata. — The Common Babbler, is found in the outer ranges. 

(110). Crateropm canorus. — The Jungle Babbler, is chiefly confined to the 
Jumna Province but is found in the Jhelum Valley up to an altitude of about 


(116). Pomaiorhinus schisticeps. — The Slaty-headed Scimitar Babbler, doubtful. 

(129). Pomaiorhinus erythrogenys. — The Rusty-cheeked Scimitar Babbler, 
specimens have been obtained from Tret below Murree, and a single bird 
within Kashmir territory from near Kohala. 

(139). Pyctorhis sinensis. — The Yellow-eyed Babbler, found in Poonch and 
is probably common in Jammu. 

(174). Stachyrhidopsis pyrrhops. — The Red-billed Babbler, is found on the 
outer ranges. 

(187). Myiophoneus iemminchi. — The Himalayan Whistling-Thrush, found 
throughout Kashmir and neighbouring districts at various altitudes up to 1 2,000', 
eggs are to be found in May and June at considerable elevations and in 
April at lower altitudes. 

(191). Larvivora brunnea. — The Indian Blue Chat. This bird breeds in 
Kashmir up to an altitude of about 8,000' ; eggs obtained in June and July ;the 
eggs are blue. 

(199). Hodgsonius phceuicuroides. — Hodgson's Short-wing. Eggs found in the 
Liddar Valley in June generally at altitude about 8,000'. Eggs deep blue. 

(204). Lioptila capistrata. — The Black-headed Sibia, a fairly common bird 
'but all our specimens are from the lower ranges bordering on the Plains. 


(226). Zosterops palpebrosa. — The Indian White-Eye, is numerous in Poonch 
:and Jauimu, less so in Kashmir Proper, breeds in April in Kashmir. 

(237). Ptendhius erythropterus. — The Red-winged Shrike-Tit, is to be 
found on the Murree Road. 

(259). Leptopaicik sophke. — Stoliczka's Warbler-Tit. I have never secured 
a specimen in Kashmir but this is a fairly common bird on the Shyok Ladak, 
and on the Indus. 

(260). Cepha'opyrm flammiceps. — The Fire-cap, is plentiful, breeds in May 
and June at altitudes up to about 8,000', perhaps higher. 

(209). Hypsipetes psaroides. — The Himalayan Black Bulbul, common. 

(283). Molpastes intermedins. — The Punjab Red-vented Bulbul, is found in 
Poonch and Jammu. 

(284). Molpastes lencogenys. — The White-cheeked Bulbul, is very plentiful. 

Fam: Sittid^s. 

(316). Sitta cinnamomeiventris. — The Cinnamon-bellied Nuthatch, a fairly 
•common bird in Kashmir. Eggs taken at 7,000' in May, 

(320). Sttta Icashmirensis. — Brooks's Nuthatch, obtained on the Haji-pir, 
April 15th. 

(323). Sitta leucopsis. — The White-cheeked Nuthatch, is fairly common in 
Kashmir, Baltistan and Gilgit. Eggs taken at about 7,500' in the Seddar 
Valley in May. 

Fam: DicRURiDiE. 

(327). Dicrnrus ater —The Black Drongo. This drongo ascends the hills 
to about 7,000' but generally nests not higher than at an altitude of about 

(328) Dicurus longicaudatus. — The Indian Ashy Drongo. I have only 
observed this bird on the outer ranges. 

Fam : Cekthiid^e. 

(341). Certhia himalayana. — The Himalayan Tree-Creeper. Very plentiful 
at altitudes up to about 10,000'. Eggs taken in May. 

(342). Certhia hodgsoni. — Hodgson's Tree-Creeper. This bird is found in 
Kashmir and Baltistan and in most parts of Kashmir at about 8,000' up to the 

(348). Tichodroma muraria. — The Wall-Creeper, is a winter visitor, some- 
times assumes the black feathers on the throat before migrating, but generally 
leaves as early as March. 

(352). Anorthura neg J ecta. — The Kashmir Wren, breeds at elevations of about 
7,000' to 10,000' in May and June. A nest found at about 10,000' was under a 
pine log and was lined with feathers of the monal and musk deer hairs. 

Fam: Reguud^e. 
(358). Regulus cristatus. — The Goldcrest, cannot be considered a common 
bird in Kashmir, &c, but is found widely distributed. A specimen was obtained 
•on March 2nd, in the Vale at about 5,500'. 



Mr. Stuart Baker kindly identified a number of the specimens, but as before- 
stated we have still much to learn regarding the breeding places of these 
birds, I am not at all confideat of the list being complete. 

(363). Acrocephalus stentoreus. — The Indian Great Reed- Warbler, breeds in 
Kashmir generally in June, and is to be found on the lakes, after breeding is 
sometimes met with in the side valleys but I have never found it later than 

(336). Acrocep'ialus dumetorwn. — Blyth's Reed-Warbler, is a summer visitor 
to the Kashmir Valley. 

(367). Acrocephalus agricola. ^The Paddy-field Reed-Warbler. I have never- 
found the nest of this bird in Kashmir although my collectors have searched 

(369). Tribura major. — The Large-billed Bush-Warbler, found in Kashmir,. 
Baltistan and in Ladak in summer. 

(371). Tribura thoracica. — The Spotted Bush-Warbler, recorded from 

(374). Orthotomus sutorius. — The Indian Tailor-bird, found in Jammu Pro- 
vince but appears to be rare. 

(382). FranMinia gracilis. — Franklin's Wren-Warbler. I have seldom ob- 
tained this bird in Kashmir. 

(394). Hypolais rama.— Sykes's Tree-Warbler, doubtful. 

(396). Hypolais caligata. — The Booted Tree-Warbler, migrates through 
Baltistan but appears to have been seldom secured. 

(398). Sylvia cinerea. — White-throated Warbler. 

(399). Sylvia jerdoni. — The Eastern Orphean-Warbler. I enter this on 
the strength of Fauna of India, Bird's, page 396, Vol. 1. 

(401). Sylvia althcea. — Hume's Lesser White-throated Warbler. I cannot 
be sure of the correctness of the labelling, as the specimen I secured was 
marked " Shot, Kargil 4th May 1903, eggs taken. " 

(402). Sylvia affinis. — Indian Lesser White-throated Warbler, is a common 
bird in Kashmir in the summer where it breeds ; it is also found in Baltistan. 

(405), Phylloscopus affinis. — Tickell's Willow- Warbler. Breeds in Ladak at 
elevations up to 14,500' and also in Kashmir in June. 

(406). Phylloscopus tytleri. — Tytlers Willow-Warbler, summers in Kasnmir. 

(407). Phylloscopus tristis. — The Brown Willow-Warbler. The eggs of this 
bird were taken in Ladak at high altitudes on llth June and on 17th July. 

(408). Phylloscopus indicus. — The Olivaceous Willow-Warbler. 

(414). Phylloscopus pulcher. — The Orange-barred Willow-Warbler. I am 
doubtful whether the single specimen was rightly labelled " Kisbtwar. " 

(415), Phylloscopus proregidus. — Pallas's Willow-Warbler. A common bird 
in Kashmir. Eggs found in Kashmir, 9,000', on 27th June. 

(416). Phylloscopus subviridis. — Brooks's Willow-Warbler. I have not 
secured a specimen. 


(41 H). Phylloscopus humii. — Hume's Willow-Warbler, breeds in Kashmir in 
the side valleys in May, June and July. 

(421). Acantliopneuste nilidus. — Green Willow- Warbler. 

(424). Acantliopneuste mognirostris. — The Large-billed Willow-Warbler. I 
have a single clutch of eggs obtained in Dashgam ravine at 6,000'. This is 
apparently a rare bird in Eastern Kashmir. 

(428). Acantliopneuste occipitalis. — The Large Crowned Willow -Warbler, 
breeds in Kashmir at elevations of about 7,000' to 8,000' in June and July. 

(42 ( J). Acantliopneuste trochiloides. — Blyth's Crowned Willow- Warbler. I 
have not found this bird in Kashmir; but as it occurs in Murree it is pretty 
•sure to be a summer visitor. 

(434). Cryptoloplia mntkoschista. — Hodgson's G rey-headed Flycatcher War- 

(450). Horornis pallidas. — The Pale Bush-Warbler. 

(455). Iloreites hrunneifrons. — The Rufous-capped Bush-Warbler. I have 
mo specimens from Kashmir of either this or the pale Bush-Warbler, but both 
are undoubtedly to be found. 

(458). Sin/a crinigera. — The Brown Hill-Warbler, common in Kashmir. 

(462). Prinia lepida. — The Streaked Wren-Warbler, found in the outer hills, 
mever observed in Kashmir Proper. 

(466). Prinia inornata. — The Indian Wren-Warbler. 

(To be continued?) 






By L. C. H. Young, b.a„ f.z.s., f.e.s. 

I have never tried to write an article or series of articles before in what is 
called a " popular " manner, and I am quite aware that these I am now pro- 
ducing will have many faults from the popular point of view. Two have 
been pointed out tome by friendly critics of the first part which appeared in 
the last number of the Journal. 

The first of these I am not at all inclined to admit, vis., that I have given 
different names to certain insects to those which Indian collectors have been 
accustomed to for thirty years and more. 

Now these articles are not intended for people who have been collecting 
butterflies for thirty years, nor even for much shorter periods, but for beginners 
only. From this point of view, it is only necessary to give one name, and that 
the right one. In fact, it is imperative not to give more than one, as it would 
merely confute the reader for whom the article is intended ; and an historical* 
disquisition, explaining how the latest modern research in the sometimes rather- 
obscure works of early naturalists leads us to conclude that a particular name 
has precedence over its synonyms, would be quite out of place, and can be- 
found elsewhere. All I endeavour to do is to give a nomenclature which is 
not likely to be upset in our time. 

The second criticism is a more reasonable one. That the series to be of 
real use to beginners should not merely teach them how to name their collec- 
tions, but also how to make the collections first ; and, with the permission of 
the editors, I propose to give very briefly a few hints on collecting. 
Hints on collecting Butterflies. 

There are two ways of collecting butterflies — one is to catch them, the other- 
to breed them from the egg or caterpillar. The advantage of the latter is-, 
that you make sure of getting fresh specimens. On the other hand, very 
few of us in India have the leisure to do this properly, and most of us- 
must be content with collecting the perfect insects only. I will deal with this- 
process first. The first requisite is a net. There are apparently many different 
kinds of nets on the market ; some evidently made expressly for beginners,, 
since no one of any experience would ever buy them. The strongest form is. 
made of thick steel wire with a loop at one end, through which the other end 
fits this latter being in the form of a screw and fitting into a metal socket at the 
end of the stick or handle. On the other hand, this form is not very portable, 
and o-enerally has to be made specially for you. The most practically service- 
able is made of cane with two joints in it, so that it can be folded up and put 
in the pocket, if necessary, the ends fitting into a Y, the long arm of which fits 
on to the handle. The important thing is that the net should be circular. 

The bag should be made of white or green leno, or any other colour, though,. 
I think, these are the bsst, and are certainly the most easily procurable at short. 


notice. It should be of such a length that you can reach the bottom comfortably 
with your hand, not pointed, nor tapering, nor square, but gradually rounded. 

It is best always to make one's own nets, and it requires very little skill as 
a seamster or seamstress. If, instead of fastening the leno itself to the frame 
of the net, a top of calico is made, it will last much longer. 

The length of the stick or handle should be about that of an ordinary walk- 
ing stick — I generally prefer it rather shorter. It should be remembered 
that though with a long stick you have a longer reach you have a much more 
uncertain aim. 

There are two ways of catching an insect on the wing with a net. One is to 
hold it over your head and sweep downwards, bringing the net flat on the 
ground with the insect inside, but quite inaccessible. The other is to sweep 
sideways, and, having imprisoned the butterfly, to turn the wrist quickly, so that 
the bag of the net folds over the frame and closes the opening. I recommend 
the latter process. The first is bad for the net and necessitates kneeling on the 
ground, and holding up the end of the bag until the imprisoned insect cheeses 
to fly to the top before you can get at him. 

Having caught the specimen, the question arises, what to do with it ? Some 
people carry pins with them, and, having pinched the thorax of the butterfly 
through the net so as to render it more or less powerless— though, as a rule, rot 
actually killing it — pin it to the inside of their topies- Others carry a small 
cork-lined collecting box in their pockets to save their topies. Neither of these 
is to be recommended. If you try pinning an insect in the jungle when you 
are hot and dusty and with your hands possibly trembling with excitement (why 
should they not be ?), you will probably do it very badly ; pinching often spoils 
an insect, and is, in practice, rather cruel. 

Another way is to carry a killing bottle with you and inserting it frcm the 
bottom of the net, work it upwards till you are able to corner your fluttering 
prey in the mouth of it, and then fit the stopper in quickly. The disadvantages 
of this process are two. One is that, as soon as it is dead, the specimen starts 
shaking up and down in the bottle as you walk or run, and spoils its-elf. r J he 
other is that in the case of closely allied species it is often imrossible to be 
certain of their identity through the meshes of the net, and you may in this 
way kill a number of common insects you do not want. 

The method of avoieling all these difficulties is to carry a number of 
" pill-boxes " with glass bottoms of different sizes. These are readily procurable 
at any store where entomological apparatus is for sale, and cost, I believe, fom 
a shilling at home, and properly cared for will last a dozen years. It requires 
no great skill to " box " the insect insiele the net, and the glass bottom enables 
you to see what it is before killing it. They can in this way be carried heme 
safely and put in the killing bottle at leisure. In boxing always have the end 
of the net uppermost, as a butterfly when it finds itself surrounded by anything 
from which it wishes to escape, whether long grass or green leno, always flies 


The next requisite is a killing bottle. This can be obtained from any 
chemist, and is ordinarily made from cyanide of potassium, covered over to 
give a hard and dry surface with plaster of Paris. 

These bottles will sometimes " sweat " in the monsoon, and, when this occurs, 
it is safest to get a new bottle at once, as a drop of the moisture on the wings of 
a dying insect will completely spoil it. 

A good bottle should kill a butterfly or, at any rate, render it insensible in a 
minute, and if it takes much longer, it is time to renew the poison both from 
considerations of humanity, and because the less they flutter about in the bottle 
the less likely they are to injure themselves as specimens. 

The insects become rather stiff when dead (though they are less so after 
twenty-four hours than after a longer or shorter period). Except during the 
monsoon, however, when they will always remain soft and pliant, it is best 
always to put the contents of the killing bottle into a relaxing tin for 12 hours 
before setting them. They should not be left much more than 12 hours in 
this climate or they will rot. 

A relaxing tin is very simply made. An old cigarette tin will do with a 
thick pad of folded blotting paper at the bottom thoroughly soaked in water. 
The specimens only require to be laid on the top of it. 

The next operation is setting, and for this purpose the collector must 
provide himself with a large store of the ordinary pin of commerce, a 
stock of two or three sizes of entomological pins, some thin strips of paper, 
and some setting boards. Before he can make or purchase his setting boards 
he must decide whether he is going to set his specimens in the " English " or 
''continental" fashion. I had better explain these terms. The following 
figure (Fig. 1) gives a sectional view of an " English " setting board : — 

Fig. 1. 
The shaded portion is cork, glued on to a thin strip of deal. A is the groove 
into which the body of the insect is pinned. The result of setting an insect 
on a board of this shape is that it will stand very low on the pin ; that is, when 
placed in the cabinet, it will be practically touching the cork and, in con- 
sequence, be more accessible to mites, grease or mould, or any other enemy that 
occasionally invades the cabinet, and further that there will be a great length 
of ugly pin above it, so that an " English '' collection often looks as much a 
collection of pins as of anything else. Of course, you can have the boards 
specially made with a double thickness of cork, but even then the wings, having 
been bent in a curve to suit the rounded shape of the board, always have an 
untidy drooping appearance and look as though they had been taken off the 
setting board before they were dry. There is another drawback to English 

- ' ■ ■••• -• ■•-■■••• •' • • --- 

A A 


set' specimens. When packed away in collecting cases they cannot ordinarily be 
made to overhp, and this is a very important point for Indian collectors, who 
generally wish to pack up their collections as closely as possible, to send home. 
The " continental" setting board is flat, and is either made with a great 
thickness of cork, or in the manner I am going to describe. The drawback to 
the " continental, method,'' pure and simple, is that continental entomological 
pins are too long for the depth of the drawers in the ordinary English-made 
cabinet, and owing to their length the finer qualities are very apt to get 
bent. The important point, however, is to have at least half an inch of pin 
protecting on the underside of the specimen, and personally I like to see as 
little pin on the upperside as is practicable. 

The most preferable method is to use English pins and continental setting 

In Fig. 2 is shown one end of the kind of setting board I mean. It consists 
of two long strips of deal or other soft wood (AA) attached at the ends to legs 

such as (BB ). (CC ) is a smalt 

A A_ projecting foot to the leg by 

means of which the board may 

be slid into a groove in the 

setting case. A small space is 

left between the two strips 

(AA.)and on their underside a 

Fig. 2. strip of cork is glued across it. 

The body of the insect is placed in the spaci or groove between the (AA.) 

strips and its pin can pass right through the cork into the space below sii;ce 

the board is supported on two legs and the insect can thus be set as high on 

the pin as the height of the legs (BB.). 

I do not think boards like these can be had readymade anywhere but the 
vSociety's carpenter has made me two aetting-cases on this principle quite as 
well finished as the English-made model shown to him for a very reason- 
able price and is doubtless open to further orders. 

The next requisite is entomological pins. There are only two makeis of 
whom I have any experience, vis., D. E. Tayler & Co. and Kirby. I will not 
giv? either the advertisement of a preference here but will only remark that 
for some reason — probably the terms of commission— dealers do not, as a rule, 
stock Tayler's pins and if you Avant them you must write direct to the facte iy 
in Birmingham. Kirby's pins can be got from any dealer. 

Three different sizes will be all a beginner, who is e<llettir:g Li.ti*:l cs 
only, need purchase to start with. I would advise him also to purchase a pair 
of entomological forceps. He will probably find them a clumsy tool to start 
with but when once he is accustomed to them he will never think of handling 
an insect without them. 

Armed with all this furniture and having properly relaxed our specimen we 
will now proceed to set it. 


The first and most important operation of all is the pinning. If the rest of 
the setting is badly done it can always be relaxed and reset but if the insect is 
not pinned properly it will in 9 cases out of 10 be spoilt for all time. The pin 
should be inserted exactly through the middle of the thorax and perpendicular 
to it and the utmost care must be taken that it comes out exactly in the middle 
ou ths underside, i.e., exactly between the middle pair of legs. If this is not 
doue the legs will probably be broken off and the wings are almost certain 
to be put out of joint in the process of stretching them. It is almost equally 
important that the insect should be pinned exactly in the middle of the groove 
of the setting board and that the pin should be put in straight and not leaning 
forward or back or to one side. Not more than at most a quarter of an inch of 
piu should show above the thorax, just enough to catch hold of with the 
forceps. Pins are ugly. Unless these two operations are performed success- 
fully the rest of the setting is mere waste of time so far as any hope of turning 
out a decent specimen is concerned. 

The details of the process of stretching the wings on the boards will depend 
mainly on the attitude in which the insect died and are impossible to describe 
"thoroughly. But supposing it has died with them closed above the body — the 
most common attitude for butterflies — take a strip of paper (E E in Fig. 3.), 
slide it between the wings, then put the forceps between them and press them 
open until you can get the strip (E F) flat and then pin it to the board at one 
end (D) (with the ordinary pin of commerce ; entomological pins will generally 
bend at once if you try to put them into any substance harder than cork). 

Fi a . S 


Then take the other end of the strip in your fingers and hold it tight close 
"to the board and gradually raise the wings to the required angle (as in Fig. .°>) 
with the point of a needle, taking care that the point of the needle only 
catches against the stronger veins and does not actually pass through the wing. 
Generally speaking if this cannot be done easily the insect is not sufficiently 
relaxed but, of course, practice is required. This done pin the other end of the 
strip tightly. Except in the very small species a second strip is nearly always 
required to prevent the ends of the wings curling particularly in the case of 
relaxed specimens. 

I have used the expression '* raise the wings to the required angle " ; the 
-only way to set specimens so that the whole collection will be homogeneous, 
all the specimens being set with the wings at the same angle is to have the 
Jower or inner margins of the forewings at right angles to the body so that the 
points (F F) in the figure are in a straight line. Then raise the hindwings 
until the pattern of the markings, if any, fit on to that of the forewings. 

In I suppose by far the majority of butterflies there are bands or lines 
running continuously across both wings. 

There are a few, but very few cases where it is impossible to fit the pattern 
of the hindwings on to that of the forewings if the latter are set at the angle 
described above (Papilio sarpedon is an instance in point) ; but it is worth- 
while sacrificing the pattern for the sake of having the setting of the whole 
collection uniform. 

In butterflies the legs are not as a rule visible from above and the only 
things left to arrange are the antennae. These should be pinned wide open 
so as to lie close along the costa of the forewings. If they project at all they 
are almost certain to get broken off when the specimens are packed away 
closely in collecting cases or cabinets. 

The setting is now finished and the specimen must be left to dry. This in the 
cold weather may take only 24 hours. In the monsoon, on the other hand, it 
may take a month and in a very wet season become almost impossible. 

It will probably be less disappointing in the end to put all one's captures in 
the monsoon in papers at the time and relax and set them afterwards in the 
cold weather. 

A drop of benzine on the insect will greatly assist the process of drying and 
does not injure the specimen in the least. It has the further advantage of 
•absorbing or partially absorbing the greasy matter in the body and preventing 
the mischievous form of rot known as "greasing" setting in afterwards. 

As soon as the specimen is dry the papers can be taken off and the insect put 
away in the cabinet or collecting box. People who have anywhere at homo 
where they can send things to and any one there to look after them will be 
wise if they send their whole accumulations home every hot weather before 
the monsoon breaks. 

Permanent or semi-permanent residents in the country will probably prefer to 
arrange their collections in cabinets. For such the principal enemy to te feared 


is mould during the monsoon. A drop of carbolic acid on a tiny section of" 
sponge pinned in the corner of each drawer so as not to touch the bottom or 
sides -will keep this off fairly effectually but in addition it is as well to burn a 
sigari in front of the cabinet on wet days. 

Another nuisance in connection with cabinets inseparable from the climate 
is that from the constant swelling and shrinking of the wood according to the- 
humidity of the air the drawers will very soon become very ill-fitting. This can 
be partly avoided by " oiling " the grooves with ordinary black lead. 

Another way of keeping off mould is by putting on the insect a drop of a 
mixture made by dissolving bichloride of mercury in spirits of wine. But if this- 
touches the pin it will eat it away in a very short time and, it is a process which' 
needs very careful handling. 

Every cabinet drawer or collecting box .must contain naphthaline. Iw 
cabinets there is generally a groove made to contain it. In collecting 
boxes it should be tied up in a bag of muslin and firmly pinned in one_ corner; 
Naphthaline evaporates very quickly and needs constant replenishing. 

Every specimen in the cabinet should have a small label attached giving the 
date, locality and altitude of the capture. Labels are very ugly and these 
should be made as small as possible so as looked at from above to be hidden by 
the wings. 

A word now as to collecting butterflies by breeding. If you do not know the- 
food-plant of a particular species and cannot find it out from any books, the only 
thing to do is to watch for a female which is fluttering slowly from bush to 
bush constantly settling and obviously egglaying and to follow behind, search- 
till you find the egg deposited and make a note of the species of plant oiu 
which it was found. This is a most laborious process ouly pardonable in the- 
interests of original research. When a collector discovers in this way the larvse- 
and food-plant of a species hitherto unknown he should make careful note of" 
the facts and send a description of the larva to the Journal of the Society. 

When the food-plant is known the collector can either search for the ready 
hatched larvae upon it or else catch a femaleand keep her alive for a few days 
on sugar in the hope that she will lay some eggs. Butterflies are creatures that 
love the light and to make the latter process a success 'therefore she shouldi 
not be shut up in the dark, but put in a box with a glass or muslin top to it. 

Almost every one has bred caterpillars for amusement in his or her child" 
hood and I need give very few hints on the subject. I he main things to be con- 
sidered in breeding caterpillars are the same as in breeding any other creatures 
i.e., good food and clean sanitary quarters. Fresh food must be constantly 
supplied, never wet and not too dry and the box or whatever else they may be 
kept in should be regularly cleaned out. So far as possible never touch the 
caterpillars with your hands. Caterpillars do not mind the dark. Many prefer 
it and will not feed in the day time. 

In the case of tree-feeding species, if you have the right tree in your own. 
compound, by far the simplest way is to turn the lar-vse loese on a branch. 


tie a bag of muslin tightly round it and leave them there till they pupate or 
have eaten all the leaves. This process is called slieviog. 

The keeping of pupa) or chrysalises in this country presents none of the 
difficulties experienced at home because the perfect insects emerge after a few 
weeks and there is no question of keeping them through the winter or in 
varying temperatures. 

The only advice I have to give is — do not touch them. 

I have suggested above that if the collector comes across the larva of any 
species which has not been previously described, he should send a record of 
it to the Society. The larvse of I think all the species there will be any 
occasion to allude to in this series are familiar, but as a collector in any of the 
richer parts of the country might discover the previously unknown early 
stages of quite a number of species, it would be as well to give an outline of 
how to describe a larva, because a description of one which is not in accordance 
with the customary scientific methods is generally more or less unintelligible. 

A larva is either smooth, hairy, spiniferous or tuberculous. If hairy it should 1 
be stated whether the hairs occur in tufts or not. If in tufts it will generally 
be found that those on the 2nd segment (or first excluding the head) and on 
the last, differ in size and colour from the rest. The same may be said of 
spines or tubercles. The ground colour should be stated first and then the 
colour of the tufts or spines and the colour of the head. On each segment 
above the legs are small trachse or spiracles which are the breathing apparatus 
of the insect and are generally distinctively marked, and if so the colours 
should be described. 

All other markings are generally linear and may occur in the following way : 
A central line down the back, called the dorsal line, a line or band through the 
spiracles on either side called the spiracular lines, narrow lines bordering the 
spiracular called the supra spiracular and subspiracular, and between these and 
the dorsal line two other pairs, the upper called the subdorsal and the lower 
the lateral. In any description it is extremely important to call these lines 
by their right names, and as they are generally not all present, the describer 
must judge for himself which those present actually are from their position.. 
The dorsal and spiracular offer no difficulty and these are the ones most nearly 

The ground colour may also be spotted, and if the spots are few and conspi- 
cuous, the number, arrangement and colour on each segment should be stated., 







Gordon Dalguesh. 

During a yeav's residence in the above district, where I was employed 
-as assistant on a tea garden, I spent my spare time studying the 
mammals of that region. In those days I did not know the advantages 
of trapping, and all my specimens were either shot by myself or brought 
In by natives. The natives (Nepalese) I always found trustworthy 
and reliable, and were always willing to give their services when there 
was any shooting to be had, and many a pleasant day I have spent in 
iheir company in pursuit of game. My collecting and observations 
were confined from the base of the mountains to 8,000 feet elevation. 

Macaws rhesus, And, The Bengal Monkey. 
I found this species common at low elevations, and had several young 
ones brought to me ; but they always came to an untimely end. They 
-are a source of great annoyance to the natives, robbing their crops, and 
nothing seems safe from their mischievous fingers. 
Felis tigris, Linn. The Tiger. 
The tiger was common in parts of the Terai at the base, and an old 
lioress with two cubs once ascended the forest to 5,000 feet, and took 
up her quarters close to the Forest Ranger's house in Kurseong. 
Though much sought after, she was not shot. 

Felis panlus, Linn. The Leopard or Panther. 
The Leopard was common from the base right up toDarjeeling 8,000 
feet. I have often heard them at night, and the sound they make is 
not unlike somebody sawing a piece of wood. They are especially fond 
of dogs, and have been known to snatch them cff the verandahs in the 
•evening before the eyes of their owners. I once saw the skin of a large 
python, and was told a half grown leopard had been taken out of its 

Felis nebulosa, Griff. The clouded Leopard. 
A pair of these beautiful animals' skins adorned the walls of a 
planter's house, and he informed me he had shot them on a garden 
-about 4,000 feet. 


Felts bengalensis, Ker. The leopavd Cat. 
A friend of mine had a pair of these handsome little cais in a large 
<5:ige, with hopes of taming them. He was not successful, however, as 
they resisted all his efforts, and a pair of more nasty tempered little 
beasts I have never seen, always snarling and growling. I believe 
after a time they were given their liberty. 

Felts chaus, Giild. The jungle Cat. 
This cat was common at moderate elevations. 

Vtverra zibetha, Linn. The large Indian Civet. 
I saw a beautiful specimen of this animal shot by my friend, 
Mr. Radford, on Ring-Tong Tea Estate, and have several skins offered 
ane for sale by natives. 

Paradoxurus grayi, Bennet. The Himalayan Palm-Civet. 
The only specimen I saw of this was a hermaphrodite shot by a 
planter on a garden at 4,000 feet elevation, who was puzzled to know 
what he had got until I identified it for him. 

Herpestes mnngo, Gmel. The common Indian Mungoose. 
Plentiful at low elevations. 

Cants aureus, Linn. The Jackal. 
Found from the Terai up to Darjeeling, but not in any numbers. 

Cyon dukhimensis, Sykes. The Indian wild Dog. 
Very common. One took up its quarters in some jungle near my 
bungalow, and used to howl every evening in answer to the bell 
■calling the coolies in from work. 

It once came right up on to the verandah in the evening, and on 
•seeing me ran off. I tried several times to shoot it, but on these 
•occasions it could not be found. 

Mustela flavigula, Bodd. The Indian Martin. 
I shot several of these in the forests at moderate elevations, and saw 
several others on the tea gardens. The native name for this animal is 

Putorius subhemachal anuss Hodgs. The Himalayan Weasel. 
I had a skin of this species which I bought off a native in Darjeeling. 
"This and the next species is also known to the Nepalese as Malsampra. 
Putorius cathia, Hodgs. The yellow-bellied Weasel. 
I found this species common at elevations of 5,000 faei, and several 
were brought to me by my native collectors. 


Lutra sp. ? 
The natives told me of an animal which from their description must 
have been an Otter which they said was to be found in the Balasund 
River. I never got one, however. 

sElurus fnlgens, Guv. The red Gat-bear or Himalayan Racoon. 

I once shot one of these curious animals in a forest at 5,000 feet 
elevation. To the natives it was well known. 

Ursus torquatus, Wagner. The Himalayan black Rear. 

Common from the Serai to Darjeeling. 

The finest specimen I ever saw was shot by my friend, Mr. Radford,, 
at 4,000 feet elevation. It measured 8 feet in length, and was, I 
believe, quite a record specimen. 

I once tracked one for a long distance through the forest, but never 
saw it, much less got a shot. They do a considerable amount of damage- 
to native crops. 

Tupaia ferruginea, Raffles. The Malay Tree-Shrew. 

One of these was once brought in to me, having been caught in a cage 
rat trap. At first I took it for a species of squirrel, Scuirus locria,. 
which in colouring they closely resemble. I never got another one,, 
so cannot say if it is common or not. 

Talpa micrura, Hodgs. The short-tailed Mole. 

I found this mole very abundant round Kurseong and Darjeeling,,. 
and the forest paths were infested with their runs, I used to get 
plenty of dead specimens after a heavy shower of rain, they havings 
been drowned out of their runs. A native once brought me a live 
one, which when placed on the ground ran about nimbly, uttering the 
while a curious squealing note. The Nepalese often cut off the fore- 
paws, and wear them round their necks as charms. The native name 
is Ootany musa. 

Soriculus nigrescens, Gray. The Sikhim brown-toothed Shrew. 

I got several specimens of this little shrew at 5,000 feet. All of 
them were picked up dead. 

Crocidura marina, Linn. The brown musk Shrew. 

Common in the neighbourhood of houses. This and the next 
species are known to Anglo-Indians as " Musk Rat. " 

Crocidura cceridea, Kerr. The grey musk Shrew. 

Very common, even more so than the last. 


Chimarrogale himalayica, Gray. The Himalayan Water-Shrew. 

This shrew I did not find common, and had a few specimens brought 
to me cauoht in mountain streams at 5,000 feet. 

Pteropus medius, Temm. The Indian Fruit- Bat or Flying-Fox. 

The " Flying Fox " is common in the warmer valleys at low 

Cynopterus marginatus, Geoff. The short-nosed Fruit-Bat. 
I had a few specimens taken for me at low elevations. 

Khinolophus ajjinis, Horsf. The allied Horse-shoe Bat. 
I caught one specimen of this in a house in Kurseong. 

Megaderma lyra, Geoff. The Indian Vampire Bat. 
A native brought me one of these from the Terai. 

Pteromys maynificus, Hodgs. Hodgson's Flying-Squirrel. 
A native one day brought me a skin of this beautiful squirrel, 
taken in the forest at 5,000 feet, and I was told by some charcoal 
burners that when at work they frequently came across it ; but I never 
got another, though I looked specially for it. 

Sciuropterus pearsoni, Gray. The hairy-footed Flying-Squirrel. 
The natives brought me a living specimen of this pretty little animal. 
It was found in the hole of a tree at 0,000 feet. I kept it for a few- 
days, but it did not thrive, so I killed it. During the day it remained 
asleep, curled up in a ball, but became restless towards evening. An 
old native servant in my employ assured me that these squirrels often 
used to come after his peas when they were ripe. 1 think this species 
must be rare, as I never got a second one, though my men made a 
special search for it. 

Sciurus bicolor, Sparrman. The large Malay Squirrel. 
I shot several specimens of this handsome squirrel which I found 
common at 5,000 feet. A friend of mine once invited me to cone and 
see a " Polecat" he had shot, and I was much disappointed to find it 
was one of these squirrels. 

Sciurus locria, Hodgs. The orange-bellied Himalayan Squirrel. 
Very common in the forests at 5,000 feet, and I shot a number of 

Sciurus marelellandi, Horsf. The striped Himalayan Squirrel. 
This species was common from quite low elevations to 5,000 i'eet. 


Gerbillus indicus, Hardw. The Indian Gerbille or Antelope Bat. 
Common at the base of the mountains, and I once caught a specimen 
among the tea at 5,000 feet. 

3Ius rattus, Linn. The common Indian Rat. 
This was the common house rat of Darjeeling, and I never remember 
seeing M. decumanus. Nearly all the specimens 1 got of this were the- 
variety alexandrinus. 

Mus musculus, Linn. The common House-Mouse. 
Common everywhere. 

Lepus ruficaudatus, Geoff. The common Indian Hare. 
I used to get several of these on some grassy hills near the forest 
house in Kurseong, and. had some young ones brought to me, but I did. 
not manage to rear them. 

Elephis maximuS) Linn. The Indian Elephant. 
Common in parts of the Terai. An old female with her calf once as- 
cended the forests to 5,000 feet, and I remember seeing her tracks, 
along the forest paths. 

Bos gaurus, Trail. The Gaur. 
Common in the forests of the Terai. I saw some magnificent heads 
which had been brought from there in the Forest Officer's house in 

Cemas goral, Hardw. The Goral. 
The goral is common throughout the Darjeeling district. I think 
one must be very keen on sport to go out after goral often, as they 
inhabit the rockiest and most inaccessible places, and many a weary- 
and long climb I had after them before I shot one. In the early 
mornings and evenings they leave the lower jungle, and come out 
to feed on the grassy plateaus. I found them very good to eat; their 
flesh tasted like mutton. 

Nemorhmdus bubalinus, Sclater. The Himalayan Serow or Goat- 

I once surprised one of these animals as it was feeding one morning- 
on n grassy plateau at 5,000 feet. To the natives it is well known, and; 
they often shoot it. To sportsmen in Darjeeling it is known as- 
"Tehr " — a name which really belongs to quite a different animal. 


Cervulus muntjac, Zimm. The Barking Deer. 
I found tills little deer very common from low elevations up to G,f <i0 
feet. Its curious barking cry is uttered frequently throughout the 
night, and the natives say it iloes this if there is a leopard about. The 
Nepalese shoot this deer with hows and arrows, and u^e dogs specially- 
trained to drive them out of the jungle. It runs with its head? 
very low down, and is very quick in its movements, reminding cue of 
a gigantic weasel. The native name for this is Mirgah. 

Cervus unicolor, Bech. The Sambar or Eusa Deer. 
The sambar is common in parts of the Terai, and I have seen seme- 
splendid heads procured there. 

Cervus dais, Erxl. The Spotted Deer- 
Common in parts of the Terai. 

Sus cristaius, Wag. The Indian wild Boar. 
Common in the Terai and ascending the forests to moderate eleva- 

Manis aurita, Hodgs. Chinese Pangolin. 
I once bought a skin of one of these curious animals off a native,. 
killed on Margaret's Hope Tea Estate at 5,000 feet. This was the only 
one I saw. 




L. C. H. Young, b.a.., f.b.s., &c. 

There is* no question, I suppose, more often asked the well-informed 
naturalist by an amateur than " What is a species?" Nor is there 
tiny probably which so often meets with an unsatisfactory reply. 

Of course " the short answer which turneth away wrath" is that 
it is the unit of classification, but this as a rule hardly satisfies the needs 
of the inquirer, and moreover in these days of " subspecies, " named 
varieties aud ' ' races " is in danger of being no longer true. 

So confused has the problem become that a distinguished entomo- 
logist in a recent work has declined to use the word at all and calls 
. all his units " forms. "" 

The question really should be put in another way, " Is a species a 
: natural division or is it a convention of systematists ? " 

Previous to the publication of the " Origin of Species, " the existence 
ran nature of the species was not seriously called in question, the belief 
in the separate creation of each form being general. 

Darwin himself had a very clear notion of what he meant by a 
species, though like every one else he found it difficult to frame a 
definition in anything but Gladstonian language, — that is to say, in 
a form which was not capable of varied interpretation according to the 
predilections of the individual systematise 

Since Darwin's time however many naturalists have affected to 
ignore the problem on the ground that since it had been proved that 
all nature was in a state of constant flux there was obviously no such 
thing as finality in forms or terminal developments, and that a 
"species" as a unit in the natural kingdom was a superstition of the 
ancients. As a corollary to this, species being merely convenient 
conventions it was open to every man to multiply or divide them 
. according to his own notions of convenience. 

This kind of convenience lias generally proved a great inconvenience 
to practical collectors and economic and field naturalists. 

This is specially the case with tropical creatures. For instance no 
one with any knowledge of the Lepidoptera would have any hesitation 
in identifying a specimen of Arctia caja (the Common Tiger Moth), 
although it is a most variable insect, and it would be possible in one 


season in England alone I suppose to collect at least 50 well-marked 
varieties. Tropical insects however although naturally moro variable 
than temperate ones owing to many of them breeding continuously 
all the year round, have hitherto been far more rigorously defined, 
and the same entomologists who would have no difficulty with the 
50 forms of A. caja would insist that a haphazard collection of. let 
us say, Terias liecahe made in one season in India alone contained 5 
or 6 species at least. The truth is that most exotic insects have 
been described and named by eminent systematists in Europe who 
had no first-hand knowledge of the creatures themselves and were 
consequently obliged to rely on arbitrary distinctions and who have 
by no means always been willing to accept correction from the man on 
the spot. 

Naturally it seems to collectors abroad that these gentlemen have 
taken their responsibilities too lightly, and acting en the belief that in 
nature there was no such thing as a species they have gone on multiply- 
ing names with the object of defining forms as rigorously as possible en 
a purely artificial basis. 

It is remarkable that those who have been most ready to r.dopt cr 
misinterpret the Darwinian theory in this direction have, as a rule, been 
by no means willing to apply it to the higher divisions of classification, 
or to attempt any historical or evolutionary treatment of nature as a 

The consequence of all this is that the nomenclature of practically 
the whole animal kingdom is now admittedly in a state of almost 
inextricable confusion. 

Yet in spite of all this, probably every practical naturalist still has a 
deep-seated belief that there is really such a thing as a species, though 
he is often in difficulties as to individuals. 

He argues that though it may be the case that if wo had before us 
not merely every form that is now extant, but every form that ever 
did exist from palaeozoic times there might be such a perfect 
gradation that every one would admit there was no such thing 
as a species — or genus, family, order or class either— yet as a fact 
the extant forms are not jo'ofyth part of the extinct in number, 
and that in consequence by far the majority are now so isolated from 
the disappearance of intermediates that really no one will dispute then- 
existence either in nature or convenient arrangement. 


When we come to ara^se the remainder we find they practically fall 
into three classes :— 

(1) " Species " which have been described from single specimens 
which exhibit no structural peculiarity and which should in most 
cases be treated as sports of the nearest known form until other 
specimens and both sexes have been captured. 

(2) Nearly allied forms which appear to be complementary to 
each other through a series of geographical regions orsubregions 
and whose distribution does not overlap (ignoring casuals of 
a single season) though it may be discontinuous. 

(3) Forms or groups of forms of very wide distribution, all or 
most of which can often be obtained in one locality. 

The problem of how to deal with these can only be solved by a care- 
ful study of the Laws of Variation. These of course cannot be dealt 
with in detail in the limits of a single article, but the writer has attempt- 
ed to express his own views on the subject as bearing on our problem 
in an aphoristic form for the sake of brevity. 

(1) Most variable types are those not confined to one particular 
region of distribution but continuously distributed through the 
neighbouring regions. 

(2) The next most variable are those found practically throughout 
a particular geographical region. 

(3) Those restricted to a subregion are much more constant. 

(4) Those confined to a minor division or to two or more small 
discontinuous areas are generally very constant and often imper- 
vious even to seasonable changes. 

(5) The variability of (1) and (2) differs in kind as we]] as degree, 
whereas that of (1) is so great that it is difficult to define, except 
in the broadest liues, a type to which all the specimens captured 
even in a single locality will conform; in (2) the types are fairly 
constant in particular areas but vary geographically in the 
various subregions and for minor subdivisions of its area of 
distribution, such variations often proving on investigation to be 
as much climatic, or dependent on the rainfall, as geographical. 

So long as (1) types maintain their wide distribution the irregularity 
is at least partly maintained by migrations and counter-migrations 
keeping the blood in fusion. 

(6) Geographical variations are dependent on climate, soil, geologi- 
cal history and superficial characteristics, and, 


(7) possibly other unknown causes, e.g., it isdifficultin the present 
state of our knowledge to account for the prevalence of a blue 
sheen in the dominant Papilionina of the Assam subregion. 

(8) Those belonging to (1) are the newest and most dominant 
types. Those belonging to (2) and (3) are older, while class (4) 
are very ancient, often not merely as specific forms but belonging 
to generically ancient types of structure. 

(9) There exists among all creatures a progressive or rather a con- 
servative tendency towards fixity of type. 

(10) Almost all creatures around us now are admirably adapted to 
their place in nature — observations of so-called evolution in the 
making being extremely rare. 

(11) By consequence any tendency to vary would, ceteris paribus, 
be contrary to nature's great object — the preservation of the type. 

(12) Therefore unless the environment is changed, there is no a 
priori likelihood that any variation will occur. 

(13) A change of environment occurs either by the type itself 
migrating to a new locality or by a new environment coming to 
the type through geological upheaval causing either a complete 
change of climate or by uniting the region with another not 
previously connected letting in a crowd of forms whose presence 
entirely alters the aspect of the struggle for existence, or both. 

(14c) Species which seek a change of environment themselves will 
belong mainly to (1). Although the laws of migrations are 
imperfectly known, it may be said generally that they probably 
arise originally from pressure of numbers and, that their direction 
is determined in the first instance, at least among winged 
creatures, by the winds and that types once moved in this way 
usually acquire for a time a regular migratory habit. (This 
ignores all forms spread artificially by man and seasonable 
migrations of birds.) 

(15) In the event of the second alternative the older species will 
many of them have become so fixed that they will not be able to 
adapt themselves to the new conditions and will disappear or 
become rare. Others will have to change and change with con- 
siderable rapidity until they acquire a form and constitution suited 
to survive, and most of the intermediate forms will have little 
chance of perpetuating themselves. 


(16) In practice "a species" is a very real unit of classification 
presenting a very concrete shape to a naturalist's mind but is 
difficult of definition. 

(17) The difficulty arises entirely from the exceptions which would 
occur in classes (1) and (2) to almost any form of wording. 

(18) Nevertheless even in these the "species" is a very real 
entity, and in class (1) can practically always be discovered 
by selective breeding. 

(19) Some cases of geographical races (2) can also be shown to be 
purely climatic by breeding also ; for when once the essential 
difference between dry and wet season forms is known, the 
extremes of each and intermediate of each can be inferred and 
reconciled. Geographical differences of this kind should be 
ignored systematically and the types treated as one species. 

(20) Other cases of geographical differences cannot be dealt with 
by breeding, and each case must be judged on its own merits, 
bearing in mind (a) magnitude of the difference, (b) its constancy, 
(c) the relative constancy of other specific characteristics, (d) 
the relative sharpness of the boundary of the distributive areas 
of the several forms, and the presence or absence of intermediates 
near the frontier. 

(21) For simplicity sake it is desirable to unite rather than divide. 

(22) A description of a "new species" from a single capture — 
unless it shows pronounced and not purely superficial peculi- 
arities- — is of doubtful value and most dangerous in practice. 

If these conclusions are just, then there is certainly such a thing in 
nature as a species, and conversely a " subspecies" is an absurdity. 

There is no harm of course in describing, and defining where possible, 
geographical races, but to give them separate names is only to add an 
element of confusion where all should be clear and simple. 

The writer claims no finality for his views, but the subject is one of 
such importance and general interest that it is well worth a discussion 
in our journal. 




E. MeyRICK, B.A., F.R.S., F.Z.S. 

Thanks to the energy of the Mioro-Lepidopterists of Ceylon, I have 
now received a considerable quantity of material from that island, and 
the present paper is mainly devoted to a selection from it. I am 
indebted for these valuable contributions to Messrs. J. Pole, of Maske- 
liya ; E. E. Grean, of Peradeniya ; G. B. de Mowbray, of Maskeliya ; 
G. 0. Alston, of Maskeliya ; and W. Vaughan, of Madulsima. 

I- have had some instructions for collectors printed, and shall be 
pleased to send a copy to any collector in the Indian region who will 
send me his address. 

Seventeen genera and seventy-six species are here described as new, 
and some other species are recorded from the region for the first time. 


Omeodes toxopTiila, n. sp. 

$. 15—16 mm. Head and thorax white. Palpi with appressed scales, white, 
towards base sprinkled with fuscous. Antennas ochreous-whitish, basal joint 
white. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Forewings ochreous-whitish, crossed by 
ill-defined light yellow-ochreous bands before and beyond middle, and a narrow 
curved darker central fascia, sometimes partially speckled with dark fuscous 
not reaching sixth segment, separated from them by fine lines of ground colour ; 
sometimes a few fine blackish specks on segments ; sometimes a faint yellowish 
subterminal line. Hindwings as forewings, but central fascia fuscous, sprinkled 
with blackish, entire, dark specks on segments rather more numerous, subter- 
minal line sometimes greyish towards dorsum. 

Four specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in April and June (de Mowbray). 

Omeodes sycqphanta, n. sp. 

6 9 . 15 —IS mm. Head and thorax white. Palpi smooth-scaled, white, apex 
of basal and second joints and subapical ring of terminal joint dark fuscous. 
Antennas stout, serrate, whitish-ochreous, basal joint white. Abdomen white, 
segments 2 — 4 partially or wholly dark fuscous above (number of dark segments 
variable). Forewings white ; first segment fuscous, with four blackish white- 
edged spots, fourth apical ; second segment fuscous, with three dark fuscous 
bands, limited by white spots edged with blackish-fuscous ; segments 3—6 
crossed by two anterior series of undefined dark fuscous dots, and four posterior 
pale greyish-ochreous fascias, edged with dark fuscous, but these vary much 
in distinctness and are often partially obsolete ; usually a distinct blackish- 
fuscous spot on middle of sixth segment. Hindwings white, with six transverse 
g eries of pale ochreous spots, speckled with black. 


Eight specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in January, May, and July (Pole). 

Omeodes trachyptera, n. sp. 

$ $. 10 — 13 mm. Head palpi, antennae, thorax, and abdomen dark fuscous, 
mixed with whitish ; palpi with second joint dilated with rough scales towards 
apex above and beneath, terminal joint thickened with loose scales towards apex 
anteriorly. Forewings with costa roughened with projecting dark fuscous 
scales, except on the white markings ; whitish, densely irrorated with dark 
fuscous, so as to appear dark grey ; costa with six or seven small semioval 
ochreous-white spots, not reaching more than half across first segment ; other 
segments crossed by about six series of ochreous-white dots, united by out- 
wardly oblique whitish dashes in the cilia to form zigzag lines. Hindwings with 
ground colour and zigzag lines as in forewings. 

Six specimens, Puttalam and Maskeliya, Ceylon, in March, May, November 
and December (Pole, de Mowbray). 


Cosmoclostis pesseuta, n. sp. 

$ 9. 12 — 13 mm. Head brownish-ochreous, front of crown white. Palpi 
short, whitish, sprinkled with fuscous. Thorax white, anterior and posterior 
margins ochreous. Abdomen in $ white, irregularly marked with ferrugin- 
ous ; in $ pale yellow, last three segments marked with ferruginous. Fore- 
wings cleft from before §, segments linear ; white, costal half irrorated with 
fuscous from base of wing to middle of first segment ; first segment with a 
small dark fuscous mark on its lower margin near base, dark fuscous bands 
about middle and f, and some irregularly strewn dark fuscous scales posteriorly,- 
second segment with dark fuscous bands towards base, beyond middle, and 
before apex, variable in development and first two sometimes very wide ; cilia 
light ochreous-grey, somewhat suffused with whitish opposite white areas. 
Hindwings grey ; cilia light grey. 

Two specimens, Puttalam, Ceylon, in February and April (Pole). 

Cosmoclostis aglaodesma, Meyr. 

Puttalam, Ceylon, from October to January (Pole). Occurs also in Eastern 
Australia, and some of the South Pacific and Malayan Islands. 

Trichoptilus xerodes, Meyr. 

Peradeniya, Ceylon, in October (Green, Pole). Widely distributed in 

Trichoptilus Wahlbergi, Zell. 

(Pterophorus Wahlbergi, Zell. Linn. Ent. VI, 346, Mic. Caff. 117 ; P. rutilalis, 
Walk. Cat. 943 ; Trichoptilus pyrrhodes, Meyr. Proc. Linn. Soc. N. S. Wales 
1889, 1113.) 

Maskeliya, Ceylon, in March and May (Pole). Occurs from S. Africa to 
E. Australia. 

Deuterocopus Tengstroemi, Zell. 

Puttalam, Ceylon, in October (Pole) ; Surat, Bombay, in August (Maxwel 
Lefroy). Occurs also from S. Africa to New Guinea. 


Oxyptilus regulus, n. sp. 

£. 16 mm. Head and thorax fuscous, irrorated with blackish. Palpi white, 
mixed with blackish, second joint reaching middle of face, terminal joint rather 
shorter than second. Abdomen fuscous, with dorsal series of undefined 
blackish marks. Forewings cleft from before §, first segment parallel-sided, 
subfalcate, second narrow, posteriorly dilated, apex abruptly and moderately 
produced ; fuscous, irrorated with dark fuscous and blackish ; an undefined 
spot of dark suffusion above base of cleft ; a broad dark fuscous band on first 
segment beyond its middle, preceded on costa by a small pale suffusion, and 
edged posteriorly by a rather outwardly oblique incurved white line ; some dark 
suffusion on second segment before apex ; cilia light fuscous, on termen with 
black basal line, on lower margin of first segment mixed at base with white and 
elsewhere with black scales, on upper margin of second segment with scattered 
black scales, on dorsum with three small black scale-teeth near base, some 
scattered black scales towards middle, a black scale-tooth before cleft, another 
at 5 of second segment, preceded and followed by ochreous- whitish spaces, 
beyond these mixed with black scales. Pindwings cleft firstly from 5, secondly 
from near base, segments linear ; rather dark fuscous ; cilia fuscous, on upper 
margin of third segment with a few black scales towards apex, on lower margin 
with a very large black triangular scale-projection occupying apical third, five 
small black scale-teeth between this and base, and two very minute, almost 

Two specimens, Miskeliya, Ceylon, in March and July (Pole). 
Platyptilia brachymorpha, Meyr. 

Puttalam, Ceylon, in February, April, August, November and December 
(Pole). Occurs also in the Hawaiian Islands. 
Platyptilia hemimetra, Meyr. 

Puttalam, Maturatta, Kandy and Maskeliya, Ceylon, in February, March, 
September, November and December. Described from the Island of Reunion. 
Platyptilia molopias, n. sp, 

$ $. 16 — 19 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish, irrorated with light 
brown, frontal tuft moderately long. Palpi 2, rather dark fuscous, sprinkled 
with whitish. Forewings cleft from §, segments moderately broad, somewhat 
dilated posteriorly, termen of first sinuate, of second slightly prominent in middle ; 
whitish, irrorated with reddish-fuscous and dark fuscous ; costal edge dark 
fuscous, dotted with whitish anteriorly ; a roundish spot of dark fuscous 
suffusion on fold at £, and another beneath costa before middle ; a dark fuscous 
suffusion along middle third of dorsum ; a triangular blackish-fuscous costal 
blotch before cleft, followed by a whitish suffusion on costal edge ; a rather 
reddish-brown band crossing both segments, obscurely whitish-edged poste- 
riorly ; remaining narrow terminal fascia sometimes dark fuscous ; cilia 
whitish-ochreous, slightly reddish-tinged, on termen with black basal line, at 
both angles of each segment with bars of dark grey suffusion, on dorsum with 
a blackish scale-tooth beyond middle, a smaller one beneath cleft, and some 


scattered blackish scales anteriorly. Hindwings cleft firstly from before middle, 
secondly from i, first segment dilated, apex rounded, second subacute, termen 
very obliquely subsinuate, third linear ; dark fuscous ; cilia fuscous, on lower 
margin of third segment with a moderate black scale-tooth in middle, and 
scattered black scales between this and base. 

Six specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in October, December, January, and March 

Harasmarcha liophanes, Meyr. 

Puttalam, Ceylon, in February, April, August, and November (Pole). 
Occurs also in Reunion. 

Agdistis nanodes, n. sp. 

ft $. 15 — 16 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen pale brownish-grey, some- 
times whitish-mixed ; frontal prominence moderate, acute-conical. Palpi grey, 
mixed with dark grey and white. Forewings very narrow, posteriorly dilated, 
costa posteriorly moderately arched, apex pointed, termen rather strongly oblique, 
almost straight ; pale brownish-grey, costal and dorsal areas sprinkled with 
whitish and dark fuscous, confluent towards base ; a cloudy dark fuscous dot in 
disc at J, two below disc before and beyond middle, and one towards costa at 
| : cilia pile fuscous mixed with whitish. Hindwings light fuscous, veins 
darker ; a subdorsal groove ; cilia as in forewings. Undersurface of hindwings 
beneath with flap of scales from lower margin of cell towards angle, covering 
some black scales, and rows of minute raised black scales along basal portions 
of veins 2 and 3 ; dorsal area clothed with dark fuscous scales. 

Four specimens, Puttalam, Ceylon, in August, October, and November. The 
species of this genus (usually attached to sea-coast plants) are extremely similar 
superficially, and the accessory structural characters must be carefully noticed ; 
the present species is the smallest known to me. 


Platypeplus mormopa, n. sp. 

ft. 19 mm. Head and thorax light greyish-ochreous, mixed with dark grey 
and white. Palpi ochreous-fuscous, mixed with darker. Abdomen grey. 
Posterior tibiae with hairs ochreous-white. Forewings elongate-triangular, 
costa moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen slightly rounded, hardly oblique ; 
whitish, mostly suffused with pale brownish, and strigulated throughout with 
blackish ; a large roundish black blotch resting on middle of costa, and reaching 
f across wing, with a small irregular projection in disc posteriorly: cilia grey. 
Hindwings grey, rather darker posteriorly ; a short subdorsal groove and 
marginal thickening from base, clothed with hairs, with a projecting marginal 
hairpencil from near base ; cilia grey. 

Two specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in February (de Mowbray, Alston). 

Eucosma leucaspis, Meyr. 

Maskeliya, Madulsima, Matale, and Puttalam, Ceylon, in May, October, and 
November (Pole, Vaughan). 


Epiblem.1 ocladias, n. sp. 

$ $. 18 — 26 mm. Head white, sides of crown and a frontal bar black. 
Palpi black, white above and at apex. Antennae blackish-grey. Thorax white, 
shoulders and a posterior bar black. Abdomen grey, Forewings elongate, 
rather dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen almost 
straight, hardly oblique, rounded beneath ; white ; markings dark leaden- 
fuscous, irregularly suffused or marked with black, sharply defined ; a zigzag 
streak from base of costa through disc, angulated thrice downwards and twice 
upwards, terminating on costa before apex ; in $ costal area as far as this 
streak from base to beyond middle wholly blackish, in 9 wr *h a small wedge- 
shaped black costal spot at J, and a larger subquadrate one beyond middle, 
each preceded by a black strigula ; two posterior black costal strigula: : four 
irregular dorsal spots, second sometimes connected with middle angle of median 
streak ; an irregular spot near termen below middle, often confluent with me- 
dian streak near its extremity : cilia white, beneath tornus blackish. Hind- 
wings dark grey, lighter towards base ; cilia grey-whitish, with grey basal line. 

Seven specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in March, May, July, August, October 
and November (de Mowbray, Pole, Green). 


Meridarchis, Zell. 

This genus, founded by Zeller on the Indian trajjeziella, and attributed by 
him to the Gelechiadce, is, I find, so close to Tribonica, Meyr,, that it will be 
better at present to treat them as identical and sink the latter name, although it 
is possible that the small structural differences existing may ultimately involve 
their separation. The types of Meridarclds and Tribonica, and the two addi- 
tional species now described, agree together, and are distinguished from all 
nearly allied forms by the stalking of veins 8 and 9 of forewings. 

Meridarchis episacla, n. sp. 

£. 18 — 21mm. Head and thorax white, more or Jess tinged with ochreous. 
Palpi porrected, dark fuscous, second joint mixed with white above. Abdomen 
ochreous-whitish. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, not dilated, ccsta arched 
towards base, thence nearly straight, apex round-pointed, termen sinuate, 
oblique ; 3 and 4 separate ; white ; a black basal patch, edge parallel to 
termen ; a black subdorsal acaletuft at ^ ; a trapezoidal black patch extending 
along costa from g- to beyond f, rapidly narrowed downwards, reaching more 
than half across wing, edged beneath with a few ochreous scales ; a black 
strigula on dorsum at f, almost connected with costal patch ; a small blackish 
costal spot at f, whence proceeds an undefined line of black and grey scales to 
tornus ; a row of black dots round apex and termen : cilia whitish-grey- 
ochreous. Hindwings pale grey ; beneath cell towards base a group of raised 
black hair scales, partially covered by an expansible pencil of long ochreous. 
whitish hairs from base ; cilia whitish-grey-ochreous. 

Three specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in October, December, and January 
(de Mowbray). 


Meridarclus phceodelta, n. sp. 

<£ 9 . 13 — 17 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, tinged with brownish 
ochreous. Palpi in <£ moderate, curved, subascending, in 9 very long, 
straight, porrected ; ochreous-whitish, second joint irrorated with fuscous, 
terminal joint with dark fuscous band. Abdomen in $ grey, in 9 light 
greyish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, narrow, hardly dilated, costa slightly 
arched, apex round-pointed, termen sinuate, rather strongly oblique ; 3 and 4 
separate ; pale greyish-ochreous, partially mixed and suffused with brownish 
ochreous, sometimes partially sprinkled with dark fuscous ; a dark fuscous or 
blackish triangular patch extending along costa from about \ to f , and 
reaching f across wing, somewhat mixed with pale scales, and on costa with 
alternate usually obscure pale and blackish spots ; a terminal series of connected 
blackish marks : cilia whitish-ochreous, mixed with dark grey on termen. 
Hindwings light grey, darker towards apex, veins dark grey ; cilia whitish- 
ochreous, suffused with grey. 

Six specimens, Maskeliya and Haputale, Ceylon, in February, June, and 
November (Alston, Pole). 
Paramorpha laxeuta, n. sp. 

$. 15 — 17 mm. Head and thorax white, partially tinged with fuscous. 
Palpi whitish, mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen ochreous-whitish. Fore- 
wings elongate, narrow, hardly dilated, costa gently arched, apex round-point- 
ed, termen slightly sinuate, rather strongly oblique ; white ; a narrow basal 
patch of ochreous-grey suffusion, edge inwardly oblique ; a wide median band 
extending from J to somewhat beyond f irrorated with ochreous and grey, 
with four black marks on costa, and discal scaletufts mixed with black, edges 
inwardly oblique ; a subterminal cloudy fascia of grey irroration ; some grey spots 
with a few black scales round apex and termen : cilia whitish-ochreous, round 
apex fuscous-tinged. Hindwings whitish-grey : cilia ochreous-grey-whitish. 

Three specimens, Matale and Maskeliya, Ceylon, in January and April (Pole, 
de Mowbray). 

Aristotelia peltosema, Low. 

Puttalam, Ceylon, from September to December (Pole). Described from 

TMotricha saulotis, n. sp. 

9. 11mm. Head, palpi, and thorax shining white. Abdomen ochreous- 
whitish. Forewings almost linear, costa almost straight, apex pointed, termen 
rather strongly oblique, slightly rounded ; 9 out of 6 ; shining white ; an 
orange-ochreous spot towards apex, connected by two indistinct oblique grey 
strigulee with costa, beneath with two longer similar strigulse, first reaching 
fold and angulated on it to margin, second limited below by a yellowish mark ; 
a blackish apical dot, more strongly marked on under surface : cilia ochreous- 
whitish, round apex and termen with a grey median shade, on termen with a 
fine yellowish basal line and some black basal scales at tornus. Hindwings very 


narrow, cilia 5 ; pale grey ; a minute blackish apical dot ; cilia ochreous-grey- 
whitish, with some blackish median scales opposite apex. 

One specimen, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in March (Pole). To this genus is also 
referable animosella, Walk., described under Gelechia. 

Idiophantis soreuta, n. sp. 

$ . 13-14 mm. Head pale ochreous, face and palpi whitish-ochreous, ter- 
minal joint of palpi with dark fuscous line each side of anterior edge. Antenna? 
whitish, lined with dark fuscous. Thorax pale ochreous, shoulders narrowly 
fuscous. Abdomen light grey. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently 
arched, termen very deeply concave, so that apex becomes a narrow twisted 
strip, tornus a somewhat shorter, strong, rounded prominence ; 6 absent ; pale 
brownish-ochreous, towards apex yellowish-tinged ; a dark fuscous patch 
extending along costa from base to §•, not reaching half across wing, lower edge 
with two short darker rounded prominences before middle, posterior edge 
straight, oblique ; a few variable scattered dark fuscous dots or dashes 
between this and dorsum ; a fine whitish fuscous-edged line from f of costa 
to dorsum before tornus, right-angled above middle, arms subsinuate ; a whitish 
streak along costa towards apex, edged with fuscous beneath ; a small dark 
metallic-bronze spot on termen beneath middle : cilia whitish-ochreous, round 
apex with a dark fuscous basal line, opposite terminal spot with a metallic- 
bronze patch. Hindwings fuscous ; cilia whitish-fuscous, with darker subbasal 

Three specimens, Puttalam, Ceylon, in November and December (Pole). The 
absence of vein 6 of the forewings is an extension of the generic characters, 
but the species is in all respects so clearly allied to the Australian insect -which 
forms the type of Idiophantis that I do not hesitate to include them together. 

Anacampsis nerteria, n. sp. 

$ 9. 10 — 11mm. Head, antenna?, and thorax dark bronzy-fuscous, face 
whitish-ochreous. Palpi ochreous-whitish, terminal joint with anterior and 
interior blackish lines. Abdomen grey. Forewings elongate, narrow, long- 
pointed, acute ; 6 out of 7 ; bronzy-fuscous, irrorated with dark fuscous, some- 
times paler-3prinkled ; stigmata dark fuscous, very obscure, plical obliquely 
before first discal, edged posteriorly by an ochreous-whitish dot ; a small 
ochreous-whitish costal spot before f : cilia fuscous, towards base mixed with 
brown and black points, with a median black line. Hindwings and cilia grey. 

Thirty-four specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in February and April (Green). 
Bred in plenty by Mr. Green who gives the following particulars : — " Larva dull 
greenish ; head and plate of 2 dark brown ; spots black : feeds between two 
leaves spun together on the ground-nut (Arachishypogaa*), and is destructive to 
foliage ; egg pale green, irregularly elongate-oval, surface coarsely pitted in 
irregular longitudinal series, under the microscope remarkably similar both in 
form and sculpture to seed of Arachis." This species is very closely allied to 
the common European anthyllidella, differing only by the ochreous-whitish face 
and second joint of palpi, which in anthyllidella are pale fuscous ; also very 


close to the Australian clarisignella, but differing by the absence of the pale 
dorsal spot. These three species appear to be representative geographical 

Stegasta variana, Meyr. 

Ceylon (wkhout further locality, but probably Puttalam) (Pole). Hitherto 
only known from Eastern Australia. 

Zaliihia amethyslias, n. sp. 

£. 10 mm. Head and thorax dark bronzy-fuscous, shoulders with a 
prismatic violet-blue spot. Palpi pale yellowish-fuscous, terminal joint longer 
than second, ochreous-whitish, with black anterior edge. Antennae ochreous- 
whitish ringed with dark fuscous, simple. Abdomen dark grey. Legs dark 
fuscous ringed with white, middle tibiae with a violet-blue streak towards base. 
Forewings elongate, narrow, posteriorly dilated, costa gently arched towards 
extremities, apex obtuse, termen slightly sinuate, little oblique ; 6 to apex, 8 
absent ; dull ochreous-orange sprinkled with fuscous ; markings prismatic 
violet-blue, partially edged with dark fuscous ; narrow costal and median 
streaks from base to J ; an oblique mark from costa before middle, not reaching 
half across wing ; a short longitudinal mark beneath disc before middle ; a 
straight narrow fascia at f, interrupted above middle ; apical fourth blackish 
except a terminal line, anterior edge straight, near and parallel to preceding 
fascia, including a small round violet-silvery-metallic spot on costa and four 
others before termen : cilia bluish-silvery-metallic, beneath tornus dark fuscous. 
Hindwings dark fuscous, bronzy-tinged ; cilia fuscous, with dark fuscous basal 

Two specimens, Peradeniya, Ceylon, in January and April (Green). The 
generic characters are extended in the particulars indicated, but the species is 
in all essentials closely allied to the type-form of the genus. 

Epiecenia, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales ; tongue developed. Antennas ■§, in $ serruhte, 
minutely ciliated. Labial palpi long, recurved, second joint with appressed 
scales, somewhat roughened beneath towards apex, terminal joint almost or 
quite as long as second, smooth, acute. Posterior tibiae somewhat roughened 
with scales above. Forewings with 2 and 3 stalked from angle, 7 to costa, 8 
absent, 11 from middle. Hindwings 1, trapezoidal, termen sinuate beneath 
apex, cilia f — 1 ; 3 and 4 connate, 5 somewhat approximated, 6 aud 7 stalked. 

Type E. chernetis. Belongs to the Protolechia group ; nearest to Pancamia, 
from which it differs essentially by the stalking of 6 and 7 of hindwings. 

Epiecenia clilorodelta, n. sp. 

$ 9. 14— 15 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax ochreous-orange, second joint 
of palpi with lower half irrorated with fuscous and a dark fuscous subapical 
ring, terminal joint somewhat shorter than second, with traces of a dark fuscous 
median ring. Antennae pale ochreous-yellowish ringed with dark fuscous. 
Abdomen rather dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, coita moderately arched, 
apex round-pointed, termen slightly rounded, oblique ; dark fuscous : a small 


basal ochreous-orange spot ; stigmata and a small praetornal spot very 
obscurely darker, plical obliquely before first discal ; a triangular ochreous- 
orange blotch extending on costa from 5 to rather near apex, and reaching 
more than half across wing : cilia pale ochreous, at apex and tornus -with 
patches of dark fuscous suffusion. Hind wings dark grey ; cilia grey. 

Four specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in February and October (Pole, de 

Epicmiia authcema, n. sp. 

£ 9. 12 — 13 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, mixed with dark 
fuscous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint irrorated or suffused with dark 
fuscous except at apex, terminal joint somewhat shorter than second, with 
dark fuscous median band sometimes extended nearly to base. Antennae 
whitish-fuscous or whitish-ochreous 'tinged with fuscous, obscurely ringed 
with dark fuscous. Abdomen grey, apex whitish-ochreous. Forewings 
elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen very 
obliquely rounded ; pale ochreous, irrorated with fuscous and dark fuscous : 
stigmata rather large, dark fuscous, plical nearly beneath first discal ; a small 
dark fuscous praetornal spot ; an almost marginal series of dark fuscous dots 
along posterior half of costa and termen : cilia whitish-ochreous, basal half 
yellowish, with a median line of dark fuscous points, apical half with faint 
whitish-fuscous irroration, on costa sometimes barred with dark fuscous in ora- 
tion. Hindwings grey, darker in 9 ; cilia pale g re y> sometimes suffused with 
whitish-ochreous towards base. 

Four specimens, Peradeniya, Ceylon, in February (three bred) (Green). 
Larva constructs heliciform cases on surface of moss-covered rocks (Green) ; 
cases sent seem to consist of a gradually dilated gallery coiled in a flat rounded 
spiral, and are composed of silk closely covered with grains of sand and frag- 
ments of lichens. This species is extremely close to E. cJiernetis, and both 
appear to vary in small details ; auihccma is smaller, with the forewings obviously 
narrower and with more strongly oblique termen, and the terminal joint of palpi 
relatively shorter ; the larval habits are distinct. 

Epicania cherne(is,n. sp. 

$ 9- 13—17 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous, irrorated with fuscous 
and dark fuscous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint irrorated with dark 
fuscous except at apex, terminal joint as long as second, with dark fuscous 
median band. Antennae whitish-ochreous ringed with dark fuscous. Abdomen 
fuscous, anal tuft whitish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, 
apex obtuse, termen almost straight, rather oblique : whitish-ochreous, tinged 
with fuscous and irrorated with dark fuscous ; a dark fuscous dot on base of 
costa, followed by an undefined whitish-ochreous dot ; stigmata dark fuscous, 
sometimes rather large, plical somewhat before first discal ; a small prsetornal 
spot of dark fuscous suffusion ; an almost marginal row of di.rk fuscous or 
blackish dots along posterior portion of co3ta and termen : cilia whitish-ochreor.s, 
more yellowish towards base, with basal dots and a median line of dark fuscous 


irroration, on apical half with faint whitish-fuscous irroration. Hindwings 
grey ; cilia whitish-ochreous, tinged with fuscous. 

Fifteen specimens, Peradeniya and Madulsima, Ceylon, from February to 
April (Green, Vaughan). Larva feeding in galleries several inches long on 
surface of moss-covered rocks, and pupating in an enlarged chamber (Green) ; 
specimens of these galleries sent by Mr. Green are composed of silk covered 
with grains of sand and fragments of lichen, moss, and incidental refuse ; from 
similar undistinguished galleries two other species of different genera were also 
bred. Not only is this species very close to E. authcema as noted above, but 
also by its obscure and ordinary colouring exceedingly similar superficially to 
species of other genera, from which it must* be carefully distinguished by 
verifying the neuration. 
Tipha diacma, n. sp. 

$ 9 . 17 — 22 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-yellow, face paler, apex of 
patagia and a posterior spot on thorax metallic-grey. Palpi light ochreous- 
yellowish, in ft with second joint dilated with long projecting scales towards 
apex and excavated internally (spoon-shaped), interior of excavation metallic- 
grey, terminal joint short, in 9 very long, normal. Antennae light ochreous- 
yellowish, towards apex suffused with grey. Abdomen whitish-ochreous. 
Legs pale ochreous-yellowish, anterior and middle tibiae with indistinct grey 
subapical ring, posterior tibiae and tarsi clothed with rough hairs above. Fore- 
wings elongate, very narrow, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen 
extremely obliquely rounded ; 2 remote, 3 from near angle, 4 and 5 stalked, 8 
and 9 out of 7, 7 to costa ; dull orange-yellow ; a minute metallic-grey black- 
edged basal mark ; a small dark metallic-grey black-mixed spot in disc near 
base ; three indistinct cloudy rather broad pale fuscous fasciae, first at f, 
angulated in middle, second oblique, from towards middle of costa to before 
tornus, third oblique, about §, little marked ; five linear longitudinal dark 
metallic-grey streaks mixed with black, two on first fascia in middle and on 
fold, one on second fascia in middle, and two stronger starting on anterior edge 
of third fascia and continued along costa and termen respectively almost meet- 
ing at apex : cilia ochreous-yellow, at apex with a cloudy dark fuscous spot. 
Hindwings with 2 remote, in ft 3 and 5 absent, in 9 3 and 4 short-stalked, 5 
approximated, 6 and 7 long-stalked, 6 in ft to costa, in 9 to termen ; grey ; 
in ft a longitudinal median furrow throughout, suffused with whitish-ochreous, 
suffusion extending round apex, and a long ochreous-yellow hair-pencil from 
base, lying in a groove beneath cell, tornal area clothed with modified dark 
grey hair-scales ; cilia whitish-yellowish, becoming greyish-tinged towards tornus. 
Four specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, from December to February (de Mow- 

Tipha trichroa, n. sp. 

ft 9. 14 mm. Head and palpi glossy whitish-ochreous ; palpi in ft with 
second joint broadly dilated beneath with projecting scales towards apex and 
excavated internally (spoon-shaped), mixed with dark grey towards apex and 


interior of excavation wholly dark grey, terminal joint concealed. Antenna} 
whitish-ochreous, more yellow towards base. Thorax dark coppery-bronze. 
Abdomen whitish-ochreous. Legs whitish, tibiae yellowish-tinged, anterior 
tibia? with dark grey band, posterior tibiae and basal joint of tarsi roughened 
with hairs, partially suffused with yellow and irregularly banded with dark 
grey at middle and apex of tibia?, and apex of two basal joints of tarsi. 
Forewings elongate, very narrow, costa moderately arched towards base, thence 
nearly straight, apex round-pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; 2 
tolerably remote, 3 and 5 stalked, 4 absent, 7 and 9 short-stalked, 7 to costa, 8 
absent ; dark brown, basal third dark purple-fuscous ; a triangular white 
blotch on dorsum beyond \, reaching more than half across wing ; a cloudy 
ochreous-yellow dot on costa before middle ; a triangular ochreous-yellow 
patch extending along costa from middle to f, and reaching more than half 
across wing : cilia light fuscous, at base tinged with ochreous-yellowish. 
Hindwings with termen sinuate ; 2 remote, in ft 3 and 5 absent, in 9 3 and 4 
stalked, 5 approximated, 6 and 7 long-stalked ; rather dark fuscous ; in ft a 
subdorsal furrow throughout, filled with very long expansible pale fuscous 
hairs ; cilia pale fuscous. 

Two specimens, Madulsima, Ceylon, in April (Vaughan). 

Timyra tetraclina, n. sp. 

ft 9- 16 — 18 mm. Head and thorax ochreous-yellow. Palpi whitish- 
ochreous, lower half of second joint infuscated, in ft with second joint dilated 
with long projecting scales beneath towards apex and excavated internally (s-poon- 
shaped), interior of excavation mixed with dark grey, terminal joint concealed, 
in $ second joint with tuft of rough projecting ochreous-yellow hairs towards 
apex beneath, terminal joint longer than second. Antenna? pale ochreoug- 
yellowish, indistinctly ringed with fuscous, basal joint in ft with anterior scale- 
projection. Abdomen pale greyish-ochreous. Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior 
femora and tibia? suffusedly banded with dark fuscous, middle tibia? banded with 
dark fuscous and with tuft of yellow scales above towards base, posterior tibia? 
roughened with ochreous-yellow scales, with dense expanded median tuft of 
long ochreous-whitish hairs suffusedly banded with grey, and smaller apical 
similar tuft marked with black, tarsi with interrupted dark fuscous line above. 
Forewings elongate, narrow, costa anteriorly moderately, posteriorly slightly 
arched, apex round-pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; 4 and 5 
stalked, 7 to costa, 9 connate with 7; yel'owish-orange, markings fuscous- 
purple ; a small spot on base of costa ; five narrow transverse fascia?, first at 
£, rather inwardly oblique, second at }, rather outwardly oblique, third median, 
oblique, irregularly angulated or dilated, fourth at f , irregular, fifth terminal, 
meeting fourth at tornus ; a small discal spot beyond third, sometimes connect- 
ed with it : cilia pale ochreous-yellowish, on costa yellowish-orange. Hind- 
wings with 2 in ft near 3, in 9 remote ; in ft whitish-ochreous, posterior third 
suffused with dark fuscous, with a deep groove along fold containing a very long 
expansible whitish-ochreous hair-pencil ; in 9 g r ey ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 


Six specimens, Maturatta and Maskeliya, Ceylon, in September (Pole, 

Timyra palathodes, n. sp. 

$ $ . 14 — 16 mm. Head, palpi, thorax and abdomen whitish-ochreous ; palpi 
in $ with second joint infuscated towards base, dilated with rough projecting 
scales towards apex beneath and internally excavated (spoon-shaped), ex- 
cavation partly dark fuscous internally, terminal joint concealed, in $ 
with second joint smooth-scaled, slender, terminal joint as long as 
second. Antennae whitish, basal joint in $ with anterior scale-projection. 
Legs ochreous-whitish, anterior and middle tibia? with dark fuscous sub- 
apical bands, posterior tibise clothed with rough yellow-whitish hairs, with dense 
long median and shorter apical tufts partly suffused with grey and somewhat 
mixed with blackish. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex 
round pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; 4 and 5 stalked, 7 to 
costa, connate or short stalked with 7 ; ochreous-yellow ; small dark fuscous 
spots on costa at and near base, and near base of dorsum ; three irregular 
obscure brownish-ochreous fascia? at \, middle, and f , dilated in disc, and a 
similar transverse line before second, sometimes mostly confluent with it, third 
sometimes suffused with fuscous : cilia light brownish-ochreous. Hindwings 
in $ dark grey, apex whitish-ochreous, with subdorsal groove enclosing long 
ochreous-yellowish hair-pencil; in 9 g re y, apex and upper part of termen 
suffused with whitish-ochreous ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 

Five specimens, Madulsima and Maturatta, Ceylon, in April. July, and 
September (Vaughan, Pole). 

Timyra marmarltis, n. sp. 

£. 21 — 23 mm. Head light ochreous-yellowish, face paler and greyish-tinged. 
Palpi long, basal joint dark grey, second joint clothed with long dense ochreous 
whitish hairs above and beneath, terminal joint moderately long, much thick- 
ened with dense dark grey hairs, obtuse. Antennas dark grey, basal joint with 
strong anterior scale-tuft. Thorax dark purplish-fuscous. Abdomen pale 
ochreous, marked laterally with dark fuscous. Legs dark purplish-fuscous, 
obscurely ringed with ochreous-whitish, posterior tibiae wholly clothed above 
with very long projecting curled whitish hairs slightly mixed with dark fuscous 
and towards apex suffused with ochreous-yellow. Forewings elongate, narrow, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded; 3, 4, 5 approximated, 
7 to apex; whitish-ochreous tinged with yellowish and irrorated with dark fuscous 
a narrow dark fuscous basal fascia, followed by a clear pale ochreous-yellow 
subbasal fascia, edged posteriorly with dark fuscous suffusion : a slender 
cloudy dark fuscous slightly oblique median fascia, slightly bent in middle ; a 
dark fuscous streak along termen : cilia pale whitish-ochreous, becoming ochre- 
ous-yellow at base and on costa, with a dark fuscous subbasal line round apex 
and on termen, beyond this tinged and somewhat mixed with fuscous. Hind- 
wings posteriorly clothed with hair -scales, rather dark fuscous, disc more 
or less broadly suffusad with light ochreous-yellowish ; a subdorsal groove 


enclosing an ochreous-yellowish hair-pencil from base ; a dark fuscous terminal 
line ; cilia whitish-ochreous, becoming ochreous-yellowish towards base, with 
fuscous subbasal line. 

Five specimens, Maskeliya and Maturatta, Ceylon, in March, May, June, and 
October (Pole, de Mowbray). 

Timyra orthadia, n. sp. 

$ 9. 16-18 mm. Head whitish-ochreous mixed with fuscous. Palpi very 
long, whitish, in $ second joint much elongated, flatly compressed, clothed 
with very long whitish hairs above and beneath, terminal joint short, greyish, 
thickened with dense scales, hardly pointed, in $ second joint smooth-scaled, 
slender. Antenna? grey, in $ darker, with large dense concave anterior tuft on 
basal joint. Thorax rather dark fuscous, posterior extremity ochreous-whitish. 
Abdomen pale ochreous. Legs dark fuscous ringed with whitish, posterior 
tibia? clothed above with very long projecting curled whitish hairs mixed with 
dark fuscous in middle. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately 
arched towards extremities, apex obtuse, termen obliquely rounded ; 3, 4, 5 
approximated, 7 to apex ; whitish-ochreous ; a narrow dark fuscous basal 
fascia ; two broad rather dark fuscous fasciae about ^ and §, first somewhat 
narrowed towards costa, second rather oblique, more or less constricted in disc, 
beneath dilated and confluent posteriorly with a broad dark fuscous suffusion 
or irroration in disc ; between these fascia? a very undefined oblique median line 
of dark fuscous irroration ; a dark fuscous terminal streak, thickened at apex : 
cilia whitish-ochreous becoming ochreous-yellowish towards base, with a dark, 
fuscous antemedian shade. Hindwings fuscous ; in $ a broad median longi- 
tudinal ochreous-yellow band, including a deep central groove, and a subdorsal 
groove enclosing an ochreous-yellow hairpencil from base ; cilia whitish- 

Eight specimens, Madulsima, Matale, and Maskeliya, Ceylon, in January, 
April, and October (Vaughan, Alston, Pole). Allied to the following. 

Timyra irrorella, Wals. 

{Tipha irrorella, Wals., Moore Lep. Ceyl. iii, 517, pi. 209, 9.) 

Peradeniya, Maturatta, Diyatalawa, Puttalam, Ceylon ; a common species. 

Timyra crassella, Feld. 

{Harpella crassella, Feld. Reis, Nov. pi. cxxxix, 22 ; Timyra sphenias, Meyr.) 

Felder's figure is very poor and not characteristic, and the locality is said to 
be Ternate, hence I failed to recognise his species ; but I have since seen his 
type, which is certainly this insect ; the alleged locality is doubtless erroneous, 
as is frequently the case with Felder's species. 

Timyra peronetris, n. sp. 

$. 29-30 mm. Head, palpi, and thorax'rather dark fuscous ; palpi very long, 
basal joint elongate, so that it forms a sharp elbow with second, second joint 
reaching much above vertex, broadly compressed, internally with large dense 
expansible tuft of very long whitish hairs, terminal joint about half second, 
dilated with dense scales, tolerably obtuse. Antenna? f uscous-ochreous, basal 


joint with large dense anterior dark fuscous scale-tuft. Abdomen fuscous, 
sides suffused with pale ochreous-yellowish. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with 
pale yellowish, anterior tibiae rough-haired beneath, middle tibiae rough-scaled, 
posterior tibise hairy beneath and with very large curled median tuft of light 
fuscous scales above, posterior tarsi rough-scaled above throughout. Forewings 
elongate, narrow, posteriorly somewhat dilated, costa gently arched, apex 
obtuse, termen rather obliquely rounded ; 3, 4, 5 approximated, 7 to termen ; 
dark fuscous, with a few whitish-ochreous scales ; a tuft of scales in disc near 
base ; a transverse light ochreous-yellow mark at f, somewhat dilated upwards, 
reaching from near costa to below middle: cilia whitish-fuscous, darker towards 
tips, base pale ochreous-yellow, with a dark fuscous subbasal shade. Hind- 
wings oblong, termen beneath apex hardly oblique ; ochreous-yellow ; a mode- 
rate suffused dark fuscous streak along costa, dilated at apex ; a suffused dark 
fuscous streak proceeding from a basal tuft of scales along dorsum and termen 
to above middle, widest at tornus and gradually attenuated; a groove along 
fold, enclosing an exceedingly long expansible pale ochreous-yellowish hair- 
pencil ; cilia whitish-ochreous, becoming ochreous-yellow towards base on upper 
part of termen, with fuscous subbasal shade obsolete on yellow area. 

Three specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in January and February (Pole, Alston). 
Very similar to crassella, but structurally distinct in the palpi, especially by the 
elongate basal joint and resulting elbow, the large whitish interior hairtuft, and 
the dark fuscous costal streak of hindwings, of which the termen is less oblique 
on upper portion and therefore more prominently bowed ; the reduced yellow 
mark of f orewings is found also sometimes in crassella, but is there exceptional. 

Timyra parochra, n. sp. 

$„ 23-27 mm. Head ochreous. Palpi dark purplish-fuscous, internally 
deep ochreous-yellow, second joint thickened with scales, above rough-scaled, 
terminal joint shorter than second, thickened with scales, tolerably pointed. 
Antennae ochreous faintly ringed with fuscous, basal joint without tuft. 
Thorax purplish-fuscous, more or less mixed with pale ochreous. Abdomen 
pale ochreous. Legs dark fuscous, ringed with ochreous-yellowish, posterior 
tibiae orange-suffused on basal half, partially rough-scaled, with large 
curled median purplish-fuscous tuft above, posterior tarsi somewhat 
rough-scaled above. Forewings elongate, rather narrowed towards base, costa 
moderately arched, apex obtuse, termen rather obliquely rounded ; 3, 4, 5 
approximated, 7 to termen ; deep yellow-ochreous or brownish-ochreous, irro- 
rated with purplish fuscous and dark fuscous ; a curved postmedian fascia more 
or less obscurely indicated by margins of purplish-fuscous and dark fuscous 
suffusion, narrowed dorsally, enclosed portion sometimes ferruginous-tinged : 
cilia whitish-ochreous tinged with fuscous, more yellow-ochreous basally, with 
subbasal fuscous line, on costa deep yellow-ochreous. Hindwings pale whitish- 
ochreous, towards termen slightly infuscated ; a slight groove on lower margin 
of cell ; cilia whitish-ochreous, base yellowish-tinged, sometimes with indis- 
tinct fuscous subbasal line. 


Five specimens, Maturatta, Ceylon, in July (Pole). 

Macrernis rostrata, n. sp. 

£. 18-21 mm. Head and thorax light brownish-ochreous, faintly lilac- 
tinged, hairs of crown projecting between antennas. Palpi pale ochreous, mixed 
with deeper ochreous and dark fuscous. Antennas whitish-ochreous, faintly 
fuscous-ringed. Abdomen pale ochreous. Forewings elongate, narrow, 
posteriorly slightly dilated, costa gently arched, apex round-pointed, termen 
sinuate, oblique ; brownish-ochreous, with a few scattered dark fuscous scales ; 
a dark fuscous mark along base of costa ; a dark fuscous streak of somewhat 
raised scales along dorsum from base to tornus, enclosing a groove along vein 
1 b, with a flap of hairscales curved over it from above towards base, upper 
edge of streak with two strong projections at ^ and ■§, first triangular, reaching 
half across wing, second fascia-like, parallel to termen, reaching above middle 
of wing ; a suffused dark fuscous streak along termen : cilia light brownish- 
ochreous, with one or two indistinct fuscous lines. Hindwings whitish- 
ochreous-grey ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 

Six specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in January, February, and July (Pole, 
Alston, de Mowbray). It seems probable that Frisilia nesciatella, Walk., 
though described as a male, is the female of a species of this genus, in which 
case the generic name Frisilia would have to be adopted ; but I am not yet 
able to identify with certainty Walker's species. 

Heliangara, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales, face retreating ; tongue developed. Antenna 
over 1, thick, compressed, in $ simple, basal joint moderate, without pecten. 
Labial palpi moderately long, curved, ascending, smooth-scaled, terminal joint 
shorter than second, acute. Posterior tibia? rough-scaled above. Forewings 
with 2 from angle, 3 absent, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 9 and 10 from near 
7, 11 from before middle. Hindwings 1, elongate-ovate, cilia 1^: 3 and 4 
stalked, 5 parallel, 6 and 7 long-stalked. 

A genus of very peculiar facies, but apparently bearing much the same 
relationship to Narthecoceros that Tipha does to Macrernis. 

Heliangara lampetis, n. sp. 

$Q. 11-13 mm. Head shining ochreous-bronze, face paler. Antenna? 
ochreous-yellowish, tip infuscated. Palpi ochreous-yellow. Thorax shining 
purple-bronze. Abdomen rather dark bronzy-fuscous. Forewings elongate, 
narrow, costa slightly arched, somewhat sinuate beyond middle, apex round- 
pointed, termen extremely obliquely rounded ; bright shining purple-coppery- 
bronze ; a suffused orange-yellow patch extending along dorsum from \ to f , 
narrowed to extremities, not reaching half across wing ; two parallel thick 
transverse ridges of raised scales about §: cilia light shining yellowish, more 
or less mixed with bronzy and pale purplish towards base. Hindwings dark 
fuscous, thinly scnled in disc ; cilia rather dark fuscous. 

Twelve specimens, Puttalam, Ceylon, from September to November (Pole). 


Narthecoceros, n.g. 

Head with appressed scales ; tongue developed. Antennae 1, thick, flatly com- 
pressed throughout, basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, 
curved, ascending, second joint thickened with scales, roughly expanded towards 
apex above and beneath, terminal joint shorter than second, acute. Posterior 
tibiae rough-haired above. Forewings with 2 and 3 stalked, 7 and 8 stalked, 
7 to termen. Hindwings 1, trapezoidal, apex round-pointed, termen faintly 
sinuate, cilia 1 ; 3 and 4 connate, 5 parallel, 6 and 7 long-stalked. 

Type N. platyconta, Meyr. Having now obtained a second allied species, I 
consider the characters warrant generic separation from Macrotona, from 
which the genus is distinguished by the flatly-compressed antennas, second joint 
of palpi roughened above towards apex, and terminal joint shorter than second. 

Narthecoceros xylodes, n. sp. 

ft. 20-21 mm. Head and thorax pale greyish-ochreous sprinkled with 
fuscous. Palpi pale brownish-ochreous irrorated with dark fuscous. Antennas 
whitish-ochreous tinged with fuscous, with two narrow dark fuscous subapical 
bands. Abdomen light ochreous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently 
arched, apex round-pointed, termen slightly sinuate, rather strongly oblique ; 
whitish-ochreous, irrorated with fuscous ; a moderate dark fuscous suffusion 
along costa from before middle to apex, and dorsal half posteriorly more or 
less suffused with dark fuscous irroration, space between these sometimes 
forming an undefined pale streak ; stigmata undefined, dark fuscous, plical very 
obliquely before first discal ; undefined cloudy dark fuscous dots along posterior 
part of costa and termen : cilia fuscous with rows of ochreous-whitish points, 
on termen with whitish-ochreous basal shade. Hindwings rather dark 
fuscous ; cilia as in forewings, but lighter and more yellowish-tinged towards 

Three specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in February and March (Pole). 

Macrotona parcena , n. sp. 

ft. 23-2 5 mm. Head, antennas, thorax, and abdomen light brownish-ochreous. 
Palpi ochreous-whitish, second joint dark fuscous except apex, terminal joint 
tinged with fuscous externally. Forewings elongate, narrowed towards base, 
costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen sinuate, rather oblique ; 7 to apex, 9 
separate ; light brownish-ochreous, somewhat sprinkled with pale brownisli and 
a few black scales ; a minute black subcostal dot near base ; discal stigmata 
small, cloudy, dark brown, first resting on a transverse cloudy purple-fuscous 
mark beneath it, between first and second a cloudy fuscous dot in disc rather 
above them ; a transverse purple- brownish fascia about |, somewhat angulated 
in middle, faint towards costa, stronger and much darker on dorsal half : cilia 
light yellow-ochreous, with subbasal series of undefined fuscous spots. Hind- 
wings with 3 and 4 connate ; light fuscous, ochreous-tinged ; cilia as in forewings 
but paler. 

Three specimens, Maskeliya and Maturatta, Ceylon, in March, May, and 
October (Pole, de Mowbray). 


Lecithocera cholopis, n. sp. 

$ . 16-17 mm. Head and thorax rather dark fuscous, face and antenna) 
ochreous-white. Palpi ochreous-white, towards base fuscous. Abdomen 
greyish-ochreous. Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, 
termen almost straight, oblique ; 9 out o£ 7 ; rather dark fuscous : cilia fuscous. 
Hindwings whitish-grey, greyer posteriorly ; cilia whitish-grey, becoming greyer 
round apex. 

Two specimens, Koni, Burma, in September (Manders). Erroneously record- 
ed by m3 formerly as luticomella, Zell., from which it differs by the neuration 
and white face. 

Psammoris, n. g. 

Head smooth ; tongue developed. Antenna; 1, in $ rather thick, simple, 
basal joint moderately elongate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, recurved, 
second joint thickened with scales, shortly projecting beneath towards apex- 
terminal joint as long as second, slender, acute. Posterior tibiaa with hairs 
appressed above, projecting beneath. Forewings with 2 and 3 stalked from 
angle, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to costa, 9 absent, 11 from beyond middle. Hindwings 
1, trapezoidal, termen sinuate, cilia 1 ; 4 absent, 3 and 5 connate or short-stalked, 
6 and 7 stalked. 

Belongs to the Macrotona group. 

Psammoris carpcea, n. sp. 

$ . 13-14 mm. Head, thorax, and abdomen whitish-ochreouo tinged with 
yellow. Palpi ochreous-yellowish, second joint externally dark fuscous except 
extreme base and apex. Antennas yellowish, apex suffused with dark fuscous. 
Forewings elongate, narrow, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen very 
obliquely rounded ; ochreous-yellow, with some fine scattered black scales ; a 
very small blackish spot on base of costa ; a rather curved outwardly oblique 
thick black mark in disc about §, and a small round black discal spot before %-: 
cilia pale ochreous-yellowish, with a fine grey postmedian line. Hindwings 
light grey, paler and whitish -tinged towards base ; cilia whitish-yellowish. 

Two specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in January and July (Pole). 

Antiochtha stellulata, n. sp. 

$. 22 mm. Head pale ochreous-yellowish, slightly fuscous-tinged. Palpi 
with second joint rather dark fuscous, suffused with pale ochreous-yellowish 
towards apex, terminal joint longer than second, blackish, anterior and posterior 
edges pale yellowish. Antenna; pale ochreous-yellowish. Thorax rather dark 
purplish-fuscous, somewhat mixed with pale ochreous. Abdomen light 
ochreous-yellowish. Posterior tarsi with basal joint rough-scaled above. Fore- 
wings elongate, narrow, somewhat dilated posteriorly, costa gently arched, apex 
round-pointed, termen concave, oblique ; 2 and 4 connate or short-stalked, 
5 closely approximated, 7 to apex ; pale fuscous irrorated with dark fuscous, 
with strong purplish reflections ; markings pale whitish-ochreous, yellower on 
costal edge ; transverse marks from costa beyond ^ and §, first narrow, irreg- 
ular, second rather broader ; a dot on fold before middle ; two minute dots 


transversely placed in disc beyond middle ; four dots forming a curved 
transverse subterminal series on dorsal half : cilia rather dark fuscous with 
darker shades and some ochreous-whitish points, a basal line and some narrow 
bars on basal third ochreous- yellowish. Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate ; 
fuscous ; cilia whitish-ochreous, base more yellowish, with two rather dark 
fuscous shades. 

One specimen, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in February (Pole). 

Antiochtha achnaslis, n. sp. 

$ $. 18-20 mm. Head whitish-ochreous, somewhat mixed with grey. 
Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint irrorated with dark fuscous, terminal joint 
somewhat longer than second, with incomplete blackish lateral lines. Antennae 
whitish-ochreous, in $ more or less mixed with dark fuscous. Abdomen 
whitish-ochreous. Posterior tibiae with basal joint rough-scaled above, remain- 
ing joints ochreous-white, Forewings elongate, narrow, slightly dilated 
posteriorly, costa slightly arched, apex obtuse, termen sinuate, oblique ; 2 and 
4 short-stalked, 5 connate, 7 to just below apex ; fuscous irrorated with dark 
fuscous or blackish ; stigmata dark fuscous or black, ringed with whitish, 
sometimes large, plical slightly beyond first discal, these two placed in an 
indistinct irregular rather oblique narrow fascia of whitish suffusion which 
forms a more distinct whitish spot on costa, sometimes preceded by a dark 
fuscous spot ; a cloudy subterminal line of ochreous-whitish suffusion, an gulated 
in middle, forming a conspicuous triangular ochreous-white spot on costa : cilia 
dark fuscous with rows of fuscous-whitish points, basal line and narrow bars on 
basal third more or less distinctly whitish-ochreous. Hindwings with 3 and 4 
connate ; grey, darker posteriorly ; cilia varying from whitish-ochreous to pale 
greyish, with two cloudy dark grey shades. 

Five specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in March, May, and December (Pole, 
de Mowbray). 

Antiochtha tetradelta, n. sp. 

$. 20 mm. Head, palpi, and antenna? ochreous-whitish, palpi with lower f 
of second joint and anterior edge of terminal joint dark bronzy-fuscous, 
terminal joint longer than second. Thorax bronzy-fuscous, shoulders 
suffused with ochreous-whitish. Abdomen light ochreous-yellowish. Posterior 
tarsi with basal joint smooth. Forewings elongate, narrow posteriorly slightly 
dilated, costa slightly arched, apex round-pointed, termen concave, somewhat 
oblique ; 2 separate, 4 and 5 connate, 7 to apex ; pale greyish-ochreous suffused 
with ochreous-whitish ; base of costa, and an oblique costal strigula before 
middle dark fuscous ; a triangular dark fuscous blotch, edged with ochreous- 
whitish, extending on dorsum from 1 to beyond middle, and reaching § across 
wing ; a similar blotch extending along costa from middle to |, and nearly 
reaching to dorsum ; a fine dark fuscous terminal line, shortly continued and 
stronger above apex: cilia ochreous-whitish, towards base yellowish-tinged 
with median fuscous shade. Hindwings with 3 and 4 stalked ; light fuscous ; 
cilia whitish-fuscous, at base and towards tornus pale yellowish. 


One specimen, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in October (de Mowbray). 

Organitis, n. g. 

Head with appressed scales ; tongue developed. Antennae £, in ft shortly 
ciliated, basal joint moderate, without pecten. Labial palpi long, curved, 
ascending, second joint thickened with scales, slightly rough beneath, termi- 
nal joint as long as second, slender, acute. Posterior tibiae rough -scaled 
above. Forewings with 2 and 4 stalked, 3 absent, 8 and 9 out of 7, 7 to 
apex, 11 from beyond middle. Hindwings 1, trapezoidal, apex rounded, 
termen hardly sinuate, cilia f ; 3 and 4 connate or stalked, 5 absent, 6 and 7 

Allied to Brachmia ; in neuration resembling Antiochtha, but distinguished by 
the shorter antennae. 

Organitis churacopa, n. sp. 

ft 9. 15-17 mm. Head and thorax pale bronzy-ochreous, sometimes 
fuscous-tinged. Palpi ochreous-whitish, second joint fuscous except apex. An- 
tennae whitish-ochreous, sometimes fuscous-tinged, basal joint fuscous. Ab- 
domen pale ochreous. Forewings elongate, rather narrow, costa moderately 
arched, apex obtuse, termen almost straight, rather oblique ; pale brassy-ochre- 
ous suffused with light fuscous; stigmata rather large, dark fuscous, often 
elongate, plical very obliquely before first discal, sometimes nearly obsolete, 
discal stigmata sometimes connected by an obscure paler streak : cilia whitish- 
ochreous. Hindwings pale fuscous ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 

Five specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in March, June, and July (Pole). 

Brachmia, Hb. 

I find it necessary to merge Torodora, Meyr. in this genus ; the differences of 
neuration and palpi would, if pressed, separate closely allied species ; the 
combined genus is natural and easily recognised, and appears to be spe- 
cially characteristic of the Indo-Malayan region, where it is very extensively 
developed. The two following species extend the neural characters some- 

Brachmia cherandra, n. sp. 

ft. 20 mm. Head light ochreous-yellow, crown suffused with light grey 
except at sides. Palpi pale ochreous-yellowish, second joint suffused externally 
with dark fuscous on lower f, terminal joint as long as second. Antennae pale 
ochreous-yellowish. Thorax dark purple-fuscous. Abdomen grey, anal tuft 
whitish-ochreous. Legs dark grey, middle tibiae and all tarsi whitish-ochreous, 
basal joint of posterior tarsi somewht rough-scaled above. Forewings elongate, 
rather narrow, somewht dilated posteriorly, costa moderatbly arched, apex 
obtuse, termen nearly straight, somewhat oblique ; 7 absent, 8 and 9 stalked ; 
dark fuscous, purplish-tinged ; stigmata small, faintly darker, plical beneath 
first discal, edged posteriorly by a minute grey-whitish dot ; ochreous-yellowish 
?ubtriangular dots on costa at f and t, and on dorsum near tornus : cilia light 
fuscous mixed with slaty-grey. Hindwings with 3 and 4 stalked ; grey ; cilia 
grey, with basal ochreous-whitish line. 


One specimen, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in May (Pole). The absence of vein 7 in 
the forewings is an abnormal character, but as in all other respects the species 
is normal, I do not at present separate it generically. 

Brachmia syrphetodes, n. sp. 

$ 9 . 25-27 mm. Head brownish-ochreous. Palpi whitish-ochreous, second 
joint externally dark fuscous except at apex, terminal joint as long as second 
anterior edge dark fuscous. Antennae pale ochreous, obscurely fuscous-ringed. 
Thorax brownish-ochreous partially suffused with dark fuscous. Abdomen 
light ochreous. Posterior tarsi with basal joint smooth-scaled. Forewings 
elongate, rather narrowed anteriorly, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen 
nearly straight, little oblique ; 3 and 4 out of 2, 8 and 9 out of 7, 7 to apex ; 
fuscous, partially suffused with dark fuscous, irregularly strewn with pale 
ochreous ; a small dark fuscous subbasal spot towards costa ; discal stigmata 
rather large, suffused, dark fuscous, connected by an irregular elongate pale 
ochreous patch, an additional dark fuscous dot before and above second ; a 
cloudy whitish-ochreous subterminal line, somewhat curved and indented 
beneath costa : cilia whitish-ochreous, in 9 fuscous-tinged, above apex with a 
dark fuscous patch. Hindwings with 3 and 4 connate or short-stalked, 5 ap- 
proximated ; light fuscous ; cilia whitish-ochreous, in 9 fuscous-tinged. 

Two specimens, Maskeliya, Ceylon, in April and June (Pole). 

Demiophila, n, g. 

Head with appressed scales ; tongue developed. Antennae -|, in $ serrulate, 
minutely ciliated, basal joint moderately elongate, without pecten. Labial 
palpi long, recurved, second joint thickened with appressed scales, somewhat 
rough beneath towards apex, terminal joint as long as second, moderate, 
acute. Posterior tibiae clothed with long rough hairs above. Forewings with 
2 from near angle, 3 and 4 stalked, 5 approximated, 7 to apex, 8 absent, 9 
approximated, 11 from beyond middle. Hindwings over 1, oblong-ovate, cilia 
g- , 3 and 4 connate or short-stalked, 5 tolerably parallel, 6 and 7 connate. 

A genus of ordinary appearance but somewhat uncertain affinity; the stalking 
of veins 3 and 4 of forewings is a notable peculiarity. 

Demiophila psaphara, n. sp. 

$ 9- 17-21 mm. Head and thorax whitish-ochreous sprinkled with fuscous. 
Palpi whitish-ochreous, second joint dark fuscous except apex, terminal joint 
with anterior edge usually suffused with dark fuscous. Antennae whitish-ochre- 
ous, basal joint dark fuscous. Abdomen whitish-ochreous, more or less fuscous 
sprinkled. Forewings elongate, slightly narrowed anteriorly, costa gently arched , 
apex obtuse, termen rather obliquely rounded ; whitish-ochreous, more or less 
sprinkled with fuscous ; a dark fuscous dot on base of costa, and another be- 
neath it ; stigmata moderate, dark fuscous, plical elongate and often small, ob- 
liquely beyond first discal ;an almost marginal series of dark fuscous dots round 
termen and apical portion of costa : cilia whitish-ochreous, faintly sprinkled 
with whitish-fuscous, with a faint whitish-fuscous antemedian shade. Hind- 
wings pale whitish-ochreous-grey or whitish-ochreous ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 


Eight specimens, Puttalam, Ceylon, in February and from July to September 

Dactylethra, n.g. 

Head with appressed scales, sidetufts loosely spreading ; tongue developed. 
Antennae i, in $ serrulate, simple, basal joint moderate, without pecten. 
Labial palpi long, curved, ascending, second joint with long dense rough pro- 
jecting tuft beneath, terminal joint as long as second, loosely scaled, acute. 
Posterior tibiae rough-haired ; above. Forewings with 2 from near angle, 2,3 
4 parallel, 7 and 8 stalked, 7 to apex, 11 from middle. Hindwings 1, trapezoidal, 
apex obtuse, termen faintly sinuate, cilia £ ; 2 remote, 3 and 4 connate, 5 
somewhat approximated, 6 and 7 stalked. 

Apparently related to the Ypsolophus group. 

Dactylethra tetroctas, n. sp. 

$$. 14-15 mm. Head, palpi, antennas, thorax, and abdomen ochreous- 
white ; second and terminal joints of palpi with blackish supramedian and 
usually less marked subbasal rings, tuft suffused with brownish, seldom mixed 
with dark fuscous. Forewings elongate, costa gently arched, apex obtuse, termen 
obliquely rounded ; ochreous-white ; a dark fuscous dot towards costa near 
base, and two transversely placed in disc at i ; about eight short oblique brown 
strigulas on costa ; transverse undefined patches of ochreous-brown suffusion in 
disc at ^, beyond middle, and towards termen, first narrow, second broader, 
reaching costa. third largest, somewhat mixed with black scales and bounded 
by a grey terminal streak ; between these are two lilac-grey sometimes whitish- 
centred irregularly 8-shaped spots in disc before middle and at §, first rather 
oblique, second shorter : cilia brownish, with rows of whitish points. Hind- 
wings fuscous- whitish ; cilia whitish-ochreous. 

Ten specimens, Puttalam, Ceylon, in August, October, and November 

(To be continued?) 




A. E. Ward. 

In continuation of my rough notes on the Small Mammals in Kashmir 
and the adjacent districts, read before the Bombay Natural History 
Society on 16th March 1905 (Vol. XVI., page 358), I would again 
refer to the Mouse-hares. 

In the Proceedings, Zoological Society of London, Vol. II., Part II., 
1904, Mr. Bonhote wrote on the subject of the Ochotona genus. 
Dealing with 0. macrotis, the Large-eared Mouse-hare of Blanford's 
" Fauna of India," Mr. Bonhote refers to two species — aurita and 
grisea — and says these may probably be assigned to this species 

One of my collectors brought down from the Paugong Lake shores a 
couple of Mouse-hares which have now been identified as aurita, and 
Mr. Bonhote writes : — "It is practically a topotype of Blanford's aurita, 
and proves aurita to be a good species, nearly allied to roylei and not to 

macrotis " The measurements are : — 

$ b. and h. 6*90 hf. 1-20 ear 0*90 

9 „ 7-30 „ 1-20 „ 0-80 

Amongst other specimens brought back from Ladak are four Mouse- 
hares, two of which came from the Khardong Pass from an altitude of 
16,000', and two were obtained high up the Indus Valley. All these 
are macrotis. 

Up to date we have the following from Kashmir and Ladak, &c. : — 

Ladacensis group. Ochotona ladacensis from the Chaugcheumo 
Valley and W. Tibet at altitudes 16,500' and 15,500'. 

Blanford mentions ladacensis Stoliczka's Mouse-hare on page 458. 

Rufescens group. O. ivardi from Kashmir. 

Curzonioe group. O. curzonioe from Haule, Ladak. 

O. macrotis from Indus Valley and Kharony. 
O. aurita from Paugong Lake. 

If reference is made to Blanford, page 457 (Mammals), it will be seen 
that the macrotis type came from the Yarkand road, so that evidently 
this animal is found on both sides of the high range north of Leh, 


whilst aurita was apparently based on Dr. Stoliczka's specimens from 
Lukong on the Paugong, which place is not far from where the two 
specimens I have referred to were found. 

Slowly, but, I hope, surely, we are getting on with all the tiresome 
rodents, and I hope very shortly to present to the Bombay Natural 
History Society a specimen of Mkrotus Blythi (Blythe's Vole), the 
distribution of which appears to be extensive. I am awaiting a letter 
from the British Museum before despatching this specimen. 

Regarding the mice found during ID 05, I must wait until I am 
in a position to write definitely. 




B. B. Osmaston, l.F.S. 
4. Corvus macrorhynchus. — The Jungle-Crow. 

Common throughout the islands, but especially near Port Blair. Breeds in 
March, frequently on Cocoanut Palms. 

20. Dendrocitta bayleyi. — The Andamanese Tree-Pie. 

Occurs throughout the Andamans, but is not very numerous. They go about 
in small parties of half a dozen or so and frequent the densest forest. I failed 
to find the nest. 

226. Zoster ops palpebrosa. — The Indian White-Eye. 

Fairly common, especially in Port Blair. They are late breeders, laying in 
June and July. The nests and eggs resemble those taken in India. The mean 
of the measurements of 5 eggs gave - 63"x0"49 '. 

254. Irena puella. — The Fairy Blue-bird. 

Fairly numerous around Port Blair, especially from September to March. 
I did not find the nest, and in fact I rarely saw a bird between April and 
August. I do not think they breed in the vicinity of Port Blair. 

288. Otocompsa emeria. — The Bengal Red- whiskered Bulbul, 

Common everywhere and especially in Port Blair where it frequently enters 
the houses taking the place of the common sparrow. Breeds from March to 
May laying 2 or 3 eggs only. 

312, Micropus fusciflavescens. — The Andaman Black-headed Bulbul. 

This species is decidedly rare. I have only come across it about half a dozen 
times in 15 months. It frequents the outskirts of forest. It has no song but 
a characteristic call. 

336. Dissemuroides andamanensis. — The Small Andamanese Drongo. 

Common, but restricted to well wooded and forest areas. Has a variety of 
notes. Breeds from the middle of April to the middle of May. The nest 
consists of a shallow cup or cradle suspended from the forked twig of some 
usually dry or leafless tree, generally at a considerable height from the ground. 
It is composed of fine twigs firmly woven together and attached to the support 
by cobwebs and is scantily lined with black hair-like rhizomorph. The eggs, 2 
or 3 in number, differ strikingly in colour, at least half a dozen, distinct types 
being found. The commonest variety is perhaps one in which the groundcolour 
is pale salmon-pink spotted all over with pale brownish markings and with some 
underlying spots of pale grey. Jn another type the ground is white and the 
markings consist of bold dashes and streaks of pinkish brown. Others again 
are spotted and blotched with dark purplish brown in a zone at the large end, 
or again they may be finely specked with black in a cap at the large end. The 
eggs vary in length from 0"88 to 1*05 and in breadth from 065 to 0*76 the mean 
of 31 eggs being 1-00" x 072". 


340. Dissemuriu paradiseus. — The Larger Racket-tailed Drongo. 
Common in high forest. Has a fine series of melodius calls. The Andaman 
variety of this species shows no trace of the conspicuous frontal crest which 
forms so marked a feature in the Sub-Himalayan race. It breeds in May 
building its nest generally high up on the more or less inaccessible branches 
of big trees. The eggs are similar to those found in India and the mean of 
3 eggs gave as measurements 1-13" x 0'82." 

393. Arundivax a'edon. — The Thick-billed Warbler. 
Fairly common in and around Port Blair throughout the cold weather. 
Frequents low scrub where it carefully avoids exposing itself. Its note is a 
sharp " click, click." 

410. Phylloscopus fuscatus .^-The Dusky Willow-Warbler. 
Common in and .around Port Blair in the winter, the majority, if not all, 
leaving by the end of April. It has a sharp " clicking " note. 

451. Hororms pallidipes.— Blanford's Bush-Warbler. 
Common in the dense undergrowth both in high and secondary forest, and 
never met with in the open. It frequents the thickest cover ■whence it gives 
vent at intervals to its characteristic and peculiar call consisting of 3 or 4 
rapidly repeated notes. It is an artful skulker and extremely difficult to 
observe. It is a permanent resident. 

482. Lanius lucionensis. — The Philippine Shrike. 
A seasonal visitor only , arriving in September and leaving in April. 

492. Perierocotus andamanensis. — The Andamanese Scarlet Minivet. 
Fairly common, frequenting the crowns of trees in small parties. 

500. Perierocotus — The Small JVlinivet. 
More numerous than the last. Found several nests in May and June, placed 
on fairly thick branches of trees, at a height of from 12' to 30' from the 
ground. They were neat cup-shaped structures made of little bits of papery 
bark held together with spider's web and sparsely lined with bits of dead leaves 
and fine fibres. The eggs are pale blue spotted, speckled or blotched, chiefly in 
a zone at the large end, with purplish brown with, in some eggs, underlying grey 
markings. The mean of 5 eggs gave 0'69"x0 , 55." 

510. Graucalus macii. — The Large Cuckoo-Shrike. 
Common in and around the Settlement. Found two nests on May 14th and 
June 4th, respectively, containing 2 fresh eggs each, of the usual type. 
513. Artamus hucogaster. — The White-rumped Swallow-Shrike. 
Common in open places and clearings around Port Blair. They appear to be 
very affectionate, the male and female sitting for long periods side by side en 
the same perch, They are fearless of men and follow any one about, who may 
be walking through long grass, snapping up the grasshoppers and other insects 
which are disturbed into flight. They breed in April and May, the nests being 
almost invariably placed on the broken off stump of some stout branch of a 
tree from 10 to 20 feet from the ground. Jack fruit trees are frequently selected 
as a building site. The nest is an untidy shallow eaucei of twigs little letter 


than a dove's nest. It is usually quite exposed to view from above and more 
or less also from below. The parent birds are very bold and defend their 
property with much spirit. The full complement of eggs is 3. They are white 
spotted with light brown or fawn, chiefly in a zone, with numerous underlying 
grey markings. The mean of 5 eggs gave 0'^3"x0'61". 

517. Oriolus andamanemis . — The Andaman Plack-naped Oriole. 

Very common and conspicuous, being found both in forest and open country. 
They breed from April to June, laying 2 or 3 eggs only. The nest is the usual 
cradle suspended from the leafy branch of some tree, and is usually decorated 
outside with sprays of a small climbing Asclepiad with orbicular leaves. The 
eggs are fairly glossy. The ground is white generally more or less tinged 
with claret with dark purplish brown spots which appear to have " run" from 
the edges, and with a few underlying grey spots. *] he mean of the measure- 
ments of 7 eggs gave l-lC'xO'82." 

521. Oriolus melanocephalus. — The Indian Black-headed Oriole. 

This species is not uncommon in the hot weather ; I saw none, however, in 
the winter. 

524. Eulabes intermedia. — The Indian Grackle. 

Common throughout the Andamans. Large numbers were snared and ex- 
ported to Calcutta until quite recently but the trade has now been forbidden. 
527. Calornis chalybeius. — The Glossy Calornis. 

These birds appear in Port Blair about February and remain till June, feed- 
ing chiefly upon small figs and honey out of flowers. They are exceedingly 
numerous during these months. Where they go to for the rest of the year I 
could not ascertain. 

528. Pastor roseus. — The Rose-coloured Starling. 

This species was recorded from the Andamans many years ago by Col. 
Tytler, but as no one had subsequently seen the bird here, Mr. A. O. Hume 
and others were doubtful whether it should be included in the Andaman avi- 
fauna or not. This year, however, I saw flocks of this bird on two Occasions 
in March and April, and shot three specimens, two males and a female. It is 
possible that they only visit the Andamans in very severe winters such as was 
experienced in India this cold weather. 

540. Sturnia andamanensis. — The Andaman Myna. 

Very common both in forest and in the open. Gregarious. They breed 
towards the end of April and in May. The nest is placed in a hole in a tree 
at any height from 6 to 30 feet or more. The nest is composed of small, 
pliant twigs with an occasional stiff feather, ard is lined with small green 
leaves. The eggs, four in number, are of a uniform blue, about the same 
shade, as or slightly darker than, those of Acridotheres tristis. They vary in 
length from T14" to 0-97" and in breadth from 0'78" to 0-72", but the mean 
of 22 eggs gives l'02"x0-76". 

549. Acridotheres tristis. — The Common Myna. 

This objectionable bird which was introduced some years ago by an officer of 
the Settlement has now become firmly established, and is doing its best to oust 


its weaker, though handsomer relative, Sturnia andamaneinms. Breeds in 
March and April in holes in trees and in houses. 

582. Muscitrea grhola. — The Grey Flycatcher. 
This bird occurs throughout the islands but is not common, though fairly 
numerous in open jungle and clearings near Port Blair, especially between 
Haddo and Navy Bay. It has a fine loud and clear whistle, repeated 3 or 4 
times or prolonged and drawn out, followed suddenly by a higher (or lower) 
note in a different key, reminding one somewhat of the call of JEgithinw 
tiphia, and unlike that of any flycatcher. It is a quiet, unobtrusive bird 
usually seen alone or in pairs. It frequents mangroves and other small trees 
and catches insects sometimes on the wing and at other times on the branches 
or trunks of trees. It breeds in May and June, and 2 eggs only are laid. 
I found five nests between May 17 and June 10. The nest is rather a thin 
flimsy, cup-shaped structure made of roots, which are attached by means of 
cobwebs to the twigs supporting it. The eggs could be seen from below 
through the nest, which was unlined and somewhat resembled that of a Bulbul. 
The nests were all in small trees from 6 to 12 feet from the ground. The eggs 
are slightly glossy, dark cream or pale cafe-au-Iait spotted with dark yellowish 
brown and sepia. The spots are rather small and not numerous and they 
tend to form a zone towards the big end. The eggs remind one a little of 
those of Rhipidura albicollis. They vary very little in size, the mean of 8 eggs 
being 0"85" x 0'62". I brought up a nestling of this species but it died just 
as it was about to fly. It never showed any vestige of spotted plumage at any 
stage. Even when in the nest the breast was pure spotless white and the 
back and wings a warm reddish brown. This looks as if it had been wrongly 
placed in the Mtiscicapidce and I would suggest that it may have more affinity 
for the Sylviidce. 

588. Aheonax latirostris — The Brown Flycatcher. 

A common winter visitor, of dull plumage and quiet unobtrusive habits. 
602. Hypothymis tytleri. — The Andaman Black-naped Flycatcher. 

Common both in the forest and in and about Port Blair. It is wonderfully 
active as well as fearless. I found many nests between April 8 and June 1. 
They were all similar in structure and position to those of H. azurea. They 
were invariably decorated outside with white spider egg-cases. The eggs, 
3 in number, are white or faintly pinkish, speckled with rufous brown chiefly 
in a zone towards the large end. 

They vary in length from 0-G4" to 0-75" and in breadth from 053" to 0'57"> 
the mean of 16 eggs being 0'72" y 0*54". 

610. Pratincola maura. — The Indian Bush-Chat. 

A rare winter visitor. Saw one only near Stewartganj in March. 
663. Copsychus saularis. — The Magpie-Robin. 

Common, especially in and around Port Blair. Breeds from March to June 
chiefly iu holes in trees about 6 feet from the ground, laying 4 eggs of the 
usual colour. 


665. Cittocincla albiventris. — The Andaman Shama. 
Common throughout the islands, keeping to the densest jungle. It has many 
fine clear notes, but its song, if it can be so called, is disappointingly unmusical 
owing to a number of low discordant sounds which are introduced at frequent 
intervals. They are late breeders, waiting for the burst of the monsoon before 
commencing to build. 

I found seven nests between May 21 and June 27. Four of these were in 
boxes or hollowed out cocoanut husks placed in thick forest for the purpose 
of affording building sites, and three were in holes in stumps or clefts in the 
trunks of trees, all at a height of from 5 to 8 feet from the ground. 
The nests were composed of dry bamboo leaves lined with fine roots or twigs 
and lastly with black hair-like rhizomorph. Three was the maximum number 
of eggs in any nest and two nests contained 2 only. 

The eggs appear to be rather small for the bird. They are glossy, with a 
pale-green ground densely marked, chiefly at the large end with purplish -brown 
or chocolite, with underlying grey markings visible here and there. 

In length the eggs vary from 0'89' - ' to 0'80" and in breadth from 0*68" to 
0'65", but the mean of 9 eggs gives 0-85"x0'66". 

680. Merula obscura. — The Dark Ouzel. 
Saw a solitary specimen of this species on April 4, near the Salt Works. 

689. Geocichla andamenensis. — The Andaman Ground-Thrush, 
Common, especially in Port Blair. It has a pretty, characteristic song. 
Found many nests in May and June, generally in small trees just outside the 

The nests are composed of roots and dead leaves, lined with the former. 
They contain either two or three (never more) eggs, which vary a good deal 
in colour. They are fairly glossy and often somewhat pyriform in shape, pale 
green spotted or blotched with chestnut chiefly in a zone or cap at the large 
eud ; also a few underlying pale grey markings may usually be observed. 
Some eggs are spotted thickly all over with reddish brown, showing no ground 
at all. 

In size the eggs vary from 1*07" to 0'89" in length and from 0"76" to 0"69" in 
breadth, the mean of 55 eggs being 0'98" * 0'73". 

730. Uroloncha fumigata. — The Andaman White-backed Munia. 
Common in the vicinity of Port Blair, generally in parties of from 6 to a 
dozen, feeding on bamboo or grass seeds. They breed in June and July, con- 
structing the usual domed nest of fine flowering grasses and laying up to 7 pure 
white glossless eggs which are often very elongate and pyriform. 

They vary in length from 0-67" to 0'56" and in breadth from 0"42" to 0-39". 
The mean of 34 eggs gave 0-60"x0'41". 

725. Munia malacca. — The Black-headed Munia. 
Saw three of these birds in some long grass between Haddo and Navy Bay 
on 17th May. They were building a nest and allowed me to approach and 
watch them within a few feet. They subsequently, however, deserted the 


-nest and I have not seen them recently. This species has not been previously 
recorded from the Andamans. 

776. Passer domesticus. — The House-Sparrow. 
A small colony of these birds still exists at Aberdeen, Phoenix Bay, and 
Haddo, but they do not fortunately seem to spread much. They were intro- 
duced more than ten years ago. 

813. Hiruudo rustica. — The Swallow. 
These birds arrive in numbers about the third week in September and 
remain throughout the cold weather, retiring north in April to breed. 
817. Hirundo javanica. — The Nilgiri House-Swallow. 
Not common. Found 3 nests with hard set eggs in caves on the shore of 
North Button Island on May 5. The nests were similar in construction to 
those of H. mstica, the eggs being also similar, only smaller. 

832. Motacilla melange. — The Gray- Wagtail. 
A cold-weather visitor ; not common. 

839. Limonidromus indicus. — The Forest-Wagtail. 
Another cold-weather visitor, arriving early in October and leaving in April. 
Frequents glades and paths in the forest. Has a curious habit of wagging 
its tail laterally, i.e., from side to side and not up and down as in the case of 
•other wagtails. 

899. Arachnechthra andamanica. — The Andaman Sun-bird. 
Common everywhere and very tame and fearless. Breeds twice in the 
year, first in February and again in May. The nests are oval in shape, the 
•entrance hole being situated near the top and overhung by a portico of fine 
grasses. The nest is composed of a variety of materials, chiefly fine grasses, 
bits of dead leaves, and vegetable fibres. It is lined with down or fine grass 
stems. It hangs suspended from some twig or grass stem, usually under an 
overhanging bank often close to the ground, less frequently at some con- 
siderable height up in a shrub or tree. 

Two eggs are laid which vary a good deal both in shape and colour. They 
are usually elongated ovah with a tendency to be pyriform, with li ttle or no 
gloss. The ground colour of the eggs is, where visible, a very pale greenish 
or bluish white, the whole surface being usually more or less completely mot- 
tled over with pale greenish or purplish brown, with occasional dark spots 
or streaks of the same colour. One type not very common has no brown 
mottlings, but a few greyish brown spots or blotches on a pale blue ground. 

In length they vary from 0-61" to 0*72" and in breadth from 043" to 0-47". 
and the mean of 26 eggs is , 65"x0 , 45". 

918. Dicceum virescens. — The Audamanese Flower-pecker. 
Not common. Frequeuts trees infested with Loranthus, the fruits of which 
it feeds on. Note — a sharp "click." 

971. Dendrocopus andamanensis. — The Andaman Pied Woodpecker. 
Common in and around Port Blair. Affects chiefly fairly open jungle. 
Found many nest holes on the underside of branches of avenue trees (chiefly 


the Rain tree — Pithecolobium samari). Watched a bird excavating such a 
hole in January, but it was subsequently deserted. 

1000. Thriponax liodgii, — The Andaman Black Woodpecker. 
Fairly common in high forest throughout the main Islands. Frequents 
lofty forest trees, whence the sound of its resonant tapping on some dead: 
branch may be heard half a mile away. 

Found a nest in a hole in a dead tree 20 feet from the ground containing 
two fresh eggs, pure glossy white, measuring 1 - I3"x0"82" and r03"x0*81,. 

1025. Eurystomus orientalis. — The Broad-billed Roller. 
Eather rare but widely distributed. Frequents clearings in high forest. 

1027. Merops philippinus. — The Blue-tailed Bee-eater. 
Not common. I saw a few individuals near Port Blair in March and also 
on Narcondam in October. They were probably only in migration at the 
time and do not seem to stop in the Andamans. 

1030. MeliUophagus sivinhoii. — The Chestnut-headed Bee-eater. 
Very common in and around Port Blair. They are chiefly seen in pairs. 
B reed in holes in banks, which often penetrate to a depth of 4 feet. The 
eggs are of the usual bee-eater type, 3 to 5 in number, pure white, round and. 

They vary from 0'83" to 0-95" in length and from 0-72" to 0*79" in breadth,, 
the mean of 20 eggs being 0-89"x0'76". 

1035. Alceclo ispida. — The Common Kingfisher. 
Not nearly so common as the next species. Have seen a few around Port 

103G. Alcedo oeavani. — Bea van's Kingfisher. 

Common both on salt and fresh water creeks and streams. They are late 

breeders, all the nests seen by me being taken between June 25 and July 15.. 

The eggs, usually 5 in number, are glossy broad ovals. In length they 

vary from 0*82" to 076 " and in breadth from 0'62" to 0-71", the mean of 20- 

eggs being 0-78" x 0-68". 

1040. Ceyx tridactyla. — The Indian Three-toed Kingfisher. 
This lovely little King-fisher is certainly very rare in the Andamans. I 
have only once come across it when following up a small rocky stream in 
dense forest below Mount Harriet. This was on May 27th, and the bird was- 
disturbed excavating a nest hole in the bank, which, however, was afterwards 

1043. Pelargopsis gurial. — The Brown-headed Stork-billed Kingfisher. 
Fairly common, especially on brackish creeks. I did not come across its nest. 

1044. Halcyon smyrnensis. — The White-breasted Kingfisher. 
One of the commonest birds in the Islands, especially near Port Blair.. 
Breeds in April and May, the nest holes being in banks 2 to 3 feet deep. 

The eggs vary from 1'IG" to P27" in length and from TOO" to 1*09" ia 
breadth, the mean of 10 eggs being 1*22" X 1*05". 


1045. Halcyon pileata. — The Black-capped Kingfisher. 
Rare but widely distributed. I have seen three individuals only in 15 
months — one near Port Blair, one in the Cinque Islands and one on Nar- 

1046. Calialcyon lilacina, — The Ruddy Kingfisher. 
Not uncommon in the North Andaman, but very scarce elsewhere. I have 
seen none near Port Blair. 

1017. Sauropatis chloris. — The White-collared. Kingfisher. 
Very common everywhere along the coast or up brackish creeks. Feeds 
largely in grasshoppers as well as fish. Found several nests in April and 
May. They are usually in holes in banks, only about a foot deep, occasion- 
ally also in holes in white ants' mounts or in the up turned loots of a tree, and 
one nest I observed was in a hole in a mango tree about 15 feet from the 

Three or four eggs are laid broadly pyriforrn and exhibiting very little or 
no gloss. 

Length, T07" to P19". Breadth, 0-91" to 0-97". Mean of 12 eggs, 

[To be continued.) 






Sir George Hamfson, Bart., f.z.s., f.e.s. 

{Continued from page 719 of Vol. A 1 VI.') 

Sub-family Hadenin^;. 

Key to the Genera. 

A, Fore tibia with terminal claw. 

a. Abdomen with dorsal series of crests Barathra, 

b. Abdomen with dorsal crest on 1st segment only ... Hy polar athra. 

B. Fore tibia without terminal claw. 

a. Fore tarsus with long curved claw-like spines on 

outer side of 1st joint Trichoclea. 

b. Fore tarsus without claw-like spines on outer side 

of 1st joint. 
a 1 . Eyes overhung by long cilia. 

a 2 . Thorax clothed chiefly with scales Thyrestra. 

b 2 . Thorax clothed with hair only Lasiestra. 

•& 1 . Eyes not overhung by long cilia. 
a' 2 . Proboscis aborted, minute. 

a 3 . Abdomen with dorsal crest on 1st segment. 
a 4 . Frons with disk-shaped prominence 

with central truncate process Aspklifrontia. 

Z> 4 . Frons without prominence Briihys. 

b 3 . Abdomen without dorsal crest Polytela. 

it 2 . Proboscis fully developed. 

a 3 . Frons with truncate conical prominence. 
a 1 . Abdomen with dorsal series of crests. 
a 5 . Frons with semilunar corneous pro- 
minence Discestra. 

b 5 . Frons with circular prominence Craterestra. 

b 4 . Abdomen with dorsal crest on 1st seg- 
ment only Palponima. 

b 3 . Frons with slight rounded prominence 
with corneous plate below it. 
a + . Abdomen with dorsal series of crests. 
a 5 . Head and thorax .clothed chiefly with 

scales Scotogramma. 

h r> . Heal and thorax clothed with hair- 
like scales Dasygaster. 



b*. Abdomen with dorsal crest on 1st seg- 
ment only Odonlestra. 

c 4 . Abdomen without dorsal crest Meliana. 

c 3 . Frons without prominence. 

a*. Tegulse dorsally produced into a ridge, 
a"'. Abdomen with dorsal crest on 1st 

segment Xylomania. 

b\ Abdomen without dorsal crest Monima. 

h*. Tegulse not produced into a ridge. 
a 5 . Thorax clothed chiefly with scales. 
a 6 . Abdomen with dorsal series of 

crests Miselia. 

h 6 . Abdomen with dorsal crest on 1st 

segment only Iladena 

b s . Thorax clothed with hair and hair-like 

scales, sometimes with a few scales , 
on upper edge of patagia. 
o°. Abdomen with dorsal series of 

crests Tiracola 

b°. Abdomen with dorsal crest tm 1st 
segment only. 
a'. Prothorax with dorsal ridge-like 

crest , Chaluata. 

b~ . Prothorax with spreading crest ... Cirphis. 
c n . Abdomen without dorsal crest ... Borolia. 
c\ Thorax clothed with hair only. 

a". Prothorax with spreading crest Sideridis. 

b°. Thorax without distinct crests Ceraphryx. 

Genus Thyrestra. 

Thyrestra, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M. Y.. p. 6 (1905) ... hyalophora. 
Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, fringed with hair in front, the 

3rd joint porrect ; frons 
smooth ; eyes large, round- 
ed, overhung by long 
§|3§|fifiL °i na i antennae of male 

^iPlli (aSS^t^ -^VX/^ V*^ almost simple, head and 

'-*>&• • ' Jp5 thorax clothed with rough 

scales, the prothorax with 
Thyrestra hyalophora. $ ]. ridge-like dorsal crest, 

the metathorax with crest ; abdomen with dorsal series of crests, paired lateral 
tufts of very long white hair protrusible from the lateral stigmata of male. 
Forewing rather long and narrow, the apex produced and the termen oblique ; 
veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; G from upper angle ; 9 from 10 


anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 
3*4 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 6*7 
stalked ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near base only ; male with a patch of 
hyaline membrane in, below, and beyond cell. 

1756 a. Thybestba hyalophoea. 

Genus Babathea. 


Barathra Hilbn. Verz., p. 218 (1827) brassicce. 

Copimames'.ta, Grote, A. M. N. H. (5) XI., p. 54 (1883). brassicce. 

Proboscis fully developed : palpi obliquely upturned, the 2nd joint fringed with 

hair, the 3rd short . 


f rons smooth ; eyes 

large, rounded, not 
ciliated ; antennae 
of male minutely 
ciliated ; tibiae fring- 
ed with hair, the 
Barathra brassicce. £ { fore tibia with long 

curved claw on outer side ; head and thorax clothed with hair and scales, the 
pro- and metathorax with spreading crests, abdomen with dorsal series of 
crests, the one on basal segment large. Forewing with the terraen crenulate ; 
veins 3 and 5 from close to angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 
anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 
3-4 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from just below middle of discocel- 
lulars ; 6-7 from upper angle ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near base. 
1691. Babathea bbassic/e insert (syns.). 

Mamestra andalusica, Staud. Cat., p. 9l) (1871). 

„ scotochroma, Rober. Iris. 1, p. 340, pi. xii., f. 13 (1884). 
,, decolorata, Staud. Stett Ent. Zeit 1889, p. 34. 

slraminea, Failla. Nat. Sic. X., p. 30, pi. 1, f. 5 (1890). 

Genus Discestba. 


Discestra, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal B. M. V. p. 14 (1905) chartaria. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, the 2nd joint fringed with hair in 
front ; frons with semilunar corneous prominence with raised edges, a corneous 
plate below frons ; eyes large, rounded ; antennas of male ciliated ; head and 
thorax clothed chiefly with scales, the pro- and metathorax with divided 
crests ; abdomen with dorsal series of crests. Forewing with veins 3'5 from 
near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 
8 to form the areole; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3"4 f rom angle of 
cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 6*7 from upper angle ; 
8 anastomosing with the cell near base only. 

1679c. Discestba abenaeia, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. B. M. V., p. 16, pi. 78, f. 25 



Head whitish ; thorax and abdomen whitish tinged with pale ochreous 

^^>. y brown ; tarsi tinged 

=7^-^ Nvy ^ ^$^ A ^---— i ^"^^ with fuscous. Fore- 

^•i'-w^O^V ^^""^^--^y jr wing whitish, tinged 

^^-^z2\f,Jj ^-^_ .^ ; ~ :: H£$ w ^ P a e ocnreous 

'^ ' ivS (vvf^^r) J*< *^ """^HBS brown and irrorated 

:jf \\ \>^ e * 'W§^k with fuscous : sub- 

^ % basal line double 

Discesira arenaria. $ \. waved, from costa 

to vein 1 ; antemedial line indistinct, double, waved ; claviform moderate, 
defined by black ; orbicular and reniform moderate, with fuscous centres 
defined by black, the former round ; traces of a medial line ; postmedial line 
dentate, bent outwards below costa, excurved to vein 4, then incurved, some 
pale points beyond it on costa ; subterminal line pale, slightly defined by 
fuscous, minutely waved, angled outwards at vein 7, slightly dentate at veins 
4*3 and bent outwards to tornus ; a terminal series of small black lunules, 
Hindwing white, the veins and termen tinged with brown ; some dark terminal 
points; the under side with the costa slightly irrorated with brown, a small 
"black discoidial point 

Habitat — Sind, Karachi. Exp. 30-32, mill. 

Genus Craterestra. 


Craterestra. Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal., B.M., V., p. 17 (1905) ... lucina. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, the 2nd joint fringed with hair 

in front, the 3rd moderate, oblique ; frons with truncate conical corneous 

prominence with corneous plate below it ; eyes large, rounded ; antennae 

ciliated ; head and thorax clothed with scales and hair, the pro- and meta- 

thorax with spreading crests ; tibiae fringed with rather long hair ; abdomen 

with dorsal series of crests and lateral fringes of hair. Forewing with veins 

3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing 

with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3*4 from angle 

of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 6'7 from upper angle ; 

• 8 anastomosing with the cell near base only. 

.A. Forewing with the medial area darker than ground 

colour ... media. 

B. Forewing with the medial area not darker than ground 


a. Forewing w r ith the costal area whitish. 

a 1 . Forewing with the inner area whitish bifascia. 

6 l . Forewing with the inner area not whitish albicosta. 

b. Forewing with the costal area not whitish subterminata. 

1679c?. Craterestra media. Wife, XI. 756 (1857) ; Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal., 

B. M., V., p. 19, pi. 78, f. 28. 

Apamei latifasciata, Moore, P. Z. S. 1881, p. 345. 


Apamea viriata, Swinh., P. Z. S. 1885, p. 450. 

Head and thorax red-brown mixed with black or fuscous brown ; tegular 

with medial black 
line ; tarsi with 
ochreous rings . 
abdomen ochre- 
ous brown. Fore- 
wing fuscous 
brown, the area 
Craterestra media. $ \. below the cell, 

before the antemedial line and the postmedial area except towards costa 
ochreous more or less tinged with brown ; a waved subbasal line from costa 
to submedian fold ; antemedial line defined by ochreous on inner side, waved,, 
strongly angled outwards above inner margin : clavif orm moderate, defined by 
black and with some blackish between it and postmedial line ; orbicular axel 
reniform defined by black, the former round ; an indistinct waved medial line ; 
postmedial line dentate, indistinctly double, bent outwards below costa, excurved 
to vein 4, then oblique ; subterminal line pale, defined on inner side by a series 
of slight dentate rufous marks, angled outwards at vein 7 and dentate at 
veins 4*3, the area beyond it dark except at apex ; a terminal series of black 
points ; cilia intersected with rufous. Hindwing white or ochreous white, the 
veins and terminal area more or less tinged with fuscous ;-the under side with 
the costal and terminal areas irrorated with fuscous, a postmedial series of 
slight dark streaks on the veins. 

Habitat. — Mashonaland, Salisbury ; Punjab, Kulu, Sultanpore, Dharmsala, 
Jubbulpore, Manpuri ; Bombay, Poona ; Canara ; Nilgiris ; Burma, Man- 
dalay, Thayetmyo. Exp. 34-36, mill. 

1935. Oraterestra bifascta. 

1936. Craterestra albicosta. 

1679. Craterestra subterminata. Hmpsn. Cat. Lep^ Phal., B. M., V., 
p. 22, pi. 78, f, 31(1905). 

$ . Head and thorax bronwish grey ; tegulae with black medial line ; tarsi? 
fuscous with pale rings ; abdomen grey-brown. Forewing grey tinged with 
reddish-brown ; the postmedial area except towards costa, the area below the 
cell from before middle, and the inner margin from base suffused with fuscous ~ 
an ill-defined black streak below base of cell ; subbasal line represented by a 
blackish mark below costa ; antemedial line indistinct, dentate, oblique ; clavi- 
form absent ; orbicular very indistinct, rather elongate ; reniform with brown 
and fuscous centre and greyish annulus, somewhat angled inwards on mediai> 
nervure ; postmedial line indistinct, double, filled in with greyish, bent 
outwards below costa excurved to vein 4, then incurved, some pale points 
on costa beyond it ; subterminal line pale, diffused, angled outwards at 
vein 7 and excurved at middle ; a terminal series of points ; cilia whitish inter- 
sected with brown. Hindwing whitish tinged with brown ; the veins and 



termen brown ; the underside white irrorated with brown, a discoidal ei ot, 

indistinct sinuous postmedial line with dark streaks on the veins, and some 
terminal lunules. 

Habitat. — Sikhim. Exp. 34, mill. 

Genus Scotog bam .v a 


Scotogramma, Smith, Pr. U. S. Nat. Mus. X., p. 461' (1887)... submarina. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi oblique, the 2nd joint fringed with hair in- 
front, the 3rd moderate, porrect ; frons with rounded prominence with slight 
vertical edge and corneous plate below it ; eyes large, rounded ; aniermae of 
male ciliated ; head and thorax clothed with hair and scales, the pro- and 
meta thorax with spreading crests; tibia? fringed with hair ; abdomen with 
dorsal series of crests and lateral fringes of hair. Forewing with veins 3 and 
5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 
8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3*4. from angle of 
cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 6"7 from upper angle ; 8> 
anastomosing with the cell near base only. 

A. Forewing with the subterminal line angled outwards at 

veins 4 3 and forming a distinct W-mark ... trifolii. 

B. Forewing with the subterminal line not forming a W- 

mark at veins 4*3 agrotiformis- 



Scotograma trifolii, £ j. 
Scotogramma trifolii, insert \^syns.). 
Noctua tenia, Fsp. Schmett., IV., pi. 117, A ff. 5'6 (1786). 
„ xaucia, Esp. Schmett , IV , pi. 15*2, f. 5. (1786). 
„ treitschkei, Hiibn., Eur. Schmett. Noct., f. 8.50 (1827) ; Boisd.. 
Mem. Soc. Linn., Paris 1827, p. hi., pi. 6, f. 2 ; Dup. Lep. 
Fr. VIII. p. 40, pi. 103, f. 1 ; Herr-Schaff . Schmett., Eur. 
Noct. ff. 68-69 ; Staud. Cat. Lep. Pal, p. 159. 
„ pugnax, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. Noct. ff. 726-7 (1827). 
„ farhasii, Treit. Schmett. Eur., N. 2, p. 7 ! . (1835). 
Hadena inter missa, Wlk., XI., 587 (1857). 
Apamia inquieta, Wlk., XI., 730 (1857). 
Hadena albifma, Wlk., XII., 752 (1857). 

Apamea glaiicoraria, Wlk., Can. Nat. and Geol., V., p. 255 (U60). 
Mamestra canescens, Moore. A. M. N. H. 1878, p. 233: id. 2nd. 
Yarkand Mission, p. 9, pi. 1, f. 13. 
„ oregonica, Grote, Can. Ent., XIII., p. 230 (1881). 


Habitat.— N. America; Europe ; Sokotra ; W. and C. Asia ; Punjab ; 
"Sikhim ; Tibet. 

1879a. scotogramma aorotifoemis. 

Genus Lasiestra. 


Lasiestra, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. V., p. 47 (1905)... phoca. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi upturned, the 2nd joint clothed with long 
Tiair in front, the 3rd moderate ; f rons smooth ; eyes large, rounded, overhung 
by long cilia ; antennae of male serrate or ciliated ; head and thorax 
.clothed with rough hair and without crests ; tibiae fringed with rough hair ; 
abdomen with dorsal crests on basal segments. Forewing with the termen 
obliquely curved ; veins 3 and 5 from close to angle of cell ; 6 from upper 
angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. 
Hiudwing with vein 3 from close to angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from just below 
middle of discocellulars ; 6-7 shortly stalked ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near 
base only. 

Sect. II. Antennae of male ciliated. 

A, Forewing not tinged with olive elvesi. 

B. Forewing tinged with olive deliciosa. 

1683. Lasiestra elvesi. 

1683a. Lasiestra deliciosa, Alph. Hor. Ent. Soc. Boss. XXVI., p. 446 

(1892) ; id. Rom. Mem. IX., p. 18, pi. 3, f. 
3 ; Staud. Cat. Lep. Pal., p. 162. 
Head and thorax olive-grey mixed with some black ; teguhe whitish 

edged with black ; 
tarsi with whitish 
rings ; abdomen olive- 
grey. Forewing olive- 
grey irrorated with 
fuscous, the markings 
blackish irro rated) 
- Lasiestra elvesi. $ \. with yellow scales; 

subbasal line double, waved, from costa to vein 1 ; antemedial line double, 
waved ; claviform small, defined by black; orbicular and renif orm defined by black, 
ihe former round, or quadrate, open above and below ; a waved medial line ; 
postmedial line double, dentate and produced to points on the veins, bent out- 
wards below costa and oblique below vein 4 ; subterminal line excurved below 
costa and at middle, angled inwards in discal and submedian folds ; a terminal 
-series of small triangular black spots ; cilia whitish, with a dark line through 
them. Hindwing dark fuscous, with very indistinct greyish subterminal liDe ; 
•cilia white with dark line through them ; the underside grey irrorated with 
&>rown, a dark discoidal spot and sinuous postmedial line. 

Habitat.— Tibet ; Kashmir, Barra Larcha, Kokser. Exp. 36-38 mill. 


Genus Miselia. 


Miselia, Ochs. Schmett. Eur., IV., p. 72 (1816), mm. descr. ; 
Treit. Schmett. Eur., V. (1), p. 386 (1825) compena. 

Folia, Ochs. Schmett. Eur., IV., p. 73 (1816), non. descr. ; 

Treit. Schmett. Eur., V. (2), p. 5 (1825) cappa. 

Mamestra, Ochs. Schmett. Eur., IV., p. 75 (1816), non. 
descr. ; Treit, Schmett. Eur., V, (2), p. 127 (1825) pisi. 

Xanthia, Ochs. Schmett. Eur., IV., p. 82 (1816), non. descr... luteago. 

Polymixis^Uxxhw. Verz., p. 205 (1827) filigraimma. 

Ilarmoclia. Hiibn. Verz., p. 207 (1827) compta. 

Melanchra, Hiibn. Verz , p. 207 (1827) perskario3. 

.Ethria, Hiibn. Verz., p. 218 (1827) serena. 

Astrapetis, Hiibn. Verz., p. 219 (1827) .. dentina. 

Diataraxia, Hiibn. Verz., p. 219 (1827) splendens. 

-DLmthcecia, Boisd. Silberm. Rev. Ent., II., p. 246 (1834) ... cucubali. 

Ilecatera, Guen. Noct., II., p. 27 (1852) dymdea. 

Aplecta, Guen. Noct., II., p. 74 (1852), nee Guen., 1841, non. 
descr nebulosa. 

Paslona, Wlk., XV., 1754 (1858) rudis. 

Maguza, Wlk., XXXIV., 1223 (1865) rudis. 

Meterana, Butl. P.Z.S., 1877, p. 85 pictida. 

Xanthalia, Berg. Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg., XXXV11I., p. 395 

(1894) luteago. 

Haderonia, Staud Iris., VIII., p. 322 (1895) subarscJianica. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely upturned, the 2nd joint fringed 
with long hair in front, the 3rd short; frons smooth; eyes large, rounded; 
head and thorax clothed cbiefly with scales, the pro- and metathorax 
with crests ; pectus and tibiae clothed with long hair ; abdomen with dorsal 
series of crests. Fore wing with veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from 
upper angle ;9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. 
Hiudwing with veins 3'4 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of 
discocellulars : 6'7 from upper angle or shortly stalked ; 8 anastomosing with 
the cell near base only. 

Sect. I. {Haderonia). Antennas of male bipectinate with long branches, the 
apical part serrate. 

1702. Miselia culta, insert (syn.) Hadena mbviolaeea, Leech Trans. Ent. 
Soc., 1900, p. 55. 

Sec. II. Antennae of male serrate and fasciculate. 

1702 a. Miselia tenkcra, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B.M., V, p. 87, pi. 80, 
f . 26 (1905). 

$. Head and thorax brown mixed with white and black scales; tarsi with 
pale rings ; abdomen reddish-brown. Forewing fuscous brown mixed with 
grey and slightly tinged in parts with dull olive ; subbasal line double, waved, 


interrupted at middle, from eosta to vein 1 ; antemedial line irregularly 
waved, oblique, defined by grey on inner side ; claviform moderate, defined by 
black ; orbicular and reniform defined by black, the former small, round with 
white annulus, the latter indistinct, irregular ; an indistinct waved medial line - r 
postmedial line defined by whitish on outer side, dentate, bent outwards 
below costa, excurved to vein 4, then incurved, some white points beyond it on 
costa ; subterminal line whitish, defined on inner side by a series of small, 
dentate black marks, slightly angled outwards at vein 7 and excurved at 
middle ; a terminal series of small black lunules ; cilia whitish and fuscous 
with a black line at base. Hindwing pale, suffused with brown, the terminal' 
area darkest, a slight discoidal spot, sinuous postmedial line, and some terminal 
lunules ; cilia whitish wih a dark line near base ; the underside whitisk 
irrorated with brown. 

Habitat. — Kashmir, Deosai Plains. Exp. 36 mill. 

Sect. III. Antennas of male ciliated. 

A. Prothorax with divided crest. 

a. Forewing with the ground-colour ochreous or greyish 
ochreous consangids. 

b. Forewing with the ground-colour blackish mortua. 

c. Forewing with the ground-colour dark purplish grey 
more or less completely suffused with fuscous. 

a 1 - Forewing with the costal area concolorous. 

a 2 Forewing with the inner area concolorous marnestrina.. 

b" Forewing with ochreous-brown fascia on inner 

margin , nagaensis. 

b 1 Forewing with grey streak below costa i ferrisparsa. 

c l Forewing with the costal area pinkish ochreous catligera. 

d. Forewing with the ground-colour whitish grey scotcchlora . 

1679. Miselia consanguis, insert (syns.) 

Hadena languida, Wlk., XV., 728 (1858). 

Mamestra zacliii, Bhtsch. Vesh. Zool-bot. Ges. Wien. 1879, p. 406. 
Hecatera impura, Snell. Medden-Sumatra Lep., p. 43, pi. 51, f. 5 (1880).. 
Hadena stolida, Leech, P. Z. S. 1889, p. 5(9, pi. iv., f. 2. 
Mamestra abbas, Baker. Trans. Ent. Soc. 1894, p. 40, pi. 1, f. 8. 

1694. Miselia mortua, Staud. Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1888, p. 249 ; id. Rom. Mem.. 

"VI., p. 426, pi. 8, f. 1 ; id. Cat. Lep. Pal., p. 156. 
Mamestra afra, Grass. Berl. Ent. Zeit., 1888, p. 326. 

nigerrima, Warr. P. Z. S., 1 888, p. 302. 
Hadena Icala, Swinh. Cat, Het. Mus. Oxon, II., p. 17 (1900). 
1700. Miselia mamestrina. 
1689. Miselia nagaensis. 
1688. Miselia ferrisparsa. 
1685. Miselia costigera. 

1695. Miselia scotochlora. 


B Prothorax with spreading crest. 

a. Abdomen of female with the extremity blunt, the ovipositor not 
a'. Forewing with the subterminal line dentate on veins 4-3 and 
forming a distinct W-mark. 
a 3 . Forewing with black streak below base of cell, preedita. 
b~. Forewing without black streak below base of 
a ■''. Forewing with the postmedial line incur- 
ved between veins 5 and 2. 
a\ Forewing with the orbicular small, nar- 
row, oblique eliptical furcula. 

b 4 . Forewing with the orbicular well de- 

Velo P ed ■ schneideri. 

b\ Forewing with the postmedial line oblique, 

waved below vein 2 perdentata. 

b : . Forewing with the subterminal line not forming 
a distinct W-mark. 
«-'. Forewing with the reniform large, kidney- 
a 3 . Forewing with the ground-colour purplish 
a*. Forewing with pale dentate mark on base 

o£veia2 dentina. 

b*. Forewing without pale dentate mark on 
base of vein 2. 

a\ Head and teguhe not white.... (jlauca. 

I s . Head and teguhe white cnivetti. 

6 3 . Forewing with the ground-colour reddish 

brown pannosa. 

e A . Forewing with the ground-colour grey- 

white dysodea. 

b . Forewing with reniform small, narrow, and 
angled inwards to orbicular on median 

nervure , „, 7 - 


1678.a. Miselia pr.edita, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. Noct., f. 595 (1827) ; Led. 
Ann. Soc. Ent. Belg. 1870, pi. 1, f. 11 ; Staud.Cat. Lep. Pal, p. 16o'. 

Head, thorax and abdomen grey, slightly tinged with fuscous. Forewing 
grey, the antemedial and medial areas tinged with fuscous except towards costa 
and mner margin ; a black streak below base of cell; subbasal line absent- 
antemedial line defined by white on outer side, oblique from co 6 ta to submedian 
fold, then nearly erect ; claviform almost obsolete, a dentate whitish mark 
beyond it on base of vein 2 ; orbicular and reniform with brownish centres and 
Mhite annuh defined by black, the former oblique elliptical, open above ; the 


median nervure and veins rising from it defined by fine white streaks ; post- 
medial line defined by white on outer side, bent outwards below costa, excurved' 
to vein 4, then oblique ; terminal area brown except at apex, extending to> 
inner side of the subterminal line which is white, angled outwards at vein 7 
and dentate to termen at veins 4*3. Hindwing whitish tinged with brown, the 
terminal area suffused with fuscous ; the underside white, the costal and ter- 
minal areas irrorated with brown, a small discoidal spot and sinuous puncti- 
form postmedial line. 

Habitat. — S. E. Russia ; Armenia ; W. Tuekistan ; E. Tuekistan ; Kash- 
mir, Nubra. Exp. 34 mill. 

1678.5. Miselia fuecula, Staud. Stett. Ent. Zeit. 1889, p. 36 ; Hmpsn. Cat. 
Lep. Phal. B. M. Y., p. 127 ; pi. 81, f. 19 ; Staud. Cat. Lep. Pal ,. 
p. 160. 

Head and thorax grey mixed with brown and fuscous ; tegulse with two 
more or less prominent black lines ; patagia with some black scales on upper 
edge ; abdomen grey mixed with fuscous. Forewing grey with a violaceous tinge 
and slight brown suffusion, the medial area brown except towards costa 
and inner margin ; subbasal line represented by double black strise from costa 
and cell filled in with white ; antemedial line double filled in with white, waved 
from costa to vein 1, then strongly angled outwards, sometimes almost to 
postmedial line ; claviform large, brown defined by back, acute at extremity, a 
bidentate white mark above it on vein 2 ; orbicular and reniform small defined 
by black, the former oblique elliptical, white with slight brown centre, the 
latter brown with slight white annulus ; postmedial line defined by white on 
outer side, angled outwards below costa and sharply at vein b, then incurved 
an i angled on veins 2 and 1 ; subterminal line white, defined on inner side by 
dentate black marks below costa and at middle, angled outwards at vein 7 
and dentate to termen at veins 4 - 3, the area beyond it suffused with brown ; a 
terminal series of small lack lunules ; cilia intersected with white. Hindwing 
white, the veins, base and inner area suffused with brown ; a broad terminal 
fuscous-brown band ; cilia white ; the underside sparsely irrorated with brown, 
a small discoidal lunule, crenulate postmedial line, and diffused subterminal 

Habitat. — W. Tuekistan ; E. Tuekistan ; Kashmie, Kardong, Digha Pass. 
Esp. 30 mill. 

1678.C. Miselia schneideei, Staud. Iris, XII., p. 368 (1900) ; Hmpsn. Cat. 
Lep. Phal. B. M., V., p. 129, pi. 81, f. 21 ; Staud : Cat. Lep. Pal., p. 160. 

Head, thorax and abdomen grey mixed with brown ; tegulse with black 
medial line ; tarsi with pale rings. Forewing grey-brown ; subbasal line repre- 
sented by double black striae from costa and cell ; a double black streak above 
inner margin before the antemedial line which is double, filled in with grey, 
angled outwards below costa and strongly above inner margin, slightly excurved 
between those points ; claviform brown defined by black ; acute at extremity, 
a bidentate whitish mark above it on vein 2 ; orbicular oblique elliptical, with 


brown centre and whitish annulus defined by black ; reniform rather narrow, 
fuscous grey defined by black ; an indistinct medial line oblique from costa to 
vein 2, then dentate ; postmedial line double filled in with grey, bent out- 
wards below costa, incurved to vein 4, then bisinuate, the area beyond it paler 
with some whitish points on costa ; subterminal line whitish defined on inner 
side by black streaks below costa and dentate marks at middle, angled outwards 
at vein 7 and dentate to termen at veins 4"3, the area beyond it suffused with 
black ; a terminal series of black lunules ; cilia pale brown with darker lice 
through them and intersected with ochreous. Hindwing whitish, the bare 
tinged with brown, the veins, discoidal lunule and teiminal half brown; cilia 
white ; the underside whitish slightly irrorated with brown, a discoidal lunule, 
slight curved postmedial line and broad subterminal band. 

Habitat. — W. Tuekistan ; E. Turkestan ; Kashmir, Deosai Plains. Exp„ 
40-44 mill. 

1678, Miselia perdentata insert "(syn.) Mamesira lifda,¥xmg. Iris, 1902,. 
p. 149, pi. 5, f. 3 ; Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal., B. M„ V.,, p. 129, pi 81, f. 22. 

1690.a. Miselia dentin a, Schiff. Wien. Verz., p. 82 (1776); Esp. Schmett IV.,. 
pi. 127, f. 3 (1789) ; Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. Noct. f. 408 ; Dup. 
Lep. Fr. VI., p. 269, pi. 89, f. 6 ; Staud. Cat. Lep. Pal., p. 159. 
Noctua plebeia, Haw. Lep. Brit., p. 198 (1809) ; Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. 

Haust., III., p. 185. 
Noctua leucostigma, Haw. Lep. Brit., p. 198 (1809) ; Steph. 111. Brit. 

Ent. Haust., III., p. 186. 
Hadena latenai, Pierret, Ann. Soc. Ent Fr. 18S7, p. 177, pi. 8, f, 3. 
Noctua hilaris, Zett. Ins. Lapp, p. 938 (1840). 
Head and thorax grey mixed with black ; tegulse with black medial lirie :. 
tarsi ringed with white ; abdomen greyish fuscous. Forewing violaceous grey 
irrorated with fuscous ; the medial area suffused with fuscous brown ; a black 
streak in base of submediau fold ; subbasal line represented by double black 
stria3 from costa and cell ; some yellow on inner margin near base usually 
present ; antetnedial line double, waved, oblique ; claviform moderate, defined 
by black ; a bidentate whitish patch beyond it below the cell ; orbicular and 
reniform grey defined by black and with more or less developed fuscous centres, 
the former round ; an indistinct waved medial line ; postmedial line double, 
dentate and produced to short streaks on the veins, bent outwards below costa 
and incurved below Vein 4, some white spots beyond it on costa ; subterminal 
line whitish, often tiDged with yellow, defined on inner side by small dentate 
black marks and with some black beyond it in discal fold, angled outwards at 
vein 7 and somewhat dentate at veins 4*3 ; a terminal series of small black 
lunules ; cilia fuscous intersected with white. Hindwing fuscous brown, rather 
darker on terminal area ; cilia yellowish at base, with brown line through 
them and white tips; the underside grey irrorated with brown, a small discci- 
dal spot, curved postmedial line, and subterminal band. 

Ab latenai much darker, the forewing wholly suffused with fuscous. 


Habitti. — Europe ; W. Asia : W. Tdrkistan ; W. Siberia ; E. Turkis- 
tan ; Kashmir, G-oorais Valley. Exp. 32-42 mill. 

Larva, Meyr. Brit. Lep., p. 82 ; Barrett. Lep. Brit., IV., p. 197, pi. 159, f. 1. 
Pale grey-brown ; a dorsal series of conjoined blackish spots edged with 
white ; spiracular line darker ; lateral and subspiracular lines less distinct. 
3Food plant, roots of Taraxacum. 5. 

1690. Miselia glauca, Kleem. Beitr. Ins. 1, pi. 48, ff. 1-7 (1761) ; Hiibn. 
Eur. Schmett. Noct., f. 410 ; Dup. Lep. Fr., VI., 
p. 322, pi. 92, :f. 7 ; Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. Haust., II., 
p. 185 ; Staud. Oat. Lep. pal., p. 158. 
Noctua aperta, Greyer. Eur. Schmett. Noct,, f. 800 (1827). 

„ lappo, Dup. Lep. Fr., YII, p. 255, pi. 116, f. 3 (1837). 
Hadena quadriposita, Zett. Ins. Lapp., p. 939 (1840). 

„ farkasii, Herr. Schiiff. Eur. Schmett. Noct., f. 390 (1845), nee 
Hadena poliostigma, Hmpsn. Moths. Ind., II., p. 201 (1894). 
Mamestra taunensis, Fucks. Jhrb. Nass. LIE, p. 133 (1899). 
lHabitat — Europe ; W. Tuekistan ; Amurland ; Kamschatca ; Kashmir. 
1698. Miselia cnivetti. 
.1703. Miselia pannosa. 

.1682. Miselia dysodea, Setoff. Wien. Verz., p. 72 (1776) ; Hiibn. Eur. 
Schmett. Noct., f. 47. Dup. Lep. Fr. VI., p. 404, 
pi. 98, f. 2 and Suppl. V., pi. 1, 1 2 ; Steph. 111. 
Brit. Ent. Haust., Ill, p. 32. 
Noctua spinacice, View. Tab. Viez. Brandenburg, p. 70 (1789). 
„ flavocincta minor, Esp. Schmett. IV., pi. 153, ff. 6*7 (1790). 
.„ chri/sosona, Borkh. Eur. Schmett., IV, p. 264. (1792); Staud. 

Oat. Lep. pal. p. 160. 
„ ranunculina, Haw. Lep. Brit., p. 183 (1809). 
Mamestra caduca, Herr. Schiiff . Eur. Schmett., II., p; 266. Noct., f. 484 
„ innocens, Staud. Hor. Soc. Ent. Ross, VII., p. 123, pi. 1, f. 10 

„ koechlini, Th. Mieg. Le Nat., XII., p. 181 (1889). 
turbida, Hofn. Jhrb. Kiirut., XXIV., p. 11 (1897), 
Head and thorax grey mixed with reddish brown and black; tarsi blackish 
■ mixed with white; abdomen grey tinged with rufous and irrorated with fuscous. 
Forewing grey-white thickly irrorated with dark brown, the medial area rather 
darker ; some orange-yellow in submedian fold ; subbasal line with yellow 
marks on it and defiued^by white on outer side, waved, from costa to submedian 
fold ; antemedial line oblique, waved, defined by white en inner fide and with 
yellow marks on it ; claviform moderate, defined by black ; orbicular and 
reniform defined by black and with some yellow at sides, the former round ; 
an irregularly waved^medial line ; postmedial line defined by white on outer 


side, dentate, bent outwards below costa, excurved to vein 4, then incurved, 
some white points beyond it on costa ; subtevminal line represented by yellow 
spots on inner side of irregular brown marks ; a terminal series of slight dark 
lunules ; cilia chequered ochreous and brown. Hindwing pale tinged with 
brown, the terminal area dark brown ; slight greyish streaks on extremities of 
veins 2 and 1 ; cilia pale with a brown line near base, the underside white, the 
costal and terminal areas irrorated with brown, a small discoidal spot and waved 
postmedial line. 

Ab. 1. caduca. Porewing whitish grey without the yellow markings. 

Ab. 2. innocens. Forewing whitish grey with slight yellow markings, the me- 
dial area more prominently dark. . . S. Europe, W. and C, Asia. 

Ab. 3. Darker, especially the medial area of forewing. Kashmir. 

Habitat— Europe ; W. Asia ; Persia ; W. Turkistan ; W. China ; Kashmir. 
Goorais Valley. Exp. 32-36 mill. 

Larva., Meyr. Brit. Lap., p. 82 ; Barrett. Lep. Brit. IV., p. 218, pi. 161, f. 1. 

Pale dull green or yellowish irrorated with brown ; dorsal line pale with 
dark edges ; lateral line dark indistinct ; spiracles black ; head ochreous brown 
or dull greenish. Food plants : flowers of Souchus and Lac uca. 7-8. 


b. (Harmodia) Abdomen of female with the extremity produced and conicai. 
the ovipositor exserted. 

1682.6. Miselia magnolii, Boisd. Ind. Meth., p. 125 (1829) ; Dup. Lep. Fr. 

Suppl. VI., p. 241, pi. 22, f. 4. Herr. fechaff. 

Eur. Schmett. Noct., f. 71 ; Staud. Cat. Lep. 

pal. p. 162. 

Miselia nummosa, Ev. Faun. Volg. Ur, p. 233 (1844) ; Fit. Beitr., 

IV., pi. 351, f. 3. 

Head and thorax olive brown mixed with white and black ; tarsi mixed with 

white ; abdomen grey-brown, forewing olive-brown with a reddish tinge, 

sparsely irrorated with white, chiefly on the veins, and slightly suffused with 

black ; a whitish patch at base of costa traversed by the double, waved, black 

subbasal line, from costa to submedian fold; antemedial line double, waved, 

filled in with white ; claviform large, defined by black ; orbicular and reniform 

with brown centres and white annuli defined by black, the former round, the 

latter rather irregular and with its outer edge indented ; a medial shade, oblique 

to median nervure, then somewhat dentate ; postmedial line defined by white on 

outer side, strongly dentate, bent outwards below costa and strongly incurred 

below vein 4, some white points beyond it on costa ; subterminal line white, 

defined on inner side by a series of small dentate black marks, angled outwards 

at vein 7 and somewhat dentate at veins 4*3 ; a terminal series of small black 

lunules defined by white ; cilia intersected with white. Hindwing ochreous 

white slightly irrorated with brown, the veins and marginal areas strongly 

suffused with brown ; cilia with a brown line near base ; the underside with 

discoidal spot, sinuous postmedial line and diffused subterminal band. 



Habitat — Europe ; W. Asia ; W. Turkistan. Exp. 36-40 mill. 

Subspecies, conspurcata. Frr. Neue. Beitr. Schmett., V., p. 82, pi., 433, f. 3 
(1844); Herr. Schfiff. Eur. Schmett. Noct. ff. 463-470 ; 
Staud. Cat. Lep. pal, p. 162. 

Head, thorax and forewing grey-brown without the rufous tinge, the last 
with the claviform reduced to a small black mark, the orbicular oblique 
elliptical, the reniform slightly angled inwards on median nervure, but not on 
subcostal nervure. 

Habitat— C. and S. Russia, Urals ; W. Siberia, Altai ; ? E. Siberia ; 
Punjab, Hunza. 

Larva, Wallschlegel, Stett. Ent. Zeit, XXXII, p. 466. 

Pale reddish grey with a dark maculate dorsal stripe, oblique subdorsal 
marks and pale lateral line. Food plant : Silene nutans. 8'9. 

Genus Odontestra. Type. 

Odontestra, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M., Y., p. 205 (1905) vittigera. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi short, oblique, fringed with hair in front ; 
frons with rounded prominence with small corneous plate below it ; eyes large, 
rounded ; antennas of male ciliated ; head and thorax clothed chiefly with 
6cales, pro- and metathorax with spreading crests; abdomen with dorsal crest 
on 1st segment only. Forewing rather short and broad, the termen evenly 
curved ; veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell, 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 1 
anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 
3*4 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 6'7 from 
upper angle or shortly stalked ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near, base only. 

A. Forewing with the terminal line narrow, whitish. 

a. Hindwing white, the terminal area suffused with 

fuscous ... simillima. 

b. Hindwing uniformly suffused with fuscous potanini. 

B. Forewing with the subterminal line broader, yellowish suomarginalis. 
1687. Odontestra simillima. 

1687a. Odontestra potanini, Alph. Iris., VIII, p. 192 (1895) ; id. Rom, 

Mem., IX , p. 137, pi. IX., f. 10 (1897). 

Head and thorax irro rated with grey ; tegulse with black medial line ; 
patagia edged with black above ; tarsi with pale rings ; abdomen fuscous 
brown. Forewing purple-grey ; the costal area suffused with purplish 
red except towards base ; the inner margin with ochreous white fascia from 
base to tornus ; subbasal line represented by double strise from costa and a 
black patch below the cell crossed by an oblique ochreous striga ; antemedial 
line double, dentate towards costa, usually filled in with ochreous in submedian 
interspace, obsolete below vein 1 ; claviform very large, filled in with black ; 
vein 2 defined by an ochreous white fascia below or on both sides to just 
beyond postmedial line ; orbicular and reniform with ochreous annuli defined 
by black, the former ve-y small, round or oblique elliptical, the latter with 
ochreous centre and angled inwards on median nervure ; postrceuial line 



double, dentate and produced to points on the veins, bent outwards below 
costa, excurved to vein 4, then oblique, obsolete below vein 1, some pale points 
beyond it on costa often present ; subterminal line ochreons white, defined on 
inner side by prominent dentate black marks, angled outwards at vein 7 and 
inwards in submedian fold, some red-brown suffusion beyond it, the apex 
usually ochreous ; a terminal series of small black lunules : cilia grey with 
black lines through them. Hindwing fuscous ; the cilia pale with a brown 
line near base ; the underside pale, the costal and terminal area thickly irrorated 
with fuscous, a discoidal lunule and curved postmedial line. 

Habitat— W. China ; Punjab, Simla, Dalhousie, Dharmsala. Exp. 44 mill. 

1686. Odontestra submarginaus, Wlk. Char. Undescr. Het., p. 32 (I862), 
has priority over incisa. 


Odontestra submarginalis. $ \ . 

Genus Hadena. Type. 

Hadena, Schrank, Faun. Boica, II (2), p. 158 (1802) reticulata. 

Neuria, Guen. Noct. I, p. !66 (1852), nee Guen. 1841, non 

descr reticulata. 

Dargida, Wlk. IX. , 401 (1856) graminivora. 

Eupsephopactes, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci. I, p. 138, 

pi. iv., f . 6 (1873) , , procincta. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely upturned, the 2nd joint fringed 
with hair in front, the 3rd short ; irons smooth ; eyes large, rounded ; antennas 
of male ciliated ; thorax quadrately clothed with hair and scales, prothorax 
typically with divided crest ; pectus clothed with long hair ; abdomen with 
dorsal crest on basal segment, clothed with woolly hair at base and with 
lateral fringe? of hair towards extremity. Forewing rather narrow, the apex 
produced and the termen obliquely curved, the cilia crenulate ; veins 3 and 5 
from near angle of cell, 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 
8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3*4 from angle 
of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 6*7 from upper angle ; 8 
anastomosing with the cell near base. 

A. Forewing with the postmedial line strongly excurved 

from below costa to vein 4, then oblique dissecta. 

B. Forewing with the postmedial line moderately excurv- 

ed from below costa to vein 4, then incurved reticulata. 

L684. Hadena dissecta, ineert (sy 11.) Alcmalra crucifer, Feld . Reis. Nov. , 
pi. 109, f. 30 (1874). 


1684.a. Hadena reticulata, Vill. Linn. Ent. II., p. 254 (1789) ; Staud 
Cat. Lep. pal., p. 159. 
Noctua calcatrippa, View., Schmett., p. 73 (1789). 

,, saponarice, Esp. Schmett. IV., pi. 198., ff. 3"4 (1790) ; Dup. 
Lep. Fr. VI., p. 272, pi. 90, f. 2 ; Steph. 111. Brit. Ent. 
Haust. II, p. 189. ' 
„ marginosa, Haw, Lep. Brit,, p. 101 (1803). 
„ typica, Hiibn. Eur. Schmett. Noct., f. 58 (1827). 
Mamestra unicolor, Alph. Rom. Mem. V., p. 147 (1889)„ 
Head and thorax reddish brown mixed with grey and black ; tarsi blackish with 

pale bands ; abdomen 
ochreous thickly irro- 
rated with dark brown. 
Forewing dark brown 
suffused with viola- 
ceous before the ante- 
§W medial line, beyond 

Hadena reticulata. $ \, the claviform, and on 

postmedial area ; the veins streaked with white except on postmedial area, 
where they are black ; the subbasal line represented by double oblique 
black striae from costa and cell filled in with white, a very oblique white 
striga across the cell just beyond it ; the antemedial line double, black filled 
in with white, angled outwards below costa and above inner margin, incurved 
between those points ; claviform large, defined by black, and with pale streak 
at centre ; orbicular and reniform with white annuli defined by black, the 
former oblique elliptical, open above, the latter narrow and with white lunule 
at centre ; a fine black medial line, oblique from costa to vein 2, then dentate ; 
postmedial line double, black filled in with white, minutely waved, bent cut- 
wards below costa, excurved to vein 4, then incurved and angled inwards above 
inner margin, some white points beyond it on costa ; subterminal line ochreous 
white, angled outwards at vein 7 and dentate at veins 4 and 3, with a series of 
dentate black marks on its inner side ; a terminal series of small black lunules ; 
cilia with fine pale line at base and intersected with white. Hindwing ochreous 
white suffused with brown, the veins and terminal area brown ; cilia ochreous 
white with a fine brown line at base ; the underside with the costal and 
terminal areas irrorated with brown, a dark discoidal lunule and indistinct 
curved postmedial line. 

Ab. 1 unicolor. Forewing without violaceous tinge. 

Habitat. — Europe ; Armenia ; W. Siberia ; W. Tdrkistan ; E. Turkis- 
tan ; Mongolia ; Kashmir, Nubra, Goorais Valley. Exp. 40'44 mill. 

Larva, Meyr. Brit. Lep., p. 81 ; Barrett. Lep. Brit. IV., p. 153, pi. 153, f. 2. 
Pale greenish ochreous or pinkish ochreous with darker irroration ; dorsal, 
subdorsal, lateral and spiracular lines faintly paler ; bead pale brownish. Food 
plants : Lilene, Rumex, Primula, etc., 8*4. 



Genus Hypobarathra. Type. 

Hypobarathra, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. V., p. 221 (1905) cterias. 

Hypobarathra repetita. $ \. 
Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely upturned . fringed -with hair in 
front; frons smooth ,• eyes large, rounded; antennas of male ciliated :• head 
and thorax clothed with hair and scales, the pro- and metathorax with spieading 
crests ; fore tibiae with long curved claw on inner side ; abdomen with dorsal 
crest at base only. Forewing with Veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 
from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from 
cell. Hindwing with veins 3'4 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from just 
below angle of discocellulars : 6*7 from upper angle or shortly stalked ; 8 
anastomosing with the cell near base only. 
1692. Hypobarathra repetita. 

Genus Trichoclea. Type. 

Trichoclea, G-rote, Papilio III, p. 30 (1883) clecepta. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely porrect, the 2nd joint fringed with 
hair, the 3rd short, porrect ; frons with small rounded prominence with cor- 
neous plate below it ; eyes large, round, not ciliated : antennae of male»ciliated> 
thorax clothed with hair and scales, the pro- and metathorax with slight 
spreading crests ; tibiae fringed with hair on outer side ; the tarsi with the 1st 
or 1st two joints with long curved claw-like spines on outer side ; abdomen 
with dorsal crest on 1st segment. Forewing with the termen slightly crenulate 
veins 3 and 5 from near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 anasto- 
mosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3*4 from 
angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from just below middle of discocellulars ; 6'7 from 
upper angle ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near base only. 

1692. a. Trichoclea cholica, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M ., A . 
pi. 84, f. 25 (1905). 

Head and thorax ochreous, slightly mixed with brown and grey ; abdomen 

ochre o u s 
brown or 
g r e y i sh. 
Forewi n g 
ochre o u s 
brown ir- 

Trichoclea chclica $ \. with fus- 

cous ; an indistinct double, waved subbasal line from costa to submedian 


fold ; an oblique waved antemedial line angled inwards on vein 1 and defined 
by greyish on inner side ; claviform hardly visible, defined by a few dark 
scales ; orbicular and reniform very indistinct, defined by a few dark scales, the 
former round ; an indistinct curved medial band ; postmedial line strongly 
dentate, bent outwards below costa and strongly incurved below vein 4 
subtermiaal line indistinct, pale, defined by obscure somewhat dentate 
fuscous marks on inner side, angled outwards at vein 7 and excurved at middle 
a terminal series of black points. Hindwing suffused with fuscous brown 
the terminal area rather darker ; the underside greyish irrorated with brown 
a discoidal spot and curved postmedial line with short dark streaks on the veins 

Habitat.— Kashmik, Nubra. Exp. 40 mill. 

Genus Tjracola. Type. 

Tiracola, Moore P. Z. S. 1881, p. 351 plagiata. 

1940. Tiracola plagiata, insert (syn.) Agrotis grandirena, Herr Schaff. 
Corresp-blatt. Eegensb. 1868, p. 149. 

Habitat.— W. Indies ; C. & S. America ; W. China ; India ; Ceylon ; 
Singapore ; Borneo ; Java ; N. G-uinea ; Australia ; Tahiti ; Marquesas. 

Genus Chabuata. 


Chabuata, Wlk., XIV. 1034 (1857) ampla. 

Tricliolita, Grote, Bull. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci. II., p. 211 (1875). signata. 

Proboscis fully developed ; palpi obliquely upturned, the second joint fringed 
with hair in front, the 3rd moderate ; frons smooth ; eyes large, rounded ; head 
and thorax clothed with rough hair and scales, the prothorax with triangular 
crest, the metathorax with spreading crest ; tibiae clothed with rough hair ; 
abdomen with dorsal crest at base and slight lateral fringes of hair. Forewing 
with veins 3 and 5 from close to angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle ; 9 from 10 
anastomosing with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 
3'4 from angle of cell ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 6*7 from 
upper angle ; 8 anastomosing with the cell near base only. 

Sec. III. Antennae of male ciliated. 

A. Abdomen of male with paired ventral tufts of long hair from base. 

a. Forewing yellow, irrorated and striated with 

rufous „ distincta. 

b. Forewing reddish or grey tinged with red, irrorated 

and striated with brown obscura. 

1921. Chabuata distincta. 

Fig. 54. Chabuata distincta $ 1. 



1922. Chabuata obscura, insert (syn.) Leucania nepos, Leech. Trans. Ent. 
Soc. 1900, p. 100. 
B, Abdomen of male without ventral tufts of hair. 

a. Forewing with the antemedial line angled outwards in 

submedian fold angulifera. 

b. Forewing with the antemedial line not angled out- 

wards in submedian fold. 

a. Forewing without pale striae albicosta. 

b. Forewing with numerous pale stride frattrna. 

1916. Chabuata angulifera. 

1911. Chabuata albicosta. 
1915. Chabuata fraterna. 

Genus Xylomania. 

Xylomania, Hmpsn. Cat. Lep. Phal. B. M. V., p. 389 (1905). hyemalis. 
Proboscis fully developed ; palpi porrect to just beyond frons, the 2nd joint 

fringed with hair 

below, the 3rd short ; 

frons smooth ; eyes 

large, rounded ; tegu- 

las dorsally produced 

into a slight ridge ; 

Xylomania v~album. ft 1. pro and metathorax 

with spreading crests ; pectus clothed with woolly hair ; tibiae fringed with 

hair ; abdomen with dorsal crest on basal segment. Forewing with the apex 

slightly produced, the termen oblique and somewhat angled at vein 3 ; veins 3 

and 5 >rom near angle of cell ; 6 from upper angle; 9 from 10 anastomosing 

with 8 to form the areole ; 11 from cell. Hindwing with veins 3-4 and 6-7 

shortly stalked ; 5 obsolescent from middle of discocellulars ; 8 anastomosing 

with the cell near base. 

Sect. IV. Antennae of male ciliated. 

1907. Xylomania y-album. 

(To be conli?iued.) 




K. C. Macdonald. 

As the locality I write of appears to be one seldom subjected to ornitho- 
logical observation, I have made out the following list of birds identified and 
eggs I have taken during a residence of 6 years in the Myingyan district as 
being of possible interest or use to members. 

Myingyan town is about 60 miles as the crow flies, south of Mandalay on 
the Irrawaddy, and the district has a river frontage of roughly ICO miles along 
the left bank. It lies almost in the centre of what is styled the dry zone of 
Burma and contains little real forest country. This dry zone, as a look at a 
forest map will show, is almost entirely surrounded by some of the largest 
and most dense forests of the Indian Empire— a fact which I think enhances 
the interest in its animal like. The climate is very dry and hot, although in 
the cold season the temperature falls well below 60 deg. Fah. at night. 
The average rainfall is about 18 inches only. An extinct volcanic 
mountain, Popa, verging on 5,000 feet, stands within the district, and on its 
eastern and southern slopes and inside the huge crater is the only big tree 
jungle to be found. The rest of the district not cultivated, is covered with 
thorny bush {Ziziphus jujuba) or stunted tree (Dipterocarpus) jungle. I have 
given such local names as I know. Ihe numbers in the following list refer 
to the " Fauna of British India " — Birds : — 

I. — Family Corvidce. 
4. Corvus macro rhynclius.— The Jungle Crow. 

Local name " Taw Kyeegan.'' Breeds earlier than the house crow and soli- 
tary. .My eggs were all taken during March and are just as variable in colouring 
and size as those of C. insolens. 

8. Corvus insolens, — The Burmese House-Crow. 

Local name " Kyeegan. " 

The usual pest. Breeds in March and April. 

12. Urocissa occipitalis. — The Red-billed Blue Magpie. 

Rare I found a nest belonging to a pair of these birds on Popa on the 
5th of April It was on a sapling about 20 feet from the ground and contained 
three young birds and one hard-set egg. The parents were very noisy when 
I approached the nest and gave away its existence. There are a few pairs 
of birds on Popa, but I think nowhere else in the district. 

16. Dendrocitta rufa. — The Indian Tree-pie. 

Local name " Napagyi ". 

A common bird all over the district where there is any jungle. The two 
or three nests I have found have always been on saplings that would not bear 
much weight and from 20 to 30 feet from the ground. My eggs are all 
of the pale-green ground-colour type. 


22. Crypsirhina cucnllata. — The Hooded Racket-tailed Magpie. 
A not uncommon bird here, and as bamboo jungle is rare it is usually seen 
in the sparse bush jungle all over the district. I have not yet found the nest, 
but have seen young birds on the wing with their parents in May. Captain 
Harington showed me nests and eggs taken in the Chindwin district. The egga 
were of the ordinary Magpie type. The nests were peculiar. The real nests 
was about the size of a breakfast cup, but placed in the centre of a loose col- 
lection of twigs just like a parasitic mistletoe, kind of growth very common h'^re. 
II. — Family OrateropodidcB. 
73. Garrulax moniliger. — The Necklaced Laughing-Thrush. 
A sure find in the more thickly wooded parts of the district and on the lower 
slopes of Popa. The breeding season commences in April. The nest is 
usually in a bamboo clump from 5 to 15 feet from the ground. The eggs vary 
in the deepness of the colour considerably. 

104. Argya earlii. — The Striated Babbler. 
Local name " ZayAve " for all of this genus. 

A good number to be seen round the Tanaungdaing or Talokmyo jheels, 
where it breeds from May to July 

105. Argya caudata. — The Common Babbler. 
Less common than A. earlii but met with in the same localities. 

106. Argya gularis. — The White-throated Babbler. 
This is one of the most familiar birds of the locality. It lives in all sorts of 
jungles, in gardens and hedgerows. It feeds on the ground. I have taken nests 
which are made of fibrous creepers, roots and grass from low bushes, hedges, 
verandah creepers and also from clefts of fairly large trees, but never more than 
12 to 15 feet from the ground and usually much lower. The ordinary note is a 
monotonous melancholy cheep. I have found it breeding in every month of the 
year except January and February. The eggs, pale blue, are three or four, 
seldom five in number and variable in size The average measurement of 23 
eggs was •90"X'69", the largest being '9 V X'6&". The colours of the soft parts 
omitted by Oates in Volume I of the Fauna — Birds, are iris bright yellow, 
eyelid plumbeous, bill dark greenish brown, gape pale yellow, mouth pale 
orange ; legs dirty pale green ; feet, toes and claws brownish green. I shot an 
albino young bird on Popa once. 

116. Pomatorhinus schisticeps. — The Slaty-headed Scimitar Babbler. 
A specimen shot on Popa had the head of the same colour as the back and 
the rufous collar fairly distinct. The bird is common, but of course little seen. 
134. Timelia pileata. — The Red-capped Babbler. 
Is seldom seen but occurs in most of the damper parts of the district, more 
especially in the creeks into which the river rises during the rains. Eggs in 
May and June. 

139. Pyctorhis sinmsis.— The Yellow-eyed Babbler. 
Common in hedges or rank bushy jungle. The eggs taken by me were taken 
in June and July. 


143. Pellorneum minus. — Sharpe's Spotted Babbler. 
Not uncommon in the ravines on Popa hill. I have not come across it any- 
where else. The breeding season appears to be May and June I found three 
nests, in two of which were eggs. The third was empty. I was struck by 
the very unsafe position of the nests at this season. They were built of 
bamboo leaves and lined with fibres and fine grass. Two were in the bed of 
a ravine and would most certainly have been washed away by the first spate. 
The bird sat tight but went away very cunningly when moved. 

176. Mixomis rubricapillus. — The Yellow-breasted Babbler. 
Occurs on Popa. Two nests found by me there in May 1901 contained three 
eggs each and were built in dry thickets on the banks of dried-up torrents 
and close to the ground. I have once taken a nest in a bamboo clump some 
three feet from the ground. 

188. Myiophoneus eugenii. — The Burmese Whistling-Thrush. 
This very handsome bird may be met with very rarely on Popa but nowhere 
else in the district. 

230. Zosterops siamensis.' — The Siamese White-eye. 
The busy little parties of this bird are common on Popa. I have not found 
it breeding. 

243. JEgitliina tijjhia. — The Common Iora. 
Common. A nest full of fledglings found on the 22nd June and eggs taken 
July, August and September. 

247. Chloropsis aurifrons. — The Gold-fronted Chloropsis. 
Fairly common on Popa mountain up to from 3 to 4,000 feet. I was not 
successful in finding the nest. The point of the tongue of this bird is dis- 
integrated and like a brush as Oates quotes Gadow to have noticed in Zoste- 
rops. I watched a party of these birds one evening feeding like shrikes or 
bee-eaters. They shot out from their perches on the tops of the trees, seized 
the insect and returned, 

279. Molpastes burmanicus. — The Burmese Red-vented Bulbul. 
Local name " Bopin-ni-ta. " 

A very common bird. Breeds from May to September. My series of eggs 
measure on an average 85" x '65". 

288. Otocompsa emeria. — The Bengal Red-whiskered Bulbul. 
I have seen this bird in the district, but only in the tangled thickets near the 
river. It is decidedly uncommon, but breeds here, as I came across a young 
family in May 1902. 

290. Otocompsa flaviventris. — The Black-crested Yellow Bulbul. 
A fairly common bird on Popa but not in the plains. I found two nests with 
eggs in April. Two eggs in each case. 

306. Pycnonotus blanfordi. — Blanford's Bulbul. 
Local name " Bo-sa-mwe". 

The most common bulbul of the Myingyan plains. 1 have not seen it above 
the lower slopes of Popa. Eggs from March to September. The nest is more 


flimsy and the eggs are smaller than those of M. burmanicus. The latter 
average -84" x "GO". The nest is never placed higher than a man can reach. 
317. Sitta neghcta.— The Burmese Nuthatch. 
Local name " Hnet-pya-chauk'\ 

A small party met with on Popa slope near Shawdawtaung. Pleasantly noisy 
and very active little birds. In April 1903 I came across a nest with four 
young birds. The nest was about 30 feet from the ground. I could make no 
impression on the mud roof of their house with a knife. 
III. — Family Dicruridcc. 
327. Dlcrurus ater.— The Black Drongo. 
Local name " Lin-mi-swe". 
Common. Eggs in April, May and June. 

333. Dicrurus cineraceus.— The Grey Drongo. 
A solitary bird met with every now and again. I have, not taken the nest. 

334. Chaptia cmea. — The Bronzed Drongo, 
Fairly common throughout the district. The nest is generally placed near 
the tip of a bamboo curving out from a clump. 

335. Chibia hottentotta. — The Hair-crested Drongo. 
The eggs of this bird are of two very distinct types — one having the ground 
colour white, while in the other type it is a fine blush red. 

340. Dissemurus paradiseus. — The Larger K acket-tailed Drongo. 
A rare bird in the district 

IV. — Family Sylviidce. 
363. Acrocephalus stentoreus — The Indian Great Reed-Warbler. 
Shot among the bushes round Tanaungdaing jheel on the 2nd April 1903. 
They are not rare. 

374. Orthotonus sutorius. — The Indian Tailor-bird. 
Common throughout the district. Breeds in the rains. 

381. Cisticola cursitans. — The Rufous Fantail-Warbler. 
Local name " Hnan-pyi-sot". 

Common in the grass and stubble of the rice plains reclaimed along the river 
bank. Eggs in June and July. The stone-breaking note of this little bird 
always seems to be uttered as he is at the lowest point of his undulating flight. 
382 Franklinia gracilis. — Franklin's Wren-Warbler. 
Quite common throughout the district. My eggs were taken in July. 

393. Arundinax aedon. — The Thick-billed Warbler. 
A skin I shot on Popa is now in the S. Kensington Museum. The same 
remarks apply to 

404. Herbivocula schwarzi— Radde's Bush-Warbler 
and to 

405. Phylloscopus ajfinis. — TickelFs Willow-Warbler. 

458. Suya crinigera. — The Brown Hill-Warbler. 
In the breeding season the jungle is often filled with the song of this little 
warbler. A sweet rattling little melody often repeated while the songster 
appears to be standing on tip toe on the topmost bough of a tree. 


463. Prima flaviventris. — The Yellow-bellied Wren-Warbler. 
Common among the bushes around the Tanaungdaing and Talokmyo jheels. 
Nests taken in June and July always within 3 feet of the ground. 
456. Prinia inornata.— The Indian Wren- Warbler. 
Very common. Eggs during the rains. 

468. Prinia blanfordi. — The Burmese Wren-Warbler. 
I found the eggs of this species on an island in the river on the 18th of 
August, but from the many old nests I found should say the principal breeding 
time here was in June. 

V. -Family Lamia" as. 
474. Lanius collurioides. — The Burmese Shrike. 
Local name " Honget beloo." 

Common in Myingyan all the year round, although it leaves gardens and 
compounds for quieter jungle and is not so plentiful during May and June, 
when I fancy it is breeding. I have not found any nests however. Captain 
Harington found this bird breeding in the Southern Shan States. 
475. Lanius nigriceps. — The Black-headed Shrike. 
I have seen only one bird of this species in the district so think it must be 
rare. I procured it in the Tanaungdaing jheel on the 24th December. 
481. Lanius cristatus. — The Brown Shrike. 
Is a cold-weather visitor to these parts. It. is found all over the district then. 

484. Hemipus picatus. — The Black-backed Pied Shrike. 
Not uncommon on Popa. The breeding season appears to be April. The 
birds are not shy and give away their nests by sitting close. I found two nests, 
but the birds deserted one before laying, although I did not touch it. The 
other contained three eggs and was placed on the fork of a leafless branch, in 
forest, about 15 feet from the ground. 

488. Tephrodornis pondicerianus. — The Common Wood-Shrike. 
Common. Breeds from March to July. This bird appears to prefer the 
open stunted tree jungle. 

491. Pericrocotus fralerculus. — The Burmese Scarlet Minivet. 
Either this or P. speciosus occurs on Popa, but I did not shoot the birds I 
saw, as I could not have preserved them at the time. 

500. Pericrocotus peregrinus. — The Small Minivet. 
Occurs throughout the district in the more thickly wooded parts. 

502. Pericrocotus allifrons. — Jerdon's Minivet. 
This bird is common. I have not noticed it on Popa. The female is greyer 
than the male, but has dashes of orange on the rump like him but none on the 
breasc. The nest, which is very difficult to detect, is a tiny cup stuck in 
the fork, or on the top of a horizontal branch of a low bush from 4 to 10 
feet off the ground. Three is the number of eggs I found in a nest. They 
were pale green marked with little longitudinal dashes of brown. One nest 
was found on the 17th August and another at the beginning of May, both 
with eggs. 


507. Campopliaga neglect?. — The Small Cuckoo-Shvike. 
A skin I sent to the British Museum was identified as of this species. The 
bird was shot on Popa 

510. Graucalus macii. — The Large Cuckoo-Shrike. 
Fairly common in the old cantonment of Myingyan and elsewhere through the 
district. Breeds from April to July. 

512. Artamus fuscus. — The Ashy Swallow-Shrike. 
Met with generally although not commonly throughout the district. Breeds 
in the larger jungle tracts away from villages. I found a nest containing 3 eggs 
on the 8th June 1901. 

515. Oriolus tenuirostris. — The Burmese Black-naped Oriole. 
Scattered throughout the district as well as on Popa. 

521. Oriolus melanoceplialus. — The Indian Black-headed Oriole. 
Scattered over the district. I have not taken the nest, but found a bird 
building one on the 15th April. 

VI. — Family Sturniclce. 
547. Graculipica burmanica. — Jerdon's Myna. 
Local name " Zayet-gaungbyu". 

Very common all over the district. Breeds in holes in trees often inside 
villages. Eggs two to four measuring about 1'03 X "75 and are laid from 
April to September. During the cold weather the colour of the head and neck 
of these birds is very white, in April it is dirty white or isabelline, arid by 
August I have seen them on the hill anyway quite chestnut. When the big 
cotton trees (Bombax malabaricuni) are in flower, these birds may be seen and 
heard in immense numbers. 

549. Acridotheres tristis. — The Common Myna. 
Local name Zayet. Very common. Breeds about May. 

552. jEthiopsar fuscus. — The Jungle Myna. 
Uncommon and generally met with near the Irrawaddy river. Breeds in holes 
in the cliffs of the river bank as well as in trees. Eggs in May, June and July, 
556. Stumopastor superciliaris. — The Burmese Pied Myna, 
Rather rare and always met with in the vicinity of water. Builds in thorny 
trees (tanaungbin) round the Tanaungdaing and other jheel during May and 
June. The nests are from ten to twenty feet from the ground. 
VII. — Family Muscicapidce. 
562. Siphia albicilla. — The Eastern Red-breasted Flycatcher. 
One specimen I shot on Popa has been identified by the British Museum 
as of this species. 

575. Cyomis rubeculoides. — The Blue-throated Flycatcher. 
Fairly common in the cold weather. 

579. Stopirola melanops. — The Verditer Flycatcher. 
Seen only once on the 27th January 1902. 

588. Aheonax latirostris. — The Brown Flycatcher. 
Ocours oa Popa anyway and may bs ekewhere bjt is Ji'jely to ba overlooked. 


592. Culicicapa ceylonensn. — The Grey-headed Flycatcher. 
Fairly common on the hills slopes. 

599. Terpsiplione affinis. — The Burmese Paradise Flycatcher. 
This bird is rare but general. 

601. Hypoihymis azurea.-^-The Indian Black-naped Flycatcher. 
Sparsely met with in the district. 

604. Rhipidura albifrontata. — The White-browed. Fantail Flycatcher. 
Common in bush and low tree jungle. The nest is never far from the 

605. Rhipidura albicollis. — The White-throated Fantail Flycatcher. 
Occurs, but is not common. A very bold little bird when breeding. 
VIII. — Family Turdidce. 
608. Pratincola caprata. — The Common Pied Bush-Chat. 
Very common. 

610. Pratincola maura.— The Indian Bush-Chat. 
In the cold weather although not common this bird is occasionally met with 
in tbe grass round the Talokmyo and Tanaungdaing jheels, 

615. Oreicola ferrea. — The Dark-grey Bush-Chat. 
This bird might breed on Popa. I know it breeds on Mount Victoria and the 
Chin hills close by. 

641. Ruticilla aurorea* — The Daurian Redstart. 
More common during the cold season and always found solitary. 

663. CopsycJius saularis. — The Magpie-Robin. 
Common. Eggs taken in May and June. 

664. Cittocincla macritra.' — The Shama. 
Is fairly well represented in the shady ravines of Popa. 

686. Geocichla citrina.-— The Orange-headed Ground-Thrush. 
To be found on Popa only. Breeds there. 

693. Petrophila cyanus. — The Western Blue Rock-Thrush. 
Stays out April commonly ; probably breeds in the Chin hills. 

693A. Petrophila gularis.—The White-throated Rock-Thrush. 
As recorded in Vol. XV., page 727 of this Journal ; this is a species added to 
the Indian fauna. 

698. Oreooincla dauma. — The Small-billed Mountain-Thrush. 
Also a rare bird on the hill, breeds there. 

706. Cochoa purpurea.— The Purple Thrush. 
A female of this species was wounded by a Burman and placed in my aviary 
where I found it dead on the 5th May 1902. I was not able to preserve the 
skin. I have seen the bird only this once, 

IX. Family Ploceidce. 
721. Ploceus megarhynchus. — The Eastern Baya. 
Local name " Taw Sa". 

It is common and becomes much in evidence in the breeding season, which 
is from July to October. I have taken five eggs from one nest. 


7-3. Ploceus manyar —The Striated Weaver-bird. 
1 found this bird breeding in the " kaing " grass in the Vezon Bog on the 
11th August. It is probably to be met with on the other jheels also. 
72-4. Ploceella javanensis. — The Golden Weaver-bird. 
I have seen this species only once in Myingyan district, but seer. red the 
specimen, a beautiful male in very rich plumage, on the 3rd July. It breeds 
in the Pakokku district. 

72*5. Munia atricapilla, — The Chestnut-bellied Munia. 
Local name '* Sa-Wadi ". 

Occurs throughout the district near water. Probably does not commence 
breeding until the end of June. Eggs taken from August to November. Eggs 
usually six in number, 

735. Uroloncha punctulata. — The Spotted Munia. 
Local name "Sa-wadi". Very common throughout the district. Breeds 
chiefly between July and October. 

739. Sporceghdhus flavidiventris. — The Burmese Red Munia. 
Common in the jheels, and breeds during October and November. 

X. — Family Fringillidce. 
77G. Passer domesticus: — The House-Sparrow. 
Local name " Sa". As common as usual. 

779. Passer montanus. — The Tree-Sparrow. 
Is common, breeding usually in colonies and is then more of a house sparrow 
in habits. 

781. Passer flaveolus.— The Pegu House Sparrow. 
Local name " Sa-wa ". This handsome little sparrow is as common in the 
district as the house or tree sparrow and is more general than either, living as 
much in the lonely waste parts as round our houses. On the 20th March I 
found five nests with full clutches of eggs (3) in the old cantonment of 

797. Embcriza aureola. — The Yellow-breasted Bunting. 
I found this bird in the district on the 1st May 1901. It is common in the 

XI. — Family Hirundinidce. 

809. Cottle sinensis. — The Indian Sand-Martin. 

Local name " Pyanhlwa " for Martins, Swallows and Swifts. I took the eggs 

of C. sinensis during the middle of December last and yet on the 25th February 

found a colony only digging the holes for their nests in the river bank. Second 

brood I suppose. 

814. Hirwndo gutturalis. — The Eastern Swallow. 
Common during the cold weather. 

820. Hirundo ttriolata. — The Japanese Striated Swallow. 
A bird I shot out of a large colony bad the markings and streaks on rump 
and breast like striolata, but was only the size of typical nepalensis. 


XII. — Family Motacillidce. 
826. Motacilla alba.— The White Wagtail. 
Arrives about the beginning of September. Usually seen in pairs during the 
cold weather. 

827, Motacilla leucopsis. — The White-faced Wagtail. 
A fairly common winter visitant. 

828. Motacilla ocularis. — The Streak-eyed Wagtail. 
Also fairly common in the wioter and almost always seen in pairs. 

832. Motacilla melanope. — The Gray Wagtail. 
Common during the cold season. 

841. Anthus maculatus. — Indian Tree-Pipit. 
One bird shot on the bank of Kanna tank in November. Observed in no 
other locality in the district. 

847. Anthus rufulus.- — The Indian Pipit. 
Common all over the district. Breeds during the rains. 

850. Anthus rosaceus. — Hodgson's Pipit. 
Fairly common on the sandbanks of the river in the cold weather. 
There is another resident pipit which inhabits the very bare and dried-up 
parts of the county, but I am unable to classify it. It is larger than A. rufulus. 

XIII. — Family Alaudidce. 
866. Alaudala raytal.—Th.<5 Ganges Sand-Lark. 
Common on the sand banks in the river nnd in the many dry nullahs of the 
district. I found a nest with two eggs on the 3rd March and again one with 
three eggs, hard set, on the 6th May. 

870. Mirafra assavxica. — The Bengal Bush-Lark.* 
873. Alirafra microptera. — The Burmese Bush-Lark. 
Local name " Bilon". Both species are to be met with in the district. Their 
habits are alike. 

The nests are domed and placed on the ground under a tuft of grass, a stone 
or a bush. The eggs two or three (rarely four) in number are white-speckled 
in 3 or 4 shades of yellow-brown, dark-brown, ashy-purple and black. 
XIV. — Family Nectariniidce. 
895. Arachnechthra asiatica. — The Purple Sun-bird. 
Local name " Pan-sot ". Common. 

898. Arachnechthra flammaxillaris. — The Burmese Yellow-breasted Sun-bird. 

More common than the last species. I found a nest being built in April, but 

unfortunately broke the branch from which it was suspended, and the birds 

forsook it. 

XV.— Family Dicaidce. 

912. Dicceum cruentatum. — The Scarlet-backed Flower-pecker. 
Common on Popa. I never found the nest. 

XVI. — Family Pittidm. 
931. Pitta cyanoptera. — The Lesser Blue-winged Pitta. 
I came across a bird of this species at Kyawzi at dusk on the 24th May 1902 


on the road and next morning organized a beat and secured it. The beaters 
had to crawl on hands and knees under the dense thicket. 

935. Pitta cucullata.— The Green-breasted Pitta. 
A bird was brought to me on the 12th May 1901 which had been taken 
alive at Sale a few days before. I have never seen the species before nor since. 
XVII. — Family Picidce. 
948. Gecinus striolatus. — The Little Scaly-bellied Green Woodpecker. 
Local name " Thit-touk", Keeps to the better wooded parts, the slopes of 
Popa, or the jungle round Kanna. Two nests taken in May and June, each 
contained four fresh eggs and were five or six feet from the ground 

970. Dendrocopus pectgralis.— The Spotted-breasted Pied Woodpecker. 
Frequently met with but in the drier bush jungle. I have found the nest 
three times, but on two occasions with young birds. The breeding season is 
February and March, and the eggs usually two in number. The nest holes are 
generally about twenty feet from the ground. 

975. Iyngip'icus canicapiUus. — The Burmese Pigmy Woodpecker. 
Very rare on Popa. Not seen elsewhere. 

983. Mlcroplernus phceoceps. — The Northern Rufous Woodpecker. Also 
very uncommon. 

988. Tiga javanensis. — The Common Golden-backed Three-toed 
Fairly common. Breeds in May and June. 

1003. Inyx torquilla. — The Common Wryneck. 
I have seen this bird only twice in Myingyan,but shot it for identification. 
It must be a rare winter visitor. 

XVIII. — Family Capitonidce. 
1009. Thereiceryx Uneatus. — The Lineated Barbet. 
Common on Popa. Local name is " Po-Gaung." 

1012. Cyanops asiatica. — The Blue-throated Barbet. 
Occurs, but is not common in the district. Breeds in March and April. . 

1019. Xantlwlccma Juematocephala. — The Coppersmith. 
Met with throughout the district. 

XIX. — Family Coraciadtv. 
1023. Coracias ajfiiiis. — The Burmese Boiler. 
Local name " Hnget Kah." Common all over the district. Breeds durim 
March and April. The eggs number four, sometimes five. One day I came 
across a roller eating a young bulbul that it had apparently killed. 

XX. — Family Meropidce.. 
1026. Merops viridis. — The Common Indian Bee-eater. 
Local name " Yethugyi-gaung". Very common all over the district. Begins 
breeding about the 1st April. The eggs are apparently laid at considerable 
intervals, as I have noticed young birds in the same nest at all stages of ma- 
turity with an unhatched but hard-set egg. 


1027. Merops philippirius. — The Blue-tailed Bee-eater. 
This bird seems to be rare in the district except during the breeding season 
which is a month later than that of M. viridis. It is not even then common. 
Five eggs were taken from one nest in the river bank south of Myingyan town 
on the 5th May. 

XXI. — Family Alcedinidte. 
1033. Cenjle varia.— The Indian Pied Kingfisher. 
Yery common. I have not found the nest. 

1035. Alcedo ispida. — The Common Kingfisher. 
Local name " Pein-nyin". As common as the last. 

1040. Geyx tridactyla. — The Indian Three-toed Kingfisher. 
I found a perfect specimen of this beautiful little bird at the bottom of the 
crater of Popa. It was dead and had been entirely cleaned out by ants. This 
is the only bird of the species I have seen in the district. 

1043. Pelargopsis gurial. — The Brown-headed Stork-billed Kingfisher. 
This and the next species are both rare, but both breed in the Myingyan 

1044. Halcyon smyrnensis. — The White- breasted Kingfisher. 

( To be continued.) 




Colonel Fernando Leal. 

{Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 25$ January 1900.) 

Anona squamosa, L, ; Anona reticulata, L. — These two Anonaceae, beside 

"5 kinds of Uvariae, the miryo (Polynllhia fragrant) and the sajeri {Bocayea 

Dahellii) exist in Portuguese India, where the first two grow as indigenous. 

In this article I shall discuss two points: (1) determine the origin of these 

plants, (2) prove that they are not Indian and show who introduced them 

; into India. The former question has been for more than 3 centuries 

- discussed by many botanists and travellers and still remains unsettled. I shall 

divide the enquiry into three parts. In the first I shall place before the reader 

what Yule and Burnell, the erudite authors of a well-known glossary, and 

others quoted by them have to say on the subject ; secondly, the opinion of the 

learned botanist A. deCandolle ; finally, I shall give my own opinion and 

. observations. 

I.— The article of Yule and Burnell runs thus : — 

" Custard Apples. — The name in India of a fruit {Anona squamosa ,L.) original- 
ity introduced from S. America, but which spread over India during the 10th 
. century. Its commonest name in Hindustani is sharifa, i.e., ' noble ', but it is also 
• called sitaphal, i.e., ' the fruit of Sita,' whilst another Anona (bullock's heart), 
A. reticulata, L., the custard apple of the W. Indies, where both names are 
applied to it, is called in the south by the name of her husband 'Rama.' And 
the Sitaphal and Ramphal have become the subject of Hindu legends (see 
Forbes Or. Mem. iii, 410.). The fruit is called in Chinese Fan-U-chi, i.e., foreign 
. leeches. 

" A curious controversy has arisen from time to time as to whether this fruit 
and its congeners were really imported from the New "World, or were indi- 
genous in 'India. They are not mentioned among Indian fruits by Baber 
(A.D. 1530), but the translation of the Ain (c. 1500) by Prof. Blochmanu 
contains among ' the sweet fruits of Hindustan ' Custard Apple (p. 60). On 
referring to the original however the word is Saddap'hal (fructus perennis),* 
Hind term for which Shakespear gives many applications, not one of them 
the Anona. The bel is one (Aegle marmelos) and seems as probable as any (see 
Bael). The Custard Apple is not mentioned by Garcia da Orta (1563), 
Linschoten (1597), or even by P. del la Valle (1024). It is not in Bontius (1031) 
•nor hvPiso's commentary on Bontius (1058), but it is described as an American 
product in the West Indian part of Piso's book, under the Brazilian name 
Araticu. Two species are described as common by P. Vincenzo Maria, whose 
b:>ok was published in 1672. Both the Custard Apple and the sweet-sop are 
t fruits now geuerally diffused in India ; but of their having been imported 
from the New World, the name Anona, which we find in Oviedo to have 


been the native West Indian name of one of the species, and "which in various, 
corrupted shapes is applied to them over different parts of the East, is an indi- 
cation. Crawford, it is true, in his Malay Dictionary explains nona or buah 
(' fruic '), nona in its application to the custard-apple as J 'ructus virginalis, 
from nona the term applied in the Malay countries (like missy in India) to an> 
unmarried European lady.* But in the face of the American word this 
becomes out of the question. 

" It is, however, a fact that among the Bharhut sculptures, among the 
carvings dug up at Muttra by General Cunningham and among the copies from 
wall paintings at Ajanta (as pointed out by Sir G. Birdwood in 1874,) see 
AtJieneum, 26th October, [Bombay Gazetteer xii, 490], there is a fruit repre- 
sented, which is certainly very like a custard apple (though an abnormally big 
one), and not very like anything else yet pointed out. General Cunningham 
is convinced that it is a custard apple, and urges in corroboration of his 
view that the Portuguese in introducing this fruit (which he does not deny), 
were merely bringing coals to Newcastle ; that he has found extensive 
tracts in various parts of India covered with the wild custard apple ; and also 
that this fruit bears an indigenous Hindi name ata or ,at from the Sanskrit 

" It seems hard to pronounce about this atripya. A very high authority,. 
Professor Max Miiller, to whom we once referred, doubted whether the word 
(meaning ' delightful') ever existed in real Sanskrit. It was probably an 
artificial name given to the fruit, and he compared it aptly to the factitious- 
Latin of au reum malum for 'orange,' though the latter word really comes 
from the Sanskrit naranga. On the other hand, atripya is quoted by Raja 
Radhakaut Deb, in his Sanskrit Dictionary, from a Medieval work, the 
Dravyaguna, And the question would have to be considered how far the- 
MSS. of such a work are likely to have been subject to modern interpolation. 
Sanskrit names have certainly been invented for many objects, which were 
unknown till recent centuries. Thus for example Williams gives more than 
one word for cactus, or prickly pear, a class of plant which was certainly 
introduced from America (see Vidara and Visvasaraha in his Sanskrit 

" A new difficulty, moreover, arises as to the indigenous claims of ati, which 
is the name for the fruit in Malabar, as well as in Upper India. For on turning 
for light to the splendid works of the Dutch ancients, Rheede and Rumphius, 
we find in the former (Hortm Maldbaricus, Part 1Y) a reference to a certain 
author, ' Beechus de Plantis Mexicanis, ' as giving a drawing of a custard- 
apple tree, the name of which in Mexico was aJiate or ate, \fructu apvd 
Mexicanos pracellenti arbor ndbilis ' ; (the expressions are noteworthy, for- 
the popular Hindustani name of the fruit is sharifa = ' nobilis '). We also 
find in a Manilla vocabulary, that ate or atte is the name of this fruit in the 

* The word Nona is not originally Malay, but adopted from the old Portuguese Nona, a 
iviri, from the Latin, Nonna ; Ital.. Nona : French, Nome. — F. L. 


Philippines. And from Rheede we learn that in Malabar the ola was some- 
times called by a native name meaning 'the Manilla jack fruit,' whilst the 
Anona reticulata, or sweet-sop, was called by the Malabars, ' the Paranji,' [i.e., 
•Firingi or Portuguese) jack fruit. These facts seem \o indicate that probably 
the ata and its name came to India from Mexico via the Philippines, whilst 
the anona and its name came to India from Hispaniola via the Cape. In the 
face of these probabilities the argument of General Cunningham from the 
•existence of the tree in a wild state loses force. The fact is undoubted and 
may be corroborated by the following passage from ' Observations on the Nature 
of the Food of the Inhabitants of South India,'' 1864, p. 12. — ' I have seen it stated 
in a botanical work that this plant {Anona sq.) is not indigenous, but introduced 
from America or the West Indies. If so, it has taken most kindly to the soil 
of the Deccan, for the jungles are full of it ;' [also see Watt, Econ. Diet, ii. 
1259, seq., who supports the foreign origin of the plant]. The Author 
adds that the wild custard-apples saved the lives of many during famine 
in the Hyderabad country. But on the other hand, the Argemon Mexicana, 
a plant of unquestioned American origin, is now one of the most familiar 
weeds all over India. The cashew {Anarcardium occidentule^), also of American 
• origin, and carrying its American name with it to India, not only forms 
.tracts of jungle now (as Sir G. Birdwood has stated) in Canara and the 
Concan (and, as we may add from personal knowledge, in Tanjore) but was 
•described by P. Vincenzo Maria more than two hundred and twenty years ago 
.as then abounding in the wilder tracts of the Western coast. 

" The question raised by General Cunningham is an old one, for it is alluded 
to by Rumphius who ends by leaving it in doubt. We cannot say that we 
.have seen any satisfactory suggestion of another (Indian) plant as that re- 
presented in the ancient sculpture of Bharhut. [Dr. Watt says, ' They may 
prove to be conventional representations of the Jack-fruit tree or some other 
allied plaut ; they are not unlike the flower heads of the sacred Kadamba 
or Anthocephalus' (loc : cit : i 2(i0). ] But it is well to get rid of fallacious 
arguments on either side." 

In the " Materia Medica of the Hindus, by Udoy Chand Dutfc with a 
Glossary by G.King, M.B., Calc 1877," we find the following synonyms 
given : — 

" Awm.i squamosa: Skt. Gtndagatra ; Beng. Ata; Hind. Sharifa an 
.Sitaphal. " 

"Anona reticulata'. Skt. Leavali ; Beng. Leona." 

This is all we gather from ihe Glossary of Yule and Burnell. What I note 
is that the heavy sword of General Cunningham, like that of Brennus, when the 
gold for the ransom of Rome was being weighed, has been thrown on behalf of 
the people who say the ata and the anona are indigenous to India. Let it 
not be forgotten that the above Glossary, at the beginning of the article, says 
•' fruit originally introduced from S. America," which confirms the opinion of 
.the enlightened authors, malgre that of General Cunningham. 


I shall now transcribe the article of the Savant De Candolle.* 

" Pomme Candle — Anona squamosa, Linne, en anglais, Siceel-sop, Sugar Apple,. 
(dans Flnde Anglaise Custard-apple). 

" La patrie de cette espece et d'autres Anona cultives a suscite des doutes 
qui en font un probleme interessant. Je me suis efforce de les resoudre 
en 1855. L'opinion a laqnelle je m'etais arrete alors se trouve confirme par les 
observations des voyageurs faites depuis, et, comrne il est utile de montrer a 
quel point des probabilites basees snr de bonnes methodes conduisent a des^ 
assertions vraies, je transcrirai'ce que j'ai dit ; apres quoi je mentionnerai ce 
qu'on a trouve plus recemment. 

" Robert Brown etablissait en 1818 le fait que toutes les especes du genre 
Anona, excepte V Anona senegalensis, sont d'Amerique et ancune d'Asie. Aug.. 
de Saint-Hilaire dit que, d'apres velloso VA. squamosa a ete introduit an Bresil, 
qu 'il y est connu sous le nom de Pinha, venant de la ressemblance avec les 
cones de pins, et d'Ata, evidemment emprunte aux nonis Attoa et Atis, qui 
sont de la meme plante en Asie et qui appartiennent aux langues orientales. 
Done, ajoute de Saint-Hilaire, les Portugais ont transport e VA. squamosa de 
leurs possessions de l'lnde dans celles d' Amerique, &c." Ayant fait en 1832 
une revue de la famille des Anonacees, je fis remarquer combien l'argument 
botanique de M. Brown devenait de plus en plus fort, car, malgre" l'augmen^ 
tation considerable des Anonacees decrites, pouvait citer aucun Anona et 
meme aucune Anonacee a ovaires soudes qui f ufc originaire d'Asie. J'admettais 

»" The country of this species and of the other cultivated Anona has raised 
doubts, the solution of which has become an interesting problem. I endeavoured 
to settle them in 1855. The opinion at which I had then arrived has been 
confirmed by observations since made by travellers, and as it is useful to show 
how much probabilities based on good methods lead to some true assertions, 
I shall transcribe what I have said ; after which I shall mention what they have- 
found more recently. 

" Robert Brown established in 1818 the fact that all species of Anona 
excepting V Anona senegalensis are from America and not from Asia. Aug. de 
Saint-Hilaire says that according to Velloz VA. squamosa has been introduced; 
in Brazil, that it is known there under the name of Pinha from its resemblance 
to the cones of pines, and of Ata, evidently borrowed from the names, Attoa 
and Atis, which are names in oriental languages for the same plant in Asia.. 
Therefore Saint Hilaire adds the Portuguese have transported VA. squamosa 
from their Indian possessions to those of America, &c." Having made in 1832. 
a review of the family Anonacse, I remarked how much the botanical argument 
of Mr. Brown became stronger and stronger, because notwithstanding the con- 
siderable increase of described Anonacse, they could not quote any Anona, nor 
even any Anonaca? originating from Asia. I admitted the probability that 
the species came from the West Indies or from the neighbouring American^ 
Continent, but by an oversight I attributed this opinion to Mr. Brown who was. 
thus constrained to claim an American origin in general. 


la probability que l'espece venait des Antilles on tie la partie voisine du 
continent Amcricain ; mais par inattention j'attribuai cette opinion a M. Brown 
qui s'etait borne a revendiquer nne origine Americainc en general. Depuis, 
de3 faits de diverse nature out confirme cette maniere de voir. 

" L'Anona Squamosa a ete trouve souvage en Asie, avec l'apparence plutot 
d'une plante naturalised ; en Afrique, et surtout en Amerique avec les 
conditions d'une plante aborigene. En effet, d'apres le Dr. Boyle, cette espece 
a ete naturalised dans plusieurs locality de l'Inde : mais il ne hi vue avec 
l'apparence d'une plante sauvage, que sur les flancs de la montague ou est le 
fort d' Adjeegarh, dans le Bundlecund, parmi des pieds de Teck. Lorsqu tin 
arbre assi remarquable ; dans un pays aussi explore, par les botanistes, n'a ete 
signale que dans une ssule locality hors des cultures, il est bien probable qu'il 
n'est pas originaire du pays. Sir Joseph Hooker l'a trouve dans Pile de 
Santhiago, du Cap Vert, f ormant des bois sur le sommet des colhnes de la 
vallee de Saint Dominique. Comme V A . squasnoza n'est qu' a letat de culture 
sur le Continent voisin, que meme il n'est pas indique en (juinee par Thoning, 
ni au Congo, ni dans la Senegambie, ni en Abyssinie ou en E'gypte, ce qui 
monti'e une introduction recente en Afrique ; enfin, comme les Ties du Cap Vert 
out perdu une grande partie de leurs forets primitives, je crois dans ce cas ii 
une naturalisation par des graines e'chappees de jardins. Les auteurs s'accordent 
a dire l'espece sauvage a la Jamaique. On a pu autrefois negliger l'as-sertion 
de Sloans et de P. Brown, mais elle est confirmee par Mac Fadyen. De 
Marti us a trouve. l'espece , dans les forets de Para, localite assurement d'une 
nature primitive. 

" Since then various facts have confirmed this view. L' Annua squamosa 
has been found in a wild state in Asia, with the appearance of a naturalised 
plant ; in Africa, and above all in America, in conditions of an indigtr.cis 
plant. Indeed, according to Dr. Boyle, this plant has been naturalised in 
several parts of India ; but he has not seen it as growing wild except on the 
sides of the mountain whero is the fortress of Adjeegurh in Bundelkhand, 
near the roots of Teak trees. When so remarkable a tree, in a country 
so explored by the botanists, has not been noticed except in one locality out 
of cultivation, it is quite probable that it is not a native of that country. 
Sir Joseph Hooker has found it in the island of Santiago and Cape Verd 
growing luxuriantly on the summits of the valley of St. Dominique. As 
VA. squamosa is only in a cultivated state on the neighbouring continent 
that even it is not noticed in Guinea by Thoning. nor in the Congo, in 
Senegambia, nor in Abyssinia, nor in Egypt, this bespeaks its introduction in 
Africa as of recent date, in a word as the islands of Cape Verd have lost 
a great portion of their primitive forest, in this cafe I believe in a naturaliza- 
tion from the seeds that have escaped from the garden. The authors are 
unanimous in saying that the species grows wild in Jamaica. In former times 
they could have neglected the assertion of Sloane and P. Brown, but it is con- 
firmed by Mac Fadeyn. De Martins has found these species in the forests of 


11 dit meme : ' Syvescentern in nemoribus paraensibus inveni/ cl'ou Ton pent 
croire que les arbres formaient a eux seuls une foret. frplitgerben l'avat 
trouvee clans les forets de Surinam, mail il dit au spontanee ? Le nombre des 
localites dans cette partie le l'Amerique est assez significatif. Je n'ai pas 
besoin de rappeler qu'aucuniarbre pour aiusi dire, vivant ai'lleurs que sur leS 
cutes, n' aete ' trouve veritableraent aborigene a la fois dans l'Asie, l'Afrique 
et l'Amerique intertropricales. L'ensemble de mes recherches rend un fait 
pariel iufiniment peu probable, et, si un arbre 'etait assez robuste pour 
oifcir une telle extension, il serait excessivement commun dans tous les 
pays intertropicaux. D'ailleurs les arguments historiques, et linguistiques 
ise sont aussi renforces dans le sens de Porigine Americaine. Les details 
donnes par Rumphius montrent que 1' A. squamosa, etait une plante 
nouvellement cultivee dans la plupart des iles de 1' Archipel Indieni. 
Forster n'indique aucune Anonacee comme cultivees dans les petites iles 
de la mer Pacifique. Rheede dit VA. squamosa etranger au Malabar, mais 
transports dans l'lnde, d'abord par les Chinois et les Arabes, ensuite par les 
Portugais. II est certain qu'il est cultive'en Chine et en Cochincliine, ainsi 
qu'aux Philippines ; mais depuis quelle epoque ? C'est ce que nous ignorons 
II est donteux qu les Arabes le cultivent. Dans l'lnde on le cultivait du temps 
de Roxburgh, qui n'avait pas vu Pespece spontanee, et qui ne mentionne qu' un 
seul nom vulgaire de langue moderne v bengali) le nom Ata, qui est deja dans 
Rheede. Plus tard, on a cru reconaitre le nom Gunda-Gatra comme Sanscrit ; 
mais le Dr. Royle ayant consulte le celebre Wilson, auteur du dictionnaire 

Para, a locality assuredly of a primitive nature. He even writes ' SyvescenteVn 
in nemoribus parcensibus inveni ' from which it can bo believed that these 
trees form by themselves a forest. Splitgerber bad found it in the forests of 
Surinam but he says au spontanee. The number of localities in this part of 
America is quite significative. There is no need for me to remind that any 
tree, so to say, growing elsewhere on the hills, has not been found as indigenous 
at the same time in Asia, Africa, and America within tropics. All my 
researches make a similar fact infinitely less probable and if a tree was toler- 
ably robust to offer a similar extension, it would be excessively common in all 
the inter-tropical countries. Besides historical and linguistic arguments have 
also upheld in a way an American origin. The details given by Rumphius 
show that Anona squamosa was a newly cultivated plant in most 
of the islands of the Indian Archipelago. Forster does not mention any 
Anonacee as cultivated in the small islands of the Pacific Ocean. Rheede 
says V A. squamosa is a stranger in Malabar, but transported into India first 
by the Chinese and Arabs and then by the Portuguese. It is certain that it 
is cultivated in China and Cochin China as well as in the Phillippines, but from 
what epoch ? This is what we ignore. It is doubtful if the Arabs cultivated 
it. In India they have cultivated it from the time of Roxburgh, who had not 
seen the species grow spontaneously, and who mentions it only by its common 
modern name (Bengali), the name Ata which is already in Rheede. Later on, 


Sanscrit, sor I'anciennete' de 'ce nom, it repondit qu'il avait ete' tiro du Sabda 
Chauriha, compilation mod erne compai ativement. Les noma de Ata, Atl se 
trouvent dans Rheede et Rumphius. VoilS sans donte ce qui a servi de base 
a, rargunientation de Saint-Hilaire ; mais un nom bien voisin est donnc au 
Mexique a. VAnona Squamosa. Ce nom ost Ate, Ahate de Panucho, qui se 
trouve dans Hernandez avec deux figures assez semblables et assez medi- 
ocres, qu' on pent rapporter on a 1' J. Squamosa, avec Dunal, ou 1' A. 
Cherimolia, avec de Martins. Oviedo ernploie le nom de Anon. II est tres 
possible que le nom de Ata soit venue au Bresil du Mexique et des pays voisins. 
II se peut aussi, ]'e le reconuais, qu' il vienne des colonies Portugaises des Indes 
Orientales. De Martins dit cependant 1' espece emportee des Antilles. Je ne 
sais s' il en a en la preuve, ou si elle resulte de 1' ouvrage d' Oviedo, qu' il cite 
et que je ne puis, consulter. L' article d' Oviedo, transcrit dans Marcgraf, 
decrit 1' A* squamosa sans parler de son origine. 

" L' ensemble des faits est de plus en plus favorable a 1' origine Americaine 
Lalocalite ou 1' espece s'est montree le plus spontanee est celle dts fon'ts de 
Para. La culture en est ancienne en Amerique, puisque Oviedo est un des 
premiers auteurs (1535) qui aient ecrit sur ce pays. Sans doute la culture est 
aussi d' une date assez ancienne en Asie, et voila ce qui rend le probleme 
curieux. II ne mest pas prouve' cependant qu'elle soit anteiieure a la de'cou- 
verte de 1' Amerique, et il me semble qu' un arbre fruitier aussi agreable se serait 
repandu davantage dans l'ancien monde, s'il y avait existe de tout temps. 
On serait d'ailleurs fort embarasse d'expliquer sa culture en Amerique au 

ihoy believed the name Gunda-Gatra as Sanskrit ; but Dr. Boyle having con- 
sulted the celebrated Wilson, Author of the Sanskrit Dictionary, as to the 
age of this name, he answered it was taken from Sabda Chauriha, a comparative- 
ly modern compilation. The names Ata, AU, are found in Rheede and Rum- 
phius. This is without doubt what has served as an argument for the dispute 
of Saint Hillaire ; but a nearer similarity in name is that given at Mexico to 
I Annona squamosa. This name is Ate, Ahate of Panucho, which is found in 
Hernandez with two figures closely similar and analogous, which may be 
connected either with VA. squamosa of Duval or to V A. Cherimolia of 
Martius. Ovied uses the name of Anon. It is very possible that the 
name Ata may have come to Brazil from Mexico and the neighbouring 
countries. It can also, I acknowledge, be that it came from the Portuguese 
Colonies of East India. De Martius, however, says tie species was imported 
from the W. India Islands. I do not know if he has had a proof of 
it, or if he deduces it from the work of Oviedo which he quotes, and which I 
could not consult. The article of Oviedo transcribed by Marcgraf describes 
V A. squamosa without speaking of its origin. All ihese facts are more and 
more favourable to its American origin. The locality where this species has 
manifested itself in the most spontaneous form is the forests of Para. Its 
•cultivation in America is of ancient date. Since Oviedo is one of the first 
■authors (1535) who has written on this country, without doubt its culture is also 


commencement du XVI. e siecle en supposant une origine de' 1'ancien monde. 

" Depuis que je mexprimais ainsi, je remarque les faits suivants publies par 
divers auteurs. 

"1° L'argument tire de ce qu' aucune espece du genre Anona est asiatique est 
plus fort que jamais. IA4. asiatica, Linne, reposait sur des erreurs (voir ma 
note, dans Geogr. hot, p. 8G2) L'A. ootusifolia, Tnssac, Fl. des Antilles, I, p. 191,. 
pi. 28, cultive jadis a Saint-Domingue, comme d'origine asiatique, est peut-etre 
fonde sur une erreur. Je soupconne qu'on a dessine la fleur d'une espece {A.. 
muricata) et le fruit d'une autre (^4. Squamosa), On n'a point d^couvert 
d'Anona en Asie, mais on en connait aujourd' hui quatre ou cinq en Afrique, au 
lieu d'une ou deux, et un nombre plus considerable qu' autrefois en Amerique. 

"2° Les auteurs de flores recentes d'Asie n 1 hesitent pas a considerer les 
Anona, en particulier 'I A' Squamosa, qu'on rencontre ca et la avec 1' apparence 
spontanee comme naturalises autour des cultures et des etablissements 

"3° Dans les nouvelles flores Afrieaines deja citees, 1' A. Squamosa et les 
autres, dont jo parlerai tout a 1' heure, sont indiques tonjours comme des especes 

"4° L'horticulteur MacNab a trouve TA. Squamosa dans les plaines seches 
de la Jamaique, ce qui confirme les anciens auteurs. Eggers dit cette espece 
commune dans les taillis (thickets) des iles Saint-Croix et Vierges. Je ne voispas- 
qu' on l'ait trouvee sauvage a Cuba. 

of sufficiently ancient date in Asia, and this is what makes the problem curious... 
It is not proved, however, it may be prior to the discovery of America, and it 
appears to me that a sweet fruit- bearing tree might have been extensively cul- 
tivated in the Old World if it was there always. They would besides be much, 
puzzled to explain its cultivation in America at the commencement of the XVI 
century, supposing an origin from the Old World. Since I expressed myself" 
thus, I have remarked the following facts published by various authors. 

1. The argument drawn that the species of the genus Anona is not Asiatic,, 
is stranger than ever. L' A. asiatica, Linne depended on errors (see my note,, 
in Geogr. hot., p. 862). L' A. Ootusifolia, Tussac, Fl. des antilles, I., p. 191, pi. 28,. 
cultivated already at S . Domingo as of Asiatic origin is perhaps based on an 
error of a species (J. muricata) and the flower of another (A. squamosa). They 
have not discovered Annona in Asia but they have found four or five in Africa 
in place of one or two and a more considerable number than before in America- 

" 2. The authors of recent flora of Asia do not hesitate to consider the 
Annona particularly 1' A. squamosa, which they notice here and there aa ap- 
parently spontaneous, as naturalised around cultivations and European Settle- 

"3. In the new African flora already quoted X A. squamosa and the others of 
which I shall &peak presently are referred to always as cultivated species. 

" 4. The horticulturist MacNab has found the VA. squamosa in the dry plains- 
of Jamaica which confirms the ancient authors. Eggera says this species is- 


" 5° Sur le continent americain on la donne pour cultive'e. Cependant H. 
Andre m' a communique un I'chantillon, d'une Jocalite pierreuse de la vallt'c 
de la Magdalena, qui parait appartenir ;i cette espece et etre spontam'e 
Le fruit manque, ceqni rend la determination doutense. D'apresune note sur 
1' etiquette, c'est un fruit delicieux, analogue a celui de 1' A. Squamosa. M. 
Warming cite l'espece comme cultivee a Logoa Santa, du Bresil. Elle parait 
done plutut cultivee on naturalist a Para, a la Guyane et dans la Nouvelle- 
Grenade, par un eft'et des cultures. 

En definitive, on ne peut gucre douter, ce me semble, qu'elle ne soit d' Ameri- 
que et mAme specialement des Antilles." 

I shall now give my own impressions, as the original home of this fruit is 
still a matter of doubt With the information derived from De Candolle and 
other savants, I shall endeavour to prove conclusively that the custard apple. 
as well as A noma Reticulata, was introduced into India by the Portuguese. In 
all the principal languages of India, such as, Bengali, Hindi, Mahrati, Konkani. 
Tamil, Malayalam, Singalese, etc., the Ata is known by the same name ; un- 
doubtedly an American name and not Malay, as stated in the Konlani- 
Portuguese Dictionary by Dr. Dalgado, and it is the same name by which the 
Portuguese have known the fruit in South America. The same may be said, 
mutatis mutandis, of the Annona, a word that did not come to us from the 
Latin Annona, meaning mouth provisions (*) food, but from the American 
word, according to the already quoted Oviedo. The Hortus Malabaricus of the 
Dutch H. Tan Kheede, says, that the Ancna is, by the Malabars, called, 
" Parang/ Jaca " foreign "Jack fruit " or Firinghi Jacca (from the Malayalam. 
Chal'Ii-a) and by the Brahmans of Cochim ijina pennoss, '• China Jack," the 
plant not being native on the Malabar Coast, where it came from afar. To the 
custard apple they give, on the same Coast the name of Manil jack or Manil- 
ponnoss (Skt. Pauas) "Manil Jack." Now, a Hindu enthusiast of the great 

common in the thickets of the islands of St. Croix and Yirgin Islands. I do- 
not see that they have found it in a wild state in Cuba. 

" 5. On the American continent thej' speak of it as cultivated. However.. 
M. Andre has forwarded to me a sample of a stony locality of the valley of 
Magdalene which appears to belong to this species and to be spontaneous 
The fruit is not developed which renders the decision doubtful According to 
a note, it is a delicious fruit analogous to that of V A. squamosa. M. Warming 
quotes the species as cultivated at Logoa Santa in Brazil. It then appears 
rather cultivated or naturalised at Parra in Guiana and in New Granada 
by an effect of cultivation. Definitely there is scarcely any doubt, it appears 
to me, that it is from America and more especially from the Antilles." 

(*) In Sanscrit and ilahratta Anna meaDS iruvisions, food; the same word exists in 
Koakairi. The Latin Annona cones perhaps from it, with the 3arn.e meaning. Iq Sanscrit 
Anaona means m» uth. In Marathi ananam meaning " to eat," csei only in the following 
proverb : " Adkim ananam magta nanam f \.e. f first eat then sing. 


Sanskrit poem Ramayana, in a fine touch of fancy christened the Anona and 
the custard apple, Ram%phal "Rimis fruit," and Sitaphal, " Sita' s fruit" 

But the poetical fancy of an anonymous Hindu is no proof that these plants 
are originally from India. Above all it is no evidence against historical truth, 
against the unshaken opinion of Botanists, such as A. de Condolle in his classical 
work already quoted, Graham, in his Catalogue of the Bombay Plants, Dalzell and 
Gibson in their Bombay Flora, and so many other botanists, historians and 
travellers, all of whom are unanimous that the two anonacece in question came 
from America. 

There are besides other proofs that India owes the Anona squamosa and A. 
reticulata to the Portuguese. 

The Indian botanist Dr. J. C. Lisboa, in his work with the prudence and 
scruples of a, scientist exposed his views in an interesting article in the Times 
of India in March 1894. 

" These plants grow wild and are naturalized in various parts of India, 
specially near Mussalman cemeteries (Dalz. and Gibs.). Hence it is believed by 
many people that these fruits are natives of India. This opinion is also held by 
.an Indian doctor, who when in Government Service had travelled much, and 
-seen them growing wild over extensive tracts in central and other parts of India. 

" Now the question is, if the opinion of M, de Condolle and other botanists 
and writers be true, how and when did these fruits receive the Indian names 
Sita and Rama. 

" The Indian doctor just alluded to tells me that when the legendary Rama 
•and Sita were expelled from the kingdom— supposed to be Oudh— they went 
to a jungle where anonas grew wild and lived on them — hence the names 
Ramaphal and Sitaphal. But nobody versed in Hindu mythology believes in 
this opinion. Dr. Bhandarkar tells me that the whole history of Rama and Sita 
is a myth. 

" It is true that the delicious fruit Sitaphal on occasions of famine has 
literally proved to be the staff of life to the natives. 

But it is to be remembered that it flowers during the early part of the hot 
season, and the fruit ripens in July, August, and September. On what then did 
Sita and Rama live during the rest of the year, when these fruits were not in 
season ; and if they did live on other fruits why were only these called after 
-their names ? 

" I shall be much obliged if some of your readers can throw light on the 
.question of the origin of Anonas." 

These doubts could be cleared by the simple statement that Sitaphal and 
Ramphal are not to be found in the Bamayaria, that Ata and the .Anona did 
neither exist in India in those mythological times, nor in subsequent historical 
"times, and that consequently the fabulous Eama and his wife the Helen of the 
Hindus, had neither seen nor tasted the two fruits. No trace of these names 
•can be found in the poem of Valmiki, or in classical Sanscrit. 


Ifc was therefore the fanciful Hindu, very much like the Indian doctor of 
J. C. Lisboa, who invented the two names, just like the Hindu poet (God knows 
if the same) gave the name Sita-Keins, "Sita's Hairs" to the climbing plant 
Ipomea quamoclit, Linnaeus (Indian forget-me-not, Bed Jasamine or china Creeper 
in English) indigenous to Tropical America, and probably introduced in India 
by the Portuguese. The natives in Guzarat do call Sitopodri (Anglo hid. Lie/. 
by Whitworth) any missionary catholic or protestant in the belief that the 
Virgin Mary, our Lady, is no more than their Sita. ? 

Ramaphal and Sitaphal are indisputably neotogisms like Sita-leins and 
Sila-padri so much so that the Mahrati- English Diet, of Molesworth wbo 
always indicates the Sanskrit origin of all Mahrati words derived from that 
classical language, does not trace their derivations. It is true that in Sanskrit 
and in Mahrati there is also to be found a name little used and known, for 
instance the Dictionary of Talekar does not mention it. That name is Lavani, 
meaning " a sort of custard-apple, " according to the Dictionary of Molesworih,. 
wherein fae word is indicated with the mark S to signify that it is a Sanskrit 
term, used in Mahrati only by men of letters. It is probably an inferior variety 
of the 400 species of 140 genera of Anonacea? known in the New and Old 
World. Really it cannot be believed that that the lavani (and not lavali as in 
the Gloss, of G. King referred to by Yule and Burnell) is the delicious ata not 
even the anona, and if Rama has eaten lavanis he could only have had it for his 
light auxiliaries (the monkeys of Sugriva to invade Lanka) for the liberation of 
Sita, ravished by Havana. 

It is really curious that in Mahrati the name Ravanaphal, " Havana's fruit"" 
is given to a wild apple. Molesworth lexicon says : So named as hearing 
■particulars of contrast or comparison itith Ramaphal. 

This is very suggestive and conclusive. A jungle fruit is given ihe name cf 
Havana on account of its similarity to the fruit of Rama. You see the inge- 
nious process by which one anel the other names have been coined. They 
have borrowed names from Mythology for the Ata and Anona, and it is clear 
that people did not know they were found in India. 

At last the decisive argument, the argument of fact that altogether decides 
the question, is that in the times of Garcia de Orta there were no atas and 
anonas in India. Otherwise the author of Colloquios would not have omitted to 
describe such a delicious fruit as the ata. Orta was not only at Goa and 
Bombay, an " estate and island which the King our Lord has graciously granted 
me on perpetual lease, " as be himself says in the Coll. XXII, about areca and 
banana, but he was in various parts of India, even in the interior, and describes 
plants which he could not see, but about which in his scientific curiosity he 
collected information from the natives and from the Portuguese in India. 

Thence I affirm without fear of error that the ata and the anona have been 
like the caju and so many other plants, useful and palatable, introduced in India 
by our glorious ancestors after 1563, the year of publication at Goa. of the 
book of Garcia de Orta, 


This conclusion is perfectly rational, for General Cunningham himself does not 
deny that they brought to India the two Anonacece however with this restriction, 
that they brought " merely coals to Newcastle. " The coals were not found then 
in these Indian Newcastles, where actually now they abound. And General 
Cunningham can preserve in the museum the Barhut Sculptures with the coarse 
design of the jaca. Auguste de Saint- Hilaire had missed the mark when he 
said that the Portuguese had transported the Anonaceae from India to Brazil ; 
the fact was diametrically opposite from Brazil to India, as had already been 
supposed by the perspicaceous Rheede. 



By E. Comber, f.z.s. 

The subjoined list of the species of Marine Shells represented in the 
Society's collection is published partly with the intention of placing 
upon record the present extent of our collection, but to anyone with a 
knowledge of the molluscan fauna of India it will mainly serve to indi- 
cate the extremely scanty nature of the collection. Additions of any 
moment have been disappointingly rare for a number of years past, and 
it is to be hoped that the publication of this list will encourage con- 
tributions from some of our members that may go to fill the many 
large gaps in the list of even the commoner kinds of shells. 

The difficulty of identifying shells without the opportunity of actual 
comparison with authentically named specimens and the absence of any 
collective book of descriptions and figures of Indian shells is a consider- 
able drawback to the study of them, but the Society will always gladly 
receive unnamed contributions, and assist its members towards identify- 
ing specimens in their own collections. The essential points with regard 
to specimens of shells are that they should be obtained from living Mol- 
luscas and that the locality should be carefully recorded, as dead, worn 
shells or specimens without the locality are of little value in a collection. 

In compiling this list the nomenclature of Messrs. J. C. Melvill and 
R. Standen's paper (Part I) on the Cephalopoda, Gastropoda and 
Scaphopoda of the Persian Gulf and Arabian Sea, which appeared in 
the P. Z. S., 1901, p. 327, &c, has been followed so far as it applied, 
and Mr. J. C. Melvill has very kindly corrected the list completely. 

A list of the Land and Freshwater Shells in the collection is also 
published herewith, thanks to the assistance rendered by Mr. Edgar Smith 
and Capt. A. J. Peile, R.A., who have obligingly corrected the list. 


Bombay Natural History Society's Collection. 




Nautilus pomptlius (L ) 

Argonauta Itiai>s (Soland) 

Chiton gigas (Chem.) ... 

Persiau Gulf. 








Neritice ... 







Ketcioniscus novem-radiatus (Q. & G.) 
Glyphis (f r issurdla)bombayana (Scnvb) 
Scufois unguis (L ) ... ... 

Haliotis bistriata (Gmel.) 

,, asinina (L.) ... ... ... 

TrocJius radiatus (Gmel.) 

,, tabidus (Rve.) ... 

„ niloticus (L.) 

Glanculus delictus (A. Ad.) 

,, pharaonis (L.) 

,, ceylanicus (Nev'dl)=sulca- 

rius ... . 

Monodonta canalifera (Lain.) 

j, australis (Lam.) ... 

Euchelus indicus (A. Ad.) ... 

„ prossimus (A. Ad.) ... ., 

Ddphinula laciniata (Lam.) 

Umbovium (Rotella) vestiarium (L.) 
Turbo intercostalis (i/L<Bnke)=(elfga»)-- 1 


,, niargaritaceus ... ... 

,, chrysostoma 

Astralium stellatum (Gmel) 

I'hasianella australis (Gmel)... 
Nerita oryzarum (Recluz.) ... ... 

„ albicilla (L) 

,, (Odontostoma) polita (L.) .., 

„ (Pila) chrysostoma (Reoluz) ... 

„ ple'xd (Lherun.) 

Neritina (Dostin) crepidular'ta (Lam.) 
„ pulchella (Wood) ... 


lanthina fragilis (Lam.) = communis 

., ■- globosn (Swains.) 

Scnla . pretiosa (Lam.) ... ... 

Natka ala pap'dionis (Ch. )—tcenota 


„ lineata (Lam ) 
„ maculosa (lam.) 

., rufa (Born.) 

„ (Neverita) didyma (Bolten). . 
„ (Mamma) mamilla (L.) 
„ (Mamilla) melano s to m a. 
(Grne\)=(Zanziba r i ca) 


,, maroccuna (Chem.) 

Sigaretus ... 

XenopJiora (Onustus) Solaris (L ) .... 

Crucibulum hcutellatum (Gray) (var 

viofaceum) (Carp.) ... 

Calyptrcea (Ergaea) walshi (Herm.) 
Solarium perspectwum (L.) ... 



Indian Ocean. 










Mombasa and Table Ids 







Bombay and Aden. 















Littorina scabra (L.) 

,, „ {oar. vtwcomb'i) 


,, „ {var. intermedia) 


„ ventricosa (Phil) 

„ malaccana (Phil ) ••• 

„ arboricola (Reeve )... 
Tectarius nodulosus (Gmel.) ... 
Rissoa (Alvania) mahimensis (Melv.) 

Cerilhium morus (Lam.) j 

„ rubus (Martyn) 

„ eceruleum (Sowb.) 

., ( Vertagus) obeliscus (Brug.) 

,, ., vertagus ... 

,, tuberosum (Fabr.) 

,, (Vertagus) aluco (L ) 
„ „ asver (L.) 

,, ,, cedo-nulli (Sowb.) 

„ ,, taeniatum (Quoy.) 

Putamides (Telescopium) telescopiam 
(L ) ... ... . 

„ (Tympanonotus) fiuvtatilis 

(Pot. and Mich.) 
„ (Cerithidea) quad rata (Sowb.) 

Pyrazus palustris (LJ ... 

Planaxis sulcatus (Born.) 

Turritella (Zaria) dwplicata (L) 

„ (Hasutator) vittulata (Ad. 

and Rve.) 

„ cerea (Rve.) 

Strombus (Canarium) gibberulus(L.)... 

„ lentiginosus (L.) 

„ aurts-diana (L ) 

„ variabilis (Sowb.) 

„ dentatus (L.) 

„ urceus (L ) ... 

„ Isabella (Lam.) 

., luhuanus (L.)... 

„ succinctus (L.) 

,, canarium (L ) 

„ mauritianus (Lam ) 

., ... 
Pteroceras bryonia (Cheno.) 

,, lambis (L.)... 

Rostellavia curvirostis (Lam.) (var. 

curia) (Sowb.) 

Cyprea annulus (L.) ... 

„ carneola (L ) .. .. ... 

„ caurica (L.) 

,, erosa (L.) 

„ arabica (L.) ... 

„ felina (Gmel)... 

,, fimbriata (Gmel) 

„• lamarckii (Gray ) 

„ lentiginosa (Gray.) ... 

,, mauritiana (L ) 

,, moneta (L ) 

,, oce/lata (L.) 



Bombay and Aden. 






Somali Coast. 





Andamans and Aden. 






„ aud Aden. 
Aden and Bombay. 





tpr^iid^E — contd. 




muricid<e .. 


Cyprea onyx (L.) 

3 , pallida (Gray.) 

„ argus (L.) 

„ mavpa (L.) 

„ vitellus (L.) 

„ talpa (L.) 

,, tigris (L.) .. 

„ pantherina (L.) 

„ hjnx (L.) 

„ turdus (Lam ) 

„ cylindrica (Born.) ... 

jj caput-seryentis (L) ... 

„ tabescens (Soland) ... 

„ diluculum (Eve.) 

,, globulus (L.) ... ... 

„ cribraria (L».) 

, t asellus (L.) 

>o gangrenosa (Dillwyn.) 

„ helvola (L.) 

,, miliaris (Gmel ) ... 

n isabella (L.) ... ... ... 

„ Jiirundo (L.) 

„ staphylvea (L.) .. ... 

„ pulchra (Gray) 

,, ertyhramsis CBeck,). 

Amphiperas (Ovula) ovum (L.) 

,j {Calpurnus) verrucosum 


Erato pellucida (Reeve) 

Dolium maculatum (Lam.) 

„ costatum (Desh.) 

„ olearium (Brug,) 

u ••• ••• ••• 

s , ... 

Malea pomum (L.) 

Pyrula bucepkaia (Lam.) 

j, pugilina (Born.) 

,, (Rapana) bulbosa (Soland) ... 

,, paradisica (Mart.) 

„ (Sycotypus) ficus (Lam.) 
Cassis vibe (L.) ... ... 

Lotorium (Simpulum) pileare (L ) ... 

,, (Lagena) cingulatum (Pfr.) 

,, (Triton) olearium (L.) ... 

Gyrineum (Ranella) tuberculatum 


,, spinosum (Lam.) 

„ elegans (Beck) 

j, graniferiim (Lam.) ... 

,, leucostoma (Lam.) ... ... 

„ (Eupleura) perca (Pfary) 
=p\dchra (Gray ) 

Eulima dens-colubri (Melv.) 

Pyramidella mitralis (A. Ad.) ... 
Murex tennuispina (Lam ) 

„ tribulus (L ) ... 

„ adustus (LanrO ..- ... 

„ (Ocinebra) bombayanus (Melv.) 

„ palma-rosas (Lam ) 

„ hrandaris (L.) , ... 

,, Jiaustellum (L.) 

„ scolopax (Dillvryn) 

,, trunculus (L.) ... 

,, rainosvs (L.) 













Mekran Coast. 
Persian Gulf. 









Somali Coast. 





M ON otocar dia— contd. 

MtTKlClD^B— contd. ... 

Murex brevispina (Lam ) 



Nicobar Ids. 




S. Africa. 

Urosalpinx contracta (Rve.) 


Purpura rudolfi (Cheiun.) 

„ bu/o (Lam.) 


,, echinulala (Lam.) ... 

KoDkan Coast. 

„ blanfordl (Melv.) 


„ medium (Ch ) 


Jopas sltula (Reeve ) 


Cuma carinifera (Lam-) 


Sistrum subnodulosum (Melv.) ... 


„ tuberculatum (Blv.) 


j, xutkedra (Melv.) 


,, (Richuda) chrysostoma 




Columbella atrata (Gould) 


„ misera (?owb.) 

5 } ... ... 


)> •.. ... ... 

1) •-• ... 

„ terpsichore (Leathes) ... 



Bullia (Pseudostrombus) mauritiana 



Nassa arcularia (L.) 


,, coronata (L.) ... ... 


„ pulla (L.) ... 


,, ravida (A.. Ad.) 


,, nodifera (Powis) 


„ st data (Gme\.)=ornata (Desh.) 


,, olivacea (Bingy=toenia (Gmel.) 


,, canaliculate (Lam ) ... 


„ ffemmulata (Lam.) 

» ... ... ••• ... 



a ... ... -•• ... 

j) ... ... ... .— 

Tritonidea tissotl (Petit) ... ... 


i, rubiginosa (Reeve) ... 


,, sjtiralis (Graj) 


„ undosa (L.) 


Latruncuhs (Ebuma) spiratus (Lam.) 


j, „ zeylanica (Lnm ) 


Engina (Pusiostoina) mendicaria (L ) 

(and varieties) 


,j zea (Melv.) ... ... 



Turbinella rapa (Gmel.) 

,> cornigera (Lam ) 


, : pyrum (L.) 



Fasciolaria trapezium (Lam.) 
a gigantea (Kiener) 

» ... ... 

Latirus poh/gonus (L.) 



Mitra episcopalis (L.) 

,, aurantia (Sw.) 


>, (Scabricola) scabricula (L.) ... 


si j, crenifera (Lam ). 


j, (Cancilla) carnicolor (Kve.) ... 


» >, Paris (L.) 


.> strigillata (Sowb.) 


j> (Chrysamc) amhigua (! i owb,)= 

fulva (Swain.) 


,> (Chrysame) procissa (Rve.) ... 


s, (Strigatella) amphorella (Lam.) 




Mitrid^e— contd. 


[Turricula) plicata (Kleiu.) ... 
,, melongena (Lam.)- 


j, cosiellaris ( „ ). 



„ tceniata ( >, ). 



„ lyrata ( „ ). 



(Ccstellaria) mucronata (Rve.) 
„ deshayrsii ( ,, ). 

• > 

„ crebrilirata ( „ ). 



(Callitliea) stigmataria (Lam.). 



,, sanguisuga (L.) ... 



(Cylindra) fenestrata (Lam )... 



Marginella mazagonica (Melv.) 



, munilis (L.) 




scapha (L.) ... ... 

ve'svertilio (L.)... ... 

Hi elo in'dica (Grmel.) ... 



Harpa, ventricosa (Lam.) 

M auritius. 


minor (Lam.) ... 


OLIVIDiE ... ... 

Oliva i?iflata( L&m.) 


j j 

,, (var. undata Lam.) - ... 



„ (var. bicincta Lam.) ... 



maura (L.) ... 


nebulosa (Lam.) 



oli/mpiadina (Duclos) = pica 






servicea (Bolt) = texulina 




zeyhtnica (Lam.) 



ponder osa (Duclos) o 


ispidula (L.) ... 

irisnns (Lam.) ... ... ... 



gibbosa (Born.) 
'emicator (Morch) = guttata 
(Lam.) .., 



Ancilla ventricoaa (Lam.) 



■a cearulescens (Lam.)... 

J J 


cincteUa (Desk.) (—undulata 

(Gray.) ) ... 






subulata (L.) 



muscaria (Lam.) 



myuros (Lam.) 


oculata (Lam.) 

affinis (Gray). 


tricolor (Sowb.) — ... 


cancellata (Quoy) 

metadata (L ) 



crenulata (L.) 




(Stephanoconus) Kvidus 

(Hwass.) ... 



(Coronaxis) hetrceus (L.) 



„ minimus (L.) 

Aden and Andamans. 

„ taeniatus (Bvug.).., 
(Dendroconus) betulinus (L.)... 



( „ ) quercinus 

(Brag.) ... 




Conid.e— contJ. 






Conus (Litkooonut) Jkividus (Lam.)... 

n >, tessellatus (Bom.) 

„ (Leptoconus) imculptus (Kien.) 

)> » lentiginosus (Rve) 

;) (Rliizoconus) capitaneus (L.)... 

>> M inaldivus (L.) 

» )} mutabilis (Chemn.) 

>t >> punctatus (Chemn.) 

,, (Chelyconus) achat inus (Chemn.) 

» t> monachus (L) ... 

„ (Cylinder) pennaceus (Born.)... 

)» u textile (L.) ... 

,, acumitiatus (Brug.) 

,, amadis (Chem.) 

„ arachnoideus (Gmel ) 

„ arenatus (Brug.) 

„ canonicus (Brug.) 

,, co7isors (Sowb.) 

„ eburneus (Brug.) 

m emaciatus (Reeve.) 

„ episcojms (Brug.) 

» figidinus (L.) 

,, fumigatus (Brug) = coj 


„ generalis (L.) 

,, geographies (L.) 

,, hneatvs (Chem.) 

,j litteratus (L.) 

m marmoreus (L.) ... 

>> miles (L.) 

» nussntella (L.) ... 

» nobilis (L.) 

>> papilionaceus (Brug.) 

,) pusillus (Chem.) ... 

i) rattus (Brug.) 

,, splendidtdus (Sow.) ... 

>, straturatus (Sowb.) ... 

,, striatus (L.) 

,i sumatrensis (Brug) ... 

,, sugillatus (Eve) 

j, tessellatus (L.)... 

7, thomasi (Sowb ) 

» vexillum (Gmel.) 

j, virgo (L ) 

j> zonatus (Brg) 

Pleurotoma tigrina (Lam.) ... 

Surcula cingulifera ( Lam ) (var. 
amicta (8m.) ... 
„ javana (L ) (=nodifera, Lam ,) 
„ tornata (Di)lw.) (var. fulmi- 

nata, Kien) 

Drill ia crenularis (Lam.) (var. atkin- 
smii, Sid.) ... ... 

Clathurella tincta (Rve.) 

Cancellaria scalar ina (Sowb.) 


Actceon coccinatus (Reeve) 

Tornatina involuta (G. & H. Nev.) ... 

Atys naucwn (L.) 

Cylichna cylindracea (Penn.) 









Aden and Andamans. 




Aden and Andamans. 










Opisthorranchiata (TEcn- 



Bulla ampulla (L.) 


Hydatina physis (L.) ... ..■• .. 



Baminea galba (Pease) _ 



Ringicula propinquans (Hinda.) ... 



Siphonaria basseinensis (Melv.) 


„ ... 




Auricula auris-judm (L.) ... 

„ auris-midce (L.) 

Andamans and Bombay. 

Melampus siamensis (Mart ) ... 


„ erythroeus (Morlet) 

» "•• ••• •— 


,, ... ... 



Dentalium longitrorsum (Rve.) 


Cadulus gadus (Sowb.) 





Placuna placenta (L.) 

Anomia achaeus (Gray) 



Area bistrigata (Dunker) 


,, inaequivalois (Brug.) 


Scapharea japonica (Rve.) 


„ rhombea (Born.) 


Anomalocardia aranosa (Lam.) 


Anomalocardia formosa (Sowb.) 

Barbutia obliquata (Gray) 

Konkan Coast. 

Scapharea natalensis (Krausf) 


Parallelepipedum tortuosum (L.) 


,. ... ... ... ... 



Mytilus sinaragdinus (Cfcem.) 

Bombay & Konkan Coast 

Modiola emarginata (Bens.) ... ... 










Meleagrina margaritifera (L.) 
Pinnanigra (Chemn.)... 

Ostrea lacerata (Hanley) 
Ostrcea crenulifera (Sowb.) ... 
Pecten senatorius (Gmel ) 

„ crassicostatus (Sowb ) .. 

„ proteus (Sol.) = glaber (L ) 
Sp>ondylus rubicundus (Rve"l... 


Cardita calyculata (Lam. 1 * ... 
,. antiquata (Lam«)) ••• 

Libitina (Cypricarda) vellicata 

Lucina fibula (Rve.) ... «•• 
„ tigerina (L.) ... 

Dipladonta indica (Desh.) ... 

Velorita cyprinoides (Gray) ... 

Tellina capsoides (Lam.) ... 
„ (Homala) ala (Hanley) 
„ sinuata (Speng.) 


Indian Ocean. 
Mekran Cosst. 



Konkan Coast. 


Konkan Coast. 





BulamellibuaNchiata— contd. 

Telinidce— contd. 

Tellina rubra (Desb.1 

„ rubdla (Desh.) 


., ptanata (L) ... ... ... 

Kfnkan Coast. 

Macoma edentula (Bordifc Sov\b.) .. 


,, truncata (Jon3S) .. 


Gastranu polygona (Chemn.)... 

Macoma nasuta (Conrjd) 

Victoria B. C. 


Semele cordiformis (.So - * b.) ... 



Donax scortum (L.) 


„ incarnatus (Chemn.) 


„ terra (Chem.) 

Cape Colony. 


Meretrix morphina (Lam.) ... 
Circe divaricata (Chemn.) ., ... 


„ intermedia (Reeve.) 


Cytherea (Meretrix) morphina (Lam.). 


,, castanea (Lam.) 


Meroe solandri (Gray) 

Konkan Coast. 

„ effossa (Hanley) 


Dosinia prostrata (L.),.. ... 


„ rustica (Romer) 


>t pubescens (Phil.) 

Konkan Coast. 

Venus (Chione) pinguis (Hinds.) 


„ „ radiata (Chemn.) ... 


Tapes (PuUastra) malabarica (Chemn.) 


,, „ textrix (Chemn.) ... 


„ ,, indie a (Sowb.) 

Konkan Coast. 

„ „ turgida (Lam.) 


>) >, ... .. ... 

,, „ -traminea (Conrad.) 

British Columbia. 

Callisla ckinensis (Chem.) 

Indian Ocean. 

„ erycina (L.) 

Konkan Coast. 


Mactra cornea (Desh ) 

Bombay and 


„ luzonica (Desh.) ... 

„ plicataria (L.)... 


,, (Schizodesm.n) spengleri (L.). 

Cape Colony. 

Barvclla capillacea (Desh.) 

Konkan Coast. 

a ... ... .. 


Lutraria transversalis (Desh.) 

Konkan Coast. 

Anatinella Candida (Chem ) 



Glaucomya cerea (Eve.) ... 



Cardium crtronatum (Speng.)... 

„ latum (Born.) 


,, rugosum (Lam.) 


„ (Hemicardium)fraguin (L ). 

,, „ cardissa ... 


,, jjseudolhna (Lam.) 


Tridacna squamosa (Lam.) 

„ compresm (Peeve.) ... ... 


„ gigas (Lam.) 


Chama macrophyUa (Chemn.) 



Psammobia malaccana (Rve.) ... 


Solentellina oblonga (Desb.) 


„ atrata (Desh.) 

Konkan Coast. 

,, diphos (L.) 


Asaphis (Capsa) rugosa (Lam.) 

Konkan Coast. 


Cryptomya philippinarum (A. Ad.)... 



Solen truncatus (Sowb.) 


Silirjua (.'\facha>ra) polita (Wood.) ... 



Pholas baker i (Desh.) 



Anativa labiata (Rve). 


Thracia salsettensis (Melv.) 







Bombay Natural History Society's Collection. 





Neritina perotetiana (Recluz) ... 



Helicina andamanica (Bens.) 




Cyclopliorus himalayanus (Pf.) ... 

Bhutan and Sikhi"-. 

„ indicus (Desh.) 


>3 nilghericus (Bens.) ... 


„ pearsoni (Bens.) ... 

Khasi Hills. 

j, siamensis (Sowb.) 


„ polynema (Pf.) 


„ (Cycloheiix) leaiilTvycm.) 

j, (Theobaldia) bairdi (Pf.) 


„ „ annula t us 


Watawala, Ceylon. 

„ „ stenosto m a 


,, tavidus 

Sbevaroy Hills. 

Cyathopoma pellet (Preston.) 


Pteronyclus bllabeatus (Bens.) ... 


,, nanus (Bens.) 

Mysore and Nilgiris. 

Leptopoma immaculata, (Chem.) 


„ rcepstorffi (Nevill.) 


Alycceus plectockeilus (Bens.) ... 


„ constrlctus ( ,, ) 


,, expatriatus ( ,, ) 

Shevarov Hills. 

,, prosectui ( ,, ) 

Khasi Hills, 


Cyclostoma barclayanus (Pf.) ... 


Cyclotopsis semistriatus (Suw.) 


Omphalotropis destermina (Bens.) ... 



Bithynia pulchella (Bens.) 


„ stenothyroldes (Dohrn.) ... 



Vivipara bengalensis (Link.) 


„ dissimilis (Miill) , 



Ampullaria dolioides (Reeve) 

Bombay and Kalyan. 

„ globosa (Swain.) 

Bhutan, Douars and Jub- 

,, earinata (Swain.) 


„ nux (Reeve) 



Melania elegans 


„ lyrata (Menke.) 

Dinapore, C. P. 

,, tuberculata (Miill.) 

Bombay, Malegaum, Sat- 
puras and Kajputana. 

,, variabilis (Bens.) ... ... 

Jalpaiguri, Sikhim. 

Paludomus [Philopotamus) gldbulosa 


Chindwin R., Burma. 

„ obesa (Phil.) 


„ tanjoriensis (Gmel.) 

M adras. 









Limniea amygdalus (Tros.) ... 
„ rufe&cens (Gray) 
„ pvnguis (Dohm.) ... 
„ stagnilis (Linn.) ... 

Planorbis compressvs (Hutt.) 
„ exustus (Desh.) 

Ariophanta hevipes (Mull.) ... 
„ bajadera (Pf.) ... 

„ intumescens (Blf.) 

„ cysts (Bens.) var. dalyi 


,, thymus (Bens.) 

Hemiplecta chenui (Pf.) 

„ juliana (G ray.) =ganoma 


,, solata (Bens.) 

„ semidecussata (Pf.) 

Euplecta indica (Pf.)^ Shvplayi (Pf-) 

„ gardneri (Pf.) 

„ prestorii (G. Aus.) 

Xesta semirugata (Beck.) 

„ belanqeri (Desh.) = vitelline, 


„ bistrialis (Beck ) 

„ taprobanensis (Dohrn.) 

Oxytes blan/ordi (Theo.) 

„ oxyte* (Bens.) 

Macrochlamys ckoinx (Bens.) ... 

„ pedina (Bens.) ... 

,, tenuicula (Adams) ... 

Eurychlamys platychlamys (Blf.) 

Sitala barrackpurensis (Pf.) 

Indrella ampulla (Bens.) ... ... 

Rotula retifera (Pf.) 

Sessara ddghoba (W. & U. Blf.) 
Plectotropis tapacina (Bens.)... ... 

Fleet opylis fultoni (Cursten) 

i, plecostoma (Bens.) 

Planispira delibrata (Bens.) var. fas- 

ciata (G. Aus.) 

it ,, (Bens.) var. te- 

nella ... ... 

Ganesella hemiopta (Bens.) 

Geotrochus physalis 

Eulota propinqua (Pf.) 

Corilla beddomere ... 

,, beddoinii 

„ gvdei (Sykes) 

„ erronea ... 

„ humberti 

,, odontophrra ... ... ... 

Acavus skinneri (Pfr.) 

„ waltoni (Reeve.) .... 

„ phoenix (Pf.) 

„ superba, var. roscolata (Pf.)-.. 

,, ha>mastoma (Linn.) ... 

„ melanotragus (Born.) 
Amphidromus andamanicus (/) 
,, sylheticus (Reeve.) 

,, sinensis ... 



Bombay and Bangalore. 



Dinapore, C. P., Bangalore 

and Ratnagiri. 
Mahableshwar, Matheran, 

Karjat, Lanowli and 


Nilgiris and Ceylon. 

Watawala, Ctylon. 

Udagama, Ceylon. 

Watawala, Ceylon. 
Uva, Ceylon. 

Nasik and Ceylon. 


M adras and Shevaroy Hills. 

Jaffna, Ceylon. 

Jaintia Hill, Assam. 

Khasi Hills. 


Bombay and Matheran. 





Shevaroy Hills. 

Khasi Hills 

Gampala, Ceylon. 
Punduyola, ,, 
Kegalle. „ 

Watawala, ,, 
Newara Eliya, ,, 
Uva, ,, 

Newara Eliya, „ 
Watawala, „ 
Colombo and Kandy, Cey- 
Watawala, Ceylon. 
Khasi Hills. 
Bhutan, Doors. 


G A STEROPOD A— contd . 




Pupa evezardi (Blf.) «| 


,, (Lencochila) ccenopicta (Hutt.). 


Buliminus (Mastus) insularis (Shren.) 


,, (Rachis) heng a I crisis 



„ „ punctatus (Anton.) 


„ (Cerastus) moussonianus 

(Petit) .. 


(Pctrceus) labiosus ... ... 



Subidina shiplayi (Pf.) ... ... 


,, orthoceras (G. A us.) ... 

Naga Hills 

Prusopeas kaughtoni (Bens.) 


Opeas gracilis (Hutt.) 


Spiraxis octona (Chem.) 


„ huttoni... ... ... ... 


Glessula chessoni (Bens.) ... ... 


,, inconspicua (Nev.) 

Shevaroy Hills. 

,, facula (Blf.) . ... 


„ filosa (Blf.) 


Achatina fulva (eggs brought in 

plants from Mauritius.) 





Praxis dah/i (Smith) ... ... 



Unio aeruleus (Lea.) 


„ ccrrugatus (Smith) ... ... 


„ crispatus ... 

Bara R. Cachar. 

,, marginalis ... 

Corbicula bemoni ... 





E. P. STEBBING, F.L.S., F.E.S., 

Officiating Superintendent, Indian Museum. 
General Remarks. 

The work of the bamboo beetle or " shot-borer," the gJioong of the natives 
in many parts of the country, is wellknown in India. All who have anything 
to do with bamboos, either with their cutting and export, their use in buildings, 
or their manufacture into the thousand and one articles to which this most 
useful commodity is put in the country, have to count upon and allow for the 
ravages of this pest, and in many parts a year to a year and a half may be given 
as the estimated and probable life of a bamboo after cutting. 

Description and Life-History of the ' Shot-Borer.' 

But although the results of its work are well-known, the real author of the 
depredations is far irom being a well lecognised enemy owing both to its small 
size and to its secretive habits. The damage is committed by a tiny beetle and 
its grubs, which are just of slightly smaller diameter than the holes with which 
the bamboos are seen to be riddled. The beetle, which has a black head and 
thorax and reddish-coloured shining wing covers, bores its way into the 
bamboo, and lays its eggs in the interior, each beetle laying about 20. From 
these eggs small, white, roundish dots of grubs issue within a few days of their 
being deposited. These tiny larvae burrow up and down in the interior of the 
bamboo, and reduce its structure to powder. About four weeks are spent in 
this stage, and the grubs then enlarge the ends of their burrows and change to 
pupas which after some eight days or so turn into the beetles. On becoming 
mature the beetles bore their way out of the bamboos and thus add further to 
the tunnels already made in them. On emergence the insects fly off to attack 
fresh bamboos or they may bore into the one in which they have matured 
themselves. There are thus three separate forms of attack : — 

(a) The female beetle bores into the interior of the bamboo and lays its 

eggs there. This is the first attack on the bamboo. 

(b) From the eggs hatch out little grubs which feed upon the wood of 

interior of the bamboo and thus undermine its strength. 

(c) The beetles on maturing from the grubs bore their way out of the 

It used to be thought that each of the shot-borers made their way out by a 
separate tunnel, driven direct from the place where the grub had pupated to 
the outside. This is not however the case, as the matured beetles appear to 
issue either all from the same exit hole or from one or two only, these being 
often the former entrance holes of the mother beetles which are considerably 
enlarged. Beetles of the new generation appear to also make use of these old 
holes to enter the bamboo to egg-lay, boring away from the old gallery when 


they have got inside. When bamboos are in lengths it will be found that the 
beetles tunnel in them parallel to the long axis and form galleries which open 
at one of the ends. The bamboo is thus often completely hollow in parts 
without there being much outward evidence of its having been badly attacked. 
This is more especially the case when the beetles have entered and left by the 
same holes, made at one of the ends of the bamboo. A feature which greatly 
adds to the insect's power of doing serious damage is to be found in the fact 
that in the warmer parts of the country it passes through at least five, and 
perhaps more, generations or life cycles in the year. I have said that the 
insect lays about 20 eggs, and therefore one female beetle may produce 200,000 
insects in the year on the supposition that only five generations are passed 


(a) I am inclined to recommend soaking the bamboos for five days in 

water, since a thick shiny gelatinous substance exudes from the 
bamboos during this process, and this exudation probably enables 
the bamboo to absorb a larger quantity of oil than would be 
otherwise the case. 

(b) That the bamboos be allowed to dry in a covered shed for several 

days after the water process. 

(c) That, after drying, the bamboos be soaked for 48 hours in common 

Rangoon oil. 

In the Appendix Series of the Indian Forester [xxix — 12, (1903)]* some 
notes were given upon the life-history of one of the minute bamboo beetles, or 
" shot-borers " as they have been popularly called, and the question of the 
preservation of the bamboo from their attacks was discussed. The effects of 
the latter are well known. The insects tunnel into the stem and reduce its 
wood-structure to powder. It is some years now since Mons. P. Lesne, of the 
Paris Museum, at the request of the authorities of the Indian Museum 
in Calcutta, examined sets of specimens of these beetles sent home to 
him. Mons, Lesne reported that the smaller of the two beetles received was a 
widespread insect known as Dinoderus winutus, the second of the two a species 
unknown to science, which he named D. pilifrons. Up to the year 1903 it was 
generally supposed that these two beetles worked in company and that they 
were to be found distributed throughout India.f 

Although the researches which are being instituted into the life-histories, 
habits and distribution of the two species are by no means complete, it has been 
shown in the note to which allusion has been made above, that the beetle (almost 

* A note on the preservation of bamboos from the attacks of the bamboo beetle or '' shot- 

Indian Museum Notes. I, 43 ; III, 123 ; IV, 135 ; V, 166. Inj. Ins. Ind, For p 42. 


invariably if not invariably), responsible for the riddling of bamboo in Calcutta 
(and possibly to the south throughout the Madras Presidency) is D. mhiulus, 
whilst its confrere D. pilifrons would appear to confine itself to Upper India. % 

A series of experiments and observations were conducted at the Indian 
Museum throughout the greater part of the year 19f 3 (as fully detailed in the 
note in the Appendix Series) with a view to ascertaining whether it was possi- 
ble by impregnating or soaking the bamboo with some preservative material to 
protect it from the shot-borer's attacks, It may be mentioned that incidentally, 
in the course of these experiments, a large amount of information was obtained 
on the life-history of D. minutus and of the reasons which lead to its being 
such a pest within the area of its depredations. 

The bamboos experimented with were some from a lot received at the 
Government Telegraph Workshops in Calcutta from Northern India. They 
had been cut in the cold weather of 1902-03. As already explained in the 
previous note, these bamboos were to be converted into field telegraph posts, 
and in the hope of giving them some protection against the shot-borer pest, they 
were subjected to a series of soakings in water, copper sulphate and Rangoon 
oil. For over eight months untreated bamboos and those treated with one or 
more of the above solutions were kept under close observation, all the lengths 
experimented with having been received direct from the Workshops, chosen at 
haphazard by the Superintendent. As a result of the cavefully recorded 
observations throughout this period, it was proved that the untreated bamboos 
were invariably attacked by the shot-borer, D. minutus, within a couple of 
months, i.e., between March and May ; that soakings in water alone or water 
followed by immersion in the copper sulphate solution were equally innoxious 
to the beetles ; but that those bamboos which had proceeded the stage further 
and had been soaked in the Rangoon oil were immune from subsequent attack 
by the pest. It was shown that the insect passes through no less than five 
generations in the year, different swarms of adult individuals appearing in 
April, June, July, September and October, and that the attacks of one or more 
of these generations with those of their resultant grubs would ordinarily have 
reduced the bamboos, if untreated, to powder ; it was therefore held to have 
been proved as a result of the experiments that the life of the bamboo had 
been lengthened by at least a year as a direct result of the impregnation. 

It has since been possible to trace the history of these treated bamboos, all 
of which were converted into field telegraph posts, a stage further in their 
career, and the evidence that has been obtained both by the use of the posts in 
the field and, equally important, by their storage in an open shed without any 
special protection being afforded to them in the Workshop yard, points 
to the wonderful efficacy of the oil treatment. It is the purpose of this 
supplementary note to give publicity to this fact, firstly, owing to numerous 
enquiries as to the necessary treatment to be given to the tambocs havirg 
been received from the Public Works Department, and, secondly, tecauee the 

J nv/e Depart. Not. Ins. wh. aff. For J\o. 2, 1G8. 


oil treatment for the preservation of bamboos may be said to have now passed 
the rubicon of the " Experimental Stage " and to have reached the arena of 
practical utility. 

To go back to the bamboos converted in 1903. Some of them were sent up 
that year for service with the Tibet Mission. They were returned to store in 
Calcutta about the beginning of the present year, and Mr. h. Truniger, C.I.E., 
who was in charge of the Field Telegraph with the Mission, has stated that they 
had fully answered expectations. Some of these returned posts were inspect- 
ed by the writer in the yard at Calcutta towards the end of March last. Al- 
though it was two and-a-half years since they were cut in the forests of Upper 
India and close upon two years since they were treated with the oil, they 
showed no trace of attacks by the Dinoderus beetle. It may be contended, and 
justly, that throughout 1904 these posts had been at an altitude, greatly above 
that at which either of the shot-borer beetles could, or do, live, and that they 
were thus safe from their attacks. This was so, but the same argument does 
not hold good when we come to consider those converted bamboos which re- 
mained throughout the year in store in Calcutta. An inspection of these has 
shown that they have remained equally immune from the pest. Most are aware 
how short is the life, economically, of the bamboo after it has been cut, and 
many know the difficulties which stand in the path of the lance, the tent-peg- 
ging and hog-spear purveyor. The results that have attended the treatment of 
the 9,000 bamboos in 1903 are well worthy of the consideration of these latter, 
for on present observations it has been shown that the impregnation with the 
oil leaves the bamboo strong and serviceable two-and-a-half years after it has 
been cut. Arrangements have been made to keep some of these posts under 
continuous observation with the object of ascertaining the longevity to which 
the treatment enables them to attain. That the Telegraph Department has the 
fullest confidence in a discovery the full credit of which chiefly belongs to it, is 
borne out by the fact that an additional £0,000 bamboos are at the time of 
writing being put through the treatment and converted into field telegraph 
posts. It may be stated that the recommendations of the previous note are 
being followed, the bamboos being first soaked in water for five days (this is 
very necessary for reasons previously given), allowed to dry for several days, 
and then re-soaked in the Rangoon oil (crude petroleum), this latter, as used in 
the Workshops, having the consistency of treacle. 

That the use of the bamboo as a field telegraph and telephone post has a great 
future before it has been proved by the Japanese in the present campaign. 
The following note upon the subject appeared recently in the Pioneer* : "Every 
general of brigade in the field is ' at the end of a wire ' which his divisional com- 
mander controls and the generals of divisions are in touch by telegraph or tele- 
phone with the corps commander. The engineers run wires after the columns 
with marvellous rapidity. Firing is heard somewhere at the front. A detach- 
ment of engineers emerges from head-quarters, pack ponies carrying bundles of 
* Allahabad, Pioneer, October 24th, 1904. 


light bamboo poles, while coolies and carts follow them with coils of slender 
copper wire. The poles, which have pointed ends, are quickly planted, the 
wire spreads out as fast as men can uncoil it, and a field telephone is at work." 
As having a bearing upon the experiments and results attained in India, 
Mr. Y. Hara, Chief of the Japanese Forest Bureau, was addressed with the object 
of ascertaining whether the bamboo field posts used by his countrymen were 
subjected to any treatment. His reply would seem to show that in this mat- 
ter Japan is in the position occupied by India before the discovery of the oil 
treatment. He wrote : " In answer to your enquiries with regard to a protec- 
tion of our bamboos, I would state that although the method in preserving 
bamboos in the field is not well known, there are three processes of treatment 
generally adopted by our people — 

(1) The season of cutting — September and October. 

(2) The fumigation in sulphur. 

(3) Application of both of these processes." 


(From " The Annals and Magazine of Natural History" Seventh Series, 
Vol. 15, No. 86; Feb, 1905.) 

- BY 

J. Lewis Bonhote, M.A. 

The collection of voles sent home from Kashmir by Colonel A. E. Ward 
contains three specimens of a most interesting new species allied to Microtus 
nivalis, for which I propose the name 

Microtus imitator, sp. n. 
Differs externally from M. nivalis only in its smaller size and slightly browner 

General colour above grizzled greyish brown, each hair being dark at its 
base, with a light subterminal portion and a black tip ; interspersed among 
these are longer pure black hairs. The colour is deepest acrofs the back and 
paler on the flanks and cheeks. Underparts whitish, tinged with yellow ; hair 
with dark bases. Feet greyish. Tail long and bicolor, brown above, white 
below. Ears moderate, rounded, and clothed with short hairs similar in colour 
to the upper parts. 

The skull is slightly smaller and flatter than in true nivalis, but the brsin- 
case is rather more rounded at the sides. The auditory bulla? smaller, less 
elongate, and well rounded, thus slightly compressing the basioccipital. 

Teeth generally resembling those of M. nivalis, with two important excep- 
tions. In the species under consideration the spaces are rather narrower and 
smaller than in nivalis, the third molar of the upper jaw has four external 
angles instead of three, and the posterior lobe of the same tooth has a slight 
constriction on its inner edge, tending to form a fourth interior angle. In the 
lower jaw the anterior narrow-shaped head of the first molar is not symme- 
trical, but is elongated on its external side to form an oblong rounded space ; 
a tendency towards this shape is found, so Dr. Forsyth Major tells me, in a 
specimen of nivalis from Mount Hermon, but is never found among the 
western forms. The anterior external space of the third lower molar is 
similarly modified. 

Dimensions. — Head and body 105 mm. ; tail 45 ; hind foot 15 ; ear 12. 

Skull, — Length of palate 12 mm. ; length of nasals 8 ; length of molar series 
6 ; width of brain-case above posterior roots of zygomata 13. 

Habitat.— Tullian, Kashmir. .Alt. 11,C00 feet. 

Type.—B. M. 5. 1. 5. 12. $ ad. Tullian, Kashmir. Collected by Colonel 
A. E. Ward, 14th July, 1903. 

In outward appearance, as well as in skull-characters, this vole i3 undoubt- 
edly allied to M. nivalis of Europe, which, however, has not hitherto been 
found east of the Caucasus ; so that its discovery in Kashmir forms a consider- 
able eastward extension of this group. Its smaller size, slightly browner colora- 
tion, and dental characters enable it to be distinguished easily from the 
typical nivalis. 



Somehow the Bombay Natural History Society has always had verv few 
geologists among its members or, at any rate, among its literary contributors, 
and very few references to Indian geology can be found in the pages of our 
Journal except as concerns its indirect relation to extant organisms. This is 
to be regretted, as a great deal of our space — some members, we fear, think a 
disproportionate amount of our space — is devoted to the accumulation of data 
for the study of distribution, and the full value of the facts ascertained can 
only be properly appreciated when they are studied in connection with th ■ 
geology of the localities concerned. 

For this reason we welcome the foundation of the Mining and Geological 
Institute, as though at present principally a Bengal Association where we have 
not many members, it will doubtless become more representative in time, and 
by linking up science with commerce should have the effect of inducing many 
people who have no particular scientific bent to take an interest in a fascinating 
study which is badly in need of amateur assistance in this country. 

Mr. Holland, the first President, is always worth hearing or reading, and we 
call special attention to his address here because in it he proposes for general 
acceptance a new nomenclature of the principal epochs in Indian geological 

As regards the names themselves they all possess the merit of carrying with 
them no reference to any particular theory, and therefore contain one of the 
most essential elements of permanence. We think it rather a pity that the name 
" Dravidian " should be applied to purely extra-Peninsular series. This, how- 
ever, is a minor point. 

With all that Mr. Holland says as to the impossibility of classifying Indian 
rocks on the European system, of course we cordially agree, but as regards the 
task of discovering the approximate equivalents in the two systems we would 
have liked a little more emphasis laid on the fact that the existence of the 
same fossils in different parts of the world is no sort of evidence by itself that 
the rocks in which they occur are even approximately contemporaneous, any 
more than the remains of a kangaroo in an Australian kutchra heap are 
contemporaneous with early tertiary marsupial fossils in Europe. Indeed, 
it is doubtful whether we can speak at all positively of the relative age of any 
fresh water beds without a complete knowledge of the marine beds which 
may lie between them and a rough idea of the distribution of land and water 
throughout the globe at any particular epoch, and this, of course, we are a very 
long way from possessing at present. 

Also we cannot help expressing our regret that Mr. Holland appears to hare 
fallen into a habit rather common among geologists of speaking of theoretical 
hypotheses as if they were proven facts. 


For instance, he speaks of that " peculiar tropical weather product known 
as laterite." We do not know on what evidence this theory is given — the pre- 
ference among the many which have been advanced to account for laterite — 
indeed, it seems to us to be in the nature of things a theory for which there 
can be no evidence. And, moreover, it should be borne in mind with regard to 
the bauxite occurring in the laterite that all the other known deposits of 
bauxite lie in the temperate regions. Many people with an equal show of 
reason maintain that laterite is not a rock altered in sike at all, but a volcanic 
deposit only differing in chemical composition from the basalt on which so 
much of it lies. 

But where we must join issue with Mr. Holland most strenuously is with 
regard to his statement. 

" the old Gondwana Continent of which India, Australia and South 

Africa are relics " 

This is one of the many references to allusions which have occurred in recent 
years in the publications of the Geological Department to a vast Southern 
continent sometimes, we believe, extended to include Patagonia also, and which 
is little more than old " Lemur ia " writ large. 

In this as in several other references this continent is written of as though 
its existence had been proved and was undisputed, and yet, so far as we know, 
the only attempt at a detailed statement of the theory yet made is an article 
called " The Carboniferous Glacial Period " by Professor Dr. Waagen, a trans- 
lation of which was published in Vol. XXI of the Records of the Geological 

We cannot enter into a detailed discussion of it here, but to those who have 
not read it we can confidently recommend it as containing some of the most 
illogical and preposterous reasoning that has ever appeared in a scientific 

The Professor starts with the fact that bolder beds occur in South Africa, 
India and Australia and that all these contain a number of fossils of common 
species or at least common genera. 

The number of these fossils is altogether less than a hundred. Yet from 
this evidence he concludes that these deposits must have been contemporary 
and that these at present isolated land areas must have been connected by 
land now submerged — apparently because if they were not connected by land if. 
is unlikely that the same fossils could have occurred contemporaneously in the 
three areas. Yet he does not see that he is arguing in a circle, and he does not 
see that the chance survival of an odd hundred forms as fossils out of a 
probable Mesozoic fauna and flora of several hundred thousand species cannot 
prove anything at all. The very utmost we can expect of them is a suggestion. 

The Professor concludes absolutely iuconsequently, " The chief point is 
always the proof of a glacial period which appeared on the Southern continent 
during the coal-measure epoch, for all the other conclusions are based on this 
one fundamental fact. " 

REVIEW. 227 

It does not appear to us after reading the article that any of his conclusions 
are based on this fact— or fancy— or, indeed, that the majority have any basis at 
all. But since he has chosen to take his stand on this point, let us say at onco> 
that nobody but a professional geologist now believes that there ever was a 
secondary glacial epoch or a quaternary one either, and that no plain-think- 
ing people ever will until it has been shown both that a glacial epoch 
is astronomically, meteorologically and physically possible and that, if one did 
occur, it could possibly do the things they are postulated to have done, bearing 
in mind what the potentialities of a glacier are really known to be. 

Hitherto all attempts to account for the occurrence of such periods have 
absolutely failed, and no really honest attempt even has been made to prove that 
glaciers could do what they are said to have done even if they had existed 
and had been superior to the Laws of Gravity. 

We have wasted a good deal more powder and shot on the Professor than 
he deserves, because, so far as we know, his is the only detailed statement of 
this Gondwana Continent theory yet made, although it has already become a 
kind of fetish with some people. 

But in the interests of plain-thinking, clear reasoning and true science, we 
would appeal to Indian geologists to confine their attention to humbler matters 
for the present and not to attempt to build up transcendental theories to 
account for nothing and for which no evidence is forthcoming. 

If Mr. Holland can make abetter case for his continent than Professor 
Waagen, we should be very interested to read it ; but at the same time we would 
very much rather that all theorising of this kind with no facts or next to 
none behind it were left alone altogether. 

It is just possible that two hundred years hence there may be sufficient 
material collected to discuss the possibility of the former existence of a land 
area in the Indian Ocean, south of Ceylon. At present there is no geological or 
geographical evidence of such, and there are absolutely no phenomena in the 
animal or vegetable kingdoms at present known which require such a trans- 
cendental explanation. 

L. 0. H. Y. 




I see that Mr. Comber refers in his paper on " The Economic Uses of Shells," 
printed in a recent number of the Society's Journal (No. 3, Vol. XVI.), to the 
existence of pearls in the Thana Creek. When I was Assistant Collector in 
charge of Salsette Taluka in 1903, the right to collect oyster shells at the mouth 
of the creek near the village of Trombhe or Trombay was still a subject of 
considerable competition. So far as I recollect, the price realized was three or 
four times the amounts quoted by Mr. Comber. Presumably then either the 
pearl oysters are now more plentiful in the creek or the value of the small 
pearls has increased. The heaps of oyster shells lying about in all the villages 
in the strip of country running down the Thana Creek between it and the range 
of hills to the east are quite a noticeable feature. 

E. L. SALE, I.C.S. 

Larkana, Sind, 1st October 1905. 

On the 29th June I found a nest of the Malayan Banded Crake with 5 eggs, a 
note on which may be of interest, as the eggs were unspotted, and in this respect 
unlike the remainder of the family except R. superciliaris. The eggs were 
white, rather glossy, nest-stained, although only very slightly incubated, and 
measure on the average 1'18" x '94". The nest was a pad of dead bamboo 
leaves with a few dry twigs placed on the ground under the thin cover of a small 
bush. I had many attempts to secure the old bird — one including three drives, one 
cast with a fishing net in the day time, twice shot at (once on the nest) and the 
setting of noozes ; in spite of all these failures, I was lucky enough to get the old 
male caught on the nest at night with a cast net ; probably the bird I missed on 
the nest was the female. The power of the old bird in concealing itself was 
extraordinary j it seldom, as far as I know, ever ran more than 10 yards from 
the nest when disturbed ; the undergrowth was not thick, and although once or 
twice I had 6 or 8 men hunting for it, we could never find it ; it ran away very 
fast and seemed to disappear into the earth ; probably squatting half hidden in 
leaves, etc. ; it took wing only once, the first time I fired at it, and then it was 
some way from the nest and had not been actually driven from it. The locality 
is roughly longitude 21 0# 35' north, latitude 94 0- 22' east, and the nest was in 
a small patch of bamboo tree jungle, rather dark, not very thick undergrowth, 
in the bend of a stream which dries up in the hot weather, leaving perhaps a 
pool or two, but was at this time a flowing stream. The nest was within 15' of 
the edge of the water, and was probably only just above high flood level. The 
surrounding country is hilly and the place is a small valley at the junction of 
3 streams, where a few Burmans have squatted and cultivate a few acres of 
paddy land when possible ; the particular patch of jungle was torderirg the 


paddy fields. I send the skin to confirm my identification, but it has been un- 
fortunately eaten by ants lound the bill, the soft parts round the base of which 
were bright red as described by Blanford. 

P. F. WICKHAM (p. w. d.) 
Pakokku District, Upper Burma, 
ISth August 1905. 

[The above most interesting note has been sent to me by Mr. Wickham to- 
gether with the skin of the male bird, which is undoubtedly that of a specimen 
of R.fasciata, and the nest is probably the first authentic one of this species. 
Herr von Nehrkorn has eggs which he states are of this bird (Cat. der 
Eiasrsammlung, p. 201), and which he describes as being like tlose of Eailus 
aqualicus. These were taken in Java, I also have two eggs from Borneo, said 
to be of this species, and which are just like very large eggs of Porzana fusca. 
I have no doubt that both Nehrkorn and my own eggs are not those of 
R.fasciata. Mr. Wickham's discovery shews that two species of Rallina, at least 
this and superciliaris, lay white eggs. 

E. L. STUART BAKER, F. Z. S tJ etc. 
Dibrugaeh, 22nd August 1905.] 


I am sending one of fourteen nuts, all similar, taken out of the crop of a 
Himalayan Nutcracker, which I shot about a month ago in Kashmir. I do not 
think this bird's crop would have held a single nut more ! All the nuts were 
whole like this one. The question is — was the bird going to digest them, 
shells and all, or was it going to disgorge them, break the shells at leisure, eat 
the kernels and discard the former ? 

I cau hardly think the first, but then if it were able to break the shells of 
the nuts, why stuff up its crop in such an uncomfortable manner when nuts are 
so abundant, and it could have eaten them on the spot ? 

The native name of the tree to which the nut belongs is " poh," a kind of 
bastard hazel, and I am sorry I do not know the scientific name. The nut 
grows in clusters on the tree which is very common on the lower slopes of the 
hills. It may be worth recording that I afterwards shot some nutcrackers with 
their crops full of walnuts. In the latter case not only was there no shell, but 
the nut had been carefully cleaned of all " skin," which, as every one knows, is 
very bitter. The nuts were off wild trees growing in the jungle, the shells of 
which are very hard, and how the birds cracked them I cannot say. I watched 
them very carefully, but never saw a bird on the ground where it might have 
picked up bits of nut discarded by rats, flying-squirrels, mice, &c. 

L. L. FENTON, Lt.-Col. 
Wadhwan Camp, Kathiawar, 
2Brd Nov. 1905. 



As Mr. Aitken, in a previous number of this Journal (Vol. I, p. 218), has 
remarked on the absence of this insect from Khandala and Matheran, it may 
interest members to know that I took several in Khandala at the end of 
October. I am not aware whether the species has been recorded from 
Khandala since Mr. Aitken wrote his note, but from what I saw of the species, 
I can well understand its havirig escaped notice. The insects are apparently 
never seen abroad during the day ; and I only came across them quite acci- 
dentally towards dusk, one evening when out for a walk, when I saw a small 
swarm of them fluttering round and settling on a patch of a scented weed 
which grows commonly near the bazaar. Being without my net, I could not 
capture any at the time ; so next day I made a point of visiting the spot again. 
There were none about either in the morning or during the day ; but at 
sunset there were a few there again. I saw none anywhere except at this 
one particular corner, but I daresay further search at about the same time of 
day would bring to light other resorts of this very curiously distributed insect. 


October 'dlst, 1905. 

[There is no doubt that Everes (or Talicada) nyseus is to be found generally 
in the Konkan, and Mr. Comber recorded it from both Khandala and Matheran 
in his List of Konkan Butterflies in Vol. XV of our Journal. 

It is well under the circumstances, as Mr. Aitken has been quoted by others, 
that the supposed limitation to its distribution should be proved to be unreal. 
Mr. P. M. D. Sanderson has shown me specimens captured at Matheran also. 

L. C. H. Young, 
Hon. Sec, Entom. Seen., 
Bombay Natural History Society .] 

While at home in Scotland I saw in a house I was staying in (Taymouth 
Castle, Perthshire) an Indian buffalo (Bos bubalus) head. It appeared to me to 
be a very large bull, and, so far as I could ascertain from my host, it had been 
shot in Tndia 80 or 100 years ago by one of his ancestors. 

Length of right horn 59" 

„ left , 58" 

Outside sweep of horns across forehead lBl^" 

Circumference of base 20" 

Between tips 57|" 

Breadth between horns 1 ft. from tip, inside measurement 

( ? widest inside) 59" 

According to Rowland Ward's " Horn Measurements," the above is not a 
record head, but it apparently comes third, both the others being in the British 


A. F. MACKENZIE, Major, 
Poona, 2Qth October 1905. 93rd Highlanders. 


[The above measurements are very good, but Burke in his " Indian Field 
Shikar Book " (published in 1904, but now withdrawn from publication) men- 
tions eleven with longer horns. The best head which we have in our Museum 
measures : length of right-horn 54§", length of left-horn , F 4", outside sweep of 
horns across forehead 125", circumference of base 19", between tips 46", widest 
inside 5(3". This head was presented to us by Mr. T. J. Campbell, I F.S., of 
Assam . 

W. S. Millard, 

Hon. Sec. 
Bombay Natural History Society.'] 


List of the Municipalities in the Bombay Presidency to which rules under 
the Wild Birds Protection Act. XX of 1887, have been applied :— 

Bombay Municipality. 
Northern Division. 
Ahmedabad District. — Ahmedabad, Viramgam, Dholka, Mandal, Dhandhuka, 
Dholera, Rampur, Sanand, Gogha. 

Kaira District. — Kaira, Umreth, Mahuda, Dakor. 

Broach District. —Broach, Anklesvar, Amod, Jambusar, Hansot. 

Snrat District. — Mandvi, Bulsar. 

Thami District. — Thana, Bassein, Bandra, Bhiwndi, Kelva-Mahim, Kurla. 

Central Division. 
Ahmednagar District. — Ahmednagar, Bhingar. 
Poona District. — Poona City, Poona Suburban. 
Satara District. — Malcolmpeth. 

Southern Division. 
Belgaum District. — Gokak, Saundatti-Yellama. 

Dharwar District. — Dharwar, Hubli, Ranebennur, Byadgi, Gadag-Bettigeri. 
Ratnagiri District. — Dapoli. 

Karachi District. — Karachi, Tatta, Keti-Bandar, Kotri, Manjhand. 
Hyderabad District. — Hyderabad, Matiari, Tando-Allahyar, Tando-Adam, 
Nasarpur, Hala, Tando Muhammadkhan. 

Sukkur District. — Sukkur, Shikarpur, G'hotki, Garhi-Yasin, Rohri. 
Larkhana District. — Larkhana, Kambar, Ratodero, Sehwan, Bubuk. 
Thar and Parkar District. — Umarkot. 
Upper Sind Frontier District. — Jacobabad. 


With reference to the note in the Society's last Journal (No. 3, Vol. XVI., 
page 513), by Major Arundel Begbie on the nest of the Brown-backed Indian 
Robin (Thamnobia cambaien$is~), the following may prove interesting :■ — 

I found several nests of this species in Bareilly, N. W. P., during the months 
of June and July 1902. On each occasion the nest contained portions of cast- 


off snake-skins worked into the lining, which invariably consisted of horse hair. 
I do not remember noticing any defined pattern such as the cross mentioned 
by him. 

On referring to my rough notes on Indian Birds' Eggs, which I obtained 
during the two years I was stationed at Bareilly, I find the following : — 

" June 4th, 1902. Nest of Brown-backed Indian Robin (T. cambaiensis) con- 
taining 3 addled eggs. The nest, usual type, lined with horse hair, -with five 
pieces of cast snake-skin interwoven, was placed between the stems of the 
leaves of a low palm-tree about 2 feet from the ground. " 

" June 25th, 1902. iNest of T. cambaiensis s containing 3 eggs, slightly incu- 
bated. The nest, usual type, lined with horse hair, contained two small pieces 
of cast snake-skin interwoven, and was placed in a hole in a tree 4 feet from 
the ground. On this occasion the bird sat so closely that it allowed me to 
remove it from its nest." 

The habit of working cast snake-skins into the lining of nests is mentioned in 
the 2nd Volume of Hume's " Nests and Eggs of Indian Birds," 2nd Edition, 
with regard to this species, and also T. fulicata. 

STANLEY PERSHOUSE, 2nd Border Regt. 
Middelburg, Teansvaal, Attchd. 5th Mounted Infantry. 

S. Africa, 1st October 1905. 


It may be of interest to some of your readers to hear that we found 
this morning, near Naini Tal, at an elevation of five thousand feet, a black 
Partridge sitting on four eggs that appeared to be pretty hard-set. The nest 
was placed in some low grass adjoining cultivation, and was rather a substan- 
tial looking pad of dry grass. I have occasionally seen chicks lately hatched 
in September, and imagine they have two broods, but this date (October 21) 
seems most unusually late for eggs. 

Naini Tal, 21 st October 1905. S. L. WHYMPEB. 


The destruction of rats was continued with vigour during the month, and it 
is to be hoped that the Municipality will not allow this most important work to 
stop. The figures are — 

Pazundaung ... 714 

Theinbyu 1,452 

Eastern Division ... 2,297 

Central Division ... ... ... 4,175 

Municipal Office 83 

Western Division 2,627 

Kemmendine ... ... ... ... 854 

Balla 926 



Trie totals to date are — 
March ... 
April ... 
May ... 
June ... 
July ... 

.. 4,337 

.. 42,662 

.. 39,469 

.. 18,524 

.. 12,523 

.. 12,342 

.. 13,128 

Total ... 142,985 

The increase during the present month is due to the young families which are 
now being caught. 

In five divisions the catches since the 18th have been classified, and show 
1,952 young rats against 1,554 rats over six weeks in age. In one division, 
where the catches of other rodents were distinguished, it was found that there 
were 57 young bandicoots to 81 old and 173 young mice to 126 old. 
In another there were, of both classes combined, 113 young to 150 old. 
Also during house cleaning many nests of rats have been discovered ; one rat 
was found in the Laboratory to be pregnant. From the other rats brought in, 
too, it may be inferred that one season of producing the young is during July 
and August. This is so much evidence to decide the much-contested question 
of the breeding time of rats. 

If the Municipality will continue the classifying process, it will be discovered 
if there is another breeding time in February and March. 

Of the rats examined in the Laboratory, plague bacillus was found in 43 out 
of 211, as follows : — 

Pazundaung and Theinbyu ... 






52— 6 


33— 4 


32— 6 






16— 3 


15- 7 



This shows a much smaller proportion of rats infected than last month. I 
think testing a rat a day from each station is quite enough for our purposes. 

In Dalla, where the percentage is highest, plague is still persistent, but in 
Kemmendine, where the proportion is high, plague is abating somewhat. 

Officer in Charge of Plague Operations. 
Rangoon, Uh September 1905. 




The leopards are male and female and are no longer young. 

Their measurements are, as near as I can judge by measuring the bars of the 
cage against which they leant, 

Male, length 6 feet, height at shoulder 2ft. 2 inches. 
Female, „ 5 „ „ „ „ 1 „ 8 „ 

Their colour is an uniform black, hut in the sunlight a faint trace of spots is 
visible on the sides, and lower down on the belly the hair appears of a deep 
brown and the spots are more apparent ; they are not, however, five-finger- 
tipped or circular broken rosettes but entirely black blotches without an- 
nulation. The tongues are of that brilliant pink that one associates with the 
mouth of a nigger minstrel, the palate of the male is also quite pink, but on 
that of the female there are two small black spots, one lg in x 1 in. and the 
other ^ in. x i in. Under the tongue both are blackish, the female more so 
than the male ; the gums above and below the front teeth and in which they 
are set, are black. The eyes are the same as those of the ordinary leopard. 

This pair has been 3| years in captivity in Kolhapur and have bred together 
thrice, two cubs resulting on each of the first two occasions and one on the 
third. All these 5 cubs were entirely black like the parents. The female is 
now again in cub to the male. 

The male was 2^ years ago put to a female of the ordinary red spotted species 
(Felispardus typica), one cub was the issue, and he is now a full grown well 
developed male nigh on 7 feet long ; he is neither ordinary coloured nor black 
but a mixture, the markings on him being much larger and of a more vivid 
black than that of its mother ; there are no five-finger spots though there are 
rosettes but the greater number of the spots are very large and solid black. It is 
an extremely handsome animal and noticeable. Its tongue, palate, &c, are pink. 

I am inclined, for the above reasons, to think that these black leopards are 
a distinct species ; the man who sold them to H. H. the Maharaja said they 
came from Northern China, where all were of this kind. Those shot in Kanara 
appear to be " sports, " for I am told that in the case of one shot at Supa by 
Captain Brewis it was noticed to have a black tongue. This male was 
evidently the father of the black cub she t a few days later by Mr. Marjoribanks 
at the same place and was found to be at the foot of an ordinary coloured 
female leopard. There is no trace of the female's colour in the cro&s now at 
Kolhapur. The Kanara black leopards would, therefore, appear to be true 
cases of melanism. Mr. Rowland Ward observes that black leopards are 
not entitled to be regarded as a distinct race, being only specially coloured 
individuals, but as the pair in Kolhapur have on every occasion bred purely 
black cubs with no throw back to the original yellow, and as, moreover, the 
progeny of the black male with a yellow female bore special markings bearing 
indications of its mixed parentage, it seems worthy of consideration whether 
after all they are not a distinct race. 


Since writing the above I have seen the skin of the black leopard shot by 
Mr. Monteath and set up by Mr. Rowland Ward, and I am more than ever 
inclined to think that the Kolhapur pair are a distinct species. 

Mr. Monteath's skin, even without a strong light on it, is of a dark brown 
colour and the spots on it appear to stand out in relief. 

The Kolhapur pair, on the other hand, are of the same coal black (except on 
ths sides of the belly) as the ordinary domestic black cat. 

W. B. FERRIS, Lieut.-Col. 
Kolhapur, 23rrf November 1905. 


In response to a request from me, the Maharaja of Cooch-Behar has pre- 
sented to the British (Natural History) Museum the skull and horns of a cow 
of the straight-horned Assam buffalo {Bos bubalis macrcceros). The generosity 
of the donor is specially notable, as this was the only fine specimen of the skull 
of a cow of this rare and, I believe, now extinct buffalo in his Highness 'a 
collection. Mr. Ward has been commissioned to prepare a -wooden model of 
the specimen for the Maharaja, so that the aLimal may still be represented 
among the Cooch-Behar trophies. The specimen is the only one of its kind 
I have ever seen in this country, and when mounted will form an important 
addition to the museum, which already possesses two examples of the bull of 
the same race, namely, the huge pair of horns from the Sloar.e collection and 
a complete skull and horns. The peculiar characteristics of the herns of the 
cow of the straight-horned race may best be realised by comparing the dimen- 
sions of the new specimen with those of the skull and horns of a female of 
the typical circular-horned race. These dimensions are as follow, those of the 
new specimen being in the first column : — 

Maximum span ... 8ft. l|in. ...... 4ft. 3in. 

Tip to tip interval , 8ft. 1ft. U£in. 

Length of left horn on outer curve 4ft. lOin 4ft. 7|in. 

R. L. 
(From " The Field, " 5th August 1905J 


Although it is a well-known fact that the ch'tal, or spotted deer of Ceylon, 
carries much lighter antlers than the typical Indian Cervus axis found in the 
Central Provinces, it does not appear that a detailed comparison has ever been 
made between the two animals. Indeed, hitherto the Natural History Museum 
has not contained a single example of the Ceylon representative of the species, 
so that such a comparison has been impossible. Recently, however, I have 
had the opportunity of seeing a fine series of heads and body skins of Ceylon 
chital shot by Major F. W. Begbie, of the Royal Army Medical Corps, and 
these specimens render it certain that this deer represents a well marked local 
race. I should add that, at my request, Major Begbie has generously presetted 


one of the body skins to the museum, while Mr. Walter Reynolds, of Hawks- 
Wick, near St. Albans (to whom they had been given by Major Begbie), has, 
with equal generosity, presented one of the mounted heads. 

Compared with the typical chital of India, the Ceylon specimens, all of 
which are perfectly similar in general character, differ not only by the very 
much more slender and lighter antlers, but likewise in several details of color- 
ation. The ground colour of the whole skin is, for instance, a yellower and 
purer fawn, while the white spots on the body are smaller, and may be described 
as flecks rather than spots. On the head the brown markings present a less 
decided contrast with the fawn area, while the forehead is almost wholly brown 
instead of showing chiefly a more or less well defined dark chevron between 
the eyes, as is usually the case in the large chital of the mainland. The 
chevron, it is true, is present in the Ceylon animal, but its distinctness is largely 
obscured by the dark patch in the middle of the forehead. Ceylon chital, I 
am told, rarely have antlers exceeding 27in. in length. 

Hodgson recognised two forms of chital in India, Axis major and Axis minor 
or meclius (for he uses both these names), the latter distinguished by its inferior 
size and being a native of the southern provinces of the peninsula. The 
smaller form, which has never been properly defined, has been assumed to be 
common to Ceylon ; but there is no evidence that such is really the case, and 
consequently (especially in view of the fact that the smaller mainland form is 
still undefined) I regard the Ceylon animal as a distinct race, to which the 
name Cervus {Rusa) axis seylanicus might be applied, taking the mounted head 
and the skin in the Museum as the types. 

Of the small amount of interest attaching to such local variations I am fully 
aware, but as it is the fashion to recognise and name them, I cannot but follow 
the lead. In Ceylon, I am told, sportsmen attribute the small size of the 
antlers of the chital to the lack of lime in the soil. This, however, can scarcely 
be regarded as a vera causa, since there are, I believe, many sandstone districts 
in India where these deer grow good antlers. Rather must we attribute the 
diminution in the size of the antlers in the Ceylon chital to that general 
dwarfing which is very common in island forms. If every possessor of a fine 
series of heads and skins from a single locality were to follow the example of 
Mr. Reynolds and Major Eegbie, and present a specimen of each to the 
Museum, not only would the national collection be largely increased, but we 
should discover much more about the large animals of the British Empire than 
is at present possible. 

(From " The Field, " 3rd June 1905.) 

It may be news to some of your readers, as it certainly was to me, that 
Rhyacornis fuliginosus (The Plumbeous Redstart) sometimes builds in trees. Up 
the Liddar Valley in Kashmir this summer on two occasions I saw them building 


and afterwards secured the eggs ten or twelve feet up, the nest being placed liko 
a fly-catcher's against the trunk of some fairly large tree near the water's edge. 
At one camp there was a bird sitting on a nest placed on a ledge of rock as they 
ordinarily are, and within twenty yards there was another pair building fully 
fifteen feet up the trunk of a large tree. 

Chimarrhornis leucocephalus (The White-capped Redstart) occasionally builds 
in cavities in fallen trees. I saw two nests with young in such positions. They 
are early breeders, the young were ready to leave, and in some cases had left the 
nest by June 1 5th. I got some clutches later which were probably second broods, 
as I saw one pair repairing an old nest on July 30. The nest is usually in a rocky 
bank and is very thickly lined with hair and wool. 

Cinclus kashmiriends (The White-breasted Asiatic Dipper) appears to build 
two fairly distinct types of nests : one kind is placed on the ground among short 
grass by the water's edge, an oven-shaped nest thatched with grass and with the 
entrance very low down, looking like a tiny Kaffir hut ; the other kind is a round 
ball (much rounder than any of Cinclus asiaticus 1 nests that I have seen) as big 
as a football and placed on a boulder in midstream without any attempt at con- 
cealment although sometimes the boulder can be easily got at ; it is made of grass 
and leaves and has the entrance in the middle. I saw several of both kinds, but 
only got eggs from one nest. 

Calliope pectoralis (The Himalayan Ruby-throat) occasionally builds a domed 
nest; the first clutch of eggs I got was from such a nest after seeing many ordinary 
undomed nests with young. It was a ball of dry grass placed among short grass 
and quite in the open, i.e., without any rocks or bushes about it, and although the 
bird flew out at my feet I was so puzzled with the nest that I had to shoot the 
bird to make quite certain. Afterwards I saw two nests with a sort of half- 
dome. They use nothing but grass for their nests. 

i- ( Fringillauda sordida (Stoliczka's Mountain Finch) seems to build indifferently 
in a crevice of rock, a hole in the ground like a rat-hole and fully two feet inside, 
on a sheltered ledge of rock or under the shelter of a bank. The nest is of dry 
grass lined with hair and wool, the full clutch appears to be four eggs. 


Naini Tal, 4th November 1905. 


Sitting in the P. W. D. bungalow here, on August 12, I was watching three 
Button Quail, a male and two females, feeding under some trees within about 
twelve yards of the bungalow. The male commenced " booming " (the only 
word I can express it by) ; it stopped feeding, placed its head near the ground, 
inflated itself, or appeared to do so to a certain extent, and " boomed " eight or 
nine times at intervals of about five or six minutes. The sound was very much 
like that made by a bittern on a small scale, and very deep for sc small a bird 
I ccntinued watching them for nearly half an hour, and also heard others 
during the afternoon, a short distance away, making a similar noise. I do not 


know whether they utter this sound when kept in captivity by the natives of 
India, who keep them for fighting. — D. L. Keddie (Myawaddy, Lower Burma) 
[There are several species of Button Quail distributed over India, Burma, and 
Nicobars. We presume from our correspondent's address that the bird to 
which he rafers is the Burm3se Button Quail (Turnix blanfordi), found not only 
in Burma but also in Assam and China. It is very like the large Button Quai 
which is common throughout India, from the Himalayas to Travancore and 
which is known to science as Turnix tanhi. The Burmese bird, however, is some- 
what larger.— Ed.] 

(From " The Field" of 23rd September 1905.) 


The note which appeared in your last issue on the " booming " note emitted 
by Turnix blanfordi interested me greatly, for it is seldom one hears anything 
about hemipodes in a wild state. I have kept several species of Turnix in 
captivity, and succeeded in inducing two forms — the Indian T. tanhi and the 
Australian T. varia — to breed successfully ; I may, therefore, claim some 
knowledge of these interesting quail-like birds. Your correspondent states 
that he watched a male and two females feeding, and that the male commenced 
to utter the " booming" note which is characteristic of this group. I may say 
however from careful observation, that it is invariably the female, the larger 
and more brilliantly coloured bird, that " booms." She is the one that does 
all the courting, while the male undertakes the entire duties of incubation and 
the rearing of the young. It is evident, therefore, that the trio seen by your 
correspondent consisted of one female and two males. I have published full 
accounts of the habits, under more or less natural conditions, of both Turnix 
tanhi and T. varia in the Avicultural Magazine (New Series, Vol. I., p. 317, 
and Vol. III., p. 295). The way in which the female, after laying a clutch of 
eggs upon which the male sits, goes off and recommences " booming," apparent- 
ly with the object of calling another male, suggests that these birds, like the 
tinamous, are polyandrous, and the fact of your correspondent seeing a female 
with two males would seem to support this view. 

(From " The Field " of SQtli September 1905.) 

I notice very little mention is made in most of our books on the nestling 
plumage of some of our Indian ducks, frcm which I gather notes on such 
may be of interest. A duck shot at Fyzabad, United Provinces, on the 16th 
November 1905 which I identify as a young male Pintail (Dafila acuta), presents 
the following characters. 

The bird is evidently this year's nestling, and exhibits a good deal of down, 
especially on the abdomen. 


The head and neck feathers are blackish-brown, finely margined rufous, 
creating a fine mottling of these two colours. The lores present some chestnut 
mottling. Hind neck, back, and upper tail coverts blackish-brown finely barred 
and margined white. Many feathers have two or three distinct bars, but a few 
on the sides are fine and densely vermiculated as in the adult male. Lower neck, 
sides of neck, abdomen, and under tail coverts are white, mottled rufous yellow, 
and some feathers at the side are finely vermiculated blackish-brown as in adult 
males. Upper wing coverts uniform darkish grey, the greater secondary coverts 
tipped cinnamon. Primary quills with outer webs blackish, inner drab with 
blackish tip; shafts white; secondary quills, except innermost two, with outer webs 
washed bronze-green, and broadly tipped white. The three outermost with a 
cinnamon bar above the white, and fulvous white fine mottling on outer webs. 
Inner webs blackish grey, mottled white towards tips. The two innermost 
quills are much longer than the rest. The outer web of the outer is black on 
the outer side, and silvery grey on the inner side. The outer web of the inner 
silvery grey. The inner webs of both blackish brown. Underwings coverts 
greyish with very fine white profuse mottling. Axillaries white moderately 
mottled blackish-brown. JSTo long tail feathers. The rectrices, which are just 
appearing, are black edged white. 

Bill bluish-grey at sides of base, otherwise blackish- brown. Legs ar.d feet 
plumbeous-grey with blackish webs and nails. Hind toe narrowly lobed. 

Length 21" ; wing 10J" ; tail 1£" : Stuart Baker (Bom. Nat. Hist. Jourl. Vol. 
XII, p. 439) says the young male " has the wing like that of the adult," but is 
otherwise coloured like the female, which observation appears to be snhstan- 
tially correct. 

F. WALL, Captain, i.m.s., c.m.z.s. 
Fyzabad, l"th November 1905. 


The Prime Minister of Nepal has sent me a pure white fawn of the Barking 
Deer said to have been caught on the 5th instant on the Sheogouri, a hill in the 
Nepal Valley, where the other white deer about which I wrote in April or 
May last (vide page 742, No. 4, Vol. XVI of the Journal) was found. This 
latter deer — still in the Nepal State menagerie — is now turning colour and 
becoming pie-bald. 
The new fawn is being brought up by hand and is doing well. 

The Residency, Nepal, 
Uth November 1905. 

With regard to Captain K. E. Nangle's note about the food of predaceous 
flies on page 747 of the last Journal "(No. 4, Vol. XVI), I have twice seen this 


occur, both times in the same locality and at about 8 p.m. It was, however, 
after the heavy showers of the hot weather. The flies were slightly smaller 
than the common blue bottle fly and had dull redheads. 


Narsipatam, Vizagapatam, 
Uh December 1905. 


In the common mangrove (Rhizophora mucronata) of the sheltered shores 
and tidal creeks in the Andamans, one may sometimes notice a patch of an 
acre or so in extent, in which all the mangroves are apparently dead at the top, 
or in other words " stag-headed. " Such patches are usually more or less 
isolated from the main shore by shallow water. Various reasons, all more 
or less unsatisfactory, have been adduced to attempt to explain what appeared 
to denote an unhealthy condition, and it has been quoted in support of the 
theory that the Andaman Islands are slowly undergoing subsidence. The 
true explanation is, however, far simpler. 

Coming home late one evening I noticed that thousands of paroquets were 
settling down for the night in one of the above patches and it struck me 
as rather a peculiar coincidence that they should have selected this peculiar 
patch of mangrove in preference to others apparently equally suitable for 
roosting purposes. 

I visited the place again a few days later just after sun-down and found, 
as before, myriads of paroquets coming in from all points of the compass to 
what was evidently their regular roosting place. I slid my canoe quietly 
in among the mangroves and having climbed up one of them to near the top, 
where I was fairly well screened by leaves, awaited developments. The birds 
had been alarmed at my approach and had risen into the air in a vast cloud 
with a roar of wings resembling the breaking of a huge wave on the shore. 
They soon returned however, and in less than a minute were dropping into 
the trees all round me, and some in the tree in which I stood concealed, 
within a couple of feet of my face. I remained motionless and they did not 
seem to notice my presence. I had suspected that possibly the birds were 
responsible for this leafless and apparently stag-headed condition and it was 
therefore with considerable satisfaction that I noticed some of the paroquets 
busy stripping off the leaves with their beaks. On a close examination, more- 
over, it was evident that the upper branches were not dead but merely leafless. 
The paroquets roosting in this patch were Palceornis magnirostris and P.fas- 
ciatus, the former more predominating. 

Poet Blair, 
Andaman Island3, 12lh December 1905. 

Jourtjal Bon>bay Nat, Hist- Soc. VOL. XVII. 



c e. f. manson del a, larva. C O imago (upperside). 

B, papa (lateral surface) D <j> imago (upperside) 





( With a Plate.) 

.Ambulyx floralis, Butler. Trans. Zool. Soc., Lond., IX, p. G39, (1877). 

'Cypafioralis, Hampson, I.e., p. 72, n. 9(5. (1892), Dudgeon, Jouvn., Bombay 
N. H. Soc, XI, p. 407, n. 9G. (1898). 

Rhodqprasina floralis, Rothschild, 1. c, p. 293, (1903). 

Habitat.— Sikhim. 

Elevation (vertical range.)— 7,000 to 10,000 feet. 

Time of appearance. — April and May. 

Occurrence. — Very rare. 

Larva green, covered with whitish coloured granules, a darker green stripe 
<on the dorsal surface together with a series of short orange coloured spines 
from the head to the horn, on segments 1-4 is a sub-dorsal yellowish streak, 
a small white spot on 4th segment edged with black and with a disc of yellow 
near it, oblique lateral violet stripes edged with pale greenish-yellow below on 
segments 4 to 11 ; anal flap covered with orange coloured spines, a white 
streak on each side of head which is green, triangular and produced upwards 
torn long, nearly straight, rough, green with the tip black, legs and claspers 
pale yellow. 

Length. — 80 mm. 

Time of appearance. — July and August. 

Food Plants. — Ace?' campbeUU (Maple). 

Pupa cylindrical, deep reddish-brown with a purplish suffusion, the antenna?, 
tongue, legs and wings being tightly compressed into the anterior part of the 
•case. The surface is slightly granulated. Cremaster stout, with a lump on 
the dorsal surface. 

Length. — $ 54 mm. 9 60 mm. 

Time of pupation. — August to April. 

Situation. — Subterranean at roots of Maple. 





I am unaware if you keep a record of specimens from new localities. In 
case you do, I am writing to let you know I caught a specimen of Dudgeona 
leucosticta (656A) figured in Vol. XIII, No. 2, page 227. 

My capture was in April this year at this place, about 4,000 feet, 



Ceylon, 12th December 1905. 




( With an Illustration.) 
Local native name, " Pan dukkar " (Anglice, Leaf -eating Hog). 

The Tapir is perissodactyle and has relationship with the rhinoceros. The 
only parts of the world in which it is to be found are South and Central 
America and the Malay Peninsula. The Malay is differentiated from the 
American species by its colour, size and habits. 

There are two Malay tapirs (male and female), in the Kolhapur collection, 
where they have been for the last 2^ years thriving successfully. The female 
is larger than the male, as the following measurements will show. 

Male, height 3 ft. 1 in. at withers, 3 ft. 3 in. at back, length 7 ft. 5 in. 
Female, „ 3 „ 3 „ „ „ 3 „ 5 „ „ „ „ 7 „ 9 „ 

Unlike the American species, which is of a monochrome of dark brown or 
black, the Malay tapir is particoloured. The head and up to the withers, 
front legs to back of shoulders and under chest, hind legs and as far as and 
including ramp and arms, black ; the saddle from back of withers to end of 
spine and round and under the belly, grey. A sharp line defines the parti- 
colouring and there is a thin grey line round the top of the ovate erect ears.. 
The eye is small and of a greyish green colour, the tail a mere rudimentary 
stump about one inch long. 

The feet have typically perissodactyl arrangement of toes, the fore have five 
case of which one is rudimentary, and the third is considerably longer than the 
others, the hind have but three toes of which the middle is the longest. 

Both jaws of both sexes are furnished with a full set of incisors, tusks and 
molars. The canine teeth, which are very marked, are separated by a con- 
siderable interval from the molar series which are all in contact, with quadrate 

The nose and upper lip are elongated into a flexible mobile snout with 
nostrils situated at the end. The skin is thick and scantily covered with hair. 

The period of gestation for the female is 9 months, at the end of which 
period she seeks an isolated spot, makes a shallow excavation with her 
feet, and brings forth her young. The Kolhapur pair have only bred once, and 
on that occasion the female produced but one. The little one, at birth, weighs 
about 6 lbs., it is covered with longish hair of a dark red brown colour with 
white oblong spots in longitudinal rows on the body, and round shaped and 
promiscuously scattered on the legs and face. 

The Malay tapir, unlike its American cousin which is stated to be nocturnal,, 
shy and fond of shady places, sleeps through the night and wanders about 
all day, passing much of its time in the water in which it sports and dives and 
seems happiest. 

The female is always rather aggressive towards the male, but not towards 
other animals or man, both are of a heavy bovine nature and allow themselves 
to be handled and driven about. They have the habit of very carefully and 

Journ., Bo. Nat. Hist. Soc. 

Adult Male. 

Young, 2 days old. 



slowly covering up their dung by kicking leaves and earth over it with the hind 
feet ; if disturbed in this and driven away, they will return rind finish th« 
operation. The only vocal sound they make is a very shrill squeak which would 
sound appropriate in a small sucking pig but in nothing larger. 

When in the act of copulation, which takes place in the daytime in the water, 
the female gives off a series of these squeaks, while the male blows through the 
snout, making staccato puffs like the noise of the escape of an oil engine. 

The tapir is herbiverous, but in captivity is remarkably fond of boiled rice. 
The ages of those in the Kolhapur collection are not known, but they show no 
signs of decay. 

Photographs of the male tapir, and of the young at the age of two daj s 
accompany this. 

W. B. FERRIS, Colonel. 

Kolhapur, 27ih December 1905. 


The following notes made this autumn on certain birds which, according to 
Oates and Blanford in the " Fauna of India, Bird*," are rare or unknown in 
these parts, may be of interest : — 

1. Bound Baical Pindi. — In the park I came across a Crested Serpent- 
Eagle (1217. Spilornis cheela) in full plumage. It was perched in a tree over- 
hanging a small reedy pond. 

The Dusky Horned Owl (1169. Bubo coromandus) too, occurs there, and 
several pairs of them apparently. One can hear its curious call most evenings. 

I saw a Caspian Tern (1498. Uydroprogne caspia) in immature plumage by 
the Sohan river. 

2. Salt Range. — During a few days' leave (December 11th to 15th) in and 
about the Salt Range I came across the Black-crowned Finch-Lark (880. 
P jirrhulauda melanauchen) four miles north of Lilla (Pind Dadan Khan Tahsil, 
Jhelum District). Oates says of this bird, " has been obtained at Muttra, just 
within the limits of the Punjab." There were a good many about feeding in 
the fields, &c. 

Next day on the top of the plateau north of Sardi, I noticed a flock of 
strange finches and shot one ; it turned out to be an Eastern Linnet (769. Acau- 
this fringiUirostris). The Clack-throated Accentor (716. Tharrhaleus atrigularis) 
is a common bird up there just like the hedge sparrow in habits, except 
that it appears to be gregarious. On the way back below Sardi, I shot a £> 
Red-mantled Rose-Finch (757. Propasser grandis). I again saw the Black- 
crowned Finch Larks, and shot a male to make certain. 

On the march from Kohat to Rawal Pindi manoeuvres Lieut. Keen shot a 
strange bird on a tank five miles east of Khushalgarh on the Indus ; he showed 
it to me, and asked me to identify it. It was an Eared Grebe (1616. Podicipes 
nir/ricolli*), an unmistakable bird. Blanford says of this species : " This 


Orebe had been met with in India until lately, only at Karachi, and thence 
westward along the Mekran Coast." 

I have just heard from Mr. Finn that he obtained a specimen alive in the 
Calcutta bazar, so P. uigricollis may occur in winter throughout Northern India. 

Kohat, 30th December 1905. 


I found this pretty little tit in the dense, well-watered Tamarix-Acacia 
jungles of Andaldal in the Sukkur District, close to the Ruk Junction on the 
North- Western Railway, in the month of February 1904. I saw several lots of 
them. They go about in small parties, uttering a low, short " tweet " after 
the manner of tits while hunting for insects amongst the leaves of the tama- 
risks, hanging and clinging to which they seemed as much at home as an ordi- 
nary bird does on twigs and branches. I shot two of the birds. They we-re 4 
inches in length, with a wing of 2 inches, and a tail of 1, 6 inches. They were 
evidently in somewhat immature plumage, with brown-grey upper parts and a 
broad black forehead, the black passing broadly through the eyes and meeting 
narrowly on the nape. The black was sprinkled with white ; the cheeks and 
throat were white ; the back strongly isabelline on the upper portion, fading 
into very light isabelline on the rump ; upper tail coverts dark brown 
broadly edged with hoary ; primaries and rectrices black-brown, broadly edged 
hoary, somewhat narrower on the outer web than on the inner ; the edging on 
the middle pair of rectrices and on the secondaries broadest ; lesser wing 
coverts the same colour as upper back ; the greater wing coverts dark brown, 
edged very broadly with dark isabelline ; under wing coverts, axillaries, breast 
and under parts white, tinged strongly isabelline on the middle breast. Legs 
and feet dark slate ; bill dark horny except edges which were nearly white, and 
the base of the lower mandible which was light slate cioured. The forehead 
in both specimens was pure white immediately behind the black band, and in 
one specimen merged into the grey of the occiput which itself became sullied 
with black on the nape (all the head feathers, except those of the chin, had 
black bases ) where there was no distinct black band, the hind neck being 
brownish-grey ; in the other specimen the nape was nearly pure black, followed 
by a broad white collar, just tinged with grey in the centre of the hind neck, 
this collar being continued from the white cheeks and breast. In the first 
specimen even the forehead and ear covers showed some white edging to the 
feathers. Neither of the specimens could be sexed as they were both damaged. 
The food consisted of small moth larvse and small insects. 

Both the specimens were sent home to the British Museum, where oue was 
kept, while the other is at present in the possession of Mr. J. Davidson of 
Edinburgh, formerly a member of the Civil Service of the Bombay Presidency 
and a well-known ornithologist. 


The bird is, I believe, well known in other parts from Eastern Europ • 
to Japan. 

T. R. BELL. 
Karachi, 10$ January 1906. 


I have found here, at Amalchuni, Mandvi Taluka of Snrat, the complete cast; 
skin of a dbaman or rat snake, Zamenis (Ptyas) mucosus, which probably takes 
the record. It is in two pieces, and in its wrinkled state without stretching- 
reaches to 9 feet 9 inches, i.e., snout to anus 7-2, tail 2-7. 

Camp Bandra, 8th February 1906. 

[In our copy of Boulenger's Reptiles (Fauna of British India Series J I 
find entered against Zamenis mucosus in Mr. J. Mason's hand writing, " I killed 
a Zamenis mucosus in the rice fields alongside Mahim Station, which measured 
11 feet 9 inches." Vr. Mason was for several years custodian of our Museum. 

W. 8. Millard, 
Hony. Secretary, Bombay Nat. Hist. Socy.} 


Sin, — I have noticed a good deal of correspondence about the method in 
which tigers kill their prey. I have taken considerable trouble to find out how 
they kill large game. Some time ago I was asked to come and see a full-grown 
bullock that had been killed by a tiger. On examining it I found the animal 
had its neck broken, and there were claw marks on the nose and shoulder, 
but nowhere else. There was no doubt that the tiger had jumped at the bull 
and landed on the shoulder, and when the bull turned his head to gore the tiger, 
he must have put his claw out and with a sudden jerk broken the neck. On 
another occasion I went to see a young buffalo which had been killed by a tiger, 
and found the same thing had happened. There were similar marks on the 
nose and also on the near shoulder, which clearly indicated that this animal had 
been killed in the same way. Malays who have actually seen a tiger killing a 
buffalo told me they saw the same thing happen, also that in dragging off a 
heavy carcase, such as buffalo or bull, that he gets most of the weight across 
his shoulder. This must be fairly correct, as I have often followed a kill, and 
the marks left indicated that only a portion of the animal was trailing along 
the ground. I have known a full grown bull which ten men could not move 
dragged for two miles by a tiger in heavy jungle, where roots of trees and 
swamp had to be gone through. In no case have I seen the pug marks facing 
the wrong way except when stopping to feed, which proves he must carry a 
portion of the animal over his shoulder. The old idea of a tiger killing large 
game by a blow from his paw is nonsense ; besides, in this country a tiger never 
faces his prey, but attacks him on the flank, unless charged. Another curious 
fact that may seem very like a fairy tale is that a tiger does not seem to mind 


a small lamp being tied over a kill about 10 ft. high, but will come and feed. 
I have known three occasions when this has been tried, and each time a tiger 
has come to feed upon the carcase. 

F. 0. B. DENNYS, 
Sungkai, Peeak. Assistant Controller of Forests. 

Sir, — I was much interested to read in your last issue the communication 
from your correspondent, Mr. F. O. B. Dennys, as to the manner in which tiger 
kill their prey, since what he says concerning the method adopted by a tiger to 
kill a heavy horned animal is precisely the same as that I have myself recorded 
from personal observation in the case of a lion. Besides the specific case re- 
ferred to, of which I wrote a full description in the course of an article on the 
lion, published in the Badminton volume on Big Game Shooting, I have examined 
a good many other oxen, as well as buffaloes, which had been killed by a single 
large male lion, and I always found that they had been seized in the same way 
by the muzzle with one fore paw, and high up on the shoulder by the other. 
Their necks were then dislocated, either by a sudden violent wrench, or by their 
own weight in falling forward with their heads pulled in under their chests. 

W hen, however, an ox or a buffalo is killed by a family of lions, the unfor- 
tunate animal is usually mauled and bitten all over, and in such a case its pit- 
eous and long-continued bellowings prove conclusively that its sufferings are 
very great, and that the idea, therefore, that carnivorous animals always kill 
their prey painlessly is quite a mistaken one. It has always puzzled me to ac- 
count for the fact that a party of four or five lions usually kill an ox or a buf- 
falo slowly and very inartistically when there is a big male amongst them, which, 
if he had been by himself, would have despatched his victim in a few seconds 
of time by a wonderful combination of strength and skill. 

Possibly when a party of lions, consisting of an old male, two or three females, 
and some well-grown cubs, are hunting together, the eagerness of the younger 
animals prevents the old lion from carrying out his best method of attack, or 
else, perhaps, he stands aside at first to give the less powerful members of his 
family a little practice in killing. 

In the course of his interesting communication, Mr. Dennys says, " The old 
idea of a tiger killing large game by a blow from his paw is nonsense," and this 
remark again accords exactly with my experience with lions, which, I believe, 
never attempt to kill a heavy animal with " a crushing blow of the paw," as has 
so often been asserted. They use their claws to hold, and in so doing, and es- 
pecially when trying to hold heavy animals in motion, often inflict terrible 
lacerations ; but, to the best of my belief, they never strike heavy blows with 
their paws, and, except when they break an animal's neck by a sudden wrench, 
always kill by biting. 

When a lion moves the carcase of an ox or a horse, he holds it by the back 
of the neck, and, lifting the weight of the head, and to a certain extent, of 
course, of the fore quarters as well, drags it alongside of him. He holds small 


animals in the same way by the back of the neck, and, walking along with 

head half turned, trails their hind quarters on the ground beside him. 

As I have pointed out, there is a very great difference in the way in which 

an animal is killed by a single full-grown lion and by a party of these animals ; 

but after reading Mr. Dennys's letter I feel convinced that a tiger kills its prey 

in precisely the same way as a solitary lion. 


(The above appeared in the " Field " of 23rd and 30th December 1905.) 


It may interest some of the readers of the Journal to hear of the conduct of 
a Copsychus saularis, or Indian Magpie Robin. It found its way one morning 
into our drawing-room, and in the course of its wanderings alighted on the 
writing table which has at the back a small mirror let into the frame-work. 
When the bird— a male — saw its own reflection, the first impulse was evidently 
anger, for he dashed his beak against the glass, and scolded in an unmistake- 
a.ble voice. Then he moved away, but presently returned, and now was all 
sweetness : he posed before the glass, and courted his reflection with a little 
ripple of soft song. At intervals he peeped round the back, and seeing noth- 
ing, took a flight round the room, only to return and re-commence courting. 

Almost every day for a week the bird has come : he flies direct to the 
table, and walking up to the mirror pays court to himself with undulations of 
the body and the same little ripple of song. I have known a peacock that 
admired itself in the glass. Is this admiration or is it courtship ? If the 
latter, does it point to the conclusion that the bird, which evidently at first 
knew its reflection to be that of a male, now supposes it to be one of the 
•opposite sex ? The courtship, as I say, has beenigoing on for a week. 

Indoke, C. I., 18th January 1906. 

I am sending you the legs and wings of what I take to be the Bittern 
(Botaurus stellar is). I should be much obliged by your kindly letting me 
know whether I am right about this. The bird was shot near Cuddalore, 
about 120 miles south of Madras ; but Oates says that the bird is not found 
in South India, so perhaps I am wrong in my identification. 

Cuddaloue, 20th February 1906. 
[The wings and legs are, undoubtedly, those of Botaurus stellaris, and thus 
•establishes the occurrence of this bird in South India for the first time. 

E. Comber, 
Hony. Secretary, 
Ornithological Section, Na f . Hist. Soc.] 




On going through a series of skins of the Common Teal (Nettium crecca) 
from India, I was surprised at the remarkable difference in size of the bill of 
the Indian bird to that of its English representative. The bills of the 
English birds are longer and narrower than those from India, the latter having 
the bill shorter'and stouter in form. I must say, however, I have examined 
more skins from India than those from England, but the difference appears to 
be very constant in those I have examined. The Indian bird, moreover, appears 
altogether slightly smaller than the English one. The bills of the birds on an 
average measure (in millimeters) : — 

Adult $ (Bengal)— length 37", breadth at tip 14". 

Adult $ (England)— length 42", breadth at tip 13". 

Adult $ (Bengal)— length 32-5", breadth at tip 13-5". 

Adult $ (England)— length 41", breadth at tip 12". 
Though I myself am not an advocate for the making of sub-species, yet T 
believe that if these differences are constant, then the Indian bird would,, 
according to many ornithologists, be entitled to at least sub-specific rank. I 
have examined far too few skins to be able to form a decided opinion, but 
points like this, I think, are worth recording, and the information I have given 
must stand for what rt is worth. 

Eashing, Sukeey, 1st February 1906. 



Oates in describing the habits of this bird says very little as to its nesting - 
and states that the eggs have not yet been described. I have found nests at 
Ramondrug in Bellary District, and Horsleyhada in Cuddapah District. The bird 
builds in much the same situations as Dicrurus (iter (the Black Drongo) choos- 
ing as a rule the fork of a branch some 20 or 30 feet from the ground. The 
nest is much more substantial than that of the other Drongos, and is well lined 
with fine grass. The eggs which are three or four in number average 1" by 7".. 
They are pale salmon coloured, heavily marked at the wider end with pale red 
and pale purple spots and blotches, which in some cases tend to coalesce in a 

circle round the top. 


Gooty, February 1906. 


It may be of interest to record that I. shot a Pelargopsis gurial (the Brown- 
headed Stork-billed Kingfisher) over an open borrow-pit by the side of a railway- 
here on the 8th December last and that I saw another over the same borrow- 


pit on the 4th January. The abnormal failure of the rains in these provinces 
explains the visit of birds which, as far as I can learn, have never been observed 
in this neighbourhood before. 

C.wv.Ni'OUE. Qth January 1906. 


At the beginning of June 1905 (I have not the exact date with me) I found 
a nest, and obtained the old bird of Cochoa viridis (the Green Thrush). The 
nest was a large cup of moss, and contained three fresh eggs. It was obtained 
in evergreen jungle on Thandaung, in the Toungoo District, Lower Burma, at 
an elevation of about 4,000 feet. 

Kindat, Upper Burma, 

March 1906. 


I recently saw a male of Eunetta falcata, shot by Mr. C. Elliot, Military 
Police, on the Upper Chindwin. The falcate tertiaries were very apparent 
but the crest was inconspicuous. As far as I remember, it was one of the two- 
ducks which flew over Mr. Elliot whilst we were shooting on a small marsh. 
The other one was not bagged. 

Kindat, Upper Burma, 

March 190G. 


I recently saw a specimen of a dove which I have no doubt was Turtur 
tigrinus, showing a very strong tendency towards albinism. When flying with 
other ordinary coloured doves, it looked quite white ; but when examined 
through a glass, it was of a sort of pale whitish dun, rather darker on the- 
•wings. 'i he villagers said they had seen it several times and that it was a 
wild bird. 

Kisdat, Upper Burma, 
March 1906. 


I lately received an interesting letter from Mr. S. L. "Whymper, asking 
whether I had not made a mistake in the identification of some eggs which I 
bad sent him as belonging to the above species, as they were totally unlike the 
eggs he had taken himself in India, and were very like those of 0. Jerdoni he 


had received in exchange, and asking whether the eggs might not belong to 
those of the latter. In 1902 I took two nests of O.ferrea in the Shan States 
and was given another clutch of the same, the birds being identified beyond 
doubt. These nests were taken over 5,000 ft., and, as far as I am aware 
0. Jerdoni is only found in the plains of Upper Burma and not in the hills, and 
has totally different nesting habits. At the time I noticed that my eggs did 
not agree with the description in either the " Fauna of British Tndia " or 
" Gates and Hume's Nests and Eggs," and drew attention to the fact in the 
Journal of that year, in which I compared them to the eggs of the English 
Redstart. The other day I had the opportunity of looking through the 
Catalogue of Eggs in the British Museum, in which I saw that the eggs of 
0. ferrea were described as being of two varieties, those from China being a 
pale blue, and likened to those (I think) of the English Hedge-sparrow, whilst 
those from India were spotted and of the usual Chat type. Besides the above, 
I have seen and taken other eggs of 0. ferrea in Burma, and they are all of 
the same type, being either a pale spotless blue (not green) or the same colour, 
with a few minute rusty-coloured specks. I think that there is no doubt that 
the Chinese, Indian and Burmese birds are identical ; therefore the variation in 
the colour of their eggs can only be due to different local surroundings, and 
thus give rise to an interesting problem in the colouration of eggs. 

In June 1905, I found a nest of the above, containing four eggs — two on the 
point of hatching and two quite fresh. Since writing the above, I have received 
a clutch of 0. ferrea from Mr. Whymper, which are absolutely different to my 
■eggs, and one would say belonged to a different species. 



4th March 1906. 




A meeting of the members of the Bombay Natural History Society took 
place at the Society's rooms on the 23rd November 1905, H. E. Lord Lamington 
presiding. His Excellency was accompanied by H. H. the Maharajah of 
Kashmir. A large number of members were present. 


The election of the following 14 new members, since the last meeting, Avas 
duly announced : — Mr. J. B. Leslie-Rogers (Bombay) ; Mr. D. Marshall (Pama- 
ru, Nellore District) ; Mr. E. B. Cooke (Manmad) ; Lieut. L. G-. Baker (Saba- 
thu) ; Lieut. Rupert Simson (Umballa) ; Mr. H. F. Bush (Bombay) ; Mr. A. D. 
McDonough (Mnrree) ; Lieut. R. 0. Burke (Sangli, S. M. C.) ; The Mess Pre- 
sident, 44th Merwara Infantry (Ajmer) ; Mr. H. Gronvold (London, S. W.) ; 
Lieut. R. D. McGeorge, I. M. S. (Bellary) ; Capt. W. R. J. Scroggie, I. M. S. 
(Fort Lockhart, Samana, N.-W. F. P.) ; Lieut. D. Steel, I. M. S. (Manipur, 
Assam) ; Mr. S. S. Story (Bombay) ; and Mr. R. H. Burnett (Sholapur). 

Mr. W. S. Millard, the Honorary Secretary, said it was to be regretted that 
there were not more new members joining the Society at the present time, but 
this was probably due to its being so close to the end of the year. He hoped, 
•however, that the appeal in the new Journal, which was just being issued, would 
bring in a large number of recruits, and the Journal itself — which .has twenty 
illustrations, and has cost some Rs. 3,500 to produce — would surely convince 
members, if such was necessary, that they were obtaining the value of the small 
subscription in that alone. 


The Honorary Secretary acknowledged receipt of the following contribu- 
tions since the last meeting : — 




1 Snake juv 

1 Lizard, alive, juv. 

1 Lizard 

Palm Squirrels 

A collection of Moth: 
from Darjeeling. 

1 Krait from Jesulmir 

J Bean Goose , 

1 Skin of a Python from 

1 Ant-Eater or Indian Pan- 
golin*, alive, 

1 Snake, alive 

2 Green Tree-Snakes, alive. 
1 Snake from Matheran ... 
.2 Hoary-bellied Uinialayan 


Zamenis fasciolaius .... 
Eu bfopharis hardioichii 

Hemidactylvs tried) us, 
Scinrus paltnarnm 

Jluugaru-s sindanvs .... 
Anner sp 

P/jtho'i molurus , 

Manis pentadactyla .... 

TypMops aoutux. 

Dryophis ihycterizans ., 
Lyrodon travancoricvs. 
Sciurus locr index 

Col. F. J. Jenken, RA.M.C. 
Lieut. R. Rutherford, 

Mr. VV. S. Millard. 
:apt. W B. Walker, R.A. 
St. Joseph's College. 

3ol. D. ff. Mullen, I.M.S. 
Lieut, 'J'. G. Sheppard, 

Major Goodenough, 

Mr. W. F. Jardine. 

>Ir. F. O. Annesley. 
Rev. F. Dreckmann, S..J. 
Mr. A. J. Broad. 

Major J. Manners-Smith. 

Forwarded to the Victoria Gardens. 





1 Snake from Matheran ... 
1 Dhamarj 

1 Palru Civet, juv., alive ... 

2 Snakes 

A number of interesting- 
Butterflies from Assam. 

1 Great Crested Grebe 

Some marine shells from 

1 Gadwall, juv 

1 Great Indian Bustard 

Some specimens of clays 

from the Mysore laterite 

1 Field Rat from Nepal .. . 

1 Black-capped Kingfisher. 

Lycodon travancoricus Major L. Chilrle, I. M.S. 

Zamenis mucosus ...Major F. Lee. 

Paradoxurns n-iger 
Distira orna f a and Platn- 
rus laticaudatus 

Podiceps eristatns , 

Chavlelasmvt streperw. 
Eupndotis edwardsii .... 

Mus zp , 

Ha ley on piUata . 

Mr. D. J. de Souza. 

Capt. P. Wall, I.M.S.,. 

Mrs. Jackson. 

Hon'ble A. E. Hill-Trevor. 
Lieut.-Col. C. T. Peters, 

I. M.S. 
) Major H. H. the Maha- 
\ rajah of Bikanir. 
Mr. L. C. H. Young. 

Major J. Manners-Smith. 
Mr. W. F. Jardine. 

Minor contributions from Mr. J. W. Hawes, Colonel W. B. Ferris, Captain 
L. T. H. Hutchinson, I.M.S., and Mr. F. G. Hutchinson. 


Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. III., Part X, presented by the Colombo Museum ; 
Journal and Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Yol. I, Nos. 3, 4, 5 
6, and 7, 1905, in exchange ; The Indian Forester, for August, September and 
October ; Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, 1903, in exchange ; 
Bulletin de la Societe Royal de Botanique a Bruxelles, 1904-05 ; Bulletin de la 
Societe Royal de Botanique de Belgique, 1904-05 ; Annals of the Royal' 
Botanic Gardens, Calcutta, Vol. X, Part II. 


The following papers were read : — Pearls in the Thana Creek, by E. L. Sale, 
I.C.S. ; Note on two Black Leopards in the Kolhapur Collection, by Lt.-Col. W.. 
B. Ferris, with photographs ; Report on the Destruction of Rats in Rangoon 
during August 1905, by H. Tilly. 

Mr. Comber in reading this paper said that it contained some valuable inform- 
ation on that unknown subject the breeding time of rats — a most important 
matter in these days — when rats were supposed to be one of the principal 
mediums in carrying plague. It was hoped that the Bombay efforts at the 
Parel Laboratory in the same direction would also contribute valuable inform- 
ation on this subject. 

Capt. G. Lamb, I.M.S., read a paper on snake venoms and their antidotes, an 
account of recent research, and in the course of his remarks demonstrated 
with live specimens, the methods of extracting the venom from the Cobra and 
the Daboia, and of working with it. He pointed out the differences which have 
been shown to exist between the poisons of the different species, and gave a 
short account of the recent researches which have been made as regards the- 
physiological actions of the different poisons. 


He also mentioned that various sera have now been prepared for some of 
the poisons, among -it these the Cobra and Russells Viper (daboia) in India. He 
•emphasised the specificity of these sera, and pointed out how these observations 
affect the serum treatment of snakebite. 

His Excellency the Governor proposed a vote of thanks to Captain Lam I) 
and the other authors of the papers, and congratulated the Society on its 
prosperity. The meeting terminated with a vote of thanks to His Excellency 
Lord Lamington for presiding. 


A meeting of the members of the Bombay Natural History Society took 
place at the Society's rooms on the 25th January 190(3, Rev. F. Dreckmann, 
S.J., presiding : — 

The election of the following 52 new members, since last meeting, was duly 
announced :— Life Member— Mr. H. F. E. Bell, I.C.S. (Mundla, C. P.). Mem- 
bers—Mr. A. W. W. Mackie, I.C.S. (Belgaum) ; Mr. A. Williams, I.C.S. 
(Quetta) ; Lieut. H. S. May, R.E. (Bannn, N.-W. Frontier); Capt. J. H. Gloster, 
I.M.S. (Amritsar) ; Capt. G. Irvine Davys, I.M.S. (Amritsar) ; Mr. G. Wiles, 
I.C.S. (Godhra) ; Mr. H. D. Kendall, I.C.S. (Rajkote) ; Prof. P. F. Fyson 
(Madras); Mr. J. L. Reeve (Cawnpore) ; Capt. A. G. McKendrick, I.M.S. 
(Kasauli) ; Mr. W. A. Wilkinson (Madras) ; Lieut. H. W. Kettelwell (Fyzabad); 
Mr. W. L. Weldon (Bombay) ; Mr. H. R. Blanford, I.F.S. (Pyinmana, U. 
Burma) .; Mr. T. W. Forster, I.F.S. (Pyinmana, U. Burma) ; Rev. A. G. G. 
•Cowie (Cawnpore) ; Major H. A. L. Tagart, D.S.O. (Meerut, U. P.) ; Lieut. 
D. H. Vanrenen (Lyallpur, Punjab) ; Lieut. G. R. S. Logan Home (Deesa) ; 
Major C. H. James, I.M.S. (Patiala, Punjab) ; The Principal, Rajkumar College 
(Rajkote); Capt. F. P. Connor, I.M.S., F.R.C.S. (Manipur, Assam) ; Mr. M. 
C. C. Bonig (Port Blair) ; Mr. D. M. Porteous (Poona) ; The Director, Pasteur 
Institute of India (Kasauli, Punjab) ; Mr. R. A. Alexander (Papan, Burma) ; 
Mr. D. L. Keddie (Papan, Burma) ; Mr. J. R. Drummond, B.A., F.L.S. 
(London) ; Lieut. J. E. Home (Rawal Pindi) ; Mr. C. J. Balding (Calcutta) ; 
Mr. E. V. Ellis (Toungoo, L. Burma); Mr. J. Pile (Secunderabad) ; Major O. A. 
Smith (Multan) ; t apt. C. Mel. Ritchie, R.H.A. (Rawal Pindi) : Mr. H. F. 
Dawson (Madnapalli) ; Dr. C. C. Caleb (Lahore) ; The Director, Central 
Research Institute (Kasauli); Dr. Gopal Ramchandra Tambe, M.A., B.Sc, 
L.M. & S. (Indore, C. I.) ; Mr. J. S. E. Walker (Chumparun, Bengal) ; Mr. C. E. 
R. Graham, I.C.S. (Mandia, C. P.) ; Mr. F. W. Collings (Pakokku. U. Burma); 
Mrs. B. M. Moberly (Hyderabad, Deccan) ; Lieut. IS. L. Pallant, R.A.M.C. 
(Jubbulpore, C. P.) ; Capt. J. W. Skipwith, R.E. (Kirkee) ; Mr. R. H. Camp- 
bell, I.C.S. (Waltair, Vizagapatam Dist.) ; Lieut.-Col. H. Hendley, M.D., I.M.S. 
(Amritsar) ; The President, Committee of Management, Lahore Zoo (Lahore); 


Mr. E. N. Bell, I.C.S. (Pagan, U. Burma) ; Capt. G. B. Scott (Multan) ; 
Lieut. R. E. Bate (Multan) ; and Lieut.-Col. H. Carruthers (Madras). 

The Honorary Secretary, Mr. W. S. Millard, acknowledged receipt of the 
following contributions since the last meeting : — 




1 Snake 

2 Slow Loris (alive) from 

Some Cocoons of the 

Atlas Silk moth. 
Some estuary fish from 

1 Hammer-headed shark ... 

1 Mungoose 

A few marine Bhells from 

the Red Sea. 

2 Squirrels..... 

Sardines ^... 

25 Bird skins from Kumaon 

20 Bird skins from Bengal... 

A few snails 

Some fossils from Quetta 


9 Snakes from Shan States. 

1 Indian Monitor (alive)... 

1 Squirrel skill from Viza- 

1 Indian Monitor (alive) 

4 Smews 

1 Rock Horned Owl ... . 
1 Verditer Flycatcher .,. 
11 Snakes and 4 skins of 
Squirrels from Siam 

1 Palm Squirrel 

1 Palm Squirrel 

Simotes arnengig . 

jYycticebus tardigradus 

Attacvs atlag 

Zygcena bloehii , 

Ilerpestes mungo 

Soiurus palmarvm 

Pupa evczardi 

Varanus berigalengis.... 
Sciurug tndicns "var.". 

Varanug bengalengig.... 

Mergug albellus 

Bubo benjalensis 

Stoparola meianops .... 

Seinrng pahnarum 

Seiuriis palmarum , 

Mr, H. F. Wagstaff. 
Mr. E. W. Trotter. 

Col. G. Hyde Gates. 

Mr. W. A. Wallinger. 

Mr. W. L. Weldon. 
Mr. T. R. D. Bell, I.F.S. 
Dr. T. P. Thomson. 

Mr. E. Coml er. 

Mr. S. L. Whymper. 

Mr, M. Mackenzie. 
Capt. A. J. Peile, R.A. 
Mr. W. C. Clements. 

Mr. S. St. C. Lig-htfoot. 
Mr. G. E. Bright.. 
Mr. H. R. G. Hasted. 

Mr. C. F. Spencer. 

Hon'ble A. E. Hill-Trevor. 
Col. W. Ferris. 
Major A. Begbie. 
Mr. E. W. Trotter. 

Col. K. R. Kirtikar, I. M.S. 
Capt. W. B. Walker, R.A. 

The Flora of the Presidency of Bombay, Vol. II, Parts I and II, by Theo- 
dore Cook, C.I.E., presented by the author ; Records of the Geological Survey 
of India, Vol. XXXII, Parts 3 and 4, 1905 ; The Agricultural Ledger, 1905 ; 
Nos. 4 and 5 ; Extract des Annales de la Societe Entomologique de Belgique, 
Tome XLIX, 1905 ; Canadian Entomologist, Vol. XXXVII ; Lepidoptera-indica, 
Part LXXIII, by F. Moore, D. Sc, presented by H. H. the Maharajah of 
Mysore ; The Palms of British East India, by Griffith (1850), presented by 
I. H. Burkhill, M.A. ; On the occurrence of Elephas antiquus (Namadicus) in 
the Godavari Alluvium, by Guy E. Pilgrim, B. Sc. ; The Indian Forester, Vol. 
XXXI., Nos. 11 and 12 ; The use of wood pulp for paper-making, by S. Chas. 
Phillipps, M.S. C.I. ; Notes on Snakes collected at Hakgala, Ceylon, by Capt. F. 
Wall, I.M.S. ; Plague Rats and Fleas, by Capt. W. G. Liston, I.M.S. ; Depart- 
ment of Land Records and Agriculture, Bombay, Bulletin No. 35, 1905, 


Sugarcane ; Memoirs of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. I, No. 5 ; Report of 
the Department of Agriculture, Bombay Presidency, for 1904-1905 ; Season and 
Crop Report of the Bombay Presidency for 1904-1905 ; Annual Report on the 
Experimental Farms in the Bombay Presidency for the Year ending 31st March 
1905 ; The Agricultural Journal of India, Vol. I, Part 1. 


The following papers were then read : — ■ 

1. The Oology of Indian Parasitic Cuckoos, by E. C. Stuart .Baker, F.Z.S. 
2. The Origin of Anonas, ' Anona squamosa L, Anona reticulata L.,' by Col.. 
Fernando Leal. 3. On some new species of Silver Pheasants from Burma, by 
Eugene W. Oates. 4. Sambur Horns, by J. D. Inverarity. 5. On the 
Tenthredinidse and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected in Baluchistan by Major 
C. G. Nurse, by P. Cameron. 6. What is a Species? by L. C. H. Young, B.A., 
F.Z.S., &c. 7. Notes and observations on Mammals collected and observed 
in the Darjeeling District, India, by Gordon Dalgliesh. 8. The " Pectinate 
Organs " of Trapa bispinosa, Roxb. (Water-chestnut), by Rev. E. Blatter, S.J. 
9. Mangroves and Paroquets, by B. B. Osmaston, I.F.S. 10. Note on the 
Malay Tapir (Tapirus indicus) in captivity, by Col. W. B. Ferris. 11. Poison- 
ous Snakes of India and how to recognise them, by Capt. F. Wall I.M.S 


A meeting of the members of the Bombay Natural History Society took 
place at the Society's Rooms on the 15th March 190G, the Rev. F. Dreck- 
mann, S.J., presiding. 

The election of the following 32 new members since last meeting was duly 
announced :— Captain H. Innes, I M.S. (Barisal, E. Bengal) ; Mr. G. T. Raikes 
(Karachi); Major J. W. Jennings, R.A.M.C. (Lucknow) ; Captain C.E. Luard 
(Indore, C. I.); Mr. W. 1 . Palmer (Raheng, Fiam); Major-General F. A. 
Buckley (Landour, Mussoorie) ; Mr. B. Egerton (Hyderabad, Deccan) ; 
Mr. F. C. Purkis (Rangoon); Mr. M. D. Parsons (Myitkyina, U. Burma) • 
Lieutenant W. P. C. Tenison, R.F.A. (Mian Mir) ; Mr. J. N. Fraser (Bombay) • 
Mr. J. M. Haymann (Cawnpore) ; Dr. Adolf Lehmann (Bangalore) ; Captain 
O. FitzGerald (Fort William, Calcutta) ; Mr. C. C. A. Prideaux (P. O. Ling- 
sugur, Deccan) ; Mr. A. P. Doll (Khairatabad, Hyderabad, Deccan) ; Captain 
E. C. Doughty (Bellary) ; Mr. R. Parnell, I.F.S. (Lahore) ; Mr. H. G. Wyatt 
(Lahore) ; Mr. W. F. Dew, J. P. (Ceylon) ; Mr. C. O. Lowsley (Jacobabad. 
Sind) ; Mr. W. Swain (Bhagalpore, E. I. Railway) ; Captain J. R. Tyrrell, I.M.S 
(Ajmer) ; Lieutenant-Colonel B. W. Marlow (Poona) ; Mr. P. M. Lushino-ton 
(Mannantoddy, North Malabar); Mr. H. H. Marshall, L.R.C.S. (Mandalay); 
Major J. L. Macrae, I.M.S. (Meiktila, Burma) ; Mrs. C. S. Stack (Poona) ; Mr! 
P. G. Tipping (Sidnapur, Coorg) ; The Mess President, 85th Regiment 


(K. S. L. I.), (Fyzabad) ; Miss F. E. Thomas, C.M.S. (Megnanaparam, Tinne- 
velly District) ; and Mr. • Balkrishna Vinayak Wasudevji Agaskar, B. A. 
The Honorary Secretay, Mr. W. S. Millard, acknowledged receipt of the 
following contributions since the last meeting : — 




1 Malformed head of In- 

Capt. E. Pratt. 

dian gazelle. 
.1 Snake (juv ) from Singa- 

1 Head and feet of Grey 

lag Goose. 
8 White-winged Mynas. 

1 Green Imperial pigeon.. 

1 Ashy-headed green pigeon 

Mr. E. M. Eennell. 

Mr. E. L. Sale, I C S 


)■ Mr. C. W. Allan.. 



Capt. Henderson. 

Mr. E. A. Hav. 

Harpactes trythroctplialus... 

A specimen of Manganese 
ore from Ram n a d r o o g, 
Bellary District. 

Mr. R. Foulkes 

<- Mr. W. Coen 


Major Winter, R.AM.C. 
Mr. A. H. A.SimcoxJ.C.S 

3 Eggs of the Common sand 

2 Eggs of the Crimson 
breasted barbet. 

3 Skins of squirrels from 

1 Sliin of the Malay tree- 

Xantholaema h oemat o e e- 



}-Capt. H. E. Baker. 

from Singapore. 
1 Spider from Manipur 



(Capt. F. Powell Con- 
j nor, I.M.S. 

Mr. R. H. Heath, C.E. 

1 Large brown flying 

Capt. Tancred. 
Mr. E. G. Oliver. 

Mr. Sunderao D. Naval- 

1 Skin of Hamadryad (12| 


Some 24 varieties of Sugar- 
cane tops from Mauritius 
(B'orwarded to the Director 
of Agri culture, Poona). 

Mr. Geo. Knight. 

Mr. S, H. Stevenson 

Mr. A. J. Broad. 


Minor contributions from Mr. S. E. F.Jenkins, Dr. J.F. Goldsmith and Mr. 
R. Jardine. 

Proceedings. 211 

contributions to library. 

The Indian Forester, Vol. XXXII, Nos. 1 and 2. ) 906 ; Le Bambou son 
etude sa culture, son Emploi ; Annalen des K. K. Naturhistorischen Hof- 
museums, Band XIX. No. 4 ; Records of the Geological Survey of India, 
Vol. XXXIII, Part I ; Annual Report of the Imperial Department of Agri- 
culture for the year 1904-05 ; The Insect Pests of Cotton in India, by H. 
Maxwell Lefroy, M.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S. ; The Canadian Entomologist, Vol. 
XXXVIII, Nos. 1 and 2 ; Etat Independant du Congo, Annales dn M usee du 
Congo; Recensio Critica autoinatica of the Doctrine of Bird Migration; 
Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. III., Part XI. 

The following gentlemen were elected as office bearers for the present 
year : — 

President— H. E. Lord Lamingtou, G.C.M.G., G.C.I.E. 

Vice-Presidents — Mr. J. D. Inverarity, P.A., LL.B. ; Rev. F. Dreckmann, 
S.J. ; Mr. E. H. Aitken. 

Managing Commit'ee.— Vet.-Major G. H. Evans ; Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker, 
F.Z.S. ; Mr. F. Ernest Green, F.E.S. ; Lt.-Col. K. R. Kirtikar, I.M.S. ; Lt.-Col. 
H. D. Olivier, R.E., F.Z.S. ; Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. ; Mr. H. P. Macna- 
ghten ; Mr. G. M. Ryan, I.F.S. ; Col. W. B. Bannerman, I.M.S. ; Mr. E. Comber, 
F.Z.S. ; Mr. T. R.D. Bell, I.F.S. ; Major A. Newnham, F.Z.S.; Major C. G. 
Nurse, F.E.S. ; Mr. L. C. H. Young, B.A., F.E.S. ; Mr. J. McNeill, I.C.S. ; 
Mr. John Wallace, C.E. ; Mr. F. Gleadow, I.F.S. ; Capt. W. G. Liston, I.M.S. ; 
Capt. G. Lamb, I.M.S. ; Prof. G. A. Gammie. 

Honoravy Treasurer — Mr. N. C. Macleod (e-x- officio). 

Honorary Secretary— Mr. W. S. Millard, F.Z.S. (ex-officio). 

Mr. N. C. Macleod, the Honorary Treasurer, placed before the meeting the 
accounts for the year ending 31st December 1905, showing an income of 
Rs. 18,106-9-8 and an expenditure of Rs. 15,302-0-9, and a cash balance carried 
forward of Rs. 6,188-1-4. This balance was rather larger than usual but since 
then Rs. 2,000 had been invested as representing the proportion of subscrip- 
tions received from those who had* commuted their annual subscriptions by 
becoming life members. No such investment had been made in 1905. The 
accounts were accepted subject to the usual audit, and a vote of thanks was 
passed to the Honorary Treasurer. 

The Committee gave notice that they propose to alter Rule V. (Life Mem- 
bership) making the sum payable for commuting the annual subscription 
Rs. 200 instead of Rs. 150. 

The Superintendent of the Victoria Gardens exhibited a quantity of stones 
weighing about 2 lbs. 2 oz., which had been found on post-mortem examin- 
ation inside the stomach of a young cassowary. One of the stones was about 
2 inches across and was found to be obstructing the intestine and this was 
probably the cause of death. 


Major A. F. Mackenzie exhibited the four feet of a black-buck shot by Mr. 
A. Hanckel near Sholapur. The feet were all malformed and in the opinion 
of Mr. Sowerby (C.V.D.), the Acting Principal of the Parel Veterinary College, 
the buck must have been ill or injured for some considerable time, possibly by 
a former shot causing injury to the spinal cord and partial paralysis of the 
hind extremities, 


Mr. E Comber read a paper contributed by Mr. E. W. Oates on "The 
Species of Bean-geese," which will be accompanied with a coloured plate of 
the bills of the eight species that are supposed, or may possibly be found, to 
occur in British India. He pointed out that the importance of the subject 
from a naturalist's and a sportsman's point of view was evident from the fact 
that of all our Indian birds the Bean-geese are in the most unsatisfactory state. 
No specimens of Bean-geese are included in the enormous Hume collection of 
Indian birds, and no recent writers have been satisfied with the material at their 
command to say definitely what species of Bean-geese do occur in India. The 
Pink-footed Goose (Anser brachyrhynchtii) , which has always been included in 
Indian lists, is really the most unlikely of all the species to occur, and Mr. Oates 
supports his doubts on its correct identification with forcible arguments, 
Mr. Oates is only satisfied that one species of Bean-goose, Anser micldendorji, 
has actually been proved to have occurred in India, though further investiga- 
tion will no doubt result in others being found. 

Mr. Comber regretled that the appeal that was included in the Society's 
Journal of December, 1904, for the heads of Bean-geese for the purpose of 
their correct identification had, after two cold weather shooting seasons, not 
resulted in one single specimen of a Bean-goose's head being received by the 
Society, and he again appealed lo members for as many specimens as possible 
next season, so that this important question may be cleared up. 

The following notes were also read : — " On the Magpie Robin," by Mr. E.C. 
Cholmondely ; and " A large Dhaman" {Zammis vmcoms), by Mr. F. Gleadow, 



Indian Ducks and their allies. Plate XXIII. The common 

Teal (Neltion crecca) , Frontispiece. 

A Popular Treatise on the Common Indian Snakes. Part III. 

(With Plate III & Diagram VII.) By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.8., c.m.z.s. 25 D 
On the Tentoreuinid.e and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected in 

Baluchistan by Major C. G. Nurse. Part II. By P. Cameron... 274 
On the Tenthredinid.e and Parasitic Hymenoptera collected 
by Major C. G. Nurse in Kashmir. By P. Cameron 280 

The Kashmir Termite (Tekmopsis wroughtoni). By J. Desuenx 293 

The Poisonous Snakes of India and how to recognize them. 

Part II. By Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S., c.m.z.s 299 

Flowering Season and Climate. Part I. {With 3 Pia'es). By 

E. Blatter, s.J. , 334 

The Oology of Indian Parasitic Cuckoos. Part II. (With Plate II) 

By E. 0. Stuart Baker, f.z.s 351 

The Snake and its Natural Foes. By Capt. F. Wall, i.m.s., c.m.z.s. 375 

Some Hints for Beginners on Collecting and Preserving Natural 
Htstory Specimens Part IV. By E. Comber, f.z.s 39G 

Descriptions of Indian Micro-Lepidoptera. P<-irt II. By E. Mey- 

rick, b.a., f.r.s., f.z.s 403 

The Common Butterflies of the Plains of India. Part II. (With 

Plate B). By L. 0. H. Yonug, b.a., f.e.s., f.z.s 418 

Insect Life in India and how to study it, being a simple account 
of the hork important families of insects with examples 
of the damage they do to crops, Tea, Coffee and Indigo 
Conckrns, Fruit axe Forest Trees in India. Chapter VII, 
Part IV. By E. P. Stebbing, f.l.s., f.z.s., f.e.s, .- 424 

The Moths of India (Supplementary Paper to the Volumes tn 
"The Fauna of BtansH India"). Series III, Part III. By Sir 
Georgt Hampson, BarD., f.z.s., f.e.s 447 

Birds of the Provinces of Kashmir and Jammu and adjacent 
Districts. Part II. By A. E. Ward 479 

Notes on Andaman Birds, with Accounts of the Nidification of 
several species whose Nests and Eggs have not been 
hitherto described. Part II. By 13. B. Osmaston, i.f.s 48G 

A Ltst of Birds found in the Myingyan District of Burma. 

Part II. ByK. C. M icdonald 4!>2 

A List of Publications relating to India from the " Zoological 
Record," 1003 and 1004 505 

Notes on the Genus later a with Descriptions of New Species. By 

E. C. Wronghton .,;.. 511 

-Miscellaneous Notes — 

1. Breeding habits of the Great Crested Grebe (JPodicipes cridatut). 

By Gordon Dalgliesh 515 



Miscellaneous Notes — contd. 

2. Packs of Wolves iu Persia. By J. W. Watson, Capt., i.M.s 516 

3. Urialin Persia. By J. W. Watson, Capt,, I.M.s 517 

4. A Panther placing its kill up a tree. By E. Comber 517 

5. Tigers hamstringing their prey before killing. By P. Hudson 518 

6. A brown Crow. By A. C. Logan, i.c.s 519 

7. A brown and white Crow. By E. Blatter, s.j 519 

8. A malformed Black Buck Head. (With an illustration}. By E. H. 

Eattray, Lieut.-Col , 519 

9. Fascination by Lizards. By St. George Gore, Col., e.e. .. -••• 520 

10. Occurrence of the Indian Bed-breasted Fly-catcher (SipMa Tiype- 

rytkra) in Bengal. By Chas. M. Inglis 520 

11. A note on the migration of the Common Indian Bee-eater (Mercys 

vtridisy By D. Dewar, i.C.s 520 

12. The boldness of Panthers. By F. Field a 522 

13. The occurrence of the Scorpion Spider (Phrynichus) (Karsch) in tDe 

She ?aroy Hills. By H. S. Rivington, 523 

14. The brown Wood Owl (Syrnium indrani). By S. L. Whymper ....r.... 523 

15. Habits of the Tapir. By L. C. H. Young 524 

16. Occurrence of Remiza (Mgithalus~) coronals in Kohat. By H. A. F. 

Magrath, Major 524 

17. Flocking of Kites. By C. E. C. Fischer 525 

18. Notes on the " Shot borer " in Bambcos. By Norman F. T. Troup 526 

19. Black Panthers. By W. B. Ferris, Col 526 

20. A remarkable Tree. By C. E. C. Fischer , 527 

21. Habitat of the Green Keelback (Macro pMstliodon plumbicolor). By 

C. E. C. Fischer 527 

22. Bird weather reporters. By K. R. Bomanji, I.C.S 528 

23. How Tigers kill their prey. By A. A. Dunbar Brand er, i.F.s 528 

24. The sense of smell of Tigers. By A. A. Dunbar Brander, i.F.s 530 

25. The Nesting of the Black-crested Baza (Baza lophotes). By A. M. 

Primrose , :>> 53^ 

26. The Nesting of the Black-backed Forktail (Henicurus immaculatus). 

By James Marten , 500 

27. The larva of the Firefly. By P. Gerhardt 533 

28. A Whale near Bassein (Bombay Coast). By W. S. Millard 533 

29. A fortunate escape and recovery from Cobra bite. By R. W. Burton 

^ ^534 

30. An unusual displacement of the heart in a Whistling Teal. By W. B. 

Bannerman, Lieut.-Col., i.M.s 535 

31. On the Indian species of Bean-goose. By E. C. Stuart Baker 537 

CONTENTS OF THIS N U M B E R— (conoid.) 


Miscellaneous Notes— concU. 

32. The breeding of the Bengal Florican (Syplwotis lengalenslsy By 

E. C. Stuart Baker 533 

S3. The plumage of the Cock Purple Honeysucker (Arachnecthra asiatica). 

A Query. By D. Dewar, i.c.s 540 

34. Some notes on Heterocera. By H. W. Kettlewell, Lieut 541 

35. Parasites in Sparrow Hawks. By J. S. Bogle, Capt 542 

36. Cannibalism amongst Panthers and Tigers. Hy L. B. Montresor, Capt., 

K- F. A 54;; 

37. The nesting of the Crested Honey Buzzard (JPemis cristatus). By 

H. N. Coltart , 545 

38. The Sand Wasp (.Sphex lobatus.') By 0. B. Beadnell 540 

39. Nesting of the Ibis-bill QIMdorhync7ms strut hersi) and the Common 

Sandpiper (Tetanus hypoleucus). By S. L. Whymper 540 

Proceedings op the Meetings held on 28th June and 16th August 1906 ... 548 









The accompanying coloured Plate (No. XXIII) of The Common 
Teal (Nettion cregca) is in continuation of the series of Plates 
already published in this Journal in connection with the paper on 
" Indian Ducks and their Allies," by Mr. E. C. Stuart Baker. 

The description of The Common Teal now figured will be found 
on page 247 of Vol. XII of this Journal. 





Uatnral Histoid j^otkty. 

Vol, XVII. BOMBAY. No. 2, 



Illustrated by Colour kd Plates and Diagrams. 

By Captain F. Wall, I.M.S., O.M.Z.S. 

Part III— With Plate III and Diagram VII. 

(Continued from / age 9 of this Vo'.ume.) 

The Dhaman or Common Matsn^ke (Zamenis mucoms). 

Nomendatu-e. (a) Scientific — The generic name is from t'L 
Gr^ek ?* l: great" unci t***o< "strength," and the specific fr<m the Lat? r 
mucosus, " slimy," which I need hardly remark this snake do more 
deserves than any other of the suborder Ophidia. It appears to be a 
popular notion that a snake is slimy, and even in these enlightened 
days writers of travels, etc., frequently expose their ignorance by using 
this inappropriate adjective to them, borne of our readers may ba 
more familiar with its older generic title Plya*, also a calumnious 
epithet derived from the Creek, •»">*< a '* sp'tter." 

(h) English. — The name by wh'ch it is generally known is the "com- 
mon ntsnake," but " dhaman," a name bjrroweJ from the vernacular, h 
almost as frequently in use. 

(c) Vernacular. — In Bengali, Hindi, and Marathi, all languages 

derived from Sanskrit, it is ciltad " dhaman," the Sanskrit word bein2 

" dha i ana. " It is also cu'Ij.1 soreutimes ''diimeen." Russell makes 

mention of this latter name*, and 1 hive hear 1 it often. Woodrow in 1 \\ 

• Ltd. Serp., Vol. L, plate XXV. 


b3ok on botuny mentions both these names " dhaman " and " dameen " as 
being applied to a tree, the Grewia tilicefolia, which is commonly grown 
by the natives in Southern India about their habitations. Mr. A. M. 
Jackson tells me " dharmani " is the Sanskrit name for this tree and the 
Cyclopedia of India (Vol. 11, page 14) gives "damoni" as the Ooriah 
name for it. From its wood, hafts are derived for various tools, and the 
mer bark furnishes bast which Birdwood says is used in Bombay for 
naking ropes. The connection between the tree and the snake has been 
suggested to me by Father Dreckman, who says in Sanskrit "dharma" 
neans a " binding", either in the sense of duty or of wrapping one thing 
round another. Those of us who have handled living specimens, must 
frequently have experienced the force with which this sn^ke wreathes 
itself round one's legs, or arms. On the Malabar Coast it is called 
"chayra." The Tamils in S. India call it " Sarey pamboo," but a Tamil 
of the Tigala caste in Mysore told me locally (Bangalore) they called it 
" Jair potoo,'' which I am informed signifies "centipede animal.'' This 
appears to be the same as the " Jeri potoo " of Russell.* Ricet says the 
Canarese name for it is " Kere." The Burmese call it " Mywe' let pat," 
which is literally " hand-coiling snake," and according to Theobald J 
*• Lim-bwi." 

Dimensions. — The great majority of adults vary from 5 -J to 6-| feet, 
'out much larger specimens are to be met with. Evans and I obtained 
two in Burmah measuring 7 feet 4 -J inches, and 7 feet 8^ inches re- 
spectively. One specimen brought to me in Trichinopoly was the 
Wsest I ever saw in the flesh, viz., 8 feet 2 inches. I measured the 
slough of one just cast in the Bangalore Museum which was 9 feet 1^ 
inches. Mr. Millard tells me of one killed near Mahim Station which 
was 11 feet 9 inches. This was a veritable Goliath of its kind. I have 
measurements in my notes of 54 specimens, and only 3 of these exceed 
7 feet. I have notes of a host of others where the measurement is not 
recorded, but it is certain that had they been large this would not have 
been omitted. § 

Physiognomy, and bodily configuration. — The head is rather elongate. 
The eye, large and lustrous, exhibits an iris speckled with gold, especially 
densely at the pupillary margin and a pupil which is slightly ovate hori- 

* lad. Serp., Vol. I, plate XXXIV- t Mysore, Vol. I, p. 188. 
J Jour. As. Soc, Bengal, 1868, p. 46. 
$ Mr. Pearless has in a recent letter reported that he has en four occasions killed this 
snake rn Ceylon exceeding 10 feet in length. 


zontally. The nostril is large, and placed laterally. The nock is slightly 
constricted. The body of somewhat robust proportions is flattened in a 
lateral direction (i.e. compressed), and is from 3^ to 4 times the length 
of the slowly tapering, and cylindrical tail. 

Colour. — The prevailing hue on the head and body, including 
the tail, is dorsally an olivaceous-green or olivaceous-brown. In -the 
anterior half or three-fifths of the body length this is uniform or nearly 
so, but in the posterior part many scales are irregularly margined with 
black, so as to form a reticulate pattern with a tendency to form 
crossbars. Individuals differ in colour : I have seen some as yellow as 
a batter pudding, and others of a hue as dark as sepia. The shields 
bordering the lips, the scales at the side of the throat, and the scales 
beneath the body, and tail are more or less margined posteriorly 
with black ; in fact, these marks form a very characteristic trait in the 
physiognomy. On the belly the regularity of these marks forci- 
bly reminds one of a tape measure, but in individuals, they may be 
absent in whole or in part. The belly is greyish- white, dirty-white or 
yellowish, the latter hue often more pronounced about the throat. 
The skin is blackish, mottled with fawn or whitish in irregularly 
transverse streaks, but is usually not seen owing to the overlapping of 
the scales. The overlapped margins of the scales, however, partake of 
this cutaneous coloration, and in young specimens light bluish-gre> 
irregular crossbars are usually conspicuous, especially anteriorly. In 
young the prevailing colour is often more greyish or bluish than ont 
sees in the adult, but the markings and general appearance are ver> 
closely similar. 

Identification. — Here I must digress, to emphasise a very interest- 
ing and important peculiarity in this snake. The scales of snakes 
counted across the back will be found, with very few exceptions, to bo 
arranged in odd rows varying from 13 in the Callophids, etc., to a- 
many as 75 in Python reticulatus. The exceptions to this rule which 
concern us are Zaocys dhumnades and Z, nigromaryinalus in which 
they number 1G in the middle of the body, and Stoliczkaia khasiensis 
where they are 30* Further, in some snakes the same number of 
rows is maintained in the whole length of the body, but in others they 

* In the two families Typhlopidae and Glauconudm where the scales appear to lie iu even 
numbers, if the mediau row on the belly (which in these snakes is not specialised, but is 
exactly like tbe rows of scales on the back and sides) is considered in its true light, viz., as 
the analogue of the belly scutes, then the scales are in reality odd in number. 


reduca by 2, 4, 6 or even more rows from before backwards, but the 
odd number is preserved on the body — (Caution — I do not include the 
tail), -with one notable exception, viz., the species under discussion, 
Zamenis mucnsus. In this the scales number 17 in the front of the 
body, but reduce to 14 or l'J posteriorly. This point in itself is suffi- 
cient to distinguish this from all other snakes in our region * Another 
feature characteristic of this snake is the triule loreal. {See 1, fig. 1 B). 
Inalmo/tall snakes possessing a loreal, this is a single shield inter- 
posed between the praeooular, and the nasals. In a few species there 
are two, but in this there are three normally, one smterior, and two 
superposed behind. Occasional aberrant specimens may be seen with 
only *i loreals, or even with 4 or 5. 

In colour, and markings which 1 have already represented as faulty 
guides in the identification of all snakes, both the species of Facets al- 
ready referred to, as well as Xenelaphis heaayofolvs and Zamenis 
korros, closely resemble it, and all aro of very similar proportions. 
Hvmts. — There is scarcely a situation, whether in hill or dale, forest or 
maidan, arid, swampy or cultivated tract, tree, buth, or habitation in 
which it may not take up its abode. It is quite at heme in the jrox- 
imity of man, and U io be met with in the gardens of populated art as 
within our largest cities almost as plentifully as in the mere turquil 
quarters of the Cantonment. In such local. ties, in deferaice to n.m's 
hostile inclinations, it i; forced to retire dming the day ii to sen e se- 
cure retreat, commonly taking up its abode in an ant-hill, drain or other 
convenient hole in the compound, or even in the out-hcuses, cr Lurga- 
low itself. Like other snakes it loves old masonry, and is often flush- 
ed from or seen retiring into the crevices and crypts furnished by old 
walls or brick wells. In Rangoon with the aid of a bicycle lamp to 
illuminate the gloom of th> little galleries left for drainage purposes 
in the faces of the fort, walls I frequently found one coiled up, and pro- 
voked it to a speedy exit. In the bungalow it may tenant the base- 
ment, but not infrequently finds its way up into the roof where it may 
reside above the ceiling cloth, and though few may det m it as such it 
is certainly entitled to th°s consMeration of a welcome friend. The late 
Chaplain of Cannanore, the Reverend R. B. Redding, told me that once 
when in conversation with a lady, upon whom he was calling, a 
sc'amn ^rin^r was heard overhead on the c-iling clwth, and a rat fell 
* In Zaocys the scales reduce, but they are maintained in even rows. 


through a hole on to the floor. It was closely followed by the head 
and mnch of the body of a large snake, which, however, managed to 
withdraw itself. It is more than probable that this was a rat-snake. 

Removed from man's immediate environment I believe it realises 
there is no occasion for such prison accommodation as populous locali- 
ties thrust upon it, and here it has free scopo to indulge its diurnal 
inclinations. In Cannanore snipe-shooting I very frequently encoun- 
tered it in broad daylight leisurely pursuing its quest for luncheon, and 
when not actually on the move I often found it coiled asleep in the 
paludal vegetation, or beneath a lush. Again, on two or three occa- 
sions when stepping into paddy fields at dawn I have seen it coiled on 
the heaps of decaying vegetable matter whioh represent the remnants 
of last year's crop, and weeds, suggesting that it had taken up these 
quarters over-night. 

It shows a decided partiality for the vic'nity of water for reasons 
very obvious when we come to consider its diet. It will take readily 
to water should occasion demand, and swims vigorously, ard well, 
carrying its b^ad above the surface for choice, but diving when the 
nece:ssitv is urgent. 

1 have seen it at some height in a tree (ten or fifteen feet), also on 
the roofs of houses, so that its scansorial abilities are not inferior to those 
of most of its kind.* 

It appears to be very fleet in its movements, but its speed is deceptive, 
for on one occasion, when I chased one using its full endeavours to 
escape, I found I had traversed 38 yards while the reptile covered 18. 
It measured 5 feet 9£ inches. 

Here 1 may remark that this snake enters into the dietary of seven.l 
natives of India, who hold it in great esteem. A Tamil of the Tigala 
caste in Bangalore told me his caste while despising all other snakes as 
food, or medicine, relished the flesh of the dhaman which when cooked 
was white, and fish -like. The taste he compared to that of chicken. 
It appears to enjoy a reputation in wasting diseases. In Fyzabad 
recently a cooly came, and begged the body of one that had been sent 
in to me dead to eat. The Burmese and Karens eat it with avidity, but 
are by no means bigoted with regard to the species of snake they eat. 
The Chinese use it in medicine among other ophidian brethren, and I 
doubt not eat it too. I saw many preserved on the shelves of the local 
medicine men in Honojvono-. 

* bee addenda V J). 


Sloughing.— Miss Hbpley* mentions one casting its skin about once 
a month on an average. This specimen was caged in Regent's Park, 
London, I believe. 

Disposition. — It is undoubtedly when provoked a very fierce snake, 
and if brought to bay will assume the offensive with great courage and 
determination ; but this side of its nature is rarely exhibited, as, like 
other snakes, it prefers to acknowledge man's supremacy by seeking 
swift escape when this offers. I have many times jumped into the 
middle of its coils when I have seen it enjoying a siesta, but have never 
been menaced, or struck at once, the reptile's acknowledgment of the 
rude awakening being manifested, by speedy disappearance. On occa- 
sion, however, and especially if reasonable chances of escape are denied 
it, it will attack with great malice. Father Dreckman once chased 
a specimen nearly eight feet long, and managed to place his foot over 
the hole it was making for. Baulked in its attempt to escape, it coiled 
itself up and jumped straight at his face. Luckily Father Dreckman 
drew back his head in time to evade a blow in the face, but the reptile 
fastened itself on to his shoulder with such purpose that its teeth 
penetrated not only his clothes, but actually lacerated the skin beneath. 
On another occasion when the same observer was rendering assistance 
to a hatchling which was trying to emerge from its egg, the vicious 
little creature resenting interference bit him in the finger, and actually 
drew blood. Mr. Hampton tells me that once when attempting to cap- 
ture one he found in a drain it struck viciously at him, and inflicted a 
wound beneath one of his eyes. In Bangalore I saw one belonging to 
a sampwallah, strike most vehemently at, and bite a mongoose, also 
one of the stock-in-trade. Mr. Millard tells me it is a difficult snake to 
tame when fairly grown, and will attack freely when cornered. f 
Nicholson]: remarks how it will fight for its freedom, and says it is 
always a little uncertain to handle in captivity. Gunther§ says : " It 
is of fierce habits, always ready to bite, and old examples brought to 
Europe never become tame." 

In Rangoon I had one brought to me which, it was reported, was 
attacking a full-grown fowl. The few specimens I have had caged, 

* " Snakes, " p. 332. 
t See addenda (2). 
% Ind. Snakes, p. 133. 
§ Rept., Brit. Ind., p. 249. 


exhibited a very nasty temper, and struck out most maliciously at me 
whenever I approached the glass of the cage : often two or three 
strokes were delivered in rapid succession, and with such force that the 
creature must have hurt itself considerably. The stroke is delivered 
upwards, as though to wound the face, a peculiarity also noticed by 
Mr. Millard. When infuriated, prior to delivering its stroke, it retracts 
the head and forebody into an S, slightly erects itself and gives vent to 
a peculiar sound which I have heard no other snake produce, and which 
reminds me of a cat at bay. Cantor likens it to the sound of a vibrating 
tuning-fork. During the production of this warning note the snake 
compresses itself anteriorly (i.e., flattens itself in a direction contrary to 
that manifested by the cobra), the spine being arched about the neck, 
and the throat markedly pouched. 

Food. — The dhaman is very catholic in its tastes, devouring almost 
anything that chance brings within its reach, but it displays a very 
marked partiality to a batrachian diet, doubtless because toads, and 
•more especially frogs, are extremely plentiful, easily captured, and too 
defenceless to offer much resistance. The possibility of taste influenc- 
ing its selection may be dismissed, since flesh, however toothsome, must 
fail to impart its relish when clothed in feathers, fur, or integuments. 

Perhaps though, the texture of these vestments may gratify the mouth 
or gullet as keenly as the flesh may conciliate the peptic glaudi. 
When hunger presses it is stimulated to make full use of its courage, 
vigour, and speed in shikaring the object of its gastric affections. 
The incident of the rat falling through the ceiling cloth demonstrates 
this. Blanford* mentions one he saw pursuing a lizard (Ctdotes ver- 
sicolor) at full speed, which it caught, and then throwing its body over 
its victim speedily devoured. This practice of holding down its prey 
when troublesome to manage, or seized in a position unfavourable for 
swallowing, is characteristic, and it can exert a very considerable 
strength in this manner. Mr. Hampton tells me he has seen it hold a 
rat down with its body, pressing it tightly on the ground, and Mr. 
Millard gives me a very striking example of this behaviour. He says : 
" One of these which we were keeping in the same cage as our python 
recently caught a rat (which was put in for food) by the tail. The 
rat turned, and bit the dhaman severely, and the dhaman killed it 
by holding on to the tail, and pressing the rat against the body 

• Jour. As. Soc., Bengal, Vol. XXXIX, p. 372. 


of the python and the floor of the cige. Severe pressure must 
have been brought to boar, a> the r r -.t — a full-sized one— was dead 
in 3 or 4 minutes."' 

Here I may draw attention to the frontispiece of Lyddeker's Royal 
Natural History, Volume V., which shows this snake entwined in a 
m >st unnatural manner round a perpendicular bamboo stem, a large 
part of its body free, and holding a large rat wiih a serenity and 
facility very unreal. I doubt whether tl is acrobatic performance is 
possible for more than a few seconds apart frcm the manner in which 
it is shown bolting its m< ah It is regrettable ih;<t the inaccuracies 
of a skilled artist should pass the censorship of so great a naturalist. 
The quarry once captured is swallowed at once, so that in the case of 
inoffensive creatures, such as frogs, it is no unusual circumstance for 
them to reach the stomach sufficiently alive for their suppressed cries distinctly audible; and moreover remarkable as it may seem, when 
rescued from their engulfment it is a fairly common event for them, 
after the lapse of some minutes, to recover sufficiently to hop away. 
I huve witnessed this on several occasions, and Kelsall has recorded 
such an exparience in this Journal. 

Hats, though sometimes preyed upon, are not nearly so staple an 
article of diet as suggested by its name Mr. Hampton tells me that in 
captivity in Regent's Park. London, he was familiar with this snake and 
saw it seizing, and devouring good-sized rats with avidity, but that his 
r;p3ci nens in Burmah, far from liking rats, seem to be afraid cf them, 
preferring an exclusively batrachian fare. Lizards, birds and other small 
vertebrates form a welcome supplement to its voracity. Recently, in 
Fyzabad, a three-footer was found in a shrub attacking a nest of young 
birds. It had already swallowed a gecko (Hemida<tijlux yleadovii), and 
was in the act of devouring one fledgling. That it must be considered 
both gourmand and gourmet may be inferred from the following bills 
of fare. A specimen brought to me in ( annanore had eaten a large 
frog (Rana tigrina), a large toad {Bnfo me I am >*i id us), and a half- 
grown lizard (Caloies versicolor) ; another lately acquired in Fyzabad 
with a very tight-fitting waistcoat w:.s found to contain a large toad 
(Bnfo andersoni), a lizard of the stink family (Ma'^ia dissimilis), 
and a young tortoise (Trionyx), and as though dissatisfied with 
this 3-course luncheon, had endeavoured to include a large lizard 
probably ot the genus Calotes, since some 5 inches or more of its 


tail had boon devoured. The specimen allude J to above which bit. 
Mr. Hampton subsequently d' gorged six frogs. Ferguson* comments 
upon the gluttony of this species, and says its favourite food is a 
medium-sized frog, of which a fair-sized snake will eat about twonty- 
two at a meal. 

Mr. Hampton s.iys if at all hungry it will not disdain the meal 
afforded by another snake, including even iis cwn sp<c'cs. This 1 know 
to be true and quite a common event in captivity, which is vouched for 
by Mr. Millard, Ferguson and ethers, but 1 think it is a rare exhibi- 
tion of depravity in its natural state ; however, Assistant Burgeon 
Robertson told me he onoe cut open a large dhaman, and found it con- 
tained another dhaman, 3 feet 1 1 inches in length, in its stomach. 
Floweif mentions one eating a snake (Chrysaj e'ea ornata). Mr. 
Green tells me of one which disgorged several snakes of the genus 
Rhino ph. is in its death throes, and LightfootJ has Mely presented a 
specimen to the Bombay Natural History Society preserved in the act 
of swallowing a Rsammophis condanarus. The stomach, as will be seen 
if distended with a meal, lies more in front of the middle point of the 
body, than in some other snakes, notably the Krait, and Hemibumjarw, 
where it lies wholly behind this point. 

Breeding. — It is the rule with snakes that the female exceeds the 
male in length. Darwin, on the authority of Gunther, makes this state- 
ment^ Whilst fully agreeing with this remark, in this species I have 
no doubt that the converse obtains. An average taken from he largest 
males and females my notes rc-cord shows a disparity decidedly in 
favour of the mate. Again, of specimens over 6 feet 6 inches, twelve 
are miles and only two females. The longest female is 6 feet 7£ 
inches. || T'.iough usually met with singly, they are sometimes found in 
pairs at times other than the breeding season. On January 5th t 1 9(J(>, in 
Rangoon, a mile and female were found coiled together beneath a 
flooring. This date is one later than the normal hatching season. The 
male was 6 feet 1£ inches and the female 5 feet ci^ inches. Again, in 
Fyzibnd a pair was found disporting themselves in a small pool of 
water some three or four yards across. The female, 6 feet 1\ inches in 

* Bombay Natural History Journal, Vol. X, p. 4. 
t Proc. Zool Soc. l-9'.». p. M4. 
+ Pombay Natural History Journal, Vol. XVI, p. 530. 
§ Descent of .Man, p. 538. 
|| See addend a (3). 


length, contained eggs far advanced towards maturity. The male 
measured 6 feet 9| inches. This latter incident implies a conjugal 
attachment on a par with that of the higher animals, since sexual 
gratification had not dissolved the marital tie.* 

The following is a list of the breeding notes I have been able to 
collect, arranged in tabular form : — 


Degree of 
















In abdomina 


Bangalore .. 

Nicholson .. 

•'• Indian Sna- 
kes "p. 127. 




Do. ... 





20th June '05 


U" long 

Do. ... 

6' 3" 

Fyzabad ... 


Hot recorded. 



1 9 // 
l 10 )) 

Do. ... 





Gth July 'Or. 


l 20 >! 

To ... 

,;/ H « 




11th July '05 


'20 5> 

Do. ... 





19th July '00 



Do. ... 

6' S\" 

Rangoon .. 

Evans and 


1st Aug. '04. 



Do. ... 

y 9|" 

Cannanore . 


B. N. H. S. 
Jourl. Vol. 

14th Nov. '03. 


Nearly ma- 

Do. ... 




B. N. H. S. 
Jourl. Vol. 
XVI,p. 300 

September . 




Bangalore ... 

Nicholson ... 

' Indian Sna- 
kes" ,p. 127. 







Dreckman ... 

Private letter 

9th Dec. '99 


If" to If 



Rangoon „ 

Evans and 

B. N. H. 8. 
Jourl. Vol. 

From the above it appears that the mating season is during the hot 
weather, and that eggs are voided in August and September, and 
hatch between September and December. 

The periods of gestation and incubation are unknown to me. 

The most juvenile mother, if one is to judge from measurement I 
have records of, was 5 feet 8 inches, and I believe, therefore, that the 
female is sexually mature at about 4 2 years of age.f Both sexes appear 

* f cc a idenda (4). 
t See addenda (5). 


to grow about a foot a year, but as usual I have to regret gaps in my 
notes that prevent me speaking more positively. 

The eggs are laid in adherent clusters, and deposited, I helieve, in 
holes in the earth. They are white, glossy, and parchment-like, with 
the poles equally domed. In the clutch recorded by Nicholson one 
egg measured 2" X li". The eggs from which young hatched in 
Rangoon observed by Evans and me measured from If to If" in length. 

The youngsters we witnessed hatching in Rangoon measured from 
14| to 15^ inches. They found exit at any convenient spot, and some, 
even when they had broken the shell sufficiently to admit of easy exit, 
appeared to quit their cradles reluctantly, as they often peeped out, 
or extended themselves to a considerable length, and then retired 
sometimes for hours before evacuating them. They were very active 
even at this early age, and seemed to know instinctively whom to 
regard as enemies, for they exhibited anger when molested ; and that 
they can make good use of their teeth, Father Dreckman's experience 
related above seems to exemplify. 

Those observed by Evans and me had tne navel perforate, and 
through this I passed a bristle into the abdominal cavity. Nicholson,* 
however, says they emerge from the egg with the navel closed. We 
found two ventral shields usually perforate, and from 21 to 24 ventral 
shields intervened between these and the anal shield. 

Legends. — There are various legends connected with this snake. 
In some parts it is addicted to sucking cows, and apropos of this it is 
very remarkable that a feat so manifestly impossible when the snake's 
mouth is examined, should have received credence in many countries in 
relation to several species of snakes. It would be impossible for a grasp 
to be maintained upon the teat without driving home many of the 
needle-pointed teeth, and inflicting an amount of pain no animal could 
passively tolerate upon so sensitive a structure. Others attribute to it 
the curious practice of putting its tail up the cow's nostril, and 
suddenly withdrawing it. What originated this strange belief, and 
what possible end it might fulfil, is hard even to speculate upon. 

Again, it is very generally believed among natives that the ratsnake 

mates with the cobra, and is in fact the male cobra, and it is surprising 

to me that even some educated English people seriously contemplate 

such an absurdity, and still further so firmly believe it, as to attempt 

• " Indian Snakes ", p. 128. 


to indicate tha truth of their assertions. I have more than once 
engaged in a heated discussion on this subject, but after listening to 
many assurances, the confession has been invariably elicited that the 
sexes of the supposed engaging parties had never been investigated ! 

I think the most convincing argument in disproof of this fable lies in 
the fact that there are beyond dispute both male and female cobras, 
and both male and female dhamans. One may assume they breed true, 
since no hybrid, as far as I am aware, has ever been recorded. The 
possibility of a hybrid I am not prepared to doubt in face of the fact 
that hybrids have been produced in captivity, the progeny of parents of 
din rent ophidian genera, but if the outrageous attachment between 
Mr. Dhaman and Mrs. Cobra were true, our museums should be well 
stocked with evidencas of their guilt. It is satisfactory to note, when 
redacting upon this alleged flagrant laxity of morals, that one never 
hears even a whispered imputation breathed by these scandalmongers 
against the characters of Mr. Cobra and Mrs. Dhaman. 

The Ravd. Mr. John appears to have originated the idea of an attach- 
ment betwaen the cobra and the dhaman, for Kussell says, Mr. John 
told him, speaking of the dhaman, that it wns often found in company 
with the cobra. The fact is these snakes are of similar habit, and seek 
out similar quarters, but companionship is merely a matter of accident. 

Kusseb* says : The natives say it is not dangerous, but assert that 
its bite occasions blindness in persons over forty ! Again he says the 
Hevd. Mr. John tells him that the sharpness of its scales sometimes does 
harm to rice grounds! 

Distrih'ition. — Its range of distribution is very extensive. It is found 
throughout the whole Indian Peninsula, from Ceylon in the south to the 
Himalayas in the north. On the west it extends through Haiputana, 
and Sind to Afghanistan, and Transcaspia. In the east it ranges 
through Burma, and the whole Malayan Continent to Southern China 
and Formosa. In the Archipelago it has only been recorded from Java. 
In almost every locality it is to be reckoned as one of the commonest 
snakes, at any rate in the plains. In upland regions it becomes scarcer 
as one ascends. It is common at moderate elevations ('V9PQ ft-)> arj d 
has been found up to 7,000 ft. (Sutlej Valley f) but is probably rarely 
met with much above this altitude. 

* "Ind. Serp., " Vol. IT. p. 21. 
t Stoliczka " Jourl. As. Soc, Bengal, " XXXIX, p. 185. 

Jouro- Bombay Nat. f-|lst. Soc. 

Diagram VII. 



A. S. 

Anterior sublinguals. 








Intern asal. 

P. S. 

Posterior sublingual* 















1 t08 




I to VI Infralabials. 

ZAMENIS MUCOSUS. (nat sizb) 



Blanford* remarks that it appears much less common in tbe Deccan 
proper, west of Nagpur, than it is to the eastward. 

Description. — Rostral, touches (5 shields, of which the anterior 
nasal sutures are largest, and ah out ^ greater than the internasals. 

InternasaU. — A pair. The suture between them \ to § that be- 
tween the prefrontal fellows ; f the internaso-prtefrontal suture, 

Prefrontals.— The suture between them rather greater than the 
przefron to-frontal suture. In contact with the inter nasal, posterior 
nasal, two loreah, praeocular, supraocular, and frontal. Fronal. — In 
contact with ('» shields, of which the supraocular sutures are the largest, 
and twice or more than twice the parietal sutures. Length subequal 
to supraojularj. Breadth subequal to or rather greater than the supra- 
oculars. Parwtah in contact with one postocular usually (rarely two). 
N.isils. — Two, lateral, completely divided. In contact with the 1st 
and 2nd supralabials. The nostril occupies the full depth of the suture, 
and is situated almost entirely in the posterior shield. Loreals. — Tluee, 
normally 1+i (rarely 2 4 or 5). Pra> ovulars— Two normally (rarely 
one), the lower wedged between the ord and 4th supralabials. Fvsto- 
cu'ars. — Two. Temporals. — Two ; the lower touching the (1th and 7th 
supralabials (sometimes the oth also). Supralabials S, the 4th and Mh 
touching the eye normally (sometimes 9 with the .oth and fith touch- 
ing the eye). I>tfi\da'ilds 5 touch the anterior sublinguals (rarely < ; ), 
tho first forming a suture together about half the length of that 
between the anterior sublinguals. The .oth and Gth touch the posterior 
sublinguals. The b'th is the largest of the series, and is as broad or 
broader than the posterior sublinguals, and in contact with 2 scales 
behini Scales. — Two heads lengths behind the head 17 ; midbody 17 
or 16; two heads lengths before the vent 14 or 12. All subequal 
except the last row which is largest. A pair of apical facets at the apes 
of each scale. K»els anteriorly (two heads lengths behind head) none ; 
midbody in I'rom l) to 6 or 7 rows ; posteriorly (two heads lengths before 
vent) in 2 to 10 rows. Absorption^ — In this snake two steps occur, 
the first in which the scales reduce from 1 7 to 10, and this is brought 

• .lourl. As. ^oc. I'engal, Vol. XXXIX, p. . ! »72. 
1 1 have already referred to the fact t'*at in som* snakes t l ie same number of rows of scales 
rersists th rou hout the body len^ih ; whilst in others it decreases Now the manner in 
which this reduction is effected is one of mnch irt rest from its varirioon in different sjif ciea, 
and it is surprising to me that this feature should have been altogether overlooked by other 


about by the absorption of the vertebral row into that adjacent to it 
on the left side. This occurs about the middle of the body, usually 
behind tho midpoint, sometimes however in front of it. Very shortly 
afterwards a further reduction takes place to 14, and this is brought 
about by the absorption of the 3rd row above the ventrals on both 
sides, into one of the adjacent rows {i.e., the 2nd or 4th). Should 
another reduction take place, as sometimes happens in the posterior 
part of the body, the 3rd row is again absorbed into the one above 
or below, and 12 rows are established. It rarely happens that the 
first two steps occurring closely together as they do are reversed. 
Supraeaudals are in even numbers. 6 rows in the middle of the tail, 
and dwindling to 2 at the tip. The absorption of these rows follows the 
rule, and the two uppermost or each side, keep on coalescing at each 
step. Keels end where the rows count 6 or 8. Apical facets are 
present in all rows to the tail tip. Ventrals. — 190 to 208 (Boulenger), 
somewhat angulate laterally. Only a part of the last row of scales 
visible on each side when the specimen is laid on its back. Anal 
divided. Subcaudals 95 to 135 (Boulenger), divided throughout. 

Our plate is excellent. The only remark I have to make is that 
the chin is shown too receding, and is probably to be explained l y 
some distortion from pressure against the glass in the specii > 
selected in the Museum. 


Since writing the above I have acquired some additional information 
with which I can supplement my original remarks. 

(1) Mr. Millard tells me he once saw a large dhaman up a wild 
date palm tree on Malabar Hill, Bombay, and from the excitement 
shown by the small palm squirrels there was no doubt what it was 
after. Recently in Fyzabad a specimen 6 feet 8 inches was brought 
me which was discovered high up in a tree, the attention of a passer-by 
having been called to it, by the noisy demonstrations of several birds. 
I found it contained two large chicks each 3| inches long in the 
stomach, and a larger one 4 inches long in the gullet. They were 
partially enveloped in their shells, which were of a uniform bright blue 
colour. They appeared to me to be much too large for crowchicks, and 
the colour of the eggs was not corvine. 

Journ. BombsuyN&t .Hist. Soc. 

Plate III 

T.Green del. Mintei-nBros.Chronvo. 


Zamems mucosas. 


(2) Mr. Millard further tells me that in the Society's cages in 
Bombay large specimens are so restless when captive, and strike so 
frequently at the wire netting, that they do not live long. 

(3) This receives abundant confirmation from this year's specimens. 
I find from my notes that whilst I have had 14 males measuring 
6 feet 6 inches and over, my largest female was only 6 feet 3 inches. 
In fact only 4 females reached the limit of 6 feet. 

(4) Another instance of this kind occurred this year. The baboo at 
the Fyzabad Club on the 2nd July sent me word there were two snakes 
in the garden close by. I went to investigate, but unfortunately a hue 
and cry had been raised among the tennis chokras, and they had taken 
shelter in some brushwood. The baboo told me that for many minutes 
he had been watching two large snakes, which, as he expressed it, " were 
playing very nicely." He described them as facing one another, and 
swaying their erected bodies to and fro. I made no doubt that this was 
a little love passage I had unfortunately missed, and I instituted a 
search with the result that I observed one dhaman glide from the spot 
indicated, and killed the other before it could escape me in the same 
spot. This proved to be a male 6 feet 9 inches long. The next day at 
the same spot the female was killed and brought to me, and 1 found 
she contained 12 large eggs, one typical of the rest, measuring 
1\ inches, and therefore nearly mature. She was 6 feet 1 inch in length. 
This again seems to show cohabitation long after impregnation, and if so 
establishes a bond of union one would hardly expect to find among 
reptiles. Another possible solution to this episode, however, may be that 
the male was pressing attentions upon the female, which her condition 
forbade her reciprocating and that in consequence she was really fight- 
ing, and not playing. This was suggested to me recently by a similar 
incident on the part of two buff-striped Keelbacks ( Tropidonotus 

(5) I have had two gravid females this year, 5 feet 2^ inches, and 
5 feet 5 1 inches, respectively. 

( To be continued.) 





By P. Cameron. 

Part II. 

{Continued from page 107 of this Volume.) 



Bassus Icetatorlus, Fab. 

This, now cosmopolitan species, has been taken at Peshin in April and at 
Quetta in May and June. It is probably common. 

Exetastes nitidus, sp. nov. 

Black, the apical half of the 1st aldcminal segment, the -whole of the 
2nd and . 9 rd and the b:.salthree-foutths of ihe 4th, bright red ; 1 lie legs red ; 
the coxae, basal joint of the 4 anterior trochanters, apical tl iid of bird tilia and 
the hind tarsi, black ; the hind spuis fuscous ; wings hyaline, the s.igma fuscous, 
the nervures black. 9. 

Length 1 1 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Face and clypeus strongly, closely punctured ; the front and vertex as 
closely, but not quite so strongly punclured ; ihe clypeus ch arly separated, 
obliquely projecting. Labrum rufous round the apex, distinctly, sparsely 
punctured. Base of mandibles strongly punctured, rufcus behind the apex. 
Mesnnotum shining, impunctate ; the metanotum closely, rugosely. irregularly 
reticulated-striaied ; tho pleurae closely, not veiy strongly punctured. Abdomen 
smo< th and shining: the sheaths of the ovipositor black. Ihe tiansverte 
cubital r.ervures unite in front ; the recurrent nervure is leceived in the middle 
of the areolet ; %\\p disco-cnbital is broken by a longibh stump ; the transverse 
median is interstitial. 'J ibise and tarsi thickly spinose. 



O/jhion carinatus, sp. nov. 

Luteous, the eye orbits bioadly and the face | ale lemon-yellow ; the pleura 

tinged with yellow ; th* side3 of the middle lobe of mesonotum and the sides of 

the lateral yelb>w. Wings hyaline, the < osta and stigma pale tesia-eeus, ihe 

nervure* deep black : the transverse median nervure interstitial ; the stump oE 

a nervure nearly as long as the transverse cubital nervure ; the recuneni 


nervure is received almost, if not quite, opposite the commencement of the 
basal absoissa of the radius. Metanotum closely minutely puncmred, depmsed 
in the middle at the base ; behind the middle is an indistinct tiansverse keel ; in 
the centre of the apical third are 2 stout, parallel keels, united at the top by a 
transverse keel, which curves down between them and then roundly upwards 
at the sides ; on either side is a large triangular area, the narrowed end above. 
Metasternal keel stout at its base ; surrounding the base of the coxa?, is a 
stouter, mora irregular keel. The scutellum is long, nairow, dilated at the 
base ; the keels do not extend beyond the lateral slope. The recurrent neivure, 
in front, is bullated to near the middle ; there is a much shorter bulla on the 
disco-cubital nervure. Tomples nearly as long as the upper part of the eyes, 
slightly narrowed behind. Front depressed in the middle, stoutly keeled. $. 

Le gth 17 mm. 

Peshin. April. 

This species differs from the 2 others described here in its larger size in the 
large size and curved form of the stump on the disco-cubital nervure ; and 
in the 3 areas on the apex of metanotum. 

Ophion peshinensis, sp. nov. 

Pale luteous, the head pale yellow ; mesonotum with 3 obscure fuscous lines , 
wings hyaline, the costa and nervures black ; the stigma testaceous, paler at the 
base and apex ; metanotum closely, finely punctured, without any keels ; the 
tarsi strongly spinose. ft. 

Length 11 mm. 

Peshin. April. 

The stump on the disco-cubital nervure is half the length of the basal 
abscissa of the cubitus ; the recurrent nervure is received distinctly behind the 
commencement of the latter ; the transverse median nervure is almost intersti- 
tial. Front furrowed in the middle. Temples broad, roundly broadly nar- 
rowed behind. Scutellum long, narrowed towards the apex. Depression 
at base of metanotum narrow, curved. 

Ophion quettaensis, sp. nov. 

Pallid luteous, the head yellow ; the antennae rufrscent ; the me?onotum 
with 3 pale fuscous lines ; wings hyaline ; the costa and stigma pale testaceous, 
the nervures black ; behind the middle of the metar.otr.rn is a transverse keel : 
from its middle 2 keals run to the apex ; the basal depression is short, deep 
and it becon es gradually rarowed from the 1 ase to the apex. T here is a 
broad, blackhh stripe down the back of the 2nd and down the basal half 
of the 3rd. The stump on the disco-cubit il narvure is short ; the transverse 
melian is leceived almost behind the transverse basal; the recurrert nervure 
is received shortly, but distinctly behind tLe base of the apical abscissa of 
the radius. Tarsi sparsely spinose. 

Length 12 mra. 

Peshin. Airil. 


This is a paler, smaller species than peshinensis ; it is readily known from it 
by the transverse keel on the metanotum and by the elongated area on the 
apical slope. 

Nototrachus rufo-orbitalis, sp, nov. 

Black ; the eye orbits narrowly below, more broadly above dark rufous ; 
behind extending on to the ocelli ; and on it, opposite the ocelli, is a yellowish 
mark. The fore legs are fuscous tinged with yellow ; the 4 hinder black, their 
knees yellow ; the hind tibiae are fuscous on the inner side. Wings hyaline, the 
stigma and nervures blackish. $ . 

Length 7 mm. ; terebra 2 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Face and clypeus shining, sparsely punctured ; the front keeled down the 
middle, stoutly, irregularly obliquely striated ; the sides sparsely punctured ; 
the vertex is smooth and shining. Pronotum irregularly, transversely striated. 
Mesonotum stoutly, irregularly reticulated ; the middle lobe is broadly bor- 
dered by dark rufous. Scutellum transversely striated, almost reticulated ; 
the apical half is dark rufous; the sides are stoutly keeled, the keels meeting 
in the middle. Metanotum stoutly reticulated ; there is a smooth area, longer 
than wide, in the centre of the base. Pro- and mesopleurae, except the upper 
half of the latter at the apex, closely, stoutly, longitudinally striated, the 
strise running into each other ; the metapleurae stoutly longitudinally striated- 
reticulated. The upper part of the propleurse is broadly rufous. Abdomen 
smooth, bare, and shining. 

Tranosema f striata, sp. nov. 

Black, shining, the mandibles, except at the apex, and tegulse yellow ; palpi 
pale testaceous, black at the base ; legs fulvous, the coxae and basal joint of 
trochanters black ; the knees and anterior tibiae yellow. Wings clear hyaline, 
the costa and stigma pale testaceous, the nervures black. $ . 

Length 6 mm. 

Peshin. April. 

The upper two-thirds of the propleurse, the basal half of the mesopleura; 
except below the middle and the middle of the petiole above are finely and 
closely striated ; the metanotum is irregularly, more strongly striated and more 
or less punctured. Face aciculated, opaque, the clypeus smooth and shining. 
Eyes coarsely facetted, parallel, not converging above or below ; the malar 
space short, not much longer than the antennal pedicle. Front and vertex 
aciculated. Ocelli prominent ; the hinder separated from each other by about 
the same distance as they are from the eyes. Metanotum strongly aciculated 
or finely closely punctured ; it is areoiated in the middle ; the petiolar is twice 
longer than wide, narrowed gradually towards the apex, where it is half the 
length of the base ; the areola is more than twice longer than wide and ob- 


liquely narrowed at the base ; the apical slope is smoother and shining ; it is 
surrounded by a keel ; the spiracles are small, round. Abdominal petiole long, 
longer than the 2nd segment ; the post-petiole is dilated and clearly separated ; 
the spiracles are placed close to its middle ; the spiracles on the 2nd segment 
are placed shortly behind the middle. The abdomen is smooth ; not compress- 
ed, the middle not much narrower than the thorax ; the sheath of the ovi- 
positor projects, but not beyond the dorsal apex ; it is broad, stout ; the last 
ventral segment projects bluntly. Pterostigma thick, rounded behind ; the 
areolet is 5-angled, narrowed in front, receiving the recurrent nervure in the 
middle ; the transverse median nervure is interstitial. The radial cellule is 
short, widened and angled at the areolet ; the apical nervures in the hind 
wings are obsolete. Clypeus not separated from the face ; a large depression at 
the sides ; its apex broadly rounded. 

In the arrangement of Dr. Ashmead (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., XXI II, 95) 
this species runs into 1 ranosema. As, however, no complete description of that 
genus has been given, it is possible that it may not belong to it ; in that case, the 
species may form the type of a new genus. 

Tranosema f spilostoma, sp. nov. 

Length 6 mm. 9. 

Peshin, April. 

Similar in size and colouration to T. (?) striata, except that the apical half 
of the clypeus is reddish-fulvous, it differs otherwise in the thorax not being 
striated, nor is the petiole ; the petiolar area is not so wide at the base com- 
pared with the length ; the areola at the base is narrowed from the middle 
instead of from the basal third and is not so distinctly closed at the base ; the 
dilated part of the abdominal petii le is equal in length with the narrowed 
basal part, while in T. (?) striata the post-petiole is distinctly shorter than it : 
the transverse cubital nervures are united in front, while in striata they arc 
separated ; and the 2nd discoidal cellule is wider at the apex, compared with 
the base ; in striata it is not much more than twice ; in spilostoma, fully 3 times. 

Barylypa pilosella, sp. nov. 

Black ; the face, clypeus, the inner orbits to near the ocelli, the line obliquely 
narrowed above, the outer entirely, the basal half of the mesonotum on the 
sidis, the line continued on the outer side to the apex of the tegulse, scutellum, 
the lower half of the mesopleurae and the others almost entirely yellow; the 
yellow bordered more or less with rufous ; abdomen red, the basal half of the 
1st, a liue on the top of the 2nd, the apex of the 5th, the top and apex of the 
Gth and the 7th segments entirely, black. Four front legs yellow ; the middle 
trochanters and base of femora marked above with black ; hind legs yellow, the 
coxae above, the femora above and below, the tibiae above and below at the 
apex and the apical jjiats of tb.3 tarsi, black. Wings hyaline, the stigma 
testaceous, the nervures black ; the recurrent nervure interstitial. $ . 

Length 15 mm. 

Quetta. May. 


Antennal scape yellow, a black line above ; the basal joints of flagellnm 
black, tha rest brown. Head and thorax densely covered with long white pubes- 
cence. Front in the middle rugosely punctured, more or less obliquely 
striated above, the sides finely, closely, punctured ; there is a keel down the 
m'-ldls. The top, and tne bottom more broadly, of the outer orbits are ruf'.us. 
Mesonotum shining, sparsely punctured ; the tcutelhm h n oie strtrg- 
ly punctured. Metanotum irregularly reticulated-striaUd ; a tmcoth line down 
the centre. Pleurae closely, somewhat strongly punctured. The apical seg- 
ments of the abdomen are narrowly lined with yellow. 
Barylypa inter stitiulis, sp. nov. 

Black, the face, clypeus, orbits narrowly except on the top, a triangular 
mark on either side of the base of the mesonotum, tegulae, scutollum, the 
lower part of propleuras at the base, a large oblique mark on the lower part of 
the mesopleurae at the base, a much narrower one at the apex below and a 
large mark, obliquely narrowed above, on the apex of the metapleurse below, 
yellow. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th abdominal segments are rufo-testareous. Legs 
yellow, the middle coxae at the base, the hind coxae, trochanters above, base 
and apex of femora, a line on the inner side of the tibiae, en their outer side 
at the apex and the greater part of the tarsi, black, the hind femora dark 
red. Wings hyaline, the costa and stigma pale testaceous, the nervures black, 
antennae black, brownish towards the apex. £. 

Length 9 mm. 

Quetta. August. 

Head and thorax closely punctured, the mesonotum more shining and 
sparsely punctured ; thickly covered with white pubescence. Metanotum 
irregularly longitudinally striated, more weakly and irregularly transversely 
striated, the 2 striations forming irregular reticulations. Metapleuras more 
closely, rugosely punctured than the rest. 

Barylypa rufo-lhteata, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax yellow, the vertex, occiput more broadly, 3 broad lines on 
the mesonotum, the central extending from the base to the apex ; the lateral 
commences at the middle and reaches to the apex, the parts at the sides of 
scuteliums, base of metanotum, the upper part of pleural and the breast 
rufous. Abdomen ferruginous, the top of the i!nd segment black. Four front 
legs pale yellow, the femora rufous below ; the hind coxae, trochanters and 
femora rufous, the troch mtars marked with yellow and black, thea - tibias 
yellow on the outer side, blackish on the inner, the tarsi black above, dark 
rufous below. Wings hyaline, the stigma dark fulvous-testaceous, the nervures 
black. 9. 16 mm. 

Antennal scape yellow ; the flagellum rufous, marked with black at the base. 
Head and thorax thickly covered with L-ngish whit<i pubescence. Front strong- 
ly punctured, obliquely striated below the ocelli, the vertex is less strongly 
punctured. Mandibles yellow, the teeth black, rufous behind. Mesonotun? 


sparsely punctured at the base, more closely and strr ngly at the apex ; its 
apical slojie is strongly, closely transversely striated. Metanr turn coaitely 
reticulated, the apical slope furrowed in the middle. Pro- aid mepopleuiaj 
closely, strongly punctured; the metapleurse coarsely reticulated. Recurrent 
nervure interstitial, the transverse median received shortly beyond the trans- 
verse basal. 

Burylypa variomala, sp. nov. 

Rufous, the face, clypeus, mandibles, palpi, an almost interrupted line on the 
upper inner orbits, the outer narrowly above and below, broadly in the middle, 
a large mark, longer than broad, on the sides of the mcsonoium at the base, 
scutellum, a large mark on the sides of the median segment, a large ( ne on the 
base and apex of the mesopleuraa and the greater part of the metapleurse 
yellow ; the vertex broadly, the occiput still more broadly, a mark, of equal 
width throughout on the base of the mescnotum, between the yellow marks, a 
small mark on the sides at the apex, the space at the sides (if the scntelkm, ihe 
metanotum except the sides before the apex, the me^osternum, the base of the 
metapleurse and a line on the top of the 2nd abdominal segment, black. Four 
front legs yellow ; the middle femora rufous, black at the base, the hind 
blackish; the coxa? and the greater part of the femora rufous; the bare of 
the tibiae p;.le. 

In tbe 2 examples I have examined the amount of black varies ; in ore 
specimen there is no black on the occiput, nor on the apex of the meianoU m ; 
and the hind legsaie mor^ largely marked with Aellow. The punctuation on 
the head and thorax is sparsw ; the apex of the mesonotnm is closely transversely 
striated; the metanotum is irregularly longitudinally striated, rr.oie or less 
reticulated in ihe laiger specimen. The recurrent nervure is interstitial ; it is 
bullated to below the middle, the wings in the smaller example are slightly 
tinged with fulvous. 9. 

Length 10- 1 2 mm. 

Quetta. June (the large example), .August (the smaller). 

Barylyjia erythrocera, sp. nov. 

Rufous, the eye orbits broadly, antennal scape, face, clypeus, mandibles 
palpi, the sides of mesonotum near the base, ecutellum and the pleuia laigdy. 
yellow. The apex of the hind tibiae broadly and more narrowly on the inner 
side above and the greater part of the hind tarsi, black. V ii gs hyaline, the 
stigma pale testaceous, the nervures black ; the recurrent nervure interstitial. 9 

Length 8 mm. 

Que ta. August. 

Face and clypeus c'osely punctured ; the front and vertex are much more 
strongly punctured. Pro- ad mesothorax closely punctured, the pleurae more 
strongly than tbe mesoi oium ; the apex of the latter is transversely striated. 
Metanotum smooth on either side at the base, the rest transveisely reticulated, 
depressed in the middle, the nietapleurse irregularly rugose. 


The wings are slightly tinged with fulvous, and highly iridescent. 
The 5 species of Barylypa from Baluchistan may be separated thus : — 

1 (4) The greater part of the head, thorax and apex of abdomen 


2 (3) Large (15 mm.) the pleuree yellow, black above, the flagel- 

lum of antennae rufous, the basal two segments of abdomen 

iuf«'us „ pilosella. 

3 (2) Small (9 mm.) the pleurae black, with 3 yellow marks, the 

antennas black, the basal 2 segments of abdomen for the 

greater part bl*ck ••.. interstitialis. 

4 (1) The greater part of the body rufous. 

5 (6) The mesonotum am: baae of metanotum maculate wiih black., variornata. 

6 (5) The mesonotum and metanotum not maculate wit h b'aek. 

7 (8) Large (16 mm.) the mesonotum yellow, with 3 rufous lines, 

mesopleurse yel'ow, rufous above and below rufo-lineata. 

8 (7) (Small 8 mm.), the mesonot'm rufous, yellow laterally ab the. 

base; mesopleuras rufous, with 2 yellow marks..... erythrocera. 

Limnerium quettaense, sp. nov. 

Black, the legs bright red, the 4 anterior coxae tinged with yellow, black 
above, the hinder black ; mandibles and tegulae pale yellow ; palpi rufo-test- 
aceous. Wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures dark fuscous ; the areolet 
has a distinct pedicle, is somewhat larger than usual, 4 angled, developed behind 
and receiving 'the recurrent nervure in the middle. 9 and#. 

Length 7-8 mm. 

Base of metanotum closely punctured ; the areola small, square, with thick 
shining keels ; the posterior median area is closely, strongly, regularly trans- 
versely striated ; the lateral area is more strongly, irregularly, and more widely 
striated ; below it becomes narrowed to a sharp point and does not extend 
to the apex ; the apical slope is distinctly depressed. Face roundly dilated, 
opaque, minutely punctured ; it and the clypeus are thickly covered with long 
white pubescence ; front and vertex minutely, closely punctured. Abdomen 
smooth and shining. 

The basal lateral area is not clearly defined, nor is the apical distinctly sepa- 
rated from it ; the apical slope is more depressed than usual. 

Limnerium forticarinatum , sp. nov. 

Black, the legs, except the coxae, red, the hind tarsi, except at the base, 
infuscated ; the spurs pale ; the mandibles, except at the apex, and the palpi 
yellow ; wings hyaline, the stigma fuscous, the nervures black ; the tegulpe 
yellow. $. 

Length 6 mm. 

Quetta. March and August. 

Head alutaceous, the face, cheeks and lower outer orbits densely covered 
with longish white pubescence. Pro- and mesothorax alutaceous, covered 
with short white pubescence, the post-scutellum with a fovea on the sides at 
the base. Metanotum deeply depressed at the base ; the areola large, distinct ; 


the lateral keels stout, uniting at the base, becoming gradually roundly widened 
to the apex, which is closed by a narrow, not very distinct, transverse keel ; the 
keels of the areola are continued round the outer edges of the apical slope ; from 
the outer side of the base a less distinct keel runs to the central keel, uniting 
with it near its apex, the metanotum is finely closely rugose ; the apical slope 
is strongly, closely, transversely striated ; the striae are somewhat twisted. On 
the metapleurB3 the spiracular region is bounded above and below by a stout 
keel ; beyond the spiracles this area bears somewhat stoutish, more or less 
broken striae ; the median segment densely covered with longish white pubes- 
cence. Areolet with a longish pedicle ; the outer transverse cubital 
nervure is longer and more roundly curved than the inner ; the areolet projects 
below angularly ; the recurrent nervure is received distinctly beyond the 

The median segment at the base is broad, clearly separated from the apical 
slope, which is almost perpendicular. In L. quettaense the slope is gradually 
rounded from the base to the apex, the segment thus appearing shorter ; 
quettaense has not a distinct areola, the apical slope is more depressed in the 
middle and not so strongly striated ; it is a larger species and the 4 anterior coxae 
and trochanters are red, not black as they are in the smaller species. The 
latter, too, has not a petiolar area as has the larger species, in which also the 
areolet is larger and the recurrent nervure is received in its middle. 
Limnerium parvicarinalum, sp. nov. 

Black ; the antennal scape reddish yellow below ; the legs red ; all the coxae, 
the 4 anterior trochanters at the base narrowly, the basal joint of the hinder, 
the apex of the hinder tibiae and the hind tarsi except at the base narrowly, 
black ; the 4 anterior tibiae and tarsi largely tinged with yellow ; the base of 
the hind tibiae and of the hind tarsi pale yellow ; wings hyaline, the nervures 
and stigma black ; the areolet 4-angled ; the nervures meeting in front ; there 
is a distinct pedicle, half the length of the apical nervure, which is largely 
bullated below ; the recurrent nervure is received in the middle ; the transverse 
median nervure is received shortly beyond the transverse basal. $ . 

Length 7 mm. 

Quetta. June. 

Median segment closely rugosely punctured, thickly covered with longish 
white pubescence ; the apical slope depressed in the middle, coarsely irregularly 
striated ; there is a broadly curved keel in the centre of the base. Upper 
half of propleura? closely rugosely punctured ; the lower half stoutly striated, 
the striae clearly separated ; the meso- and metapleurae closely finely rugosely 
punctured ; the latter more strongly than the former, which, on the upper 
apical half, is strongly longitudinally striated ; its lower part bordered by a 
crenulated furrow. The upper part of the metapleurae is closely, oblique- 
ly, not very distinctly, striated. Face opaque, alutaceous, thickly covered 
with white pubescence ; the clypeus obscurely punctured, the front and vertex 
closely punctured. Mandibles black. Palpi pale yellow. 


The 3 soecies of Limnerium here described may be separated thus : — 

a Metanotum not areolated, only a short, curved transverse keel at 

the base ; the transverse median nervure not interstitial ... parvicarinatum, . 

b <5 . Metanotum more or less areolated, the transverse median ner- 
vure interstitial. 

Pedicle ofareolet ha'f the length of the basal transverse cubical 
nervurp ; the 4 anterior coxse and trochanters reddish-yellow; 
apical si' pe of metanotum irregularly, transversely, strongly, 
but not clo=ely, striated quettaense. 

Pedicle of areolet longer tha" the basal transverse cubital nervure, 
the 4 anterior coxse and trocha ters for the greater part b'ack ; 
apicil slopif* of metanotum closely regularly tran versely stri.ited, 
the stria? curved „ forticarivatum. 

Paurohxis, gen. nov. 

Wings without an areolet ; the recurrent nervure received shortly beyond the 
transverse cubital. Radial cellule short, not reaching to the middle of the 
apical margin of the wing ; stigma wide, triangular. Cubitus and discoidal 
nervures obsolete ; transverse median nervure interstitial ; 2nd discoidal cdlule 
at the base about one-fourth of the width of the apex. Apical r.ervures in 
hindwings obsolete. Metathoracic spiracles round. Metanotum completely 
areolated ; the areola twice longer than wide, the base narrowed to a point, 
the apex transverse. Apex of clypeus rounded ; it is indistinctly separated 
from the face in the middle ; distinctly laterally by an oblique furrow- Meso- 
pleurre with a crenulated furrow above the middle. Abdomen not strongly 
compressed, stout ; the petiole long, its basal third narrowed, the apical part 
dilated ; it is smooth and has an elongated ovipositor. Eyes bare, large ; malar 
space as long as *he antepnal scape Claws simple. Basal joint of hind tarsi 
about as long as the following 3 united. 

There are i> arere on the metanotum in 3 rows, besides the spiracular, 
which is not closed on the outer side ; the petiolar is twice longer than the 
width at the base ; it is narrowed to a point at the arex. Fore tarsi twice the 
le 'gth of the tibia). Head transverse, narrowed behind ; wider than long. 
There is no malar furrow. The areola of metathorax is closed all round. 

In the A.shmeadian-Foersterian system this genus would come near Zoporus, 
which has the claws toothed. The absence of the apical nervures in both 
wings, the short radial cellule, long abdominal peticle sharply narrowed 
at the base and transverse head, with short temples are probably characteristic 
points of distinction. 

Pauroleosis flavus, sp. nov. 
Pallid yellow, a conical mark in the depression above each antenna, 3 large 
lines on the mesonotum, the larger being the central, a transveise mark on the 
base of the scutellum, a line round its sides and apex, a line, dilated in the 
middle, on the bass of the metanotum, a transverse mark at the top of the 
mesopleural furrow, a longer at the lower part ; 2 marks, above and below, on 
the base of the prothorax and the greater part of the meso« ai>d metasternum 


bliick. The base of the abdominal petiole, a large mark, commencing behind 
its middle and reaching close to the apex, the basal part narrow, not reaching 
to the sides ; a line along the base of the 2nd segment continued along the 
sides to near the ap< x ; from the centre of the basal strij e cne, of similar size, 
runs down the middle to a large transverse band in the middle of the segment : 
there are broad black bands on the base of the 3rd and 4th segments following 
by broad brownish red ones ; similar but much narrower bands are on the 5th 
and 6th. Legs coloured like the body, the hind trochanters, femora and tibia; 
marked with black. Wings hyaline, iridescent, the stigma pale in front, fuscous 
behind ; the nervures black. 9 . 

Length 7-8 ; terebra 3-4 mm 

Except the metanotum, which is distinctly, but not closely punctured, the 
body is smooth, shining and almost bare ; the posterior median atea is 
transversely striated ; its basal half is obliquely narrowed ; the I asal lateral 
area is wider than long ; the central about 3 times longer than wide, the apical 
not much longer than wide. 


Pimpla nursei, sp. nov. 

Black ; the legs bright red, the 4 anterior coxse black ; the knees pnle yellow ; 
wings hyaline, the costa and nervures black, the stigma fuscous, white at the 
base ; the tegulse whitish yellow. 9- 

Length 12 ; terebra 10 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Face shinng, roundly dilated in the middle, distinctly, but not closely 
punctured, thickly covered with dark fuscous pubescence. LaVrirr pale. Palpi 
black. Thorax shining, closely, strongly punctured ; the base of the metanotum 
is more stiongly, but not so strongly punctured ; in its centre is a 
depression, about one half longer than wide and with raised sides ; the apical 
slope is closely, somewhat irregularly transversely striated; the upr er half of 
the metap'eurse is stioi gly closely, the lewer much more sparsely punctured ; 
the iwo parts being separated below the spiracles by a keel. Abdomen strong- 
ly and closely punctured , the punctuation becoming gradually weaker ; the 
apices of the segments are smooth and shining. The tibiae and tarsi are 
thick'y covered with white pubescence, which makes them appear paler than 
the femora. The areolet is almost appendiculated, the nervures uniting 
in front. 

Lassunola baluchistunensis, sp. nov. 

Head and thorax yellow, largely marked with black ; the abdomen rufous ; 
the base of the 1st segment broadly, its apex more narrowly and the apices of 
the '2nd and 3rd segments still noie narrowly, yellow. Legs — the 4 anterior 
yellow, sufusi d with fulvous; the femora narrowly streaked with black ; the 
hind legs rufous, the cox 83 aid yellow, the forner on the inner 
side largely black, on the outer basal half with a large brown n ark W >ngs 


hyaline, the apex with a smoky cloud ; the areolet shorter than the pedicle, 
triangular ; the recurrent nervure received at the apex. $?• 

Length 12 mm. : terebra 10 mm. 

Quetta. July. 

Antennae rufous, the scape yellow below ; the basal joints of the 
flagellum blackish. Head covered with a sparse, minute pale pile ; the 
centre of the front and a mark on the vertex wider than long, united 
to a wider one on the occiput, black. Face closely, the front and vertex 
more strongly, but not so closely punctured. Thorax somewhat strongly and 
closely punctured ; on it the following parts are black : on the centre of the 
mesonotum is a black line of equal width and about 3 times longer than 
wide, a slightly broader line round the sides of the apical two-thirds and 
round the apex, the sides of the scutellum, a large triangular mark on 
the sides of the metanotum, extending shortly beyond the middle, its outerside 
straight, the inner rounded ; the base of the mesopleura, an oblique line under 
the tubercles, the apex, the line dilated above the middle, a curved line on 
the sides of the mesosternum, the metasternum and the extreme apex of the 
median segment, black. 

The transverse median nervure is received very shortly beyond the transverse 
biisal. Tarsi spinose. 



Cryptus violaceotinctus, sp. nov. 

Black, a large yellow mark on the apex of clypeus ; the femora, anterior 
tibiae and the abdomen, except the petiole, red ; the wings hyaline, tinged 
with violaceous, especially at the apex. $ . 

Length 15 mm. 

Quetta. April. 

Face closely, strongly punctured, thickly covered with long white pubes- 
cence. Clypeus shining, smooth, punctured in the middle ; the apex depressed. 
The lower inner orbits have a pale narrow border. 

Front furrowed down the middle, strongly obliquely striated, except on the 
lower outer edge, where it is smooth and shining. Mesonotum somewhat irregu- 
larly punctured ; the apical slope striated finely and closely in the middle, the 
sides smooth. Metanotum closely rugosely reticulated punctured, the reticu- 
lations more distinct between the keels. Propleurae closely rugose, striated 
in the middle. Mesopleurse rugosely punctured above; the middle closely, 
obliquely reticulated-striated ; the lower part shining, impunctate, irregularly 
aciculated. Areolet large, almost square, slightly converging in front ; the 
transverse median nervure is received very slightly behind the transverse basal, 
almost interstitial. 

The middle tibias are rufous below ; the parapsidal furrows deep, crenulated 
closely, the calcaria dark testaceous ; the pubescence on the head and thorax 
is dense, short, pale ; the 2 transverse keels on the metanotum are stout. 


Major Nurse has taken a Cryptus in Kashmir which is closely allied to tin- 
above. The two may be separated readily. 

Abdominal petiole red; apex of abd< men blue-black; anterior tibiae 
black • «••••«■«« nwaei. 

Abdominal petiole black, apex of abdomen red ; anterior tibiae red violaceotinc'".< 

I give here a description of C. tmrsei. 

Cryptus nursei, sp. nov. 

Black, the basal 3 segments of the abdomen, the base of the 4th and the 
femora red ; the apical segments of the abdomen tinged with blue ; the wings 
hyaline, distinctly tinged with violaceous, the nervures and stigma black. 9. 

Length 15 mm. ; terebra 8 mm. 

Kashmir— 8— 9,000 feet. June. 

Face and base of mandibles thickly covered with long white pubescence : 
the clypeus with longer black hair ; the face closely punctured ; the clypeus 
more shining and more sparsely punctured. Front deeply excavated, strongly 
transversely striated and with a keel down the middle ; the strias on the upper 
half are stronger, more oblique and curved ; the inner orbits are bordered by 
a pale coloured keel. Mesonotum shining, strongly but not closely punctured ; 
th3 middle lobe at the base closely transversely striated, as is also the apical 
slope. Scutellum sparsely punctured. 

Metanotum closely rugosely punctured ; the space between the keels in the 
middle irregularly, stoutly, more or less longitudinally striated, its sides closely 
reticulated, strongest below at the tooth. Pleurae closely, strongly rugosely 
punctured ; the punctuation on the mesopleurge runs into reticulation. Abdo- 
men smooth and shining. Areolet large, about one-fourth longer than wide, 
angled below where the recurrent nervure is received shortly beyond the 

Phcedrophadnus, gen. nov. 

Areolet large, not much longer than wide, the sides not converging in front ; 
ransverse median nervure received beyond the transverse basal ; transverse 
median nervure in hind wings broken in the middle. Median segment short, 
obliquely depressed at the base, strongly, closely striated ; there are 2 transverse 
keels ; its spiracles longish oval, about two and a half times longer than wide. 
Abdominal petiole long and slender, not dilated at the apex, the post-petiole not 
being defined. Tarsi spinose, a number of spines at the apices of the joints, 
the tarsi in the ft have the 3rd and 4th joints marked with white. The 
antennas are of uniform thickness in the 9 > m the ft they are slightly 
narrowed towards the apex. There is a distinct malar space ; it is nearly as 
long as the antennal scape. Clypeus roundly convex, but not separated from 
the face by a suture. 

Comes nearest to Acroricnus-Linoceras, Taseh., which may be known from it 
by the metathorax not being striated. Also to Bathy crisis, Cam., from Ceylon ; 
that genus is easily separated by the interstitial transverse basal nervure. by 


the disco-cubital nervure being broken by a stump and by the transverse 
median nervure in hind wings being broken distinctly below the middle. 

Phmdroph acinus striatus, sp. nov. 

Black, shining, the basal 4 segments of the abdomen, the 4 anterior femora, 
tibiae and tarsi, tbe hind femora and base of h r.d tibiae broadly, red ; the 10th 
and 11th joints of the antennas white ; wings hyaline, the stigma and nervures 
black. 9 and $. 

Length 7 mm. ; terebra 1-5 mm. 

Quetta. May and June. 

Face and c'jpeus strongly, closely punctured : tbe inner half of the malar 
space opaque, coarsely aciculated, the outer and the temples smooth and 
shining; the centre of the front strongly irregnJaily reticulated-striated. 
Temples very short, the occiput rounded. Pro- and mesothorax closely 
punctured, the pleurae more strongly than the upper futface ; the lower half of 
the propleurse striated ; the scutellum is more sparsely punctured, particularly 
in the centre. Base of metanotum obliquely depressed ; the centre is almost 
impunctate ; the sides closely punctured ; the space between the 2 keels is 
strongly longitudinally striated-reticulated ; the apical slope has the sides 
closely longitudinally striated-reticulated : the centre more irregularly trans- 
versely-obliquely striated. Abdomen smooth and shining. The palpi are for 
the greater part testaoeous. 

Th^ $ has a narrow elongated petiole like the 9 ; it m »y be black at the 
base to the middle. The stump of a nerve on the disco-cubital may be distinct, 
indistinct, or absent. 

Mesostenus tricarinatus, sp. nov. 

Black, the sides of the face broadly, the clypeus except at the apex, basal 
half of manlibles, the inner orbits narrowly, a short narrow line on the centre 
of the outer, the scutellar keels ; its sides broadly, the greater part of the 
tegulae and the tubercles, pale yellow ; the abdomen, except the base of the 
petiole, red ; the legs red, the posterior deeper iu tint than the others; the 
4 anterior coxae and trochanters whitish yellow except above ; the hind coxae, 
trochanters, apical third of tibiae, the basal joint of tarsi, base of 2nd and the 
apical, blaok ; the rest of the hind tarsi white. Antennae black, the apical joints 
brownish below. Wings clear hyaline, the nervures and stigma black. 9 • 

Length 8 mm. 

Quetta. May. 

Face and clypeus strongly punctured, thickly covered with white pubei-cerce. 
Front closely rugosely punctured, the punctures intcimbed with fne longitudi- 
nal striae ; there is a distinct keel down the middle- Vertex closely pur.ctured 
at, anl around, the ocelli ; the sides shining, sparsely, finely punctured. Pro- 
and mesothorax strongly, closely punctured ; covered with a white down. 
Scutellum more shining and much less closely punctured. Metanotum with 2 


stout transverse keels ; the apical more projecting backwards, in the middle ; the 
base is strongly punctured, with a smooth shining spf.ce on either fide of the 
middle ; the space between the keels is much more closely rugoecly punctured 
and more or less reticulated ; the apical slope is stoutly transversely stiiatcd, 
the striae beim? clearly separated. The melapleurae are more closely, rugonly 
punctured than the rest. Paraosidil furr< ws distinct. Abdomen smooth; the 
petiole long and slender. Hind coxae closely, strongly punctured. Areolet 
narrow twic^ longer than wide ; the recurrent nervure received at the apex. 
This is a Mesostenus sensu str. 


Fileanta rufo-cauda. sp. nov. 

Black, face, clypeus, mandibles except at extreme apex, a narrow line on the 
upper inner orbit-t. inner side of malar space, palpi, a line on the pronotum 
tubercles, tegulae. the basal two-thirds of the 2nd and 3rd abdominal segments 
the basal half of the 4th, the 4 front legs ; the hinder trochanters, base of 
tibiae broadly and the hind tarsi, bright lemon-yell >w ; the antennal flagellum, 
hind femora, apical two-thirds of hind tibiae, the 4th abdominal segment 
behind the black, and the 5th and 6th rufous ; the apical segments lemon- 
yellow as is also the antennal scape. Wings hyaline, slightly tinged with 
fulvous ; the stigma fulvous, the nervnres black. $ . 

Length 13 mm. 

Quetta May. 

Face and base of clypeus closely strongly punctured, thickly covered with 
short white pubescence, the apex of the clypeus smooth. Front rugosely 
punctured, more or less striated above; the vert x and occiput closely, distinctly 
punciured, the latter closely striaed above. Pro- and mesothorax closely, 
strongly punctured ; the mesopleurae more or less striated in the middle ; the 
metapleurae closely, strongly striated. M< tanotum closely strongly reticu ated- 
pumtured ; the areoli more distinctly reticulated ; it is large, almost square, 
slightly obliquely narrowed laterally at the base ; it is transverse there as also 
ai the apex; the 2 lateral areas and the petiolar are clearly separated. There 
are 3 areae on the apical slope. Areolet 5-angled, narrowed in front ; the 
transverse median nervure is received shortly beyond the transverse basal ; the 
disco-cubital nervure has a minute stump. 

This species is not unlike F. balteata, Cam., from Ferozepore ; the two may 
be known by the differences noted btbw. 

The nth and <!th abdominal segments bLick, the arpola narrowed at the 

apex, b s;il li ilf of petiole almost stuooih balteata. 

The 5th and 6th al dominal segxents rufous, tb? areola narrowed at the 

base, bisal half of petiole st ongly, closely, tr.mevereely striated ... rufo-cauda. 

The post-petiole in rufo-cauda is closeJy, strongly, longitudinally striated 
in the middle ; the sides are punctured ; the punctures intermixed with striae : 
the base of the petiole closely, strongly, transversely siriated. Gastrococli 


shallow, indistinct ; the base has a few longitudinal keels ; the apex is 
transversely striated. 


Epyris rugicollis, sp. noV. 

Black, shining ; the antennae, mandibles, the apex of the 3rd abdominal 
segment narrowly and the whole of the following, red ; wings hyaline, the 
anterior in front slightly tinged with fnlvous, the stigma and nervures pale 
fuscous, the parastigma white ; the posterior pair ciliated. 9. 

Length 8 mm. 

Quetta. June to August. 

Head about one-third longer than wide, shining, bearing distinct, clearly 
separated punctures, except between and at the sides of the ocelli ; the hinder 
ocelli are bordered by a deep furrow ; the hairs are sparse, long and pale 
fulvous. Temples as long as the eyes ; the sides of the occiput rounded. 
Malar space almost obsolete. Mandibles sparsely covered with fulvous hair ; on 
their upper half are 2 irregular rows of large punctures. Pronotum punctured 
like the head ; it is not quite so long as the latter ; the collar is distinctly 
separated ; closely finely, rugosely, punctured. Mesonotum smooth, irregularly 
punctured in the middle. Scutellum transverse at the base, gradually narrowed 
to a bluntly rounded point ; it is smooth, sparsely punctured on the sides and 
apex ; on the sides at the base is a deep somewhat oval fovea, longer than 
broad, and oblique. Metanotum not quite so long as the mesonotum and 
scutellum united ; there are 5 longitudinal keels, the central of which is 
prolonged to the apex of the segment ; outside the 5 is a less distinct, more 
twisted one which converges towards the central ones at the apex and runs 
through the striae ; between the keels are irregular transverse striae ; the sides, 
outside the keels, are closely, regularly transversely striated as is also, from near 
the top, the apical slope ; on the latter the upper striae are more irregular. Pro- 
and mesopleurae sparsely punctured, the latter more strongly than the former ; 
on the latter is a distinct curved, crenulated furrow, commencing near the 
top at the apex, curving back towards the base, then downwards to the middle 
coxae. Metapleurae strongly closely striated. Fore femora largely swollen, 
narrowed towards the apex ; apex of tarsal joints strongly spinose ; the femora 
and tibiae are sparsely covered with white hair, the metatarsus is thickly covered 
with white hair below. Of the apical alar nervures only the radius is indi- 
cated. The transverse median nervure is roundly curved outwardly, the upper 
part being more obliquely sloped than the lower ; the radius extends half way 
to the apex of the wing. 






P. Cameron. 
Tenth redinims. 

Ithogogastera hituberculata, sp. nov. 

Olive green, the vertex, the front, the mark irregularly narrowed towards 
the apex, it extending broadly behind to the middle of the eyes, the olive 
coloured space behind being gradually narrowed on the innerside, the 
mesonotum, median segment, back of abdomen, a broad, irregular mark 
bordering the breast, a straight line on the upper three-fourths of the apex 
of mesopleura3, upper part of metapleurae, antennae, their tubercles, the apex 
of the hind femora, and the tibiae and tarsi, black. Wings hyaline, the nervures 
and stigma black. There is a short olive line above each antennae, a longish 
triangular line on the apex of the pronotum, a longish triangular mark on 
either side of the apex of the middle lobe of the mesonotum, the scutellum, 
except for a curved line on the base, the sides and apex of the 2nd abdo- 
minal segment, a more irregular one on the apex of the 3rd, the sides and 
apex of the penultimate segment narrowly, its centre broadly, the apical 
segment and all the ventral surface are olive. Apex of mandibles broadly 
bl jck. Face smooth; the clypeus and labrum sparsely punctured. Basal half 
of clypeus deeply depressed, its apex broadly, roundly incised ; on either side of 
the top is a round, deep fovea. The antennas are bordered on the inner side by 
stout projecting tubercles, broadly rounded at the apex. Ocellar region raised, 
clearly separated from the centre of the vertex by a furrow, the latter being 
bounded laterally by deep furrows. Mesonotum and scutellum distinctly 
but not closely punctured ; the middle lobe of mesonotum deeply, widely 
furrowed. Basal segments of abdomen closely punctured. Pleurae and 
sternum closely, somewhat strongly punctured. 

The 4 anterior tibia? are only black above. Antennae stout, as long as the 
head and thorax united ; their 3rd joint is nearly as long as the following two 

Taken at an elevation of 6,000 feet in May. 

Alhalia leucostoma, Cam. 
Zeits. fixr Hymen, ii. Dipter., 1904, 108. 
Probably a common species. 
The Indian species of Aihalia may be separated thus : 

a. Hind tibiae entirely black proxi/na, El. 

b black only at the apex. 

1. — Abdomen spotted with black down the sides ; the 

apex of hind femora black... , nigromaculata, Cam. 


2. — Abdomen and hind femora not spotted with black. 

Antennas 13-jointed, mesonotum without black . . antennata, Cam. 
Antennas 11-jointed, sides of mesonotum black... hucostoma, Cam. 

Dosytheus kashmirensis, sp. nov. 

Black, the pronotum, mesonotum, basal 5 segments of the abdomen and the 
legs, except the apex of the hind tibiae and the hind tavsi, rufous, the red of 
the abdomen tinged with yellow ; wings hyaline, highly iridescent, the anterior 
tinged with fuscous ; the nervines and stigma black. £. 

Length 6 mm. 

May, at an elevation of 5-6,000 feet. 

Head, except for a large triangular space on the sides of the vertex, closely 
vugosely p unctured ; the sides of the vertex sparsely, strongly punctured ; its 
centre more closely punctured, clearly separated. Apex of clypeus broadly, 
distinctly, roundly bilobate. Labrum closely punctured, dark honey-yellow. 
Oral region fringed with long pale fulvous hair. Thorax stiongly and clcsely 
punctured ; the scutellum is more closely, rugosely punctured than the meso- 

There is a form with the thorax entirely black and with the apical half of 
the hind tibiae black. 

Chalets ornatijpes, sp. nov. 

Black, densely covered with silvery p nbescenoe, the tegulae and legs lemon- 
yellow ; the following parts of the legs black : the coxae and trochanters, the 
basal half of the middle femora above, the basal half of the hind femora 
on the inner side, their VI teeth and an irregular roundish mark near the 
middle on the outerside, black. Wings hyaline, the nervures black. 9 

Length 6 mm. 

5-6,0u0 feet, April and May. 

Front and vertex closely, rugosely reticulated, as are also the cheeks 
The centre of the face is irregularly reticulated ; there is a smooth plate 
dilated below, in the middle ; this central part is clearly limited and becomes 
gradually narrowed below. Clypeus smooth and shining ; it becomes gradually 
roundly narrowed above ; on the inner side above is a row of not very distinct 
foveas. Pro-mesonotum and scuteTam closely, strongly rugosely punctured, 
the punctures running into reticulaticns. Apex of scuteJlum broadly bilobate ; 
the part behind the lobes thickly covered with long pale fulvous pubescence. 
Metanotum stoutly, deeply reticulated, without a distinctly defined areola ; on 
the sides there is a short tooth near the base and a larger, broader, rounded 
one in the middle. The second and following segments of the abdomen are 
closely and strongly punctured and thickly covered with longish fulvous 
pubescence. Base of proplstuae above closely punctured -aciculated — striated, 
smooth bslow ; on ihi bass of the mesopleuros above is an elongated 
fovea followed by a round one ; below are 2 pairs of similar foveae ; the 


part below these becomes gradually obliquely dilated and is covered with 
deep round fovea? ; the depressed apex on the upper half is irregularly, widely 
striated ; the lower more strongly, closely and regularly striated. Metapleura 
coarsely, rugosely reticulated. 

The teeth on the upper half of the hind femora are more closely pressed 
together than the lower. 



Ephonites rufcornis, Cam. 

Zeits. fur Hymen, iind Dipter., 1905, 77. 

May, 5-600 feet. 

The $ has not been described ; it only differs from the $ in the antennai 
being longer, and in the usual differences in tie abdomen. I am not certain as 
to its exact systematic position. Nor am I certain if it will fit into any of the 
established tribes. I believe its true position is in the Banchini. 

Paniscus montanus, sp. nov. 

Rufous, the orbits broadly, the face, clypeus and base of mandibles yellow ; 
the wings hyaline, the costa and stigma testaceous, the nervures black. Face 
broadly, distinctly projecting in the middle ; the upper half with a broad longi- 
tudinal furrow ; it is separated from the clypeus by a broad, shallow furrow. 
Apical half of mandibles black. Ocellar region black. Pro- and mesopleurse 
closely finely punctured; the metapleursB closely obliquely striated ;thespiracnlar 
region, except at the base, somewhat more strongly obliquely striated. The 
depression on base of metanotum is narrow, curved, smooth ; the rest is closely 
strongly, transversely striated ; the apical slope is smooth, at the apex, above 
striated ; its sides bordered by a stout keel, which curves round inwardly at the 
top. The transverse cubital nervures almost unite in front ; the 2nd is largely 
bullated below ; it is almost interstitial with the recurrent nervure, which is 
broadly, roundly curved outwardly, from shortly below the top. Basal half of 
metasternal keel roundly dilated, above marked with a few keels. The stump 
on the disco- cubital nervure is minute. $. 

Length 17 mm. 

P. longitards, Cam., from Simla is paler, more yellowish in colour, the stri- 
ation on the metapleuras and spiracular region is much weaker and may be 
almost obsolete, the apex of the metanotum is irregularly striated, not smooth ; 
the face wants the longitudinal furrow. 

5-6,000 feet, May. 

Paniicus hashmirensis, sp. nov. 
Length 14-15 mm. $ 


Very similar to P. montanus but smaller ; the apex of the abdomen is inf us- 
cated ; the depression on the metanotum is wider and deeper ; there is no curved 
keel bordering the smooth apex of the metanotum ; there is a distinct stump of 
a nervure on the disco- cubital ; there is no furrow on the top of the face ; there 
is no transverse division between the face and clypeus. The upper bulla on 
the recurrent nervu re is large, the lower slightly smaller ; there is a distinct 
stump of a nervure on it. The head is for the greater part yellow ; the centre 
of the face is not clearly separated ; the clypeus is covered with long black 
hair, the mandibles rufous, black at the apex. The black ovipositor is longer 
than the apical o segments of the abdomen united. Metasternal keel wide, 
narrowed at the apex, margined, the top with a few obscui'e stria?. 


Cryptus nursei, Cam . 

(Journal, Bombay Natural History Society, Vol. XVII., p. 285.) 
8-9,000 feet. 


Gasteruption Jcashmirense, sp.nov. 

Black, the base of the anterior tibise narrowly, the basal half of the middle, 
a short line on the apex behind and a short band near the base of the hind 
tibiae, white ; wings hyaline ; the nervures and stigma black. $ 

Length 14 m.m. 

Kashmir, 8-9,000 feet, June. 

Occiput transverse, sharply margined. Temples rounded, not quite so long as 
the eyes. Ocelli large, placed in a curve, the hinder separated from each other 
by a slightly greater distance than they are from the eyes. The head is opaque ; 
the face and clypeus are densely covered with silvery pubescence. The upper 
tooth of the mandibles piceous. Thorax opaque; the pro- and mesopleur* 
irregularly and indistinctly reticulated ; the metapleurse, except above, widely 
reticulated. Metanotnm deeply, irregularly reticulated. Basal half of hind 
coxae rugosely punctured above, the apical closely transversely striated. 
Antennal scape twice longer than wide ; the 2nd joint is not much longer than 
wide ; the 3rd is not twice its length and not much more than half the length 
.of the 4th. Malar space nearly as long as the 2nd and 3rd antennal joints united. 
The 2nd cubital cellule is divided ; the lower cellule is completely closed at the 
apex and below ; its apex is largely prolonged, almost as far as the apex of 
the first cubital cellule. 

This species, G. haluchhtauense, Cam., and one or two undescribed Indian 
species of Gasteruption sensit str. are to be recognized by the second discoidal 
cellule being not only divided above, but closed below, the lower cellule in 
most species projecting forwards to or even beyond the apex of the anterior 
cellule. The nervures closing it may be bullated. 


By J. Desneux (Brussels). 

It will be remembered that in Vol. XV (1904) of the Society's 
Journal, page 44a, I gave a brioi" description of a new Termite from 
Kashmir, Termopsis Wroughtoni, the first Asiatic representative of 
the genus Termopsis. 

As I then said, the few specimens received from Mr. Wroughton 
were damaged when they reached me, and it was not possible therefore 
to give from them a complete and precise description. 

However, through the kindness of Mr. E. Radcliffe, of the Forest 
Service, who has procured me fresh material of the Termite in question, 
I am now able to describe it thoroughly. 

Although I am preparing a monographic work upon the whole 
family of Termitidae, I think it necessary to give here a full description 
of the Himalayan Termopsis, as there are many details of structure 
which could not be mentioned in the preliminary paper, and also as the 
latter includes some erroneous statements owing to the bad state of 
preservation of the specimens first examined by me. 

The genus Termop>sis (Heer) is characterized as follows : — 

Imago with antennae of 27-23 segments ; ocelli totally absent ; 
epistoma not prominent ; pronotum nearly flat, narrower than the 
head ; tibise with lateral spines j tarsi of peculiar structure : of four 
completely distinct joints, but in reality of five joints, of which the 2nd 
is but partly distinct from the first (see Fig. 3) ; a plantula between the 
claws of the tarsi ; cerci long, of 8-5 joints ; styli present in the male, 
well developed; wings large, loss than four times as long as broad;* 
subcosta present in the front wings ; radius strongly developed, with 
several branches to the costal border ; media running about the middle 
of the wing ; t the membrana occupied by reticulated nervures. 

Soldier, very robust, with large, rectangular, flat head. Eyes 
present and small, or rudimentary. Antennas of more than 20 segments. 

* The length of the wing being that of the membranous portion (not including the stump.) 
f The terminology of the wing- venation here employed is that of Comstoek and Needham 
now quite generalized. In my preliminary description of the Termopsis I made use of 
Hagen's old names of the veins, I must thus give here their equivalents : costal 6o>-</er=Costn 
of. Hagen, ra<£<!/s=:subcosta id., me<Zfa==Mediaaa id., c«&/7Ks=Subinediana id. The true 
mbcosta was not considered by Hagen as one of the principal veins in the Termites. 


Mandibles very strong, their inner margin furnished with teeth. 
Pronotum narrower than the head, nearly flat. Cerci and styli are 
1 ong or even very long. 

The workers appear to be larval in shape. 

In all castes the tarsi are of the same structure, but a plantula is 
present in the Imago only. 

The genus Termopsis was established by Heer in 1 849 for the 
reception of several fossil species from the amber of Oeningen (Prussia). 
In 1856, Hagen restricted Heer's genus by showing that several of his 
species had to be placed in Bodotermes, and in 1858, in the descriptive 
part of his Monograph of the Termites, he described the first living 
species, Termopsis anyusticollis, from California. At the same time 
Hagen also placed in this genus, although in doubt, a peculiar soldier 
from Central America formerly described by Walker under the mime 
Tennes occidcntis. I am, however, convinced that this does not really 
belong to Termopsis, a question which can be ultimately confirmed by 
the discovery of the winged form. 

It was therefore a matter of the greatest interest to me to see that 
there wa also a living Termopsis in the Indian Region, and I was 
most astonished that such a large and peculiar "white ant" had 
remained so long unknown. 

Termopsis Wrovghtoni, Desneux, Journal, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

XV, 1904, p. 445. 
= r fermopsts Radcliffei, E. Radcliffe, Indian Forester, 1904, 
p. 412. 
Winged Imago. — Length of the body about 11 millimetres, to the tip 
of the wings 25 mm. 

Head large, rounded, the upperside nearly flat, sometimes with the 
centre very slightly depressed, rather dark reddish-brown, darker in 
front ; the Y-suture distinct. 

Antennse long, longer than the head and pronotum, of 24 or 25 
segments; the 1st segment large, cylindrical; the '2nd smaller than the 
1st but always longer than the 3rd ; the 3rd to 5th segments variable 
in length : in some cases the 3rd is but little shorter then the 2nd, in 
others it is much shorter, being broader than long ; the 4th is either 
subequal to the 5th or longer, or shorter ; the segments beyond the 5th 
are more or less conical, differing but little in length, becoming more 
slender towards the apex of the antenna. 


Eyes very large but not very prominent, close to the base of the 

antennae, of quite unusual form amongst 

the Termitidse : the anterior border being 

broadly emarginated so that the eye 

appears to be almost reniform (Fiji. 1) 
Fig. 1—Termopsis W rough- L1 / \ 6 /■ 

loni, side view of Imago's head. Ocelli wholly absent. 

Pronotnm narrower than the head, nearly flat, the antero-lateral 
angles somewhat depressed with the border raised ; nearly trapezoidal 
in form, narrowed behind; anterior margin nearly straight, very 
slightly emarginated in the middle, the sides slightly curved, the 
posterior angles obtuse, the posterior margin nearly straight, obscurely 
concave. The pronotnm is red dish- brown, not so dark as the head. 

Meso- and metanotum paler than either the pronotum or the abdomen, 
yellowish; broad, the posterior margins but little concave, nearly straight. 
Anterior wing-stumps much larger than the posterior but not over- 
lapping them and even not reaching their base;* the border nearly 
straight. Wings large, less than 4 times as long as broad, the mem- 
brana almost uncoloured, slightly yellowish. The following description 
of the veins applies to the anterior wings : costal border nearly straight 
becoming curved towards the ap^x; ; subcosta present but short, un- 
branched, very close to the costal border which it reaches at some 
distance from the end of the stump; radius strongly developed, emitting 
two long branches from the stump, the first one reaching the costal 
border before the middle, the second bsyond the middle ; the radius 
emits further about 7 oblique branches towards the costal border in its 
apical half, the end ones anastomosing. 

While the radial veins are strong and coloured yellow, the remaining 
veins are faint and uncoloured. 

Media slightly concave, the greatest distance between it and the ra- 
dius being about the middle; it divides generally in its second half 
(sometimes, however, before the middle), emitting 5 or 6 principal 
branches to the posterior border. 

Cubitus reaching beyond the middle of the posterior border, emitting 
10 or 11 oblique branches, mostly unbranched, the 5 or 6 first ones 
very close one to the other, the othnrs more distant. 

* In drie.) , shrivelled specimens, the • nterior »ing stumps may seem to reach the base of 
the posterior ones, but this is not the case in well-preserved specimens, nor consequently in 
the living ones. 


The membrane of the wing occupied by a fine, distinct reticulation. 

Length of anterior wing (without the stump) 20 millimetres, breadth 
of the same, 5*8 mm. 

Legs of moderate size ; femora broad ; tibiee with distinct lateral 
spines ; tarsi of the typical generic structure, with a plantula between 
the claws. 

Abdomen yellowish-brown. 

Oerci very long, much longer than in any other known termite, of 
7 or 8 segments, the last segment often a little longer than the two 
preceding ones together. The styli of the male are also the longest 
known, unsegmented, longer than (or at least as long as) the last seg- 
ment of the cerci. 

Soldier. — Length with mandibles 17-20 millimetres. 

Head large and robust, depressed, flat, somewhat longer than broad, 
nearly rectangular, the sides being nearly straight and very slightly 
converging anteriorly ; reddish brown, darker in front, this darker 

anterior portion of the head 
being limited by the diverg- 
ing branches of the Y 
suture. The posterior border 

Fig. 2—Termopsis Wroughtoni. Soldier ol the head is distinctly 
(enlarged). sinuate as shown in figure 2. 

The eyes are present, black, small, ovate, not at all prominent and 
without facettee. These eyes, though well distinct, are of course at a 
notably reduced stage. 

Antenna? long, of 23 or 25 segments (sometimes 22) ; the basilar 
segment is large ; the 2nd a little longer than the 3rd, which is shorter 
than the 4th ; the 5 following ones about increasing a little in size 
towards the apex; those beyond becoming more slender towards the 

Labrum of moderate size, a little longer than broad. 

Mandibles extremely robust, a little (in some cases very little) shorter 
than the head, black with the base often slightly reddish, the inner 
margin of both the right and the left with very strong teeth of peculiar 
irregular outline ; the mandibles are nearly straight, with the tip in- 
curved and acute. 

Length of the head with mandibles 7-9*5 mm. ; mandibles 
alone 3*6 — 4'5 mm. 


Pronotum narrower than the head, nearly flat, the anterior nun gin 
irregularly convex, the postero-lateral margins converging, the posterior 
margin nearly straight. Meso- and metanotnm as broad as the pronotum, 
their posterior margins subconvex; metanotum shorter than the 
mesonotum which is almost as long as the pronotum. The, meso- 
thoracic and metathoracic epimera have the peculiar form of triangular 
appendices, externally free, prominent lobes. These I erroneously 
described in my former paper as wing rudiments, and, in fact, in the 
shrivelled specimens I had then under the eyes they quite looked like 
small alar lobes of the meso- and metanotum, but in well preserved 
specimens it is at once evident that they are lateral pieces of the thorax, 

peculiarly modified epimera. Legs 
robust, femora broad ; tibiie with dis- 
tinct lateral spines, tarsi without 
plantulse. Abdomen rather long. 

Fig. 6. — rcrmopsis II rong/Uoni. l a 

Tarsus of a Soldier (much enlarged). yellowish grey. 

The cerci are slender and of very great length, nearly as long as the 
tibiae of the intermediate legs (sometimes a little longer, sometimes a 
little shorter) consisting of 6 or 7 long segments, the last one the 
longest. In some cases the cerci appear to have 5 segments only, but 
there are then always traces of a division of the first one. 

Styli very large, longer than the last segment of the cerci. 

Amongst the specimens collected by Mr. Eadcliffe, there are numer- 
ous nymphs 11 mm. long, with more or less developed wing buds, 
and also a number of specimens similar in shape to the nymphs, 
10-11 mm. long, with distinct scars at the posterior borders of the 
meso- and metanotum, as if the wing buds had been broken there. 
These individuals are perhaps used as workers ; their head is a little 
larger than that of the nymphs. 

All nymphal individuals have the peculiar lobed epimera at the meso- 
and metathorax like the soldiers, but not the winged Imagos. 

There can be no doubt that this species really belongs to the genus 
in which I have placed him, all the important characters are typical ; bu 
on account of several peculiarities (form of the eyes in the Imago, wing- 
stumps, etc.) I have recently established for him a distinct subgenus, 
Archotermopsis (see Desneux, Termitidce in " Genera Insectorum," 
XXV, 1904, p. 13.) 

Habitat. — Kashmir. Valley. 


Mr. E. Kadcliffe has recently published in the "Indian Forester" 
(1904, p. 412) some notes upon this Termite which, according to him 
is common in Kashmir in old stumps of Pinus excelsa. 

In this paper Mr. Radcliffe said he discovered the Termopsis in 
question years ago, and this is apparently the reason why he changed 
the name I had given to it ( Wraughtoni) into Raddiffei. 

This gentleman has evidently overlooked the fact that once a name is 
given to an animal it cannot be altered for such a reason. 





Capt. F. Wall, I.M.S., C.M.Z.S. 

Part II. 

(Continued from page 71 of this Volume.) 

Naia tripudians — 'J he Cobra. 

Vernacular names. — According to Fayrer the spectacled or binocel- 
late cobra is called "Gokurrah" about Calcutta and the monocellate 
variety, which exhibits a single spot on the hood subject to much 
variation in size and shape, the '' Keautiah". Both names appear to 
receive further qualification according to variations in colour. I have 
never heard these names in other parts of India, and it is probable that 
they are peculiar to Bengal. The former is the common variety in the 
Indian Peninsula, in which region the latter is decidedly rare according 
to my experience, but the converse holds good in Burmah and further 
East. In Bengal the distribution of the two forms seems to overlap, 
and both are common. In Bengal I have heard "Nag samp" and 
" Kala samp " as frequently in use as in other parts of India. In 
Madras it is called by the Tamils " Nalla pamboo", and on the Malabar 
Coast is known as " Sairpoom " and " Moorookan". In Mysore it is 
the "Nagara havoo", and according to Russell "Nagoo" on the 
Coromandel Coast. It is the " Mwe howk" of the Burmese. 

Identification. — I have no doubt that to most people living in India, 
the recognition of a cobra seems a very simple thing, and this is true 
as a rule. If the snake is seen alive at close quarters with the hood 
expanded, its identification will hardly admit of a doubt. Still it must 
be remembered that the hamadryad expands its hood to an almost 
equal degree, and that certain harmless snakes, especially the Keelbacks 
( Tropidonoti, and their allies), erect themselves, and flatten the neck, 
though to a lesser degree. The spectacle mark on the hood of the 
binocellate cobra, and the oval spot surrounded by an ellipse on the 
hood of the monocellate or Burmese variety, are both of them quite 
distinctive of this species, and if constant would make diagnosis invari- 
ably easy. Many cobras, however, havj these marks so modified or 
obsoured that most people unfamiliar with this subject, would fail to 
recognise them if reliance is placed on these alone. 


After death the hood is obliterated, and if the creature is stiff 
cannot be readily demonstrated, and I have frequently under 
these conditions known people express surprise when told that the 
specimen is a cobra, shake their heads, and think they know better. 
Again, I have seen the loose skin about the neck of a harmless snake 
pulled out, and a hood claimed where none existed, so that one 
must admit that in a few cases, at least, the cobra is not recognised, 
and sometimes a harmless snake is mistaken for it. Nicholson's footnote 
on page 159 of his work on Indian snakes is a striking corrobora- 
tion of my own experience. He says : " I have seen an Englishman, 
" considered rather an authority on snakes, declare that a Ptyas 
" mucosus (now Zamenis mucosus) just brought to me was a cobra ; 
"he even pointed out the poison-fangs." So long as people continue to 
be guided by these' faulty characters in diagnosis, mistakes are sure 
to occur. 

Now there are one or two very distinctive peculiarities about the 
scales of a cobra which if looked for should place its identity beyond 
question. These are as follows : — 

The prceocular shield touches the internasal (see Pra. and Int., Fig. 
16 B). In only one other snake is this relationship to be found, viz., 
in Xylophis perroteti, a small harmless snake peculiar to the hills 
of Southern India. In this snake, though, the 3rd supralabial shield 
does not touch the nasal.* 

Between the kth and 5th infralabial shields a smalt wedge-shaped scale 
occurs, the " cuneate" (see Fig. 16 B). Sometimes a second or even a 
third similar scale borders the lower lip. This scale may easily be over- 
looked, lying partly or wholly concealed, as it may do, by the over- 
lapping of the upper lip, so that the mouth should be opened when 
looking for it. It occurs in no other land snake. I have never even 
observed it in the hamadryad, but it is seen in a few species of sea- 
snakes. A head is rarely so broken that one or other of these points 
cannot be made out on one side. If, however, the head is mutilated 
beyond recognition there is one feature about the scales over the back 
of a cobra which is peculiar to itself. It is the concavity in the arms 

* This is a very easy point to determine if it is remembered that the shields immediately 
behind the rostral (in land colubrines) are called internasals, and the shields touching the 
eye in front the prieoculars. In the single instance, where the prefrontal shield touches the 
eye as in Fig. 19, it is obvious that this shield from its size and position has a prior claim 
to be considered a prefrontal, and in such a case the praocnlar is said to be absent. 


of the bracket -shaped pattern which these form, and which I have 


Cuneafe . 

Fig 16. — Naia tripudians (nat. size). 
shown by thickened lines in Fig. 17. Besides this, I have placed 
another drawing to illustrate what is seen in other snakes, the pattern 
forming a chevron. This is perhaps rather a nice point which may 
require a practiced eye to determine positively, but to an observant 
enquirer there should be little difficulty, and with proper care the 
character is a very valuable one. 

Supplementary characters. — Prcefrontals touch the internasal, prte- 
ocular, supraocular, and frontal. Temporals 2, the lower touching the 
5th and 6th supralabials. Supralabials 7. Anterior sublingvah touch 


4 infralabials. Posterior sublinguals touch the 4th and 5th infralabials. 
Infralabials. — The 4th and 5th are the largest of the series, and about 

&et*u r f$ 

Val jOosidls 

Fig. 17. — A. Scales on back of Lycr.don aulicus. 
B. „ „ Nai*t tri,iudiaua. 

subequal. Scales. — 2 heads lengths behind the head 19-27 ; midbody 
19 to 27 ; 2 heads lengths in front of the vent 15 usually ("rarely 17). 
Anal entire. Subcaudals divided throughout. 

Distribution. — It occurs in one or other of its many colour varieties 
throughout the whole of our Indian possessions fromBurmah in the east 
to Sind in the west and from the Himalayas to Ceylon and is always a 
fairly common snake. It is an inhabitant of the plains, but it has been 
recorded at altitudes up to 6,000 feet. 

Poison. — Undoubtedly fatal to man, but by no means every case of 
cobra bite necessarily will prove fatal ; on the contrary a percentage, hard 
to determine, escapes with moderate or very severe symptoms, the dose in- 
jected being less than the lethal. Fayrer records many fatal cases. In 
8 of these cases stated to be due without doubt to the bite of a cobra, in all 
of which no treitment was tried, the victims died in from \ to 3 hours. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 6 feet b\ inches, but 6 feet is a very excep- 
tional length. 

Colour. — Very variable. It may be any shade, from buff or wheat 
colour to olivaceous, brown, or tarry black. These hues are uniform, 



or more or less variegated. The hood may be without marks, or 
adorned with a spectacle-like device, or an oval spot surrounded by an 
ellipse, or various modifications of these. 

Na>a bungarus — The Hamadryad or King Cobra. 

Identification. — A pair of large shields are in contact with one another 
behind the parietals — see Oc, Fig. 18, and this alone will serve to 
distinguish this from every other snake.* Even if the head is badly 
mutilated I think this feature will be made out. In case, however, the 
point is dubious, the snake will be known by the existence of the 
following 2 characters which must co-exist. The shields under the 
base of the tail are entire, whilst those towards the extremity are divided, 
and the vertebral row of scales is similar in size and shape to the 
adjacent rows. 

Pra _ Pa 
S Po 


Fig. 18. — Naia bnn»arus (§ nat. size}. 

Supplementary characters. — Prefrontals touch the in tern a sal, posterior 

nasal, praaocular, supraocular, and frontal. Temporals — Two, the lower 

touching the 5th, 6th and 7th supralabials. Sxipralabials 7. Anterior 

sublinguals touch 4 infralabials. Posterior sublinguals touch the 4th 

* In almost every other sn ike the pariet.ils are succeeded by small scales, and in the rare 
exceptions where occipitals are present, they do not tonch one another (see Oc, Fig. 13). 


and 5th infralabials. Infralabials. — The 5th is the largest of the series 
and touches 2 scales behind. Scales.— -2 heads lengths from head 15 to 
19, mid-body 15, 2 heads lengths in front of vent 15. Anal entire. 

Distribution. — It is found throughout our Indian domains (with the 
exception of Ceylon, and I believe Western Rajpootana, Sind, and the 
Punjab) in suitable localities, that is, in jungles or their vicinity. It 
occurs in the plains, and in hilly regions up to an altitude of 7,000 feet 
at least. 

Poisan. — Undoubtedly fatal to man, but it is remarkable that a copious 
literature on this renowned snake, which is known to frequently show a 
most aggressive spirit, should furnish so few records of its bite. Theobald* 
saw a snake-charmer bitten by one in Burmah die within a few minutes. 
Evansf mentions a case of a foolhardy Burman, believing himself 
snake-poison-proof, teasing one belonging to a Shan snake-charmer. 
He was bitten in the hand, and soon afterwards died. The same 
observer also records another instance of a Burman being bitten by one 
in the base of the index finger, with the result that he died shortly 
afterwards. He also furnishes another case in which this time the 
victim was a bullock, which was bitten by a hamadryad which the bul- 
lock cart passed over. The animal died soon afterwards. 

Raby Noble| mentions one 10 feet 1 inch in length (identified by 
Mr. Phipson) making an unprovoked assault on a cooly woman in 
Assam, seizing her by the leg, and maintaining its hold for at least 8 
minutes, when it was beaten off. She was treated by a " Doctor 
Babu" (treatment not specified - ), but succumbed in about 20 minutes. 
The symptoms were local pain and swelling, vomiting, laboured 
breathing, and prostration. Theobald§ records, on the information of a 
Burman, an elephant being bitten on the trunk by a hamadryad whilst 
browsing on some foliage, with the result that death ensued in about 
3 hours. RogersH estimates that the virulence of the poison is very 
little inferior to that of the binocellate cobra. 

Dimensions. — The largest record I am aware of is that reported by 
Phipson. [| The snake which was captured in the Konkan measured 
15 feet 5 inches. 

* Cat. Kept. Brit. Burma, 1868, p. 61. 

t Bombay Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. XIV., p. 418. 

% Bombay Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. XV., p. 358. 

§ Cat. Kept. Brir,. Burma, 1868. p. 61. 

"t The Lancet. Feb. 6th, 1904, p. 349. 

|| Bombay Nat. Hist. Jonrl., Vol. II.. p. 245. 



Colour. — Young are jet black with white or yellow conspicuous 
cross bars or chevrons on the body and tail. The head is crossed by 1 
similar bars, usually complete, sometimes interrupted. 

Adults vary a good deal. They may be yellow, olive-green, olive- 
brown, blackish-brown, or black, usually with more or less distinct 
yellowish or whitish cross bars or chevrons on the body, which are 
narrower than the intervals. Light specimens are often more or less 
variegated with black in the hinder part of the body and tail. Often, 
too, the shields on the head and scales on the neck are bordered with 
black. The belly may be nearly uniform, mottled, or barred, but the 
throat is usually uniformly light-yellowish or cream-coloured. 
Callophis bibronii — Bibron's Coral Snake. 

Identification. — 1 f 
may be told from all 
others of this group 
by the fact that the 
prefrontal shield 
touches the 3rd sup- 
ralabial (Prf. and 3, 
Fig. 19 B). 

Supplement ary 
char act ers. — Prce- 
frontals touch the in- 
ternasal, pos t e r i o r 
nasal, 3rd supralabial, 
eye, supraocular and 
frontal. Temp or a I 
one; touching the 
5th, 6th and 7th 
supralabi a 1 s (and 
sometimes the 4th 
also). Supralabials 7 . 
Anterior sublinguals 
touch the 1st, the 
3rd and the 4th infra- 
labials. Posterior sub- 
Pio. lP.-Callophis bibronii (x 3). Unguals touch the 4th 

intialanial. Tnfralabials. — The 4th is the largest of the seri?s, and 


touches 3 scales behind. Scales are 13 in whole body. Anal entire 
Subcaudals divided throughout. 

Distribution. — A rare species recorded only from the Western Ghats 
of India. 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 2 feet and over. 

Colour.— Boulenger says * : " Cherry-red to dark purplish brown 
above, red beneath, with black transverse bands which are sometimes 
continuous across the belly; anterior part of head black above.'' 

Callophis macclellandii — Macclelland's Coral Snake. 

Identification. — 
From others of the 
group it can be 
distinguished by 
the following 3 
characters co-exist- 
ing; : — The anal 
shield divided (as in 
Fig. 9 E) ; suprala- 
bials7 ; and a single 
temporal touching 
only the 5th and 6th 
supralabials. {See 
Fig. 20 B.) 

Supplement ary 
charade: s. — Prce - 
frontals touch the 
internasal,p ester ior 
nasal, prseocular, 
Temporal 1 touch- 
ing the 5th and <)th 
supralabials. Su- 
pralabials 7. An- 
terior subling ua I s 
touch 4infralabials. 


Fig. 2<'».— Callophis. macclellandii (X3). 

* Cat. Snakes, Brit. Mas., Vol. Ill, p. 399. 



Posterior sublinguals touch the 4th infralabial only. Tnfralabiah. The 

4th is the largest of the series, and touches 2 scales behind. Scales 13 
in whole body. Anal divided. Subcaudals divided throughout. 

Distribution. — An uncommon species, ranging through Burma!) t< 
Assam, Sikkim, and Nepal in the north. 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 2 feet and over. 

Colour. — Reddish-brown, with or without black light-edged bars or 
bands. Belly whitish with black spots between the bands when 

Callophis trimamlatus — The Slender Coral Snake. 

Identification. — Differs from others of this group in combining the 
2 following characters. The anal shield is divided {see Fig. 5 E) and 
there are 6 supralabials. 

Supplementary charac- 
ters. — Prefrontals touch 
the internasal, posterior 
nasal, praeocular. supra- 
ocular, and frontal. Tem- 
poral — One; touching the 
5th and 6th supralabials. 
Supralabials 6. interior 
sublinguals touch 4 infra- 
labials. Posterior sublin- 
guals touch the 4th infra - 
labial. Tnfralabiah. — The 
4th is the largest of the 
series, and touches 2 scales 
behind. , Scales in 13 
rows in whole body. Anal 
divided. Subcaudals di- 
vided throughout. 

Distribution. — An un- 
Fig. 21 .-Callophis trimaculatns (x6). common snake recorded 

from S. India, Deccan, Kanara, Bengal, and Burmah. 
Poison. — Nothing known. 
Dimensions. — Of very slender form. Grows to 13 inches. 


Colour. — Light yellowish -brown. Head and neck black. Tail with 
two black rings. Belly coral pink. 

Callophis maculiceps—Thv Small-spotted Coral Snake. 

Identification.— This and the next differ from others of this group in 
having the a ml sh*e!d divided (a> in Fig. 5 E) and the temporal shield 
touching the 5th, 6th ana 7th supralabials. The habitat will separate 
one from the other. 

-^W P 

FIG. 22.— Callophis nwcnliceps (*6). 

Supplementary characters. — Prefrontals touch the internasal, 
posterior nasal, prseocular, supraocular, and frontal. Temporal — One ; 
touching the 5th, 6th and 7th supralabials. Supralabials 7. 
Anterior sublinguals touch 4 infralabials. Posterior sublinguals touch 
the 4th infralabial. Infralabials. — The 4th is the largest of the 
series, and touches 2 scales behind. Scales 13 in whole body. Anal 
divided Subcaudals divided throughout. 

Distribution.— An uncommon snake restricted to the Burmese area 
of our British -Indian Territory. 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 1^ feet. 




Colour — Head and neck black. Body yellowish-brown above with 
a series of small black dots on each side of the spine. Two black bands 
on the tail — one basal, the other subterminal. Belly coral pink. Tail 
dappled black, and grey beneath. 

Hemibungarus nigrescens — The Common Indian Coral Snake. 

Identification. — Like the last this differs frc.m other; of this group in 
that the anal shield is divided, and the temporal touches the 5th 6th 
and 7th supralabials. Its habitat will distinguish it. 

Supplement ar y 
characters. — Prce 
frantals touch the 
internasal, post- 
erior nasal, pree- 
ocular. supraocular, 
and frontal. Sup- 
ralabials 7. An- 
terior .sublinguals 
touch 4 infrala- 
bials. Posterior 
sublinguals touch 
the 4th infralabial. 
Tnfralabials. — The 
4th is the largest 
of the series, and 
touches 2 scales 
behind. Scabs in 
13 rows in whole 
of body. Sub- 
cantfaL divided 

Distribution. — It 
is a hill species 
confined to the 
Western Ghats of 
India incl udin g 
the Nilgiris and 

Fio. 23.— Hemibungarus nigrescens (x3). 


Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — It grows to 4 feet. 

Colour. — Head and neck black except for a yellowish oblique occipi- 
tal streak. Dorsally purplish- brown, reddish-brown, or red, with 3 or 
5 longitudinal series of spots which in some specimens are confluent, 
and form lines. Belly uniform red. 

Group 4. — The Pit Vipers. 

Identification. — (1) Tail round. (2) A conspicuous opening in the 
side of the face between the eye and the nostril (the loreal pit) 
(see Fig. 24 B). 

This very distinctive character is peculiar to this subfamily of vipers. 
In spite of the fact that many members of this subfamily (Crotalinse) 
attain formidable proportions, and almost all are endowed with remark- 
ably large poison fangs, the numerous accounts of bites inflicted by 
them to be found in scientific and other journals, concur in showing 
that death is an exceedingly rare event. My own experience supported 
by that of many of my friends, who have favoured me with letters 
on this subject, entirely confirms the foregoing. A painful and 
swollen condition locally and a very variable degree of constitutional 
disturbance lasting in some instances for weeks passes on to complete 

These snakes are nearly all exclusively confined to hilly regions at 
altitudes ranging between 1,500 to 10,000 feet. The characters of the 
shields, and scales upon which the classification of nearly allied 
ophidian forms is so largely based, are subject to very great inconstancy 
in the members of this group, so much so that it is with the greatest 
difficulty one can frame a lucid and really practical key to identify the 
various species. I have, however, examined and re-examined most 
critically all the specimens in the British Museum, and have only made 
allusion to those peculiarities which are most constant, and which seem 
to me of real practical use in identification. 

Key for Identification of Pit- Vipers. 
HEAD WITH LARGE SHIELDS (see Figs. 24 and 26). 

Scales midbody in '21 or 23 rows (see Fig. 7) ... Ancistrodon himalayanus. 

Scales midbody in 17 rows „ hypnale. 

Scales midbody in 15 or 14 rows Lachesit maerolepis. 

Kg. 27). 





pit (see Fig 27) 


(see Fig 28). 

{see Fig. 28 i 

SHIELD {see So, Fig. 27). 

BODY (see Fig. 7). 
Nasal ad 1st supralabial partially 
or completely united (see Fig. 29). 
Scales in midbody 29 rows {see 

Fig. 7) 

„ ,, ., 27 to 23 rows. 
Nasal -and 1st supralabial dis- 
tinct (see Fig. 31.) 

(see Fig. 7) 

Supralabials 7 or 8 (see Fig. 32) 

9 to 12 (see Fig. 

33) ... 


Subocular touching 3rd supralabial {see So, 

Fig. 34)... 

Lachesis strigatus. 



{see So, Fig. 






Ancistrodon hitnalayanus — The Common Himalayan Viper. 

Identification. — The top of the head has the shields in front enlarged, 
and the scales in the middle of the body are arranged in 21 to 23 rows. 
These combined characters will distinguish this from the other pit- 
vipers, and even if the head is badly mutilated short of dissolution, I 
think the enlarged head shields will be generally clearly recognized. 

Distribution.— It is confined to the Himalayan region, including the 
Khasi Hills of Assam, ai. altitudes between 5,000 to 10,000 feet, and ia 
exceedingly common in some localities (Lidda Valley Kashmir). 

Poison. — In spite of its aburdance I only know one authentic record 
of a bite inflicted by this species. A collector of Mr. P. W. Mackin- 
non's was wounded in tr\ing to capture one recently near Mussoorie. 


It struck at him, and scratched his thumb, but no ill effects, local or 
constitutional, supervened. 


Fig. 24. — Ancistrodon himalayanns C*2). 

Dimensions. — Boulenger gives 2 feet 10 inches. Its usual adult 
length is about 2 feet. 

Colour. — Brown of various hues, sometimes nearly uniform, especi- 
ally in light specimens, but more often mott.ed or variegated so us to 
form bars, or a nondescript carpet-like pattern. Belly peppered 
blackish and rtd, on a whitish ground. 

Ancistrodon hypnale. 

Identification — Like <he last this species has Inrge shields on the 
front of the head, but differs in the scales, numbering 17, in the middle 



of the body, and both theso characters will usually be detected even in 
a badly mutilated specimen. 



FIG. 25. — Ancistrodon hypnale (X3> 

Distribution. — The hills of Ceylon, and the Western Ghats of India 
including the Anamallays. It occurs at altitudes varying from 3,000 
to 6,000 feet and is not uncommon in many parts. It is a very com- 
mon snaka in soma of the hilly districts in C3ylon(Iiakgalla). 

Poison. — Writers are not consistent upon this question. Tennent* 
Bays emphatically that a fatal issue does sometimes occur, but not 
invariably. Guntherf says it is exceptionally fatal to man, and then not 
before the lapse of some davs Dr. Davy knew a do" bitten by one 

Nat. HiBt. of Ceylon, p. 296. 

+ Kept. Brit, hid., p. 396. 


recover after severe symptoms in 48 hours, but a fowl bitten by Hie 
same snake the next day succumbed after 4 days. Tnese effects on 
small animals serve to show that the poison is not very virulent. Mr. 
Drummond Hay has written to me of two cases of bite, both in cooly 
women. One bitten on the ankle did not suffer in the slightest once 
she had recovered from her fright, but whether ehe was treated or net, 
I am unable to say. The other bitten in the hand became unconscious 
and he thought when he saw her the same night would die, hut wiih the 
aid of stimulants had recovered by the next day. Ferguson* mentions 
the self-related facts of a Mr. A. F. Sanderson who was bitten by one. 
The seat of injury was the little toe. Pain was so acute as to prevent 
sleep, and the limb swelled to the knee for 2 or 3 days, hut he recovered. 
He treated himself by ligature above the knee, cross cuts locally with 
the application of carbolic acid, and strong potations of brandy. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 18 inches, but I have known females adult 
at 11^ inches, as shown by pregnancy. 

Colour. — The prevailing colours are brown variously mottled or 
variegated, but a longitudinal series of largish oval dark spots on each side 
of the back is a constant characteristic. The belly is finely mottled. 

Lachesis macrolepis — The Large-scaled Viper. 
Identification.— One very distinctive feature makes the recognition 

of this snake a very simple 
matter. The scales of the 
last row along the body are 
smaller than in any of the 
other rows. In all other 
British Indian snakes the 
scales in this row are sub- 
equal to, or much larger 
than, those lying above. 

Distribution. — Confi ned 
to the Pulney, Shevaroy, 
and Anamallay Hills of 
Southern India, where it 
Fig. 26.— Lachesis macrolepis (nat. size). is plentiful at altitudes 

varying from 2,000 to 7,000 feet. 


* Bom. Nat. Hist. Journ., Vol. X., p. 9. 



Poison. — Jerdon* knew several cases of bite from this species, but 
none proved fatal. The Rev. F. Castels has informed me that he once 
caused a fresh adult to bite a jackal, but the jackal did not seem to 
mind, and suffered no ill effects. 

Dimensions. - Grows to 2 feet. 

Colour. — Uniform bright foliage-green above, lighter beneath. A 
well-defined white or yellow line runs down the flanks, sometimes a 
blackish supercilium, blackish marks along the spine, and blackish rings 
round the tail, but these rapidly fade in spirit. Rarely specimens are 
met with uniform olive-brown in colour. 

Lachesis strigatus — The Horse-shoe Viper. 

Identification. — This is the only species in which the 2nd labial 
shield is entirely distinct from the 
loreal pit {see Fig. 27), and this alone 
will suffice to establish its identity. 

Supplementary characters : In- 
ternasals. — No scales are suffi- 
ciently enlarged to deserve the 
name. Supraocular. A single shield. 
Nasal. — Not united to 1st labial ; 
one or more minute scales are 
intercalated between it and the 
furrowed shield forming the inner 
wall of the loreal pit. Subocvlar — 
Not touching the 3rd labial. 
Scales — Anterior usually 21, (rarely 19) ; midbody usually 21, (rarely 
2'6) ; posterior usually 15, (rarely 17). 

Distribution. — The Western Ghats and the Nilgiri, Anamdlay, She- 
varoy, and Pulney Hills of Southern India, at altitudes from 3.000 to 
8,000 feet. Gray mentions it as common about Ootacamund,and Jerdon 
as not uncommon in the wooded parts of the Nilgiris; but, judging 
from the paucity of specimens in museums, an I the written testimony 
of friends, it appears to me an uncommon snake everywhere. 

Poison. — Jerdonf mentions being bitten by one. A ligature speedily 
applied, followed by suction, warded off any ill effects, but the skin 

* Jonrn 1 Viatic So., B;ng*l. Vol. XXII., p. »25. 
t Journal Asiatic Soc., Bengal, Vol. XXIL, p. 624. 

Fig. 27.— I.acht sin strigatus 
(nsit. size). 


round the bite blackened in a minute or two, detached itself, and came 
off in his mouth during suction. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 1^ feet. 

Colour. — The prevailing colour is brown, mottled darker to form an 
irregular coarse variegation. A pale buff or yellowish horse-shoe mark 
on the nape. A dark streak behind the eye. Beneath light-coloured 
mottled with darker hues. 

Lachesis monticola — The Large-spotted Viper. 


This is the only species that has no subocular shield, 
and this character will serve to 

diagnose it. 


Supplementary characters : 
Tnternasals. — A pair, separated 
by from 1 to 3 small scales. Su- 
praocular. — A single shield. — 
Nasal. Not united with 1st 
labial ; no minute scales inter- 
calated between it and the 2nd 
labial. Subocular absent; 2nd 
labial furrowed in its upper half, 
and forming the inner wall of 
the lorealpit. Scales. — Anterior 
Fir. 28.— LacheBis montirola (nafc. size), usually 23, (rarely 25) ; mid- 
body 23, (rarely 21 or 25); posterior 19, (rarely 21 J. 

Distribution.— -The Himalayan region (from 2,000 to 8,000 feet) in- 
cluding Hills of Assam, Burmth and Yunnan. 

Poism. — Stoliczka* mentions a cocly who was bitten by a small one 
about 14£ inches in length. He made him suck vigorously, and gave 
him brandy, and no ill effects were noticed. 
Dimensions. — Grows to 3 fee*. 

Colour. — Light brown or buff, with large irregularly squarish patches 
or spots of dark brown on the middle of the back, and a conrse mottling 
of these two hues in the flanks. Crown dark brown with a buff 
V bordered dark brown below. Belly yellowish, uniform in front, 
obscurely spitted, or mottled behind. 

° Journal Asiatic Soc- Bengal, Vol. XXXIX„p. '224. 



LacJiesis cantoris — Cantor's Viper. 

Identification. — Most easily identified by the rows of scales in the 
middle of the body numbering 29. 

Supplementary characters : Internasals. — A pair separated by one 
small scale. Supraocular — A single shield. Nasal partially or com- 
pletely united with 1st labial ; no minute scales intercalated between 



FiO. 29. — Lachesis cantoris (nat. size). 
Note conflneucc of n;isal (N) and 1st supralabial (V). 

it and the 2nd labial. Subocular not touching the 3rd labial. 2nd 
Labial furrowed in its upper half, and forming the inner wall of the 
lore-d pit. Scales. — Anterior, 27 ; midbody, 29 ; posterior, 21. 

Distribution — Peculiar to the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

Poisan.— Stoliczka remarks on the small size of the poison gland even 
in specimens 3 to 4 feet long, and both he and Dr. Rink who visited 
the insular groups above mentioned, where they found this snake 
extremely abundant, elicited information from the natives showing that 
they (the natives) did not regard the bite as fatal. 

Colour. — There are two varieties, the one bright green or dull 
greenish with dark spots, cften arranged alternately in five longitudinal 
series ; the other light, or dark brown, spotted with pale greonish. 
Usually a well-defined white line runs along the flanks, and the head 


has frequently a pale lateral streak. Belly whitish or greenish, uniform 
or mottled. 

Lachesis purpureomaculatus — Gray's Viper. 

Identification. — The nasal shield more or less united with the 1st. 

labial, and the scales in 
the posterior part of 
the body numbering 19, 
when taken together 
will distinguish this 
from all the rest of the 

Supplementary cha- 
racters : Internasals. — 
A pair in contact with 
one another, or more 
usually separated by one 
small scale. Supraocu~ 
lar — A single shield. 
Fig. 30.— Lachesis pnrpureomacuLuus (uat. size). Nasal partially or com- 

pletely united with the 1st labial ; one or more minute scales interca- 
lated between it and the 2nd labial. Subocular — Not in contact with 
3rd labial. 2nd labial with a furrow in its upper part directed into the 
loreal pit. Scales. — Anterior, 23 to 25 ; midbody usually 25, (rarely 23 
or 27) ; posterior, 19. 

Distribution. — Bengal, the Himalayas from probably the Sutlej in 
the West, Assam, and Burmah, Andamans, and Nicobars. In India 
it is not met with in the plains, but in Burmah occurs in hills and 
plains alike. Has been and is frequently confused with L. gramineus. 

Poison. — Stoliczka's observations with regard to the opinion of the 
natives in the Andamans and Nicobars show that it is not regarded as 
fatal to man. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 4 feet. 

Colour. — Three varieties are met with : (A) uniform foliage 
green; (B) uniform purplish-brown, or purplish-black; (C) variegated, 
purplish-brown and green. Usually a "well-defined white or yellow 
flank line. Beneath uniform greenish or whitish with sometimes 
obscure mottling. 



Lachesis mucrosquamatus — The Formosan Viper. 

Identification. - The scales in the posterior part of the body number 
21 or 19, the nasal not united to 
the 1st labial, and the presence 
of a subocular establish the 
diagnosis, but all three characters 
must co-exist. 

Supplementary characters : In- 
ter nasals. — A pair separated by 
from 2 to 4 small scales. 
Supraocular — A single shield. 
JSasal — Not united with the 1st 
labial, one or more minute scales 
intercalated between it and the 
2nd labial. Subocular not touch- 
ing the 3rd labial. 2nd labial 
with a furrow in its upper part 


Fig. 31. — Lach' sis mucrosquamatus 
(nat. sizo). 

directed into the loreal pit. Scales. — Anterior, 25 to 27; midbody,-23 
to 27 ; posterior, 19 to 21. 

Distribution. — Saga Hills and Assam, also Formosa. 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 3^ feet. 

Colour. — Brownish with 3 longitudinal series of blackish spbts,»the 
vertebral series being the largest. Belly mottled brownish and white, or 
uniform whitish. 

Lachesis jerdonii- 

Fi-j. 32.— LacliesiR jerdonii (nat. Bize - ). 

Jerdon's Viper. 

Identification. — The subocular 
touching the 3rd labial together 
with 7 to 8 supralabials mako 
diagnosis certain. 

Supplementary characters : 
Internasals, — A pair, separated 
by from 1 to 3 small scales. 
Supraocular — A single shield 
preceded by an enlarged shield 
peculiar to this species. Nasal 
not united with 1st labial; 
small scales may or may not be 
intercalated between it and the 


2nd labial. Subocu'ar touches the 3rd labial. 2nd labial with a furrow 
in its upper part directed into the loreal pit. Scales. — Anterior 21 
usually, (rarely 23) ; midbody 21, (rarely 19); posterior 17, (rarely 15). 

Distribution. — Khasi Hills, Assam, Thibet. 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 2\ feet. 

Colour. —Variegated greenish and black. Head black, ornamented 
with yellow. Belly mottled greenish and b.ack. 

Lachesis gramineus. 
The Common Green Viper or Bamboo Snake. 

Identification. — Scales 15 in the posterior part of the body, supraocular 
a single shield, suprala- 
bials 9 to 12, the 2nd 
furrowed in its upper 
half, if co-existing will 
serve to identify it. 

Supplementary cha- 
racters : Inter'-asals. — A 
pair, in contact, or sepa- 
rated by one or two small 
scales. Supraoculars — 
A single shield. Nasal — 
Sometimes united with 
1st labial, sometimes dis- 
tinct ; small scales may 
or may not bs intercalated 


Fig. 33. — Lacne&is gramineus (nat. size). 
Var ety from Western Ghats. 

batween it and the 2nJ labial Subocular may or may not touch the 
3rd lab'al. 2nd labial with a furrow in its upper part directed into the 
loreal pit. S-alts. — Anterior, 21 ; midbody, 21 ; posterior, 15. 

Distribution. — Much the most plentiful and the most widely distri- 
buted of our Indian Pit- Vipers. From the Malayan region it extends 
through Burma, including the An damans and Nicobars, to the Hima- 
layan region probably as far west as the Sutkj River. It is found in 
the Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats, Nilgir!s and other hills in the 
Peninsula of India. It does not occur in the plains of India, but 
affects an altitude of from 1,500 to 6,000 feet. East of Calcutta occurs 
in the plains and hills alike. 



Poison. — The bite is rarely if ever fatal, but severe local effects and 
constitutional disturbances are usually attendant. There is abundant 
evidence to substantiate this assertion, among Europeans and natives 

Dimensions. — Grows to 3£ feet. 

Colours. — Usually vivid foliage-green. More rarely yellowish, or 
olivaceous or brown, sometimes obscurely streaked or barred with bluck. 
A well-defined white or yellow flank line usually. Belly whitish, 
plumbeous, greenish, uniform or indistinctly mottled. 

Lachesis trigonocephalies — .The Green Tic. 

Identification. — The supraocular shield divided, and the subocular 

touching the 3rd labial, if found 
co-existing, serve to fix its iden- 

Supplementary characters : 
Internas'ils. — A pair in contact 
with one another. Supraocular 
divided. JS asal not united with 
1st labial ; no small scales inter- 
calated between it and the 2nd 
labial. Subocular touches the 
3rd labial. 2nd labial with a 
furrow in its upper part directed 

Fig. 31—La.jtaesfc trigouooephaltu into the loreal P 11 - Scales.— 
(nat. size). Anterior, 17 or 19; midbody 

17 or 19 ; posterior, 13 or 15. 

Distribution. — Peculiar to Ceylon where it is common in many 
parts of the hills. It is known to the planters as the Green Tio 

Poison.— Mr. Drummond Hay has informed me in a letter that he 
once had a Eurasian conductor b'tten by a full grown one in his 
presence. The bitten hand swelled up at once, but by evening had 
much reduced, and the following day the swelling had almost entirely 

Dimensions. — Grows to 1\ feet. 

Co'nur. — Foliage-green, uniform, or with black blotchings. A black 
streak behind the eye. Belly uniform greenish or yellowish. 

Lachexis anamaVensis — The Anamallay Viper. 

Identification.— Supraocular divided, and co-existing with this, a 
subocular not touching 
the 3rd labial. 

Supplementary cha- 
racters : I/iternasah. — 
A pair separated by a 
small scale. Supra- 
ocular divided. JSasal 
not united with 1st 
labial ; small scales 
may or may not be 
intercalated between 
it and the 2nd la- 
bial. Subocular— Not 
touching the 3rd labial. 
2nd labial, with a 
furrow in its upper 
part directed into the Fig. 85.— Lachesis anamallensis (nat, size), 

loreal pit. Scales. — Anterior, 21 ; midbody usually 21, (rarely 19) j 
posterior, 15 or 17. 

Distribution.- Confined to the Western Ghats and hilly regions- 
south of the Krishna River, where it is quite common, at altitudes 
ranging between 2,000 to 7,000 feet. 

Poison — Jerdon* has known several cases of bite, but none proved 
fatal. Mr. Henderson has informed me by letter how he was once 
bitten by one in the forefinger. The snake was half grown. He 
sucked the wound, and cauterised it at once, and " suffered very little 
discomfort." For some time afterwards he experienced a sense of 
weight in this arm when it was held down. Fergusonf relates how 
Baron Yon Rosenberg was bitten by this snake in the foot. Ho did not 
know he was bitten, and walked 10 miles before pain asserted itself. 
He then found the member so swollen he had to cut the boot off. 
After a night of pain and fever, a cupfull of blood and matter came 
away, and it was several days before he could wear anythirg but a 

* Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, V< 1. XXII., p. 525. 
t Journal, Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, Vol. X., p. 9. 


slipper. A yoar later the place swelled up again, became painful, 
and discharged matter. Ferguson also mentions having met a hill- 
man with a withered right arm which he (the native) attributed to a 
bite from this reptile. 

Dimensions. — Grows to ?>\ feet. 

Colour. — Greenish variegated with blackish, or dark blackish-green. 
Boulenger says olive, yellowish or reddish-brown. Flanks coarsely 
dappled with buff. Belly greenish or yellowish. 

Group 5 — Pitless Vipers. 

Identification. — (1) Tail round. (2) Snout and crown covered with 
small scales similar to those on the bak of the lody * ; see Fig. 37. 
(3) Only a part of the last row of coslals is visible on either side of the 
ventral s when the specimen is laid on to its back (see Fig. 5). (4) No. 
lortal pit. 

This group includes 4 species referable to 3 genera. They may be 
identified as follows : — - 

A. Shields beneath tail similar to those be- 

neath belly (see SO., Fig. 9 Bj Echis carinata. 

B. Shields beneath tail divided (tee SC., Fig. 9 D) 

(a) Ventrals with 2 ridges (see Yal., 

Fig. 37) Eristocophis macmahonii. 

(b) Ventrals not ridged. 

3 chains of large spots, one along 

spine, and one on each side Yipera russelli. 

I chain of spots along spine, none ., lebetin-i. 
on the sides. 

Echis carinata — The Little Indian Viper. 

The "Kuppur" of Sind. " Phoorsa " of the Bombay Presidency. 
"Afar" about Delhi. The " Kallu havoo " of Mysore. " Kattu 
viriau" about Madras ;and the "Horatta pam, " according to Russell, 
on the Coromandel Coast. 

Identification, — The undivided state of the shields beneath the tail 
will admit of no confusion with others of this group. 

Supplementary characters : Supraocular not divided. Nasal touches 
the rostral and the Jst supralahial. Eye. — Diameter exceeds its distance 

* A few harmless ^nakts h ive the sno'it cov. red with sm .11 scales,— for iusiance, the Genus 
Eryx. Bipistes too m^y be included with these. Tn all these, two or often many more rows 
of costals are vis.ble from beneath (see Fig. 9). 


to the nostril, and is greater than its distance to the edge of the lip; 2 

rows of scales between it and the 
supralabials. Supralabials. — The 
4th is the largest of the series 
(rarely the 3rd). Sublinguals 
touch 3 or 4 infralabials, and 2 
small scales behind. Tnfralabials 
4 (rarely 3), the 4th touching 
2 scales behind. Scales in mid- 
body 27 to 37. Venlrah not 
ridged laterally. Subcaudals 
undivided. During life its 
peculiar habit of throwing its 
body into a double coil, inflating 
itself, and then rubbing one coil 
against the other so as to pro- 
duce a sound closely resembling- 
hissing, will in itself proclaim 
its identity. 

Distribution.— It o c c u r s 
throughout a large area of the 
Indian Peninsula from Cape 
Coinorin to the Himalayas, but 
being a desert form preferring 
an arid sandy soil, it is distri- 
buted chiefly in isolated patches 
where it is frequently very com- 
mon. Jerdon remarks it is 
I have found it especially so about 


Fig. 36.— Echis cariuata (X20- 
common throughout the Carnatic. 

Trichinopoly. I believe it does not occur in the narrow tract between 
the Western Ghats and the Malabar Coast, nor in Ceylon. To the 
North-East its limits are not exactly known ; if it occurs in Bengal 
it is scarce. To the North-West it extends through Bajpootana, 
the Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan to Transcaucasia, and is extremely 
abundant in these parts. Some idea of* its prodigious numbers was 
furnished by Vidal.* He says that in the Ratnagiri District (Kanara) 
alone during 6 years Government rewards were paid on an average 
* -Journal.. Pombay Natura' History Soc., Vol. V., p. ,04. 


of 225,721 Phoorsas per annum ! Later he remarks that when 
the Government reward was raised tentatively from six pies to two 
annas per head, li5, 921 were paid for in 8 days (December 2nd to 
10th, 1862). Again Candy in the same Journal (page 85 ) says that in 
Ratnagiri, in August and September, the Mhars go out with long sticks 
to which forks are attached, and catch them in thousands for Govern- 
ment rewards. It is an inhabitant of the plains, and becomes progres- 
sively scarcer at altitudes ranging up to 3,000 feet, beyond which it is 
rarely if ever found. Thus Nicholson shows* that of 1,225 poisonous 
snakes collected in the vicinity of Bangalore upon which Government 
rewards were paid in the year 1873, only one proved to be an Echis. 

Poison. — Very conflicting opinions have been expressed regarding the 
virulence of Echis poison. It is asserted by many that death is an ex- 
tremely rare sequel to its bite, but I think there can be no doubt that 
fatalities are much more frequent than many suppose. Vidal, whose 
paper in the Bombay Natural History Journal f is a most valuable con- 
tribution to the literature on this species, states that he found records of 
G2 fatal cases treated in the Civil Hospital at Ratnagiri in the year 
1878. He estimated that about 20 per cent, of the cases of Echis bite 
proved fatal, and remarks that the poison is slow, death occurring on 
an average in 4^ days, but that some cases lingered on for 20 days. 
He says later that the Echis is a far more potent factor than any other 
venomous species in swelling the mortality of the Bombay Presidency. 
He substantiates this assertion by the very significant observation that 
in Echis-ridHeu tracts the mortality from snake-bite far exceeds that 
in districts where this snake is comparatively scarce. In a table 
compiled from official returns for 8 years (1878 to 1885), for the 
districts of the Bombay Presidency, he shows that in the districts 
of Hyderabad, Thar and Parkar, Karachi (Sind), and Ratnagiri 
(Kanara), where the Echis abounds, one man in 5,000 dies per annum 
from snake-bite, whereas in the districts of Bijapur, Nasik. Ahmed- 
nagar and Sholapur, where this snake is rare or absent, only one man 
in 100,000 dies from snake-bite. Murray! says " this little viper is 
very venomous ; although the action of its poison is not quite so quick 
as that of the cobra, it is equally as potent, and numerous deaths 
annually occur from its bite." Dr. Inlach, Civil Surgeon at Shikar- 

* " Indi.m !-nakes," p. 173. 

t Vol. V., p. 64. 

X « ReptMa of Bind, " p. 57. 


pur* (Sind) says, " A reference to police returns will show that in by 
far' the greatest majority of cases serious injury and death have been 
caused by the bite of this species." Again he avers " the Kuppur is 
without exception the most deadly poisonous snake in Sind." Mr. 
Millard has informed me by letter of the case of an attendant in the Bom- 
bay Natural History Society's Rooms who, in October 190.-!, was bitten 
by an Echis in the temple. He was taken off at once to hospital, 
admitted that he felt no fear, but in spite of prompt treatment died 
24 hours afterwards. 

In Delhi, in 1897, I knew, and many times saw a famous snake- 
catcher called Kalian bring his week's bag to the Civil Hospital where 
he extracted the poison of cobras, kraits and "afais" for the Civil 
Surgeon (Major Dennys, I. M.S.) who sent it on to the Government of 
India. The poison collected, he convej^ed his specimens to the Deputy 
Commissioner for the Government rewards. Jiach head had to be chopped 
off', and when later he was counting these out for the satisfaction of an 
official before payment, one Echis head fastened itself on to his finger. 
The dose of prison under the circumstances must have been very 
small, nevertheless most alarming symptoms rapidly supervened, and 
Major Dennys told me that when he visited the man that night he 
expected he would die, so grave was his condition. He, however, 
recovered. One must not allow oneself to be misguided by the many 
records in which dogs and other small animals have not succumbed to 
the bite of this snake, and infer that man would probably be even less 
affected. One can find numerous instances of small animals not 
succumbing to the effects of bites of cobras and Russell's vipers though 
we know how fatal these poisons usually are. 

Dimensions. — Grows to about 2 feet. 

Colour. — Various shades from sandy to dark cedar. A more or less 
distinct pal a sinuous flank line always present. A pale mark on the 
crown somewhat resembling the imprint of a bird's foot. Belly uniform 
whitish, or dotted with light brown or dark spots. 

Eristocophis mcmahonii — McMahon's Viper. 

Identification. — The ventral shields are ridged on either side urlike 
other species of this group, and this is the best means of diagnosis 
(see Fig. 37 C). 

* Trans. <.f the Bomb. Med. and Phys. Soc, Vol. ILL, p. 80. 


Sxipplementary characters : Supraocular absent, replaced by 



Fig. 37.— Eristocophis memahonii (nat. taze). 
small scales. Nasal does not touch the rostral, nor the 1st supralabial. 
Eye. — Diameter less than the distance between eye and nostril ; about 
half the distance to thg labial margin ; 5 or 6 rows of small scales 
between it and Fupralabials. Uh svpralahial not enlarged. Sublinguals 
touch 3 infralabials, and 3 small scales behind. Infralabials 3. la'ge, 
3rd touching 3 scales behind. S< ales in the middle of the budy 23 to 
27. Ventrals ridged laterally. Subcaudals divided. 

Distribution. — Very little is known on this point. Baluchistan , where 
it was discovered by Captain McMahon when delimiting the AfVhan- 
Baluch bordor, is probably the fringe of its distribution, and it is prob- 


ably only to be found at this corner of our Indian possessions. It is 
a desert form inhabiting sandy tracts. 
Poison. — Nothing is known. 

Dimensions. — The largest specimen was about 2 feet. 
Colour. — Reddish sandy brown, with white edged dark-brown spots 
along the back. 

Viper a russellii. 
Russell's Viper. The Chain Viper. The Daboia. 

The u Tic polonga" of Ceylon. "Kanardi virian " of Tamils in 
Madras. " Mandali " of Malabar. " Mandalatha havu," and according to 
Rice"Kolakumandala" of Mysore. The "Bora," " Chundra bora,'' 
" Siah chunder amaitar," and "Jessur" of Bengal according to Fay- 
rer. The '' Katuka rekula poda" of Russell (Coromandel Coast?). 
The "Gunnus" of Bombay. The"Chitar" of Guzerat according to 
Mosse. The '' Khad chitra " of Dantra District in the Bombay Presi- 
dency according to Fenton. I am told the " Korail " of Sind. The 
"Mwe-bwe" of Burmah. Probably also the " Cobra monil " of some 
natives as suggested by Jerdon; literally "Necklace snake" in Por- 
tuguese, and like other names dating from the Portuguese occupation of 
India, such as " Biscobra," its significance has become obscured, and 
surrounded with mystery by the native mind. 

Identification. — The sublinguals touching 4 or 5 infralabials ; the 
subcaudals divided, and the 3 series of large dorsal spots when occur- 
ring in the same specimen will establish the diagnosis. 

Supplementary characters: Supraocular a single shield. JSasal 
touches the rostral and the 1st supralabial. Eye. — Diameter exceeds 
distance of eye to nostril, and is subequal to its distance to the labial 
margin in the adult ; 2 or 3 rows of scales between it and the labial 
margin, ith supralabial the largest of the series. Sublinguals touch 4 
or 5 infralabials and 2 scales behind. Infralabials 5 large normally, the 
6th touching 2 scales behind. Scales in midbody 27 to 33. Ventrals 
not ridged laterally. Subcaudals divided. 

Distribution. — Throughout the whole of the Indian Empire from 
Ceylon to the Himalayas, and from the most eastern borders of 
Burmah to the western limits of Sind. It is chiefly an inhabitant of 
the plains, but is common in some localities from 2,000 to 4,000 feet 


:m<l lias boon mot with at altitudes up to 0,000 and 7,000 feel.* In inosi 


Fig. 88. — Vipera russelli (nat. size). 
parts it is quite a common snake, but is especially so in certain 
localities. Fayrerf says it is very common in the Punjab, and tbat 
lit Umritsar in 1866 as many as 471 specimens were brought in for 
Government rewards in one day ! Mr. Millard tells me it is common 

Kashmir 6,000 ft. (Stoliczka). Kilgiris 0,000 ft. (Henden-ou, private letter). Pulneys 
G,300 ft. (Kevd. Father Oombert, private letter). Fulneys 7,000 ft. (Henderson, private 
letter). Hakgalla, Ceylou, o.TOO ft. (I have received specimens from Mr. Nocu). 
f Than tophidia. p. -35. 


near Bombay. Mr. Henderson in a private letter says it is fairly com- 
mon at Kodai Kanal in the Pulneys. Father Gombert, S.J., in a 
private letter makes the same remark with regard to the Pulneys. 
Stoliczka* says it is very common in the south portion of the Kulu 
Valley. I have found it common at Trichinopoly and Cannanore, and 
Fergusonf says it is common in the low country at Travancore. 
TennentJ says that at Trincomalee, Ceylon in 1858, the Judge's house 
was so infested with this species that his family had to quit their 
quarters, and Bassett Smith § also remarks on the number of this 
species in the same place. Evans and 1 found it common in most parts 
of Burmah, and in certain parts of that Province they are so numerous 
that the natives wear grass shoes made with " uppers" when busy in 
the crops as a protection against this snake, notably at Mahlaing, 
Magwe, and Myo-thit in Upper Burmah. Theobald H remarks on the 
commonness of the species in the Tharrawaddy District in Lower 
Burmah, and about Rangoon. On the other hund, Nicholson || shows 
it is uncommon in the vicinity of Bangalore, where only 2 were brought 
in for Government rewards out of 1,225 poisonous snakes in the year 
1873. Again Murray** says it is not common in Upper Sind. Blanford 
tt makes the same remark of S.-E. Berar, and Mr. Millar writes me 
it is rare about Darjeeling. He has only known one, viz., at Kurseong, 
4,600 feet, in many years. 

Poison. — Indubitably fatal to man. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 5| feet, but specimens over 5 feet are very 

Colour. — Buff, or light brown with 3 longitudinal series of large 
spots along the back. These usually consist of three zones a central 
one of the same colour as the ground, a narrow dark zone, skirted by 
a still narrower white or buff zone. Some of these spots in the median 
series often confluent. The spots in the lateral rows are often broken 
at their lowermost outline. Head ornamented with large dark marks, 
and a conspicuous pink or salmon V with its apes on the snout. 
Belly whifi h with dark semilunar scattered spots. 

* .louvl. As atic Soc. of Bengal, V: 1 XXXIX., p. 226. 

f Jour 1 . Bomb. Nat. Hist. Roc, Vol. X., p. 8. 

% Nat. Hirt. of Ceylon, p. 296. 

§ 'niirl. Bomb. Nat Hist. Soc , Vol. XI , p. 546. 

if Cat. Rppt,, rir Purm., p 64. 

|| 'iid. Snaks.p. 173. 

*• The Kept, of Sind, p. 56. 

tf Jourl. Asiatic Soc. of Bengal, Vol, XXXIX , p. 374, 



Vipera lebetina. 

Identification.— The sublinguals touching 4 or 5 infralabials ; the 
subcaudala divided; and the absenco of the large lateral spots on 
the siles so typical of the last when occurring together, will suffice to 
identify this from the rest of the group. 

Kig. 89.— Vipera lebetina (nat. size). 



Supplementary characters. — Supraocular well developed or broken 
up into small shields. Nasal touches the rostral and the 1st suprala- 
bial. Eye. — Diameter about equal its distance to the nostril, about half' 
its distance from the labial margin ; 2 or 3 rows of scales between it 
and the supralabials. Uh t>upralabial the largest of the series. 
Sublinguals touch 4 or 5 infralabials and 2 scales behind. Infralabials. — 
5 large normally, the 5th touching 2 scales behind. Scales in middle 
of body 23 to 27. Ventrals not ridged laterally. Subcaudals divided. 

Distribution^— An inhabitant of Northern Africa and South- Fastern 
Europe, it extends through Asia Minor eastwards so as to include 
Baluchistan and Kashmir on the fringe of its distribution. 

Poison.— Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — Grows to 5 feet. 

Colour. — Grey or pale brown above, with a dorsal series of large 
brown spots, often edged with blackish which may be confluent into an 
undulous band, or with small dark spots or cross-bars, small dark lateral 
spots, and vertical bars ; a large V-shaped marking on the upper 
surface of the head, and a V-shaped one on the occiput, may be pre- 
sent ; a dark streak behind .. the eye to the angle of the mouth ; and 
usually a dark blotch or bar below the eye; whitish beneath, powdered 

with grey-brown, with or without dark 
brown spots ; end of tail yellow. All 
the markings sometimes very indistinct 

Azemiops fece — Fea's Viper. 

Identification. — (1) scales in midbody 
17 (see Fig. 7). (2) 6 supralabials of 
which the 3rd only touches the eye. 
These two points- when co-existing will 
serve to differentiate this from every 
other snake. 

Supplementary characters. — Frontal 
unusually broad, about 3 times the 
breadth of each supraocular. Nasal 
touches 1st and 2nd infralabials only. 
Loreal present. This is the only 

lor n ,Po 


Fig. 40. — Azemiops feae 
(after Boulenger). 

poisonous snake with large shields on the head in which this shield 


i.ccurs. Prceoeulars 3. A very unusual feature. (Except the pit-vipers 
1 know of only one other snake where these shields are 3, viz., 
[jytorhynchus paradoxus.) Temporals 2. The upper touching one 
supralabial only, the 4th. Eye with vertical pupil. Supraldbials 6, the 
3rd only touching the eye. Sublinguals. — One pair only each in 
contact with 2 scales behind. Infralabials 3 only. 

Distribution. — One specimen only known discovered by Mons. Fea in 
the Kfichin Hills of Upper Burmah. 

Poison. — Nothing known. 

Dimensions. — 2 feet. 

Colour. — Boulenger* says : " Lower parts olive-grey with some 
small lighter spots ; chin and throat variegated with yellow." He further 
remarks it is strikingly like a harmless col ubrine in external appear- 

• Faun* of Brit. lad.. Reptilia Batrachia', p. 419. 




E. Blatter, S.J. 

Part I. 

{With 3 Plates.) 

(Read before the Bombay Natural History Society on 2Slh June 11)06.) 

In popular and, sometimes, even in scientific books we find so many 
different opinions as regards the flowering season in the tropics, that it 
seems to be worth while to inquire into the real facts in order to trace 
the laws by which the processes in the sexual sphere are governed. 
There are writers who say that there is scarcely any periodicity in the 
flowering time in the tropics, whilst others speak of well defined periods. 

In the following essay I shall not discuss all the factors which in- 
fluence the development of flowers, but I shall confine myself to 
discovering the relations which exist between the flowering season and 
the olimate. For this purpose I examined the floras of different 
regions of India, Burma, and Ceylon, collecting notes which give infor- 
mation as to the flowering period of the vegetation, and comparing 
them with the meteorological data of the respective areas. 

I shall begin with the Presidency of Bombay, the flora of which 
has been describad by various botanists in former years, and. recently 
by Th. Cooke in his ''Flora of the Presidency of Bombay." I 
borrow the following passage from the preface to Cooke's Flora, 
where the author gives a short description of the area covered by his 
botanical explorations : " The Presidency of Bombay," he says, "in- 
cluding Sind and Baroda (which latter State, containing 4,400 square 
miles, though removed in 1875 from the administrative control of the 
Government of Bombay, is, for botanical purposes, included within the 
limits of the Presidency) extends from 13 c 53' to 28 D 47' N. hit. and 
from 60° 43' to 76° 30' E. long., and contains about 196,000 square 
miles, an area more than 1| times that of Great Britain and Ireland. 

'" To the north of the Tapti river, which passes the town of Surat, 
stretches the flat alluvial and fertile plain of Gujarat, much of it 
without a hill to break the monotony of the landscape for miles. 
Sind, still further to the north-west, separated from Baluchistan by the 
Kirthar mountains which sometimes rise to a height of 7,000 feet, is 
much of it a plain of desert sand with occasional ridges of low sand-hills. 



" South of the Tapti river the country gradually becomes interspersed 
with hills and further south the "Western Ghats run parallel to the sea- 
coast for about 500 miles, with a general elevation of nearly 2,((0 feet, 
though occasionally hills rise to a height of 4,000 feet or more above 
the sea level. 

" The low-lying plain between the foot of the Western Ghats and the 
sea, interspersed with hills and with a heavy rainfall and a humid and 
enervating climate, is known as the Konkan, while the Deccan is the 
extensive elevated plateau behind the Ghats, interspersed with numerous 
hills which are either isolated or in short ranges, with a generally light 
rainfall and a dry climate." 1 

How variably the climate of the area in question is, will be best illus- 
trated by meteorological statistics, which, at the same time, give an 
exact basis for a comparison with the flowering times. The data, where 
no special mention is made, are taken from H. F. Planford. 2 
Raiufa'l recorded at 15 Stations. 



























Jacobabad. 2ti years 













Kurracliee, 31 yeirs 














Hyderab .d, 21-24 years .. 













Deesa,2>-31 years .. 














RuJaOC, 20-2G year.".. 







6 7 






Sarat, 18-24 years .. 










Tanna, 19-cO years.. 



24 - S 







Bombay, 3.-70 years 




24 7 


10 8 





Lanauil, 13 years .. 













.Mah;,bUslrwar, 31-3* 









32 9 





Gor, 26-27 years 









1 1 



Dbulia, 17 26 years.. 














Poona, 44 years 













23 8 













Btlgaum, 34-35 years 















Mian rainfall 




1 Cooke : Flora of the Presidency of Bombay, pages V-VI. 

2 Blanford: A Practical Guide to the Climates and Weather of In^ia, Ceyl< n and 
Burma, Appendix I & III. 




recorded at 9 Stations. 
















































































































J 4 












53 74 











56 65 






Mean humidity 













Cloud P 

ro portion recorded at 9 



































3 2 









i. 9 








2 9 







2 6 



















7 5 














2 4 


















2' 4 

































Mean cloud proportion 




2 2 

2- 4 










H corded at 9 stations. 






























/ 1 
• '9J 



















, »84 

• 86 

• 82 



• 80 










• 82 













- 80 













• 81 









8 Si 


• 82 











Mean temperature 













From these tables we may easily collect how variable are the condi- 
tions for the sexual processes of the plant-life. Of all the provinces of 
India the vast plain of Sind is the driest, and, taken as a whole, the 
hottest. Where the waters of the Indus do not exercise thtir beneficial 
influence upon the vegetation, we find only an arid, sandy and stony 


desert. This is especially the case in Upper Sind (represented in our 
tables by Jacobabad), the dry regions of which are characterized by 
great variations of temperature, whilst Lower Sind has a more mod- 
crate and less arid climate. The dampest and most uniform climatic 
conditions of India are found in the strip of low country which extends 
from below the Ghats to the west-coast. Here the west wind 
mitigates the intense effect of the tropical sun, and the Ghats protect 
the plain against the desiccating winds of the Deccan. In this part 
of the Presidency the annual mean temperature is almost the same 
throughout, viz., 79° or 80°. During the summer monsoon the rainfall 
is very heavy in the Konkan, but not as heavy as on the Ghats. '' The 
climate of the Deccan, beyond 30 or 40 miles from the crest of the Ghats, 
is, as a general rule, very dry. The driest portion of the Deccan is a strip 
running north and south, parallel with the Ghats, and from 50 to 80 
miles to the east of them. As far south as the latitude of Poona, the 
zone of country with a rainfall below 30 inches averages not more than 
100 miles in width ; but to the south of this it extends right across the 
plateau to the Eastern Ghats." l 

After these climatic considerations I shall try to give as exact a statis- 
tic account of the flowering periods as possible. The " Flora of British 
India" and other greater works on Indian vegetation cannot be of any 
use where regional data are wanted, as it is quite evident, r.g., that the 
flowering time of a plant in the mountainous region of the Himalaya is 
quite different from that of the same plant in the lowplain along the 
west coast of India. The local floras of the Bombay Presidency are 
not all of the same value as regards the special point of our investiga- 
tion. The ''Bombay Flora" by Dalzell and Gibson (published in 
J 86 1 ) contains only scanty dates as to the flowering of plants. % Of a 
great number of plants no dates at all are given, of many others not 
the whole flowering period is mentioned, but, as it seems, only that 
month in which the respective plant was collected in flower. 

In the Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency (Vol. XXV. Botany, 
1886) Lisboa gives a good description of the timber-trees, food 
plants, famine plants, oil-yielding plants, fibrous plants, etc., but the 
flowering time is added to the description of the timber-trees only. 
No information as to the time of flowering is found in Gray's most 
valuable " Botany of the Bombay Presidency." As regards " The 

1 H. P. Blanford, page 172. 


Flowering Plants of Western India, " by A. K. Nairne, the author 
himself says in the introduction to his volume : '.? The same deficiency, 
and for the same reason, will be noticed as to the time of year when 
the different species flower." The best and, to a great part, the only 
information existing, we get from Cooke's " Flora of the Presidency 
of Bombay." As yet only the first volume and two parts of the second 
volume have appeared, including all the orders, following Hooker's 
classification from the Rannnculacese up to the Verbenaceee inclusive. 
For th'3 rest of the phanerogamic orders I made use of Wood row's 
" Catalogue of the Flora of Western India." ] 

In the subjoined table we shall give the flowering times according 
to months. The flowering period of a plant does not usually occupy 
one month only, but several and, thus, the same plant may be found 
in two, three, four, or more columns, the number in each column 
designating the number of those plants which were seen flowering 
during the respective month. As the vegetative processes are, for a 
great part, different in woody and herbaceous plants, it may be said 
beforehand, that there will be differences in the sexual processes too. I 
shall, therefore, give separately the flowering periods of the woody 
plants comprising the trees and shrubs, and of tlie herbaceous plants 
compri-ing the rest. 

Whether further distinctions are to be made, we shall see in the course 
of our investigation. 

The folio-wins? table will, in addition to the flowering time, contain 
the mean monthly rainfall, humidity, cloud proportion, and temperature 
of the Bombny Presidency, as given in the above tables : — 

— - 
























Mean rain'all 






12 9h 







Mean humidity 



44 8 


51 -f 

61 1 





51 7 


Mean cloud proportion .. 









5 5 





7:; 7 









73 2 


Flowering times of the woody 













Flowering times of the herba- 
ceous plants 













1 Cf. Woodrow Journ. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc: XL 118, XI. 265, XI. 420, XI. 635, XII 
162, XII. 354, XII. 515, XIII. 427. 


As it is very difficult, even after a longer examination of this table, 
to trace the different relations between the climatic factors and the 
flowering period I add, in order to give a clearer idea, a graphic repre- 
sentation of the table. (Plate I.) 

If we compare in the first place the meteorological curves with the 
curve representing the flowering times of the woody plants, there is 
one prominent feature which strikes us most, viz., the coincidence of 
the maximum of rainfall in July with the minimum of flowering times 
during the same month. The clouds show their maximum at the same 
time, and humidity is just a little below its maximum in July, whilst 
temperature, after having reached its maximum in May, is going down 
as rapidly as it had risen since March. The flowering times reach 
their maximum in March, and, at the same time, humidity, clouds, 
and rainfall are almost at their minimum. The meteorological curves, 
except that of temperature, are continually rising in April, May, June, 
and July, during which period the curve of the flowering times is des- 
cending. In August the number of the flowering times is increased, 
whilst the clouds are diminished slightly, and the rainfall considerably. 
In September, again, the flowering times are less, and, though rainfall 
as well as clouds are descending, we find humidity at its maximum. 
After the month of September, the curve of the flowering times is rising 
decidedly, whilst all the meteorological curves are descending. From 
our curves we are not able to decide whether any greater influence 
upon the flowering time is to be attributed to temperature. For the 
explanation of the fact that the maximum of the flowering times does 
not coincide exactly with the minimum total of humidity, clouds, and 
temperature (as this evidently is not in March but in February, 
though there is only a very slight difference between the two months), 
we might adduce the reason that the temperature in February is not 
high enough for a full development in the sexual sphere. Perhaps the 
statistics of other regions might contribute towards the solution of the 
question as to the influence of temperature upon the flowering season 
in the tropics. This much, for the present, may be taken for certain, 
that to the maximum of rainfall, clouds, and humidity, there corre- 
sponds the minimum of flowering times of the woody plants, and to the 
minimum of the hydrometers the maximum of flowering periods. 

A comparison of the flowering times of the herbaceous plants with 
the meteorological curves furnishes the following details : The minimum 


of flowering times is reached in May. Humidity, clouds, and rainfall 
cannot account for that minimum, and still less so, if we see the curve 
of flowering times descending since January. But as soon as we take 
into consideration that the temperature is rising during February, March 
and April, and reaches its maximum in May, we cannot but suspect a 
certain relation between temperature and flowering season. Whether 
there exists such a relation actually, we must learn in the course of 
our investigation. I think we might explain the &ame fact in this way. 
We see a comparatively high percentage of flowers in December and 
January, and a continually decreasing number in February, March, 
April, and May, not on account of the rising temperature, but because 
the rainy season still exercises its influence upon the flowering season, 
stronger in December than in January, and stronger in January than in 
February, etc. That this effect could be produced by humidity of the 
soil only is evident, but just this humidity is to a great extent dependent 
on the temperature, especially in regions like the bhats and the Deccan, 
which, owing to their special geological formation, are more exposed to 
the desiccating influence of the sun. In this way it seems again, that 
we are not allowed to neglect entirely the influence of temperature. 
By the fact, however, that the curve of flowering times rises rapidly and 
continually from May to October without a great change in temperature, 
it is shown to evidence that the influence of temperature is so slight, 
that we may wholly neglect it without incurring any inaccuracy. 

How is it that the maximum of flowering times does not coincide with 
the maximum of rain and clouds and approximately of humidity in July, 
but with a very low rainfall in October ? The fact is easily explained if 
we bear in mind, that herbaceous plants ( with the only exception of 
many of those which are provided with bulbs, tubers, or rhizomes, e- 
gr. Liliacese, Dioscoreacese, Taccaceseh, Amaryllidaceaa, Scitaminacese, 
Orchidacese, Aroidacea?) have not got a store of reserve material which 
enables them to develop flowers as soon as the outer circumstances allow 
it, but that they have to grow first the vegetative organs (stem and 
leaves), by means of which they are enabled to produce the necessary 
material for the construction of the reproductive organs. It is, thus, 
easily understood why the greatest part of the herbaceous plants is 
found flowering not at the beginning of the rainy season, but at a later 
period, according to the time they need for the development of the 
vegetative organs. 



With regard to the orders just mentioned (Liliacefe, Diosooreucese, 
etc.), it seems to be an exaggeration to say that they behave like woody 
plants as to the special point of their flowering season. 

It is true, many of them are found flowering during the hot season, 
but still more during the rainy part of the year. Resides, the number 
of flowering times, as above given, shows that herbs belonging to other 
orders flower in the same way during the first half of the year. 1 
add a table of the flowering periods of some orders which all are 
possessed of tubers, bulbs or rhizomes. 


























































































This table is, of course, not decisive, as just of these orders the data 
available are very incomplete. It is, however, striking that we find so 
great a number of flowers just during tne hottest month of May ; after 
a dry and warm season. Continued observations must be made before 
we can arrive at satisfactory results. 

Highly interesting it would be to trace the relations which oxisl 
between the climatic factors and the flowering season of plants belong 
ins to different orders. The following table contains the flowering 
periods of the herbaceous plants of some orders : — 
















































CucurbiTacea: .. ., 
Umbellif eras . . 


















































This table shows distinctly the differences in the distribution of the 
flowering periods between the plauts of the various orders, and there 
must, no doubt, be a reason why so many representatives of the Mal- 
vaceae, Leguininosse, GraminacetB, and especially of the Composite 
are observed flowering during the dry season. Whether it is due to a 
special anatomical structure of those plants, or to a certain adaptation to 
insects, I am not able to say. 

We now proceed to examine the flora and the climatic conditions of 
another vast area, viz., of North- West and Central India. Dr. Brand is' 
object in writing his forest-flora was, '"'to give an account of the 
arborescent vegetation in the forest tracts of Pan jab, the North West 
Provinces, and of those forests in the Central Provinces which are 
situated on the Maikal and Satpura range of mountains." 1 Here, 
again, the author himself may describe the geographical boundaries of 
the flora. " The northern limit," he says, " may be defined as the 
arid treeless zone of the inner Himalaya ; while to the south the territory 
is bounded by the open forestless plain which skirts the Maikal and 
Satpura range from Bilaspur and Berar. The western limit is the 
Panjab frontier along the foot of the Suliman range ; and eastward the 
territory is bounded by a broken line, which follows the Nepal frontier, 
first along the Kali river, and, afterwards, parallel with the foot of 
the Himalaya, until it touches the great Gandak river. From that 
point, a straight line drawn in a south-south-westerly direction through 
Benares to Amerkantak and Bilaspur may be regarded as the eastern 
boundary. Between the British territory of the Panjab and the North- 
West Provinces in the north, and the Central Provinces in the south, 
intervene the large and important native states of Rajputana, Malwa, and 
Bundelkhand, and as the arborescent vegetation of these States is very 
similar to that of the surrounding British territory, they have been 
included as far as possible. Most of the trees and shrubs of Sindh, and 
of the forest tracts of Guzerat, in the vicinity of the Mhye river, and 
south as far as the Mandevi forests on the right bank of the Tapti, are 

" The northernmost point is the head of the Kaghan valley, drained 
by a tributary of the Jhelam, in lat. 35° ; and the forest tracts furthest 
west are the Belas, along the Indus in Sindh, in long. 68°." - 

1 Brandis' Forest-Flora of North- West and Central India. Introduction. 
■2 Brandis. I.e. 


Brandis divides the whole area into four great climatic zones. The 
first includes the entire arid region of India, viz., South-Panjab, Sind, 
the States of Buhawulpoor, Khyrpoor, Bikanecr, Jessulmia, and the 
greater part of Marwar. Here the rainfall is scanty and uncertain, and 
the atmosphere is dry almost throughout the whole year. The second 
zone includes the whole northern dry country. Comprising the plains 
of north and north-east Paniab (except the Sub-Himalayan tract), Delhi. 
Ajmeer, Gwalior, Bhurtpoor, Jeypur, and Meywar, it surrounds on the 
north aud east the arid region and forms a belt from 100 to 200 miles 
wide. The normal annual rainfall is between 15 and 30 inches. A heavy 
monsoon and rainfall of more than 60 inches per annum characterises 
the western end of the ncrth-eastern moist zone. It includes the coast 
of Burma. Bengal, the Sub-Himalayan tract, but only a narrow belt 
extends into the area of Brandis' flora, comprising part of the Gorakh- 
pur and the Northern Oud forests, the Siwalik tract, the Doons, and 
the outer ranges of the North-West Himalaya. The fourth zone com- 
prises part of the extensive intermediate region, which includes Central 
India, a large portion of the North-Indian plains, and that part of the 
Himalaya which stretches between the outer moist belt and the inner 
arid region of Tibet. 

The best method to be adopted would be to describe the four zones 
separately with their respective floras and climates, because, only in 
this way we would be able to obtain the wished-for exact results. But 
everybody acquainted with Brandis' valuable book will understand that 
it is a thing of impossibility to put together from the rich information 
it gives the plants belonging to each zone, and even if possible, one 
difficulty could not be overcome, viz., to find out the exact period of 
flowering iu the different climatic regions. Of local floras, covering 
parts of North -West and Central India, only two are known to me. 
Murray described, 1881, " The Plants and Drugs of Sind" in one 
volume, but no notes as regards the flowering season are given. The 
other book by Duthie describes the flora of the Upper Gangetic Plain 
and of the adjacent Siwalik aud Sub-Himalayan tracts, which will be 
treated of later on. 

Thus, nothing is left, but to give as many meteorological statistics as 
are necessary for a fair average of the whole area and to add from 
Brandis' flora the flowering periods, which are, as is generally admitted. 
reliable, though not yet complete. 

Rainfall recorded at 40 stations. 


















































Quetta, 9 years 
Murree» 17 years 

Simla, 25 years 









19 3 







Banikhet. 16 years.. 
Pacnmarhi, 16 years 









l'J 8 




3 8-2 

15 1 






Abu, 27 years 









5 J 



12 3 






Newara Eliya 
Peshawar, 28 years.. 








•3 7 



10 5 




Rawalpindi, 29 years 
Sialkot, 29 years 





2 3 











Lahore. 30 years . . 
Ludtatana 27 to SI years .. 










4 '3 





Delhi. 34 to 36 years 
Sirsa, 34 to 3t> years 












6 9 







Dera Ishmapl Khan,25 jcars 
Mooltan. 25 years .. 










1 3 






Jacobabad. 26 years 
Hyderab .d, 21 to 2 l years.. 









1 4 







Kurrachee, 31 years 
Bikanir, 9 years .. 
















Jeypore. 18 to 20 years . . 
Ajmere, 24 years . . . , 







6 ' 







Deesa, 29 to 31 vears 
Dehra. 37 to 3 ■< years 

















Roorkee, 32 to 33 years . . 
Meerut, 37 to 39 years . . 










12 3 








Agra. 37 to 39 years 
Lucknow, 19 to 20 years . . 








10 8 






Allahabad. 37 to 39 years.. 
Benares, 37 to 39 years . . 








4 6 


10 7 






Neernueh, 19 to 20 years . . 
Indore, 19 years . . 













8 1 





Jhansi, 26 to 27 years 
Saugor, 29 to 32 years 








13 6 







Jubbulpore, 41 to 43 years. 






15 -i 


11 - 

5 1 






Seoni. .. .. . . .. 

Akoli, 25 to 26 years 
















Mean rainfall 















Humidity recorded at 39 stations. 

Quetta . 


Pachmarhi .. 

Mount Aba .. 

Newara Eliya 

Rawalpindi .. 

Ludhiana . . 


Dera Isbmael Khan 



A] mere 

Deesa . . 





Satna . , 

Seonl .. 


-Mean humidity 
























_ __ 













































66 74 


534 72'5 











5 J 




53-9 49 7 


Cloud proportion recorded at 40 stations. 




Pachmarhi . . 

Mount Abu . . 

Newara Eliya 
Peshawar . . 

Rawalpindi . . 




Dera Ishmael Khan 

Hyderabad .. 









Benares .. ,, 




Jubbulpore .. 



Mean cloud proportion 




4 6 














3-i 8 


3 01 








6 0? 







20' 4-1 

























Temperature recorded at 40 stations. 




Chakrata . . 

Paohinarhl .. 

Mount Abu . . 

Newara Kllya 

Rawalpindi ... 

Ludhiuua ... 



l)era Ishinail Khan 

Jacobabad , . 
Hyderabad .. 

Kurrachee .. 


AJi^ere .. . 




Agra .. 
Lucknow ... 

Allahabad ... 




Jubbulpore . . 



Mean temperature 
















1 B 



1- 1 





85-6, 81-0 

797 78-5 












Giving once more the mean monthly rainfall, humidity, cloud pro- 
portion, and temperature, and adding, besides the flowering periods of 
the woody plants (the herbaceous plants not being described in BrandiV 
flora), we obtain the following table for a comparison between flowering 
time arid climate : — 































<3 | co 
















55 7 




40 :- 








.Meuti cumd proportion .. 


3- Oh 



2 4f> 

4 01 



4 21 


1-35 223 


60 2 



84' t 

PS 6 







Flowering times of the vooty 





28 h 








Plate II shows the same graphically. 

A short examination of these curves leads to the same results, as did 
our first graphic representation. The maximum of flowering times 
coincides with the minima of humidity and rainfall, and with little above 
the minimum of clouds during the first half of the year. The only 
difference between the two regions with regard to the flowering season 
is that, here, it is not the month of March which shows the maximum 
of flowering times, but the month of April. This is, no doubt, due to 
the high degree of humidity during January and February. Whilst the 
curves of rainfall, clouds and humidity are ascending, tho curve of the 
flowering times is descending. This is well shown especially in May, 
June, and July. As soon as rainfall, clouds, and humidity are ap- 
proaching their minimum in October, the number of flowering times 
begins to increase. 

I now pass to the examination of an area which was included in the 
foregoing, viz., the Upper Gangetic Plain and the adjacent Siwalik arid 
sub-Himalayan tracts. It is worth being treated of independently, 
because Duthie describes in his flora not only the wocdy but also the 
herbaceous plants. There has appeared as yet only one volume, com- 
prising the orders Ranunculaceze to Cornacese. " The area dealt with in 
this flora," says the author, "amounts approximately to 196,000 square 
miles. It is bounded on the north and north-east by a portion of ihe 
main chain of the Western Himalaya, and on the east by Bengal. 
On the south and south-west the boundary follows the watershed, 
from which all the rivers west of the Son, and flowing into- the 



5 s 







" 1 ~" n — 1 r — 7 :: " J-—- . 

y ' / / / '■ 

(—-•< — r-*— P^ ^^ 

7 . j;><C^ | lit 

liV^jff 1 ^\\ T 

jT p^E\ I ?\ 

1 / T TTH^iiL 

\ / \ / \ 

_\ .. , ^... 1. X i_.__.V_ 

S -M t \ 

± I V / 1 _J 


CO <jj 





>— • 





sa a 

r Vj 

r o 



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_i__ A j___\__ 

- + + \y \ < 

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1 \ \ 

il 1 1 \, \ \\ \\ 





_ 'S3 

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> — i 


n n 1 i i i i i n i i i i i i i i n R — 7 \ — I — i 

i \ ■ Fy \ 

t jt \Xf \ 7 ■ 

I t ,y^ n(x v 

lt^|'':;5^^M4 I 

t ^|t ; "tf J 1 Tf 1 T 

/ TH ( 1 J • 

^r^sl K TjT 7 

1 1 1 rS^s^s^ 

\ w 7 jj 77 ^ Ik 

t N *Mtl It 

I / ^-Sffic'fflll 

1 U±M IiKiIli 






2 £ 








r ~-i 


















:m 9 

Ganges and Jumna from these directions, -take their origin. The 
watershed extends along the northern slope of the numerous groups 
uf hills known collectively as the Vindhya mountains, and which 
separate the Gangetic Plain from the Narbada Valley." 1 With re- 
gard to the climate of the North- West Provinces the cool season comes 
to an end in March. Strong hot winds setting in from the west last 
well into May. As they are extremely dry, a humidity as low as 6 per 
cent, has sometimes been recorded. After the greatest heat at the end 
of May or the beginning of June, the rainy season sets in during the 
latter half of J une. It generally does not rain for more than a day or 
two at a time, and the rains cease usually in September, lasting gene- 
rally a week or moro longer in the eastern than in the western districts. 
The cold weather falls begin towards the end of December and last 
during January and February 2 . Here I add the statistics of the 
average monthly rainfall of 22 stations which lie within the area of 
Duthie's flora. 

Rainfall recorded at 22 stations. 













s 1 





















Mu6Sooiiei 23 to 35 years 







30 2 



Dahra Dun, 37 to 39 years 






8 6 







Kaulkrwt, irf year 



2 2 





11 6 

•r i 




Nairn Tal,36 to 38 yeara 













Roorkee, 32 10 33 years 













Meerut, 37 to 39 veai'8 













Morad ib i«l, 37 to 39 years 









5 9 




BatvlllY,37 to *9 y ars .. 








9 3 





Agra, 37 to 39 ye. is 







9 8 


4 » 




Lucknow, 19 to 2'" years 












Cawnpore, 37 t" 39 year* 



• o 




9 7 






Allaliabid, 37 <n 3 i Years 













Jtaansl, 28 to 27 years 








VI s 




Goraklipur. 37 to 39 years 




I 5 





3 ' 


Benares, 37 to 39 Ye;.rs .. 








1 i*7 





.Teypore. 18 to 20 years .. 






3 3 







A] mere, 24 years 













Ind'Tei 9 vears 












Nei-much 1> to 2" year* .. 






3 9 






De hi, 34 to 36 years 








« 9 





Saugor, 29 to 32 years 






6 3 




1 3 



Chakratai 18 years 







13 85 





Mean rainfall 











1 Dnthie, Flora of the Upp^r Gangetio Plain and of the adjacent Siwalik and Sub- 
Himalayan tracts, Vol. I Introduction. 

2 Blanford, 1. c. pages 141—143. 


For the mean humidity, cloud proportion, and air temperature 
I refer to the following stations mentioned in the tables of North-West 
and Central India: Chakrata,Ranikhet, Delhi, Jeypore, Ajmere, Dehra, 
Roorkee, Meerut, Agra, Luck now, Allahabad, Benares, Neemuch. 
Indore, Jhansi, Saugor. 

The monthly average of all these stations is given in the following 
table, to which I add the mean rainfall and the flowering times : — 


























Mean humidity 


49- « 





76- e 







Mean cloud proportion . . 







7 13 







Mean temperatm-e 





86 7 

86 9 








Mean rainfall 













Flowering times of the 
■woody plants 













Flowering times of the 
herbaceous plants 













The same relations are shown graphically in Plate III. 

It is not necessary to point out the conclusions which can be drown 
from these curves, as they are exactly to the same effect, which we 
have obtained from our former graphic representations. 

( To be continued. ) 



By E. C. Stuart Baker, f.z.s., 

Part II. 

(With Plate II.) 

(Continued from page 83 of this Volume.) 


The Small Cuckoo. 
Cuculus poliocephalus. Latham, Ind. Orni., I, p. 214 ; Jerdon, B. 
of I., p. 324 ; Fairbank, S. F., IV, p. 255 ; David and Wen., S. F., 
VII, p. 78 ; Hume, Cat, No. 201 ; id., S. F., XI, p. 71 ; Legge, B. of 
Ceylon, P . 231 ; Vidal, S. F., IX, p. 54 ; David, S. F., X, p. 299 ; 
Barnes, B. of Bora., p. 124 ; Oates, Ibis, 1889, p. 359 ; id., Hume3. 
Nests and Eggs, 2nd Ed., II, p. 382 ; Shelly, Cat. B. M., XIX, p. 255 ; 
Osmaston, Jour., Bom. N. H. Soc., XI, p. 472 ; Nehrkorn, Cat. dor Eier, 
p. 171 ; Blanford, A. of B. I., Ill, p. 208 ; Dresser, Pal Birds, I, 
p. 471 ; Sharpe, Handl., II, p.158 ; Reid, Cat. Eggs B. M., Ill, p. 114. 
In the British Museum there are three reputed eggs of this cuckoo 
which are described by Reid as of a regular, oval shape, smooth and 
very glossy. They are white, spotted and speckled with umber-brown, 
more thickly at the large end than elsewhere, and with a few underlying 
pale-purplish markings. They measure, respectively, '7 5' by *55", *7" by 
•48", *75" by *54". These eggs do not at all agree with our authentic 
Indian eggs, and may or may not be poliocephalus" s eggs. All are 
Madagascar taken eggs. There is a figure of one (Plate II, fig. 3) in the 
catalogue referred to, and from this it is seen that not only in colouration 
but in shape and everything else these eggs of the B. M. are unlike ours. 
The first egg taken in India on record, and which from the light of 
later discoveries seems to have been correctly identified, is that of 
Brooks taken at Gulmerg, Cashmere, out of a nest of Phylloscopus 
humii (Hume's Willow-Warbler) on the 2nd June. Oates describes it 
thus : " It is an elongated, cylindrically ovate egg. nearly the same 
size at both ends, which are both obtuse, pure white and glossy. The 
nest contained three of the eggs of P. humii, which are only about 
half the size of this egg, almost glossless and richly spotted with red. 
" The egg measures 0*81 by 0*57 inch." 

The egg ascribed by Hume to Chrysococcyx maculatus (The Emerald 
Cuckoo) (F. B. I., Ill, p. 223), and described as a nearly uniform pale 


pinkish-chocolate egg is, from what we now know, undoubtedly an egg 
of the pres9nt species. This egg measured *8" by '62" and was found 
in the nest of Stachyrhidopsis ruficeps (Hume's Babbler). 

Mr. Osmaston, in Darjeeling, found, on the 8th July 1903, a young 
euckoo in the nest of the same little babbler which he ascribes to polio- 
cephakts. Unfortunately, a hunt for traces of the egg was unavailing. 

Col. Rattray and Mr. B. B. Osmaston in the same month of 
1903, took oviduct eggs of this bird. To Mr. Osmaston, however, belongs 
the honour of being actually the first, as his bird was shot a few days pre- 
viously to Col. Rattray's first bird. Thus Mr. Osmaston writes :— 
" With regard to the poliocephalus which laid the pale pinkish-chocolate 
egg in its death struggles in my hand, the bird was shot, on the 1st 
June 1903, at an elevation of 7,000, in fairly thick forest." Two other 
eggs, in every respect identical with that laid by the dying bird, were 
obtained by the same collector from nests of Drymochares cruralis 
(the White-^browed iShorfc-wing). The first is that referred to in this 
Journal, Vol. XI, p. 472, and was taken by Mr. F. Gleadow whilst 
nesting in the Tons Valley. The egg is described as of an uniform 
chocolate colour, similar to one of Horomis pallidus (The Pale Bush- 
Warbler), but lighter in shade and of course much larger. The egg 
measures '78" by '60", and was taken in June, the 5th. 

The third egg taken by Mr. Osmaston himself on the 15th Dune, 
1903, was exactly similar to the other, but measured '84" by -58". It 
was taken at about 7,500' elevation, near Darjeeling, from the nest of a 
D. cmraHs, which was placed against the face of a vertical rock. This 
eo-ff and the skin of the bird which laid a similar egg in Mr. Osmaston's 
hand were both sent me for inspection. The skin is without doubt that 
of C. poliocephalus, and the eggs may be described as follows : — 

In colour they are a beautiful pink-chocolate, more the colour of 
Cettia eggs than that of any other eggs known to me, but rather deeper 
in colour, and, when very closely looked into, it is seen that there 
is a very faint powdering with a deeper tint of the same colour. In 
shape the eggs are long, perfect ellipses, equal at either end, and the 
texture is very fine and close, the surface extremely smooth and like 
satin to the touch. The shell is decidedly fragile. 

In 1893 I took four cuckoos' eggs in North Cachar, which, I now 
think, must belong to this species ; they are very much faded since they 
were taken, but otherwise agree very well with Mr. Osmaston V eggs. 


Two eggs wero taken in tlio nest of a fly-catcher of some sort — I. think, 
Niltava macgrigorioe (The Small Niltava)— a third in the nest of N. 
sundara, (Rufous- bellied Niltava), and the fourth, which I have given to 
Mr. Osmaston, was also taken in the nest of N. macgrkjorice. One 
of my eggs is a perfect ellipse ; the others are very blunt ovals, the 
texture. &c, being identical with those taken by Mr. Osmaston. The 
colour is a bright pale chocolate-pink, exactly like the eggs of Cettia 
orientalis (Eastern Bush- Warbler), but when taken they were rather 
darker. One egg when closely examined has a faint ring round the 
larger end of minute purple-grey specks, all coalescing, with equally 
minute specks of reddish scattered over the whole surface of the egg. 
The second egg is similar, but has the ring rather better defined and the 
reddish specks oven more sparse and fine. The third egg shews no 
specks unlsss examined under a magnifying glass, when this. too. shews 
the same fine purple-grey powdering. They measure "82" by *56", 
•84" by '57" and -79" by -59". They were all taken, in July 1893, at 
an elevation between 4,000' and 0,000'. 

Effffs similar to Mr. Osmaston's have been taken this year, 1904, by 
Ool. A. E. Ward, in Kashmir, who informs me that he has twice taken 
eggs of this type, and once the young cuckoo from the nest of 
Pratincola maura (The Indian Bush-Chat). 

Again Mr. C. lnglis has been so fortunate this year, 1904, as to secure 
the rare red egg of C. poliocephalus in the equally rare nest of Oligura 
castaneicoronata, (The Oh est nut-headed Short-wing), together with the 
eggs of the latter bird, and, in addition to this, captured the Oligura en 
the nest with a butterfly net. 

The egg was taken on the 6th of July near Darjeeling at an elevation 
of about 6,000'. It was compared with Mr. Osmaston's eggs and found 
to correspond exactly. This undoubted egg is now in my collection, 
Mr. lnglis, with great generosity, having given it to me. It measures 
•89" X -6". 

Very different in colour to these, but agreeing in all other respects, are 
the eggs taken from the oviduct by Col. Rattray who wrote to me late 
in 1 903 : ■-" I this year took no eggs of Cuculus poliocephalus from nests, 
but on the 24th of June and 26th July I shot females containing eggs 
ready for expulsion ; both were broken, but were easily seen to be in 
colour a pure white without spots, corresponding wJth eggs taken by 
Buchanan. Wilson and self in 1899." 


Col. Rattray took othei' eggs of this Cuckoo of the pure white type 
from the nests of Acanthopneuste occipitalis (The Large Crowned Willow- 
Warbler). These he describes as " pure white and glossless ; the shape is 
peculiar — along narrow egg, very blunt at both ends, more like a cylinder 
with rounded ends. Size '85" hy '58". The nests were in. amongst the 
roots, in one case, of a fallen pine ; how the bird got in I do not 
know as 1 had to tear away a lot of roots and earth to get at the nest." 

An egg sent me by Major Buchanan as belonging to this Cuckoo agrees 
with the above. It was taken from the nest ;of Acanthopneuste trochiloides 
(Blyth's Crowned Willow-Warbler), and in the forwarding letter Major 
Buchanan informed me that he had taken another exactly similar egg out 
of the nest of Lophophanes melanolopthus (The Crested Black Tit). 

Col. Wilson also very kindly forwarded three eggs for inspection, all 
agreeing exactly with the above. They were all taken from nests of 
Acanthopneuste occipitalis. 

Similar eggs were taken by Mr. J. Davidson from the same fosterers 
in Sonamurg. 

Herr Kushel in epistola notes that " the eggs of Cuculus poliocephalus 
are white with tiny specks of yellowish-brown.'*' He is uncertain, 
however, of their identity, and adds, " the eggs of C. poliocephalus from 
Japan are dark-reddish-brown, as are the eggs of the foster-parents, Cettia 
cantans", a curious confirmation of Osmaston's and Ward's eggs. [Since 
the above was written I have obtained from Alan Custan, Yokohama, a 
magnificent series of seven eggs of this species, all of which were taken 
from the nest of Cettia cantans^ with whose eggs those of the Small 
Cuckoo closely agree in colour. They correspond in all details with 
the eggs taken by Osmaston, Inglis, and Ward, but are rather richer in 
colour on the whole. — E. C. S. B.] 

The 22 eggs which have passed through my hands average '83" by 
'58". In length they varied between *78" and '92" and in breadth be- 
tween '54:" and '62". Others which I have not seen, but about which 
their owners have been so good as to give me full notes, agree entirely 
with the above descriptions. All the eggs appear to have been taken in 
June and July, the latter end of June and July being the time in which 
most were found. 

Nehrkorn in his catalogue of eggs, in his own collection, describes eggs 
sent to him from Madagascar as follows : — " Weiss mit violetten und 
dunkel-braunen ziemlick grossess Flecken, welche am stumpfen Ende 


einen Kranz bilden. 18-20 by 14-15." He does not give the nests from 
which they were taken, and the eggs, of course, do not agree in the least 
with our Indian eggs. 

The Small Cuckoo during the breeding season is found principally in 
the Himalayas from 4,000' upwards and in the Sub-Himalayan ranges 
of Assam, where it descends a good deal lower ; thence it extends through 
North Central China to Japan, where also it would appear to breed freely. 
Curiously enough, it has not yet been recorded from Burmah, though it 
must occur in that province, for it is found throughout the Malay Penin- 
sula, Java and Borneo. Like saturatus this cuckoo would appear to be 
more or less resident in the latter countries. 

In the cold weather it may be found practically anywhere in India 
and Ceylon, and is more than probable, as time goes on, it will be found 
breeding in the Southern Hill ranges, as well as the Sub-Himalayas. 

Its call is a dissyllabic note twice repeated, but it has a variety of notes 
and is a rather noisy bird, and, though some of its notes are more or less 
musical, others are quite the reverse. 

The Indian Cuckoo. 

Cuculus micropterus. Jerdon, B. of I., I, p. 326; Hume, S. F., II, 
p. 191 ; id., Cat. No. 203 ; Fairbank, S. F., IV, p. 255 ; Davidson and 
Wen, ibid., VII, p. 79 ; Ball, ibid., p. 207 ; Cripps, ibid., p. 264 ; Vidal, 
ibid., IX, p. 55 ; Bingham, ibid., p. 167 ; Butler, ibid., p. 388 ; Legge, B. 
of Ceylon, p. 288 ; Davidson, S. F., X, p. 359 ; Oates, B. of Burm., 
II, p. 104 ; Barnes, B. of Bom., p. 125 ; Davidson, Jour., Bom. N. H. 
Soc, I, p. 180 ; Shelly, Cat. Birds B. M., XIX, p. 241 ; Nehrkorn, Cat. 
der Eier, p. 170; Stuart Baker. Jour., Bom. N. H. Soc, X, p. 367 ;■ 
Blanford, A. of B. I., Ill, p. 210; Dresser, Pal. Birds, I, p. 473. 

Cuculus striatus, Jerdon, B. of I., I, p. 328. 

This, the excessively common Bo-kata-ko Bird, or Broken Pekoe Bird, 
of Anglo-Indians, known to almost every man, woman or child, who has 
passed a hot weather or two in India, is yet one of the few remaining 
cuckoos about whose egg there is no absolute certainty. I use the word 
absolute, for as yet no one has taken an oviduct egg or seen the egg laid ; 
on the other hand, Col. Rattray has, I think, fairly well settled the 
matter for us, and we may take it for granted that his eggs have been 
properly identified. In one of his earliest letters to me on. the subject - 


he writes, " Cuculus micropterus is the most common cuckoo in Murree, 
iind we took seven eggs this year, all but one in nests of Larvivora 
brunnea (The Indian Blue- Chat). I will describe three I took. 

" No. I, Murree, 27th May 1899.— One egg, fresh, in nest of 
Troclialopterum lineatum (The Himalayan Streaked Laughing Thrush). 
At first I put this down to canorus, but when we, in June and July, 
went on finding blue eggs, we, knowing this was the only other large 
cuckoo breeding there, came to the conclusion it must be micropterus. 

l< I found the nest of T. lineatum building about ten days earlier, 
and on the 24th there were three eggs in it, all undoubtedly belonging 
to the owner of the nest. On the 27th I passed agaiu and, looking in, saw 
two eggs only in the nest and two broken eggs outside and a lot of 
blue-grey feathers on the bush. I examined the eggs and found one 
smaller, thinner and clearer in shell and also of a much paler blue, so I 
took both. The nest was on the ground in the middle of the roots of a 
thick bush, and the cuckoo evidently lost some feathers going in. The 
egg is a pale clear blue and in size *83 by '70." 

Now the only cuckoos to whom the above blue-grey feathers could 
have balonged are C. canorus, saturatus, poliocephalus and micropterus 
and H. sparverioides, nisicolor, varius and nanus. H. nanus is not found 
in Kashmir, so may be dismissed at once. C. saturatus and poliocephalus 
have been shewn to lay totally different eggs. I shall shew that all the 
Hawk-cuckoos are now also known to lay eggs quite different to this 
one, so that it leaves only canorus and micropterus to be dealt with. 
Now hitherto no authentic blue egg of canorus has been taken, and the 
texture of this egg and others of the same kind is so totally unlike any 
canorus egg that I do not believe for a minute they belong to that bird. 
Again canorus appears to stop calling, and therefore presumably breeding 
in June, whereas these eggs were found well on into July. 

Yet, again, micropterus is even more common, than canorus, and if 
a number of canorus eggs of the usual type are found, why should none 
of the micropterus be found ; if found, these alone can be the eggs. 
Under the circumstances, and by elimination, I think Col. Rattray has 
proved his case, and I, for one, accept these blue eggs as belonging to 
micropterus until better arguments are advanced to shew that they 
are not. 

After describing the above egg taken in the nest of Trochalopterum 
lineatum Col. Rattray goes on to describe two other eggs, both taken in 


the nest of Larvivora brunnea, which were placed in holes, one in a 
rock and one in a bank. These holes were both so small that no cuckoo 
could possibly have got in to lay the egg. so that those must have been 
laid on the ground and then place;! by the parent-bird in the nest. 

Writing to me again after he had found oviduct eggs of canorus, 
poliocephalus and saturatus Col. Rattray again shews that the blue eggs 
can only have been those of micro pterus, and forwarded to me no less 
than six eggs of this bird, all taken in 1903. These are all of the same 
typ8 of the egg and were found on the 31st May and 5th of June. 

Again, in 1904, Col. Rattray writes me that his evidence is still of a 
negative character. He adds, however, that at Murroe, where C. 
micropterus is much the most common, he found most blue eggs ; in 
Dangagali, where micropterus is rare and canorus is very common, he 
found but one blue egg (of micropterus), but three of the reddish type 
of egg of canorus. 

Col. Wilson has taken numerous eggs which all agree with those 
taken above. 

I have records of eggs taken in the nests of Trochalopterum lineatum 
(The Himalayan Streaked Laughing Thrush), T. simile (The Western 
Variegated Laughing- Thrush) and Larvivor brunnea and, on a single 
occasion only, from a nest of Suya crinigera (The Brown Hill- Warbler), 
Tarsiger chrysoeus (The Golden Bush-Robin), and Niltava sundara. 

Mr. J. Davidson, C.S., has also given me a note on the eggs of this 
bird, but his eggs do not seem to agree with those above noted, and I 
fancy they will turn out to be Hierococcyx varius (the Common Hawk- 
Cuckoo). He says : " I cannot be absolutely sure of my eggs of this 
bird. I have only one taken by myself, which was found in hoavy forest 
in the Kanara District on 4th April 1894 in a nest of Crateropus canorus 
(the Jungle Babbler). The egg is clearly a cuckoo's, and the only 
cuckoo I heard or saw within a dozen of miles was this bird, and it 
was not uncommon as one would hear three or four in a morning's 

'• It is a deep blue (not in the least like the pale blue of C, jacobinus 
(The Pied Crested Cuckoo), but neither so large nor dark-blue as II. 
varius which I have never heard in the neighbourhood. C. jacolmus 
does not occur in Khandesb, except as a passing straggler. I have three 
other similar eggs. Two are from the Barnes' collection — one taken on 
1.5th May 1895 without locality, sent to him by Mr. Murray, and one 


taken in 1903 by Mr. Irvine in Ranchi. 1 have another sent me from' 
the same place by Mr. Irvine. I cannot vouch for their authenticity." 

Now I myself have a reputed egg of Cuculus micropterus from the 
Irvine collection, and I have also oviduct eggs of Coccystes jacobinus 
and Hierococcyx varius, and I have not the least hesitation in saying that 
my egg belongs to one of these ; and, as jacobinus only occurs as a rare 
straggler in Khandesb, Mr. Davidson's egg is probably that of Hiero- 
coccyx varius. Mr. Irvine's egg is slightly darker than any of mine of 
H. varius, but I have seen eggs of this bird quite as dark as the reputed 
micropterus egg. In size, shape and texture it agrees perfectly. Not one 
oF my authentic jacobinus eggs could possibly be described as pale blue.* 

Nehrkorn describes the egg of this cuckoo as " Fleich-farben mit- 
markiton violetten und rost braunen flecken, welche fast nur am stumfen 
End steken. 24-17 mm. (aus Nest von Buchanga atra) Sikhim." 

This is very probably the egg of Surniculus lugubris (The Drongo 
Ouckoo), very improbably that of Cuculus micropterus. 

Nineteen of the eggs which we suppose to be micropterus have passed 
through my hands, and in ground colour all these are a very palehedge 
sparrow green-blue, some rather more blue, but varying very little in 
range of colour. In depth of colouring they range from almost skim 
milk blue-green to a colour nearly as dark as a hedge-sparrow's egg. 
Never, however, do they anything like approach the deeper colour of a 
Coccystes egg, not even coromandus, much less jacobinus. 

Most of the eggs are quite spotless, but a few are more or less marked » 
One egg in my collection, which I owe to Col. Rattray, has a single dark 
green spot near the extremity of the large end ; another has perhaps 
half a dozen such marks at the larger and one at the smaller end : in 
this egg the marks are far more blue than the ground colour. In Col. 
Rattray's own collection there are one or two eggs which are speckled, 
always faintly, with pale reddish, or as the owner of the eggs calls it, 
pale lilac. In one case these markings form a zone about the larger 
end, but in the others are speckled sparsely all over. 

In shape these eggs are all rather broad ovals and, with two excep- 
tions which are rather pointed, decidedly obtuse at the smaller end. In 
no case have I seen a spherical or elliptical shaped egg such as the 
Coccystes or the poliocephalus type. 

■ • Dr. Coltart has had thia year, on 24th August 1905, a nest of Garrulax moniliger (the 
Necklaced-Laughing Thrush) brought to him containing one of those eggs. It agrees with 
Rattray's, but is slightly darker than any I have seen of his. 


The texture, however, is much as it is in the eggs of the birds just 
mentioned, especially the latter, that is to say, it is very soft, smooth and 
satiny to the touch, of very fine, close grain, and, though it possesses a 
faint gloss, it is quite different to the hard China-gloss of some of the 
Garrulax eggs. The shell is decidedly fragile for the size of the egg, 
•although the texture is so close. 

Of the fiftoen eggs whose measurements I have taken the average 
is -92" full by -70" barely. 

The greatest and the least length is '98" and *87", respectively, and 
greatest and least breadth "73" and '66". 

The call of this tine cuckoo is perhaps one of the best known of bird's 
■sounds in North-Eastern India and the other parts to which it extends. 
Its two most popular names — " Bo-kata-ko " in Bengali and the 
" Broken Pekoe " bird in English — are two of the best representations 
•of its call. 

: Nnflang-kaiko (who stole the fish) in Cachari also well simulates the 
four notes to which it gives utterance. The call is very melodious and 
distinctly cuckoo-like in sound, but the bird reiterates it with so great 
perseverance that it becomes very monotonous. In " Stray Feathers " 
Hume says that he shot the female calling Bo-kata-ko, but I have only 
shot males making the call. 

The Indian cuckoo has been found practically everywhere in India, 
except the driest portions of the North-West, and it doubtless breeds 
more or less over the whole of its habitat, ascending higher up during 
the breeding season and migrating locally at this time from places where 
there are no suitable forests or hills. It extends right away through 
Burma into Malaya and again through Northern Burma into Central 
Asia, China, Siberia and Japan, breeding in all these countries, though 
the eggs thence which have been hitherto ascribed to this form are 
exceedingly doubtful. 

Genus Hierococcyx. 

As already pointed out, the difference between this genus and the 
typical Cuculus consists only of the difference in comparative length of 
the inner wing quills. In Cuculus the secondaries in the closed wing 
only extend to half the length of the primaries, whilst in Hierococcyx they 
always extend to at least two-thirds the length of the closed wing. 

The genus contains four species, three of which are more or less com- 
mon where found, and the fourth, nanus, is rare within our limits. 


Key to Species. 

A. No distinct dark cheek band from the eye. 

a. Abdomen barred. 

a." Wing always over 8*2'' sparverioides. 

b." Wing never as much as 8'2" varius. 

b. Abdomen spotted or streaked, never barred nisicolor. 

B. A distinct dark band, running through eye nanus. 

The above key only holds good as regards the adults, as young spar- 
verioides and varius both have the lower parts spotted and streaked, 
the spots becoming bars as the birds grow older. In young sparveri- 
oides the chin is blackish, in young varius the chin is white or rufescent- 
white like the rest of the lower parts, and in nisicolor the chin, throat and 
upper breast are dark- brown, the feathers more or less narrowly 
edged with rufous. 

This will probably suffice to discriminate between nestlings found in 
other birds' nests, and is important in forming a clue as to which nests 
we may expect to get different species of cuckoos' eggs in. 

Hierococotx sfarvekioides. (Vigors.) 
The Large Hawk- Cuckoo. 

Hierococcyx sparverioides. Jerdon, B. of I., I, p. 331 ; Hume, S. F., 
Ill, p. 80 ; IX, p. 72 ; id., Cat. No. 207 ; Armstrong, S. F., IV, p. 311 ; 
Hume and Dav., ibid., VI, p. 157 ; Ball, ibid., VII, p. 207 ; Scully, ibid., 
VIII, p. 256; Dav., ibid., X, p. 359 ; Oates, B. of Burm., II, p. 108 ; 
Oates, Nests and Eggs, 2nd Ed., II, p. 384 ; Shelly, Cat. of B. M., 
XIX, p. 232 ; Stuart Baker, Jour., Bom. N. fl. Soc, X, p. 367 ; 
Bknford, F. of B. I., Ill, p. 211 ; Dresser, Pal. Birds, I, p. 473. 

As regards the eggs of this fine cuckoo Ccl. Rattray is again in the 
enviable position of being the only man who has taken an egg ab- 
solutely without doubt. He says : " I cannot at all understand or confirm 
the notes imde by Miss Cockburn and Mr. Morgan as to this bird build- 
ing its own nest, but agree with Mr. Hodgson, as I shot the bird yester- 
day with an egg ready for expulsion. It was blue, like that of the egg of 
Acridoiheres, but larger, not white. It corresponds exactly with an egg 
I found some years previously in the nest of Myiophoneus temmincki 
(The Himalayan Whistling-Thrush). I had hoard these cuckoos' calling 
in this nullah for some days, and it was one of these birds flying up 
from the bank that attracted my attention to the Myiophoneus nest 


which contained three eggs of the owner and this one quite fresh. The 
one from the oviduct was unfortunately too badly smashed hy shot and 
the full of the bird to preserve or measure. 

' ; The egg I have is, now much faded, a pale cloar blue, glossy and a 
good deal pointed at the smaller end. Size 1'18" by *S0". 

Then, together with some eggs sent to me, Col. Rattray sent me the 
leg of an embryo which he had taken from an egg exactly matching 
those above described and which he had found in a nest of Trocha- 
lopterum Uneatum (The Himalayan Streaked Laughing-Inrush), 
together with three eggs of the parent bird. The leg was undoubtedly 
that of a cuckoo and could have only belonged to this species, so to Col. 
Rattray belongs the honour of taking three eggs of the Large Hawk- 

It is impossible in writing of this cuckoo's eggs to pass over in silence 
the accounts of Mr. Morgan and Miss Cockburn as given in Hume's 
Nests and Eggs. 


Mr. Morgan's story cannot be analysed in detail as it is not given 
in detail, so it is impossible to say more than that the account is 
utterly unlikely and may be dismissed with the practical certainty that 
Mr. Morgan must have been mistaken in the bird. 

Miss Cockbura's notes are, however, very full, and it is therefore 
more easy to discuss her. opinions. As regards the first nest found the 
evidence given is entirely that of native collectors. Now these men 
found a nest in a clump of trees from which a supposed Hawk-Cuckoo 
flew out. They watched it return to this nest and sit on it, and one of 
the men fired and missed it ; it again returned and was again missed. 
Next day the nest was not visited, but on the following one the natives 
again went and took the nest and eggs and shot a Hawk-Ci ckoo. 

Now there is nothing to prove that the cuckoos either built the 
nest or laid those eggs. Indeed on the first day it is quite possible that 
the natives mistook the bird which sat on the nest and that it 
was really a hawk, not a cuckoo at all, and this is all the more prob- 
able Avhen we find that both nest and eggs are described as being 
typically those of a hawk of some kind. When the cuckoo was shot 
nothing is said about its being in or near the nest, merely that it was 
"there," from whurh we may conclude that it was on the same or an 
adjacent tree. The eggs are described as being " perfectly white 
with a few touches of light brown on two of them ; they were much 


incubated. The inner skin of these eggs has a greenish-blue colour.'' 
This colour of the egg lining ■ makes it almost a certainty that these were 
hawk's eggs of some kind. 

Miss Cockburn's next note merely refers to the finding of a similar 
nest, empty, found later on. The nest is again described as a typical 
hawk's nest which " appeared to be a nest that had been used for 
several seasons," as is a custom with many of the Falconidce. Miss 
Cockburn saw the bird near the tree, but the servant said he had seen 
one of them sitting on the nest a few days before. Why a bird should 
go and sit on her nest after the young were hatched and flown is 
not easy to say, and this little touch of evidence appears to be one 
put in by the servant to help out his previous story, instead of which 
it merely shews that his evidence is worth very little. 

The times given — April- 11th, three eggs hard set, and May 27th, the 
young flown — again agree with the probable dates for a hawk's breed- 
ing arrangements, but are extremely early for a late breeding bird such 
as all Hawk-Cuckoos seem to be. 

I fear that this account must be relegated also to the fairy books. 

Hodgson found young birds being fed by Trochalopterum nigri- 
mentum (The Western Yellow- winged Laughing-Thrush) and Txops 
nepale?isis (The Hoary Bar- wing). 

Col. Rattray very kindly lent me the egg he took from the nest of 
Myiophoneus. It is a blue-green in colour like a pale egg of Garrulax 
moniliger (The Necklaced Laughing-Thrush) or dark one of Dryonastes 
ruficollis (The Rufous-necked Laughing-Thrush) ; it is paler also than 
eggs of Stumopastor or Acridotheres. The shape is a long oval, 
decidedly compressed at the smaller end, which is pointed. The 
texture is unlike that of any other Indian cuckoo's egg, and is inter- 
mediate again between the eggs of Dryonastes and Garrulax. It is very 
hard, fine grained, and glossy with innumerable, almost mycroscopic, 
corrugations and some fine longitudinal furrows. 

Dr. Col tart and I have a very large number of eggs in our collections 
which, we believe, will eventually prove also to belong to this cuckoo 
which are, roughly speaking, deep chocolate-brown in colour. If this 
proves to be the case, it will be rather analogous to the pure 
white and chocolate-pink eggs of Cuculus poliocephalus. 

My reasons for believing them to be of this species are : first and 
principally, by the process of elimination they can be no other cuckoo. 


They are not the eggs of any Cuculus, Coccystes, Cacomantis or 
Penthocery.c which we know, and they are too large for Chrysococcyw. 
They are not nisicolor or varius amongst the Hawk-Cuckoos, whose eggs 
not only do not agree in colour, which would not perhaps matter, but they 
disagree totally in shape, grain and texture. In shape, texture and grain 
they, on the other hand, do agree with Rattray's eggs of H. sparverioides. 

In 1894 I took one of these eggs from the nest of a Pellomeum 
ignotum (The Assam Babbler), and shot a female //. sparverioides near 
the nest. This egg is described in this Journal (X, p. 367), but knowing 
as much of cuckoos' eggs as we now do, I certainly should not have said 
they were the same type as the eggs of nisicolor which are elliptical. 
Since then as long as I was in North Cachar I continued yearly to 
obtain a few of these same eggs, and now in Lakimpur Dr. Coltart and 
I get a considerable number, mostly brought in by Nagas who get them 
in the hills beyond British territory. 

The very large majority of our eggs, I should think three out of four 
are found in the nests of Arachnothera magna (The Larger Streaked 
Spider-hunter), and I have myself taken nests of this bird containing 
both cuckoos' eggs and the eggs of the foster-parents. 

In June, 1896, I was marching over the Ninglo Peak, close on 6,000 
feet, when I observed a Large Hawk- Cuckoo skulking about in some 
scrub- jungle with stunted wild plantain trees growing in amongst the 
other stuff. I shot the bird which proved to be a female, and afterwards 
found within a few yards a nest of A. magna with supposed egg of this 
bird and one of the owner. 

Again the same vear and near the same Peak some Nagas found a 
nest of A. magna containing an egg of tho parents and two eggs of a 
cuckoo, and they said that their attention had been drawn to the nest by 
the way a pair of spider hunters were attacking a Hawk-Cuckoo skulk- 
ing about in some brushwood under the plantain tree to which the 
nest was attached. 

Both Dr. Coltart and myself have repeatedly taken or had brought to 
us, two eggs in one nest. 

I have either taken myself, or had brought to me, eggs in the nests of 
Alcippe nepalens/s (The Nepal Babbler) (1), Niliava macgrigorice (The 
Small Niltava) (1), Arachnothera magna (12 about), Cyornis ruhe- 
culoides (The Blue-throated Flycatcher) (1), Drymochares nepalensis 
(The Nepal Short-wing) (3), Pellomeum ignotum (The Assam Babbler) 



(1), P. mandellii (Mandelli's Spotted Babbler) (1), Stachyrludcpsis 
rufifrons (Hume's Babbler) (2), Siachyrls nigrtceps (The Black-tbroatecl 
Babbler) (1). 

In texture my eggs almost exactly resemble that of the blue egg 
taken by Col. Rattray, but I have none with the same corrugations, 
though some of mine have longitudinal furrows, such as his egg shewed. 
In shape also my eggs agree wall with his, a few of them being rather 
blunter and shorter, but as a whole they are long pointed ovals with the 
smaller end decidedly compressed. 

In colour they range from a light tan-brown, through all shades of 
olive-brown to a deep olive -brown, or rarely a deep olive- chocolate. In 
size they vary in length between *94" and 1*12" and in breadth between 
•68" and -75". Thirty eggs average 1'05" by -72". 

As regards these brown eggs all that can be said at present is that 
very likely they may be those of H. sparveriokles, but that there isas yet 
no proof that they are, whereas, on the other hand, it is proved that that 
bird lays blue eggs. 

Dr. Coltart and I have also each got a blue egg in our collections, 
taken in nests of Garrulax moniliger (The Necklaced Laughing- 
Thrush), which miy be those of sparverioides ; they are queer, long- 
elliptical shaped egg?, of the same colour and texture as Col. Rattray's 
Qggs, having the corrugation even more highly developed, but they are 
quite different in shape : one of these is shewn in PI. 11., Fig. 11. It 
measures 1*4" by *78". Yet another egg which may be that of 
sparverioides is one brought in by Nagas, and which is exactly like a 
large specimen of C. microplerus. It measures 1*12" by '88", and was 
found in the nest of Ianthocincla rufigularis (Rufous-chinned Laughing- 
Thrush). Since this was written, Dr. Coltart has obtained a blue egg 
of this Hawk-Cuckoo agreeing exactly with Rattray's, except that it is 
slightly darker and much more poiished than his as might be expected 
in a recently taken egg. 

Tins fine cuckoo is distributed, according to Blanford, " throughout 
the Himalayas as far West as Chumba, ascending in summer to ele- 
vations of 9,000 feet or more : probably scattered here and there over the 
better wooded parts of the Indian Peninsula in the cdd reason, but 
only recorded from Raipur in the Central Provinces. Ccn men en the 
Nilghiris in Southern India, but not observed in the Pidnis, the Tra- 
vancore Ranges, nor the Ceylon Hills. To the eastward this cuckoo 



Figure 15 should read Hieroeoccyx varius and figures 16 and 17 
should be Cacomanlis passerinus and not as given at the foot of the 

Journ. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 

PI. II. 














1-4 Cucuius mieropterus. 5-9. Hieroeoceyx nisieolor. 10-12. H sparveroides. 
13, 14, 15, 16. Caeomantis passerinus. 17. Hieroeoceyx varius. 


is found throughout the hills South of Assam and Burmah, ranging to 
China, Japan, the, the Malay Peninsula and Borneo." 

Its voice is not unlike that of the koel, but it is less harsh and 
penetrating, and some of its notes are really quite melodious. One of 
these latter has been described variously as Chuck-dot-dot or 
Chuck-dol-dol, and this has a distinctly cuckoo-like sound about it. 
Its favourite note, however, is one which runs up the scale in repetitions 
of tha sounds pi-pee-ah, pi-pee-ah, the emphasis on the second syllable, 
until the bird has got as high as it can, when it re-commences again. 

Like most cuckoos, it is often very noisy during moonlight nights, and 
it is then a perfect torment to would-be sleepers. Both these birds and 
the koel, doubtless from people not recognizing their notes as distinct, 
are often called the Brain-fever Bird. The cry which I have called 
pi-/;^-ah is by them made into Brain-/<?-ver. The True Brain-fever 
Bird is, however, H. varius, first cousin to the present bird. 

7 he Common Bawh-Cuekoo. 

FJierococcjjx varhis. Jerdon, B. of I., I, p. 329; Adam, S.F., I, p. 373: 
Butlor, ibid, III, p. 460 ; Bourdillon, ibid., IV, p. 392 ; Fairbank, ibid, 
V, p. 397 ; Vidal, ibid, VII, p. 56 ; Ball, ibid, p. 207 ; Cripps, ibid, 
p. 264 ; Hume, Cat. No. 205 ; Scully, S. F., VIII, p. 255 ; Legge, B. 
of Ceylon, p. 240 ; Reid, S. F., X., p. 27 ; Davison, ibid,j). 359; Barnes, 
B. of Bom., p. 126 ; David, Jour., Bom. N. H. Soc, I, p. 182; Barnes, 
ibid, IV, p. 18; Oates, Nest and Eggs, 2nd Ed., II, p. 383; Shelly, 
Cat. B. M., XIX, p. 234; Reid, Cat. Eggs B. M., Ill, p. 104 ; Blanford, 
B. I., Ill, p. 213 ; Nehrkorn, Cat. of Eggs, p. 170. 

Hierococcyx niso'des, Hume, S. F. VII, p. 371. 

Tho egg of the Common Hawk-Cuckoo is one which has long been 
well known, oviduct eggs having been taken by Bingham, Irvine and 
Inglts, all these agreeing exactly with one another and also with those 
reputed to b-jlong to this cuckoo taken from the nest of varivs babblers. 

Mr. S. L. Whymper writing to me from Jeol'kote says : " I got an 
undoubted egg from the nest of Crateropus canorus (The Jungle Babbler) 
in Bareilly as I saw the bird go to the nest." 

Mr. T. R B.)U saw a young IL varius being fed by a pair of Crate- 
ropus somsrvdl'a (The Rufous-tailed Babbler) and took undoubted eggs 
from the nest of this babbler. 


Mr. J. Davidson, O.S., writevS : " I have three eggs of this bird in My 
collection and have taken others ; of the three kept, two were taken in 
the nest of Crateropus canorus on the 13th and 16th July, 1886, 
respectively, at Kondebhari, Khandesh. The other was taken at Earwar, 
Kanara, on the 12th April, 1889, in a nest of Crateropus griseus 
(The White-headed Babbler)." 

The Common Hawk-Cuckoo seems almost, if not quite, invariably to 
deposit its eggs in the nests of either Argya or Crateropus, the species 
being apparently a matter of indifference. 

The only other nest, as far as is recorded, from which its egg has 
been taken, was one found by Partridge, a European collector of mine, 
who shot the bird as it left the nest. The nest and egg were brought in 
to me, but the real owner was neither shot nor identified. It appeared 
to be the nest of Niltava sundara (The Rufous-bellied Niltava), but it 
was of course impossible to say for certain. 

Oates in Hume's Nest and Eggs describes the egg thus : " The eggs 
are rather elongated, rather cylindrical ovals, very blunt at both ends. 
The shell is fine and glossy. The color is a uniform rather dark 
greenish-blue. They are larger, more elongated, and darker-colored 
than those of C. jacobinits." Another egg is described in the same place 
as a rather dark greenish-blue. 

The four eggs measured in Hume's Nest and Eggs varied between 
•95" and 1*15" in length and between -75" and *82" in breadth. 

The eggs in my own collection are of three distinct grades of color : 
the most pale of the three is not very much darker than some of my 
eggs of Coccystes coromandus (The Red-winged Crested Cuckoo) and the 
darkest is as dark as the darkest egg I have seen of C. jacobinus. I have 
one egg taken by Mr. C. Inglis from the oviduct of a female shot in 
Tirhoot (21st June, 1901), which is extremely bright in tint and rather 
dark. This oviduct egg measures 1*2" by '79", whereas my largest 
jacobinus' egg measures '98" by *87", so that though shorter, the latter has 
greater cubic contents. My shortest varius, egg is *90" and the least 
broad '70". All my eggs, and indeed all other eggs which I have seen, 
have varied in shape between elliptical and spherical, the large majority 
are almost true broad ellipses, but I have seen one or two so broad as 
to be almost spherical. The satiny texture is the same as that of 
Coccystes : the grain is very close and fine, and the shell extremely stout 
n proportion to the size of the egg. 


Mr. E. H. Aitken remarks that the yolk in this bird's egg is more 
highly colored than it is in that of C. jacobinus. 

The illustrations of the eggs of H. varius and C. Jacob inns in the B. 
Museum Catalogue of Eggs are very good, but the measurement of the 
former are possibly wrongly depicted, as the painting measures 1*2" by 

I do not think that C. jacobinus' eggs can be discriminated with any 
certainty from those of Hierococcyx varius, though the latter average 
larger and perhaps average lighter. 

Nehrkorn in his catalogue of the eggs in his collection describes the 
egg as being " dark blue-green flecked with fine specks of ruddy- brown 
at the larger end." This egg was taken from the nest of Crateropus 
canorus (The Jungle Babbler) with the eggs of the foster parents. 

The Common Hawk-Cuckoo is found all over India and Ceylon, being 
a resident, though perhaps locally migrating, throughout its range. It 
is found in Cacbar, but does not seem to extend up the Brahmaputra 
valley, where sparverioides is exceedingly common. 

This is the true " Brain-fever" bird, beloved of all sick Europeans in 
India, though the Koel and the Large Hawk-Cuckoo are often so called 
locally, especially where the Common Hawk-Cuckoo is absent. 

Its note- is the same pi-pee-ah, pi-pee-ah as that of sparverioides, but 
it is even more shrill and penetrating, and the bird itself even more 
persistent. Night or day seems much the same to it, and when the 
nights are very dark it awakes with the dawn and has double the energy 
to expend on destroying the rest of every one within hearing. 

Hierococcyx nisicolor. (Hodgson.) 
Hodgson's Hawk- Cuckoo. 

Hierococcyx nisicolor, Jerdon, B. of I., I., p. 330 ; III, p. 871 (Sup.) ; 
Hume, S. F. V., pp. 96, 347 : id. ibid. XI, p. 72 ; id. Cat. No. 206; Hume 
and Davis, S. F. VI, p. 157 ; Oates, B. of Burm., II, p. 109 ; id. Nests 
and Eggs, 2nd ed., II., p. 383 ; Blanford, Fauna B. I., III., p. 214 ; 
Stuart Baker, Jour. B. N. H. S., X., p. 366. 

Hierococcyx fugax, Shelly, Cat, B. M., XIX, p. 236, partem. 

The only absolutely authentic egg of this species taken as yet is the one 
which Mandelli took from the oviduct of a female on the 5th June. 
This egg is described in " Nest and Eggs " as " a broad oval, scarcely 
at all -pointed towards the small end and a little obtuse at the large end." 


The color is a uniform olive brown, and round the large end there is 
an indistinct zone of a darker shade : the shell is fine and smooth, 
but there is very little gloss on the egg. It measures *89" by *64." 

Dr. Ooltart and I have taken and had brought to us a fine series of 
cuckoos' eggs which agree, in many cases, in every single detail with the 
above description and which we have no doubt ourselves are of those o 
this Hawk-Cuckoo, a very common speoies both in Assam and in North 

Prior to 1891 I had had some of these eggs brought to me, but had 
no idea to what bird they belonged. In that year, however, I came 
across the egg myself and under circumstances which enabled me to 
identify the egg as being, in all probability, that of II. nisicolor* 

I was engaged one morning in hunting in some scrub and grass jungle 
for the nest of a pair of Phyllergates coronatus (The Golden-headed 
Warbler) which haunted the patch, and whilst so doing disturbed a cuckoo 
from a tuft of grass clos9 by where I was hunting. On shooting the cuckoo 
I found it to be female Hodgson's Cuckoo, and in the tuft of grass whence 
she flew I found a nest of Stachyrhidopsis rufifrons containing twc eggs 
of the babbler and a third very much larger and totally different in 
appearance. The description given by Mandelli would do equally well 
for my egg, but that mine is larger, measuring - 96" by *63". The olive 
brown is pale in tint and a clear, bright tone. The texture is fine and 
smooth with a faint gloss, and the shape is practically that of an ellipse. 
It was taken on the 14th May, 1891, at Guilang, North Cachar. 

A second egg, taken two years after, was found by a bird-skinner of 
mine in the nest of Niltava macgrlgorice at Gunjong, North Cachar, on 
the 20th July. A female was brought in with the nest and egg which 
Partridge, the bird-skinner, told me he had shot as it flew off the nest. 
This egg is a good deal darker, much more brown and less olive, the 
color is practically uniform, but when carefully examined shews traces of 
a ring of fine freckles of a darker color round the larger end. This egg 
only measures *87" by *64". The texture and the shape is the same as 
in that first described. 

In the years 1891 — 1896 several more eggs were taken, all agreeing 
with either one or the other of these two types or intermediate between 

In 1896 I took an egg from the nest of Cyor?iis rubeculoides, together 
with three eggs of the fosterer, which differs in having the ground color 


far more green in tone and in having a distinct ring of reddish freckles 
round the bigger end. - 


On the 8th of May and 14th September two eggs were brought in to 
me with nest and eggs of Arachnothera longirostns (The Little Spider- 
hunter) and Niltava which are exactly alike one another and differ a little 
from all the others I have. The ground color is a dull olive grey or 
stone color, and the whole surface is covered with freckles, smudges and 
specks of dull reddish, the markings are numerous everywhere, but 
more so towards the larger end. These eggs measure *91" by "61", and 
•91" by '60" respectively. They are the two dullest, most dirty looking 
eggs in my collection. One of these eggs is depicted in PI. II., 
Fig. 7. 

A rather common type of egg is one with a bright olive-green ground 
color, sometimes very pale and never dark, with reddish specks and freckles, 
sparse everywhere else, but forming a dense ring about the larger end. 
Two such eggs taken on the 3rd June, 1903, from the nest of Cyornis 
hyperythrus (The Rufous-breasted Blue Flycatcher) and on the 14th 
May this year (1904) from the nest of Cyornis rubeculoides, measure 
respectively, -96" by : 62" and I'Ol" by -61". 

The only other egg calling for description is one taken on the 3rd 
May, 1903, from the nest of Turdimdus exul (The Squamated Babbler), 
which contained one egg of the fosterer and this one. It has the same 
pale olive-green ground color as those last described, but it is thickly 
blotched all over with freckles and small blotches of reddish brown. In 
this egg there are faint indications of sub-blotches of purple grey, more 
especially in a zone about the larger end. This is the only egg I have 
in which secondary markings are discernible. This egg is shewn in 
PI. II, Fig. 9. 

All my eggs are the same in shape, viz., long ellipses, and in one case 
only is one end distinctly smaller than the other. The texture is the 
same in all, but in one very sparsely marked egg there is a decided 
gloss. The shell is about normal for its size, neither particularly fraoile, 
nor particularly stout. They average in size # 91" by -62", the measure- 
ments of the extreme are given in the eggs mentioned above. 

Eggs have ber n taken from the nests of Niltava sundara, Pellorneum 
mandelli, Alcippe nepalensis (The Nepal Babbler), Alappe phayrii (The 
Burmese Babbtar) and Drymocataphus assamens/s (Austen's Babbler) 
in addition to those enumerated already. 


Hodgson's Cuckoo is a bird of the north-eastern portion of India, only 
being found east from Nepal through the Himalayas and the adjoining- 
plains of Assam, Gachar and Sylhet, through Manipur and Burmah 
to the extreme south where it meets the similar form called fugax 
which may be known by its larger bill. 

Its ordinary note is a rather shrill copy of that of sparverioides and 
varius, but it is not incessantly repeated, and does not ascend or descend 
in scale as does the cry of both of those birds. It is very wild and shy, 
and until one learns what its cry is like, and gets used to the flight and 
habits of the bird, it gives one the idea that it is very rare. It is 
during the breeding season rather a skulker amongst brushwood and 
secondary scrub-jungle, doubtless when thus employed looking for the 
nest of some bird in which to lay its egg. It is always silent when 
thus employed, and it is only when perched high up in some lofty tree 
or, occasionally, on the wing that it gives vent to its call. 
Hibeocoocyx nanus. (Hume.) 
The Small Hawk- Cuckoo. 

Hierococcyx nanus. Hume, S. F., V, p. 490 ; id., Cat. No. 205 
bis. ; Hume and Davis, S. F., VI, pp. 157, 502 ; Oates, B. of Burm., II, 
p. 110 ; Shelly, Cat. Birds B. M., XIX, p. 239 ; Bianford, Fauna B. 
I., Ill, p. 215. 

Nothing is known so far of the oology of this cuckoo. It is a bird 
very little known : indeed it is possible that even now we do not know 
its adult plumage. It has only entered the limits of India in the 
extreme South of Burmah and Tennasserim, and it is also known from 
Selangor and Northern Borneo. 

Genus Cacomantis. 

The genus Cacomantis contains, as far as India is concerned, two 
species of cuckoo, much like, in general appearance, the genus Cuculus, 
but very small, the wing measuring under 5 inches, whereas none of the 
birds hitherto dealt with have wings as small as 5^. 

The two species may be separated from one another by these keys : — 

A. Adults having upper parts ashy. 

a. Abdomen grey or white ■ passermus. 

b. Abdomen rufous , merulinus, 

B. The young with upper parts brown and rufous. 

c. Crown and rump with practically no bars passerimis, 

d. Whole upper surface barred merulinus. 


The nestlings, as for as I know, cannot ba distinguished until they 
assume the plumage of the young noted above. 

Cacomantis passerinus. (Vahl.) 
The Indian Plaintive Cuckoo. 

Cuculus passerinus. Legge, B. of Ceylon, p. 235. 

Pohj phasia regia. Jerdon, B. of I., I, p. 333. 

Cacomantis passerinus. Ball, S. F., VII, p. 207; Cripps, ibid.,\>. 2G5; 
Hume, Cat. No. 208 ; Vidal, S. F., IX, p. 55 ; Butler, ibid., p. 388 ; 
Davison, ibid., X, p. 350; Barnes, B. of Bom., p. 127 ; Oates, Nests and 
Eggs, 2nd Ed., II, p. 385 ; Shelly, Cat. of B. M., XIX, p. 277; Blan- 
ford, Fauna of B. I., Ill, p. 216 ; Reid, Cat. Eggs B. M., Ill, p. 117. 

Ololygon passerinus. Butler, S. F., Ill, p. 461 ; Fairbank, ibid,, 
IV, p. 255. 

To Miss Cockburn belongs the honour of establishing without doubt 
the identity of the egg of this small cuckoo : her notes are given in ex- 
tenso in Oates' Edit, of Nests and Eggs from which I quote parts. 

" On the 17th September, 1870, the nest of tho Common Wren- 
Warbler (Prima inomata) was found, which had two small eggs and a 
third which was mil oh larger, but of something the same colour, " 
another similar nest of eggs taken a few hours later, and again a third 
on the 22nd September, " the same day one of my servants seeing a 
Plaintive Cuckoo sit very quietly on a hedge shot it. On examination 
it was found to contain one egg ready to be laid, of the same colour and 
spots as those found in the Common Wren- Warblers' nests. The egg- 
was unfortunately broken, but the pieces were sufficient to identify 
thoss found in the little Wren- Warblers' nests." After this Miss 
Cockburn obtained more eggs and also a young Plaintive Cuckoo in 
the nest of Prima inomata. 

Mr. Adams confirming Miss Cockburn's discoveries informed Hume 
th-it he '' had small boys collecting nests for him, and on two occasions 
nests of P. inomata were brought containing an egg somewhat like 
that of P. inomata, but much larger : in fact, exactly like that described 
and sent by Miss Cockburn." 

Thompson records it as laying in the nest of Pyctorhis sinensis (The 
Yellow-eyed Babbler) and Lanius enjthronotus (The Rufous-backed 
Shrike). This is curious, as the eggs of both these birds are much larger 
than that of the cuckoo, and it is an almost invariable rule for cuckoos to 
choose birds which lay eggs smaller than they do or, at least, as small. 



Hume himself records the snaring of one of these birds on a nest of 
Molpastes bengalensis (The Bengal Red-vented Bulbiil). 

Mr. T. R. Bell writes me : — " I have several eggs of Cacomantis pas- 
serinus (The Indian Plaintive Cuckoo). I have seen Orthotonus feeding- 
young Cacomantis a fair number of times, and about the eggs of this 
cuckoo baing ordinarily laid in Tailor-birds' nests I have not the 
slightest doubt, The cuckoos' eggs are, as a rule, less blotched (being 
nearly always spotted and not blotched) than those of the Warbler and, 
of course, a great deal larger. I have four eggs of Cacomantis taken 
from the nests of Orthotomus, and they are three of them white and one 
bluish, of the two shades that occur in the Warblers' eggs." These 
notes are recorded from Kanara. 

Mr. J. Davidson, C.S., writes in much the same strain: — "I have 
eo-o-s of this cuckoo taken at Karwar (24th June, 1894, 12th July, 1895, 
20th July, 1895, and 10th August, 1895), and have seen many more. 
All were taken in the nests of 0. sutorius (The Indian tailor-bird). 
They are very similar to one type of the eggs of this bird, but are about 
half as large again, white with a few reddish spots, mainly at the large 
end. All the eggs which I have taken myself have the ground colour 
white, but' Mr. Bell tells me that he has taken several with the ground 
colour blue. I have several times taken a white egg of this bird in a 
blue clutch of Tailor-birds' eggs." 

Mr. B. B. Osmaston was also good enough to lend me an egg of 
this species taken in the nest of P. socialis (The Ashy Wren- Warbler) 
in Dehra Dun. This is of the blue type, and is the exact facsimile 
of one of the eggs taken by Miss Oockburn and depicted in the Catalogue 
of the Eggs of the British Museum. This is the egg I have sheim in 
Plate III., Kig. 13. It measures "70" by '50". 

Col. Rattray informs me that he has taken an egg from the nest 
of Pericrocotus peregrinus (The Small Minivet), which is the exact 
counterpart of the above egg and must belong to C. p>asserinus : it 
measures '71" by *50". 

An eco- from the Irvine collection, but now in mine, agrees well with 
Miss Cockburn's eggs, but is rather smaller, measuring '73" by *54" ; the 
ground colour is the same pale blue-green, but the markings consist of 
reddish specks, spots, blotches and smears of pale reddish-brown, with 
more sparse sub-markings of lavender and pale reddish-grey. In shape 
it is not quite such a long oval as is usual. 


I have not hud the luck to take this bird's eggs myself, but was given 
one by Mr. E. C. Green on the 10th of June this year, 1904, together 
with three eggs of P. /no mat a which he had taken that morning. 
The egg was on the point of hatching, but I kept the remnants. In 
colouration this is of the white type found by Mr. Davidson. 

A fair series of these eggs have passed through my hands during the 
writing of this paper, and, broadly speaking, the eggs may be said to be 
of two types. Pure white, with sparse blotches or spots, nearly 
always disposed about the larger end, where they may form an ill-defined 
ring. The other form is much the same, but has the ground colour a 
very pale hedge-sparrow's egg blue, and the spots seem, as a rule, to be 
even more scanty and the ring, if any, even less defined. Irvine's egg 
is the only one I have seen that does not quite agree with the common 
forms anil that is described above in detail. 

Typically the eggs are rather elongated ovals with a fine close grain, 
smooth surface and, often, a decided gloss. They are rather stout in 
proportion to their size. The eggs which have passed through my 
hands have varied in length between *69" and "74" and in width betweeD 
•46" and '54", the average of ten eggs being -72" by '52". Hume 
describes the eggs as much larger, i.e., A r arying between *78" by *81" in 
length and *53" to *57" in width, so that my largest egg is smaller than 
his smallest. The two eggs of Miss Cockburn's in the British Museum 
measure -78" by -55" and -76" by *51". The figure of this egg in the 
B. M. Catalogue is very good, though the colour is perhaps a little dark 
The range of the Indian Plaintive Cuckoo is thus given by Blanford : 
■• The greater part of India, from the Himalayas to Ceylon inclusive, 
rare in the North-West, and although found on Mount Abu, wanting 
elsewhere throughout Rajputana and the Indus Plains. This cuckoo 
occurs in the Himalayas from Simla to Sikhim, ascending the hills tt 
the westwards up to about 9,000' according to Jerdon, and its range 
extends to Eastern Bengal, where it meets the next species. In the 
peninsula of India it is chiefly found in forest regions, and is most 
abundant in Bengal, Urissa, the wooded tracts of the latter, and on the 
hills in the neighbourhood of the Malabar Coast." 

I found it not uncommon in Cachar, though merulinus was much more 
so, and have both seen and heard it in Lakhimpur. 

Elliot describes its call as we-iolmc. whe-whe-e-ew. It is very much 
like one of the most plaintive, complaining calls of the Common Dronge 


Shrike {Dicrurus ater). It is a noisy bird in the breeding season, and 
keeps up its plaintive cries for a long spell at a time, sometimes hidden 
in the dense foliage of some extra well- covered tree, at other times seated 
high up on the topmost branch of a tall and sparsely foliaged one. 
It calls on moonlight nights, as well as in the daytime. Its flight is 
direct and rapid, and it is a rather shy bird, not allowing a close approach 
unless it thinks it is very well hidden. 

(To be continued.) 




Captain F. Wall, I.M.S., O.M.Z.S. 

(Bead before the Bombay Natural History Society on 28th June, 1906.) 
The position of the snake in the zoological world is a most unenviable 
one. How numerous are its enemies will be seen from the fact that it 
suffers destruction from almost the whole brute creation, beginning with 
the most exalted man, and passing down the animal scale to creatures 
as lowly as those included under the division Insecta. It would be 
hard, indeed, to say from whom it suffers the greatest persecution, but 
I will enumerate some of its enemies commencing with man, aud 
proceeding down the animal scale. 

Cla ss — Mamma I ia. 

Order. — Primates. — One of its most inveterate foes is undoubtedly 
man, who even in his most exalted state of civilisation learns almost 
from the cradle to recoil from its dreaded form, and who from the time 
that he acquires sufficient strength aud courage unmercifully slaughters 
innocent and culpable alike. 

Love of slaughter. — One finds abundant illustrations of civilised man's 
wanton brutality in books of sport, travel and adventure. Mr. E. 0. 
Donovan is responsible for the following unabashed confession.* Speak- 
ing of the ruins of an old city near Marina Khan Tepe near the Mergab 
river which was infested with snakes, he says : " We spent half an hour 
hunting these up, and killing them with our whips, in consonance with 
the invariable Turcoman custom." Miss Hopley tells usf how a farmer 
in Wales at the end of one September was removing a heap of manure 
when he came upon a bed of snakes and slowworms. 352 were killed 
with thousands of eggs in clusters. From this motive alone — the love 
of slaughter — enormous numbers of snakes perish annually at the hands 
of civilised man. Scientific motives. — Again, civilised man from 
purely venial motives contributes to the yearly death-rate in his 
scientific researches in the departments of zoology, comparative 
anatomy, physiology, and toxicology, so that many hundreds of snakes 
annually reach our numerous laboratories and museums. The depreda- 

* '• The Merv Oasis," p. 2C9. 
t " Snakes," p. 167. 


tions, however, committed by civilised man are probably trifling in 
comparison with those wrought by the uncivilised and savage, many 
of whom display an even greater animosity towards these creatures and 
are brought into more constant and closer association with them. 

Food. — As food, snakes are even at the present day consumed by 
some European nations, and many other people habitually eat and 
relish them. Speaking with Father John the Baptist recently in 
Mussoorie he informed me that to his certain knowledge many of the 
poor people in parts of Italy eat snakes, and consider them as attrac- 
tive as eels, and vipers are said to be eaten by many people in the South 
of France.* In an interesting article in Cassell's Natural Historyt 
mention is made of a traveller in America who sat at table before a 
dish called " Musical Jack" which had been prepared by some travellers 
of another party under the same roof. It was prepared from rattle- 
snake, and was evidently considered by them a great delicacy. It was 
said to taste like chicken. Hartwigl too says that the American Indians 
often regale on the rattlesnake. Sir T. Mitchell in his book on 
Australia says he once tasted a boa constrictor himself, and describes it 
as "very like veal, the flesh being exceedingly white and firm. " He 
also states that the Australian natives eat snakes, and Buckland says § 
" the flesh of snakes is not uncommonly eaten by the poor Bushmen, 
and also by the Australian natives." 

The python especially seems to find favour as a tit- bit among many 
people. The Burma ns relish it, as do also the Karens. Evans || 
speaking of a python which had been killed on one of his expeditions, 
says by the evening on his return he found it had been cooked by the 
Burmans. Theobald^" remarks upon the Karens eating its flesh, and 
says that it looks white and tempting. A writer to The Field ** 
recording the capture of a python whilst incubating her eggs in 
Travancore, says that the hillmen there (Aryans) are reputed to feed on 
pythons and their eggs. The Chinese eat this snake in common with 
many other species, and I was told by a resident in Hongkong how on 

* Museum of Natural History, Vol. II., p. 39. 
t Vol. IV., p. 65. 
% " The Tropical World," p. 316. 

§ " Curiosities of Nat. Hist. " First Series, p. 201. 
i| Bomb. Nat. Hist , Jourl., Vol. XVI., p. 519. 
H Cat., Snakes, Brit. Burma, p. 37. 

** Oct. 3rd. 1903, 


one occasion when out shooting he encountered and shot a python on 
the mainland near that island. The Chinese who were with him 
cooked and made a sumptuous feast off it. Its name in the locality 
;< Hoang Zo," meaning " Aromatic snake, " must, I think, refer to the 
savoury smell its cooking flesh awakens in the Celestial's nostrils. 
F. im Thurn* speaking of the boa constrictor says that the Chinese 
alone of all the inhabitants eat and relish the flesh of these snakes. 
David Livingstone! saya that the flesh of the python is much relished 
by the Bakalahari and Bushmen in Africa, and that when killed and 
cut up they carry away each his portion like " logs of wood over their 
shoulders." James Chapman! speaks of once having killed a boa in 
North Beohuanaland in which he found a hare, and remarks that the 
Bushmen with him not only ate the hare, but the snake as well. C. J. 
Anderson§ speaks of large snakes which inhabit the swamps about Lake 
Ugami, and says they are often destroyed by the natives, who devour 
them with relish. Colonel H. Yule!! under the word Anaconda, which 
he makes it appear is really the Ceylon name for the python, says : " It 
is added that the country people regard this great serpent as most 
desirable food." 

Many other snakes enter into the dietary of various folk. EvanslI 
tell us that the Karens eat the flesh of the hamadryad and pronounce 
it good. Pbipson** again says he is informed that the Andamanese 
eat the hamadryad. In Bangalore I interviewed a man of the Tigala 
caste who told me his caste ate the Dhaman (Zamenis mucosus), but 
this appears to be the only snake they partake of. The head and a 
portion of the body anterior to the vent are removed, the snake skin- 
ned and cleaned, and then cut into pieces and cooked, and he compared 
the flesh to chicken in appearance and flavour. Eichardsff mentions 
among other Indian castes the Santhals (who I find are supposed to be 
the indigenes of Chota Nagpur) and the Dhangars of the same locality 
as ophiophiles. The Kols, too (a tribe inhabiting the same part of 
India), according to Mervyn Smith, J £ include snakes in their bill of fare. 

* A mong the Indians of Guiana, p. 134. 
t " Journeys and Kesearches," p. 145. 

I " Chapman's Travels," p. "292. 
§ " Lake Ugami," p. 452. 

|| " Hobson Jobson," p. 16. 

II Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. XIV., p. 417. 
** Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. II., p. 245. 

tt " Landmarks of Snake Poison Literature," p. 66. 
Xt " Sport and Adventure m the Indian Jungle," p. 140. 


I am told that the Kanjars, a wild race of people inhabiting Oudh and 
Rohilkhand, eat snakes, having decapitated and caudally amputated 
the body. Mr. Mackinnon tells me the tribe known as Myhras, who 
inhabit the Dun, devour snakes. David Livingstone* mentions a 
common watersnake yellow, spotted dark brown, of a harmless kind 
which the Bayeiye tribe in Africa ate and relished as food. 

Ouvierf informs us that the seasnake Pelamis bicolor {Hydrus 
platurus) is eaten by the natives of Taheite, and Cantort speaking of 
the same snake, says it is used as an article of diet in New Guinea, the 
Molucca Islands, and Otaheite. Campbell§ speaking of the Andama- 
nese credits them with including sea-snakes in their dietary. The same 
writer|| says that the Botocudos, Puris, and Caraodos, wild tribes inha- 
biting Western Brazil, eat snakes among many other animals, and again 
the same writerU, speaking of the diet of the Californians, says they 
prefer reptiles, insects and vermin to mammals and birds, and mentions 
that they eat snakes with the exception of the rattlesnake. 

Doubtless a whole host of other people conciliate their gustatory 
nerves by practising ophiophagy. 

Medicine. — Another motive which is responsible for considerable 
diminution in their numbers is that arising from the medicinal virtues 
attributed variously to their flesh, organs, or secretions. Probably the 
mortality from this humane object is even superior to that incurred 
either by man's serpentivorous tastes, or love of butchery. 

Vipers appear to have been especially valued for medicinal purposes 
in many parts of Europe even up to the recent past. 

Both Pliny and Galen** praise the efficacy of \iper flesh in the cure 
" of ulcers, elephantiasis, and other disorders arising from a corrupt state 
" of the system. The flesh was served to the patient boiled like fish, as 
" being more efficacious than when taken in the form of powder, or other 
" dried state," and the account goes on to say that Sir Kenelm Digby's 
beautiful wife was fed on capons fattened with the flesh of vipers. 

* " Journeys and [Researches," p. 72. 

t Encyclop. of Nat. Hist., Vol. Ill, p. 153. 

J Jourl. Asiat. Soc, Bengal, 1847, p. 1057. 

§ Brit. Medl. Journal, Oct. 14th, 1905. 

|| Brit. Medl. Jourl., Sept. 16th, 1905. 

t Brit. Medl. Jourl., August 19th, 1905. 

** "Encyclop. of Nat. Hist.", Vol. III., p. 1210. 


Richards* tells us that " the flesh of vipers dressed as eels was strongly 
11 recommended by Galen as a remedy for elephantiasis (leprosy) * * *, 
" and the physicians of Italy, and France very commonly prescribed 
"the broth, and jelly of viper's flesh for the same uses. It appears also 
" to have been given in England, for Mead observes the patient ought 
" to eat frequently of viper-jelly, or rather as the ancient manner was 
" to boil vipers, and eat them like fish; or if the food will not go down, 
" though really very good, and delicious fare, to make use, at least, of 
" wine in which dried vipers have been digested six or seven days in a 
" gentle heat." 

The Mead referred to was a celebrated physician who made many 
observations, and researches concerning snakes, and died as recently as 
1754. The same writer further remarks that viper wine " was actually 
" an acknowledged preparation in the London Pharmacopoeia," and 
further that '* Charles IPs physician in ordinary, Dr. Thomas Sherley, 
" recommended what he termed ' Balsam of Bats ' as a remedy for 
" hypochondria ; it was composed of ' adders, bats, sucking- whelps, 
" earthworms, hog's grease (sic), the marrow of a stag, and the thigh- 
bone of an ox." 

Reinf speaks of the Japanese entrapping the poisonous Trigono- 
cephaly blomhoffii which they skin, and consume as a nerve strength- 
ening food. This is a very common little snake in Japan, and China, 
now known as Ancistrodon blomhojjii. 

Duhaldet mentions a snake in the Honan Province of China speckled 
with white spots, the skin of which Chinese physicians steep in a vial 
of wine "which they make use of as a good remedy against the palsy." 

When I was in Hongkong, I saw in the Chinese medicine men's 
shops rows of bottles on shelves containing snakes of many kinds 
preserved as in a museum. Steeping in the preservative were also 
fragments of vegetable substances — bark, leaves and fruit — and this 
horrible looking solution was decanted off as occasion required for the 
treatment of various ailments. 

Richards§ remarks : " It is said that the flesh of the cobra was pre- 
scribed in Bengal for wasting diseases." Theobald || speaks of the 

• " Landmarks of Snake Poison Literature,'' p. 65. 
\ " Japan," p. 187. 
j" China, "Vol.1, p. 102. 
§ Loc cit., p. 66. 

|| " Catalogue of Snakes. Brit. Burma," p. 37. 


Karens using the gall-bladder of the python for medicinal purposes, and 
that the flesh is eaten by them and " indeed looks white, and 

Carl Bock* makes mention of the Dyaks using the fat of the boa 
constrictor [Python reticulatus f ) in ointments, and says they eagerly 
pursue the snake for this purpose. Andersonf has the following of 
the African race the Namaques : — " Many Namaques believe that the 
' f ondara possesses certain medicinal virtues, therefore when they succeed 
" in killing the reptile" (probably from his description Python nata- 
lensis), " its flesh is carefully preserved. If a person falls sick, a portion 
" is either applied externally in the form of an unction, or given to the 
" patient in a decoction." 

In Chambers' Journal! a writer speaking of Brazilian snakes says, 
anent the rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus) i "the fat of its entrails is 
" said to be a sovereign remedy for rheumatism," and ' : the Museum of 
Natural History" § says that the fat of the Brazilian " Cucuriuba " 
{Eunectes murinus) is melted down and used for various purposes, as in 
rheumatic pains, sprains, etc. Only recently 2nd Grade Assistant 
Surgeon Har Prasad, an intelligent and well educated native, told mo 
that he once had a case of insanity which he treated by the ordinary 
methods in vogue in English practice, but with no beneficial results for 
two months, at the expiry of which time the relatives begged him to 
allow a hakim to come in and adopt a native method of treatment. 
Acceding to their request this man administered cobra poison mixed 
with vegetable substances into a paste, which he smeared thickly all 
over the scalp, with the result that a speedy cure was eifected. 

Fayrer|| quotes the following on the authority of a learned Kabiraje, 
showing that cobra venom is extensively used by that caste as a thera- 
peutic agent. 

Physiological action. — "It is warm, irritant, stimulating, a promoter 
" of the virtues of other medicines, antispasmodic, digestive, a promoter 
" of the action of the secreting organs." 

Therapeutical action. — " Used in the later stage of low forms of fever 
"when other remedies fail, it accelerates the heart's action, and diffuses 

* " The Head Hunters of Borneo," p. 252. 

T " Lake N garni, " p. 300. 

J Feb. 24, 1894. 

§ Vol. II., p. 58. 

|| " Thanatophidia," p. 148. 


" warmth over the general surface ; clears the mind if coma supervene. 
" In the collapsed state of cholera, it is successfully used. It is employed 
"in dysentery, and some complicated diseases. Used in epilepsy arising 
" from cold, relieving the patient from insensibility, and f orgetfulness, 
"symptomatic of that disease. Some practitioners have written that 
" snake poison is used as an antidote in cases of snake- bite when the body 
"is cold, and the heart's action is scarcely perceptible. Used in such a 
"state it accelerates the heart's action, and causes a flow of blood to the 
"distant capillaries in which circulation has ceased, and diffuses warmth 
" over the general surface, etc." 

Young* gives the following curious recipe for snakebite which 
the Siamese physicians advocate : — " A piece of the jaw of a wild 
" hog, a piece of the jaw of a tame hog, a piece of the bone of a goose, 
"a piece of the bone of a peacock. The tail of a fish. The head of a 
"poisonous snake." 

Mervyn Smithf alludes to the Chentsus, a tribe inhabiting the 
Nallamalley Mountains of India, skinning two hamadryads which he 
had shot, and remarks : " The poison fangs, and glands, the palate, and 
"the gall were carefully preserved for medicine. Diluted with gingelly 
"oil, the poison is drunk in small portions, and is said to be a wonderful 
" preservative against all snakebites." 

An Ant/dote in Snakebite. — This belief in the efficacy of certain parts 
of poisonous snakes, and especially the poison as an antidote to snake- 
bite, is widespread. Mead, already referred to, had the greatest faith 
in viper's fat as an antidote in viper bite, and claimed that it was the 
remedy used by the English viper-catchers from whom, after much 
trouble, he obtained the secret. 

Among other "cordial remedies" which Richardst tells us were 
recommended was the " salt of vipers", whatever this may mean. Many 
tribes habitually swallow snake poison with the idea of acquiring im- 
munity from snake-bite, and there seems little reason to doubt that their 
belief is well founded as shown by experiment on the lower animals. 
The Revd. J. Campbell§ speaking of the Hottentots in S. Africa says 
they will "catch a serpent, squeeze out the poison from under hi 

* "The Kingdom of the Yellow Robe," p. 124. 

t ' ; Sport and Adventure in the Indian Jungle," p. 25. 

% Loc. cit., p. 65. 

§ Page 401. 


teeth, and drink it." Fontana's viper-catcher, called Jacques, was 
reputed to swallow spoonfuls of viper venom.* 

Fraserf mentions the following well authenticated reports of this 
practice with the avowed intention of acquiring a tolerance against snake 
poison. One Alfred Bolton set himself to enquire how the natives in 
Busbmanland, Namaqualand, Dumaraland, and Kalakari obtained im- 
munity from snake-bite, and ascertained that they are in the habit of 
extracting the poison-gland of snakes, squeezing them into their mouths, 
and drinking the contents. Dr. Knobel, of Pretoria, substantiates this 
observation, and records having met a Bushman shepherd who said he 
had been in the habit for years of eating snake-venom. 

Other people appear to inoculate themselves with the poison to 
attain the same object. M. D'AbbodieJ says that the Vatnas of Mo- 
zambique inoculate themselves with snake poison to preserve immunity 
from snake -bite, and Calmette§ observes that a viper- catcher living in the 
Jura allowed himself to be bitten by vipers once or twice each year to 
preserve the tolerance he had acquired to their poison. 

The Eisowy, a tribe inhabiting Western Barbary, says Drum- 
mond-Hay, allow themselves to be bitten by serpents proved 
to be venomous by a rapidly fatal experiment performed on a 
fowl and that, at the conclusion of an exhibition, the man com- 
menced eating, or rather chewing, a poisonous snake which, writhing 
with pain, bit him in the neck and hands until it was actually 
destroyed by the Eisowy's teeth. 

As an avrow dressing. — The poison of snakes is collected by certain 
savages for quite another purpose, viz., that of dressing their arrows, 
and so dealing death to their foes or to wild beasts hunted for food ; and 
though this does not necessarily imply the destruction of the snake, it 
is more than probable that where the quarry is a formidable one and 
shows fight there is little hesitation in killing the creature. The 
Scythians are reported to have poisoned their arrows with viper venom 
mixed with human blood. Livingstone || speaking of the Bushmen in 
Africa says they poison their arrows with the piece of the Euphorbia 

* Loc. cit., p. 75. 

t " Nature," April 23rd, 1896, p. 595. 

% " Academie des Sciences," Feb. 24th, 1896. 

§ Bomb. Nat. Hist. Journ., Vol. XI, p. 521, 

|] " Joumejs and Researches," p. 171. 


arborescens all over the country, and in some parts the venom of ser- 
pents is added to increase its virulence. 

Mervyn Smith* says that the tiger slayers in (Jhota Nagpur poison 
their arrows with cobra-poison and set them in traps to he sprung. 
When wounded, the tigers go off and soon die, their movements being 
watched by the hunters. Sims Wocdhead commenting upon a paper 
which appeared recently by (Jhalmersf on the poison used by the Fra 
Fras, a tribe inhabiting, I believe, Uganda, says: "There appears to me 
to be a probability that the venom is extracted from the heads of snake 
before they are boiled with the powdered seeds and that this venom 
may be added to the vegetable poison smeared on the arrow after it has 

Trade purposes. — Snakes are captured by many people in some 
numbers for show purposes, and though the destruction so caused 
may not amount to much, the captured snakes often speedily emaciate 
and die, requiring the substitution of others. Indian jugglers always 
have a few in their stock-in-trade, and are always ready to let the 
mongoose that accompanies them worry them to death for a few 

In addition, they are sometimes called in to rid some infested place 
of snakes, and doubtless do in some cases justify their errand. The 
Psylli of Africa appear to perform a similar office. FignierJ 
speaks of these people, and from his description they appear to be a 
caste of Egyptians, since he says the arts they practise are inherited, 
and he expressly states that outsiders who seek to become one of the 
fraternity fail to acquire their arts. They are to be seen in Cairo 
and Alexandria, and live by exhibiting snakes. They sometimes 
appear in processions, and carry capacious bags in which their snakes 
are secreted. These they take out and allow to entwine about their 
persons, and, in order to excite popular feeling, even cause them to bite 
their bodies. They claim to have acquired ascendancy over even 
poisonous snakes, for they include the Egyptian cobra (Naia haje) in 
their stock-in-trade. They also claim to be able to induce snakes to 
leave their natural haunts, and then catch them, so that when a house 
becomes infested with these creatures, the Egyptians frequently send 

* " Sport and Adventure in the Indian Jungle," p. 104. 
t Royal Army Medical Corps Journal, August 1905'. 
I " The Life and Habits of Animals, " p. 35. 


for these people to rid the premises of these undesirable guests. The 
Marsi of Italy are reputed to be immune to snake poison, and, I be- 
lieve, practise somewhat similar arts ; but I can find no authentic de- 
scription of these people to enlighten me on their habits. 

In the arts. — Many people question the use of snakes in the animal 
world, and they may be surprised to learn that some at least are of use 
for trade purposes other than the barter to which they are subjected 
for show purposes. Wells* in relating an interesting experience of 
his shows that the skin of the anaconda (Eunectes murium) is used in 
Espirito Santo for making riding boots, and he speaks of going to a 
bootmaker's shopt on one occasion and finding the skin of a snake 
from which pieces had been cut at each end for the manufacture of 
boots. The remnant measured 19 feet, and he was tuld the entire 
skin measured 25 feet. Colonel Yule| also mentions this snake under 
the names " Sucuriu," " Sucuriuba," and scientifically as Boa ana- 
conda, and says its skin is used for boots, shoes, and other purposes. 
"The Museum of Natural History" mentions the skin of the same 
snake being used for shoes, portmanteaux, etc. (p. 58). 

Order. — Garnivora. — Family. — Felidje. — Instances of the Carnivora 
feeding upon snakes are by no means uncommon. Even His Royal 
Highness the Indian tiger is evidently not disdainful of such fare when 
occasion offers, for Inverarity§ records a remarkable illustration of this 
in the following words : — " On opening the stomach of an old tigress 
I shot last month, I found in it the tail end of -a snake that the tigress 
had bitten off and swallowed whole ; the portion swallowed measured 2 
feet 3 inches in length * * * It appeared to me to be a rock snake." 

A specimen of the fishing cat (Felis viverrina) which Hodgson had 
brought to him proved on investigation to have eaten a large snake. 

That cats in a domesticated state kill snakes is very well known, and 
not long since some interest was aroused on this topic in the columns 
of "The Field." || Besides the many examples quoted therein, I can 
add others. A friend of mine, Mr. Sitwell, told me he once saw a 
cobra at Bankipore dying after being mauled by a cat. The cat was 
still pawing it when he came on the scene, and he was told by others 

* " Three Thousand Miles through Brazil," p. 1G7. 
f Loc. Cit., p. 171. 

t 18th and 25th June, 9th July and 13th August 1904. 
§ " The G-reit Thirst Lind," p. 147. 
|| " Hobson Jobson," p. 16. 


present had reduced it to this dying condition. Parker Gillmore* refers 
to a cat in South Africa which he saw kill a snake which had entered 
the drawing-room, having commenced operations by seizing it by the 

Family. — Viverridse.- — Among the Carnivora probably no creatures 
commit such wholesale slaughter of snakes as the mungoose (Herpestes), 
but whether all of the many species exhibit the same partiality towards 
this flesh I am not able to say. I was lately informed on good author- 
ity of a company of mungoose which was busily engaged in hunting on 
a railway cutting which gave exceptional scope and opportunity for ob- 
servation. They instituted a systematic search in the grass, and ap- 
parently for snakes. One at any rate was flushed, and promptly cap- 
tured, and the little gang having collected tore it in pieces, and ate 
the fragments, and immediately dispersed to renew their hunting. 
The general behaviour of the party as described to me suggested a 
family being instructed by their parents. Blanfordf describes these 
little animals as " deadly enemies to snakes ", and almost every 
writer on Natural History gives ample evidence of the ravages they 
commit in the snake world. 

Family. — Canidse. — Dogs at any rate in a domesticated state are oc- 
casionally known to develop ophidioclastic tendencies, and, this being so, 
it is mure than likely that their feral allies exhibit similar habits, though 
I am not aware of any authentic instance. I have in my note- book a 
cutting from a paper 1 took some time ago, omitting at the time to 
note the paper and its date, but it was about ten years since. This 
gives a very interesting account of a clog which was in the habit of 
killing snakes, and with it was a reproduction from a photograph of 
the dog standing over one of his dead victims. It was the property 
of a Mr. J. Smith, of Nhill, Victoria, Australia, and the account says it 
had killed about 35 snakes in one summer. It eventually succumbed 
to bites inflicted by a poisonous species with which it engaged in 
mortal combat. BrydenJ mentions a dog taking up a green tree snake 
in his mouth and running off with it. Colonel Yule§ records a bull-dog 
in the possession of a Staff-Sergeant at Delhi that used to catch cobras. 

* Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. Jouru., Vol. VII , p. 405. 

f Fauna, Brit. India Mammalia, p. 121 . 

% " Gim and Camera in South .Africa," p. 80. 

$ il Hoi s<>u Jobson," p. 173. 


Family — Mustelidse. — Blanford* includes snakes in the dietary of 
the beech martin (Mudela foince), and Miss Hopleyt includes the 
weasel and the badger in her list of serpentivores. 

Order — Insectivoree. — There are even instances of these quiet little 
animals preying on snakes, for Buckland tells us that he demonstrated 
by direct experiment that his pet hedgehog would eat the grass-snake 
of Britain, and Miss Hopleyt also mentions the hedgehog in her list 
of animals that devour snakes. 

Order — Rodentia. — It seems difficult to believe that rats, and even 
mice, occasionally attack and kill snakes, but such is undoubtedly the 
fact. Miss Hopleyt mentions the rat as one of those that will kill 
snakes, and I have on very good authority the following remarkable 
testimony of murine ferocity directed against these reptiles. Assistant 
Surgeon Robertson narrated to me how he once put a rat into one of 
his snake cages as food for a large ratsnake (Zamenis mucosus). The 
rat. h^vever, when brought to bay defended itself with great courage 
and determination, and fought with its would-be master to such purpose 
that "the snake it was that died." Its tactics consisted in its fixing 
itself on the back of the reptile's neck, and, having once obtained the 
mastery, its ferocity and courage were stimulated to such a degree 
that it fought and killed several other snakes caged with it. Con- 
sidering it had earned its liberty, it was finally released. The Revd. 
G. H. R. FiskJ tells an even more remarkable story. He had two 
young ringhals (a poisonous S. African snake, Sepedon Jioemachates), 
one 10 inches long, the other 9 in a box. A mouse was put in for 
them to eat, but when the box was next opened, the rodent was found 
to be eating one ringhal, and subsequent observation proved that the 
mouse made an onslaught on the other by fastening itself by its claws 
on to the snake's back, and then " pecking " it with its teeth. It was 
dragged round and round the box by the snake in its endeavours to 
free itself, but managed to elude the snake's repeated attempts to strike 

Order — Ungulata. — Family — Cervidse. — Deer are reputed to kill 
snakes by jumping upon them. Tennant§ mentions this on the 
authority of the natives of Ceylon. 

* Fauna, Brit. India Mammalia, p. 161. 
f " t-nakes," p. 57. 

% Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1887, p. 340. 
§ Nat. Hist, of Ceylon, p. 295. 


Family^ Bovidae. — Miss Hopley* includes goats amono- animals 
known to destroy snakes, and it is significant that the word " markhor " 
means ''snake-eater" in Persian. Whether this noble beast has been 
observed to eat snakes I cannot say, but the Encyclopaedia of India 
alludes to this as a fable which is probably the case, the mountain 
tribes believing that they can kill snakes by looking at them! 

Family — Suidse. — There is abundant evidence to prove that pio-s are 
among the most inveterate foes that snakes have to encounter. 
Parker Gillmoref speaking of South Indiana and Illinois says that 
rattlesnakes used to be very plentiful there. " Their destruction was 
principally accomplished by the introduction of hogs which greedily 
feed upon these reptiles whenever chance throws them in their way. 
Ij have several times had opportunities of watching a pio in an 
encounter with one of these snakes which they worry as a Clever 
terrier would a rat. The hog attacks the rattlesnake with such 
energy, and rapidity that the assailed reptile has scarcely tL.. • to 
guard himself against the attack when he finds himself in the fatal 
grasp of his too powerful foe." 

HartwigJ again says the chief enemy of the rattlesnake is the hog 
and Simson§ remarks that he has seen pigs catch and eat snakes 

Apropos .this porcine habit " The Cyclopaedia of India "|| has the 
following, speaking of the Negro ophiolatry in the kingdom of 
Whidah in Africa : — " The hog especially, which preys particularly 
upon several species of these reptiles (snakes), and which is well 
known to attack with impunity the most venomous of them is 
pursued in the Kingdom of Whidah as a public enemy ; the Negroes 
seeing only in this valuable animal an enemy which devours their 
god." Miss Hopley^f mentions the peccary among known destroyers 
of these reptiles. 

Class — Aves. 

The list of birds which are known to practise ophiophagy is a very 
large one, and many of these, especially the larger raptorial species 
must inflict a very heavy mortality among the anguine population. 

• '• Snakes," p. 57. 

t " Prairie Forms and Prairie Folk, " p. 156. 

J " The Tropical World, " p. 316. 

§ Letters on Sport in Eastern Bengal, p. 341. 

|| Vol. V, p. 56. 

1 " Snakes," p. 57, 



Order — Passeres. — Family — Corvidse. — Mr. Fitzgerald told merecent- 
Jy that lie had once seen the tree pie (Dendrocitta rufa), or as he called 
it the " Bobbalink," killing a snake which probably from his description 
was a Tropidonotus stolatus. 

Order — Auisodactyli. Sub-order— Coracise. — i have three records of 
the common roller, or bine jay {Coracias indica), killing and eating these 
reptiles. Grieves,* commenting on a paper on this bird which was 
contributed by D. I)., says: " Cycling along a jnngle path one day my 
attention was attracted to one of these birds which was making a great 
fuss and noise close to the track along which I was to pass. I 
dismounted, and was fortunate enough to see a great battle in 
progress between a blue jay and a small cobra. The latter was 
about 15 inches long, but it was certainly on its defence, and the 
blue jay was the attacking party. The cobra was trying to get under 
cover, but at every move the blue jay attacked it most ferociously, 
apparently with both beak and claws. Then the cobra would rear 
its head, expand its hood, and dart at the enemy. The blue jay did 
not flinch, but at the same moment flicked out its wing horizontally, 
and off the cobra started again, only to be teased, and tormented. I 
had been watching this battle for fully five minutes when my dog, 
which had been roaming about the jungle, rushed up to the spot, and 
scared away the jay. The second incident occurred in my own com- 
pound just a few weeks after the event referred to above. Out in 
the compound one morning I saw a jay sitting on a low branch of 
one of the trees struggling with something in its beak. On drawing 
near I saw that the something was about 8 or 9 inches of snake. 
The head had already disappeared, so that I cannot say how long the 
snake might have been, or of what kind." 

On the 12th April last year (1905) Mr. Hose, the Deputy Com- 
missioner in Fyzabad, told me he had that morning seen a roller in his 
compound in the act of swallowing a small snake, and mentioned it as a 
remarkable incident. 

Sub-order — Halcyones. — A writer to The Field (June 25th, 1904) 
besides -mentioning two cats of his in Queensland that were in the habit 
of killing snakes says : u But what surprised me still more was to see 
the laughing jackass or great kingfisher of Australia carry a snake 

* « The Madras Mail," 17th September 1904. 


to a great elevation, and then drop it on to the hard ground, rendering- 
it helpless." 

Order— Striges. — Blanford* tells us that the rock horned owl (Bubo 
bengalensis) lives on rats, mice, birds, lizards, and snakes, and what is 
true of this owl is in all probability true of many others. 

Order — Accipitres. — Sub-family — Gypogeranidse. — Many species of 
this order include snakes in their dietary. The Secretary bird (Serpen- 
tarius reptilivorous) is, I believe, included in the order, and has a world- 
renowned reputation for destroying these creatures. It is said to dis- 
able them by blows from its wings and feet, and is also reported to 
carry them aloft, and kill them by dropping them. Le Vaillant, who 
once killed one, found, on investigating its crop, that it had eaten 
" eleven rather large lizards, three serpents of an arm's length, and 
eleven small tortoises, besides a number of locusts, beetles, and other 

Sub-family — Falconinfe. — Among Indian birds of this sub-family that 
are known to evince serpentivorous tastes are, according to Blanford, t 
the Indian tawny eagle (Aquila vindhiana), the short-toed eagle 
(Circaetus gallicus), the crested serpent eagle (Spilornis cheela), 
Pallas's fishing eagle (Haliaetus leucoryphus), the white-bellied sea 
eagle (Haliaetus leucogaster), the rufous winged buzzard eagle (Bu- 
tastur liventer), the pied harrier ( Circus melanoleucus), Fielden's hawk 
(Poliohierax insignis). Mr. Mackinnon recently told me that on one 
occasion he saw a Circaetus gallicus descend into some long grass where 
it remained some time. Out of curiosity he walked it up, and shot 
it as it rose. On opening its crop he found 7 snakes, one still alive. 
They were all of the same species (one of the genus psammophis). 
AitkenJ says of the sea eagle (Haliaetus leucogaster) that it lives 
chiefly on sea serpents, and Oantor§ remarks that in two of this 
species shot in the Gangetic Delta he found remains of sea serpents. 

Kites are known to eat snakes at times. I have myself seen the 
common pariah kite (Milvus govinda) stoop into a marsh, and rise 
with a snake wriggling in its talons, and it is probably this species that 

• Fauna, Brit. Ind.: Aves, Vol.111, p. 286. 
t Fauna, Brit. Ind.: Ave3, Vol. III. 
J " The Common Birds of Bombay, " p. 2G. 
§ Trans. Zool. Soc, London, 1840, p. 308. 


Ferguson alludes to going off with a snake.* Swayslandf also attri- 
butes anguine tastes to the kite. The Brahminy kite (Haliastur i?idus), 
according to an article in the Cyclopedia of India,! is credited with a 
similar habit, for it says: " In the South of India, the accepted type of 
G-aruda is the common Brahminy kite * * * This bird pounces upon, 
and carries off the cobra in its claws, and kills it." Aitken§ has a 
picture of a harrier descending upon a snake. It is no uncommon event 
for sportsmen in this country to witness eagles, kites, and other pre- 
daceous birds descend into the jheel, or marsh, and bear away a snake 
wriggling in their grasp. 

Order — Ratitae. — HartwigH ascribes serpentivorous habits to the 
"American ostriches" or rheas. 

Order — Gallinse. — The galline birds, like the accipitrine, contribute 
very largely to the decimation of these limbless vertebrates. The 
peafowl (Pavo cristatus) is well known to show a partiality to this 
fare, and in Ceylon I have known people keep tame peafowls with 
the idea of keeping their premises free from snakes. Bennett, who 
lived in the south-eastern part of that Island, ascribed the paucity 
of snakes in the jungle to the abundance of the peafowl whose 
partiality to snakes, he says, renders them the chief destroyers of these 
reptiles. Hume and Marshall^ record the cook on one occasion 
removing a small snake about 8 inches long from the stomach of one of 
these birds. 

Tennent** says that snakes are frequently eaten by the common barn 
cloor fowl in Ceylon, and opines, that the jungle species behave simi- 
larly. Driebergft mentions having observed a pullet on one occasion 
in Ceylon (Gokarella) pursuing a snake 12 to 15 inches long, which it 
killed and swallowed, and though a novel experience to him he ascer- 
tained from the resthouse-keeper and others that it is a common event, 
and that the village poultry, as a rule, attack and make a meal of 
them. Mr. P. Mackinnon told me recently that on one occasion in 

" Bom. Nat. Hist. Soc. Jour., Vol. X, p. 1. 

t " Familiar Wild Birds," p. 111. 

% Vol. V, p. 229. 

§ " The Common Birds of Bombay," p. 15. 

|| " The Tropical World," p. 321. 

^1 *' Game Birds of India, Burmah and Ceylon," p. 87, 
• • Nat. Hist, of Ceylon, p. 295. 
ft Spolia Zeylanica, Vol. Ill, p. 20?. 


the Dun when sitting in a verandah he saw a small cobra close beside 
him, which he rose to despatch when he saw a white fowl running to- 
wards it. The fowl attacked vigourously, caught it by the back, and 
repeatedly pecked it ; subsequently, it swallowed it with no ill-effects. 
What is true of the domesticated breed is probably and equally true 
of the jungle species; indeed, Gunther* remarks that the jungle fowl 
preys on young cobras. 

Order — Grallte. — Family — Otididse. The great Indian Bustard 
(Eupodotis edwardsii) is a serpentivore according to the authority of 
Hume and Marshallf, who also give similar evidence against the 
Bengal floricanj (Sypheotis bengalensis). 

Order — Limicolse. — Webber§ is responsible for the following 
incident which shows that the red-wattled plover (Lobivanellus indicus) 
will put up a good fight against a snake, though in this instance the 
reptile was not killed. He says: " One day when riding an elephant 
I discovered how useful the spur was. I saw one of these birds 
engaged in mortal combat with a snake which was trying to rob her 
nest * * The bird got the best of the battle, inflicting some 
sharp blows on the serpent, which retired discomntted." 

Order — Herodiones. Family — Ibididae. I can find no recent 
evidence to show that the Ibis is an ophiophage, but Juvenal, || speaking 
of an Egyptian species, makes no doubt of it in his lines — 

" Who has not heard where Egypt's realms are nam'd 

" What monster gods her frantic sons have f ram'd ? 

'•' Here Ibis gorg'd with well-grown serpents, there 

" The crocodile commands religious fear," etc. 
Family — Ciconiche. — HartwigTf credits the Adjutant [Leptoptilus 
dubius) with anguine tastes, and Ferguson** remarks that, in the 
public gardens at Trivandrum, water snakes used frequently to come 
into the cages of the waterfowl to devour the fish with which they 
were provided for food and that they were often killed by the herons, 
but the hair-crested stork (Leptoptilus javanicus) took a special 

* Reptiles of Brit. India, p. 354. 

t Loc. cit., p, 9. 

X Loc. cit., p. 25. 

§ " The Forests of Upper India," p. 211. 

|| Satire, XV. 

1 " The Tropical World," p. 322. 

•* Bombay Nat. Hist. Jour., Vol. X., p. 5. 


delight in watching for and killing them. The white-necked stork 
(Dissura episcopus) has similar tastes, for two English boys recently 
told me that they once saw their cook, when cleaning a " beefsteak" 
bird for the table, remove a snake from its crop. 

Family — Ardeidae. — Aitken* reports having seen the little egret 
(Flerodias garzetta) trying to swallow a snake, and Ferguson, just 
quoted, makes reference to herons exhibiting similar tastes. 

Class — Reptilia. 

We come now to another large class which numbers in its ranks 
several whose partiality to a serpentine diet is well known. 

Order — Squamata. — Sub-order— Lacertilia. — Though lizards, like 
frogs, constitute the snake's especial perquisite in the zoological 
market, the tables are sometimes turned, and the larger lizai'ds 
will assert their supremacy and practise ophiophagy, and, as will 
be seen later, instances have been known where the frog, handi- 
capped though it is in weapons of offence, has been known to 
pay back some of the scores against its own kind by developing 
serpentivorous habits. I have collected the following instances of lizards 
dominating snakes. Mr. Gleadowf tells me he once saw a varan or 
monitor lizard running off with a live snake, 3 or 4 feet long, in 
its mouth, which it released on seeing him. He shot the snake, which 
proved to be a cobra. DalrympleJ records a big iguana in S. 
Australia doing battle royal with a whipsnake. The Eevd. J. H. R. 
Fisk§ mentions a lizard in South Africa attacking and killing a 
snake, and in the "Museum of Natural History "|| the following 
appears: — "The Ammodyte, according to the testimony of M. Host, 
appears to be a nocturnal species of serpent, and commits great havoe 
amongst field mice, small birds, and many lizards. It falls a prey 
itself, however, to one of that tribe of animals. The Scheltopusik 
( Pseudapus pallasii) is one of its most redoubtable and bloody enemies. 
Shielded by its cuirass of tilelike, hard scales, it is proof against 
the fangs of the viper, attacks it with impunity, and devours it at leisure." 

Sub-order — Ophidine. — Snakes, and especially certain species, are well 
known to prey upon one another, and make no hesitation in commit- 

* The Common Birds of Bombay, p. 181. 

f " In Epistola." 

t " The Field," June 25th, 1904. 

§ "Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1883, p. 32. 

|| Vol. II., p. 48 



ting cannibalism. The Hamadryad {Naia hung arm) has a particularly 
evil reputation, feeding as it does, almost exclusively, upon snakes; and 
if its voracity in its native haunts approaches that during captivity, the 
death-roll from this single species must be very considerable, for JMiss 
Hopley* informs us that one specimen in the London Zoo disposed 
of as many as 82 snakes in one winter, and a writer to "The Field " 
(April 16th, 1904) says that a specimen, 8|- feet long (by no means a 
large one), in the Trivandrum gardens consumed as many as 44 rat- 
snakes in one year. It is certainly notable that in the majority of 
instances on record where this snake has been killed, it has been found 
to have lately fed, and hazarding a guess I think I am well within the 
mark when I say of all other snakes which are brought to me not more 
than one in ten contains anything " in gastro. " The kraits do not 
exhibit so voracious an appetite but those that are killed that have 
dined give abundant proof of their partiality to the flesh of their own 
brethren. Many other snakes in a state of captivity prey upon one 
another, but I do not think that this argues that they would do so in 
their natural state ; and I am inclined to believe that with the majority 
it is only when hunger presses sorely, that they devour one another. 
I have collected all the instances I can find where ophiophagy has been 
perpetrated in a state of nature among our Indian representatives, 
which I append in tabular form. 






bungarus ... 

Bungarus fascia- 

Primrose ... 

Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. 
XII, p. 589. 


Naia bungarus ... 


Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. 
XIV, p. 416. 


Naia tripudians 


Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. 
XIV, p. 416. 



Craddock ... 

Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl.. Vol. 
XIV, p. 143. 


Python molurus ? .. 


Bomb. INat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. 
XIV, p. 629. 




Sport and Adventure in the 
Indian Jungle, p. 19. 


Not specified 


" The Pioneer," 4th Sep. 96. 

Nat a 


Dipsadomo rp hus 


Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. 
XV, p. 524. 


Macropis th o d on 


Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1896, 
p. 894. 


Zamenis mucosus ? 


" In Epistola." 

•"Snakes," p. 5G0. 






Bungarus fasciatus 

Tropidonoius pis- 


Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl., Vol. 


XIV, p. 599. 


Not specified 


Letters on Sport in Eastern 
Bengal, p. 246. 



Primrose ... 

Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl., "Vol. 
XII, p. 589. 



Theobold ... 

Cat. Snakes. Ind. Mus„ p. 73. 

Bungarus candidus 

Lycodon aidicus ... 


Bombay Nat. Hist. Jourl., 
Vol. XV, p. 706. 


Zamenis mucosus .. 


Bombay Nat. Hist. Jourl., 
Vol. IX, p. 499. 


Dipsadomor phus 


Bombay Nat. Hist. Jourl., 


Vol. IX, p. 499. 


Zamenis mucosus. 

Ferguson ... 

Bombay Nat. Hist. Jourl., 
Vol. X, p. 7. 

Bungarus sindanus 

Echis carinata ... 

Boulenger ... 

Bombay Nat. Hist. Jourl., 
Vol. XI, p. 74. 

Do. ceylonicus 

Vropeltides sp. ... 


Rept. Brit. Ind., 1863, p. 344. 

Zamenis mucosus... 

Zamenis . mucosus 

Robertson ... 

" In Conversatione." 


Ch r y s o p e I e a 


Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 


1899, p. 684. 


Psammophis con- 

Lightfoot ... 

Bomb. N at. Hist. Jourl., Vol. 


XV, p. 347. 


Rhinophis sp. 


' In Epistola." 

Xenopeltis unico? or Zamenis mucosus... 

Theobold .. 

Jourl. Asiat. Soc., Bengal, 
1868, p. 37. 

Do, ...ITropidonotus sto- 

Evans & Wall 

Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl , Vol 


XIII, p. 352. 

Genus Callophis... Calamaridce 


Rept. Brit. Ind. 1863, p. 3*7. 

Python molurus ...\Saia bungarus .. 

Donaghy ... 

" In Conversatione." • 

Ancistrodon hyp- Aspidura trachy- 


Spolise Zeylomca, Vol. Ill, 

nale. | procta. 

p. 147. 

Driophis mycteri- Tropklonotus sto- 

Primrose ... 

Bomb. Nat. Hist. Jourl Vol. 

zans. latus. 

XV, p. 347. 

Dendrophis den- Chr y s o p e I e a 


Proc, Zool. Soc., London, 

drophilus. ornata. 

1899, p. 680. 

Psammophis con- Echis carinata ... 


Jourl. Asiat. Soc., Bengal, 

danarus. 1 

Vol. XXII, p. 529. 

Class Batrachia. 

Order — Ecaudata. — It is certainly a remarkable thing for creatures 
so defenceless as the frogs, to attack and actually overcome animals as 
well equipped for offence as snakes, but that this occasionally happens 
must be admitted on so excellent an authority as Mr. E. H. Aitken. 
He mentions an instance* he witnessed of a bull-frog (Rana tigrina) 
in this country attempting to swallow a snake about 2 feet long, bat 
the struggles of the ophidian proved so violent that the batrachian 
fell into an adjoining tank, and the end of the encounter was loat to 

* Boiiib. Nat. Hist. Jour., Vol. IX., p. 500. 


view, and to history. This episode does not stand alone, for Symonds* 
speaks of a bull-frog he once found with a dead snake, Psammophis 
crucifer, (South African) 18^ inches long in its mouth and remarks 
that the natural food of this snake is frogs ! 

Phyla Arthropoda. 

Order — Arachnida. — Coming still further down the animal scale 
we arrive at the arthropods, and I have two instances of centipedes 
attacking snakes, both already recorded in this Journal.! In Mr. 
Okeden's case an excellent photograph shows the centipede (Scolo- 
pendra) in the act of gnawing at the caudal extremity of the snake, 
which appears to be twice the length of its devourer. In Mr. Cum- 
ming's case the centipede boxed with a Zamenis ventrimaculatus, 
attacked it under provocation from its owner, and bit so malignantly 
that the reptile shortly died. 

Class Pisces. 

Order — Selachoidei. — Cantor J remarks that from M. Peron's observ- 
ations, sharks appear to be the natural enemies of the marine serpents. 

Division Insecta. 

Order — Hymenoptera. — One reads in Natural History books of the 
famous driver ants of South America which manoeuvre through jungles 
in military fashion, and attack and destroy all animal life that 
they encounter, even to creatures of the magnitude of the largest 
boas. Its humble eastern allies though not employing such metho- 
dical tactics, nor acting on so extensive a scale, do occasionally attack 
and overpower living animals including snakes. A very pretty little 
green keelback (Macropisthodon plumbicolor) I had in captivity was 
attacked, and reduced to a skeleton one night by ants. Ferguson § 
records a similar experience, for which ants (Solenojysis geminata) 
were responsible, their victim, a Helicops schistosus, being literally 

When I began these remarks I had no idea the list of natural foes 
to the snake would present so formidable an array, and provide mate- 
rial for so voluminous a paper, but I feel sure that this list, long as it 
is, could be very considerably supplemented by many of our readers. 

• Proc. Zool. Soc, London, 1387, p. 487. 
t Vol. XV., pp. 185 and 365. 
j Trans. Zool. See., London, ] 840, p. 308. 
§ Bomb, Nat. Hist. Jour., Vol. X, p. i>. 



By E. Comber, f.z.s. 

[Continued from page 650 of Vol. XIII.*) 

Part IV. 

Note. — In recommencing this series of papers after so long an interval 
as five years, I feel that a word of apology is perhaps appropriate. In 
the first place circumstances intervened which prevented me from being 
able to spare the requisite time for the preparation of the subsequent 
parts, and in the second place I felt that so little response had been 
forthcoming in the way of specimens contributed to our collections, except 
of course of bird skins, of whicli we have a number of careful and 
enthusiastic collectors, that it seemed hardly worth while continuing 
the series on the last section of the vertebrates (Fishes) and on the 
several groups of invertebrate animals, which apparently, with the single 
exception of the Insects, fail to arouse any degree of enthusiasm amongst 
the present younger generation of our members. However it has been 
urged on me that the papers were perhaps more generally appreciated 
than I imagined, and that a few practical notes on the way to set about 
collecting and preserving the lower animals might at any rate induce a 
few beginners to try their hands at the job. If the results justify this 
hope, I shall be more than satisfied. 

It is amongst the lower forms of animal life that the way is open to 
any one, who will take a little trouble, to do a vast amount of really orig- 
inal and useful work, not only in the way of bringing previously un- 
known, or unrecognised, forms to the notice of naturalists, hut of study- 
ing and noting the habits and life histories of species already de- 
scribed from their fully developed forms. It is in this latter connection 
that the true spirit of the field naturalist comes out, as distinguished from 
the mere collector or museum expert, and I wish again to strongly im- 
press upon the beginner the invaluable assistance of the note book, which 
is too often ignored. The apparent insignificance of notes at the time 
should never be allowed to deter a collector from entering them in 
black and white in his note book, and even the roughest of sketches will 
often help to recall details that would otherwise be forgotten in a short 
time if merely entrusted to memory. In years to come it will be found 
quite surprising how interesting these rough notes become, and how