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Full text of "THE JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA"

THE 

JOURNAL 
OF 

THE MMISMiTIC SOCIETY OF HIM 

Vol. I ] [1939 




Chief Editor 
AJIT GHOSE, M A 



Editor For Muhammadan Coins 

R. G. GYANI 



THE 

LJMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 



V 



THE 



inTTPMAT 

JOURNAL 

OF THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 



CHIEF EDITOR 

AJITGHOSE, MA 

EDITOR FOR MTJHAMMADAN COINS 

R G GYANI, M A 




THE 
NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 



1939 



First published 1939 
Reprinted 1972 



Published by Sh PL Gupta for The Mumistmatic 
Society of India, Varanasi and printed by K L Sachdeva 
for Skylark Printers, 11355, Id-Gah Road, New Delhi-55 



/C2. 



JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

No I 

1939 

CONTENTS 

P\GE 

I Shammwala (Bijnor Dist ) Hoard of Silver 
Punch-marked Coins (Plates I & II) 

By Dutga Prasad i 

II Rare Oblong Coins from Rajgir 
(Plate III-A ) 

By Ajit Chose 5 

III A Rare Gold Com of Huvishka 

(Plate III-B ) 

By H D Sankalia 9 

IV Some Remarks on the Coins of the 

Andhra Period 

By Ginndrasekhar Bose u 

V Was Jivadaman. a Mahakstrapn more 
than once? (Plate III-C) 

By A S Altekir 18 

VI Important Coins from Baroda State 
(Plate IV) 

By A S Gadre 20 

VII A Unique Hiif Dinar of CriAndragupri II 
(Plate V-A) 

By G V Achiryi 27 

VIII A New Variety of the Lion Slayer Type 
of Chandragupta II (Plate V-B) 

By Ajit Chose 28 

IX Gold Coins of thtee Kings of the Nala 
Dymsty (Phte V-C ) 

By V V Mirashi 29 

X A Treisure Tto\e Find of Silver Coins 
of the Bengil Sultans (Phte VI) 

By Shamsu-d-din Ahmad 36 

XI A Gold Com of Mahmud Shah Khilji 
of Malwa (Phte VII-A ) 

Bv C R Smghal 38 



PAGE 

XII A Unique Mubr of Nizam Shah Bahmani 
(Plate VII-B ) 
By C R Singhal 39 

XIII A new Mtthr of Mahmud Shah Begda of 

Gujarat (Plate VII-C ) 
By C R Singhal 4 

XIV A Unique Quarter Rupee of Sher Shah 

Suri (Plate VII-D ) 

By C R Singhal 4 1 

XV The Genealogy of Ahmad Shah III of 
Gujarat 

By Sir R Burn 4 2 

XVI Notes on Some Rare Gold Mughal Coins 
acquired by the British Museum 
(Plate VIII ) 

By H Nelson Wright 43 

XVII A Unique Bi-Mintal Muhr of Shah Jahan, 
(Plate VII-E ) 

By Bahadur Singh Smghi 50 

XVIII Three Bronze Coins of Persis 
(Plate VII-F ) 

By Furdoonjee D J Paruck 53 

XIX Observations on Five Sasaman Coins, 
(Plate IX) 

By Furdoonjee D J Paruck 5^ 

XX Some Rare and Unpublished Coins of the 
Smdhias (Plates X-XI ) 

By R G Gyani 72 

XXI The Law regarding Treasure Trove 
in British India and the Practice 
relating thereto 

By Sir R Burn 81 

XXII Reviews Two Catalogues of Coins, 
chiefly of the Bengal Sultans 
By Shamsu-d-dm Ahmad 88 

XXIII New Views in Indo-Greek Numismatics 

By Harit Krishna Deb 90 

XXIV Notes and News 94 



JOURNAL OF 
THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDI/F '* 

SHAMIAWALA (BIJNOR DIST ) HOARD OF - 
SILVER PUNCH-MARKED COINS 

[Places HI ] 

In the year 1920 some 143 silver coins along with a number 
of fragmentary bits of scrap silver, weighing in all about 31/4 
Tolas, were discovered in the village of Shamiawala, in Tahsil 
Najibabad, in the District of Bijnor, UP On removing the 
clay encrustations, it was found that there were only 139 com- 
plete coins, the remaining 4 pieces being blank pellets of 
silver of the size of the coins 

One of the coins was a big thin round piece, 9" in size, of i 
different fabric, piobably a stray coin resembling the (u) Suraseni 
type published on Plate XXXI of Numismatic Supplement, Vol 
XLV The remaining 138 were all small coins measuring from 
3" to 5", with an average weight of 25 3 grains They were 
mostly rectilineal, but a few were circular and they could be 
divided into 3 classes as described below 

Class I, comprising 56 coins, bear the figure of a fish with 
3 small dots, a small circle, and a Nandipada all placed below 
the fish These could be further subdivided into 3 types, having 
regard to the location of the dots, the small circles, and the 
Nandipada placed erect or aslant The number of coins of this 
clasi is 56, and the average weight 25 46 grs For illustration vide 
PI II-A, symbols Figs , i, 2 and 3 and PI II-B, coins Nos i to 3 
Class II, comprising 78 coins, is distinguished by the figure 
of an elephant with dots and Nandipada, facing left and right, 
These coins fall into eight different sub-classes, with or without a 
rider as illustrated on PI II-A, symbols Figs , 4 to 1 1 and PI 
H-B, coins Nos 4 to ii, the average weight being 2583 grs 

Class III comprises only 2 coins with the figure of a 
Nandi facing nght, with 2 Nandipadas above, as illustrated 
on PI II-A, symbol Fig, 12, also on PI II-B, coin No 12, 
the weight of each com being 2475 grs 

Two of the coins, one of Class I and one of Class II, were 
dissolved for quantitative chemical analysis 

A considerable quantity of scrap silver was found with the 
coins in the shape of a broken vessel with embossed design (PI I, 
Fig A), small pellets of silver bullion (PI I, Fig B), weighing 



2 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

from 250 to 271 grains, three pieces of thin silver foils in shape 
of ornaments (PI I, Fig C), pieces of silver wire of round, square 
and semi-circular sections (PI I, Fig D), and small cut pieces of 
pellets (PI I, Figs E and F), which convey the idea that the hoard 
belonged to a dealer in silver, this is supported by the presence of 
cut pieces of silver pellets As no punches or other minting 
instruments were found with the hoard, it cannot be said that 
the collection of coins and the scrap silver were the property of a 
pnvate comer, neither could such a small quantity of material be 
called the remnant of a mint That com making in ancient India 
was a royal prerogative has been established by several passages 
from Kautilya's Arthasastra 

The heavy bold embossed portion of a broken cup or jug (PI 
I, Fig A) is a specimen of the art of the silversmith of the period 

The 5 big pellets (PI I, Fig B) are samples of silver bullion 
weighing over 270 grains, quite unlike the modern huge silver 
bricks of over a thousand ounces 

The 3 thin foils of silver (PI I, Fig C) 2" X %" with then 
edges turned back uniformly, and having small holes at the 
two ends, marked with a. triangular design, appear to be orna- 
ments for the forehead of that period Such thin and fragile 
ornaments can hardly be used for personal decoration, and it is 
probable that they were merely ceremonial pieces 

As the average weight of the coins is 25 3 grains, (the 
heaviest piece weighing 27 grs ) they are ipparently silver half 
Panas of 28 grains or 16 Ratis The Rati standard of ancient 
India vaned between i 8 and i 75 grains Thomas and othet 
scholars calculated the old Rati to be of i 8 grs , while 
Dr Bhandarkar came to the conclusion that it was of i 75 grs , 
which is confirmed by my examination of over 2,000 silver 
punch-marked coins discovered in the Machhuatoli quarter of 
Patna, now in the Patna Museum, the majority of which were 
of the Mauryan period, all bearing the Mauryan symbol of hill 
and crescent (vide JRAS , London, July, 1936) This large 
hoard, examined at the Patna Museum, consisted of well-pre- 
served coins of the Mauryan period, some of them showing the 
crystalme broken sections of chisel-cut coins, and others with 
edges clear sharp in mint condition These give an average 
weight of a little below 56 grains, which means a Rati of i 75 grs 

If the number of coins and the average weight of each of 
the three classes of coins be taken as an indication of the chrono- 
logicil sequence, then the two coins of Class III bearing the figure 
of a Nandi must be the earliest of the lot -\s their average weight 



SHAMIAWALA HOARD OF SILVER PUNCH-MARKED COINS 3 

is only 24 75 grs , the deficiency from the full standard being 
as much as 3 25 grains Coins of Class I with the fish symbol 
come next in order, and the most numerous, the coins of Class 
II, with an average weight of 25 83 grains, appear to be the 
latest in the hoard Another noticeable fact is that the coins 
of the same sub-class appear to be punched with 2 or sometime*; 
with 3 similar but slightly different punches, indicating that 
the coins were stamped by several workmen at a time, each using 
a separate punch of the same design, but a little different in 
execution 

The similarity of fabrication of these coins is a sure indication 
that they belong to a particular locality or dynasty It is pro- 
bable that they are the coins of three rulers of the same dynasty 

114 coins in the hoard are rectilineal, cut from thin bars or 
sheets of silver, only 24 of them are round, struck off from small 
flattened pellets, or round rods 

As all the coins are stamped on one side with a small punch, 
and there are no symbols on the reverse as seen usually on other 
types of punch-marked coins, the question arises whether they 
should be classed as punch-marked coins, or among the early 
one-sided die-struck coins, examples of which ate known among 
Taxila copper coins, though none have yet come to light in 
silver As other Ardha-Panas of small size in silver bearing a 
single large symbol on one side are known, it would be safer 
to put these coins as well under the category of silver punch- 
marked coins 

The three characteristic symbols occurring on these coins, 
viz , Nandi, elephant and Nandipada are found on punch- 
marked coins from very early times 

The figures on the coins are of a crude primitive style, the 
hoofs of the bulls and elephants being depicted by dots, and 
the peculiar mode of showing the tufts of hair at the tail ends 
of both the bull and the elephant by thick lines is archaic 
Such figures can be compared with those on the early coins 
of Kosala which I ascribe to the pre-Nanda period, as well as 
on the early silver punch-marked coins of Mathura which I attri- 
bute to the independent Surasena Kingdom of Mathura in the 5th 
or early 4th century B C , as mentioned in the Buddhistic and 
Brahmanic literature, 1 these coins are, however, of a different 
standard weight, viz , of 45 grains, roughly 24 or 25 Ratis, and 



i JBORS , Vol I, ^15, pp 116, "Saisunaka Chronology" by K P 
Jayaswal 



4 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

thus belong to a period before Mahapadma Nanda conquered 
these independent kingdoms in the 4th century B C 

It may be pointed out here that the 1,059 S1 l ver punch- 
maiked coins excavated at Taxila with coins of Alexander the 
Great and Philip Andaeus "fresh from the mint" in 1924-1925 
are of the Nanda period Sir } Marshall 2 thought these coins to 
be of Hindustan Mr Walsh 3 was of opinion that they were of 
the Nanda period and some were a couple of centimes older than 
the coins of Alexander the Great I have noticed many coins 
similar to Taxila coins aie found mixed with local coins in every 
hoard discovered in Behar (Magadha) or the United Provinces and 
other places, showing that the early Nandas and after them the 
Mauryans introduced their imperial coinage of 32 Rati standard 
weight, bearing the conspicuous figures of sun and a six pointed 
wheel "Sadarchakra" in the early 5th century B C , hence 
their coins are found from one end of the country to the other 
I, therefore, conclude that the present coins belong to the early 
4th century B C , before Mahapadma Nanda conquered the 
Kurus who were then independent (about 366-338 B C ) The 
coins were found in the District of Bijnor, which lies within the 
boundary of the ancient Brahmavarta or Kurukshetra region of 
the Kurus (vide Cambridge History of India, Vol I, Map of 
Bharatavarsha, pp 514-515) 

The coins may be taken to be the local coins of Kurukshetra, 
when it was an independent kingdom, and before Mahapadma 
Nanda conquered it about the middle of the 4th century B C 
The Panas of 32 Ratis and their halves were current then It 
may be pointed out here that I have already assigned local silver 
punch-marked coins to different independent kingdoms of the 
5th, 6th and yth centuries B C , viz , to Kosala, Panchala, 
Surasena, Gandhara, Kuntala, Saurastra, and Andhra (vide 
Numismatic Supplement, Jubilee Number, XLVII, 1938) 

The quantitative chemical analysis of coins of Classes I and 
II indicate a high percentage of silver in the alloy about 80 per 
cent in coins of Class I and about 79 6 per cent in the coins 
of Class II, copper and other impurities being nearly 20 to 20 4 
pel cent respectively 

All the coins conform to 28 grains or 16 Ratis and are 
undoubtedly Ardha Panas, other hoards of Ardha Panas from 
different places are already known 

DURGA PRASAD 

2 Archaeological Survey of India, Annual Report, 1924-25, pp 47-8 

3 JRAS , 1937, PP 614-615 



RARE OBLONG COINS FROM RAJGIR 
[Plate III-A ] 

A remarkable series of copper corns of oblong shape fiom 
Rajgir, the ancient Rajagnha, obviously issued at one ind the 
same early period, appears to be a distinctly original contribution 
to ancient Indian coin types That they are coins admits of 
little doubt as they have been found along with punch-maiked 
and other early cast coins at Rajgir For the same reason they 
must be considered to be of early date In fact the uniform 
excellence of execution which distinguish these coins makes it 
probable that they are anterior to the rectangular cast coins with 
elephant and standard obverse and tree within railing \ccom- 
pamed by other symbols on the reverse, sevenl varieties of which 
have been found at Rajgir as indeed in many other parts of 
Northern India, the execution of which in comparison is cuide 
The absence of any data makes it impossible to date the coins 
at present though systemitic excavation at the site of ancient 
Rajagnha may help us to do so later on For sevetal weighty 
reasons I consider these extraordinary coins to be a series 
They are of an uniform oblong shape and of the same size 
In all of them the symbol figured on the com is enclosed within 
a raised ornamental border formed by what look like the leaves 
of the date palm tree It may be suggested that the boidei is 
formed of ears of corn but it is more likely that the border consists 
of date tree leaves The date tree is found scattered through- 
out this part of the country and the leaves are to this day used 
as ornamental decorations of gateways etc , on festive occasions 
The tree arch as a decorative motif is at least as old is Mohenjo 
Daro The reverse side of all the coins is plun An exammv- 
tion of the weight of different specimens in my cabinet shows 
that the coins fall into two groups one group weighing approxi- 
mately 51 grs and the other consisting of thinner ind lightci 
pieces weighing only about 31 grs As regards weight ilso, 
therefore, these coins may be regarded as constituting a chss by 
themselves I give below a description of eleven varieties of 
this interesting and rare series which I have come across but 
before proceeding to do so I must correct an error in a recently 
published paper entitled "The Coins of R^Jgir" the author of 
which has described them as "single-die coins" A careful 
examination of the coins, e g , No 2, shows that they are em- 



6 JOURNAL OF THE NbMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

ph ideally not die-struck but are cast coins of rate workmanship 
Of the varieties I have examined and described below, foui only 
weie known to S Singh Roy, the writer o the above-mentioned 
piper, and have been described by him (NS , No XLVI, Art 
329) Mr M B L Dar informs me that he has found coins 
similar to No i at the old site of Ramnagar in Bireily District 
This only shows how wide was the circulation of coins even in 
ancient times Similarly I have found coins generally assigned 
to Tixiia along with finds from Rajgir 

1 Obv Within a raised border formed by branches of 

the date palm a combination of four of the 
well-known symbols which have been variously 
described as sun and crescent, ball and crescent, 
taurme or Nandipada, and which it may be 
suggested is an elementary form of the Tnratna 
as illustrated in PI III, i 

Rev Plain 

AE S 55 x 45 Wt 51 grs 

2 Obv Within bolder as m No i a combination of 

four of the same symbols but two of them are 
one below the other and two on either side as 
illustrated in PI III, 2 

Rev Plain 

AE S 55 x 45 Wt 31 grs 

3 Obv Within raised border as in No i an ornamental 

Swastika with the so-called taurme symbol on 
either side as illustrated in PI III, 3 

Rev Plain 

AE S 55 x 45 Wt 28 grs 

4 Obv Within raised border as in No i an ornamental 

symbol, which is evidently the 'Tnratna on i 
stand An almost similar but more ornate 
symbol is to be found on the reverse of coins 
of Jishnu Gupta and Pasupati of Nepal (vide 
C C A I , PI XIII, 7) Two so-called taurmes 
on either side The com is illustrated in 
PI III, 4 

Rev Plain 

AE S 55 x 45, Wt 52 grs 

5 Obv Within raised border as in No i a pair of 

scales with a rod on the r side vide PI III, 5 
Rev Plain 
AE S 55 x 45 Wt 31 grs 



RARE OBLONG COINS FROM RAJGIR 7 

6 Obv Within raised border as No i an ornamental 

design in the shape o a volute with raised uncer- 
tain object on 1 , which may be only a defect in 
casting, as illustrated in PI III, 6 The design 
suggests a lotus bud with stalk in the form of a 
spiral 

Rev Plain 

AE S 55 x 45 Wt 33 grs 

7 Obv Within raised border as m No i figure of i 

nude woman facing front as illustrated in PI 
III, 7, representing probably the abbtsheka of 
Lakshmi although the elephants on either side of 
the head are not distinct 

Rev Plain 

AE S 55 x 45 Wt 51 grs 

8 Obv Within raised border as in No i stag standing 

facing 1 , taurme on 1 , as illustrated in PI III, 8 
I have suggested above that the so-called taurme 
may be an elementary form of the Tnratna, the 
most sacred of Buddhist symbols The presence 
of the symbol on this com lends support to this 
suggestion as the stag is also issociated with 
Buddhism 

Rev Plain 

AE S 55 x 45 Wt 51 grs 

9 Obv Within raised border is m No i a lady, 

probably a queen, wearing whit looks like a 
crown, seated with her legs stretched in front, 
holding some object, which does not look like a 
lotus on three specimens I have exammed, in 
her right hand A male figure is facing her 
with hands clasped On some coins there is a 
curved line which looks like a tail and hence the 
figure has been supposed to be a monkey, but 
this is not certain as on one coin the line looks 
like a leg The seated figure occupies the r side 
and the other figure the 1 of the com which is 
illustrated in PI III, 9 
Rev Plain 

AE S 55 x 45 Wt 30 grs 

10 S Singh Roy illustrates in his article above referred to 
(N S , Art 329, PI No i , No 4) a coin similar to No 9 above 
but slightly smaller and with the figures transposed As m the 



JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

case of the other three oblong coins described by him he unfortu- 
nately omits to give any information as regards the size or weight 
of the com 

ii Obv Same as No 5 but the rod is on the 1 side 
Rev Plain, 
AE S 55 x 45 Wt 50 grs 

Nos 2, 8 and 9 on PI III, are repioduced from coins in the 
cabinet of Mr Bahadur Singh Smghi, the remainder are in my 
own collection 

I have now acquired a small, irregular and much worn coin 
of type No 8, weighing only 15 grs , which seems to be an 
exception to the series 

AJIT GHOSE 



A RARE GOLD COIN OF HUVISHKA 
[Plate III-B] 

The coin which is published 1 and discussed in this note is 
in the collection of Mr C } Shah, M A , and imy be described 
as follows 

AV 

1245 grains 

S o 8 inches 

Obv Half-length, nimbate figure of the King to left, 
rising from "clouds", dressed in armour And round 
jewelled helmet (both indistinct because worn out), 
with flames coming out from his left shoulder ( ? ), 
'club' or 'ankusa', or an 'ear of corn' in the right 
hand, in the left a spear z 

Legend on the left PAONANOPAO (oo the rest 
of the letters cut out in the die) i e , Shaonano 
shao Ho (Veshki Koshano), "The King of Kings 
Huvishka, the Kushan" 

Rev 'God of War' 3 (ARES)* nimbate standing to the 
right, wearing Greek type of helmet and armour, 
holding a spear in the right hand, and the left 
hand resting on shield 
Monogram % to the right 

Legend (beginning on the right from above the monogram) 
PAO, (then the god's head and going over and 
down to the left) PHOPO i e , PAOPHOPO i e , 
Slnoreoro = Iranian Shahrewar 

1 PI III-B 

2 Cf Cunningham, Numismatic Chronicle, 1892, Series III, Vol 
XII, Bust type B, pi ix 

3 As called by Smith, Catalogue of the Coins in the Indnn 
Museum, Calcutta, Vol I, p 79 

4 Smith, Ibid, and Gardner, Catalogue of Indnn Coins tn the 
Butish Museum, 1886, p 148 Cunningham, of at 1892, p 46-7 
agreed with the view which regarded this god as the God of Wealth 
md the Lord of Metals and equated him with the Avestan Ksatra- 
vairya and identified him with the Indian Airavira or Ku\era Further, 
on p 62, n 14, he said that as the god and his wife Riddhi pres-ded 
over metals they were represented in armour 



10 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

(1) For two reasons it may be called a rare 1 com of 
Huvishka The 'Sharewar' type is not as common as some 
other types of Huvishka and the present coin is from a hitherto 
unpublished die The British Museum 2 has two coins of this 
type with the god facing r , ind one slightly different' in which 
he faces 1 

(2) In all published specimens, the god's name appears 
complete in a straight or curved line either on the left or on 
the right, whereas in our com the name begins from the left, 
from above the monogram and ends on the right, a portion being 
on either side of the figure This m fact is the really important 
feature of this com 

It is interesting to note that the king looks taller and thinner 
on this coin than on the coins published by Smith, 1 Gardnei, 5 
Cunningham' 1 and Fleet 7 Our coin also seems to hive been 
consideiably used as the legend, king's figure, god's armour, and 
shield are rather indistinct due to wear and tear 

H D SANKALIA 



1 Smith, of at , p 79 The Lahore Museum, when Whitchead 
wrote (Catalogue of the Corns in the Punjab Museum, Lahore, 1914, 
p 207), did not possess a single com of this variety, nor has a coin 
of this type been published m any of the recognised journals since 
these catalogues were published 

2 Gardner, of at , p 148, pi xxvui, 17 and 19, Cunmnglnm, 
op at t pi xxii, 8-9 

3 Ibid, pi xxvm, 18, Ibid, pi xxif, 10 

4 Of cit , pi xii, 8, 10, 14, 15 

5 Of cit , pi xxiii, 9 

6 Op nt, pi ix and JASB , Vol xu, p 434-35, figs 2 and 3 

7 JRA 9 1908, pi i 



SOME REMARKS ON THE COINS OF THE 
ANDHRA PERIOD 

The Andhra period of ancient Indian history offers many 
interesting problems for study In examining the coins and ins- 
et iptions associated with the Andhras one comes across such titles 
as iaja', 'svami', 'rastrapaci', eg, 'daksmapattnpati', 'kstrapa', 
mahakstrapa' etc In this connection the distinction between 
what we call a 'king' in English and a 'raja' should be borne in 
mind A 'king' is an independent ruler whereas a 'raja' is not 
necessarily so The title 'raja' should not therefore be translated 
as 'king' Much confusion has resulted from this The titles 
'maharaja', 'rajadhiraja' and 'maharajadhiraja' on the other hand 
have often been used as epithets of sovereignty At the present 
time there has been a degradation of these terms also so that maha- 
rajas and maharajadhirajas exist who are merely landlords 

It seems that during the Andhra period the tides kstrapa 
and mahakstrapa were originally used by provincial rulers of 
Parthian or Scythian descent acknowledging suzerainty of some 
paramount power Very likely their relations with the paramount 
power consisted merely in the payment of tribute of some sort 
They were free to mint their own coins, wage war against 
neighbouring provinces and act in any other way they 1'ked It 
is probable that a kstrapa was often subordinate to a mahakstrapa 
who was the direct tributary of the paramount power A maha- 
kstrapa might have several kstrapas under him Sometimes a 
kstrapa would wage war on other kstrapas and usurp thetr domi- 
nions and, perhaps by paying a higher tribute to the paramount 
power, would be recognized as a mahakstrapa Mahakstrapas 
and kstrapas often ruled contemporaneously (Rapson, E J , 
Cat of the Coins of the Andhras in the B M , p xxvn n ) It 
appears also that the paramount power did not bother itself as 
to who became the kstrapa or mahakstrapa of a particular pro- 
vince so long as it received the stipulated tribute 

In later periods, rulers of Indian descent also sometimes 
styled themselves kstrapas or mahakstrapas after having; ousted 
rulers of Scythian descent from thetr possessions Perhaps the 
association of these titles with i pirticular province was so firm 
owing to long continued rule by foreigners to whom the epithets 
properly belonged that when any Indian stepped into their place 
he found it more convenient to use the same designations in state 
matters as those of his predecessors The facts collected about 



12 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

the western satraps of the Andhra period by Rapson (Of cit , c, 
ci) would serve to support the validity of the above assumptions 

Rulers of different provinces under a paramount power in 
ancient India can be placed under different classes In the first 
place, we might have kings who had lost their original indepen- 
dence as a result of aggrandisement of the paramount power and 
hid become tributary to it In describing Raghu's conquests, 
Kahdasa compares such defeated kings with the paddy plant 
which yields grains when uprooted and planted again The 
conqueror who after defeating an independent king reinstated 
him as tributary has been called 'dharmavijayi' or the righteous 
conqueror (Ragbuvamsa, 4 37'43) m r ^ e second place, pro- 
vincial rulers of one paramount power might transfer their alle- 
giance to another as a result of military conquest by the latter 
Greek satrapies under Seleukus were transferred to Chandragupta 
after the defeat of the former In the third place, special officials 
might be appointed by the paramount power to rule over certain 
provinces, e g a military commander might be appointed as a 
governor in a province liable to invasions by other powers 
(Kamska's governois) Fourthly, princes of the royal blood and 
relations of the royal family might be appointed irrespective of 
their merits in certain provinces Sometimes minor princes 
occupied the position of provincial iulers under the protection of 
some elderly person of the royal blood Kharivela's inscription 
records that he was i Yuvaraj at sixteen 

It is conceivable that a prince of the royal line in his capa- 
city as a provincial ruler might come into conflict with a 
neighbouring governor under the same paiamount power just as 
different kstrapas might fight among themselves and it is further 
conceivable that the paramount power would remain neutral in 
such fights so long as it received its revenues from one party or 
another The posts of provincial governors, except in the cases 
of the princes of the loyal blood who would succeed to the throne 
of the paramount ruler, were generally hereditary An exami- 
nation of the com legends and inscriptions of the Andhra period 
shows that the prefix "sn" was used only by persons of the royal 
family The satnps, although they called themselves 'rajas', 
did not put the honorific 'In' before their names, on the other 
hand we find legends of royal personages in which only 'sn' 
occurs and no 'raja', the title 'raja' without the 'sri* was very 
likely confined to provincial rulers only and when it is found 
associated with a 'sn' it is even then no bar to the supposition 
that the person of the royal blood might have been a provincial 



SOME REMARKS ON THE COINS OF THE ANDHRA PERIOD 13 

governor at the time the com bearing the legend was stuck or 
the inscription carved 

The provincial rulers during the Andhra period issued coins 
and it is quite likely that a prince of the royal blood also issued 
coins in his own name during the period of his provincial gover- 
norship Rapson writes "Indian coin types are essentially local 
in character At no period with which we are acquainted, 
whether in the history of ancient or of mediaeval India, has the 
same kind of coinage been current throughout any of the great 
empires Each province of such in empire has, as i rule, re- 
tained its own peculiar coinage, and this with so much conser- 
vatism in regard to the types and the fabric of the coins, that the 
mam characteristics of these have often remained unchanged, not 
only by changes of dynasty but even by the transference of power 
from one race to another " (Rapson, of cit , pp xi, xn) The 
obvious conclusion that can be drawn from the facts noted by 
Rapson is that the paramount power never troubled itself with 
the issue of coins a function which was left to the discretion of 
the provincial rulers The central government, it seems, before 
the Guptas at any rate, did not attach much importance to the 
minting of coins ind in the case of big empires it is doubtful 
whether any special central imperial coin was ever issued This 
would explain the absence of any coin bearing the name of 
emperors such as Asoka on the one hand and the great prepon- 
derance of coins belonging to the satraps on the other The 
conservatism in com types that Rapson has noticed would make 
any guess regarding the age of a paiticular type of script on any 
coin in the absence of dates i hazaidous game 

In view of the indifference of the central government to 
provincial coins it is extremely unlikely that the imperial power 
would think of restnkmg any com to commemorate iny victory 
is his been supposed in the case of the restruck coins of 
Nahapana It is piactically impossible for any imperial power 
to call back all coins of a particular type in citculation metely foi 
the piupose of restnkmg them This method of commemorating 
a victory, to say the least, can only attain partiil success Then 
again in considering the problem of the restriking of coins one 
has to remember that of three Andhra kings Vasisthiputra 
Vilivayakura, Mathinputra Sivalakura and Gautamiputra Vili- 
vayakura, all apparently belonging to the same family, each of 
the last two restruck coins of his predecessor ot predecessors 
There is no evidence to show that this was done to commemorate 
any victory of one over the other or others 



14 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Double stmck coins belong to the same category is restruck 
coins Such coins of Gautarmputra Vilivayakura and of Gautami- 
putra 3ri Yajna Satakarm have been found Restruck punch- 
marked coins have also been found suggesting the possibility 
that the restnking was done whea the original markings got 
effaced by usage (Walsh Punch-marked stiver coins, their 
standard of weight, age and mint, JRAS , ity^J, -dp?} In 
view of these considerations the argument that restnking of a 
com by another king is a proof of military victory on his part 
loses much of its force It is difficult to say in the absence of 
any definite information what might ha\e led to the restnking 
of particular coins The hypothesis of military victory is only 
one possibility among many, and this hypothesis fails altogether 
when applied to double struck coins and to restnkmg b}< succes- 
sive kings belonging to the same family It is probable that just 
as we have special coionation medals struck at the time of acces- 
sion of kings at the present time, coins were similarly restruck in 
ancient times on special occasions for distribution as alms etc 
This would explain the presence of coins that have been restruck 
by a king of the same family as the one issuing the original coin 
and also of double struck coins bearing the same legend of the 
same king twice This explanation will be especially applicable 
to those cases in which there is no sign of any effacement of the 
original stamping due to usage Effacement of the original 
markings, whether as a result of usage or of any other factor, 
will very likely account for restnking in a certain percentage of 
cases as has already been stated 

The denominational values of ancient coins were very likely 
tn the majority of cases greater than their intrinsic values If 
anybody was fortunate enough to discover a hoard of coins be- 
longing to a former reign in those days the only way to utilize 
the coins profitably would be to get them restamped with the 
current legend by die state mint and release them for circulation 
Melting the coins would not be a business proposal It is men- 
tioned in Manusamhita and Mitaksara that if any person, other 
than a learned brahmin, discovers a hidden treasure the king shall 
appropriate one-sixth or one-twelfth of the amount A learned 
brahmin discoverer of a hoard may keep the whole of it for him- 
self If anybody fails to intimate the discovery of a treasure 
hoard to the state he shall forfeit the whole of it, ind the king 
shall punish the discoverer suitably (Manu 8 35 39 
Mitaksara- Vyavaharadhyaya 34, 35) It is therefore quite likely 
that in the event of a discovery of a hoard of coins, not current 



SOME REMARKS ON THE COINS OF THE ANDHR4. PERIOD 15 

at the time, the government would restamp the coins, take a part 
of the same for its own coffers and give the rest to the discoverer 

Since the title 'raja' was very likely associated with provin- 
cial governorship any inscription or com legend bearing that title 
conjointly with the royal prefix 'Sri' would indicate that it was 
executed during the period of provincial reign of the prince In 
the case of Yajna Sn of the Puranas, about whose identification 
with Gautamiputra Svami Sri Yajna Satakarni of the inscriptions 
not much doubt exists, the Puranas record a regnal period of 
nine years only while we find from inscriptions that he reigned 
for at least twenty seven years A long penod of provincial rule 
was not likely to be followed by another long period of imperial 
teign except in the case of a prince who happened to have ruled 
as a minor under the guardianship of somebody else during his 
governorship If we assumes that Yajna Sri had been a provin- 
cial ruler before he became a king and that the inscription men- 
tioning the 27th year of his reign (Rdpson, of at , p LII) was 
incised during this period we can get the total period of Yajna 
Sn's reign by adding the minimum of 27 years as governor to o, 
years as an imperial ruler as mentioned in the Puranas There is 
the other possibility that the inscription was carved while Yajna 
Sri was an imperial ruler, this would give a minmum of 18 years 
as the period of his provincial reign The large variety of the 
coins that Yajna Sri struck is, from this standpoint, to be con- 
sidered as a corroborative evidence of his long period of provincial 
governorship at different places As mentioned before no com 
of Yajna Sri is to be expected for the period of his reign as the 
paramount lord 

Gautamiputra Sri Yajna Satakarni like his illustrious ancestor 
and namesake Gautamiputra Sti Satakarni, the 6th Andhra king, 
was a powerful monarch The variety of his coins and the ex- 
tent of their provenance clearly show his superior position among 
the Andhra kings For some reason which cannot be definitely 
specified restruck and double struck Andhra coins begin to 
make their appearance from the time o the Vilivayakuras down- 
wards The restruck coins of Nahapana, however, are generally 
ascribed to Gautamiputra Satakarni, the sixth king, wrongly 
supposed to be the 23rd king I have an impression that these 
coins, all of which, without any exception, are to be traced to 
a single hoard viz , the Joghaltembhi find, were restruck at the 
time of Yajna Sri Many years had elapsed at the time of 
Yajna Sri since Nahapana issued his coins Somebody found the 
hoard and had a portion of them restruck in order to be able to 



1 6 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

use the coins That there was no original coin of Gautamiputra 
or of anybody else in the hoard is a strong proof of the fact that 
the rest-imping was done after the hoard had been found 
Nahapam's coins 5eem to have been restruck with different dies 
It is likely that in order to avoid the confiscation of any part of the 
hoard by the state undei the treasure-trove act of the times the 
discoverer was getting the coins re-stamped in small cjuantites in 
different places representing them to be his heirloom This must 
hive been a slow process The discoverer died leaving the hoard 
hidden, and a part of it unstamped Scott writes "The great 
variety of dies used in making the counter impression is as noti- 
ceable as the variety in the case of Nahapana's coins to which I 
have drawn attention The work was evidently done by many 
diffeient workmen, of very diffeient abilities, and probably at 
many different places" (Rev H R Scott The Nastk-Joghal- 
tembbi Hoard of Nahapana's corns J B B R A S Vol XXII , p 
241) Rapson writes "The lattei class (restruck coins of 
Nahapana), which comprises more than two-thirds of the total 
numbei of coins found, has, struck over the ordinary types of 
Nihapana, the Andhu types, obv, 'Chaitya with inscr' rev 
'Ujjain symbol', which appear together on lead coins of 
Pulumavi, Siva Sri, Chanda Sati and Sn Yajna, but which had 
not previously been found associated on coins of Gautamiputra 
Satakarm So far as is known at present, these types were not 
used for any independent silver coinage, but were simply employ- 
ed (or the purpose of re-issiung the existing currency" (Rapson, 
op at , p Ixxxix) 

The facts noted above will be best explained by the sup- 
position that Gautamiputra Sri Satakarm did not issue any coin 
having ascended the imperial throne without a probationary 
period of provincial governorship On the other hand Yajni Sn 
had a long period or, provincial reign viz , 18 years or more, and 
it is he that is responsible for all the coins bearing the legend 
'Gautamiputra Sri Saiakarm' The conch-shell symbol, if it has 
been correctly deciphered, that exists in the coin ascribed to 
G mtamiputra Sri Satakarm (Rapson, op at, p 17) is peculiar 
to Gautamiputra Yajna Sri Satakarm, this is another argument in 
favour of the assertion that Gautamiputra Sri Satakarm, the 6th 
king, the so-called conqueror of Nahapana, did riot mint any 
com at all 

I should like to point out that king Krsna of the Nasik 
inscription (Luders No 1 144) and of the coin (Rapson, op cit , 
p 48) may not after all be the second Pauramc king of the same 



SOME REMARKS ON THE COINS OF THE ^NDHRA PERIOD IJ 

name There is another Krsna apparentlv of the Sata\ahana 
sub-clan, in the Pauranic list viz , No 16 who has been called 
Nemikrsna (Vayu) or Goraksakrsna (Visnu-Purara Wilson) 
He may \ery well be the person mentioned in the inscription and 
the com Martin has described two coins of Pulumavi with 
the legends 'Sivi Sin Pulumavisa' and 'Vasithiputa Siva Sin 
Pulumavisa' respectively (JASB Num Sup , 1934 No 318 
p 6 1 N) These coins raise grave doubts about the hitherto 
accepted identifications of the several Puluma\is appearing in the 
Pauranic list, in view of this find, ascribing a particular coin to 
a particular Pulumavi becomes a very difficult if not an impos- 
sible task There is nothing to show in the coins themselves 
whether all of them that have the legend Pulumavi belong to the 
same king or to different kings beaiing the same name 
The name found in Martin's coins 'Sivasri' suggests the later 
Andhras According to the Anandasram Mats\a the name of 
the 25th king is Sivasn Puloma, Visnu calls him Sltakarm 
Sivasri, the Radchff manuscript calls him simply Sivasn Ver\ 
likely the coins with the legend 'Vasisthiputn Siva Sri Pulurmvi' 
are to be ascribed to this king K N Dikshit has lately described 
i copper coin with the legend 'Rano Sivasins Apilakasa (JRASB 
Num Sup XLVII pp 93, 94 N) This com may be ascribed to 
the eighth king tentatively 

GlRINDRASEKHAR BoSE 



WAS JTVADAMAN A MAHAKSATRAPA 
MORE THAN ONCE ? 

[Plate III-C ] 

The relations between Jlvadaman and. his uncle Rudrasimha I 
are still shrouded in mystery The numismatic data on the 
point are insufficient and inconclusive and have given rise to 
divergent interpretations Rapson has advanced the view that 
Jlvadaman was a Mahaksatrapa more than once There is no 
doubt that he was occupying this exalted position during the 
Saka years iiS and 119 Numismatic evidence is clear on the 
point and has been accepted by all Rapson however holds that 
it is almost certain that he was a Mahaksatrapa in the Saka year 
100, and that it is very probable that he had again acquired this 
high office during the years 1 10-12 He admits that there are no 
coins found so far which prove definitely that Jlvadaman was a 
Mahaksatrapa during this period, but since his uncle Rudrasimha 
issues coins during this period only with the title Ksatrapa, it may 
be presumed that he was reduced to this lower position by the 
successful reassertion of power by Jlvadaman Rapson recog- 
nises the possibility of a foreign power reducing Rudrasimha 
to a subordinate position, but holds that this is not probable 

Dr Bhandarkar and Rao Bahadur K N Dikshit dissent 
from this view They attribute the degradation of Rudrasimha 
during the years 110-112 to the successful invasion of Isvara- 
datta Abhira, they doubt whether Jlvadaman was at all a 
Mahaksatrapa during the years 100-103 They point out that 
even Rapson concedes the possibility of a unit or decimal figure, 
or both, having vanished from the com in question They 
therefore hold that Jlvadaman became a Mahaksatrapa only 
ifter the year 118 

If, however, we examine the coins concerned very carefully 
from Rapson's Catalogue, Plate XI, we are driven to the con 
elusion that Jlvadaman must have been a Mahaksatrapa during 
two periods separated from each other by a fairly long interval 
It is no doubt true that it is not impossible that a figure for a 
unit or a decimal or both may have disappeared from the com 
No 288, PI XI, of Rapson's Catalogue, this mere possibility 
is, however, altogether negatived by the evidence of features, 
which has escaped the attention of both Dr Bhandarkar and 



WAS JIVADAMAN A MAHAKSATRAPA MORE THAN ONCE? 19 

Prof Rapson Coins Nos 289 to 291 of Rapson's Catalogue 
were issued during the years 118-119, c ^ e ^ eatures Jivadaman 
as shown on them, are decidedly old-looking and careworn (see 
Plate III-C, 2-3 ) On the other hand, on the com number 288, 
Jivadaman is portrayed as an energetic, full blooded and youth- 
ful ruler, whose age could not then have been more that 25 or 
30 at the most (see Plate III-C, i ) The age worn features on 
the coins issued during the year 118-119 show that Jivadaman 
then could not have been less than 45 It is thus clear that the 
coin No 288 must have been issued at least 15 to 20 years earlier 
than the coins Nos 289-291, which are definitely known to have 
been issued sometimes during the period 100-103 ^ c 1S) t ^ iere " 
fore, hardly possible that it could have had any figure for the 
decimal 

Can we rely on the evidence of features for determining 
this important point ? Were features so accurately portrayed 
by Ksatrapa mint-masters as to warrant a conclusion about the 
age of the monarchs at the time of the issue of the coins con- 
cerned ? The question has to be answered in the affiimative 
at least as far as the early period of the Ksatrapa dynasty is con- 
cerned Rudrashimha I ruled as a Mahaksatrapa for about 15 
years with an interval of two years His features on the coins 
issued in the years 105-6 are decidedly much younger than those 
on his coins issued in 118 or 119 (See Rapson, PI XI, Nos 295-6, 
and 320, 321) Rudrasena I ruled for 23 years, we find similar 
difference in features between his early and late coins (Rapson, 
Ibid, PI XII, cf No 328 issued in the year 121 with No 362 
issued in the year 139) 

The evidence of features of the bust thus proves that 
Jivadaman was a Mahaksatrapa early in his life during the 
period 100-103, wnen he was a young man of about 30 It is 
clear that he was superseded in 103 by his uncle Rudiasimha I, 
who continued to keep him out of his inheritance down to the 
year 118 It would appear that he died in that year, and then 
only it became possible for Jivadaman to ascend the throne 
once more is a Mahaksatrapa Whether during the period 
110-112 Rudiasimha was icduced to the subordinate rank of i 
Ksatrapa by Jivadaman 01 by Isvaiadatta Abhua is a question 
that can be satisfactorily solved only by further discoveries of 
coins 



A S ALTEKAK 



IMPORTANT COINS FROM BARODA STATE 
[Plate IV ] 

The object of this paper is to place before scholais 
information legarding the varieties of pre-Muhamrnadan Indian 
coins so far discovered in the state including some new types of 
coins that the Archaeological Department of Baroda has come 
across and their find-spots Some of the coins are, as far as I 
can ascertain, quite new and not met with in any of the pub- 
lished catalogues of Indian coins Such corns I have tentatively 
classed as tribal and a full description of them is given at the 
end so that more experienced numismatists may be enabled to 
pronounce their opinion about them Baroda yielded ancient 
coins, especially of the Western Kstrapas, as far back as 1876, 
when they were found while digging the foundation of the 
New Central Jail ind the Baroda College The inauguration of 
the Aichsological Department in Baroda under the kind patro- 
nage of H H the late Maharaja Sayajirao III and his enlighten- 
ed Dewan, Sir V T Knshnamachariar, has given an added 
stimulous to the scientific study of coins and other archaeological 
finds in Baroda The present article is due to the opportunities 
I had of studying the pre-Muhammedan coins under my Gum, 
Dr Hirananda Sastri, the head of the Baroda Archaeological 
Department The coins from Amreli were secured by Dr 
Sastri either by excavation or purchase, and those from Kamrej 
(Navasen District), the ancient Kamane of Ptolemy (cir 150 
AD), mainly by presentation Amreli is head-c|uartets of the 
taluk of that name of the Baroda State and is situated in southern 
Kathawad As elsewhere the rainy season brings antiquities to 
the surface of ancient sites in this locality and enthusiastic 
local collectors of antiquities, like Mr Prataprai Mehta, hive 
been known to store such finds for a very long period This 
place has yielded us 2 Avanti or Ujjatn coins, an Andhra (?), 
piece ( ? ), several silver, coppei, potin and lead coins of the Western 
Ksatrapas and a hoard of 2,000 silver coins of Kumaragupta I Of 
these the Avanti and Ksatrapa coins are important finds The 
find of the former coins at Amreli is unique as Avanti coins 
have so far not been obtained in Saurastia, though at least under 
Valabhi rule Saurastra and Ujjain are known to have been undei 
one rule E\en in the Maurya and later days Ujjain was the 
seat of the viceioyalty governing the Western piovmces includ- 
ing Kathiawad These coins are assigned roughly to about 200 



IMPORTANT COINS FROM BARODA STATE 21 

13 C Among the Ksatrapa coins found at Amreli there are silver 
coini of Rudrisena I, one silver piece of Visvasinha and 2 silver 
coins of Svami Rudnseni III The rest are either square lead 
pieces of Svami Rudrasena III, OL nameless potm coins of 
Vu idaman (cir Saka 157) and a few copper coins of a totally 
nevv \ iriety A good miny square lead pieces are deficed and 
blink on both the sides In shape and weight they definitely 
icsemble the known lead pieces of Svami Rudrasena III Although 
Andhra mle was established over Sorath or Kathiawad for a short 
time, is is evidenced by the Nasik cave inscription of Queen 
Bahsu, it is not possible in my opinion, to attribute these coins 
to the. Andhras as no Andhra coins of similar shape and weight 
are known It is safer to attribute them to Svami Rudrasena III 
Impoitmt Ksatrapa coins ire described in detail in this papei 

Kamrej is the head-quarters of a taluk of that name of the 
Navisin District of the Baroda Raj It is situated on the 
binks of the Tapi about 25 miles from its mouth Kamrej 
and mother town named Kathor near it have given us coins 
of imny varieties Indeed Kamiej must have been an import- 
ant tnde centie, peihaps next to Bhngukaccha, where currency of 
sorts was used Ptolemv mentions it as Kamane and Kamamjja 
is its name according to the Rlishtrikuta giants The earliest 
coins secured from this place are 17 punch-marked coins or 
Kaisapanas Some of them are of silver and the rest of copper 
They are either circular or square in srnpe The can be assigned 
to the later period of punch-marked coins which are geneiallv 
assigned to ctr 300 B C The other varieties found here consist 
of Avanti coins, rectangular cast coins, anomalous circular cast 
coins, Andhra pieces, Ksatrapa coins, Traikutaka, Gupta and 
Vilabhi varieties, Gadhaiyas and 27 unassignable coins, which 
have been tentatively classed as tribal The coins of the list 
viriety cannot be ascribed to any known dynasty They have on 
either side symbols not met with elsewhere 

The twenty-six coins described below and illustrated in the 
plate are of rare types 
I Avanti or Ujjain coins 
PI IV, i J, 30 grs , Kamrej 

Obv A vase, railing of a tree 

Rev Svastika with bars attached to the ends of the CLOSS 
bars, turned to the left 

This turn to the left is generally consideied 
inauspicious The Svasttka is a very ancient 
symbol ind can be traced back to the Indus Valley 



22 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETf OF INDIA 

Civilization period We know of punch-maiked 
Avanti and other coins having a Svastika with a 
turn to the right As far as I can ascertain this 
com and the coin No 9 described below ire the 
only examples of later coins showing the svastika 
symbol with a turn to the left This turn to the 
left was in vogue in pre-histonc times as is evident 
ffrom a majority of the Mohenjo-Daro seals (Mar- 
shall, Sir J , Mohenjo-Daro, PI XIV, 502, 508, 
506 and 515) 
PI IV, 2 /E, 60 grs , Kamrej 

Obv A three-headed standing deity with a staff in the 
right hand and a kamandalu in the left god 
Mahakala ( ? ), tree to the right 

Rev Part of 'taurme' symbol, a frog with long nails and 
without the bulging head 

The three-headed deity and the tree are to be 
seen on the obverse of a small circular com illus- 
trated by Cunningham in his Coins of Ancient 
India, PI X 6, and the fiog is observed in the 
sime book PI X 13 So our square coin gives us 
a new type with the obverse and the reverse com- 
bined from two different coins in one We see a 
frog represented in some Mohenio-Daro seals, e g , 
CXVIII, No roofVol III of Sir John Marshall's 
book, and on punch-marked coins Thus again 
ancient pie-historic traditions are continued in the 
Avanti coins See coin No i above 
PI IV, 3 /, circulat, 29 grs , Kamrej 

Obv Hill, dots, crescents, a trident on a base to its 
staff is added the sharp edge of an axe (Cf Corns 
of Ancient India, PI XII 12) 

Rev Dotted circuhr border, dots, tree, etc 
PI IV, 4 /E,sq , 14 grs , Kamrej 

Obv Sun-svmbol consisting of arrow-heids attached to 
the central boss, railing of a tree to its right 

Rev Svastika with crescents attached to the ends of the 
bars turned to the right 

The symbol on the obverse is found on late 
punch-marked coins and Mi Durga Prasad calls it 
a sbadara-chakra 
PI IV 5 /., sc[ , 37 gis , Kamrej 

Obv On the obverse we have a three-headed deity, pos- 



IMPORTANT COINS FROM BARODA STATE 23 

sibly Mahakala, with a staff in the right hand and 

a kamindalu in the left it is now not visible 
Rev On the revet se we have the Ujjam symbol with 

crosses in cucles 

This coin is noteworthy on account of the 

combination of crosses with the plain usual Ujjam 

symbol But for this feature it resembles the com 

in CAl PI X, 6 

PI IV, 6 A, sq , 71 grs , Kamrej Cf CAl PI X, 5 
Obv Three-headed deity with a crescent-topped stiff in 

his right hand and i kamandalu in the left, tree to 

the right, some indistinct symbols 
Rev 3 'tun me' symbols, part of i frog 

PI IV, 7 /^E, cir , ^2 grs , Kamre] 

Obv On the obverse of this circular coin we have a 
human figure squatting in the oriental fashion be- 
side a tree suriounded by i ruling Below the 
figure is piobiblv i seit 

Rev On the tevene we have i circular border of the 
'tamme' symbols, a circle, inside the circle there is 
the Ujjam symbol in the circles of which there aic 
dots Taut me symbols alternate with the circles 
or dots of the Ujjam symbol 

Whereas in the com described by Cunningham 
in CAl PI X, 10, the tree in railing is to the 
ught of the figure, in our coin it is to its left 
Cunningham's com shows no circular bolder of the 
taunne symbols Thus this coin is an mteiesting 
new type 

PI IV, 8 /, sq , 42 grs , Kamre] 

Obv On the obverse of this com we see a man squatting 

and to his left is i tree within railing There are 

some indistinct symbols 
Rev On the reverse there is the Ujjam symbol with 

btndus or dots in its circles 

PI IV, 9 /, cir , 21 grs , Kamre) 

Obv On the obverse is a svasttka with part of dotted 

border 
Rev On the reverse we have a vase in a border of dots 

or bmdu-mdla. Here as in coin No i the bais 

attached to the intersecting lines aie turned to the 

left 



24 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

II Anonymous Cast Coins 
PI IV, 10 /E, cir , 33 grs , Kamrej 

Obv 3-arched chaitya with a crescent ibove 

Rev Elephant facing left with a rider on its bick 

The mam interest of this coin is that the ndei 
is clearly seen ind this feitme had not been noticed 
before eithe^ by Cunningham or Smith 
III Ksitrapa Coins 

Both Amreli and Kamrej have given us new 
and interesting specimens of Ksmipa coins I 
notice here only important pieces 
PI IV ii Vindaman ( ? ), potin, 13 gis , Amieh 
Obv Defaced 

Pc\ Tiaces of a cbditya, wavy line, date 157 
PI IV, 12 Vlradaman ( ? ), potin, 19 grs , Ami eh 
Obv Defaced, faint traces of in elephant 
Rev 3-uched chaitya, wavy line, date 158 

These rwo interesting coins were purchased at 
Amreh Though they bear no name of the king, 
the dates read would show that they belong to the 

O 

icign of Ksitnpa Viradaman Prof Ripson on 
pp 122-23 of his Catalogue of Indian Coins 
Andbids nnd Western Ksatra-pas has described 
sunihr coins and has remarked that they belong to 
n penod after 158 ( = 236 A D ) He had not suc- 
ceeded in reading a date on any of the coins he his 
described But, eminent numismatist as he was, he 
his iscnbed with remarkable accuracy the coins to 
158 and after of the 3aka era In foot-note 2 on 
pnge 122 he remarks "In place of the date some 
meaningless dots appear in the exergue " The 
coins described by me have a deficed obverse ind 
consequently fail to show the elephant described 
by Rapson But the revet se is quite clear and I 
have read the dates which to Rapson appeared as 
dots in the exergue The earliest date read by me 
is 157 which is one year eailier than 158 after which 
Rapson his proposed to date this type of coins 
PI IV, 13 S Rudnseni III , lead, 9 grs , Amreli 
Obv Bull facing left 

Rev Hill with clsuteis of stirs on both sides and over 
the top, date at the bottom reads 28 

Here and in com No iq below the bull on 



IMPORTANT COINS FROM BARODA STATE 2 - 

the obverse is seen facing left In the published 
coins of this king the bull is seen facino- ri^ht onl\ 
This is in interesting feature which makes this 
coin of a new type 
PI IV, 14 S Rudrasena III , lead , 50 grs , Amreh 

Obv Bull facing light, Sun over its bick, \vivy line it 
the bottom 

Rev Hill, crescent over its top, wavy line at the bot- 
tom, and date below it reads 251 
PI IV, 15 S Rudrasena III , lead, 48 grs , Amreh 

Obv Bull facing left 

Rev Hill, stars etc 

PI IV, 16 Svimi Rudrasena III (cf Rapson, PI \VII 889 
890) Lead, 39 grs Kamiej 

Obv Humped bull standing facing right, sq boidei ot 
dots, a ciescent and two unidentified svmbols ibo\c 
the bull 

Rev Cbaitya or hill, wavy line, the Sun ind the Moon 
a tnsuld, dotted bolder, dite below Cbaitya 28 
This addition of a trisiila on the ie\eisc mikes rhis 
com interesting and it is, therefore, of a new tvpe 
PI IV, 17 S Rudrasena III SB, 21 grs , Amreh 

Obv Bull facing right 

Rev Dotted square bordei, 3-atched Chaitya, stirs, 
wavy lines, traces of date [2] 8 

This is i rare copper coin From the dite re id 
it would be seen tint it belongs to the reign of 
Svami Rudnsena III, ind it resembles in its svm- 
bols the lead coins of thit king No copper coins 
of this kins; are known For similir lead coins sec 

O 

Rapson's Catalogue of Indian Coins Andb/a* anil 
Western Ksatrapas, Plate XVII, Nos 389, ^90 
Copper square coins ire illustrited on Phte XII, 
Nos 326-327 of the sime work The essential 
diffcience is that in our coins the bull faces ns;ht, 

wJ 

while there it faces front Those coins ite des- 
cribed by Ripson as without name ind date ind 
assigned to i much earlier period i e , the second 
hilf of the second centuty A D The dice of out 
com partially read and its resembhnce to the 
lead coins lead me to itttibute it to S\ami 
Rudnsem III 
PI IV 18 Ksatiapa -^E, 49 gis , 



2.6 JOURNAL OF THE NLMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Obv Six-peaked hill \vith a. crescent above it, date indis- 
tinct 

Rev The Sun it the centie with legend in Btahmi round 
it Rajno Mahaksatra This is a rare type of 
Ksitrapa. com with i six-arched hill and the Sun 
symbol 
IV Unasssio-nable or Tribal Coins 

LJ 

PI IV, 19 /, cu , 1 6 grs , Kamrej 
Obv Sun symbol 

Rev Legend in Brahmi "Parama" The Sun-symbol is 
found in punch-nnrked coins also The Brahmi of 
the legend is of the early centuries of the Chnstnn 
era 
PI IV, 20 Potm, lectmguhr, 79 gis , Kamrej 

Obv Sun-symbol as on the Ujjain coins, bull to its left 

facing right 
Re\ Defaced 
PI IV, 21 Potm, sq , 6 1 grs , Kamrej 

Obv Wheel or dharmachakra (i 3 ), square dotted bordei 
This symbol is found on Punch-marked coins also 
Rev Square dotted border and circular spot 01 dot in 

relief 
PI IV, 22 Potm, sq , 59 grs , Kamrej 

Obv A squatting female in dotted circular border 
Rev Dotted square border with some floral design inside 
PI IV, 23 JE, sq , 80 grs , Kamrej 

Obv Horse facing right with i svasttka over its head 
Rev Blank 
PI IV, 24 y, circular, 17 grs , Kamrej 

Obv Sankha in the centre and some illegible legend 

round it 
Rev Dotted circulai border with the word 'Chariha' in 

Brahmi inside it 
PI IV, 25 JE, cir , 27 grs , Kamrej 

Obv Dotted and plain circular borders, with a swan 

inside 

Rev Dotted circular border with a tn'sula at the centre 
PI IV, 26 & t sq 48 grs , Kamrej 

Obv Dotted square border with a flower inside 
Rev Dotted squire border with probibly a crude re- 
presentation of a mm inside 

A S GADRE 



A UNIQUE HALF DINAR OF CHANDRAGUPTA II 
[Plate V-A ] 

A few months back this coin was offered to and acquired 
by the Prince of Wales Museum It is a hilf piece of Chandra- 
gupta II, Archer type It is in a good state of preservation and 
on closer and detailed examination, it is found to be a genuine 
piece The technique as well as the workmanship is quite up 
to the mark and there are signs of ample wear and tear on both 
sides 

Weight 57 5 Gis Size 6 

Obv King standing left, mmbate, holding bow in left 
hand and anow in right G^rudi snndard on left 
Legend 'Chandra' with letters one below the othei 
under left arm between the stung and the body 

Rev Goddess, mmbate, seated facing on lotus, holding 
fillet in outstretched right hand and lotus in left hand 
Lower stroke of 'Kra' of 'Sri Vikrama' near the lek 
elbow 

Smaller denominations of coins are to be had in India both 
before and after the Gupta coinage and their sudden dis- 
appearance during the Gupta period is almost inexplicable, the 
moie so because full coins are to be had in such large numbers 
thioughout the limits of the Gupta empire It was believed that 
most probably Gupta princes never issued smaller denomina- 
tions I was hesitating a lot before putting this com before the 
numismatic world I wrote to some of my friends, who are 
either collectois of Gupta coins or have specialised in them 
Mr Duiga Prasad informs me that half dinars of Kumaragupta, 
horseman type, are known and one such is with Mr Sri Nath 
Sah of Benares l All others have epressed their ignorance of the 
existence of half dinars of this type Unfortunately I could not 
get the specimen of Mr Sn Nath Sah and hence I am unable 
to give any particulars of that com 

G V ACHARYA 

: Mr Sn Nath Sah's coin is not a half dinar is the weight of 
the piece is the same is of the avenge Gupta gold com, though the, 
size is about half the usual size, it being a thicker com Ed , JNSI 



A NEW VARIETY OF THE LION SLAYER TYPE OF 
CHANDRAGUPTA II 

| Plate V-B ] 

The Lion-slayer type of Chandragupta II forms such an m- 
teiestmg series among Gupta coins that my variety unnoticed 
befoie is woith recoidmg In Numismatic Supplement No 
XL VI, Art 332, II, I drew attention to the "Dagger variety" of 
Simudngupti's Standard type I hive since acquired i beiuti- 
ful specimen of Chandr igupta II's Lion Slayer type, Class I, 
vu a, in which the king is represented as wealing a dagger aslant 
on his right side Partictihrs of the com are given below 
AV S 8 Wt 123 grains 

Obv King standing dressed in w-iist cloth and sash and 
weanng jeweller)'-, with dagger islant at waist, left 
hand holding bow and nght stretching bow string, 
lion falling backward to r 
Inscr Chandta 
Rev Smhavabmt (Parvati seated on lion), holding noose in 

i and cornucopia in I hand, lion facing 1 
Inscr Sinbavikramab 
Symbol on 1 , above a low of five dots, cut 

AJIT GHOSE 



GOLD COINS OF THREE KINGS OF THE 
NALA DYNASTY 

[Place V-C ] 

These coins are from a hoard which was discovered in 1939 
at the village Edenga in the Kondegaon 1 tabsil of the Bastai State 
in the Eistern States Agency Some coins of the hoard were 
melted away by a goldsmith befoie the State Authorities came to 
know of che discovery Ultimately thirty-two coins were ie- 
coveied, all of which weie kindly sent for exam 1 nation to the 
Central Museum, Nagpui, by Mi E C Hyde, I C S Ad- 
ministrator of the Bastar State But for the prompt steps taken 
by Mr Hyde, this unique hoard would have been completely 
lost to us The Curator of the Museum very kindly placed the 
coins at my disposal for publication 

All the thnty-two coins lie in i state of excellent preseivi- 
tion They aie round in shape and are manufactured from thin 
sheets of gold They are all single-die coins, with the device and 
the legend embossed in relief on the obverse The reverse is 
blank According to their size, the coins fall into two groups 
the larger ones, which number ten, measure from 20 to 21 milli- 
meters m diameter and weigh from 197 to 24 6 grains each, 
while the smaller ones, twenty-two in number, are about 15 milli- 
meters in diameter and weigh about y 1 /?. giains each The space 
on the obverse of each coin is divided into two parts by lines, 
fiom one to three in number, drawn diameteiwise Above these 
appeal the figures of the humped bull (Nandi) and the crescent 
and below the legend of the king who issued it The figure of 
the bull is very beautifully executed especially on the coin of 
Bhavadatta From the devices and legends on these coins they 
can riuthei be classified a* follows 

I Coins of Varaharaja 
(A) Larger size Here two types can be distinguished 

Type (i) Six coins Av S 21 mm, W 197 gis 
Obv Inside a cucle of dots along the edge, 
a couchant humped bull facing left with the 
crescent in front, below, the legend Sri- 
Varaharaja in a horizontal line in box-headed 
chaiacteis of the fifth centuiy A D Plate 
V-C, i 



3" JOURNAL OF 1HE NUMISMATIC bOCIET* OF INDIA 

Type (n) One coin Av S 20 mm , W 20 2 gis 
Obv Inside a circle of (iocs along the edge, 
a couchant humped bull facing right, with 
the crescent above its back Below, legend as 
above Plate V-C, 2 
(13) Smaller size 

Twenty-two coins Av S 15 mm , W 7 7 
grains Obv Device as in Type (i) of the 
larger size Legend Sn-Vamha 
Heie two issues can be differentiated accord- 
ing to the shape of the crescent Plate V-C, 

3-4 
II A coin of Bhavadatta 

(A) Laigei size 

One coin Av S 21 mm , W 24 6 grs 
Obv Inside a cucle of dots along the edge, 
a couchant humped bull facing right with the 
descent behind it, below, the legend Sn- 
Bhavadattarajasya in box-headed characters of 
the fifth century A D Plate V-Q 5 
III Coins of Arthapati 
Laiger size Two coins Here also two types can be 

distinguished 

Type (i) One com Av S 21 mm , W 23 2 grs 
Obv Inside a circle of dots along the edge, 
a couchant humped bull facing right with the 
descent in fiont, below, the legend $n- 
Arthapatirajasya in a horizontal line in box- 
heided characters of the fifth century A D 
Plate V-C, 6 

Type (n) One com Av S 21 mm , W 22 3 grs 
The device and the legend on the obverse are 
similar, but the crescent is behind the bull and 
the characters are somewhat cursive, the signs 
of the superscript r in rtba and the medial z 
m ti are omitted Plate V-C, 7 

The coins of these kings are coming to light for the first 
time From the characters the coins of Varaha appear to be the 
earliest and those of Arthapati the latest m the whole lot It 
may again be noted that the legends on the coins of Bhavadatta 
and Arthapati, unlike that on the coin of Viraha contain the 
name of the respective king in the genitive case In the dis- 
position of the device and the legend these coins are in the style 



GOLD COINS OF THREE KINGS OF THE NALA. DYNASTY 3 1 

of seals affixed to copper-plates or documents l Attention may in 
particular be drawn to the seal of the Mallar plates of Miha- 
Sivagupta, 2 which also comes from Chhattisgaih and contains 
the figure of the couchant humped bull, though the symbols 
before and behind it are different Again its legend, though in 
verse, is written horizontally below the device like those on the 
present coins 

The coins seem to be stiuck according to the indigenous 
weight system, the smallet coins representing a masha of five 
knsbnalas and the larger ones three mas has each As Dr D R 
Bhandarkai has shown, ! there weie, in ancient India, coins weigh- 
ing three mashas like those weighing only one masha, though we 
have not come across actml gold coins of these weights 

I have so far described these thin pieces as coins, but it miv 
be doubted in view of then, thinness if they were meant for cir- 
culation They resemble in many respects the gold plaque with 
the legend Mahendradttya, ' described by R B Prayag Da\ il 
Another plaque of the same type is the so-called silver coin of 
Prasannamatii, 1 discovered by Mi L P Pindeya, which Sir 
Richard Burn 6 takes to be a seal 01 a medal All these plaques 
have several common characteristics All of them are niinufac- 
tured from thin sheets of gold or silver The device and the 
legend appear embossed on the obverse of all of them, while 
their reverse is completely blank The legend on each is, agim, 
in box-heided characters in a horizontal line below the device 
If the aforementioned plaque with the legend Mahendraditya 
was issued by Kumaragupta I, 7 it must be taken to be a token, 
foi it is unlike the numerous gold coins struck by that Gupta 
Emperor It miy, therefore, be suggested that the plaques under 
consideration also -He tokens, not coins meant for circulation 7n 

i Kondcgaon is 81 39' E and 19 36' N 

2. See the Bis-nli senls, An Rep A S I for 1903-4, pp 101-20 

3 Lectures on Ancient Indian Numismatics, p 87 

4 Numismatic Supplement XLIV, No 309, } A S B Vol 
XXIX, (r 933 ) 

5 Ind His Quart , Vol IX, p 595 and Proceedings of the Fifth 
Oriental Conference Vol I pp 456 ff and Phte i 

6 Annual Bibliography of Indian Archaeology, Vol VIII, p 12 

7 Mr Ajit Ghose suggests its ascnption to Kumnjagupta of the 
Bhitan Seal, Numismatic Supplement, No 332, J R A S B Vol II 

73 Like the tokens dcscnbed by R B Piavig Da}al, some of these 
coins have two holes pietccc! it the top 



32 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

It should, however, be noted that the smaller among them corres- 
pond in weight to the gold coins of one masha mentioned in the 
jAtfkas and the Arthasastra of Kautilya, 8 and the latter, if they 
were actually in circulation must have been very thin Besides, 
no coins of the usual type struck by any of these kings have yet 
been discovered I am, therefore, inclined to take these as 
coins I must, however, add that none of them, except the coin 
of Bhavadatta, seems to have been in circulation for a considerable 
time, for the devices and legends on them are m a state of 
excellent preservation My friend, Mr M A Suboor, sug- 
gests that like the Nisar coins of the Muhammadan Emperors 
they may have been issued as largess-money The coins were, 
perhaps, buried soon after they were received as gifts 10 

The similarity in the devices and characters of these coins 
suggests that they belong to the same age and were evidently 
struck by members of the same royal family The coins them- 
selves give no clue to the identification of this family But from 
inscriptions we know of a king named Bhavadatta of the Nala 
dynasty who probably flourished towards the close of the fifth 
century AD A copper-plate inscription in box-headed charac- 
ters, recording a grant of this king 11 was discovered some fifteen 
vears ago at Rithapur (Riddhapura) in the Amraoti District of 
Beiar It is dated in the eleventh regnal year and records the 
donation of the village Kadambagingrama which the king had 
made at Prayaga (Allahabid) at the confluence of the Ganges and 
the Jumna for the blessings of himself and his queen The 
charter was issued from Nandivardhana, evidently after the king's 
return to his capital Nandivardhana is probably identical with 
Nandardhan (also called Nagardhan) near Ramtek in the Nagpur 
District 12 Towards the close of the record there is mention of 

SDR Bhandarkar Lectures on Ancient Indian Numismatics, 
pp 52, 86 and go 

9 H Nelson Wright Catalogue of Coins in the Indian Museum, 
Vol III, p 106 

10 If such coins were specially issued as largess-money certain 
gifts iccorded in contemporary inscription would not appear exaggerated 
The Cambay Plates of Govinda IV (Ep Ind , Vol VII, pp 26 ff 
record, for instance, the gift of three lakhs of gold coins to Brahmanas 
and of four more lakhs to temples, besides donations of several hundred 
villages, on the occasion of his coronation ceremony 

11 Ep Ind, Vol XIX, pp 100 ff 

12 Mr Y R Gupte, who has edited the record in the Ep Ind , 



GOLD COINS OF THREE KINGS OF THt INAJuA JJKNAijli: 33 

the Maharaja Aithapati, who executed the charter for the in- 
crease of the religious merit of his father and mother The 
editor of this record took Arthapati to be an epithet (meaning the 
lord of wealth) of Bhavadatta himself 13 But it is unlikely that 
Bhavadatta would say in one part of the record that the gift was 
made for the blessings of himself and his wife and in anothei 
part of it that it was intended for the increase of the religious 
merit of his father and mother Arthapati was, therefore, differ- 
ent from Bhavadatta He was evidently his son The title 
Maharaja, prefixed to his name in the Rithapur plates and the 
issue of coins in his name clearly indicate that he succeeded his 
father Bhavadatta 

Another inscription mentioning Bhavadatta was discovered 
in 1922 at Podagadh in the Jeypore Agency of the Vizagapatam 
District in the Madras Presidency 14 Podagadh is only about 
forty miles from the eastern boundary of the Bastar State This 
inscription is on a stone slab and records the foundation of a 
foot-print of the god Vishnu and the grant of a town 10 (pura) for 
the worship of it and for the establishment of a charitable feed- 
ing house The gift was made by a son of Bhavadatta of the 
Nala dynasty m his twelfth regnal year The name of this 
prince, which occurs at the end of line 5, has unfortunately been 
partly broken off It has been tentatively read as Skandavarman 
The subscript members of the ligatures ska and nda are not clear 
and in view of the close similarity between the letters s and a in 
the alphabet of that period, 16 it may be suggested that the in- 
tended name was Arthavarman But the reading Sn-Arthavar- 
mana in place of $n-$kandavarmana in lines 5-6 of that inscrip 
tion would involve a hiatus and it appears doubtful if the name 
Arthapati would have been shortened into Artha (or Arthavar 
man) Besides, from his coins Arthapati seems to have been 
like his father, a devotee of Siva He is not, therefore, likely tc 
have himself erected a temple of Vishnu For these reasons ] 
prefer to accept the reading Sn-Skandavarmana in lines 5-6 o\ 

prefers to identify it with the village Nandur in the Yeotrnal District 
but gives no convincing reasons in support of it 

13 Ep Ind, Vol XIX, p 101 

14 Ibid, Vol XXI, pp 153 ff 

15 See line 6 of the inscription In line 9 also purah is th 
genitive singular of fur j a town not an indeclinable meaning '11 
front', as taken by the editor 

16 In the records of the period a and su are oiten confused 



34 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

the Podagadh inscription and to cake Skandaviiman as a brother 
of Artlnpiti 

The names of Bhwidacta md Arthipati, who belonged to 
the Nila dynasty, ire thus known from epigraphic records of 
the fifth century AD The nime of Vinln is, however, com- 
ing to light for the first time Like the othet two princes he 
ilso undoubtedly belonged to the Nila dynasty From the evi- 
dence of pilneognphy he seems to have been i predecessor of 
Bhaviditti Perhaps he was his father 

A third inscription of the Nala dynasty was discovered at 
Raim in the Raipur District of Chhattisgarh ns fir back as 1825 17 
It is incised on i stone tiblet built into the right hand wall of 
the snandapa of the temple of Rajivalochana As it is consider- 
ably mutilated, it has not been edited so far The extant portion 
eulogises the king Nih and mentions some members born in his 
tamily, of whom the names of only two viz , Pnthviraj ind 
Virupinp, cm now be read with certainty On the evidence of 
its characters the mscuption has been icferred by Dr D R 
Bhindirkir to the middle of the 8th centurv AD, 18 but it miy 
be somewhit eirhei These punces weie, therefore, later des- 
cend ints of Bhaviditta md Arthipm 

The Nila dynasty wis thus tilling ovei Dikshma Kosala 
(modem Chhattisgarh including the Bistir stite md the idjoin- 
mg territory) This conclusion is also coi robonted by the stite- 
ments in the Vayu md Brahmanda Ptttanas that the descend mts 
of Nali would rule in Kosala Pargiter pi ices these princes in 
the third century AD ,'" but if Varlha wis one of the earliest 
kings of chit dynasty, they must be referred to the fourth 01 fifth 
centuiy A D From the characters of their inscriptions the 
Nihs ippeni to hive been contempormes of the Vakatakis 
The formei uiled over Kosala and the latter over Vidirbhi (which 
comprised modern Berai md the Mamhi speaking districts of 
the Centi il Provinces) There were occasion il wirs between 
them As stited ibove, the Rithapur plates of the NaU king 
Bhavadatti wtrt issued from Nmdivirdhani, which w^s situated 

17 It is mentioned in Mr R Jenkins' ktta to Mi W B Bavley, 
Vice Picsiclcnt of the Asiatic Society of Btn^n] Set Astatic Restajihe*, 
VoJ XV p 501 For T hcsimilc- of the inscription sec Cunningham's 
Reports, Vol XVII, Phtc IX 

18 P R A 5 Wcstcm Cucle, for 1903-4, p 48 

ro See Piiguei's Parana Text* of the Dynjitus of tht Kali Age 
P 5 1 



GOLD COINS OF THREE KINGS OF THE NALA DYNASTY 35 

in the heart of the Vakataka kingdom and was once the Vaka- 
taka capital 20 Bhavadatta seems, therefore, to have occupied 
some portion of Vidarbha The inscriptions of the Vakatakas 
also contain a reference to this invasion The Balaghat plates of 
the Vakataka Prithivishena II (5th century A D ) describe this 
king as one who raised his sunken family 21 We have evidently 
here a reference to a foreign invasion during the icign of Pnthivi- 
shena's father Narendrasena The Vakatakas, howevei, soon 
retrieved their position and even carried the war into the enemy's 
territory The aforementioned Podagadh inscription mentions 
that Bhavadatta's son regained sovereignty and repopulated the 
capital Pushkari which had been devastated by the enemy 2 " 
This enemy was probably the Vakataka Prithivishena II 

The Nalas appear to have continued to reign in Kosala for 
some generations after Arthapati and Skandavarman As stated 
before, Prithviraja and Viruparaja mentioned in the Rijim ins- 
cription weie among his descendants The family is said to 
have been overthrown in the last quarter of the sixth century 
A D by Kirtivarman I of the Western Chalukya dynasty He 
is described in some Chalukyan inscription as the Night of Des- 
truction to the Nalas 23 It is not, howevei , unlikely that some 
princes of the family continued to rule in Kosala for some gene- 
rations even after Kirtivarman I FOL a similar statement is 
made about the Mauryas of North Konkan also, but we know 
from the Aihole inscription that the Mauryas were finally over- 
thrown by Pulakesm II, the son of Kirtivarman I 

V V MIRASHI 



20 The Poona Plates of the Vakataka queen Piabhavatigupta incl 
the recently discovered Belora Plates of her son Ptavaiasena II (which I 
am editing m the Ep Ind ,) were issued fiom Nanchvardhana 

21 Ep Ind , Vol IX, p 271 

22 Ibtd, Vol XXI, p 155 

23 See c g , the Aihole inscription of the icign of Pulakesm II, 
tbtel, Vol VI, p 4 



A TREASURE-TROVE FIND OF SILVER COINS OF 
BENGAL SULTANS 

[Plate VI] 

On the itjth November, 1937, a find of twenty silver coins 
was made by a villager while he was out looking for his strayed 
buffaloes on the bank of a dead river that once flowed 
by Hanspukur village in the Kalna sub-division, district Burd- 
wan, a place in the vicinity of which myriads of relics are 
observed of the early Muhammadan period The coins were 
found secured in an earthen pot with a lid on, and were in a good 
state of preservation, only a few of them were covered with a 
thin layer of clay coating After cleaning simply in pure water, 
the whole find was found, except one common specimen of 
Muhammad III ibn Tugh-laq, Sultan of Dehli, to represent the 
issues of the early Sultans of Bengal from Shamsu-d-dm Firoz 
Shah to Sikandai Shah son of Ihyas Shah, and thus covered a 
period of nearly half a century By comparing the dites on the 
coins it may be presumed that the find was buried soon after 759 
AH, ic, in the eaily period of Sikandii Shah's reign A 
special feature of this find is tint none of these coins aie dis- 
figured with shroff-marks, which aie observed extensively in the 
cise of Bengal coins 

The find includes, in iddition to the specimen of 
Muhammad III ibn Tugh-laq Shah, 5 coins of Shamsu-d-dm 
Firoz Shah, 3 of 'Ala-uddm 'All Shah, 10 of Shamsu-d-dm Ihyas 
Shah and one of Sikandar ibn Ilrws Shah 

The com of Muhammad III (PI VI, i) ibn Tugh-laq in this 
find is an issue of Satgaon mint and bears the date 734 A H 
(I M C No 324) From the numismatic evidence it appeals 
that the Satgaon mint fust came into being in the leign of this 
monarch The coins of this mint issued by Muhammad III ibn 
Tugh-laq, so far found in the existing collections, are dated in 
729, 730, 731, 733 and 734 In the absence of any eatlier 01 
posterior issues, it may be supposed that mint Satgaon must have 
been founded in the year 729 AH (AD 1328) ind that it 
passed into the hands of the Bengil Sultans soon ifter 734 A H 
(AD 1333) 

Of the five coins of Shimsu-d-din Firoz Shin, two only 
ate fully dated, one has the date 712 (PI VI, 2) md the othci 
716, (PI VI, 3) The present find gains A new date in 716 
which is not repiesented eithei in the Indian Museum 01 
British Museum collections All the coins of this kins in this 



IRE \SLRE-TROVE FIND OF SIL\ER COINS OF BENGAL SULTANS 37 

find are of known types already described in the Catalogue of 
Coins in the Indian Museum The rest of his coins are without 
mint and of doubtful date 

Next we come to the coins of 'Alauddm Ah Shah In 
this find two of his coins aie dated in 741 (PI VI 4) and 745 
(PI VI 5) respectively, both of Firozibad Mint, whereas the 
mint name on his thud coin is deleted and the last unit of date 
obscure The Indian Museum cabinet has only two coins of 
this king dated 743 and 744 and the specimen in the British 
Museum bears the date 745, therefore the coin in this find 
bearing the date 741 is a new discovery and in important one 

The most interesting portion of this find consists o the ten 
coins of Shamsu-d-dm Ilivas Shah who reigned simultaneously 
with 'Alauddin 'Ah Shih and after killing the latter be- 
came the absolute ruler of the whole of Western Bengal Three 
of his coins are the issues of Satgaon mint of which two bear the 
dues 751 (PI VI 6) md 757 (PI VI 7) respectively It is m- 
teiestmg to note that no com of this mint has, so far, been 
tepiesented in the cibmets of the British or Indian Museums 
Mr A W Botham has, however, described three coins of this 
king minted at Satgaon but they lie dated in 754 and 758 
Both the coins, theiefore, of this find beat ing the dates 751 md 
757 aie most impoitant as they are not represented, so far as his 
been ascertained, in any existing collection The find includes 
seven more coins of this king All these specimens, except one, 
aie sttuck at Firozabad representing the type 'A' of the Indian 
Museum Catalogue and bearing the dates 754 (PI VI 8), 756 
(PI VI 9) and 758 It is to be noticed in this connection tint 
the hst two dates viz , 756 and 758 are wanting in the specimens 
of type 'A' of the Indian Museum cabinet md also in the 
British Museum collection 

Last of all, but not the leist, is the coin of Sikandai Shah, 
son of Ihyas Shah, in this find The specimen bears the date 
759 wntten clearly in words and is similar to the type 'C 
represented in the Indian Museum and British Museum cabi- 
nets The coins in both the collections mentioned above are 
without mint and in one com only of the British Museum is 
recorded the date 764 which is also imrked with a query by the 
authoi The present specimen of Sikandar Shah in the find is, 
therefore, a valuable addition in the field of Bengal numismatics 
We look upon this piece with an added interest in as much as 
it is an issue of the first year of Sikandar Shah's reign 

SHAMSUDDIN AHMAD 



A GOLD COIN OF MAHMOD SHAH KHILJI 
OF MALWA 

[Plue VII-A ] 

The Punce of Wiles Museum iccently icquued this gold 
coin from a local dealei So fai, two vaiiecies in gold of this 
uilei ire known They are 

(1) Obv aL** cy^jsMyl W MJ1 ; M Me jJacSIl 

iU)K dJU I jJU 
Rev ^U/e^J! xxlj^tj SilL-sJ) JU.J 

Name of the mint Shadiabad in the margin 

(2) Obv (jud'l il fij ajflj|y 

Rev ^(LL, ^u( j 

and date 

Of Variety No i ibout half a dozen coins ate known and 
ate dated 841, 869?, 870 and 871 AH 

The coins of Variety No 2 are extremely rare and only one 
piece with date 870 is noticed by Thomas on page 347 of his 
Chronicles 

The coin which forms the subject of this note belongs to 
Variety No 2 and is dated 849 A H The script is different and 
the legend is not inscribed in cmquefoil as on No 306 of Thomas 
It dispels the idea that no gold coins were issued before 970 A H 
1 he dates 941 and 949 are clear proofs of this early currency in 
gold We know from history that due to the heretical views of 
Nasir Khan, the Governor of Kalpi, there was a conflict between 
the armies of Mahmud Shah Khilji of Malwa and Mahmud 
Shah Sharqi of Jaunpur A general action ensued, but the result 
was indecisive The terms proposed by the Jaunpur ruler were 
ultimately accepted by the Malwa Sultan and peace was 
declared m 849 A H Possibly this gold com with date 849 
A H was issued when peace was declared and both the rulers 
letired to their respective territories 

The legend is as under 

Obv M) i| ;fl_Myl jJafiJII JkLJl 

Rev djftaL Ail I oJk ^xJlsJI aU li^svc M-J) j 
The date AM over the ^ of AjtlaJL 
It weighs 1 68 grams 

C R SlNGHAL 



A RARE MUHR OF NIZAM SHAH BAHMANI 
[Plate VII-B ] 

The monetary issues of Nizam Shah Bahmini, which so far 
wcie known only in copper, aie extremely rare and the Prince of 
Wiles Museum Ins the distinction of possessing a unique coin 
in o;old 

O ^^ 

This ruler is generally known by the name of Nizam Shih 
but when we turn to his ciurencv, we do not read Nizam Slnh 
on cither the obverse or the reveise of his issues As a rule Mus- 
lim coins aie struck either with the name of the king or his title, 
but on his issues, so far known, both these import mt features ire 
missing He is only known by the nmie of Ahmad Shah bin 
Humayun Shah It is worth enquiring whether he assumed this 
name at the time of ascending the throne As ins coins bear the 
name of Ahmad Shah, one might suggest that in future he irny 
be styled as Ahmad Shah III instead of Nizam Shah arid this 
suggestion deserves consideration at the hands of eminent numis- 
matists The name of a rulei is recognized by his currency ind 
not by his personal name gi\en to him in his childhood b\ his 
parents The most important and interesting point in this 
Aduhr, however, is that the obverse legend grves a clue also to 
this name which reads as Nizam-ud-dunya waud-dm, for the first 

time The reverse legend *JU J&\ oi^ 'May God perpetuate his 

kingdom' was used only by him and by no other ruler of this 
dynasty 

The mint Muhammadabad (Bidar) was named by Ahmad 
Shah after the name of the saint Sayyid Muhammad Gesu Daraz 
It was tenamed as Zafarabad by Aurangzeb 

The legend runs like this 

Obv ^-jJ| ; ko'l ^I 
Rev In square 

A(JU Jill ijJll 
Margin A IV *^ 
The weight is 170 grs. 

C R SlNGHAL 



A NEW MUHR OF MAHMOD SHAH BEGDA 
OF GUJARAT 
[Plate VII-C ] 
Some time back i locil bullion merclunt brought some gold 

o o 

coins for sile ind it was \ great pleasure to liy my hands on a 
unique gold Muhar of the famous ruler of Gujarat In fact the 
issue of the kings of Gujarat were mainly confined to silver and 
copper and not more than twenty coins in gold of all the rulers 
of Gujarat were known so far Out of the ten ruleis of 
this dynasty who aie known by their currency, only five, 
it seems, weie inxious to strike their money in the precious metal 
and the credit of issuing the largest number of Mtthr* goes to 
MuzarTar Shah II ind his grand-son, Mahmud Shah III 
Mahmud Shih Begda, who was the most important ruler of this 
dynasty, did not strike many gold coins of which only one piece 
in the British Museum, London, is known That piece bears no 
mint and is dated 914 A H The legend on the reverse is most 
common as can be seen from his other issues The com which 
is described here is unique in all aspects, except the legend on the 
obverse, which is common to both The legend on the reverse of 
this coin is very interesting The name of the king is inscribed 

in a circle and is followed by '^Ib. jll' 3 i e , "May his Khalifate 
be perpetuated " The name of the mint with its tull epithet and 
date 902 A H can be seen in the margin If we just peep into 
the history of these legends, we find that it was Mahmud Shah I 
who first introduced the sacred phrases of ^aJi yl ^jjJ 1 ^ Coj,'l 



to be struck on his few earlier coins and these were 
followed with slight variations by his successors It seems the 



legend "^/^l J^to oW was reserved for gold, while 

w 
",jUJI 41)b (_^yi ;; for his silver coins only, as these are not to 

be seen on any of his copper issues On his later issues, these 
phrases were replaced by Jari^JaLJl with the following portion 
being continued The reverse legend ^*lkL jJk was copied by 
him from the coins of his brother and grand-father Ahmad Shah II 
and Ahmad Shah I respectively This daAb. J*. was first 



A UNIQUE QUARTER-RUPEE OF SHER SHAH SURI 41 

used by him on his copper issues only in the year 863 A H , 
when he came to the throne and these coins are exactly similar 
to the billon issues of his brother Ahmad Shah II except the 
mme and title (vide No 144 and 259 of the Catalogue of Coins 
of the Sultans of Gujant in the Prince of Wales Museum, 
Bombay, 1935) It weighs 175 5 gis 

The legend runs as under 

Obv In dotted circle 



Rev In circle 
In die margin 



-,^ 

C R SlNGHAL 

A UNIQUE QUARTER-RUPEE OF SHER SHAH SORT 

[Plate VII-D ] 

This tiny piece was purchased from a Lucknow dealer for 
the Coin Cabinet of the Prince of Wales Museum of Western 
India, Bombay At the time of the Annual Meeting of the 
Numismatic Society of India held at Agra on 2nd January, 1927, 
Mr Ratilal M Antani of Udaipur had exhibited a quarter-rupee 
of Sher Shah of Agra mint (vide N S No XL, article No 265) 
But the coin which forms the subject of this note is absolutely 
different from the one already known to numismatists This coin 
bears no mint but is dated 948 A H and is in a fairly good con- 
dition The type is the same as No 630 of Indian Museum, 
Calcutta, or No 1073 of Mr H Nelson Wright's splendid 
Citalogue of these coins The legend reads as follows 

Obv In square, the Kahnia 



Margins indistinct 
J| s 

4i)l 



Rev UaJJ| s' ..* 



Wt 40 grains 

C R SlNGHAL 

6 



THE GENEALOGY OF AHMAD SHAH III 
OF GUJARAT 

An interesting inscription published by Mi G Yazdam in 
Eptgraphta Indo-Mosle/ntca, 1935-6, p 50, clears up a doutbful 
reidmg on certain coins of this ruler The inscription describes 

Ahmad (III not II is stated by Mr Yazdam) as ^ u >! of his pre- 
decessor Mihmud Shah III The word ^e, though it can be 
cle-irly re-id on the coins, now that the correct reading has been 
pointed out, was read by Mr NeLon Wright doubtfully as j t c 
(IMC, II nos 98 ind 99, p 238, and pi 10), and by Mr 
Smgh.il (Cat Coins, Prince of Wales Museum, no 718, pi 8, 

ind no 732 (a), pi 9 ) as ^c 

Mr Yazdam, tikmg the ordinary meaning of *c as uncle 

interptets this com and the inscription as recording that Ahmad 
Shah III was the cousin of Mahmud Shah This, howevei, con- 
flicts with the genealogicil tible at p 711, Cambridge History of 
India, Vol 3, which Mr Yazdam, therefore, supposed to be in- 
coirect is it shows Ahmad Srnh III as fifth in descent fiom 
Ahimd Shih I, while Mahmud Shah III is sixth in degree from 
the sime common ancestor The tible would then make Ahmad 
Shiih in "uncle" rather than a cousin 

Colonel Wolseley Haig's table has, however, the good autho- 
nty of the "Arabic Htstoty of Gujarat," edited by Sir E Demson 
Ross, Vol 2, p 391, and the Mtrat-t-Sikandari, as trmslated by 
Bayley, in "The History of Gujarat," p 454, describes him as i 
"relative" of Mahmud Shah III Professor Margoliouth has called 
my attention to Frey tag's definition of ^ which is equivalent, 

tunslating the Latin, to l "relative" or "kinsman " In a recent 
letter Mr Yazdam tells me that he now agrees that^ ^ is used 
in a wider sense thin 'first cousin,' and as example he says that 
the 1 ite King Faisul of Iraq described himself as <*s ^\ of His 

Exalted Highness the present Nizam of Hyderabad, who is des- 
cended from Abu Baki, a companion of the Piophet The 
genealogical table in Camb Htst India, Vol 3, p 711, may thus 
be taken as more correct in this instance than those given by Mr 
Nelson Wnght and Mr Singhal 

R BURN 



NOTES ON SOME RARE GOLD MUGHAL COINS 
ACQUIRED BY THE BRITISH MUSEUM 

fPlate VIII ] 

It has been suggested that I should send the Numismatic 
Society o India some notes on the coins of Akbai and Jahanglr 
which have lecentlv been icquired from me by the British 
Museum In this pipei I propose to deal only with the more 
outstanding gold coins 

AKBAR 

O bv Rev 

i Uidu Knhma in qmtrefoil In foliated lozenge 

987 In corners, leading i^j' c 

Wt 185 8 from bottom right to 

PI VIII, i left 

Ic H LJX - j+s. ~ v&yl In corners, from 

bottom right read- 
ing- to left 



I know of no duplicate but a few uipees of similai design 
and mint are known 

2 Agra The obverse has the Kalima in a looped 
970 and foliated pentagon and the legend and 
Wt 166 4 arrangement of the reveise are similar to 
PI VIII, 2 those of the coins of 971 

The interest of this coin lies in the fact that it is the earliest 
known gold coin of the Agra Mint 

Obv Rev 

3 A g /^i^ui ^\p\ 
48 Azar sJtt*. Jo. /! (*A 
Wt 84 u. 
PI VIII, 3 jo 

This is a half muhr 

The British Museum has a coin of similar denomination 
but struck in the month of ^ This was in the cabinet of the 

late Mr W E M Campbell, I C S , I can trace no others 



44 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

4 A S ra 

50 RY 

Shabrewai 

Wt 167 5 gis 

PI VIII, 4 

A muhi of the same year and month and similni in omi- 
men cation has been described and illustrated in the Lucknow 
Museum Catalogue undei No 80 But the arrangement of the 
revel se legend is different In the com now figured the reveise 

leads SjO _j in the Lucknow sJj o* The British 

.-xS <_Jj.O 

Museum possesses another of these rare and beautiful muhrs but 
of the month Amardad It is similar to the Lucknow com in the 
iriangement of the leverse 

Obv Rev 

5 Labor 4J5I 4,- J| ^ 

40 RY y_Tj jjAJ) f 

Di jJiu. Ja. u^ 

Wt 181 7 grs 

PI VIII, 5 

The weight of this com shews that it is the Ilaht of Abiil 
Fazl's inventory in the Am-i-Akban weighing 12 mashas i^4 
surkhs, i e , ibout 187 grs Muhrs of this weight were apparently 
struck up to the 45th regnal yeir Thereafter the normal weight 
was 1 1 mashas (about 170 grs ) The broad flan ( 95 of an inch) 
makes the com a striking one It also seems to be unique other- 
wise, there being no mention of any specimen of this type in 
the British Museum, Punjab and Lucknow Museum cata- 
logues, or elsewhere, so far as I know It is further the earliest 
of the Labor gold mttbrs with Akbar's creed, though two quarter 
mtthrs of the month of Azar of this year (40) and type are 
known Dr White King had one (Schulman Sale Catalogue 
Pt III, No 3497) and one is still in my own cabinet The 
latter weighs 47 gis and was known as a 'Man ' 

Obv Rev 

6 Labor As on No 5 ^..^Jl ^ 
48 RY j^fcU PA 

Mihi ^ 

Wt 84 grs 
PI VIII, 6 



NOTES ON SOME RARt GOLD MUGHAL COINS 45 

This com is apparently the only gold \\3\i-mithr of Lahor 
known Its weight and date shew that it is a half of the round 
muhr of Abul Fazl's inventory 

Obv 

7 Malpur Kahma in triple square, the centre one 

AH 984 dotted <\ A p m bottom left corner Margins 

Wt 1 68 2 grs cut 
PI VIII, 7 

Rev 

In oblong area enclosed by triple lines, 
the centre one dotted 



Below 

This is the only gold coin known from this mint, so far as I am 
aware A rupee also single and also of 984 A H was in the 
cabinet of Mr Geo Bleazby of Allahabad and is now in the 
British Museum The date, however, runs vertically above the 
~ of M'| Jl 1 * on the reverse, which is enclosed in a triple 
square similar to that on the obverse of the gold coin Some 
copper dams are known, ranging between 983 and 986 A H , 
but they are scarce Malpur is one of the group of States in- 
cluded in the political agency of Mahikantha and lies sixty miles 
east of Ahmadabad It will be noted that the muhr and rupee 
resemble in design the coins of Ahmadabad of the same year 
The necessity of having another mint so close to Ahmadabad is 
difficult to understand 

Obv Rev 

8 No mint name w- * * 

recorded * 

R Y 44 jj)\j* 

Mllll 

Wt 161 grs ff j^ 

PI VIII, 8 

The Persian couplet is the same as that on the com of Agra 
described and figured under No 169 in the British Museum 
Catalogue This com differs in having no mint name, the regnal 
year taking the place of the mint on the obverse The reverse 
of the Agra com records the regnal year 49 and month Azar 
The Agra com also has a broader flan 



J JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

JAHANGIR 

9 ty n 
A H 1014 

RY i 

We zoo 4 grs 

PI VIII, 9 

Obv Rev 

In tuple circle, the centic As on obveise 

one of dots, on floral field 

jjl ill *Jl )) 



I f 



This important and unique piece, which is a half of the 
heavy mubr issued by Jahangu in the eaily years of his leign, 
Ins been described and illustrated by Mr R B Whitehead in 
Pait III of his paper "Some notable coins of the Mughal 
Emperors" in the Numismatic Chronicle for 1930, p 6 It "Is a 
pie-coronation piece as shewn by the title Sultan Salim and 
tecalls the Salim! uipees of the Ahmadabad Mint At his 
official iccession the Emperor took the titles of Niuu-d-dm 
Jahanglr 

Obv Rev 

10 Lahor In triple cucle on As on obveise 

A H 1032 floial field 

R Y 17 aLob s 

Wt 170 gis ^L, 

PI VIII, 10 IV w* ( 



This unique com was also described md figured by Mr R 
B Whitehead in the paper quoted ibove, p 8 The same coup- 
let appears on a zodiacal mubr, sign Scoipio, of the same mint 
and the same dates in the Hermitage Museum, Leningrad 



NOTES ON SOME RARE GOLD MUGHAL COINS 47 

Obv Rev 

ii Sq In triple square, the In triple square, the 

Agra centre one of dots, centre one of dots, 

A H 1 020 enclosing a double enclosing i double 

R Y 6 lined octagon with lined eight peaked 

Month Khurdad floral emblems in stir with floral em- 

Wt 1 68 4 gis corners blems in comers 
PI VIII, n 

t-i^ ! i ,'t 0)1^ .^ s(/* 

J "V JJ 



12 Agra 

A H 1022 
RY 8 

Month Faiwaidm 
Wt 1 68 grs 
PI VIII, 12 

Obv Rev 

In quadruple circle, the As on obveisc 

alteinite ones of dors 

8UA< ii.^=>' fcuw .JkC_J gj| fc t 5 ) <_J f ^ 

J J L-? J J 



Among the gold coins tint passed from my cabinet to the 
Butish Museum weie twelve muhrs of Jahangir of the Agin 
mint with dates between the fifth and twelfth years of his reign 
Fiom the point of view of artistic excellence these, especially 
those of the 5th and early 6th regnal yeais, can hirdly be 
equalled in the whole range of Mughal coinage, unless it be by 
the coins of the last few years of Akbai's leign The following 
is an abbreviated list 

1019-5 Isfandarmuz square 

1020-6 Khurdid squire 

1020-6 Amardad 

1020-6 Shahrewai 

1020-6 Di 

1021-7 F-uwardm 

1021-7 Shahrewar 



40 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

1022-8 Farwardm 

1022-8 Amardad 

1022-8 Shahrewar 124 grs 

1026-1 1 Isfandarmuz 

1027-12 Azar 

This striking series appears to have begun in the month of 
Mihr 1019 and the coins were for the first few months of heavy 
weight and alternately round and square Muhrs of Azar, Dai 
and Bahman 1019-5 and of Ardibihist 1020-6 are not, so far as 
I know, anywhere recorded A look out should be kept for 
these Of the above twelve coins I am describing and figuring 
only two The Khurdad coin of 1020-6 seems to mark the com- 
mencement of the lighter weight series and it is noticeable for 
being square instead of round as it should have been had 
it continued the earlier and heavier series After it all the 
mubrs are round and of light weight, though in the rupee issue 
the alternation of round and square is kept up to the end of the 
series in 1028-13 I look on the Khurdad muhr of 1020-6 with 
its legend enclosed on the obverse in an octagon and on the 
reverse in an eight-peaked stai is the most beautiful com of the 
series It is also in very fine condition So is the other muhr 
figured It is typical in its design of the gold issues struck 
between Bahman 1021 and Azar 1027 when the gold series seems 
to have ended In the months of Shahrewar and Mihr 1022-8 
a new experiment seems to have been tried No muhr of the 
usual type and weight is known, but coins of 124 grains take its 
place The experiment, however, evidently met with no success 
and in Aban the former type was brought back I do not think 
that the coins of Shahrewar and Mihr (R Y 8) should be regarded 
as spurious 

Obv Rev 

13 Ajmer 
A H 1024 

RY 10 | 

Wt 1 66 7 grs 
PI VIII, 13 



A com of similar mint and type but of 1025-11 has been 
described and figured in the Punjab Museum Catalogue No 890 
and another in the British Museum Catalogue No 302 There 



NOTES ON SOME RARE GOLD MUGHAL COINS 



49 



are, however, differences in the arrangement of the reverse 
legend, i e , the dies are distinct On the British Museum coin 
the Hijra date is in the centre of the reverse instead of at the 
bottom On the Punjab Museum com the regnal year is placed 
at the top of the reverse on my coin it is at the left of the 
mint name on the obverse 

Rev Rev 

14 Surat j-A<f- t* 

A H 1036 sli Jkj ob 

RY ; yj ^ 

Wt 161 2 *_^0 jJ J 

(a little worn ) ^ r* I -V JJ 

PI VIII, 14 l 

The British Museum has a second example of this very rare 
com of the same mint and date, and the Punjab Museum 
Catalogue records a Nur Jahan muhr of Ahmadabad of 1037 
I can find no record of any orders Neither the Indian 
Museum and Lucknow Museum catalogues nor the sale cata- 
logue of the White King collection contain any mention of a 
gold com in the name of Nur Jahan 

H NELSON WRIGHT 



A UNIQUE BI-MINTAL MUHR OF SHAH JAHAN 
[Plate VII-E ] 

The coinage of the Mughal Badshahs of Hindustan, 
although genenlly not so artistically executed as those of the 
Imperial Guptas and some other indigenous ancient Indian coins, 
provides imple materials and information for study by research 
scholars not only of numismatics but of history and economics 
as well 

It cannot be said that the fine arts did not sufficiently deve- 
lop during the Mughal period to leave a definite impress on 
coins nor can it be said that they deteriorated so much as to 
make it impossible to produce fine examples of artistic pieces 
in the form of coins in view of the fact that the legacy the period 
has left behind in the shape of carvings and inlaid works on 
precious and semi-precious stones, textiles and miniature paint- 
ings still remains unparalled even after nearly three centuries 

The simplicity of execution in Mughal coinage can be 
explained for two leasons One was their religious sentiments 
which prohibited the representation of living beings in art 
Their artistic spirit was diverted towards ornamental writing in 
the form of Tugra and fine Nastahq Caligraphy Of course, the 
portiait and zodiacal coins of Jahangir and the hawk, duck and 
Rimchandn mttbrs of Akbar are the only exceptions The 
other reason was the influence of the types and forms of coins 
then in circulation in Iran and Tqran which they imitated and 
from where the Pathan and Mughal soldiers of fortune had 
come over to Hindustan 

In spite of the piucity of artistic designs as compared with 
the coinage of the Imperial Guptas etc , the Mughal coinage 
abounds in historical and other information which I can safely 
say no other system of coinage in the world, ancient or modern, 
his yet supplied to historians and numismatists The following 
peculiarities are to be particularly noted 

(1) The Hijra year 

(2) The regnal year 

(3) The Ilahi year 

(4) The name of the month 

(5) The name of the mint towns 

(6) The mint marks, and 

(7) The Cahgiiphy 



A UNIQUE BI-MINTAL MUHR OF SHAH JAHAN 51 

The mint towns themselves only give us the idea o the 
extent of the Empire of the particular Emperor, but the name of 
a new mint town in conjunction with the year on the coin of a 
particular Emperor furnishes information regarding the date of the 
real conquest by the force of arms of that particular province 
of which the mint town was the capital or a formal acknowledg- 
ment of allegiance on the part of the hereditary chiefs of the 
province, because the reading of the Khutba i e proclamation of: 
the regnant appellation and titles of the actual occupant of the 
throne of Dehli in the Friday prayers and the stamping of coins 
were in those days univei sally regarded as manifestoes of 
unchallenged supremacy 

The Mughal Badshahs of Hindustan were so particular as 
to their royal prerogative of minting coins that they earned mint 
and apparatus along with them on their march with their armies 
as well as on pleasure excursions, thus we have coins struck in 
the mint URDU (Royal Camp) URDU ZAFAR QARIN (Camp associated 
with victory) and URDU DAR RAH i DAKHAN (Camp on the road 
to the Dakhan) 

The mint name URDU first appears on a coin of Babur in the 
Punjab Museum and on a few coins of Akbar also Three 
unique zodiacal muhars of Jahangir are also of URDU mint The 
mint name URDU ZAFAR QARIN is only too familiar to the collec- 
tors of Akbar's coins as they were abundantly struck 

URDU DAR RAH i DAKHAN is a mint on a unique com of 
Jahangir in the Lucknow Museum 

Of Shah Jahan there is only one known Nisar with the mint 
name of URDU ZAFAR QARIN 

From the above it is cleir that although theie are plenty of 
Akbar's coins with the mint name URDU ZAFAR QARIN, there aie 
only a few of Jahangir and Shah Jahan with the Camp as their 
mint This fact suggests that carrying of coin-dies with the 
Camp names engraved on them gradually came into disuse, and 
the later Mughal Emperors after Akbai, whether on their military 
expeditions or on their pleasure excursions to other provinces 
cained with them coin-dies of the capital towns of either Agu 
or Dehli from wheiever they made their start, and used them foi 
stamping the obverse side only and for the reverse used the die 
of the capital town of the provice where they made a longer 
hilt, and struck coins during their sojourn This supposition is 
borne out by an interesting gold muhr of Shah Jahan, so fat 
known to be unique, which is in my cabinet The com has on 
the obverse the name of the Emperor with full Imperial titles 



52 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

and the mint name of Akbarabad, the execution o the die being 
exactly in the artistic Agra and Dehli type, while on the reverse 
side appears the Kahma, the mint name of Patnah, a portion of 
the regnal year 3 and the month Ardibihist, the die is engraved 
in exactly the peculiar and comparatively inartistic Cahgraphy of 
Patnah as is found on all other Patnah coins of this Emperor 

Another explanation which might be advanced is that 
obverse dies with the name of the Emperor only without any 
mint name were usually carried on such expeditions or excursions 
but on this occasion an obverse die with the name of the Emperor 
and the name of the mint town was taken from Akbarabad 
through oversight 

The above mentioned conjectures seem to be most plausible 
and the matter is left to the judgment of eminent scholars of 
history and numismatics, 

BAHADUR SINGH SINGHI 



THREE BRONZE COINS OF PRSIS 
[Plate VII-F ] 

Persia is the Latinized form of a name which originally and 
strictly designated only the country lying along the north-eist 
coast of the Eraman Gulf and bounded on the north by Media, 
on the north-west by Susiana and on the east by Carmann It 
had of old its capital at Istakhr or Persepohs the cradle and saaed 
hearth of the Achaemaman and Sasaman dynasties This 
country and its people were anciently called Parsa This name 
figures in the cuneiform inscription of Darius the Great (B C 
521-486) at Persepohs "This land Parsa," says Darius, "which 
Ahura-Mazda has given to me, which is beautiful and rich in 
horses and men, according to the will of Ahura-Mazda and my- 
self it trembles before no enemy " The Greek form nepaat 
with e for a, which all European languages follow, seems to have 
come from the lomans, who disliked to pronounce a even in 
foreign words Thus nepaat would stand for Parsa The form 
nepais is exclusively Greek The name Persia, which with 
slight variations, is the name for Eran in all European languages, 
has its historic origin in the Greek appellation of this land The 
Achaememan dynasty, which rose from this province, so extended 
its power over the whole upland country, and built up such a 
mighty empire that the name of Parsa was applied to the entire 
country and its people, and so again, when a second great empue, 
chit of the Sasamans, arose from the same land, all its subjects 
began to be called Persians and Peisis 01 Persia was used foi 
the whole Sasaman lands The name Eran, on the other hand, 
WAS of much wider signification than Persia, and the whole-uphnd 
country from Kurdistan to Afghanistan, may be called Eran 

After the conquest by Alexander (B C 331) and undei the 
Greek Seleucids, who had become masters of Aiexindei's 
Eastern Empire (B C 323-140), Persia or Pars become a satnpy, 
governed like the others by a satrap At the time of the dis- 
solution of the Seleucid Empire, this province revolted almost; 
about the same time as Parthia in B C 249-48, and gained its 
independence 

Persis never became a part of the empue of the Arsacids, 
although her kings recognized then supremacy when they weie 
strong It had throughout the whole Arsactd regime held an 



54 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

isolated position, and is so seldom mentioned by ancient writers 
that our knowledge of its history and native princes is wholly due 
to its coins, but we cannot state whether these princes were all 
of one dynasty or more From the different series of its coins, 
it is possible to assume that there were distinct periods in its 
history and consequently several reigning dynasties The em- 
blems on the coins show that Persis was always loyally Zoroas- 
trian, though the Greek deities and Phil-Hellenism had pene- 
trated the court of the Arsacids Even after the researches of 
well-known numismatists for the last fifty years, we cannot com- 
pile with certainty a list of its ruleis or determine with precision 
the limits of their reigns It must not be assumed that the 
kings followed one another in a continuous sequence, because 
allowances have to be made for the possibility of contemporane- 
ous reigns as well as the rise of usurpers and rival rulers, but we 
cannot prove such events from the coins, which are devoid of 
dates 

The coinage of Persis covers a period beginning about B C 

249/48 and lasting until the rise of the Sasaman coinage in the 

first decade of the third century after Christ It consists of 

four distinct series, the first of which appeirs to date from B C 

249/48 to about 150, because the coins in question are Achaeme- 

nian in style, the Achaememan tradition being much stronger 

in Persis than in Parthn The coins of the second series are 

characterized by the difference in style to those of the first series, 

and by the new title shah assumed by the kings, as borne by all 

the other satraps of the Arsacid Empire It seems probable that 

during the reign of Mithradates I (B C 171-138), Persis was 

subdued and became one of the semi-independent satrapies of 

the Arsacid Empire It is, therefore, possible to date this series 

of coins from about BC 150 to about 100 The third series 

covers the period of the first centuiy before Christ It is greatly 

influenced by the type of the Arsacid drachms The head of 

the king, which is turned to the right on the coins of the earliei 

series, is here turned to the left in accordance wtih the Parthian 

fashion This direction of the he-id of the king continues 

on the coins of the fourth series till the time of Ardashir 

Papakan (AC 211/12-241), when the old type is resumed 

The arrangement of the inscription in a square is another feature 

copied from the Arsacid coinage The small fire-altar is of the 

Pirthian type as found on the Parthian bas-relief near Behistun, 

on several Arsacid seals, and in strata of the Parthian age in 

Babvlonnn and Assyrian excavations The inscriptions on the 



THREE BRONZE COINS OF PERSlS 55 

coins of this series add the name of the father to that of the 
reigning king, which rule prevailed up to the time of the early 
coinage of Ardashlr Papakan This innovation enables us to 
arrange these coins in chronological order with certainty In the 
fourth series of coins two groups are distinguishable, the one 
subsequent to the third series and the other immediately pre- 
ceding the Sasaman coinage This series natunlly covers the 
remaining period upto about AC 210 

The coinage of Persis offers important palaeographic evi- 
dence The characters in the inscriptions on the coins of the 
first series are almost identical with the Babylonian Aiamaic of 
the fourth and third centuries before Christ, and the Aramaic 
inscriptions on Achaememan seals The early coins of the 
second series show that the script commences to deviate from 
the archaic to the Parsik form, and the coins of the third series 
display so marked a difference that the two scripts are clearly 
distinguishable In the fourth series several characters have 
reached their final forms, and during the course of the first cen- 
tury after Christ the differentiation between the Aramaic and 
Parsik scripts was complete On the later coins of this series 
the script become nearly the same as that on the coins and rock- 
cut inscriptions of the early Sasaman kings This evolution ot 
the script is very different to that which produced itself in the 
country of the Semitic language, such as Susiana and Babylonia, 
the Aramaic writing preserved for a very long time, than in 
Perils, their archaic characters 

Pahlavi is the name given by the followers of Zoroaster to 
the language and characters in which are written the ancient 
translations of their sacred books ind other works of a critical 
charactei, but the coirect term should be Parsik The name 
Pahlavi means Parthian, Pahlav being the tegular Parsik trans- 
formation of the older Parthava This fact points to the conclu- 
sion tint this language belongs to the Pihlav countiy On the 
other hand, the name Parsik indicates that this language WAS 
current in the principality of Paii, (Peisis) Other linguistic, 
graphical and histoncal indications point the smie way But it 
is far from clear how the strange practice of writing Semitic 
words which were to be lead as Parsik was developed This 
system cannot be the invention of some individuals, foi in that 
case this practice would have been more consistently worked out 

With these prelimmaiy remarks I here introduce to the 
notice of students of this epoch three bronze corns, now in the 
cabinet of the Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay, which as far 



56 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

as I know, are unique, for the known currency of Persis consists 
entirely of silver These three pieces pertain to the first, second 
and third series which fact implies that bronze coins were also 
struck in Persis covering the period from about B C 249/48 to 
the first century before Christ 

No i First Series 

Vatafradat I (Autophradates I) 
Metal & Wt 180 ts 

Axis t Size i 25" 

Obv Head of Vatafradat I r , with short beard, wearing 
kyrbasia bound with diadems tied at back, and with 
flap to cover ear, grenetis 

R ev Fire-altar, with double panelled doors, and horned 
battlements above, above it hovers an image of 
favahr (badly struck up), on 1 , the king wearing 
head-dress as on obv , and long garment with sleeves, 
standing r , r hand raised in adoration towards the 
altar, and 1 resting on upright bow before him, on 
r , standard, unmscribed, but strokes on r and in ex , 
grenetis, flan concave in form 

The inscription on the reverse of the silver coins is 
Vatafradat frataraka zi alahia, 'Vatafradat, the divine chief 
Frataraka, 'the chief, was the official title of the kings of Pars 
(Persis), and the ideograms zi alahia stand for i bagan, 'the 
divine ' On some coins the mint-name is found in an abbre- 



BR 



viated form , while on some others the full name ap- 

tP A 



PR 



pears Blrta is the ideogram for stakbr, 'for- 

PRS 

tress', and PRS refers to Pars, therefore, Blrta Pars means the 
fortress of Pars, that is the capital Istakhr or Persepohs 
No 2 Second Series 

Darayav I (Darius I) 

Metal ^E Wt 76 grs 

Axis t Size 90" 

Obv Head of Darayav I r , with close cropped beard, 
wearing kyrbasia with neck-piece, bound with diadem 
tied at back, crescent (horns upwards) on top of 
head-dress, circular ear-ring 

Rev Similar to No i , but all details more summary, and 
workmanship ruder, on r , of altar eagle 1 on upright 
rectangle^, mscr m ex Darayav malka, 'Darius 
the king', malka is the ideogram for shah, 'king' 



THREE BRONZE COINS OF PERSIS 57 

No 3 Third Series 

Artakhshatar II (Artaxerxes II) 
Metal / Wt 71 grs 

Axis t Size 85" 

Obv Bust of Artakhshatr II 1 , with short beard and thick 
waved hair, wearing Persepohtan crown with stepped 
battlements, diadem, torque, and cloak 
Rev Small fire-altar, on r the king stands I , holding 
with both hands a sword inclined towards the fire, 
mscr in square, above (A~)rtakh(sha)tr on 1 
malka, in ex bar eh (Darayav], on r (ma)lka, 'Arda- 
shir the king, son of Darius the king', the ideogram 
bar eh stands for pus, 'son' A symbol (badly struck 
up) counterstruck, obliterating the letter 'sh' in the 
top line and the fire on the altar 

FURDOONJEE D J PARUCK, 



OBSERVATIONS ON FIVE SASANIAN COINS* 
[Plate IX ] 

I propose to describe five interesting Sasaman coins, 01 
rather, without insisting on then descriptions, to point out their 
peculiarities The reader would, therefore, examine with care 
the figures on the plate 

The drachm No 4 illustrates an event known in history, 
but the pieces Nos i and 2 have the advantage of bringing for- 
ward new documents for history itself In the total absence of 
anv other document, the legends on these latter coins permit us 
to' reconstruct the history of the farthest conquest in the East 
by the Sasaman kings The third century of the Christian era 
is jusdy regarded as the most obscure in the whole of the Indian 
historical period It is, theiefore, necessary to collect everything 
that can throw the least light on that period The coins Nos i 
and 3 are preserved in the British Museum, and the drachms 
Nos 2, 4 and 5 belong to my cabinet 

No i The British Museum possesses two drachms of 
Firoz, son of Ardashlr I (224-241), the reverse of which has been 
misrepresented on account of the incorrect reading of a part of 
the inscription I, therefoie, propose to give the correct reading 
and to identify the personage seated on a throne The reverse of 
these drachms is much defaced, but we can now restore the de- 
tails by the iid of the drachm of Hormazd I (No 2 of the 
present imcle) On the reverse to the left of the fire-altar, we 
find the crowned figure of Firoz, and to the light, a personage 
in whom Herzfeld recognizes a god Behind Firoz, we read 

O D 

PEROZI MIAA, and behind the personage, the brief legend MLKA 
INDI, 1 though Herzfeld 2 claims to read Budda yazde, 'Buddha 
god' As this reading was erroneous, I pointed it out to 
this savant md justified ( ny correction 3 But he persists in 
maintaining his erroneous reading with one modification of 

F D ] Paruck 'Observmons sur cinq monnaics Sassamdes* in 
'Revue Nnmisrmtiquc', 1936, pp 7186, p) I, translated by the 
autnor by kind permission of the editois of the 'Revue Nurmsmattque* 
Additional notes ire enclosed in brackets, thus [ ] 

1 See my book 'Sasaman Corns', pp 82 and 322 

2 'Paikuli', p 45 

\ 'Revue Archeologiquc', 1928, p 241 



OBSERVATIONS ON FIVE SASANIAN COINS 

no importance BuUa yazde 4 It is fortunate that he has 
given in his Memoir an enlarged drawing of the reverse (p 30, 
fig 22), and the enlarged photogiaphs of the two drachms (pi I, 
figs 53, 50) On the drawing, this brief legend begins with the 
Pahlavi letter B, but this sign does not appear on the photo- 
graphs On the contrary, the first letter resembles the Pahhvi 
letter M in the Sasanian rock-cut inscriptions, therefore, we 
ought to read it M and not BU The third is K without the 
horizontal stroke This omission is not rare in the monetary 
epigraphy of that period The second letter of the second word 
is, without any doubt, N and not Z On the reverse of the 
drachm of Hormazd I (No 2 of the present article), the second 
letter of the word INDI resembles exactly the Pahlavi letter N 
in the Sasanian rock-cut inscriptions This confirms my reading 
INDI on the reverse of the drachms of Firoz I may be per- 
mitted to say that the reading Budda or Bulda. yazde is impos- 
sible, for we have only to examine the photographs to convince 
ourselves that we can easily read MLKA INDI, that is malka. Inde 
This reading has not only a reasonable sense, but it has the 
merit of agreeing precisely with the indications afforded by the 
epigraphy of the period 

It appears to me to be certain that the name Inde on these 
coins signifies Sind The Pahlavi form of this name is Hmd, 
but, due to Greek influence, the first letter H has been dropped 
These drachms were struck m the kingdom of the Kushans, where 
Gieek influence was profound at that time The artistic aspect 
of the reverse, moreovei, illustrates this influence very well 
The design in fact depends more on Gieco-Bactnan art than 
Sasanian The type of the representation of the personage seated 
on a throne is denved from that of Zeus seated on a throne, as 
found on the Greco-Bactnan coins, and the style of the per- 
spective representation of the throne is also due to the same influ- 
ence I submitted this note to Sir Aurel Stem, and I am glad 
to say that he has approved of my identification The brief 
legend malka Inde, to the light, depicts the personage seated on 
a throne as being the king of Sind 

A few letteis appeal on the uppei pait of the reverse of these 
drachms Herzfeld 1 pioposed, at first, the leading MZD or 

4 'Mcmons of the Aichtological Suivcy of India, No 38, 
Heizfeld Kushano-Saiaman Coins 1 , p 31 This Mcmou icquncs to 
be read with caution, 01 it contains many fanciful coniLCtuics 

5 'Paikuh', p 45 



60 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

MLK, then later on, SML, that is Samarkand G From the en- 
larged photographs in the Memoir (pi i figs 53, 50), I am able to 
decipher these letters as IRD There are traces of the fourth 
letter, but it is not inscribed, in full for want of space The 
word Iradati is found following the name Inde on the reverse 
of the drachm of Hormazd I (No 2, of the present aiticle) This 
confirms my reading IRD[TI] on the reverse of the drachms of 
Fir5z Thus, we know that this word is continued in the brief 
inscription to the right, therefore, the complete reading is malka 
Inde Irada, (ti) 

The last name may be applied to the valley of the river 
Ravi, one of the five rivers of the Punjab, that of the centre, that 
is Multan, which the early Arab geographers included iri the 
kingdom of Smd 7 I have not been able to find any reference to 
prove that the name of this river was applied to the country 
which it waters It is difficult to say whether the Pahlavi form 
Tradati is derived from the Indian name Iravati or from its Greek 
form Hydraotes, the old course o the river Ravi 

[Iiavati, 'rich in food', and Hydraotes, 'rich in wateis', ate 
obviously two distinct names of one and the same river It seems 
probable that the form Iiadati is merely the phonetic transcription of 
the Gieek name Hydraotes, the transposition of the letters 'd' and V 
being not an unusual occurrence 

Rao Bahadur K N Dikshit, Director General of Archeology 
m India, informs me that the name Iravati persists upto modem 
^ times, the present name Ravi being only an abbreviated form the 
initial vowel being dropped as is the tendency m the Punjab There is, 
however, no evidence to show that the Central Punjab was named after 
the Iravati valley, although this should not be impossible ] 

The nimbus around the head of the king of Smd, on the 
reverse, attracts our attention The solar halo is not a distinct- 
ive characteristic of the deities, but it is also proper to great men 
The principal argument of Herzfeld 8 is that the nimbus around 
die head is the sole distinctive attribute which permits us to 
recognise the identity of Mithra To accept this attribution, we 
must remove many difficulties A study of Indo-Scythian coins 9 
shows that not only Mithra but even other deities were re- 
presented with the solar halo Thus the presence of the nimbus 
does not permit us to identify the figure with Mithra 

6 Herzfeld, Memoir, pp 14 15 

7 'Encvclopa:dia BntanmcV, 9di edition, sub Multin 

8 Hetzfeld, of ctt , p 29 

q 'Catalogue of the Coins of the Greek and Scythic Kings of 
Bacma and India in the British Museum', 1886, Pis XXVI-XXVIII 



OBSERVATIONS ON FIVE SASANIAN COINS 6 1 

Herzfeld asserts, moreover, in his Memoir (p 29), that it 
was the divine prerogative to hold in the hand the Sasanian 
diadem with long bands and to present this symbol of royalty 
to the king This assertion is proved to be false by the testimony 
of the coins of several Sasanian kings The presentation of the 
diadem by the queen and the prince, on several coins of Bahrain II 
(276-253), is an instance in point Herzfeld has overlooked these 
Sasanian coins On the reverse of the drachms of Firoz, the 
presentation of the diadem by the king of Smd, seated on a 
throne, appears to be the symbol of bama-zor We have noticed 
representations of tint kind nor only on the coins of several 
Sasanian kings, but also on some of: their bas-reliefs Thus, on 
that of the Naqsh-i Rustom, Ardashu I is hama-zor with 
Ahura-lvlazda, then between the supposed tomb of Danus II 
and that of Darus I, Narses is figured as bams-zor with 
Anahita This conception of hama-zor >s based on religious 
tiadition and texts 10 

[The inscription on the drachms of Firoz is 

Obv Inscr aiound, beginning on i, upwards, hLizdesn bagi 

Perbzt raba Kilsan malka, to be read Mazdssr bage Pe'dze 

vazurg Kusan sah, 'Mazda-worshipping lord Firoz, the great 

Kushan king ' 
Rev on 1 , downwards, Perazl malka, to be reid Peroze sah, 'km^ 

Firoz', on r, upwards, malka Indt, to be tead sab (*) Hind, 

'king of Sind', on top, Irada. (ti\ ] 

No 2 I have published this drachm in another journal, 11 
where I have attributed it to Hormazd II) 303-310), but iftei 
having studied it once again, I believe that it was issued bv 
Hormazd I (272/73) It was not possible for me to explain at 
that time the meaning of the inscription on the icverse to the 
right, and to decipher the word in the second line on the uppei 
part of the field The legend to the right of the reveise is A INDI 
IRDTI By analogy with the same inscription on the drachms of 
Firoz (No i of the present article), I think that the first word is 
malka, of which the letter A only could be deciphered As 
I have explained above, die names Inde hadatl signify Smd and 
Multan The reading of the word in the second line on the 
upper part of the reverse remained for i long time completely 
illusive, but now I am able to propose the iciding HREZL 



10 Coyajee, } C , in the 'Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal , 
1926, p 403 

11 Revue Aicheologiqui.', 1930, p 234 sq 



62 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

According to all the early Arab geographers, 12 the old name of 
Rajputana was Haraz It is probable that the original form o 
this name was Harez, as on this drachm 

fin Pahlavi the letter 'h' has also the phonetic vaule of 'kh', so 
the name Harez may be pronounced Kharez 

Cunningham has observed that "The name of the country is 
somewhat doubtful, as the unpointed Arabic characters may be read 
as Haraz or Hazar i and Kbaraz or Khazar, as well as ]urz 01 Juzr 
But fortunately there is no uncertainty about its position, which is 
determined to be Rajputana by several concurring circumstances Thus 
the merchant Suhman, m A D 851 (Dowson's Elliot, I, 4), states that 
Haraz was bounded on one side by Tafek or Takm, which, as I have 
already shown was the old name of the Punjab It possessed silver 
mines, and could muster a laiger force o cavalry than any other king- 
dom of India All these details point unmistakably to Rajputana, 
which lies to the south-east of the Punjab, possesses the only silver 
mines known in India, and has always been famous for its large bodies 
of cavalry" ('Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India , ed by 
Sastri, 1924, p 358) 

It is difficult to establish the exact limits of the extension 
of the power of the Sasanian kings in India, for the old histo- 
rians use the name India in a vague sense, but the inscriptions on 
these drachms permit us to extend the eastern limits of the 
Sasanian Empire to the countries of Sind, Multan and 
Rajputana In the absence of any positive evidence, it is not 
possible to determine whether the conquest was made by 
Shapur I (241-272) OL his immediate successor to the throne 
As Hormazd I (272/73) appears to be the first to assume the 
title of "Great Kushan, king of kings", it is natural to suppose 
that he aggrandized the empire This king may possibly be 
the first to penetrate so far, the conquest of his predecessor may 
have been limited The British Museum possesses a few cop- 
per coins of Shaput I, struck m the kingdom of the Kushans, 
but unfortunately they are much defaced The fragmentary 
inscriptions on these pieces are of no help to us It is proper, 
therefore, to await the discovery of other coins of the same 
type, specimens with clear and correct inscriptions, which may 
permit us to solve the question According to the 'Kitab-al- 
FihristY" Firoz was the viceroy of Khorasan [that is the East], 
during the reigns of Shapur I and Hormazd I It is, therefore, 
difficult to decide in whose reign these drachms were struck 
These coins, however, authorise us to state that Sind, Multan 

12 'Cunningham's Ancient Geography of India', ed by Sastri, 
4. P 35 8 

13 Fluegel und Roediger, p 428, No 26 



OBSERVATIONS ON FIVE SASANIAN COINS 63 

and Rajputana were at that time in the hands of the Kushans, 
and that their king was a vassal of Hormazd I, and possibly 
also of Shapur I 

[Vincent Smith, in his invaluable 'Early History of India' ^rd ed , 
p 273), has remarked that "Absolutely nothing positive is known con- 
cerning the means by which the renewed Persian influence, as proved 
by numismatic facts, made itself felt in the interior of India Bahrain II 
is known to have conducted a campaign in Sistan, at some time between 
277 and 294, but there is no record of any Sasaman invasicon of India 
in the third century, during which period all the ordinary sources of 
historical information dry up No inscriptions certainly referablp to 
that time have been discovered, and the coinage issued by merely local 
rulers, gives hardly any help Certain 't is that two great paramount 
dynasties, the Kushan in Northern India, and the Andhra in the table- 
land of the Deccan, disappear together almost at the moment (AD 
226) when the Arsacidan dynasty of Persia was superseded by the 
Sasaman It is impossible to avoid hazarding the conjecture that the 
three events may have been in some way connected, and that the per- 
siamzing of the Kushan coinage of Northern India should be explained 
by the occurrence of an unrecorded Persian invasion But the conjecture 
is unsupported by direct evidence " 

If Vincent Smith had been alive today, he would have been 
delighted to find a confirmation of his suggestion of "an unrecorded 
Persian invasion" in the inscriptions on the drachms of Firoz and 
Hormazd I 

Vazttrg Kusan sah was the official title of the Sasan^an viceroy of 
Khorasan, that ii the East, whereas the title Vazurg Kusan sahan sah 
implies not only the actual suzerainty over the whole of tne Kushan 
kingdom, but also over the hitherto independent Kabul valley and the 
Punjab The icsult of the wars of the Sasaman kings in the East, must 
have been the recognition of then claim by the Kushan shah and the 
Kushan kings of Kabul and the Punjab, otherwise these titles could not 
have been assumed by the Sasaman viceroy and the king 

On the obverse of a drachm of Bahram I (273-276), the king bears 
the title of Vazurg Ktisan (see Moidtmann, in the 'Z D M G ', 1880, 
p 30, No 82, and Paruck, 'Sasaman Coins', p 293 sq) This fact 
implies that this king had retained possession of tht Eastern provinces 
conquered by his picdecessoi on the throne 

Fiom the Paikuli inscuption we know that several vassal kings from 
i emote paits of the enipuc had gone to Persn to express their allegiance 
on the occasion of the accession of Narses (293-303) to the throne 
Among these vassals were the Kushaiishah, the king of Surashtra (the 
modern Kathiawad and Kacch), the king of Avanti (the modern Malwa) 
and twelve Saka kings of the adjoining hmteiland Thus we see at a 
glance the extent of the Indian dominions of the Sasaman kings One 
fact comes out clearly fiom this inscription that the Sasaman kings had 
maintained thai suzeiainty over the countiies conquued by their 
piedecessois 

Ardashu I (224-241), in his inscriptions on rocks and coins, calls 
himself sahan sah i Eran, wheieas his son Shapur I (241-272) styles 
himself sahan sah i Eran ut Aneran in his lock-cut inscriptions, but his 
son Hormazd I ( 272/71} and his successors to the throne bear the same 



64 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

title on their coins The extent o the Sasaman Empire towards the 
East at the time of the death of Ardashir I is uncertain The general 
belief appears to be that the earlier Sasaman kings were too much 
engaged with Rome and Armenia to spare time for Eastern expeditions 
Byzantine and oriental historians assert that the empire of Ardashir I 
extended to the Indus and the Oxus, and upon their authority Gibbon 
('Decline and Fall', Vol I, p 349) observes that this king had obtained 
easy victories over the wild Scythians and effeminate Indians From 
a com collected in the Jhelum district, Punjab, and from a statement 
made by Finshta, the historian Vincent Smith ('JRAS', 1920, p 221 
sq ) has been able to show that Ardashir I had invaded the Punjab, 
-idvancing as far as the neighbourhood of Sirhmd or the Satiaj, and then 
letired when the principal Indian monarch expressed his allegiance and 
paid tribute 

Aneran means 'non-Eran', and signifies the sovereignty over non- 
Eraman kingdoms From the above mentioned tides, it appears that 
it was Shapur I, who had extended the realm beyond wiiat was then 
known as Eran On the obverse of one of the few known coppei coins 
of Shapur I, struck in the kingdom of the Kushans, there are traces of 
the inscription Mazdesn bagi Sahpiihri Kusan malka (see Herzfeld, 
'Kushano-Sasaman Coins', Memoirs o the Archaeological Survey of 
India, No 38, 1930, p 25, fig 1 6) The reason for this title was the 
conquest of die Kushan kingdom made by this king, From the coins 

of Shapur I, Firoz and Hormazd I, struck in the kingdom of the 
Kushans, we now know the exact signification of the term Aneran The 

name of Eran signified the whole upland country from Kurdistan to 

Afghanistan, whereas the name of Aneran was applied to the provinces 

in India conquered by the early Sasaman kings 

The drachm of Hormazd I bears the inscription 

Obv inscr around, beginning on r, upwards, Mazdesn. bagi 

Auhrmazdi faba Kiisan malkan malka, to be read Mazdesn bage 

Obormazdt vazttrg Kusan sahan s&h 'Mazda-worshipping lord Hormazd, 

the great Kushan, king of lungs ' 

Rev inscr beginning on top first line, downwards, Auhrmazdl rah a 

K&san malkan malka, on i , upwards, (malk}a Indt Iradatl, on top 

second line, Harez't] 

N 3 We kno,v that Hormazd II (303-310) had manied 
a daughter of the Kushan king of Kabul This fact has led 
several numismatists to attribute to Hormazd II, the two gold 
coins preserved in the British Museum On these coins, the 
king calls himself "Hormazd the great Kushan, king of kings" 
From a comparison c these coins with the above-mentioned 
drachm (No 2 of the present article), it seems a proper inference 
that these three coins were issued by the same king, that is 
Hormazd I 

The ideogram MLKY, 'royal', 14 appears near the fire on the 
reverse of some Sasanidn coins Mr Herzfeld 15 considered its 

14 See my book, p 288 

15 'Patkuli 1 , pp 46 and 217 



OBSERVATIONS ON FIVE SASANIAN COINS 65 

signification, at first, to be obscure and lemaiked that it was 
neither shah nor shahik, but m his Memoir (pp 12-14) he leads 
it shahikan, 'royal', and after having discussed his own sugges- 
tions, he concludes that the ideogram MLKY is a mint-mark of 
the city of Merv, As this ideogram appeals above the fire, on 
the leverse o these two gold coins, he says that they were struck 
in Merv But the inscriptions on these pieces prove that they 
were struck m the kingdom of the Kushans The city of Merv 
was never conquered by the Kushans, it belonged to the 
Sasaman king It is, therefore, difficult to admit that these 
pieces, bearing such insciiptions, were issued by Hormazd I in 
Merv It 11 surprising that HerzfHd did not recognise this diffi- 
culty which went contrary to his identification 

In his Memoir (p 15), he remarks that the only scientific 
method for establishing the attribution o che mint-marks to 
different mints, is to prove their continuity till the end of the 
Umayyad period But it is singular that he has not followed 
this method himself The ideogram MLKY is not found oa 
the Arab coins, on the contrary, the name of the city is inscribed 
in full MRV In order to show that the mint-marks appealed 
under the form of ideograms, he cites (p 14) the mark BBA and 
identifies it with Ctesiphon He has failed to observe that this 
mark appeared on the coins of Yezdegerd III (632-651), dated the 
years 19 and 20, and after 20 years it reappeared on the Arab 
drachms bearing the bust of Khusrau III (590-628) and dated 
the yeai 40, though Ctesiphon was in the hands of the Arabs 
since 637 It may be noted that the year 40 is calculated after 
the era of Yezdegerd But as this mark appeals on the coins 
struck in the ye?r of the death of Yezdegerd, it is probable that 
this mark indicates the city in the neighbourhood of Merv or 
Herat The identifications of Herzield cannot but surprise those 
who know the subject 

The obverse of the gold coins or Hormazd 1 resembles much 
that of the drachm (No 2 of the present article) of this king, 
the reverse is different Howevei, on the reverse, two analogous 
details arrest out attention the presentation oi the diadem by 
the personage to the right, and the nimbus around his head 
Herzfeid 11 ' sees in him Mithra, on account of the soiar halo 
around his head But how are we to admit thac Mithta, the 
god of the celestial light, was figured as adorning a terrestrial 
fire? Obviously, this personage is the king of Smd 

16 'PaikuL', p 46 



66 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

The coins Nos i, 2 and 3, of the present article, are closely 
related and form a homogeneous series The type of the reverse 
of the drachms of Firoz, in reality, resembles that of the drachm 
of Hormazd I, whereas the obverse of the gold coins and the 
drachm of Hormazd I bear the same inscription and the same 
bust of the king in almost every detail The tide of these kings 
shows that these coins were struck in the kingdom of the 
Kushans The drachms inform us, besides, that the personage 
seated on a throne, on the reverse, is the king of Sind It is, 
therefore, reasonable to identify the personage, to the right on 
the reverse of the gold coins, with this king 

[The coins of Firoz and Hormazd I reveal to us an interesting fact 
that the Kushan king of Smd, Multan and Rajputana was a Zoroastnan 
The Kushan king would not have been represented, on one side of the 
fire-altar, as hama-zor with the Sasaman king, unless he was a follower 
of Zoroaster 

The inscription on the two gold coins of Hormazd I is 

Obv inscr around, beginning on r , upwards, Mazdesn bagi 
Auhrmazdi raba. Kifsan malkan rnalka, 

Rev the same inscr as on obv , but above fire, malky, to be read 
sabik, 'royal' 

For the reading and meaning of the inscriptions on the obverse and 
reverse, see the inscriptions on the drachrn of Hormazd I given above] 

No 4 This drachm of Bahram I (273-276) presents 
certain peculiarities, which are very interesting to study The 
inscriptions on che two sides are ordinary On the obverse, a 
rosette is found in the field to the right of the crown The fire- 
altar, on the reverse, is of a design different to that found on the 
other corns of this king It is fotmed of a pedestal of three 
steps and a fluted column supporting four slabs of stone forming 
the top The mark SKSTAN (Sakastan) is inscribed above the 
fire. This is the earliest instance known of a mint-mark inscribed 
in full in the Sasaman series of coins I do not know of any 
other Sasanian coin bearing this mark To the left of the altar, 
the king stands wearing a crown adorned with spikes and sur- 
mounted by a globe, the hair and beared in plaits as on the 
obverse To the right, a personage stands wearing a round 
crown surmounted by a globe and having the hair in curls 
Who is this personage? The mint-mark enlightens us about 
him We know that the crov>n prince Bahram had subjugated 
the Sakastam (the Sakas), one of the most warlike of nations, 
and had obtained the title of Sakanshah It is probable that this 
drachm was struck after the conquest of the kingdom of 
Sakastan, which included the whole of the north-west of India, 
and that Bahram Sakanshah was represented on the reverse to 



OBSERVATIONS ON FIVE SASANIAN COINS 67 

the right of the altar The representation of the figure of the 
heir presumptive on the coins of a reigning king is not a rare 
case for there exist we know certainly instances of coins of 
this kind 

Vasmer 17 describes a drachm of Bahram I (273-276), in the 
Errmtage Museum (No 177), which bears on the reverse, to the 
right of the altar, a personage wearing a mural crown surmount- 
ed by a globe, and believes (p 268 sq ) that this personage is 
Shapur I (241-272) It is difficult to admit that a deceased king 
was represented as a guardian of the fire consecrated m the name 
of the reigning king This would be apotheosis, which would 
be contrary to the tenets of the religion of Zoroaster By analog\ 
with the above-mentioned com, which is in my cabinet, we can 
be convinced that the personage is not Shapur I, but a member 
of the royal family, who was the viceroy (shah) of one of the 
provinces where this drachm was struck It appears to me to be 
certain that the personage, whom we find wearing a mural crown 
surmounted by a globe on the reverse of some coins of Bahram II 1S 
(276-293), is no other than this viceroy This means that these 
coins were struck in the same and only province Firdausl tells us 
that a prince ruling as the viceroy wore a crown and was called 
shah Noeldeke 19 expresses the opinion that this observation 
indicates a characteristic trait of the Sasaman custom It ap- 
pears that the wearing of the globe above the crown was not a 
prerogative of the king only This right appears to have been 
ascribed to other members of the royal family on rare occasions 
On the reverse to the left of the field of a hemi-drachm^ot 
Hormazd I (272/73), in the Errmtage Museum (No 162),' a 
personage is found wearing a petticoat and a mural crown sur- 
mounted by a globe This personage is evidently the queen 
Shapur, son of Yezdegerd I (399-4-) who was viceroy o 
Armenia, also wore a crown surmounted by a globe Ihe obol 
' 



, 

n he B'artholomae! Collect (pi XI fig 18) 

on the very spot where the globe ought to have been 

but the o& which is in " 



very distinctly All coins of Jama? (497^99 ^ 

prince wearing a crown surmounted by a globe A gold com ot 

, 7 'Numismatic Chronicle', 11)28, P 274, No 24 
18 'Bartholomaei Collecuon PI W iram schen 

,9 'Das Iramsche Nadonalepos in the Orundn s 
PbloV', Vol II, p 171- and Taban p 49, note 

20 Vasmer, of ctt , p 267, No 20 g 

21 Paruck in the 'Revue Numismatique , 1933. P 1 V1 ' n 



68 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Kobad I (488-531), in the Ermitage Museum, 22 shows on the_re- 
verse the full-length figure of the crown prince Khusrau wearing 
a crown surmounted by a globe. 

Vasmer (p. 268 sq.) asserts, moreover, that the personage 
wearino- a round crown surmounted by a globe, haying plaited 
hair and beard, and standing to the right of the altar, on the 
five coins of Bahrain I (273-276), in the Ermitage Museum, is 
Ardashlr I (224-241). As I have already remarked above, it is 
not probable that a deceased king was represented as a guardian 
of the fire consecrated in the name of the reigning king. I hanks 
to the kindness of Mr. Vasmer, I have received the casts ot 
the 31 coins of this king, preserved in the Ermitage Museum. 
After examining these casts, I find that on the reverse of the 
five specimens in question, the crown of the king and that ot 
the other personage are similar and without spikes. Of the re- 
maining twenty-six specimens, there are no less than sixteen 
pieces on the reverse of which the crown of the king is witnoiit 
spikes. This omission is not rare on several other coins of this 
king examined by me. This shows that the personage to the 
rio-ht of the altar, on the above-mentioned five coins, is _ not 
Xrdashlr I, but that the reigning king is represented on either 

side of the altar. 11- 

A personage wearing a mural crown without globe is 
represented on either side of the fire-altar on the reverse of most 
of the coins of Shapur I (241-272). A similar personage appears 
almost always to the right of the fire-altar, the left side beng 
reserved for the reigning king, on most of the coins of 
Hormazd I (272/73), and of his successors to the throne up 
to Hormazd II (303-310). We cannot conceive the idea that 
the one and the same person was represented on the coins of 
seven successive kings for a period of about seventy years (241- 
310). In all probability, the mural crown without globe was, 
therefore, an insignia of honour for a person holding an eminent 

rank. . , 

We know what dominant role the questions oi rank and 
title played in the life of the Persians of the Sasanian period. 
The royal custom to distinguish a person by giving him a robe 
of honour was very ancient. A crown or a diadem was the 
greatest mark of honour next to the royal rank. When the 
king gave to someone a tiara, this implied the right to occupy 
a place at the royal table and to take part in the council of the 

22 See my hook, pi. XVIII, fig. 394. 



OBSERVATIONS ON FIVE SASANIAN COINS 69 

king Even foreigners were admitted in the classes of the very 
eminent 23 

As for the series of the supreme officials of the central 
administration, we owe to Mas'udl, 21 an interesting notice This 
Arab author says that the highest officers of the State, among the 
Persians, were five of whom the first rank was held by the 
mobedan mobed (the high priest) Ya'qubi 20 has given a list of 
the most important dignitaries of the Sasanian State Immediately 
after the king of kings, he mentions the wazmrg framadar (the 
prime minister) and then the mobedan mobed Mr Christensen 
(p 30) has reason to remark that, concerning the five supreme 
posts of the empire, there is no doubt that Mas'udi has given 
exactly as he found them in the old royal almanac (gahnamak] 
Thus, the order, which Ya'qubi has observed in his enumeration, 
responds almost to the leal situation of the time of Khusrau I 
(531-579) According to the 'Denkard,' 26 the mobedan mobed 
came after the king 

From this, we may conclude that the personage wearing a 
mural crown without globe, represented on the reverse of most 
of the coins of the early Sasanian kings, was the mobedan mobed, 
the superior of all the mo beds, the great pontiff or the Pope of 
the Zoroastrian world It was quite natural that the head of the 
State and the head of the Church were the guardians of the 
sacred fire 

Mr Vasmer (p 299 sq ) expresses the opinion that the 
weapon held by the king and the priest is not a sword, but a 
bundle of barsom Such questions should be interpreted in the 
light of the religious cult and the historical traditions of the 
period There is no ceremony in the sacred writings of the 
Zoroastnans in which the barsom is held near the fire, precisely 
as it is represented on the coins The king and the priest are 
represented in the attitude of guardians of the sacred fire (the holy 
warrior), that is as defenders of the faith [In the Avesta, fire is 
called 'the holy warrior '] The proper weapon for this service is 
a sword Sir J C Coyajee 27 has conclusively proved that the 
figure with the solar halo around his head, on the Taq-i Bostan, 

23 A Christensen, 'L' Empire des Sassamdes', p 99 sq 

24 'Kitab at-tanbih wa'1-israP, ed by Goeje, 'Bibl geogt Arab' 
Vol VIII, p 103, cited by Chnsteiisen, op cit , p 30 

25 Ed by Houtsma, Vol I, p 202, cited by Christensen, of cit , 

P 3 

26 Ed by San] ana, Vol VI, p 423 

27 'J oluna l f tne Asiatic Society of Bengal', 1926, pp 391-409 



JO JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

is Bahram yazaU, the angel of victory, and that the weapon, 
which he holds in his hands, is a sword On comparing the 
length of the weapon on the Sasanian coins with that of the 
figure on the Taq, it seems to be certain that the weapon re- 
presented on the coins is really a sword An equal comparison 
with the weapon held by the king on the Persid coins of the 
third series, during the first century before Christ, would give 
the same result There appears to be a remarkable resemblance 
between the figure on the Taq, and those of the king and the 
priest on Sasanian coins, and also that of the king on the Persid 
coins, as regards the attitude and the manner of holding the 
sword Obviously, it was a regulation manner to present th< 
weapon in religious ceremonies Other ways of holding th< 
sword or other weapons on similar occasions are also found 01 
Sasanian coins 

The gradual tendency to identify or to confuse the attribute 

of the sacred fire (the holy wamor) and Bahram yazata (the ang( 

of victory) was complete some centuries before Ardashlr I (224-24 

succeeded the Arsacids It must be remembered that we treat < 

an epoch of syncretisms We know from the 'Karnamak' th 

this king had established sacred fires of Bahram, in order to pr 

cure favourable auspices This identification is also found in tl 

establishment of other fires o Bahram in Persia and also by tl 

Parsis in India The angel Mithra was the guardian angel 

the Achaememans and the Arsacids, whereas the angel Bahra 

was of the Sasamans The 'Karnamak' and the 'Shahnama 

both attribute to this angel the good fortune which Ardashir h 

to escape from the great dangers which threatened him On Sa 

man coins we often find kings and even a queen and a pnnce we 

ing crowns ornamented with crests representing the eagle, t 

boar, the horse and the ram, which all are the incarnations of t 

same angel On all important occasions, the Sasanian kings te 1 

fied their devotion to their guardian angel It may be interesting 

remark that this angel rmams the same even at the present tir 

the guardian angel of the followers of Zoroaster From the d 

cnption of the characteristics of Bahram yazata, such as given 

'Bahram Yasht' (verses 26-2y), 28 we know that this angel is 

best armed of the heavenly deities, and that he holds a sw 

with a golden blade (or a golden hilt, according to other tn 

lators) Even at the present day, in almost all the temples 

sword is kept fastened on one of the walls of the room wl 

28 'Sacred Books of the East', Vol XXIII, p 238 



OBSERVATIONS ON FIVE SASANIAN COINS Jl 

the sacred fire is installed This fact may corroborate the opinion 
that, according to this identification, the sword is a necessary 
attribute of the sacred fire (the holy warrior) and of Bahram 
yazata, the angel of victory 

No 5 On certain coins of Bahram II (276-293), it is diffi- 
cult to determine the animal represented above the crown of the 
queen and that of the prince Vasmer 29 has remarked that what 
we have taken for the head of an eagle above the crown of the 
prince, on certain coins, is rather that of a lion Similarly, I 
propose to mention certain coins on which the head appears to 
me to be that of a horse instead of a boar It must be admitted 
that these animals are generally so badly engraved that it is some- 
times difficult to determine whether the head is that of a boai or 
that of a horse The drachm of this king, which is the subject of 
this note, bears the head of a horse above the crown of the queen 
and that of the prince A similar piece was described by 
Mordtmann 30 With the help of the specimen, which is in my 
cabinet, I am able to determine that on the following coins the 
head represented is that of a horse and not that of a boar 
I Type with the bust of the king and the prince 

Above the crown of the pnnce 

A drachm in the Ermitage Museum 3 * 
II Type with the busts of the king, the queen and the prince 

A Above the crown of the queen 

1 A gold coin in the Berlin Museum 32 

2 A drachm in the Ermitage Museum (No 214) 
B Above the crown of the pnnce 

A dracham in the cabinet of the author 33 
C Above the crowns of the queen and the prince 

1 A drachm in the British Museum 34 

2 An obol m the British Museum 35 

3 An obol in the Ermitage Museum (No 219) 

4 A gold com in the Zubow Collection preserved in 
the Historical Museum in Moscow 36 

FURDOONJEE D J PARUCK 

29 Op cit , p 2.90 

30 'ZDMG', 1880, p 158, No 547 

31 Vasmer, op ctt , pi XV, fig 32 

32 See my book pi Vl, fig 133 

33 See my book, pi VII, fig 144 

34 See my book, pi VII, fig 134 

35 See my book, pi VII, fig 158 

36 Vasmetr in 'Numismatik international Monatsschrif t* , Oct- 
Nov, 1933, P ni > % I2 



SOME RARE AND UNPUBLISHED COINS 
OF THE SINDHIAS 

[Plates X-XI ] 

For a study of the coins of the Sindhias it is necessary to 
follow up the history of the growth and rise of this dynasty which 
once influenced the history of the whole of India The later 
Mughals were Emperors m name and nothing but their name is 
connected with the coinage of India during the i8th and igth 
centuries After the invasion of Nadir in 1739, during the feign 
of Muhammad Shah most of the States and local authorities took 
over the control of currency in their own hands and consequently 
a number of mints sprang up Almost every important district 
town had a mint during the sway of the Marathas This holds 
good in the case of the Sindhias as well. We are here dealing 
with only a few of such mints Though the name of the 
Mughal Emperor and his regnal year with the corresponding 
Hijn date appear on these coins, they must be assigned to the 
Sindhias on historical grounds An overhauling re-examination, 
based on this theory, of coins assigned to later Mughals hitherto, 
is in hand In the meanwhile, some coins in the cabinet of 
the Prmce of Wales Museum, Bombay, that can be assigned to 
the Sindhias without any fear of contradiction, are bung 
published here in order of mints Coins Nos i to 6 are silver, 
the remainder are copper coins 

SHEOPUR. 

Sheopur, commonly known as Sheopuri or Sipn, is a 
district town of the Gwalior State situated in 25 40' N and 
76 42' E on the right bank of the river Sip The town and 
the fort here are said to have been founded by Gaur-Rajputs in 
1537 In 1567 the fort was surrendered to Akbar during his 
march to Chittor In 1808 the country fell to Daulat Rao 
Smdhia He granted tins place and the adjoining tract to his 
general Jean Baptist Pilose, who wrested the fort from the 
Gaurs in 1809 * 

It is said that Smdhia's general mentioned above established 

* Imp Gaz , Vol XXII, P 271-72 



a mint at Sheopur with a cannon surmounted on a gun carriage 
as mint mark It is not possible without a reference to the 
records of the State to say exactly when this mint was closed 
But from the evidence of coins mentioned below it can be safely 
said that the mint was working down to the end of the reign 
of Jiyaji Rao II (1843 to 1886) The mint is not mentioned in 
IMC, Vol IV W H Valentine does not seem to have been 
aware of the existence of coins from this Mint They were, 
however, dealt with in a paper entitled "Notes on Coins of 
Native States" by R Hoernie as early as 1897 in the Journal 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal (Vol LXVI, part I ), wherein 
he has given a short description of coins based almost entirely on 
materials supplied to him by Mr C Maires, the then Curator 
of the Museum and Superintendent or the Horticultural Garden 
at Gwalior at the suggestion of His Highness the then Maharaja 
of Gwalior This article includes many rare coins though the 
assignment in some cases needs revision The coins put under 
Seorha, Ciopur and Sipri mints can all be grouped together 
under Sheopur These coins are locally known as Sheopuri or 
Topshahi rupees There are three specimens of this in our 
cabinet All are in the name of Akbar II with his regnal year 
and the corresponding Hrjn date No I was issued dunng the 
reign of Daulat Rao Smdhia while Nos 2 and 3 belong to 
Jiyajirao, who seems to have continued the name and regnal 
year of Akbar II throughout, like the Holkars o Indore, irres- 
pective of the change o rulers and events at Delhi Coin No 
3, for instance, bears the RY 113 of Akbar II corresponding 
with the Hijn year 1333 (1886 AD) when neither the ruler 
nor the Mughal empire existed any more 



Obv. 





2 Same as above in a crude caligraphy with the date 
1271 on the obverse above < ^ ofL^J*? and the initial letter 
3ft of Jiyajirao on <UM, on the reverse 

3 Same as above except the Regnal year 113 which can 
be seen on both the sides or the coin 



74 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

BASODA 

Basoda is a small portion of Gwalior State comprising about 
23 villages bordering on Bhopal and is under the Bhopal agency 
It is under die chiefship of a family of Nawabs tracing their estab- 
lishment from the middle of the i8th century In 1817 Basoda 
fell into the hands of Sindhias and the coins said to have been 
issued from this mint bear the name of Jankoji on the reverse 
in Devanagan characters The mint marks, however, resemble 
those of Bhopal, viz , a trident on shaft and a chaun or flywhisk 
on the reverse and the date is the 32nd regnal year of Akbar II 
together with corresponding Hijn date 1252, i e , 1836 A D 
The coin reads 



i /Obv. Rev 





There is no mint name to be seen on this coin Out of 
about half a dozen coins noticed by me, not a single com showed 
any trace of the mint name All the same Mr Hoernle has 
assigned a similar com to this mint and it is locally also known 
as Basodi rupee Hence it is given here Possibly a collective 
study of a hoard of these coins may give a definite clue 



ISAGADH 



5 Like the Basoda rupees, on the basis of local nomen- 
clature, Hoernle has assigned a rupee and half rupee to the mint 
Isagadh * Isagdah is a district town in Gwaltor State, formerly 
belonging to the Rajas of Chinden It is divided into four 
Parganas with headquarters at Bajranggadh, Kumbhraj, Isagadh 
and Munsaoti Hoernle describes the coins as having the 

O D 

legend ^^ u^.L? on the obverse and \r\^ on the reverse with 
the symbols of two cannons, one above the other, below the 
legend and O | CH above the upper cannon on the obverse, 
and on the reverse two cannons similarly placed with the letter 
5f (ja) to the left and a bow and an arrow below We have a 

* JBAS, 1897, P 266, Nos 22 & 23, PI XXII 



SOME RARE AND UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE SINDHIAS 75 

similar coin in the Prince of Wales Museum cabinet. The mint 
name cannot be seen on this coin too, but what Hoernle takes 
as two cannons are the strokes of o of ^*4" and c- of ^ 
respectively on the reverse and the strokes^- of <t-jlc and ^.ti 
respectivelv on the obverse. The letter sr stands for Jankoji. 
The legend on our coin being of a better caligraphy 
clears the mystery of the two cannons on either side. It has 
the usual legend of Akbar II with the letter sr and the symbol 
of bow and arrow on the reverse and the mark C3 f Q on 
the obverse, the explanation of which I have not yet been 

able to find. . 

6. There is another silver coin in the aforesaid cabinet 
which does not show any mint name but can be safely assigned 
to Jankoji Sindhia. It has the usual legend of Akbar II on the 
obverse with the Hijri date 1248 corresponding with 1833, the 
year in which Jankoji took over the reins of administration trom 
the queen regent Baijabai. The reverse bears the fragmentary 
portions of the usual legend of ^C- *** ^ with two sym- 
bols, bow and arrow and a battle axe with the regnal year 28 (of 
Akbar II). The initial letter % standing for Jankoji can be seen 
placed upside down in the middle. 



BURHANPUR. 



Burhanpur is at present a tahsil town in the Nimar district 
of the Central Provinces. During the Muhammadan rule it 
played a very important part in the history of India and had 
all along been a mint town. The issues of the Mugha Is begin 
from Akbar's conquest of this place in 1600 A.D. In 1700 
Burhanpur was ceded by the Nizam to the Peshwa who, alter 18 
years, transferred the place to Sindhia. The old mint continued 
even during this period down to the year 1860 when the British 
finally got possession of the place. Coins of the Burhanpur 
mint assigned to the later Mughals after 1720 A.D. need revi- 
sion Mr H. N. Wright, in his Catalogue of Mughal Coins 
in the Indian Museum, is inclined to assign coins Nos. 2346 and 
2 a 47 included therein to the Sindhias who had complete con- 
trol over the finances and administration of the place, hven 
the crude caligraphy and the symbols on the coins point towards 
the same direction. Coins of this' mint, therefore, issued after 
1760 A.D. even in the name of the Mughal emperors must be 



76 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

assigned to the Sindhias A study of the marks on these coins 
shows that in the earlier stages they bore the same Mughal mint 
mark (No 105 IMC III) of a tree which continued in a 
cruder form and was finally changed into a flower To this 
mark was added the trident or a snake at a later stage 

It is usually noticed that the coins issued by local authori- 
ties or various Indian States invariably bear the name of the 
Mughal emperor till 1275, i e 1857 A D , the date of the Indian 
Mutiny which finally closed the possibility of the revival of the 
Mughal rule in India From this date the States began to have 
their coins in their own names instead of the Mughal Emperor's 
or substituted it, with that of the British sovereign But from 
the coins published heiewith, it a-ppears that as eaily as 1260, 
i e 1842 A D the Sindhias had already introduced their own title 
of Alij ah Bahadur on the coins Let us now see some coins of 
this mint issued by the Sindhias 

7 This is a dumpy copper coin with big Persian letters 
showing only the word sL> of J(c sti on the obverse and 
the word t-yo with the Mughal Mint mark of a tree 

8 This is similar to No 7 but bears the inverse stamp 
of slsuJfr on the obverse, which is evidently the die cutter's 
mist ike while introducing this new legend The obverse 
though indistinct shows the sime mint mirk clearly 

9 This is a similar copper coin with the mistake corrected 
The obverse has atso of g^Jtc in the first line and a part of 
^(^ while on the teverse we find the central mint mark 

changed into a five petalled flower with a snake to the right 
which is also a symbol of the Sindhns used even to this day on 
the copper issues in a modified form We also find the figure 
60 to the left of the flower which is without doubt meant to be 
preceded by 12 In the lowest line can be read letters reading 
^(A evidently of Burhinpur So, this is definitely a com 
issued by Madho Rao in 1260 A H from Burhanpur mint 

10 This is a similar com of Madho Rao Smdhia issued 
from this mint in the year 1275 A H , i e 1857 A D 

The legend on this com is die same on the obverse while 
the reverse shows the symbols of the flower and snake promi- 
nently with the date (|)rvo The lower margin shows 
tiaces of the mint mark 



SOME RARE AND UNPUBLISHED COINS OF THE SINDHIAS JJ 

11 This is the same as No 10 but the specimen being 
clearer affoids an easier reading The coin reads 

Obv Rev 





) 

On some coins of this type we find the mint name wutten 
in the original form as ^xiGv 

O sj J 

UJIAIN 

Ujjam is a very ancient town and from a veiy remote age 
of the punchmarked coins down to the advent of the Bntish 
rule, coins were issued from this place by the respective tilling 
powers at different intervals It has been the capital of Malv/a 
(the ancient Avanti of the Malava desh) Like Burhanpvr, 
Ujjam also fell to the Smdhias during the declining period of 
the later Mughals In 1726, Ranoji Smdhia, founder of the 
present house of Gwalior got the right to collect chauth (25%) 
and Sardeshmukhi (10%) in the Malwa district on behalf of 
the Peshwa Bajirao I and was allowed the remaining (65%), 
Mokassa for himself He fixed up his capitil it Ujjam and 
carried on the administration of the Province till his death in 
1745 It remained the capital of the Smdhias' dominions till 
the year 1810 when the headquarters were removed to 
Gwalior, 

As the mint marks or symbols of the Smdhias, he adopted 
a dagger or a sword, an emblem of bravely and a trident, an 
emblem of Shiva who is the presiding deity of the town, 
being sacred to the Hindus Ujjam is the abode of Mahan- 
kaleswara r one of the 12 Jyotirlmgas of Shiva Thus their reli- 
gious zeal and military spirit are both depicted on the coins of 
the Smdhias We have, for instance, a number of coins in the 
name of the later Mughals with one or both of these symbols 
on them They must be assigned to the Smdhias and not to 
the Mughals, as has been done hitherto Under the mint note 
of Ujjam in Vol III, Nelson Wright has himself made it 
clear that the series of coins on P 295-96 of that Catalogue can 
only by courtesy be called Mughal coins They all bear the 
distinctive mark (sword) of the Smdhias In a later stage these 
coins and specially the copper coins had very little of the legend 
while the symbols occupied the prominent position 



78 JOURNAL OF THh NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

12 This is i coppei com of the Ujjain senes with i sword 
on the obverse in the centre with a fragment of ^* and a 
trident in the ^ of perhaps ^^k and traces of ^./V^ 

above on the reverse There is no date or mint name to be 
seen but the symbols are indicative enough of the mint and the 
issuing authority 

13 This is a com with i diffeient type of dagger with 
fragments of usinl legend ^yU i^xji/e ^uJL on the reveise side 
below and a part of atxxjJc above on the reverse and some 
letteis teidmg like <)o.(jy(> (Bai Bap) with the date 12 on 

the obverse Can this be i coin of Baijabni issued dining hci 
regency between 1827 and 1833? This requires futthci 
investigation 

14 This com his the year 16 on the obveise and i 
prominently placed dagger of the type of coin No 13 on tht 
reveise 

15 This is a dumpy com with a shoiter dagger sunounded 
by a dotted border leaving puctically no space foi any msciip- 
tion on the obverse, on the reverse, while the uppei half of the 
coin is worn out, the lower half shows crude writing which can 
be tead on some coins of this type as ^a. of Ujjain This 
mint name together with the dagger help in assigning these 
coins to the Sindhias It is, however, impossible to assign them 
to any ruler 

1 6 Similar to No 15 on the obveise while the leveise 
bears a trident surrounded by dots which is again a Ujjain 
sjmbol of the Sindhias 

17 There is still a third variety of daggei to be noticed 
on this coin with a similar dotted border on the obverse and a 
trident in the lower two thirds of the reverse with a horizontal 
line above There are traces of some letters in the left corner 
one of which is evidently i o o-a 

18 Obverse, similar to No 17 while the reverse has a few 
dots and lines which cannot be explained 

19 This small coin bears the name of Muhammad Shah 
who ruled from 1131 to 1161 AH He was a weak ruler and 
most of the States issued coins in his name with their own dis- 
tinctive symbols Here we have a trident, the Ujjain mint 
mark of the Sindhias, on the reverse with 57 as a part of the 
date 1157 This falls within the administration of the founder 



SOME RARE AND UNPUBLISHED COINb OF THE SINDHUS 79 

of the dynasty Ranoji who was in power at Ujjain between 1139 
and 1158 AH We may, therefore, assign this com to Ranoji 
Smdhia The arrangement ot the com is as under 

Obv Rev , 



; 




u 



20 This com is similar in size and legends to No 19 but 
the legend on the obverse is more fragmentary in as much as 

only UnO of aUob can be seen on die obverse while on 

the reverse we have frigments of ^j^^* >*/* v_W^ an( ^ u -^- a 

with two symbols a trident (of Ujjain) and a tree (the mint 
mark of Buihanpui) It cannot be said which of the Sindhuis 
issued this coin with both the mint mirks together, but it seems 
to hive been issued, definitely later thin No 19 and earlier than 
Nos 7 to 10 The mint is uncertain 

21 This is a squire copper com having on the obverse 
sLu with date 30 and a six pet died flower which may be a 

further corrupted form of the Burhanpur mint mark On the 
icverse there is a line dividing the coin diagonally in proportion 
of /^ and l /$ The hrger arei shows a part of the trident and 
inverted fragment ^k of ^j^k* The traces of letters in 

the remaining portion are illegible If we take 30 to be the 
RY of Akbar II, the coin cm be assigned to Jiyajirio 
(1827-1843 AD) 

22 This is similar to No 21, but the date on s& 
of the obverse side is 106 which, if taken as a continued regnal 
year of Akbar II. corresponds with 1306 A H which falls during 
the reign of Madho Rao Smdhia 

23 to 26 Like the above coins there is still another 
vaiiety which bears the flower of Burhanpur on the obverse and 
a trident of Ujjun on the reverse in modified forms These 
coins cm be safely said to be the foierunners of the current 
Gwalioi pice The arrangement on these coins is is under 

Obv Rev. 




80 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Ohv A shafted lance to the left and the snake above 
the flower mark to the right with the letter 5ft (standing for 

Jayajirao) in the middle with 2 or 12 below, which may be a 
part of the Hijn date twelve hundred and odd 

Rev An ordinary or a shafted trident with the trace 

of a date standing probably for the regnal year with J of ^^jU 

placed upside down 

All the four coins seem to have been issued by Jiyaji 
They are illustrated here to facilitate a collective study and to 
show slight differences in each of them in the ornamentation of 
the trident and lance 

The mint is uncertain Possibly they may have been issued 
from Gwalior by Jiyajirao 

In Vol IV of the Catalogue of tl e Indian Museum, we 
hive a dynastic list of the Smdhias beginning from Daulat Rao 
But as in this paper we have dealt with the coins of earlier rulers 
is well, it would not be out of place to give a list of all the rulers 
of that dynasty from the founder down to the present ruler with 
Hijn and A D dates for ready reference 

AH AD 

(i) Ranoji 1139-1158 1726-1745 

(2.) Jayappa or Jiyaji I 1158-1173 1745-1759 

(3) Jankoji u-ft-iift 1 7S9- 1 7^ 1 
(He -was killed in the third battle of Panipat) 

(4) Mahadji 1175-1209 1761-1794 

(5) Daulatrao 1209-1243 1794-1827 

(6) (a) Baijabai (Queen Regent) 1243-1249 1827-1833 
(b) Jankoji Rao 1243-1259 1827-1843 

(He assumed power in 1833) 

(7) Jayajirao II 1259-1302 1843-1886 

(8) Madho Rao 1302-1341 1886-1925 

(Obtained powers in 1894 on attaining majority) 

(9) (a) Court of Regency I 34 I " I 353 I 9 2 5" I 93^ 
(b) Jeewaji Rao The present ruler installed in 

1936 AD 
R G GlANI 



THE LAW OF TREASURE TROVE IN INDIA AND THE 
PRACTICE IN DEALING WITH IT * 

The method by which the East India Company dealt with 
cases of treasure trove is described m Harrington's Analysis of the 
Bengal Laws and Regulations (Vol in, p 764) At the outset, 
probably following the practice of Mughal governors, the Com- 
pany appears to have claimed everything found As this led to 
oppiession a proclamation was issued in 1777 dechnng that, foi 
the future, 'all treasure shall be the property of those who may 
discover it' This sweeping renunciation of clatms was modified 
later by a resolution that it should apply only to cases where the 
treasure found did not exceed a lac of rupees Hidden treasure 
which exceeded that amount should be at the disposal of govern- 
ment if no owner was ascertained Inquiry was then made from 
the law officers of the Court of Sadar Diwani (or chief civil court) 
to ascertain the provisions of Muhammadan and Hindu law, and 
as their reports differed materially from each other it was decided 
to lay down uniform principles 

According to Hindu texts, as quoted by the Pandits, a 
learned Brahman who found a treasure was entitled to the \*hole 
If the king himself discovered a treasure he should give half to 
the Brahmans and retain the rest Opinions differed as to the 
rights of other finders Manu and Yajnavalkya declared that the 
finder might keep one-sixth but must surrender the rest to the 
king Gautama would give the whole to the king except a trifle 
to the finder Visnu would distinguish cases as the finder was a 
Ksatnya, a Vaisya or a Sudra, making each of them surrender 
a stated portion both to the king and to Brahmans The Pandits 
thought that Manu's dictum should be followed 

The Muslim law officers drew a distinction between treasure 
which bore a distinctly Mussalman impression such as the 
Kahma, a verse from the Qoran or the name of a Muhammadan 

* We are indebted to Sir Richard Bum for obtaining permission 
for the re-publication of his valuable paper m this Journal so that the 
important mformation contained m it may be available to numismatists 
and collectors in India As the paper was onginali) published m d* 
Transactions of the International Numismanc Congress '$ blshTt 
been revised and brought up-to-date by Rao Bahadur KNDiksh, 
MA, FRASB, Doctor General ot Arcrueology m India and Presi- 
dent of the Numismatic Society o India Ed , j N b l 



82 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

king, and treasure bearing other impressions such as the image 
of an idol, or the name of a non-Muslim king Muslim treasure 
became the property of the finder if after he had advertised it 
properly no chimant pioved i title to it It was added that if the 
finder were i rich person he must bestow it in alms upon the 
poor, though the pauper recipients might bt his parents, children, 
or wives 

Of non-Muslim treasure the king was entitled to a share 
of one-fifth, and the finder to the remainder if the treasure was 
found in waste land The authorities differed as to the rights of: 
the finder when the find-spot lay in appropriated land, some 
giving the four-fifths not to him but to tht person to whom that 
land was first granted after the subjugation of the country by the 
faithful, or to his heirs But it was said to be the universally 
received opinion that when an existing proprietor laid claim to 
the trove, declaring that it was deposited by himself, his dechra- 
tion was to be credited 

Regulation 5 of 1817 embodied in law the rules for dealing 
with cases It applied to hidden treasure consisting of gold or 
siKer coin, or bullion, or precious stones or other valuable pro- 
perty found buried in the earth or otherwise concealed, md it 
laid down a procedure of inquiry A finder was required to notify 
his discovery within one month to the district or city judge, and 
to deposit the treasure in court Failure to notity rendered him 
liable to lose his rights to it The discovery was advertised and a 
period of six months allowed foi claim Any claim of title made 
was inquired into, and if no right was proved the finder received 
the whole treasuie up to a value of one lac, any excess going to 
government An appeal lay from the judge's order to the pro- 
vincial court Revenue officers had to bring forward any claim 
of right which government might appear to possess 

Similar provisions were enacted for the Madras Presidency 
in 1832 and 1838, and were applied to terntones acquired later, 
such as the Punjab, Oudh, the Central Provinces, and Bunm 
They remained in force till 1878, when Act VI of that yeai re- 
placed them The reasons for new legislation arc of interest It 
was found very doubtful what law was actually in force in the 
Bombay Presidency outside the city In the three Presidency 
towns of Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta it was not certain what 
law applied and it was thought probable that English law was in 
force there The Regulation of 1817 had been found to give 
inducements to the finder to conceal or make away with his 
treasure Sir Steuart Bayley when he introduced the Bill stated 



THE LAW OF TREASURE TROVE IN INDIA 83 

chat in the last thirty yeais he had known no case in which 
o-oveinment had benefitted by a share, as no trove had been re- 
ported exceeding a lakh in value 

By the new Act which is still in force treasure is now defined 
as 'anything of any value hidden in the soil, or in anything affixed 
thereto ' A finder of treasure exceeding in amount or value ten 
lupees is required to give notice in writing to the Collector of the 
district showing the nature and amount or approximate value of 
the treasure, the place where it was found and the date of find- 
intf, and he either deposits the treasure in a government treasury 
or gives seciuity for its pioduction when icquired A notification 
is then published calling for claims on a date between four and 
six months later Notice is also given to the peison in possession 
of the place where the treasure was found if he was not the finder 
If the Collector sees reason to believe that the treasure was 
hidden within 100 years befoie the date of finding by a peison 
who appears, or by some other undei whom such person claims, 
he adjourns the inquuy to allow the chimant to establish his 
no-lit in a civil court Failing such a decision and where the 
tieasme appears to- be moie than 100 years old the Collectoi miy 
declare the treasure 'owneiless', subject to an -appeal by iny 
aggrieved person to the Chief Revenue Authoiity If thete is a 
dispute as to the ownership of the land i period is allowed for 
decision by the civil court When all these questions are decided 
the law piovides that in the absence of any agi cement to the coti- 
tiaiy the findei takes thiee-fomths and the owner of the land 
one-fourth 

But when treasure has been declaied 'owneiless' the Collec- 
tor may acquire all or any pait of it on behalf of government, 
and in that case he values the amount to be acquit ed it a sum 
equal to the value of the materials of such treasure 01 portion 
togethei with one-fifth of such value 

This provision foi acquisition by government at a price fixed 
by the intrinsic value of the treasure plus a definite peicentage 
was explained by Sir S Bayley is boriowed from a law in force 
in Denmark which had had the result of maikmg the govern- 
ment collection of national antiquities in that country the finest 
then existing It is gratifying to know that the working of Act 
VI of 1878 has certainly improved the official collections of coins 
in India 

Penalties for failing to report finds have been made mote 
severe, as a finder who does not give notice is liable not only to 
forfeit his share, but also to fine and imprisonment And the 



84 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

owner of the place of finding, if he abets the finder, may also 
lose his share and be fined and imprisoned 

Now we pass on to the measures taken to advise government 
as to what specimens should be acquired by the Collector on its 
behalf when the treasure consists of coins In 1884 the Govern- 
ment of India issued a resolution to guide Local Governments in 
this matter, as the power of making rules under the Act of 1878 
was vested in them They were advised to frame rules directing 
that Collectors should invariably acquire foi government all old 
coins not of British mintage They were then to send the coins to 
the Asiatic Society of the Presidency in which the coins had been 
discovered for report on the nature of the coins ind their numis- 
matic value Specimens worth acquiring were to be given to cer- 
ta'n public collections in a specified order and the rest sold at the 
mints The instructions that all coins should be acquired was 
modified almost immediately and discretion was allowed, though 
in some provinces indiscriminate acquisition continued it was re- 
ported that the Madras branch of the Royal Asiatic was pricti- 
cally defunct and coins found in that Presidency were examined 
by the authorities of the museum Other variations were made 
from time to time in the ?riangements foi skilled examination 
which need not be detailed In 1899 1C became necessary to re- 
consider this mattei in the United Provinces where coins had 
latterly been examined at the Lucknow Museum and the 
Government decided to appoint a small committee of persons 
interested in numismatics, one of whom icted as secretary and 
prepared a detailed report which was circulated to other members 
for their criticisms and also contained proposals m regird to the 
acquisition and distribution of specimens At that time and 
almost continuously since then members were ind have been 
available whose joint interests covered the entire field of coins 
found in the United Provinces 

In 1905 the Director-General of Aichaology, Mr (now Sir) 
John Marshall, referred the whole question to the Government 
of India at the instance of the late Mr Henry Cousens, who was 
in charge of the Archaeological Survey of Western India Mr 
Cousens pointed out that though he was examining on behalf 
of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiitic Society and report- 
ing on treasure trove found in Bombay, the Poona Museum 
which was in his charge received no specimens is it was not on 
the list drawn up by the Government of India twenty yeats 
earlier Inquiries showed that the Asiatic Society of Bengal was 
still responsible for examining coins from Bengal, Assam, Bihar, 



THE LAW OF TREASURE TROVE IN INDIA 85 

the Central Provinces, and the Punjab, while Dr (now Sir Aurel) 
Stem examined those found in the North-West Frontier Pro- 
vince, and the arrangements in Madras, Bombay, and the 
United Provinces were as already described It was also ascer- 
tained that the procedure m Bengal had not been satisfactory 
Before Mr Nelson Wright was appointed Honorary Numis- 
matist to the Society in 1905, no detailed record of each find was 
maintained, though in the past scholars like Blochmann and 
Hoernle had published accounts of specially interesting dis- 
coveries Some local governments were unable to say what had 
become of treasure they had sent to Calcutta Official attitude is 
sometimes sceptical about the value of such things In 1891 a 
Secretary to the Government of India wrote in criticism of * 
proposal to purchase a celebrated collection 

'There is perhaps no very useful object gained in making a 
complete collection of coins any more than in making a complete 
collection of postage stamps Every new coin found may be of 
histoncal use and interest, but known coins described already 
are of little use and cost a good deal If required for comparison 
duplicate sets can be obtained at any time from the British 
Museum It is doubtful, therefore, if any encouragement should 
be given to the purchase of known coins merely for the purpose 
of making a collection more perfect ' 

I have heard a similar expression of belief by the author ot 
a well-known book on the history of an Oriental country more 
recently, but I do not find it shared by the Keeper of the Coins 
in the British Museum or by his assistants Fortunately it was 
not shared by the Government of India, which in 1907 issued 
general orders that still govern the main principles of dealing 
with treasure trove 

In the first place they laid stress on the importance of record- 
ing the origin, surroundings, and exact nature of each find, 
pointing out that such a record might be of value for two reasons 
it might throw light on the history of the place of discovery, 
01 it might give a clue to the attribution and arrangement of 
different series of coins To secure such records the value of 
which increases with their number and accuracy local govern- 
ments were asked to communicate with the Director-General of 
Archeology, who undertook to maintain a list of persons who 
weie competent and willing to examine coins and prepare reports 
on them At present every Province and many of the larger States 
have been able to make satisfactory arrangements for examination, 
and I hope that records are being maintained Rai Bahadur 



86 JOLRNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Prayag Dayal, Curator o the Lucknow Museum, who is Secre- 
tary to the Committee in the United Provinces, tells me that 
foi the List thirty-six yeats they have detailed records filed in the 
Museum of 95,326 coins which have been received as treasure 
tio\e It not infrequently happens that finds are reported the 
intrinsic value of which is less than Rs- 10 In such cases the 
practice in the United Provinces is to offer the numismatic value, 
and many coins have been acquired in that <vay 

One important provision made by the Government of India 
in 1921 deserves attention According to the Treasure Trove Act 
the finder of a treasure is entitled only to one-fifth of the value 
in addition to the intrinsic or bullion value of a treasure In 
order to induce the finders of treasure of exceptional value to 
icpoit the discovery, special rewards are now allotted to the legal 
claimants by the Director General of Archeology in the case of 
valuable finds A reward of Rs 5oo/- was given in accordance 
with this piovision for the find of an exceptionally rich hoard 
of Bengal Sultans it Keteen in the Dacca District 

It is gratifying to find that the lead of British India in les- 
pect of the Treasure Trove Act and the regulations thereundei 
is followed b} several of the foiward Indian States , ind such of 
the States as hive not yet enacted such laws have agreed to adopt 
the provisions in deilmg with finds of Treasure Tiove within 
their jurisdiction 

Arrangements foi publication viry Important finds are 
often descnbed in detail in various journals, while annual notices 
ire published in Museum or Archaeological Reports and the 
An nuil Reports of the Archaeological Survey of Indn in- 
cludes a summary of all such notices as are received by the 
depaitment Beginning with the present issue information 
regarding Tieasure Trove will be published in the Journal ol 
the Numismatic Society of India Since 1931 a note on Indian 
numismuics his ippeired in the Annual Bibliography published 
bv the Kern Institute at Ley den 

Aftet examination, the question of the disposal of the coins 
arises, and in 1907 it was decided to alter the order in which 
collections had been arranged for the receipt of duplicates First 
choice is given to the principal museum in the Province in which 
a treasure has been found It had been argued that the Indian 
Museum should come first, 01 that a rare coin should go to the 
Museum nearest the place where it had been struck But it was 
pointed out that local enthusiasm had made several Provincial 
Museums richer in various series than the Indian Museum and 



THE LAW OF TREASURE TROVE IN INDIA 87 

that students would be more likely to visit their own institutions 
than Calcutta And to the second argument it was replied that 
modern territorial divisions did not coincide with ancient king- 
doms The Indian Museum was, therefore, placed next after 
the provincial museum, and the remaining official museums in 
India, numbering about a dozen at that time, were ranged in 
order of the importance of their existing collections Aftei sup- 
plying specimens to all these, the British Museum was named, 
and then local museums in a province maintained by universities 
or other non-official bodies If coins of real numismatic value 
turn up in numbers more than sufficient to supply all institutions 
on the list the extra coins are also acquired and placed on sile at 
the museum or at one of the mints in India Such coins are 
advertised, and collectors may register their names to receive lists of 
them After five years those remaining unsold are melted down 

One difficulty in distribution arose from the absence of cita- 
logues, as it is unnecessary in many cases to send duplicates to a. 
museum That has been remedied by the publications of Di 
V A Smith, Mr Nelson Wright, and Mr Allan for the Indian 
Museum, of Mr Whitehead for Lahore, of Mi C } Brown and 
Rai Bahadur Prayag Dayal for Lucknow, of Drs Thurston and 
Henderson for Madras, Mr C S Botham for Assam, and of 
Messrs Smghal and Acharya for the Gujarlt coins in the Ptince 
of Wales Museum at Bombay It is to be hoped that other 
museums will follow suit 

In this connection it is fitting to refei to the stimulus to 
numismatic studies in India caused by the foundation of the 
Numismatic Society of India in 1910 through the energy of Mr 
Nelson Wnght Its publication, the Numismatic Supplement 
to the Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Bengal (now the 
Journal of the Numismatic Society of India), has spread an in- 
terest throughout the country which has shown itself in advancing 
knowledge and in the enrichment of public and private collec- 
tions We have seen and heard much lately about Federation in 
India, and are waiting to see what is going to happen in the 
matter of administrative relations The latest report I have 
received from Lucknow shows that in numismatics federal re- 
lations have already come into existence As many as thirty- 
four Durbars of Indian States have enteied into exchange 
relations with the United Provinces and several more desire to 
obtain by exchange certain classes of coins The omen seems 
favourable 

R BURN 



REVIEWS 

TWO CATALOGUES OF COINS, CHIEFLY 
OF THE BENGAL SULTANS 

Catalogue of Coins presented to the Dacca Museum by Sayyid 
ASM Faifoor, by N K Bhattasah, M \ , ph D With 6 Plates 
Pp xx + 40 Rs 2 

Catalogue of Coins presented to the Dacca Museum by Hakim 
Habibar Rahman Khan, by N K Bhattasah, MA, ph D With 3 
Plates Pp 12 + 45 Rs 2 

Both these collections were the outcome of many years' 
accumulation, handed down as heirlooms in their families by 
the ancestors of the two donors and added to by their own res- 
pective acquisitions The two collections have greatly enriched 
the coin cabinet of the Dacca Museum and will help research 
in Muhammadan numismatics, especially of the Bengal period 
The Taifoor collection, besides a few punch-marked coins, com- 
prises the coins of five dynasties, of which the Sultans of Bengal 
and Dehli form the major portion Hakim Habibar Rahman's 
collection, on the other hand, represents eleven ruling houses and 
here, too, the Bengal and Dehil Sultans predominate 
Three coins of outstanding interest from the historical point of 
view merit mention here Two are silver issues of Sher Shah, 
one in each of the above-named collections, dated in 945 A H 
Another coin of Sher Shah's bearing this date has been described 
and illustrated by H Nelson Wright (vide The Coinage and 
Metrology of the Sultans of Dehli, p 270, com 1040 B, PI 21), 
who also mentions a duplicate This date puts back the corona- 
tion of Sher Shah by a year The third notable com is in the 
Hakim Sahib's collection and is a silver piece of Humayun 
minted at Tanda, once the capital of Bengal during its later 
rulers The mint name cannot unfortunately be read from the 
photograph of the com 

Mention must be made of the author's discovery of some 
new mint names on some coins of these two collections he has 
found, for instance, the mint name Chandrabad in com No 149 
of Husam Shah, Barbakabad in No 119 of Barbak Shah and 
MuzarTarabad in No 132 of the same king m the Taifoor col- 
lection, and of his attempts at finding a satisfactory solution of 
the date 899 A H , which appears on coins of Husam Shah of 
Bengal as well as on rupees of some of his successors We regret 



REVIEWS 09 

that the symbols impressed on the nine punch-marked coins 
have not been described 

Dr Bhattasali's method of describing the coins is interest- 
ing and peculiarly his own Scholars will find a ready reference 
to important and exceptionally interesting specimens The 
plates illustrating typical specimens seem to have been prepared 
with care and attention 

SHAMSUDDIN AHMED 



NEW VIEWS IN INDO-GREEK NUMISMATICS 

In trying to recover "a lost chapter in Hellenistic hsitory' , 
Dr W W Tarn, in his wotk entitled The Greeks in Bactna 
and India', has brought together a mass of important materials 
which, with the strikingly original contribution made by him to 
his subject, will stimulate further research I propose to discuss 
a few points which may be of immediate interest to investigators 
in the field of Indo-Gieek numismatics Dr Tarn makes out a 
strong case for interpreting the monograms on Indo-Greek coins 
as denoting not mint-cities (as originally suggested by Cunning- 
ham) but names of money ers The tecurrence of the same mono- 
gram m the coinage of several generations can be explained on 
the supposition that the moneyer's office was hereditary, so that 
the same name but not necessarily the same personality may he 
hidden behind one and the same monogram The theory must, 
however, labour under one difficulty When a particular mono- 
gram is found on coins of king X as well as on coins of king Y, 
we cannot at once infer that X and Y reigned in succession, in 
the absence of corroborative evidence 

Perhaps the most startling suggestion is made in respect ot 
the commemorative medallions associated prominently with the 
name of Agathocles Dr Tarn legards these issues as 
"Agathocles' pedigree coins", which is the caption of one of i 
number of important Appendices To reach this far-reaching 
conclusion he draws upon the analogy of a fictitious pedigree set 
out in a series of inscriptions for which Antiochus I of Comma- 
gene was responsible The inscriptions are stated to occur below 
representations of his ancestors "each inscription giving the name 
and patronymic of the corresponding figure, these inscriptions 
professedly give fche respective pedigrees of his father, going back 
to Danus, and of his mother Laodice Thea Philadelphos, who 
was a Seleucid princess, a daughter of Antiochus VIII Grypus, 
and his mother's pedigree is the ordinary Seleucid pedigree but 
begins with Alexander " Dr Tarn offers his own explanation 
of how the descent from Alexander may have been derived ficti- 
tiously by making Seleucus Nicator's wife, Apama, in reality 
the daughter of the Sogdian baron Spitamenes a daughter of 
Alexander He then proceeds to argue tint a similar pedigree 
is intended to be proclaimed on behalf of Agithocles by his 
medallion series, admittedly struck in his reign but bearing on 
the obverse representations of Alexander, Antiochus Nikator, 



REVIEWS 91 

Diodotus Soter, Euthydemus Theos and Demetnos Anikecos 
By affiliating the two seres he draws up the "fictitious" genea- 
logy Alexander Apama (m Seleucus I) Antiochus I 
Antiochus II ( = Antiochus Nikator) daughter (m Diodotus) 
daughter (m Euthydemus of Magnesia) Demetrius Agatho- 
cles Critics will probably be slow to accept the complete 
parallelism between the inscriptions series and the coin series, and 
the presence of a "fictitious" element will no doubt stand in the 
way of their utilisation as documents of genuine history But 
there can be no doubt that Agathocles was, if not a son, at any 
rate i close relative say a younger brother of Demetrius, this 
is shown by the resemblance in features between Enthydemus and 
Agathocles A similar resemblance may be detected between 
Demetrius and Pantaleon And numismatists have long regarded 
Agathocles and Pantaleon as closely lelated by their coin-types 
and by their common employment of nickel for the type 'Bust 
of king as Dionysus Maneless lion touching vine," which I 
have connected with the locality called Nysa, whose people con- 
vinced Alexander of their special association with Dionysus ind 
the vine-cult (IHQ , 1934, p 511) Anothei link between Pan- 
taleon and Agathocles is provided by their common coin-type 
bearing on one side a 'maneless lion' and on the other a female 
figure holding a lotus, usually described as a 'dancing girl' 
Dr Tarn has rejected my suggestion thtt she is the goddess of 
Pushkalavati on the ground that "one cannot imagine the For- 
tune of a city without her mural crown and dancing, and on the 
solitary autonomous coin of Pushkalavati she wears her mural 
crown" If, howe\er, reference be made to the Indian Museum 
specimen figuied by Smith (IMC, PI II, 2) the mural crown 
will be distinctly seen On that specimen as well as on the 
specimens figuted by Gardner (BMC, PI IV, 9) and by 
Whitehead (PMC PI II, 35) we find below the lotus-be inng 
civic divinity the Indian c r i n e, for which the Sanskrit 
name is 'sarasa', ind 'Pushkaia can in Sanskrit signify both the 
'lotus' and the 'sarasa Eliminating the ciane, the lotus-bearing 
divinity ceises to look like a dancing girl, although curiously 
enough the dancing pose might be justified bv the fact that 
'Puskkaia also means the art of dancing, and, apart from the 
cucumstance that Indian deities aie not always averse to poses 
usually associated with dancing, the instability of Fortune was 
proverbial and may possibly be represented by a dynamic pose 

A brilliant interpretation is offered by Dr Tarn (p 158) of 
the thiee-headed Hecate in the hand of Zeus on a silver type of 



02 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Agathocles She is Hecate of the three ways, who was wor- 
shipped where three roads met and only one such meeting place 
of three ways can be meant, namely the meeting place or the 
three routes across the Hindu Kush from Bactna Alexandrm- 
Kapisa, that "gateway of the trade between India and the West" 
stood at the point of junction and Hecate of the three ways was 
doubtless worshipped there Equally acute is the suggestion that 
Demetrius modelled much of his activity on Alexander's 
example His title "Aniketos", 'the Invincible', is aptly con- 
nected with the story in Plutarch that, when Alexander visited 
the oracle of Delphi, the Pythea hailed him by that title 

The Graeco-Bactnan invasion of India is reconstructed on 
the basis that it was carried out by the joint efforts of Deme- 
trius, Apollodotus and Menander Dr Tarn accepts Rapson's 
theory of the contemporaneity of Demetrius, Apollodotus and 
Menander but contests the conclusion, and (I believe) rightly, 
that Menander belonged to the house of Euthydemus It is, 
however, difficult to agree with him in his view that Apollodotus 
may have been a younger brother of Demetrius rather than a 
mere general or 'chief Demetrius' confidence in him cannot 
be made a measure of originally near relationship the same 
confidence in Menander may be presumed on Dr Tarn's own 
data Dr Tarn says that Apollodotus' regular coin-type for 
bronze is Seleucidan, but while the Seleucid type as noted by 
him has the 'Head of Apollo with Tripod lebes', the type em- 
ployed by Apollodotus 'Standing Apollo Tripod lebes', as 
Rapson observes, bears "evident allusion to the king's name" 
Not recognising such ' 'evident allusion", Dr Tarn is led to ex- 
press surprise at the circumstance that the royal portrait is ab- 
sent from the coins of two other Indo-Greek princes I suggest 
that the absence of royal portraits m these three cases (quite 
exceptional in view of the general rule among the Lido-Greeks) 
can be best explained by their employment of types bearing allu- 
sion to their names or distinctive epithets As Apollodotus' 
coins represent Apollo on the obverse in lieu of his own 
portrait, so the issues of Antunachus II, who takes the epithet 
'Nikephoros', figure N i k e on the obverse The case of Tele- 
phus is more interesting Dr Tarn goes very near what appears 
to be the tiue solution when he observes that the silver issue of 
Telephus "shows on the obverse a serpent-footed giant and on 
the reverse a radiate king or god facing a male figure with horns, 
a group which might belong to luanian mythology The giant 
suggests that the artist of the com had seen the Pergamene frieze, 



REVIEWS 93 

another sign that intei course with the west was maintained till 
the end, if we knew why the giant occupies the place on the 
com normally filled by the king's head we might know who and 
what Telephus was " The allusion, I think, is to the mythical 
Telephus, son of Herakles, whose legend pervades the Peigamene 
scheme what Apollo was to King Apollodotus, Telephus was 
to King Telephus One other point of numismatic interest 
relates to Dr Tarn's interpretation of the 'Wheel' symbol along 
with the 'Palm' on a rare type struck by Menander The 
Wheel has hitherto been consideied to repiesent dhatmachakta, 
symbolising Buddhism, but Di Tarn suggests that it signifies 
Menander's claim to political overlordship to the status of a 
chakravartm in the political sense I do not propose to aigue 
at length here the question whether Menander became a Bud- 
dhist But I may point out that, if the 'Wheel' of Menmda 
had been intended to denote the status of political overloidship, 
we would hardly have found the same symbol on coppet coins 
of Bhumaka, a meie satrap Bhumaka piobibly ruled shoitly 
after Menandrr, since he preceded Nahapana whose successoi 
was Gautamiputra Satikarm, founder of the Vikiama era of 58 
B C , as I hope to have shown in Zetts f Ind u Iran , 1922, 
pp 255 ft", and the coins of Bhumaka are found 'in the coasting 
regions of Gujarat and Kathiawad, and also some times in 
Malwa' (Rapson, Andhra corns &c > p cvn, citing Bhagvanlal) 
that is to say, in an area once subject to Indo-Greek sway It 
seems more reasonable to hold that Menandei's 'Wheel' and 
'Palm' represent, in then combination, the Asokan concept of 
dharma-vijaya the 'Wheel' lepiesentmg dharma, the 'Palm' 
representing vtjaya We find the concept specially emphasised 
by Asoka (in his Rock Edict XIII) in connection with his con- 
tempoiary Hellenistic montrchs as also the Gieek settlers (Yon is) 
in India, and Asoka exhorts his successors to pursue his ideal of 
dharma-vi-jaya It would be natiual foi the Indo-Gieek Menan- 
der to pioclaim his loyilty to the ideal, and gLateful tecollection 
of such loyalty would admirably account for the existence of the 
Milmda-panha 

HARIT KRISHNA DEB 



NOTES AND NEWS 



OURSELVES 



At the Annual Meeting of the Numismatic Society of 
India, held in Calcutta on 26th December, 1938, the following 
Resolution was moved from the Ch,ur and passed unanimously 
"Resolved that henceforth the journal of the Numis- 
mitic Society of Indii be published independently as 
the Journal of the Numismatic Society of India " 

The Resolution give expression to a long-felt desire of the 
mcmbeis of the Society to have their own journal and marked 
the teimmmon of the arrangement under which papers contri- 
buted to the Numismatic Society of India had been published 
is the "Numismatic Supplement" to the Journal of the Asiatic 
(now Royal Asiatic) Society of Bengal We now present our 
rcidus with the fust issue of our Journal published in accordance 
with the above Resolution We are in complete accord with the 
remark made by Col H R Neville, c I E , 1C s (Retd ), the 
then President, eleven years ago, when a journal which the 
Society could call its own was only a vision of the future, that 
such a journal should have but one standard, namely the highest 
We have, therefoie, endeavoured to maintain the high standard 
of excellence set by the first editors of the Numismatic Supple- 
ment, the predecessor of our Journal, and have attempted to 
improve upon it wherever possible The present issue comprises 
fully a hundred pages, containing papers in almost every field 
of Indian numisrrntics and allied spheres, and nearly a dozen 
cirefujly prepared plates The 'Notes and News' is a new 
feature and in this section we aim to give the latest available 
information regarding finds and acquisitions made by museums, 
both in India and abroad News regarding treasure trove coins 
for sale will be included, whenever thought desirable In this 
first issue we have even succeeded, through the leady collabora- 
tion of our contributors, in including exhaustive papers on some 
of the htest finds, eg, the important find in Bastar State, C P , 
made only a few months ago, and on some of the latest acqui- 
sitions made by museums, e g , Mr Nelson Wright, I c s 
(Retd )'s paper on the recent additions to the collection of 
Mughal coins in the British Museum We shall also keep our 



NOTES AND NEWS 95 

ders informed about the publication of articles of interest in 
r field in other journals wherever the importance of an article 
nands it we shall publish a comprehensive summary and, if 
isidered desirable, the paper itself will, if possible, be repio- 
ced with additions and alterations, if necessary, and in this 
mection we would refer to two valuable papers in this issue, 
s on Sasanun coins and the other on the law and practice of 
asure trove in India To successfully accomplish these objects 
look for co-operation to the Archaeological Survey of India, 
* various museums, treasure trove authorities, journals devoted 
the study of Indology and to all who are interested in Indian 
misnntics 

USEUM REPORTS 

The Director General of Archaeology in Indn, who is it 
sent also the President of the Numismatic Society of Indu, 
nested a number of the principal museums to forward copies 
their annual reports to the Editor so that information of m- 
sst to numismatists could be included in the Journal The 
lowing icports have been received 

Annual Report of the Prince of Wales Museum of 

Western India, Bombay, for the year 1937-38 
Annual Report of the Managing Committee of the Patm 

Museum for the year ending 3ist March, 1938 
Annual Report of the Dacca Museum for 1937-38, 

as well as 

Annual Report of the Dacca Museum for 1936-37, and 
A Resume of the Activities of the Dacca Museum from 
1926-27 to 1934-35 and Annual Report of the 
Dacca Museum for 1935-36 
Annual Report of the working of the Rajputana Museum, 

Ajmere, for the year ending 3ist Maich, 1938 
No reports have been received from the Central Museum, 
idras, the Provincial Museum, Lucknow (except a detailed 
tcment regirdmg acquisitions to the Coin Cabinet), the 
ntral Museum, Lahore, Nigpur Museum, Peshawar Museum, 
ay re Rangoon Museum, Victoria Museum, Karachi, and 
stoiical Museum, Satara 

USEUM ACQUISITIONS 

British Museum The British Museum Quarterly, Vol 
I, No 4, 1938, mentions the acquisition of important gold 



n6 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

coins of Akbar and Jahangir from the collection of Mr H 
Nelson Wright, ics (need ) Mr Nelson Wright has des- 
cribed the coins in this Journal (vide pp 43-49) 

The Indian Museum acquired during the current year 
the twenty silver coins described in "A Treasure Trove Find 
of Silver Coins of Bengal Sultans" by Maulavi Shamsu-d-dm 
Ahmed in this issue (vide pp 36-37) 

The Curator of the Provincial Museum, Lucknow, reports 
that 91 coins, of which 2 were gold, 40 silver and 49 copper, 
were acquired during the year 1938 Of the two gold coins 
purchased, one is a fine mtthr of Jahangir, minted at Ahmadabad 
in the fifteenth year of his reign, corresponding to A H 1029, 
it was formerly in the Gotha Museum The other gold com 
is a half mubr of Arnjad 'All Shah of Oudh and was struck at 
Lucknow in A H 1258 The silver coins represent issues of 
the kings of Oudh required to fill gaps in the collection of 
Oudh coins, for which the claim is made that it is the most 
representative 

The Pnnce of Wales Museum acquired during 1937-38? 
28 silver and 56 copper coins by presentation, and 23 gold, 89 
silver and 53 copper coins by purchase Beyond a brief state- 
ment as to the number of coins added to the cabinet and a classi- 
fied list of the coins, no information is given as to whether any 
coins are of outstanding interest to numismatists The list, 
however, shows that 9 silver and 3 copper punch-marked coins 
were purchased along with two copper Indo-Greek, 3 Indo- 
Parthian and 12 tribal coins of copper and 63 silver Sasaman 
coins, the remaining coins being coins of the Sultans of Dehli, 
the Mughal Emperors and the Indian States and one Indo- 
Portugese coin 

Patna Museum The Machuatoh (Patna) hoard of punch- 
marked coins, consisting of 2,232 coins, was the most important 
acquisition to the com cabinet of the Patna Museum during the 
period, according to the consolidated report for the years 1935-36, 
36-37 and 37-38 of the Com Committees, published in the 
Annual Report of the Managing Committee of the Patna 
Museum for the year ending 3ist March, 1938 A very large 
number of Muharnmadan and non-muhammadan coins were 
added to the Bihar Coin Cabinet, Patna Museum, by presenta- 
tion or purchase and a list is given in an appendix to the Annual 
Report, mentioned above It is stated that a separate descriptive 
list of the Machuatoh hoard would be published later as a sup- 
plement to the Annual Report A paper on this hoard as well 



as on the Ramna (Patna) find has since been published by E H 
C Walsh, c s i , i c S (Retd ) in the Journal of the Bihar and 
Onssa Research Society 

Dacca Museum Besides 6 silver coins of Yasomamkya- 
deva of Tippera and the Queens Laksmlgauri and Jaya, dated 
1522 aka, and i silver com of Rajadharmamkya of Tippera and 
Queen Satyavatl, dated 1508 Saka, presented to it, the Dacca 
Museum did not acquire any other important coins during the 
year 1937-38 

The Rajptttana Museum, Ajmere, acquired, during 1937-38, 
51 silver and 16 copper coins, being coins of the Sultans of 
Dehll and of the Mughal Emperors, with the exception of 
one com each of 5ivaji, of a Bahmani king and of a Peshwa (name 
not given) who struck a coin in the name of Shah 'Alam II 

It is to be regretted that museum reports generally furnish 
only statistics of coins acquired and very rarely information 
regarding any coins of special numismatic interest 

TREASURE TROVE REPORTS 

The following report has been received 

Triennial Report on Coins dealt with under the 
Treasure Trove Act for the years 1934-35, I 935"3^ and 
1936-37, published by the Central Provinces and Beiar 
Government 

As many as forty six treasme trove finds are recorded in the 
report, comprising 78 gold, 826 silver and 177 copper coins, in 
all i, 08 1 coins, which were acquired by government under the 
Act The coins included coins of Sultans of Gujarat, the 
Bahmam kings, Imadshahi dynasty of Berar, kings of Vijaya- 
nagar, Emperors of Dehll and coins o William IV, Queen 
Victoria and even of King Edward VII Barring 20 silver and 
1 6 copper coins which were kept for sale at the Nagpur 
Museum, the remaining coins were distributed among various 
museums and Durbars The latest find, that made in Bastar 
State, C P , is later than the above Report and has been described 
in this Journal by Prof V V Mirashi (vide Gold coins of 
three kings of the Nala dynasty, pp 29-35) 

The Superintendent, Archaeological Survey of India, Eastern 
Circle, reports that 20 silver coins of the Sultans of Bengal were 
found at Hanspukur, in the Kalna Sub-division of the Burdwan 
district, Bengal, and were acquired for the Indian Museum 
The coins have been described by Maulavi Shamsuddm Ahmed 

'3 



98 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

in this issue (vide A Treasure-Trove Find of Silver Coins of 
the Bengal Sultans, pp 36-37) 

The Curator of the Patna Museum refers to the find of 
antiquities in the course of building operations in the compound 
of the Imperial Bank, Patna Branch, the most remarkable being 
a copper band, 11" long, i" wide and i/io" thick with punch 
marks found on punch-marked coins The band has been dis- 
cussed in two articles contributed to the Journal of the Bihar and 
Onssa Research Society (yide infra) 

TREASURE TROVE COINS FOR SALE 

The Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society forwards 
several lists of treasure trove coins available for sale at the 
Mint, Bombay Besides 332 gold Fanams of Travancore of the 
1 8th and igth centuries, there are a number of silver and copper 
Mughal coins for sale as well as a gold coin of Sadasivaraya of 
Vijyanagar and a silver com of Bajuao II 

The Central Museum, Lahore, has for sale a number of 
gold muhi* of Shah Jahan of Akbarabad mint besides a numbei 
of silver coins of Muhammad Shah and 'Alamgir II 

The Centi.il Museum, Nagpur, has a number of silver punch- 
marked coins, coins of the Western Kstrapas and of Kisrui Raja 
as well as a few Gadhiya coins for sale 

PATNA MUSEUM'S Loss 

The Coin Room of the Patna. Museum was burgled either 
on the night of the 2yth April or in the early hours of the 28th 
Apul, 1939 As miny ii 502 gold coins and about 19 gold 
aiticles were found missing on the morning of the 28th April 
The Gupta gold coins included the valuable collection of 
W E M Campbell, in which the most important coin was the 
second known specimen of the Asvamedha coin of Kumara- 
gupta I The collection of the coins of the Sultans of Dehli 
and of the Mughal Emperors was also large and important 
Before this, gold coins had been stolen from other museums in 
Indn. but a burghry on such a large scale had never been attemp- 
ted The coins have not been recovered so far All museums 
in this country should take immediate steps to properly protect 
their coin collections As surmised by the Bihai Government it 
is not unlikely that a gang ^vith ramifications in several 
provinces is at work 



NOTES AND NEWS 99 

EXCAVATION OF RAMNAGAR 

After examining the merits of various well-known sites in 
North India, Sir Leonard Woolley, who was brought out by the 
Government of India to advise on Archaeological work in India, 
has come to the conclusion that Ramnagar, in the Bareilly dis- 
trict of the United Provinces, is the most likely to reward syste- 
matic and scientific excavation It is understood that the excava- 
tion will be undertaken by the Archaeological Department 
shortly The choice of Ramnagar is of considerable mteiest to 
numismatists as the site has for a very long time yielded ancient 
Indian coins as well as Kushan and Gupta coins and furthei rich 
finds likely to add to our knowledge of Indian numismatics may 
be expected 

ITEMS OF INTEREST FROM THE PERIODICALS 

Brittsh Museum Quarterly, Vol XII, 1938, No 4, mentions 
among recent acquisitions the gold coins acquired from Mr H 
Nelson Wright's collection (described by him in this Journal, 
vide pp 43-49) 

Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society, Vol XXIV, 
1938, Pts I & II) 

"Note on the Kosam com of Bhavanaga " By E H C 

Walsh 
Ibid, Vol XXIV, 1938, Pt III 

"Punch-marked copper band from Patna " By A Banerji 
Sastri 
Ibid, Vol XXV, 1939, Pt I 

"Some notes on the punch-marked copper band found at 

Patna By E H C Walsh 
Ibtd , Vol XXV, 1939, Pt II 

"Notes on two hoards of silver punch-marked coins, one 
found at Ramna and one at Machuatoh " By E H C 
Walsh 
Indian Culture, Vol V 1938, No i 

"A new type of Andhra coin " By Sushil K Bose 
Ibid , No 2, 1938 

"Some Sunga coins hitherto misread " By Miss Bhramar 
Ghosh 
Ibid , 1939, No 4 

"Note on some punch-marked coins of Mysore Museum " 
By Adns Banerji 



100 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCItTY OF INDIA 

Joujnal of the United Provinces Historical Society, Vol XI, 
1938, Pt 1 

Ancient Indian coins as known to Pamm By V S 

Agrawala 
Indian Historical Quarterly, Vol XV, No I 

"Foreign denominations of ancient Indian coins " By S K 
Chakrabortty 



Printed and Published foi the Numismatic Society of India 
by J C Sarkkel at the Calcutta Oriental Press Ltd, 
9, Panchanan Gho>se Lane, Calcutta The Plates 
engraved and Pnnted by the Bharat Photo- 
type Studio Calcutta 



JNSI, 1933, I 



Plate I 




B1JNOR HOARD 



JNSI, 1939, 



Plate II 



A 
Class I 



Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 

Class II 



Fig 4 





Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 




*mN mF 

Fig 9 
<fe>. 

mr 



Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 



Fig 11 



Class III 



Fig 12 

Symbols on one side 
of the Punch-Marked Coins 



B 
Class I 





1 2 3 

Class II 









10 




11 
Class III 




12 



Punch-marked Coins 



BUNOR HOARD 



JNSI, 1939, 1 



Plate II 












8 

A 
Oblong Coins from Rajgir 





HUVISHKA 









1 2 3 

Coins of Jivadaman as Mahakshatrapa 



JNSI, 1939, I 



Plate IV 






10 





14 



17 





20 






23 




11 




15 




18 




12 







21 



24 




H^l 
&y 



13 





16 





19 





22 




26 



JNSI, 1933, I 



Plate \ 







CHANDfiA GUPTA II 




COINS OF NALA DYNASTY, 



JNSI, 1939, 



Plate 




COINS OF BENGAL SULTANS. 



JNSI, 1939, 1 



Plate VI 






D 



A MAHMUD SHAH KHILJI 

B NIZAM SHAH BAHMANI 

C MAHMUD SHAH BEGDA 

D SHER SHAH SURI 




SHAH JAHAN 





F COINS OF PERSIS 



J N.S.I., 1939 No 1 



Plate 




RARE GOLD COINS OF AKBAR AND JAHANGIR 



JNSI, 1939, 1 



Pla 













SASAN1AN COINS 



JNSI, 1939, 1 



Plate 



AR 




COINS OF THE SINDHIAS I 



JNSI, 1939, 



Plate XI 




COINS OF THE SINDHIAS II 



THE 

JOURNAL 
OF 

THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF 1XDIA 

Vol. II ] i 




Editor 

A GHOSE, M A 

Joint Editors 
R. G. GYANI, M A 

'Curator Archaeological Section, Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay 

A S. ALTEKAR, M A ,LL B,D LM 

Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture Banaras Hindu Umvers.ty 



THE 

NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 



THE 



JOURNAL 



[02, 



OF THE 



NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

VOL II 

JOINT EDITORS 

R G GYANI, MA 

Curator Archaeological Section, Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay 

A S ALTEKAR, M A , LL B , D LITT 
Professor of Ancient Indian History and Culture, Benares Hindu University 




THE 
NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 



194O 



First published 1940 
Reprinted 1972 



Published by Sh P L Gupta for The ^umistmatic 
Society of India, Varanasi and printed by K L Sachdeva 
for Skylark Printers, 11355, Id-Gah Road, New Delhi-55 



JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

No II 

1940 

CONTENTS 

PAGE 

I The Relative Prices of Metals and Corns m Ajicient 
India 
By A S Altekar . 1 

II Paila Hoard of Punch-Marked Coins 

By E H C Walsh . . 15 

III A Note on the Shamiwala (Bijnor Dist ") Hoard 

of Silver Coins 

ByE H C Walsh 79 

IV Three New Specimens of a Rare Variety of Eran- 

Ujjayim Coins 
By H D Sankalia . . . . 81 

V A New Hoard of Satavahana Coins from Tarhala 
(Akola Dist ) 

By V. V. Mirashi . . . 83 

VI A Hoard of Kausambi Coins from Fatehpur 

By Dr Motichandra . . . . 95 

VII A New Hoard of Yaudheya Coins from Dehra Dun 

District 

By Prayag Dayal . . . . . . 109 

VIII A New Silver Coin of Huvishka, 

By M B L Dar . . . . . . 113 

IX Some Rare Panchala Coins from the Site of Ancient 
Ahichchhatra, Bareilly District 

By M B L Dar .. 115 



IV 

PAGE 

X Borne Rare Square Copper Pieces from. Ahichchhatra 
in Bareilly District 

By M B L Bar . . 119 

XI Ancient Coins from Mayurbhan] 

ByP Acharya 123 

XII Some Bare Coins in My Cabinet 

ByP S Tarapure . 127 

XIII A Rare Bahmani Rupee 

By R Smghal . . 131 

XIV The Doubtfully- Assigned Coins of Nasir Shal 

ByC R Smghal . 133 

XV A Rare Fractional Pice of Sher Shah Sun 

ByC R Smghal 135 

XVI Note on a Silver Com of Aurangzob, A New Mint 

By Piayag Dayal 137 

XVII Comb of Delwara 

ByR G Gyam 139 

XVIII Reviews 

Ajit Ghose 143 

XIX News and Notes 147 



THE RELATIVE PRICES OF METALS AND COINS 
IN ANCIENT INDIA 

BY DR A S ALTETCAR, BENARES HINDU UNIVERSITY 

Thanks to the efforts of the last two generations of numis- 
matists, we now possess a fairly good knowledge of the coins of 
ancient and medieval India, m gold, silver and copper The ques- 
tion of the relative value of these metals and their coins is however 
still shrouded in considerable obscurity Some occasional observa- 
tions have been made on the subject, but it still remains to be 
treated in a comprehensive way The material available is however 
scanty , still it is desirable to discuss it and draw such conclusions 
as may be warrantable 

Extensive mines of neither gold, nor silver nor copper existed 
in ancient India, and the country had to import considerable quanti- 
ties of these metals to meet her numismatic and household needs 
Some copper mines existed and were worked in Ra]putana and 
Madras Presidency, but they did not supply all the quantity of 
the metal required by the country We learn from the Penplus of 
the Erythrean Sea that the western ports imported considerable 
quantities of this metal in the first century A D ' Probably the 
case was the same both before and after that time 

India proper contained no mines of silver Some of them 
existed in Burma and Afghanistan, but the country had to rely 
mainly upon the imports from Western Asia for her usual require- 
ments 

The indigenous supply of gold was from the mines m Assam, 
Hyderabad, Mysore and Malabar and from the river washings in 
the beds of the Indus, the Ganges and th^ Brahmaputra 2 What 
was the exact quantity of this metal supplied by these sources is not 
known, but it appears to have been not inconsiderable The coun- 
try however had to rely to a great extent on foreign imports for its 
everyday needs with respect to this metal also Tibet was one 
source ot supply , the 'ant-gold' referred to by the Greek writers was 
obtained from that country Some gold appears to have been 
imported from the mines in Eastern Siberia, when the roads were 
sufficiently safe 3 But Western Asia was undoubtedly the most 
important source of supply The Penplus mentions gold and silver 
bullion as articles of import in most of the ports of Western India, 

1 Schoff, The Penplus of the Erythreart Sea, p 42 
* Bahl Economic Geology, Part III, chap 4 
3 Tarn, The Greeks in Balctna and I~idia, p 107 



2 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

and Pliny moans over the heavy dram of the yellow metal, which was 
steadily flowing into India to the detriment of the Koman Empire 
It will be quite clear from the above observations that the 
prices of gold, silver and copper must have to some extent fluctuated 
with the exigencies of the foreign trade 

A few observations have to be made in the beginning on the 
metrology of the coins in gold, silver and copper in order that the 
subsequent discussion should become clear The unit of the gold 
coinage was called suvarna , it weighed 16 niashas or 80 rattis, i e , 
about 144 grams We have however so far discovered no ancient 
gold coins of this standard The gold coins of the Kushanas and 
the early imperial Guptas conform to the Roman standard of the 
aureus and weigh about 120 grains Early Gupta inscriptions further 
show that these gold coins were known, not by the indigenous name 
of suvarna, but by the Roman-derived name dindra Later Gupta 
emperors tried to raise the weight of their gold issues gradually to 
that of the suvarna , in the reign of Skandagupta we find some 
Gupta corns actually conforming to the standard of suvarna, i e , 
144 grains It must however be observed that the increase in the 
weight of these gold coins is counterbalanced by the heavy alloy 
they contained, which is in some cases as high as 50% 

"With, the disappearance of the Gupta po-wer, gold coinage also 
disappeared from northern India In the llth century it was 
restarted by the Chedi ruler Gamgeyadeva and was subsequently 
continued by the Chandellas, the Gahatjlwalas and some other 
dynasties The gold coins that were issued m northern India dur- 
ing the llth and 12th centuries are however seen to be conforming 
to quite a new metrology They are usually about 60 grains m 
weight and were known as suvarna-drammas Half and quarter 
drammas were also issued and have been found m good quantities 
The silver unit of coinage was variously termed as purana, 
dharana or Mrshdpana Like the gold unit, technically it was also 
regarded as weighing 16 mdskas But the -mdsha here was a unit 
of two and not five rattis, and so the silver unit weighed 32 rattis or 
about 57 grains only Its weight was thus two-fifths the weight of 
the suvarna The vast majority of the silver punch-marked coins 
are seen to be conforming to this standard The silver coins issued 
by the Indo-Baktrians first conformed to the Attic and then to the 
Persian standard The silver unit, drachm, which was destined 
to have a very long life in Indian languages in the forms of dramma 
and dam, weighed about 67 grains accordmg to the Attic and 86 
grams according to the Persian standard The hemi-drachms 
issued later by the Indo-Baktnans, the Parthians and the Scythians 



RELATIVE PKICES OF METALS AND COINS IN ANCIENT INDIA 3 

seems to have been adjusted to the prevailing prices of the metal. 
The extensive medieval silver coinage of Ra]putana, popularly 
known as gadatas, conform to the standard of 60 grains The 
Hindu silver coinage of the llth and 12th centuries A D , is seen to 
be about 10 grams lighter 

The unit of the copper coinage was called pana, and according 
to Manu its weight also was 144 grains, or 16 masJias of 5 rattis. 
It is usually assumed in works on ancient Indian numismatics that 
this was the normal weight of the pana, but such does not seem to 
have been the case The commentary on the VinayapUaJca 4 as well 
as Gangamalajataka 5 refer to a bigger pana, weighing not 16 but 
20 mashas of five rattis Early Dharmasastra writers like Vasi- 
shtha,' Gautama 7 and Usanas 8 are aware of a pa na of 20 mdshas or 
100 ratti-s only It would therefore appear that the copper pana in 
the period before the Christian era was 25 per cent heavier than the 
one mentioned by Manu Nor does the metrology referred to by 
Manu appear to have supplanted the earlier pana of 20 mashas , 
for it is mentioned by Narada also 9 An examination of the copper 
coins available at present shows that the weight of the patwt must 
have been sometimes even heavier , we have discovered several 
pieces of Kushana rulers weighing 240 to 260 grains, i e , about 26 
to 28 mdshas And the Agmpuiana actually refers to a pana of 24 
mdsJias 10 

Having cleared the preliminary ground by determining the 
weights of the coins, let us proceed to consider the relative values 
of gold, silver and copper, and the coins issued in these metals We 
shall first take up the question of the relative prices of gold and 
silver 

From the testimony of Xenophon, we learn that m the ancient 
Achemmian empire of Persia, 20 silver coins (called siglos), each 
weighing about 85 grains, were equal in value to one golden coin 



* fl? dfr TO HWT Wlfc CRRIS^T <fl5f ftffT I Vol III, p 45. 

5 wiqofr srtr <nfr ^TKF TTW ?tfri q^t irenfiifr 5^1 NO 421 

III, p 448) It may be noted here that a quarter karshapana is stated to be big- 
ger than 4 mashas in weight A full larehapana must therefore be bigger than 
16 m&shas 

6 Vasishtha allows a normal interest rate of 1J per cent per mensem, Of 

Slfteftfitf ife *pnt^ AX I ^ftTFT ^Ufal'Hraiulffo ^ ' Manu, VIII, 
140 He farther says that the interest on 20 panas would be 5 mashas , 20 panas 
thus become equal to 400 mashas, i e , one pana equal to 20 and not 16 mashas 

Cf T^ mi Eftrar iw wR i SR^ i ii, 55. 

T Cf - dfaffW^ fcfl% ^Tlfclft qiTO.1 l > 2 26 
8 HW it^rl^^l HFftlra ^il^ !^ 5 I Occurring in the Mahatiharala and 
quoted in the Dhcffmakosha, I, p 533. 

8 *n% fariaTPl^J ^FI^T qfNM^ff I Appendix, p. 58 

inr ^fm?f^i 227, i 



4 JOUBNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

(called Dane), weighing about 130 grams If we ignore the alloy, 
this would give the ratio between the prices of gold and silver as 
1700 130 or about 13 1 In contemporary Greece the ratio was 
about 14 1, but later on it became 12 1 In 306 B C it was 10 I 
This was also the ratio m the time of Augustus , for one aureus of 
gold, weighing J^ of a Ib , was equal in value to 20 denarii, each 
weighing -gJj of a Ib " 

It is natural to assume that the Indo-Baktnans continued the 
old Greek and Persian ratio of one gold com being the equivalent of 
20 silver ones Their stater weighed 12 oboli or about 130 grains, 
and drachm 6 oboli or about 65 grains If the alloy is ignored and 
20 drachms are assumed to be equal to one stater, the ratio between 
the price of gold and silver works out to be 10 1 This was true 
of the early Indo-Baktrian penod 

It would thus be seen that silver was relatively dearer in India 
in terms of gold That was but natural for India had some indige- 
nous supply of gold, but practically none whatever of silver This 
relative dearness of the white metal continued down to the 1st 
century A D For the author of the Penplus informs us that silver 
could be profitably exchanged for gold in India ' 2 

Luckily we have some epigraphical evidence to enlighten lib 
about the relative prices of the two metals, which is almost contem- 
poraneous with that of the Penplus Nasik inscription No 10 
tells us that 70,000 Ldtshapanas were equal in value to 2,000 suvar- 
nas , 35 ~kaishapanas were thus equal to one suvarna 13 If we as- 
sume with Dr D E Bhandarkar that the silver Kdrshdpanas and 
the gold suvarnas were the traditional indigenous coins of the weight 
of 32 and 80 lattis respectively, then the ratio between the prices of 
gold and silver would be 35 X 32 80, i e , 14 1 

This conclusion would however go against the express contem- 
porary statement of the author of the Penplus that silver was dearer 
in India than in the West I think that we must take the Jed) shdpcmas 
and suvarnas, referred to in the Nasik inscription, as denoting not 
the coins mentioned in Smntis, but the currency actually current in 
contemporary times At that time the silver currency in vogue m 
Maharashtra was that of the silver coins, issued by Nahapana. 
No indigenous sum? was of contempoiary times are known , very 

11 Gardner, History of Ancient Coinage, pp 32 36 
ls Sclioff, The Penplut, of the Erythrean Sea, p 42 

1 3 Cf i%5?r ^ apfrwe^rfpr ^^, , e o o , q^ffofjgsrf far fo g^rww i 

E I , Vol VIII, p 82 The Karshapana referred to in this inscription is 
really the hemidrachm , the ratio of exchange between euvarna and drachm 
would then be 17 1 According to the old Greek and Persian tradition, the 
gold coin was equal to 20 silver pieces In India this ratio had now changed 
to l?i 1 It was soon to be 16 1, as will be presently shown 



probably the term denotes the golden issues of the Kushanas, 
who were most probably the overlords of the western Kshatrapas 
The silver coins of Nahapana weighed not 32 rattis or 57 grains but 
about 35 grains, and the gold corns of the Kushanas weighed not 80 
rattis or 144 grains but about 120 grains If we accept this metro- 
logy, and it is but natural to do so the relative ratio between the 
prices of gold and silver would be 35x35 120, i e , 245 24 or 
about 10 1 But we have to make a further allowance for the alloys 
The alloy in the silver punch-marked coins was about 20 per cent, 
and the same was probably the case with the coins of the Kshatrapas 
The alloy m the gold coins of Kamshka was about 9 per cent u If 
we make an allowance for these alloys, the ratio in the prices of the 
two metals would be about 28x35 110, i.e , 9 3 In Persia the 
ratio was 13 1 as observed above already , it was thus naturally 
profitable to exchange silver for gold in India, as the author of the 
Penplus has observed. 

Cunningham has come to the conclusion 15 that the ratio of the 
prices of gold and silver was 8 1 on the assumption that the kdr- 
shdpanas contained an alloy of about 20 per cent and that 25 of them, 
each weighing 32 tattis, were equal m value to one suvarna weighing 
80 rattis He has however given no authority for the latter hypo- 
thesis 

In the Gupta empire, from c 390 A D , both the silver and gold 
coins were current , the weight of the gold coins was in the begin- 
ning about 120 grams, but was being gradually increased to 144 
grains , that of the silver coins was about 35 grains We however 
get no clue giving the relative value of these comb 

In the Baigram copper plate grant of the year 447 A D 5 ibbued 
in the reign of Kumaragupta I, we get some interesting data to 
determine the relative prices of gold and sil\ er coins The donor of 
the grant is seen purchasing three Jculydvapas of fallow land for 
six dinaras and ^ kulydvdpa of homestead (sthala] land for eight 
lupakas 16 Unfortunately the inscription does not expressly state 
the rate of the homestead land If however we assume that it was 
the bame as that of the fallow land, then the above data would con- 
clusively show that one dinara was equal to 16 rupakas 

This conclusion is no doubt a very interesting and valuable one, 
but it does not enable us to arrive at any precise conclusion about 
the prices of the two metals The term rupaka was used to denote 
the coinage not only in silver but also m other metals as well The 
Artkasdstra of Kau^ilya makes this point quite clear " The con- 

14 Cunningham, C'oiwa of Medieval Indta, p 16 

15 Coins of Ancient India, p 5, Archaeological Survey Reports, Vol XIV, p. 17 
e Ept Ind , Vol XXI, pp 81 2 

See Bk II chaps 23 and 32 



6 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

text of the inscription however makes it quite clear that the term 
rupala, as used m it, could be indicating only the silver coins 
Gold coins have been already referred to by the record as dindras, 
and eight copper coins could not possibly have been the price of 
^ "kulydidpa of homestead land 

In the Gupta period, 16 silver coins -were then equal to one 
golden one If we presume that the golden and silver coins referred to 
were the traditional pieces weighing 80 and 32 rattis respectively, 
then the ratio between the prices of gold and silver would be 16 X 32 
80, i e , about 61 1 

It would however be more reasonable to presume that the 
Baigram record is referring to the contemporary Gupta gold and 
silver currency The average weight of Kumaragupta's silver corns 
is 35 grains, and that of his gold ones about 125 grains If these were 
exchanging at the rate of 16 1, then the ratio of the prices of gold 
and silver would be 35 X 16 125, i e , about 4j 1 

The above conclusion however appears rather improbable 
The Baigram plates were found in the Bogra district of Bengal and 
most of the Gupta gold coins found in that province are seen to be 
heavily alloyed The coins of Kumaragupta I, however, as heavily 
alloyed as those of Skandagupta or Narasirnhagupta, have not yet 
been discovered But when we remember how Kaumaragupta I 
was driven, to issue silver-plated coins in the western provinces of his 
empire, there is nothing improbable in his having issued a heavily 
alloyed golden currency in the eastern districts of his dominions 
Skandagupta and Puragupta may be merely following the example 
set by Kumaragupta I Only a few coins of the Kaligat hoard have 
survived, and it is probable that among the coins that were melted 
down by the Board of Directors in what Allan has described as a 
mercenary fit, there may have been some coins of Kumaragupta I 
as heavily debased as those of Skandagupta or Puragupta 

The alloy in the heavier coins of Skandagupta, Puragupta, 
Narasimhagupta and Kumaragupta II, weighing about 144 grains, 
is about 50 per cent " If we assume that the Baigram record refers 
to such heavily alloyed coins of Kumaragupta I, which have not 
yet been found, but which very probably circulated at the time of 
that record, then the ratio between the prices of gold and silver 
would not be as high as 4-| 1 Skandagupta's heavy corns weighing 
about 140 grains contain only about 73 grains of gold, and the alloy 
of silver may be approximately about the value of 7 grams m gold 
80 grams of gold would then be equal in value to 35 X 16 grains of 
silver , the ratio of prices would be then 71 I do not know the 
precise alloy in the silver corns of Kumaragupta I, but assuming that 

1J 5 Cunningham, Coins of Medieval India, p lb 



RELATIVE PRICES OF METALS AND COINS IN ANCIENT INDIA 7 

it was to the usual extent of about 20 per cent, then the ratio be- 
tween the prices of the two metals would be 80 28 x 16, i e , 5j 1 

The above discussion would show that though we have not yet 
got data that would enable us to come to absolutely convincing re- 
sults, it appears fairly certain that the prices of silver were higher m 
the Gupta period than they were m the Kushana age The ratio of 
thepricesofgoldandsilverseemstohavevariedbetween? Iand6 1 

India imported her silver supplies to a great ertent from Central 
Asia The disintegration of the Kushana empire must have inter- 
fered with the importation of that metal from Central Asia This 
must have resulted in the prices of silver soaring up There was 
already a world sho tage of silver m the second century 4. D , which 
had compelled the Eoman emperors to debase their silver denarius " 
The confusion caused by the disappearance of the Kushana supre- 
macy must have made the white metal rarer still, "both m India and 
outside 

Narada, Brihaspati and Katyayana supply some interesting 
data for determining the relative prices of gold, silver and copper 
during the period 500-800 A D , which ^as the approximate time of 
the composition of their Smntis Unfortunately these Smntis 
have not been preserved in their ongma] form , they have to be 
reconstructed by putting together quotations from them as given 
in later digests and commentaries This circumstance considerably 
increases the difficulties of the numismatist in interpreting their 
evidence The available evidence however seems to show that the 
silver had become much cheaper in this period 

A verse which occurs m the Smntis of Narada, Katyayana and 
Brihaspati states that four IdrsJidjMnas are equal to one aitdila or 
dJidnala and that four dhdnaias are equal to one suva)na or dinara 20 
Dr D R Bhandarkar holds that the Idrslidpcn/ifi here referred to is 
not a silver but a copper coin, the well known pana of 80 rattis, and 
therefore concludes that these Smntis show that 48 copper coins 
were equal to one golden suvarna * ' As the weight of both the pana 
and the suvaina was 80 rattis, this would show that the ratio of the 
price of gold to that of copper was as low as 48 1 The Biihaspati 
Smnti supports Dr Bhandarkar s contention , for it first states that 
the pana was a copper coin and then adds that it was also known 
as andikd, 48 of which were equal to one suvarna 2: This leaves us no 

J9 Brown, The Coins oj India, p <U 

ao ^T>frsf^%wra?ra?cjqiw iwsre^r g^reg frmn?9 fliw^n 

Narada, Appendix 9 p 60 
Si Ancient Indian Numismatics, p 189 

1 ttfW^frn 53J f^T 3Tl!&fe> "T ! II 

7P SISST pf^ ^tTir^ H q^ g ii 

Quoted m Sm nil chandnka, Vya p 99 



alternative but to conclude that the ratio between the prices of 
gold and copper was as low as 48 1 Was copper really so dear 
during the 7th and 8th centuries ? 

This conclusion however is untenable in the light of other 

evidence to which reference will be soon made, which makes it 

abundantly clear that 4=8 1 or thereabout was the ratio between the 

prices of silver and copper and not between those of gold and copper 

As observed already, Bnhaspati exists only in quotations, and it 

would appear that those who have quoted the above passage from 

his Smnti have either misquoted him or misplaced the verses 

Verses occurring in the same contest inNarada andKatyayana sug- 

gest that the term latshapana was intended to denote the silver 

coin, as is also the usual usage If we analyse the passage m 

Ndradasmriti, Appendix, as given m the SEE version, we find 

that the verse 57 expressly states that the Mi sJidpana is a silver com in 

the southern country Verse 58 gives the metrology of copper kdr- 

shd'pana, l.akaiii and mdsha and then verse 59 refers to certain pecu- 

liarities of the Punjab Idishapanas We are then told that four 

hdtshdpanas constitute an andika or dhdnaka and 12 dhdnakas, a 

swiaina " I think that the Mrshapana referred to in verse 60 is 

really the silver com m entioned in verse 57 We must not forget that 

the verses in JSTarada have been arranged not in their original order, 

but in that order which appeared most probable to Dr Jolly We 

should therefore presume that verse 60 refers to the silver kdrsMpana 

mentioned in verse 57, if we are to avoid the impossible conclusion 

of gold being only 48 times dearer than copper It will be presently 

shown how other evidence renders this conclusion altogether un- 

tenable 

Assuming that the Jcdrsfidpana referred to by Narada, Katya- 
yana and Brihaspati in the veise under discussion is the silver com, 
we come to the conclusion that 48 silver Mrshdpanas were equal to 
one gold suvarna or dmdra As no golden currency existed in the 
time of these writers, we may presume that the suvarna they are 
referring to is gold bullion weighing about 144 grams Contem- 
porary silver coins were the Gadaiyas whose normal weight was 60 
grams Allowing for the usual 20 per cent alloy in the silver cur- 
rency, the statement of Narada would show that the ratio between 
the prices of gold and silver was 50 > 48 144, % e, , about 171 If -we 
ignore the alloy in the silver coins, then the ratio \vould be 20 1 



1 57 
3 n 58 
ii 

59 

i HT sr^tr i^ rarcn?r s ^ n eo 



RELATIVE PRICES OF METALS AND COINS IN ANCIENT INDIA 9 

This -would show that bilver had now become twice as cheap as it 
was in the Gupta period 

There is other evidence to show that such was really the case at 
about the advent of the Mublim rule Bhaskaracharya, who 
flourished in the 12th century A D , has given the relative value 
of the coins current m his time In verse 2 of his Lildcati, he states that 
16 silver drammas were equal to one golden msJila 24 Unfortunately 
he has not given us the weights of these coins referred to by him, 
but obviously he must be referring to the silver and golden coins 
current in his age We have shown already how the unit of both 
these coinages was a piece of about 60 grams in the llth and the 
12th centuries Bhaskara's statement that sixteen silver drammas 
were equal to one golden msjika would then sho\\ that rhe ratio 
between the prices of gold and silver was 16 1 Weha\e of course 
made no allowance for the allov in either coin Bhaskara therefore 
supports the conclusion we have drawn from Narada Brihaspati 
and Katyayana 

We however get a still more decisive confirmation of this con- 
clusion from the data in the Sulmsm'* iti, which may be placed to- 
wards the end of the Hindu period ukra expresslv declares that 
gold was sixteen times costlier than silver 2S This statement is 
explicit , we have not to speculate about the probable weight of 
any coins referred to or the alloy they might have contained It is 
therefore clear that -cowards the end of the Hindu period the prices 
of the white metal had fallen, and that it was as much as 16 tunes 
cheaper than gold The conclusion to nearly the same effect which 
we had above drawn from Narada, Brihaspati and Katyayana is 
therefore a correct one, though we had to rely upon rather ambi- 
guous data 

The above conclusion hold good of northern India. In the 
extreme south silver was very rare No silver currency is known to 
have prevailed in the Satavahana, Chola, Panolya and Kerala 
kingdoms Silver coins of Gau^amiputra Satakarm and Yajnasri 
Satakarm were due to the temporary influence of Kashtrapa currency 
Silver punch marked coins are sometimes found in south India, but 
their number is very small The Rajarajesvara temple at Tan]orc 
has a number of inscriptions recording presents of ornaments and 
utensils to the deity They are however all gold } silver ones, appear 
but once only Tho editor has justlv observed ' It looks as if the king 



I! Chap I, veree 2 

IFr JT'-TI II 
IV, 2, 92 3 



10 JOURNAL 01? THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

"had moie gold and precious stones at his disposal than silver " !B 
It is cunous to note that when silver utensilb are mentioned, the 
king takes particular care to state the sources from which they were 
obtained 27 , this \\ould seem to show that they were a greater rarity 
than the golden ornaments and utensils In the immense plunder 
that Malikafur carried away from the south, there was hardly any 
silver , it consisted mostly of gold, pearls and precious stones 

It is therefore "but natural that silver should be much dearer 
m the south than it was in the north We have however no defi- 
nite reliable information on the point In South Indian Epigraphy 
Report for 1915 the summary of an inscription of Kulottunga I, 
dated m his 29th year (1099 AD), has been given, in the course of 
\\hich we are told that one hasu of gold could purchase 30 palams 
of copper and 26 palams of silver 2B This record would show that 
copper was almost as dear as silver^ and that one Idsu, i e , about 
25 grams of gold 29 were equal m value to 26 palams, i e , 104 paws, 
i e , 104 X 144, i e , 14,976 grams of silver This would show the 
ratio between gold and silver prices to be something like 800 1 ' 
Such was never the case at any tune in ancient or modern history 

Thinking that there was some obvious mistake in the sum- 
mary of the record, as published in the South Indian Inscription, I 
made further enquiries in the matter, but Rai Bahadui C K Krishna- 
Ed acliarlu, Superintendent for Epigraphy, assured me that the sum- 
mary was substantially correct as far as the readings in the inscription 
\vere concerned. Foi the text of the record reads as follows 

Kasu on ruLlu sembu mrai muppadin palamdga, at the rate of 

30 palams of copper for one lasu 

Velh miai impad tnpalattukkukd3u mulckdlum, at the rate of 

f kdsu for 20 palams of silver 

As Eai Bahadur C R Knshnamacharlu has suggested in his 
letter, we shall have to suppose that a mistake may have crept 
in the inscription itself when it was quoting the relative prices, or 
the weight of palam in the case of copper may have been much 
heavier than what it was m the case of silver We have already 
seen above how masJio, weighed only two tattle m the case of silver, 
but five rattit> in the case of gold and copper. It is clear that we 
cannot conclude from this record that copper was almost as dear as 
silver, and that the latter was about 800 times cheaper than gold 

S I I , Vol II, p 416 

J7 Qf "The sacred silver utensils presented from his own treasures, tho^e 
seized from the Chera king and the Pandyaa in Malai Nadu and those acquired as 
booty after defeating the same enemies " It would thus appear that the Pandyaa 
and Keralaa had some silver, probably imported from abroad Ibid, p 419 

*8 Op nt , p 198 

* 8 Usually one kasn was equal to J of a kalanyu weighing about 50 grams, 
but this record expressly describes its Ldsu as being one half of a kalanju 



RFLATIVE PRICES OF METALS AND COINS IN ANCIENT INDIA 11 

It m ay not be out of pkce here to refer briefly to some data 
about the relative prices of gold and silver in the Muslim period 
also The Impenal Gazette? states that the ratio of these prices wa 
about 8 lmcl200AD,butfellto7 1 after Alauddm & conquest of 
tne Deccan, which resulted in the importation of vast quantities cf 
gold, looted from the southern countries .At the time of feher Shah 
the ratio rose to 9 4 ] 3 This would show that silver became twice 
as dear after the Muslim conquest as it was before it With the 
establishment of the Moghul rule, the prices of aiher went down 
From Tavermer, v?ho visited India towards the middle of the 17ft 
century, we learn that 14 silver rupees were equal m value to one 
golden one As the weight of both the rupees was practically the 
same, we may take it that the ratio of the prices of gold and Mlver 
was 14 1 Later on silver became somewhat cheaper still , at *he 
beginning of the 19th century it could be purchased at the ra+e oi 
about Es 16 per tola 

EELATIVE PRICES OF SILVER AND COPPER 

Let us now proceed to consider the relative prices of silver ai d 
copper A quotation from Hdnta Dhmma Sutra, preserved bj the 
VyavaJiarakalpataru, supplies us the earliest available data on thi> 
point It states that the legal rate of interest was eight (copper ) pan a * 
per month on a capital of 25 (silver) pur anas, and proceed^ to add 
that on this calculation the capital would be doubled in 4 years and 
2 months, i e , in 50 months 3I The interest in 50 months would be 
400 (copper) panas and they would thus be equal to 25 (silver) pura- 
nas One pur ana would thus be equal to 16 panas This would 
remind us of the present day currenc\ according to which one four 
anna piece is equal to 16 copper paisas The puiam of Hail* a 
weighed 32 rattis, and pa no. 20 maslias or 100 rath? The p^rata 
further contained an alloy of about 20 per cent The da+a ot Hatra 
would thus show that about 25 rattis of sih er would be equal to IGo* * 
rattis of copper , the ratio of their prices would thus be in *he MCI- 
nity of 1 64 At this early period the ratio between the prio s of 
gold and silver was in the vicinity of 1 10 , the relative prices of the 
three metals would then he 1 10 6iO 

The Indo-Baktrians, the Indo-Scvthian* and the Ii.do-Parh- 
lans have issued very extensive coinage in siher and copper , we 
however get no clue to ascertain the relative prices of their &ih er a^l 
copper currency The silver comage is on the Nshole een to be sal- 
lowing an intelligible weight s\ stern, but the same can hardh be 

SO Op cit , Vol IV, pp. 513 4 

Quoteam I ystfaraknipati'h p 1 



12 JOURNAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

said to be the case with reference to the copper issues The Smntis 
refer to copper panas of 144 and ISO grams, but heavier panas were 
circulating in the reigns of Apollodotus and Menander, who have 
issued a large number of copper pieces weighing m the vicinity of 
240 grams A large number of Kushana copper coins weigh 260 
and 130 grams, showing thereby that the copper unit at this time 
was of 260 gram& These Greek and Kushana pieces of 240 and 
260 grains would be of 26 and 28 tndslias , they would thus be 
panas heavier than those of 24 mdshas mentioned by the Agni- 
yurana 3S 

The silver drachm had appreciated in weight during this period 
and used to be of 75 grains " If we assume that the old ratio be- 
tween the silver and copper units of 16 1, which prevails still to-day, 
was holding good at this time also, then the silver drachm of 75 
grains would be equal to 16 copper panas, each equal to about 250 
grains in weight Allowing for an alloy of 20 per cent m the silver 
unit, this would show that 60 grains of silver would be equal to 
16x250 grains of copper The ratio between the relative prices 
would be about 66 1 3 * This ratio is nearly the same as the one we 
have deduced from the data in the Snmtis. 

The next clue to the prices of silver and copper is to be obtained 
from Ndiadasmriii, which states that one silver Ldrshdpana was 
equal to 16 copper panas as a general rule, but equal to 20 panas 
in the east If we ignore the alloy in the silver com, and assume 
that the copper com was of 80 and not 100 rattis, this would show 
that 32 rattis of silver were equal in value to 16x80, i e , 1,280 rattis 
of copper This would give a ratio of 1 40, which is rather high 
This ratio would be 1 50 if we allow for the usual 20 per cent alloy 
in the silver coin, and 1 62, if we assume that the copper pam was 
100 rattis in weight Narada expressly states that the pana was of 
20 mdshas ( ante, p n ) , so the last-mentioned conclusion would 
seem to be the most probable one 

In the east, one silver kdrsMpana was worth 20 panas of copper 
It is possible that this was the case because the copper pana there 
was smaller If however such was not the case, the ratio of the 
silver and copper prices there would be in the vicinity of 80 1 

The Sultamti expressly declares that silver was 80 tunes 
dearer than copper 3S This price ratio would correspond to that 
prevailing in the east according to Narada 

32 Ante.p 3, n 10 

88 I do not think it probable that the 75 grain pieces were intended to 
pass for diadrachms 

34 This conclusion is only tentative It is possible to argue that 240 graan 
pieces were l pana pieces or 1 pina pieces, as Cunningham has done I how- 
ever think this theory very improbable 

-n i iv, 2 02 



RELATIVE PRICES OT? METALS AND COINS IN ANCIENT INDIA 13 

The Medmi states that one silver dramma was equal to 16 
copper panas S6 , the LUdiati of Bhaskaracharya also gives the 
same ratio " The silver unit in the currency at the time of Bhas- 
karachaiya was of about 50 grains, and allowing for an alloy of 20 
per cent, the data in Lilaiati would show that 40 grains of silver were 
equal in value to 16 X 140 grains of copper The ratio in the prices 
of the two metals would thus be 1 56 This is a much higher ratio 
than the one mentioned by $ukra We however do not know what 
was the unit of the copper currency actually in vogue in the tune of 
the IMawtZ If we assume that it was a pana of 20 and not 16 
mashas* then the ratio between the prices of the two metals would 
be about 1 70 

The above di&cussion will show that the ratio between the 
prices of silver and copper usually varied from 1 60 to 1 80 There 
were two verses in the Biihasyatismriti, which clearly seemed to ra- 
dicate that the rati o between the prices of gold and copper was 48 1 
It must have now become clear how the inference that can be legi- 
timately drawn from the above verses in Brihaspati is utterly irre- 
concilable with the information supplied by all other reliable 
sources We are therefore perfectly justified in assuming that the 
verses in Brihaspati are placed in a wrong juxtaposition by Di Jolly, 
or that they are misquoted by the later writers 

In conclusion we may briefly refer to the relative prices of silver 
and copper in the Muslim period Thomas has shown that the ratio 
between the prices of silver and copper was about 1 72 during the 
reign of Sher Shah This ratio is in the vicinity of the one indi- 
cated by ^ukra In the reign of Akbar one rupee of 180 grains 
was equal to 40 dams of 320 grains If we ignore the alloy in the 
rupee, this gives the ratio beta een the prices of the two metals as 
1 70 At the time of Tavermer (c 1650 A D ) copper seems to have 
become cheaper, for he states that one rupee exchanged for 49 
copper dams at Surat and 55 at Agra In the reign of Aurangzeb 
the copper prices soared so high that the emperor was compelled to 
reduce the weight of his copper dam by 33 per cent The ratio of 
their prices seems to have been in the vicinity of 1 48 



92 

81 Ante, p 9, n 24 



PAILA HOAKD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 
BY E H C WALSH, I C S (RETJEED) 

In this paper an examination is made of a hoard of 10] 4- Silver 
Punch-marked coins found at Paila in the Khen District of the 
United Provinces in 1922 The hoard, which was preserved m an 
earthen pot, originally contained 1245 coins , only 1014 of them 
were however available for examination ' 

The coins are in a remarkably good state of preservation and 
are of especial interest as they are of a distinct type, no examples of 
which had been found up to their discoveiy , as they bear a group 
of four marks only on the obverse, instead of the group of five 
marks which characterises other punch-marked coins that have been 
found throughout India, and also are of a different standard of 
weight of about 42 grams, and are therefore distinct from the Pana, 
Kdislidpana, Purdna of about 52 grains or 32 Satis of Manu's 
standard to which all the Five Mark Punch-marked coins belong 
From their provenance, and that of similar corns which have since 
been found, they would appear to be coins of the ancient kingdom 
of Kosala, before its conquest by the kingdom of Magadha and its 
subsequent inclusion in the Mauryan Empire 

INTRODUCTORY 

These coins were originally examined by the late Mr W E M 
Campbell, I C S , who, unfortunately was not able to publish the 
results of his examination before his death m 1923 After his death, 
I offered to make an examination and classification of the corns, 
and was asked by the Committee of the Provincial Museum to do so 
The coins together with others which had been with Mi Campbell, 
^ere deposited in the British Museum, and were made over to me 
by its authorities Mr Campbell had arranged the coins into eight 
classes but had left no notes or papers of any kind with them. 

In 1917, however, when I was engaged in examining a hoard of 
silver punch-marked coins found at Golakhpur m Patna city, Mr 
Campbell had kindly sent for my perusal his Treasure Trove Report 
and the notes which he had made up to that time, on the present corns, 
and I kept notes of them, and returned them to him I have in- 
cluded those notes of Mr Campbell's m my paper on the Golakhpur 

1 [Some coins of thus claps -which have been recently published by Mr Durga 
Prasad (Mm Sup XLV, pp 12-13 & PI VI) probably represent a portion of the 
missitig part of this hoard EDITOR, ASA] 



16 JOURNAL OF 3?HE 1HJMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

coins, m the Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Eesearch Society, 1919 
In that paper, referring to my conclusion from the Grolakhpur coins 
that the marks on. the obverse of punch-marked coins occur in regu- 
lar groups, which at that time, was not generally recognized, 2 I 
wrote, with reference to Mr Campbell's notes on the present coins, 
as follows 

"Mr "W E M Campbell, I C S , has also come to the same con- 
clusion from the examination of a most extensive and important 
find of 1,245 punch-marked coins at Paila in the Khen District of 
the United Provinces," 3 and "Mr Campbell has kindly let me see 
his Treasure Trove Report and his notes on the Paila corns He 
has found that they bear a group of 4 marks on the obverse, 
which is constant for each class of coins, and has classified them ac- 
cording to such groups, as follows 

Class I, 291 coins , Class II, 481 coins , Class III, 254 coins , 
Class IV, 5 coins , Class TV- A., 6 coins , Class V, 44 coins , Class 
VT, 4 corns , Class VII, 2 corns , Class VIII, 1 coin , coins of the 
type of Class I, II or III, but with distinctive symbol missing or 
obscure, 138 corns , the remainder being 12 broken pieces and 7 
corroded 

"Mr Campbell has also let me see the list of the figures of the 
marks on these corns 

"It is to be hoped that he will publish the result of his examina- 
tion y which will be a most valuable contribution to the subject " 

' That there is no general uniformity amongst the reverse marks 
is also the case in the corns found at Paila Mr Campbell's Treasure 
Trove Keport, and his list of maiks, which he has kindly let me 
see, show that while, as already noted, only 13 marks occur in 
certain nxed groups on the obverse of 1,226 coins, no less than 89 
marks, in which also all varieties of the same object have been 
included under one number, occur on the reverse " * 

Unfortunately, Mr Campbell did not live to complete and pub- 
lish his examination of the corns 

The further examination of the present 1014 coins shows that 
the number of decipherable reverse marks or groups of marks, as 
shown mPlates II, III, IV of the Be verse Marks, amounts to 199 and 
the total number of the Reverse Marks included in the above groups 
is 417 And in addition to these there are many varieties on the 
different punches of some of the marks shown in the Table 

2 [The late Dr Spooner was the nrst scholar to draw attention to this 
important oiroumstauoe in. his paper on the Peshawar Government House Hoard 
of punch marked coins published m A E . A S I , 1905 6. at p 151 EDITOR. 
ASA] 

8 J B R S , 1919, p 20 



PAIL 4 HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 17 

I further found that the coins had to be divided into thirteen 
classes and not eight as they -were divided by Mr Campbell And 
it will be seen, from the respective number of corns m the eight 
classes which Mr Campbell proposed, that his arrangement differed 
materially from my present classification, though they are both on 
the same principle, being based in each case on the fixed groups of 
the Four Obverse Marks As regards the present classification, 
however, and all the conclusions drawn from it, and from the exami- 
nation of the corns, I am solely responsible 

The total number of the coins, as then given by Mr Campbell, is 
1245, whereas the total number of the corns received by me was 
only 1014 In the corns which I received Mr Campbell had placed 
apart certain coins which he had allotted for distribution to the 
various Museums I found it necessary, however, for the classifica- 
tion and arrangement of the corns, to include these in the general 
list of the coins 

Among the corns which I received, Mr Campbell had also put 
apart in separate envelopes 36 corns containing 20 different "Types" 
of the Mark of the Elephant which he had noticed on the coins 
With regard to these I wrote in my Report to the Museum "On 
some of the envelopes of the coins of Classes I V, I have noted 
"Elephant Type ( )" or "Elephant Die ( ) " This refers to 36 
corns of one or other of those classes, which had been placed together 
by Mr Campbell, as representing the different types of the Elephant 
(Mark No 3), which he had found on the corns I found, however, 
on going through the coins, that those dies only represent some of 
the many different dies of the Elephant Mark occurring on the 990 
coins comprised in those classes, and that the difference of those 
particular dies in no way affected the classification, and they had 
to be separated for the purpose of including them in their respective 
classes " 

I have, however, made casts of the corns bearing the more distinc- 
tive of those types, and they are shown on the Plates of the coins, 
and different types are noted in the description of the Plates of the 
corns 

I completed the examination of the coins in 1 928 and forwarded 
them to the Lucknow Provincial Museum with a full report and 
with the present Plate I of the Obverse Marks and the classification 
of the coins, and with each coin placed in a separate envelope with 
the Class, Obverse Maiks, "Reverse Marks, Weights, and other par- 
ticulars noted on them Nothing which has since been published 
leads me to alter or modify the conclusions contamed in that report, 
which, together with such conclusions and observations as arise 
from it, is contamed in the present paper, 
3 



18 JOURNAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

THE CLASSIFICATION OP THE COINS 
THE OBVERSE MARKS 

The coins all bear a Group of Four Marks on the obverse, and 
fall into classes which, bear tie same fixed group of marks There 
are thus thirteen classes The obveise marks and the classification 
of the coins are shown on Plate I 

Thirteen different obverse marks occur on the coins , they are 
as follows 

Mark 1 Three Serpentines round a Central Boss This mark 
occurs on all the coins and is the distinctive mark of this coinage 

The mark, as it occurs on the Later Corns, is clear on PI V, 
26 and 28, and VI, 20 and 23 The mark is of larger size on the 
Older Classes of the coins, as will be seen on PI VII, 6 (Class X) 
and 14 (Class XII), on which it is 13 mm and 16 mm in. diameter 
respectively, as compared, for example, with PI VI, 23 (Class Ila) 
on which it is only 11 mm 

Mark 2 A Taurrne occuism. two forms , namely 2a, enclosed 
in a Shield, in the Later Classes I to VIII, and 2b, of larger size and 
without the Shield in the Older Classes IX to XIII 

The mark 2a is clear on PI V, 21 and 32 on both of which 
it occurs twice, and PI VI, 9 , and in the older form, 2b, on PI 
VII, 5 (along the bottom left corner) and VII, 12 (at the top left 
coiner of the com) 

Mark 3 (Classes I to V ) An Elephant, facing either to the 
right or to the left This mark occurs m Classes I to V. I have 
therefore divided each of those classes into Sub -Classes a, in which 
the Elephant faces to the right, and 6, in which it faces to the left, 
and c, in which the mark is not sufficiently clear, or complete, to 
decide the direction in which it faces The different direction of 
the Elephant would appear to show a different issue of those coin- 
ages In class V, the Elephant faces only to the left On four 
coma of Class III, Nos 939, 940, 941 and 94IA the mark does 
not appear 

The Elephant is of a great number of different types This is 
not, however, peculiar to the Elephant, but applies equally to the 
other marks H is, in fact, difficult to find a number of any mark 
which have been stamped with an identical punch This is to be 
expected, as the number of punches in use at the same time must 
have been very great, and each one must have been individually cut 
The Elephant occurs both Tusked and Tuskless An example 
of a dumpy tusked form will be seen onPl V, 1 and of a lanky tusked 
one on PI V, 10 and 21 , and of a dumpy tusklessform on PI V, 8, 
and of a lanky tuskless one on PI V, 2 and 3, and PI. VI, 3. 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 19 

A special variety of the mark, with two dots above the Ele- 
phant, occurs on two coins of Glass Ila, Nos 476 and 477, which are 
of different p cinches, and with three dots ahove the Elephant on 
two coins of Class Ila, Nos 517 and 518 As the design is different, 
they would appear to indicate different issues of the Class II coinage* 

Mark 4 (Class I ) A Pentagram This mark occurs m two 
forms, the one plain, and the other with a dot in each of the angles, 
and these would appear to indicate different issues of the coinages. 
The Pentagram-with-Dots, occurs on 81 of the 470 coins in 
Class I, namely on 15 in Class la, on 48 square and 13 round coins 
in Class Ib, and on 5 coins in Class Ic They are noted in the List 
of the Coins 

The form of the incuse of the Pentagram also varies, being cir- 
cular O, pentagonal > or indented ^f, showing the use of dif- 
ferent punches. 

The Pentagram does not occur on any of the British Museum 
punch-marked corns, or on any of the Five Mark coins of which I 
am aware It is not peculiar to India, and was a magic symbol 
known in. the "West, as the Pentagram, Pentacle, Pentalpha, and 
"The Wizard's Foot " It is not possible to attribute any parti- 
cular significance to it on the present coins 

Mark 5 (Class II ) A Circle and a Crescent, with an Arrow- 
head on either side between them They appear to represent the 
Sun and Moon 

Mark 6 (Class III ) A Hare seated on its haunches I take 
this animal to be a hare, and not a dog, because the hare (Sasa) 
is associated with the Moon (Sasi, fiasadhara ) and also from the 
sticking-up ears, and the short up-curved scut of the tail 

Mark 7 (Classes IV and VI ) A Humped Bull facing to the 
left As on all other punch-marked corns, the horns of the Bull 
curve forward, namely, downwards towards the head This would 
appear to be with the object of distinguishing this mark from the 
elephant, on which the tusks curve upwards, when only a portion 
of the mark appears on the coin 

The Bull occurs, both in a Dumpy type as on PI "VT, 12 and 13, 
which are both of an identical punch, and PI VI, 14 , and m a 
Lanky type as on PI VI, 23 and 24 

Mark 8 (Class V, VI, VII and VIII ) A Circle and a Cres- 
cent The components of this mark are similar to Mark 5 5 with- 
out the arrow-heads (PI VI, 17 and 25), and with a dot in the 
centre of the circle (PI VI, 24) 

Mark 9 (Class VII ) A Palm-Tree (PI VI, 25) 

Mark 10 A Tree (Class VIII ) PI VI, 26 and 27, which 
are of different punches 



20 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Mark 11 (Classes IX to XIII ) A Hexagon formed by two 
Triangles, with a Dot in the centre It is difficult to get a clear 
example of this mark, as the coins on which it occurs are old and 
worn It is clearest on PI VII, 15 and 16 The only Five-Mark 
Punch-marked coins on which this mark occurs are the Golakhpur 
Hoard, found at Patna 5 This symbol is not peculiar to India , 
it also occurs in the West, where, as a magical symbol it is known 
as "Solomon's Seal " 

Mark 12 (Class IX ) A Wheel (PI VI, 23) on the "Reverse," 
namely the Older Obverse of that Double-Obverse coin, and on 
PI VII, 1, 2 and 3 

Mark 13 (Classes X to XIII ) A Circle with Curved 
Foliations round it. This mark occurs in different varieties in the 
above classes, for which reason they have been shown as sepa- 
rate classes But they would appear to be different varieties of 
the same mark, in which case Classes X, XI, XII and XIII should 
be considered as one Class The mark, Class X, is shown on PI VII, 
5, on which it is clear, and on PI VII, 6 (bottom left hand) Class XI 
can be seen on PI VII, 7 along the top, on PI VII, 8 at top left 
corner, on PL VII, 9 at the bottom, on PI VII, 11 at the bottom 
right edge, and on PI VII, 12 on centre left And Class XII ap- 
pears on PI VII, 14 on the top left edge and on PI VII 15 on the 
top right hand On these old coins, the marks are much worn. 

THE ORDER OF STAMPING THE MAEKS 

The order of stamping the marks cannot be determined from 
the coins In these large corns bearing only four marks, there is 
more room for the marks, and consequently much less overstampmg 
than on the coins bearing five marks 

Mark 1, The Serpentines, is stamped over another mark on 
6 coins Over the Elephant on three coins, Nos 517, 624 (PI V, 34) 
and 868 , over the Pentagram on two corns, Nos 5 and 298 , and 
over the Hare (Mark 6) on one com, No 815 

Mark 2, Taurine-in-Shield, is stamped over another mark on 
4 coins Nos 642 (PI V 3 32), 815 and 868 , and over Mark 5 on 
com No 518 

The Elephant is stamped over another mark on 6 corns , over 
the Serpentines on com No 6 , over the Pentagram Plain on two 
corns, Nos 5 and 3 77 , over the Pentagram with Dots on two coins, 
Nos 4 and 298, and over Mark 5 on Coin No 518 

The Pentagram Plain is stamped over another mark, the Ele- 
phant, on one com No 6 

6 J B R S , 1919, pp 1672, PI IV, Fig 4, ~~~~ 



J?AILA HOARD OP PUNCH-MARKED COINS 21 

The Hare is stamped over another mark, the Elephant, on one 
com, No 912 (PI VI, 8) 

In some cases the same mark has been stamped twice on the 
same com, though this is never the case with the Serpentines 
The Taurme-in-Shield is stamped twice on four coins No 530 
(Class II a) PI V, 21 , No 642 (Class lib) PI V, 32 , No 941 A 
(Class III c) , and No 973 (Class V b) a Double-Obverse Coin, one 
of them stamped over the older Plain Taurme 

The Elephant is stamped twice on com No 912 (Class HI b) 
PI VI, 8 The Pentagram is stamped twice on coin No 429 (Class 
I b), PI V, 15 

The Elephant does not appear on three corns, Nos 939, 940, 
and 941 (Class III c) 

THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE MiRKS 

The Serpentmes (Mark 1) occurs on all the present coins It 
also occurs on all the 25 corns of similar type obtained from Mat- 
hura, illustrated by Mr Durga Prasad(#m Sup XLV, PL XXXI, 
and on the 12 coins of this type m the Lucknow Museum, illustrated 
by him in his Plates I, II and III, 6 and on 5 corns obtained from 
Lucknow, on his Plate VI It does not occur on any of the Five- 
Mark Punch-marked coins It may therefore be taken as the 
distinctive mark of the kingdom of Kosala 

Two of the above corns are corns of the present classes , 
The coin on his Plate VI, 1, is a com of Class la, and the com on 
his Plate VI, 3 is a coin of Class Ila Mark 4 only partly appears 
on uhe edge of that coin, with the crescent side only showing, and 
consequently has been incorrectly drawn on that Plate as consisting 
of two crescents with the arrow-heads 

Cunningham has also illustrated a com of Class la in his 
examples of punch-marked coins on CAI , PI I, No 10 

The Taurine (Mark 2 a, and b), which also occurs on all the 
coins, is of general occurrence on all punch-marked corns, both as 
an Obverse and a Reverse Mark, both by itself and as forming part 
of other marks No special significance can, therefore, be attached 
to it It appears to be merely a propitious or protective mark, 
similar to the Horseshoe in Europe I would here observe that 
Mr Durga Prasad considered that this Mark is not a Taurine, and 
considers it to be the Brahmi letter M 7 The Taurme, however, is a 
solid dot with crescent -like horns above, ^ , while the Branmi letter 

6 Mr Durga Prasad's Plates I, II and III must be v lewod from the top, so as 
to obtain the coins in relief, and to identify the marks 
t Num Sup XIV, 1935, p 17, and pp 4751 



22 JOURNAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

M is always a hollow loop, ^ and, in that form, occurs on punch- 
marked coins as a Reverse Mark Also there is no reason why the 
Brahmi letter M should form a part of the many different symbols 
of which the Taunne forms a part, on punch-marked coins The 
Taitrrne is also distinct from the Nandipada ^ The taurine is 
a symbol which is not peculiar to India, but, hke the Triskelis, 
which also forms part of different symbols m punch-marked coins, 
is found throughout the prehistoric world 

The Elephant is of general occurrence on punch-marked corns. 
It is a symbol of royalty in India From Kautilya's Artlia^dsti a 
we know that while coinage was a royal prerogative in ancient India, 
the right to coin was also delegated to local authorities This 
would also appear to have been the case in the ancient kingdom of 
Kos'ala, in regard to which the Cambridge Hi&tory of India, after 
reviewing the ancient references, notes "Kosala was the most im- 
portant of the kingdoms m North India during the lifetime of the 
Buddha At the same time it is not probable that the adminis- 
tration was very much centralized The instance of the very thorough 
Home Kule enjoyed, as we have been, by the Sakiyas should make us 
alive to the greater probability that autonomous local bodies, with 
larger powers than the village communities, which were, of course, 
left undistuibed, were stiU in existence throughout this wide terri- 
tory." 8 

From the examination of 1171 Pre-Mauryan Punch-marked 
corns found in the Bhir-Mound at Taxila, 9 1 came to the conclusion 
that the Elephant may indicate coins struck at the royal mint, to 
distinguish them from those issued by authorized Local Authorities. 
This may also be its significance on the present coins 

Apassage in the Vissuddhimagga of Buddhaghosha, quoted by 
Dr D R Bhandarkar, states with reference to punch-marked coins 
that whereas the marks on them might appear to be meaningless to 
an ordinary person, a shrofi "would be m a position to decide, after 
handling the corns in a variety of ways, which of them were 
struck at which village, borough, town 3 mountain and river bank, 
and also by what -mint-master " I0 The marks, therefore, indicate 
both the Authorities and the Localities of the coins The Locality 
Marks may be such as livers (as on the Eran corns), or hills, namely 
the Hill-Mark specially designated by some special symbol attached 
to it, such as a Hare, or a Bull, or a Tree on it, or a Eiver or a Tank 
attached to it or a Tank by itself, or a special Tree by itself. In 

8 CambndgeHibtory of India, Vol I, p 178 

9 Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, No 59, Punch marked 
coins front Taxha 

1 "Excavations at Beanagar" b\ D R Bhandarkar, M A , in A R , A &' / 
1913 14 TD 212 



PAILA HOARD OP PUNCH-MARKED COINS 23 

the case of the Five-Mark coins it is often possible to assign such. 
Locality Marks, and in the case of the Eh n -Mo and coins, I have 
made their classification on that basis But m the case of the present 
corns there is no mark which appears to be a Locality Mark, unless, 
possibly, the Palm-Tiee (Mark 9) and the other Tree (Mark 10) 
And, with the exception of the Serpentines (Mark 1), none of the 
other marks can be definitely assigned as Authority Marks 

THE REIATTVE AGE OF THE COINS 

The Classes of the coins have been arranged mainly according 
to the number of corns comprised in them , thus Class 1 contains 
469 coins, Class II 282 coins, and Class III 200 coins The coins 
withm each Class have been arranged according to the number of 
marks on the reverse, which indicate the length of time that they 
were in cu dilation In Table A is given a statement of the 
number of coins in each class bearing the respective number of 
Re\erse Marks Judged on this basis the different classes of the 
corns fall into the following chronological oider, beginning from the 
most recent Class III, then Class I, followed m piogressive order by 
Classes IV, VTII, VI, VII, II and V All these Classes bear the 
mark of the Taurme-m-Shield 

On the Blank Eeverses of some coins of Classes I, III and IV 
there are excrescences, caused apparently by hollows in the surface 
on which the plate of the coins was beaten out, and the fact that 
these have not been worn down shows that the coin had had little 
circulation Some examples of such reverses of Classes III and IV, 
are shown on Plate VII, 17, 18, 19, 20 They are distinguishable 
from punch-marks, as they pioject above the surface of the coin, 
whereas the punch-mark is m relief on a sunk incuse and never 
projects above the surface of the corn 

The coins of Classes IX to XIII, which bear the mark of the 
Hexagon and of the Taurine of larger size and without the Shield, 
are distinctly older than the other Classes This is also shown by 
the fact that certain corns bearing the Obverse of Classes V, VI and 
VII have beenrestruck on the Reverse of an older coin of Class IX, 
the worn Obverse of which appears as the Reverse of the later corns 
These coins are sho^vn on Plate VI, 15, 20, 22, 23, 24 and 25 
The reverse marks stamped over the older obverse during its sub- 
sequent circulation will be noticed 

Other coins of these older classes are shown on Plate VII, 9, 
10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, on which the great number of reverse marks 
can be seen, showing a very long period of circulation. The length 
of time between the original date of these coins and of those current 
at the date of deposit in the hoard must be very considerable 



24 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

On the other hand, there are certain coins of Class IX which 
show that they have had little circulation These are No 989 
(PI VII, 1) with clear obverse and blank reverse , Nos 990 and 991 
(PI VII, 3 and 4) with three reverse marks, and No 992 (PI VII), 
with two re-\ erse marks This would show, either that the coinage 
bearing the marks of Class IX continued over a long period, or, 
which is probably more likely, that those coins had been placed in 
a hoard at an earlier date, and so were withdrawn from circulation 
A hoard was not all deposited at the same time, but was rather of the 
nature of a family bank in which deposits were made from tune to 
time and may have been made in successive generations, and from 
which money would be withdrawn as it was required, and that not 
in the order m which it was deposited in the hoard. 

DOUBLE-OBVERSE COINS 

The Double- Ob verse Coins aie as follows 

Coin No Later Obverse Earlier Obverse 

973 Class V b Class IX PI VI, 15 

979 Class V b Class IX PI VI, 20 

983 Class VI Class IX PI VI, 22 

984 Class VI Class IX PI VI, 23 

985 Class VI Class IX PI VI, 24 

986 Class VII Class IX PI VI, 25 

994 Class XI Classes IX to XIII, probably 

Class IX, PI VII, 6 

SQUARE AND ROUND COINS 

As in other hoards of punch-marked coins, the corns of the 
present hoard are both square and round or rounded The square 
and round coins are shown separately under each Class and Sub- 
Class in the list of the coins and are arranged according to the 
number of their Eeverse Marks They are also shown separately 
in Table A, which shows the coins in each Class according to the 
number of Beverse Marks on them, showing their length of circula- 
tion. From this it will be seen that the two forms of coins were in 
circulation together at the same time, though the square coins are 
more numerous than the round No reason can yet be assigned 
for the concurrent issue of these two forms There are no round 
corns in the present Classes V and VI 

There can be little doubt that, the "Square" corns were chiselled 
out of flat plates of metal. In most cases the cutting of the chisel 



PAILA HOARD Or PUNCH-MARKED f'OINS 25 

did not go right through, the plate, and the flans were then broken 
oS , for the edges of many coins show a sloping clean section for half 
the thickness, while the remainder of the edge is rough The edges of 

w ( many of the coins also show that the weight was subsequently ad- 

^ ]usted by cutting off the corners with a chisel, if necessary 

The method of manufacture of the round coins is not easy to 

decide They are generally oval in shape The possible methods 

are (1) stamping out of a flat plate of metal, (2) cutting an oval 
or round shape, or (3) by beating out a spherical lump of metal 
The first may be dismissed, as in that case the shape and size of the 
coins would be more uniform than they are If they were cut from 
the sheet, the evenness oi the curved edge shows that they must have 
been cut with shears and not with a chisel as in the case of the 
square coins But, f lorn the regularity of the curved edge, it would 
appear that they were made from globules of molten metal of the 
required weight, either made in a mould, or dropped into water, as 
in the case of shot, which were then beaten out flat 
jL 

OBVERSE MARKS ON THE REVERSE 

In the case of the Five-Mark coins certain of the obverse marks 
occasionally occur, in a smaller size, on the reverse of other corns, 
but never on the reverse of a coin on which they appear as an Ob- 
verse Mark It therefore appears, in respect of those coins, that their 
significance might be to authorize the circulation of those coins of 
another area in the area indicated by the said mark In the Bhir- 
Mound there are eleven of the Obverse Marks which so occur In 
the present coins, only two Obverse Marks occur the Elephant 
and the Bull 

-* The Tusked Elephant facing left (Mark 91 a), occurs on one 

coin No 401 (Class Ib), and Tuskless Elephant facing left (Mark 91b) 
occurs on one com No 619 (Class Ib) , and the Bull (Mark 7) 
occurs as Eeverse Mark 93c on Coins No 994 of Class XI (PI VII, 6) 
and No 1003 of Class XII (PI VII, 15), and as Reverse Mark 
No 93d on the above coin No 1003 

Mr Durga Piasad l ' has also given examples of three other 
obverse marks which occur on the Reverse of other coins of the 
present type namely the Serpentines (Mark 1), the Tanrme, and 
another mark which does not occur on the present coins The 
Taurme, however, is of such general occurrence and the most com- 
mon Reveise Mark on all coins, that it cannot m any case be con- 
, sidered as being an Obverse Mark on the Reverse 

" Num Sup XLVI1, 1937, p 57 and PI IV, EigB A, C & D 



26 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

NO RESEMBLANCES OF THE MARKS TO THE INDUS SCRIPT 

In the case of the Five-Mark coins, certain of theObverseMarks 
bear a striking resemblance to certain signs of the Indus Script on 
the seals which hare been found at Mohenjo-daro and Harppa In >- 

the case of the Blur-Mound Coins there are thirty-one Obverse 
Marks which bear a direct resemblance to signs m that script 
In the present corns, however, and also in the ether corns of the 
present type which have been illustrated by Mr, Durga Prasad " 
there are no marks which resemble signs of the Indus Script. 

THE REVERSE MARKS 

The Reverse Marks on the present coins ate of the usual type 
on the older class of punch-marked coins They are much smaller 
than the obverse marks and are less deeply punched, having been 
punched on the corns when in circulation, while the Obverse Marks 
appear to have been punched on to the metal when heated They 
are the marks of shrofis, bankers and moneyers, through whose ^- 

hands the coins passed m the course of circulation. They are of 
great diversity, and represent a great variety of objects They are 
shown on Plates II, III and IV. 

The marks have been drawn direct from the coins. Those 
shown in solid black, such as Nos 13a to 17f, are stamped into the 
coins (intaglio), as distinct from the others, which, like the obverse 
marks are in relief on a sunk incuse. 

There are 194 different types of marks, which with their distinct 
varieties amount to 417 distinct marks, and there are probably 
others amongst those which are too indistinct to be deciphered 
This great number can only be accounted for by the coins having 
circulated over a very extensive area, and, in the case of many , over ~^ 

a long period. The great majority of the marks occur on only a 
single com, and others on only two or three coins. Marks 182 to 
194 occur only on the older classes of the coins 

Besides designs and ornamental figures,they comprise of Human 
Figures (No 97) , Animals (9193) , Fish (94, 95) , Scorpions (43 
and 68) , Centipedes (44, 45) , Lingams (12, 73) , Yarns (76) , and, 
of weapons , spear-heads (77) , arrow-head (78), bow-and-arrow 
(79) and Elephant-Goad, Arikufa (82) Some of the marks resemble, 
and may be Brahmi letters, as K,SR, (69) , Q-.n (99a,b, c and 124) , 
T, 2 (38a-f), DH, ? (106a, b) , M *T (103 a, b, c) and Y, H (104a, b) 

I have prepared a Table showing the coins on which each of the 
Reverse Marks occur, but as it is necessarily voluminous, I have , 
M 

18 Num SUM XLV, 1935, PI I, II, III, VI and XXXI 



PAELA HOARD OP PUNCH-MARKED COINS 27 

not included it in this paper The following general conclusions 
arise from it 

The Taurine is the most common mark and occurs on all the 
classes of the coins , the most common varieties are 1 a , and 1 b, 
on a great number of the coins, followed by 1 f , which occurs on 33 
corns which include 4 corns of the older classes Varieties, Id, k, 
n, q, and t also occur on the older coins 

The prevalence of the Taurme Mark is also shown by the fact 
that different varieties of the mark occur on the same coin Thus, 
Marks, la, Ib and If, occur on Com No 369, and Marks Ib, Ih, and 
11 occur on corn No 643, and more than one variety on several coins 

Even where the Reverse Mark is of the same variety, it is often 
of several different punches, which would show that the same mark 
was adopted by moie than one person. The following marks, for 
example, are of different dies 

Mark la occurs twice on coins Nos 519, 618, 64-7 and 696 ; 
Mark 1 b twice on coins 138, 722 and 729 , Mark 1 d on coins 437 
and 438 , Mark 1 e, twice on corn 548 , Mark If twice on coins 729 
and 736 , Mark 1 k on coins 600 and 601 , Mark 7 e twice on coin 
183 , Mark 9 a twice on com 1003 (PI VII, 15 , Mark lib) twice on 
corn 518 , and Mark He on corns 483 and 484 

Mark 192 occurs three times on corn 999 (PI VII, 11) 

Twelve coins of Class III a, Nos. 833 to 844, which have only 
one mark on the reverse have all the same mark No 29 c, showing 
that they all circulated in one neighbourhood and passed through 
the same hand 

Mr Durga Prasad I3 has illustrated the reverse marks on 12 
coins of similar type in the Lucknow Museum, and 5 coins obtained 
from Lucknow and 25 coins obtained from Mathura Almost all 
those marks correspond with marks on the present corns, which 
shows that they have circulated in the same localities; and is a fur- 
ther confirmation that they belong to the same class of corns, of the 
same area 

THE WEIGHT OP THE COINS. 

The aveiage weight of the coins is between 41 and 42 grams. 
I have separately weighed 436 of the coins, and their weights in 
grains are as follows 

Weight 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 

No of speci- 
mens 2 3 3 7 55 89 120 120 31 6 

is Num Sup XLV, PI I, II, III and XXXI 



28 



JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 



Showing the above result by co-ordinates, the weights as abs- 
cissae, and the number of specimens as ordmates, we get the follow- 
ing diagram 14 , which shows an actual standard of 42 grains 



r-120^ 

z 

UJ 

-1005 
u 

OJ 

-80S; 



- 60 



40 



- 20 




35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 a 
Weight in Grams 

Mr Durga Prabad' 5 describes thirteen other coma of the Paila 
class, which are in the Lucknow Museum Like the Paila coins 
they are of the old large-thin type, and their weights vary from 40 
to 43 5 grains, their average being 42 grains Their provenance is 
not known, but is within the United Provinces He also obtained 
twenty similar coins from Lucknow, and twenty-five at Mathura, 
which, together with the Paila coins, make a total of 1,072 coins of 
this class Although twenty-five coins were obtained at Mathura, 
which is in the country of the Saurasenas, their provenance is noc 
known, and the fact that 1,014 of these coins were found at Paila in 
the District of Kheri, which is north of Lucknow, on the borders 
of Nepal, and others were obtained at Lucknow, points to these being 
the coins of the ancient kingdom of Kosala (corresponding to the 
modern Oudh), which was ultimately conquered and incorporated 
in the Mauryan Empire This was far outside the area of eaily 
Persian influence, and there appears to be no reason to attribute 
their weight to a Persian standard 

Mr Durga Prasad considers them to be of an old Indian 
standard of 24 Rattis He writes (pp 10-11 ) 'Colebrooke in his 
article on Indian Weights and Measures, published m the Transac- 
tions of the Asiatic Society of Bengal m 1801, page 95 has said 
that Gopala Bhatta, an early author, mentions that from the ancient 
astronomical books it is found that a Dharana was of 24 Rakti- 
kas, and he has given a table of weight as foUows - 

"2 Yavas (barleys) = 1 Gurrja 3 Qunjas = 1 Balla. 



14, 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 29 

8 Ballas 1 Dharana. As 2 barleys are equal to 1 Gknrja or Eakti- 
ka, 1 Dharana contains 24 Eaktikas or Kattis It is clear from 
this that either at some period or locality silver coins of 24 
Eaktikas standard weight were current It may be that at some 
period before Manu the Dharanas were of 24 Eaktikas, though 
m his time they were of 32 Eattis " ' " 

The weights given in the above Table are the average weights 
Thus 36 grains represent coins from 35 51 to 36 50 grains, and 
similarly 42 grams represent coins from 41 51 to 42 50 grains, and 
similarly for the other figures It will be noticed that there are 
only 31 coins of 43 grains (42 51 43 50), (in Classes I to V) , and 
only 6 coins of 44 grams (43 5144 50), (in Classes I to III) Of 
the older corns, Classes IX to XIII, only two (42 25 grs.) are over 
42 grams The standard of 24 Eattis, at Cunningham's weight of 
1 83 grams to the Eatti, comes to 43 92, or 44 grams, which is much 
nearer to the actual weight of the coins, than Manu's 32 Eatti stan- 
dard is, in the case of the Five-Mark corns 

The widely different provenance of punch-marked coins bear- 
ing the same group of Obverse Marks, and therefore of the same 
coinage, shows the very wide circulation of the punch-marked coins 
throughout India But the fact that hitherto no Four -Mark coins 
have been found m other areas than that of the old kingdom of 
Kosala would appear to show that they did not circulate outside 
that area This may well be due to their being of a different stan- 
dard of value 

Mr Durga Prasad 16 describes 10 small coins "obtained from 
Lucknow," of the average weight of 25 2 giains, as Half-Panas of 
the 32 Eatti standard He illustrates 4 of these (PI VIII) They 
bear only one bold mark on the obverse, and from 2 to 11 marks on 
the reverse The Obverse Mark on one of them (No 3) is the Ser- 
pentines (Mark 1), and on two others is a mark which occurs to- 
gether TMth Serpentines on other Kosala-Type coins As 32 Eattis 
is the invariable standard of ihe Five-Mark coins, it would appear 
that those coins may be coins of Kosala subsequent to its conquest 
by the Kingdom of Magadha, which had the 32 Eatti standard 



.Vitro Sup XLV, 1935, p 13 and PI VIII 



30 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

DESCRIPTION OF THE PLATES OF THE COINS. 

N B Throughout this papet, Weights ate gwen in Grains 
and Sizes in Inches 

PLATE V 

No. Com Wt Size Class Remarks. 
mPl No 

1 1 38 5 72 x 60 la Tusked Dumpy Elephant 

2 7 40 76 X 50 la Lanky Tuskless Elephant 

3 14 41 75 75 x 55 I a " Do Do 

4 18 39 5 76 X 56 la Blank Reverse, shows raised 

excrescences 

5 161 39 5 70 X 55 la Lanky Tuskless Elephant 

6 212 44 73 X 60 la Do of a different punch. 

7 222 39 5 65x 65 I a Do Do 

8 282 41 25 60 X 55 Ib Dumpy Tuskless Elephant Pen- 

tagram with Dots clear 

9 285 40 5 65 X 55 Ib Elephant indistinct 

10 286 3975 65x55 Ib Lanky Tusked Elephant 

11 287 40 5 65 X 60 Ib Elephant incomplete Penta- 

gram and Shield clear 

12 351 38 62 x 56 Ib Reverse Marks 35a and 51c 

13 363 42 68x58 Ib Clear Pentagram Plain 

14 366 41 3 62X 60 I b Do Do 

15 429 41 70 X 68 Ib The Pentagram is stamped 

twice on this coin 

16 473 41 5 72 X 65 II a The legs only of Lanky Type 

Elephant appear 

17 497 41 5 75 X 58 II a Tusked Elephant 

18 501 43 80x 50 II a Do 

19 516 405 83 x 48 II a The Elephant is indistinct 

20 518 41 5 75 x 53 II a Reverse Marks lib, lib (large) 

29a 83A b 

21 530 40 5 76 X 56 II a The Shield is stamped twice 

22 538 41 5 80 x 55 II a The Elephant is indistinct 

23 548 390 75 X 62 II a Reverse Marks la, le, 1m, In, 

and four other indistinct marks 

24 567 400 -65x 65 lib Reverse Clear Marks la, If, 

24a, 73n, 142a 

25 583 380 60 x 56 lib Mark 5 clear 

26 584 415 66 x 66 lib Marks 1 and 5 clear The latter 

of a different punch 

27 589 41 82 X 65 lib Tusked Elephant Clear marks 

of a different punch 



JNSI, VOL II, 1940 



Plate I 



111* A. 

&8A, 
irs^, 

J/3 C, 



2ff. 



CLASS i 



1. 



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JNSI.VOL 11,1940 



Plate I 



26 



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7*. /fa /c 

I ^ o A 



8* 81 86 83. 



;ooo; oo, 



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JNLS!,VOL 11,1940 



Plate Hi 







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363. 



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406 4l 42 . 



431 44 



44 e 44 i 44* 4^* 



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JNSI,VOL II, 1940 



Plate IV 



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164 idr (66 1 6^ |68 1^9 170 171 171 173 174 \]f \-j6 



n 

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177 173 75 150 i^I iSi (83 8* /ar ifi^ 187 ifla 




PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 31 

PLATE V (continued ) 

No Coin Wt Size Class Bemarks 

in PI No 

28 605 410 66 X 60 lib Tusked Elephant. Clear mark 1 

29 606 420 80x50 lib Tusked Lai ge Elephant 

30 637 395 80x60 lib Reverse Clear marks lib, 152, 

153, 154 

31 641 42 85 X 66 lib Lanky Tusked Elephant 

32 642 385 80x60 lib Mark 1 is stamped over the Ele- 

phant, and then the Shield 
(Mark 2a) is stamped over 
Mark 1 There are two Shields 
stamped on this coin 

33 668 42 80 X 75 lib Reverse Marks Iq, 15b, 34a, 

77h and four other indistinct 
Marks 

34 670 38 5 75 X 75 II b Clear Lanky Tusked Elephant 

PLATE VI 

1 721 42 80x66 He Clear Mark 5 

2 739 40 65 X 65 He Reverse Marks, lh } 11, 7a, lie, 

24a 

3 816 39 5 75 X 50 Ilia Lanky Tuskless Elephant 

Only the hinder part of Mark 
6 is visible 

4 825 42 65 X 50 Ilia The Hare (Mark 6) is clear 

5 870 41 66 X 63 III a Clear Elephant and Hare 

6 951 42 5 65 X 58 JII a Only the legs of the Hare show 

at the bottom right corner 

7 909 41 25 80 X 46 Illb Unusually large Elephant 

8 912 405 70 X 50 ill b The Tuskless Bumpy Elephant 

is stamped twice on this com, 
one overstainped l>y Mark 6 

9 941 A 40 66 X 53 III c Clear Shield (2a) The head 

only of the Hare on the right 
bottom edge of the com 

10 952 43-0 60 X 54 IV b Large Tusked Elephant Only 

the lower part of the Bull 
(Mark 7) shows on the top 
right side of the coin 

11 955 41 78 X 62 IV b Lanky T>pe Elephant, and 

Lanky Bull 

12 958 41 5 -60x 60 IVb Thick Dumpy Bull 



32 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA. 

PLATE VI (continued ) 

No Com Wt. Size Class Remarks 

in PI No 

13 959 400 58 X 55 IV b Thick Dumpy Bull, which is of *? 

the same punch as on the 
preceding com 

U 970 420 70 X 55 IV b Thick Dumpv Bull, but of a dif- 
ferent punch 

15 973 38 78 X 70 Vb This com is interesting as it 

bears Mark 2a (Taurine in a 

Shield) and also Mark 2b 

(Large Taurene without 

Shield) which occurs on the 

Oldei Classes IX to XIII 

It may poss] bly be that it was 

an older com, of which the 

marks are worn ofi, which was 4 

re-struck 

16 974 4025 80x65Vb Mark 8 only partly shows on the 

left side of the coin Lanky 
Type Elephant 

17 975 405 75x58Vb Large Tusked Elephant Clear 

Marks 1 and 8 

18 977 41 5 1 8 X 80 V b The Elephants on this and the 

preceding two coins are all of 
the Lanky Type, but are all 
different 

19 978 39 5 90 X 80 Vb Lanky Elephant Mark 8 has 

a dot in the centre of the circle j_ 

fVb Double Obverse Com The 

20 979 41 83 X 70 J and later obverse of Class V has 

(^ IX been restruck on the Reverse 

of an older com of CUss IX, 
the worn obverse of which is 
the "Reverse" of the later com 

21 982 41 25 80 X 68 VI Reverse Marks If, 51b,36d, 163 

C VI Double Obverse Com The Ob- 

22 983 40 75 -80 X 75 ^ and verse of Class VI has been re- 

(_ IX struck on the Reverse of an 
Older Com of Class IX, the 
Obverse of which is on the 
"Reverse" of the later coin V 

The Hexagon and the Wheel 



PAILA HOAED OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 33 

PLATE VI (continued ) 

No Coin Wt Size Class Kemarks 

in PI No 

of the older coin are clear, 
though the face has been over- 
stamped by several reverse 
maiks during its later cur- 
rency as Class VI The Bull 
is on the bottom right hand 
corner of the Class VI Obverse 
f VI Double Obveise Coin as the 

23 984 42 25 93 X 82 J and preceding The Lanky Bull 

[^ IX and the other Marks are clear 

on the later Class VI Obverse 

C VI Double Obverse Com as the 

24 985 40 75 90 X 66 J and preceding Clear Marks on 

[_ IX the Later Obverse of Class VI 
Lanky Bull, but of a different 
punch 

fVII Double Obverse Coin An older 

25 986 41 75 X 70 1 and com of Class IX rebtruck 

[_IX later as Class VII Clear marks 
Palm Tree and Shield on the 
Class VII Obverse 
The Hexagon can be faintly 
traced on the older Obverse 
which has been overstamped 
by reverse marks during its 
later circulation as a com of 
Class VII 

26 987 42 80 x 62 VIII The left hand part of Mark 8 

The Tree is clear 

27 988 40 25 72 x 63 VIII The Tree is clear, of a different 

type from the preceding com 

PLATE VII 

1 989 42 25 74 X 74 IX The Wheel (Mark 12) is clear 

The horns of the Taunne 
(Mark 2b) are visible on the 
bottom right hand corner 

2 992 41 5 80 x 70 IX Mark 13 (Circle with Curved 

Eay s) is on the left of the coin 

3 990 405 90x50 IX Worn coin The Wheel (Mark 

12) is clear 



34 JOUENAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

PLATE VII (continued ) 

No Com Wt Size Class Remarks 

mPl No 

4 991 38 5 85 X 58 IX The Wheel is clear, the Hexagon 

(Mark U ) is above it, Mark 1 
is on the right hand edge, only 
part of the Taurine (Mark 2b) 
shows at the top of the com 

5 993 420 90x75 X Mark 13 (Circle with Branched 

Rays) is clear at the left hand 
top of the com 
Reverse Marks Id, 4a, 8c, 
llAb, 56b 

6 994 42 76 x 62 XI Double Obverse Coin Note 

the large size of Mark 1 on the 
older classes of the coins 
Mark 13 is at the bottom left 
side of the com There is a 
much worn Hexagon on the 
reverse, which has been over- 
stamped by the Reverse 
Marks This shows that the 
Reverse was previously the 
Obverse of one of the Classes 
IX to XIII which bear that 
Mark, probably Class IX 
Reverse Marks Ib, 831, 93c 

7 995 425 78 X 63 XI A large-sized variety of Mark 

13 along the top of the coin 
Reverse Marks 4e (variety), 
7a 

8 996 40 92 x 60 XI Mark 13 is on the top left corner 

Reverse Marks If, HAb, 29a, 
77d, 186 

9 997 4225 80 x 65 XI Mark 13 is at the bottom of the 

com 

Reverse Marks It, Ilk, 14e, 
15a, 125c, 385, and two other 
indistinct marks 

10 998 41 25 90 x 52 XI Reverse Marks If, Iq, 16a, 

83d, 83h, 831, and three 
other confused marks 

11 999 41 5 76 x 62 XI Obverse very much worn. A 

very old com. 



PAlLA HOAED OP PUNCH-MARKED COINS 35 

PLATE VII (continued) 

No Coin Wgt Size Class Eemarks 

in PI No 

Reverse llAb, 19c (variety), 192 
(Three times) 

12 1000 41 25 90 X 62 XI Obvetse much worn A very 

old com Mark 2b (Large 
Taurine not in Shield) is on 
the left top corner Mark 13 
on left centre 

Reverse Marks 7b, lOaa, 64 
and twelve other Marks too 
confused to identify 

13 1001 42 58 X 70 XI Reverse Marks Iq, It, 2b, 92c 

and three other indistinct 
marks 

H 1002 41 83 x 75 XII Note the larger size of Mark I 

(16 mm in diameter) on these 
older coins Much worn A 
very old coin 

Reberse Marks If, 3b, 19c, 
32f and fifteen other maiks, 
which aie overstamped and 
too confused to identify. 

15 1003 41 5 90 X 70 XII Much worn A very old com 

Mark 13 at the top right hand 
much worn, only part being 
visible. 

Reverse Marks In, 9a (Twice, 
of different punches), 387, 
a,nd at least seven other con- 
futed maiks 

16 1004 30 75 X 62 XIII A defective com, pait broken 

oS Maik 13 (variety) is at 
the lower right hand corner 
The Taurine does not 
appear 

Revet se Marks 55, 73s and 
another indistinct one 

17 812 41 5 72 X 48 Ilia Revise Blank Showing Raised 

Excrescences 

18 817 40 70 X 53 Ilia Reverse Do 

19 911 40 5 70 x 50 Illb Reverse. Do 

20 969 41 5 82 x 38 lYc Reverse Do 



36 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

TABLE A 

THE NUMBEE OF REVERSE MARKS ON EACH CLASS 
OF THE COINS 



Number of 






















10 




Reverse 


Plain 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


or 


Total Coins 


Marks 






















more 




Class 


























["Square 


71 


66 


30 


13 


15 




1 










2011 
U35 


(jRound 


10 


10 


5 


5 


3 















34J 


fSquare 


50 


37 


33 


31 


10 


10 


3 










1741 


H 
























^223 




11 


10 


7 


10 


5 


4 




1 








48J 


["Square 


4 


2 


2 


2 
















101 


c< 
























f 12 


(^Round 




1 


1 


















2 J 


Total 


146 


126 


78 


61 


33 


14 


4 


1 








469 


["Square 
UW 
IJRound 


11 
4 


16 
2 


11 
5 


11 
3 


15 
1 


9 

4 


9 
1 


2 
1 


3 


1 




881 
i-109 


["Square 


14 


12 


14 


13 


12 


14 


14 


2 


6 






1011 


b< 
























S-127 


(JRound 


5 


4 


2 


3 


4 


2 


2 


4 








26J 


["Square 


4 


8 


5 


5 


7 


2 


4 


3 




1 




391 


c-<j 
























} 46 


JRound 










1 


4 


1 




1 






7j 


Total 


38 


42 


37 


35 


40 


35 


31 


12 


10 


2 




282 


fSquare 
lll&J 


77 


31 


6 


















1141 


(jilound 


11 


3 


2 


















16J 



PA1LA. HOARD OF PUNCH-MASKED COItfS 37 

TABLE A.- continued 



Number of 






















10 




Reverse 


Plain 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


or 


Total Coi 


Marks 






















more 




Class. 


























["Square 


37 


4 


2 




















IIIb"< 
























>- 54 


[Round 


9 


2 




















"J 


fSquare 


13 







1 










, 






17-) 


c< 
























t 20 


[Round 


3 

























Total 


150 


43 


10 


1 
















206 


("Square 


2 


1 


















9 


I 


IVaJ 
























r 3 


[Round 


None 






















J 


["Square 


3 


3 


1 


1 


4 


] 












IS") 


W 
























I 17 


[Round 


2 


3 




3 

















4j 


["Square 


1 




. 








1 




. 






O*^ 
I 


C 4 
























r 2 


[Round 


None 






















J 


Total 


8 


5 


1 


2 


4 


1 


1 










22 


"Va No Coins 


























("Square 






2 




1 


2 






1 




2 




Vb< 
























8 


[Round 


None 
























Total 


























V and IX 


























(Double 


























Obverse com) 

























1 


























9 



38 JOURNAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY 0? INDIA 

TABLE A. continued 



Number of 






















10 




Reverse 


Plain 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


or 


Total Coins 


Marks 






















more 




Class 


























la to Va 


























Round 


1 








, 














1 


TIbtoVb 


























Square 


1 























1 


fSquare 










4 














4 


v n 


























[Round 


None 
























VI and IX 


























(Double 


























Obverse coin) 
























3 


Total 
























7 


VII and IX 


























(Round anc 












5 












5 


Double 


























Obverse coin 


























VIII Square 






2 




. 












2 


fSquare 


1 






o 














3 


ixJ 
























(JRound 






] 


















1 


IX and Vb 




, 




















2 


(Double 


























Obverse 


























com } Square) 


























IX and VI 


























Square 




, 




















4. 


IX and VII 


























Round 
























1 


Total 




















































X Round 












1 












1 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MASKED COINS 

TABLE A. continued 



39 



Number of 






















10 




Reverse 


Plain 


1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


8 


9 


or 


Total Coins 


Marks 






















more 




Class 


























("Square 












1 


] 




1 


1 


2 


6 


XI < 






















(12415) 




[Round 
















1 








1 


XI and IX to 


























XII, (Double 


























Obverse com] 








1 
















1 


Total 
























8 


fSquare 
XIlJ 






















1 


1 


(jR,ound 






















1 


1 
























(14 Mis) 




XIII Square 








1 
















1 



LIST OF THE PAILA COINS 
CLASS la 

OBVERSE MARKS 
No Weight Remarks 

Mark No 1 Serpentines round a Central Boss , No 
2 Taurine in a Shield , No 3a Elephant facing 
to the right , No 4 Pentagram with and without 
Dots in the Angles 

PLAIN REVERSE 

1 38 5 PI V, 1 

2 40 5 

3 41 5 Pentagram with Dots 

4 38 '0 Elephant over Pentagiam with Dots 



40 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

CLASS la 
PLAIN REVEESE 



No 


Wt 


Remarks 


5 


40 5 


Serpentine over Pentagram Elephant over Penta- 






gram 


6 


35 


Clear Pentagram over Elephant, Elephant over 






Serpentine 


7 


40 


Clear PI V, 2 


8 


37 5 


Clear 


9 


35 5 


Clear 


10 


40 


Clear 


11 


40 


Clear 


12 


41 


Clear 


13 


40 5 


Clear 


14 


41 75 


Clear PI V, 3 


15 


40 5 


Clear 


16 


40 5 


Clear 


17 


41 5 


Pentagram with Dots 


18 


39 5 


Note the Raised Excrescences PI V, 4 


19 




Defective Obverse partly flaked 


20 


42 5 




21 


43 




22 


43 




23 


42 5 




24 


43 




25 


42 




26 


42 




27 


42 




28 to 71 




(weights not given here) 






ONE REVERSE MARK 


No 


Mark 




72 


If 




73 


9b 




74 


lie 




75 


11A 




76 


17a 




77 


19c 




78 


28a 




79 


95v 





80 100 

81 183 Part of mark only is visible 

82 103a 



PAJLA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 41 

CLASS la 

ONE BEVEESE MARK 

No Mark Remarks 

83 Id 

84 x Indistinct, 

85 la 

86 Ic 

87 Id 

88 Id 

89 le 

90 If 

91 4a 

92 5 Pentagram with Dots. 

93 6b 

94 7c 

95 6c 

96 8d 

97 lid 

98 13b 

99 14b Pentagram with Dots. 

100 15a 

101 16a 

102 17a 

103 19a Pentagram with Dots. 

104 21a 

105 21c 

106 22c 

107 22b 

108 24e 

109 25a Pentagram with Dots 

110 25a 

111 26b Pentagram with Dots. 

112 28a 

113 28b 

114 28c 

115 46 

116 61d 

117 67 

118 Raised Excrescence . 

119 98c 

120 la 

121 la 

122 Ic 

6 



42 JOURNAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS la, 

ONE REVERSE H&RK: 

No. Mark Remarks 

123 29c 

124 X Clear Dumpy Elephant. 

125 X 

126 X 

127 X Incomplete. 

128 X Pentagram mth Dots 

129"! 

to > X Pentagram Plain. 

135J 

136 X 

137 7c Pentagram with Dots. 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

138 Ib lb Difierent Dies. 

139 79 X 

140 Id 2b 
(Var) 

141 li X 

142 le X 

143 lla 109 

144 la X 

145 28a 32c 

146 le 29c 

147 lb lg 

148 17c 31 

149 51c 54 
160 80 X 

151 6a 104b Pentagram Tvith Dots. 

152 97b X Pentagram with Dots. 

153 29c 104a 

154 5A X 

155 5A 9c 

156 lOa llh 

157 If 4a 

158 25a 110 

159 Uf 51c 

160 le 7a 

161 la(small)X The Elephant is Tuskless. PI. V, 5. 

162 x X 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-HARKED COINS 



43 



CLASS la. 

TWO BEVEESE MAEKS. 

No. ..Marks.. Eemarks 

163 111 111 (Twice). Different dies. 

164 x 

165 X 

166 111 

167 21d x 



X 
X 
X 



THEEE EEVEESE MAEKS. 

168 la 32o 77d 

169 7o lie 29d 

170 7a X X 

171 Ib 21e X 

172 14c 89a X 

173 la(small)X X 

174 Id 19b X 

175 le 38b X 

176 2b(small)21e 77e 

177 3b 43a 30 Elephant over Pentagram. 

178 25a 32b X 

179 29a 81 X 

180 la Ik 7a 

FOUB BEVEESE MAEKS. 

X Pentagram with Dots. 
X Do. 
X 

25c 15a If is only 3 mm. 
X 
7d 
X 

X Pentagram with Dots. 
X 



181 


2b 


14d 




6b 


182 


la 


Ib 




14f 


183 


re 


7e(t 


Hff-) 


19b 


184 


If 


lib 




25c 


185 


38e 


89a 




X 


186 

187 


la(largc) 6b 
29a 83b 


38b 
X 


188 


7a 


14e 




18 


189 


lo 


4b 




24a 


190 


Ib 


Ih 




112 


191 


Ib 


21a 113 


X 


192 


1 


If 


Ik 


lib 


193 


lib 


116 


X 


X 


194 


la 


X 


x 


X 


195 


la 


X 


X 


X 



FIVE BEVEBSE MABKS (None) 



44 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

CLASS la. 

SIX REVERSE MAKES. 
No Marks Remarks 

196 ld(!) 21e 114 x X 

197 Defective. Reverse Flaked. No Mark. 

198 Do. Do. Do. 

199 Do. Do. Do. 

200 Do, Do. 1 Reverse Mark=29c. 

201 Do. Coin Broken 1 Reverse Mark= X 

CLASS la. ROUND 

PLAIN REVERSE. 
No. Weight, Size. 

202 42-2 -75X-60 Clear. 

203 40-5 -74X-63 

204 39-0 -70X-60 

205 41-5 -65X-65 

206 42-5 -70X-65 

207 42-0 -70X-65 

208 38-5 -65X-62 

209 40-5 -70X-68 

210 37-5 -70X-70 

211 36-5 -80X-65 A thinner coin and worn. 

ONE REVERSE MARK. 

212 50b ClearTusHessElephant.PentagramwithDots.Pl.V,6. 

213 26c Do. Do. Do. Do. 

214 135 

215 Ib 

216 Ic 

217 13b 

218 35a 

219 78 

220 la 

221 llg 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

222 14d x TusHess Elephant. PI. V. 7. 

223 14e 29a 

224 If 51a 

225 3a x 

226 X X 



PAILA HOAUD OF PONCE-MARKED COINS 45 

CLASS la ROUND 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

No. Marks Remarks 

227 I6b 38a x 

228 la If 9d 

229 7a 9d x 

230 la 6b x 

231 73g 83d x 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

232 lla 38a x X 

233 16a 19c x X 

234 24d X XX 

DEFECTIVE. 

235 Reverse Flaked. No Mark. 

CLASS Ib 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

The Obrerse Maries are the same as Class la , but the 
Elephant (Mark 3b) faces to the left. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

No. Wt. Remarks 

236 42-0 Pentagram Plain 

237 45-0 

238 42-0 

239 42-0 

240 42-5 
241"! 

to f 

262J 

263] 

to V- - 
28lJ 

282 41-25 PI. V, 8. 

283 - 

284 Defective coin. The Serpentine is flaked off. 
284A Pentagram with Dots. 



46 JOURNAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS Ib 

ONE REVERSE MARK. 
No. Mark Remarks 

285 x Pentagram with Dots. PI. V, 9. 

286 la P1.V,10. 

287 Ub ,. P1.V,11. 
(small) 

288 Ib 



289 lc 

290 13a 

yy ) 

291 7a 

292 12 

293 21a 

294 28b 

295 19c 

296 X 

297 X 

298 lib The Serpentine ia stamped over Pentagram with 
(small) Dots. 

299 la Pentagram with Dots. 

300 Ib 

/ * " 

(var.) 

301 le Pentagram Plain 

302 lh Clear mark. 

303 lla 

304 lib 

305 25b 

306 47 

307 77d 

308 95a 

309 x 

310 57 

311 7a 

312 If 

313 77f 

314 x Note. Raised excrescences, 

315 Ib 

316 x 

317 Ib 

318 Ib 
318A la 
318B 28b 
318C 143 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 47 

CLASS Ib 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

No. . .Marks. . Remarks 

319 x x Pentagram with Dots 

320 19b 83c 
(small) 

321 le 40a 

322 6a 8a 

323 Ib lie 

324 la x 
(small) 

325 73c 102h 

326 19d 97b 

327 If 7c 

328 la 71 Pentagram Plain. 

329 la 67 

330 lc If 

331 lc 14b 

332 Ml 40 

333 lij x 

334 li 28a 
(small) 

335 5A 51o 

336 7b 70 

337 7c 29c 

338 8f 111 

339 lib 88a 

340 lib x 

341 14e 38a 

342 15a x Incomplete, 
(vat.) 

343 29a x 

344 17a 42a 

345 17c 72 

346 19a Ib 

347 36a 108 

348 51c x 

349 14e 17c 
(small) 

350 x X 

351 35a 51c Note the raised excrescences on the 

Reverse. PI. V, 12. 



JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS Ic 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

No Marks Remarks 

352 21a x X Pentagram with Dots. 

353 le Hi X ,, 

354 19c 117 X 

355 I5c 77g X 

356 lib X X 

357 Ik 118 X 

358 13c X X 

359 Ib X X 
(small) 

360 29c X X ,, 

361 Ib 119 X ,, 

362 29c XX,, 

363 77b 125b X Pentagram Plain, PL V, 13. 

(Incuse.) 

364 llf Bio X 

365 40a 98g 120 

366 Ib lllb 51a PL V, 14. 

367 19b 121 122 

368 Ib He X 

369 9e 77d 123 

370 If X X 

371 83d 73hh 73g 

372 6b 73k 83d 

373 If lie 25a 

374 lie 93b X 

375 If 1U X 

376 lib 16b X 

377 21c X X 

378 17c 95d X 

379 Id Blc X 

380 If 5A 28b 
(small) 

381 li Ik 125b 
(var.) 

382 Ib li 83b 



PA1LA HOARD OF PTTKOH-MAHKEB COINS 49 

CLASS Ib 

FOUR REVERSE MAKES; 

No Marks .... Remarks 

383 le 14c 19b 38a Pentagram with Dots, 
(small) 

384 Ib If lOb 19b 
(small) (small) 

385 Ib 29o 38b x 

386 Ib Ik lid x , 

387 Ih Ik 17d x 

388 He 39b 124 x 

389 Elc 77d 126 x 

390 Ib x X X Pentagram Plain. 

391 Ik 14e 731 X 

392 21c 51s 127 X 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS; 

393 Ib 111 15b x x Pentagram with Dots. 

394 li 33 51a 125b x 
(var.) 

395 la If lib 124 X 

396 la Ib Id 77 'f X 

(small.) 

397 la Ib 19b XX 

398 la If lib 21a 32a Pentagram Plain. 

(Large) 

399 24f x X x x Incomplete marks. 

400 la 7e 77b X X 

401 11 11 91a X X 

(twice) (small) 

402 38b 119 125 188 x 

SIX REVERSE MARKS. 

403 Ib 19b 27a 8e 82c X 

404 la 29c x X X X Pentagram -with 

Dots. 

405 84 14d 25e 125b XX 

DEFECTIVE. 

406 NO MARKS. Reverse flaked. 



50 JOURNAL OF THE 1TOMISMATIO SOCIETY OP INDIA 

CLASS Ib BOUND 
PLAIN REVERSE; 

No. Wt. Remarks 

407 41-0 Pentagram with Dots. 

408 43-0 

409 42-5 

410 42-0 Pentagram Plain. 

411 42-5 

412 39-5 

413 32-0 

414 42-5 

415 41-0 

416 40-5 

417 _ Defective coin: Mated. 

ONE REVERSE MAES; 

No. Mark Bemarks 

418 102a Pentagram with Dots. 

419 16b 

420 29c Pentagram Plain. 

421 X 

422 X 

423 la 

424 lib 

425 83o 

426 X 

427 X 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

428 14f 94b 

429 2a 6a Pentagram is stamped twice on tJie coin. 

PL V, 15. 

430 129 X Pentagram with Dots. 

431 19b 51e Pentagram Plain. 

432 27b 29a 

433 77f 19e 
4334 32d 34a 



PAILA HOABD OF PUNCH-MABKED COINS 51 

CLASS Ib ROUND. 
THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

No Marks .... Remarks 

434 X X X (Elephant Type 13); No Cast; 

435 la la X 

(var.) 

436 la 25a X 

437 Id lib 21e 
43S Id 16b 28b 

489 la 38d 77b Pentagram with Dots. 

440 le Ik x . 

441 9a 17b 105 

442 ISb 23c 77f 

443 128 X X 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

444 51c X X X 

445 la 35a 38a X 

446 la 8d 15h 98d 

447 lla 73c X X Pentagram with Dots. 

448 lie 93b X X 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS, 

449 If 15b 19a 21a x 

450 la 7e 21f 89b X 

451 Ib 15a 23d 125b x 

452 14d' 15b 19b 83 X Pentagram with Dots. 

SEVEN EEVEESE MARKS. 

453 If 6a 14e 19e 21b X X Pentagram 
(large) with 

Dots, 



CLASS Ic 

OBVERSE MABES 

The Obverse Marks are the same as Class la, or 
Class Ib, but the direction of the Elephant cannot 
be determined* 



JOURNAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS Ic 

PLAIN REVERSE. 
No. Marks Eemarks 

454 

455 Pentagram with Dots; 

456 jj 

457 ,, 

ONI REVERSE MARK, 

458 If Pentagram with Dots. 

459 X 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

460 la 29c 

461 It lib 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

462 Ib lla 38a Pentagram with Dots. 

463 le 22d X 

CLASS Ic ROUND. 

ONE REVERSE MARK,- 

464 X 

TWO REVERSE MARKS 

465 Id 83Aa The Obverse is flaked off. Only Serpentine 

and Pentagram are visible. Coin defective. 

CLASS lla 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

No. 1. Serpentines round a central Boss j No. 2; 
Taurine in a Shield; No. 3a. Elephant facing 
to the right ; No. 5 Circle [Sun] and Crescent, 
with two arrows pointing outwards Between them; 



EAILA HOABD OP PUNCH-MASKED COINS 53 

CLASS Ha, 

PLAIN REVERSE; 

No. Wfc; Remarks 

466 42-5 

467 41-0 

468 41-5 

469 40-5 

470 42-5 

471 41-5 

472 42-0 

473 41-5 PI. V, 16. 

474 39-5 

475 41-5 

476 41-5 

476A 41 '75 Clear coin. Elephant with two dots ovetstamped. 

ONE RBVEESE MARK. 

No. Wt. Mark Remarks 

477 41-0 9b Elephant with two dots. The die of the 

Elephant on this coin and the preceding one 
are different. 

478 42-0 Ib 

479 43-5 68b 

480 42-0 If 

481 41-5 7e 

482 42-0 lib 

483 40-5 lle". 

Different Dies. 

484 40-0 lle 

485 42-0 23b" 

486 41-0 27a 

487 41-5 29a 

488 39-0 77d 

489 35-0 119 (Portion) 

490 42-5 130 

491 44-6 X 
491A40-5 X 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

492 41-0 11 X 

493 39-0 83f X 

iQd. 4.1 -K 9 Ah 



b 

:} 



54 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS Ila 

TWO EEVERSE MARKS. 

No, Wt. . Marks.. Remarks 
495 42-0 24a X 



496 


40-5 


lo 


27a 




497 


41-5 


9b 


X 


PI. V, 17. 


498 


41-5 


Ib 


189 




499 


41-5 


li 


14d 




500 


42-0 


4a 


83f 


(var.) 


501 


43-0 


X 


X 


PI. V, 18. 


501A 


36-5 


x 


X 




THREE 


EEVEBSE MABKS. 


502 


la 


36b 


41 




503 


la 


16c 


77a 




504 


Ib 


lib 


44c 




505 


If 


lib 


132 




506 


Ib 


134 


X 


Ib is clear. 


507 


14c 


27a 


X 




508 


19b 


133 


X 




509 


32c 


X 


X 




510 


If 


5lG 


126 




511 


77d 


131 


X 




512 


77d 


X 


X 


Incomplete Mark. 



FOUE EFVERSE MAEKS. 

513 5A 15b 15b x 

(Var.) 

514 15b XXX 

515 25a 73a 82b 99c 

516 I7e 83b x X PL V, 19. 

(var.) 

517 la If ife x Elephant with 3 dots above it. 

Serpentine stamped over the 
Elephant. 

518 lib lib 29a 83Ab Elephant mth3dotsover<-> 

(large) (Mark 5) and ghie j d ^ ver 

Mark 6. 

Reverse. PL V. 20. 

519 la la 16a 81 



EOABP OF PUKOH-MAEKEB COINS 55 

CLASS Ila 

TOUR REVERSE MAKES. 
No. Maiks Remarks 

520 la x X X 
(small) 

521 la Ih 19b X 

522 Ih 22a 38f 37 

523 4b 15b 77a 89b 

524 15b 21b X X 

525 28b 77f X X 

526 73h 90 x X 

527 7c 45b 83d 136 
(small) 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 

528 7e 15b 29c x X 

529 lb 29b 29e x X 

530 7a 17d 16c 29e X Only the back of the 

Elephant shows over- 
stamping. The Shield 
is stamped twice. Wt. 
40-5. PI. V, 21. 

531 24c 28b 38a 135 x 

532 2c 7c Ila x x 

533 laoverlle 51c 73c x 

534 6a 17aoi?er4Qa 

535 la Ik lib x X 

(small) 

536 le 28b 13d x X 

SIX EEVERSE MAKES. 

537 la 44c 137 99b x X 

538 He 13c 82d 95a x X PL V, 22. 

(Var.) 

539 1m 2a 4c 27c lib X 

540 la If 73m 20 x X 
(small) 

541 In llaa 44d XXX 

542 38b X X X X X 

543 la If 8a lie 103a 95e 

544 21c 38a 51 d 138 x x 

545 5A lie 28a 125b X x 



56 JOUBNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OJF INDIA 

CLASS Ha 

SEVEN REVERSE MARKS. 

No Marks 

546 11 Ira 11 A 16c 51a x X 

547 Ik 32f 190 X X X X 

EIGHT REVERSE MAEKS. 

548 la le 1m In X X X X 

Reverse. PL V, 23. 

649 7a 16b 19d Sic Sic 99d X X 

(difi.) 

550 le If 9a 79 X X X X 

NINE REVERSE MARKS. 

551 If lib X X X X X X 

(large) Marks confused. 

CLASS Ila ROUND. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

552 Clear coin. Weight 41 '5 

553 Clear coin. Weight 43 '5 

554 Weight 41-5 

555 Weight 39' 



ONE REVERSE MARK. 



556 4a 

557 X 



TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

558 la le 

559 If 73c 

560 7c 40a 
661 139 140 

562 91 x 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

563 le 25a x 

564 la lit 9f 

(var.) 

565 51c x X 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MABKED COINS 57 

CLASS Ha ROUND 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

No Marks Remarks 

566 lib 141 35a X 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 

567 la If 24a 73n 142a PL V, 24. 

568 Ik 7c lib x X 

569 If lib 16a X X 1 f is clear. 
(Large) (Minute). 

570 lib 16a XXX 

SIX REVERSE MARKS. 
No. Wt. 

571 If 9g Ilk 7a 51e X 

SEVEN REVERSE MARKS. 

571A la la If lib 9c 77a X 

(var.) 

CLASS lib 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

The Obverse Marks are the same as Class Ha, 
except that the Elephant (Mark 3b) faces to the 
left. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

572 43-5 
573-576 

577 42-0 

578 41-5 

579 40-5 

580 40-5 

581 40-5 

582 39-0 

583 38-0 <> mark clear. PL V, 25. 

584 41-5 PI. V, 26- 

585 42-5 



58 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS lib 
ONE REVERSE MAKE.- 



JSTo. Wt. Marks 


Remarks 


686 42-5 le 




687 42-5 If 




588 44'0 91i 




589 41-0 X 


PL V, 27. 


590 41-0 145 




591 37-0 la 




592 39-5 x 


Incomplete. 


593 41-5 X 




594 42 '0 la 




595 42-0 x 




596 41-5 lib 




597 41-0 146b 





TWO REVERSE MARKS. 


598 


42 





la 


X 






599 


42 


o 


If 


X 






600 


41 


5 


Ik 


I4fl 














L 


The two Ik marks 


are from different 


601 


41 





Ik 


27aj 


dies. 




602 


40 


5 


lib 


*/ 

x = 


Incomplete. 










(large) 








603 


39' 





15b 


144 


(144 is clear) 




604 


42- 





15a 


68a 


(68a is clear) 




605 


41- 





8e 


62 


(62 is clear) PI. V, 


28. 


606 


42- 





If 


44a 


PI. V, 29. 




607 


40- 


5 


29e 


U8 


(29e is clear) 




608 
609 


39- 
39- 


5 
5 


83f 
147 


X 
X 


Incomplete. 




610 


42- 





77c 


99a 


For Mark 5, see No. 


622. 


611 


41- 





31 


X 


(31 is clear). 





THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

612 41-0 la id 14g 

613 42-0 ibb 6a 66 Clear Reverse Marks. 

614 41-0 la 4a 83d 

615 41-5 la 29a 32e 

616 41-0 59 146a x 

617 40-5 149 x X 



PAILA HOARD OP PUNCH-MARKED COINS 59 

CLASS lib 

THREE EEYERSE JiIARKS. j 

No. Wt Marks Remarks 

618 41-0 la la lib 



619 40 2'6c 73m 91b 

(dig.) 

620 42-5 lib 33 X 

621 41-5 la 29a 77d = Incomplete. 

622 42-5 15a X X 

623 40-5 68a X X 

624 40-0 le 27a 27a 27a is punched, twice. 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

Remarks 



625 
626 
62? 
628 
629 
630 
631 
632 
633 
634 
635 
636 


-If 

la 
lib 
14e 
le 
la 
llf 
X 
la 


36c 
32c 
la 
Ih 
X 
15a 
16a 
19b 
9a 
51c 
X 
Ib 


X 
40b 
9i 
43a 
X 
15c 
Hi 
89a 
9d 
73k 
X 
25d 


X 
X 
51f 
150 
X 
X 
7/d 
X 
137 
X 
X 
X 


X 

107 ' 
X 
(Elephant Type 11). No cast. 


FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 


637 


lib 


152 


153 


154 


X 


Clear Reverse Marks. 














PI. V, 30. 


638 


la 


Ib 


lib 


21c 


X 




639 


la 


la 


9a 


X 


X 








(diff.) 










640 


la 


X 


X 


X 


X 






(small) 












641 


Ih 


X 


X 


X 


X 


PL V, 31. 


642 


la 


155 


156 


X 


X 


Note. Serpentine is 














stamped over Elephant, 














and Shield over Ser- 














pentine. There are 














2 Skidds. PL V, 32. 



60 JOTJBNAL or THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS lib 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 

Ko Marks Remarks 

643 Ib lh 11 20 22a 
614 Ibb 15a 33 151 x 
(minute) 

645 If lie 68c In x 
(dear) 

646 la lh 7a lie 142b Clear Reverse Harks. 

647 la la lc 26c x 

(diff.) (large) 

648 28b 157 158 x x 

649 4d lie 29c 28d 159 

650 If 2e X X X 

SIX REVERSE MARKS. 

651 le Ik 13b 29a x X 

652 7a lib 17a 97c 162 x Clear Reverse 
(Minute.) (I nc< ) Marks . 

653 li lp 3c 7a 142b 161 
(var-) ( V ar.) 

654 la 11 10d x x x 

(var.) 

655 28a 43a 73c 51c 160a x Clear Reverse 

Marks. 



656 


lib 


73c 


X 


X 


X 


X 


657 


Ib 


65b 


163 


X 


X 


x 


658 


43b 


X 


166 


X 


X 


X 



Overstamped 
and confused, 
but different 
from the Re- 
verse Marks 
of Class I. 

659 la 29a 83d 36a 36b x 

660 Ib lla x X X X 

661 la 164 X X X X 

662 He 17a 165 x X x 

663 97a lib lUa 73o x x 

664 Ik 28a 4Ba x X X 

665 la 9a Ilk x x x 

666 29a 32a 75 142b x X 



PAILA HOABD OF PUKCH-MAEKED COWS 61 

CLASS lib 

BIGHT REVERSE MASKS, 
jfo Marks. 

667 la 16a 7a X X X X X 
(am. in 

centre). The remaining marks are overstampedand confused. 

668 Iq. 15b 34a 77h x X X X 

PL V, 33. 

669 If ^ Ik li XXX X 

The two Ik marks are from different dies ; li is small ; 
6th mark is incomplete. 

670 la 11 HI 89c 167 X X X 

PL V, 34. 

671 The marks are overstamped and confused. 

672 la Ik 168 Confused marks. 

CLASS lib BOUND 

No. Wt. PLAIN REVERSE. 

673 43-5 

674 42-5 

675 42-0 

676 '0 

677 40-0 

CLASS lib 

ONE REVERSE MARK, 

678 41-0 la 

679 42-5 lie 

680 40-5 44a 

681 40-5 98i 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

682 40-5 6A 5A (Small). These are the same die. 

683 42-0 If 



THREE REVERSE MARKS. 



684 40-5 lh 73b 13e 

685 45-5 a 29e 169 

(small) 

686 41-5 lib 981 170 



62 JOURNAL o* THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS Tib 
FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 



No. 


W*. - 


. Marks - 


687 


40 


5 


Id 


4a 


X 


X 












(var.) 












688 


39 


5 


43b 


51c 


X 


X 






689 


38 


5 


If 


73b 


X 


X 






690 


42- 


5 


4d 


16b 


98h 


171 












(small) 












FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 


691 


43- 


5 


4b 


95a 


26d 


160b 


X 




692 


42- 





77a 


111 


X 


X 


X 










(small) 












SIX REVERSE MARKS. 


693 


40- 


5 


le 


13f 


73c 


77d 


X X 




694 


39- 


5 


Ih 


7a 


16a 


21a 


23b X 




SEVEN REVERSE MARKS. 


695 


40- 


5 


Id 


lib 


29b 


83d 


77i X 


X 


696 


40 





In* 


la* 


lib 


29a 


X X 


X 


697 


41- 





le 


Hi 


77c 


78p 


44a X 


X 


698 


41- 





la 


lib 


16b 


98c 


X X 


X 



(small) 
*Marks identical but dies different. 



CLASS He 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

The Obverse Marks are the same as Class Ha, 01 
Glass lib, but the direction of the Elephant cannot 
be determined, 

PLAIN REVERSE. 
No. Wt. 

699 43-0 

700 42-0 

701 41-5 

702 41-0 



PAILA HOAED OP PUNCH-MARKED COINS 63 

CLASS lie 
ONE REVERSE MARK. 

No. Wt Marks Remarks 

703 40-5 Ib 

704- 42-0 lo 

705 4-1-0 If 

706 42-5 9e 

707 41-0 9h 

708 41-0 29a 

709 4:2-0 103a Clear Reverse Mark. 

710 41-0 X 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 



711 


42-5 


la 


14d 


712 


42-5 


la 


X 


713 


40-5 


la 


lib 


714 


42-5 


8a 


94c 


715 


36-5 


I9e 


21e 



THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

716 41-0 la 77d 172 

717 41-0 la In X 

718 41-0 Ib X X Elephant Indistinct, but is 

not Class VIII. 

719 40-5 7b lie X 

720 41-5 81 X X 

(small) 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

PI. VI, 1. 



721 


41-0 


?b 


32a 


83h 


73q 


722 


42"0 


la 


la 


44b 


X 


(smaller) 


7.23 


42-0 


If 


lib 


X 


X 


724 


40-5 


61b 


174 


X 


X 


725 


41-0 


73r 


174 


X 


X 


726 


40-0 


If 


lib 


29o 


98d 






(Sm.) 


(Sm.) 






727 


42.0 


le 


6b 


83d 


X 



64 JOXTENAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS He 
FIVE REVERSE MARKS 



728 


11 Is lib 


lUa 


175 


Remarks 


729 


la la *lf 


*tf 










(smaller) 




*Different 


dies. 


SIX REVERSE MARKS. 


730 


7c Hi 67b 


X 


X 








(small) 










731 


15b 19b lie 


176 


177 


x 




733 


lb Bio x 
6a 16a 22e 


X 


X 


X 
X 




SEVEN REVERSE MARKS. 


734 X 


xxx 


X 


X 


X 


All con- 


735 l a 


If In 35b 


51c 


X 


X 


fused. 
Marks un- 


736 If 


V 7a 77e 


X 


X 


X 


certain. 



NINE REVERSE MARKS 

737 M*xxxx'xx 

Confused Marks. 

CLASS lie ROUND. 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

738 lh 39a x x Defective Coin. Broken. 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 

739 lh -11 7a He 24a Clear Reverse Marks. 



le Hk 21a 29a 



x 



If lie X x x 

742 6a 77k X x x 

SIX REVERSE MARKS. 

743 la 



PAILA HOARD OP PUNCH-MARKED COINS 65 

CLASS He ROUND 

EIGHT REVERSE MARKS. 

No Marks 

744 la Ik Hb 125b 77c X X X 

CLASS Ilia 

OBVERSE MASKS. 

1. Three Serpentines round a Central Boss ; 

2. Taurine in Shield ; 3a Elephant facing to Right ; 
6. Sitting Hare. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 
No. Wt. 

745 44-5 

746 43-0 

747 43 

748 43-0 
749") 

to U2-5 

754J 

755-760 42-0 

761-765 41-5 

766-770 41-5 

771-775 41-0 

776-779 41-0 

780-783 40-5 

784-787 40-5 

788-792 39-5 

793-797 39-0 

798 36-0 

799 42-0 

800 40-o 

801 40-0 

802 41-5 

803 42-0 

804 43-5 Raised Protuberances on the Reverse. 

805 42-0 

806 41-5 

807 42-5 

808 41-0 

809 40-5 



66 JOURNAL OF TEE HUMISMATIO SOCIETY OF ESTDIA 

CLASS Ilia 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

No. Wt. Remarks 

810 41-0 

811 41-0 

812 41* 5 Raised Protuberances on the Reverse. PL VII, 17 

(Reverse). 

813 41*0 Clear Mark 3. Tie Hare, 

814 4] All Four Obverse Harks are clear. 

815 43 Serpentine over Hare. 

816 39*5 PL VI, 3. 

817 40-0 Note the protuberances on the reverse. PL VII, ] 8 

(Reverse). 

818 40 '6 Raised Protuberances on the reverse. 

819 42-0 

820 40-5 

Coins Nos. 949-50 also belong to this class. 

ONE REVERSE MARK. 

821 . . la 

822 . . Ib 

823 . . Ib 

824 . . le 

825 42 '0 14c The Hare (Mark No. 6) is clear. PL VI, 4. 

826 . . 16b 

827 . . 25a 

828-830 . . 28a On all the three coins, 

831 . . 28b 

832 - . 28b 

833 42-75 29c 

834 42-0 29c 

835 41-5 29o 

836 41-2529o 

837 41 -25 29o 
839-844 40 '5 29c 

845 . . 82e 

846 . . 122 Raised Protuberances on the Reverse. 

847 . . 178 

849 .. X Incomplete. 

850 .. X 

851 .. X 

See also coin No. 951 which belongs to this 
class. 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 67 

CLASS Ilia 

TWO REVERSE MARKS, 

No. Wt. Size. Marks Remarks 

852 .. .. la 25a 

853 .. .. la 180 

854 .. .. Id 25a 

855 .. .. 11A 51c 

856 .. .. 28a lib (Incomplete Mark.) 

857 .. .. 73g 99c 

DEFECTIVE. 

858 . . . . Broken coin. No Reverse Marks on the 

preserved portion. 
The Reverse Marks are flaked off. 

CLASS Ilia ROUND. 
PLAIN REVERSE. 



860 


39 


5 


65X 


65 




861 


41 


5 


68X 


58 




862 


39 


5 


68X 


64 




863 


42 


5 


70X 


66 




864 


44 





60X 


58 




865 


42 





67x 


60 




866 


42 





70X 


63 




867 


41 





76X 


65 




868 


44 


5 


68X 


60 


Serpentines over Elephant and Shield 












over Serpentine. 


869 


43 





68X 


68 




870 


41 





70X 


65 


The Hare is clear. El. VI, 5. 


ONE 


EEVERSE MARK. 


871 


37 


5 


t s 




28b 


872 


43 





. ^ 




40c 


873 


43 


5 







82e 


TWO REVEBSE MARKS. 


874: 


41 


5 


la 


X 




875 


42 





la 


X 





68 JOTJENAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS Illb 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

No. 1. Serpentines round a Boss ; No. 2, Taurine 
in a Shield ; No. 3b. Elephant facing to the left; 
No. 6. A Hare sitting. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

No. Wt. Remarks 

876 43-5 

877-879 43-0 

879-884 42-5 

885-887 42-0 

888-892 41-5 

893 41-0 

894 41-0 

895 40-5 

896 40-5 

897 40-0 

898 39-5 

899 39-0 

900 42-5 There are Raised Protuberances on the Reverse 

of coins 900 to 911. 

901 42-0 

902 42-0 

903 39-5 

904 39-0 

905 39-0 

906 38-5 

907 41-0 

908 40-5 

909 41-25 Unusually large Elephant to r, PI. VI, 7. 

910 41-5 

911 40-5 Pl.VII, 19. 

912 40-5 Obverse Mark 3a Tuskless Elephant facing to left 

twice and 3b (Elephant facing to left). PL 
VI, 9. 

ONE REVERSE MARK. 

913 .. 7a 

914 . . 28a 

915 . . 51o 

916 .. x 



PAILA HOARD OJ PUNCH-MAKKED COINS 69 

CLASS Hlb 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 
No. Wt. Marks Remarks 

917 .. 16b X 

918 .. 99c x 

CLASS lllb ROUND. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

919 41-5 

920 43-0 

921 44-5 

922 43-0 

923 41-5 

924 41-5 

925 41-5 

926 42-5 

927 42-5 

ONE REVERSE MARK. 

928 41-5 28a 

929 40-5 106 



CLASS IIIc 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

1. Serpentines round a Central Boss ; 2a. Tau- 
rine in a Shield. 3. Elephant ; the direction 
uncertain. 6. Hare sitting. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 
930-937 . . 

938 Raised Protuberances. 

939 . . Elephant not on the Coin. 

940 . . Elephant not on the Coin. 

941 . . Elephant not on the Coin. 
941A . . PI. VI, 9. 

ONE REVERSE MARK. 

942 . . Ib 

943 . . 51c 

944 . . 77e 



70 JOXJKNAL Or THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS ITIc 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

No. Wt. Marks Remarks 

945 .. 28a 173 x 

CLASS nio ROUND. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

946 .. 
to 

948 .. 

CLASS Ilia (Supplementary list). 

PLAIN REVERSE. 
949-950 .. 

ONE REVERSE MARK. 
951 42-5 182 PL VI, 6. 

CLASS IVa 

There are no coins of Clasa IV on which the 
Elephant faces to the right. 

CLASS IVb 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

1. Serpentines round a Central Boss ; 2. Taurine 
m a Shield; 3b. Elephant facing to the left-- 7 
Humped Bull, facing to the left. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

952 43-0 

953 43-0 

954 40-0 

955 41-0 17a PI. VI, 11. 

956 42-0 29c 

957 42-0 X and Raised Protuberances. 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 71 

CLASS 4b 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

No. Wt Marks 

958 41-50 4d 183 PI. VI, 12. 

THREE REVERSE MARES. 

959 40-0 la 29c X PI. VI, 13. 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

960 42-0 la In 15b X 

961 42-0 le Ik 21c X 

962 42-25 li lib 24f 181 

963 41"5 13b 15b 29a X 

(var.) 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 

964 39-0 117 X X X X 

CLASS IVb. ROUND, 
PLAIN REVERSE. 



965 42-25 

966 42-0 



ONE REVERSE MARK. 



967 37-25 la Defective coin ; has been clipped on one 

side. 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

968 42-25 4e 77d X Note the Flower Mark. 

CLASS IVc 
PLAIN REVERSE. 

969 41-5 Note Flower Markings. PI. VII, 20. 



72 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS IVc 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS, 

No. Wt Marks Remarks 

970 42*0 la (Partly on) lie 51c 83d 103c X 

PL VI, 14-. Elephant stamped over other Marks. 

CLASS Va. (NONE) 

There are no coins of Class Von which the Elephant 
faces to the right. 

CLASS Vb 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

1. Serpentines round a Central Boss; 2a. Tau- 
rine in a Shield ; 3b. Elephant, facing to the 
left ; 8, Sun and Crescent Moon. 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

971 41-0 Id 17e (Var.) Clear Reverse Marks. 

972 41-0 49 X 

POUR REVERSE MARKS. 

973 38' 21g X X X Shield is stamped twice: 

once over an older 
mark of the Plain 
Taurine. This there- 
fore appears to be a 
restamped Double- 
Obverse Coin, the 
other Obverse Marks 
of the Older Obverse 
being worn off. PL 
VI, 15. 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 

974 40-25 lib 16a 51b x X PL VI, 16. 

975 40 5 5A 27a x X x PI VI 17. 



PAILA HOAED OF PUNCE-MABKED COIN'S 73 

CLASS Vb 

EIGHT REVERSE MARKS 

No. Wt Marks Remarks 

976 40-75 5A 7e lie Hg 19b X XX 

(large) 

Last three marks are clear but incomplete ; they 
are overstamped. 

TEN REVERSE MARKS. 

977 41 '5 It lie 77c Others are incomplete or 

confused Marks. PL VI, 18. 

MANY REVERSE MARKS, 

978 39*5 Only lie can be clearly identified. The other 

Marks are completely mixed up with one another. 
But there appear to be some marks distinctive to 
this class of coins. PL VI, 19. 

A DOUBLE-OBVERSE COIN. 

( Obv. : Obv. of Vb ; see PL VI, 20, obv. 
J7VJ 41 -u \ Rev . 0bVg of ckss IX . pL vj, 20 older obv. 

CLASSES I to V. 

980 42-5 Round. Elephant to Right. Classes la Va. 

Marks 1, 2, 3 are clear. Fourth mark is on the 
margin only and cannot be recognized. 

981 40-5 Square. Elephant to left. Classes lib to Vb. 

The Fourth mark only just shows on the edge of 
the coin. But from the size of the incuse, it is 
not the Pentagon ; so it is not Class I. 



GLASS VI 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

1. Serpentines round a Central Boss ; 2a. Taurine 
in a Shield ; 7. Humped Bull facing to the left; 
8, Sun and Crescent Moon, 



74 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS VI 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

No. Wt Marks Remarks 

982 41-25 If 51b 36d 163 Clear reverse Marks- 

PL VI, 21 (Reverse). 

DOUBLE-OBVERSE. 

The "Reverse" side is the Obverse of Class IX and 
the coins are old coins of that class, restruck. 

983 40*75 Obverse Class VI, PL VI, 22. The Older Obverse 

of Class IX. PL VI, 22. 

984 42-25 Obverse Class VI and Older Obverse of Class IX, 

PL VI, 23. 

985 40-75 Do. PL VI, 24. 

The Older Class IX, Obverse, has the Reverse Mark 
68b, small but clear, punched on when that face 
was the Reverse of the later Class VI coinage. 

CLASS VII ROUKD 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

1. Serpentines round a Central Boss ; 2a. Taurine 
in a Shield; 9. Palm Tree; 8. Sun and Crescent 

Moon. 

DOUBLE OBVERSE. 

986 41-0 The "Reverse" of this coin is the Obverse of an 

older coinage of Class IX, as appears from its 
having Obverse Mark 12 (a Wheel) which is clear 
and is not overstamped, and Mark 11 (Hexagon) 
which is worn and is overstamped by the subse- 
quent Reverse Marks during its later currency 
as Class VII. PL VI, 25. 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 
8c 76b X X X 



PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 75 

CLASS VIII 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

1. Serpentines round a Central Boss ; 2. Taurine 
m a Shield; 10. A Tree with Branches; 8. Sun and 
Crescent Moon. 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

No. Wt Marks.... Remarks 

987 42-0 6c HAb 23b Pi. VI, 26. 

FOUR REVERSE MARKS. 

988 40-25 lib 68b X X PI. VI, 27. 

CLASS IX 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

1. Serpentines round a Central Boss ; 2b. Large 
Plain Taurine ; 11. Hexagon formed of two 
Triangles; 12. Wheel. 

PLAIN REVERSE. 

989 42-25 PI. VII, 1. 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

990 40-5 17f 93a 184 PL VII, 3. 

991 38-5 Id Ik 98h PI. VII, 4. 

CLASS IX ROUND. 

TWO REVERSE MARKS. 

992 41-5 If 7a PI. VII, 2. 

DOUBLE OBVERSE COINS. 

Coins of Class IX, which were restruck later as 
coins of Classes Vb, VI, and VII, and which have 
been entered in those Classes. 



76 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

CLASS IX ROUND. 

DOUBLE OBVERSE COINS. 

No. Wt Remarks 

973 38-0 01. Vb. On the Rev., older Obv. of 01. IX. 

979 41-0 01. Vb. P1.VI,20. 

983 40-75 Cl. VI. P1.VL22. 

984 42-25 01. VI. PL VI, 23. 

985 40-75 01. VI. P1.VL24. 

986 41-0 CL VII (Round) PI. VI, 25. 

CLASS X. (ROUND) 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

1. Serpentines round a central Boss ; 2b. Large 
Plain Taurine ; 11. Hexagon Formed of two Tri- 
angles ; 13. Rayed Circle, the rays curving to 
the left. The Sun [?1 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 

993 42-0 Id, 4a, 8c, HAb, 56b PI. VII, 5. 

CLASS XI 

OBVERSE MARKS 

The same as CLASS X. Except that Mark 13 
(Rayed Circle) occurs in different varieties. 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

DOUBLE OBVERSE COIN. 

994 42-0 Ib, 831, 93c PI. VII, 6. 

There is a much worn Hexagon on the reverse which 
has been overstamped by the Reverse Marks. 
This shows that the reverse face was previously 
the Obverse of one of the Classes IX to XIII 
which bear that Mark. 

FIVE REVERSE MARKS. 

995 42-5 4e(var.), 7a, 14d, 35c, 38c PL VII, 7. 



PAILA HOAKD OF BUNCH-MARKED COINS 77 

CLASS XI 

SIX EEVEESE MASKS. 

No. Wt Marks 

996 40 If, HAb, 29a, 77d, 186 PI. VII, 8. 

EIGHT EEVEESE MAEKS 

997 42-25 It, Ilk, Me, 15a, 125c, 185 X X 

PL VII, 9. 

NINE EEVEESE MABKS 

988 41 -?5 If, Iq, 16a, 83d, 83h, 83i X X X 

PI. VII, 10 (Eeverse). 

TWELVE EEVEESE MAEKS 

999 41-5 HAb, 19c (var.), 192, 192, 192 (three times) and 
seven other confused marks. PI. VII, 11. 

FIFTEEN EEVEESE MAEKS. 

1000 41-25 7b, lOaa, 64 and twelve other Marks, too confused 

to identify. PL VII, 12. 

CLASS XI EOUND. 

SEVEN EEVEESE MAEKS. 

1001 42-0 It, Iq, 2b, 92c, XXX PL VII, 13. (Eeverse). 

CLASS XII. 

OBVEESE MAEKS. 

The same as Classes X and XI. but mark 13 is of 
a different variety. It is almost worn off on 
coin 1002. 

NINETEEN EEVEESE MAEKS. 

1002 41 '0 If, 3b, 19c, 82f and fifteen other marks which are 

all overstamped and confused. PI. VII, 14. 



78 PAILA HOARD OF PUNCH-MARKED COINS 

CLASS XII ROUND. 

FOURTEEN REVERSE MARKS. 
No, Wt. 

1003 41 *5 In, 9a, 9a(twice)93c,93c(twice of different punches), 

93d, 187, and at least seven other confused Marks. 
PI. VII, 15. 

CLASS XIII 

OBVERSE MARKS. 

Mark 1 (the Serpentines); Mark2b (Hexagon); does 
not show, Mark 13 (a Variety) and a Reverse 
Mark of a central Boss with Pellets round it. 

THREE REVERSE MARKS. 

1004 30-0 Defective coin, part flaked off. 

55, 73s, X PI. VII, 16. 

UNCLASSIFIED 

1005 37 5 Defective Coin. Obverse surface flaked off. Only 

Mark 2a (Taurine in a Shield) is identifiable. 

N. B. Owing to War conditions it was not possible to send any 
proof of this paper to its author. Every effort has been 
made to correct printing mistakes, but it is possible that 
some may have remained undetected, especially as the MS. 
was a handwritten one.- EDITOK, A. S. A. 



A NOTE ON THE SFAMIWALA (BIJNOR DIST.) 
HOARD OF SILVER COINS. 

BY E.H.O. WALSH, I.C.S. (RETIRED). 

In his interesting paper on "Shamiwala (Bijnor Dist.) Hoard of 
Silver Punch-marked Coins" in this Journal for 1939, pp. 1 4, Mr. 
Durga Prasad describes those coins as being punch-marked, though, 
on page 3, he notes that ce as all the coins are stamped on one side 
with a small punch and there are no symbols on the reverse as seen 
usually on other types of punch-marked coins, the qxiestion arises 
whether they should be classed as punch-marked coins, or among 
the early one-sided die-struck coins, examples of which are known 
among Taxila copper-coins, though none have yet come to light 
in silver." These coins, which formed "Treasure Trove Report 
File No. 12 of 1920" were with the late Mr. W. E. M. Campbell 
at the time of his death, and had been deposited by him in the 
British Museum. After Mr. Campbell's death they were forwarded 
to me by the British Museum, in 1924 3 together with other coins 
which had been with Mr. Campbell, and I forwarded them to the 
Lucknow Museum. I then saw these coins. There is no doubt 
that they are die-struck coins. The point is material with refer- 
ence to the age of the coins. The idea of combining the marks 
separately punched on the punch-marked coins into one die cover- 
ing the entire face of the coin, was, certainly, a later development. 



THREE NEW SPECIMENS OE A RARE VARIETY 
OF ERAN-UJJAYINI COINS. 

BY H. D. SANKALIA, M.A., PH. D. 
DECCAX COLLEGE RESEARCH INSTITUTED POONA. 






These coins were recently purchased by Father Heras for the 
Museum of the Indian Historical Research Institute, St. Xavier's 
College, Bombay. I am thankful to him for handing them over 
to me for identification and publication. 

Coin No. L 
Metal J& 

Size Roughly rectangular (about 0.5" in breadth and 

about 0.6" in length). 
Weight Not known. 1 
Obverse To the left, circle surrounded by six symbols, two 

of which are taurines, two arrows, and two circles 

with semi-circles standing apart. 

In the centre a staff is surmounted by a taurine 

symbol. 

To the right, a worn out human figure. 
Reverse In the lower field Svastika, portions of the left and 

lower arms partly obliterated. 

Coin No, II- 
Metal /E 

SMO Roughly rectangular (about . 6"in breadth and about 

0.7" in 'length). 

1 I regret that I am unable to give the weights of these coins, for after I took 
tho plaster-casts, Father Heras suddenly left for Spain, and the coins were loft at 
KndaikanaL 



82 JOURNAL OF TEE JTUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

Weight Not known. 

Obverse In an incuse circle (which is incomplete on the left 

side), symbols as in No. I, but very indistinct- the 

human figure, however, is holding in its right hand 

tne staff m the centre. 
Eeverse Is now blank, but there might have been a Svastifa 

winch has disappeared owing to use 
Coin No. Ill- 
Metal M 

Size Roughly rectangular (about 0.5" in breadth and 

about 0.6" in length). 
Obverse In an incuse but incomplete circle, the same symbols 

as m No 1 above ; but the first one is incomplete. 

Below aU the three symbols traces of river with fish 

as on other Malwa coins 
Reverse Smstika, ends of whose arms were once ornamented 

wi h a taurine symbol, in bold relief, with the 

bottom arm s end cut off. 
AH the three coins evidently are of an identical variety which 



: a rrs& 8toto8 6gme to w? ^ 

Since Cumkglmm's time BO corns of tiis type described 

I " ' * nd 



Com, of Ancient Indi ^o, 1891, p. 96 pi x H 




t:an 8 culp. Z P*** m oariy Egvp . 

the reaaoSa mentioned to Note 1 above ^ PUrBUe * he maMer further becauf^f 



A NEW HOARD OF SlTAVAHANA COINS 
FROM TARHALA (AKOLA DISTRICT). 

BY PROF. V. V. MIBASEI, MA, NAGPUE. 
[Plate VIII.] 

On the 6th of September 1939, a grazier boy, nine years old, 
found by chance an old coin on the bank of a nala, flowing through 
the field, Survey No. 120, at Tarhala, a village about 7 miles north 
by west of Mangrul in *he Mangrul taluka of the Akola District m 
Berar. He told his companions about it and the latter, digging at 
the place, came upon an earthen pot containing this large hoard of 
1600 Satavahana coins. They were, in due course, acquired by the 
Provincial Government under the Treasure Trove Act and presented 
to the Central Museum, Nagpur. When discovered, the coins were 
covered with a coating of dirt and rust, but they have since been 
cleaned with great patience and thoroughness by NX. M. A. Suboor, 
the Coin-Expert of the Museum. In the ordinary course, the coins 
would have been dealt with by Mr. Suboor, but knowing my keen 
interest in the matter, he ungrudgingly placed the whole hoard at 
my disposal. I am obliged to him and to Dr. S. S. Patwardhan, 
Curator of the Museum, for their kind help in various ways. 

This is the second hoard of Satavahana coins to be discovered 
in the Central Provinces and Berar. The first one was discovered 
more than fifty years ago, in 1888, in a village, the name of which 
has not been recorded, in the Brahmapuri tahsil of the Chanda 
District in the Central Provinces, and is known to numismatists 
as the Chanda hoard. The coins of that hoard, which numbered 
only 183, were sent by Mr. J. Higgins, D. S. Police, to the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal in November 1888. They were examined by 
Dr. Hoernle, whose report on them was read at a meeting of the 
Society held on the 7th June 1893 and is published in the Proceed- 
ings of the Society for 1893, pp. 116-117. Dr. Hoernle found in that 
hoard 51 coins of Sri Satakarj&i, 24 coins of Sri Pulumavi and 42 
coins of Sri Yajna Satakargi. He identified these kings with 
Satakar^i-Gautamlputra I, Pulumavi- Vasishthiputra and Yajiia 
Satakar$i-Gautanuputra II. He also noticed therein some more 
coins with imperfect legends, viz., one with ya (gada ?) 3ata\ two 
with Siri (or n) Kanu Sata and two with rajflo (or jflo) Va, but 
he did not offer any suggestions about the identifications of these 

1 What Hoernle meant was probably ye* (ga?) da Sata. 



84 JOUENAL OP THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

kings* Some coins of this hoard were subsequently presented to 
the British Museum, London, and the Indian Museum, Calcutta, 
and some seem to have found their way to private coin-eabinets 2 . 
The coins presented to the British Museum have been discussed 
by Prof. Eapsonin an article in the J.R.A.S. (1903), pp. 303fi. 
and included in his Catalogue of the Coins of the Andhras\ etc. 
When Vincent Smith catalogued the coins in the Indian Museum, 
he found that most of the Andhra coins in that museum were from 
the Chanda hoard. 4 

As stated before, the present hoard contains about 1600 coins. 
Of these, 1525 were recovered entire and the remaining, which 
numbered about 75, were found broken to small bits. All the coins 
are of the Satavahana kings. It is noteworthy that there is not a 
single coin in the hoard of any other dynasty indigenous or foreign. 
All the coins are of potin, but the proportion of ingredients in that 
alloy was evidently different in different issues, for while some coins 
appear blacHsh even after thorough cleaning, others are almost 
as bright as copper/* 1 All the coins are round and die-struck, 
Rapson 5 and Smith, 6 while describing the potin coins of the 
Chanda hoard, have remarked that the Andhra coins of potin were 
cast and not die-struck. This does' not appear to be correct. For 
the present hoard, which is of the same metal and type, contains 
several coins which clearly exhibit the incuse formed by the strik- 
ing of the die 7 . Some coins are double struck on both the sides. 8 
The coins are all of a uniform type. They are roundish in shape 
and have on the obverse, the figure of an Elephant with the trunk 
upraised and the legend running along the edge, and, on the reverse, 
the Ujjain symbol, each orb of which contains a pellet. The 
Elephant faces right except on the coins of Karna Satakarni. 9 The 
legends seem to have commenced at VII, but as the die was in every 
case larger than the blank, only the portion between IX and I or 
II is visible on most of the coins. On some coins, however, the 
initial portion of the legend has come out intact, which has enabled 
me to correct in some cases the prevailing readings of the legends 
on the coins of the Chanda hoard. The legends seem to have ended 

s One coin of the Chanda hoard was in the possession of Mr P Thorburn and 
has now been purchased bv Mr M. F C.Martin SeeJ. A* S. B., Num. SuppL 
XXX (1934), Art. 318. " 

3 This is hereafter referred to as B M. C. 

4 V. Smith, LH C , p 209 

4 a The coins, when analysed, were found to contain copper (about 75 to 
80%), tin (about 20%) and traces of iron. 

5 J. E. A S. for 1903, p. 307. 

6 V. Smith, 2, M C., p 209. 

7 Sec eg., PJ. VIII, Nos 19 and 20 

8 See PL VIII, Nos. 33 and 34. 

8 See PL VUi, Nos. 26 and 27. In No. 28 the Elephant faces right, but that 
is becaubo of the die being wrongly made See below, p. 89. 



A KSW HOARD OF SATAVAEA2TA COINS PROM TABHALA 8 

at II near the tip of the upraised trunk of the Elephant . The por- 
tion in front I0 and below n the feet of the Elephant is blank. 
Another thing to be noticed in connection with the obverse type 
is that there is no mahwut on the neck of the Elephant. What 
Hoernle 12 and following him, Vincent Smith I3 and Rapson u took 
to be the figure of a crouching mdhaut is only the trappings for the 
neck and head of the Elephant. 

The 1525 coins of this hoard can be classified as follows : 

Serial No, in the Name of King, 3STo. of 

No. Purana list coins, 

according to 
Pargiter. 1S 

1 23 Sri-Satakarni (III)- (Gautamf- 573 

putra) 

2 24 Sri-Pulumavi (II) 174 

3 24a Sri-Satakami (IV) 35 

4 25 Siva-grl-Pulumavi (III) 32 

5 26 rI-Skanda-Satakarni 23 

6 27 SrMajDa-Satakarm 248 

7 28 Sxi-Vijaya-Satakarni 4 

8 ri-Kurnbha-Satakarni 56 

9 ri-Karna-Satakarni 7 

10 Sn-Saka-Satakami 4 

11 30 (Sri) Pulahamavi 4 
Coins with no legends or with illegible legends 365 



1,525 

Kings Nos. 8 10 are not known from any other source, nu- 
mismatic or inscriptional, 

The legends on the coins are in Prakrit and contain the name 
of the reigning king in the genitive case. As was already- noted 
by Rapson, metronymics are altogether absent on these coins of 
ancient Vidarbha. 18 The other statement of Rapson that the title 
Raja does not occur on the coins of the Chanda hoard 17 is, however, 

l Hoernle found one coin in the Chanda hoard on which ratJsa (kanasa ?) 
appeared m front of the Elephant. There is no coin like it in the present hoard. 

11 Only in one case (PL VIII, No. 23) have I observed two aJcsharaf (rana) 
below the feet of the "Elephant. 

12 Proceedings A fl. B. for 1893 5 p> 13 6. 
is / M G , p. 210, PL XXHI, 18. 

l* B M. O., p. 42, n. 1 ; p. 48, n. 2 etc, 

18 Dynasties of the Kali Age, p 36, 

is Ibid , Introduction, p. cxo. 

17 loc, cit. 



86 JOURNAL OP THE NOCISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

incorrect ; for as shown below, the coins of the two Satakarnis 
and two Pulumavis begin with the title rana (properly ranno, 
Sanskrit rajuah). This form of the Prakrit word was changed to 
ra Tta (properly rdno) in the time of Yajna-Satakarni. As the initial 
few ahharas of the legends on the coins of the later kings are cut out, 
it is not possible to say if they bore this or any other title. ia 

With these preliminary remarks, I shall now proceed to give 
a detailed description of these coins. 

I. The Coins of Sri-Sat atargi III (Gautamiputra). Total No. 573. 

Potin , obv. Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol , complete legend, Rana(nno) Sm-Sdiakanisa. 

Legend Size, diameter Weight in Reference 

in inches grains 

(1) Obv. -na Siri-Sdtafa- ; .7 ; Wt. 39.5; PL VI [I, 1 

(2) Ob\. -n[a] S[i*]ri-Sata- ; .73; Wt. 44 ; PL VIII, 2 

(3) Obv. [-ri]-Satakanisa ; .8 ; Wt. 60.5 ; PL VIII, 3 

(4) Obv. -faiawp*]- ; .75; Wt. 50 ; Pi. VIII, 4 

(5) Obv. -Sffltofanisa ; .7 , Wt. 39.5, PL VIII, 5 

(6) Obv. -Sffitakanisa ; .65; Wt. 31.5; PL VIII, 6 

(7) Obv. -[SdltaJca&sa ; .7 ; Wt. 44 ; PL VIII, 7 

^ The coins with the legend Sdtalanisa are the largest in number 
in this hoard ; but they are not all likely to be the issues of the 
same king. Some of them have the legend in large and thick 
letters 59 , and others in small and thin ones 20 . In the latter case 
the legend nowhere appears complete, only the portion Satak**i 
or batokanisa having come out on the blank. As the names of 
several kings represented in this hoard end in Sataterpi and the 
legends on their coins are in similar small and thin letters, it is-not 
unlikely that these coins with the legend SdtaJcanisa in small and 
thin letters belong to these later kings. Such coins number about 

W , r\ ,\ COi f S haVe tte IbgUaI ? in the name Swakani, 
but some have the dental with a curved base. These corns' I 
have assigned to Satakaitf IV mentioned in a MS. of the 
purana, as the grandson of Satakarni III 2 



th, Qni .^^ Ea Pson dife from Hoernle and ascribe 
the coins with the legend Sm-ftaatam to fo-TaHa^ta 



tto ^ C inS f the tW Cksses ^st clos y 
of types and by the similar . t Qf ^^ .7 



5 KSKSs^tt^^ to***^ 



a " JT~ r-e 1 * v * ^ua. i o. 

o t he le Sends of Nos 6 and 7 




m- 

loWi 



A NEW HOARD OF SATAVAHANA COINS PROM TARHALA 87 

scriptions." Another reason advanced in favour ot this attribu- 
tion is that elsewhere (e.g., in the Andhra country), the Elephant 
appears as a type in the latter part of the reign of ri-Yajna.* s 
As Hoernle has given no reasons for attributing these coins to 
Gautamiputra-Satakarni in preference to Srl-Yajna-Satakrani, 
it is necessary to examine the above arguments. None of them is 
convincing. The evidence of the present hoard shows that the type 
(Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right) was long current 
in ancient Vidarbha. It is found on the coins of thetwoPulumavis 
who undoubtedly preceded Yajna-Satakarni. Besides, the royal 
title on these coins of Satakarni is rand (for ranno, Sanskrit vdjnah] 
while it is rana (for rafio) on the coins of Yajfia. Again, the legends 
on these coins are in bold and archaic letters, whereas the general 
tendency in later times was to use small and thin letters. For these 
reasons " I ascribe these coins to Gautamiputra-Satakarni. His 
metronymic is omitted as in the case of so many other kings re- 
presented in the present hoard. 

II. The Coins of Sri-Puliimavi (II) (Vasishthiputra). Total No. 174. 

Potin ; obv. Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol; complete legend, Rand Siri-Pulumamsa,. 

(1) Obv. RavdSm-Pulum{a\-] .8; Wt. 43 ; PL VIII, No. 8 

(2) Obv. -Pulumdv[i]$a ; .7; Wt. 44 ; PL VIII, No. 9 

(3) Obv. -lamMftsa ; .75; Wt. 41 ; PL VIII, No. 10 

This Pulumavi is plainly VasishtMputra-Pulumavi, the son 
and successor of Gautamiputra-Satakarni III. As in the case of 
Satakarni III, all the coins with the imperfect legend Pujumdvisa 
may not belong to him, as there was another homonymous prince 
Siva-^ri-Pulumavi who flourished a little later. See below, No. IV. 

III. The Coins of Satakarni IV 25 . Total No. 35. 

Potin ; obv. Elephant with trunk upraised standing to right ; rev. 

22 jr. . 4. s. for 1903, p. 305 ; B. M. , Introd., p. Ixxx, n. 3 In I M C,, 
pp. 210-11, Smith attributes these coins doubtfully to Pulumavi, son of \ asishthi. 

23 B M C. ? Introd , p, Ixxs, ' , _ . 

34 [Another reason for which Rapson_ attributed these coins to bri-Yajna- 
Satakarni seems to have been his new that Sn-Satakami was an abbreviation of 
gri-Yajna-Satakarni (Catalogue, p Ixxx-, n. 3). The coins NOB 364 ; and 165 ol his 
catalogue, illustrated in plate VII, as well as coins Kos. 18 and 19 illustrated with 
this paper, would show that when pressed for space, mint masters were instructed 
to omit the opening letters Rana or the concluding letters Lam. King Yajna 
Satakami would never have allowed the word Yajfia to be omitted for the sake of 
abbreviation, as that would have rendered his coins indistinguishable from those 
of a number of his predecessors, who also bore the common title Satakarni. 

25 ' The coins of Vasishthiputra Siva-iSri-Satakatni (B M. C., p, 29) may be- 
long to this king. In that ca&e he would be a brother of Pulumavi III. 



88 JOURNAL OF TEE NUMSHATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Ujjain symbol ; the complete legend may have been Rand Siva- 
Siri-Sdtakanisa, but none of the coins in this hoard shows the initial 
portion* 

(1) Obv. [-to]*an[*>a ; .8 ; Wt. 38.5; PL VIII, No. 11 

(2) Obv. S[a*]ta1canli*]- ; .7 ; Wt. 26.5; PL VIII, No. 12 

I tentatively attribute these coins to Satakarni IV, because the 
characters on these coins appear later than those on the coins of 
Satakanii III. See especially the dental n with a curved base like 
that of t, and contrast it with the earlier form of the letter n (in 
Nos, 1 7), which has a horizontal base. The letter n in the royal 
name is dental and is formed like t. According to a MS. of the 
this king reigned for 29 years. 26 



IV. The Coins of Siva-gri-Pulumavi (III). Total No. 32. 

Potin ; Obv. Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol ; complete legend Rand Siva-Siri-Pulumavisa. 

(1) Obv. Rand Siva-Sir[i*]-Piilu- .65 ; Wt. 37 ; PL VIII, No. 13 

(2) Obv. -va-Sm-Puhmaw[sa]; .75; Wt. 50 ; PL VIII, No. H 

This king is not represented in Rapson's Catalogue of Andhra 
Coins. In his list of Andhra kings, Rapson gives his name as 
Sivasri, to whom he ascribes the coins with the legend Vdsithi- 
putasa Siva-Sin-Sdtakanisa. But as shown by Pargiter 27 , the 
Matsya-purdna and one MS. of the Vdyupurdna cleaily give his name 
as Siva-SrI-Puloma with a reign-period of 7 years. In the 
Chanda hoard there were some coins, the legend on which Hoernle 
conjecturally read as [Sitya-Sm-Pulumavisa, but he admitted that 
the first cikshara si of Siva was uncertain. He thought it not im- 
probable that the intended word was rano, not Siva 29 . Rapson 
suggested that the traces read as Sna might only be the traces of 
some symbol, perhaps a conch-shell 29 . Recently Mr. M. F. 0. 
Martin has stated that among the coins which he purchased from 
Mr. P. Thorburn, there is one from the Chanda hoard, which has 
the legend Siva-Siri-Puluma[visa] quite clear. 30 One of the coins 
illustrated here exhibits not only this name, but also the title rand. 
If we admit Satakarni IV as the son and successor of Vasishtiu- 
putra-Pulumavi, this &Va-jr!-Puhimavi becomes the latter's grand- 
son. 

This appears quite plausible, as in India children are often 



26 Dynasties oj the Kali Age, p. 42. 



,.. 

8 Proceedings, A. 8. B. for 1003. p. 117. 
*9 J. R. A. 8. for 1003, p. 306. 
so J. A. 8. B. for 1934, Num. 8vppl, Art 318. 



A NEW HOARD OF SATAVAHAKA COINS FBOM TAEHALA 89 

named after their grandfather. The coins with the legend Siva- 
Siri-Pulumamsa number only 32, but as stated above, soire of the 
coins with the fragmentary legend Pulumdvisa may belong to him. 

V. The Coins of gri-Skanda-Satakarni. Total No. 23. 

Potin ; obv. Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol ; complete legend, (Rand] Siri-Khada-Satakanisa. 

(1) Obv. S[i*]r[i*]-Khada-Satalta- ; .75 ; Wt. 50 ; PL VIII, No, 15 

(2) Obv. rfr^-RJiada-Sd ; .65 ; Wt. 42 ; PL VIII, No. 16 

The name of this king is correctly read here for the first time. 
In the Chanda hoard there was a coin, the legend of which Hoernle 
doubtfully read as ya(ga)da Sdta. Vincent Smith's Catalogue in- 
cludes a coin of this type, but he read the legend as Sari Chada 
Sdta[kani], while the plate clearly shows Sari-Khada-Sdta . 31 
The lower curve of d appears joined to the left limb of s, which 
seems to have misled Vincent Smith into reading it as lingual d. 
The preceding aJcshara is clearly Jcha. On several coins of this king 
from the present hoard, the aJcshara Jcha is partly cut on the left- 
hand edge, only the vertical being left over. This vertical has in 
some cases a short serif at the lower end. 32 The com No. 179 in 
Eapson's Catalogue (PL VII) is a coin of this type. Although it is 
recorded to have been found in the Krishna District, it is of the 
same type and fabric as the coins of the Chanda District. Rapson 
read the legend 33 as [Ru*]da-SdtaJca , but the reading is certainly 
wrong 3 * in view of the several clear specimens of that type in the 
present hoard. This Khada Sdtakani is undoubtedly Siva-Skanda- 
Satakarni, 35 whom the Puranas mention as the son and successor 
of $iva-Sri-Pulumavi. A MS. of the Vdyupurdna assigns a reign- 
period of 3 years to him. 

VI. The Coins of gri-Yapa-Satakami. Total No. 248. 

Potin ; obv Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol; complete legend, Sana Sm-Yana-Satakanisa. 

(1) Obv. Rana S[i*]n- Yana- ; .7 ; Wt. 43 ; PL VIII, No. 17 

(2) Obv. -Yafta-Sata]cani[sd] ; .7 ; Wt. 49 ; PL VIII, No. 18 

31 / M 0., p 213 and PI. XXIII, 24 (? 22) 

32 See Lha in No. 16 illustrated here. 

33 B.M C , p. 46. 

34 > There was, of course, an Andhra king named Rudra-Satakarni 3 as a coin 
(B M. C , PI VII, G. P. 2) gives his name clearly. But he ruled in Andhra, not in 
Vidarbha. 

35 These coins show that the name &iva-Skanda (not Skandha) which oc- 
curs in two MSS. of the Vishnupurdna is the correct one See Pargiter's Dynasties 
of the Kah Age, p 42, n 5 For another instance of the Prakrit Khada "being taken 
as equivalent to Skanda, see No 1186 m Luders 1 List of Brahmt Inscriptions) Ep. 
Ind , Vol X, App , p 136. 



90 JOUBNAL OF THE KUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

(3) Obv. - Yana-Sdta ; . 7 ; Wt. 40 ; PI. VIII, No. 19 

(4) Obv. -9\i*]-7afta-Sa ; . 66 ; Wt. 39 ; PL VIII, No. 20 

(5) Obv. Rana S[i*]r[i*]-[Yana] .67 ; Wt. 39.5 ; PL VIII, No. 21 

The coins of this king in the hoard are less than only those of 
Satakarni III Gantamlputra. Worthy of note is the change in the 
Prakrit form of the royal title prefixed to his name. It is rafta 3S 
(properly rdno, Sanskrit raffia Ji) in place of the previous rand 
(properly ranno). As the legend was rather long, it is found in 
some cases abbreviated into Yana-Sdta, or even Yana-Sd> See 
coins 3 and 4- above, (PL VIII, Nos. 19 and 20). The incuse on the 
right side of these coins shows that the legend ended there. 

VII. The Coins of Srl-Vijaya-Satakarni, Total No. 4. 

Potin ; Obv. Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol ; complete legend, Rafto [Sin ]~Vijaya~Sdtakani$a. 

(1) Obv. -[ja]ya-Sdtakan[i] ; .68 ; Wt. 31 ; PL VIII, No. 22 

(2) Obv. -ya-Sdtaka- * ; ,65; Wt. 45 ; PL VIII, No. 23 

There are only four coins of this king in the present hoard. 
The name Vijaya does not occur completely on any of them, but 
the aksharas ya-Sdta&a or ya-SdtaJcani are clear on all of them. Two 
of them, again, exhibit the lower curve of j on their left edge. As 
there is no other king in the Andhra dynasty, whose name ended in 
ya, I ascribe these coins to Vijaya-Satakarni, whom the Puranas 
mentions as the son and successor of Sri-Yajna-Satakarni, with a 
reign-period of 6 years. In the Chanda hoard there were two coins 
with fragmentary legends which Hoernle read as rajno Va oijno Va. 
They also probably belonged to the same king. These latter coins 
have not been illustrated anywhere, but if Hoernle's readings were 
correct, we must hold that the legend on the coins did not contain 
the honorific Sin (Sri) prefixed to the royal name. No other coins 
of this king have been reported till now. 

VTIL The Coins of gri-Kumbha-Satakarni, Total No. 56. 

Potin ; obv. Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol ; complete legend, [Rano] Siri-Eubha-Sdtakanisa. 

(1) Obv. S&'l-ri-KubJia-SataJca-', .67; Wt. 30 ; PL VIII, No. 24 

(2) Obv. -rli^-KubJia-Sataka- ; .6 ; Wt. 29.5 ; PL VIII, No. 25 



38 Hoernle read the legend on the coins of this king from the Chanda hoard 
as *ia Stri-Yafia-Satakani, hut m a note added that it was not improbable that the 
word to be supplied was rajno. (Proceedings A. S. B. for 1893, p 117.) Rapson on 
the other hand thought that the signs might possibly only be parts of some symbol, 
perhaps a conch-shell. (J. ft A, 3. for~1903, pp. 304-5.) 



A NEW HOAED OF SATAVAHANA COINS FROM TARHALA 91 

The coins of this king are coming to light for the first time. 
He is not mentioned even in the Puranas. He perhaps flourished 
at a time when the kingdom of this branch of the Satavahanas was 
confined to ancient Vidarbha. 

IX. The Coins of Sri-Karna-Satakarni, Total No. 7. 

Potin , obv Elephant with trunk upraised standing to left ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol ; complete legend, [Rano] Siri-Kana-SataLamsa. 

(1) Obv. na-Sata- ; .65 ; Wt. 30.5 ; PI. VIII, No. 26 

(2) Obv. -Kam-S[a*]ta ; .65; Wt. 33.5; PL VIII, No. 27 

(3) Obv. (reversed kge&&)-ri-Eaha-Sata ; .65 ; Wt. 36 ; PL VIII, 

No. 28. 

The lower bar of the akshara na is bent in No . 26, while it forms 
a loop in No. 27. On two coins the die appears to have been wzongly 
formed, 37 as the aJcsharas appear reversed and the Elephant faces 
right. Two coins of this king were found in the Chanda hoard also. 
Hoernle read the legend as Siri-Kanu-Sata on one and -ri Kanu 
Sata on the other. The latter coin was presented to the British 
Museum and is included as No. 180 in Kapson's Catalogue (PL VII), 
On this coin, however, the Elephant stands facing right. Kapson 
read the legend as [-] ti-KanJia-Sata[ka ]. 38 The second alsJiara of 
the name is however not nha. The bent right end of the lower hori- 
zontal stroke of na has been attached to the lower curve of the left 
limb of the next letter sa ; this produces the false impression of the 
a&ytoabeing nha. In view of the coins illustrated here, which are 
of the same type and fabric, I have no doubt that the correct read 
ing of the aforementioned Chanda coin is Kana, not KanJia. The 
corresponding Sanskrit name would be Kama. There were several 
kings in this dynasty whose names, according to the Matsyapwana,** 
ended in karna, e.g., Nos. 12-14, Svatikarnas, No. 16, Anslitakarna } 
No. 20, Sundara Santikarna, No. 21, Chakora Svatikurna, No. 29, 
Chandasri Santikarna, but all of them, except the last one, flourished 
before even Gautamiputra-Satakarni III, while the form of n in 
Kana on the coins described above indicates that the king Kama 
flourished long after Gautamiputra, at least not earlier than the 
second century A. D. If Chan<JasrI really bore the name Santi- 
karna/ these coins may have been struck by him. 

37 See e.g., com No. 28 m PL VIII. For other instances ot such a mistake 
see B. M. <7., p. 4. 

3S J ft. A. S. for 1903, p. 306 ; J5. M C , p. 48. 

39 Seo the list of the Andhra kings according to tne Matsyapurana> B. M C , 
Introd pp. Ixvi and Kvii 

4 Other Piiranos name him as Sa-takarni 



92 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF 

X. The Coins of gri-Saka-Satakariii. Total JSTo. 4. 

Potin ; obv. Elephant -with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev 
U]jain symbol ; complete legend, [Rano Siri]-Saka (or SaJcasa) 

Satakanisa. 

(3) Obv. -Jcasa SdtaJca ; .7 ; Wt. 34 ; PL VIII, No. 29 
(2) Obv. -[ta]Salca-S[a] ; ,7 ; Wt. 37 ; PL VIII, No. 30 

The coins of this king also have not been known before. Saka 
Satakarni is not mentioned in the Puranas. We know of course of 
a Haku-srl from a Nana-Ghat inscription and it is true that s and h 
were interchangeable in Prakrit. But this Haku-sri flourished long 
before the kings represented in this hoard. It seems therefore that 
this Saka Satakarni, like Kumbha Satakarni, ruled only in Vidarbha* ' 
and so his name does not figure in the Puranic lists. 

XI. The Coins of grl-Pulahamavi. Total No. 4. 

Potin ; obv. Elephant with trunk upraised, standing to right ; rev. 
Ujjain symbol ; complete legend, [Rano Siri]- Pulahamavisa. 

(1) Obv. -P[u]laMma~ ; .65 ; Wt. 40.5 ; PL VIII, No. 31 

(2) Obv. -PulaMma- ; .66 ; Wt. 51 ; PL VIII, No. 32 

The second aksham of this king's name which appears some- 
what like sa must be read as la in view of the forms of that letter 
in the legends of Pu]umavi II (Vasishthlputra). 42 I ascribe these 
coins to the last king, because his name is not spelt like that of 
( Vasishthlputra )-Pu}umavi or of $iva-ri-Pu]iunavi. According 
to the Puranas, he was the last king of the Andhra dynasty and ruled 
for 7 years only. 

The discovery of this large hoard in Berar raises the interesting 
question of the home of the Satavahanas. In the Puranas these 
kings are called Andhras, but it has been pointed out that their 
earliest inscriptions and coins have been found outside the Andhra 
country. The earliest Satavahana king whose records and coins 
come from the Andhra-desa is Vasishthiputra-Pulumavi/ 3 but he 
stands very low, being the twenty-fourth in the Puranic list. 
Besides, in the Hathlgumpha inscription the king Kharavela of 
Kalinga is said to have dispatched a strong army to the west, dis- 
regarding Satakarni and to have reached the Kanha-bemna. 44 

41 Rapson has read the legend on certain Andhra coins as Balcase [na]sa 
He identifies the striker of the coins with Madhanputa-Svami-Sakasena of the 
Kanhen inscription. See /. E. A. 8. for 1903, pp. 302 fi, ; B. M. CL p. 10. 

48 See PL VIII, Nos 9 and 10. 

43 Annals of the Bhandarkai Institute, Vol I, pp 3-1. 

* JSy. Ind., Vol. XX, p 79. 



A NEW HOARD OF SATAVAHANA COIKS FROM TABHALA 93 

Tliis plainly indicates that the kingdom of Satakarni, who has been 
rightly identified with Satakarni I, the husband of Nayamfca, lay 
to the west of Kalinga, probably in Vidarbha. The Krishna-bemna, 
to which Kharavela's army is said to have penetrated, is usually 
identified with the modern Krishna/ 5 but this river flows south, 
not west, of Kalinga. There is, however, another Krishna-vena to 
which the description would suit admirably, viz., the Kanhan, 
a tributary of the Wain-Ganga, which flows about 10 miles north of 
Nagpur. From the topography of the tlrtkas mentioned in the 
Vanaparvan of the MaMbharata, Pargiter has shown that Krishna- 
vena was the old name of the Kanhan. 46 'In the list of the tirthas 
mentioned in the Mahabharata (Vana Parva, Ixxxv, 81768185}," 
says he, "the pilgrim's course is arranged thus along the G-odavarl 
to its junction with the Vena (the modern Wain-Ganga), north- 
wards to the ]unction of the Varada (Wardha) with the Veria, 
then to the two places called Brahma-sthana and Kusa-plavana 
(which must have been situated along or near the course of the 
Vena), to the forest Devahrada, vvhich is at the source of the river 
Krishna-vena. The Krishna-vena, which is mentioned often in 
connection with the Vena or Su-Vena (Vana Parva, clxxxis, 12,909 
and Bhishma Parva, IX, 335), appears probably to be a tributary 
of the Vena which flows north of Nagpur. 5547 The pilgrim is next 
advised to go to the Payoshni (modern Puma) and then to the 
hermitage of arabhanga. From the Rdmdyana AB we learn that 
this hermitage was situated in the Dandakaranya, far away to 
the north of the Godavar!/ 9 The Krishna-vena, therefore, 
flowed north, not south, of the Godavari and cannot be identified 
with the well-known river Krishna. The Sata\ahanas were, there- 
fore, ruling over ancient Vidarbha in the time of Kharavela. 

There is another piece of evidence which points to the same 
conclusion. In the Nasik inscription No. 4, Gautamiputra-Sata- 
karni is called Bendkataka-svarM, the lord of Benakata, 50 No 
satisfactory explanation of this expression has been given so far. 
That the Be$a or Vena was an ancient name of the Wain-Ganga 
was, indeed, known and it was also noticed that the Siwani plates 
of the Vakataka Pravarasena II mention a territorial division 

45 Ibid., Vol. XX, p. 83. 

46 In the Deoh plates of the Rashtrakuta king, Krishna III, this river 
is called Kanhana. * Ep. 2nd., Vol. V, p. 196. 

47 J. R. A. S., for 1 894, p 244. 

*8 Ramayana, (Bombay ed.) Arauyakanda, cantos 4ff. 

*9 Pargiter'places it on the northern slope of the Vindhya mountain, some- 
where in the Bhopal State 

50 Benakata is apparently mentioned in two other places, viz., 11. 12 and 14 
' m Nasik inscription No. 3, but the readings are not free from doubt. See Bom. 
Gaz. f Nasik District, p 556 and Ep. 2nd., Vol. VIII, p. 65-66, notes 5 and 42. 



94 JOUBK.AL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

named Bewa-tarpara-bhaga. 51 But no place or territorial divi- 
sion exactly corresponding to Bena-kataka was noticed elsewhere. 
Senart was, therefore, obliged to remark, while editing the Nasik 
inscriptions of the Satavahanas, that "we know nothing about 
Bena-kataka." 52 Fortunately, the necessary evidence for the iden- 
tification has now become available. The Tirodi plates 33 , which 
were discovered about six years ago in the Balaghat District of the 
Central Provinces, record the grant, by the Vakataka Pravarasena II, 
of the village Kosambakhanda situated in the western division 
(aya7a-jpa//a)ofBennakata. This village I have shown elsewhere 54 
to be identical with Kosamba, in the Bhandara District, about 6 
miles to the south-west of Tirodi. Bennakata, in which it was situ- 
ated, was evidently a district comprising the territory on both the 
banks of the Wain-Ganga. 55 In ancient times the names of large 
territorial divisions often ended in kafa or kataka. Notice, for in- 
stance, Karahakataka, 55 Bhojakata, 57 Talakata, 58 Nangara (Man- 
gara?) kataka 59 etc. The Mahabhdrata also mentions Vei^akata 
among the countries conquered by Sahadeva. 60 It is named in 
connection with Kosala or Chhattisgarh. Benakata or Venakata 
was, therefore, an ancient country which was the home-province of 
the Satavahanas. When Gautamlputra defeated Naiapana (or 
his descendants) and annexed his wide dominions, he must have 
removed his capital toPratishthana (modern Paithanin the Nizam's 
State), which was more centrally situated. It is well known that 
Ptolemy mentions Siri-Pulumavi (Vasishthiputra) as ruling at 
Paithan. 

At a later stage of their history, the Satavahanas seem to have 
moved still further to the south and settled in the modern Bellary 
District, which came to be named after them as Satavahanihara 51 
or Satahani-rattha. 62 



5 1 Fleet, Gupta Inscriptions^ p. 246 

52 Ep. 2nd., Vol. VIII, p. 72. 

53 Ibid,, Vol. XXII, pp. 1 67 8. . 
5* JJM. cit , p. 170. 

s * The villages mentioned in the Siwaiu plates as situated m the 
karpara-bhaga can also be satisfactorily identined m the Bhandara District. See 
ibid., Vol. XXI J, p. 1,71, n. 1. 

56 See inscription No. 3 8 in the Kuda Caves, A, 8. W. I , Vol IV, p 87 and 
n 4. 

*> 7 Fleet,Grtf2>a Inscriptions^ p. 237, 

C8 Mahcibhai ata, (Bombay ed.}> Sabhaparvan, Adhyaya 31, v. 85 

BO New 2nd Ant., Vol. II, p. 180. 

60 Sabhaparvan, Adhyaya 33, y. 12. The usual reading is VeBatata which 
seems to have been substituted for the original Venakata, when the meaning 
ol kata was forgotten It is noteworthy that the reading Venakata alao is met with 
in some Grantha MSS .of the Mahabharta, See Ep 2nd,, Vol XXII p 170, n. 6. 

si Ep 2nd., Vol XIV, p. 155. 

88 Jh*J v^i T .- f 



A HOARD OF KAUSAMBI COINS FROM FATEHPUR. 

BY DR. MOTICHANDRA, M.A., PH. D. 
PRINCE OE WALES MUSEUM, BOMBAY. 

[Plate IX.] 

The history of India from 2nd century AD. to the beginning 
of the 4th century A.D. still remains largely unexplored. Dr. 
Jayaswal in his commendable work, History of India, 150 A.D. to 
350 A.D., has thrown considerable light on this dark period of Indian 
history, though at times he has based his arguments on thin grounds. 
Thus, he holds that Bhimasena of Gin] a inscription (dated in the 
year 52 of some unknown era,) Maharaja Sivamagha of a seal from 
Bhita, and Maharaja Bhadramagha were governors of the Vaka- 
takas, ! He arrived at this conclusion because he assumes that the 
Ginja inscription of the year 52 is dated in the Chedi era. However, 
since the publication ot his book many other inscriptions have been 
published, which throw some new light on the dynasty to vvhich 
Bhadramagha and Sivamagha and a few other kings belonged. 
Recently a hoard was found in Fatehpur district and handed over to 
me for examination. It contains the coins of Sivamagha, Bhadra- 
magha, Vai&avana and Bhimavarman. This find contradicts the 
theory of the late R. B. D. R. Sahni that &vamagha and Bhadra- 
magha were the governors of the Guptas, as also that of Dr, Jayaswal 
that they were the governors of the Vakatakas, their inscriptions 
being dated in Chedi era. If the first supposition is correct, and the 
dates are to be referred to the Gupta era, then the reigns of King 
Bhadramagha whose earliest inscription is dated 81, and that of 
King Bhimavarman whose latest inscription is dated 139, will have 
to be placed in the first half of the 5th century A.D. when Gupta 
power was very firmly established over KausambL Gupta feuda- 
tories, however, though permitted to use the title Maharaja, are not 
known to have enjoyed the privilege. of issuing coinage. They 
also usually refer in their inscriptions to their feudal lords. The 
Magha rulers of Kausambi, however, do not refer to the Guptas in 
their records and issue a copper coinage showing no points of con- 
tact with the copper coin types of the Guptas. They would there- 
fore probably have to be placed in thepre-Gupta epoch. The proba- 
bility is, as Sir J . Marshall has remarked while describing the seal of 
givamagha found at Bhita, 2 that Sivamagha probably flourished in 

i Jayaswal, History of India, i 50 A.D. to 350 A.D., pp. 229-231 
a A. S. I , Ann, Rep., 1911-12, p, 41. 



96 JOURHAI 01 THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

the 2nd or 3rd century A. D. Dr. Sten Konow 3 has also supported 
this view, and if it be correct, then it could be paid with some 
degree of certainty that the inscriptions are dated in the Saka era, 
and the dynasty probably may be counted as one of the numerous 
dynasties which rose to power after the downfall of the Kushanas. 

The coins numbering 287, which were given to me for exami- 
nation by Mr. Murarilal Kedia, a keen collector and founder of the 
Ramratana Pustak Ehavan, Nandan Sahu Lane, Benares City, 
represent merely a part of a much greater hoard discovered by a 
gentleman while digging a trench in his field in the village of Saton 
(Haswa) in Fatehpur district. In common with the fate of so many 
other hoards, the major part of the hoard was at once rushed to the 
goldsmith to be melted down under the impression that the coins 
contained a good percentage of silver and gold. But when it was 
found out that the coins contained copper only, the remaining por- 
tion was dumped in a corner of the house and forgotten tiD Mr. 
Kedia rescued them. 4 

About the antiquity and archaeological importance of the 
village Saton, nothing is known except that a few small and big 
images of Mahishasuramardmi of late medieval period were found 
from the village and were removed to the premises of the Fatehpur 
District Court. The small decaying town of Haswa, seven miles 
south-east of the headquarters, was perhaps originally named Cham- 
pavati. According to the traditions Hamsadhvaja, Mayuradhvaja, 
and Sankhadhvaja settled there. Hamsadhvaja changed the name 
of the city to Hamsapur, the corrupt form of which is Haswa. 
There are no ancient remains in the place except a ruined f orfc in the 
centre of the town. s 

Out of two hundred and eighty-seven coins sent to me for exa- 
mination, one hundred and eight coins, when cleaned, were found 
to be in fragmentary condition. Out of the remaining, one hun- 
dred and four coins were of Sivamagha, out of which eighteen were 
good specimens and have been dealt with here ; sixty-four could 
be assigned to Vaisravana, out of which eleven good examples were 
chosen ; nine coins could be assigned to Bhimavarman, and only 
two to Bhadramagha. . The metal used is copper. 

The legend on the reverse of the coins of Sivamagha is complete 
on three coins (Nos. 3, 4 and 5) and incomplete in the rest, under- 

3 tip. lnd.> Vol. XXIII, p 247. 

* A similar hoard of Magha coins was found near the village Orha, Banda 
District., U P 3 three coins from which were presented by the Government of U.P. 
to the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, No record of this hoard, 
however, could be traced in the records of the Provincial Museum, Lucknow. 

5 Fukrer, Archaeological Survey List, N. W, Provinces, p 16 L 



A HOARD OP KAUSAMBI COINS FROM PATEHPUB 9T 

lined by a ladder-like design 6 which has remained in some coins and 
disappeared from the others. The following types may be distin- 

guished : 

I. Nos. 3-5. On the obverse the bull faces to the right ; 
on the reverse there is inscription underlined by the ladder. 
The legend on all the three specimens is complete. (PL IX, 

3 -) 
II. Nos. 6-8. On the obverse the bull faces to the right ; 

on the reverse there is the tree in railing on the left ; j^ 
on the right, with the legend below underlined with the 
ladder (No. 7), which has disappeared from others. (PI. 

IX, 4.) 

III. Nos. 9-11. On the obverse the bull faces to the right ; 
on the reverse tree in the railing is on the right and fi^ on 
the left. 

IV. Nos. 12-13. On the obverse bull facing right, with 
at the top, and on the reverse tree in railing is on the left, 
and jfl on the right. (PL IX, 5.) 

V. No. 14. The same as Type IV except that the order of 

the symbols on the reverse is changed. 

VI. No. 15. On the obverse there is the bull standing to the 
right, with below ; on the reverse the tree in railing 
is on the left and fi\_ on the right. 
VII. No. 16. On the reverse jft is on the left, and tree in 

railing and ^ on the right. 
VIII. No. 17. On the obverse bull facing right ; on the reverse 

$ and tree in railing, to the left. 
IX. Nos. 18-19. Eestruck symbols on obverse ; the symbols 

on the reverse the same as in Type VII. 
X, No. 20. Eestruck symbols on the obverse; on the 

reverse the same symbols as in Type VII. 
givamagha or Sivamegha, as Sir John Marshall proposes to 
read, is known from a Bhita seal which Sir John Marshall assigns 
to the second or third century A.D. 7 , and the late Dr. Jayaswal to 
the fourth century A.D. 8 The seal is oval in shape measuring 
H" X r, with standing figure of bull on the left; crescent under his 
neck ; a woman standing in front, her right hand outstretched, and 
the left one on hip. Behind the bull there is a post or thunder-bolt 
( Vajra). In exergue, bow with arrow and pile of balls as in Andhra 
coins. Across the middle of the field there is a legend in northern 

6 This sign also occurs on the coins of Sudeva, Brhaspatiaiitra I (Allan, A 
Cat. of the Ind. Coins in tU Br. Mus. } p. 150), and also on the coins of Dnandeva 
(flM.,p.l53,PLXX,12). 



- ...,.. 9 ,. 
3 J B. 0. JB. &, Vol. XIX, p. 297. 



98 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

characters of aboiit second or third century A.D. which reads : 
"MaMraja Oautamypvtrasya SivamagJiasya."* This seal was dis- 
covered in the debris accumulated above the floor of the building 7, 
belonging to the Maurya period. The other antiquities from the 
debris in which this sealing was found, however, belong to the 
Kushana period. 10 

.Now archeeologically, it is manifest from the IV stratum of the 
House cf Nagadeva, the antiquities of which belong to the Kushana 
period, that the site was evacuated in haphazard fashion due to 
some attack. M The second evacuation of the same house, which 
was built three feet above the original level at the end of the third 
century, took place during the early Gupta period. That the eva- 
cuation was due to violent enemy attack is proved from many-mis- 
piles, such as catapult and sling balls found in the lanes, and from 
the charred remains of the houses. I2 Jayaswal assigns the first 
evacuation of the city to the Bharasiva invasion, and second to the 
invasion of Samudra Gupta. IS No coins of Bhara&vas have been 
found. Jayaswal, however, entertained the possibility of such 
coins being found in the large number of "anonymous" Kausambi 
coins hitherto unpublished. u But if Sivamagha and other kings 
of the same dynasty reigned over Kausambi and the neighbouring 
country in the later Kushana period, then the theory falls flat. 
There are some interesting double struck coins of Sivamagha, though 
the overstruck symbols are not clear. Do these coins represent 
the attack and conquest of Sivamagha by some unknown enemy ? 

It is significant to note in this connection the seal of Raja 
Bhimasena from Building No. 7 (floor level in Block No. 13 marked 
on the plan of the site). The seal is circular in shape, its diameter 
being IJ". The scenes and symbols are the same as on the seal of 
Sivamagha, but transposed . The legend is also in similar characters 
and reads : 

"(Rd) jna Vdsasu (VdsishtM)putraysa ri-BMmasenasya" 
This Bhimasena has been identified by Dr. Jayaswal with the 
Maharaja Bhimasena of the Gin] a inscription of the year 52 l6 Mr. 
Amalanda Ghosh, however, rejects this identification on the ground 
that their titles are different. 17 This argument, however, does not 
hold much water. He might have been in the beginning of his 



9 A. 8 /.,4. .Sep., 191 1-12, p. 41. 

10 16, p. 32. 

" /&, 1911-32, p 34 

is 76. p. 34. 

13 Jayaswal, loe. cit., pp. 224-225. 

1* /&. p. 221. 

is A S JR., Ann. Rep , 191 1-12, p. 51. 

is Jayaswal, loc. trt. y p. 231 ; for Ginja inscription see trader's List, No. 906. 



A HOARD OF KAUSAMBI COINS FEOM FATEHPUR 99 

career a tumble feudatory cMef , but later on he may have shaken 
off his yoke and styled himself as Maharaja. The sameness of the 
symbols on the seals of Sivamagha and BhTmasena establishes close 
relationship between the two, and if Sivamagha could be placed 
in the second or third century, Maharaja Ehimasena's inscription 
of the year 52 could also be dated in the Saka era. Whether he 
had completely shaken off the suzerainty of the Kushanas and 
made himself independent, or he had kept up some show of his 
allegiance even after assuming the title of Maharaja, it is difficult 
to say. Bhimasena who assumed the title of Maharaja had his 
immediate successors as Pothasiri and Bhada or Bhatadeva. 18 
Sivamagha who calls himself Maharaja both in his inscription 19 and 
on his coins, probably succeeded after those two princes had to 
contend with other forces, and hence the destruction of Sahajati 
and restriking of his coins. This, however, must remain a conjec- 
ture, till some dated inscription of Sivamagha or some other evidence 
comes to light. Between the inscription of the year 52 of Bhima- 
sena and the inscription of the year 87 of Bhadramagha, to be 
described presently, there is a lacuna of 35 years, 20 and between the 
inscription of Vaisravana dated 107 and that of Bhimavarinan dated 
130, there is a lacuna of 23 years. In any case Sivamagha and an- 
other ruler Jayama (gha) 21 should probably fit in either lacuna. 
There might have been other kings about whom we do not know 
anything in the present state of our knowledge. 

In the whole lot only two coins of Bhadramagha (Nos. 1-2, 
PL XI, 1-2) were found. On the obverse of No. 1 there is the bull 
facing to the right, and on the reverse the symbols j^j_ on left, tree 
in railing on right and a ladder-like design at the bottom are re- 
presented. Mr. Allan 22 has also described two coins of Bhadra- 
magha with partial legends dramaglia under the heading of ' 'Coins 
with Incomplete Legends' 5 in a subsection describing Kausambl 
coins. 

18 For this information 1 am indebted to Dr. N. P Chakravarti, the Gov- 
ernment Epigraphist for India. In a letter ho observes : "The inscriptions I have 
found out at Rewa, range in dates from the year 51 to the year 90 They mention 
Maharaja Bhimasena and his two successors Pothasiri and Bhada or Bhatadeva." 
It is interesting to note m this connection a coin from Khita, the, legend on the 
obverse of which has been read as Prashthasnya (A SI., Ann.* Hep. 19U-12, 
p 66). The tree in railing and three arched ckaityas to left on the obverse, and 
humped bull facing to the right on the reverse are the same as fount! on Magha 
coins. This Prastha-Snya may be identified \vith Pothasiri, and the com is a fur- 
ther proof that he belonged to the Magha Dynasty. 

19 JBp. 2nd., Vol. XVIII, pp 159-160. 

40 This lacuna is further reduced by six years, since an inscription of the 
year 81 of Bhadramagha is published by Mr. Krishna Deva ia JBp. Ind.> Vol. XXIV, 
part VI, 

* l Allan, A Catalogue of the Indian Coins in the Pr* Mueevm t p. 157. 

Ib., p. 158. 



100 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Two inscriptions of Bhadramagha, now in the Allahabad Muni- 
cipal Museum 23 , are identical in purpose, and record the setting up 
of two slabs as a seat at a pond for the Holy Noble Devi by the son 
and daughter of Saphara and the son and daughter of Madgali 
$anika and Shandhaka. 24 The slabs according to Sten Konow 
were intended to form a seat for an image of the Devi. 

Sten Konow is of opinion that the inscription of Bhadramagha 
numbered III in Sahni's article 25 is the same as No. (a) of his inscrip- 
tions except with slight changes. This has been explained by Sten 
Konow as due to some serious slips of the engraver, hence the in- 
scription III edited by Sahni was discarded and a fresh one sub- 
stituted. 26 Both the inscriptions are dated in the year 87. 27 Sahani 
however reads the date in Ms inscription as 88, and Jayaswal as 86. 28 
Sten Konow agreeing with Marshall places the year 87 in Kanishka 
era 29 ; Mr. Chatterji gives strong reasons 30 for assigning these 
inscriptions to the Kushana period. Jayaswal however places the 
record in Chedi era (=334 A.D. according to his reading of 86) 31 
and Sahni places the record inGupta era (=407 A.D. according to his 
reading of 88). The protagonists of the Chedi era base their argu- 
ments on palseographic peculiarities of some letters which resemble 
early Gupta characters. This question we shall discuss when we 
come to the question of the script used on the coins. It would be suffi- 
cient to say here that no hard and fast rule could be propounded to 
distinguish the later Kushana and the eaily Gupta script. 

There were 62 coins of Vaisravana in the hoard, out of which 36 
had partial and obliterated legends. The following types may be 
distinguished : 

I. No. 21. On the obverse the bull facing to the right ; on 

the reverse tree in railing to the right; jfi_ on the left; ladder 

below, complete legend. (PL IX, 6.) 
II. No. 22. The order of the symbols on the reverse is 

changed. 
III. No. 23. On the obverse the bull facing to the right with 

(D on top left ; the symbols on the reverse the same as in 

Type II. (PL IX, 7.) 

3 Ep. 2nd., Vol. XXIII, pp. 2*5-248 : also edited by G. S. Chatterji in the 
JJia CommemO)aifon Volume, Two inscriptions from Kosam, pp. 100414. 

24 Jgfp. 2nd , Vol. XXIII, p 246. 

25 Ep. Ind , Vol. XVIII, pp. 159-160 
25 JSp. Ind , Vol. XXIII, p. 247. 

27 lb., Chatterji, loo. cit., p. 109. 
38 Jayaswal, foe. cit., p. 231. 
29 



,. 

30 LOG. cit., pp. 104-109. 
81 Jayaswal, kc. cif. 3 p, 23L 



A HOARD OF KAUSAMBI COINS FEOM FATEEHJR 101 

IV. No. 24. On the obverse bull facing to the right ; on the 

reverse $ and tree in railing on the left. 
V. Nos. 25-26. On the obverse bull facing to the right ; 

on the reverse tree in railing to the left ; ft\ and $ on 

right. (PL IX, 8.) 
VI. No. 27. On the obverse bull facing to the right with (B 

at top left ; the symbols on the reverse are the same as in 

TypeV. 
VII. Nos. 28-29. On the obverse the bull facing to the left ; 

on the reverse the ladder below. 
VIII. No. 30. On the reverse f on the left ; tree in railing to 

the right. 
IX. No. 31. On the obverse bull facing to the right ; on the 

reverse $ on the left ; tree in railing on the right. 
Vaisravana, under the titles of Raj an and Maharaja, is also 
known from the inscriptions. Majumdar has edited the inscription 
of Vai^ravaria of the year 107. 32 The inscription is engraved on a 
pillar and was discovered by Mr. Majumdar in 1938 from Kosam. 
The purpose of this inscription is to record the establishment of a 
stone umbrella in honoiu of Buddha by the merchant Magha, the 
inhabitant of $uktimati. The umbrella was established within a 
temple called Purvasiddhayatana in Badarikarama. The inscrip- 
tion refers itself to the reign of Maharaja Vaisravai^a and is dated 
in the year 107, the first day of the seventh fortnight of the sum- 
mer. 33 Majumdar, on palaeological grounds, assigns this inscription 
to the fourth century A.D., 3 * and places it in the same group as the 
Gifija inscription of Bhimasena, and the Kosam inscriptions of 
Sivamagha, Bhadramagha and Bhimavarman, the dates of which 
range between the years 51 and 139 of some unspecified era. 

In Rewa two short inscriptions of Vai&ravana were found by 
Dr. Chakravarti which have not yet been published by him. In a 
communication on this subject he writes to me : C 'I found two small 
inscriptions of Vai^ravana at Bandhogarh in the Rewa State. 
They are not dated, and each records the construction of a cave by 
the Raj an Vaisrava$a mentioned in the records as the son of the 
Mahasenapati Bhadrabala." In the Kosam inscription of Vaisra- 
vana of the year 107, however, he is called Maharaja and his father's 
name is not given. These inscriptions throw some light on Vaisra- 
va$a. Firstly, we know that during the lifetime of his father he 
was a Raj an or governor, and after wards assumed the title of Maha- 
raja. Another point which attracts our attention is the affinity 

3* Sp. Ind.> Vol. XXIV, pp. U6448, 
33 2b., p. 147. 
3* Ib,, p. 146. 



102 JOTJBNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

between the name of Vaisravaija's father Bhadrabala and Bhadra- 
magha whose inscriptions of the year 87 were found at Kosam. 
The difference between the inscriptions of Bhadramagha and 
Vaisravana is only of twenty years, and it is quite probable that the 
latter succeeded the former between these years. The continuation 
of the same symbols on the coins of Bhadramagha and Vaisravana 
also suggests very close relation between the two. An objection 
however may be raised about the different official status of Bhadra- 
magha and Bhadrabala. Bhadramagha is addressed as Maharaja 
in the Kosam inscriptions, while Bhadrabala of the Eewa inscription 
styles himself as Mahasenapati only. But this objection is not a 
serious one as Fleet has already observed ; the title of Mahasena- 
pati, "Great Lord of the Army/' seems to have denoted equal rank 
with the Maharaja and Mahasamanta. 23 This title is coupled with 
that of Maharaja in the fragmentary Bijayagadh inscription of the 
Yaudheyas 36 assigned to the Kushana period 37 and also in the Wala 
clay seal of Pusheyna. 38 It seems possible that in the stormy days 
of the later Kushana period the king also assumed the function of 
the Field Marshal for the better conduct of war. Another objection 
may be taken against the difference between the second half of the 
name , in Rewa inscriptions it is bala and in Kosam inscriptions 
magha. Magha, however, may be a dynastic name and Bhadra- 
bala his full name. This point, however, requires further eluci- 
dation before a final judgment can be pronounced on the identity of 
Bhadrabala with Bhadramagha. 

Out of the whole lot only eight coins of Bhimavaraman were 
found. All of them, however, have partial legends. 

I. Nos. 32-33. On the obverse the bull facing to the left 

with at the top ; on the reverse tree in railing to the 

left ; _fh_ on the right. 
II. No, 34, Obverse the same as in Type I. The order of 

the symbols on the reverse is changed. 

III. No. 35. On the obverse bull facing to the right with 
at the top ; on the reverse tree in railing to the left ; ladder 
below. 

IV. Nos. 36-37. On the obverse bull facing to the left ; on 
the reverse tree in railing to the right. 

Two inscriptions of Maharaja Bhimavarman have been dis- 
covered. The one found at Kausambi by Cunningham 39 is dated 

as Fket, Gupta Inscription* , p. 35, foot-note 4. 

36 J.,p. 252. 

& 16., p. 251. 

38 2nd. Ant., Vol. XII, p. 2741 

39 A. 8. R., Vol. Z., p. 3. PL H (3). 



A HOABD OF KAUSAMBI COINS FROM FATEHPUB 1Q3 

139. On palseological grounds Fleet places tills in Gupta era 
and concludes that this Bhimavarman must have been a feudatory 
of Skanda Gupta/ Bhandarkar places the inscription in the 
Kalaehuri era and dates it in the second half of the 4th century A.D. AI 

The second inscription of Bhimavarman of the year 130 found 
at Kosam is in the Allahabad Museum. It gives the year 130 and 
the name of Maharaja Bhimavarman/ 2 Mr. Ghosh, however, basing 
his arguments on palaeographical grounds differentiates between 
Bhimavarman of Cunningham's inscription, dated 139, and Bhima- 
varman of Allahabad Museum inscription. 43 Bhimavarman of Cun- 
ningham's inscription he places in the Gupta era, calling him Bhima- 
varman II, and Bhimavarman of Allahabad Museum inscription he 
places in the Chedi era calling him Bhimavarman I. How much 
truth there is in his statement it is for pabeographists to decide. 

The majority of scholars in favour of the Chedi era of the in- 
scriptions of Bhadramagha, Vaisravana and Bhinaavarman base 
their arguments on palaeography, which they say is of early Gupta 
type, though very few have taken into account the thin partition 
which divides the early Gupta and Kushana palaeography. MTo less 
an authority than Dr. Bhandarkar holds the same view, according 
to whom there is no hard and fast distinction between the Kushana 
and the Gupta scripts. 44 It is well known that in the inscription 
Kanishka of the year 14 everywhere the letter ma has the 
advanced form of the Gupta period, and ha, also assumes the peculiar 
form of ha in the eastern variety of the Gupta Script. 4 * Therefore 
the script alone cannot be taken as the surest guide in determining 
dates. In the case of the coins under examination, however, even 
palseographically they can be easily assigned to late Kushana period. 

(1) The form of gha may be described as capital E lying flat. 
In the early Kushana inscriptions, however, the left vertical stroke 
is inclined a little inward at the top/ s Gha in the coins resembles 
gha in Samudra Gupta's Allahabad Pillar inscription, with the dif- 
ference that whereas in the latter the base line of gha is slightly 
curved 47 the base line of gha in our coins is straight. This form 
may represent the transitional stage between the early Kushana 
and the Gupta form. 



40 Fleet, Gupta Inscriptions, No. 65, PI. XXXIX (c). 

41 L\st of Northern Inscriptions, p. 173, n. 3. 

48 Ghosh, Kosam Stone Image Inscription of Maharaja Bhimavarman in 
Indian Culture, July 1936, p. 177. 

43 Ib., pp. 378-179. 

44 Ep. Ind., Vol. XXT, p. 2. 

45 Ep. Ind., Vol. XIX, p. 96. 

46 Ojha, Bharatiya Praclna lipi-mala, PI, VI. 
4T 16., PI. XVI, 



104 JOUENAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

(2) The form of na made up of two slightly curved hook-like 
verticals joined back to back with slightly curved or straight base 
line met in the coins is practically a-bsent in the Gupta inscriptions. 
It seems to be the development of two types to be met in the early 
Kushana inscriptions. The first may be called X type. 48 The 
second type which is much more common is made up of two 
slightly curved horizontal lines with a thin line joining them in the 
middle. 49 

(3) Bha in the coins of Bhimavarman with two recurved lines, 
one vertical and the other horizontal, is the same as in the Kushana 
script, 50 

(4) The form of ma in the coins of Sivamagha, Bhadramagha 
and Bhiniavarman is decidedly Kushana. It is in the form of an 
equilateral triangle with its two arms prolonged upwards, which is 
the regular form of Xushana ma. 5 f 

(5) &a occurring in ivamagha and Vaisravana is of Kushana 
type, as its verticals are equal and the looped head is also not so 
broad as in the Gupta ia which has its right leg prolonged down- 
wards, and even if there is no such prolongation the head is broad 
and flat as in LI of the Ga<Jhwa inscription of the Gupta year 
148. 52 

Coming to the medial vowel signs, short % in si is formed by a 
curved stroke going upwards, starting from the right end of the 
horizontal line which divides the loop of the &&, as in the Kushana 
ihi and ni in some other inscriptions 53 ; long I in Bhima is repre- 
sented by a full curve at the top of bha in the same way as fin vi in 
Kushana inscriptions. 54 

The nearest approach to the symbols on the coins under dis- 
cussion are found on the coins of Parvata, on the obverse of which 
a bull stands facing right, and on the reverse there are ftj, tree in 
railing and a recurved line. 55 What connection, however, our 
king bore to Parvata, a king of the 2nd century B. G., it is 
difficult to say. 

*s Buhler, J^athura Inscription, No. 18, Ep. 2nd., Vol. II, Plate facing p. 204 
No. 18, 1.4 

*9 Ojha, loc. eft, PL VI. 

s Ib. 

Ib. 

M Fleet, Qupto Inscriptions, No. 66, PI. XXXIX(d 

53 Ohja, loc. cit., PL VI. 

* Ib. 

65 Allan, loc. cit., p. 150. 



A HOARD OF KAUSAMBI COINS FROM FATEHPUR 105 

LIST OF THE COINS 

Metal ^E 
N"o. Wt. Size. Obverse. Reverse. 

(In grams) (In inches) 

BHADRAMAGHA 

1 68*5 *6x '75 Bull r. fi^ ; tree in railing r. ; 

ladder below ; Bhadm- 
ma; Pl.IX,!. 

2 60-0 6 x 65 Worn out. BJiadaawa ; PI. IX, 2. 

SlVAMAGEA 

TYPE I. 

3 42*5 -55X-75 Bullr. Traces of ladder below ; 

&wamaglia ; PI. IX, 3. 

4 45-5 -55X-6 Bullr. Ladder below; 

magfia. 

5 46*5 -5X-6 Bullr. 



Ladder below ; iSiva- 
magha. 



TYPE II. 



6 45-5 *6X'65 Worn out. Tree in railing 1. ; jft 

r. ; Sivama,. 

I 51-5 -55X '55 Bull r. Tree in railing 1. ; ft_ 

ladder below ; iwma. 

8 45 * 5 * 55 X ' 65 Tree in railing 1 . ; w,- 

magha. PI. IX, 4. 

TYPE III. 

9 49-0 -6 x *55 Bull r. j^ft 1.; tree in railing r. ; 

Sivama. 

10 52 -5 *5x "6 Worn out. Tree in railing r. ; (fi_ 

L ; wmagha. 

II 47*5 -6x*65 Worn out. (?| 1.; tree in railing r.; 

~$wama . 

TYPE IV. 

12 48*5 -6x*65 Bullr.; Tree in railing 1.; jft 

top centre, r. ; vama . PL IX, 5. 

13 48-5 -55x*7 top centre. Ladder below; -varna-. 



106 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

LIST OF THE COINS 

Metal M 
No. Wt. Size Obverse. Eeverse. 

(In grains) (In inches) 

TYPE V. 

14 45-0 -55X-6 Bullr. ; jft top L; tree in 

top. railing r. ; ladder 

below; Sivama . 

TYPE VI. 

15 45-0 6 X 6 Bull r. ; Tree in railing 1 . ; traces 

below. of (?[ r. ; -vama-. 

TYPE VII. 

16 44-5 -65X-65 Worn out. 1. jft ; tree in railing 

and j , -vama-. 



TYPE VIIL 



17 54-5 -6x-7 BuUr. 



j and tree in railing ; 
Sivama . 



TYPE IX. 



18 58 -0 -5x *5 Restruck sym- Tree in railing 1. ; 

bols illegible, -vama-. 

19 56-0 55 X * 6 Restruck sym- Tree in railing 1 . , 

bols. 



TYPE X. 

20 42-0 -6X-55 Restruck sym- jft 1. ; tree in railing 
bols illegible, and J r. ; -vama.- 



TYPE I. 
21 48-0 -55X-65 Bullr. 



Traces of tree in railing 
r.; ft\_ L; ladder below; 
Vai&avana ; PL IX, 6 f 



A HOARD OP KAUSAMBI COINS FROM FATEHPUE 107 

LIST OF THE COINS 

Metal M 
No. Wt. Size Obverse Keverse. 

(In grains) { In inches) 

TYPE II. 

22 55-0 55 X * 6 Bull r. Traces of tree in railing 

1. ; Q\ r. ; -sravana. 

TYPE III. 

23 47'0 * 55 X * 55 Bull r . ; top Traces of tree in railing 

1. corner. 1.; ffi r.; ladder below; 

Vaisravana, PL IX, 7. 

TYPE IV. 

24 46-0 -6X'6 Bull r. ^ and tree in railing 

1. ; Vaisra. 

TYPE V. 

25 55-0 -6X-65 Bull r. Tree in railing 1.; j^ 

and $ r. ; -sravana ; 
PL IX, 8. 

26 54-5 -6X-7 Bull r. Tree in railing 1; fft 

5 r. ; -liana-. 

TYPE VI. 

27 43-5 -55X-6 Bull r; top Tree in railing 1. ; ff^ 

1. corner. and $ r. ; -vana. 

TYPE VIL 

28 44*5 *55x*6 Bull 1. Ladder below, Vaisrava. 

29 64-0 -55X 7 Bull 1. Ladder below ; Hav- 

ana. 

TYPE VIII. 

30 47*0 -55X '6 Worn out. f 1. ; tree in railing r. . 



108 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF iNDfA 

LIST OF THE COINS 

Metals 
No. Wt, Size Obverse Reverse. 

(In grains) (In mches) 

TYPE IX. 

31 53-0 -5X '6 Bull r. J 1. ; tree in railing r ; 

Vaifra-. 

BHlMAVAEMAN 

TYPE I. 

32 56-0 -6x '6 Bull 1. , Tree in railing 3. ; jft 

top. r.; Bhimavarma-. 

33 53-0 -5X-75 BuU 1. ; Tree in railing l.;j^ 

top. -BMmava. 

TYPE II. 

34 56*0 -55x '65 Bull 1. ; Tree in railing r. ; 

top. 1, ; -mava-, 

TYPE III. 

35 45*5 65 X ' 7 Bull r. ; Traces of tree in railing 

top. 1 . ; ladder below ; 

-mavama ; PI. IX, 9. 

TYPE IV. 

36 44*0 -55X-6 Bull 1. Tree in railing r. ; 



37 54-4 -6X-6. Bull 1. Tree in railing r. ; 



A NEW HOARD OF YAUDHEYA COINS 
FROM DEHRA DUN DISTRICT. 

BY RAI BAHADUE PRAYAG DAYAL, LUCKNOW. 

[Plate X.] 

Among tribal coins, those attributed to Yaudheyas are seldom 
found, and ever since the inception of the Coin Committee in the 
United Provinces in 1898, this is the first time that a hoard of this 
class of coins has come to light in the United Provinces. 

As the name signifies, the Yaudheyas were a community of 
warriors inhabiting Eastern Punjab and holding sway over the 
whole of Northern Rajputana, Eastern Punjab, and Saharanpur 
and Dehra Dun districts in the United Provinces . They issued coins 
from about the 2nd century B.C. to the beginning of the 4th century 
A.D., when with the advent of the Guptas their currency came 
to an end. 

All the types of their coins are fully described in the Catalogue 
of the Coins of Ancient India in the British Museum by Mr. J. 
Allan, published in 1936. 

Fortunately synchronising with the year of the publication of 
this exhaustive work comes the discovery of an entire mint in the 
Punjab and of a hoard of coins in the United Provinces. 

About a thousand moulds for casting copper coins were dug out 
by my esteemed friend Dr. B. Sahni, M.Sc. , Sc.D., F.A.S.B., F.R.S., 
of Lucknow University at Khokra Kot> a mound on the outskirts 
of Rohtak in the Punjab. They are noticed in Current Science, 
Vol. IV, No. 11, for Ma}' 1936. These moulds are very interesting 
and illustrate the practical technique of the cast coinage. 

Eight moulds were arranged on a disc round a central hole, 
obv, and rev. discs being prepared separately. The obverse and 
reverse discs were laid in piles in exact positions denoted by a line- 
mark on the edges and molten metal was poured into the central hole 
reaching sockets through the eight channels radiating from the cen- 
tral hole. The casts were then separated and finished with a file, 
if necessary. The coins of the Eohtak mint, manufactured in this 
way, bore the legend Yaudheya)iam baJmdhanaJce, the latter portion 
of which had remained unread so far, and was deciphered by the late 
Dr. K. P. Jayaswal, the distinguished numismatist and scholar of 
Patna, who exhaustively dwelt on the history and coinage of the 
Yaudheyas in his Presidential address delivered at the Annual 



110 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

Meeting of the Numismatic Society of India at Udaipur in November 
1936. (Vide "Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Numismatic 
Society of India," 1936.) 

I now proceed to examine the hoard of 164 copper coins dis- 
covered early in 1936. These "were found in an earthen vessel by 
one Kalya of village Panjya, Khat Bana, in Jaunsar Bawar, Tahsil 
Chakrata of Dehra Dun district, while ploughing his field. The 
coins had a thick coating of verdigris and being in a bad state of 
preservation defied decipherment in the first attempt. 

They have now been cleaned, classified and deciphered as far as 
possible. Taken as a whole, the lot represents specimens of the 
type treated in Class 3 of Allan's Catalogue of the Coins oj Ancient 
India in the British Museum (p. 270) On their obverse, there is 
usually Kartikeya ; the reverse shows a surprising variety in sym- 
bols, animals and deities which have been duly noted below. The 
coins belong to the later stage of Yaudheya history and may be 
assigned to the second century A.D. 

There are small differences in size and fabric ; some of them 
have inscriptions in bold while others have in cursive Brahmi charac- 
ters showing signs of deterioration, but the types are similar, 
although symbols exchange places and positions. Some new 
symbols and animals constitute new varieties and they deserve to 
be noticed here. 

No. 2-3 Obv. Kartikeya, six-headed, (the outer row of 5 heads 
has crests), standing facing, holding spear in r. 
hand and resting 1. arm on hip. 

Rev,- Goddess standing facing. Tree on r. 
Weight 129 grs. Size -95." 

Novelty, The outer row of 5 heads is crested. 

4 Obv. Kartikeya, six-headed, (the upper row of 3 has 

crests), spear standing left. 

Rev. Goddess with radiate head, standing facing, with 
r. hand raised and 1. hand resting on hip. Chaitya 
surmounted by Triratna on 1. Tree on r. 
Weight 92 grs. Size 1." 
Novelty. The upper row of 3 heads is crested. 

,, 8-9 Obv Kartikeya standing with a vase in field on r. 

Rev. Goddess six-headed, (the outer row of 5 has crests), 
standing facing with r. hand raised and 1. hand 
resting on hip. Chaitya on 1. T?ree on r. PL X 
Weight 143 grs. Size 1". 

Novelty. The outer row of 5 heads is crested on reverse. 



A NEW HOARD OF YAITDHEYA COINS FROM DEHRA DUN 11 1 

11 Obv. Kartikeya six-headed without crests, standing. 
Rev. Goddess. Chaitya on L Tree on r, Circular 

mark below Chaitya. 
Weight. 109 grs. Size -95/ 
Novelty. Circular mark below GJiaitya. 

12 Obv. Kartikeya six-headed without crests standing 

facing with r. hand raised towards spear and 1. 

hand resting on hip. PL X. 
Rev. Siva, three-headed, standing. Chaitya on 1. 

Tree on r. PL X. 
Weight. 153 grs. Size 1" 
Novelty. Siva on reverse. 

16 Obv. Kartikeya standing on lotus with a vase in field 

on r. Inscription Brafimanyadevasya, PL X. 
Rev. Goddess standing on lotus. Tree on 1. Gfiaitya 

on r. 

Weight. 195 grs. Size 1 .05". 
Novelty. Kartikej^a and Goddess standing on lotus. 

19-20 Obv. Kartikeya standing facing, holding spear. 

Rev. Deer standing to r. Tree on r. Chaitya on 1. 

Building above. 
Weight. -114 grs. Size 1 .05." 
Novelty, Building above. 

25 Obv. Kartikeya standing pointing with uplifted r. hand 

to a cock standard (?) PL X. 
Rev. Deer standing to r. Tree on r. Chaitya on 1. 

Vase above 

Weight. 144 grs. Size '9." 
Novelty. Cock standard (?), 

46 Obv. Kartikeya six-headed with 6 crests standing, 
facing, with r. hand raised and L resting on hip. 
PL X. 

Rev. Deer standing to r. Tree on 1. Chaitya on r. 

Weight. 96 grs. Size -95.* 

Novelty. Kartikeya six-headed with 6 crests. 

63 Obv. Traces of Kartikeya standing. 

Rev. Bull standing to r. Tree on r. Chaitya on L 

PL X. 

Weight.- 107 grs. Size -85." 
Novelty. Bull in place of Deer. 



112 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

64 Obv. Traces of Kartikeya standing. 

Eev. Ass standing to r. on some round object. Tree on 

r. Cliaitya, on 1. PL X. 
Weight. 142 grs. Size -9." 
Novelty. Asa in place of Deer. 

74 Obv. Kartikeya six-headed standing facing, holding 

spear in r. Land and resting 1. arm on hip. 
Rev. Horse standing to r. Tree and Chaitya above. 

PL X. 

Weight. 122 grs. Size '95." 
Novelty. Koi&e (?) in place of Deer. 

85 Obv. Srva one headed standing facing, holding Trisula. 
Eev. Deer standing to 1. Chaitya on 1. 
Weight.-459 grs. Size -9." 
Novelty. Siva holding Trisula in place of Kartikeya. 

95 Obv.- Kartikeya six-headed (having 6 crests) standing 

facing. 
Eev. Deer standing to r. before an incomplete building. 

Letters darma above deer. 
Weight. 115 grs. Size I/' 
Novelty.- Kartikeya six-headed with 6 crests. 

96 Obv.-- -Traces of Kartikeya. 

Eev. Deer standing to r. before building having a round 

base. 

Weight.-115 grs. Size I/' 
Novelty. Base of building round. 

104 Obv. Mutilated. 

Eev. Leopard standing to 1. 
Weight.-- 82 grs. Size -9.* 
Novelty. Leopard in place of Deer. 



A NEW SILVER COIN OF HUVISHKA. 
BY MR. M. B. L. DAB, B.Se,, LL.B., P.O.S., ALMORA. 
[Plate X-A. No. 7] 

Metal AE. 

Weight 30 grains. 

Size Circular, about *8" in diameter. Bored at the top. 

Obv. Half length bust of king facing right, wearing coat of 
mail and round crown bound with fillet, holding the sceptre in his 
right hand and an elephant goad in his left. Halo round the face. 

Eev. Sun God facing left, rays issuing from a halo round 
the face. He wears chlamys. Eight arm is outstretched, left hand 
at waist, touching short sword at side. ^ symbol on left, 
inscription on the right. PL X-A, No. 7. 

The coin considering the metal, is in a good state of pre- 
servation, but is unfortunately chipped off at one side, making the 
decipherment of the whole of the usual legend difficult. 

The coin in my cabinet is unique in its rarity, for it is not only 
in silver but its obverse has a very rare bust of Huvishka. Silver 
coins of the Kushanas are but rarely met with. 

[Stray silver coins of the Kushanas are sometimes found and 
some of them have been published. A silver coin of Wima Kad- 
phises has been published by Gardner in his Catalogue of the Coins 
of the Greek and ScytkicKings o/BaJctria and India, PL XXV 3 No. H. 
On its reverse there are two deities, Nano and Oesho, and it weighs 
40 grains. A silver coin of Kanishka with Oesho on the reverse, is in 
the Indian Museum, Calcutta, and has been published in A.R f ,A.S.I. 
1925-26, PL LX, f . Its weight has not been given. The Punjab 
Museum, Lahore, has a silver coin of HuvishJka with Nana and 
Oesho on the reverse, and weighing almost as much as the present 
coin, i.e., 28 grains. (See Catalogue, Vol. I, p. 197, No. 135 and PL 
XVIII.) A coin of Huvishka, similar to that in the Punjab Museum, 
exists in the cabinet of the Bombay Branch of the Royal Asiatic 
Society and has been published by Mr. (now Rao Bahadur) K. N. 
Dikshit in that Society's Journal, Vol. XXIV, p. 384 and plate. On 
its reverse there are Nano and Oesho and its weight is 40 grains. 
Mr. Dar's coin would thus be the fifth silver Kushana coin to be 
published. EDITOR, A.S.A.] 



SOME RARE PANCHALA COINS FROM THE SITE OF 
ANCIENT AHICHCHHATRA IN BAREILLY DISTRICT. 

By MB. M. B. L. DAR., B.Sc., LL.B., P.C.S., ALMORA. 
[ Plate X-A.] 

The coins described below were obtained by me on the site of 
the ancient Ahichchhatra during the course of the year 1939. 

VASUSENA. 

L 

Metal M. Weight 140 grams. 

Size Circular, * 9" in diameter. 

Obv. The usual Panchala symbols on the top, with the king's 
name "VASUSENASA" below, in an incuse formed by 
the impression of a square die on a round coin. 

Rev. A spirited horse with bent neck and upturned tail. 

PL X-A, No. 6 

No effort has so far been made to establish the identity of the 
Sunga King Vasumitra or Sumitra, although numismatists have 
discussed the probability of Agnimitra of the Sunga dynasty being 
the same as the Panchala king of that name. 

The figure of the spirited horse on the reverse recalls the scene 
in the Mdlvikagnimitra of Kalidasa, in which a messenger comes to 
Agnimitra, Viceroy of Vidisa, with a letter from Pushyamitra, his 
father, inviting him for the Asvameda sacrifice, which was about 
to be started. The horse, which had been let loose according to 
custom for one year, as a challenge to all opponents, was guarded by 
prince Vasumitra, son of Agnimitra, attended by 100 other princes, 
and on the attempted capture of this horse by Yavanas the latter 
were defeated by Vasumitra or Sumitra. 

The Asvameclha is an ancient Hindu rite performed by powerful 
kings as a proof of "universal" conquest, and the duty of guarding 
the horse was regarded as a very great honour and privilege. 

The successful guarding of the Asvamedha horse must naturally 
have been regarded by Vasumitra, which is evidently another name 
for Vasusena, as the most remarkable event in his life, justifying its 
commemoration by the adoption on the reverse of his coins of a tell- 
tale symbol in the shape of a spirited horse. There are many ex- 
amples of such symbols in numismatic history. 



116 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

The donor of thePabhosa cave. Ashadhasena, traces his descent 
from the king of Ahichchhatra. According to Dr. Jayaswal, the 
Pabhosa cave was built in the 10th year of the reign of Odraka, the 
5th Sunga King and son of Vasuimtra, who appears to be identical 
with Vasusena of the coins in my cabinet described above. 

As far as I know, no coins of Odraka have so far been found, 
but the testimony of the Pabhosa inscription, tending to show the 
extent of the Sunga Empire as far as Kausambi and Ahichchhatra, 
is confirmed by this coin. 

This remarkable coin identifies one more king of the Sunga 
dynasty with a hitherto unknown Panchala, king and provides one 
more proof of the suzerainty of the $ungas over the N. Panchala 
kingdom, thereby filling up an important gap between Agnimitra on 
the one hand and Odraka on the other, and strengthening still more 
not only the theory that Agnimitra of the Panchala coin is identical 
with the Sunga king of that name, but that another Panchala king 
Vasusena of this coin in my cabinet is no other than Vasumitra 
of the Sunga Dynasty. 

II. TAGAPALA AND DAMAGUTA. 

M. Weight 78 grains. 

Size Circular, *7" in diameter. 

Obv. Three symbols !J2 ^ on the top with the king's 
name "TAGAPALASA" below in a small incuse formed 
by the impression of a squaredie on a round coin, partially 
obliterating a faint vhaksa symbol on the left, which now 
appears as & . 

Re v . King's name 'D AMAGUT AS A' * m a small oblong remnant 
of the incuse formed on the obverse ; the upper portion, 
which betrays the outline of the third Panchal a symbol 
^ placed as a first symbol is countermarked with the 
symbol X found on the reverse of the coins of Phal- 
guninutra. PL X-A, No. 5. 

I am obliged to E. B. K. N. Dikshit, the Director General of 
Archeology in India, for helping me in deciphering the names of the 
two kings. 

It is a unique coin in the sense that 

(a) It mentions two hitherto unknown kings either in the 

Sunga or Panchala line ; 

(b) the issue of one king has been counterstruck by another ; 

(c) A symbol of chakra has so far not been known to appear 

on any of the Panchala coins, and 

(d) the third $ one of the Panchala set of symbols has never 

before been known to appear as first. 



SOME KABE PANCHALA COINS OF ANCIENT AHICHCHHATEA 117 

HI. UNINSCEDBED COIN. 

M. cast. Weight 65 grains. 

SizeI. rx .5." 

Obv. A pair of two circular discs joined together, with a dia- 
mond shaped surface of metal at the junction. Each disc has a 
raised border divided by vertical lines to give it an ornamental 
appearance. Within the border is an eight pet ailed chakrci symbol 
with a flat plain knob in the centre, giving it the appearance of a 
lotus flower. One of the two circular discs has a join left in the 
casting process, still adhering to it at one end. 

Rev. Plain and flat. 

The eight petalled symbol appears to have been popular with 
early coiners in Ahichchhatra, for we find a modification of the eight 
petalled symbol appearing in very small sizes over the tokens or 
seals that I have described in the next paper. 



SOME EARE SQUARE COPPER PIECES PROM 
AHICHCHHATRA TN BAREILLY DISTRICT. 

BY MR. M. B. L. DAR, B.Sc, LL B., P.C.S., ALMOBA, 
[Plate X-A.] 

I was much interested in the note by Mr. Ajit Ghose on "Rare 
Oblong Coins from Rajgir" published in Vol. I. of the Journal 
of the Numismatic Society of India pp. 5-8 ; and since he refers to 
me in connection with a somewhat similar find from the site of 
ancient Ahichchhatra (modern Ramnagar) in Bareilly District I 
think it won Id interest scholars of numismatics, if I describe the 
pieces in my possession. 

I do not consider my pieces to be coins at all. Each one of them 
has a solder mark on the reverse which suggests their probable use 
as tokens or seals rather than as coins. Had they been coins, there 
was no necessity for them to have any solder marks on their reverse. 
All these pieces vary between 6 to 14 grains and the variation 
in weight is evidently due to variation in the quantity of solder 
material sticking on the reverse of these pieces. In all these speci- 
mens, the obverse symbol is enclosed within a double border 
raised and ornamented which appears more like oblique strokes 
arranged in a line giving it the appearance of a twisted cord. Date 
trees are not only not common in this part of the country but the 
design on my pieces is certainly not anything like a date palm leaf. 

These pieces are of exquisite workmanship and are not die 
struck but cast. 

I have examined Mr. Ajit Ghose's specimens, and after a re- 
examination of my own pieces, I find that my pieces are clearly 
distinguished from the former by 
(a) lighter weight, 
(6) solder mark on the reverse, and 
(c) differentiation in the symbol. 

They are however, remarkably similar in workmanship, which 
leards me to regard them as belonging to the same period. 

Two of the pieces in my cabinet have no solder mark; I therefore 
consider them to be unused pieces while the others having a solder 
mark are used ones. 

They have been found with punch-marked and Panchala coins 
on the surface, but in the absence of any reliable or sufficient data, 
it is impossible to assign them an exact date* 



120 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

Two of these pieces in my cabinet have one well-known 
Panchala symbol ;f on the obverse and another incomplete 
Pafichala symbol $ on the reverse. I would therefore definitely 
assign them to the PaSchala period. 

Four others have a symbol, shaped like a lotus, or maybe, it is a 
"chakra of 8 spokes or patras (leaves) with a nucleus centring round 
a nabhi" as mentioned by Mr. Durga Prasad in his scholarly paper 
on punch-marked coins on page 29 of the N. 8. 9 No. XLV. This 
would give a further support, from a rather unexpected quarter, to 
Mr. Durga Prasad's theory of the adaptation of Tantric mudrds as 
early coin symbols. 

I have in my collection one curious piece with a beautiful 
figure of a tortoise on the obverse. This piece too has a solder mark 
on the reverse and is therefore a used token or seal, though of a 
different shape. 

I do not know if Mr. Ajit Ghose has found any piece with a solder 
mark, but in view of definite solder marks on most of my pieces and 
the absence of such marks on only a few, I would regard the pieces 
in my collection as tokens or seals and not coins. 

I. M. 

Weight 10 grams. 

Size A X A inches. 

Obverse The Panchala symbol g within a raised double 
border of strokes or dots, which gives it the appearance 
of a twisted cord. Only traces of outer border visible. 

Reverse Portion of the Panchala symbol $ . PL X-A, No. 4. 

II. M. 

Weight 6 grains. 
Size A X.35 inches. 
Obverse As in No. 1. 
Reverse -Panchala symbol Q 

III. M. 

Weight 10 grains. 

Size A X A inches. 

Obverse Symbol ^ within raised border as in No. 1, but 

with both inner and outer border quite distinct, 
Keverse - Plain but with a solder mark. 

IV. M. 

Weight 10 grains. 
Size .4 X. 4 inches. 
Obverse As in No. 3. 
.Reverse As in No. 3 T 



SOME HARE SQUAEE COPPEB PIECES FECXM ACHICHCHHATRA 121 

V, M. 

Weight 10 grains. 

Size .4 X.4 inches. 

Obverse Indistinct but probably as in No. 3. 

Eeverse As in No. 3. 

VI. 2E. 

Weight 9 grains. 
Size A X. 4 inches. 
Obverse As in No. 3. 
Reverse As in No. 3. 

VII. M. 

Weight 12 grains. 
Size .4 X.4 inches. 
Obverse As in No 3. 
Eeverse As in No. 3. 

VIII. ^B. 

Weight 14 grains. 
Size .4 x.4 inches, 
ObverseAs in No. 3. 
Eeverse As in No. 3. 

IX. M. 

Weight 13 grains. 

Size .5 X .5 inches circular. 

Obverse Figure of a tortoise within raised double border as 

in No. 3. 
Eeverse As in No. 3. 



ANCIENT COINS FROM MATURBHANJ 

BY P. AOHABYA, B.So., 
STATE ARCHAEOLOGIST, MAYURBHANJ. 

The first report on the Eoman gold coins was written as follows 
by Mr. Beglar : 

"Some years ago a great find of gold coins containing, among 
others, several of the "Roman emperors, Constantine, Gordian, etc., ! 
in most* beautiful preservation, was found near Bamanghati. 
Mrs. Hayes, the Deputy Commissioner's wife at Singhbhum, 
possesses several very fine ones indeed, made into a bracelet, but in 
such manner as to leave the coins absolutely uninjured, I tried in 
vain to procure some, but failed, except the choice ones (choice as 
to excellence of preservation) picked out and secured by the Deputy 
Commissioner ; the rest got dispersed, and it is now hopeless to try 
and find out where they are, if they indeed exist at all and have not 
been melted. The finding of these coins at Bamanghati shows that 
it lay on some great line of road from the seaport Tamluktothe 
interior, for it is more probable that they came in via Tamluk than 
overland from the Roman empire." 2 

As we are not in a position to examine these coins now, we must 
feel particularly indebted to Mr. Beglar for his interesting note, 
quoted above, about these Eoman coins. 

It is quite possible that subsequent to the above discovery of 
Roman coins, other coin hoards may have been discovered in 
Mayurbhanj State, but we have no records about them. To one 
such hoard undoubtedly belong the genuine copper coins of the 
Kushana emperors in the Baripada treasury ; I have, however, 
failed to get any clue to its time and place of discovery. 

Since the establishment of the Archseological Department in 
the Mayurbhanj State, hoards of old coins have been discovered 
and reported with a pleasing frequency, thanks to the policy of 
awarding rewards to the discoverers. In 1923 a hoard of copper 
Kushana coins of Kaniska and Huviska and the so-called Purl- 
Kushana coins was found out at Bhanjakia, not far from Khiching, 

1 Bamanghati is a Subdivision in Mayurbhanj. In tha old maps of the 
survey of India, Bamanghati finds a mention ; it is seen to be very near modern 
Rairangapura, which is the subdi visional headquarters. 

2 Cunningham, Report of the Archceological Survey of India for 1874-75 & 
1875*76, Vol. XIII, pp. 72-73. 



124 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP INDIA 

and its report was published by Kai Bahadur E. Chanda. 3 Some 
of these coins have been distributed to almost all the important 
museums in India and to the British Museum, and Allan's latest 
book on the coins of India contains a reference to them. Since 1924, 
Kushana and so called Puri-Kushana coins have been found at 
various places in Mayurbhanj and the important hoards are men- 
tioned below. During the excavation of Viratgarh at Khiching 
a few Kushana coins and a large number of Purl-Kushana coins 
were found. Among the Puri-Kushana coins there were many twin 
coins which, when broken, would turn into two single coins. Such 
double coins have not been found in the hoards of Ganjam, Puri, 
Balasore, Mayurbhanj, Singhbhum and Manbhum, which have been 
all referred to in the article on the so-called Puri-Kushana coins by 
Dr. S. K. Bose/ In this article, Dr. Bose has, however, not referred 
to the hoard found at Barabhum in Manbhurn, 5 and to an earlier 
hoard described by Mr. Beglar as follows : "It is said that a 
large quantity of coins were found buried at its foot some years ago, 
when a European official from Ganjam dug it up some of gold and 
silver, but many of copper. I could get none of the gold and silver 
coins, but I got a few copper ones much defaced. They were evi- 
dently Indo-Scythian, and thus confirm the great antiquity of the 
place, and incidentally prove the great influence of the Indo-Scyth- 
ians in India when even their copper currency is found so remote 
from their capital. 6 " 

IE May, 1939, 105 Puri-Kushana coins were found in a brass 
pot at Nuagaon 3 miles west of Josipur and nearly 3 miles east of 
Bhanjakia in Mayurbhanj . In this connection I may mention here 
that I have collected a few copper Kushan and Puri-Kushana coins 
from the Keonjhar State, which were found at Sitabinjhi where 
there are ruins as well as a rock painting with a fragmentary 
inscription belonging to 4th or 5th century A.D., and which has 
been read as Sri D^sa Bhanja by Pandit B. Misra. (Modern Ewieiv, 
1938, pp. 301-5.) 

The hoard of Khiching coins can be classified as full, half and 
quarter coins. Among the coins of Bhanjakia, Khiching and Nua- 
gaon hoards of Mayurbhanj State, many coins possess frills of the 
molten metal from the edges of the mould, and there are a few coins 
in pair which are indicative of non-circulation of the coins ; it may 
be therefore conjectured that there was a mint at Khiching. Dr. S. 
K. Bose also expected a mint somewhere in the neighbourhood of 

3 Annual Report of the Archaological Survey of India for 1924-25, p. 38* 

4 Indian Culture, Vol. Ill, pp. 727-730. 

* Banaa Sdhitya Parishat Patrika, Vol. XVIII, 1328 (192 J), pp, 25-30, 



ANCIENT COINS FftOM MAYTJEBHANJ 125 

Manbhum and wrote as follows : "With the exception of six coins 
the rest are not well trimmed and invariably show protruding edges. 
What was long ago suspected by Walsh seems now to be confirmed. 
The regions from which my coins come (which, incidentally, I might 
say is not very far from the provenance of Mr. Walsh's coins) most 
likely was a mint area where the coins were actually manu- 
factured." 7 The late Mr. R. D. Banerjeein his History of Orissa, 
pp. 108-119, has dealt with the Kushana and so called Puri- 
Kushana coins and has written as follows : 

"The occurrence of this type of the coinage from Singhbhum to 
Ganjam very probably indicates influences of the Kushanas. We 
know that Magadha was included in the empire of the great Kus- 
hanas and, therefore, it could not be unscientific to assume that the 
so-called Mughal invasion 8 of Orissa was really the conquest of the 
country by the Kushan foreigners." 9 No gold coins of the Kus- 
hana kings have been found anywhere in Orissa, but such coins 
are known from Chota Nagpur 10 and Bengal, n and from this it is 
expected that Kushana gold coins were circulating as currency in 
Orissa also. 

The most important find of coins in the Mayurbhanj State is 
undoubtedly that of 3 gold coins (archer type) of Chandra Gupta II, 
which were discovered in August 1939 at a village called Bhanupur 
on the left bank of the Son river in Mayurbhanj. This discovery 
could not have come to our knowledge, if there had been no alter- 
cation among the villagers leading to the intervention of the 
State Police. The Police could however recover only three gold 
coins. The discovery of gold Gupta coins is unknown in Orissa, 
and this is the first report of its kind. There is no report on the dis- 
covery of Gupta coins from Chota-Nagpur. Only one Gupta coin 
was found at Tamluk. It may be that all these Gupta coins were 
brought by the merchants. 

All authorities agree that the copper coins of the so-called Puri- 
Kushana type are, like the Gupta coins, copied from the Kushana 
coins. The inscribed Tanka coins are no doubt of later date, prob* 
ably oi the 7th century A.D., but the un-inscribed Pun-Kushana 
coins should be much earlier, as early as the 3rd or 4th century AJX 
Gupta Kings are not known to have conquered or annexed Orissa to 
their empire, f2 and so it may be inferred that the kings of Orissa 

f Indian Culture, Vol. Ill, p. 730, 

* [Mr. Bauer jits here referring to a Mughal invasion of Orissa which, according 
to the Madala Panjis^ is said to have taken place before the Saka year 396, EDITOR, 
A S.A.] 

9 History of Orissa, Vol. I, p. 113, 

10 / B, & 0. E. 3., Vol. I, pp. 231-32. 

11 J <fc. P. A. & B.> Vol. XXVIII, p. 128 ft 
i* History of Orwsa, Vol. I, p. 11 7. 



126 JOT7ENAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

during the Gupta period of the Indian History had their own coins 
and were quite independent of the Gupta emperors. Their coinage 
is represented by the so-called Puri-Kushana coins. Professor 
A. S. Altekar also seems to accept this view, for he says : "If the 
Kushana coins were introduced in Orissa by pilgrims and merchants, 
it is clear that they soon became as a model for their coinage which 
was continued up to the 7th century A.D." I3 Dr. S. K. Bose 
writes on this subject that "these so-called Puri-Kushana coins, 
appear to possess purely a local and dynastic value. " M 

Rai Bahadur K. Chanda suggested in his Annual Report of the 
Archaeological Survey of India for 1924-25 that the designation of 
the 'Turi-Kushana" coins should be changed to "Oriya Kushan'* 
coins, but Dr. S. K. Bose did not prefer "any suggestion of attribu- 
ting a geographical name of the coins." IS When he is of opinion 
that these coins only "possess purely a local and dynastic value" in 
Orissa,it isnot clear why he demurs to the suggestion. I am suggest- 
ing that we are now in a position to designate these so-called Puri- 
Kushana coins as "early Orissan Coins" which are practically found 
in Orissa, including States of Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar and in the 
districts of Singhbhum and Manbhum, which are contiguous to 
Majurbhanj and contain enough relics of the Orissan Culture. 

13 Xumismattc Supplement No. XLV1I, 1937, p 106. 
" Indian Culture, Vol III, p. 730. 
Ibid. 



SOME RARE COINS IN MY CABINET. 

BY CAPT. P. S. TARAPORE. 

[ Plate XI. ] 

(a) BAEMANI KINGS OF GULBABGA. 

1. Muhammad Shah I. 

$. Mint. Fathabad. 
Date. ( r P V ) Sic. (766 A.H.) 

This is a rare Bahmani mint published in N. S, No. XLIII by 
Mr. Khwaja Muhammad Ahmad of Hyderabad Museum. It is 
interesting on account of its date ( P f V ) which appears to be a 
mistake of the die-cutter. Fathabad is Dharur in Bir District of 
H. E, H. the Nizam's Dominions. 

2. Ahmad Shah L 

/R . Mint Ahsanab ad. 
Date 823 A.H. 

This coin is interesting as it throws some light on the possibility 
of Ahmad Shah I, issuing coins in his own name during the life-time 
of Firoz Shah. Ahmed Shah came to the throne in 825. The date 
on this coin is clearly 823 A. H. The type also is that of an early 
period. It could not be a die-cutter's mistake for 832 or 833 A.H. 
The seat of Government was transferred from Ahsanabad to 
Muhammadabad in 826 A. H. 

Firoz Shah, whom Ahmad Khan succeeded, was engaged from 
820822 A. H. in a war with Deva Raya, Raja of Vijayanagar in 
Pangal (a place in Nalgunda District, H. E. H. the Nizam's Domi- 
nions). He was defeated there with heavy losses. 

On his return to the capital, he became jealous of his brother 
Ahmad Khan on account of a prophecy that the latter and not his 
own son Hussain Khan would succeed him. Firoz was advised to 
put out Ahmad Khan's eyes to prevent the prophecy coming true. 
When Ahmad Khan learnt of his danger, he fled to Khanapur (Rasu- 
labad), accompanied by his friend Khaliq Hussain Basri and about 
400 trusted followers and set up his standard as Sultan. His force 
was increased by recruits from Gnlbarga, Bidar and Kalyani. 
Firoz sent a force of 8,000 Sawars and elephants against him. Ahmad 
Khan contrived to procure some horses and oxen from some traders 
and Banjaris to serve as mounts for his men and thus to inflate his 



128 JOUBNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INI>IA 

force. The horsemen were placed in front and the soldiers with 
theoxenintherearcarriedflags. ^^*^ m *^^ 
of troopers, they are said to have been seized with panic and flea. 
As ait of this triumph, all the nobles and Firoz's army came 
hisstandard. (Vide "Silsilae-Asafia," Vol. Ill, Part I, pages 



U1 li?se ) events evidently refer to the year 823 A.H., when Ahmad 
Khan must have struck the first coin issued by him. Two years 
later Firoz abdicated in favour of Ahmad Khan. 

3. Muhammad Shah III. 

/R . Mint Muhammadabad (Bidar) . 

Date 877 A.H. 

This is a new type of silver Tanka of Muhammad Shah III. 
The obverse of this coin resembles the one found on copper coins. 
The reverse is the same as those of the known gold and silver coins of 
this king. 

(b) MUGHAL EMPERORS. 

4. Shah Jahan I, 

A|. Mint Katak. 
Date Aban 1046 A. H. 

This is an unpublished Muhar of Shah Jahan from this somewhat 
rare mint. 

5. Aurangzeb Alamgir. 

/^. Mint -Zafarabad (Bidar). 

Date- (10) 79-12 R.Y. 

This is an unpublished 1/16 rupee from this Mint. j*&> of 
ob }jsio is clear. It cannot be Zafarpur as the legend with 
J&'JK* on obverse is found on early issues from Zafarabad mint, 

6. Aurangzeb Alamgir, 
/^. Mint Nasaratgadh ? 

Date -4X.R. Y. 

^ Nasaratgadh is written &&j& instead of the usual way 
A^j^ found on rupees of Aurangzeb. If the reading is correct, 
then No* 3131. a. of the Lucknow Museum Catalogue must be a com 
of Nasaratgadh and not of Qamarnagar Mint. 

7. Aurangzeb Alamgir. 

f^. Mint Nasirabad, 
Date 1101 A. H.-34 R. Y, 



SOME BABE COINS IN MY CABINET 129 

This is a clearer specimen of the rupee of Aurangzeb from 
Nasirabad Mint published in N. S. by Mr. M. A. Saboor of the Cen- 
tral Museum, JSagpur. 

8. Azizuddin Alamgir II. 
Mint Qamarnagar (?) 
Date Missing. 

The Mint mark JJL and the type of calligraphy on the reverse 
of this coin resembles that of Qamarnagar Mint. If so, it is an 
unpublished Mint of this Emperor. 



A BARE BAHMANI RUPEE. 

By ME. C. R. SINGHAL, 
PRINCE OF WALES MUSEUM, BOMBAY. 

In article JSfo. 305, Numismatic Supplement No. XLIII, Capt. 
P. S. Tarapore of Hyderabad (Deccan) has described a rare Bahmani 
rupee and assigns it to Tehamtan Shah of the Sasanian origin.. The 
legend, according to him, reads as follows : 

Obverse. 
Reverse. 

Right Margin o>blL*^J and lower margin, the date 
He says: "Ghiyasuddin is one of the four Bahmani kings whose 
coins have not been* discovered. Tehamtan Shah seems to meto 
be quite clear. There is no doubt regarding its legibility. It can- 
not be 'Bahman Shah* as the nnqtas on the 1st and 2nd ^ ate 
distinct. Tehamtan in Persian means Hercules. It will not be 
surprising if in future the genealogy of the Bahmani kings is traced 
back to Sasanian kings." 

By assigning this coin to Tehamtan Shah, Capt. Tarapore has 
added one more king to the rulers of the Bahmani dynasty and has 
traced its origin to Sasanian kings. So far as the historical evidence 
rs concerned, no ruler ot this name is known to have existed in the 
Bahmani dynasty. If one carefully looks at the coin, he can 
easily find out that the whole trouble has arisen due to tlie wrong 
position of the nuqtas over the name of the king. The imqtas are 
sometimes placed above or below a word to suit the taste and con- 
venience of the scribe and no special importance as to their position 
in the Muslim Epigraphy and Numismatics is attached. Capt. Tara- 
pore says that "the nuqtas on the 1st and 2nd ^> are distinct," 
and thus according to him there should be four nuqtas above, but 
actually there are two nuqtas only and hence his belief that it can 
be read "Tehamtan Shah" falls to the ground. Instead of placing 
two nuqtas above, if one would have been placed below, the whole 
controversy could have been set at rest and one could easily read 
"Bahman Shah" which has been read as "Tehamtan Shah." 

He also says that "Ghiyasuddin is one of the four Bahmani 
kings whose coins have not been discovered/ 5 From the epithet 
"Ghiyasuddin" he evidently hits at the mark but the belief that no 
coins of this Sultan are known and secondly the wrong position 



132 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

of the dots on the name of the king, leads him astray and forces him 
to assign this coin to Tehamtan Shah. Although the coins of this 
ruler are not known so far, Mr. James Gibbs on page 18 of his 
article on "Gold and Silver Coins of theBahmani Dynasty/' pub- 
lished in Numismatic Chronicle 1881, makes a mention of a coin 
issued by this ruler. He says: "The short reign of Ghias-ud-din, 
which extended over only six weeks, did produce a coinage, since 
General Cunningham has in his collection a copper coin of that prince, 
which reads GMas-ed-dunya-wa-ud-dm, but it is not dated." 

The date on the coin is 799 A. H. and if we look up tlie pages of 
any standard history of the Bahmani Dynasty we can find out the 
name of the Sultan who ruled in that year. On page 34 of "The 
History of the Bahmani Dynasty" by Major J. S. King*, we find 
not only the name but the complete title of the Sultan, which is in 
close resemblance to the legend inscribed on this coin. It 
inns : * U (L ^ ^ J }j Uj jj J cb Uc ^ UaU yji J )^ } Abul-Muzaffar 
Sultan Ghiyas-ud-dunya-wa-ud-din Bahman Shah. 

It, therefore, conclusively proves that the coin in question does 
not belong to Tehamtan Shah, but is a unique rupee of Sultan 
Ghiyas-ud-din Bahman Shah, the sixth ruler of the Bahmani 
Dynasty. 



THE DOUBTFULLY-ASSIGNED COINS OF NASIR SHAH. 

BY ME. C. E. SINGHAL, 
PEINCE OF WALES MUSEUM, BOMBAY. 

In my article published on p. 40 of the Numismatic Supplement 
No. XLII, I have tentatively assigned three copper coins of Nasir 
Shah to Mahmud II of Gujarat. I have since been trying to find 
out the real Nasir Shah and assign these coins to him and it 
is a matter of great satisfaction that the problem has been solved 
at last. 

The name of Nasir Shah has undergone a little change and it 
should now be read Nasir Shah instead of Nasir Shah. While 
turning over the pages of the Cambridge History of India, Vol. Ill 
(Turks and Afghans), I came across one Nasir Khan who having 
proclaimed his independence, had assumed the title of Nasir Shah 
and had been the Governor and ruler of Kalpi. He was the son of 
Qadir Khan who styled himself Qadir Shah afterwards, and the 
estate of Kalpi, made over in perpetuity to his father by Hushang 
Shah of Malwa, came into his heritage. 

As he had adopted certain principles which were opposed to 
the tenets of Islam and as he used to scandalize the true Muslims, 
he was the cause of conflict between Mahmud Khilji of Malwa and 
Mahmud Sharqi of Jaunpur, He was expelled from the town and 
after he agreed to abandon his heretic views, he was again installed 
in his original position. 








After writing the above few lines my attention was drawn to 
Prof. Hodivala's article on "The Unassigned Coins cf JaM Shah 
Sultani" published just after my article on p. 41 of the same journal, 
and it is a matter of happy coincidence that the learned professor 



134 JOTJEKAL OP TEE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OP IHBIA 

assigns the coins of Jalal Shah to the same dynasty to which these 
coins belong and proves that Jalal Shah and Nasir Shah were both 
brothers, sons of Qadir Shah, the ruler of Kalpi. Prof. HodivaliLin 
support of his proposition, has given numerous historical extracts 
and from the catena of these facts, a regular line of the semi-inde- 
pendent rulers of Kalpi can now be drawn as under : 
Mahkzada Firiiz. 



(1) Mahmud Khan (802 to 815 A.H.=1399 to 1412 A.D.) 



(2) Qadir Khan or Qadir Shah (816 to 836 A. H.=1413 to 

1432 A.D.). 



(3) Jalal Shah (837 to 842 A. H. (4) Nasir Shah (from 

=1433 to 1438 A.D.) 843 A.E.=1439 A.D.) 

It is needless to reiterate all the historical events summed up 
by Prof. Hodivala, and in order to get a complete idea of the erst- 
while rulers of Kalpi, the readers of this note are requested to read 
these two articles consecutively. 

The coins are round in shape and weigh 140, 134 and 65 grs. 
respectively. 

The inscription on the obverse is Nasir-ud-dunya-wa-ud-din 
Abul-fath, and on the reverse 'Nasir Shah us-Sultan. J The coins 
bear no date. 

The legend is inscribed thus : 

Obverse. Reverse. 




A BARE FRACTIONAL PICE OF SHEK SHAH SURI. 

BY MR. C. E. SINGHAL, 

PRINCE OP WALES MUSEUM, BOMBAY. 

A few days back, a dealer brought a hoard of rusty copper 
coins along with some other antiquities for sale . Out of this hoard, 
four tiny copper coins were purchased for this Museum. The coin 
which is described here, is one of these four. On careful scrutiny 
it turned out to be a rare one-twentieth of a paisa of Sher Shah's 
currency. The weight is 16 grains only and the coin is dated 
94 X A.H. The legend runs as under : 

Obverse 
Eeverse 

Mr. H. N. Wright in his Catalogue on "The Coinage and Metro- 
logy of the Sultans of Delhi/' has described four such coins (vide 
Nos. 1278 to 1281), but the legend on the reverse of this coin is dif- 
ferent from those illustrated by him. "We know "Abul-MuzaSar" 
is the honorific title of Sher Shah and the date 94 X A.H. tallies with 
the year of his reign. 

CATALOGUE OF THE COINS 

of the 

SULTANS OF GUJARAT 

Compiled by - - C. R. SINGHAL 
& edited by - - G. V. ACHARYA 

150 Pages with 11 plates. 

The catalogue is really a corpus inasmuch as it 
affords the most complete and comprehensive study 
of the coinage of the Sultans of Gujarat published 
hitherto. All the known coins of the dynasty in var- 
ious cabinets of the world are incorporated in this 
publication, 

It can be had for Rs. 5/- only from 

The Curator, Archaeological Section, 
Prince of Wales Museum, BOMBAY. 



NOTE ON A SILVER COIN OF AUEANGZEB. 
A NEW MINT. 

BY RAI BAHADUE PRAYAGDAYAL, LUCKNOW. 

The examination of a hoard of 30 silver coins found in Allaha- 
bad District of the U. P. has resulted in the discovery of anew mint 
name Hukeri or Hokri of Mughul Emperor Aurangzeb. The coin 
has been acquired by the Provincial Museum, Lucknow, and can be 
read as under : . , 



Obverse j*^ ; < 

Reverse ^ 



u?/^ u"J^ 
M 



Weight 177 grs. 
Size 95. 



u^ 



'r~ 



Hukeri is a village in the Chikodi Taluka of Belgaum District 
in the Bombay Presidency, and is connected with Poona and the 
large town of Gokak by metalled roads. Hukeri was an important 
town during the reign of Adil Shahi kings of Bijapur and has still 
some architectural remains of that period. After the fail of Bijapur 
and its inclusion in the Mughal Empire in 1686 A.D. , Hukeri was the 
only part of Belgaum that remained in the possession of the Mara- 
thas. 

Hukeri was certainly an important place during the reign of 
Bijapur kings and was under the Marathas during the Mughal rule 
from Aurangzeb downwards. Whether this is an issue of the 
Maratha Chief in the name of Aurangzeb or of Aurangzeb himself is 
the main point under consideration.' 

Authorities of the Hyderabad Museum have also acquired a 
coin of this mint. 



1 This is evidently a coin struck by the Maratha Chief at Hukeri in the name 
of Aurangzeb. It was a well known mint of the Marathas and coins issued from 
this mint in the name of the later Mughals will be published in the next issue of this 
journal. EDITOR. 



COINS OF DELWARA. 

BYE. G. GYAOT, M.A., 
(Prince of Wales Museum, Bombay.} 

In the Collection of Prof. Hodiwala that was purchased for the 
Cabinet of this museum, there "were some coins identified as Akbar's 
coins of Agra with a mark of query. In size and caligraphy these 
coins slightly differ from those of Akbar's copper pieces which are 
generally dumpy and bigger in size with very bold letterings. These 
coins are of three different sizes : The biggest size measures 7 or '6, 
the middle size -5 or *55 and the smallest size -4 or '45. They weigh 
roughly in proportion of 3, 2 and 1 being about 150, 100 and 50 grains 
respectively with a difference of 2 to 6 grains in case of individual 
coins. 

They bear the legend introduced by Akbar namely ** Allah o 
Akbar," with Jalla Jalalahu on one side and Zarbe Delwara on 
the other. It is in most cases spelt as *j) }}.& with double alif 
perhaps to record the correct pronunciation of the word with a 
long sound of a in wa. This method is seldom noticed in the 
Muhammadan Coinage. 

In ordinary course, we would identify it as Akbar's coin of 
Delwara a mint unknown hitherto. But the style of the coin 
suggests that it may have been an issue of some Rajput State of that 
name. Looking for it in the Imperial Gazetteer, Vol. XI, Page 241, 
we find that it is an estate under the jurisdiction of Udaipur State 
found by Sajja who came from Kathiawar with his brother Ajja in 
the beginning of the 16th century and who was killed (1534) at the 
seige of Chitor. The present chief, who is called Raj Rana, traces his 
origin from them who were Jhala Rajputs. It is, therefore, possible 
that the rulers of this State, after the conquest of Chitor by Akbar 
and the flight of the Rana Pratap of Mewar from that place, might 
have accepted the suzerainty of the great Mughal and struck local 
coins in his name and style to show that they put it in action too and 
thus became safe from any more Imperial invasions. 

All these coins bear the date 1000 either on the reverse or on the 
obverse. 

We have two tiny coins of Jehangir also of the smallest size with 
the legend. *l^0b r^V^ on Olie s ^ ze an< ^ *j)^.^^j* on 
the other. Here we find only one Alif. A detailed study of the 
legends with several variations is as follows : 

There are about eight varieties of these copper coins on which 



140 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

the legend of Akbar and the mint name appears with the date 1000 
on some of them. 

Variety. 1. Obverse: r oJ) 

Eeverse: j) )^.^ 
,, 2. Obverse: A 
Eeverse : A 



3. Obverse: r ^)^t This coin 

Eeverse ; *; ) 1 jk ^ bears a very 

I*** clear date. 



4. Obverse : j *>) 

Ir 5 

Eeverse : j ) 1 5^ 

5. Obverse : 

Eeverse : *j } )jk o 

6. Obverse : ^) 

Eeverse : j 
! 
r 

7. Obverse : r^ 




COINS OF DELWARA 

Eeverse : < 



141 



Jehangir 

1. Obverse : a U> o b 
Reverse : * ) t 



These coins await a historical investigation to discover the 
authority under which these tiny records came into existence. 
There are two more places bearing the name Delwara but the one 
under the Udaipur jurisdiction with which the mint name has been 
identified in this note seems to be the most plausible, 











REVIEWS 

A Hoard of Silver Punch-marked Coins from Purnea, by P. N. 
Bhattacharya, M.A. Memoirs of the Archaeological Survey of India, 
No. 62. Pp.vi,96. With 12 Plates. Price Es. 5-6 as. or 8s. 6d. 

This is a notable contribntion to the literature on punch- 
marked coins. The Director-General of Archaeology in India, Rao 
Bahadur K. N. Dikshit, in a foreword briefly describes the horde 
known as the Purnea Horde, which was found in a hard conglom- 
merate mass embedded in a small river at Patraha in the Purnea 
District, Behar. The horde comprised a total of 2,873 silver 
punch-marked coins and is the largest hoard so far unearthed. Mr. 
Pares Nath Bhattacharya, Assistant Curator in the Archaeological 
Section of the Indian Museum, was entrusted with the preparation 
of a systematic study of 1,703 coins selected from the hoard ; it must 
be said to his credit that he has done his work with thoroughness 
and care, both of which are so essential in any study of the extremely 
complex subject of India's oldest coinage. Following more or less 
the lines of treatment in Mr. Allan's Catalogue of the Coins of 
Ancient India in the British Museum, he has arranged the coins 
into three main classes, which are subdivided into different groups 
which again include many varieties. The plates of symbols in 
tabular form giving references to the coins themselves are parti- 
cularly useful. A number of new varieties have been recorded. Of 
especial interest is the large number of coins tabulated on pp. 5 7 
and 11 13 in which the sun symbol as well as the 'six-armed' 
symbol, which occur on every coin of the Taxila hoard found in 
1924 and recently authoritatively described by Mr. E. H. C. Walsh 
are entirely absent and instead certain other constant symbols 
appear on the obverse. 

A word of praise must be given to the excellent drawings of 
symbols occurring on the coins as well as to the general get-up of 
the volume. 

G-HOSE. 



144 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

SUPPLEMENT TO THE VOLUMES II & III OF THE CATA- 
LOGUE OF COINS IN THE INDIAN MUSEUM, CALCUTTA. 

BY MAULAVI SHAMSUDDIN AHMAD, M.A. 

ASSISTANT SUPEKINTENDENT OP THE AKCHAEOLOGICAL SECTION 
INDIAN MUSEUM, CALCUTTA. 

Both the publications mentioned above have been compiled 
after the model of and issued as supplement to Mr. Nelson Wright's 
Catalogues of Coins in the Indian Museum, Calcutta, published in 
1907. 

In keeping with the parent volumes, the Supplement to Vol. II 
deals with the Coinage of the Sultans of Delhi and their Contempora- 
ries in various provinces of India with a new addition of the coins 
of the Nawabs of Madura, while the Supplement to Vol. Ill deals 
with the Mughal coins added to the collection of the said Museum 
since the publication of the original Catalogue. Inasmuch as they 
fairly represent almost all the types known hitherto and also add a 
few ones to the stock of the numismatic knowledge, these publica- 
tions can be looked upon as useful sources of sidelights on theMuslim 
period of the Indian history. Let us, therefore, cast a glance over 
a few noteworthy issues brought to light by the publication of these 
Supplements. 

SUPPLEMENT TO VOL. II. 

The most striking of the rare coins of this Section are Nos. 118 

and 119. One is a square gold Muhr and 

SULTANS OF DELHI the other is a silver coin issued from the 

mint Akbarpur Tanda by Sher Shah Suri. 

Besides, there are a number of new and unpublished types included 
in this supplementary volume. 

The plates unfortunately do not afford satisfaction inasmuch 
as they do not testify the readings properly. Want of arrangement 
of coins in the serial order mar the easy reference. Some rare coins 
do not at all find a place in the plates and thus the chance of veri- 
fying the readings of some new mints is denied to the readers. Out 
of the rare ones that are illustrated a reference is invited to coin 
No. 144 on plate I which is assigned as a coin of Sher Shah issued 
from a new mint Balapur. We cannot, however, agree with this 
reading and discovery as the mint name on the coin illustrated 



TO THE VOLUMES II & III 145 

This Section of the Cabinet of this premier Museum of Bengal 

is naturally the richest and makes a valu- 

SULTANS OF BENGAL able contribution to the history of Bengal. 

Based on these numismatic records, the 

author has made certain corrections in the chronology of the Sultans 
of Bengal. Here are the conclusions arrived at by the author : 

(1) Ghiyasuddin Azam Shah is hitherto known to have ruled 
from 792 to 799 A. H. while the numismatic evidence mentioned in 
the Supplement extends his rule to 810 A. H. 

(2) Saifuddin Hamza, who is supposed to have ruled from 
799 to 809, is not substantiated by numismatic evidence. His coins 
recorded in this Supplement spot his rule to 813 and 814 A. H. 
only* 

(3) Similarly, the hitherto acknowledged reign of Shihabuddin 
Bayazid Shah being 812 to 817 is reduced to 814 to 817 A. H, 

(4) Alauddin Firozshah, son of Bayazid, is introduced in the 
line of the Sultans of Bengal for the first time and is shown to have 
ruled for a few months in 817 A. H. 

(5) Jalaluddin Muhammad Shah's date of the accession of the 
throne of Bengal is corrected from 817 to 818 A. H. 

Of the several new and hitherto unrepresented types of these 
coins the following merit a mention: 

(a) AR 6 ; A coin of Ghiyasuddin Bahadur Shah minted at 
Sunargaon bearing the name of Muhammad IV bin Tughlaq on the 
reverse. No coin bearing the name of both these monarchs has 
been noticed so far. 

(b) AR 48 : is an interesting coin of Shamsuddin Iliyas Shah 
minted at Firozabad and dated 760 A. H., inasmuch as it contra- 
dicts the historian's version of 759 A. H. being the date of his death. 

(c) AR 109 & 110 are SufuddinHamzashah's coins of Satgaon 
and Muazzamabad mints respectively, and are published for the 
first time. 

(d) AR 139 is a very interesting coin of Jalaluddin Muhammad- 
shah, inasmuch as on the reverse of the coin is figured a lion 
advancing to right with his f orepaw raised . This is the first instance 
where the figure of an animal is noticed on the coins of the Sultans 
of Bengal. 

(e) M 154 This coin of Rukniddin Barbak Shah discovered 
by the author upsets the belief prevailing hitherto that the Sultans 
of Bengal did not strike copper coins. 

(/) AR 223 A new mint of Kalifatabad Badarpur to those 
whence Ghiyasuddin Mahmud Shah II is known to have issued his 
coins. 



146 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

Thus, it can be seen that this Section of the Supplement contains 
a good many new types of coins with far-reaching eSect on the 
Numismatics and History of the Sultans of Bengal. 

The coins of the rulers of Madura in South India is a new in- 
troduction in this publication. The di3- 

MADURA (SOUTH INDIA) covery of a coin of Jalaluddin Ahsan Shah 
dated 734 pushes the foundation of this 

dynasty back by a year. Besides, several new dates are recorded 
in this Section also. For instance, coins of Ahsan Shah dated 734, 
735 and 739 and the issues of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah of 760 
and 764 A. H. are noticed for the first time. 

The collection of these coins in the Indian Museum seems to 
have been considerably enriched since the 
BAHMANS COINS publication of the last catalogue. The coins 
of Nizam Shah and Mahmud bin Muhammad 
Shah are recorded for the first time in this publication, 
A few coins of this Section which deserve a mention are : 

AR 1 This coin of Alauddin Bahamn Shah, the founder of 
the Bahmani dynasty, is published for the first time in this Supple- 
ment. Besides this, Nos. AR 5, JR 12, 27 and 57 are rare pieces. 

SUPPLEMENT TO VOL. Ill MUGHALS. 

The catalogues of Mughal Coins in the Cabinet of the Museums 
at Lucknow and Lahore are still almost a last word so far as the 
Mughal coins are concerned except a few minor details in which the 
new discoveries differ. This Supplement also adds a few such types 
which can be considered as rare and valuable additions to the Cabi- 
net of the Indian Museum since the publication of Vol. Ill, 

The most striking of the rarities are two silver types of Barar 
mint on one of which (Nos. 91 & 92) a tiny bird is carved below the 
mint name while in another type (Nos. 93, 95 & 96) the word p ); 
Ram in Persian characters replaces the bird. Whether these are 
introduced on the coins as a result of Akbar's love for novelty or 
are symbols of the mint masters who tried to put in their marks oil 
these issues, is a question that needs consideration, 



NEWS AND NOTES. 
DISCOVERY OF NEW ANCIENT COINS IN JAIPUR STATE. 

The department of Archaeology of Jaipur State is to be con- 
gratulated on the very important numismatic discoveries it has 
made during the recent excavation season. A large number oi 
Malava coins, a big hoard of punch-marked coins containing as 
manyas3j076 coins and some very early inscribed coins of tie 3rd 
century B. C. were found at the village Rairh situated on the wes- 
tern extremity of the ruins designated by the same name. This 
village is situated in Thikana Bhartala in Tehsil Bonli of the Jaipur 
State, situated at a distance of 56 miles from Jaipur. The distance 
of the first 41 miles is covered by the rail, as well as by a good me- 
talled road, but beyond Nawai, where these roads terminate, there 
are only cart tracks, not easily accessible. Dr K.N. Pun, the Super- 
intendent of Archaeology, Jaipur State, has very kindly supplied to 
us an account of this discovery 3 in the course of which he says : 

"The ancient site is situated in a large bend of the river Dial and 
measures about 2,500 feet in length by about 1,500 feet from North 
to South. These ruins which have been the scene of systematic 
excavations by the Government of His Highness the Maharaja 
of Jaipur were unknown prior to the year 1937 when a treasure 
trove consisting of 326 punch-marked silver coins was found by a 
peasant boy. After preliminaiy examination of the site, excava- 
tions were started by the late Rai Bahadur Daya Earn Sahni, C.I.E., 
during the field season of the year 1938-39 and concluded by Dr. 
K. K Pun, the present Superintendent of Archaeology. The site 
which flourished as a metallurgical and industrial centre from about 
the 3rd century B. C. to the close of the 2nd century A. D. was in 
the occupation of Malava tribe whose copper coins are found in 
abundance scattered all over the surface of the ruins. Besides a 
large number of other interesting antiquities, the site has proved to 
be extremely rich so far as the discovery of punch-marked silver 
coins is concerned ; of these no less than 3,076 composed of five 
hoards have been found. The Rairh collection of punch-marked 
coins which is now the biggest collection found from any single site 
from Peshawar to Godawari in the south and from Palanpur in the 
west to Midnapur in the east, wiD be studied in detail after the coins 
have been chemically treated. In addition to these a new type of 
rectangular copper coin bearing on the obverse an epigraph in two 
lines in early Brahmi characters of the 3rd century B. C, has been 



148 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

round. The inscription reads "Sendpati Vachagka" which may be 
rendered "Of the Commander-in-Chief Vachhaga." The reverse 
shows an elephant with outstretched trunk standing on a standard 
rising from a railing. The name on this coin is of the same category 
of names, said to be the names of Malava chiefs, but the prefix 
Setidpati is a new addition hitherto unknown. 55 

Among other numismatic discoveries at the place may be men- 
tioned an Uddhehika coin with the legend Suryamitra, a coin of 
Dhruvamitra, and seven coins with the legend Vapu written in 
early Brahmi characters. Among other kings represented in the 
hoard are Brahmamitra of Mathura and the Greek ruler Apollodotus. 
Along with the tiny Malava coins with the legend Mdlavdna jaya, 
a Malava seal also has been found with the legend ^Ma]lavajana- 
padasa. 

As we go to the press, we have received a detailed note on some 
of the coins discovered at Eairh from Eao Bahadur K. N. Dikshit, 
the Director-General of Archaeology in India, which has enabled us 
to supply the above information. It will be published in the next 
number. 

DISCOVERIES AT RAJOHAT (BENARES), 

The necessity of the extension of the passenger and goods plat- 
forms of the Kashi Station has resulted in important archaeological 
discoveries at Kajghat, the northern extremity of the present city 
of Benares. The construction of the platforms necessitated the fill- 
ing up of extensive low-lying tracts, for which the Railway admin- 
istration began to take earth from the mounds at Bajghat lying 
nearby. As they began to go deeper and deeper, a number of 
archaeological finds began to be made. Among these were numer- 
ous inscribed seals of kings, ministers, private individuals and 
temples A large number of them belong to the Gupta period, the 
level of which was reached when the excavations had reached a 
depth of about 18 feet. 

f From the numismatic point of view some of the seals are verv 
^Portant, for they show either the reverse or the obverse of some 
of the issues of the imperial Guptas. Thus some seals show busts 
similar to those on the obverse of the copper coins of the Suptls 
and some have got a fan-tailed peacock as on the silver coins of 
Ku^ragupta. It would thus appear that there was an imperit 



NEWS AND NOTES U9 

anything else. It however did one good thing ; it removed an 
enormous mass of earth and laid bare the remains of the Gupta 
period, which otherwise would have required several years to be 
reached. In the beginning of October 1940, E. B. K. N. Dikshit, 
the Director General of Archaeology, visited the place and was able 
to reach an agreement with the railway authorities, whereby a large 
area of the excavation was left undisturbed at the disposal of the 
Archaeological Department for carrying on scientific excavations. 
This work has now been begun by the Department and we hope that 
it will lead to further important archseological and numismatic 
discoveries. 

EXCAVATIONS AI RAMNAGAS, 

We understand that in the coming excavation season, the 
archaeological department is going to concentrate a good deal of its 
energy and resources in excavating the ancient site of Eamnagar in 
Ahichchhatra. The site has been very rich in numismatic finds 
and we have no doubt that as a result of the excavations, further 
light will be thrown on the numismatics of the few centuries preced- 
ing and following the Christian era. The excavations will be carried 
out under the direct guidance of E. B. K. N. Dikshit, the Director- 
General of Archaeology. 

TL P. GOVERNMENT. 

We have received the report of the Coin Committee of the 
United Provinces for the year 1939-40 wherein after the expression 
of regret at the sad demise of Sir H. Bomford and an appreciation 
of the work done by Rai Bahadur Prayag Dayal, the details of the 
Treasure Trove coins discovered during the year under review are 
given. 

According to the report, in all nine hoards of coins found as 
Treasure Trove in various districts of the Province were dealt with, 
which consisted of a total of 5 gold, 934 silver, 202 billion and 3,219 
copper coins. They included the issues of the ancient Yaudheya 
republic, Sultans of Delhi, Kings of Jaunpur and Malwa, Mughal 
Emperors and Balashahi rupees. They were acquired and distri- 
buted to various Coin Cabinets in -India (of which a list is appended). 

Among the gold coins a piece of Pran Narain bearing Saka 
Samvat 757 needs investigation. Out of the silver issues discovered, 
a rupee of Aurangzeb with Hukeri mint is an unpublished issue, 
about which a note has appeared elsewhere in this journal. Billion 
coins yielded two rare issues of Mubarak Shah and Firoz Tughlak. 
Among the copper coins were found the most important issues of 



150 JOURNAL OF THE NUMISMATIC SOCIETY OF INDIA 

the coins of the Yaudheya republic representing class 3 of the 
B.M.C. of which 16 coins furnish new varieties. This is the first 
instance of a hoard of Yaudheya coins found in TJ. P. Rai Bahadur 
Prayag Dayal's article on these ir ' atesting coins appears elsewhere 
in this issue. 

BIHAR GovERmiENT. 

We are supplied with a report from the Treasure Trove officer, 
Bihar and Orissa, and the Secretary of the Coin Committee, Patna, 
which informs us of the find of 12 silver and 64 copper coins which 
were acquired and distributed during the year. 

BOMBAY GOVERNMENT. 

^ The Honorary Secretary of the Bombay Branch, Royal Asiatic 
Society has sent us a report on the 75 silver coins found at Mahal 
Pandhari (West Khandeshj containing the issues of Aurangzeb and 
later Mughals which were acquired and distributed under the 
T. T, Act. 

We are also requested to announce that there are certain T T 
coins available for sale at His Majesty's Mint, Bombay. They 
contain 2 gold coins of Vijayanagar, 2 silver coins of Auran^cb 
and about 53 silver coins of later Mughals and Marathas. 

PEINCE OF WALES MUSEUM, BOMBAY. 

We have received a statement from the Curator (Archicoloffioal 
Section) Prince of Wales Museum wherein it is stated that during 

f ,f n 7i3 SlIV6r and 467 C PP er coins offered for 
by the Governments of Central Provinces 









J.N.S.I., VOL II, 1940 



Plate V 









17 




J.N.S.I., VOL. II, 1940 



Plate VI 




f^% ' r* I 

UX 4 -' V? if 






3J ^ 




J. N.S.I., VOL II, 1940 



Plate VII 















14- 




4.S.I., VOL. II, 1940 



Plate 




J N.S.I., VOL II, 1940 



Plate IX 




















J.N.S.I, VOL. \\, 1940 



Plate X 




Plate X-A 









/02. V3