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Jftom tte ©arlfest Klines to ti>c beginning of tfic |)te«nt Venture. 




Sn QHdo Folumts. 





PORCELAIN {continued). 





flotxce to ^subscribe™. 

The number of subjects suitable for illustration has accu- 
mulated to such an extent during the progress of this work, 
that it has been found impossible to include examples of the 
whole range of fabriques in the six parts which were originally 
contemplated. A Supplement containing thirty-two additional 
plates has therefore been added, increasing the cost of the 
present part from Twelve Shillings to One Guinea. 









jl. a-# *. xrx v>r \~r -M. x x f 








Btunstoutt, murtemburg, etc. 


His manufactory was established in 1750 by Bengraf, 
who came from Hochst; he died the same year, and 
Baron von Lang, a distinguished chemist, undertook 
the direction of the works, under the patronage of 
Charles Duke of Brunswick. The manufactory has been 
carried on by the Government up to the present time. 

In 1807 the Sevres Museum obtained from the manufactory 
a plate, painted with classical subjects by Briining, a coffee 
cup, decorated in gold, by Heinze, and other 
specimens. Mr. Stunkel, director of thefaSrtfue 
in 1840, also presented other pieces. The mark 
is an F., of various forms, pencilled in blue. 

Ludwigsburg, called also Kronenburg porcelain. This 
manufactory was established by Ringler in 1758, under the 
patronage of Charles Eugene, the reigning Duke. It was 
celebrated for the excellence of its productions and the fine 
paintings on its vases and services, as well as for its excellent 
groups. The mark is the double C, for the name of Duke 
Charles, ensigned with a high German Ducal /**fr S 
crown, surmounted by a cross. The mark of two \_JT 
C's with a Count's coronet, which is frequently *7T"* 

attributed to this town, belongs to Niderviller. *_Xv 


Fig. 237. Milk pot, painted with flowers; mark a hay fork. 

Fig. 238. Cup and saucer, with pastoral figures; mark R. 

Mr. Walker Joy's collection. 

REGENSBURG (Ratisbon) 
was established about 1760. The mark con- 
sisted of the first and last letters of the name. Lj 

Fig. 239 is a cup and saucer with landscapes XV • CX^» 
in sepia. Mr. Walker Joy's collection. £? 


Established about 1770 by Greiner. The 
demand for his porcelain was so great, that 
not being able to enlarge his works at Lim- 
bach, he purchased this as well as Weilsdorf 
and Volkstedt. 

This mark is frequently imperfectly formed, and 
hardly to be recognized as a trefoil leaf. 

Fig. 240 is a cup and saucer painted with flowers. 
Mr. Walker Joy's collection. 


Saxe Meiningen. This manufactory was also under the 
direction of Gotthelf Greiner. Established about 1762. 
The marks are said to be a single or a 
double L ; but there appears to be some 
confusion in the appropriation, for the 
same letters are also assigned to Ilmenau 
and Breitenbach. — . f\~^0 C\ 

Another mark, attributed to Limbach, as O 

well as two L's crossed. 

Fig. 241. A cup and saucer with sepia land- v / 

scapes. Mr. Walker Joy's collection. X 


A manufactory was founded here about 1780. The ^^ 

usual mark is G as in the margin. | 

Fig. 242 is a cup and saucer, with black profile ^^ 

portrait. Mr. Walker Joy's collection. •• 




Founded in 1780 by Rothenberg, and afterwards Cac- 
(1802) conducted by Henneberg. The mark G, for g\ 
the name of the town, of this form. ^** 

.Fig. 243 is a cup and saucer, painted with a view of the 
town. Mr. Walker Joy's collection. 

Rauenstein, in Saxe Meiningen. Established 1760. 
Hard Paste. Marked in blue. This mark is 
on a cup and saucer, painted with flowers, in the W y ^ 

collection of the Right Hon. W. E. Gladstone. 

Wallendorf. Saxe Coburg. Hard Paste, Established 
by Greiner and Haman in 1762. This mark is \ y/ 
given by Marryat, but there are so .many W's that W 
it is difficult to identify their localities with any degree of 

Fig. 244 is a tea pot painted with blue sprigs. Mr. Walker 
Joy's collection. 

Baden-Baden. Hard Paste. Established in 1753 as a 
porcelain manufactory by the widow 
Sperl, and workmen from Hochst, with 
the patronage of the reigning Margrave, 
under Pfaker. It ceased in 1778. The 
mark is an axe, or the blade of an axe, in gold. 


manufactory was in full work here towards the end 
of the XVIIIth Century. It is said to have been 
established by a French flower painter named Mau- 
br£e, and several Genevese artists painted on the 
porcelain, occasionally marking it with a 
"G" or "Geneva" in full; sometimes ^-jc — * J **<^^' 
with and sometimes without the fish. ^ v**"^* 
There never was a manufactory of china 
at Geneva. 

Fig. 245 is a cup with two handles, cover and saucer, 
portrait in the centre. The Rev. C. Staniforth's collection. 

Zurich. Hard Paste. Established about 1750, by one c 
the workmen from Hochst, perhaps Ringler; after a few years 
it was abandoned, and left under the direction of 
Sprengler and Hearacher from 1763 to 1768. In 
1775 it was conducted by Trou. It has much the 
character of German china. The mark is in blue 

Fig. 246, A cup and saucer painted with fruit. Mr. Walker 
Joy's collection. 

Fig. 247. A group of a Soldier trampling on a Turk and 
unveiling a lady, martial and love trophies on the ground. 
Mr. C. W. Reynolds's collection. 

The first manufactory for porcelain in Holland was 
Weesp, near Amsterdam. It was established in 1764 by the 

of ^^ 

In ~r 

:he ^4 


Count Gronsveldt-Diepenbroek, who had by some means 
obtained the secret of the composition of hard paste. Having 
bought the materials of the old fayence works of Overtoom, 
he proceeded to make porcelain, and produced some fine white 
and transparent specimens ; it only lasted seven years, was 
closed in 1771, and the materials publicly sold. Notwith- 
standing the unsuccessful result in a commercial point of view, 
it was reopened by a Protestant minister, the Rev. De Moll, 
of Oude Loosdrecht, associated with some capitalists of Am- 
sterdam, but the next year it was removed to 
Loosdrecht. The decorations are very much of 
the Saxon character. The marks are a W, and 
two crossed lines, or swords, with dots, in blue. 
The latter has been assigned to Arnstadt, but is 
now authenticated as belonging to this manu- 

Fig. 248 is a large ewer painted with a basket of flowers ; 
marked W. Mr. C. W. Reynolds' collection. 

Fig. 249. A coffee pot with figures after Teniers. Mark 
a cross and dots. Mr. Walker Joy's collection. 

Loosdrecht, situated between Utrecht and Amsterdam, 
was the next town, where porcelain was successfully made. It 
sprung from the ashes of Weesp, and in 1772 became a pro- 
prietary, with the Rev. De Moll at its head ; after his death, 
in 1782, the concern passed into the hands of his partners, 
J. Rendorp, A. Dedel, C. Van der Hoop, Gysbz, and J. Hope, 
and was by them removed, in 1 784, to Amstel. The ware is 
of fine quality, decorated in the Saxon style ; specimens are 
frequently met with, having gilt borders and a light blue 
flower between green leaves. The letters M. o. L. stand for 
" Manufactur oude Loosdrecht? marked in blue -w^jr t 
or impressed on the ware ; the best pieces have ■*- J- O -L^ 
a star also. By a singular coincidence it hap- ^ 

pened that the establishment was under the M j 
direction of the Rev. De Moll. Sometimes the ^-"^ 0*~ 
letter M is divided from the two last letters by two dots, 
which may mean "Moll: oude Loosdrecht!' 



Fig. 250. A vase perforated and painted with birds. Soutl 
Kensington Museum. 

Amsterdam. M. Jacquemart places 
this mark to Amsterdam, being the an- 
cient crest of the united provinces,— the 
Batavian lion, traced in blue,— and quotes 
a specimen in the Museum of Sevres. Mr. Reynolds has a 
pair of elegant bottles, painted in lake camaieu with birds and 
trees, the mark in blue. See fig. 251. 

Oude Amstel. In the year 1782, on the death of 
Rev. De Moll, the manufactory of Loosdrecht was removed 
to Oude Amstel (Old Amstel), near Amsterdam, and carrie 
on with redoubled zeal by the same Company, directed by e 
German named Daeuber, about 1784. It flourished undei 
his direction for a few years, and a fine _ 

description of porcelain was produced, HTtlJ.'tff f 
but it was not encouraged in Holland, ^ IIU L ^° * 
and gradually declined, in consequence of the large importa- 
tions from England which inundated the country. It was 
again offered for sale in 1 789, and came into the hands of 
J. Rendorp, C. Van der Hoop, and Gysbz, still remaining 
under Daeuber's direction, but was entirely demolished 
the close of the last century. Sometimes the initials of th' 
director, A. D., are found. 

Fig. 252, 253, A tea pot and sucrier with views in Holland 

Fig. 254. A sucrier painted with birds. Mr. Walker Joy's 

LA HAYE (The Hague). 
About the year 1 775, a porcelain manufactory for both har< 
and soft paste was opened at the Hague, under the direction 
of a German named Leichner or Lynker; it was first situated 
in the Bierkade, and later in Niewe Mohtraat. The fabrique 
was not very important, there being only one fur- 
nace, employing from fifty to sixty workmen and 
painters. The works ceased in 1 785 or 1 786. The 
mark is a stork, a symbol of the town, in grey or gold. 


Fig. 255. A milk jug painted with flowers. In the Rev. 
T. Staniforth's collection. 

Lille. This porcelain manufactory was established in 
171 1 by Sieurs Barth616my Dorez, and Pierre Pelissier, his 
nephew, natives of Lille. The porcelain {pdte tendre) of this 
time was like that of St Cloud, but in the Delft style, the 
favourite ornamentation being Chinese designs, but no mark 
is known. At a later period (in 1784) a manufactory of hard 
porcelain was established by Leperre Durot, under the 
patronage of the Dauphin ; it was styled " Manufacture Royale 
de Monseigneur le Dauphin." The porcelain of Leperre 
Durot is richly adorned with gold and carefully painted bou- 
quets of flowers. 

In 1790 the manufactory changed hands, and several 
attempts were made to insure its success, without avail, and 
about 1800 it altogether ceased. M. Roger succeeded Le- 
perre Durot, and in 1792 he sold his interest in the works to 
Messieurs Regnault and Graindorge, who were 
ruined, and the establishment soon closed. The 
mark on the hard porcelain of Leperre Durot, 
is a crowned dolphin, the emblem of the Royal 
protection ; it is in red, either pencilled or stencilled. 

On a cup, cover, and saucer, with 
gold ornaments on white, and land- TCLtt par 

scapes painted in Indian ink ; in Mr. (£gSr*£//f % cXft/Jj/ 
Reynolds' collection. See fig. 256. 


Established in 1750 by Peterinck. In 1752 one hundred 
workmen were employed, which in 1762 increased to as many 
as two hundred. For some time previous to 181 5 the works 
were carried on by M. Maximilian de Bettignies, who, in con- 
sequence of the annexation of Tournay to Belgium, ceded it 
in that year to his brother Henri, and established another at 
St. Amand-les-Eaux. Soft paste, which has been discontinued 
many years in every other fabrique in France, is still made at 

m 2 


both places, and they consequently produce the closest imit; 
tions of old Sevres pate tendre. 

This mark is in gold on a cup and saucer, painted 
with animals and birds, illustrating Fontaine's Fables; 
in the collection of the Rev. T. Staniforth. See 

%■ 257- 

This mark was used after 1755; in gold for the 
best quality, in blue or red for inferior specimens. 

Fig. 258 is a basin in lake camaien, landscapes 
and figures; in Mr. Walker Joy's collection. 

Brussels. Hard Paste. There was a manufactory of porct 
lain here towards the end of the last century. This mark i 
on a tea pot, with a band of roses in the centre and two belts 
of silver, with gold borders; on the cup and 
saucer of the same service is the name "Z-. 
CrettS" painted in red. These are in Mr. 
Reynolds' collection. 

. BEUSSELS ' . ™ S "™! ' S ° n a Se , r - L'UtiieSi^dk, 
vice, some pieces of which have only 

the name " L. CretU." Portions of w^'iwtf//^. 

another service, with the name and 

address, are in the collection of the Rev. T. Stani- /-O^ 

forth, (see fig. 259,) a milk pot. Two other O I O 

marks ; the latter is the mark of L. CrettS. "Tj 

Fig. 260 is a tea pot, painted with roses, &c, _ jl 

gilt borders; in Mr. Reynolds' collection. I 

Luxemburg. Hard Paste. Established at 
Sept Fontaines about 1806, by M. Boch. Both -q t 
pottery and porcelain were made here; plates, J-J • J—* 
vases, figures, &c. 

Luxemburg. M. Boch. On a specimen in *~f^ 

the Sevres Museum, attributed by M. Riocreux -/^, 

to this manufactory. ^^~ — "R 

Figs. 261 and 262. Four figures, marked B. L.; 
Dickins' collection. 

^Russia ant) Volant). 

■ St. Petersburg, an Imperial china manufactory 
was established in 1744. by the Empress Eliza- 
beth Petrowna, with workmen from Meissen. 
Catherine II. patronized the works, and in 1765 
enlarged them considerably, under the direction of the 
minister, J. A. Olsoufieff, since which this fabrique has held 
a distinguished place among European manufactories ; an 
artist named Swebach superintended the decorations, and in 
1825 two workmen were sent from Sevres to assist in the 
manufactory. The paste is hard and of a blueish cast, finely 
glazed. It always betrays its Dresden origin, and the 
imitations of the china of Saxony are wonderful in making 
up portions of sets which have been broken. 

The mark of the Empress Catherine II. {Eka- 
terina), from 1 762 to 1 796. Those of later periods 
are the initials of the Emperors in Russian capitals 
under crowns, Paul, Alexander I., Nicholas, and 
Alexander II. 

Fig. 265 is a cup and saucer, with the Imperial arms, and the 
mark of the Emperor Paul. Mr. C. W. Reynolds' collection. 
Fig. 266. A verriere, with views of buildings ; in the same 

Moscow. 1720. The potter, Eggebrecht, who had under- 
taken a manufactory of- Delft at Dresden, by direction 



of Bottcher, had, after that was discontinued, left to go to 
Moscow, and, being acquainted with some of the processes 
for making porcelain, commenced manufacturing it at Mos- 
cow. The Russians, had, in 171 7, endeavoured to entice one 
of Bottcher's best workmen, named Waldensten, and were 
unsuccessful ; but, it is said, another workman, a few years 
after, named Richter, assisted them in their operations, but no 
traces are to be found of their subsequent history. 

Moscow. A porcelain manufactory was established at Twer, 
by an Englishman named Gardner, in 1787, and another by 
A. Popoff. Fig. 267 is a cup and saucer, painted _ 

with a view of Moscow, bearing his initials, as in Z\ I 
the margin. South Kensington Museum. m m. X. 

Korzec (Wolhynie). Poland. About 1803, Mdrault, 
a chemist of the Sevres manufactory, went to direct - 
the fabriqtte at Korzec, taking with him an assistant in the 
laboratory named Petion After carrying it on for a few 
years, Merault abandoned the direction, and returned to 
France. The mark is an eye within a triangle, A 

in blue, beneath the glaze ; it occurs on zpdie dure /^5>\ 
cup and saucer, the cup painted with a medallion 
portrait of a lady, en grisaille, richly gilt borders and 
ornaments, doubtless executed by one of the Sevres deco- 

stortJtn airt JBmmatfe. 

J|arieberg. This manufactory produced porcelain {soft 
paste), as well as fayence, and a great many speci- 
mens have recently come under our notice ; the 
marks on some are similar to those on fayence. 
The quality of the porcelain as well as the decoration are like 
that of Menecy Villeroy in France. It was established by 
M. Ehrenreich, under the patronage of Count Scheffer, Coun- 
cillor of State, in 1750, and altogether ceased about 1780. 

This mark is on a porcelain compotier and 
cover in the possession of Mr. Louis Huth. ***m vty 
Above are the three crowns of Sweden. The VV© 
M. B. for Marieberg, and F, probably the name ^ 

of the decorator. 

The next mark occurs on a porcelain compotier .^ 
and cover, painted in pink camaieu with roses and 
china-asters, gilt leaf borders, in the possession of 
Mr. Horace Marryatt; and another is in the S. K. 
Museum, presented by M. Christian Hammer of 

Rorstrand is a suburb of Stockholm, and the porcelain 
manufactory is now carried on by Messrs. B. R. Geyers & Co. 

Copenhagen. This manufactory was commenced by an 
apothecary of the name of Miiller, in 1772. The Baron 
Von Lang, from the Furstenburg manufactory, is said to 


have been mstrnmeatal in fanning this at Copenhagen; 

it is at least known that he entered the Danish service 
about the same time. Among the artists employed in painting 
rxmoefam about die rime of its first establishment were Gyiding, 
Serp&ios, and Rach. The capital was raised in shares, bat, 
not being successful, the Government interfered, and it became 
a Royal establishment in 1 775, and has ever since been main- 
tained at considerable loss. The mark is in bine, of three 
parallel wavy lines, signifying the Sound and the Great and 
Little Belts. There is a fine tea service of 
Copenhagen china — the plateau has a beaurJ- ^^^*f S5 
fully executed portrait of Raphael the other 
pieces painted with portraits of all the most celebrated painters; 
m die possession of the Rev. T. Staniforth, of Storrs. See 
fig. 269. 

Fig. 270 is a cabaret, with medallions of landscapes; m 
Mr. Walker Joy's collection. 


L|t Cloud was established about 1695 for the manufac- 
ture of porcelain, at which time M. Morin was pro- 
prietor, and Chicanneau director of the works. 
About 1700 Morin died or retired, and Chicanneau 
became sole proprietor, but he died shorly after. < 

In the letters patent of 1702, granted to the heirs of Chican- 
neau, we find that his widow, Barbe Courdray, and her children 
Jean, Jean Baptiste, Pierre and Genevieve Chicanneau, were 
interested in the works ; that their father had applied himself 
many years past in the fabrication of fayence, which he had 
brought to a high state of perfection, and had made many 
experiments and attempts to discover the secret of true porce- 
lain, and from the year 1696 had produced some nearly equal 
to the porcelain of China. His children, to whom he im- 
parted the secret, had since his death successfully continued 
the fabrication, and they were permitted individually or col- 
lectively to fabricate porcelain at St. Cloud, or any other part 
or parts of the kingdom, except Rouen and its faubourgs ; this 
privilege was for ten years. In 1712 a renewal took place 
for ten years, and in the meantime the widow Barbe Courdray 
had married a M. Trou. 

In 1722 letters patent were granted for twenty years more 
to Jean and Jean Baptiste Chicanneau, Marie Moreau, the 
widow of Pierre Chicanneau (third son) and Henri and Gabriel 
Trou, children of Barbe Courdray by her second marriage. 


About this time serious disagreements occurred between the 
two families, and they separated, Gabriel and Henri Trou 
remaining at St. Cloud, patronised by the Duke of Orleans ; 
and Marie Moreau opened another establishment in the Rue 
de la Ville l'Eveque, Faubourg St. Honore, directed by Do- 
menique Francois Chicanneau. In 1 742 another arret granted 
privileges for twenty years to both these establishments, and 
Marie Moreau dying in 1743, left Domenique her business. 

The manufactory at St. Cloud was destroyed by fire (the 
act of an incendiary) in 1773, and the manufacture ceased, the 
proprietors not being able to raise sufficient funds to rebuild it. 

The earliest mark on the ware was the . 

sun, in compliment to Louis XIV. From \^^' iS. C 
1730 to 1762 the marks were St. C. for J^H\\ nn 
St Cloud, and T for Trou the director, ' X. 

either traced in blue or graved in the ware. 

The. examples here given are :— Figs. 271 and 272. Two 
jugs and covers of quilted china in the S. K. Museum; and 
fig. 273 is a statuette of Astronomy seated, holding the su: 
in Lady C. Schreiber's collection. 

Rouen. Louis Poterat, Sieur de St. Etienne, of St. Sevi 
at Rouen, obtained letters patent in 1673, stating that he h 
discovered processes for fabricating porcelain similar to that 
of China, and wares resembling those of Delft, but the former 
was of a very rude character and never arrived at any per- 

After the establishment at St. Cloud had commenced selli 
porcelain, the proprietors of the Rouen manufactory ap] 
to have revived their porcelain in the hopes of competii 
with them, but with no good result. 

M. Pottier, of Rouen, has a specimen of what he considers 
to be Rouen porcelain ; and there is another so classed in the 
Sevres Museum, but both being unmarked the attribution 
very conjectural. 

Chantilly. This manufactory was founded in 1725 b' 
Ciquaire Cirou, under the patronage of the Prince de Com 


mn g 



as appears by letters patent dated 1735, who was succeeded 
by Antheaume and others. The porcelain was highly 
esteemed, and there was hardly any object which they did 
not produce, from the lofty vase to the simplest knife handle. 
The Chantilly pattern was a great favourite for ordinary 
services, called " Barbeau," a small blue flower running over 
the white paste. The mark is a hunting horn 
in blue or red, frequently accompanied by a 
letter, indicating the pattern or initial of the 
painter. Sometimes the horn is impressed and 
marked in blue on the same piece. 

Fig. 274 is a cup and saucer, painted with Chinese flowers, 
in the S. K. Museum. 

Menecy-Villeroy. This important manufactory was estab- 
lished in 1735 by Francois Barbin, under the patronage of 
the Due de Villeroy. The early specimens are similar to the 
porcekdne tendre of St. Cloud, of a milky translucid appear- 

He was succeeded about 1 748 by Messieurs. Jacques and 
Jullien, and the manufactory continued in a flourishing state 
until 1773, when on the expiration of the lease it was removed 
to Bourg la Reine. The mark is usually D V im- 
pressed, sometimes traced in colour. 


Fig. 275 is a sugar basin and spoon, painted with flowers, 
in the S. K. Museum. Fig. 276, a basket and cover with 
flowers in relief; Lady C. Schreibers collection. Fig, 277, 
a pair of white vases, with flowers in relief; Mr. C. W. 
Reynolds' collection. 

Sceaux Penthievre, near Paris. This manufactory was 
established in 1750 by Jacques Chapelle; it was situated 
opposite the Petit Chdtelet, under the patronage of the Due 
de Penthievre. It was carried on by Glot in 1 773. 
These letters are engraved on the soft clay, and W \r 
are the usual porcelain marks. The Prince- Pro- ^^ ^^ 



tector died in 1794, but the production of p&te tendre ceased 
before that time. Sometimes the mark of an anchor with the 
name underneath was used: the Duke being High Admiral 
of France. 

Fig. 278 is a cup and saucer marked with the anchor, and 
fig. 279 a milk pot painted with poultry, marked S. X. In 
the collection of Mr. C. W. Reynolds. 

Arras. Established 1782, by the Demoiselles Deleneur, 
under the patronage of M. de Calonne, Intendant de Flandre 
et de l'Artois ; it only lasted a few years. The 
mark is A R, in blue, under the glaze. In 1785 /j D 
they adopted coal instead of wood for baking the ' ■ ' \ 

Fig. 280 is a seau, painted with flowers, in the S. 

Boulogne. A few years since a manufactory of porcel: 
was established here by M. Haffringue with the kaolin 
Limoges. The mark is a square tablet with an anchor 
letters in the angles. 

Figs. 281 and 282 are two specimens in white biscuit, wii 
bird and cupids in relief. Lady C. Schreiber's collection. 

Etiolles (Seine et Oise), near Corbeil. Soft 
Paste. Established 1768 ; Monnier manufacturer. 1V7I3 
The mark deposed by him at Sevres was that ad- I \ 
joined. It lasted only a short time. 

A service lately in Mr. Reynolds' collection was inscribi 
on each piece "Etiolles, 1770, Pelleve," the last word bein; 
probably the potter's name. 

Bourg la Reine. Established in 1773 by Messieui 
Jacques and Jullien, who removed thither on the expiration 
of their lease at Menecy, and the fabrication was continued, 
only changing the mark of D.V. to B.R. It was T> "D 
in active existence, making china purely of an indus- JjJ-V 
trial character, in 17S8. 

Clignancourt. Established in 1775 by Pierre Deruell 




under the patronage of Monsieur le Comte de 
Provence, brother of the King (afterwards 
Louis XVIII). The first mark was a wind- 
mill, in blue, which is rarely met with, being 
used so short a time. 

This is a later stencilled mark, in red, erroneously 
supposed to be that of Deruelle, used on pieces in the 
Chinese style, in hard paste, from 1775 to 1780. In 
more perfect marks we can trace the letters L. S. X., for the 
Prince's names, Louis Stanislas Xavier. 

Sometimes the letter M and a crown were used for Mon- 
sieur the Kings brother. It ceased about 1790. 

Figs. 283 and 284 are specimens in Mr. Reynolds' collec- 
tion, and fig. 285 a milk pot, in that of Mr. Walker Joy. 

Orleans. This manufactory was established by M. Ger- 
r^ault in 1753, under the protection of the Due de Penthi&vre, 
and the porcelain first made here was of the soft paste, but 
they subsequently produced hard paste. It is 
marked with a label of three points {lambel 
<V Orleans), in blue, graved in the moist clay. Gerr^ault was 
succeeded in the direction of the manufactory of Orleans by 
Bourdon fits, about 1 788 ; Piedor ; Dubois ; and lastly, Le 
Brun, from 1808 to 181 1. The mark on the pdte tendre is 
composed of a lambel of three points, in outline, and a G be- 
neath ; on hard porcelain, the lambel is filled in 
with colour. From 1 808 to 1 8 1 1 Benoist Le 
Brun marked the ware with his initials, in blue or 
gold, in form of a cipher. 

Fig. 286 is a sucrier with medallions of roses, in Mr. Walker 
Joy's collection. 

Luneville. Established 1731, called "Manufacture Sta- 
nislas." It lasted only a short time, but a later manufactory, 
founded about 1 769, was celebrated for its productions. 

Paul Louis Cyffte, sculptor, obtained, in 1768, letters patent 
for fifteen years, by virtue of which he established another 
manufactory for superior vessels of the material called terre 



de Lorraiyie, and in the following year a new privilege was 
granted for making groups and statuettes with his improved 
paste, under the name of pdte de marbre. Cyffle was born at 
Bourges in January 1724, and resided at Luneville as early as 
1746, so that it is probable he may have worked at the 
Stanislas manufactory at Lune'ville, his own not being esta- 
blished until 1 768. The works of Cyffle were of biscuit, that 
is, not covered with glaze, so that the delicacy of the work for 
which he was remarkable was not destroyed, and gave it a 
greater resemblance to marble. 

There were some very important groups made here stamped 
" Terre de Lorraine," probably the same as noticed by Horace 
Walpole, in his Catalogue of Strawberry Hill, as the " Bisci 
de Nancy." 

Niderviller. This important manufactory was establish 
about 1760 by Jean Louis, Baron de Beyerle. After success- 
fully carrying on this branch for several years, he attempted 
hard porcelain in 1768, and procured potters and artists from 
Saxony. In his new enterprise he was equally successful, 
sparing no expense to procure the best modellers, both in 
fayence and porcelain, assisted by Paul Louis Cyffle, of Lune- 
ville, and others. Three or four years before his death, which 
happened in 1 784, the estate was bought by General de 
Custine. This new proprietor continued the fabrique, undi 
the direction of M. Lanfray, who paid especial attention ti 
the production of fine porcelain; the fabrication of statuettes 
was greatly increased, the best of which were modelled by 
MM. Lemire and Favot, from Lundville. 

After the decapitation of the unfortunate M. de Custine, his 
estates, being forfeited to the Republic, were sold on the 
25 Germinal, An X (1802), to M. Lanfray, and carried on by 
him until his death in 1827. His marks during this time on 
painted pieces and figures were the name of the town stamped, 
or his own initial stencilled. On the 25th Nov., 1827, the 
manufactory was sold to M. L. G. Dryander, of Sarrebruck, 
who is the present proprietor. For many years he contimu 
to make porcelain, as well as fayence groups and statuetti 





:■ (ft 


but the distance of his fabrique from the kaolin of St. Yrieix 
prevented him competing successfully with those of Limoges, 
and this branch was abandoned. 

The marks used here were various, 
sometimes on the early pieces we find U(\ 
B. N. for Beyerle, Nidervillers, but usu- JJ \j 
ally two C's crossed, sometimes sur- 
mounted by a Count's coronet. On late specimens Lanfray 
placed his initials F. C. L. in monogram, stencilled in blue. 

Fig. 287 is a cup and saucer, in Mr. Walker Joy's col- 

Boissette, near Melun. Established in 1777 by 
Jacques Vermonet ^7"i? ei fits, which lasted only a short 
time. A tea pot, painted with bouquets of flowers, 
in Mr. Reynolds's collection ; see fig. 288. 

Caen, Normandy. This manufactory was established, and 
supported by some of the principal inhabitants, at the time of 
the French Revolution (about 1793), when several workmen 
from Sevres came to join it. It was carried on for a few 
years in the Rue Montagne pres Ies Moulins, at Caen, but 
finding no market for the china, the manufacture was discon- 
tinued in the commencement of the present century, and the 
stock divided among the parties concerned ; as it never be- 
came an article of commerce, it is rarely met with. The 
china is hard paste, and equal to that of Sevres, and of the 
same forms. A tea cup and saucer, delicately painted with 
gold and green festoons, and small square medallions of land- 
scapes in Indian ink, with the word " Caen " stencilled in red, 
is in the collection of the Rev. T. Staniforth, Storrs, Winder- 
mere, represented in fig. 289. 

Valenciennes (Nord) 1785. By an Order of Council, 
dated 24th May, 1785, Mons. Fauquet is permitted to carry 
on a manufacture of porcelain at Valenciennes. 
In 1 775 he married a lady named Lamoninary. 
The initials of their names, as well as the letter 
V, appear on some specimens. M. Fauquet 




was originally established at St. Amand in the manufacture of 
fayence as early as 1775, and probably carried on both simul- 

St. Amand les Eaux. Founded by M. Maximilian De 
Bettignies in 1815, for the manufacture of porcelain pate 
tendre, like the old Sevres. He was formerly proprietor of 
the Tournay manufactory, which he ceded to his brother 
Henri when that city became re-annexed to Belgium. Of all 
the manufactures of p&te tendre, these are now the only two in 
Europe which continue the specialty, and from the nature of 
their products they more closely resemble the 
vieitx Sevres than any other. Some specimens of 
modern manufacture were sent to the London 
Exposition in 1862. 

Strasbourg, 1752. Established by Paul Hanong. 
the year 1752 he obtained the secret of true porcelain from 
Ringler, but in consequence of the monopoly of Sevres he was 
compelled to relinquish it, and in 1753 removed to Franken- 
thal, where he was received with open arms, and in 1761 
greatly flourished under the protection of the Elector ._ 
Palatine Carl Theodore. The Strasbourg marks are w\ 
those of I Ianung, as in the margin. ■ 1 

Fig. 290 is a milk pot with landscapes ; Mr. Reynolds' 

Marseilles. An important manufactory of porcelain was 
established here by Jacques Gaspard Robert about 1766, and 
was in full activity on the visit of the Comte de Provence in 
1777, who especially noticed a large vase, finely modelled, a 
complete service expressly made for England, and porcelain 
flowers delicately copied from nature, like those of Sevres. 
The order from England, where so many important china 
manufactories already existed, shows it was renowned at that 
time. Porcelain was made also by Honore Savy and Veuve 
Perrin, but was only of secondary importance. It was closed 
about the period of the French Revolution in 1793. 

Paris. Rue Thiroux. 1778. Andre Marie Lebeuf 1 

uf manu- 



facturer ; called " Porcelaine de la Reine." The 
mark is A. under a crown, for Antoinette (it was HT 
under the protection of Marie Antoinette), stencil- A\ 
led in red. 

Fig. 292 is a sucrier, in the possession of Mr Walker Joy. 

Paris. Rue de Bondy. 1 780. Dihl and Guer- y^^f 
hard manufacturers, under the patronage of the 
Due d'Angouteme ; called " Porcelaine d'Angou- 
l£me." The name of the fabrique is sometimes 
written or stencilled at length. 

Fig. 293 is a cup and saucer. Mr. Walker Joy's collection. 

Paris. Rue de Fontaine au Roi, called " De la Courtille." 
Established 1773 by Jean Baptiste Locr6, afterwards 
joined by Russinger in 1784, who during the Revo- 
lution was sole director. The mark is composed of 
two flambeaux crossed, in blue, and not two arrows as 
usually given. 

Fig. 294 is part of a tea service in the S. K. Museum. 

Paris. Pont aux Choux. Manufacture du Due d y Orleans. 
On the 22nd of April, 1784, Louis Honor£ de la Marre de 
Villars opened an establishment for the manufacture of porce- 
lain in the Rue des Boulets, Faubourg St. Antoine. The 
mark deposited was M.J. It was afterwards disposed of to 
Jean Baptiste Outrequin de Montarcy and Edme Toulouse, 
who in Aug., 1786, obtained a brevet from the Duke of 
Orleans, Louis Philippe Joseph, and authority to sign the 
productions with the letters L. P. and take the title of " Manu- 
facture de M. le Due d'Orleans." They were afterwards 
established in Rue Amelot, au Pont-aux-Choux> by which 
name the porcelain is generally known. 

This mark ceased in 1793, with the condemnation of the 
Duke of Orleans, and the works subsequently produced were 
inscribed merely "Fabrique du Pont-aux-Choux" 
These letters are marked in blue beneath a porce- 
lain tea pot, painted with sprigs of flowers, in the 
Rev. T. Stainforth's collection, see fig. 295. 





Paris. Rue de Crussol. Established 1789 by Charles 
Potter, an Englishman ; called the " Prince of Wales's 
China ;" the mark is in red. The next is a similar TJ 
mark in blue, the top letter being B, is on a canary *-^-p* 
coloured cup and saucer, painted with flowers and V> _1 
butterflies; in the collection of the Rev. T. Stani- 1 
forth, see fig. 296. These two marks are on se- -yy 
parate pieces of the same service, one marked p-^ 
in red, the other in blue ; in Mr. Reynolds' col- *Jv er 
lection. -^ 

Paris. Formerly Belleville, and now Fontainebleau ; esta- 
blished 1790 by Jacob Petit. The mark is blue, in the moist 
clay. This manufactory is still carried on at 54, 
Rue Paradis Poissonniere, and the Dep6t, 32, Rue 
de Bondy. The products of the first period were 
much esteemed, being well painted and well mo- 
delled, bearing his mark, but recently the proprietor has 
unwisely altered his original plan and imitates Dresden, 
counterfeiting also the mark of the crossed swords, a practice 
which cannot be too much reprehended, as it is the cause of 
much deception. Jacob Petit also makes biscuit figures, birds' 
nests, flowers, &c. In 1853, he patented in England some 
improvements in porcelain, which consisted in having raised 
surfaces and painting the same, the combination being 

Paris. Fabrique du Charles Philippe Comte d'Artois, 
afterwards Charles X, 1769. We read in the Guide des 
Amateurs, printed in Paris, 1 787 : — " This manu- 
facture in the Rue du Faubourg St. Denis is the 
most ancient of all those established in Paris. 
Haniing of Strasbourg, who brought into France 
the secret of hard porcelain, formed the first esta- 
blishment in 1769. Having obtained the pro- 
tection of Charles Philippe, Comte d'Artois, it is 
called by his name." It belonged actually to Bourdon 1 
Planches, who continued the fabrication of hard porcelain, 
&C-, and it was discontinued in 1810. 




Vincennes. 1 786. There was a porcelain manu- 
factory here, directed by M. Le Maire, probably ^^ 
the same who founded that in Rue Popincourt, f/^ 
which was ceded to M. Nast in 1783. M. Jacque- ^**-^ 
mart thinks the L..P. under a crown belongs to this 
fabrique> and that it was under the protection of y~4 
Louis Philippe Due de Chartres, afterwards King 
of the French. There were four establishments at 
Vincennes ; the first by the brothers Dubois, subse- 
quently transferred to Sevres ; the second by Maurin 
des Aubiez, in 1767; the third by Pierre Antoine 
Hannong ; and the fourth that described above. 


The history of the celebrated manufactory at Sevres must 
be traced back to that of St. Cloud, which, we have seen, was 
founded as early as 1695. Here Louis XIV. accorded his 
patronage and favour by granting exclusive privileges. In 
1735 the secret of the manufacture was carried, by some of 
the workmen, to Chantilly, and for a time continued there by 
the brothers Dubois. They left in a few years, taking with 
them their secret, and settled at Vincennes, where a labo- 
ratory was granted them, but after three years they were 

In 1745, a sculptor, named Charles Adam, formed a com- 
pany, and the scheme was approved of by the King, privileges 
being accorded them for thirty years, and a place granted for 
their works in the Chateau de Vincennes. In 1753 the privi- 
lege of Charles Adam was purchased by Eloy Brichard, and 
Louis XV. took a third share; hence it became a Royal 
establishment. Madame de Pompadour greatly encouraged 
the ceramic art, and it arrived at great perfection. The 
buildings were found too small to meet the increasing demands 
for their beautiful productions, and in 1 756 they removed to 
a large edifice at Sevres, built expressly for the company. 

The Vincennes porcelain is now much esteemed ; a 

N 2 


favourite decoration was flowers and birds, on a beautiful 
bleu de Roi ground, and cupids painted in camaieu of a single 
colour. The mark at first was the double L, without any letter 
denoting the date, and after 1 753 (when the dating commenced) 
the letters A B and C are found enclosed within the cipher, 
after which it merges into the Sevres category. 

In 1760 the King became sole proprietor, and M. Boileau 
was appointed director. By a decree of council, made in this 
year, Sevres had the exclusive privilege of making porcelain, 
plain or painted, gilt or ungilt, ornaments in relief, sculpture, 
flowers or figures. Certain fabriques, which had already 
privileges granted them, were allowed to continue their works 
of white porcelain painted in blue, with Chinese patterns only ; 
the employment of any other colour, especially gilding and 
making figures and flowers, was strictly prohibited. Even the 
makers of fayence were prohibited using coloured grounds in 
medallions or otherwise, or gilding. 

About 1 761 the secret of making hard porcelain was pur- 
chased of Pierre Antoine, the son and successor of Paul 
Haniing, for an annuity of 3,000 livres (,£120.), and the 
manufacture of the pdte tendre being expensive, and liable to 
accidents in the furnace, it was deemed important to substitute 
hard paste. Although possessed of the secret they had not 


in the latter half of the last century, but the moulds are pre- 
served, and many of the choicest pieces have been reproduced 
in plaster. 

The principal colours used in decorating the ground of the 
Sevres vases were — 

i. The bleu celeste, or turquoise, invented in 1752 by Hellot. 

2. The rich cobalt blue, called bleu de Roi, of which there 
were two varieties, the darker being designated gros bleu. 

3. The violet pensie, a beautiful violet from a mixture of 
manganese, one of the rarest decorations of the pate tendre. 

4. The rose Pompadour (called in England rose Du- 
Barry), a charming pink or rose colour invented in 1757 by 
Xrhouet of Sevres. 

5. The clear yellow or "jonquille," a sort of canary colour. 

6. The vert pri, or bright grass green. 

7. The vert pomme, or apple green. 

8. The rouge tie fer, a brilliant red ; and the ceil de perdrix 
was at a later period a favourite ornament for the grounds of 

The forms are exceedingly varied, but names are assigned 
to each, either from the designers of the models or their special 
shapes or ornamentation ; these may be found at length in 
Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain, 3rd edit. 

This beautiful ware, pate tendre, was always much esteemed, 
and never could have been produced at a reasonable price 
even at the time it was made, the expensive decoration as 
well as the risk in firing being so great, and manufactured 
for .Royal presents or occasionally sold by express permission 
at exorbitant prices, and they bore a more approximate value 
to the present exorbitant prices than is generally supposed. 
There might have been and were opportunities of buying 
specimens of vieux Stores during the turmoils of the Revolu- 
tion at reasonable prices, and in the first quarter of the present 
century they were to be obtained. It was during that period 
that George IV. when Prince Regent formed the magnificent 
collection now the property of Her Majesty. But those times 



are past, and anybody desiring to possess choice specimens 
must not object to pay .£1,000. for a fine vase, or from ,£50 
to £ 100. for a cup and saucer. 

There are doubtless finer collections of Sevres china 
England than any other country of Europe ; and the specimens 
exhibited at the South Kensington Museum in 1862 must 
have much astonished the foreign visitors who came over to 
the International Exhibition, although that was only a sm; 
portion of the Sevres keramic treasures existing in th: 

The decree of 1753 directs the use of letters 
to denote the date of manufacture of every 
piece, to be placed within the double L ; thus 
the letter A signifies that it was made in 1753 ; 
when the alphabet was gone through, double 
letters were used, as A A for 1778, ending 
with R R in 1 795 . t7el> Te6 , 

Then came the first Republican epoch, 1792 
to 1804, in which the letters F. R. were sub- 
stituted. Next the first Imperial epoch from 
to 18 14; and the second Royal epoch, 
1814 to 1848, during ™-^ 
this the King's ini- [J 

tials were adopted. z%J^ 

Then the second as 

Republican epoch, 1848 to 1851 ; and lastly, the 
second Imperial epoch in 1852 up to the 
present time. 

In addition to this date-mark the initial or 
signs adopted by the painter and gilder were 
placed upon the ware; we can therefore not 
only tell the exact year in which any piece was 
made, but the name of the decorator, from 
books in the Sevres manufactory, where the signs and name: 
were entered. These are given, in extenso, in Chaffers' Mart 
and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain, third edition, pages 
454 to 466. 




Fig. 297. An ecuelle, dated 1771 ; (Bernal collection) S. K. 

Fig. 298. A biscuit group, Cupid and Psyche ; S. K. 

Fig. 299. A boat-shaped vase, painted with cupids; in Her 
Majesty the Queen's collection. 

Fig. 300. A vase (vaisseau d mat), painted with landscapes 
and figures; in Her Majesty the Queen's collection. 



he earthenware vessels previous to the XVIth Cen- 
tury were of a very coarse description, rudely 
fashioned and devoid of ornament, but occasionally 
covered with a yellow or green glaze, sometimes 
cast in a mould in grotesque forms. Numerous specimens 
of early English cups are found in excavations in London, 
and other parts of England, which may be identified by 
comparing them with the vessels in Norman and Mediaeval 


Leather bottles and jugs called black jacks were much 

used in England ; the bottle was generally barrel-shaped, and 

carried by travellers; its praises are recorded in the old 

English ballad of the XVIth Century, each verse concluding 

with the couplet — 

" I wish in heaven his soul may dwell 
Who first found out the leather bottell." 

The gourd, pumpkin, cocoa-nut, and other fruits with a hard 
rind or shell were undoubtedly the most primitive vessels, 
being formed ready for use, and were frequently mounted in 

During the XVIth and XVIIth Centuries glass was used 
by the rich, especially that which came from Venice, but from 
its fragile nature was very expensive wear. For plates and 
dishes a harder and more durable material was required, and 
wooden trenchers or pewter platters were generally in use. 

A French writer in 1558, named Etienne Perlin, in his 
description of England, says : "The English drink beer not 
out of glasses but from earthen pots, the covers and handles 
made of silver for the rich ; the middle classes mount theirs 
in tin, the poorer sort use beer pots made of wood." 

The earthen vessels made in England, although inexpensive, 
were badly burned, and not very durable ; and the German 
stone ware with a salt glaze was eagerly sought after through- 
out the XVIth Century, and imported in large quantities. 
These stone potsr were usually impressed with the arms of 
German towns ; a rose or other device in front, and a ferocious 
bearded visage under the spout. They were called Bellar- 
mines, after the celebrated Cardinal Bellarmin, who in the 
XVIth Century made himself so conspicuous by his zealous 
opposition to the Reformed religion, and were derisively called 
after him. , 

These bellarmines were in general use throughout England 
in the XVIth and beginning of the XVIIth Centuries at inns 
and public houses to serve ale to the customers ; they were of 
various sizes, the galonier which held eight pints, the pottle 
pdt four pints, the quart and the pint. The importation of 


these stone pots was almost monopolized by the Cologne 
potters, near which city they were made. In the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth we find one William Simpson presenting a 
memorial that he may be allowed to bring "the drinking 
stone pottes made at Culloin " into this country, and requests 
permission to make such like stone pots in England ; but he 
was not successful in his suit. 

In 1626, however, two other potters, named Rous and 
Cullyn, merchants of the city of London, obtained the exclu- 
sive privilege of making stone pots and jugs in this country, 
and a patent was granted them for fourteen years ; the 
preamble states that " heretofore, and at this present, our 
kingdom of England has been served with stone pottes, stone 
jugges, and stone bottells, out of foreign parts, from beyond 
the seas." 


When Dr. Plot wrote his natural history of this county m 
1686 there were very few manufactories of pottery; he only 
speaks of one at Amblecott and another at Wednesbury ; but 
he says : " The greatest pottery they have in this country is 
carried on at Burslem, near Newcastle-under-Eyme." The 
earthenware made here towards the end of the XVIIth 
Century was of a very coarse character, and the decoration 
extremely rude, consisting merely of patterns trailed over the 
surface in coloured clay, technically termed slip, diluted to 
the consistence of syrup, so that it could run out through a 
quill. The usual colours of these slips were orange, white 
and red, the orange forming the ground and the white and 
red the paint. After the dishes were thus ornamented they 
were glazed with lead ore, beaten into dust, finely sifted, and 
strewed over the surface, which gave it the gloss but not the 
colour. The vessels remained twenty-four hours in the kiln, 
and were then drawn for sale, which was principally to ] 
cratemen, who carried them at their backs all over the counti 
for sale. 

The forms of these vessels were tygs or mugs, 

to poor 


rith two 


or more handles for passing round a table, candlesticks, 
dishes, &c. The earliest names we find upon them are 
Thomas and Ralph Toft, William Talor, Joseph Glass; all 
names still known in Staffordshire. 


Fig- 3 OI « A tyg, with four handles, dated 1621. 

Fig. 302. A mug, with two handles, dated 1682. 

Figs. 303 and 304. Two tea pots ; all of these are in the 
Geological Museum. 

Fig. 305. A plateau, with Charles II. and his Queen in 
relief, by Ralph Toft, 1677. 


The family of Wedgwood was of long standing at Burs- 
lem, and many members of it were engaged in making pottery 
long before the birth of the great potter, Josiah Wedgwood. 
His father, grandfather, and great-grandfather were all engaged 
in the trade, as well as many of his relations. Josiah Wedg- 
wood was born in 1730, at Burslem ; he was the youngest of 
thirteen children ; his father, Thomas Wedgwood, died when 
Josiah was only nine years old. His eldest brother, Thomas, 
succeeded his father as a potter, and Josiah was bound appren- 
tice to him in 1 744. During his apprenticeship he was seized 
with a violent attack of the small-pox, which left its effects 
in his system, and settled in his legs, and this disorder con- 
tinued with him until manhood ; an accidental bruise, however, 
resulted in the amputation of his leg in the thirty-fourth year 
of his age. A short time after the expiration of his appren- 
ticeship he left his brother's house to make knife handles, 
imitation agate, and tortoiseshell small wares, at Stoke, where, 
in 1752, he entered into partnership with John Harrison, but 
in two years they separated. 

In 1754 Josiah Wedgwood went into partnership with 
Thomas Whieldon of Fenton Low, one of the most eminent 
potters of his day, and they remained together five years, the 
principal manufactures being tortoiseshell plates and dishes, 
cauliflower jugs, tea pots with crab-stock handles, agate knife 


handles, and small wares generally ; while here he also pro- 
duced that fine green glaze which covered his dessert services, 
in imitation of leaves. 

In 1759 the partnership expired, and he returned to Burs- 
lem, and in his twenty-ninth year commenced business on his 
own account at the " Churchyard " works, where he was born. 
Here he set himself earnestly to work, improving the manu- 
facture of pottery, and soon became so successful that he was 
compelled to enlarge his establishment, and took the " Ivy 
House" works. He engaged the services of his cousin, 
Thomas Wedgwood, who had gained his experience at the 
Worcester works, and in 1765 he took him into partnership. 
The first ware which gained him reputation was his fine 
cream-coloured ware, which remained a staple article from 
1762 down to the time of his decease, and after Royalty had 
approved of it the name was changed to Queen's ware. His 
cousin Thomas had the superintendence of this particular 
department, which he designated the useful branch. In 1768 
Josiah took into partnership Thomas Bentley, and to him was 
entrusted the ornamental branch, both departments being kept 
perfectly distinct (as far as the interests of his partners were 

Wedgwood also produced, about this date, a sort of red 
ware, formed of the same ochreous clay used by the Elers 
nearly a century before ; it required no glaze except what 
it derived from friction on the wheel and lathe, and was 
covered with engine-turned ornament ; and in 1 766 a black 
ware, which he called basaltes or black Egyptian. These 
manufactures were not confined to his works ; other potters 
made vast quantities of it ; but Wedgwood made great 
improvements in the bodies and forms of the ware, and 
was rewarded by a vast accumulation of business ; so much 
so that he was compelled to open a new manufactory at 
Etruria. Having shortly before taken out his patent (the 
only invention he ever secured by patent) for encaustic 
painting on copies of Etruscan vases, his first essays at the 
new works were a set of these, now preserved in the family, 


inscribed " One of the first day's productions at Etruria in 
Staffordshire, by Wedgwood and Bentley, June 13, 1769." 
These were of black basaltes, with encaustic paintings of clas- 
sical subjects. Wedgwood himself threw these vases, while 
Bentley turned the lathe. 

In 1773 he made "a fine white terra cotta of great beauty 
and delicacy, proper for cameos, portraits and bas reliefs ;" 
this was the forerunner of the jasper ware, which became 
by constant attention and successive improvements the most 
beautiful of all his wares. In 1776 the solid jasper ware was 
invented, which, however, attained its greatest perfection ten 
years later. 

In the manufacture of this elegant ware Wedgwood largely 
employed sulphate of barytes, and for many years derived 
great profits, none of the workmen having any idea of the 
nature of the material upon which they were operating, until 
a letter containing a bill of parcels of a quantity of the article 
fell into the hands of a dishonest servant, who told the secret, 
and deprived the inventor of that particular source of emolu- 
ment; for when the same article was made by those who 
employed inferior workmen, to whom they only paid one- 
fourth of the salary given by Wedgwood, the price of jasper 
ware became so reduced that he was unable to employ those 
exquisite modellers whom he had formerly engaged to super- 
intend that branch of the manufacture. 

The celebrated service made for the Empress Catherine of 
Russia was of Queens ware ; it was commenced in 1773, an d 
had upwards of 1,200 views of seats of the nobility and 
gentry of England, and being for the Grenouilliere Palace 
each piece had upon it a green frog. The price paid for this 
service was ;£ 3,000. 

In 1780 Thomas Bentley, the friend and partner of Josiah 
Wedgwood, died, and in 1781 the stock in London, so far as 
related to their partnership, was sold at Christie's ; the sale 
lasted twelve days. 

In 1785 a "jasper dip" was introduced, in which the .white 
clay vessels were dipped, and received a coating of jasper, 


instead of being jasper throughout, which was considered a 
great improvement, and caused an increase of 20 per cent, in 
the price. 

In 1787 the Portland Museum was sold by auction, and 
the gem of all others Wedgwood coveted was the celebrated 
Barberini vase, made of glass of two strata, dark blue and 
opaque white, the ornaments on the surface being cut from 
the solid, in the same manner as an onyx cameo. This vase 
was of Roman work, of the Ilnd or Illrd Century of our era. 
Wedgwood desired to become the possessor, but finding he 
would be opposed by the Duke of Portland, it was arranged 
that the Duke should buy the vase, and lend it to Wedgwood 
for the purpose of copying. It was sold for ,£1,029. He 
was restricted from moulding it, lest any injury should result, 
and it was therefore modelled by Webber after the original. 
The material in which it was produced was black jasper, 
which was apparently black, with the slightest possible tinge 
of blue; in Wedgwood's own words, "a mixture of blue and 
black, and then dipped in black," the figures being in white 
relief. Fig. 306 represents one of these vases in the Geolo- 
gical Museum. 

The principal inventions of Wedgwood, as enumerated in 
his Catalogue of 1788, were — 

1. The cream-coloured table ware, afterwards Queen's ware. 

2. Terra cotta, made to represent porphyry, granite, &c. 

3. Basaltes or black Egyptian ware, imitation bronzes, 

4. White porcelain biscuit. 

5. Bamboo, a cream-coloured porcelain biscuit. 

6. Jasper, a porcelain that would receive throughout its 
whole substance, from the mixture of metallic oxides, the 
same colours as they would communicate to glass or enamels 
in fusion, very applicable to the production of cameos, por- 
traits, &c, that require to be shown in bas-relief, since the 
ground can be made of any colour while the raised parts are 
pure white. 

7. A porcelain biscuit, exceedingly hard, resisting the 



strongest acids or corrosive substances, very useful in labo- 
ratories and for mortars. 

The modelling bills from 1773 to 1775 inclusive, are still 
preserved among the Mayer MSS., which, although but a 
small portion of the whole, permit us to individualize many 
well-known and interesting objects. Messrs. Hoskins and 
Grant's bills for plaster casts, prepared to mould from, contain 
the names of the busts, and the prices paid for them : — 
Zeno, Pindar, Faustina, Germanicus, Antoninus Pius, Seneca, 
Augustus, Cato, Marcus Aurelius, Homer, Antinous, Solon, 
and Plato, at 21s. each ; Inigo Jones, Palladio, and others, at 
25s.; Venus de Medicis, 15s.; large Marcus Aurelius, 31s. 6d.; 
four ovals of the Elements, 36s. ; small busts in pairs, of Swift 
and Milton, Virgil and Horace, Locke and Newton, Beaumont 
and Fletcher, &c, at 10s. 6d. and 12s. each; Harvey and 
Newton, 50s. the pair; and many others. 

Wedgwood, in a letter to Bentley, August, 1774, says: — 
" These busts are much better finished than the plaster casts 
or models we take them from. Hackwood bestows a week 
upon each head in restoring it to what we suppose it was 
when it came out of the hands of the statuary. Pray do not 
let our labour be unobserved when they are under your care. 
It is a fortnight's work to prepare and mould one of these 

Webber, a modeller of uncommon ability, was recommended 
to Wedgwood by Sir W. Chambers and Sir Joshua Reynolds, 
and shortly after the death of Mr. Bentley he took the manage- 
ment of the ornamental department ; many fine bas-reliefs are 
by his hand. 

Flaxman was engaged by Wedgwood and Bentley as early 
as 1775, and he continued furnishing them with drawings 
and models up to the time of his departure for Rome in 1787. 
After Bentley's death in 1 780 Flaxman's fame as a sculptor 
obtained him more important work, but still, as time permitted, 
he worked for Wedgwood. 

When Flaxman went to Italy in 1787 he arranged to 
execute occasionally some models, but principally to suggest, 


overlook, and give finishing touches to the works of the Italian 
artists who were employed in copying from the antique under 
the direction of Angelo Dalmazoni. Pacetti's works were 
numerous, as well as those of Angelini. Fratoddi and Man- 
giarotti were cameo engravers ; they copied on shells some of 
the finest antique gems. Manzolini and Cades were also 
employed in Italy for Wedgwood. 

The tablets, friezes and other subjects in bas-relief were 
modelled by the artists in red wax, being a composition of 
bees' wax and a few drops of turpentine, coloured with ver- 
milion, on slabs of fine slate. 

From these originals, casts were taken in plaster of Paris 
for ordinary use, but subsequently the working casts were 
made of clay, and baked, which made them everlasting; but 
as they shrank considerably in the firing, the originals had 
to be made proportionately larger to allow for it. 

These models were packed in wooden boxes and sent to 
England via Leghorn, and to guard against accidents they 
were forwarded by one ship, and casts of them by another. 
With so many artists employed, these models were very 
numerous, and many of them have been erroneously attributed 
to Flaxman. 

Josiah Wedgwood died on 3rd of Jan., 1795 in his 65th ye; 


306. The Portland vase of black and white jasper. 

307. Vase of blue jasper, the Muses. 

308. Tripod of black Egyptian, supported by three figun 

309. Tea pot, caddy and plate, printed transfer. 

310. Card of jasper cameos; in the Geological Museum. 

311. Vase of basaltes, subjects in relief; S. K. Museum. 

312. jasper plaque, Bacchanalian Sacrifice, 24 in. by ioin. ; 
in Mr. John J. Bagshawe's collection. 

313. Three vases, granite ground, with gilt festoons and 
handles of female figures; in Mr. John J. Bagshawe's collection. 

313*. Ewer of agate ware, by Wedgwood and Bentley ; 
Mr. Emerson Norman's collection. 



In 1773, Ralph Shawe of Burs lent made great improve- 
ments in the manufacture, and took out a patent for chocolate 
coloured ware, striped with white and lined with white, glazed 
with salt. 

Ralph Wood was established at Burslem about 1730, and 
was succeeded by his son Aaron Wood about 1750; he 
served his apprenticeship to Dr. Thos. Wedgwood, and was 
a very clever cutter of moulds for stoneware plates and dishes, 
with raised pattern borders, &c, which have been erroneously 
termed Elizabethan. A large collection of his ware, with the 
moulds, &c, are in the S. K. Museum. Cream ware is said to 
have been invented by him. He was succeeded by his son 
Enoch Wood about 1770, who was a sculptor, and made 
many busts of eminent men. His successors were Wood and 
Caldwell, who continued the manufacture of busts and groups. 

Examples — Fig. 314 is a granite obelisk by Ralph Wood, 
about 1730, in the Geological Museum. Fig. 315, a fine 
statuette of Chaucer by the same ; in the possession of Rev. 
T. Staniforth. Figs. 316 to 318, a tea set of white crouch 
ware, by Aaron Wood. 

Astbury of Shelton, early in the 18th century, made red, 
crouch, and white stone ware. It is said he derived his 
knowledge of mixing the clays by pretending to be an idiot, 
and obtained employment at the Elers manufactory at Brad- 
well, and after gaining their secret, he set up in business 
against them. 

The discovery of using calcined flints as an ingredient in 
the composition of pottery is attributed to the younger Ast- 
bury, which led to the manufacture of fine fayence, and paved 
the way for the great improvements afterwards achieved by 
Wedgwood. The story is thus told : While travelling to 
London on horseback, he had occasion to seek a remedy for a 
disorder in his horse's eyes, when the ostler of the Inn by 
burning a flint reduced it to a fine powder, which he blew 
into them. The potter observing the beautiful white colour 
of the flint after calcination, instantly conceived the use to 



which it might be employed in his art, and this is said to have 
been the origin of the first white flint stone ware.* 

The potter to whom Staffordshire was indebted for great 
improvements in the ware was John Philip Elers, who about 
1690 came over from Holland and settled at Bradwell. He 
was descended from a noble family of Saxony; his father, 
Martin Elers, married the daughter of a rich Burgomaster of 
Amsterdam ; his daughter married Sir W. Phipps, ancestor of 
the Marquis of Normanby, and John Philip Elers' grand- 
daughter, Maria Elers, married Richard Lovell Edgeworth, 
(father of the authoress Maria Edgeworth). 

John Philip Elers was a clever chemist, which enabled him 
to discover the art of mixing the clays of the neighbourhood 
to greater perfection than had ever been attained in Stafford- 
shire, and by carefully levigating them, and sifting through 
fine hair sieves, he manufactured to a considerable extent an 
improved kind of red pottery, in imitation of that of Japan, 
and by the addition of manganese to the clays, he made a fine 
black ware, which a century afterwards was adopted and 
improved by Wedgwood, and termed Black Egyptian, or 
Basal tes. 

The specimens yet preserved, by their excellence in grain, 
texture, and shape, will ever manifest the skill and success of 


Samuel Hollins of Shelton> established about 1760 a 
manufactory of fine red ware tea pots, he procured the clay 
from Bradwell. He was succeeded about 1777 by T. and J. 
Hollins. In the Geological Museum is a green bowl with 
ornaments in relief, signed " S. Hollins" (fig. 321), and a basin 
in the same collection (fig. 322) is of white ground with blue 
figures in relief, similar to Wedgwood, stamped T. and J. 

At Shelton the New Hall China Works owe their origin 
to the purchase of Champion's (Cookworthys) patent by a 
company of potters in 1777, and was the first porcelain manu- 
factory in Staffordshire. In despite of the opposition of 
Wedgwood and the potters of that county, the patent had 
been extended, and the new company consisted of Messrs. 
Samuel Hollins, of Shelton ; Anthony Keeling, of Tunstall ; 
John Turner, of Lane End; Peter (or Jacob) Warburton, of 
Hot Lane ; William Clowes, of Port Hill ; and Charles Bag- 
nail, of Shelton. The ware made here was not of a fine 
character, and inferior artists were employed, and was never 
in great estimation. It consequently soon fell to decay, after 
many changes. The mark is the name of the works in a 
double ring. Fig. 323 is a cup and saucer painted with 
flowers ; S. K. Museum. 

Shaw mentions a Mr. Miles, of Miles's Bank, Hartley ', who 
produced the brown stone ware about 1 700. There is in the 
Geological Museum a fayence barrel supported by four Cupids, 
of brown glaze with gilt hoops, resting on a stage with four 
supports ; of good work, apparently the first half of the 
XVIIIth century, impressed with the name of Miles; see 

% 324. 

Elijah Mayer, of Hartley \ was a contemporary of Wedg- 
wood. He was noted for his cream coloured ware and brown 
line ware, but he produced many other varieties. In the 
Geological Museum is a vase of unglazed drab terra cotta, 
with festoons, &c, in relief, coloured ; see fig. 325. 

The basaltes or black Egyptian ware tea services, with 
animals, &c, in relief, are well known. Another popular 

o 2 


service was one made to commemorate Nelson's victories of 

the Nile and Trafalgar, with crocodiles, pyramids, Britannia, 
Fame, and monument inscribed, " Pro patria," and tablet with 
Nelson, &c. These are usually impressed with E. Mayer's 

Palmer, of Hanky, was a great pirate of Wedgwood's in- 
ventions, and Mrs. Palmer, who seems to have been the 
active manager of her husband's business, engaged persons 
surreptitiously to obtain Wedgwood and Bentley's new pat- 
terns as soon as they arrived at the London warehouse, for 
the purpose of copying them. Palmer had a London partner 
of the name of Neale. They imitated his black Egyptian 
vases and other inventions, and eventually his Etruscan 
painted vases, but these being secured by patent, (the only one 
Wedgwood ever took out), an injunction was served upon 
them for an infringement, which ended in a compromise — 
Palmer purchasing a share in the patent. In 1776 he failed, 
and the business was carried on by Neale & Co., who by 
some means discovered the secret of the jasper body. From 
specimens we have seen, they were formidable rivals of 

Fig. 326 is a punch barrel by Neale, of fine fayence, painted 
in flowers and musical instruments, resting on a square pedes- 
tal, with nymphs and satyrs in relief, the cover surmounted by 
Silenus; in the S. K. Museum. 

Fig. 327. A square jardiniere of blue and white jasper; 
in the Geological Museum. 

J. Vovez, of Hanky, was a clever artist, he was in the employ 
of Wedgwood, and afterwards with Neale and Palmer. 

Fig. 328 is a fayence vase of good form, with leaves, masks 
and festoons in relief; in the collection of the Rev. T. Stani- 

Fig. 329 is a fine black basaltes vase, with a sculptured 
medallion of Prometheus, signed by J. Voyez, 1769; in Sir 
T. W. Holburne's collection. 

Thomas Wheildon, of Fenton, established a pottery 
1 740 ; besides the common household articles, he made fani 



marbled ware, such as agate knife handles, chimney ornaments, 
tortoiseshell and melon dessert services, black glazed tea and 
coffee services, &c. Aaron Wood was his apprentice, and 
made models for pickle leaves, crabstock handles, cabbage 
leaf spouts for tea pots, &c. Josiah Spode was also his ap- 
prentice, and Josiah Wedgwood was in partnership with him 
until 1759. 

Enoch Booth, of Tunstall, and Warburton of Cobridge in 
the same county, were extensive potters, and first made the 
cream coloured pottery on the improvement of Booth's fluid 

John Turner, of Lane End, made a fine description of 
ware, and his is the most successful imitation of Wedgwood's 
jasper, with ornaments in relief, and only second to his in 
excellence ; he also made- a fine white stone ware. 

Fig. 330 represents a sugar basin of yellow clay, with figures 
in relief; Geological Museum. 

Fig. 330A. A tea pot, with medallion of figures in relief; 
Mr. E. Norman. 

William Adams, of Tunstall, was a favorite pupil of 
Wedgwood, and while with him, executed some of his finest 
specimens of jasper ware. He afterwards went into business 
on his own account, a:nd by his great care, and the knowledge 
he had attained in Wedgwood's service, carried on an exten- 
sive trade, for the knowledge of the mixture of the clays by 
the introduction of sulphate of barytes in the making of 
Wedgwood's jasper, was very generally N known long before his 

Fig. 334 is a jug of blue jasper in imitation of Wedgwood, 
in the Geological Museum. 

Fig. 335. A beautiful jasper plaque, with Diana in relief, 
belonging to Mr. J no. J. Bagshawe. 

The Messrs. Davenport, of Longport> made great im- 
provements in the manufacture of earthenware, they were 
celebrated especially for their stone china ; the manufactory 
was established in 1 793, and has been successfully carried on 
up to the present day in the same family. 


Figs. 331 and 332 are examples of his ware, in the Geolo- 
gical Museum. 

Miles Mason, of Lane Delpk, early in the present century 
produced some fine ware. The ironstone china was brought 
to great perfection by Charles James Mason, and the forms 
were of a high character, very much resembling porcelain. 

Fig. 336 is a cup, cover and saucer, by Mason, in the Geo- 
logical Museum. 

Thomas Minton established a manufactory at Sioke-ufion- 
Trent in 1791, he was apprenticed to Turner of Caughley as 
an engraver. His productions were of the useful kind, viz. : 
services for the table, and he made porcelain very much in the 
style of Worcester. He died in 1836, and was succeeded by 
his second son, the celebrated Herbert Minton, who brought 
the potter's art to the greatest perfection, He died in 1861, 
and was succeeded by Michael Daintry Hollins and Colin 
Minton Campbell, his nephew and heir. Recendy Mr. Hol- 
lins left the concern, and it is now carried on by Mr. 
Campbell in conjunction with his cousins Thomas William 
and Herbert Minton, great grandsons of the founder, who 
have greatly extended the works by the application of steam 
and machinery. 

This mark was used by Thomas Minton, the 


Thomas Shaw, who had a bank for making pottery in the 
beginning of the XVIIIth century ; several large plaques and 
monumental slabs of his make are in existence, dated from 
1 716 to 1756. About this time, there seems to have been a 
large demand for punch bowls, and as these formed the prin- 
cipal ornaments on the sideboards of the middle classes, 
and especially on board the ships, which were constantly going 
and coming in the port, considerable pains were taken in 
decorating them, and many are still in existence painted with 
ships, convivial mottoes, and inscriptions ; one of these, which 
will hold at least two gallons, is in the Geological Museum, 
Jermyn Street ; another has " Parliament bowl, free without 
excise," 1736, alluding to the taking off the duty on spirits by 
" Walpoles Bill." A third praises the fine quality of the tin 
used for making the glaze, from Luxillion in Cornwall, the 
name of the owner of the mine (and date 1731) being thus 
immortalized :— 

" John Udy of Luxillion 
His tin was so fine, 
It glidered this punch bowl 
And made it to shine. 

Pray fill it with punch, 

Let the tinners fill round, 
They never will budge 

Till the bottom they sound." 

Another important establishment was founded by Mr. John 
Sadler, the son of a painter, who had learned the art of 

He was the inventor, about 1752, of the method of trans- 
ferring prints from engraved copper plates upon pottery, and 
in conjunction with Mr. Guy Green, proposed to take out a 
patent in 1756, the draft of which is still preserved, but they 
preferred keeping the invention secret to the doubtful security 
of patent rights. 

Wedgwood availed himself of this new mode of decoration, 
and sent his Queen's ware weekly to Messrs. Sadler and Green 
to be printed. 



Fig. 337. Mug, printed with Freemason's arms, by Sadler. 

Fig- 338- Punch bowl, printed with a ship; Geological 

Fig. 339. Porcelain mug, with transfer portrait of General 
Wolfe, signed by J. Sadler. 

Fig. 340. Mug, with transfer portrait of Lord Chatham. 

Fig. 342. Four printed tiles by Sadler; these are in Lady 
C. Schreiber's collection. 

Fig. 341. A tea pot with portrait of Wesley, and a tortoise- 
shell mug; S. K. Museum. 

Mr. Richard Chaffers was the principal manufacturer of 
Liverpool ; he served his apprenticeship with Alderman 
Shaw, and in 1752 established a bank for the manufacture of 
blue and white earthenware and fine porcelain. His dinner 
and tea services, punch bowls, jugs, mugs, and decorative 
vases, gained him great reputation, and they were largely 
exported to our American Colonies, (now the United States). 
A very useful little article in particular, which had a great run 
there, was a pepper-box of the hour glass shape, inscribed 
with the maker's name at length and the date 1 769, it was so 
well known, that it was a common saying of an ill-tempered 


for kaolin or soap stone, which our limits will not allow us to 
give at length. Suffice it to say, that this eminent potter 
greatly advanced the art in Liverpool, and his excellence was 
frankly acknowledged by Wedgwood himself, to whom he 
presented a tea set of his china ware, and who, on admiring 
the body and examining the colours used in the decoration, 
exclaimed, " This puts an end to the battle. Mr. Chaffers 
beats us all in his colours, and with his knowledge he can 
make colours for two guineas which I cannot produce so good 
for five." At his death many of his best potters entered the 
service of Mr. Wedgwood. 

The Liverpool establishments of . Mr. Pennington, Mr. 
Philip Christian, and Richard Abbey, were on an extensive 
scale, but towards the end of the XVII Ith century only one 
of any importance survived, and that belonged to Messrs. 
Worthington, Humble and Holland, who in 1796 estab- 
lished a large manufactory on the south bank of the Mersey. 
As Wedgwood had christened his settlement Etruria, they 
called theirs Herculaneum. A larger capital being required, 
in 1 806 an increase of proprietors took place. The first wares 
made here, were Queen's ware, and blue printed. About 
1800 they commenced making porcelain — the mark used was 
" Herculaneum," or " Herculaneum Pottery." About 1836, 
when it came into the possession of Messrs. Case, Mort & Co., 
the mark used was a bird called the liver, which forms the 
crest of the Borough of Liverpool. 

Jackfield, in Shropshire^ was a very old pottery, and there 
are some pieces extant with the dates 1634. In 1 713 it was 
carried on by Richard Thursfield. The ware made here 
was of a red clay, with a brilliant black glaze, sometimes with 
scrolls and flowers in relief. Tea services are frequently seen. 
The jugs were known in the locality as " black decanters." 
About 1780 the works were taken by Mr. John Rose, and 
subsequently removed to Coalport. 

Fig. 343 is a black glazed tea pot inscribed, " Richard and 
Ruth Goodin, 1 769 ;" in the Geological Museum. 



The first successful imitation of the gres de Cologne was 
made by John Dwight, an Oxfordshire gentleman, which in 
course of time almost entirely superseded the importation 
from abroad. This great potter took out his first patent in 
1671, and established a manufactory at Fulham in that year, 
which was successfully carried on through two patents of 
fourteen years each. Dr. Plot, in his History of Oxfordshire, 
published in 1677, thus eulogizes him: — " The ingenious John 
Dwight, formerly M.A. of Christ Church, Oxon, hath dis- 
covered the mystery of the stone or Cologne wares, heretofore 
made only in Germany, and by the Dutch brought over into 
England in great quantities, and hath set up a manufacture of 
the same, and hath brought it to greater perfection than it has 
attained where it has been used for many ages, insomuch that 
the Company of Glass Sellers of London, who are the dealers 
for that commodity, have contracted with the inventor to buy 
only of his manufacture, and refuse the foreign." After 
speaking of his invention of white and transparent porcelain, 
he concludes : — " In short, he has so advanced the art 
plastic, that 'tis dubious whether any man since Prometheus 
have excelled him." The Fulham stone ware is frequently 


modelled busts in the gres or stone ware, of Charles II. and 
James II., figures of heathen deities from 7 in. to 13 in. high; 
but the most interesting relic was a half-length female figure 
of a child lying upon a pillow with its eyes closed, clasping a 
bouquet of flowers, evidently modelled from the child after 
death. It tells its own tale, for on the back is inscribed — 
" Lydia Dwight, died March 3, 1672." This is now in the 
S. K. Museum. 

There is a large fayence plateau, covered with the rich bleu 
de Verse enamel, decorated in white, with the Royal arms and 
monogram of Charles II. In looking over this collection we 
are astonished at the variety of Dwight's productions, and 
the great perfection to which he had brought the potters art. 
The figures, busts and groups are exquisitely modelled, and 
will bear comparison with any contemporary manufactures of 
Europe. A careful inspection will convince any unprejudiced 
mind of the erroneous impression which exists, that until the 
time of Wedgwood the potters art in England was at a very 
low ebb, and that none but the rudest description of pottery 
was made, without any attempt to display artistic excellence. 
Here, however, we have examples of English pottery a cen- 
tury before Josiah Wedgwood's time, which would do credit 
to the atdlier of that distinguished potter himself. John 
Dwight died in the year 1737, and with him also departed 
the glory of his manufactory at Fulham. 

Fig. 344 is a Bellarmine of the time of Charles II., with a 
medallion of C. R. and crown and fleur-de-lis. 

Fig. 345 is a jug, with Hogarth's Midnight Conversation 
in relief. 

Fig. 346. Two fragments of blue and purple stone ware 
jugs ; all these were found in an excavation at the Fulham 
works ; in the possession of Lady C. Schreiber. 


The next important pottery in England was that of Lam- 
beth. In the History of Lambeth it is related that about 
1650 some Dutch potters established themselves here, and by 


degrees the manufacture became important, for the village 
contained no less than twenty manufactories, in which were 
made the glazed pottery and tiles used in London and various 
parts of England. The ware was very much of the character 
of Delft, with a fine white creamy glaze, painted with land- 
scapes and figures in blue. 

The white bottles or jugs, upon which are written the 
names of the wines, accompanied by dates ranguig from 1642 
to 1649, were made here. In 1676 a number of potters 
obtained a patent on the 27th of October of that year, the 
preamble to which grant states, " Whereas John Ariens Van 
Hamme hath humbly represented unto us that he is, in pur- 
suance of the encouragement he hath received from our 
Ambassador at the Hague, come over to settle in this our 
kingdom with his family, to exercise his art of making tiles 
and porcelain and other earthenwares, after the way practised 
in Holland, which hath not been practised in this our kingdom." 

The trade flourished here for more than a century, until 
about 1 780 or 1 790, at which time the Staffordshire potters, 
by the great improvements they had made in the quality of 
their ware, and having coal and clay ready to their hand, they 
were enabled to produce it at a cheaper rate, and eventually 
beat the Lambeth potters out of the field. 


ments of pottery, of a coarse brown ware, with lead glaze, 
have been frequently found on the site of the old manufactory, 
the existence of which has been handed down in the district 
by the traditionary distich — 

" At Yearsley there were pancheons made 
By Willie Wedgwood, that young blade." 

There was also a manufactory established at the Manor- 
house, York, about 1665, of which little is known except the 
mention of its existence by Ralph Thoresby and Horace 
Walpole; although it is by the former erroneously called 
porcelain, the ware is actually a fine stone ware, with a salt 
glaze. Lord Orford says : " I have a coffee cup of Mr. Place's 
ware; it is of gray earth, with streaks of black, and not 
superior to common earthenware." This specimen was sold 
at Strawberry Hill, and is now in the Geological Museum, 
presented by Mr. A. W. Franks. It is very similar to the 
small specimens of Dwight's early Fulham ware. 

There was a pottery on the river Don, near Doncaster, 
called the Don Pottery, established by Mr. John Green, of 
New-hill, who cajne from the Leeds pottery about 1790. In 
1807 some other memhers of his family joined, and the firm 
was for a short time " Greens, Clark & Co." 

Mr. John J. Bagshawe of Sheffield has a pattern book 
containing designs of nearly 300 specimens ; the title is as 
follows: — Designs of sundry articles of Queen's or cream- 
coloured earthenware, manufactured by Greens, Clark and 
Co., at Don Pottery, near Doncaster, with a great variety of 
other articles. The same enamelled, printed, or ornamented 
with gold or silver, to any pattern, also with coats of arms, 
cyphers, landscapes, &c." The Don Pottery was very similar 
to that of Leeds, frequently producing pierced work baskets, 
vases, dinner, dessert, and tea services, &c. 

Fig. 348 is a canister of octagonal form, of yellow clay, 
ornamented with chocolate brown appliqu6, musical trophies, 
and medallions of female figures in relief, and very fine 
work, in emulation of Wedgwood; in the possession of 
Mr. E. Norman. 


The well-known Leeds ware was made by Messrs. Hartley, 
Greens and Co. m 1770. This ware is of a sort of cream 
colour, beautifully made, and has much perforated or basket 
work, sharply cut out of the borders in various patterns. 
Important centre pieces with figures were also made here, 
and are easily distinguished from the Staffordshire cream- 
coloured earthenware. The pieces are frequently stamped 
" Leeds Pottery ;" sometimes with the makers' names. This 
manufactory is still carried on by Messrs. Warburton. 
Britton and Co. 

Fig. 349 is a perforated chestnut bowl and cover; and fig. 
350 a plate printed with a portrait ; in the Geological Museum. 

At Castleford, about 12 miles from Leeds, David Dunder- 
,dale established works for the finer kinds of pottery, espe- 
cially Queen's ware and the black Egyptian; his pottery is 
usually marked " D D & Co., Castleford." 

Fig. 351 is a tea pot, with ornaments in relief, of white ware 
edged with blue ; in the Geological Museum. 

Fig. 352. A candlestick, similar; in the Geological Museum. 

At Yarmouth a potter named Absolon decorated pottery 
of the cream colour. The arrow is found impressed on many 
pieces, others have the name of Turner. The favourite sub- 


china seller of Oxford Street, paid for that article alone for 
one season's demand, upwards of ^900. These are usually 
stamped " Rockingham," but the names of " Brameld " and 
of " Mortlock " are occasionally found. But the aims of the 
Messrs. Brameld were of a higher character, and some exqui- 
site works of great artistic merit were produced, and which 
(although not generally known) are occasionally seen. A 
favourite pattern was a large flower vase, called the lotus vase, 
formed of upright over-lapping leaves, with birds and butter- 
flies in relief, all enamelled in colours. These may easily be 
mistaken for Oriental. When the Rockingham works were 
closed in 1842 many of the moulds were purchased by Mr. 
John Reed, and transferred to the Mexborough Pottery. 
Among them was the lotus vase, and the keep of Conis- 
borough Castle, a Norman structure near Swinton. 

Newcastle. There were some extensive manufactories 
here for making Queen's ware, some of which are per- 
forated like that of Leeds, and wicker pattern borders. 
Some of the earthenware mugs have a pink metallic lustre, 
and are ornamented with transfer engravings. On these we 
have a view of the new bridge over the Weir, and on the 
inside a toad in relief, which, when filled with beer, is 
unseen, but when the liquor is half drunk becomes visible, 
much to the horror of a person who is drinking it. One 
similar, in the Geological Museum, is inscribed — 

" Though malt and venom seem united, 
Don't break my pot, or be affrighted." 

Fig. 35 3A. A dish of Queens ware, with fruit in relief, 
stamped, " Fell, Newcastle." 

Fig. 362. A mug, with printed monument of Lord Nelson, 
inside is a toad ; in the Geological Museum. 

Fig. 354. A jug, with lustre and subjects in relief; in the 
Geological Museum. 

£Y. Anthony 's, about 2 J miles from Newcastle-upon-Tyne ; 
makers, Sewell and Donkin. Queens ware and pink metal- 
lic lustre, also printed subjects ; sometimes Sewell alone, the 
name stamped. A jug of his make has cupids in relief, coloured 



with pink metallic lustred clouds and bronzed borders ; in the 
Geological Museum (see fig. 355). He also produced ware 
like that of Leeds, pierced wicker baskets, &c. 

The stone ware made at Nottingham in the first half of 
the XVIIIth Century is well known; it has usually a dark 
brown glaze, with a slightly metallic lustre, and is very hard 
and durable, and frequently ornamented with outlines of 
stalks and flowers, especially the pink. Tobacco jars in form 
of a bear, puzzle jugs, &c. 

Fig. 356 is a brown stone ware mug, inscribed " Made at 
Nottingham the 17th August, 1771." 

Fig. 357 is a jug in form of a bear; Geological Museum. 

At Cadborough, near Rye in Sussex, is a pottery established 
by Mr. Mitchell for common sorts of pottery. He has, how- 
ever, produced some vases of elegant forms of glazed ware. 

Fig. 358 is a curious vessel, used at weddings, in form of a 
pig; and fig. 359 is a small green vase; both are m the 
Geological Museum. 

Lowesby, Leicestershire. Established by Sir Francis 
Fowkes, circa 1835. The mark, sometimes without the 
fleur-de-lis, is stamped on red terra cotta with black enamelled 


Bristol. At Redcliffe Backs a manufactory of Delft 
ware was carried on in the last century by a Mr. Frank 
There is in the Geological Museum a slab composed of twenty- 
four tiles, with a view of Redcliffe Church, painted by him 
about 1738. He was preceded by a potter named Read. 

At Temple Backs Mr. Joseph Ring, son-in-law of Cook- 
worthy (after the porcelain works had been relinquished in 
1777), opened a manufactory called the " Bristol Pottery." 
It was carried on for many years, and about 1820 it was occu- 
pied by Messrs. Pountney and Allies. The articles produced 
were similar to those of the superior potteries in Staffordshire, 
and the mark used was a cross. 


The manufacture of porcelain in England was much earlier 
than has been generally supposed, and the invention was 
patented in England by John D wight of Fulham, in 1671, 
while that at St. Cloud was not patented until 1 702, nearly 
30 years afterwards. The words, in Dwights patent are as 
clearly indicative of this fact as they can be ; it was for " the 
mistery of transparent earthenware, (commonly known by the 
name of porcelaine* or china.)" Dr. Plot, in his History of 
Oxfordshire, written in 1677, corroborates the fact. "He/* 
(Dwight) " hath found ways to make an earth, white and trans- 
parent as porcellane, and not distinguishable from it by the 
eye, or by experiments that have been purposely made to try 
wherein they disagree/' The principal test of porcelain being 
its transparency, there can be no doubt about the nature of the 
ware here spoken of. 


Although this manufactory originated more than a century 
ago, and has always been carried on by private enterprise, it is 
still in a flourishing state. It was established, in 1751, chiefly 
through the exertions of Dr. Wall, a physician and a good 
practical chemist, who in conjunction with others formed the 
"Worcester Porcelain Company." The early productions 



were principally of the useful description, and sold at a cheaper 
rate than the wares of Bow and Chelsea. A writer in the 
Annual Register in 1 763 says, " We have, indeed, many other 
manufactures of porcelain which are sold at a cheaper rate 
than any that is imported, but except the Worcester, they all 
wear brown, and are subject to crack, especially the glazing, 
by boiling water." About the year 1757, the important 
method of multiplying designs upon the biscuit ware by means 
of transferring impressions of engraved copper plates to the 
surface, was adopted almost simultaneously with Liverpool; 
the invention being in fact claimed by both, but we will not 
wait to discuss the question of priority, for specimens of both, 
are found bearing the names of Sadler and Green of Liver- 
pool, and Richard Holdship and Robert Hancock of Worces- 
ter, dated in the same year. The mark 
used by Holdship was his initials R. H. and 
an anchor, being a rebus upon his name ; he "M/* »**&& 
also printed china for the Derby works, in '^ 
that case substituting the word Derby for Worcester under his 
initials. Hancock's name was usually written at length. The 
garden scenes and tea parties printed upon the Worcester 
ware are well known. Bat printing succeeded the printing 
from engraved or etched plates. This new style, instead of 
being first printed upon paper and then transferred, was 
accomplished thus ; the plate was stippled with a fine point by 
London artists after designs by Cipriani, Bartolozzi, Cosway, 
and Angelica Kauffman, so fashionable about the beginning 
of this century, — landscapes, shells, fruit, flowers, etc. The 
copper plate being carefully cleaned, a thin coating of linseed 
oil was laid upon it, and removed by the palm of the hand 
from the surface, leaving the oil in the engraved spots ; inste; 
of paper, bats of glue were used, cut into squares of the size 
the engraving ; one of these bats was pressed on to the plate, 
so as to receive the oil out of the engraved holes, and laid on 
to the china, transferring the oil to the surface ; it was then 
dusted with the colour required, the superfluous colour beii 
removed carefully with cotton wool, and then placed in the ki! 



The porcelain made from 1760 to 1770 was of very supe- 
rior quality, and the colours used upon some of the orna- 
mental pieces and services approached very closely to those of 
Chelsea, the patterns were usually in imitation of Japanese. 
There are some Worcester vases finely painted with classical 
figures and subjects by Donaldson, but as he was not attached 
to the works, and painted also for Chelsea, the vases were 
probably purchased in the white state, and decorated in 
London, a very common occurrence. In 1772 the works were 
sold and another proprietary formed, Dr. Wall still having the 

In 1783 the Worcester porcelain works were purchased 
by Mr. Thomas Flight, from whom it afterwards passed to 
Messrs. Flight and Barr ; the principal painters at this time 
were: Pennington, who painted figures; Astle, flowers ; Davis, 
exotic birds in the Chelsea style ; Webster, landscapes and 
flowers; Barker, shells; Brewer of Derby, landscapes; and 
Baxter, an accomplished artist, painted figure subjects. 

The marks upon Worcester porcelain are of great 
variety, but they still historically denote the changes 
that have occurred in the direction of the manufac- 
tory, and we are thereby better able to ascertain the 
dates of particular specimens. The proprietors seem * a> 
to have copied the marks of all the celebrated fabri- >/\/\f 
ques in their turn. A few of those most frequently /\ 
used are here given, from Marks and Monograms / v \ 
on Pottery and Porcelain, by W. Chaffers. 

The Worcester works remained with Messrs. Flight and 
Barr until 1 840, when the two principal manufactories of Wor- 
cester — that of Flight and Barr, and that of the Messrs. 
Chamberlain, were amalgamated ; the plant and stock removed 
to the premises of the latter, and it was styled Chamberlain 
and Co. The last-named works were established by Robert 
Chamberlain in 1 786 ; he was the first apprentice at the Old 
Worcester Porcelain Company, and he and his brother 
Humphrey took premises in High Street. At first they only 
decorated porcelain, which they bought of Turner of Caughley ; 

p 2 


but afterwards manufactured largely on their own account, 
and their business increased to a great extent, being patronized 
by the Royal Family. A full-dress service for the East India 
Company at Madras, was supplied at ^"4190; another for 
the Prince Regent cost ,£4000. The well-known breakfast 
service made by them, by order of Lord Nelson, but which is 
supposed to have been presented by the ladies — in some way 
passed out of the family. To give an idea of the prevail- 
ing taste for showy china in the beginning of this century, 
Mr. Binns says that Messrs. Chamberlain paid on an average 
for wages ^"4500 per annum ; and the amount for gold alone 
to decorate the porcelain was ,£900. per annum. The usual 
mark was simply " Chamberlain's Worcester." 

These two works were united in 1840, and remained so 
until 1852, when Messrs. Kerr and Binns became the osten- 
sible proprietors. In 1862 another Joint Stock Company was 
formed, Mr. R. W. Binns having the direction of the artistic 
department, and Mr. Edward Phillips being general superin- 


Fig. 362. Plate, decorated with blue and gold, by Cham- 
berlain. Fig. 363. Mug with transfer, The King of Prussia. 
Fig. 364. Sucrier and milk jug, with transfer of garden scenes. 
Fig- 3^5- J u g. blue ground, with painted medallions of flowers 
and birds. These are in the Geological Museum. 

Fig. 366. Cup and Saucer, dragon pattern, S. K. Museum. 

Fig. 366A. Portion of a service, Japan pattern, blue, red and 
gold ; in Mr. Chaffers' collection. 

Fig. 366B. Portions of a service, transfer coloured views and 
figures, partly gilt ; in the possession of Mr. W. Chaffers. 

Swinton, near Rotherham. The ma- 
nufacture of porcelain at the Rockingham 
works was introduced about the year 1823 
by Mr. Thomas Brameld, who spared no 
expense in endeavouring to bring it to 
perfection, under the patronage of the 
Earl Fitzwilliam. The china was of a 


superior description, and the painting and decoration of high 
character. The ordinary services were marked Brameld, 
the ornamental pieces were stencilled with a griffin. In 1826 
the proprietor became embarrassed, but the works were con- 
tinued by the Earl's assistance until 1842. In 1832 they 
succeeded in obtaining royal patronage, and a magnificent 
service was ordered by King William IV.; instead, however, 
of placing the firm in a more flourishing condition, it was 
actually the cause of their ruin, for the expense incurred by 
the engagement of first-class artists, and the superabundance 
of gold employed in decorating it, resulted in so great a loss 
that the manufacture was totally discontinued a few years after. 
Fig. 367 is a pattern plate in the Geological Museum, and 
fig- 368 a vase or centre piece of the service made for 
William IV. in the possession of Mr. E. Norman. 


The earliest manufactory was called " the Derby Pot works," 
and was carried on at Cock Pit Hill by Messrs. John and 
Christopher Heath for pottery and porcelain. It is said to 
have been on an extensive scale, but little is known of its 
operations. The proprietors, who were bankers in Full Street, 
became bankrupt in 1 780, when the stock was sold and the 
works discontinued. 

The " Derby porcelain manufactory" was founded in 1 75 1 by 
William Duesbury ; the first productions were chimney orna- 
ments, lambs* sheep, and services for the table, but it was not 
probably until he purchased the Chelsea works in 1 769 that 
any great reputation was acquired, and few if any specimens 
can be identified. On this occasion the pieces were marked 
with a D and an anchor across it, denoting the union 
of the Derby and Chelsea works; these are called 
Derby-Chelsea porcelain. Some beautiful examples 
of porcelain painted in the Chinese style were produced about 
this time, but as the rage for Oriental seemed so prevalent, 
the proprietor to insure the sale of his china, copied the 
Chinese marks as well as the style of decoration ; and the 

2I 4 


Dresden mark of the crossed swords is also some- 
times found upon them. But their ordinary trade 
mark was the D and anchor. Subsequently, after 
royal patronage was accorded, the mark was 
altered to an italic D, with a cross above, and 
three dots in each side angle, surmounted by a £ 
crown. This china is termed Crown-Derby, and 
was adopted from 1780, and continued by Mr. 
Bloor his successor as late as 1830. After the 
purchase of the Chelsea and Bow works, the Derby porcelain 
manufactory rose to great importance ; the proprietors having 
of course retained the best workmen who had been engaged 
there. In fact, with all the models and moulds, the mixers, 
throwers and painters of those two great establishments, it 
may be considered as the Chelsea and Bow works continued 
in another locality. Upon the death of Mr. William Dues- 
bury, in 1 785, his son William still remained there, and a third 
William Duesbury succeeded in the beginning of 
this century. Robert Bloor, about 1815, took the 1 
works, which were altogether closed In 1848. An 
offshoot, however, is still carried on by Messrs. 
Stevenson and Hancock. 


at the works as a pattern, painted by Billingsley, c. 1785 ; 
Mr. John Haslem. 

Fig. 380. " The thistle plate," painted by W. Pegg, c.1800 ; 
Mr. John Haslem. 

Fig. 381. "The Rodney Jug," painted by E. Withers, c. 
1 782, used by a club of china painters at Derby for 70 years ; 
Miss Ward. 

Fig. 382. Pair of cups, painted with views near Derby; 
Mr. John Haslem. 

Fig. 383. Chelsea-Derby tea pot, and cup and saucer, 
painted with flowers and gold lines ; Mrs. Nixon. 

Fig. 384. Chocolate cup, gilt border, with feather sprig; 
Major J. Evans. 

Fig. 385. Chocolate cup, blue and gold border; the Earl 
of Chesterfield. 

Fig. 386. Cup and saucer, blue and gold, jewelled ; Captain 
F. N. Smith. 

Fig. 387. Crown-Derby cup, painted with the smugglers and 
flowers on gold ground; Mr. J. Sanders. 

Burton-on-Trent. A manufactory of earthenware was 
established here early in this century, and about 1839 porce- 
lain was made and carried on for seven years : a specimen 
of the ware is here given. Fig. 388, a porcelain comport, 
painted with flowers and fruit, belonging to Mr. W. Bern- 
rose, jun. 

Wirksworth. A china manufactory existed here about 
1770, as well as pottery, established by a Mr. Gill, and con- 
tinued for about 20 years, but no mark is known. 

Fig. 389 is a cup and cover assigned to this place ; Mr. W. 
Bemrose, jun. 

Pinxton. A manufacture of porcelain was established at 
Pinxton in Derbyshire, about 1795, by Mr. Billingsley in part- 
nership with Mr. John Coke ; the former was a practical potter, 
having been engaged at the Derby works as a flower painter, 
in which he excelled ; he brought with him a staff of workmen 
and their families, and the concern went on successfully for 
about five or six years, when Billingsley left the concern, and 


it was continued by Coke, afterwards by Cutts the foreman, 
but altogether discontinued about 1812. The ware made 
here by Billingsley was of that peculiar transparent character 
of which the receipt was only known to himself, and which he 
subsequently introduced at Nantgarw ; a favourite pattern 
was the French sprig or " Chantilly," being an imitation of the 
Angouleme china. We give the following examples : 

Fig. 390. A flower pot, French sprig pattern ; Mr. W. 
Bemrose, jun. 

Fig- 391. Ice pail, primrose ground, with deep border of 
flowers by Billingsley; S. K. Museum. 

Fig. 392. A sugar bowl and cover painted with landscapes, 
red border; Mr. John Hawkins. 

Fig- 393- A jardiniere, painted with views of Dove Dale 
and other places in Derbyshire ; Mr. John Haslem. 

Although the manufactory of porcelain at Lowestoft was 
one of the largest in England, yet the recollection of its exist- 
ence and the productions which emanated from it have been 
lost sight of, and have gradually died away, although it was 
in active work for fifty years, and only ceased in the com- 
mencemcnt of the present century. It is well remembered 


suitable for making porcelain ; hence the origin of the china 
manufactory at Lowestoft. Gillingwater says it met with 
great opposition from the china manufactories near London, 
who actually bribed the workmen to spoil the ware made 
there, and exercised every art to render the scheme abortive ; 
but, notwithstanding this unhandsome treatment, the manu- 
factory was permanently established by Messrs. Walker, 
Browne, Aldred and Richman. Several important aids were 
favourable to the undertaking ; they had on the sea shore the 
finest and purest sand which could be found on the coast of 
England, and as silica entered largely into the composition of 
their china, it was essential to the proprietors. 

That a very considerable trade was carried on here in the 
manufacture of porcelain is beyond dispute, not only in the 
adjacent counties but in London, where, according to Gilling- 
water {History of Lowestoft), a warehouse was kept to exe- 
cute the orders received from London and the adjoining 
towns, and Lowestoft being on the extreme easternly point of 
England, the inhabitants had great intercourse with Holland, 
where doubtless much of the ware was sold, and it is thought 
a considerable amount was exported for the Turkish market. 
Its greatest prosperity was from 1770 to 1800. 

The works were closed in 1802, and the best workmen 
were transferred to the Worcester works, which will account 
for many striking similarities between the blue wares. 

The question about hard paste having been made at Lowes- 
toft is placed beyond dispute upon the best authority. It was 
probably introduced about 1775, after Champion's failure. 
There are several parties now living there who can testify to 
the fact that nothing passed out of the factory but what was 
made in it, and that no Oriental porcelain ever came into it to 
be decorated. There is a much greater variety of Lowestoft 
porcelain than is generally imagined; the most frequent is 
hard paste, ornamented with pink and purple roses and minute 
highly-finished roses in festoons. The ornamental borders 
are exceedingly rich, being diapered with gold and colours. 
The more highly-finished services usually have the initials or 


coats of arms of the families for whom they were made, and 
are superior both in design and delicacy of pencilling and 
finish to most other English manufactures. A rich cobalt 
blue was sometimes introduced in the borders, overlaid with 
gold stars. 

The principal painters were Powles, who painted views and 
landscapes ; a French artist named Rose, who painted flowers ; 
Robert Allen, Sparham, Curtis, Redgrave, &c. For a de- 
tailed account of this important manufactory, the reader is 
referred to Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain, 
by W. Chaffers, pages 612-640. 


Figs. 394 and 395 represent a plate, cup and cover, with 
views and birds, elaborately gilt, attributed to Lowestoft. 

Fig. 396. Cup and saucer, with an owl, the crest of Woodley 
of Beccles ; in Mr. Walker Joy's collection. 

Figs. 397 to 401. Coffee pot and four cups, of this manuf: 
tory ; in Mr. Emerson Norman's collection. 


As early as 1758 William Cookworthy commenced hi 
experiments to ascertain the nature of true porcelain of hard 
paste, and had searched with great perseverance throughout 
England for the materials which had been described by the 
Pere d'Entrecolles as the constituent parts of Chinese porce- 
lain. At length a friend of his discovered on the estate of 
Lord Camelford, in the parish of St. Stephen's, Cornwall, " a 
certain white saponaceous clay, and close by it a species of 
granite or moorstone, white with greenish spots, which he 
immediately perceived to be the two long sought-for ingre- 
dients, the one giving whiteness and body to the paste, the 
other vitrification and transparency." Lord Camelford says, 
in a letter to Mr. Polwhele — " The difficulties found in propor- 
tioning properly these materials so as to give exactly the 
necessary degree of vitrification and no more, and other 
niceties with regard to the manipulation, discouraged us from 



proceeding in this concern, after we had procured a patent 
for the use of our materials, and expended on it between 
;£ 2,000. or ;£ 3,000. We then sold our interest to Mr. Cham- 
pion of Bristol." The patent was dated 1 7th March, 1 768, 
and the materials are described as growan stone and growan 
clay. They carried on the works for nearly six years, and 
consequently made a considerable quantity of ware. Cook- 
worthy engaged the services of a French artist, M. Soqui, 
whose ornamental delineations on the articles produced here 
were very beautiful. Some elegant salt cellars and table 
ornaments in form of open conch shells resting on a bed of 
coral, &c, all well modelled in hard paste, were favourites for 
the table. 

They continued to work this manufactory until 1774, when 
the patent right was sold and transferred to Richard Champion. 


Fig. 402. Coffee pot, blue ground, and panels of flowers ; 
Fig. 403. Beaker and cover, painted with flowers ; Fig. 404. 
A bird in white porcelain ; these are in Lady C. Schreibers 

Fig. 405. Statuette of Woodward the actor; bearing the 
Plymouth mark. 

Fig. 406. Pair of figures, shepherd and shepherdess ; Fig. 
407. Sweetmeat stand of shells and rock work ; Fig. 408. 
Centre piece, similar ; these are in Mr. W. Edkins' collection. 


A manufactory of English porcelain, soft paste, was founded 
at Bristol about 1772 by Richard Champion, but to this he 
afterwards added the manufacture of hard paste, having in 
1774 purchased Cookworthy's patent. The ware was, how- 
ever, brought to great perfection, but the large outlay pre- 
vented its being remunerative, and in three or four years he 
sold his interest in the patent to a company of Staffordshire 
potters. Horace Walpole, in his catalogue, speaks of "a cup 
and saucer, white, with green festoons of flowers," and this 


was a favourite pattern for services. In these few years a 
considerable quantity was made ; the mark was a cross 
painted in grey or slate colour; but sometimes the crossed 
swords were adopted. 


Fig. 409. Dish, painted with flowers, presented by a des- 
cendant of Mr. Cookworthy; Figs. 410 and 411. Bowl and 
cover, cup and inkstand; in the Geological Museum. 

Figs. 412 and 413. Two tea pots, painted with flowers; 
Fig. 414. Dish, painted with flowers; Fig. 415. Tripod, sup- 
ported by griffins; Fig. 416. Shell salt cellar; in Lady C. 
Schreiber's collection. 

Caughley, near Broseley, Salop. This manufactory was 
established in 175 1 by a Mr. Brown, and afterwards carried 
on by Mr. Gallimore. It was not until 1772 that it rose to 
any importance, when Mr. Thomas Turner commenced opera- 
tions. He came from the Worcester porcelain manufactory; 
he was an engraver, and probably learnt his art from Robert 

The excellence of Turner's porcelain gained him great 
patronage. In 1780 he produced the celebrated "willow 
partem," which, even at the present day, is in great demand, 


1778"; Fig. 418. Mug, painted in blue, with birds and fruit; 
Fig. 419. Plate, blue landscape and figures ; in the Geological 

The porcelain works at Co Alport were established by 
Mr. John Rose about 1780 or 1790, having removed his 
manufactory from Jackfield. He carried on this and the 
Caughley works simultaneously. In 1820, having purchased 
both the Swansea and the Nantgarw manufactories, they 
were incorporated with Coalport, and Billingsley of Nant- 
garw (whose beautiful transparent china is well known) was 
engaged as mixer of the clays, and remained there until his 
death in 1828. His receipts for making this china are still 
in the possession of the firm, but it is too expensive a process 
to be followed to any great extent, except in special services. 
The " worm sprig " and the " Tournay sprig " were much 
made at Coalport. In porcelain and pottery the old " willow 
pattern " and the " blue dragon " still remained staple articles. 

Colebrook Dale is another name for the Coalport works. 
The letters C D and C. B. D are frequently found upon the 
decorative china. A more intricate mark has been used 
since 1861, composed of a large cursive monogram of (kj) 
S and C for Coalport, Salop ; within the three loops ^-*^ 
are the Roman capitals C. S and N, signifying that the works 
of Caughley, Swansea and Nantgarw have been added. 

The mark of a red rose is found on some of Rose's early 
china. The ware is well known, and has much the character 
of the Derby. 

Fig. 420 is a pattern plate (part of a service) given by Her 
Majesty to the Emperor of Russia ; in the Geological Museum. 


The manufactory of porcelain at Stratford-le-Bow was 
established about 1730. Thomas Erye, an eminent painter, 
appears to have been instrumental in bringing the china to 
that perfection for which the manufactory was celebrated. 
He took out two patents for the improvement of porcelain ; 


the first in 1744 was in conjunction with Edward Heylin, 
the second in 1749. In these the processes are minutely 
described. In 1750 the works were disposed of to Messrs. 
Crowther and Weatherby, who also had a warehouse at 
St. Catherine's, near the Tower. In Aris' Birmingham 
Gazette for 1753 we find an advertisement for "painters 
in the blue and white potting way, and enamellers on china 
ware, to apply at the China House near Bow ; likewise 
painters brought up in the snuff box way, &c, and a per- 
son who can model small figures in clay neatly." In 1763 
"John Crowther of Cornhill, china man," became bankrupt, 
and in the following year we find gazetted " Benjamin 
Weatherby of St. Catherine's." Crowther recommenced 
business; and in 1770 we find in the Directory that John 
Crowther of the Bow China Works had a warehouse at 28, 
St. Paul's Church Yard, and that the firm of Weatherby and 
Co., potters, were still in existence, and probably were con- 
cerned with him. 

The interesting bowl made at the Bow works in the year 
1760, and painted by Thomas Craft (now in the British 
Museum), is accompanied by a short history of the works, 
and informs us that the names of the proprietors were known 
all over the world, that they employed 300 persons, about 


& bee in front, supposed to represent B ^^ 

for Bow (but actually a wasp) has a ^^ 

triangle; one in Mr. Russell's collec- Qfy^J^CXVfy^fS 

tion, marked with a triangle, has also & 

legibly written, " Chelsea, 1 745." The salt cellars, also with 
crawfish in full relief and rock work, bear the same mark ; 
but Walpole, in his Catalogue of the Strawberry Hill Collec- 
tion, speaks of " Two white salt cellars with crawfish in relief 
of Chelsea china." Some of these have the triangle stamped, 
others have it in blue. On some china, supposed with more 
reason to have been made at Bow, we find a bow and arrow, 
but any marks upon the ware are scarce. For a more detailed 
account of the Bow porcelain manufactory, the reader is 
referred to Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain, 
by W. Chaffers, 3rd edition, pp. 676-699. 


Fig. 421. Salts (pair of), kneeling figures holding shells 
(see fragment found at Bow, Chaffers' Marks and Monograms \ 
p. 699). Fig. 422. Statuette of Mrs. Kitty Clive, of white 
china; in Mr. John J. Bagshawe's collection. 

Fig. 423. Milk pot, with goats and bee in relief. Fig. 424. 
Tea pot, flowers and insects. Fig. 425. Salt cellar, shells in 
relief. Fig. 426. Bowl on foot, with insects. Fig. 427. " New 
Canton" inkstand, 1751. Fig. 428. Plate, painted flowers and 
hawthorn, relief border. Figs. 429, 430. Two cups, one flowers, 
the other hawthorn pattern ; in the Geological Museum. 

Fig. 431. Tea pot, printed with the King of Prussia ; fig. 
332. Plate, printed with ^Eneas and Anchises ; in Lady C. 
Schreiber's collection. 

Figs. 433 and 434. Bowl, painted by Thomas Craft in 1 760, 
and inscription ; in the British Museum. 

Fig. 435. Porcelain figure, a coloured model of the Farnese 
Flora at Naples, ascribed to John Bacon, R.A., late XVIIIth 
Century; in the S. K. Museum. 

Fig. 436. Vase with scrolls and cover, with flowers and 
birds in full relief; fig. 437. Basket vase, supported by two 
cupids; fig. 438. Sauce boat, flowers, &c. in relief; fig. 439. 


Pug dog of white china; fig. 440. A sphinx of white china; 
fig.441. Bust of George 1 1 . on a pedestal, height 17 inches; 
in Lady C. Schreiber's collection. 

Fig. 44tA. A white china group of the Seasons ; and Fig. 
441B. A coloured group of the well-known "Tea P; 
(slightly damaged); in Mr. John Sanders' collection. 



The celebrated porcelain manufactory of Chelsea was 

established shortly after Bow, about 1740, and the early 
productions of the two are frequently mistaken one for the 
other ; but, fortunately, the Chelsea wares subsequently, espe- 
cially the finest pieces, were marked with an anchor in gold 
or red. The period of its greatest excellence was from 1 750 
to 1765. It has been thought that Venetian workmen were 
first engaged here, and this supposition is in some degree 
borne out by the great similarity of the two wares both in 
painting and gilding, added to which, the mark upon both is 
a red anchor, and both are of a fine soft paste. 

The early ware made at Chelsea, especially the plates, 
have underneath three spots or blemishes, caused by 
the contact of the three points, on which the piece 
rested in the kiln, removing the glaze. 

Faulkner, in his History of Chelsea, says, "The manufac- 
tory was set on foot by M. Sprimont, a foreigner. The 
original proprietor having acquired a large fortune, retired 
from the concern, and his successors, wanting his enterprise 
and spirit, did not so well succeed, but in a few years aban- 
doned it." Who these successors were we have not been able 
to find out, unless the allusion is to Mr. W. Duesbury of Derby, 
for it passed directly from the hands of M. Sprimont to him. 

The early pieces were copied principally from the Orieni 
being decorated with Chinese patterns, and these were marki 
with an embossed anchor. 

A fine set of Chelsea porcelain, which cost upwards 
jC 1,000. was presented by the King and Queen to the Du 
of Mecklenburg in 1763. 



The beautiful vases in the French style, in imitation of 
Sevres, with gros bleu, crimson, turquoise and apple-green 
grounds, were made from 1760 to 1765. 

The Foundling Vase, 24 inches high, (one of a pair) was 
presented to the Hospital in 1762 by Dr. Gamier, and a 
pair of vases given to the British Museum, is thus recorded 
in the donation book : — " Two very fine porcelain jars of 
the Chelsea manufactory, made in the year 1762, under the 
direction of Mr. Sprimont, from a person unknown, through 
Mr. Empson." (See fig. 452.) 

In 1769, by order of Mr. Sprimont, the proprietor of the 
Chelsea porcelain manufactory, the whole of the matchless 
pieces, consisting of valuable vases, urns, table and dessert 
services, were sold by auction, also the fine models, mills, 
kilns, presses, buildings, &c." 

The works were purchased by Mr. W. Duesbury of Derby, 
and carried on by him at Chelsea until 1784. The later 
pieces made here under his direction are easily distinguished ; 
these vessels are of simple elegant forms, with the frequent 
recurrence of gold stripes, and the same forms and style were 
adopted simultaneously at Derby, but they are inferior to 
the vases made when M. Sprimont had the works under his 
direction. The pieces marked with an anchor surmounted 
by a crown are Duesbury s productions at Chelsea. 


Fig. 442. Statuette of Marshall Conway ; fig. 443. Statuette 
of Wilkes ; fig. 444, 445. Shepherd and shepherdess ; fig. 
446 to 451. Six birds, some with raised anchor; in Lady 
C. Schreiber's collection. 

Fig. 452. A large Chelsea vase; "Death of Cleopatra;" 
in the British Museum. 

Fig. 453. Vase, supported by three caryatides ; fig. 454, 455. 
A pair of figures, the Pedlar and his Wife ; in Lady C. 
Schreibers collection. 

Fig. 456. Statuette of Diana with a dog ; fig. 457. Vase, in 
imitation of wicker work, scroll stand and birds ; fig. 458. 



Plate, with rose bud and leaves in relief, coloured ; fig. 459. 
Dish forfruit, painted with flowers; Miss Hartley's collection. 
Fig. 460. Group of the three Maries before the cross ; in 
Lady C. Schreiber's collection. 

Swansea. Mr. Dillwyn retired from the concern in 1813, 
leaving it to his son, Mr. L. L. Dillwyn. It was in the 
year 1814 that the manufacture of porcelain was revived at 
Swansea. At that time Billingsley, or Beely (a contraction 
of his real name and by which he was probably best known), 
had commenced making his beautiful porcelain, which was 
much admired, at Nantgarw ; it naturally attracted Mr. 
Dillwyn's attention, and conceiving that the kilns used by 
Billingsley and Walker might be considerably improved, made 
arrangements with them to carry out their process at Swansea ; 
with this view, two new kilns were erected at the Cambrian 
pottery, and the manufacture conducted by them for some 
considerable time. Hence the origin of the Swansea por- 
celain, which obtained great repute, and it was continued for 
six or seven years, an excellent body having been obtained. 
Baxter, a clever painter of figure subjects, left Worcester and 
entered Mr. Dillwyn's service in 1816, and continued there 
for three years, returning to Worcester in 18 19. In the year 


flowers," particularly specified, so that he was a desirable work- 
man at that time. He was not only a first-class painter, but he 
thoroughly understood the manufacture of porcelain in all its 
branches. In 1 795 he established a porcelain manufactory at 
Pinxton, in partnership with a Mr. John Coke ; here he re- 
mained about five years, dissolving partnership in 1800, but 
the works were continued until 181 2. In 1800 we find him 
superintending a small decorating establishment at Mansfield, 
where he remained for four years. In 1 804 he was at Torksey, 
in Lincolnshire, engaged in a manufactory there. Mr. Marryat 
says he married a daughter of Mr. Landers, the banker, and 
for some time carried on the business of a painter on glass at 
Bristol ; if so, it must have been between this and 181 1, for in 
that year he was engaged by Messrs. Flight and Barr, of Wor- 
cester, in the mixing room, until 181 3, when he left, probably 
in consequence of Mr. Barrs death. His son-in-law Walker, 
was also at the Worcester works, and made some great im- 
provements ; he introduced that most important invention, the 
Reverberating enamel kiln, already in use at London and 
Derby; the method of building this kiln was kept secret, 
Walker always working at night to complete it. 

In 1 813, Billingsley and Walker left Worcester to esta- 
blish a porcelain manufactory at Nantgarw. Here they pro- 
duced some very fine porcelain, of the same peculiar character 
as that of Pinxton, with a sort of vitreous appearance and a 
granulated fracture like lump sugar, which being very soft 
paste would not in all cases stand the heat of the kiln ; some 
of the early pieces are consequently frequently found cracked 
on the glaze, or slightly warped and bent. 

The Nantgarw porcelain was of remarkably fine body and 
texture, but its production was expensive; specimens are 
scarce and command high prices. About the year 1820 the 
manufacture was discontinued, Billingsley and Walker having 
disposed of their interest in the concern to Mr. J. Rose, the 
moulds and everything connected with the works were re- 
moved to Coalport, and they superintended them until Bil- 
lingsley 's death, which happened in 1828. 



Fig. 463, 464. Two plates painted with flowers ; in 
Geological Museum. 

Fig. 465. Cup and saucer, birds and flowers; in the S. 

Fig. 466. Vase with a band of flowers, the Welsh h; 
forming the handles; Fig. 467. Vase with flowers and g 
scrolls ; Fig. 468. Vase, painted with flowers, gilt vine 
ment in relief; in the collection of Mr. W. Bemrose, 

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