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OF THE j%><^^*'^'^ 



C. G. ZUMPT, Ph.D. 















^ 5/f/^ 






In the year 1843 I received a letter from two English scholars 
suggesting to me the necessity of a new translation of my Latin 
grammar, and requesting my assistance in the undertaking. 
Until then I had not been aware of the fact that the existing 
translation, which had been made from the third edition of my 
work (of which however it was not an exact representation, as 
some portions of the original were omitted), had remained in its 
original condition, and although it had gone through several 
editions, yet had not been adequately improved and corrected, 
while the German original, by continued labour on my part, 
had, in its details, become quite a different work. This in- 
formation was of course a sufficient reason for me to promise 
my best aid and co-operation in the new translation ; for what- 
ever considerations may have induced my learned translator 
to allow my work to be printed again and again in its first and 
imperfect form, it was to me a matter of the highest importance 
that a nation which so highly prizes the study of philology and 
takes so deep an interest in its progress, should be presented 
with my work in the best and most perfect form that I am able 
to give to it. It is unnecessary here to enter into the question 
why the plan of a new translation was not carried into effect by 
those gentlemen who originally proposed it to me, but I was 
happy to hear that ultimately the execution had been entrusted 

A 3 


to Dr. L. Schmitz, who, I feel convinced, has clone all that can 
be desired, both in point of correctness and good taste. 

The Latin language is so rich and happy in its organization, 
and has been so consistently developed by the energetic spirit 
of the Roman people as well as by the exquisite tact of the 
Roman authors, that a continued study of it is amply re- 
warded. It is now upwards of thirty years that I have been 
before the public as a writer on Latin grammar * ; my varied 
studies have always led me back to this subject, and I may 
truly declare, that during each fresh revision of my grammar, 
when I was engaged in incorporating with my system the 
observations I had made in the meantime, and in considering 
the doubts and objections which had been raised in my mind, I 
have become more and more convinced of the inexhaustible 
mine of human wisdom which presents itself in the language of 
a happily organized nation like the Romans. I am not speaking 
here of the accidental matter contained in a grammar, nor of 
the accumulation of similar passages, — it will afford far greater 
pleasure to the pupil to discover for himself in the authors whose 
works he is reading passages which confirm or illustrate the 
rules he has learned, — nor of niceties of expression, for these 
are curiosities rather than any thing else, but I mean real 
philological discoveries and peculiarities, which arise from the 
organic structure of the language, derive their explanation from 
it, and in return throw light upon the whole fabric of the lan- 
guage itself; and the result of all this is, that the general 
principles are better ascertained and established. It is owing 
to these continued studies that even the present translation of 
the ninth edition of my Latin grammar has been enriched by 
some not unimportant improvements, which I have communi- 
cated in MS. to Dr. Schmitz, and it will henceforth be our 
united endeavour to remedy every deficiency that may yet be 

* The first foundation of the present work was laid in a book which I 
wrote for the use of my pupils under the title " Regeln der Lateinischen 
Syntax, mit zwei Anhangen Uber die Grundregeln und die nach einem neuen 
System geordneten unregelmassigen Verba," Berlin, 1814, 8vo. 


My Latin grammar has met with great favour, or, as the 
phrase is, " has been a very successful book," as I must infer 
from the number of editions and copies that have been sold ; 
but this success has not weakened my exertions in labour- 
ing without interruption for its improvement. An author is 
himself rarely able to point out that which has gained for his 
production the favour of the public ; he is satisfied with being 
able to labour for the realisation of his own ideas ; a com- 
parison with the works of others does not concern him, nor 
would it be becoming to him. But he can state the principle 
which has guided him throughout his work ; and in reference 
to the present grammar, this principle is no other than the 
desire to trace the facts and phenomena of the language to 
a philosophical or rational source. The facts as such must first 
be established, and in this respect it has been my endeavour 
to examine the texts of the authors, and not to allow myself 
to be misled, as has been so often the case, by erroneous 
traditions ; further, to distinguish between the periods of the 
language, the different species of literary productions, the an- 
cient and genuine from later and affected authors, and by 
this means to ascertain that which is essential and peculiar to 
the purest Latin idiom ; but in so doing I have not left un- 
noticed those points which must be regarded as frequent or 
otherwise justifiable deviations from the ordinary rules. It 
is only those things which do not grow forth from the living 
body of the language that must be passed over in silence. 
In order to separate that which is genuine and ancient from 
what is arbitrary or recent, I have adopted the method of 
distinguishing between text and notes, the one being printed 
in large and the other in small type, — a distinction which 
will, I think, be useful also to the teacher. Another great 
point which I have always endeavoured to keep in view has 
been a rational development of the rules from one another. 
By this, however, I do not mean a demonstration of the 
principles of universal grammar, that is, of those principles 
which are common to all languages. I value this branch of 
philology, as a sort of applied logic, indeed very highly, but my 

•A 4 

viii th:e author's preface 

opinion is that it can be studied with advantage only by those 
who are acquainted with the languages of different nations, both 
civilised and uncivilised, and I have confined myself to ex- 
plaining the peculiarities of the I^atin language and its charac- 
teristic differences from the modern European languages of 
Roman and Germanic origin, referring only now and then to its 
connection with the Greek. But it is my endeavour to reduce 
these peculiarities of the Latin language to simple and precise 
principles, to proceed from the simple to the complex, and to 
distinguish that which is in accordance with the rules from that 
which is of a mixed nature. What I here say refers more 
particularly to the syntax ; for in regard to etymology, it ought 
not to be forgotten that the Latin language is something which 
has been handed down to us in a given form, and which is to be 
learned in this given form. It would have been easy to go back 
to certain primitive forms which constitute the first elements 
in the formation of the language, and thereby to explain many 
an irregularity in the mixture of forms ; but in teaching a 
language which is learned not only for the purpose of training 
the intellect, but of using it in speaking and writing, the eye 
and memory of the pupil ought not to be troubled with hypo- 
thetical or assumed forms, which he is expected to forget, but 
frequently does not forget, and which he is rather apt to take 
for real forms. In etymology, a complete analogy alone can be 
of practical use ; hence I have endeavoured to make the list of 
irregular verbs and the section on the formation of words — 
important branches of grammar which had been much neglected 
by my predecessors — as complete as possible. In the syntax, 
on the other hand, it is right that there should be a philosophical 
development of the complex from the simple, taking that which 
is peculiarly Latin as the groundwork. This part of my gram- 
mar has arisen from dictations, which I made the basis of a 
course of lectures on Latin syntax ; and I still believe that this 
method is best suited to teach pupils — not indeed the first be- 
ginners, but those who have already made some progress in the 
understanding of Latin sentences — the whole of the Latin 
syntax in a manner which is at once a training of their intellect 


and their memory. Some example or other must be made the 
basis ; it must be explained and impressed upon the memory as 
a model for imitation. The examples given in the text of* the 
present grammar may serve this purpose ; all have been selected 
with special care, and each contains a complete thought ex- 
pressed in a classical form. The teacher must cause his pupils 
to form a number of other similar sentences, and make the 
pupils translate them from the vernacular tongue into Latin. 
It is desirable that such sentences should be chosen with taste 
or be carefully prepared for this purpose beforehand ; but as 
their object is only to impress the rule upon the mind of the 
learner, it is advisable to pay attention to variety of expression 
rather than to particular neatness or elegance. 

My Grammar further contains a section on the signification 
of the adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions, which properly 
speaking does not belong to grammar, but to a dictionary. But 
it is nevertheless necessary, since the ordinary dictionaries are 
partly incorrect and partly incomplete in their explanations of 
these particles, which contain the life and soul of a language, 
and since special books on the particles, such as were formerly 
used in schools, are either no longer consulted or do not answer 
the purposes for which they were written. The Syntax has 
been enlarged by what is called Syntaxis ornata, and it is strange 
that for this part of my work I have been censured by several 
scholars, who thought it inconsistent with the strictly progressive 
spirit of the Grammar, and the philosophical development of the 
grammatical laws, because the observations which form the 
substance of the Syntaxis ornata are not given as necessary 
principles, but in the form of suggestions, which may be fol- 
lowed or not, at discretion. But this is the very point which I 
myself have expressly stated in the introduction to that part of 
my work, where I direct attention to the difference between the 
Syntaxis regularis and the Syntaxis ornata. But as those 
observations on style point out so much that is correct, in- 
genious, and peculiar to the Latin language, should they not 
be made at all, because their application is left to choice? or 
shall we allow them to stand in a somewhat looser connection. 

X THE author's PREFACE 

and arrange the different observations under rational and in- 
telligible heads ? Surely the latter course must be preferred ; 
and I see that my critics have, in fact, adopted the very same 
method, except that what I have discussed in separate chapters, 
on " Peculiarities in the Use of the Parts of Speech," on 
" Pleonasm," " Ellipsis," " Arrangement of Words, and Con- 
struction of Periods," is treated of by them under the heads of first, 
second, and third Appendices. The real appendices in the present 
work, on metres, measures, and weights, calendar, &c., are of a 
diflPerent nature ; they do not indeed belong to grammar, but as 
they contain information on matters important and necessary for 
the understanding of the authors read in schools, and as this in- 
formation is either not to be found elsewhere, or is not suf- 
ficiently correct, no one, I hope, will grudge it a place at the end 
of this Grammar. 

I cannot part from the English reader without expressing my 
delight at the vigour and energy with which classical studies 
are prosecuted in Germany and England. In the former 
country a fresh impulse was given to these studies some thirty 
years ago, just at the time when the nation was on the point of 
losing its independence ; in England the revival of classical 
studies must be dated, I believe, from the time that the contest 
between idealism and realism became settled; and these two 
branches of human knowledge have now arrived at a point 
where they recognize each other in peaceful harmony, the one 
exerting itself in exploring the treasures of nature, and the other 
those of mind. Germany owes her safety to her free schools 
and universities, and builds her hopes upon them; England, 
to the energy of her people and to her public institutions ; and 
the two countries might with advantage exchange some of their 
excellencies. In England, the educational establishments and 
teachers appear to be fettered by old traditional and conventional 
forms ; while in Germany, the sublimest truths which are pro- 
mulgated from the professorial chair, die within the lecture rooms 
of the universities, and produce no fruit. But be the difference 
between the two countries ever so great, the characteristics 
of the educated men in both consist in their rising above the 


immediate necessities of time, place, and occupation, and in their 
recognition of the connection existing between the individual 
and the spirit of all mankind. Hence a knowledge of antiquity, 
and of what it has produced, is necessary to every educated 
person, in proportion to the influence it has exercised upon sub- 
sequent ages, and the study of antiquity will ever have the most 
salutary effect upon man in elevating him above the trivial 
wants of ordinary life, and affording him the means of mental 
and intellectual culture. To those among my contemporaries, 
who are anxious to obtain these advantages, I offer the present 
work as a means of penetrating more deeply and more easily 
into the spirit of the Koman classics and of Roman antiquity. 

C. Gr. ZUMPT. 

Berlin, Feb. 23. 1845. 


When the honourable task of preparing a translation of the 
Ninth Edition of Professor Zumpt's Latin Grammar had been 
entrusted to me by the publishers, the Author himself most 
willingly consented to co-operate with me in endeavouring to 
present his work to the English public in as perfect a form as 
possible. His professional engagements in the University of 
Berlin have enabled him continually to improve the successive 
editions of his Grammar, which has thus become infinitely su- 
perior to what it was when originally translated. Scarcely a 
year has elapsed since the publication of the ninth edition of the 
original, yet the Author's unceasing labours in this department 
of philology have enabled him already to collect a large number 
of corrections and additions for future use ; and all these im- 
provements he has been kind enough to communicate to me in 
manuscript for incorporation in the English translation, which 
hence possesses considerable advantages over the German work. 
In the etymological part of the present Grammar, some 
additions might have been made here and there from English 
sources, and some English scholars may perhaps be inclined to 
censure me for having neglected to do so, since the etymology 
of the Latin language has been studied by a few scholars in this 
country more comprehensively than on the Continent. But 
Professor Zumpt has abstained, on principle, from introducing 
into his work etymological disquisitions which would have led 
his readers beyond the immediate objects of his Grammar, and 
it was impossible for me to set aside that principle, without 

xiv • translator's preface. 

making material alterations in the first part of the present 
work. I may also add that, on the whole, I coincide with 
the Author's views on this point ; and even if I did not, I 
should not think myself justified in introducing into his work 
that which he himself has purposely excluded. The few points 
on which I have added any explanatory remarks, are such as are 
regarded by the Author, in common with all other grammarians, 
as inexpHcable difficulties or anomalies, although it appears to 
me that the language itself contains sufficient analogies for 
their explanation. 

When I undertook the present translation, I expected, as was 
stated in the advertisement, that the Latin Grammar of Pro- 
fessor Madvig of Copenhagen, which had appeared about the 
same time as the last edition of Professor Zumpt's work, 
would furnish some more or less important improvements which 
might be advantageously embodied in the present translation ; 
but a comparison of the two books soon showed me that all the 
new and valuable points in Madvig's Grammar were known to 
Professor Zumpt, and had received from him their due share 
of attention; Madvig having published his views on several 
grammatical questions in separate dissertations and elsewhere, 
previously to the appearance of his Grammar. 

In conclusion, I venture to express my hope that the present 
translation of a work which enjoys the highest reputation in 
Germany may contribute also in this country towards a more 
accurate knowledge of the language of a nation which, above aU 
others, deserves to engage the attention of every weU-educated 


li. S. 

London, April, 1845. 


The Latin language was once spoken by the Bomans, at first 
only in a part of Middle Italy, but subsequently in all Italy and 
in other countries subject to the Romans. At present it can be 
learnt only from books and the monumental inscriptions of that 

The earliest Latin writings that we possess, were composed 
about 200 years before the birth of Christ, and in the sixth 
century after Christ Latin, as a spoken language, died entirely 
away. It had then become quite corrupted through the influence 
of the foreign nations which had settled in the Roman dominions, 
and it became so mixed up with the languages of the invaders 
that a number of new languages (Italian, French, Spanish, Por- 
tuguese,) were gradually formed out of it. All persons who 
wrote Latin in later times had learned it as a dead language. 

During the long period in which the Latin language was 
spoken, it underwent various changes, not only in' the number 
of its words and their meanings, in their forms and combinations, 
but, to some extent, in its pronunciation also. We shall in this 
Grammar describe the language, though not exclusively, such 
as it was spoken and written during the most important period 
of Roman literature, that is, about the time of Julius Caesar 
and Cicero, till shortly after the birth of Christ. That period 
is commonly called the golden age, and the subsequent one, till 
about A. D. 120, the silver age of the Latin language. 

The Latin language in its origin is nearest akin to the Greek, 
and at the time when the Romans became acquainted with the 
literature, arts, and institutions of Greece, they adopted a great 
many single words, as well as constructions, from the Greek. 
Both languages, moreover, belong to the same family from 
which the English, German, northern, and many other lan- 
guages have sprung. 



Chap. Page 

I. Of the'^ Vowels and Consonants - - - 1 

II. Of Syllables - - - - n 

III. Of the Length and Shortness of Syllables - - 12 

IV. Of the Accent of Words - - - 22 

The Accidence. 

V. Division of Words according to their Signification - 25 

VI. Nouns Substantive. — General Rules of Gender - 26 

VII. Number, Case, and Declension - - - 30 

VIII. First Declension - - - - 32 

IX. Greek Words in e, as, and es ' - - 33 

X. Gender of the Nouns of the First Declension - 35 

XI. Second Declension - - - - 35 

XII. Greek Words of the Second Declension - - 38 

XIII. Gender of the Nouns of the Second Declension - 40 

XIV. Third Declension. — Genitive - - - 41 
XV. The remaining Cases of the Third Declension - 49 

XVI. Greek Forms in Words of the Third Declension - 58 
XVn. Gender of AVords of the Third Declension. — 

Masculines - - - - 61 

XVIII. Feminines - - - - 62 

XIX. Neuters - - - - 65 

XX. Fourth Declension - - - - 67 

XXI. Fifth Declension - - - - 69 

XXII. Irregular Declension. — Indeclinables. — Defectives - 70 

XXIII. Heteroclita. — Heterogenea - 77 

XXIV. Nouns Adjective. — Terminations. — Declension - 80 
XXV. Comparison of Adjectives - - - 84 

XXVI. Comparison of Adverbs and increased Comparison - 86 

XXVII. Irregular and defective Comparison - - 87 

XXVni. Numerals. — I. Cardinal Numerals - - 91 

XXIX. n. Ordinal Numerals - - - 95 

XXX. III. Distributive Numerals - - - 96 

XXXI. IV. Multiplicative Numerals - - - 99 

XXXII. V. Proportional Numerals - - - 100 



Chap. Page 

XXXIII. VI. Numeral Adverbs - - - 100 

XXXIV. Pronouns and Pronominal Adjectives - - 102 
XXXV. Declension of Pronouns - - - 105 

XXXVI. Declension of the Possessive Pronouns and of Pro- 

nominals - - - - 111 

XXXVn. The Verb - - - - 11» 

XXXVIII. Moods.— Tenses - - - - H^ 

XXXIX. Numbers. — Persons - - -117 

XL. Formation of the Tenses - - - 119 

XLI. The Verb esse - - - - 12a 

XLII. The four Conjugations - - - 126 

XLIII. Remarks on the Conjugations - ^ - 140 

List or Verbs which are irbegular in the Formation of 
THEIR Perfect and Supine. 

XLIV. First Conjugation - - - - 149 

XLV. Second Conjugation- _ - - 151 
XL VI. Third Conjugation. — 1. Verbs which have a Vowel 

before o including those in vo - - 158 

XL VII. 2. Verbs in do and t& - - - 162 

XLVIIL 3. VerbsinZ>oandj0O - - -166 

XLIX. 4. Verbs with a Palatal Letter, g, c, ct, h, qu, and 

gu (in which u is not considered as a vowel) 

before o - - - - 167 

L. 5. Verbs which have Z, m, w, r before o - 171 

LI. 6. Verbs in so and xo - - - 174 

LII. Inchoatives - - - - 176 

LIII. Fourth Conjugation - - - 179 

LIV. List of Deponent Verbs - - -181 

LV. Deponents of the Second Conjugation - - 183 

LVI. Deponents of the Third Conjugation - - 184 

LVII. Deponents of the Fourth Conjugation - - 186 

LVIII. Irregular Verbs - - - - 187 

LIX. Defective Verbs - - - - 194 

LX. Impersonal Verbs - - - - 198 

LXI. Etymology of Nouns and Verbs - - 200 

LXII. Etymology of Particles - - - 222 

LXIII. Primitive Adverbs - - - - 230 

LXIV. Comparison of Adverbs - - - 239 

LXV. Prepositions - - - - 240 

LXVI. Prepositions in Composition - - - 256 

LXVII. Conjunctions ----- 261 

• LXVIII. Interjections -" . - - 279 


Chap. Page 

I. Connection of Subject and Peedicate. 

LXIX. Subject and Predicate - - - 280 

n. On the Use or Cases. 

LXX. ISTominative Case - - - - 290 

LXXI. Accusative Case - - - - 291 

LXXn. Dative Case - - - - 304 

LXXIII. Genitive Case - - - - 316 

LXXIV. Ablative Case - - - - 331 

LXXV. Vocative Case - - - - 354 

III. Use of the Tenses. 

LXXVI. The Tenses - - - - 355 

rV. Of the Moods. 

LXXVn. Indicative Mood - - - - 372 

LXXVIII. Subjunctive Mood - - - - 376 

LXXIX. Imperative Mood - - - - 412 

LXXX. Infinitive Mood - - - - 415 

LXXXI. Use of the Participles - .- -448 

LXXXIL Use of the Gerund - - - -453 

LXXXin. Use of the Supine - - - -'459 


LXXXrV. Peculiarities in the Use of the Parts of Speech - 462 

LXXXV. Pleonasm - - - - 502 

LXXX VI. Ellipsis - - - - - 511 

LXXXVII. Arrangement of Words, and Structure of Periods - 527 

Appendix I. Of Metre, especially with regard to the Latin 

Poets - - - - 551 
Appendix II. The Roman Calendar - - _ 573 
Appendix III. Roman Weights, Coins and Measures - 576 
Appendix IV. Notae sive Compendia Scripturae ; or Abbrevia- 
tions of Words - - - 580 

Index ------ 533 

or TEE f 





[§ 1.] 1. The Vowels of the Latin language are. A, a; E, e; 

I, i ; 0,0 ; U, u (^Y, y) : and the diphthongs, AE, ae ; OE, oe ; 

AU, au, and EU, eu. Their ancient pronunciation did not 

differ in any essential point from that of the modern Italian or 

German ; but the modern pronunciation varies in the different 

countries of Europe, though the length and shortness of the 

vowels are and ought to be observed everywhere. The Latin 

language has no signs to distinguish a long from a short vowel, 

such as we find in the Greek language, at least in the case of 

two vowels. The names of the vowels are mere imitations of 

their sounds, and not specific words, like the Greek alpha, 

iota, &c. 

Note. The vowel y (called y psilon) occurs only in words which were 
introduced into the Latin language from or through the Greek, at a time 
when it was already developed, such as, syllaha, pyramis^ Pyrrhus, Cyrus ; 
whereas other words, the Greek origin of which leads us back to more 
ancient times, or has been obscured by changes of sound, have lost their 
original y ; such as mus (from the Greek /iue), silva (from i-X?;), and lacrima 
(from dciKpvov). The word stilus^ too, is better written with z, since practice 
did not acknowledge its Identity with the Greek (ttvXoq. The diphthong ew, 
if we except Greek words, occurs only in heusy heu, and eheu, in ceu, seu, and 
neu, and in rieuter and neutiquam. The diphthongs containing an 2, viz. ez, 
oe, and mz, have not been mentioned in our text as Latin diphthongs ; because 


they occur only in a few interjections, such as hei^ eia^ oiei, and hui, and in 
.cf>SQs v^}^ei'(^ dfiini yroioi, huic, o'c cut, are contracted into one syllable, which is 
comnioiii^ clone a1 poetry. 

The ancients in pronouncing a diphthong uttered the two vowels of which 
it consists more distinctly than we do. The word neuter^ in particular, 
was -pronounced in such a manner that the two vowels in ew, though 
united, were yet distinctly heard. In this manner we may reconcile the 
assertion of the grammarian Consentius, that it is a barbarism to pronounce 
tieutrum as a word of two syllables, with those passages in Latin poetry 
which necessarily demand the diphthong. Neutiquam in the comic poets 
has its first syllable always short, as if it were nutiquam, from which we may 
infer that it was not so much the long diphthong as the two short vowels, 
that were heard. In like manner the diphthongs ae and oe were pronounced, 
and hence we find that in the early times ai and oi were pronounced and 
written in their stead, and that the Latins expressed the Greek ai and ot by 
ae and oe ; for, if these diphthongs are pronounced in the manner above 
described, it will be perceived that the difference between the sounds of e 
and i is but slight. The Greek ei must likewise have been pronounced in 
such a manner that the two vowels were distinctly heard ; for the Latins, in 
whose language this diphthong does not occur, use in its place sometimes e 
and sometimes i, or either of them indiscriminately. Before consonants 
we always find i, e. g., eclipsis, Nilus, Clitus, Heraclidae ; and in Latin we 
must accordingly pronounce and write Polyclitus, and not Polycletus (see 
my remark on Cic-. in Verr. iv. 3.) ; Hilotes or Hilotae {Hotae^ for the Greek 
is E'/XwTfg or E'/Xwrat), and not Helotes. Before vowels, on the other hand, 
the Greek ei is sometimes changed into e, and sometimes into i ; the e 
appears, for example, in Aeneas and Medea, and the i in Iphigenia and 
elegia, whereas Alexandrea and Alexandria, Thucydideus and Thucydidiiis 
are used indiscriminately. In Cicero the forms Ariopagus and Ariopagitae, 
are better established than Areopagus, Areopagitae, and the like, which we 
commonly find in our editions, whereas the form Dareus is much more 
authentic according to the MSS. of Latin authors, than Darius. This fact 
is now generally acknowledged, and does not require here to be supported 
by authorities. 

[§ 2.] It was, however, only by degrees that the pronunciation and ortho- 
graphy became fixed, and this was mainly the work of the grammarians 
during the first centuries after Christ. Previously there existed many 
peculiarities in the pronunciation, which were also adopted in the written 
language, and some of these' are still retained in the texts of a few of the 
early writers, such as Plautus, Terence, and Sallust, for historical reasons, 
or, so to speak, from diplomatic fidelity. But such peculiarities should not be 
imitated by us, for they were gradually given up by the ancients themselves. 
With regard to pronunciation and orthography, we must necessarily adhere 
to the rules which were laid down by the ancient grammarians, who cer- 
tainly did not derive them from the vulgar idiom of the people, but from 
the uncorrupt and pure language of the educated classes. In the earliest 
times the broad pronunciation of the -long i was commonly indicated by ei, 
but without its being pronounced as a diphthong ei, which is foreign to the 
Latin language : for example, heic for hie, queis for quis (quibus), eidiis for 
idus, and in the accusative plural of the third declension when it terminates 
in is (see § 68.), such as omneis, arteis, for omnis and artis, which termina- 
tion of the accusative was subsequently changed into es. A middle sound 


between the two short vowels u and i was preserved, in some words, down to a 
still later time : and many persons pronounced and wrote luhet^ existumo, clu- 
peus, inclutus, satura, for lihet^ existimo, clipeus, &c. ; the adjective termination 
umus for iynus, as Jinitumus for JiJiitwms, and the superlatives optumus, 
maxumus, and pulcherrumus, for optimus, maximus^ &c. Julius Csesar declared 
himself in favour of i, which was afterwards adopted generally, although- the 
emperor Claudius wanted to introduce a new letter for the indefinite vowel 
in those words. We must further observe that in early times o was used 
instead of m, after the letter ??, e. g. volt^ volnus, avom, and even in the nomi- 
native avus instead of avus: in some words o took the place of e; for example, 
vorto and its derivatives for verto, voster for vester. U instead of e occurs 
in the termination of the participle undus for endus, and was retained in 
some cases in later times also. (See § 167.) Lastly, we have to mention 
that the vulgar pronunciation of au was 6 ; e. g. Claudius was pronounced 
as Clodius^ plaustrum as plostrum^ and plaudo as plodo ; but in some words 
this pronunciation, which in general was considered faulty, became estab- 
lished by custom, as in plostellum^ a little carriage, a diminutive form of 
plaustrum. This was the case more especially when the common mode of 
pronouncing served to indicate a difference in meaning, as in lotus^ washed, 
and lautus, splendid or elegant; and codex, a tablet for writing (or a book), 
and caudex, a block of wood. In the compounds of plaudo the form plodo 
thus became prevalent. 

[§ 3.] 2. The Consonants are, B, b; C, c; D, d; F,f; G, g; 

H, h; {K, k;) L, I; M, m; N, n; P, p; Q, q; R, r; S, s; 

T, t; X, x; (Z, 2"). With regard to their classification, it is 

only necessary here to observe that I, m, n, r, are called liquids 

(liquidae), and the rest mutes (mutae), with the exception of s, 

which, being a sibilant {litter a sibilans), is of a peculiar nature. 

The mutes may again be classified, with reference to the organ 

by which they are pronounced, into labials (y, 5, p, /), palatals 

{g, c, k, qu), and Unguals (d, t). X and z (called zeta) are 

double consonants, x being a combination of c and s, and z of 

d and s. , 

Note. It will be observed that there are some letters in our own alphabet 
which do not occur in this list : j and v were expressed by the Latins by 
the same signs as the vowels % and m, viz. / and V; but in pronunciation 
they were distinguished ; whence we hear of an i or v consonans ; and, like 
ordinary consonants, they make position when preceded by another con- 
sonant, and do not form an hiatus when preceded by a vowel. It is only in 
consequence of poetical licences which are rendered necessary by the metre 
(which however, at the same time, show the kindred nature existing between 
the sounds of the vowel and consonant), that the v is at one time softened 
down into u ; as, for example, when the words solvit and silva are made to 
form three syllables (comp. § 184.) : and, at others, the vowels i and u are 
hardened into the consonants j and v, which is very often the case with i; 
by this means the preceding short syllable is lengthened, as in the words 
abies, aries, consilium, fluvius, tenuis, and some others. Virgil, for example, 
uses Jluvjorum rex Eridanus ; Ovid, at the close of an hexameter verse, 

B 2 


custos erat arjetis aurei^ for arietis ; Lucretius, copia tenvis and neque ten- 
vius extai, for tenuis, tenuius. In cases where the preceding syllable is 
already long, the poet may at least get rid of a syllable which does not suit 
the verse, as in Juvenal, comitata est Hippia ludjum and nuper consule 
Junjo ; and (iv. 37.), Quum jam semjanimum laceraret Flavins orhem. We 
may therefore, in writing Latin, make use of the signs j and y, which are 
employed in modern languages, for the purpose of distinguishing the pro- 
nunciation before a vowel at the beginning of a syllable, and we need 
not retain the defective mode of writing of the Romans, since they viewed 
these letters just as we do, and would willingly have adopted so convenient 
a means of distinction if they had known it, or if their better knowledge 
had not been obliged to give way to habit. But this rule cannot be 
applied to Greek words, since i and v with the Greeks had only the na- 
ture of vowels. We therefore read locaste, iambus, lones, Laius, Agaue, 
euoe : and the i at the beginning of these words is treated as a vowel, 
in their connexion with prepositions, as in ab Ionia, ex Ionia. Some Greek 
proper names, however, are justly written and pronounced in Latin with 
a J, as G?'ajus, Ajax, Maja, Troja, Achaja. 

[§ 4.] H is only an aspiration ; it is not considered as a vowel, and there- 
fore when joined with a consonant it does not lengthen the preceding 
syllable. The ancients themselves (see Quintil. i. 5. § 21.) were in doubt 
with regard to several words, as to which was the more correct, to pronounce 
it or not ; for example, as to whether they should pronounce have or ave, 
hedera or edera, harundo or arundo, halucinor or alucinor, Tierus or eru^, 
veliemens or veemens (vemens), ahenum or aenum, mihi or mi, prehendo and 
deprehendo, or prendo and deprendo, and several other words, in which, how- 
ever, the orthography now adopted is the more correct of the two. 

The letter G arose out of C, for in the early times the sounds of li (c) 
and g were not distinguished in writing, on account of their similarity ; and 
although the Romans wrote, for example, leciones, yet they pronounced 
legiones. The fact of the prajnomina Oajus and Gnaeus, when indicated only 
by the initials, being frequently written C. and Cn., is a remnant of the old 
orthography ; and it is expressly attested by ancient grammarians (see, e. g., 
Quintil. i. 7. § 28.) as well as by the Greek mode of writing those names 
(Taioc, TvoXoq), that they were never pronounced otherwise than Gajus 
and Gnaeus, which was at the same time the invariable mode of writing them 
when they were given at full length. Even when the initials only are given, 
we meet with G. and Gn., just as often as with C. and Cn. 

[§ 5.J K became a superfluous letter in Latin, as its place was supplied by c. 
In early times it was chiefly used in words beginning with ca, such as kaput, 
Ttalumnia, Karthago ; but this is now done, according to the example of the 
ancients, in abbreviations only, such as K. for Kaeso, K, or Kal. for Ka- 

Q is in reality likewise a superfluous letter, not differing in value from 
c ; but it has been more fortunate than k in maintaining its place, at least 
in those cases where the sound of c is followed by u, and the latter by 
another vowel, as in quum, quern, qui, quo, antiquus. The first of these words 
is to be pronounced cudm, as a monosyllable ; and it remains doubtful as to 
whether the u is still a vowel, or assumes the nature of a consonant cvam. 
There are some few words in which the pronunciation and orthography 
hesitate between qu and c ; e. g., in coquus and equuleus : in some others c is 
known to be the correct pronunciation, from the testimony of the ancients 


themselves, although we still write qu^ partly for the sake of distinction, and 
partly for etymological reasons. Thus we distinguish the conjunction quum 
from the preposition cum ; and write quotidie and quotaiinis on account of 
their formation from quct^ and sequutus and loquutus on account of their 
derivation from sequor and loquor, although it is quite certain that all the 
Romans pronounced, and most of them also wrote, cum, cotidie (cottidie only 
to indicate the shortness of the vowel), secutus, locutus. The last two must 
absolutely be spelled secutm and locutus (see Schneider, Elementarlehre^ 
p. 332.) ; and with regard to the others, too, it is but just that we should 
follow the instructions of the ancients. The reader will find in this work 
the conjunction spelled quum; but he ought to remember, that it is done 
only for the purpose of distinguishing it, to the eye, from the preposition, and 
that it ought to be pronounced as cum* 

Z occurs only in words borrowed from the Greek, e. g. gaza, trapeza ; 
and w can be used only when modern words are introduced into the Latin 
language without undergoing any change in their orthography. 

[§ 6.] 3. Respecting the pronunciation of the consonants, it 
must be observed, that the rule with the Latins was to pro- 
nounce them just as they were written. Every modern nation 
has its own peculiar way of pronouncing them ; and among the 
many corruptions of the genuine pronunciation there are two 
which have become firmly rooted in nearly all Europe, and 
which it is, perhaps, impossible to banish from the language. 
We pronounce c, when followed by e, i, y, ae, or oe, both in 
Latin and Greek words, like our s, and when followed by other 
vowels or by consonants like a k. The Romans on the other 
hand, as far as we can ascertain, always pronounced c like k; 
and the Greeks, in their intercourse with the Romans, did not 
hear any other pronunciation. The earliest instance in which c 
was pronounced in this or a similar manner seems to have been 
when it was followed by i with another vowel after it, for the 
terminations tius and tia are so frequently used for cius and cia, 
that we must infer that they were similarly sounded. But even 
this similarity seems to have been foreign to the old and correct 
pronunciation. We pronounce ti before a vowel like slii, but 
likewise without any reason. But it is easy to discover the 
transition from the pure pronunciation to that which is now 
customary, for the ti in all these cases is short, and in quick 

* Lipslus, in his Dialogus de recta P?'onuntiatione Lingum LatincB, ex- 
presses himself upon the pronunciation of c in this remarkable manner : 
" Pudet non tam erroris quam pertinaclse, quia corripl patiuntur at non 
corrigi, ct tenent omnes quod defendat nemo. Itall, Hispani, GermanI, GalU, 
Britanni in hoc peccato : a qua gente initium emendandi ? Audeat enim 
una aliqua et omnes audient." 

B 3 


speaking it easily changes into shi. For this reason it would 
be quite wrong to pronounce the long ti in the genitive totius in 
the same manner, since there can be no excuse for it. But 
there are some cases in which even the short ti, according to the 
common pronunciation, is not read like shi: 1) in Greek words, 
such as Miltiades, Boeotia, Aegyptius; 2) when the t is pre- 
ceded by another t, by s or x, e. g. Bruttii, ostium, mixtio; and 
3) when it is followed by the termination of the infinitive 
passive er, as in nitier, quatier. 

Note. In many words it is difficult to determine whether they ought to 
be spelled with ci or ti. The question must be decided partly by a correct 
etymology, partly by the orthography adopted by the Greeks, and partly by an- 
cient and authentic inscriptions ; for nearly all our MSS. were made at a time 
when ci was pronounced in the wrong way, and was accordingly confounded 
with ti. Thus, it appears that in the derivative adjectives formed from nouns 
and participles we must write icius and not itius ; e. g. gentilicius, aedilicius, 
novicius, commendat icius, as, indeed, we always write patricius and the proper 
names Fahricius and Mawncius. We now commonly write conditio, though 
it is better to write condicio and dicio. In nuntius, and all its derivatives, on 
the other hand, the ti is correct ; and also in oiium, injitior (from fateoi-)., 
and fetialis (Greek (pTjridXaig). In inscriptions and ancient MSS. we find 
only contio, and not concio. 

[§ 7.] ikf at the end of a word (where it is always preceded by 
a vowel) was pronounced by the ancients more indistinctly than 
at the beginning of a word ; perhaps in the same manner as in 
the French le nom, where the m is heard much more indis- 
tinctly than in le midi. When the word following began with 
a vowel, the final m of the preceding word was not sounded at 
all, according to the testimony of the ancient grammarians, or it 
formed only a gentle transition from the one vowel to the other. 

S, like the Greek <r, was pronounced more sharply than with 
us ; a circumstance which accounts for some irregularities in the 
early orthography, such as the doubling of the s in caussa, as 
Cicero wrote according to an express testimony, though it was 
disapproved of as useless by the ancient grammarians. 

In the ancient pronunciation there must have been a peculiar 
resemblance between the letters s and r ; since it is mentioned 
by Varro (de Ling. Lot. vii. 6.) and others, that formerly, that 
is, before the Latin language had assumed a fixed form through 
its literature, s was pronounced in many words, for which af- 
terwards r was substituted, as in Papisius, Valesius, lases, eso, 
arbosem, melios. Some forms of this kind, such as honos, lepos. 


and arbos, were used down to a very late time, and occur even 
in the language of the classical writers. 

N'ote. This affinity between the two sounds accounts for various phenomena 
in the accidence of the Latin language (see Schneider, JSlementarlehre, 
p. 342. foil.) : but we do not by any means believe that the r in the above- 
mentioned words, and stiU less in all cases where it occurs between two 
vowels, is of later origin, or that it arose out of the 5, and that the latter was 
the original sound. The r after a vowel is just as ancient and original in 
the Latin language as the r after a consonant ; and wherever the s is not a 
mere dialectic peculiarity, as in arhosem, pignosa, robose, and majosihus^ it 
has taken the place of r for definite reasons observed in the formation of 
words. For example : we do not think that mosis, mosi, and mosem were 
the earlier and more genuine forms for moris, mori, morem ; or that the 
nominative mos contains the original form ; and that, in the other cases, the 
s was afterwards supplanted by r (as has been most confidently stated by 
Kriiger in his Grammatik der Lat. Sprache, p. 190. foil.); but we assert that 
mor is the true root, and that mosis^ mosi, and mosem, if they were used at 
all, arose merely from a difference in pronunciation. The nominative as- 
sumed the form mos instead of mor, because s was a kindred sound to r, and 
because in other cases, too, s is the sign of the nominative. 

[§ 8.] 4. The meeting of two vowels, one of which forms the 
ending and the other the beginning of a word, causes an hiatus 
or yawning. It is impossible to avoid it in the various com- 
binations of words, though it is never considered an elegance. In 
verse it is removed by the former of the vowels, whether it be 
short or long, being passed over in reading or speaking {elisioi). 
When therefore we find, e. g., sapere aude, or moid anus urnd, 
we pronouijce saper' aude and mof anus urna. (Comp. Heindorf 
on Horace, Serm. i. 9. 30.) How far anything similar was 
done in ordinary language (in prose), cannot be said with cer- 
tainty, although it is not improbable that at least short vowels, 
when followed by another vowel, were likewise passed over 
in quick speaking, and that people pronounced, for instance, 
namqu! erit tempus^ atqv! ego quum viderem. The aspirate h does 
not remove the hiatus, nor does it therefore prevent the elision 
of the first vowel in verse, so that we pronounce toller' humo, 
when we find it written tollere humo. As the m at the end of 
a word w^as not audibly uttered when the next word began 
with a vowel, the vowel preceding the m is likewise passed over 
in reading verse, although the word is written at full length. 
The hexameter line multum ille et terris jactatus et alto, is there- 
fore read muW ilV et terris, &c. In the compounds veneo for 
venum eo, and animadverto for animum adverto, this elision is 

B 4 


made also in writing. The earlier poets threw out the s in the 
terminations us and is when they were followed by consonants. 
Lucilius, e. g., says, Turn lateral^ dolor certissimv! nuntiu^ 
mortis; and even Cicero, in his youthful attempts at poetry 
sometimes did the same, as in de terra la-psv! repente, magniC 
leo and torvu^ draco : but, in the refined poetical language of the 
Augustan age, this elision was no longer customary. 

[§ ^.] Note 1. When the vowel thrown out by the elision is preceded by 
another one, the latter does not produce a disagreeable hiatus, as in Capitolia 
ad alta^ which is read in verse CapitoU ad alta. Nor is there any hiatus, 
and consequently no elision, when a long vowel at the end of a word is 
shortened, viz. in the case of monosyllabic words in the middle of the thesis 
of dactylic verses, and in the dissolved arsis of iambic and trochaic feet, and 
in the case of polysyllabic words at the end of the thesis of dactylic verses. 
See, for example, Horace, Serm. i. 9. 38. : Si me amas, inquit, paulum hie 
ades. Ovid, Metam. iii. 501. : dictoque vale vale inquit e.t Echo. Virgil, Mn. 
iii. 211. : insulae lonio in magna ; and many other passages. 

[§ 10.] Note 2. It was remarked above that the hiatus is not removed in 
writing ; and that, of the two vowels which produce it, the former is thrown 
out in reciting a verse. But an exception to this rule occurs when a word 
terminating in a vowel or an m is followed by the word est ; for in this case 
we find, at least in the critical editions of Plautus and Terence, that the first 
word is preserved entire, and that est loses its vowel. The texts therefore 
are written and pronounced temulenta 'st mulier^ homo 'st, molestum 'st. The 
same thing has been found here and there in very ancient MSS. containing 
fragments of Cicero's works, e. g. una natio 'st, difficile 'st, and in the oration 
for Milo : quae ilia barharia 'st. (See Niebuhr's note on the fragment pro 
Fontejo, p. 60.) In like manner we find est joined with a preceding word 
terminating in us., e. g. opust and dictust; but in this case it remains doubtful 
as to whether the s of opus is thrown out, or whether est has lost its first two 
letters. Something similar, though more rarely, occurs in the termination 
w, e. g. quali 'st. Whether the second person es was likewise joined with a 
preceding word terminating in us is uncertain. (See Schneider, Elemen- 
tarlehre, p. 162. foil.) 

[§ 11.] Note 3. The hiatus which occurs within a word is generally not 
removed ; and for this reason we did not notice it above. It should, how- 
ever, be observed, that two vowels of the same sound are frequently united 
(contracted) into one long vowel, and the poets always make dei'o and desse 
out of deero and deesse. This explains the forms nil for nihil., and deprendo 
for deprehendo, which arise from the elision of the aspirate. The contraction 
of two equal or unequal vowels in the perfect of verbs, after the elision of 
the V, is still more frequent ; e. g. audisti for audivisti, audiisti ; deleram 
for delcveram, norunt for noverunt, concerning which see § 160. It also 
not unfrequently happens in verse, that two different vowels are united, 
by a rapid pronunciation, into a diphthong; in which, however, both 
vowels are audible. This is called by a grammatical term st/naeresis, 
and occurs when the two vowels of the words dein., deinde, proin., proinde, 
huic and cm?', are united into diphthongs which are otherwise foreign to 
the Latin language. In this way alone it is possible to make use of the 
word fortuxtus in the dactylic hexameter ; and it is for the same purpose 


that in nouns terminating in eus, when this ending is preceded by a long 
syllable, we must contract into a diphthong not only the el in the genitive 
singular, and els in the ablative plural, but also ed and eo ; for example, 
alvel, aurei, Nerei, aureis (also anteis^ from the verb anteeo), Euryst eb, 
cerea, just as a synaeresis sometimes occurs in the Greek words S'soe, Nec- 
TTToXtixog, and ta. Some harsher kinds of synaeresis, such as quia, vTd^ vietisy 
and quoad, are found in the comic poets and in Lucretius. 

[§ 12.] 5. There is no necessity for giving any special rules 
about the ortlwgraphy in Latin, since there is absolutely nothing 
arbitrary in the spelling of words that requires to be learned: 
but there are a great many separate words, of which neither 
the pronunciation nor the spelling is established, and with regard 
to which the ancients themselves were uncertain even in the 
best times of their literature, as we see from the monuments 
still extant. We shall here notice a few things which have not 
been mentioned in our previous observations. We spell and pro- 
nounce anuluSf sucus, paulum, belua^ litus better with one con- 
sonant than with two ; whereas immo, nummus, sollemnis, sollers, 
solUcitus, Juppiter, and quattuor are more correctly spelled with 
two consonants than one. It is not certain whether we ought to 
write liter a or litter a, though in most MSS. the t is doubled. 
The authority of the ancient grammarians and the best MSS. 
teach us to spell the singular mille with a double, and the plural 
milia with a single /. The forms narus and navus are not cus- 
tomary now, though they appear to be better than gnarus and 
gnavus. Artus (narrow) is certainly better established than 
arctus ; auctor and aucturnnus, on the other hand, are justly 
preferred to autor and autumnus. The insertion of a /? between 
m and t, e. g. in emptus, sumpsi, rather facilitates the pronun- 
ciation than otherwise ; and the verb temptare is decidedly pre- 
ferable to the form tentare which is now commonly used, the 
former being found in the best MSS. The forms conjunx, 
quotiens, and totiens are demanded by most of the ancient gram- 
marians, and are found in good MSS., instead of conjux, quo- 
ties, and toties. The words caecus, maereo, are more correctly 
spelled with the diphthong ae than oe, and saeculum, saepire, and 
taeter are better with the diphthong than with the simple 
vowel e ; whereas in heres, fetus, femina, and fecundus, and 
therefore probably in fenus, fenoris also (which are of the same 
root), the simple vowel is better than the diphthong. But 
it is very doubtful whether we ought to write scena or 


scaena, and obsceniis or obscaemts or obscoenus. We do not 
notice any other points here, because the orthography now 
commonly adopted is the correct one. Compare Cellarius, 
Orthographia Latina, ed. Harles, Altenburg, 1768, 8vo ; and 
Schneider, Elementarlehre, Berlin, 1819, 8vo. 

[§ 13.] 6. The Romans had no other point than the full 
stop, and our whole artificial system of punctuation was un- 
known to them: but, to facilitate the understanding of their 
works, we now use in Latin the same signs which have become 
established in our own language. The peculiarities, however, 
in the formation of Latin sentences, the many complications 
of their parts, and the attraction of the relative pronouns, 
demand great caution in applying the signs of punctuation 
in order that we may not by the use of too many signs separate 
those parts of a sentence which belong to one another. 

7. With regard to the use of capital and small letters, it 
must be observed, that the Eomans, generally speaking, wrote 
only in capital letters {litterae unciales), until in the latest period 
of antiquity the small letters came into use, which are now 
always employed in writing Latin. Capital initials are at present 
used : a) at the beginning of a verse or at leist of a strophe ; Z>) 
at the beginning of a new sentence, both in prose and in verse, 
after a full stop, and after a colon when a person's own words 
are quoted ; c) in proper names, and in adjectives and adverbs 
which are derived from them, e. g., Latium, sermo Latinus, La- 
tins loqui ; d) in words which express a title or office, such as 
Consul, Tribunus, and Senaius, but not 'in their derivatives. 

8. The diaeresis (jpuncta diaereseos) is a sign to facilitate 
reading ; it is put upon a vowel which is to be pronounced se- 
parately, and which is not to be combined with the preceding one 
into a diphthong, as in aer, aeris, aerius, poeta ; and also in aura'i, 
vital, since ai is only an ancient form for ae. In cases where 
the diphthong would be foreign to the Latin language, the diae^ 
resis is unnecessary, as in diei, Persei, because there can be no 
fear of any one pronouncing the ei as a diphthong ; ferreus too 
does not require it, since in a Latin, word no one will regard eu 
as a diphthong. But we must write Gains and siluce, when the 
consonants j and v are to be pronounced as vowels. The signs 
to indicate the length or shortness of a vowel or a syllable 
(- and ^ ) were sometimes used by the ancients themselves. 




[§ 14.] 1. A VOWEL or a diphthong may by itself form a 
syllable, as in u-va^ me-o ; all other syllables arise from a com- 
bination of consonants and vowels. The Latin language allows 
only two consonants to stand at the end of a syllable, and three 
only in those cases where the last is s. At the beginning of a 
syllable, also, there can be no more than two consonants, except 
when the first is a c, p, or s, followed by muta cum liquida; 
and at the beginning of a word there never are three con- 
sonants, except in the case of sc, sp, and st being followed by an 
r or /; for example, do-ctrina, Ba-ctra, corru-ptrix, sce-ptrum, 
ca-stra, magi-stri, Isthmus; spretus, strenuus, scriba, splendor. 

2. It often appears doubtful as to how a word is to be di- 
vided into syllables, and where the division is to be made at the 
end of a line, when the space does not suffice. The following rules, 
however, which are founded on the structure of the language, 
should be observed : — 1) A consonant which stands between two 
vowels belongs to the latter, as in ma-ter, 2) Those consonants 
which, in Latin or Greek, may together begin a word, go 
together in the division of syllables ; e. g., pa-tris, and not 
pat-ris, as tr occur at the beginning of tres. In like manner, 
li'bri (brevis), i-gnis {gnomon), o-mnis, da-mnum. {fivdofiaC), 
a-ctus, pun-ctum {/crfj/uba), ra-ptus, scri-ptus, pro-pter {Ptole- 
m.acus)y Ca-dmus (8/j,(bs9)f re-gnum {^vovs), va-fre {fretus), a-thleta 
(^AtySo)), i-pse, scri-psi (yjravQ)), Le-shos {<r/3svwfjLi), e-sca, po-sco 
{scando)f a-sper, ho-spes {spes), pastor, faustus, iste (stare). 
The cases in which three consonants begin a syllable have been 
mentioned above. TVTienever there occurs any combination of 
consonants which cannot stand at the beginning of words, they 
are treated according to the analogy of the rest. All combi- 
nations of muta cum liquida, for instance, go together, as most 
of them may commence a word ; and we must therefore divide 
ara-chne, a-gmen, fra-gmentum, Da-phne, Pha-tnae, rhy-thmus, 
smara-gdus, and Lu^gdunum, since gd is to be treated like ct. 
3) In compound words, the division must be made so as to 
keep the parts distinct, as inter-eram (not inte-reram\ because 


the word is compounded of inter and eram. So also ab-utor, 
ah-rado, abs-condo, ahs-temius (from temetum), sus-cipio (from 
the form subs), dis-quiro, et-iam, ob-latum; and red-eo, red-undo^ 
prod-eo, and sed-itio, for the d, here inserted to prevent hiatus, 
must go with the preceding vowel, because, if added to the 
second, it would obscure the elements of the compound word. 
But when the component parts of a word are doubtful, or 
when the first word has dropped its termination to prevent 
hiatus, the syllables are divided as if the word were not a com- 
pound ; e. g., po-tes (from pote or potis es), ani-madverto and not 
anim-adverto, ve-neo (from venum eo), ma-gnanimus, am-hages, 
and lon-gaevus. 



[§ 15.] Syllables are long or short, either by the nature of 
the vowel they contain, or they become long by their short vowel 
being followed by two or more consonants, that is, by their 
position. We shall first speak of the natural length and short- 
ness of vowels. 

1. All Diphthongs are long, and also all those single vowels 
which have arisen from the contraction of two into one, such 
as CO go (from coago\ mdlo (from mdvolo), tibicen (from tibiicen 
and tibia, but tubicen from tuba), bigae (from bijugae), bubus and 
bobus (from bovibus), and so also dis for diis, gratis for gratiis, 
and ml for nihiL 

Note. The preposition prae is commonly made short when compounded 
with a word which begins with a vowel, e. g. Ovid, Metam. vii. 13L : Quos 
uU viderunt praeacutae cuspidis hastas. The reason for this peculiarity is 
explained in the rule following ; but there is no other instance in the Latin 
language of a diphthong standing before a vowel. It occurs o_nly in Greek 
proper names, in which however the diphthong remains long, as Aeolides Sisy- 
phus^ and Aeeta relictus, for the examples which are adduced as proofs of the 
diphthong being shortened (Ovid, Heroid. vi. 103., and Trist iii. 12. 2.) are 
not decisive. 

2. A Vowel is short, when it is followed by another vowel 
( Vocalis ante vocalem brevis est), as in deus, Jilius, plus, riio, 
corrito ; and, as h is not considered as a consonant, also in such 
words as trdho, contrdho, veho, and adveho. 


[§ 16.] Note. Exceptions. — 1) The vowel e in eheu is always long, the 
o in ohe is frequently long, and the i in Diana sometimes. 2) The e in the 
termination of the genitive and dative of the fifth declension is long when it 
is preceded by a vowel, as in diei^ speciei. 3) a is long in the obsolete ending 
of the genitive in the first declension, as in aurai and pictdi, for aurae and 
pictae, in Virg. 4) a and e are long in the vocative terminations di and ei of 
the words ending in ajvs and ejus ; e. g., Gai, Vultei. (See Chap. XI. note 3.) 
5) All the genitives in ius^ except altcrius, have the i commonly long; the 
poets however use the i in illiusj istius, ipsius, unius^ totius^ uUius, and utrius^ 
sometimes as a long and sometimes as a short vowel. The instances of the i 
in solius being shortened cannot be relied upon ; but allus^ being a contrac- 
tion for aliius^ can never be made short. Alierius, on the other hand, is 
sometimes made long (see § 49.). 6) The verb jfto has the i long, except 
when an r occurs in it. Ovid, Trist. i. 8. 7.: Omnia jam f lent, fieri quae posse 
negdbam. 7) Greek words retain their own original quantity, and we there- 
fore say der^ eos (^wg), Amphlon, Agesildus^ and Meneldus. The e and i in the 
terminations ea and eM5, or ia and iu^, therefore, are long when they represent 
the Greek na and uoq (the Komans, not having the diphthong ei in their 
language, represent the Greek ei sometimes by e and sometimes by i, but 
these vowels, of course, are always long) ; e. g., Galatea^ Medea^ JEneas, 
Dareus or Darius, Iphigenia, Alexandria, Antiochia, Nicomedla, Samaria^ 
Seleucia, Thalia, Arms, Basilius, nosocomium, and the adjectives JBpicureus, 
Pythagoreus, spondeus, and the like : but when the Greek is ta or la, the e 
and i are short, as in idea, philosophia, theologia. The same is the case with 
the patronymic words in ides, since the Greek may be icrjg, as in Priamides 
and jEacides; or eicng, as in Atrides, Pelides, which are derived from Atreus 
and Peleus. The only exceptions to this rule are, \k12Xplatea (a street) has 
the e short, though according to the Greek TtXaTua it ought to be loVig, and 
that chorea is sometimes used instead of chorea (xoptia). Some of the late 
Roman poets use academia instead of academia, although in Greek writers it 
is always long, whether spelled with n or with /. 

Note 2. It is a part of the above rule, that a long vowel or diphthong 
at the end of a word, when the word following begins with a vowel, is usually 
made short in the thesis of a verse. (See above, Chap. I. 4. note 1.) 

[§ 17.] 3. Usage {auctoritas) alone makes the vowel in the 
first syllable of mater, f rater, pravus, mano (I flow), dico, duco, 
miror, nitor, scribo, dono, pono, utor, muto, sumo, cura, &c. long ; 
and short in pater, avus, cado, maneo, gravis, rego, tego, hibo, 
minor, colo, moror, probo, domus, sono, soror, and others. It 
must be presumed that the student makes himself acquainted 
with the quantity of such words as these by practice, for rules can 
be given only with regard to derivatives. It must further be 
observed, that the i in the following words is long : formica, 
lectlca, lorica, vesica, urtica, hemina, resina, sagina, saliva, castigo, 

a) Derivative words retain the quantity of their root, as in 
declension and conjugation : thus the a in amor and amo is 
short, and therefore also in dmoris, amat, dmabam, dmavi, &c. ; 


except when the consonants after the vowel of the root produce 
a difference. New words formed from roots likewise retain the 
quantity; as ivovaamo — amor, amicus^ amabilis; from lux, lucis 
— luceo, lucidus ; from mater — mdternus, mdtertera ; and from 
finis — finio, f initio, finitimus, 8zc, 

[§18.] Witli regard to Conjugation, however, the following rules also 
must be observed. 

1. The perfect and supine, when they consist of two syllables, and the 
tenses formed from them, have the first syllable long, even when in the present 
tense it is short, e. g., video, vldi ; fUgio, fugi ; lego, legi, legisse, legeram, &c. 
(except, however, when one vowel stands before another, in which case the 
general rule remains in force, as in ruo, rui^ dirUi); video, visum; moveo, 
motum, motus, moturus. Seven dissyllable perfects, however, and nine dis- 
syllable supines, together with their compounds, make their penultima short ; 
viz. bibi, dedi\fidi (Jvom Jindo), steti, stiti, tUli, and scidi (from scindo), and 
datum, rdtum., sdtum, itum, litum, citum, quitum, situm, and i^iitum. Sisto makes 
its supine stdtum, whence status, a, um, and the compounds adstitum, destitum, 

2. Perfects which are formed by reduplication, as tundo, tutudi; cano, cecini; 
pello, pepuli, have the first two syllables short: but the second sometimes 
becomes long by position, as in mordeo, momordi; tendo, tetendi. Pedo and 
caedo are the only two words which retain the long vowel in the syllable 
which forms the root, pepedi, cecidi; whereas ccido, in accordance with the 
rule, has cecidi. 

3. The perfect posui and the supine positum have the o short, although in 
pono it is long. 

With regard to Declension, we must notice the exception that the words 
Zar, par, sal, and pes, shorten their vowel throughout their declension : sdlis, 
pedis, &c. 

[§ 19.] In the formation of new words by Derivation, there are several 
exceptions to the above rule. The following words make the short vowel 
long: mdcer, mdcero; legere, lex, legis, legare; rego, rex, regis, regula; tego, 
tegula; secus, secius ; sedeo, sedes; se?^o, semen, sementis ; lino, litera (if we 
do not prefer littera); stips, stipis, stlpendium; suspicor, suspicio ; persdno, 
persona ; vdco, vox, vocis ; and homo, Immanus. The following words have a 
short vowel, although it is long in the root: Idhare from Idhi; ndtare from 
ndre ; pdciscor from pax, pads ; ambitus and ambitio from amhlre, ambltum ; 
dicax from dicere; fides and perfidus £romfido and fidus (and we regu- 
larly find infidus) ; mdlestus from moles; ndta and ndtare from notus; odium 
from odi; sdpor I'rom sopire; dux, ducis, and i^edux, reducis, from dUco ; lucerna 
from luceo ; stdtus, stdtio, stdbilis, stabulum, must be derived from sisto, unless 
we suppose that they are likewise shortened from stdtum (from stare). 

[§ 20.] The Terminations, or final syllables, by means of which an adjective 
is formed from a verb or a substantive, are of a different kind. Among these 
alis, aris, arius, aceus, anus, ivus, and osus, have a long vowel ; but idus, icus, 
and icius, a short one; e.g., letdlis, vulgdris, montdnus, aestlvus, vindsus, 
avidus, bellicus, pat7'icius. A long i, however, occurs in amicus, apricus, pu- 
dicus, anticus, and posticus, and in the substantives mendicus and umbilicus. 
The terminations ilis and bilis have the i short when they make derivatives 
from verbs, but long when from substantives ; e. g., facilis, docilis, and amabilis, 
but civilis, hostilis, puerilis, senilis, &c. The i in the termination inus may be 


long or short : it is long in adjectives derived from names of animals and 
places, as ansei^lnus^ asininus^ equlnus, hiplnus, Caudinus, Latlnus^ and a few 
others, such as divlnus, genuiniis, cknidestlnus^ ijitestinus, martnus, pereginnus^ 
and viclnus; it is short in most adjectives which express time, as crastmus, 
diutinns^ pristinus^ serotinus, honwtinus^ perendinus^ and in those which indicate 
a material or substance, as adamantmus^ bomhycinus^ crystallXnus, elephanttnus^ 
cedrinus, fagmus, oleaginus. Some adjectives expressive of time, however, 
have the i long, viz. matutinus, vespertlnus, and repentmus. 

[§ 2l] b) Compounded words retain the quantity of the 
vowels of their elements : thus from avus and nepos we make 
abcivus and abnepos, from prdvus deprdvo, from probus improbus, 
from jus (juris) perjurus, from le^o (I read) perlego, and from 
lego (I despatch) ablego, delego, collega. Even when the vowel is 
changed, its quantity remains the same: e. g., laedo, illido; caedo, 
inc'ido; aequus^ imquus; fauces, suffoco; claudo, recludo; fdcio, 
efflcio; cddo, incido; rdtus, irritus; rego, erigo; lego, eUgo, We 
may therefore infer from compounded words the quantity of 
those of which they consist; e. g., from adoro, admiror, and abutor 
we conclude that oro, miror, and utor have the first syllable long ; 
and from commoror and desuper, that the first syllable in moror 
and super is short, which is not always accurately distinguished 
in pronunciation, because these syllables have the accent. (See 
Chap. lY.) 

"We shall mention here, by way of example, a few more compounds from 
which the quantity of the vowels in their elements may be inferred. We 
shall choose such as cannot be mentioned in any of the subsequent lists, and 
present them in the tliird person singular of the present tense. We have a 
long vowel in exhdlat, concldmat, alldtrat, delibat, constlpat, evitat, h^ritaty 
deplorat, enodat, compotat^ refutat^ obdurat, and communit ; and a short one in 
exdrat, comparat, endtat^ irrigate alltgat^ perfricat^ erudit, expolit, devorat, 
comprdbat^ computat, recubat, and suppiidet. 

But there are some exceptions, and the following compounded words 
change the long vowel into a short one : dejero and pejero from juro ; cau- 
sidiciis, fatidicus^ maledicus, veridicus, from dicere ; agnitus and cogmtus from 
votiLS ; mnub(us), -a, and pronub(us), -a, from nubo. The case is reversed 
in imbecillus from bdculus. 

[§ 22.] In respect to Composition with Prepositions, it is to be remarked, 
that prepositions of one syllable which end in a vowel are long, and those 
which end in a consonant are short : deduco^ dboleo, perimo. Tra (formed 
from trans)^ as in trddo, trdduco, is long ; but the o (for ob) in omitto and 
dperior is short. Pro, in Greek words, is short, as in prdpheta, but prologus; 
prdpola, and propino form exceptions. In Latin words pro is long, e. g. 
prOdo, promitto : but in many it is short ; prdfugio, profugus, pronepos, prd- 
jiteor, prof art, prof amis, profestus, profecto, profciscor, profundus, prdiervus, 
procella, and a few others, the derivation of which is doubtful, as prdceres, 
propitius, prdperare ; in some the quantity is undecided. Se and di (for dis) 


are long ; the only exceptions are dirimo and disei^tus. Re is short ; it is long 
only in the impersonal verb refert * ; in all other cases where it appears 
long, the consonant which follows it must be doubled (in verse), as in rep- 
puli, repperi, rettuU, rettudi, reccido, redduco, relligio^ relliquiae; the four 
perfects reppuli^ repperi^ rettuli and rettudi appear to have been pronounced 
and spelled in this way, even in prose. In the same manner reddo^ reddere^ 
arose from do. The termination a in prepositions of two syllables is long, 
as in contradico ; all the others are short, as aniefero^ praetereo. 

[§ 23.] When the first word of a composition is not a preposition, it is 
necessary to determine the quantity of the final vowel (a, e, z, o, 7i, y) of the 
first word. 1) a is long, as in qudre and qudpropter^ except in quasi. 2) e 
is mostly short, as in calefacio (notice especially neque, nequeo, nefas, nefastuSy 
nefariuSy nefandus)^ but long in nequam^ nequidquam, nequaquam and nemo 
(which is contracted from ne and hemo, the ancient form for homo} ; also in se- 
decim and the pronouns memet, mecum, tecum, and secum ; in veneficu^, videlicet^ 
vecors, and vesanus. 3) i is short, e. g. significo, sacrilegus, cornicen, tuhicen, 
omnipotens, undique ; but long in compounded pronouns, as quiUbet, utrlque^ 
in ibidem, ublque, utroblque, llicet and scilicet; also in the compounds of 
dies, as biduum, triduum, merldies ; and lastly, in all those compounds of 
which the parts may be separated, such as lucrifacio, agrlcultura, siquis^ 
because the i at the end of the first word is naturally long, and remains so. 
4) o is short, hodie, duodecim, sacrosanctus, but long in compounds with 
contro, intro, retro, and qvxmdo {quxxndoquidem alone forms an exception) ; it 
is long in alioqui, ceteroqui, utroque, and in those Greek words in which 
the o represents the Greek w, as in geometria. 5) u and y are short, as in 
quadrupes, Polyphemus. 

4. In regard to the quantity of Final Syllables, the following 
special rules must be observed : — 

A. Monosyllabic Words. 

[§ 24.] 1) All monosyllables ending in a vowel are long ; 
except the particles which are attached to other words : que, ve, 
ce, ne, te (tute), pse (reapse), and pte (suopte). 

Note. Ne, the interrogative particle, is always short, and is attached to 
other words as an enclitic, as in videsne, dost thou see ? or dost thou not 
see ? In the ordinary pronunciation it was still more shortened by throwing 
off the vowel, as in credon' tibi hoc nunc ? and, in case of an s preceding, this 
letter was likewise dropped, as airC tu ? for aisne tu f satin' recte ? satin' 
salvae ? for satisne recte ? satisne salvae ? The conjunction ne (lest, or that 
not) is long. Respecting ne, as an inseparable negative particle in compo- 
sitions, see above, § 23. 

2) Among the monosyllables ending in a consonant, the sub- 
stantives are long, as sol, vir,fur, jus; and all those are short 

* The re in this word is probably not a particle as in relego, but the 
accusative of the word res, so that refert is equal to rem fert. This 
would account for the length of the e. (See Key, J'he Alphabet, p. 78.) 


which are not substantives, as ict, et, nee, in, an, ad, quid, sed, quis, 
quot. The following substantives however are short : cor, fel, 
mel, vir and os (gen. ossis), and probably also mas, a male being, 
and vas, a surety, since they have the a short in the genitive : 
mdrii, vddis. Some words, on the other hand, are long, although 
they are not substantives ; as en, non, quin, sin, eras, plus, eur, 
and par with its compounds, and also the adverbs in ie or ue, as 
sic, hie, hue. The monosyllabic forms of declension and conju- 
gation follow the general rules about the quantity of final syl- 
lables, and das, fies, and seis accordingly are long, while ddt, flet, 
and scit are short ; his, quos, quas are long, like the terminations 
OS and as in declension. So also the ablative singular hoe and 
hde. The nominative hie and the neuter hoc, on the other hand, 
although the vowel is naturally short, are commonly used as 
long, because the pronunciation was hice and hocc (as a compen- 
sation for the ancient form hice, hoee). The abridged impera- 
tives retain the quantity of the root, so that die and due are 
long, while /«c smdfer are short. 

Note, We formerly thought with other grammarians, that fdc was long, 
and that we ought to read /ace in those passages in which it is found short. 
(See Heinsius and Burmann on Ovid, Heroid. ii. 98.) But there is no 
satisfactory evidence for fac being long, and the instances quoted by Vos- 
sius (Aristarch. ii. 29.) have now been altered for other reasons. 

B. Final Syllables in Wobds op two or more Syllables. 

[§ 25.] 1) Such as terminate in a Vowel. 

A is short in nouns, except in the ablative singular of the first 
declension and in the vocative of Greek proper names in as 
which belong to the first or third declension, e. g. j^fied, Palld. 
A is long in verbs and indeclinable words, such as amd, frustrd, 
ergd, anted, and posted (except when separated into post ea\ 
except itd, quid, ejd, and the imperative putd in the sense of 
"for example." In the indeclinable numerals, as triginta and 
quadraginta, the a is sometimes long and sometimes short. 

E is short, as in patre, curre, nempe; but long in the ablative 
of the fifth declension and in the imperative of the second con- 
jugation; the poets however, and especially the comic ones, 
sometimes shorten the imperative of the words cave, habe, juhe, 
mane, tace, vale, and vide. Adverbs in e formed from adjec- 
tives of the second declension are likewise long, as docte, recte; 



nho fere, fer me, and ohe (but bene and male are always short, and 
inferne and superne sometimes), and Greek words of the first 
declension terminating in e, as crambe, Circe, and Greek plurals, 
as Tempe and cete. 

[§ 26.] / is long. It is short only in the vocative of Greek 
words in is, e. g. Alexi, in the Greek dative in i, which however 
occurs seldom, as in Palladia Tethyi, and in nisi, quasi, and cm, 
when it is used as a dissyllable. The i is common or doubtful 
in mihi, sibi, ibl and ubi; in compounds we commonly find ibi- 
dem and always ubique, whereas in ubivis and ubinam the i is 
always short. . In uti for 7it the i is long, but in the compounds 
utinam and utique short. 

O is common in the present tense of all the conjugations, and 
in the nominative of the third declension, as in sermo, virgo; 
the Greek words in o (&>, Gen. ovs) however remain long in 
Latin, as Id, Dido. But o is long in the second declension, 
as in lecto, and in adverbs formed from nouns and pronouns 
by means of this termination (see §264.); e. g. vulgo, falso, 
paulo, eo, quo, and also ergo, iccirco, quando, and retro. In the 
poets however gerunds and the following adverbs are some- 
times short : ergo in the sense of " therefore," porro, postremo, 
sero, quando (the compound quandoquidem occurs only with a 
short o). The adverbs modo (with all its compounds, and also 
quomodo), cito, illico, and immo, and also cedo (for die or da), ego, 
duo, and octo are always short, whereas ambo is generally long. 

Note. 6> as a termination of verbs has been here described as common ; 
it must however be observed, that it is naturally long, and is used so by 
most poets of the best age, such as Virgil, Horace (in his Odes)^ and Ovid 
(in his Metamorphoses)^ in their serious productions. In their lighter poems 
however, and in the works of later poets, it is also used short, according to 
the example of the comic poets, though this was done at first less frequently, 
until at last it became the prevalent custom to make the o short. (See 
Lennep's elaborate note on Ovid, Heroid. xv. 32., reprinted in the edition of 
Loers.) The same is the case with o in substantives of the third declension, 
for the earlier poets always prefer using it as a long syllable. 

Uis> always long, as in diu, vultu, cornu. 
Y\Vi Greek words is always short. 

2) Such as terminate in a Consonant. 

[§ 27.] All final syllables ending in a consonant are short, and 
special rules arc required only for those ending in the sibilant s. 


Note. The dissyllabic compounds of par retain the quantity of the 
single word, and the cases of istic and illic follow those of hie. (See § 131.) 
Greek words retain their original quantity in their final syllables, except 
those in or, as Hector, Nestor, which are short in Latin, although in Greek 
they end in utp. The only exceptions in genuine Latin words are lien 
(formed from lienis which is still used) and alec. 

[§ 28.] As is lon^ in Latin words, with the exception of anas, 
anatis ; but the Greek nominatives in as, which make their 
genitives in ahos and in Latin in adis, such as, Ilias, Pallas, and 
the Greek accusatives plural of the third declension, are always 
short, as in herods. 

Es is long, e. g. ames, leges, audies, pati'es. But Latin no- 
minatives in es, which increase in the genitive, and have their 
penultima short, are themselves short ; e. g. miUs, militis ; seges, 
segetis (except ahies, aries, paries, Ceres, and the compounds of 
pes') ; also the nominatives plural of Greek words, which increase 
in the genitive singular, as Amazones, Troades ; the preposition 
penes and the second person of the compounds of sum, h, 
e. g. abes, potes ; but the es (for edis) from edo is long, (See 

[§ 29.] Is is generally short, but long in all the cases of the 
plural, as armis, vohis, omnis (accus. for omnes) ; in the second 
person singular of verbs whose second plural is itis, that is, 
in the fourth conjugation, and in possis, veils, noils, malls, and 
vis (thou wilt), with its compounds, such as mavis, quivls, 
quamvls. Respecting the quantity of is in the perfect sub- 
junctive and in the second future see § 165. Is, lastly, is long 
in proper names of the third declension, which, increasing in 
the genitive, have their penultima long ; e. g. Quirls, Ids ; Sam- 
nis, Itis ; Salamls, Inis ; Simols, entis. 

Os is long, as in nepos, honos, viros ; it is short only in 
compos and impos, and in Greek words and cases in 09, e. g. 
Delos, Erinnyos. 

Us is short in verbs and nouns except monosyllables, but 
long in the genitive singular, in the nominative and accusative 
plural of the fourth declension, and in the nominatives of the 
third, which have u in the genitive, as virtus, utis ; palus, udis. 
It is also long when it represents the Greek ovs, as in Panthus, 
Melampus, Sapphus, (Comp. § 59.) 

Ys in Greek words is short, as Halys, Tethys, chlamys, and 

c 2 


long only in the few instances in which the yis of the genitive is 
contracted into ys, 

[§ 30.] 5. Syllables (as was remarked in the beginning of this 
chapter) may become long by their vowel being followed by 
two or more consonants, that is, by their position : x and z are 
accounted as two consonants. (See above, § 3.) A position 
may be formed in three ways: — 1. When a syllable ends in 
two or three consonants, as in ex, est, mens, stirps. — 2. When 
the first syllable ends in a consonant and the second begins with 
one, as in ille, arma, mentis, in nova. — 3. When the first syllable 
ends in a vowel, and the one following begins with two con- 
sonants. By the first and second kinds of position, a syllable 
which is naturally short becomes long. Exceptions to this rule 
occur only in the comic poets who frequently neglect position, 
especially that of the second kind. 

Note. In syllables long by position we usually pronounce the vowel 
itself short ; but the ancients in their pronunciation even here distin- 
guished the long vowel from, the short one, just as in Greek we must pro- 
nounce Trpaxraix) with a long a, because it is naturally long, as we see from 
irpa^iQ and Trpayfxa. With regard to other vowels, we are assisted by the 
Greek signs tj, w, and f, o ; but in Latin words, unless we can be guided'by 
verse, we can derive information only from etymology and from the state- 
ments of the ancient grammarians. Thus they distinguished est (he is) from 
est (for edit), and they pronounced the vowel in con and in when followed 
in compounds by f or s, long, as in Infelix, Insanus, consul, confecit. (See 
Cicero, Orat. 48.) Dens, gens, mens, fons, frons, and mons, were uttered 
with a long vowel, and in like manner pax, lex, lux, rex, and vox, because 
they have their vowel long in the genitive also (plebs, plebis, belongs to the 
same class) ; whereas fax, nex, nix, nux, were pronounced with their vowel 
short, because they form the genitive facts, necis, &c. (Comp. Schneider, 
Elementarl. p. 108. foil) 

[§ 31.] In the third kind of position (made by two consonants 
beginning the syllable after a vowel), we must distinguish as to 
whether it occurs within a word or between two words, and 
whether the consonants are muta cum liquida, or not. Within 
a word a syllable ending in a short vowel is regularly made 
long, when it is followed by two consonants or x and z, as in 
a-ptus, fa-ctus, a-xis ; but when the first consonant is a mute 
and the second a liquid (which is called positio dehilis), they 
make the vowel only common, according to the pronunciation in 
prose. Thus, we may pronounce either cerebrum, luguhris, me- 
diocris, integri, or cerebrum, lugubris, mediocris, integri. Ovid, 
for example, says : — Et primo similis volUcri, mox vera volUcris. 


{Metam, xiil. 607.) Between two words the vowel is rarely- 
lengthened, except in the arsis of a verse. The last syllable of a 
word thus remains short, e. g. in Horace at the beginning 
of an hexameter: — quern mala stuliitia aut; or at the end: 
praemia scribae. An instance in which the vowel is lengthened 
by the accession of the arsis occurs in Virgil, Bucol. iv. 51. : — 
Terrasque tractusque maris coelumque profundum. 

Qu is not accounted as two consonants, for ?/ is not a true 
consonant, though we usually pronounce it as such. But j 
alone is sufficient to make position, because this consonant was 
pronounced double (in early times it was also written double) ; 
e. g. major like maijor, and in like manner in ejus and Troja, 
In the compounds oiju^um alone it does not lengthen the pre- 
ceding vowel, as Mjugus, quadrijugus, nor does it, according to 
the rule mentioned above, lengthen the vowel when it begins 
a new word, and the preceding word ends in a short vowel, as in 
the hexameter of Virgil (^Georg. i. 125.): — Ante Jovem nulli 
subigebant arva coloni. 

Note. The determination of the quantity of a vowel before muta cum 
liquida within a word has great difficulties, and we must add the following 
observations. The practice of the different poets varies greatlj. Virgil, e.g., 
is particularly fond of lengthening a vowel by its position before muta cum 
liquida; and he and the poets in general usually contrive to make the vowel 
thus lengthened coincide with the arsis in the verse ; by the same con- 
trivance he also lengthens the short final syllable of a word, especially the 
enclitic que^ in the second foot of an hexameter, by the muta cum liquida 
which follow it. We have further to observe particular words which have 
their vowel short, viz. liber^ niger^ joiner, and ruber ; but in their inflections, 
where the muta cum liquida occurs, the vowel almost always becomes long; 
coluber^ e. g., is short ; but colUbrae, colUhris^ are long, and migro is made 
long by the best poets in the hexameter. Other words however are either 
never lengthened, as arhitror^ or very seldom, as locHples. There are, on the 
other hand, some cases of muia cum liquida^ which form a strong position 
both in Latin and Greek, viz. where the liquid is either Z, m., or w, and the 
mute either &, g, or d. (See Buttmann's Greek Grammar, § 7. 10.) Thus 
the Latin words publicum, agmen, regnum and ignarus, always have their 
first syllable long. 

It is almost superfluous to repeat here, that we are speaking only of such 
vowels as are naturally short ; for, when the vowel is naturally long, a 
lengthening by positio dehilis is out of the question, and we therefore always 
say ambulacrum, lavdcrum, delubrum, involucrum and salubris. When the 
consonants muta cum liquida belong to different syllables, as in ab-luo, ob-ruo. 
quam-ob-rem, they make real position. 

c 3 




[§ 32.] 1. It is a general rule that every word has an accent on 
one particular syllable. This accent is twofold, either the cir- 
curnflex {^), or the acute ('), for what is called the grave in Greek 
means only the absence of either accent. Some words have no 
accent, viz. the enclitics ne, que, ve, ce, which never appear by 
themselves, but are attached to other words. Prepositions lose 
their accent when they precede the cases which they govern. 

Note. The addition of these enclitics produces a change in the accent of 
the words to which they are attached, and which thus become compounds. 
The ancient grammarians have established the rule, that whenever an 
enclitic has a meaning of its own, the accent is thrown back upon the 
syllable immediately before the enclitic, and either as the acute (if the vowel 
of that syllable is short), or as the circumflex (if the vowel is long), as in 
Musdque (nominat.) homineque^ and Musaque (ablat.) armisque. When, on 
the other hand, the enclitic, has no meaning by itself, and forms only one 
word with that to which it is attached, the accent varies, as will be shown 
hereafter. This is the case with que ; for in some compounds it either does 
not possess the meaning of " and " at all, or only very indistinctly. Hence 
in itdque (and so) the accent belongs to the short penultima, and in itaque 
(therefore), in which the meaning of "and" is quite obscured, the pronun- 
ciation .places the accent upon the antepenultima. In the same manner we 
have to distinguish between utique (and that) and utique (certainly). By 
way of exception the same grammarians place the accent on the penultima 
in utrdque and plerdque^ on account of the accent of the masculine forms 
uterque and plerique^ although according to the general rule, que not meaning 
" and," we ought to pronounce utraque and pleraque. They further inform 
us that we should pronounce nequando and siquando^ in order that quando 
may not be taken for a separate word, and aliquando in order to distinguish 
it from aliqudnto. 

[§ 33.] 2. Monosyllables are pronounced with the circum- 
flex, when their vowel is long by nature and not merely by 
position, as in dvs, mos, Jlos, jus, lux, spes, fans and mans ; but 
^vhen the vowel is naturally short, they are pronounced with the 
acute, although the syllable may be long by position ; e. g. drs, 
pars, fax, dux. 

Note. Sic (so) the adverb should be pronounced with the circumflex, 
and sic^ which indicates a wish, with the acute ; e. g. Sic te, diva potens 
Cypri, &c. in Horace Comp. Priscian, De XII. Vers. jEn. 


3. Words of two syllables have the accent on the first, either 
as circumflex, when the vowel of that syllable is naturally long, 
and that of the second one short ; or as acute, when the vowel of 
the first syllable is short and that of the second long ; or when 
the vowel of the first as well as that of the second is long ; e. g. 
Roma, musd, luce, juris ; but homo because both syllables are 
short ; deas, because the first is short and the second long ; arte, 
because the first is long only by position ; and doti, for although 
the vowel of the first is naturally long, yet that of the second is 
likewise long. The ancient grammarians do not notice those 
cases where a syllable long by position is at the same time long 
by the nature of its vowel (see above, § 30.); but it is pro- 
bable that consul, monte, dente, esse (for edere), asthma and 
sceptrum, were pronounced in the same manner as luce. 

4. Words of three syllables may have the accent on the ante- 

penultima and penultima ; the acute on the antepenultima, 

when the penultima is short, as in caedere, pergere, homines ; the 

accented syllable itself may be long or short. The circumflex 

is placed on the penultima on the conditions before-mentioned, 

as in amdsse, Romdnus ; and the acute, when those conditions do 

not exist, and yet the penultima is long, as in Romdnis, Me- 

tellus. No word can have the accent further back than the 

antepenultima, so that we must pronounce Constantinopolis, sol- 


Note. Priscian (p. 803. ed. Putsch.) remarks as an exception, that the 
compounds oi facer e., which are not formed by means of a preposition, such 
as calefdcit^ tepefacit.^ and (p. 739.) the contracted genitives in i instead 
of ii (see § 49.), have the accent on the penultima, even when it is short, as 
in ingeni, Valeri, so that we must pronounce calefdcit, ingeni. He asserts 
the same with regard to the vocative of proper names in ius, e. g. VirgUij 
Valeri; while other grammarians (A. Gellius, xiii. 25.) leave to this case its 
regular accentuation, Virgili and not Virgili. 

[§ 34.] 5. Words of two or more syllables never have the ac- 
cent on the last, and it appears that it was only the grammarians 
who invented a different mode of accentuation for the purpose 
of distinguishing words which would otherwise sound alike. 
They tell us that the words pone (behind) and ergo (on account 
of) should have the accent on the last syllable, to distinguish 
them from pone (put) and ergo (therefore). They further accen- 
tuate the last syllables of the adverbs circum, docte, raro, primo, 
solum, and modo, to distinguish them from the cases which have 

c 4 


the same terminations. The interrogatives quando, qualis, 
quantus, uhi, and others, are said to have the accent on the first 
syllable, according to the rule ; but when used in the sense of 
relatives, to have the accent on the last syllable, unless the acute 
be changed into the grave by reason of their connection with 
other words which follow. The words ending in as which ori- 
ginally ended in atis, such as optimaSf nostras, Arpinas, are said 
to have the accent on the syllable on which they had it in their 
complete form, and which is now the last. The same is asserted 
with regard to the contracted perfects, such as audit for audivit. 
It is impossible to determine how much of all this was really 
observed by the ancients, since it is expressly attested by earlier 
writers, such as Quintilian, that in Latin the accent was never 
put on the last syllable. But it is certainly wrong to put the 
grave on the last syllable of all adverbs, as some persons still do, 
or to use accents for the purpose of indicating the natural length 
of a vowel, which is better expressed by a horizontal line ("). 

[§ 35.] 6. These rules concerning accentuation ought to lead 
us to accustom ourselves to distinguish accent from quantity ; 
to read, for example, homines and not homines, and to distinguish 
in our pronunciation edo (I eat) from edo (I edit), lego (I read) 
from lego (I despatch), and in like manner jfz^m (thou rarest), 
legis (thou readest) and regis (thou rulest) from the genitives 
furis, regis and legis; further, levis (light) from levis (smooth), 
mdlus (bad) from mdlus (an apple-tree), pdlus, udis (a marsh), 
from pdluSf i (a post), dnus (an old woman) from anus {irpwKTos), 
lutum (mud) from lutum (a dyer's weed), and also lu'teus (dirty 
or muddy) from lu'teus (yellow), and po'pulus (the people) from 
po'puhis (a poplar). In our own language accent and quantity 
coincide, but it is very wrong to apply this peculiarity to a lan- 
guage to which it is foreign. 





[§ 36.] The words of every language are either nouns, verbs, 
or particles. 

A noun serves to denote an object or a quality of an object, 
and may accordingly be either a substantive, as domus (a house), 
a pronoun, as ego (I), or an adjective, as parvus (small). Nouns 
are declined to indicate their different relations. 

A verb expresses an action or condition which is ascribed to a 
person or a thing, as scribo, ire, dormire, amari. A verb is con- 
jugated in order to indicate the different modes in which an 
action or condition is ascribed to a person or a thing. 

Particles are those parts of speech, which are neither declined 
nor conjugated, and which are neither nouns nor verbs. They 
are divided into the following classes. 1) Adverbs express the 
circumstances of an action or condition, as ^ribit bene, he writes 
well; diu dormit, he sleeps long. 2) Prepositions express, either 
directly or indirectly (§ 295.), the relations of persons or things 
to one another or to actions and conditions ; as, amor meus erga 
te, my love towards thee; eo ad te, I go to thee. 3) Conjunctions 
express the connexion between things, actions, or propositions; 
as, ego et tu; clamavit, sed pater non audivit. 4) Interjections 
are the expressions of emotion by a single word; as ah, ohe, 

These are the eight parts of speech in Latin; all of them 
occur in the following hexameter : — 

Vae tibi ridenti, quia mox post gaudia Jlebis. 


• CHAP. VI. 


[§ 37.] Nouns substantive are either proper {iiomina propria)^ 
i. e. the names of one particular man or thing, or common {no- 
mina appellativa), i. e. such as denote persons or things in so far 
as they belong to a class. 

All nouns have one of three genders ; masculine, feminine, 
or neuter. 

The manner in which the gender of a noun can be ascertained 
from its termination will be explained under each declension. 
Our object here is to show the gender of nouns, both proper 
and common, in so far as it depends upon their meaning. 

]. The following are masculine: the names of men and of 
male beings; as homo,vir, scriba, Jlamen, consul, rex, deus, daemon, 
Cupido (the God of Love), manes (the spirits of the departed), 
lemur es (spectres) ; and the names of rivers, winds, and months, 
the words j^mu/m5, ventus, and mensis being themselves masculine. 

[§ 38.] Exceptions. There are some substantives which do not originally 
denote men,but have come to be applied to them by custom ; as operae, labour- 
ers ; vigiliae and excubiae, sentinels ; copiae, troops ; auxilia, auxiliary troops ; 
mancipium, a slave ; scortum and prostihulum^ a prostitute. All such words 
have the gender which belongs to them according to their termination. 

The names of rivers in a, belonging to the first declension, vary in 
their gender. (See Schneider, Formenlehre^ p. 14.) Modern writers com- 
monly make them feminine ; but the ancients, in most cases, make them 
masculines, which is the gender belonging to them. (See § 47.) The 
mythological rivers Styx and Lethe are feminine, as in Greek. The names 
of winds and months are, without exception, masculine ; hence Id Etesia, 
hie Libs, hie Aprilis. With regard to the names of the months it must be 
observed that all of them are adjectives, and that the best writers use them 
only as such, the substantive mensis being understood. Hence also Ca- 
lendae Januariae, Nonae Sextiles, Idus Martiae, Majae, ante Calendas Au- 
gustas, Idibus Decembribus. See Drakenborch, on Livy (iv. 37.), who, with 
most other commentators, is so strongly convinced of this, that he does not 
hesitate to correct passages in which this rule is not observed. 

The names of mountains are generally said to be masculine ; but when 
the word mons is not joined with them, the gender depends upon their 
termination, as in alia Aetna. 

[§ 39.] 2. The following are feminine: the names of women 
and female beings ; e. g. uxor, wife ; soror, sister ; anus, an old 
woman ; socrus, mother-in-law ; Juno, Venus; and even when 
they end in um, as Phanium, Glycerium, Leontium. Most of the 


names of trees, towns, countries, and islands, just as the words 
arhos, urbs, terra (regio), and insula, themselves are feminine ; 
e. g. alta cedrus, pinus, ahies, the high cedar, pine, fir ; umbrosa 
fagus, the shady beech ; Jicus Indica, opulenta Corinthus, antiqua 
Tyrus, dura Lacedaemon, Aeggptus superstitiosa, clara Salamis, 

Exceptions. The names of trees and shrubs ending in er, and following 
the third declension, are neuter ; as acer, cicer^ papaver, to which we must 
add robur, the oak. Masculine are oleaster and pinaster, which belong to the 
second, and styrax which belongs to the third declension : also many shirubs 
and smaller plants in m, i ; e. g. amarantus, asparagus, calamus, dumus, helle- 
horus, iTitubus, rhamnus, and spinus. The following vary, and may be used as 
masculine or feminine : cytisus, raphanus, rubus, and grossus, an unripe fig. 

Among the names of towns the following are masculine : 1) All plurals in 
i, as Argi, Delphi, Puteoli, Veji ; 2) Four names in o : Hippo (with the 
surname regius), Narbo Marcius, Frusino, and Sulmo ; the unalogy of which 
is followed also by Croto, although the regular form in Greek is rj Kpdrwv ; 
3) Tunes, etis, andCanopus, as in Greek 6 Kdvwtog. Some names in Us, untis, 
such as Pesslnus, Sellnus, and in us, i, such as Pharsalus, Abydus, and also 
Marathon, are masculine, according to the Greek custom, though they are 
sometimes also used as feminines. The following are neuter : 1) Those ending 
in urn, and the Greek names in on, as Tusculum, Ilion ; 2) The plurals in a, 
oriim, e. g. Susa, Arbela, Ecbatana, Leuctra ; 3) Those ending in e and Mr, 
which follow the third declension, as Caere, Redte, Praeneste, Tergeste, Nepete 
or Nepet, Anxur, and Tibur ; Tuder is likewise neuter ; 4) The indeclinable 
names in i and y, as Illiturgi, Asty, and some others, particularly barbarous 
names, the declension of which is defective, as Suihul, Hispal, Gadir, whereas 
their Latin forms, Hispalis and Gades, ium, are feminine. Argos, as a neuter, 
occurs only in the nominative, otherwise Argi, orum, is used. The many 
exceptions we have here enumerated might render us inclined altogether 
to drop the rule respecting the feminine gender of names of towns ; but we 
must adhere to it on account of the numerous Greek names in us, i, and 
of the Greek or non-Italian names in on (o), onis ; and there appears 
moreover to have been a tendency to make feminine even those wliich are of 
a different gender, provided they are in the singular. This is the case, 
besides those we have already mentioned, with Croton, and may also be 
observed in the case of Praeneste ; for Virgil says, Praeneste sub ipsa, and 
Juvenal gelidd Praeneste, but otherwise the neuter gender is well estab- 
lished. ( ; Sil.Ital. Lx. 404.) The poets change the names of some 
places ending in um into ils, e. g. Saguntus, and use them as feminines. (See 
Schneider, Formenl. p. 479.) 

Among the names of countries those in um and plurals in a are neuter, 
as Latium, Bactra ; the names Bosporus, Pontus, and Hellespontus, which 
properly denote the seas adjacent to these countries, are masculine; the 
same is the case with Isthmus when used as the name of a country, for ori- 
ginally it is a common noun signifying " a neck of land." Of the names of 
islands, some ending in um are neuter ; as is also the Egyptian Delta. 

It must further be observed that most names oi precious stones are feminine 
as in Greek ; but beryllus, carbunculus, opdlus, and smaragdu^ are masculine. 
The names of dramatic compositions are used in the early and good language 
as feminine, the wordfabula being understood ; e. g. hcec Truculentus (Plauti^, 
Eunuchtts (Terentii) acta est, Sf-c. (See Quintil. i. 5. 52. with Spalding's 
note.) Juvenal (i. 6,), however, says, Orestes nondum Jinitu^. 


[§ 40.] 3. There are many names of persons, which are 
common to both sexes, as they denote an occupation or quality 
which may belong either to a man or a woman, although the one 
is more frequently the case than the other. Such words are 
called common {communia). Those found in Latin with two 
genders are contained in the following hexameter lines : — 
Antistes, vates, adolescens, auctor et augur, 
Dux, judex, index, testis, cum cive sacerdos, 
Municipi adde parens, patrueli ajffinis et heres, 
Artijici conjux atque incola, miles et hostis, 
Par, juvenis, martyr, comes, infans, obses et hospes, 
Interpres, praesul, custos, vindexque, satelles. 

Some other words are not noticed here, because they are used only in appo- 
sition to feminines ; those mentioned above, however, may be accompanied 
by adjectives in either gender ; e. g. Cic. Cat. 2. ; In hoc sumus sapientes^ 
quod naturam optimam ducem, tamquam deum^ sequimur. Pro Balb. 24. : Sacer- 
dos ilia Cereris civis Romana facta est. Virg. JEn. x. 252.: Alma parens Idaea 
deum. Liv. i. 7. : Mater mea^ veridica interpres deum. To these we may add 
contubernalis, properly an adjective, which cannot be accommodated to verse, 
and perhaps also exul and princeps^ with regard to which the passages of the 
ancients are not decisive, since the non alia exul in Tacit. Ann. xiv. 63. may 
be explained as apposition, and Romana princeps in the JEleg. ad Liviam^ 356. 
may be taken as an adjective, as in other cases. Obses is well attested as a 
nomen commune by Plin. Hist. Nat. xxxiv. 13. : Obsidibus, quae Porsenae mit- 
tebantur. Auspex yet awaits a better authority than praeclaram auspicem in 
the Declam. {Porcii Latronis) in Catil. c. 16. 

It is further to be observed, that antistes and hospes, in the sense of priestess 
and hostess, are not attested as well as the feminine forms antistita, ae, and 
hospita, ae. 

[§ 41.] 4. Suhstantiva mohilia are those substantives in which 
the root receives different terminations for the masculine and 
feminine genders. The termination for the feminine is always a 
or trix, and the latter occurs in those cases in which the masculine 
ending in tor is derived from transitive verbs, as in victor, vie- 
trix; ultor, ultrix; praeceptor, praeceptrix ; inventor, inventrix. 
The feminine is indicated by a when the masculine ends in us or 
er, or some other termination, e. g. coquus, coqua ; puer, puera; 
or more frequently the diminutive form puella ; magister, ma- 
gistra; leno, lena ; caupo, copa ; tibicen, tibicina ; avus, avia ; 
rex, regina; antistes, antistita. The feminine termination ti'ia 
is Greek, and is formed from masculines in tes or ta, as psaltes, 
psaltria ; poeta, poetria. 

[§ 42.] 5. Some names of animals have special forms to dis- 
tinguish the two sexes : agnus, agna ; cervus, cerva ; columbus. 


columha ; equus, eqiia ; gallus, gallina ; juvencus, juvenca ; lupus, 
lupa ; leo, lea and leaena ; porcus, porca ; vitulus, vitula ; ursus, 
ursa. In some cases the words are altogether different, as in 
taurus, vacca, a bull and cow; ariesy ovis, ram and sheep; 
hoedus, capella; catus, felis. 

Most other names of animals are common (epicoena) ; that is, 
they have only one grammatical gender which comprises both 
sexes, e. g. passer, anser, corvus, canis, cancer are masculine ; 
aquila, felis, anas, vulpes are feminine, though they may denote 
animals of either sex. With regard to those names which may 
distinguish the genders by terminations, it should be observed 
that one form (generally the masculine) predominates, such as 
equus, leo, lupus as masculine, and/eZw, ovis as feminine. If the 
sex of the particular animal is to be stated, the word mas or 
femina are added to the name; as, anas mas, anas femina, femina 
anguis, musca femina, femina piscis, and lupus ov porcus femina, 
although we have the forms lupa and porca. Instead of mas 
we may also use masculus or ma^cula, e. g. vulpes mascula, a 
male fox ; pavo masculus, a male peacock. 

Some of these nouns epicene however, in which the difference 
of sex is more frequently noticed, are used as real common 
nouns, so that they are masculine when the male animal, and 
feminine when the female animal, is particularly specified. Of 
this kind are hos, canis, elephantus, lepus, vespertilio, mus, which 
are masculine when the difference of sex is not noticed ; but fe- 
minine when the female is designatecj. Thus we generally find, 
e. g., elephanti prudentissimi hahentur, lepores timidi sunt ; but at 
the same ihmQ can£S rabidae, elephantus gravida, lepus fecunda : 
and Horace abandoning the usual gender, takes the liberty of 
saying (^Serm. ii. 8. 87.) : membra gruis spar si, and jecur anseris 
albae. (See Bentley's note.) 

The following nouns are sometimes masculine and some- 
times feminine, without regard to difference of sex : an- 
guis and serpens, a serpent ; dama, fallow-deer ; talpa, a 
mole ; also sus, a pig ; and tigris, tiger ; but sus is commonly 
feminine, while tigris is commonly masculine. Others are of 
uncertain gender, in as far as they have both a masculine and a 
feminine form, which, however, are used indiscriminately and 
without regard to sex. Thus we have the feminine forms 
colubra, lacerta, luscinia, and simia along with the masculines 


coluber, lacertus, luscinius, and simius, without simia, for in- 
stance, having any reference whatever to a female monkey. In 
like manner, palumhus and palumha (the same as palumhes) are 
used indiscriminately. 

[§ 43.] 6. The following are neuter. All indeclinable sub- 
stantives, as gummi, pascha, sindpi, and pondo which is used as 
an indeclinable noun in the sense of "pound;" the names of the 
letters of the alphabet, as c triste, o longum, Graecum digamma, 
&c., and all words and expressions which, without-, being sub- 
stantives, are conceived and used as such, or quoted merely as 
words ; e. g. ultimum vale, scire tuum nihil est, vivere ipsum turpe 
est nobis, tergeminum ao^cas, hoc ipsum din mihi molestum est 
(Cicero), lacrimas hoc mihi paene movet (Ovid), where the words 
diu and paene are quoted from the sayings of another person, 
and it is said that the very word diu or paene is painful. 

Note. The names of the letters of the alphabet, however, are sometimes 
used as feminines, the word littera being understood ; e. g. Quintil. i. 4. 11. : 
Sciat etiam Ciceroni placuisse aiio Maiiamque geminata i scrihere. The names 
of the Greek letters in a, as beta, gamma^ delta., are used as feminines only by 
Ausonius, Technop. de Litt. 



[§ 44.] The Latin language distinguishes, in nouns and verbs, 
the singular and plural (numerus singularis and pluralis) by 
particular forms ; it has also different forms to distinguish six 
different cases (^casus) in the relations and connections of nouns. 
The ordinary names of these cases are nominative, genitive, 
dative, accusative, vocative, and ablative. The different forms 
of these cases are seen in the terminations which are annexed to 
the crude form of a word. Declension is the deriving of these 
different forms, both in the singular and plural, from one an- 
other, the nominative forming the starting point. The nominative 
and vocative are called casus recti, and the others casus obliqui. 

There are five declensions distinguished by the termination 
of the genitive singular, which ends : — 

1 2 3 4 5 

ae i is us ei 



All declensions have the following points in common : — 

1. In the second, third, and fourth declensions there are 
neuters which have three cases alike, viz. nominative, accu- 
sative, and vocative. 

2. The vocative is like the nominative, except in the second 
declension and some Greek words in the first and third. 

3. Where no exception arises from neuters, the accusative 
singular ends in m. 

1 2 3 4 5 

am um em um em 

4. The genitive jflural ends in um, 

12 3 4 5 

arum, drum, um Hum erum 

5. The dative plural is in all declensions like the ablative 

1 2 3 4 5 

IS IS ibus thus (ubus) ebus 

The following table contains the terminations of all the five 

declensions : — 




Nom. a (e, as, es) 

us, er, um 

a, e, c, I, 




n, r, s, t, X 

Gen. ae (^es) 





Dat. ae 




Ace. am (en) 


em (im) 




Yoc. a (e) 

e, er, 


like nom. 




Abl. a{e) 








Kom. ae 



es, a (ia) 




Gen. arum 


um (ium) 



Dat. is 






Ace. as 



es, a (ia) 




Yoc. ae 



es, a (ia) 




Abl. is 









[§ 45.] The first declension comprises all nouns which form the 
genitive singular in ae. The nominative of genuine Latin words 
of this kind ends in a. Greek words in «, as musa, historia, 
stoa, follow the example of the Latin ones, and shorten the final 
vowel when it is long in Greek. Some Greek words in e, as, 
and es have peculiar terminations in some of their cases. (See 
Chap. IX.) 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. vi'Cb, the way. Nom. vi-ae, the ways. 

Gen. vi-ae, of the way. Gen. vi-arum, of the ways. 

Dat. vi-ae, to the way. Dat. vi-is, to the ways. 

Ace. vi-am, the way. Ace. vi-ds, the ways. 

Yoc. vi-a, O way ! Voc. vi-ae, O ways ! 

Abl. vi-d, from the way. Abl. vi-is, from the ways. 

In like manner are declined, for example, the substantives 
harba, causa, cura, epistola, fossa, hora, mensa, noverca, penna, 
porta, poena, sagitta, silva, stella, uva, victoria, and the ad- 
jectives and participles with the feminine termination a; as, 
Tonga, libera, pulchra, lata, rotunda, lecta, scripta. 

Note 1. An old form of the genitive singular in as has been retained 
even in the common language, in the word familia when compounded with 
pater, mater, filius, and Jilia ; so that we say paterfamilias, patresfamilias, 
Jiliosfamilias. But the regular form familiae is not uncommon ; sometimes, 
though not often, we find familiarum in composition with the plural of those 

Note 2. An obsolete poetical form of the genit. sing, is ai for the 
diphthong ae or ai, as in aulai, aurdi, picta'i, which three forms occur even 
in Virgil. 

Note 3. Poets form the genitive plural of patronymics in es and «, of 
several compounds in cola and gena, and of some few names of nations, by 
the termination urn instead of arum, as Aeneadum, JDardanidum, coelicohim, 
terrigenum, Lapithum. Of a similar kind are the genitives amphorum, 
drachmum, which are used even in prose, instead of amphoranim, drachma- 
rum. (Comp. § 51.) 

Note 4. Some words form the dative and ablative plural in alus in- 
stead of is, such as anima, dea, Jilia, liberta, riata, mula, equa, asiiia ; for 
the purpose of distinguishing them from the dative and ablative plural of the 
masculine forms, which would otherwise be the same. The regular termina- 
tion is, however, is generally preferred, notwithstanding the possibility of 
ambiguity ; and it is only deahus and filiahus that can be recommended, for 



the former is used in a solemn invocation by Cicero : dis deahusque omnibus; 
and the latter by Livy (xxiv. 26.), cum duahus Jiliabus virginihus. Liher- 
tdbu^ frequently occurs in inscriptions. The termination ahus has remained 
in common use for the feminine of duo and ambo : duahus^ ambahus. 


GREEK WORDS IN e, ds, AND e^. 

"^^ of THE 

[§ 46.] 1. In the dative singular and throughout the plural, 
Greek words in e, as, and es, do not differ from the regular 
declension. In the other cases of the singular they are declined 
in the following manner : — 



as es. 



ae ae. 



am (sometimes an) en. 



a e and d. 



a a and e. 

Words of this kind in e are: aloe, crambe, epitome, Circe, 
Danae, Phoemce ; in as: Aeneas, Boreas, Gorgias, Midas, 
Messias, Satanas ; in es : anagnostes, cometes, dynastes, geo- 
metres, pyrites, satrapes, sophistes, Anchises, Thersites, and 
patronymics (i. e. names of persons derived from their parents 
or ancestors, see § 245.) ; e. g. Aeneades, Alcides, Pelides, Pria- 
mides, Tydldes. 

Note. Common nouns, such as epistola and poeta, which, on their adoption 
into the Latin language, exchanged their Greek termination t] or r]Q for the 
Latin a, are treated as genuine Latin words, and no longer follow the Greek 
declension. But a great many other common, as well as proper, iiouns like- 
wise follow the Latin declension ; and it must be especially remarked, that 
the early Latin writers, including Cicero, show a tendency to Latinize the 
declension of those words which they have frequent occasion to use. Thus 
we prefer with Cicero grammatical rhetorica^ dialectica, musica^ to grammatice^ 
rhetorice, dialectice, mu^ice, and we may say Creta and Penelopa just as well 
as Hecuba and Helena^ although some writers, especially the later poets, 
with an affectation of erudition, preferred Crete and Penelope. But there 
is no fixed law in this respect. In the words in es^ Cicero prefers this Greek 
termination to the Latin a, e. g. Philoctetes, Scythes, Perses, sophistes, to 
Persa, sophista, &c. In the accusative he sometimes uses e7i, as Arsinoen, 
Circen, Sinopen. (See my note on Cic. in Verr. iv. 18.) But although he 



would use the nominative Sinope for Sinopa, yet he makes the genitive 
Sinopae in the adverbial sense of " at Sinope," e. g. in Hull. ii. 20. As to 
the practice of Horace, see Bentley on Epod. xvii. 17. 

2. Greek words in as commonly take .the accusative an 
in poetry, and Virgil uniformly uses Aenean. In prose 
the Latin am is much more frequent, although Livy too has 
Aenean, and in Quintus Curtius we not unfrequently find the 
forms Amyntan, Philotan, Perdiccan, and others, along with 
Amyntam, Philotam, Perdiccam. 

The vocative of words in es is usually e, as in Virgil : — 
Conjugio, AncMse, Veneris dignate superbo ; but the Latin vo- 
cative in a also occurs frequently, e. g. at the end of an hex- 
ameter in Horace, Serm. ii. 3. 187.: — Atridd, vetas cur 9 and 
in Cicero : Aeeta, Thyesta ! The vocative in a seldom occurs, 
as in the oracle mentioned by Cicero, De Divin. ii. 5Q. : Ajo 
te, Aeacidd, Romanos vincere posse. Words in es form their 
ablative regularly in a, e. g. in Cicero : de Philocteta, de Pro- 
tagora Ahderita. The poets, however, sometimes use the termi- 
nation e, as in Virgil : Uno graditur comitatus Achate, 

3. Generally speaking, however, the patronymics in rjs, genit. 
Of, are the only Greek words that follow the second declension ; 
and the majority of proper names ending in es follow the third 
declension, as Alcihiades, Miltiades, Xerxes. But many of them 
form the accusative singular in en (as Euphraten, Mithridaten, 
Phraaten), and the vocative in e, together with the forms of 
the third declension in em and es. (See Chap. XVI.) 

Note. The word satrapes (^(rarpairrjc, ov) is best declined after the first 
declension ; but no example of the genit. sing, being satrapae is known ; 
Nepos {Lysand. 4.) uses satrapis. This does not necessarily presuppose 
the existence of a nominative satraps^ which occurs only in later times, 
but may be the same as Miltiades, genitive Miltiadis. Instances of the 
dative satrapae^ accus. satrapen, and ablat. satrape, occur in other writers, as 
well as in the correct texts of Q. Curtius. The form satrapem must be re- 
jected ; but the Latin form satrapam may be used. The plural is throughout 
after the first declension, satrapae^ satrapanim, &c. . 




[§ 47.] Nouns in a and e are feminine, and those in as and es 
(being chiefly names of men) are masculine. 

Note. Nouns denoting male beings are of course masculine, though they 
end in a, as auriga^ collega^ nauta, parricida^ poeta, scriba. Names of rivers 
in a, such as Garumna^ Trehia, Sequana, Himera (to be distinguished from 
the town of the same name), and Hadria (the Adriatic) are masculine, ac- 
cording to the general rule. (See Chap. VI.) The three rivers Allia^ Albula, 
and Matrona^ however, are feminine. Cometa and planeta, which are usually 
mentioned as masculines, do not occur in ancient writers, who always use 
the Greek forms cometes^ planetes ; but cometa and planeta would, according 
to analogy, be masculine. 



[§ 48.] All nouns which form the genitive singular in i, belong 
to the second declension. The greater part of them endr in the 
nominative in us, the neuters in um ; some in er, and only one in 
ir, viz. vir with its compounds, to which we must add the 
proper name, Trevir. There is only one word ending in ur, 
viz. the adjective satur, satura, saturum. 

The genitive of those in us and um is formed by changing 
these terminations into i. The vocative of words in us ends in 
e: as, O felix anne, O happy year ! In all other cases the 
vocative is like the nominative. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. gladi-usy the sword. Nom. gladi-l, the swords. 

Gen. gladi'i, of the sword. Gen. gladi-orum, of the swords. 

Dat. gladi-o, to the sword. Dat. gladi-is, to the swords. 
Ace. gladi-um, the sword. Ace. gladi-ds, the swords. 

Voc. gladi-e, O sword ! Voc. gladi-i, O swords ! 

Abl. ^Z«c?/-o, from the sword. Abl. ^Z«^2-25, from the swords. 

» 2 


The neuters in um are declined in the same way ; but in the 
plural they have the termination a, and the nominative, accu- 
sative, and vocative are alike in the singular as well as in the 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. scamn-um, the bench. Nom. scamn-a, the benches, 

G en. scamn~i, of the bench. Gen. scamn-orum, of the benches 
Dat. scamn-o, to the bench. Dat. scamn-is, to the benches. 
Ace. scamn-um, the bench. Ace. scamn-a, the benches. 

Voc. scamn-um, O bench ! Yoc. scamn-a, O benches ! ' 

Abl. scamn-o, from the bench. Abl. scamn-ls, from the benches. 

Vir and its compounds, as well as satur, simply add the ter- 
minations of the different cases to the nominative. 

Some of the words in er are likewise declined by merely 
adding the terminations to the nominative, as -puer, puer-i, 
puer-o, puer-um, puer-orum, puer-is, puer-os ; others reject the 
short e in the oblique cases, as liber (a book), lihr-i, libr-o, 
libr-um, &c. Those which retain the e are not very nume- 
rous, viz. adulter, gener, puer, socer, vesper, Liber (the god 
Bacchus), and liberi (the children, only in the plural); the 
adjectives asper, lacer, liber (free), miser, prosper, and tener. 
To these we must add the compounds of ferre and gerere, as 
Lucifer, armiger, and the words presbyter, Iber, and Celtiber 
(plural Celtiber i). The adjeGtiYe- dexter has both forms, dexter a 
and dextra, dexterum and dextrum, although the elision of the e 
is more frequent. 

[§ 49.] Note 1. The genitive of nouns, both proper and common, in ius 
and ium^ in the best age of the Latin language, was not m, but f, as Jili for 
Jilii^ and in like manner Appi, iiigeni, imperi, consili, negoti. So at least it 
was pronounced in the poets before and during the Augustan age, as in 
Virgil, Horace, and Tibullus. Propertius is the first who, in a few instances, 
has iV, which occurs frequently in Ovid ; and in the later poets, who preferred 
regularity of formation to euphony, it is quite common. (See Bentley on 
Terence, Andr. ii. 1. 20.) With regard to poets, the metre must determine 
this point ; and it was in consequence of the metre that Lucretius (v. 1004.), 
though one of the early poets, wrote ndvigii, because otherwise the word 
would not have suited the hexameter. But the orthography of prose writers 
who lived before the Augustan age is doubtful, on account of the great 
discrepancy which, on this point as on everything connected with ortho- 
graphy, prevails in the MSS., even in the most ancient ones of Cicero, 
which have recently been discovered. It is, however, probable that, although 
ii may have been written, only one i was pronounced, as was always 
done in the words dii and diis. The genitive mancipi for mancipii, which 
occurs in many legal expressions, is a remnant of the ancient practice, and 


remained in use in later times. Concerning the accent of these contracted 
genitives, and of the vocatives of proper names in ius, of which we shall 
speak hereafter, see above, § 33., and Bentley, I. c. 

Note 2. The following nine adjectives or adjective pronouns, umis, solus^ 
totus, uUus, uter, neuter, alter, nulliis, and alius, together with their compounds 
uterque, utervis, uterlibet, utercunque, and alteruter, form the genitive in all 
their three genders in ius, and the dative in i; in addition to which uter and 
neuter eject the e preceding the r. The i of this genitive is long in prose, 
but in verse it is sometimes made short. (See § 16.) Alterius alone 
has the i short both in prose and in verse (with a few exceptions, as in 
Terence, Andr. iv. 1. 4.; see § 850.), according to the statement of Priscian, 
pp. 694. 958. It is true that alterius cannot be used in the dactylic hexameter 
without the i being short, but it is used in the same manner in a trochee by 
Plautus {Capt. ii. 2. 56.). There are only a few instances in which these 
words follow the regular declension. (See below, § 140.) 

[§ 50,] Note 3. The vocative of proper names in im ends In i instead of 
ie, e.g. AntOni, Mercuri, Terenti, Tulli, Virgili. In like manner the proper 
names in jus, being sometimes softened down into uis, make the vocative in a 
simple i, as Gai, Pompei. But this rule cannot be applied to proper names 
in Ius from the Greek ewq, as in Arms, Heracllus; nor to those names which 
are in reality adjectives, and are used as proper names only yf\xQnJilius, deus, 
or heros are understood, such as Laertius, the son of Laertes, i. e. Ulysses ; 
CyntJiius, Delius, the Cynthian or Delian god, i. e. Apollo; Tirynthius, the 
Tirynthian hero, i. e. Hercules. All such words retain ie in the vocative, 
and in like manner Pius, when used as a proper name, probably formed the 
vocative Pie. For all common nouns and adjectives, according to the testi- 
mony of the ancient grammarians, regularly formed their vocative in ie, as 
nuntie, adversarie, impie, although there are no passages in ancient writers to 
prove it. But Jiliu^ and genius make their vocative Jili, geni, and mens 
(though not mea or meum) makes mi. Deus in the vocative is like the 
nominative, as O deus! mi deus! 

What has here been said of deus alone is applied by poets to other words 
also : they not unfrequently Imitate the Greeks by making the vocative like the 
nominative, e.g. Terent. Phorm.'ii. 2. 10.: O vir fortis atque amicus! Horat. 
de Art. Poet. 292.: vos, O Pompilius sanguis! Carm. i. 2. 43.: almae jilius 
Majae. Ovid, Fast. iv. 731. : populus. In Livy too it occurs In some ancient 
formulas, as viii. 9. : agedum pontifex publicus populi Rom.; and I. 24. : tu popu- 
lus Alhanus ; but there is no reason for doubting the form popule, which 
occurs in other passages. 

[§ 51.] Note 4. The genitive plural of some words, especially those which 
denote money, measure, and weight, is commonly urn* Instead of orum, par- 
ticularly nummum, sestertium, denarium, cadum, medimnum, modium, jugerum, 
talentum. Nummum is commonly used in this way in connection with nume- 
rals ,• whereas otherwise, when it merely denotes money in general, nummorum 

* We do not write um, as is done in most editions, for several reasons : 1) 
because it is doubtful whether this form aros^ from contraction ; 2) because, 
according to the testimony of the ancient grammarians, no final syllable in m 
with a vowel before it is long (which would be implied in the circumflex), 
whence no one would be able to distinguish by his ear such a genitive as 
nummum from the accus. sing., as Quintilian, i. 6. 17. attests; and 3) because 
no accents are used in Latin. 

D 3 


is the usual form, e. g.' tantum nummorum, acervi nummorum. There are 
some other words in which this is the usual form in certain combinations, 
such as praefectus fahrum^ or socium, from, faber and socius; so also duum~ 
7nrum, triumvirum, decemvirum. Libert and deus have both forms, Uberorum, 
deorum, and liberum, deum. Poets indulge in still greater licences, especially 
with names of nations ; they say, e. g., Argivum, Danaum, Poenum, &c., instead 
of Argivorum^ Danaorum^ Poenorum, and in Livy we find Celtiberum as well 
as Celtiberorum. We might point out several more isolated peculiarities of 
this kind, as ephorum in Corn. Nepos, Agesil. 4. Respecting the genitive 
of numerals (cardinal, and especially distributive numerals), see below, 
Chap. XXIX. and XXX. 

Note 5. Deus has three forms in the nom. and ablat. plur., viz. dei, dii, and 
di, and deis, diis^ and dis. The forms in i are the most usual, and in reality 
only one of them, since dii and diis were pronounced as monosyllables 
(Priscian, p. 737.), and are most frequently found thus spelled in the ancient 

The following words may serve as exercises of declension : — 
Annus, year ; corvus, raven ; hortus, garden ; lectus, bed ; me- 
dicus, physician ; morbus, illness ; nuntius, messenger ; populus, 
people ; rivus, brook ; taurus, bull ; ventus, wind. Neuters in 
um: — Astrum, Bt^v \ beUum,wsLv; collum, nech ; c?oZmm, cask ; 
donum, present ; memhrum, limb ; negotium, business ; ovum, 
Ggg ; poculum, cup ; proelium, battle ; sepulcrum, sepulchre ; 
signum, sign ; tergum, back ; vinculum, fetter. Those in er, 
genit. eri, have been mentioned above. The following are the 
most common among those which reject the e before the r: — 
Ager, field ; aper, boar ; arbiter, arbitrator ; auster, south wind ; 
cancer, cancer, or crab ; coluber, snake ; culter, knife ; faber, 
workman ; liber, book ; magister, teacher ; minister, servant. 
To these must be added the proper names in er, e. g. Alexander, 
gen. Alexandri. The adjectives which reject the e are aeger, 
ater, creber, glaber, macer, niger, piger, impiger, pulcher, ruber, 
sacer, scaber, sinister, taeter, vafer. 



[§ 52.] 1. Greek words in os and neuters in ov, which 
make ov in the genitive, are commonly Latinized in the nomi- 
native by the terminations us and um, such as the common 


nouns taurus, antrum, theatrum, and the proper names Homerus, 
Pyrrhus, Corinthus. Other common nouns which are more 
rarely used, admit of both terminations in the nominative, as 
arctos and arctus, barbitos and barbitus, scorpios and scorpius; 
and this is still more frequently the case in proper names, so 
that, e. g., Paros, Delos, Isthmos, and Ilion are used along with 
Par us, Delus, Isthmus and Ilium. Generally speaking, how- 
ever, the Greek forms belong more particularly to poets and the 
later prose writers. Greek names in pos with a consonant before 
it sometimes become Latinized by the termination er, and some- 
times they change pos into rus, and make their vocative in 
e. The former takes place in by far the greater number of 
cases, e. g. Alexander, Maeander, Teucer; the only instances 
in which the termination rus is found are Codrus, Hebrus, 
Locrus, Petrus, In the compounds of fxsrpov and a few others, 
both forms are used, as hexameter and hexametrus, though the 
latter occurs more frequently. Words ending in os in the 
nominative may make the accusative in on instead of um, as 
Delon, Bosporon, Tarson. The nominative plural sometimes 
ends in oe (the Greek diphthong oi), as in canephoroe, Cicero, in 
Verr. iv. 3. 8. ; Locroe, Quintil. x. 1. 70. The genitive plural 
in on instead of orum occurs in the titles of books, such as 
Bucolicon, Georgicon. 

2. Greek proper names in ovs, contracted from 009, are in 
Latin either resolved into ous or end in us, as Alcinous, Ari- 
stonus, Panthus. The vocative of the latter form is u, as 

3. Some Greek proper names in ois, which in Greek follow 
the second Attic declension (as Athos, Ceos, Cos, Teos), in Latin 
either follow the Greek declension, e. g. Athos, gen. and dat. 
Atho, accus. Atho or Athon; or they take the Latin form, as 
Tyndareus for Tyndareos, and Cous (for Cos, Kw^), Coo, Coum^ 
ablat. Co, e. g. in Co insula. Athos, however, is also declined 
as a noun of the third declension with the nominative Athon or 
Atho — Athonem, Athone. 

4. Greek words in svs of the third Greek declension, such as 
Orpheus, Idomeneus, Phalereus, Prometheus, were pronounced in 
Latin sometimes eus as one syllable, and sometimes eus. The 
best way is to make them follow entirely the second Latin 
declension, as Orphet, Orpheo, Orpheum, with the exception of 

D 4 


the vocative, which (according to the Greek third declension) 
ends in eu. The Greek terminations, gen. eos, dat. ei (con- 
tracted ei), accus. m*, are chiefly found in poetry; but the 
accusative is frequent also with prose writers, though Cicero 
{ad Att, vii. 3.) does not approve of it, as Phalerea, Pro- 
methea, Tydea. The terminations ei, eo, ea are sometimes con- 
tracted by poets into a diphthong, because the metre requires it. 
(See above § 11.) Horace makes the genitive of Achilles and 
Ulixes — Achille'i, Ulixe'i, or contracted Achillei, Ulixel, as though 
the nominative still ended in svs. The name Perseus is usually 
formed by Cicero after the first declension : nom. Perses, gen. 
and dat. Persae, ace. Per sen, abl. Perse and Persa. Livy pre- 
ferred the second declension : Perseus, Perse'i, Perseo (rarely 
Persi, according to the third, like the Greek Hepasl), but in the 
accusative he has more frequently Persea than Perseum, 



[§ 53.] 1. Nouns in us, er, and ir are masculine ; those in um 
and the Greek nouns in on are neuter. 

2. Of those in us however the following are feminine : 
the names of plants and precious stones, as well as those of 
towns and islands, with a few exceptions. (See above, § 39.) 
It must be observed, that in many cases where the name of 
a tree ends in us fem., there is a form in um denoting the fruit 
of the tree, e. g. cerasus, cerasum; malus, malum; morus, mo- 
rum; pirus, pirum; prunus, prunum; pomus, pomum; \mijicus 
signifies both the tree and the fruit. There are only four other 
genuine Latin words in us which are feminine, viz. alvus, 
humus, vannus, and colus, which however is sometimes de- 
clined after the fourth declension, gen. us. Pampinus, a 
branch of a vine, is rarely feminine, but commonly mas- 
culine. Virus (juice or poison) and pelagus {to TriXar^os, the 

* In some words also e«, if the verse requires it, as Idomenea^ Uionea : rja 
and la are Ionic forms, and the Attic ed is not customary in Latin. 



sea) are neuter. Vulgus (the people) is sometimes masculine, 
but more frequently neuter. 

[§ 54.] Note. With regard to the numerous Greek feminines in us (or os), 
which have been adopted into the Latin language, such as the compounds 
of r) o^oQ : exodus^ methodusy periodus, and synodus^ the student must be 
referred to his Greek grammar, for the Latin differs in this respect from the 
Greek. The words biblus, and papyrus (the Egyptian papyrus), hyssus^ 
and carhasus (a fine flax and the linen made out of it), are feminine, being 
names of plants ; but they retain this gender also when they denote things 
manufactured from them. Pharus, being the name of an island, is femi- 
nine ; but it is also feminine in the sense of a light-house, which meaning it 
obtained from the fact of the first light-house being built in that island near 
Alexandria ; it is however now and then used as a masculine (Sueton. 
Claud. 20.). Arctus (ps), denoting a bear, is properly both masc. and fem. ; 
but as the name of a constellation, it is in Latin always feminine. JBarbitus 
(a lyre) or barbitos, is sometimes used as fem. and sometimes as masc, but 
we also find hoc barbiton. 

We must notice here especially a number of words which in Greek are 
properly adjectives, and are used as 'feminine substantives, because a sub- 
stantive of this gender is understood. Such words are : abyssus, atomus, dia- 
lectus, diphthongus, eremus, paragraphus, diametrv^ and perimetrus, the two 
last of which however are used by Latin writers also with the Greek termi- 
nation OS. For the substantives understood in these cases, see the Greek 
grammar. As different substantives may be understood, we have both 
antidotus and antidotum. The word epodu^ also belongs to this class, but its 
gender varies according to its different meanings : when it denotes a lyric 
epilogue, it is feminine ; when it denotes a shorter iambic verse after a longer 
one, or when it is the name of the peculiar species of Horatian poetry, it is 



[§ 55.] Nouns of the third declension form their genitive 
in is. The nominative has a great variety of terminations, for 
sometimes there is no particular ending, and the nominative 
itself is the crude form, such as it usually appears after the sepa- 
ration of the termination of the genitive ; frequently however the 
nominative has a special ending (s). The former is, generally 
speaking, the case with those words the crude form of which ends 
in I or r, so that the nominative ends in the same consonants, and 
the genitive is formed by simply adding is; e. g. sol, consul, cal- 
car, agger, auctor, dolor, murmur. Words like pater and imber, the 
crude form of which appears in the genitive and ends in r with a 


consonant before it, as patr-is, imhr-is, admit of a double expla- 
nation : either the nominative was increased for the purpose of 
facilitating the pronunciation, or the genitive rejected the short 
e; the former however is the more probable supposition. 
In some words the nominative has s instead of r, as Jlos, 
gen. Jior-is; tellus, tellur-is; in addition to which the vowel 
sometimes undergoes a change, as in corpus, corpor-is; onus, 
oner-is. When the crude form ends in n with a vowel before 
it, the formation of the nominative is likewise accompanied by- 
changes : on throws off the n, and in becomes en or is changed 
into 0, Thus leo is made from leon (Jeon-is), carmen from carmin 
{carmin-is\ and virgo from virgin (virgin-is). Only when the 
genitive ends in enis, the nominative retains en, as in lien-is, lien. 
2) The particular termination which the nominative receives in 
other cases is e for neuters, as mar-is, mar-e, and s oyi x which 
arises out of s, for masculines and feminines. This s is some- 
times added to the final consonant of the crude form without, 
any change, as in urh-is, urh-s; due-is, dux (dues)', leg-is, lex 
{legs) ; when the crude form ends in d or t, these consonants 
are dropped before the s; e. g. frond-is, frons ; mont-is, mons; 
aetdt-is, aetds; seget-is^ seges; in addition to this the vowel i also 
is sometimes changed into e, as in milit-is, miles; judic-is, judex. 
In all these cases where the nominative is formed by the addition 
of an s to the final consonant of the crude form, the nominative 
has one syllable less than the genitive, or in other words, the s 
assumes an e or z before it, and then the nominative has the 
same number of syllables as the genitive, or in case the nomi- 
native assumes ^, both cases are quite the same ; e. g. nub-es, 
civ-is, pan-is. 

These are the most essential points in the formation of the 
nominative in the third declension. We shall now proceed to 
the particulars, taking the nominative, as is the usual practice, 
as the case given, and we shall point out in what way the geni- 
tive is formed from it. 

[§ 56.] 1. The nouns in a, which are neuters of Greek origin, 
make their genitive in atis, as poema, poematis. 

2. Those in e change e into is, as mare, maris; Praeneste, 
Praenestis, and probably also caepe, caepis, for which however 
there is also the form cepa, ae. 

3. The nouns in i and y are Greek neuters. Some of them 


the genlt. ApolUnis. Those in cov, odvtos vary, and we find 
are indeclinable, as gummi, and others have the regular genitive 
in is, as sindpi, sinapis (there is however a second nominative in 
is, as in several other words ending in i, as haec sinapis) ; misy, 
misyis and misys or misyos. The compounds of ineli (honey) 
alone make their genitive according to the Greek in Uis, as 
melomeli, melomelitis. 

4. Those in o (common) add nis to form the genitive, some- 
times only lengthening the o, and sometimes changing it into i. 
Of the former kind are carbo, latro, leo, ligo, pavo, praedo, sermo ; 
and all those ending in io, as actio, dictio, pugio. Of the latter 
kind (genit. mis) are all abstract nouns in do, as consuetudoy mis ; 
most nouns in go, as imago, virgo, origo ; and a few others, as 
cardo, hirundo, turbo, homo, nemo. Caro has carnis. The names 
of nations in o have this vowel mostly short, as Macedones, 
Senones, Saxones; it is long only in lones, Lacones, Nasamones, 
Suessones, and Vettdnes» 

5. The only nouns ending in c are alec or allec, allex, gen. 
allecis; and lac, gen. lactis. 

6. Nouns ending in I form the genitive by merely adding is, 
such as sol, sal, consul, pugil, animal, Mel has mellis, and in 
plur. mella ; fel has fellis, but is without a plural. 

7. Those in en (which are all neuters, with the exception of 
pecten) make mis, as carmen, fiumen, lumen, nomen. Those in 
en retain the long e and have enis ; but there are only two 
genuine Latin words of this kind, ren and lien; for lichen, 
splen, and attagen are of Greek origin. 

Greek words in an, en, in, yn, and on follow the Greek 
rules in regard to the length or shortness of the vowel and also 
in regard to the insertion of a t: Paean, Paednis ; Siren and 
Troezen, enis ; Philopoemen, Philopoemenis ; Eleusin, Eleusinis ; 
Phorcyn, Phorcynis ; agon, agonis ; canon, canonis ; Cimon, 
Cimonis; Marathon, onis ; Xenophon, Xenophontis. It is, 
however, to be observed that very few Greek words in mv, covos 
(except names of towns), have in Latin the nominative on, but 
generally o. Thus we always read Hiero, Laco, Plato, Zeno, 
and in Cicero, also Dio and Solo ; in the poets, on the other 
hand, and in Nepos and Curtius among the prose writers, we 
find several nominatives in on, as Conon, Dion, Phocion, He- 
phaestion. The name Apollo is completely Latinized, and makes 


Antipho without the w, though most end in on^ as Xenophon, 
Those in (ov, ovos and wv, ovros, usually retain in Latin the 
same nominative in on, but we always find Macedo and never 

[§ 57.] 8. Those ending in r must be distinguished according 
to the vowel which precedes it : they may end in ar, er, yr, or, 
Or ur. 

a) Those in ar have sometimes dris, as in calcar, lucar, pul- 
vmar, torcular, and Nar ; and sometimes ciris, as baccar, juhar, 
nectar, Idr (plur. lares), par and its compounds (e. g. impar, 
imparls), and the proper names Caesar, Hamilcar, and Arar. 
But Lar or Lars, the Etruscan title, has Lartis, Far makes 
its genitive /arr/^, and hepar, hepatis. 

b) Many of the Latin words in er make eris, as a,gger, aggeris; 
mulier, mulieris, he, and the adjectives pauper and uber. Others 
drop the short e, as, for instance, all those ending in ter (e. g. 
venter, uter, pater), with the exception of later, and the words 
imber, September, October, November, December. Iter makes 
its genit. (from a different nominat.) itineris. Juppiter {Jovi^ 
pater) makes the genitive Jovis without the addition of patris, 
Greek woi'ds in er follow the rules of the Greek language, 
whence we say crater, eris ; aer, aeris. Ver (the spring), gen. 
veris, originally belonged to the same class. 

c) Nouns ending in yr are Greek, and follow the rules of the 
Greek grammar : martyr, martyris. 

d) Those in or have oris, as amor, error, soror ; but arbor, 
the three neuters ador, aequor, marmor, and the adjective memor, 
have oris. Cor has cordis, and so also in the compounded 
adjectives concors^ discors, misericors. Greek proper names, 
such as Hector, Nestor, and others, have dris, as in Greek. 

e) Those in ur have iiris, e. g. fulgur, vultur, and the adject. 
cicur. Fur (a thief) alone hasywrw; and the four neuters ebur, 

femur, jecur, and robur have oris, as eboris, roboris. Jecur has, 
besides Jecom, also the ioYva^ jecinoris, jocinoris, and jocineris. 

[§ 58.] 9. Those ending in s are very numerous ; they may 
terminate in as, es, is, os, us, aus, or in s with a consonant pre- 
ceding it. 

a) Those in as form their genitive in dtis, as aetas, aetdtis. 
Anas alone has andtis : mas has maris ; vas (a surety), vadis . 
vds (a vessel), vdsis, and as, assis. The Greek words vary g,c- 


cording to their gender ; the masculines make antis, the feminines 
adis, and the neuters dtis. (See the Greek grammar.) Conse- 
quently Pallas, the name of a male being, has the genit. Pal- 
lantis, like gigas, gigantis ; as the name of the goddess Minerva, 
Pallddis ; and artocreas neut. has artocredtis. 

b) Those ending in es must be divided into two classes. 
Those belonging to the first increase in the genitive, the 
letters d or t, which were dropped in the nominative, being 
restored to their place, and their termination is either Uis, 
etis, etis, or idis, edis, edis. The genitive in itis occurs in 
most of them, as in antistes, comes, eques, hospes, miles, pedes, 
satelles, caespes, 'fomes, gurges, limes, merges, palmes, stipes, and 
frames, together with the adjectives ales, codes, dives, sospes, and 
superstes, in all of which the es is short. (See § 28.) The follow- 
ing make their genitive in etis : abies, aries, paries, interpres, seges, 
teges, and the adjectives hebes, indiges, praepes, and teres. The 
genit. in etis occurs in the Greek words lebes, tapes, Cebes, Mag- 
nes ; in the words quies, inquies, requies, and the adjective locu- 
ples. Those which make idis are obses, praeses, and the adject. 
deses and reses. The genitive in edis occurs in pes, pedis, and 
its compounds,, e. g. the plural compedes. Heres and merces, 
lastly^ make their genitive in edis. The following words must 
be remembered separately : bes, bessis ; Ceres, Cereris ; pubes 
and impubes, puberis and impuberis; but the forms impubis, genit. 
impubis, neut. impube are also found. The proper name Caeres, 
(from the town of Caere), has Caerltis and Caei-Uis. The second 
class of words "in es change the es of the nominative into is, without 
increase, such as caedes, clades, fames, nubes, rupes ; it must also 
be observed, that several words belonging to this class vary in 
the termination of the nominative between es and is, so that 
along with feles, vulpes, vehes, aedes, we also have vulpis, vehis, 
aedis (see Liv. iv. 25. ; Cic. in Verr, iv. 66.)',- and on the other 
hand, we have torques and valles along with the more usual 
forms torquis and vallis, 

c) Most words in is form their genitive in is, without 
any increase, as avis, civis, panis, piscis, and a great many 
others, together with the adjectives in is, e. Others in- 
crease by one syllable, and make their genitive in idis, itis or 
eris : idis occurs in cassis, cuspis, lapis, and in the Greek words 
aegis and pyramis ; Itis occurs only in lis, Quiris and Samnis, 


plur. Quirites, Sammies ; and eris only in cinis, cucumis, and 
pulvis, gen. pulveris, cucumeris, and cineris. Glis has gliris ; 
pollis (the existence of which, in the nominative, cannot be 
proved, so that some suppose pollen to have been the nom.) and 
sanguis have pollinis, sanguinis (but the compound exsanguis 
remains in the genit. exsanguis) \ semis, being a compound of 
as, makes semissis. Greek words which have the genit. in 1,09 
or 5(09 form their genit. in Latin in is, without increase ; but, if 
their genit. is 1^09, they increase in Latin and have idis. Of 
the former kind we have only the verbal substantives in sis, as 
basis, mathesis, the names of towns compounded with TroXts-, 
e. g. Neapolis, and a few other proper names of the feminine 
gender, such as Lachesis, Nemesis, Syrtis, Charyhdis, All 
other proper and common nouns regularly make the genitive in 
idis ; tigris alone has both forms, and ihis, ibidis, takes in the 
plural the shorter form ibes. Later authors use the genitive 
in is, €ind the dative and ablative in i, instead of idis, idi, ide, in 
other cases also, such as Serapis, Tanais, for Serapidis, Tanaidis, 
and in the dat. and ablat. Serapi and Tanai, for Serapidi, Sera- 
pide, and Tanaidi, Tanaide. (See below, § 62.) Salamis stands 
alone by making its genitive Salaminis (from a nominative 

[§ 59.] d) Those in os sometimes have otis, as cos, dos, nepos, 
sacerdos, and sometimes oris, like os (the mouth), ^6>5, glos, mos, 
ros, and in like manner honos and lepos, the more common forms 
for honor* and lepor. Custos makes custodis ; os (bone), ossis ; bos, 
bovis. The adjectives compos and impos have potis. The Greek 
masculines herds. Minds, and Tros have dis, and some neuters 
in OS, such as Argos, epos, occur only in the nominative and 

e) Of the words in us, the feminines in us make their 
genitive in utis, as virtus, juventus, senectus; or udis, as the three 
words incus, palus, and suhscus. Tellus alone has telluris, and 
Venus, Veneris, The neuters in Us have sometimes eris, viz. 
foedus, funus, genus, latus, munus, olus, onus, opus, pondus, scelus, 
sidus, ulcus, vulnus ; and sometimes oris, as corpus, decus, dedecus, 
/acinus, fenus, frigus, litus, nemus, pectus, pecus, which in an- 

* Cicero uses throughout only honos (for Philip, ix. 6. must be cor- 
rected from the Vatican MS.), and there is no doubt but that honor in the 
fra^^m. Pro Tvllio, $ 21. ed. Peyron, must likewise be changed into honos. 


other sense has pecicdis, pigrius, stercus, tempus, and the noun 
epicene lepus, leporis, a hare. All monosyllables which have a 
long u, form their genitive in uris, as crus^ jus, pus, rus, tus, 
and mus. Grus and sus have uis : gruis, suis ; the adjective 
vetus, veteriSf and intercus, intercutis. Greek proper names 
in us have untis, as Amathus, Selinus, Trapezus ; the compounds 
of irovs make podis, as tripus and Oedipus, which name, how- 
ever, is sometimes made to follow the second declension, the us 
being in that case shortened. Polypus always follows the 

f) Greek words in ys make the genitive yis, contracted 
ys, or altogether in the Greek form yos. Some few, as chlamys, 
have ydis, 

g) The only nouns ending in aes are aes, aeris, and praes, 

h) There are only two words in aus, viz. laus and fraus, of 
which the genitives are laudis, fraudis. 

i) Among the nouns ending in s preceded by a consonant, 
those in Is (except puis), ns, and rs, change the s into tis, e. g. 

fons, mons, pons, ars, pars. Mars — fontis, partis, &c. There 
are only a few, such as frons (a branch), glans, juglans, 

'and some others, which make dis — frondis ; hut frons (iho. fore- 
head) makes frontis. The other words in s with a consonant 
before it, that is, those in bs, ps, and ms, form their genitive 
in bis, pis, mis, e. g. urbs, urbis ; plebs, plebis ; stirps, stirpis ; 
hiems, hiemis, which is the only word of this termination. Cae- 
lebs has caeUbis ; the compounds of capio ending in ceps have 
ipis, as princeps, particeps — principis, participis ; auceps alone 
has auciipis. The compounds of caput, which likewise end in 
ceps, such as anceps, praeceps, biceps, triceps, make their genitive 
in cipitis, like caput, capitis, Greek words follow their own 
rules: those in ops make opis, as Pelops, epops, merops; or opis, 
as Cyclops, hydrops, Gryps (a griffin) has gryphis, and Tiryns, 

10. The termination t occurs only in caput audits compounds, 
gen. capitis. 

[§60.] 11. The genitive of words in x varies between cis 
and gis, according as the x has arisen from cs or gs, which 
may be ascertained by the root of the word. The former 
is more common, and thus the following monosyllables with a 


consonant before the x make their genit. in cis : arx, calx, falx, 
lanx, merx ; gis occurs only in the Greek words phalanx, sphinx, 
and syrinx. 

But when the x is preceded by a vowel, it must be ascer- 
tained whether this vowel remains unchanged, and whether it is 
long or short. The Latin words in ax have dcis, as pax, fornax, 
and the adjectives, e. g. audax, efficax. Fax alone has a short 
a, fads, Greek words too have mostly ads, as thorax, Ajax, 
and only a few have ads, as corax, dimax, while the names of 
men in nax have nactis, such as Astyanax, Demonax, Words 
in ex generally make their genitive in ids, as judex, artifex, 
supplex ; but egis occurs in rex and lex, and egis in aquilex, grex, 
Lelex ; eds in nex, foenisex, and in preds (from prex which is 
not used) ; eds in vervex, Myrmex. Remex has remigis ; senex, 
senis ; and supellex, supellectilis. The words in ix sometimes 
make their genitive in Ids and sometimes in ids. Of the former 
kind are cervix, cicatrix, comix, coturnix, lodix, perdix, phoenix, 
radix, vibix, and all the words in trix denoting women, such as 
nutrix, victrix, and the adjectives felix and pernix, and probably 
also appendix ; ids occurs in calix, choenix, coxendix, Jilix, fornix, 
fulix, hystrix, larix, natrix, pix, salix, varix, and Cilix. Nix has 
nwis, and strix, strigis. The words ending in ox have dcis, e. g. 
vox, vocis ; ferox, ferocis ; but two words have ocis, viz. Cappadox 
and the adjective praecox. Nox has noctis ; Allobrox, Allohrogis. 
The following words in ux form the genitive in ucis : crux, dux, 
nux, and the adjective trux ; the u is long only in two words, viz. 
lux and Pollux, genit. lucis, Pollucis. Conjux {conjunx is es- 
tablished on better authorities) has conjUgis, and frux (which, 
however, does not occur), frugis. The words in yx are Greek, 
and vary very much in the formation of their genitive : it may 
be yds {Eryx), yds (homhyx'), ygis {Japyx, Phryx, Styx), ygis 
{coccyx), and ychis (onyx). There is only one word ending in 
aex, viz. faex, gen. faecis, and in aux only faux, gen. faucis. 


CHAP. XY. i 


[§ 61.] All the remaining cases follow the genitive in regard to 
the changes we have mentioned. It should be remarked that 
any other of the oblique cases might have been chosen, instead 
of the genitive, for the purpose of showing the changes in which 
all participate; but we have followed the common practice. 
It now only remains to give a tabular view of the terminations. 






es, neut. d (some ia). 




um (some ium). 






em (neut. like nom.). 


like nom. 


like nom. 


like nom. 


e (some i). 



Examples for exercise are contained in the preceding chapter;" 
but we subjoin the following words, either with or without 
adjectives, as exercises in which the student may also apply 
the rules contained in the next chapters : Sol splendens (lucidus), 
the shining sun; agger eminens (altus), a high mole; pater 
prudens (jprovidus), the prudent father; dolor levis {parvus), 
a slight pain ; uxor concors {fidd), a faithful wife ; leo nohilis 
(superbus), a noble lion ; virgo eruhescens (jpudica), the blushing 
maiden; urhs vetus (vetusta), the ancient town; lex acris'{as- 
pera), a severe law; frons tristis (sever a), a grave forehead; 
civitas immunis (libera), a free city ; cassis fulgens (splendida), 
a brilliant helmet ; judex clemens (benignus), a mild judge ; miles 
fortis (strenuus), a brave soldier ^ avis cantrix (canora), a singing 
bird ; rupes praeceps (ardua), a^steep rock ; calcar acre (acutum), 
a sharp spur ; animal turpe (foedurn), an ugly animal ; carmen 
dulce (gratum), a sweet poem; corpus tenue (macrum), a thin 
body; ingens (yastum) mare, the vast sea; sidus radians (au" 
reum), the radiant star. 


Remarks on the separate Cases, 

1. Cicero commonly, and other authors of the best age fre- 
quently, make the genitive of Greek proper names ending in es, 
i instead of is. Thus in the most accurate and critical editions 
we read Isocrati, Timarchidi, Theophani, Aristoteli, Praxiteli, 
and even Herculi; i instead of is is found most frequently (even 
in ordinary editions) in the names ending in cles, as Agathocli, 
Diocli, Neocli, Prodi, Pericli, Themistocli, The genitive i is 
used also in barbarian names in es, which were introduced 
through the Greek into the Latin language, such as Ario- 
harzani, Mithridati, Hystaspi, Xerxi, and others. The genitives 
Achilli and Ulixi, which likewise frequently occur in Cicero, 
probably arose from the contraction of Achillei and TJlixei first 
into Achillei and Ulixei, and then of ei into z, which had the 
same sound. (See above. Chap. XII. 4.) After the time of 
Cicero, however, the genitive in is alone was used. 

[§ 62.] 2. Many words in is make the accusative singular im 
instead of em, viz. — 

a) AU Greek nouns, proper as well as common, and such 
as have passed through the Greek into the Latin, and form 
the accusative in that language in iv, but those which have 
in Greek both terminations iv and iha (i. e. the barytons in 
L9, gen. ihos) may in Latin also have the accusative in idem, 
though it does not often occur.* The ordinary Latin accu- 
sative of such words therefore is : hasim, poesim, paraphrasifn, 
Charyhdim, Neapolim, Persepolim, Tanaim, and of those which 
make their genitive in ihos, idis, at least when they are proper 
names, the accusatives Agim, Memphim, Osirim, Parim, Pha- 
larim, Serapim, Tigrim, Zeuxim, &c., are more frequent than, 
e. g., Busiridem, Paridem. But in feminine derivatives from 
names of places and in substantives (properly adjectives) in tis, 
and especially itis, the accusative in idem is more frequent, e. g. 
Limnatidem, Phthiotidem, arthritidem, pleuritidem. The accusa- 
tive in im for idem, therefore, does not prove that the genitive 

* Those which in Greek end in ig, gen. i^og (oxytona), have in Greek 
only i^a, and in Latin only idem: e. g. aegis^ pyramis, tyrannis, Thais^ Bacchis, 
Lais, ChalciSy and especially the feminine patronymics and gentile names, 
such as Aeneisj Heracleis, Thehais^ Aeolis^ Doris, Phocis. 


ends in is instead of idis, or the ablative in i instead of ide, 
although an ablative in i not seldom occurs in proper names 
in is, which make their genitive in idis, e. g. Osiri, Phalari, 
Tigri, instead of the regular Osiride, &c. Latin writers, how- 
ever, and especially the poets, for metrical reasons, often use 
the Greek form of the accusative in instead of im. (See Chap. 


b) Many proper names (not Greek) of rivers and towns which 
do not increase in the genitive, make, according to the analogy 
of the Greek, the accusative in im instead of em, e. g. Albim, 
Athesim, Baetim, Tiherim, Bilhilim, Hispalim. 

c) The following Latin common nouns : amussis, ravis, sitis, 
tussis, and vis. In the following the termination em is less 
common tham im: febris, pelvis, puppis, restis, turris, and 
especially securis. The words clavis, messis, navis, have com- 
monly clavem, messem, navem, but may have also im. 

Note. An accusative in im now and then occurs in some other words, 
as in hipennim from hipennis ; hurim from hurls ; cucumim, a rare form for 
cucumerem, from cucumis ; neptim ; and sementim, which is much less common 
than sementem. 

[§ 63.] 3. The dative and ablative singular seem originally to 
have had the same termination which was either i or e, just as 
those two cases are alike in the second declension, and in the 
plural of all declensions. At a later time it became the general 
rule to use ^ exclusively in the dative and e in the ablative ; but 
aere (from aes), for aeri, in Cicero {Ad Fam, vii. 13.), and Livy 
(xxxi. 13.), QXidi jure £or juri in inscriptions and in Livy (xlii. 28.) 
seem to be remnants of early times. The termination i, however, 
which properly belongs to the dative, is much more commonly 
used in the ablative instead of e. It occurs — 

a) In all words which form their accusative in im instead of 
em, with the exception of those Greek words which make the 
genitive in idis. Thus we have poesi, Neapoli, Tiberi, some- 
times also Osiri, Phalari, and among Latin common nouns not 
only tussi and vi, but febri, pelvi, puppi, turti, securi, though 
the ablative in e is not entirely excluded in these latter words. 
But restim has more commonly reste, and navem on the contrary 
more usually navi than nave. Clave and clavi, and semenfe and 
sementi, are equally in use. 

E 2 


h) In neuters in e, al, and ar, e. g. mari, vectigali, calcdri, 
&c. ; but far, f arris, and baccar, juhar, hepar, nectar, and 
sal, which have a short a in the genitive, form the ablative in e. 
Rete has both rete and reti, and rus ruri as well as rure, hut 
with some difference in meaning. (See § 400.) The poets some- 
times use the ablative mare, e. g. Ovid, Trist. v. 2. 20. Names 
of towns in e (see § 39.) always make their ablative in e, as 
Caere, Reate (at Caere, at Reate), Livy, xxvii. 23. ; xxx. 2. ; 
and Praeneste (at Praeneste), in Cicero. 

c) In adjectives and names of months ending in is, e, and in 
er, is, e, for example, facili, celehri, celeri, Aprili, Septemhri, and 
in those substantives in is which are properly adjectives, e. g. 
aequalis, ajffinis, annalis, bipennis, canalis, familiaris, gentilis, 
molaris, aatalis, popularis, rivalis, sodalis, strigilis, vocalis, tri- 
remis and quadriremis, and according to their analogy, per 
haps also contubernalis. But these words being used also as 
substantives have more or less frequently the termination e, 
and juvenis always makes juvene, aedilis commonly aedile ; in 
affinis, familiaris, sodalis, and triremis, the ablative in e is at- 
tested by the authority of prose writers, although i is generally 
preferred. When such adjectives as these become proper 
names, they always have e, as Juvenale, Martiale, Laterense, 

Note. The ablative in e from adjectives in is, and in er, is, <?, is very 
rare, though it is found in Ovid. (Heroid. xvi. 277. ; Metam. xv. 743. : 
coeleste. Heroid. viii. 64. ; Fast. iii. 654. : perenne. Fast. vi. 158. : porca 
bimestre.) The ablative in i instead of e, on the other hand, is used by good 
writers in several substantives in is, besides those mentioned above, e. g. in 
amnis, avis, civis, classis, fustis, ignis, orhis, unguis, and sometimes in su- 
peltex, supellectili. Of substantives in er, imher has more frequently imhri 
than imbre ; vesper has both vespere and vesperi ; but the latter, especially 
in the sense of " in the evening," as opposed to mane, in the mornino-. 
Cicero and Livy often use the ablatives Carthagini, Anxuri, Tihuri, to 
denote the place where (see the commentat. on LIv. xxviii. 26.) ; and in 
the preface of Corn. Nepos we find Lacedaemoni. But the common practice 
of the ancient writers does not allow us to extend this system, or to make 
it the rule for all names of towns which follow the third declension ; it must 
rather be supposed that, though the ancient language was so uncertain 
between e and i, that we find in Plautus carni, parti, sermoni, along with 
came, &c., the forms became more decidedly separated in the course of 
time, and only a few isolated remnants and particular phrases remained 
in use with the classic authors. (Comp. § 398. in fin.) Thus we have iempori^ 
« in times." (See § 475.) 


[§ 64.] 4. The ablative singular in i or e indiscriminately 
occurs, generally speaking, in adjectives of one termination 
and in the comparative, as prudens, prudente and prudenti; 
elegans, elegante and eleganti ; vetus, vetere and veteri ; locuples, 
locuplete and locupleti; dives, divite and diviti ; degener, degenere 
and degeneri; felix, felice and felici; Arpinas, Arpinate and 
Arpinati ; major, majore and majori. But it is also a general 
rule, that words in ans and ens, when used as substantives, 
e. g. infans and sapiens (except continens), and when they are 
actual participles, especially in the construction of the ablative 
absolute, always prefer e; e. g. Tarquinio regnante, when 
Tarquinius was king ; but when they are adjectives, they prefer 
i to e. 

Note 1. It should however be observed, that there is no rule so full of 
exceptions as this, for on the one hand the adjectives themselves vary 
their terminations according to euphony or the requirement of a verse, and 
on the other, the writers (and the editions of their works) widely differ from 
one another. In Horace, for example, we find the participles in ans and ens 
when used as adjectives, almost invariably forming the ablative in e (see 
Bentley on Carm. i. 25. 17.), whereas the same words are generally found 
with i in Cicero. On the whole, however, it will always be safest to 
make the ablative of adjectives of one termination in i; for the e exclusively 
occurs only in pauper, senex and princeps, and in the majority of those in es, 
viz. Tiospes, sospes, deses, pubes, impubes and superstes. The z, on the other 
hand, is certain in the following words mentioned by the ancient gram- 
marians : memor, immemor, and par with its compounds (in par also when 
used as a substantive), and also in most adjectives in x, as tnix, atrox, audax, 
pertinax and pervicax ,* especially in those in plex : simplex, duplex, triplex, 
multiplex : further in anceps and praeceps, inops, iners and hebes, concors, 
discors, ingens, recens and repens. It must further be observed, that praesen^, 
when used of things, makes the ablative in i, and when used of persons, in e, 
as is confirmed by the phrase in praesenti (scU. tempore), which is of frequent 
occurrence. Comparatives are found in Cicero and Livy more frequently 
with e than with i, but the latter afterAvards became more general, especi- 
ally in Curtius and Tacitus. 

Note 2. The following substantives, which are properly adjectives, 
a7'tifex, consors, nutrix, vigil, victrix, and ultrix, have as substantives the 
termination e, but as adjectives of the feminine or neuter gender they 
prefer the ablative in i. Proper names also, when they are in reality ad- 
jectives, have only e, as Felix, Clemens — Felice, Clemente. 

[§ 65.] 5. The nominative, accusative, and vocative plural of 
neuters end in a ; but neuters in e, al, and ar, which also form 
the ablative singular in i, and all participles and adjectives which 
make the ablative singular either in i alone, or vary between e 

E 3 


and i, have ia instead of a, except the adjective vetus and all 
comparatives ; e. g. maria, vectigalia, calcaria, paria, facilia, 
sapientia, ingentia, victricia; amantia, sedentia, audientia; but 
majora^ doctiora, &c. 

Note. The neuter far liowever has farra ; jubar, hepar, and nectar have 
no plural ; and sal has no neuter plural, but only sales with masculine 

Those adjectives which make the ablat. sing, in e exclusively, should for 
this reason make their plural only in a ; but with the exception of hospita 
(if it be really derived from hospes, and not from hospitus'), no neuter plural 
of them is found, although some grammarians mention paupera and libera. 
It must be remarked in general, that the neuter plural occurs in adjec- 
tives of one termination in as, ans^ ens^ rs, and x, and besides these only in 
par, hebes, teres, locuples, quadrupes, versicolor, anceps, and praeceps, and 
that in all these cases it ends in ia. Thus there remains only vetus, Vetera, 
although the ablative sing, is vetere or veteri. No authority has yet been 
adduced for bicorpora and tricorpora. 

Pluria is said to make an exception among the comparatives, but it is 
only an obsolete form, and is not found in ancient writers, who invariably 
have plura. Complures, on the other hand, which has lost its signification 
of a comparative in the ordinary language (it signifies several or some), makes 
both compluria and complura. 

[§ 66.] 6. The following words make their genitive plural 
in iiLTfYi instead of um : 

a) All neuters which have ia in the nominative plural, that 
is, those in ^, al, and ar, and all participles and adjectives 
which follow the third declension. Comparatives therefore 
(with the exception of plurium and compluriurn) and those ad- 
jectives which have only e in the ablative singular, retain the 
termination um in the genit. plur., as pauperum, supcrstitum. 
To these we must add the adjectives caelehs, celer, cicur, compos, 
impos, dives, memor, immemor, supplex, uher, vetus, and vigil; 
all compounds of facio and capio, and of such substantives as 
make the genitive plur. in um, e. g. degentrum, bicorporum, 
inopum, quadrupMum, versicolorum, and perhaps also ancipitum 
and tricipitum. The poets sometimes form the genitive plural 
of adjectives, especially of participles in ns, by a syncope, in 
um instead of ium ; and later prose writers, such as Seneca 
and Tacitus, sometimes follow their example, and use, e. g., 
potentum, dolentum, salutantum. 

h) Words in es and is, which do not increase in the genitive 
singular (e. g. nubes, nubium; civis, civium; but militum and 
lapidum from miles and lajns, gen. militis, lapidis) ; the follow- 


ing words in er: imber, linter, venter, uter, and the word caro^ 
carnium. Votes, strues, the plural ambages, and generally also 
sedes, together with apis, cams, juvenis, and volucris, form excep- 
tions, and make their genitive plur. in um, Panis is uncertain. 
(Respecting mensis see my note on Cic. in Verr, ii. 74. ; 
Schneider on C«s. Bell Gall. i. 5.) 

c) Many monosyllabic substantives, and without exception 
those ending in s and x preceded by a consonant, make ium, as 
montium, dentium, arcium, mercium, from mons, dens, arx, merx. 
Lynx however has lyncum; sphinx, sphingum; and opes, from ops, 
has opum, Gryphum also is probably the genit. plur. of gryps. 
But the greater number of monosyllabic words ending in s 
and X preceded by a vowel make their genitive plur. '^^i um, 
and not in ium. The latter occurs only in as, assium; glis, 
glirium; lis, litium; mas, marium; os, ossium; vis, virium; and 
generally also in fraus, fraudium, and mus, murium. To these 
we must add faux (which, however, is not used in the nomi- 
native singular), yawczMw; nix, nivium; strix, strigium; and nox, 

Note. The genitive plural in .um therefore is used in aes^ cruSj 
dos, Jios, grus, jus, laus, mos, pes with its compounds (except compedes, of 
which the form compedium is well attested), joraes, stts, Cres, Tros, dux, fax, 
frux and prex (which occur only in the plur.), grex, lex, mix, rex, vox, 
Phryx and Thrax. Fur and ren have furum, renum ; lar, too, has more 
frequently larum than larium. Of those words, which have not been noticed 
here, a genitive cannot be proved to exist ; but it is probable that the genit. 
plur. of vas (vadis) was vadium, and in like manner cor, par, and sal proba- 
bly had cordium, parium, solium, in order to avoid the ambiguity which would 
arise from vadum^ cordum, parum, solum. Cordium occurs in the Vulgate, 
Jerem. iv. 4. 

d) Substantives of two or more syllables ending in ns and 
rs have ium and um, though the latter occurs more rarely ; e. g. 
cliens, cohors, Picens, Vejens, Camers; and in like manner those 
which, like adolescens, infans, parens, sapiens, serpens, are properly 
participles, and admit um only because they are substantives 
(whence we frequently find parentum from parentes), commonly 
make their genitive in ium: adolescentium, sapientium, &c. The 
names of people in as, atis, such as Arpinas, Fidenas, form their 
genitive almost exclusively in ium: Arpinatium, Fidenatium. 
Penates and optimates, which usually occur only in the plural, 

E 4 


follow their analogy. Other substantives in as generally have 
um : e. g. aetatum, civitatum ; but ium also is correct, and Livy, 
for example, always uses civitatium. The genit, plur. ium in 
words with other terminations, if it should occur, must be 
regarded as an exception. Quiris and Samnis, however, con- 
trary to the rule, generally make Quiritium, Samnitium. 

[§ 67.] 7. Names of festivals in alia which are used only in 
the plural, as Bacchanalia, Compitalia, Saturnalia, Sponsalia, 
make their genitive plural in ium or orum, as Bacchanalium, 
or Bacchanaliorum. And Horace {JJarm, iii. 5. 10.), on this 
principle, makes anciliorum from ancile, plur. ancilia ; and 
Suetonius, in several passages, has vectigaliorum instead of 
vecti^t Hum. 

8. With regard to the dative and ablative plural, it is to be 
remarked, that the Greek words in ma prefer the termination is 
of the second declension to ibus. Thus Cicero and other authors 
use poematis, epigrammatis, emblematis, hypomnematis, peripetas- 
matis, peristromatis, toreumatis ; but ibus occurs now and then, 
as diplomatibus, in Tacitus and Suetonius ; poematibus in the 
Rhetor, ad Herenn. iv. 2. ; and in Sueton., Tit. 3. ; strategema- 
tibus in Frontinus, Strateg., Prsef. lib. iv. 

[§ 68.] 9. The accusative plural of words which make the 
genitive plur. in ium ended, in the best age of the Latin 
language, in Is, which was also written eis, but not pronounced 
so : e. g. artis, montis, civis, omnis, similis, mediocris. But the 
termination es was also in use, and in the course of time became 
so prevalent that is was preserved only in a few exceptions, such 
as tris. 

Note. Priscian, towards the end of his seventh book, discusses the accu- 
sative plur. in is instead of es^ more minutely than any other ancient writer. 
Among modern works see especially Norisius, in his Latinitas et Orthogra- 
phia utriusque Pisanae Tabulae^ which is reprinted in Cellarius, Orthographia 
Latina, vol. ii. p. 233. foil. ed. Harles. There is no doubt, that until the 
time of Augustus, those words which form their genitive plural in ium 
(to which must be added celer^ as in all other respects it follows the 
analogy of the adjectives in er, zs, e, although it makes the genit. plur 
celerum)^ had in the accusative plural more commonly the termination is 
than es ; but it must be borne in mind, that es was at the same time in use 
with is. Thus we find even in the Columna Rostrata of Duilius, dases, that 
is, classes, together with claseis ; and in the ancient Florentine MS. of Virgil 
we find urhes, ignes, tres^ fines., as well as urhis., ignis, &c., although es, on the 
whole, is not so frequent as is. (Comp. Gellius, xiii. 20.) In the newly dis- 
covered fragments of Cicero, it is true, we generally find is in words of this 


kind, but there are instances also of es being used in the same words. The 
ancient grammarians in vain attempted to fix the varying practice by rules 
and exceptions. Pliny (ap. Charisium, p. 104. ed. Putsch.) denied the accu- 
sativeyM?zw, and Varro (ibid.) the accusativesya^cw, mercis, axis, lintris, ventris, 
stirpis, corbis, vectis, neptis, and even urbis, and in his work De Ling. Lot. (viii. 
67. ed. Miiller), he asserts that gentis alone was used, and, on the other hand, 
that mentes and denies were the only correct forms. Valerius Probus (see 
Orthograph. Noris. p. 242.) gives us to understand that the words in es, genit. 
is, did not form the accusative in is, although they have ium in the genitive 
plural. Thus much is clear, that the termination is gradually became anti- 
quated, and that the desire of scholars to have an outward distinction of the 
accusative from the nominative, gave way to the general practice. Charisius 
(p. 122. ed. Putsch.) says : consuetndo traduxit ad nominativi et accusativiformani. 
And this probably took place about the end of the Augustan age ; for in the 
ancient MS. containing the fragment of the ninety-first book of Livy, we 
no longer find the accus. in is ; and in the best MSS. of the complete books, 
it OQCurs only in a few isolated passages, and Quintilian does not mention 
this disputed point at all. Afterwards is was still sometimes used by Tacitus 
and Gellius ; but with Tacitus this arose from his desire to revive the ancient 
power and energy of the language, and with Gellius from his antiquarian 
studies. This Is not the place to inquire in what manner an editor of ancient 
authors has to act in the face of this obvious inconsistency of the writers 
themselves ; there are few who faithfully follow the authority of the MSS. ; 
others, such as Bentley in his Terence and Horace, every where restore the 
accus. in is (why Bentley, without inconsistency, edited arces and rates in 
Horace, has not yet been examined) ; and most of them pay as little atten- 
tion to the difference in doubtful cases, as to the ancient orthography in 
general, but merely follow the vulgar tradition. We have noticed here 
the difference of opinions to caution the student, that in reading the ancients 
he may not confound the short is of the genit. sing, with the long Is of the 
accus. plur. 

[§ 69.] 10. Juppiter (which was much more common than 
Jupiter) is declined as follows : genit. Jovis, dat. Jovi, accus. 
Jovem, voc. Juppiter, abl. Jove. In the plural Joves only is 

Bos, hovisy makes the nominat. and accus. plur. boves, gen. 
houm, dat. and ablat. bubus, and less frequently bobus. Sus 
makes the dat. and ablat. plur. subus, which is a contraction of 
the less frequent form suibus. 




[§ 70.] A GREAT number of Greek words, especially proper 
names, belong to the third declension ; and as their genitive ter- 
minates in OS {scos, ovs), they follow the third declension in their 
own language also. Among the terminations of the nominative 
mentioned above, some belong exclusively to Greek words, viz. 
ma, iy y, an, m, on, yn, er, yr, ys, eus, yx, inx, ynx, and the plurals 
in e; but there are also Greek words with other terminations, 
most of which, however, are quite treated as Latin words, for 
which reason the termination on is generally Latinized into o 
(see above, § ^^.\ and the Greek forms are used by Latin 
writers, especially the poets, only in some cases. 

1. In the genitive singular, the poets frequently use the 
Greek termination as instead of the Latin is, especially in words 
in is which usually make their genitive idis, whether simple 
or derivative (see § 245.), e. g. Daphnidos, Phasidos, Atlantidos, 
Erymanthidos, Nere'idos ; so also in nouns in as and ys, as 
Pallados, Tethyos ; and in eus, as Peleos, Theseos (Ovid, Metam. 
viii. 268.), although the Latin termination el or contracted ei 
(according to the second declension), as in Thesei, Terei, is more 
commonly used. (See above, Chap. XII. 4.) 

But in prose the Greek termination of the genitive is seldom 
used. Substantives in is derived from verbs in particular, 
such as basis, ellipsis, mathesis, poesis, make their genitive like 
the nominative, and not haseos, matheseos, &c., which forms are 
found only in unclassic writers. (See Vitruv. x. 15. ; Spartian. 
Ael. Verus, 3. ; Sever, 3.) In the few words in y the genit. in 
yos is used for the sake of euphony, e. g. misyos. Pan, the 
shepherds' god, admits the Greek genit. Panes in prose, to 
distinguish the word from panis, bread. 

The feminines in o, however, such as echo. Calypso, Dido, 
lo, Sappho, have usually the Greek genitive in iis, as echus, 
Didus, Sapphus, the Latin termination onis being less common. 
Their dative, accusative, and ablative end in o, and the Latin 
terminations oni, onem, one, are but rarely used. 


[§ 71.] 2. The Greek accusative of the third declension in a is 
very often used by the Latin poets instead of em. Thus Horace 
uses only heroa, Cyclopa, Memnona, Agamemnona, Helicona, 
Chremeta, and not Cyclopem, Agamemnonem, &c. Among the 
prose writers Cicero most studiously avoids the Greek ter- 
mination, except in aer, aether , and Pan, of which he makes the 
accusative aera, aethera. and Pana (for the reason mentioned 
above). In all other instances the Greek accusative in a must 
be looked upon, in Cicero, as an exception. It occurs much 
more frequently in Nepos, Livy, Curtius, and the authors of 
what is called the Silver Age, though principally in proper 
names and along with the common Latin termination em, e. g. 
Bahylona, Eleusina, Lacedaemona, Marathona, Parmeniona, 
Sidona, Timoleonta, Troezena, also Periclea, Stratoclea, and 
similar names ending in the nominative in cles. In like manner 
words in is and ys admit even in prose the Greek forms in and 
yn together with the Latin im and ym, but Cicero uses them 
only by way of exception ; Livy and Curtius have them more 
frequently, e. g. Nahin, Agin, Halyn, Tigrin. The accus. 
Eleusin, instead of Eleusinem (a), must be traced to the form 
JEleusis, gen. is, which, however, is not well attested. For the 
accusative of words in eus, which later writers usually make ea, 
as Persea, Demetrium Phalerea, see above, Chap. XII. 4. 

Proper names in es, which in Greek follow the first declension 
(gen. ov), and in Latin the third (gen. is) (see Chap. IX. 3.), have 
in the accusative the termination en along with that in em, e. g. 
Aeschinen, Achillen, and Ulixen (inasmuch as these names are not 
formed from ^AfXiWsvs and ^Ohvacrevs, but from the less common 
^AfxIXKris and ^Ohvaa-Tj^, ov), and especially barbarian names, 
such as Mithridaten, Phraaten, Xerxen, Araxen, Euphraten. 
The termination en for em is moreover found in those com- 
pounds which in Greek follow the third declension, but in the 
accusative admit of r)v and tj (contracted from so); but en is 
used much less frequently. Instances of this kind are Sophoclen 
in Cic. De Off. i. 40., Hippocraten and Epicyden in Livy. 
Some words are in Greek declined in two ways, either after 
the first or after the third declension, such as ^aXrjs, 'Kpsfjirjs, 
gen. ov and i^ros ; in Latin they may have the shorter form and 
yet follow the third declension (e. g. the ablat. Thale), and in 


the accusative they admit also of the termination en^ e. g. Chre- 
metem and Chremen, Thalem or Thaletem and Thalen, 

[§ 72.] 3. The vocative singular is in most Greek words like 
the nominative ; but those ending in s form a distinct vocative 
by rejecting that consonant, both in Greek and Latin. Thns 
the vocative of words in is, ys, eus : Daphni, Phylli, Thai, 
Coty, Tiphy, Orpheu, Perseu, Words in is, idis, however, make 
the vocative just as often like the nominative, as Bacchis, My sis, 
Thais. Nouns in as, antis, make their vocative in Greek av and 
a, but the latter only is used in Latin, e. g. Atla, Calcha. 

Proper names in es, gen. is, have the vocative of the first de- 
clension in e together with the regular one. This is the case with 
those which in Greek follow the first declension (e. g. Carneade, 
Simonide and Achille, see above), and with those which although 
they follow the third in all other respects, yet admit of the 
accusative in r}v. Thus we somxctimes find Damocle, Pericle, 
Sophocle, Socrate. 

[§ 73.] 4. The plural of those Greek proper names which by 
the forms of their accusative and vocative sing, show their ten- 
dency to follow the first declension, is sometimes formed after 
that declension. Thus we find in Cicero, De Orat. ii. 23., the 
nom. Naucratae ; and Orat. 9., the accus. Thucydidas. 

5. The Greek termination of the nominat. plur. es, instead of 
the Latin es, is not uncommon in poetry, e. g. Arcades, At- 
lantides, Erinnyes ; but the metre must decide. The termination 
19, Latin Is, occurs even in the nominative of the names of 
towns Trallis and Sardis, though principally in the latter. 
Horace, Epist. i. 11. 2., says: Croesi regia Sardis. 

In the nominative plural the neuters in 09 have the Greek 
termination e, as cete, mele, and the plural Tempe, ra Ts/ulttt}. 

Note. No other cases are formed from these neuters in oc, and in the sin- 
gular too they occur only in the nom. and accus,, and we must therefore use 
the Latin forms cetus and melum (according to the second declension). So 
also chaos, gen. chai, abl. chao. See § 87. 

6. In the genitive plural only a few words retain the Greek 
termination on (cov), and that generally only in titles of books, 
e. g. metamorphoseon, epigrammaton. 

Note. Curtius, iv. 50. (13.) makes the genitive Maleon, from MaXittg., or 
MaXtEie (sing. MaXuvg), entirely in the Greek fashion, for the Latin name is 


7. In the dative plural the Greek termination si or sin is 
used very rarely, and only by poets. Ovid, e. g., has Lemniasi 
and Troasin, from Lemniades and Troades. In prose writers 
there are very few examples that can be relied upon, such as 
ethesi from ra tjOt]. 

[§ 74.] 8. The accusative plural in as is admissible in all 
words which have this termination in Greek. It is however 
seldom used in prose, though in common nouns it occurs more 
frequently than the accusat. sing in a, e. g. harpagonas, pha- 
langas, pyramidas, and even in Cicero we find aspidas, can- 
tharidas. He also uses the proper names Aethiopas, Arcadas, 
and Cyclopas, and Livy always has the accusat. Macedonas, It 
is surprising to find, that the same termination is now and then 
given also to barbarian names of nations, e. g. Allobrogas in 
Caesar, and Lingonas, Nemetas, Ordovicas, Brigantas, Siluras 
and Vangionas in Tacitus. 



[§ 75.] Masculine are those which end in o, or, os, and er, 
and those in es which increase in the genitive, especially those 
in es, itis, e. g. sermo, error, sudor, flos, mos, venter, stipes. 

Exceptions in o. Words ending in do, go and io are feminine, 
e. g. consuetudo, forrmdo, grando, imago, oratio, dictio, lectio, 
auditio, communio, &c., also caro and the Greek words echo and 
Argo (the ship of the Argonauts). The following, however, are 
masculine : in do, the words cardo and ordo, together with udo 
and cudo or cudon ; in go : ligo, margo, and harpago ; and all 
words in io, which are not abstract nouns derived from verbs 
and adjectives, but common names of things, such as pugio (a 
dagger), scipio (a staff), septentrio (north pole), titio (a fire-brand) ; 
several names of animals, as curculio*, papilio, scorpio, stellio, 
vespertilio, and a few others of rare occurrence ; and lastly those 
formed from numerals, such as unio, hinio or duplio, ternio, qua- 

* Also spelled gurgvlio ; it is masculine in its two significations of " air- 
pipe," and " wood worm." 


ternio, quinio, senio, &c. Unio in the sense of a particular pearl 
{margarita) is likewise masculine; but when it signifies unity 
(unitas), and is used in an abstract sense, it is feminine ; but it 
is only in ecclesiastical writers that it has this meaning. 

Note. Cupido, desire, therefore is feminine, hut masculine wlien it is the 
name of the god of Love. Poets, however, sometimes use it as a masculine, 
even in the former signification, and Horace does so always, aspravics cupido-, 
falsus cupido. Margo may have either gender, but the masculine is more 
frequent, as was remarked above. 

[§ 76.] Exceptions in or. The following words in or, oris, are 
neuter : ador, aequor, marmor, and cor, cordis. Arbor is feminine 
according to the general rule. (See § 39.) 

Exceptions in os. Cos, dos, and the Greek eos are feminine. 
Os, ossis, and os, oris, and the Greek words chaos, ethos, epos, 
melos, are neuter. 

Exceptions in er, A great many words in er are neuter, viz. 
cadaver, iter, spinther, tuber (a hump), uber, ver, and verber 
(rarely used in the singular, but very frequently in the plural, 
verbera), and all the names of plants in er : acer, cicer, laser, 
papaver, piper, siler, siser, suber and zingiber. Tuber (a kind of 
peach-tree) is feminine ; but when it denotes the fruit, it is mas- 
culine. Linter is commonly used as a feminine, but is well 
attested also as a masculine. 

Exceptions in es increasing in the genitive. The following 
are feminine: merges, itis ; seges and teges, etis ; merces, edis ; 
quies, etis, with its compounds inquies and requies, Compes, 
which, however, does not occur in the nominative sing., but 
only in the plural compedes, is feminine. Aes, aeris, is neuter ; 
ales and quadrupes are properly adjectives, but as substantives 
they are mostly used as feminines. 



[§ 77.] Feminine are those which end in as, is, ys, aus, and x, 
those in es which do not increase in the genitive, and those in 


s preceded by a consonant, e. g. auctoritas, navis, chlamys, laus 
dindifraus, pax, radix, arx, nubes, pars, mors, hiems. 

Exceptions in as. The following are masculine : — as, gen. 
assis, and its compounds, though they have different terminations, 
as quadrans, a fourth of an as ; bes, two-thirds of an as ; decussis, 
ten ases * ; and the Greek words which make their genitive in 
antis, as adamas, elephas, and the names of mountains : Acragas, 
Atlas, Mimas. Mas, maris, and vas, vddis, are, of course, mas- 
culine. The following are neuters : Greek words in as, which 
make their genitive atis, as artocreas, erysipelas (see § 58.), and 
the Latin words vas, vasis, and fas and nefas, which, however, 
occur only in the nom. and accus. 

Exceptions in is. The following are masculine : — 1) Those in 
is, gen. eris, as cinis, cucumis,pulvis and vomis (commonly vomer); 
2) The following which increase in the genitive : ylis, lapis, 
pollis, and sanguis; 3) The following which do not increase: 
amnis, axis, callis, canalis, cassis (used especially in the plural 
casses, a hunter's net, and not to be confounded with cassis, idis, 
a helmet) ; caulis or colis, collis, crinis, ensis, fascis (generally in 
the plural, fasces), Jinis, follis, funis, fustis, ignis, mensis, orbis, 
panis, piscis, postis, scrobis, sehtis, torquis, torris, unguis, vectis, 
vermis. Some of these words, however, are used by good 
authors also as feminines, though not often, especially callis, 
canalis, scrobis, torquis, and Jinis, cinis, in the singular, whereas 
the plural fines in the sense of boundary or territory, and cineres 
in the sense of the ashes of a corpse, are always masculine. 

As mensis is masculine, Aprilis, Quintilis, and Sextilis have the 
same gender. Some substantives in is are properly adjectives, 
and a substantive masculine being always understood, they are 
themselves used as masculines : e. g. annalis, commonly in the 
plural annales (Jibri), annals ; jugales (equi), two horses yoked 
together ; molaris {lapis), a millstone, or if dens is understood, 
a back- tooth or grinder; natalis (dies), birth-day; pugillares 
(libelli) a tablet for writing. 

Note. Anguis and tigris may have either gender ; cards is generally 
mascul., but when it denotes a dog used in hunting, it is very often feminine. 
(See § 42.) Aqiialis, callis, corbis, and clunis, plur. dunes, are used by good 
writers as words of either gender. Delphis is masculine, but the more 

* See the Appendix on Roman weights, coins, and measures. 


common forms are delphinus, or delpJiin. Cossis has not been mentioned 
above, because the only authority we have for it is a doubtful passage in 
Pliny, Hist. Nat. xxx. 39., and cossus, i, is more probable. 

That the . names of rivers in is are masculine follows from the general 
rule (§ 37.) ; thus we read ho7'ridus Alhis, fiavus Tiheris^ rapidus Tigris. 
Names of mountains with this termination are not numerous : Lucretilis, a 
hill in Latium, is masculine, for Horace says, amoenus Lucretilis. The 
Greek names, Carambis, a promontory on the Asiatic coast of the Black 
Sea, and Peloris in Sicily, are feminine, the word c'lKpa being understood. 

All the masculines in is, whatever may be their genitive, are contained 
in the following hexameter lines : 

Mascula sunt panis, piscis, crinis, cinis, ignis, 
Funis, glis, vectis, follis, fascis, lapis, amnis, 
Sic fustis, postis, scrohis, axis, vermis et unguis, 
"Et penis, collis, callis, sic sanguis et en^is, 
Mugilis et mensis, pollis, cum caide canalis, 
Et vomis, sentis, pulvis, finis, cucumisque, 
Anguis, item torquis, torris, cum cassihus orbis. 

Exceptions in i/s. Names of rivers and mountains with this 
termination are masculine, according to the rules laid down in 
Chap, yi.; e. g. Halys, Othrys. 

[§ 78.] Exceptions in x. The following are masculine : 1) 
The Greek words in ax: as anthrax^ cordax, thorax, 2) The 
majority of those in ex: apex, caudex, codex, cimex, cortex, culex, 
frutex, grex, irpex, latex, murex, obex, podex, pollex, pulex, pumex, 
ramex, silex, sorex, ulex, vertex or vortex. 3) Some in ix: viz. 
calix, fornix, phoenix, sorix; and generally also varix. 4) One 
word in ux: viz. tradux, properly an adjective, palmes being 
understood. 5) The following Greek words in yx : calyx, 
coccyx, onyx, oryx and hombyx (in the sense of silkworm ; it is 
femin. when it signifies silk) ; and the names of mountains, such 
as Eryx. 6) The subdivisions of an as which end in unx: as 
quincunx, septunx, deunx. (See Appendix III.) 

Note. Many words in ex commonly enumerated in these lists are mas- 
line from their signification, such as rex, pontifex, carnifex, foenisex, vervex. 
Some words vary between the masculine and feminine genders, as cortex, 
obex, pumex, and silex, which have been mentioned above, but the masc. is 
better attested. To these we must add imbrex and rumex, both genders of 
which are supported by equal authority. It may be remarked, that the 
number of masculines in ex is greater than that of feminines ; for if we put 
aside the above-mentioned masculines, there remain only the following 
feminines : forfex, lex, nex, supellex, prex (not used in the nom.), and/aear. 
Pellex, ilex, vitex, and carex are feminines from their meaning, according to 
the general rule. Atriplex is the only iveuter in ex, and is rai-ely used as a 



Onyx is masculine when it denotes a species of marble, or a vessel made 
of it ; but as the name of a precious stone (see § 39.) it is feminine. Calx 
is sometimes used as a masculine like the diminutive calculus^ but it does not 
occur in ancient writers. Lynx occurs as masculine only in a single passage 
of Horace (timidos lyncas), and is otherwise feminine, as in Greek. The 
archaic cum primo luci is believed to be preserved in a passage of Cicero 
{De Off. iii. 31. 5 comp. Varro, De L. L. vi. 9.). 

Exceptions in es, gen. is yvithout increase. The Greek word 
acinaces alone (aKi,vdK7]9, ov) is decidedly masculine. Vepres, 
which rarely occurs in the singular, and palumhes, though com- 
monly masculines, are found also as feminines. 

Exceptions in s preceded by a consonant. The following are 
masculine : dens, fons, mons and pons; adeps commonly, and 
forceps sometimes. Some words are properly adjectives, but 
are used as masculine substantives, because a substantive of that 
gender is understood : confluens or conjiuentes (amnes), torrens 
(amms)f oriens and occidens (sot), rudens (funis), bidens and tri- 
/ dens; and several Greek words, such as elops, epops (Lat. upupa), 
merops, gryps (grypliis), hydrops, chalybs. 

Note. The divisions of the a& ending in ns^ e. g. sextans^ qiuidrans^ triens, 
dodrans, are masculine, as was remarked § 77. Serpens, in prose writers, is 
generally feminine, but the poets use it ■ also as a masculine. Stirps, in a 
figurative sense, is always feminine, but in its original sense of " stem" it 
is frequently found as a masculine. Continent, the continent, properly an 
adjective, is of doubtful gender, though the feminine is perhaps preferable. 
Bidens, a fork, is masculine, but when it signifies " a sheep two years old " it 
is feminine, ovis being imderstood. The plural torrentia, from torrens, occurs 
in Curtius ix. 35., and must be explained by supplying y?MWzw«, torrent being 
properly an adjective. A few participles used as substantives in philoso- 
phical language are neuters, as erw, accidens, consequens. Animans, being 
properly a participle, occurs in all three genders; but according to the 
practice of Cicero it is generally feminine in the sense of " a living being," 
and masculine in the sense of " a rational creature." (See Schneider, For- 
menlehre, p. 126. fol.) 



[§ 79.] Words ending in a, e, i, y, c, I, n, t, ar, ur, us are 
neuter : e. g. poema, mare, sindpi, misy, lac and alec, animal, mel, 
carmen, flumen, caput (the only word of this termination), calcar, 
pulvinar, fulgur, guttur, opus, tempus. 



1. Exceptions in /. The following are masculine: sol, sal and 
mugil, which form is more common than mugilis. Sat in the 
singular is sometimes found as a neuter, but in the plural the 
ancients use only sales both in the sense of "salt" and in the 
more common one of " witticisms." Salia in the sense of " dif- 
ferent kinds of salt" is only a modern medical term. 

2. Exceptions in n. There are only three Latin words in en 
which are masculine, viz. pecten, pectinis, ren and lien (or lienis) ; 
the others in en are of Greek origin : e. g. attagen, lichen and 
splen. Delphin (commonly delphinus^, paean, agon, canon, gno- 
mon, horizon, and the names of mountains in on, as Cithaeron, 
Helicon, are likewise masculines. The following in on are 
feminine : aedon, halcyon (Lat. alcedo), icon, and sindon; and, 
according to the general rule, all the Greek names of towns, 
with a few exceptions, such as Marathon, which is more fre- 
quently masculine. 

3. Exceptions in ar. Par is common in the sense of " mate," 
but neuter in the sense of " a pair." 

4. Exceptions in ur. Astur, turtur, vultur and furfur are 

5. Exceptions in us. All words of two or more syllables 
which retain the u in the genitive, that is, which end in utis 
or udis, are feminine : e. g. juventus, salus, senectus, servitus, 
virtus; incus, palus, and subscus; also tellus, telluris, and pecus, 
pecudis, a sheep, whereas pecus, pecoris (neut.), signifies " cattle" 
in general. Venus, Veneris, the name of a goddess, is naturally 
feminine ; but it retains the same gender in the sense of " grace- 
fulness" (generally in the plural). Respecting the names of 
animals in us, see above, § 42. Lepus and mus are masculine ; 
grus and sus are feminine, when the particular sex is not to be 
specified. Of Greek words in us, tripus, tripodis, is masculine ; 
apus and lagopus are feminine, perhaps only because avis is 
understood. Rhus, as a tree, is feminine, as a seed or spice 




[§ 80.] The fourth declension is only a particular species of the 
third, which has arisen from contraction and elision. The 
nominative of masculine and feminine words ends in us, and of 
neuters in u. The following is the form of their declension : — 


Nom. fruct-us, fruit. 

corn-u, horn. 

Gen. fruct-us. 


Dat. fruct-ui. 

{corn-ui) corn-u. 

Ace. fruct-um. 

~ com-u. 

Voc. fruct-us. 


Abl. fructu. 



Nom. fruct-us. 


Gen. fruct-uum. 


Dat. fruct-ibus. 


Ace. fruct-us. 


Voc. fruct-us. • 


Abl. fruct'lbus. 


The following words may be used as exercises: actus, coetus, 
cursus, gradus, lusus, magistratus, motus, sensus, sumptus, vultus: 
the only neuters are, genu, gelu, veru, pecu (the same as pecus, 
oris). Tonitrus and tonitruum, plur. tonitrua, are more com- 
monly used than tonitru. 

Formerly it was believed that the neuters in u were inde- 
clinable in the singular, but recent investigations (especially 
those of Freund, in an Appendix to the preface to his Latin 
Dictionary) compel us to give up this opinion, especially with 
regard to the genitive; for it is only in late technical writers 
that we find, e. g., cornu cervinum and cornu hubulum making 
the genitive without any termination of the first word : cornu- 
cervini, cornuhuhuli. The dative ui is likewise mentioned by 
an ancient grammarian (Martian. Capella, lib. iii.), but there 
is no instance except cornu in Livy, xlii. 58., which must be 
looked on as a contraction of cornui. 

F 2 


[§ 81.] Note 1. The genitive of the words in us was originally uis^ which 
was afterwards contracted into us. Instances of the ancient form are still 
found in our authors, as anuis in Terence. Sometimes, on the other hand, 
the genitive of words in us was ?, after the second declension, which is still 
found now and then as well as zw, not only in comic writers, but in good 
prose, e. g. senati and tumulti in Sallust. The dative in u instead of ui is 
still more frequent, especially in Cassar, who is said by Gellius (iv. 19.) to 
have sanctioned this form exclusively; e.g. equitatu, 7nagistratu, usu, for 
equitatui, &c. ; it is, however, found also in a few passages of other writers. 

[§ 82.] Note 2. Some words make the dative and ablative plural in ubus 
instead of ibus. They are contained in the following two hexameters : — 

Arcus, acus, partus, quercus^ Jicus, lacv^^ artus, 
Et tribus et partus, specus^ adde veruque pecuque. 

But it must be observed, that instead ofjicubus a better form is j^m, from 
^czw, i (see § 97.), and that arcubus and quercubus, though mentioned by 
ancient grammarians, do not occur in other writers any more than arcibus, 
or quercibus. Portus has both forms, ubus and ibus, and tonitru^ has more 
commonly tonitribus than tonitrubus. 

[§ 83.] Note 3. Domus takes, in some of its cases, the forms of the second 
declension ; but this is exclusively the case only in the genit. domi in the 
sense of " at home ;" in the abl. dome in the sense of " from home ;" and in 
the ace. plur. domos in the sense of " home," when several places are alluded 
to. In the other signification, the forms of the fourth declension prevail, 
though we find the ablat. domo, genit. plur. domorum, ace. plur. domos, 
along with domu (see Garatoni on Cic. Philip, ii. 18.), domuum, and domus 
(see my note on Cic. in Verr. iv. 4.) ; but domo for domui seldom occurs. 

Gender or Words or the Fourth Declension. 

[§ 84.] The words in us are masculine. The following only are 

feminines : acus, domus, manus, porticus, tribus, and the plurals 

idus, iduurn, and quinquatrus, quinquatruum. To these must be 

added colus, which however also follows the second declension. 

(See §§53. and 97.) The words anus, nurus, socrus, and quercus 

are feminine, according to the general rule, on account of their 


Note. Penus, us (provisions), is feminine ; but there are two other forms 
of this word, one after the second declension, penum, i, and the second after 
the third, penus, oris, both of which are neuter. Specus is most frequently 
masculine, but in the early language, and in poetry, it is found both as a 
feminine and as a neuter. In Valer. Maximus, i. 2., we have in quoddam 
praealtum specus for in quendam specum; but the reading is doubtful. Secu^, 
when used for sexus, is neuter, but occurs only in the nominat. and accus. in 
the connection of virile and muliebre secus. (Comp. § 89.) 

The few words in u are neuter, without exception. 




[§ 85.] The fifth declension, like the fourth, may, with a few 
changes, be traced to the third. The nominative ends in es, 
and the declension is as follows : — 





di-es, a day. 

Nom. di-es. 



Gen. di-erum. 



Dat. di-ebus. 



Ace. di-es. 



Voc. di-es. 

I Abl. 


Abl. di-ebus. 

Note 1. Only the three words dies^ res, and species^ have theu* plural 
complete ; and Cicero condemned even specierum and speciebus as not being 
Latin. The words acies, fades, effigies, series, and spes, are found in good 
prose writers only in the nominative sing, (perhaps in the vocative also) 
and accusative plural ; the others have, from their signification, no plural. 

Note 2. The e in the termination of the genitive and dative singular is 
long, when preceded by a vowel, as in diei, maciei, but short after a consonant, 
as in Jidei, rei. 

Note 3. An old termination of the genitive was es (contracted from eis), 
but is not found in our authors, except in the word Diespiter =■ Diei pater. 
But there are several instances of e and i being used for the ei of the genitive 
and dative. The e for the genitive occurs very frequently in poetry (Virg. 
Georg. i. 208. die; Horat. Carm. iii. 7. 4.; Ovid. Metam. iii. 341., and 
vii. 728. Jide^ ; and also in some passages of Cicero, Caesar, and Sallust ; e. g. 
pernicie causa (some write pemicii), in Cic. pro Rose. Am. 45. In sinistra 
parte acie in Cses. Bell. Gall. ii. 23., and several times in Sallust. Instances 
of the dative ending in e occur in Horace, Serm. i. 3. 95. commissa fide ; and 
in Livy, v. 13. insanabili pernicie nee causa nee finis inveniebatur. The 
dative in i occurs in Nepos, Thrasyb. 2. : pemicii fuit; and the genitive in i 
appears in Livy, ii. 42., in the connection oi tribuni plebi for plebei (plebes = 

Gender or Words of the Fifth Declension. 

[§ 86.] The words of the fifth declension are feminine, with 
the exception of dies, which is mascul. and femin. in the singular, 
and masculine only in the plural. The compound meridies is 
masculine only, but does not occur in the plural, as was re- 
marked above. 

r 3 


Note. Good prose writers make the singular of dies much more frequently 
masculine than feminine. The latter gender, generally speaking, is used 
only when dies denotes duration or length of time, and in the sense of a 
fixed or appointed day. Thus we find certa^ co7tstituta, praestiiuta, dicta, 
finita dies, but also stato die. 



[§87.] The irregularities in the declension of substantives may 
be comprised under two general heads : A. Indeclinahles and de^ 
fectives ; B. Heteroclita and heterogenea, 

A. Some substantives have a defective declension, inasmuch 
as they have either no terminations at all to mark the different 
cases (indeclinahles), or want particular cases, or even a whole 
number (defectives). 

I. Indeclinahles, or words which retain the same form in all 
cases, are chiefly the names of the letters of the Greek and 
Latin alphabets, e. g. alpha, beta, gamma, digamma, delta, iota, 
a, c, V, &c. It is only late and unclassical authors that decline 
the Greek names in a. Delta, as a name of a country, is like- 
wise indeclinable ; but it is found only in the nomin. and accus. 
Further, a number of foreign words, such as git, manna, pascha, 
and a few Greek substantives in i and y, such as gummi and 
misy, which, however, occurs also as a declinable word (see 
§ 55.)\ and besides the indeclinable gummi there exist other 
declinable forms also, e. g. haec gummis, hoc gnmma, and hoc 
gumen. Hebrew proper names, which differ in their termi- 
nations from Greek and Latin words, are either not declined 
at all, as Betldeem, Gabriel, Ruth, or they take a Latin ter- 
mination in the noriiinative also, e. g. Abrahamus, Jacobus, Jo- 
sephus, Juditha. David and Daniel are the only names which, 
without taking any termination in the nominative, make the 
genitive Davidis and Danielis, Others, as Joannes, Moses, 
Judas, Maria, have already acquired through the Greek a de- 
cliuable termination, and are accordingly declined after the first 




or third declension. Jesus makes the accusat. Jesum, but in 
the other cases it remains unchanged, Jesu, 

Among the genuine Latin words we must notice pondo, which 
is used only as a plural, and remains unchanged in all its cases, 
e. g. auri quinque pondo, five pounds of gold. This peculiarity 
arose from the omission of the word librae, to which was added 
the superfluous pondo, an ablative in the sense of " in weight" 
(in which it still often occurs ; see § 428.), afterwards librae was 
omitted and pondo retained its place. Semis, half an a^f^^^^ \_ \ B 
become an indeclinable adjective (one half) from a declinable of 'r"^' 
substantive, gen. semissis, and is used as such in connection withrr TJ ^ \ 
other numerals. ^^ 

[§ 88.] II. Defectives in case are those substantives which wan|^Tf Q'^^ 
one or more cases. There are many words ^f which the nomi»—- ^^"^ 
native singular cannot be proved to have existed, as for instance, 
of the genitives dapis, dicionis, feminis (for which the nominat. 
femur is used), frugis, internecionis, opis, pollinis, vicis, and of 
the plurals preces and verbera (for which we use as a nom. sing. 
plaga or ictus). The genitive neminis from nemo occurs veiy 
rarely, and its place is supplied by nullius. (See § 676.) The 
vocative is wanting in a great many words, from their signifi- 
cation. The genitive plural is wanting, that is, does not occur 
in our authorities, in several monosyllabic words, as os, oris ; 
vas, vadis ; glos, pax, and others. (See § 66.) The geiiit. and 
dat. sing, of vis is very rare, but the plural vires, virium, &c., is 

[§ 89.] With regard to words which want several cases, it 
most frequently happens, that only those cases exist which are 
alike (i. e. especially the nominat. and accusat.), all the others 
being wanting. This is the case, «) With Greek neuters in 
es (properly adjectives) and os in the singular, and with those 
in e in the plural, e. g. cacoethes, chaos, epos, melos, cetos (which 
make the plural mele, cete, as in Greek), and Tempe. Some of 
these words, however, have a declinable Latin form in us, i, or 
um, i, viz. chaus, cetus, melus (mascul.), and melum, from which 
the ablatives chao, melo are derived; and besides (to) Argos, 
there is a declinable Latin form Argi, Argorum, Argis. b) 
With the Latin neuters fas, nefas, nihil, parum (too little), and 
instar, which was originally a substantive signifying " an image," 
or " resemblance," and was then used as an adjective in the 

F 4 


sense of " like," but only in such connections as admit of its 
being explained as a nominative or accusative. Secus, sex, is like- 
wise used only in cases that are alike, especially as an accusative 
absolute, virile secus, muliebre secus, e. g. canis muliehre secus ; 
in other phrases sexus, us, is the ordinary word, c) With the 
plural of many monosyllabic words, as neces, kinds of death ; 
paces, treaties of peace ; especially neuters, as aera, brazen 
images ; jura, rights ; rura, fields ; tura, incense ; and others, 
the plural of which generally occurs only in poetical language, 
as farra, corn ; mella, honey ; fella, bile. To these we must 
add the poetical plurals Jlamina, murmura, silentia, colla. 
The following plurals grates, munia, munera, likewise occur 
only in the nom. and accus., and the ablatives gratibus and 
munibus are rarely *used. Metus which is complete in the sin- 
gular, and astus, of which the ablat. singular is used, have, in 
the plural, those cases only which are alike. 

The following must be remembered separately : fors occurs 
only in the nom. and abl. singular {forte, by chance); lues, in 
the nom., ace, and ablat. singular ; mane, in the nom., ace, and 
abl. singular, and is alike in all of them, but it is used also as 
an adverb. Satias for satietas does not occur, in good prose, 
in any other form. There are several words which are frequently 
used in the plural (see § 94.), but which in the singular have 
only one or other case, more especially the ablative ; e. g prece 
from preces occurs in prose also ; but the ablative singular of 
ambages, compedes, fauces, obices, and verbera is used only in 
verse, and not in ordinary prose. 

[§ 90.] Some words occur only in particular combinations 
and in a particular case: dicis with causa and gratia; nauci 
in the phrase non nauci facer e or esse; diu noctuque, or die 
et noctu, old ablatives, for which however nocte et interdiu 
are more commonly used ; derisui, despicatui, divisui, ostentui, 
in combination with duci or esse ; irifitias with ire ; suppetias 
with ferre ; pessum and venum with ire and dare, whence venire 
and vendere, for which Tacitus, in the same sense, uses veno 
ponere, exercere ; foris and foras (from force —fores) ; gratis (for 
gratiis), ingratiis ; sponte with a pronoun, as mea, tua, sua, or a 
genitive ; in promptu and in procinctu commonly with esse and 
stare. We must particularly notice some verbal substantives, 
which frequently occur in good writers, but rarely in any other 

irregiTlar declension. 73 

form than the ablat. sing, in combination with a genitive or still 
more frequently with a pronoun, such as meOi tuo, &c., e. g. con- 
cessu and permissu ; monitu and admonitu; mandatu,rogatu, oratu; 
arbitratu, jussu et injussu ; accitu, coactu atque efflagitatu meo. 

[§91.] III. Defectives in number are words which have either 
no plural or singular. 

1. Many words from their signification can have no plural, 
and are termed singularia tantum. This is the case : a) With 
abstract nouns which have a simple and universal meaning, 
e. g. justitia, pietas, pudor, temperantia, experientia, infantiUf 
pueritia^ adolescentia, juventus, senectus, fames, sitis ; b) With 
words which denote a substance or mass without division or 
subdivision, as aurum^ argentum, argilla, sabulum, coenum, 
limus, sanguis, and panis, inasmuch as we thereby do not un- 
derstand a single loaf but the substance of bread in general. 
Some words of this kind however, when used in the plural, de- 
note separate objects, consisting of the substance indicated by 
the name, as aera, works in bronze ; cerae, wax- tablets ; ligna, 
pieces of wood ; c) Collective words, as indoles, the whole na- 
tural abilities of a person; plebs and vulgus^ victus, supellex, 
virus. Proper nanies should strictly have no plural, but cases 
often occur, where a plural is necessary, viz. when persons of 
the same name or character are spoken of, and it may be re- 
marked in general that in cases like this the person who speaks 
or writes must decide for himself. It is surprising that there 
exists no plural of the words vesper (yespera), meridies, ver, 
justitium, letum, and specimen. 

[§ 92.] Note 1. It is, however, remarkable, that the plural of abstract 
nouns is much more common in Latin than in our own language, to denote 
a repetition of the same thing, or its existence in different objects. Cicero 
( Pro Leg. Man. 5.), for example, says : advent us imperatorum nostrorum 
in urbes sociorum ; in Pis. 22. : concursus fehant undique ; effusiones fiomi- 
num ; De Off. ii. 6. : inieritU^ exeixituum ; ibid, ii. 8. : exitus erant hellorum 
aut mites aitt necessarii ; ibid. ii. 7. : reliquorum similes exitus tyrannorum ; in 
Verr. v. 11.: exitus conniviorum tales fuerunt. The phrases incurrere in odia 
hominum and animos addere militihus^ are of quite common occurrence, and 
animus is used in the plural whenever the courage or anger of seve/al per- 
sons is spoken of, just as we always read terga vertere^ to take to flight, 
when the act is ascribed to many, and never tergum. Animi, however, like 
spiritUs^ is used in the plural also to denote the ferocia animi of one man. 
Qualities, when attributed to several persons, are frequently (not always) 
used in the plural ; e. g. proceritates arborum, Cic. Cat. 17. ; odistis hominum 
novorum industria^^ in Verr. iii. 4. : ingeniis excellentibus praediti homines^ De 


Fin. V. 24. The plural in this case often denotes different species of the 
same quality ; e. g. sapiens nostras amhitiones levitatesque contemnit, Cic. Tusc. 
V. 36. ; saepe excellentiae quaedam in amicitia sunt, Lael. 19. ; somnus et quietes 
ceterae, De Off. i. 29. In like manner we find invidiae multitudinis, insaniae, 
desperationes, iracundiae, fortitudines, turpitudines, mortes, exitia, omnes et 
metus et aegritudines ad dolorem referuntur., &c. (See in particular Cic. De 
Off. iii. 32.) We must further, notice the frequent use of the plural in 
words denoting the phenomena of the weather, as nives, pruinae, grandines, 
imbres, pluviae ; n. e. falls of snow, showers of hail, &c. ; and soles, sunbeams. 
(See Quintil, xi. 3. 27.) All we have said hitherto relates to good prose ; the 
poets go still further, and use the plural without either of the two reasons 
mentioned above ; e. g. amoves, irae, metUs, and timores, flamina, murmura, 
otia, silentia, partly for the purpose of being more emphatic, and partly on 
account of the metre, where the singular does not suit it. 

Note 2. The names of fruits of gardens and fields, on the other hand, 
are frequently used in the singular in a collective sense, where we are in the 
habit of employing the plural ; e. g. Pythagorei faha ahstinuerunt (Cic.) ; 
faham, lentem, rapum severe ; ciceris catinus. In like manner nux or uva does 
not denote a single nut or grape, but the particular kind of fruit, as in 
Horace, Serm. ii. 2. 121. : pensilis uva secundas et mix ornahat mensas. In a 
similar way Cicero uses the names of species of animals : villa abundat porco, 
Tiaedo, agno, gallina, Cat. 17. ; and Livy, v. 53., of building materials : tegula 
publice praehita est. 

[§ 93.] 2. Other words (jpluralia tantum) occur only in the 
.plural, and in the singular either not at all, or only in writers 
who cannot be taken as models. This is the case 

a) With the following collective names of personal beings : 
liheri, gemini, majores, posteri, primores and proceres, superi and. 
inferi, coelites, consentes, penateSf lemures, excubiae, operae. When 
in any of these cases an individual is to be indicated, it can be 
done only by making it a part of the collective, e. g. one child, 
unus or una liberorum or ex liberis. Manes or dii manes how- 
ever is used in the plural also to denote the departed soul of an 

b) A great number of other pluralia tantum denote a complex 
of things, the constituent parts of which are not conceived 
separately, or at least are not designated by the same word as 
the whole complex itself. Such words are rendered in English 
either by plurals or collective words. The most important 
among them are : — 

a) Artus, exta, intestina and viscera, foria (orum), tormina, 
ilia, armamenta, impedimenta, utensilia, induviae, exuviae, manubiae, 
parietinae, reliquiae, sentes, vepres, virgulta, bellaria, crepundia, 
scruta, donaria, lautia, inferiae, justa, serta, compedes, verbera, 
grates, lamenta, minae, preces, dirae, ambages, argutiae, deliciae, di- 


vitiae, facetiae, nugae,gerrae, quisquiliae, insidiae,praestigiae, tricae. 
To these we may add some other but similar ideas, which are 
more frequently expressed by the plural than the singular, as an- 
gustiae, hlanditiae, illecebrae, ineptiae, minutiae, latebrae, salehrae, 

[§ 94.] ^) The following words are used in Latin in the plural, 
because they denote things composed of several parts, whereas we 
frequently express the same things in the singular: — Altaria 
(altare is less common), arma, moenia, bigae, trigae, quadrigae (in 
the so-called Silver Age the singular also was used, the chariot 
being the main thing thought of), cancelli and clathri, casses and 
plagae, exequiae, fides (a lyre, properly the strings which were 
also called nervi), fores and valvae, loculi, phalerae, salinae, scalae, 
scopae, codicilli, pugillares, tabulae, cerae, dunes and nates. The 
meaning of the plural is more obscure in the following words : 
cervices*, fauces, clitellae, cunae, cunabula and incunabula, inimi- 
citiae (is used by Cicero in the singular only as expressing a 
philosophical idea, otherwise it is a plurale tanturn), induciae, 
nuptiae, obices, pantices, praecordia {oruni), sordes, tenebrae. 

It is curious that the plural of some of the words of this 
class expresses also a plurality of the same things of which the 
jjlurale tantum indicates but one, e. g. that fauces signifies not 
only " a throat," but " several throats," or " mouths." In this 
case the distributive nimierals are used instead of cardinal 
ones. (See § 119.) 

[§ 95.] The names of certain days in the Roman calendar are 
plurals, as calendae, nonae, idus, nundinae and feriae ; so also the 
names of festivals and festive games (like ludi itself), e. g. 
Bacchanalia, Floralia, Saturnalia, Olympia, and natalicia, 
sponsalia and repotia ; further, many names of towns, such as 
Athenae, Thebae, Gades, the neuters Arbela, Bactra, Leuctra, 
and a considerable number of names of towns which are pro- 
perly names of the people, as Delphi, Leontini, Parisii, Treviri. 
Such plural names of nations are often used for that of the 
country they inhabit. Horace, for example, says: tollor in 
arduos Sabinos, i. e. into the high country of the Sabines. 
(See § 680.) 

* In ancient Latin prose, i. e. especially in Cicero, it is a plurale tantum ; 
for cervicem in Cic. in Verr. v. 42. is only a misprint in the modern editions ; 
but the poets, and, after the Augustan age, prose writers also, use the word 
in the singular. (Comp. Quintil. viii. 3. 35.) 



[§ 96.] Some words which are apparently the same vary in 
meaning according to their number, which is sometimes ac- 
companied by a difference of gender. Lustrum is a period of 
five years, and lustra, dens of wild beasts ; fastus, us, plur. 
fastus, pride ; and fasti, the calendar ; forum, market, and fori, 
passages ; tempus, time, and tempora (sometimes tempus also), 
the temples of the head. 

In other words the plural has a different meaning from the 
singular, though one nearly allied to it, and without giving 
up the meanmg of the singular for the plural, e. g. 

Aedes, a temple. 

Aqua, water. 
Auxilium, help. 
Bonum, something good. 
Career, a prison. 
Castrum, a fort. [forum. 

Comitium, a part of the Roman 
Copia, abundance. 
Cupedia, daintiness. 
Epulum, a solemn feast. 
Faeultas, power to do some- 
Fortuna, fortune. 
Hortus, a garden. 

Littera, letter of the alphabet. 

Ludus, pastime. 

Naris, nostril. 

Natalis (dies), birth-day. 

{Ops, obsol.) Opis, help. 

Opera, labour. 

Pars, a part. 

Rostrum, a beak, pointed head 

of a ship. 
Sal, salt. 

Aedes, a house. 
Aquae, medicinal springs. 
Auxilia, auxiliary troops. 
Bona, property. [course. 

Car ceres, the barriers of a race- 
Castra, a camp. 
Comitia, assembly for election. 
Copiae, troops. 

Cupediae, or cupedia, dainties. 
Epulae, a feast, a meal. 
Facultates, property. 

Fortunae, goods of fortune. 

Horti and hortuli, pleasure- 

Litterae, an epistle. 

Ludi, public games. 

Nares, ium, nose ^nasus, 

Natales, birth, high or low. 

Opes, power, wealth. 

Operae, workmen. 

Partes, (commonly) a party. 

Rostra, the raised place from 
which the orators spoke. 

Sales, witticisms. 



[§ 97.] B, The second kind of irregularity in tlie declension 
of substantives consists in too great an abundance of forms. 
It happens either, that although there is but one nominative, 
the other cases have two forms after different declensions, or 
that both the nominative, and aU the other cases, have two dif- 
ferent forms. If owing to the different terminations, such a 
word has at the same time different genders, it is called a 
heterogenes ; if it has merely different forms, it is called a 
heteroclUon, It must however be observed that there are only 
very few words in which the practice of good prose does not 
give preference to one of the forms, and in the following list 
we shall always put the preferable form first. 

Forms of different declensions are found with the word 
jugerum; for, besides the ablative sing, and plur. jugero and 
jugeriSf poets for metrical reasons use jugere and jugeribus. 
Some names of trees in us, viz. cupressus, Jicus, laurus, pinus, 
besides the forms of the second declension, also take those 
of the fourth in us and u, i. e. in the genit. and ablat. sin- 
gular, and in the nom. and accus. plural, e. g. laurus (after the 
second and fourth declension), gen. lauri and laurus, dat. lauro, 
ace. laurum, voc. laure, abl. lauro and lauru, Nom. plur. lauri 
and laurus, gen. laurorum, dat. and abl. lauris, accus. lauros 
and laurus, voc. lauri. In other names of trees the second de- 
clension greatly predominates, except quercus, which follows t{ie 
fourth entirely. The same fe the case with colus, a distaff; but 
the cases in i, orum, is, do not exist, perhaps only accidentally, 
for, according to the ancient grammarians,' the word may follow 
both the second and fourth declensions. Respecting senatus, 
tumultus, gen. Us and i, see § 81. Vas, vasis, a vessel, sometimes 
makes the genit. vasi from vasum, which is not altogether out of 
. use. The plural ilia has iliorum and iliis along with ilium and 

[§ 98.] Words which have different forms in the nominative 
as well as other cases may follow the same declension in either 
case, as balteus and balteum, callus and callum, clipeus and cli- 



peum (especially a consecrated shield), carrus and carrum, com- 
mentarius and commentarium, cuhihis and cubitum, pileum and 
pileus, haculum and bacillus, palatum and palatus, jugulum and 
juguluSf catinus^ catillus, and catinum, catillum; and some names 
of plants, as lupinus and lupinum, papyrus and papyrum, por- 
rum and porrus : or they follow different declensions ; as 

Alimonia, ae, — aliTnonium, i. 

Amygdala, ae, — amygdalum, i, 

Vespera, ae. — vesper, i, the evening star, is regular. In 
the sense of evening, we find the nom. 
vesper and accus. vesperum, but the ab- 
lative vesper e and vesperi, from vesper, is; 
in the Silver Age generally, we also find 
vespera, ae, 

— cingula, ae, 

— esseda, ae. 

— incestus, us. 

— delphin, inis. 

— elephas, antis. 

— consortium, i. 

— menda, ae. 

— penus, us; and penus, oris. 

— tergus, oris, only in poetry, and in prose 

after Augustus. 
Pavo, onis. — pavus, i. 

Scorjno, onis. — scorpius, i, 
Palumbes, is. — palumbus, i; and palumba. 
Colluvio, onis. — colluvies, ei. 
Crater, eris. — crater a, ae. 
Plebs, is. — plebes, ei. 

Paupertas, atis — pawperies, ei. 
Juventus, utis — juventa, ae; and juventas, dtis. 
Senectus, Utis. — senecta, ae. 
Gausdpe, is (oXso — gausapum, i; sind gausapa, ae. 

gausapes, is, 

Praesepe,is{2dso — praesepium, i. 

praesepes, is, 

Tapete, is. — tapetum, i; and tapes, etis. 

Cingulum, i. 
Essedum, i. 
Incestum, i. 
DelpMnus, i. 
Elephantus, i. 
Consortia, onis 
Mendum, i. 
Penum, i. 
Tergum, i. 


AngiportuSy us. — angiportum, i. 

Rictus, us. — rictum, i. 

Arcus, us. — arcus, i (in Cic. De Nat. Deor. iii. 20.). 

Tonitrus, us — tonitruum. 

Fames, is, and requies, etis, take the forms of the fifth. declension : 
fames makes the ablat. fame, and requies has requiem and requie 
besides requietem and requiete. It is of comparatively frequent 
occurrence that substantives have different forms both of the 
first and fifth declensions, as harbaria, harbaries; luxuria, es; 
duritia, es ; materia, es ; mollitia, es; segnitia, es (the forms 
after the fifth declension commonly occur only in the nom., ace, 
and ablat.), and that verbal substantives of the fourth declension 
have a second form in um, i, like the participle of the perfect, as 
conatus and conatum, eventus and eventum, praetextus and prae- 
textum, suggestus and suggestum. 

[§ 99.] To this class belong those substantives which, in the 
plural, assume a different gender and a different form, in some 
instances, along with the regular one : — 

1. Masculines, which in the plural become neuters : jocus, 
plur. joci and joca (of pretty equal authority, though joca is 
better established by the practice of Cicero) ; locus, plur. loci 
(generally passages in books or subjects for investigation and 
discussions topics) and loca (in the common sense of "places," 
whence the difference is briefly expressed thus : loci librorum, 
loca terrarum.). The poets use sibila for sibili; and of intubus 
and tartarus they make the plural intuba and tartara. 

2. Feminines which in the plural become neuters : carbasus, 
a species of flax, plur. carbasi and carbasa, sails made of it ; 
astrea, plur. astreae and astrea, orum; margarita, plur. marga- 
ritae, and in Tacitus also margarita, orum, 

3. The following neuters become — «) Masculines: coelum, 
coeli; siser, siseres; porrum (which is much more frequent in the 
singular than ^orrws), joorn; b) Femiuines : delicium, deliciae; 
epulum, epulae ; balneum, balneae (in the sense of a public 
bath balnea is more frequent) ; c) Both masculines and neuters : 
rastrum, rastri and rastra; frenum, freni* and/rew«. 

* The nominative freni^ for which Schneider {Formerdehre^ p. 476.) has 
no authority, occurs in Curtius, iii. 34. vii. 40. ; Valer. Maxim, ii, 9. 5. ; 
Seneca, de Ira, i. 7. ; Sil. Ital. i. 240. 





[§100.] 1. The noun adjective denotes a quality of a person 
or a thing, expressed either by a substantive or a pronoun. The 
participle is an adjective formed from a verb, and, as far as 
its form is concerned, is an adjective. An adjective has three 
genders, and can thus be joined with substantives of different 
genders. But there are only two classes of adjectives in which 
the three genders are indicated by three different terminations ; 
namely, the adjectives and participles in us, a, um, such as bonus, 
bona, bonum; amatus, amata, amatum; and those in er, a, um, 
such as liber, libera, liber um ; and the isolated satur, satura, 

To these adjectives of three terminations the following thir- 
teen in er, is, e must be added : acer, acris, acre; alacer, alacris, 
alacre; campester, campestris, campestre; celeber, Celebris, celebre; 
celer, celeris, celere; equester, equestris, equestre; paluster, paluS' 
tris, palustre; pedester, pedestris, pedestre; puter, putris, putre; 
saluber, salubris, salubre; Silvester, silvestris, silvestre; terr ester, 
terrestris, terrestre; volucer, volucris, volucre. Originally they 
had only two terminations, is for the masculine and feminine, 
and e for the neuter. The termination er for the masculine ex- 
clusively was afterwards added to them ; but as the termination 
is is not very often used in good prose for the masculine, it will 
be best to treat them as a class of adjectives which have three 
terminations for the three genders. 

Note 1. Ernesti on Tacit. Annal. ii. in fin. goes too far in asserting that 
the masculine in is is not suited for prose. He himself quotes two passages 
from Tacitus for Celebris, and one in the Auct. ad Herenn. ii. 4. : locus Cele- 
bris. Several others may be added from Curtius. In Cicero, De Divin. i. 57. 
we find annus salubris ; and in like manner locus^ ventus, effectv^ salubris in 
Celsus, i. 3., ii. 1., iii. 6. ; in Livy, xxvii. 1. : tumultus equestris; xxix. 35. : 
exercitu^ terrestris ; and xxvii. 26. : tumultus silvestris ; also collis and locus 
silvestris in Caesar, Bell. Gall. ii. 18., vi. 34. ; vomitus acris in Celsus, 
viii. 4. 

Note 2. The names of the months, September^ October, November, De- 
cember, also belong to this class of adjectives. As adjectives, however, they 
are defective, since th^ neuter never occurs, and the masculine and feminine 


scarcely in any other connection than with mensis (masc), Calendae, Nonae, 
and Idus. Horace uses Uhertate Decembri. 

[§101.] 2. Other adjectives have m reality two forms, 

the one for the masculine and feminine in common (^generis 

communis), and the other for the neuter. This class consists 

of those in is, neut. e, as levis (masc. and fem.), leve, and the 

comparatives in or (masc. and fem.), us (neut.), as levior, levius. 

Note. Some adjectives have a double form ; one in us, a, wm, the other in 
is, e. 

Hilarus, cr, um. — hilaris, e. 

Tmbecillus, «, um. — imbecillis, e (rare). 

Imberbu^, a, um (rare). — imberbis, e. 

Inermus, a, um (rare). — inermis, e. 

Semermus, a, um. — semermis, e. 

Semisomnus, a, um. — but insomni% e. 

Exanimus, a, um. — exanimis, e. 

Semianimu^, a, um. — semianimis, e. 

Unanimus, a, um. — unanimis, e (rare). 

Bijugus, a, um. — bijugis, e (rare). 

Quadrijugus, a, um. — quxidrijugis, e. 

Multijugus, a, um. t— midttjugis, e. 

The forms acclivus, decUvus, procUvus, and a few others not mentioned 
here, are but rarely used for acclivis, decUvis, and prodivis. 

[§ 102.] 3. All other adjectives have only one termination 
for all three genders ; as felix, prudens, anceps, sollers, pauper, 
dives, vetus, Arpinas. So also the present participles in ns, 
as laudans, monens, leg ens, audiens. But all the adjectives of 
this class have the termination ia in the nom., accus., and voca- 
tive plural of the neuter gender. (Very few, and properly 
speaking only vetus, veteris, have the termination a, respecting 
which see above, § 65.) E. g. felicia, prudentia, ancipitia, sol- 
lertia, laudantia. Opulens and violens are only different forms of 
opidentus, violentus. 

Note 1. Dives is an adjective of one termination, and the neuter therefore 
is dives, as dives opus, dives munus. There is another form of the word with 
two terminations, dis, neut. dite, but it very rarely occurs in the nominative 
singular : dis being found only in Terence,, J.rfeZp A. v. 1. 8., and dite in Valer. 
Flacc. ii. 296. : but in the other cases and in the plural it is frequently used, 
as ditem Asiam, diti gaza, ditia stipendia facere, ditibus promissis ; the nomi- 
native plural divitia does not seem to occur at all. In the comparative and 
superlative both forms divitior, divitissimus, and ditior, ditissimus, are equally 
in use ; the longer forms in the prose of Cicero, and the shorter ones in 
poetry and later prose writers. Pubes, genit. puberis, is an adjective of one 
termination; but the compound impUbes, eris, appears also in the form 
impubis, e, genit. impiibis, e. g. impube corpus. 



Note 2. Substantives ki tor derived from transitive verbs may like- 
wise be classed among adjectives, as praeceptor^ victor; for as they may 
easily form a feminine in trix (see § 41.), they have almost the character 
of adjectives ; and even in prose we read, e. g., victor exercitus, victrices 
litter ae^ in tarn corruptrice provincia. Thus Livy says of L. Brutus, 
ille liberator populi Romani animus ; that is, aliquando liberaturus populum 
Rom. ; and Tacitus, eductus in domo regnatrice. (See Bentley on Horace, 
Carm. iv. 9. 39.) The use of these substantives as adjectives is limited in 
prose; but the poets extend it much further, and use even the Greek 
patronymics in as and is in the same manner. Ovid, e. g., says, Pelias hasta^ 
laurus Parndsis, Ausonis ora, Sithonis unda ; and Virgil, ursa Libystis, &c. 
A singular feature of these words is, that, together with the feminine termi- 
nation of the plural trices, they have also a neuter termination, tricia ; e. g. 
victricia bella, idtricia tela ; hence in the plural they become adjectives of 
three terminations, as victores, victrices, victricia. The substantive hospes, 
too, has in poetry a neuter plural, hospita, in the sense of an adjective. 

[§ 103.] 4. With regard to the declension of adjectives, it 
must be observed that the feminines in a follow the first de- 
clension ; the masculines in us and er, which make the feminine 
in a, and the neuters in um, follow the second. All other ter- 
minations belong to the third declension. As therefore adjec- 
tives follow the same declensions as substantives, the former also 
have been treated of above, and their irregularities have been 
pointed out. (See §§ 51. and 66,, &c.) 

Note. The following table shows the declension of adjectives of one 
termination : — 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. — Nom. es, neut. ia. 

Gen. is Gen. ium, sometimes urn. 

Dat. i Dat. ibus. 

Ace. em, neut. like nom. Ace. like nom. 

Voc. like nom. Voc. like nom. 

Abl. i, sometimes e. Abl. ibus. 

5. Indeclinable adjectives are : nequam ; frugi (properly a 
dative of the obsolete frux, but is used quite as an adjective ; 
its derivative f rug alls is not found in any ancient writer) ; 
praesto (occurs only in connection with the verb esse) ; and semis, 
which is always added to other numerals in the sense of " and a 
half," the conjunction being omitted, e. g. recipe uncias quinque 
semis, take five ounces and a half. It must not be confounded 
with the substantive semis, gen. semissis. Potis or pote is obso- 
lete, and occurs only in poetry in connection with esse (whence 
arose the contracted form posse). Damnas, guilty, is used only 
as a legal term, in connection with esto and sunto. 


Adjectives defective in number are pauci and plerique, -which, 
in ordinary language, have no singular. The diminutive of 
paucus, however, occurs as a neuter pauxillum or pauxillulum, 
though rarely in other genders. The singular plerusque is ob- 
solete, and is found only in Sallust, who was fond of old forms 
of expression, e. g. pleraque juventus, nobilltas ; plerumque 
exercitum ; but the neuter plerumque (the greatest part) likewise 
occurs, though only in an isolated passage of Livy. It is 
usually an adverb, signifying " mostly," or, "for the most part." 
(See § 266.) 

Of adjectives defective in case there are several of which 
the nominative is not in use, or, at least, cannot be proved to 
have been used ; e. g. sons, seminex (or semmecis), and a few 
similar compounds. We further do not find ceterus and ludi- 
C7'us (or ceter, ludicer?), but the other genders occur in the 
nominative. The genitive primoris has neither a nomina- 
tive {primor or primoris^, nor the neuter forms. Cicero uses 
the word only in the phrase primoribus lahris (equivalent to 
primis), others frequently use the plural in the sense of prin- 
cipes, or the grandees of a nation. Parum, too little, is the 
neuter of the obsolete parus connected with parvus, and is 
used as a substantive only in the nom. and accusative. Ne^ 
cesse exists only as a neuter in connection with est, erat, &c., 
and with habeo, habes, &c. ; necessum, which is likewise used 
only with est, erat, &c., very rarely occurs except in old Latin, 
the adjective necessarius, a, um, being used in its stead. Vo- 
lupe is likewise obsolete, and is used only with est, erat, &c. 
Of mactus, a, um, which is believed to be a contraction of magis 
auctus, we have only macte and macti with the imperative of 
the verb esse, (Comp. § 453.) The genitive of plerique is 
wanting ; but plurimi, which has the same meaning, supplies the 

G 2 




[§ 104.] 1. Adjectives (also the present and past participles 
when used as adjectives,) may, by means of a change in their 
termination, be made to indicate that the quality they denote 
belongs to a subject in a higher or in the highest degree. 
The degrees of comparison {gradus comparationis), as this 
change is called, are, the comparative, when a comparison is 
made between two (persons, things, or conditions), and the 
superlative, when a comparison takes place among three or 
more. The fundamental form of the adjective in this respect 
is called the positive. 

Note. An object may be compared either with another, or with itself at dif- 
ferent times, or one of its qualities may be compared with another ; e. g. Gajus 
doctior est quam Marcus^ or Gajus doctior nunc est quam fuit^ or Gajus doctior est 
quam justior. (Kespecting this peculiarity of the Latin language, see § 690.) 
The comparative, however, is also used, in an elliptic mode of speaking, 
instead of our " too" (nimis) ; e. g. si tibi quaedam videhuntur ohscuriora; that 
is, too obscure, or more obscure, than it should be (guum, par erat), or, as we 
may say, " rather obscure," in which sense paulo is sometimes added, as in 
paulo liberius locutus est, he spoke rather freely. In like manner the superla- 
tive, when used without the objects of comparison being mentioned, indicates 
only that the quality exists in a high degree, which we express by the adverb 
very, e. g. homo doctissimus, does not always mean " the most learned," but 
very often " a very learned man;" and intemperantissime vixit, he lived very 

2. The comparative has the termination tor for the masculine 
and feminine, and ms for the neuter ; and these terminations are 
added to the stem of the word such as it appears in the oblique 
cases. The rule may be practically expressed thus : to form the 
comparative add or or us to that case of the positive which 
ends in i, that is, in words of the second declension to the 
genitive, and in those of the third to the dative, e. g. doctus 
(docti), doctior ; liber (liheri), liberior ; pulcher (^pulcliri), puU 
clirior ; levis, levior ; acer (acri), acrior ; prudens, prudentior ; 
indidgens, indulgentior ; audax, audacior ; dives, divitior ; velox, 
velocior, (^Sinister alone makes the comparative sinisterior, which 



lias the same meaning as the positive, although its genitive is 
t sinistri and not sinisteri). 

Note. Some comparatives also have a diminutive form, as grandiuscidus^ 
majuscylus, longiusadus., nteliusculus, minusculus^ tardiuscidus, plusculum. Their 
signification varies between a diminution of the comparative and of the 
positive ; e. g. minuscidus may mean rather small or rather smaller. 

3. The superlative ends in issimus, «, wm, and is formed as the 
comparative by adding this termination to the stem of the posi- 
tive, such as it presents itself in the genitive and the other oblique 
cases, after the removal of the terminations, e. g. doct-issimus, pru- 
dent-issimus, audac-issimus, concord-issimus. It has already been 
remarked (§ 2.) that this termination of the superlative was 
originally written and pronounced umus, and it is even now 
retained in the editions of some ancient authors, as the comic 
poets and Sallust. 

[§ 105.] 4. The following cases must be noticed as ex- 
ceptions : 

a) All adjectives in er (those In er, a, um^ as liber an^ 
pulcher, as well as those in er, is, e, as acer, celeber, and 
those of one termination, as pauper, gen. pauperis) make the 
superlative in errimus, by adding rimus to the nominative of 
the masculine gender, as pulcher -rimus, acer-rimus, celeber- 
rimus, pauper-rimus. Vetus and nuperus, too, have veterrimus, 
nuperrimus. Maturus has both forms, maturissimus and ma- 
turrimus, though the latter chiefly in the adverb. 

h) Some adjectives in His, viz. facilis, difficiUs, similh, 
dissimilis, gracilis and humilis, make the superlative in ilUmus, 
by adding Umus to the positive after the removal of the ter- 
mination is, as facil'limus, humil-limus. Imbecillus or imbecillis 
has two forms, imbecillissimus and imbecillimus ; agilis, on the 
other hand, has no superlative. 

c) Adjectives compounded with dicus, ficus and volus (from 
the verbs dicere, facere, velle) make the comparative in entior 
and the superlative in entissimus, from the unusual and obsolete 
forms dicens, volens, faciens, e. g. maledicentior, benevolentior, 
munificentior, munijicentissimus, magnijicentissimus. 

Note. Terence (PTiorm. v. 6. 3 1 .) makes mi?'i/icissimus^ from miri^cus, but this 
and similar forms are considered by the ancient grammarians as anomalies, 
and mirijicejitissimus is the usual form. Several adjectives in dicus^ and most of 

G 3 


those in Jicus, have no comparative and superlative, at least they are not found 
in our writers. Adjectives compounded with, loquus (from loqui)^ such as 
grandiloquus, vaniloquus, are said to form their degrees of comparison from 
loquens^ but no instance of the kind occurs ; in Plautus, however, we find 
mendaciloquius, and confidentiloquius. 



[§ 106.] 1. Instead of the peculiar forms of the comparative 
and superlative, we sometimes find a circumlocution, magis 
and maxime^ or adverbs of a similar meaning (as summe), being 
added to the positive. This rarely occurs in the case of adjec- 
tives which form their degrees of comparison in the regular 
way, and for the most part only in poetry (Horace, e. g., uses 
magis heatus and magis aptus) ; but where the regular or gram- 
matical comparison cannot be used, its place is supplied by 
circumlocution. (See below, § 114.) 

[§ 107.] - 2. A degree is also expressed by the adverbs ad- 
modum, bene, apprime, imprimis, sane, oppido, valde. and multum, 
and by the particle per, which is united with the adjective (or 
adverb) into one word, as in perdifficilis (though per is some- 
times separated by some intervening word, e. g. per mihi diffi- 
cilis locus), and, like sane, it is made still more emphatic by the 
addition of quam, e. g. locus perquam difficilis, an extremely 
difficult passage. Generally speaking, all simple adjectives, pro- 
vided their meaning admits of an increase or decrease, may become 
strengthened by being compounded with per. Some few (espe- 
cially in late writers) are increased in the same way by being 
compounded with prae, e. g. praedives, praepinguis, praelongus. 
Adjectives to which per or prae is prefixed, admit of no 
further comparison; praeclarus alone is treated like a simple 

Note. Oppido^ for the etymology of which we must refer to the dictionary, 
is of rare occurrence, and belongs to the more ancient language, though 
it is now and then used by Cicero, e. g. oppido ridiculus, and increased by 
quam : oppido quam pauci. Multum also is but rarely used in this way. Valde 
is indeed frequent in Cicero ; but it has a peculiar and ethical shade of mean- 
ing, and is rarely used in the prose of later times. 



' [§ 108.] 3. When the adverb etiam (still) is added to the 
comparative, and longe or multo (far) to the superlative, the sense 
of the degrees is enhanced. Vel, even, and quam^ as much as 
possible, likewise serve to denote an increase of the meaning 
expressed by the superlative. Both words have acquired this 
signification by ellipsis : vel by the ellipsis of the positive, 
e. g. Cicero vel optimus oratorum Romanorum ; i. e. Cicero, a 
good or rather the very best of Roman orators (so also vel with 
a comparative in the only passage of Cicero where it is known 
to occur, De Orat. i. 17.: ingenium vel majus,) ; quam, by the 
ellipsis of posse, which however is frequently added to it ; e. g. 
quam maximum potest militum numerum colligit ; quam maximas 
possum tibi gratias ago. As these words increase the sense, so 
paulum or paulo, paululum or paululo, on the other hand, 
diminish it, as paulo doctior, only a little more learned. Ali- 
quanto increases the sense, and has an affirmative power ; 
it may be expressed by " considerably " or " much." (See. 
Chap. LXXIY. 15.) 



[§ 109.] 1. Some adjectives make their degrees of comparison 
from obsolete forms, or take them from other words of a similar 











' plus (pi. plures. 

plurimus (equivalent in 


the plural to plerique). 




Nequam 1 
Frugi J 

^QQ^IOZA nequior, 
indeclin. \frugalior. 

nequissimus, « 


E genus. 


egentissimus {egens). 



providentissimus (pro- 

Q 4 


Note. Multus Sind plurimus as numerals are used only in the plural. In 
tlie singular multus is equivalent to " manifold," or " great," as multus labor, 
multa cura, and sometimes joZwrmMs has the same sense, e. g. plurimam scdutem 
dico. Poets, however, use the singular multus and plurimiis also in the sense 
of the plural, e. g. multa and plurimxi avis, i. e. multae, plurimae aves, a great 
many birds ; multa canis, many dogs. Of the comparative the neuter only 
occurs in the nom. and accus, singular {plus), and is used as a substantive ; 
in the genitive pluris, and ablat. plure, with the ellipsis of pretii or pretio, it 
is used with verbs of value, in the sense of " for more," or " at a higher 
price." The plural is complete, gen. plurium (better than plurum) ; but 
the neuter is commonly plura, and rarely pluria. (See §§ 65, 66.) The 
superlaiive plerique is derived from the obsolete joZents^Me (see § 134.), and 
has no genitive. In ordinary language plerique only means " most people," 
or " the majority;" but plurimi both " most people" and " a great many." 
All writers, however, do not observe this difference. Nepos often uses 
plerique in the sense of " a great many," and Tacitus quite reverses the sig- 
nifications; comp. Hist. i. 86. and iii. 81., where plerique is followed by 
plures, and iv. 84,, where we read : Deum ipsum multi Aesculapium, quidam 
Osi?'im, plerique Jovem, plurimi Ditem patrem conjectant. The sense of 
plerique is sometimes enhanced by the addition of omnes, as plerique omnes, 
by far the greater number. 

[§ 110.] 2. The following adjectives have a double irregular 
superlative : — 

Exter or exterus, a, um, exterior, extremus and extimus. 
{Infer or inferus), a, um, inferior, infimus and imus, 
(Super or sicperus), a, um, superior, supremus and summus. 
{Poster or poster us), a, um, posterior, postremus and postumus. 

Note. The forms enclosed in brackets are either not found at all, as poster, 
posterns, or occur only in ofesoiete Latin, which, however, does not pre- 
vent the use of the oblique cases and of the other genders. Exter signifies 
" being without," and the plural exteri, foreigners ; inferus, " being below," 
superus, " being above," e. g. mare superum and inferum, the two seas which 
surround Italy. Posterus (that it once existed is clear from, praeposterus) 
signifies that which succeeds or follows, but the plur. posteri, descendants. 
The superlative extimus is much less common than extremus, and postumus 
occurs only in the sense of a last or posthumous child. 

[§111.] 3. There are some forms of the comparative and 
superlative which have no adjective for their positive, but an 
adverb which is derived from an adjective, and has the signifi- 
cation of a preposition. 

(citraj, citerior, citimus. 

(ultra), ulterior, ultimus. 

(intra), interior, intimus, 

{j)rope, whence ^:>ro- 

pinquus), propior, proximus. 


The following, on the other hand, have neither an adjective 
nor an adverb for their positive : — 

. deterior, deterrimus, 

odor, ocissimus, 

potior, potissimus, 

prior, primus. 

Note. Deterior and deterrimus may be compared, but not confounded, 
"withpejor and pessimus. Pejor generally means " worse tlian something which 
is bad," and is therefore used as comparative of malus^ whereas deterior means 
something which is inferior, or worse than something which is good, so that 
it is a descending, just as melior is an ascending comparative of bonus. Potior 
and potissimus are derived from the obsolete positive j9ofe* (see § 103), and 
prior may be traced to the adverb prae. 

[§ 112.] 4. The following adjectives have a superlative, but 
no comparative : — 

Falsus, falsissimus ; diversus, diversissimics ; incUtus, incli- 
tissimus ; novus, novissimus ; sacer, sacerrimus ; vetus (the com- 
parative is supplied by vetustior), veterrimus (yetustissimus), and 
some participles which are used as adjectives, as .meritus, meri- 

[§ 113.] 5. Most adjectives in ilis sindMlis derived from verbs, 
together with those in Uis derived from substantives (see § 250.), 
have no superlative. To these we must add the following: 
agrestis, alacer, ater, caecus, declivis, proclivis, deses (comparative 
desidior^f jejunus, longinquus, propinquus, protervus, salutaris, 
satur, surdus, teres, and vulgaris. In like manner there is no 
superlative of adolescens, juvenis (comparative junior contracted 
from juvenior), and senex (comparative senior), which words are 
regarded as adjectives. 

Note. The verbal adjectives amabilis, fertilis, nobilis, ignobilis, mobilis, 
and utilis, however, have their degrees of comparison complete. 

6. The two SidjectiYes, , anterior and sequior, exist only as 
comparatives. The neuter of the latter, sequius, and the adverb 
secius (otherwise), differ only in their orthography. 

[§114.] 7. Many adjectives have no degrees of comparison 
at all, because their signification precludes comparison ; such are 
those which denote a substance, origin, possession, or a definite 
time ; e. g. aureus, adamantinus, Graecus, peregrinus, equinus, 
socialis, paternus, aestivus, hibernus, vivus. 


Note. Dexter and sinister seem likewise to belong to this class; the 
comparatives dexterior^ sinisterior, and the irregular superlative dextimus, 
do indeed occur (sinistimus is mentioned, but its use cannot be proved), but 
"without differing in meaning from the positive. Dexter also signifies skilful, 
and in this sense dexterior is used as a real comparative. 

Others do not form the comparative and superlative in the 
usual grammatical manner by the terminations ior and issimus, 
but by the adverbs magis and maxime, which are put before 
the adjective, and by thie particles mentioned above. Such ad- 
jectives are : — 

a) Those in which the termination us is preceded by a vowel, 
as idoneus, dubius, necessarius, noxius, arduus, ingenuus : com- 
parative magis necessarius, superlative maxime necessarius, &c. 
In qu however, the u is not regarded as a vowel (see above, 
§ 5.) ; hence antiquus, e. g., has its regular comparative, anti- 
quior, and superlative antiquissimus. 

Note. As this rule depends entirely upon euphony, respecting which 
opinions differ, we cannot be surprised to find exceptions. Adjectives 
in uus in particular frequently make the superlative in the regular gram- 
matical way. Cicero and Suetonius use assiduissimus, Sallust, strenuissimus, 
and Ovid, exiguissimus and vacuissimus, while the comparative of these words 
occurs only in much inferior authorities. Adjectives in ius are found much 
more seldom with the grammatical degrees of comparison than those in uus, 
and whenever they do occur, they reject one z, as noxior, in Seneca, de Clem. 
13. ; industrior in the Pseudo-Cicero, De Domo, 11. ; egregius in Juvenal, xi. 
12. The only superlatives that occur are egregiissimus, in Gellius, and piis- 
simus very frequently in the silver age of the language, in Cur tins, Seneca, 
and Tacitus, though Cicero had censured the triumvir Antony for having 
used this wholly un-Latin form. (Philip, xiii. 9.) The forms (piens) pientes 
and pientissimus are found in inscriptions only. Among the adjectives in eus 
there are no exceptions, and it is only the later jurists that use the compa- 
rative idoneor for the inharmonious idoneior. 

b) Many adjectives compounded with substantives and verbs, 
e. g. degener, inops, magnanimus, consonus, foedifragus, pestifer; 
and those which have the derivative terminations icus, idus, 
ulus, dlis, ilis, bundus, e. g. modicus, credulus, trepidus, rabidus, 
rubidus, garrulus, sedulus, exitialis, unortalis, principalis, anilis, 
hostilis, scurrilis, furibundus. 

Note. This remark cannot form a rule, for there are a great many com- 
pounded adjectives and derivatives like the above, which have their de- 
grees of comparison ; for example, those compounded with mens and cor : 
amens, demens, concors, discors, vecors, and the adjectives ending in dicus, 
Jicus, and volus, which were mentioned above. (§ 105. c). Although it is 
useful to classify the whole mass of such words under certain divisions, still 
the dictionary can never be dispensed with. 


c) A great number of adjectives which cannot be said to 
form a distinct class ; their want of the degrees of comparison 
is surprising, and they must be carefully committed to memory : 
albus, almus, caducus, calvus, canus, curvus, ferus, gnarus, lacer, 
mutilus, lassuSf mediocris, memor, merus, mirus, mutuSy navus, 
nefastus, par, parilis, dispar, properus, rudis, trux (the degrees 
may be formed from truculentus), vagus. 



[§ 115.] Numerals are partly adjectives and partly adverbs. 
The adjectives are ; 1) Cardinal, denoting simply the number 
of things, as tres, three; 2) Ordinal, indicating the place or 
number in succession, as tertius, the third ; 3) Distributive, 
denoting how many each time, as temi, each time three, or 
three and three together ; 4) Multiplicative, denoting how ma- 
nifold, as triplex, threefold ; 5) Proportional, denoting how 
many times more, as triplum, three times as much ; and 6) Ad- 
verbial numerals, denoting how many times, as ter, thrice or 
three times. 

I. CARDINAL numerals. 

The cardinal numerals form the roots of the other numerals. 
The first three, unus, duo, tres, are declined and have forms for 
the different genders ; the rest, as far as one hundred, are in- 
declinable. The hundreds, as 200, 300, 400, &c., are declinable 
and have different terminations for the genders. Mille, a thou- 
sand, is indeclinable, but has a declinable plural for the series 
of numbers which follows. A higher unit, such as a million or 
billion, does not exist in Latin, and a million is therefore ex- 
pressed by the form of multiplication : decies centena milia, i. e. 
ten times a hundred thousand, or decies alone, with the omission 
of centena milia, at least when sestertium (HS) is added, and 
in like manner vicies, two millions ; octogies, eight millions ; 



centies, ten millions ; millies, a hundred millions ; bis millies, two 
hnndred millions. 

Nom. uni, unae, una. 
Gen. unorum, unarum, unorum, 
Dat. unis. 

Ace. unos, Unas, una. 
Abl. imis. 

Nom. unus, una, unum, one. 
Gen. unius. 
Dat. uni. 

Ace. unum, unam, unum. 
Voc. une, una, unum. 
Abl. uno, una, uno. 

Note. The genitive singular uni and the dative uno^ unae, are of rare oc- 
currence and unclassical. (Comp., however, § 49.) The plural uni, unae, una, 
occurs as a numeral only in connection with pluralia tantwm, i. e. such nouns 
as have no singular, e. g. unae nuptiae, one wedding ; una castra, one camp ; 
unae litterae, one letter. (See Chap. XXX). Unus is used also as a pure ad- 
jective by dropping its signification of a numeral and taking that of " alone," 
or "the same," e. g. Cazs. Bell. Gall. iv. 16. : uni Ubii legatos miserant, the 
Ubians alone had sent ambassadors; Cic. Pro Flacc. 26. : Lacedaemonii septin- 
gentosjam annos unis moribus vivunt, with the same manners. 

Duo and tres are naturally plurals. 

!N^om. duo, duae, duo. 
Gen. duorum, duarum, duorum. 
Dat. duobus, dudbus, duobus. 
Ace. duos and duo, duas, duo. 
Abl. duobus, duabus, duobus. 

Nom. tres (mas. and fem.), tria. 

Gen. trium. 

Dat. tribus. 

Ace. tres (mas. and fem.), tria* 

Abl. tribus. 

Note. Ambo, ae, o, both, is declined like duo, and has likewise two forms 
for the accusat., ambos and ambo, which have entirely the same meaning. In 
connection with pondo (pounds) we find dua pondo, and tre pondo, for duo 
and tria, a barbarism noticed by the ancients themselves. (Quintil. i. 5. 15.) 
Duum, a second form of the genit. of duo, is the regular one in compounds, 
as duumvir, but is frequently used also in connection with milium. Thus 
Pliny says that he had compiled his work e lectione voluminum circiter duum 
milium ; but Ceesar and Livy likewise use this form. 

4. IV. quattuor, 

5. T. quinque. 

6. VI. sex. 

7. VII. septem. 

8. VIII. octo. 

9. IX. novem. 

10. X. decern. 

11. XI. undecim. 

12. XII. duodecim. \tres. 

13. XIII. tredecim or decern et 

14. XIV. quattuordecim. 

15. XV. quindecim. 

16. XVI. sedecim or decern et sex. 

17. XVII. decern et septem, or 


18. XVIII. decern et octo, or duo- 


19. XIX. decem et novem, or un- 


20. XX. viginti. 


21. XXI. unus et viginti, or vi- 100. C. centum. 

ginti unus. 109. CIX. centum et novem, 

22. XXII. duo et viginti, or vi- or centum novem. 

ginti duo. 200. CC. ducenti, ae, a. 

23. XXIII. tres et viginti, or vi- 300. CCC. trecenti, ae, a. 

ginti tres. 400. CCCC. quadringenti, ae,a. 

28. XXVIII. duodetriginta, or 500. jy.orio.quingentijae, a. 

octo et viginti. 600. DC. sexcenti, ae, a. 

29. XXIX. undetriginta, or no- 700. DCC. septingenti, ae, a, 

vem et viginti. 800. DCCC. octingenti, ae, a. 

30. XXX. triginta. 900. DCCCC. nongenti, ae, a. 
40. XL. quadraginta. 1000. M. or CIO. mille. 

50. L. quinquaginta. 2000. CIDCIO. or MM. c?MO mz- 

60. LX. sexaginta. lia, or Jz^ Twz'Z/e. 

70. LXX. septuaginta. 5000. loo. quinque milia. 

80. LXXX. octoginta. 10,000. CCIOO. decem milia. 

90. xc. nonaginta. 100,000. CCCiooo. centum milia. 

Note 1. The Roman signs for numbers have arisen from simple geome- 
trical figures. The perpendicular line (I) is one ; two lines crossing one 
another (X) make ten ; half this figure (V) is five ; the perpendicular line 
with an horizontal one at the lower end (L) is fifty, a^d if another horizontal 
line is added at the upper end ( Q) we have one hundred. From this sign 
arose the round C, which is accidentally at the same time the initial of centum. 
This C reversed (0), which is called apostrophus, with a perpendicular line 
preceding it (ID), or drawn together as D, signifies 500. In every multipli- 
cation with ten a fresh apostrophus is added, thus 100=5000, 1000= 
50,000. When a number is to be doubled, as many C are put before the 
horizontal line, as there are behind it. Thus CI0=1000, CCIOO = 10,000, 
&c. A thousand is expressed in MSS. by oo, which is evidently a contrac- 
tion of CIO. M, which is used for the same number, is the initial of mille. 

Note 2. Wherever, in the above list, two numerals are put together, the 
first is always preferable. Forms like octodecim and novendecim, which are not 
mentioned in the list, are not supported by any authority ; even septendecim^ 
according to Priscian {De Sign. Num. 4.), is not so good as decem et septem, 
although it is used by Cicero (/w Ferr. v. 47. ; De Leg. ^^r. ii. 17.; Philip. 
V. 7.), and also by Tacitus {Annal. xiii, 6.). Septem et decem in Cicero {Cat. 6.) 
and octo et decem in Pliny (JEpist. viii. 18.) are isolated peculiarities. Instead 
of octoginta we sometimes find octuaginta^ and corresponding with it octuagies; 
but these forms cannot be recommended. 

[§ 116.-] The intermediate numbers are expressed in the fol- 
lowing manner : — from twenty to a hundred, either the smaller 
number followed by et precedes, or the greater one precedes 
without the et ; e. g. quattuor et sexaginta or sexaginta quattuor. 


For 18, 28, 38, 48, &c., and for 19, 29, 39, 49, the expressions 
duodeviginti, duodetriginta, up to undecentum, are more frequent 
than decern et octo, or octo et viginti. In such combinations 
neither duo nor un (unus) can be declined. Above 100, the 
greater number always precedes, either with or without et, as 
mille unus, mille duo, mille trecenti, or mille et unus, mille et duo, 
mille et trecenti sexaginta sex. The et is never used twice, and 
poets when, they want another syllable take ac, atque, or que, 
instead. There are indeed exceptions to this rule, but being 
less common, they cannot be taken into consideration, and some 
of them are mere incorrect readings. (See my note on Cic. in 
Verrem, iv. 55.) 

The thousands are generally expressed by the declinable sub- 
stantive milia and the cardinal numbers, as duo milia, tria milia, 
quattuor milia, decern milia, unum et viginti milia, quadraginta 
quinque milia. The distributive numerals are used more rarely, 
as hina milia, quina milia, dena milia, quadragena sena milia. 
The objects counted are expressed by the genitive which de- 
pends on the substantive milia-, e. g. Xerxes Mardonium in 
Graecia reliquit cum trecentis milibus armatorum, unless a lower 
declined numeral is added, in which case things counted may be 
used in the same case with milia ; e. g. hahuit tria milia tre- 
centos milites, or milites tria milia trecentos hahuit; but even 
then the genitive may be used, e. g. hahuit militum tria milia 
trecentos, or hahuit tria milia militum et trecentos. (See the com- 
mentators on Livy, xxxix. 7.) It is only the poets that express 
the thousands by the indeclinable adjective mille preceded by an 
adverbial numeral, as his mille equi, for duo milia equorum ; 
they are in general fond of expressing a number by the form 
of multiplication; Ovid (Trist. iv. 10. 4.), for example, says: 
milia decies novem instead of nonaginta milia. 

Note. With regard to the construction of the word mille we add the fol- 
lowing remarks. Mille is originally a substantive, which is indeclinable in the 
singular, but occurs only in the nom. and accus. As a substantive it governs 
the genitive, like the Greek x'^'«c, e. g. Cic. Pro Milon. 20. : quo in fundo 
propter insanas illas substructiones facile mille hominum versdbatur valentium ; 
Philip, vi. 5: quis L. Antonio mille nummum ferret expensum^ and^very fre- 
quently mille passuum. Livy joins mille as a collective noun (see § 366.) to 
the plural of the verb, xxiii. 44. : mille passuum inter urbem erant castraque ; 
XXV. 24. : jam mille armatorum ceperant partem. But mille is also an inde- 
clinable adjective, and as such is most frequently used in all its cases, 
e.g. equites mille praemissi; senatus mille hominum numero constahat; da 



mihi hasia mille; rem mille modis temptavit, Sfc. With this adjective mille^ as 
with numerals in general, a genitivus partitivus may be used, according to 
§ 429., and thus we read in Livy, xxi. 61. : cum octo milibus peditum, mille 
equitum, where the genitive stands for the ablative, owing to its close con- 
nection with the word peditum ; and xxiii. 46. : Romunorum minus mille 



[§ 117.] The ordinals denote the place in the series which any 
object holds, and answer to the question quotus 9 All of them 
are adjectives of three terminations, us, a, um. 

1. primus. 

2. secundus {alter), 

3. tertius, 

4. quartus. 

5. quintus. 

6. sextus, 

7. Septimus. 

8. octavus. 

9. nonus. 

10. decimus. 

11. undecimus, 

12. duodecimus, 

13. tertius decimus, 

14. quartus decimus. 

15. quintus decimus. 

16. sextus decimus. 

17. Septimus decimus. 

18. octavus decimus, or duode- 


19. nonus decimus, or undevi- 



20. vicesimus, sometimes vige- 


21. unus et vicesimus, vicesimus 


22. alter et vicesimus, vicesimus 


30. tricesimus, some- 
times trigesimus. 
40. quadragesimus, 
50. quinquagesimus. 
60. sexagesimus. 
70. septuagesimus. 
80. octogesimus. 
90. nonagesimus. 
100. centesimus, 
200. ducentesimus, 
300. trecentesimus. 
400. quadringentesimus, 
500. quingentesimus. 
600. sexcentesimus. 
700. septingentesimus. 
800. octingentesimus. 
900. nongentesimus. 
1000. millesimus. 
2000. bis millesimus. 
3000. ter millesimus. 
10,000. decies millesimus. 
100,000. centies millesimus. 
1,000,000. decies centies mille^ 


[§118.] In expressing the intermediate numbers, the most 
common practice is to place the smaller number before the 
greater one with' the conjunction et, or to make the greater 
number precede the smaller one without et, as quartus et vicesi- 
mus, or vicesimus quartus. But there are many instances in 
in which the smaller number precedes without et ; e. g. quintus 
tricesimus ; and from 13 to 19 this is the ordinary riiethod, 
though we also find tertius et decimus, decimus tertius, and deci- 
mus et tertius. (See Cic. de Invent., i. 53. and 54.) Instead of 
primus et vicesimus, &c., we find still more frequently unus et 
vicesimus, fem. una et vicesima, or with the elision of the vowel, 
unetvicesima, with the genitive unetvicesimae, as in Tacit. Annal. 
1. 45., and Hist. i. 67. The 22d, 32d, &c., is more fre- 
quently and better expressed by alter et vicesimus or vicesimus 
et alter, than by secundus et vicesimus, Now and then we meet 
with duoetvicesimus, duoettricesimus, in which case the word duo 
is indeclinable. The 28th, 38th, &c., are expressed also by 
duodetricesimus, duodequadragesimus, and the 29th, 39th, 99th, 
by undetricesimus, undequadragesimus, undecentesimus, the words 
duo and unus (un) being indeclinable ; and both forms are of more 
frequent occurrence than octavus and nanus et vicesimus, or vice- 
simus octavus, vicesimus nonus. There is a class of adjectives in 
anus which are derived from ordinal numerals, e. g. primanus, 
secundanus, tertianus, vicesimanus : they express the class or 
division to which a person belongs; in Roman writers they 
chiefly denote the legion of the soldiers, whence the first word 
in their compounds is feminine, e. g. tertiadecimani, quqrtade- 
cimajii, tertia et vicesimani, that is, soldiers of the thiyteenth, 
fourteenth, twenty-third legion. In Tacitus^-w^ jDaCej/with the 
forms unetvicesimani and duoetvicesimani. 



[§ 119.] Distributive numerals denote an equal number dis- 
tributed among several objects or at different times, and answer to 
the questions ; — " How many apiece ? " and, " How many each 


time ? " {quoteni ?) They are always used in the plural. The 
English language having no corresponding numerals has recourse 
to circumlocution. 

Examples. Horat. Serm. i. 4. 86.: Saepe tribus lectisvideas coenare qua- 
ternos, to dine four on each couch ; Liv. xxx. 30. : Scipio et Hannibal cum 
singulis interpretibus congressi sunt, each with an interpreter ; Cic. in Verr. 
ii. 49. : pueri senum septenumve denum annorum senatorium nomen nundinati 
sunt, boys of sixteen or seventeen years each purchased the title of senator ; 
Liv. V. 30. : Senatus consultum factum est, ut agri Vejentani septena jugera 
plebi divider entur, each plebeian received seven jugera. The passage in 
Cicero (ac? Att. xvi. 8.), Octavius veteranis quingenos denarios dat, has the 
same meaning as (ad Fam. x. 32.) Antonius denarios quingenos singidis 
militibus dat ; that is, five- hundred denarii to each soldier. When the 
distributive singuli is expressly added, the cardinal numeral is sometimes 
used ; e. g. Cic. in Verr. ii. 55. : singulis censoribus denarii trecenti ad statuam 
praetoris imperati sunt. 

Hence the distributives are applied in multiplication (with adverbial 
numerals), the same number being taken several times ; e. g. non didicit bis 
bina quot essent ; lunae curriculum conjicitur integris quater septenis diebus ; 
Gellius, XX. 7. : Homerus pueros puellasque Niobae bis senos dicitfuisse, Eu- 
ripides bis septenos, Sappho bis novenos, Bacchylides et Pindaru^ bis denos ; 
quidam alii scriptores tres fuisse solos dixerunt. Poets in this case sometimes 
apply the cardinal numerals ; c. g. Horace has, bis quinque viri, i. e. decem- 
viri; and in prose we find c?eaes (vicies, tricies) centum milia, although the 
form decies centena milia, mentioned above (§ 115.), is much more common. 

Distributives are further used, instead of cardinals, with words which have 
no singular ; e. g. bini codicilli, bina post Romulum spolia opima (see § 94.) ; 
and with those substantives the plural of which, though it has a different 
signification from the singular, yet retains the meaning of a singular, 
e. g. aedes, castra, litterae, ludi (§ 96.). It must however be observed, that in 
this case the Romans commonly used uni instead of singuli, and irini instead 
of terni, since singuli and terni retain their own distributive signification. 
We therefore say, for example, bijia contra uno die cepit ; tnnae hodie nuptiae 
celebrantur ; quotidie quinas aut senas litteras accipio ; for duo castra would 
mean " two castles," duae aedes " two temples," and dvxie litterae " two letters 
of the alphabet." This, however, is not the case with liberi (children), 
for this word has not the meaning of a singular (liberi are children, and 
not a child), and we accordingly say duo liberi, ju^ trium liberum, &c. 

Bini is used for duo to denote things which exist in pairs, as bini boves, 
binae aures ; and in Virgil, Aen. i. 317.: bina manu crispans hastilia. No 
prose writer goes beyond this in the use of the distributives instead of the 
cardinals (except in combination with milia, see § 116.). Poets and Pliny 
the elder use these numerals in the singular in the sense of multiplicatives, 
e. g. Lucan, viii. 455. : septeno gurgite, with a sevenfold whirl ; Plin. xvii. 3. : 
campus fertilis centena quinquagena fruge, with one hundred and fifty fold 
corn. In the ordinary language they occur only in the plural, and as adjec- 
tives of three terminations, i, ae, a. 

1. singuli. 4. quaterni. 7. septeni. 

2. hini, 5. quini, 8. octoni. 

3. terni, or trini. 6. seni, 9. noveni, 




10. deni, 

11. undeni. 

12. duodeni, 
1*3. terni denL 

14. qiiaterni deni. 

15. quini deni, 

16. seni deni, 

17. septeni deni. 

18. octoni deni, 

19. noveni deni. 

90. nonageni, 

100. centeni, 

200. duceni, 

300. treceni, 

400. quadringeni, 

500. quingeni. 

600. sexceni. 

700. septingeni, 

800. octingeni. 

900. nongeni. 

20. viceni, 

21. viceni singuli. 

22. vzce/zz 5mzz. 

23. viceni terni, &c. 
30. triceni. 
40. quadrageni. 
50. quinquageni. 
60. sexageni. 
70. septuageni. 
80. octogeni, 

A longer form of the hundreds: ducenteni, trecenteni, qua- 
dringenteni, kc, which is mentioned by Priscian, cannot be 
proved to exist. Here too there is some freedom in the com- 
bination of the numerals: instead of viceni quaterni, we may- 
say quaterni et viceni or quaterni viceni, and for 18 and 19 we 
have also the forms duodeviceni and undeviceni. The genitive of 
these numerals is commonly in wm instead of orwm, as hinum, 
ternum, quaternum, quinum, &C.5 but not singulum for singula- 

" A thousand each time " mighty according to analogy, be expressed by 
milleni, and then continued &w milleniy ter milleni, &c. ; but this form is not 
in use, and instead of it we say singula milia, bina, terna, quaterna, quina 
milia ; e. g. Sueton. Octav. extr. : Legavit Augustus praetorianis militibus 
singula milia nummum (that is, one thousand to each), cohortibus urbanis 
quingenos^ legionariis trecenos nummos ; Livy : in singulis legionibus Romanis 
quina milia peditum, treceni equites erant. Milia alone is frequently used for 
singula milia, if its distributive meaning is indicated by some other word ; e.g. 
Livy, xxxvii. 45. : dabitis milia talentum per duodecim annos, i. e. one thousand 
talents each year ; Curtius, v. 19. : singulis vestrum milia denarium darijussi^ 
where mille is an incorrect reading ; comp. Liv. xxii. 36. This use of the 
plural, which occurs in other words also, as asses, librae, jugera, with the 
ellipsis of singuli, ae, a, has been established by J. Fr. Gronovius on Livy, iv. 
15. and xxix. 15. ; and by Bentley on Horace, Serm. ii. 3. 156. 

From these distributives are derived adjectives in arius, which 
indicate of how many units or equal parts a thing consists, 
whence they are termed partiaria, e. g. numerus hinarius, a 
number consisting of two units, i. e. two ; scrohes ternarii, holes 
of three feet ; versus senarius, b. verse of six feet ; nummus de- 
narius, a coin of ten units, that is, asses ; senex octogenarius, an 
old man of eighty; rosa centenaria, a rose with one hundred 
leaves ; cohors quingenaria, of 500 men. The word numerus is 
most frequently combined with these adjectives, to supply the 



place of the substantives unio, binio, ternio, which are not based 
on very good authority. (See § 75.) SingulaHs and milliarius 
are more commonly used instead of singulariusy miUenarius, 



[§ 120.] MuLTiPLiCATiVES answcr to the question, '' How 
many fold?" (quotuplex?) They are: simplex, duplex, triplex, 
quadruplex, quincuplex, septemplex, decemplex, centuplex. These 
are the only ones that can be shown to have been in use. Sixfold 
does not occur in Latin; it might be sexuplex or seplex, but 
not sextuplex, as some grammarians assert. Octiiplex is attested 
by the derivative octuplicatus, and novemplex by the analogy of 
septemplex, (Modem writers use also : undecimplex, duode- 
cimplex, sedecimplex, vicecuplex, tricecuplex, quadragecuplex, quin- 
quagecuplex, sexagecuplex, septuagecuplex, octogecuplex, nonage- 
cuplex, ducentuplex, trecentuplex, quadringentuplex, quingentuplex, 
octingentuplex, &c., and millecuplex.) 

It will not be out of place here to add the Latin expres- 
sions for fractions, which are always denoted by pars: | is 
dimidia pars, ^ tertia pars, \ quarta pars, quinta, sexta, 
septima pars, &c. In cases where the number of the parts into 
which a thing is divided, exceeds the number of parts mentioned 
only by one, as in f , |, |, the fractions are expressed in Latin 
simply by duae, tres, quattuor partes, that is, two out of three, 
three out of four, and four out of five parts : ^ may be ex- 
pressed by octava pars, or by dimidia quarta. In all other 
cases fractions are expressed as in English : f , duae septimae ; f , 
tres septimae, &c., or the fraction is broken up into its parts, 
e. g. f by pars dimidia (f ) et tertia (f ) ; and ^$ by tertia et 

H 2 




[§ 121.] Proportional numerals express how many times more 
one thing is than another, but they cannot be used throughout. 
They answer to the question quotiiplus ? They are : simplus, a, 
um ; duplus, triplus, quadruplus, quinquiplus, (probably sexu- 
plus,) septuplus, octuplus, (perhaps nonuplus,) decuplus, centuplus, 
and according to the same analogy we might form ducentuplus, 
and so on, as in the multiplicatives above. But they are almost 
universally found only in the neuter. ■ 



[§ 122.] 1. The numeral adverbs answer to the question, " How 
many times ? " quotiens 9 to which totiens is the demonstrative, 
and aliquotiens the indefinite. The form in ns is the original, 
and prevailed in the best periods of the language ; subsequently 
the termination es was preferred in numerals, but ens still re- 
mained in the words just mentioned. 

1. semel, 14. quaterdecies or quattuor 

2. bis* decies. 

3. ter, 15. quinquiesdecies or quinde- 







sexiesdecies or sedecies. 








duodevicies, or octiesdecies. 




undevicies, or noviesdecies. 








semel et vicies. 




his et vicies. 




ter et vicies, &c. 


terdecies or tredecies. 



NUMERAL ADVERBS. >'•, J, .^ .' ' \ ;' ' [h.&l 

40. quadragies. 400. quadringenties, 

50. quinquagies. ^00. quingenties, &c. 

60. sexagies, 800. octingenties, &c. 

70. septuagies. 1,000. millies. 

80. octogies, 2,000. ^25 millies, 

90. nonagies, 3,000. fer millies, &c. 

100. centies, 100,000. centies millies, 

200. ducenties, 1,000,000. wz'Z/ze* TWzVZze^. 

300. trecenties. 

With regard to the intermediate numbers, 21, 22, 23, &c., 
the method above adopted is the usual one, but we may also say 
vicies semel and vicies et semel, though not semel vicies ; for his 
vicieSf for example, would mean twice twenty, i. e. forty. 

[§123.] 2. The numeral adverbs terminating either in um 
or o, and derived from the ordinals, or rather the ordinals them- 
selves in the ace. or ablat. singular neuter gender, are used in 
answer to the question " of what number ? " or " what in num- 
ber ? " (The Latin quotum ? or quoto ? cannot be proved to 
have been used in this way.) e. g. primum or primo, for the 
first time, or first ; secundum or secundo, tertium or tertio, &c., 
decimum, undecimum, duodecimum, tertium decimum, duodevi- 
cesimum. The ancients themselves were in doubt as to whether 
the termination um or o was preferable (see GeUius, x. 1.); but 
according to the majority of the passages in classical writers, 
we must prefer um ; the form secundum alone is less common ; 
and instead of it we find iterum, a second time, and securvdo, 
secondly, for which however deinde is more frequently used. 
The difference between primum and primo is this, that the sig- 
nification "for the first time" is common to both, but that of 
*^ firstly" belongs exclusively to primum, while primo has the 
additional meaning of " at first." 

[§ 124.] Note. It may not be superfluous to notice here some substan- 
tives compounded with numerals : thus, from annus are formed hiennium, 
triennium, quadriennium^ sexennium, septuennium (more correct than sept- 
enniuni), decennium^ a period of two, three, four, six, &c., years. From 
dies we have biduum, triduum, quatriduum, a time of two, three, four days. 
From viri are formed duoviri^ tresviri^ qtuittuorviri^ quinqueviri, se- or seX' 
viri^ septemviri, decemviri, quindecemviri, all of which compounds, if they 
may be so called, denote a commission consisting of a certain number of 
men, appointed for certain purposes. A member of such a commission is 
called duumvir, triumvir, from which is formed the plural triumviri, which, 
properly speaking, is ungrammatical, and, in fact, still wants the sanc- 

H 3 


tion of a good authority. In inscriptions triumviri does not occur, and 
duomviri only once (Gruter, p. 43. No. 5.) : the ordinary mode of writing it 
was // viri, III viri. Printed books, without the authority of MSS., are not 
decisive. To these words we may add the three, bimus, trimus, and qimdri- 
mm ; i. e. a child of two, three, four years. 



[§ 125.] 1. Pronouns are words which supply the place of a 
substantive, such as, I, thou, we, and in Latin, ego, tu, nos, &c. 
These words are in themselves substantives, and require nothing 
to complete their meaning ; hence they are called pronouns 
substantive (^pronomina substantiva), but more commonly per- 
sonal pronouns, pronomina personalia. 

Note. Sui is a pronoun of the third person, but not in the same way that 
ego and tu are pronouns of the first and second persons. For the third 
person (he, she, it) is not expressed in Latin in the nominative, and is im- 
plied in the third person of the verb ; but if it is to be expressed, a de- 
monstrative pronoun, commonly ille^ is used. The other cases of the 
English pronoun of the third person are expressed by the oblique cases of 
t«, ea, id^ the nominative of which belongs to the demonstrative pronouns. 
Thus we say, pudet me mei, tui, ejus ; laudo me, fe, eum. Sui, sibi, se, is the 
pronoun of the third person in a reflective sense, as : laudat se, he praises 
hifeiself, in which proposition the object is the same as the subject. The 
use of this reflective pronoun in Latin is somewhat more extensive than in 
our language ; for sui, sibi, se, and the possessive suus, sua, suum, are used 
not only when the subject to which they refer occurs in the same sentence, 
but also when in a dependent sentence the subject of the principal or govern- 
ing sentence is referred to ; e. g. putat hoc sibi nocere, he thinks that this 
injures him (instead of himself). The beginner must observe that where- 
ever he may add " self" to the pronoun of the third person, he has to use 
the reflective pronouns and the possessive suus, sua, suum ; e. g. Oajus con- 
temnebat divitias, quod se felicem reddere non possent, because they could not 
make him (i. e. himself, and not any other person) happy ; but quod eum 
felicem reddere non possent would mean, because they could not make him 
(some other person, e. g. his friend) happy. 

[§ 126.] 2. Besides these there is a number of words which 
are adjectives, in as much as they have three distinct forms for 
the three genders, and their meaning is not complete without a 
substantive either expressed or understood. But their inflection 


differs so widely from what are commonly called adjectives, and 
they are so frequently used instead of a substantive, that they 
are not unjustly termed pronouns. They are — 

1) The adjunctive: ipse, ipsa, ipsum, self. 

2) The demonstrative: hie, haec, hoc; iste, ista, istud; ille, ilia, 
illud; is, ea, id, and the compound idem, eadem, idem, 

3) The relative: qui, quae, quod, and the compounds qui- 
cunque and quisquis, 

4) The two interrogatives : viz. the substantive interrogative, 
quis, quid? and the adjective interrogative, qui, quae, quod? 

5) The indefinite pronouns : aliquis, aliqua, aliquid and ali- 
quod; quidam, quaedam, quiddam and quoddam; aliquispiam, or 
abridged quispiam, quaepiam, quidpiam and quodpiam ; quis- 
quam, neuter quidquam; quivis, quilibet, and quisque; and all 
the compounds of qui or quis. 

Respecting the use of these pronouns, see Chap. L XXXIV. 
C. The following observations are intended to develope only 
the fundamental principles. 

[§ 127.] Note 1. Signification of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 
— Hic^ this, is used of objects which are nearest to the speaker, whereas 
•more distant objects are referred to by ille. The person nearest of all to 
the speaker is the speaker himself, whence Mc homo is often the same as ego 
(see some passages in Heindorf on Horace, Sat. i. 9. 47.) ; and in this respect 
hie is called the pronoun of the first person. — Iste points to the person to 
whom I am speaking, and to the things appertaining to him. Thus iste 
liber, ista vestis, istud negotium, are equivalent to thy book, thy dress, thy 
business ; and iste is, for this reason, called the pronoun of the second person. 
— Hie, that, is the pronoun of the third person ; that is, it points to the person 
of whom I am speaking to some one, hence ille liber means the book of 
which we are speaking. (Compare on these points § 291.) — Is is u^ed : 1) 
to point to something preceding, and is somewhat less emphatic than " the 
person mentioned before ; " and, 2) as a sort of logical conjunction, when 
followed by qui, is qui answers to the English "he who." — Idem, the same, 
expresses the unity or identity of a subject with two predicates ; e. g. Cicero 
did this thing, and he did that also, would be expressed in Latin, idem illud 
perfecit, hence idem may sometimes answer to our "also;" e.g. Cicero 
was an orator and also a philosopher, Cicero orator erat idemque (et idem) 

[§128.] Note 2. The compounded Relatives. — They are formed 
by means of the suffix cunque, whicB, however, is sometimes separated from 
its pronoun by some intervening word. It arose from the relative adverb 
cum (also spelled quum) and the suffix que, expressive of universality (as in 
quisque, § 129. ; and in adverbs, § 288.). Cunque therefore originally signi- 



fied "whenever." By being attached to a relative pronoun or adverb, 
e. g. qualiscunque, quotcunque, ubicunque, utcunque^ quandocunque^ it renders 
the relative meaning of these words more general, and produces a relativum 
generale ; and as qui signifies " who," quicunque becomes "whoever," or "every 
one who ;" e. g. quemcunque lihrum legeris^ ejus summam paucis verbis in com,' 
mentaria referto^ or utcunque se res habuit, tua tamen culpa est. It thus always 
occurs in connection with a verb, as the subject of a proposition. The same 
signification is produced by doubling the relative ; e. g. quotquot^ qualisqualis ; 
and in the case of adverbs, ubiubi, utut, quoquo, &c. Thus we should have quiquij 
quaequae, quodquod=: quicunque, quaecunque, quodcunque ; but these forms are 
not used in the nominative, and instead of them quisquis, quidquid^-were formed 
from the substantive interrogative quis ? quid ? and the doubled relative 
quisquis retained its substantive signification, " every one who," whereas 
quicunque has the meaning of an adjective. So, at least, it is with the neuter 
quidquid, whatever. The masculine quisquis, by way of exception, is like- 
wise used as an adjective; e. g. in Horace: quisquis erit vitae color; and 
Pliny : quisquis erit ventus (nay, even the neuter quidquid in Virgil, Aen. x. 
493., and Horace, Carm. ii. 13. 9., which is a complete anomaly). In the 
oblique cases the substantive and adjective significations coincide. 

[§129.] Note 3. The Indefinite Pronouns. — All the above-men- 
tioned words are originally at once substantives and adjectives, and for this 
reason they have two distinct forms for the neuter. According to the 
ordinary practice, however, quisquam is a substantive only, and is often ac- 
companied by the adjective ullu^s, a, um. Quispiam, too, is principally used 
as a substantive ; but aliquispiam, in the few passages where it occurs (it is 
found only in Cic. Pro Sext. 29. : aliquapiam vi ; and Tuscul. ill. 9. : aliquod- 
piam membrwm), is used as an adjective ; and aliquis, which has the same 
meaning, is found in both senses. Quisquam, with the supplementary 
ullu^, has a negative meaning ; e. g. I do not believe that any one (quis- 
quam) has done this : quispiam and aliquis are affirmative, and quidam 
may be translated by " a certain." By adding the verbs vis and libet to 
the relative we obtain quivis and quilibet, any one ; and by adding the 
particle que we obtain quisque and the compound unusquisque. All of these 
words express an indefinite generality : respecting their difference, compare 
Chap. LXXXIV. C. 

[§ 130.] 3. The possessive pronouns are derived from the 
substantive pronouns, and in form they are regular adjectives 
of three terminations : meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester ; to which 
we must add the relative cuJ2is, a, um; and the pronomina gen- 
tilicia (which express origin), nostras, vestras, and cujas, 

4. Lastly, we include among the pronouns also what are 
called pronominalia, that is, adjectives of so general a meaning, 
that, like real pronouns, they frequently supply the place of a 
noun substantive. Such pronominalia are. a) Those which 
answer to the question, who ? and are partly singk words and 
partly compounds : alius, ullus, nullus,^ nonnullus. If we ask, 
which of two ? it is expressed by uter? and the answer to it is 
alter, one of two; neuter, neither; alteruter, either the one or 



the other ; utervis and uterlibet, either of the two. The relative 
pronoun (when referring to two) is likewise uteV) and in a more 
general sense utercunque. b) Those which denote quality, size, or 
number in quite a general way. They stand in relation to one 
another (whence they are called correlatives^, and are formed 

according to a fixed rule. 



beofinninff with 

qu coincides with the form of the relative, and according to the 
theory of the ancient grammarians they diflfer only in their 
accent (see § 34.) ; the indefinite is formed by prefixing ali; 
the demonstrative begins with t, and its power is sometimes 
increased by the sufl&x dem (as in idem) ; the relative may ac- 
quire a more general meaning by being doubled, or by the suffix 
cunque (§ 128.) ; the indefinite generality is expressed (according 
to § 129.) by adding the words libet or vis to the (original) 
interrogative form. In this manner we obtain the following 
pronominal correlatives, with which we have to compare the ad- 
verbial correlatives mentioned in § 288. 

Elelat. g( 

Interrog. Demonst. 
qualis talis 

quantum tantus^ tan- 

quot tot, totidem. 




Relat. generale. 
quotquot, quot- 


Indef. gener. 



quotum totus 



To these we must add the diminutives quantulus, quantuluscunque, tantulus, 

^^ 11 




or THE 


[§ 131.] 1. Declension of the personal pronouns e^o, tu, sui. 

Nom. JE(/o, I. 
Gen. mei, of me. 

Dat. mihi, to me. 
Ace. me, me. 
Voc. like nom. 
Abl. me, from me. 


Tu, thou. 
tui, of thee. 

tibi, to thee. 
te, thee, 
like nom. 
te, from thee. 

sui, of himself, her- 
self, itself. 
stbi, to himself, &c. 
se, himself, &c. 

se, from himself, &c. 


, Nds, we. 


nostri, nostrum, 

of us. 


nobis, to us. 


nos, us. 


nos, we. 


nobis, from us. 



Vos, you. 

vestri, vestrum, sui, of themselves. 

of you. 

vobis, to you. sibi, to themselves. 

vos, you. se, themselves. 

vos, O you ! 

vobis, from you. se, from themselves. 

Note. The suffix met may be added to all the cases of these three pronouns 
to express the English emphatic self^ as egomet, mihimet, temet, semet^ and even 
with the addition of ipse after it, as mihimet ipsi, temet ipsum. The genit. 
plur. and the nominat. tu alone do not admit this suffix. Instead of it the 
emphasis is given to tu by the suffix te^ as tute, and to this again by the ad- 
dition of met^ as tutemet. The accus. and ablat. singular of these pronouns 
admit a reduplication, meme^ tete^ sese; of sui alone it is used in the plural 

The contracted form of the dative, mi for mihi (like nil for nihil) is fre- 
quently found in poetry, but rarely in prose. The genitives mei, tui, sui^ 
nostri, vestri^ are properly genitives of the possessive pronouns meum, tuum, 
suum, nostrum, vestrum, for originally the neuters meum, tuum, Sfc. were used 
in the sense of " my being," or of " as regards me, thee," &c. (the Greek ro 
ijxov), instead of the simple I, thou, &c. In like manner the genitives nos- 
trum, vestrum, are properly the genitives of the possessives nostri and vestri. 
(See §51.) The beginner may pass over the origin of these forms, since 
they are used as the real genitives of the personal pronouns ; but he must be 
reminded of it in the construction of the gerund, § 660. Respecting the dif- 
ference between nostri, vestri, and iiostrum, vestrum, see § 431. 

[§ 132.] 2. Declension of the demonstrative pronouns and ipse. 
Singular. Plural. 

Nom. & Yoc. Hie, haee, hoe, Nom. & Voc. hi, hae, haec, 

this. these. 

Gen. hujus, of this. Gen. horum, harum, horum, 

of these. 
Dat. hula (or hiiic), to this. Dat. his, to these. 

Ace. hunc, hanc, hoc, this. Ace. hos, has, haee, these. 

Abl. hoe, hae, hoc, from this, Abl. his, from these. 

Note. The ancient form of this pronoun was hice, haece, hoce, in which we 
recognise the demonstrative ce, which when a word by itself appears in the 
form ecce. The cases ending in c arose from the omission of the e, which is 
still found in old Latin, e. g. hance legem, haee lege. (This explains the ob- 
solete form haec for hae or haece in Terence. See Bentley on Ter. Andr. i. 
1. 99.) In ordinary language the cases in s alone sometimes take the com- 
plete ce to render the demonstrative power more emphatic, e. g. hujusce, 
hosce. By adding the enclitic interrogative ne to ce or c, we obtain the 
interrogative hicine, haecine, hocine, 8fc. 



The pronouns iste, ista, istud, and ille, ilia, illud, are declined 
alike, and in the following manner: 

Singular. Plubal. 

Norn. & Voc. ille, ilia, illud, Norn. & Voc. illi, illae, ilia, 

he, or that. they or those. 

Gen. illius. Gen. illorum, illarum, illorum, 

Dat. illi, Dat. illis. 

Ace. ilium, illam, illud. Ace. illos, illas, ilia, 

Abl. illo, ilia, illo, Abl. illis. 

Note. Besides the forms iste^ ista, istud, and ille, ilia, illud, there exist 
in early Latin the forms istic, istaec, istoc or istuc, and illic, illaec, illoc 
or illuc, which with regard to inflection follow hie, liaec, hoc, but occur only 
in the cases ending in c, except the dative, that is, in the accus. istunc, istanc, 
illunc, illanc; ablat. istoc, istdc, illoc, iliac; neut. plur. istaec, illaec. (Istuc 
and istaec sometimes occur even in Cicero.) Priscian regards these forms as 
contractions from iste and ille with hie, but it probably arose from the addi- 
tion of the demonstrative ce according to the analogy of hie, for in early 
Latin we find also istace, istisce, illace, illisce, illosce, illasce, though very 
rarely. By means of the connecting vowel i, both c and the complete ce 
may be united with the interrogative enclitic ne, e. g. istucine, istocine, illicine, 
illancine, istoscine. 

nii and isti are obsolete forms of the genitive for illius and istius, and 
the dative istae, illae, for isti, illi ; and the nom. plur. fern, istaec, illaec, for 
istae, illae. (See Bentley on Terence, Hec. iv. 2. 17.) 

Virgil uses olli as a dative sing, and nom. plur., and Cicero, in an antique 
formula (Z>e Leg. ii. 9.), the plural olla and olios, from an ancient form ollus. 

Ipse (in the ancient language ipsus), ipsa, ipsum, is declined 
like ille, except that the neuter is ipsum and not ipsud. 

Note. This pronoun is called adjunctive because it is usually joined to other 
nouns and pronouns. In connection with some cases of is, viz. eo, ea, eum, 
earn, it loses the i in early Latin ; thus we find eapse (nom. and ablat.), eopse, 
eumpse, eampse, in Plautus ; and in Cicero the compound reapse = re ipsa, or 
re ed ipsa, in fact, is of common occurrence. The suffix pte in possessive 
pronouns is of a similar kind. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. is, ea, id, he, she, it, Nom. ii (ei), eae, ea, they 

or that. or those. 

Gen. ejus. Gen. eorum, earum, eorum, 

Dat. ei, Dat. iis {eis). 

Ace. eum, earn, id. Ace. eos, eas, ea, 

Abl. eo, ea, eo, Abl. iis {eis). 

By the addition of the suffix dem we form from is — Idem, 
eadem, idem (as it were isdem, eadem, iddem), which is declined 
in the other cases exactly like the simple is, ea, id. In the 
accusative eundem. and eandem are preferable to eumdem. 



eamdem, and in like manner in the genitive plur. eorundem, 

Note. Eae as a dative singular feminine for ei, and thus and eahus for iis^ 
are obsolete forms. The plural ei is rare, and eidem is not to be found at all. 
In the dative and ablative plural, too, eis and eisdem are not as common 
as iis^ iisdem. It must, however, be observed that iidem and iisdem were 
always pronounced in poetry, and therefore probably in the early prose 
also, as if they had only one i ; but whether it was ever written with one i 
cannot be determined, on account of the fluctuation of the MSS. In most 
passages, however, only one i is written. In what manner ii and Us were 
dealt with cannot be ascertained from the poets, because they dislike the 
pronoun is in general, and more particularly these cases of it, for which they 
use the corresponding forms of hie (see § 702.) ; but Priscian (p. 737., and 
Super xii. vers. p. 1268.) asserts that in this word, as in dii, diis, the double i 
was formerly regarded in poetry as one syllable, and that in his time it still 
continued to be thus pronounced. 

By composition with ecce or en (behold ! the French voila), 
we obtain the following expressions, which were of frequent 
use in ordinary life : eccum^ eccam, eccos, eccas ; eccillum or ellum, 
ellarrif ellos, ellas ; eccistam. 

[§ 133.] 3. Declension of the relative pronoun, qui, quae, 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Qud, quae, quod, who Nom. qui, quae, quae, who or 

or which. which. 

Gen. cujus {quojus, obsol.), Gen. quorum, quarum, quorum, 

of whom. 

Dat. cm ov cm {iquoi, oh^oi.), Dat. quihus, 

to whom. 

Ace. quem, quam, quod, w^hom. Ace. quos, quas, quae, 

Abl. quo, qua, quo, from whom. Abl. quibus. 

Note. An ancient ablat. singular for all genders was qui. Cicero uses It 
with cum appended to it, quicum for quocum (§ 324.), when an indefinite person 
is meant, and when he does not refer to any definite person mentioned before 
(compare the examples in §§ 561. and 568.). Quicum for quacum is found in 
Virgil, Aen. xi. 822, Otherwise the form qui for quo occurs in good prose 
only in the sense of "in what manner?" or "how?" as an interrogative or 
relative, e.g. qui jit?\^ovi does it happen? qui convenitf qui sciehas? qui 
hoc prohari potest cuiquamf qui tihi id facer e licuitf qui ista intellecta sint^ 
deheo discere, &c., and in the peculiar phrase with uti: habeo qui utar, est 
qui utamur (I have something to live upon), in Cicero. Instead of quihus in 
the relative sense, there is an ancient form quis^ or queis (pronounced like 
quis), which is of frequent occurrence in late prose writers also. 

[§ 134.] There are two interrogative pronouns, quis, quid? and ' 
qui, quae, quod ? the latter of which is quite the same in form as 


the relative pronoun, and the former differs from it only by its 
forms quis and quid. The interrogatives quisnam, quidnam? 
and qiiinam, quaenam, quodnam? express a more lively or em- 
phatic question than the simple words, and the nam answers to 
the English " pray." • 

Note. The difference between the two interrogative pronouns as observed 
in good prose is, that quis and quid are used as substantives, and qui^ quae^ 
quod as adjectives, and this is the invariable rule for quid and qux)d^ e. g. 
quod f acinus commisit f what crime has he committed ? not quid f acinus^ but 
we may say quid facinoris f Quis signifies "what man?" or "who?" and 
applies to both sexes ; qui signifies " which man ? " But in dependent inter- 
rogative sentences these forms are often confounded, quis being used for the 
adjective qui, and vice versa qui for quis. We do not, however, consider quis 
to be used for qui in cases where quis is placed in apposition with sub- 
stantives denoting a human being, as in quis amicus, quis hospes, quis miles, for 
in the same manner quisquam is changed into an adjective, although there is 
no doubt of its substantive character, e. g. Cic. In Verr. v. 54. : qiuzsi enim 
uUa possit esse causa, cur hoc, cuiquam civi Romano jure accidat (viz. ut virgis 
caedatur). But there are some other passages in which quis is used for qui, 
not only in poets, such as Virgil, Georg. ii. 178. : quis color, but in prose 
writers, e. g. Liv. v. 40. : quisve locv^ ; Tacit. Annal. i. 48. : qvx)d caedis initium, 
quis Jinis. In Cicero, however, it is thus used with very few exceptions (such 
as, Pro Dejot. 13.: quis casus) only before a word beginning with a vowel, 
e. g. quis esset tantus fructus, quis iste tantus casus. Qui, on the other 
hand, is used for quis, partly for the same reason of avoiding a disagree- 
able sound, when the word following begins with s, as in Cic. Divin. 6. : 
nescimu^ qui sis ; c. 12. : qui sis considera; Ad Att. iii. 10. : non possum ohU- 
visci quifuerim, non sentire qui sim ; but partly without any such reason, as in 
Cic. In Verr. v. 64. : qui esset ignorabas ? Pro Rose. Am. 37. : duhitare qui 
indicarit; In Verr. v. 59.: interrogehir Flavius, quinam fuerit L. Herennius. 
Cicero In Catil, ii. 3. : video qui habeat Etruriam, is an incorrect reading, and 
in Pro Rose. Am. 34. : qui primus Ameriam nuntiat ? the qui must probably be 
changed into quis. Thus much remains certain, that the rule respecting the 
use of quis and qui cannot be denied even in indirect questions. 

[§ 135.] The indefinite pronoun aliquis also has originally two 
different forms : aliquis, neut. aliquid which is used as a substan- 
tive, and aliqui, aliqua, aliquod. But aliqui is obsolete, although 
it occurs in some passages of Cicero, e. g. De Off. iii. 7. : aliqui 
casus; Tuscul. v. 21. : terror aliqui; Acad. iv. 26.: anularius aliqui; 
De Re Publ. i. 44. : aliqui dux; ibid. iii. 16. : aliqui scrupus in 
animis haeret, and a few other passages which are less certain. 
In ordinary language aliquis alone is used, both as a sub- 
stantive and as an adjective ; but in the neuter the two forms 
aliquid and aliquod exist, and the difference between them must 
be observed. The femin. singul. and the neuter plur. are both 
aliqua, and the form aliquae is the femin. nom. plural. 


[§ 136.] But there is also a shorter form of the indefinite 
pronoun, without the characteristic prefix ali, and exactly like the 
interrogative pronoun : quis, quid, as a substantive, and qui, quae, 
quod, as an adjective. This form is used, in good prose, only 
after the conjunctions si, nisi, ne, num, and after relatives, such 
as quo, quanto, and quum. This rule is commonly expressed 
thus: the prefix ali in aliquis and its derivatives aliquo, ali- 
quando, smdalicubi is rejected when si, nisi, ne, num, quo, quanto, 
or quum, precede ; e. g. Consul videat, ne quid respuhlica detri- 
menti capiat ; quaeritur, num quod officium aliud alio majus sit ; 
sometimes another word is inserted between ; e.g. Cic. De OratAi. 
41.; si aurum cui commonstratum vellem ; Pro Tull. § 17.: si quis 
quern imprudens occiderit ; Philip. \, 7.: si cui quid ille promisisset 
Some consider the combination of this indefinite quis or qui 
with the conjunctions si, ne, num, and with the interrogative 
syllable en (ec) as peculiar and distinct words, as siquis or siqui, 
numquis or numqui, although properly speaking, ecquis or ecqui 
alone can be regarded as one word, for en by itself has no 
meaning. (See § 351.) For the particulars respecting the 
use of this abridged form, and the difference between it and 
the complete one, see Chap. LXXXIY. C. With regard to the 
declension of these compounds it must be observed, 1) that in 
the nominative the forms quis and qui are perfectly equivalent, 
which is accounted for by what has been said about aliquis ; hence 
we may say both si qui, ecqui, and si quis, ecquis ; 2) that in the 
femin. singul. and the neuter plur. the form qua is used along 
with quae, likewise according to the analogy of aliquis. We 
may therefore say siqua, nequa, numqua, ecqua, but also si quae, 
ne quae, num quae, ecquae. 

Note. Which of the two is preferable, is a disputed point. Priscian 
(v. p. 565 and 569.) mentions only siqua^ nequa, numqua, as compounds of 
aliqua. As the MSS. of prose writers vary, we must rely on the authority 
of the poets, who are decidedly in favour of the forms in a, with a few 
exceptions, such as si quae, the neut. plur. in Propert. i. 16. 45., and the 
femin. sing., according to Bentley's just emendation, in Terent. Heaut. Prol. 
44., and Horat. Serm. ii. 6. 10. {Si quae tihi cura, in Ovid, Trist. i. 1. 115., 
must be changed into siqua est.) Respecting ecqua and ecquae, see my note 
on Cic. In Verr. iv. 11. 

[§ 137.] The compounds of qui and quis, viz. quidam, quispiam, 
quilihet, quivis, quisque, and unusquisque, are declined like the 
relative, but have a double form in the neuter singular. 


quiddam and quoddam, unumquidque and unumquodque, accord- 
ing as they are used as substantives or as adjectives. (See above, 
§ 129.) Quisquam (with a few exceptions in Plautus) is used 
only as a substantive, for ullus supplies its place as an adjective, 
and the regular form of the neuter therefore is quidquam (also 
written quicquam). It has neither feminine nor plural. Qui- 
cunque is declined like qui, quae, quod, and has only the form 
quodcunque for the neuter; quisquis, on the other hand, has 
only quidquid (also written quicquid), being generally used in 
these two forms only as a substantive. The other forms of this 
double relative are not so frequent as those formed by the suflSx 

Note. In Cicero, Pro Rose. Am. 34., and In Verr. v. 41., we find cuicuimodi 
instead of ay'uscitjusmodi, of what kind soever. See my note on the latter 

[§ 138.] Each of the two words of which unusquisque is com- 
posed is declined separately, as gen. uniuscujusque, dat. unicuique, 
ace. unumquemque, &c. 




[§139.] 1. The possessive pronouns mens, mea, meum; tuns, 
tua, tuum; suus, sua, suum ; noster, nostra, nostrum; vester, 
vestra, vestrum, are declined entirely like adjectives of three ter- 
minations. Meus makes the vocative of the masculine gender 
mi, as O mi pater ! It is only in late writers that mi is used 
also for the feminine and neuter. 

Note. The ablative singular of these pronouns, especially the forms suo^ 
stui, frequently t^kes the suffix pte, which answers to our word " own ; " 
e. g. in Cicero, suapte manu, suopte pondere ; in Plautus, meopte and tuopte 
ingenio ; in Terence, nostrapte culpa, &c. All the cases of suus may, with 
the same sense, take the suffix met, which is usually followed by ipse ; e. g. 
Liv. vi. 36. : intra suamet ipsum moenia compvlere ; v. 38. : terga caesa svxmiet 
ipsorum certamine impedientium fugam ; xxvii. 28. : Hannibal suamet ipse 
fraude captus abiit. The expression of Sallust, Jug. 85., meamet facta dicere, 
stands alone. 





alius (neut. aliud), 







2. The possessive pronoun cujus, a, um, has, besides the 
nominative, only the accusative singular, cujum, cujam, cujum ; 
cuja, the ablative singular feminine, and cujae, cujas, the nomi- 
native and accusative plural feminine ; but all these forms occur 
only in early Latin and legal phraseology. 

. 3. Nostras, vestras, and cujas (i. e. belonging to our, your 
nation, family, or party), are regularly declined after the third 
declension as adjectives of one termination : genitive nostrdtis, 
dative nostrdti, &c., plural nostrates, and neuter nostratia ; e. g. 
verba nostratia, in Cic. Ad Fam. ii. 11. 

[§ 140.] 4. The peculiar declension of the pronominal adjec- 
tives uter, utra, utrum ; alter, altera, alterum ; alius (neut. aliud), 
ullus, and nullus, has already been explained in § 49. 

Nom. uter. Gen. utrms, Dat. utri, 






Note. In early Latin there occur several instances of the regular 
formation of the genit. z, ae, and of the dative o, «e, and some are met 
with even in the best writers. Cic. De Div. ii. 13. : aliae pecudis ; De Nat. 
Deor. ii. 26.: altera fratri ; Nepos, Eum. 1.: alterae alae ; Caes. Bell. Gall. 
V. 27. : alterae legioni ; Cic. Pro Rose. Com. 16. : nulli consilii ; Caes. Bell. 
Gall. vi. 13. : nullo consilio ; Propert. i. 20. 25. : nullae curae ; ibid. iii. 9. 
57. : toto orhi. According to Priscian, the regular form of neuter was even 
more common than the other, and in a grammatical sense we find, for 
instance, generis neutri ; but neutrius is nevertheldSs preferable. 

The compound alteruter is either declined in both words, 
genitive alter iusutrius, accusative alter umutrum, or only in the 
latter, as alterutri, alterutrum. The former method seems to 
have been customary chiefly in the genitive, as we now gene- 
rally read in Cicero, for the other cases easily admitted of an 
elision. The other compounds with uter, viz. uterque, uterlibet, 
utervis, and utercunque, are declined entirely like uter, the suf- 
fixes being added to the cases without any change. The words 
unu's, solus, and totus are declined like ullus. 

[§ HI.] Note 1. Alter signifies the other ^ that is, one of two ; aliris^ 
another, that is, one of many. But it must be observed, that where we use 
another to express general relations, the Latins use alter ; e. g. detrahere 
alteri sui commodi causa contra naturam est, because in reality only two 
persons are here considered as in relation to each other. 

THE VERB. 113 

Note 2. Uterque signifies both, that is, each of two, or one as well as the 
other, and is therefore plural in its meaning. The real plural utrique is 
used only when each of two parties consists of several individuals ; e. g. 
Macedones — Tyrii^ uni — alteriy and both together, vtrique. But even good 
prose writers now and then use the plural utrique in speaking of only two 
persons or things, as Nepos, Timol. 2.: utrique Dionysii ; Curtius, vii. 19. : 
utraeque acies ; Liv. xlii. 54. : utraque oppida ; and xxx. 8. : utraque cornua ; 
but this is altogether opposed to the practice of Cicero. (See my note on 
Cic. in Verr. III. 60.) 



[§ 142.] 1. The verb is that part of speech by which it is 
declared that the subject of a sentence does or suffers something. 
This most general difference between doin^ which originates in 
the subject, and suffering which presupposes the doing or acting 
of another person or thing, is the origin of the two main forms 
of verbs, viz. the active and passive (activum et passivum), 

2. The active form comprises two kinds of verbs : trans- 
itive or active properly so called, and intransitive or neuter 
verbs. The difference between them is this: an intransitive 
verb expresses a condition or action which is not communicated 
from the agent to any other object ; e. g. I walk, I stand, I 
sleep; whereas the transitive verb expresses an action which 
affects another person or thing (which in grammar is called the 
object and is commonly expressed by the accusative) ; e. g. I love 
thee, I read the letter. As far as form is concerned this differ- 
ence is important, for neuter verbs cannot have a passive voice, 
whereas every transitive or active verb (in its proper sense) 
must have a passive voice, since the object of the action is 
the subject of the suffering; e. g. I love thee — thou art loved; 
I read the letter — the letter is read. 

[§ 143.] Note 1. It is not meant that every transitive verb must have 
an object or accusative, but only that an object may be joined with it. 
It is obvious, that in certain cases, when no object is added, transitive 
verbs take the sense of intransitive ones. Thus edit^ amat^ when without an 
accusative, may be considered to be used for coenat and est in amore^ and 
with regard to their meaning they are intransitive, though in grammar 
they remain transitive, since aliquid may be understood. In some cases 



the difference between the transitive and intransitive meaning is ex- 
pressed, even in the formation of the verbs themselves, as in jacere, 
iacere ; pendere, pendere ; albare^ alhere ; fugare, fugere ; placare, pla- 
cers ; sedare, sedere, and some others of the same kind. Assuesco and 
consuesco (I accustom myself) have assumed an intransitive meaning, the 
pronoun being omitted, and the new forms assuefacio and consuefacio were 
devised for the transitive sense. In the same manner we have the intransi- 
tive calere^ patere, stupere, and the transitive calefacere^ patefacere and 

[§ 144.] Note 2. When an accusative is found with a neuter verb, the 
neuter verb has either assumed a transitive meaning, and then has also a 
passive voice, or the accusative is used in the sense of an adverb, and is to 
be accounted for by some ellipsis, or by a licence of speech. (Concerning 
both, see § 383.) 

Sometimes however a passive voice is formed from real neuter verbs, but 
only in the infinitive and in the third person singular, and the verb becomes 
impersonal, i. e. it is without any distinct subject : for instance, stari juhet^ 
he orders (one) to stand ; favetur tibi, favour is shown to thee ; via excessum 
est^ (people) went out of the way ; ventum est, itum est, itur, eatur, ibitur. 
Thus, when in comedy the question is asked quid agitur ? the humorous 
answer is statur, or vivitur. When the subject is to be added, it is done 
by means of ab, as in Livy, Romam frequenter migratum est a, parentibus 
raptarum, which is equivalent to parentes migraverunt ; and in Cicero, ejv^ 
orationi vehementer ab omnibus reclamatum est, and occurritur autem nobis 
et quidem a doctis et eruditis, equivalent to omnes reclamamnt and docti 
occurrunt. '» 

[§ 145.] Note 3. With transitive verbs the subject itself may become 
the object, e. g. moveo, I move, and moveo me, I move myself. It often 
occurs in Latin that the pronoun is omitted, and the transitive is thus 
changed into an intransitive. The verb abstineo admits of all three con- 
structions ; transitive, as in manus ab aliqua re abstineo, I keep my hands 
from a thing ; with the pronoun of the same person, abstineo me, and intran- 
sitive, abstineo aliqtia re, I abstain from a thing. There are some other 
verbs of this class, consisting chiefly of such as denote change ; e. g., 
vertere and convertere, mutare, fiectere and deflectere, inclinare ; hence we 
may say, for instance, inclino rem, sol se declinat ; and in an intransitive 
sense, dies, acies inclinat ; animus inclinat ad pacem faciendam ; verto rem, 
verto me; detrimentum in bonum vertit, ira in rabiem vertit; fortuna reipub- 
licae mutavit ; mores populi Itomani magnopere mutaverunt. In like manner 
the following verbs are used both as transitive and intransitive, though with 
greater restrictions : augere, abolere, decoquere, durare, incipere, continuare, 
insinuare, laxare, r^rnittere, lavare, movere (chiefly with terra, to quake, in 
an intrans. sense, though now and then in other connections also), praeci- 
pitare, ruere, suppeditare, turbare, vibrare. The compounds of vertere, — 
devertere, divertere and revertere, — are used only in this reflective sense, but 
occur also in the passive with the same meaning. 

[§ 146.] We must here observe that the passive of many words has not 
only a properly passive meaning, but also a reflective one, as in crucior, I 
torment myself; delector, I delight myself; fallor, I deceive myself; feror, I 
throw myself (upon something) ; moveor and commoveor, I move or excite 
myself; homines effunduntur, men rush (towards a place); vehicula frangun- 
tur, the vehicles break ; lavor, I bathe (myself) ; inclinor, I incline ; mutor, I 

THE VERB. 115 

alter (myself) ; vertor^ but especially de- di- and rC'Vertor. Many of these 
passive verbs are classed among the deponents, the active from which they are 
formed being obsolete, or because the intransitive meaning greatly dijBfers. 

[§ 147.] 3. It is a peculiarity of the Latin language, that 
it has a class of verbs of a passive form, but of an active 
(either transitive or intransitive) signification. They are called 
deponents (laying aside, as it were, their passive signification), 
e. g. consolor, I console ; imitor, I imitate ; fateor, I confess ; 
sequor, I follow ; mentior, I lie ; morior, I die. These verbs, 
even when they have a transitive signification, cannot have a 
passive voice, because there would be no distinct form for it. 

Note. Many deponents are in fact only passives, either of obsolete 
actives, or of such as are still in use. The latter can' be regarded as depo- 
nents only in so far as they have acquired a peculiar signification: e.g. 
gravor signifies originally " I am burdened," hence, " I do a thing unwil- 
lingly," " I dislike," " I hesitate ; " vehor, I am carried, or I ride, equo, on 
horseback, curru, in a carriage. Several passives, as was remarked above, 
have acquired the power of deponents from their reflective signification ; 
e.g. pascor, I feed myself; versor, I turn myself, and thence I find my- 
self, or I am. The following deponents are in this manner derived from 
obsolete actives ; laetor, I rejoice ; projiciscor, I get myself forward, I 
travel ; vescor, I feed myself, I eat. With regard to the greater number of 
deponents, however, we are obliged to believe that the Latin language, 
like the Greek with its verba media, in forming these middle verbs, followed 
peculiar laws which are unknown to us. It must be especially observed, 
that many deponents of the first conjugation are derived from nouns, and 
that they express being that which the noun denotes : e. g. ancillor, ar- 
chitector, argutor, aucupor, auguroY, &c., as may be seen from the list in 

[§ 148.] 4. Before proceeding we must notice the following 
special irregularities. The three verbs Jio, I become, or am 
made, vapulo, I am beaten, and veneo, I am sold or for sale, 
have a passive signification, and may be used as the passives 
of facio, verhero, and vendo, but, like all neuter verbs, they 
have the active form, except that Jio makes the perfect 
tense f actus sum, so that form and meaning agree. They are 
called neutralia passiva. The verbs audeo, Jido, gaudeo, and 
soleo have the passive form with an active signification in the 
participle of the preterite, and in the tenses formed from it : as 
ausus, Jisus, gavisus, solitus sum, eram, &c. They may there- 
fore be called semideponentia, which is a more appropriate name 
than neutro-passiva, as they are usually termed, since the fact of 
their being neuters cannot come Ijere into consideration. To 

I 2 



these we must add, but merely with reference to the participle 
of the preterite, the verbs jurare, coenare, prandere, and potare, 
of which the participles juratus, coenatus, pransus, and potus, 
have, like those of deponents, the signification : — one that has 
sworn, dined, breakfasted and drunk. The same is the case 
with some other intransitive verbs, which as such ought not to 
have a participle of the preterite at all ; but still we sometimes 
find conspiratus and coalitus, and frequently adultus and ohsoletus 
(grown up and obsolete) in an active, but intransitive sense, 
and the poets use cretus (from cresco), like natus. 



[§ 149.] There are four general modes (moods, modi), in which 
an action or condition expressed by a verb may be represented : 
— 1) Simply as a fact, though the action or condition may differ 
in regard to its relation and to time : this is the Indicative ; . 
2) As an action or condition which is merely conceived by the 
mind, though with the same differences as the indicative. Con- 
junctive, or Subjunctive ; 3) As a command,' Imperative ; 4) In- 
definitely, without defining any person by whom, or the time 
at which, the action is performed, although the relation of the 
action is defined. Infinitive, 

[§ 150.] To these moods we may add the Participle which 
is, in form, an adjective, but is more than an adjective by 
expressing at the same time the different relations of the action 
or suffering, that is, whether it is still lasting or terminated. A 
third participle, that of the future, expresses an action which is 
going to be performed, or a condition which is yet to come. 
The Gerund, which is in form like the neuter of the participlei 
passive in dus, supplies by its cases the place of the infinitive] 
present active. The two Supines are cases of verbal substantives, 
and likewise serve in certain connections (which are explained 
in the syntax) to supply the cases for the infinitive. 

When an action or condition is to be expressed as a definite 
and individual fact, either in the indicative or subjunctive, we 


must know whether it belongs to the past, the present, or the 
future, or in one word, its time, and time is expressed in a verb 
by its Tenses, We must further know its position in the series 
of actions with which it is connected, that is, the relation of the 
action, viz. whether it took place while another was going on, 
or whether it was terminated before another began. If w© 
connect these considerations, we shall obtain the following six 
tenses of the verb : — 

An action not terminated in the present time ; I write, scribo : Present 

An action not terminated in the past time ; I wrote, scriheham : Imperfect 

An action not terminated in the future ; I shall write, scribam : Future 


An action terminated in the present time ; I have written, scripsi : Perfect 

An action terminated in the past time ; I had written, scripseram : Plu- 
perfect tense. 

An action terminated in the future; I shall have written, scripsero : 
Future perfect tense. 

The same number of tenses occurs in the passive voice, but 
those which express the terminated state of an action can be 
formed only by circumlocution, with the participle and the 
auxiliary verb esse : scribor, scribebar, scribar, scriptus sum, 
scriptus eram, scriptus ero. The subjunctive has no future tenses : 
respecting the manner in which their place is supplied, see § 496. 
The infinitive by itself does not express time, but only the 
relation of an action, that is, whether it is completed or not 
completed. By circumlocution we obtain also an infinitive for 
an action or a suffering which is yet to come. 



[§ 151.] The Latin verb has two numbers, singular and plural, 
and in each number three persons. These three persons, I, the 
one speaking, tliou, the one spoken to, and he or she, the one 
spoken of, are not expressed in Latin by special words, but are 

I 3 


implied in the forms of the verb itself. The same is the case in 
the plural with we, you, they, and these personal pronouns are 
added to the verb only when the person is to be indicated in an 
emphatic manner. 

The following is a general scheme of the changes in termi- 
nation, according to the persons, both in the indicative and 
subjunctive ; — 

In the Active, 

Person: 1. 2. 3. 

Sing. — 5, t, • 

Plur. mus, tiS) nt. 

The termination of the first person singular cannot be stated 
in a simple or general way, since it sometimes ends in o, some- 
times in m, and sometimes in i (see the following Chapter). 
In the second person singular the perfect indicative forms an 
exception, for it ends in /z. Respecting the vowel which pre- 
cedes these terminations, nothing general can be said, except 
that it is « in the imperfect and pluperfect indicative. 

In the Passive, 

Person : 

1. 2. 



r, risy 



mur, mini, 


This, however, does not apply to those tenses of the passive, * 
which are formed by a combination of the participle with a 
tense of the verb esse. 

The imperative in the active and passive has two forms, viz. 
for that which is to be done at once, and for that which 
is to be done in future, or an imperative present and an 
imperative future. Neither of them has a first person, owing 
to the nature of the imperative. The imperative present has 
only a second person, both in the singular and plural ; the im- ; 
perative future has the second and the third persons, but in the 
singular they have both the same form, to in the active, and tor 
in the passive voice. The imperative future passive, on the 
other hand, has no second person plural, which is supplied by 
the future of the indicative, e. g. laudabimini. 




[§ 152.] 1. There are in Latin four conjugations, distinguished 
by the infinitive moocl, which ends thus : — 

1. are, 2. ere, 3. ere, 4. Ire, 

The present indicatives of these conjugations end in : 

' \. o, as. 2, eo, es, 3. o, is, 4. to. Is, 

Note. Attention must be paid to the difference of quantity in the termi- 
nation of the second person in the third and fourth conjugations, in order to 
distinguish the presents of the verbs in to, which follow the third conjugation, 
e.g.fodio^fugio^ capio (see Chap. XL VI.), from those verbs which follow the 
fourth, such as audio^ erudio. This difference between the long and short i 
remains also in the other persons, with the exception of the third singular, 
which is short in all the four conjugations ; e. g. legimiis, legttis ; audlmusj 
auditis ; foi* when i is followed by another vowel, it is short according to the 
general rule that one vowel before another is short. The long a was men- 
tioned above as the characteristic of the first conjugation, but the verb dare 
is an exception, for the a here is not a mere part of the termination as in 
lauddre, but belongs to the stem of the word. The syllable da in this verb 
is short throughout, damns, datis, dabam^ &c., with the only exception of the 
monosyllabic forms das and da. 

[§ 153.] 2. In order to obtain the forms of the other tenses, 
we must further know the perfect and the supine; for the 
three tenses of the completed action in the active are derived 
from the perfect ; and the participle perfect passive, which is 
necessary for the formation of the same tenses in the passive, is 
derived from the supine. These four principal forms, viz. 
Present, Perfect, Supine, and Infinitive, end thus : — 

Praes. Perf. Supine. Infinit. 

1. o, dvi, atuiriy are 

2. eo, ui, ituniy ere. 


3. o, i, turn, ere, 

4. w, wi, Itum, ire. 

Note. We have here followed the example of all Latin grammars and of 
the Roman grammarians themselves, in regarding the supine as one of the 
main forms, that must be known in order to derive others from it. But 
the beginner must beware of supposing that the two participles, of the 
perfect passive and the future active, are derived in the same manner from 
the supine as, for example, the pluperfect is from the perfect ; and that the 

I 4 


supine exists in all the verbs to which one is attributed in the dictionary 
or grammar. The whole derivation is merely formal ; and the supine 
in fact occurs very rarely. But its existence is presupposed on account 
of the two participles which do occur, in order to show the changes which 
the stem of the verb undergoes. If we were to mention the participle of 
the perfect passive instead of the supine, we should do little better, since it 
is wanting in all intransitive verbs, though they may have the participle 
future active ; and again, if we were to mention the future participle, we 
should find the same difficulty, for it cannot be proved to exist in all verbs^ 
and in addition to this we ought not to mention among the main forms of 
the verb one which is obviously a derivative form. In dictionaries it would 
be necessary to mention, first the participle perfect, or where it does not 
occur, the participle future active ; but if, as is the case in a grammar, we 
have to show in one form that which is the basis of several changes, a 
third form is necessary, and it is best to acquiesce in the supine. In making 
use of the list which will be given hereafter, the beginner must always bear 
in mind, that the supine is scarcely ever mentioned for its own sake, but 
merely to enable him to form those two participles correctly. 

3. With regard to the first, second, and fourth conjugations, 
no particular rule is needed as to how the perfect and supine are 
formed. According to the above scheme they are : — 

1, laud-o, laud-avi, laud-atum, laud-are. 

2. mon-eo, mon-ui, Tnon-itum, mon-ere. 
4. aud-is, aud-ivi, aud-ltum, aud-ire. 

[§ 154.] 4. But in the third conjugation the formation of the 
perfect and supine presents some difficulty. The following 
general rules therefore must be observed (for the details, see 
the list of verbs of the third conjugation). When the termi- 
nation of the infinitive ere, or the o of the present tense, is 
preceded by a vowel, the forms of the perfect and supine are 
simply those mentioned above, that is, i and turn are added to 
the stem of the verb, or to that portion of the verb which re- 
mains after the removal of the termination, e. g. acuere, acu-o, 
acu-i, acu-tum. The vowel becomes long in the supine, even 
when it is otherwise short. So also in minuo, statuo, tribuo, and 
solvo, solutum, for v before a consonant is a vowel. 

But when the o of the present is preceded by a consonant, 
the perfect ends in si. The s in this termination is changed 
into X when it is preceded by c, g, h, or qu (which is equal 
to c) ; when it is preceded by h, this letter is changed into p ; 
if d precedes, one of the two consonants must give way, and 
either the d is dropped, which is the ordinary practice, or the s ; 
e.g. duco, duxi; rego, rexi ; tralio, traxi ; coquo, coxi ; scribo, 
scripsi ; claudo, clausi, but defendo, defendi. Yerbs in po pre- 


sent no difficulty : carpo, carpsi ; sculpo, sculpsL That lego 
makes legi, biho, hibii and emo, emi, is irregular according to 
what was remarked above: but Jigo, Jixi; nuho, nupsi; demo, 
demsi (or according to § 12. dempsi), are perfectly in accordance 
with the rule. 

5. The supine adds turn to the stem of the verb, with some 
change of the preceding consonants : h is changed into p ; 
g, h, and qu into c ; instead of dtum in the verbs in do, we find 
sum, e. g. scriho, scriptum ; rego, rectum ; traho, tractum ; 
coquo, coctum (verbs in co remain unchanged, as dictum, 
ductum) ; defendo, defensum ; claudo, clausum. The supine in 
xum is a deviation from the rule, as in Jigo, Jixum, and so also 
the throwing out of the n of the stem, as in pingo, pictum ; 
stringo, strictum ; although this is not done without reason ; for 
in several verbs of the third conjugation the n is only an in- 
crease to strengthen the form of the present, and does not 
originally belong to the root ; it is therefore thrown out both 
in the perfect and in the supine, as in vinco, fundo, relinquo — 
vici, victum ; fusi, fusum ; reliqui, relictum ; or in the supine 
alone, as in the two verbs mentioned before, and in Jingo, sup. 

Jictum, Of the words in which o is preceded by /, m, n, r, or s, 
only a few in mo follow the ordinary rule ; e. g. como, demo; 
perf. compsi, dempsi ; sup. comptum, demptum : all the others 
have mixed forms. 

6. Two irregularities are especially common in the formation 
of the perfect of the third conjugation. The first is the addition 
of a syllable at the beginning of the verb, called reduplication, in 
which the first consonant of the verb is repeated either with the 
vowel which follows it, or with an e, e. g. tundo, tutUdi; tendo, 
tetendi; cano, cecmi ; curro, cucurri ; fallo, fefelli ; parco, pepercL 
In the compounds of such words the reduplication is not used, 
except in those of do, sto, disco, posco, and in some of curro. The 
second irregularity is that many verbs of the third conjugation 
form their perfect like those of the second, just as many verbs 
of the second make that tense like those of the third. This is 
the case especially with many verbs in lo and mo, as alo, alui, 
allium ialturn) ; molo, molui, molitum ; gemo, gemui, gemitum. 
Concerning this and other special irregularities, see the list 
of verbs in Chap. L. 

{§ 155.] 7. The derivation of the other tenses and forms of a 
verb from these four (present, perfect, supine, and infinitive). 


which are supposed to be known, is easy and without irregu- 
larity in the detail. 

From the infinitive active are formed : 

a) The imperative passive, which has in all conjugations the 
same form as the infinitive active. 

b) The imperative active, by dropping the termination re. It 
thus ends in conjugation, 1. in a, 2. e, 3. e, 4. ^asama^mone, 
lege, audi. 

c) The imperfect subjunctive active, by the addition of m, so 
that it ends in the four conjugations in drem, erem, erenii irem, 
e. g. amarem, monerem, legerem^ audirem. 

d) The imperfect subjunctive passive, by the addition of r, as 
in amdrer, monerer, legerer, audirer. 

e) The infinitive present passive, by changing e into z, e. g. 
amari, moneri, audiri, but in the third conjugation the whole 
termination ere is changed into i, as in legere, legi. 

From the present indicative active are derived : 

a) The present indicative passive, by the addition of r, as 

amor, moneor, legor, audior. 

h) The present subjunctive active, by changing the o into em 

in the first conjugation, and in the three others into am; as, 

amem, moneam, legam, audiam. 

c) The present subjunctive passive, by changing the m of 
the present subjunctive active into r ; as amer, monear, legar, 

d) The imperfect indicative active, by changing o into abam 
in the first conjugation, in the second into bam, and in the 
third and fourth into ebam. A change of the m into r makes 
the imperfect indicative passive, e. g. amabam, amabar ; mo- 
nebam, monebar ; legebam, legebar ; audiebam, audiebar. 

e) The first future active, by changing o into abo in the 
first conjugation, in the second into bo, and in the third and 
fourth into am. From this is formed the first future passive by 
adding r in the first and second conjugations, and by changing 
m into r in the third and fourth ; e. g. laudabo, laudabor ; mo- 
nebo, monebor ; legam, legar ; audiam, audiar. 

f) The participle present active, by changing o in the first 
conjugation into ans, in the second into ns, and in the third and 
fourth into ens ; e. g. laudo, laudans ; moneo, monens ; lego, 
legens ; audio, audiens. From this participle is derived the 


participle future passive, by changing ns into ndus ; e. g. aman- 

dusy monendus, legendus, audiendus ; and the gerund : amaridum, 

monenduvtiy legendum, audiendum. 

From the perfect indicative active are derived : 

cl) The pluperfect indicative, bj changing i into eram : lauda- 

veranif monueram, legeram, audiveram, 

b) The future perfect, by changing i into ero: laudavero^ 
monuerOf legero, audwero, 

c) The perfect subjunctive*, by changing i into erim : lauda- 
verim, monuerim, leg erim, audiverim. 

d) The pluperfect subjunctive, by changing i into issem 
(originally essem) : laudavissem, monuissem; legissem, audivissem, 

e) The perfect infinitive active, by changing i into isse 
(originally esse) : laudavisse, monuisse, legisse, audivisse. 

From the supine are derived : 

ct) The participle perfect passive, by changing um into us, a, 
um : laudatus, a, um ; monitus, a, um ; lectus, a, um ; auditus, 
a, um, 

h) The participle future active, by changing um into urus, a, 
um : laudaturus, a, um ; moniturus, a, um ; lecturus, a, um ; 
auditurus, a, um. 

By means of the former participle we form the tenses of the 
passive, which express a completed action ; and by means of the 
participle future we may form a new conjugation expressing 
actions which are to come. See Chap. XLIII. 



[§ 156.] The verb esse, to be, is called an auxiliary verb, 
because it is necessary for the formation of some tenses of the 
passive voice. It is also called a verb substantive, because it is 
the most general expression of existence. Its conjugation is 

* "We use this name because the tense is most commonly used in the sense 
of a perfect subjunctive, although its form shows that it is in reality the 
subjunctive of the future perfect, the termination ero being changed into 



very irregular, being made up of parts of two different verbs, 
the Greek et//,4 io-rt, saofiai (from which sim and sum, est, eso 
or ero, were easily formed), and the obsolete fuo, the Greek 
^uo). The supine and gerund are wanting, but the inflection in 
the persons is regular. 


Sing. Sum, I am. 

es, thou art. 

est, he is. 
Plur. sumus, we are. 

estis, ye are. 

suntf they are. 

Sing. Eram, I was. 

eras, thou wast. 

erat, he was. 
Plur. erdmus, we were. 

erdtis, ye were. 

erard, they were. 

Sing. Ero, I shall be. 

eris, thou wUt be. 

erit, he will be. 
Plur. erimus, we shall be. 

eritis, ye will be. 

erunt, they will be. 

Sing. Ful, I have been. 

fuisti, thou hast been. 

fait, he has been. 
Plur. fuvmus, we have been. 

fuistis, ye have been. 

;^™f'}they have been. 

Sing. Fueram, I had been. 

fueras, thou hadst been. 
fuerat, he had been. 
VXnr.fuerdmus, we had been. 
fuerdtis, ye had been. 
fuerarU, they had been. 


Sing. Sim, I may be. 

sis, thou mayst be. 
sit, he may bet 
Plur. slmus, we may be. 
sltis, ye may be. 
sint, they may be. 


Sing Essem, I might, be. 

esses, thou migl^tst be. 

e55e^, he might be. 
Plur. essemus, we might be. 

essetis, ye might be. 

essent, they might be. 


Instead of a subjunctive, the parti- 
ciple /M^wrz^^ is used with sim. 

Futurus sim, sis, &c. I may be 
about to be. 


Sing. Fuerim, I may have been. 

fueris, thou mayst have been. 

fuerit, he may have been. 
VhjLY.fuerimus, we may have been. 

fueritis, ye may have been. 

fuerint, they may have been. 


Sing. Fuissem, I should, or would 
have been. 
fuisses, thou shouldst, &c. 
fuisset, he should, &c. 
Vhiv. fuissemus, we should, &c. 
fuissetis, ye should, &c. 
fuissent, they should, &c. 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Future Perfect. 
Sing. Fuero^ I shall have been. No Subjunctive. 

fueris, thou wilt have been. 
fuerit, he will have been. 
Plur. fuerimus^ we shall have been. 
fuerltis^ ye will have been. 
fuerint^ they will have been. 


Present, Sing. Es, be thou. Plur. este, be ye. 

Future, Sing. Esto, thou shalt be. Plur. estote, ye shall be. 
esto, he shall be. suntOj they shall be. 

Present, state not terminated, esse^ to be. 
Perfect, terminated, /wme, to have been. 
Future, futurum (am, um) esse, ox fore, to be about to be. 


Present, not terminated (ens'), being. 
Future, futurus, a, um, one who is about to be. 

Note. The participle ens is only used as a substantive in philosophical 
language (see above, § 78. in fin.), and also in the two compounds, absens 
and praesens. 

The compounds dbsum^ adsum, desum, insum, intersum, ohsum, praesum, 
subsum, supersum, have the same conjugation as sum. Prosum inserts a d 
when pro is followed by e ; e. g. prodes, prodest, &c. Possum, I can (from 
pot, for potis, and sum), has an irregular conjugation. (See the irregular 
verbs, § 211.) 

The i in simus and sitis is long, and the e in eram, ero, &c., is short, as is 
indicated above in the conjugation itself, and also in the compounds : pro- 
slmus, proderam, proderant, proderit, &c. 

Stem, sies, siet, sient, and fuam, ftms, fuat, fuant (from the obsolete fiw), 
are antiquated forms for the corresponding persons of sim, and occur in the 
comic writers and in Lucretius. Instead of essem we have another form for 
the imperfect subjunctive, forem (likewise from fujo), in the singular and 
the third person plural. The infinitive fore belongs to the same root. 
Cicero rarely uses the form forem, but Livy frequently, especsally in the 
sense of the conditional mood, " I should be." Other writers, especially the 
poets and TacituS, use it in all respects like essem. The perfect fuvi, and 
the tenses derived from it, fuveram, fuvissem, fuvero, are other forms offui, 
&o., and occur in the earliest poets ; and in like manner we find, in the an- 
cient language, escit, escunt, for erit and erunt. 






[§ 157.] In the following table the terminations are separated 
from the root of the verb, which renders it easy to conjugate any- 
other verb according to these models. The verb lego (see Chap. 
XL.) is irregular in the formation of its perfect, but it has been 
retained as. an example of verbs of the third conjugation, because 
the very absence of any peculiar termination in the perfect is a 
safeguard against misunderstandings which might arise ; for 
example, from ducoyduxi; scribo, scripsi; or claudo, clausi. 



First Conjugation. 




Sing. Am-o^ I love. 

Sing. Am-em, I may love. 

am-ds, thou lovest. 

am-es, thou mayst love. 

am-at, he loves. 

am-et, he may love. 

Plur. am-dmiis, we love 

Plur. am- emus, we may love. 

am-dtis, ye love. 

am-etis, ye may love. 

am-ant, they love. 

am-ent, they may love. 


Sing, am-dham, I loved. 

Sing, am-drem, 1 might love. 





Plur. am-abdmus. 

Plur. am-aremus. 






Sing, am-dbo, I shall love. 




Plur. am-abimus. 




Sing, am-dviy I have loved. 

Sing, am-averim^ I may have loved. 





Plur. am-avimus. 

Plur. am-averimus. 



am-averunt (e). 




Indicative. Subjunctive, 

Sing, am-averam^ I had loved. Sing, am-avissem, I might have loved. 

am-averds, am-avisses. 

ant'ttverat. am-avtsset. 

Plur. am-averdmus. Plur. am-avissemics. 

am-averatis. am-avissetis. 

am-averant. am-avissent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. // TT 

Sing, am-averoj I shall have loved. 


Plur. am-averlmus^ 




Present, Sing, am-d, love thou. Plur. am-dtey love ye. 

Future, Sing, am-dto^ thou shalt love. Plur. am-atote, ye shall love. 

am-aniOf they shall love. 

V^ or THE ^ 


am-dto, he shall love. 

Pres. and Imperf. (or of an action still going on) am-dre, to love. 
Perf. and Pluperf. (or of an action completed) am-avisse, to have loved. 
Future, am-aturum esse, to be about to love. 

Gen. am-andi ; Dat. am-ando ; Ace. am-andum ; Abl. am-ando. 

am-atum ; am-atu. 


Pres. and Imperf. (of an action still going on) am-ans, loving. 
Future, am-aturus, about to love. 


Sing. Mon-eo, 1 advise. 


Plur. mon-emus. 



Second Conjugation, 



Sing. Mon-eam, I may advise. 


Plur. mon-edmus. 




Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing, mou'ebam, I advised. Sing, mon-erem, 1 might advise. 
mon-ehds. mon-eres. 

mon-ebat mon-eret 

Plur. mon-ebdmus. Plur. mon-eremus^ 
mon-ebdtis. • mon-eretis. 

mon-ebant. mon-erent 


Sing, mon-ebo, I shall advise. 


Plur. mon-ebimus. 




Sing, mon-ui, 1 have advised. Sing, mon-uerim, I may have advised. 

mon-uisti. mon-ueris. 

mon-uit. mon-uerit. 

Plur. mon-uimus. Plur. mon-uerimus. 

mon-uistis. mon-ueritis. 

mon-uerunt (e). mon-uerint. 


Sing, mon-ueram, I had advised. Sing, mon-uissem^ I should have ad- 

mon-uerds. mon-uisses. [vised. 

mon-uerat. mon-uisset. 

Plur. mon-uerdmus. Plur. mon-uissemus. 

mon-uerdtis. mon-uisseiis. 

mon-uerant. mon-uissent 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, mon-uero^ I shall have advised. 


Plur. mon-uerlmus. 




Present, Sing, mon-e, advise thou. Plur. mon-ete, advise ye. 

Future, Sing, mon-eto, thou shalt advise. Plur. mon-etote, ye shall advise. 
mon-eto, he shall advise. mon-ento, they shall advise. 

Pres. and Imperf. mon-ere, to advise. 
Perf. and Pluperf. mon-uisse^ to have advised. 
Future, mon-iturum esse, to be about to advise. 



Gen. mon-endi ; Dat. mon-endo ; Ace. mon-endum ; Abl. man- 

mon-xtum; mon-ttu. 


Pres. and Imperf. mon-cns, advising. 
Future, mon-iturus, about to advise. 


Sing. Leg-o, I read. 


Plur. leg-imus. 



Sing, leg-ebam^ I read. 


Plur. leg-ehamus. 



Sing, leg-am^ I shall read. 


Plur. leg-emus. 



Sing. leg-{, I have read. 


Plur. leg-imus. 


leg-erunt (e). 

Third Conjugation, 

• Subjunctive. 


Sing. Leg-am^ I may read. 

Plur. leg-dmus. 


Sing, leg-erem^ I might read. 


Plur. leg-eremus. 





Sing, leg-erim, I may have read. 


Plur. leg-erimus. 




Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing, leg-eraniy I had read. Sing, leg-issem, I should have read. 

leg-eras. leg-isses. 

leg-erat. leg-isset. 

Plur. leg-erdmus. Plur. leg-issemns, 

leg-eratis. leg-issetis. 

leg-erant. f leg-issent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, leg-ero^ I shall have read. 


leg-erit. ^ 

Plur. leg-enmus. ^ 

leg-eritis. - ^ 


Present, Sing, leg-e^ read thou. Plur. leg-ite^ read ye. 

Future,^ Sing, leg-ito^ thou shalt read. Plur. leg-itote, ye shall read. 
leg-itOy he shall read. leg-unto, they shall read. 


Pres. and Imperf. leg-ere, to read. 
Perf. and Pluperf. leg-isse, to have read. 
Future, lec-turum esse, to be about to read. 


Gen. leg-endi; Dat. leg-endo; Ace. leg-endum; Abl. leg-endo. 

lec-tum; lec-tu. 


Pres. and Imperf. leg-ens, reading. 
Future, lec-turus, about to read. 




Sing. Aud-io, I hear. 


Plur. aiid-lmm. 



Fourth Conjugation, 


Sing. Aud-iam^ I may hear. 


Plur. aud-iamus. 



Sing, aud-iebam, I heard. 


Plur. aud-iebdmus. 



Sing, aud'iem, I shall hear. 


Plur. aud-iemus. 



Sing, aud-lvi, I have heard. 



Plur. aud-ivimus. 

aud-iverunt (e). 

Sing, aud'iveram, I had heard. 


Plur. aud-iverdmus. 




Sing, avd-lrem^ I might hear. 
• aud-ires. 
Plur. aud-iremus. 



Sing, aud-iverim^ I may have heard. 



Plur. aud-iverlmus. 



Sing, aud-ivissem, I might have heard. 


Plur. avd-ivissemus. 



Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

aud-nvero, I shall have heard. 



Plur. aud-iverlmus. 



K 2 


Present, Sing, avd-l, hear thou. Plur. aud-ltCy hear ye. 

Future, Sing, and-lto^ thou shalt hear. Plur. aud-itote^ ye shall hear. 

aud-Uo, he shall hear. aud-iunto, they shall hear. 


Pres. and Imperf. aud-lre, to hear. 

Perf. and Pluperf. aud-ivisse, to have heard. 

Future, aud-iturum esse, to be about to hear. 

Gen. and-iendi ; Dat. aud-iendo ; Ace. aud-iendum ; Abl. aud-iendo. 

and-itum; aud-ltu. 


Pres. & Imperf. aud-iens, hearing. 
Future, aud-iiurus, about to hear. 

[$ 158.] II. PASSIVE VOICE. 

First Conjugation, 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Am-or, I am loved. Sing. Am-er, I may be loved. 

am-dris (e). am-eris (e). 

am-atur. am-etur. 

Plur. am-amur. Plur. am-emur. 

am-amini. am-emini. 

am-antur. am-entur. 


Sing, am-abar, I was loved. Sing, am-drer, I might be loved. 

am-dbdris (e). am-areris (e). 

am-dbatur. am-aretur. 

Plur. am-abamur. Plur. am-aremur. 

am-abamini. am-aremini. 

am-abantur. am-arerttur. 


Sing, am-abor, I shall be loved. 

am-aberis (e). 

Plur. am-abimur. 




Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Sing, am-atus (a, um) sum, I Sing, am-dtus (a, urn) sim, I may 

have been loved. have been loved. 

am-atus es. am-dtus sis. 

am-atus est. am-dtus sit. 

, Plur. am-ati (ae, a) sumus. Plur. am-dti (ae, a) simus. 

am-ati estis. am-dti sitis. 

am-ati sunt. am-dti sint. 


Sing, am-dtus (a, um) eram, I Sing, am-dtus (a, um) essem, I might 
had been loved. have been loved. 

am-dtus eras. am-dtus esses. 

am-dtus erat. am-dtus esset. 

Plur. am-dti (ae, a) eramus. Plur. am-dti (ae, a) essemv^. 

am-dti eratis. am-dti essetis. 

am-dti erant. am-dti essent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, am-dtus (a, um) ero, I shall have been loved. 

am-dtus eris. 

am-dtus erit. 
Plur. am-dti (ae, a) erimus. 

am-dti eritis. 

am-dti erunt. 


Present, Sing, am-are, be thou loved. Plur. am-amini, be ye loved. 

Future, Sing, am-ator, thou shalt be loved. Plur. am-aww'nor, ye shall be loved. 
am-ator, he shall be loved. am'anior, they shall be loved. 


Pres. and Imperf. (or of a passive state still going on), am-ari, to be loved. 
Perf. and Pluperf. (or of a state completed), am-dtum (amy um) esse, to have 

been loved. 
Future, am-dtum iri^ to be about to be loved. 

Participles. * 

Perfect, am-dtus, a, um, loved. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), am-andus, a, um, ^ 
deserving or requiring to be loved. 



Second Conjugation. 


Sing. Mon-eor^ I am advised. 

mon-eris (e). 

Plur. mon-emur. 



Sing, mon-ebar, I was advised, 

mon-ehdris (e). 
■ mon-ebatur. 
Plur. mort'ebamur. 





Sing. Mon-ear^ I may be advised. 
mon-edris (e). 
Plur. mon-eamur. 


. Sing, mon-erer^ I might be advised. 
mon-ereris (e). 
Plur. mon-eremur. 


Sing. mo7i-ebor, 1 shall be advised. 

mon-eberis (e). 

Plur. mon-ebimur. 



Sing, mon-itus (a, urn) sum, I 
have been advised. 

mon-itus es. 

mon-itus est. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) sumus. 

mon-iti estis. 

mon-iti sunt. 


Sing, mon-ttus (a/ um) sim, I 
have been advised. 
mon-itus sis. 
mon-itus sit. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) simus. 
mon-iti sitis. 
mon-iti sint. 



Sing, mon-itus («, um) eram, 1 
had been advised. 

mon-itus eras. 

mon-itus erat. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) eramus. 

mon-iti eratis. 

mon-iti erant. 

Sing, mon-itus (a, um^ essem, I 
should have been advised. 

mon-itus esses. 

mon-itus esset. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) essemus. 

mon-iti essetis. • 

mon-iti essent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, mon-itus («, urn) ero, I shall have been advised. 

mon-itus eris. 

mon-itus erit. 
Plur. mon-iti (ae, a) erimus. * 

mon-iti eritis. 

Xnon-iti erunt. 


Present, Sing, mon-ere, be thou advised. Plur. mon-emini^ be ye advised. 

Future, Sing, mon-etor^ thou shalt be Plur. mon-eminor, ye shall be 
advised. . advised. 

mon-etor^ he shall be, &c. mon~entor, they shall be, &c. 

Pres. and Imperf. mon-eri^ to be advised. 

Perf. and Pluperf. mon-itum (am^ urn) esse, to have been advised. 
Future, mon-itum iri, to be about to be advised. 

Perfect, mon-ttus, advised. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), mon-endusy de- 
serving or requiring to be advised. 

Third Conjugation, 

Indicativb. Subjunctivb. 


Sing. Leg-or, 1 am read. Sing. Leg-ar, I may be read. 

leg-eris (e). " • leg-dris (e), 

leg-itur. leg-atur. 

Plur. leg-imur. Plur. leg-amur. 

leg-imini. leg-amini. 

leg-untur. leg-avtur. 


Sing, leg-ebar, I was read. Sing, leg-erer, I might be read. 

leg-ebdris (e). leg-ereris (e). 

leg-ebatar. leg-eretur. 

Plur. leg-ehamur. Plur. leg-eremur. 

leg-ehamini. leg-eremini. 

leg-ehantur. leg-ereniur. 


Sing, leg-ar, I shall be read. 

leg-eris (e). 

Plur. leg-emur. 




Sing, lec-ius (a, urn) sum, I Sing, lec-tus (a, «m) sim^ I may have 

have been read. been read. 

lec-tus es. lec-tus sis. 

lec-tus est. lec-tus sit. 

. Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) sumus. Plur. lec-U (ae, a) simus. 

lec-ti estis. lec-ti sitis. 

lec-ti sunt. lec-ti sint. 
K 4 


Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Sing, lec-ius (a, urn) eram^ I Sing, lec-tus (a, um) essem, I should 

had been read. have been read. 

lec-tus eras. lec-tus esses, 

lec-tus erat. lec-tus esset. 

Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) eramus. Plur. lec-ti (ae, a) essemu^. 

lec-ti eratis. lec-ti essetis. 

lec-ti erant. lec-ti essent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, lec-tus {a, um) ero, I shall have been read. 

lec-tus eris. 

lec-tus erit. , 

Plur. lec-ti erimus. 

lec-ti eritis. 

lec-ti erunt. 

Present, Sing, leg-ere, be thou read. Plur. leg-imini, be ye read. 

Future, Sing, leg-itor, thou shalt be read. Plur. leg-iminor, ye shall be read. 
leg-itor, he shall be read. leg-untor, they shall bei'ead. 


Pres. and Imperf. leg^i^ to be read. 

Perf. and Pluperf. lec-tum (am, um) esse, to have been read. 

Future, lec-tum iri, to be about to be read. 


Perfect, lec-tus, read. 

In dvs (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), leg-endus, de- 
serving or requiring to be read. 

Fourth Conjugation, 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 


Sing. Aud-ior, I am heard. Sing. Aud-iar, I may be heard. 

aud-lris (e). aud-idris (e). 

aud-ltur. aud-iatur. 

Plur, aud-lmur. Plur. aud-iamur. 

aud-imini. aud-iamini, 

aud-iuntur. aud-iantur. 


Sing, aud-iebar, I was heard. Sing, aud-lrer, I might be heard. 

aud-iebdris (e). aud-ireris (e). 

aud- iehatur. aud-iretur. * 



Plur. aud-iehamur. 

Sing, aud-iar, I shall be heard. 

aud-ieris (e). 

Plur. aud-iemur. 



Sing, avd-ltus (a, urn) sum^ 
have been heard. 

avd-ltus es. 

aud-ltus est. 
Plur. aud-iti (ae, a) sumus. 

atid-lti estis. 

aud-Ui sunt. 

Sing, aud-ltus (a, uni) eram, 
had been heard. 

aud-ltus eras. 

aud-ltus erat. 
Plur. aud-lti (ae, a) eramus. 

aud-iti eratis. 

aud-lti erant. 

Plur. aud-iremur. 



Sing, aud-ltus (a, um) sim, I may 
have been heard. 
aud-ltus sis. 
aud-ltus sit. 
Plur. aud-lti (ae, a) simus. 
aud-lti sitis. 
aud-lti sint. 


Sing, aud-ltus (a, um) essem^ I might 
have been heard. 
aud-ltus esses, 
aud-ltus esset. 
Plur. aud-lti (ae, a) essemus. 
aud-lti essetis. 
aud-lti essent. 

Second Future, or Future Perfect. 

Sing, aud-ltus (a, urn) ero, I shall have been heard. 

aud-ltus eris. 

aud-ltus erit. 
Plur. aud-lti (ae, a) erimus. 

aud-lti eritis. 

aud-lti eruvt. 


Present, Sing, aud-lre^ be thou heard. Plur. aud-imini, be ye heard. 

Future, Sing, aud-ltor^ thou shalt be heard. 'P\uY.aud-iminor,ye shall be heard. 
aud-ltoTy he shall be heard. aud-iuvtor^ they shall be, &c. 

Pres. and Imperf. aud-lri, to be heard. 

Perf. and Pluperf. aud-ltum (am, um) esse, to have been heard. 
Future, aud-ltum iri, to be about to be heard. 


Perfect, aud-ltus, heard. 

In dus (commonly called Future, or Future of Necessity), aud-iendus, de- 
serving or requiring to be heard. 




[§ 159.] With regard to conjugation the deponent differs from 
the passive only by the fact that it has both the participles 
of the active and of the passive voice, that is, for aU the three 
states of an action : that in ns for an action not completed ; that 
in usy a, um for an action completed ; and that in urus, a, um 
for one about to take place. The fourth participle in ndus with 
a passive signification is an irregularity, and is used only in 
those deponents which have a transitive signification ; e. g. hor- 
tandus, one who should be exhorted. Of deponents which have 
an intransitive meaning, e. g. loqui^ this participle is used only 
sometimes, chiefly in the neuter gender (often, but erroneously, 
called the gerund), and in a somewhat different sense, e. g. 
loquendum est, there is a necessity for speaking. It will be 
sufficient in the following table to give the first persons of each 
tense, for there is no difficulty, except that these verbs with a 
passive form have an active meaning. 

A. Indicative. 

1st Conjug. 2d Conjug. 3d Conjug. 4th Conjug. 


S. hort-or^ I ex- ver-eor, I fear. sequ-or, I follow, bland-ior, I flatter. 


P. hort-amur. 

ver-emur. sequ-imur. 


S. hort-abar. 

ver-ebar. sequ-ebar. 


P. hort'dbamur. 

ver-ebamur. sequ-ebamur. 
First Future. 


S. hort'dbor. 

ver-ebor. sequ-ar. 


P. hort-abimur. 

ver-ebimur. sequ-emur. 


S. hort-atus (a, 

ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, 


bland-ltus (a, um) 

um) sum. 

sum. sum. 


P. hort-ati (ae, a) 

ver-iti («e, a) su- secu-ti («e, a 

) su- 

bland-lti (ae, a) su- 


mus. mus. 


S. hort-atus (a, 

ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, 


bland-itus (a, um) 

um) eram. 

eram. eram. 


P. hort-ati (ae, a) 

ver-iti (ae, a) era- secu-ti (ae, a) 


bland-iti (ae, a) era- 


mus. mus. 




1st Conjug. 

, - S. hort-atus (a, 
um) ero. 
P. kort-cdi (ae, a) 

2d Conjug. 3d Conjug. 4th Conjug. 

Future Perfect. 

ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, urn) hland-itus (a, um) 

ero. ero. ero. 

ver-iti (ae, a) eri- secu-ti (ae, a) eri- hland-iti (ae^ a) eri- 



S. hort-er. 
P. hort-emur. 

S. hort-arer. 
P. hort-aremur. 

S. hort-atus (a, 

urn) sim. 
P. hort-ati (ae, a) 

B. Subjunctive. 

ver-ear. sequ-ar. 



S. hort-atus (a, 
um) essem. 

P. hort-ati (ae, a) 



ver-erer. sequ-erer. hland-lrer. 

ver-eremur. sequ-eremur, bland-iremur. 


ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, um) hland-itus (a, um) 

sim. sim. sim. 

ver-iti (ae, a) si- secu-ti (oe, a) si- hldnd-iti (ae, a) si- 

mus. mu^. mus. 


ver-itus (a, um) secu-tus (a, um) bland-itus (a, um) 

essem. essem. essem. 

ver-iti (ae, a) es- secu-ti (ae, a) es- hland-iti (ae, a) es- 

S. 2. hort-are. 
P. 2. hort-amini. 

S. 2. hort-ator. 

3. hort-ator. 
P. 2. (is wanting, 

3. hort-antor. 

C. Impebative. 

ver-ere. sequ-ere. 

ver-ernini. sequ-imini. 

ver-etor. sequ-itor. 

ver-etor. sequ-itor. 

but is supplied by the Future Indicative.) 
ver-entor. sequ-untor. hland-iuntor. 




hort-atum (am, 
um) esse. 

hort-aturum (am, 
um) esse. 

D. Infinitive. 

Present and Imperfect. 
ver-eri. sequ-i. bland-iri. 

Perfect and Pluperfect. 
ver-itum (am, um) secu-tum (am, um) bland-itum (am, um) 
esse. esse. esse. 

ver-iturum (am, secu-turum (am, bland-iturum (am, 
um) esse. um) esse. um) esse. 





Gen. hort-andi. 
Dat. hort-ando. 
Ace. hort-andwm. 
Abl. hort-ando. 




hort-atm, a, um. 
hort-afurus, a,um. 
hort-andu^, a, um. 

1. hort-atum. 

2. hort-atu. 

F. Participles. 
Present and Imperfect. 
ver-ens. sequ-ens. 

Perfect and Pluperfect. 
ver-itus, a, um. secH-tus, a, um. 

ver-iturus, «, um. secu-turus, a, um. hland-iturus, a, um. 

Future, with Passive Signification. 
ver-endus, a, um. sequ-endus^a^um. hland-iendus^ a, um. 

hland-itus, a, um. 


G. Supine. 



Note. The supine secutum and the participle secutus are analogous to 
solutum and solutus, from solvo^ in pronunciation and orthography ; for the 
consonant v, which is audible in the present sequor, is softened into the 
vowel M, and lengthened according to the rule mentioned above, § 154. In 
sequutum, as some persons write, the additional vowel u cannot be explained 
in any way. The same is the case with locutum from loquor. (Comp. above, 
§ 5. in fin.) 



[§ 160.] 1. In the terminations avi, evi, and ivi of the tenses 
expressing a completed action, viz. of the perfect and pluperfect, 
indicative and subjunctive, and of the future perfect, as well as 
of the infinitive perfect active, a syncopation takes place. 

a) In the first conjugation the v is dropped and the vowels a-i 
and a-e are contracted into a long a. This is the case wherever 
avi is followed by an s, or ave by an r ; e. g. amavisti, amdsti ; 
amavissem, amdssem ; amavisse, amdsse ; amaverunty amdrunt ; 


amaverim, amdrim ; amaveram, amdram ; amavero, amdrOf 
&c. Both forms, the entire and the contracted one, are on the 
whole of the same value, but the latter seems to be chiefly- 
used, when the contracted vowel is followed by an s, whereas 
the entire form was preferred in those cases where an r foUows, 
although even in this case Livy is rather partial to the con- 
tracted form ; e. g. vindicanmusy oppugnarimus, necarimus, ma- 
turarimus ; in Cicero too it is not uncommon. A contracted 
form of the verb juvare {adjuvare) occurs only in the more 
ancient language ; e. g. adjuro for adjuvero in a verse of Ennius 
(ap. Cic Cat. Maj. 1.). 

h) The termination evi in the second and third conjugations 
IS treated in the same manner; e. g. neo, I spin, nevi, nesti, 
nestis, nerunt. Thus we often find compJessem, deleram, and in the 
third conjugation consuerunt for consueverunty q^dessem, decressem, 
decresse for decrevisse ; sins, sirit, for siveris and siverit The 
termination ovi however is contracted only in novi, novisse, with 
its compounds, and in the compounds of moveo, mom; e. g. 
norunt, nOsse, cognoram, cognOro, commossem, 

c) In the fourth conjugation ivi is frequently contracted be- 
fore Sy hence instead of audivisse, audivisUy audivissem, we find 
audisscy audistiy audisserriy and in the time of Quintilian the 
latter forms must have been more commonly used than the 
others. But there is another form of the tenses expressing a 
completed action, which arises from simply throwing out the v : 
attdiiy audiissem, audieraniy audiero. But it must be observed 
that those forms in which two i meet are not used at all in good 
prose (as in Cicero), except in the compounds of the verb ire (see 
§ 205.), and are foimd only here and there in poetry, as in Virgil: 
audiit, mugiity muniity especially when the word would not 
otherwise suit the dactylic hexameter, as for example oppetiiy 
impediit In those forms, on the other hand, where i and e meet, 
the V is frequently thrown out even in good prose ; e. g. audie- 
runty desierunty definieram, quaesieram. 

Note. A contraction occurs in the perfect of the first, second, and fourth 
conjugations, when b. t or m follows ; the forms of the perfect then be- 
come externally like those of the present tense, and can be distinguished 
only in some cases by the length of the vowel. This contraction occurs only 
in poetry, but not* very commonly. Some grammarians have denied it alto- 
gether, and have endeavoured to explain such passages by supposing that 
they contain an ejiallage, that is, an interchange of tenses ; but such a sup- 


position involves still greater difficulties. Priscian, in several passages, men- 
tions the contracted forms fumdt^ audita cuplt, for fumavit, audivit, cupivit, as 
of common occurrence, which at least supports in general the view of the 
ancient grammarians, although it does not render an examination of the par- 
ticular passages superfluous. We shall pass over the less decisive passages ; but 
it for at is undeniable in petiit (in Virg. Aen. ix. 9.) ; desit (in Martial, iii. 
75. 1., and x. 86. 4.) ; abit, obit, and perit (in Juvenal, vi. 128. 559. 295. 
563., and x. 118.). We accordingly consider that quum edormit, in Horace 
{Serm. ii. 3. 61.), is likewise a perfect. In the first and second conjugations 
there are some instances which cannot be denied. To view donat in Horace 
(^Serm. i. 2. 56.) as a present would be exceedingly forced ; but if we con- 
sider it as a contracted perfect, it quite agrees with the construction. Com- 
pare Terent. Adelph. iii. 3. 10. : omnem rem modo seni quo pacto haberet 
enarramus ordine ; Propert. ii. 7. 2. : flemus uterque diu ne nos divideret. 
Lastly, the first person in ii is found contracted into {,• Persius, iii. 97.: 
sepeli ; Seneca, Here. Oet. 48. : redi ; Claudian, in Rujin. ii. 387. : unde redi 

2. Another syncopation, which frequently occurs in early 
Latin, and is made use of even in the later poetical language of 
Virgil and Horace, consists in the throwing out of the syllable 
is in the perfect and pluperfect of the third conjugation after an 
s or an x ; e. g. evasti, for evasisti ; dixti, for dixisti ; divisse, for 
divisisse ; admisse, for admisisse ; iss too is rejected in forms like 
surrexe, for surrexisse ; consumpse, for consumpsisse ; so also 
ahstraxe, for abstraxisse ; abscessem, for abscessissem ; erepsemus, 
for erepsissemusy and others. 

[§161.] 3. The forms of the future perfect and of the perfect 
subjunctive in the first conjugation in asso and assim, for avero 
and averim ; in the second in esso and essim, for uero and uerim ; 
and in the third in so and sim, for ero and erim, are obsolete. 
Numerous instances of these occur in ancient forms of laws (and 
in later imitations of such forms) and in Plautus and Terence. 

Note. In this manner are formed, commonstrasso, levasso, peccasso, creas- 
sit, cooptassit, imperassit, and many others of the first conjugation. The 
following belong to the second : Ucessit, cohibessit, prohibessls, and ausirn. 
Capso, capsis, capsit, capsimus, accepso, rapsit, surrepsit, occisit, incensit, 
adempsit, axim, adaxint, taxis, ohjexim, objexis, and others, occur in the third 
conjugation. The following forms deserve especial mention : faxo, faxim, 
faxit, faximus (Plaut. True. i. 1. 40.), faxitis, faxint. But there is no in- 
stance of such a syncopation in the fourth conjugation. We believe that this 
form is to be explained by the ancient interchange of r and s (comp. § 7.) 
and a syncopation : hence the transition would be this : levavero — levaveso — 
levasso ; aeeepero — aceepeso — aceepso ; ademero — ademeso — adempso ; oe- 
ciderit — occidesit — oceisit, where the d before the s is dropped, as in incen- 
derit, incensit. The few words of the second conjugation seem to have 
been formed in this manner, on the model of the very numerous words 
of the third. The irregularity in forming the perfect of words of the third 


conjugation (capso, accepso, faxo, and axim, instead of fexo, exim) is in 
accordance with the ancient language : thus taxis is derived from tago^ tango^ 
and ausim from the perfect ausi, which has fallen into disuse. The 
form in so is acknowledged to have the meaning of a future perfect : one 
example may suffice : Ennius ap. Cic. Cat. Maj. 1. : si quid ego adjuro (for 
adjuvero) curamve levasso^ ecquid erit praemi ? For this and other reasons 
we cannot adopt Madvig's view {Opusc. torn. ii. nr. 2.), that this form is a 
future made according to the Greek fashion : levo^ levasso, like ytXaw, 

A few remnants only of this formation remained in use in 
the best period of the Latin language ; e. g. jusso for jussero in 
Virg. Aen. xi. 467.; SLudfaxo, in the sense of " I will" or " am 
determined to do" (see § 511.) in poetry, and in Livy, vi. 35., 
faxo ne juvet vox ista Veto, I will take care that this word Veto 
shall be of no avail to you. But especially the subjunctive ^a-zY, 
faxint, expressing a solemn wish, as Cicero (in Verr, iii. 35.) says 
in a prayer, diiimmortales faxint ; and Livy (xxix. 27.) in a 
prayer says, dii — faxitis — auxitis; and in a subordinate sentence 
in Horace, Serm. ii. 6. 15., oro ut faocis, and in Persius, i. 112., 
veto quisquam faxit. Lastly ausim and ausit as a subjunctive 
expressive of doubt or hesitation — "I might venture," — oc- 
curs in Cicero, Brut. 5., and frequently in Livy and Tacitus. 
From these and the numerous passages in Plautus and Terence, 
however, it is clear that this subjunctive in sim never has the 
signification of a perfect subjunctive, but, in accordance with 
its formation, it retains the meaning of a future subjunctive. 

Note. In the ancient Latin language we find a passive voice of this form 
of the future ; viz. turbassitur, in a law in Cic. de Leg. iii. 4., and jussitur in 
Cato, de Re Rust. 14., instead of turhatum fuerit and ju^sus fuerit ;. and the 
deponent mercassitur in an inscription (Gruter, p. 512. line 20.), for mer- 
catus fuerit. An infinitive also, with the signification of a first future active, 
is formed from it : as in Plautus : expugnassere, impetrassere, reconciliassere ; 
and in Lucretius (Fragm. Non. iu 218.) : depeculassere et deargentassere 
(consequently only in verbs of the first conjugation) ; for which, in later 
times, the circumlocution expugnaturum esse, &c. was used exclusively. 

[§ 162.] 4. In the remains of the early Latin language, and 
sometimes also in the poetical productions of the best age, tjie 
infinitive passive is lengthened by annexing the syllable er; e. g. 
amarier, mercarier, labier, legier, mittier; the e in the termi- 
nation of tlie imperfect of the fourth conjugation is thrown out, 
e. g. nutribam, leniham, sciham, largibar, for nutriebam, leniebam, 
sciebam, largiebar, — and the future of the same conjugation 
is formed in ibo instead of iam; e. g. scibo, servibo, for sciam, 


serviam (the two last peculiarities are retained, in ordinary 
language, only in the verb ire) ; and lastly, the termination im 
is used for em and am in the present subjunctive of the first and 
third conjugations, but only in a few verbs ; e. g. edim and co- 
medim for edam and comedam, frequently occur in Plautus ; also 
in Cicero, ad Fam. ix. 20. in fin., and Horace, Epod, iii. 3., and 
Serm. ii. 8. 90. Duim for dem, and perduim for perdam, from 
duo and per duo, ancient forms of these verbs, are found also in 
prose in forms of prayers and imprecations ; e. g. Cic. in CatiL 
i. 9., pro Dejot 7. The same form has been preserved in the 
irregular verb volo, with its compounds, and in sum: velim, no- 
lim, m,alim, and sim. • 

[§ 163.] 5. For the third person plural of the perfect active 
in erunt there is in all the conjugations another form, ere, which 
indeed does not occur at all in Nepos, and in the prose of Cicero 
very rarely (see Cic. Orat 47., and my note on Cic. in Verr, i. 
6.), but is very frequently used by Sallust and later writers, 
especially by the historians, Curtius and Tacitus. In the con- 
tracted forms of the perfect this termination cannot well be 
used, because the third person plural of the perfect would in 
most cases become the same as the infinitive ; e. g. if we were to 
form : amaverunt, amarunt, amare; or deleverunt, delerunt, delere. 

The vowel e, in the uncontracted termination erunt, is some- 
times shortened by poets, as in Horace, Epist. i. 4. 7. : Di tibi 
divitias dederunt artemque fruendi; and Virg., Aen, ii. 774. : 
ohstupui steteruntque comae, vox faucibus haesit 

[§164.] 6. The four verbs, 6?2cere, ducere, facere, 2indL ferre, 
usually reject the e in the imperative (to avoid ambiguity): 
hence we say die, due, fac, fer, and so also in their compounds, 
as educ, effer, perfer, calefac, with the exception of those com- 
pounds oi facer e which change a into i; e. g. confice, perjice, 
Inger for ingere is rare and antiquated. 

Of scire the imperative sci is not in use, and its place is sup- 
plied by the imperative future scito. Scitote is preferred to 
scite in order to avoid the possible confusion with scite, the ad- 
verb, which signifies " skilfully." 

Note. The imperative future of the passive voice, but more especially of 
deponents, has some irregularities in the early language and later imitations 
of it : a) The active form is used instead of the passive one ; thus we find 
arbitrator amplexato^ utito^ nitito, for arbitrator, amplexator, &c. ; and censento 


for censentor; utunto^ tuento, patiunto, in laws. (See CIc. de Leg. iii. 3. fol.) 
b) In the second and third persons singular we not uncommonly find the 
forms hortamino, veremino^ and others, for hortator^ veretor^ &c. The forms 
antestamino^ arhitramino^ praef amino, profitemino, fruimino, and progredimino, 
occur in Cato, Plautus, and in laAvs ; and passages of this kind have given 
rise to the erroneous opinion that there is a second person plural in mbior^ 
such as hortaminor. 

[§165.] 7. Eespecting the quantity of the i in the terminations 
rimus and ritis, in the future perfect and the perfect subjunctive, 
the statements of the ancient grammarians not only differ, but 
contradict one another. The poets use it long or short ac- 
cording as the verse requires it ; though to judge from the 
analogy of erimus, eritis, it seems to be naturally short. In 
connection with this (comp. § 29.) it must be observed, that the 
termination ris of the second person singular is used by poets 
both long and short, as in Horace, Carm. III. 23. 3., and IV. 7. 
20 and 21., and in the following distich of Ovid, Amor. 1. 

Quae tu reddideris, ego primus pocula sumam, 
Et qua tu biberis, hac ego parte bibam : 

where however the influence of the caesura also has its effect. 

[§ 166.] 8. Instead of the termination ris in the second person 
in the passive, re is also used, and with Cicero this is the common 
termination in the present and imperfect subjunctive, and in the 
imperfect and future indicative, even in cases where the repe- 
tition of the syllable re produces a disagreeable sound, as in 
vererere, pro Quint. 16., m Verr. iii. 18.; merer ere, Divin. 18., de 
Fin. ii. 35. In the present indicative, on the other hand, re is 
used for ris only in the following passages : Divin. 12. in fin. 
and in Verr. iii. 80. init. : arhitrare ; pro Ball). 18.: delectare ; 
Philip, ii. 43.: inaugurare ; ad Fam. \\. 21. : recordare ; and 
V. 13. : videre. Such forms as amere, moneare, loquare, audiare; 
amarere, amahare, amahere, monerere, loquerere, &c. are of 
common occurrence in all the conjugations. 

[§ 167.] 9. The participle future passive of the third and fourth 
conjugations (including the deponents) is formed in undus in- 
stead of endus, especially when i precedes. In the verb potior 
potiundus is the usual form. In other verbs it seems to have 
been indifferent which of the two forms was used ; though 
in some phrases, such as, injinibus dividundis or regundis, injure 
dicundo, there seems to have been something conventional in thq 



use of these forms. We must leave it to the student's own ob- 
servation to collect other peculiarities of this kind. Respecting 
the verbal adjectives in hundus, see § 248. 

[§ 168.] 10. This is the place to speak of what is called the 
conjugatio periphrastica, or the conjugation by circumlocution. 
This name is applied in general to any conjugation formed by 
means of a participle and the auxiliary verb esse; but it is 
usually limited to the conjugation formed by means of the two 
participles future, in the active and passive, and of the verb 
esse^ for a conjugation made up of the participle present and 
esse does not occur in Latin, (e. g., amans sum would be the 
same as «mo,) and the combinations of the participle perfect 
passive with sum, sim, eram, essem, ero, esse, are considered as a 
part of the ordinary conjugation of a verb in the passive voice, 
as*for example amatus eram, which is the pluperfect passive of 
amo. But it must be observed, that in the conjugation of the 
passive the perfects oiesse are sometimes used instead of the above- 
mentioned forms for an incomplete action, such as sum, eram, 
ero, &c. Amatum fuisse, therefore, is equal to amatum esse as 
an infinitive perfect passive ; amatus fueram is equivalent to 
amatus eram, and amatus fuero to amatus ero. Amatus fuero, 
in particular, is used so frequently for amatus ero, that formerly 
it was looked upon as the ordinary future perfect passive, and 
was marked as such in the tables of the four conjugations.* But 
when the participle is used in the sense of an adjective, and 
expresses a permanent state, a difference is clearly discernible ; 
e. g. epistola scripta est, when it is a perfect tense, signifies 
the letter has been written ; but if scripta is conceived as an 
adjective (in contradistinction to a letter not written), the 
meaning is, the letter is written, and epistola scripta fuit, in 
this case, would signify, the letter has been written (has been 
a written one), or has existed as a written one, meaning, that 
at present it no longer exists. And this is the usual sense in 
which fui is used with the participle perfect, e. g. Liv. xxxviii. 
56.: Literni monumentum monumentoque statua superimposita 

* We have abandoned the common practice, partly on account of the 
analogy, and partly because the number of instances in which the regular 
future perfect with ero occurs is so considerable that there can be no doubt 
about it. We do not quote any passages, because this truth is now uni- 
versally recognised. 


fuit (is there no longer), quam tempestate dejectam nuper vidimus 

ipsi ; Martial, i. 44. : bis tibi triceni fuimus vocati, that is, " we 

were invited, but got nothing to eat:" tantum spectavimus 

omnes. The passages therefore in which amatus fui is found 

as an ordinary perfect in the sense of amatus sum, may be 

doubted in good authors. 

Note. Justin (i. 19.), however, writes : Itaque grave bellum natum, in quo 
et diu et varia victoria proeliatum fuit (passive); Gellius (v. 10.): Sic ma- 
gister eloquentiae confutatus est, et captionis versute excogitatae frustratus fuit 
(passive) ; and Plautus several times in deponents ; e. g. ohlitus fui^ Poenrd. 
Prolog. 40. ; miratus fui^ ibid. v. 6. 10. ; and other passages. 

[§ 169.] But by the combination of the participle future active 
with the tenses of esse, a really new conjugation is formed, de- 
noting an intention to do something. This intention may 
arise either from the person's own will, or from outward cir- 
cumstances, so that, e. g., scripturus sum may either mean " I 
have a mind to write, or I am to write," or " I have to write." 
The former sense is also expressed by " I am on the point of 
writing," or " I am about to write," and this signification is 
carried thi'ough all the tenses of esse. 

Scripturus sum, I am about to Scripturus fui, I was or have 

write. been about to write. 

Scripturus eram, I was about Scripturus fueram, I had been 

to write. about to write. 

Scripturus ero, I shall be about Scripturus fuero, I shall have 

to write. been about to write. 

But the last of these forms was very seldom used, and occurs 
only in one passage of Seneca, Epist. ix. §14.: sapiens non 
vivet si fuerit sine homine victurus, that is, if he should be 
obliged to live without human society. The subjunctive oc- 
curs in the same manner. 

Scripturus sim, Scripturus fuerim. 

Scripturus essem. Scripturus fuissem. 

Scripturus sim and scripturus essem serve at the same time as 
subjunctives to the future scribam ; but scripturus fuerim and 
scripturus fuissem are not used as subjunctives to the future 
perfect, scripsero. The infinitive scripturum fuisse denotes an 
action to which a person was formerly disposed, and answers to 
the English " I should have written," so that in hypothetical 



sentences it supplies the place of an infinitive of the pluperfect 
subjunctive; e. g. in Sueton. Caes. 5^.'. Pollio Asinius Caesarem 
existimat suos rescripturum et correcturum commentarios fuisse, 
that is, that he would have re-written and corrected, if he had 
lived longer. The infinitive with esse likewise first denotes an 
intention: scripturum esse, to intend writing, or to be on the 
point of writing ; but it then assumes, in ordinary language, the 
nature of a simple infinitive future, for which reason it is in- 
corporated in the table of conjugations. For the particulars, 
see the Syntax, Chap. LXXYI. 

Note. In the passive these gerundive tenses (tempora gerundiva), as they 
may be called, are expressed by longer circumlocutions : in eo est, orfuturum 
est ut epistola scribatur, the letter Is to be written, or about to be written ; 
in eo erat, or futurum erat ut epistola scriheretur, the letter was to be written, 
or about to be written ; in eo erit or futurum erit ut epistola scrihatur, it will 
then be necessary for the letter to be written. 

[§ 170.] The participle future passive expresses (in the nomi- 
native) the necessity of suffering an action, and in combination 
with the tenses of esse it likewise forms a new and complete 
conjugation (tempora necessitatis) ; e. g. amandus sum, I must 
be loved ; amandus eram, it was necessary for me to be loved, 
and so on with all the tenses of esse. Its neuter combined with 
esse and the dative of a person expresses the necessity of per- 
forming the action on the part of that person, and may likewise 
be carried through all the tenses, as, 

mihi scrihendum est, I must mihi scrihendum fuit, I have 
write. been obliged to write. 

mihi scrihendum erat, I was mihi scrihendum fuerat, I had 
obliged to write. been obliged to write. 

mihi scrihendum erit, I shall be mihi scrihendum fuerit, I shall 
obliged to write. have been obliged to write. 

And so also in the subjunctive and infinitive : mihi scrihendum 
esse ; mihi scrihendum fuisse. 







[§ 171.] The irregularity of the verbs of this conjugation consists 
chiefly in this, that they take ui in the perfect, and itum in the 
supine, like verbs of the second ; which i, however, is sometimes 
thrown out. It will be seen from the following list* that some 
verbs, in some form or other, again incline towards a regular 
formation of their tenses. 

Crepo, crepuiy crepitum, make a noise, rattle, creak. 
ft) Compounds : concr^o, make an intense noise ; discrepo^ differ ; increpo^ 
chide, rattle. 

ibo, cuhuif cubitum, cuhare, lie. 

There is some authority for the perfect cubavi^ incubam. (See Ouden- 
dorp on Caes. B. Civ. iii. 63.) Compounds : accubo, recline at table ; ex- 
cubo, keep watch ; incubo, lie upon ; recubo, lie upon the back ; secubo, 
lie apart, and some others. When the compounds take an m before ft, 
they are conjugated after the third, but keep their perfect and supine in 
wi, itum. (See Chap. XLVUI.) 

DomOf ui, itum, tame, subdue. 

Eddmo and perdomo strengthen the meaning. 

Sono, ui, itum, resound. (Participle sonaturus,) 

Consono, agree in sound ; dissono, disagree in sound ; persono^ sound 
through ; resono, resound. {Resonavit, Manil. v. 566.) 

* It has not been the object to include in this list every irregular verb, 
especially compounds, but those only which are necessary in good prose. 
"When no meaning is assigned to a compound verb, it is because the sense is 
easily discoverable from that of the root and the preposition with which it 
is compounded. 

I. 3 


Tono, ui, (itum), thunder. 

Attono (active), strike with astonishment (participle attonitus)-^ in- 
tonoy commonly intransitive, make a sound (participle intonatus) ; circum- 

Veto, ui, iturriy forbid. ( Vetavit, only in Persius, V. 90.) 

Mico, ui, (without supine,) dart out, glitter. 

EmXco^ ui, atum, dart forth rays; but dimico, fight, makes dimicavi, 

Frico, fricui, fricatum, and frictum, rub. 

Defrico, infrico, perfrico^ refrico^ are formed in the same way. 

Seco, ui, sectum, cut. (Part, secaturus.^ 
Deseco, reseco, cut off; disseco, cut in parts. 

Jicvo, Juvi, support, assist ; the supine jutum is rare (see Tac. 
Ann. xiv. 4.) ; but the participle j2<?;a^wrM5 is found in SaUust, 
Jug, 47. ; and Plin., Epist iv. 15. 

So also the compound adjuvo, adjuvi, adjuium, in the participle adjuturus 
(Liv. xxxiv. 37.), and adjuvaturus in Petron. 18. Frequentative, adjuto. 

Lavo, idvi, lavatum, lautum, lotum, lavare, wash, or bathe, 
which is properly lavari. 
The infinitive lavere, whence the perfect lavi seems to come, is pre- 
served in old Latin, and is found in poetry, e. g. Hor. Carm. iii. 12. init. : 
mala vino lavere. 

Neco, kill, is regular; but from it are formed, with the same 
meaning, eneco, avi, atum, and enecui, enectum, both of which 
forms are equally well established, but the participle is usually 
enectus ; interneco has internecatus. 

From Plico, fold, are formed appUco, avi, atum, and ui, itum ; 
so explico, avi, atum, unfold, explain; implico, implicate. 
Cicero regularly uses applicavi and explicavi ; otherwise usage 
on the whole decides in favour of the perfect ui, and the 
supine atum. But those derived from nouns in plex form the 
perf. and sup. regularly : supplico, duplico, multiplico. Of 
replico, whose perfect replicavi occurs in the vulgate, replicatus 
only is in use (replictus is an isolated form in Statins, Silv. 
iv. 9. 29.). 

Pdto, drink, is regular, except that the supine usually, instead 
of potatum, is potum, whence potus, which is both active and 
passive, having been drunk, and having drunk. Compounds, 
appotus, active ; and epotus, passive. 


Do, dtdi, datum, dare, give. 

Circumdo, surround ; pessundo., ruin ; satisdo, give security ; venundoy 
sell ; are formed like do. The other compounds addo, condo, reddo, belong 
to the third conjugation. (See Chap. XLVII.) From a second form duo 
we find in early Latin the subjunctive duim, duis, duit, also in the com- 
pounds credo and perdo — creduam and creduim^ perduim. Cic. p. Reg. 
Dejot. 7. : di te perduint. See § 162. 

Sto, steti, statum, stare, stand. 

The compounds have iti in the perfect ; e. g. consto, to consist of; exsto^ 
exist or am visible ; insto, insist ; ohsto^ hinder ; persto, persevere ; 
praesto, surpass ; resto^ remain over and above. Only those compounded 
with a preposition of two syllables retain eti in the perfect, viz. antesto, 
circumsto^ intersto^ supersto. The supine, which is mentioned especially 
on account of the participle future, does not exist in all the compounds, 
but wherever it is found, it is dtum. The supine praestitum of praesto is 
certain in late authors only, whereas praestaturus is frequent. Of disto, 
the perfect and supine are wanting. 

The active verbs juro and coeno have a participle with a 
passive form, but an active signification : juratus (with the com- 
pounds conjuratus and injuratus), one who has sworn ; and 
coenatus, one who has dined. From the analogy of conjuratus, 
the same active signification was afterwards given to conspiratus, 
one who has formed a conspiracy or joined a conspiracy. 



[§ 172.] The irregularity of verbs of the second conjugation 
consists partly in their being defective in their forms, and 
partly in their forming the perfect and supine, or one of them, 
like verbs of the third conjugation. With regard to the 
first irregularity, there are a great many verbs in this con- 
jugation which have no supine, that is, which not only have no 
])articiple perfect passive (which cannot be a matter of surprise, 
since their meaning does not admit of it), but also no participle 
future active. (See § 153.) The regular form of the perfect is 
ui, and of the supine Uum ; but it must be observed at the same 



time that some verbs throw out the short i in the supine ; and 
all verbs which in the present have a v before eo undergo a 
sort of contraction, since, e. g., we find cdvi, cautum, instead 
of cdvui, cdvitum, from caveo, but this can scarcely be considered 
as an irregularity, since v and u was only one letter with the 
Romans. Respecting the lengthening of the vowel in dissyllabic 
perfects, see § 18. 

We shall subjoin a list of the regular verbs of this conjugation 
as exercises for the beginner, confining ourselves to the form 
of the present. 

Cdleo, am warm. Mereo, merit. 

Inchoat. calesco. Moneo, admonish. 

Cdreo, am without. Noceo^ injure. 

Debeo, owe. Pdreo, obey (appear). 

Doleo, feel pain. Compound : appureo^ appear. 

Hdbeo, have. Pldceo, please. 

Compounds : adhibeo, cohibeo, Praebeo^ offer, afford. 

&c., a being changed into i. Tdceo, am silent. 

Jdceo, lie. The partic. tacitus, is commonly 

Liceo, am to be sold. an adjective. 

Not to be confounded with the Terreo, terrify, 

impersonal licet, it is permitted. Vdleo, am well. 
See Chap. LX. 

To these regular verbs Vv^e may first add those of which we 
spoke shortly before, viz. ; 

[§ 173.] a) Those which make the Perfect in vi instead of vui. 

Cdveo, cdvi, cautum, cavere, take care. 
Praecaveo, take precaution. 

Connweo, nivi, or nixi (neither very common), no supine ; close 
the eyes. 

Fdveo, fdvi, fautum, am favourable. 

Foveo, fovi, fotum, cherish. 

Moveo, movi, motum, move. 

Commdveo and permoveo strengthen the meaning ; amoveo and submoveo, 
remove ; admoveo, bring to ; promoveo, bring forwards ; removeo, brino- 
back, or remove. 

iPdveOf pdvi, (no supine), dread. 

Hence the compound inchoat. expavesco, expavi, is more commonly 
' used, especially in the perfect. 


Voveo, vovi, votum, vow ; devoveo, devote with imprecation. 

Ferveo, fervi, and ferbui, (no supine,) glow, am hot. 

Fervit^ fervat, fervere^ after the third (comp. Virg. Georg. i. 455., with 
Quintil. i. 6. 7.), is an archaism. The inchoatives of the third conjugation 
effervesco, refervesco, have the perfect in vi and bui (vi is more frequent 
in Cicero) ; in confervesco^ hui alone is known. 

[§ 174.] b) Tliose which make the Perfect in evi instead ofvii. \ 

DeleOi delevi, deletum, extinguish, destroy. 

Fleo, Jievi, fietum^ weep. 

Neo^ nevi, netum, spin. 

(From Pleo), compleo, compleoi, completunii fill up ; expleOy impleo. 

From oleo, grow, we have the compounds : aholeo, abolish ; aho^ 
lesco, cease ; adoleo, adolesco, grow up ; exoleo or exolesco and 
ohsoleo or obsolesco, grow obsolete ; all of which have evi in 
the perfect ; but the supine of aboleo is abolitum, of adolesco, 
adultum, and the rest have etum : exoletum, obsoletum. Be- 
sides abolitum, however, there exist only the adjectives adultus, 
exoletuSi obsoletus. 

[§ 175.] c) Those ivhich throw out the short i iii the Supine, 

Doceo, docui, doctum, teach. 

Compounds : edoceo and perdoceo, strengthen the meaning ; dedoceo, 
teach otherwise. 

Teneo, tenui, {tentum, rare,) hold, keep. 

Abstineo, abstain ; attineo, keep occupied by or at a thing ; contineo, 
keep together ; detineo, keep back ; distmeo, keep asunder ; retinco, retain ; 
sustineo, keep upright. All these have in the supine tentum. Pertineo, 
belong to, has no supine. 

Misceo, miscui, mixtum or mistum, mix. 

Mixtum is better attested by MSS. than mistum. Compounds are, 
admisceo, commisceo, immisceo, permisceo. 

Torreo, torrui, tostum, roast. 

To these we may add — 
Censeo, censui, censum (participle also censltus), estimate, be- 

Percenseo^ enumerate, without supine. Of accenseo, reckon with, we 
find accensus ; of succenseo, am angry, succensurus ; and recenseo, examine, 
makes both recensum and recensltum, the latter of which is perhaps better 


[§ 176.] (T) Those which make the Perfect regularly in m, hut 
have no Supine, 

ArceOf arcui, arcere, keep off. 

But the compounds coerceo, coerce ; exerceo, exercise ; have a supine 
in itum. 

Calleo, have a hard skin, am skilled in (callidus), 

Candeo, shine, glow {candidus), 

Egeoy want. Compound, indigeo, 

(From mineo)^ emmeo, stand forth. 

Floreo, flourish. 

FrondeO) have foliage ; effrondui. 

Horreo, shudder, am horrified Qiorridus), 

Compounds : abhorreo, and a number of inchoatives, as horresco^ per' 

Langueo, am languid (languidus), 

Lateo, am concealed. 

Compounds : interlateo, perlateo^ suUateo. 

Madeo, am wet (madidus). 

NiteOi shine (nitidus). 

Compounds : eniteo, interniteo, praeniteo. 

Oleo, smell. 

Compounds : dboleo and redoleo^ have the smell of; suholeOj smell a 

PalleOy am pale. 

Pdteo, am open. 

Rigeo, am stiff (rigidus). 

Rubeo, am red (ruhidus), 

StleOf am silent. 

Sorheo, sorbui, sip. 

Perf. sorpsij very rare. Compounds : ahsorheo and exsorheo. 

Sordeo, am dirty (sordidus), 

Splendeo, am splendid {splendidus). 

Studeo, endeavour, study. 

StupeOy am startled, astonished (stupidus). 


TtmeOf fear (timidus), 

Torpeo, am torpid. 

Tumeoy swell, am swollen (tumidus). 

Vigeo, am animated. 

Vireo, am green or flourish. 

Besides these, there is a number of similar verbs which are 
derived from adjectives, and occur more rarely, and chiefly in 
the form of inchoatives, for the Latin language has great 
freedom in the formation of these intransitive verbs and in that 
of inchoatives either with or without a primary form. Compare 
Chap. LII. 

The following are really irregular verbs, and follow the ana- 
logy of the third conjugation : — 

[§ 177.] 1. Verbs which make the Perfect in si and the Supine 

in sum. 
Ardeo, arsi, arsum, ardere, bum. 

Haereo, haesi, haesum, cleave. 

Compounds : adhaereo, cohaereo, inJiaereo. 

Jiibeo, jussi, jussum, command. 

Mdneo, mansi, mansum^ remain. (But mdno, as, flow). 
Permaneo {permanes)^ wait ; remaneo, remain behind. 

Mulceo, mulsi, midsum, stroke, caress. 

The compounds demulceo and pemiulceo strengthen the meaning. The 
participle permvlsus is certain, but demvlctus and permvlctus likewise 

Mulgeo, mulsi, mulsum, milk. 

Participle comp. emulsus. The derivative nouns mulctus^ us, the milk- 
ing, mulctra, and mulctrale, show that formerly mulctum also existed. 

Rideo, risi, risum, laugh. 

Compounds : arrideo (arrldes), smile upon or please : derideo and 
irrideo, laugh at, scorn ; sitbrideo^ smile. 

Suadeo, suasi, suasum, advise. 

Disstiadeo, dissuade ; persuadeo, persuade ; but, like suadeo, with the 

Tergeo, tersi, tersum, tergere, wipe ; is used also as a verb of the 
third conjugation : tergo, tersi, tersum, tergere, 
Cicero uses tergo more frequently as a verb of the thu"d conjugation, 


whereas the compounds abstergeo, detergeo^ extergeo^ incline more towards 
the second (abstergebo, Cic. ad.Q. Frat. ii. 10.), although in these com- 
pounds too the forms of the third are not uncommon. 

Of denseo, the ancient and poetical form for denso, densare, 
condense (see Bentley on Horace, Carm. i. 28. 19.), the perfect 
densi is mentioned by the grammarians, and the existence of a 
supine is attested by the adjective densus, 

[§ 178.] 2. Verbs which make the Perfect in si, but have no 


Algeo, aisi, algere, shiver with cold. 

The supine is wanting, but from it is derived the adjective alsus^ a, wm, 

FulgeOi fulsi, fulgere, shine, am bright. {Fulgere is poetical, 
but occurs also in Livy, xxxiv. 3.) 

Turgeo, tursi (rare), swell. 

Urgeo or urgueo, ursi, press. 

3. Verbs with the Perfect in si and the Supine in turn. 

Indulgeo, indulsi, indultum, indulge. 

TorqueOf torsi, tortum, twist. 

Compounds : contorqueo, twist together ; distorqueo, twist away ; extor- 
queo, wrest out or from. 

4. Verbs with the Perfect in xi a7id the Supine in turn. 
Augeo, auxi, auctum, increase. 

Luceo, luxij lucere, shine ; has no supine. 
Lugeo, luxi, lugere, mourn ; has no supine. 
Frigeo, frixi, frigere, am cold ; has no supine. 

[§179.] 5. Verbs with the Perfect in i, and the Supine in sum. 

Prandeo, prandi, pransum, dine. The participle pransus has an 
active signification : one who has dined. 

Sedeo, sedi, sessum, sit. 

Assideo (assides), sit by ; desideo^ sit down ; circumsedeo or circumsideo, 
surround ; insideo, sit upon ; supersedeo, do without ; possideo, possess ; 
dissideo, dissent ; praesideo, preside ; resideo, settle down. The last three 
have no supine. 


Video, vidi, visum, see. 

Invideo (invides)^ envy, alicui ; pervideo, see through ; praevidec 
see ; provideo, provide. y^t/^Jt. L I B ^(~A 

Strideo, stridi, without supine. In poetry stridere,^ V* of the 


6. Verbs with a Reduplication in the Peijj^,^ ^^ 

Mordeo, momordi, morsum, bite. ^^S^*^F-Q**^^ 

Pendeo, pependi, pensum, am suspended. 

Dependeo, depend, and impendeo, soar above, am impending, lose the 

Spondeo, spospondi, sponsum, vow. 

Despondeo, despondi, promise ; respondeo, respondi, answer, are likewise 
without the reduplication. 

Tondeo, totondi, tonsum, shear. 

The compounds lose the reduplication, as attondeo, detondeo. 

[§ 180.] 7. Verbs without Perfect and Supine, 

Aveo, desire. Compare Chap. LIX. 9. 

Calveo, am bald {calvus). 

Cdneo, am grey (canus), 

Clueo (also in the passive clueor, and after the third conju- 
gation, duo, clutre), am called, is obsolete. 

Fldveo, am yellow (Jlavus), 

Foeteo, stink (foetidus). 

Hebeo, am dull, stupid (Jiebes), 

Humeo, am damp {humidus), 

Liveo, am pale or envious (lividus), 

(Mineo) immineo, to be imminent, threatening. Promineo, am 

Maereo, moui'n (maestus), 
Polleo, am strong. 
Renideo, shine, smile. 
Scateo, gush forth {Scatere in Lucretius). 
Squdleo, am dirty (^squalidus). 
Vegeo, am gay (vegetus). 


Cieo, ciere, is the same word as the rare and obsolete cio, cire, 
stir up ; both make the perfect cwiy according to the fourth 
conjugation ; in the supine they differ in quantity, cieo making 
citum, and cio, citum. 

Note. In the compounds too, e. g. concieo, excieo, the forms of the 
second and fourth conjugation cannot be separated 5 but we must observe, 
that in the signification of " to call," the forms of the fourth are preferred, 
e. g. imperf. cibam, cirem ; infinit. ciri ; the participles concitus and excitus 
signify " excited ;" whereas excitus means " called out." Percieo and incieo 
retain the signification of " to excite," hence percitus and incitus ; but acclre^ 
to call towards, summon or invite (of which the present indicative does not 
occur), has only accltus. Derived from citum are : cito, quick ; the fre- 
quentative citfire, and hence excito, incito, and suscito, 

[§ 181.] 8. Semideponejits. (See above § 148.) 

Audeo, ausus sum, venture. (Partic. future ausurus.') 

The ancient future subjunctive (see § 162.) ausim, ausis, ausit, ausint, is 
a remnant of the obsolete perfect au^i. The participle ausus, and its com- 
pound inausus, are used in poetical language with a passive signification. 

Gaudeo, gavisus sum, rejoice. (Partic. fut. gavisurus.) 

Soleo, soUtus sum, am accustomed (to do something). 

The impersonal compound assolet, signifies " it usually happens." 



In the list of verbs of this conjugation it seems to be still more 
necessary, than in the preceding one, to include those verbs 
which, according to Chapter XL., form their perfect and 
supine regularly. We divide them into several classes ac- 
cording to the characteristic letter which precedes the in the 
present, agreeably to the method which has long since been 
adopted in Greek grammars. 

[§ 182.] 1. Verbs lohich have a Vowel before o including those 

in vo. 

The following have the Perfect and Supine regular : 

Aciio, aciii, acutum, sharpen. 

Exacuo and peracuo, strengthen the meaning ; praeacuo, sharpen at the 



Arguo, accuse, convict of (perf. passive in the latter sense 
usually convictuSf from convincere.) Argutus as an adjective 
signifies " clear." 
Coarguo^ the same ; redarguo, refute a charge. 

Imbuo, to dip, imbue. 

Induo, put on ; exuo, strip off. 

Liio (participle luiturus), pay, atone for. 

Ahluo and eZwo, wash off; polluo, defile ; dihio^ refute, are derived from 
another luo (lavo), and all make the supine in lutum. 

MinuOf lessen. 

Comminuo, deminuo, diminuo^ imminuo, strengthen the meaning. 

(^Nuo, nod, does not occur ; from it are formed) 

Ahnuo^ refuse ; annuo, assent ; innuo, allude, or refer to ; renuo, decline ; 
all of which have no supine ; dbnuo alone has a participle future, abnui- 

Ruo (supine ruitum, ruiturus at least is derived from it ; rutum 
occurs only in compounds, and is otherwise obsolete), fall. 

Diriio, dirui, dirutum, destroy ; obruo, overwhelm ; pronto, rush for- 
wards. Corruo, fall down ; and irruo, rush on, have no supine. 

Spuo, spit. 

Conspuo, spit on ; despuo, reject with disgust. 

Statuo, establish. 

Constituo and instituo, institute ; restituo, re-establish ; suhstituo, establish 
instead of; destituo, abandon. 

Sternuo, sneeze (without supine) ; the frequentative sternuto is 
more commonly used. 

Suo, sew. 

Consuo, sew together ; dissuo and resuo, unsew. 

Tribuo, allot to. 

Attribuo, the same ; distrihuo, divide ; contrihuo, contribute. 

Solvo, solvi, solutum, loosen. 

Absolvo, acquit ; dissolvo, dissolve ; exsolvo, release ; persolvo, pay. 

Volvo, roll (frequentative voluto). 

Evolvo, unroll ; involvo, roll up ; pervolvo, read through. 

The following are without a Supine : 

Congruo, congrui, agree, and ingruo, penetrate. The simple 
verb {gruo or ruo ?) does not exist. 


MetuOf metui, fear. ( Timeo likewise without supine.) So Pris- 
cian. But metutum occurs in Lucret. v. 1139. 

Pluo^ pluvi, usually impersonal, it rains. Priscian knows only 
the perfect plui, which often occurs in Livy. Charisius men- 
tions pluxi, Impluvi or implui are doubtful. The comp. 
compluo and perpluo do not occur in the perfect. 

The following are irregular : 

[§ 183.] Capio, cepi, captum, capere, take hold of. 

The compounds change a into f, and in the supine a into e, except ante- 
capio. Accipio, receive ; excipio^ receive as a guest, succeed ; recipio^ 
recover ; suscipio, undertake ; decipio, deceive ; pei^cipio^ comprehend ; 
praecipio, give a precept. 

Fdcio, feci, factum f do, make. 

Arefacio, dry up ; assuefacio and consuefacio^ accustom ; calefacio and 
tepefacio, warm ; frigefacio, cool ; lahefacio^ make to totter ; patefacio^ 
open ; satisfacio, satisfy. These have in the passive -fo, -/actus sum, 
'fieri. But those which change a into i form their own passive in -ficior, 
and make the supine in -fectum : officio, affect ; conficio and perficio, com- 
plete ; deficio, fall off, am wanting ; interficio, kill ; proficio, make pro- 
gress ; reficio, revive, repair; officio, stand in the way, injure. Cotifit, 
confieri, however, is used as a passive of conficio, but only in the third 
person, and not by Cicero. Defit, it is wanting, is common in the comic 

Other compounds of facio follow the first conjugation : amplifico, sacri- 
fico, and the deponents gratificor, ludificor. 

Jdcio, jeci, jactum, throw. 

The compounds change d into i, and in the supine into e, except super- 
jacio, of which, however, superjectum also is found. Abjicio, throw away ; 
adjicio, add ; dejicio, throw down ; ejicio, throw out ; injicio, throw in ; 
ohjicio, throw against ; rejicio, throw back ; transjicio or trajicio, throw or 
carry across. These compounds are sometimes found with i instead of ji : 
abicere, inicei^e, reicere (in the last ei is a diphthong in Virg. Mel. iii. 96. : 
a flumine reice capellas) ; and this pronunciation was with the ancients 
much more frequent, or perhaps the common one, for in MSS. it is 
written so almost everywhere ; and Priscian mentions a form icio as syno- 
nymous with jacio. No certain conclusion, however, can be come to, as 
the most ancient MSS., such as the Codex Mediceus of Virgil, have a 
simple i where the length of the preceding syllable shows the existence of 
the consonant/. 

[§ 184.] The following have a; in the Perfect : 

(From the obsolete lacio, entice, of w^hich lacto is the fre- 
quentative), allicio, exif ectum, allure ; illicio, entice in ; pellicio, 
lead astray ; but elicio makes elicui, elicHum, draw out. 


(From specio, xi, ctum, see, of which the frequentative is 
specto) aspicio, exi, ectum, look on ; conspicio, the same ; 
despicio, look down, despise; dispicio and perspicio, under- 
stand ; inspiciOf look into ; respicio, look back ; suspicio, look 
up, reverence. 
Fhio, Jluxi, Jluctum, flow. 

Affiuo, flow in ; conflm)^ flow together ; effluo^ flow out ; interfluo^ flow 

Struo, struxif structum, build, pile. 

Construo and exstruo, build up ; destruo^ pull down ; instrvx)^ set in 

Vivo, vixi, victum, live. 

[§ 185.] Other Irregularities. 

FodiOf fodi, fossum, dig. 

JEffodio, dig out ; confodio and perfodio^ dig, pierce through ; suffodio, 

Fugio, fugi, fugitum, flee. 

Aufugio and effugio, flee away, escape ; confugio and perfvgio^ take 

Ciipio. -wi, -ttum, desire. 

Discupio, percupio, strengthen the meaning. Concupio only in the 
participle concupiens, otherwise concupisco. 

Rdpio, rapuii raptum, rob, snatch. 

Arripio, arripui, arreptum^ seize ; abripio and eripio, snatch away ; 
deripio, plunder ; surripio, steal clandestinely. 

FdriOf peperi, par turn, bring forth. (But the particip. fut. act. 
pariturus.) Lucretius has pariri. 

Qudtio (quassi is not found), quassum, shake. 

Conditio, ussi, ussum, shake violently ; discutio, shake asunder ; excvMo, 
shake out, off (fig. examine) ; incutio, drive into ; percutio, strike ; reper- 
cutio, rebound. 

Sdpio, ivi and ui, (no supine,) am wise. 

Desipio (without perfect), am foolish ; resipio, have a taste of, or become 
wise again. 

(From the obsolete present coepio,) coepi and coeptus sum, coe^ 
ptum, (coepere^ have begun. See § 221. 




[§ 186.] 2. VERBS IN DO AND TO. 

The following are regular : 

Claudo, clausi, clausum, claudere, close. 

Concludo, shut up, conclude ; excludo and sedudo, shut out ; includo ; 
shut in, are all derived from a form cludo which is still in use. 

Divido, divisi) divisum, divide. 

Laedo, injure. 

AUldo, strike against; illido, strike upon; coUido, strike together; elido, 
strike out. 

Ludo, sport. 

Colludo^ play with ; allildo, play upon ; elvdo, deludo, and illvdo, ridicule. 

Plaudo, si) sum, clap. 

Applaudo^ applaud. The other compounds (with a different pro- 
nunciation) have -o6?o, -osz, -osum; as explodo, explode; complodo, clap the 
hands ; supplodo^ stamp with the feet. 

RddO) shave, scrape ; so in ahrddo, circumrddo, derddo, erddo ; 
corrddo, scrape together. 

Rodo, gnaw. 

Abrodo and derodo^ gnaw off; arrodo^ nibble; circumrodo, nibble all 
round ; perrodo, gnaw through. 

. Trudo, thrust, with its compounds : detrudo, thrust down ; 
extrudoy thrust out ; protrudo, thrust forwards. 

Vddo (no perfect or supine), go. 

But evddo, evasi, evasum^ escape ; invado, attack ; pervado, go through. 

[§ 187.] The following are irregular : 

a) With a Reduplication in the Perfect 

Cddo, cecidi, cdsum, fall. 

Of the compounds, these have a supine : incido, incidi, incdsum, fall in 
or upon ; occido, set ; recido, fall back. The rest have none : concido, 
sink together; c^ecz^Zo, fall down ; excido, fall out of; accidit, it happens 
(used most commonly of a misfortune). 


Caedoy cecidi, caesum, cut. 

Abscldo, ahscldiy absclsum, cut. off; concldo, cut to pieces; incido, cut 
into ; occldo, kill ; recldOi cut away. So decldo, excldo, praecldo, and 

Pedo, pepedi, (^peditum,) irsphsaOai, 

Pendo, pependi, pensum, weigh. 

Appendo, appendix appensum^ weigh out to; expendo^ spend, also con- 
sider, like perpendo ; suspendo^ hang from; dependo, T^a.y; impendo^ employ 
upon or in something. See § 179. 

Tendo, tetendi, tensum and tentum, stretch. 

Extendo, ostendo, protendo, and retendo, have both supines ; but ex- and 
protentum are more frequent ; but ostensum. Retentus is found only in 
Ovid, Metam. iii. 166., retensus only in Phaedrus, iii. 14. 5. Detendo has 
detenstis, in Caes. B. C. iii. 85. ; this participle does not elsewhere occur. The 
other compounds have only turn in the supine : attendo (sc. animuni), attend ; 
contendo (sc. me), strive ; distendo, separate, or enlarge by stretching ; 
intendo, strain ; ohtendo and praetendo, commonly used in the figurative 
sense of alleging ; subtendo, stretch beneath. 

TundOf tutiidi, tunsum and tusum, beat, pound. 

The compounds have only tusum; contundo, contudij contusum, pound 
small ; extundo^ (figurative) elaborate ; obtundo and retundo^ blunt. 

Credo, credidi, creditum, believe. 
Accredo, accredidi, give credit to. 

The compounds of do, except those mentioned in § 171. 

Condo, coTididi^ conditum^ build, conceal ; abdo, abdidi^ hide. So addo, 
add ; dedo^ give up ; edo^ give out, publish ; perdo^ ruin, lose ; reddo^ give 
back, render, with an adjective of quality ; trado^ deliver ; vendo, sell. 
(The passive vendi, except the participles venditus and vendendus, is rare, 
and occurs only in late writers; venire is used instead. See § 215. But 
abscondo appears in the perfect more frequently without the reduplication, 
abscondi, than with it, abscondidi.) 

[§ 188.] b) Making di in the Perfect, and sum in the 

Accendo, incendo, succendo, -cendi, -censum, light, kindle. 

CUdo, forge. 

Excudo dioA procudo^ fashion, hammer out. 

Defendo, defend, ward off. 

Edo, eat. See § 212. 

Exedo and comedo^ -edi, -esum, (but also comestuSf) consume. Ibid. 

U 2 


Mando (perfect very rare), chew. 

Offendo, ofFend. 

Prehendo, seize ; in early times frequently contracted into 

prendo, ^ /A ^''^ 

Apprehendo, comprehendo, lay hold of, (figurative) understand ; depre- 

kendo, detect, seize in the fact ; reprehendo, blame. 

ScandOi climb. 

Ascendo and escendo, climb up ; descendo, descend ; conscendo and in- 
scendoj mount, embark. 

Strido (also strideo), stridi (no supine), grate, make a harsh 

Fundo, fudi, fusum^ pour, 

Diffando^ pour out, spread abroad ; offundo^ pour over ; profunda^ waste ; 
affundo^ confundo, effundo^ infundo. 

[§ 189.] c) Other Irregularities, especially that of a double s in 

the Supine. 

Cedo, cessi, cessum, yield, go. 

Abscedo, go away ; accedo, go to ; antecedo, surpass ; concedo, give way ; 
decedo, go away ; discedo, separate myself ; excedo, go out ; incedo, march ; 
intercedo, come between, interpose ; recedo, retreat ; succedo, come into 
one's place. 

Findoyfidiyfissum, split. 

Diffindo, diffidi^ split asunder. 

Scindo, scidi, scissum, cut. 

Conscindo, conscidi, conscissum, tear to pieces ; e. g. vestem, epistolam ; 
discindo, interscindo (e. g. pontem)^ perscindo^ and proscindo have similar 
meanings. Rescindo, annul. Respecting the forms of abscindo, cut off, 
and exscindo, destroy, there is considerable doubt. According to Gro- 
novius on Livy, xliv. 5., and Drakenborch on Silius Ital. xv. 473., two 
analogous formations are now generally distinguished : abscindo, abscidi, 
abscissum, and exscindo, excidi, excissum ; and abscissum and excissum are 
said to occur where the present is abscindo, exscindo ; but absclsum and 
excisum, where abscldo and excldo are derived from caedo. But this sup- 
position is contradicted by usage ; for we find, e. g., urbes excises, although 
exscindere urbem is a frequent expression ; and all the MSS. of Horace, 
Serm. ii. 3. 303., have caput absclsum, although we may say abscindere 
caput. In short, our opinion is that the forms abscissum and exscissum do 
not exist at all, because, in pronunciation, they are the same as absclsum 
and excisum, from abscidere and excidere, whose signification is not very 
different ; and, moreover, that the perfect exsctdi also is not founded on 


any autliorlty, since the s by which it is distinguished is not heard in 
pronunciation, and is better not introduced in writing. Respecting the 
pronunciation and orthography, see § 6. and Chap. LXVI. Thus there 
remain only abscindo, absctdi^ abscindere^ and excindo^ excindere. 

Frendo (the perfect does not occur), fressum and fresum, gnash 
with the teeth ; also frendeo, frendere. 

Meto, messui, messy m, cut, reap. 

JDemeto, cut off. The perfects messui and demessui are not common ; in 
the sense of reaping, messemfeci is more commonly used. 

Mitto, misi, missum, send. 

Admitto, admit, commit ; amitto, lose ; committo, intrust, commit a fault ; 
demitto and dimitto, dismiss ; emitto^ send forth ; immitto, send in, against ; 
intermitto^ omit ; omitto and praetermitto^ leave out ; permitto, permit ; pro- 
mitto, promise ; remitto, send back ; submitto, send up, send aid. 

Pando, pandi, passum {jpansum rare), spread abroad. 

Expando has expansum and expassum ; dispando only dispansum. 

Peto, petlvi (in poetry, especially in compounds, petii), petitum, 
ask, seek. 

Appeto and expeto, strive for ; oppeto, encounter ; repeto, repeat, seek 
again ; competo, meet together, correspond. 

Sldo (the perfect and supine usually from sedeo), sit down. 

The compounds, too, usually take the perfect and supine from sedco : 
consido, consedi, consessum ; so assido, seat myself beside ; subsido, sink ; 
insido, sit upon; desido and reside, seat myself down. But the form 
sldi cannot be entirely denied, either in the simple verb or its com- 

SistOf stUi (obsolete), stdtum, stop (whence status), but sisto, 
in a neutral sense, makes the perfect and supine from 

The compounds are all intransitive, and have stiti, stitum; subsisto, sub- 
stiti, substitum, stand still ; absisto (no supine) and desisto, desist ; assisto, 
place myself beside ; consisto, halt, consist ; existo, come forth (perf, exist) ; 
insisto, tread upon ; obsisto and resisto, resist ; persisto, persist. Those com- 
pounded with dissyllabic prepositions may make the perfect in steti, e. g. 
circumsteti in Suet. Caes. 82. ; Tacit. Ann. xiii. 52. 

Sterto, stertui, (no supine,) snore : the perf. sterti rests on the 
authority of the old reading in Ov. Her. viii. 21. 

Verto, verti, versum, turn. 

Adverto and converto, turn towards ; animadverto (animum adverto), turn 
attention to; averto, turn from; everto, destroy; perverto and subvertOy 

Devirto, turn in to a house of entertainment ; praeverto, anticipate ; and 

M 3 


revertOj turn back; are used in the present, imperfect, and future as 
deponents more commonly than as actives. 

Fido,fisus sum,Jidere, trust. 

So confldo, confide ; diffldo^ distrust ; which have rarely confUi^ diffidi, 
in the perfect. 


[§ 190.] 3. VERBS IN BO AND PO. 

Regular are : 

Glubo (jfflupsi), gluptum (at least degluptum is found), glubere, 

Nuho, cover, am married (applied only to the female), participle 
nupta, one who is married. 
Obnubo, cover over. 

Scribo, write. 

Descrtbo^ copy ; adscribo, inscribo, praescriboy &c. 

Carpo, pluck. 

Concerpo and discerpo^ tear asunder ; decerpo^ gather. 

Repo, creep. 

Arrepo, creep up to ; irrepo, obrepo, subrepo, prorepo. 

Scalpo, grave with a pointed tool, or scratch with the finger. 

Sculpo, work with the chisel. 

ExcdpOy cut out ; imcidpo, engrave. 

Serpo, creep. The supine has not yet been found. 

Inserpo, proserpo. 

[§191.] The following are irregular: 

The compounds of cubare, to lie, which take an m with a change 

of meaning ; those which do not change the simple cubare, 

denote * to lie ; ' the compounds of the 3d Conjugation 

commonly signify * to lay oneself down.' ^ 

Accumbo, -cubui, -cubitum, recline at table ; incumbo, lean upon, apply to 


something; procumbo^ lie down; succumbo, fall under; occumbo (suppl. 
mortem), die. 

Bibo, btbi, bibiturriy drink. 

JEbibo, imbibo. 

Lambo, Iambi, {lambitum, Priscian,) lambere, lick. 

Rumpo, rupi, ruptum, break, tear. 

Abrumpo, break off; erumpo, break out ; corrumpo, destroy ; interrumpo, 
interrupt ; irrumpo, break in ; perrumpo, break through ; prorumpo, break 

Scaboy scabi, scabere, scratch with the finger. 

Strepo, strepui, strepitum, make a noise. 




vowel), before 0. 

Regular are : 

CingOf cinxi, cinctum, cingere, gird, surround. 

Accingo, in the passive, or me, has the same meaning ; discingo, ungird ; 
and others. 

Yrom JltgOf which rarely occurs, are formed : 

Affligo, strike to the ground ; confiigo, fight ; infligo, strike upon. Pro- 
fligo belongs to the first conjugation. 

Frigo (supine regular, /Wc^mtw, rarely yhxMw), roast, parch. 

Jungo, Join. 

Adjungo and conjungo, join to, with ; disjungo and sejungo, separate ; 
suhjuvgo, annex. 

Lingo, lick. (Hence ligUrio or ligurrio.) 
Mungo, blow the nose (rare) ; emungo, 
Plango, beat, lament. 

Rego, rule, guide. 

iArrigo, arrexi, arrectum, and erigo, raise on high; corrigo, amend; 
dirigo, direct ; porrigo, stretch out. Pergo (for perrigo), perrexi, per- 


rectum, go on; surgo (for surrigo), surrexi, surrectum, rise; and hence 
assurgo, consurgo, exurgo, insurgo. 

Sugo, suck, exugo, 

Tego, cover. 

Contego and obtego, cover up ; detego and retego, uncover ; protego, 

Tingo or tinguo, dip, dye. 

Ungo or unguo, anoint. 

Perungo, strengthens the meaning ; inungo, anoint. 

Stinguo, put out (has no perfect or supine, and is of rare occur- 

Compounds : extinguo, and restinguo, -inxi, -inctum ; so distinguo and 
instinguo, though from a different root, the Greek anXw. Only the par- 
ticiple instinctus is used in the sense of ' spurred on, inspired,' and no other 
tense is found (otherwise instlgare is used). 

Traho, draw. 

Pertraho strengthens the meaning; attraho, contraho, detraho, extraho, 
proiraho, retraho; subtraJio, witlidraw secretly. 

Veho, carry (active) ; frequent, vecto, -as, 

Adveho., carry to; inveho, carry or bring in. The passive of this verb 
veJior, vectus sum, vehi, is best rendered by a neuter verb of motion. So 
circumvehor, travel round ; praetervehor, sail past ; invehor, inveigh against 
These verbs therefore are classed among the deponents. 

Dico, say. 

Addico, adjudge; contradico, edico, indico; inierdico, forbid; praedico. 

Duco, guide, lead, draw. 

Ahduco, adduco, circumduco ; conduco, hire ; deduco, diduco, educo, induce, 
introduco, obduco, perduco, produce, reduco ; seduco, lead aside ; subduco, 

Coquo, coxi, coctum, dress. 

Concoqua, digest; decoquo, boil down, squander. 

[§ 193.] Irregular in the Supine, throwing out n, or 
assuming x. 

Fingo, Jinxi, Jictum, feign. 

Confingo, the same; affingo, falsely ascribe; effivgo, imitate; rejingo, 
fashion anew. 

Mingo (a more common form of the present is meio)^ minxi, 
mictum, make water. 



Fingo, pinxi, pictum, paint. 

Depingo^ represent by painting ; appingo, expingo. 

Stringo, strinxi, strictum^ squeeze together. 

Astringo, draw close ; constringo, draw together ; destringo, draw 
out ; distringo, draw asunder ; obstringo, bind by obligation ; perstringo, 

Figo,JixiiJixu7n^ fasten.' 

Affigo^ affix ; transfigo^ pierce through. 

Verbs in cto, in tchich i only strengthens the form of the 

Flecto, flexi, Jlexum, bend. Comp. injiecto, 

Necto, next and nexui, nexum, bind. 

Pecto, pexi, pexum, comb. 

Plecto, without perfect and supine, from the Greek, irX'ijaa-co, 
strike; usually only in the passive, plector^ am punished, 
smart for. Another plecto, from the Greek irXe/cco, twist, is 
obsolete as an active, but forms the foundation of the de- 
ponents : amplector, complector ; participle amplexus^ com- 

Of ango^ anxi, torment ; and ningo, ninxi, snow, no supine is 

Of clango, ring loudly, neither perfect nor supine ; according to 
analogy the former would be clanxi. 

[§ 194.] The following are irregular in the formation of the 

Perfect : 

«) Taking a Reduplication, 

Parco, pepercif parsiim, spare ; parsi is rare, and an archaism ; 

parcitum is uncertain. 

The distinction is commonly made, that in the sense of sparing life, 
health, peperch parcitum, in that of sparing money parsi, parsum, are used ; 
but the distinction cannot be carried out, for the sense is, in fact, the same, 
viz. to consume as little as possible of any thing. Parco or comparco, 
-parsi or -persi, -parsum, to accumulate by saving, with the accus., occurs 
indeed in comedy ; but this use of the word is very rare, and does not 
seem to have been common in ordinary life, where other expressions were 
used, such as pecuniam facere, or in futuros usus colUgere, and parco re- 
tained its dative and its ordinary meaning. 


Pungo, pupugi, punctum, pierce. 

The compounds have in the perfect punxi; as compungo^ dispungo, and 
interpungo, distinguish with points. 

Tango, tetigi, tactum, touch. 

Attingo and contingo, -ttgi, -tactum, touch ; contingit, contigit; obtingit, 
ohtigit (as impersonals), it falls to the lot ; usually in a good sense. 

Pango, in the sense of strike, drive in, panxi (obsolete pegi), 

panctum ; in the sense of bargain, pepigi, pactum. In this 

sense paciscor is employed in the present. 

The compounds have pegi^ pactum; as compingo^ fasten together; im- 
pingo. So also oppango, oppegi, strike upon. Of depango and repango^ 
the perfect and supine are found in the classics. 

[§ 195.] b) Without changing the Characteristic Letter. 

AgOy egi, actum, agere, drive. 

Cogo (coago), coegi, coactum, drive together, force; perago, carry 
through ; abigo, drive away ; adigo^ exigo, redigo, suhigo^ transigo. Pro- 
digo, -egi (without supine), squander ; ambigo, am irresolute, doubt, and 
satago (satis ago), am busy, are both without perfect and supine. 

Dego, degi (rare), no supine, spend {yitam, aMateyn). 

Frango, fregi, fractum, break. 

Confringo and perfringo strengthen the meaning ; effringo and refringo, 
break open. 

Lego, legi, tectum, read. (But lego, as, send off). 

So perlego, praelego, with those changing e into ?, as colligo, deligo, eligo, 
and seligo, are conjugated. But diligo, intelligo (obsolete intellego), and 
negligo (obsolete neglego), have -exi in the perfect. The perfects intellegi 
and neglegi are uncertain or unclassical. 

Ico or icio, wi, ictum, strike, in connection with foedus. Priscian 
(p. 877. and 886.) mentions both forms, but nothing can be 
decided, as icit only occurs in the present, and iciunt in Ta- 
citus (Ann. xi. 9.) is only a wrong conjecture for faciunt. 
Otherwise ferio is used in the present instead. 

Vinco, vici, victum, conquer. 

Convinco, persuade ; devinco, overcome ; evinco, carry a point, establish 
by argument. 

Linquo, liqui, leave, (no supine,) chiefly used in poetry. 

The compounds rclinquo, derelinquo, delinquo, have lictum in the 


[§ 196.] c) Perfect si. Supine sum. 

MergOf mersi, mersum, dip. 

JSmergo, demergOj and immergo^ svbmergo. 

Spargo, sparsi, sparsum, scatter. 

Aspergo, conspergo, and respergo, -ersi, -ersum, besprinkle; expergo^ 
sprinkle abroad. 

Tergo, tersi, tersum, wipe. (See above, § 177.) 

Vergoy vergere^ incline towards, without perfect and su- 


[§ 197.] 5. VERBS WHICH HAVE i, M, N, R, BEFORE 0. 

Regular verbs in mo, 

Como, compsiy compturriy comere, adorn. 

Demo, take away. 

Promo, bring out. 

Depromo, expromo^ the same in signification. 

Sumo, take. 

Absumo and c&nsumo, consume ; assumo^ desunio. 

Temno, temnere, despis^ (poetical). 

Contemno, contempsi^ contemptum, the same meaning. 


[§ 198.] a) Conjugated according to the Analogy of the Second 

Alo, alui, alitum (or altum), alere, nourish. 

Alius occurs in Cicero and Sallust; afterwards (ditus becomes the 
common form, as in Livy and Val. Maximus. See Garatoni on Cic. p. 
Plane. 33. 


Colo, colui, cultum, till. 

Excolo and percolo strengthen the meaning ; incolo^ inhabit a country. 

Consulo, consului, consultum, ask advice. 

MolOf molui, molitum, grind. 

Occulo, occului, occultum, conceal. 

FremOi fremui, fremitum, murmur. 
Adfremo^ confremo. 

GemOi gemui, gemitumf groan. 

Congemo (congemisco), ingemo (ingemisco), ui, no supine, lament. 

Tremo, tremui (no supine), tremble. 
Cordremo strengthens the meaning. 

Vomo, vomiiif vomitum, vomit. 
Evomo^ revomo. 

Gigno, beget, has (from the obsolete geno\ genui, genitum. 
Ingigno, implant ; progigno, bring forth. 

Pono, posui (posivi obs.), positum, place. 

A ntepdno, prefer ; appono, phice by ; compono^ arrange ; depono, lay 
down ; dispono, set out, or in order ; expono, explain ; oppono, oppose ; 
posfpono, to place after ; praepono, prefer ; sepono^ set on one side. Re- 
specting the short a in the perfect and supine see § 18. 3. 

(From the obsolete cello) — 

AntecellOj excello, praecelln, ui, (without supine,) surpass ; but percello^ 
perculi, perctdsufn, strike down. 

[§ 199.] b) Forming the Perfect with Reduplication. 

CdnOf cecmi, cantum, canere, sing. 

Succmo, succinui, succentum, sing to ; so occino (or occano)^ sing, sound 
against ; concino, ui, harmonize, or, in an active sense, begin a song, with- 
out supine, but the substantive concentus is derived from it. Of accino, 
intercino^ and recino (or recano)^ no perfect or supine is found ; but from 
accino we have the substantive acccntus. 

Curro, cucurri, cur sum, run. 

The compounds, accurro, decurro^ excurro^ incurro, percurro, praecurro, 
and others, sometimes retain, but more frequently drop the reduplication 
in the perfect. 

Fallo, fefelli, falsum, cheat. 

Ilefello^ refelli^ (no supine,) refute. 

Pello, pepuli, puhum, drive away. 

AppcUo, appuli, appulsuni^ come to land. In the same way are conjugated, 


compeUo, urge, compel; depello, propello, repello^ drive away; expello^ drive 
out ; impello and perpello, urge on. 

[§ 200.] c) Making vi in the Perfect, 

Cerno, crevi, cretum, separate, see, perceive. In the sense of 
seeing, perceiving, the verb has neither perfect nor supine. 
The perfect crevi is used in juristical language in the sense of 
decrevi, and in the phrase hereditatem cernere for hereditatem 
adire, , 

Compounds : Deeemo^ decrevi, decretum, decree ; so discemo, excemo, 
secerno, separate, distinguish. 

Lina, levi (or livi), Utum, smear. 

Colltno, illino, perlino, ohlino (participle oblttuSy not to be confounded 
with oblltus from oUiviscor)^ pei-lino^ besmear. There is also a regular 
verb, of the fourth conjugation, of the same meaning, from which the 
compounds allinio, circumlinio, illinio, and others used by later writers, are 

Sino, sivi, situm, allow. In the perfect subjunctive we find 
sirim, siris, sirit, along with siverit, (^Situs, situated, is per- 
haps derived from this verb). 

DesmOy desivi and desii (at least desit for desiit in Martial, see § 160. 
note, for desierunt is no proof), desitum, cease. {Desitus est is also used 
as a perfect with the infin. passive, like coeptus est. See § 221.) 

Sperno, sprevi, spretum, despise. 

Sterno, strdvi, stratum, stretch out on the ground. 

Constemo, imtemo, spread out (but constemo, as, frighten) ; prostemo, 
throw down ; substerno, spread under. 

Sero, in the sense of sowing, has sevi, satum ; in that of ar- 
ranging and connecting together it is said to have serui, 
sertum, but these forms of the simple verb do not occur, 
though serta, garlands, is derived from sertum. 

The compounds are variously conjugated according to their meaning. 
Consero and insero make -mz, -ertum, in the sense of joining ; -evi, -itum, 
in the sense of sowing. The following compounds are used only in the 
sense of joining : — Desero, dissero, exsero, and accordingly make only 
serui, sertum. That the verbs sero, sevi, and sero, serui, are really the same, 
is proved by the interchange of inserere and conserere in good authors, of 
wMch any dictionary may furnish examples. 

Tero, trivi, tritum, rub. 

Contero, rub to pieces ; attero, rub away, injure (perfect also atterui) ; 
extero, remove by rubbing. 


[§ 201.] d) Other Irregularities, 

Velio, vein, and vulsi (but more frequently velli), vulsum, pluck 

The compounds convello, revello, and divello, have only velli in the 
perfect, but avello and evello have also avidsi and evulsi. 

Psallo, psalli, psallere, play on a stringed instrument. 

Emo, emi, emptum, buy. 

Coemo, collect by purchase ; redimo, purchase back. The signification 
" take " appears in the copipounds adimo, take away ; dirimo, divide ; 
eximo, take out ; interimo^ take away, kill ; perimo^ destroy. 

Premo, pressi, pressum, press. 

Comprimo, press together; deprimo^ opprimo^ supprimo, press down; 
exprimo, press out. 

Gero, gessi, gestum, carry, transact. 

Congero^ bring together ; digero^ arrange ; ingero, introduce. 

Uro, ussi, ustum, burn. 

Aduro^ kindle ; comburo^ consume by fire ; inwro, burn in, brand ; exuro^ 
burn out. 

Verro, verri, versum, sweep out. 

Quaero, quaeslvi, quaesitum, seek. 

Another pronunciation of the same word is quaeso. (See § 224.) Acqulro, 
acquire ; conquirOy collect ; anquiro, exquiro, inquiro^ perquiro, examine ; 
require^ miss, require. 

(Ficro), furere, rage (without perfect or supine); insanim is 
used as a perfect instead. Even the first person present is 
not found, though furis and furit are common. 

Fero, tan, latum, ferre, is irregular in several points. See below, 


[§ 202.] 6. VERBS IN SO AND X0» 

Depso, depsui, depsitum and depstum knead. 

Pinso, pinsui and pinsi, pinsitum and pistum (also pinsum), 
pound, grind. 


Vlso, visi, visere, visit. The supine visum belongs to videre, 
from which visere itself is derived. 

Texo, texui, textum, weave. 

Compounds frequently with a figurative signification : attexo^ add ; 
contexo^ put together ; obtexo, cover ; pertexo^ carry out ; praetexo^ add a 
hem ; retexo, to undo that which is woven, destroy. 

After the Analogy of the Fourth Conjugation : 

Arcesso, or accerso, -wU -Itum, summon. 

Both modes of writing this word are found in good MSS. and editions ; 
compare Schneider's Elementarlehre^ p. 257. foil., and the quotations in 
Kritz on Sallust, Catil. 40. The infinitive passive arcessiri occurs 
sometimes, as in Caes. Bell. Gall. v. 11. Oudendorp. 

Capesso, undertake. 

FacessOy give trouble, especially with negotium and periculum, 
also equivalent to prqficiscor, get off. (facesseris, in Cic. 
Div, in Q. Caec. 14.) 

Incesso, attack ; no supine. Perfect, incessivi : incessi is doubtful 
(Tac. Hist. iii. 77.), unless we refer to this root, and not 
to incedo, the frequently occurring phrase, cura, desperatio, &c , 
incessit animos, 

Lacesso, provoke. 

[§ 203.] 7. Verhs in sco, either not Inchoatives, or of which the 
Simple is no longer found, 

Cresco, crevi, cretum, grow. 

So also con.', rfe-, excresco, and without a supine : accresco, incresco, 
grow up, and mccresco, grow up gradually. 

Nosco, novi, notum, become acquainted with. The original 

form is gnosco (Greek jtryvaxTKco), and the g reappears in the 

compounds, if possible. 

The perfect novi takes the signification of the present, " I know " 
(§ 221.); the supine is mentioned only on account of the compounds, for 
the participle notus has become an adjective, and the participle future 
does not occur. The comp. agnosco, recognise, cognosco (perf. cognovi, I 
know), and recognosco, recognise, have in the supine agnitum, cogniium, 


recognitum ; igjiosco, pardon, has ignotum ; dignosco and intemosco have 
no supine. 

Pasco, paviy pastum, feed. 

Depasco^ feed down. The deponent pascor^ feed or eat. 

Quiesco, quievi, quietum, rest. 

Acquiesco^ repose with satisfaction ; conquiesco^ requiesco, rest. 

SuescOf suevi, suetum, mostly intransitive, grow accustomed, or, 
more rarely, accustom another. But suetus signifies " ac- 

So also assuesco, consuesco, insuesco^ generally accustom one's self; 
desuesco, disaccustom one's self. Some passages where they occur in a 
transitive sense (in which otherwise the compounds with facio are used, 
see § 183.) are referred to by Bentley on Horace, Serm. i. 4. 105. 

Compesco, compescui, (no supine,) restrain. 

DispescOf dispescui, (no supine,) divide. 

Disco, didici, (no supine : disciturus in Appuleius,) learn. 

Addisco^ addidici, learn in addition ; dedisco^ unlearn ; edisco, learn by 

Posco, poposci, (no supine), demand. 

Deposco, depoposci, and reposcOj demand back ; exposco, expoposci, 

Glisco, gliscere, increase. 

Hisco, hiscere, open the mouth, gape. 


/U^^^/4l^i^^ INCHOATIVES. 

[§ 204.] The inchoatives (see § 234.) in sco are partly formed 
from verbs (chiefly of the second conjugation*), and partly from 
nouns (substantives or adjectives), and are accordingly called in- 
choativa verbalia or inclioativa nominalia, that is, verbal or nominal 

* According to a passage in Gellius, vi. 15., they were probably pro- 
nounced with a naturally long e, as calesco^ pallesco. 


inchoatives. The first have no other perfect than that of the 
simple verb; the others either have none, or form it in a 
similar way in ui. Few of the verbal inchoatives have the 
supine of the simple verb. 

Only those which are of most frequent occurrence are given 
in the following list. There are a great many more, but their 
formation is easy. and analogous. Thus we may form in- 
choatives to the intransitive verbs in Chap. XLV., if there is 
any occasion for it, and we may be assured that it occurs in 
some passage or other of the ancients. 

1. Verbal Inchoatives with the Perfect of the Simple Verb, 

Acesco (aceo), acui, grow sour ; coacesco, peracesco. 

Albesco^ and exalhesco (albeo)^ exalbui, grow white. 

Aresco (ar^oi)^ ami, grow dry. 

Calesco (caleo), calui, become warm. 

Canesco (caneo), canui, become grey. 

Conticesco (faced), conticui, am reduced to silence. 

Contremisco (tremo), contremui, tremble. 

Defervesco (ferveo), deferbui, gradually lose my heat. 

Delitesco (lated), delitui, lurk. 

Effervesco {Jerveo), effsrbui, grow hot. 

Excandesco (candeo), excandui, grow of a white heat; figuratively, am 

Extimesco, pertimesco (timed), extimui, am terrified. 
Floresco, de-, effloresco (flored), efflorui, bloom. 
Haeresco, and ad-, inhaeresco (haered), ad-, inhaesi, adhere to. 
Horresco, exhorresco, perhorresco (horred), exhorrui, am struck with horror. 
Ingemisco (gemd), ingemui, groan. 
Intumesco (turned), intumui, swell up. 
Irraucisco (rancid), irrausi, become hoarse. 

Lariguesco, elanguesco, relanguesco (langued), elangui, become feeble. 
Liquesco (liqued), licui, melt away. 
Madesco (maded), madui, become wet. 

Marcesco (marced), comp. commarcesco, emarcesco, emarcui, fade. 
Occallesco (called), occallui, acquire a callous surface. 
Pallesco, expallesco (palled), pallui, turn pale. 
Putresco (putred), putrui, moulder. 
Resipisco (sapid), resipui and resipivi, recover wisdom. 
Rubesco, erubesco (rubed), grow red, blush. 
Senesco, consenesco (sened), consenui, grow old. The participle senectus, 

grown old, is little used. 
Stupesco and obstupesco (stuped), dbstupui, am struck. 
Tabesco (tabed), tabui, pine, waste away. 
Tepesco (tepeo), tepui, grow lukewarm. 

Viresco, comp. conviresco, eviresco, reviresco (vired), viruiy grow green. 



2. Verbal Inchoatives which have the Supine as well as Perfect 
of the Simple Verb. 

{Abolesco, abolevi, abolitum, cease, am annihilated. 
JExolesco, exolevi, exoletum, grow useless by age. So also ohsolesco. 
Adolesco, adolevi, adidtum, grow up. See § 174. Oleo. 
Coalesco (alere), coalui, coalitum, grow together. 
Concupisco (cupere), concupivi, concupitum^ desire. 
Convalesco (valere), convalui^ convalitum^ recover health. 
JExardesco (ardere)^ exarsi, exarsum, am inflamed. 
Indolesco (dolere)^ indolui, Uuni, feel pain. 
Inveterasco (inveterare), inveteravi^ atum^ grow old. 
Ohdormisco (dormire)^ ivi, itum, fall asleep ; edormisco, sleep out. 
Revivisco (vivere)^ revixi, revictum^ recover life. 
Scisco (scire), scivi, scttum^ resolve, decree. Hence plebiscitum, popidiscitum. 

[205.] 3. Inchoatives derived from Nouns, 
a) Without a Perfect. 

Aegresco (aeger), grow sick. 

Ditesco (dives), grow rich. 

Dvlcesco (dulcis), grow sweet. 

Grandesco (grandis), grow large. 

Gravesco and ingravesco (gravis), grow heavy. 

Incurvesco (curvus), become crooked. 

Integrasco (integer), become renovated. 

Juvenesco (juvenis), grow young. 

Mitesco (mitis), grow mild. 

Mollesco (mollis), grow soft. 

Pinguesco (pinguis), grow fat. 

Plumesco (pluma), get feathers. 

Puerasco, repuerasco (puer), become a child (again). 

Sterilesco (sterilis), become barren. 

Teneresco, tenerasco (tener), become tender. 

b) With a Perfect. 

Crebresco, increbresco, and percrebresco (creber), crebrui^ grow frequent or 

Duresco, obduresco (duriis), durui, grow hard. 
Evanesco (vanus), evanui, disappear. 
Innotesco (notus), innotui, become known. 
Macresco (macer), macrui, grow lean. 
Mansuesco (mansuetus), mansuevi, grow tame. 
Maturesco (maturus), maturui, grow ripe. 
Nigresco (niger), nigrui, grow black. 
Obmutesco (mutus), obmiUui, become dumb. 
Obsurdesco (surdus), obsurdui, become deaf. 
Recrudesco (crudus), recrudui, to open again (of a wound that had been 

Vilesco and evilesco (vilis), evilui, become cheap or worthless. 


CHAP. Lin. 


[§ 206.] The desiderative verbs (see § 232.) in iirio, e. g. 
coenaturio, dormiturio, empturio, have neither perfect nor supine 
with the exception of esurio, desire to eat, perfect esurivi, par- 
ticip. esuriturus ; nupturioy desire to marry, and parturio, am 
in labour, have only perfects, nupturivi and parturivi, but no 

The following verbs vary, either in the perfect or in the 
supine, or in both, from the regular form (Ivi, Uum), 

Cio, civif cituniy regular; but see § 180. 

Eo, iviy itum, with its compounds. See Defective Verbs, 

Farcio, farsi, fartum (also written farctum), farcire, stuff. The 
supine /«r5M77i is more rare and not as good. 

Confercio and refercio^ fersi^ ferturn^ fill up ; effercio^ infercio, are con- 
jugated like the simple verb. • 

Fulcio, fulsi, fultum, fuldre, prop. 

The perfect thus presents no external difference from the perfect of 

Haurio, hausi, haustum, haurire, draw. 

The supine Tiausum is rare, but the participle hausurus is as common as 

Qtieo, quivi or quii, quitum, quire. See § 216. 

Raucio, rausi, rausum, raucire, am hoarse (raucus). 
The compound irrauserit^ in Cic. de Orat. i. 61. See § 204. 

SaepiOf saepsi, saeptum, saepire (some write sepio), hedge in. 

Siilio, salui, more i*arely salii (saltum), salire, spring. 

In the comp. desflio^ exilio^ ijisilio, &c., the perf. -silui is far better than 
the forms in silii and salivi, and must be restored in the authors of the 
best age from the MSS. See Drakenb. on Liv. ii. 10., and Schwarz on 
Pliny, Paneg. 66. The supine does not exist either in the simple verb or 
in the compounds, though the derivatives saltus^ its, desidtor, irmdtare, lead 
us to a form saltum, and in compounds sidtum. The regular verb salire, 
N 2 


salt, must not be confounded with salire^ spring. The former is synony- 
mous with the obsolete salere or sallere, from which salsus is derived. 

Sancio, sanxi, sancitum and sanctum, sancire, decree, sanction. 
Sanctus is found as a participle, though it is commonly an 
adjective, but sancitus is more common. 

Sarcio, sarsi, sartum, sarcire, patch. 
Resarcio, repair. 

Sentio, sensi, sensum, sentire, feel, think. 

Consentio, agree ; dissentio, disagree ; praesentio, perceive beforehand. 
The compound assentio is not as common as the deponent assentior, but is 
founded on good authority, e.g. Cic. ad Att. ix. 9.: assentio ; ad Fam. v. 2. : 
assensi ; and three other instances of the perfect, which are quoted by 
Biinemann on Lactant. i. 15. 19. 

SepeliOf -ivi, seputtum, sepelire, bury. 

Venio, veni, ventum, venire, come. 

Advenio, arrive ; convenio, meet ; obvenio, encounter ; pervenio^ reach ; 
invenio, find. 

VinciOf vinxif vinctum, vincire, bind. 
Devincio, bind closely, bind by duty. 

AmiciO) amictum, amicire, clothe. (The perfects amixi and 
amicui are attested by the grammarian Diomedes, p. 364., but 
are not found in our authors. Amicivi (amicisse) on the 
other hand occurs in Fronto). 

AperiOf ui, rtum, aperire, open. 

So operio and cooperio, cover. But comperio makes comperi, compertum, 
comperire (is used in the present and infinitive, also as a deponent, com- 
perior, comperlri), experience, and reperio, reperi (or repperi)^ repertum, 

Ferio — ferire, strike. (In the active percussi is used as a perfect, 
and in the passive ictus sum.) 

Ferocio — ferocire, am wild or insolent. 

Visio — visire, ^Bsco. 

Punio, punish, is regular; but is sometimes used by Cicero, as 
a deponent, de Off, i. 25. : punitur ; Tuscul. i. 44. : puniantur; 
Philip, viii. 3.: puniretur ; p, Milon, 13.: punitus es ; de In- 
vent, ii, 27. : punitus sis. 





Adminicvlor, aid. 

Adverser, oppose myself. 

AduloTy flatter. 

Aemuior, rival. 

*Altercor, quarrel. 

Alucinor (also cdluc. and halluc.^ 
dote, talk idly. 

Amplexor, embrace. 

Andllor, am a handmaid. 

AprlcoTj sun myself. 

Aquor, fetch water ; frumentor, col- 
lect corn ; lignor, collect wood ; 
materior, fell timber ; pabidor, 

Arhitror, think. 

ArchitectoTy build (architectus). 

Argumentor, prove. 

Argutor, chatter, am argutus. 

Aspemor, despise. 

Assentor, agree, flatter. 

Auctionor, sell at auction. 

Aucupor, catch birds, am auceps. 

Aversor, dislike, avoid with horror. 

Augur or (augur), -. 

*Auspicor (auspex), I practise sooth- 

Hariolor Qiariolus), j saying. 

Vaticinor (votes), J 

Auxilior, aid. 

Bacchor, revel as a Bacchanal. 

Cabimnior, cavil. 

CaviUor, ridicule. 

Cauponor, deal, retail. 

Causor, allege. 

Circtdor, form a circle around me. 

Comissor, feast. 

Comitor, accompany (comes, active 
only in the poets). 

CommerUor, reflect upon, dispute. 

Contionor, harangue. 

*Conflictor, contend. 

Conor, attempt. 

Consilior, advise. 

Conspicor, behold. 

Contemplor, contemplate. 

Convicior, revile. 

Convivor, feast (conviva). 

Comlcor, chatter as a crow. 

Criminor, accuse. 

Cunctor, delay. 

Depeculor, plunder. 

Despicor, despise; despicio, but de- 

spicatus is passive, despised. 
Deversor, lodge. 
Digladior, fight. 

Dignor, think worthy. Cicero how- 
ever sometimes uses it in a passive 
sense, " I am thought worthy." 
Dedignor, disdain. 
Dominor, rule (dominus). 
Elucubror, produce by dint of labour. 
Epvlor, feast. 
Execror, execrate. 
*Fahricor, fashion. 
Fabvlor, confahvlor, talk. 
Famvlor, serve (famulus). 
Feneror, lend at interest (the active, 

* The words to which an asterisk is prefixed, are used also as actives, but 
better as deponents. Some deponents have been omitted in the list, which 
are either of very rare occurrence or more commonly used as actives. 
Respecting the latter see the note at the end. 

N 3 



. " to restore with interest," occurs 

in Terence ; in later writers it is 

the same as the deponent). 
Ferior^ keep holiday. 
Frustror, disappoint. 
Furor, suffuror, steal. 
Glorior, boast. 
Graecor, live in the Greek style, that 

is, luxuriously. 
Grassor, advance, attack. 
Gratificor, comply with. 
Grator, and gratulor, give thanks, 

present congratulations. 
(Gravor, think heavy, is the passive 

Helluor, gluttonise (helluo). 
Hortor, exhort ; adhortor, exhortor, 

Hospitor, am a guest (hospes), lodge. 
Imaginor, imagine. 
Imitor, imitate. 

Indignor, am indignant, spurn. 
In/itior, deny. 
Insidior, plot. 

Interpretor, explain, am an interpres. 
Jaculor, throw, dart. 
Jocor, jest. 

Laetor, rejoice (laetus). 
Lamentor, lament. , 

Latrocinor, rob, am a latro. 
Lenocinor (alicui), flatter. 
Lihidinor, am voluptuous. 
JAcitor, bid at an auction. 
Lucror, gain. 
Luctor, strive, wrestle (phluctor and 

reluctor, resist). 
* Ludificor, ridicule. 
MacMnor, devise. 
Medicor, heal. 
Meditor, meditate. 
3fercor, buy. 
*Meridior, repose at noon. 
Metor, measure out. 
Minor and minitor, threaten. 
Miror, wonder ; demiror, the same ; 

admiror, admire. 
Miseror, commiseror, pity. 
Moderor, restrain, temper. 
Modulor, modulate. 
Morigeror, comply, am morigerus. 

Moror, delay ; trans, and intrans. ; 
comp. commoror. 

*Muneror, remuneror, aliquem ali- 
qua re, reward. 

Mutuory borrow. 

Negotior, carry on business. 

Nidulor, build a nest. 

Nugor, trifle. 

Nundinor, deal in buying and selling. 

Nutrlcor, nourish. 

Odoror, smell out. 

Ominor, prophesy ; abominor, abomi- 

Operor, bestow labour on. 

Opinor, think. 

Opitulor, lend help. 

*Oscitor, yawn. 

Osculor, kiss. 

Otior, have leisure. 

*Palpor, stroke, flatter. 

Parasitor, act the parasite (^parasitus). 

Patrocinor, patronize. 

Percontor, inquire. 

Peregrlnor, dwell as a stranger. 

Periclttor, try, in later writers, am 
in danger. 

Philosophorj philosophize. 

*Pigneror, take a pledge, bind by a 

Pigror, am idle (piger). 

Piscor, fish. 

*Populor, lay waste. 

Praedor, plunder. 

Praestolor, wait for, with the dat. or 
accus. (the quantity of the o is un- 
certain, though probably short). 

Praevaricor, walk with crooked legs, 
act dishonestly, as a praevaricator, 
that is, as a false accuser. 

Precor, pray ; comprecor, invoke ; 
deprecor, deprecate ; imprecor, im- 

Proelior, fight a battle. 

Patiocinor, reason. 

Recordor, remember. 

Pefrdgor, oppose. 

Rimor, examine minutely. 

Rixor, wrangle. 

Rusticor, live in the country. 

Scitor and sciseitor, inquire. 



Scrvior^ perscrutor, search. 

Sector, the frequentative of sequor, 

follow ; assector, consector, insector. 
Sermocinor, hold discourse. 
Solor, consolor, comfort. 
Spatior, expatior, walk. 
Speculor, keep a look out. 
Stipulor, make a bargain ; adstipuJor, 

StomacJior, am indignant. 
Suavior, kiss. 
Suffrdgor (the contrary of refragor), 

assent to. 
Suspicor, suspect. 
Tergiversor, shuffle. 
Testor and testificor, bear witness. 
Tricor, make unreasonable difficulties 

Tristor, am sad. 

Trutinor, weigh. 

Tumvltuor, make uproar. 

Tutor, defend. 

Vador, summon to trial. 

Vagor and pdlor, wander. 

Velificor, steer towards (figuratively, 
gain a purpose), whence it is con- 
strued with the dat., as honori meo. 

Velitor, skirmish with light troops. 

Veneror, venerate. 

Venor, hunt. 

Vereeundor, feel shame at doing. 

Versor (properly, the passive of 
verso), dwell, am occupied in ; 
aversor, detest ; obversor, float 

Vociferor, vociferate. 

Urinor, dip under water (to void 
urine is urinamfacere or redder e). 

Note. We must here notice some verbs which are commonly used as 
actives, but by some writers, and of good authority, as deponents also. Such 
are : communicor, commurmuror (Cic. in Pis. 25.), fluctuor, frvMcor (Cic), 
lacrimor, luxurior, nictor. Velificor, in the figurative sense of striving after, 
is used by Cicero as a deponent, but in the primary sense of " sailing " it is 
much more usually active. Advlor, arhitror, criminor, and more especially 
dignor, are used by Cicero as passives, as well as deponents, throughout, and 
not merely in the participle, as is the case with many others. See the 
Chapter on the Participle, in ihe Syntax. 



Fateor, fassus sum,fateri, acknowledge. 

Confteor, confessus sum, the same, but usually, confess a crime ; pro- 
fiteor, profess ; diffiteor (no participle), deny. 

Liceor, licitus sum, with the accus., bid at an auction. 

PoUiceor, promise. 
Medeor, without a participle, for which medicatus, from medi- 
cari, is commonly used. 

N 4 


* Mereor, meritus sum, deserve. The active is used in the sense 
of serving or earning, as merere stipendia ; but the forms are 
not kept distinct. 
Commereor^ demereor, promereor^ have the same meaning. 

Misereor, miseritus or misertus sum, pity. 

Respecting the impersonal verb miseret or miseretur me^ see § 225. 

Reor, ratus sum, reri, think. 

Tueor, tuttus sum, look upon, fig. defend. 

Contueor, intueor^ look upon. There was an old form tuor, after the 
third conjugation, of which examples are found in the comic writers and 
in Lucretius, and in Nep. Chahr. 1. 3. intuuntur is found for the common 
intuentur. The adject, tutm is derived from the form tuor. 

Vereor, veritus sum, fear. 

Revereor, reverence ; subvereor^ slightly fear. 



From the obsolete apiscor, aptus sum, apisci, are derived : 
Adipiscor, adeptus sum, and indipiscor, obtain. 

JExpergiscor, experrectus sum, expergisci, awake. 

The verb expergefacere signifies to awaken, whence expergefactus, 
awakened. Expergo, with its participle expergitus, is obsolete. 

Fruor^ fructus and fruitus sum, frui, enjoy. (Particip. frui- 
Perfruor, perfructus sum, strengthens the meaning. 

Fungor, functus sum, fungi, perform, discharge. 
Defungor, perfungor, completely discharge, finish. 

Gradior, gressus sum, gradi, proceed. 

Aggredior, aggressus sum, aggredi, assail ; congredior, meet ; digredior, 
depart; egredior, go out of; ingredior, Qni^v on-, progredior, advance; 
regredior, return. 

Irascor, wasci, properly an inchoative, grow angry ; iratus sum 


means only, I am angry. I have been or was anjj^ Aay be 
expressed by succensui. 

Labor, lapsus sum, Idbi, fall. 

Colldhor^ sink together ; dilabor^ fall in pieces ; proldbor, fall down ; 
delaboTy reldbor. 

Loquor, locutus sum, loqui, speak. 

Alloquor, address ; coUoquor, speak with ; eloquor, interloquor ; obloquor, 
speak against, revile. 

(From the obsolete miniscor,) 

Comminiscor^ commentus sum^ comminisci, devise, imagine (the participle 
commerdus usually in a passive sense, feigned) ; reminiscor, reminisci, has 
no perfect ; recordatus sum is used instead of it. 

Morior, mortuus sum, (participle future, moriturus,) mori, die 
{moriri is obsolete, but still occurs in Ovid, Metam, xiv. 
Emorior^ commorior, demorior. 

Nanciscor, nactus sum, nancisci, obtain. The participle is also 
found written nanctus, as in many passages of Livy. 

Nascor, natus sum, nasci (nasciturus only in late writers), am 
born ; passive in sense, but without an active. It was ori- 
ginally gnascor, and the g reappears in agnatus, cognatus, 

Enascor^ innascor^ renascor. 

Nitor, nisus or nixus sum, niti, lean upon, strive. 

Adnltor^ strive for ; connitor and enltor, exert myself; in the sense of 
"bring forth," or "give birth," enixa est is preferable; ohnitor, strive 

Obliviscor, oblitus sum, oblivisd, forget. 

Paciscor, pactus sum (or pepigi), make a bargain. 

Comp. compaciscor^ depaciscor, or compeciscor and depeciscor, compacttiSy 
depactus sum^ whence the adverb compacto or compecto for ex or de com- 
pacto, according to contract. 

Pascor, pastus sum, feed; intransitive. Properly the passive 
of pasco, pavi, pastum, give food ; see above. Chap. LI. 

Potior, passus sum, pati, suffer. 

Perpetior, perpessus sum, perpeti, endure. 

(From plecto, twine,) 

Amplector and complector, complexus sum, embrace. 

Projiciscor, profectiis sum, projicisci, travel. 


Queror, questus surriy qneri^ complain. 
Conqueror^ lament. 

Ringor, ringi, grin, show the teeth, whence rictus, 

Sequor, secutus sum, sequi, follow. 

Assequor and consequor, overtake, attain ; exequor, execute ; insequor^ 
follow ; obsequor^ comply with ; persequor^ pursue ; prosequor^ attend ; 
subsequor, follow close after. 

Vehor, see § 192. 

Vescor, vesci, eat. JEdi is used as the perfect. 

Ulciscor, ultus sum, ulcisci, revenge, punish. 

Utor, usus sum, uti, use. 

Abator, abuse; devtor only in Nepos, Eum. 11. 

Devertor, praevertor, and reverter, see under verto. They take 

their perfects from the active form : reverti, reverteram, re- 

vertissem ; only the participle reversus is used in an active 

sense, one who has returned. 

Reversus sum for reverti is very rare, but occurs in Nep. Them. 5. ; 
Veil. ii. 42. ; Quintil. vii. 8. 2. xi. 2. 17., and other less classic authors, but 
never in Cicero. 



Assentior, assensus sum, assentiri, assent. (As an active, as- 
sentio, assensi, assensum, assentire^ it is not so common; see 
above, § 206.) 

Blandior, hlanditus sum, hlandiri, flatter. 

Experior, expertus sum, experiri, experience, try. 

Comperior, am informed, is used only in the present tense, along with 
comperio ; the perfect therefore is comperi. 

Largior, largitus sum, largiri, give money ; dilargior, distribute 

Mentior, mentitus sum, mentiri, lie ; ementior, the same. 


Metior, mensus sum, metiri, measure. 

Dimetior^ measure out ; emetior^ measure completely ; permetior, 
Molior, molitus sum, moliri, move a mass (molef) ; plan. 

Amolior, remove from the way ; demolior, demolish, and others. 

Opperior, oppertus sum, in Terence, and opperitus sum in Plau- 
tus, opperiri, wait for. 

Ordior, orsus sum, ordiri, begin. 

Exordior^ the same ; redordior, begin over again. 

Orior, ortus sum, oriri (partic. oriturus), rise. (The partic. fut. 
pass, oriundus has a peculiar signification " descended" from 
a place or person.) The present indicat. follows the third 
conjugation : oreris, oritur, orimur. In the imperf. subjunct. 
both forms orerer and orirer are found. See Li v. xxiii. 16. ; 
Tac. Ann, ii. 47. ; comp. xi. 23. 

So also the compounds coorior and exorior {exoreretur in Lucretius, 
ii. 506.) ; but of adorior, undertake, the forms adoriris and adorUur are 
certain, whereas adoreris and adorCtur are only probable ; adoreretur is 
commonly edited in Sueton. Clavjd. 12. 

Partior, partitas sum, pariiri, divide (rarely active). 

Dispertior, dispertitus sum (more frequently active), distribute ; impeV' 
tior (also impertio, impartio, impartior)^ communicate. 

Potior, potitus sum, potiri, possess myself of. 

It is not uncommon, especially in the poets, for the present indicative 
and the imperfect subjunctive to be formed after the third conjugation ; 
potitur, potimur, poteretur, poteremur. 

Sortior, sortitus sum, sortiri, cast lots. 

Punier, for punio. See § 206. in fin. 



[§211.] The term Irregular Verbs is here applied to those 
which depart from the rule not only in the formation of their 
perfect and supine, but have something anomalous in their 


conjugation itself. They are, besides sum (treated of before, 
§ 156,), possum, edo.fero, volo, nolo, malo, eo, queo, nequeo, Jio. 

1. Possum, I am able. 

Possum is composed of potis and sum, often found separately 
in early Latin ; by dropj)ing the termination of potis, we obtain 
potsum, possum. It therefore follows the conjugation of sum in 
its terminations, but the consonants t, s, and/, produce some 
changes, when they come together. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Possum^ potes, potest. possim, possis, possit. 

possumus, potestis, possunt. possimtis, possitis, possint. 

poteram, poteras, poterat. possem, posses, posset, 

poteramus, -eratis, -erant. possemus, possetis, possent. 

patera, poteris, poterit. 
paterimus, -eritis, -erunt. 

potui, potuisti, potuit. potuerim, -eris, -erit. 

potuimus, -istis, -erunt. potuenmus, -itis, -int. 

potueram, -eras, -erat. potuissem, -isses, -isset. 

potueramus, -eratis, -erant. potuissemus, -issetis, -issent. 

Future Perfect. 
potuero, potueris, potuerit. 
potuerlmus, potuerltis, potuerint. 

(No Imperative.) 

Infinitive. Pakticiple. 

Pres. & Imp. posse. Potens has become an adjective). 

Perf. & Plup. potuisse. 

2. Edo, I eat. 

[§ 212.] The verb eda, edi, esum, edere, is declined regularly 
according to the third conjugation, but here and there it has 
syncopated fonns, besides its regular ones, similar to the cor- 


responding tenses of sumy except that the quantity of the vowel 
in the second person singular of the indie, present and of the 
imperative makes a difference, the e in es from edo being long 
by nature. The tenses in which this resemblance occurs are 
seen in the following table : — 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. Imperfect. 

Sing. Edo^ edis, edit, Sing, ederem, ederes, ederet, 

(or es, est.) (or essem, esses, esset.) 

Plur. edimm, editis, edunt. Plur. ederemus, ederetis, ederent, 

(estis.) (or essemus,^ essetis, essent.) 

Imperative. Infinitive. 

Sing, edey es. edere or esse. 
Plur. edite, este. 

Sing, edito, esto. 

Plur. edito, esto, editote, estate. In the Passive only editur, esiur ; 

edunto. ederetur, essetur. 

In the same way the compounds abedo, ambedo, comedo, exedo, 
and per edo are conjugated. 

3. Fero, I bear. 

[§ 213.] Fero consists of very different parts, perfect tiili 
(originally tetuli, which is still found in Plautus and Terence) ; 
supine, latum ; infinitive, ferre ; passive, ferrL But with the 
exception of the present indicat. and the imperative, the detail 
is regular. 

Active. Passive. 

Indicative. Indicative. 

Pres. Sing. Fero, fers, fert. Pres. Sing, feror, ferris, fertur. 

Plur. ferimus, fertis, ferunt. Plur. fertmur, ferimini, ferurUur, 

Imperative. Imperative. 

Pres. Sing. fer. Plur. ferte. Pres. Sing, ferre. Plur. ferimini. 

Fut. Sing, ferto. Plur. fertote. Put. Sing, fertor. Plur. feruntor. 
ferto. ferunto. fertor. 

Nots. The rest is regular ; imperfect, ferebam ; future, feram, -es ; future 
passive, ferar, fereris {fer ere), feretur, &c. ; present subjunctive, feram^ 
feras ; passive, ferar, feraris, feratur ; imperfect subjunctive, ferrem ; pas- 
sive, ferrer. 

The compounds of fero — affero, antefero, circumfero, confero, defero, and 
others, have little that is remarkable. Aufero (originally dbfero) makes 
abstuli, ablatum, auferre. Suffero has no perfect or supine, for sustvli, subla- 



iurn^ belong to tollo. Cicero, however (N. D. iii. 33.), has poenas sustidit, but 
sustinui is commonly used in this sense. Differo is used only in the present 
tense, and those derived from it in the sense of " differ ; " disMi and dilatum 
have the sense of " delay." 

4. VolOf I will. 5. Nolo, I will not. 6. Malo, I will rather. 

[§ 214.] Nolo is compounded of ne (for non) and volo. The 
obsolete ne appears in three persons of the present in the usual 
form of non ; malo is compounded of mage (i. e. magis) and volo, 
properly mavolo, mavellem, contracted malo, mdllem. 



Sing. Volo 




non vis 



non vult 


Plur. volumus 




non vultis 






Sing, volebam, &c. 

nolebam, &c. 

maleham, &c. 

Plur. volehamus^ &c. 

nalehamus, &c. 

malehamus, &c. 

Sing, volam^ voles, et 

nolam, vales, et 

malam, males, et 

Plur. volemus, etis, ent. 

nolemus, etis, ent. 

malemus, etis, ent. 

Sing, volui 



. voluisti, &c. 

noluisti, &c. 

maluisti, &c. 


volueram, &c. 

nolueram, &c. 
Future Perfect. 

malueram. See. 

. voluero, is, &c. 

noluero, is, &c. 


maluero, is, &c. 

Sing, velim 









Plur. vellmus 





*. Tnalltis 






Sing, vellem, &c. 
Plur. veUemus^ &c. 


nollem^ &c. 
noUemuSj &c. 

mallem^ &c. 
mallemus, &c. 

Sing, voluerim, &c. 
Plur. volueAmus^ &c. 

noltierim, &c. 
Twlmrimus^ &c. 

rmluerim, &c. 
mcUuenmuSj &c. 

Sing, voluissem, &c. 
Plur. voluissemtLS^ &c 

noluissem, &c. 
noluissemus^ &c. 

maluissem, &c. 
maluissemuSy &c. 


2d Pers. noZt, noZife. 
2d Pers. nollto, nolitote. 
3d Pers. nolito, nolunto. 


Pres. velle 
Perf. voluisse. 












7. Eo, I go. 

[§ 215.] The verb eo, zzjz, z^mtw, zVe, is for the most part formed 
regularly, according to the fourth conjugation ; only the present, 
and the tenses derived from it, are irregular. 


Sing. Eo^ is^ it. 
Plur. Imus^ itiSy eunt. 



Sing, earn, eas, eat. 
Plur. edmus, edtis, eant. 

Sing. Ibam, ibas, that. 
Plur. ihamuSy ibatis, ibant. 


Sing, irem, ires, iret. 
Plur. iremus, iretis, irent. 

Sing, ibo, ibis, ibit. 
Plur. ibimus, ibitis, ibunt. 

Sing. i. Sing. 2. ito. 3. ito. 
Plur. ite. Plur. 2. itote. 3. eunto 

Pres. ire. 

Perf. ivisse or isse. 
Fut. iturum {-am, 'um) esse. 


Gerund. Supine. 

Gen. eundi. Dat. eundo, &c. itum, itu. 

Pres. iens, euntis. Fut. iturus, -a, -um. 

In the passive voice it exists only as an impersonal, itur, itum 
est. Some compounds, however, acquire a transitive meaning ; 
they accordingly have an accusative in the active, and may also 
have a complete passive : e. gr. adeo, I approach ; ineo, I enter ; 
praetereo, I pass by. Thus the present indie, pass, adeor, 
adiriSf aditur, adimur, adimini, adeuntur ; subjunct. ad ear ; 
imperf. adibar ; subj. adirer ; fut. adibor, adiberis (e), adibitur, 
&c. ; imperat. pres. adire, adimini ; fut. aditor, adeuntor ; par- 
ticiples, adituSf adeundus. 

These and all other compounds, abeo, coeo, exeo, inter eo and 
pereo (perish), prodeo, redeo^ have usually only ii in the perfect : 
peril, redii. Circumeo and circueo, I go round something, differ 
only in their orthography, for in pronunciation the m was lost ; 
in the derivatives, circuitus and circuitio, it is therefore, with 
more consistency, not written. Veneo, I am sold, a neutral 
passive verb, without a supine, is compounded of venum and eo, 
and is accordingly declined like ire ; whereas ambio, I go about, 
which changes the vowel even in the present, is decHned regu- 
larly according to the fourth conjugation, and has the participle 
ambiens, ambientis, and the gerund ambiendi. The part. perf. 
pass, is ambitus, but the substantive ambitus has a short i. See 
the Commentators on Ovid, Metam. i. 37. 

Note. A second form of the future, earn instead of iho^ is mentioned by 
Priscian, but is not found in any other writer. It is only in compounds, 
though chiefly in late and unclassical authors, that we find -mm, ies^ iet, tent, 
along with ibo, ibis, &c. See Bunemann on Lactant. iv. 13. 20. Transiet in 
Tibull. i. 4. 27. is surprising. Veneo, I am sold, sometimes abandons the 
conjugation of eo, and makes the imperfect venieham instead of veniham, for 
so, at least, we find in good MSS. of Cicero, Philip, ii. 37., and in Verr. III. 
47. Amhio sometimes follows eo; e. g. ambihat in Ovid, Metam. v. 361.; 
Liv. xxvii. 18. ; Plin. Epist. vi. 33. ; Tac. Ann. ii. 19. ; and amhihunt for 
ambient is said to occur in Pliny (AT. N. viii. 35.?). 

[§216.] 8. Queo, I can. 9. Nequeo, I cannot. 

These two verbs are both conjugated like eo : perfect, quivi, 
nequivi ; supine, quitum, nequitum. Most of their forms occur ; 



but, with the exception of the present, they are not very fre- 
quent in prose, and some authors, such as Nepos and Caesar, 
never use this verb at aU. Instead of nequeo, non queo also was 
used, and in Cicero the latter is even more frequent. Quis and 
quit are found only with non. 



Sing. Queo^ quis, quit. Nequeo, non quis, non quit. 

Plur. quimu^, quitis, queunt. nequimus, nequUiSy nequeunt. 

Sing. Quibam, quibat, &c. nequlbam, nequibat, -ant. 

Sing. Quibo. Plur. quibunt. Sing. Plur. nequibunt. 

Sing. Quivi, quivit nequivi, nequisti, nequivit (iit). 

Plur. quiverunt. • nequiverunt orne- 

qyierunt (e). 


nequierat, nequierant. 


Sing. Queam, queas, queat, nequeam, nequeas, nequeat. 

Plur. queamus, queatis, queant. nequeamus, nequeatis, nequeant. 

Sing. Quirem, quiret. nequirem, nequiret. 

Plur. quirent. nequiremus, nequirent. 

Sing. quiverit. nequiverim, nequierity nequierint. 


gino-. — . nequisset. * 

Plur. quissent. nequissent. 


Quire, quivisse (quisse). nequire, nequivisse (nequisse). 

Quiens (gen. queuntis). nequiens (gen. nequeuntis). 

There is also a passive form of these verbs : quitur, nequitur, quita est, ne- 
quitum est, but it occurs very rarely, and is used, like coeptus sum, only when 
an infinitive passive follows ; e. g. in Terence : forma in tenebris nosci non 
quita est, the figure could not be recognised. 



[§ 217.] 10. Fio, I become, or am made. 

Fio is properly an intransitive verb, the Greek (f>v(o, without 
a supine. But owing to the affinity existing between the 
ideas of becoming and being made, it was used also as a passive of 
facio, from which it took the ^QV^QCt f actus sum, and the latter 
then received the meaning ** I have become," along with that 
of "I have been made." In consequence of this transition 
into the passive, the infinitive became Jieri instead of the 
original form Jiere. Hence, with the exception of the sup- 
plementary forms from facere {Jactus, faciendus, factus sum, 
eram, &c.) and the passive termination of the infinitive, there is 
no irregularity in this verb. In the present, imperfect, and 
future, it follows the third conjugation ; for the i belongs to the 
root of the word, and is long, except in Jit and those forms in 
which an r occurs in the inflection. (See § 16.) 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. Present 

Sing. Fio^Jis,Jit. fiam^ fias^ fiat. 

Plur. fimus^ fitis, fiunt. fixxmus^ fiatis, fixint 

Imperfect. Imperfect. 

Sing.^e&am, «s, at. fierem^ es, et. 

Fhir. fiebarmis, atis, ant. , fieremus^ etis, ent. 

Future. Imperative. 

S'mg. fiam, fies, fiet. Pres. Sing.^. 'Phir.fite. 

Vim:. fiemuSy fietis^ fievt. (rare, but well attested.) 

fieri (^factum esse, factum iri). Part. Pres. is wanting. 

Note. Among the compounds the following must be noticed as defectives : 
infit, which is used only in this third person sing., he or she begins ; e. g., 
loqui, or with the ellipsis of loqui; and defit, defiat, defiunt, defieri, which 
does not occur in prose. Respecting co?ifit, see above, § 183. 

CHAP. LI?:. 


The term Defective Verbs is here applied to those only in 
which the defectiveness is striking, and which are found only in 
certain forms and combinations, for there is, besides, a very 
large number of defective verbs, of which certain tenses are not 


found on account of their meaning, or cannot be shown to have 
been used by the writers whose works have come down to us. 
Many of them have been noticed in the lists of verbs in the 
preceding Chapters ; with regard to others, it must be left to 
good taste cultivated by reading the best authors, as to whether 
we may use e. g. cupe from cujpio^ like cape from capio^ and 
whether we may say dor, I am given, like prodor, or putatus sut^ 
like habitus sum. {Putatum est occurs in Cicero, p, Muren. 17.) 
We shall here treat of the verbs ajo and inquam, I say ; fari, to 
speak ; the perfects coepi, memini, novi and odi ; the imperatives 
apage, ave, salve, vale ; cedo and quaeso ; and lastly o£ forern. 


1. Ajo, I say, say yes, or affirm. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

Present. Present. 

Sing. Ajo, ais, ait Sing. > ajas, ajat, 

Plur. ajunt. Plur. ajant. 

Imperfect. (The imperative ai is obsolete. The 

Sing, ajebam, ajebas, ajebat. participle ajens is used only as an ad- 

Plur. ajebamus, ajebatis, ajebant. . ject. instead of qffirmativus.) 

Perfect. All the rest is wanting, or unclas- 

Sing. — ait (like the present). sical. 

Note. In prose, as well as in poetry, am' ? do you think so ? is frequently 
used for aisne, just as we find viden\ abirC for videsne, abisne. See § 24. The 
comic writers, especially Terence, use the imperfect aibam, &c., as a word of 
two syllables. 

[§ 219.] 2. Inquam, I say. 

This verb is used only between the words of a quotation, 
while ait, ajunt, are found most frequently in the oratio obliqua. 

Indicative. Subjunctive. 

. Present. ^ Present. 

Sing. Inqttam, inquis, inquit. Sing. inquias, inquiat. 

Plur. inquimus, inqmtis, inquiwnt. Plur. inquiatis, inquiant. 

Imperfect. Future. 

Sing, inquiebam, &c. Sing. inquies, inquiet. 

Plur. inquiebamus, &c. Plur. . 

Perfect. ' Imperative. 

Sing. inquisti, inquit. Sing, inque, inqui^o. 

Plur. inquistis, . Plur. inquite. 

o 2 


Note. The first person of the perfect (more probably ingui than inquii) is 
not found ; the present inquam is used instead, and inquit may therefore just 
as well be taken for the present. The present subjunctive has been here 
given according to Priscian, p. 876., but has not yet been confirmed by any 
other authority. 

[§ 220.] 3. Fari, to speak, say. 

This very irregular verb, with its compounds affdri, effdri, 
profdri, is, generally speaking, more used in poetry than in 
ordinary prose. The third persons of the present, fatur, fantur, 
the imperative/ar^, and the participle /«/w5, «, um {effatum is used 
also in a passive sense), occur most frequently. The ablative of 
the gerund, fando, is used in a passive sense even in prose, in the 
phrase y<2w^o audire, to know by hearsay. 

Compounds : affamur^ Ovid ; affamini^ Curtius ; affabar^ Virgil ; effahor 
and effaberis also occur in poetry. The first person for^ the subjunctive 
fer, feris, fetur^ &c., and the participle fans in the nominative, do not occur, 
though the other cases of fans are found in poetry. Fandus, a, um, only in 
the combination yan^wm et nefandum; fanda, we/ancfa, which are equivalent 
to fas et nefas. 

[§221.] 4. Coepi, 5. Memmi, 6. Novi, 7. Odi, 

I have begun. I remember. I know. I hate. - i 

These four verbs are perfects of obsolete presents, which 
have gone out of use, with the exception of nosco, and 
coepiOf coepere. They consequently have those tenses only, 
which are derived from the perfect. In meaning, memmi, novi, 
and odi are presents ; novi, I know, shows the transition most 
clearly, for it properly means " I have learnt to know." (See 
§ 203.) Hence the pluperfect has the meaning of an imperfect : 
memineram, I remembered ; noveram, I knew ; oderam^ I hated, 
not " I had hated," and the future perfect has the signification 
of a simple future, e. g. odero, I shall hate ; meminero, I shall 
remember. Otherwise the terminations are quite regular. 













novisti (nosti). 









novistis (nostis), 



noverunt (norunt). 




coeperam^ &c. 
coepero, &c. 

coeperim, &c. 

coepissem^ &c. 

memineram^ &c. noveram^ &c. 

meminero, &c. novero. 

noveris^ &c. 

meminerim, &c. noverim^ &c. 

meminissem, &c. novissem^ &c. 


only the sing, me- , 

wiewto and plur. 


meminisse. novisse. 

oderarn^ &c. 
odero^ &c. 

oderim^ &c. 
odissem^ &c. 


(j)erosus, exosus, with an 
active meaning.) 


Perf. pass, coeptus 

Put. act. coepturus. 

Note. Hence coepisse has a perfect passive coeptus (a, urn) sum; e. g. 
Liv. XXX. 30. : quia a me helium coeptum est; xxviii. 14. : quum a nevtris 
pvgna coepta esset; but it is used especially in connection with an infinitive 
passive, as in pons institui coeptus est; Tyrus septimo mense, quam oppugnari 
coepta erat^ capta est; de re puhlica considi coepti sumus; the active forms 
coepit^ coeperat^ however, may likewise be used in this connection. Compare 
desitus est, § 200. Compounds are occoepi, which is not unfrequently used 
along with the regular occipio (the same as incipio), and commemini. 

[§222.] 8. Apage, 9. Ave, 10. Salve, 11. Vale, 

K be gone. hail. hail. farewell. 

Note. Apdge is the Greek imperative airayt of aTrdyoj, and akin with 
abigo: apage istas sorores! away with them! especially apage fe, get thyself 
off, or, with the omission of the pronoun, apage, begone. Salveo in Plautus, 
Trucul. ii. 2. 4., may be regarded as the present of salve. Comp. Probus, 
Jnstit. Gram., p. 141., ed. Lindemann. Vale and ave, on the other hand, are 
regular imperatives of valeo, I am well, and aveo, I desire ; and they are 
mentioned here only on account of their change of meaning. 

The plural is, avete, salvete, valete; the imperat. fut. aveto, salveto, valeto. 
The future, salvehis, valehis, is likewise used in the sense of an imperative, 
and the infinitives mostly yfithjuheo: avere, salvere, valere. 

o 3 


[§ 223.] 12. Cedo, give, tell. 

This word is used as an imperative in familiar language, for 
da and die, both with and without an accusative. A plural 
cette occurs in old Latin. 

The e is short in this word, which thus differs from the complete verb cedo^ 
I yield, give way. 

[§224.] 13. Qwae5o, I beseech. 

Quaeso is originally the same as quaero, but in good prose it 
is generally inserted in another sentence. Besides this first 
person singular, we find only the first person plural quaesumus. 

14. For em, I should be. 

This imperfect subjunctive, which is conjugated regularly, 
has arisen from fuerem of the obsolete verb fuo, and belongs 
to sum, (See above, § 156.) 



[§ 225.] J. The term Impersonal Verbs strictly applies only 

to those of which no other but the third person singular is used, 

and which do not admit a personal subject (I, thou, he), the 

subject being a proposition, an infinitive, or a neuter noun 

understood. (See § 441. &c. Verbs of this kind are: 

Miseret (me), I pity, perfect miseritum est 

Piget {me), I regret, piguit or pigitum est, 

Poenitet (me), I repent, poenituit, fut. poenitebit, 

Pudet (me), I am ashamed, puduit or puditum est, 

Taedet (me), I am disgusted with (taeduit very rare), per- 

taesum est, 

Oportet, it is necessary, oportuit, fut. oportebit. 

Note. Miseruit^ the regular perfect of miseret^ occurs so seldom, that we 
have not here noticed it. The form commonly used is miseritum or misertum 


est, which is derived from the impersonal me miseretur tui, which is not un- 
common, although the deponent misereri is otherwise used only as a personal 
verb, misereor tui. Compare the passages, Cic, j9. Ligar. 5. : cave te fratrum 
pro salute fratris obsecrantium misereatur; in Verr. i. 30. : jam me tui misereri 
non potest, where the verb is likewise impersonal. 

[§ 226.] 2. Besides these impersonala, there are some others, 
which likewise have no personal subject, but yet are used in the 
third person plural, and may have a nominative (at least a neuter 
pronoun) as their subject. Such verbs are : 

Lihet (mihi), I like, choose ; perf. libuit or libitum est. 

Licet (mihi), I am permitted ; perf. licuit or licitum est. 

Decet (me), it becomes me, and dedecet, it does not become me ; 
perf. decuit, dedecuit. 

Liquet, it is obvious ; perf. licuit. 

Note. Libuit has been mentioned .here as a perfect of libet, but it is 
usually found only as a present, in the sense of libet. 

[§ 227.] 3. There is also a considerable number of verbs 
which are used impersonally in the third person, while their 
other persons occur with more or less difference in meaning. 
To these belong : interest and refert in the sense of " it is 
of importance to," with which no nominative can be used as a 
subject ; further, accidit. Jit, evenit, and contingit, it happens ; 
accedit, it is added to, or in addition to ; attinet and pertinet 
{ad aliquid), it concerns ; conducit, it is conducive ; convenit, it 
suits ; constat, it is known or established ; expedit, it is expedient ; 
delectat and juvat, it delights, pleases ; fallit, fugit, and praeterit 
me, it escapes me, I do not know ; placet, it pleases ; perf. 
placuit and placitum est ; praestat, it is better ; restat, it remains ; 
vacat, it is wanting ; est in the sense of licet, it is permitted or 
possible, e. g. est videre, non est dicere verum, but especially in 
poetry and late prose writers. 

[§ 228.] 4. The verbs which denote the changes of the 
weather : pluit, it rains ; ningit, it snows ; grandinat, it hails ; 
lapidat (perf. also lapidatum est), stones fall from heaven ; ful~ 
gurat and fulminat, it lightens (with this difference, that fulmi- 
nat is used of a flash of lightning which strikes an object); 
tonat, it thunders ; lucescit and illucescit (perf. illuxit), it dawns ; 
vesperascit and advesperascit (perf. advesperavit), the evening 
approaches ; — in all these cases the subject understood is sup- 

o 4 



posed to be deus or coelum, which are in fact often added as their 

[§229.] 5. The third person singular passive of a great 
many words, especially of those denoting movement or saying, 
is or may be used impersonally, even when the verb is neuter, 
and has no personal passive, e. g. curritur, they or people run ; 
itur, ventum est, clamatur, Jletur, scribitur, hibitur, &c. 

[§ 230.] 6. All these impersonal verbs, as such, have no 
imperative, the place of which is supplied by the present sub- 
junctive, e. g. pudeat te, be ashamed of ! The participles also 
(together with the forms derived from them, the gerund and the 
infinitive future) are wanting, with a few exceptions, such as 
lihens, licens and liciturus, poenitens and poenitendus, pudendus. 



[§ 231.] We have hitherto treated of the changes which one 
particular form of nouns and verbs, supposed to be known (the 
nominative in nouns, and the infinitive in verbs), may undergo 
in forming cases and numbers, persons, tenses, moods, &c. But 
the origin of that form itself, which is taken as the basis in in- 
flection, is explained in that special branch of the study of lan- 
guage, which is called Etymology. Its object is to trace all the 
words of the language to their roots, and it must therefore soon 
lead us from the Latin to the Greek language, since both are 
nearly allied, and since the Greek was developed at an earlier 
period than the Latin. Other languages, too, must be consulted, 
in order to discover the original forms and significations. We 
cannot, however, here enter into these investigations, and 
must content ourselves with ascertaining, within the Latin 
language itself, the most prominent laws in the formation of 
new words from other more simple ones ; a knowledge of these 
laws is useful to the beginner, since it facilitates his acquir- 
ing the language. But we shall here confine ourselves to nouns 
(substantive and adjective) and verbs, for the derivation and 


composition of pronouns and numerals have been discussed in 
a former part of this work ; with regard to the (unchangeable) 
particles, on the other hand, etymology is i^ecessary, as it sup- 
plies the place of inflection. 

The formation of new words from others previously existing 
takes place either by Derivation, or the addition of certain ter- 
minations; or by Composition, In regard to derivation, we 
have to distinguish primitive and derivative words ; and, with 
regard to composition, simple and compound words. We shall 
first treat of derivation. 

I. Verbs. 

Verbs are derived either from other verbs or from nouns. 

A. With regard to the former, we distinguish four classes of 
verbs: 1. Frequentative; 2. Desiderative ; 3. Diminutive; and 
4. Inchoative. 

1. Frequentatives, all of which follow the first conjugation, 
denote the frequent repetition or an increase of the action ex- 
pressed by the primitive verb. They are derived from the 
supine by changing the regular dtum, in the first conjugation 
into ito, itare ; other verbs of the first conjugation as well as 
of the others remain unchanged, the termination of the su- 
pine, um, alone being changed into o, are. Of the former 
kind are, e. g., clamo, clamito ; impero, imperito ; rogito, volito ; 
of the latter, domo, domitum, domito ; adjuvo, adjUtum, adjuto ; 
and from verbs of the third conjugation : curro, cursum, curso ; 
cano, cantum, canto ; dico, dictum, dicto ; nosco, notum, noto ; 
and so also accepto, pulso, defenso, gesto, quasso, tracto. Some 
of these latter frequentatives, derived from verbs of the third 
conjugation, serve again as primitives from which new frequen- 
tatives are formed, as cursito, dictito, defensito. There are 
some double frequentatives of this kind, without the interme- 
diate form of the simple frequentative being used or known, 
such as actito from ago {acto\ and so also lectito from lego, scrip- 
tito from scribo, haesito from haereo, visito from video, ventito from 
venio, advento. 

Some few frequentatives with the termination ito, itare, are 
not derived from the supine, but - from the present of the pri- 
mitive verb. This formation is necessary when the primitive 


verb has no supine, as is the case with lateo, paveo — latito, 
pavito. But the following are formed in this manner with- 
out there being such a reason: agito, noscito, quaerito, cogito. 
Some frequentatives have the deponential form, as amplexor 
from amplector, minitor from minor, tutor from tueor, scitor and 
sciscitor from scisco, 

[§ 232.] 2. Desideratives end in urio, urire (after the fourth 
conjugation), and express a desire of that which is implied in 
the primitive. They are formed from the supine of the latter, 
e. g. esurio, esuris, I want to eat, from edo, esum ; so also coe- 
naturio from coenatum, dicturio from dictum, empturio from 
emptum, parturio from partum, and in this manner Cicero 
{ad Att. ix. 10.) jocosely formed Sullaticrit et proscripturit, he 
would like to play the part of Sulla and to proscribe. 

Note. Some verbs in urio after the fourth conjugation, such as ligurire^ 
scaturire, prurire, are not desideratives, and it should be observed that the 
u in these words is long. 

[§ 233.] 3. Diminutives have the termination illo, illare, 
which is added to the stem of the primitive verb, without any 
further change, and they describe the action expressed as some- 
thing trifling or insignificant ; e. g. cantillare from cantare, to 
sing in an undervoice, or sing with a shaking; conscrihillare, 
scribble ; sorhillare from sorbere, sip. The number of these 
verbs is not great. 

[§ 234.] 4. Inchoatives have the termination sco, and fol- 
low the third conjugation. They express the beginning of 
the act or condition denoted by the primitive; e. g. caleo, I 
am warm, calesco, I am getting or becoming warm ; areo, I am 
dry, aresco, I begin to be dry ; langueo, I am languid, languesco, 
I am becoming languid. It frequently happens that a pre- 
position is prefixed to an inchoative, as in timeo, pertimesco ; 
taceo, conticesco. The vowel preceding the termination sco, 
scere, is either a {asco), e (esco), or i (isco\ according as the in- 
choative is derived from a primitive of the first, second, or third 
and fourth conjugation (in the last two cases it is isco) ; e. g. 

tabasco from labare, totter. 
pallesco from pallere, be pale. 
ingemisco from gemere, sigh. 
obdormisco from dormire, sleep. 


Many inchoatives, however, are not derived from verbs, but 
from substantives and adjectives, e. g. 

puerascO) I become childish, from puer, 
maturesco, I become ripe, from maturus, a, um. 

All inchoatives take their perfect and the tenses derived from 
it from the primitive verb, or form it as it would be in the 
primitive. (See Chap. LII., the list of the most important 
inchoatives.) It must, however, be observed, that not all verbs 
ending in sco are inchoatives. See § 203. 

[§ 235.] B. In regard to the derivation of verbs from nouns, 
we see that in general the language followed the principle of 
giving the termination of the second conjugation to verbs of an 
intransitive signification, and that of the first to such as have a 
transitive signification. Thus we have, e. g., 

"a) flos^ floris^ florere^ bloom. and from adjectives: 

from., frondis, frondere, have fo- albu&, albere, be white, 

liage. calvits, calvere, be bald. 

viSi vires, mrere, be strong. flavus, flavere, be yellow. 

lux, hicis, lucere, shine. hebes, hebere, be blunt or dull, 

but, albus, albare, whitewash, 

b) numerus, numerare, count. aptus, aptare, fit. 

signum, signare, mark. liber, a, um, liberare, liberate. 

fraus, fraudis, fraudare, deceive. celeber, bris, bre, celebrare, make 

nomen, nominis, nominarey name. frequent, or celebrate. 

indnus, vtdneris, vidnerare, wound. memor, memorare, mention. 

arma, armare, arm. communis, communicare, com- 

Both kinds are found compounded with prepositions, without the simple 
verbs themselves being known or much used ; e. g. 

Laqueus, illaqueare, entwine ; acervv^, coacervare, accumulate ; stirps, ex- 
tirpare, extirpate ; hilaris, exhilarare, cheer. 

The observation of § 147. must be repeated hei:e, that many- 
deponents of the first conjugation (in ari) are derived from sub- 
stantives for the purpose of expressing " to he that which the 
substantive indicates ; " e. g. among the first verbs in the list 
there given, we find aemulari, ancillari, architectari, aucupariy 
augur ari ; and in like manner : comes, comitis, comitari ; dominus, 
dominari; fur, furari. See § 237. The Latin language has 
much freedom in formations of this kind, and we may even now 
form similar words, just as Persius invented (or was the first, as 
far as we know, that used) cornicari, chatter like a crow, and 
Horace graecari, live luxuriously like a Graeculus. 


II. Substantives. 
[§ 236.] Substantives are derived — 
A. From Verbs. 
1. By the termination or, appended in place of the um of the 
supine in transitive verbs, to denote a man performing the action 
implied in the verb ; e. g. 

amator, monitor, lector, auditor, 

adulator, fautor, condltor, condltor, 

adjutor, censor, petttor, largitor, 

and a great many others. Those which end in tor form femi- 
nines in trix, as fautrix, adjutrix, victrix ; and if in some cases 
no such feminine can be pointed out in the writings that have 
come down to us, it does not follow, considering the facility of 
their formation, that there never existed one. In regard to the 
masculines in sor, the formation of feminines is more difficult, 
but tonsor makes tonstrix ; defensor, defenstrix ; and expulsor, 
throwing out the s, makes expultrix. 

Some few substantives of this kind ending in tor are formed 
also from nouns ; as aleator, gambler, from alea ; janitor, from 
janua ; viator from via, 

2. The same termination or, when added to the unaltered 
stem of a word, especially of intransitive verbs, expresses the 
action or condition denoted by the verb substantively; e. g. 
pavere, pavor, fear ; furere, furor, fury ; nitere, nitor, shine or 
gloss. So also, e. g. 

clamor, albor, horror, favor, ardor, 

amor, rubor, timor, maeror, splendor, 

[§ 237.] 3. Two terminations, viz. io gen. ionis, and us, 
gen. us, when added to the supine after throwing off the um, 
express the action or condition denoted by the verb abstractedly. 
Both terminations are frequently met with in substantives 
derived from the same verb, without any material difference, as 
concursio and concur sus, consensio and consensus ; so also con- 
temptio and contemptus, digressio and digressus, motio and motus, 
potio and potus, tractatio and tractatus, and others. Some verbs 
in are which have different forms of the supine (see § 171.), 
make also substantives of two forms ; thus we have fricatio and 


frictio, lavatio and lotio, potatio and potio, and according to 
their analogy also cubatio and cubitio^ althougH the supine of 
cubare is cubitum only. 

In this manner are formed from actives and deponents, for 

a) sectio. motio, lectio. auditio. 
cunctatio. cautio. ultio, sortitio. 
acclamatio. admonitio, actio. largitio. 

b) crepitus. fletus. cantus. ambitus, 
sonitus. visus. congressus. ortus. 

Note. Strictly speaking, the Latin language makes this difference, that 
the verbal substantives in io denote the action or condition as actually going 
on, and those in us as being and existing ; but this difference is frequently 
neglected, and it is to be observed, that the writers of the silver age (es- 
pecially Tacitus) prefer the forms in us without at all attending to the dif- 
ference. A third termination producing pretty nearly the same meaning is 
ura; as in jBzc/Mra, painting; cow/ec^wra, conjecture ; czfZ^wra, cultivation. Some- 
times it exists along with the other two, as in positio, positus^ positura ; cejisio, 
census, censura. Usually, however, one of them is preferred, in practice, 
with a definite meaning. Thus we have mercatus, the market, and merca- 
tura, commerce. In some substantives the termination ela produces the 
same meaning; as querela^ complaint; loquela, speech; corruptela^ corrup- 

[§ 238.] 4. The termination men expresses either the thing 
to which the action belongs, both in an active and passive sense, 
as fulmen from fulgere, lightning ; flumen from Jluere, river ; 
agmen from agere, troop or army in its march; examen from 
exigere, a. swarm of bees driven out : or, the means of attaining 
what the verb expresses ; e. g. solamen, a means of consolation ; 
nomen (from novimeri), a means of recognising, that is, a name. 
The same thing is expressed also by the termination mentum, 
which sometimes occurs along with men; as tegmen and tegu- 
mentum, velamen and velamentum, but much more frequently 
alone, as in adjumentum from adjuvare, a means of relief; con- 
dimentum from condire, condiment, i. e. a means of seasoning; 
documentum, a document, a means of showing or proving a 
thing. Similar words are : 

allevamentum. monumentum. additamentum. experimentum. 

ornamentum. /omentum. alimentum. blandimentum. 

Some substantives of this kind are derived from nouns; thus 
from ater, black, we have atramentum. The connecting vowel 




a before mentum, however, may show that a link was conceived 
to exist between the primitive ater and the derivative atra- 
mentum, such, perhaps, as a verb atrare, blacken. In like 
manner we have calceamentum, a covering for the feet ; capilla- 
mentum, a head-dress, wig. 

[§ 239.] 5. The terminations bulum and ciilum (or ulum, when 

c or (/ precedes) denote an instrmnent or a place serving a 

certain purpose ; e. g. venahulum, a hunter's spear ; vehiculum, a 

vehicle ; ' jaculum^ a javelin ; cingulum, a girdle. So also, 

umbraculum. cuhiculum, ferculum. vinculum, 

poculum, latibulum, stabulum. operculum. 

The termination culum is sometimes contracted into clum, as in 
vinclum ; and clum is changed into crum, and hulum into brum, 
when there is already an I in the stem of the word ; e. g. ful- 
crum, support ; lavacrum, bath ; sepulcrum, sepulchre ; Jlagrum, 
scourge ; ventilabrum, A similar meaning belongs to trum in 
aratrum, plough ; claustrum, lock ; rostrum, beak. Some words 
of this class are derived from substantives, as turibulum, censer 
(tus, turis) ; acetabulum, vinegar cruet ; candelabrum, can- 

6. Other and less productive terminations are a and o, which, 
when appended to the stem of the word, denote the subject of 
the action : conviva, guest ; advena, stranger ; scriba, scribe ; 
transfuga, deserter ; erro, vagrant ; bibo, drunkard ; comedo, 
glutton. By means of the termination io words are derived 
from substantives, denoting a trade to which a person belongs, 
as ludio, the same as histrio, an actor; pellio, furrier; restio, 
rope maker. 

"ium expresses the effect of the verb and the place of the 
action ; e. g. gaudium, joy ; odium, hatred ; colloquium, colloquy ; 
conjugium and connubium, marriage ; aedijicium, building, edifice; 
re- and confugium, place of refuge ; comitium, place of as- 

-igo expresses a state or condition : origo from oriri, origin ; 
vertigo, giddiness ; rubigo, a blight ; petigo and impetigo, scab ; 
prurigo, itch; and hence, porrigo, scurf. A similar meaning 
belongs to ido in cupldo, libido, formido. 

[§ 240.] B. From other Substantives. 
1. The diminutives, or, as Quintilian, i. 5. 46., calls them. 



vocabula deminuta, are mostly formed by the terminations ulus, 
ula, ulum, or cuius, a, um, according to the gender of the pri- 
mitive word : ulus, a, um, is appended to the stem after the 
removal of the termination of the oblique cases, e. g. virga, 
virgula ; servus, servulus ; puer, puerulus ; rex (regis), regulus ; 
caput (capitis), capitulum. So also : 

portula. nummulus, rapulum. facula. 

litterula, hortulus. oppidulum, adolescentulus. 

Instead of ulus, a, um, we find olus, a, um, when the termination 
of the primitive substantive, us, a, um, is preceded by a vowel, 
e. g. 

Jiliolus. gloriola, ingeniolum, 

alveolus. lineola. horreolum. 

The termination cuius, a, um, is sometimes appended to the 
nominative, without any change, viz. in the words in I and r, 
and those in os and us of the third declension, which take an r 
in the genitive ; e. g. 

corculum, fraterculus. flosculus, munusculum. 
tuherculum. sororcula, osculum, corpusculum. 

And so also pulvisculus, vasculum from vas, vasis ; arhuscula from 
the form arbos ; and in a somewhat different manner rumusculus 
from rumor ; lintriculus and ventriculus from linter and venter. 
Sometimes the s of the nominative terminations is and es is 
dropped, as in 

igniculus. aedicula, nubecula. diecula. 

pisciculus. pellicula. vulpecula. plebecula. 

In words of other terminations of the third declension, and 
in those of the fourth, i steps in as a connecting vowel between 
the stem of the word and the diminutive termination cuius; e. g. 

ponticulus. denticulus. versiculus. anicula. 

particula. ossiculum. articulus. corniculum. 

coticula. reticulum. sensiculus. geniculum. 

The termination ellus, a, um, occurs only in those words of 
the first and second declensions which have I, n, or r in their 
terminations. Thus oculus makes ocellus; tabula, tabella; asinus, 
asellus; liber, libellus; libra, libella; lucrum, lucellum. So also 


popellus, fabella, lamella^ patella, agellus, cultellus, Jlabellum, fla- 
gellum, labellum, sacellum, Cistella is the same as cistula, and 
thence we have again cistellula, just as puellula from puella, 
Catellus from canis, BJid porcellus ^roinporcuSf cannot be brought 
under any rule. The termination illus, a, um, occurs more 
rarely, as in bacillum, sigillum, tigillum, pupillus, like pupulus, 
from the obsolete pupus; villum from vinum. So also codicilhis, 
lapillus, anguilla. The termination unculus, «, um, is appended 
chiefly to words in o, gen. onis or inis; as, 

sermunculus. ratiuncula. homunculus, 

pugiunculus, quaestiuncula. virguncula, 

A few diminutives of this sort are formed also from words of 
other terminations, viz. avunculus from avus, domuncula from 
domus, furunculus from fur, ranunculus from rana. The dimi- 
nutive termination leus occurs seldom ; but it is found in equus, 
equuleus; acus, aculeus; liinnus, hinnuleus. 

Note. Only a few diminutives differ in gender from their primitive words, 
as aculeus from acusy fem. ; curriculum from currus, masc. ; and also ranunculus 
from rana, and scamillus (a foot-stool) from scamnum, along with which 
however we also find the regular diminutives ranula and scamellum. Hence, 
there are instances of double diminutives in cases where the primitives have . 
double forms (see $ 98.) ; e. g. catillus and catillum ; pileoltis and pileolum, 
and a few others. The diminutives of common nouns ($ 40.) are said to have 
regularly two forms, one in zas and the other in a, to designate the two 
sexes, as infantulus and infantula, tirunculus, a, from infans and tiro. 

[§ 24i] 2. The termination ium appended to the radical syl- 
lable of the primitive expresses either an assemblage of things or 
persons, or their relation to one another ; e. g. collega, col- 
legium, an assembly of men who are collegae (colleagues) of one 
another; so convivium, repast, or assembly of convivae; ser- 
vitium, the domestics, also servitude ; sacerdotium, the office of 
priest ; minister, ministerium, service ; exul, exilium, exile ; cen- 
sors, consortium, community. When this termination is ap- 
pended to verbal substantives in or, it denotes the place of the 
action, as in repositorium, repository ; conditorium, a place where 
a thing is kept, tomb ; auditorium, a place where people assemble 
for the purpose of listening to a person. 

[§ 242.] 3. -arium denotes a receptacle ; e. g. granarium, a 
granary or place where grain is kept ; armarium (arma), a cup- 
board ; armamentarium, arsenal, or place where the armamenta 


are kept. So also plantarium and seminarium, aerarium, colum- 
harium, tabularium, valetudinarium. 

[§ 243.] 4. —etum appended to the names of plants denotes the 
place where they grow in great number; e. g. quercus, quer- 
cetum, a plantation of oaks ; so also vinetum) lauretum, esculetum, 
dumetum, myrtetum, olivetum; and, after the same analogy, sax- 
etum, a field covered with stones ; and, with some change, salic- 
turn (from saJix), pasture, instead of salicetum; virgultum instead 
of virguletum, arhustum from arbos (for arbor), instead of arbo- 

[§ 244.] 5. -Ue appended to names of animals indicates the 
place in which they are kept ; e. g. bubile (rarely bovile), stall 
of oxen ; equile, stable (of horses) ; so also caprile, hoedile, ovile. 
Some which are formed from verbs indicate the place of the 
action expressed by the verb, as cubile, sedile. All these words 
are properly neuters of adjectives, but their other genders are 
not used. Compare § 250. ' 

[§ 245.] 6. With regard to patronymics, or names of descent, 
which the Latin poets have adopted from the poetical language 
of the Greeks, the student must be referred to the Greek 
grammar. The most common termination is ides, as Priamus, 
Priamides; Cecrops, Cecropides; names in eus and cles make 
%des (sihrjs) ; e. g. Atrides, Pelides, Heraclidae. The names in 
as of the first declension make their patronymics in ades; as 
Aeneas, Aeneades. The termination iades should properly occur 
only in names ending ivTius, such as Thestius, Thestiades; but 
it is used also in other names, according to the requirements of 
the particular verse ; as Laertes, Laertiades ; Atlas, Atlantiades; 
Abas, Abantiades; Telamon, Telamoniades. 

The feminine patronymics are derived from the masculines, 
ides being changed into is. Ides into eis, and iades into ias; e. g. 
Tantalides, Tantalis; Nereus, Nereis; Thestius, Thestias. Aene- 
ades (from Aeneas) alone makes the feminine Aeneis, because the 
regular feminine, Aeneas, would be the same as the primitive. 
In some instances we find the termination me or ione, as Nep- 
tunine, Acrisione, 

[§ 246.] C. From Adjectives. 
1. The termination itas is the most common in forming sub- 
stantives denoting the quality expressed by the adjective as an 



abstract notion, and is equivalent to the English ty or ity. The 
adjective itself in appending itas undergoes the same changes 
as in its oblique cases, especially in the one which ends in L 
Thus from atrox, atroci, we obtain atrocitas; from cupidus, 
cupidi, cupiditas. So also capax, capacitas; celer, celeritas; 
saluber, saluhritas; crudelis, crudelitas; facilis, facilitas; clarus, 
claritas ; fecv/ndus, fecunditas ; verus, Veritas, Libertas is formed 
without a connecting vowel, and facultas and difflcultas with 
a change of the vowel, as in the adverb difficulter. 

The adjectives in ius make their substantives in ietas; e. g. 
anxietas, ebrietas, pietas, varietas; those in stus make them in 
stas: honestas, venustas, vetustas ; in a similar manner potestas 
and. voluntas are formed from posse and veJle. 

2. Another very common termination is ia, but it occurs 
only in substantives derived from adjectives of one termi- 
nation, which add ia to the crude form of the oblique cases. 
From audax, dat. audaci, we have audacia, and from concorsy 
concordi, concordia. So also clemens, dementia; constans, con- 
stantia; impudentia, elegantia; appetentia and despicientia occur 
along with appetitio and appetitus, despectio and despectus. Some 
adjectives in us and er, however, likewise form their substan- 
tives in ia; e. g. miser, miseria; angustus, angustia; perfidus^ 
perfidia; and several verbal adjectives in cundus; as, facundus, 
facundia; iracundus, iracundia; verecundus, verecundia. 

[§ 247.] 3. There are numerous substantives in which tUdo is 
appended to the case of the adjective ^ding in i; e. g. acritudo, 
aegritudo, altitudo, crastitudo, longitudo, magnitmdo, fortitudo, 
similitudo; and in polysyllables in tus, tudo directly grows out 
of this termination, as in consuetudo, mansuetudo, inquietudo, 
sollicitudo, Valetudo stands alone. Some of these substantives 
exist along with other forms, as beatitudo, claritudo, Jirmi- 
tudo, lenitudo, and sanctitudo, along with beatitas, claritas, fir- 
mitas, &c. In these cases the words in Udo seem to denote the 
duration and peculiarity of the quality more than those in itas. 
To these we must add the termination monia, which produces 
the same signification, e. g. sanctimonia, castimonia, acrimonia, 
after the analogy of which parsimonia and querimojiia (stronger 
than querela) are formed from verbs. 

4. Substantives in itia, from adjectives in us, are of more rare 
occurrence, as justitia from Justus, justi. So avaritia, laetitia, 
maestitia, pudicitia; but also tristitia from tristis. 


5. The termination edo occurs only in a few substantives ; as 
albedo, dulcedo, gravedo (heaviness or cold in the head), pinguedo 
(along with pinguitudo), 

, III. Adjectives. 

Adjectives iire derived : — 

A. From Verbs. 

[§ 248.] 1. With the termination hundus, chiefly from verbs 
of the first conjugation, e. g. errabundus from err are, cogita- 
hundus from cogitare, gratulabundus from gratulari, popula- 
bundus from populari. Their signification is, in general, that of 
a participle present, with the meaning strengthened, a circum- 
stance which we must express in English by the addition of other 
words ; e. g. haesitabundus, full of hesitation ; deliberabundus, 
fuU of deliberation ; mirabundus, full of admiration ; venera- 
bundus, full of veneration ; lacrimabundus, weeping profusely. 
Thus Gellius explains laetabundus as one qui abunde laetus est 
There are but few adjectives of this kind derived from verbs of 
the third conjugation ; fremebundus, gemebundus, furibundus, 
ludibundus, moribundus, nitibundus. There is only one from a 
verb of the second conjugation, viz. pudibundus; and likewise 
one only from a verb of the fourth, lascivibundus. 

Note. These verbal adjectives in bundus however cannot be regarded as 
mere participles, for in general tliey do not govern any case. But We 
find in Livy the expressions vitabundus castra^ mirahundi vanam speciem. A 
considerable list of such expressions is given in Ruddimannus, Instit. Gram- 
mat. Lat. torn. i. p. 309. ed. Lips. . * 

Some verbal adjectives in cundus are of a similar kind: 
facundus, eloquent ; iracundus, irascible ; verecundus, fuU of 
bashfulness ; rubicundus, the same as rubens, reddish. 

[§ 249.] 2. The ending idus, chiefly in adjectives formed from 
intransitive verbs, simply denotes the quality expressed by the 
verb : 

calidus, from calere, rubidus, from rubere. 

algidus, from algere, turgidus, from turgere. 

madidus, from mddere. rapidus, from rapere. 

The termination uus is of more rare occurrence ; e. g. con- 
gruus from congruo, agreeing; assiduus, nocuus and innocuus, 

p 2 


When derived from transitive verbs, it gives to the adjective a 
passive meaning, as in irriguus, well watered ; conspicuus, visi- 
ble; individuus, indivisible. 

3. The terminations ilis and Ulis denote the possibility of a 
thing in a passive sense; e. g. amahilis, easy to love, hence 
amiable ; placahilis, easy to be conciliated ; delebilis, easy to be 
destroyed; vincibilis, easy to be conquered; facilis, easy to do; 
docilis, docile ; fragilis, fragile. Some of these adjectives, how- 
ever, have an active meaning : horribilis, producing horror, hor- 
rible ; terrihilis, terrible, that is, producing terror; fertilis, 

4. -ax appended to the stem of the verb expresses a pro- 
pensity, and generally a faulty one : 

pugnax, furax. 

edax and vorax, audax, 

loquax. rapax. 

The few adjectives in iilus have a similar meaning, as credulus, 
credulous ; hibulus, fond of drinking ; querulus, querulous. 

[§ 250.] B. From Substantives, viz. 
a) From Appellatives : 

1. The ending eus denotes the material, and sometimes simi- 
larity, e. g. 

ferreus. ligneus, plumheus, virgineus. 

■ aureus, citreus, cinereus. igneus, 

argenteus, buxeus, corporeus, vitreus. 

Some adjectives of this kind have a double form in -neus and 
-nus ; as, eburneus and eburnus, ficulneus 2CiAjiculnus, iligneus 
and ilignus, querneus and quernus, saligneus and salignus. 

2. -icus expresses belonging or relating to a thing ; e. g. 
classicus from classis ; civicus, relating to a citizen ; dominicus, 
belonging to a master; rusticus^ rur^l ; aulicus, relating to a 
court ; bellicuSf relating to war, &c. 

3. The termination His (comp. § 20.) has the same meaning, 
but assumes also a moral signification, e. g. civilis and hostilis, 
the same as civicus and hosticus, but also answering to our civil 
and hostile. So servilis, senilis, anilis, juvenilis, puerilis, virilis, 

4. The endings aceus and icius sometimes express a ma- 
terial and sometimes the origin, e. g. chartaceus, membranaceus. 


papyraceus ; caementicius, latericius, patricius, trihunicius. So 
also those derived from participles : collaticius, arisen from con- 
tributions ; commenticius, fictitious ; suhditicius, supposititious, 
and others. 

[§ 251.] 5. The termination dlis (in English at) is appended 
not only to words in a, but also to substantives of other ter- 
minations, in which, however, the termination is appended 
to the crude form of the oblique cases ; e. g. ancora, conviva^ 
letum — ancoralis, convivalis, letalis ; but from rex, regis, we 
have regalis ; virgo, virginalis ; sacerdos, sacerdotalis ; caput, 
capitalis ; corpus, corporalis. So also auguralis, aditialis, comi- 
tialis, annalis, Jluvialis, mortalis, novalis, socialis, and others. 
Also from proper names, as Augustalis, Claudialis, Flavialis, 
Trajanalis, to denote classes of priests instituted in honour of 
those emperors. The ending aris is somewhat more seldom, 
and principally occurs in such words as contain an /; such as, 
articularis, consularis, popularis, puellaris, vulgaris, Apollinaris. 

The termination atilis denotes fitness for the thing expressed 
by the root ; as, aquatilis, Jluviatilis, volatilis. 

6. The termination ius occurs most frequently in derivatives 
from personal nouns in or ; e. g. accusatorius, amatorius, alea- 
torius, censorius, imperatorius, praetorius, uxorius. It occurs 
more rarely in substantives of other terminations, though we 
have regius, patrius, aquilonius. From substantives in or which ^ 
do not denote persons, but abstract notions, adjectives are formed 
by simply appending us ; as decor, decorus, and so also canorus, 
odorus, honorus (less frequently used than honestus), 

[§ 252.] 7. -Inus is found especially in derivations from names 
of animals (especially to denote their flesh), e. g. 

asininus. ferinus, haedinus anserinus, 

caninus. equinus, cahallinus, anatinus. 

camelinus. taurinus, arietinus, viperinus. 

But it also occurs in adjectives derived from names of other 
living beings, e. g. divinus, libertinus, inquilinus (from incolci), 
masculinus, femininus (marinus, living in the sea, stands alone). 
Medicina, sutrina, tonstrina, pistrinum, textrinum, are to be 
explained by the ellipsis of a substantive, and denote the locality 
in which the art or trade is carried on. 

p 3 


The termination mus, on the other hand, occurs chiefly in 
derivations from names of plants and minerals, to denote the 
material of which a thing is made ; e. g. cedrmus, fagmus, 
adamanfinus, crystalUnuSf and the ending tinus in derivative 
adjectives denoting time, as crastinus, diutmus, hornotinus, an- 
notinus. See § 20. 

8. The termination arius expresses a general relation to the 
noun from which the adjective is formed, but more particularly 
the occupation or profession of a person ; e. g. 

coriarius, carbonarius. scapharius. ostiarius, 

statuarius. aerarius. navicularius, consiliarius. 

sicarius, argentarius, codicarius, classiarius, 

9. The ending osus denotes fulness or abundance ; as in 

aerumnosus, aquosus, bellicosus. 

animosus. lapidosus- caliginosus. 

artificiosus. vinosus, tenehricosus. 

The ending uosus occurs exclusively in derivations from words 
of the fourth declension : actuosus, portuosus, saltuosus, vul- 
tuosus ; but also monstruosus which is used along with monstrosus. 

10. The termination lentus denotes plenty, and is commonly 
preceded by the vowel u, and sometimes by o : 

fraudulentus. vinolentus. pulverulentus. 

turhulentus. opulentus. violentus. 

esculentus, potulentus. sanguinolentus, 

11. Less productive and significant terminations are ; -anus 
which denotes belonging to a thing : urhanus, montanus, humanus 
(from homo). (Respecting the adjectives formed from numerals 
by means of this termination, see § 118. Thus we &nd febris 
tertiana, quartana, a fever returning every third or fourth day) ; 
— Ivus generally denotes the manner or nature of a thing : fur- 
tivus, votivus, aestivuSy tempestivus ; also from participles : capti- 
vus, nativusy sativus ; — emus denotes origin : fraternus^ maternus, 
paternus, infernuSi externus. The same termination and urnus 
occur in adjectives denoting time : vernus, hibernus, liesternus, 
aeternus (from aeviternus), diurnus, nocturnus ; — itimus occurs in 

Jinitimus, legitimus, maritimus. The termination -ster in the 
adjectives mentioned in § 100. denotes the place of abode or 
a quality. 



[§ 253.] A very extensive class of derivative adjectives end 
in atus^ like participles perfect passive of the first conjugation, 
but they are derived at once from substantives, without its 
being possible to show the existence of an intermediate verb. 
Thus we have, e. g., aurum and auratus^ gilt ; but a verb aurare 
does not occur, and its existence is assumed only for the sake of 
derivation. Some adjectives of this kind are formed from sub- 
stantives in is and end in itus, as auritus, provided with ears ; 
pellitus, covered with a skin; turritus, having towers, and so 
also mellitus, sweet as honey. Some few are formed by the 
ending utus from substantives in us, gen. us ; as, cornutus, as- 
tutus; and according to this analogy nasutus, from nasus, i. 
Those in atus are very numerous, e. g. 

barbatus. calceatus, aeratus, ' 

togatus. clipeatus, dentatus, 

galeatus. oculatus. falcatus. 

[§ 254.] b) From Proper Names. 

We may here distinguish four classes: — 1. names of men, 
2. of towns, 3. of nations, 4. of countries. 

1. The termination ianus is the most common in forming; 
adjectives from Roman names of men, not only from those 
ending in ius, such as Tullianus, Servilianus, but also from 
those in tis and other endings ; as Crassianus, Marcellianus, Pau- 
lianus, Caesarianus, Catonianus, Ciceronianus : anus occurs only 
in names in a, and is therefore found less frequently; as 
Cinnanus, Sullanus, still, on the other hand, we find septa 
Agrippiana, legio Galbiana, Gracchus is the only name in us 
that commonly makes Gracchauus ; for Augustanus, Lepidanus, 
and Lucullanus occur along with Augustianus, Lepidianus, and 
Lucullianus. The termination inus is found chiefly in derivatives 
from names of families, e. g. Messalinus, Paulinus, Rufinus, 
Agrippina, Plancina ; in real adjectives it occurs much more 
rarely, but it is well established in Jugurtha, Jugurthinus (for 
which however Jugurthanus also might have been used) ; Plau- 
tus, Plautinus ; Verves, Verrinus, to distinguish them from 
Plautius, Plautianus ; Verrius, Verrianus. In Suetonius, more- 
over, we find belium Viriathinum, fossa Drusina, and in Cicero 
oratio Metellina (an oration delivered against Metellus), ad Att, 
i. 13. ; belium Antiochinum, Philip, xi, 7. ; and partes Antio- 

V 4 


chinae, ad Fam. ix. 8. The termination eus in Caesar eus, 
Herculeus, Romuleus, is used only by poets. 

There are two terminations for forming adjectives from Greek 
names of men, eus or lus (in Greek suos, see § 2.) and wus. 
Some names form adjectives in both terminations with a slight 
difference in meaning, e. g. Philippeus and Philippicus^ Pytha- 
goreus and Pyihagoricus, Isocrateus and Isocraticus, Homerius 
and Homericus. Of others, one form only is used, as De- 
mosthenicus, Platonicus^ Socraticus. To these we must add 
those in -iacus formed from names in ias, e. g. Archias. On the 
other hand, we have Antiochius, Aristotelius, or with a different 
pronunciation, Achilleus, Epicureus, Heracleus, Sophocleus, Theo- 
doreus. Sometimes adjectives in eus are formed also from Latin 
names, -though, at the best period of the language, never without 
a definite reason ; e. g. in Cicero, in Verr. iii. 49., Marcellia and 
Verria, Greek festivals in honour of those persons; but after- 
wards we find, without this peculiar meaning, Augusteus, Lu- 
culleus (in Pliny and Suetonius), Neroneus, Roman objects being 
thus designated by words with a Greek termination. 

Note. It must however be observed that the Roman gentile names in lus were 
originally adjectives, and were always used as such. We thus read lex Cor- 
nelia., Julia., Tullia, via'Flaminia, Valeria, Appia, aqua Julia, circus Flaminius, 
theat^um Pompejum, liorrea Sulpicia, instead of the adjectives in anu^. IS'ay, the 
Romans made this very proper distinction, that the adjectives in ius denoted 
every thing which originated with the person in question and was destined for 
public use, while those in anus denoted that which was named after the 
person for some reason or other ; e. g. lex Sulpicia, but seditio Sulpiciana ; 
aqua Appia, but mala Appiana ; porticus Pompeja, but classis Pompejana, &c. 
The former meaning is also expressed when the name itself is used adjectively, 
as aquxi Trajana, portus Trajanus, though an adjective in ianus was formed 
even from names ending in anus, as malum Sejanianum, SCtum Silanianum. 
According to this analogy Augustus, a, um, was used for Augustianus, Augus- 
tanus, or Augustalis ; e. g. domus Augusta, pax Augusta, scriptores historiae 
Augustae. The poets went still further, and Horace, for example (Carm. iv. 
5. 1.) says; Romulae gentis custos, for Romuleae. 

[§ 255.] 2. From names of places, and chiefly from those 
of towns, adjectives are derived ending in ensis, Inus, as and 

a) -ensis, also from common or appellative nouns, e. g. castr en- 
sis from castra ; circensis from circus ; and from names of towns : 
Cannae, Cannensis ; Catina, Catinensis ; Ariminum, Ariminensis ; 
Comunif Comensis ; Mediolanum, Mediolanensis ; Sulmo, Sul- 
monensis ; from (Greek) towns in la (ea) : Antiochensis, Antigo- 


nensis, Attalensis, Nicomedensis, but in Heracliensis the i is 

/S) -Inus from names in la and ium ; e. g. Ameria, Amerinus ; 
Aricia, Aricinus ; Florentia, Florentinus ; Caudiunif Caudinus ; 
Clusium, Clusinus ; Canusium, Canusinus, And so also from 
Latium, Latinus, and from Capitolium, Capitolinus. 

7) -as (for all genders) is used less extensively, and only 
forms adjectives from names of towns in um, though not from 
all. It occurs in Arpinum, Arpinas ; Aquinum, Aquinas ; 
Privernunii Privernas ; Ferentinum, Ferentinas {ager)\ Casili- 
num, Casilinas (along with Casilinensis), But Ravenna also 
makes Ravennas ; Capena, Capenas ; Ardea, Ardeas ; Inter- 
amna, Interamnas (also ager) ; Frusino, Frusinas, Antium 
makes Antias, but we find also Antiense templum and Antiatinae 

S) -anus from names of towns in a and ae ; e. g. Roma, Ro- 
manus ; Alba, Albanus* ; Sparta, Spartanus ; Cumae, Cu- 
manus ; Syracusae, Syracusanus ; Thehae, Tliebanus ; also from 
some in um and i : Tusculum, Tusculanus ; Fundi, Fundanus. 

[§ 256.] Greek adjectives, however, formed from names of 
towns, or such as were introduced into Latin through the litera- 
ture of the Greeks, follow different rules which must be learned 
from a Greek grammar. We will here only remark that the 
most frequent ending is lus, by means of which adjectives are 
formed also from Greek names of countries and islands ; e. g. 
Aegyptus, Aegyptius ; Lesbos, Lesbius ; Rhodus, Rhodius ; Co- 
rinthus, Corinthius ; Fphesus, Fphesius ; Chius, Chius (instead 
of Chiius) ; Lacedaemon, Lacedaemonius ; Marathon, Maratho- 
nius ; Salamis, Salaminius ; Eretria, Eretrius. Other names 
in « take the termination aeus, as Smyrna, Smyrnaeus ; Tegea, 
Tegeaeus ; Larissa, Larissaeus ; Perga, Pergaeus, and so also 
Cumae (Kvfjbrj) makes the Greek adjective Cumaeus, In the 
case of towns not in Greece, even when they are of Greek 
origin, we most frequently find the termination mus : Tarentum, 
Tarentinus ; Agrigentum, Agrigentinus ; Centuripae, Centuri- 
pinus ; Metapontum, Metapontinus ; Rhegium, Rheginus, whereas 
the Latin Regium Lepidi makes the adjective Regiensis. It not 
unfrequently happened that the Romans, as may be observed 

* Albaniis is formed from Alba Longa, Albensis from Alha on lake Fucinus. 


in some instances already mentioned, formed adjectives from 
Greek names of towns in their own way, and without any 
regard to the Greek forms ; e. g. Atheniensis instead of Athe- 
naeus, Thehanus instead of Thehaeus (while Thehaicus is an ad- 
jective derived from the Egyptian Thebes), Eretriensis along 
with EretriuSy Syracusanus along with Syracusius, Eleusinus 
more frequently than the Greek form Eleusinius. The Greek 
ending svs was most commonly changed into ensis ; sometimes, 
however, it was retained along with the Latin form, as Hali- 
carnasseus and Halicarnassensis. In like manner the Greek 
It7)s was sometimes retained, as in Ahderites ; and sometimes 
changed into anus, as in Panormitanus, Tyndaritanus, especially 
in all the Greek name^ of towns compounded with polis, as 
Neapolitanus, Megalopolitanus, The other Greek terminations 
are usually retained in Latin. 

[§ 257.] 3. From names which originally belong to nations, 
adjectives are formed in icus and ius, in most cases in icus, e. g. 
from Afer, Britannus, Gallus, Germanus, Italus, Marsus, Medus, 
Celta, Persa, Scytha, Arabs, Aethiops, we have the adjectives 
Africus, Britannicus, Celticus, Arahicus, &c. ; those in ius are 
formed from some Greek names, as Syrus, Syrius ; Cilix, 
Cilicius ; Thrax, Thracius. Other names of nations are at 
once substantives and adjectives, as Graecus, Etruscus, Sardus, 
or adjectives and at the same time substantives, as Romanus, 
Latinus, Sahinus. Other substantive names again serve indeed 
as adjectives, but still form a distinct adjective in icus, as His- 
panus, Hispanicus ; Appulus, Appulicus ; Samnis, Samniticus. 
In like manner, Caeres, Vejens, Carriers, Tihurs are both 
substantives and adjectives, but still form distinct adjectives 
according to the analogy of names of towns : Caeretanus, Vejen- 
tanus, Camertinus, Tiburtinus, 

Note. It must be remarked that poets and the later prose writers, in ge- 
neral, use the substantive form also as an adjective ; e.g. Marsm aper^ Colcha 
venenuy although Colchicus and Marsicus exist ; Herat. Carm. iv. 6. 7. : Dar- 
danas turres quateret ; vers. 12. : in pulvere Teucro ; vers. 18.: Achivis Jlammis 
urere^ instead of Achaicie. And this is not only the case with these forms of 
the second declension, which externally resemble adjectives, but Ovid and 
Juvenal say Numidae leones, Numidac ursi instead of Numidici ; and Persius 
says : Ligus ora for Ligustica. The Greek feminine forms of names of nations 
are likewise used as adjectives ; thus Virgil says : Cressa pJiaretra for Cretica^ 
Amonis ora for Ausonia, and the like. The same liberty is taken by poets 
with the names of rivers m us'. Thus Horace, Carm. iv. 4. 38. has : Metau- 


rumflumen; de Art. Poet 18. : flumen Rhenum. Even prosewriters sometimes 
follow their example in this respect: Plin. Hist. Nat. iii. 16. : ostium Erida- 
nttm; Caes. B. G. iii. 7., and Tacit. Ann. i. 9., Hist. iv. 12. : mare Oceanum. 

[§ 258.] 4. The names of countries, with some exceptions, 
such as the Latin names of districts, Latium and Samnium, and 
those borrowed from the Greek language, Aegyptus, Epirus, Per sis, 
are themselves derived from the names of nations ; e. g. Bri- 
tannia, Gallia, Italia, Syria, Thracia, sometimes with slight 
changes, as in Sardi, Sardinia; and Siculi, Sieilia. Africa and 
Corsica are real adjectives, to which terra is understood. From 
some of these countries, adjectives are formed witii the terminations 
ensis and anus, as Graeciensis, Hispaniensis, Siciliensis; Africanus, 
Gallicanus, Germanicianus, which must be carefully distinguished 
from the adjectives derived from the names of the respective 
nations. Thus exercitus Hispaniensis signifies an army stationed 
in Spain, but not an army consisting of Spaniards ; but spartum 
Hispanicum is a plant indigenous in Spain. The following are 
some peculiar adjectives of Greek formation : Aegyptiacus, Sy~ 
riacus. Graecanicus is strangely formed, and expresses Greek 
origin or Greek fashion. 

[§ 259.] C. From other Adjectives. 

Diminutives are formed from some adjectives by the termina- 
tions ulus, olus, cuius, and ellus, according to the rules which 
were given above, § 240., with regard to diminutive substantives. 
Thus we have parvulus, horridulus, nasutulus, primulus ; au- 
reolus ; pauperculus, leviculus, tristiculus ; misellus, novellus, 
pulchellus, tenellus. Double diminutives are formed from, paucus 
and paulus : paululus or pauxillus, and pauxillulus, a, um ; and 
from bonus {benus), hellus and bellulus. Respecting the diminu- 
tives derived from comparatives, comp. § 104. 2. Note. 

The termination aneus appended to the stem of an adjective 
(and participle) in us, expresses a resemblance to the quality 
denoted by the primitive ; e. g. supervacaneus, of a superfluous 
nature ; but there are only few words of this kind : rejectaneus, 
suhitanev^, collectaneus, and, according to. their analogy, consen- 
taneus, praecidaneus, succidaneus. 

[§ 260.] Besides derivation new words are also formed by 
composition. In examining such Avords we may consider either 
the first or the second part of which a compound consists. 

The first word is either a noun, a verb, or a particle. The 


second remains unchanged, e. g. benefacio, beneficium, maledico, 
satago ; a contraction takes place only in nolo, from ne (for non) 
and volOf and in mdlo, from mage (for magis) and volo, Prepb- 
sitions are used more frequently than any other particles in 
forming compound words. Respecting their signification and 
the changes produced in pronunciation by the meeting of hete- 
rogeneous consonants, see Chap. LXVI. 

There are only a few words in which verbs form the first 
part of a compound, and wherever this is the case, the verb 
facio forms the latter part, as in arefacio, calefacio, madefacio, 
patefacio, condocefacio, commonefacio, assuefacio and consuefacio. 
The only change in the first verbs (which belong to the second 
conjugation) is that they throw off the o of the present. 

When the first word is a noun (substantive or adjective), it 
regularly ends in a short i. 





















So also biceps, trigeinini fratres, centifolia rosa, centimanus Gyges, 
from centum, whereas otherwise the compositions with numerals 
are different, as quadrupes, and without any change ; quinquere- 
mis. A contraction takes place in tibicen for tibiicen, from tibia 
and cano, whereas in tubicen and Jidicen the connecting vowel 
is short according to the rule, there being no i in the words 
tuba and fides. When the second word begins with a vowel, 
the connecting i is thrown out, as in magnanimus, unanimis, 
with which we may compare unimanus and uniformis. 

Those words the parts of which are declined separately, may 
likewise be regarded as compounds, although they form one 
word only in so far as they are commonly written as such ; as 
respublica, jusjurandum, rosmarinus, tresviri. So also those of 
which the first word is a genitive, as senatusconsultum, plebiscitum, 
duumvir, triumvir, thai is, one of the duoviri or tresviri. 

Note, The Greek language regularly makes the first part of a compound, 
when it is a noun, end in o; e. g. (pt\6cro<pog, Xoyoypacpog, (TojfxarocpvXaKy ^vpo^oi- 
viK. As many such Greek compounds passed over into the Latin language, 
such as philosopkus, philologus, graecostasis^ Gallograeci^ we may form similar 
compounds in modern Latin, but only in the case of proper names. "« 


Francogalli, Graeco-Latinus. There is no good reason for rejecting them, if 
they really denote one thing which is formed by the combination of two 
elements. .^ 

[§ 261.] Tlie latter word in the composition determines to 
what part of speech the whole belongs. In compositions 
with particles, the second word either remains unchanged, or 
undergoes only a slight variation in its vowel. This variation 
must be here considered, especially with regard to the radical 
vowel of the verb ; for the vowels i, o, u, a and e remain un- 
changed, as in ascrlbo, comminor, appono, excolo, adducoy illdhor, 
suhrepo ; but a and e and the diphthong ae frequently undergo a 
change: 1. a remains only in the compounds of caveo, maneo, 
and traho ; but in most other cases it is changed into t, e. g. 
constituo from statuo, accipio from capio, abjicio from jacio, ar^ 
ripio from rapio, incido from cado, adigo from ago; so also at- 
tingo from tango, confringo from frango ; it is changed into e in 
ascendo, aspergo, confercio, refello, impertio (along with impartio). 
2. e sometimes remains unchanged, as in appeto, contego, contero, 
congerO, but sometimes it is changed into ^ ; assideo from sedeo, 
ahstineo from teneo, arrigo from rego, aspieio from specio. Both 
forms occur in the compounds of legere, e. g. perlego, read 
through ; intelUgo, understand, but intellego too was used in 
early times. 3. The diphthong ae remains unchanged only in 
the compounds of haereo, as adhaereo ; it is changed into i in the 
compounds of caedo, laedo, quaero, e. g. incido, illido, inquiro. 
Other particulars may be gathered from the lists of irregular 

In the composition of nouns with verbs, the second word 
undergoes more violent changes, and the rules already given 
respecting derivation must be taken into account here. But 
nouns are also formed in composition with verbs by the mere 
abbreviation of the ending, and without any characteristic syl- 
lable of derivation. Thus we have from cano, tuhicen ; from 
gero, claviger, armiger ; from fero, cistifer, signifer ; from facio, 
artifex, pontifex ; from capio, princeps, municeps, particeps. 
Compounded adjectives are derived from verbs by the termina- 
tion us, which is appended to the verbal stem : mortiferus, igni- 
vomus, dulcisonus, like consonus, carnivorus, causidicus ; and from 
substantives with a very slight or no change at all, e. g. centi- 
manus, capripes, misericors, uniformis. 


Note. When the parts of a compound word are separated by the insertion 
of one or two unaccented words, it is called, by a grammatical term, a tmesis. 
Such a tmesis, however, occurs in prose only in the case of relative pronouns 
compounded with cunque, more rarely in those with libet and in adjectives or 
adverbs compounded with per, so that we may say, e. g. quod enim cunque 
Judicium subierat vicit ; qua re cunque potero tihi serviam ; qu^de id cunque 
est; per mihi gratum feceris ; per mihi, inquam, gratum feceris. 




[§262.] 1. As the adjective qualifies a substantive, so the 
adverb qualifies a verb, an adjective (consequently a participle 
also), and even another adverb ; e. g. prudens homo prudenter 
agit; felix homo feliciter vivit ; eximie doctus ; domus celeriter 
extructa ; satis bene scripsit. 

Note. There are only certain cases in which an adverb can be joined with 
a substantive, viz. when the substantive is used as an adjective or participle, 
and accordingly denotes a quality, as populv^ late rex for late regnans:, ruling 
far and wide ; admodum puer erat, he was very young, or very much like a 
boy ; — or when a participle is understood to the adverb, e. g. Tacit. Ann. ii. 
20. : gravihv^ supeme ictihus conflictabantur, that is, supeme accidentibus, com- 
ino- from above; ibid. 12. 61.: nullis extrinsecus adjumentis velavit, that is, 
extrinsecus ductis or assumptis, by outward or external reasons. In this manner 
Livy frequently uses the adverb circa in the sense of neighbouring ; e.g. i. 17. : 
multarum circa civitatum irritatis animis. An adverb may be joined with pro- 
nominal adjectives, when their adjective character predominates, as in homo 
plane noster, entirely ours, that is, devoted to us. 

2. Adverbs belong to those parts of speech which are in- 
capable of inflexion, for they have neither cases nor any other 
forms to denote the difference of persons, tenses, or moods. 
But an adverb approaches nearest the declinable parts of speech, 
inasmuch as adverbs derived from adjectives or participles 
take the same degrees of comparison as the latter. We have, 
therefore, in the first place to consider only the etymology of 
adverbs and then their degrees of comparison. 

With regard to their etymology, adverbs are either simple or 


primitive {primitiva) or derived (derivata). We shall first treat 
of derivative adverbs ; their number is great, and certain laws 
are followed in their formation. 

[§ 263.] 3. By far the greater number of derivative adverbs 
end in e and ter, and are derived from adjectives and participles 
(present active and perfect passive). 

Adjectives and participles in usy a, um, and adjectives in 
er, a, um (that is, those which follow the second declension), 

Adverbs with the termination e. 

Thus altus, longus, molestus, doctus, emendatus, ornatus, make 
the adverbs alte, longe, moleste, docte, emendate, ornate. With 
regard to adjectives in er, a, um, the formation of adverbs 
varies according as they throw out the e in the oblique cases or 
retain it (see § 48. and 51.), for the adverbs follow the oblique 
cases. Thus liher and miser make lihere and misere ; but aeger 
{aegri) and pulcher [pulchri) make aegre and pulchre. Bonus 
makes the adverb bene, from an ancient form benus. Bene and 
male are the only adverbs of this class that end in a short e. 

Note 1. Inferne^ below, and irderne^ within, although derived from adjectives 
in us^ are used with a short e, the former by Lucretius and the latter by 
Ausonius, the only writers in which these adverbs respectively occur. To 
these we must add «Mj9erne, above, in Lucretius and Horace, Carm. ii. 20. 11., 
though in the latter the quantity of the e is a disputed point. It cannot be 
ascertained whether the poets made the e in these words short by a poetical 
licence, or whether these adverbs have any thing particular. 

Note 2. Some adverbs in e differ in their meaning from their respective 
adjectives, but they must nevertheless be regarded as derived from them. 
Thus sane (from sanus^ sound, well) signifies " certainly ;" valde (from validus, 
strong, contracted from t?a/2C?e, which furnishes the degrees of comparison) 
signifies "very;" &nd plane signifies "plainly," like planus^ but also takes the 
meaning of " entirely," or " thoroughly." 

[§ 264.] 4. All other adjectives and the participles in ns (con- 
sequently all adjectives which follow the third declension) form 

Adverbs in ter, 

and retain the changes which occur in the genitive. The 
genitive is is changed into iter, except the genitive in ntis (from 
the nom. in ns), which makes the adverb in nter ; e. g. elegans, 
eleganter ; amans, amantef ; conveniens, convenienter ; but par. 


pariter ; utilis, utiliter ; tenuis, tenuiter ; celer, eris, celeriter ; sa- 
luber, salubriter, and so also ferociter, simpliciter, dupliciter, 
concorditer, audaciter (or more frequently contracted into au- 

Note 1. The termination ter serves also to form the adverbs aliter^ other- 
wise, and propter^ beside ; the former from the original form alis^ neuter alid^ 
and the latter from prope^ being abridged for propiter. (See No. 7. note 1.) 
Vehementer is derived from vehemens, but takes the signification of " very," 
like valde; e. g. Cic. de Off", ii. 21. : vehementer se moderatum praehuit. The 
indeclinable nequam has the adverb nequiter. 

Note 2. The adjectives mentioned in § 101., which have double termi- 
nations, us^ a, Mm, and w, e, ought to have also a double form of their 
adverbs, but this is the case only in hilare and hUariter; with regard to imbe- 
cillus it remains uncertain, as the positive of the adverb does not occur ; and 
in the case of the other adjectives of this kind the adverb is wanting alto- 
gether. There are, on the other hand, some adjectives in ms, a, nm^ of which 
the adverbs have two forms (abundantid) ; as dure, duriter; firme, Jirmiter; 
nave, naviter ; humane, inhumane — humaniter, inhumaniter; large, largiter; 
luculente, luculenter; turbulente, turbulenter; and in the early language many 
more, which are mentioned by Priscian, xv. 3. Of violentus, fraudulentm^ 
and temulentv^, adverbs in ter only exist : violenter, fraudidenter, temulenter. 

[§ 265.] 5. Although in grammar an adverb is assigned to 
every adjective, yet the dictionary must frequently be consulted, 
for there are some adjectives whose very signification does not 
admit the formation of an adverb, as, for example, those 
which denote a material or colour ; while with respect to others 
we can say no more than that no adverb of them is found in the 
writers whose works have come down to us, as of the adjectives 
amens, dims, discors, gnarus, rudis, trux, imbellis, immobilis, in- 
flexibilis, and others compounded in the same mariner. Of vetus 
the adverbs are vetuste and antique, and oi fidus, Jideliter, de- 
rived from other adjectives of the same meaning. It frequently 
happens that adverbs exist in the degrees of comparison, without 
their form of the positive being found ; e. g. tristiter and socor- 
diter are not to be found, and instead of uberiter, ubertim is used ; 
but the comparatives tristius, socordius, uberius, and the super- 
latives are of common use. The adverb magne does not occur, 
but its irregular comparative magis, and the superlative maxime, 
are of very common occurrence. Multum, plus, plurimum have 
no adverbs, but these neuters in some cases serve themselves as 

[§ 266.] 6. Sometimes particular cases of adjectives supply 
the place of the regularly formed adverbs in e; a) of some ad- 


Xfci 225 


jectives in us, a, um, and er, a, um, the ablative singular in o 
is used as an adverb; e. g. arcano and secreto, secretly; cito, 
quickly ; continuo, immediately ; crebro, frequently ; falso, 
wrongly; gratuito, gratis; liquido, clearly; manifesto, mani- 
festly : mutuo, as a loan, hence mutually ; necessario, neces- 
sarily; perpetuo, perpetually; precario, by entreaties; raro, 
rarely; sedulo, sedulously; serio, seriously; suhito, suddenly; 
tuto, safely. To these must be added some adverbs formed 
from participles : auspicato, composito, consulto, directo, festinato, - 
nee- or inopinato, improviso, iterato, merito, optato, praeparato, 
sortito. Along with several of these ablative adverbs, the forms 
in e also are occasionally used ; but apart from the origin, the 
forms in o do not differ either in meaning or in their degrees of 
comparison fVom those in e. 

Note 1. Vere and vera have a somewhat clIfTerent sense : the regular ad- 
verb of vems^ true, is vere : but vero is used in answers in the sense of " in 
truth," or " certainly," but it is more commonlj applied as a conjunction in 
the sense of " but," or " however." We will explain its use in answers by 
an example. When I am asked, adfuistine heri in convivio? I answer, ego vero 
adfiU; or, without a verb, ego vero, minime vero; and vero thus being merely 
indicative of a reply, will often be untranslatable into English. The case of 
certe and certo is generally different from that of vere and vero: the adverb 
which usually takes the meaning of its adjective is certo, while certe takes the 
signification of " at least," to limit an assertion ; e. g. victi sumus, ant, si dig- 
nitas vinci non potest, fracti certe. Certe, however, is frequently used also in 
the sense of our " certainly," especially in the phrase certe scio, which, in 
Cicero, is even more frequent than certo scio. See my note on Cic. lib. i. 
in Verr. 1. 

Note 2. Omnino, from omnis, altogether, or in general, may also be 
reckoned among this class of adverbs. The etymology of oppido, very, is 
very doubtful. Profecto, truly, also belongs to this class, if it be derived 
from profectus, a, um; but if it be the same as pro facto, which is more 
probable, it belongs to those which we shall mention under No. 10. 

[§ 267] 7. b) In some adjectives of the. third declension the 
neuter singular supplies the place of the adverb ; as facile, dif- 
ficile, recens, sublime, impune and abunde, \vhich, however, is not 
derived from an adjective abundis, but from abundus. To these 
we must add some belonging to adjectives of the second de- 
clension: ceterum, plerumque, plurimum, potissimum more fre- 
quent than potissime, multum and paulum (for which, however, 
in combination with comparatives, the ablatives multo and paido 
are more commonly used), nimium (the same as nimis^, parum, 
and lastly the numeral adverbs primum, iterum, tertium, quartum, 
kQ., which have also the termination o (see § 123.), and pos- 



tremum (o), and ultimum {o), which are formed according to the 
analogy of the numeral adverbs. Poets in particular and Tacitus 
who follows their example are accustomed to use the neuter of 
adjectives, of the second as well as of the third declension, as 
adverbs; e. g. multum similis, acutum cernere^ mite, dulce, 
crassum, perfidum ridere, indoctum canere, certum and incertum 
vigilare, triste and torvum clamare, immite sibilare, aeternum dis- 
cordare, and in the plural multa gemere, tristia ululare, crehra 

Note 1. We have every reason to consider the adverb jorojoe, which has 
become a preposition, as the neuter of an obsolete adjective, propis; for 
propter, which, as an adverb, has the same meaning, is evidently the regular 
adverb, being contracted from propiter, and the comparative propior, and the 
adverb pj'opius, must likewise be traced to propis. Saepe is perhaps a word 
of the same kind, but the degrees of the adjective, saepior and saepissimus, 
are no longer in use.. 

Note 2. Instead of difficile, however, the regular adverbial forms dijffi- 
ciliter and difficulter are still more common. Faciliter is unclassical. 

[§ 268.] 8. A considerable number of adverbs have the ter- 
mination im, and are for the most part derived from participles ; 
e, g. caesim, punctim, conjunctim, mixtim, contemptim, cursim, 
citatirrif gravatim (the same as gravate)^ nominatim, passim (from 
pandere), praesertim (from prae and sero), privatim, pedetentim, 
raptim, sensim, carptim, separatim, statim, strictim, tractim. 
Adverbs of this kind however are formed also from other parts 
of speech, but they generally take the participial termination 
atim^ even when they are not derived from nouns of the first 
declension: catervatim, cuneatim, gregatim, turmatim, curiatim, 
gradatim, ostiatim, oppidatim, provinciatim, vicatim, paulatim, 
singulatim, generatim, summatim, minutatim. Also confestim 
(connected with festinare), furtim, singultim, tributim, uhertim, 
viritim, vicissim. Affdtim is of doubtful etymology ; interim is 
derived from inter ; olim from the obsolete ollus which is the 
same as ille. 

[§ 269.] 9. A smaller class of adverbs is formed from nouns 
by the termination Uus, generally to denote origin from that 
which is expressed by the primitive ; as coelitus, from heaven ; 
funditus, from the foundation, radically ; medullitus, penitus, 
primitus the same as prim^im, radicitiis, stirpitus. Some are 
derived from adjectives, as antiquitus, divinitus, and humanitus. 

Among the same class we reckon those adverbs which end in 


US or itus, and are not derived from nouns, but from other parts 
of speech. That they are derivatives is obvious, but their sig- 
nification is variously changed. Such are cominus, from a near 
point; eminus, from afar; intus, from within; suhtus, from 
below; extrinsecus and intrinsecus, from without and within; 
mordicus (from mordere), e. g. mordicus tenere ; versus, towards 
(from vertere), which is commonly used as a preposition. 

[§ 270.] 10. A large number of adverbs, lastly, arises from 
the adverbial use of different cases of substantives, and from 
the composition of different parts of speech. In this manner 
arose the adverbs of time : noctu, vesperi, mane, tempore or tern' 
port, simul (from similis), diu and quamdiu, tamdiu, aliquamdiu, 
interdiu, hodie (though contracted from hoc die), quotidie, quot- 
annis, postridie, perendie, pridie, nudius tertius (from nunc dies 
tertius, the day before yesterday, or the third day from the 
present), nudius quartus, nudius quintus, nudius tertiusdecimus, 
propediem, initio, principio, repente and derepente (ablative of 
repens), imprimis and cumprimis, protenus and protinus (from 
pro and the preposition tenus), alias, actutum, commodum (just 
or directly, while the regular adverb commode retains the 
meaning *' conveniently "), modo, postmodo, alternis, interdum, 
cummaxime, tummaxime, nunc ipsum and turn, ipsum, denuo (i. e. 
de novo), ilicet (ire licet), illico (properly in loco), and extemplo ; 
interea and praeterea lengthen the a, so that it is not quite 
certain whether they may be considered as compounds of inter, 
praeter and ea, the neuter plural. * So also the adverbs of 
place : foris, foras, insuper, obviam, obiter (from oh and iter), 
peregre, praesto, recta, (scil. via), una. In hactenus, eatenus, 
quatenus, aliquatenus, the ablative is governed by the prepo- 
sition tenus. The signification of these adverbs is originally that 
of locality, but they are frequently used also in a figurative sense. 

[§ 271.] The mode or manner of an action, in answer to the 
question qui (an ancient ablative of quid), how ? is expressed by 
adverbs of the same class ; as sponte, an old ablative ; forte, an 
ablative of /br5 ; fortuito (u), forsit, forsitan (Jhrs sit an), forsan 
and fors have the same meaning as fortasse and fortassis (in 

* Prof. Kej, The Alphabet^ p. 77. foil., accounts for the length of the a by 
the very probable supposition that the original forms were posteam^ inteream^ 
praeteream^ on the analogy of the existing words postquam^ anteqiuzm, praeter- 
quarriy &c. — Transl. 

Q 2 



prose fortasse and forsitan alone are used) ; nimirum, scilicet^ 
videlicet, utpote (from ut and pote, properly " as possible/' hence 
*^ namely," or "as"), durntaxat, praeterquam, quomodo, quemad- 
modum, admodum, quamohrem, quare, quapropter, quantopere, 
tantopere, maximopere and summopere, or separately quanta opere, 
tanto opere, &c. ; quantumvis or quamvis, alioqui or alioquin, cete- 
roqui or ceteroquin, frustrd, to be explained by the ellipsis of via, 
and to be derived from fraus, fraudo ; incassum, nequicquarn, 
summum (not ad summuni), tantum, solum, and tantummodo, so- 
lummodo, gratis (from gratiis, whence ingratiis), vulgo, hifariam, 
trifariam, multifariam and omnifariam, with which partem must 
be understood. 

Lastly partim which was originally the same as partem, as in 
Liv. xxvi. 46 : partim copiarum ad tumulum expugnandum 
mittit, partim ipse ad arcem ducit, but it is more commonly 
used either with a genitive or the preposition ex, in the sense of 
alii — alii; e. g. Cic. Phil, viii. 11. : quum partim e nobis ita ti- 
midi sint, ut omnem populi Romani benejiciorum memoriam abje- 
cerint, partim ita a republica aversi, ut huic se hosti favere prae 
se ferant; and in the sense of alia — alia, as in Cic. De Off. ii. 
2 1 : eorum autem benejiciorum partim ejusmodi sunt, ut ad uni- 
versos cives pertineant, partim singulos ut attingant. 

[§ 272.] Note. On the signification of some of the above-mentioned adverbs. 
The adverbs continuo, protinus^ statim, confestim, subito, repente and derepente^ 
actutum., illico^ ilicet, extemplo, signify in general "directly" or " imme- 
diately," but, strictly speaking, continuo means immediately after ; statim, 
without delay ; confe^tim, directly ; subito, suddenly, unexpectedly ; pro- 
tinus, further, i. e. in the same direction in which the beginning was made ; 
hence, without interruption ; repente, and derepente, which strengthens 
the meaning, signifies " at once," and is opposed to sensim, gradually ; 
e. g. Cic. de Off. i. 33. : amicitias^ quae minus delectent et minus probentur., 
magis-decere censent sapientes sensim dissuere, qiuim repente praecidere ; actutum 
is instantaneously, eodem actu ; ilicet occurs more rarely than illico^ but has 
almost the same meaning, " forthwith," or " the instant ;" e. g. Sallust, Jug. 
45. : ubiformido ilia mentibus decessit, ilicet lascivia atque superbia incessere ; 
Cic. p. Muren^ 10. : simulatque increpuit su^picio tumultus^ artes illico nostrae 
conticescunt. Extemplo^ which is similar in its derivation (for templum is a 
locus religiosu^), is similar also in meaning ; e. g. Liv. xli. 1. : alii gerendum 
bellum extemplo^ antequam contrahere copias hostes possent,^ alii considendum 
prius senatum censebant. 

[§ 273.] Praesertim, praecipue, imprimis, cumprimis, and apprime, are gene- 
rally translated by " principally ;" but they have not all the same meaning. 
Praesertim is our " particularly," and sets forth a particular circumstance 
with emphasis ; praecipue retains the meaning of its adjective, praecipuus 


being the opposite of communis : jus praecipuum therefore is a privilege and 
opposed to j^is commune, so thsit praecipue answers to our "especially." The* 
sense of imprimis and cumprimis is clear from their composition — before or 
in preference to many others, principally ; apprime, lastly, occurs more 
rarely, and qualifies and strengthens only adjectives, as apprime doctus^ 
apprime utilis. Admodum also strengthens the meaning ; it properly signifies 
" according to measure," that is, in as great a measure as can be, e. g. ad- 
modum gratum mihi feceris ; litterae tuae me admodum delectaruiU. In com- 
bination with numerals it denotes approximation, and occurs frequently in 
Livy and Curtius ; in Cicero we find only nihil admodum, that is, " in reality 
nothing at all." 

[§ 274.] It is difficult to determine the difference among the words which 
we generally translate by " only," viz. modo, dumtaxat, solum, tardum, solum- 
modo, tantummodo. The common equivalent for only is modo ; solum (alone) 
is " merely," and points to something higher or greater ; tantum is only or 
merely, but intimates that something else was expected, e. g. dixit tantum, non 
prohavit. • These significations are strengthened by composition : tantummodo 
and solummodo, the latter of which however occurs only in late writers. 
Dumtaxat is not joined with verbs, and seems to answer to our " solely ;" e. g. 
Caes. Bell. Civ. iii. 40. : peditatu dumtaxat procul ad speciem utitur, solely 
from afar; Curt. viii. 4. (1.) : quo (carmine) signijicahatur male instituisse 
Graecos, quad tropaeis regum dumtaxat nomina inscriherentur ; ibid. ix. 36. (9.) : 
aestus totos circa fiumen campos inundaverat, tumulis dumtaxat eminentibus, 
velut insulis parvis. In another signification this word is the same as certe^ 
at least (see § 266.), and denotes a limitation to a particular point, as in 
Cicero : nos animo dumtaxat vigemus, re familiari comminuti sumus, in courage 
at least I am not wanting; valde me Athenae delectarunt, urhs dumtaxat 
et urhis ornamenta et hominum benivolentia. Saltem also signifies " at least," 
but denotes the reduction of a demand to a minimum ; e. g. when I say : 
redde mihi lihros, si non omnes, saltem tres, or, as Cicero says, eripe mihi hunc 
dolorem, aut minue saltem ; finge saltem aliquid commode. 

[§ 275.] Frustra conveys the idea of a disappointed expectation, as in 
fimstra suscipere labores ; nequicquam that of the absence of success, as in 
Herat. Carm. i. 3. 21. : n£quicquxim deus abscidit Oceano terras, si tamen 
impiae rates transiliunt vada. Incassum is less commonly used ; it is composed 
of in and eassum, hollow, empty, and therefore properly signifies " into the 
air," or " to no purpose," as tela incassum jactare. 

Alias and alioqui both mean " elsewhere," but alias signifies " at another 
time," or "in another place," whereas alioqui (like ceteroqui and ceterum) 
means "in other respects;" as in Livy: triumphatum de Tiburtibus, alio- 
quin mitis victoria fuit, or " or else " (in case of a thing mentioned before 
not taking place), like aliter; as in Tacitus : dedlt tibi Augustus pecuniam non 
ea lege, ut semper daretur : languescet alioqui industria. No difference in the 
use of alioqui and alioquin has yet been discovered. The addition or 
omission of the n, at least, does not appear to depend upon the letter at the 
beginninff of the word followino^. 





[§ 276.] 1. The Simple or Primitive Adverbs are few in num- 
ber^ when compared with the derivatives, especially with those 
derived from adjectives, and ending in e and ter. The significa- 
tion of the latter depends upon that of their adjective, and has 
generally a very definite extent ; but the primitive adverbs ex- 
press the most general circumstances that are to be considered 
in connection with a fact, and are indicated by the questions 
how ? when ? where ? whether ? and the general answers to 
them ; but they are for this reason deserving of particular 
attention, together with their compounds and derivatives.* 

2. To this class belong the negative particles : non, haud, and 
ne, together with immo ; the affirmatives : nae, quidem, and utique, 
certainly (from which word the negative adverb neutiquam, by 
no means, is formed), nempe^ namely, surely ; vel^ in the sense 
6f "even" (see § 108.); and the interrogative cur, why? (pro- 
bably formed from quare or cui rei) : the words which express, 
in a general way, the mode of an action, viz. paene, fere, and 
fermdf nearly, almost; temere, at random; rite, duly, according 
to custom ; vix, scarcely ; nimis (and nimium, see § 267.), too 
much ; satis or sat, enough, sufficiently ; saltern, at least ; sic and 
ita, so, thus; and item and itidem (which are derived from 
ita), just so, and the double form identidem, which, however, 
has assumed the meaning of a particle of time, " constantly," 
'^ one time like the other ; " ut or uti, as, and hence sicut or sicuti; 
quam, how much ; tam, so much ; tamquam, like ; perinde and 

* With regard to the following list of particles, which, from their great 
importance towards understanding the ancient writers, has been drawn up 
with care, we must observe, that by the term primitive adverbs we do not 
understand those, of which no root is to be found, but those which cannot 
in any useful or practical way be included among the classes of derivative 
adverbs mentioned before. A more deep etymological investigation would 
lead us into too slippery ground, on which we could expect but little 
thanks either from teachers or pupils. 


proinde (derived from inde), as though, like ; secus, otherwise, 
differently : the adverbs of place : uspiam and usquam, some- 
where ; nusquam, nowhere ; procul, far ; prope, near (§267. note) ; 
uhi, where ? ihi, there ; unde, whence ? inde, hence, together 
with their numerous compounds and correlatives, of which we 
shall speak presently : tlie adverbs of time : quando, when ? 
with its compounds aliquando, once ; quandoque, at some time ; 
quandocunquey whenever; quondam, formerly (contains the 
original relative quum, which has become a conjunction) ; nunc, 
now ; tu7ic and turn, then ; unquam, ever ; nunquam, never ; 
jam, already ; etiqm (from et and jam) and quoque, also ; etiam- 
nunc and etiamtum, still, yet ; semel, once ; bis, twice (the other 
adverbial numerals, see Chap. XXXIII.) ; saepe, often ; usque, 
ever ; heri or here, yesterday ; eras, to-morrow ; olim, formerly ; 
mox, soon after ; dudum, previously ; pridem, long since ; tandem, 
at last or length ; demum, not until ; from inde are derived 
deinde and exinde, or abridged dein and exin, thereupon, after- 
wards; subinde*, immediately after, or repeatedly; deinceps, in 
succession ; denique, lastly : further, the adverbs with the suffix 
per : semper, always ; nuper, lately ; parumper and paulisper, for 
a short time ; tantisper, for so long, commonly to indicate a short 
time, " for so short a time." 

Most of the prepositions are originally adverbs, but as they 
usually take the case of a substantive after them, they are regarded 
as a distinct class of the parts of speech. But they must still be 
looked upon as adverbs when they are joined with a verb with- 
out a case ; as in Virgil, Pone subit conjunx, " behind there foUow^s 
my wife." Hence it happens that clam, secretly, and coram, in 
the presence of, are generally reckoned among the prepositions, 
whereas palam (^propalarri), publicly, is universally called an 
adverb, though it is formed precisely in the same manner. Ante 
2ivApost, when used as adverbs, generally have the lengthened 
forms antea and postea (also antehac and posthac), but occur as 
adverbs also without any change of form. 

Note 1. We must not pass over unnoticed the transition of particles of 
place into particles of time, which occurs in other languages also. This 

* The accent on the antepenultima for the compounds of inde is necessary 
according to Priscian, p. 1008. (613. Kr.) 

Q 4 


accounts for the use of hic^ ibi, uhi, where we should use an adverb ex- 
pressive of time. Nor can we wonder at several of these adverbs ap- 
pearing frequently as conjunctions (in which character they will have to 
be mentioned again in Chap. LXVII.), for whenever they serve to connect 
sentences, they become, grammatically speaking, conjunctions; but when 
within a sentence they denote a circumstance connected with a verb, they 
are real adverbs. Some of them are used in both characters. 

[§ 277.] Note 2. The Signification of the above Primitive Adverbs. 
The ordinary negation is non; hand adds to the negation a- special 
subjective colouring, with very different meanings — either " not at all," 
or " not exactly." The comic writers use this negation frequently, and 
in all kinds of combinations ; but the authors of the best age limit 
its use more especially to its combination with adjectives and adverbs 
denoting a measure ; e. g. hand multum, hand magnum, hand parvus, Mud 
mediocris, haud paulo, haud procul, hand longe, especially hajid sane in con- 
nection with other words ; as haud sane facile, res haud sane difficilis, haud 
sane intelligo ; also haud quisquam, haud unquam, haud quaquam, by which com- 
bination something more is expressed tlian by the simple negation. In con- 
nection with verbs, haud appears much less frequently, and on the whole 
only in the favourite phrase haud scio an, which is the sam^ as nescio an, 
until later writers, such as Livy and Tacitus, again make unlimited applica- 
tion of it. 

Ne does not belong to this place as a conjunction in the sense of " in order 
that not," but only in so far as it is used for 7ion in the connection of ne-quidem, 
not even, and with imperatives, e. g. Tu ne cede malis, sed contra audentior 
ito, do not yield to misfortunes. Hence nee (neque) also must be mentioned 
here, because it is used instead of ne-quidem, seldom with Cicero, but more 
frequently with Quintilian ; e. g. ii. 13. 7. : alioquinec scriherem ; v. 10. 119. : 
alioqui nee tradidissem; i. v. 18.: extra carmen non deprehendas, sed nee in 
carmine vitia ducenda sunt. 

Immo signifies " no," but with this peculiarity, that at the same time 
something stronger is put in the place of the preceding statement which is 
denied ; e. g. Cic. ad Att. ix. 7. : causa igitur non bona est? Immo optima, sed 
agetur foedissime ; de Off.xa. 23.: si patriam prodere conabitur pater, silebitne 
Jilius ? Immo vero obsecrabit patrem, ne id faciat. This increase may be 
sometimes expressed in English by " nay," or " nay even." But this does 
not justify the assertion that immo is an affirmative adverb. 

[§ 278.] Quidem is commonly used to connect sentences, and must then be 
looked upon as a conjunction ; but it is employed also as an adverb to set 
forth a word or an idea with particular emphasis, and then answers to our 
" certainly " or " indeed." Very frequently, however, especially with pro- 
nouns, it only increases their force by the emphasis ; e. g. optare hoc quidem 
est, non docere, this I call wish, but not teach ; praecipitare istud quidem est, non 
descendere. Hence it also happens that on the other hand, when quidem is 
necessary to connect sentences, a pronoun .is added, for the sake of quidem, 
which might otherwise be dispensed with. Cicero, e. g., says : Oratorias ex- 
ercitationes non tu quidem, ut spero, reliquisti, sed certe philosophiam illis ante- 
posuisti. From quidem arose equidem, which is considered to be a compound 
of ego and quidem, and is used exclusively in this sense by Cicero, Virgil, 
and Horace ; but in others, and more particularly in later authors, it occurs 
precisely in the same sense as quidem; e.g. Sallust. Cat. 52. 16.: quare 


vanum equidem hoc consilium est; Curt. v. 35.; certiora deinde cognoscit ex 
Bagistane Bahylonio^ non equidem vinctum regem^ sed in periculo esse, aut 
mortis aut vinculorum. 

Nempe answers pretty nearly to our " surely," and frequently assumes a 
sarcastic meaning, when we refute a person by concessions which he is obliged 
to make, or by deductions. It is never used for the merely explanatory 
" namely," or " that is," which in the case of simple ideas is either not ex- 
pressed at all, or by the forms is (ea, id) est, qui est, dico, or intelligi volo, or 
by the adverbs scilicet and videlicet. Respecting the manner in which it is 
expressed in the connection of propositions, see § 345. 

[§ 279.] The adxerhs paene, fere, andferme, to which we may add prope, on 
account of its meaning (from § 267. note), all serve to limit a statement, but 
there are certain differences in their application. Paene and prope approach 
each other nearest : paene being almost and prope nearly ; and thus we say 
in Latin paene dixerim and jorope dixerim in quite the same sense, I might 
almost say. As prope contains the idea of approximation, so paene denotes a 
degree. Thus we say : hi viri prope aeqvnles sunt, are nearly of the same age ; 
and Caesar, on the other hand, says : non solum in omnibus (Galliae) civitati- 
bus, sed paene etiam in singulis domibus factiones sunt, "but almost in every 
family," which is more than the factions in the towns. Propemodum, in a 
certain degree, is formed irovo. prope. Fere and ferme di^ev from the other 
primitive adverbs, in regard to their long e, for the others end in a short e. 
They therefore seem to be derived from adjectives ; but the derivation from 
feru^ leads to no results. The two words differ only in form, and are used 
in inaccurate and indefinite statements, especially with round numbers and 
such notions as may be reduced to a number. We say centum fere homines 
aderant to express our " somewhere about one hundred ;" paene ov prope cen- 
tum, nearly a hundred, implying thereby that there should have been exactly 
one hundred. And so also /ere omnes,fere semper; and with a verb : sic fere 
fieri solet, so it mostly or generally happens, the same as fere semper fit. 
Hence it is frequently used as a mere form of politeness, when there can be 
no doubt about the correctness of a statement; as in quoniam fere constat, as 
it is a fact, I presume. 

[§ 280.] Temere, at random, is opposed to a thing which is done consulto, 
or deliberately ; hence the expressions inconsidte ac temere, temere et impru- 
denter, temere et nullo consilio. Combined with non, temere acquires (but not 
in Cicero) a peculiar signification ; it becomes the same as non facile, and 
softens an assertion ; for instance, in Horace : vatis avarus non temere est 
animus, a poet is not easily avaricious ; or non temere quis tam invitis omnibus 
ad principatum accessit quam Titus, Rite seems to be an ancient ablative 
like ritu ; its meaning accords with the supposition, but the form' (ris, ritis) 
is uncertain. 

[§ if!!.] The words sic, ita, tam, answer to the English "so ;" and to them 
we may add tantopere from § 271., and adeo from* § 289. With regard to 
their difference we remark, that sic is more particularly the demonstrative 
" so " or " thus," as in sic sum, sic vita hominum est, sic se res habet ; ita 
defines more accurately or limits, and is our " in such a manner," or " in so 
far ; " e. g. ita senectus honesta est, si suum jus retinet ; ita defendito, ut nemi- 
nem laedas. Yery frequently, however, ita assumes the signification of sic, 
but not sic the limiting sense of ita, respecting which we shall have occasion 
to speak in another place (§726.). Taw, so much, increases the degree, 


and has its natural place before adjectives and adverbs, but rarely before 
verbs, where tantopere is used instead. Adeo^ to that degree or point, 
increases the expression to a certain end or result ; e. g. adeone hospes es in 
hac urbe, ut haec neacias ? Hence in the connection of propositions, it forms 
the transition to the conclusion of an argument, or to the essential part of a 
thing. Cicero, when he has related a thing, and then chooses to introduce 
the witnesses or documents themselves, frequently says : id adeo ex ipso 
senatusconsulto cognoscite ; id adeo sciri facillime potest ex litteris publicis 
civitatum (in Verr. iv. 64. iii. 51.), and puts the adeo always after a pronoun. 
(Comp. Spalding on Quintil. ii. 16. 18.) 

[§ 282.] Ut, as, must be mentioned here as a relative adverb, expressive 
of similarity. From it is formed utique by means of the suffix que, which 
will be considered in § 288. It signifies " however it may be," and hence 
" certainly." Curt. iv. 44. : 7iihil quidem habeo venale, sed fortunam meam 
utique non vendo. 

The compounds sicut, velut, tamquam, to which we must add quasi, when 
used without a verb and as an adverb, signify " as " or " like." The differ- 
ence in their application seems to be, that tamquam and quasi express a 
merely conceived or imaginary similarity, whereas sicut denotes a real one. 
Hence Cicero says : tamquam serpens e latihulis intulisti te ; gloria virtutem 
tamquam umhra sequitur ; philosophia omnium artium quasi parens est, where 
the similarity mentioned is a mere conception or supposition ; but it ap- 
proaches nearer to reality in me sicut alterum parentem ddigit ; defendo te 
sicut caput meum. Velut is used by late authors in the same sense as quasi ; 
but in Cicero it has not yet acquired this signification, but has the peculiar 
meaning of our " for example," as bestiae, quae gignuntur e terra, vehit 
crocodili ; non elogia monumentorum hoc significant, velut hoc ad portam ? and 
other passages. All these adverbs occur also as conjunctions ; in Cicero, 
however, only tamquam (besides quasi), with and without the addition 
of si. 

Perinde and proinde have the same meaning, and are adverbs of similarity ; 
but perinde is much more frequently found in prose writers. The reading is 
often uncertain ; and as proinde is well established as a conjunction in the 
sense of " therefore " (see § 344.), many philologers have been of opinion 
that proinde, wherever the sense is " like," is only a corruption of perinde. 
But this supposition is contradicted by the authority of the poets, who use 
proinde as a word of two syllables. (Comp. Kuhnken on Rutil. Lupus, 
p. 31.) We most frequently find the combinations perinde ac, perinde ac si, 
as if, as though ; perinde ut, in proportion as, to connect sentences. (See 
§ 340.) But without any such additions, Cicero, for example, de Fin. i. 
21. says: vivendi artem tantam tamque operosam et perinde fructuosam (and 
as fruitful) relinquat JSpicurus ? 

[§ 583.] Secus has been classed among the primitives, because its deriva- 
tion is uncertain. We believe that it is derived from sequor ; and we might 
therefore have included it, like mordicus, among those adverbs mentioned in 
§ 269. We hold that its primary signification is " in pursuance," " after," 
" beside," which still appears in the compounds intrinsecus and extrinsecus. 
($ 289.) Hence it comes to signify " less," or " otherwise," viz. " than it 
should be." Thus we say, mihi aliter videtur, rede secusne, nihil ad te, 
justly or less justly, where we might also say an minus; si res secus ceciderit, 


if tLe thing should turn out differently, that is, less well. A comparative 
secius (also spelled sequius) occurs very rarely, because secus itself has the 
signification of a comparative ; it is joined with an ablative, nihilo secius, 
not otherwise, nevertheless ; quo secius the same as quo minus, in order 
that not. 

[§ 234.] To unquam, ever, and usqwam, somewhere, we must apply that 
which has already been said of quisquam, § 129. : they require a negation in 
the sentence ; and although this negation may be connected with another 
word, unquam and nsquam become the same as nunquam and nusquam ; e. g. 
neque te unquam vidi, the same as te nusquam vidi. The place of a negative 
proposition may, however, be taken by a negative question, as num tu eum 
unquxim vidisti ? hast thou ever seen him ? But uspiam is not negative, any 
more than the pronoun quispiam ; but it is the same as alicubi, except that 
its meanmg is strengthened, just as quispiam is the same as aliquis. In the 
writings of modern Latinists and grammarians we find the form nuspiam, 
which is said to be the same as nusquam. But nuspiam does not exist at all, 
and its formation is contrary to analogy. 

[§ 285.] It is difficult to define the difference between turn and tunc, be- 
cause the editions of our authors themselves are not everywhere correct. 
But in general the difference may be stated thus : tunc is " then," " ^t that 
time," in opposition to nunc ; turn is " then," as the correlative of the relative 
quum ; e. g. quum omnes adessent, turn ille exorsus est dicere, when all were 
present, then he began to speak. Without a relative sentence, tum is used in 
the sense of our " hereupon," " thereupon ; " but we may always supply such 
a sentence as " when this or that had taken place." The same difference 
exists between etiamnunc and etiamtum, which we translate by " still " or 
" yet," and between nunc ipsum and tum ipsum, quummaxime and tummaxime, 
just or even then; for etiamnunc, nunc ipsum, and quummaxime, refer to the 
present ; but etiamtum, turn ipsum, and tummwcime to the past ; e. g. etiam- 
nunc puer est, and etiamtum puer erat ; adest quummaxime f rater mens, and 
aderat tummaxime f rater, n\y brother was just then present. Compare 

[§ 286.] Jam, combined with a negative word, answers to our " longer ; " 
e. g. niMl jam spero, I no longer hope for anything; Brutus Mutinae vixjam 
sustinebat, could scarcely maintain himself any longer. It is also used for 
the purpose of connecting sentences, and then answers to our " further " or 
" now." 

Usque, ever and anon, does not occur very frequently in this sense ; e. g. 
in Horace, Epist. i. 10. 24. : naturam expellos furca^ tamen unique recurret. It 
is commonly accompanied by a preposition ,• viz. ad and in, or ah and ex, and 
denotes time and place ; e. g. usque ad portam, usqu£ a prima aetate. See 
Chap. LXV. 4. 

[§ 287.] Nuper, lately, is used in a very relative sense, and its meaning de- 
pends upon the period which is spoken of; for Cicero {de Nat Deor. ii. 50.) 
says of certain medical observations, that they were nuper, id est paucis ante 
saeculis reperta, thinking at the time of the whole long period in which men 
had made observations. In like manner, the length of time expressed by 
modo (see § 270.) and mox is indefinite. The latter word, as was observed 
above, originally signified " soon after," but it is very often used simply in 
the sense of " afterwards." Dudum is probably formed from diu (est) 


dum^ and answers to the English " previously " or " before," in relation to 
a time which has just passed away ; whence it may often be translated by 
" shortly before;" e. g. Cic. ad Att. xi. 24. : quae dudum ad me et 'quae etiam 
.ante ad Tulliam scripsisti^ ea seittio esse vera. But the length of time is set 
forth more strongly in jamdudum, long before, or long since. This word, with 
poets, contains the idea of impatience, and signifies " without delay," " forth- 
with," as in the line of Virgil, Aen.n. 103.: jamdudum sumite poenas. The 
same strengthening of the meaning appears in jampridem^ long since, a long 
time ago. Tandem, at length, likewise serves to express the impatience 
with whicjh a question is put, and even more strongly than nam (§ 134.) ; e. g. 
Cic. Philip, i. 9. : haec vtrum tandem lex est an legum omnium dissolutio ? 

[§ 288.] 3. The Adverbs of Place, mentioned above, No. 2., 
uU, where ? and unde, whence ? together with the adverbs derived 
from the relative pronoun, viz. quo^ w^hither ? and qua, in what 
way ? are in relation to other adverbs, demonstratives, relatives, 
and indefinites, which are formed in the same manner. All 
together form a system of adverbial correlatives, similar to that 
of the pronominal adjectives. (See above, § 130.) We shall 
begin with the interrogative form, which is the simplest. Its 
form (as in English) is the same as that of the relative, and 
differs from it only by its accent. The relative acquires a more 
general meaning, either by being doubled, or by the suffix cun- 
que, which is expressed in English by "ever," as in " wherever." 
Without* any relative meaning, the simple form acquires a more 
general signification by the suffix que, or by the addition of the 
particular words vis and lihet. (We call it an adverbium loci 
generale.) The fact of the suffix que not occurring with quo and 
qua is easily accounted for by the possibility of confounding 
them with the adverb quoque and the ablative quaque ; but still, 
in some passages at least, quaque is found as an adverb, and so 
also the compound usquequaque, in any way whatever. The 
demonstrative is formed from the pronoun is, and its meaning is 
strengthened by the suffix dem. The indefinite is derived from 
the pronoun aliquis, or by compositions with it. We thus obtain 
the foUowinoj correlative adverbs : — 

* We say without in regard to the general analogy. There are, however, 
passages in which the sufBx que forms a generalising relative, ajid in 
which, e. g. quandoque is used for quwidocunque, as in Horat. Ars Poet. 359. : 
quandoque bonus dormitat HomeruSy and frequently in Tacitus. See the com- 
mentators on Livy, i. 24. 3. 








Ubi^ where ? 

vJ)i, where. 

ibi, there. 

alicubi, some- 

ublque, ] 




ubivis, I every- 
ubilibet, J^^^^^- 

ubicunque. . 

Unde, whence ? 

unde, whence. 

inde, thence. 

alicunde, from 

undique, 1 




some place. 


■ every- 


undelibet, ^ 


Quo, whither ? 

quo, whither. 

eo, thither. 

aZe^zfo, to some 







- every 



Qua, in what 

qua, in the 

ea, in that 




direction? in 

way in which. 



- every 

what way ? 







[§ 289.] To these we must add those which are formed by com- 
position with alius, nullus, uter, and answer to the question where ? 
alihif elsewhere ; nullibi, nowhere (which, however, is based only 
on one passage of Vitruvius, vii. 1., its place being supplied by niis- 
quam) ; utrubi or utrobi, in which of two places ? with the answer 
utrobique, in each of the two places. Inibi is a strengthening form 
of ibi, and signifies "in the place itself." To the question 
whence ? answer aliunde, from another place ; utrimque, from both 
sides, ,which formation we find again in intrinsecus, from within, 
and extrinsecus, from without. To the question whither ? 
answer alio, to another place ; to utro, to which of two sides ? 
answer utroque, to both sides, and neutro, to neither. The fol- 
lowing are formed with the same termination, and have the 
same meaning : quopiam and quoquam, to some place (the former 
in an affirmative, and the latter in a negative sentence, like 
quisquam) ; intro, into ; retro, back ; ultro, beyond ; citro, this 
side, chiefly used in the combination of ultro et citro, ultro citro- 
que (towards that and this side), but ultro al»o signifies "in 
addition to," and "voluntarily." Porro is formed from pro, 
and signifies "onwards" or "further," e. g. porro pergere. In 
the latter sense it is used also as a conjunction 16 connect 
sentences. Compounds of eo are : adeo, up to that degree or 
point, so much ; eousque, so long, so far ; and of quo : quousque 
and quoad, how long ? We have further to notice the adverbs 
with the feminine termination of the ablative a (which is probably 


to be explained by supplying via), which have become preposi- 
tions ; viz. citra, contra, extra, intra, supra, deriYed from the 
original forms, cis, con, ex, in, super ; also infra, below ; and 
ultra, beyond (from the adjectives infer and ulter, which however 
do not occur) ; circa, around ; and juxta, by the side or in like 
manner. The derivation of the two last is doubtful, but they 
belong to the adverbs of place. In this way arose also : nequa- 
quam and haudquaquam, in no way ; usquequaque, in all points, 
in all ways, composed of the above-mentioned quaque and usque. 

[§ 290.] We here add the correlatives to the question whither ? 
quorsum or quorsus ? (contracted from quoversum or quoversus). 
The answers to them likewise end in us and um (but sometimes 
the one and sometimes the other is more commonly used): 
horsum, hither ; aliquoversum, towards some place ; aliorsum, to- 
wards another place ; quoquoversus, towards every side ; utroque- 
versum, introrsum, prorsum, forward (prorsus is better known 
in the derivative sense of "entirely"); rursum, or more fre- 
quently retrorsum, backward (rursus remained in use in the 
sense of "again"); sursum, heavenward (also sursum versus, a 
double compound); deorsum, downwards; dextrorsum, to the 
right ; sinistrorsum, to the left ; adversus or adversum, towards 
or opposite, usually a preposition ; seorsus or seorsum, separately. 

[§ 291.] 4. The above-mentioned demonstratives, ibi, there ; 
inde, hence, and eo, thither, are used only with reference to rela- 
tive sentences, which precede ; e. g. uhi te heri vidi, ibi nolim te 
iterum conspicere, where I saw thee yesterday, there I do not 
wish to see thee again; unde venerat, eo rediit, he returned 
thither, whence he had come. More definite demonstratives, 
therefore, are requisite, and they are formed in Latin from the 
three demonstative pronouns by means of special terminations. 
The place where ? Mc, istic, illic, (there), 
whither? hue, istuc, illuc, (thither), 
whence? hinc, istinc, illinc, (thence). 
Instead of istuc and illuc, the forms isto and illo also are in use. 
These adverbs are employed with the same difference which we 
pointed out above (§ 127.) as existing between the pronouns hie, 
iste, and ille, so that hie, hue, and hinc point to the place where 
I, the speaker, am; istic, istuc, and istinc, to the place of the 
second person, to whom I speak ; and illic, illuc, and illinc to 


the place of the third person or persons, who are spoken of. 
The following are compounds of hue and hinc : adhuc, until 
now ; hucusque, as far as this place ; abhinc and dehinc, from this 
moment (counting backwards). To the question qua ? in what 
way ? we answer by the demonstratives hac, istac, iliac, which 
are properly ablatives, the word via being understood. 

Note 1 . Cicero thus writes to Atticus, who was staying at Rome, while 
he himself lived in exile at Thessalonica, in Macedonia (iii. 12.) : Licet tibi 
significarim, tit ad me venires^ id omittam tamen : intelligo te re istic prodesse^ 
Mc ne verbo quidem levare me posse. Istic, where you are, that is, at Rome, 
you can be really useful to me ; hie, here where I live, that is, at Thessa- 
lonica, you would not even be able to comfort me with a word. In this 
manner the Romans in their letters briefly and distinctly express the lo- 
calities of the writer and the person addressed, as well as of the persons 
written about. 

[§ 292.] Note 2. Adhuc expresses the duration of time down to the present 
moment, and therefore answers to our " still," when it signifies " until 
now " (we also find usque adhuc) ; and strictly speaking, it should not be 
confounded either with etiamnunc, which does not contain the idea of du- 
ration of time, and answers to the question when ? or with v^que eo and 
etiamtum, which are the corresponding expressions of the past time. But 
even good authors apply the peculiar meaning of the word to the present, 
and use adhuc also of the relative duration of the time past ; e. g. Liv. xxi. 48. : 
Scipio quamquam gravis adhuc vvlncre erai, tamen — profectus est; Curt. vii. 19. : 
praecipitatus ex equo barbarus adhuc tamen repugnabat. " !Not yet," is ex- 
pressed by nondum, even in speaking of the present, more rarely by adhuc 



[§ 293.] 1. The Comparison of Adverbs is throughout depend- 
ent upon the comparison of adjectives, for those adverbs only 
have degrees of comparison, which are derived from adjectives 
or participles by the termination e (o) or ter ; and wherever the 
comparison of adjectives is wanting altogether or partly, the 
same deficiency occurs in their adverbs. 

2. The comparative of adverbs i§ the same as the neuter of 
the comparative of adjectives (majus only has the adverb magis, 
§ 265.), and the superlative is derived from the superlative of 
the adjectives by changing the termination us into e; e. g. 


doctior, doctius ; elegantior, elegantius ; emendatior, emendatius ; 

superlative : doctissimus^ doctissime ; elegantissime, emendatissime ; 

summus, summe. The positives in o (e. g. cito, raro) also make 

the superlative in e ; meritissimo and tutissimo however are more 

commonly used than meritissime and tutissime. 

Note. Thus the positive (see §111.) is wanting of deterius, deterrime ; 
potius^ potissime (we more frequently find potissimum) ; prim, primum or 
primo (for prime is not used, but apprime, principally) ; the positive ociter, 
to which ocius and ocissime belong, occurs very rarely, since the comparative 
ocius has at the same time the meaning of a positive. Of valde, very (con- 
tracted from valide, § 263.) the degrees validius and validissime do not, 
indeed, occur in Cicero, but are used in the silver age of the language. 

[§ 294.] 3. The primitive adverbs, and those derived from 

other words by the terminations im and tus, together with the 

various adverbs enumerated in § 270. foil., that is, in general 

all adverbs which are not derived from adjectives and participles 

by the endings e (or o instead of it) and ter, do not admit the 

degrees of comparison. The only exceptions are (iz?^ and saepe : 

diiitiusy diutissime ; saepius, saepissime. Nuper has a superlative 

nuperrime, but no comparative, and satis and temperi have the 

comparatives satius (also used as a neuter adjective) and tem- 

perius (in Cicero). Respecting secius, the comparative of secus, 

see § 283. 

Note. There are a few . diminutive adverbs : clanculum from clam, pri- 
mulum from p?Hmum, celeriuscule, saepiuscule, from the comparatives celeriiis 
and saepius. Belle, prettily, is a diminutive of be7ie, and from belle are de- 
rived bellus and bellissimus, without a comparative, and hence the adverb 



[§ 295.] 1. Prepositions are indecUnable words, or, to use 
the grammatical term, particles, which express the relations of 
nouns to one another or to verbs : e. g. a town in Italy ; a 
journey through Italy ; my love for you ; the first century after 
Christ ; he came out of his house ; he lives near Berlin ; on the 


Rhine, &c. They govern in Latin either the accusative or 
ablative, and some (though mostly in a different sense) both 
cases. Their Latin name is derived from the fact of their being 
placed, with a few exceptions, before their noun. We have 
already observed (Chap. LXII.) that a considerable number of 
these particles are properly adverbs, but are justly reckoned 
among the prepositions, as they more or less frequently govern 
a case. Apart from their etymology, and considering only their 
practical application in the language, we have the following 
classes of prepositions : — 

1. Prepositions with the Accusative, 
Ad, to. 

Apud, with, near. 

Ante, before (in regard to both time and place). 
Adversus and adversum, against. 
Cis, citra, on this side. 
Circa and circiim, around, about. 
Circiter, about (indefinite time or number). 
Contra, against. 
Erga, towards. 
Extra, without. 

Infra, beneath, below (the contrary of supra). 
Inter, among, between. 
Intra, within (the contrary of extra), 
\ Juxta, near, beside. 
Oh, on account of. 
Penes, in the power of. 
Per, through. 
Pone, behind. 

Post, after (both of time and space). 
Praeter, beside. 
Prope, near. 

Propter, near, on account of. 

Secundum, after (in time or succession), in accordance with, as 
secundum naturam vivere, 



Supra, above. 

Trans, on the other side. 

Versus (is put after its noun), towards a place ; e. g. in Galliam 

versus, Massiliam versus. 
Ultra, beyond. 

2. Prepositions with the Ablative. 

A, ah, ahs {a, before consonants; ah, before vowels and some 
consonants ; and ahs only in the combination of ahs te, for 
which, however, a te also is used), from, by. 

Absque, without (obsolete). 

Coram, before, or in the presence of. 

Cum, with. 

De, down from, concerning. 

E and ex {e before consonants only, ex before both vowels and 
consonants), out of, from. 

Prae, before, owing to. 

Pro, before, for. 

Sine, without. 

Tenus (is put after its noun), as far as, up to. 

3. Prepositions with the Accusative and Ablative. 

In with the accus. — 1. in, on, to, to the question Whither? — 
2. against. With the ablat. in, on, to the question 

Sub, with the accus. — 1. under, to the question Whither? — 
2. about or towards, in an indefinite statement of time, as 
sub vesperam, towards evening. With the ablat., under, to 
the question Where? Desub is also used in this sense. 

Sicper, with the accus., above, over ; with the ablat, upon, con- 
cerning, like de. 

Subter, under, beneath, is used with the accusative, whether it 
expresses being in or motion to a place ; it rarely occurs 
with the ablative, and is in general little used. 


Remarks upon the Signification of the Prepositions. 

[§ 296.] 1. Prepositions with the Accusative. 

Ad denotes in general an aim or object botlvin regard to time and place, 
and answers to the questions Wiiither ? and Till when ? e. g. venio^ projiciscor 
ad te ; Sophocles ad summam senectiitem tragoedias fecit. Hence it also 
denotes a fixed time, as ad horam^ at the hour ; ad diem, on the day fixed 
upon ; ad tempus facere aliquid, to do a thing at the right time. In other 
cases ad tempus signifies "for a time," e.p^. perfu7'batio animi plerumque hrevis 
est et ad tempus. Sometimes also it denotes the approach of time, as ad 
lucem, ad vesperam, ad extremum, towards daybreak, evening, towards the 
end ; and the actual arrival of a certain time, as in Livy : ad prima signa 
veris profectiis, at the first sign of spring. 

Ad., in a local sense, signifies " near a place," to the question Where ? as 
ad urhem esse, to be near the town ; ad portas urhis ; cmentissima pugna ad 
lacum Trasimenum ; pugna navalis ad Tenedum ; urhs sita est ad mare ; it is 
apparently the same as in in such phrases as ad aedem Bellonae ; or with the 
omission of the word aedem : ad Opis ; ad omnia deorum templa gratula- 
tionem fecimus ; negotium habere adportum; ad forum; but in all these cases 
there is an allusion to buildings or spaces connected with the places named. 
With numerals ad is equivalent to our "to the amount of" or " nearly," 
e. g. ad ducentos, to the amount of two hundred, or nearly two hundred, and 
without any case it is an adverb like circiter, as in Caesar, occisis ad hominum 
milihus quntuor, reliqui in oppidum rejecti sunt; Liv. viii. 18 : ad viginti 
matronis per viatorem accitis ( ablat. absol.) ; iv. 59 : quorum ad duo milia et 
quingend capiuntur. The phrase omnes ad unum, ad unum omnes perierunt 
means, " even to the very last man," including the last himself 

Ad, denoting an object or purpose, is of very common occurrence, and 
hence arises its signification of" in respect of; " e. g. vidi forum comitiumque 
adoniatum, ad speciem magnifico omatu, ad sensum cogitationemque acerho et 
lugubri ; or facinus ad memoriam posteritatis insigne ; homo ad lahores belli 
impiger, ad usum et disciplinam peritus ; ad consilia prudens, &c. But this 
preposition is used also in figurative relations to express a model, standard, 
and object of comparison, where we say " according to," or " in comparison 
with ; " as a<i modum, ad effigiem, ad similitudinem, ad speciem alicujus rei, ad 
normam, ad exemplum, ad arbitrium et nutum, ad voluntatem alicujus facere 
aliquid; persiuident mathematici, terram ad universum coeli complexum quasi 
puncti instar obtinere. Particular phrases are, ad verbum, word for word ; 
nihil ad hanc rem, ad hunc hominem, nothing in comparison with this thing or 
this man. 

[§ 297.] Apud, " with," both in its proper and figurative sense ; e. g. with 
me the opinion of the multitude has no weight, apud me nihil valet hominum 
opinio. In connection with names of places it signifies " near," like ad ; e. g. 
JSpaminondas Lacedaemonios vicit apud Mantineam ; male pugnatum est apud 
Caudium, apud Anienem (the name of a river). It must however be 
observed that the early writers sometimes (see my note on Cic. in Verr. 
iv. 22.), and Tacitus and later authors frequently, use apud for iji, and not 
merely for ad ; as Augustus apud urbem Nolam extinctus est ; statiui apud thea- 
trum Pompeji locatur ; apud Syriam morbo absumptiis est ; apud senatum dixit, 
and in many other passages, in which the context leaves no doubt. In apud 

R 2 


praetorem and apud judices^ the preposition must likewise be taken to 
denote the place of the judicial transactions ; we use in this case " before," 
which however cannot be rendered in Latin by ante. 

Apud is used also with the names of authors, instead of in with the name 
of their works ; as apud Xenophontem, apud Terentium, apud Ciceronem legi- 
tu}% &c., but not in Xenophonte^ because in Latin the name of an author is 
not used for that of his works as in our language. 

Ante, " before," denotes also a preference, as ante omnia hoc mihi maxime 
placet, above all other things ; hie erat gloria militari ante omnes, he excelled 

[§ 298.] Cis and cit?'a are commonly used in reference to place, e. g. cis 
Taurum montem, and are the contrary of trans : citra Ruhiconem, on this side 
of the Rubicon. But in later though good prose writers (Quintilian, Pliny) 
it frequently occurs for sine, " without," as in citra invidiam nominare ; citra 
musicen grammatice non potest esse perfecta nee did citra scientiam musices 

Circum is the more ancient, and circa the later form ; Cicero uses them 
both in the sense of " around" (a place) ; and circum, with the strengthened 
meaning, " all around ; " e. g. ui^hes quae circum Capuam sunt, and urhes 
circa Capuam ; homines circum and circa se habere ; terra circum axem se 
convertit; homo praetorem circum omnia fora sectatur. The phrases circum 
amicos, circum vicinos, circum villas, circum insidas mittere, signify to send 
around to one's friends, &c. Circa is used besides, of time also, in the sense 
of sub (but not by Cicero) ; Livy and Curtius, e. g., say : ci7xa lucis ortum, 
circa eandem horam, circa Idus. Circa in the sense of concerning, like de, 
erga, and adversus, the Greek Kara, occurs only in the silver age of the 
language, in Quintilian, Pliny, and Tacitus; e.g. varia circum haec opinio; 
circa deos et religiones negligentior ; puhlica circa bonas artes socordia. 

Circiter is used, it is true, with an accusative, as in circiter meridiem, about 
noon ; circiter Calendas, circiter Idas Martias, circiter octavam horam, but it 
is more frequently an adverb. 

[§ 299.] Adversus and contra originally signify " opposite to ;" but they ex- 
press also the direction of an action towards an object, with this difference, 
that contra always denotes hostility, like our " against" (while erga denotes a 
friendly disposition, "towards"), whereas adversus is used in either sense. 
Thus Cicero says : praesidia ilia, quae pro templis omnibus cemitis, contra vim 
collocata sunt ; and frequently contra naturam, contra leges ; but meus erga te 
amor, patemus animus, benivolentia, and similar expressions. We say adversus 
aliquem impetum facer e as well as modestum, justum esse, and reverentiam ad- 
hibere adversus aliquem. But erga also occurs now and then in a hostile 
sense, not indeed in Cicero, but in N'epos and Tacitus, e. g. Nep. Datam. 10.: 
odio communi, quod erga regem susceperant. 

[§ 300.] Extra, " without," " outside of," occurs also in the sense o^ praeter, 
excepting, apart, as extra jocum. 

Infra, e. g. infra lunam nihil est nisi mortale et caducum. It also implies a 
low estimation ; as in infra se omnia humana ducere, judicare, or infra se 
posita; and " below" or " under" in regard to measure or size : uri sunt mag- 
nitudine paulo infra eleplmntos. 

Inter denotes also duration of time, like our " during ;" as inter tot annos, 
inter coenam, inter epidas. AYIth regard to its ordinary signification " among," 
we must observe that inter se is our " one another ;" e. g. amant inter se pueri, 


ohtrectant inter se, furtim inter se aspiciebant, where in reality another pro- 
noun is omitted. 

Intra, "within," to both questions Where? and Whither? intra hostiuni 
praesidia esse and venire; nvllam intra Oceanum praedonuni navem esse auditis ; 
majores nostri Antiochum intra montem Taurum rcgnare jussermd. It also 
denotes time, both in its duration and a period which has not come to its 
close, e. g. omnia commemorabo quae intra decern annos nefarie facta sunt^ dur- 
ing the last ten years ; hdra nonum diem opera absoluta sunt, iidra decimuni 
diem urbem cepit, that is, before nine or ten days had elapsed. 

Juxta, " beside," e.g.juxta murum, juxta urhem, sometimes also " next to" 
in rank and estimation, as in Livy : Jides liumanxi colitur apud eos juxta divinas 
religiones. But it is only unclassicai authors that use Juxta in the sense of 
secundum or according to. 

Oh, " on account of," implies a reason or occasion, e. g. oh egregiam virtutem 
donatus; oh delictum; oh earn rem, for this reason; quamohrem or quamohcausam, 
for which reason ; oh hoc ipsum, for this very reason. In the sense o^ ante, its 
use is more limited, as in oh ocvlos versari. 

Penes rarely occurs as a preposition of place in the sense of apud, and is 
more commonly used as denoting, in the possession or power of; e. g. penes 
regem omnis potestas est; penes me arhitrium est hujus rei. 

[§ 301.] Per, denoting place, signifies "through" and occurs very frequently ; 
but it also signifies "in" in the sense of " throughout;" e.g. Caesar conjura- 
tionis socios in vinculis hahendos per municipia censuit, that is, in all the mu- 
nicipia; per domos hospitaliter invitaniur; milites fuga per proximas civitates 
dissipati sunt. When it denotes time, it signifies during : per noctem ceimuntur 
sidera ; per hosce dies, during these days ; per idem tempus, during the same 
time ; per tinennium, per secessionem plebis, during the secession of the plebs. 

Per with the accusative of persons is " through," " by the instrumentality 
of," e. g. per te salvus sum. Per, in many cases, expresses the manner in 
which a thing is done ; as per litteras, by letter ; per injuriam, per scelus et 
latrocinium, per potestatem auferre, eripere, with injustice, criminally, by au- 
thority ; per hidum ac jocum fortunis omnihus evertit, by play and joke he 
drove him out of his property ; per iram, from or in anger ; per simulationem 
amicitiae me prodiderunt ; per speciem honoris or auxilii ferendi, &c., per 
causam, under the pretext ; per occasionem, on the occasion ; per ridiculum, in 
a ridiculous manner. In many cases a simple ablative might be used instead 
o^ per with the accus., but per expresses, in reality, only an accidental mode 
of doing a thing, and not the real means or instrument. 

Per, in the sense of " on account of," occurs only in a few phrases : per 
aetatem, on account of his age;j»er valetudinem, on account of illness ; joer me 
licet, it is allowed, as far as I am concerned. In supplication or swearing, 
it is the English " by;" as jurare per aliquid, aliquem orare per aliquid; and 
so also in exclamations : per decs immortales, per Jovem, &c. 

[§ 302.] Pone, " behind," is not frequently used either as an adverb or a 
preposition, and is almost obsolete. Tacitus, e. g., says, manus pone tergum 
vinctae, for post tergum. 

Praeter. From the meaning " beside," or " along " (Implying motion 
or passing by), as in Cicero : Servi praeter oculos Lolli pocula ferehant, 
there arises the signification of " excepting ;" e. g. In Livy : In hoc legato 
vestro nee hominis quidquam est praeter Jiguram et speciem, ncque Romani 
civis praeter hahitum et sonum Latinae linguae ; and in Cicero : Amicum tihi ex 

K 3 



consularihus neminem esse video praeter Lucullum^ except, or beside Lucullus. 
It also signifies " besides," when something is added to what has been al- 
ready said, and it is then followed by etiam ; e. g. praeter mictoritatem eiiam 
vires ad coei'cendum habet, praeter ingentem populationem agroi^um — pugnatum 
etiam egregie est, and may often be translated by "independent of," or 
" not to mention." 

Praeter also indicates a distinction, as in praeter ceteros, praeter alios, 
praeter omnes excellere qy facer e aliquid. 

The signification of " against," or " contrary to," is connected with that 
of beside ; e. g. praeter consuetudinem, praeter opinionem, expectationem, vo- 
luntatem alicujus ; praeter modum, immoderately ; praeter naturam, contrary to 

Propter, for prope, near, is not uncommon, e. g. propter Siciliam insulae 
Vulcaniae sunt; duo filii propter patrem cubantes, &c. It has already been 
remarked (§ 264.), that it is a contraction ot'propiter. 

But it most frequently signifies " on account of," implying the moving 
cause, as in ego te propter humanitatem et modestiam tuam diligo. It is more 
rarely used in the sense of per with persons, as in propter te liber sum, 
propter quos vivit, through whose aid he lives. 

[§ 303.] Secundum is derived from sequor, secundus, and therefore properly 
signifies " next," " in the sequel," " in succession," e. g. secundum comitia, 
immediately after the comitia ; Livy : Hannibal secundum tam prosperam ad 
Carinas pugnam victoris magis quam bellum gerentis curls intentus erat. Also 
" next in rank ; " as in Cicero, secundum deum homines hominibus maxime 
utiles esse possunt ; secundum fratrem tibi plurimum tribuo ; secundum te nihil 
est mihi amicius solitudine ; Livy says that the Roman dominion was maximum 
secundum deorum opes imperium. The signification " along," is still more 
closely conected with its original meaning, as in secundum mare iter facere, 
secundum fiumen paucae stationes equitum videbantur. 

In a figurative sense secundum is the opposite of conti^a : consequently, 1. 
" in accordance with," as secundum naturam vivere, secundum arbitrium ali- 
cujus facere aliquid; 2. "in favour of," as in secundum praesentem judicavit, 
secundum te decrevit, secundum causam nostram disputavit. So also in the 
legal expression vindicias secundum libertatem dare, postulai^e, for a person's 

Supra is the opposite of infra, and is used to both questions. Where ? and 
Whither ? In English it is " above," implying both space and measure, e. g. 
supra vires, supra consuetudinem, supra numerum ; and with numerals, supra 
duos menses, seniores supra sexaginta annos. It is more rarely used in the 
sense o^ praeter, beside ; as in Livy, supra belli Latini metum id quoque acces- 
serat; and in that o^ ante, before, as in Caesar, joawZo supra hanc memoriam, a 
little before the present time. 

Versus is joined also (though rarely) to the prepositions ad or in: ad 
Oceanum versus profcisci, in Italiam versus navigare. 

Ultra not unfrequently occurs as denoting measure ; e. g. ultra feminam 
mollis, ultra fortem temerarius, more than a woman, and more than a brave 
man usually is. ' 

2. Prepositions with the Ablative. 9 

[§ 304.] Ab (this is the original form, in Greek airo), from, in regard to 
both place and time (a cujus morte^ ab illo tempore tricesimus annus est), and 



also to denote a living being as the author of an action, as in amari, diligi ab 
aliquo, discere ah aliquo, and with neuter verbs, which have the meaning of a 
])assive ; e, g. interire ab aliquo, which is the same as occidi ab aliquo. The 
following particulars, however, must be observed : — 

a) With regard to its denoting time, we say a prima aetate^ ab ineunte 
aetate^ a primo tempore or primis temporibus aetatis, ab initio aetatis and ab 
infantia^ a pueritia, ab adolescentia, as well as in connection with concrete 
nouns : a pitero, a pueris^ ab adolescentido, ab infante, all of which expressions 
signify " from an early age." The expressions a parvis, a parvido, a tenero, a 
teneris unguicidis, are less common and of Greek origin. A puero is used in 
speaking of one person, and a pueris in speaking of several ; e. g. Diodorum 
Stoicum a puero avdivi, or Socrates docuit fieri nullo modo posse, ut a pueris 
tot rerum insitas in animis notiones haberemus, nisi animus, antequam, corpus 
intrasset, in rerum cognitione viguisset. 

Ab initio and a principio, a primo properly denote the space of time from 
the beginning down to a certain point. Tacitus, e. g., says, urbem Romam 
a principio reges habuere, that is, for a certain period after its foundation. 
Frequently, however, this idea disappears, and ab initio, kc. become the 
same as initio, in the beginning ; e. g. Consuli non animus ab initio, non fides 
ad extremum defuit, he was neither wanting in courage at first, nor in faith- 
fulness at the last ; ah initio Jiujus defensionis dixi, at the beginning of my 

&) When ab denotes place, it frequently expresses the side on which a 
thing happens, or rather whence it proceeds ; as a fronte, a tergo, ab occasu 
et ortu (solis) : Alexander a fronte et a tergo hostem habebat; Horatiu^ Codes 
a tergo pontem interscindi jubebat ; Caesar a dextro cornu proelium commisit. 
Hence a reo dicere, to speak on behalf of the defendant, and with the verb 
stare; as a senatu stare, to stand on the side of the senate, or to be of the 
party of the senate ; a bonorum causa stare, to be on the side of the patriots, 
— or without the verb stare, in the same sense : hoc est a me, this is for me, 
in my favour, supports my assertion ; haecfacitis a nobis contra vosmet ipsos, 
to our advantage, or facere in an intransitive sense : hoc nihilo magis ab 
adversariis, quam a nobis facit, this is no less advantageous to our opponents 
than to ourselves. So also, the adherents or followers of a school are called 
a Platone, ab Aristotele, a Critolao, although in these cases we may supply 
profecti, that is, persons who went forth from such a school. Sometimes, 
though chiefly in the comic writers, ah is used instead of a genitive : ancilla 
ah Andria, fores and ostium ah aliqua concrepuit. 

[§ 305.] In a figurative sense it signifies " with regard to ; " e. g. Antonius 
ab equitatu firmus esse dicehatur ; imparati sumus quum a militibus, tum a 
pecunia ; mediocriter a doctrinxi instructus ; inops ab amicis ; felix ah omni 
laude ; Horace : Nihil est ab omni parte heatum. In the sense of " on the 
side of," it also denotes relationship, as in Augustus a matre Magnum Pom- 
pejum artissimo contingehat gradu, on his mother s side. 

Ab denotes that which is to be removed, and thus answers to our " from," 
or " against," e. g. forum defendere a Clodio, custodire templum ah Hannibale, 
munire vasa a frigore et tempestatihus, that is, contra frigus. So also tutus a 
periculo, secure from danger, and timere a suis, to be afraid of one's own 

Statim, confestim, recent ah aliqua re, "immediately after," have originally 
reference to place, but pass from their meaning of place into that of time ; 

R 4 


e.g. Scipio confestim a proelio — ad naves rediif, immediately after the battle 
Scipio returned to the fleet ; hostes a prospera pugna castra oppugnaveimnt^ 
Liv. ; ah itinere facere aliquid^ to do a thing while on a journey. 

Ab^ further, often describes a circumstance as the cause of a thing, and may 
be translated by, " in consequence of," "from," or "out of," as in Livy : dice- 
hantur ah eodem animo ingenioque, a quo gesta sunt, in consequence of the same 
sentiment ; ah eadem Jiducia animi, ah ira, a spe. Legati Carthaginienses ali- 
quanto minore cum misericordia ah recenti memoria perjidiae auditi sunt, in 
consequence of the yet fresh recollection ; Curtius : Alexander vates quoque 
adhihere coepit a superstitione animi, from superstitious prejudices. 

Ah, used to denote an official function, is quite a peculiarity of the Latin 
language ; e. g. alicujus or alicui esse (scil. servum or lihertum) a pedihv^, to 
be a person's lacquey, ah epistolis (secretary), a rationihus (keeper of 
accounts), a studiis, a voluptatihus. 

[§ 306.] Absque is found only in the comic writers, and modern Latinists 
should not introduce such antiquated words into their writings. See Burmann 
on Cie. de Invent, i. 36. ; Ruhnken, Diet. Terent. p. 228. ed. Schopen. There 
is only one passage in Cicero, ad Att. i. 19. : nullam a me epistolam ad te siiu) 
absque argumento pervenire, in which the writer seems to have intentionally 
used absque, because he could not well have written the proper word sine, 
on account of the proximity of sino. 

[§ 307.] Cum, "with," not only expresses "in the company of persons," as cum 
aliquo esse, cum aliquo ire, venire, prqficisci, facere aliquid (also secum, that 
is, with one's self), but also accompanying circumstances, as Verres Lampsa- 
cum venit cum magna calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis; hostes cum detrimento 
suntdepulsi; and numerous other instances; also equivalent to our "in," 
in the sense of " dressed in ;" as in hac officina Praetor (Verres) mojorem 
partem diei cum tunica pidla sedere solebat et pallio. When combined with 
verbs denoting hostility, cum, like our " with," has the meaning of " against :" 
cum aliquo helium gerere, to be at war with somebody ; thus cum aliquo queri, 
to complain of or against a person. 

[§ 308.] De is most commonly " concerning," " about," or " on," as in 
multa de te audivi, liber de contemnenda morte, scil. scriptus ; Regulus de cap- 
tivis commutandis Homam missus est. Also in the phrases de te cogito, I think 
of thee ; actum est de me, I am undone. Consequently, traditur de Homero, 
is something very different from traditur ah Homero ; in the former sentence 
Homer is the object, and in the latter the subject. In the epistolary style, 
when a new subject is touched upon, de is used in the sense of quod attinet 
ad aliquid ; as in Cicero : de fratre, confido ita esse, ut semper volui; de me 
autem, suscipe paulisper meas partes, et eum te esse Jinge, qui sum ego ; de 
rationihus referendis, non erat incommodum, &c. But very frequently it has 
the si""nification of " down from," or " from a higher point ;" as dcscendere 
de rostris, de coelo ; Verres palam de sella ac trihunali pronuntiat; further, it 
denotes the origin from a place ; as homo de schola, declamator de ludo, 
nescio qui de circo maximo, Cic. pro Milon. 24. ; or " of," in a partitive 
sense, as homo de plehe, unus de populo, unus de multis, one of the many ; 
Unas de septem, one of the seven wise men ; C. Gracchum de superioribus 
paene solum lego; versus de Phoenissis, verses from the tragedy of the 
Phoenissae ; partem de istius impudentia reticebo, and in the phrases de meo, 
tuo, suo, &c., de alieno, de publico. 

De also denotes time, which arises from its partitive signification. Cicero 


says, Milo in comitium de node veiiit, that Is, even by niglit, or spending 
a part of the night in coming to the comitium ; vigilare de node, Alexander 
de die inihat convivia, even in the daytime ; hence multa de node, media de 
node, that is, " in the depth of night," " in the middle of the night," the 
signification of the point of beginning being lost in that of the time in general. 
Fac, si me amas, ut considerate diligenterque naviges de mense Decembri, i. e. 
take care, as you are sailing in (a part of) the month of December. 

In other cases also de is not unfrequently used for ab or ex ; thus Cicero 
says, audivi hoc de parente meo puer, and with a somewhat far-fetched dis- 
tinction between Y'^hat is accidental and what is intentional ; in Verr. iii. 57. : 
Non hoc nunc primum audit privatus de inimico, reus ab accusatore ; effugere 
de manibus ; Dionysius mensas argenteas de omnibus delubris jussit auferri ; 
especially in connection with emere, mercari, conducere de aliquo. Gloriam, 
victoriam parere, palmare, de aliquo or ex aliquo ; triumphum agere de Gallis, 
Allobi'ogibv^, Aetolis, or ex Gallis, &c. are used indiscriminately. 

Iin some combinations de has the signification of "in accordance with," or 
" after," like secundum : de consilio meo, de amicorum sententia, de consilii 
sententia, according to the resolution of the council ; de communi sententia ; de 
more. In other cases de with a noun following denotes the manner or cause 
of an action : denuo, de integro, afresh ; de improviso, unexpectedly ^ de in- 
dustria, purposely ; de facie novi aliquem, I know a person by his appearance. 
In combination with res and causa : qua de re, qua de causa, quibus de causis, 
for which reasons. 

[§ 309.] JEx (for this is the original form, it was changed into e when 
consonants followed, whence a certain custom was easily formed), " from," 
" out of," is quite common to denote a place, as an answer to the question 
whence? and in some peculiar phrases; such as: ex equo pugnare; ex equis 
colloqui, to converse while riding on horseback ; ex muro passis manibus pacem 
peter e; ex arbore pendere ; ex loco superiors dicer e; ex itinere scribere; con- 
spicari aliquid ex propinquo, e longinquo videi^e aliquid, ex tj-ansverso impetum 
facere; ex adverso, and e regione (not ex}, opposite; ex omni parte, in or from 
all parts. Fx aliquo audire, accipere, cognoscere, scire, and the like, to hear 
from a person's own mouth ; victoriam reportare ex aliquo populo, where ex is 
the same as de. Ex vino, ex aqua coquere, bibere, where we say, " with wine," 
&c. are common medical expressions. 

Ex, when a particle of time, denotes the point from which : ex illo die, from 
that day; ex hoc tempore, ex quo (not e), since; ex consulatu, ex praetura, ex 
didatura, after the consulship, &c. ; diem ex die expectare, to wait one day 
after another, or day after day. 

Ex, " from," denoting cause ; as in ex aliquo or aliqua re dolere, laborare 
ex pedibu^, e renibus, ex oculis, ex capite; perire ex vulne?^ibus; ex quodam ru- 
mor e nos te hie ad mensem Januarium expedabamus; ex lassitudine artiu^ 
dormire, after a fatigue, or on account of fatigue ; quum e via languerem, 
from or after the journey; ex quo vereor, whence I fear, and still more fre- 
quently, ex quo, whence, or for which reason. Hence it has also the signifi- 
cation of " in consequence of," or " in accordance with," and that in a great 
many expressions ; such as : ex lege, ex decreto, ex testamento, ex Senatuscon- 
sulto, ex Senatus audoritate, ex sententia equivalent to de sententia, ex con- 
suetudine, e more. 

With this we must connect the cases in which ex denotes the manner of an 
action ; as in ex animo laudare, to praise heartily ; ex sententia and ex voluntate. 


according to one's wish ; e iiatura vivere, in accordance with nature ; ex im- 
proviso, ex inopinato, ex composito, ex praeparato^ ex aequo^ &c. 

Ex denoting a change of a previous state : e servo te lihertum meumfeci; 
nihil est tarn misercibile quam ex heato miser ; repente Verres ex Tiomine tamquam 
epoto poculo Circaeo f actus est verres. 

In a partitive sense, ex denotes the whole from which something is taken, 
and is of frequent occurrence : thus unus e plehe^ unus e multis, is the same as 
unus de plehe and de multis. Connected with this are the phrases : aliquid 
est e re mea^ something is to my advantage ; e repuUica (not ear), for the good 
of the state. 

[§ 310.] Prae^ " before," signifies place only in combination with agere^ ferre^ 
or other verbs expressing motion, and with pronouns : prae me fero^ prae se 
fert^ prae vobis tulistis, which denote the open display of a thing or of a 

Prae is commonly used in comparisons ; as in Cicero : prae se omnes con- 
temnit: ut ipse Consul in hac causa prae me minus etiam quxim privatum esse 
videatur^ in comparison with me ; Pomam p7rie sua Capua irridehunt; omnium 
minas atque omnia pericula prae salute sua levia duxerunt. 

It is frequently used also in the sense of " on account of," implying an 
obstacle ; e. g. solem prae sagittarum multitudine non videhitis ; non medius 
jidius prae lacrimis possum reliqua nee cogitare nee scrihere; non possum prae 
Jietu et dolor e diutius in hoc loco commorari^ and so always with a negative 
particle, which however is sometimes implied in the negative signification of 
the verb ; e. g. Liv. vi. 40. : quum prae indignitate rerum stupor silentiumque 
ceteros patrum defixisset ; xxxviii. 33.: silentium prae metu ceterorum fuit. 

[§ 311 ] Pro, in regard to place " before," or " in front of a thing ;" e. g. 
pro vallo, pro castris aciem instruere, that is, in the front of, close by, or under 
the wall; copias pro oppido collocare; pro templis omnibus ])raesidia collocata 
sunt; hasta posita est pro aede Jovis Statoris; Antonius sedens pro aede Cas- 
toris inforo. It also signifies, "at the extreme point of a thing," so that the 
person spoken of is in or upon the thing, e. g. pro suggestu aliquid pronun- 
tiare, pro trihunali edicei'e, pro rostris laudare. Hence also pro testimonio 
dicere, to declare as a witness, and other expressions denoting place, where 
pro is the same as m; e.g. Tacit. Ann. i. 44. : stabant pro contione, the same 
as in contione; ibid. ii. 81.: pro muris vocans, on the edge of the wall. 

The signification of something standing " before " a thing is the origin of 
that of " for," both in the sense of " instead," and that of protection : Unus 
Cato est pro centum milibus ; Marcelli statua pro patibulo fuit; homo jam pro 
damnato est ; se gerere or esse j)ro cive ; habere pro hostibus, pro sociis ; habere 
pro certo ; aliquid pro mercede, pro praemio est; aliquid pro nihilo estimare, 
habere, putare ; also " for" in speaking of payment : pro vectura solvere, to 
pay for freight ; dixit se dimidium, quod pactum esset, pro illo carmine daturum; 
praemia mihi data sunt pro hac industria maxima. " For," the opposite of 
" against:" hoc pro me est, or valere debet; Cicero pro Murena orationem ha- 
buit, and in numerous other instances. 

[§312.] Pro, "in accordance with" or, "in proportion to," occurs very 
frequently ; e. g. civitatibus pro numero militum pecuniarum summas describere, 
according to the number of soldiers furnished by them ; ego vos pro mea 
summa et vobis cognita in rempublicam diligentia moneo, pro auctoritate consu- 
lari hortor, pro magnitudine periculi obtestor, ut pad consulatis. Hence in 
many particular phrases; as, pro tempore or pro temporibus, in accordance 


with the, circumstances of the time, that is, pro condiiione temporurtL, but by 
no means " for the time being," or " for a time 5" pro re or pro re nata^ ac- 
cording to circumstances or emergencies ; pro meo jure^ according to my 
right ; pro eo ut, pro eo ac, according as ; e. g. Di gratiam mihi referent pro eo 
ac mereor,, i.e. pro eo quod, quantum, according to my merits ; especially to 
denote divisions or share : pro parte, or pro mea, tua, sua parte, for my part, as 
far as lies in me ; pro virili parte, according to the capacity of an individual ; 
as in : pro virili parte rempuhlicam defender e ; pro portione, in proportion ; 
pro rata portione, or pro rata parte, in a correct proportion. In the phrase 
pro se quisque, every one for his part, the three words have almost grown into 
one ; e. g. pro se quisque aurum, argentum et aes in publicum conferunt, every 
one, though with a somewhat strengthened meaning, " every one without 
exception."- Quam pro after comparatives deserves especial notice ; e. g. 
major quam pro numero hominum pugna editur ; sedes excelsior quam pro habitu 

[§ 313.] Tenus is used to denote limitation, e. g. Antiochus Tauro tenus 
regnare jussus est, as far as Mount Taurus, especially in the combination of 
verbo and nomijie tenus, as far as the word or the name goes. So also ore 
tenus sapientia exercitatus in Tacitus, that is, that he could speak wisely, but 
not act wisely. It is only in poetry that this preposition is connected with a 
genitive, and chiefly with a genitive plural; e. g. labrorum tenus, up to the lip ; 
crurum tenu^, laterum tenus ; but inLivy, xxvi 24., too we find Corcyrae tenus. 
The accusative is still more rare. 

3. Prepositions with the Accusative and Ablative. 

[§ 314.] In with the accusative expresses the point in space towards which 
a movement is directed, like our " to," or " into :" in aedem ire, in publicum 
prodire, in Graeciam proficisci, in civitatem recipere ; also the direction in 
which a thing extends, e. g. decem pedes in latitudinem, in longitudinem, in 
altitudinem, in breadth, length, height ; further, independent of locality, it 
denotes the object towards which an action is directed, either with a friendly 
or hostile intention : amor in patriam, odium in malos cives, in duces vehemens, 
in milites liberalis, dicere in aliquem, and so also oratio in aliquem, a speech 
against some one. 

It also denotes an object or purpose : haec commutari ex veris in falsa non. 
possunt; in majus celebrare, for something greater, so that it becomes some- 
thing greater ; is imperator in poenam exercitus expetitus esse videtur ; pecunia 
data est in rem militarem ; paucos in speciem captivos ducebant, for the sake of 
appearance ; in contumeliam perfugae appellabantur, for the purpose of dis- 
gracing them; cum in earn sententiam multa dixisset, in support of this 
opinion ; in hanc foi^mulam, in has leges, in haec verba, &c., scribere, foedus 

[§ 315.] "V\Tien joined with words denoting time, it expresses a prede- 
termination of that time like the English " for ;" e. g. invitare aliquem in 
posterum diem, for the following day ; praedicere in midtos annos, in paucos 
dies, in multos menses subsidia vitae habere, in hodiemum diem, for this pre- 
sent day ; and so in many phrases ; as, in diem vivere, to live only for the day ; 
in futurum, in posterum, in reliquum, for the future ; in aetemum, in per- 
petuum, for ever ; in praesens, for the present ; in all these cases the word 
fempus may be added. Without denoting time, in is used also with the 


accusative of other words to express the future ; e. g. Patres in incertiim 
comitiorum eventum auctores jiunt^ give their sanction to the yet uncertain 
resolutions of the coniitia. 

AVhen joined with the numeral singulis or when this word is to be under- 
stood, in expresses a distribution, like the English " on," " for," or " over ;" 
e. g. in singulas civitates hinos ccnsores descrihere ; queritur Sicilia tota^ Veri^em 
ah aratorihus pro frumento in modios singulos duodenos sestertios exegisse ; so 
also pretium, in capita statuere^ i. e. in singula capita ; ternis nummis in pedem 
tecum transegit, i. e. in singulos pedes. We must here notice also the ex- 
pression in singulos dies, or in dies alone, " from day to day," with compa- 
ratives and verbs containing the idea of a comparative, such as crescere, 

It lastly denotes, in some phrases, the manner of an action ; servilem, 
hostilem, miserandum in modum ; mirum, mirabilem, mirandum in modum ; in 
universum, in general ; in commune, in common ; in vicem, alternately, or 
instead of; in Bruti locum consulatum petere, in the place or instead of. 

[§ 316.] In with the ablative, when it denotes place, most commonly ex- 
presses " being in a place or in a thing," while with the accusative it indi- 
cates a movement or direction towards it.- It may sometimes be translated 
by " on," or " upon," but always answers to the question Where ? e. g. 
coronam in collo habere ; aliquid in humeris ferre ; in ripa Jiuminis ; in litore 
maris urbs condita est; pons in fiumine est. When a number or quantity is 
indicated it answers to " among ;" e. g. esse, haberi, poni, numerari in bonis 
civihus ; in magnis viris, in mediocribus oratoribus, in septem vagantibus, 
among the seven planets, so that in is equal to inter. A particular phrase is 
aliquid in manibus est, a thing is in hand, or has been commenced ; as in Livy : 
liaec contentio minime idoneo tempore, quum tantum belli in manibus esset, oc- 
cuparat cogitationes hominum. In manibus habere, to be engaged upon a 
thing ; as in Cicero : Quam spem nunc habeat in manibus et quid moliatur, 
breviter jam exponam. Aliquid in oculis est, a thing is obvious. 

Now and then we find, in good authors, in with the accusative, where the 
grammatical rule requires the ablative. See the commentators on Livy ii. 14. ; 
but this is limited to a very few political and legal expressions, such as in 
potestatem, in amicitiam dicionemque esse, rnanere (Cic. Divin. in Q. Caecil. 20., 
in Verr. v. 38), in vadimonium, in moram esse, and even these cases must 
be considered only as exceptions. In the comic writers, however, we not 
unfrequently find mihi in mentem est. See.Bentley on Terent. Ileaut. v. 2. 

[§ 317.] The general signification of in with the ablative is " in," or " with," 
and without reference to locality it denotes a coincidence of certain circum-r 
stances and attributes ; e. g. in hoc homine, in hac re, hoc admiror, hoc laudo, 
hoc displicet, in this man ; a phrase of this kind is quantum in eo or in me, te, 
&c., fuit, as much as was in my power. In the following sentences it is our 
" with," or " notwithstanding : " in summa copia oratorum, nemo tamen 
Ciceronis laudem aequavit ; in summis tuis occupationibus, with all thy very 
important engagements ; alter, uti dixit Isocrates in Ephoro et Theopompo, 
frenis egit, alter calcaribus, as Isocrates said when speaking of Ephorus and 

[§ 318.] When real expressions of time, such as saeculum, annus, mensis, 
dies, nox, vesper are employed, the simple ablative denotes the time at Avhich 
(see § 475.) ; but in is used Avith substantives, which by themselves do not 


denote time, but acquire that meaning by being connected with in ; as, in 
considatu, in praetura, in meo reditu^ in primo conspectu, in principio^ in hello, 
although in these cases too the simple ablative is sometimes used ; but in 
appears more especially in connection with a gerund, as in legendo and in 
legendis libris, in urbe oppugnanda, in itinere faciendo — all these expressions 
in the first instance denoting time, but passing into kindred meanings. In 
praesenti or praesentia, signifies " at the present moment," or " for the 
present." The phrase, est in eo, ut aliquid fiat, signifies, something is on the 
point of happening. 

[§ 319.] Sub, e. g. Romani sub jiigum missi sunt ; se conjicere sub scalas, to 
throw oneself under the stairs ; alicui scamnum sub pedem dare, and figu- 
ratively, sub imperium tuum redeo, and so also aliquid cadit sub aspectum, " a 
thing falls within the horizon," as well as cadit sub judicium et delectum sapi- 
entis, sub intelligentiam, it belongs to the philosopher, is left to him. When 
it denotes time, it signifies, 1. " about," that is, shortly before, as sub ortum 
solis, shortly before sunrise ; sub noctem, sub vesperam ; 2. more rarely, 
" immediately after ;" e. g. sub eas litteras statim recitatae sunt tuae, Cic. ad 
Fam. X. 16.; statim sub mentionem, Coelius in Cic. ad Fam. viii. 4.; Africa 
hello, quod fuit sub recentem Romanam paeem, Liv. xxi. 11.; and sub haec 
dicta, sub hanc vocem, are used by the same writer. The phrase sub idem 
tempus contains only an approximate definition of time, and signifies " about 
the same time." 

Sub, with the ablative, is always " under ; " first, with regard to things 
that strike our senses, and secondly, to denote inferiority in rank : sub divo, 
or sub c?i^ under the sky, in the open air ; sub oculis, under, i. e. before our 
eyes ; sub regibus esse, sub imperio, sub hoc sacramento militari, sub magistro 
esse : it rarely denotes a condition, and only in late writers ; e. g. sub lege, 
sub poena. Sub specie, " under the appearance," and sub obtentu, " under the 
pretext," are little used. Sometimes sub is found with the ablative to 
denote time, but only where cojitemporaneity is to be indicated ; e. g. 
Ovidi. Fast. \. 491.: Haec tria sunt sub eodem tempore festa; Caes. Bell. 
Civ. i. 27. : ne sub ipsa profectione milites oppidum irrumperent ; and in like 
manner we may say sid) adventu, e. g. Romanorum, while they were arriving. 
Compare Drakenborch on Liv. ii. 55. ; who, however, gives to this sub too 
great an extent. 

[§ 320.] Super has, in prose, the ablative only when used in the sense of 
de, " concerning," or " in respect of," as in super aliqua re ad aliquem scribere, 
but chiefly in writers of the silver age of the language. ^ 

With the accusative it signifies " over," " above," and answers to both 
questions Whither ? and AVhere ? super aliquem sedere, accumbere, situ^ est 
Aeneas super Numicium flumen, Aeneas was buried above the river ; that is, 
on its banks, but on an eminence of the bank. The phrase super coenam 
signifies " during dinner." AVith numerals it is " above," or " more than ; " 
e. g. Annulorum tantus acervus fuit, ut metientibus dimidium super tres modios 
explesse sint quidam auctores, one half more than three modii, or three modii 
and a half; and in other expressions, as res super vota fiuunt, more than was 
wished. In these two significations of " above " (in its sense of place as well 
as that of " more than "), super is the same as supra ; but it is used more fre- 
quently than the latter in the sense of " besides," or " in addition to : " super 
helium annona premit ; super morbum etiam fames affedt exercitum, super 
cetera ; so also in the phrase aliu^ super alium, one after the other. 


Siibter is rarely used with the abhitive, and only in poetry : Cicero uses 
the accusative in the expression Plato warn in pedore^ cupiditatem suhter 
jJraecordia locavit. Otherwise it frequently occurs as an adverb, in the sense 
of our " below." 

[§321.] 2. The adverbs clam, palam, simul SLud procul, are 
sometimes connected by poets and late prose writers with an 
ablative, and must then be regarded as prepositions : clam, and 
its diminutive clanculum, " without a person's knowledge," 
e. g. clam uxore mea et Jilio, are frequently found as prepositions 
in the comic writers, but are joined also with the accusative; 
palam is the opposite of clam, and the same as coram ; e. g. 
palam populo, in the presence of the people ; simul is used by 
poets, without the preposition cum, in the sense of "with;" 
e. g. Sil. Ital. V. 418. : avulsa est protinus hosti ore simul cervix, 
the neck together with the face : Horace uses simul his, together 
with these, and Tacitus frequently ; e. g. Annal. iii. 64. : Sep- 
temviris simul ; procul, with the omission of ah, is frequent in 
Livy and Tacitus, and signifies, " far from ; " e. g. procul urhe, 
mari, voluptatibus, and in the phrase procul dubio -er duhio 
procul, instead of sine duhio. 

[§ 322.] Respecting usque 2^^ an adverb, see above, § 286. It 
is commonly accompanied by a preposition ah and ex, or ad, in 
and suh, and expresses the idea of .continuity from one point to 
another ; e. g. vetus opinio est, usque ah heroicis ducta temporihus ; 
usque ex ultima Syria atque Aegypto navigare ; similis plausus 
me usque ad Capitolium celehravit ; usque in Pamphyliam legatos 
mittere ; usque suh extremum hrumae imhrem, where usque is our 
" until." It is only in poetry and late prose writer^, that usque 
alone is used for usque ad; e. g. Curtius, viii. 31., says of the 
Indians: — corpora usque pedes carhaso velant. This is inde- 
pendent of the names of towns, where the prepositions ad and 
ah are generally omitted. 

[§ 323.] 3. But many of the above-mentioned prepositions 
are used as adverbs, that is, without a noun depending on 
them. This is chiefly the case with those which denote place : 
ante and post, adversum and exadversum (opposite), circa 
(around), circumcirca (all around), contra (opposite), coram (in 
the presence of), extra, infra, juxta, prope and propter (near), 
pone (behind), supra, ultra, super and suhter. Circiter also. 


and sometimes ad (§ 296.), are used in the adverbial sense of 
*^ about" or "nearly" with numbers, which are indefinitely 
stated. Contra, when used without a case and for the purpose 
of connecting sentences, is a conjunction, like our " but," or 
" however." 

Note. Instead of ante and post as adverbs, we have also the special 
forms anted and posted (consequently the conjunctions antedqiuxm^ posted- 
qiuim)^ see § 276. Ante^ however, is preferred as an adverb in combina- 
tion with participles ; e. g. ante dicta, vita ante acta, and post is frequently 
used to connect sentences. 

Contra, as an adverb, occurs in the phrase of Plautus, auro contra, or 
contra auro ; that is, gold being placed on the other side ; so that aitro is 
not a dative, but an ablative ; for which other authors, however, use the pre- 
position contra aurum, for gold, when a price is indicated. 

Juxta, as an adverb, commonly signifies " equally," or " in like manner," and 
is the same as aeque ; e. g. in Livy : aliaqiie castella (dedita sunt) j/ixta igno- 
hilia ; Sallust : eorum ego vitam mortemque juxta aestimo, I deem of equal 
importance ; margaritae a feminis juxta virisque gestantur, by women as well 
as by men. It is frequently followed by ac or atque, in the sense of " as." 

Praeter is used as an adverb for praeterqiuim ; that is, not with the accu- 
sative, but with the case required by the verb preceding, as in Sallust : 
ceterae multitudini diem statiiit, ante quam sine fraude (without punishment) 
liceret ah armis discedere, praeter rerum capitdli7im condemnatis. We thus 
might say, hoc nemini, praeter tihi, videhir ; but it is better to say praeter te, 
ov praeterquam (nisi) tihi. 

Prope and propter are very frequently used as adverbs ; prope, however, 
is sometimes accompanied by the preposition ah, as in tam prope a Sicilia helium 
gestum est, so near Sicily ; prope a meis aedihu^ sedehas, near my house. 

Ultra, as an adverb, and accompanied by a negative particle, signifies " no 
longer : " haud ultra pati possum ; helium Latinum non ultra dilatum est. 
"When it denotes place or measure, it signifies " further " or " beyond." 

[§ 324.] 4. It was remarked above, that the prepositions 
versus and tenus are placed after their case. Some other pre- 
positions also may take the same place, but not indiscriminately. 
Thus, the four prepositions ante, contra, inter and propter, 
are sometimes placed after the relative pronoun (occasionally 
after the demonstrative hie also); e. g. diem statuunt, quam 
ante ah armis discederet, quern contra venit, quos inter, quem 
propter ; other prepositions of two or more syllables, as circa, 
circum, penes, ultra, and adversus, are more rarely used in 
this way ; the monosyllabic prepositions, post, per, ad and de, 
are thus used only in isolated cases or phrases, and de scarcely 
in any other than legal formulae ; e. g. quo de agitur, res qua de 
judicatum est. Further, those same four dissyllabic prepositions 


ante, contra, inter and propter^ together with the monosyllabic 
oh, post, de, ex and in, when they govern a substantive accom- 
panied by an adjective or pronoun, are frequently placed between 
the adjective and substantive ; e. g. medios inter liostes, certis de 
causis, magna ex parte, aliquot post menses, and still more fre- 
quently between the relative pronoun and the substantive ; e. g. 
quod propter studium, qua in re, quam oh rem, quam oh causam. 
Per, ah, and ad are but rarely placed in this way. The prepo- 
sition cum is always placed after or rather appended to the 
ablative of the personal pronouns me, te, se, nohis and vohis. 
The same is commonly the case with the ablatives of the 
relative pronoun, quo, qua, and quihus, but we may also say, 
cum quo, cum qua, and cum quihus. This preposition also 
prefers the middle place between the adjective or pronoun and 
the substantive. (See § 472.) What has been said here applies 
to ordinary prose ; and the practice of those prose writers, 
who place the above-mentioned prepositions and others even 
after substantives, must be regarded as a peculiarity. In 
Tacitus, for example, we often find such arrangements as, Mise- 
num apud, viam propter, Scythas inter, Euphratem ultra, cuhi- 
culum Caesaris juxta, litora Calahriae contra, ripam ad Araxis, 
verhera inter ac contumelias, and the like. The place of coram 
after its noun seems, comparatively speaking, to be established 
by better authority than that of any other. Poets go still fur- 
ther, and separate a preposition entirely from the case belonging 
to it; e. g. in Horace, Serm. i. 3. 70.: — Amicus dulcis cum mea 
compenset vitiis bona. 



[§ 325.] The majority of the prepositions are used also to 
form compound words, especially verbs, modifying, naturally, 
by their own meaning that of the words to which they are joined. 
The prepositions themselves often undergo a change in their pro- 


nunciation and orthography, on account of the initial letter of 
the verb to which they are prefixed. But the opinions of ancient 
as well as modern grammarians differ on no point so much as 
upon the detail of these changes, some taking into account 
the facility of pronunciation, and assimilating the concur- 
rent letters of the prepositions and the simple verb accord- 
ingly, others preferring to leave the prepositions unchanged, 
at least in writing, because the former method admits of much 
that is arbitrary. Even in old MSS. and in the inscribed 
monuments of antiquity the greatest inconsistency prevails, and 
we find, e. g., existere along with exsistere, collega along with 
conlega, and imperium along with inperium, in the same book. 
In the following remarks, therefore, as we must have some- 
thing certain and lasting, we can decide only according to 
prevalent usage, but there are some points which we must 
determine for ourselves as well as we can. 

Ad remains unchanged before vowels, and before the con- 
sonants d, j, V, m; before other consonants it undergoes an 
assimilation, that is, the d is changed into the letter which 
follows it, and before qu into the kindred c, as in acquiroy 
acquiesco. Before gn the d is dropped, as in agnatus, agnosco. 
But grammarians are not agreed as to whether d is to be re- 
tained before Z, w, r, s, and still less, as to whether it may stand 
before /. Even the most ancient MSS. are not consistent, and 
we find in them, e. g. adloquor, adfecto, adspiro, and on the 
other hand, allicio, affligo, assuetus, aspectus, ascendo. Our 
own opinion is in favour of the assimilation, and we make an 
exception only in the case of adscriho, on account of the agree- 
ment of the MSS. on this point. The signification of ad remains 
the same as usual, as in adjungo, assumo, affero, appono, alloquor. 
In approbo and affirmo it either expresses a direction towards, 
or merely strengthens the meaning of the simple verb. 

Ante remains unchanged ; in anticipare and antistare alone, the 
e is changed into i, though antesto also is approved of. Its 
meaning is " before," as in anteponos antefero. 

Circum remains unchanged, and retains, in writing, its m 
even before vowels, although in pronunciation (but without the 
elision of the vowel preceding) it was lost. Only in circumco 
and its derivatives the m is often dropped, as circueo. Its 



meaning is " around," " about," as in circumago^ circumdo, cir- 

Inter remains unchanged, except in the word intelligo. Its 
meaning is "between" or " among," as in interpono. 

Oh remains generally unchanged, and undergoes the assi- 
milation only before c, f, g, and p. In obsolesco, from the 
simple verb oleo, and in ostendo from tendo, we must recognise 
an ancient form ohs, like ahs for ab. Its meaning of ** against" 
or "before" appears in oppono, offero, occurro, oggannio. 

[§ 326.] Per remains unchanged even before Z, though some 
think otherwise ; in pellicio, however, it is universally assimi- 
lated. The r is dropped only in the word pejero, I commit a per- 
jurium. Its meaning is " through," as in perlego, perluceo, perago. 
When added to adjectives it strengthens their meaning (§ 107.), 
but in perfidus and perjurus, it has the power of a negative 

Post remains unchanged, except in pomoerium and pomeri- 
dianus, in which st is dropped ; its meaning is " after," as in 

Praeter remains unchanged, and signifies " passing by," as in 
praetereo, praetermitto. 

Trans remains unchanged before vowels, and for the most part 
also before consonants. In the following words the ns is dropped : 
trado, traduco, trajicio, trano, which forms are more frequent 
than transdo, transduco, transjicio, transno, though the latter are 
not to be rejected. When the verb begins with s, the s at the 
end of trans is better omitted, and we should write transcribe, 
transilio. Its meaning " through," " over," or " across," appears 
in transex), trqjicw, and transmitto, I cross (a river) ; trado, sur- 

[§ 327.] A, ab, abs, viz. : a before m and v ; ab before vowels 
and most consonants, even before f, though afui exists along with 
abfui ; in aufero (to distinguish it from affero) and aufugiq, ab 
is changed into av or au ; abs occurs only before c and t, but 
appears mutilated in asporto and aspernor. Its meaning is 
"from" or *^away," as in amitto, avehor, abeo, abjicio, abrado, 
aufero, abscondo, abstineo. 

De, " down " or " away from," as in dejicio, descendo, detraho, 
deter o, rub off; despicio, look down upon, despise. In some 


compounds, especially adjectives, it has a negative power, as in 
decolor, deformis, demens, desipio, despero ; in derriiror, deamo, 
and dejero, on the other hand, it seems to strengthen the meaning. 
JS and ex, viz. : ex before vowels, and before consonants some- 
times e and sometimes ex : ex before c, p, q, s, t, except in 
escendo and epoto ; before f it assimilates to it ; e is used before 
all the other consonants, except in exlex. We, therefore, should 
write exspecto, exsilium, exstinguo, but the ancient grammarians, 
as Quintilian and Priscian, are for throwing out the s, and in 
MSS. we usually find extinguo, extruxi, exequor, and expecto, 
exul, exilium, notwithstanding the ambiguity which sometimes 
may arise. Its meaning "out of" or ""from," appears in ejicio, 
emineo, enato, eripio, effero (extuli), excello, expono, exquiro, ex- 
traho, exaudio, exigo, exulcero, &c. The idea of completion is 
implied in several of these compounds, as in ejfficio, enarro, exoro. 
[§ 328.] In is changed into im, before b and p and another 
m, and it is assimilated to I and r. Its meaning is "in" or 
" into," as in incurro, impono, illido, irrumpo. ^Vlien prefixed 
to adjectives and participles, which have the signification of 
adjectives, it has a negative power, and does not appear to be 
the preposition in, but equivalent to and identical with our in or 
un, e. g. indoctus, incautus, ineptus (from aptus), insipiens, im- 
providus, irnprudens, imparatus, the negative oi paratus, because 
there is no verb imparo. Some other compounds of this kind 
have a double meaning, since they may be either negative adjec- 
tives, or participles of a compound verb : e. g. indictus, unsaid, 
or announced ; infr actus, unbroken or broken into ; invocatus, 
uninvited, or accosted, called in. The participle perf. passive, 
when compounded with in, often acquires the signification of 
impossibility : e. g. invictus, unconquered and unconquerable ; 
indefessus, indefatigable; infinitus, immeasurable. 

Prae remains unchanged, but is shortened when a vowel fol- 
lows. (See above, § 15.) Its meaning is "before," as in praefero, 
praecipio, praeripio. When prefixed to adjectives, it strengthens 
their meaning. (See § 107.) 

Pro remains unchanged, but in many words it is shortened 
even before consonants. (See above, § 22.) For the purpose 
of avoiding hiatus, a ^ is inserted in prodeo, prodigo, and in those 
forms of the verb prosum in which the initial e would cause 



hiatus, as prodeSf prodest, proderam. (See above, § 156.) Its 
meaning, "forth" or "forward," appears in jt?ro/e?-o, jt?r<?cMrro, 
prodeo, projicio, prospicio. 

[§ 329.] Sub remains unchanged before vowels (but sumo 
seems to be formed from suhimo, as demo and promo are formed 
from the same root), but undergoes assimilation before c, f, 
g, 7W, p; not always before r, for we have surripio and yet 
suhrideo, where however the difference in meaning is to be 
taken into account. In suscipio, suscito, suspendo, sustineo, 
and the perfect sustuli, an s is inserted instead of the h, 
whence an ancient form subs is supposed to have existed, ana- 
logous to abs and obs. The b is dropped before sp, but before 
sc and st it is retained. Its meaning is " under," as in sum- 
mitto, suppono, sustineo ; or " from under," as in subduco, sum- 
moveo, surripio ; an approach from below, is expressed in subeo, 
succedo, suspicio, look up to, esteem ; and to do a thing instead 
of another person, in subsortior. It weakens the meaning in 
such verbs as subrideo, siibvereor, and in adjectives, such as sub- 
absurdus, subtristis, subrusticus, subobscurus. 

Super, "above," as in superimpono, supersto, supersedeo, set 
myself above, or omit. 

Subter, " from under," as in subterfugio. 

Com for cum appears in this form only before b, p, m ; before 
/, w, r, the final m is assimilated to these letters, and before all 
other consonants it is changed into n. Before vowels the m is 
dropped, e. g. coeo, cohaereo, and in addition to this a contrac- 
tion takes place in cogo and cogito (from coago, coagito). The 
m is retained only in a few words, as comes, comitium, comitor, 
comedo. It signifies *'with" or "together," as in conjungo, con- 
sero, compono, collido, colligo, corrado, co'eo, coalesco, cohaereo. 
In some verbs and participles it merely strengthens the mean- 
ing, as corrumpo, concerpo, confringo, consceleratus. 

[§ 330.] Note. We must not leave unnoticed here what are called the 
inseparable prepositions (among which con is reckoned, although it is only 
a different pronunciation for cum) ; that is, some little words, which are 
never used by themselves, but occur only in compound verbs and adjectives, 
where they modify the meaning in the same way as the above-mentioned 
separable prepositions. The following is a list of them : 

Amb (from the Greek a^^/), " around," " about," as in amhio^ amhuro (am- 
hustus), ambigo, amhiguus. In amplector^ amputo^ the h is dropped on account 
of the p ; before palatals amb is changed into an ; e. g. anceps, anquiro, and 
also before /, in the word anfractus. 


Dis or di, denoting separation, as in digero, dirimo, dijudico, dispono, dis- 
sero, distingvx)^ dimitto (to be distinguished from demitto). It strengthens the 
meaning in discupio. Before c, j9, q^ t, dis is retained entire ; before j, we 
sometimes have dis, as in disficio, disjungo ; and sometimes di, as in dijvdico. 
Before s, with a consonant after it, di is used, and dis when the s after it is 
followed by a vowel : di-spergo, di-sto, dis-socio, dis-suadeo ; disertus, how- 
ever, is formed from dissero. Before y, dis is changed into dif, as in differo. 
Di is used before all other consonants. 

Re signifies " back : " remitto, rejicio, revertor. Before a vowel or an h, a 
d is inserted : redeo, redigo, redhibeo : this is neglected only in compounds 
formed by late and unclassical writers ; e. g. reaedifico, reagens. The d in 
reddo, I give back, is of a different kind. Re denotes separation in resolvo., 
revello, retego, recingo, recludo, refringo, reseco; and in relego, rebiboy and 
others, it denotes repetition. 

«Sie, "aside," "on one side" : seduco, sevoco, secubo, sepono, sejungo. In adjec- 
tives it signifies " without :" securus, sobrius for sebrius (non ebrins), socors 
for secors. Seorsum is contracted from sevorsum., aside. A c? is inserted in 
seditio, separation, sedition, from se and itio. 

The prefixes ne and ve are of a somewhat dlfierent nature : ne has ne- 
gative power, as in nefas, nemo (ne hemo, obsolete for homo), nescio. Ve is 
likewise negative, but occurs in a much smaller number of words, viz. in 
vesanus and vecors (vecordid), senseless. In vegrandis and vepallidus, it 
seems to denote ugliness. 



[§331.] 1. Conjunctions are those indeclinable parts of 

speech which express the relations in which sentences stand 

to one another. They therefore are, as it were, the links of 

propositions, whence their name conjunctions. 

Note 1. Some conjunctions, and more particularly all those which form 
the first class in our division, connect not only sentences, but single 
words. This, however, is in reality the case o«ly when two propositions 
are contracted into one, or when one is omitted, as in Mars sive Mavors 
beUis praesidet : here sive Mavors is to be explained by the omission 
of sive is Mavors appeUandus est, which phrase is, in fact, not unfrequently 
used. The propositions vive diu ac feliciter and ratio et oratio homines 
conjungit, again may be divided each into two propositions joined by the 
conjunctions vive diu et vive feliciter and ratio conjungit homines et oratio 
conjungit homines. The practice of language, however, did not stop short in 
this contraction, but as we may say ratio et oratio conjungunt homines, and as 
we must say pater etflius dormiunty the language, by the plural of the pre- 


dicate, clearly indicates that the two nouns are united. Hence we may- 
say, that the (copulative) conjunctions et^ que, ac, and atque join single words 
also. With regard to the other, especially the disjunctive conjunctions (for 
there can be no doubt about the conjunction " also,") we must have recourse 
to the above explanation, that two propositions are contracted into one, for 
in ego aut tu vincamus necesse est, the nos, which comprehends the two 
persons, is the subject of vincamus, and not ego aut tu. 

Note 2. Many of the conjunctions to be mentioned presently origi- 
nally belonged to other parts of speech ; but they have lost their real sig- 
nification, and as they serve to join propositions, they may at once be looked 
upon as conjunctions ; e. g. ceterum, verum, vero, licet, quamvis, and such 
compounds as quare, idcirco, quamohrem. But there are also many adverbs 
denoting time and place, respecting which it is doubtful, whether in conse- 
quence of the mode of their application in language, they should not be 
classed among conjunctions. Those denoting time (e. g. deinde, denique, pos- 
tremum) retain, indeed, their original signification, but when they are doubled, 
as turn — turn, nunc — nunc, modo — modo, they evidently serve only to con- 
nect propositions ; the adverbs of place, on the other hand, are justly classed 
among the conjunctions when they drop their meaning of place and express a 
connection of propositions in respect of time, or the relation of cause and 
effect, as is the case with ubi, ibi, and inde, and with eo and quando. 

2, In regard to their form {Ji(/ura), they are either simple or 
compound. Of the former kind are, e. g. et, ac, at, sed, nam ; and 
of the latter atque, itaque, attamen, siquidem, enimvero, verum- 

3. In reference to their signification, they may be divided into 
the following classes. They denote : 

[§ 332.] 1. A union {conjunctiones copulativae), as et, ac, 
atque, and the enclitic que, combined with the negation belonging 
to the verb, neque or nee, or doubled so as to become an affirma- 
tive, nee (neque) non, equivalent to et. JEtiam and quoque also 
belong to this class, together with the adverbial item and itidem. 
As these particles unite things which are of a kind, so the dis- 
junctive conjunctions, signifying "or," connect things, which are 
distinct from each other. They are aut, vel, the suffix ve, and 
sive or seu. 

Note. Ac is never used before vowels (which, however, do not include j) 
or before an h; atque occurs most frequently before vowels, but before 
consonants also. Hence the two forms in the same sentence of Cicero 
p. Balb. 3. : non contra ac liceret, sed contra atque oporteret, and it is pro- 
bable that in prose as well as in poetry the hiatus was avoided by elision. 
The rule here given is not invalidated by the fact of ac being found here 
and there before vowels, in editions of Latin authors, as is the case, for 
example, in two passages of Ernesti's edition of Cicero, ad Quint. Frat. u. 6., 
and ad Att. xiii. 48. For as this difference in the use of oc and atque was not 


noticed till recently* (in the schools of the Dutch philologers, Burmann and 
Drakenborch), and as the MSS. have not yet been collated in all cases of 
this kind, such isolated remnants of former carelessness cannot be taken 
into account. Drakenborch (on Liv. x. 36. in fin.) observes, that where- 
ever, before his time, ac was found in Livy before vowels, the MSS. 
give either atque^ aut, at, or something else, and that even those pas- 
sages, in which he retained it, such as iii. 16., ac emergentihus malisj 
should be corrected. We cannot, however, enter into the question, why 
ac was not used before a vowel, while nee and neque are used indis- 
criminately both before vowels and consonants. One language avoids a 
sound as displeasing, which in another produces no such efiect ; suffice it 
to say, that the fact itself is beyond all doubt. Another remark, however, 
which is made by many Grammarians, that ac is not used by good writers 
before c and q, is unfounded, at least ac before con is frequent in Cicero, 
and other authors do not even scruple to use ac before ca^ which is other- 
wise, and with justice, considered not euphonious. 

[§ 333.] The difference between et and que is correctly described by 
Hermann in Elmsley's ed. of the Medea, p. 331., ed. Lips, in these 
words : " et (koi) is a copulative particle, and que (jt) is an adjunc- 
tive one." In other words, et connects things which are conceived as 
different, and que adds what belongs to, or naturally flows from, things. In 
an enumeration of words, therefore, qv£ frequently forms the conclusion of 
the series ; e. g. Cicero says : hi, qui solis et lunae reliquorumqu^ siderum ortus, 
obitus motusque cognorunt ; and by means of qu£ he extends the preceding 
idea, without connecting with it any thing which is generically different, as in : 
de ilia civitate totaque provincia optime meritus ; Dolabella quique ejus facinoris 
ministri fuerunt ; jus potestatemque habere; Pompejus pro patris majorumque 
suorum animo studioque in rempublicam suaque pristina virtute fecit. In con- 
necting propositions with one another, it denotes a consequence or result, 
and is equivalent to " and therefore," which explains its peculiarly frequent 
application in senatusconsulta (which are undoubtedly the most valid docu- 
ments in determining the genuine usage of the Latin language), framed as 
they were to prevent different points being mixed up in one enactment. 
E. g. in Cic. Philip, ix. 7. : Quum Ser. Sulpicius salutem reip. vitae suae prae- 
posuerit, contraque vim gravitatemque morbi contenderit, ut — perveniret, isque 
vitam amiserit, eju^que mors consentanea vitae fuerit : quum talis vir mortem 
obierit, senatui placere, Ser. Svlpicio statuam aeneam — statui, circumque eam 
locum liberos posterosque ejus — habere, eamque causam in ba^i inscribi, utique 
Coss. — locent, quantique locaverint, tamtam pecuniam — attribuendam solvendam- 
que curent. 

Atque is formed from ad and que, and therefore properly signifies " and in 

* Or, we should rather say, was not noticed again, for the observation waa 
first made in a brief but unequivocal manner by Gabriel Faernus, in his 
note on Cic. pro Place. 3. in fin. ed. Rom. 1563. ; but it was disregarded. It 
is still more remarkable, that none of the ancient grammarians, though they 
carefully notice other phenomena of a similar kind, have thought it necessary 
to draw attention to this circumstance, which is by no means unimportant. 
The passages in Ernesti's edition of Cicero, above referred to, have been 
corrected in Orelli's edition. 

s 4 


addition," " and also," thus putting things on an equality, but at the same 
time laying stress upon the connection. We express this by pronouncing 
" and" more emphatically than usual. For example, >ocm et exterae nationes 
simply indicates the combination of two things independent of each other ; 
but in socii atque exterae nationes the latter part is more emphatic, " and also 
the foreign," &c. In the beginning of a proposition which further explains 
that which precedes, and where the simple connection is insuiScient, the par- 
ticles atque and ac introduce a thing with great weight, and may be rendered 
in English by " now ;" e. g. atque Jiaec quiclem mea sententia est; atque — de ipsis 
Syracusanis cognoscite; also in answers : cognostine hos versus? Ac memoriter. 
Num hie duae Bacckides habitant? Atque amhae sorores^ i, e. yes, and that, 
&c. Ac is the same as atque, but being an abridged form it loses somewhat 
of its power in connecting single words ; but it retains that power which puts 
the things connected by it on an equality, and its use alternates with that of 
et; it is preferred in subdivisions, whereas the main propositions are con- 
nected by et; e. g. Cic. in Verr. v. 15. : Cur tibi fasces ac secures, et tantam 
vim imperii tantaque ornamenta data censes f Divin. 12. : Difficile est tantam 
causam et diligentia consequi, et memoria complecti, et oratione expromere, et 
voce ac viribus sustinere. 

[§ 334.] Neque is formed from the ancient negative particle and que, and 
is used for et non. Et non itself is used, when the whole proposition is 
affirmative and only one idea or one word in it is to be negatived ; e. g. Cic. 
Brut. 91. : Athenis apud Demetrium Syrum, veterem et non ignobilem dicendi 
magistrum, exerceri solebam; in Verr. i. 1.: patior et non moleste fero; de 
Orat. iii. 36. : videris miM aliud quiddam et non id quod suscepisti disputasse, 
and when our "and not" is used for " and not rather," to correct an improper 
supposition; e.g. Cic. in Verr. i. 31. : si quam Rubrius injuriam suo nomine ac 
non impidsu tuo fecisset. See § 781. Et non is, besides, found in the second 
part of a proposition, when et precedes, but neque may be and frequently is 
used for et non in this case ; e. g. Cic. ad Fam. xiii. 23. : Manlius et semper me 
coluit, et a studiis nostris non abhorret; ad Att. ii. 4. : id et nobis erit perjucun- 
dum, et tibi non sane devium. Nee (neque} non is not used in classical prose 
in quite the same way as et to connect nouns, but only to join propositions 
together (see Ruhnken on Yell. Pat. ii. 95.), and the two words are sepa- 
rated ; e. g. N"epos, Att. 13. : Nemo Attico minus fuit aedijicator, neque tamen 
non imprimis bene habitavit. Cicero several times uses nee vero non and the 
like ; but in Varro and later writers, such as Quintilian, nee non are not se- 
parated, and are in all essential points equivalent to et. 

[§ 335.] Etiam and quoque are in so far different in their meaning, that 
etiam, in the first place, has a wider extent than quoque, for it contains also 
the idea of our " even ;" and secondly etiam adds a new circumstance, whereas 
quoque denotes the addition of a thing of a similar kind. Hence etiam is pro- 
perly used to connect propositions. This difference seems to be correctly 
expressed in stating that etiam is " and further," and quoque " and so also." 
As in this manner quoque refers to a single word, it always follows that word ; 
etiam in similar cases is usually placed before it, but when it connects pro- 
positions, its place is arbitrary. Et too is sometimes used in the sense of 
"also" in classical prose; e. g. Curt. iii. 31.: non errasti, mater, nam et hie 
Alexander est; Cic. de Legg. ii. 16. : quod et nunc multis infanisfit, for nunc 
quoque; in Verr. iv. 61. : simul et verebar; and v. 1.: simul et de illo vulnere 
— multa dixit; and often non modo — sed et; e.g. Cic. in Verr. i. 1. : non modo 


Homae, sed et apud exteras nationes; Nepos, Thrasyh. 1. : non solum princeps^ 
sed et solus helium indixit. (See Bremi's remark on this passage, who states 
that sed et is not merely " but also," but always " but even.") But passages 
of this kind are not very numerous, and not always certain, for the MSS. 
usually have etiam^ so that this use of et in prose (for poets cannot be taken 
into account) must at least be very much limited, and it should not be used 
to that extent in which modern Latinists apply it. 

[§ 536.1 The disjunctive conjunctions differ thus far, that aut indicates a 
difference of the object, and vel a difference of expression. Vel is coitnected 
with the verb velle (vel — vel, will you thus or will you thus ?), and the single 
vel is used by Cicero only to correct a preceding expression, commonly combined 
with dicam or potius or etiam ; e.g. peteres velpotius rogares ; stuporem hominis 
vel dicam pecudis videte (Philip, ii. 12.) ; laudanda est vel etiam amanda (p. 
Plane. 9.) ; it very rarely occurs without such an addition, but even then its 
meaning is corrective; e. g. Ttisc. ii. 20. : summum honum a virtideprofectum^ 
vel (or rather) in ipsa virtide positum ; de Nat.Deor. ii. 15. : in ardore coelesti, 
qui aether vel coelum nominatur, where it likewise denotes not so much the 
equivalence of the terms, as the preference which is to be given to the 
Latin word. (Concerning the use of vel to denote an increase, see 
§ 108. and § 734., where also its signification of "for example," velut, is 
explained. Both these significations are derivable from what has here been 
said.) From this in later, though still good, prose, arose the use of vel in the 
sense of " or," that is, that in point of fact one thing is equal to another, a 
meaning which ve in connecting single words has even in Cicero ; e. g. Philip. 
V. 19. : Consules alter ambove faciant, that is, in point of fact it is the same 
whether both consuls or only one of them do a thing ; Top. 5. : Esse ea dico, 
quae cerni tangive possunt, that is, either of the two is sufficient. Sive either 
retains the meaning of the conjunction si (which is commonly the case) and 
is then the same as vel si, or it loses it by an ellipsis (perhaps of dicere mavis), 
and is then the same as vel, denoting a difference of name, as in Quintilian : 
vocabulum sive appellatio; Cic. : regie seu potius tyrannice. The form seu is 
used by Cicero very rarely, and almost exclusively in the combination seu 
potius; but in- poetry and later prose it occurs frequently. 

[§ 337.] The disjunctive conjunctions aut and ve serve to continue the 
negation in negative sentences, where we use " nor ;" e. g. Verres non Honori 
aut Virtuti vota debebat, sed Veneri et Cupidini; and we may say also non Honori 
neque Virtuti, and in other cases we might use ve, analogous to the affirm- 
ative que. See Ruhnken on Veil. Pat. ii. 45., and the commentators on 
Tacit. Ann. i. 32. in fin. Examples : Cic. p. Place. 5. : Itaque non optimus 
quisque nee gravissimus, sed iinpudentissimus loquacissimusque deligitur; 
Horat. Sei^m. i. 9. 31. : Hunc nee hosticus auferet ensis, nee late7'um dolor aut 
tarda podagra; ibid. i. 4. 73. : Nee recito cuiquam nisi amicis, non ubivis 
coramve quibuslibet; Cic. ad Fam. v. 13. : Nullum membrum reip. reperies, 
quod non fractum debilitatumve sit; and in negative, questions, Cic. Philip, v. 
5. : Num leges nostras moresve novit? in Verr. v. 13. : Quid me attinet dicere 
aut conjungere cum istius Jlagitio cvjusquam praeterea dedecusf or after com- 
paratives, Cic. p. Mur. 29. : Accessit istuc doctrina non moderata nee mitis, 
sed paulo asperior et durior, quam Veritas aut natura patiatur. It is only in 
those cases in which both words are to be united into one idea that a copu- 
lative conjunction is used ; e. g. Cic. in Verr. iii. 86. : nummos non exarat 
arator, non aratro ac manu quaerit. Corap. the longer passage in Cic. De 
Nat. Deor. ii. 62. in fin. 


[§ 338.] The Latin language is fond of doubling the conjunctions of this 
kind, whereby words and propositions are more emphatically brought under 
one general idea. The English " as well as" is expressed by 

et — et^ which is of very common occurrence ; 

et — que, occurs not unfrequently in late writers, in Cicero by way of 
exception only ; 

que — et, connects single words, but not in Cicero ; 

que — que, is found only in poetry. 
The only prose writer who uses it is Sallust, Cat. 9. : seque remque publicam 
curabant; Jug. 10. : meque regnumque meum gloria honoramsti; but it is not 
uncommon in the case of the conjunction being appended to the relative 
pronoun ; e. g. quique exissent, quiqne ihi mansissent; captivi, quique Campa- 
norum, quique Hannihalis militum erant, in Livy ; ov junctis exercitibus, quique 
sub Caesare fuerant, quique ad eum venerant, in Vellejus. The latest critics 
have removed similar passages from the works of Cicero; see the comment, 
on de Orat. i. 26., and de Fin. v. 21. ; noctesque diesque, in de Fin. i. 16., is 
an allusion to a passage in a poem. Negative propositions are connected in 
English by " neither — nor," and in Latin by 

neque — neque, or nee — nee; 

neque — nee, which is not unfrequent, and by 

nee — neque, which seldom occurs. 
Propositions, one of which is negative and the other affirmative, " on the one 
hand, but not on the other," or " not on the one hand, but on the other," 
are connected by 

et — neque (nee) \, . c x- j. 

neque (nee)-et] ^°*^ ^^ ^'^^^ frequent occurrence. 

nee (neque) — que, occurs occasionally. 
[§339.] Our "either — or," is expressed hy aut — aut, denoting an oppo- 
sition between two things, one of which excludes the other, or by vel — vel, 
denoting that the opposition between two things is immaterial in respect of 
the result, so that the one need not exclude the other. E. g. Catiline, in 
Sallust, says to his comrades, vel imperatore vel milite me utimini, that is, it is 
indifferent to me in which capacity you may make use of me, only do make 
use of me. A similar idea is described more in detail by Terence, Eun. ii. 
3. 28. : Hanc tu mihi vel vi, vel clam, vel precario fac tradas: mea nihil refert, 
dum potiar modo; i. e. you may effect it even in a fourth way, if you like. 
Sive — sive is the same as vel si — vel si, and therefore transfers the meaning 
of vel — vel to the cases in which it is applied ; e. g. Cicero : Illo loco liben- 
tissime soleo uti, sive quid mecum cogito, sive aliquid scribo aut lego. If there 
is no verb, and nouns only are mentioned in opposition to each other, an 
uncertainty is expressed as to how a thing is to be called ; e. g. Cic. Tu^c. 
ii. 14. : Cretum leges, quas sive Juppiter sive Minos sanxit, laboribus erudiunt 
juventutem, i. e. I do not know, whether I am to say Juppiter or Minos ; ad 
Quint. Frat. i. 2. : His in rebus si apud te plus auctoritas mea, quam tua sive 
natura paulo acrior, sive qu£iedam dulcedo iracundiae, sive dicendi sal face' 
tiaeque valuissent, nihil sane esset, quod nos poeniteret. 

[§ 340.] 2. The following express a comparison, " as," " like," 
''than as if" {conjunctiones comparativae) : ut or uti, sicut, velut, 
prout, praeut, the poetical ceu, quam, tamquam (with and with- 


out si), quasi, ut si, ac si, together with ac and atque, when they 
signify " as." 

Note. Ac and atque are used in the sense of " as" or " than" after the ad- 
verbs and adjectives which denote similarity or dissimilarity : aeqv£^ juxta, par 
and pariter, perinde and proinde, pro eo, similis^ dissimilis and similiter^ talis, 
totidem, alius and aliter, contra^ secus, contrarius; e. g. non aliter scribo ac 
sentio; aliud mihi ac tihi videtur; saepe aliud fit atque existimamus ; simile 
fecit atque alii; cum totidem navibus rediit atque erat profectus, Quam after 
these words (as in Tacit. Ann. vi. 30. : perinde se quam Tiberium falli potu- 
isse) is not often used, except in the case of a negative particle being 
joined with alius; e. g. Cicero : virtus nihil aliud est, quam in se perfecta et 
ad summum perdu£ta natura, where nisi might be used instead of quam. 
Respecting proinde ac, instead of the more frequent perinde ac^ see above, 
§ 282. Et and que do not occur in this connection like ac and atque; and 
wherever this might appear to be the case, from the position of the words, as 
in Sal lust, juxta bonos et malos interficere; suae hostiumque vitas juxta peper- 
cerant; and in Cicero : nisi aeque amicos et nosmetipsos diligimus, the et and 
qu£ retain their original signification "and ;" but where the words compared 
are separated, as in reip. juxta ac sibi consuluerunt; or where propositions are 
compared, as in Cic. de Fin. iv. 12., similem habeat wUum ac si ampullam. 
perdidisset, the ac ox ut has justly been restored in the passages in which 
formerly et was read. 

Ac is used for quam, after comparatives in poetry, in Horace generally, 
and in a few passages also of late prose writers ; but never in Cicero ; e. g. 
Horat. Epod. xv. 5. : artiu^ atqu£ hedera; Sei-m. i. 2. 22 : vt non se pejv^ cru- 
ciaverit atque hie; i. 10. 34. : In silvam iwn lig7mferas insanius ac si, &c. 

[§341.] 3. The following express a concession with the gene- 
ral signification "although" {conjunctiones concessivae) : etsi, 
etiamsi, tametsi (or tamenetsi), quamquam, quamvis, quantumvis, 
quamUbet, licet, together with ut in the sense of "even if" or 
" although," and quum, when it signifies " although," which is 
not unfrequently the case. 

Note. Those particles which signify "yet," especially tamen^ form the 
correlatives of the concessive conjunctions ; e. g. zf^ desint vires, tamen est 
laudaTida voluntas. Tametsi is a combination of the two correlatives ; and 
in its application we not unfrequently meet with a repetition of the same 
particle ; e. g. Cic. : tametsi vicisse debeo, tamen de meo jure decedam ; tametsi 
enim verissimum esse intelligebam, tamen credibile fore non arbitrabar. The 
adverb quidem also belongs to this class of conjunctions, when it is used to 
connect propositions, and is followed by sed. See § 278. 

A difference in the use of these conjunctions might be observed : some 
jnight be used to denote real concessions, and others to denote such as are 
merely conceived or imagined ; and this would, at the same time, determine 
their construction, either the indicative or the subjunctive. But such a dif- 
iference is clearly perceptible only between quamquam and quamvis. (See 
§ 574.) We shall here add only the remark, that quamquam has a peculiar 
place in absolute sentences, referring to something preceding, but limiting 
and partly nidlifying it ; e. g. Cic. in Cat. i. 9. : Quamquam quid loquor ? 


Yet why do I speak ? j). Muren. 38. in fin. : quamqiiam hvjusce rei potestas 
omnis in vohis sita est^ judices ; that is: and yet, judges, why should I say 
more ? for surely you have the decision entirely in your own hands. 

[§ 342.] 4. The following express a condition, the funda- 
mental signification being "if" {conjunctiones condicionales) : si, 
sin, nisi or ni, simodo, dummodo, if only, if but (for which duin, 
and modo are also used alone), dummodo ne, or simply modo ne 
or dumne. 

Note. In order to indicate the connection with a preceding proposition, 
the relative pronoun quod (which, however, loses its signification as a pro- 
noun) is frequently put before *z, and sometimes also before nisi and etsi^ so 
that quodsi may be regarded as one word. Comp. § 806. 

Sin signifies " if however," and therefore stands for si autem or si vero ; 
not unfrequently, however, autem is added, and sometimes vero (sin vero in 
Columelfa, vii. 3., and Justin). 

[§ 343.] Ni and nisi have the same meaning, except that ni is especially 
applied in judicial sponsipnes ; e. g, centum dare spondeo, ni dixisti, &c. In- 
stead of nisi, we sometimes find the form nisi si. Both particles limit a 
statement by introducing an exception, and thus differ from si non, which 
introduces a negative case, for si alone has the character of a conjunction, 
and non, the negative particle, belongs to the verb or some other word of the 
proposition. It is often immaterial whether ?zm or 5mow is used ; e.g. Nep. 
Con. 2. : fuit apertum, si Conon non fuisset, Agesilaum Asiam Tauro tenus 
regi fuisse erepturum ; and the same author. Ages. 6. says : talem se impera- 
torem praebuit, id omnibus apparuerit nisi ille fuisset, Spartam futuram non 
fuisse. And thus Cicero, Cat. Maj. 6., might have said : memoria minuitur^ 
si earn non exerceas, instead of nisi earn exerceas ; and nisi, on the other hand, 
might have been used instead of ««' non, in Cic. in Verr. iii. 18. : glebam com- 
mosset in agro decumano Siciliae nemo, si Metellus hanc epistolam non misisset. 
But the difference is nevertheless essential ; e. g. if I say impune erit, sipecu- 
niam promissam non dederitis, I mean to express that, in this case, the ordi- 
nary punishment will not be inflicted ; but if I say, impune erit, nisi pecuniam 
dederitis, the meaning is, " it shall remain unpunished, except in the case of 
your having paid the money ; " which implies, " but you shall be punished, 
if you have paid the money." Si non, therefore, can be used only when one 
of the sentences is not complete ; as in Horace : Quo mihi fortunam, si non 
conceditur uti ? What is the good of having property, if I am not allowed 
to make use of it ? If we express the former sentence by nidlius pretiifor- 
tunae surd, we may continue in the form of an exception, nisi concedatur iis 
uti, or in the form of a negative case, si non concedatur uti. Si non is further 
used only when single words are opposed to one another, as is particularly 
frequent in such expressions as dolorem, si non potero frangere, occultabo ; 
disiderium amicorum, si non aequo animo, at forti feras; cum spe, si non op- 
tima, at aliqua tamen vivere. In this case si minus may be used instead of si 
non ; e. g. Tu si minus ad nos, nos accurremus ad te. If after an afiirmative 
proposition its negative opposite is added without a verb, our "but if not" 
is commonly expressed (in prose) by si (or sm) minus, sin aliter ; e. g. Cic. 
in Cat. i. 5. : educ tecum etiam omnes tuos : si minus, quam plurimos ; de Orat. 
ii. 75. : omnis cura mea solet in hoc versari semper, si possim, ut boni aliquid 


efficiam : sin id minus, ut certe nequid mali ; but rarely by si non, which occurs 
in Cicero only once (ad Fam. vii. 3. in fin.). 

[§ 344.] 5. The following express a conclusion or inference 

with the general signification of " therefore ; " consequently 

{conjunctiones conclusivae) : ergo, igitur, itaque, eo, ideo, iccirco, 

proinde, propterea, and the relative conjunctions, signifying 

" wherefore : " quapropter, quare, quamobrem, qiiocirca, unde. 

Note. Ergo and igitur denote a logical inference, like " therefore." Jtaque 
expresses the relation of cause in facts ; it properly signifies " and thus," in 
which sense it not unfrequently occurs ; e. g. itaque fecit. Respecting its 
accent, see § 32. Ideo., iccirco, and propterea express the agreement between 
intention and action, and may be rendered by " on this account." JEo is 
more frequently an advei'b of place, " thither ; " but it is found in several 
passages of Cicero in the sense of " on this account," or " for this purpose ; 
c. g. in Verr. i. 14. : ut hoc pacto rationem referre liceret, eo Sullanus repente 
factus est; Liv. ii. 48. : muris se tenehant, eo nulla pugna memorahilis fuit. 
Proinde, in the sense of " consequently," is not to be confounded with pe- 
rinde ; both words, however, are used in the sense of " like," so that we 
cannot venture to adopt the one to the exclusion of the other. (See § 282.) 
But as we are speaking here of conclusive conjunctions, we have to consider 
only proinde, which implies an exhortation ; e. g. Cicero : Proinde, si sapis, 
vide quid tibi faciendum sit ; and so also in other writers, as proinde fac 
magno animo sis, " consequently, be of good courage ! " Unde is properly 
an adverb " whence," but is used also as a conjunction in a similar sense, 
alluding to a starting point. Hinc and inde cannot properly be considered 
as conjunctions, as they retain their real signification of "hence." But adeo 
may be classed among the conjunctions, since the authors of the silver age 
use it as denoting a general inference from what precedes, like our " so 
that,"or simply " so ;" e. g. Quintil. i. 12. 7. : Adeofacilius est multa facere 
quam diu. 

[§ 345.] 6. The following expresses a cause, or reason, with 
the demonstrative meaning of ''' for," and the relative of 
" because " (conjunctiones causales) : nam, namque, enim, etenim, 
quia, quod, quoniam, quippe, quum, quando, quandoquidem, 
siquidem. The adverbs nimirum, nempe, scilicet and videlicet, 
are likewise used to connect propositions. 

Note. Between nam and enim there is this practical difference, that nam 
is used at the beginning of a proposition, and enim after the first or second 
word of a proposition. The difference in meaning seems to consist in this, 
that nam introduces a conclusive reason, and enim merely a confirming cir- 
cumstance, the consideration of which depends upon the inclination of the 
speaker. iVaw, therefore, denotes an objective reason, and enim merely a 
subjective one. Namque and etenim, in respect of their signification, do not 
essentially differ from nam and enim, for the copulative conjunction, at least 
as far as we can judge, is as superfluous as in neque enirn, respecting which, 
see § 808. But at the same time they indicate a closer connection with the 


sentence preceding, and the proper place for etenim, therefore, is in an ex- 
planatory parenthesis. Namque^ in Cicero and Nepos, occurs only at the 
beginning of a proposition, and usually (in Nepos almost exclusively) before 
vowels ; but even as early as the time of Livy, we find it after the beginning 
of a proposition just as frequently as at the beginning itself. We may add 
the remark, that enim is sometimes put at the beginning by comic writers 
in the sense of a^ enim or sed enim. Drakenborch on Livy, xxxiv. 32. § 13., 
denies that Livy ever used it in this way. 

Nam, enim, and etenim are often used in Latin in the sense of our 
" namely," to introduce an explanation which was announced ; e. g. Cic. 
Partit. 11.: Rerum honarum et mxdarum tria sunt genera: nam aut in animis, 
aut in corporihus, aut extra esse possunt. Nimirum, videlicet, and scilicet 
likewise answer to our " namely," or " viz." Nimirum is originally an 
adverb signifying "undoubtedly," or "surely;" e.g. Cic. p. Mur. 15.: Si 
diligenter quid Mithridates potuerit — consideraris, omnibus regibus — hunc 
regem nimirum antepones. As a conjunction it introduces the reason of an 
assertion, suggesting that it was looked for with some impatience ; e. g. Cic. 
in Verr. ii. 63. : is est nimirum soter, qui salutem dedit. Videlicet and scilicet 
introduce an explanation, and generally in such a manner that videlicet in- 
dicates the true, and scilicet a wrong explanation, the latter being introduced 
only for the purpose of deriving a refutation from it ; e. g. Cic. p. Mil. 21. : 
Cur igitur eos manumisit? Metuebat scilicet, ne indicarent, but he was not 
afraid of it, as is shown afterwards. However, the words nam, enim, etenim, 
nimirum, videlicet are sometimes used in an ironical sense, and scilicet 
(though rarely in classical prose) sometimes introduces a true reason without 
any irony. Nempe signifies " namely," only when another person's con- 
cession is taken for granted and emphatically dwelt upon ; it may then be 
rendered by " surely." Comp. above, § 278. 

[§ 346.] Quia and quod differ from quoniam (properly quum jam) in 
this : the former indicate a definite and conclusive reason, and the latter 
a motive ; the same difference is observed in the French parceque and 
puisque. Ideo, iccirco, propterea quod, and quia are used without any es- 
sential difference, except that quia introduces a more strict and logical 
reason, whereas quoniam introduces circumstances which are of importance, 
and properly signifies " now as." Quando, .qmmdoquidem, and siquidem ap- 
proach nearer to quoniam than to quia, inasmuch as they introduce only 
subjective reasons. Quandoquidem denotes a reason implied in a circum- 
stance previously mentioned, and siquidem a reason implied in a concession 
which has been made. Siquidem is composed of si and quidem, but must be 
regarded as one word, as it has lost its original meaning and as si has be- 
come short. Cic. p. Mur. 11 : Summa etiam utilitas est in iis, qui militari 
laude antecellunt, siquidem eorum consilio et periculo quum re publica turn etiam 
nostris rebus perfrui possumus ; Tusc. i. 1. : antiquissimum e doctis genu^ est 
poetarum, siquidem (since it is admitted, for no doubt is to be expressed 
here) Homerus fuit et Hesiodus ante Romam conditam. Sometimes, how- 
ever, it is still used in the sense of " if indeed ;" e. g. Cic. de Fin. ii. 34. : 
Nos vero, si quidem in voliqytate sunt omnia (if, indeed, all happiness consists 
in enjoyment), longe multumque superamur a bestiis ; in Cat. ii. 4.: o fortu- 
natam remp., si quidem hanc sentinam ejecerit. In these cases si and quidem 
should be written as two separate words. 

Quippe, when combined with the relative pronoun or quum, is used to 


introduce a subjective reason. When it occurs in an elliptical way, without 
a verb, it is equivalent to " forsooth," or " indeed ;" e. g. Cic. de Fin. i. 6. : 
sol Democrito^ magnus videtur^ quippe homini erudito ; sometimes it is fol- 
lowed by a sentence with enim ; as in Cic. de Fin. iv. 3. : a te quidem apte et 
rotunde (dicta sunt) ; quippe ; habes enim a rhetorihus. And in this way 
quippe gradually acquires the signification of nam. 

[§ 347.] 7. The following express a purpose or object, with 

the signification of " in order that,'' or, " in order that not " {con- 

junctiones finales) : ut or uti^ quo, ne or ut ne, neve or neu, qumf 


Note. Ut as a conjunction indicates both a result and a purpose, " so 
that," and " in order that ;" when a negative is added to it, in the former 
sense, it becomes ut non ,• in the latter ne or ut ne. Ut non is very rarely 
used for ne; e.g. Cic. in Verr. iv. 20.: ut non conferam vitam neque existi- 
mationem tuam cum illius — hoc ipsum conferam, quo tu te superiorem Jingis ; 
p. Leg. Manil. 15.; Itaque ut plura non dicam neque aliorum exemplis con- 
firmem, &c. instead of ne plura dicam, neve conjirmem. For neve which is 
formed from vel ne, is " or in order that not," and frequently also " and in 
order that not." See § 535. Ut ne is a pleonasm, not differing perceptibly 
from ne, except that it chiefly occurs in solemn discourse, and hence es- 
pecially in laws. The two particles occur together as well as separately, 
e. g. operam dant, utjudicia ne fiant; and still more separated in Cic. de Nat. 
Deor. i. 17. : Sed ut hie, qui intervenit, me intuens, ne ignoi-et quae res agatur : 
de natura agehamus deoinim ; Div. in Q. Caec. 4. : qui praesentes vos orant, 
ut in adore causae suae deligendo vestrum judicium ah' suo judicio ne discrepet. 
It must however be observed that ut ne is very frequently used by Cicero, 
but rarely by other and later writers ; in Livy it occurs only in two pas- 
sages, and in Valerius Maximus and Tacitus never. See Drakenborch on 
Liv. X. 27. The pleonasm quo ne for ne occurs in a single passage of Horace, 
Serm. il 1. 37. 

[§ 348.] 8. The following express an opposition, with the sig- 
nification of " but " (conjunctiones adversativae) : sed, autem, 
verum, vero, at (poetical as£), at enim, atqui, tamen, attamen, sed- 
tamen, veruntamen, at vero (enimvero), verumenim, vero, ceterum. 

Note. Sed denotes a direct opposition; avtem marks a transition in a 
narrative or argument and denotes at once a connection and an opposition, 
whereas sed interrupts the narrative or argument. The adverb porro, 
further, is likewise used to express such a progression and transition, but 
does not denote opposition, except in later authors, such as Quintilian. See 
Spalding on Quintilian, ii. 3. 5. Verum and vero stand in a similar relation 
to each other. Verum with its primary meaning " in truth," denotes an 
opposition, which at the same time contains an explanation, and thus brings 
a thing nearer its decision, as our " but rather." Non ego, sed tu, is a 
strong, but simple opposition ; but non ego, verum tu, contains an assurance 
and explanation. Cic. in Verr. iv. 10. says, that the inhabitants of Messana 
had formerly acted as enemies to every kind of injustice, but that they 
favoured Verres, and he then continues : Verum haec civitas isti praedoni ac 
piratae Siciliae Phaselis (receptaculum furtorum) fuit, i. e. but I will ex- 


plain the matter to you, for the fact is, that this town was the repository of 
his plunder and shared in it. Vero bears to ve7mm the same relation as. 
autem to sed : it connects things which are different, but denotes the point 
in favour of which the decision should be, e. g. Cic. p. Arch. 8. : Homerum 
Colophonii civem esse dicunt suum., Chii suum vindicant, Salaminii repetunt, 
Smyrnaei vero suum esse confirmant ; in Verr. iii. 4. : Odistis hominum no- 
vorum industriam^ despicitis eorum fnigalitatem^ pudorem cojitemnitis, inge- 
nimn vero et virtutem depressam extinctamque cupitis. It thus forms the 
transition to something more important and. significant In the phrase : Illud 
vero plane non est ferendum., i. e. that which I am now going to mention. 
Respecting the use of vero in answers, in the sense of "yes," see §716. 
Enimvero is only confirming " yes, truly," " in truth," and does not denote 
opposition.' See the whole passage in Cic. in Verr. i, 26. : enimvero hoc 
ferendum non est ; and Terent. Andr. i. 3. init. : Enimvero^ Dave., nil loci est 
segnitiae neque socordiae, i. e. now truly, Davus, there is no time for delay 
here. Comp. Gronovius on Livy, xxvli. 30. Enimvero, further, forms the 
transition to that which is most important, like vero ; as In Tac. An7i. xii. 64. : 
Enimvero certamen acerrimum, amita potius an mater apud Neronem prae- 
valeret, which is the same as acerrimum vero certamen. The compound 
verum enimvero denotes an emphatic opposition which, as it were, surpasses 
everything else in importance, as in Cic. in Verr. ill. 84. : Si ullo in loco ejus 
provinciae frumentum tantifuit, qwinti iste aestimavit, hoc crimen in istum reum 
valere oportere non arhitror. Verum enimvero cum esset HS. binis aut etiam 
ternis qidhusvis in locis provinciae, duodenos sestertios exegisti. 

[§ 349.] At denotes an opposition as equivalent to that which precedes ; e. g. 
non ego, at tu vidisti, I have not seen it, but you have, and that is just as good; 
homo etsi Jion sapientissimus, at amicissimus; and so we frequently find it after' 
si In tlie sense of " yet," or " at least," and denoting a limitation with which, 
for the time, we are satisfied ; e. g. Cic. p. Quint. 31 . ; Qidntius Naevium ohse- 
cravit, id aliquam, si non propinqidtatis, at aetatis suae; si non hominis, at 
humanitatis rationem haheret. Hence it is especially used to denote objec- 
tions, even such as the speaker makes himself for the purpose of upsetting or 
weakening that which was said before ; Cic. p. Flac. 14. : At enim negas, &c. ; 
p. Mur. 17. ; At enim in praeturae petitione prior renuntiatus est Servius. By 
atqui we admit that which precedes, but oppose something else to it, as by 
the English " but still," " but yet," or " nevertheless ; " e. g. in Terent. 
Phorm. i. 4. 26. : iVbw sum apud me. Atqui opus est nunc cum maxime ut sis; 
Horat. Serm. i. 9. 52. : Magnum narras, vix credihile. Atqui sic hahet; Cic. 
ad Att. vlii. 3. : O rem difficilem, inquis, et inexj^licabilem. Atqui ezplicanda 
est. And so also in the connection of sentences, wlien that which is admitted 
is made use of to prove the contrary, as in Cic. Cat. Maj. 22. : Videtis nihil 
esse morti tarn simile quam sonmum. Atqui dormientium animi maxime de- 
clarant divinitatem suam, and yet the souls of sleeping persons show their 
divine nature. Atqui Is used, lastly, in syllogisms, when a thing is assumed 
which had before been left undecided, as in Cic. Parad. iii. 1. : Quodsi vir- 
tutes sunt pares inter se, paria etiam vitia esse riecesse est. Atqui pai^es esse 
virtutes facile potest perspici. Atqui thus frequently occurs as a syllogistic 
particle in replies in disputations, but it does not denote a direct opposition 
of facts. Ceterum properly signifies " as for the rest," but is often used, 
especially by Curtius, in the same sense as sed. Contra ca, in the sense of 
" on the other hand," may be classed among the conjunctions, as in LIvy : 


Superhe a Samnitihus legati prohihiti commercio sunt, contra ea benigne ah 
Siculorum tyrannis adjuii. So also adeo^ in as much as this adverb is used in 
a peculiar way to form a transition to something essential, on which par- 
ticular attention is to be bestowed ; e. g. when Cicero, in Verr. iv. 64., has 
told us that he prefers introducing the witnesses and documents themselves, 
he forms the transition : Id adeo ex ipso Senatusconsvlto cognoscite; and so 
frequently, ibid. iv. 63. : id adeo ut mild ex illis demonstratum est, sic vos ex 
me cognoscite; p. Caec. 3. : id adeo, si placet, considerate. The pronoun 
always accompanies it. Autem may be used in its place ; in English it may 
be rendered by " and," but the pronoun must be pronounced with emphasis. 

[§ 350.] 9. Time is expressed by the conjunctiones temporales : 

quum, quum primum, ut, ut primum, uhi, postquam, antequam 

and priusquam, qitando, simulac or simulatque or simul alone, 

dum, usque dum, donee, quoad. 

Note. Ut as a. particle of iime signifies " when." Ubi, properly an adverb 
of place, is used in the same sense. Simulatque answers to our " as soon as," 
in which sense simul alone is' also used. Quando instead of quum is rare, as 
in Cic. in Rvll. ii. 16. : auctoritatem Senatus extare hereditatis aditae sentio, 
turn, quando, rege Aegyptio mortuo, legatos Tyrum misimus. The words dum, 
donee (donicum is obsolete), and quoad have the double meaning of " as long 
as," and " until ;" e. g. do?iec erisfelix, multos numerahis amicos, " as long as 
you are in good circumstances ; " and foris expectavit, donee or dum exiit, 
" until he came out." Donee never occurs in Caesar, and in Cicero only 
once, in Verr. i. 6. : usque eo timui, ne quis de mea Jide dubitaret, donee ad 
rejiciendos judices venimus, but it is frequently used in poetry and in Livy. 
The conjunction dum often precedes the adverb interea (or interim^ ; and the 
two conjuctions dum and donee are often preceded by the adverbs usque, 
usque eo, usque adeo, the conjunction either following immediately after the 
adverb, or being separated from it by some words, as in Cicero : mihi usque 
curae erit, quid agas, dum quid egeris sciero. 

[§ 351.] 10. The following interrogative particles likewise be- 
lon?^ to the conjunctions : num, utrum, an, and the suffix ne, which 
is attached also to the three preceding particles, without altering 
their meaning, numne, ^ utrumne, anne, and which forms with 
non a special interrogative particle nonne ; also ec and en, as they 
appear in ecquis, ecquando and enumquam, and numquid, ecquid, 
when used as pure interrogative particles. 

Note. The interrogative particles here mentioned must not be confounded 
with the interrogative adjectives and adverbs, such as quis? uter? ubi? 
The latter, by reason of their signification, may likewise connect sen- 
tences, in what are called indirect questions. (See § 552.) The inter- 
rogative particles have no distinct meaning by themselves, but serve only to 
give to a proposition the form of a question. This interrogative meaning 
may, in direct speech, be given to a proposition by the mere mode of accentu- 
ating it, viz. when a question at the same time conveys the idea of surprise or 
astonishment; but in indirect questions those interrogative particles are 
absolutely necessary (the only exception occurs in the case of a double ques- 
tion, see §554.). Numquid and ecquid can be reckoned among them only 



in so far as they are sometimes mere signs of a question, like wmtw, quid in this 
case having no meaning at all ; e. g. Cic. de Leg. ii, 2. : Numquid vos duas 
habetis patrias, an est ilia una patria communis ? have you perhaps two native 
countries, or, &c. ; ecquid (whether) in Italiam venturi sitis hac hieme, fac 
plane sciam. This is very different from another passage in the same writer : 
ecquid in tuam statuam contulit? has he contributed anything? rogavit me., 
numquid vellem, he asked me whether I wanted anything : in these latter 
sentences the pronoun quid retains its signification. For en or (when fol- 
lowed by a q) ec is (like num, ne and an) a purely interrogative particle, 
probably formed in imitation of the natural interrogative sound, and must 
be distinguished from ew, "behold!" See § 132. It never appears alone, 
but is always prefixed to some other interrogative word. JEnunqu£im is the 
only word in which the en is used difierently, e. g. enumquam audisti? didst 
thou ever hear? enumquam futurum est? will it ever happen? 

But there are difierences in the use of these particles themselves. Num 
(together with numne.^ numnam^ numquid^ numquidnam) and ec (en) in its 
compounds, give a negative meaning to direc^uestions, that is, they are 
used in the supposition that the answer will be " no ;" e. g. num putas me tarn 
dementem fuisse ? you surely do not believe that, &c. Ecquid alone is some- 
times used also in an affirmative sense, that is, in the expectation of an af- 
firmative answer ; e. g. Cic. ad Att. ii. 2. : sed Tieus tu., ecquid vides calendas 
venire ? in Catil. i. 8. : ecquid attendis, ecquid animadvertis horum silentium ? 
do you not observe their silence ? It must however be borne in mind, that 
in general the negative sense of these particles appears only in direct and 
not in indirect questions, for in the latter num and ec are simply inter- 
rogative particles without implying negation ; e. g. quaesivi ex eo, num in 
senatum esset venturus, whether he would come to the senate, or ecquis esset 
venturus, whether any body would come. 

[§ 352.] Ne which is always appended to some other word, properly denotes 
simply a question ; e. g. putasne me istudfacere potuisse ? Do you believe that, 
&c. But the Latin writers use such questions indicated by ne also in a more 
definite sense, so that they are sometimes affirmative and sometimes negative 
interrogations. (Respecting the former, see Heusinger on Cic. de Off. iii. 17.) 
The negative sense is produced by the accent, when ne is attached to an- 
other word, and not to the principal verb ; e. g. mene istud potuisse facere putas? 
Do you believe that I would have done that? or hocine credihile est? Is that 
credible ? The answer expected in these cases is " no." So also in a question 
referring to the past; e.g. Cic. in Verr. i. 18. : Apollinemne tu Delium spoliare 
ausU:S es ? where the answer is : " that is impossible." But when attached to 
the principal verb, ne very often gives an affirmative meaning to the question, 
so that we expect the answer " yes," e. g. Cic. Acad. ii. 18. : videsne^ ut inpro- 
verbio sit ovorum inter se similitudo ? Do you not see that the resemblance 
among eggs has become proverbial ? Cat. Maj. 10.: videtisne, ut apud Ho- 
merum saepissime Nestor de virtutihus suis praedicet ? Do you not see, &c. 
In the same sense we might also say : nonne videtis ? for nonne is the sign of 
an affirmative interrogation; e. g. Nonne poetae post mortem nohilitari volunt? 
Canis nonne lupo similis est? Utrum in accordance with its derivation (from 
w^er, which of two) is used only in double questions, and it is immaterial 
whether there are two or three; e. g. Cic. Cat. Maj. 10. Utrum has (Milonis) 
corporis., an Pythagorae tibi malis vires ingenii dari ? ad Att. ix. 2. : Utrum 
hoc tu parum commeministi, an ego non satis intellexi, an mutasti sententiam ? 
Senec. Ep. 6Q. : Si sitis (if you are thirsty), nihil interest, utrum aqua sit, 


an vinum ; nee refert, utrum sit aureum poculum, an vitreum, an manus con^ 
cava. Utrum is sometimes accompanied by the interrogative particle we, 
which however is usually separated from it by one or more other words : e. g. 
Terent. Eun. iv. 4. 54. : Utrum taceamne an praedicem? Cic. de Nat. Dear, ii, 
34. : Videamus utrum eaforiuitane sint, an eo statu, Sfc. ; Nep. Iph. 3.: quum 
interrogaretur utrum pluris patrem matremne faceret. In later writers, 
however, we find utrumne united as one word. iVe is rarely appended to 
adjective interrogatives, though instances are found in poetry, as in Horat. 
Sat. ii. 2. 107. : uteme ; ii. 3. 295. : qvx)ne malo; and 317. : quxintane. It is 
still more surprising to find it attached to the relative pronoun, merely to 
form an interrogation. Ibid. i. 10. 2.: Terent. Adelph. ii. 3. 9. 

[§ sss.] An as a sign of an indirect interrogation occurs only in the writers 
of the silver age (beginning with Curtius). It then answers to "whether," 
e.g. consulit deinde (Alexander), an iotius orbis imperium fatis sibi destinaret 
pater. In its proper sense it is used only, and by Cicero exclusively*, in a 
second or opposite question, where we use " or," as in the passage of Seneca 
quoted above. A sentence like qu/iero an argentum ei dederis cannot there- 
fore be unconditionally recommended as good Latin (though it is frequently 
done), and, according to Cicero, who must be regarded as our model in all mat- 
ters of grammar, we ought to say num pecuniam ei dederis, or dederisne eipecu- 
niam. In direct interrogations, when no interrogative sentence precedes, 
an, anne, an vero can likewise be used only in the sense of our " or," that isy 
in such a manner that a preceding interrogation is supplied by the mind. 
E. g. when we say : " I did not intentionally oifend you, or do you believe that 
I take pleasure in hurting a person?" we supply before " or" the sentence : 
" Do you believe this ?" and connect with it another question which contains 
that which ought to be the case, if the assertion were not true. The Latin 
is : invitus te offendi, an putas me delectari laedendis hominibu^ ? Examples 
are numerous. Cic. Philip, i. 6. : Quodsi scisset, quam sententiam dicturus essem, 
remisissetaliquidprofecto de severitate cogendi (in senatum). An me censetis 
decreturum fuisse, &c., that is, he would certainly not have obliged me to go 
to the senate, or do you believe that I should have voted for him ? p. Mil. 
23 : Causa Milonis semper a senatu probata est: videbant enim sapientissimi 
homines facti rationem; praesentiam animi, defensionis constantiam. An vero 
obliti estis, &c.; de Fin. i. 8. : Sed ad haec, nisi molestum est, habeo quae velim. 
An me, inquam, nisi te audire vellem, censes haec dictwum fuisse ? In this 
sentence we have to supply before an : dicesne f An after a preceding ques- 
tion is rendered by " not ? " and it then indicates that the answer cannot be 
doubtful; e.g. Cic. in Verr. v. 2. : Quid dicis? An belle fugitivorum Siciliam 
virtute tua liberatam ? Do you not say that Sicily, &c. (In Latin we must 
evidently supply utrum aliud?) So also Cat. Maj. 6. : A rebus gerendis senec- 
tus abstrahit. Quibus f An his, quae geruntur juventute ac viribus ? Supply 

* The passages which formerly occurred here and there in Cicero, with an 
in the sense of "whether" in simple indirect questions, are corrected in the 
latest editions. See p. Clueid. 19. § 52. ; in Catil. ii. 6. § 13. ; in Verr. iv. 12. 
§ 27. There remains only quaesivi an misisset in the last passage, of which 
no certain correction is found in MSS., although the fault itself is obvious, 
and Topic. 21. § 81., where quum an sit, aut quid sit, aut quale sit quaeritur, 
must be corrected according to MSS. into aut sitne, aut quid sit, &c. 

T 2 


Aliisne? de Off. I. 15.: Quidnam henejicio provocati facere dehemus? An 
imitari agros fertiles^ qui multo plus efferunt quam acceperunt? Must we not 
imitate ? Hence such questions may also be introduced by nonne^ but with- 
out allusion to an opposite question which is implied in an. 

[§ 354.] There is, however, one great exception to the rule that an is used 
only to indicate a second or opposite question, for an is employed after the 
expressions duhito^ dubium est, incertum est, and several similar ones, such as 
delibero, haesito, and more especially after nescio or haud scio, all of which 
denote uncertainty, but with an inclination in favour of the affirmative. 
Examples are numerous. Nep. Thrasyh. 1.: Si per se virtus sine fortuna 
ponderanda sit, dubito an hunc primum omnium ponam, if virtue is to be es- 
timated without any regard as to its success, I am not certain whether I 
should not prefer this man to all others. Comp. Heusinger's note on that 
passage. Curt. iv. 59. : Dicitur acinace stricto Darev^ dubitasse, an fugae 
dedecus honesta morte vitaret, that is, he was considering as to whether he 
should not make away with himself. It is not Latin to say Dubito annon for 
dubito an, for the passage of Cicero, de Off. iii. 12., dubitat an turpe nan sit, 
signifies, he is inclined to believe that it is not bad, putat non turpe esse, sed 
honestum. Respecting incertum est, see Cic Cat. Maj. 20. : Moriendum enim 
certe est, et id incertum, an eo ipso die, and this is uncertain, as to whether we 
are not to die on this very day. Nescio an, or haud scio an, are therefore 
used quite in the sense of " perhaps," so that they are followed by the nega- 
tives ntdlus, nemo, nunquam, instead of which we might be inclined to use 
vllus, quisqwam, unquam, if we translate nescio an by "I do not know 
whether." See § 721. The inclination towards the affirmative in these 
expressions is so universal, that such exceptions as in Curtius, ix. 7., et in- 
terdum dubitabat, an Macedones — per tot naturae obstantes difficultates secuturi 
essent, even in later writers, although in other connections they use an in 
the sense of " whether," must be looked upon as rare peculiarities. We must 
further observe, that when the principal verb is omitted, an is often used in 
precisely the same sense as aut; this is very frequently the case in Tacitus, 
but occurs also in Cicero, de Fin. ii. 32. : Themistocles, quum ei Simonides, 
an quis alius, artem memoriae polliceretur. Sec. ; ad Att. i. 2. : nos hie te ad 
mensem Januarium expectamus, ex quodam rumore, art ex litteris tuis ad alios 
missis. There can be no doubt but that the expression incertum est is under- 
stood in such cases ; in Tacitus it is often added. Comp. Cic. ad Fam. vii. 9. ; 
ad Att. ii. 7. 3. ; Brut. 23. 89. Cicero, however, could not go as far as 
Tacitus, who connects an with a verb in the indicative : Ann. xiv. 7. : Igitur 
longum utriusque silentium, ne irriti dissuaderent, an eo descensum credebant, 
instead of incertum est factumn£ sit cam ob causam, ne irriti dissuaderent, an 
quia credebant. 

The conjunction si is sometimes used in indirect interrogations instead of 
num, like the Greek el ; e. g. Liv. xxxix. 50. : 7iihil aliud (Philopoemenem) 
locutum ferunt, quam quaesisse, si incolumis Lycortas evasisset. After the verb 
experior, I try, it is used also by Cicero, Philip, ix. 1. : non recu^avit, quo- 
minus vel extremo spiritu, si quam opem reip. ferre posset, experiretur. Re- 
specting expectare si, see Schneider on Caes. Bell. Gall. ii. 9. 

[§ 355.] 11. Most conjunctions are placed at the beginning of 
the proposition, which they introduce; only these few, eninif 
autem, vero, are placed after the first word of a proposition, or 



after the second, when the first two belong together, or when 
one of them is the auxiliary verb esse, as in Cicero {de Or at. i. 44 ) : 
incredibile est enim, quam sit omne jus civile, praeter hoc nostrum, 
inconditum ac paene ridiculum ; but rarely after several words, 
as in Cic. p. Cluent 60 : Per quern porro datum venenum ? unde 
sumptum ? quae deinde interceptio poculi ? cur non de integro 
autem datum ? Comp. Ellendt on Cic. Brut. 49. Quidem and 
quoque, when belonging to single words, may take any place in 
a proposition, but they are always placed after the word, which 
has the emphasis. Itaque and igitur are used by Cicero with 
this distinction, that itaque, according to its composition, stands 
first, while igitur is placed after the first, and sometimes even 
after several words of a proposition ; e. g. in Verr. i. 32. : Huic 
homini parcetis igitur, judices ? de Nat. Deor. iii. 1 7. : Ne Orcus 
quidem deus igitur ? But other authors, especially later ones, 
place both indiscriminately either at the beginning of a pro- 
position, or after it. In like manner, tamen is put either at the 
beginning of a proposition, or after the first word. 

[§356.] Note. All the other conjunctions stand at the beginning: with 
some this is the case exclmively ; viz. with et^ etenim^ ac^ at^ atque^ atquiy 
neque^ nee, aut, vel, sive, sin, sed, nam, verum, and the relatives quare, quo- 
circa, quamobrenL; others are generally placed at the beginning, but when a 
particidar word is to be pronounced with peculiar emphasis, this word (and 
all that belongs to it) stands first, and the conjunction follows it, as in 
Cicero : Tantum moneo, hoc tempus si amiseris, te esse nullum unquam magis 
idoneum reperturum; valere vt mails, quam dives esse; nullum injustitia partum 
praemium tantum est, semper ut timeas, semper ut adesse, semper ut impendere 
aliquam poenam putes. The same is not unfrequently the case in combi- 
nations of conjunctions with pronouns, especially with the relative pronoun ; 
e. g. Hoc quum dicit, illud vult intelligi; qui quoniam quid dicer et intelligi 
noluit, omittamus, Cic. It must be observed as a peculiarity, that vi, even 
without there being any particular emphasis, is commonly placed after the 
words vix, paene, and prope, and also after the negatives nullum, nemo, nihil, 
and the word tantum; e. g. vix ut arma retinere posset; nihil ut de commodis 
suis cogitarent. The conjunctions que, ve, and ne are appended to other words, 
and stand with them at the beginning of a proposition ; but when a mono- 
syllabic preposition stands at the beginning, they often attaith themselves to 
the case governed by those prepositions ; e. g. Romam Cato (Tusculo) demi- 
gravit, in foroque esse coepit; legatum miserurd, ut is apud eum causam ara- 
jftorum ageret, ah eoque peteret; and so also ad populum ad plehemoe ferre ; in 
nostrane potestate est quid meminerimus ? We never find adque, ohque, aque ; 
whereas proque summa henevolentia, and the like, are used exclusively ; and 
in other combinations either method may be adopted : cumque his copiis and 
cum firmisque praesidiis; exque his and ex Usque; eque republica, deqiie uni- 
versa rep. and de provinciaque decessit. Apud quosque in Cic. de Off', i. 35. 

T 3 



is an excusable peculiarity, because apudque quos would be against all 

[§ 357.] What was said above concerning the dijEferent positions of itaque 
and igitur in Cicero is well known and generally correct ; but it is not so 
well known that igitur is nevertheless placed by that author now and then at 
the beginning of a proposition, and that not only in philosophic reason- 
ings, as Bremi states on Cic. de Fin. i. 18., and as we find it in de Fin. iv. 
19. : si illud, hoc : non autem hoc, igitur ne illud quidem; but in the ordinary 
connection of sentences : in Rull. ii. 27. : igitur pecuniam omnem Decemviri 
tenehunt; de Prov. Cons. 4. : igitur in Syria nihil aliud actum est ; Lael. 11. ; 
igitur ne suspicari quidem possumus; Philip, ii. 16. in fin. : igitur fratrem 
exheredans te faciehat heredem; Philip, x. 8. : igitur illi certissimi Caesaris 
actorum patroni pro D. Bruti salute helium gerunt ; de Leg. i. 6. : Igitur doc- 
tissimis viris projicisci placuit a lege; ad Att. vi. 1. 22. : Igitur tu quoque 
salutem utique adscrihito. Sallust too frequently places igitur at the be- 
ginning. But itaque in the second place does not occur in Cicero, for in 
Philip, vii. 3. we must read, according to the best MS., igitur instead of 
itaque in the sentence, ego itaque pads, ut ita dicam, alumnus, and in Partit. 
Orat. 7. quidem is more correct. In Curtius itaque appears in the second 
place only once (vii. 39.). In like manner, the rule cannot be upset by the 
few passages, in which Cicero places vero, in answers, at the beginning (just 
as enim is used by the comic writers). See de Repuhl. i.^37. § 43. ; de Leg. i. 
24. ; in Hull. ii. 25. ; p. Mur. 31. § 65. 

[§ 358.] All this applies only to the practice of prose writers. Poets, accord- 
ing to the necessity of the verse, place even the prepositive conjunctions 
after one or more words of a proposition ; e. g. Horat. Epod. 17. 45. : et tu, 
potes nam, solve me dementiae; Serm. i. 5. 86. : quattuor hinc rapimur viginti 
et milia rhedis; ibid. i. 10. 71. : vivos et roderet ungues. They separate et 
from the word belonging to it ; as Horat. Carm. iii. 4. 6. : audire et videor 
pios errare per lucos; Serm. ii. 6. 3. : Auctius atque dii melius fecere: and 
they append que and ve neither to the first word of a proposition, nor to 
their proper words in other connections ; e. g. TibuU. i. 3. 55. : 

Hicjacet immiti consumptus morte Tihullus, 
Messallam terra dum sequiturque mari, 

instead of the prose form terra marique; and in Horat. Serm. ii. 3. 139. : 

Non Pyladen ferro violare aUsSusve sororem. 

But it is to be observed, that those conjunctions in such arbitrary posi- 
tions are joined only to verbs. Isolated exceptions, such as in Horat. 
Carm. ii. 19. 28. : pads eras mediusque belli; and iii. 1. 12. : Aloribus hie 
meliorque fama contendat; Ovid. Met. ii. 89.: dum resque sinit; and Pedo 
Albin. de Morte^.Drusi, 20., cannot be taken into account. 




[§359.] 1. Interjections are sounds uttered under the in- 
fluence of strong emotions. They are indeclinable, and stand 
in no close connection with the rest of the sentence ; for the 
dative and accusative, which are joined with some of them, are 
easily explained by an ellipsis. See §§ 402. and 403. 

2. The number of interjections in any language cannot be 
fixed. Those which occur most frequently in Latin authors 
are the following. 

a) Of joy: io, iu, ha, he, hahahe, euoe, euax, • 

h) Of grief: vae, heu, eheu, ohe, au, hei, pro. 

c) Of astonishment : o, en or ecce, hui, hem, ehem, aha, atat, 
papae, vah ; and of disgust : phui, apage. (See § 222.) 

d) Of calling : heus, o, eho, ehodum ; of attestation : pro, also 
written proh. 

e) Of praise or flattery : eia, euge. 

[§360.] 3. Other parts of speech, especially nouns substan- 
tive and adjective, adverbs and verbs, and even complex ex- 
pressions, such as oaths and invocations, must in particular con- 
nections be regarded as interjections. Such nouns are: pax 
(be still !) ; malum, indignum, nefandum, miserum, miser ahile — to 
express astonishment and indignation ; made, and with a plural 
macti, is expressive of approbation. (See § 103.) Adverbs: 
nae, profecto, cite, bene, belle! Verbs used as interjections are, 
quaeso, precor, oro, ohsecro, amaho (to all of which te or vos may 
be added), used in imploring and requesting. So also age, agite, 
cedo, sodes (for si audes^, sis, sultis (for si vis, si vultis), and 
agesis, agedum, agitedum. 

Note. Nae in the best writers is joined only with pronouns : nae ego^ nae 
illi vehementer errant^ nae ista gloriosa sapientia non magni aestimanda est. 
Pyrrhus, after the battle of Heraclea, said : Nae ego, si iterum eodem modo 
vicero, sine ullo milite in Epirum revertar, Oros. iv. 1. 

[§361.] 4. Among the invocations of the gods, the following 
are particularly frequent : mehercule, mehercle, hercule, hercle, or 
mehercules, hercules, medius Jidius, mecastor, ecastor, pol, edepol, 
per deum, per deum immortalem, per deos, per Jovem, pro (or 

T 4 



proh) Juppitcr, pro sancte {supreme) Juppiter, pro dii immortales, 

pro deumjidem, pro deum atque hominum fidem^ pro deum or pro 

deum immortalium (scil. Jidem), and several others of this kind. 

Note. Me before the names of gods must be explained by an ellipsis : the 
complete expression was : ita me (e. g. Hercules) juvet ; or with the vocative : 
ita me Hercvle juves. The interjection medim Jidius arose, in all probalaility, 
from me dius (^Aiog) ^dius, which is archaic for JiliuSj and is thus equivalent to 
mehercules, for Hercules is the son of that god. Mehercule is the form which 
Cicero (Orat 47.) approves, and which, along with hercule^ occurs most fre- 
quently in his writings. See my note on in Verr. iii. 62. The oath by 
Pollux (j)oZ) is a very light one, and hence it is given especially to women in 
the comic writers. In edepol and edecastor the e is either the same as me, or 
it is a mere sound of interjection ; de is deus. 




[§ 362.] 1. The subject of a proposition is that concerning 
which anything is declared, and the predicate that which is de- 
clared concerning the subject. The subject appears either in 
the form of a substantive, or in that of an adjective or pronoun, 
supplying the place of a substantive. Whenever there is no 
such grammatical subject, the indeclinable part of speech or 
proposition which takes its place, is treated as a substantive of 
the neuter gender. (Comp. § 43.) 

[§ 363.] Note 1. The manner in which a pronoun supplies the place of a 
substantive requires no explanation. An adjective can be used as a substan- 
tive only when a real substantive is understood. The substantive most fre- 
quently and easily understood is homo^ and many Latin words which are 
properly adjectives have thus acquired the meaning of substantives, e.g.amicm, 
familiaris, aequalis^ vicinus, &c. (see § 410. foil.), and others, such as socius^ 
servus^ lihertinus^ reus, caJididatu^s, although most frequently used as substan- 
tives, nevertheless occur also as adjectives. But upon this point the dictionary 
must be consulted, and we only remark that ordinary adjectives are used as 
substantives with the ellipsis of homo, as bonus, nocens, innocens. But an ad- 
jective in the singular is not commonly used in this way, and we scarcely 



ever find such a phrase as prohus neminem laedit, instead of homo prohus 
neminem laedit. Sapiens^ a sage, or a philosopher, and liher^ a free man, alone 
are used as substantives in the singular. In the plural however the omission 
of the substantive homines^ denoting general classes of men, is much more 
frequent, and we find, e. g. pauperes, divites, boni, improbi, docti, and indocti, 
just as we say the rich, the poor, &c. It must however be observed that very- 
few adjectives, when used as substantives, can be accompanied by other ad- 
jectives, and we cannot say, e. g. midti docti for multi homines (viri) docti. 
The neuters of adjectives of the second declension however are used very 
frequently as substantives, both in the singular and plural. Thus we read 
bonum, a good thing ; contrarium^ the contrary ; verum,, that which is true ; 
malum, evil ; honestum in the sense of virtus, and bona, mala, contraria, &c. 
In the plural neuter adjectives of the third declension are used in the same 
way, as turpia, levia, coelestia. But the Latins, in general, preferred adding 
the substantive res to an adjective, to using the neuter of it as a substantive, 
as res contrariae, res multae, res leviores, just as we do in English. 

[§ 364.] Note 2. It is worth noticing that the word miles is frequently used 
in Latin in the singular, where we should have expected the plural; e.g. 
in Curtius, iii. init. : Alexander ad conducendum ex Peloponneso militem Clean- 
drum cum pecunia mittit; Tac. Ann, ii. 31.: cingebatur interim milite domus, 
strepebant etiam in vestibulo. Similar words, such as eques, pedes, are used in 
the same way, and the instances are very numerous. Romanus, Poenus and 
others, are likewise used for Romani and Poeni in the sense of Eoman, Punian 

[§ 365.] 2. The predicate appears either in the form of a 
verb, or of the auxiliary combined with a noun. 

The predicate accommodates itself as much as possible to its 
subject. When the predicate is a verb, it must be in the same 
number as the subject ; e. g. arbor viret, the tree is green ; «r- 
bores virent, the trees are green ; deus est, god is ; dii sunt, the 
gods are or exist. When the predicate is an adjective, par- 
ticiple, or adjective pronoun, combined with the auxiliary 
esse, it takes the number and gender of the subject, e. g. puer 
est modestus, libri sunt met, prata sunt secta. When the predi- 
cate is a substantive with the auxiliary esse, it is independent of 
the subject both in regard to number and gender ; e. g. captivi 
militum praeda fuerant ; amicitia vinculum quoddam est homi- 
num inter se. But when a substantive has two forms, one mas- 
culine and the other feminine, as rex, regina ; magister, magistra ; 
inventor, inventrix ; indagator, indagatrix ; corruptor, corruptrix ; 
praeceptor, praeceptrix, the predicate must appear in the same 
gender as the subject ; e. g. licentia corruptrix est morum ; stilus 
optimus est dicendi effector et magister. When the subject is a 
neuter the predicate takes the masculine form, the latter being 
more nearly allied to the neuter than the feminine ; e. g. tempus 


vitae magister est. When the subject is a noun epicene (see 
§42.), the predicate follows its grammatical gender; as aquila 
volucrum regina, jida ministra Jovis, though it would not be 
wrong to say aquila rex volucrum. 

It is only by way of exception that esse is sometimes con- 
nected with adverbs of place, such as aliquis or aliquid prope, 
propter, longe, procul est, or when esse signifies "to be in a 
condition ; " e. g. Cic. ad Fam. ix. 9. : praeterea rectissime sunt 
apud te omnia, everything with you is in a very good state or 
condition; de Leg. i. 17.: quod est huge aliter ; Liv. viii. 19.: 
(dicebant) se sub imperio populi Romani Jideliter atque ohedienter 
futuros, Sallust and Tacitus connect esse also with the adverbs 
ahunde, impune, and frustra, and use them as indeclinable ad- 
jectives ; e. g. omnia mala ahunde erant ; ea res frustra fuit ; 
dicta impune erant. 

[§ 366.] Note 1. Collective nouns, that is, such as denote a multitude of 
individual persons or things, e. g. multitudo, tiirha, vis, exercitus, juventus, 
nohilitas, gens, plehs, vulgus, frequently occur in poetry with a plural verb 
for their predicate ; e. g. Ovid. Metam. xii. 53. : Atria turha tenent, veniunt 
lege vulgus euntque ; Fast. ii. 507. : Tu7^a f erant placentque novum pia turha 
Quirinum. As for the practice of prose writers, there is no passage in Cicero 
to prove that he used this construction (see my note on Cic. in Verr. i. 31. 
80.), and in Caesar and Sallust it occurs either in some solitary instance, as 
Caes. BelL Gall. ii. 6. : quum tanta multitudo lapides ac tela conjicerent, or the 
passages are not critically certain. (See Oudendorp on Caes. Bell. Gall. iii. 
17., and Corte on Sallust, Jugurth. 28.) But Livy takes greater liberty, and 
connects collective substantives with the plural, as ii. 5. : Desectam segetem 
magna vis hominum immissa corbibus fudere in I'iberim; xxiv. 3. : Locros 
omnis multitudo abeunt; xxxii. 12.: Cetera omnis multitudo, velut signum 
aliquod secuta, in unum quum convenisset, frequenti agmine petunt Thessaliam. 
(Comp. Drakenborch on xxxv. 26.). He even expresses the plurality of a 
collective noun by using the noun standing by its side in the plural, as in 
XX vi. 35. : Haec non in occulto, sed propalam. in foro atque oculis ipsorum 
Consulum ingens turba circumfusi fremebant; xxv. 34. : Cuneu^ is hostium, 
qui in confertos circa ducem impetum fecerat, ut exanimem labentem ex equo 
Scipionem vidit, alacres gaudio cum clamore per totam aciem nuntiantes discur- 
runt; xxvii. 51.: tum enimvero omnis aetas currere obvii; so also in i. 41.: 
clamor inde concursusque populi, mirantium quid rei esset. But such instances 
are after all rare and surprising. The case is different when the notion of a 
plurality is derived from a collective noun of a preceding proposition, and 
made the subject of a proposition which follows. Instances of this kind occur 
now and then in Cicero : de Nat. Deor. -ii. 6. : ut hoc idem generi humane 
evenerit, quod in terra collocati sint, because they (viz. homines) live on earth ; 
p. Arch. 12. : qui est ex eo numero, qui semper apud omnes sancti sunt habiti; 
and with the same collective noun, p. Marc. \.', p. Quint. 23. They are still 
more frequent in Livy ; iv. 56. : Ita omnium popidorum juventas Antium con- 
tracta: ihi castris positis hostem opperiebantur ; vi. 17.: Jam ne nocte quidem 


turba ex eo loco dilabebatur, refracturosqtie carcerem mindbantur. See the pas- 
sages in Drakenborch on xxi. 7. 7. 

[§ 367.] A plural verb is sometimes used by classical prose writers (though 
not by Cicero) after uterque^ quisque (especially pro se quisque\ pars — 
pars (for alii — alii)^ alius — alium, and alter — alterum (one another or each 
other), for these partitive expressions contain the idea of plurality ; e. g. 
Caes. Bell. Civ. iii. 30. : Eodem die vterque eorum ex castris stativis exercitum 
educunt ; Liv. ii. 15.: missi honoratissimus quisque ex patribus ; ii. 59. : cetera 
mvltitudo decimus quisqv£ ad supplicium lecti. Sometimes the plural of a 
participle is added ; as Curt. iii. 6. : pro se quisque dextram ejv^ amplexi 
grates habebant velut praesenti deo; Liv. ix. 14.: Pro se quisque nan haec 
Furctdas^ nee Caudium, nee saltus invios esse memorantes, caedunt pariter 
resistentes fusosque ; Tacit. Ann. ii. 24. : pars navium haustae sunt, plures 
ejectae (instead of pars — pars, the place of one of them being fi-equently 
supplied by pauci, nonnulli, plerique or plures, as in our case) ; Liv. ii. 10.': 
dum alius alium ut proelium incipiant, circumspectant. Expressions like 
these may derive their explanation from propositions, in which the compre- 
hensive plural is used in the first part, and afterwards the partitive sin- 
gular ; e. g. Sallust, Jug. 58. : At nostri repentino metu perculsi, sibi quisque 
pro moribus consulunt: alii fugere, alii arma caper e, magna pars vulnerati ant 
occisi ; and in Livy : Ceteri suo quisque tempore aderunt, or Decemviri per- 
turbati aliu^ in aliam partem castrorum discurrunt. 

[§ 368.] Note 2. The natural rule, according to which the adjective parts 
of speech take the gender of the substantives to which they belong, seems 
to be sometimes neglected, inasmuch as we find neuter adjectives joined 
with substantives of other genders : Triste lupus stabulis ; varium et mu- 
tabile semper femina in Virgil, and Omnium rerum mors est extremum, even in 
Cicero. But in these cases the adjective is used as a substantive, and triste, 
for example, is the same as "something sad," or "a sad thing," and we 
might use res tristis instead ; as Livy, ii. 3. says : leges rem surdam, inex- 
orabilem esse. A real exception occurs in what is called constructio ad 
synesim, that is, when substantives, which only in their figurative sense de- 
note human beings, have a predicate in the true gender of the person spoken 
of, without regard to the grammatical gender ; e. g. Liv. x. 1 . : capita conjura- 
tionis g'us, quaestione ab Consvlibus ex senatu^consulto Ttabita, virgis caesi ac 
securi percussi sunt. So also auxilia (auxiliary troops) irati, Liv. xxix. 12., 
where Gronovius' note must be consulted. The relative pronoun (see 
§ 371.), when referring to such substantives, frequently takes the gender of 
the persons understood by them. Thus mancipium, animal, furia, scehis, 
monstrum, prodigium, may be followed by the relative qui or quae, according 
as either a man or a woman is meant ; e. g. Cic. in Verr. ii. 32, : Quod un- 
quam hujusmodi monstrum aut prodigium audivimus aut vidimtts, qui cum reo 
transigat, post cum accusatore decidat ? ad Fam. i. 9. : Primum ilia furia 
muliebrium religionum (Clodius), qui non pluris fecerat Bonam Beam quam 
tres sorores, impunitatem est assecutus. See Drakenborch on Liv. xxix. 12. 
After milia the predicate sometimes takes the gender of the persons, whose 
number is denoted by milia; e.g. Curt. iv. 19.: duo milia Tyriorum, cru- 
cibus affixi, per ingens litoris spatium pependerunt; Liv. xl. 41.: ad septum 
milia hominum in naves impositos praeter oram Etrusci maris Neapolim trans- 
misit. Usually, however, the neuter is used. See the collection of ex- 
amples in Drakenborch on Liv. xxxvii. 39. in fin. As to other cases of 


constructio ad synesim^ which, do not belong to grammar, but are irregularities 
of expression, see Corte on Sallust, Cat. 18. 

[§ 369.] Note 3. When the substantive forming the subject has a different 
number from that which is its predicate, the verb esse (and all other verbs 
of existence) follows the subject, as in the above quoted passage of 
Livy, xxi. 15. : Qiiamquam captivi militiim praeda fuerant. So also, Cic. de 
Fin. V. 10.: quae (omnia) sine dubio vitae sunt eversio; Ovid, Met. viii. 636. : 
tota domus duo sunt; Tac. Ann. iv. 5.: praecipuum rohur Rhenum juxta octo 
legiones erant^ for legiones is the subject ; Plin. Hist. Nat. iv. 5. : angustiae, 
unde procedit Peloponnesus., Isthmos appellantur. But we also find, and 
perhaps even more frequently, that the verb takes the number of the sub- 
stantive which is properly the predicate ; e. g. Cic. in Pis. 4. : aude nunc, o 
furia., de tuo consulatu dicere, cujus fuit initium ludi Compitalicii ; Sallust, 
Jug.2\.: possedere ea loca, quae proxuma Carthaginem Numidia appellatur ; 
Terent. Andr.m.2. 2^.: amantium irae amoris integratio est; Liv. i. 34. : 
cui Tarquinii materna tantum patria esset; ii. 54. : Manlio Vejentes provincia 
evenit ; xlv. 39. : pars non minima triumphi est victimae praecedentes. In 
propositions like that of Seneca, Epist. 4. : Magnae divitiae sunt lege na- 
turae composita paupertas ; and Cicero, Parad. in fin. : Contentum vero suis 
rebus esse maximae sunt certissimaeque divitiae., the plural is less surprising. 
But it is clear, that where the subject and predicate may be exchanged or 
transposed, the verb takes the number of the substantive nearest to it. When 
the predicate is a participle combined with esse or videri, the participle takes 
the gender of the substantive which is nearest to it, according to the rule 
explained in § 376. Thus we find in Cicero, de Divin. ii. 43. : non omnis 
error stultitia est dicenda ; de Leg. i. 7. : unde etiam universus hie mundus una 
civitas communis deorum atque hominum existimanda (est) ; Terent, Phorm. i. 
2. 44. : paupertas mihi onus visum est miserum et grave. If we transpose non 
est omnis stultitia error dicendus, and visa mihi semper est paupertas grave onus 
et miserum, the propositions are just as correct. But in Justin, i. 2. : Se- 
miramis, sexum mentita, puer esse credita est, the feminine would be necessary 
for the sake of clearness, even if there were no verb esse. 

[§ 370.] 3. When nouns are combined with one another, 
without being connected by the yerb esse, or by a relative 
pronoun and esse, in such a manner as to form only one idea, as 
in " a good man," the adjective, participle, or pronoun follows 
the substantive in gender, number, and case ; e. g. huic modesto 
puero credo, hanc modestam virginem diligo. 

When two substantives are united with each other in this way, 
they are said, in grammatical language, to stand in apposition to 
each other, and the one substantive explains and defines the 
other ; e. g. oppidum Paestum, arhor laurus, Taurus mons, lupus 
piscis, Socrates vir sapientissimus. The explanatory substantive 
{suhstantivum appositum) takes the same case as the one which 
is explained ; e. g. Socratem, sapientissimurn virum, Athenienses 
interfecerunt (an exception occurs in names of towns, see § 399.). 
They may differ in number and gender, as uros Athenae, pisces 


signum ; Virg. Eclog. ii. 1.: Formosum pastor Cory don ardehat 
Alexin, delicias domini ; but when the substantive in appo- 
sition has two genders, it takes the one which answers to that 
of the other substantive. (Comp. above, § 365.) The predicate 
likewise follows the substantive which is to be explained, as in 
Cicero: Tidliola, deliciolae nostrae, tuum munusculum flagitat ; 
Quum duo fidmina nostri imperii subito in Hispania, Cn. et 
P, Scipiones, extincti occidissent, for the words duo fulmina, 
though placed first, are only in apposition. When plural names 
of places are explained hj the apposition urfis, oppidum, civitas, 
the predicate generally agrees with the apposition ; e. g. Pliny : 
Volsinii, oppidum Tuscorum opulentissimum, concrematum est 

O vitae philosopJda dux (magistra), virtutis indagatrix expultrixque 
vitiorum ! Cic. Tusc. v. 2. Pythagoras velut genitricem virtutum 
frugalitatem omnibus ingerebat (commendabat), Justin, xx. 4. 

Note. Occasionally however the predicate follows the substantive in ap- 
position ; e. g. Sallust, Hist. i. Orat. Phil. : Qui videmini intenta mala, quasi 
fulmen, optare se quisque ne attingat, although the construction is : optare ne 
mala se attingant. It arises from the position of the words, the verb accom- 
modating itself to the subject which is nearest. Hence it not unfrequentlj 
happens, 1. that the verb, contrary to the grammatical rule, agrees with 
the nearest noun of a subordinate sentence ; as in Sallust, Cat. 25. : Sed ei 
cariora semper omnia, quam deans atque pvdicitia fuit ; Cic. Phil. iv. 4. : Quis 
igitiir ilium consulem, nisi latrones, putaiit? and 2. that the adjective parts of 
speech take the gender and number of the noun in apposition or of the sub- 
ordinate sentence ; e. g. Cic. p. Leg. Man. 5. : Corinthum patres vestri, totius 
Graeciae lumen, extinctum esse voluerunt; Nep. Them. 7. : illorum urhem ut 
propugnaadum oppositum esse barbaris. 

[§371.] 4. When a relative or demonstrative pronoun refers 
to a noun in another sentence, the pronoun agrees with it in 
gender and number ; e. g. tarn modestus ille puer est, quern vi- 
disti, de quo audivisti, cujus tutor es, ut omnes eum diligant. 
When the verb itself or a whole proposition is referred to, it is 
treated as a neuter substantive, and in this case id quod is ge- 
nerally used instead of quod; e. g. Nep. Timol. 1 : Timoleon, 
id quod difficilius putatur, multo sapientius tulit secundam, quam 
adversam fortunam. 

[§ 372.] Note. Exception to this rule : when a word of a preceding pro- 
position or this proposition itself, is explained by a substantive with the verbs 
esse, dicere, vocare, appellare, nominare, habere, putare, &c. or their passives, 
the relative pronoun usually takes the gender and number of the expla- 
natory substantive which follows ; e. g. Liv. xlii. 44. : Thebae ipsae, quod 


Boeotiae caput est, in inagno tumvltu erant. (A great many instances of the 
same kind are collected by Drakenborch on Liv. xxxii. 30.) Caes. Bell. Civ. 
iii. 80. : Caesar Gomphos pervenit, quod est oppidum Thessaliae ; Cic. Brut. 
33. : extat ejus peroratio, qui epilogus dicitur ; de Leg. i. 7. : animal plenum 
rationis, quern vocamus hominem ; p. Sext. 40. : domicilia conjuncta, quus urbes 
dicimus, moenibus saepseruni; Phil. v. 14. : Pompejo, quod imperii JRomani 
lumen fuit, extincto; in Pis. 39. : P. Rutilio, quod specimen habuit haec civitas 
innocentiae ; Liv. i. 45. : Romae fanum Dianae populi Latini cum populo 
Romano fecerunt : ea erat confessio, caput rerum Romam esse ; Cic. de Off. 
iii. 10. : Si omnia facienda sunt, quae amid velint, non amicitiae tales, sed con- 
jurationes putandae sunt, i. e. such things or connections cannot be looked 
upon as friendships, but are conspiracies. So also : ista quidem vis, surely 
this is force ; haecfuga est, non prof ectio ; ea ipsa causa belli fuit, for idipsum, 
&c. This explains the frequent forms of such explanatory sentences, as qui 
tuus est amor erga me ; quae tua est humanitas, for with the demonstrative 
pronoun it would likewise be ea tim humanitas est, this or such is thy 

Levis est animi lucem splendoremque fvgientis, justam gloriam, qui est fructus 

verae virtutis honestissimus, repudiare, Cic. in Pis. 24. 
Omnium artium, quae ad rectam vivendi viam pertinent, ratio et discipline, studio 

sapientiae, quae philosophia dicitur, continetur, Cic. Tusc. i. 1 . 
Idem velle et idem nolle, ea demumjirma amicitia est, Sallust, Cat. 20. 

It must however be observed, that when a noun is to be explained and to 
be distinguished from another of the same kind, the relative pronoun follows 
the general rule, agreeing in gender and number with the substantive to be 
explained ; e. g. Caes. Bell. Gall. v. 11. : Jlumen, quod appellatur Tamesis, i. e. 
that particular river ; Kep. Paus. 3. : genu^s est quoddam hominum, quod Ilotae 
voCatur ; especially when a demonstrative pronoun is added, as in Curt. iii. 
20. : Darius ad eum locum, quem Amanicas pylas vocant, pervenit. But when 
the noun following is a foreign word, the pronoun agrees with the preceding 
one, as in Cic. de Off. ii. 5. : cohibere motus animi turbatos, quos Graeci TrcWtj 
nominant; Quintil. viii. 3.16.: quum idem frequentissime plura verba signijicent, 
quod (Tvviovvfjiia vocatur. Comp. Gronov. on Senec. Consol. ad Marc. 19., and 
Drakenborch on Livy, ii. 38., with the commentators there mentioned. 

[§ 373.] 5. When the subject consists of several nouns in 
the singular, the predicate is generally in the plural, if either all 
or some of those nouns denote persons; but if they denote 
things, either the singular or plural may be used. If, however, 
one of the nouns is in the plural, the predicate must likewise be 
in the plural, unless it attach itself more especially to the 
nearest substantive in the singular. 
Apud Regillum hello Latinorum in nostra acie Castor et Pollux 

ex equis pugnare visi sunt, Cic. De Nat. Deor. ii. 2. 
Cum tempus necessitasque postulat, decertandum manu est, et 

mors servituti turpitudinique anteponenda, Cic. De Off. i. 23. 
Benejicium et gratia homines inter se conjungunt. 


Vita, mors, divitiae, poMpertas omnes homines vehementissime 

permovent, Cic. De Off. ii. 10. 

Note 1. When the subject consists of two nouns denoting things in the 
singular, the predicate varies between the singular and plural, according as 
the two nouns constitute, as it were, only one idea, or two different or op- 
posite ones. It may be remarked here that the subject Senatus populusque 
Romanus (but also Syracusanus^ Cic. in Verr. ii. 21. ; Centuripinus, ibid. iii. 
45. ; Saguntinus, Liv. xxviii. 39.) is always followed by the predicate in the 
singular- A relative pronoun, referring to two singular nouns, is always in 
the plural, unless it be intended to refer only to the last. 

Even when the subject consists of the names of two or more persons, the 
predicate is not un frequently found in the singular, and that not only in cases 
where it may seem that the writer at first thought only of one person and 
afterwards the other, as In Cic. Ora^. 12. : nam quum concisusei ThrasymacTius 
minutis numeris videretur et Gorgias ; or Tusc. i. 1. : siquidem Homerusfuit et 
Hesiodus ante Romam conditam; comp. Brut. 11. init. — but also without this 
excuse, as Cic. Brut. 8.: Sed ut intellectum est, quantam vim haberet accurata 
et facta quodammodo oratio, tum etiam magistri dicendi multi suhito extiterunt. 
Nam Leontinus Gorgias, Thrasymachus Chalcedonius, Protagoras Abderites, 
Prodicus Ceus, Hippias Eleus in honore magno fuii, aliique multi temporibus 
iisdem; de Orat. ii. 12.: Qualis apud Graecos Pherecydes, Hellanicus, Acusilas 
fuit aliique permulti, talis noster Cato et Pictor et Piso; de Divin. i. 38. : hac 
ratione et Chrysippus et Diogenes et Antipater utitur ; de Fat. 17. : in qua sen- 
tentia Democritus, Hei-aclitus, Empedocles, Aristoteles fuit ; in Verr. i. 30. 
condemnatur enim perpaucis sejitentiis Philodamus et eju^flius ; ibid. iv. 42. 
dixit hoc apud vos Zosippus et Ismenias, homines nobilissimi ; de Orat. i. 62. 
haec quum Antonius dixisset, sane dubitare visus est Sulpicius et Cotta ; Caes. 
Bell. Civ. i. 2. : inter cedit M. Antonius, Q. Cassius, tribuni plebis. It is un- 
necessary to add passages from the poets, who, especially Horace, frequently 
use the predicate in the singular, when the subject consists of several nouns 
denoting persons ; e.g. Horat. Carm. ii. 13. in fin.: Quin et Prometheus et 
Pelopis parens dulci laborum decipitur sono. Comp. Bentley on Carm. i. 24. 8. 
The plural, however, must be considered as the rule in prose. Only the 
words unus et alter have invariably the predicate in the singular. When the 
subject consists of nouns denoting persons and things, the plural of the pre- 
dicate is preferable to the singular ; e. g. Cic. ad Att. iv. 15. : coitio consulum 
et Pompejus obsunt; Liv. xxviii. 18. : nee dubitare quin Syphax regnumque 
eju^jam in Romanorum essent potestate, and so in xxxix. 51. : Pru^iam sus- 
pectum Romanis et receptus Hannibal et bellum adversus Eumenem motum fa- 
ciebant, is more probable than faciebat. 

[§ 374.] Note 2. When the subject consists of nouns connected by the disjunc- 
tive conjunction aut, the predicate is found in the plural as well as in the sin- 
gular, though it would be more in accordance with our feeling to use the sin- 
gular ; e. g. Cic. Tusc. v. 9. : Si Socrates ant Antisthenes diceret; de Off. i. 28. : si 
Aeacus aut Minos diceret ; but de Off. i. 41. : nee quemquam hoc error e duci 
oportet, ut, si quid Socrates aut Aristippus contra morem consuetudinemque 
civilem fecerint locutive sint, idem sibi arbitretur licere ; Liv. v. 8. : ut quosque 
studium privatim aut gratia occupaverunt. In Cicero, de Orat. ii. 4., the 
reading is uncertain : ne Sulpicius aut Cotta plus quum ego apud te valere vide- 
antur. Ernesti, who approves of videatur exclusively, was not struck by the 
same peculiarity in the preceding passage. With aut— aut, the singular is un- 


questionably preferable, as In Cic. Philip, xi. 11.: nee enim nunc primum aut 
Brvtm aut Cassius salutem lihertatemque patriae legem sanctissimam et morem 
optimum Judicavit ; with nee — nee we likewise prefer the singular, with Bentley 
on Horace, Carm. i. 13. 6., but the plural occurs in Pliny, Panegyr. 75. : 
erant enim (acclamationes) quibv^ nee senatus gloriari nee prineeps possent, 
^vhere posset would certainly be just as good. Comp. Liv. xxvi. 5. in fin. 
The plural seems to be necessary only when the subject does not consist of 
two nouns of the third person, but contains a first or second person, as in 
Terence, Adelph. i. 2. 23. : haee si neque ego neque tufeeimus; I). Brutus in 
Cic. ad Fam. xi. 20. : quod in Decemviris neque ego nego Caesar hahiti esse- 
mus. With sen — seu and tam — quam, the predicate is in the plural : Frontin. 
de Aquaed. Praef. and § 128. (ut proprium jus tam res publiea quam privata 

[§ 375.] Note 3. When the subject is a singular noun joined to another 
(either plural or singular) by the preposition eum, the grammatical con- 
struction demands that the predicate should be in the singular, as in Cic. ad 
Att. vii. 14. : tu ipse eum Sexto scire velim quid cogites; ad Quint. Frat. Hi. 
2. : Domitius eum Messala eertu^ esse videbatur; Ovid, Fast. i. 12. : tu quoque 
cum Druso praemia fratre feres. But the plural is more frequent, the sub- 
ject being conceived to consist of more than one person ; Liv. xxi. 60. : ipse 
dux eum aliquot principibus capiuntur ; Sallust, Cat. 43.: Lentvlus cum ceteris 
— eonstituerant ; Jug. 101. : Bocchus eum peditibus — invadunt; Nep. Phoc. 2. : 
ejus consilio Demosthenes cum ceteris^ qui bene de rep. mereri existimabantur, 
populiseiio in exilium erant expulsi; and to judge from these and other in- 
stances, quoted by Corte on the passages of Sallust, it seems that the plural 
is preferred, when the main subject is separated from the predicate by inter- 
mediate sentences, so that the plurality spoken of Is more strongly impressed 
on the writer's mind than the grammatical subject. Even in reference to 
gender (of which we shall speak hereafter) nouns connected with each other 
by cum, are treated as if they were connected by et. Ovid, Fast. iv. 55. : 
Ilia cum Lauso de Numitore sati ; Liv. xlv. 28. : jiliam cum filio aecitos ; 
Justin, xlv. 16. : Jilium Alexandri cum matre in apcem Amphipolitanam cu^to- 
diendos mittit. 

[§ 376.] 6. With regard to the gender, which the predicate 
(an adjective, participle, or pronoun), takes, when it belongs to 
several nouns, the following rules must be observed : — 

a) When the nouns are of one gender, the predicate (ad- 
jective, participle, or pronoun) takes the same. 

h) When they are of diiFerent genders, the masculine (in case 
of their denoting living beings) is preferred to the feminine, 
and the predicate accordingly takes the masculine. When the 
nouns denote things, the predicate takes the neuter, and when 
they denote both living beings and things mixed together, it 
takes either the gender of the living beings, or the neuter. 
Jam pridem pater mihi et mater mortui suntf Ter. 
Labor voluptasque, dissimilia naturdf societate quadam inter se 

naturali juncta sunt, Liv. v. 4. 


Jane, fac aeternos pacem pacisque ministros ! Ovid, Fast, 
Romani, si me scelus fratris, te senectus absumpserity regem reg^ 

numque Macedoniae sua futiira sciunt, Liv. xl. 10. 

Or the predicate (adjective, participle, or pronoun), agrees 
only with one of tlie nouns, and is supplied by the mind for 
the others ; this is the case especially, when the subject consists 
of nouns denoting living beings and things. 
Thrasybuliis contemptus est primo a tyrannis atque ejus soli- 

tudo, Nep. Thras. 2. 
L, Brutus exulem et regem ipsum, et liheros ejus, et gentem 

Tarquiniorum esse jussit, Cic. De Re Publ. ii. 
Hominis utilitati agri omnes et maria parent, Cic. 
Nunc emergit amor, nunc desiderium ferre non possum, nunc mihi 

nihil libri, nihil litterae, nihil doctrina prodest : ita dies et noctes 

tamquam avis ilia, mari prospecto, evolare cupio, Cic. ad Att. 

ix. 10. 2. 

[§ 377.] Note. We have not mentioned the case of a subject consisting 
of living beings of the feminine and neuter genders ; e. g. soror tua et ejus 
mamipium. No instance of such a combination occurs, but we should be 
obliged to make the predicate ; e. g. inventae or inventi sunt, according as 
mancipium may denote a male or female slave. The grammatical preference 
of the masculine gender to the feminine is clear also from the fact of the 
mascul. words filii, fratres, soceri, reges, comprising persons of both, sexes ; 
as in Livy : legati missi sunt ad Ptolemaeum Cleopatramque reges; Tac. Ann. 
xii. 4. : fratrum incustoditum amorem., in speaking of a brother and his sister. 
The following examples of the predicate being in the neuter gender, when 
the subject consists of nouns denoting things, may be added to those already 
quoted. Sallust : divitiae, decus, gloria in ocidis sita sunt; Livy : Foi-miis 
portam murumque de coelo tacta esse; Merico urhs et ager in Sicilia jussa 
dari; and so also with the relative pronoun; Sallust: otium atque divitiae^ 
quae prima mortales putant. The neuter is further not unfrequently used 
when the two nouns of the subject (denoting things) are of the same gender ; 
e. g. Liv. xxxvii. 32. : postquam ira et avaritia imperio potentiora erant; Cic. 
de Nat. Dear. iii. 24. : fortunam nemo ah inconstantia et temeritate sejunget, 
quae digria certe non sunt dec. Those passages, on the other hand, in which 
the subject consists of names of things of different gender, and the predicate 
agrees in gender with a more distant masc. or femin., must be considered as 
exceptions ; but in such cases the noun with which the predicate agrees is 
usually the more prominent, the other or others being considered as depend- 
ent or subordinate ; e. g. Plancus in Cic. ad Fam. x. 24. : Amor tuus ac 
judicium de me utrum mihi plv^ dignitatis an voluptatis sit allaturus., non facile 
dixerim; i. e. thy love, and thy favourable opinion of me, which is the result 
of it ; Cic. de Leg. i. 1 . : Lucus ille et haec Arpinatium quercus agnoscitur^ 
saepe a me lectus in Maino, the oak being only a part of the grove. See the 
commentators (Wesenberg) on Cic. p. Sext. 53., and on Suet. Caes. 75. 

[§ 378.] 7. When the personal pronouns ego, tu, nos, vos, 



combined with one or more other nouns form the subject of a 
proposition, the predicate follows the first person in preference to 
the second and third, and the second in preference to the third. 
Si tu et Tullia, lux nostra, valetis, ego et suavissimus Cicero 

valemus, Cic. Ad Fam. xiv. 5. 
Quid est quod tu aut ilia cum Fortuna hoc nomine queri 

possitis, Sulpic. in Cic. Ad Fam. iv. 5. 

Note. So also Cic. in Verr. i. 45. : hoc jure et major es nostri et nos semper 
usi sumus; in Bull. i. 7. : Errastis^ Rtdle, vehementer et tu et nonnuUi collegae 
tui. But in this case also the predicate frequently agrees with one of the 
subjects, and is supplied by the mind for the others ; e. g. Cicero : Vos ipsi 
et senatus frequens restitit; et ego et Cicero meus flagitabit. With regard to 
the relative pronoun, the above rule remains in force, and we must accord- 
ingly say : tu et pater ^ qui in convivio eratis; ego et tu, qui eramus. 



[379.] 1. The subject of a proposition is in the nominative 
(see § 362.), and the noun of the predicate only when it is con- 
nected with the subject by the verb esse and similar verbs: 
apparere, appear ; existere, fieri, evadere, come into existence, 
become ; videri, seem, appear ; manere, remain ; or the passives 
of the actives mentioned in § 394 ; viz. did, appellari, existimari, 
haheri, &c. ; e. g. Justus videbatur, he appeared just ; rex appel- 
lahatur, he was called king. The personal pronouns ego, tu, 
ille, nos, vos, and illi are implied in the terminations of the verb, 
and are expressed only when they denote emphasis or opposition. 
(In) rebu^ angustis animosus atque fortis appdre, Ilorat. 

Carm. ii. 10. 21. 
Appius adeo novum sibi ingenium induerat, ut plebicola repente 

omnisque aurae popularis captator evaderet, Liv. iii. 33. 
Ego reges ejeci, vos tyrannos introducitis ; ego libertatem, quae 

non erat, peperi, vos partam servare non vultis, says L. Brutus 

in the Auct. ad Herenn. iv. 53. 

Note \. The construction of the accusative with the infinitive is the only 
case in which the subject is not in the nominative, but in the accusative. 


(See § 599.) In this case the predicate, with the above-mentioned verbs, is 
likewise in the accusative. 

{§ 380.] Note 2. Videf^i is used throughout as a personal verb, as (ego) 
videor, (tu) videris, &c. ; vir bonus esse; videmur, videmini viH honi esse, 
or hoc fecisse. The impersonal construction is sometimes found, as in 
Cic. Tmc. V. 5. : Non mihi videtur, ad beate viverudum satis posse virtutem 
(comp. Davis' remark), but much more rarely than the personal one. AVhen 
connected with the dative of a person, it is equivalent to the English " to 
think or fancy ;" e. g. amens mihifuisse videor ; fortunatus sibi Damocles vide- 
hatiir (esse) ; si hoc tibi intellexisse videris, or even in connection with videre ; 
e. g. videor mihi videre imminentes reipublicae tempestates, &c. It should how- 
ever be observed that the dative of the first person is sometimes omitted ; 
e. g. Cic. de Nat. Deor. ii. 61. : satis docuisse videor; ibid. i. 21. : saepe de L. 
Ci-asso videor audisse; de Fin. ii. 5. : cum Graece, vt videor, lu^identer sciam, 
1. e. as it seems to me, or as I think. 

[§ 381.] 2. The nominative is sometimes not expressed in 

Latin. Thus the word homines is understood with a verb in 

the third person plural active, in such phrases as laudant hunc 

regem, they, or people praise tliis king ; dicunt, tradunt, ferunt 

hunc regem esse justum, people say that this king is just. 



[§ 382.] 1. The accusative denotes the object of an action, and 
is therefore joined to all transitive verbs, whether active or de- 
ponent, to express the person or thing affected by the action 
implied in such verbs ; e. g. pater amat (tuetur) filium, AYhen 
the verb is active, the same proposition may be expressed without 
change of meaning in the passive voipe, the object or accusative 
becoming the subject or nominative; thus instead oi pater amat 
Jilium, we may say Jilius amatur a patre. 

The transitive or intransitive nature of a verb depends en- 
tirely upon its meaning (see § 142.), which must be learned from 
the dictionary. It must however be observed that many Latin 
verbs may acquire a transitive meaning, besides the original 
intransitive one, and accordingly govern the accusative. 

[§383.] Note 1. Some verbs are called transitive and others intransitive, 
according as they occur more frequently in the one sense or the other. All 
particulars must be learned from the Dictionary. Ludere, to pLay, for ex- 
ample, is naturally an intransitive, but has a transitive meaning in the sense 

u 2 


of " play the part of ; " e. g. ludit honum civem, lie plays the good citizen, 
affects to be a good citizen. Horrere properly signifies " to feel a shudder," 
and fastidire " to be disgusted with," but both are frequently used as tran- 
sitives : horrere dolorem^ fastidire preces or mores alicujus^ to dread pain, to 
reject a person's petition, to be disgusted with his manners. There are several 
other such verbs, as dolere^ gemere^ lamentari, higere, maerere, lacrimare^ 
plorare; e. g. casum liunc. Festinare and properare, moreover, signify not 
only " to hasten," but " to accelerate ;" e. g. mortem suam; manere not only 
" to wait," but " to expect ;" e. g. hostium adventum; i^idere^ to laugh and to 
ridicule (like irridere). Such examples being sanctioned by usage, the 
Latin writers, in some cases, extended the principle still further, and Cicero 
(de Fin. ii. 34.) has the bold, but beautiful and expressive, phrase : Quum 
Xerxes^ Hellesponto juncto^ Athone perfosso^ mare ambulavisset, terram navi- 
gasset, instead of the ordinary expression in mari amhulavisset^ in terra navi- 
gasset. In such phrases as dormio totam hietnem, tertiam aetatem vivo, nodes 
vigilo, the accusative might seem to express only duration of time (§ 395.), 
but as the passive forms also occur, tota mihi dormitur hiems, jam tertia 
vivitur aetas, nodes vigilantur amarae, it will be more judicious to consider 
the verbs dormire, vivere, vigilare, in those cases as transitives, equivalent to 
"" spend in sleeping, living, waking." 

The words which denote "to smell" or "taste of any thing," viz. olere, 
redolere, sapere, resipere, are in the same manner used as transitive verbs, 
and joined with an accusative (instead of the ablative which they would require 
as intransitive verbs). Their meaning in this case is "to give back the smell 
or taste of any thing ;" e. g. olet unguenta; piscis ipsum mare sapit; unguenta 
gratiora sunt, quae terram, qnam quae crocum sapiant; uva picem resipiens, 
and in a figurative sense : olet peregrinum, redolet antiquitatem; together with 
such expressions as, anhelat crudelitatem, pingue quiddam et peregrinum sonat, 
sanguinem nostrum sitiehat. The poets go still further, and use, e. g., pallere^ 
■pavere, tremere, trepidare aliquid, instead of timere; ardere, calere, tepere, pe- 
rire, deperire mulierem, instead of amare mulierem. Such expressions should 
not be imitated in prose, any more than the use of a neuter adjective instead 
of an adverb ; as in : torvum damare, tremendum sonare, lucidum fulgent oculi, 
concerning which see § 266. Tacitus however says, Ann. iv. 60. : Tiberius 
falsum renidens vultu; and vi. 37.. : Euphraten nulla imhrium vi sponte et im~ 
mensum attolli. 

[§ 384.] We must here mention a peculiar mode of joining an accusative 
with intransitive verbs, which is of frequent occurrence in Greek and also in 
English. It consists of a substantive of the same root as the verb, or at least one 
of the same meaning, being added in the accusative ; but this substantive is 
usually qualified by an adjective ; e. g. vitam jncundam vivere; longam viam 
ire, hoc helium hellare, gravem pugnam (proelium) pugnare, alteiHus gaudimn 
gaudere, honas preces precari, risum Sardonium ridere, consimilem ludum lu- 
dere, servitutem servire duinssimam, somnium somniare. 

(Odi) qui Curios simidant et Bacchanalia vivunt. — Juven. ii. 3. 
[§ 385.] But even without any change or modification of meaning, intran- 
sitive verbs may have the accusative of pronouns and adjective pronouns 
in the neuter gender, in order to express, in a general way, the direction in 
which a feeling or condition is manifested ; if this tendency were expressed 
more definitely by a substantive, the accusative could not be used. We thus 
i'requently find such phrasos as : hoc laetor, I rejoice at this ; hoc non dubito^ 


I do not doubt this ; hoc laboro, illud tihi non assentior, aliquid tibi succenseo, 
non possum idem gloriari^ unum omnes student^ where the accusative of a de- 
finite substantive, such as, hanc unam rem omnes student^ could not have beeu 
used. So Terence says : id operam do^ I strive after this ; Cicero, ad Fam. 
vi. 8. : consilium petis, quid tibi sim auctor; and Livy often uses the phrase 
quod quidam auctores sunt, which is attested by some authors. 
Dolores autem nunquam tantam vim habent, ut non plus habeat sapiens quod 

gaudeat quam quod angatur, Cic. de Fin. i. 14. 
Utrumque laetor, el sine dolore corporis te fuisse et animo valuisse, Cic. ad 

Fam. vii. 1. 

Note 2. The rule that in the change of a proposition from the active into 
the passive form the accusative of the object becomes the nominative of the 
subject, remains in force even when after the verbs denoting "to say" or 
" command" the accusative does not depend upon these verbs, but belongs 
to the construction of the accusative with an infinitive ; e. g. dico regem esse 
justum, jubeo te redire (see § 607.); in the passive : rex dicitur Justus esse, ju- 
beris redi?'e, as though dico regem or jubeo te belonged to each other. 

[§ 386.] 2. Intransitive verbs which imply motion, as ire, 
vadere, volare, and some also which imply " being in a place," 
as jacere, stare and sedere, acquire a transitive meaning by 
being compounded with a preposition, and accordingly govern 
the accusative. This, however, is generally the case only in verbs 
compounded with the prepositions circum, per, praeter, trans, 
and super, and in those compound verbs which have acquired a 
figurative meaning. Such verbs become perfect transitives, and 
the accusative which they take in the active form of a propo- 
sition as their object, becomes the nominative of the subject, 
when the proposition is changed into the passive form ; e. g, 
flumen transitur, societas initur, mors pro republica obitur. With 
other compounds the accusative is only tolerated, for generally 
the preposition is repeated, or the dative is used instead of the 
preposition with its case (§415.). 

Amicitia nonnunquam praecurrit judicium, Cic. Lael. 17. 
Nihil est turpius quam ccgnitioni et praeceptioni assensionem prae- 

currere, Cic. Acad. i. 12. 

Note. The rule here given applies to a great number of verbs, for there are 
many which imply motion, as, ire, ambidare, cedere, cw^rere, equitare, fluere, 
gradi, labi, nare, and natare, repere, salire, scandere, voder e, vehi, volare, and 
perhaps also venire, and their compounds are very numerous. The fol- 
lowing is a list of them : adire, accedere, adequitare, adnare, aggredi, allabi 
ascendere, assilire and assvltare, advenire and adventure, advehi, advolare, 
advolvi, anteire, antecedere, antecurrere, antegredi, antevenire, circumjluere, 
circumire, circumvenire, circumvolare, coire, convenire, egredi, elabi, erumpere, 
evadere, excedere, exire, inire, incedere, incurrere and incursare, ingredi, illabi, 
innare and innatare, insilire, insultare, invehi, interfiuere, intervenire, invaders 

u 3 


(irrumpere), irrepere, ohambulm^e^ ohequitare^ ohire^ peramhulare^ percurrere^ 
permeare, pervadere^ pe?'vagari, pervolare, praecedere, praecurrere^ praejluere^ 
praegredi, praevenire^ praeterire, praeterfluere, praetergredi, praetervehi, 
praetervolare, subire, succedere, subrepere, supergredi, supervadere^ super- 
venire, transire, transnare, transilire, transvolare. To these we must add 
some compound verbs, which do not imply motion, but in general " being 
in a place," as adjacere, assidere, accumbere and accubare, adstare, antestare, 
circumsidere, circumstare, and circumsistere, incubare, insidere, instare, inter- 
jacere, obsidere, praesidere, praejacere, praestare, superstare. All these verbs 
may be joined with an accusative of the place to which the action implied in 
the verb refers ; in poetical language many more verbs are joined with an 
accusative, partly from a resemblance with those mentioned above, and 
partly because a transitive meaning and construction are, in general, well 
suited to a lively description. Tacitus, Hist. ili. 29., for example, says : ba- 
lista obruit quos inciderat, where quos is not governed by the preposition in 
(for he uses the accus. also with prepositions which otherwise require the 
ablative : praesidebat exercitum, praejacet castra, elapsus est vincidd), but is the 
real accusat. of the object. We must not however forget, that, with the 
exception of verbs compounded with the prepositions circum, per, praeter, 
trans, and super, we are speaking only of what may be, and what frequently 
occurs in modern Latin prose ; for the ancient Romans seldom used the ac- 
cusative with such verbs ; they preferred them in their intransitive sense 
either with a preposition or the dative. The verbs compounded with ante 
alone are construed indifferently either with the accusative or the dative, 
and antegredi occurs only with the accusative. Cicero, in the case of verbs 
compounded with ex, repeats the preposition ex or ab; Sallust and Livy use 
the ablative alone, Avhich is governed by the preposition understood. It is 
not till the time of Tacitus that we find these verbs construed with the ac- 
cusative; e.g. evado amnerri, silvas, sententiasjudicum. 

[§ 387.] We must especially notice those verbs which acquire a transitive 
meaning by a modification of their original signification, i. e. by being used in a 
figurative sense. Such verbs either lose their intransitive meaning altogether, 
or retain it along with the transitive one, and accordingly govern the 
accusative either exclusively, or only in their particular transitive meaning. 
Of this kind are adeo and convenio in the sense of " I step up to a person for 
the purpose of speaking to him ;" aggredior (and adorior), invado and incedo, 
I attack, where especially the perfect incessit aliquem, e. g. cupido, cura, 
metus, must be observed ; alluo, wash, in speaking of the sea or a river ; 
anteeo, antecedo, antevenio, jiraecedo, praegredior, praevenio, all in the sense of 
" I excel " (the principle of which is followed also hy praemineo, praesto, ante- 
cello, excello, and praecello) ; coeo, I conclude, e. g. an alliance ; excedo and 
egredior, I transgress, e. g. the bounds ; ineo and ingredior, I begin a thing ; 
obeo, I visit, undertake ; occumbo (mortem, which is much more frequent 
than morti or morte), I suffer death, or die ; obsideo and circumsideo, I be- 
siege ; subeo, I undertake. But even among these verbs there are some, 
such as incedere and invadere, which are preferred in the more ancient prose 
with a preposition or with the dative. Livy, for example, frequently says 
patres incessit cura, and Sallust uses metus invasit populares ; but Cicero, An- 
tonius invasit in Gallium, or timer invasit improbis ; Terence, qiiae nova religio 
nunc in te incessit ; Caesar, dolor incessit improbis. Anteire is the only one 
among the verbs signifying "to excel," that is used by Cicero with the 
accusative, though not exclusively, and antecedere, praestare, antccellere, and 


excellere are used by him only with the dative ; the others do not occur in 
his works in this sense. 

There are, on the other hand, some verbs which, according to the above 
rule, might be joined with the accusative, but never are so, and take either the 
dative or a preposition, viz. arrepere^ obrepere^ incumhere (§ 416.). Lastly, 
verbs compounded with the prepositions ah, de, and ex, which imply motion, 
are construed with the ablative, the idea of separation being predominant ; 
the few verbs mentioned above only form an exception to the rule. 

[§ 388.] 3. The verbs deficio, juvo, adjiivo, defugio, effugio, 
profugio, refugio, and suhterfugio, and the deponents imitor, 
sequor^ and sector govern the accusative. They are real tran- 
sitives and have a personal passive. 
Fortes fortuna adjuvat, Ter. Phorm. i. 4. 26. 
Nemo mortem effugere potest, Cic. Philip, viii. 10. 
Gloria virtutem tanquam umbra sequitur, Cic. Tusc. 

Note 1. The compounds of sequor and sector: assequor, assector, consequoTy 
consector, inseqvjor, insector, per sequor, prosequor, likewise govern the accu- 
sative ; obsequor, I comply with, alone governs the dative. Comitor, I accom- 
pany, may be classed with sequor; for it usually governs the accusative ; but 
Cicero in some passages (de Re Puhl. ii. 24., Tmc. v, 24. and 35.), uses it 
with the dative, in accordance with its original meaning " to be a companion 
to a person" (§ 235.). The few passages in which deficio occurs with the 
dative cannot affect the rule ; thus we read : vires, tela nostras defecerunt; 
tempus me deficit; and in the passive : quum miles a virihus dejiceretur; aqua 
cihoque defectum. The frequentative adjuto is used with the dative only by 
unclassical writers ; otherwise it has the accusative likejMyo. The passive 
forms of defugio, refugio, and effugio are rare ; but always in accordance 
with the rule ; e. g. Cic. Tusc. i. 36. : haec incommoda morte effugiuntur; p. 
Plane. 32. : nullas sibi dimicationes pro me defugiendas putavit; Quintil. iv. 
5. : Interim refugienda est distinctio quaestionum. Of the other compounds 
the passive cannot be' proved to have been used. 

[§ 389.] Note 2. The verb acquire and its compounds have likewise their 
object in the accusative. Aequare properly signifies " to make equal," rem cum 
re or rem rei, one thing to another ; e. g. urbem solo aequare, turrim moenibus ; 
and without a dative, "to attain ;"^ e.g. gloriam alicujus, superiores reges, 
cursum equorum. The accusative of the person may be joined, without any 
difference in meaning, by the ablative of the thing in which I equal any 
one ; e g. Curt. ix. 26. : Nondum feminam aequavimus gloria, et jam nos 
laudis satietas cepit f The same is the case with the compound adaequare ; 
and the dative with this verb, in the sense of " attain " or " equal," is doubt- 
ful or unclassical. (See Caes. Pell. Gall. viii. 41.) Exaequare commonly 
signifies "to make equal," or "equalise ;" and aequiparare " to attain ;" and 
both govern the accusative. 

Note 3. Aemulari, emulate, commonly takes the accusative of the thing 
in which, and the dative of the person whom we emulate : aemulor pruden- 
tiam, virtides majorum, and aemvlor alicui homini, although some authors use 
it in both connections with the accusative like imitari. Adulari, properly 
used of dogs, signifies " to creep " or " sneak up to a person," and figu- 
ratively, like the Greek TrpoaKwt'iv, the servile veneration paid to Asiatic 

u 4 


kings, and hence In general " to flatter." In its proper sense it occurs only 
with the accusative, e. g. Colum. vii. 12. : Canes mitissimi furem quoque adit- 
lantur; in its figurative sense also it is found only with the accusative : Valer. 
Maxim, vi. 3. extr. : Athenienses Timagoram inter officium salutationis Dariiim 
regem more gentis illius adulatum capitali supplicio affecerunt. In its most 
common sense of " servile flattery," it is used by Cicero likewise with the 
accusative: in Pis. 41.: adulans omnes; bylSTepos with the dative; Attic. 8. : 
neque eo magis potenti adidatus est Antonio; by Livy with both cases, see 
xxxvi. 7. and xlv. 31. (for in xxiii. 4. there is no reason for giving up the 
old reading plebem, affari), and Quintilian (ix. 3.) states that in his time the 
dative was commonly used. Tacitus and other late writers, however, re- 
turned to the ancient practice and used the accusative. It should be re- 
marked that the active form adulo was not uncommon, as in Valer. Maxim, 
iv. 3. in fin. : Cum olera lavanti (Diogeni) Aristippus dixisset, si Dionysium 
ndulare velles, ita non esses : Immo, inquit^ si tu ita esse velles, non adulares 
Dionysium. Comp. the commentators on Cic. Tiisc. ii. 10. § 24. 

[§ 390.] 4. Five impersonal verbs (§ 225.), which express 
certain feelings, viz. piget (I am) vexed ; pudet (I am) 
ashamed ; poenitet, (I) repent ; taeclet (I am) disgusted, and mi~ 
seret, (I) pity, take an accusative of the person affected. As to 
the case by which the thing exciting such a feeling is expressed, 
see § 441. 

Note. On the principle ofpuditum est, Cicero {de Fin. ii. 13.) uses veritum 
est as an impersonal verb with the accusative of the person : Cyrenaici, quos 
non est veritum in voluptate summum honum ponere. 

Decet, it is becoming, and its compounds condecet, dedecet, and 
indecet likewise govern the accusative of the person, but they 
differ from the above-mentioned impersonal verbs, inasmuch as 
they may have a nominative as their subject, though not a 
personal one. 

Candida pax homines, trux decet iraferas, Ovid, A. A. 

Note. In the early language (especially in Plautus) decet is found also 
with the dative. We may here notice some other verbs which, when used 
as impersonals, govern the accusative, this case being suited to their original 
meaning : juvat and delectat me, I am rejoiced ; fallit, fugit, praeterit me, it 
escapes me, that is, I have forgotten, or do not knoAv. Latet me occurs more 
frequently than latet miki, but the impersonal character of this verb is not 
founded on good authority, for the passage of Cicero, in Cat. i. 6., is cor- 
rupt. Cicero uses this verb without any case : lateo, I am concealed or 
keep out of sight. 

[§ 391.] 5. The verbs docere (teach) with its compounds edo^ 

cere and dedocere and celare (conceal), have two accusatives of the 

object, — one of the thing, and another of the person, as in 

Nepos, Eum. 8. : Antigonus iter, quod liabehat adversus Eu- 

menem, omnes celat. 

Fortuna belli artem victos quoque docet. Curt. vii. 30. (7.) 


Catilina juventutem, quam illexerat, rnultis modis mala facinora 
edocebat, Sallust, Cat. 16. 

Note ] . When such a proposition takes the passive form, the accusative of 
the person becomes the nominative, as omnes celahantur ah Antigono ; but the 
thing may remain in the accusative, e. g. Liv. vi. 32. : Latinae legiones longa 
societate militiam Romanam edoctae; and: omnes belli artes edoctus. But it 
rarely occurs with doctus and edoctus^ and with celari scarcely ever, except 
when the thing is expressed by the neuter of a pronoun, e. g. hoc or id cela- 
ha7\ I was kept in ignorance of it, for celai'e and especially its passive 
generally has the preposition de^ as in Cic. : non e$f profecto de illo veneno 
celata mater; dehes existimare te maximis de rebus afratre esse celatum. The 
construction aliqua res mihi celatur in Nep. Alcib. 5. is very singular. Docere 
and edocere with their passive forms are likewise used with de^ but only in 
the sense of " to inform," as in Cicero ; jtuliees de iitjuriis alicujus docere ; 
Sulla de his rebus docetur ; Sallust : de itinere hostium senatum edocet. 

It must, however, be observed, that although any word expressing an art 
may be joined to doceo and doceor (doceo te artem, doceor te Latine loqui, do- 
ceor artem, doceor (commonly disco) Latine loqui), the instrument on which 
the art is practised, is expressed by the ablative, e. g. Cic. ad Fam. ix. 22. : 
Socratem Jidibus docuit nobilissimus ^dicen; Liv. xxix. 1.: quern docendum 
cures equo armisque, and in a passive signification Cic. Cat. Maj. 8. : discebant 
Jidibus antiqui. Litterae may be used either in the accus. or ablat. : Cic. in 
Pis. 30. : Quidnunc te, asine, litteras doceam ; Brut. 45. : doctus Graecis litteris, 
doctus et Graecis litteris et Latinis. 

[§ 392.] Note 2. The verbs compounded with trans : transduco, transjicio, 
transpo7^to, take a double accusative, on account of the omission of the pre- 
position, which however is often added, e.g. Agesilaus Hellespontum copias 
trajecit ; Hannibal nonaginta milia peditum, duodecim milia equitum Iberum 
transduxit; Caesar exercitum Rhenum transportavit, Ligerim transducit, but also 
multitudinem hominum trans Rhenum in Galliam transducere. In the passive 
construction the accusative dependent upon tran^ is retained, as in Caesar : 
ne major multitudo Germanorum Rhenum transducatur ; Belgae Rhenum anti- 
quitus ti^ansducti. Transjicere and transmittere are also used intransitively, 
the pronouns me, te, se, &c. being understood. The participles transjectus 
and transmissus may be used both of that which crosses a river, and of the 
river which is crossed : amnis trajectus, transmissus, and classis transmissa, 
Marius in Africam trajectus, and the name of the water may be added in the 
ablative : mari, freto. 

[§ 393.] 6. The verbs posct;, reposco,Jlagito, I demand; oro,rogo, 
I entreat ; interrogo and percontor, I ask or inquire, also admit a 
double accusative, one of the person, and another of the thing, 
but the verbs which denote demanding or entreating also take 
the ablative of the person with the preposition ab, and those 
denoting inquiring may take the ablative of the thing with de, 
Peto, postulo and qaaero are never used with a double accusa- 
tive, but the first two have always the ablative of the person 
with ab, and quaero wdth ab, de and ex. 
Nulla salus bello, pacem te poscimus omnes, Yirg. Aen. xi. 362. 


Legatl Ilennenses ad Verrem adeunt eumque simulacrum Ce~ 

rerls et Victoriae reposcunt, Cic. in Verr. iv. 51. 
Pusionem quendam Socrates apud Platonem interrogat quaedam 
Geometrica, Cic. Tusc. i. 24. 

Note 1. A double accusative is used most commonly, when the thing is 
expressed indefinitely by the neuter of a pronoun or an adjective ; e. g. hoc 
te veJiementer rogo; illud te et oro et hortor; sine te hoc exorem^ let me entreat 
this of you ; nihil aliud vos orat atque ohsecrat; hoc quod te interrogo responde. 
The accusat. with the passive is rare, but in accordance with the rule ; thus 
we say : rogatus sententi^m, asked for his opinion (for rogo may mean the 
same as interrogo), interrogatus testimonium. 

Note 2. Respecting what is called the Greek accusative^ which only supplies 
the place of the Latin ablative, see § 458. 

[§ 394.] 7. The following verbs (which in the passive voice 
have two nominatives), have in the active two accusatives, one 
of the object and the other of the predicate : dicer e, vocare, 
appellare, nominare, nuncupare, also scribere and inscribere ; du- 
cere, habere, judicare, existimare, numerare, putare {arbitrari), 
also intelligere, agnoscere, reperire, invenire, facere (pass. j^^rz')^ 
reddere, instituere, constituere, creare, deligere, designare, declarare, 
renuntiare, and others ; se praebere, se praestare. Thus we say 
in the active, Ciceronem universus populus adversus Catilinam 
consulem declaravit (Cic. in Pis. 1.), and in the passive Cicero 
ab universo populo consul declaratus est, 
itomulus urbem, quam condidit, Romam vocavit. 
Socrates totius mundi se incolam et civem arbitrabatur, Cic. 

Tusc. V. 37. 
Bene de me meritis gratum me praebeo, Cic. p. Plane. 38. 
Scytliarum gens antiquissima semper liabita est. 

Note 1. Hence we say : facio te certiorem, I inform thee, with the genitive ; 
e. g. consilii mei, or with the preposition de: de consilio meo, and in the passive 
voice : certior factus sum. With other adjectives reddere is preferable to 
facere; e. g. reddere aliquem placidum et mollem, meliorem, iratum, &c. ; ho- 
mines coecos reddit cupiditas; loca tuta ah hostihus reddebat. In the passive 
we rarely find reddi iov fieri. 

Utor, in a sunilar sense, is used with a double ablative : utor aliquo ma- 
gistro, I have a person for my teacher ; utor aliquo aequo, benigno, I find a 
person just, kind towards myself. Terent. Heaut. ii. 1.5.: Mihi si unquamfilius 
erit, nae ille facili me utetur patre, he shall have in me an indulgent father. 

Note 2. With regard to the participle passive the rule respecting the 
agreement of the predicate with the cases of the subject rarely apj)lies to any 
other cases than the nominative and accusative, at least in ordinary language. 
There are however a few instances of the ablative in the construction of the 
ablative absolute : Nep. Hann. 3. : Ilasdriibale imperatore suffecto; Liv. iv. 
46. : magistro equitum creato filio sua profectus est ad helium] ibid. xlv. 21. : 


Consulihus certioribus factis ; Flor. iii. 21.: ex senatusconsulto adversariis hos' 
tibus judicatis. There are no instances of other oblique cases. It is not how- 
ever improbable that a Roman might have said : Dareus Scytharum genti, 
quaniqiLam justissimae habitae^ bellum intulit. 

Note 3. "The verbs putare, ducere^ and habere may have the preposition 
pro instead of the accusative of the predicate, but not quite in the same 
sense, pro expressing rather an approximation ; e. g. habere pro hoste, to 
deem a person equal to an enemj ; aliquid pro non dicto habere^ to consider a 
thing as though it had not been said ; aliquid pro certo putare, to regard a 
thing as though it were certain ; pro nihilo, as though it w^ere nothing. We 
may here notice also the phrases aliquem in numero; ^. g. imperatorum^ sapi- 
entium^ and aliquem in loco parentis ducere or habere. 

[§ 395.] 8. The accusative is used with verbs and adjectives 
to express the extent of time and space, in answer to the ques- 
tions : — how far ? how long ? how broad ? how deep ? how 
thick ? e. g. nunquam pedem a me discessit, he never moved one 
step from me ; a recta conscientia non transversum unguem (or 
digitum) oportet discedere, not one finger's breadth; fossa duos 
pedes lata or longa; cogitationem sohrii hominis punctum tern- 
poris suscipe, take, for one moment, the thought of a rational 
man ; so also : Mithridates annum jam tertium et vicesimum 
regnat ; tres annos mecum habitavit, or per tres annos, which 
however implies that the period was a long one. 
Campus Marathon ah Athenis circiter milia passuum decern 

ahest, Xep. Milt. 4. 
Quaedam hestiolae unum tantum diem, vivunt, Cic. 
Decem quondam annos urbs oppugnata est ob unam mulierem 

ab universa Graecia, Liv. v. 4. 
Lacrimans in carcere mater noctes diesque assidebat, Cic. in 

Verr, v. 43. 

[§ 396.] Note 1 . The ablative is rarely used by Cicero to express the dura- 
tion of time ; e. g. de Off. iii. 2. : Scriptum est a Posidonio triginta annis vixisse 
Panaetium^ posteaquam libros de officiis edidisset; but it is more frequent in the 
authors of the silver age : Tac.-4wi. i. 53. : quattuordecim annis exilium toleravit; 
Suet. Calig. 59. : vixit annis undetriginta. The ablative of distance must in 
general be regarded as an exception, although it occurs not only in later 
Avriters, but in Caesar and Livy : abest^ distat qidnque milibus passuum^ or spa- 
tio aliquot milium; Tac. Ajin. xii. 17. : JExercitus Romanus tridui iiincre 
abfuit ab amne Tanai; but Cicero and others, in accordance with the rule, 
say iter quinque, decem dierum, or biduum, triduum, or bidui, tridui (scil. spa- 
tium) abest ab aliquo loco. If however not the distance is to be expressed, 
but only a place to be designated by the circumstance of its distance from 
another, the ablative should be used, though the accusative sometimes occurs ; 
e. g. Liv. xxvii. 41.: mille fere et quingentos passus castra ab hoste locat; xxv. 
13. : tria passuum milia ab ipsa urbe loco edito castra posidt, and in other pas- 
sages. Spatio and intervallo are the only words in which the ablative is used 


exclusively ; e. g. Liv. xxv. 9. : quindecim ferme milium spatio castra ah 
Tarento posuit^ but the ablative is found also in many other cases agreeably 
to the rule ; e. g. Caes. Bell. Gall. i. 48. : Eodem die castra promovit et 
milihus passuum sex a Caesaris castris sub monte consedit. When the place 
from which the distance is calculated is not mentioned, but understood from 
what precedes, ah is placed at the beginning, as if the ablative of the distance 
depended on it ; e. g. Caes. Bell. Gall. ii. 7. : a milihus passuum duohus castra 
posuerunt., i. e. at a distance of 2000 paces from the spot, or 2000 paces off, 
duo inde milia (for more instances from Caesar see Schneider on Caes. I. c.) ; 
Liv. xxiv. 46. : a quingentis fere passihus castra posuit; Flor. ii. 6. 56. : non 
jam a tertio lapide (i. e. at a distance of three miles), sed ipsas Carthaginis 
portas ohsidione quatiehat. (Comp. Matthiae, Greek Grammar, § 573. p. 994. 
5th edit.) 

[§ 397.] Note 2. Old^ in reference to the years which a person has lived, is 
expressed in Latin by natus, with an accusative of the time ; e. g. JDecessit 
Alexander mensem unum, annos tres et triginta natus (Justin, xii. 16.). Alexander 
therefore died quarto et trigesimo anno, or aetatis anno. A person's age, how- 
ever, may be expressed without natus, by the genitive, if his name is closely 
joined to the words denoting the time (see § 426.) ; e. g. Alexander annorum 
trium et triginta decessit, i.e. as a man of thirty-three years. The expressions 
" older '' or " younger than thirty-three years," are accordingly rendered in 
Latin hy plus or minus (see § 485.) tres et triginta annos natus ; but also by 
major or minor, either without quam, as major (minor) annos tres et triginta 
natus, and major (minor) annorum trium et triginta; or with quam: major 
(mino?') quam annos tres et triginta natus, and major (minor) quam annorum 
trium et triginta. Natu may be joined to annorum as anno is to aetatis in 
the case of ordinal numerals. Lastly, the ablative is made to depend upon 
the comparative : major (minor) trihus et triginta annis ; and in the Roman 
laws we frequently find the expression minor viginti quinque annis. 

[§ 398.] 9. The names of towns, and not unfrequently of 
small islands, are put in the accusative with verbs implying 
motion, without the preposition in or ad, which are required 
with the names of countries ; e. g. Juvenes Roma7ii Athenas stii- 
diorum causa prqficisci solehant. We may here mention at once 
all the rules relating to the construction of the names of towns.. 
If they denote the place whence^ they are in the ablative ; if the 
place wliere ? singular nouns of the first and second declensions 
are put in the genitive, all plurals and nouns of the third de- 
clension in the ablative. * When w^e have to express " through 
a town," the preposition per is required. 

* This rule, varying as it does with the number and declension of a name 
of a town, is obviously quite arbitrary, and not traceable to any principle. 
The first (at least in this country) proper explanation of this apparent pe- 
cidiarity of the Latin language is given by a writer in the Journal of Edu" 
cation (vol. i. p. 107.), from which we extract the following passage: — 
" We are usually directed to translate at Borne by the genitive, at Athens by 
the ablative, &c., giving different rules according as the number or the 
gender differs, while, in fact, they are all datives. With Romae, Athcnisy 


Demaratus quidam, Tarquiiiii regis pater, tyrannum Cypselum 
quod ferre non poterat, Tarquinios Corintho fugit, et ibi suas 

fortunas constituit, Cic. Tusc. v. 37. 
Dionysius tyrannus Syracusis ex'pulsus Corinthi pueros docebat, 

Cic. Tusc. ili. 12. 
Romae Consules, Athenis Archontes, Carthagine* Suffetes, sive 

judices, quotannis creabantur, Nep. Hann. 

Note 1. The use of names of countries without a preposition, like the 
names of towns, and of names of towns with the prepositions in^ ab^ ex, is 
an irregularity which should not be imitated. Of these prepositions ah is 
found most frequently, especially in Livy, though sometimes also in Cicero : 
ah Epidauro Piraeeum advectus, ah Epheso in Syriam profectus, a Brundisio 
Tudla adhuc fama venerat ; and eases may occur in which the preposition is 
absolutely necessary, as in Cic. in Verr. iv. 33. : Segesta est oppidum in 
Sicilia, quod ah Aenea, fugiente a Troja, conditum esse demonstrant. Ad is 
joined with names of towns when only the direction towards a place is to be 
expressed, and not the place itself; e. g. in Cicero: iter dirigere adMutinam; 
tres viae sunt ad Mutinam : further, when the vicinity of a place is to be 
denoted (§ 296.) ; in this sense, the elder Cato says in Cic. Cat. Maj. 5. : 
ad^lescentulus miles profectus sum ad Capuam, quintoque anno post ad Tar en- 
turn Quaestor; that is, in castra, ad Capuam, ad Tarentum. So ad is also 
used to denote the approach of a fleet to a maritime town ; e. g. Caes. Bell. 
Civ. iii. 100. : Laelius cum classe ad Brundisium venit. 

What has been said above in re'erence to islands applies not only to those 
which have towns of the same name, such as Delos, JRhodus, Samos, Cor- 
ct/ra, but to others also, as in Cicero : Ithacae vivere otiose ; in Nepos : Conon 
plurimum Cypri vi.rit, Iphici^ates in Thracia., Timotheus Leshi; Pausaniam 
cum classe Cyprum atque Hellespontiim miserunt ; so also Chersonesum colonos 
mittere., Chersonesi hahitare ; but Cicero, de Divin. i. 25. says : in Cyprum 
redire. The larger islands, as Sardinia, Britannia, Creta, Euhoea, Sitilia, 
are subject to the same rules as names of countries; and the few exceptions 

there is no difficulty. As to Beneventi, domi, &c., an earlier form of the 
dative of the second declension was oi (ot'/coj), whence arose the double form 
nullo and nuIU. In the plural the two languages exhibit the same analogy : 
SovXoi, covXoig, in Greek, and in Latin puerl, pueris. In the third declension 
a common occurrence has taken place." This explanation is confirmed by 
the fact that in most cases v,-e find Carthagini, Anxuri, Tihwi, and also 
Lacedaemoni, when the place where f is to be expressed. See above, § 63. 
in fin. Tbansl. 

* The writer above quoted justly remarks : " Our editions often present 
Carthagine, Lacedaemone, where the MSS. have the correct dative. It is 
true that authority exists for the other form ; but the change of Carthagini 
into Carthagine is precisely similar to the change of heri into here, pictat 
into pictae, and not unlike the absorption of the i in the datives of so many 
declensions, Greek and Latin : gradui gradu, jidei fide. In the third de- 
clension, the preceding consonant saved it from total extinction. The com- 
monest effect of time upon language is to soften away the final letters. 
Hence miraris, mirare ; agier, agi ; ipsus, ipse ; quis, qui ; fuerunt, fuere ; 
homo, homo; lyiov, eyw ; ego, ego, &c.^ Transl. 


which occur cannot be taken mto account ; e. g. Cic. p. Leg. Man. 12. : inde 
Sardiniam cum classe venit ; Liv. xxxii. 16. : Euhoeam trajecerunt ; Flor. iii. 
10. : Britanniam transit; and some others. 

Names of countries, also, are not unfrequently used in the accusative 
without the preposition in when motion is expressed. This is most fre- 
quently the case with Aegi/ptus (once even in Cic. de Nat. Deo?\ iii. 22.), 
and other Greek names of countries in us, as JEpirus, Peloponnesus, Cher- 
sonesus, Bosporus, perhaps owing to their resemblance to names of towns ; 
but also with others ; e. g. Caes. Bell. Gall. iii. 7. : Illyricum profectus ; Bell. 
Civ. iii. 41.: Macedoniam pervenit ; Liv. x. 37. : Etruriam transducto exer- 
citu ; XXX. 24. ; Africam transiturus. All these expressions, however, are 
only exceptions, rarely used by the earlier writers, and somewhat more fre- 
quently by the later ones. Even names of nations, when used for those of 
countries, are construed in this way by Tacitus, Ann. xii. 32.: ductus inde 
Cangos exercitus; xii. 15. : Ipse praeceps Iheros ad patrium regnum pervadit. 
The genitive of names of countries in answer to the question wliere? is much 
more rare, and is confined to Aegypti in Caesar, Bell. Civ. iii. 106. ; Chei^so- 
nesi in Nep. Milt. 1.; Florus, i. 18. 11. uses Lucaniae in the same way; in 
Sallust the combination Romae Numidiaeque is easily accounted for.* 

The grammatical explanation of this genitive, however, is connected with 
difficulties. Formerly grammarians accounted for it by the ellipsis in loco ; 
modern comparative philology has called in the aid of the locative singular 
in i of the Sanscrit language, which is akin to the Latin. (See Bopp, 
Vergleich. Grammatik, p. 229.) This would account for the ae in the first 
declension, the ancient form being ai (see § 45.), and for the i in some 
nouns of the third declension ; e, g. Tiburi, Ca?ihagini, ruin. (See § 62. foil.) 
The use of the accusative to denote " motion to," and of the ablative to denote 
the place where or whence, is perfectly in accordance with the syntactical 
system of the Latin language ; and this accounts for the fact of later writers, 
especially Justin, frequently putting names of towns of the second declension 
in the ablative to denote the place where ; e. g. Abydo, Corintho ; Liv. v. 52. : 
in monte Alhano Lavinioque, for et Lavinii.'f 

[§ 399.] Note 2. With regard to adjectives and nouns of apposition joined 
with names of towns, the following rules must be observed. When a name of a 
town is qualified by an adjective, the answer to the question where ? is not ex- 
pressed by the genitive, but by the preposition in with the ablative ; e. g. Cic. 
ad Att. xi. 16. : in ipsa Alexandria; Plin. Hist. Nat. xiv. 3.; in Narhonensis 
provinciae Alba Helvia ; and consequently not Albae Longae, but rather the 
simple ablative Alba Longa, as in Virgil, Aen. vi. 766. In Cicero, however, 
we find Teani Apuli (p. Cluent. 9.), in'the Apulian Teanum. When a name 
of a town answers to the question where ? in the ablative, the addition of 
an adjective produces no change; e. g. Cic. ad Att. xvi. 6.: Malo vel 
cum timore domi esse, quxim sine timore Athenis tins ; Liv. i. 18. : Numa Pom- 
pilius Curibus Sabinis habitabat ; ibid, xxviii. 17. : Carthagine nova reliquit; 
and hence the reading in the epitome of the same book should be Cartha- 
gini nova, and not novae. In answer to the questions whither ? and whence f 

* According to the remark made above, Aegypti, Chersonesi, Lucaniae, 
&c., are all datives, answering to the Sanscrit locative, and not genitives. 

t According to what was said above, these are not exceptions ; Abydo, Co- 
rintho, being datives, and not ablatives. Transl. 


the accus. and ablat. are used both with and without prepositions ; e. g. Ovid, 
Heroid. ii. 83. : Aliquis doctas jam nunc eat^ inquit, Athenas ; Cic. m Verr. i. 
19.: quae ipsa Samo suhlata sunt; but Propert. iii. 20.: magnum iter ad 
doctas projicisci cogor Athenas ; and Martial, xiii. 107. : de vitifera venisse 

When the words wrft*, oppidum^ locus, &c. follow the names of towns as 
appositions, they generally take a preposition ; e. g. Demaratus Corinthius 
se contulit Tarquinios, in urbem Etniriae Jiorentissimam ; Cic. in Verr. v. 51. : 
Cleomenes dicit, sese in terram esse egressum, ut Pachyno, e terrestri praesidio, 
milites colligeret. In answer to the question rvhere ? however, the simple 
ablative may be used, but never the genitive ; e. g. Cic. p. Arch. 3. : Archias 
Antiochiae natus est, celehri quondam urhe et copiosa ; p. Rab. Post. 10. : De- 
liciarum causa et voluptatis cives Romanos Neapoli, in celeherrimo oppido, cum 
mitella saepe vidimus. When these words, with their prepositions, precede 
the names of towns, the latter are invariably put in the same case ; e. g. ad 
urbem Ancyram, ex urbe Roma, ex oppido Thermis, in oppido Athenis ; Nep. 
Cim. 3. : m oppido Citio : Tac. Ann. xi. 21. : in oppido Adrumeto. Excep- 
tions are rare : Vitruv. Praef. lib. x. : nobili Graecorum et ampla civitate 
Ephesi ; and in Cic. ad Att. v. 18. : Cassiu^ in oppido Antiochiae cum omni 
exercitu est, where Antiochiae depends upon oppido, just as we say " in the 
town of Antioch." 

[§ 400.] Note 3. The words domus and ru^ ai'e treated like the names of 
towns, consequently domum (also domxjs in the plur.) and rus, home, into 
the country ; dome and inire, from home, from the country ; domi, ruri (more 
frequent than rure), at home, in the country. But although the rule re- 
quires, e. g. domo abesse, to be absent from home, Livy uses esse ab domo ; 
and besides domi se tenere, to keep at home, we also find domo se tenere. 
(See the comment, on Nep. Epam. 10.) Domi also takes the genitives 
meae, time, suae, nostrae, vestrae, and alienae ; but if any other adjective is 
joined with it, a preposition must be used ; e. g. in ilia domo, in domo publica, 
in privata domo. When the name of the possessor is added in the genitive, 
both forms, domi and in domo, are used ; e. g. domi or in domo Caesaris or 
ipsius. In the case of domum and domo, the rule is on the whole the same : 
we say, e. g., domum meam venit, nihil domum suam intulit, damos suas in- 
vitant, domo sua egredi ; but in domum meretriciam induci ; in domum veterem 
remigrare e nx)va ; Livy : in domum Maelii tela inferuntur ; Cicero : e domo 
Caesaris multa ad te delata sunt ,• Cicero, however, very commonly says : do- 
mum alicujus venire, convenire, domos omnium concursare. 

Humus, bellum, and militia are, to some extent, construed in a similar way, 
their genitives being used to denote the place where f humi, on the ground 
(but not humum, (I throw) upon the ground, and rarely humo, from the 
ground, prepositions being required to express these relations ; hence humo 
is often used as an ablative of place for humi) ; belli and militiae, always in 
combination with, or in opposition to, dom.i : belli domique, or domi bellique, 
domi militiaeque, at home and in the camp ; nee ducem belli, nee principem 
domi desideramu^ ; nihil domi, nihil militiae gestum. But we also find in bello, 
in war. Viciniae for in vicinia, occurs in Terence in such connections, as hie, 
hu£ viciniae, where, however, the genitive might be regarded as dependent 
upon the adverb (see § 434.), but Plautus (Bacch. ii. 2. 27.) uses it without 
the adverb : proximae viciniae habitat. Foras (out through the door) and 
foris (out at the door) have become adverbs, but the one is properly an 
accusat., and the other an ablat. 


[§ 401.] The poets may express by the accusative any lo- 
cality answering to the question whither ? as in Virgil : Italiam 
fato -profugus Lavinaque venit litora ; Speluncam Dido dux et 
Trojanus eandem deveniunt ; Ovid : Verba refers aures non per^ 
venientia nostras. 

[§ 402.] 10. In exclamations the accusative of the person or 
thing wondered at is used, either with the interjections o, heu, 
eheu, or without them. The accusative may be explained by 
supplying some verb of emotion or declaration ; e. g. Heu me 
miserum ! O wretched man that I am ! heu dementiam existi- 
mantium ! O the folly of those Avho believe, &c. ! or without 
heu : me miserum ! Beatos quondam duces Romanos ! exclaims 
Corbulo in Tacit. Ann. xi. 20. ; Cic. in Verr. v. 25. : Huncine 
hominem I hancine impudentiam, judices ! hanc audaciam ! and 
in an ironical sense, p. Coel. 26.: Iri balneis delituerunt: testes 
egregios ! de Or at. iii. 2. : O fallacem hominum spem fragi- 
lemque fortunam et inanes nostras contentiones ! 

[§ 403.] Note 1. With these as with all other interjections the vocative also 
is used, when the person or thing itself is invoked ; e. g. Cic. Philip, xiii. 17. : 
o miser., quum re, turn hoc ipso quod non sentis, quam miser sis! Vae and hei 
are usually joined with the dative, as vae misero mihi! vae victis! hei mihi, 
quails erat! 

Note 2. Ecce and en (Greek ^v, r}v'i) are preferred with the nominative ; 
as Ecce tune litterae! Ecce nova turha atque rixa! En ego! En memoria 
mortui sodalis! en metus vivorum existimationis ! Ecce with the accusative 
occurs only in comedy, in the expression ecce me! and in the contracted 
forms cecum.) eccos, eccillum, eccillam, eccistam. 

[§ 404.] 1 1 . The following prepositions govern the accu- 
sative : ad, apud, ante, adversus and adversum, cis and citra, circa 
and circum, circiter, contra, erga, extra, infra, inter, intra, juxta, 
oh, penes, per, pone, post, praeter, prope, propter, secundum, supra, 
trans, versus, ultra, and in and sub when joined with verbs of 
motion. Respecting super and subter see § 320. 



[§ 405.] 1. The dative is the case of reference, or if Ave 
compare it with the accusative, the case denoting the remoter 
object ; for as the accusative serves to denote the effect or that 
which is acted upon, in contrast to the agent or active subject. 


SO the dative denotes that with reference to which the subject 
acts, or in reference to which it possesses this or that quality ; 
e. g. scribo vohis hunc librum, I write this book (the agent and 
effect, or cause and effect) for you (with reference to you, for 
your advantage) ; prosum tibi, I am useful to you (in reference 
to you). Hence the dative is used — 

a) With all transitive verbs, besides the accusative, either ex- 
pressed or understood, to denote the person in reference to whom 
or for whom a thing is done ; e. g. date panem pauperibus, com- 
mendo tibi liberos meos, mitto tibi librum, rex mihi domum aedifi- 
cavit ; in the following sentences the accusative is understood, or 
its place is supplied by the sentences which follow : suadeo tibi, 
persuadeo tibi, nuntiavit imperatori, promisit militibus. This rule 
implies that the person for whose benefit or loss anything is 
done, is expressed by the dative (dativus commodi et incommodi) ; 
e. g. Pisistratus sibi, non patriae, Megarenses vicit, Justin ; JVon 
scholae, sed vitae discimus, Senec. Epist. 106. 

[§ 406.] b) AVith intransitive verbs, which though they 
usually do not govern any case, may yet express that the action 
is done with reference to something or somebody. We mention 
here especially vacare, nubere, and supplicare. Vaco signifies 
" I am free," hence vaco alicui rei, I have leisure for a thing or 
occupy myself with it, as vaco philosophiae, Nubo originally 
signifies " I cover ; " and as according to an ancient custom the 
bride on her wedding-day covered her face, she was said nubere 
alicui viro, " to cover herself for a man," that is, " to marry." 
(In the passive, however, we find nupta cum viro.) Supplico 
signifies"! am a suppliant" {supplex), hence supplico alicui, 
I implore a person. Homo non sibi se soli natum meminerit, sed 
patriae, sed snis, Cic. De Fin. ii. 14. 
Civitas Romana inter bellorum strepitum parum olim vacabat 

liberalibus disciplinis. Sueton. De Grammat. 
Plures in Asia mulieres singulis viris solent nubere, Cic. 
Neque Caesari solum, sed etiam amicis ejus omnibus pro te, 

sicut adhuc feci, libentissime supplicabo. Cic. Ad Fam, vi. 14. 

[§ 407.] Note 1. Suadeo tibi hanc rem^ has nothing that is strange to us, 
as we use the same construction in English. Persuadeo denotes the comple- 
tion of suadeo, and must be noticed here because its construction differs 
from that of our verb " to persuade." We use the passive form " I am per- 
suaded," but in Latin we must say hoc (or any other neuter pronoun) mihi 
persuadetur, as the construction is managed in such a way as to make the 



clause which follows the subject : persuadetur mihi, persuasum mihi est^ mihi 
persuasufn habeo (this occurs only in Caes. JBell. Gall. iii. 2.) esse aliquid, but 
also de aliqua re. Persuadeo te has been found in a fragment of Cicero, 
p. Tull. § 39. ed. Peyron, but is otherwise altogether unclassical ; it explains 
however the personal participle persuasus which occurs now and then. 
Mihi quidem nunqtiam persuaderi pohiit, animos^ dum in corporibits essent 

mortalibusj vivere, quum exissent ex ?iis, emori, Cic. Cat. Maj. 22. 

[§ 408.] Note 2. The free application of the dative, or what is termed 
the dativus commodi et incommodi, enabled the Romans to speak with great 
nicety and conciseness. Compare, for example, the following passages, 
whose number might be greatly increased, Cic. in Verr. ii. 8. : (Yerres) hunc 
hominem Veneri absolvit^ sihi condemnat, to the loss of Venus (whose temple 
was to have received a bequest) he acquits him, but for his own benefit he 
condemns him ; Terent. AdelpJi. i. 2. 35. : quod peccat^ Demea, mihi peccat. 
In Plautus (Capt. iv. 2. 86.), a person answers to the impertinent remark 
esurire mihi videris: mihi quidem esurio, non tihi; i. e. it does not concern 
you. The dative of personal pronouns is very often used where it is super- 
fluous as far as the meaning is concerned, but it always conveys the expres- 
sion of a lively feeling, and is therefore termed dativus ethicus; e. g. Liv. 
Praef. Ad ilia mihi pro se quisque acriter intendat animum; Horat. Epist. i. 
3. 15. : Quid mihi Celsus agit? What is my old friend Celsus doing? In 
some cases the pronoun gives to the expression an almost personal shade of 
meaning, Sallust, Cat. 52. : hie mihi quisquam misericordiam nominal! Let 
no one talk to me of mercy ! Cic. Philip, viii. 4. : hie mihi etiam Q. Fu^us 
pads commoda commemorat! The following phrases also should be observed : 
quid tibi vis ? what do you want ? quid sibi iste vult ? what does he want ? 
quid vult sibi haec oratio.? what does this speech mean ? quid haec sibi dona 
voluntf what is the meaning of these presents ? or what is their object ? 

[§ 409.] 2. The dative is joined with all adjectives (and 
adverbs) whose meaning is incomplete, unless a person or an 
object is mentioned for or against whom, for whose benefit 
or loss the quality exists. Of this kind are those which ex- 
press utility or injury, pleasantness or unpleasantness , inclination 
or disinclination, ease or difficulty, suitableness or unsuitableness, 
similarity or dissimilarity, equality or inequality. 

Adjectives expressing a friendly or hostile disposition towards 
a person, may take the prepositions in, erga, adversus, instead of 
the dative ; and utilis, inutilis, aptus, ineptus generally take the 
preposition ad to express the thing for which any thing is useful 
or fit ; e. g. homo ad nullam rem utilis ; locus aptus ad insidias ; 
but the person to or for whom a thing is useful or fit, is always 
expressed by the dative. 
Canis nonne similis lupo ? atque, ut Ennius, " simia quam 

similis, turpissima hestia, nobis P'' Cic. De Nat. Deor. i. 35. 
Fidelissimi ante omnia homini canis et equus, Plin. 
Invia virtuti nulla est via, Ovid, Met. xiv. 113. 


Cunctis esto benignus^ nulli hlandus, paucis familiaris, omnibus 

aequus, Seneca. 

[§ 410.] Note 1. Amicus^ inimicus, familiaris^ are properly adjectives, and 
as such have their degrees of comparison and are joined with the dative, as 
in Nepos : Miltiades amicior omnium lihertati^ quam suaefuit clominationi; and 
homo mihi amicissimus, mihi familiarissimus, are very, common expressions. 
When used as substantives they are joined with a genitive or an adjective, 
as amicus patris^ mei^ amicus meus; and it is owing to their character of sub- 
stantives that even in the superlative we find amicissimtcs, familiarissimu^, ini- 
micissimus (and on the same principle iniquissimus) meus. Cicero, in Verr. i. 
26., uses the genitive : amicissimus nostrorum hominum. Invidus, envious, and 
intimus, intimate, when used as adjectives, take the dative, as in Cicero : in- 
timus erat Clodio, but as substantives they take the genitive or a possessive 
pronoun ; e. g. ab invidis tuis, ex intimis meis, invidus laudis. Hostis^ on the 
other hand, though a real substantive, sometimes takes a dative according to 
the analogy ofinimicus; e. g. dis hominihusque hostis. 

[§ 411.] Note 2. The dative is also joined with adjectives and adverbs de- 
noting affinity and propinquity, as conterminu^, propinquus, vicinus, ^nitimus, 
affinis. As prope, the preposition, governs the accusative, its degrees of com- 
parison (§ 266.) propior and -propius, proximus and proxime, take both the 
dative and accusative, e. g. Curt. ix. 12. : yropius tribunal accedere, and in 
Sallust : Libyes propiv^ mare Africum agitabant, proxime Hispaniam Mauri 
sunt. (Comp. Gronovius on Livy, xxii. 40.) Affinis, in the sense of " par- 
taking," sometimes takes the genitive, as in Cicero : affinis hujus suspicionis.; 
affinis rei capitalis, together with affinis Tiuic sceleri, ei turpitvdini. Vicinus 
and vicina are both adjectives and substantives, and in the latter sense they 
take the genitive. 

The following adjectives govern both the dative and the genitive: aequalis, 
cognominis, contrarius, communis, peculiaris, proprius, superstes. The geni- 
tive is very frequent with proprius, e.g.'Cic.: Imprimis hominis est propria veri 
investigatio ; Aliae nationes servitutem pati possunt, populi Romani est propria 
libertas, especially when the neuter proprium is used as a substantive in the 
sense of " property," or " peculiarity," e. g. Proprium est oratoris ornate 
dicere. The same is the case with communis, as in Cic. de Fin. v. 23. : Haec 
justitiae ita propria sunt, ut sint reliquarum virtutum communia. Hence a pos- 
sessive pronoun is frequently joined to proprium, as ademit nobis omnia, quae 
nostra erant propria ; both constructions are combined in Cic. p. Sulla, 3. : 
Nulla est enim in re publica causa mea propria : tempus agendi fuit magis 
mihi proprium, quam ceteris. Aequalis governs the genitive only in the 
sense of " contemporary," in which it occurs also as a substantive, whence 
mens aequvlis but the dative is not unusual in this sense. Superstes occurs 
in Plautus andTerence with the dative, but in later writers the genitive is 
more prevalent. Even Cicero (ad Quint. Frat. i. 3.) says : TJtinam te non 
solum vitae, sed etiam dignitatis superstitem reliquissem, and Tacitus often 
uses the genitive, e. g. Agr. 3. : pauci, vi ita dixerim, non modo aliorum sed 
etiam nostri superstites sumu3. 

The adjectives similis, assimilis, consimilis, dissimilis, par and dispar, take 
the genitive, when an internal resemblance, or a resemblance in character 
and disposition, is to be expressed. Thus we always find mei, tui, sui, nostri, 
vestri similis; Liv. i. 20. : quia in civitate bellicosa plures Romuli, quam Numae 
similes reges putabat fore ; iii. 64. : collaudatis consulibu^, quod perseverarent 

X 2 


308 .^ LATINMgpllf^l. V /r 

a<Z ultimum dissimiles decemvirorm»f^e^^,bfC.Cat. Maj. 10.': Dux iUe Grae- 
ciae nusquam optat^ ut Ajacis similes s^abeat decern, at ut Nestoris. And 
Cicero may therefore say both mors somni and somwo similis. Par and- ^ 
dispar are joined with the genitives of pronouns, like similis, e. g. Cic. in 
Pis. 4. : Q. Metellum, cujus paucos pares haec civitas tulit ; Cat. Maj. 21.: 
Simplex animi natura est, neque Tiahet in se quicquam admixtum dispar sui 
Qtque dissimile. 

[§ 412.] 3. Hence the dative is joined with those intransitive 
verbs which express the same ideas as the adjectives mentioned 
in § 409., and also with those denoting, to^command, serve, trust, 
mistrust, approach, threaten, and to he angry. They are com- 
prised in the following list : prosum, auxilior, adminiculor, opi- 
tulor, patrocinor, suhvenio, succurro, medeor ; noceo, obsum, desum, 
officio, incommodo, insulto, insidior ; faveo, placeo, gratijicor, in- 
dulgeo, ignosco, studeo, pareo, adulor, hlandior, lenocinor, palpor, 
assentior, assentor, respondeo ; adversor, refragor, ohsto, renitor, 
repugno, resisto, invideo, aemulor, obtrecto, convicior, maledico ; 
placeo, orrideo — displiceo ; impero (may be used also as a tran- 
sitive), pareo, cedo, ausculto, ohedio, obsequor, ohtempero, mori- 
geror (morem gero), alicui dicto audiens sum, servio, inservio, mi- 
nistro, famulor, ancillor, praestolor ; credo (is used also in a 
transitive sense), Jido, conjido, diffido ; immineo, propinquo, ap- 
propinquo, impendeo, occurro ; minor, comminor (both are used 
also in a transitive sense), irascor, stomachor, succenseo. To 
these must be added the impersonals convenit, it suits ; conducit 
and expedit, it is conducive, expedient ; dolet, it grieves. The 
beginner must take especial care not to use the passive of these 
verbs personally, to which he might easily be tempted by the 
English equivalents ; e. g. / am envied, I am molested, I am 
scolded, I am spared, and the like. In Latin the passive is 
impersonal : mihi invidetur, obtrectatur, incommodatur, mihi ma~ 
ledicitur, parcitur, Jubeo, I command, forms an exception, 
requiring the accusative with the infinitive. 
Probus invidet nemini, Cic. Timaeus, 3. 
Efficit hoc philosophia : medetur animis, inanes sollicitudines 

detrahit, cupiditatibus liberat, pellit timores, Cic. Tusc. ii. 4. 
Antiochus se nee impensae, nee labori, nee periculo parsurum pol~ 

licebatur, donee liberam vere Graeciam atque in ea principes 

Aetolos fecisset, Liv. xxxv. 44. 
Demosthenes ejus ipsius artis, cui studehat, primam litteram non 

peter at dicere, Cic. De Or at. i. 61. 

• 'DiTiv^«'<5AS-E.,^ \j^ 309 

[§ m.^^-Nate 1. Medicor, like medeor^ takes the dative, but also the 
accusative. Medico^ in the sense of, " to mix substances in an artificial 
manner," governs the accusative. JBenedico, like maledico (I speak well or ill 
of a person, and hence, I praise or blame), governs the dative ; but benedico, 
in this sense, is very rare : in the sense of " blessing," with the accusative, 
it occurs only in the ecclesiastical writers. Ohtrectare alicui and alicui 
rei, to detract, is sometimes joined with the accusative ; but not in Cicero, 
as ohtrectare numen deorum^ libellum. Invideo is commonly used intransi- 
tively with one dative, either of the person or the thing ; but sometimes 
the accusative of the thing is added to the dative of the person ; e. g. Cic. 
Tusc. iii. 2. : invident nobis optimam magistram (naturam) ; Horat. Serm. 
i. 6. 50. : honorem mihi invidet. Quintilian (ix. 3,), however, observes that 
his contemporaries used the ablat. instead of the accusat. of the earlier 
writers, but only when invidere is equivalent to privare : this construction 
first occurs in Livy, ii. 40. : non inviderunt laude sua mvlieribus Romani (ac- 
cording to the best MSS.) ; very fi-equently in the younger Pliny, and some- 
times in Tacitus ; e. g. Plin. Epist. ii. 10. : Quousque et tibi et nobis invidebis^ 
tibi maxima laude, nobis voluptate f (See Corte on Epist. i. 10.) Tac. Ann. 
1. 22. : ne Tiostes quidem sepulturd invident, scil. occisis ; German. 33. : ne spec- 
taculo quidem proelii invidere, scil. nobis. The genitive instead of this abla- 
tive or ancient accusative, in Horace, Serm. ii. 6. 84., neque ille sepositi 
ciceris nee longae invidit avenae, is a mere Grecism ; and the personal 
passive in the same poet {Ars Poet. 56.), cur ego invideor, is a gram- 
matical innovation, which the poet tried intentionally, and as an ex- 
ample. Respecting adUlor and aemidor with the dative and accusative 
see § 389. Praestolor, I wait upon a person, and ausculto, I listen or obey, 
are used by equally good authorities both with a dative and accusative, 
though Cicero prefers the dative. Dominor, I rule, is joined with a dative 
or genitive only in the latest Latin writers ; in the classical language it does 
not govern any case, but according to its proper meaning, " I am master," 
is joined with in aliquem or in aliqzia re ; e. g. dominatur in cetera animalia, 
or in civitate. Fido and" confido take the dative ; e. g. confido mihi, causae 
meae, virtuti constantiaeque militum; the thing which produces the confi- 
dence is put in the ablative (ablativus causae, see § 452.) ; e. g. confido arte, 
natura loci, celeritate navium, propinquitate castrorum, and this ablative oc- 
curs, on the whole, more frequently than the dative. The adjective fretus, 
which has the same meaning, occurs with the dative only in Livy, iv. 37. : 
fortnmie fretus ; vi. 13.: nulli rei; vi. 31.: discordiae hostium, and usually has 
the ablative. Cedo, I yield, give up, when used transitively, takes a dative of 
the person and an accusative of the thing : cedo tibi locum, regnum, mvJierem ; 
sometimes, however, the thing is expressed by the ablative, as cedo tibi horto- 
rum possessione. So also concedo : concedo tibi locum, praemia, libertatem, or 
concedo tibi loco, de victoria. Convenit aliquid mihi, something suits me ; 
convenit mihi tecum is used impersonally in the sense of " we agree," and 
equivalent to convenimus de aliqua re. The verbs denoting similarity or 
dissimilarity should be construed with the dative, like the adjectives similis 
and dissimilis, but in prose they are commonly joined with the prepositions 
cum and ab ; e. g. congruo, consentio, abhorreo, dissideo. Comp. § 468. foil. 

[§ 414.] Note 2. Several verbs have a different meaning according as they 
take the accus. or dat. 
Metuo and timeo te, I fear thee ; — tibi, I ain alarmed on thy account, which 

is also expressed by tud causa. 

X 3 

310 fllk. LATIN^raMMAR 

Consvlo te, I consult thee ; — tibi^ I provide for thy interests. 

Prospicio and provideo te, I see thee at a distance ; — tibi, I provide for thy 

Caveo, without any case, " I am on my guard ;" — a te, against thee, and in 
a legal sense, " I make thee give security to me for something," de aliqua 
re. Caveo te, I avoid thee : caveo tibi, I provide or am concerned for thy 
safety, and hence in a legal sense " I give thee security." 

Tempero and moderor aliquid, I regulate or arrange a thing ; — mihi, animo, 
irae, lacrimis (scil. meis), I set bounds to, or check. Tempero mihi db 
aliqua re, I abstain from a thing, and tempero (scil. mihi) tibi, I am sparing 
in regard to thee, or I spare thee, equivalent to parco tibi. 

[§ 415.] 4. Verbs compounded with the prepositions ad, 
ante, con, in, inter, oh, post, prae, sub, and super, retaining, as 
compounds, the meaning of the prepositions, may be joined with 
a dative instead of repeating the preposition or an equivalent 
one with the case it requires. They are either transitives, and 
as such have an accusative besides, or intransitives without an 
accusative of the object. 

The following are the most important transitive verbs of this 
kind: addo, affero, affigo, adhibeo, adjicia, adjungo, admoveo, 
alUgo, applico; circumjicio; comparo, compono, confer o, conjungo ; 
immisceo, impono, imprimo, incido, includo, infero, ingero, injicio, 
insero, inuro; inter jicio, inter pono ; objicio, off undo, oppono; post- 
habeo, postpono ; praefero, praejicio, praepono; suhjicio, suppono, 

The following are intransitive: accedo, acquiesco, adhaereo, 
alludo, annuo, arrepo, assideo, aspiro ; antecello ; cohaereo, col- 
ludo, congruo, consentio, consono; excello; incido, incubo and in- 
cumbo, indormio, inhaereo, inhio, immorior, immoror, innascor, 
insisto; interjaceo, inter venio; obrepo, obstrepo, obversor; praemineo, 
praesideo, praevaleo ; succumbo, supersto, supervivo, and the 
compounds of esse: adsum, insum, intersum, praesum, subsum, 
super sum. 

Note. We must pay particular attention to the difference between 
the dative joined with these verbs, and the dative governed by those men- 
tioned in § 412. With the latter it is necessary and dependent upon the 
signification of the verbs ; but with those just enumerated, it is to be re- 
garded as a short mode of speaking, in which the dat. supplies the place of a 
preposition with its case ; e. g. leges axibus ligneis incisae, and leges in aes 
incisae, or Senatusconsultum in aere incisum. The beginner must further 
observe, that we are speaking of those compounded verbs only, in which the 
prepositions retain their meaning of place, for in some compounded with ad 


and CMm, this is not the case ; e.g. confugere^ to take refuge, cannot take either 
the preposition cum or a dative, the meaning of the preposition con being 
lost in this compound. This is still more apparent in confringere^ corrum- 
pere^ where con (cum) only strengthens the sense of the simple verb. Af- 
firmare and approhare may indeed be joined with a dative, but only because 
they are transitive verbs, and not on account of the preposition they contain. 
We have not been able above to mention aU those compound verbs, in 
which the preposition retains its meaning, and which, instead of repeating 
the preposition, take the dative, for their number, especially that of tran- 
sitives, is unlimited ; we have given those only with which, comparatively 
speaking, the dative occurs most frequently. There are some with which 
the dative is used exclusively, and the repetition of the preposition would 
be offensive, the reason being the signification of the verbs themselves: 
praejicio and praepono^ e. g. might have been mentioned among the verbs 
in § 412., being joined exclusively with the dative. But there can be no 
fear of mistakes in these words. 

[§ 416.] It must be remarked in general that in the early 
and unpolished prose, the preposition or one equivalent to 
it, is usually repeated; more especially in verbs compounded 
with adf con, and in : e. g. adhibeo, confero, conjungo, com- 
munico, comparo, imprimo, inscriho, insum, and also interest in 
the sense of " there is a difference ; " e. g. Cicero : studium ad- 
hihere ad disciplinas ; conferte (comparate, contendite) hanc pacem 
cum illo hello ; hospitio et amicitia mecum conjunxi, or, cum aliquo 
conjunctus sum; consilia sua mecum communicavit ; in omnium 
animis dei notionem impressit ipsa natura ; in hac vita nihil inest 
nisi miseria. The dative, however, is not to be rejected, being 
used sometimes by Cicero, and more frequently by later writers. 
Illacrimare, to weep over, e. g. morti Socratis, is generally 
used with the dative only; the preposition at least is never 

The following verbs require some further explanation. In- 
cumbo, I lean or press upon, and figuratively, " I apply to or 
study a thing ; " in the former sense alone it is joined with the 
dative, though sometimes also with the preposition super ; in its 
figurative sense, it is construed in prose with ad, and still more 
frequently with in with the accusative. The verbs assuescere, 
consuescere, and insuescere, to accustom a person or one's self {se 
however is omitted) to a thing, are sometimes construed with 
the dative and sometimes with the ablative ; acquiescere, to ac- 
quiesce, hkewise takes either the dative or ablative ; e. g. 
Cic. pro Mil. 37 : Qui maxime P, Clodii morte acquierunt, but 

X 4 


more frequently in with the ablative, in the sense of " to find 
peace or satisfaction ; " e. g. in tuis litteris, in juvenum caritate. 
Supersedere likewise takes the ablative, and indeed more fre- 
quently than the dative, probably because its sense is equivalent 
to ahstinere ; e. g. supersedere labor e itineris. 

It is not difficult to determine which prepositions may be 
used for others, in case of repetition being necessary, for it 
always depends upon the sense : in is used for ad : e. g. «f- 
cedere in oppidum, aspirare in curiam ; ah for ex ; e. g. eripere ex 
miseriis and a miseria ; ad for in ; e. g. incumhere ad studia ; in, 
ad, ante, and contra for ob ; e. g. aliquid obrepit in animum, ob- 
repere ad honores, obversari ante oculos, vallum objicere contra 
impetum hostium ; ad and ante for pro ; e. g. procumbere ante 
pedes, ad genua. 

[§ 417.] The compounds of verbs of motion are construed 
with both cases, either the dative or the accusative, and some 
compounds of jacere, stare and seder e, follow their analogy. 
(See § 386.) Hence the verbs of excelling, if their simple verbs 
denote motion, are construed chiefly with the accusative, and 
antecello, praecello and praemineo, which at least admit the accu- 
sative, follow their example. (See § 386.) The following must be 
noticed separately on account of their twofold construction : — 
allatro, I bark at, address in a coarse manner ; attendo, I attend 
to (the same as animum attendo ad aliquid or ad aliquem) ; 
obumbro, I overshadow, — all these occur most frequently with 
the accusative, whence they have a personal passive ; but illudo, 
I ridicule, is found with the dative as often as with the accusa- 
tive ; e. g. illudo memoriae, existimationi alicujus, signis et aquilis 
Rornanis, and praecepta rhetorum, corpus Vari. Despero, I de- 
spair of a thing, is used as an intransitive verb with de or with 
the dative ; e. g. des'perat de re publica, sibi, fortunis suis ; as a 
transitive verb (I give up) it takes the accusative ; e. g. despero 
rem publicam, pacem, 

Praeverto, in the transitive sense of '^ I prefer," takes an ac- 
cusative of the object and a dative, instead of which however 
the preposition 'prae may be repeated; e. g. uxorem praeverto 
prae republica or reipublicae ; in the intransitive sense of " I go 
before," " precede," or " anticipate," it may take either the ac- 
cusative or dative, praeverto te, fata, pietas praevertit amori ; in 


a reflective sense, praeverto, soil, me, or praevertoTi it takes either 
the preposition ad or the dative, praeverto ad interna, praeverto 
rei mandata£. The deponent again takes the meaning of " I 
prefer," aliquam rem alicui rei, Liv. viii. 13. : consules coacti 
omnibus earn rem praeverti. 

[§ 418.] 5. The verbs aspergo and inspergo, circumdo and cir- 
cumfundo, dono and impertio, exuo and induo are used, like the 
above-mentioned transitives, with an accusative of the thing 
and a dative of the person, or with an accusative of the person 
and an ablative of the thing ; e. g. circumdo alicui custodias, or 
circumdo aliquem custodiis, and consequently in the passive 
voice custodiae tibi circumdantur or (tu) circumdaris custodiis. 
So also : maculas aspergo vitae tuae, or maculis vitam tuam as- 
pergo ; dono tibi pecuniam, or pecunid te dono; impertio tibi 
laudes, or laudibv^ te impertio, &c. We find exuo tibi clipeum, 
induit sibi torquem, or still more frequently exuo and induo 
vestem, the dative expressing my own person being omitted. 
JSxuo te aliqua re occurs only in the figurative sense of " I rob 
thee of a thing." Induo, I betake myself into some place, is 
commonly joined with the preposition in or with a dative. In- 
tercludo, I cut off, alicui aliquid, e. g. hostibus fugam, or as a 
verb implying distance, aliquem aliqua re and ab aliqua re, e. g. 
milites itinere, or ab exercitu. Interdico tibi aliquid, I forbid 
thee something ; the construction interdico te aliqua re does not 
occur, but a mixture of both interdico tibi aliqua re (e. g. in the 
Roman form of outlawry aqua et igni), I forbid thee the use of 
a thinor. The double construction of mactare does not beloncr to 
this place, as it arises from two different meanings of the word : 
the original one ** to honour," requires the accusative and abla- 
tive ; e. g. Cic. in Vdtin. 6. : puerorum extis deos manes mactare 
soles; the derivative meaning "to slaughter" is the ordinary 
one, victimas diis mactare. 

[§ 419.] 6. With passive verbs the dative is sometimes used 
alone, instead of ab with the ablative. 
Quidquid in hac causa mihi susceptum est, Quirites, id omne me 

rei publicae causa suscepisse confirmo, Cic. p. Leg, Man. 24. 
Barbarus hie ego sum, quia non intelligor ulli, Ovid, Trist. 

Note. It is a rule of the Latin language to join the dative instead of ab 
with the ablat. to the participle future passive ; e. g. moriendum mihi est. 
See § 649. K this were not the case, we shoidd consider the dative with 
passive verbs as a Grecism, for it rarely occurs in the earlier Latin prose 


(especially in Cicero and Caesar), and with the exception of a few instances, 
is confined to the participle perfect passive and the tenses formed from it. In 
poetry and the later prose writers instances like the above quotation from 
Ovid are extremely numerous, as poets, in general, were fond of introducing 
Greek constructions. The following passages are the only ones in which Cicero 
adopted the practice : de Invent, i. 46. : ilia nobis alio tempore explicabuntur ; 
in Verr. iii. 16. : tihi consulatus quaerebatur; de Nat. Deor. ii. 48. : sic dissimil- 
limis bestiolis communiter cibus quaeritur; de Ojff. iii. 9. : honesta bonis viris, 
non occulta quaeruntur; Cat. Maj. 11. : semper in his studiis laboribusque viventi 
nan intelligitur, quando obrepat senectus; ad Att. i. 16. : in ea praesertim epis- 
tola, quam nolo aliis legi, probably for ab aliis. I doubt whether there are 
any other passages in Cicero, for the phrase mihi probatur is of a different 
kind, since probo tibi is of quite common occurrence in the sense of " I make 
a thing plausible to thee." 

[§ 420.] 7. Esse with the dative of a person expresses the 
English " to have," e. g. sunt mihi multi libri, I have many- 
books, the same as haheo multos libros. 
Homini cum deo similitudo est, Cic. de Leg, i. 8. 
An nescis, longas regihus esse manus ? Ovid, Heroid. 17. 

Note. "We must here notice a Grecism which occurs in Sallust and Tacitus : 
aliquidmihi volenti est^ I like a thing. Sallust, Jug. 84. -..quia neque plebi 
militia volenti (esse) putabatur; Tacit. Agr. 18. : quibus bellum volentibus erat; 
Ann. i. 59. : ut quibusque bellum invitis aut cupientibus erat, as in Greek tovto 
fioi l3ovXofisv(i) Igt'iv. Comp. Tac. Hist. iii. 43. ; Ann. xv. 36. Abest and deest 
mihi, as opposed to est mihi, therefore means " I have not," as in Cic. Brut. 
80. : Hoc unum illi, si nihil utilitatis habebat, abfuit, si opus erat, defuit; de 
Leg. i. 2. : abest enim historia litteris nostris. 

[§ 421.] Hence mihi est nomen or cognomen (also cognomentwn, 
and in Tacitus vocahulum) signifies " I have a name," that is, 
" my name is" or *^ I am called." The name itself is put either 
in the nominative or the dative, being attracted by the dative 
of 'the person. 
Syracusis est fons aquae dulcis, cui nomen Arethusa est, Cic. in 

Verr. iv. 53. 
Consules leges decemvirales, quibus tabulis duodecim est nomen, in 

aes incisas, in publico proposuerunt, Liv. iii. 57. 

Note. The same is the case with the (passive) expressions datum, inditum, 
factum est nomen; e. g. I'arquiniv^, cui cognomen Superbo ex morilms datum. 
The name itself is commonly put in the dative also with the active verbs 
dare, addere, indere, dicer e, ponere, imponere, tribuere alicui nomen; e. g. dare 
alicui cognomen tarda ac pingui; desipiunt omnes aeque ac tu, qui tihi nomen 
insano posuere, Horat. ; but it may also be put in the same case as nomen, 
that is, in the accus., as in Livy : stirps virilis, cui Ascanium parentes dixere 
nomen, and in the edict of the censors in Suetonius, de Clar. Rhet. 1 . : eos 
sihi nomen imposuisse Latinos rhetores. The nominative in Ovid, Met. i. 


169. : (via) lactea nomen habet, and xv. 96. : (aetas) cuifecimus aurea nomen, 
is a purely poetical licence, where the names are taken, ungrammatically, as 
mere sounds. 

The name may be expressed also by the genitive, according to the general 
rule that of two substantives joined to each other, one is put in the geni- 
tive ; e. g. Plant. Amphitr. Prol. 19. : nomen Mercurii est mihi; in prose, 
Veil. Pat. i. 11. : Q. Metellus praetor, cui ex virtute Macedonici nomen inditum 
erat; and ii. 11. : Q. Metello meritum virtute cognomen Numidici inditum est. 
But this is not the ordinary practice in the case of real proper names, and 
the dative must be regarded as the proper Latin case. See Ruhnken on 
Veil. Pat. ii. 11. 

[§ 422.] 8. With the verbs esse, dare, mittere and venire, and 
others of the same meaning, besides the dative of the person, 
another is used to express the purpose, intention, and desti- 

Dare belongs to this class both in its sense of *^ to give," and 
in that of " to put to one's account." The following verbs have 
a similar meaning : apponere, ducere, habere, tribuere and vertere. 
Esse, in this respect, is equivalent to the English ^^ to do," in 
^' it does him honour," and the passives Jieri, dart, dud, haberi, 
tribui, verti, have a similar meaning. Prqficisci is sometimes 
construed like venire. 

Virtutes hominibus decori gloriaeque sunt, Seneca. 
Attains, Asiae rex, regnum suum Romanis dono dedit, 
Mille Plataeenses Atheniensibus adversus Persas auxilio vene" 

Quid in Graeco sermone tarn tritum atque celebratum est, quam 

si quis despicatui ducitur, ut Mysorum ultimus esse dicatur ? 

Cic. p. Place. 27. 

Note. There is a great variety of datives of this kind ; e. g. dono aliquid 
muneri, praemio; relinquo milites auxilio, subsidio, praesidio, custodiae; tri- 
buitur or datur mihi vitio, crimini, odio, probro, opprobrio, laudi, saluti, uti- 
litati, emolumento, &c. The phrase cui bonofuitf signifies " to whom was it 
an advantage ? We must especially notice such datives as esui, usui, quaestuij 
derisui, cordi, curae aliquid est, and also canere receptui, to sound a retreat ; 
doti dico, I set aside as a dowry ; appono pignori, I pawn. Instead of hoc 
argumento est, we may also say hoc argumentum, documentum, indicium est; and 
with dare and similar verbs we may also use the accusative in apposition; 
e. g. Liv. ii. 22. : Latini coronam auream Jovi donum in Capitolium mittunt. 
Sometimes also the prepositions in or ad may be used ; e. g. reliquit ibi 
exercitum ad praesidium, gloriam mihi in crimen vertis. 




[§ 423.] 1. When two substantives are united with each other 
so as to form the expression of one idea, one of them is in the 
genitive ; but if one of the substantives serves to explain or de- 
fine the other, they are said to be in apposition to each other, 
and both are in the same case. This genitive, dependent upon 
a substantive, is in Latin of a double kind, according as it ex- 
presses either the subject or the object. The genitive is subjec- 
tive, when it denotes that which does something or to which a 
thing belongs ; e. g. hominum facta, liber pueri : it is objective 
when it denotes that which is affected by the action or feeling 
spoken of. 

This objective genitive is used very extensively in Latin, for 
it is not only joined with those substantives which are derived 
from verbs governing the accusative — e. g. expupiatio urbis, 
the taking of the town ; indagatio veri, the investigation of 
truth ; scientia linguae, the knowledge of a language ; amor pa- 
triae, the love of one's country ; cupiditas pecuniae, desire for 
money ; cura rerum alienarum, care of other men's affairs ; 
odium hominum, hatred against men — but wuth those also, the 
corresponding verb of which requires either a different case, or 
a preposition ; e. g. taedium laboris, disgust for work ; Jiducia 
virium suarum, confidence in his own strength ; contentio ho^ 
norum, a contest for honours; incitamentum periculorum, cog^ 
nitio orbis terrarum omniumque gentium, &c. 
Nuper Gn. Domitium scimus M. Silano, consulari homini, diem 

dixisse propter unius hominis, Aegritomari, paterni amici atque 

hospitis, injurias, Cic. Divin. 20. 
Est autem amicitia nihil aliud, nisi omnium divinarum humana- 

rumque rerum cum benivolentia et caritate summa consensio, 

Cic. Lael. 6. 
Initium et causa belli (civilis) inexplebilis honorum Marii fames, 

Flor. iii. 21. 


Note 1. Something analogous to the Latin subjective and objective geni- 
tive occurs in English in such expressions as " God's love," that is, the love 
which God shows to men, and the " love of God," that is, the love which 
men bear to God. The Latin language having no such means of distin- 
guishing, is frequently ambiguous ; e. g. fuga hominum may be either " the 
escape from men," or " the flight" or " escape of men," and in all such com- 
binations as metus hostium, injuria mulierum, judicium Verris, triumphus 
Bojorum, opinio deorum, the genitive may be either subjective (active) or 
objective (passive), but the context generally shows what is meant, as in sine 
metu hostium esse, magnus incesserat timor sagittamm, ex injuria mulietnim 
Sabinarum helium ortum est; Empedocles in deorum opinione turpissime lahitur, 
Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 12. But in case of any real ambiguity, a preposition 
may be used in Latin instead of the genitive ; e. g. ex injuria in or adversMS 
mvlieres, in opinione de diis. This is the case especially with substantives 
denoting a disposition, either friendly or hostile towards any thing ; e. g. 
amor (animus) mev^ erga te, odium (ird) adversu^ Cartfiaginienses, helium in 
Romanos, conspiratio contra dignitatem tuam; triumphus de Gallis, judicium de 
te meum, liber de philosophia, in libro quinto de natura deorum. In general, 
however, a preposition is much more rarely used in joining two substantives, 
and it is a part of the conciseness of the Latin language to express the rela- 
tion of the genitive, if possible, by the genitive itself. This however is im- 
possible, for instance, when a place whence ? or whither ? is mentioned ; e. g. 
trammissus (the passage) ex Gallia in Britanniam, reditus in coelum, iter ex 
Italia in Macedoniam. Sometimes the two kinds of construction are com- 
bined : Cic. de Off. i. 28. : Adhihenda est igitur quaedam reverentia adversus 
homines et optimi cujusque et reliquorum. (See our note on this passage.) 
Sometimes even a subjective and an objective genitive are found by the side 
of each other, as in Cic. de Off. i. 14. : L. Sullae et G. Caesaris pecuniaruni 
translatio a justis dominis ad alienos non debet liberalis videri; ad Fam. x. 3 : 
orbitas reipublicae talium virorum; in Verr. v. 50. : nihil est quod multorum 
naufragia fortunae colligas; Caes. Bell. Gall. i. 30. : pro veteribus Helvetia- 
rum injuriis populi Romani; i. e. which the Helvetians had done to the 
Roman people. Comp. ISynt. omat. § 791. 

[§ 424.] Note 2. As a personal pronoun supplies the place of a substantive, 
its genitive generally with an objective meaning may be joined with a substan- 
tive ; e. g. vestri causam gero, I take care of you ; misericordiam nostri habe^ 
have pity upon us, — especially with verbal substantives ending in or, iar, and 
io ; e. g. Cicero : misitfilium non solum sui deprecatorem, sed etiam accusaiorem 
mei ; nimia aestimatio sui ; valet ad commendationem tui ; milites ad deditionem 
sui incitare ; rationem et sui et aliorum habere. The place of the subjective 
genitive of personal pronouns is supplied by the possessive pronouns, whence 
we do not say liber mei, but liber mens. Sometimes, however, the genitive of 
personal pronouns has a subjective meaning, as in Curtius, iv. 45. : ad Cyrum 
nobilissimum regem originem sui referens, and vi. 32. : conspectus vestri vene- 
rabilis (see the comment, on Caes. Bell. Gall. i. 4.) ; and sometimes, on the 
other hand, a possessive pronoun not unfrequently takes the place of an ob- 
jective genitive, and that not only when joined with verbal substantives in 
or and ix, e. g. ipse suus fuit accusator, terra altrix nostra, but in other cases 
also, as invidia tua, envy of thee ; fiducia tua, confidence in thee ; familiaritas 
tua; friendship for thee ; spes mea, the hope placed in me (Taxi. Ann. ii. 71.); 
amori nostra plusculum largiare, from love towards us ; noluit rationem habere 
mam^ that notice was taken of him ; won sua solum ratio habevda est^ sed etiam 


aliorum, Cic. de Off, i. 39. This is especially frequent in connection with the 
substantive injuriae^ e. g. injurias meas, tuas, persequor, ulciscor^ that is, the 
wrong done to me, thee. The peculiar expressions med^ tud, sud, nostra^ 
vestrd, causa, for my, thy, his, &c., sake, must be especially noticed, for the 
genitives mei, tui, sui, nostri, vestri, are never used in this connection with 
causa. Sometimes the genitive of the person implied in such an adjective 
pronoun is added, as in : tuum hominis simplicis pectus vidimus ; juravi rem- 
publicam mea unius opera esse salvam; tot homines med solius solliciti sunt 
causd; ad tuam ipsius amicitiam aditum habuit; vestra ipsorum causd hoc feci. 
The genitive of a participle in this connection occurs only in poetry, as in 
Horat. Serm. i. 4. 23. : quum mea nemo scripta legat, vulgo recitare timentis. 
See Heindorfs note on this passage. 

[§ 425.] Note 3. The immediate connection between two substantives, which 
is expressed by the genitive of the substantive dependent upon the other, is 
entirely diflferent from the juxtaposition of two substantives in apposition to 
each other. But there are cases where the construction of the genitive is 
preferred, although the substantives are in reality in apposition. This is the 
case especially with vox, nomen, verhum, and similar words to which the name 
itself is joined in the genitive ; e. g. Cic. de Fin. ii. 2. : JEpicurus non intelligit, 
quid sonet haec vox voluptatis, that is, this word pleasure ; ii. 24 : ex amore 
nomen amicitiae ductum est, i. e. the word amicitia i Sueton. Aug. 53. : domini 
appellationem semper exhorruit. This is regularly done, when the genus is 
defined by the species, as in arhor jici, a fig tree ; flos violae, a violet ; virtus 
continentiae, the virtue of abstinence ; vitium ignorantiae, the defect called igno- 
rance ; /a/wiYta Scipionum, the family of the Scipios — and also in geographical 
names, as oppidum Antiochiae, promontorium Miseni, in which case however 
it is more usual to put the name in apposition in the same case as the generic 
term. There are some other cases in which one substantive intended as an 
explanation of another is put in the genitive, instead of the case of the word to 
be explained {genitivus epexegeticus) ; e. g. Curt. viii. 35. : Nocturnum frigus 
vehementius quam alias horrore corpora affecit, opportunumque remedium ignis 
ohlatum est, i. e. a convenient remedy, viz. fire. Cicero frequently uses genus 
and cau^a in the same way ; e. g. in Cat. ii. 8. : unum genus est eorum qui — ; 
de Leg. Agr. ii. 14. : DvMe sunt hujus obscuritatis causae, una pudoris, altera 
sceleris, the one is shame and the other malice ; Philip, i. 11. : nee eritjustior 
in senatum non veniendi causa morbi, quam mortis; in Verr. iv. 51. : omnia 
propter earn causam sceleris istius evenire videntur, for this reason, viz. his 
crime. Comp. de Off. ii. 5. : collectis causis eluvionis, pestilentiae. Sec, the 
other causes, inundation, plague, &c. The genitive of, gerunds is used in the 
same way as that of substantives ; e. g. Cic. Tusc. i. 36. : Triste est nomen 
ipsum carendi, the very word to want is sad ; Senec. ad Polyb. 29. : Est 
magna felicitas in ipsa felicitate moriendi. In such cases the construction of 
apposition is very unusual in Latin ; see however § 598. 
Q. Metellus Macedonicus, quum sex liberos relinqueret, undecim nepotes reliquit^ 

nurus vero generosque et omnes, qui se patris appellatione salutarent, viginti 

septem, Plin. Hist. Nat. vii. 11. 

[§ 426.] 2. The genitive in the immediate connection of two 
substantives also expresses the external condition or the internal 
nature of a thing ; and if any of the tenses of esse, fieri, haheri, 
appears in such a combination, the genitive is not dependent 


upon these verbs, but must rather be explained by the omission 
of a substantive as homo and res. This at the same time con- 
stitutes the diflference between the genitive of quality {genitivus 
qualitatis) and the ablative of quality with the verb esse. But as 
there is a special part of speech to express qualities, viz. the ad- 
jective, the quality can be expressed by a substantive only when 
this substantive itself is qualified by an adjective. We cannot 
say, for axample, homo ingenii, a man of talent (which is ex- 
pressed by homo ingeniosus)^ but we may say homo magni, summi, 
excellentis ingeniL Again, we cannot say homo annorum, but 
we may say homo viginti or quadraginta annorum. We must 
notice also the genitive modi which joined with a pronoun sup- 
plies the place of a pronoun of quality ; e. g. cujusmodi libri, 
the same as quales libri, what kind of books ; hujusmodi libri, 
that is, tales lihri, such books. The genitive '^ewem, which is 
used in the same sense, is less frequent. 
Athenienses belli duos duces deligunt, Periclem, spectatae virtutis 

virum, et Sophoclem, scriptorem tragoediarum, Justin, iii. 6. 
Titus facilitatis tantae fuit et liber alitatis, ut nemini quidquam 

negaret, Eutrop. vii. 21. 
Hamilcar secum in Hispaniam duxitjilium Hannibalem annorum 

novem, Nep. Ham. 3. 
Spes unica populi Romani, L. Quinctius, trans Tiberim quattuor 
jugerum colebat agrum, Liv. iii. 26. 

[§ 427.] Note. The genitive thus serves to express all the attributes of a 
person or thing, relating to its extent, number, weight, duration, age, and the 
like, provided such attributes are expressed by the immediate connection of 
substantives. Thus we say c'olossus centum viginti pedum, a colossus of 120 feet 
in height ; fossa quindecim pedum, a ditch of 15 feet (in length or breadth); 
corona parvi ponderis, a crown of little weight ; Aristides exilio decern annorum 
mtdtatus est; frumentum dierum triginta in urbe erat; classis centum navium ; or 
with esse, which however has no influence upon the construction, although we 
sometimes translate it by " consist of," e. g. classis Persarum mille et ducentarum 
navium longarum fuit, consisted of 1200 ships of war. With the genitive of 
extent or measure, we may connect the ablatives which we express in Eno-h'sh 
by "with regard to," as longitudine,latitudine,crassitudine, altitudine, or in longi- 
tudinem, &c. ; e.g. duo actus jugerum efficiuntlongitudine pedum CC XL, lati- 
tudine pedum CXX ; Inter Mosam Rhenumque trium ac viginti milium spatio 
fossam perduxit, Tac. Ann. xi. 20. ; but the genitive does not depend upon ' 
these words. 

The fact of this genitive of condition or quality being limited to the im- 
mediate connection of two substantives, must be strongly impressed upon the 
mind of the beginner, in order that he may distinguish from it the accusative 
denoting extent of space and time, which is joined to verbs and adjectives, 
and the ablative of quality, which is governed by esse, or praeditus, instructus, 


ornatus. For, without the influence of any other part of speech, we say : 
fossa quindecim pedum ; but when the adjective longus or latus is added, we 
must s&y fossa quindecim pedes lata ; in like manner jower decem annorum, but 
puer decem annos natus. (§ 395. foil.) When the ablative of quality is closely 
joined with another substantive, praeditus or the participle of esse being 
understood, as in eximia forma pueri, this expression is quite the same as pueri 
eximiae formxie in meaning, but by no means in reference to the grammatical 
construction of the words. 

[§ 428.] Lastly, we must notice some peculiar expressions, in which the 
accusative is used adverbially instead of the genitive of quality : Secus (see 
above §§ 84. and 89.) joined to virile or muliebre signifies " of the male " or 
" female sex," and is equivalent to sexUs virilis ; e. g. Liv. xxvi. 47. : libe- 
rorum capitum virile secus ad X milia capta. Genus, joined with a pronoun, 
as hoc, id, illud, quod, or with omne, is used for Jiujus, ejus, omnis generis ; 
e.g. C\c. ad Att. xiii. 12.: orationes aut aliquid id genus scrihere; Horat. 
Serm. ii. 6. 44. : concredere nugas hoc genus ; it is more curious in connection 
with other cases, as Yarro, de i. L, x. in fin. : in verbis id genus, quae non 
declinantur; de R.R.'Ai. 5. : porticu^ avibus omne genus appletae ; Sueton. 
Tit. 7. : uno die quinque milia omne genus ferarum dedit, for ferarum omnis 
generis. Pondo (see § 87.), joined quite as an indeclinable word to the 
accusatives libram and libras, instead of the genitive, occurs frequently in 
Livy ; e. g. iv. 20. : Dictator coronam auream libram pondo in Capitolio 
Jovi donum posuit : and in the plural, xxvi. 47. : Paterae aureae fuerunt 
CCLXXVI. libras ferme omnes pondo. 

[§ 429.] 3. The genitive is used to express the whole, of 
which anything is a part, or to which it belongs as a part. This 
is the case : a) with substantives denoting a certain measure of 
things of the same kind ; e. g. modius, medimnum tritici, libra 
f arris, magna vis auri, ugerum agri, ala equitum. This geni- 
tive may be termed genitivus generis, b) With all words which 
denote a part of a whole (genitivus partitivus) where we often 
use the preposition, " of or " among." All comparatives and 
superlatives belong to this class ; e. g. doctior horum {duorwm) 
juvenum ; doctissimus omnium ; eloquentissimus Bomanorum, fe- 
rocissimi exulum, and also all words implying a number, whether 
they are real numerals, or pronouns and adjectives, as quis, ali- 
quis, quidam, uter, alter, neuter, alteruter, uterque, utervis, aliquot, 
solus, nullus, nonnulli, multi,pauci; or substantives, as nemo, pars, 
numerus. The genitive belonging to the superlative of adjec- 
tives is retained also with superlatives as adverbs. Thus we 
say optimus omnium est, and also optime omnium vixit, 
Graecorum oratorum praestantissimi sunt ii, qui fuerunt Athenis, 

eorum autem princeps facile Demosthenes, Cic. de Opt. Gen. 

Orat. 4. 
Populus Romanus legem dedit, ut considum utique alter ex plebe 

crearetur, Liv. vi. 35. 


"Duo sunt aditus in Ciliciam ex Syria, quorum uterque parvis 
praesidiis propter angustias intei^cludi potest, Cic. ad Fam, 
XV. 4. 

[§ 430.] Note 1. The poets use the genitive also with other adjectives - 
(in the positive), but this seldom occurs in prose. Livy frequently has the 
expressions delecti equitum^ expediti mUitum; in Sallust (Cat 53.) we find 
effoeta parentum^ and in Veil. Pat. ii. 8. : veteres Romanorum ducum. (See 
the remarks of Corte and Euhnken on these passages.) The genitive, how- 
ever, always denotes the whole, from which a part is taken. When, there- 
fore, the above-mentioned adjectives are used in the same number and 
case as the substantive denoting the whole, the case is different, although 
the diflference in meaning is sometimes very slight ; e. g. multi, aliquot, 
pauci militum and milites ; Varro doctissirmis fuit Romanorum and doctis- 
simus Romunus; alter consttlum and alter consul. Uterque^ however, can- 
not, like the English "both," be joined to a pronoun in the same case, 
except when a substantive is added ; thus, " both these " or " these two " 
cannot be translated into Latin by hie (or ille, qid) uterque, but we must say 
horum, illorum, quorum uterque, whereas uterque f rater and quod utrumque 
exemptam are quite common expressions. 

The genitive, however, cannot be used, when the numeral contains the 
same number of things as that of which the whole consists, that is, when there 
is no relation of a part to a whole. We make this remark only because we 
use the preposition " of" (the equivalent to the genitive), when we are not 
speaking of a greater whole, but of an equal one. We say, for example : 
" the people who served under Frederic the Great, and of whom few are 
surviving," but in Latin we cannot say qujorum admodum pauci supersunt, but 
qui pauci supersiM, for these few are all. Cic. Philip, ii. 6. : Venicmus ad 
vivos, qui duo de consularium numero supersunt ; Liv. i. 55. : Tarquinius 
sacella exaugurare statuit, quae aliqujot ibi a Tatio rege consecrata fuerant; 
QuintiL v. 10. 63. : (Quaeritur) quot sint species rerum puhlicamm: quas 
ires accepimus, quae populi, quae pau/;orum, quae uniu^ potestate regerentur. 

Instead of the genitive we may also use the prepositions ex and inter, and 
sometimes de, but never ah. (Compare the passages quoted in Chap. LXV.) 

[§ 431.] Note 2. The words uter, alter, neuter, differ from quis, alius, nidlu^, 
by their referring to a whole consisting of only two. (See § 14L) The dif- 
ference betiyeen nostri, vestri, and nostrum, vestrum is this : the forms ending 
in um are used as partitive genitives ; e. g. uterque nostrum, nostrum cujusqu£ 
vita ; nemo vestrum ignorat ; imperium summum Romae liahehit ; qui vestrum 
primus osculum matri tulerit ; but nostri melior pars animus est, miserere nostri, 
immemor nostri, amor nostri, odium vestri, vestri similes. Vestrum, however, 
occurs also without any partitive meaning ; e. g. frequentia vestrum ^incre- 
dibilis, Cic. in Rull. ii. 2L, and Philip, iv. L ; comp. p. Plane. 6.; quis erit tarn 
cupidus vestrum, Cic. iw Ferr. ill. 96.; vestrum quoque non sum securus, Liv. 
xxxix. 16. The forms nostrum, vestrum, moreover, are always used when 
joined with omnium, even when the genitive is a subjective one ; e. g. Cic. 
de Orat. iii. 55. : Voluntati vestrum omnium parui; in Cat. i. 7. : patria quae 
communis est omnium npstrum. par&ns. 

[§ 432.] 4. The neuters of pronouns and of some adjectiyes 
used as pronouns, ar^ joined with a genitive for two reasons : 


first, because in meaning they have become substantives, and 
secondly, because they express a part of a whole. Such neuters 
are: — hoc, id, illud, istud, idem, quid and quod with their com- 
pounds (aliquid, quidquid, quippiam, quidquam, quodcunque), 
aliud ; tantum, quantum, aliquantum, multum, plus, plurimumy 
minus, minimum, paulum and nimium with their diminutives and 
compounds ; tantulum, tantundem, quantulum, quantulumcunque, 
&c. To these we must add nihil, nothing, which is always 
used as a substantive; and the adverbs satis, enough; parum, 
too little ; abunde, offdtim, and sometimes largiter, abundantly, 
— when they are used as substantives. 

It is however to be observed that these neuters are used as 
substantives only in the nominative and accusative, and that 
they must not be dependent upon prepositions. 
Quantum incrementi Nilus capit, tantum spei in annum est, 

Senec. Nat, Quaest. iv. 6. 
Potest quidquam esse ahsurdius, quam, quo minus viae restat, 

tanto plus viatici quaerere, Cic. Cat, Maj. 18. 
Procellae quanio plus habent virium, tanto minus temporis, Senec. 

Nat. Quaest. vii. 9. 
Pythagoras, quum in geometria quiddam novi invenisset, Musis 

bovem immolasse dicitur, Cic. de Nat. Deor. iii. 36. 
Justitia nihil expetit praemii, nihil pretii, Cic. de Leg. i. 18. 
Satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum (in Catilina fuit), Sallust. 

[§433.] Note 1. The genitive joined with these neuters is often not a 
real substantive, but the neuter of an adjective, which is used as a substan- 
tive, as above quiddam novi. It must be observed here, that only adjectives 
of the second declension (in um) can be treated as substantives, and not 
those of the third in e, nor the comparatives in us. We may therefore say 
aliquid novum and aliquid novi, but only aliquid memorabile, and gravius 
aliquid. Aliquid memorahilis cannot be used, except, perhaps, in connection 
with neuters of the second declension ; e. g. aliquid novi ac memorahilis tihi 
narraho (as in Livy, v. 3. : si quidquam in vohis non dico civilis sed humani 
esset) ; but even in this case it is preferable to say aliquid novum ac memora- 
hile, as in Seneca : vide ne ista lectio multorum auctorum Tiaheat aliquid vagum 
et instahile. It must further be remarked, that when there is any case 
dependent upon the neuter adjective, the latter can scarcely be put in the 
genitive, and we must say : nihil expectatione vestra dignum dico, as Cicero 
{de Oral. i. 31.) does. 

[§ 434.] Note 2. The adverbs of place, libi, uhique, uhicunque, usquam, 
nusquam Qonge'), unde, hie, hue, eo, eodem, quo, quocunque, quoquo, aliquo are 
joined with the genitives gentium, terrarum, loci, locorum, and by the addition 
of such a genitive their meaning is strengthened; e.g. uhinam gentium 
sumu^f abes longe gentium ; aliquo terrarum migrandum est ; ubi terrarum es ? 
The expressions hoc loci, quo loci sum, res eodem est loci, quo tu reliquisii, in 

^ V^ or THB 


Cicero and other writers are equivalent to quo^ eodem loco, and the ablatives 
quo, eodem, are used as if loco were to follow. The adverbs* Awe, eo, qvo, when 
used figuratively to express a degree, are joined also with other genitives ; 
e,g. hitc arrogantiae venerat, to this degree or pitch of arrogance ; eo inso- 
lentiae furorisque processit; scire videmini quo amevtiae progressi sitis. In 
the phrase minim^ gentium, by no means, the genitive merely strengthens 
the meaning of minime. 

In the following expressions denoting time the genitive appears to be 
quite superfluous : postea loci, afterwards ; ad id locorum, up to this point ; 
in Sallust and Livy : interea loci, in the meantime ; and adhuc locorum, 
until now, in the comic writers ; turn temporis, at that time, occurs in late 
writers and should not be imitated. In the phrase quantum or quoad ejus 
facere possum, or in the passive form, fieri potest, the ejus refers to the pre- 
ceding sentence, " as much of it," or " as far as this is possible." 

[§ 435.] 5. Poets and prose writers later than Cicero use the 
neuters of adjectives in general, both in the singular and plural, 
as substantives, and join them with a genitive, e. g. Curtius : 
reliquum noctis acquievit, he slept the remainder of the night ; 
Livy : exiguum campi ante castra erat, for which Cicero would 
have said exiguus campus ; in ultima Celtiberiae penetrare, summa 
tectorum ohtinere, instead of in ultimam Celtiberiam penetrare, 
and summa tecta obtinere. 

Note. So also vltimum inopiae is equivalent to ultim/x inopia; medium or eX' 
tremum anni, aetatis, for which media aetas is the ordinary expression ; extrema 
agminis, infimxi dim ; saeva ventorum, opportuna locorum, avia itinerum, tacita 
suspicionum ; and with a preposition : in immen^um altitudinis dejecit, for in 
immensam altitudinem; ad ultimum vitas perseverare, in ultima Orientis re- 
legare, cum pretiosissimis rerum fugere, where the ablat. must not be taken 
for a feminine, although the expression is used for cum pretiosissimis rebus. 
Ad multiim diei or noctis is a peculiar phrase of the same kind, for a neuter 
like mvltum may indeed be joined with a genitive, but not with a prepo- 
sition ; hence the ordinary construction is in multam noctem scribere. Very 
frequently there is a peculiar meaning in such a neuter plural : incerta, 
8vd)ita belli ; i. e. the uncertain, sudden occurrences in war, or subitae occa- 
siones belli ; quassata muri, the shaken parts of the wall ; infrequentissima 
urbis, the most uninhabited part of the town ; plana urbis Tiber is stag- 
naverat. Livy has many expressions of this kind (Drakenborch on Liv. 
xxxvii. 58.), and in Tacitus they are innumerable. Respecting the analogy 
with the Greek language, see Vechner, Hellenolex. i. 2. 9. p. 202 foil., and 
Heindorf on Horat. Sat. ii. 2. 25. 

[§ 436.] 6. Many adjectives denoting a relation to a thing 
(adjectiva relativa), especially those which express partaking, 
desiring, fullness, experience, capacity, or remembering, and their 
contraries, are joined with the genitive of a substantive or 
pronoun. Thus we say memor promissi, remembering a pro- 
mise ; compos mentis, in possession of his mind ; ignarus sermonis 

Y 2 


Latinii ignorant of the Latin language. Such relations are ex- 
pressed in English by prepositions. 

The following in particular are construed in this way : — par- 
ticeps, affinis (e. g. alicujus culpae, suspicionis, see however 
§ 411.), expers, inops, consors, exsors ; cupidus, studiosus, avidus, 
avarus ; plenus, inanis, capax, insatiahilis, fecundus, fertilis, 
ferax, sterilis ; peritus^ imperitus, conscius, inscius, nesciusy prae- 
scius, gnarus, ignarus, rudis, insolens and insolitus, or insuetus, 
prudens, providus, compos, impos, potens and impotens ; memor, 
immemor, tenax, curiosus, incuriosus. 

Pythagoras sapientiae studiosos appellavit philosophos, Cic. 
• Tusc, V. 3. 
Themistocles peritissimos belli navalis fecit Athenienses, Nep. 

Them. 2. 
Venturae memor as jam nunc estote senectae^ Ovid. 
Conscia mens recti famae mendacia ridet, Ovid, Fast, 
Nescia mens hominumfati sortisque futurae, Virgil. 

[§437.] Notel. The poets and those prose writers who, deviating 
from the ordinary mode of speaking, use poetical constructions, to give 
animation to their style (especially Tacitus), extend the rule of joining 
a genitive with adjectives very far. They construe in particular all ad- 
jectives expressing mental emotion with the genitive of the thing to which 
it is directed ; e. g. amhiguus consilii ; anxius futuri, securitatis ; henignus 
vini ; certus sceleris ; duhius viae ; impiger militiae ; interritus leti ; incauius 
futuri ; incertus sententiae ; laetus laboris ; modicus voluptatum ; pervicax 
irae^ recti ; piger periculi ; segnis occasionum ; socors futuri ; securus futuri ; 
timidvs lucis ; formidolosus hostium; ohlatae occasionis propera; ferox scelerum 
Sejanus; atrox odii Agrippina, — where in ordinary prose the prepositions de, 
in or ad, would be required, and where we use "in respect of" or "in regard 
to." In some cases the genitive is used, in imitation of the Greek, instead 
of the Latin ablative ; e. g. integer vitae for integer vita ; diversus morum ; 
lassus maris, viarum, militiae ; vetus operis ac laboris ; sacerdos scientiae ceri- 
moniarumque vetus. In some cases, however, the adjective is only a bold ex- 
pression and used in the same sense as one of those mentioned above ; e. g. 
vetus operis equivalent to peritus operis. In the case of superlatives the 
genitive is to be explained in a different way, as Tacit. Ann. vi. 6. : praes- 
tantissimus sapientiae, for sapientum ; i. 46. : princeps severitatis etmunifcentiae 
summus, for omnium qui et severi et munifici sint. Comp. § 470. We must 
notice especially the use of the genitive animi (instead of the ablative) 
which occurs so frequently in late prose writers, and is joined with all 
adjectives. (See Ruhnken on Veil. Pat. ii. 93.) We thus find aeger, anxius, 
atrox, aversus, caecus, captus, confidens, confuMis, incertus, territus, validus, 
exiguus, ingens, modicus, immodicus, and nimius animi; and owing to this 
frequent use of the genitive with adjectives, it is found also with verbs 
denoting anxiety ; e. g. absurde fads, qui te angas animi ; discrucior animi, 


ftnd even in Cicero we find more than once ego quidem vehementer animi 
pendeo ; it occurs more rarely with verbs denoting joy, as recreabar animi. 

Note 2. The adjectives ji^Zenzw and inanis (full, empty), as well as fertilis 
and dives^ may be construed also with the ablative (§ 457. foll.)^ and with 
refertus (the participle of a verb denoting " to fill ") the ablative is com- 
monly -asQ^.-^ plenus in the early prose is rarely. joined with the ablative, 
but in later times frequently : — Cicero, e. g. Philip, ii. 27. says : domus 
(Antonii) erat aleatoribus referta^ plena ehriorum. We may use either case 
in jurisperitus and jureperitus, jurisconsultus and jureconsultus (abridged 
ICtus). Compos and expers are but rarely found with the ablative instead 
of the genit., as Liv. iii. 71. : praeda ingenii compotem exercitum reducunt; 
Sallust, Cat. 33. : omnes fama atque fortunis expertes sumus. Immunis (not 
partaking) is commonly joined with the genitive, but when used in the sense 
of " free from" in takes either ah or the simple ablat. (See § 468.) 

Conscins is construed with a genitive and a dative of the thing ; e. g. 
Sallust, Cat. 25.: caedis conscia fuerat ; Qic. p. Coel.2\.'. Jiuic facinori tanto 
m£ns tua conscia esse non dehuit. The person who is conscious of a thing is 
always expressed by the dative, as sihi conscium esse alicujus rei, 

[§ 438.] 7. The participles present active are joined with a 
genitive when they do not express a simple act or a moment- 
ary condition, but, like adjectives, a permanent quality or con- 
dition; hence most of them have degrees of comparison like 
real adjectives. The following list contains those most in 
use : — amans, appetens, colens, fugiens, intelligens, metuens, 
negligens, observans, retinens, tolerans, patiens, impatienSy tern- 
perans, intemperans ; e. g. amans patriae, Gracchi amantissimi 
plebis Romanae, appetens laudis, sancti et religionum colentes, 
fugiens laboris, imminentium (^futuri) intelligens, officii negligen&y 
miles patiens or impatiens solis, pulveris, tempestatum, 
Epaminondas adeo fuit veritatis diligens, ut ne joco quidem men- 

tiretur, Nep. Epam, 3. 
Romani semper appetentes gloriae praeter ceteras gentes atque 

avidi laudis fueruntf Cic. p. Leg. Man. 3. 

Note. The passage from Nepos shows that the participles admitting this 
construction are not limited to such as have the meaning of the adjectives 
mentioned above (§ 436.), but they are used in this way throughout, pro- 
vided they express a permanent quality ; miles patiens frigus, for example, 
is a soldier who at a particular time bears the cold, but miles patiens frigoris 
is one who bears cold well at all times. Hence cupiens, efficiens, experiens^ 
sciens, sitiens^ timens^ and a considerable number of others, are joined with a 
genitive. Some participles perfect passive have been mentioned in § 436., 
as their number is very limited ; and completus, expertus, inexperius, invictus^ 
and consultiiSy may be classed with the above-mentioned adjectives. If., \n 
poetical language, we find any other perfect participles joined with a 
genitive, we must regard them as adjectives. 

Y 3 



[§ 439.] 8. With verbs of reminding, remembering and for- 
getting {admoneo, commoneo, commonefacio aliquem ; memini, re- 
miniscor, recorder , also in mentem mihi venit ; obliviscor^, the 
person or the thing, of which any one reminds another or him- 
self, or which he forgets, is expressed by the genitive ; but 
there are many instances also in which the thing is expressed 
by the accusative. 
Medicus, ut primum fnenfis compotem esse regem sensit, modo 

matris sororumque, modo tantae victoriae appropinquantis ad- 

monere non destitit, Curt. iii. 16. 
Hannibal milites adhortatus est, ut reminiscerentnr pristinae vir- 

tutis suae, neve mulieriim liberumque (for et liberorum) obli- 

Tu, C. Caesar, oblivisci nihil soles, nisi injurias, Cic. p. Leg. 12. 
Non omnes (senes) possunt esse Scipiones aut Maximi, ut urbium 

expugnationes, ut pedestres navalesque pugnas, ut bella a se 

gesta triumphosque recordentur, Cic. Cat. Maj. 5. 

[§ 440.] Note. "With regard to the accusatire of the thing., it must be ob- 
served that the neuters of pronouns, and the neuter adjectives used as sub- 
stantives, are joined to the above-mentioned verbs only in the accusative ; 
for their genitive would present no difference from the masc. gender. Hence 
Cicero {de Off. ii. 8.) is obliged to say : Externa lihentius in tali re quam 
domestica recordor ; and the verbs of reminding are thus joined with two 
accusatives, one of the person and the other of the thing ; e. g. illud me 
praeclare adrnones, unum te admoneo. (Comp. § 393.) An accusative of the 
thing, expressed by a real substantive, occurs only with verbs of remem- 
bering and forgetting ; e. g. memini or ohlitus sum mandata^ henejicia., dicta 
factaqiie tua ; pueritiae memoriam recordari ultimam. An accusative of the 
person is very rarely used with these verbs ; but memini., in the sense of " I 
remember a person who lived in my time," is invariably joined with an ac- 
cusative of the person; e.g. Cic. Philip, y. 6.: quod neque reges fecerunty 
neque ii, qui regihus exactis regnum occupare voluerunt : Cinnam memini., vidi 
Sullam, modo Caesarem, &c. ; de Orat. iii. 50. : Antipater ille Sidonius, quern 
tu probe meministi. Sometimes verbs of reminding and remembering take 
the preposition de ; memini takes de more especially, when it signifies mentio- 
nem facere ; but the genitive also may be used. With venit mihi in mentem., 
the person or thing may be put in the nominat., so as to become the subject ; 
e. g. aliquid, haec, omnia mihi in mentem venerunt. 

[§ 441.] 9. The impersonal verbs pudet, piget, poenitet, taedet 
and miseret, require the person in whom the feeling exists to 
be in the accusative, and the thing which produces the feel- 
ing in the genitive. The thing producing the feeling may 
also be expressed by the infinitive, or by a sentence with quod 
or with an interrogative particle, e. g. pudet m^ hoc fecisse. 


poenitet me quod te offendi, non poenitet me (I am not dissatisfied) 
quantum prof ecerim. As to the forms of these verbs, see § 225. 
Malo, me fortunae poeniteat, quam victoriae pudeat, Curt. iv. 47. 
Eorum nos magis miseret, qui nostram misericordiam. non requi- 

runt, quam qui illam ejfflagitant, Cic. p. Mil, 34. 
Non poenitet me vixisse, quoniam ita vixi, ut non frustra me na- 

turn existimem, Cic. Cat. Maj. in fin. 
Quem poenitet peccasse, paene est innocens, Senec. Agam. 243. 

[§ 442.] Note 1. The personal verbs misereor and miser esco, " I pity," are 
joined with a genitive, like the impersonal verbs miseret (and miseretmr) : 
miseremini sociorum, misertus tanti viri, generis miseresce tut; but we also 
find miser escit me tui, impersonally, in Terence (Heavt. v. 4. 3.) : inopis te 
nunc miserescat mei. Miserari and commiserari (to pity), orj the other hand, 
require the accusative. The above-mentioned impersonal verbs are very 
rarely used personally ; as in Terence, AdelpJi. iv. 5. 36. t non te haec pudent. 
In the passage of Cicero (Ttisc. v. 18.) : sequitur ut nihil (sapientem^ poeni- 
teat^ the word nihil must not be taken for a nominative : it is the accusative, 
for both this particular word and the neuters of pronouns are thus used in 
the accusative (see § 385.) ; whereas real substantives would necessarily be 
in a different case. So also in Cic. de Invent ii. 13. : qnaeri oportet^ utrum id 
f acinus sit, quod poenitere fuerit necesse, for cujus rei. The participle per- 
taesus (belonging to taedet) governs the accusative, contrary to the rule 
by which participles are joined with the same case as the verbs from which 
they are formed ; e. g. Sueton. Jul. 7. : quasi pertaesus igvaviam suam ; but 
it is also used with a genitive, as in Tacitus, Ann. xv. 51. : postremo lenti- 
tudinis eorum pertaesa. 

[§ 443.] Note 2. Pudet requires a genit. also, in the sense of " being re- 
strained by shame or respect for a person ;" e. g. Terent. Anelph. iv. 5. 49. : 
et me tui pudet ; Cic. in Clod. : Nonne te hujus templi, non urbis, non vitae, non 
lucis pudet f It is found more frequently without an accusat., as in Livy, iii. 
19. : pudet deonim hominumque ; Cic. Philip, xii. 3. : pudet hujus legionis, 
pudet quartae, pudet optimi exercitus. 

[§ 444.] 10. The verbs of estimating or valuing and their pas- 
sives (aestimare, ducere, facere, fieri, habere, pendere, putare, 
taxare and esse^ are joined with the genitive, when the value is 
expressed generally by an adjective, but with the ablative, 
when it is expressed by a substantive. (Comp. § 456.). Geni- 
tives of this kind are : — magni, permagni, pluris, plurimi, maximiy 
parvi, minoris, minimi,*tanti, quanti, and the compounds tanti- 
dem, quantwis, quanticunque ; but never (or very rarely) multi 
and majoris. The substantive to be understood with these 
genitives is pretii, which is sometimes expressed (with esse). 
Si prata et hortulos tanti aestimamus, quanti est aestimanda 

virtus 9 Cic. Parad. 6. 

T 4 


XJnum Hephaestionem Alexander plurimi fecerat, Nep. Eum. 2, 
Ego a meis me amari et magni pendi postulo, Terent. Adelph. v. 

Mea mihi conscientia* pluris est, quam omnium sermo, Cic. ad 

Att. xii. 28. 

Note. Tanti est, " it is worth so much," signifies also absolutely, " it is 
worth tvhile ; " e. g. Cic. in Cat. i. 9. : Video quanta tempestas invidiae nobis 
impendeat. Sed est mihi tanti : dummodo ista privata sit calamitas. In ad- 
dition to the above genitives we must mention a^sis, fiocci, nauci, pensi, pili 
habere^ or commonly nan habere, ducere, aestimare ; further, the comic 
phrase hujus non facio, " I do not care that for it," and nihili. But we find 
also pro nihilo habere, putare, and ducere ; e. g. omnia, quae cadere in hominem 
possint, despicere et pro nihilo putare. The phrase acqui boni, or aequibonique 
facio, consulo, and boni consulo, I consider a thing to be right, am satisfied 
with it, must likewise be classed with these genitives. A genitive expressing 
price is joined also to such words as coeno, habito, doceo ; e. g. quanti hahi- 
ias ? what price do you pay for your house or lodging ? quanti docet ? what 
are his terms in teaching ? 

*[§ 445.] The same rule applies to general statements of price 
with the verbs of buying, selling, lending and hiring {emere, ven- 
dere, the passive venire, conducere, locare, and as passives in 
sense, stare and constare, prostare and licere, to be exposed for 
sale). But the ablatives magna, permagno, plurimo, parvo, 
minima, nihilo, are used very frequently instead of the genitives. 
Mercatores non tantidem vendunt, quanti emerunt, Cic. 
X^ulla pestis humano generi pluris stetit, quam ira, Senec. 
Nan potest parva res magna constare, Senec. Epist. 19. 

Note. With verbs of buying therefore the genitive and ablative alternate 
according to the particular words that are used. Cic. ad Fam. vii. 2. writes : 
Parum acute ei mandasti potissimum, cui expediret illud venire quam plurimo : 
sed eo vidisti multum, quod praejinisti, quo ne pluris emerem — nunc, quoniam 
tuum pretium novi, illicitatorem, potiu^ ponam, quam illud minoris veneat ; Plant. 
Epid. ii. 2. 112.: Quanti emere possum minimo? What is the lowest price 
I can buy at? Aestimare is sometimes joined with the ablatives magno, 
permagno, nonnihilo, instead of the regular genitives. The adverbs care, bene, 
male, sometimes take the place of the ablative with the verbs of buying, 
though not very frequently. Instead of nihilo constat, it costs me nothing, 
we find in Cicero gratis constat. 

[§446.] 11. The genitive is used to denote the crime or 
offence, with the verbs accuso, incuso, arguo, intervogo, insimulo, 
increpo, infamo ; convinco, coarguo ; judico, damna, condemno ; 
ahsolvo, libera, pur go ; arcesso, cito, defero, postulo, reum facio, 
alicui diem dico, cum aliquo ago. The genitive joined to these 
verbs depends upon the substantive crimine or nomine, which is 
understood, but sometimes also expressed. 


Genitives of this kind are : — peccati, maleficii, sceleris, caedis, venejidiy 
parricidii^ furti^ repeiundarum^ peadatus, falsi, injuriarum, vei capitalis, pro- 
ditionis, majestatis ; probri, sttdtitiae, avaritiae, audaciae, vanitatis, levitatis, te- 
meritatis, ignaviae; timoris, impietatisy and others^. 

Miltiades proditionis est accusatus, quod, quum Parum expugnare 

posset, e pugna discessisset, Nep. Milt, 
Thrasyhulus legem tulit, ne quis ante actarum rerum accusaretur 

neve multaretur, Nep. Thras. 3. 

Note 1. To these verbs we must add a few adjectives, which are used in- 
stead of their participles : reiis, compertm, noxius, innoxius, insons, manifestus. 
Sometimes the preposition de is used, with the verbs of accusing and con- 
demning, instead of the genitive, e. g. de vi condemnatus est, nomen alicujtis de 
parricidio deferre. 

[§ 447.] Note 2. The punishment, with the verbs of condemning, is com- 
monly expressed by the genitive ; e. g. capitis, mortis, multae, pecuniae, quad- 
rupli, octupli, and less frequently by the ablative, capite, morte, multa, pecunia. 
The ablative, however, is used invariably when a definite sum is mentioned; 
e. g. decern, quindecim milihus aeris. Sometimes we find the preposition ad or 
in: ad poenam, ad hestias, ad metalla, in metallum, in expensas, and Tacitus 
uses also : ad mortem. The meaning of capitis accusare, arcessere, ahsolvere, 
and of capitis or capite damnare, condemnare must be explained by the signi- 
fication of what the Romans called a causa capitis. Voti or votorum damnari, 
to be condemned to fulfil one's vow, is thus equivalent to " to obtain what 
one wishes." 

[§ 448.] 12. The genitive is used with the verbs esse and 
Jieri, in the sense of " it is a person's business, office, lot, or 
property," the substantives res or negotium being understood : 
e. g. Jwc est praeceptoris, this is the business of the teacher ; 
non est mearum virium, it is beyond my strength ; Asia Roman- 
arum facta est, Asia became the property of the Romans. The 
same genitive is found also with some of the verbs mentioned in 
§ 394., esse being understood. 

But instead of the genitive of the personal pronouns mei, tui, 
sui, nostri, vestri, the neuters of the possessives, meum, tuum, 
suum, nostrum, vestrum est, erat, &c., are used. 
Cujusvis hominis est errare, nullius nisi insipientis in errore per- 

severare, Cic. Phil. xii. 2. 
Sapientis judicis est, semper non quid ipse velit, sed quid lex et 

religio cog at, cogitare, Cic. p. Cluent. 58. 
Bello Gallico praeter Capitolium omnia hostium erant, Liv. vi. 40. 
Tuum est, M, Cato, qui non mihi, non tibi, sed patriae natus es, 

videre quid agatur, Cic. p. Muren, 38.' 


Note 1. We have here followed Perizonlus (on Sanctius, Minerva^ in 
many passages), in explaining the genitive by the ellipsis of negotium. This 
opinion is confirmed by a passage in Cicero, ad Fam. iii. 12. : non horum tern- 
porum^ non horum hominum et morum negotium est ; but we ought not to have 
recourse to such an ellipsis, except for the purpose of illustrating the idiom 
of a language, and we should not apply it to every particular case ; for, in 
most instances, it would be better, and more consistent with the Latin idiom, 
to sw^^ly proprius as an adjective and proprium as a substantive. (Comp. 
§ 411.) In the following sentences from Cicero, proprium, est animi bene 
constituti laetari bonis rebus, and sapientis est proprium^ nihil quod poenitere 
possit facer e, we might omit proprium and use the genitive alone. In the 
following sentences the words munus and officium might be omitted : Cic. p. 
Mil. 8. : principum munus est resistere levitati multitudinis, and Terent. Andr* 
ii. 1. 30. : neutiquam officium liberi esse hominis puto, quum is nil mereat, pos- 
tulare id gratiae apponi sibi ; and hence we may also assume the ellipsis of 
munus and officium for the purpose of illustratino- the Latin idiom. 

FJsse is joined with a genitive expressing quality, est stuUitiae, est levitatis, 
est hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, especially moris est, for which without dif- 
ference in meaning, we may say stultitia est, levitas est, haec consuetudo est 
Gallomm, mos est; e. g. Cic. in Verr. i. 26. : negavit moris esse Graecorum, ut 
in convivio virorum accumberent mulieres, the same as morem esse Graecorum, 

Note 2. As it is the rule to use the neuter of the possessive pronouns, in- 
stead of the genitive of the personal pronouns, so in other cases, instead of a 
genitive of a substantive, an adj ective derived from the substantive may be 
used, e. g. humanum est, imperatorium est, regiumest; etfacere etpatifortia 
Momanum est, Liv. ii. 12. 

[§ 449.] 13. A similar ellipsis takes place with the imper- 
sonal verbs interest and refert, it is of interest or importance (to 
me), the person to whom any thing is of importance bei^ig ex- 
pressed by the genitive ; but instead of the genitive • of the 
personal pronouns, the possessives mea, tua, sua, nostra, vestra, 
are used. These possessives are commonly considered to be 
accusatives neuter plural, commod'a being understood ; but from 
some verses in Terence, especially Phorm. iv. 5. 11. and v. 8. 47., 
we are obliged to consider them with Priscian (p. 1077.) as 
ablatives feminine singular, and it is not impossible that causa 
may be understood.* The thing wdiich is of interest or im- 
portance is not expressed by a substantive, but sometimes by 
the neuter of a pronoun ; e. g. hoc mea interest, and usually by 
an accusative with the infinitive, or by ut and the interroga- 

* Tliis explann tion solves only half the difficulty, but both the use of the 
genitive and the length of re in refert are sufficiently accounted for by what 
has been said in a note at the foot of p. 1 6. We should add here that mea, 
tad, sua, &c., are accusatives for meam, tuam, suam, &c. Comp. Key, llie 
Alphabet, p. 77. — Transl. 


tive particles with the subjunctive: e.g. multum^mea interest, 
te esse diligentem, or ut diligens sis, (utrum) diligens sis nee ne. 
Semper Milo, quantum interesset JP. Clodii, se perire, cogitabat, 

Cicjo. Mil 21. 
Caesar dicere solebat, non tam sua, quam reipublicae interesse, uti 

salvus esset. Suet. Caes. 86. 
Inventae sunt epistolae, ut certiores faceremus ahsentes, si quid 

esset, quos eos scire^ aut nostra aut ipsorum interesset, Cic. 

ad Fam. ii. 4. 
Quid refert, utrum voluerim fieri, an factum gaudeam ? Cic. 

Philip, ii. 12. *• 

Note 1. When an infinitive alone is joined to interesse, the preceding 
subject is understood, e. g. omnium interest recte facere^ scil. se. The nomi- 
native of the subject in Cicero, ad Att. iii. 19., non quo mea interesset loci 
natura, is very singular. It has been asserted that refert is not joined 
■with the genitive of the person ; in Cicero, it is true, it does not occur, 
for he generally uses it with the pronouns mea, tua, sua, &c. ; but other 
authors use the genitive; e.g. Sallust, J^o-. 119.: faciendum aliquid, quod 
illorum Magis, quam sua rettulisse videretur, and Liv. xxxiv. 27. : ipsorum 
referre, &c. Most frequently, however, refert is used without either a 
genitive or any of the pronouns m.ea, tun, &c. : refert, quid refert ? magni, 
parvi, magnopere refert. The dative of the person in Horace, Serm. i. 1.50.: 
vel die quid referat intra naturae fines viventi, jvgera centum, an miUe aret, is a 
singular peculiarity. 

[§ 450.] Note 2. The degree of importance is expressed by adverbs or 
neuter adjectives, or by their genitives : magis, magnopere, vehementer, 
parum, minime, tam, tantopere; multum, plus, plurimum, permultum, infinitum^ 
mirum quantum, minu^, nihil, aliquid, quiddam, tantum, quantum; tanti, quanti, 
magni, permagni, parvi. The object for which a thing is of importance is 
expressed by the preposition ad, as in Cicero : magni interest ad honorem 
nostrum; a dative used in the same sense occurs in Tacitus, Ann. xv. 65. : 
non referre dedecori. 



[§ 451.] 1. The Ablative serves to denote certain relations of 

substantives> which are expressed in most other languages by 


Note. This is an important difference between the ablative and the other 
oblique cases ; for the latter expressing necessary relations between nouns, 


occur in all lai%uages which possess cases of inflection, and do not, like the 
French or English, express those relations by prepositions. But the abla- 
tive is a peculiarity of the Latin language, which might indeed be dispensed 
with, but which contributes greatly to its expressive conciseness. 

The ablative is used first with passive verbs to denote the 
thing by which any thing is eifected {ahlativus efficientis), and 
which in the active construction is expressed by the nominative : 
e. g. sol mundum illustrat, and sole mundus illustratur ; fecundi- 
tas arhorum me delectat, and fecunditate arborum delector. If 
that by which any thing is effected is a person, the preposition 
ah is required with the ablat^^e (see § 382.), with the sole ex- 
ception of the participles of the verbs denoting " to be born " 
{natus, genitus, ortus, and in poetry also cretus, editus, satus), to 
which the name of the father or family is generally joined in the 
ablative without a preposition. Ah cannot be used with the 
ablative of a thing by which any thing is effected, unless the 
thing be personified. 

Dei providentid mundus administratur, Cic. 
Non est consentaneum, qui metu non frangatur, eum frangi cupi- 

ditate ; nee qui invictum se a lahore praestiterit, vinci a volup- 

tate, Cic. De Off. i. 20. 

Note. The words denoting " born" usually have the preposition ex or de 
joined to the name of the mother, but the ablative alone is also found, and 
there are a few passages in which ex or db is joined to the name of tlie 
father ; e. g. Terent, Adelph. i. 1. 15. : Atque ex me hie natus non est^ sed ex 
fratre; Caes. Bell. Gall. vi. 18. : prognati ab Dite patre. Ortm ab aliquo is 
frequently used in speaking of a person's ancestors ; e. g. Cic. p. Muren. 21 . : 
gut ab illo ortus es; Caes. Bell. Gall. ii. 4. : plerosque Belgas esse ortos a 
Germanis (the same as oriundos). 

[§ 452.] 2. An ablative expressing the cause {ahlativus 
causae) is joined with adjectives, which, if changed into a verb, 
would require a passive construction : e. g. fessus, aeger, saucius 
(equivalent to quifatigatus, morho affectus, vulneratus est) — and 
.with intransitive verbs, for which we may generally substitute 
some passive verb, of at least a similar meaning, as inter iit fame, 
consumptus est fame ; expectatio rumore crevit, expectatio aucta 
est rumore ; gaudeo honore tuo, delector honore tuo. Thus verbs 
expressing feeling or emotion are construed with the ablative of 
the thing which is the cause of -the feeling or emotion, as doleo, 
gaudeo, laetor ; exllio, exulto, triumpho, lacrimo, paene desipio 
g audio, ardeo cupiditate, desiderio. Sometimes the prepositions 


propter and per are used instead of such an ablative, and when a 
person is described as the cause of an emotion, they are just as 
necessary as a6 is with passive verbs. 

We must notice in particular the construction of the follow- 
ing verbs : — Glorior, I boast, is joined with an ablative denot- 
ing the cause : e. g. victoria med, but is also construed with de, 
and in the sense of " glory in a thing," with in : e. g. Cic. 
£>e Nat. Deor, iii. 36. : propter virtutem recte laudamur, et in 
virtute recte gloriamur, Lahoro, I suffer from, e. g. morbo, ino- 
pia, odio, is frequently joined also with ex, especially when the 
part of the body, which is the seat of the pain, is mentioned : e. g. 
ex pedibus, ex intestinis, Nitor and innitor aliqua re, I lean upon, 
is used, in a figurative sense, also with in ; e. g. Cicero : in vita 
Pompeji nitebatur salus civitatis (in the sense of " strive after," 
with ad or in with the accus., as nitirnur in vetitum), Sto aliqua 
re, I depend upon a thing, 3sjudicio meo, auctore aliquo ; also in 
liie sense of " I persevere in or adhere to a thing," as foedere, 
jurejurando, condicionibus, promissis ; it rarely takes in, as in 
Cicero : stare oportet in eo, quod sit judicatum. (Respecting 
acquiesco with the ablat. see § 416.) Fido and confide, '' I trust 
in a thing," and the 2id}ecti\e fretus are joined with the ablat. of 
the thing trusted in, but may also be used with the dative of 
the person or thing trusted in. (See § 413.) The verbs constare, 
contineri, to consist of, are construed with the ablat. to denote 
that of which a thing consists : e. g. domus amoenitas non aedificio, 
sed silva constabat ; tota honesta^ quattuor virtutibus continetur ; 
but canstare is joined more frequently with ex or in, and con- 
tineri in the sense of '' to be contained in a thing," is generally 
used with in, but even then not unfrequently with the ablative 
sdone. ( Consistere in the sense of " exist," is construed, like 
positum esse, only with in.) 
Concordia res parvae crescunt, discordid maximae dilabuntur, 

Sallust, Jug. 10. 
£st adolescentis majores natu vereri exque his deligere optimos et 

probatissimos, quorum consilio atque auctoritate nitatur, Cic 

Be Off. I 34. 
Virtute decet, non sanguine niti, Claud. Cons. Hon. iv. 219. 
IHversis duobus vitiis, avaritia et luxuria, civitas Romana lab<H 

rabat, Liv. xxxiv. 4. 
Delicto dolere, correctione gavAere ngs oportet, Cic, 


{§ 453.] Note 1. We must here mention also the ablat. virtute joined with 
the defective adjective 7nacte and macti, which, either with the imperative of 
esse (esto, este, estate), or without it, is used as an exclamation of encourage- 
ment or approbation. 

The use of the accusative vicem (with a genitive or possessive pronoun), 
instead of the ablative vice (in accordance with the above rule) in connection 
with intransitive verbs and adjectives denoting feelings, especially those of 
care, grief, and sorrow, is a peculiarity which does not occur when vicem is 
used in its ordinary sense of "change" or "turn" (as in Phaedr. v. 1. 6. : 
tacite gementes tristem fortunae vicem)^ but only when it is equivalent to the 
English "for;" e. g. Liv. ii, 31.: apparuit causa plebi, suam vicem indig- 
nantem magistratu abisse; i. e. that for their sake he had indignantly resigned 
his office ; xxxiv. 32. : Remittimus hoc tibi, ne nostram vicem irascaris, that 
you may not be angry on our account ; xl. 23. : Simplicitatem juvenis incauti 
assentando indignandoque et ipse vicem ejus captabat, by showing indignation 
on his account. In like manner we must explain Cic. ad Fam. xii. 23. : 
Tuam vicem saepe doleo, quod nullam partem per aetatem sanae et salvae rei 
puUicae gustare potuisti, and in Verr. i, 44. : si alienam vicem pro nostra in- 
juria doleremus^ if we grieved for other people, as though a wrong had been 
done to ourselves. Hence we should read, with Bentley, in Horace Epod. 
xvii, 42. : infamis Helenae Castor offensus vicem^ Castor offended on account 
of his ill-famed sister, where Bentley quotes the following instances of this 
use of vicem with adjectives, Liv. viii. 35. : suam vicem magis anxios, quam 
ejus, cui auxilium ab se petebatur; xxviii. 43. : ut meam quoque, non solum rei 
puhlicae et exercitus vicem videretur sollicitiis; Curt. vii. 6. : maestus non su/im 
vicem, sed propter ipsum periclitantium fratrum, not sad on his own account, 
but on account of his brothers who ran into danger for his sake. The 
ablative in this sense occurs only in late writers ; e. g. Quintil. vi. 2. 35., and 
xi. 1. 42. But it is difficult to decide whether the accusative vicem may be 
used also in the sense of " like," more modoque, instead of vice, as is com- 
monly read in Cic. ad Att. x. 8. : Sardanapali vicem in suo lectulo mori, or 
whether we should correct vicem into vice, as in Tacitus, Ann. vi. 21. : quae 
dixerat oraculi vice accipiens. The difficult passage in Horace, Epod. v. 87. : 
Venena magnum fas nefasque non valent convertere humanam vicem, must 
undoubtedly be explained in the same manner, whether we retain the accu- 
sative or read humana vice; the meaning is : " Poison cannot upset the eternal 
laws like things human." 

[§ 454.] Note 2. With transitive verbs also, the cause or the thing in con- 
sequence of which anything is done, is expressed by the ablative, but this is 
the regular practice only with substantives ending in the ablat. in u (§ 90.), 
which have no other cases ; e. g. jussu, rogatu, admonitu tuo veni, feci, misi or 
missus sum. With other substantives it is more rare ; e. g. Cic. p. Rose. Am. 
32. : ut omnes intelligant me non studio accusare, sed officio defendere; de Fin. 
ii. 26. : sifructibus et emolumentis et utilitatibus amicitias colemus; de Off. i. 9. : 
Suntetiam, qui aut studio rei familiar is tuendae aut odio quodam hominum suum 
se negotium agere dicant; Sallust, Cat. 23. : inopid minus largiri poterat ; Cic. 
Divin. in Caec. 3. : judiciorum desiderio tribunicia potestas efflagitata est, ju- 
diciorum levitate ordo aflus postulatur, &c. ; de Leg. iii. 7. : Regale civitatis 
genua's non tam regni, quam regis vitiis repudiatum est. The preposition propter 
or a circumlocution with causa, however, is generally used instead of the 
ablative ; e. g. instead of joco dicer e, jaco mentiri, we find joci causa; hoc 
onus suscepi tuu causa; honoins tui causa, propter amicitiam nostram. When 


the cause is a state of feeling, the best Latin writers prefer a ctrcumlocution 
with the perfect participle of some verb denoting " to induce ; " e. g. to do 
a thing from some desire, cupiditate ductus, inductus, incitatus, incensus, infiam- 
matus, impvLsus, motus, captus, &c. Livy is fond of using the preposition ab 
in this senscr as ab ira, a spe, ab odio, from anger, hope, hatred. See § 305., 
and Hand, Tursellin. i. p. 33, 

[§ 455.] 3. An ablative is joined with verbs of every kind to 
express the means or instrument by which a thing is done (g5- 
lativus instrumenti). Thus we say manu ducere aliquem, to lead 
a person by the hand ; equo, curru, nave vehi, the horse, carriage, 
and ships being the means of moving. 
Benivolentiam civium hlanditiis colligere turpe est, Cic. 
Cornihus tauri, apri dentibus, morsu hones, aliae fuga se, aliae 

occultatione tutantur, Cic. De Nat. Deor. ii. 50. 
Naturam expellas furca, tamen usque recurret, Horat. Epist, i. 

10. 24. 
Male quqeritur herhis ; morihus et forma conciliandus amor, 

Ovid. Heroid. vi. 93. 

Note. When a man is the instrument by which anything is effected, the 
ablative is rarely used, but generally the preposition per, or the circum- 
locution with opera alicujus, which is so frequent, especially with possessive 
pronouns, that med, fud, sud, &c. opera are exactly the same as per me, per 
te, per se, &c. ; and are used to denote both good and bad services ; e. g. Cic. 
Cat. Maj. 4. : mea opera Tarentum recepisti; Nep. Lys. 1. : Lysander sic sibi 
indulsit, vt ejus opera in maximum odium Graeciae Lacedaemonii pervenerint; 
that is, eju^ culpa, through his fault. Beiieficio is used in the more limited 
sense of good results, as beneficio tuo salvus, incolumis sum, where it is the 
same as per te. Per is soiiietimes used to express a means, but only when we 
are speaking of external concurring circumstances rather than of that which 
is really done to attain a certain object. We always say, e. g., vi oppidum 
cepit, but per vim ei bona eripuit. See § 301. The material instrument is 
always expressed by the ablative alone, and never with a preposition, such 
as cum; hence conjicere cervum sagittis, gladio aliquem mdnerare; comp. 

[§ 456.] 4. Hence with verbs of huying and selling, of esti- 
mation, value, and the like (§ 444.), the price or value of a 
thing is expressed by the ablative, provided it is indicated by a 
definite sum or a substantive. (Respecting the genitive in 
general expressions, see § 444., where it is observed that, con- 
trary to the general rule, the ablatives magno, permagno, plurimo, 
parvo, minimo, are commonly joined to verbs denoting "to buy" 
and "sell.") 
Ego spem pretio non emo, Tcrent. Adelph. ii. 2. 11. 


Si quis aurum venderis putet se orichalcum vendere, indicahitne ei 

vir bonus aurum illud esse, an emet denario, quod sit mille 

denariumf Cic. De Off. iii. 23. 
Viginti talentis unam orationem Isocrates vendidit, Plin. Hist. 

Nat. vii. 31. 
Denis in diem assibus anima et corpus (militum) aestimantur, 

Tacit. Ann. i. 17. 
Quod non opus est, asse carum est, Senec. Epist. 94. 

Note. To the verbs of buying and selling we must add many others which 
express an act or an enjoyment, for which a certain price is paid ; e. g. lavor 
qvadrante^ hahito triginta milibus HS, doceo talento, parvo aere mereo. Esse 
in the sense of "to be worth" is therefore joined with the ablative of the 
definite price ; e. g. Modius frumerdi in Sicilia hinis sestertiis, ad summufn 
ternis erat; sextante sal in Italia erat. We make this observation chiefly to 
direct attention to the difference between this ablative and the genitive of 
quality which occurs in the passage of Cicero quoted above. Est mille 
denarium there means, it is a thing of one thousand denarii (in value), and 
may be bought for that sum. 

Mutare and its compounds, commutare and permutare., are commonly con- 
strued in the same way as the verbs of selling : e. g. Jidem suam et religionem 
pecunidj stadium belli gerendi agricultural pellium tegmina vestihus, monies ac 
siivas urhibus^ and in Virg. Georg. i. 8. : Chaoniam glandem pingui mutavit 
arista, alluding to the first husbandman, who exchanged corn for acorns. But 
prose writers as well as poets reverse the expression, by putting that which 
we receive in the accusat., and that which we give for it in the ablative, 
either alone or with the preppsition cum; e. g. Horat. Carm. iii. 1. 47. : cur 
voile permutem Sabina divitias operosiores, why should I exchange my Sabine 
valley for more wearisome riches ? Epod. ix. 27. : Terra marique victus 
hostis Punico lugubre mutavit sagum; Curt. iii. 18. : exilium patria sede mu- 
taverat; Ovid, Met. yn. 60. : Quemque ego cum rebus, quas totus possidet orbis, 
Aesonidem mutasse velim ; Curt. iv. 4. : Habitus hie cum isto squalore permu- 
tandu^ tibi est; Sulpicius in Cic. ad Fam. iv. 5. : Usee temporibus nonpessime 
cum lis esse actum, quibus sine dolore licitum est mortem cum vita commutare. 
Livy too uses both constructions, but the ablat. alone is better attested. 
See Drakenborch on v. 20. 

[§ 457.] 5. The ablative is joined with nouns (both substan- 
tive and adjective) and verbs to express a particular circumstance 
or limitation, where in English the expressions " with regard 
to," "as to," or " in" are used: e. g. Nemo Romanorum Ciceroni 
parfuit, or Ciceronem aequavit eloquentid, in eloquence, or with 
regard to eloquence. Hence a great number of expressions by 
which a statement is modified or limited, as med sententid, mea 
opinione, meo judicio, frequently with the addition of quidem ; 
natione Syrus, a Syrian by birth; genere facile primus ; Hamil- 
car cognomine Barcas, &c. 


Agesilaus claudus fait (claucllcabat) altera pede, Nepos. 
Sunt quidam homines, non re, sed nomine, Cicero. 

[^458.] Note 1. The Latin poets, and those prose writers who are fond of 
poetical expressions, sometimes use the accusative instead of this ablative, 
in imitation of the Greeks ; hence the accusative is termed accusativus 
Graecus. It occurs most frequently with passive verbs, especially with per- 
fect participles, to determine the part of tlie body to which a statement applies 
or is limited ; e. g. vite caput tegitur^ he is covered (or covers himself) with a 
vine branch, but the covering is limited to the head : " his head is covered 
with," &c. ; membra sub arbuto stratus^ lying with his limbs stretched out ; 
redimitu3 tempora lauro^ his temples surrounded with a laurel wreath ; nuhe 
candentes humeros amictu^ ; liumeros oleo perfu^us ; miles fractiis membra 
laboj-e. Such expressions are pleasing, especially when an ablative is joined 
to the participle, as in Livy, xxi. 7. : adversum femur tragula graviter ictus; 
Sueton. Octav. 20. : dexterumgenu lapide ictus; Ovid, Met. xii. 269. : Gryneus 
eruitur oculos, appears rather harsh for Gryneo eruuntur oculi. This use of the 
accus. may be compared with that explained in § 393., ^doctus artes and in- 
terrogatus sententiam ; for an active verb may be joined with a twofold ac- 
(msative, either of the person or of a part of the person, as redimio te victorem, 
or redimio tempera^ crines, — and when such a sentence takes the passive 
form, the accusative of the person becomes the nominative, but that of the 
part remains. (Com. Buttmann's Greek Grammar, § 131.) 

But the poets go still further, and use this accusative of the part also wit h 
neuter verl3S and adjectives ; e. g. Virg. Georg. iii. 84. : tremit artus; Aen. i. 
589.: OS humerosque deo similis; Tacit. Germ. 17.: feminae Germanorum 
nudae bracliia et lace7'tos, and in the same writer we find clari genus^ for the 
usual clari genere, where genus is not an accusative of the part, but is com- 
pletely a Greek construction. 

The accusative expressing the articles of dress, used in poetical language 
with- the passive verbs induor, amicior, cingor, accingor, exuor, discingor, is of 
a different kind ; but it may be compared to the accus. of the part. The 
active admits two constructions : induo me veste and ijiduo mihi vestem (see 
above § 418.), and in the passive the two constructions are combined into 
one ; and instead of saying induor veste^ the poets and those who imitate them, 
say induor vestem. Instances of this occur in all the poets, but they are ex- 
tremely frequent in Ovid ; e.g. protinu^ induitur faciem cultumque Dianae; in- 
duiturqne aures lente gradientis aselli; Virg. Aen. ii. 510.: inutile fcrrum cingitur. 
To this accusative, the Latin ablative is sometimes added, to denote the part 
of the body which is dressed or adorned ; e.g. Ovid, Met. vii. 161. : inductaque 
cornibus aurum Victima vota cadit, and x. 271. : pandis inductae cornibus aurum 
juvencae. The accusative in Horace, Serm. i. 6. 74.: pueri laevo suspensi 
loculos tabulamque lacerto^ is curious, but suspensi is here used according to 
the analogy of accincti, like the Greek eKT]prr]ixsvoi rrjv irivaKa. 

[§ 459.] Note 2. Something of this Greek construction was adopted by tlie 
Romans even in their ordinary language, and there are some cases where the 
accusative is used in prose instead of the ablative. Magnam and maximam 
partem are thus used adverbially ^ov fere or magna {maxima) ex parte ; e. g. 
CIc. Orat. 56. : magnam partem ex iambis nostra constat oratio., consists to a 
great extent of iambics ; de Off. i. 7. : nmximam partem ad injuriam faciendam 
aggrediuntur, ut adipiscantur ea, quae concupiverunt. (Comi^. partim §271.) 
In the same manner cetera and reliquxi are joined to adjectives in the sense 



of ceteris; i.e. "for the rest," or "in other respects;" e. g. Liv. i. 32.: 
Proximum regnum^ cetera egregium, ab una parte haud satis prosperum fuit, and 
in many other passages, cetera similis, cetera laetus^ cetera bonus. Further, id 
temporis or id (hoc, idem) aetatis, for eo tempore, ea aetate; e.g. Liv. i. 50. : 
purgavit se, quod id temporis venisset; xl. 9. : Quid hoc noctis venis ? Cic. p. 
Cluent. 51.: non potuit honeste scribere in halneis se cum id aetatis Jilio fuisse ; 
Tacit. Ann. xiii. 16. : cum ceteris idem aetatis nohilibus ; i.e. cum ceteris ejus- 
dem aetatis nobilibus. On the same principle Tacitus, -4ww. xii. 18., says: 
Romanorum nemo id auctoritatis aderat, for ea auctoritate. 

[§ 460.] 6. The ablative is used with verbs denoting plenty 
or want, and with the corresponding transitives oi filling, en- 
dowing, depriving, {Ahlativus copiae aut inopiae.) Verbs of 
this kind are: — 1. ahundare, redundare, affluere, circumfluere, 
scatere, florere, pollere, valere, vigere {m. the figurative sense of 
"being rich or strong in anything"); carer e, egere, indigere, 
vacare ; 2. complere, explere, implere, opplere, cumulare, refer- 
cire, ohruere, imhuere, satiare, exatiare, saturare, stipare, consti- 
pare ; afficere, donare, remunerari, locupletare, ornare, augere ; 
privare, spoliare, orbare, fraudare, defraudare, nudare, exuere, 
and many others of a similar meaning. The adjective praeditus 
takes the place of a perfect participle (in the sense of "en- 
dowed'^), and is likewise joined with an ablative. 
Germania rivis Jluminihusque abundat, Seneca. 
Quam Dionysio erat miserum, carere consuetudine amicorum, 

societate victus, sermone omnino familiari! Cic. Tusc. v. 22. 
Arcesilas pMlosophus quum acumine ingenii Jloruit, turn admira- 

bili quodam lepore dicendi, Cic. Acad, iv. 6. 
Consilio et auctoritate non modo non orbari, sed etiam augeri 

senectus solet, Cic. Cat, Maj. 6. 
Mens est praedita motu sempiterno, Cic. Tusc, i. 27. 

[§461.] Note I. Afficere properly signifies to "endow with," but it is 
used in a great many expressions, and may sometimes be translated by " to do 
something to a person : " afficere aliquem honore, benejicio, laetitia, praemio, 
ignominia, injuria, poena, morte, sepultura. Remunerari (the simple munerare 
or munerari is not often used), properly " to make a present in return," 
hence " to remunerate." Respecting the different construction of the verbs 
donare, exuere, and others with the accusat. of the thing, and the dative of 
the person, see § 418. 

[§ 462.] Note 2. The adjectives denoting full and empty are sometimes 
joined with the ablative although as adjectiva relativa they take a genitive 
(see § 436). Refertus, filled, as a participle of the verb refer do has regu- 
larly the ablative, and it is only by way of exception that, according to the 
analogy of plenus, it takes the genitive ; e. g. Qhc.p. Font. 1. : referta Gallia 
negotiatorum est, plena civium Romanorum. Orbus, destitute ; creber and den- 
sus in the sense of " thickly covered with," are found only with the ablative. 


Vacuus, liber, imrmads andpurus are joined with the ablat or the preposition 

ab. See §468. 

[§ 463.] Note 3. A genitive is sometimes joined with egeo, and frequently 
with indigeo ; e. g. Cic. : hoc heUum indiget celeritatis ; and following the 
analogy of plemis the verbs complere and implere are joined with a genitive 
not only by the poets, but by good prose writers ; e. g. Cic. in Verr. v. 57. : 
qvMm conipletus jam mercaiorum career esset ; Cat Maj. 14. : convivium vici" 
norum quotidie compleo; ad Fam. ix. 18. : ollam denariomm implere, and in 
Livy : spei animorumque implere, temeritatis implere. 

It is obvious that with many of these verbs the ablative may justly be 
regarded as an ahlativus instrumenti. The verb valere in the sense of "being 
healthy or well," takes the ablative of the part, as corpore, pedihus, stomacho ; 
in the sense of " being strong," the ablat. joined to it is generally an ablat. 
instrumenti ; e. g. valeo auctoritate, gratia, pecunia, armis ; but in many cases 
it may be regarded also as an ablative of plenty, as in valere eloqueniia, 
equitatu valere. 

[§ 464.] 7. Opus est, there is need, is used either as an im- 
personal verb, in which case it takes, like the verbs denoting 
want, an ablative, e. g. duce (exemplis) nobis opus est, or per- 
sonally, in which case the thing needed is expressed by the 
nominative (just as aliquid mihi necessarium est), e. g. dux nobis 
opus est, exempla nobis opus sunt. The latter construction is 
most frequent with the neuters of pronouns and adjectives. 
Athenienses Philippidem cursorem Lacedaemonem miserunt, ut 

nuntiaret, quam celeri opus esset auxilio, Nep. Milt. 4. 
Themistocles celeriter quae opus erant reperiebat, Nep. Them, 1. 

Note 1. The genitive of the thing needed in Livy, xxii. 51.: temporis 
opus esse, and xxiii. 21.: quanti argenti opus fmt, is doubtful. But when 
the thing cannot be expressed by a substantive, we find either the accusat. 
with the infinitive, or the infinitive alone, the preceding subject being under- 
stood : e. g. si quid erit, quod te scire opus sit, scribam, or quid opus est tarn 
valde affirmare, scil. te ; or the ablat. of the perfect participle is used with 
or without a substantive ; e. g. Tacito quum opus est, clamas ; Livy : maturato 
opus est, quidquid statuere placet; Cic. ad Att. x. 4.: sed opus fuit Hirtio 
convento ; Liv. vii. 5. : opus sibi esse domino ejus convento. The ablat. of 
the supine (in u) is less frequent. Priu^quam incipias, consuUo, et, ubi con- 
mdueris, mature facto opus est, Sallust, Cat. 1. 

Note 2. Usus est, in the sense of opus est, is likewise used impersonally, as 
in Livy : vi reducer et naves, quibus consvli v^us non esset, of which the consul 
was not in want. 

[§ 466.] 8. The ablative is joined with the deponent verbs 
utor,fruor,fungor, potior and vescor, and their compounds abutor, 
perfruor, defungor and perfungor, 
Hannibal quum victoria posset liti, frui maluit, Florus. 
Qui adipisci veram gloriam volet, ju^titiae fungatur ojfficiis, Cic. 

de Off. ii. 13. 

z 2 


Numidae^plerumque lacte et fcrina came vescehantur, Sallust, 

Jug. 89. 

[§ 466.] Note. In early Latin these verbs were frequently joined with 
the accusative, but in the best period of the language it seldom occurs, and 
only in less correct writers. (In Nepos, Datam. 1. : militare munus fungens 
is well established, but JEumen, 3.: summam imperii potiri is doubtful, and 
so are the passages quoted from Cicero with the accusat. See my note on 
de Off. ii. 23.) This, however, is the reason why even classical writers use 
the construction with the participle future passive, where otherwise the 
gerund only could have been used. (See § 657.) Potior occurs (in classical 
writers) also with the genitive ; e. g. regni^ imperii., but more especially 
in the phrase rerum potiri, to assume the supremacy. Apiscor and adipiscor 
are used by Tacitus in the same sense with~a genitive (rerum., dominationis), 
and Horace goes so far as to join regnare (which is otherwise an intransitive 
verb) with a genitive, Carm. iii. 30. 12. : agrestium popuiorum. TJtor often 
signifies " I have," especially when the object (the ablat.) is accompanied by 
another noun (substant. or adject.) in apposition; e.g. utor te amico., I 
have you as a friend ; Nep. : Hannibal Sosilo Lacedaemonio litterarmn 
Graecarum usus est doctore ; Cic. : vide quam me sis usurus aequo., how fair I 
shall be towards thee. 

[§ 467.] 9. The adjectives dignus, indignus and contentus are 
joined with the ablative of the thing of which we are worthy, 
unworthy, and with which we are satisfied. Dignari, to be 
deemed worthy, or, as a deponent, to deem worthy, is construed 
like dignus. 
Si vere aestimare Macedonas, qui tunc fuerunt, volumus, fate- 

himuVi et regem talihus ministris, et illos tanto rege fuisse dig- 

nissimos, Curt. iv. in fin. 
Quam multi luce indigni sunt, et tamen dies oritur ! Senec. 

Note. Dignari is used by Cicero only as the passive of the obsolete active 
dignare, and that not only in the participle, but in the various tenses. The 
writers of the silver age use it as a deponent ; e. g. Sueton. Vespas. 2. : 
gratias egit ei, quad se honore coenae dignatus esset., that he had thought him 
worthy. When joined with an infinitive, dignor with those writers signifies 
" I think proper to do a thing." Vignus^ in poetry and unclassical prose 
writers, is sometimes joined with a genitive, like the Greek alioc. When it 
is followed by a verb, the Latin language generally requires a distinct 
sentence beginning with a relative pronoun, the verb being put in the sub- 
junctive ; sometimes, however, the infinitive is used, as in English. (See 
§ 568.) Contentus is likewise joined with the infinitive of a verb, see 
§ 590. The ablat. with this adjective arises from the meaning of the verb 
contineri, of which it is, properly speaking, the participle passive ; hence in a 
reflective sense it signifies " confining one's self to," or " satisfying one's self 
with a thing." 

[§ 468.] 10. The verbs of removing, preventing, delivering, 
and others which denote separation, are construed with the ab- 
lative of the thing, without any of the prepositions ab, de or ex ; 



but when separation from a person is expressed the preposition 

ab is always used. The principal verbs of this class are: — 

arcere, pellere, depellere, expellere, deturbare, dejicere, ejicere, ab- 

sterrere, deterrere, movere, amovere, demovere, removere, prohibere, 

excludere ; abire, exire, cedere, decedere, discedere, desistere, eva- 

dere, abstinere ; liberare, expedire, laxare^ solvere, together with 

the adje/etives liber, immunis, purus, vacuus and alienusy which 

may be used either with the preposition ab or the ablative alone, 

e. g. liber a delictis and liber omni metu, but the verbs exolvere, 

exonerare and kvare, although implying liberation, are always 

construed with the ablative alone. 

llie verbs which denote " to distinguish " and " to differ," viz. distinguere^ 
discemcre^ secemere^ differre^ discrepare^ dissidere, distare, abhorrere, together 
with alienare and abalienare^ are generally joined only with the preposition 
fli, and the ablat. alone is rare and poetical ; e.g. Tacit. Ann. i. 55. : neque 
ipse ahhorrehat talibus studiis; Ovid, Met. iii. 145. : sol ex aequo metd distabat 
utrdque. The verbs denoting " to differ " are construed also with the dative, 
and not only in poetry, but sometimes even in prose ; e. g. Horat. Epist. i, 
18. 4. : distat infdo scurrae amicus; ibid. ii. 2. 193. : simplex hilarisque nepoti 
discrepat; Quintil. xii. 10. : Graecis Tu^canicae statuae differunt. The same 
principle is followed by the adjective diversusy as in Quintil. I. c. : Nihil fam 
est Lysiae diversum quam Isocrates ; Horat. Serm. i. 4- 48. : (Comaedia) nisi 
quod pede certo Differt sermoni, sermo merus, 

L. Brutus civitatem dominatu regio liberavit, Cic. p. Plane, 25. 
Te a quartana liber atum gaudeo, Cic. ad Att x» 15. 
Esse pro cive, qui civis nan sit, rectum est non lieere, v^u vera 
urbis prohibere peregrinos sane inhumanum est^ Cic. de Off, iii. 
Apud veteres Germanos quemcunque mortalium arcere tecto ne- 

fas habebatur. Tacit. Germ. 21. 
Tu, Juppiter, hunc a tuis aris, a tectis urbis, a moenibus, a vita 
fortunisque civium arcebis, Cic. in Cat, i, in fin. 

[§ 469.] Note 1 . The verb separare Itself is commonly construed with ab^ 
but the ablative alone is also admissible ; e.g. Ovid, Trist. i. 10. 28. : Seston 
Ahydena separat urhe fretum. ^ Evadere is joined by Cicero with ex and ab^ 
but Livy and Sallust use it with the ablat. alone ; it may take the accusal, 
according to § 386. ; e. g. evadere amnem, fximmam^ insidias^ silvas^ but this 
occurs only in the silver age. Prohibere, to keep at a distance, prevent, 
admits of a double construction : the most common is to put the hostile 
thing or person in the accusative, as hostes prohibere populationibus or ab 
oppidis ', Cic. /?. Leg. Man. 7. : a quo perictdo prohibete rempublicam^ and in 
the same chapter : erit humanitatis vestrae, magnum horum civium numerum 
calamitate prohibere. In like manner defendere is joined with the accusative 
of the thing to be warded off, or of the thing or person to be defended. In 

z 3 . 


tte former sense defendere is commonly used with the accusat. alone, as 
defender e nimios ardor es solis, but ab aliquo may also be added ; in the latter 
sense ab is very frequently joined to it, as a periculo, a vi, ab injuria. After 
the analogy of prohibere, the verb interdicere alicui is used almost more 
frequently with the ablative, aliqua re, than with the accusat. aliquid ; e. g. 
Caes. Sell. Gall. i. 46. : Ariovistus ornni Gallia interdixit Romanis ; Quintil. 
vi. 3. 79. : quod ei domo sua interdixisset, and hence the well known formula 
alicui aqua et igni interdicere. See the excellent disquisition of Perizonius 
on Sanctius, Minerv. p. 345. foil. ed. sexta ; comp. § 418. 

The dative with verbs denoting " to differ," is attested by a sufficient 
number of passages ; but it is impossible to ascertain what was the practice 
with the verbs denoting " to distinguish," for there are no decisive passages. 
Horace says vero distingv£re falsum, turpi secemere honestum, secemere pri- 
vatis publica, but it is uncertain whether vero, turpi and privatis, are datives 
or ablatives. The poets now and then use the dative instead of ab with the 
ablat., with verbs denoting separation ; e. g. Virg. Eclog. vii. 47. : solstitium 
pecori defendite ; Georg. iii. 155.: oestrum arcebis gravido pecori; Horat. 
Carm. i. 9. 17. : donee virenti canities abest. For otherwise abesse is always 
joined with ab. (Comp. however § 420.) Dissentire, dissidere and discrepare, 
are construed also with cum, and discordare cum aliquo is more frequent than 
ab aliquo. The genitive, which is sometimes joined by poets to verbs of 
separation, is entirely Greek ; e. g. Plant. Rud. i. 4. 27. : me omnium jam 
laborum levas ; Horat. Carm. ii. 9. 17.: desine mollium tandem querelarum ; 
ibid. iii. 27. 69. : abstineto irarum calidaeque rixae; ibid. iii. 17. in fin. : cum 
famulis operum solutis ; Serm. ii. 3. 36. : morbi purgatus ; and according to this 
analogy the genitive is used also with adjectives of the same meaning, Horat. 
Serm. ii. 2. 119. : operum vacuum; de Art. Poet. 212. : liber laborum; Carm. 
i. 22. : purus sceleris. So Tacitus, Annal. i. 49., uses diversus with the 
genitive instead of ab aliqua re. 

[§ 470.] Note 2. The adjective alienus (strange), in the sense of " unfit " 
or " unsuited," is joined either with the ablative alone or with ab. ; e. g. Cic. 
de Off", i. 13. : frav^ quasi vulpeculae, vis leonis videtur, utrumque homine 
alienissimum est ; non alienum putant dignitate, majestate sua, institutis suis ; 
but Cicero just as often uses the preposition ab. In the sense of " disaf- 
fected" or " hostile " ttZzewM* always takes ab; e.g. homo alienus a litteris, 
animum alienum a causa nobilitatis habere. In the former sense of " unsuited," 
being the opposite of proprius (§411.), it may also be joined with the 
genitive ; e. g. Cic. de Fin. i. 4. : quis alienum putet ejus esse dignitatis, and in 
the latter (after the analogy of inimicus) with the dative, as Cic. p. Caec. 9. : 
id dicit quod illi causae maxime est alienum. Alius too is sometimes found 
with the ablative, which may be regarded as an ablative of separation ; e. g. 
Horat. Epist. i. 16. 20. : neve putes alium sapiente bonoque beatum; Epist. ii. 
1. 239.: alius Lysippo; Phaedr. Prolog, lib. iii. 41.: alius Sejano ; Varro, 
de R. R. iii. 16. : quod est aliud melle ; Cic. ad Fam. xi. 2., in speaking of 
Brutus and Cassius, says : n£c quidquam aliud libertate communi qvaesisse. 
But this ablat. may also be compared with the ablat. joined to comparatives. 

[§471.] 11. The ablative is used with esse (either expressed 
or understood) to denote a quality of a person or a thing {ahla- 
tivus qualitatis). But the ablative is used only when the sub- 
stantive denoting the quality does not stand alone (as in the 


case of the genitive, see § 426.), but is joined with an adjective 
or pronoun-adjective. Hence we cannot say, e. g. Caesar fuit 
ingenio, or homo ingenio, a man of talent (which would be ex- 
pressed by an adjective), but we say Caesar magnoy summon or 
excellenti ingenio, or homo summo ingenio. 
Agesilaus statura fuit humili et corpore exiguo, Nepos. 
Omnes habentur et dicuntur tyranni, qui potestate sunt perpetua 

in ea civitate, quae libertate usa est, Nep. Milt, 
L, Catilina, nobili genere natus,fuit magna vi et animi et corporis, 

sed ingenio malo pravoque, Sallust, Cat, 5. 
Prope (Hennam) est spelunca quaedam, inflnita altitudine, qua 

Ditem patremferunt repente cum curru extitisse, Cic. in Verr. 

iv. 48. 

Note. The explanation of the ablative of quality by the ellipsis of prae- 
ditus is only intended to suggest some mode of accounting for the fact of a 
substantive being joined with an ablative. With the same object in view 
we prefer connecting the ablative with esse or its participle ens (though it 
does not occur), in the absence of which a substantive enters into an imme- 
diate connection with an ablative, without being grammatically dependent 
upon it : Claris natalibus est, he is of noble birth ; vir claris natalibus, homo 
antiqua virtute etjide. With regard to the difference between the ablative 
and the genitive of quality, the genitive is more comprehensive, all ideas of 
measure being expressed by this case alone ; but in other respects the dis- 
tinction is not very clear. In general, however, it may be said, that the 
genitive is used more particularly to express inherent qualities, and the 
ablative both inherent and accidental qualities. Thus, in speaking of tran- 
sitory qualities or conditions, the ablative is always used, as bono animo sum, 
maximo dolore eram, and Cicero, ad Att. xii. 52., by using the genitive summi 
animi es, suggests that he is speaking of something permanent, not merely 
transitory. See Kriiger's Grammat. p. 532. The genitive of plural sub- 
stantives is rare. Sometimes the two constructions, with the ablative and 
the genitive, are found combined ; e. g. Cic. ad Fam. iv. 8. : neqiLe monere te 
audeo, praestanti pmdentia virum, nee conjirmare maximi animi hominem; 
ibid. i. 7. : Lentulum eximia spe, summae virtutis adolescentem ; Nep. Datam. 3. : 
Thyum, hominem maximi corporis terribilique facie — optima veste texit. 

[§ 472.] 12. The ablative with the preposition cum is Used 
to express the manner in which any thing is done (usually indi- 
cated by adverbs), provided the manner is expressed by a sub- 
stantive ; e. g. cum fide amicitiam colere ; litterae cum cura dili" 
gentiaque scriptae ; cum voluptate audire ; cum dignitate potius 
cadere, quam cum ignominia servire, are equivalent to fideliter 
colere, diligenter scriptae, libenter audire, &c. If an adjective is 
joined with the substantive, the ablative alone {ablativus modi) 
is generally used, and the preposition cum is joined to it only 

z 4 


when an additional circumstance, and not an essential charac- 
teristic of the action, is to be expressed. The substantives im- 
plying manner, as modus, ratio, mos, and others, never take the 
preposition cum. 

Thus we always read : — hoc modo scripsi ; non uno modo rem tractavi ; 
omni modo egi cum rege ; aliqua ratione tollere te volunt; constituerunt qua 
ratione ageretur^ and the like ; in the same way humano modo et usitato more 
peccare^ more hestiarum vagari^ latronum ritu vivere, more institutoque omnium 
defendere^ the genitive in these cases supplying the place of an adjective. 
We further say aequo animo fero ; maxima fide amicitias coluit ; summa 
aequitate res constituit^ and very frequently viam incredibili celei'itate confecit; 
lihrum magna cura diligentiaque scripsit, the action of the verb b'eing in in- 
timate connection with the adverbial circumstance. But when the action and 
the circumstance are considered separately, the preposition cum is used ; e. g. 
majore cum fide auditur ; conclamant cum indecora exultatione (in Quintil.) ; 
tanta multitudo cum tanto studio adest (Cic. p. Leg. Man. 24.) ; Verres Lamp- 
sacum venit cum magna calamitate civitatis (Cic. in Vei-r. i. 24.), the calamitas 
being only the consequence of his presence. Hence cum is also used when 
the connection between the subject and the noun denoting the attribute is 
only external; e. g. procedere cum veste purpurea; heus tu qui cum Mrquimi 
astas barba (Plant. Pseud, iv. 2. 12.) ; yvhereiis procedere coma madenti, nudis 
pedibus incedere, aperto capite sedere express circumstances or attributes in- 
separable from the subject. 

Quid est aliud gigantum modo hellare cum diis, nisi naturae re- 

pugnare? Cic. Cat. Maj. 2. 
Legiones nostrae in eum saepe locum profectae sunt alacri animo 

et erecto, unde se nunquam redituras arbitrarentur, Cic. Cat. 

Maj. 20. 
Epaminondas a judicio capitis maxima discessit gloria, Nep. 

Epam. 8. 
Romani ovantes ac gratulantes Horatium accipiunt, eo majore cum 

gaudio, quo prope metum res fuerat, Liv. i. 25. 
Miltiades (cum Parum expugnare non potuisset) Athenas magna 

cum offensione civium suorum rediit, Nep. Milt. 7. 

Note 1. The difference observed between the ablativus modi and cum., in 
the case of substantives joined with adjectives, is a nicety of the Latin lan- 
guage, which it is difficult to explain by a rule, although it is based on 
sound principles. Cicero, de Orat. i. 13., in speaking of the peculiar dif- 
ference between the oratorical and philosophical style, combines the two 
constructions : illi (the philosophers) tenui quodam exanguique sermone 
disputant., hie (the orator) cum omni gravitate et jucunditate explicat: by 
cum Cicero here denotes the additional things which the orator employs. If 
he had alluded only to the mode of speaking, he would have said magna 
gravitate rem explicat. But there are, nevertheless, some passages, in which 
no difference is apparent, as Cic. de Invent, i. 39. : Quod cnim certius legis 
scriptor testimonium voluntatis suae relinquere potuit., quam quod ipse magna 
cum cura atque diligentia scripsit? de Nat. Deor. ii. 38.: impetus coeli cum 


admirabili celeritate movetur. The beginner must observe that the ablativus 
modi is more frequent than the use of cum^ which, we hope, is explained in 
an intelligible manner. 

The ablativus modi occurs also in the words covdicio or lex, in the sense 
of " condition," or " term," and in periculum, danger, risk ; e. g. nulla con- 
dicione (like mdlo pacto) fieri potest; quavis condicione pacem facere ; aequa 
condicione disceptare ; hac, ea condicione or lege ut or ne (§ 319.) ; meo, tuOy 
vestro, cdicujiis periculo facere aliquid (but when the substantive stands alone, 
we say cum perictdo, that is, pericidose) ; auspicio, auspiciis, ductu imperioque ali- 
cujus rem gerere or militare. Some cases in which the ablative is used, and 
which are commonly considered as ablativi modi, are in reality of a different 
kind : hac mente, hoc consilio feci, for example, should rather be called ab- 
lativi causae ; navi vehi, pedihns ire, pervenire aliquo, capite onera ferre, vi 
urbes expugnare, on the other hand, are ablativi instrumenti, but they ac- 
quire the nature of an ablativus modi, if the substantive is joined with an 
adjective, as magna vi irruere, magna vi defender e aliquem, or they become 
ablatives absolute, implying a description ; e. g. nvdis pedibus ambulare, pro- 
cessit madenti coma, composito capillo, gravibus oculis, fluentibus buccis, pressa 
voce et temtdenta. (Pseud. Cic. post Red. in Sen. 6.) See § 645. The ablat. 
in Cic. Lael. 15. : miror (de Tarquinio) ilia superbia et importunitate si quem- 
quttm amicum Tiabere potuit, must likewise be regarded as an ablative ab- 
solute, being the same as quum tanta ejus superbia et importunitas fuerit. As 
the preposition cum cannot be used in any of these cases, we may consider 
it as a practical rule, that the manner in which a thing is done is expressed 
by the ablativus modi. 

In some expressions the ablative of substantives alone is found without 
cum. Thus we say silentio praeterire, or facere aliquid (but also cum silen- 
tio audire}, lege agere; jure and injuria facere; magistratus vitio creatus is a 
common expression, indicating that an election had not taken place in 
due form. Cicero uses aliquid recte et ordine, modo et ratione, ratione et 
ordine fit, via et ratione disputare, and frequently also ratione alone ; e. g. 
ratione facere, ratione voluptatem sequi (de Fin. i. 10.), with reason, i. e. in 
a rational way ; sometimes also voluntate facere in the sense of sponte^ volun- 

[§ 473.] Note 2. If we compare the above rules with those given under 
Nos. 1. and 2., the ablative expressing company alone is excluded, for com- 
pany is expressed by cum, even in such cases as servi cum telis comprehensi 
sunt, cum ferro in aliquem invadere, when we are speaking of instruments 
which a person ha^ (if he uses them, it becomes an ablativus instrumenti) ; 
i\xri\\Q.r y^Romxim veni cumfebri; cum nuntio exire, as soon as the news arrived; 
cum occasu solis copias educere, as soon as the sun set. It must be observed 
as an exception that the ancient writers, especially Caesar and Livy, in 
speaking of military movements, frequently omit the preposition- cum, and 
use the ablat. alone ; e. g. Liv. vii. 9. : Dictator ingenti exercitu ab urbe pro- 
fectus; XXX. 11.: exercitu hand minoj'e, quam quern prius habuerat, ire ad 
hostes pergit; xli. 1. : eodem decern navibus C. Furius duumvir navalis venit; 
i. 14. : egresms omnibus copiis, where Drakenborch gives a long list of 
similar expressions in Livy, with which we may compare the commentators 
referred to by him and Oudendorp on Caes. Bell. Gall. ii. 7. This omission 
of the preposition occurs also when accompanying circumstances are men- 
tioned, and not persons; e. g. Liv. vii. 20. : quum popvlatione peragrati fines 
esseid; v. 45. : castra clamor e invadunt. The Greeks, especially Xenophon, 


use the dative in the same way ; comp. Matthiae, Greek Gram. § 405., and 
also Livy, x. 25. : majori mihi curae est, ut omnes locupletes reducam, quam ut 
mvltis rem geram militihus, which is an ablativus instrumenti, unless it be 
explained by the analogy of the expressions mentioned above. 

[§ 474.] We may add here the remark that the participles Jmwc^z** and con- 
junctus are joined by Cicero with the ablative alone, instead of the dative 
(according to § 412. and 415.) or the preposition cum; e. g. ad Att. ix. 10. : 
infinitum helium junctum miserrima fuga; p. Cluent. 6. : repente est exorta 
mulieris importunae nefaria libido, non solum dedecore, verum etiam scelere 
conjunda; de Orat. i. 67. : dicendi vis egregia, summa festivitate et venustate 
conjuncta. See Garatoni's note on Philip, v. 7. : huju^ mendicitas aviditate 
conjuncta in fortunas nostras imminebat. See also p. Plane. 10. ; Philip, iii. 
14. ; Brut. 44. This construction is also found with implicatus in Cic. Phil. 
ii. 32., and with admixtus in de Nat. Deor. ii. 10. Compare the construction 
o£ simul in § 321. 

[§ 475.] 13. a) The ablative, without a preposition, is used 
to express the point of time at which any thing happens. 
(Duration of time is expressed by the accusative, see § 395.) 
Qua node natus Alexander est, eddem, JDianae Ephesiae templum 

dejiagravit, Cic. De Nat, Deor. ii. 27. 
Pyrrhi temporibus jam Apollo versus facere desierat, Cic. De 

Divin. ii. 5Q. 
Pompejus extrema pUeritia miles fuit summi imperatoris, ineunte 

adolescentia maximi ipse exercitus imperator, Cic. p. Leg, 

Man. 10. 

Note. Our expressions " by day" and " by night," are rendered in Latin 
by the special words interdiu and noctu, but the ordinary ablatives die and 
node also occur not unfrequently, as in the combination : die ac node, die 
noduque, node et interdiu. Vespere or vesperi is " in the evening," see §§ 98. 
and 63. Ludis is also used to denote time, in the sense of tempore ludorum, 
and on the same principle we find Saturnalibus, Latinis, gladiatoribus, for 
ludis gladiatoriis. See Drakenborch on Livy, ii. 36. Other substantives 
which properly speaking do not express time, are used in that sense either 
with the preposition in (comp. § 318.), or without it; e.g. initio and principio, 
adventu and discessu alicujus, comitiis, tumultu, and bello; but of bello the ablat. 
alone is more common, if it is joined with an adjective or genitive, as bello 
Latinorum, Vejenti bello, bello Punico secundo, and after this analogy also 
pugna Cannensi for in pugna Cannensi. Thus also we say in pueritia; but 
when an adjective denoting time is joined to pueritia, the ablative alone is 
used. It is in general very rare and unclassical to use in with substantives 
expressing a certain space of time, as hora, dies, annus, &c., for the purpose 
of denoting the time when anything happens ; for in tempore is used only 
when tempus signifies "distress" or "misery" (as it sometimes does in 
Cicero : in illo tempore, hoc quidem in tempore, and in Livy : in tali tempore, 
where we should say " under such circumstances"), and " in time," " at the 
right time ;" but in both cases the ablative alone also occurs, and tempore in 
the sense of "early" has even become an adverb. An earlier form of 
this adverb is tempori or temperi, of which a comparative temperius is formed. 


Livy (i. 18. and 57.) however has the expression in ilia aetate, at that period, 
for which Cicero would have used the ablative alone. 

[§ 476.] b) The ablative is also used to express the time 
before and the time after a thing happened, and ante and post 
are in this case placed after the ablative. The meaning, how- 
ever, is the same as when ante and post are joined with the 
accusative in the usual order, just as we may sometimes say, in 
the same sense, " three years after," and " after three years," 
post tres annos decessit, and tribus annis post decessit. In this 
connection the ordinal numerals may be employed, as well as the 
cardinal ones : post tertium annum, and tertio anno post, are the 
same as tribus annis post; for by this, as by the former exjpres- 
sions, the Romans did not imply that a period of three full 
years had intervened, but they included in the calculation the 
beginning and the end (the terminus a quo and the terminus ad 
quern). If we add the not unusual position of the preposition 
between the adjective and the substantive (noticed above, § 324.), 
we obtain eight different modes of expression, all of which have 
the same value. 

{ante) post tres annos tribus annis post, 

post tertium annum tertio anno post, 

tres post annos tribus post annis, 

tertium post annum tertio post anno. 

When ante or post stands last (as in tribus annis post or tertio 
anno post), it may be joined with an accusative following it to 
denote the time after and before which any thing took place. 
Themistocles fecit idem, quod viginti annis ante apud nos fecerat 
Coriolanus (ut in exilium proficisceretur, B. c. 471), Cic. 

Lael, 12. 
L, Sextius primus de plebe consul factus est annis post Romam 

conditam trecentis duodenonaginta, 

[§ 477.] Note, Post and ante sometimes precede the ablatives : ante annis 
octo, post paucis diehus (Liv. xl. 57., and elsewhere), and also before such 
ablatives as are used adverbially : post aliquanto^ post non multo^ post paula 
(ante aliquanto, Cic. in Verr. ii. 18.; ante paulo,, de Re Publ. ii. 4.) ; but the 
usual place of these prepositions is that mentioned above in the rule. Diit 
post must be avoided, for it is only the ablatives in o that are used in this way. 

When ante and post are joined with quam and a verb, the expression admits 
of great variety : we may say tribus annis postquam venerat, post tres annos 
quam venerate, tertio anno postquam venerate post annum tertium quam venerate or 
post may be omitted and the ablative used alone : tertio anno quam venerate — 
and all these expressions have the same meaning, viz. " three years after he 
had come." 


[§ 478.] c) The length of time before the present moment 
is expressed by abhinc, generally with the accusative, but also 
with the ablative ; e. g. Demosthenes abhinc annos prope trecentos 
fuit, and abhinc annis quattuor. The same is also expressed by 
ante, with the pronoun hie, as in Phaedrus : ante hos sex menses 
maledixisti mihi. 
Demosthenes, qui abhinc annos prope trecentos fuit, jam turn 

(j^tXcTTTn^stv Pythiam dicebat, id est quasi cum Philippo facer e, 

Cic. DeDivin. ii. 57. 

Note. Abhinc without reference to the present moment, in the sense of 
ante in general, occurs only in Cic. in Verr. ii. 52. ; «wte, on the other hand, 
is used more frequently instead of abhinc, Cic. Leg. Agr. ii. 18.: vos mihi 
praetori hiennio a\ite personam hanc imposuistis ; comp. Tusc. i. 5. 9. Hand 
(Tursellin. i. p. 63.) observes that no ancient writer ever used an ordinal 
numeral with abhinc, and Pliny (Hist. Nat. xiv. 4.) alone says : septimo hinc 
anno. Sometimes the length of time before is expressed by the ablat. alone 
joined with hie or ille, as paucis his diehus, or paucis illis dicbus, a few days 
ago. Respecting the difference between these pronouns, in reference to the 
present or past time, see § 703. ; comp. Q'lcin Verr.iv. 18. ^ 39. and c.63. init. 

[§ 479.] d) The length of time within which a thing happens 
is expressed by the ablative alone as well as by in with the 
ablative. Cicero uses the ablative alone, and introduces in only 
in connection with numerals (in answer to the question, " how 
often during a certain time ? ") ; e. g. bis in die saturum fieri, vix 
ter in anno nuntium audire, sol binas in singulis annis conversiones 
facit, but not exclusively so. Other good authors use in when 
they wish to express more decidedly the idea of within, which is 
generally expressed by intra. (See § .300.) 
Agamemnon cum universa Graecia vix decem annis unam cepit 

urbem, Nep. Epam. 5. 
Senatus decrevit, ut legati Jugurthae, nisi regnum ipsumque 

deditum venissent, in diehus proximis decem Italia decederent, 

Sallust, Jug. 28. 

[§ 480.] Note. The ablative expressing " within a time " often acquires the 
signification of " after " a time, inasmuch as the period within which a thing is 
to happen, is passed away. Thus Tarraconem paucis diebus pervenit, in Caesar 
(Bell. Civ. ii. 21.), signifies " after a few days," and Sallust (Jug. 39. 4.) fol- 
lows the same principle in saying : paucis diebus in Africam proficiscitar, and 
(ibid. 13.) paucis diebus Romam legatos mittit, for paucis diebus post. (See 
Kritz on Sallust, Jug. 11.^ Suetonius (Ner. 3., Tib. 69.) in the same sense 
says in paucis diebus. This use of the ablative occurs in Cicero (and other 
good authors), inasmuch as the ablative of time, when followed by a pre- 
position with a relative pronoun, signifies " later than ;" e. g. Plancius in Cic. 


ad Fan), x. 18. : ipse octo diehus^ quihus has litteras dabam^ cum Lepidi copiis 
me conju7igam, that is, eight days after the date of this letter; p. Rose. Am. 36. : 
Mors Sex. Roscii qiiatriduo^ quo is occisus est, Chrysogono nuntiatur, four days 
after he had been killed ; Caes. Bell. Gall. i. 48. : accidit repentinum incom- 
modum biduo, quo haec gesta sunt, two days after this had happened ; v. 26. : 
diebu^ circiter xv., quibus in hiberna verdum est, defectio orta est; also with 
quum iiistead of a relative pronoun, Plancius in Cic. ad.Fam. x. 23. : quern 
triduo, quum has dabam litteras, expectabam, three days later than the date of 
this letter. Sometimes in is joined with the abl., Terent. Andr. i. 1. 77. : in 
diebus paucis, quibus haec acta sunt, moritur. 

[§ 481.] 14. The ablative without a preposition is used to 
denote the place where? in some particular combinations, as 
terra marique, by land and by sea. The names of towns follow 
their own rules (§ 398.). The preposition is omitted with the 
word loco (and locis), when it is joined with an adjective, and has 
the derivative meaning of " occasion ; " e. g. hoc loco, multis locis, 
aliquot locis, certo loco, secundo loco, meliore loco res nostras sunt ; 
but this is done more rarely when locus has its proper meaning 
of "spot " or "place." In loco, or simply loco, is equal to suo 
loco, in its right place ; when joined with a genitive, loco signi- 
fies "instead," and in this sense in loco is used as well as loco 
(also numero) alicujus esse., ducere, habere. Libro joined with an 
adjective or pronoun, as hoc, primo, tertio, is used without in, 
when the whole book is meant, and with in when merely a 
portion or passage is meant. 

The poets know of no limits in the use of the ablative with- 
out in to denote a place where ? e. g. Ovid, Met. vii. 547. : 
silvisque agrisque viisque corpora foeda jacent, any more than in 
the use of the accusative to denote the place whither? (See 
§ 401.) They further use the abfative without ex or ab to 
indicate the place whence ? without limiting themselves to the 
verbs of separation (§ 468.) ; e. g. coder e nubibus, descender e coelo, 
labi equo, currus carceribus missi. 

[§ 482.] Note. The writers of the silver age imitated the poets, and began 
more and more to use the ablative without a preposition to designate the 
place where ? Livy, for example, says : aequo dimicatur campo, medio alveo 
concursum est, medio Etruriae agro praedatum profectus, ad secundum lapidem 
Gabina via considere jubet (ii. 11.), ad moenia ipsa Romae regione portae 
Esquilinne accessere; in the special signification of regio, a division of the 
city, Suetonius always uses it without in, e. g. regione campi Martii, and 
others go still further. The ablative denoting the place whence ? likewise 
appears in the prose of that time, e. g. Tacit. Ann. xii. 38. : ni cito vicis et 
castellis proximis subventum foret, for e vicis. With regard to ordinary prose, 
it only remains .to observe, that the ablative joined with the adjective toto or 


tota is generally used without in; e. g. Cic. p. Rose. Am. 9. : urbe tota gemitiis 
Jit; in Verr. v. 35.: concursahat tota urbe maxima multitudo; p. Leg. Man. 11., 
and very often toto mart; Philip, xi. 2. : tota Asia vagatur; p. Leg. Man. 3. : 
tota Asia., tot in civitatibus; in Verr. ii, 49. : tota Sicilia per triennium nemo vlla 
in civitate senator f actus est gratis; in Verr. iv. 19.: conquiri hominem tota 
provincia jubet ; sometimes, however, we find in tota provincia^ and in toto 
orbe terrarum; Caes. Bell. Civ. i. 6. ; tota Italia delectus habentur; tAyy fre- 
quently uses toto campo dispersi, and Curtius : ignes qui totis campis collucere 
coeperunt^ cadavera totis campis Jacentia. 

[§ 483.] 15. The ablative is used with adjectives in the com- 
parative degree, instead of quam with the nominative, or in the 
construction of the accusative with the infinitive, instead of 
quam with the accusative of the subject ; e. g. Nemo Romanorum 
fuit eloquentior Cicerone; neminem Romanorum eloquentiorem 
fuisse veteres judicarunt Cicerone, The ablative instead of quam 
with the accusative of the object occurs more rarely, but when 
the object is a relative pronoun, the ablative is generally used. 
Villus argentum est auro, virtutibus aurum, Horat. Epist. 
Sapiens humana omnia inferiora virtute ducit, Cic. Tusc, 
Phidiae simulacris, quibus nihil in illo genere perfectius videmus, 
cogitare tamen possumus pulchriora, Cic. Orat. 2. 

[§ 484.] Note 1. The ablative, instead of quam., with the accusative of the 
object, is found very frequently in poetry : e. g. Horat. Carm. i. 8. 9. : Cur 
olivum sanguine viperino cautius vital? i. 12. 13.: Quid prius dicam solitis 
parentis laudibus ? i. 18. 1.: Nullam, Vare, saci^a vite prius severis arborem^ 
&c. In prose it is much more uncommon, though well established ; e. g. 
Cic. de Re Publ. i. 10. : Quern auctorem de Socrate locupletiorem Platone 
laudare possumus? p. Rob. 1. : Est boni consulis suam salutem posteriorem 
saluti communi ducere ; Caes. Bell. Gall. vii. 19. : nisi eorum vitam sua sa- 
lute habeat cariorem ; Val. Maxim, v. 3. ext. 2. : Neminem Lycurgo aut 
majorem aut utiliorem virum Lacedaemon genuit. This construction is more 
frequent with pronouns; and Cicero often uses such phrases as hoc mihi 
gratius nihil facere potes ; but it is necessary in the connection of a com- 
parative with a relative pronoun, e. g. Liv. xxxviii. 53. : Scipio Africanus 
Punici belli perpetrati, quo nullum neque majus neque periculosius Romani 
gessere^ unu^ praecipuam gloriam tulit; Curt. vi. 34. : Hie Attalo, quo gravi- 
orem inimicum non habui, sororem suam in matrimonium dedit. But the 
ablat. instead of quain with any other case was never used by a Roman. 
Quam with the nomin. or accusat., on the other hand, frequently occurs, 
where the ablative might have been employed ; e. g. Livy : melior tutiorque 
est certa pax., quam sperata victoria., which in the infinitive would be me- 
liorem esse certam pacem putabat quam speratam victoriam. If the verb 
cannot be supplied from the preceding sentence, as in the passages just 
quoted (where est and esse are thus supplied), quam — est or quam— fuit must 
be expressly added ; e. g. Gellius, x. 1. : Haec verba sunt M. Varronis, quam 
fuit Claudiu^y doctioris ; Cic. in Verr. iv. 20. : Argentum. reddidisti L. Curidioy 
homini non gratiosiori, quam Cn. Calidius est ; Senec. Consol, ad Polyb. 34. : 


Drusum Germanicium minor em natu, quam ipse erat, fratrem amisit. But 
when an accusative precedes, quam may follow with the same case, just as if 
esse preceded; Terent. Phorm. iv. 2. 1. : Ego hominem callidiorem vidi nemi- 
nem quam Phormionem^ instead of qiuim Phormio est. Cicero (ad Fam. v. 7.) 
combines both constructions : Ut tibi multo majori qvma Africanus fuit (he 
could not have said qtuim Africano) me non multo minorem quam Laelium (he 
might have said quam fuit Laelius^ et in repuhlica et in amicitia adjunctum 
esse patiare. Comp. p. Plane. 12. 30. Hence, instead of the ablative in the 
sentence quoted above, neminem Lycurgo majorem Lacedaemon genuit^ we 
may say qvum Lycurgum or quam Lycargus fuit^ the latter of which con- 
structions is more frequent. 

The ablatives opinione, spe, aequo, justo, solito, dicto, are of a peculiar 
kind, and must be explained by quam est or erat ; e. g. Cic. Brut. init. : 
opinione omnium majorem animo cepi dolorem, greater than the opinion of all 
men was that it would be ; Virgil : dicto citius tumida aequora placat, quicker 
than the word was spoken. Quam pro, joined to a comparative, signifies 
" than in proportion to ; " e. g. Liv. xxi. 29. : proelium atrocius quam pro 
numero pugnantium editur. 

In poetry alius, another, is sometimes treated like a comparative, and con- 
strued with the ablative, instead of atque with the nomin. or accus. See 
§ 470. The poets further sometimes use atque instead of qun,m. See 

[§ 485.] Note 2. Minus, plu^, and amplius (or non minus, haud minu^, &c.), 
when joined to numerals and some other words denoting a certain measure 
or portion of a thing, are used with and without quam, generally as inde- 
clinable words, and without influence upon the construction, but merely to 
modify the number; e. ^. Liv. xxxix. 31.: non plus quam quuttuor milia 
effugerunt, not effugit ; Nep. lliras. 2. : non plu^ habuit secum quam triginta 
de suis (plures would rarely be used in such a case) ; Cic. Brut. 18. : pictores 
antiqui non sunt usi plus quam quMtuor coloribus, not pluribu^ ; Liv. xxvii. 25. : 
negabant unam cellam amplius quam uni deo rite dedicari. Quam is omitted 
very frequently, and with all cases ; e. g. Liv. xxiv. 16. : minus duo milia 
hominum ex tanto exercitu effugerunt ; xxxvi. 40. : plu^ pars dimidia ex quin- 
quagijita milibus hominum caesa sunt; Cic. ad Att. v. 1. : qux) magis erit tibi 
videndum, ut hoc vx)strum desiderium ne plus sit annuum; Tusc. ii. 16. : milites 
Romani saepe plu^ dimidiati mensis cibaria ferebant ; Terent. Adelph. ii. 1. 
45. ; plus quingentos colaphos infregit mihi ; Liv. iii. 64. : si vos minus hodie 
decem tribunos plebis feceritis ; xl. 2. : quum plus annum aeger fuisset; xxx. 
27. : sedecim non amplius eo anno legionibus defensum imperium est ; Cic. in 
Verr. ii. 57. : minus triginta diebus Metellus totam triennii praeturam tuam 
rescidit. These examples prove the omission of quam in connection with the 
other cases. Its omission with the dative is attested by Propertius, ii. 19. 18. 
(iii. 19. 32.) : et se plus uni si qua parare potest ; i. e. for more than for one ; 
and why should we not say mille amplius hominibus quoiidie panem dedit f It 
must be observed that these comparatives are sometimes inserted between 
the words which they modify ; e. g. Tacit. Hist. iv. 52. : decem haud amplius 
dierum frumentam in horreis fuit ; Liv. i. 18. : centum amplius post annos; 
and sometimes, when joined with a negative, they follow the words they 
modify as a^ort of apposition ; Liv. xl. 31. : quinque milium arnrntorum, non 
amplius, relictum erat praesidium, a garrison of 5000 soldiers, not more. 
Sometimes, however, the ablative is used with these comparatives as with 
others, instead of quam with the nomin. or accus. ; e. g. Liv. xxiy. 17. : ea 


die caesi sunt Romanis minus quadringentis ; Cic. in Verr. ill. 48. : nemo minvji 
t?'ibus medimnis in jugerum dedit: p. Rose. Com. 3. : quamohrem hoc nomen 
triennio amplius in adversariis relinquebas, instead of the more common am- 
plius trieyinium, as above. Comp. also in Verr. iv. 43. : hora amplius molie- 
bantur. Longius is used in the same way ; see Caes. Bell. Gall. v. 53. : 
Gallorum copias non longius milia passuum octo ab hibernis suis afuisse ; but 
vii. 9. : ne longius triduo ab castris absit ; iv. 1 . : apud Suevos non longius 
anno remanere uno in loco incolendi causa licet. 

[§ 486.] Note 3. The English word " still," joined with comparatives, is 
expressed by adhuc only in the later prose writers, as Senec. JSpist. 49. : 
Punctum est quod vivimus et adhuc puncto minus. In the classical language 
etiam^ and sometimes vel^ are equivalent to the English " still." 

[§ 487.] 16. The ablative is used to express the measure or 
amount by which one thing surpasses another, or is surpassed by- 
it. Paulo, multOf quo, eo, quanto, tanto, tantulo, aliquanto, hoc, 
are to be considered as ablatives of this kind. Alter o tanto 
signifies 'Hwice as much;" multis partihus is the same as 

Ilibernia dimidio minor est quam Britannia, Caes. 
Homines quo plura hahent, eo cupiunt ampliora. Just. 
Diogenes disputare solehat, quanto regem Persarum vita fortuna- 

que super aret, Cic., v. 32. 

[§ 488.] Note 1. We thus perceive that these ablatives are joined not 
only with comparatives, but with verbs which contain the idea of a compa- 
rison with other things, as malle., praestare., superare^ excellere., antecellere antc- 
cedere, and others compounded with ante. Also with ante und post, their mean- 
ing being " earlier," and " later." Hence multo ante, mucli earlier ; non midto 
post, not much later, or not long after. As to multo with a superlative, 
see § 108. In the case of plus there may be some ambiguity. The words 
in Cicero {de Nat. Deor. i. 35.) uno digito plus habere might mean " to have 
more than one finger," and Liv. ii. 7. : uno plus Etruscorum cecidit, more 
than one man fell on the part of the Etruscans. But this is the reason why 
in this sense (according to § 485.) we usually say plu^ unum digitum habere, 
plus unus Etruscorum ; and with the ablat. the meaning is, " to have one 
finger more," viz. than we have, that is six ; and, " on the part of the 
Etruscans one man more," viz. than on the part of their enemies. Biit still 
it would be clearer to say uno plures digitos habere, uno plures Etrusc. ceci- 
derunt, as in Liv. v. 30. : una plures tribus antiquarunt. Respecting the differ- 
ence between aliquanto and paulo, see § 108 : aliquanto has an affirmative 
power, " considerably more," nearly the same as "much more;" paulo like 
pauci is of a negative nature, " a little more," where the " little" may imply 
a great deal, and the word pavlo may have been chosen with a view to repre- 
sent it as little. An excellent passage to prove this \s, G\c. p. Qidnt.\2.: 
Si debuisset, Sexte, petisses statim ; si non statim, paulo quidem post ; si non 
paulo, at aliquanto; sex quidem illis mensibus profecto; anno vero vertente 
sine coniroversia. 

Note 2. Multum, tantum, quantum, and aliquantum are sometimes used 
adverbially with a comparative, instead of the ablat. multo, tanto, quanto, and 


(diqvanto; e.g. Terent. JEunuch.{.2. 51.: ejus /rater aliqtuintum ad rem est 
avidior ; Val. Maxim, iv. 1. 1.: quantum domo inferior, tantum gloria superior 
evasit. Sometimes they are used only to avoid ambiguity, Liv. iii. 15.: 
quantum juniores patrum plehi se magis insinuabant, eo acrius contra trihuni 
tendebant; Juven. x. 197. : multum hie robustior illo. Cicero uses tantum and 
quantum in this way only in connection with antecedere, excellere, and prae- 
stare ; e. g. de Off. i. 30.; Orat, 2. § 6. ; p. Leg. Man. 13.; de Re Publ. ii. 2.: 
but both multum and muMo praestare. The adverb tarn — quam with a com- 
parative, instead of tanto — quanto, is rare and poetical. Longe (far) alone 
is frequently used for midtOy in prose as well as in poetry. 

[§ 489.] 17. The ablative is governed by the prepositions ah 
(a, abs), absque, clam, coram, cum, de, ex (e), prae, pro, sine, 
tenus (is placed after its case) ; by in and sub when they an- 
swer to the question where ? and by super in the sense of de, 
" concerning," or " with regard to." Subter is joined indiffer- 
ently either with the ablative or the accusative, though more 
frequently with the latter. 

The preposition in is generally joined with the ablative even 
after the verbs of placing {jpono, loco, colloco, statue; constituo, 
and consldo), although strictly speaking they express motion: 
on the other hand, in is commonly used with the accusative 
after the verbs advenire, adventare, convenire, commeare, although 
we say, " to arrive at" or " in a place," and not " into." When 
the place at which a person arrives is expressed by the name of 
a town, the accusative alone is used, and when by an adverb, 
we must use hue, quo, and not hie, ubi, &;c. ; e. g. advenit in 
Italiam, fn provinciam, advenit Romam, Delphos, adventus hue 

In is used with either case after the verbs of assembling {con- 
gregare, cogere, constipare, and others), concealing {abdere, con- 
dere, abscondere, abstrudere), and including (includere, concludere). 
It must however be observed, that the accusative is preferred 
when an action is indicated, and the ablative, when a state or 
condition (in the participle perfect passive). Sometimes these 
verbs take an ablativus instrumenti, e. g. abdere se litteris, in- 
cludere carcere, verba concludere versu, which is the case most 
frequently with implicare. 
Aegyptii ac Babylonii omnem curam in siderum cognitione posue^ 

runt, Cic. de Divin, i. 42. 
Herculem hominumfama, beneficiorum memor, in concilio coelestium 

collocavit, Cic de Off. iii. 5. 

A A 


[§ 490.] Note. The compounds of pono sometimes have in with the ab- 
lative and sometimes with the accusative, but more frequently the former ; 
e. g. aliquem in numero deorum^ spem in felicitate reponere. Imponere takes 
in with the accusat. (unless it is joined with the dative, according to § 415.); 
e. g. milites in naves, corpus in plaustrum ; sometimes, however, it has, like 
jooTiO, in with the ablat., e. g. Cic. de Nat. Deor. i. 20. : imposuistis in cervi- 
cibus nostris sempitemum dominum. In like manner, defigere, insculpere, 
inscribere, and inserere (unless they are joined with the dative) are usually 
construed with in with the ablative ; e. g. natura insculpsit in mentihus nostris; 
nomen suum inscribunt in basi ; legati in vultu regis defixerunt oculos. This 
and similar things arise from a mixture of two ideas, that of the action 
implied in the verb, and that of the result, and hence m.with the ablative is 
preferable after the preterites of doubtful verbs. In with the accusative 
after esse and habere occurs only in obsolete formulae, as esse (habere') in 
potestatem, and others. See § 316. In custodiam haberi, and in carcerem as- 
servari in Livy, viii. 20. and xxii. 25., are irregularities. 

[§ 491.] " To do anything with a person," is expressed in Latin by facer e 
with c?e, and more frequently with the simple ablative or dative : quid facias 
hoc homine, or huic hominif and in the passive voice quid de me fiet? what 
will become of me ? quid pecuniae fiet ? what will become of the money ? 
Cicero : quid illo myoparone factum sit. It is never expressed by cum, for 
facere cum aliquo signifies " to be of a person's party." 



[§ 492.] The vocative is not in immediate connection with either 
nouns or verbs, but is inserted to express the object to which 
our words are addressed. 

Note. It only remains to observe, that the vocative is usually placed after 
one or two words of a sentence ; at least, it is not placed at the beginning 
without some special reason, and the interjection O is used only when we 
are speaking with great animation or emotion. The poets not uncommonly 
adopt the Attic practice of using the nominative instead of the vocative ; 
e. g. Terence : o virfortis atque amicus ! Horat. de Art. Poet. 292. : Vos a Pom- 
piliu^ sanguis! In some instances the same practice occurs in prose, ns 
Liv. i. 24. : audi tu, populus Romanus ! viii. 9. : agedum pontifex publicus 
popidi Romani, praei verba, quibu^ me pro legionibus devoveam. The nominat. 
in apposition to the vocat. occurs in Juvenal, iv. 24. : tii, succinctu^ patria 
quondam, Crispine, papyro ; other poets, on the contrary, by a mixture 
of two constructions, use the vocative of words which, belonging to the 
verb, ought to be in the nominative ; e. g. Virg. Aen. ii. 283. : quibus, Hector, 
ab oris expectate venis f ix. 485.: heu! canibus date — jaces ; Pers. i. 123.: 
Quicunque afflate Cratino — aspice. Comp. iii. 28. The passage of Pliny 
{Mist Nat. vii. 31.), in which Cicero is addressed : salve primus omnium 
parens patriae appellate, primus in toga triumphum linguueque lauream merite ! 
is of a different kind, primus signifying "being the first." 





[§ 493.] 1. The tenses of the Latin verb are used on the whole 
in the same way as those of the English verb, with the excep- 
tion of one great peculiarity, which is explained in § 498. 
(Comp. § 150.) The only general rule that can be laid down 
is this : we must first determine whether the action or condition 
to be expressed falls in the present, the past, or the future, and 
in what relation it stands to other actions or conditions with 
which it is connected. For example, / was writing, and / had 
written, are both actions belonging to the past, but in regard 
to their relation they differ, for in the sentence, " I was writing 
when the shot was heard,^^ the act of writing was not completed 
when the shot was heard ; whereas in the sentence " / had 
written, w^hen my friend arrived," the act of writing was com- 
pleted when the other (the arrival of my friend) occurred. The 
same difference exists between, / shall write to- morrow, and / 
shall have written to-morrow ; between / am writing to-day, i. e. 
I am engaged in an act not yet terminated, and / 1mm written 
to-day, which expresses an act already terminated. This last is 
the proper signification of the Latin perfect, as advenit pater, 
the father has arrived, that is, he is here now. Horace, at the 
close of a work says : exegi monumentum acre perennius ; and 
Ovid : jamque opus exegi. An orator, at the conclusion of his 
speech, says : din, that is, " I have done," and Virgil (^Aen. ii. 
325.), with great emphasis : fuimus Troes, fuit Ilium, i. e. we 
are no longer Trojans, Ilium is no more. 

Note. Other grammarians distinguish three relations of an action ; 1 . 
an action is lasting^ that is, incomplete ; 2. it is completed ; and 3. not yet com" 
menced. But the distinction between a completed and a not completed 
action excludes every thing else, for an action either is taking place or has 
taken place : a third is impossible, and an action not yet commenced does 
not exist as an action, except in the imagination. The tenses, for the sake 
of which other grammarians have recourse to a third relation (scripturus sum, 
eram^ ero^fui, fuercmu fuero).^ form in our opinion a distinct conjugation, in 
which the action is described as intended (I am, was, have been, &c. intending 
to write). Comp. § 169. 

AA 2 


[§ 494.] 2. The Latin language therefore has two tenses for 

each of the three great divisions of time, — past, present, and 

future ; one expressing a complete and the other an incomplete 

action. And the six tenses of the Latin verb are thus the result 

of a combination of time and relation. 

f scribo, I write, or am writing — present time, and ^ction going on. 
1 scripsi, I have written, — present time, and action terminated. 

{scribebam, I wrote, or was writing, — past time, and action going on. ' 
scripseram, I had written, — past time, and action terminated. 
fscribam, I shall write, or be writing, — future time, and action not com- 
-j pleted. 

t scripsero^ I shall have written, — future time, and action completed. 

Note. It is not difficult to see why in the conjugation of verbs we pre- 
ferred that order of the tenses which is based upon the relation which they 
bear to one another. (Comp. § 150.) But in syntax, the above arrange- 
ment and division is necessary for the purpose of presenting a clear view of 
the kindred nature of the present and perfect (for both are presents, as far 
as time is concerned), and of the use of the two futures. 

3. The passive has the same tenses with the same meaning ; 
but with this difference, that they do not express an action, but 
a condition or suffering, as we may call it. 

{laudor^ I am praised, — present time, and condition still going on. 
laudatus sum, I have been praised, — present time, and condition termi- 
{laudabar, I was praised, — past time, and condition going on. 
laudatus eram, I had been praised, — past time, and condition terminated. 
{laudabor, I shall be praised, — future time, and condition not completed. 
laudatus ero, I shall have been praised, — future time, and condition com- 

[§ 495.] Note. The participle perfect passive, however, is also used in 
the sense of an adjective to express a lasting condition ; e. g. scripta epistola, 
a written letter, and in this sense the participle may be joined with all the 
six tenses of esse ; as, epistola scripta est, erat, erit, fuit, fuerat, fuerit. All 
this may be said in Latin ; but the question here is only as to how the 
tenses of the passive voice are formed by the combination of the participle 
perfect passive with sum, eram, and ero. We here repeat (see § 168.), that 
laudatus fueram and laudatus fuero are sometimes used as passive tenses for 
laudatus eram and laudatus ero, which arose from a desire to express by the 
auxiliary verb esse the terminated condition already implied in the parti- 
ciple perfect passive. Thus Livy (xxiv. 30.) says : ceterum Leontinorum 
nemo — violatus fu£rat, nobody had been injured ; Pompey in Cic. ad Att. viii. 
12. (C.) : si copiae in unum locum fuerint coactae, when they shall have been 
collected. In like manner the subjunctive laudatus fuissem is equivalent to 
laudatus essem; e.g. Ovid, ilifetam. vi. 156.: si non sibi visa fuisset; He- 
roid. vii. 140. : si Punica non Teucris pressa fuisset humu^, — and laudatus 
fu£rim to laudatus sim. In the infinitive laudatum fuisse, the participle is 
generally to be considered as an adjective. 


[§ 496.] 4. The tenses of the present and past time, that is, 
the present, perfect, imperfect and pluperfect, have also a sub- 
junctive mood, as scribam^ scrip serim, scrihebam, scripsissem, and 
in the passive, scribar, scriptus sim, scriberer, scriptus essem. For 
the relations in which the subjunctive is required, see Chap. 
LXXVIII. As tenses, these subjunctives do not differ from 
the signification of the indicative. 

6. Neither the active nor the passive voice has a subjunctive 
of the future, and the deficiency is supplied by other means. 
When the idea of futurity is already implied in another part of 
the proposition, the other tenses of the subjunctive supply the 
place of the future, viz. the present and imperfect supply the 
place of the future subjunctive, and the perfect and pluperfect 
that of the future perfect. The choice of one or other of these 
four subjunctives is to be determined by the time expressed by 
the leading verb of the proposition, and by the relation of the 
action, being either completed or not completed, e. g. Affirmo 
tibi, si hoc beneficium mihi tribuas, me magnopere gavisurum, and 
affirmabam tibi, si illud beneficium mihi tribueres, magnopere me 
gavisurum. It is clear that tribuas and tribueres here supply 
the place of the future subjunctive, for in the indicative we say 
si mihi tribues — magnopere gaudebo. Again, Affirmo tibi, si hoc 
beneficium mihi tribueris, me quamcunque possim gratiam tibi re- 
laturum, and affirmabat mihi, si illud beneficium ipsi tribuissem, 
se quamcunque posset "gratiam mihi relaturum, where tribueris 
and tribuissem supply the place of the future perfect, for in the 
indicative we should say si hoc beneficium mihi tribueris (from 
tribuero), quamcunque potero gratiam tibi referam, when you 
shall have shown me this kindness. The same is the case in the 
passive voice: affirmo tibi, si hoc beneficium mihi tribuatur, me 
magnopere gavisurum ; affirmabam tibi, si illud beneficium mihi 
tribueretur, magnopere me gavisurum ; affirmo tibi, me, si hoc 
beneficium mihi tributum sit (or fuerii), quamcunque possim 
gratiam tibi relaturum ; affirmabam tibi, si illud beneficium 
mihi tributum esset (or fuisset), quamcunque possem gratiam 
me tibi relaturum. 

Note. This rule is not affected by the supposition (which was a subject of 
dispute even in ancient times; see Gellius, xviii. 2.; Perizon. on Sanct. 
Minerv. i. 13. note 6.), that trihuerim^ which we called above a perfect sub- 

A A 3 


junctive, is in these cases the subjunctive of the future perfect. It is quite 
certain that this form is used wherever the subjunctive of the future perfect 
is wanted ; e. g. Plant. Pseud, i. 1 . 89. : Quis mi igitur drachmam reddet^ si 
dederim tihi? Cic. ad Fam. i. 7. 9. : Haec profecto vides, quanta expressiora, 
quantoque illustriora futura sint, quum aliqunntum ex provincia atque ex m- 
perio laudis accesserit; de Leg. Agr. ii. 20. : Putant, si quam spem exercitus 
habeat^ hone non habiturum, quum viderit. That it is a perfect may be inferred 
even from the manner in which the pluperfect of the subjunctive is used 
instead of the subjunctive of the future perfect, and in which the passive of 
this tense is expressed. As the question is beyond all doubt, we shall quote, 
in confirmation, only classical passages : Cic. p. Rose. Am. 38. : ostendit., si 
sublata sit venditio bonorum., ilium pecimiam grandem amissurum esse; Horat. 
Serm. i. 1. 32. : Hac mente laborem sese ferre^ senes ut in otia tuta recedarit, 
ajunt, quum sibi sint congesta cibaria; Tacit. Hist. iv. 57. : quum spoliati 
fuerint quieturos. But Madvig (in the dissertation above refei-red to, p. 174.) 
has proved that the form tribuerim is at the same time the subjunctive of the 
future perfect, and other applications of this form thus receive their correct 
explanation. We retain the designation o^ perfect subjunctive merely for the 
sake of convenience. 

[§ 497.] If no future has gone before, and the construction 
of the sentence requires the subjunctive, the participle future 
active is employed for this purpose, with the appropriate tense 
of the verb esse. This paraphrased conjugation (conjugatio peri- 
phrastica), as it is called, properly expresses an intended action 
(see §498.); but the subjunctives with sim and essern are used 
also as regular subjunctives of the future, the idea of intention 
passing over into that of futurity ; e. g. Non dubito quin redi- 
turus sit, I do not doubt that he will return; non duhitabam 
quin rediturus esset, I did not doubt that he would return. The 
perfects rediturus fuerim and rediturus fuissem retain their 
original meaning, implying intention; e. g. non dubito quin 
rediturus fuerit, I do not doubt that he has had the intention to 
return. (It is only in hypothetical sentences that this meaning 
passes over into that of the pluperfect subjunctive, of which we 
shall speak hereafter.) If we want simply to express futurity, 
we must use the circumlocution with futurum sit and futurum 
essct ; e. g. nescio num futurum sit, ut eras hoe ipso tempore 
jam redierit, and nesciebam num futurum esset, ut postridie eo 
ipso tempore jam redisset. This same circumlocution must be 
employed in the passive of which the participle future implies 
necessity, and cannot be used in the sense of a simple future ; 
e. g. non dubito, quin futurum sit, ut laudetur, I do not doubt 
that he will be praised ; multi non dubitahant, quin futurum esset. 


ut Caesar a Pompejo vinceretur, that Caesar would be conquered 
by Pompey. 

[§ 498.] 6. The conjugatio periphrastica, which is formed by 
means of the participle future active and the auxiliary verb esse, 
is peculiar to the Latin language, and is used to express an 
intended action, or, in the case of intransitive verbs, a state or 
condition which is to come to pass (the Greek fisXkstv). It has 
its six tenses like the ordinary conjugation. The realization 
depends either on the will of the subject or on that of others, or 
upon circumstances. In the first case we say in English, " I 
intend," or " am on the point of," and in the others, " I am to" 
(be, or do a thing), i. e. others wish that I should do it ; e. g. 
Sallust, Jug. 5. : Bellum scripturus sum, quod populus Romanus 
cum Jugurtha gessit, I am on the point of writing, or intend to 
write; Varro, De Re Rust iii. 16.: Quum apes jam evoliturae 
sunt, consonant vehementer, when they are on the point of flying 
out ; Cic. De Fin. ii. 26 : Me ipsum igitur ames oportet, non 
mea, si veri amid futuri sumus, if we- are to be friends ; Cat, 
Maj. 22. : Quare si haec ita sunt, sic me colitote, ut deum : sin 
una est interiturus animus cum corpore, vos tamen memoriam 
nostram pie servabitis, which is not equivalent to interibit, as 
interiturus est intimates that it is the opinion of others ; Tacit. 
Agr. 46. : Quidquid ex Agricola amavimus, manet mansurumque 
est in animis hominum, i. e. is to remain. Imperfect : Liv. xxviii. 
28. : llli sicut Mamertini, in Sicilia Messanam, sic Rhegium habi- 
turi perpetuam sedem erdnt, they intended to keep Rhegium. 
Future: Cic. De Invent, i. 16; Attentos faciemus auditores, si 
demonstrabimus, ea, quae dicturi erimus, magna, nova, incredibilia 
esse ; De Orat. ii. 24 : hoc ei primum praecipiemus, quascunque 
causas erit acturus, ut eas diligenter penitusque cognoscat ; i. 52 : 
(orator) eorum, apud quos aliquid aget aut eHt acturus, mentes 
sensusque degustet oportet. The future perfect occurs only in 
one passage of Seneca, Epist. ix. 14 : Sapiens tamen non vivet, si 
fuerit sine homine victurus, if he should be under the necessity 
of living. 

The perfect and pluperfect likewise occur in their proper 
signification ; e. g. Cic. p. Lig. 8 : Quid facturi fuistis ? I 
ask, what did you intend doing there ? Liv. xxviii. 28. : Vos 
cum Mandonio consilia communicastis et arma consociaturi fuistis, 
you have had the intention of uniting your arms with theirs ; 

A A 4 


Justin, xiii. 5. : Alexander excursurus fuerat cum valida manu 
ad Athenas delendas, had had the intention of marching, &c. 
Scripturus fui, however, most frequently acquires the signi- 
fication of a phiperfect subjunctive, when it occurs in a sentence 
containing the result of, or inference from an hypothetical 
sentence (which is either untrue or impossible), according to 
the rule explained in § 518, that the Latins commonly use the 
indicative of a preterite with verbs implying possibility, viz. 
that in the time past something might have happened ; e. g. 
Liv. ii. 1 : Quid enim futurum fuit, si ilia plebs agitari coepta esset 
tribtmiciis procellis ? Curt. iv. 38. ; Mazaeus, si transeuntibus 
Jlumen supervenisset, haud dubie oppressurus fuit incompositoSy 
equivalent to accidisset and oppressisset. 

The subjunctives of these tenses are used in the same way as 
the corresponding tenses of the indicative, if the construction of 
a sentence requires the subjunctive. Hence scripturus fuerim, 
in hypothetical sentences, takes the place of a pluperfect sub- 
junctive, and that not only after a present tense, as Liv. xxxi. 7. : 
Quis enim dubitat, quin, si Saguntinis impigre tulissemus opem, 
totum in Hispaniam aversuri bellum fuerimus ; but also after 
preterites, as Liv. iv. 38. : nee dubium erat, quin, si tarn pauci 
simul obire omnia possent, terga daturi hostes fuerint ; xxii. 32. : 
adeo est inopia coactus (Hannibal), ut, nisi tum fugae speciem 
abeundo timuisset, Galliam repetiturus fuerit ; Cic. Ad Att. ii. 
16. : (Pompejus ecto^I^sto) quid futurum fuerit, si Bibulus tum 
in forum descendisset, se divinare non potuisse. The pluperfect 
subjunctive itself, however, occurs in Livy, xxviii. 24. 2, and 
xxxviii. 46. 6. 

[§ 499.] 7. The participle future passive in ndus, or the 
participle of necessity (^participium necessitatis), in combination 
with the tenses of the verb esse, forms another distinct con- 
jugation denoting future necessity and not future suffering, for 
epistola scribenda est, for example, does not signify " the letter 
is about to be written," which is expressed by the simple 
future epistola scribetur, but " the letter must be written," there 
being either an internal or external necessity for its being 
written, either of which is expressed in English by " the letter 
is to be written." This conjugation may accordingly be re- 
garded as the passive of the conjugatio periphrastica. The 
tenses are the same as those of the auxiliary verb esse, and in 


SO far do not differ from the general rule ; e. g. the future : 
TibuU. iv. 5. init : Qui mihi te, Cerinthe, dies dedit, hie mihi sanctus 
atque inter festos semper habendus erit ; future perfect, in 
Quintil. xi. 2.21 : Si longior complectenda memorid fuerit or alio, 
jproderit per partes ediscere. But it is to be observed with 
regard to these tenses of necessity, that, as in the active con- 
jugatio periphrastica, the tenses of the past (imperfect, plu- 
perfect, and the historical perfect) are used at the same time, 
in hypothetical sentences, as the imperfect and pluperfect sub- 
junctive of the verb debeo, I must ; e. g. Sulpicius in Cic. Ad 
Fam. iv. 5 : Quae si hoc tempore non suum diem obisset, paucis 
post annis tamen ei moriendum fuit, i. e. she would have beeD 
obliged to die. 

[§ 500.] 8. The perfect indicative, both active and passive, has 
in Latin, besides its signification of an action terminated at the 
present time, that of an aorist, that is, it is used to relate events 
of the past, which are simply conceived as facts, without 
any regard to their being terminated or not terminated, in 
respect to each other ; e. g. Itaque Caesar armis rem gerere con- 
stituity exercitum Jinibus Italiae admovit, Rubiconem transiit, 
Romam et aeraHum occupavit, Pompejum cedentem persecutus est, 
eumque in campis Pharsalicis devicit. In English the imperfect 
is used to relate events of the past, and hence we translate the 
above passage : — Caesar resolved to use armed force, he ad- 
vanced with his army to the frontiers of Italy, passed the 
Rubicon, took possession of Rome and the treasury, pursued 
Pompey, and defeated him in the plain of Pharsalus. But the 
Latin imperfect is never used in this sense; it always ex- 
presses an incomplete or continuing action or condition of the 
past time, the ancient correct rule being perfecto procedit, imper- 
fecta insistit oratio. 

Note 1. But even in historical narrative actions or conditions may be repre- 
sented as continuing, and we may introduce, e. g., into the above narrative 
things which are conceived as continuing, and are accordingly expressed by 
the imperfect : Caesar armis rem gerere constituit: videhat enim inimicorum in 
dies majorem fieri exercitum^ suorum animos debilitari, repvtdbatque appro- 
pinquare hiemem; itaque exercitum admovit^ &c. Comp, the examples in 
§ 599. The Latin language observes this difference between the perfect and 
imperfect indicative so strictly, that even the worst writers do not violate the 
rule. An Englishman therefore must be very cautious not to transfer the 
aoristic meaning of the English imperfect to the Latin language. In Latin 
the perfect and imperfect are sometimes very significantly put in juxta- 


position ; e. g. Liv. ii. 48. : Aequi se in oppida receperunt, murisque se tene- 
bant (receperunt describing the momentary act or simple fact, and tenehant 
the continued action) ; Cic. Tusc. i. 30. : Ita enim censebat, itaque disseruit 
(the last word introducing the speech delivered upon a particular occasion). 
The following passage of Cicero (Orat. 38.) is striking, but most strictly 
correct : Dicebat melius quam scripsit Hortensim^ for the imperfect makes us 
think of the time during which he spoke, whereas the perfect expresses 
simply an opinion as a sort of resume. Comp. de Divin. ii. 37. § 78. It only 
remains here to mention the use of the imperfect in historical narrative, 
among perfects, to denote actions which remained incomplete. The expla- 
nation is implied in the foregoing remarks. In Tacitus, e. g., we read, Ann. 
ii. 34. : Inter qua L. Piso ambitumfori, corrupta judicia — increpans, abire se 
et cedere urbe testabatur^ et simul curiam relinquebat. Commotus est TiberiuSj 
et qvumquam Pisonem mitibus verbis permulsisset, propinquos qu^que ejus im- 
pulit, ut abeuntem auctoritate vel precibus tenerent. The imperfect relinquebat 
is used here to indicate that his intention of leaving the curia was not carried 
into effect, for he was repeatedly stopped, and at last he remained. This is 
quite in accordance with the signification of the imperfect (see Pliny, Hist. 
Nat. Praef. lib. i. § 26., where he speaks of the signature of Greek artists 
tTToifi), and also occurs elsewhere, even in Cicero (comp. Div. in Caec. 17. 
§ 55.)^ although otherwise he expresses the same meaning by a circumlo- 
cution with coepit. 

Conticuere omnes, intentique ora tenebant: 

Inde toro pater Aeneas sic orsus ab alto (est), Virg. Aen. ii. init. 
[§ 501.] Note 2. In Latin, as in many modern languages, the present tense 
is often used instead of the aorist of the past, when the writer or speaker in 
his imao-ination transfers himself to the past, which thus becomes to him 
present, as it were. Narrators by this figure frequently render their descrip- 
tions very animated ; but in regard to dependent sentences, they often regard 
such a present as a regular perfect, and accordingly use the imperfect or 
pluperfect in the dependent sentence which follows. E. g. Cic. in Verr. 
iv. 18. : Quod ubi Verres audivit, sic cupiditate injlammatus est non solum 
inspiciendi^ verum etiam auferendi, ut Diodorum ad se vocaret ac poscere 
(pocula). i?/e, qui ilia non invitiis haberet, respondet se Lilybaei non habere: 
Melitae apud quendam propinquum suum reliquisse. Turn iste (Verres) cow- 
tinvx) mittit homines certos Melitam : scribit ad quosdam Melitenses, ut ea vasa 
perquirant: rogat Diodorum^ ut ad ilium suum propinquum det litteras: nihil 
ei longiu^ videbahir, quam dum illud videret argentum. Diodorus^ homo frugi 
ac diligens^ qui sua servare vellet^ ad propinquum suum scribit^ ut iis\ qui a 
Verre venissent, responderet^ illud argentum se paucis illis diebv^ misisse Lily- 
baeum. We here see how the historical present is followed both by the 
present and the imperfect subjunctive, and on the whole, the imperfect is 
perhaps the more frequent of the two. Cic. in Cat. iii. 6. : Deinde L. Flaccus 
et C. Pomptinus^ praetor es^ quod eorum opera forti usus essem^ laudantur. 

[§ 502.] 9. The peculiar character of the Latin imperfect 
therefore is to express a repeated action, manners, customs and 
institutions, which are described as continuing at some given 
period of the past time, and is invariably used where in English 
the compound tense, " I was writing," " he was waiting," is em- 


Socrates dicere solebat (or dicebaf), omnes in eo, quod scirent, 

satis esse eloquentes, Cic. De Or at, i. 14. 
Anseres Romae publice alehantur in Capitolio, 

Note 1. An action often repeated, however, may also be conceived as a 
simple historical fact, and accordingly be expressed by the perfect. Hence 
we may say, Socrates solitus est dicere^ just as well as solebat ; but the idea 
is different. Solebat reminds us of the whole period of his life ; whereas 
solitus est describes the habit of Socrates simply as an historical fact. 

[§ 503.] Note 2. It is a peculiarity of the epistolary style in Latin that 
the writer transfers himself to the time at which the letter is read by the 
person to whom it is addressed ; and hence the writer speaks of actions and 
conditions in the same terms as he would use if he were present at the 
moment the letter is received. In consequence of this he frequently uses 
the imperfect and perfect, where in English we should use the present ; e. g. 
Haec scribeham media nocte, I write this at midnight (or scripsi haec media 
nocte, when the action is to be described as a completed one, and not as 
going on at the time) ; Novi nihil nunc erat apud nos, siquidem certa tihi af- 
ferri vis, there are no news here ; Quae ad earn diem, quum haec scribebam, 
audiveramus, inanis rumor videbatur. Dicebant tamen, &c., what we have 
heard till the moment I write this, &c. ; but people say, &c. As these pre- 
terites are only formal, they may be joined with the adverbs nunc, etiam- 
nunc; instead of which real preterites would require tunc and etiamtum. 
Comp. Cic. ad Att. v. 16. 4. ; xvi. 3. 6. ; ad Quint. Frat, iii. 1. 2. But this 
peculiarity is very frequently not observed. 

[§ 504.] 10. The perfect subjunctive has not this meaning 
of an aorist, but is always used to express a terminated action 
with reference to the present time, and thus completely answers 
to the perfect in English. The imperfect subjunctive, on the 
other hand, in historical narratives, has the aorist sense of the 
perfect indicative, when past, events are mentioned (with the 
conjunction ut), without reference to the action or condition 
being completed or not. 

This difference is easily perceived ; e. g. puer de tecto decidit, 
ut cms fregerit, "the boy has fallen from the roof, so that he 
has broken his leg," is not a narrative, but the statement of an 
event completed at the present time ; but puer de tecto decidit, 
ut crus frangeret, "the boy fell from the roof, so that he broke 
his leg," is a real historical narrative, for the perfect decidit is 
here used in its aorist sense, and the imperfect subjunctive 
supplies its place in the dependent sentence. 

A comparison with the English language thus leads to this 
conclusion, that the perfect and imperfect subjunctive are used 
in Latin in the same sense as in English ; but the perfect indi- 
cative in Latin, as an historical tense, answers to the English 


imperfect, and the Latin imperfect indicative to the English 
paraphrased tense with "1 was" and a participle. 

Note. The principle of the Latin language relative to the use of the 
perfect indicative and the imperfect subjunctive in historical narratives is 
attested by so many passages that it is unnecessary here to mention any in 
confirmation of it. But we must observe that Latin writers nevertheless 
sometimes use the perfect subjunctive in the historical sense, which properly 
belongs only to the indicative of this tense. This may have arisen from a 
feeling that there ought to be a tense to express actions in their progress in 
a dependent sentence (in the subjunctive), since the imperfect originally and 
properly expressed a continued and incomplete action ; and in this manner 
we account for the perfect subjunctive which now and then occurs in 
Cicero after the historical forms inventus est or fuit; e. g. jo. Muren. IL : in- 
ventus est scriha quidam^ Gn. Flavins^ qui cornicum ocidos conjixerit et singulis 
diebus ediscendos fastos populo proposuerit, &c. ; in Verr. iv. 26. : Nulla 
domus in Sicilia locuples fuit^ uhi ille non textrinum institu£rit; for after all, if 
the construction is altered so as to make the dependent sentence indepen- 
dent, we are obliged to use the historical tense, i. e. the perfect indicative. 
But the prevailing custom was to assign to the imperfect subjunctive the 
sense of an aorist; and the perfect subjunctive in an historical narrative 
can only be regarded as an exception from the rule, however frequently it 
may occur. Nepos uses the perfect subjunctive in this sense more fre- 
quently than other writers ; and he thereby shows his desite, in his short 
historical sketches, to put the facts one by the side of the other, rather than 
to give a progressive historical narrative. For example, in his life of Han- 
nibal, where he says : Hie autem velut hereditate relictum odium paternum 
erga Romanos sic c'onservavit, ut prius animam^ quam id, deposuerit — Anti- 
ochum tanta cupiditate incendit bellandi, ut usque a ruhro mari arma conatus sit 
inferre Italiae, we at once perceive this character of his style ; though in 
other passages he uses the imperfect subjunctive, and gives to his narrative 
a real historical character. In Livy, too, the perfect subjunctive is found in 
this sense, but only now and then, and more for the sake of variety than on 
any definite principle ; hence, when in i. 3. he says : Tantum tamen opes 
creverant, ut movere arma nee Mezentius nee uUi alii aecolae ausi sint, instead 
of the more usual auderent, it cannot afiect the general rule concerning the 
conseeutio tempo?nim. 

[§505.] 11. The duration and completion of an action in 
reference to another are expressed in Latin more accurately 
than in English, by the imperfect and pluperfect. When one 
action must be completed before another can begin, the former 
is invariably expressed by the pluperfect ; e. g. guum domuin 
intrasset, quum in forum venisset, animadvertit ; quum amicum 
conspexisset, dixit, &c., " when he had entered the house, he 
perceived." We are less accurate in saying " when I entered 
the house, I perceived," or " I entered the house, and perceived." 
But this cannot be done in Latin, and the pluperfect is used 
wherever the relation of the actions permits it. Examples are 
extremely numerous. 


Lysander quum per speculatores comperisset, vulgum Atheniensium 
in ierram exisse navesque paene inanes relictas, tempus rei 
gerendae non dimisit, Nep. Alcib, 8. 

Nbte. Considering this general accuracy of the Latin language in express- 
ing the natural succession of actions, which is evident also in the application 
of the participle perfect (see § 635.), it is the more surprising, that in inter- 
rogative expressions the imperf. subjunct. is used so frequently, where we 
should have expected the pluperfect ; e. g. Cic. Tusc. v. 37. : Socrates 
quum rogaretur (for rogatu^ esset) cujatem se esse dicerei, Mundanum, in- 

[§ 506.] It must be observed here, 1) that the conjunction dum 
(while, as) is generally joined with the present indicative, even 
"when events of the past time are spoken of, and when we should 
consequently expect either the imperfect or perfect ; e. g. dum 
paucas res retinere nolo, omnes fortunas perdidi, Cic. Divin. 17.; 
dum expectat quidnam sihi certi afferatur, ante noctem non discessit; 
dum ego in Sicilia sum, nulla statua dejecta est, in Verr. ii. 66. 
2) That in historical narratives the conjunctions postquam (or 
posteaquam), uhi, uhi primum, ut, ut primum, quum primum, 
simul ut, simul ac, simul atque (or simul alone), all of which are 
equivalent to the English " as soon as," are generally joined 
with the historical perfect, and not with the pluperfect, as might 
be expected from the succession of the actions indicated by 
these conjunctions. Hence we say, uhi illud audivit, nuntium 
ad regem misit ; ut Lacedaemonem venit, adire ad magistratus 
noluit ; simulatque provincia ei obvenit, statim quaerere coepit, &c. 
JDum ea Romani par ant consultantque, jam Saguntum summa vi 

oppugnabatur, Liv. xxi. 7. 
Unus ex captivis domum abiit, quod fallaci reditu in castra jure- 
jurando se exsolvisset. - Quod ubi innotuit relatumque ad sena- 
tum est, omnes censuerunt comprehendendum et custodibus publice 
datis deducendum ad Hannibalem esse, Liv. xxii. 61. 

[§ 507. a.] Note 1. Dum (while), with the present, occurs very frequently ; 
but it is very surprising to find it sometimes used by Livy in transitions 
from one event to another ; for example, at the beginning of the 38th book : 
Dum in Asia helium geritur, ne in Aetolis quidem quietae res fuerant. Comp. 
Drakenborch on Livy, i. 40. ; Heinrich on Cic. Part. ined. p. 75. ; Heindorf 
on Horace, Sat. i. 5. 72. However, that the present is not absolutely neces- 
sary, is proved by such passages as Cic. p. Rose. Am. 32. : Dum Sulla in 
aJiis rebus erat occupatus^ erant interea, qui suis vulneribv^ mederentur ; Liv. 
X. 36. : dum haec in Apulia gerebantur, Samnites — non tenuerunt ; Nep. 
Hann. 2. : Quae divina res dum confieiebatur., quaesivit a me. The perfect 
also is sometimes joined with dum, as de Fin. ii. 13. : dum voluerunt — sustu- 
lerunt. Dum in the sense of quamdiu (as long as), however, when referring 
to the past time, is regularly joined with the imperfect. 


[§ 507. b.] With regard to our rule respecting the conjunctions which 
signify "as soon as," it is a remarkable point that the Latins, contrary to 
their usiftil practice, here neglect to express that one action was completed 
before the second began. The perfect is less necessary, for its place is 
supplied not only by the historical present (which is easily explained from 
§ 501.), but frequently by the imperfect, at least in connection with the 
principal conjunction postquam ; e. g. Liv. i. 54. : Itaque, postquam satis virium 
collectum videbat, e suis unum Romam ad pair em mittit ; iii. 46. : postquam — 
nemo adibat, domum se recepit ; and so in many other passages of Livy. But 
the surprising point is, that the pluperfect is not used, even where the com- 
pletion of the action introduced by those conjunctions is manifest ; e. g. Cic. 
p. Rose. Am. 6. : posteaquam victoria (nobilitatis) constituta est ab armisque 
recessimus — erat ille RoTniae frequens. There are only few exceptions in 
which the pluperfect is used ; as Cic. in Yerr. iv. 24. : posteaquam tantam 
multitudinem collegerat emblematum — instituit officinam Syracusis ; and hence 
the ordinary mode of explaining an ablative absolute by postquam with the 
pluperfect cannot be approved of. It is only in descriptions of repeated 
conditions in the past time that the pluperfect is indispensable, as Nep. 
Alcib 1. : Idem simulac se remiserat neque causa suberat, quare animi laborem 
perferret, luxuriosus reperiebatur. Postquam is further joined with the plu- 
perfect when a long or a definite space of time intervenes between a preced- 
ing and a subsequent event, so that there is no connection between them ; 
e. g. Kep. Hann. 8. : Hannibal anno tertio^ postquam donio profugerat^ cum 
quinque navibus Africam accessit. It is remarkable to find also the imperfect 
and pluperfect subjunctive joined with postquam., as in Cicero, p. Leg. Man. 4. : 
qui posteaquam vnaximas aedificasset ornassetque classes — legatos ac litteras 
misit; and p. Cluent. 64. 181. ; ad Fam. ii. 19. They* may, however, be 
explained from § 570. The passage p. Reg. Dejot. 13. 36. is doubtful. 

[§ 508.] Note 2. The pluperfect is sometimes used by historians instead 
of the historical tense merely to express the rapidity with which actions 
succeed one another, one being described as already completed before any 
thing else could begin; e.g. Curt. x. 17.: Nee muris urbis luctus contine- 
batur, sed proximam regionem ab ea, deinde magnam partem Asiae cis Eu- 
phraten tanti mali fama pervaserat. Here the pluperfect is used without 
reference to a subsequent action, and is equivalent to the English " the 
report immediately spread," &c. 

[§ 509.] 12. In the use of the two futures the Latin language 
is likewise more accurate than the English. For when a future 
action is spoken of, either in the future or in the imperative (or 
in the subjunctive used imperatively), and another is joined with 
it, which has not yet come to pass, the latter also is put in the 
future if the actions are conceived as continuing together, and 
in the future perfect, if the one must be completed before the 
other can begin. This is perfectly in accordance with the ideas 
expressed by these tenses ; but it must be specially mentioned, 
because in English we often use the present instead of the 
future, especially in the case of the verbs "lean" and "I 
will ; " e. g. faciam si potero, I shall do it, if I can ; facito hoc, 
uhi voIps, do it when you will ; because owing to the awkward^ 


ness of the future perfect, we frequently supply its place either 
by the simple future or by the present ; e.g. Cic. De Orat. ii. Q6. : 
ut sementem feceriSi ita metes, as you sow, so will you reap. We 
must here draw particular attention to the application of the 
future perfect in hypothetical sentences, where the conclusion 
depends upon the fulfilment of the preceding condition ; e. g. 
si invenero, tecum communicaho, for which we very inaccurately 
say, " when I find it," or " when I have found it." 
Naturam si sequemur ducem, numquam aberrahimus, Cic. De 

Off. I 28. 
Adolescentes quum relaxare animos et dare se jucunditati volent, 

caveant intemperantiam, meminerint verecundiae, Cic. De Off. 

i. 34. 
De Carthagine vereri non ante desinam, quam illam excisam esse 

cognovero, Cic. Cat, Maj, 6. 
Malevolentiae hominum in me, si poteris, occurres, si non potueris, 

hoc consolahere, quod me de statu meo nullis contumeliis deter- 

rere possunt, Cic. ad Fam, xi. 11. 

[§ 510.] Note. When the leading sentence contains the present impera- 
tive, si is often joined with the present, as defende si potes (Cic. Philip, ii.44.) ; 
perjice si potes (Cic. Tmc. i. 8.) ; expone nisi molestum est (ibid. i. 12.) ; and 
hardly ever with the future. (See Chap. LXXIX.) The present with si^ 
instead of the future, is sometimes found also in other connections ; e. g. 
Cic. in Verr. i. 2. : Si reus condemnatur, desinent homines dicere, his judiciis 
pecuniam plurimum posse, sin absolvitur, desinemus nos de Judiciis transferendis 
recusare ; and very frequently in the comic poets. The rule, however, is 
that the future should be used. Attention was above directed to the prac- 
tice of using the future of the verbs posse and velle with the conjunction si, 
and with the same accuracy these verbs are used in the future perfect, when 
the possibility or the intention of doing a thing must be proved before the 
action relating to it can take place. Hence we say si voluero, si potuero, si 
licuerit, si placuerit, si otium habnero, instead of which we should iise either 
the present or future ; e. g. Cic. Tiisc. i. 43. : Veruntamen, Crito, si me as- 
sequi potueris, sepelito ; de Re Puhl. i. 43. : Turn Jit illud, quod apud Plato- 
nem est luculente dictum, si modo id exprimere Latine potuero ; de Leg. ii. 18. : 
Plato, si modo interpretari potuero, his fere verbis utitur, for he must have 
made the attempt to translate Plato before he can make him speak. See 
Heinrich on Cic. de Re Pizbl. p. 48. foil. 

[§ 511.] We add the following remarks on the further use of the future 
perfect. As this tense expresses a future action as completed, it acquires the 
meaning of the simple future, implying, however, the rapidity with which 
the action will be completed. This occurs, in the first place, when another 
future perfect, or any other tense supplying its place, is contained in the 
leading sentence, so that the two actions are contemporaneous ; e. g. Cic. 
ad Fam. x. 13. : Qui M. Antonium oppresserit, is bellum confecerit ; in Verr. 
ii. 62. : Da mihi hoc (i. e. si hoc mihi dederis), jam tibi maximam partem de" 
fensionis praecideris ; Liv. xxii. 54. : non aggrediar narrare, quae edissertando 


(i. e. si edissertavero) minora vero fecero ; Cic. ad Att. v. 1 . : Tu invita 
muUeres, ego accivero pueros. But the future perfect has the meaning of a 
quickly completed future action also without any such express relation 
to another action ; e. g. Cic. p. Plane. 33. : sed medius Jidius, multo citiiis 
meam salutem pro te ahjecero, quam Cn. Plancii salutem tradidero ; ad Att. iii. 
1 9. : Nusqiiam facilins hanc miserrimam vitam vel sustentaho, vel, quod est 
melius, abjecero ; ix. 7. : De triumpho tibi assentior : quern quidem totum facile 
ct lihenter abjecero ; de Re Publ. i. 13. : Nihil est adhuc dispviatum, etquoniam 
est integrum, libenter tibi, Laeli, ut de eo disseras, equidem concessero. This is 
particularly frequent with the future perfect videro, because the act of seeing 
is most easily accomplished ; e. g. Liv. viii. 33. : Videro cessurusne provo- 
cationi sis, cui rex Romanus Tullus Hostilius cessit, which is not irreconcilable 
with the expressions mox, post, alias, alio loco videro, for a rapid completion 
can only be spoken of at the moment when the action is beginning ; e. g. Cic. 
de Fin. i. 10. 35. : qune fuerit causa, mox videro ; de Re Publ. ii. 9. : habuit 
plebem in clientelas principum descriptam, quod quantae fuerit utilitati, post 
videro ; Acad. ii. 44. : recte secusne, alias viderimus. Hence this mode of 
speaking generally implies, that for the moment a thing is to be dismissed 
from our thoughts, and can scarcely be taken into serious consideration. In 
the comic writers the future perfect is still more frequently used instead of 
the simple future. 

[§^ 512.] 13. The tenses of the indicative may be connected in 
any way which the intention of the speaker may require ; e. g. 
I am writing now^, but this time yesterday I took a walk ; I 
know the person whom you will see to-morrow. But in depen- 
dent sentences, that is, in the subjunctive, similar tenses alone 
can be connected with one another, that is, the tenses of the 
present (present and perfect) and the tenses of the past (imper- 
fect and pluperfect). In the rules respecting what is usually 
called the succession of tenses, but more correctly the dependence 
of sentences upon one another, everything depends upon the 
time, for the present time is suited only to the present, and the 
past to the past ; the relation of an action depending only upon 
itself, is never doubtful. Hence we have only to remember, 
that the perfect naturally, and in the subjunctive always, ex- 
presses the present time, and that consequently 

The Present and Perfect are followed by a Present and 
Perfect, and 

The Imperfect and Pluperfect by an Imperfect and Plu- 
perfect ; 
E. g. scio quid agas and scio quid egeris ; audivi quid agas and 
audivi quid egeris ; but scieham quid ageres, and scieham quid 
egisses ; audiveram quid ageres, and audiveram quid egisses. 

Note. The Latin language, however, is not so constrained as not to be 
able, in cases where the sense requires it, to make presents dependent upon 
preterites, and preterites upon presents. It is sometimes necessary that a 


preterite should be followed by a present, viz. when the result of a past 
action extends to the present time ; e. g. Cic. Brut. 88. : Ardehat autem Hor- 
tensius cupiditate dicendi sic, ut in nullo unquam fiagramiius studium viderim, 
that is, that up to this time J have never seen ; Nep, Aristid. 1. : Quamquam 
adeo excellehat Aristides ahstinentia, ut unus post hominum memoriam cognomine 
Justus sit appellatus : tamen a Themistocle collahefactus testula ilia exilio 
decern armorum multatus est. Here too the perfect subjunctive makes the 
dependent sentence proceed from the past, or the time to which the 
action of the leading verb belongs ; and the result combined with the 
author's opinion is extended to the present time : " he was the only one in 
the whole range of history, down to the present time, that was surnamed the 
Just." Such variations must be admissible, although no special rule is given 
on their account, for they do not often occur. (Comp. my note on Cic. in 
Verr. v. 10. in fin., and Cic. de Fin. ii. 20. init.) A preterite, on the other 
hand, might follow a present, when the dependent sentence is to express a 
continuing action in the past, as in Cic. in Verr. v. 11. : Scitote oppidum esse 
in Sicilia nullum ex iis oppidis, in quihus consistere praetores et conventum 
agere soleant, quo in oppido non isti delecta midier ad lihidinem esset (esset 
here alludes to the whole period of the praetorship), but such sentences can 
only be considered as exceptions, and fuerit would be more regular. There 
are also passages in ancient writers, which cannot be explained, and must be 
considered as irregularities; see my note on Cic. in Verr. i. 30. 75., and thus 
we sometimes find, especially in Caesar, an irregular transition from the 
preterite of the leading verb to the present of the dependent one. We can- 
not here enter upon the detail of such matters, and we shall only add the 
remark that when the hypothetical imperfect subjunctive is followed by a 
present or perfect subjunctive, the above rule is not violated, because the 
imperfect of the subjunctive refers to the present time ; e. g. Sallust, Cat. 7. : 
Memorare possem (differs from memorare possum only by the hypothetical 
form of the expression), quihus in locis maximas hostium copias populus 
Romanu^ parva manufuderit, quas urbes, natura munitas, pugnando ceperit, ni 
ea res longius nos ah incepto traheret. {Fudisset would have continued the 
hypothetical expression, but actual facts are here meant.) But even in 
cases like this the imperfect is generally used in the dependent sentence for 
the sake of the succession of tenses, as Cic. de Fin. 1. 8. : Quid enim me pro^ 
hiheret Epicureum esse, si probarem quae ille diceret, quum praesertim ilia 
perdiscere ludus esset, where we should have expected dicit and sit; ad Fam. 
xill. 66. : A. Caecinam non commendarem tihi, quum scirem, qua fide in tuos 
soleras esse, nisi me patris ejus memoria moveret, where we might say sciam 
and soleas. Similar expressions occur frequently; comp. Cic. Philip, v. 18. 
in fin. ; de Off. 11. 14. in fin. ; Tusc. i. 21. inlt. 

[§ 513.] The simple rule respecting the succession of tenses 
becomes somewhat difficult through the double signification of 
the perfect indicative. In the above rule it was treated only as 
the present of a completed action (in which sense it is equivalent 
to the English perfect) ; but as it is at the same time an aorist 
of the past (see § 500.), it is also connected with the tenses of 
the past time, viz. with the imperfect and pluperfect. In this 
sense the Latin perfect is translated by the English unperfect. 

B B 



The above rule therefore will be completed by the following 
addition : — 

The historical perfect is followed by the imperfect and plu- 

E. g. Audivi quid ageres and audivi quid egisses. The two 
meanings of the perfect and their influence upon the tense of 
the dependent verb may be seen in the following sentences : — 
Verves Siciliam per triennium ita vexavit ac perdidit, ut ea res- 

titui in antiquum statum nullo modo possit, says Cicero {in 

Verr. iv. init.) with reference to the actual state of Sicily. 
Conon quum patriam ohsideri audisset, non quaesivit, uhi ipse 

tuto viveret) sed unde praesidio posset esse civibus suis, says 

Nepos {Con. 2.) in speaking of past events. 

[§ 514.] Note 1. We may in general be guided by the English language^ 
as we translate the Latin historical perfect by our imperfect. It must, how- 
ever, be observed that the Latins, owing to the very frequent use of the 
perfect as an aorist of the past or an historical tense, became so accustomed 
to its connection with the imperfect, that in many cases they used this tense 
even where the Latin perfect is equivalent to the English perfect ; but this 
occurs only when there is a possibility of conceiving the action in its progress, 
and not merely its conclusion or result. Thus Cicero {in Verr. i. 1.) says: 
adduxi enim hominem, in quo satisfacere exteris nationihus possetis, in whom 
you may satisfy, &c. In the same manner Q. Cicero says at the close of an 
explanation {de Petit Cons. 4.) : quoniam quae subsidia novitatis haberes, et 
habere posses, exposui, nunc de magnitudine petitionis dicam. In these sen- 
tences we should require adduxi hominem, in quo satisfacere possitis, and 
quoniam exposui, quae subsidia habeas et habere possis, which would not be 
wrong by any means, but it would be against the usage of the Latin lan- 
guage ; for the Latins conceived the action in its duration, while we describe 
it together with its result by the perfect, and this is the case more especially 
when the acting person had an intention accompanying him from the be- 
ginning to the end of the action. We say, for example, " I have done this 
that you may see," and the Latin feci hoc, ut intelligas, would not be wrong, 
but as it was my intention from the beginning, it is preferable to say feci hoc, ut 
intelligeres, although I am not relating events, but speaking with reference 
to the present time. (Comp. Cic. Philip, ix. 2. § 5., where restaret is quite 
correct.) Hence such sentences as : diu dubitavi num melius sit, saepe mecum 
cogitavi quidnam causae sit, would sound strange to a Latin ear, and the more 
correct mode of speaking is : diu dubitavi num melius esset and saepe cogitavi 
quidnam causae esset, and the words diu and saepe indicate that the perfects 
dubitavi and cogitavi are conceived, as it were, as an aggregate of single 
doubts and thoughts, which themselves belong to the past time, while the 
conclusion extends to the present. But the rule is not upset by this remark, 
for when the sentence following does not refer to the separate parts of the 
action, but exclusively to the result, the perfect is followed by the present ; 
e. g. Cic. ad Fam. v. 6. : Ego meis rebus gestis hoc sum assecutus, ut bonum 
nomen existimer; Eutrop. viii. 2. : Trajanus rempublicam ita administravit, 
ut omnibus principibus merito praeferatur. These are the results of completed 


actions, and not intentions continuing along with the actions; The present 
may be used in subordinate and dependent sentences, even after an historical 
perfect, if that which is to be expressed is universal, and not valid for that 
time only which is indicated by the leading verb ; e. g. Justin, xxxi. 8. : An- 
tiocho pacem petenti ad priores condiciones nihil additiim^ Africano praedi" 
cante, neque RomaniSj si vincantur^ animos minui, neque, si vincant, secundis 
rebus insolescere. Here the presents express the fact of the Romans not 
losing their courage in misfortune and of their not being Insolent in pros- 
perity, as peculiar characteristics of the Romans, and as true at all times ; 
if the imperfect had been used, it would not indeed have been implied that 
at any other time the statement was not true, but the universality would 
not have been so clearly expressed. 

[§ 515.] Note 2. The remaining question now is this : when the leading 
verb Is a present, or (according to §516.) a future, and the infinitive of a 
completed action Is dependent on it, is it necessary to put the verbs dependent 
upon this infinitive in the present or the preterite, that is, the imperf. or 
pluperf. subjunctive ? The answer to this question depends upon another, 
viz. as to whether on changing the infinitive into the perfect indicative this 
tense is the real perfect or the aorist ? When this is ascertained, the de- 
cision is easy according to the two preceding paragraphs, and we may say, 
e, g. satis mihi mvltas causas aitidisse videor^ quamobrem tibi in Italiam pro- 
Jiciscervdum sit, I think I have mentioned to you sufficient reasons why you 
should go to Italy ; and in this manner Cicero (p. Cluent. 24.) says : nisi 
docet, ita se possedisse (that he has taken possession), ut nee vi nee clam nee 
precario possederit. But the usage of the Latin language Is nevertheless dif- 
ferent, the perfect Infinitive being like the perfect indicative (§ 5 14.), usually 
followed either by the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. Hence the 
above sentence should be quamobrem in Italiam tibi proficiscendum esset; 
comp. Cic. p. Leg. Man. 10. : satis mihi mvlta verba fecisse videor, qimre esset 
hoc beUumgenere ipso necessarium, magnitudine pericidosum, although reference 
is here made to the present time, and although we should say : " why this war 
is necessary;" in Verr. i. 12. : hoc me projiteor suscepisse magnum fortasse 
onus et mihi pericvlosum, verumtamen dignum, in quo omnes nervos aetatis 
industriaeque meae contenderem. Both tenses are found combined in Cic. 
p. Caec. 13. : Quid proficies, quum iUi hoc respondebunt tibi, quod tu nunc 
mihi: armatos tibi obstitisse, ne in aedes acceder^s, dejici porro nullo modo 
potuisse, qui non accesserit. 

[§ 516.] The futures are similar to the tenses of the present, 
for only that which is past stands apart and by itself. Hence, 
a future is followed by a present or a perfect, e. g. mox intelligam, 
quantum me ames or amaveris, but not quantum me amares or 
amasses. The same is the case with the future perfect : si cog- 
novero, quemadmodum te geras or te gesseris. But as the four 
subjunctives of the conjugatio periphrastica (formed by the fu- 
ture participle and esse) are regarded as subjunctives of the 
futures, we must add, that these paraphrased tenses may be 
dependent upon preterites (see the examples in § 497.), and 
that a mutual dependence exists between the presents and futures, 

B B 2 


but only a partial one between the preterites and futures, since 
the futures only may depend upon preterites, but not vice 
versa ; e. g. ignorabam quid dicturus esset, but not discam quid 
herifaceres for discam quid herifeceris. 

The complete rule respecting the succession of tenses there- 
fore is this : the tenses of the present and future, i. e. the pre- 
sent, perfect (in its proper sense), and the two futures are 
followed by the tenses of the present, i. e. by the present and 
the perfect subjuiictive : and the tenses of the past, i. e. the im- 
perfect, pluperfect, and the historical perfect, are followed by 
the tenses of the past, i. e. by the imperfect and pluperfect 



[§517.] 1. The indicative is used in every proposition the sub- 
stance of which is expressed absolutely and as a fact, e. g. I 
go, thou wrotest, he believed. 

Hence the indicative is used even in the expression of con- 
ditions and suppositions with the particles si, nisi, etsi and etiamsi, 
if without that expression an event is supposed actually to take 
place or (with nisi) not to take place. 
Mors ant plane negligenda est, si omnino extinguit animum, aut 

etiam optanda, si aliquo eum deducit, ubi sit futurus aeternus, 

Cic. Cat, Maj. 19. 
Si feceris id, quod ostendis, magnam habeho gratiam, si non fe- 

ceris, ignoscam, Cic. ad Fam. v. 19. 
Adhuc certe, nisi ego insanio, stulte omnia et incaute fiunt, Cic. 

ad Att. vii. 10. 
Ista Veritas, etiamsi jucunda non est, mihi tamen grata est, Cic. 

ad Att. iii. 24. in fin. 

Note. The conjunctions si and nisi express nothing else but a relation of 
one sentence to another ; that is, the relation of condition or exception : one 


thing is on condition that another is ; and one thing is, except in the case of 
another being, &c. Sentences which stand in this relation to each other are 
expressed by the indicative, i. e. objectively or in the form of reality. All 
expression of our own opinion is avoided, for this would be expressed by 
the subjunctive. In using the indicative, I donot express any opinion as to 
the possibility or impossibility of a thing ; but, without any comment, I 
suppose a thing as actual, or (with nisi) I make an exception, which may be 
or may not be, but which I take as actual for the sake of the inference. 

[§ 518.] 2. The following peculiarities deserve to be noticed 
as differing from the English. 

The verbs oportet, necesse est, debeo, convenit, possum, licet, 
and par, fas, aequum, justum, consentuneum est, or aequius, me- 
lius, idilius, optabilius est, are put in the indicative of a preterite 
(imperf., pluperf., and the historical perfect), where we should 
have expected the imperfect or pluperfect subjunctive. The 
imperfect indicative in this case expresses things which are not, 
but the time for which is not yet passed ; and the perfect and 
pluperfect indicative things which have not been, but the time 
for which is passed; e. g. Cic. in Cat, i. 1. : Ad mortem te duci 
jam pridem oportehat, i. e. thy execution was necessary and is 
still so ; hence it ought to take place. In going back to the 
beginning, however, the speaker might have used the pluper- 
fect with this meaning : " thy execution ought to have taken 
place long ago." Cic. de Fin, iii. 10. : perturbationes animorum 
poteram ego morbos appellare, sed non conveniret ad omnia^ I 
might have called them, and might do so still ; Cic. ad Att, ii. 
1. : si mihi omnes, ut erat aequum, faverent, it was fair, and is 
still fair, but it does not happen to be the case. The perfect 
and pluperfect, on the other hand, clearly express that all is 
over; e. g. Cic. ad Fam. iv. 16. : Volumnia debuit in te officio- 
sior esse, et id ipsum, quod fecit, potuit facere diligentius ; p, 
Muren, 25. : Catilina erupit e senatu triumphans gaudio, quem 
omnino vivum illinc exire non oportuerat ; Curt. iii. 9.: longe 
utilius fuit angustias aditus occupare, it would have been much 
better to occupy the pass. In the paraphrased conjugation 
with the participle future active and passive, too, the preterites 
of the indicative very frequently have the meaning of a sub- 
junctive; e. g. Ovid, Her, xvi. 152. ; tam bona constanter praeda 
tenenda fuit, ought to have been kept. This is the case more 
especially in hypothetical sentences. (§ 519.) The subjunctive 
in independent sentences is much less frequent than the indica- 

B n 3 


tive; e.g. Nep. Epam, 4.: Plurima quidcm proferre possemus,' 

sed modus adhibendus est. 

Chaldaei oculorum fallacissimo sensu judicant ea, quae ratione 

atque animo videre debebant, Cic. de Divin. ii. 43. 
Aut non suscipi bellum oportuit, aut geri pro dignitate populi 

Homani, Liv. v. 4. 
Is (Tib. Gracchus) fugiens decurrensque clivo Capitolino, frag' 

mine subsellii ictus, vitam, quam gloriosissime degere potuerat, 

immatura morte Jinivit, YelL Pat. ii. 3. 

[§ 519. <2.] Note 1. This indicative supplying the place of the subjunctive, 
is frequently retained even when an hypothetical sentence with the imper- 
fect or pluperfect subjunctive is added ; and it is here in particular that the 
indicative of the preterites of the paraphrased conjugation is employed ; 
e. g. Cic. Philip, ii. 38. : Omnibus eum contumeliis onerasti, quern patris loco^ 
si ulla in te pietas esset, colere dehehas ; Sallust, Jug. 85. : quae si duhia aut 
procul essent, tamen omnes honos rei puhlicae consulere decehat; Liv. xlii. 34. : 
Quodsi mihi nee omnia stipendia emerita essent, necdum aetas vacationem daret, 
tamen aequum erat me dimitti ; Cic. p. Log. Man. 17. : Quodsi Gn. Pompejus 
privatus esset hoc tempore, tamen erat mittendus. With the perfect, Liv. xxxii. 
12. : deleri totus exercitus potuit, si fugientes persecuti victores essent ; Cic. de 
lie Publ. i. 6. : Consul esse qui potui, nisi eum vitae cursum tenuissem ; in 
Vatin. 1 . : Etenim debuisti, Vatini, etiamsi /also venisses in suspicionem P. 
Sextio, tamen mihi ignoscere ; in Verr. iii. 61. : Quern hominem, si qui pudor 
in te., atque adeo si qui metus fuisset, sine supplicio dimittere non dehuisti, hunc 
abs te sine praemio discedere noluisti ; p. Milon. 11. : quodsi ita putasset, certe 
optabilius Miloni fuit dare jugulum ; ibid. 22. : quos nisi manumisisset, tor- 
mentis etiam dedendi fuerunt ; Petron. 94. : Si te non invenissem^ periturus per 
praecipitia fui. See also §§ 498. and 499. But the subjunctive is also ad- 
missible, as in Cic. in Cat. iii. 7. in fin. : dedendi fuissent ; and p. Lig. 7. in 
fin. : periturus fuissem (according to the common reading) ; de Divin. ii. 8. 
Res publico poterat esse perpetun, si patriis viveretur institutis et moribuSy Cic. 

de Re Pull. iii. 29. 
Nisi felicitas in socordiam vertisset, exuere jugum potue?'unt, Tacit. Agr. 31. 

[§519. b.] Independent of this use of the indicative, instead of the subjunc- 
tive, to express that which might or should have taken place, the historians 
use the indicative of a preterite instead of the pluperfect subjunctive to ex- 
press that which would actually have taken place, in sentences containing the 
inference from an hypothetical sentence, although the premises are not true. 
This figure (i. e. a mode of expression differing from the ordinary one) which 
is only intended to render a description more animated, is used in the first 
place when a part of the inference has already come to pass, and would have 
been completely realised, if something else had occurred, or more frequently, 
if some obstacle had not been thrown in the way, whence the adverb jam is 
frequently added ; e. g. Liv. iv. 52. : jam fames quum pestilentia tristior erat, 
ni annonae foret suhventum ; Tacit. Hist. iii. 46. : jamque castra leg