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New York 


M iiVSt i:|«AE5ENS 








Social Democratic Federation 

Jewish Daily Forward 

Old Tirom" 

N, Y. Stile Assembly jncmlwr*,, l&lfi 

League for Industrial Dsmorucy 

The sponsors of this book were prominently engaged in various phases 
of the Socialist Movement during the late William M, Feigenbaum's decades 
of activity. They were his warm and admiring friends; several of them 
served with him in the New York State Assembly. 


£ O N T E N 

froreword . 

&*te and Hasis Alike 

Full circle _. 

Only the tlict^tors Have Will f™. . *~™ 
Hitler Throw* Che Ga E e _ 
Dwtoflr ^*> Che Defend " 
Morris HilJqult ..__„ 
s en Hartford 

Michael ZametkJii _ 

The Flavor of the Man _ 

Abraham I. Shlplacou 

Oe*TO Klrtpatrick __ 

■Th* Mangle Slaughter 

Ataut Ch^to plier ^^ 

Because of a KaU 

Our Sacred C^titutian 

It aiMOId Be a Mfate Ma — 

A Shorter Working Day 

To HeJleve Dfetre&s 

Slashing Wages _ 

^* Librae Z 

Placid Waji ____ 

Lonfc of the Universe _ 

31*1*111* of the Weather 

Jnck London 

^tfward Bel| 0my _ 
WilJiam Morrjg _. 

Bernard Shaw 

^ the stage DJe* _ 

Old S^nlsh eiwfate '"""" 


In the first decade of the present century, when William Feigcn- 

i begin his activities as a Socialist speaker and journalist^ the 

proipects of an early victory for Socialist ideas in America seemed 
■ ' u bright. After overcoming or seeming to overcome ite internal 
■■ii" ulties, the Socialist movement was making rapid strides both in 
politics and in the industrial field, until in 1912 it polled one vole in 
lilxteen in the Presidential campaign, and in 191 7 one vote in lour when 
M'mtis Hillquit ran for the mayoralty of New York City. 

\l was in the midst of this scene of growth and enthusiasm that 
William Feigenbaum grew to maturity. Born in Belgium in 18&G of 
parents themselves deeply involved in the Socialist movement, first in 
Poland and later in England) he breathed in his earliest childhood the 
.itmosphcTC of youthful optimism that characterized those days. In 
t*S9l his parents* Benjamin and Mathilda Feigenbaum, came to New 
Vorkj where they took part in the development of the Jewish Daily 
Forward and of the Jewish Trade Union movement They were an 
integral part of the intellectual movement of the East Side of New York 
that is stU] nostalgically remembered* 

Young William matriculated at Columbia University where he 
made a good scholastic record. In September, 1905, at the beginning of 
his junior year, he attended the organization meeting of the Intcrccl- 
legiate Socialist Society, presided over by Upton Sinclair; secured the 
rltt lion of Harry W. Laidler, then a junior at Wcslcyan University* to 
the Society's Executive Committee, Returning to his Alma Mater 
young Fcigenbaum organized an I.S.S + branch at Columbia, one of the 
first chapters of that organization, which, in 1921, became the League 
lor Industrial Democracy. He was active in 1906 in arranging a 
crowded meeting i trine Grand Central Palace, New York, for Jack 
London, the first President of the LS+S., and was a prominent member 
of the Society for a score of years. 

After his graduation from Columbia University in 1907 s and after 
earning the degree of Master of Arts at Wisconsin and Columbia, 



William threw himself wholeheartedly into the Socialist movement* He 
was one of the staff of the "Call" through the stirring days of its growth 
and its tragic decline. He was on the staff of the "New Leader" from 
the beginning- For a few years he was editor of the English page of the 

He was an indefatigable stump speaker capable of holding large 
crowds enthralled with his seemingly inexhaustible fund of facts and 
figures, and with his store of pertinent anecdotes. 

He was elected in 1917 to the New York State Assembly and 
served through the 1918 session with an enthusiasm not repressed by 
the age-old cynicism that then characterised the Albany political scene. 

Assemblyman Feigenbaum, during his term of office, introduced 
a dozen bills having to do with the protection of labor in private and 
public employment, and with the public ownership of public utilities 
and the municipal construction and operation of houses for lower in- 
come groups. Of his record in the Assembly, the Citizens Union said 
that this young member was "gifted in debate on social and economic 
questions," and "had a remarkably good record on City Legislation," 

After J91S the Socialist movement declined. The war-time perse- 
cution^ the growth of the Communist movement of which Feigenbaum 
was an early opponent, the prosperity of the twenties all took their to]L 
When there was no longer a field for him in the Socialist press William 
Feigenbaum found a place for himself on the "Brooklyn Standard 
Union" (1928-1936) and later on the "Newark Ledger" (1936-1941), 
He was still able to give part of bis time to the Socialist movement^ now 
lorn by internal difficulties ; he was still able^ in columns that he wrote, 
subtly to give expression to the ideas that dominated him. 

Devotion and time given to Socialism never kept him from extensive 
reading in the fields of history and literature. His sense of humor was 
a legend. His interests were varied and his knowledge was fabulous. It 
was no uncommon thing for him to receive letters from distant places 
containing requests for information on curious and esoteric historical 
questions* His writings, examples of which are presented in this booklet 
reflect his qualities, 

William Feigenbaum passed away on April 23j 1949 after many 
ytars of illness. At the instance of his wife, Margaret,, these pages are 
offered as a memorial to him. She sdcrtrd the material from the large 
volume of his writings. 

The matter presented w n» interest in more ways than one: it will 


threw light <» the nature of the mar, ; N Wffl preset lor 

,, IV the memory of a time of grot aspirations. 

Committee of Sponsor 

The ficrv vouiw Socialist does not appear in these page*. The 

£*Ss:s:! , 53=M=s 

Mirct corner speeches, and brougm w i P ^ ^ 

,1. .quence and accuracy- ,-, m ™le that so fascinated him, 

, ^p-r^S- -— - - 

"New Leader." . , wrote We have 

Hk nhilosoohv was evident in everything that ne wroit, < ■= 
■ . flSI'ht was* a person of strong social conscience, a 
med to show rum as he :jm i, pe ^ ^ ^^ 

«*« of ™"X:*tfw'^Z made use of material showin, 

tSZZZZ £XZ complete 3Ll a touch of hi, ***** 

humor. n 

"Let us review the scene. 

Margaret B, Feigenbaum 


<>f Nations or Fm.iJ? ." u ■ Bttcm P t ' J> >' ** United States or the Uum,. 

of nation,! Sic? Tho mV 1 '"^ *" "FT* ;i> f111 Wmenl 

war mi ,y I J m, ,,,/ J ;., ' ' ,"?'"»■ * /»*" *> *e Effect thai 

J-itoMy, lhe»W'oftaS i Life I -""W 1 *"■"■ " rad " d,^ t ;V^^r,;^'S; ] ,at,,u, "- ,n l * if i i »%>» wmi «K 
*. ft. or ti, P rs USE SStaft M n * lu ^ 

«ai! i^.rsVdffi SSi 5? r ""■■" iir " — ■ mb -* •* 

frea which i, i- impoJiH ' 1 ,1 '" °^ w fc*"*"* &e tnubh, 
"honor." ""J™*** to withdraw without lew or Adr preeiow 

name, thai .* apSw In tnY^Ll5,& fET" 6 ^*? funn V °™1 

^- 1»].«« savin i,',i !;";„; ' ;■' r i, ■"' ;i " ! i y wir " * v[m * *** 

»"i belong to ii,, t l™ „ h ir ? T,i f ™ ,nTito, 'v that doe* 
And when Kussia urcts into a "hnlu tiP „,-■■ ■ . 

ttKVtt: SWA fffi Z^jUSf js 

1 1 looks I. IKK WAR y 

|i«iH«i for th* En^iili-ipefiiJng people of Japan, and H is said 10 nil- i 

ml opinion and to have wide influence. 

( hi P i tali I ihaiiiw the place of honor with a thwe-colunin *tory 

,1. .In, i i(h M< riuluii antl Pan^orn, then inil in Japan, U a stnry headed 

SiiLisidnn Shows Sign of Quieting Down." "Wakabufci dedares 

i ill make every effort for peace/' says the bank, or aub-heaa Beside 

| ,{ |nn < ' "boa^' With the information that, "Yourijf Marshal Orders 

i I. .iy Down Arms," < fc uotinff Marshal Chan fi Hsueh-Hn^ son of the 

i i.i M »i IliI ' Chuj^ T,sao-Liang, and present WiiT-Lorcl of Manchuria. 

When the |ap;icirsi pi-umicr and the Manthurian war-brd now work- 

. In ilHonce with (he Nanking government, jointly demand peace it 

like peace— at least on the surface. But that's the way of diplomacy 

• »li nidc demand* peace and swears they will do everyhin^ for peace, 

.1 ol lacrificlug their prcrioua "honor/' thus laying the onus for start- 

■ i upon tlie other fellow, 
Mill in the same issue, on another unge, we read these words under 
ih. i.i|»linti ll Japan as Guardian of Peace"; 

fapan has acted as the guardian of peace in the Par East for the last 

half century, Slic risked her very existence in iwo foreign wart, one agalnat 

i and the other against China, in fulfillment of her guardianship. 

ihl fought tile first war in order to place Korea out of the reach oT 

rn intrlgun. She founht the second in order to make Manchuria a 

i abode for Orientals. Korea today enjoys peacCj »curity and pioa* 
|i iiiv: hut Manchuria Is placed in a grave situation chiefly because of 
i I, .ii , ii In ,il to tive up to her international obligations. Japan has 
UintLr null Chinese injustice; and atrocities as no nation has ever done 
km) i similar circuinstance^ But even japan has no eternal patience. 
Sin- now a>k* China to stop tier unbridled audacity so that peace may he 
pp rived in Muchuria, 

If we had not read that iu the paper we refer to we would think 
the statement was a burteique* It is in precisely the lone every nation 
employs when caught starting a war of aggression. 

Japan prejerved the "peace" by wantonly attacking China in 1895 
,iikI pluril Kut 1 .1 N11I of the reach of foreign intrigues 11 hy gnjbping thai 
11 dependent nation for herself; and it now is a conquered province, seeth- 
ing with rebellion- 
Today Manchuria is the ohjective^ Manchuria is a portion of China 
Mid has been since 1(144. ^ :^^^ 00(> 1 0f5 " people are overwhelmingly Chim < 
Ruuia WBntl Manchuria, and was Olirtcd in 1905 hy Jap;m, who wanted 
ih-- ".iv.ii province for herself. Ruwta BtUI wants it; the Japanese still warn 
11 ; the ChituM display "unbridled audacity" in seeking; to keep what is 
her own in law, in fact and by additional right of coIoniiaBori and tL- 
vi lopment 

We are eagerly waiting for the English-Language newspapers or China 
in see if the Chinese can outdo the Japanese in diplomatic reasoning, We 
Lave sufficient confidence in diplomacy to believe the Chinese Htau>nn u 
arc able to make :ui even worse ease lor themselves than the Japanese 
have, and that they will he able Hi mm-I. ilie plain justice of their 



cause in arguments that evoke national ''honor," that will appeal to ji 
those things that have no bearing on the case. 

Thus are wars started* Thus do nations get themselves flung ml 
the inferno. Thai problems that might property be settled soberly 
decent men, acting like civilized human beings, around a council til 
are referred to the arbitrament of the sword* 

We have no doubt but that Japan will win when the fighting ncall] 
gets started, Wfi fervently hope chat when the theft of Manchuria 
completed that will be the end, and that no other nations will be involved. 

But wc sorrowfully file the opinion that mankind is not yet civilized. 


IN one significant particular the Nazi Reich and Stalin's "workers' 
I fatherland" are exact copies of each other, In both of those states— 
held up as ideals to millions by high pressure propaganda to millions— 
the people live behind sealed border In both the citizens (or rather, 
ubjectHl are cut oil from the rest of the world, are not allowed to travel 
ibroad arc not allowed to listen to radio broadcasts from outside, arc not 
allowed to read what they want, to correspond with whom they wish. 
fUdio, press, private mail, books— everything U censored. 

In other word*, the Hitler "paradise" is a vast prison, and the Stalin 
Utopia is a concentration camp. 

In apportioning praise or blame, it is interesting to note that Russia 
beat Germany to it. The borders of Russia were scaled lone; before Hitler 
took over in Germany and converted the Reich into a prison pen. But, 
again, in apportioning praise or blame, it is important to note that the 
Russian masses always were illiterate, and their isolation from the world 
was not as much of an outrage upon human decency and dignity as was 
Hitler's, sealing of his borders. 

Hie Soviet government, acting on the assumption that its subjects 
were ignorant and that what they didrft know would never hurt them, 
I ms been creating the picture of a fantastic world outside the Russian 
borders that the people within Russia have come to accept as accurate, 
since they have no information against which to check it* 

For many years, Russia maintained its Intourist agency, through 
which Americans and others, would buy trips to the Soviet land, together 
with carefully guided tours, Thousands of school teachers and others were 
guided through Russia by know-it*aJI guides and saw what they were sup- 
posed to see. Those who tried to see for themselves were spied upon, 
hounded, and forced by intimidation to leave the country. 

But ttever was thers any Russian Internist to encourage Russians to 
see for themselves whether their rulers were idling the truth aboat 
Amenta and the rest of what they called, m their own Bngo, the "boar* 
et-mf* world. 

The Soviet people were told that millions of people in America were 
Starving, that there were bread riots in the streets, that a brutal capitalist 
government shot and gassed them into subjection. Books by selected Ameri- 
can writers — Upton Sinclair, Theodore Dreiser, Jack London among others 

were circulated by the millions to show what a hell-hole America was, 

(But when the Soviet government prepared to show a newsrcel 
Living Americans standing in line at an employment office, it was hur- 






rjedly withdrawn when il wis noticed (hat all the women wore sU 
stockings, the mark of the hated bourgeois.) 

With no freedom o fspeech or press, with no freedom of assemblage , 
with no liberty to move about or converse privately with foreigners, it is 
hardly 10 be wondered that the Russian people have followed iheir lead! 
m— or rather, leader— in everything he has told them. These: old enough 
to remember what freedom means, have been silenced or .shot, while 
most of the men and women active in the regime are too young to re- 
member what freedom means, and too young to recall the ■rtruegfc of the 
early Russian revolutionary heroes for those liberies that Stalin now 
treats as crimes punishable by death or torture. 

Even Russian diplomats, who would know what b going on in the 
outside world, have been "liquidated," or retired. A few of them reni^ed 
and renounced their allegiance when they were called home. 

Germany started off with handicaps that Russia never had The 
people are literate, and before that black day in 1933 when Hitler took 
over 3 a large number of them regularly read American, British, French 
and 5wj» publacattons. Newsstands displaced them all The cinemas 
showed mainly American pictures, and the masses knew that the standard 
of Me here is immensely higher than the Nazis tried to tell their poeplc 
it was Picture of parking lots, in front of factories Riled with thousands 
oi cars belonging to simple "exploited" factory worker? told a story that no 
words could convey. It did not fit into the picture of the Nazis wanted to 

But Hitler and Gocbbeb attended to all that. Only a few foreign 
newspapers now seep in, No American movies are shown. Books written 
by foreigners, and by Germans who do not agree with the fantastic 
ideas of the Nazis are burned, and barred. No one can possibly know what 
is £Oing on. Listening to a non-Nazi radio is a capital crime. 

It is Hitler's story that nowhere in the world are the m^scs a* well 
off as in Germany, and the German people, after seven years in their 
concentranon Camps, know no better. It is Hitler 8 * story that people every- 
where else are starving (as it is Stalin's). So the German people are not 
permitted to wander around to find out for themselves. 

Those who are able to go abroad are limited to so few marks to 
spend that they cannot see anything; and they are so .spied on bv Bundists 
and consular agents that they can learn nothing. At a recent international 
gymnastic meet in Stockholm, the German contestants were sent on a 
Nazi ship, and required to return to the ship after every event in order 
that they might not be contaminated by learning how well, healthy 
wholesome and happy people can be, even though they hate and depise 

To Americans, the diet problem is in keeping down the waistline, 
the butter and pastry and sugar and whipped cream problems are mat- 
ters of calories. To a Nazi, confined to his prison, it is an event if he has 
enough butter for a meal. It is something to write home about if he is 
treated to Schlagsahne (whipped cream) with his coffee. 

Little hy little, the inmates of the two vast prisons are becoming 
obsessed with the idea of food. Those frontier guards who go into Holland 

'1. limr buy up all ibe chocolate ihey can get; they are like 

11 lurnrd Ithjsc in ;\ U;\kvsho\). 
Il in not Surprising thai a German, on a recent business trip to Bet- 

Ilnlbml, look with him a number of packages of ersatz food, 

!■ I" .. iU-"' in his HoUeiing friends; who thereupon roared wiith 

1 I i.iit ci 1 ihr N;i*i ignorance of conditions outside, And it is not sur- 

iliir ;l German on a diplomatic mission here looked at the abun- 

■ l I food at low prices on display in a public market, and 

I l hut il was just put out as a display to make an impression; for 
>l|<1 in 1 ili.' Kiii-hrer to tl him that America is starving? 

I hoH who are "neutral 11 in this war; those who believe that it is- only 
in Ijiljjerialisl quarrel lor territory that does not concern free people are 
« 11 ■ -ml find comfort to those who would make the whole world a 
.us did the rulers of two once great countries. 

rill.T, CIRCLE 



JN the fhMhof the fi^ moments of the Russian revolution, the leaden 
L > J* vlct ™ eobhevib felt a duty imposed on them to spread 
W ,y w" S& thC,r P< ? Uliar P hil0 ^P h y «P™*c whole world P The 
World War was staggering to ita dreary close amidst unprecedented 
destruction, and U was an even bet that the world dkfcx as it had existed 
pnor to rgi4 would not survive. 

Hence the Bolshevib^-Iike the French Jacobins a century and a 
quarter hefore-undertook to carry their revolution to the wbcTe world 

un^S^/k *" I al .Pf 1 *' in Europc ar,d in the Americas, they 

undertook ,o bring about violent overthrow and the establishment of a 

bmnn sptem, To spread that revolutionary movement the Communist 

niernafonal was established supposedly to act as a clearing STS 

^7"™ P art !^ ln * IJ ™^tries; actually, it was to be the "general 
st a IT of the world revolution. 

h,rf Crl *■ V ° 4 ^ T 1 J" ie ^ &lativC ""^ ™d where labor JZ 

! J ™l B DOw4rfu !' thc general staff undertook to destroy the S 

ctencc of the mwi in their own organisations. Rival onuii^on. were 

^LT n a wir ntroVCri,eS un P recedented *>"ce were started with that 

W S.* 60 ! 1 ! ^ ° f ** '«■*»* maneuver was that the revolution 

S&?o3^ ei " T^"^ thG mind5 of ^ Rus ^ Bolsheviks) 
*as that only the Russian knew the exact way to do the job, and for any 

enra slightly to criticize thc policies or the methods of the Bolshevik 
leaders was a en me of the deepest dye. wsuevu! 

.t J"*** ^° rd " ° f thC Bdshevife •«*«■. every strike in any industry 
at any time, m any country, was to be a "rehearsal for the revolXn^- 

S^E/ 1 "? ? Imd T y othcr South American cities in eoSd3 
that had not ever, been .n the war, A . Leon Trotsky put it labor Jea^ 
were tutors and-lacfceya" of the employer, unless they wen, p~d ■" 
convert every labor controversy inro "heavy civil war" 

Ap2S * fc «™ ol ^ poBtfcd developments, Russian famine, 

the death of Lenin and a number of other things resulted in the pete™ 

out of that for m of lunacy. But Trotsky .till listed upon the fi 3 

Wld revolution," while Si ah n who sensibly reabxedXl me Trotefi 

dea was nonsen^, tossed the embattled Leon out of hi, job, hi, party and 

the country while he undertook, in his own realm, to estebli^ffiuS 

m one country," His idea was that he would make such a b ri iant TccZ 

of his regime that the working people of all other countries would flock 


i hirt banners and seek to do Likewise. Trotsky, meanwhile, continued 
■ in I ' onllniiej) to intrigue for what he calls his 46 pennancnt revolution/ 1 
lnHHri tie is at the moment. 

in i maintained his Communis International as an agency for the 

n policy of his government; its original function, always based on 

Hi limn, was quickly forgotten. During at least a decade the Bolshevik 

i was at least not aggressive. Stalin was too busy at home shoot- 

hll generals and doing other things to be busy about aggression, 

ll ■, his spokesman at Geneva, Maxim LttvinoIF, could honestly and 

■ itiinusly urge disarmament and denounce aggression (although, alasl 

Mil nothing about it,) 

Now the wheel turns again and Stalin has again become a Trotskyite, 

• I.. In U all hot for -spreading the glories of his regime into Poland, 

'li Baltic States and now into Finland. His new spm-t of activity can be 

>■■ d only by the fact that he has taken the old idea of "world revolu- 

(Jon/ 1 "heavy civil war/' +( every strike a rehearsal for the revolution" out 

I mothballs and is now working at it. It took a world war to get him to 

again; in fact, it is quite possible that he framed his pact with 

I tiller In order to get the world war going, so that he ntight have a free 
hand In "liberating* 1 the Finns with bomhing planes. 

Any way one looks at tt, it is plain that, each in his own way, Hitler 

I Stalin are going after world chaos. Each hopes to knock off one coun- 

". ilier another, and by steadily spreading their influence- each hopes 

■ rule the world. 

And the rule of each kind of "ideology* 1 means thc end of all thc 
I miliar] values that civilization has taken so Song to establish. If either 
■ in., (he world is back in the jungles, but if both win, thc world is on iis 
WRy into decades — possibly centuries— of unceasing warfare, and possibly 
hi the end, thc end of civilization. 

One expects nothing of Hitler, for Hitler is an uneducated and 
iunorant man. It is on Stalin, who is expected to know better^ that the 
greatest condemnation U to be showered for his revival of the principles 
of 1917, adopted then as slogans in the red hot days of revolution and 

■ wl now at a moment when they can do the most harm to all the world 
Fur all time to come. 




Iftjy and Nazi a*££y?S J^FkttTTT'T) ° f fa ^ 
lor-nll In March, ro.j ■ the N ?° T^ZhT } ^ a . hand in *« f fCe - 
coumry and treated il raDle^P d J"'? Au5tria > «»«*™y<ri M 

fewL «ar.ed"hd r Chin7'^ den ""T L h C f , ^ ^ JU '* ™> ,hc 
piwas of the dcnmXnlr Sfi„ 5J* '^ r * c Na2is st ™^ their 

«°P«*» o fthe Bohhcvlfpwo fc ^ of h" Wo ] d'V^^"' 
and reduced thai count™ :« fir* i * U \. MBC "<>ria Unite ) Russians, 

forcibly ^ k ^^^d^^^ ;- «M*I^ 

case %aj 23?3 j™ « ^ - c<™ n; in ", ve3> . 

times they wen- accomplished bv SS ^ • ■ Cir aftailan * Some 
by terro/and ihrcat. S *t™^ ""^ 

within the victim nation. accompanied by well-organized treason 

of Ita ffli? *" |S —** C ° mm ™ «*■«**& of every on, 

governing nation, by . SK^^ ?" ^ ^ adc b ^ a «"*" 
control over its gwoJSf ' fie * dom of ^^"n and a measure of 

wanton war for ^gr^iveCrSc, Th.TL ^ Z *!* ^ *** *** 
and armor purposes. lhat u as obsolete as battering ram* 


■ >oly in nations where tbc« is no will hut that of the Leader, the 

i •■ i il.. Duett* the CaudiHo; where there is no way open to the people 

• imp- or influencing opinion and national policy has there been a 

till |n. i Aggression. It seemed like a good idea to Hitler or Stalin or the 

Injur, and that was that. To oppose or even criticizes a decision 

'I I- I <MiJrr ( to uxurcss an opinion, to suggest that the course proposed 

"., unjtUtj cruel — even only unwise — is to commit a criminal of- 

l"iiii'.]iahlc accordingly, 

il iho Prime Minister of Great Britain, the President of the United 

oi 1 1 iv other head of a self-governing state, were to suggest ag- 

.ii tion there would be instantly such a storm of discussion that the 

'■ »in hi n| surprise would be lacking, and such a plan would of necessity 

ill in ilie ground, Indeed, an earlier American president once nearly got 

i* I Mil i Mieh a war,, but he was stymied by the outcry of the whole press 

i. 'I |M Oplc 

Wo have reached a point in development that no free and hone&l 

|in|itf wil] ever he an a^nessor. Aggression, plundering another people^ 

nig their liberty and infltitutions f establishing one's own institutions 

j hostile peoplCj are things free people do not care to do and arc 

H>l •! -inc. 

Ih. ir is a moral to this; it should be obvious to everyone. 
\ I ice" clcople is weak on aggression; but it is unconquerable in de- 
i i the people know what it is they are defending. For they them- 

inike the decisions. 

HIT I, Kit THROWS Till, t\\HV. 



A D . ou ' HITL ER, Idar sehoenc Adolf,- leader of millions of mal 
-* devotee! followers who sire pledged to follow wherever he Ir^ls. frd 
Uiat he i* at tat strong enough to throw down the owe to the Gtrmi 

He be^n bj a comic character, leading the comic opera l>. ■■ ■. h; 
revolt m Munich thai iputtert-4 out lib- a tLmp firecracker and 
landed him in jait from which he was released long before his terra \ 
up because he was not considered of sufficient importance to be kent 
custody, ■ 

lie continues a* something more than a comic character leadinc 
vast of men and women sworn to follow him blindly, unqucationinrf 
to overturn the Republic and to repudiate the Treaty of Versailles and 
Lrermanys other obligations. 

The madman of Munich was. beneath notice In iy J(J - the jj^Kt chit 
Of 1931, being called into conference by the President of the Rcimblh 
calling for a Fascist dictatorship of Germany within a week (with himscl 
—an alien— as dictator) is no longer beneath notice. 

™rfT£! Slf Ved -** , ? W i rf ' 9l9 lad a P hiloso P»y and a program ihi 
read like the ravings of a lunatic, making no head nor tail, appealing | 
no one in command of his reason. The powerful political leader of ihi 
caJnng upon the German people to follow him, undisputed chief of a val 
party whose ticket he ttmnot vole because he is not ftiwi a cdtUen of if 
country he seels to rule, still has the same program and me same pfail 
sophy that « accepted in toto by multitudes of member, of what is U r 
really one of the most intelligent of nations. 

In 1819 ihc Viennese draftsman Hitler, who had lost his Austriai 

in the beer halls of Munich and wrote down his philosophy that was mad. 

h P Mht;- B T dff! °f P re J udices a "d undigested maundednas. H< 
had eft Vienna beewe he hated the Jews with such vencmou, paaQ 
-1 he could not bear to live m a city where there were so many of thcJ 
During his obscure four years as just another German soldier he dreawca 
-Tk-To^i U Cc ™^ * ncJ Gpr ™" Austria would he reunited in the! 
h**Z \tl ♦ ■ eo ?!**ii lf ? ni the « rea[ Em P irc of Charlemagne, He 

hXJS JT d i ltJZCnsh '^ lu hk curioua Gcrman chauvidim were 

For his part in the "beer putsch" Hitler went to jaJL but when l! 
seemed that he was merely a harmless madman hr u-as released 

I h< German people were sobered, (hastened by their defeat m toe 

KIKrany prepaid to IW.ll the terms of the peace treaty and the 

,i,1i, a.inm of the treaty laier negated. Parties weni nto and di^u- 

h ..l Ihr CmnaiM had won the respect of the world. The moiicharenit* 

,,.,1 f or jL restoration of ihc Hohenwlk™, but without much fervor, 

|,|, uommunista -ere the party of those who felt dcroair at the turn 

were taking, led by men whn hoped to convert Germany into n, 

Soviet under Russian auspices and inspiration. The Communist volt, 

1 ncd, an accurate barometer of industrial coti&bcm Latterly it was 

1 l m- 1 Republic was firmly entrenched. The best minds and souls of 

,any were giving ihemsclve* wholly to the task of strengthening the 

u i I" 

P Thc« came a time when the tide turned. There came a thw : when it 

.Hind that the delirious chauvinism seeking to repudiate the obligation* 

,l„ Republic had assumed began to grow. Suddenly Hitler became .mpor- 

,„ Making speeches in no whit different from the speeches he had 

■lollvcred when he was considered a harmless madman he was greeted 

...,,1, v:«l and growing things. His appearance was met with wild ac- 

Halm of people ihriektog "Hell Hitler!" "Deutochland, erwaehe! - 

I l.,il Hitler!" "Germany awake!" . .„„■,:„„ ,1^ 

Great industrialists, eager to stem the growing tide of woilung class 

nrotwt -gainst industrial condition*, began to contribute large sums 

V,- party as the Italian industrialists had contnbuted largely to the war 

, In ,t of Mussolini's Fascists in Italy. 

\ new oencration of Germans Ixgan 10 grow up, boys and girls who 
I,,,] !„.,„ horn too late to have W in the war, to whom life ^as WOicto 
,nd thai.. They threw off all restrictions, ihcy embraced a new moral y 
S no moralhy/thcy fung thrives into nudi.m they were the au her ^e 
children of the age, thrae »m and daughters of thoughtful and 

'^'lidcT'demanded that Germany throw off all fctterj, declare inde- 
pendena of the nation* to which money h owed, ordered he ; ^verihrow 
,f the Republic, told frCf"«« «« rc^diati. the war guil 1 e, ou aw 
,|„ jews destroy ihe labor organi.alions and ertabluh a dictfttonhtp- 
wiili Ihc alien Hitler as the German Mussolini. 

The new Germany has Lx-en drab; Hitler and his allies suppted color 

,-xrilement, thrills and music, torch« and marchntfi, warlike um- 

I,,,,,,, and Hupping banner.. IGllcrism, the apotheosi* Ot the undistin- 
. -d the K U Kluxery of the lower-grade Germans appealing to the 
f."Z hatred" the same meddlesomeness, the same rtcklamffll, the same 
[we of small minds for display. 

As Hitlerism grow it assumes importance by the mere fad of its 

^nd"af^ U iSSS^k npon the Republic ^ momentum, 
horde* of those hilherto content to plod toward a soberly ^■t'^tor>' 
U,».,l are driven by that very ferocity to oppose the Con.mumsn, of Hitlci 
with the Hitlerism of Communism! 

The Republic is admittedly shaky. Bruenmg i' supported m the 


rr.T t.x kkvjfav Tftj-- sr.r.xj-; 

and then alt,™ of the Hugonburg Nationalist party-whirh they seem 6 
opposed but actually the.r pohikal bed-fellows. It i s a rtianfie bne _ up bl H 

^iT™?** T"l tbat ** ""^ thc Rc P yblic ™ the defend 
Hitler definitely shouts the inchoate inutilities that but a few yCaJ 
»wn grated with storms of laughter, but today he b greeted *T 
frenz.ed cheer, by n,l)hons who socm to be with** to try even the nd] 
fascism ot his party as an alternative to the weary plodding (ha* tl 
continuance of an orderly Republic will mean 

^ T ^ C » G Ti n - maW i eGl that thc >" can ** ™ {QV ^l Alliens seei 
ready to try Hjtiensm or Communism as at least a fighting chance to as* 
their .manhood It is the sublimation of despair, The whole world 
watching development with the deepest anxiety 


' I till 1 ' destruction of self-government in Germany by the Hitler mad- 
DCUj the long-continued sway of Fascism in Italy and Hungary, the 
tvrrlblc threat to democratic self-government in Austria and other coun- 
Irloi, ihe dictatorships in Cuba, Yugoslavia, Poland and other countries, 
and the continued rule of dictatorship in Soviet Russia have all conspired 
I >>i i democracy upon the defensive everywhere. 

\ud it is just at this time that the British Labor movement, taking 
1 1 1 1 lend in the world Socialist movement, is throwing all its weight back 
i |..n ItMuientary democracy, 

The British workers, in their unions and in the Labor Party, have 
nkctcd this moment to emphasize their unqualified support of democracy 
uchj as the means of winning the emancipation of the working class 
■ i nL as die way of the future. 

'The joint May Day Manifesto of the Labor Party and the Trades 
Union Congress emphasizes democracy as opposed to dictatorship, as does 
I" May Day declaration of the General Council of the International Fed- 

i) of Trades Unions. The emphasis is a^inst the dictatorship of 

'in mid of Bolshevism as well, 

At the same time, the Swiss Socialist Party, one of the strongest, 
powerful and healthiest of the Socialist parties in any country, at 
«i recent national conference, took an emphatic stand in favor of demo- 
\ tutlc methods. By an almost unanimous vote it was decided that: 

"The Social Democrats reject illegal methods of action so long as the 
i mu-nisie docs not overstep the bounds of democracy and docs not 
VlollUc the democratic rights and liberties of the people. . . . Any playing 
Wllh illegal methods can only be detrimental to the interests of the work- 
• i and constitutes a betrayal of the working class." 

The tragedy of Germany, before the eyes of the whole world, has 

- n democracy a fearful setback. In the face of the long struggle of 

1 Soda List and labor movement of that country to establish democracy 

iin- way of progress two elements fought steadily, bitterly, savagely 

ignlnst democracy, pounding incessant ly, bitterly and unscrupulously at 

i»rn the right — and from the left. 

There is no doubt in anyone's mind that if it were not for the Ccm- 
in li ni st assault upon democratic methods the workers would not have been 
hopelessly and tragically divided, that the way would not have been 
Hiadc clear for the triumph of fascism and terror and madness. 

Then what is to be done? Am the Socialists and trade unions to 
■■Ion their struggle for Socialism? The answer is an emphatic No! 






And arc die Socialists aiiid trade unions to abandon their use of du_ 
cratic mehlods? // they do f they will hate wiped out the essential diffi 
ances hciueen ike Socialist movement and the Communism thai deveiotiM 
out of the Russian revolution. For if they abandon democracy they will 
have no choice bul to organize as a militant minority' to seize power 'who 
— or if — power can be seized. A minority acting as storm troops, compose*. 
of men constituting what is in effect an army of men devoting all thefl 
time to the revoluEionary movement, an army seeking to establish some 
thing purporting to be m the interest of the working class, but by nj 
stretch of the imagination by the working class itself.' This was done 
Russia. Thus it was sought to be done in Germany; until the Crafty Gou 
bels saw the point and took the hint, adopted Bolshevik methods and dt. 
clarcd that henceforth the battle was to be fought out in the streets. An] 
it was. 

That is the only alternative to abandonment of the struggle unl 
the appeal to the workers is continued along democratic lints. 

Such democratic methods do not necessarily mean a fanatical a 
unreasoning adherence lo parliamentary elections as the sole weapo 
at all times, at alJ costs, regardless of the consequences. They do not 
that if a station arises in the future when the workers have 
within their grasp they will voluntarily surrender it to reaction or eve 
Fascism unless they have a majority duly attested to by boards of cartv 
sera. It does mean that they will continue to the very end to employ wh 
ever democratic methods remain, and to throw the onus of denial a 
betrayal of those methods upon the other sides. 

A number of documents before us indicate that significant trcn< 

1 he Swiss Socialist resolution is one of them. John Middlcton Murray 

noted British author, critic and journalist— and Socialist— is emphati 

m a recent article in the London Adelphi, of which he is editor (i 

printed in The World of Tomorrow), 

He says, "First and foremost is the determination that die workinj 
class must not abandon, at this crucial moment, a single one of th 
weapons it has legitimately won for the prosecution of the class slnijzglt 
1ms means (hat the Labor movement must not merely not abandon bul 
resolutely ictam its chief weapon— namely the weapon of Parliament/ 
When revolutionary Socialists discredit Parliament in a parliament! 
country ihey destroy their own best weapon of offense or defense Th* 
make smooth the jvay not for Socialist dictatorship but for anti-Sociali 

George Lansbury, leader of the British Labor Party, writes* "Th*. 
armed forces of the Grown and the police are the servants, not the masters! 
of the people, and through Parliament and Parliament alone the peoolel 
e\crcisc that control." 

Mr. Middlcton comments that Lansbury here is a realist of the 
first _ water, and adds that control of the police and armed forces "can be\ 
attorned through Parliament and by n& other means." 

«fe lB J£? Ef* 0ia ^ tt !^ ^ ndon ^ Lansbury writes an article entitled,! 

Stop This Dictator Talk!", and says, "We do not need to break witS 

democracy m order to break with the past. . . . We must now try real 

m y and get our will carried out. Wc inttst cease all the nonsensical 

i luinpramisc. . - - We must unite and together work for com- 

■.ilium, and ihis wc shall accomplish once the people pack the 

i Commons with a Socialist majority/' 

Wftllftr M. Citrine, president of the International Federation of Trade 

i., writes: "In view of the swift march of political events, ... the 

I'.h iv ..iid the Parliamentary Labor Party has asserted once more the 

Luki of democracy which the organized working class movement 

lo promote and defend against dictatorship, terrorism* violence and 

denial of freedom," 

Rim are but a few of the recent pronouncements against dietator- 
li|< unci for democracy. 

I d;\y the Socialist and labor movements are re-examining their 

-», questioning whether they have been correct. In the face of the 

terrible blows Socialism, democracy and die labor movement have 

ustamed, in the face of the reign of terror in country after country, 

In ili<< fare of the fury of Communist propaganda for unity of action with 

i ilMvK it is significant that from those countries in which the labor 

Ind .Socialist movements have held their lines most successfully there 

.i clarion Call for the defense, the preservation and the promotion 

i I. mocracy- These are facts that all earnest Socialists and trade unionists 

Unlay studying. 


J|ORRIS HILLQUIT, ft. raK hfc, Icfa <,f An™.™ u. 




► Itfl Wll a delegate pf the majority faction of the 5.L.P. in 

i. Unihwlpr convention, and he was one of the committee that negotiated 

mK id. SocJftllU l>cmocratic Party for unity in the elections that y&ar 

i In' Ir.idr-rstnp of Eugene V. Debs, In loot he was one of the lead- 

i.. [ndiuwpolii convendon that formally organized the present So- 

I Tikity. 

in that day to die day of lib death the story of HiJlquU is in a 
■ ■ ■ the story of the Socialist Party and of important sections of 
iImm movement. 

I roftl IU04 on lie was. a delegate to every International Socialist gath- 

rrving with brilliant distinction at Amsterdam in that y^ar. at 

hi in i<)a7, at Copenhagen in tgio, at Basle in 1912, in the Vienna 

l 'nion prior to the organization or the Labor and Socialist In- 

■■> -1 1 in Hamburg in 1923; he was a delegate to Marseilles in IQ25, 

I in 1928 and to Vienna in 1931. 

U after year HillquU vis-itcd Europe and became intimately ac- 
d >v i cli virtually all the great leaders of world Socialism, He was 
iinii i confidence, and in many world conferences his wise counsel was 

In all die International Congresses Hillquit was ktio\*n for his match- 
iiory as well as his good humor, his good sense and his warm heart. 
1 [real of ihc world — those in high places and those honored by per- 
million held him in the highest esteem, 

lint Hilkmifs interest in world affairs, did not blind him to the 

Important work at home. Increasingly as the years passed, his influence 

111 ihc Socialist Party, m the union*, and in the country at large. 

I here is room here only to mention the splendid literary work of 

Morril Ilillquit. He had a dear r sparkling style and his books and articeh 

« inked high Tor literary value as well as content. 

III. work in the labor movement, especially in the needle trades, is 
t htning chapter in American labor history; some day it will be written 
ind ihc world will know the matchless services of this great man, In strike 
aflCl ^rike he counseled with the workers; and his settlements were of 
h« -«Ih ulable value to them. 

\\k services to the needle unions continued to she very end; his very 
|aj| work was to fly to Washington by plane to argue a code for the Gloak- 
■jokcrs. At the funeral ceremonies at Cooper Union it was related by 
David Dubinsky, president of the International Ladies* Garment Workers' 
I .nfon, that Ilillquit was the first to propose that a union draft its Own 
Bode, and fight for it, rather than to fight against unfavorable provisions 
111 codes offered them. He left what was vitrually his deathbed to argue 
1 1" ( ^oakmakers' Code that he drew up, and he won; many other unions 
look tltc hint and did accordingly. 

In 1006 Hillquit waged the first of the campaigns for which he be- 
1 nni* Tamous, die firat battle to redeem the East Side from Tammany Hall 
nki\ to win it for the workers. 

Wha[ a battle lhat was! HillquU revealed unexpected qualities as 
I popular campaigner, Ftanked by such men as William MaiNy, Robert 
Hunter, James Oneai, who came in from the West about lhat time, and 
nthf is, besides the men of his own generation in the New York movement. 



Miikhis ml.lyiu 


ttllqujt ^vaged a fight that stared the city. In that year Professor Franklii 

T; ?'u i 1Md ot *** de P art ™«it of Sociology' at Columbia advis 
membei* of his graduate classes to go downtown and work for the e [. 
taon of HiUqmt if they wantel to do something for American democra, 
The elMuon return* showed that the Taaimany ma „ had won at 
he took fus seat, but no one belJeved that the figurts came within 1 
thousands votes of the actual results. 

th™^ 003 j™'^ J™ 2*™* * Dd a 0™ "* ■»>' ^ Republican 
thousands, and was defeated only by Tannnanv arithmetic. 

fnV 5™ Brle yC ^ thpreafter H 31 ** senwd the party as counselor 
friend, as committeeman and guide. In i 9 i 2j for ixatople he felt that 
certain tendeu^ represented by the syndicalism ofln? I WW ^ daj 
SBnM f *^ S ° CiaIUt movem «t- Although it was supported L^ fhT 

to r SJriJ?? J*k ■ ^ ' 9IS "nvcniiw M fndianapol Hiat ] 

lanty wjth his own comrades for what he believed right was as 3 
his courage m fighting the foes of his cause. E g 

soenl : dShiT 1 "^ ^"^ ^ ^ breatd ^ from tul^rculosis. 
SSLS! £J T d ^ nter ", Be ™ uda . «^™«S to attend omnA 

ESitBE ™ e "■" d * rad " ' hc — — "- 

ft -„«r ,n,i, if r ^ fa " J hC *"* « rWttd ^ ^J enthusiasm by J, 
of the unions. In or 4 he was on his way to Europe to attend (be TnL 
national Confess ,n Paris when war broke out and he returned to 
the lead m the party's anti-war campaign. ^turned, <° 

la I«6 he drew up the party's position on terms of e*ar<- W i, 
gether with Congressman Me£ LoX and Jame^. °j££ " £"1 n, 

it ma Republican anthmetfc that defeated him bv a slender marrin ' 

for See and of t^ '" - ■""'' ™ ak ° f those who foucnt 
,UI t* 5 * 1 ^ ana or those who reioie^d .it t in Bik-mh m^i »» n* * 

llliii elf, He was in danger of indictment or of lynching; but that did net 
Hit (umrades counted upon him, and he did not fail them. He 
• did 

M * Hillquit led us in that campaign, and we who fought under 

■ ii rthip will ever cherish the memory of the bank, and of his in* 
It iiilrishi]> Xighi after night he went from place to place, speaking 
'■' 'In- 1 1 i.hi he wasj saying what was in our hearts to say, and we were 
< l lit be hU comrades. 

Mil|[|iiii faced opposition that year that no one who was not in the 

1 1 < hi ever imagine. Hatred^ prejudice, threats of mob violence, 

ilrd and open anti-Semitism I but he never gave one inch. 

M. Found time for brilliant legal defense of victims of war-lime fury 

IIHI hyilcria; he found time, as always, for debates with opponents of 

li in. 

I ben came another breakdown, this time more serious than the 

mi «mfr. Again he went away in quest of health; again he followed 

li llh Item interest the affairs of the party and of the unions. In iQlS he 

U lln ran for Congress, but in absentia, and he did not return to New 

until the fall of 10.19, and then for only a short lime. 

It was in the winter of 1920 that he again threw himself into the 

l<\ In that year came the notorious Sweet ouster of the regularly 

I .Socialist Assemblyman of ftew York, And Hillquit left his sick 

1 lit- risk of his health and his life to defend the five Socialist .His 

I- l. nu was masterly Jt was courageous, it was brilliant. It will forever 

I ni a monument in the battle for free institutions. 

Arid then again party work; the 1920 convention, and the struggle 

t the neo-Communi-^m that sought to split and destroy the Socialist 

IIHivniirnt, and again Hillquit risked unpopularity to defend the position 

;.il Democracy. But the welcome he received upon his return showed 

»i» «' despite differences of opinion his comrades loved him . . , as he de- 

■ I to be loved. 

And so the last few years hurried by. In 1924 he led the party in the 
I iFollette adventure; it is possible that he never had showed more brU- 
Bfthrc, more persistence, more courage than then. His battle in the LaFol- 
IfttC movement was for the Socialist Party, and in the Socialist Party for 

■ repianee of the LaFollette movement 

then more years passed. The party, the whole country and the world 

i to realize his greatness in its true perspective. His writings were read 
>!ih eagerness, his lectures, debates and speeches listened to with joy. 
I'll kicked in the love of comradeSj a love that came to a climax in 1929, 
Khrri the whole world celebrated his 60th birthday, and he gaily promised 
",ii Irjist twenty or twenty-five years more." In that year he was selected 

I I mil Chairman of the party. 

I! tit. alas! he was wrong. It struck him again. After his magnificent 
mayoralty battle, he began to fail rapidly, and then came the end T 
( h li»ber Jth, 10,33. 

l-ife for many of us has been emptier since that day a year ago. Tears 
full from our eyes as we write this. But we carry on , . . Morris would have 
ttl'hrd us to. 




Y^OGD God, Comrade*, there hasn't been a chance for us lo make a * 
tafec *** wC haven't eagerly seised. In that we have been Hkc the la 
movement"— so went a speech at the 1904 national convention or the 
CiflJtst party, 

But the speaker didn't stop there. He had begun: "If it be true [ha 
whom the Lord loyeth he chasteneth, then iherc never was a croup 
beloved of the Lord aa the Socialist p«r£« and then, following hit rcma 
about making nastakes, he went on: "ftrt; like the labor movement n 
have no more intereat in perpetuating 0lir mistakes than have the labo 
organizations and, like them, we are interested only in learniner from th 
how to avoid ft i ure mistakes." * 

The speaker was Ben Hanford, and he had just been nominated Tor 
Vice President to make the race with 1 Gcm I>k It was by the wavl 
the only national convention that was attended by both the candidal 
p aecd on the Presidential ticket, Coming to the platform in rS5«| 
the demands ol die delegates, ho said, ^You noticed that I Came to the 
front in a round-about way; but I got here, just the same. That's the wa3 
with our party. And then one of the fines: and phhiest of Soriahst conf 
vention speeches was under way, 

^ ™<^ dW in J™" 3 ** «9»i no* >ct 5° years old. But he was eon. 

of his abilities and his devolion, He had been candidate for Governor ^ 
New York three times, for Mayor once, and for Vice President twice Had 
he tved, it was believed thai he would have been candidate for President 

in i^-Jii. 

'M; m ^Tr anf0 ^i ira " 5 ?*"■ P' intcr -^t^" in the sense that the 
Jimmic Higgm, he made immortal was a little man. Ben was short and 
nsigniftcant, phyatcally; l-.t that's where his "littleness" ended He In 
been born in Cleveland, and had worked a* printer in MarshaHtowd 
Ind., and m cities of the Bart. He was not married until late in Km I,, 

had no parlniilar philosophy and he hadn't a tiling to live tor -at I. , , 

so he satd. So he thought he was headed for the gutter 

| fl aJ?lfZ D ft in W^V* thc * nr] y Pnincti ^ !lc ^tended a 
lecture m the Typographical Temple on G Street, Following the addled 

tL^Tw %rt S^TF 18 ?' At hs d «" so ™ ™ eame to hi,, 
SS*Ja5ff V ' " Iinffflrd ' T <*Mnt kttow that you were a Socialist'" 
Ben chdn either; bui .shortly afterward, he drifted to Philadelphia 

and a lecture >y Abraham Cahan and discussion with hU fellow-prin e 

Fred Long, finished the job; and from that moment Jus very Kite ™ H 

Socialist movement. He had no other interest. 


I oimade Hanford, J want lo Lcll you how much I think of what 
nil have done for Socialism," said Eugene Wood at one lime, 

" I h.iven 1 ! done anything for Socia]i>m/' replied Ben- "Socialism ha* 

'' very thing for me. Nest to having Socialism the greatest thing on 

irlh is lighting for Socialism." 

In hu first campaign as a candidate, in ,000, HanTord showed hU 

Mil i a innarkahle orator, whose qualities were not so much studied 

but absolute earnestness, tempered with fine humor. His abilities 

J an inspiring speaker devcta]Kd with his humorous national campaign 

lltll he became one of the two best in America. 

in later yeara llanford did a lot of writing, and as his health de- 

J ' '"' ^"W all his energies into his writing" lie had helped found 

llm Call. He had worked at fain and bazaars and balls to get The Call 

I When The Call found itself financially embarrassed— nothing 

n in The Call's history—he made his last great effort for the paper. 

In daily articles published in its column*, he called upon every 

'"• i to give one day's pay lo The Call, His letters were agonising— 

hm die Clomrades loved their Ben; they knew, as he knew, that he was 

■nil «h;n his message hi [hem to give up one day's pay, was his lasi 

■ " "Do you love your dollar better than your Call?" he asked. And 

l*o°r, dying Fred Long, in Philadelphia, to the youngest recruit in 

ihi imk\ the response came. 

He railed something less than $fi\ooo;, hut that was not all. He gave 

for The Gall. He died for The Call. His last message wan this, 

lists arc always asking you m give. Do we never give anything?" 

\ml he fought onf He died in harness. In January, 1910, he knew his 

near, and he joked about it. He had been flr-eccd so much, living 

1 he did not want his family to be fleeced in his death, so he begged 

I ' ,rhl "'. <u inquire after estimates among the undertak- 1 -. 

Ii WAS on January 34, that he died. He was delirious; he thought 

■ he wm on a great platform, swaying vast multitudes with the glorious 

111,1 born _ of a magnificent soul and a simple heart; he mad: huj 

■vrr again. And his wife, who had married him in the very shadow 

1 Ii, was at his bedside when he signalled for an evekipc, one of the 

I envelopes in which he used lo send his eontribiiiion 10 The Call 

(l J"* wrote with his dying fingers. "I would that my rvrry lu-:ut\ 

ihmdd have been for the working class, and through them for all 
1 ml Hen llanford. 1 ' And then he died! 
(build any death upon the battlefield have been more glorious! 


rr was early in the morning following election day in 1&14. After a wild 
night full of rumors, punctuated with brawls at polling places, often 
breaking out into open fights, the nev^s had been published in election 
extras that the sitting Tammany Congressman, Henry M. Goldfogle, had 
been re-elected by a majority of 5,000 in the i-sth Congressional District 
New York's congested East Side, The extras, however, gave only the 
publican and the Democratic vote; they made no mention of the Sociali 
vote, nor did the evening papers until laic the next day- 

I he Socialists had earned on a terrific campaign, and they knew 
they had elected their Congressman. The Socialist watchers had stui 
to their posts, often at imminent risk of their lives, and did not turn their 
reports in to headquarters until the last vote for I he least important office] 
had been entered upon the tally sheets (that was before the time of mm 
chines). Socialist runners had brought in preliminary reports that in-j 
dleatcd the election of Meyer London, But It was not until the dawn 
was breaking that the election was confirmed by (he totaling up or the 
watchers' reports. #| 

The news swept the East Side like wildfire. The humble folk of that 
teeming section had long been enslaved and plundered by Tammany Hall 
at its vilest. This was the first break- Tammany, for all its brutal method*, 
was licked, it was the dawn of a new day! 

The Socialist watchers and other parly workers had gathered for 21 
bite of breakfast in a Divison Street restaurant. Just as the first rays of 
the sun broke through, Meyer London entered — unutterably weary but 
walking like :i conquering lion. No one who was there will ever forget 
the indescribable thrill of the moment. It was worth waiting a lifetime for. 
Comrades shouted their joy, embraced and kissed London, tears streaming 
down their faces; workingrnen long exploited, plundered and outraged 
by Tammany rule of the district loked up in awe and said, "Is that lie?" 

Meyer London had been elected to Congress; and the following Sun- 
day Madison Square Garden was jammed with deliriously happy Socialist? 
who came to celebrate. ^'Congressman London/' s;i id Morris Hillqui r 
triumphantly, "is the only member of the House of Representatives who 
has to hire Madison Square Garden for a Sunday afternoon reception to 
his constituents." 

Meyer London served six years in Congress, sis of the most tcrrbUe 
years in recent history. Unlike Victor Bcrgtrr, who came to Congress, at a 
time of friendliness and good wilt he was promptly plunged into the fear- 
ful problems of the early years of the war, and of the beginning of America's 
participation in the European slaughter, A man of peace, one of the 



HlrM and sweetest souls I have ever known, his whole public life 

. kittle; he fought three bitter and unsuccessful campaigns before 

, won election to Congress; (lie told me that a Socialist in that 

1 in] to have 10,000 votes in the bag just to break even] ; he was 

in earnest and often violent controversy within his own party, 

1 In used to say that his bitterest lights were with himself: "Often in 

li 1 . n Hin 1 differ violently from my position of that same morning-' 

1 ..ikN.h lived a turbulent, a fighting life, and it was not until after 

i.n nu nt from Congress — a "retirement:" forced by a crooked Taitt- 

. rrymander of hb district, a Republican-Tammany fusion and 

I. t.i| c theft of votes— that his comrades really l>egan to appreciate 

II. had been with them so Jong, they had known him so intimately, 

tnuj been through so much together that they had hardly noticed his 

1 growth from just a good and willing branch worker to the stature 

-d toward the end. 

1 1 London was one of that rare breed that knows how to grow and 
lop. When he went to Congress he was not satisfied merely to make 
rnlional Socialist stump speeches; he gave himself the task of Study- 
iiul understanding everything that was before the House, and so he 
1. 1. .Ily became one of the best- informed public men in America. At 
lime a tariff bill was before Congress, and he made himself a master 
nky of the tariff before him but also of the history and the theory of 
1 Ic studied tariffs of the past, and he learned of the tariff measures 
I House of Doges that had ruled Venice for many centuries. He 
llirirujhon learned to read Italian and he read all he could of the House 
n,,, !r s— * and quite startled the best-informed men in ihe House with 
( rptional knowledge of the whole field of govemment- 
Bui despite hb deep knowledge, despite hU genuine contributions 
(it legislative progress, despite his services to the workers on the industrial 
nd they were many and of incalculable value), Meyer London re- 
lined to the end what he was in the beginnings a flaming &oul, a man 
lire with love for humanity and devotion to the cause of human eman- 
■ -.. To know him was 10 love him. His bitterest political enemies had 
lln lU-jKNt affection for him personally. The henchmen of Tammany, 
n had conspired to steal election after election, felt so grieved at his 
md untimely death that they quietly attended his funeral, walked 
It. hind bis coffin— and were unknown to any on^ in the throngs that 
nirnrd Those who know the habits of Tammany henchmen will realise 
the depth of that personal tribute. 

London lived briefly, hut his life Covered much. He was but 54 when 
h< w-Ai. simrk down ort the .streets of New York by a taxicah, but in hi* 
years of activity he had packed in so much work and so many achieve- 
ments that it is impossible even to list them in a space like- this* 

Mainly, however, London lived, and he inspired those who knew 
hilt. And that alone was a contribution of enormous importance to the 
list movement of America. 




TjmTH the death of Micbad Zamctkin last week at the age of 76 
™ another of the thinning ranks, of pioneers of the Jeirish Socialist and 
Labor movement passed away. Few, indeed, are left of the gallant band of 
idealists, mainly immigrants from Russia, who Came to the exploited and 
sweated Jewish workers in the congested Ghettoes of Xeu York and othor 
cities, brought them the inspiration of Socialism, and organized them into 
great trade unions. 

Michael Zamctkin's services to the Socialist and Labor movement 
spanned half a century in this Country, although in writ vear* illness 
had kepi him largely inactive. To the Wry end, however, he retained his 
interest in the party and its activities, and in the Forward Association . He 
rarely missed a meeting of the Forward Association, often attending when 
be appeared too ill to leave his bed. 

Comrade Zametkin was a native of Odessa, born in January, 1859, 
and as a university student was known as a brilliant mathematician. He 
early associated himself with the revolutionary movement, and had to 
leave Russia to escape the Czar's police. He came to America in the first 
great wave of Russian-Jewish immigration of 53 yean ago. 

Here he worked in a shirt factory for a while; later he was a teacher 
in the public night schools. He early joined the ranks of the Jewish Social- 
ist pioneers,, and soon became known as one of the ablest and most fiery 
of the Socialist speakers of that period. 

In addition to his lecturing in every part of the Ea*t 7 Comrade 
Zametkin was a trenchant writer and contributed to a]] the Jewish Social- 
hi publications. He wag one of the founders of the Jewish Daily Forward, 
and for a brief period was its editor He remained associated with the 
staff of the Forward until his death. 

The funeral Friday morning was attended by a large gathering of 
Comrade Zamctkin's old associate. Brief addresses were delivered by 
Jacob Pankcn, Abraham Cahan, B, C. VIadcck t and Joseph Weinberg. 


II It pmv to say that Art Young is the American Daumier, that be is 
itest cartoonist since Th. Nast, that he is a social philosopher 
rank, that he is a political commentator whose deep seriousness 
Mlt means concealed by his wit and eha/m and joviality. 
Ml ttvCH things are true, but added together they do not constitute 
. 1, 1 mi lure of the man. For of Art Young it is literally true thai the 
i Lir greater than the sum of all its parts. 

y no means easy to capture the flavor of the man; U is ncees- 

LI and lalk with him, to walk with him and ^to eat with him, to 
him. to begin to realize the manner of man he is, 
1 1,. ,.- U a picture he drew that appeared in one of the j^P™*?** 
that always tickled me; it shows a middle-aged, comfortable 

I „>k\ a husband and wife, at the theatre. The man says to an 

■ ,!, you tell me if this is a good play- "Why, ye£ says the 

a good play." "There, mother," says die man to his wife, 1 

l was a good play." 

Ilrhtfc lhat picture appeared, Art told me the incident; he m«n 

■braid it in a theatre, and his deep delight at the episode, his 

h his benignity were as much part of the incident as the episode 

II IV Art loves human beings, even though he laughs at their foibles, 

K (hough he hates injustice with a blazing, blistering hate. 

I lave you ever heard him in his prime telling stories? (Some of them 

hardly be printed here, even in these frank days.) Have you ever 

..,.< him make a speech? Have you ever heard hun as the Southern 

■ It is an uproariously funny sketch, but somehow U never made 

|,.i n. the South, It is possible that Alabama, hearing the speech, m&bt 

Irrted him to the Senate; or if they suspected that he was poking 

She like of Tom Heflin and Theodore Bilbo, they might have 

I h\m. But elsewhere it was poisonously funny. But it wasnt very 

iii<c Art cannot seem ever to he hi Iter at people, 

Onre I caujrht him (gravely studying instruments in the window of a 

.ore. He said he wanted to get an idea of what a saxapnone looked 

Mr had been at a convention of stuffed shirts— the Republican 

,iion .hat nominated Cal Coolidgc for President, I beheve--and at 

- in moment a signal was given for music. The members of the band, 

halcony box, had been bored into slumber by the oratory, and the 

^Konist woke up so suddenly that he fell out of the bos. Art was 

ng to immortalize the incident in one of his gorgeous drawings. 




That was like hirn; he couldn't he bitter at what Mcncfcrn miehl 
.tuffed-sbrtemj he was onjy hugely amused at it MCncten nH K h ' 

happilvTJfrHwY^ * at tileft nWCr Wai a man more accurately : 
h*pp !y tocrbed by his own name; Art Young is not merely a collie 

ol letters to donate otic man and set him apart in £ffi fc£?3 

men but rather tt h a description of the man himself 

Art SJS°E • Ca 7 0t hdp t . hinkln ^ of Maik Twain in connection wii 

ence of what the human race has done with itJetf £ £ 2 Jlf ' P - 

aurfiter behind the te^; it i s the genuine o^ ion £ "^1 XI 

swell guy, a real man, a ncWe figure in an ignore world AH hZor £ hi 


IM 1 1 ItSDAYj February ^th, marks the first anniversary of the passing 
«-i tin beloved Abraham I. Shiplacoff after a long and agonising 
1 I "i several years before his death Shiplacoff had been too ill to par- 

It i|i in- in active work, and there are therefore many of the newer mem- 
1 1 fir party to whom he is but a name. 
Hill Hi those who knew him and worked with him in :l. ■ Socialist 
1 labor movement^ Shiplacoff is not and never will be merely a name. 
1 1 1 ' . 1 1 in place among the Socialist^ immortals with men and women of 
nil iliYi'ise characteristics, and contributions to our cause as Meyer Lon- 
mI William Mailly, Ben Hanford and Benjamin Feigcnbaum, Anna 
Mihy and Eugene V, Debs, Ben Schlcsinger and Morris Hillquit, 
i' ■■ to whom nothing mattered except the progress of the cause to 
1 1 il.'v had devoted their lives. 

lu A. I. Shiplacoff were combined a sterling and a beautiful char- 

■ ■ ■■ maskable ability, and a wonderful devotion to his cause. It ls 

up 1 1 fur those who did not know him to realize the magnitude and cx- 

1 lii activities, for such a man rarely appears among us* 

1 1 mac who knew him well, who enjoyed the sweetness of his char- 

Mm 1 , his charm and his bubbling humor often loved him as a man so 

1. they forgot his sterling abilities and his matchless devotion^ 

• I 1I1. a was hardly to be wondered at a considering how great that pcr- 

**m 1 1 charm was. He was, when all is said and done, a lovely character. 

li n and women of all walks of life were devoted to him, A thor- 

■iiiij secularist in religion^ denounced by the orthodox for "mislead- 

1 (In youth by bringing them Eric Socialist ideal, nevertheless he was 

\\ iinivt sought-after man in Brownsville by these very orthodox religion- 

I - -I advice on every problem under the sun, from bringing up their 
||1 III 1 1 11 and family tangles to industrial and economic troubles. 

An early convert to Socialism, the pupil of the late B, Feigenbaurn 

II he worshiped as his "rabbi" — and who warmly returned the affec- 
lir brought to his Socialist agitation a warmth and a humanity 

■ . iften lacks, something that came from his heart and soul. To hear 
k|itMk anywhere — on the street comer or in a lecture hall, in a com- 
OMri' or convention or in a legislative body — was a delight. Gifted with 

Hi.w voice, a winning smile, a delightful sense of fun, and a wealth 

if Inhumation^ firm logic and a gift of expression, married to indomitable 

ii*e, a. Speech by Ll £hip" was always something to listen to. 

\ workingman, and a workingnian's son, he never rose out of his 

I mi remained intimately identified with his fellow workers to the 

his death, Workingmen loved him^ whether they were his fellow 




Jewish tailors or Irish plumbers. He s]x>kc (heir language, arid they un< 
stood him, Hia humanity was real, It was his very being. 

This ;i not the occasion to recount individual incidents of his des 
tion and his heroism— and they were many; there h room here merely , 
recount the fact (hat with his frail, often ailing body, he farcd all cnemj 
with the courage of a hero, regardless of cost to himself. 

These who watched him during his three terms ici the New Y* 
Legislature will never forget the lone %ht he waged against the "bl< 
Jive 1 '— Governor Whitman 1 * militarist bills -when he stood alone in 
1916 Legislature; nor the lion-like courage he showed, together with j 
colleague, the late Joseph A. Whitchorn, In the J 9] 7 legislature, wH 
the l patriots" were howling for blood; nor the courage he showed wht 
accompanied by nine comrades— of whom the writer of this tribute wj 
one— in the 1918 legislature. 

He knew our enemies, were thirsting for blood, and mat nothi* 
would suit them better than 10 commit violence upon him, He knew thi 
hated him, although in their hearts [hey had to admire him, He knew 
stood with his comrades far from (he source of Socialist strength of N< 
York City when reactionaries seriously proposed that restaurants ai 
hotels refuse to serve the Socialists; he knew hEs (and our) danger wl 
the rascally ex-bartender and prize-fighter Martin G. McCuc openly 
cited to lynching. But his courage never faikd, and his temper was n- 
ruffled. He was a great leader. 

His work in the labor movement is another story that has neifl 
been fully told; but it is safe to say that he set a standard of lofty idcali 
and unselfish devotion that may well stand forever as an inspiration 
labor leaders everywhere. 

Shiplaccff stood at the very peak. No one could impeach his sincerii 
his honesty, has intrepidity, his courage. He was a great soul, a great S« 
cialist, a great leader of workers. A. L ShiplacofF was a man and It will bd 
long he-lore- his like will be seen again. 

He steeps today out in Mount Carme] beside his old readier II Fefl 
genbaum, who had for him the affection of a father for a beloved son an< 
near Ben Schlcsinger, Meyer London, Max Pine, Vladimir Medem,' ai 
other great heroes of the Socialist and Labor movement. May we wl 
have inherited from him the sad world he left too soon be worthy 
the frgacy of inspiration they have left for us! 


'IMIri ranks of the old-timers are thinning ouu Three weeks after his 70tJi 

' birthday, George it. Kirkpatiick is taken from us. It b a hard blow 

i-> fill friends, and his passing leaves a gap in the ranks of democratic 

1 1 ill that cannot easily be filled. 

For years Kirk never seemed to diange. That big head, those gray 

1 hat amused, quizzical look, and that great shock of iron-gray hair 

mi m 1 he signs of a man who never &eemed to grow old, Then, in recent 

. he grew white. The last time I saw him was at the tragic Detroit 

tit Lou three years ago. He was the same old Kirk, he had the same fire, 

In liul the same affectionate greetings for his old friends, but he seemed 

■iil.ihinL The magnitude of the tragedy that was overwhelming the jjarty 

Iim h he had given thirty years of his life, the arrogance of those who 
J. id determined to rule and ruin that to which he had devoted all his great 
■ inline iLtid matchless energies had their effect upon him. 

Many fine speeches were made in opposition to the insane Declaration 

Hi ii mvii.i'iI deliberately designed to destroy our party s but Kirk's was one 

1 hi the most effective. There stood the old lion of Socialism], his hair snow- 

hlle, die fire in him As of the many years of the past; and earnestly and 

Iftdly he warned of the inevitable catastrophe that would come if the plans 

-■l 1 hr self-appointed saviors of the party were carried out, \lc was serious, 

■ m ; he was magnificent He lost— wc lost and Socialism lost, Hut he 

■ ii hack to California to carry on, and in his last great campaign he ran 

(hi U. S. Senator in the Golden State and polled a record vote of 110,000, 

jflhllc one of the "saviors of Socialism/* running for Governor, had to be 

lent with 3,500, 

i ieorge Row Kirkpatrick, bom in Ohio on February 24, 1867, was one 
itl 1 In 1 many men who came out of academic life to devote himself to our 
• an r ; but he was one of the few to stick. Long ago the Socialists forgot to 
iii in him an Professor, although for many years he was a college instruc- 
m When he joined the Socialist ranks he put everything else behind him 
mill nave his whole being to Socialist education and propaganda. 

George Kiikpa trick was one of the moat effective propagandists we 

■Ver had, for he combined deep thought and study with the fire of the 

.1 .t Unlike too many of the agitators wc have had, his propaganda was 

Uways fortified with knowledge; no matter how fiery a speech might have 

hi- n. it was always in effect a lecture based on deep study. There was sub- 

behind every speech he made. 

I-Ilh best-known book is, of course, CH War: What For?" It is possible 
Hi -I in time that magnificent hook will be remembered as one of the really 




great works of the spirit in American history. Written and widely ctrai 
Jated before the outbreak of the World War, it had an important influcaq 
on (he American people. It struck with sledge-hammer blows, it marshal* 
facts and figures, seasoned them with irony and fierce earnestness,, and f Junj 
the challenge oi its title into a world that would be infinitely better oj 
today if it had heeded. 

His other propaganda boohs, "Mental Dynamite/* "Think— Or Surj 
render/' and the rest, were equally effective. 

It is characteristic of Kirk that his campaign for Vice-President 
19 16 was only an episode in his career. He waged a fine campaign, and 
came to be known to hundreds of thousands of workers ; but he work, 
for Socialism before 1916, and when the votes were counted he tarried o 
Kirk was a beautifuJ soul. His greeting, "How are you, OJd Scout. 
wanned the heart. To him Socialist comradeship was everything, and h 
gave his all for it Never an office man^, when the moment required it h, 
went into the National Office and served briefly as National Secretary] 
holding the fort until one of the "newer" element, in the person of Glared 
Senior, came in to "show the tired and bankrupt old-timers how to run i 
office and build up a party." Then he went out to California with his wiL 
who had been Florence Hall, a teacher and an active Chicago Socialist 
but he did not go there to rest. He went to continue his work for dern ' 
cratic Socialism, 

The Social Democratic movement will miss Comrade Kirkpatnc 
But the Socialists who knew and loved him will miss him even more, Hd 
ill - his place in our pantheon with Debs and Hillquit, with Berger and 
Hanford, with Mailly and Jonas, with London and Shiplaroff, with Barn 
and Branstetter, He will not be forgotten. His work lives on. 


(iN March 25,1911, the great Triangle fire occurred. It was the most 
' Milling industrial accident in the history of the city. The Triangle 
llum, Harris and Elanck, proprietors, was an open shop, and many stories 
„,i- told of the unusually bad treatment of the girls employed there. 

< fa [lie day after the fire The Call came out in mourning; there were 
ftvoned rules between the columns, and a heavy black band around the 
■ uling matter or* the first page* It was. a memorable issue, and the grim 
ind pewsome aspect of the paper itself struck one with the horror of the 
i <u.istiophc. 

1 1 wftS The Call alone of all the English newspapers of the city that had 
ii.< courage to fight the fight that naturally arose out of the fire. The capi- 
i ili .t press wept titter tears and condoled with the families of those who had 
I in si lost. Capitalist newspapers supported a demand for better fire laws. 

Hut The Call alone called the spade a spade. The day after the news 
nl ihe holocaust had frozen the city with horror, The G&H carried an edi- 
torial entitled, "Murder and Nothing Else But Murder.'* The first page 
iIi.lI day had the striking cartoon by John Sloan that became famous, called 
flu Triangle. 1 * It was a great triangle, with its sides labeled "Rent; 
Profit; Interest." On one side leaned a grinning skeleton; on the other, a 
[ll profiteer, and in the center lay the body oF a dead girl, with smoking 

, a about her. That cartoon did more to enact fairly good fire protection 

that any other agency, 

At the top of the page that day was the great black legend: "How long 
will the workers permit themselves to be burned as well as enslaved in their 

The next day there was another Triangle cartoon, the triangle this time 
bring formed of a pile of human skulls, There were stories of how the waist 
ihup officials fought to place the blame for their remissness upon the city 
mMm ials- The next day there was a cartoon, "The mark on the pay cn- 
i tope," a skeleton surrounded by smoke making a dollar, and on the top 
of the page, "What are the workers going to do about it?" And so 3 day 
M 1 1 rr day> The Call hammered away at the waist bosses and their responsi- 
bility for the fire. 

The result was not the legal action, nor the reprisals that were expected 
On April 8 the officer? of the Triangle Waist Company tried to buy The 
I all! 

A contract for an advertisement was offered and a check for §250; 
■liing was to be printed in the "ad" except the fact that there was such a 




firm as Harris & Blanck. The Cai! printed a picture of the contract am 
the check, and contemptuously sent them back. 

And at that time, as at all other times, a sum like ?250 was not to 
despised m the always pinched office of The CatL 

The Coil has fought many battles for the workers, and the enci 
of the worker* have tried many ways of "getting'* The Call. Sometimes 
has attempted bnbery direct. Sometimes it has been a more subde ma 
Sometimes, as was the case in the summer of 1921, The Call was offeu 
advertising by the United States Shipping Board, for which the return woul 
have been money desperately needed for The CaU, but which was prompt 
rejected. Sometimes, as during the case of the milk drivers* strike, The Gi 
refused to take advertisements of the mjlk companies. 

But in all the years of The Coil's history, there never was an issue 
direct, so straightforward, as that of the Triangle fire. 

It was a scab shop, that had fought the union in the great strike a 
before and that had not settled. 

It was due to criminal carelessness due to eagerness to save a few 
tars, that the girls were trapped when the fire broke out. 

The 147 victims were the direct victims of capitalist greed, unvarnisl 
by any other elements^ and The Call said so in editorial after editorial; 
toon after cartoon j and while the other papers were weeping bitter I _ 
over the families of the lost girls, while their attitude was, What a Dreadfi 
Pity! The Call minced no words and called it what it was — murder. 

That story is one of the chapters in the history of The Call of w] 
The Catts great family will always he proud. 


imw appears that Christopher Columbus reached the continent that 

.inte to he known as America on a voyage: prior to 1492, that 

i Spaniard and not an Italian, as has hitherto been supposed, and 

i ho was something of a professional pirate- 

rhnc startling ridings — a little late, of course, but still hot news — 

■bodied in a lecture delivered in Hamburg by a Peruvian ptofcssqr, 

. hnj t*ccn spending a good deal of time delving in the archives in 


I hrre is in the Spanish capital an institution known as the Cora de 

the House of the Indies, in which millions of documents are filed 

I wnlch is and will continue for many years to be an almost incxhaust- 

inlnc for those engaged in historical research- During the three hun- 

h and more that Spain controlled a vast colonial empire reports 

i nors and alcaldes, negotiations with caciques, accounts and all 

nf papers were filed there. They are badly indexed^ but they are 

I losal of historians. 

I I it easy, therefore, for scholars to dig and dig and dig, and then 

. the world startling information. 

Professor Luis Ulloa of Lima, lecturing before the Americanist con- 

I lamburgf said that Columbus was a Catalonian Corsair who had 

n u revolt against King Juan II of Aragon and joined a group of 

til l« Corsairs who reached America, step by step, via Ireland, Green- 

i.l Labrador and Newfoundland,, and that he sailed down the coast as 

I'lurida. Later he sold his idea to Ferdinand and Isabella and sailed 

\* h.illv for them. 

Mits is exceedingly interesting — if true. But there is no reason to 

1 1 1 » I ihat it might very easily be true. There has been so much darkness 

ibr early life of the Great Admiral that any plausible story is worth 

: rlto* 

The very date and birthplace of Columbus are not certainly known, 

iirrally believed that he was bom in Genoa in 1435, 1446 or 1451, 

fLither was a wool-comber, that he loafed on the wharfs and ac- 

... ,1 a love of the sea f that he became a sailor and then a map-maker, 

il tli. a when he saw his great vision he peddled the idea, of a voyage 

he Atlantic to one king after another, finally wearing down the 

■lance of King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Castile and Aragon, 

From 1492 there is no more mystery in the life of the Discoverer 

I left a great name, many enemies, a large family and enormous wealth 

it littes of nobility to his descendants. He became the Viceroy and 

i al of the Indies, with more than regal powers; and when his son 






Fernando wrote his biography after his death he naturally puffed up 
early life to mate it appear thta he was the son of people of means 
that he had been university trained. Naturally, therefore^ his early 
has become blurred* 

Genoa, of course, vehemently insists that Columbus was a native 
that city, but for a long time the Spaniards claimed him, and there is 
persistent story that he was a Jew. The latter theory is widely held 
certain Jewish pieudc^historianSj, who insist that Columbus' own ard, 
Catholicism is accounted for by the fact that the Jew* had been harri 
in Spain a century and a half before and expelled bv Ferdinand 
Isabella, and that millions of Spanish Jews became "Marranos* — o 
cepied formal conversion— and practised their own religion in 
Competent historians do not lake the theory of Columbus 1 Jewish d 
seriously. In the days in which Columbus lived there were no ncwsp_ 
There was no reason for anyone to take any notice of the life of (his ob. 
scure wanderer — that is, prior to 1492. After that date there is the fullest 
and most, reliable information, thanks to the splendid Spanish government 

That Columbus was not the first European to reach the shores of 
America has long been generally known. Those magnificent seamen, the 
Norsemen, certainty reached Newfoundland and New England nearly five 
centuries before the great Admiral, and they settled what they called Vine- 
land. It is known that Columbus on one occasion visited Iceland as a sailor 
and he may there have heard about Vineland. 

The generally accepted fact of the earlier discovery detracts nothing 
at all from the glory of Columbus, for when he sailed In 1492 the world 
in general knew nothing about the voyages of the Icelanders and Norsemen. 
rhc >; -■-•■ kfi -- ■ pennamenl settlement, and wl d the Spaniards, Frencffl 
English, Dutch, Portuguese and other explorers and settlers came here they 
found what was to all intents and purposes a virgin continent. 

There is, in addition to the historically authenticated voyages of the 
Vikings, the legendary voyage of the Irish St. Brendan of Clonfert, who is 
said to have made a voyage to "The Promised Land of the Saints'* in the' 
years 565*573. The land was called St. Brendan's Island, and there are stifli 
many who insist that the saint actually reached America. Ten centuries later 
it was believed to be (he island of Madeira, and only in 1759 was it de- 
finitely explained that what had so long been believed in as a land acroa 
the sea was merely a mirage, an optical illusion. 

There is still another and far more amazing storv that some scholar! 
sincerely believe. It is that America was well known to the Carthaginians 
and the Phoenicians who preceded (hem; that they sailed regularly from 
L-ape St. Louis, known as the "shoulder" of Africa, to Brazil and that there 
was a definite trade there. Many Indian words and symbols on the Mava 
ruins are said to be of Punic origin. 

In the two centuries before the voyages of Columbus, according to 
these Historians, there was a regularly organized commerce with America, 
conducted by a huge business organization covering every country of 
western Europe. But in those countries legal foreign trade was a monopoly 

H or government, and this trade was strictly bootlegged. It is said* 
1. 1 hat the trade was thoroughly organized in what was virtually a 
inncnt within a government, and that it existed without official notice 
ihe government in whose eyes it was theoretically non-existent. 
Many storehouses crammed with books, records, ledgers and even full 
1. |miu of legal proceedings in the bootleg courts of this speakeasy govern- 
have been found and they are now being deciphered , It is said that 
I iolumbus had a map given him by someone in the service of this super- 
1 1 in ic nt and was guided by it in his great adventure. 
I lie world is waiting for a key that will unlock the mysteries buried in 
- .it monuments hidden in the jungles of Yucatan and Guatemala- 
Mi »< the people who lived there, built great cities and vanished without 
.1 trace, attained a degree of culture that cannot be explained ex- 
• l |»t on the theory of contact with Europe and Asia has long been accepted. 
Dm what that contact was. how it was maintained, and what ended it are 
<»M impenetrated mysteries. When those keys are found — some Maya 
,1 stone" — the world will begin 10 understand the story of the 
the Mayas and the Incas. 
Meanwhile, the greatness and glory of Columbus are undimmed, Noth- 
it ran be learned about him or about America before his time can 
•I. ii.u r from the vision, the genius and the courage that drove him to find 
tin land that is now our home. 




B^^P °! a "^ ^ *™T 8°«. 'he shoe was lost- because of tlJ 

». £= 37JSfCs3 ~-o= ?*ssz fl 

Patent peorfe I "u It 5 ™ *" ^ ^ We are a free ^ W 

idea, P P * nDt ' ° f Wun( > as slm P Ie "• that, but that's the genen 

Sir John ft™™,* ^idTsir H P n n ^ ! J T tl0n ° f thc aimies oi 

would have E ^pfe^ ^t ^ro^tT S ?T * N 7 E ^ Ian<1 
and it would have be£n Sff^ "f ? f lhe *' ru £S ,in S ™tiooj 

and nST^T^S Nett° " "°" ft* ^ *** **4 
history illumined onlv bv f ht S , ■ ^^ a dark moment in oJ 

rudimentary nation . Jnmaaeipma, rlie capital of the 

him S£2S2E!Zfi££ SfTT in A Ugystj 1777, and defeated 
*£** wintCr of the re v 0!u tio n J'.Sfi IS/-T^ 

Hudson by a fo™ underffiTS Iih north r ar ^ m arch up the 

for, the sbwiy S^^^t^Aft fr iT 1 ' ■ 
party of Hessian raiders under Col n^Z^T J X ■ ^^ dipped a 
German settler* were *c^^^^ ? ?^ ^ nigged 
Herkimer, and odd the 'ffly^ ^"^ Nfc ^« 

goy n e + S two wing, were JlK ^f American,. Thus Bur- 
advancing host, ' afld dnven u P° n the ™*n column of the 


In front of Burgoyne was an army under General Philip Schuyler, 
i tied by the man who might be called America's Bravest of the Brave — 
hi I" 'In i Arnold* who fought like a tiger for the country he sought to betray 
.1 I I year later, 

Huigoyne, slowly moving forward, confidently expected the forces of 
1 Union to attack thc Schuyler- Arnold forces in the rear and thus effect 

i isary junction. But Clinton never came; he was thoroughly enjoying 

I -I- 1 1 'biful summer in New York and with the wealthy Tories of the pleas- 
iliiI Westchester countryside, wholly oblivious of the fact that he was 
Hippoied to he in the field, 

Tbc British were halted at Stillwater, at Bemis Heights and at Sara- 
i-.p^i, and (now under General Horatio Gates] J the Americans, won their 
flfl! great victory of thc war, compelling Burgoyne to surrender and turning 
i In tide of the revolution. 

Fori! Clinton had marched northward and had effected thc junction — 

in ti least had attacked the Americans from the rear — the great victory of 

p- itu^a would have Ijcen [impossible, the cokniies would in ;ilE probability 

h • ■ ' ln'cn compelled to give in> and it is not improbable that today wc would 

■ ill I ii- Pi ill ill colonials, pari of the same dominion ;is (!.ui:icta. 

Hi.iL as things turned out the Americans were heartened and (In- Hi WLith 
ill p miragcdr The latter offered the colonists peace with all their demondj 
h 1 1 1774 and 1775 completely granted, Hut the colonjftl having declared 
' ii; I'lves Free and Independent States, would have none of it, and hi-ld 
mil for complete victory — whi<*h they woul d never have been ;ih|r to win 
41 it were net for an indirect result of the failure <■!' Ciliuioii 1 1 u nun'ili hi 
mere Burgoyrie. 

Benjamin Franklin was. Ambassador in Paris and when he heard of 
ifn' great victory he argued so persuasively with the King's ministers that 
(lit- American cause was bound to prevail that Prance declared war upon 
Great Britain, and placed resources of men and money at the disposal of 
>.'h patriots on so lavish a scale that they finally turned the tide. For it is 
kdmltted now that if it had not been for French intervention the revolution 
i mid have been a lost cause; and if it had not been for the victory at 
Saratoga the French could not have been induced to intervene; and if 
pLinton had not failed to march up the Hudson Saratoga could not have 
Been won. 

Why, then, did Clinton stay home and leave Burgoyne alone to tOSs 
|w»y thc great American empire of the British king? The answer is that 
I he dispatch to General Howe ordering him to go himself or send Clinton 
lo support Burgoyne was never sent. Somebody simply forgot to send it. The 
ivtlack on Philadelphia was his Own idea. 

In * ( The DeviPs Disciple/' Bernard Shaw has Burgoyne say that 
,( K>me gentleman in London** forgot to send Howe his orders. Shaw only 
guessed that that was the reason "Gentleman Johnny'* was left unsupported^ 
hut now it is known that that is just what happened. 

Paper* just made public prove that interesting point, William Knox, 
Permanent Under-Secretary of the British Colonial office from 1770 to 
1782, kept a memorandum that told what happened on a certain day, 



which has just tome to light. Letters had been prepared to be sent to Buj 
goyne to march southward and to Howe to march— or to send Clinton* 
northward. Urd Sackvillc, law Lord Germaine, was about to sien t] 
preparatory to leaving for a week-end In the country. He had signed 
letter to Burgoyne and was about to leave. The letter to Howe was 
ready. Knox told him about it, and Sackville said he would prepare a fi 
W at once, when one D'Oyty, secretary in the War Office with wh< 
Sarkville was gonig on the weekend, protested that his horses were Waiti 
and urged his hardship proceed at once. The weekend date was ki 
the horses were not kept waiting and Howe did not get his instruction" 
and we are a free an dindependent nation and the history of the world m 

1 1 1 - 

All of which means exactly what it means. Suppose, for example vom 
Ler and father had never met? . . + 


Si P I J MBER 17th b the i^th anniversary of the signing of the Con- 
, don of die United States, and the day has been seized upon by our 

, to utter pious statements upon that sacred document. Indeed, 

litution Day has been set aside as the occasion for an attack all along 
,|,. line upon all thoughts, all ideas and all political concept ions more 
,,.»[ than 1767, It will he a field day for the Grass Rooters and the 
n m Lionarieft of all complexions. . 

Ever since the Senatorial debates participated in by Daniel Webster 
.1, re has been a tendency to exalt the Constitution as a sacred instrument, 
..,,!■, L Utile less divine than Holy Writ, to criticise which fcs sacrilege. It has 
lulled our reactionaries to take that portion, and today it appears that 
tlicy arc planning to use the Constitution as their major plank in their to win America back to the good old idealism of Hoover, Coohdge 

'' And tSf i( as good a time as any to recall that the Constitution grew 

out a the times in which it was drafted, that a large portion of it is ubw- 

letc ;,nd an even larger portion hag been set aside by amendments. Rial 

■1 the time it was adopted it was known to be merely .. comproimie, the 

best (hat could be secured in the face of confticting political I and ecoi lie 

-rests, and that no one expected thai it would In- rWaied into a M< i--l 

document, the core of what has become almost a state religion. 

Tt will come els a surprise to worshipers of the < cm Utmiem ni «' am 
lint (he Constitution as adopted by the Convention Sepember 17th, 1787, 
merely a set of amendments to an earlier coostitutfon 1 supposed to b 
Mill in force, and that when it was put into operation and George Watft- 
nston elected President, it was— at least technically— Megtdty in operation. 
Not that these things matter very much, except to give point to the Isu-i 
i|,,t the Constitution was a result of conditions and circumstance* of a 
110rtirul.1T lime; that the times were changing rapidly; that when exigencies 
ol the time so required the written constitution of that day was discarded 
without a tear and without a blast from Grass Rooters of that time. 

It is well that the American workers know these facts, m order not 

In Irc moved by the lachrymose piety of reactionaries like ftirah, for 

„ii]>k who has so often flooded the floor of the Senate chamber with 

tears for' the downtrodden and oppressed, wishing he rould do something 

tor them if only the letter of the Constitution permitted. 

In 1781 the Articles of Confederation and Perfretual Umon, commonly 
referred to then as tin- Constitution, was adopted and put into operation, 
Within a short time it was n-alizrd that it was an unworkable instrument 
and that under it there were 13 autonomous nations rather than a unified 






state. Especially did the merchants and manufacturers of that time feel 
the lack of a centralized government and of a unified set of tariff laws 
currency legislation and other laws affecting business. 

Merchants of Virginia and Maryland met in Mount Vernon in 1781 
as guest* of General Washington to discuss what could be done to sate 
guard their own interests. They there decided that a national conference 
should be held, and Ihrough their powerful influence induced a number of 
state legislatures to send official delegates to a convention that met in 
Annapolis in 1786; five states were there represented. 
it j The I ? 0st active de,c £ ate was Alexander Hamilton of New Yo*S 
.Under his leadership the convention decided that the time had com c "to 
jsmend the Constitution (that is, the Articles of Confederation) to render 
it more adequate to the exigencies of the time/' It will be noted that the 
Articles had been in force only five years, and had already been found 
obsolete. But the Articles provided that amendments could be proposed 
only by Congress [The Second Continental Congress then in session) and 
ratified by all the state legislatures. 

Hamilton thereupon proposed that all state legislatures elect dele- 
gates to a convention to meet in Philadelphia the following May there 
to propo&e amendments to be submitted as suggestions to Congress Ifl 
Congress accepted them they were to be referred to the state lectures 
The legislatures decked the delegates, therefore, to draft amendment* to 
make the Constitution "adequate to (he exigencies of the time * T 

When the convention met on May 5th, 1767, General Washington 
was elected President, and it was promptly voted to hold sessions in secret 
and tc destroy all the records at the close of the session. What we know 
about that convention is from full notes taken fur his own use by Tames 
Madison, later published by the Government, Only 1 1 states sent delegates 
The delegates decided at the outset to throw the Articles into the 
waste basket and to draw up an entirely new constitution. Thereupon 
two New York delegates, Yates and Lansing, withdrew, refusing to have 
anything further to do with the business, and Hamilton spoke and later 
signed upon behalf of the state. Other delegates, like Luther Martin of 
Maryland, likewise opposed everything that was done there 

But the main body of delegates, over whom Washington presided with 
dignity went to work. Three "plans" were submitted; The "Virginia 
plan drawn up by Madison and presented by Edmund Randolph, formed 
the basis of the Constitution that was finally adopted. Hamilton presented 
his plan that provided for a thinly distinguished monarchy, and William 
Patterson of New Jersey likewise presented a plan 

With modifications, largely influenced by Hamilton, the "Virginia 
plan was adopted. The Senate was placed Outside the influence of "popu- 
lar passions, 'the President was removed as far as possible from pcmuJd 
influences, and according to Gouverneur Morris, who as a Committee on 
Style actually wrote the Constitution, the sections on the Judiciary were 
made purposely vague. J y 

The Constitution—which, it must be remembered was technically onlv 
a set of suggested amendments later to be adopted as its own by Congress— 
provided that it would be in force as soon as nine states ratified This 
was clearly in violation of the provision requiring unrnmnu ratification 

'iLclments, But no one paid any attention to that; the delegates 

I ( you can gee the original parchment with the 55 signatures in the 
■ iv ihf Congress today), Secretary William Jackson burned the books, 

1 -ii s and papers, and the document was- sent over to Congress, 

I ban the storm broke. Several states ratified at once; only a threat 

t<* ihr merchants of New York City to secede from the state, organize a 

tatc and ratify independently brought the New York legislature into 

<iid finally General Washington was eleeted President of a nation of 

1 1 states, two having failed to ratify until after his election. 

The Constitution as it stands and h worshiped today contains many 

1 ilclc provisions, such as provisions regulating the slave trade, the fugi* 

• ■ Live laWj a section referring to piracy s and another allotting represcn- 

■ 1 ■ 1 , to slave-holding states by counting all slaves, taking three-fifths of 

ilni number and to be added to the number of free people. Further, the 

! ion for the election of the President became obsolete within eight 

and twenty-one amendments have likewise made other sections 





QNLY about 120 boys and girls have enrolled for classes in Bible instmj 

r™£?V ** v - e I 12 ' C0 f °. i ' u l Ents in two high schools circularized by thJ 
Ui eater New York Interim th Committee. 

rW, m rehpoii in connection with the school s^tcm was met 1 
such emphatic and effective oppout™,. Indeed, immediately after the fi 
tentative announcement that Regents' credit would be given for cUuh 
B.bJe study, a was felt that even thc announcement had been tSi 
Especmlly tactless wai the statement or the educational authorities to tl 
effect that a certain percentage of the student body in the public .diet 
church" * lJI " Cra!C ' mcanI "g no < dialed wifl, a£y ™3 

Immediately protest on die part of representative* of education*! 
bodies, a™ : organizat.cns and even religious bodies rose to such macl 
mS& City S ^ rir » tCndcnt ° f ^"* dropyr.h" See'S 

And yet all that was proposed was (hat the classes in Bible ,tudv 
prepared by the Interfaith Committee, be r.-cmiied i„ ,h, , r> ] 3 

FSSSfcS ST ° U ' Side ' he " h0 ° l h " Mi ^ and that a^SStS 

dhu It K' nS f fclt By ' he c ^P°" ( ' n[ * of the plan that there could he no ,50s- 
Si. T^f^ S0 °!? att ; Bin K thc InHnictton en an interdenomiZio nl 
S* 1 ?'' ^. use * hc Chw ««■ to be conducted by a ™, com 

witf thl plan "' Pr ° ,CStai,[S " d JC ™> n ° «* MuW P-Wr ifi fault 

Hv. Jt t Ol,r J T ,1 ' 0n , that Tcli ^ on « abo «t th= most Private matter in 
n Xiln l P r d th ' lf thC S ' atC hftS n0 busJncs5 -ha^ver'to tab- 1 par" 

<», *£* bC ' i<:VE - ' !> £ " fi,blkhi "K classes in Bible study, or in eneoura, 
m, 'them or in fil v,ng Rents' credit for them or in any V ay giving S u 

;"'';;. ;;•'' iinti »™™*d ending th< educatbrii .,;,!■„•;,;,, 

violating: lie ,H Pm t back of separation cf Church and St Vte « 1 ,'r.J 
dentally, doing » g^ lo th / Callse of ^"Tmo^ a^p^le™ 
For some time school children have been ahWd a little time off for 

■ Unmix instruction outside the school. Sonic teacher* merely excuse those 
I ililn 11 whose parents want diem to attend such classes once a week 

1.1 hinl r an hour, Othcr> have been known to ask their pupils: "What arc 

' iiliolic, Protestant or Jew?" and then to register the pupils' re- 

ihcn ihcy send tJiem away once a week, We have heard of one such 

1 who insisted that the pupils go of! to Bible class, scolding thm 

lul uying that they would not £Q to heaven if they did not go< 

In our opinion, that sort of tactics is as offensive as the statement 
mi "spiritual illiteracy," for those who say such things take sides in a 
us matter — something that should be intolerable for an agent of 
llit Kovernment in a secular State, 

The United States was founded on the principle of the separation of 
I hunch and State and the absolute liberty of conscience. That is why the 
I'., idrntial oath prescribed by thc Constitution provide? thai the incom- 
- MCUtive may swear or affirm, as he chooses. Members of all faiths 
.ml ol no faith have equal civil rights; there arc no civil disabilities of 
111) kind, 

In Brooklyn there is a large Syrian population, and there are Mohani- communities not far from the city. The Christian Scientists have 
m my iraembers and many churches, and the Quakers are influential every- 
where. The Catholics are most numerous hereabouts, and the Protestants 

■ i. grouped in many denominations, differing in their forms of worship, 
lowish worshippers- are organized in Orthodox congregations! Reformed 

1 -ii Rations, Free Synagogues. They meet in beautiful temples, in Jewilh 
i Vmrrs, in lecture halts, in hotel ballrooms, and often even In empty stores. 
Jhcy differ widely in practice and melhrKk 

And finally there are many thousands — possibly even hundreds of 
thousands — of people who are either passively non-religious or actively and 
DC li lively agnostic 

Every one of those groups is entitled to precisely the same deal by 
1 1 m- State, It is not written anywhere that all religions arc equal before the 
Si. Mi hut that those who have no religion stand a little lower than those 
Jvho have. For if such a stand were the official position of the StaLc it 
livould he but a step to choose as between the various religions and to de- 
llnr- [*nc as standing a little higher lb an others. And that would be but a 
top from the designation of an official religion — which is intolerable to 
1 In! 1 who uphold the American ideal of a strictly secular State. 

Today we read of religious troubles in two countries, where the 
difficulties arise largely from the fact that there has hitherto been one 
1 ith recognized aa having higher standing than others. 

Indeed in Spain up to the dmc of thc recent revolution no religion 
.1 |m unltied to maintain public houses of worship except the one official 
l.iiih. And as a result those who exercised freedom of conscience (which 
is die fundamental basis of the American religious policy) were placed m a 
Uohly unfavorable position; and in winning for themselves the rights that 
Ere taken as B matter of course in other countries there was necessarily 



a good deal of friction, and as a consequence, riots and the burning 

The American way is the right way, No State has a right to deci 
which faith JA the correct one, or that any faith is better than no rcligii 
belief whatever, No State haa a right to decide that belief in any fafi 
is I'moral literacy/* or that failure to hold any conventional religicri 
bdief or to belong to any recognized sect u in any way to be coivddci 
moral obliquity. 

The American way, which is now the way of Great Britain,. Fran] 
and! other civilized countries, is after all the only sound way, Everybody 
religion u the right one— for himself. No one ban the right \<> interfc 
with the frcc-est and fullest practice of that religion, or to impose hii 01 
or any religion at all on anyone else. That plan, we fervently hope, will 
continued by this country and extended In all countries. That is the onl 
solution of a problem chat still troubles mankind after centuries of angui 


I \\\ TI.M i casually into a recent issue of our favorite periodical, the Con- 

I * j-ressional Record, we note a speech by an Ohio statesman on the 

!n hi tiny, printed as an "extension of remarks." 

I In speech itself was brief, and we cannot find anything new in it 

mi anything particularly worthy of consideration, But the subject of the 

I'Hih Lnterc&tj us, especially the fact that there i^ and has been ever since 

tho Industries of the world were struck by a blight a serious discussion of 

ili« possibility of establishing a shorter working day as a regular part of 

'I. industrial system. 

What is involved is not merely a matter of an eight-hour, or a seven- 
hour or a six-hour day. Indeed, as we see Ji r the actual length of the work- 
ing day for any one industry, or all industries, is not the main concern 
nf ceunomista. What is involved is the question of how the benefits of 
modem industrialism are to be spread around for ft]]. 

There was a time when employers were bitterly opposed to even a 
in i! hiiur day. Indeed, when the modem labor movement p;ol under way 

h i- iht' leadership of Samuel Gompers its slogan was a demand for an 

■ M',lii-hour day; the figure tl appeared on its banners and transparencies 
in Labor Day parades^ and it was a long time before the eight-hour day 
■ accepted even in principle. 

The more reactionary employers were; hi the habit of saying that if 
Mil eight-hour day Wrn: r>.1:iULIi;-il (he workers would imt know what to do 

uiiii their time, that they would spend their extra hours in the saloons 
jttld In dissipation. Indeed, that argument was used up to the very 
innniLMit by certain interests in opposing the effort* ttf humanitarians to 
ibollsh the 84-hour week in steel nulls. 

Of course, from the standpoint of each individual employer it is a 
tfnvple problem. Each employer wants to buy cheap and selE dear, to get 
labor at the lowest possible cost Individual and scDarate employers quite 
properly reject the idea that they are responsible for the welfare of the 
Whole community, and* considering their own interests first ihey quite 
properly seek to get alt the work they can out of their employees. 

No employer of labor t not even the railroads and the great steel com- 
Iuiiicn, employ enough men 10 lie able alone to affect the entire labor situ- 
iiihui, If the tfrcat railroads and the steel companies Tverc to cut down 
lln- working day to six. hours or even to five hours they would automatic- 
jilly create jobs for a larger number of men, but still not enough to affect 
llie labor situation in the country as a whole. 

The hours-of -labor problem tan be settled in only two ways, One of 
mem i* in each individual casc^ by the action of the employees of each 






employer, winning the shortest hours and the highest wages possible 
each separate and individual cast?. But in that event the hours won in a 
case are vitally affected by the hours labored by employees of other m 
If one firm can get employees to work ten hour* a day it is at an adv; 
tage over competitors whose workers have won an eight-hour day. Thi 
situation is acute in the .textile industry, where the New England mil 
must compete with miils. located in Southern States where labor Jegisls 
tjon is still in a primitive stage. 

Still I here h a pressing need for some adjustment of the whole mat! 
of hours of labor, a need that cannot be satisfied by individual wranj 
in shop after shop, or even industry after industry. 

The root of the troubled situation is the fact that labor has be* 
so efficient and effective that distress results. One striking clniracterisl 
of ihe present industrial distress is the fact that people are suffering 
caue there is too much. With millions of men out of work and thottsai 
tramping the streets bumming the price of a cup of cofFee> the Brazil 
government has found it necessary to dump millions of pounds of coflft 
into the sea to keep up the price, The overproduction of wheat, frqij 
cotton, oil and other bask commodities has added to the distress of a sit 
ation in which millions of people have lost their jobs, or arc in feiu; 
losing their Jobs, thus making it impossible for them to buy back <! 
jiloek of goods they and their fellow-workers have made. And faciorii 
are closed and employment is barred to minions because they have pjk 
up such huge stocks of goods that for the moment they cannot be sol< 
to the people who made them and arc suffering for want of them, 

The difficulty ties largely in the fact that American labor, undq 
efficient direction, has become loo efficient. The swift speed with whii 
;tn Empire State building is erected, tile high-pressure efficiency disptayt 
in mass-production of automobiles the installation of countless lahoi 
saving devices and machines have often done more harm than good. 

When labor-saving devices arc installed in a household, when 
housewife gets the use of a vacuum cleaner, a garbage incinerator, a i\k 
washing machine or an electric refrigerator it is whotly a benefit, for si 
is emancipated from drudgery and has more time for herself, her fanffl 
and her friends. No one ever dreams of discharging a wife becaij 
machinery can do her work for her, But millions of men — and the who], 
country — arc suffering today because labor-saving machinery and efficlerjl 
in industry have made the labor of millions superfluous. 

No one in his right mind suggests that American labor adopl ill 
method of ""ca'canny/* the slowing-up process deliberately adopted t 
many British worker* at the moment that the introduction of machine! 
threatened their jobs. No one in his right mind would iugge4 that labt 
saying devices be scrapped because the result of their installation, 
things now work out, is distress. No one would restore the hnnd-looi 
to create job, or go back to handset type because the linotype maehira 
is so efficient that many old-time printers lost their jobs when (he machfrl 
was installed. No one would justify a smashing or the machines, as in- 
furiated English worfctngmen smashed mar bines at the beginning of the 
industrial revolution because they saw in the machine their enemy. 
Sane and intelligent people want to see as much labor-saving machiM 

possible, as many devices for efficiency, as much mass-production 
m [■ possible. But they do not like the idea that such efficiency deprives 

I km beings of their jobs and causes distress instead of rejoicing. 

On the theory that a general scaling down of the working day to give 

■■I to all would spread the benefits of machinery, would benefit not 

Only industry as a whole but the working people who do the world's work, 

|]|ftre is this movement for a radically curtailed working day. If it conies 

ftbout, and if it is a successful innovation, it will he time enough to discuss 

i ii people will do with their new leisure, 




AT THE MOMENT that Governor Roosevelt is asking for a fund of 
■^* r $20,000,000 for unemployment relief in New York State alone, and 
13 suggesting that the State income lax be jacked up 50 per cent to r 
the money for his plan, the Brazilian government, alarmed at the fact 
there is too much coffee and that the price of coffee is likely to go down 
announced that large quantities of the fragrant bean, neatly done up 
burlap sadb, are going to be dumped into the turbulent Atlantic, 

The people of Brazil, dependent very largely upon the coffee bean 
for their well-being,, feel that when the price of coffee is low they are badly 
off, hut that when the price of coffee is high they will prosper. That the 
rest of the inmates of this mundane sphere will have to pay the price in 
higher prices for coffee is a detail that may possibly annoy them, but that 
is not particularly relevant to theill- 

The cotton planters of Louisiana, distressed at the fact that the plenti- 
tude of cotton has driven down the price of that most necessary commod- 
ity, strove to bring pressure to bear upon Hon. Huey Long, the great 
man who is both United States Senator from that State and its Governor 
at the same time. The Hon. Huey sent a message to the Legislature, and 
without a dissenting vote the Legislature passed a resolution looking to-3 
ward ihe banning of the planting of cotton for one year, in order that 
the price might stay up. 

This b an improvement over the "buy-a-balc-of-cotton" movement 
of some years ago, when people were urged to buy cotton in order to 
hum it. That the buyers and wearers of cotton goods must pay the price 
is an annoying fact that does not invalidate the plan s at least in the minds 
of the people who are putting it through. 

The State militia of Texas and of Oklahoma, under the command 
of those two statesmen. Governors the Hon. Ross S. Sterling and the Hon. 
Alfalfa Bill Murray, who patched up their recent quarrel over bridge] 
tolls for the occasion, was recently sent into the oil fields to *top the flow ] 
of oil and limit the output by one million barrels of oil a day. 

Oil had been flowing so freely and the market had been so flooded 
with oil that the price of gas fell to nine cents a gallon, and the oil people 
have been complaining that the overaupply of the fluid — a boon to auto- 
mobile owners and others using (he by-producJs of petroleum — is a dire j 
calamity. Hence two States are using their armed forces to keep down ! 
the supply of the fluid to keep the prices up. 

_fn the apple regions of the State of Washington and other places] 
millions of apples are rotting on the ground, because to gather them, pack 


ihfMU and toss them into the markets would depress the price of the fruit 
1 k injury' to the apple growers. Hence the finest apples in the world 
.. I>eing fed to hogs. 

rtae overproduction of wheat and the possibility of low prices for 

1 1 vitally necessary foodstuff has been consiefcred for years as one of the 

1 * alamiticsj and a good deal of the economic thought of the world 

\.rrn devoted to schemes to keep down the supply of wheat and 

nendy to keep the prices of this necessity of life as high as possible. 

All of these people, coffee-growers, cotton-growers, oil men, apple- 

■vers, wheat farmers among others,, arc vitally interested in keeping 

up by keeping production down, or even by destroying products 

idy in existence. And sugar-growers, lumbermen, those who nurse 

tic along until they become meat, and those engaged in getting out 

other conceivable commodity that people need to eat and drink 

uul inhabit and wear feel precisely the same way. 

This docs not mean that the oil men arc cheering the destruction 
. 1 , offee, nor that the wheat people are deliriously enthusiastic over the 
1 . 1 that' cotton is going to be made artificially scarce and costly. The oil 
want dear oil— and cheap cofee, cotton .sugar, wheat and apples. 
Mi. npple men want dear apples— and cheap oil, coffee, sugar, wheat and 
union. The cotton men want dear cotton— and cheap oil, coffee, appH 
Ileal and sugar + 

Meanwhile, there are several million people in genuine distress. The 

Ihtvrmor wants to spend $20,000,000 on them, and plans for the expendV 

hirc of sums up to five billions are proposed for the relief of the millions 

■ arc facing a terrible winter. Millions of people who have jobs* whose 

■■-> have not yet been cut, are nevertheless m anguished fear that they 

lit be the nextj or that some members of their families might be tossed 

cmii of jobs. 

There is too much coffee; there are too much oil and wheat and sugal 
urid cotton and fruit, and too many people who need them and have no 
money to buy them. 

Might it not be suggested that the surplus coffee, instead of bang 
|i**fd into the ocean> might be given to men tramping the streets who will 
l»r rold and hungry in the winter? Thai the apples be fed to unemployed 
nr of to the hogs? That the cotton be employed to clothe people who 
,.i.< in distress rather than burned or forcibly kept from growing? 

Such a plan sounds like charity; but the men who have no jobs are 
(ik> often compelled to depend upon some form of charity anyway. And 
inch a plan might easily employ hundreds, even thousands of unemployed 
men in administering a far-reaching plan nice this— who could be paid 
out of the huge sums being rabed for relief. And such a plan, merely 
udvaging perfectly good stuff from being converted into garbage might 
■"be the push that will start the ball of industry rolling again. 
It may sound fantastic to propose this sort of salvaging but it is even 
more fantastic that in a period when millions are facing the future with 
Cold fear gripping their hearts that they may not have enough to live on, 




industries, States and nations are systematically setting out to destroy 
thing? because there arc too many of the things that make life possible! 

It is merely suggested that some control be made] it is merely sug-j 
gested that industry be treated as one single whole, chat the Interest* ofl 
producers and consumers, cofFce-growers and button-hole makers oil men 
and apple men be considered as one — which they are, 

The only alternative is to consider the world made up of litde 1 
separate groups, each hostile to every other. And the result looks a little 


npHE United States Steel Corporation has announced a wage-cut of ten 
I i*r 3 cent effective October Hi, affecting close to a quarter of a million 
rniulovccs, Bethlehem Steel will follow suit on the same day, with a similar 
"downward revision" (as the industrialists like to call ^age-cuts) affecting 
'jl\O0O men, and the Youiigstown Sheet and Tube Company has ordered a 
Mil-responding cut. The General Motors announces a "readjustment effec- 
tive the same day, ranging from 10 to 2G per cent. Still other cuts arc being 
announced almost hourly. 

These corporation!! are not comer peanut peddlers trying to make ends 
meet cutting wages as a means to avert bankruptcy. They do busniess meas- 
.,1, d in billions and during the war and the bnom turn-* thai followed, the 
profits of the first three were measured in hundreds oi milhoni annually. 
They aLw shared in the generosity of the Treasury some years ago when 
many millions were passed out in Income tax refunds. 

Business may not be so very good at the moment, bin l.y »<• strcUh 
of the imagination can those corporations be considered Ln actual need of the 
lums of money to be saved by the "downward revision^' :u.d V;ic |ust.nenta 
in the compensation of salaried employees" to keep afloat and their man* 
.ij-crs \rota the poorhousCi 

As we see it these wage-cuts are to be considered as the eatablUhment of 
-i ix>licv For a long time there lias been discussion of the possibility of a 
Kt-ncrai lowering of wage standards, h has been held by many people that 
die wage Levels won by labor unions to meet the rising cost of Living in the 
Iwom ("easy-come-casy-go") years after the war arc too high for depres- 
sion times. Of course, when prices began going up wage mncas. * had to be 
fought for bitterly, often at the cost of bloodshed, There was no such easy 
assumption by industrialists that wages would have to be "revised and 
"BdlusW upward as there is now that they must be Wised and 

'adjusted 3 * downward. n^ut. 

Many financial commentator discussing the long-drawn-out British 
maintain that the- prime reason for Britain's woe is that the unions 
have refused to budge from their defense of wage scales won during and 
after the war when prices were sky-rocketing and the value of money was 
cut in half or worse. They have held that wages must fall, like ah other 
costs, that labor must take its share of readjustment to new conditions, or 

even normal times. , - ■ * . u 

All tins U prrfectly sound, if one accepts the point of view ujhmi which 
it U bawd. Urn before accepting the necessity of a general wage reduction 
[kite must agree upon certain definitions. 




SI ahilim; YVAOKS 


First and most important, in our opinion, is the answer to one most im- 
portant question: What is the purpose of industry? What is the objective of 
those who carry it on? 

The object of industrial statesmanship is either to carry on industry' 
for its own sakcj or it is to create as much happiness as possible. 

If the first is correct it may be likened to war. There 3s every hunutfl 
desire to make the soldiers comfortable and feed them properly, to keep then 
contented and dry and amused. But the prime objective of waging war ii 
to win, and soldiers understand trial they are but pawns to be tossed into 
fiery furnace, there to face fire and flame, bursting shells and clouds (. 
poison gas. Human beings only incidentally, their main purpose is to flgbj 
and win regard less of the cost to themselves. 

If that is to be the accepted objective of industry, then no one has 
right to object to movements toward wage reductions. If a bull-market level] 
of wages is bad for an industry it should be scaled down< If industrial states- 
manship finds that a nation whose laboring classes insist upon maintaining 
a high standard of living [gets into financial difficulties it is right and properl 
that adjustments be made in that standard of living in order that the nation's 
finances should not suffer— instead of adjusting finances and industry to] 
keep them up. 

But sealing down wage levels, moving toward a lower standard of 
living, is wrong if that conception be rejected. 

There is the opposite point of view, according to which industry and 
finance and government should have as their objective the creation of the 
greatest possible amount of human happiness, in which industry is a means 
not an end in itself, 

The question may be put this way; Are payments of wages to be 
considered merely as operating expenses, to be kept down to the lowest 
possible level? Technically wages paid to labor are in the same category as 
prices paid for land and material and supplies, which in times of distress! 
everyone cuts to the bone. 

If the object of industrial statesmanship is merely to keep industry ; 
going, then that's all right and wages should be slashed and the standard I 
of living lowered, as part of the general movement toward economy, But 
to those who think in other terms wages for iabor arc not in the same cate-j 
gory as the cost of wrapping paper and electric bills and rents. Wages, it is 
hcld> represent human welfare, the only means by which men can live and] 
the higher the wages the better off the nation. 

As national welfare depends directly upon the welfare of the people, 
industrial statesmen must think in terms, not of their balance sheet* but of | 
the welfare of the entire nation t 

It is bad for the standard of living to slip. It U bad for masses having 
once tasted decent living electric Lights, possibly a car, radios, some domestic 
comforts, to have those sweets snatched fioin them jutf when they have 
learned what they mean. 

Jt J} no "* Wr to * c ll the English people that because the king surrenders 
?2jO,000 a year out of his several millions, the cotton-mill worker, already | 

UvLiiK on the edge of starvation, must likewise sacrifice one-tenth, or onc- 
fourm of his income, It is not the same sacrifice for both of them, And it is 
nihi I -iii- to snatch away from several hundred thousand steel workers ten 
H i i int of their never- too -great wages just when they had commenced to 
|vt lives above the lowest slum-level just because their employers are not 
HOW making the vast profits, measured in billions,, that they once made. 
I liuuanity comes before stock prices. 

So runs the argument of those who believe that these wage-cuts are 
forerunners of a nation-wide and world-wide attempt on the part of cm- 
ploycrs to cut living standards. 

Labor, they say, has officially been declared not to be a commodity. 
I hose whose wages have been treated as if they are but so many bookkeep- 
ing items, are human beings no less than the families of those who order the 
wage slashes and whose standard or living is not affected in the slightest. 

So run the two conflicting arguments. 



B R „"!?? LW J a «"»* Chy in itscIf > with a Pop^on of close .o thra 

In but one thing d oes Brooklyn lag, and that is in the fact that of M 
, m \f 7 ajpait: and hopelessly inadequate Central T ih»™ 

ai the time that the Astor, the LeSox d h m f '^ L,brar " 
merged, and the reS ult ™ the SS£n, Si™ ^ ? Ibib w "I 

l r> Mfce that PIW S for ^.puil^cldii t ha t^ , ^ili"" 
of a hbnry compulsory; and * it i,™,,,, „,, " ,' ■ E 

Wis arc not, of course; but it aunears thai mm »>*. >k* ■ .■ 
almost incurable inmia, There h | n f 1" ^' . S Z'"™^ M 

I; •*» tho city lr ™» uiy> and tl., In n it L , | ,. ", ( [™ *" '' P U f 

■^library ™ ™ily be appmpH :,„,!. Th," Z I ; Sh MS 
budget is man ytimes that sura. The monev li n,,r ■„„ ■ „„ ■ V y 

The Borough Piwident i s seeking ,., appropriation S«SSmi 

continue tiiewnk now rapidly peteHnff 0111 - t , i „ , . ' ■> J " ? - ,D .?«» to 

The Fla.bush avenue wLJ I, , ,, , '', C<m, P'* ton - 


front walk were finished in marble a change of plans called for the removal 
■i ili' marble and the rebuilding of the walls with Indiana limestone. Let 
in hope no one thinks they need granite or onyx. 

And that is about all, and if more money is not appropriated at once a 
i in il nr of men will be thrown out of work, and the unfinished building will 
Itftttd as a monument to inertia or laziness on the part of a great community 
-»' Krrat that it is almost unbelievable. 

The project for a great central library building goes back thirty-two 

" In April, 1899, the Brooklyn Park Commission was delegated to 

'inriiLTid to the Legislature a site for a suitable central library. It was not 

until thirteen years later, June 5, 1912, that ground was at last broken. 

I hit was over nineteen years ago, and not a single book has. found shelter in 

I ho building, not a man or woman has walked its cool marble corridor*. 

The site, after six years of delay, was selected in 1905. A year later the 
rust appropriation of $25,000 was made, and in the same year a study was 
made of library building at home and abroad, in order thai when the 
building was finally completed Brooklyn might have the benefit of the ex- 
perience of all other communities, the wm II »vi i 

The plans were submitted in 1907, and the firal ottJnmte ol coat wu 
lived at $4,810,000 in IDOa- Utu-r estimates, due v> onlaiuod plane ind In 
m easing costs, of materials and higher itaadardi ofllvlnj I irkon have 

jjiitic: to $11,000,000, $.13,000,000 and even 114,000,000, 

Up to 1925 only $825,000 had been expended on the projei I In 

November, 1928, the city appropriated |1,1H).000 i ■■; the work thai li 

going on now is- on what fa left of that appropriation And then lln mnttui 
rests for want of any more money. 

And it is a great pity. It is, of course, a pity to tee anything Itarted and 
no! carried through, And it is a pity to see work abandoned m f i time when 
the men at work will find it hard to find other work. But the pity ol ii 
t;oe* very much deeper, 

A library in more than a collection of books housed in a fine maxfele 
building, Tt is more than stacks and catalogues and bound volume* of pub 
Iteattona. It is more than a staff of skilled librarians and trained scholar! 
end fine picture* and sculptures. 

A library is a symbol of the fact that a community is cultured and civil- 
b»d. And by the care of a community for its library, the money it upends 
Upon it, the pride it has in it one may measure the measure of true civiJiza- 
lion that a community ha* reached, 

Rooks are more than romances, novels, poems; book* arc, in a real 
sense, the means by which we can unlock the past and the future. When 
the great library of Alexandria burned a man ran Co Julius Caesar and said, 
"There burns the memory of mankind!" "Let it burn" said Caesar. 'it is 
,l shameful memory/ 1 

But it £s more than that. The memory of mankind teaches us how to 
avoid the pitfalls of the past, to meet the problems of the future. The mem- 
ory of mankind is a light to guide the feet toward what is coming. 

Libraries are monuments erected by communities to their own sense 
of human dignity. It is to he hoped that it will not be Ion^ hoforc Brooklyn 
will have completed that monument to itself, 




TT WAS in 1610 that an Englishman first set foot on thews islands. Sir 
-"-George Sonurs, with desperately needed supplies for the starving 
colonists m Jamestown, was wrecked on what is now St. George Island 
and there he spent the winter with his men, enchanted by the beauty M 
found here. ' 7 

In the spring Sir George built himself an open vessel with the wood 
ol the cedars so abundant here, and, naming it the Deliverance *et out 
lor Jamestown, about 600 miles away, with fond and B ood cheer and the 
companionship of men who had come through the joys of a winter in 
what they described as paradise to sustain them to further efforts. 

Sir George himself was so enchanted with the place that he huilt a 
settlement on the island he had found, and there he died, a year later 
and there, according to a quaint old custom of that time, his heart is 
buried in Somcrs Gardens, white the balance of bun was interred t his 
native Dorsetshire. One can visit the grave of his heart today at St 
George's if one cares to. 

Out of the episode of the shipwreck of the men bringing blessed 
reHef to the starving pioneers of Jamestown comes the Bermuda colony 
of today. But Sir George had not been the first man to touch on its coral 
Bed tore? a CCntUry ^^^ thC S P amard ' J"** dc Bermuda had 

But the British calling the place the Somen Island, tools pcuraftn 
and all the Spaniard, got for their pains was the doubtful pleasure of 
knowing that the islands are now know* by the name of the Spaniard 
who first came here in 1515, 

Within a year or two after Sir George's discovery came to be known 

MSAS ^™™ dci ? ? f th * =«al b**=hw and caves beaten in 
[he living structure of the island by the stormy waters were told to those 
who were close to the throne, and one of the men close to the Scottish 

!Z !°^ S m J'^ T' EnR]and WM an Englishman from the midlands 
who was assigned by those at court who had charge of * uc h things to he 
task of writing plays glorifying the king, 

handtrf^r- d 1 * ™ I 6 ?" "*> W ^ld then had turned his deft 

i P ,l payS i mdely wnttcn b V oihcr* so tli it dwy would be 

5 rJ h T* °" th ^ n T d ™ «W« He «■ now a man who kncl the SJJ 

™mJ? f the , knac l,? f wn!in & P Ta J™ *« wniBhow sa»K with the 

Srlv r^T 11 ^' ?*?,*• »«" ftudteno " ■"«* Sc actor, of 
tha day chant h» stately dialog speak th^ d-^ply moving solibqui 

Th ls Shakespeare of the stage and of the court of King James heard 


ill i>f the "III vexed Bcrmoothes" and of the fairyland Sir George and 
In 1 urn had found there. He had no play under contract at the moment, 
mi .lwgnincnt to predict the glory of the dour Scots king and his EfousC 
ol Stuart, such as with tongue in cheek and roguish private smile he had 
|u«E completed in L4 Macbeth." 

Will Shakespeare was in full flower of his great powers and he 
Rearing the end of hi* glorious lifc fc although he could not know 
1l1.1t. His mind and heart and soul were dripping with sweetness and 
Ineffable beauty, and Inspired by the tales he had heard of the Somcrs 
[■lands, or of the "Vexed Rermoothes," he set down in deathless prose 
ftnd ever-living verse "The Tempest," his noblest sonft of beauty, possibly 
his greatest play; certainly the play that contains his most beautiful poetry 
■ ml his most magnificent imagery. 

In "The Tempest" Shakespeare has Ferdinand sing 10 his dead father; 

"Full fathom deep thy father lies: 

Of his bones are coral made." • . . 
mikI how on earth Shakespeare knew about the coral basis of these islands 
1 1 1 I'lh understanding. 

But we find that wo arc straying from the beauties and the ineffable 
1 Linn of Bermuda to the greater, the more robust beauties of Shakespeare, 
which after all have nothing to do with this travelogue. Except that 
there is a cave here called Prosperous cave and that most natives know 
diat Shakespeare immortalized their island paradise, although he knew 
nothing whatever about it, 

Caliban's Cave is not one of the crystal caves that arc on the menu 
of most tourists who can spare a little time from bathing — or whatever 
ii is that brings thcrn here. The caves are like so many in other parts of 
iln L world, but no matter, they arc a marvel of nature. It is easy to describe 
ili.'iu, and we have plenty of them in our own country, but the Crystal 
Clave here has marvels of its own. It is filled with water to a depth of 40 
or 50 feet The water is salt, it is not staj^nnnt, it rises and Tails witb the 
tide and there arc no fish or any other animal life, and how the water 
gets in has thus far eluded investigators. In die winter there arc gay mid- 
night swimming parties in it from town and hotel, 

Most Americans, however, consider it one of the ^What of it?" 
variety of marvels, something for the scientists to worry over, but why 
should we? Let's not hear any more about them. 

There's also a place called the Devil 1 ! Hole where you can catch a 
lot of fish, and there's an aquarium where you can sec strange, curious, 
horrible and most unbelievable creatures that inhabit the deeps. 

But we have an aquarium back home, so why talk about that, either? 

After all, Will Shakespeare was right. He never even got here> and 
he knew nothing about Gibbs K Hill Lighthouse and the aquarium. He did 
not even know from personal knowledge the charm and beauty and rest- 
fulness and peace that are found here in a land in the midst of the sea, 
but he sensed it from the tales of the adventurers who went back home, 
and that spirit of ethereal fairyland that he caught as if by magic is 
what we have found here and that is the memory we. are taking homn 
with ua tomorrow. 




"i^RACIOUSi 11 said the man as be swabbed his streaming brow, "Wj 
vg'ools women are [ Here they go and wear the craziest kind of clot] 
just because somebody in Paria tell* them to, Where the devil is my colli 
button? I have to go across the street and I can't go out looking like 
bum, can I?" Or maybe it wasn't "gracious" that he said. 

The other day we sat in a theatre neat and gazed goggle-eyed at 
scene purporting to be a fashion parade. A procession of ravishing femali 
slinkcd— or is it s]ank?— snakily across the stage with that utterly aristc 
cratic hauteur possible only to the American ahowgal, displaying gowrf 
that fairly took the breath away, It appears that every one had been dJ 
ing a good deal of ha thing, for the sun tan on the back was clearly \ 
and the gown— ir that is the right word (will the proper authorities cor* 
rect us if we are wrong?) — seemed in every case to consist merely of : 
coat of paint over a pari of the form. 

Arms were bare, shoulders were bare, backs were exposed to 
electric fan, and it was perfectly manifest that the audience saw practici 
:ill the ladles had on — well, nearly all. 

Each garment, however, although exactly like every other garm( 
was entirely different from every other one K and the dres* buyers or whal 
ever it was the men standing around were supposed to represent, carcfull 
noted each one and dJSCUMcd its points and considered the furore it would 
make in the Bon Ton or the Dreasc Shoppc back in Wichita, 

"Wotta lot la dumb driven cattle women arc/' the men reflected aJ 
ihcy nearly expired in the furnace-heat of ihe theatre, "to wear whatever] 
some clever guy in Paris makes them think they have got to wear. Why, 
all the gals who sec these styles think they'll die if they don't get them 
right away," And they were right. 

It was absolutely stifling. Not a breath of air was stirring Abu fell 
their clothes becoming wringing wet, ihcy choked on their collars, they fell 
that their belts would Wrangle them. Their legs were feverish with liii 
kept in by their cloth pants. We knew whereof wc. speak fnr we were 

Everywhere in the tin aire padded cloth shoulders of men's u . 
touched the bare shoulders of women, the cloth sleeves oT men touched] 
the bare arms of their women companions. 

As the men walked out between the acts for a blessed whifT of ozoni 
or of nicotine, each one swabbed hts brow and saw in front of 
women clad in wisps of chiffon waving in the almost imperceptible brad 
with arms bare to the shoulders, and (he knew from what he had jlfl 


hi the stage) very little more on than he could sec, And to prove 

h, i women arc creatures of style, the very girls who could give the men 

(In merry ha-ha for being compelled to wear heavy clothes seemed to 

J they would die of shame if they exposed their naked hands— hence 

lute gloves to even up the lunacies. 

II a man, unable to endure the agony any longer were to take off his 
he would be approached by a ladylike ushcress with the information 
lluil such brazenness was not permitted in a decent theatre. 

What we are getting at is the hope that some day there will he 

■ neral agreement that men are quite insane to wear what they are told 

ir in the summer. 

Women arc slaves to style, Men have been laughing with tender and 

Hlfrctionate condescension at women for a long time. When the style 

m rile red short skirts fifty raiUioD knee caps sprang into view, When the 

. I? "decreed" (that, we believe, is the correct word) cloche hats fifty 

iun heads wore the same hats year after year until somebody could 

iloiM- out a new style. When the style czars ordered the long skirt there was 

ii'vull for a while but after some grumbling of insubordination down wcm 

1 1 1< I n-iii uf the skirts again. 

But one thing must be said with all die perspiring emphasis at the 

, i;uicl of a suffering male— the women may be slaves to style but the 

iiylcj they are slaves to do not compel them to wear clothes that are an 
u rage and an agony as the men do. 

I I,,-,,- :. . oi murse, a e IC Mpect In tLu- Mlu.iium, Im: lli-'ir is ;l 

,,,,ii:i side as well. Jt is comical to see the contrast between the hot, 

liming, insane clothes men wear in the summer, and the light, fluffy 

.in nts that quite satisfy the girls as to style and modesty. But it h ex- 

isperatmg so see men, the noble lords of creation, act like so many sheep 

matter of clothing— or like so many idiots, 

It may be that women are too much concerned with such things, 

lliut the cut* the color, the injiteihil, the precise mode of the garments 

iln -y wear play too much of a role in their lives. But it is also true that 

men are governed by iron rules* Eoo, that it appears cannot be broken 

I her, attd when one contrasts the modish garments of women and or mciij 

1 1 ■ i> are plenty of laughs for the women, 

There has beertj indeed, some progress in recent years. The almost 
universal uw of the soft shirt and collar, the almost complete disappear- 

of the hard boiled shirt, the iron hat, and old-fashioned long under- 

>i, ihe general discarding of vest in the summer, arc signs of some 
ill^ht awakening, 

F.ven the rapid disappearance of the hat in the summer h a sign 
ih.Lt men will not wear what they are told to if they don't want to* 

But despite all that men are still enslaved to (he main tyranny of 
Hollies. Can any person in his right mind explain why man must wear 
matt in the summer? [except, of course^ to have pockets to fill up with 
l-mik unpaid bills, ipeakeaiy cards and unanswered letter* }< Can any 
in. 111 explain why women may cover their forms with light and airy Hiif- 
i. i ran expose their legs — either bare or i lothcd in the filmiest fabric — ■ 



to the air without criticism, while men must wear trousers of hen 
material, bound in at the waist with belts? Why a man is considered 
freak if he wears his collar open at the throat? 1 Why a man would 
be allowed in an athletic undershirt on a street car full of women wil 
anus bare to the clavicle and the scapula? 

To wear mohair and other lightweight fabric is & mete cowai 
evasion of the issue. To itart a fad for shorts, pajamas, bathing suit* 
other abbreviated garments is to get oneself singled aui as a freak 
yet reform is urgently needed. 

(J Lin anyone suggest a way of combating this lunacy without violat 
ing the canons of aesthetic good taste and Retting oneself jailed as a frci 
or juenjed as a crank? Such a one will win the adoring admiration of 
s-uitering world. 


\ S, by tla; way* who isn't? 

' *■ It \lacd to be said that the weather was the safest topic of conver- 
lation for people fencing for an opening before clinching in conversation 
in a serious way. The foregoing, it appears to us u\m\\ re-reading, h a 
i ■ - - - 1 1 > - (juiir addled with metaphors hopelessly mixed; bul il yo*l chaif* 
n up to the weather not only will the sentence become at least partially 
intelligible, hut it may also serve as an object lesson for the sermon we arc 
nbcut to preach. 

To resume consideration of the weather, it ran no longer be staid that 
i :i [ i > | - 1 > foj i onves iatii in bo safe thai ii can taad cmU to |i]«Msani 

.imetiilies, or at least lo no harm. 

It isj of course, true that beautiful and lasting friendships are built 
on casual meetings that begin wish a discussion of the weather. 

Two men meet in an elevator of their apartment house. One lives on 
the seventeenth floor, the other on the nineteenth. They nod, for they 
have Ken each other before, although neither has the slightest idea who 
tin . iiher is — nor does hr particularly care, tiui having seen each other 
before they must nod, and having nodded, they must Veep up the pre- 
tense that they arc friendly acquaintance!, }* Qr to admit the truth thut 
they have no possible interest in each other [j, we believe, mmidered a 
firiljilKin of the penal code or the Corpus Juris Civilis by real red-blooded 
Ainrrican citizens, 

I In- friendly nod having been made inevitable when they caughl each 
■ ■ilni'si eyes, they in llhi r of course, keep it up for the long, dreary ride 
in the Alpine heights in which they live. 

They don*t even know each others 1 names, they don't know whether 
their wives arc acquainted, they don't know each other's business, neither 
i> sure whether or not the attractive blonde matron he has been trying 
in become art|iiainte(E with is ibe wife of the cither. Everything is blank, 
Yon know how it is; that is, if you live in an apartment house 

lint not lo say anything is un-Aineriean, Hence they start. And what 
Il it they can start with? Why, the weather; (Silly not lo have thought 
of that before). 

"Nice day we're having? 1 ' 

"Yes, indeed, air. Only I think we rimy have i thunderstorm before 
Iruuj. That K if we dnn + t get an earthquake first," 

"Surest thing you know, You know, I always say to Mrs. Ummmmh 
[;l1I names sound like that when you're spraining your rat 1 1 y i 1 1 ; • to CAtch 




Hl'1-AKIMi <H Till'. WEATHER 


it without the un-American discourtesy of saying, 'Oh, by the way, old 
top, what the "ell did you say your name i*?*] that we always have :in 
earthquake this time of the year, That is, unless it snows before Whoop- 

And so on, nice and snappy and sappy and friendly and he-blooded 
red-man sort of stuff, until at last the seventeenth floor is reached and 
Mr, Ummmmmh alights to the sigh of genuine relief heaved by his fellow- 
traveler. And that, he figures to himself, is that. 

But it usually is not. Life being what it is, he usually meet* Mi 
Umrnmmmmmh the very next day, and having been so frimdly befall 
Liny start off way ahead of scratch like old pain, That is, they start off 
like a couple of nice, friendly chaps who have much an common. But 
in bitter truth, they have nothing whatever in common except the fact 
that they had killed two unendurable and endless minutes the day before 
talking about the weather. 

Now, what an earth can they talk about when they meet again? 
Why, the weather, of course! 

Some day one man in going to be with his wife when he meets the 
other, atid then there will bo embarrassment when the necessary intro- 
duction* have to be made. For neither knows the other's, name. 

Life is just full of pitfalls like that, but generally speaking the casual 
conversation about the weather during the elevator ascension lays a firm 
foundation for the sort of friendship that endures forever. And whenever 
the two men meet they will continue talking about the weather* for as 
time goes on they will find they have nothing whatever in common except 
the fact (hat they talk about the weather whenever they meet. If they 
started any other subject they might find that neither knows enough about 
anything the other may be interested in to carry on a conversation to iln 
third floor, let alone the seventeenth, No, the weather is safest, after all. 

Thus it is proven that conversation about the weather contribute)* 
to beautiful friendships. 

But not always. There arc limes when there is. no unanimity, when 
differences about the weather may enter the realm of angry disiMi. : in< nl 
rather than more polite chit-chat. 

For example, there was the time a French politician sought the suf- 
frages of his constituents for the Clhambre des Deputes, His district in- 
cluded country and city, village and farmland, and he promised his b3 
loved people (hat if dec led he would give them whatever weather thev 
wanted, ' 

But he found soon enough that there was no rain— at the proprJ 
lime, of course— while die city dwellers wanted sunshine, and they didn't 
care whether or not the reservoirs ran dry. The politician retired from 
public life, but he had no longer a subject to be trifled with. 

There was also the man who was walking home in a raging winter 
storm. It was one or those cold, raw days with a penetrating wind that 
froze the very marrow of one's bones, with a cold sleet that made the side- i 
walks gelid, with cold rain that slid down the back of the neck and caused 

I ho trouser legs to hang about the limbs, cold and clammy, with shoes 
^■idling in the wet, with every creator-condemned device to make life 
minly unsupporiable going at full blast. 

"This weather" said the man to himself, "is what makes Bolsheviks" 
And when it is hot and muggy, when the shirt adheres to the body even 
closer than a close friend, when the electric fan contributes nothing in the 
way ol relief other than a monotonous, unbearable whine, when the infrc- 
■I in 1 nt breeze merely stirs the leaves for a moment and then leaves the world 
even hotter and more breathless than before, when one cannot steep and 
cannot work, when the sun glares down and the streets toss, baek the rays 
ni (he sun, when frequent baths and libations of ice water merely aggravate 
the agony — then if any of the parishioners wants a good sock in the eye let 
him step up and ask what we think of the weather. (Although when this 
.ipjjcars in type it will probably find the congregation enjoying lovely, crisp 




gAMUEJ- J,. CLEMENS, known and loved by all the world as Mail 
^ Twain, was born in a shabby wooden house in Florida, Missouri, cl 
November 30, 1835, and the whole world is today commemorating bis life 
and his worki upon the occasion of his centenary, 

Much will be mid and written about Mark Twain's humor and bis char* 
actor, about his fidelity to truth and hii personal manliness and honor and! 
much of it will be true. 

Hut there is one phase of Mark Twain** work and character that will 
be scarcely touched upon in these celebrations, a side of the man hardly 
known to the vast public, and a side with whfch most of those who arc 
officially celebrating him today have little sympathy. 

For In a. certain measure Mark Twain was a revolutionary, Jle did 
not have a clearly defined philosophy, but as a human beifcur he was at 
war with many of the frauds and shams, and nil of The cruelty of his tunc 
J he boy Sam Clemens grew tip in Hannibal, Missouri—known to all lovers' 
of lorn Sawyer and Muck Finn as St. Petersburg— a "bating, out-at-thc- 
clbowsj down-at-thc-hecls slave-holding Mississippi river town;* as Howeua 
described it. He was a creature of his environment, but like all truly ffrcat 
men he rose above it, - 

I Finn had aided the Nc^ro slave Jim to escape, not knowing 
Jims owner had manumitted him [nor did Jem know it). In the mor-diiy 
of a davft-holding community aiding a slave to escape was the cardinal sin 
the seriousness of which cannot be comprehended by anyone not torn and 
railed ma slave-holding environment. I luck knew that lie w a* committing 
such a sin, but his humanity bound Mm to his friend, die kindly, human 
Negro He spent a whole- night wrestling with bis conscience, Fully believtel 
that lF be dltl not turn Jim over to his Owner he would surely io to hell 
And then as the dawn broke over the adll waters of the K ,eat river ho made 
his decision: "Alt right then, I will ^ to hell," and so ho stood by his friend 

Mark Twain was like that; he wrestled with his soul, and even when 
he was certain that an honest opinion would outrage all the currently held 
moralities he voted to be true to himself; that is, except upon one occasion 1 
when he refused to stand by Masim Gorky . . , but we will come to thai 
incident presently. 

As a young man Sam Clemens fought in the Confederals army Per- 
haps the word /ought" is too strong as any one will agree who htu I ■■ , I 
I he Private History of a Campa^ That Failed/- At any rate he was a 
second lieutenant n a Rebel outfit (there was no first lieutenant- Mad 
never knew why), he wan captured and paroled, and he broke his mi He 

i r ■ , he was subject to shooting upon capture by any soldier under the 

■ niLinand of a certain Colonel U. 5» Grant then operating in southern Mis- 
■ouri and Illinois, Later in life he felt deeply that he had borne arms in 
defense of human slavery, and he sought to expiate his offense by a gentle 
attitude toward all Negroes. It frequently happened that he was invited to 
address a church, and such invitations aroused hint to bursts of sulphurous 
profanity; he did not like the church and he detested ministers {except his 
i lose friend, joe Twitched). Hut whenever it was pointed out to him that 
a request came from a Nejjro chinch he instantly became gentle, and 
always acceded. Thus, he felt, he made good the crime he had committed by 
bearing arms in the cause of the enslavement of the black man. 

Similarly, he paid the way of a Negro student, whom he never met, 
through Yale. '*It wan quite enough he was a Negro" He did it "as 
his part of the reparation due from every white man to every black man," 

Mark Twain believed in human dignity and in democracy, a* those who 
read his books with more than the surface of their minds know. '*Tha Prince 
and the Pauper," 1 ""A Connecticut Yankee' and "Pud-d-n-hrad Wilson" are 
more than magnificent stories; they arc treaties on human equality and 
blasts against man-made inequalities. Even in his minor slorie* their can 
be found caustic criticism of the evils that man has imposed irjKiu man 
for example, the little known story. "The Great Revolution in Pitcaiin," in 
which he tells an imaginary story of the establishment (by an American) of 

;l monarchy in the lonely isli: settled by the famous "ISounly" mutineer! and 

ii which, by means of ridicule, he blazes away at the evils of dictatorial 

Likewise, also, in his delightful essay, "My First Lie, and How I Got 
Out of It,' he remarks upon the complacency of peoples in the face o| 
grievous wrongs in words that bear re- reading today , 

In his roefiow years, when he \vas famous, rich and well-beloved, Mark 
Twain's mind turned inward and be began to reflect upon the meaning! of 
things. And it was in this period, the last ten years of his life, that he wrote 
some of the most blistering attacks ever penned upon what Jack London 
railed our "dear moralities " and expressed himself most vehemently upon 
war and peace, government and imperialism, and upon the hypocrisies that 
support those things, 

Much of this was not published in his lifetime; indeed, his most thought- 
ful book, "The Mysterious Stranger/* did not appear until five years after 
his death, while other blasts are huned and unindcxed in his biography and 
in fugitive papers; there is much still in manuscript. It has become con- 
ventional to say that his wife edited the manliness out of him; that may be 
(me, and it may also be true that close friends also prevailed upon him to 
suppress much o£ this material — although much of it did find its way into 
print. Ft is however, true that these things expressed the feelings that he is 
known to have had and that in them the real Mark Twain is revealed 

A deeply patriotic American, he was bitterly ashamed of the imperial- 
istic adventure in the Philippine^ and he loadied and publicly protested 
against the "mantfesl destiny" that brought us into the Islands as a com- 
petitor in Imperialism with Great Britain. Indeed, in 1901 he wrote "To 
the Person Sitting in Darkness*' a blazing criticism of our Philippine adven- 





turc; published in the North American Review, It is not found in his 
leered work* and to find it the reader must search the old files of 
defunct magazine. 

It was at about that time that Mark Twain realized to the full 
meaning of Csarism, of (he Belgian barbarities in the Congo and of the 
British conquest of the two Republics in South Africa, In "Following the 
Equator 1 he pays his respects to the Jameson Kwd> the prelude to that Bril 
uh adventure and he wrote out his heart in denunciation of King Leopold 
II for his hideous mistreatment of the native* of Central Africa/ What he 
wrote to Nicholas. II is worth rc-rcading today; and when the first revo- 
lution came he was happy. 

In 1903 and 1906 a stream of Russians journeyed lo the United States 
seeking material aid for the Revolution. Among them was the revered 
Nicholas Tsrhaikovsky, and when he came to New York Mark Twain 
inct him and was glad to join thr committee that arranged his big meeting 
in the Grand Central Palace. It was a memorable occasion that no one who 
was present will ever forget. Dr. 5. Jngerman was chairman, and before 
I srnaikovsky spoke he read a later from the great American, who was 
unable to attend. 

Mark Twain wrote to Tchaikovsky; 

"My sympathies are with the Russian revolution, of course, 
goes without raying. ] hope it will succeed, and now that I have talked 
with you 3 take heart to believe it will. Government by falsified prom- 
ises, by faej, by treacheries and by the butcher knife for the aggrandize 
ment of a single family of drones and its idle and vicious kin has been 
borne quite long enough in Russia, I should think, and it is to be hoped 
that the roused nation, now rising in its strength, will presently put i 
end to it and set up the Republic in its place. Some of us, even tl 
white-headed, may live to sec the blessed day when Cram and grar™ 
dukes will be as scarce there as I trust they arc in heaven," 

I few we all cheered when that letter was read! Mow we wenc moved, 
that Jong-vanished day more than twenty-nine yean ago, to believe thai we 
would live to see that day when Russia would at last be free! 

But there was a shabby denouement to the Tschaikovsky episode. Maxid 
Gorky came over a few weeks later and Mark Twain, the gende William 
Dean Howella, and many other distinguished literary men, gladly enrolled 
themselves as members of a committee to sponsor a great public dinner for 
him. Hut Gorky made two mistakes: he agreed to write articles for the Hearst 
|>r eu, and the wife he came over with was not really hts wife. That i| 
he had long before been separated from the wife he had married in early 
youth, and unable m get a divorce under the rMd laws of Czartst Ruttuj 
ho lived with the woman who would hate been his wife under any sort d 
law but thai of the Russia of 190k The New York World, angered that 
its rival had signed Gorky up to write for its columns, "exposed" the 
novelist; one of New York's comical spasms of virtue ensued, one hotel 
after wiothti refused to house the couple, and Hmvells and Mark Twain 
withdrew from the sponsoring committee, together with most of the other 

members; only Professor Franklin H. Giddings of Columbia— and then also 
of the Rand School — of all the big names, stuck by him. HowctiY action was 
surprising, for he was a Socialist; Mark Twain expressed himself vigorously; 
"J-aws may be evaded and punishment escaped, but an openly transgressed 
custom brings sure punishment. The penalty may be unfair, unrighteous, 
illogical, and a cruelly; no matter, it will be inflicted just the same, Cer- 
tainly, then, there can be just one wise thing for a visiting stranger to do— 
find out what the country's customs are and refrain from offending against 

To Dan Beard he said, "Gorky made an awful mistake, Dan. He 
might as well have come over here in his shirt taiL" 

Mark despised those who hounded and persecuted Gorky; but he 
■ i-i not <mii ;■:■ cough to come out publicly by the side of Giddings and 
stand by his guns against the pseudo-morality be detested so much in his 

Mark loved glamor, and he adored being made much of by those con- 
sidered great; to him the friendship of Carnegie, of ll. H. Rogers, of Kaiser 
VVilhelm, of General 11 S, Grant and \w son /General Fred D. Grant, meant 
much, It was Tom Sawyer again reveling in praise, but he saw through 
the fraud of the "greatmW *.>\ ilkkji Veal 11 men, and dipping his pen in 
vitriol he wrote down some of the most searing thoughts ever penned on wm 
and imperialism— and then did not publish them in his lifetime. 

Tor example, writing in 'The Mysterious Stranger" about how acirrcs- 

<M- --.-i i . an: made: 

"There h;i* never been a just one, never an honorable one on the part 
of the instigator of the war. I can see a mftlion years ahead, and this rule 
will never change in so many as half a dozen instances, 

Mm loud little handful— as usual— will about for the war. The pulpit 
ill warily and cautiously, object M first; ihe great big dull bulk of the 
nation will rub its sleepy eyes and try to make out why there should be a war 
and will say earnestly and indignantly. l It is unjust and dishonorable and 
chne is no necessity for it. 1 

"Then the handful will shout louder. A few fair men on the other side 
will argUC Pi»l h-awm against (he war with speech and pen, and at first wilJ 
have a hearing and be applauded; but it will not last long; those others will them and presently the ami-war audiences will thin out and lose 

"Before long you will sec this curious thing; the speakers stoned from 
he platform and free speech strangled l Jy hordes of furious men who in 
liieir svt -ret h earls are still at one with those stoned sneakers— as carlirr 
but do not dare to say so. 

"And now the whole dat ion-pulpit and all— will take up the war cry 
:imt shout itself hoarse and mob any honest man who ventures to open his 
mouth, and presently such mouths will (case to open. 

"Nttfc thfl statesmen will invent cheap lies, putting the blame upon the 
nation that is attacked and every man will he glad of these OMisdencSoOth- 
mg and will diligently study them and refuse to examine any refute 






lions of them, and thus he will by and by convince himself that the war ii 
just and will thank God for the better sleep he enjoys after this pro* 
grotesque self-deception." 

(It must be emphasized that Mark Twain was not speaking of Eugefljj 
V. Debs and Morris Hilkjuit and the Socialist Party in 1917 and 1918— 
although it might seem so from reading these words — for he died in 1910.) 

In the early days of the twentieth century the Great Powers wen ei 
gaged in a number of imperialist adventures; Great Uritain was extinguish 
ing the independent Ikicr republics in South Africa, America was employing 
the questionable talents of Leonard Wood in crushing the Filipinos ana 
the united western Powers were inu re I ling on Peking to crush the ftoxei 
rebellion, Mark Twain thereupon wrote fand did not publish) foi 
Year's Eve, 1900: 

A Greeting from the Nineteenth to the Twentieth Century 
"I bring you a stately nation named Christendom, returning bedrag- 
gled, besmirched and dishonored, from pirate raids in Kiaou-Chow, Man 
churia. South Africa and the Philippines, with her soul full of meanness, her 
pocket full of boodle and her mouth full oF ptoxis hypocrisies. Give her soap 
and towel, but hide the looking glass" 

There followed a year later "The Stupendous EVcj. . rssitm/ 1 cove 
twenty-two typewriten pages, but which has never been published. It in- 
scribes L, thc Twentieth Century" as "a fair young creature* drunk and dis- 
orderly, borne in the arms of Satan, Banner with motto 'Get what you can; 
keep what you get'.'* 

The "Guard of Honor" consisted of "Monarchs, Presidents, Tammany 
bosses, Burglars, Land thieves, Convicts, etc" 

"Christendom" was described as ,l A majestic matron in flowing rub 
djuiL'hcd in blood. On her head a golden crown of thorns; impaled on ih 
spines the bleeding heads of patriots who died for [heir countries; IJoei 
lloxera, Filipino*- In one hand a slingshot, in (he oilier a JJible open at (lie 
text 'Do unto other* 11 Protruding from a pocket a bottle labeled 'We bring 
you the blessings of civilization.' Necklace handcuffs and a burgl.o 1 * jim 
my," The ensign was the black flag. "Guard of honor Missionaries and 
German, French, Russian and British soldiers laden with loot." 

And soon, a section for each country with symbol* of its territorial 
grattdkement, with black fla^s and instruments of torture, mutilated 
prisoners, broken hearts, bloody corpses*. At the end a banner, "All While 
Men Arc Born Fret? and Equal" 

Christ died to make men holy. 

Christ died It? make trtrn free. 

There was an American Hag furled and draped in crepe* with the 
Looming shade of Lincoln brooding over the sad spectacle. 

In 1905, Mark Twain wrote {and did no! publish) the War Pra; 
sections of which Appear from time to lime in the press, The whole story oj 
the War Prayer is scarcely known even to lovers of Mark Twain and it it J 
hero presented as a contribution to the current centenary celebration. 

There h a picture of young recruits about to march away to war, the 
excitement and enthusiasm, die flag waving and the music and cheers and 
the magnificent ceremony in the cathedral when the minister of God blesses 
the colors and utters the final invocation: 

God the all+Urrible* Thou Who ardamest, 

Thunder, Thy clarion and lightning Thy Surordf 

And a "long prayer* 1 for victory. 

As the prayer bended a white-robed stranger enters the church, moves 
Lip the aisle, takes the preacher's pulpit and addresses the hushed throng: 

"I tome from the Throne," he says after an impressive pause, "bearing 
n message from Almighty God. He has heard the prayer of His servant, 
your shepherd, and will grant it if such shall be your desire after I, I-IL 
messenger, have explained its full Import. 11 

The Messenger gee* on to explain that the prayer for victory was but 
the spoken part of the prayer- The unspoken part was what God had 
commissioned "Mis servants" to utter and if they still desired the vietoiy it 
would be theirs. "Upon the listening spirit <>l God the Father fell also the 
unspoken part of the prayer. He commanded me to put it into words. 
Listen I 

"Oh y Lord om Father, our young patriots, idols of our hearts, go forth 

to battle* Be Thou near them/ With them — in spirit — we also go from the 
stout peace of our beloved firesides to .unite .the foe, 

"Oh, Lord, our Cod, help us to Mar their soldiers to bloody shreds with 
our shell, tic Thou near thrrti? I let ft us /■:> drmrn tht thunder of the- gUUS 
with the wounded, writhing in pain; help m to lay waste their humble homes 
,-r/f/r the hurricane of fire; help us to wring the hearts of their unending 
widows with Unavailing grief; help us io turn them out roofless with their 
little rhitdren io wander unfriended over wastes of their desolated (and in 
rags and hunger and thirst, Sport of the sun-flames of summer and the icy 
,. ittdt nf winter, hrukan ifi \pirif. warn with ttaruii imploring Thee for the 
refuse of the grave and denied it — for our sakes, who adore Thee, 

"Lord, blast their hopes, blight their lives, protract their bitter pilgrim- 
age, make heavy tht it J.'/n, wafer thrk way with their tears, stain the white 
snow with thr blood of their wounded feet? We ask of One who is the Spirit 
wf Love and Who is the eirer faithful friend and refuge of all that are sore 
ht'u'i, and seek //r> ntd with humble and contrite hearts. Grant our prayer, 
oh Lord, and Thin* shall be the praise and honor and glory now ami et/er. 

After a pause the stranger said: "Ye have prayed it; if ye still desire 
it, speak! The messenger of the Most lf^li waits-"* 

And Mark Twain added these words: N Ii was believed afterward that 
the man was a lunatic because there was no sense in what he said." 

Mark told a friend that he had read the War Prayer to his daughter 
lean and she told him he mu.r mi publish it, for it would be regarded as 
"sacrilege." Pressed to publish it anyway, lie replied slowly; "No. [ have 
loUl c I ii-'li- uoih io thai ami onl) dead men can ''-II the truth to Eh£i 
world. It can be published after I am dead," 



Mark Twain was a great man; he will live in 4l Tom Sawyer" and' 
"Huckleberry Finn." us long as men live who once were boys; he will live in 
other works so long as men love high adventure and high spirits, He will 
live in "A Connecticut Yankeu" as long as men live who hate in justice and 
fight for liberty. He will live in "The Man that Corrupted Hadluyburg" 
as long as men live who ruthlessly question their own soul* and their own 

But in these terrible days, when the world docs honor to his memory 
to the awful obligato of war drums and preparations for those things that 
he hated with all his soul it is well for those who likewise fight for justice and 
liberty to remember the man who in his own heart was a revolution i-4 
even though his closest associates prevailed upon him not to permit the world 
to know his innermost thoughts. 

Upon one occasion it was proposed that he run for President. The idea 
tickled him enormously and he speculated upon the fate of a nation headed 
by a "humorist, peace patriot and Socialist," 

And as inherent rebels against those things that soil the civilization of 
the Twentieth Century, whose birth he welcomed with such* savage irony, 
Socialists, too, may add their voice* to the world-wide chorus of reverence for 
the noble soul who came into the world just a century ago. 


fPHE youth of America had two literary idols in the brave Roosevelt days 
A of the first decade of (his century, Kudyard Kipling and Jack London, 
And of the two, Jack had a direct personal appeal that those who were 
not youths in those days can never appreciate. Jack was a real MAN, a 
man with muscles like steel and a stomach that could digest scrap iron* a 
man who lived more stones than he had time in his brief forty years of We 
to hegin to set down. 

What Rudyard Kipling had done for India Jack did for Alaska and 
the Klondike. When Jack began writing his amazing novels and short stones 
of the frozen North, the Klondike was the golden land of romance; its very 
name was glamorous. And as the stories |>oured forth from his wonderfully 
fertile mind, making real not only the Klondike but also the turbulent 
Pacific, and the Road with its hobo jungles, millions of men felt uneasy 
stirrings within them; Jack London had lived and written their dream life, 
their escape from the realities of humdrum existence* 

And so it was with bosoms almost literally bursting with pride that we 
young Socialists of that day laid claim to jack London as one of our very 
own. There have been few thrills to compare with that moment in Janu- 
ary I9&6, when Jack London, newly elected President of the newly organized 
Intercollegiate Socialist Society (now the LJD), young, strong, handsome 
nlmost unbelievably popular, stepped upon the platform of the old Grand 
Central Palace, before a vast audience of college men and women, and 

"The other day I received a letter from a man in Arizona* It began, 
'Dear Comrade; and it was signed, fc Yours for the Revolution.' I answered 
him, and I began my letter, 'Dear Comrade/ and signed it, 'Yours for the 
Revolution,' There are over 400,000 men in this country who begin their 
letters, 'Dear Comrade*." . . and so began that memorable address. And 
when he held out hi* humta and said, "Here arc our hands; they arc strong 
| M11I |,/- . .imcsi too imifli t« bear. And lie ■-■niL-il, -'Tin- ReVflfutMtfl LI 

on its way. Stop us who can!" The whole great address h to be found in. his 
"Revolution and Other Essays." 

Two years before that jack had run for Mayor of Oakland, l,al., and 
his race had attracted nationwide attention. There have been few celebrities 
who brought so much favorable publicity to the causes of Socialism. 

For Jack was the sort of virile figure whose every move was good copy. 
I til whole life was a romance and an adventure. Born on Jan. 12, 1&76, in 
San Francisco, the son of a frontiersman, hunter and trapper, he was forced 
to earn a living at the age of ten peddling newspapers on the streets of 




Oakland, At fifteen he was an oyster pirate on the ozone-laden waters of 
San Francisco Bay .At seventeen hq was a deep-sea sailor en a .sealer. At 
eighteen he w&s a hobo. At nineteen he was in the Klondike, [ailing to find 
much gold, hut finding that which was to net him more than many bags of 
the finest metal— material /or the stories that brought him much fame and 
much more money than he ever dreamed of. At twenty-six he wan author ol 
a best-selling novel of the North— "The Daughter of the Snow?" — and aftd 
that he entered: hi^h school, and then he did a year in the University oi GaU 
fornit. His first hook, "Son of the Wolf" appeared in 1900. 

But Jack has written his own life in his books. The greatest of all 
architects, Sir Christopher Wren, had carved on the facade of St, Paul'* 
Cathedral, *'If you would see my monument, look about you." And Jack 
London might have written, L< If you would learn about mp, read my book*. 11 
ffis boyhood is written in "Tale? of the Fish Patrol"; his seafaring life in 
"The Sea Wolf"; his hoboing in "The Road"; hb Klondike experiences in 
"The Call of the Wild 1 ' and countless other stories and many novels. And 
then came his adventuring in London ("People of the Aby^s"), war corre- 
sponding in Korea and Manchuria, ranching in California ("Valley of the 
Moon"), and voyaging in Hawaii, the South Sea Islands and Australia 
("The Terrible Solomons'' and many other stories and several books), and 
finally hi» cruise with Charmian London on the Snark ("Cruise of the 
Snark") . 

But, after all, Jack's principal adventures were struggles with his 
own soul, and he tells the story of his victory and defeat in his greatest novcl a 
possibly one of the greatest of all American novels, "Martin Eden. 1 " 

It would take far more space than is available for these sketches even 
to give an outline of Jack London's literary career. He was a brilliant writer, 
vivid, colorful and glamorous, lie gave us a vista of many new worlds — th©j 
soft, perfumed, palm-waving coral iilcs of the South Sea, the tossing waves 
of the Pacific, the depths of the degradation of London's alums, the awful 
iron cold of the North. He wrote the first — and to thia day the mosl iin 
portant — American book on hoboing. He was a great interpreter of the 
American scene. 

But Jack wu also a Socialist. How did it come about? That, tooj ll 
written in his hooks. He had returned from his seven months' voyage in the 
90-ton sealer you read about in "The Sea Wolf/' and had set out gaily in 
"Kcllcy'a Army,*' the western division of Corey's Army, with the rank of 
Lieutenant, although he was hut 18, It was a joyous adventure, until he 
crossed the Mississippi, nml wmi It alone. He had wing the song of individ- 
ualism with all his heart. He was young and healthy and he lusted for life. 
"Wherefore, I raited the game as I saw it played, or thought I saw it played, 
a very proper game for MEN. . , . To adventure like a man and fight like 
a man, and do a man's work (even for boy's pay) — these were things that 
reached right in and gripped hold of me." 

As for (he unfortunates— weM 3 it was just loo barl about them, but Jade 
didn't worry about them. "Without having read Carlylc or Kipling I formu- 
lated a gospel of work which put ehrira into the shade-" Then he came East, 
;ti..I ■. i -a 'II:, r ■: "Viiif i -■• n ! 1 1 m . H '' | j 1 if 1 1- iuvi if. ' I li.i.'l dropped down 
from the proletariat into what sociologists love to call the Submerged 



tenth, 1 and I was startled," He tells of his adventures afc a tramp with other 
< i.i i tip* in the pari of the country in which ") battered the drag and slammed 
hurk gates with them, or shivered with them in box cars and city parks, 
listening to their stone*. , . . And while I listened my brain began to work, 11 

Then he swore he would climb cut of The Pit if it killed him. But he 
was arrested as a vagrant, "nabbed by a fee-hunting constable, sentenced 
i>ut uf hand to thirty days* imprisonment for having no fixed abode and no 
\isible means, of support, carted down country to Buffalo, registered at the 
Brie County penitentiary^ had my head clipped and my budding mustache 
nI i.ived, was dressed in convict stripes* — and for thirty day* treated like a 
desperate criminal — all for adventuring, 

"Concerning further details deponent sayeth not, though he may hint 
lli, it some of his plethoric national patriotism leaked out of the bottom of his 
lout somewhere — at least, since that experience he finds that he cares more 
for men and women and little children than the imaginary boundary lines/* 

By this time. Jack had come jo the conclusion tha* he was Something, 
lie was a Socialist — but he did not know it, *'I had been reborn, but not 
renamed and I was running around to find out what manner of thing I was. 
1 ran back to California and opened the books I do not remember which 
onea I opened first. It is an unimportant detail, anyway. I was already It, 
whatever I* was, and by the hooks I discovered that It was, a Socialist." 

That was all — except that there followed over twenty years of match- 
!es$ services to Socialism. Jack never soft-pedaled his ideals — rather, he 
flaunted them. Read "Revolution"; read "The War of the Classes." And 
fir%t nf all, read the *"Iron Heel'* if you want a warning against a brutal- 
benevolent Capitalism of a form that we now know as Fascism — something 
utterly undreamed of in Jack's lifetime, but today a Goc ring-Hi tier night- 

The end was sad. Jack became too popular. His stories commanded 
hupe prices from Hearst. He bought a great ranch at Glen Ellen, Cal, He 
loved that ranch, and he admitted that he wild his. soul for it. turning out 
unutterable tripe to get money to enlarge the ranch, build more buildings, 
buy more acres and more animals. He was burning himself Out. He drank 
too much. He became morbid, And on Nov, 22, 1916, he died; and there 
are some people who believe it was suicide, 



KDWARD HI- 1, 1. A MY 

/"kNCE a book was written that profoundly affected American 
" that created a sensation utterly unlike that awakened by a merely 
tional novel, that created a movement and that has an enormous mlim-mr 
even today> 46 yean after It appeared. 

The movement was called "Nationalism," the book was "Lookiii] 
Backward," and the motto of the movement was, "Spread the Iktokt" 

Today there is renewed interest in "Looking Backward/' and its ul 
ented author, Edward Bellamy, for today it is realized that whatever p« 
gress has been made to mitigate the evils of capitalism has been along il«- 
lines of Socialism; and "Looking Backward, 1,1 appearing as it did in 188a 
was the first important Socialist work that is wholly and complete!] 

The present generation of Socialists should know something about lk*| 
lamy> because in a very real sense he and his work helped create the Amn 
iean Socialist movement; for "Nationalism 1 * was an indigenous American 
Socialism absolutely native. 

Edward Bellamy was horn in ChicopL-r Falls, Mass., in Iflfrij,. the son i 
a'Haptist minister and the scion of a lon^ line of New England clergymen 
He was intended for the law, and he was sent to Union College in SchcniM 
tady; but lie was interested only in writing, and he did not take his decree. 
A year in Germany t a trip to Hawaii via Panama (this was forty yeaii 
before the Canal), and a return across the American continent, gave him n 
rich background; and he was ready for work. 

His main work was on the Springfield Union, hut he ,i1*j wrote light 
magazine stories and popular novels, some of them rather successful I 9 
had a strong mystical strain, and no less a critic than William Dean Howell 
wrote, "The mantle of Hawthorne has fallen upon Mr, Bellamy." 

There followed a quiet, studious and rather fruitful literary life, mod 
crate success and considerable recognition in his time. He was retiring, 
hated the spotlight, and did not care for acclaim. And he was slightly dazed 
at the enthusiasm evoked hy the appearance of "Looking Backward," 

"Looking Backward" is one of three or four of the greatest Utof* i.n. 
novels of Socialism, a fanciful picture of a future Socialist society, It is the 
story of a Boston ian who went to sleep in 1887 and awoke in the year 2O0fl, 
to Unci himself in the Cooperative Commonwealth. I li- is the guest of a 
Dr, Lcctc, m whose company he learns to adjust himself to the world nhom 
him, and in conversations with whom he (and the reader) learns how and 
why the Big Change came about. 

The book is intensely interesting, it is simplicity itself, and hy its very 


topudtv it wins read- to a Feeling of the f^^^ffi^! 
Nociety and the sanity of collectivism. Curiously enough in the book ^ wm 
! TS SSS i a description of a device that bnngs music mto the 

home simply by the turning of a knob! million 

The book caueht the attention of the nation. It sold nan a mtii on 
, ■» J at rac and was translated into all languages. Bellamy was mviftd 
?^7»pA»I he was asked to write ^artic^s and feature stones, 
hut he was too shy to permit himself to be publicized. 

He did however aid m the establishment of Nationalist dub. and m 
,hr ZSgTSvhi Nation, a weekly And he U« <*** 
' Lookin* Backward" was not enough. He bad laid out At l^***™ 
Of the Socialist state, but the success of hn book was K great he f el t he 
had to he more explicit, HnOB, years of intense study of ™ l «. J 
■hen his final book, "Equality.^ The ^wt^to^*?^ Sft 
in* Backward," conversations between Julian West and Dr, Lcete but it 
o crcr tt i virtually a closely reasoned treatise on economics. But one 
"f itXpters is the famous "Parable of the Water Tank^-which, by the 

^^^X^^-^^ his health, he was attacked 
by tiu ost, and SB Sal to Denver in 1897; on the way West he ** 
g eeted with the wannest affection by men and women who corded h*n 
a prophet of a new social order-as he was. In April, he went home to d. 
arK May 22. 1KB, he passed away; a quiet, peaceful and useful life 

" Meanwhile thing* were itirring b the world and more and ^ ™* 
people read "Looking Backward" and "Equality: 1 Bellamy dubs are tang 
founded ITverywhere, Dead these SS years, Bellamy is mom ahve today than 
die author of day before yesterda/s best seller. ■ 

Tn the last days of the recent presidential camper, Socialist head- 
carters received a tetter from Mrs. Emma G. Bellamy, widow of the 
Jnthon with a contribution of the campai K n fund and a letter saying Thrmk 
Cod the world, as Mr. Bellamy predicted ,t, is well on the way, I have faith 
that my six R randrhildren will live in a different order nf society than that 
in which they now exist. After 'I^kin R Backward' first appeared Mr. 
Bellamy was regarded as a visionary and his schemes impracticable. If the 
people who said ihcse thmss could only realise bow terribly m earnest he 
Las and how sure he felt that his so-called dreams would come true, 1 he 
Cause * as he always referred to it would have been advanced much sooner. 




TN the British Socialism of today— the greatest and moat powerful Socialist 
movement m the world—there arc three dementi, three streams, each 
undated with the life and work of a great man. Henry M. Hyndman 
bright sdenofu: Marxism to Great Britain; Kclr Hardie brought the labor 
.novnnrnt into pnJiiu<E and Socialist politics to the labor movement: 1...I 3 
was William Moms who gave British Socialism its soul. 

In the early pioneering days of mirctonary seal, the days of 1. BrucJ 
GfsWftr and of other great propagandist*!, the propaganda of Socialum was 
UKe a hoy crusadi-. Snn^Hsi itiissmttai ir-s would strap a pack upon their 
hacks and wander from village to village, there to preach Kndalism; and it 
is their wnrfc that laid the foundation for the Socialism <l,at permeates cv. 1 
corner of England. And the Socialism they uu»hr w:i* a s<* ii|| Bm the plain 
l*'<ipjv »f l-^Lind could understand, the Socialism of William Mnrrk 

Wherefore I say unto you," wrote Morris, "that Socialism is fellow- 
ship and fellowship i* life, and the lack of fellowship is death-" One ran 
catch ia whiff of the flavor of old England, the England of John fail, of 
Wat Tyler and of die Chartists in that propaganda. And though he is dead 
wefl-iugh forty years William Morris still lives in the countless Socialist 
dubs m ritv and town and village; the spirit of William Morris breathes 
the Worked mCn toiUworn wom *° * m K ha thundering "March of 

Tis the people ftiarMng OR.'" 

When Morris joined the Socialist movement he gave himself wh c 
to it* work; no task was too small for hiro, nothing too humble for him w 
do. He personally assumed the deficit of Justice, Hynd man's Socialist 
weekly: he wen< to street cornets rind into the parka like- the ot»Clircat soai 

boxer: he ton* I r fW of Justice and |*ddlcd diem on the strccis He too* 

an active part in organisation work. He lectured to audiences, larj 

'"'■''j- *Wv. ;'.""■ »MiM find them llr W m tf . ,,,|, ..i;,] *,.;,>;., propa- 
ganda, one of )m hoofcs, "Socialism; Its Growth am! Oiili onie/' written in 
collaboration with E. ftelfort hax, Iwirijr a Socialist classic, 

Thaw Is a picture in my mind of the great demonstration in Trafaksi 
Square February 8th, 1806. Many who wen there have ^ld me the story 
I fflnsr the pieture in my mind's rye as though T had been there myself : 

A aoctollsi ; column marched on the Square, where a meeting U Pro- 
irrtsnn«ts was being held. The police, fearing trouble if two meeting dis- 
piilecl 1rie Square, sought lo divert the maithen to Hyde Park Unon 
wWch John Hums of Battenea seized the red % and in a voice ol thunder 
called upon the marchers to follow him: and in the front rank marchel 

I fyndman, II. II. Champion, jack William* and Morris, It was an un- 
forgettable picture to those who were there; Morris clad in. his inevitable 
■n lilur shirt singing the Maisrill&isc his smliU- head thrown back 131 de- 
line looking lor all the world like one of the Viking rovers about whom 
In- had written his moat stirring verses. It was as if he were tingling with 
' ■■ joy of Ixiulcj more than half hoping that the conflict would come then 
rind there. (And in the ranks there likewise inarched a half-starved Scols- 
man of 19, a lad from Lossie-mouth named J, Rainsay Mael>onald.) 

This was the period of Morris* great Socialist poetry. "The Day la 
t lomimf's "All for the Cause" ; "No Master 1 ' : "The March of the Workers* 1 ; 
'The Voice ui Toil"* they Mir the Mood and cause the heart to beat faster. 
hi (In- raily Ws there was a Socialist Huh on Reiner Street, and Morris 
used to come there often. There wan a child, son of Socialist parents, who 
n-trdls (he jolly Ku^lish muntroancc of Morris as he romped with the 
children, and led them ringing his rousing "Down Among the Dead men": 

G$mej Comrades, come your glasses dink, 
Up with your hands a h faith to drink. 

And ending: 

There's liquor left, now kfs be hind, 
And drink to the rich a better mind. 
That when we knock upon the door 
They wilt be off and wry tto more. 
And he who will this health deny, 
Down among the dead turn In him 


It was rare good fun, and I still feci the lift and the jollity of it when I 
hear the song played (and slop; it myself, to th* dismay of hearers)* 

There was a greu! p'rind cnI" fralrrnily for a while; but in I KH-1 llinc 
eame a break. Morris led Hax, Andreas Sfheu and Kleanor Mars daugh- 
ter of the founder of our movement — and her husband, Dr. Edward Avcling, 
out of the party and organized a Serialise League. Maybe it was a personal 
quarrel between Morris and Hyndrnau; Ilyndinan w.r. ■ 1 1 > 1 1 If trial and dom- 
ineering and he quarreled widi everybody, including Mara. Maybe it was a 
quarrel over methods. Ilyridman says it was because of M lhe malignant 
lying of a despicable married woman, whom none of us knew well, on a 
purely domestic question." That*s all past It doesn't matter now, though 
passions boiled then. 

For years there was bitterness, although from time to time there was a 
sort of united front on an issue like an unemployment demonstration. Morris 

1 led and edited Commonweal, and his two Socialist romances appeared 

there, Illustrated by the great Socialist artist, Waller Crane. 

But (he anarchists, eccentrics and plain grafters were making a good 
tiling of Morris. They gained the upper hand in the League, they ousted 
Morris as editor of Commonweal {although allowing hi in lo pay the bills), 
and they made it impossible for him to continue tn the organization.. 

Seven years alVr tin- break Morris was supporting Kyndman'fl candi- 





Jo^aSSE?" a -" d ^ k X*V Qlo * An S h* *• quamli 'J have J 
to 5B y that Jic was quite right and I was quite wrong." 

Mmm oipaued the Ham t ,,„;:i, n,,-,,^, ', j ,i, lh ,„ ..„., ,, J 

place at kelmsw,, where he did hh notable pitatiaT S \S2taJj 
3S*^ u?^ 53f Wa " er CraM ' «* w " * beautiful Z, a d ,i ' 

ciat on. There he lectured and there he sought to brintr about Sorhlift ,,*h« 
-11^ conference, ( all SodUi* bodie* under hi S KSSSl 
were h,s guest* and who signed hi* plea for unity wa S G. liemard 1 
A word should be said fo. hi, two Socialist novels: "A SI Wli , 

w £ '" * aked , u P m lhu Cooperative Commonwealth « the 

best; .t seen, to nie to have the dignity and kiutv that Socialism rnean, to 
me in » greater de«ee than "Inking Backward" or c S, ffl £ 
Hcwells' "Traveler from A truria/' "A Dream of !„],„ ;' 

tSdfi^ was mastcr ' ridl and fl ™ ua and ™b«**v2K 

r, m HiS S?',^! told °, n t" inl - hi * ru SB=d WMtitutioM b ega n to fail On 
January 3rd, 1896, he made his last speech for tlie Social Dm orra IV 
eration; then he became ill and he toot a lon K voyage to N™ TTW, fl 
been a jolly good world to me when all i S ,airild don? L "id 3 
don't wjsh to leave it yet awhile." ' J 

th.tE'SrfZr He died (>«,„!,,, ;„,,. 1(t% , jtls1 at „„, in 
that Kur Hardies propaganda was hymning to take root, and the tnhsion 
ane, began to carry the message to every par. of the island. 

Millions wrote Hyndman, "will think of Morn* as the poet and artist 
vafcty .peaking li} lh , ltIwt „ lcD , ,. dow^Cs r nd ' 

torturing and writing day after day and ytar after year for e , k If ^ 
■deal of which he could scarcely hope himself to see the realization' ' 

We who once Win joois and dreamers 
'Then thall be Ike brave and wise. 

Lis iffinZ E2?tft!E ^ his i* f ' ir !* m '' i,,dwtl ' he ''^terted 
ft. f„ -a y fi y " s intts ? M f wtivitie*, And there i< a deep ,.,.„■,. 

Nothing mdmls tkar story, «'«, fc U ( F ,, (T ^ , A ' y^,' ore - 

QNE rannot hut ilu„k of sprin^im, and May Day when one thinki f 
, Wilham Mori, S O ;mil()[ Mp MtA o( ■ s ° 

dor, about the Maypole, of men and women emancipated from urines, 

i'ur VViUiuiu Mutiji — poet, mtiit uuii Socialiit early in his yiu-aL liic 
dedared war upom ojie thing and one alouu, antl lit gave his lilc to tliat 
war; lie b;uid ugiinen witli all his Iil-ell'L. And he waged that war in his 
art, his pcclry and in his Socialiuii. 

To William Morris thu hesutting crime oi C^piialisiu was its ugliness 
and ihc Socialism that he dreamed of and to which he gave his whole souJ 
wai tliii reign of beauty, lie admitted thai he never could apply himself 
sufficiently to understand Marx. "I mu^t confess that, whereas I thoroughly 
enjoyed the historica] part of *Capital p I suffered agonies of confusion of 
hrain over reading the ]>urc economies of that great work." But he did 
understand the ugliness of irtdusirialUm ,and he revolted against it. 

William Morris wax one of the greatest mm ever to serve the cause of 
Sot If he had never joined the movement he would be remembered 
for many notable and noble achievements, frut when he joinrd thc move- 
ment at the age of 49 he dropped everything to give himself completely to It, 
"Ft>f tlit- getafl days bring the best" 

William Morns waa an incarnation of the beauty and dignity of old 
England; not the feudal England of brutal and savage oppression, hut the 
England of legend and tradition, the England that came to its fullest dower 
in the works of Chaucer and of Shakespeare, Even as a yourtR child Uvtofl 
with hi,* wealthy parents in Eppin^ WhhhI, he had fashioned fur hinnelf a 
toy suit of tin armor, the better to capture the spirit rtf die brave days of 
chivalry, Before he acquired his social vision he had w* completely Immersed 

himself in raedlacvalism that he was .to very spirit inearnale, Iti flavor 
never left him. His. writings have (hat quainlncjis t»f phrase dial i aim from 
another ape. 

William Monk was born March 24, la^4, in Werthanutow, Ewex, A 
wonder-child, he read avidly at the age of 3; he played at being ■ knlflhl i il 
ihe ape of chivalry before nc was fi; he wrote versca before Ik- was lu, Ai 
Oxford he associated himself with kindred spirits hi thc pre-Raphaclite 
moveinent tluit numbered geniusea like Burnc-Jones, and ihe various Kr»i 
settls among them. 

He wrote poetry and he painted, M\<\ a dignified ean fc r fc r mtu^'hI 1n 
slreteh Iwfcsrc liiin. In "Tlic Earthly Paradise'* he referred to himself as 
"All idle singer of an empty day," lait he was far from idle, although his 
main Interests were literary and esthetir. iJe was a gifted architect, ami a? 
a painter he was genuinely talented. He was steeped m the old Icelandic 

:.; and he had a collection of original Icelandic rnaiiuarriptH nf rnoi-mnu.H 

value. His long poems were translations and his own versions of the Sagas 
and of thc NubetwtRtnlwdi translations of thc Homeric epics and of Vergil. 
It WIS all good, luaty English verse and ranks high as poetry, 

l?ut early in his career Morris emit thc empty Idling lie decried, and 
did something that astonished and shocked his contetnisorarica; he entered 

(riide! Delernnnecl (o end the ii-!iin->; n\ the 1 1 1- ■> !■ 1 1 1 h<.hr fir- established 
a firm that specialized in the manufacture of wall paper tmd furniture, 
The results of his work are manifest to this day, He devised the Morris 
chair; he was the pioneer of heavy furniture, straight lines and comfortable 
seats, solid work and fine rraftmanship. He waa father of the Arts and 



£? diZT'^ and hC St * ftCd ** ™' oh ■**■■ "gly wall paper Beaut! 

tractiw Wracs because William Morris so willed it * 

m an U Sr V Th^h° ne0f •***'««*' authwitie, in the world on ancient 

enjoys its muta to this day p p ' the whole waM 

side, and from that time his pen was dedicated to orfe eausT ^ 


GEORGE BERNARD SHAW is 75 years old today, and it is significant 
of the man that he should be spending his birthday chasing around 
Soviet Russia, trying to find out what it's all about. 

If there is one thing about Bernard Shaw that characterizes him above 
all other men it is hts eternal energy, his mental alertness, his curiosity, his 
eagerness to find out everything. , 

Shaw is classified as a leading British playwright; he denies the British 
appellation, itisistin R that he is Irish; and it is possible that histories of litera- 
ture will pay leas attention to the plays he has written than to the prefaces in 
which he explained what he meant by them. 

Shaw Is a man of infinite wit, a humorist who ranks with Mark Twain, 
Swift and Cervantes; but like Cervantes, Swift and Mark Twain Inn wit is 
merely a cloak to cover his deep earnestness. 

It U not true that he is a clown like Patfiaero, laughing to hiM ■ 
breaking heart. It is true that he is a man of profound icnouMMM who 
insists that hr wants 10 be known, if at rill, for «hui™ i ;•■■ hr I.:.-. 

Tor the world, not for the laughter he brine* it . 

Once he said that he would gladly ride through London seal -i bad 
wards on the back of an asa, clothed in motley and hells ;ind h™i i»" '"■"" 
if hv so doine he could renter favorable attention upon the lltnw he il 
interested in And it is the opinion of his most thoughtful mum thai nil 
laughter, his jocularity and his wit are merely the clown s motley to attract 
attention to his reflections on social and economic problems. 

A man who constantly talks about himself, he is almost bashfuly 
modest in reality. His self-praise is merely a pose a "line to put people 
into an amused and friendly state of mind toward him. 

At a banquet many years a R o William Dean Howells said that there has 
been progress in three hundred years. "Shaw," he said, "writes plays twice 
as W ^ those of Shakespeare and 1 write sonnets twice as Ion* ihere- 
uoon reading a poem of twenty-eight lines, in sonnet form. Shaw was 
hugely tickled, buTlhat, too, was merely part of the ' W' He was i amnd 
timn offered a peerage by his close friend Premier MacDonatd, his old- 
time Socialist comrade, but seeing no party advantage in such a step, he 
declined He constantly talks about himself, but he is inherently scll- 
cfFacinjr. And this U just another of the Shavian paradoxes. 

A man's seventy-fifth birthday is no time to review his life and career; 
such a review should be reserved for the to-be-hoped very remote occasion 
of his death. Now in the Ml bloom of his physical and mental health, with 
his fame undintmed and with a whole world hanging on everything he 




^rJffi?* iS "° *" ,0 ™7« * <*™* ™1 seek an eval- 
Sy^furS^" 3 mus, ^ m V nd nnwIK hoping to earn enough 

imrcmng at the head of demonstrations of the uhemnlovcd > Wrhh ™,a 
*ritij me " b " nff aS tho "fe' htf «I ■■ hi» political and eCon ^a 

bruised and crushed by the W «H V^,, if V " ? "l '' ? m " lve soul 

m „S U ; -r ok ,o "^ iuui > «" 1 ' ■* ■' - »p »^i 



Man" laughs at Balkan diplomacy, military romanticism, glory, and war— 
yon probably know it as "The Chocolate Soldier," "Caesar and Cleopatra tJ 
"The Man of Destiny/ 5 'St, Joan," 'The Devil's Disciple/* are some of his 
historical plays. He examined the whole question of human life in "Back 
to Mcthusaleh/' 

But those enterprises did not prevent his activity in public life, his 
authorship of long and serious works on economics, his enjoyment of every 
moment he b permitted to live, 

Long life to Beamard Shaw; health and happiness and mental vigor 
to one of the greatest of souls. 


T^HE summer is over as far as the theatre is concerned, and the new 

-*- theatrical season b bring launched this week. With high hopes for the 

future those who care about such things are watching with the deepest 

interest to sec whether or not there is any future for the speaking stage. 

Four or five years ago there was a general feeling that the American 
stage had reached a new high peak of greatness. Within the past year or 
so there has been a general feeling that the stage is slipping and the more 
pessimistic have felt that, as a popular form of art 3 it is doomed to early 

Those who have the interests of the Stage at heart sincerely hope that 
the season opening this week will give ample proof that the stage Is rooted 
deeply in the hearts of the people. Pessimists an? afraid that the season will 
prove that it is not. 

The stage, of course, will not completely disappear, but those who fear 
for the wont are afraid that it will dwindle in popular appeal until it takes 
its place beside the opera as a hot-house plant, maintained only at a deficit 
and attended by many people for reasons not at all connected with its 
literary and emotional appeal 

We, however, are emphatically of a contrary opinion. We believe with 
all the emphasis at our command that the stage has a function to fulfill; 
that it has an appeal to masses of people, and that masses of people will 
continue to attend the theatre and maintain It as one of the vital forces 
in life. We also believe that the stage is in process of modification in every 
way, and thai it must recognize forces of modification in order to maintain 
its health. 

The stage is suffering today from two causes; the industrial depression, 
which will pass, and the talking pictures, which will remain. 

The movies raised up a generation of actors and actresses who were 
Rood to loot at and who did whatever they were told to by the man behind 
the megaphone. Movies with actors of that type could not compete with 
the stage in appeal to the traditional audience of the theatre, The silkies 
require play era who can talk and ain^ and as soon a* they became prac- 
ticable the Stage was promptly depopulated as actors dashed to the studios 
where they were able to earn salaries unheard of in the whole history of the 
stage, and under conditions that seemed paradisical after years of trouping 
on the road. 

People who had no interest in the pretty-pretty girls and boys of the 
non-speaking screen are deeply interested in [he genuinely good actors and 
actresses whose voices they can hear from the screen. 




A vitally important fact, of course, is the universality of the screen and 
its consequent effect upon the literature written for it. Whether wisely or 
not, whether for better or for worse, it is a fact that stories and plays pre- 
sented on the screen have been stepped down to a rather low level. 

And that is a point at which lovers of the stage as such can take heart, 
for in our opinion it is at that point that the stage completely justifies itself 
for survival. 

The stage should not try to compete with the night clubs, the movies, 
the talkies, the schools and universities, the museums or any oher form or 
entertainment or instruction. There have been times when the line between 
the stage and other forms has been rather shadowy., but with the development 
of the talking film each form of art must find its own field. 

There are definite financial farts that must be considered— the fact 
that one picture may appeal to tens of millions of people In a single week, 
while a play that appeals to 10,000 people in a week is doing well, and the 
receipts follow accordingly. But it is the province of those who have the 
various forms of art in charge to worry about the finances; the general 
public has nothing to do but to support what it cares for. 

The movies, and then the talkies, .settled for good and all the fact that 
rules mean nothing. Shakespeare found a stage hobbled by rules and 
arbitrary '"unities," and his greatness lies partly in the fact that he ignored 
them in writkg his plays. But he observed other rules that were carried 
down for nearly three centuries until almost the other day. 

There was a time when a play had to have five acts [later modified to 
four), when there was a definite pattern leading up to a climax and then 
leading down again; when if the play was a tragedy the hero had to die, 
while if it were a comedy or plain drama the hero had to triumph and to 
discomfit his foes, The play had to conform to a definite pattern regard- 
less of interest, regardless of probability, regardless of what might be tailed 
the poetry of the play. Hamlet had to slay his uncle and die, or else "Ham- 
let* was not a "tragedy of blood/' the pattern that Shakespeare was follow- 
ing [But it happens that "Hamlet" is great in spite of the quite ridiculous 
scene in which the JdMmgs take place.) 

The movies emancipated the dramatist from the tyranny of rules re- 
quiring unities of time, place and action, And that emancipation gave 
the writers for the spoken stage a hint that the greatest of the modern 
dramatists quickly took— that form does not matter, rules do not matter— 
that nothing matters except putting over the story, the picture, the inood, 
the characterization, the message, or whatever it is the dramatist has in 
mind. Shaw's lengthy "Hack to Mcthusaleh/' O'Neill^ employment of 
rnannikins in "The Hairy Ape" his long one-act 'The Emperor Jones" 
and his nine acts and curious "asides 1 ' in "Strange Interlude 1 ' illustrates 
what we mean, 

TJif* si recti can tell one kind of a story, unhampered by many old rules, 
but hobbled by others For one thing a screen play cannot run much over 
an hour and a half. For another, the universality of its audience requires 
that moral, religious, racial, national and cultural Ideals and prejudices 
should not bo offended. 

The spoken drama is hampered by the physical limitations of the stage 



itself, but it can do what it pleases with time and prejudices, and wherej 
a screen play fears to offend religious susceptibilities of huge masses 
spoken play, destined only for those who care to see It, can say what ii 
author pleases, and those who do not like it can stay away. 

There arc difficulties and obstacles, but there is also a definite plact 
lor the stage When the men who have the srage in charge begin to Jose 
their panic hysteria over the screen and cease trying to compete with it 
they will be ready to go to work. 

The stage cannot die. It may change its form— as plays arc able to 
win greater freedom, as mechanical inventions give them broader possibil- 
ities than in the days of gaslight. It may discard dearly held rules It may 
lose a section of its following, as those people who want merely a way of 
pleasantly killing a few hours floe* to the movies. But it contains some- 
thing that no other form of art can give and it will live and thrive 


A CORRESPONDENT writes in mild and friendly criticism, asking why 
-*"*■ so many of these pastoral letters have dealt with countries other than 
America, "Your own government/' he remonstrates, "needs your brain 
work, not foreign countries. Talk on our government for the betterment of 
humanity/' he concludes, 

With due appreciation of our friend's confidence that our brain work 
can be of some benefit to any country at all, we beg to insist that we have no 
apologies for writing so much about other countries. We feel that it docs 
Americans great good to read and think about the people of other countries 
and what they do^ just as information about America is necessary to people 
of Other countries- 

Of course* it is true, what with widespread popularity of American 
movies, American habits and customs are becoming nearly universal, For 
example, the American ideal of young womanhood, the slim, energetic 
young thing with bobbed hair, with freedom of thought and action un- 
dreamed of in other years, with gorgeous clothes that reveal every line of 
the wearer is rapidly becoming the standard for all countries, 


Maybe it's good, possibly it is not so desirable a thing that the women 
of all the world are tending to conform to a standard fixed by the climate 
and the freedom of Southern California. But it is a fact worth noting, 

With our screen beauties popular in every continent, Chinese maidens 
of Shanghai boh their hair, daughters of cloistered women of Seville walk 
boldly on the streets and face the world, German fraiilcins smoke cigarettes 
and French damsels cross their knees, showing whatever there is to hi' shown. 
Even the Turkish women discard their veils and look their men in the face. 

And yet each country maintains its Own customs, despite the universal 
appeal of Hollywood movies and the universal spread of knowledge of what 
may or may not be authentic American customs, modes of life and habili- 

For example, it is asserted by those who say they know what they are 
talking about that Spanish people still hold to their ancient custom of gLving 
a stranger anything the stranger admires, Wc have seen it many a time — on 
the stage. An American meets a Spaniard or Mexican and admires his 
scarf* It is forthwith given him. Then he admires his ring, his watch, a 
picture on «he w^l]. They are given him. Then the American admires either 
the mans wife or his embroidered prints* — depending upan the type of 
theatre we happen to be in at the moment — and the curtain falls or the 
lights go out in a "blackout " amidst much merriment. 

Wc know that is true, we repeat, because we have often seen it on the 
stage. But we have never seen it among any of the Latin peoples we happen 
to have met, but that may be because we do not properly impress those we 




n«t. We are still hoping to meet a Spaniard with a glistening Hispano- 

Then there are the French, For example, the other ereniiig wc attend*, 
an affair at which there svare many of that nationality. There was a lovely 
white-haired lady in the nest scat, and during the intermission a French' 
man came artd chatted in French, the gist of the conversation being a dis- 
cussion whether a concert the following day wa* to be at three pr tlircc- 
fifteen, and whether it was to be at Carnegie Hall or somewhere else. What 
impressed us however, was the fact that the Frenchman ware a monocle 
screwed mto h* right eye, and when he left he lifted the lady's hand and 
touched it with his Up,. It was not a tender gesture, such as is described in 
AatcL^csong, "I Kiss Your Hand, Madame." It svas as perfunctory as 
nandihakc between two men, but there it was. 

And so we come to the English. Our cousins over the water and in the 
colons a 7 co « f d ftWa. But they have some surprising adventures of 
the hear for all their fng.dtty. Every coldblooded Britisher appears to be 
doing rotten things and calling himself a rotter in the most correct manner 
Otherw^, he would be told, "it isn't done," 

Americans should make an annual pilgrimage to Quebec, for example, 
o see the English in their own environment, In one hotel not far from 
hat city one can always find a lobby-full of applochccked Colonels and 

SSd^JS ' and one can **" what is ^ on behmd 

For example, an elderly colonel who marched with Roberts in Afghan- 
istin or fought with Kitchener in the Soudan, finds himself in Murray Hay 
with a beautiful you rig wife who tries to Play the Game, but who finds it 

SW V l '^ hUSba , r,tt ' S dUli ™ and tQU " ° f tor**™ ™* Ws gou 
and the lonely lef tenants cluttering up the scene. 

On a moonlit summer night the young wife finds herself on a era™ 

3tT ■ W" J"?' ?■. LaWIC ' TKC > With thc Blittering yonng K 

talk, of the hills of Surrey and the moors of Scotland, The wife sighs, and 
the young man takes her hand and presses it to hi, heart 

savs softlv *"Z m n ' S 8 -"^ 7'**"™ ! j *»*. ^ »«» 1* cy es and 
says softly But, Derek, JS lt " a ] ong and OTeanin(tri] | } >^. k . Vct7 „ 

And right there is where she scores. Can you imparl American rirl 

2* ,?£ &. IS'S^K^!!!" "r a Spanis^senora SKC 


Hernando, is it-jaW That ™„ . W^B^TWS 
«rl says « just that way, the man mumbles something, s ,ands „j bow" S 
begs her parti™ for being a swine, and goes back ,„ his room. tHI 
" "™* s ^'; and W. Someret Maughan h« a plot for another Zy 

Oh, yds, indeed, one should Jcnow all about other psrmk ] t rf™ UB 
— hmg to laugh about, and KM dnesi knows, after fl£ Am^n^ 



ELIMINATE economic insecurity, Socialists say, and most of thc ilb that 
bedevil millions of people will fall away. Life depends upon, economic 
security, as does liberty. And one cannot pursue tbe phantom of happiness 
if one is constantly worried about making ends meet. 

Another saJient point in the Socialist credo is the claim that whoever 
controls the economic life of a community controls that community. A 
vested interest tends to become a political interest. Capital that tends to 
become monopolistic or a man controlling the main industry of a com- 
munity tends in time to control the lives of human beings living under its 
influence. Unrestricted control of vast sums of money gives its possessor 
mom than the benefits he can buy with it; it givtes him an influence over 
government, art, education, literature, and the way of life of millions. 

When industry is run for the profit of the men who control it the main 
objective ii to make profits, and human welfare must depend either upon 
the heartbreaking struggle of employees against their employers, upon legis- 
lation compelling employers to consider human welfare, or upon the wholly 
accidental benevolence of employers. 

Th& Socialists, then, offeT as their alternative to the present system, 
described by President Hoover as ruj^ed American individualism, a system 
in which there will be the greatest measure of social responsibility, and in 
which industry will be carried on for use rather than for profit. 


Thc final Socialist aim, then, is the conversion of thc system they call 
capitalism into Socialism by coverting the socially necessary means of pro- 
duction ^distribution and exchange from private ownership to collective 
ownership. Under Socialism, the Socialists say, industries of a national scale 
will be run by the nation through its representatives, while local industries 
will be ran by local communities. Details of the acquisition of the industries, 
whether by purchase, condemnation or by thc establishment of rival indus- 
tries; details of management and control, Socialists say, will be met as 
occasion arisen, t 

With industries in the hands of the community, it is claimed, the way 
will be open fW production for use rather than for profit, and all human 
energies will be released for the benefit of humankind, Under such a system, 
Socialists say, labor-saving devices will so multiply the product^ that the 
world can be clothed, housed and fed, and educate, amuat and inspire its 



I l-l I'.: UV.VIKW 'J M I- KtlKNF. 

members with far less effort than the majority of workers arc required to 
expend today. 

That is the ideal and Socialists will explain to the! rown satisfaction 
how such a system will liberate the soul of man, how it will enable man ot 
conquer poverty, disease, superstition and ignorance, how It will lead to 
the end of war, how it will not level down but level up. 

As a means of actual administration, no formula has surpassed one 
proposed by Bernard Shaw. He suggests in one of his books that every 
child upon birth be guaranteed an income for life on which he or she can 
live properly and eomportably in accord with the world's wealth. Then^ 
said Shaw, it will be the business of society to collect from each one services 
in return for that living. All other details are minor administrative points 
for the future, 


Socialist!; however, do not enter elections with the substitution of capi- 
talism by Socialism as their sole platform plank. 

Society, they maintain, is divided generally into two classy those who 
own and those who work. Often the owners work, and the workers own,, 
but in general the one class lives by owning,, while the other and far more 
numerous class lives by working on jobs for which they are dependent upon 
the owners. 

Those who must depend upon others for an opportunity to work arc 
likewise at the mercy of their employers for living and working conditions* 
wages, hours, etc. The owners, by the power of their ownership, dictate 
conditions of life and public policies. 

The workers, then, must be organized in unions and in a political part)' 
to force upon society the ideal of social responsibility, Progress must be 
away from unrestricted laisscz falre. 

First s conditions of labor must be constantly improved by action of 
labor unions and by legislation. Second, there must be greater and greater 
social responsibility^ alone; such lines as public education, employers- 1 liabil- 
ity, municipal ownership > public development of water power, etc. Finally, 
the workers must gain greater and greater political power so that as time 
goes on society will tend to benefit the workers rather than those who 
merely own. The ultimate ideal is a classless world all of whose citizens do 
useful work, the benefit?; of the labor of all accruing to allj liberating every 
individual for a full and free life. 

In immediate politics, Socialists advocate greater extension O fpublit" 
works, protection of workers in industry, the limitation of the use of injunc- 
tions and other political, social and industrial steps along the lines of their 
general philosophy, as issues arise from time to time. 

In politics, Socialists generally act independently of other parties on the 
ground they consider it of more importance to build up a body of voters 
with the general objective of their program than to unite with others who 
may not believe in that objective at alb They maintain that with a large 
and growing vote they can indirectly influence legislation in their general 
direction; otherwise their votes are absorbed in the votes cast for other 


parties. How, they say, can anyone tell the strength they muster if they do 

not muster ti? t . 

Socialists maintain that honesty and decency m politics and absolute 
democracy are necessary, both as worth-while ideals on their own account 
and because it is necessary to demonstrate that the masses can actually 
achieve something by going into politics en a program of thoroughgoing 

° Finally, many people who are not necessarily interested in the thorough- 
Eoms program of Socialism support die Socialist* politically because they 
believe in the principle of social responsibility, because they approve of 
many of the reforms the Socialists advocate, and because they say it is not 
necessary to go the whole way even if they embark to go part of the way. 





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