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Engineering Edition. 

Index to VoL XV. 
September, 1908, to August, 1909. 


The Industrial Press. 




Index to Vol. XV. 

Alihott, Paul W. 

AiitouiullL- I.atlx' Stop mill 

'IVU-tttlc 00 

.Vbbi-i'vlutloiis for Bolts, 

N\ils, t'lc iOll 

<_Jriiidfr Kliiks -04 

l.utlu' Kinks 4o- 

Ki'niiiviii),- ltii!ihlng» from 
Tmi-.-ts 047 

Abbifvlutliins fur Ucilts, Nuts, 
itc. I'aul W. Abbott 2iy.> 

Abuse of I'aliTit Klglils. An. l!il 

Afclilent, Urvlllf WrlKlifs 
Aeroplaiu- 1 '.►- 

Airliliiils In tile Kouiiilry, 
I'rovt'utioii of -'iti 

Amounting S.vstum. Tliu 
Value of ail Klltcient .... UNO 

Aeeurate Serew from an In- 
aoeuratc Leail-Sciew, ful- 
ling an. Itaciiuet oTo 

Aeeorate V Itloeks. I'lan- 
ing :iS- 

.Viknowli'ilf-'iuiiil of .\ilvertls- 
Ing Mailer. Tlic 203 

Aeiue Hrlll Co. : 

lligll-.Speeil Twist Drill.. 157 

Acme Maeliiuery Co. : 

A Hot I'ressed Nut Ma- 
chine .'Wl 

Xvme Mfg. Co. : 

Gas-Englne Air Com- 
pressor 551 

Adamite Surface Machine 
Grinding and Polishing 
Machines 1)88 

.Addition and Subtraction of 
Kractlons, Slide ttulc for. 
\Vm. C. Michael 380 

.\djustable Collet Co. : 

Solid Adjustable Thread- 
ing Hie for Use on Tur- 
ret Lathes "16 

Adjustable Reamer, Improved 3'J2 

Adjustable V-Block. C. E. 
Hale 631 

Adjustable Wrench. Crescent. 403 

Adjustments for Columbia 
Calipers, improved 727 

Advance of Engineering Edu- 
cation, The 32 

Advantage of Ignorance, An. 
.\lfred N. Hammond 137 

.\dvertislng Matter. The Ac- 
knowledgment of 293 

.Vdvertising, Spe<'IHc 33 

.\erlal Navigation 515 

Aerial Navigation, Belgian 
Prize for Paper on 843 

.\erial Navigation in 1908, 
Mone.v Expended on 795 

Aerial Pleasure Yacht to be 
Built, First 848 

Aeronautic Kecords 119 

Aeroplane Accident, Orvllle 
Wright's 192 

Aeroplane b y W y e k o ff , 
Church and Partridge, The 
Manufacture of the Her- 
rlng-Curtlss 988 

Aeroplane Crosses English 
Channel 991 

Aeroplane Development, Com- 
mercial Importance of... 192 

.\eroplane. Distance-breaking 
Kecord of Wright's 548 

Aeroplane, The Manufacture 
of the Wright 927 

Aeroplane-Type Flying Ma- 
chines. Harry Wilkin 
Perry 246 

Aeroplanes, First Exhibition 
of 602 

Aeroplanes, Separate Build- 
ings to be Elected for .Mr- 
ships and 526 

Agents, The Experience of 
Purchasing 444 

Air Blast on the Punch Press. 
Herbert C. Barnes 967 

Air Compression, New Idea 
In 30 

Air Compressors, Dallett. ... 478 

.Vir Compressors for Indus- 
trial Service, A Line of 
Belt-Driven 77 

Alr-Cooled Cylinders. Manu- 
facturing. F. J. Ilaynes . . .">".'l 

Air Hardening Stand, Krieger 
Tool & Mfg. Co.'s 314 

Airship of Large Dimensions, 
An 778 

Airship, Performance of 
Count Zeppelin's New .... 360 

.\lrship. The Commercial, C. 
A. McCready 957 

.Virship, Zeppelin's Last Rec- 
ord — The Ue Bausset 
Vacuum 869 

Airships, Separate Buildhigs 
to be Erected for Aero- 
planes and 526 

Ajax Mfg. Co. : 

Ajax High-Speed Stop Mo- 
tion Bulldozer 304 

.\lcohol as a Fuel for In- 
teiiial-Combustloii EngineH. 305 

.Vlcoliol Motor Cab in New 
York, First 410 

Alcohol to be Made from Nat- 
ural (las, Deiiiiliirrd DstI 

.\ I 1 Uii 1 11 g SliattliiK, The 
Kiiikead Systi'Mi of 810 

.Uliu, Walter M„ Obituary 
of 570 

.Vlkiwance for "Set" of Lo- 
coiiiotix'e Piston Kings In 
Terms of DIaineh-r " 972 

.\ll(»y, .\ .New .\tuiuinum . . . . 27 

.\lloy. Composition I'sed for 
Typewriter Keys l-lli 

.Vlloy Known as Monel 
Metal, An 052 

Alloy Steels for Motor Car 
Construction 955 

.\llov Steels, .Me<-hanlcal Con 

slnielloil Mad,' Possible lij 204 

.\lloys for B<'arlngs, Anll- 
Friction 072 

.VImoud Mfg, Co. : 

.\n Enclosed Pinion 'I'J'pe 
Drill Chuck 322 

Alleratlcm Sales. Falsity of. 500 

.\lumlnum Alloy, A New ... 27 

.\luminum. Amount of Ex- 
port 400 

.\lunilnum and Copper, Sol- 
derhig. T. lies 973 

.Mumlnuiu Castings, Cause of 
I'in-Holes In 192 

.\luminum. Decline in Price 
of 446 

.\lumlnum Paint, The Mak- 
ing of 942 

.\lum'inum Wire, Use of 
Bare 440 

American Anti-.\ccident Asso- 
ciation Meeting 571 

.\merican Blue-Print Paper 
Co. Reproduction Process 500 

American Gas Furnace Co. : 
Gas Furnace for Harden- 
ing With Barium Chlo- 
ride 77 

Heating Machine for Tem- 
pering and Coloring 
Steel Parts 233 

.V m e r 1 c a n Mechanic in 
Europe. Oskar Kylin : 


7 159 

.American Numbering Mch. 
Co. : 
Metal N umbering Ma- 
chine 408 

.\merlcan Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers, Annual 
Meeting of the 323 

American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers. Spring 
Meeting of the 714 

American Society of Mechani- 
cal Engineers, Washing- 
ton Meeting of the 776 

American Tool Works Co. : 

15-lnch Crank Shaper 155 

High-Spied Radial Drill... 2J7 
30-lnch Triple-Geared Lathe 

with Turret on Shears.. 389 
Back-(ieared Crank Shaper. 044 
Sensitive Radial Drill... 045 

American Wood-Working Ma- 
chinery Co. : 
A Motor-Driven Speed Lathe 321 

.Ynalytical Geometry. Solving 
".V Problem in Trigonome- 
try" by. William Kent. .. . 139 

.Ynderson. O. A. : 

Answer to Casting Puzzle. 546 

.\ndrew & Co., M. L. : 

Improved Spindle Arrange- 
ment for Andrew Multi- 
ple Drilling Machine. . . . 223 

.-Vngle Belt Drives. Locating. 712 

Angle of Inlet and Exhaust 
Cams, How to Find Includ- 
ed 947 

.\ngular Reamer from Chat- 
tering. To Keep an. Roy 
B. Deming 620 

Annealing Furnace. Harden- 
ing and 559 

.\nnealing Pyrometer. Leeds 
& Northrup Hardening and. .So:; 

.\nneallng Steel, New Pack- 
ing Material tor 052 

.\nswer to Casting Puzzle. . 540 

Answer to Casting Puzzle. O. 
A. Anderson 546 

.\nswer to Casting Puzzle. 
Robert Grimshaw 546 

.\nswer to Casting Puzzle. 
Wm. Pfonts 540 

Anti - Accident Association 
Meeting S'?! 

Anvils and Forges. James 
Cran 681 

Apartment Building to be 
Largest in World, Pro- 
posed 124 

.\ppllttnce8, 8ume InterestliiK 
Shop 941 

.\|iprenil4-e Educational 
Silieme, .New 824 

.Vpineiitlces. Educating 447 

ApiirentlceH In lli>' Ciiiclnnail 
.Milling MachlneCu.'M Shops, 
Instruction of 299 

.\pprenilces, Ludwig I*oew»* & 
Co.'s School for 82 

.Vppreiillceslilp Problem, The, 000 

.Vppii'iiilcislilp Svsterii, The 
.New York Cenlral Lines.. 524 

.\ppreiitlceshlp Systems, in- 
dustrial Tnilnlng Through 71.': 

.\)i|ii-oxliiiale l''racllons, tJn 
ohialniiig. .Mltc-hell Dawes. 137 

Arbor. Improved lOxpanding 
.Milling .Machine. Frank li. 
Sterling 209 

Arbor. Self Ciitcrlng 158 

.\rbors for Molding Work ■ In 
till' .Milling .Machine 521 

.\rch Bars. Bending Stresses 
In Car Truck. W. E. ,Iohn- 
ston .'>7 1 

.\rc Lamp Carbons, Cement 
for 55 

Arc Lamp Compo.sed of Car- 
bon Disks 947 

.\rden : 

Useful Salve 55 

Arid Regions In the West, 
Reclaiming 778 

A. R. M. M. and M. C. B. 
-■Associations and t.'onven- 
tlons 911 

Armature Bar Clips, Bending 
Die for 886 

Armor Plate Planing, Rapid 
Steel 293 

Armor X'lates, Thi' Casting of 083 

.\rmstrong-Blum Mfg. Co. : 
"Marvel" Draw-Cut Ilack- 

Saw r 234 

A Grinding .Yttachment . . . 321 
No. 2 "Marvel" Draw-Cut 
Hack-Saw 637 

.Armstrong Bros. Tool Co. : 

Quick-Action Drill Vise. . . 223 
Armstrong Knurling Tool. 315 

Artisan's Guild Direct-Belted 
Grinder with Self-Oiling 
Loose Pulley 482 

.Yrtlstic Blacksmlthing 350 

Ash. H. R. : 

A Thumb Screw that Won't 
Jar Loose 971 

.Yshes for Pillars In Coal 
Mines 82 

A. S. M. E. Conventions. En- 
tertainment Features of the 773 

.Ysserabling Work, .Ypplication 
of Lifting Devices to. Al- 
fred Spangenberg 459 

.\ssuan Dam on Value of 
Land. Effect of the Build 
Ing of the 300 

.Attachment for Brown & 
S h a r p e Milling Machine 
Vises, An. .T. T. George.. 209 

.Yttachment for Cuttlrtg Heli- 
cal Steel Gears 983 

Attachment for Milling Ma- 
chine. Universal 051 

Attachment for the Drawing- 
Board. W. L. Van Ness. .. . 790 

.Yttachmemt, Starrett Center 
Gage 730 

Attachments for Flexible 
Shaft Grinder. W.J.Thomp- 
son 543 

Atwood. Louis J., Obltuaryof 569 

.Yuthoritles, Blind Acceptance 
of 772 

.Yutogenous Welding 191 

.■Vutogenous Welding as a 
Means of Repairing Cylin- 
ders, Henry Cave 591 

Autogenous Welding Equip- 
ment Co. : 
.Autogenous Welding Equip- 
ment for Light Work.. 906 

Autogenous Welding Equip- 
ment for Light Work... 900 

Autogenous Welding Oxy- 
.Ycetylene Process of Metal 
Cutting and 1'20 

.Yutogenous Welding to .Auto- 
mobile Repairs. The Appli- 
cation of. Henry Cave.... 206 

Automatic Center Punch. An- 
other Use for the 704 

.Automatic DIe-Henrt. Diamond 314 

.\utomatlc Escape-Wheel Cut- 
ting Machine. Waltham... 315 

.Yutomatic Feed Shear, Bertsch 979 

.\utomatic Gear-Cutting Ma- 
chine, Lees-Bradner 980 

Automatic Indexing, Coulange 
System of 685 

Automatic Machine, Pressure 
Compensating Device for. 
Peter Zultnke »65 

.Aiilomatle Multiple . Kiihidle 
Screw Machine, PeiTleiti*. . 3U1 

.Vulomatie J'rollling Machine li:i 

.Automatic Screw Driving 
Machine, Ueynolils 'Mi 

.Automatic Screw Machine, 
Large Collet .Mad,- on.... 289 

.Aiilomutic Screw Machine. 
.Alagazlne .Yltachiiieut fur 
< 'leveland 320 

.Automatic Screw Machine 
AVork, Some IntereHllng. . . 203 

.Automatic Shaft Lubricator, 
A'an Uoren IHiO 

.Yutomatic Turret Lathe with 
.Self Selecting Feeds. Ilcr 
bert Ib3 

.Automobile, .V Spring Wheel 
for the so» 

.Automobile Clutch. Muurv 
and Whiti' U03 

.Aulouioblle Cylinder l(e-bor- 
Ing Machine, Underwood.. 733 

Automobile Cylinders, Hea- 
man & Smith Ihiplex Bor- 
ing Maehhie for 150 

.Automobile Design, The Trend 
of 549 

Automobile Englnea, Horse- 
Power Formula for 807 

.Yutomobile Factory, Organi- 
zation and Equipment of 
an. C. B. Oweu 493 

-Yutomobile Factory Tools and 
Devices, Special. Ethan 
Vlall 073 

.Automobile Factories, Special 
Tools and Devices for. 
Ethan Vlall 581 

.Automobile Manufacture, Ma- 
chines and Tools for. C. 
B. Owen 757 

.Automobile Manufacture, The 
Increase In 848 

.Automobile Parts, Broaching. 
Ethan Vlall 508 

-Yutomobile Pneumatic Tires, 
Detachable Rim for 249 

Automobile Rac<*, Conclusion 
of the New York-Paris... 34 

.Yutomobile Repairs, The Ap- 
plication of .Autogenous 
Welding to. Henry Cav,-. I'OO 

Automobile Shop. Drop Forg,' 
AVork in an. Ethan Vlall. 17 

Automobiles. Aim in Reduc- 
tion In Price of 616 

Automobiles, Enforced Super- 
ior Mechanical Design in. 358 

Automobiles Registered in 
New York State 582 

Automobiles, Special Railway 
Cars for the ITansporta- 
tlon of 360 

.Yvery & Co., William : 

Threadhig Tool 567 

-Yvey Sensitive Drill-Press. , 474 

.Axle Lathe, Lodge & Shlplev 
Heavy 402 

Axle Turning — Methods and 
Production. William P. Sar- 
gent 413 

Ayrton, Prof, Wm. Edward, 
Obituary of 325 

Babbitting the Pillow-blocks 
of a Duplex Bed 457 

Bachmann, H. J. : 

Some Uses for Wrought 

Iron Pipe 29) 

Tools tor Bending Pipes. . 545 
A Twenty-flve Dollar Tool- 
makhig Job 962 

Back-Gear Design. Calcula- 
tions for Cone Drive and. 
Albert Clegg 197 

Baeklng-Off Machine. Wal- 
tham Cutter, Turning and 722 

Baird Machine Co. : 

-Y Tilted Revolving Barrel 
for Drying Small Parts 

of Wire 233 

Four-Slide Automatic Wire 

Forming Machine 648 

Double Horizontal Tilted 
Tumbling Barrels 892 

Baird Mfg. Co. : 

.Yutomatic Calculating Time 
Stamp or Chronograph... 567 

Balance Tester for Balanc- 
ing Pulleys, .Yrmatures and 
Other Rotating Parts 233 

Balances in the World, The 
Most Sensitive 876 

Ball Bearing Chuck, Morrow 
yuick-Heleaslng 722 

Ball Bearing, '"Two In One" 
Annular 233 

Ball-Bearing Worm. A 862 

Ball Bearings. Some Notes on 692 

Ballentine Hardness Testing 

Device 338 

Balloons. Successful Wireless 
I'elegraphlc Communication 
with 300 



Hall Thrust lIcnrlnK (S.'iO 

Ilniid and Klnck Ilniki>8. A. 

I.. Caiopbfll 

llnnd. (ilslinit Shop 

Uaiul Saw Shariii'nrr. Ittilary 

Kill' Aiitoniallc 7 

nanwcll. Irvliijc : 

KoniMila fi>r Milling \'- 
Shapi'd (i!i«ivi>s Willi In 
cllni'd Top and Itiittnni. T 
Itardons & Oliver : 

MotiirDrlvin Hrass Wnik 

Inc l.atho 

, llamcs Vo.. \\. R & .Inlin : 

Uarut'S Nil. .'i llorl/onlal 

KadlBl Hrlll 

Rarni'si L'l: '-. inih Inlll. . . 
Barni's IMIII In. : 

t;<Mir I'rIvon UanK Krlll... 
Barnes. Herbert C ; 

Metliiiil i>( l.a.vhiK Out and 

Ciltllng »"aius 

.\ Cam with Siiine Spii'lal 


Air Ulatit on the Tunch 


Barrel for Drvlng Small 
I'arl.-i ot Wire. .\ Tilted 


Barrel, 'lilting Tunililinj;. . . . 
Barrels. Baird lioulile Hori- 
zontal Tilteii 'riinilillng. . . . 
Barron, .lames .s. : 

Chandler's .Vdfling and S>ub- 
traeling Seale for Frac- 

Barr.v it Zeeker Co. : 

Scir.Vdjustins Friction Sen- 
sitive Drill 4SG 

rriction-Hrivin Drill I'ress '.tS7 
Base and Fonndallon of Kile 
Cutting Machines. Donald 

A. Hampsim :i80 

Bath for Hardening High 

Speed Steel. II. S. Steel. 

Bath I'niversal Grinding .Ma- 

I'hine. Improvements in the 

No. liVi 

Baths, Klectro-ChemicalClr an- 


Battleship, Contemplated Con- 
struction of (ias-Kngine. . . 
Baush Madiine Tool Co. : 
Tool-holder for High Speed 


Baush Thrce-Spindle Drill 
Press with Multi Spindle 

Attachment : : S20 

Ba.v State Stamping Co. : 

Bennett llanilv tirease Cup 
Beiile. Oscar. I. : ' 

How .Many Cashes Should 

a lloli llavey 

Beaman & Smith Co. : 

l>uplex Boring .Machine for 

Automobile C.vlinders. . . 

A Large Portable Boring 


Large 'J'raversing Head Bor- 
ing Machine 

Beams and Oirders, Approxi- 
mate Formulas for Sizes 

of. C. It. Whittier .'>:!1 

Beams or Olrders, Formulas 
for Crane, c. U. Whittier C.n.s 

Sguare - 
« Jench 



inci'i ; 


















Bearing. Ball Thrust 
Hearing Design. Ksampl 


Bearing for High Speed Shafts 
Bearing, H.vatt High Duly 


Bearing .Metals. .Joseph tl. 


Bearing, Koller Thrust 

Bearings, .Vnti-Friction .\llovs 


Bearings, ISoller Belief 

Bearings. Some .Votes on Ball 
Beaudry, .Mexander, Obituary 

of ". 

Beche I'netiniatlc Power Ham- 
mer 473 

Becker .Milling Machine Co. : 
Spiral Cutting .\ttachments 
for the Becker Vertical 

Milling Machine 152 

Becker. O. M. : 

The .Newer High-Speed 


Bed. Truing a Bench Lathe, 

Walter Cribben 

Bellows, O h e r m a y e r Blue 


Belt and Hope Drive Sur- 

facers, "Nu-Cllnch" 

Belt D rives. Experiments 

with Hope and 4:{4 

Belt Drives, Locating .\ng|e. 712 
Belt Fastener. .\ I. Linslev. . 
Belt Lacer. Ueeordlng Board 
to Keep Track of the. F. 


Belt Lacing Device, Mumford 

Wire 0O.-> 

Belt Sander and Polisher. Im- 
proved Vertical 552 

Belt Shifter and Counter- 
shaft, Pullet 978 

Belt Shifter. Improved Form 

of. rionald A. Hampson.. ftfifi 
Belting. Combined Steel and 

„ "fm" • ■ 651 

Belting. fJraton & Knight 
Co.'s Spartan 803 

^'■i!i"*^„"" '•" -^pnlicatlon. 
The Effect of Rolled. G 
n. Lang 

Bemis & Call Hardware j 
Tool Co. : 











and Pip 
Beiiils Hexagonal Milling .Ma 

chine. The 

Bench Filing .Machine. 


Bench Lathe, .\ .New .s 

Bench Lathe, llockford 

chine & Shuttle Cii.'s 


Bending and Fornilng of Fi- 
ber Sllei'ls 

Ilelliling Devices. Two 

Bending Die. Fnglnii'r. . . . 
Bending Die for .Vriiialnie 
Bar Clips. .1. A. C. lioubt 
Bending Device. .1. \v. Blown 
Bending Device, Pine. |t. ](. 

Little ' 

HiMilIng Machine. Combined 

I'onnlng anil 

Bending I'lpis. Tools for, 

Henry .1. Baelimann 

Bending Hods or Bars. .Ma- 
chine fill- 

Binding Stresses In Car Truck 
.\rcli Bars. W. F. .fohnslon 
Bi nilz. W. L. : 

Hack Cut ting on IheShajier 
Compulation Table for Keg- 

ular Polygons 

Berlin Suspended lialhvav. 


Bertsch & Co. : 

Bertsch (Jang Punch 

Bertsch .\ulomatlc 


Besly & Co., C. H. : 

Besly Double Spiral 


Besly. Charles Howard. Obit- 
uary of 

Bevel Gear Blanks In the 
Davis Turret Lathe, Fin- 

Bevel Gear Gage. A '. 

Bevel Gear Problem. A. Edw 


Bickford Drill and Tool 
Consolidation of the 
cinnati Machine Tool 


Bickford & Washburn : 
Tap Thread Milling 


Billings & Sjiencer Co. : 

Model (_' Drop Hammer 

Hob Saw 

Milling Machine for iiie 


All Steel Screw-Driver...! 

Hinder for Preserving .\rti- 

eles of Special Interest. 

.1. \. Caless 

Bird in the Hand, etc. Ap- 
plied to Manufacturers 












. 979 

















Bit-Brace Taps. Dimensions of 548 




Black-boards. Two fiseful.. 
Black Finish for Steel. E. 

W. Norton 55 

Black .N'ickel Coatings on 

Metal Surfaces. Producing .329 
Blacksmith. "Don'ts" for the 

tienrgc T. Coles 443 

Blacksmith Shop Neglected** 

Why Is the ' 359 

Blacksmith Shop. Notes' oii 
the Economical Working of 

the. .lames ('ran 

Blacksmith Shop, Tools 

the. .lames ('ran .... 

Blacksmith Shops. Tools 

Increasing Production 

■lames ('ran 

Blacksmithing. -Artistic 
Blacksmithirrg. More Artistic fid 
Blackwells Island Cantilever 
Type Bridge. The Queens- 

horo or 

Blade Stop for Lang Tool- 
Holder. Positive 

Blank. C. S. : 

Holder for the Ink Bottle O.'ll 
lilanking and Forming Die. 
Efficient Type of. P. E 


Blanking Dies. Econo'niiVa'l 
Method ot Making. James 

S. Glew 

Blanks. Gages for .\ccurateiv 
Sizing Bevel Gear. George 

D. Porter 5 m 

Blanks in the Davis Turret 

Lathe, Finishing Bevel Gear 150 
Blanks that Adhere to Punch- 
es. Stripping Cup-shaped 
Drawn Pieces and. C. How- 
ell Dockson 9B4 

Blast Furnace Gases for Pow- 
er Production 947 

"Bled" Timber Proved' ' as ' 

Strong as "Unhled" Timber SOI 
Blevney, .lohn C. ; 

.\utomatlc Polishing Ma- 
chine for Finishing 

Punchlngs 72(5 

Bliss Co., E. W. : 

Triple-Action Drawing Press 

"ofi' T'"''^'*'"^ f")" Jinking 
Si^de Seams In Cylindrical 

An Antomatlc Double Slide 

Heavy Quadnipie '<i;'r'an k 
Press ^Qo 

Double Crank Toggle'Draw- 

Ing Press 

Bliss Compound Pneuin'a't'lc 

Forging Hammer 889 







Bliss Powcr-PresR Clutch 

.loseph B. McCann 

Bllven. C. E. : 

Distinctive Colors for Pip- 
ing In a Manufacturing 


Block Brakes, Band and, .V 

L. Campbell jijo 

Block. Making an Engraving. 

Ethan Vlall , 781 

Blinks and Studs for Selling 
In and Holding Large 
Work. Lang's ll.el. . . . 
Blount Co.. J. G. : 

The "Stuyvesant" Turr 


Motor Driven S|ii ed i.ailie 
Blower. A New Pressiiri> 

Blower. Forge wlib .M •- 


Blower Utilized for Clearing 
Work of Chins, Uoiarv 

Pressure " 

Blue [irinl Drying F r a m e', 
WllUains, Brown & Earle, 

Bliii' print Protector 

Blueprint Protector. L. II. 

Georger 4(58 

Bliie-iirlntlng KInk, A, A.'g'. 

.Tohnson •»] _| 

Blue printing Machine, Go'v'- 

ernor for Buckeye. ; 7(j 

nine iirint ing Machine. Hapid 988 
Blueprints. A Direct I'rocess 

for Copying 

Blueprints, How to Save 

Charles K. King 

Blueprints. Lathe Bracket 

for. L. H. Oeorger 

Blne-prlnts. Marking Fluid 

for. William II. Davlil... 55 
HlU(<prints, Spots on, Howard 

D, Voder 973 

Blue prints. To Save Burned 
or Ovcr-Exposed. ,1. C. I las- 
sett 55 

Blue-prints Without a Frame, 

Making. C. E. Burnap 47 

Bluing Compound 548 

Bluing Metals. .Joseph Weaner 707 
Boat Destroyer, Tartar. Uoc- 
ord-Breaki'ng Speed of the 


Boats to he I'sed on the Mis- 
souri River, Reinforied 


Bocorselski, F, E, : 

Tool-holder for High-Speed 


Improved Splndle-Ad.iust' 
ing Device for Multiple- 
Spindle Drills 

Boiled Shirt Idea, The Fal- 
lacy of the 

Boiler Capacity, Great Po.s- 

sihle Increase of 

Boiler Stack was Erected 

How a Big 

Boiler Tester. A Portable Lo'- 

comotive 631 

Bolt and Pine Threading Ma- 
chine. Alfred Box & Co.'s 

Multiple Die 393 

Bolt-Cutter. Mnnimert. Wolf 
& Dixon High-power Plu- 
rality Die 639 

Bolt Heads. Automatic Trim- 
ming Machine for 152 

Bolt Screw Threads. Carriage 949 

Bolt Tans. Stove 530 

Bolts. Nnis. etc.. Abbrevia- 
tions for. Paul W. Abbott 200 
Bonnev, C S. ; 



. . 220 





Antomatlc Reversible Tap- 
per 2.34 

BookMaklng. Proflt in Tech- 
nical 634 

Bored Holes Machining Plane 
Surfaces True with. R. C. 

Scholz 291 

Boring and Planing Corliss 

Engine Cylinders 205 

Boring and Reaming Bar. . . . 2.34 
Boring and Turning Mills, 

New Line of Poole 316 

Boring Bar. Nappanee Porta- 
ble 718 

Boring-Bar. Sneeial 137 

Boring-Bars and Heads. Lu- 

cien L. ll.nas 665 

Boring. Drilling and Milling 

Machine. Colfman I'luversnl 407 
Boring. Drilling and Milling 
M.nchlne. Fosdick Ilorizon- 

tnl 146 

Boring. Drilling and Alilling 
Machine. Fosdick Motor- 
Driven Horizontal 731 

Borfng. Drilling and Milling 
Machine, Newton Horizon- 
tal , 31S 

Boring Head. Eccentric 503 

Boring .Ilgs Psed hv the 
Oucen City Machine Tool 

Co 487 

Boring Machine. A Large 

Portable 322 

Boring Machine, Automobile 

Cylinder 735 

Boring Machine, Combined 

Milling and 987 

Boring Machine for .Vutomo- 
blle Cylinders. Beaman & 

Smith Dunlex 150 

Boring Machine. Horizontal. 5fi.S 
Bering Machine. Increasing 
the Efliclencv of a Hori- 
zontal Drilling. Tapping 
and. Alfred Spangenberg 745 

Large Tra- 

Practice in 
the Laiidls 


85: 1 

Boring Machine, 

versing Head 
Boring .Machine, 
Boring Machine 

the Shops of 

Tool Co 

""i'i'.'Im ■- '" "'"'''' "'"' " '^"'"B"' 

Boring Mill, ' i'l-'iivlsiiins 'fiir 

Waier Cooling on the 


Boring .Mill. The .KdvJu't'ii'r'es 

ot a Waler cooled. . . 
Boring .Mills. Parallels for 
,. \erlical. It, M. Well 
Boi'irig, .Milling and Drilling 
.Maihlnc, Cleveland llorl 


Boring, .Milling and Drilling 

Machine. rnlver.sai ... 154 

Boring 'I'ool and Holder, 


Itoiing Tool for Turret Laili'e' 

.\(l,|ustable. Cnnirlbntor 
Boring. Turning and Facing 
Machine, I'nderwood Port- 

-Bosloek, Francis .1. : 

Diagrams for Designing 

Spiral Gears ,. , * 

Boslon Boll Co. ; 

Simplex Multiple Spindle 
Automatic Screw Ma- 

Box & Co.. .Mfred : 

.Miililple Die Bolt and Pipe 

I'breading .Machine 

Bow lirlll in the .Manufacture 
of Knives, Ise of. Donald 
A, Hampson , . . . 
Brach Supply Co,, L, S, ':" 

Vibration Lock-.'s'ut. 
Bracket for Blue-Prints', 

Lathe. L. II. Georger. . . 
Bracket. I'niversal Camera 

Ethan \iall 

Brake. An Alternating Cur' 

rent Motor 309 

Brakes. Band and Block.' ' .'\'. 

L. Campbell 

Brass for Brazing. The' Pe'r- 

centage of Copper in . . . . 
Brass from Becoming Brit- 
tle, To Prevent'. . . . 
Brass \a I ves— T u r n 1 n' g 
Shafting for Screw Cut- 
ting, Grinding 711 

Bt,»ss Work. Grinding 
Threading Chasers for. 

Ethan Vlall ]i)9 

Brawn, Obituary of .lolin 














White & 











Blazing Cast Iron and'o'thir 


Brazing Compound 
Breaker. Williams, 
Co.'s Stav-Bolt. . 
Breast Drill. Willey 

Electric " 

Breatli, William L • 
Sizes of Working 


Brick, Making and Harden- 
ing a Drill for, ,lames 


Bricks, The .Manufacture of 

Slag-Concrete . . 

Bridge Cables Strung. Last 

Wire of the Manhattan. . 

Bridge, Collapse of German. 

Bridge. Largest Concrete 

Arch. In the World . . 
Bridge. Operating Cost of 

the Brooklyn . . . 
Bridge Pins. The Wear of" 
Bridge. Proposed Reconstruc- 
tion of the Quebec. . 
Bridge. The Galvanized Wire 
Susiiender Ri.|ies to Sup- 
port the Main Span of 

Manhattan sog 

Bridge, The Op,.ning of tile 

Manhattan ggj 

Bridge, The (Jueensboro or 
Blackwells Island Can- 
tilever Type 

Bridges, Automatic Signals to 

Prevent Wrecks on.. 
Bridgeford .Meh. Tool Wks 
(;an Lathe for Reflnishlng 
Car .\xle .Journals With- 
out Removing the 


Brightman Mfg. Co. :' 

A Line of Shaft Turning 
Straiglitening and Pol- 
ishing Machinery. . . 
Brinell Method of Testing 
the Hardness ot Metals 


Bristol Co. : 

An Electric Operation 


British Correspondent: 

Sitperheating in England.. 

British Machine Tools at the 

Franco-British Exhibition. 

Oskar Kylln 










I'atent Law, Etfect ot 


To Prevent Brass 

Becoming 131 

Broaching a Dove-Tail Key- 
seat In a Taper Hole. T- 

Square 455 

Broaching .\utomobile Parts. 
Ethan Vlall 596 

Broaching Mai-blne Arranged 

for Hroachlng Tapers, La- 

polnte 1^1 

Hionae, Uecolorlng. K. W. 

Norton l*"-' 

Brougli, Obituary o£ Beunett 

II -'1*^ 

Blown Color on Mitnls, How 

Id I'roilmi' • "' 

Brown, J. \V. : 

Benuing Uevlce - 1 - 

lirown-l'nnts. John B. 

Slurry &5 

Brown, H. H. : 

L)i'sl|;n iind Construction 
ot Klicuic Ovi'ilii'iiil 

I 3127 

•> 418 

a .'>o:t 

4 r>77 

5 BtfU 

II 74!> 

7 847 

Brown & Shnrpf Mfg. Co. : 

ConslHiitSpwil Drlvr tin- 

Brown it Sliaipi' .\ulo 

uiatlc Screw .Macliinc. . Ill 

No. Il; riiiln (irindlng iMii- 

cUlne 7tl8 

Uecint Aildillons to Ilic 
Bniwn iV Sharps l.lno ot 

Machiiiisls' '1'im>1s 81- 

Brown & Sliiirpc Slinking 

Giar Cutlir 'M-i 

Attachmiiit lor Cutting 
Hellial Steel Gears.... i)83 
Brown & Son, Edward : 

Portable I'yromeier L'.H 

Elcilrie ktcoiding Pyro- 
meter U88 

liryant, L. N. : 
. Holder for Drawings in 

Machine Simp I'nuliee. -Iih; 
"Buckeye" I) 1 e S 1 o e k ni 

Large lUmensiuns. llai-t's. -"ill 
Buckeye Engine Co. ; 

Governor for lUiekeye 
Blue-1'rintinK Machine.. 7li 
•Buckeye" Katchet-Driven 

Die-Stock lilitj 

Buffalo Korge Co. ; 

b'orge With .Motor-Driven 

Blower 554 

Hand 1 Heani and Channel 

Punch 808 

Buffalo Specially Co. : 

Buffalo Special ly Co.'s Du- 
plex iJack-Siiw 319 

Buffing Lathe, Duplex Inde- 
pendent End !J7S 

Bullard Automatic Wrench 
Schroeder Hatchet Wrench 41)0 
Bullard Mch. Tool Co. : 

Boring and Iteaming Bar. 234 
Bullard 24 Inch Vertical 

Turret Lathe :;08 

Bullard, S. H. : 

Elevating Tool-Post De- 
sign 026 

Bulldozer. .V Horizontal.... 322 
Bulldozer, Ajax High-Speed 

Stop Motion 804 

Bullet. .Vdvanlages ot the 

Spitzer 102 

Bullets at Close and Long 

Range. Penetrations ot. . . 778 
Burke .Machinery Co. : 

Improved Burke <_'old Saw 47(> 
Slotting .\ttachmcnt for 
the Milling Machine.... 550 
Burnap. C. E. : 

Making Blue-Prints With- 
out a Frame 47 

Burner, Kerosene Oil 550 

Burns. Charles E. : 

Truing Kuugh Work 541 

Burns, W. : 

Machining a Three-Tlirow, 
Built-up Crankshaft.... 534 
Burring Machine, Seml-Auto- 

matic Nut 567 

Burroughs, Herbert, Obitu- 
ary of 569 

Burr, Samuel D. V., Obitu- 
ary ot 325 

Busey, H. S. ; 

"Don'ts" for Inventors... 356 
Bushing for Paper Bolls, 

Tightening a 140 

Bushings from Turrets, Ke- 

movlng. Paul W. Abbott.. 547 
Button-die Holder, Releas- 
ing. Thomas J. Norton. 

Douglas T. Hamilton 467 

Button or Split Dies, Formu- 
las for Machine Screw. 
Thomas .T. Norton and 

Douglas T. Hamilton 536 

Buyer, A. : 

The Exnerlence o( a Cus- 
tomer 620 

Buzz Planers, Safety Device 
for 189 

Cab in New York, First Al- 
cohol Motor 410 

Cable Hauling on the New 
Manhattan Bridge 104 

Calculating Device. I'nique. . 769 

Caldwell. Ilenrv Wallace, 
Obituarv of .'. 487 

Caless. .T. A. : 

Binder for Preserving -Arti- 
cles of Snecial Interest. . 342 

Calipers, Improved Adjust- 
ments for Columbia 727 

Calipers, Lock-Nut for. O. A. 

Ilampson .14 

Cam Culling .Machine, A.... S'Jl 
Cam Cutting Machine, Uni- 
versal 486 

Cam, Intermittent. Cyrus 

Taylor 370 

CamOpeiated Prhiliug Press 

Meclianlsm. D a v Id J. 

Walsh 793 

Cam Hollers. Cvros Tavho'. 370 
Cam WUh S.mie Spe.lni l''ea 

lures, .\. Herheri c. linrni-s 704 
Cum, Writing. A. K. Seliulz l.!2 
Cams, How to l''ln<l Iiielinled 

Angle of Inlei anil l:\ 

hausl 1)47 

Cams, Method of Laying Out 

anil Cutting. Herbert C. 

Barnes lUl 

Cams to .\ccunite Lead, Au 

Ingenious and S I m p I e 

.Methiiil of Culling Master 

Plate 30!) 

Camera Bracket, I'nlversal. 

Ethan Viall 027 

t'aiuera for Iteeording the 

Speed of Auloniobiles. . . . 938 
Campbell. .\. L. : 

Band and Iilnck Brakes... 100 
Caiiiphell, a. P. : 

Simple Wire Bending Tool 204 
Can Ends, Punches anil Dies 

for. Slrlus 51 

Capacllv, Limitation of Ma- 
chine 804 

Capital due to the New Pat- 
ents .\ct. Increased 872 

Capllallzatlon of |{e|)ntalli)n 92 
Car Construction. .V 1 I o y 

Steels for Motor 9.'5 

CjinluUo, I'orrest 10. : 

Some Thoughts on Ma- 
chine Tool Design 839 

Car for Curves of Short 

Kadli. Special Shop. .lames 

T. <;rlnisbaw 49 

Car Truck Arch Bars, Bend 

ing Stresses In. W. E. 

.lohnston 371 

Car Wheels Without Flanges 

Proposed 270 

Cars for the Transportation 

of .\utomoblles. Special 

Hallway 360 

Cars, Horse-power Hegulred 

for Moving. Morris .\. 

Hall 584 

Cars on the Thli-d .\venue 

Hailroad. Experlimnlal . . . 880 
Carlln's Sons Co., Thomas: 

Direct-Driven Lever Shear 40K 
Carnegie's Prollt-S h a r 1 n g 

Plan 400 

Carr Bros. : 

The Carr Tool Holder... 321 
Carrlagc-Bolt Heads. Shanks 

and Seri-w Threads 972 

Carriage-Holt Screw Threads 940 
Carroli-.Tamieson Mch. Tool 

Oulck-Chance Gear Engine 

Lathe 819 

Car-Wheel Lalhe. Sellers 898 

Case-Hardening Mixture.... 452 
Case-ITardeninc. Objections 

to TTsIng Copper Wire 

When 209 

Cases, Gerstner Portable 

Tool 723 

Caskets, Perraeute Drawing 

Press for Metal 221 

Caskev Valve Co. : 

Hydraulic Valve 409 

easier Co., Marvin : 

Eccentric Boring Head.... 563 
Cast Iron and Other Metals, 

Brazing 120 

Cast Iron Cylinders. Tests 

on 50 

Cast Iron Fittings, Tests of 

Standard 607 

Cast Iron Lathe Tools. 

Chilled 867 

Cast Iron Holl.s. Grooving 

Operation for Chilled 548 

Cast Iron Under Water, Saw- 
ing. Ethan Viall 379 

Cast Iron. Welding 961 

Casting a Kuhher Wall .548 

Casting of Armor Plates. 

The 683 

Casting Pipes in Permanent 

Molds 37 

Casting Puzzle .'100 

Casting Puzzle, .\nswer to. ."140 
Casting Puzzle. S'llution of 

the. .Tames Cran 62."» 

Casting Pioizle. .\nswer to. O. 

.\. Anderson 546 

Casting Puzzle. .\nswer to. 

Robert Grimshaw 546 

Casting Puzzle, .\nswer to. 

Wm. Pfonts o4C 

Castings. New Development 

in Steel 372 

Catalogues Without Price 
Lists. Poor Pollcv of Send- 
ing n.s 

Caton. C. n. : 

Machine for Graduating In- 
dex Washers 544 

("'ave. Henry : 

The .Application of Auto- 
genous Welding to Auto- 

mohilp Kenairs 266 

Autogenous Welding as a 
Means ot Repairing 
Cylinders 591 

Cedorgren, Obituary of 11. 

■1 . T 820 

C e I I u I u i U Inllammuble, 

Method of .Making 332 

Celluloid. Ink lor Writing on. 

.lohn It. Sperry 073 

Cement lor .Vrc Lamp Car 

lionn 00 

Cenieni fur Fixing LiBlher 
or Paper to Pulleys. W. 

It. Gafkey 973 

Cement III Engineering Work, 

Importance of 118 

Center Gage .\llacliuieot, 

Slarrett 730 

( enter Indicating Tool, 

Handy. W. W. Cowles.. 214 
I enter Inillcallug Tool, The 

llaruly 325 

Cenler Indleator. TesI 233 

Center of u Shaft, To Find 

the 103 

Center Punch, .\nollier I'sc 

of the Automalle 701 

Center Test Itidleulor, Llnd- 

holm Rotary 227 

i' e n I e r I n g Self-Hardening 

Cutters. .1. It. Weaner. . . . 214 
Centering Work with Milling 
Cutters. Gage for. H. D. 

Chapman 884 

Centers for Fluting Small 
Taps, Improvenii-ni In I'e- 
male. Charles E. Sniurl. 403 
Centers for Scribing Semi- 
Circles from the lodge of 

a Block. K. \. Itoss 547 

Centers. Luhrlcinil for Lathe. 

Hoy It. Demlng 790 

Centers, MIIIit iV Ci-<i\vnlng 
shield Miilliple Spindle In- 
dex 170 

Centrifugal Force on High- 
Speed Cutters. The Disturb- 
ing Effect of 531 

Centrifugal Pumps. E. N. 

Percy 426 

Centrlt'ugal Pumiis. Great Ca- 
pacity of Chicago 35D 

Centrifugal I'unips. John B. 

Sperry 74S 

Chain. Detachable Link 

Transmission 6.37 

Chain Drives 452 

Chain Manufacture. Primi- 
tive Methnds Enmloyed In. 521 
Chains, Tin* Forging of Hooks 

and. James Cran 005 

Chalk I'reparalioii for Trac- 
ings. Hex .McKee 55 

C h a m f e r 1 n ir .\tlncbment. 

Tooth 822 

Champion Tool Works Co. : 
Champion Double Back- 
geared Lathe and Im- 
proved Gear-Box 707 

Chamnnev Process of Die 
Sinking, The. Chester L. 

Lucas 825 

Chandler's .Adding and Sub- 
tracting Scale for Frac- 
tions 562 

Change Gears Economically, 
Cutting and Keyseating. 

Racnuet 124 

Chances. Deaths, etc., for 
Publiealion, Request for 

Notices ot 409 

Chanman. H. D. : 

Improved Lathe Cbnek... 883 
A Gage for Centering Work 
with Milling Cutters. . . . 884 
Chart for the Cost or Pur- 
chasing Department. Ralph 

W. Davis 624 

Chasers tor Brass Work. 
Grinding Threading. Ethan 

Viall 109 

Chattering. To Keep an 

.Angular Reamer from.... 020 
Check Svstem for Too ! - 

Rooms. Geo. D. Hadun . . 537 
Check Svstem, The Silver 

Dollar ' 034 

Check System. Tool-Room. .A. 

J. Dp Lille 885 

Check Systems for the Tool- 
Room. L. H. Georger, .Al- 
bert C. Sawver and William 

B. Hilliard 700 

Cheney. W. L. : 

Does Ediicallon Pay?.... 8.S0 
Chicago Filing Machine Co. : 

Bench Filing Machine... G4."> 
Chicago Machine Tool Co. ; 
The Chicago Duplex Hand 

Milling Machine 981 

Chinese Modern Steel Plant. 

A 946 

Chipping and Riveting Ham- 
mers. Pneumatic 558 

Chips Cleared .Away hv ITse 

ot Rotary Pressure Blower 366 
Chisels. Set of Cold and 

Cape 98T 

Chrome Rails. Nickel- 919 

Chronograph, .\utnmatlc Cal- 
culating Time Stamp or.. 567 
Chronogranb. Stromberg 

Electric 484 

Chuck. .An Enclosed Pinion 

Type Drill 322 

Chuck. Cincinnati Four-Jaw 

Independent 157 

Chuck. Construction of a Mag- 
netic 56 

Chuck for F'acing Gear 
Blanks. Floating 421 


Chuck for Holding Gat ICn- 
gloe Cylliidera, Hpe-ittl 

Hklnnur 388 

Chuck, liii|iroved l4ilhe. iL 

D. c1itt|.uiun I>H3 

Chuck, Morrow Oulck llelean- 

Ing Ball Hearing 722 

cliui k, Norku Two-Grooved 
High Kpeed TwUt Drill 

and 720 

Chuck. The Magnetic 321 

Chuck, I'nion Geared Drill.. 231 
Chuck with Dlirereiiilal Mcrew 

.Mechanisiu. Independent.. 73,'i 
Chucks, liruham Pressed 

S I Grinder 710 

I'Inclnnati ('liiiek Co. : 

F o u r .1 a w Independent 

Chuck 167 

(.'Inclnnall lion & Ktecl Co. : 
The "Cisco" Hand-Power 

(jrano 8)5 

Cincinnati Lalhe & Tool Co.: 
Geared Feed Device for 

CInclnnail Lalhe U4 

Cincinnati Machine Tind Co. 

and tin- Blekfonl Drill and 

Tool Cu., <.'oiihol Illation of. 574 

Cinchuiall Milling .Mch. Co. : 

A New Line of High-Power 

.Milling .Machines 158 

Inslructiim of .V p p r e n - 

I Ices In I he Shoii SOU 

C'Incinnall Planer Co.: 

Two Spiid Planer Drive.. 224 

22 Inch Planer 4tW 

Planer .\rranged for Using 

Exiended Tools 472 

Cincinnati Puncli & Hhear 
Co. : 
Combined Milting and Bor- 
ing Machine 087 

Cincinnati Shaper Co. : , 

Key-Seating .Mlachment 

for Shai»ers and Plamis 03 
Heavy :24 Inch Crank 

Planer 77 

Key-Seating Attachment 

Patented 103 

Circle. Determining the Diam- 
eter of a Ciri-umseribed. 

A. C. Johnson 906 

Circle, The Squaring of the. 614 
Circular DIslrlbullon. Care- 
less. Hoht. Grimshaw 213 

CircuinsiTlbeil Circle. Determ- 
ining the Diameter of a. 

.\. C. Johnson 900 

Ciriumsiribed Circle. To Find 

the Diaineler of a 711 

Clamping Device. Jig. Pedro. 465 
Clamping. Drilling and Count- 
erboring Tool, Combination 
Locating. F. W. Hall . . . . 905 
Clark. Jr.. & Co.. .lames; 
Two Willey Eleclrlcally- 

Drlven Grinders 396 

Clarke, Prof. Benjamin 

Franklin, obituarv o: . . . . 487 
Clarke. Prof. Benjamin 

Franklin, Obituary of.... 569 
Cleaning Batiis, Elicctro- 

Chemiial in3 

C 1 e a V a n c e . Metal-Cutting 

Tools Wilhiiut 2.S.'; 

Clearance of .Milling Cutters. 

Harry A. S. Howarth 500 

Clegg. Albert : 

Calculations for Cone 
Drive and Back-Gear De- 
sign 1 97 

Economical Design 462 

A Khik in Photography.. 881 
Clermont Reolica for the 

Hudson-Fulton Celebration 051 
Cleveland .Automatic Machine 
Co.'s I'bicagit Demonstrat- 
ing Room 410 

Cleveland .\utomatlc Mch. 
Co. : 
.Motor Drive for Screw Ma- 
chines 77 

Some Interesting Screw 

Machine Work 203 

Magazine .\ttachment for 
Cleveland .A n t i> m a t 1 c 

Screw Machine 320 

Cleveland Mch. TikiI Wks. : 
Cleveland Horizontal Bor- 
ing. Milling & Drilling 

Machine 900 

Cleveland Twist Drill Co. : 
Peerless High-Speed Ream- 
ers 225 

Cleveland Multiple Ream- 
ing and Facing Tool. . . . 892 
Flat Taper Shank Drill... 987 
CliirordTooi Co. : 

.A New Line of Tool-Hold- 
ers :122 

Closing Device 990 

Clough. R. M. : 

Improved .\djHstable Ream- 
er 302 

Clutch. Bliss Power-Press. 

.Toseph H. McCann 290 

Clutch Cutting Machine. Wal- 

tham 720 

Clulcli Davis 891 

Clutch fur Imparting Varia- 
ble Speed to Macbines. . . . 409 
Clutch. Improved I'riellon . . 4Sii 
Clulch. Jaeger Automatic 

Friction 807 

Clutch. Moore 4 While Au- 
tomobile 90:: 

Clutches. Calculations for 

Magnetic 37 

Clutches tor Power Presses. 195 

Coal and Oil I'uol. Urltlsh 
^mall Naval (.'raft to be 
Constructi'il to L sc Uotli. 34 

Coal, Uist I'lcvintallve for 
Suontam-ous Igiiltlou of.. 118 

Coni. I'oinparatlvi' Tests of 
liiUuii-ttid ami Oiilliinr.v. . OL'O 

Coal 111 the Stati> of IVim- 
svlvaiila. Suppl.v of 118 

Coal Minis, .\slies for I'lllars 

Coal 'oiiit's lYi'ntlng Value, 
Till- liiivlng of 744 

Coal-I'nmlur. Inl.'n'stlnK l''i'«- 
turcs of an Klcrtrlc Bii.'i 

Coal Supplv In (irinit Hrlt- 
aln, .\vallahli' i>40 

Coati's Cllppir MfR. Co. : 

I'owcr Krasrr, Drawing 
Cleaner ami I'enoil Sharp- 
ener •"'- 

Xlotor-Ilrlven I" o r t a l> I c 
Hrllllng. <;rlnding and 
BnUing Out tit 40S 

Coelirane-Hl.v Co. : 

.Vutomatle Saw Sharpener l-t.> 

Coffman. .1. 1'. : 

Universal Horlng. Urllllng 
and Milling Maehine. . . 407 

Coin and Medal I>les. Cliester 
L. Lucas 7bb 

Coki" In Locomotives. I'se of 7liCi 

Colhnrn Machine Tool (^i. : 
I'lovlsions tor Water Coo\- 
ing on tile Colliurn Hor- 
Ing Mill 71.') 

Cold Saw, Improved Burke.. 476 

Coles, (ieorge T. : 

Forging an Eyeholt 46 

A Cheap Homemade Forge 136 
"lion'ts" for the Black- 
smith 443 

Collapse of German Bridge. 118 

Collet Made on .\ulomatic 
Screw Machine. Large.... US9 

Collet. Wizard Qnlck-t'hange 
Drill-Chuck and 314 

Collis High-Speed Drills 305 

Color on Metals. IIow to Pro- 
duce Brown 446 

Color Photography 446 

Color Photography, .\n Ad- 
vance in 97 

Colors, and Temperatures and 
Colors for Hardening. Tem- 
per -72 

Colors for Piping in a Man- 
ufacturing Plant. Distinct- 
ive. C. E. Bliven 790 

Colors for Piping in a Man- 
ufacturing Plant, Distinct- 
ive. Oscar B. Perrigo. . . . 4:U 

Colt<5n Combination Tool Co. : 
High Speed Steel Cuttlng- 
off Machine 486 

Combination Die, Novel. Geo. 
P. Pearce -11 

Combustion Riveter, Uyerson 
Internal U04 

Commercial Airship. The. C. 
A. McCready 957 

Commercial Factor in Ma- 
chine Design. The 359 

Commercial Law as .\pplied 
to Machine Manufacturers (iOO 

Comparison of Strength of the 
T'. S. and the Whitworth 
Standard Threads 61!) 

Compass for Hardening Heats 
for Carbon Steel Tools. 
Use of Magnetic 277 

Competitors. Treatment of. . 130 

Composition for Making Cast- 
ings in Metal Molds 574 

Compression in a Small Gas 
Engine, Determining the 
.Vctual. George M. Strom- 
beck 940 

Compression, New Idea in 
Air 36 

Compressor, Gas-Engine .Mr. 5ol 

Compressors. Dallett .\lr.... 478 

Concrete .\rch Bridge in the 
World, Largest 337 

Concrete as a Building Ma- 
terial, Reinforced 786 

Concrete Boats to be Used 
on the Missouri River, Re- 
inforced 1 92 

Concrete for Building, Use of .122 

Concrete for Buildings with- 
in the EartliQuake Zone, 

. Reinforced 735 

Concrete Houses, Edison Mon- 
olithic 36 

Concrete Telegraph Poles. . . 865 

Concrete Telegraph Poles, 
Making 194 

Concrete. The Disintegration 
of Submerged 746 

Concrete Ties 446 

Conditions. Power of Insur- 
anc(* C<<mpanies to Improve 
Living 622 

Conduit, Good Wearing Qual- 
ities of Creosotod Wood.. 114 

Cone Drive and Back-Gear 
Design, Calculations- for. 
Albert Clegg 197 

Cone Pulley Polishing Ma- 
chine, Hoefer 400 

Connecting-Rod Bearings, Fix- 
ture for Reaming. John 
F. Winchester 881 

Connor. Obituary of G. Charles 737 

Consolidation of Cincinnati 
Machine Tool Companies.. 574 

Constant for Calculating 
Change Gears, Use of a 
Lathe. James Eaton 710 

Constant-Speed Drive tor 
Brown & Sharpe .\utomatlc 
Screw .Machine 141 

Constants for Calculating 
Helical Gears. C. W. l"lt- 
nian 281 

C'>nstruct!(»n Made Possible 
by .\lloy Steels. .Mechanlial 264 

Construction of Electric Over- 
head Cranes. Design and. 
R. B. Brown : 

1 327 


:t 503 

4 r.77 

5 669 

« 149 

7 847 

Construction of Melal-Work- 
Ing Shops. Design an<l. \V. 
P. Sargent ; 

1 ..: 1 

U 85 

3 Hi9 

4 251 

5 333 

6 585 

Contact Copies. How to Save 

ilnderprinted or Overprint- 
ed. Cliarles R. King 973 

Contributor : 

Ad instable Boring Tool for 
Turret Lathe 909 

Controller, Cutler Hammer 
Machine Tool 233 

Controllers, Alternating Cur- 
rent Drum 559 

Conventions, Entertainment 
Features of the A. S. M. E. 773 

Conveyor Belts, Pressed Steel 
Troughing and Return Rolls 
for 67 

Convict's Alleged Skill in Fil- 
ing and Sawing 168 

Cooperative Evening Schools 
in Use in English Firms . . 434 

Cooperative Idea of John 
Daly, Trimmer Boss 237 

Cooperative Industrial Edu- 
cation 116 

Cooperative T r a d e School, 
New 532 

Copper and Steel, The Weld- 
ing of 854 

Copper in Brass tor Brazing. 
The Percentage of 934 

Copper. New Process for 
Hardening 192 

Copper Sheets, Punch and 
Die for Corrugating Thm. 
A. L. Monrad 602 

Copper, Soldering Aluminum 
and. T. lies 973 

Copper, The Strength and 
Elasticity of 696 

Copper Tubes, Sheets, and 
Wire, The Direct Produc- 
tion of 122 

Copper Wire when Case-hard- 
ening. Objections to Using 200 

Corbin -Church Co. : 

High -Speed Drilling Ma- 
chine 1-16 

Corhin. Obituary of George W. 411 

Corks in Frictions, Method of 
Inserting. John B. Sperry . 468 

Corner Irons. r>le for (Coun- 
tersinking Holes in. S. S. 
Hart 136 

Corporation Taxation 865 

Correction of Intimation of 
British Plant of Henry Pels 
& Co 532 

Correction of Titles of Chi- 
cago & Northwestern Rail- 
way Shop 744 

Correction to Description of 
Collis High-Speed Drill... 409 

Correspondence Card for 
Mfg. Plants 342 

Corrugating Thin Copper 
Sheets. Pimch and Die for. 
A. L. Mxmrad 602 

Costello. H. O. : 

Quick-.\djustingMicrometer 233 

Cost in Machine Work, Per- 
centage of 444 

Cost or Purchasing Depart- 
ment. Chart for the 624 

Cotter Pius, Substitute for. 
John Ingherg 210 

Coulange System of Auto- 
matic Indexing 685 

Counter, Root 564 

Counterbore, Flue-Hole Cut- 
ter or. .\ustin G. Johnson 882 

Counterboring Tool. Combi- 
nation Locating, (i^lamping. 
Drilling and. F. W. Hall. 9(;.-| 

Countershaft for Precision 
Lathes, Elgin 650 

Coimtershaft, Motor - Driven 
Turret Lathe with Selt- 
Contained 553 

Countershaft, Pneumatic .... 822 

Countersinking Holes in Cor- 
ner Irons, Die for. S. S. 
Hart 136 

Coupling from a Shaft. Re- 
moving a Flange 542 

Covey, T. : 

The Experiences of a Young 
Toolmaker 938 

Cowles. W. W. : 

Handy Center Indicating 

Tool 214 

Holder for Small Drills... 971 
Cracks In SteeJ, Ixnwtlng Flue 710 
Cran, , lames : 

Tools for the Blacksmith 

Shop 24 

The Steam Hammer and 

Its Use 107 

To Harden H a c k - S a w 

lUades In yuantllles. . . 133 
Tools ftir Increasing Pro- 

tluctlon In Blacksmith 

Sliops 184 

W.liMiig 268 

.Making and Hardening a 

Drill for Brick 37,") 

Reilo.'lng llle Size of lloli-s 

In Partly Work 3,S0 

Notes nn the I'lconomlral 

Wnikiiig of the Black- 

slnlth .Shop 5:;0 

The l-'orging of Hooks and 

Chains 605 

Solution of the Casting 

Puzzle 625 

.\nvlls and Forges 681 

Power Hammers and Forg- 
ing .\i>pllances 763 

Crane Beams or Girders, 
Formulas for, C. R. Whlt- 
tler (i68 

Crane Hooks, H. J. Masten- 
briiok 590 

Crane in the World, The 
Largest 927 

Crane, New Electric Travel- 
ing 715 

Crane, Northern Floor-Con- 
trolled Electric Traveling, . 485 

Crane, The "('isco" Hand- 
Power 815 

Cranes, Design and Construc- 
tion of Electric Overhead. 
R. B. Brown. 

1 327 

2 418 

3 503 

4 577 

5 669 

6 749 

7 847 

Crane, Safety Device tor 

Electric. J. P. Mirrielees. 885 

Cranes. The Design of Jib. R. 
W. Vails 93 

Crank-pin Turning Tool. Stow 394 

Crank-pins, Fixture for Test- 
ing Parallelism of. John 
B. Snerrv 467 

Crank-Shaft Job. .\ Notable. 235 

Crank-Shaft Lathe. Lodge & 
Shipley 818 

Crank-Shaft, Machining a 
Tliree-Tlirow, Built-up. W. 
Bums .'. 534 

Crank-Shaft, R e p a 1 r i n g a 
Large. J. S. Van Pelt.... 790 

Crank-Shafts. A Milling Fix- 
ture for the Webs of. S. 
H. Sweet 70T 

Crankshafts. The Manufac- 
ture of 873 

Crank-Turning Device 31 

Cranks, Eccentrics and 972 

Creosoted Wood Conduit, 
Good Wearing Qualities of. 11 

Crescent Machine Co. : 

Motor-Driven Saw 567 

Crescent Tool Co. ; 

Adjustable Wrench 403 

Crocker-Wheeler Co. : 

How a Big Boiler Stack 
was Erected 206 

Crosby, Frank P. : 

Standard Designs of Jigs 
and Fixtures for the Man- 
ufacture of Small Inter- 
changeable Parts. 

1 S57 

2 944 

Cross-Uoll Curve. Graphical 

Determination of the. E. 

H. Wood 134 

Cullev. Geortre. : 

Progressive Punch and Die. 207 
Cup, A Loose Pulley Oil..., 320 
Cup, Bennett Handy Grease. 907 
Cup. Tucker Positive Lock 

Compression Grease 815 

(^up-Shaped Drawn Pieces 

and Blanks that .Vdhcre to 

launches, Stripping. C. 

Howell Dockson 964 

Currier. Cyrus C, Obituary 

of 325 

Curtis & Co. Mfg. Co.: 

Curtis Sand-Blast Outfit.. 313 
Curve. Draftsman's Gradu- 
ated. Winmac 382 

Curves of Short Radii, 
Special Shop Car for. Jas. 

T. Grimshaw 49 

Curves vs. Tables 948 

(i'ustnmer. Experiences of a. 

A Buyer 629 

Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co. ; 
Alternating Current Drum 

Controllers 559 

Machine Tool Controller. . 233 
Cutler-Hammer Hand Lift- 
ing Magnet 482 

Self-Startinff Switches for 
.\ltematlne Current 

Motors 555 

Cutter. .Vbrasive Metal.... 822 
Cutter, An Automatic Wire. 320 
Cutter. Brown & Sharpe 
Stocking Gear 903 


Cutter Head of Improved 
Construction, All-Stecl,.. 158 

Cutter, .Motor-Driven Pipe 
and Tube 300 

Cutler. .Muinmert Wolf and 
Dixon HlubPower Plur- 
ality Die Bolt- 639 

Cutter, New Type of Mill- 
ing 273 

Culler or Counterbore, Flue- 
Hole, Austin G. .loluison. 882 

Cutter to a .Machine Sleel 
Body, Welding a High- 
Speed Steel 703 

(.'utter. Turning and Backing- 
OIT .Maclilne. Wailiiam.... 722 

Cutter with Inserled Blades. 
Di-vi'liipnient of a High- 
Speed .Mining ". . 257 

Cutters and Ta|ier Reamers. 
Setting-Angles for Milling 
Angular. W. .\. Knight. 163 

Cutlers, Centering Self- 
Hardening. J. R. Weaner. 214 

Cutters In I'lanlng and .Mill- 
ing Fixtures. I. o eating 
Tools and. Ilei^hi Block. 969 

Cutters, The Disturbing Ef- 
fect of Centrifugal Force 
on IlighSi d 531 

Cutting a Large Silent Chain 
Pinion. C. -M. llanierslv. . 456 

Cutting Cams. .Mel hod of 
Lavinii Out and. Herbert 
C. -Barnes 101 

Cutting Helical Gears on the 
Brown & Sharpe .Auto- 
matic Screw Machine 617 

Cutting Machine, Wallham 
.\utomatlc Escai)e-\\'lieel . . 315 

Cutting Machine, Waltham 
Clutch 720 

Cutting-oCf Machine, High- 
Speed Steel 486 

Cuttiniroff of Thin Tubing 
with the Power Hack 
Saw, The 887 

Cuttini: Out Metal Sheets, 
Machine for 368 

Cutting Qualities, Taylor- 
White Process of Treating 
Tungsten Steel to Increase 276 

Cutting Screw Ends Flush 
with Nuts, J. T. Grim- 
shaw 213 

Cutting Screws, Improved 
Method of 634 

Cutting Speeds to be Used on 
Milling Machines, General 353 

Cutting Worms and Hobbing 
Worm-Wheel Seements.. . . 286 

Cvlinder Oil. Selecting a. 
('has. L. Hubbard 208 

Cylinder Press. Watson-Still- 
man Reversed 731i 

Cvlinder Reamer. Kelly 392 

Cylinder Re-Boring Machine. 
Underwood .Vutomoblle ... 733 

Cylinders, .\utngenous Weld- 
ing as a Means of Re- 
pairing. Henry Cave 591 

Cylinders in Single-.\ctlng 
Engines. Offsetting ....... 788 

Cylinders, Tests on Cast Iron 56 

Cylinders, Thick. P. M. 
'Gallo 870 

Cylinders. To Determine Size 
'of Gas and oil Engine. 
Newton Wright 427 

C.vlinders. l'nit|ue Method of 
Finishing. Joseph R. 
Weaner 464 

Cylindrical Grinding 7<H 

Cylindrical Grinding. 

■ 1 620 

2 '. 699 

Dalin Bros. : 

No. 2 Dalin Hand Milling 

Machine 304 

Dalin, Obituary of Gust. \.. 991 
Dallett Co.. Thomas H. : 

.\ir Compressors 478 

Data Sheet Correction 712 

David, William H. : 

Markmg Fluid for Blue- 
Prints .55 

Davis Clutch Co. : 

Davis Clutch 891 

Davis Machine Co. : 

Finishing I! e v e 1 G ear 
Blanks in the Davis Tur- 
ret Lathe 159 

Davis Machine Co.. W. P. : 
Davis 16-inch Engine Lathe 
with Motor .Attachment. 987 
Davis, Ralph W. : 

Chart for the Cost or Pur- 
chasing Department... 624 
Size of Working Drawings. 884 
Davis. William : 

Hardening Drills for Drill- 
ing Spring Steel 140 

Soldering Paste for Copper 

Wires 973 

Dawes. Mitchell ; 

On Obtaining .Approximate 

Fractions 137 

Deane Steam Pump Co. : 

Triplex Power Pump .... 231 
Deaths, etc.. tor Publication, 
Request for Notices of 

Changes 409 

Defects in Mechanism, Lo- 
cating 040 

Degrees in Electrical Engin- 
eering. Massachusetts Insti- 
tute of Technology. .Ad- 
vanced 82 

Delttvc'ii, Obituary "t \\11 „,,., 
11am «-" 

Iii'I.Ilk-, A. J. : ,„- 

A liilll riv«» Vise ••"' 

Tool-KdOiu I'lK'ik Sysli-iu. . ««■> 

Delta llli' Wiirks ; 

Niw Cut I'll.' tor Saw 
Shar|ii'iiili|.' '•Ull 

lii'iiiurki. J(is>i>li : 

Self I'l'iui-llnu Al-bol- l-'» 

Uemliik', Itii.v II. : 

To Kifp an Anuiiliu- Kcain- 

tT from riiaHiiliii! 0-0 

I.ulirliaiit lOr Latin- CVn- 

iHMiioiracy. An Indiistiial . . . a5H 

IK'iuiKnuy, Tlial Imliistrlal. . uJo 

Di'nionstiatlnj! ItoDiii, A New _ 
Ma.liliic • ■ ,•• '•■'- 

Ui-nionslrallng Itdom, 1 li p 
Clivi'laiid Aiiliiniatli- .Ma- 
chine (.'o.'s ■,• ■ •*'" 

Donatiiifd Alcolml tr.mi Na- 
tural Gas. rriM-eKs of Mak- 
Ing • l*'*' 

IJe Navarro, Jose K.. oliltuary __ 
of o < 

Derrlik. l.lKbt I'ortahlr 4U8 

Ueslun ami Conslrui-lloii of 
Kli-otili- (Ivci-ln-ail Cram-s. 
It. 11. lirowii. „„, 

1 >-' 


n : : : : : i-y^ 

4 . I ( i 

5 '.'.'.'.'. '!«!» 


7 ;;.. , S47 

Di'slpi ami ( 'oust i-ui-t ion of 
Mi'tal-Worklng Sbops. \V. 
P. Sargent. 

1 1 

<> 85 

3 '.'.'.'.'.'.'. Iti'J 

4 251 

5 :::: 3^:* 


Design. Eeonomical. .Mbert 
Clegg 4«2 

Design. Guc-.-^swork In .Maililne 
Tool 11' 

Design. Siiuiili- .Method of 
Staek. \. .1. llaiie. .Ir. . . 'Jo2 

Design. Some Thovigbts on 
Maelilne Tool. Fon-est E. 
Cardullo 839 

Design. The lommereial Fac- 
tor In Maebine ^ 339 

IH'signs of .ligs and I'ixtures* 
for the Manofai-ture of 
Small Inlerehangeable 
I'arls. Standard. Frank 1". 

1 857 

2 '. 944 

Designs of Uffset Levers. 

Good and Bad. John S. 

Mvers '. 937 

Detroit : 

Device for Testuig Truth 

of Cut Gears 374 

Detroit Shear Co. ; 

Searight Compound Lever 

Mechanic's Shears 637 

Dial Indicator, Compact Form 

of. Luclen Haas 96G 

Diameter of a Circumscribed 
Circle, Determining tlie. 

A. C. Johnson 9G6 

Diameter of a ('ircniiiscril)cd 

Circle. To Find the 711 _ 

Diamond Chain & Mfg. Co. : 
Detachable Link Transmis- 
sion Chain 637 

Diamond Machine Co. : 

Four-disk Gorton Grinder.. 143 

Face Grinder 386 

Traveling-Head Face Grind- 
er 56G 

Diamond I'ower Specialty Co. : 
Diamond Automatic Die- 
Head 314 

Diamond Saw & Stamping 
Wks. : 
Iligli - Speed "Sterling" 

Hack-Saw Machine .... 404 
Dickinson. J. W. : 

Setting the Steady-Rest... 52 
Die, Bending. Engineer.... 381 
Die Bolt-Cutter. Mummert. 
Wolf & Dixon High-1'ower 

Plurality 639 

Die Cutting. Billings & Spen- 
cer Milling Machine tor.. 231 
Die. Efficient Type of Blank- 
ing and Forming. F. E. 

Shaiior 795 

Die for .\rmature Bar Clips, 

Bending. J. ,\. G, Goubt. 887 
Die for Corrugating Thin Cop- 
per Sheets. Punch and. \. 

L. Monrad 602 

Die tor Countersinking Holes 
in Corner Irons. S. S. 

Hart 130 

Die for Special Springs, Sub- 
Press 791 

Die for I'se on Turret 
L.Tthes. etc.. Solid .\djust- 

able Threading 216 

Die-Head. Diamond .\utomatic. 314 
Die Head. Improved Murchey 

Automatic Opening 810 

Die Header. Double Stroke 

Open 650 

Die-Holders for Marking Ma- 
chine. F. P. Hebard .... 52 
Die Maker. 

Needles Used as Divider 
Points 140 

I)le-Mttker», Ilome-uiade Tools 

for. Uoy Plalsled 48 

Die, .N'ovel Combination, lieo. * 

!•. I'eurce -" 

Die, Shearing Punch and. 

looluiaker 9'i> 

Die SliiKing, The Cliaiupncy 

I'rocess of **23 

Die-stock, "Buekeye" Uateliet- 

Driven «3'l 

Die stock. Duplex 05(1 

lUe-Sioek of Larue Dlmi-ii- 

sloiis. Harts -nuckeye' ... 391 
Dle-Slock, Usier Pipe Thread- 
ing 388 

Dies, Atlacbmenl for Milling 
Half Cniles in Drop I'orge. 

I.'red Terry 541 

Dies, Coin and Medal. Chester 

L. Lucas "66 

Dies, Kcoriomlcal .Metb.Ml ol 
Making Blanking. James S. 

Glew 46.1 

Dies for Can Ends, Punches 

and. SIrius 51 

Dies, Formulas tor .Machine 
Screw Bulloii or split. 
Thomas J. .Sorion and 

Douglas T. Hamilton 5.36 

Dies, 1 breading. Krlk Oberg 27 
Dletz : 

-Vdjustabie Extension Tool- 
Holder for I'laner and 

Shaper 466 

DllHcult Job, line Uay of 

Doing a. Pedro 04 

Dill .Maebme Co., T. C. : 

The Dill Drive 68 

Dimensions. 1 he I'sychology 

of Magnllied 048 

Diplomatic Diaflsman, The. 

Tlbbab 368 

Disk Grinder. Besly Double 

Spiral 9i 1 

Disk Grinder, 18-lncU I.*ver 

Feed 636 

Disks. Slocomb Keferenee. . . 319 
Divider Points. Needles Ised 

as. Die .Maker 140 

Dividers. To olitain Hatlos 
Not Provldi'd on Propor- 
tional 7111 

Dock to be Constructid at 
Southampton, to .Vcconimo- 
date Large Ucean Liners, 

Large 360 

Dockson. C. Howell : 

Stripping I'up-shapid 
Drawn Piicc-s and Blanks 
that .\dbcre to i'uncbes.. 964 
Dog. Hill Milling Maebine... 909 
Doing Better, than Talking. . 125 
•Don'ts" tor Draftsmen. John 

S. Myers 935 

"Don'ts" for Inventors. H. 

S. Busey 3o6 

•Don'ts" for the Blacksmith. 

George T. Coles 443 

Door Closing Device, Shop.. 990 
Dorman. John H. ; 

Tapping .Vttachment for 
Use in Sensitive Drills. 77 
Double Spiral Disk Grinder, 

Besly '•'77 

Dove-tail Keyseat in a Taper 
Hole. Broaching a. T- 

Square 455 

Diafting-Iloom. Novelty In.. 022 
Draftsman, The Diplomatic. 

Tibbali 368 

Draftsmen. Don'ts tor. John 

S. Mvers 935 

Drawing-Board, Attachment 

for the. W. L. Van Ness. 790 
Drawing Cleaner and Pencil 
Sharpener, Coates I'ower 

Eraser 392 

Drawing Press, Bliss Triple- 
Action ■ • .. 71 

Drawing Press for Metal 

Caskets, Ferracute 221 

Drawing Press, Toledo Heavy 

Single-Action 230 

Drawings for the Pattern- 
Maker, Special. E. W. 

Miller 963 

Drawings in Machine Shop 
Practice. Holder tor. L. 

N. Brvant 460 

Drawings. Size of Working. 

Kalph W. Davis 884 

Drawings. Sizes of Working. 

J. E. Washburn 708 

Drawings, Sizes of Working. 

William L. Breath 500 

Dreses .Meb. Tool Co. : 

48-lnch Uadial Drill 73 

Motor-Driven Turret Lathe 
with Self-Contalned Coun- 
tershaft 553 

Drill. Acme High-Speed Twist 157 
Drill, .\merican I'ool Wks. 

Co. High-Speed Kadial 217 

Drill. American Tool Works 

Sensitive Kadial 645 

Drill and Chuck. Norka Two- 
Grooved Hlgb-Spced Twist 720 
Drill and Reamer Tables. 

Standard. Nosmot 465 

Drill, Barnes Drill Co.'s 

Gear-Driven Gang 717 

Drill. Barnes' 22V:-inch 897 

Drill. Barnes No. 3 Horizontal 

Radial 304 

Drill Chuck. A Ball-Bearing. 234 
Drill-Chuck and Collet. Wiz- 
ard Quick-change 314 

Drill Chuck. Union Geared.. 2:il 
Drill. Correction to Descrip- 
tion of Collis High-Speed.. 409 

Drill Design, A Bit of Uad- 
ial. Uacqilet 29.> 

Drill. Dreses 48 Inch Kudlal. 73 

Drill, Flat 'I'aper Shank 987 

Drill. 2'/j-foot Cone-Driven 

Radial 638 

Drill. Foote-Burl No. 24 High 

Duty 401 

Drill for Brick, .Making and 

Hardening a. Janes Ciun 3i.i 
Drill, Fox Adjustable Mulll 

pie Spindle 984 

Drill Grinding. Twist 787 

Drill, llackeli Twisted 146 

mill, Iligli Speed li.nch.... 158 
Drill, Inipiovcd Si-nsltlve . . . . 555 
Urlll Jig, Inleresllng. C. H. 

llamsey "0 

iMlll. Nelson Combined 

Itatehel Wrench and 735 

Drill, Oval Socket Breast.... 988 

Drill, Portable 734 

Drill, Portable Electric 

Bnast 988 

Drill. Power Feed for Iloefcr 

16-lnch Jo 

Drill-Press, .\vey Sensitive.. 4i4 
Lirlll Press, Fricllon-Drlven. 987 
Drill Press. Improvement In 

S.-nsltlve Miiltlpb- Spliulb-. 400 
Drill Press. New English Up- 
right. James \ ose 9.jS 

Drill Press. Ueed 13-lnch 

Suigle Siilndle 801 

Drill Press Table, Tilting... 233 
Drill Press, The Superior Ma- 
chine Tool Co.'s Tapping 

.Vttachment for 89 ( 

Drill Press Vise with Adjust- 
ing Jaw I'lates. Charles 

Tavlor 630 

Drill" Press with Multl-Spin- 
dle Attachment. Baush 

Three-Splndle 820 

Drill. Robertson 21-lnch Up- _„_, 

right 720 

Drill. Self-Adjusting. Friction 

Sensitive 486 

Drill Sbank Tang. Gross & 

Gross Intermediate 9i9 

Drill Small Deep Holes, To. 56 
Drill Socket. "Slayin" Posi- 
tive 396 

Drill Sockets, and Lathe At- 
tachment for Producing 
Them, Lancaster Oval 

Taper '4 

Drill Sockets and Sleeves. 
Standard Tool Co.'s "Econ- 
omy" 480 

Drill Stop. U. B. Lovejoy.. i)43 
Drill Taper Shank Tang. The 

Morse 865 

Drill, Taylor & Fenn Type C _ 

Manufacturers' "2J 

Drill, The "Radical" Angular 399 
Drill, Twenty-one Inch Sny- 
der Upright 728 

Drill, Van Dorn Electric... 47o 
Drill Vise, Armstrong Quick- 

.\ction 223 

Drill, Western Geared Drive 

Plain Radial 804 

Drill. Willev Portable Elec- 
trical Breast 232 

Drill with Varialile Speed 

Drive, Multiple Spindle... 901 
Drilling and Counterboring 
Tool. Combination Locat- 
ing. Clamping. F. W. Hall. 965 
Drilling and Milling Machine, 

Coffman Universal 407 

Drilling and Milling Machine. 

Fosdick Horizontal Boring. 146 
Drilling and Milling Machine, 
Fosdick Motor-Driven Hori- 
zontal Boring 731 

Drilling and Milling Machine. 

Newton Horizontal Boring. 318 
Drilling and Rilling Machin- 
ery, Motor-Driven Gun 

Barrel 640 

Drilling and Tapping Ma- 
chine. Combined 556 

Drilling and Tapping Ma- 
chine. Roliertson Drill & 

Tool Co.'s 21-Inch 812 

Drilling. Data cm High- 
Speed. Geo. E. Hallenbeck 697 
Drilling Ell Flange. Special 
Jig for. Jig and Tool De- 
signer 709 

Drilling. Grinding and Buf- 
fing Outfit, Motor-Driven 

Portable 408 

Drilling Holes in Glass. 

John Ingberg 380 

Drilling Kink. A. E. S. 

VATieeier .14 

Drilling Machine. .V Double- 
Spindle 321 

Drilling Machine. Corbin- 

Church High-Speed 146 

Drilling Machine. Improved 

Spindle .\rrangement tor 

Andrew Multiple 223 

Drilling Machine, Multiple 

Spindle 651 

Drilling Machine, Mnmford 
Horizontal Boring, Milling 

and • 906 

Drilling Machine, Universal 

Boring. Milling and 154 

Drilling Machine. Waltham 

Multiple Spindle 811 

Drilling Opi-rations. Minimiz- 
ing the Time of. .Vlfred 

1 ol8 

2 ; ; 960 


DrtlllnK Plate, or Auilllary 
Drill Presu Platen. W. H. 

Sbafer 212 

Drilling Slots, Jig for 883 

Drilling. Tupping and UorInK 
Muehlne, Increasing the 
EtUelency of a Horizontal. 

.\lfred Spang«-nberg 745 

Drilling, Tixil for De--|> Hole. 

Francis P. Havens 708 

Drills, Collis HIgh-Hpeed 305 

lirllls, Exuerimenta on TwUt. 

1 689 

2 753 

Drills for Drilling Spring 

Stvel, Hardi'Dlng. William 

Davis 140 

Drills, Holder for Small. W. 

W. Cowles U71 

Drills, lIour-GlasM I'seful in 
'llinbig the Hardening and 

Tempering Heals of 360 

Drills, improved Splndle-Ad- 
lustlng Device for Alultiple 

Spindle 398 

Drills. Three-Fluted 770 

Drive. Angle 735 

Drive, .V Semi Geneva 704 

Drives, Chain 452 

Drive, Cincinnati Two-Speed 

Planer 224 

Drive for Belt-Operated Ma- 
chines, Variable Speed 

Planer 555 

Drive for the Gray I'laner. 

Variable Speed 306 

Drivi', Hydraulic Variable 

Speed 409 

Drive, Moore i White Var- 
iable Speed 903 

Drive, Multiple Spindle Drill 

with Variable Speed 901 

Drive Surfacers. "Nucllnch" 

Belt and Rope 893 

Drive. The Dill 68 

Drives, Experimenla with 

Rope and Belt 434 

Drives, Locating -Angle Belt. 712 
Driver for Round Stock. 

Lathe 540 

Drop Forge Work In an Auto- 
mobile Shop. Ethan Vlall. 17 
Drop Hammer. Billings & 

Spencer Model C 144 

Drum Controllers, Alternat- 
ing Current . . 550 

Drying Frame. Williams, 

Brown & Earle Blueprint. 319 
Duplex Face Milling Ma- 
chine. Newton 471 

Duplex Hack-Saw. Buffalo 

Specialty Co.'s 319 

Duplex Milling Machine. No. 

Yi Van Norman 477 

D.vnamo. Rule for Finding 
Size of Engine Required to 
Drive a Direct-Current.... 839 
Dynamometer. A New Trans- 
mission. Wm. H. Kener- 
son 777 

Eaton, James : 

Use of a Lathe Constant 
for Calculating Change 

Gears 710 

Eberhardt Bros. Mch. Co. : 
Universal .\utomatic Gear- 
Cutting Machine 65 

Eberhardt. E. G. : 

Taper Gib Design in "Jigs 

and Fixtures" 213 

Eberhardt. Elmer G., Obit- 
uary of 325 

Eccentric Straps. Device for 
Reaming Holes In. .\. G. 

Johnsor 213 

Eccentric. Turning an. Orig- 
inal 54 

Eccentrics and Cranks 972 

Eccmomical Design. Albert 

Clegg 462 

Economics. Machine Tool 

Building and 117 

Economy in Cutting Bar 

Stock for Twist Drills.... 119 
Economy in Engines. Steam. 276 
Economy. Mistaken Idea of. . 34 
Economy of Steam and Gas 
Power when Exhan-it Steam 
is Used for Heating. Rela- 
tive 194 

Edgar. John : 

The Hindlev Worm and 

Gear 243 

Edison Monolithic Concrete 

Houses 36 

Education and Shop Practice, 

Combination of "IVcIinical. . 42S 
Education, Co-operative In- 
dustrial 116 

Education of Apprentices at 

Drifton 447 

Education Pay? Does. W. L. 

Cheney 880 

Education. The .\dvance of 

Engineering 32 

Educational Work. Machix- 

EEY'S 445 

Efflciencies. Remarkable Re- 
sult of Combining Alleged 

Machine 338 

Efficiency Tests of Milling 
Machines and Milling Cut- 
ters 278 

Elasticity of Copper, The 

Strength and 696 

Elbe. Use of the Forces of the 
Tides Near the Mouth of 
the 270 

ICIc'clrlc AutuiiiHtlc Signaling 
Systom to bo lustiilliHl on 
tlie Loudon Metropolitan 


ICIectrlf Conl-runchor. hi- 

terealing features of an.. 

Elcctrli- Controller & -Mfg. 

Co. : 

Klectrkal Kault I'Mnder for 

l>eliitliig <: rounds. Short 

CIreults. tte 

Electrle Controller & Mfg. 
Co.'s Type SA Lifting 


Uail-LlfliMc .Miii;liels 

A New Line of .Motor Start- 

Klectric Generating I':(|ul|)- 
nient Opi'i-ated liy AVind 


Kleetrie Hardening i-'urnaees. 
Kleclrie Lamps. Uaiiger of 

Shoek frttm 

Kleetrie Light Holder. Adjust- 

Electric Light. Interesting 

Use of 4-iC 

Electric Motors, Sturtevant 

Type H 148 

Electric Operation Kccorder. 

An 321 

Electric Overhead Cranes. De- 
sign and Construction' of. 
U. B. Brown. 







conouiy in. 





.Melting I'ur 
Switch Mechanism 

. 276 







Electric Steel 



Ingenious . . 

Electric Welding of Tools.. . . 
Electrical Engineering, Mas- 
sachusetts In.stitute of 
Technology, .\dvanced De- 
grees in 

eelrical Fault Eindor for 
Detecting Grounds. Short 

Circuits, etc 

Electrical Furnace for lieat 
Treatment of Steel. General 

Electric Co.'s 

Electrical I'urposes. Stand- 
ards for Reciprocating 

Steam Engines for 

Electrical Welding 

lOlectrieally-Driven Grinders. 

Two Willey 

Electricallv-lleated Harden- 
ing Baths 

Electrically - Operated Street 
and Interurban Lines in 
United States, Total 

Length of 

Electrification of the Man- 
hattan and ijneens Ter- 
minals of the I'ennsvlvania 


Electro ; 

Zinc Paint for Oil Wells. . ',-, 
Electro - Chemical Cleaning 

Baths J03 

Elements of Machine Manu- 
facture. Fred. .1. Mill 
Elevated Lines. The Number 
of Passengers Carried in 

the Subway and 

Elevated Railwav Lines. Non- 
Success of Gravel Roadbed 


Elevating Tool-Post Design 

S. H. Bullard .' 626 

Elevator. Forewarning tlie 

Lowering of an i!7I 

Elevator, Inclined Plane Shop 

Car 4.5g 

Elgin Tool Works : 

Screw Cutting Attachment 
for Elgin Precision Latlie 
Ell Flange, Special .Jig for 
Drilling, .lig ano Tool De- 

Elmore Tool Mfg. Co 

Screw Driver 

Emerson. (*. F. : : 

Holding Small Screws while 
Filing Off the Point. . . . 
l-.mery-Wheel Dresser, Rear- 

Emery Wheel. Interesting 

Type of 1 1 .1 

Ettiery Wheel Stand, An.. 3^>l 
Emery Wheels. Guard for. . 3.S7 
Emmert Mfg. Co. : 

Noyes Vertical T-Sq«are 

Face Grinding Machine 

Emplovers and Ass'iciaii>= 
vs. Inventors. E. C. Smith 
Employes to Trade Secrets, 

Relation of jgn 

nd Bulfing Lathe, Duplex 

Independent 070 

Energy, The. Waste of Human 689 
Engine in t/se in EnKland. A 

Boulton & Watt. 
Engine Lathe. Carron'-.Tami- 

eson Quick-Change Gear 
Engine Lathe, The -r, v'-J 

Screw-Cutting ' " ' 

Engine Lathe, Walcott ifi- 


Engine Lathe witli Motor 

Attachment. Davis lO-inch 

Engine Required to Drive a 

Direct - Cfurrent Dynamo, 

for Finding Size of. 



Engines for Elerlrival I'ur 
poses. Standards for Recip- 

riK'atlng Steam 

i:ngines. Horsepower Form- 
ula for Gasoline 

Engines, Large Gas 

Engines, OITsetting Cylinders 

in Single-.Acting . '. " 
llngines. Steam Econc 
Ilnghieer : 

Punch and Die for Uniform 

Iron Blanks 40 

Bending Die 38| 

Engineer and the People, The. .-ic)2 
l.ngineer in I'ublic Relations 
Engineering as Best Training 

fi>r Young .Men 

Engineering Education, The 

.\dvance of 

ICngineering Formulas. Svin 

hois in Matheinati<al aiid 
iCnginecring Papers, Ethics 


ICnglneering Practice, Lock- 
.Nuts Used in. Nutlocks . . 
l.ngineers. Training of Ger- 

England, Superheating 
lirltish Correspondent 
English Tjpe of Electricali 
Driven Siotter. .Jarni 


English L'pright Drill Press' 

New. .lames \'ose. . . . 
English Vertical .Milling Ma 
chines. New, Frank C. 
PorKins "T" 

Engraving Block. Making an'. 

Ethan viall 781 

Ennis, Benjamin F. : 

Test Indicator for Lathe 

Work, etc 

Eraser, Drawing Cleaner, and 
Pencil Sharpener, Coates 

Power . 

Erasing Shield. Ad'j'ustahl' 

Jolin B. Sperrv. . 
Erasing Shield. Combined Tri 

angle. Scale. Protractor and tj."i0 
Erection of I'ower Plant bv 
Grand Falls Power Co. . .' 
Error in Note on Gas Engine 

Exhaust for Heating. . . . 
ICscape-Wheel Cutting Ma- 

chine, Waltham .\utomatic. 315 
Ethics of Engineering Papi'i-.s. 608 

IC Inch 


. . 979 





. . 958 


. . 382 




American Me- 
Oskar Kylin. 







Tool and Machine 


to Find 

of Inlet 





Co. : 
Excelsior Multiple 
Exhaust Cams. Hem- 
Included Angl 


Exhaust Heat of Gas 

gines. Utilization of.... Pipe, Badly Choked. 
Exhibition of Aeroplanes. 


Expanding Milling Machine 
.\rlior. Improved. Frank 

G. Sterling 

Experience of a Customer. 

A Buyer Qog 

Experience of l-nrcha'siiig 

Agents. The ? 444 

Experiences of a Young Tool- 
maker. T. Covev 938 

E.xport of Machine Tools, 
Germany's Import and.. 

•''^■"■J- . Packing Machine 
Tools for 

E.xport. Packing Machinery 

Exports Increasing, .japan's. 

Exports of Machine Tools. In- 
crease in English 

Extension for Draftsman's 
Protractor 547 

Extension Tool Holder, 'w 
A. Knight " 135 

'■■•*m '^"'*' forging an. George 







I' eed for Iloefer 

Drill. Power 

I'"ui<l Shear, Bcrtscb 

ma t ic 

I''erracule .Machine Co. 

Drawing I'ress for Metal 


Ferracule Rolling Mill..! 
Ferracule Hand Screw 


Fiber Sheets, Bending "and 

liirming of 545 

I'ile .\ulomatic Band Saw 

Miarpi'iier, Rotary T^g 

I' lie Cutting Maclilnes, Base 
ami Foundation of D V 

Hampson ' yyo 

i'ile for Saw Sharpening, 

New Cut :m^ 

Fib. Handle, "Indeslru.tlble" 567 
lile Holder, OITset. L. J. 

Sparks 631 

File, Solder " a^n 

File, Vixen .Milling 71 

I''iling and Sawwig, Convict's 

Alleged Skill in : 168 

i'llmg Attachment for the 

Power Hack-Saw 643 

I'lling Machine. Chicago 

Bi'nch 645 

Filing Oir the Point. Holding 
Small Screws While. C 

I". Emer.son 468 

I'iles— H,)w to Order, Tool- 
makers' 9JC) 

Finger-Rings. Inte r e s 1 1 n'g 

Molds for. W. E. Morev "O"' 
I'lnlshmg Cylinders. Uni'que 
Method of. Joseph R. 


Fire Risk in Lower' ' New 

York City 

Firlh-Sterling Steel Co.: 
Improvements in High- 

Siieed Steel 

Fiscal Year. The Bureau "of 

Railway Statistics for the 
Fischer. Wm. F. : 

Formulas for Strength 

Flat Plates T. . 

Formulas for Strength 

r- vS"' Circular Plates 

Fish-Tail Mills 

Fitchburg Co-operative Indus- 
trial School Course 106 

Fitchburg Idea, Result of One 

Year of the. . . . 

Fitchburg Machine Works" 

Compensating Autom a t i c 

lX .^"^..."Lo-Swing" 

Operations PiTformed 'oii 

IT-. »•''"' "Lo-Swing" Lathe... 

^'"'"P; Tests of Standard 

cast Iron 

Fittings. Union fiiicii Pipe 

and \ariable Speeds, 

Fleming, W. M. : 

.Novel Pump Construction 
for Presses 

Flexible Stajf-Bolls, A New 
Departure In 

Flight. Mechanical 

Floating Chuck for Facing 
Gear Blanks 

I'loaling Reamer Holder Used 
by the Landis Tool Co. 

Fluting Cutlers. Devices "for 
Grinding. Erik Oberg 

Muting Small Taps, Improve- 
ment In Female Centers 
for. Charles E. Smart 

!• lying Machines, Aeroplane- 
lype. Harry Wilkin I'errv. 

Hying .Machines, The Com- 
mercialization of the 

Fly-wheels for Gasoline En- 
gines on the Pond Rigid 
lurrct Lathe, .Machining . . 

hoote Bros. Gear & Mch. Co • 
Spur Gear Speed Reducer.. 

toote-Burt Co. : 

No. 24 High-Duty Drill... 
{•oreign Notes, Miscellaneous 
torelen Trade. Germime' 















. . 991 


"oreign Trade, Germany's 
Method of Increasing 356 

I'orest Condition in the 
United States 527 

Forest Reserves and Ore De- 
posits, Methods of Swedish 
Goveriimint in Preserving 34 

I'orests of the United States. 446 

torge, A Cheap Home-made. 
Geo. T. Coles 13a 

Eorge, Crude Oil 822 

Forge with Motor-Driven 
Blower r,-^ 

Forges, Anvils and. Jaiiies 

Forging an Eve-bolt 
T. Coles 

Forging Appliances 
Hammers and 

Forging Hammers. 'bIi'ss Com- 
pound Pneumatic ggg 

t orging of Hooks and Chains, 
.lames Cran 

Form Grinding Operation's' iii 
the Shops of the I.andis 
Tool Co. Ralph E. Flan 








Comparison of 

Fixture. X Riveting. '. 

Fixture for Milling Sqijkre 

Heads Multiple Indexing 
Fixture for Reaming Connect- 

mg-Rod Bearings. ,Tohn F 

» inchester . 
Fixture for Testing' Pa'railel"- 

Jsm of Crank-pins. John 

a. Sperrv .... 
Fixture for the " "Webs" " 'nf 

Criinkshafts. A Milling. S 

t±. Sweet .... 

^'ilV/t r-^^^-^gi'^e' ■ Cam- 
Shaft, Key-seating W A 
Sawyer ' 

Fixtures and Jig.s', 'Pro'p'e'r" De- 
signing of Milling and 
Drilling. R. B. Little. 

Fi.xtures for the Manufacture 
or Small Interchangeable 
Parts. Standard Designs of 
Jigs and. Frank P. Crosby. 



lorming and Bending Ma- 
chine. Combined . . . 

Forming Die, Efficient Type 
of Blanking and. F. " E 
Shaiior -i^~ 

i'orming of Fiber " "sheef's. 
Bending and r,_^g 

Formula for Automoliile "Eii'- 
gines. Horse-power . . 

Formula for Gasoline En- 
gines, Horsepower 



Formula for Milling V-Shaped 
Grooves with Inclined Top 





Irving Ban- 



. 679 

. . 480 



T. Coles 

Eyelet Sets. Method of Mak- 
ing Master Tools for. 
Warren E. Thompson. 

•Tigs and.' ic'inir 









Face Grinder, Traveling-Head 
I' ace-plate Construction for 

rhreading Lathes .... 
laee-Plate, Setting Wcirk on 

the. A Subscriber 01)^ 

l-acmg Lathe, Double-Head. 5.59 
facing Machine. Underwood 
lortable Boring. Turning 

and " 

Facing Tool. Cleveland 'Multi- 
ple Reaming and. 
Fairfield. Geo. A.. Obituar'v of 
Fairfield, H. P. : 

Shop Photogranhv . . . 440 

Planer with Elaborate Or- 
namentation . . . >;o 1 
Pair. .Tapan-s Postpon'e'd 

u orld s .... 
Fair, Worlds, at' ilagiie! 
Fastener. Belt. A. I. Linslev 
^ault Finder for Deteetirie 
Grounds. Short -■•-••* 
etc.. Electrical . 
Fay & Egan Co.. J. 
Double Circular 

shop Saw 

Fay JIachine Tool Co • 

24-Inch Fay Automatic 


Fay & Scott ; 

Double-Head Facing Tool.. 





2 ... 








13 .'.".'.'.'.■,';,■ 

Fixtures, Locating Tools 'ail d 
Cutters m Planing and 
Milling. Height Blo?k. 

Flanders. Ralph E • 

Gear-Cutting Machinery. . 
How Many Gashes ShoGid a 

Hob Have? 






A. : 



Developments ' iii 
^^^^^■•-Cutting Machinery. 
Form Grinding Operations 
in the Shops of the Lan- 

^, dis Tool Co oon 

Flange Coupling from a Shaft ' ' 
Removing a ' r-,,.. 

Flange Special Jig for Drijl'- " 
mg Ell. Jig and Tool De- 

Flanges. Proposed! Car' ■Wheels 
" ithout 

Flather Mark. Planer "co" 
TwoSpee« Planer w:i'th 

,„ Constant Return . 

t lather Mfg. Co.. E J ■' 
30-inch Vertical Tiirret Ma- 

Flat I.anoing Machine;.".... 564 

Fleet. The World-Encirc tog 
Trip of the U. S. . . ^ 570 



. . 647 

. . 215 

and Bottom 


Formulas and Tables' ' 'for of Gasoline 

Engines. .Morris .\. Hall.. 
Formtilas for Crane Beams or 

Girders. C. R. Whittier... 
Formulas for Sizes of Beams 

% r, ^i^.t"-''^- -Approximate. 

C. R. Whittier 

I'ormulas for Strength 'of 
Flat Circular Plates. Wm. 

F. Fischer 

Formulas tor Streng'tii'of" Flat 

Plates. Wm. F. Fischer.. 

formulas. Simplified Gear. C 

R. Whittier 

Formulas. Symbols in SlaVhe^ 
matical and Engineering... 
Fosdick Machine Tool Co ■ 
Horizontal Boring, Drill- 
ing, and Milling Ma- 

Motor - Driven Horizon'tal 
Bormg. Drilling and Mill- 

ing Machine 

Foundry. Prevention of Accl'- 

dents in the. . 
Four-Head Milling 'Machine". 
Ingersoll Special ... 

Fox Machine Co. : 

The Polishing Room of the 

Fox Machine Co 204 

Polishing Machine 017 

Tube Cutter .-joo 

Fox -Adjustable Multiple 

Spindle Drill gg^ 

Fractions, Adding and Sub- 
tracting Scale for sgo 

^luJ°"^- , Circular "Slide- 
^t. f?'' -Addition and 
Subtraction of 544 

Fractions, On Obtataing .Vn. 

proximate. Mitchell Dawes 

Fractions. Slide Rule for Ad- 

n-r°o'^?. Subtraction of. 
«m. C. Michael. . 

P^»?'"' -^'""azine Hack Sa'w.' .' 

RrFH;.^''ii''1 . Exhibition, 

^ rhe.*"{isk'irl^'l?n '^"'"^ '' 5 

'^■]^^^af"":.:*":-°'-t'.°5 ,1 












Fr ct on Caused by Injustice 188 
Friction Sntodle Press, A 
German Design of . . . . 07, 

inl"'"r' .Method of Insert'- ' 
Slferr^".'!''.. "".-... l^"'" «' 


Kill/. Mi'ilul to Cliarles T. 

I'oller. I'lfHiMitalluil iif tile 


Kiii'l fur Itilllsh Nttv-ai L'lUtt. 
Fiifl fi.r liKeiiial-t'umliustlon 

Kiitcini-'ii. Alcohol us a 

I''ii»*l, Snioki'lt'ss 

r lu'l 'rusllnu riaiil 

KiiUiiT. i:. ; 

Siil|i|n>i' Allai'liiiu'iit tor 

I'liiu'h rr*'ss 

Kiilloii Maililiif & Vise Co.: 

rorl.Uili- Doiilili-Swlvfl \'lsi> 
Kuiniio' lor llanliiiliiK will) 

llailliin flilorlili'. <ias. . . . 
Kurnaci- for lliat TnMiliiu'iu 

of Sli'i'l. (ii'iii'ial i:ii-<lrli- 

I'o.'s KliTliical 

Kuitiari- I'oi- llial ■rivaliiX'Mt 

itt SIiM'l, (HI Uuiiilng 

Kuinacc i;asfs for I'owcr Pro- 

ihnlloii. Ulast 

liiniaiM.. llanliiiiiiK and An 

iii'alint; • ■ • ■ 

Kimiaii-. Internal lire Con- 

llnnous ; ■ , • ■ 

Kurnaee.s. ICleelrle llarili-nlns;. 
Kurnae€>s Iseil. lOlectric Steel 




I I 

.•!! 1 



tiafke.v, i:. H. : 

To Turn Soft Uillilier •'■»> 

To Cover Iron riilU>.vs with 

Uublier i'''* 

Cement for KixinB Leather 

or I'aper to Pulleys !)ji.-_> 

Gage. A llevel Gear... . •!" 

tiaije. A Handy Serew-Thread. 

Oskar Kylin "■* 

(iage and a Swage Holder. 

Horing -Mill •■ '8» 

Gage Atlaeliiuent. ^.tarrett 

Center /-j" 

Gage. Kngineir s ....•• "•'"' 

liage for .\utoiiiolille Motors. 

Valve-Timing C. T. Shaefer (.24 
Gage for Centering Work with 
Milling Cutlers. 11. D. 

Chapman ^''4 

Gage for Grinding Correct 

l.ln Angles. iHill 408 

Gage for Testing the IManing 

of a Turret Maehine lied. . 41 
Gage for Thread Tools, Krie- 

ger Grinding ■***■» 

Gage. I'atlernmakers' Scratch. 

.\usim G. Johnson KiO 

Gage. Kadlus tio'i 

Gage. Sehellenbnih-Hunt Uni- 
versal Micrometer and Sur- 
face •'!**' 

Gage, Slarretl Planer . and 

Shaper "-' 

Gages for Accurately Sizing 
lievel Gear Blanks. George 

I). Porter 540 

Gaging hi Shafts and Hubs, 

Keyway 259 

Gagnier, E. D. : 

Uevlces for Holding Work 

While Tapping 21] 

Gallo, P. M. : 

Thick Cylinders 8iO 

Gang Drill, Barnes Drill Co.'s 

Gear-Driven 717 

(;ang Punch, Bertsch 477 

(iap Lathe for Ki'finishing 
Car .\xle .Tournals Without 

Removing the Wheels 15.S 

Gardner Machine Co. : 

No. 12 Improved Duplex 

Disk Grinder 400 

Garvin Machine Co. : 

Milling Machine with Ex- 
tra I-ong l<"eed 2.S3 

.\ Cam-Cutting Machine... 321 
.\ Combination Wheel and 

Disk Grinder 322 

Gas, Amount of Unused 526 

Gas and Oil Engine Cylin- 
ders. To Determine Size ot. 

Newton Wright 427 

Gas Engine .\ir Compressor. . 551 
Gas Engine Battleship. Con- 
templated Construction of. 3G6 
Gas Engine Cam-Shaft Key- 
seating Fixture. W. A. 

Sawyer 468 

Gas I'^ngine Cvlinders. Special 

Skinner Chiick for Holding. 388 
Gas Engine Determining tlie 
.Actual Compression in a 
Small. George M. Strom- 

bick 940 

Gas Engine Exhaust for 

Heating. Error in Note on. .353 
Gas Engine Valves, E. S. 

Wheeler 135 

Gas Engines. Large 712 

Gas Engines, Two-Cycle and 

FourC.vcle 198 

Gas Engines, T'tilization oSf 

Exhaust Heat of 200 

Gas Furnace for Hardening 

with Barium Chloride 77 

Gas I'ower Field. The 200 

Gas Power Plant, .V Yeaa-'s 

Experience with a Suction. 36 
Gas Power when Exhaust 
Steam is TTsed for Heating, 
lielative Economv of Steam 

and .' 194 

Gas Pressure of the Spring- 
field Rifle 851 

Gashes Should a Hob Hare? 

How Many. Oscnr .T. Beale 028 
Gashes Should a Hoh Have? 
How Many. Ralph E. 
Flanders 339 

liashlng and llolililiig a 
Worm Wheel 370 

(lasoliro' Engines, FormdlaH 
and Tiiliies for lloiNe power 
of. .Morris A. Hall Old 

Gasoline EugineH on llie I'ond 
Itlgld Tiiirel i.allie. Ma- 
ehlnliig Fly wheelH for. . . , 202 

Gasoline .MoloiK, Light K5!» 

Gasoline, Tesls for llecreaHO 
In the Cnnsumpllon of,... 276 

Gear llliinks. Floallng Chuck 
for Facing . 421 

Gear Culler, llrowu Jt Sharpe 
Slocking 903 

Geart'iiller Grinding .Ma- 
ehine. Newark 716 

Gear Culling .Machine, Eber- 
liarill,' Universal Au- 
tiunalie 65 

Geart'ulllng .Machine. Lees- 
Bradner Aut lie 9S0 

Gear Cultlng Maclilnerv — 9. 
Ralph K. Fland. rs 9 

Gear-Culling Maebinery. Re- 

C e n 1 Developlllellls In. 

Ralph E. Flanders 422 

(iear Driven ti a n g Drill. 

Barnes Drill Co.'s 717 

Gear l';nglne Lathe. Carroll- 

.lamlescm (.>uick Change. . . 819 
Gear Fi>rmiilas, SlmpllHed. 

C. R. Whitlier 917 

Gear Gage, ,V Bevel. ...,..,. 377 
(jear-llobhing Machine. Rey- 
nold's .Machinery Co.'s.... 646 
Gear Problfciiu. .\ Bevel. I-idw. 

Person 628 

Gear Problems. Spiral' 297 

Gear Reduction Mechanism. 

Self-Conlalned 650 

Gear. The llludley Worm 

and. .lohii Edgar 24:i 

Gear Tooth Sysleiiis. Inter- 
changeable Involute 3<il 

Gears. .Mtachuient for Cut- 
ling Hi-llcal Steel 983 

Gears, .\utoiiiatic Milling" 
.Machine .\ttachment for 
.Manufacturing Internal . . ,86:! 
(jcars, (_'<inslaiils for Calcu- 
lating Helical, C. W, Pit- 

mafi 281 

Gears, Device for Testing 

Truth of Cut. Detroit.... .".74 
G( ars. Diaurams for Design- 
ing Spiral. Francis .1. 

Bostock 90 

Gears Economically. Cutting 
and Kcvseating C hang e. 

Racoui4 124 

Gears Made from Composition 

Called "Unica" 4:!1 

Gears. Standard Involute.... 878 
Geared Feed Device for Hie 

Cincinnati Lathe 64 

Gearing for Worm - W heel 

Hobbing Machine. Figuring 88S 
Gearing, Involute System of. ,~>6 
Gearing. Strength of Helical. 125 
General Electric Co. : 

Electrical Furnace for 
Heat Treatment of Stei.| 311 
Generating F(|Uipment flner- 
ated bv Wind Power, Elec- 
tric 987 

Generator, Cause of Diminu- 
tion in Voltage from a . . . 297 

Geneva Drive. A Semi- 804 

Geometrical Progression for 
Snindle S p e i- d s. Francis 

W. Shaw 499 

George, .7. T, : 

.\n .Mtachment for Brown 
& Sharpi' Milling Ma- 
chine Vises 209 

Georger. L. H. : 

r.athe Bracket for Blue- 
Prints 214 

Blue-Print Protector 468 

Check Systems for the 

Tool-Room 706 

German Di^igiis of Internal 
Grinding Machines. Oskar 

Kylin 354 

German Engineers. Training 

of 607 

German.v. Decrease in Postal 
Rate between United 

States and 350 

Germany's Import and Ex- 
port of Machine Tools.... 863 
Germany's Method of In- 
creasing it's Foreign Trade 356 
Gerstner & Sons. H. : 

Portable Tool Cases 723 

Gilmer Co.. L. H. : 

Imnroved Vertical Belt 
Sander and Polisher.... 552 
Girder. The Relation of 
Depth to Span of a. Fred 

Newell 744 

Girders. Approximate Formu- 
las for Sizes of Beams 

and. C. R. Whittier 531 

Gir(iers. Formulas for Crane 
Beams or. C. R. Whitlier. 668 

Gi.sholt Shop Band 110 

Glass. Drilling Holes in. John 

Ingherg 380 

Glass. New Burglar - Proof 

Plate 748 

Glc w. James S. : 

Economical Method ot 
Making Blanking Dies.. 465 
Globe Machine & Stamping 
Kerosene Oil Burner 556 

(ilobcH. To I'reveiit llie Break 
age of Iniandeseeiit Llghl. 
Donald .V. Ilaliipsoii 796 

Gold and Iih KIteet on I'rleeu (ISN 

<iol(iell, Asller : 

Some Noti'B on Hall Bear- 

liigH «9-J 

(;ood will. Value of 539 

Gorton (irliKh'r, Four-DlMk, . 14.1 
(ioiilet, .1. A. G. : 

Bending Die for .Vrmuliire 

Bar Clips 886 

Governor for Buckeye illue- 

Priming .Machine 76 

Gradual liig Index Wasliers. 

.Machine for. C. II. Caloii 544 
Graduallng. Problems In... U32 
Gradiiallng. Tool for. Kllian 

Vlall 511 

i;ialiam .Mfg. Co. : 

Knurl Holder for Turret 

.Machines 643 

Pressed Sli'cl Grinder 

Chucks 719 

Giaiilte. The (Quarrying of.. 505 
i:ranl. John J. : 

Tapping .Machine for Light 

Work 409 

I Irani Mfg. A: .Maehine Co. : 
Grant Riveting .Machine 

for Steel Pulleys 305 

Graphical Determlnallon of 
the Cross-Roll Curve. E. 

H. Wood 134 

Graphlle Product. .\ New... 78 
Graphlio .\ New (Jraphlte 

Product 78 

(iraton & Knight Co. : 

S|iarlan Itc'liing 8o:i 

Grav.'l Roadbed for Elevated 
Railway Lines. Non-Suc- 
cess of 118 

Gravity Force. Mechanical 

Imil'alion of 532 

Giav Co.. G. A. : 

Variable Speed Drive for 

the Grav Planer 306 

Variable Speed Planer 
Drive for Belt-Operated 

Machines 555 

Grease Cup. Bennett Handy. 907 
Grease Cup. Tucker I'ositive 

Lock Compression 815 

Grebo : 

The Self-Reliance of Jim 

West 4:i 

Green. S. W. : 

To Remove Rust from 

Small Steel Paris 55 

(jribben. Walter : 

Truing a Bench Lathe P.ed .SCO 
Spherical Turning w i t li 

Compound Rest 964 

(_rrimshaw. James T. : 

Special S h o ii Car f o r 

Curves of Short Radii.. 49 
Cutting Screw Ends Flush 

with Nuts 2I,'I 

Grimshaw, Robt. : 

Careless Circular Distribu- 
tion 213 

To Set Over the Tail-Stock 

to Turn a Taper 295 

.\nswer to Casting Puzzle. .546 
Isometric Perspective .... 792 
(irinder, .V C o m b i na t ion 

Wheel and Disk 322 

Grinder, .\n .Vutoraatie Cut- 
ter 2.34 

Grinder. Attachment for 
Flexible Shaft. W. J. 

Thompson 543 

Grinder .\ t t a e h m e n t for 
Rotarv Planer and Face 
Milling Heads. Newton 

Cutter 474 

Grinder. Besly Double Spiral 

Disk 977 

Grinder Chucks. Graham 

Pressed Steel 719 

Grinder. Combined Surface 

and Tool 988 

Grinder. Diamond Machine 

Co.'s Face ■"•86 

Grinder for General E d g e 
Tool Sharpening. Combina- 
tion Revolving Oil-Stone 

and 226 

Grinder for Inserted Tooth 

Saws, .\utomatic 822 

Grinder for Sharpening 

Threading Dies 567 

Grinder. Four-Disk Gorton.. 143 
Grinder. High-Duty Six foot 

Surfacing : 48:; 

Grinder. Hob Sharpening .-Vt- 

tachment for the .557 

Grinder, 18-Inch Lever Feed 

Disk 636 

Grinder Kinks. Paul W. Ab- 
bott 264 

Grinder. No, 12 Gardner Im- 
proved Duplex Disk 400 

Grinder. Oesterlein No. 3 

Universal and Tool 470 

Grinder. Portable Pneumatic 561 
Grinder. Siiecial. Donald \. 

Hampson 629 

Grinder. Sterling T went y- 
four-Incb Single ^\nieel 

Tool 821 

Grinder. Traveling -Head 

Face 566 

Grinder. Walker No. 2% Sur- 

face *--- 

Grinder. Walker Tool-Room. 481 
Grinder. Willev Portable 
Electric 479 


(binder, with 8elf - Oiling 
l.<joi<e Pulley. Direct-Belt- 
ed *H-2 

Grludem. Two Wllley Elrc- 

irlcally Driven 390 

<;rhiding. .\ Fuetur In 772 

I ; rinding and Lapping uf 
Rolls for Silver and (jold. 

The 711 

Grinding and Polishing Ma- 

ehhle 988 

Grinding Attachment, A.... 321 
i;rhidlng .attachment for In 
leriial and External Work, 

Lalhe 718 

GrIiKiIng .Mtachnienl for (be 

Planer. Hob 537 

Grinding Brass Valves — 
Turning S h af I i n g for 

Screw Cultlng 711 

GHiidlng. Cylindrical 701 

Grinding DrfllB. The Shop 

<.)pei'allon Sheet on 773 

Grinding Fluting Cullers, 

Devices for. Erik Oberg. . 128 
Grinding Gage for Thread 

Tools. Krleger 403 

(jrliiding .Machine. ,\uto- 

matie Iniernal 5Q2 

Grinding -Maclilne. Brown & 

Sliari.e No. 12 Plain.... 798 
(irlndlng .M a c h I n e. Crank- 

Slialt T.K) 

Grinding .Machine, Duplex... 4U0 
Grinding .Machine. Emmert 

Face 133 

Grinding Machine. Improve- 
iiienls In the .No. 2'^, Bath 

Iniversal ". 469 

Grinding Machine. Internal. 651 
(jrlndlng .Machine. .Newark 

tIear-Culter 716 

Grinding Machine. IMaln . . . . 987 
(Jrlndlng -Machine. St. I.ouls 

Machine Tool Co.'s 809 

(irinding .Machine. Surface. . 233 
tirindlng Machine. The Nor- 
ton 20 X l!i2-inch 70 

Grinding Machine, Valve. J. 

F. Mirrielees 538 

(irinding Machines, <lerman 
Designs of Internal. Os- 
kar Kylin 354 

Grinding Operations in the 
Shops of the Landls Tool 
Co., Form. Ralph E. Flan- 
dors 933 

(irinding Threading ChasiTS 
for Brass Work. Etban 

Vlall 199 

Grinding. Twist Drill 787 

tirinding. Variable Speed 

Factor in 780 

Grinding Wheel for Leather 
Splitting Knives. Donald 

.V. Hampson 378 

Gi ves in Centers of 

Heavy Lathe Work. Lu- 
bricating 548 

Grooving Chilled Flour Mill 

Rolls. M. B. Stauffcr.... 709 
Grooving Master Tools. Roll. 

M. B. Stauffcr 862 

("irooving O p e r a t i o n tor 

Chilled Cast Iron Rolls... 548 
(_Iross & Gros-s : 

Gross & (iross Intermediate 

Drill Shank Tang 979 

Guard for Emery Wheels.... 3:i7 
Guesswork in Machine Tool 

Design 117 

Gun Barrel Drilling and 
Rifling Machlnerv, Motor- 
Driven 040 

Guns Constructed for Disab- 
ling War Balloons and 

.\ero|)lanes 938 

Gyroscopic .\pparatus for 
Prevention ot Rolling ot 
Ships at Sea 235 

Haas. Lucien L. : 

Boring Bars and Heads. . 663 
(^'ouipact Form of Dial 
Indicator 060 

Habits of Work 444 

Ilaek-Saw Blades in Quanti- 
ties. To Harden. .Tames 
Cran 133 

Hack-Saw. Buffalo Specialty 
Co.'s Duplex 319 

Ilack-Saw. Fllins .Attachment 
for the Power 643 

Hack Saw Frame. Magazine.. 564 

Hack Snw Frame. Universal. 2.'^2 

Hack-Saw Machine. A Power. 321 

Hack-Saw Machine. Iligb- 
Speed "Slerling" 404 

Hack Saw Machine. M. S. W. 
Portable 7.30 

Hack-Saw. "Marvel" Draw- 
Cut 234 

Hack Saw. "Marvel" Draw- 
Cut 637 

Hack-Saw. Power 566 

Hack-Saw. Test on "Sterling" 
High-Speed Power 568 

Hack-Saws. Rapid Work 
With Power 409 

Hiicketr. Geo. E. : 

Twistid Drill 146 

Iladun. Geo. D. : 

Check System for Tool- 
Rooms 537 

Ilaire. A. J.. Jr. : 

Simple Method ot Stack 
Design 952 

Hale. C. E. : 

-Adjustable V-Block 631 

Hale. Herbert D., Obituary of 32o 
Uall, K. \V. : 

Comblnalion Locating, 
Clamping. IJrllllng and 
CounU'i'boring Tool .... 90r» 
Uall. MorriB A. : 

llorse-rowor Iti'tjulrotl for 

Moving Curs 084 

Formulas and Tables for 
Horse TowiT of Gaso- 
line Engines Olli 

Uall. Obltuar.v of Ueorge W. Dl.l 

Uall. ubltuar.v of JoUn 7:!7 

Hallenbeck. lieo. K. ; 

Data on UIgbSpeed Drill- 
ing ti'-'T 

Ualsteiid. F. 11. : 

Seiul ■ Aulomutic Ueiimlng 

Macblne !■" 

Ilamersly. C. M. : 

Cutting a Large Silent 

Chain I'lnlon 4uO 

llunulton. iKiuglas T. : 

Keleaslng HutionUle Holder 4<!7 
Formulas for Jlaehlne 
Screw Button or Split 

Dies -''M 

Knurls and Knurling Op- 
erations — 1 'ii 

Knurls and Knurling Op- 
erations— 2 84:i 

Hamilton Meh. Tool Co. : 

Variable Speed I'laner. ... l-i;! 
Hammer and Its Use, The 

Steam. James Cran 1U7 

Hammer, Beche Pneumatic 

Power 47:! 

Hammer, Bliss Compoimd 

Pnoumatle For^'lng 8S'.) 

Ilammer, Having .Vnvil Solid 

with the Frame. Stt-am... 7o."» 
Hammer. Interesting' Ises of 
the Pneumatic Riveting. 

Charles B. Smart 463 

Hammer. "Perteel" Power. . 6oU 
Hammer. I'neumatic Chip- 
ping 650 

Hammer, Power S22 

Hammer, "Rochester" Helve 4.SG 
Hammers and. Forging .Appli- 
ances, Power. .lames 

Cran 763 

Hammers. Malleable vs. Steel. 490 
Hammers, r^neumatie (.'hip- 
ping and Riveting 5o8 

Hammond .Vlfred N. : 

An .\dvantage of Ifrno- 

rance 137 

Turning Soft Rubber 540 

Hampson. I)onald A. : 

Latch for Lifting .I'lan.r 

Tools 54 

Preventing Serious Results 
From Injuries From 

Rusted Objects 55 

Handv Attachment fiir 

Lathes 140 

Lock-Xut for Calipers 214 

Grinding Wbii^l for Leath- 
er Splitting Knives.. .. . 378 

Tummg Siift Rubber 371P 

Base and Foundation of 

File Cutting Machines.. 380 
Old Shaper Converted In- 
to a Shaver 543 

Use of Bow-Drill in the 
Manufacture of Knives. 62t> 

Special Grinder. 620 

Hardening Taps B3U 

To Prevent the Breakage 
of Incandescent Light 

Globes 796 

Improved Foi'm of Belt 

Shifter 966 

Hand Milling Machine. No. 

2 Dalin 304 

Hand Milling Tool. ■Vi-M-n". 729 
Handling of Delicate Ma- 
chinery. The 774 

Hanson. "Henry L. : 

Helical Springs 342 

Harden llaek-Saw Blades in 

Quantities, To. James Cran 133 
Hardening a Drill lor Brick, 

Making and. James Cran. 375 
Hardening and Annealing 

Furnace 559 

Hardening and Annealing 
Pyrometer, Leeds & North- 

rup 802 

Hardening Baths. Electrical- 
ly-Heated 35 

Hardening Copper, New Pro- 
cess for 102 

Hardening Drills for Drilling 
Spring Steel. William 

Davis 140 

Hardening Furnaces, Electric 278 
Hardening Heats for Carbon 
Steel Tools. Use of Mag- 
netic Compass for 277 

Hardening High-Speed Steel, 

Bath for. H. S. Steel ... 973 
Hardening Plant. A Modem 

Steel 187 

Hardening Stand, Krieger 

Tool & Mfg. Co.-s Air 314 

Hardening Taps. Donald A. 

Hampson 630 

Hardening, Temper Colors, 
and Temperatures and 

Colors for 272 

Harding. David. Obituary of, 570 
Hardlnge Bros. ; 

Thread Milling Attachment 
for "Cataract" Bench 

Lathe 484 

Hardness, A New Mechanical 
Test for. J. P. Springer . . 98 

Hardness of Metals, Methods 
of Testing the 053 

Hardness of .Metals. The 
itrlnell Method of Testing 
the 14 

llarilness Testing Device, 
Ballentlne 338 

llarlev Machine Co. : 

Adjustable Electrlc-I.lght 
Holder 390 

Hart Mfg. Co. : 

•Buckeye" Die-Stock of 

Large Dimensions 391 

"Buckeye" Ratchet-Driven 
Die Stock 636 

Han. S. S. : 

Die for Countersinking 
Holes In Corner Irons. . 130 

Harvesting and l*reparing 
Cereals for Food, Mechani- 
cal l*rocesses of 260 

Ilassett, J. C. : 

Ti> Save Bunied or Over- 
Exposed Blue-Prints ... 5." 

Havens. Francis P. : 

Special Hob tor Worm- 

Gears 378 

Tool for Deep-Hole Drill- 
ing 70S 

llaynes, F. J. : 

.Manufacturing Air-Cooled 
Cylinders .533 

Head, Eccenlric Bormg 503 

Heads, Boring-Bars and. 
Luclen I., lliias 665 

Heads, Multiple Indexing 
Fixture for Jlilling Square 855 

Heads. Sbiuiks and Screw 
Threads, Carriage Bolt 972 

lleaib'r, Double Stroke Open 
Die 650 

Heat Treatment of Steel, 
General lOlectric Co.'s 
Electrical Furna<e for... 311 

Heat Treatment of Steel, The 633 

Heater. Riblct Transverse 
Current Water 893 

Heating a Building. .V Novel 
Method of 949 

Heating Machine for Tern 
perlng and Coloring Steel 
Parts 233 

llebard. F. P. : 

Die-Holders for Marking 
Machine 52 

Heel Blocks and Slnds for 
Setting L'p and Holding 
Large Work, Lang's 224 

Height Block. 

Locating Tools and Cutlers 
in Planing and Milling 
Fixtures 909 

Helical (rearing. Strength of. 125 

llolical Gears. Constants for 
Calculating. C. W. Pitman 281 

Helical Gears on the Brown 
& Sharpp .Vutomatic Screw 
Machine, Oitting 617 

Helical Springs. Henrv L. 
Hanson 342 

Helical Steel Gears. .Vttach- 
ment f(U' Cutting 983 

Helium, Low Temijerature 
Obtained When Li(iuefv- 
ing • 186 

Helium Produced in a Liquid 
State 34 

llelwig Mfg. Co. : 

Pni'umatic Chipping and 

Riveting Hammers .... 558 
I'ortable I'neumatic Grind- 
er 561 

Hendey Machine (;'o. : 

Heavy Lincoln Miller. . . . 567 

Herbert. Ltd.. Alfred : 

-Automatic Turret Lathe 
with Self-Selecting Feeds 183 

Herring-Curtiss Aeroplane by 
Wyckoff, Church & Part- 
ridge, The Manufacture of 088 

Hexagonal Milling Machine. 
The Benris 475 

Hexagons in Automatic 
Screw Machines. Attach- 
ment for Cutting Squares 
and 104 

High-Speed Drill Co, : 

Collis High-Speed Drills,. 305 

High-Speed Drills. Collis 305 

High-Speed Drilling. Data 
on. Geo. E. Hallenbeck... 097 

High-Speed Millins Cutter 
with Inserted Blades. De- 
velopment of a 257 

High-Speed Milling on I.<3co- 
motive Parallel Kods 188 

High-Speed Steel Cutting 
Edges Welded to Machine 
Steel Shanks. Tools with. 
Chas. R. King 213 

High-Speed Steel, Improved. 574 

Iligh-Sneed Steel, Improve- 
ments in 622 

High-Speed Steel. Increased 
I*se of 33 

High-Speed Steel. New 008 

High-Speed Steel. Tool-hold- 
er for 220 

High-Speed Steels. The Newer. 
O. M. Becker 773 

High-Speed Stop-Motion Bull- 
dozer. Ajax 304 

High Speeds 931 

Higley Machine Co. : 

Revolving Table Type 
Cold-Saw ". . . . 233 

Hill. Clarke & Co.'s "Family 
Party" 488 

mil Mfg. Co., M. B. : 

Hill .Milling Machine Dog. 009 

Hill. Obltuarv of Warren E. . 411 

Hllllard, William B. : 

Check Systems for the 
Tool-Room 706 

Hiudley Worm aud Gear, 
The. John Edgar 243 

Hints for Ij'arners of Letter- 
ing 500 

HIseox, Obituary of (iardner 
1) 100 

Hob tor W(uur dears. Spe- 
cial. Francis P, Havens, . 378 

Hob have'; How Many 
Gaslies should a. Ralph 
E. Flanders 339 

Hob have'; How many 
(taslies should a. Oscar 
.]. Beale 028 

Hob Muirpenlng Attachment 
l(jr the (Jrlndi-r 557 

ll.iMiin- a W o r m - Wheel, 
ilasliiug and 370 

lloliliing Tans. Machine for. 085 

lloliliing Worm- Wheel Seg- 
ments, Cutting Worms and 280 

lloeler Mfg. Co, : 

Power-Feed for Hoefer 10- 
inch Drill 75 

Cone-Pullev Polishing Ma- 
chine 400 

Splining Machine for Cross 

Slots In Spindles 404 

Valve Inserting .Machine,, 035 
Reaming M a c b i n e for 
Chambered Holes in 
Pulleys and Spindle 

Sleeves 788 

Machine for Hobbing Taps 085 

Hoist, A Convenient Outside 
Shop 434 

Hoist, Armington Electric. 735 

Hoist. Franklin Moore Co.'s 
Im)erial 725 

Hoist. Monorail Electric... 0.">() 

Holder. An Improved Ream- 
er. George G. P<u-ter. . . . 7-S9 

Holder. Boring Mill Gage 
and Swage 780 

Holder for Drawings in Ma- 
chine Shop Practice. L. 
N. BiTant 466 

Holder for Ink Bottle. C. S. 
Blank 031 

Holder for Small Drills. W. 
W. Cowles 071 

Holder tor Turret Machines. 
Graham Knurl 643 

Holder. Offset File, L. J. 
Sparks 031 

Holder. Releasing Button-die, 
Thomas J. Norton. Douglas 
T. Hamilton 467 

Holder. Releasing Tap and 
Die 568 

Holder, The Carr Tool 321 

Holder used by the Ijindis 
Tool (.'o.. Effective Moat- 
ing Reamer 940 

Holding Work while Tapping. 
Devices for. E. D. Gag- 
nier 211 

Holes in Eccentric Straps. 
Device for Reaming. A. 
G, Johnson 213 

Holes in Glass, Drilling. 
John Ingberg 380 

Holes in Partly Finished 
Work. Reducing the Size 
of. James Cran 380 

Holes in\ Pulleys and Spin- 
dle Sleeves. Reaming Ma- 
chine for Chanrbered .... 788 

Holes. Novel Methods of 
Making 527 

Holmes. Obituary of A. 
Bradshaw 9SH 

Home-Made Tools for Die- 
Makers. Rov Plaisted... 48 

Hooks and Chains. I'he Forg- 
ing ^of. James Cran 605 

Hooks. Crane. H. J, Masten- 
brook 590 

Horizontal Boring. Drilling 
and Milling Machine .... 318 

Horizontal Milling Machine, 
The Newton .No. 7 317 

Horizontal Radial Drill, 
Barnes No, 3 304 

Horse-Power Formula for 
Automobile Engines 807 

Horse-power Formula for 
Gasoline Engines 207 

Horse-power of Gasoline En- 
gines. Formulas and Ta- 
bles for, Morris A. Hall. 610 

Horse - power required for 
)Moving Cars, Morris A. 
Hall 584 

Horse-power required to 
Drive Machine Tools. Rule 
for 35 

Horse Sense. Teaching 852 

Hot Saw, Billinss & Spencer 224 

Hour-Glass Useful in Timing 
the Hardening and Tem- 
pering Heats of Drills, 
etc 360 

Howard Time Recorder Co., 
E. : 
Time Recorder . 320 

Howarth, Harry A. S, : 

Clearance of Milling Cut- 
ters 500 

Howarth. Harry A, S,. Clear- 
ance of Milling Cutters... 506 

Hubbard. Chas. L. : 

.Selecting a Cylinder Oil . . 208 

Steam Pipe Sizes 530 

Hubs, Keyway Gaging In 

Shafts and 259 

Hudson - Fulton Celebration, 

The Clermont Replica for 

the 051 

Hudson Tubes, Openln" of 

the 010 

Hudson Tunnel, Opening of 

S<'Cond 980 

Human Energy, Tlie Waste 

of 089 

Huuneymen Co. : 

Aut<iinatic Unloader for 

.Mr Compressors 007 

Hyatt Roller Bearing Co. : 

High Duty Roller Bearing. 734 
Hydraulic Jacks, Improve- 
ments In Watson Stfllman 002 
Hydraulic Variable Speed 

Drive 400 

Ice-.Making Machine for Do- 
mestic Use, .V New 277 

Ice Tumblers 357 

Identifying Smiths 7ou 

Ignorance, An .\dvantage of. 
Alfred N. Hammond 137 

lies, T. : 
Device for Rolling Tin-I'late 

'I'ubes Too 

Soldering .Vlumlnum and 
Copper 973 

Illustrations. Sizes of 60S 

imitati^tn of Gravital Force, 
Mechanical 53'J 

Iramer, Frank L. : 

•Stm) for .lones & Lamson 
Turret Lathe 291 

Import and Export of Ma- 
chine Tools. Germany's... 803 

Import of .Machine Tools in 
1008, Japanese 010 

Improved .Surface Co.: 

"Nu-Clinch" Bell and Uopc 
Drive Surfaces 893 

liuprovemints in High-Speed 
Steel 022 

luiprovemints made by Motor- 
Driven Tools in a Repair 
Shop 580 

Incandescent Gas Lighting of 
Cars Adopted by German 
State Railways 34 

Incandescent Light (ilobes. To 
Prevent the Breakage of. 
Donald .\. Hampson 70i; 

Inclined I'lanc Shop Car Ele- 
vator 45t; 

Included Angle of Inlet and 
Exhaust Cams. How to lind 
the 01 7 

Inconsistency of Some .Manu- 
facturers, The. John I!. 
Sperry 3:! 

Index Centers. Miller & 
Crowningshield .Multiple 
Spindle 470 

Index Washers, Machine for 
Graduating. C. H. Caton.. 544 

Indexing. Coulange System of 
-Vutomatic 685 

Indexing Fixture for Milling 
Square Heads. Multiple,.. 855 

Indexing in Liegrees and Min- 
utes. J. Mathieu 403 

India, The First Lathe Made 
in 613 

Indicating Tool. The Handy 
Center 325 

Indicator, A Special. H. V. 
Purman 880 

Indicator. Compact Form of 
Dial, Lueien Haas 906 

Indicator for Aligning Lathe 
Centers, etc 710 

Indicator tor Internal Com- 
bustion Engines. Pressure. 357 

Indicator for Lathe Work, 
etc.. Test 567 

Indicator. Test 987 

Industrial Democracy. An.. 358 

Industrial Democracy, That. . 525 

Industrial Education. Co-op- 
erative 116 

Industrial Photography 330 

Industrial School Course, 
Fitchburg Co-operative . . . 106 

Industrial School. The Law- 
rence 249 

Industrial Training Through 
Apprenticeship Systems... 713 

Ingberg. John : 

Substitute tor Cotter Pins. 210 
Drilling Holes in Glass... 380 

Ingersoll Milling Machine Co. : 
Ingersoll Special Four- 
Bead Milling Machine... 470 
Combined Horizontal and 
Vertical Spmdle Milling 
, Machine 724 

Irfjustice Cause of Friction. . 188 

Ink Bottle, Holder for. C. S. 
Blank 031 

Ink tor Writing on Celluloid. 
John B. Sperry 973 

Ink Rag to Drawing Board. 
.\ttaching. Winamac 408 

Inlet and Exhaust Cams, How 
to Find Included .\ngle of. 947 

Inspection of Work. Necessity 
of Careful 191 

Insulating Wire, Method of. . 200 

Insurance Companies to Im- 
prove Livhig Conditions, 
Power of 622 

Interchangeable Involute Gear 
Tooth systems 361 

Intormlltcnt Cum. Cyrus 

Tuylnr aiO 

IntiiMiil Cmubusllou Knglnes, 

Ali>ilii>l lis II I'Ufl for. . . . ;t(i.i 
Iiiti'i'iiiil CiiiubustUiM IOmkIiicb, 
I'lisKiiii' Indlc'UUii- fill- . . . 35'( 

lllClTIlMl IJllllN. .Vulomiillc 
MIUImk .Miiililiii' .\llin-li- 
liiint till' .MaiuifiiiliilliiK. . . Mi.'l 

Ililcriiiil Ciliullni; Miuliliii-s, 
(ii'i'iiiiin l'i'xl|jii.s «t. Oskur 
K.vlln :!'■' 

Inlcnml Tliri'iul In CiistlnKS 
wiilli' 111 the Jlnlil, I'riHluc- 
liig »)4(i 

Ilitriniltloliiil Congri's.1 of In- 
v«'ntor8 **- 

Iiitcrniilloiiiil iMi'll. Tool Co.: 
Uace for IVstlnK the riiiii 
Ine of u Tuiii't Miulilni' 
Bed -ll 

Internntlonul Itnllwiiv t:on- 
Kress' next .MeetlnK '" 
Swltzerliinil 8i;() 

Inventions iind Tlieir ItenrinB 
on Wiirtare 548 

Inventors. "Uon'ts" tor. H. 
S. Busey •SSO 

Inventors, Internntlonul Con- 
gress of 82 

Inventors, The Trlbulutlons 
of 08t! 

Inventor.s vs. Kmployers and 
AssiK-iutes. K. C. Smitli.. Uri.'i 

Involute (!enr Tooth Systems, 
Interehangeuble -ttVI 

Involute (iears. Standard... 818 

Involute System of Gearing. 50 

Iron and Steel, The Preserva- 
tion of 80u 

Iron and Steel, The I'reser- 
vatlon of 94a 

Iron and Steel, I'nited States 
Production of 329 

iron Blanks. Punch and Die 
for Uniform. Engineer... 45 

Iron I'Mttlngs. Tests of Stan- ^_ 
dard Cast 6O1 

Iron Pulleys with liubher, 
To Cover. E. B. Gatkey.. 973 

Iron Cnder Water. Sawing 
Cast 297 

Iron. Welding' Cast 9t.l 

Ironwork (irnninentation of a 
Mechanic's Home. W. A. 
Painter 374 

Isinglass and Mica. Distinc- 
tion Between 183 

Isometric Perspective. Itohert 
Grimshaw 792 

Italy. Tunnel (Connecting 
Switzerland and 276 

.lacks. Improvements in Wat 
son-Sllllnmn HyilraiiUc. . . . 902 

.laeger, M. : 

Jneger Automatic rriction 
Clutch 807 

James, O. : 

Changing Old I.athe to In- 
crease Cutting Value. . . . 401 

Japanese Import of Machine 
Tools In 1908 919 

Japan's World's Fair Post- 
poned 288 

.Japan's Exports Increasing.. 118 

Jaw Plates. Drill Press Viae 
with Adjusting. Charles 
Taylor 030 

Jensen. J. Norman : 

Logarithmic Paper for Dia- 
grams 747 

Jib Cranes. The Design of. 
R. W. Vails 93 

Jig Clamping Device. Pedro.. 465 

Jig and Tool Designer : 

Special Jig for Drilling 
Kll Flange 709 

Jig for Drilling Ell Flange. 
Special. Jig and Tool De- 
signer 709 

Jig for Drilling Slots 883 

Jig for Small Pulleys. Mul- 
tiple. P. F. Setag 4C7 

Jig. Interesting Drill. C, FI. 
Ramsey 50 

Jigs and Fixtures. Einar 
Morin : 

6 21 

7 110 

8 179 

9 261 

10 -350 

11 439 

12 512 

13 598 

Jigs and Fixtures for the 

Manufacture of Small In- 
terchangeable Parts. Stan- 
dard Designs of. Frank P. 

1 . 857 

2 944 

"Jigs and Fixtures." Taper 

Gib Design in. E. G. Eber- 
hardt 213 

Jigs. Proper Designing of 
Milling and Drilling Fix- 
tures and. R. B. Little. . . 679 

Jigs TTsed bv the Queen Citv 
Machine 'Tool Co.. Boring. 487 

Jim Have Said? What Would 967 

Jim West. The Selt-Reliance 
of. Grebo 43 

Job. How to Get a. A. P. 
Press 438 

Johnson. A. C. : 

Determining the Diameter 
of a Circumscribed Circle 966 

Johnson, A. 0. : 

I'alteriimakers' Sera ten 

Gage 13 J 

Device for Iteaiiiing Holes 

In iOcccntrIc Strupa 213 

.\ Blue iirlnllng I'iliik 214 

Flue Hole Cutler or Coun- 
ter bore 882 

Jolinsioii, W. K. : 

lleiidhig Stresses In Car 

'I'ruck .\rcli Bars 371 

Joint. Inlversal 050 

Joints. Two .Sew 'lypes of 

Universal 234 

Jones & l.auison Turnt l.ailie. 

Stop for. Frank I.. Imiuer 291 
Jones, Oblliiary of Benjamin 

F 91.'! 

Junes, Obituary of Edwin 11. 411 

Kearney & Trccker Co. : 

Universal Cam Cutting Ma- 
chine 480 

Kelly J'ool Co. : 

Cylinder Reamer 31(2 

Kenerson, Wm. II. : 

A New Transmission Dy- 
namometer 777 

Kent. William : 

Solving ".V I'robiem In 
Trigonometry" by .\naly- 

tlcal Geometry 139 

Kerosene Oil Burner 050 

Keuffel & Esser Co. ; 

TaiKS with "Keco" Finish. 7o 
llandv Shrinkage Rule. . . . 987 
KeulTel. Obituary of William. 23S 
Key-Seating .\ltachment for 

Shapers and l*laners 03 

Key-Seating Fixtures, Gas- 
Engine Cam-Sbatt. W. A. 

Sawyer 468 

Key-Seating Machine for Cut- 
ting Key-ways in Locomo- 
tive .Vxles, Portable Auto- 
matic '•'i 

Key Seating Machine, La- 

pointe Vertical 980 

Kevway (Jaging in Shafts and 

ilubs 259 

King. Chas. R. : 

Tools with High Speed 
Steel Cutting Edges 
Welded to Machine Steel 

Shanks 213 

How to Save Underprint- 
ed or Overprinted Con- 
tact Copies 973 

Kinkead Mfg. Co. ; 

The Kinkead System of 

Aligning Shafting S16 

Kink in Photography, .V. .\l 

bert Clegg 8SI 

Kinks. Grinder. I'aul W. 

Abbott 204 

Kinsler-Bennett Co. : 

Two New Types of Uni- 
versal Joints 234 

Kirk. N. C. : 

Stove-Pipe Elbow Machine. 73 
Kleinhans. Frank B., Obituary 

of 325 

Knight. W. A. : 

Extension Tool Holder. . . . 135 
Setting-Angles for Milling 
Angular Cutters and 

Taper Reamers 163 

Knives. Grinding Wheel for 
Leather Splitting. D. A. 

Hampson 378 

Knives. Use of Bow-Drill in 
the Manufacture of. Don- 
ald A. Hampson 626 

Knurl Holder lor Turret Ma- 
chines. Graham 643 

Knurls and Knurling Opera- 
tions. Douglas T. Hamil- 

1 741 

2 843 

Knurling Tool. Armstrong... 315 
Koch & Son. Henry : 

Test Indicator for Center- 
ing Work 233 

Krieger Tool & Mfg. Co. : 

Boring Tool and Holder . . . 220 

Air Hardening Stand 314 

Grinding Gage for Thread 

Tools 403 

Kviin. Oskar : 

British Machine Tools at 
the Franco-British Ex- 
hibition 5 

A Handy Screw-Thread 
Gage 54 

An .\merlcaii Mechanic in 

6 .. 78 

7 15!l 

German Designs of Inter- 
nal Grinding Machines. .. 354 

Modem Swedish Machine 
Tools 528 

Labor and the Tariff 68S 

Labor, Methods of Rewarding 274 
Labor ( '!) Saving Machine, 

or Mike's Invention 932 

Lacing Device. Mumford Wire 

Belt 905 

Lamp Composed of Carbon 

Disks. Arc 947 

Lamps. Danger of Shock from 

Electric 130 

Lancaster Mch. & Knife 
Wks. : 

Oval Taper Drill Sockets 
and Lathe .\ttachment 
for Producing them 74 

Oval Socket Breast Drill. . . 988 

Landig Machine Co. : 

All Si.el Cutter Head of 
liiiiirovi'd Coiislrucllon. . 158 
l.uiidls Tool Co. : 

Boring .Muelihie Practice 
III I III' Shops of the l.ail- 

lils 'I'ool Co 853 

.Miilllpli- liiilexliin Fixture 

tor .Mlllliig Siiiiiire II. ails 855 
l''iirlii Grinding Operulloiis 
III the Sliops of the Lun- 

dls Tool Co 933 

Krtecilvi' l^'loullng Reamer 
Holder uaed by the Lan- 

dls Tool Co 946 

l.tiiid Value Increased liy Pub- 
lic improvements 300 

i.iiiie Mfg. Co. : 

Niw Elect ric Traveling 

Crane 715 

Lung. G. U. : 

The Effect of Rolled Belt- 
ing on Its .Vppllcation . . 13H 
Lang Co., G. R. : 

Heel Blocks uiiii Studs for 
Setting I'p and Holding 

Large Work 22 1 

A Tool-Holder for 'I'urning 

Locomotive Tires 321 

"Stayln" Positive Drill 

Socket 390 

Tool-Holder for Triangular 

Blades 803 

Positive Blade Stop fin- 
Lang Tool-Holder 9U9 

l.ungeller .Mfg. Co. : 

Swuging .Machlni' for Fin- 
ishing Valve Stims 553 

Lansing Machine Co. ; 

.\ Mulliple Hand I'uneli... 321 
Lapointe Mch. Tool Co. : 
Broaching Machine .V r - 
ranged for Broaching 

Tapers 151 

Lapointe Vertical Key-seat- 
ing Machine 98ii 

Lapping Machine. Flat .504 

Lapping of Rolls for Silver 
and Gold. The Grinding 

and 711 

Latch for Lifting Planer 

Tools. Donald A. Hampson 54 
Lathe, Adjustable Boring Tool 

for Turret. Contributor. . 969 
Lathe, A Motor-Driven Speed. 321 
Lathe and Improved Gear- 
Box. Champion Double 

Back-Geared 797 

I.athe .\ttachment for Produc- 
ing Them. Lancaster Oval 
Taper Drill Sockets and... 74 
I.athe Bed. Truing a Bench. 

Walter Gribben 860 

I.athe Bracket for Blue-prints. 

L. H. Georger 214 

I.athe, Bollard 24-lnch Ver- 
tical Turret 308 

Lathe. Carroll - Jamleson 

Quick-Change Gear Engine. 819 
Lathe Centers. Lubricant for. 

Roy B. Demlng 790 

Lathe. Centering 651 

Lathe Chuck. Improved. H. 

D. Chaiiman 883 

Lathe. Compensating .\uto- 

raatic Stop for "Lo-Swing" 731 
Lathe Constant for Calculat- 
ing Change Gears, I'ae of 

a. James Eaton 710 

Lathe Co., The "G. M." : 
"The "G. M." Screw-Cutting 

Engine Lathe 321 

Lathe. Duplex Independent 

End Buffing 978 

Latlie. Double Back-Geared 

Engine ' 987 

Lathe. Double-Head Facing. . 559 
Lathe Driver for Round 

Stock 540 

Lathe. Finishing Bevel Gear 

Blanks in the Davis Turret. 159 
Lathe for Billet Turning. 

Special 735 

Lathe for Manual Training 

and Pattern Work. Special. 234 
Lathe for Reflnishing Car 
Axle Journals without Re- 
moving the Wheels. Gap. . . 158 
Lathe. Geared Feed Device 

for the Cincinnati 64 

Lathe Grinding Attachment 
for Internal and External 

Work 718 

Lathe. 24-inch Fay Auto- 
matic 810 

Lathe. 15-lnch Standard En- 
gine 551 

Lathe Kinks. Paul W. Ab- 
bott 432 

Lathe. Lodge & Shipley 

Heavy Axle 402 

Lathe. Lodge & Shipley Crank- 
Shaft . 818 

Lathe Made In India, The 

First 013 

Lathe. Motor- Driven Brass- 
Working 77 

Lathe. Motor-Driven Speed . . 480 
Lathe. Motor-Driven Speed . . 723 
Lathe. Multiple Spindle Shaft- 
ing 502 

Lathe. Operations Performed 

on the "Lo-Swing" 823 

Lathe. Precision 409 

Lathe. Portable Engine 234 

Lathe, Prentice Bros.. Shaft- 

Tui-ning 405 

Lathe. Rockford Machine & 
Shuttle Co.'s Precision 
Bench 732 


Lathe, Scheilenbach 18-lnch 

Cone Driven 15<J 

Lathe, Screw Cutting Allach- 

ment for Elgin PreclBlon . . 485 
Lathe, Sellers ( 'ur- Wheel ... . 898 
Lathe. SoclC-ti'- Fruiiealiie de 
.MaebliieH oiillls Single Pul- 
ley Drive 505 

l.ulbe Sloii and Telltale, .\u- 

tomulic. Paul W. Abbott. 50 
Lutb* The "G. .M." 8crew- 

Ciitllng Euglni' 321 

Lathe, I'lie Lodge U Hblpiey 

"Marvel" 974 

Lathe, Thread .Milling Aliach- 

uieiit for ■•Cutarttct" Bench 484 
Lathe to increase Cutting 
Value, Chuiigliig Old. O. 

James 401 

La I lie 'Idol, Double End .... 735 

Lathe Tool Holder 822 

Lathe Tool. I'rili|ue Turret. 

J. S. Scott 293 

Lallie Tools. Chilled Cast 

lion 807 

Lathe, Walcoll 10-lnch En- 
gine 72 

l.alhe, Whitcomb Blaisdell 
Single Speed Pulley, Gear- 
Driven . ., 383 

Lallii- with Automatic Feed 

Slops. Lodge & Sblpley 902 

Lathe with Cone Head and 
Plain riiaiige lieur .Mechan- 
ism. Sc-h.-lleiibaih 233 

Lathe Willi .Motor .Vttacb- 

ment, Dftvis 10-iiich Engine 987 
Lathe with Self-contained 
Coiinlersliaft. .Motor-Driven 

Turret 553 

Lallie with Self-Selecting 
Feeds. Herbert .Automatic 

Turret 183 

Lathe with Turret on Shears, 
.Vmerlcan .'SO inch Triple- 
Geared .189 

Lai hi- Work. Lubricating 
Grooves In Centers o f 

Heavy 548 

Latliemen's Rules 534 

Lathes. Faceplate Construc- 
tion for Threading 273 

Lathes. Handy Ailiichment 

for. Donald .\. Hampson.. 140 
Lathes, Solid .\iljuslable 
Threading Die for Use on 

Turret 216 

Lathes. Weils Tool Tray and 

Stand for 896 

l.auieiitU-, Trial of the 780 

Law as Applied to .Machine 

Manufacturers. Commercial 609 
Lawrence Industrial School, 

The 249 

Lawson Mfg. Co. : 

A Loose Pulley Oil Cup... .320 
Laving Out and Cutting Cams, 
Method of. Herbert C. 

Barnes 101 

L. & D. Co. : 

Pullet Belt Shifter and 

Counter-Shaft 978 

Lead. .\n Ingenious and Sim- 
ple Method of Cutting Mas- 
ter Plate Cams to .\ccurate 309 
Lead-Pencils. Advisability of 
ITsing Keen Knife when 

Sharpening 202 

Lead-Screw. Cutting an .-Vc- 
curate Screw from an In- 
accurate. Racquet 375 

Lea Equipment Co. : 

New Design of Simplex 

Cold Metal Saw 561 

Leather on Iron Pulleys for 
Band Saws. For Holding. 

R. F. Williams 973 

Leather or Paper to Pulleys. 
Cement for Fixing. E. B. 

(Jafkey 973 

Leather Splitting Knives, 
Grinding Whe<>l for. D. 

A. Hampson 378 

LeBlond Mch. Tool Co.. R. K. ; 
A Line of .Vttachments for 
the LeBlond Milling Ma- 
chines 57 

Leeds & Northrup Co. : 

Electric Pyrometer 567 

Hardening and .Vnneallng 

Pyrometer 802 

Lees Bradner Co. : 

Lees- Bradner .\utomatic 
Gear-Cutting Machine... 980 

Legs. Bench 486 

Leipzig. Large Union Railway 

Station at 118 

Lettering. Hints for Learners 

of 596 

Lettering. Spacer for. E. G. 

Peterson 796 

Level for Machine Shop and 
Tool-Room Use. "Gravity". 486 

Lever Co. : 

"Toggle-Grip" Wrench.... .^61 

Lever Shear, Direct-Driven . . 408 
Levers. Good and Bad De- 
sign of Offset. John S. 

Myers 937 

Lifting Devices to .\ssembllng 
Work, .\ppllcation of. .\1- 

fred Spangenberg 459 

Lifting Magnets. Electric Con- 
troller & Mfg. Co's Type 

S. A 311 

Light-Holder. "Omni-Present" 480 
Lighting of Cars Adopted by 
German State Railways. In- 
candescent Gas 84 

Limitation of .Mmliliio Ca- 
pacity S«4 

l.liulholiu & Iii'inils : 

Itotur.v Ci'iitiT 'IVst Iii- 
dii-ator --7 

I,ine-8bafts. Sliiiiili'st iiiul 
Most KlVi'i-llvf Mi'tlKKl of 
(.'loaiiliii,' 1~4 

Milk Kelt Co. : 

Pri'sspd Stoi'l Tiougbliig 
and Kcliini Itolls for 
Convoyoi' Itrlts 07 

Link 'i'raniiuilssioii Cliiilii, 
Dctacliiible «:!7 

Llnslcy, A. I. : 

lli'lt KasleniT 7!lCi 

Mciuld State, Ui'llnm Pro 
diui-d in a '■'•^ 

Mill.', U. IS. : 

Lwk Nuts t'si'd In ICnsin- 

cpring I'racliio -to 

Pipe Binding iicviw -".l."> 

I'roper Designing of Milling 
and Urilliiig I'lstiiri's and 
.tigs t!7!t 

Live I'liss. TIu'. C. TiU'lls. . lU- 

Livlng. World Does Not Owe 
Vou a loil 

Llano, .Vntonio ; 

Till' Squurlng of tlif Circle 014 

Locating. Clainpiiig. Drilling 
and Countcrljnniig 'i'ool. 
Combination. !•'. W. Hall. IHJ.'i 

Locating I'Mnc Crai'ks in Sled 7 In 

Locating TooLs and Cullers in 
I'laning and Milling i''i.\- 
tares, tlcigiit Block. 00',l 

Location of a Macbine-Sbop 
Tool-Kooni, Construction 
and IIW 

Lock Nut lor Caliper.*. 1). \. 
Ilainpson i^l-i 

Lock Nnt. Vibration 40(1 

Luck-.Nuls I'sed in ICngineer- 
ing Practice. Xntlocks. . . "-'lili 

LoekNuts I.'sed in I'^ngineer- 
iug Practice. K. B. Little. 40 

Lwoiiiotive Boiler Tester, A 
Portable G:iJ 

Locomotive Parallel Hods, 
Highspeed Milling on IS.s 

Lo<-omotive Hepair Sbop Prac- 

• tice. Etban Viali. 

1 021 

Locomotive Itepair Shop Prac- 
tice. Etban Viall CD7 

Locomotives, Increase in L'se 
of Superheated Steam :!4 

Loconmtives Provided witli 
Superheaters, The Num- 
ber of 526 

Lodge & Shipley Machine 
Tool Co. : 

Heavv -\xle Lathe 402 

Crank Shaft Lathe S18 

Lodge & Shipley Lathe with 
Automatic Peed Stops.... 902 
"Marvel" Lathe 074 

Lof, E. A. : 

Speed Calculation, Critical 4G4 

Logarithmic Paper for Dia- 
grams. .T. Norman Jensen. 747 

Logemann Bros. : 

A Horizontal Bulldozer... S22 

Lord, n. C. : 

To Set Over a Tail-Stock 
to Turn a Taper 48 

"Lo-Swing" Lathe, Opera- 
tions Performed on the .... 82."? 

Lovejov, R. B. : 

Drill Stop n4.'? 

Lubricant for Lathe Centers. 
Roy B. Deming 700 

Lubricating Fluids, Systems 
of Supplying Machines 
with >24 

Lubrication. Forced 88:t 

Lubricator, I,ocomotive Flange 42.5 

Lubricator. Van Doren Auto- 
matic Shaft 000 

Lucas, Chester L. : 

Turning Soft Rubber 40G 

Coin and Medal Dies 766 

The Champnev Process of 
Die Sinking 825 

Lucas Machine Tool Co., 
Shop Structure of the..^.. 192 

Lndwig. Loewe & Co.'s School 
for Apprentices 82 

Lufkin Rule Co. : 

Steel Tapes Figured for 
Instantaneous Reading. . 500 

Lumber Cut in United States, 
Increase in 192 

Lusitania Breaks all Records, 
The lis 

Lvnn Tool Forging Co. : 
Set of Cold and Cape 
Chisels 987 

Lyon Metallic Mfg. Co, : 
Lyon Expansible Steel Racks 
with .-Vdjustable Shelving 041 

Machine Capacity, Limitation 

of -.,,... 864 

Machine EfBciencies, Remark- 
able Result of Combining 

Alleged .'138 

Machine Manufacture, Ele- 
ments of. Fred. .L Miller.. 009 
Machine Manufacturers, Com- 
mercial Law as .Vnplled to. 009 
Machine Sliop Practice : 

Planing and Laving Out a 

Blanking Die 44 

Machining the Hole for the 
Punch and Finishing a 

Blanking Die 131 

Boring and Planing Corliss 
Engine Cylinders '. 205 

Machining Internal Com- 
bustion lOiigine Double- 
Cylinder t'asllng . ., 2H7 

tiasiiiiig and llobbing a 
Wol III wheel 370 

Itabblllllig the Pillow- 
blocks of a Duplex lied.. 4.'i7 

.Maciiintng a Thrce-'J'brow 
Built-up Crank-Shaft. \V. 
liurns 5,14 

Cylindrical Crlnding 1... 62ii 

Cvlindi-ical Griniiliig 2... 690 

■Iwisi Drill Grinilliig 787 

Sill-inking and l''orciiig l-'ils 87/ 

Laying Oui Work. 1 '.l.">',l 

-Mtlcliine Shop Rules, .\ C'ol- 

Icclion of. Ethan Viall... 701 
.Macliini- Tool Building ami 

iM'onomics 117 

.Maclilne Tool Design, (liiess- 

work in 117 

.Machine Tool Design. Some 

'i'lioughls on. Forrest E. 

Cardullo 8;i9 

.\lacbiiie Tools and the Tariff. 44,"i 
.Milcbinc Tools at the Franco- 

llrilisli iOxbibltlon, British. 

(iskiir Kylln .'i 

.Macbnic Tools in 1908. ,Iap- 

iiiiese Import of 919 

.Macliine Tools, The Applica- 
tion of Motors to 448 

.Machines and Tools for Au- 

Ininobile Manufacture. C. 

B. Owen 757 

Miicliinery for Export. Pack- 
ing 849 

M-vouiNKRV. Inde.x to Four- 
teenth Volume Complete... 32 

Madiinery. The Handling of 
Delicate 774 

.Machinery. The Value of Swit- 
zerland's Imported 7,'i4 

Macliitiing Flywheels for Cas- 
oline Engines on the Pond 
itigid Turret Lathe 202 

.Machining Internal Combus- 
tion Engine Doulile-Cylinder 
Casting 287 

Machining of Manganese Steel, 
The 090 

Machining Plane Surfaces 
True with Bored Holes. R. 

C. Scholz 291 

.Machining the Hole for the 

Punch and Finishing a 
Blanking Die 131 

.Machinists' Tools. Recent .\d- 
ilitions to the Brown & 
Sharpe Line of 812 

Maelntyre, J. A. : 

Woman Machine Shop 
i'liotographer 710 

.Ma-razine Attachment for 
Cleveland .\utomatic Screw 
Machine 320 

Maimetic Chuck, Construction 
of a 50 

Maimetic Clutches, Calcula- 
tions for 37 

Magiiptic Compass for Hard- 
ening Heats for Carbon 
Steel Tools, Use of 277 

JIamiet. Cutler-Hammer Hand 
Lifting 4<\1 

Magnets. Electric Controller 
& Mfg. Co.'s Type S.A. 
Lifting 311 

Mainiets. Rail-Lifting 98.-. 

Mail in Berlin. Subway Sys- 
tem for Transporting the.. 520 

Manganese Steel Rails 273 

Manganese Steel Rails. Re- 
markable Phvsical Charac- ' 
teristics of Rolled 769 

Manganese Steel,* The Machin- 
ing of 090 

Maihattan Bridge, Cable 
ITauling on the New 104 

.Menbattan Bridge Cables 
Strung. Last Wire of the. . 410 Bridge. The Open- 
ing' of the 901 

Manlv Drive Co. : 

Ilvdranlic A'ariable Speed 
Drive 409 

Manufacture, Elements of Ma- 
chine. Fred .T. Miller 009 

Manufacturers of Reforesta- 
tion, the Importance to.... 207 

Manufacturers vs. Monopo- 
lists. Fred .7. Miller 359 

Manufacturing and Tool-Mak- 
ing 274 

Manville Mch. Co.. E. .T. : 
.\ntomatic Trimniins Ma- 
chine for Bolt Heads.... 152 

Manle as Best Material for 
Wood Pullevs 54S 

Marking Fluid for B I u e - 
rtrints. William H David. 55 

Mill-king Machine. Die-holders 
for. F. P. Heharrt 52 

Marsh, .\lfred. Obituarv of.. 325 

^Iarshall & Huschart ^lacliin- 
ery Co. : 
.\ New Machine Demon- 
strating Room 052 

Marvin & Casler Co. : 

Eccentric Boring Head. . . . 503 

^lassachusetts Saw Works : 
Pnrtnhle Hack-Saw M a - 
chine 730 

M.'»ssev Vise Co. ; 

Parallel Bar Vise 234 

Mastenbrook. II. .T. : 

Tnniinir Soft Rubber 379 

Crane Hooks .590 

Master Plate Cams to .Accu- 
rate Lead. .\n Ingenious 

and Simple .Metliod of Cut- 
ibig "O'.i 

Mii'-ler Tools for Eyelet Sets, 
.Method of .Making. War- 
ren E. Thompson 517 

.Malbeiiiallcat and l''.iigliieer- 
Ing l-'oriuulas. Svinbols In.. I. SO 

.Malleinatical .Mind, T li e 
Working of the True "s 

.Malbic-U. T. : 

lixlexing In Degrees and 
Minutes 403 

Miiiiiitaiiid. Record Br.'a king 
Speed of the 57ii 

Mmiretuuia. The Si d In 

creasing Propellers of the. . 527 

Maxim Silencer or Mulller for 
(Inns, Tlie 53s 

McCalui, .Iose|ili B. : 

llliss I'ower-Press Cliilcb. 2'.m; 

M. C. li. .\ssocbillons anil Con- 
venllons, .\. It. .M. .M. and. 91 1 

.MeCready, C. .V. : 

'i'be Comiiiiielal .Mrshlp... 957 

McCroskv Ri'ainer Co., 'I'be: 
Wizard giilck Change Drill- 
Chuck und Collel 314 

Mclnlosh. .lames : 

The Maniifaclure of I'islon 
Kings 7C.S 

.McKee. Rex : 
(;iialk Preparation for Trac- 
ings 55 

McKenzie, W. M. : 

.\n .\utomatic Nut Tapping 
Machine 321 

Mechanic in Europe, .\n .Vni- 
erican. Oskar Kyiin : 


7 159 

Mechanic in Europe." Refer- 
ring to ".\n .\merican. . . . 100 

Mechanic. The ■flood Enough" 702 

Mechanical Construction Made 
Possible by Alloy Steels... 204 

Mechanical Engineer in Pub- 
lic Relations 77", 

Mechanical Flight 190 

Mechanical Processes of Har- 
vesting and Preparing 
Cereals for Food 200 

"Mechanikos" : 

Stpiares on the Ends of 
Taps and Reamers 027 

Mechanism. Ingenions Method 
of Regulating, so as to be 
.Misolutely Synchronous.... 332 

.Mechanism, Locating Defects 
in 949 

Medal Dies, Coin and, Ches- 
ter L. Lucas 7(iO 

.Melting Furnaces Used, Elec- 
tric Steel 27'; 

Mercury Mirror, New Tele- 
scope with 19:; 

.Mesta Machine Co., Big Work 
of the 080 

Metal Cutting !vnd .Vutogen- 
ous Welding, Oxy-.\cetylene 
Process of 120 

.Metal Cutting Tools With lut 
Clearance . .■ 283 

Metal in Mining Work. Need 
for Strong. Tough 192 

Metal Sheets. Machine for 
Cutting Out 368 

Metal Surfaces. Producing 
Black Nickel Coatings on. . 329 

Metal-Working Shops. Design 
and Construction of. W. P. 
Sargent : 

1 1 

o 85 

3 '.'. 1 09 

4 251 

5 333 

6 5.S5 

Metals. Bearing. .Tnseph H. 

Hart 960 

Metals. Bluing. Joseph 

Weaner 707 

Metals. Method of Testing the 

Hardness of 953 

Metals on Specifications, The 

Purchasing of 888 

Metals. The Brinell Method of 

Testing the Hardness of. . . 14 
Metallic Packing Construction, 

French 770 

Meter. "Cito" Cut. 734 

Miami Vallev Machine Tool 
Co. : 

15-inch Standard Engine 

Lathe 351 

Mica. Distinction Between 

Isinglass and 18,'! 

Michael, Wm. C. ; 

Slide Rule for .\ddition and 
Subtraction of Fractions. 3Sii 
^Micrometer and Surface Cage. 

Schellenbach-Hunt U n i - 

versa! 387 

Micrometer, Quick-.-Vdiusting. .233 
^lerometer Ratchet Stop. C ' 

W. Pitman 207 

Micrometer, Sensitive Indi- 
cating 31 

Micrometer. Thread 408 

Micrometers. .\n Addition to 

the Slocomb Line of 77 

Middletim Shin Building Yard 

Offered for Sale 270 

Mileasre of Railwavs in the 

World. The Total 870 

Mill, Ferracnte Rolling 307 

Mill. Water Cooled Rolling.., 734 
Miller & Crowningshield : 

Multiple Spindle Index Cen- 
ters 479 

.Miller. E. W. : 

Special Drawings fur the 
Pallern maker 903 

.Miller, Fred J, : 

.Manufacturers vs. Monopo- 
lists 359 

IClemenls uf .Machine .Man- 
ufacture 009 

Miller. Heavy Lincoln 507 

.Mill.r with Auxiliary Verti- 
cal and Horizontal Spindle. 
Slab 735 

.Millers Falls Co. : 

.Magazine Hack-.'Saw Frame. 504 

Mlllikeii Bros., Record Plate 
I'laichlng by 527 

Mlllikln, .lames, Obituarv of.. 6.56 

.Milling and Boring .'ilaciiine. 
Combined 987 

.Milling and Drilling Machine, 
Mumfnrd lliirizontal Bor- 
ing 900 

.Milling and Drilling .'Machine, 
Iniversal Boring 154 

.Milling .\ngular Cutters and 
Taper Reamers, Selllng- 
.\ngles for. W. A. Knight. 163 

Milling Attachment. .V Thi 

Spindle. O. Robert O'Neal. 024 

-Milling .Attachment for "Cat- 
aract" Bench Lathe. Tliread 484 

Milling .Attachment for the 
.Vcme Multiple Spindle 
Screw Machine 904 

.Milling .Attachment, Vertical. 234 

Milling Cutter, New Type of. 273 

Milling Cutler with Inserted 
Uladi-s. Development of a 
High-speed 257 

Milling Cutters. .Accurate 
Method of Setting 461 

Milling Cutters. Clearance of. 
Harry A. S. Howarth 506 

Milling Cutters, EfTiclencv 
Tests of .Milling Machines 
and 278 

Milling File, Vixen 71 

Milling Fixture for the Webs 
of Crankshafts, .\. S. II. 
Sweet 707 

Milling Fixture. Simple but 
Efficient. A'. Zlegier 207 

Milling Fixture, Straddle. 
Orono 52 

Milling Half Circles In Drop- 
Forge Dies. .Attachment 
for. Fred Terrv 541 

Milling Machine, .A Portable. 321 

Millins Machine, .\rbor for 
Holding Work in the 521 

Alilling Machine .Arbor. Im- 
proved Expanding. Frank 
n. Sterling 209 

Milling Machine Attachment 
for Manufacturing Internal 
Cears. Automatic 863 

Milling Machine. Coffman Uni- 
versal Boring. Drilling and. 407 

Milling Machine Details, Some. 
Racquet nOS 

Milling Machine Dog. Hill... 909 

Milling Machine for Die Cut- 
ting. Billinss & Spencer.. 231 

Milling Machine. Fosdick Hor- 
izontal Boring. Drilling and 140 

Millinc Machine. Fosdick Mo- 
tor-Driven Horizontal Bor- 
ing. Drilling and 731 

Milling Machine, French Com- 
bined Horizontal and Ver- 
tical 450 

Aiming Alachine, Heavy Flve- 
Snindle ; 734 

Milling Machine. High-Speed 
Universal .Attachment for 
Whitney 393 

Milling Machine, Ingersoll 
Combined Horizontal and 
A'ertical Spindle 724 

Milling Machine. Ingersoll 
Snecial Four-Head 470 

Milling Machine. Motor-Driv- 
en Vertical Spindle 735 

Milling Alachine. Newton Du- 
plex Face 471 

Milling Machine. Newton 
Heavy Four-Spindle 395 

Milling Machine. Newton Hor- 
izontal Boring. Drilling 
and 318 

Millinc Machine. No. Back 
Geared Plain 408 

Milling Machine. No. 2 Dalin 
Hand 304 

Milling Machine. No. 1/, Van 
Norman Duplex , . . ." 477 

Milling Machine. Slotting At- 
tachment for the ....:.... 559 

Milling Machine. Sniral Cut- 
ting .\ttachments for Becker 
A'ertical 1,52 

Milling Machine. Standard 
Design for Newton Hori- 
zontal 733 

Alilling Machine, Tan Thread. 550 

.Alilling Machine, The Bemis 
Hexagonal 47.-, 

Milling Machine, The Chicago 
Duplex Hand 081 

Milling Machine. The Newton 
No. 7 Horizontal 317 

Milling Machine Vises. .An 
-Vttachment for Brown & 
Sharpe. .T. T. George .... 209 

Milling Machine with Extra 
Long Feed 033 

.Milling Machines, A Line of 
.Vttaehments for the Le 
Blond 57 


iMIIlliii; MiK'lilries uikI Milling 
Cuttura. lOIUcU'iKj' IVsts 
ot :iTS 

MIlllriK MiKliliicM, A New Llue 
(if lIlKli I'lm.-r I.'ix 

MlillllK .MuihilU'S. lil'lllTUl 

I'uttlMi; Spicds til III' usi-il 

on ■I'"''' 

MIlluiK .Mmliliii'M. Ni'w KiiK 
llsli ViTtk'iil. l''runk C. 
IVikliis 770 

Mtllliit; MiK'hliics. rnivorsiil 

Attiuliini-iit fur 851 

' Mllllni; "II l.mniniillvi' I'liral- 

Ifl Kiiils. lUjth Siiiu'il INS 

MIllliiH Spirals liiviiluto Sjs- 
U-lii (iT IJi'iiriiiK 50 

MillliiK Sqiiaiv lliails, Miiltl 
Jill' liidixlii),' I'lxini-o r.ii-.. S55 

Mlllint: Tiiiil. "Vlxun" IIuiiil.. 72!) 

MlllliiK V-Sliaiicil Crimvcs 
with hu'llni'tl Toj) and 
B o t t o in, I'Virniiila for. 
iivlntr Ilaiiwill 703 

MlMs. Klsh-Tuil 7IJ-1 

MliicK. .Vsliis fur IMllai-s In 
Coal 8- 

MlnU-lec'S, J. K. : 

Valve Gilndlug Machine... 538 
Safety Device tor Kleetrle 
Cranes 885 

Mltt.s, Waterproofed Cotton.. (>:IH 

Modern Tool Co. : 

rialn CrlndlnK Machine... 087 

Mohn & Co., W. D. : 

Universal Vise for Drilling, 
Milling, etc 561' 

Molds for Klnger Rings. In- 
teresting. W. K. More.v... 292 

Monel Metal. .\n Alloy known 
as 652 

Monopolists. .Manufneturers 
vs. Fred .1. Miller 350 

Mono-Unil I'assenger Line to 
be Constructed In New 
York 3G0 

Monrad, A. L. : 

I'niuli and Hie for Corru- 
gating Thin Copper 
Sheets G02 

Moody. \V. F. : 

Itraftsman's Trammel Suli- 
stitute o82 

Moore Co.. I'^rankiin : 

Imperial Ilolst 725 

Moore & White Co. : 

Moore & White Automobile 

Clutch 003 

Moore & White Variable 
Speed Drive OO.'i 

Miirey. W. E. : 

Interesting Molds for Fin- 
ger Kings 202 

.\lorln, Einar: 
.Ilgs and Fixtures, 

(i 21 

7 11(1 

.s 170 


10 351 

n 430 

12 512 

13 508 

Morris Fdry;* Co.. .Tohn B. : 

Sehellenbach 18-inch Cone- 
Driven Lathe 156 

Schellenbach Lathe with 
Cone Head and Plain 
Change Gear Mechanism. 233 

Morrow Mfg. Co. : 

liail-Bearlng Drill Chuck 234 
Quick Releasing Ball 
Bearing Chuek 722 

Morse Drill Taper Shank 
Tang, The 805 

Morton. Obituary of Matthew 7.37 

Morton Poole Co.. .1. : 

New Line of Poole Boring 
and Turning Mills 310 

Motor .attachment. Davis 10- 
Inch Engine Lathe with... 987 

Motor Car Construction. Al- 
loy Steel for 955 

Motor Drive for Screw Ma- 
chines 77 

Motor-Driven Tools In a Re- 
pair Shop. Improvements 
made by 580 

Motor. Northern Type "S" 
Variable-Speed . . ." 2.^0 

Motor, Rochester Portable. . .. 721 

Motor Shows to be held in 
France. Two 118 

Motor, Single-Phase Self- 
Starting 822 

Motor-Starters, A New Line 
of 986 

Motors for Machine Driving, 
Single-Phase 568 

Motors. Light Gasoline 859 

Motors. Self-Starting Switch- 
es for .\ltemating Current. 555 

Motors. Sturtevant Type H 
Electric 148 

Motors to Machine Tools. The 
Application of 448 

Motors, Valve-Timing Ga"?e 
for Automobile. C, T. 
Shaefer 624 

Motors. Westinghouse Start- 
ing Panels for Direct-Cur- 
rent 802 

Moulton, Obituary of Mace, , 820 

Moving Picture Show as an 
Educator 527 

Moving Picture Shows as an 
Incentive to Crime 004 

Moving Pictures an Aid to 
Teaching Trades 358 

.Mueller .Maehlne Tool Co.: 
■2'- foot ConcDrlven Hadlal 

firlll •. . . 

Mulller for (luuK, The JIaxlui 

Silencer or 

.Mulller. Rival of the Maxim. 
.Mull'.iril. <;eneral John E., 

Olilluary of 

.Mlllll|p|e I'uni-h. (Jueen City.. 
.Mlllllpie Slillldle Screw Mh- 

ehiiie. Peerless .\ntiinialle. 
.Multiple Tliread .Speelllcal ions 
.Miiiiiroril, Marry T. : 

Mumlonl Wire Hell Lacing 


MuuiMierl. Wolf it Dixon Co. : 
Comliiuation Revolving Dll- 
Stone mill Gi'liiiler for 
General lOilge Tool Sharp- 
ening '. 

High Power Plurality Die 

Bolt fuller 

Miirehey .M.iehhie & Tool Co. : 
Improved Miirchev .\ulo- 
matii- <)|i.nlng Die Head. 
.MiHiloek. G. .1. : 

Preelsliin Thread Tool 

Miiluai Machine Co. : 

(Julck-Acting Tool-Makers' 


Myers. .lohn S. : : 

Don'ts for Draftsmen 

Goml and Bad Designs of 
OITset Levers 

Name Plate Machine 

Nappanee Iron Works Port- 
able Boring Bar 

Narragansett Machine Co. : 

.\n .\utomatie Wire Critter. 
Natlonal-.Acme Mfg. Co. : 
Milling Attachment for the 
.■\cme Multiple Siiindle 

Screw Machine 

National .\utomatlc Tool Co. : 
Multiple Spindle Drill with 
Variable Speed Drive.... 
National File & Tool Co. : 

•Vixen" Milling File 

"Vixen" Hand Milling Tool 
National Machine Recorder 
Co. : 
National Machine Recorder. 
National Machine Tool Build- 
ers' .Vssociation . . 

National Machine Tool Itiyld- 
ers' Association. Powell 
Tool Co., a Member of. . . . 
National JIachine Tool Build- 
ers' Association. Spring 

^Meeting of the 

National Machine Tool Build- 
ers' Convention 

National Machinery Co, : 
Thread Rolling Machine. . . 
Semi Automatic Nut Bur- 
ring Machine 

Grinder for Sharpening 

Threading Dies 

National Manufacturers' .\sso- 

■■iation Convention 

Natural Power Co. : 

A New Pressure Blower. . . 

Needles Made of ITigh-Speed 

Steel. Sewing-Machine .... 

Needles Used as Divider 

Points. Die Maker 

Newark Gear Cutting Machine 
Gear-Cutter Grinding Ma- 
chine .^ 

New Britain Mch. Co. ; 

High-Frame Whitney Pol- 
ishing .Tack 

Tlie New Britain Machine 
Co.'s Polishing Frame. . . 
New Departure Mfg. Co. : 
"Two-in One" Annular Ball 


New Haven Mfg. Co. : 

Double Back-Geared Engine 

I'yiie "S" Variable Spec 




yiie "^ 














Newell, Fred. : 

The Relation of Depth to 

Span of a Girder 

Newton Machine Tool Wks., 
Inc. : 

The Newton No. 7 Horizon- 
tal Milling Machine 

Newton Horizontal Boring, 
Drilling and Milling Ma- 

A Double-Spindle Drilling 

Heavy Four-Spindle Mill- 
ing Machine 

Newton Dunlex Face Mill- 
ing Machine 

Newton Cutter Grinder At- 
tachment for Rotary 
Planer and Face Milling 

Vertical Snlndle Rotary 
Planing Machine 

Horizontal Boring Machine. 

Standard Design for New- 
ton Horizontal Milling 

New York Central Railroad, 
Record Run of the 

Nichols. Obituary of Benja- 
min V 

Nicholson & Co . W. H. : 
Inserted-Blade Pine Tap. . . 

Xlekel-Chrome Ralls 

Nickel Coating on Metal Sur- 
faces. Producing Black. . . . 

Noiseless Rifle. Test of 

Northern Electrical Mfg. Co. : 


31 ■ 











Northern ICngliieerlng WorkH ; 
Niirlhern Floor Controlled 
Electric Traveling Crane. 485 
Norton. E. W. : 

Black Finish for Steel 55 

Polishing Wood 973 

Kieolorliig illoii/.e 073 

Norton Grliiilliig Co, : 

20 X 102-lneli Grinding Ma- 
chine 711 

Norton, Thiiiuas J. : 

Releasing Bulloii Die Hold- 
er 407 

l''oriiiulas for Maehlne 
Screw Button or Split 

Dies 5.;0 

Niisiuot : 

A Propeller Planing Ma- 
chine 201 

Standard Drill anil Keuiner 

Tables 41'.-. 

Nii.\eR \'erlleal T-Square. . . . 75 
Numbering Maehlne. Metal... 408 
Nut Burring Maehlne, Seinl- 

.\iitoiiiatlc 507 

.Nut .Machine, A Hot Pressed. 321 
Nut Tapjilng Maehlne. Auto- 
matic .Mr Controlled 651 

Nutter & Barnes Co. : 

Automatic Saw and Cutter 
Sharpening Machines... 140 
Nutting & Co.. A. B. : 

Duplex Independent End 

Bulling Lathe 07.S 

Nuts Used in I''.iigineering 
Practice, Lock. R. B. 
Little 40 

"biM-g. Erik: 

'i'hreading Dies 27 

lievices tor Grinding Flut- 
ing Cutters 128 

< ilii-rmayer Co. : 

Blue Leather Bellows 725 

Ocean Liners Limited by 
Inadequate Harbor Facili- 
ties :!00 

Oeslerlein Mch. Co. : 

Vertical Milling Attach- 

Oesterlein No. 3 L'niversal 
atid Tool Grinder 

Offset File Holder. L. ,T. 

OITset Lever.s, Good and Bad 
Designs of. .Tohn S. M.vers. 

OlTsettine Cylinders in Sin- 
gle-.\eting I?ngines 

OhI & Co.. George A. : 

Heavy Power Press 

Oil Engine Cylinders. To De- 
termine Size of Gas and. 
Newton Wright 

Oil Fuel. British Small Naval 
Craft to be Constructed to 
Use Both Coal and 

Oil. Selecting a Cviinder. 
Chas. L. Hubbard 

Oil-stone and Grinder for 
General Edge Tool Sharp- 
ening. Combination Revolv- 

Oil Testing Machine 

Oil Wells. Zinc Paint for. 

O. K. Tool Holder Co. : 

High-Duty Six-Foot. Sur- 
facing Grinder 

Olney Mch. Wks. : 

Autrraatic Cutter Grind- 








Olsen & Co., Messrs. Tintus. 

Cold Bend Testing Machine 
O'Neal. G. Robert : 

A Three-Sriindle Milling 


Operations Performed on the 

"Lo-.Swing" Lathe 

Order. Tool-Makers' Files^- 

How to 

Original : 

Turning an Eccentric 

Ornamentation of a Jlechan- 

ic's Home. Iron-work. W. 

A. Painter 

Ornamentation. Planer with 

Elaborate. H. P.- Fairfield. 
Orono : 

Straddle Milling Fixture. 
Osgood. ,T. L. : 

"Indestructible" File Han- 

Osfer j:fg. Co. : 

Pipe Threading Dle-Stock. 
Olis. F. H. : 

Dunlex Grinding Machine. 
Doting. Machinert'.s Sixth 


Owen. C. P.. : 

Organization and Equio- 
ment of an Automobile 

Machines and Tools for Au- 
tomobile Manufacture. . . 
Owen Mch. Tool Co. : 

No. Back-Geared Plain 

Milling Machine 

Oxy-.\cetylene Outfit. Portablf 
t>xy-Acetvlene Process 'of 

Metal Cutting and Auto- 
genous Welding 















Packing Construction, French 
Metallic 776 

Packing Machine Tools for 
Export 429 

Packing Machinery (or Ex- 
port 84U 

Packing Material for Anneal- 
ing Steel, New 052 

Paint, The Making of Alum 
Ilium 042 

Painter, W. A. : 

Ironwork Onittniifitatlon of 
a .Mechanic's Home :i74 

Palestine, Tichnleal School 
at S'.MJ 

Pariunia Canal's Contract (or 
Portland Cement IIM 

PaneU for Direct-Current 
Motors, Westinghouse Ktart 
lug 802 

Paper Pulp, Use of Engel- 
uiaiin Spruce for .Making. . 97 

Paiier to Pulleys. Ceuieut for 
Fixing Leather or. E. B. 
Gafkey 973 

Parallel Rods, UIgb Speed 
Milling on Locomotive.... 188 

Parallels for Vertical Boring 
.Mills. B. M. Welier 631 

Parallellsiu of Crank Pins, 
Fixture for Testhig. .John 
B. Sperry 407 

Parker Hoist & Derrick Co. : 
Light, Portable Derrick... 408 

Paste for Copper Wires, Sol- 
dering. W^llllam Davis 973 

Patent Cases, Special Court 
for D71 

Patent Law, Effect of New 
British 192 

Patent Laws and the Cost of 
Manufacture 780 

Patent Rights, An Abuse of. . 191 

I'atent Rights, Forfeiture of. 
E. C. Smith 275 

Patented Machines, Unlawful 
Uses of 116 

Patents Act 524 

I'atents .^ct. Increased Capi- 
tal under the New 872 

Patents Act. Revocation un- 
der New British 098 

Patents Applied for in Great 
Britain, The Number of. . 526 

Patents lu Force In European 
Countries after Fifteen 
Years 360 

Patents Invalid, Taylor-White 
High-Speed Steel 539 

Patents Issued in the United 
States. Great Number of.. . 192 

Pat's Promotion. C. Tuells. . 703 

Pattern Experlenca Smlth- 
er's. Wm. Sangster 705 

Patternmaker, Special Draw- 
ings for the. E. W. .Miller 963 

Patlernuiakers" Scratch Gage. 
.\iistin G. Johnson 139 

Peacemaker : 

Shop Scraps 516 

Pearce. Frederick : 

Precision Lathe 409 

Bench Legs 486 

Pearce, Geo. P. : 

Novel Combination Die.... 211 

Peat Deposits In the United 
States. Value of the 746 

Peat, Fuel Value of Florida. 82 

Pedro : 

One Wav of Doing a Dif- 
ficult Job 54 

Jig Clamping Device 465 

Peerless .\utomatlc Mch. Co. : 
Peerless .Vutomatic Multi- 
ple-Spindle Screw Ma- 
chine 30J 

New Design of Peerless 
Multiple Spindle .Auto- 
matic Screw- Machine. . . 908 

Peerless High-Speed Reamers. 225 

Peerless V-Belt Co. : 

Peerless V-Belt 893 

Pels & Co., Henry, Correction 
of Intimation of British 
Plant of 532 

Pencil Pointer. Handy. F. C. 
Douglas Wilkes 547 

Pencil Sharpener. John B. 
Sperry 140 

Pencil Sharpener. Coates 
Power Eraser, Drawing 
Cleaner and 392 

Pennsylvania Railroad. Elec- 
trlticatlon of the Manhat- 
tan and Queens Terminals 
of the 360 

Pennsylvania Railroad. Man- 
hattan Terminal of the... 526 

Pennsylvania Railroad. Trees 
Set Out by 118 

Pennsylvania Specialtv Mfg. 
Co. : ■ . 

"Omnl-Present" Light- 
Holder 480 

Pennsylvania. Sunplv of Coal 
in the State of 118 

Penny-in-the-Slot Machine. 
Heavy Coinage of Pennies 
in England Due to the.... 371 

Penny-in-the-Slot Machines. 
The Failure of .\utomatic. .861 

People. The Engineer and the 502 

Percy. E. N. : 

Centrifugal Pumps 426 

I'erfection Wrench Co. : 

"Perfection" Wrench .... 568 

Perkins. Frank C. : 

New English Vertical Mill- 
ing Machines "T.", 

Perrlgo. Cscar E. : 

Distinctive Colors (or Pip- 


Ing til a Munufacturing 

Plant ■•31 

rcrry. Harry Wilkin : 

Aeroplane Type Kljlng Mil 

chines -■•O 

Person. Kdw. : 

A Bi'Vfl Hear I'robleiu . . . . IWN 
IVrsonal : 

1 («i 

2 lUO 

3 '^38 

4 i-i'> 

5 Ill 

8 -IST 

7 5011 

8 0.'.:l 

« 7.1U 

10 «^« 

11 !H-' 

12 illll 

Perspective, Isometric. Rob- 
ert Grlmshaw "!1- 

Peters. ohituary of I) r . 

TlKMKlor 1«U 

IVtorson. K. ^^. : 

Spacer for Lettering 7;nj 

I'fonts. Wni. : 

AiiswiT to fasting Puzzle. ;i4l> 
Philadelphia (iiar Works: 
llob tirliKlIng Attachment 

for the Planer 5:i7 

Philadelphia Subway Com- 
pleted 34 

I'hotographer. Woman Ma- 
chine Shop. .1. .\. -Macln- 

tyre "lu 

Photographic Uecords of the 

Human Voice. Heading.... 34 
Photography. .\ Kink in. Al- 
bert Clegg 8S1 

Photography, An Advance in 

Color 97 

Photography. Color 44() 

i'hotography, Industrial.... 3.'iU 
Photography. Shop. H. Cole 

Estep -XX 

Photography, Shop. H. P. 

Fairheld 441; 

Pike. Obituary of Edward B. KJO 
Pilgrims. World's Exposition 
in Celebration of the Land- 
ing of the 852 

Pillars in Coal Mines. Ashes 

tor 82 

Pin-holes in .Vluminum Cast- 
ings, Cause of I'.'J 

Pins. The Wear of Bridge. . ")-7 
Pinion. Cutting a Large Silent 

Chain. C. M. Ilamersly... 4."i(j 
Pipe and Tube Cutter. Motor- 
Driven 390 

Pipe. Badly Choked Cxhaust 843 

Pipe-Bending Device 52 

Pipe-Bending Device. K. B. 

Little 295 

Pipe Fitting, The Effect of 
Superheated Steam on Cast 

Iron 51'1 

Pipe Fittings, Union-Cinch . . .307 
IMpe Machine, Stoever 1900 

Model 815 

Pipe Sizes. .Steam. Charles 

L. Hubbard 530 

Pipe, Some Uses for Wrought 

Iron. H. .1. Bachmann... 291 
Pipe Tap. Nicholson Inserted 

Blade .390 

Pipe Threading Dii-Stock, 

Oster 388 

Pipe Wrench, "Duquette" 

Two-Way 727 

Pipes in Permanent Molds, 

Casting 37 

Pipes, Tools for Bending. 

Henry ,1. Bachmann 545 

Piping in a Manufacturing 

Plant. Distinctive Colors 

for. Oscar E. Perrigo .... 431 

Piping in a Manufacturing 

Plant. Distinctive Colors 

for. C. E. Bliven 790 

Piston Rings in Terms of 
Diameter, .\llowance for 

"Set" of Locomotive 972 

Piston Rings. Making. Ethan 

Viall 210 

Piston Rings. Method of 

Making. W. E. Morey.... 547 
Piston Rings. The Manufac- 
ture of. .Tami-s Mcintosh. 7rifi 
Pit Planer. Ernst Schiess. . .. 27, C. W. : 

Micrometer Ratchet Stop. 207 
Constants for Calculating 

Helical Gears 281 

Plaisted, Roy : 

Home-made Tools for Die- 
Makers 48 

Plane Surfaces True with 
Bored Holes, Machining. 

R. C. Scholz • 291 

Planer and Shaper Gage, 

Starrett 721 

Planer Arranged for Using. 

Extended Tools. Cincinnati 472 
Planer Drive. Cincinnati Two- 
Speed •. . . . 224 

Planer Drive for Belt-Oper- 
ated Machines, Variable 
Speed 555 

Planer. Ernst Schless Pit... 27 
Planer. Hamilton Variable 

Speed 143 

Planer. Heavy 24-Inch Crank 77 
Planer. Hob Grinding Attach- 
ment for the 537 

Planer. 32-inch 408 

Planer, 22-hich 409 

Planer Tools. Latch for Lift- 
ing. Donald .\. Hainpson. 54 
Pinner. Variable Speed Drive 

for the tJray 30(5 

Pinner with Constant Return, 

I'luther Two-Speed 047 

Pinner with Elaborate Or- 
namentation. H. 1'. Fair- 
Held 524 

Planers, Key-sealing .Vttach 

men! for Shapers and.... 03 
Plani'rs, Safety Device for 

Buzz 180 

Planing .Vccuratc V-Blocks. . 382 
I'lanlng and Laylngout a 

Blanking Die 44 

Pinning and .Milling Flxturi's. 
Locating Tools and Cutters 

in. Height Block 069 

Planing .Machine. .\ Propeller. 

.\osniot 201 

Planing Machine. Vertical 

Spindle Rotary 505 

Pinning of a Turret Machine 

Bed. Gage for Testing the. 41 
Planing. Rapid Steel Armor 

Plate 203 

Plant. -V Chinese Modem 

Steel 946 

Plant by Grand Falls Power 

Co.. Krection of Power.... G23 
Plate Punching by .MiUiken 

Bros. Shops. Ri'cord 527 

Plates. Formulas for Strength 
of Flat Circular. Wm. F. 

Fischer 809 

Platen, Drilling Plate or 
-Vuxiliarv Drill Press. W. 

II. .Shater 212 

Pletz. A. C. : 

Power Tapping 404 

Pneumatic Riveting Hammer, 

Interesting Uses of the. . . . 463 
I*neumatic Tires. Detachable 

Rim for .Automobile 249 

Pointer, Handv Pencil, F. 

C. Douglas Wilkes 547 

Poles. Concrete Telegraph . . . 805 
Polisher, Improved Vertical 

Belt Sander and 552 

Polishing Frame. The New 

Britain Machine Co.'s 318 

Polishing .lack, High-Frame 

Whitney 228 

Polishing Machine for Finish- 
ing Punchings, Blevney 

Automatic 720 

Polishing Machine, Fox 217 

Polishing Machine, Grinding 

and 988 

Polishing Machine, Hoefer 

Cone-Pulley 400 

Polishing Machinery. .V Line 
of Shaft Turning. Straight- 
ening and 321 

Polishing Room of the Fox 

Machine Co 204 

Polishing Wood. E. W. Nor- 
ton 973 

Polygons. Computation Table 
for Regular. W. L. 

Bcnitz 198 

Poole Boring and Turning 

Mills. New Line of 316 

Poorman, J. E. : 

Set of Tool-Makers' Scrap- 
ers 486 

Portable Locomotive Boiler 

Tester. A 631 

Porter. George G. : 

Gages for Accurately Sizing 

Bevel Gear Blanks 540 

An Improved Reamer Hold- 
er 780 

Porter. Presentation of the 
.1 o h n Fritz Medal to 

Charles T 736 

Postal Rate Between Great 
Britain and United States 

Lowered 78 

Postal Rate Between United 
States and Germany. De- 
crease in 350 

Potter & .Tohnston : 

Screw Shaving and Turn- 
ing Machines 234 

Pottstown Machine Co. : 

.\utomatic Tapping Machine 556 
Powell Tool Co.. a Member of 
National Machine Tool 
Builders' Association ..... 276 
Power bv Ropes. Transmis- 
sion of" 950 

Power Feed for Hoefer 16- 

inc-h Drill 75 

Power Plant. A Year's Ex- 
perience with a Suction 

Gas 36 

Power Plant by Grand Falls 

Power Co., Erection of . . . . 623 
Power-Press Clutch, Bliss. 

.Toseph B. McCann 200 

Power Press, Heavy 988 

Power Presses, Clutches for. 195 
Power Produced by Prime 

Movers. Total 526 

I'ower Required for Tapping. 824 
Power Station at Tokyo, 

.lapan 9ST 

Power Tapping. A. C. Pletz 404 
Practical Knowledge of Sales- 
men 32 

Pratt & Whitney Co. : 

Motor-Driven Gun Barrel 
Drilling and Rifling Ma- 
chinery 640 

Precision Boring Tool Co.: 

Boring Tool 649 

I'lintlce Brtjs. Co. : 

1(1 -Inch Shaft - Turning 
Lathe 405 

I'reservatlon of Iron and 
Steel, The S(J5 

Preservatlv4'8 Used for Tim- 
ber, Amount of 963 

Preserving Rectirds 117 

i'ress, .\ (Ji'rinan Design of 
Friction Spindle 271 

I'li-ss. An .\ulomntlc Double 
Slide 322 

Press. A. P. : 

How Tom Crossed the 

Rubicon 174 

How to Get a .lob 43H 

I'ress, Bliss Double (^rank 
Toggle Drawing 638 

Press, Bliss Triple - Action 
Drawing 71 

Press, Ferracute Hand Screw. 8(J(! 

Pri'ss, Foot O-'tO for Metal Caskets, Fer- 
racute Drawing 221 

Press for Shallow Drawing 
and Forming in Heavy 
Plate 735 

Press, Heavy Power 988 

I'ress, Hi'avv yuadruple 
Crank 400 

I'ress, High Speed Steam- 
Hydraulic Flanging 735 

Press .Mechanism, Cam-Oper- 
ated Printing. David J. 
Walsh 703 

Press, Sectional Flanging.... 507 

Press. Singh' Crank Power.. 051 

Press, The Live. C. Tuells. 702 

Press. Toledo Heavy Single- 
Action Drawing 2.';i) 

Press, 550-ton I'Manging. . . . 408 

i'ress Vise with .\djustlng 
,Taw Plates. Charles Tay- 
lor 630 

Press, Watson-Stillman Re- 
versed Cylinder 732 

Press with Automatic Feed- 
ing Mechanism. Power . . . 486 

Presses. Clutches for Power. 195 

Presses for Making Side 
Seams in Cylindrical Work, 
Large 234 

Presses. Novel Pump Con- 
struction for. W. M. Flem- 
ing 367 

Pressure Compensating Di'- 
vice for Automatic Ma- 
chine. Peter Zulinke 965 

Pressure Indicator for Inter- 
nal t^ombustion Engines. . . 357 

Price. ,1. : 

.\djustable Shaper Tool... 971 

Price Lists, I'oor Policy of 
Sending Catalogues With- 
out 118 

Prime Movers, Total Power 
Produced by 526 

I'rinting Press Mechanism, 
Cam-(">perated. David J. 
Walsh 793 

Prize for Paper on Aerial 
Navigation. Belgium 843 

Prize for Suggestions and 
(Corrections of Data Sheet. 712 

Profiling Machine, Automatic 113 

Profit-Sharing Experiment. A 525 

Profit-Sharing Plan. Carne- 
gie's 460 

Progressive Punch and Die. 
Geo. Culley 207 

Promotion. Pat's. C. Tuells. 703 

Pro|)eller Planing Machine. A. 
.Vosmot 201 

Propellers of the ilaurctaiiia. 
The Spied-Increasing 527 

Proportional Dividers. To Ob- 
tain Ratios not Provided 
on 710 

Protector. Bhie-1'rint 710 

Protector. Blue-Print. L. H. 
Georger 40.** 

Protractor and Erasing Shield. 
Combined Triangle Scale. . 650 

Protractor, Draftsman's 735 

Protractor. Extension for 

Iiraftsnian's 547 

Psychology of Magnified Di- 
mensions. The 948 

Publicity to Individuals. The 

Value of 32 

Pulley Oil Cup. .\ Loose Z2(i 

Pulieys. Cement for Fixing 
Leather or Paper to. E, 

B. Gafkey 973 

Pulleys for Band Saws, For 
Holding Leather on Iron. 

R. F. Williams 973 

Pulleys, Grant Riveting Ma- 
chine for Steel 305 

Pulleys, Maple as Best Ma- 
terial for Wooti 548 

Pulleys, Multiple Jig for 

Small. P. F. Setag 407 

Pulleys with Rubber, To 
Cover Iron. E. B. Gaf- 
key 973 

Pump. Bob's Balky. C. 

Tuells 942 

Pump Construction for 
Presses. Novel. W. M. 

Fleming 307 

Pump. Deane Triplex Power 231 
Pumps. Centrifugal. E. N. 
Percy 426 


Pumps, Centrifugal. John 
B. Sperry 748 

Pumps. Great Capacity of 
Chicago Centrifugal 355 

Punch, A Multiple Hand.... 321 

Punch and Die for Cor- 
rugating Thin Cop p e r 
Sheets. .\. L. .\louiau... 002 

i'unch and Die lor I niform 
Iron Blanks. Kngineer. . 4o 

Piuicli and Die. I'rouressive. 
Geo. Culley 207 

Punch and Die, Shearing. 
Toolmaker 970 

Punch and Shear, ( oiiiblni'd 734 

Punch, .\nother Use of the 
.\ulomatlc Centir 704 

I'unch. .V Sheet Metal 320 

Punch, Herlsch Gang 477 

Punch, liufialo Korge Co.'s 
lland 1 Beam and ( han- 
nel 808 

Punch. Excelsior .Multiple.. 568 

I'unch. I.ignl. Itaiplo .\ctuig. . 486 

Punch I'ress, .\\r Blast on 
the. lI.Tbert C. Ivarnes.. . 967 

Punch Press, Stripper At- 
tachmint for. E. Fulher. . 290 

Punch, gueen City .Multiple, , 728 

I'unch Thai Was "Pinched," 
The. C. Tuells 621 

Punches and I>ies for Can 
Ends. Sirlus 51 

Punches. Stripping Cup- 
Shaped Drawn Pieces and 
I'.lnnks I'llat .\dhere to. C. 
Howell Doekson... 964 

Punching and Shea'rlng Ma- 
chine. Uoyersiord Com- 
bin.-d 232 

Punching by .Milliken Bros. 
Shops, Record Plate 527 

Punching Table, The Woggle. 486 

Punchings. Blevney .Auto- 
matic Polishing Machine 
for Finishing ^. . 726 

Purchasing .Vgents. The Ex- 
perience of 444 

Purman. H. V. : 

A Special Indicator 886 

Puzzles In Wood, Some Old 
Time 501 

P V r o m !• t e r , .\ Thermo- 
Electric 321 

I'yrometer Coming Into Gen- 
"eral Use 276 

Pyrometer, Electric 567 

Pyrometer, Electric Record- 
ing 988 

Pyrometer, Leeds & North- 
rup Hardening and .Anneal- 
ing 802 

I'yrometer, Portable 234 

(Juebec Bridge, Proposed Re- 
construction of the 34 

Queen City Punch & Shear 
Co. : 

A Sheet Metal Punch .320 

Multiple Punch 728 

(^uick .Automatic Vise Co. : 
Rapid -Action Automatic 
Vise 486 

Rack Cutting on the Shaper. 
W. L. Benitz 133 

Racks with Adjustable Shelv- 
ing. Lyon Expansible Steel 641 

Racquet : 

-A Tail-Stock Design 208 

A Bit of Radial Drill De- 
sign 295 

Cutting an .Vccurate Screw 
From an Inaccurate 

Lead-Screw 375 

Some Milling Machine De- 
tails 968 

Radial Drill, .\merican Tool 
Works Co. Highspeed 217 

Radial Drill, .\merican Tool 
Winks Sensitive 645 

Radial Drill, Barnes No. 3 
Horizontal 304 

Radial Drill Design. -A Bit of. 
Racquet 295 

Radial Drill. Dreses 48-inch 73 

Radial Drill. Mueller 2%- 
Foot Cone-Driven 638 

Radial Drill. Western Geared 
Drive Plain 804 

Radical .Angular Drill Co.. 
The "Radical" Angular 
Drill 390 

Rail-Lifting Magnets 985 

Rail Wear. Machine for Test- 
ing 277 

Rails. Manganese Steel 273 

Rails. Nickel-Chrome 910 

Rails. Remarkable Physical 
Characteristics of Rolled 
Manganese Steel 769 

Railwavs in the World. The 
Total Mileage of S76 

Railways. Length of New.. 512 

Railway Station at Leipzig. 
Large Union 118 

Railways. The Berlin Sus- 
pended 115 

Ranibo, Harry L. : 

Saving Taps Against 
Breakage 708 

Ramsey, C. H. : 

Interesting Drill Jig 50 

Ransom Mfg. Co. : 

IS-Inch Lever-Feed Disk 
Grinder 636 

Rapid Steel Armor Plate 
Planing 293 

Rapid Transit System, De- 
vcloimiiiit of tlie KngUsli. 52u 

ItiipUl Work With I'owci- 
Ihuk SSaws ■i'^'J 

Ualtlua Slop, Mlci-oiufti-'r. 

('. \v. riiuiuii -u" 

Uiil.lii'( Wniiili and Drill, 

Ni'IsoM Couibliii'd T;jr» 

Kntchit Wri'nili, SclirocdiT. Hm; 
Kalli'k, 1''. : 

Two Tvpi'S of Back Tool 

It. sis ""•>•• 

i;.iiiMi\(; n Ti'i'linlcal .lour- 

nal, Till' Value of "•'i»> 

liiaiuer From Clialti-rloK, 
'I'o Keep an AnKulai'- l'>'.v 

n. HenilnK Ii->| 

Kiani.r UoUli'r, An lui 

proved, lieorge U. I'orler TS!) 
Ueainer Holder I'sed h.v the 
I.andls Tool t'o., EITeellve 

KloatlriK H"'' 

Kramer, Improved Adjiisl- 

ahle •'*!'-' 

Kramer, Kelly Cylinder ."tirj 

Ilea r Tallies. Standard 

Drill and. Nosmot ^l>■"> 

Keamers, I'eiuli'ss lllgh- 

Spc'ed --5 

Keamers, Kelievlng Speelal. 

Klhan Vlall SlIO 

Keamers, Setllnn-Ansles for 

Mllllni; Ant;nlar Cutlers 

and Taper. \V. A. KiiIkIiI Hi:; 

Iteaiuers, Sipiares ou the 

Knds of Taps and, "Me- 

ehanlkns" 627 

KeauiliiK anil Faeing Tool, .Mulliple SOU 

Keam Ing ConneetingUod 
Hearings, Fixture for. 

.lohn F. WineUester 881 

UeaminK Holes in lOccen- 
trk- Straps. Device tor. \. 

r,. .loluison -1^ 

Keaming Maehine for Cham- 
bered Holes In Pulleys and 

Spindle Sleevi'S 788 

Reaming Machines, Semi- 
Automatlc. F. H. Hal- 
stead 1.-57 

Kelloring Maehine, Under- 
wood .Vutomobile Cylinder 7.">3 
Iteeoloring Krunze. E. W. 

Norton 973 

Recorder. An Electric Op- 
eration 321 

Recorder, National Machine. 147 

Recorder, Time 320 

Recording Board to Keep 
Tra<-k of The Belt Lacer. 

F. Terry 8S6 

Rirords. Preserving 117 

Rectangular Area in the 

Same Ratio as the sides of 

a (iiven Itcetangle, To 

Olitain the Sides of a.... G32 

Red Tap)' Desirable, A 

Change in 525 

Reducing the Size of Holes 
in I'artly Finishid Work. 

.lames ('ran 380 

Ri e Co.. E. F. : 

Screw IMates 140 

Keid Co.. F. E. : 

Special Lathe for Man- 
ual Training and I'al 

tern Work -tU 

Reed Co.. Franci.s : 

13-ineh Single Sinndle Drill 

Press SOI 

Reforestation on Water 
Power. Bi'neficial EflFect 

of 10.-! 

Reforestation. The Import- 
ance to Manufacluri-rs of 2t»7 
Reinforced Concrete Boats 
to be ITsed on the Mis- 
souri River 102 

Relieving Special Reamers. 

Ethan Viall 200 

Remington Tool & Maehine 
Drill t!age for Grinding 
Correct lAp Angles. . . . 408 
Repair Shop Practice, Loco- 
motive. Ethan Vlall.... G."7 
Repair Shop l*ractice. Loco- 
motive. Ethan Vlall. 

1 021 

Repairs. The .\pi>Hcation of 
.Vutogenous Welding to .\u- 
tomobilc. llcnrv Cave... L'r.c. 

Reproduelion Process r>(W 

Ri'pulation, Canilnlization of 02 

R, ■solution, A Popular 010 

Rest. Spherical Turning 
With Compound. Walter 

(Jrihhen 004 

Rest. Two T\pes of Back 

Tool. F. Rattek 70(t 

Revocation TT n d e r New 

Patents Act <>08 

Revolver Shooting Possible 
at Night, Device for Mak- 
ing 410 

Rewarding Labor, Methods 

of 274 

Reynolds Machine Co. : 

Automatic Screw-Driving 

Machine 304 

llear-IIobbing Machine .... 64G 
Reynolds, Obituarv of Ed- 
win 570 

Rihlet Heater Co. ; 

Riblet Transverse Current 

Water Heater 803 

Rifle and Its Ammunition, 

High-Powered 324 

Rifle, Test of the Noiseless. 193 

Riming Machinery, Motor- 
Driven Uun Barrel Drill- 
ing and 6-10 

RlglUH, Forfeiture of Patent. 

E. C. Smith 2i& 

ICiu for Aulomoblli' l-iieu- 

uuitic Tires, Delachaljle. . . 240 
Rings, Interest log Molds for 

Finger-. W. H. .Morey . . . 202 
Kings In Terms of Diameter, 
.Mlowance for 'Set" of Lo- 
comotive I'lston 072 

Rings, Method of Making. 

W. E. .Morev 547 

Kings, The ^lanufacture of 

Piston. .lames .M.'lnlosh. 708 
KIplev, Wm. Eddy, (ibllimry 

of ' 325 

KIsdou Tool Works, Inc. : 
•■(iravlty" Level for Ma- 
chine Shop and 'I'ool-Rooiu 

Ise -ISO 

Rivet Siihniing Machini-. . . . 822 
Riveter, Ryersoii Internal 

Combust Ion 004 

Riveting FLxture. A 851 

lilvetlng^ Hammer, Interest- 
ing Uses of the Pneu- 

uuitlc •4G3 

Rlvi'tlng Hammers, Pneu- 
matic Cliipiiing and 5o8 

lilveilng .Machine for Steel 

Pulleys, Crant 305 

Ktviting .Machine. Light.... 48li 
ICoadbed for Elevated Rail- 
wav Lines. Nonsuccess i>f 

(iravel ns 

Robertson Drill & Tool Co.: 

Power Hack Saw 5t>0 

Filing .Vttachment for the 

I'ower Hack-Saw 04;! 

21-lnch Cpright Drill 720 

21-Incb Drilling and Tap- 
ping Machine 812 

Rochi'ster Electric Motor 
Co. : 

I'ortabic Motor 721 

Rockford Drilling Machine 
Co. : 
Portable Engine Lathe... 234 
Combined Drilling and 

Tapping Machine 556 

Rockford Machine & Shuttle 
Improved Sensitive Drill. 555 

Pri'cision Bi'nch Lathe 732 

Rockford Macliine Tool Co. : 
Balance Ti'ster for Bal- 
ancing Pulleys, etc 2Xi 

H2-Inch Planer 408 

Rock River Jlachine Co. : 

Light Rapid-Acting Punch. 4.80 
Rockwell Co.. W. S. : 

Internal Fire Continuous 

Furnac 507 

Rolled Bi'lting on Its .\p- 
plication. The Effect of. 

C. K. Lang 138 

Roller Ba.'k Rests Used in 

Turret Lathe Practice.... 205 
Ri^ller Bearing. Hyatt High- 
Duty 734 

Rollers, Cam. Cyrus Tay- 
lor 376 

Rolling Machin.'. .National 
Machinery Co's Thread.. 301 

Rolling Mill, Ferracuti- 307 

Rolling Mill. Water-Cooled.. 734 
Rolling of Ships at Sea. the 
liyroscopic Apparatus for 

Preventi.m of 255 

Kolling Operation on Type- 
Writer I'arts. A. Ethan 

Viall 47 

Uolling Tin Plate Tubes, De- 
vice for. T. lies 796 

Rolls for Conveyor Belts. 
Pressed Stei-I Troughing 

and Return 67 

Rolls for Silver and Gold, 
The Grinding and Lap- 
ping of 711 

K.ills. Grooving Chilb'd Flour 

Mill. M. B. Stauffer 709 

Roof Construction. Vertical 

Saw-Tooth 667 

Root Co.. C. .T. : 

Counter 564 

Rope and Belt Drives, Ex- 
periments With 434 

Rope Drive Surfacers, "Nu- 

Clinch" Belt and SO:! 

Ropes to Support the Main 
Si>an of Manhattan Bridge. 
The Galvanized Wire Sus- 
pender 526 

Ropes. Transmission of Power 

bv 950, P. A. : 

Turning Soft Rubber 370 

Centers for Scribing Semi- 
circles fi-om the Edge 

of a Block 547 

Rotary File and Machine Co. : 
Rotary File Autimiatic Band 

Saw Sharpener 728 

• Kolarv Movement as Confined 

to Man 520 

Rotary Pinning Machine, Ver- 
tical Spindle 5(15 

Roversford Fdry. & Mch. Co. : 
Combined Punching and 

Shearing Machine '2'-\'2 

Rubber. To Cover Iron Pulleys 

with. E. B. Gafkey 073 

RuhbiT. To Turn Soft. E. B. 

Gafkev 500 

Rubber. Turning Soft 207 

Rubber. Turning Soft. Ches- 
ter L. Lucas 406 

Rubber, Turning Soft. A. 

.N'ewlon Hammond 

Rlibbir, Turning Soft. F. A. 

K.jKH, H. ,1. .Mastenbrook, 

i:ilian Viall, Donald A. 

1 lampuon, How Tom t'roBsed 

the. A. P. Press 

Rule. Handy Shrlnkag.' 

Rules. A Cidlectlon »l Ma- 
chin.' Shop. Ethan Vlull. . 
Run .if the .New York Central 

Railroad. H.i'ord 

Russ.ll. .I.ihn F. Obituary of. 
Rust from .'■■luall SIi-.'l Parts, 

■I'o Rcmov.'. S. W. Gri'cn. . 
Rust.'d Oliji'i'ts. Preventing 

^il'rlous Ri'sulls from Iii- 

.jurli's from. Donald A. 


Rv.'rson *; Son. .loseiih T. : 

Porlabb' Aut.iinatic Key- 
s.allng .Ma. hill.' for Cut- 
ling K.yways In Locomo- 
tiv.' .\xles 

Ryerson Internal Combus- 
tion Riveter 








Saf.ty .\ppllances as Used by 
Ibi' r. S. Steel 446 

Saf.ty Device for Buz-/, Plan- 
ers' 189 

Safi'tv Device for Electric 
('nine. .1. F. Mlrrlelees. . . 885 

Saf.'tv Valv.'s 583 

Sal.'. Mldilb' Ship Building 

Yard OlTeri'd for 276 

Sabsm.'n. Practical Knowl- 
.'dg.' ..f 32 

Snivi'. I'si'ful. Arden 55 

Sanii.'r and Polish. 'r. Improved 
V.'rtlcal B.'lt 552 

Sand-Blast Finish on Tools. . 56 

Sand Blast Outllt. Curtis 313 

Sanford Mfg. Co., F.C. : 
Portable Oxy-Acetylene Out- 
fit 322 

Sangster. Wm. : 

Sndther's Pattern Experi- 
ence 705 

Sargent, W. P. : 

Design and Construction of 
Metal-Working Sliops. 

1 1 

2 85 

3 169 

4 251 

5 3:« 

6 585 

Axle Turning Methods and 

Production 413 

Saimders, Ervin, Obituary of. 650 

Saw and Cutter Sharp.'ning 
Machines, Nutter & Barnes 
Automatic 149 

Saw, Billings & Spencr Hot. 224 

Saw. Fay & Kgan Double Clr- 
.'Ular Patt.'rn-sb.)p 307 

Saw, Filing .\ttachment for 
the Power Hack 643 

Saw, Improved Burke Cold. . 476 

Saw Machine. .M. S. W. Port- 
able Hack 730 

Saw, "Marvel" Draw-Cut 
Hack 637 

Saw. Motor-Driven 567 

Saw, New Design of Simplex 
Cold Metal 561 

Saw. Revolving Table Type 
Cold 233 

Saw Sharpener, (^ochrane-Bly 
Automatic 145 

Saw Sharpener. Rotary File 
.\utomatic Band 728 

Saw-Tooth Roof Construction. 
Vertical 067 

Sawing Cast Iron , under 
Water 297 

Sawing Cast Iron under 
Water. Ethan Vlall 370 

Sawing. Convicts' .Mleged 
Skill in Filing and 168 

Sawing Two Buildings .\part 
bv Wire Rope and Wet 
Sand 205 

Saws, For Holding Leather 
on Iron Ptdlevs for Band, 
n. F. Williams 073 

Saws. Making. Ethan Viall . 500 

Sawyer. Albert C. : 

Check Syst.'ms for the Toi>l 
Room 700 

Sawyer. W. A. : 

Gas Engine Cam-Shaft K.'y- 
seating Fixture 468 

Scale .\ttachmept for Starr.'tt 
Suuares. .\uxiliary 730 

Scale for Fractl.ins. .\ddlng 
and Subtracting 502 

S. ■:<!.'. Protractor and Erasing 
Shield. Combined Triangle. 650 

S.baefer. C. T. : 

Valve-Timing Gage for .\u- 
tomoblle Motors 624 

Schellenbach-Htint Tool Co : 
Universal Micrometer and 

Surface Gage 387 

Schellenbncb IS Inch Cone- 
Driven Lathe 156 

Schiess Pit Plan.'r 27 

School Course. Fitchburg Co- 
operative Industrial 106 

School for .\pprentices, Lud- 

wlg-Loewe & Co 's 8- 

School. New Cooperative 

Trade 532 

School. The Lawrence Indus- 
trial 249 


Scboola ill England, Coopera- 
tive Evi-nlng 434 

K4.'lir<ieder, L.iuIh J. : 

Hliiipb' ,■<.. lotion of "A Prob- 
lem In Trig.moinetry" 130 

Hchroeder ItaKhet \Vrench.. 406 
Kchultz & .Son, Mi'Hsrs. A. 
L. : 
Improved Friction Clulcb.. 486 
S.'hulz, A. E. : 

Writing Cam 132 

8»'leroBcopi' A New Mechani- 
cal Test for llardnchH. J. 

F. Springer 08 

HcleidNco|ii' In Metallurgy and 
Manufai'tiirliig. The Inllu- 
enci' of th.'. A. F. Klioi'.'. 928 
S<'olt, (IbltiMiry of Ralph... 826 
Scrapers. S.t of Tool .Makers. 

.1. E. Poorman 480 

Scraidiig Operations, Labor- 
Savlng Devices for. Alfred 

Spangeiiberg 50:t 

Scratch Gag.'. Palternmak- 

ers'. .Vustln G. .Johnson.. 130 
Scr.'W Button or Split Dies, 
I'.irmulas for Machine. 
Th.iiuas .1. .N'orton and 

li4)uglas T. Hamilton o.'jtj 

Scr.'W Cutting .Ktta.lim.nt for 

Elgin Pi Islon Lath.' 485 

Screw Cutting C.). of .Viner- 

Improved Mi'tbod of Cut- 
ting Screws 634 

Screw-Drlvi'r. .\ Ilandv ISO 

Screw-Drlvi'r, All-St.'el 507 

Screw-Driver, Elect rlcan's. . . 05(J 
Screw-Iirlver. Elmore Tool 

Mfg. Co.'s 486 

Screw-Drlvlng Machine, Rey- 
nold's .Viitomatlc 394 

Screw Ends Flush with Nuts, 

Cutting. .1. T. Grimshaw. 213 
Screw from an Inaccurate 
Li'ad-Screw. Cutting an Ac- 
curate. Kacqu.t 375 

Scr.'W .Machine. Constant 
Speed Drive for Brown & 

Sliarpi' Automatic 141 

Screw Machine, Cutting Heli- 
cal Gears on the Brown & 

Sharpe .\utomatic 017 

Screw Machhie. Improvements 

In the Tilted Turret 894 

Screw Machine. Large Collet 

Made on Automatic 289 

Screw Machine, Magazine At- 
taihment for Cleveland An- 

tomatic 320 

Screw Machine, Milling .\t- 
tachment for the Acme 

Multiple Spmdie 004 

Screw Machine, New Design 
of the Peerless Multiple 

Spindle .Vutomatic 908 

Scr.'W Machine. P.'.'rless .\u- 

t.unatlc Multiple-Spindle... 301 
Screw Machine. Simplex Mul- 
tiple Spindli' .Vutomatic. ... 567 
Screw Machine Work. Some 

Interesting 203 

Screw Machines. .Vttachment 
for Cutting Squari'S and 
Hexagons in Automatic. . . . 104 
Screw Machines. Motor Drive 

for 77 

Screw Plates. Reece 140 

Screw Press. Ferracute Hand. 800 
Screw Shaving and Turning 

Machines 234 

Screw that Won't .Tar Loose, 

A Thumb. H. R. Ash 971 

Screw Thread Gage. .V Handy. 

Oskar Kvlln 54 

Screw Threads. Carriage Bolt. 949 
Screw Threads. Carriage-Bolt 

Heads. Shanks and 972 

Screws. Improved M.'thod of 

Cutting 634 

Screws while Filing off the 
Point. Holding Small. C. 

F. Emerson 408 

Seasoning of Wood 245 

Seaward. Ernest R. : 

Thread Micrometers 408 

Self-Hardening Cutt.'rs. Cen- 
tering. .1. R. Weaner 214 

Self-Rellance of .lim West. 

The. Grebo 43 

Self-Selecting Feeds. Herbert 
.\utoniatic Turret Lathe 

with 183 

S.'ll.'rs & Co., Inc. : 

Car-Wheel Lath.' 808 

Sense. Teaching Horse S..2 

Sensitive Drill. Improved.... 555 
Sensitive Indicating .Microm- 
eter ' 31 

"Set" .if Locomotive Piston 
Rings In Terms of Diam- 
eter. .\llowance for 072 

Sotag. P. F. : 

Multiple .Tig for Small Pul- 

levs 407 

Setting-Anglis for Milling .\n- 
aular Cutters and Taper 
Reamers. W. A. Knight.. 163 
Setting Milling Cutters. .\c- 

curate Method of 461 

Setting the Steady-Rest. J. 

W. Dickinson 52 

Setting Work on the Face- 
plate. .A Subscriber 296 

Sewine-Machine Needles Made 

of High-Speed Steel 357 

Shafer. W. H. : 

Drilling Plate or Auxiliary 
Drill Press Platen 212 

Sbaft Lubricator, Van Doren 
Automatic 000 

Sbaft. Ki'movlng a KlaiiKi' 
CoupUng C42 

Shaft Ui-pair, A Ui'markablo 
I'ropcllcr 855 

Sbaft, aV) Find tlie Center of 
a io:i 

Sbaft TurnInK I.atbi', Pren- 
tice Itros., Uiliirh 40,"! 

Sbaft big, Tbi- KlnkeaU System 
of Aligning 810 

Sbatis luul Hubs, Keyway 
Oaglug In 230 

Sbafis, Hearing for Ulgb- 
Speed 771 

Shanks inid Sercw Threads, 
farrlage-Holt Heads 072 

Shaper. Anierlean 15 - Inch 
Crank 155 

Shaper, American 'I'ool Wks. 
BackOenred Crank 64J 

Shaper Converted into a 
Shaver, old. l>iinald A. 
Ifamiison 54;{ 

Shaper tiage, Starrett Planer 
and 721 

Shaper. Ueared-Krivi' 20lnch. 7:i4 

Sbaper. Hilneh Crank 55:i 

Shaper of Compaet Arrange- 
meni, .\ Motiir-hrivi'ii 2o4 

Sbaper. Uaek Culling on the. 
\V. 1.. Benit/. 133 

Sbaper. Smilb & .Mills High- 
Speed Baek-(;pared Crank.. 470 

Sbaiier. Stockbridge Gear- 
Driven 210 

Shaper Tool, .\djustable. J. 
Price 071 

Shaper with Compact Motor 
Drive. Steptoe 821 

Shapcrs and Planers. Key- 
seating Attachment for. . . . 6.'i 

Shapers. Tests on Crank 535 

Sharpener. CochrancBly .Au- 
tomatic S-aw 145 

Sharpener. Pencil. John B. 
Sperry 1-iO 

Sharpener. Rotary File Auto- 
matic Band Saw 72,S 

Sharpening Machines. The 
Nutter & Barnes Automatic 
Saw and Cutter 140 

Sharp V-Thread. The Pa.ssing 
of the 540 

Shaver, old Shaper Converted 
into a. Donald A. Hamp- 
son 543 

Shaw. Francis W. : 

Geometrical Progressions 
for Spindle Speeds 400 

Shear. Bertsch Automatic 
Feed 070 

Shear. Combined Punch and.. 734 

Shear. :02-lncb Plate 734 

Shearing Machine, Royers- 
ford Combined Punching 
and 232 

Shearing Punch and Dii". 
Toolmaker 07o 

Shears. Searight Compound- 
Lever Mechanics 6.*!T 

Shelving. I.von Expansililo 
Steel Racks with Adjust- 
able <141 

Shield. .Vdjustable Erasing. 
John B; Sperry 382 

Shield. Combined Triangle. 
Scale. Protractor and Eras- 
ing G-"'0 

Shifter and Counter-Shatt. 
Pullet Belt 078 

Shifter, Improved Form of 
Belt. Donald A. Hampson. 0(>fi 

Shipbuilding Yards' Output 
for lOOS. United States'. . . 34 

Ships at Sea, the Gyroscopic 
.Apparatus for Prevention 
of Rolling of 255 

Shooting Possible at N'ight, 
Device for Making Re- 
volver 410 

Shop Appliances, Some Inter- 
esting 041 

Shop Door Closing Device... . 000 

Shop Operation Sheet on 
Grinding Drills. The 773 

Shon Pbotographv. H. Cole 
Estep 2SS 

Shop Photography. H P. 
Fairfield 442 

Shop Structure of the Lucas 
Machine Tool Co 1 02 

Shops. Design and Construc- 
tion of Metal-Working. 
■W. P. Sargent. 

1 1 

2 85 

%3 IfiO 

4 251 

5 333 

6 585 

Shotwell. George W., Obituary 

of 487 

Sbotwell, George W., Obituary 
of 500 

Shrinkage Rule, Handy 0S7 

Sides of a Rectangular Area 
in the same Ratio as the 
Sides of a Given Rectangle. 
To Obtain the 632 

Sight Feed Oil Pump Co. : 

rnlon-Circh Pipe Fittings. 307 

Signaling System to he In- 
stalled on the London 
Metropolitan Railway. Elec- 
tric .Automatic 34 

Siepals to Prevent Wrecks on 
Bridges, .Automatic 520 

Silencer or Muffler for Guns. 
The Maxim 538 

Silver, Malleability of 

Suigle .Vethig Engines, tilt- 
setting Cylinders In 

Sirens, Table of Sleani Whis- 
tles and .'^leam 

Slrlus ; 

Punches and Dies for Can 

Winding Springs 

Size of (ias and Oil Engine 

Cjllnders. To Delcrmlne. 

Newton Wright 

Size of Working Drawings, 

Ralph W. Davis 

Sizes of Illustrations 

Sizes of Working I>ra\vlngs. 

,1. 1*^ Washburn 

Sizes. Steam Pipe. Charles 

L. Hubbard 

Sketch Pad .Vrrangemcnt.. . . 
Skinner Chuck Co. : 

Spei'lal Skinner Chuck for 
Holding Gas Engine Cyl- 

Slag-Conerete Bricks, The 

.Manufacture of 

Sleeping Car. AI|.Ste<l 

Sleeves. Standard Tool Co.'s 

"Economy" Drill Sockets 


Slide Rule for Addition and 

Subtraction of Fractions. 

Wm. C. Michael 

Slide Rub' for .Addition and 

Subtraction of Fractions. 


Slide Rule for Trigonometrical 


Slide Rule of Small Size, An 


Slide R\ile. :iOO A'ears Old. . . . 
Slocomb Co., J. T. : 

.An .Addition to the Slocoml) 
Line of Micrometers. . . . 

Slocomb Reference Disks. . 

Slots. Jig for Drilling 

Slntter. English Type of Elec- 
trically-Driven. James 


Slotting .Attachment for the 

Milling Machine 

Slotting Machine, An English. 

James A'ose 

Small Tools. .Additions to the 

Starrett Line of 

Smart. Charles E. : 

Improvement in Female 
Centers for Fluting 
Small Taps 

Interesting 'L^ses of the 
Pneumatic Riveting Ham- 

Smith Co.. E. G. : 

Imnroved Ad.lustments for 

Columbia Calipers 

Smith. E. C. : 

Inventors vs. Employers 
and Associates 

Forfeiture of Patent Rights 
Smith. Epbrlam K.. Ohituarv 


Smith & Mills : 

High-Speed Back - Geared 

Crank Shaper 

Smiths. Identifying 

Smokeless Fuel 

Snyder & Son. J. E. : 

Twenty-one-inch Snyder Up- 
right Drill 

Socket. "Stavin" Positive 


Soldering .Aluminum and Cop- 
per. T. lies 

Soldering Kink. .Tohn B. 


Soldering Paste for Copper 

Wires. William Davis.... 
Soper. Geo. E. : 

An Emery Wheel S-tand . . . 
Spacer for "Lettering. E. G. 


Spangenberg. .Alfred : 

.Application of Lifting De- 
vices to Assemhlins Work. 

Labor Saving Devices for 
Scraping Operations.. . . . 

Increasing the Efficiency of 
a Horizontal Drilling. 
Tapping and Boring Ma- 

.Minimizing the Time of 
Drilling Operations. 

Spanner Wrenches. The Mak- 
ing of 

Span of a Girder. The Rela- 
tion of Depth to. Fred 

Sparks. L. .T. : 

Offset File Holder 

Soecific .Advertising 

Snecifications. Multiple Thread 

Speed Calculation. Critical.' 
E. .\. L.if 

Speed Drive for the Gray 
Planer. A'ariable ". 

Speed Drive. Moore and White 

Siioed Drive, Mnltinle Spindle 
Drill with Variable 

Speed Factor in Grinding. 

Speed Indicator. The Veeder. 

Sneed Lathe. Motor-Driven . . 

Speed of Mechanism so as to 
be absolutelv Synchronous. 
Incenions Method of Regu- 
lating . 

Sored Reducer, Foote Bros. 
Spur Gear 
































Speeds, Comparison of Fixed 
and Variable 

Speeds, Geometrical Progri'S- 
slons for Spindle. Francis 
W. Shaw 

Speeds, High 

Si lis lo be Used on .Milling 

.Machines, (ieneral Culling. 

Spencer, J. S.. tlbltuary of. . 

Spirry. John B. : 

Ink for Writing on Cellu- 

Adjustable Erasing Sblold. 
Fixture for Testing Paral- 
lelism of Crank-pins.... 
Method of Inserting Corks 

In Frictions 

Centrifugal Pumps 

'I'be Inconsistency of Some 


S'ddering Kink 

Briiwn Priiils 

Stamping Tracings 

Pencil .Sharpener 

Spherical Sigmenl. Obtaining 
\'olume of Part of a 

Spherical Turning with Com- 
|)ound Rest. Walter tirlb- 

Spindle. Adjusting Device' for 
.Multiple Spindle Drills. Im- 

Spindle .\rrangcment for .An- 
drew Multiple Drilling .Ala- 
eblne, Improved 

Spindli' -Automatic Screw 
Machine. New Design of 
the Peerless Multiple 

Spindle Drill. Fox .Adjustable 

Spindlr Milling .Attachment. 
.V Tbrci'-. G. RnbiTt O'.Xeal 

S|iindli' Milling Machine. In- 
gersoll Combined Horizontal 
and \'ertical 

Spindle Press. A German De- 
sign of Friction 

Spindle Speeds, Geometrical 
Progressions for. Francis 
W. Shaw 

Spinning Machine. Rivet 

Spiral Cutting .Attachments 
for the Becker A'ertical 
Milling Machine 

Spiral Disk Grinder, Besly 
Double ", 

Spiral Gear Problems 

Spiral Gears, I>iagrams for 
Designing. Francis .1. Bos- 

Spirals. Milling 

Spitzer Bullet. -Advantages 
of the 

Splining Machine for Cross 
Slots in Spindles. Hoefer. . 

.Spontaneous Ignition of Coal, 
Preventative for 

Spots on Blue-Prints. How- 
ard D. Yoder 

.Spring Steel. Hardening Drills 
for Drilling. William 

Spring Wheel for the Auto- 
mobile. .A 

Springer. .1, F. : 

-A New Mechanical Test for 

Springs. Helical. Henry L. 

Springs. Sub-press Die for 

Springs. Winding. Sirius... 

Springs with Initial Tension. 
Winding. Ethan Viall.... 

Spruce for Making Paper 
Pulp. I'se of Engelmann. . . 

Square. Combination 

Squares and Hexagons in -Au- 
tomatic Screw Machines, 
Attachment for Cutting. . .. 

S<]uares. .Auxlliarv Scale -At- 
tachment for Starrett 

Squares on the Ends of Taps 
and Reamers, "Mechan- 
Ikos" ■, 

Squaring of the Circle, The. 
-Antonia Llano 

Stack Design, Simple Method 
of. -A. J. Haire. .Tr 

St.'ick was Erected, How a 
Big Boiler 

Stamping Tracings. John B. 

Stand. .An Emerv Wheel.... 

Stand. Emerv Wheel 

Stand for Lathes. Wells Tool 
Trav and 

Stand. Krieger Tool & Mfg. 
Co.'s .Air Hardening 

Standard Bridge Tool Co.. 
The Wogglc Punching 

Standard Desi.gns of Jigs and 
Fixtur*^ for the Manufac- 
ture of Small Interchange- 
able Parts. Frank P. Cros- 












































Standard Tool Co. : 

Standard Tool Co.'s "Econ- 
omy" Drill Sockets and 


The "Stantool'' Taper for 

Drill Shanks and Collets. 

Standard for Reciprocating 

Steam Engines for Electri- 

'-ai Pnrnoses 

Siari-ett. L. S . Co. : 

Additions to the Starrett 



Line of Small Tools 90" 

Planer and Shaper Gage. 721 
-Auxiliary Scale .Attachment 

for Starrett Sijiuires... 730 
Center Gage .Attachment.. 730 

Siarrett, obituary of Lyman 
-M 160 

Starting Panels for Direct 
Current Motors, Westing- 
house 802 

Starters, A New Line of Mo- 
tor 980 

.«.|auirer, M. B. : 

Grooving Chilled Flour Mill 

Rolls 709 

Roll Grooving Master 
Tools 862 

Slav bolt Breaker. Williams, 
White & Co.'s 478 

Stay bolts. .A -New Departure 
In Flexible 800 

Stay-bolls, High-Grade Steel 
for 864 

"Stayin" Positive Drill Socket 306 

Steadv-Rest, Setting the. J. 
W. Dickinson 52 

Steam and Gas Power when 
Exhaust Steam Is Used for 
Heating, Relative Economy 
of 104 

Steam Economy in Engines. 276 

SteamKnginc Valve Mechan- 
ism. -Vew 7.36 

Steam Engines for Electrical 
Purposes. Standards for Re- 
ciprocating 988 

Steam Hammer and its Use, 
The. James Cran 107 

Steam on Cast Iron Pipe Fit- 
ting, the Effect of Super- 
heated 510 

Steam Pipe Sizes. Charles L. 
Hubbard 530 

Steam Turbine, Adoption by 
Germany of 761 

Steamships .Afloat, List of 
Largest 348 

Stecber Co., Chas. : 

High-Speed Bench Drill 158 

Steel and Steel Rails, Method 
of Surface-hardening Struc- 
tural 35 

Steel, Black Finish for. E. 
W. Norton 55 

Steel, Bath for Hardening 
High Speed. H. S. Steel . . 973 

Steel Castings. New Develop- 
ment in 372 

Steel Cutting Edges Welded 
to Machine Steel Shanks. 
Tools with High-Speed. 
Chas. R. King 213 

Steel for making Sewing Ma- 
chine Needles. High-Speed.. 357 

Steel for Railway Tracks, 
Need of High (Jrade 656 

Steel for Stavbolts, High- 
Grade 864 

Steel, General Electric Co.'s 
Electrical Furnace for Heat 
Treatment of 311 

Steel-Hardening Plant, A Mod- 
em 187 

Steet. H. S. : 

Bath for Hardening High- 
Speed Steel 073 

Steel, Improved High-Speed. . 574 

Steel, Improvements in High- 
Speed 622 

Steel, Increased Use of High- 
Speed 33 

Steel Melting Furnaces used. 
Electric 276 

Steel, New High-Speed 530 

Steel. New High-Speed 608 

Steel Plant, -A Chinese Mod- 
em 946 

Steel Pulleys, Grant Riveting 
Machine for 305 

Steel Rails, Manganese 273 

Steel Rails, Remarkable Phys- 
ical Characteristics of Rolled 
Manganese 700 

Steel, Reduction in Price of.. 568 

Steel Sleeping Car, All- 958 

Steel. Some -Applications of 
A'anadium 527 

Steel Tapes at the National 
Bureau of Standards, Test- 
ing 120 

Steel, Tempered. Polished and 
Blued Strip 485 

Steel. The Machining of 
Manganese 696 

Steel. The Preservation of 
Iron and 865 

Steel. The Preservation of 
Iron and 949 

Steel. The Welding of Copper 
and 854 

Steel. United States Produc- 
tion of Iron and 329 

Steels for Motor Car Construc- 
tion. Alloy 955 

Steels. Jfechanical Construc- 
tion Made Possible bv Al- 
loy 264 

Steels. The Newer High- 
Speed. O.M.Becker 773 

Steels. Unlimited Possibilities 
of High-Speed 609 

Stein & Co.. William P. : 

Surface Grinding Machine. . 233 

Stems, Swaging Machine for 
F;nii;hing Valve 553 

Step Bearing Design. Example 
of 684 

Steptoe Shaper Co.. .Tohn : 
Motor-Driven Shaper o f 
Compact Arrangement. 234 


16-incb Crank StiapiT 53;i 

Stclitoc Sliaiier with Coiu- 

ijiiil Motor luivc 8-'l 

.SurlliiK lOimry WIutI MfK. 
I'd. : 
StrllInK -4 Imll SlllKic' 

Wliii-I Tool tirhulci- S-1 

Sli Tllii),', Kniiik li. : 

Improvid KxiimidliiK Mill 

liiK Macliliif I'll'.i 

••StiMlliiK" llmk Siiw MaclUiU', 

lllKli Si .1 41)4 

Stliii|isoii. William C. Obit- 
uary of 0<5'-' 

St. l.iiuls Mai'liliic Tool Co.; 

tirlTiiilMK .Mai hliic 801) 

Stoiklir.ilKc .Maililni' Co, : 

(Jiiir I'riviii SliapiT -I'.i 

Stoikcr .Muililiii'ry Co., El. .V. : 
Kcarulii ICiiiiry \V li i' i' 1 

Imssi'r 233 

Stoi'vir Koiiiiilry & Mfg. t'o. : 
Sioiv.r I '.HI!) Modfl ri|M' 

Maiiiiii.' 815 

Slokvls. iililliiary of S.. U... -38 
Sli>|) ami Ti II tall'. Automatic 

l.atli.'. I'aul \V. Aliliotl. . . r.t) 
Stop, llrlll. It. It. I.ovi'joy.. ."4:! 
Stop for .loms & l.amson 
Turrot I.atlif. Frank I.. 

Immcr 2!ll 

Stop for Lang Tool-Holder, 

I'ositlvo Hladi- 909 

Stop for ■Lo-Swlng" l.allie, 

CompcnsaliMg .\utomatk' .. 731 
Stop .Motion HullduziT, Ajax 

HlKll Speed 304 

Stops. l,odK<' & Slilpley I.alhe 

with Automatic Feed ilOL> 

Stove liolt Taps 530 

Stove I'ipe Klhow Machine, 

Kirk "3 

Stow Flexible Shaft Co. : 

Crank-pin Turning Tool.... 394 
Straddle .Milling F 1 .\ t ii r e . 

Orono 52 

Stralgbtining and Polishing 
Machinery. \ l.hie of Shaft 

Turning 321 

Strength and Klasticity of 

Copper. The 606 

Strength of Flat Plates. 
Formulas for. William F. 

Fischer 779 

Strength of Helical (jearing. !-•> 
Strength of the U. S. and 
Whitworth Standard 
Threads. Comparison of. . . *ii;i 
Stri'sses in Wire Hopes due to 

Bending 451 

Stflpper Attachment for 

Punch Press. K. Fulber... 200 
Stromlieck, George M. : 

Helerminiiig the .\ctual 
Compression in a Small 

Has Kngino 040 

Siromlierg Klectric Mfg. Co. : 
Stroiuherg Kh'ctrlc Chrono- 
graph 484 

Structural Stei'l and Steel 
Kails. Mc^thod of Surface- 
hardening 35 

Study. Systematic 190 

Sturtevaiit Co.. H. F. : 

Type H Flectric Motors... 14.S 
S'lilitraelion of Fractions. Slide 
lt\ile for .Vddilion and. Win. 

C. Michael : .SO 

Subway and l^b'vated Lines. 
Number f>f Passengf rs car- 
ried in the 526 

Suliwav Completed. Philadel- 
phia' 34 

Subway, Number of Feet Op- 
ened in Host on 520 

Subway System for Trans- 
porting the .Mail in P.erlin. 52ii 
Success, ^'limbing tlie Ladder 

of 23.-I 

Success, The Secret of liio 

Suction (!as Power Plant. .\ 

Year's E.\perien<'e with a.. -iG 
Superheated Steam Locomo- 
tives. Increase in Cse of. . 34 
Superheated Steam on Cast 
Iron Pipe Fitting. The Ef- 
fect of 516 

Superheating in England. 

Biitish Correspondent 13 

Sui>erior Machine 'I'ool Co. : 
The Sujii-rior Machine Tool 
Co.'s Taiipins .\ttachment 

for Drill Press S07 

Surface lirini'er. Walker No. 

2 14 222 

Surface. fJrinding Machine.... 233 
Surface! Lirdening Structural 
Steel and S.teel Hails. Meth- 
od of 35 

Surfacers. "Nu-Clinch" Belt 

and Rope Drive 893 

Surprise Ti'sts on Pennsyl- 
vania Uailrnad. T'se of. . . . 458 
Suspended Uailwav. The Ber- 
lin 115 

Swage Holder. Boring Mill 

Gage and 789 

Swaging Machine for Finish- 
ing Valve Stems 553 

Swedish Government in Pre- 
serving Forest Reserves 
and Ore Deposits. Methods 

of 34 

Swedish Alachine Tools. Mod- 
em. Oskar Kylin 52S 

Sweet. S. II. : 

.V Milling Fixture for the 
Webs of Crankshafts. ... 70 1 

Swindler in the South. Ma- 
chinery 535 

Switch Mechanism, Kleclrlc. . 

Switches for .Mti'niullng Cur- 
rent Motors. .Self Starting. 

Switzerland and Italy. Tun- 
nel Connecting 

.Switzerland's luijtiprted .\la- 
clilnery, The Vali 

Symbols hi MatheiinU iial and 
' KiiBlneerIng Formulas .... 

Svnchronous, Inginloiis Mi'lli 
od of Regulating .Meehaii 
Ism 80 As to be .Absolutely 

System. The Silver Hollar 

Systematic Study 


I Ml 



Table, Sli-el 1 irafl Ing Room . . I>,">0 

'labb-. The Woggle I'uncblng. 4.SC, 

Tables, Curves vs 048 

Tables for Hcuse Power of 
Gasoline Englni's. Formulas 
and. Morris A. Hall 610 

Tabor. Obituary of Harris... sii 

Tail-stock Design. A. Kaequct 2iis 

Tail stock to Turn a Taper. 

To Set Over a. II. C. Lord tS 

Tail-Stock to Turn a Taper. 
To Set over the. Robert 
Grimshaw 203 

Tallow of Even Consistency 
at all Temperatures, Willie 
Lead and 55 

Tang. Gross & (Jross Inter- 
mediate Drill Shank 070 

Tang, The .Morse Drill Taper 
Shank 805 

Tap and Die Holder. Releas- 
ing 568 

Tap. Nicholson Inserted Blade 
Pipe 300 

Tap Thread Milling Machine. 550 

Tap Warped in Hardening. 
Saving a 140 

Taps against Breakage. Sav- 
ing. Harry L. Ramtio 70S 

Taps and Reamers. Squares 
on the Ends of. '■.Mecbani- 
kos" 627 

Taps. Dimensions of Bit- 
Brace » 54S 

Tans. Hardening. Donald .V. 
llampson 630 

Talis. Improvement in Female 
Centers for Fluting Small. 

Charles E. Smart 463 

Tnips. .Machine for Hi.bbing. . 085 
Taps. The Manufacture of. 

1 343 

2 435 

Taps. Stove Bolt 530 

Taper for Drill Shanks and 

Collets. The -Stantool". . . 806 

Taper (lib Design in ".ligs 
and I'ixtures." E. tl. I'-b- 
[■rliardt 213 

Taner Shank Tang. T h e 
Morse Drill 865 

Taper. To Set Over a Tail- 
stock to Turn a. H. C. 
Lord 48 

Taper. To Set Over thi> Tall- 
Stock to Turn a. Robert 
(Jrlmshaw 295 

Tapers. Broadiing Mac-bine 
.\rranged for Broaching... 151 

Tapes at the National Bureau 
of Standards. Testing Str.l. r.'ii 

Tapes Figured for Inslan 
taneous Reading. Steel.... 55'.1 

Tapes with "Kcco" Finish. 
KcuCTel & Esser 75 

Tapper, .\ulomatic Reversible 234 

Tapping and Boring Machine. 
Increasing the Efficiency of 
a Horizontal Drilling. Al- 
fred Spangenberg 745 

Taiiping and Threading Ma- 
chine, F. E. Wells & Son 
Co.'s 303 

Tanping .\ttachment for Drill 
Press. The Superior Ma- 
chine Tool Co.'s 807 

Tanping .\ttachment for Use 
in Sensitive Drill Presses. 77 

Tanping. Devices for Holding 
Work While. E. D. Gag- 
nier 211 

Tai)ping Machine, An .Auto- 
matic Nut 321 

Tapping Machine. .Automatic. 550 

'I'apping Machine, .\utoniatic 
.Air-Controlled Nut 651 

Taniyng Maeliine. Combined 
Drilling and 550 

Tapping Machine for Light 
Work 400 

Tanping Machine. Robertson 
Drill & Tool Co.'s 21 -Inch 
Drilling and SH' 

Tanning. Power. .A. C. 
Pletz 464 

Tapping. Power Required for 824 

Target, An Electric Record- 
ing 103 

TarllT. Labor and the 688 

Tariff. Machine Tools and 
the 445 

Tariff Regulations. Some De- 
fects in Our 524 

Tn'-tnr. Recording - BreakiiiT 
Speed of the Torpedo Beat 
Destroyer 571 

Tate .Tones & Co. : 

Oil-Burning Furnace for 
llent Treatment of Steel. 087 

Taxation. Corporation 805 

T.^'tor. Charles : 

Iirili Press A'ise with .\d- 
Justing Jaw Plates 630 

Taylor, Cyrim : 

Interiultti'iit Cuia-Uollerd.. 370 
'la.Mor ti Fi'nn C". : 

improvenieiii In Seniilllve 
.Miilllple Spindle Drill 
Press 400 

Tvpi' C Miiiiiifactiirer*' 

' Drill 7'20 

lavlor White High Speed Pat 

cuts Invalid 530 

Taylor While Process of 

treat lug ■Tungsten Sieid to 

Increase lis 1 ulttiig tJualT 

ties 276 

'Teaeblng Horse .Sens*' 85'J 

'Teai hlng Tiadis. .Moving I'Ic- 

lures an .Mil to 358 

'i'l'cbnlial Ilookiiiakliig. Prolil 

In 634 

'Tecbnlcal l'!ducalloM and Shop 

Prai'llce. Coiilblnalloii of.. 428 
■Tecbnlcal Siliool at Palestine. 500 
■Ticbnical Sel Is In Prussia 

(ijM lecl to Woiili 11 118 

I'lrliiinlijiiiill. .Negollallons 

I nder Way for ih.- Itepub- 

llshing of the ". . . . 34 

Telautograph. .\n Ingenious 

and Interi'StIng I'se of.... 273 
Telegraph Fobs. Concrete... 865 
'Teligraph Poles. Making Con- 

cri-te 104 

Telegrapiiic Communication 
with Balloons. Successful 

Wireless 300 

Teli'graphy. .A Record in Long- 
Distanced 736 

'Telegraphy. Chinese Improved 

.Method of Wireless 34 

Telephone. Train Dispatching 

by 447 

'Teliphones, Comparative Ise 

,.f 776 

'Telescope witii Mercury .Mir- 
ror. New 103 

'Tell-tale. .Vutoniatic Lathe 

Stop and. Paul W. .Mibott. 50 
'Temper Colors, and 'Tempera- 
tures and Colors for Hard- 
ening 272 

Tempers for 'Tools. Prac'licai. lOO 
'Temperature Ohtaiieil when 

Liiiuefying Helium. Low.. 180 
'Temperaliiris and Colors for 
Hardening. Temper Colors 

and 272 

'Temperatures. Instruments 

for Measuring 02 

'Tempering of 'Tools not De- 
pendent only upon 'Tempera- 
ture 948 

Tensile Strength of .Austral- 
ian Wood 013 

Terrv. Fred : 

Attachment for Milling 
Half Circles in Drip- 
Forge Dii's 541 

Recording Board to Keep 
Track of the Belt I.acer. 886 
Tc'st for Hardness. .\ Ni-w 

Mechanical. .1. F. Springer 98 
Test on "Sterling" Iligh- 

Sjieed Power ITaek-Saw. . . . 568 
'I'esis for Decrease in the 

Ccnsumplion of Gasoline. 276 
Tests of Standard Cast Iron 

Fittings 607 

T.sts on Crank Shapers 535 

Tests. Surprise 458 

'Tester. .A I'orlable Locomo- 
tive Boiler 631 

'Testing Device. Ballentlnc 

Hardness 338 

'Testing Machine. Messrs. 
Tinius Olsen & Co.'s Cold 

Bend 480 

Testing Machine, Oil 780 

'Testing .Machine. AA' h i te - 

Souther Endurance 473 

Testing Rail Wear. Machini' 

for 277 

Testing the Hardness of Met- 
als. Methods of 053 

Ti-sting the Hardness of Met- 
als. The Brinell Method of. 14 
Testing the Planing of a Tur- 
ret Machine Bed. (iage for. 41 
ThoDioson & Son Co.. Henry 
G. : 
.A Power Hack Saw ^la 

chine 321 

Tbomnson. Warren E. : 

Method of Makinc Master 
Tools for Kvelet Sets. . . . 517 
'Thompson. W. .1. : 

Attachment for Flexible 

Shaft Grinder 543 

Thread in Castings while in 
the Mold. Producing Inter- 
nal 040 

■Thread Milline \ttnchnv-t 

for "Caf'"'aet" Bench Lathe 484 
Thread Milling Machine. Tan S.'iO 
Thread Poilin? Machine. Na- 

tionnl Alachinerv Cn.'s. . . . 301 
Thread Sr."ciflcations. Multi'ile 207 
Thread. The Passing of the 

Sharn X- 540 

Thread Tool. Precision. G. .T. 

Murdoek 882 

Thread Tools. Krieger Grind- 
ing Gage for 403 

Threads. Carriage-Bolt Heads. 

Shanks and Screw 972 

Threads. Carriage-Bolt Screw. 040 
Th reads. Comparison of 
Strength of the V. S. and 

Whitworth Standard 610 

Threaded \d.iti«tnient for Mi- 
crometers. Drill Spindles, 

Screw Jack* and other 

L'HeH 651 

Tlir< ailing Dies. Erik Olwrg. 27 
ThreailliiK Die lor Lav on 
Turret Lathes, etc., Kolld 

Adjustable 21« 

Tlireailliig Lathes, Face-plate 

C.iiislruitloii for 273 

Threading Machine, A Hand. 322 
Thriadlng Machine, Alfnd 
Box Jk Co.'s Multiple Die 

Bolt and Pipe 393 

Threading .Machine Co. : 

.\ Hand ThreadlnK Marhlne .'{22 
Threailliig .Machine. F. K. 
Wells & Son <.'o."8 Tapping 

and 303 

■Threi' Fliil.d DrIllH 770 

Thi Spindle .Milling At- 

lacliment. A. G. Robert 

O'Neal 624 

Tliumb-Serew that Won't Jar 

Loose. A. U. K. Ash 071 

'Tllibab : 

'The Diplomatic Drafts- 
man 368 

'Tides Near the Mouth of the 
Elbe, I'se of the Forces of 

the 276 

'Ties bv the JapaiK'se, llie 
Supplving of Railroad.... 527 

'Ties, Coneri'ti' 446 

'Ties of 'Treated Wooil Most 

Satisfactory. Railroad 34 

Tightening a Bushing for 

Paper Rolls 140 

Timber. Amount '■of Preserva- 
tives Csed for 063 

Timber In the ITnited States. 

Amount of Standing 360 

Tires. Detachable Rims for 

.Automolille Pneumatic 240 

'Titus .Alachine Works: 

A Heavy Drilling Vise 321 

Toggle Drawing Press, Biles 

Double Crank 638 

Toledo Mch. & Tool Co. : 

Heavy Single-Action Draw- 
ing Press 230 

Toledo Wrench Co. : 

"DiMiuette" Two-Way Pipe 

Wrench 727 

Tom Crossed the Rubicon, 

How. A. P. Press 174 

'To-morrow. Doings Things... 21 
Tool. .Adjustable Shaper. J. 

Price 971 

Tool Cases, Gerstner Portable 723 
Tool. Cleveland Multiple 

Reaming and Facing 802 

Tool. Combination Locating. 

Clamping. Drilling and 

Counterboring. F. W. Hail. 065 

Tool Design. Some 'Thoughts 

on Machine. Forrest E. 

Cardullo 830 

Tool. Double-End Lathe 735 

'Tool for Deep-Hole Drilling. 

Francis P. Havens 708 

Tool Grinder. Sterling Twenty- 
four-inch Single Wheel .... 821 
Tool-Holder Adjustable for 

Height 448 

ToolIIolder. Champion Com- 
bination 234 

'Tool Holder, Extension. W. 

A. Knight 135 

■Tool-nolder for High-Speed 

Steel 220 

'Tool-Holder for Planer and 
Shaper. .Adjustable Exten- 
sion. Dletz 466 

'Tool-Holder for Triangular 

Blades. Lang 803 

Tool-Holder for Turning and 

Threading 735 

Tool-Holder for Turning Lo- 
comotive 'Tires .321 

Tool-Holder. Lathe 822 

'Tool-Holder. Positive Blade 

Ston for Lang 000 

Tool-Holder. Tait T'niversal. 567 
Tool-Holders. A New Line of. 322 
Tool-Holders Made bv the 
Western Tool & Mfg. Co., 

New 820 

'Toolmaker : 

Shearing Punch and Die. . . 070 
Toolmaker. Experiences of a 

Young. T. Covey 938 

Toolmakers' Files. How- to Or- 
der 919 

Tool-Making and Manufactur- 
ing 274 

'Tool-making Job. A Tn-entv- 
five Dollar. R. J. Baeh- 

mann 062 

Tool-Post Design. Elevating. 

S. IT. Bullard 626 

To'il. Precision Thread. G. 

J. Murdock 882 

Tool T! Kim Check System. .A. 

J. De Lille 885 

Tool-Room Construction and 
I ocation of a Machlne- 

Shop 168 

Tcol-Room for Lucas Machine 

Tool Co.. Proposed 168 

Tool-Rooms. Check System for. 

Geo. D. Iladun 537 

Tool. Threading 567 

'Tool Trav and Stand for 

Lathes. Wells '800 

Tool. "A'ixen" Hand Milling. 729 
Tools. Additions to the Star- 

rett Line of Small 907 

Tools and Cutters in Planing 
and Milling Fixtures. L« 
eating. Height Block 969 


Tools and Devices for Auto- 
mobile Kiu'toMes, ;j|>eelal. 
Ethoii Vlall .181 

Tools and Devices, ISpeclal Au- 
tomobile l'aclor.v. Ktlian 

Vlall 07a 

Tools, (.'billed Cast Iron I.athc 867 
Tools for Automobile Manu- 
facture, Mnelilues and. C. 

B. Owen 757 

Tools for llendlnc IMpes. 

Henry .1. Itacliinann 545 

Tools for llii' lllaeksuilth 

Shop, .lames t'ran 24 

Tools In a Uepalr Shop, Im- 
provements luiule hy .Motor- 
Driven 580 

Tools, .Modern Swedish Ma- 
chine, oskiir Kylin .IL'.S 

Tools, rractieal Tempers for. "no 

Tools, lieeent .Vddlllons to the 
Hrown & Sharpe l.lne of 
Machinists- 812 

Tools, Uoll tlroovlng Master. 
M. n. StaulTer 862 

Tooth Chamfering Atlachment 822 

Torpedo lloats to be l-'.iinlpped 
with Turbines, German. ... lis 

Torpedo. New Type of IW.l 

Towne. obituary of Nathan 
1' 7^7 

Townsind Mfg. Co., 11. B. : 

Llghi Ulvetlng Machine... 480 

Tracings. Chalk Preparation 
for. Ke.\ .McKee 55 

Tracings, Stamping. John B. 
Sperry 140 

Trackless Trolley Line in 
Operation 197 

Trade-Marks in the Argentine 
Republic 707 

Tiade-Marks, Legislation in 
Regard to 440 

Trade Schools Organized bv 
the State of New York 193 

Trade Secrets, Relation of Em- 
ployes to 100 

"Trade Secrets," The Unrea- 
sonableness of 683 

Trades, Moving I'ictures an 
Aid to Teaching 358 

Train Dispatching by Tele- 
phore 447 

Training of German Engineers 667 

Training Through .Vpprentice- 
ship Systems. Industrial.. 713 

Trammel Substitute. Drafts- 
man's. W. 1'". Moody 382 

Ti-ansfer Table Wanted. Pub- 
lished Description of 574 

Transit, Shop 734 

Transmission Chain, Detach- 
able Link 637 

Transmission Dynamometer, 
A New. Wm. H. Kenerson. 777 

Transmission of I'ower bv 
Hopes. The 950 

Traveling Crane. New Electric 715 

Trav and Stand tor Lathes, 
Wells Tool 896 

Trees S*t Out by Pennsyl- 
vania Railroad 118 

Triangle, Detinition of 600 

Triangle. Scale, I'rotractor. 
and Erasing Shield. Com- 
bined 650 

Trigonometrical Problems, 
Slide Rule for 189 

Trigonometry" by Analytical 
Geometry. Solving ".\ Prob- 
lem in. William Kent 1,39 

Trigonometr.v,'' Simple Solu- 
tion of "\ Problem in. 
Louis J. Schroeder 139 

Trimming Machine for Bolt 
Ifeads. Automatic 152 

Trolley Line in Operation, 
Trackless 197 

Troughing jiud Return Rolls 
for Conveyor Belts, Pressed 
S.teel 67 

Trui'ks for Moving Machinery. 
Ethan Vlall 53 

Trucks for Moving Machinery. 139 

Truing a Bench Lathe Bed. 
Walter Gribben 860 

Truing Rough Work, Charles 
E. Burns 541 

Trust Made Good. When a . . . 524 

Truth of Cut Gears. Device 
for Testing. Detroit 374 


Broaching a Dovetail Key- 
seat in a Taper Hole . . . 455 

T Square. Noyes \'ertical . . . . 75 

Tubes. Device for Rolling Tin- 
Plate. T. lies 790 

'Pubes, Sheets and Wire. TlU' 
Direct Production of Cop- 
per 122 

Tubes. Tbi' Opening of the 
Hudson 619 

Tucker. W. M. & C. V. : 

Tucker Positive Lock Com- 
pression Grease Cup.... 815 

Tuplls. C. : 

The Punch that was 

"Pinched" 621 

Pat's Promotion 703 

The Live Press 762 

Bob's Balky Pump 942 

Tumblers. Ice 357 

Tumbling Barrels. Bnlrd Dou- 
ble Horizontal Tilted 892 

Tungsten Steel to Incn ase Its 
Cutting Qualities. Tavlor- 
Whlte Process of Tren'ting. 276 

Tunnel Connecting Switzer- 
land and Italy 276 

Tunnel, New D. L. & W. Ry. . 568 

Tunnel. Opening of Second 


Turbine, .V<loptlon by Germany 

of Slelim 

Turbine. Rubber I'oundallon 

for Steam 

Turbines, _ (tcrnuin Torpedo 
Boats to'be Equipped with. 

Turn a Taper. To Set Over 
the Tall Stock to. Robert 

Turn Soft Rubber. To. K. B. 

Turning and Baeklng-olT Ma- 
chine, Wjillhnm Cutter. , . . 

Turning and I'^iK-lng .Miichine. 
Cndei-wood I'urlalile Boring 

Turning an l*;ccenlrlc. oi-ig- 

Turning M<-lh<Kls and I'roduc- 
tlon. Axle, William P, 

Turning Mills, New Line of 
Pnole Boring and 

Turning Soft Rublier 

TlU'nlng Sipfl Rubbi'i'. .\, New- 
ton Hammond 

Turning Soft Rubber. Chester 
L. Liu-as 

Turning Soft Rubber. K. A. 
Ross, 11. .1. Mastenbrook, 
Ethan Vlall. Donald A. 

Turning. Straightening and 
Polishing Maciiinery. .\ Line 
of Shaft 

Turning Tool, Stow Crank- 

Turning with Compomid Rest, 
S[)herical. Waltei- (:ribl)en 

Turret for Boring .Mills, Sup- 

Turret Lathe, .\djustable Bor- 
ing Tool for. Contributor. 

Turret Lathe, Bullard 24-Inch 

Turret Lathe, F^inlshlng Bevel 
liear Blanks in the Davis.. 

Turret Lathe, Machining Fly- 
whei'ls for Gasoline Engines 
on the Pond Rigid 

Turret Lathe Practice, Roller 
Back Rests Used In. .... .. 

Turret Lathe, Stop for Jones 
& Lamson. Frank L. 

Turret Lathe, The "Stuyves- 

Turret Lathe Tool, Unique. 
J. S. Scott 

Turret Lathe with Self-Se- 
lecting Feeds. Herbert Au- 

Turret Lathes. Solid Adjust- 
able Threading Die for Use 

Turret Machine Bed. Gage for 
Testing the Planing of a. . 

Turret Machine. Flather 30- 
inch Vertical 

Turret Machines. Graham 
Knurl Holder for 

Turret Screw Machine, Im- 
provements in the Tilted,. 

Turrets, Removing Bushings 
from. Paul W. Abbott 

XX Century Tool Co. : 

Combined Surface and Tool 

Twiss, Edward M., obituary 

Twist Drill. Acme High- 

Twist Drill and Chuck. 
Norka Two-Grooved High- 

Twist Drill (Jrlnding 

Twist Drills. Economy in Cut- 
ting Bar Stock for 

Twist Drills, Experiments on. 



Twisted Drili. Hac'kVtt! '.'.'.'.'. 

'Lwo-Cycle and Four-Cycle 
Gas Engines 

Typewriter Keys, Alloy Com- 
position Used for, . '. 

Typewriter Parts. -V Rolling 
Operation on. Ethan Vlall. 

Underwood & Co.. H. B. ; 

A Portable Milling Machine 

Portable Boring, Turning 
and Facing Machine.... 

•Vutomatic Cylinder R e - 

Boring Machine 

"Unica." Gears made from. . . 
Union Mfg. Co. : 

Geared Drill Chuck 

I'nlon Railway Station at 

Leipzig. I,,arge 

United States Electrical Tool 

Lathe Grinding .\ttachmi'nt 
for Internal and External 


United States Production of 

Iron and Steel 

United States Ship-building 

Yards' Output for inos. . , . 
United States Steel Cornora- 

tlon's First Product at 


Universal Attachment for 

Whitney Milling Machine, 


Universal Boring Mch, Co. : 

Boring, Milling and Drilling 


Universal Camera Bracket. 

Ethan Vlall 627 

089 Universal Joints, Two New 

Types of 234 

701 Unloader for Air Compres- 
sors, Automatic 507 

008 Upright Drill Press, New" 

English. James Voae 95K 

118 Upright Drill, Robertson 21- 

Inch 720 

Upright Drill, Twcnty-oue- 

295 Inch Snyder 728 

790 Valis, R. W. : 

The Design of Jib Crani's.. 93 
722 Value of Publicity to Individ 

uals, The . ;jii 

049 \aivi- for indlcatiu- Pipes of 
Internal Combustion En- 

54 gines. Air Inlet 401 

Valve Grlndli'g .Mai blue. J. 

F. MIrrli lees 538 

413 Valve. Hydraulic 400 

Valve, Hydraulic 822 

316 Valve Inserting Machine 035 

297 Valve Mechanism. New Steam- 

Englne 736 

540 \*alve Stems. Swaging Ma- 
chine for Finishing 553 

460 Valve Timing Gage for Auto- 
mobile Motors. C. T. 

Shaeter 624 

Valves. Gas Engine. E. S. 

379 Wheeler 135 

Valvi'S. Safety 583 

Valves — Turning Shafting for 
321 Screw Cutting, Grinding 

Brass 711 

394 \'aoadlura Steel for Locomo- 
tive Springs, Superiority of. 822 
904 Vanadium Steel. Some Appli- 
cations of 527 

651 Vanadium to Increase Tensile 

.Strength, .Small Addition of 8.55 
969 Van Doren Co., C. J. : 

Van Doren .Vutomatlc Shaft 

308 Lubricator 900 

Van Doren Mfg. Co. : 
159 Tail Universal Tool-Holder 567 

Van Dom Electric & Mfg. 
Co. ; 

202 Electric Drill 475 

Van Ness, W. L. : 
205 Attachment for the Draw- 

Ing-Board 796 

Van Pelt. J. S. : 
291 Repairing a Large Crank 

Shaft 790 

321 Variable Speed Clutch Co. : 

Clutch for Imparting Var- 
293 lable Speed to Machines. 409 

Variable Speed Drive for the 

(Jray Planer ,306 

183 Variable Speed Factor in 

Grinding 780 

A'arialde Speed Motor. North- 

216 em Type "S." 230 

A'ariahle Speed to Machines, 

41 Clutch for Imparting 409 

A'ariable Speeds, Comparison 

215 of Filed and 711 

V-Belt. Peerless 893 

043 VBIock, Adjustable, C. E. 

Hale 631 

894 V Blocks. Planing Accurate.. 382 
Veeder Mfg. Co. : 

547 Speed Indicator 158 

Vertical Turret Lathe, Bul- 
lard 24-Inch 308 

988 Vertical Turret Machine, 

Flather 30-inch 215 

569 Vessels Limited by Inadequate 

Harbor Facilities. Ocean... ,360 
157 Vlall. Ethan : 

Drop Forge Work in an -Au- 
tomobile Shop 17 

720 A Rolling Oneratlon on 

787 Typewriter Parts 47 

Tool for Graduating 50 

119 Trucks for Moving Ma- 
chinery 53 

689 Grinding Threading Chasers 

753 for Brass Work 199 

146 Making Piston Rings 210 

Relieving Special Reamers. 290 

198 Turning Soft Rubber 379 

Sawing Cast Iron under 

446 Water 379 

Windintr Si)rings with In- 

47 Itial Tension 462 

Making Sows 509 

Special Tools and Devices 
321 for .Automobile Factories. 581 

Broaching .Vutomobile Parts 596 
649 Universal Camera Bracket. 627 

Locomotive Repair Shop 

733 Practice 657 

431 Special Automobile Factory 

Tools and Devices 073 

231 -V Collection of Machine 

Shop Rules 761 

118 Making an Engraving 

Block 781 

Some Miic'binerv and Meth- 
ods of Watchmaking 833 

Locomotive Repair Shop 
718 Practice. 

1 921 

329 Vise, a Drill Press. A. J, 

DeLille 467 

34 Vise, A Heavy Drilling 321 

Vise. Armstrong Qulck-.Vction 

Drill 223 

825 Vise for Drill Press, Planer, 

Shaper, etc.. Tilting 650 

Vise for Drilling, Milling, 

393 etc.. Universal 562 

Vise of Simple and Rigid Con- 
struction. Pneumatic 77 

154 Vise, Parallel Bar 234 

Vise, Portable Double-Swivel. 649 


Vise, Quick-Acting 822 

Vise, Quick- Acting Tool- 
makers' 567 

Vise, Rapid Action Auto- 
matic 480 

\'lse. The Universal Wood- 
makirs' and Patternmakers' 507 with Adjusting Jaw 
Plates, Drill I'rcss. Charles 
Taylor 630 

Vise, Yost tiulck-ActIng Man- 
ual Training 486 

Visis. An Attachmi^nt for 
Brown & Shai-pe Milling 
Mnehbu' J. T, G ge... 209 

\lxen .Milling File 71 

Voltage frcini a Generator, 
Cause of Diminution In . . . . 207 

Volume of Part of a .Spheri- 
cal Segmi-nl 297 

V. & O. Press Co. : 

Power Press with -Vutomatlc 
Feeding Mechanism 486 

Vose, James : 

An English Slotting Ma- 
chine 671 

English Type of Electrl- 

call,v-I>rlven Slolter 861 

New English Upright Drill 
Press 958 

V-Shaped (Jrooves with In- 
clined Top and Bottom. 
Irving Banwell 793 

V-Thread. The Passing of the 
Sharp 549 

Wagner Mfg. Co. : 

Single-Phase Motors for Ma- 
chine Driving 568 

Walcott & Wood Mch. Tool 
16-inch Engine Lathe 72 

Walker & Co., O. S. : 

The Magnetic Chuck 321 

Walker Grinder Co. : 

.No. 2Vj Surface Grinder.. 222 
Tool-room Grinder . 481 

Wallace Supply Co. : 

Machine for Bending Rods 
or Bars 322 

Wall Covering, Damp-proof 
Copper 174 

Walsh. David J, : 
.Efficient Type of Blanking 
and Forming Die 795 

Waltham Machine Works : 
Waltham Automatic Escape 

Wheel Cutting Machine. 315 
A New 8-inch Bench Lathe. 323 
Automatic Internal Grind- 
ing Machine 562 

Flat Lapping Machine.... 504 
Clutch Cutting Machine. . . 720 
Cutter. Turning and Back- 

Ing-OBf Machine 722 

Waltham Multiple Spindle 
Drilling Machine 811 

Waltham Watch Tool Co. : 
No. Vj Van Norman Du- 
plex Milling Machine... 477 

Ward & Sons, Edgar T. : 
Tempered, Polished and 
Blued Strip Steel 485 

Warping of Wood, Method of 
Decreasing 245 

War. Waste of and Prepara- 
tion for 204 

Washburn. .1. E. : 

Sizes of Working Drawings 708 

Washers. Machine for Gradu- 
ating Index. C. H. Caton. 544 

Waste of Human Energy. The 089 

Watch Defects Discovered by 
"Sixth Sense" 580 

Watchmaking. Some Machin- 
ery and Methods of. Ethan 
Vlall 833 

Water as a Building Material 780 

Water-cooled Boring Mill. The 
.Adventures of a 355 

Water-cooling on the Colburn 
Boring Mill. Provisions for 715 

Water Heater. Rlblet Trans- 
verse Current 893 

Water Power. The Beneficial 
Effect of Reforestation on. 193 

Water Power. The Utilization 
in Switzerland of the 524 

Waterproofed Cotton Mitts... 698 

Water Wheels. Efflclencv of. 952 

Watson-Stillraan Co. : 

Reversed Cylinder Press. . . 732 
Improvements In Watson- 
Stillman Hydraulic Jacks 902 

Weaner. J. R. : 

Centering Self - Hardening 

Cutters " 214 

Unique Method of Finish- 
ing Cvlinders 464 

Bluing Metals 70" 

Webb & llildr-th Mfg. Co. : 
Quick-.Vdiustment Pipe 
Wrench 408 

Webs of Crankshafts. A Mill- 
ing Fixture for the. S. H. 
.Sweet 707 

Welded to Machine Steel 
Shanks. Tools with Hlgh- 
Sneed Steel Cutting Edges. 
Chas. R. King 213 

Welding. James Cran 268 

Welding a High-Speed .Steel 
Cutter to a Machine Steel 
Body 703 

Welding. A New System of . . 35 

Welding as a Means of Re- 
pairing Cylinders. -Vutogcn- 
ous. Henry Cave 591 

Welding. .Autogenous 191 

Welding Cast Iron 961 

Wildiiig, ElcciikiU -iHS 

WiUllnn ICiiulpimnt lor LIgbt 

Wuik, AUtuK.llcUlS '""i 

W.l.liiiB of Ciipp.i- .iiiu Stuol. 854 
W.UIliig of Tools. Klectrlc. i:tO 
WiklliiB. Oxj-Actljlfiie Proc- 
[•ss of Metul Cutting and 

AiiIiiKi'nous li;ii 

Wrldlnu to Automobile Ke- 
palrs. Thf .Vpnllcation of 
\ul. ■Millions llonry Cuvf. 260 
W.lli'i-. B. M. : 

I'aialli'ls loi- Vertical Boi- 

ii.K Mills 031 

W.lls lliMs. Co. : 

lii'li'aslnK Tap and Die 

Holder 568 

Wells. 1'. IC. & Son Co. : 

Tapping and Tliu-adiiiK Ma- 

ehliie 3U3 

Wells Tool Trav and Stand 

for Lathes 890 

Western Machine Tool Wks. : 
Western Geared Drive Plain 

Kadlal lirill 804 

Western Uall Su|iply Co. : 
Pneuniatle \ise of Simple 
and lligkl Construction. 77 
Western Tool & Mlg. Co. : 
Champion Conibin a 1 1 o n 

Tool Holder 234 

New Tool-Holders made by 
the Western Tool & 

Mfg. Co 820 

West Haven Mfg. Co. : 

Universal Hack-Saw Frame 232 
Westlnghouse Electrie & Mfg. 
Co. : 
An Alternatuig Current 

Motor Brake 320 

Starling Panels for Direct- 
Current Motors 802 

Westlnghouse Traction Brake 
Co. : 
.V Line of Belt-Driven Air 
(Compressors for Indus- 
trial Service 77 

Wesimaeott Gas Furnace 
Hardening and Annealing 

Furnace 559 

Weston. Obituary of Thos. A. 827 
West. Reclaiming Arid Reg- 
ions in the 778 

West Tire Setter Co. : 

"Rochester" Helve Ham- 
mer 4SG 

Wharton, Joseph, Obituary of 569 
Wheel for the Automobile, A 

^^pring 868 

Wheels. Efflciencv of Water. . 952 
Wheels Without Flanges, Pro- 
posed Car 276 

Wheeler. E. S. : 

A Drilling Kink 54 

Gas-Enginc Valves l.'?o 

Wheilock. Lovejoy & Co. : 
.V Modern Steel-Hardening 

Plant 187 

Whistles and Steam Sirens, 

Table of Steam 548 

Whiteomb-Blaisdell Mch. Tool 
Co. : 
Single Speed Pulley Gear- 
Driven Lathe 383 

White Lead and Tallow of 
Even Consistency at AH 

Temperatures 65 

\\Tilte-Souther Endu ranee 

Testing Machine 473 

White Star Liners, Construc- 
tion of New 192 

Whitman .«; Barnes .Mfg. Co.: 
.Sorka TttoGr.Mivid High- 
Speed Twist Drill and 

Cliuck 720 

Whitney Mfg. Co. : 

High-Speed Universal .\t- 
taeluuent for Whitney 

.Milling .Machine 393 

WliUnev Pi.llslilng .lack, 

Ulgh'Frame 228 

Whittier. C. It, : 

.\ppro.\iuiate I'lirniulas for 
Sizes of Beams and 

Girders 831 

Formulas for Crane Beams 

and Girders 86S 

Wilkes. F, C. Douglas : 

Handv Pencil Pointer 547 

Willev Electrically Driven 

Grinders. Two 396 

Willev Mch. Co. : 

Portable Electric Breast 

Drill 232 

Wiiley Portable Electric 

Grinder- 479 

Portable Electric Breast 

Drill 988 

Williams, Brown & Earle : 
Williams, Brown & Earle 

Blueprint Drying Frame, 319 
.\ Direct Process for Copy- 
ing Blue-prints 321 

liapld Blue-Printing Ma- 
chine 988 

Williams. R. F. : 

For Holding Leather on 
Iron Pulleys for Band 

Saws 97:; 

Williams. White & Co. : 

Slay-liolt Breaker 478 

Williamson Vise Co. : 

Tilting Drill Press Table.. . 233 
Wllson-Manelen Co. : 

A Thermo-Electric Pyrom- 
eter 321 

Whichestor. .Tohn F. : 

Fixture for Reaming Con- 
nectlng-Rod Bearings .... 881 
Wind Power. Electric Gen- 
erating Equipment Oper- 
ated bv 987 

Winding Springs. Sirius 625 

Winding Springs with Initial 

Tension. Ethan Viall 462 

Windmills. The Passing of 

the 649 

Windsor .Machine Co. : 

Examples of its Shop 

Practice 175 

Wing Nuts. A Wrench for... 115 
Winmac : 

Draftsman's Grad u a t e d 

Curve 382 

.attaching Ink Rag to 

Drawing Board 468 

Wire Belt Lacing Device. 

Mumford 905 

Wire-Bending Tool. Simple. 

G. P. Campbell 294 

Wire Cutter. An Automatic. 32(i 
Wire Forming Machine. Baird 

Four-Slide Automatic G4S 

Wire. Method of Insulating. . 26n 
Wire Rope and Wet Sand. 
Sawing Two Buildings 

Apart by 205 

Wire Ropes. Stresses in. Due 

to Bending 451 

Wire. Use of Bare .\luminum 446 
Wireless Messages. Long Dis- 
tance Transmission of 44(; 

Wireleiis Telegraph Station, 
Erection of New Wasblng- 
ton 888 

Wireless Telegraph .Station, 
First I'ouiimrelal 440 

Wireless Telegraphic C'om- 
munlcatlou with Balloons, 
Su( ssfui 300 

Wireless Telegraphy, Chinese 
Improved .Methu<l of 34 

Wireless Tt'legraphy. New 
Feat In 700 

Wireless Telegraphy Over 
Land .s.-i4 

Wireless Telegraphy Station 
to be Used In (connection 
with the Ellfel Tower 115 

Wireless 'I'eli phony. Experi- 
ments to Test DeForest 
System of 300 

Wireless Telephony, Satisfac- 
tory Results Obtained with. 1,'SIP 

Wires, Soldering Paste for 
Copper. William Davis. ... 97:i 

Wltteman Co., A. P. : 

The Manufacture of Crank- 
Shafts 873 

Wizard Quick-Change Drill- 
Chuck and Collet. McCros- 
kev Reamer t^o 314 

Wizard (JuickChange Drill- 
Chuck and Collet. 314 

Wolfe, J. L. : 
Test Indicator 987 

Woman .Machine Shop Pho- 
tographer. .1. .\. Maclntyre. 710 

Women Siud'-nts at Engi- 
neering Colleges 7St> 

Women, Technical Schools In 
Prussia opened to 11K 

Wood Conduit. Good Wearing 
Qualities of Creosoted 114 

Wood. E. H. : 

(iranhieal Determhiation of 
tl>e Cross-Roil Curve.. 134 

Wood. .Mi-thod of Decreasing • 
Warping of 245 

Wood Most Satisfactory. Rail- 
road Ties of Treated 34 

Wood, Otis I'ddv. Obituary of 500 

Wood. Polishing, E, W. 
Norton 973 

Wood Seasoning 245 

Wood Turret Mch. Co. : 
Improvements in the Tilted 
Turrit Screw Machine. , , S04 

Wood. Wm. H. : 

S.'iO-Ton Flanging Press. .. . 40.'> 
Sectional Flanging Press. . . 567 

Woods. Tensile Strength of 
.\ustralii i 61.". 

Worcester Polyti^chnic Insti- 
tute, Washburn Shops of 
Motor-Driven Speed Lathe 723 

Work from Bottom to Top. . . So 

Work. Truing Rough. Charles . 
E. Burns 54 J 

Wnrkinff I ►rawing. Sizes of. 
Williom I.. Breath 50ii 

Working Drnwings. Size of. 
Ralph W. Davis 884 

Working Inawings. Sizes of. 
.T. E. Wnsblium 708 

World's Kxpiisition in Cele- 
bration of the Landing of 
tbc> Pil<:rims • 8."i2 

Worm. -\ Ball Bearing 862 

Worm and Gear. The Hindley. 
.John Edgar 24:! 

Worni-Gears, Special Hob for. 
Francis P. Havens 378 

Worm-Wheei Hobbing Ma- 
chine. Figuring Gearing 

for 88«( 

Wiirm Whi-el Segment)-. Cut- 
ting Worms and Uobblng. . 286 
Worms and Hobbing Worm- 

Wheel SegMlillts. Cutting. -89 
Wncks on Bridges. Auto- 

niatle Signals t.i Pnvent.. .'j26 
Wri-neb, .Vdju»ial)le Square- 
Jawed and Pli).' 660 

Wrt-ncb and Drill, .V.lson 

Conihln<-d Ratcbi-i 73 j 

Wr.nch, "Cisco" Plp» 822 

Wrench. Cn-seent Adjustable. 403 
Wrench. 'Duquette" 'I'wo- 

Wov Pipe 727 

Wrench for Wing Nuts, A... 115 

Wrench. "Perfection" 868 

Wr.-neh. Oulck-Actlng Monkey 822 
Wrench, i.iiilck-.VdJust m e n t 

Pipe 408 

Wnncli. Revolving 551' 

Wrench. Scbroeder Hatchet . . 4<»« 

Wrench, ■r..',;gli-.Grip" 80" 

Wrench with Separate Han- 
dles 822 

Wrench. Wright Quick-Ad- 
justing 719 

Wrench, Yenico Oulck-Acting, 313 
Wrenches, The Making of 

Spanner 349 

Wright Aeroplane. The Manu- 
facture of the 927 

Wright. Carroll D„ Obituary 

of 569 

Wright, -N'ewton : 

To Determine Size of Gas 
and Oil Engine Cvllnders 427 
Wright Wrench Co. : 

Quick-Adjusting Wrench,. 719 
Wright's .\eroptane Accident. 

Orvllle 192 

Writing Cam. .\. E. Schnlz. . 132 
Wroughr Iron Plfie. Some 

Uses for. H. J. P.aehmanu. 291 
Wyekoff. Church & Partridge. 
The Manufactur.- of tile 
Herrlng-Curtiss .Xeroplane 
by 988 

Yemco Quick-Acting Wrench. 313 
I'oder. Howard D. : 

Spots on Blueprints 973 

York Electric & Machine Co. : 
Yemco Quick-. Vcting 

Wrench 313 

Yost Mfg. Co.. G. M. : 

Yost (Juick-Acting Manual 

Training Vise 48« 

The Universal Wootlwork- 
ers' and Patternmakers' 

Vise 567 

Yomig. Edward F. C.. Oblt- 

uarv of 570 

Young, W. C. Obituary of. . . -569 

Zalinski. Major Edwin L. G.. 

Obituary of O.'iO 

Zeppelin's Last Record — The 
De Bausset Vacuum .Mr- 
ship S69 

Zlegler. Y. : 

Simple hut EfBclent Mill- 
ing Fixture 207 

Zinc Paint for Oil Wells. 

FHectro 35 

Zulinke. Peter : 

Pressure Compensating De- 
vice for Automatic Ma- 
chine ■ 965 












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Supplement to MACHINE 

Tables for the Article in this number entitled "I 


Compiled by R. B. Little. 



Oomplled by R. B. Little. 

eptember^ 1908. 

in Engineering Practice." 


Compiled by R. B. Little. 


Compiled by R. B. Little. 


September, 1908. 



W. p. Sargent.J 

PERIOD of general 
depression may 
not seem timely 
for projects involving 
the expenditure of large 
sums, but, obviously, 
thorough study and dis- 
cussion of tentative plans 
can be the better made 
during dull times, as the 
efforts of all concerned 
are not directed towards 
the crowding of produc- 

The great advantages 
in having new shops 
ready, or, perhaps, one 
may better say, the dis- 
advantages of insufficient space when a rush in business 
comes on, are well known. If the fact were better appre- 
ciated that a saving equal to thirty per cent of the amount 
expended may easily be made by building during a time of 
depression rather than during a period of inflation, many 
corporations would not, as may now be seen on every hand, 
have their new shops ready for occupancy at the termination 
rather than at the beginning of a prosperous period. 

Irrespective, however, of the time when extensive improve- 
luente are to be made by a growing concern, the problems 
arising are involved and seemingly numberless. Few but 
they who have had to meet these problems can appreciate 
the paucity of general precedents that are available in the 
planning and carrying out of extensive improvements, espe- 
cially under the severe condition that but slight interference 
with production is permissible. 

Scope of Articles. 
From the premise that the desired benefits from extensions 
must be secured at a reasonably low cost, as quickly as the 
need demands and conditions permit, and without restricting 
production, the author proposes to discuss in the following 
articles the subject of industrial plant extension as applied 
to metal working industries, from the time when exten- 
sions are tentatively considered to the time of occupancy. 
Data will be given enabling the plant engineer to proceed 
steadily and rapidly, and also giving his employers infor- 
mation by which his efforts may be intelligently checked. 
Presumably many of the propositions advanced will meet with 
a variance of ideas, but wherever positive positions are taken, 
the author will endeavor to give sufficient reasons therefor. 

Main Periods of Construction. 

The time necessary for the planning of an extensive series 
of improvements, and for the execution of these plans, may 
be divided into four main periods which will be styled, the 
inceptive, the formative, the progressive, and the conclusive 
period, respectively. 

The Inceptive Period. — The inceptive period covers the 
time of compiling the necessary data and the study of the 

* For previous articles on works design and construction see series 
"Machine Shop Equipment," by Mr. Oscar E. Perrigo, in September. 
October. November, December, 1903, and January, February, March 
and -Vpril. 1V)04, Issues. 

t.^ddrt-ss : !HS Campbell .\ve., Hamilton. Chin. 

t William P. Sargent was bom at Stoneham, Mass.. 1878. He 
received a high school education, and then gained shop experience at 
Prentice Bros. Co., Worcester, Mass.; Draper Machine Tool Co., 
Worcester, Mass. ; Lodge & Shipley Co., Cincinnati, Ohio ; Pratt & 
Whitney Co., Hartford, Conn. ; Niles Tool Works, Hamilton, Ohio : 
Barber-Coleman Co., Rockford, 111. With these concerns he has filled 
the positions of stock-keeper : designer ; superintendent of construction 
on large contract of automatic cheroot machines : assistant to Mr. C. 
Edwin Search, formerly engineer In charge of construction, Nlles- 
Bement-Pond Co. ; engineer in charge of construction, Niles Tool 
Works ; designing engineer at Barber-Coleman Co. 

W. p. BAROENT.t 

best examples of recently constructed plants. This study will 
reveal to the mind the comparative advantages of different 
arrangements and of various types of buildings. During this 
period one's mind will be forming various schemes, even 
though sub-consclouBly. 

The Formative Period.— During this, the mental structures 
assume more and more tangible and definite forms as the 
tentative planning, revising, the definite planning, and the 
securing of prices are taken up. 

The Progressive Period.— During this period the contract- 
ing, constructing, and moving are carried on. 

T?ie Conclusive Period.— When the new shops are partly 
operative, the inevitable gaps in the general scheme are 
filled, and summations and comparisons of costs are made. 

The chart. Fig. 1, is prepared to show more clearly the 
relation of the various periods and sub-periods, and also to 
show approximately the duration of the periods, assuming 
that a total of twenty months should cover the work from 
the commencement of the tentative planning to the comple- 
tion of the work. Before going into the detailed discussion 
however, the author will advance the following general pro- 

General Considerations. 

Engineering the construction of a series of extensive indus- 
trial improvements is decidedly a one-man job as regards con- 
trol. This statement holds good whether the engineering is 
done by one of the many firms or individuals making a 
specialty of industrial plants, or by a temporary organiza- 
tion drawn from the staff of the owners themselves. The 
engineer who is to successfully carry through to completion 
a large project of this kind should he a high-class man. and, 
consequently, well paid. Generally, an engineer from outside 
is to he recommended, as his work will meet with less ob- 
struction. "A prophet is never without honor save in his 
own country" is peculiarly applicable to this class of en- 
gineering. One can be too conciliatory in trying to pre- 
vent friction. This idea of the author's results from a recent 
experience with the vacillating nature of a few individuals 
backed by a general, narrow, insular Indisposition to move 
from the beaten track and to accept the benefits of more 
efficient facilities of proven merit. 

The duties of the engineer-in-charge carry a great respon- 
sibility and demand a rare combination of abilities. Given 
that the engineer is to have undisputed charge of the work 
(of course, subject to his employers' approval), and Is 
to be the sole intermediary between his principals and the 
contractors, he should possess to a high degree honesty, dis- 
cretion, tact, and the ability to observe closely, to analyze 
well, and to think honestly and methodically. He should 
possess executive and originative capabilities, combined with 
good common sense. He should have the temperament and 
stamina to withstand intensive and tenacious application. 
He must not be afraid to say "I do not know," hut he should 
know the next time, would he secure and retain the respect 
and confidence of his associates and subordinates. 

The efficiency of an industrial plant is not primarily depen- 
dent upon the buildings, but is mainly dependent upon the 
personnel, the equipment, the facilities for handling the mate- 
rials and the product, and the arrangement of space. The 
buildings proper only affect the efficiency inasmuch as they 
do or do not provide good light, good air, sufficient head- 
room, and a reasonable degree of comfort for the workmen 
Therefore, the nature of the covering for the space is sec- 
ondary, and is determinable by the three main considerations 
of utility, cost, and reasonable architectural effect. No one 
type of buildings, whether mill construction, iron covered, 
brick and steel, or reinforced concrete will meet all condl- 


September, 1908. 

tions. We will later take up the comparison of various types 
of buihlings. and the conditions for whiih each is best 

Successful large plants are not of mushroom growth, but 
have grown building by building from a single small shop. 
Seldom have additions been made with any thought aside 
from that of providing for the existing need. Consequently, 
many larse plants are a compact, irregular collection of 
buildings, sometimes separated by streets, tracks or water 
courses. However, the floor space occupied by various 
branches of work, and the number of men and power con- 
sumption for various units of space, form the logical working 
basis either for designing a new plant on ample ground space, 
or for alteration and the providing of additional facilities on 
whatever ground is available contiguous to existing buildings. 
Of course, the space /)('/• ??!aH in some of the departments may 
be too little for efficient production, and care should be taken 
to make allowance for this factor. 

The labor supply may weigh lieavier than all other fac- 
tors in determining the justifiable limits of extension. In 
one instance of a city of 30,000 inhabitants, metal working 
Industries have enlarged in recent years to the extent that 
an employer of 1,100 men stated his belief that 1,500 men 














"14TH " 








Fig. 1. Relation of Different Stages of Shop Construction "Work. 

would be the maximum he could gather in his shops in years 
to come without resorting to colonization. This belief came 
from the knowledge of the fluctuating demand for the prod- 
uct, the few apprentices taken on from year to year, and the 
scarcity of houses rentable at a low figure. The doubling in 
size of this plant would be a precarious proposition compared 
with the same increase in Philadelphia, for instance, where 
the general manager of a large metal working firm stated 
that he had increased his force 18 per cent in two months, 
or in Milwaukee, where one concern increased its force 
1.200 men in eight months. Both above instances were with 
business at its best. 

The sectional bookcase idea as applied to the laying out of 
new plants meets all the requirements of departmental bal- 
ance and of future extension, the various departments cor 
responding to the sections, and a group of departments mak- 
ing up a unit. The West Allis Plant, of the Allis-Chalmers 
Co. in Milwaukee, exemplifies this idea. The first buildings 
were designed for large engine work, while the recent ad- 

ditions were designed for both large and small work of an 
entirely different nature. Tlie new buildings were slightly 
modified in type, yet they merge into the general scheme as 
naturally as rain into a river. Of course, old plants can 
not be changed to conform with this ideal; still, much can be 
done to give the product an economical routine through the 
\vorks, and to arrange the departments so that future exten- 
sions could be made in conformity with a predetermined plan. 
Time may be profitably devoted to the critical study of recent 
plants. First study the main features of large plants from 
articles in various technical papers; these articles are gen- 
erally written by men having a thorough understanding of 
the fundamental reasons for existing conditions. Generally, 
in visiting, one can only glance over the thousand and one 
features, and the information obtained Is merely confirma- 
tive or disputative of predetermined conclusions. 

Tentative plans should be comprehensive and flexible. 
Several solutions should develop from a thorough study of 
the problem, but each one of these various plans should be 
complete, comprising every item of work, and each item with 
nn approximate estimate of cost. Approximate estimates based 
on square foot and cubic foot figures for cost of buildings, 
added to estimates on every item that can be thought of, will 
be, in total, close to actual costs even though some particular 
items may be within broad limits. The estimate of the total 
cost of a given project should never be decreased merely be- 
cause some items may be excessive, for the reason that sub- 
sequent changes are more apt to increase the cost rather than 
to decrease it. The engineer will make a great mistake if, 
when the plans are decided upon and revised, he assents to 
the cutting of an estimate piece-meal, coupled w-ith the ex- 
pectation that the same definite quality and quantity of 
work Is to be done. The "powers that be," in considering 
the tentative plans, will look at them from a business, rather 
than from an engineering, standpoint, and all statements 
must be well substantiated in order to secure an appropria- 
tion equal to the estimate. It is probable that from the 
several tentative schemes a definite general plan can be 
worked out, meeting all requirements and carrying the ap- 
proval of the owners of the plant. 

After the general plan is decided upon, the definite in- 
structions and detailing should be rushed hard if the ex- 
tensions are needed quickly, as it is economy to spend a 
couple of thousand dollars (on a large proposition) in cor- 
recting minor errors, if, by so doing, the plant may be in 
operation a month or two sooner. This latter statement 
should not be construed as advocating careless design, but 
the author does not believe in spending an excessive amount 
of valuable time altering and checking drawings where the 
monetary factor is small. 

After a resume of the items of data required and their 
bearing on various problems, an epitome of the leading 
features of recent plants will be given. The planning and 
construction of a large plant will then be taken up in detail. 

Data Required for Planning Shops. 

The following items of data have been found either a 
necessity or a convenience in planning alterations and in 
laying out new plants. In the first place, an engineer's plat 
of all the space within the property bounds is required 
This plat should preferably be made by the city engineer's 
staff, or by a firm of civil engineers which can be held re- 
sponsible for the accuracy of the work done, and which also 
is in touch with the city engineer's records and can derive 
exact information from deeds and records. The scale of the 
plat should be 1/32 inch to a foot, or some multiple of 1/32 
inch. Many civil engineers will object to this requirement, 
as it necessitates a departure from their usual units of 
measurement, but their unit of a tenth of a foot is not 
adapted for construction work. If the total space cannot be 
covered by one sheet, approximately 36 x •fS inches, the plat 
should be made in sections. If made in sections, a street 
line or a witness line, not cutting any buildings, should be 
made the division line between the sections. For desk use, 
a photograph of the entire plat should be made, as it enables 
one to have all leading features and dimensions of a piece 
of property in a very convenient form for study. 

September, 1908. 


The plat should show: 1. The owner's property limits. 2. The 
adjacent property limits and ownere. 3. The block outlines 
of all buildings, and dimensions of the buildings outside of 
pilasters. 4. Accurate tape measurements between the vari- 
ous buildings and at all iritical points. 5. Leading dimen- 
sions should all be referred to two base lines at right angles, 
one of these base lines paralleling the general trend of build- 
ings. 6. Tracks should be shown with dimensions to nearest 
rail. 7. All municipal underground worlc in streets, such as 
sewers, water-pipes, gas-pipes, conduits, manholes, etc., should 
be shown in location, and their depths below the surface 
noted. 8. Grades or levels of floors, tracks, pits, streets, sur- 
faces and betls of streams or ponds should be indicated. In 
a word, this plat shouhl be suffiiiently accurate to allow of 
larger scale drawings being made from it without prohibitive 


Pifif. 2. Method of Recording Photographs on Plat. 

errors. Obviously, this plat is of most value in planning 
additions, as extensions can then be made without fear of 
encroaching on adjoining property; still It furnishes an ac- 
curate basis for comparison when designing a new plant. 

A tracing should be made from this plat, and all under- 
ground pipes, sewers and also trackage on the owner's prop- 
erty should be added to the municipal underground work 
already laid out. Depths and location of these pipes can be 
obtained first from such drawings as may be available, and 
second by checking these drawings by boring with a 2-inch 
auger having an adjustable handle. 

Space Data Required. 

In making up details of space used for various purposes, 
it is better to have areas inclusive of walls, partitions and 
pilasters, so that the details may be totaled and checked 
against the gross area as obtained from the engineer's plat. 
The various divisions and sub-divisions of space required foi- 
the determination of the total occupied space for the exten- 
sions are indicated in the following lists. The number of 
square feet of floor space, and the number of men for each 
division must be ascertained, and from these figures may be 
obtained the number of square feet per man and the per- 
centages of area of divisions compared with the space taken 
for machining. 

Machine Sliop. — Machining — Assembling — ■ Tool-making 
■ — Tool storage — Shop stores — Work in progress — Storage — 
■VN'ashrooms — Closets — Shop offices. 

Finished Woi'k Storage. 


Smith Shop. — Steam hammers — Forges and anvils — Bull- 
dozers and furnaces — Case-hardening — Iron storage inside — 
Iron storage outside — Coal storage — Washrooms — Offices. 

Foundry. — Molding under 20-ton or larger cranes; under 
10-ton cranes; under 5- and 3-ton cranes; under 1-ton cranes — - 
Bench molding — Machine molding — Core-making — -Large 
cores made under cranes or baked on trucks — Small cores 
baked in portable ovens — Cleaning, under 20-ton cranes; un- 
der small cranes — Pickling tanks — Sand blast — Charging 
floors — Cupola floors — Sand mixing — Sand storage — Coke 

btorage — Supply storage — WasliroomB — ClOBetB — Foundry 
office — Flask storage — Pig-iron Btorage — Casting storage. 

/{/•(MS Foundry. — Molding — Core-making — Furnaces — Clean- 
ing — Flask storage — Supplies. 

Hteel Foundry. — .Molding — Core-making — Converters — 
(Cupola room — Charging floor — Annealing — Cleaning — Sup- 

Pattern Making. — Pattern lumber Btorage — Dry kiln. 

Carpenter Shop. — Lumber Btorage. 

Power Plant. — Boiler room — Engine room — Pump room — 
Pipe shop — Electrical stores — Coal Btorage. 

Main Ofpce Building. — Offices — Drawing-rooms — Vaults. 

Total Floor Space. — Ground floor — Galleries. 

Total Yard Space. 

Total Ground Space. 

Heights and spans of crane tracks affect somewhat the 
arrangement of space, but this will be considered later. 
Methods of Keeplngr Data. 

In order to have the data of existing plants in shape for 
pocket or desk use, the following sizes of sheets will be found 
convenient. For tabulated and other data for pocket use, 
Morden's loose-leaf book No. 6 — pages 4 x 7'/i inches — is 
suitable. Write with fountain pen ink on one side of the 
sheet. Many engineers of the author's acquaintance use 
books of this size, and, as the pages blue-print nicely, there 
is a possibility of an interchange library of data. 

For desk use only, employ a loose leaf book 9x12 inches. 
This size enables one to bring together drawings 9x12 
inches, photographs S x 10 inches mounted on muslin, and 
typewritten correspondence on standard S'^x 11-inch letter 

For drawings, sizes in multiples of 9x12 inches are used, 
as most reference drawings of details are of sufficiently large 
scale when drawn on 12 x 18-inch sheets, and this size sheet 
can be placed in a desk drawer. 

For indexing photographs, use the extremely simple method 
of placing an arrow on an S x 10-inch photograph of the en- 
gineer's plat, indicating the position and direction of camera 

Fig. 3. Photograph Marlced to correspond with Number on Plat. 

when the photographs were taken, and put the distinguish- 
ing number of the negative close by the arrow. See Figs. 
2 and 3. 

Photograph Data Required. 
The photographs required are: photograph of engineer's 
plat, interiors and exteriors of buildings, yard space, vacant 
space, trackage, prospective sites, and photographs taken 
during construction. These latter are invaluable in many 
respects. Without leaving his desk, the engineer can study 
and plan unhampered by the numerous questions asked in 
the field whenever he is in sight. The photographs will often 
give bits of information, or verify some little point that it 
would take a fifteen minutes walk to investigate on the 
ground. An engineering salesman can often be given a gen- 
eral idea of what is wanted before he is taken on the 
ground, making his mental impression doubly strong, and 
therefore securing his attention on even small matters 
Photographs are also incontrovertible evidence, many times, 
when differences arise and claims are made by contractors. 


September, 1908. 

Drawingrs of Existing: Plant. 
Drawings of existing plant should preferably be made on 
sheets 12 x 18 inches. Simple elevations and sections of 
various buildings, showing door, window, and sUylight spaces, 
crane tracks and galleries, together with plans supplemented 
by photographs of interior views showing walls, columns, 
partitions, etc., furnish a reference basis for problems of 
lighting, heating and headroom. Plans of wiring for cranes, 
power and lighting, and piping for steam, water, gas, and air, 
furnish data for definite conditions that hand-books could 
not begin to supply. Plans of shafting giving sizes, length 
of sections, location of hangers, used and unused sections, 
etc., will save their cost many times over. 

Production Data. 
The production of various departments per unit of space, 
per man, and in total, will often times show where depart- 
ments are lame and what variations are necessary in estab- 

Data £rom old shops. 

Floor Space, 
Department. square feet. 

No of 

Sq. Feet 
per Man. 


Machine Shop 

Erecting Shop 

376,484 ) 
43,435 f 










( 100 
■ 15.8 


Sand Floor 

Pattern Shop 



Manufacturing Space 




Pattern Store 

Engine Room 





OfiBce Building 

40,170 ■ 







square feet. 

No. of 

Square Feet 
per Man. 

Mafihine SliOD 




V 116,000 




Pat.t.prn ShOD 


167,400 555 


generally are carrying an overhead expense that can be mate- 
rially reduced when the business is established in a new plant. 
This reduction of overhead expense Is often the principal fac- 
tor in increasing the productive efficiency of a new plant, 
as the production per producer is high, correlative to 
the fact that the overgrown plant has been, generally, suc- 

The problems in reducing expenses are generally of two 
classes, first, to lessen manual labor, and, second, to increase 
the efficiency of apparatus used in work chargeable to ex- 
pense accounts. The importance of knowing these costs is 
shown by the following data from a plant employing 1,000 
men: The cost of handling pig iron per ton is 23 cents; coke. 
42 cents; sand, 40 cents; coal, 10 cents; and bar steel and bil- 
lets, 90 cents. The total for these five items per year amounts 
to over $7,000, and a saving of 50 per cent can be made by in- 
stalling efficient apparatus in a new plant. As many con- 
servative managers believe that a saving of laborer's wages 

Data from new shops as built. 

lishing unit space figures. The nature and value of the vari- 
ous classes of product in relation to the space occupied should 
be considered, as the project of extension may be expected to 
increase the production of various classes of machines by 
different percentages. For instance, a plant building a varied 
line of tools will want to perfect and increase the production 
of the class for which there is the greatest demand, and in 
which there is the greatest profit. Production data are, natur- 
ally, confidential, and should not be kept with other data that 
may be accessible to the construction engineer's assistants. 
The average number of labor hours of each class of workmen 
per machine, the number of hours worked per day, the num- 
ber of square feet of floor space per man. and the number of 
machines to be built, will afford data for the planning of im- 
provements, if the problem is stated from a production basis 
rather than as a percentage increase of men and space. Di- 
mensions and weights of the largest and heaviest pieces pro- 
duced help to determine the capacity and headroom neces- 
sary. Maximum heights and widths of loaded flat cars that 
will be accepted by the railroads will give the minimum 
height of lintels of doorways through which the largest 
pieces are shipped. 

Expense Data. 

The costs of handling materials, and other expense items, 
should be carefully collected, as successful overgrown plants 


Floor Space, 
square feet. 


Block Space, 

Machine Shop 

Erecting Shop 







two {51^^^!?} each 

566 X 72 
566 X 38 

566 X 218 

Sand Floor 

283 X 30 

Pattern Shop 

Smith Shop 

566 X 55 
425 X 118 

Manufacturing Space 


Pattern Store 

Engine Room 

Boiler Room " 

Office Building 




566 X 64 
75 X 118 
75 X 118 




Machine Shop 
Erecting Shop 


Pattern Shop. 

Square Feet. 

two units 

three units 
three units 



of $600 per year justifies the expenditure of $5,000, this sav- 
ing of 50 per cent on $7,000 alone would justify an expendi- 
ture of $30,000. The heating of this same plant costs $6,000 
per year, and a saving of $4,000 per year can be effected in 
a new plant with proper apparatus. 

Power Data. 
The cost of coal, supplies, water, and attendance, also the 
capacity and efficiency of engines, generators, boilers, con- 
densers, transmission lines, shafting, belting, etc., should be 
found, and costs of power obtained under the varying condi- 
tions of day and night operation, busy times and bad times. 
This information will aid in settling the question of increas- 
ing or changing the power plant. 

Construction Data. 

Local prices of materials entering into construction, and 
cost of labor in the building trades, should be obtained early, 
as it will take some time to check and verify them sufficiently 
for use in close estimating. The various items of material 
that will be used in large quantities are as follows: 

Foundation Work. — Cement; crushed rock; sand; reinforce- 
ment steel bars; expanded metal; water-proofing compounds, 
such as "Medusa"; lumber for form work. 

Framework. — Structural steel work erected per ton; 
trusses; girders; columns; bracing; floor plate. 

WalJs. — Plain brick; face brick; bull nose brick; cut stone 
sills; tile coping; window frames, single, double, and triple; 
windows per square foot. 

September, 1908. 


Hoofing.— PurMne; sheathlug; gravel or slag roofing; sky- 
lights per square toot; tin and copper flashing per square 
foot; galvanized iron and cast iron down spouts. 

/fJoors.— Sleepers: under planldng; maple top flooring. 
UndcrffroHHd.— Piping; tile and iron sewer pipe; galvanized 
and black standard wrought iron pipe; electrical tile con- 

The above heads will also serve as a guide in obtaining 
costs of labor. Any architect who has had experience on 
this class of buildings can give unit prices 
both of material and labor, though an engi- 
neer on good terms with contractors can 
obtain more definite data on labor costs. 

The number of working hours per day, 
and the average working days per year 
(this latter data should be taken for a 
number of recent years), together with the 
amount of work done per day by brick- 
layers and carpenters, comprise the data 
for estimating the time necessary for the 
completion of the buildings. 
Equipment Data. 
The class and capacity or size of tools 
pertaining to the different lines of product, 
should be listed and compared with the 
amount of product, as this will give an idea 
of the necessary new equipment. The 
speeds and power consumption of machines 
will be needed in determining size of mo- 
tors for group driving, and also for indi- 
vidual motor drive. The percentage of tools 
running and the power consumption for 
the same will give figures from which may 
be deduced the new power plant require- 
ments. The data of floor space occupied by 
the various tools are in the best shape for 
future use in the form of "dummies," cut 
from heavy cross-section paper to a scale 
of 3/16 or 1/4 inch to the foot, and includ- 
ing the necessary clearance space for withdrawing shafts, etc. 
These dummies, when laying out the location of the tools, are 
moved around on a floor plan drawn on the same scale cross- 
section paper. The cross-section paper facilitates the arrange- 
ment, as definite widths of gangways and clearances between 
tools, walls, columns, etc., are easily maintained. 
Derivation of Base Units. 
That, from the known floor space per man as a base unit, 
a modern highly efficient plant with but few buildings can be 
built to take care of the production of a large number of 

miscellaneous types of old buildings, is 

shown by the comparative tables, I to IV. 
Table I is made up from figures derived 
from all of the old buildings of the Allis- 
Chalmers Co. The intention was to build a 
new plant of approximately the same pro- 
ductive capacity as that of the combined old 
shops, and to have this new shop susceptible 
of methodical extension. The number of 
men in the machine shop and erecting 
spaces In the old shops are considered to- 
gether, on account of the difficulty of allot- 
ting any definite amount of space per man 
to the erectors, the erecting space being a 
function of the space covered by the ma- 
chine being set up, and of the time taken 
for its erection, rather than of the number 
of men. Approximately one-third of the 
number of men, together with the unit space figures per man, 
was taken from Table I to form a unit (Table II) better 
adapted for use In planning the four main buildings of the 
new plant. Th^ machine shop space in Table III is but two- 
thirds of that in Table I, while the erecting space Is approxi- 
mately the same. The smaller floor space in the machine shop 
is due to the fact that the modern equipment with its high 
efficiency was expected to increase the efficiency of the ma- 
chine shop about 50 per cent. Table IV is derived from Table 



In the English machinery section of the Franco-British 
Exhibition, which Is now In progress in London, a few of the 
English machine tool manufacturers are presenting some 
types of their, generally, many different designs. Although 
not all of the machines exhibited, by far, possess any radically 

Fig. 1. Buckton & Co. "RegeneTBiUve Reverse Planer. 

new features attracting the attention of the visitor, they still 
give a very good example of the present state of the English 
machine tool manufacture, and the general lines along which 
English makers are at present designing and building their 
tools. For this reason, a selection of some of the machines 
exhibited will undoubtedly prove interesting to American 

Buckton Regenerative Reverse Planer. 
Fig. 1 of the accompanying illustrations shows a heavy 
duty planer built by Joshua Buckton & Co., Ltd., Leeds. The 

Fig. 2. Colchester Geared Head Latfae. 

difficulties of driving and reversing a heavy planer at a high 
speed without the consumption of excessive power is well 
known, and has been one of the most important problems in 
planer design since the introduction of high-speed steel. On 
account of the reciprocating motion, there is a large amount 
of kinetic energy which must be absorbed and redeveloped 
at each stroke. This absorbs an amount of power which was 
not determined until electric drives made its measurement 
possible. The sudden jump of the ammeter needle at the 

II, and is placed side by side with It to make comparison easy. • Foreign Traveling Representative of Machinebt. 


September, liins. 

point of reversal of a planer is well known, and every attempt 
to reduce the power consumed deserves consideration. The 
principle underlying the design of the Jiuckton planer is that 
of balancing the forces by recoil springs. These springs ab- 
sorb a large amount of energy, and w^hen the planer reverses, 
they restore, during the moments of acceleration, tlie energy 
which would otherwise be wasted. The planer shown is pro- 
vided with a motor, the power of which need only be great 





Fig. 3. High Speed Lathe built by John Stirk & Sons. 

enough for taking the cut, there being no overload on the 
motor during the return stroke, although this is at the rate of 
ISO feet per minute. In the illustration, a large steel ingot is 
placed on the table; it is claimed that the weight of the work 
has no measurable effect upon the accuracy with which the 
planer is reversed. 

The illustration plainly shows one of the recoil springs 
with which the planer is provided; another spring is placed 
in a similar position at the other end of the machine. Dur- 
ing the stroke, the springs remain in the position shown, 
and abut against one of the cross bars of the bed. Two 
screws pass through these springs, and extend the whole 
length of the bed. On these screws are placed heavy adjust- 
able bronze nuts, and against these nuts impinge brackets 
attached in fixed positions to the underside of the moving 
table, the impact being transmitted to the springs through the 
screws and suitable collars. By altering the position of the 
nuts upon the screws, any required length and position of 
stroke may be obtained; the minimum length of the stroke is 
12 inches. There is nothing required for the changing of the 
length or position of the stroke except to turn the screws 
around so as to bring the nuts to the required location. The 
stroke can be adjusted while the machine is running. It will 

danger in planers provided with spring buffers of any kind 
is that the amount of overrun is uncertain, and there is a 
danger of injuring the tool when planing up to a wall. It la 
claimed, however, that with the Bnckton planer, under any 
circumstances, 1/S to ;i/16 inch is ample clearance. 
Modern British Lathe Design. 
The PoUhesler Lathe Co., Hytho, Colchester, exhibits a few 
lathes of whicli Fig. 2 represents the largest and most inter- 
esting one. The new patent geared head 
gives IS spindle speeds which are obtain- 
able by manipulating the levers conveni- 
ently placed for the operator. The mech- 
anism consists of thirteen steel gears. In 
order to avoid all possibility of accidents, 
due care has been taken in the design of 
the head-stock so that it is impossible for 
more than one pair of gears to be in mesh 
at the same time. The driving pulley is 12 
inches in diameter, and runs at a constant 
speed of 400 revolutions per minute. The 
head may be driven either direct from the 
main line shaft or coupled direct to a 
motor. One feature is that the carriage 
is made especially long, and is guided by a 
projecting strip or way which runs along 
in the front of the bed. This, the builders 
claim, makes it much easier to move the carriage, and elimi- 
nates the side strains which are present when the carriage is 
guided along the bed in the usual way. The number of feeds 

Fig. 4. John Hetherington & Sons High Speed Lathe. 

be understood that while the return stroke of the machine 
takes place at a constant speed of ISO feet per minute, the 
cutting stroke can he varied by means of change gearing, the 
slowest cutting speed being 20 feet and the fastest 60 feet. 
In spite of the fact that the forward and return speed thus 
vary in the ratio of from 9 to 1 to 9 to 3, yet no adjustments 
are required for the spring action when using the fastest or 
slowest cutting speed. This is very important, because the 

Fig. 5. The Head-stock and Carriage of Lathe shown in Fig. 3. 

obtainable through the feed box shown in the illustration is 
32, ranging from 0.125 to 0.008 inch per revolution. When 
the lathe is used for thread cutting, thirty- 
two different pitches of screws can be cut, 
ranging from 2 to 30 threads per inch. 

In Fig. 3 is shown a 20-inch high speed 
lathe built by John Stirk & Sons. Halifax. 
The engraving shows the machine direct 
connected to a 30-H.P. motor, hut it can 
also be belt driven direct from the line 
shaft, the only change required being to 
remove the motor. The pulley shown in 
the illustration between the motor and 
head-stock is employed in this case. The 
lathe, of course, is provided with geared 
head, permitting sixteen changes, giving 
spindle speeds from 10 to 250 revolutions 
per minute. As will be noticed from the 
engraving, the head-stock is cast in one 
piece with the bed for the sake of obtain- 
ing great rigidity. In Fig. 5 is shown the 
head-stock and carriage of this lathe, the 
cover over the geared head being removed so as to show the 
arrangement of the gearing. The feeds are all obtained from 
the gear box shown at the front of the bed below the head 
in Fig. 3. 

John Hetherington & Sons, Ltd., Manchester, exhibit the 
2S-inch lathe illustrated in Fig. 4. The bed is made of a 
strong box section with two flat ways on the top provided 
with T-slots for locking the carriage and tail-stock. The 

September, 1908. 


sliding rest is desiRned to swivel completely around, and Is 
well secured to the carriage by three binding bolts. The 
geared head is driven by a direct connected motor mounted 
on the top of the head-stock. The machine, however, can also 
be driven direct from the line sliaft. The number of spindle 
speeds obtainable is I'l, arranged in geometrical progression. 

Alft-ed Herbert, Ltd., Coventry, Exhibit. 
Tlie part of the machinery section of tlie exhibit which has 
the most of interest to offer to the visitor Is the exhibit of 

pig. 6. Alfred Herbert. Ltd.. Automatic Turret Lathe. 

Alfred Herbert, Ltd. This famous English machine tool com- 
pany presents a few of the types and sizes built. The ma- 
chines are interesting, perhaps mainly because of the high 
class worluiianship and their capacity in regard to output. 
Tne three different types of turret lathes built by the firm, 
the hexagon, the combination, and the capstan, are well rep- 
resented by different sizes, and in order to give an idea of the 









■ t>'M.',V^H 





the stopping of the machine at the completion of Its circle of 
operations. The head is driven by gearing and Is exception- 
ally powerful. The pulleys provide either a two-speed auto- 
matic change, or a forward and reverse motion, according to 
the requirements of the work. The turret slide Is adjustable 
to four positions, according to the length of the work oper- 
ated upon, the turret slide drum having a corresponding ad- 
justment. The turret has Ave faces, and is provided with a 
rigid over-head support. The cross slide in this machine la 
particularly wide, the object being to provide plenty of room 
for the tool-holders of various types, at both front and back. 
The firm of Alfred Herbert is further exhibiting some ver- 
tical as well as horizontal types of milling machines. The 

Fig. 7. Horizontal Plain MiUing Machine, built by Alfred Herbert, Ltd. 

class of work of which these machines are capable, samples 
of work are also exhibited. The representative machine of 
the turret lathe class is the No. 2 hexagon turret lathe which 
was illustrated and described in the March, 1907. issue of 
Machixebt. Another machine exhibited by the firm is illus- 
trated in Fig. 6, and represents the line of automatic turret 
lathes built. This class of machine is intended for working 
upon individual pieces of castings or forgings. or blanks pre- 
viously cut off. The work is chucked by liand, but all the 
operations performed on the work are automatia including 


'^^ j»V 





\i ^^^^^Ti 




Pig. 8. Hetherlngton Universal Milling Machine. 

engraving. Fig. 7, shows the horizontal plain milling ma- 
chine on exhibition; the firm does not built universal mill- 
ing machines. As seen from the illustration, the machine has 
cone pulley drive with double back gearing, permitting a 
great range of spindle speeds. The feed changing is accom- 
plished by means of the Herbert patent dial feed motion of 
similar construction to the one used on the turret lathe and 
shown on the side of the column in the engraving, and the 
feed can be driven either independently or from the spindle. 
The firm reccmmends strongly the use of the independent 
drive for the feed. There is a drawback to driving the feed 
from the spindle, because the range of feeds becomes insuflS- 

Pig. 9. Hetherlngton Vertical Drilling and Milling Machine. 

cient tor the slowest and fastest spindle feeds: for instance, 
for slow speed and large cutters, the feed cannot be obtained 
coarse enough, and for high speed and small cutters it can- 
not be obtained fine enough, at least for certain classes of 
work. By driving the feed independently, however, from the 
counter-shaft, this drawback is eliminated. The whole ma- 
chine is operated from the front and does not require the at- 



September, 1908. 

tendant to change his position and go around to the back. 
All the movements are governed by hand-wheels of sufficient 
size to permit easy action. It will be noted from the illustra- 
tion that the drive of the feed from the gear box to the knee 
is not by means of the ordinary telescope tube shaft and 
universal joints, but by means of shafts at right angles. 

The John Hetheringrton Exhibit. 
We have already mentioned the geared head motor-driven 
lathe exhibited by ,Tohn Hetherington & Sons, Ltd., Manches- 

Pigr- lO. Hi^h Speed Radial DriU, buUt by John Hetherin^on & Sons. Ltd. 

ter. In Figs. 8 and 9 are shown two heavy duty milling ma- 
chines exhibited by these makers. These machines are both 
of exceptionally heavy and powerful design, and are par- 
ticularly intended for heavy work. As shown in the illustra- 
tions, these machines are driven by independent motors, but 
they are also built to be driven by constant speed belts and 
tight and loose pulley. The universal milling machine shown 
in Fig. 8 is provided with a geared drive, the spindle having 
16 speed changes which are obtained by means of an index 
hand-wheel and levers. The feed motions are reversible and 
automatic, both for the vertical, traverse, and longitudinal 










— ' . 1 




Pig. U. 

Forty. eight-inch Vertical Boring and Turning Mill, built 
by John Sttrk ds Sons. 

motions. The feed change is executed by indexing levers giv- 
ing a feed variation of eight feeds to each spindle speed. 

On the vertical milling and drilling machine shown in Fig. 9 
also 16 different spindle speeds are provided, and there are 
also here eight feed variations to each spindle speed. In 
addition to the motions required for milling, there is also a 

positive and continuous drilling feed giving a variation of 
three feeds to each spindle speed. 

This firm also exhibits the radial drill shown in Fig. 10. 
This machine is driven by a 14-H.P. motor, mounted as shown 
in the illustration, but, of course, can also be driven by a 
constant speed belt. The cone box for changing the spindle 
speeds without stopping is operated by the index hand-wheel 
shown in the front of the frame under the motor. The spindle 
is fitted with clutch reverse motion, and with speed changing 
device for reducing the speed for tapping. The machine is 
also provided with a quick hand traverse for running the 
spindle to and from the work. The radial arm is supported on 
a ball bearing and can swing through an arc of 180 degrees, 
the minimum radius being 3 feet, and the maximum 7 feet. 

John Stirk & Sons' Exhibit. 
In Fig. 11 is illustrated a vertical boring and turning mill 
manufactured by John Stirk & Sons, Halifax, builders of 
the high speed lathe already described and illustrated in Figs. 
3 and 5. This 48-inch vertical boring mill is driven by 
a direct connected 13-H.P. motor. The tool-holders are pro- 
vided with swiveling slide and counter-balancing arrange- 
ment; independent automatic positive feeds are provided for 

Fig. 12. High Speed Radial Drill, built by John Stirk & Sone 

each of the two slides, nine changes of feed being obtainable 
in any direction. The drive of the machine is through a gear 
box giving eighteen changes of speed, the final motion to the 
table being through a multiple thread worm and gear; this 
ensures a perfectly steady drive. The table speeds vary from 
approximately 1 to 50 revolutions per minute. The general 
design of the machine throughout is typically English. 

The same firm is also exhibiting the radial drill shown in 
Fig. 12. This machine is designed especially for the use of 
high-speed drills, and is driven by a direct connected 13-H.P. 
motor. The arm can be swung around on a pivot of large 
diameter in a complete circle. When in its lowest position, 
it rests on steel balls, but it can be raised 12 inches if 
required. The carriage is moved on the arm by rack and 
pinion in the usual manner. The reversing motion con- 
sists of a combination friction and positive clutch of 
unique design for which patents are applied for. The 
drive is through a gear box, giving nine changes of speed, 
which can be operated without stopping the machine. A back 
gear arrangement on the carriage doubles the number of 
speeds to 18, varying from 13 to 560 revolutions per minute. 
The gear box forms a receptacle for oil. the gears thereby run- 
ning constantly lubricated. The manufacturers guarantee 
that this machine will drill one-inch diameter holes in mild 
steel at a rate of 9 inches feed per minute. The approximate 
weight of this machine, including the motor, is 10,000 pounds. 

Sieptumbur, J DOS. 




This, tlie concluding installment ol' the series of articles on 
gear-cuUiiig niachinery, continufs tlu> dlscuBsion of metliods 
of cutting bevel gear teeth with speilal reference to machines 
which act on the molding-generating principle. 

Moldlnjr-Generatlngr Machines Employing: the Milling' Opera- 
tion for Cutting: the Teeth of Bevel Geara. 

One of the most interesting and ingenious of all the ma- 
chines tor cutting the teeth of bevel gears is that shown in 

Fig. 171. 

Brown & Sharpe Bevel Gear Generating Machine, cutting the Teeth by the 
Use of Interlocking Milling Cutters of Large Diameter. 

this description of Its action. The Brown ft Sharpe Mfg. Co., 
Providence, U. I., is the builder. 

In Figs. 172 and 173 are shown views of two sides of the 
Warren bevel gear generating machine, first developed and 
built, if the writer'H memory serves him, by the Pratt & Whit- 
ney Co., of Hartford, for the manufacture of chaluless bicycle 
gears. The machine we show, however, is a design built for 
general manufacturing use by Ludwig Loewe & Co., of Berlin, 
Germany. This machine is approximately similar in Its action 
to the one liulll l)y Brown & Sharpe, and Just described. 
Aside from the differences In the mechanism, however, there 
are two Important differences in Its action. One is 
the fact that the two cutters do not cut on opposite 
sides of the same tooth, but on facing sides of alter- 
nate teeth, leaving a whole tooth untouched be- 
tween them. The Independent slides in which they 
are set are so arranged as to allow the plane cut- 
ting face of the cutters to be set to agree with the 
corresponding faces of the imaginary crown gear. 
The otlier difference is the means taken to cut a 
tooth space having a straight Irottom, with cutters 
of small diameter. This is done by making the roll- 
iijg of the cutter holder and the blank on each other 
a continuous rocking movement at a quite rapid 
rate. During this rapid rocking, the cutter slides 
are fed inward on their respective guides to form 
the sides of the particular teeth at that time pre- 
sented to the cutters. 

The cutter slides and guides are mounted on a 
circular head, which is rocked about the axis of the 
imaginary crown gear by the slotted crank and 
link seen at the side of the machine in Fig. 173. 
The upper end of this circular slide carries a seg- 
ment of a crown gear, which meshes with the cor- 
responding segment of a master gear on the work 
spindle, this arrangement being very similar to 
that of the Gleason machine shown in Fig. 170. 
The work and the cutters being thus rapidly rocked 
about each other while the cutters are slowly fed 
down through the tooth spaces, the sides of the 
teeth exposed to the action of the cutters are prop- 
erly formed to the theoretical tooth curves. As in 

Fig. 171. It operates on the principle shown In Fig. 140, in 
■which the sides of the crown teeth are represented by the 
plane faces of milling cutters. In this machine the milling 
cutters and the imaginary crown gear remain stationary so 
far as position is concerned, though, of course, the cutters 
revolve about their own axes. The work is held in the spindle 
of a head (resembling the universal head of the milling ma- 
chine) which is mounted on the slide of a swinging sector at 
the left, which sector is rocked about a horizontal pivot in 
line with the axis of the imaginary crown gear. The work 
spindle and the rocking movement of this sector are so con- 
nected by change gearing that, as the latter is oscillated 
through a sufficient angle to generate the teeth, the work is 
rolled in the proper ratio to mesh with the imaginary crown 
gear, a tooth of which Is represented by the milling cutters. 
This movement, referring to Fig. 139, is thus seen to be identi- 
cal with the case in which the crown gear is stationary, while 
the frame is rocked, rolling the master gear on the crown 
gear, and the work over the tool. 

The cutters used are of large diameter in proportion to the 
work for which the machine is intended, in order to minimize 
the deepening of the tooth space at the center which is 
characteristic of a gear cut in this way, as was explained in 
connection with Fig. 140. It will be seen that the teeth 
of the two milling cutters are set so as to interlock. In this 
way comparatively stiff cuttin.g blades may be made to repre- 
sent a complete crown gear tooth of very fine pitch. 

The machine is universally adjustable within its range. 
The cutter spindles may be set to give teeth of greater or 
smaller pitch, and to work with 'gears of large or small pitch 
cone radius. They may also be adjusted for teeth of greater 
or less angularity than the 14^4-degree standard involute 
generally used. The details of the mechanism of this ma- 
chine are very interesting, but there is space here only for 

• .\sooclate Editor of Maciiineut. 

Fig. 172 

The Warren Bevel Gear Generating Machine as built by 
Ludwig Loewe k Co., Berlin. 

the previous case, there is no space here to go into the in- 
genious construction of this machine, with its provision for 



September, 190S. 

automatically efTeiting all the movements for rocking the 
cutter slides and the blank, feeding downward and returning, 
indexing, etc. — nor for following out in detail the various 
adjustments provided for cutting gears of all kinds within 
the range of the machine. 

Bevel Gear Cutting' Machines using a Hob and Operating 
on the Molding-Generating Principle. 

While the hobbing principle is easily and simply applied to 
the cutting of spur and spiral gears, as illustrated in Figs. 
50 and Ofi, it requires but little thought to show that the appli- 


Pig. 173. The Working Side of the Warren Machine showing the Milli ng Cut- 
ters whose Plane Surfaces represent Sides of Adjacent Crown Gear Teeth. 

cation of the same principle to the cutting of bevel gears is a 
difficult, if not hopeless, task. Nevertheless, this problem has 
been attacked in two different directions. The principle of 
the mechanism and tools employed, however, requires to be 
studied with greater care than in the case of any of the ma- 
chines we have previously described, if the reader is to have a 
clear understanding of their method of operation. The first 
of the two processes is that developed by M. Chambon, of 
Lyons, France. The operation of the machine is dependent on 
the principle of the hob, whose generation and finished form 
are illustrated in Figs. 174 to ITS, inclusive. 

In Fig. 174 is shown the basic principle of the molding- 
generating process applied to the cutting of bevel gears, iden- 
tical in its essentials with the mechanism shown in Fig. 139, 





Machinery, S. Y. 
Pig. 174. Diagram showing the PossibUity of Representing a Crown Gear 
looth by Teeth in a Series of Hobs of the Same Pitch Diameter but of 
Varymg Lead and Helix Angle. 

with the exception of the fact that a hob is used as a cutting 
tool, instead of a reciprocating planer tool. At the left of 
the engraving a face view of the crow^n gear is shown. The 
width of the top of the tooth at the outside diameter is W. 
at the inner end of the tooth w. A hob may be made, such as 
No. 1, having teeth whose shape on a normal section EF ex- 
actly matches the same section of a tooth of the crown wheel 
when the teeth of both are centered on line CD, and the hob 
is set at the helix angle 6. Under these circumstances, a 
tooth of the hob would have a width W at the top. If the hob 
is single-threaded, and the crown gear has, for instance, 24 
teeth, the two may be revolved together, the hob making 24 
revolutions to one of the crown gear. Then this tooth of 
the hob, which comes into action at the time it is central with 
line CD, will exactly match the outline at the larger end of 

each of the teeth of the crown gear in turn, as it revolves. 
To have a hob which would similarly match the teeth at the 
smaller or inner end, we could construct one of -the same 
diameter and of smaller pitch, smaller helix angle $'. and a 
corresponding width of flat, u\ at the top of the tooth, all to 
correspond with the shape of the inner end of the crown gear 
tooth. It also should revolve in the ratio of 24 to 1 with 
the crown gear, and the tooth which comes central with the 
line CD at each revolution may be made to match accurately 
with the outline of the inner end of the tooth. In the same 
way, hobs may be made to be used at any intermediate point 
in the length of the tooth of the crown gear, so that one of 
the cutting edges will match the outline of the tooth at this 
point, once for every revolution of the hob. The problem la 
to construct a single hob which will do the work of hobs No. 
1 and No. 2, and of all possible intermediate hobs between the 
two positions. 

In Fig. 175 the two hobs of Fig. 174 are shown enlarged. 
As previously explained, they are of the same diameter, with 

yiachi'ierij.S. Y. 
Pig. 175. Comparison of the Hobs representing the Large and Small 
Ends of the Crown Gear Tooth in Pig. 174. 

the normal width at the top of the teeth W and w, the same 
as that of the large and the small ends of the tooth of the 
crown gear, and with the leads of each, P and p, as required 
by the pitch of the large and small ends of the teeth. This 
gives corresponding angles, and ^ in the two cases. At 
T and Y are shown axial sections of the thread for hobs Nos. 
1 and 2. Since T and V correspond to the large and small 
ends of the teeth of a crown gear, the widths W and w' are 
proportional to the leads P and p, and the angle of inclina- 
tion of the sides, e, is the same in each case. What we have 
to do now is to combine Nos. 1 and 2 into a third, which will 
do the work of both of the previous ones. 

Suppose we take a blank of the same diameter as the two 
hobs in Fig. 175 and thread it first with the same shape and 
pitch of thread as for No. 1, and second with the same pitch 
and shape as for No. 2, except that while the width of the 
top and the inclination of the sides remain the same, the 
cut will be carried to the full depth required for the thread 
of No. 1. As shown at V, in Fig. 175, the dotted section of 
No. 2 is the same as for Y, except for its increased depth. 
When the hob has been thus threaded, the developed circum- 

3Iachinery,y. Y. 
Fig. 176. Development of the Thread of a Hob of the Same Diameter as 
in Fig. 175. in which have been cut the Two Threads of the Two Hobs 
there shown. 

ference at the point where the tops of the two threads cross 
each other will be shown in Fig. 176. Here lines FC and 
AH represent the top of thread No. 1, inclined at the thread- 
ing angle as determined by the pitch, while the space in- 
cluded between lines AG and EC correspondingly represents 
the top surface of thread No. 2, inclined at angle 9'. These 
two threads have widths at the top of W and id. proportional 
to the pitch as before. The center lines of the tops of the two 
threads cut in the blank cross each other at point 0. The top 
of the thread is seen to be cut in a parallelogram ABCD. this 
being the metal left after the grooves for the two different 

September, 1908. 



threads have been cut. Axial sections of this remaining frag- 
ment of the thread are shown on lines FN, QD, BT and CII ; 
as may be seen, the inclination of the sides of the thread, as 
measured on an axial section at each of these points (and 
at all other points as well) is made t. 

A short hob, threaded as in Fig. 176, is shown In Vig. 177. 
Similar points in each figure have similar letters. Since the 
two sides of the teeth, which unite in point B, have the same 
Inclination as measured on a plane passing through the axis 
of the hob, their intersection will also have the same inclination, 
and the line of intersection will pass through the axis of the 
hob. The same is true of point 1) on the other side of the 
thread. If the hob is gashed at B and D, the cutting edges 
thus formed are evidently common to both the large thread 
of width W and angle 0, and the small thread of width io and 
angle S', and when properly set in the machine and rotated 


1 1 





/ / ' 


* \ \ 





hineru.y. T 

"Fig. 177. Hob (ungrasbed) Produced by Combining the Two ahown In Pig. 
176; the Thread is tlie same as that sho\vn Developed In Fig. 176. 

with the crown gear, the relation to the imaginary crown gear 
will correspond exactly to that gear in the position of either 
hob No. 1 or No. 2, in Fig. 174, the same hob thus taking the 
place of both. 

It next remains to be shown that these two cutting edges 
at B and D in Fig. 177 can be made to correspond with all the 
sections of the crown gear intermediate between the large and 
the small ends in Fig. 174. 

To prove this, we have to show that the sides of any thread 
•cut in this hob with a center line passing through O, whose 
width of top and lead are in the same proportion as in Fig. 
17.5, and whose sides have the same inclination as measured 
■on an axial plane, will include the cutting edges B and D. 
which we have formed as described in the hob in Fig. 177. 
In Fig. 176 any thread of the given proportions, such as 
FCAH, will cut the horizontal line NR at D, in such a way 
that OD : OS = DP : KS. Now DP is half the width of the 
tooth on the axial section, and ES is half the circumferen- 

W P 
tial pitch, so that OD : OS = — : — = W : P. But all the 

2 2 
threads we are concerned with have this same ratio between 
TV and P, so that the sides of all of them cross line RS at D. 


Fig. 178. The Conapleted Hobs as used in the Chambon Machine, 
Developed as shown in the Preceding Illustrationa. 

The same thing applies to the crossing at B on the upper side. 
, The cutting edges, then, at D and B are common to all the 
hobs of the same diameter which will fill the required condi- 
tion for the infinite number of sections between hobs Nos. 
1 and 2 in Fig. 174. 

In practice, the hob of Fig. 177, made as we have described, 
is gashed throughout the full length of the thread, as well as 
at the cutting edges B and D. Such a hob is shown in two 
positions in Fig. 178. The edges B and D, however, are the 
ones which are relied on to give the true shape to the teeth of 
the gear. 

The next problem, and a somewhat complicated one, is that 
of providing a machine which will utilize this hob, in accord- 
ance with the principles of its construction, to take the place 

of the imaginary crown gear of Fig. 174 in generating teeth in 
a bevel gear blank. In the first place, the hob must be moved 
from the position occupied by No. 1 to that occupied by No. 2, 
changing its angle continuously meanwhile from to 9' to 
agree with the change in helix angle due to the change of pitch 
as the tooth grows smaller. Next, the hob and the blank being 
cut must be rotated with each other, so that the hob revolves 
during one revolution of the gear as many times as there are 
teeth in the latter, the hob being supposed to tje single- 
threaded. These two conditions are easily fulfilled, but there 
still remains a third. The two cutting edges we have made 
for the hob represent the sides of each tooth of the imaginary 
crown gear only when each tooth in turn is passing the cen- 
ter line CD. In order to have a generating action on the 
blank, the imaginary teeth of the crown gear must have a cut- 
ting action over a considerable angle about D, on both sides 
of the section CD. This may be effected by rocking the holder 
which carries the hob about center D in either direction, 
meanwhile rotating the hob to keep its thread in the proper 
relation with the teeth of the crown gear, as if the latter was 
stationary. In the machine this oscillation of the hob and its 
carrier about D, on each side of CD, takes place continuously, 
while the hob is being fed down from the position occupied 
by No. 1 to that of No. 2, and the rotation of the hob re- 
quired by this oscillation (to keep the hob and the crown 
gear continuously in step) is superimposed on the other 
rotation in unison with the imaginary crown gear and the 

Fig. 179. The Chambon Continuous Bevel Gear Hobbing Machine, 
employing the Cutters shown in Pig. 178. 

work, the two being combined by differential gearing of the 
same style as required for combining the movements in spiral 
gear cutting machines as illustrated in Fig. 97. When this is 
done, a cutting edge will be provided by the hob, closely paral- 
leling the molding action of the crown gear as shown at the 
right of Fig. 174. 

The machine for accomplishing all this is shown in Fig. 179. 
The work is mounted on an arbor, adjustable to any angle and 
to any axial position in relation to the hob. The spindle for 
the latter is mounted in a swinging carrier which slides on 
ways provided on the face of a head, which latter Is oscillated 
about a horizontal axis. A suitable compensating movement is 
provided, so that this rocking movement is translated into 
the required rotary motion of the cutter, as was shown, to 
keep it from getting out of step with the imaginary crown 
gear, and for combining it properly with the constant rotation 
of the cutter, derived from its connection with the work- 
revolving mechanism. The siJindle carrier feeds in along 
the w-ays of the oscillating head, being swung around by a 
templet as it proceeds, to change the helix angle e as re- 
quired. Suitable change gears are provided for all the move- 
ments, and one passing through of the continuously rotating 
hob finishes the gear complete. The mechanism is rather too 



September, 1908. 

Intricate to describe here in detail. A number of compensat- 
ing movements are required, which add somewhat to its com- 

We sliduUl not leave the discvission of this machine and its 
principle, ingenious though it is, without noting that the 
process involves a number of minor Inaccuracies. For one 
thing, an error is introduced by the fact that in the machine 
the rodiing of the spindle-head, carrying the hob, is about 
the axis X'Y'. instead of about axis XY, as it should be. (See 
Fig. 174.) This is doubtless done to avoid the complication 
of having to set the machine for the angle of the top of the 
crown tooth. The error introduced would be entirely negli- 
gible, except perhaps in the case of gears very closely ap- 
proaching crown gears in their pitch cone angle. There are 
several other little discrepancies which, however, are scarcely 
worth taking into account. 

In Fig. 180 is shown another machine operating on the 
Chambon plan, built by the Societe Suisse pour la Construc- 

Fig. 180. Tbe Cbambon Bevel Gear Hobbing Machine as Developed by 
the Oerlilcon Co., particularly adapted for Rougrbing Bevel Gears Prelimin- 
ary to Planing. 

tion des Machines-Outils Oerlikon, Oerlikon prgs Zurich, 
Switzerland. This machine employs the cutter in Fig. 179, 
but the mechanism is very much simpler, since the oscillat- 
ing head and the connections required tor operating it have 
been abandoned, the spindle slide being mounted directly on 
fixed ways on the front of the column. For this reason the 
generating action is not, it will be seen, fully carried out, the 
cutting action, however, resulting in the production of a 
groove tapering properly from the large to the small end and 
of approximately the correct shape. The machine is thus 
especially adapted to roughing blanks previous to finishing 
them In a planing machine operating on the templet or mold- 
ing-generating principles. It is claimed to do its work with 
great rapidity, and to be capable of leaving a very small and 
uniform amount of stock over the whole area of the sides of 
the tooth. 

Besides this Chambon process, another and, it seems to the 
writer, a fruitless attempt, has been made to cut the teeth 
of bevel gears by the molding-generating principle with a hob 
as the cutting tool. This method is shown in its principle in 
Fig. 181, the construction being referred to the imaginary 
crown gear and the bevel gear to be cut, as in the previous 
case. Also, as in the previous case, the action hinges about 
the design of the hob. Here we have a hob of such a taper, 
and with the pitch continuously decreasing in such a ratio, 
that the helix angle is constant. This decrease in pitch is, 
of course, accompanied by a correspondingly uniform and 
proportional decrease in the section of the thread. In the 
machine the hob is so set (in the "first position," for in- 
stance) that the center line of the thread in the cutting 
position passes through center D of the imaginary crovvn 
gear. Here the width of the top of the hob tooth is W, cor- 
responding to the desired width at the top of the imaginary 
crown gear tooth. In feeding, the hob is moved, without 
changing the angle of its axis, along line EF. so that when it 

arrives at the inner end of the face of tbe imaginary crown 
gear, that tooth that is on the center line CD will be so near 
the small end of the hob that It has the required width at the 
top, w, and the proper pitch, to agree with the small end of 
the tooth in the imaginary crown gear. In a similar way, all 
the intervening positions match up with the teeth of the crown 
gear on line CD. 

In the machine for utilizing this hob (which lias been re- 
ferred to in a number of English papers and desc-rlbed in an 
American contemporary*), it is mounted on a slide which Is 
adjustable to give the line of feed, EF, the angle for the con- 
ditions required, while, as shown at the right of Fig. 181, the 
spindle of the hob is set at such an angle that its pitch cone 
is tangent to the pitch plane of the imaginary crown gear. 
The feeding movement along line EF is so connected with 
the rotating mechanism of the hob that, as it progresses from 
tlie first to the second position, the hob Is rotated to keep its 
diminishing thread always coincident with the central tooth 
of the crown gear shown. In addition to the rotation thus 
given the hob by the feeding movement, another rotating 
movement is given it in connection with the work, the same 
as for all bobbing processes. These two rotating movements 
are combined by differential gearing. It will thus be seen 
that with the machine properly set up, the hob may be fed 
from the first to the second position, with the hob and work 
rotating together, the former being under a rotative influence 
from the feeding movement as well, giving somewhat the 
effect of the rotation of the ordinary crown gear. 

What the writer feels sure, however, is a vital error in 
the principle of this machine, is plainly evident in Fig. 181, 
where it is seen that the only point where the teeth of the 
hob coincide with those of the imaginary crown gear is on 
line CD. At the right of CD and at the left of it the coinci- 
dence ceases, and the hob teeth cross the crown gear teeth 
at different angles, so that they must cut entirely different 
shaped spaces in the work. Of course, everything in the dia- 
gram shown is exaggerated, but the exaggeration only shows 
the principle more clearly. While it is stated that the ma- 
chine and the process are beyond the experimental stage, and 
while, from long experience, the writer knows that it is unsafe 
to predict the failure of any principle until it has actually 

f I Of HOB }^\/ 


■^ ' t OF HOB 

1st position) / 

Of "OB \~r^/p^L 


2nd position 

of hob 

[ imaginary crown SEAR, QV WHICH it IS 1 


Machlncru<.y. T. 
Fig. 181. The Principle of the Bostock Hobbing Process. 

been tried out, the analysis given above Is surely enough to 
make one skeptical as to the success of this operation, par- 
ticularly in the case of gears of such large pitch cone angle 
as to nearly approach the crown gear. With smaller angles, 
down to the spur gear the action should be more nearly cor- 
rect, as the blank curves away from the hob so rapidly as to 
avoid most of the interference, though even here the fact 
that the pitch is coarser at one side of the line CD than at the 
other would still prevent proper action. It would thus seem 
that interference would prevent the consideration of this 
device as a practical possibility. The Inventor of this ma- 
chine is Mr. F. J. Bostock, Birmingham, England. 
Comparison of Molding-Generating- Machines for Bevel Gears. 
It is interesting to note, in the various molding-generating 
machines for bevel gears, the different ways used for rolling 
the cutter head and the work in relation to each other. In 
the Bilgram machine the proper relation is maintained by 

* American Machinist, March 5, 1908. 

September, 1908. 



the rolling of the pitch surfaces of the work and the crown 
gear on each other, the rolling being controlled by steel tapes 
or wires In such a way as to make the movement positive. 
In the Ducommun machine the same movement is effected by 
spherical linltage which, while not exact in its action, is bo 
nearly so that the error introduced is entirely nogligiblc. The 
Gleason and Ludwig Loewe machines employ segiiu-nts of the 
actual crown and master gears shown in Fig. i;i'J, although, 
of course, It is not necessary to have the teeth of the master 
gear of the same number for the full circle, and of the sam'' 
form, as those of the work, the only requirement being that 
the pitch cone of the master gear be coincident with that of 
the work. In the Ernault machine the proper ratio of move- 
ment is obtained by a system of angular slides, which auto- 
matically adjust themselves to the required ratio (which is 
dependent on the pitch cone angle of the gear) in the man- 
ner described In referring to Fig. 169. Finally, In the Brown 
& Sharpe, Chambon. and Bostock machines the proper ratio is 
obtained by the use of change gears. 

Another interesting point relates to the considerable size 
and complication of each of these machines, as compared 
with the small size of the work they are adapted to operate 
on. While the principle of the molding-generating process 
is comparatively simple, as shown in Fig. 139, considerable 
mechanism is required for making a machine built according 
to this principle universal in its application, easily set up 
and operated, and automatic in its operation. 

This concludes this series of articles on gear-cutting ma- 
chinery. The number of commercial machines of this kind 
is much greater than was believed possible when the series 
was first undertaken. It is safe to say that In no other field 
of the machine tool business has there been such an oppor- 
tunity for the display of mechanical ingenuity and skill in 
designing as in that of gear cutting, and in no field have 
these possibilities been so fully grasped. That we have not 
yet reached final development in any of the various forms of 
this machinery is shown by the fact that the past year has 
been particularly prolific in new designs, as may be seen from 
an inspection of the New Tools Department of the various 
issues of Machinery since January, when the series was 
commenced. Besides these, a number of new machines are in 
process of development in this country and Europe, and doubt- 
less such as are worthy of mention will be brought to the at- 
tention of the readers of Machinery as soon as the informa- 
tion concerning them is available for publication. 

• * * 


The opinions and experiences of engineers In the north of 
England engineering and manufacturing districts on the 
Important subject of superheating are briefly summarized 
below, and may Interest American readers, who will be able 
to compare them with American experience and with the opin- 
ions of American experts. The economy, which may be 
attained by superheating is now freely recognized in England, 
and although a great deal has yet to be learned respecting the 
nature of steam, the majority of steam users now exhibit less 
fear in the adoption of a practice which after its introduction 
for a time was received with disfavor. The actual steam 
users are not the only ones interested in superheating. Boiler 
and steam engine makers in England are fully alive to the 
fact that if steam engines are to successfully compete in 
efBciency with internal combustion motors, they must cooper- 
ate with each other with the object of securing the utmost 
possible percentage of heat units from every pound of coal 
put into the boiler furnaces. .Even English colliery owners, 
who are not usually particular in the matter of fuel economy, 
are now beginning to recognize the fact that superheating 
offers too great a saving to be ignored. 

In the case of gas engines, the size and the power of which 
are now steadily increasing in England, the problem of using 
the operative fluid is a comparatively simple one, and that 
probably accounts, to a large extent, for the success of this 
type of prime mover; but in the case of the steam engine, the 
fact that the steam may be gradually reduced to a liquid 

state during its stages of operation introduces risks of Iobb, 
which It has been the constant aim of engine builders to mini- 
mize, ever since the time of Watt. Multiple expansion has 
now been extended to Its utmoet limit; sti-am jacketing and 
nilieatlng are only iiiHans to an end. Apparently, therefore, 
the only course left la to convert the steam temporarily Into a 
gas by giving It such a degree of heat that there is no poasl- 
blllty of Its condensation while passing through the cylinders 
of the engine. Condensation represents tho principal source of 
loss in all reciprocating steam engines, and means of prevent- 
ing It other than by superheating can only be regarded as 
palliatives. But It Is not for reciprocating engines alone that 
superheating is found to pay. In the turbine engine, largely 
used In England in electric lighting stations, although the con- 
densation of steam by cold external surfaces does not take 
place, it has been proved that superheating is an advantage. 
The steam in the turbine, as Prof. Watkinson, a well-known 
expert, has pointed out, is wet from another cause, namely, on 
account of the expansion it has undergone while doing work; 
consequently, the efliciency of this type of prime mover may 
be very considerably increased by superheating the steam 
prior to Its admission to the steam chest. In the steam tur- 
bine the reduction in the amount of steam required when 
superheated is mainly due to the increased volume and the 
decreased frictional resistance between the rotating vanes and 
the steam. In one type of turbine in which the steam is 
discharged through nozzles, the flow has been found to vary 
or fluctuate, which is asserted to be due to partial choking of 
the nozzle with water. When the steam was superheated, the 
flow was found to be continuous and unvarying, to have a 
higher velocity, and consequently a much greater efiiclency. 

The soundness of the practice of superheating being there- 
fore easily demonstrable, the question that faces the steam 
user is one of degree. It is generally understood in England 
that in the United States they are very conservative in regard 
to superheating, a "moderate superheat" being understood to 
mean from 100 to 150 degrees F. at the boiler, or about 100 
degrees F. at the engine. This is considered in England a 
somewhat too moderate degree, which may probably entail 
reheating between the high-pressure and the low-pressure 
cylinders. In England, many engineers are not afraid of using 
higher temperatures. The engine builder is prepared for 
them, and the engineer is not afraid of his packings burning 
out or of his lubricants carbonizing. In consequence, no prac- 
tical difliculties are encountered in superheating to a consid- 
erably higher extent. At the same time, it is very essential 
that the temperature of the superheated steam should be con- 

Early difficulties with the superheating tubes have also been 
overcome. Solid drawn steel is now being generally adopted 
in England in place of copper and cast iron, and the apparatus 
is therefore not only safer, but its life approximates more 
nearly the life of the boiler itself. The large English steam 
user, -when invited to consider superheating, naturally asks 
what he may expect to save by it. On this point experiences 
vary very considerably, and the figures given by the makers 
of superheaters are subject to some discount. In a paper read 
some time ago before the Sheffield Municipal Electrical Asso- 
ciation, Mr. R. S. Downe stated that, with a superheat of 
500 degrees F., he could effect a saving in coal and steam 
amounting to between ten and twenty per cent. The saving 
is, of course, greater where the engines are working under 
uneconomical conditions, and where steam jacketing is used, 
or where the piping is inordinately long. A superheater 
attached to a boiler may abstract ten per cent of the heat in 
the flue gases, and reduce the efl5ciency of the boiler by some- 
thing like the same figure, but as this extra ten per cent heat 
in the steam may reduce the engine losses by twenty per cent, 
the net gain is a substantial one, and justifies the adoption of 
superheating in the opinion of English users. Mr. Downe 
finds that the saving in steam is greater than the loss in 
coal, which is, of course, due to more fuel being required to 
obtain the superheat. 

It is stated that 100 degrees F. of superheat in the steam 
turbine gives an extra economy of 12 per cent, and it has been 
estimated at 20 per cent with 3.j0 degrees of superheat. 



September, 1908. 

Superheating in the turbine secures dry steam, and freedom 
from the clogging of the blades and guides by water. 

It may be of Interest to add here the views of those not 
favorably impressed with superheating. They suggest that 
many practical engine builders object to superheat exceeding 
150 degrees F., as valves and cylinders are apt to become 
scored. It is true that by adopting drop valves, instead of 
Corliss or slide valves, the troubles can be reduced, though 
not entirely avoided, but there are objections to the change. 
The new valves and valve gear necessitate new designs and 
patterns, and in addition bring along spocial operating trou- 
bles of their own. Most turbines have a natural advantage 
over the reciprocating engine so far as the use of superheated 
steam is concerned, because they have no bearing or rubbing 
surfaces under pressure exposed to the action of the super- 
heated steam. On the other hand, the fine clearances, which 
are so desirable in the working parts, are more Influenced 
and altered by superheated steam. This is especially the case 
in reaction turbines. In blades of certain niclvel alloys, highly 
superheated steam has been found to produce brittleness. 

As regards the economy of superheated steam, it is usually 
taken for granted that it effects a substantial one. Informa- 
tion, the opponents claim, on this point is limited, owing in 
part to a tendency of comparatively recent growth for engi- 
neers to speak of the performance of an engine In terms of 
the weight of steam consumed per horse-power. It is not so 
long since it was usual to estimate the performance in terms 
of the coal consumption at the boiler. This, of course, by 
introducing the unknown efficiency of the boiler as a factor, 
rendered comparisons of engine efficiencies a very difficult 
and uncertain matter. This was recognized, and in order to 
eliminate the boiler from the comparison, the weight of steam 
consumed is now generally the basis of comparison. But 
superheated steam contains more heat than saturated steam, 
and assuming that the boiler efficiency remains unaltered, it 
Is clear that the weights of saturated and superheated steam 
used by the same engine are not directly of use for compar- 
ing the efficiencies in the two cases. Thus, tests show that 
a good steam engine or turbine will have its steam consump- 
tion reduced by about 1.7 pound of steam per kilowatt hour, 
or from 8 to 10 per cent of the normal steam consumption, 
for every 100 degrees P. of superheat. Taking the higher 
figure so as to allow everything possible to the superheated 
steam, it must be pointed out that these figures do not signify 
that the coal consumption is reduced by 10 per cent. With 
independently fired superheaters, the coal consumption is 
probably no less than with saturated steam. With ordinary 
fine or integral superheaters the effect on the coal consump- 
tion depends upon whether or not an economizer is fitted, and 
the position of the superheater, whether directly over the 
fire or in the flue, meeting the gases after leaving the boiler 
proper. Superheaters are most economical when there is no 
economizer, and in that case should never meet the hot gases 
before they reach the boiler heating surface. 

If it be assumed that the over-all efficiency of the boiler is 
not affected by the superheater, then the extra heat in a given 
weight of steam as compared with saturated steam is about 
5 per cent for 100 degrees of superheat. The decrease In the 
steam consumption being 10 per cent, the net economy of fuel 
is 5 per cent, or, say, from 0.07 to 0.1 pounds of coal per indi- 
cated horse-power hour for the main engine. The question 
is whether or not this saving in fuel pays for the means 
employed to obtain it. With a 1,000-horse-power engine for 
one year, the charges on the superheater for interest, depreci- 
ation and maintenance at 12% per cent would be about £35. 
For each 1 per cent of the engine's maximum yearly output 
(continuous running day and night at full load), the saving 
in fuel would be from three to four tons. From this, the 
saving can be estimated under any given conditions of work- 
ing, and for any given price of fuel. For instance, consider a 
mill or factory in which the engine output is 35 per cent of 
the maximum, coal costing 6 shillings a ton. delivered. The 
coal is usually slack; the greater saving in weight of four 
tons per 1 per cent, or 140 tons per year may, therefore, be 
taken. This gives a reduction in the coal bill of £42, or a 
saving over the fixed charges of £7 per year; with dearer 
coal a larger saving would result. 


The method of testing the hardness of metals devised by 
Mr. J. A. Brinell has rcM'cived very favorable attenlion from 
metallurgists in this, as well as in other countries. In 1900 
Mr. Brinell, then chief engineer and technical manager of the 
Fagersta Iron and Steel Works in Sweden, first made public 
his method of testing the hardness of Iron and steel, by sub- 
mitting it to the Society of Swedish Engineers in Stockholm. 
At the meeting of the CongrOs International des Mfthodes 
d'Essai des Matiriaux de Construction in Paris the same year 
the method attracted general attention, and Its merits were 
duly acknowledged by awarding the inventor with a personal 
Grand Prix at the Paris Exposition. The method was first 
described in the English language by Mr. Axel Wahlberg in a 
paper before the Iron and Steel Institute in 1901. Since then, 
the practical value of this method has been amply substanti- 
ated on various occasions by means of comprehensive tests 
and investigations undertaken by several distinguished scien- 
tists in different cotmtries. In working out his method. 


^ h 























0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.7 O.S U.y 1.0 

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.8 O.a 1.0 

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.:i 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.0 1.0 0.1 0...' 0.3 O.i U.& 0.6 0.7 O.S 0.9 1.0 

Pig. 1. Diagrams showing Relation bet-ween Results Obtained by Various 
Methods for ascertaining the Ultimate Strength of Materials. 

Brinell kept in view the necessity of taking Into account the 
requirements that the method must be trustworthy, must be 
easy to learn and apply, and capable of being used on almost 
any piece of metal, and particularly, to be used on metal 
without in any way being destructive to the sample. 

Principle of Method for Testing- Hardness of Metals. 

The Brinell method consists In partly forcing a hardened 
steel ball into the sample to be tested so as to effect a slight 
spherical impression, the dimensions of which will then 
serve as a basis for ascertaining the hardness of the metal. 
The diameter of the impression is measured, and the spheri- 
cal area of the concavity calculated. On dividing the amount 
of pressure required in kilogrammes for effecting the impres- 
sion by the area of the impression in square millimeters an 
expression for the hardness of the material tested is obtained, 
this expression or number being called the hardness numeral. 
In order to render the results thus obtained by different tests 
directly comparable with one another, there has been adopted 
a common standard as well with regard to the size of ball as 
to the amount of loading. The standard diameter of the ball 
is 10 millimeters (0.3937 inch) and the pressure 3,000 kilo- 
grammes (6,614 pounds) in the case of Iron and steel, while 
in the case of softer metals a pressure of 500 kilogrammes 
(1,102 pounds) is used. Any variation either in the size of 
the ball or the amount of loading will be apt to occasion more 
or less confusion without there being any advantage to com- 
pensate for such inconvenience. Besides, making any com- 
parisons between results thus obtained in a different manner 
would be more or less troublesome, and complicated calcula- 
tions would be required. 

The diameter of the impression is measured by means of a 
microscope of suitable construction, and the hardness numeral 

September, 1908. 



may be obtained wlUiout calciilnliou directly from the table 
given herewith, worked out for the standard diameter of ball 
and i)r('ssures mentioned. The formulas employed in the cal- 
culation of this table are as follows: 

yz=2nr (r—\/r' — R') (1) 


H = - 


in which formulas 

r=: radius of ball in millimeters, 

ft =: radius ot depression in millimeters, 

V = superficial area of depression in square millimeters, 

A' =: pressure on ball in kilogrammes, 

//=: hardness numeral. 

Suppose, for instance, that the radius of the ball equals 5 
millimeters (0.1968 inch), and that the test is undertaken 
on a piece of steel, the pressure consequently applied being 
3.000 kilo.s;ranimes (6,61! pounds). Assuming that we found 
the diameter of the depression equal to 2 millimeters (0.7874 
inch) by msasurement, we have: 

2 TT X 5 (5 — V ^5"=^) =13.13 = 2/, 
and 3,000 


which as we see agrees with the figure given in our table for 
a 4 millimeters diameter of Impression. 

If the hardness numerals are multiplied by these coeffl- 
dents, the result obtained will be the ultimate tensile strength 
of the material In kilogrammes per square millimeter. It Is 
evident that coofflclents can easily be worked out so that If 
the hardness numerals be multiplied by these the strength 
could be obtained in pounds per square inch. Suppose, for 
Instance, that a test of an annealed steel bar by means ot 
the Brlnell ball test gave an Impression of a diameter of 4.6 
millimeters. Then the hardness numeral, according to our 
table, would be 170, and the ultimate tensile strength conse- 
quently 0.362 X 170 = 61.5 kilogrammes per square milli- 
meter, provided the impression was effected transversely to 
the rolling direction. 

In Fig. 1 are shown a number of diagrams which Indicate 
the results obtained at the tests undertaken to ascertain the 
coeflJclents given. In these diagrams the full heavy line Indi- 
cates the tensile strength ot the material, as calculated from 
the ball tests in the rolling direction. The dotted lines Indi- 
cate the strength as calculated from the ball tests in a trans- 
versal direction, and the "dash-dotted" lines show the actual 
tensile strength of the material as ascertained by ordinary 
methods for ascertaining this value. It is interesting to note 
how closely the three curves agree with one another, and con- 
sidering the general uncertainty and variation met with when 
testing the same kind ot material for tensile strength by the 

Steel ball of 10 millimeters diameter. 




Hardness 1 










Numeral. 1 



Pressure, kg. 


Pressure, kg. 


Pressure, kg. 


Pressure, kg. 


Pressure, kg. 












500 ! 












23.8 ' 









































































































































































3 60 


93 i 







5 60 






2 65 


89 ! 
























17 8 




























5 80 

















16 9 





















73 1 













Relation beti^een Hardness of Materials and 
Ultimate Strength. 

It has been pointed out by Mr. Brinell himself that this 
method of testing hardness of metals offers a most ready and 
convenient means of ascertaining within close limits the ulti- 
mate strength of iron and steel. This, in fact, is one ot the 
most interesting and important results of this method of 
measuring hardness. In order to determine the ultimate 
strength of iron and steel, it is only necessary to establish a 
constant coefficient determined by experiments which serves 
as a factor by which the hardness numerals are multiplied, 
the product being the ultimate strength. Rather compre- 
hensive experiments were undertaken with a considerable 
number of specimens of annealed material obtained from 
various steel works for the purpose of establishing the coeffi- 
cient by the present director of the Office for Testing Materials 
of the Royal Technical Institution at Stockholm. The re- 
sults obtained were as follows: 

For hardness numerals below 17.5. when the impression is 
effected transversely to the rolling direction, the coefficient 
equals 0.362; when the Impression is effected in the rolling 
direction, the coefficient equals 0.354. 

For hardness numerals above 175, when the impression Is 
effected transversely to the rolling direction, the coefficient 
equals 0.344; when the impression is effected in the rolling 
direction, the coefficient equals 0.324. 

ordinary methods, it is sate to say that the ball test method 
comes nearly as close to the actual results as does any other 
method used. Especially within the range ot the lower rates 
ot carbon, or up to 0.5 per cent, or in other words, within the 
range of all ordinary construction materials, the coincidents 
are, in fact, so very nearly perfect as to be amply sufficient to 
satisfy all practical requirements. 

In the case of any steel, whether it be annealed or not, 
that has been submitted to some further treatment of any 
other kind than annealing, such as cold working, etc., or in 
the case of any special steel, there would be other coefficients 
needed which would then also be ascertained by experiments. 
The same coefficient, how^ever, will hold true tor the same 
kind of material having been subjected to the same treatment. 
Thus, the ball testing method for strength is equally satisfac- 
tory, and far more convenient, in all cases where the rupture 
test would be applied. One of the greatest advantages of the 
Brinell method is that in the case of a large number of ob- 
jects being required to be tested, each one of the objects can 
be tested without demolition, and without the trouble of pre- 
paring test bars. 

Application of the Brinell Ball Test Method. 

Summarizing what has been said in the previous discus- 
sion, and adding some other important points, we may state 
the various uses for which the Brinell ball test method may 



September, 1908. 

be applied, outside of the direct test of the hardness of con- 
structing materials and the calculation from this test of the 
ultimate strength of the materials, as follows: 

1. Determining the carbon content in iron and steel. 

2. Examining various manufactured goods and objects, such 
as rails, tires, projectiles, armor plates, guns, gun barrels, 
structural materials, etc., without damage to the object tested. 

3. Ascertaining the qualit.v of the material In finished 
pieces and fragments of machinery even in such cases when 

Piff. 2. Aktiebolaget Alpha's Machine for Testing Hardness of Materials. 

no specimen bars are obtainable for undertaking ordinary 
tensile tests. 

4. Ascertaining the effects of annealing and hardening of 

5. Ascertaining the homogeneity of hardening in any manu- 
factured articles of hardened steel. 

6. Ascertaining the hardening power of various quenching 
liquids, and the influence of temperature of such liquids on 
the hardening results. 

7. Ascertaining the effect of cold working on various ma- 

Machines'used for Testing the Hardness of Metals by 
the Brinell Method. 

The method of applying the Brinell ball test was at first 
only possible in such establishments where a tensile testing 
machine was installed. As these machines are rather ex- 
pensive, the use of the ball test method was limited. For this 
reason a Swedish firm, Aktiebolaget Alpha, Stockholm, 
Sweden, has designed and placed on the market a compact 
machine specially intended for making hardness tests. This 
machine, as shown in Fig. 2, consists of a hydraulic press 
acting downward, the lower part of the piston being fitted 
with a 10-millimeter steel ball fc by means of which the im- 
pression is to be effected in the surface of the specimen or 
object to be tested. This object is placed on the support s 
which is vertically adjustable by means of the hand-wheel r, 
while at the same time it can be inclined sideways when this 
is needed on account of the irregular shape of the part tested. 
The whole apparatus is solidly mounted on a cast iron stand. 
The pressure is effected by means of a small hand pump, and 
the amount of pressure can be read off direcfly in kilogrammes 
on the pressure gage mounted at the top of the machine. 

In order to insure against any eventual non-working of 
the manometer, this machine is fitted with a special contriv- 
ance purporting to control in a most infallible manner the 
indications of that apparatus, while at the same time serving 
to prevent any excess of pressure beyond the exact amount 
needed according to the case. This controlling apparatus 
consists of a smaller cylinder, o, directly communicating with 
the press-cylinder. On being loaded with weights correspond- 
ing to the amount of pressure required, the piston in this 
cylinder will be pushed upward by the pressure effected within 
the press-cylinder at the very moment when the requisite 
testing pressure is attained. Owing to this additional device, 
there can thus be no question whatever of any mistake or any 
errors as to the testing results, that might eventually be due 
to the manometer getting out of order. 

Method of Performing the Ball Test. 
The test specimen must be perfectly plane on the very spot 
where the impression is to be made. It is then placed on the 
support s. Fig. 2, which, as mentioned, is adjusted by means 
of the hand-wheel r so as to come into contact with the ball 
fc. A few slow strokes of the hand pump will then cause the 
pressure needed to force the ball downward, and a slight im- 
pression will be obtained in the object tested, but as soon as 
the requisite amount of pressure has been attained, the upper 
piston is pushed with the controlling apparatus upward, as 
previously described. On testing specimens of iron and steel, 
the pressure is maintained on the specimen for 15 seconds, 
but in the case of softer materials for at least half a minute. 
After the elapse of this time, the pressure is released, and 
the contact between the ball and the sample will cease. A 
spiral spring fitted within the cylinder, and being just of 
sufficient strength to overcome the weight of the press piston, 
pulls the same upward into its former position, while forcing 
the liquid back into its cistern. The diameter of the impres- 
sion effected by the ball is then measured by the microscope 

Fig, 3. Section of Press Cylinder of Machine in Fig. 2. 

m, which is specially constructed for this purpose, the results 
obtained by this measurement being exact within 0.05 milli- 
meter (0.002 inch). Fig. 3 shows a cross-section through the 
cylinder and piston part of the machine. Another type of ma- 
chine is designed for special tests in which very high press- 
ures are required. The ball in this machine is 19 millimeters 
(0.748 inch) in diameter, and the pressures employed vary 
from 3 to 50 tons. The construction and operation are other- 
wise exactly the same as that of the smaller machine in Fig. 2. 

ScptembLM-, 1 008. 





Very little of value has 
been written on drop forging 
die work and shop practice 
as it actually exists In the 
modern drop forging sliop. 
Here and there, a solitary die 
or device has been pictured 
and described, or a few 
sketches made of dies that 
may be entirely imaginary, 
so far as can be learned from 
any evidence offered, and 
which are of such a simple 
and elementary nature as to 
convey no adequate idea 
whatever of the magnitude 
or difficulty of the work, to 
anyone not familiar with it. This class of contributions cov- 
ers the greater part of what has been published on a practice 
that has grown and developed from the hand forging process 
of the hammer and anvil, to one of the most important 
branches of modern machine industry. 

Hundreds of parts that were formerly cast from malleable 
iron are now drop forged, the extra cost being more than 
made up by the uniformity, strength and reliability of the 
product; and no one has been quicker to realize this than the 
really live, up-to-date automobile manufacturer to whom the 
mechanical world is indebted for so many other valuable 
mechanical developments. 

Ethan VlaU.t 

niaclilne use, and trained, Bkillful dleniakers are needed, as 
well as a careful selection of the steel used. 

Materials for, and Life of. Drop Forg-lner Dies. 

Steel, cast into blocks, is not suitable for tli-ts work, as 
flaws or blowholes are likely to develop where least expected 
or desired, so as a general rule, forged blocks of open hearth 
crucible steel are used. These blocks are either purchased 
ready forged. In various sizes, from the steel manufacturers, 
or are forged in the shop where they are used, the former 
plan being the usual one. 

A rough estimate as to the average lite of a drop forging 
die, used for medium sized work on Bessemer steel, was given 
by a foreman of long experience, as about forty thousand 
pieces. Some dies might be broken immediately when put in 
operation, while others might stand for a hundred thousand 
pieces or even more. 

Automobile Shop Drop ForgTlngr Practice. 

In preparing this article, the photographs and data were 
obtained in the factory of Thomas B. .leffery & Co., Kenosha. 
Wisconsin, the manufacturers of the famous "Rambler" au- 
tomobile. This company's drop forging department is far 
ahead of anything outside of the big concerns that make a 
specialty of drop forgings, and consists of a well-lighted, 
finely-equipped tool-room, used only for drop forge die work, 
a thoroughly up-to-date hardening plant, and a big building 
full of steam hammers, punch presses, heating furnaces and 
every appliance necessary for first-class work. This depart- 
ment is under the direct supervision of one of the best all- 
lound drop forge men in the West. 

The greater part of the drop forgings made here are of 
Bessemer bar steel, though some of the more particular au- 

Figr. 1. Planing a Die-block on a Shaper. 

The making of drop forging dies, together with the harden- 
ing process through which they are put and the methods of 
using them, is a trade in itself, though closely allied to tool 
and die making as understood in the big shops of to-day. 
Each branch of shop work presents its individual problems, 
and a tool- and die-maker, though skilled in other lines, can- 
not go into a forging shop and make drop forge dies without 
special instruction and training. 

In drop forge die work, as in other kinds of tool work, there 
are various grades of accuracy and finish required. Some 
forgings must come from the hammer practically finished to 
size, while others are made large enough to allow consider- 
able machining. Where only a few pieces of a rough nature 
are required, little skill is needed In the making or main- 
tenance of the dies, but where small accurate parts are to be 
made in large quantities, special tools for both hand and 

* For previous articles on drop forging, see "Drop and Stamped 
Forgings." by Joseph Horner, May, 1908, and tbe previous articles 
there referred to. 

t Address : 805 North Morcer St., Decatur. III. 

t Ethan Viall was born in Kalamazoo, Mich., in 187.'!. He .received 
a high .school education, and took a course in mechanical engineering in 
a night school. lie served an apprenticeship with K. T. Harris Co., 
Chicago, 111., and has worked for the Pope Mfg. Co.. Hartford. Conn. ; 
Onward Mfg. Co.. Williams Llovd Co.. E. Goldra:in Co., Whclpley- 
Payson Co., all of Chicago: Ford Auto Co., Detroit. Mich.: and H. 
-Miii'Uer Mtg. Co.. Decatur. HI., with which concerns he has held posi- 
tions of foreman of tool, machine and forge departments, and superin- 
tendent. His specialty is tool and die work. 

Fig. 2. A Pair of Typical Drop Forging Dies and Their Work. 

tomobile fittings are made of special grades of tool steel. All 
of the drop forging dies are of the highest class, calling for 
the best die-making skill, and necessitating a great deal of 
hand work in additicn to the most accurate machining. 

Malsin? a Die. 

In the original outlining of a set of drop forging dies, the 
measurements for the forming cavities may be taken from a 
blue-print supplied by the drafting-room, or they may be 
taken from a piece already made — possibly a forging or a lead 
casting obtained from some former set of dies, or perhaps 
a piece made up for a model. Sometimes a sheet metal 
templet is made to assist in obtaining the desired shape of 
the die cavities, w'hile in other cases, only the outline scribed 
en the coppered surface, together with the necessary measure- 
ments, is needed. The size and outline of the forging to be 
made, as well as the accuracy required, govern the method of 

The die blocks, which, as already stated, are forged of open 
hearth crucible- steel, are first placed in a shaper and care- 
fully surfaced off to the required dimensions, as shown in 
Fig. 1. These blocks are made over-size, so that enough of 
the surface can be machined off to insure good, sound metal 
to work on. The outlines for the breaking-down or roughing, 
the finishing, and sometimes the bending forms are then laid 



September, 1908. 

off ou the coppered faces, and the cavities roughed out on tlie 
drill press or lathe as the case may require, or on the pro- 
filing machine, as shown In Fig. 3. 

The same set of dies shown in this engraving is shown still 
further roughed out in Fig. 2. The shape of the forging to be 
made in this set is sliown at tlie top of the illustration, and 
it is a foot pedal for a clutch lever. The channel for the 
fin, or 'flash," which is formed in the finishing operation, 
is plainly shown in the middle cavities. 

The letters, CLUTCH, were first lightly stamped on the 
metal with special steel letters to get the outline; then they 

Fig. li shows a few of the tools, scrapers, and rifflers used 
in the finishing worl<. These are mostly made of old files and 
are ground or bent to suit the needs of particular cases. 

In Fig. 7 are some of the milling tools that have been made 
especially for this work. Only twenty-four of them are sliown, 
though several hundred of all shapes and sizes are in stoclt. 
Another set of special cutters is shown in Fig. 8. Two of 
these have a single inserted blade or "fly-cutter" held in place 
by a set-screw, and are very useful tools for some kinds of 

The tools shown in Vig. 9 are known as "types," and are 

Fig. 3. Profiling Machine much Used in Die-sinking 

Fig. 4. Fiulalilng the Die shown In Fig. 2 on the Profiling Machine. 

Fig. 6. Special "Ball Vise" used in Sinking Drop Forging Dies. 

were chiseled out, and finally finished by driving in the steel 
letters to smooth up the roughness caused by chiseling. 

Fig. 4 shows the final cuts being taken on the breaking- 
down part of this die, the rest of the work consisting of scrap- 
ing, gouging and chiseling. 

Tools Employed in Making Dies. 
For the hand work, the die block is held in a special "ball 
vise" which is shown in Fig. 5. A vise of this type is the 
handiest device imaginable for heavy die work. This illus- 
tration also shows the breaking-down part of the die a little 
more plainly than the previous examples. 

Fig. 6. Scrapers. Files, Rifflers and other Tools used by Die-sinkers. 

used in scraping out cylindrical cavities to size. These types 
are turned to the proper size, and when used are smeared 
with lead and rocked back and forth in the partly finished 
cavity. The metal is then scraped away wherever the lead 
shows. For cylindrical work, these types are indispensable 

The tools shown in Fig. 10 were made by one of the expert 
die sinkers in the Jeffery shop. The tool shown at the right 
is used to scribe an outline from a forging. It consists of 
a hardened steel blade, with a point on one end. set into a 
flat steel block in such a way that it is free to move up and 
down to a limited extent. The rivet shown on the side passes 

September, 1908. 



Fig. 9. "Typing" Tools used by Die-sinkers to Form Circular CsTities. Fig. lO. Vernier Caliper Depth Gage. Inside Micrometer, and Scribing Elock. 

I p jawm - jUflBi 

Fig. 11. Samplea of Lead Castlnes or Proofs taken ft-om Drop Forging 
Dies for Testing the Accuracy of Outline. 

Fig. 12, Staking Tools used to Repair Worn and Cracked 
Drop Forging Dies 



■ iStWuW* i i_i 





Fig. 13. An Example of Drop Forging Die showing Breaking- 
dow^n Die at the Bight. 

Fig. 14. Drop Forging Die showing both Edging and Flattingf 
Breaklng-dowQ Dies. 



September, 1908. 

tlirougli a short slot in the blade. AVhci in use. a flat spring 
on tlie lop edge of the tool presses the point down onto the 
eoppered surface, causing a mark wherever moved. To use 
this tool, ft is held on edge with the point down and the 
edge of the hardened blade in contact with the forging. The 
steel blcck keeps the blade perpendicular, and by keeping the 
edge of the blade in contact with the forging while scribing, 
a correct outline is obtained, which could not be done with an 
ordinary scriber on account of the working outline being 
considerably above the die face. 

The middle tool shown in Fig. 10 is a one-inch inside mi- 
crometer, which was made by the die-sinker because he could 
net buy one small enough for the purpose. The other tool Is 
a regular stock caliper square, to which has been added a 
depth gage. The gage is so made that the rod projects the 
same distance that the caliper jaws are apart. The usefulness 
and convenience of this tool are at once apparent to a tool- 

Examples of Drop Forgingr Dies. 

One-half of a die set, showing the breaking-down and finish- 
ing forms, is illustrated in Fig. 13. In this illustration the 
method of leaving a ridge around the finishing form and cut- 
ting a channel for the fin Is very plainly shown. This method 
is followed in all of the drop forge dies made in the Jeffery 
shop. Fig. 14 shows a more complicated die. In this, both 
edging an.d flatting breaking-down die forms are shown. In 
using this die, the hot bar from which the forging is being 
made, is alternately swung from one to the other form, it be- 
ing held edgewise in one and flat in the other, and given a 
blow or two until suflSciently reduced for the finishing form, 
after which it is cut off from the bar by a shear fastened to 
the hammer at one side of the die block. 

In Fig. 15 the roughing or breaking-down die is shown and 
also a bending form, the bar being roughed into shape, and 
then bent and finished. Of course, in these last two illus- 
trations it is understood that the cuts show only one-half 






Fig. 15. Drop Forging Die showing Bending Form in Front. 

Fig. 16. Drop Forging Die and Bending Die for Steering Gear Part. 

Fig. 17. Mating Die to Die in Fig. 16. 

The Lead Casting- or Proof. 
After the mechanical work on a set of dies is done, a lead 
casting of the cavity is made and sent to the superintendent 
to be passed upon. If it is correct, the dies are hardened and 
sent to the forging shop, but if it is off size or sliape, or for 
any reason not satisfactory, suitable cha;:gts are made, 
and another lead impression taken and passed upon as be- 
fore. Fig. 11 shows a number of these lead castings which 
arc kept in the tool-room tor reference, and they often save 
considerable trouble when making duplicate dies. 

Staking Tools used for Repairing Dies. 
After a set of die.s has been in use for some time, tiie dies 
are likely to develop cracks or drawing seams which cause 
ridges and rough spots on the forgings. These cracks are 
closed up by hammering first on one side and then on the other 
with a hammer and what are called "staking" tools, which are 
simply special shaped, tempered steel punches made of chisel 
steel stock. Some of these staking tools are shown in Fig. 12. 

Fig. 18. Drop Forging Die for Wrencn and Trimming Die for Same. 

of the set, the other half corresponding in shape to the one 
snown in such a way as to produce the desired shape. To 
better illustrate this for the benefit of those not familiar 
with this class of work, both halves of a set of dies are shown 
in Figs. 16 and 17. These show the complete forging and 
bending parts for this particular piece. The end of the finish- 
ing form also shows a place where one of the types illus- 
trated in Fig. 9 was used when first working out the cavity. 

Trimming Dies. 
Some of the forgings are of such shape that the fin or 
flash formed is easily ground or machined off, while others 
are put through a trimming die. These trimming dies are 
about the same as the trimming dies used for other classes 
of work, and so need little comment. Fig. IS shows a set of 
forging and trimming dies used for making "Rambler" 
wrenches. The breaking-down form is very plainly shown, 
as is also the finishing cavity. The trimming punch is at one 
side, while the trimming die in the middle is sho^Yn made up 

September, 1908. 



of four separate parts. This is done because the die parts 
tliat shear out tlie wrench slots wear or break sooner thau 
the rest of the die, and when made this way they are easily 
replaced without necessitating a wholly new die, which would 
be the case if made solid. 

Fig. I'J shows a number of dies on the storage shelves, only 
one-half of each set beinK shown, the other half of each set 
being back of the one visible. The trimming dies which are 
in constant use are kept conveniently near the presses in the 
forge room. Both the trimming and forging dies are stored 
on heavy shelves close to where they are used, thus saving 
the unnecessary "toting" that is practiced in so many shops. 

The keynote of the whole Jeftery factory Is: "System with- 
out red tape," and the result is visible everywhere to the 
practiced observer, though a casual visitor would wonder how 
material traveled through as smoothly as it does. 
Heating- Furnaces. 

The heating furnaces in a forging shop must be set near 
the hammers, and Fig. 20 shows how the oil furnaces are 



The present Installment will be devoted to explaining and 
Illustrating the application of tlie principles outlined In the 
Iirevious issues, to the simplest and most common design of 
drill jig — the open jig. We will assume that the drill jig is 
to be designed for a piece of work, as shown in Fig. 61. Con- 
sideration must first be given to the size of the piece, to the 
finish given to the piece previous to the drilling operation, 
the accuracy required as regards the relation of one hole to 
the other, and in regard to the surfaces of the piece itself. 
The number of duplicate pieces to be drilled must also be 
considered, and, in some cases, the material. 

The very simplest kind of drill jig that could be used for 
the case taken as an example would be the one illustrated 
in Fig. 62, which simply consists of a flat plate of uniform 

Fig. 19. A Few Fxamplea of Drop Forging Diea in Storage. 

Fig. '^O. Oil Heating Furnaces and Drop Hammer. 

Fig. 21. Bro-wn & Sharpe Heating and Annealing Furnaces. 

placed, so that little time is lest getting the heated metal to 
the hammers. Fig. 21 is an illustration of two of the big 
Brown & Sharpe furnaces in the hardening room. For small 
work several smaller furnaces aie used, but those shown are 
used for large work, and are said to be the best obtainable. 

Hardening Drop Forg-ing- Dies. 

In hardening drop forge dies only the face Is hardened. 
Tne die is heated and placed face down in a tank of water 
on a sort of spider support, and a stream of water pours 
upward onto it. Fig. 22 shows how this is done. In the 
illustration a rcund piercing die Is being hardened, so the 
water appears to be boiling up through the center, which 
v.ould not be the case were it a solid block like a forging die. 
Large special shaped tongs make the handling of the heavy 
steel blocl-S cf the drop forge dies comparatively easy. 

* * * 

Beware of the man who is going to do things to-morrow. — 
The Silent Partner. 

Fig. 22. Hardening the Face of a Drop Forging Die. 

thickness of the same outline as the piece to be drilled, and 
provided with holes for guiding the drill. Such a jig would 
be termed a jig plate. For small pieces, the jig plate would 
be made of machine steel and case-hardened, or from tcol steel 
and hardened. For larger work, a machine steel plate can 
also be used, but in order to avoid the difficulties which 
naturally would arise from hardening a large plate, the holes 
are simply bored larger than the required size of drill, and 
are provided with lining bushiags to guide the drill, as 
shown in Fig. 63. It would not be necessary, however, to 
have the jig plate made out of steel for larger work, as a cast 
iron plate picvided with tool steel or machine steel guiding 
bushings would answer the purpose just as well, and at the 
same time be much cheaper, and almost as durable. The 
thickness of the jig plate varies according to the size of the 
holes to be drilled and the size of the plate Itself. 

The holes in the jig in Fig. 62 and in the bushings in the 

♦.Address: 8:*:! \V. Sixth St., Plainfleld. N. .1. 



September, 1908. 

jig In Fig. C:!, are made the same size as the size of the hole 
to be drilled in the work, with proper clearance for the cut- 
ting tools. If the size and location of the holes to be drilled 
are not very particular, It is sufficient to simply drill through 
the work with a full size drill guided by the jig p'.ate, but 
when a nice, smooth, standard size hole is required, the holes 
in the work must be reamed. The hole is first spotted by a 
spotting drill, which is of exactly the same size as the reamer 
used for finishing, and which fits the hole in the jig plate or 
bushing nicely. Then a so called reamer drill, which is 0.010 
inch, or less, smaller in diameter than the reamer, is put 
through, leaving only a slight amount of stock for the reamer 
to remove, thereby obtainir.g a very satisfactory hole. Some- 
times a separate loose bushing is used for each one of these 
operations, but this is expensive and also unnecessary, as the 
method described give's ec;ually good results. 

By using the rose reaming method very good results will 
also be obtained. In this case two loose bushings besides the 
lining bushing will be used. These bushings were described 
and tabulated in the second installment of this series, appear- 
ing in the May issue of Maciiixert. The drill preceding the 
rose chucking reamer is 1/16 Inch under the size of the hole. 

clamp, as shown in Fig. 64. Here two pieces of the work are 
shown beneath the jig plate, both being drilled at one time. 

Improvingr the Simple Form of Jig shown In Figr. 62. 

The first improvement that could be made on the jig shown 
in Fig. C2 would be the placing of locating points in the jig 
plate in the form of pins, as shown in Fig. 65, in which the 
dotted lines represent the outline of the work. The plate 
need not necessarily have the shape shown in Fig. 65, but 
may have the appearance shown in Fig. 66, according to the 
conditions. As mentioned in the article last month, exact 
rules could not be given for the form and shape of jigs, but 
common sense together with the judgment obtained by long 
practice must be relied upon in determining the minor points 
of design. 

The adding of the locating points will, of course, increase 
the cost of the jig somewhat, but the amount of time saved 
in using the jig will undoubtedly make up for the added ex- 
pense of the jig, provided a fair number of pieces is to be 
drilled; besides, a great advantage is gained in that the holes 
can always be placed in the same relation to the two sides 
resting against the locating pins on all the pieces drilled. 



I I 


Fig. 61. Sketch of Piece to be Drilled. 

Fig. 62. Simplest Form of Jig foT Piece 
shown in Fig. 61. 

Machinery, y. 1'. 
Fig. 63. Plate Jig with Inserted Guide Bushings. 



1 :|1 1 


1 11 1 

V - - ' 



r ^ 


Fig. 64. Holdine Jig and "Work on DriU Pres 
Table. Two Pieces drilled at Once. 

First Improvement of Plate Jig: 
Locating Pins Inserted. 

Fig. 66. 

Variation in Shape of 
Plate Jig. 

This drill is first put through the work, a loose drill bushing 
uade of steel beicg used for guiding the drill. Then the rose 
chucking reamer is employed, using, if the hole in the jig be 
large, a loose bushing made of cast iron. 

When dimensioning the jig on the drawing, dimensions 
should always be given from two finished surfaces of the jig 
to the center of the holes, or at least to the more important 
ones. In regard to the holes, it is not sufficient to give only 
the right angle dimensions, a, 6, c, and d. etc.. Fig. 62, but 
the radii betveen the various holes must also be given. If 
there are more than two holes, the radii should always be 
given between the nearest holes and also between the holes 
standing in a certain relation to one anoflier, for instance, 
between centers of shafts carrying meshing gears, sprockets, 
etc. This will prove a great help to the tool-maker. In the 
case under consideration, the dimensions ought to be given 
from two finished sides of the work to the centers of the holes, 
and also the dimension between the centers of the holes to 
be drilled. 

When using a simple jig, made as outlined in Figs. 62 and 
63, this jig is simply laid down flat on the work and held 
against it by a C-clamp, a wooden clamp, or, if convenient, 
held right on the drill press table by means of a strap or 

The locating pins are flattened off to a depth of 1/16 inch 
from the outside circumference, and dimensions should be 
given from the flat to the center of the pin holes and to the 
center of the nearest or the most important of the holes to 
be drilled in the jig. The same strapping or clamping ar- 
rangements for the jig and work, as mentioned for the sim- 
pler form of jig, may be employed. 

Improving' the Jig by adding Locating Screws. 
The next step toward improving the jig under consideration 
would be to provide the jig with locating screws, as shown 
in Fig. 68. By the addition of these, the locating arrange- 
ments of the jig become complete, and the piece of work will 
be prevented frcm shifting or moving sideways. These locat- 
ing screws should be placed in accordance with Rule 10 laid 
down in the summary of the principles of jig design in the 
first installment of this series, in the April issue of Macuix- 
ERY, saying that all clamping points should be located as 
nearly opposite to some bearing points of the work as possible. 
In order to provide for locating set-screws in our present jig, 
three lugs or projections A are added which hold the set- 
screws. If possible the set-screw lugs should not reach above 
the surface of the piece of work, which should rest on the 
drill press table when drilling the holes. 

September, 1908. 



The present case illustrates the difflculty of giving exact 
rules for jig design and indicates the necessity of individual 
judgment. It is perfectly proper to have two set-screws on 
the long side of the \vorl<, but in a case lilie this where the 
piece is comparatively short and stiff, one lug and set-screw, 
as indicated by the dotted lines at B in l'"ig. GS. would be fully 
sufficient. The strain of the set-screw placed right between 
the two locating pins will not be great enough to spring the 
piece out of shape. When the work is long and narrow two 

These legs are round, and provided with a shoulder A., pre- 
venting them from screwing into the jig plate. A headless 
screw or pin through the edge of the circumference of the 
threads at the top may prevent the studs from becoming loose. 
These loose legs are usually made of machine steel or tool 
steel, the bottom end being hardened and then ground and 
lapped, so that all the four legs are of the same length. It Is 
the practice of many tool-makers not to thread the legs into 
the jig body, but to simply provide a plain surface on the 

M'l.hiiirry.K. y. 

Fig. 69- Design of L«9S for 
Caat Iron Jig Bodies. 

.V<ii7.i/i,i//,.V. )■. 
Fig. 67. Complete Jig for Rapid Duplicate Work. 

set-screws are required on the long side, but whenever a sav- 
ing in cost can be accomplished without sacrificing efficiency, 
as in the case illustrated, two lugs would be considered a 
wasteful design. 

Providing Clamps and Feet for the Jig. 
The means by which we have so far clamped or strapped 
the work to the jig when drilling in the drill press (see Fig. 
64) have not been integral parts of the jig. If we wish to 
add clamping arrangements that are integral parts of the jig, 
the next improvement would be to add four legs in order to 
raise the jig plate above the surface of the drill press table 
enough to get the required space for such clamping arrange- 
ments. The completed jig of the best design for rapid manip- 

Macltincfi/.iy. r. 

1 — 1 



1 !i ii 
1 d. ii 

Fig. 68. Second Improvement: Locating Screws Holding "Work in Place. 

ulation and duplicate work would then have the appearance 
shown In Fig. 67. The jig here is provided with a handle 
cast integral with the jig body, and with a clamping strap 
which can be pulled back for removing and inserting the 
work. Instead of having the legs solid with the jig. as shown 
in Fig. 68, loose legs, screwed in place, are sometimes used, 
as shown in Fig. 70. 

end of the leg, which enters into the jig plate, and is driven 
into place. This is much easier, and there is no reason why 
for almost all kinds of work, jigs provided with legs attached 
in this manner should not be equally durable. 

Of course, when jigs are made of machine or tool steel, and 
legs are required, the only way to provide them is to insert 
loose legs. In the case of cast iron jigs, however, solid legs 
cast in place are preferable. The solid legs cast in place 
generally have the appearance shown in Fig. 69. The two 
webs of the leg form a right angle, which, for all practical 
purposes, makes the leg fully as strong as if it were made 
solid, as indicated by the dotted line in the upper view. The 
side of the leg is tapered 1.5 degrees, as a rule, as shown in 
the engraving, but this may be varied according to conditions. 

4 — ^ 


Fig. 70. 

Ma<:hiac,-j..\. 1'. 
Legs Screwed into Jig Body. 

The thickness of the leg varies according to the size of the jig, 
the weight of the work, and the pressure of the cutting tools, 
and depends also upon the length of the leg. The length b 
on top is generally made li^ times a. As an indication of 
the size of the legs required, it may be said that for smaller 
jigs, up to jigs with a face area of 6 square inches, the dimen- 
sion a may be made from 5/16 to 3/8 inch; for medium 
sized jigs, V) to %, inch: for larger sized jigs, % to 1V_> 
inch; but of course, these dimensions are simply indications 
of the required dimensions. As to the length of the legs, 
the governing condition, evidently, is that they must be long 
enough to reach below the lowest part of the work and the 
clamping arrangement. 

If a drill jig is to be used in a multiple spindle drill, it 
should be designed a great deal stronger than it is ordinarily 
designed when used for drilling one hole at a time. This is 
especially true if there is a large number of holes to drill 



September, 1908. 

simultaneously. The writer lias I'.ad sad experiences with drill 
jigs which would give excellent service in common drill 
presses for years, but which, when put on a multiple spindle 
drill, immediately broke to pieces as if subjected to a ham- 
mer-blow. It is evident that the pressure upon the jig in a 
multiple spindle drill is as many times greater than the pres- 
sure in a common drill press as the number of drills in opera- 
tion at once. 

Referring again to Fig. 67, attention should be called to the 
small lugs .-l on tne sides of the jig body which are cast in 
place for laying out and planing purposes. The handle should 
be made about 4 inches long, which permits a fairly good 
grip by the hand. The design of the jig shown in Fig. 67 is 


f'l (Ml 

I I ! I I I 

.uuiiu„i,i/y 1. 

Fig. 71. Form of Jig which may be used for drlUlng a Number of 
Pieces Simultaneously. 

simple, and fills all requirements necessary for producing 
work quickly and accurately. At the same time, it is strongly 
and rigidly designed. Locating points of a different kind 
from those shown can, of course, be used; and the require- 
ments may be such that adjustable locating points, as de- 
scribed in the June issue may be required. A more quick 
acting, but at the same time, a far more complicated clamp- 
ing arrangement might be used, but the question is whether 
the expense of making is warranted by the added increase in 
the rapidity of manipulation. 

Another improvement which should not be overlooked, and 
which in a case like this probably could be made, and which 
it is always wise to look into at any rate, is: Can more than 
one piece be drilled at one time? In the present case, the 
locating pins can be made longer, or, if there is a locating 
wall, it can be made higher, the legs of the jig can be made 
longer, the screw holding the clamp can also be increased in 
length, and if the pieces of work are thick enough, set-screws 
for holding the work against the locating pins can be placed 
in a vertical line, or if the pieces be narrow, they can be 
placed diagonally, so as to gain space. If the pieces are very 
thin, the locating might be a more difficult proposition. If 
they are made of a uniform width, they could simply be put 
in the slot in the bottom of the jig, as shown in Fig. 71. or if 



Among mechanics, the blacksmith holds a unique posi- 
tion, he being practically the only one who makes his own 
tools. This he often does without any apparent aim at 
economy, beauty, or usefulness, it judged by the chunks of 
steel on the ends of handlis to be found in the odd corners 
of a great many blacksmith shops. It would not be fair 
to put the whole blame on the blacksmith, as he is usually 
allowed but very little time either to keep his tools in repair 
or to make new ones; the result is that if ever blacksmiths' 
tools have had a high standard of efficiency, they soon depre- 
ciate. Too much reliance seems to be put on the old say- 
ing: "A good workman can do a good job with any kind 
of tools." But when it comes to saving time, which is one 
of the most important points in modern manufacturing, the 
good workman with good tcols comes out ahead. 

Tools used by blacksmiths do not have to be so accurate 
to size, or made with the same precision as those used by 
machinists or tool-makers. Still, some of the points most 
essential to doing good work seem to have been overlooked. 
It would be to the advantage of all concerned to have one 
smith in every shop do the tool-making. He would soon be- 
come an expert, and would make better tools in less time 
than the smith who makes a tool occasionally. It would 
also insure every man employed having equally good tools 
and equal chances of doing good work. Tcols made by a 
good blacksmith are preferable to those upon the market for 
several reasons, the principal of which is the poor quality of 
the material of which the article on the market is made. 

Fig. 72. Jig with "Wedge for Holding the "Work. 

a jig on the principles of the one shown in Fig. 67 is used. 
they might be located sideways by a wedge, as shown in Fig. 
72. A couple of lugs A would then be added to hold the 
•wedge in place, and take the thrust. In both cases the pieces 
must be pushed up in place endways by hand. If the pieces 
are not of exactly uniform size, and it is desired to drill a 
number at a time, they must be pushed up against the locating 
pins by hand from two sides, and the clamping strap must 
be depended upon to clamp them down against the pressure 
of the cut. and at the same time prevent them from moving 
side or endwise. If the accuracy of the location of the holes 
is particular, the pieces should not be piled up on one another 
to be drilled. 

Fig. 1. Correct Form of Top Part 
of Blacksmith's Swage. 

Fig. 2. Incorrect Form of Black- 
smith's Swage, Top Part. 

Besides, the blacksmith's tools on the market are often poorly 
constructed and are mostly used in small or country shops 
where there is no steam hammer. 

Tools such as swages are usually made with the impres- 
sion or hollow part too deep, the corners too sharp, and the 
face too long for the best results. Swages, being tools used 
lor finishing round or semi-round work at the anvil after 
it has been drawn nearly to size at steam or trip hammers. 
should be constructed so that finishing can be done in the 
best and quickest manner possible. They should be made 
in pairs consisting of one top and one bottom piece. The 
depth of the impression ought to be about one-third the 
diameter of the piece the swages are intended to finish. 
The edges or lips of the impression should be well backed 
off, and all corners rounded to prevent cold shuts and un- 
sightly marks being left upon the work. The swages may be 
slightly crowned from end to end, which will give them a 
tendency to draw the stock, should it be a trifle over size, and 
if the crowning is not overdone, it 'will help to leave the 
work smooth. 

The bottom swage should be made to come flush with one 
side of the anvil, and to reach about half way across it. The 
swages can then be used for finishing hubs, bosses, forgings 
with large heads or arms, at right angles to the hub of the 
work. The bottom swage can also be reversed and used from 
the other side of the anvil when necessary. Bottom swages 
should preferably be a little longer on the face than the top 
swages. For small sizes they might be from 2% inches to 
21A inches from end to end of the impression, while the cor- 
responding top swages might be about 1"4 inch. For larger 
sizes the bottom swage could be from 4 inches to 4ii inches 

• Sec XI.xCHiXEitv. .Tune. lOOR : Reasons Why so Little is He.nrd fi'nm 
I'oige Shops: and .Vusust. 1908: System for the LUacksraitb Shop. 
* .\diiress : 91G West Third St., Plainfield, N. .T. 

September, 1908. 



long and I he top swage from 2% inches to 2i/v inches. The 
number and sizes to constitute a set for one forge would have 
to be determined by the size and class of work for which 
the swages would be used. Tlie following list would cover the 
average range of machine blacksmithing: Top and bottom 
from 3/lti inch to 1/2 inch, Inclusive, advancing by 1/lG inch; 
from % inch to 2'/i Inches, inclusive, advancing by % inch; 
larger sizes up to the iiinit to advance by Vi Inch. Fig. 1 
sliows the correct style of top swage, and Fig. 2 an objec- 
tionable style. Fig. 3 shows the correct style of bottom 
swage, and Fig. 4 the incorrect style. 

The shape and style of fullers is not so important from 
tlie fact that there can be no sharp corners to come In con- 
tact with the work. Care should be taken to make them 
in pairs which match each other perfectly. With bottom 
fullers it is well to have a large shoulder to rest on the 
anvil. The sliank should be a snug fit to keep it from 

Flatters us a rule are too large and too level on the face 
for doing good work, and like swages are usually too sharp 
and square on the corners and edges. More and better 
work can be done with a flatter 2Vj inches square on the 
face than can be done with one 3 inches square face. When 

Fig. 3. Correct Form of Bottom 
Part of Swages. 

I MLUluiura.X. y. 

Fig. 4. Incorrect Form of Bottom 
Part of Swages. 

a large level flatter is used, the edges come in contact with 
the work and leave a mark every time it is struck with a 
sledge. With a small flatter with crowning center and 
rounded edges a blow with the sledge will have more effect, 
and it will be almost impossible to leave a mark upon the 
work. The same principle applies to sets. The style best 
suited for machine blacksmithing should be from 2V4 inches 
to 2VL> inches long, and from 1% inch to IVn inch wide on the 
face. It would be of advantage to have one with the edges 
well rounded to use around fillets, and one with sharp square 
edges to finish corners which must be sharp. 

Breaking-down tools should be made with the edge rounded, 
which will prevent the leaving of a cold shut where the shank 


Fig. 5. Correct and Incorrect Shape of 
Blacksmith's Breaking-down Tool. 

JLuluiuru-y- I'- 

Fig. 6. Clamping Screw used 
with Clamp in Fig. 10. 

joins the body of a forging. Fig. 5 shows the correct style 
in full lines; the dotted lines show the incorrect style. When 
square work is being drawn at the steam or trip hammer, 
it will sometimes become diamond shaped, and it is very hard 
to work it back to the square form without flattening two of 
the corners, unless a pair of V swages are used. These ought 
to have a place in every set of tools, the impression in both 
tcp and bottom to be 90 degrees, with the edges well rounded 
so that they would have their greatest bearing at the apex 
of the V. This forces out the other two corners of the work 
until it is perfectly square, without marking it. Chisels, 

punches, and gouges must be made to suit the work. Tha 
tools previously mentioned, with the exception of chiselB, 
punches, and gouges, could be made of steel of about 0.60 car- 
bon. All tools intended for cutting should be made of steel 
not less than 0.75 carbon. 

Tools will give better service and Batlsfactlon If hardened 
on both ends. The writer appreciates the fact that in 
recommending the hardening of the heads of tools he is lay- 
ing himself open to criticism, as It Is departing from all 
general rules and practice. Nevertheless, if the head of a 

h-i r- 

1 — 







Jl'i'-Uiiiery.X. 7. 
Fig. 7. Blacksmith's Tool Bench. 

tool is properly hardened, the tool will give at least five 
times more service than a tool with a soft head. In harden- 
ing the working end of such tools as swages, flatters, etc., 
the face, after being heated to the proper temperature, should 
be cooled in a stream of water rising straight from the bot- 
tom of the quenching tub. Care should be taken to hold the 
tool so that the stream will strike its center, which -will in- 
sure the center being hard. After the tool is cold enough to 
carry water on the face, polish, and draw the temper in a 
hot fire until the edges are a light blue, leaving the center 
as hard as possible. If hardened in a bath without a stream, 
the edges are liable to be extremely hard and the center soft. 
When hardening the heads of tools, they should be heated 
to a cherry red about 1 inch of their length, dipped to a 
depth of about % inch in water until fairly cooled, and then 




.'ituchiiterj/.X. 1*. 
Fig. 8. Approved Type of Tongs with Flat Jaws. 

the head polished and the temper drawn with back heat until 
the color just runs out. If much heat is left, dip slightly to 
check it, and leave the tool to cool off gradually in the air. 
Heads treated in this manner will neither chip off, nor crack, 
nor batter down. 

Fig. 7 shows a tool bench which is of a suitable style for 
the blacksmith's tools. The rack around the top holds too;s 
with handles; the shelf at the bottom accommodates bottom 
or anvil tools, and the drawer is used to hold such tools as 
are usually the personal property of the blacksmith, as well 
as orders, drawings, etc., which ought to be kept clean and 
out of the range of sparks. A bench of this style made of 
wood will give good service if the top edges of the rack are 
covered with light band-iron attached with screws. Every 
tool ought to have its own place on the bench, swages, ful- 
lers, etc., in consecutive arrangement, so that the blacksmith 
can put his hand on any tool at any time. It takes but very 
little time to put away a tool immediately after it has been 
used. If this is done every time, it -will save confusion and 
lots of expressive language when it is wanted again. 

The next tools to be considered are tongs. These are by no 
means the least important of the blacksmith's tools. In 



September, 1908. 

order to do good work, it is of the utmost Imporlaiue to have 
tongs wliich will hold the work firmly. In a great many 
cases tongs are poorly proportioned. For light work they are 
too heavy, and for heavy work they are too light. In making 
tongs, several things should be taken Into consideration, 
such as the shape of the stock they are intended to hold, 
where to leave the most material to resist strain, and the 
parts most liable to wear out. For Hat tongs the jaws should 
be heaviest near the joint, and taper tow-ard the point. The 
point should be about half the thickness of the width of the 
jaw. The reins should be round on the edges and taper 
gradually from the joint to the tip, which will give them 

Fig. 9. Tongs with V-shaped Jaws. 

elasticity, and afford a comfortable grip for the hand. Care 
should be taken to leave no sharp corners around the joint, 
as it is there that the tongs are most liable to break. Flat 
tongs should have a small V shaped impression the full 
length of he jaw, so that they can be used to hold square 
stock cornerwise, or round stock. Fig. 8 shows a pair of flat 
jawed tongs of about the proper proportion for holding 
%-inch flat, Vs-lnch square or %-inch round stock. Barring 
accidents this style ought to give the maximum of service. 
This type of tongues can be used for stock of the smallest 
sizes up to two inches. For larger sizes of flat stock the 
tongs ought to have one box jaw, or a jaw^ with a cross section 
on the point with lips turned up, to prevent the work from 
moving edgeways. The tongs shown in Fig. 9 are the most 


3iachinery.X. Y. 


i- I 
1 -H 

O * 


























(4-1 0) 

O tf) 

































































. V4 











1' ig. 9 in enlarged scale in proportion to the tongs should 
be used. Being made narrow at the ends, it has the advan- 
tage of hugging the reins tightly, and having two bearings 
on each rein makes it less liable to fly oft than the link with 
circular ends. 

For work over 5 inches, the style of clarap shown in Fig. 
10 should be used. This clamp can be bolted firmly to the 


convenient style for holding round or square stock, the V 
shaped jaws giving them a perfect grip on square work, and 
a bearing on four points of round work. This gives them an 
advantage over the circular jawed tongs commonly used for 
round stock, as these only have two bearings. The goose neck 
section between the jaw and the joint Is also an advantage, 
as it will accommodate a burr or Irregularity on the end of a 
piece of iron or steel which is usually found after it has 
been cut with shears or with a saw, while the bar is hot. 
Tongs of this shape can be used up to 5 inches capacity. 
For holding them upon the work, the style of link shown in 

Machinery, S\ Y. 








? ,"•• 








oa a 3 






— -s 







^ a 

00 CdteJ 









P ** 





„ a 

5 u5 




















i- A 












ft- A 











• 4- ft 












i- * 











1 -u 
























14-1 J 
























2i-2 4 
























3 -3i 
























4 -4i 












44-4i 1 34 




2 4 



















work whether it be round or square, and can be operated with 
the small clamps with handles attached to the shank in the 
same manner as would a porter bar. For heavy work, clamps 
are a great deal safer than tongs, and can be made to handle 
flat or irregular shaped pieces. For fastening the clamp to 
the work, the bolt shown iu Fig. 6 is the most suitable, it hav- 
ing a cross head with lugs to keep it from turning, and it 
can therefore he tightened or unscrewed with one wrench. 

In nearly every blacksmith shop there is work to be done 
which can only be accomplished with special tools about 



3Ia<Uin.-ii,.X. Y. 

Fig. lO. Clamp for Handling Large Work in the Blacksmith Shop. 

which it would be impossible to give any intelligent infor- 
mation without seeing the pieces to be made; but whenever 
the quantity is such that it will justify the making of special 
tools, it should be done. A former or a fixture will not only 
reduce labor and cost, but makes the work more uniform. It 
is no exaggeration to say that at the present time very few 
blacksmith shops give more than 75 per cent of their pos- 
sible efficiency, and others not more than 50 per cent, simply 
for lack of tools, system, and good executive guidance. A 
little consideration and a little outlay of capital would be 
a good investment, as in the majority of cases it would raise 
the blacksmith shop from being a "drag" to one of the most 
remunerative departments in a manufacturing plant. 

Scptumbcr, 1908. 




We read with imich luliM't-st your conuiuiniratlon "An 
Alternative ITauer Type Suggested" In your June issue, and 
your comments thereon. We would like to point out that the 
SodfitS Anonyme des Etablissenients Fetu-Defize. Li<5ge, Bel- 
gium, is not, as might be Inferred, the only firm building this 
sort of pit planer. We are building pit planers and have 
delivered machines built for similar purposes of 10 meters 
(32 feet 9% inches) length and A meters (13 feet 1\(- inch) 
width, among others to Messrs. Schntider & Co. In Le Creuzot 
(three); Krupp, in Essen (two); Dillingen HuttenwerkP. 
Dillingen (two). 

The accompanying illustration shows our machine which 
planes 8,000 millimeters (26 feet 3 inches) long, and 4,000 
millimeters (13 feet IVi inch) wide, and which is provided 
with four tool-posts. The side beds of the machine, each con- 
sisting of two pieces coupled together and bound at the ends 
by heavy cross ties, are made with flat guides for the cross- 
slide. The eross-sliiio is fitted with side strips on the inside 
edges for taking up the wear. The outside strips are to pre- 
vent side slipping of the cross-slide. 

The drive is obtained through open and cross belts and 
steel spur and bevel gears connecting the two long heavy 
screws lying outside of the beds. These screws run in phos- 



Threading dies may be divided into four general classes: 
Solid dies, which may be either square or round, as shown la 
Figs. 1 and 2; adjustable split dies, which usually are round; 
spring screw threading dies; and Inserted chaser dies, where 

Pl^s. 1 and 2. Square and Kound Solid Dies. 

the blades, provided with cutting teeth, are Inserted in the 
body, and secured in some suitable manner. 
Solid Dies. 
The solid die is used to a great extent on general work, 
either in cases where a correct size is not essential, or for 
roughing a thread before taking a finishing cut with an ad- 

Large German 
phor bronze bearings, and are provided with nuts filled with 
white hard anti-friction metal for driving the cross-slide. 
Two transmission shafts also run in phosphor bronze bear- 
ings. The length of the bed is 13,700 millimeters (45 feet, 

The machine is arranged to plane both forward and back- 
ward, and the cutting speed in both directions is 2 meters 
(6.56 feet) per minute for very hard material and 4 meters 
(13.12 feet) per minute for medium hard metals. The tool 
slides are self-acting and may be operated independently, 
either horizontally or vertically. The feed for each carriage 
is operated by means of a crank disk and movable connecting- 
rods. The horizontal feed motion of the main slides is so 
arranged that both slides can be operated together or inde- 
pendently in the same direction or in opposite directions, and 
the tool boxes can be set at any angle. 

Ernst Schiess Webkzecomasciiinexfadkik Aktiex- 

Dusseldorf, Germany. Gesellschaj-t. 

* * » 

A new aluminum alloy has been patented in Germany by 
Walther Gosman, of the Krupp's Steel Works, of Essen-on-the- 
Ruhr, Germany. This alloy is composed of 87 per. cent of 
aluminum, S per cent of copper and 5 per cent of tin. It is 
stated that the alloy casts better than the common aluminum 
and zinc mixtures, that it machines well, is homogeneous, and 
has a relatively higher ultimate strength. 

Pit Planer. 

justable die. The solid die is not preferable to use when 
threads are to be cut requiring a high degree of accuracy. 
In the first place, the size when the die is hardened, cannot 
be depended upon to be exactly the size wanted, as dies are 
very apt to "go" more or less 
in hardening, and on account of 
their construction, apt to "go" 
in an irregular manner, one land 
closing up or departing more 
from the true axis of the thread 
than the others. In the second 
place, even if the die were cor- 
rect from the beginning, there 
are no provisions for adjusting 
it to size when worn. 

Solid Square Dies. 

The solid die, as a rule, is of 
a square form. It is used prin- 
cipally for threading in bolt cut- 
ters, and for work of this kind answers its purpose well. It 
is also used for pipe dies, in which case the thread evidently 
must be tapered. As a tapered thread, in order to cut a thread 
smoothly and correctly, requires to be relieved in the angle, 
and, as the difficulties for relieving an internal thread like 
that of a pipe die, are very great, and it is not customary to 

• Associate Editor of Machineey. 


Pig, 3, Large Size Squaie SoUd 
Die. showing Form of Clearance 



September, 1908. 

do so. pipe dies. and. of oourse, also all other taper dies, can- 
not be used for cutting the threads of taps, but can only be 
used for rough work on pipes and similar soft metal where 
a perfect thread is not essential. 

Lands and Clearance Holes. 
Solid sQuare dies are always provided with four lands, ex- 
cepting if very large, when five lands may be preferable. The 
width of the land should be about 1/12 of the circumference 
of the screw to be cut with the die, or approximately 1/4 of 
the diameter of this screw. The clearance holes should be laid 

JnJuatntil Pr*at.S'.y, 

Fig. 4. Cutting Edges as 
Ordinarily Made. 

Fig. 5. Cutting Edges with 
Negative Ralce. 

out so as to provide for this width of land. The center of the 
clearance holes should be located a trifle outside of the circle 
which measures the diameter of the screw to be cut. Some 
makers of dies locate the center of the clearance holes exactly 
on this circle, but the clearance holes then become rather 


Diameter of 

Size o£ 

Diameter of 

Size of 



















































small, and are easily clogged with chips which may tear the 
threads of the screw being cut, and occasionally break the 
teeth of the threads In the die. In very large dies it is not 
possible to make circular clearance holes, as these would be 
required to be of too large a diameter in order to make the 
lands of the correct width. In such cases, two clearance 
holes are drilled between each two of the lands and con- 
nected with a straight surface, as shown in Fig. 3. 

The chamfer on the top of the thread should extend for 
about three to four threads. It is necessary to relieve the 
dies on the top of the thread of the chamfered teeth, in order 



Size of 

1 Thickness. 

Pipe Size. 



















1 i 




Pipe Size. 





size of 




to make the die cut. If the die should be expected to cut a 
thread close up to a shoulder, the chamfer, of course, would 
have to be made proportionally shorter. 

As the clearance holes when drilled do not produce a desir- 
able cutting edge on the face of the teeth, the front face must 
be filed attfr the holes are drilled. They are, as a rule, filed 
radial, as shown in Fig. 4. When the dies are used wholly 
for threading brass castings, and various other alloys of cop- 
per, it is common in many shops to give the face of the cutting 
edges a negative rake, as shown in Fig. 5. However, opinions 
differ widely as to the proper rake to give to the lands of 
threading dies, and it is probably as well to make the faces 

radial In all eases. As a matter of fact, the dies will cut all 
metals ordinarily used In a machine shop to full satisfaction 
if made in this manner. 

Dimensions of Solid Square Dies. 

In regard to the sizes to which solid square dies should be 
made, the outside dimensions evidently depend upon the sizes 
of the holders in which the dies are used. The thickness of 
the die should preferably not be made less than one and one- 
quarter times the diameter of the screw to be cut with the 
die, but manufacturers of dies do not, as a rule, make their 
dies fully as thick. The average rule is to make the thick- 
ness about equal to the diameter, at least for sizes of screws 
larger than "i inch diameter. In Tables I anil II are given 


r:-3 III 



Fig. 6. Round Split Adjust- 
able Die. 

Fig. 7. Round Split Adjustable Die 
witli Grooves for Adjusting Screws. 

the general dimensions of dies as commonly manufactured, 
both for regular sizes and pipe sizes. These dimensions are, 
of course, only given as a guidance, there being no particular 
reason for making the dies in these certain sizes excepting 
that the outside dimensions being standardized, the number 
of holders necessary to use with the dies are reduced to a 

It is, however, necessary to call attention to the fact that, 
on account of the clearance holes, the size of the outside 
square must have some minimum relation to the diameter 
of the thread to be cut, so that the metal where the clearance 

Fie. 8. Manner of Splitting 
Round Adjustable Die before 


Fig. 9. Round Adjustable'Die 
before Hardening. 

holes are drilled does not become too thin. Even if strong 
enough to stand the strain incident to the thread cutting op- 
eration, a die with too thin metal at the clearance holes will 
spring badly out of shape in hardening and will become a 
very poor tool for its purpose. The outside size of the square 
ought not to be less than double the diameter of the threa-l 
to be cut. 

Number of Lands. 

While four cutting edges or lands are sufficient, at least 
for all dies up to four inches diameter vhich cut a full thread, 
it is necessary to provide more than four cutting edges in a 
die used for threading work in which part of the circumfer- 
ence is cut away. A greater number of cutting edges are 
here needed in order to steady and guide the die, and prevent 
the work from crowding into the side where the metal is cut 
away. When more than one-sixth of the circumference is 
cut away, it is not advisable to try to use dies for cutting 
the thread. The number of cutting edges should be in relation 
to the amount of the circumference of the work cut away as 

September, 1908. 



Fraction of Circumference Number of Cutting 

Cut Away. Edges. 

1/24 5 

1/12 6 

1/8 7 

1/C 8 

Split Adjustable Dies. 
Split adjustable dies, as said before, are usually round, as 
shown in Fig. fi. The split permits the die to be opened, or 
closed up, for adjustment. The countersink A at the split 
is for the point of the adjusting screw. The countersinks B 
are for the binding screws, which close up the die to bear 
upon the point of the adjusting screw. Instead of counter- 
sinking at A and B. as shown in Fig. G, it is cheaper, when 


Fig. lO. Comparison between Common Waya used for Locating 
Adjusting Screws. 

making these dies in quantities, to mill grooves, as shown in 
Fig. 7. The grooves, as well as the countersinks, for the ad- 
justing screws, are usually made 60 degrees inclusive angle, 
and those for the binding screws 90 degrees. 

In order to make the dies more easily adjustable, a small 
hole is often drilled outside of the clearance hole opposite the 
split, as shown at C in Fig. 6. If the dies made are few, they 














o . 



o . 


r^ O 


























1 + 
















































may be split before hardening, as shown at A in Fig. 8, with 
a saw or narrow file, but should not be split all the way 
tlirough until after hardening, in order to prevent springing 
due to this process. When made in large quantities, a hole may 
be drilled outside of the clearance hole, where the split is to 
come, and the groove for the adjusting screw milled so as to 
leave a narrow bridge of metal between the hole and the bot- 
tom of ths groove, as shown in Fig. 9. This bridge of metal 
is then removed after hardening by means of grinding with a 
thin emery wheel, or a bevel wheel with an acute angle. 

Round split dies for sizes up to and including 3/16 inch are 
given only three lands. All other sizes are provided with four 
lands. When hardening these dies, draw to a blue in back of 
the clearance holes, in order to insure a good spring temper. 

About three threads should be chamfered and relieved on 
the top of the chamfer, on the leading side of the die. Such 
dies as are intended for use In die stocks should be chamfered 
on both sides or ends. In order to permit the turning of the 
die and Its cutting close up to a shoulder. In such cases the 
chamfer on the leading side should be about three threads as 
before, and on the back side from one to one and one-half 
thread. The thread which Is to be cut close to a shoulder 
should, however, always be started with the loading side of 
the die, both because this side is provided with a longer 
chamfer and consequently possesses better cutting qualities, 
and because of the guide with which the die stock is provided 
on the leading side which Is necessary to Insure a straight 

There is some difference of opinion as to the best manner 
of arranging the binding screws for adjustable split dies. The 
common arrangement with two screws has been referred to, 
but an arrangement for four screws, as shown In Fig. 10, evi- 




|l Diameter 









of Die. 


of Die. 



























































dently will close up the various lands more uniformly, and 
the die will cut more freely. If adjusted so that the lands 
do not come at a uniform distance from the true axis of the 
die, all the lands will not cut, or, if they cut, will produce a 
thread that will be out of true. 

The outside dimensions of round split dies are usually made 
of certain standards to fit a few holders. Dimensions com- 
monly used are stated in Table IV. 

An ordinary lathe die-holder is shown in Fig. 11, and di- 
mensions for holders of this design for the dies in Table IV 
are given in Table III. A holder for a smaller size is also 
specified, as dies for small machine screw sizes are often 
made with an outside diameter of % inch and a thickness of 
% inch. The dimensions cannot, perhaps, always be adhered 
to, but they will be of value as guidance when proportioning 
holders of this or similar kinds. 

It will be noticed that the center line of the binding screws 
does not fully coincide with the center of the die in the longi- 
tudinal direction, but that the screws 
apparently are located 0.010 inch too far 
in. This is for the purpose of forcing 
the dies solidly toward the bottom of 
the recess, the screws exerting a wedge 
action on the dies in the countersinks 
or milled grooves provided for the point 
of the screws. 

Approximate formulas may be given 
from which well-proportioned holders 
for other sizes than those given in the table may be made. 
In the formulas: 

d = the outside diameter of die, 

A = diameter of recess, 

B = depth of recess = thickness of die, 

C = outside diameter of holder, 

Z) = diameter of hole in shank, 

E^ diameter of shank, 

F = length of body, 

G = length of shank, 

fl'= total length, 

/ = size of adjusting and binding screws, and 

K ^= distance from end of holder to center of screws. 

Fig. 12. Solid Inserted 
Blade Die. 



September, 1908. 

The following formulas give results, approximately, 
stated in Table III: 

.4 = 1.004 d + 0.005 inch 
lld + l 


D = 

F = 


16 ' 
O = SB, 

E ■ 

8d + 1 

9 B 

H = 



A = 

+ 0.010. 

Inserted Chaser Dies. 
Inserted chaser dies may be of two kinds, such as have 
the chasers driven solidly in place, and such as have chasers 

tnduatnal Pnaa, X. T. 

Ftg. 13. Adjustable Inserted Blade Die. 

which are easily removable, and can be replaced without diflB- 
culty. It is evident that the latter form is superior, but it 
is also tl'.e more complicated and expensive form. 

Inserted Chaser Dies with Fixed Chasers, 
if we first consider the case of the dies with the blades 
solidly in place, we may safely say that it is not advisable to 
attempt to make very small dies with inserted blades, but for 
dies which are two inches in dia'meter, or possibly 1% inch, 
a ring of machine steel, having slots in which are inserted 
blades made of tool steel, is the simplest construction of an 
inserted blade die. The slots receiving the blade are made 
so that the front edge will be radial, as shown in Fig. 12. In 
this way there will be no difference in the cutting action of 
the inserted blade die, and a solid die having its cutting 
edges on the radial line. The slots should be of the dove- 
tail type, that is. wider at the bottom than at the top, so that 
the blade is drawn into its seating surface, and prevented 
from being pulled out when in use. The first cost of a die 

Fig. 14. Inserted Chaser Die with Removable Blades. 

made in this manner may not be any less than the first cost 
of a solid die. but the cost of new blades is less than the cost 
of a new solid die, and therefore, in the long run, this type of 
die should be cheaper. Besides, there is no risk of spoiling 
the dies in hardening, because only the blades are hardened, 
and these, of course, would not crack, at least not under any 
ordinary circumstances. The inserted blade dies are made 
either solid or adjustable. When made of the former type, 
they are threaded with a hob of exactly the same size as the 
screw to be cut with the die. When made adjustable, they 
should be tapped with a hob about 0.005 inch over size for a 
20-pitch thread to about 0.015 over size for a screw having 
from 4 to 5 threads per inch. There are several methods for 

adjusting inserted blade dies, one of the simplest, and at the 
same time one of the best, is shown in Fig. IS, but it is 
claimed by many mechanics that better results are obtained 
If this class of die is provided with the same adjustment as 
has been previously described under the head of adjustable 
dies in the previous portion of this article. 

Inserted Chaser Die with Removable Blades. 
A typical construction cf inserted chaser die with easily 
removable blades is shown in Fig. 14. This die consists of 
four chasers or blades inserted In radial slots in a body or 


No of 


No of 


No. of 







per inch. 

per inch. 

per inch. 

























0.008 ' 

18 ■ 



















0.004 . 










collet, the chasers as well as the collet being enclosed in a 
die-ring. This ring is beveled on the inside to fit a correspond- 
ing bevel on the back of the chasers. It can be screwed up 
or down on the collet, thus pushing the chasers in toward, or 
permitting them to recede from, the center. Screws are pro- 
vided bearing in slots of the chasers for holding the latter in 
place after they have been adjusted by means of the ring. 

The chasers must, of course, be made in sets so that each 
is, so to speak, one-quarter of a thread ahead of the following 
one, or in other words, the teeth on the chasers must all form 
one continuous thread around the die. The die shown in 
Fig. 14 is known as the Woodbridge adjustable die. The 

Fig. 15. Another Type of Inserted Chaser Die with Removable Blades. 

shanK is in one solid piece with the body. Another form of 
inserted chaser die is shown in Fig. 15. Here the shank is 
screwed into the body and secured to it by means of a pin G. 
The screw A serves the purpose of locking the die ring B to 
the body as soon as the chasers are properly adjusted; the 
chasers are secured the same as in the die previously described. 

The object of inserted chaser dies is the adjustment possible, 
and the saving caused by being able to use the same bcdy and 
ring for an indefinite period, the chasers only being replaced 
when worn. The chasers only are made from tool steel, the 
remaining parts being machine steel. As there is a con- 
siderable element of waste in being obliged to throw away a 
solid or adjustable die made from expensive steel whenever 
the cutting edges are worn away, the economy of replacing the 
cutting edges only is obvious. 

Spring Screw Threading Dies. 

In the August, October, and November, 1906, issues of Ma- 
chinery, three articles appeared dealing with the design and 
making of spring screw threading dies. In these Articles, the 
commonly employed methods of making these dies were out- 
lined, and some suggestions given in regard to possible im- 
provements. In Table V is given the amount of over-size 
which the die tap is required to be when bobbing out spring 
screw dies, when threaded straight from the front of the die. 

An article giving the method of determining the relative 
sizes of roughing and finishing spring screw dies was pub- 
lished in Maciiixert, March, 1907. 

Septembur, 1908. 





The anoiiipanylng illustration shows a micrometer which 
has been patented by the General Electric Company, of Sche- 
nectady, N. Y. The object of this tool is to avoid dependence 
on the sense of touch of the person handling the measuring 
tool. In the instrument shown, the accuracy of the reading 
is independent of the sense of touch or experience of the 
operator, and a correct reading can be easily detected by the 
eye by means of an indicator. The principle of the device Is 
simply this: The stationary member or anvil A is attached 
to a circular diaphragm li. which is supported on its circum- 
ference in the liead C. This head is cut away, so as to form 
a cone-shaped depression, which, in connection with the dia- 
phragm forms a receptacle for mercury. The head C is pro- 
vided with a stem, which fits into a bearing in the microm- 
eter frame, and is slightly adjustable. A capillary tube D is 
partially imbedded in the frame, and has one end screwed to 
the stem of ('. by means of a collar K. An adjustable scale 
F is arranged at the center of the frame. When measuring, 
the object to be measured will be pressed against the anvil A, 
until the mercury in the tube reaches the zero graduation 
on the scale F. For every piece measured the micrometer 
screw will be screwed down until the pressure on the anvil 
equals the standard pressure required for the mercury to 

Sensitive Indicating Micrometer. 

indicate at zero on the scale. The tube, of course, must be 
made of glass, so as to make the mercury column inside 
visible to the eye. It is evident that very close measurements 
can be obtained in this way. One objection to the instrument 
may be that it must be held in a vertical, or nearly vertical, 
position when in use. The principle involved, however, may 
possibly be used for other micrometer measuring instruments, 
where the dependence on the sense of touch is objectionable. 

The accompanying line engraving shows an electric switch 
mechanism, the interesting feature of which is the simplicity 
of its action. In the top view the mechanism is shown as- 
sembled, and below are shown the three main details, the 
casing A not being shown here. Disregarding the casing, the 
switch mechanism consists practically of only three parts: 
first, a push bar B extending clear through the switch, hav- 
ing its largest diameter in the center, and shaped conically 
from the center for some distance towards each end, as clearly 
shown in the illustration; second, a coil spring C which 
encircles the bar previously mentioned in such a manner 
that the axis of the spring forms a circle around the bar; 
third, a moving contact piece Z), forming a casing over the 
spring. When this contact piece Is in the position shown in 
the upper view, it is in contact and forms a circuit at E, the 
contact pieces in the casing A being shown cross-sectioned 
for the sake of clearness. The action of the device is simply 
this: when the bar is pushed forward, the coil spring rides 
up on the conical surface until it reaches the center of the 
bar, all the time preventing the contact piece from releasing 
from contact at E until the spring has reached the central 
and highest part of the bar. At this moment it suddenly 
contracts and moves swiftly along the conical shape on the 
other side of the highest point of the bar, carrying with it 
the moving contact piece B and releasing it from its contact 
at E, bringing it against the other side of the casing at F. 

It Is not possible to move the contact piece part way and let 
it slip back again, drawing an arc which burns the coniiicis 
and eventually destroys them. The contact piece muBt be 
either positively in. contact at E or out of contact, resting 
against F. The simplicity of the mechanism makes it par- 
ticularly Interesting, and no doubt devices using the principle 

Simple Electric Switch Mechanism. 

employed would be successful in automatic machinery for 
positive and instantaneous "knock-outs" and stops of various 
descriptions. The switch mechanism as shown is made by the 
Cutler-Hammer Mfg. Co., Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Patents have been applied for in Great Britain for the de- 
vice working on the principle shown in the line-engraving 
herewith, intended for turning crank-pins, and pieces rotating 
around a central shaft in a similar manner. In the upper 
part of the figure, the general principle of the device is indi- 
cated, the lower part being a plan view showing diagram- 
matically its connection with the lathe to which it is ap- 
plied. The principle of the device is easily seen from the 
illustration. The crank-shaft is mounted on its own centers 




A Crank Turning Device of Novel Design. 

in the lathe, and the working tools are given a reciprocating 
motion, vertically and horizontally, so as to coincide with, 
or follow, the motion of the work being turned. The motion 
of the tool is positive, and interdependent of the motion of 
the crank or shaft. In the lower part of the engraving, the 
device is shown in two positions, first when operating on one 
and then when operating on the other crank-pin of a crank- 
shaft having two pins. While not shown in the engraving, 
the two disks to which the tool holder arm is connected must 
be positively geared together, as otherwise difBculties are sure 
to be encountered. To what extent a device of this kind will 
prove practical for the purpose for which it is intended it !3 
difficult to say. 


September, 1!>08. 

Copyiigbt, ie08, by TBB INDUSTRIAL PRESS. 

Entared at tha Poit-Offloe in Now York City u Seoond-Clus Mail Matter. 


neaisTeNCD in united statcs patent oprice, 






Alexander Luchara, President and Treasurer. 

Matthew J. O'Neill. Secretary. 

Fred E. Rogora, Editor. 

Ralph B. Flandera, Erik Oberfp, Franklin D. Jonea, Asaoclate Editors. 

The receipt of a subscription is acknowledged by sending the current issue. 
Checks and money orders should be made to THE INDUSTRIAL PRESS. 
Money enclosed in letters is at the risk of the sender. Changes of 
address must reach us by the 15th to take effect on the following month; 
give old address as well as new. Single copies can be obtained through any 

We solicit communications from practical men on subjects pertaining to 
machinery, for which the necessary illustrations will be made at our expense. 
AU copy must reach us by the Bth of the month preceding publication. 



MACHTTTEBY la published In four editlona. The practical work of the shop 
a thoroughly covered In the Shop Edition— $1.00 a year, comprising more then 
430 reading pages and 36 Shop Operation Sheets, containing step-by-step Illus- 
trated directions for performing 36 different shop operations. The Engineering 
Edition — $2.00 a year, coated paper $2. 6 O— contains all the matter In the Shop 
Edition. Including Shop Operation Sheets, and about 260 pages a year of ad- 
ditional matter, which includes a revlew^ of mechanical literature, and forty- 
eight 6x9 data sheets filled with condensed data on machine design, engin- 
eering practice and shop work. The Foreign Edition, $3.00 a year, comprises 
the same matter as the Engineering. RAILWAY MACHINERY, $2.00 a year, is a 
special edition, including a variety of matter for railway ahop work — same size 
sa Engineering and same number of data sheets. 

The fourteenth volume of Machinery, regular edition, was 
completed with the August issue, and the yearly indexes for 
the Engineering, Shop and Railway Editions will be ready 
in September. The reader who binds an index with his issues 
for the year will have a volume of mechanical knowledge 
without a parallel in smallness of cost and comprehensiveness 
of contents. Copies of the index are sent free; specify the 
edition wanted. 

* * * 

Once in a while some contributor wlio lias sent us a valuable 
article, and to whom we think is due all the publicity result- 
ing from its publication, objects to having his portrait and 
biography, and sometimes even his name, used in connection 
with his contribution. His objection usually arises from 
modesty and the lack of appreciation of the value to him per- 
sonally of the kind of publicity afforded by a mechanical 
journal of large circulation. There are hundreds of able 
men in as many different shops in the country who are work- 
ing for far less compensation, or at least under far less favor- 
able circumstances, than they might, did some other em- 
ployer (or, in fact, in many cases, even their own employer) 
know of their ability, and thereby feel warranted in offer- 
ing them places of responsibility which they cannot now 
reach, simply because they lack the requisite advertising. 

It is not enough that a man is an able man, that he does his 
work carefully and conscientiously, and that he is able to 
carry out the tasks given to him. To be really successful, it 
is also necessary that other people know of this ability and 
appreciate it; and one of the simplest and easiest ways for 
a person to become known among mechanical men is by 
presenting his work and his experience in the pages of trade 
journals. In this manner he reaches mechanical men all over 
the country, he develops his ability to think and write clearly 
and logically: and in some cases, too. he finds out his limita- 
tions, and thereby is given an opportunity to improve. 

A manufacturer's product may be the most perfect in his 
line and still his sales may be far less than his competitor's, 
who. perhaps, turns out inferior work. The reason for the 
difference is simply that the former manufacturer does not 
advertise his goods adequately, or in a proper manner. In the 

same way, an individual may possess great ability, fitting liiiu 
for authoritative positions, but nobody knows of him, simply 
because he lacks the requisite publicity. There are three 
stages, one might say, in a man's success; the first, to "make 
good"; the second, to let others know tnat he can make 
good; and the third, to continue to make good. 

« * * 

The practical knowledge possessed by salesmeo of the con- 
struction and use of the machines which they represent and 
sell, is a factor that is not so fully appreciated as it ought 
to be. When a salesman does not possess any practical or 
technical knowledge regarding his nia<liines. but is merely a 
good talker, he may be successful as long as he deals with 
people interested merely in the selling end of the business; 
but nearly always he will have to deal also with men who are 
mechanics in the first place, and who soon find out the short- 
comings of the salesman, and realize that most of what he 
says is not the result of his own knowledge, or matters which 
he could himself verify, but is simply said because others 
have told him so. The practical man is at once prejudiced 
against dealing with a man of this type, anu although the 
salesman may be both honest and able in his particular line, 
and represent the very best machines, his lack of mechanical 
knowledge may prove to be his undoing. It is therefore im- 
portant, in order that the salesman may make a good impres- 
sion upon his customers, that he should know in detail the 
mechanical construction and use of the machine he is trying 
to sell, and be able to point out, from his own experience, the 
reasons why it is superior to competing machines. Salesmen 
of this type are able to convince practical men, and they 
create a good impression. The firm employing such sales- 
men has in them one of its greatest assets. 

* * * 


The new departure in engineering education, inaugurated 
two years ago at the University of Cincinnati, in the form of 
a cooperative course in engineering, appears so far to have 
proved an unqualified success. It is natural that it should 
be so, considering that the factors required in the training 
of an engineer have been taken care of by this course in a 
far better manner than by engineering schools in general. 
It should be remembered, however, that a cooperative course 
of this kind cannot be instituted by every technical school 
or college. The fundamental requirements are that the col- 
lege be located in a city with a highly developed machine 
industry, and that the men in charge of these industries be 
favorably inclined towards the proposition, and willing to ac- 
cept students for training purposes. But wherever the techni- 
cal school is so located, there is little doubt that such a school 
will turn out a product sup^ior to the average, and that it 
will receive applications from young men wanting a 
engineering training, in such abundance as to make possible 
a judicious selection of the raw material that is offered. This, 
at least, has been the experience of the Cincinnati school. 

The advantages of the cooperative course, from a technical 
and mechanical point of view, can hardly be overestimated. 
This system of educating engineers is also likely to have far- 
reaching sociological results. It brings those men who in 
the future are to guide and superintend the work of others, 
in close contact with the very men they are to lead later on. 
It gives the students a clear conception of the conditions un- 
der which these men work, and should enable them as leaders 
to avoid a great deal of the friction that is often due simply 
to misunderstanding. This departure in engineering educa- 
tion should therefore be productive of results more far- 
reaching than even its inaugurators have anticipated. It has 
proved embarrassing in some cases to the old school of pro- 
fessors and teachers. They have found themselves out of 
place when confronted by young men who one week work in 
the shop, and the next week in the class-room, and w^ho come 
there full of practical ideas. This experience will naturally 
force seme instructors either to assume a different attitude 
toward practical education, or to make way for another class 
of instructors able to meet the demands of the times. The 
cooperative engineering courses are likely to be a regenera- 
tive force in our engineering education. 

ScptoiiiUiT. ]'M)R. 




The main (iisadvaiilaRe uiuler which high-speed stct'l lias 
labored duiii-K the last few years, as regards Its employment 
universally in the metal trades, has been Its high cost. With 
the steel used merely as a cutting tool, this high cost would 
not be prohibitive, inasmuch as the increased production 
would well warrant the use of highspeed steel; but a large 
portion of every tool is used not as a cutting tool, but merely 
as a holding device, shank, etc., and it is rather expensive, 
particularly in large tools, to have these parts of the tool 
made of so expensive a material. Tool-holders of various 
shapes and kinds have been used, but for many purposes they 
are not as satisfactory as a solid tool. For this reason, at- 
tempts have been made to weld high-speed steel to shanks of 
cheaper materials, but in the past these attempts have been 
unsuccessful, the high-speed steel having refused to comply 
with any welding process intended to combine it by cohesion 
to either carbon steel or machine steel. An abstract of an 
article in an English contemporary in our Engineering Re- 
view this month gives a short review of a welding process 
which has been developed in England, and which is claimed to 
give satisfaction. Should it prove that this welding procef3 
is all that has been claimed for it. it is likely to revolutioniz > 
the use of bigb-speed steel, and in eases where now the ex- 
pense of this material has been looked upon as prohibitivi'. 
it is likely to become universally used. It is to be hope 1 
that the welding process, as outlined, is not merely a proee~s 
developed for company promoting and stock jobbing purposes, 
but that it will prove to be of actual importance to the metal 


* * * 



Other manufacturers, besides machine too! builders, woull 
do well to follow the suggestions offered in the editorial on 
"Obsolete Tools in Machine Tool Shops" in the .July num- 
ber of M.\cHixKKY. The writer can call to mind several 
instances where manufacturers show their inconsistency in 
this respect. This can be best illustrated by a specific case, 
referring to a concern capitalized at $300,000, and manufac- 
turing steam engines, air compressors, water in-takes oper- 
ated by compressed air, air-lift systems, centrifugal pumps 
of all sizes, and several other kinds of machines for pump- 
ing purposes. This firm has a machine shop, foundry, wood 
shop, pattern shop, blacksmith shop, and ware-house — all 
modern buildirgs. These shops all receive their power from 
a central power p'ant equipped with a Corliss engine and a 
direct current generator. The machine shop is equipped with 
an electric traveling crane, while the foundry and black- 
smith shop have jib cranes operated by hand. The concern 
has spent thousands of dollars for jigs in order to lower the 
cost of production. The shops are lighted by electricity, and 
the clock system of time keeping has been installed. Be- 
sides this, there is an excellently arranged stock department. 

Contrasted with this is the equipment of the foundry. 
Since this firm manufactures air compressors, one would 
naturally expect to see some pneumatic tools in operation, 
especially in the foundry; but no, all the riddling and chip- 
ping is done by hand. Pieces that are too large to put in 
the rattler are brushed and cleaned up by hand. And to cap 
the climax, instead of using one of the firm's own air-lift 
pumps for the water system, there is an old power pump jack 
that keeps the water well oiled, and breaks down regularly 
once every two weeks. 

Now this firm's trade in air compressors has fallen oif con- 
siderably in the last two years, due, it is claimed, to the 
competition in that line. It is the writer's opinion that if 
this firm would practice what it preaches, it would be able to 
get in on the ground floor with the other fellow. The use 
of air hammers, air chisels, air brushes, sand blasts, emery 
wheels operated by air, air drills, riddles operated by air, 
and air lifts, would not only cheapen the labor cost, but the 
practical application of compressed air to the work of the 
machine shop, foundry, blacksmith shop, etc., would be an 

*.Vd<ln;ss : 583 Benton St., Aurora, III. 

object lesson to the intending purchaser that would tend to 
hasten his decision. 

This shop is not the only one that seems to be trying to 
make and sell something that the firm's officers do not seem 
to believe in themselves; there are others, and one does not 
have to travel far to find them. Without citing any more 
<aBes one might add that if the manufacturer would be con- 
sistent and make it a poitit to have practical applicationb 
of the machines or appliances that he manufactures, where 
they can be seen by a buyer, he will find it easier to convince 
the public of the utility and advantages offered by his product. 

(In connection with the foregoing it may be interesting to 
relate an occurrence which took place at the works of a well- 
known machine tool building firm a few years ago. A Japa- 
nese, traveling in the United States for the purpose of select- 
ing and buying some new maihinery for a .Japanese ordnance 
works, was taken through the shops by one of the members 
of the firm, and shown a new lathe brought out by the com- 
pany. This guide, having a mental vision of a large contract 
from the ,Iapanese government, became more and more en- 
thusiastic as he explained the merits of the new machine, 
and, in particular, pointed out that no machine shop could 
afford to keep their old machines, when installing this new 
lathe would double the production, or near y so. He ex- 
plained to the .lapanese that in America it v as very common 
for manufacturers to throw out the whole of their old equip- 
ment, and install new machinery when its superiority hal 
been proved. This particular machine, he said, was a 
machine of the type that would justify such action. The 
.lapanese listened with a pleasant smile, and, according to 
the Japanese code of politeness, agreed with everything said. 
After having been taken all through the shops, and on return 
to the cfRce, when the question of "making a deal" was 
brought up, the little Japanese quietly and pleasantly asked: 
"Now, if this machine that you have shown me, and the 
merits of which are so great as to warrant throwing out old 
equipment and installing a new set of machines, actually 
possesses all the merits you claim for it. how is it that you 
have only three of these new lathes installed in your 
own shop?" The reply is not recorded, nor is the sale of ths 
machines. — Eiutoh.] 

* « * 

The great advance in machine tool construction which has 
taken place during the last decade is striking'y demonstrated 
by a comparison cf the advertising pages of a technical jour- 
nal ten years ago and to-day: and such a ccmparison will 
show not only that there has been an advance in the buildiig 
of machines, but also in the method cf presenting the advan- 
tages of the machines to prospective customers. The same 
holds true of all catalogues and advertising literature of 
to-day. Years ago it was commcn fcr the maker merely to 
state that he had such and such machines to sell, that they 
were of accurate workmanship, built of the best materials, 
and in all ways the most perfect on the market, etc. To-day. 
while of course these generalities may still be included, we 
see a large amount of what we may call specific advertising 
telling exactly what the machine will do and in how short a 
time it will do it, and what tools are required to perform 
the operation. Samples of work carried cut on the machine 
are shown, and complete details about turning out the work. 
the material from which it is made, and so forth, are given. 
This is the kind of advertising that appea's to mechanical 
men. To speak in generalities does not appeal to them, be- 
cause judging cn'y by general terms, one machine is as good 
as another: but when the actual facts are given, provided 
they are given honestly and correctly, a mechanic can judge 
for himself without hesitation about the merits of the ma- 
chine. He has some definite data to deal with when making 
his comparisons. It appears that manufacturers are com- 
mencing to appreciate the value of this kind af advertising, 
because it is becoming more and more common both in cata- 
logues and in trade journal advertisements, to show the work 
performed, and to give the exact information regarding the 
performance. It is likely that in the future this class of adver- 
tising will be even more common than now. and the mechani- 
cal trades will undoubtedly gaia Vy it. 



It is reported that a measure will be introduced at Ottawa 
for the reconstruction of the collapsed Quebec bridge. The 
construction work will be In tlie hands of a board of promi- 
nent engineers, and the Canadian government, it appears, Is 
going to undertalte the work as a government project. 

According to Indian Industry and Power, a system of auto- 
matic signaling worked entirely by electricity is being 
installed on the Metropolitan railway in London. The new- 
system provides for applying the brakes to the train auto- 
matically if the engineer should pass a signal set at danger. 

Superheated steam locomotives appear to be so favorably 
considered by European railroads that at the present time 
hardly any express locomotives are ordered without super- 
heaters. Recently 24 express locomotives for the Italian State 
Railways, built in Germany, were comnleted, all being fur- 
nished with Schmidt s\iperheaters. 

Beginning August 3, the last section of the Philadelphia 
subway was opened for traffic. This subway, which is run 
in connection with the new Market Street elevated railroad, 
gives an entire length of rapid transit through the city of 
about seven miles. The subway construction is of the very 
highest type, and the approximate cost of the subway portion 
alone is $20,000,000. 

It appears that the authorities of the German State rail- 
ways have concluded that incandescent gas lighting is 
superior to electric light in railway cars. No more cars are 
equipped with electric light, and the engineers, after long and 
exhaustive tests, have satistied themselves of the value of the 
former system of car lighting, and are now changing over the 
equipment at the rate of 500 to 600 lights a day. 

The British Admiralty has decided that in the future all 
small naval craft shall be constructed to use both coal and 
oil fuel. The oil-burning system has been used for a con- 
siderable time, and many of the destroyers and torpedo boats 
are designed exclusively for the oil-burning system. All the 
modern battleships and cruisers of the navy are also con- 
structed to use either coal or oil. 

During the year ending June 30, 1908, 1,506 vessels, with 
an aggregate tonnage of 5SS.627 gross tons were built in the 
United States. This is. so far. the largest annual output of 
the ship building yards in this country. The steel vessels 
built numbered 142, representing 417,167 gross tons, of which 
75 were built for the Great Lakes, with an aggregate tonnage 
of 304,379 tons. The largest steamer on the lakes built dur- 
ing the year was very nearly 8,000 tons. 

After several years of thorough testing and experimenting, 
the officials of the Burlington railroad have come to the con- 
clusion that concrete ties are not satisfactory, and that the 
best solution of the railroad tie problem at present Is to treat 
wood so that it will not deteriorate as rapidly as when in its 
natural state. According to the Scientific American it has 
been decided to construct a large plant for treating ties, bridge 
timbers, etc., with creosote. 

In the May issue of Machinery, we mentioned that Pro- 
fessor Kanimerlingh-Onnes, a Dutch scientist, had succeeded 
m solidifying helium. This statement, however, as we men- 
tioned in a later issue, depended on a mistake made by Pro- 
fessor Onnes, he having been deceived by impurities in the 
helium. He has now, however, announced that he has been 
able to produce helium in a liquid state, boiling at a tempera- 
ture of 7.75 degrees F. above absolute zero. He was not able, 
however, to solidify the liquid. 

In a recent issue of the EnrjUsh Mechmiic and World of 
Science, It Is stated that at the June 15 meeting of the 
Aca^demy of Science, Mr. Devaux Charbonnel gave particulars 
of a method of photographing sounds of the human voice, In 
such a manner that the photographic record could be read. 
Vowels and consonants are combined by means of the Blonde! 
oscillograph. This extremely sensitive instrument impresses 
the sounds upon a photographic plate in the form of curves, 
which can, with a little practice, be easily deciphered. 

According to the Far Eastern Review, a Chinese gentleman 
named Hu Chuen has obtained a patent on an improved 
method of wireless telegraphy, simplifying the methods 
hitherto in use. The system has been recommended by Chi- 
nese authorities for the reason that it makes use only of 
domestic Chinese materials of lower cost than imported 
articles, and it is also simpler to operate. At the test of the 
equipment at Canton it was pronounced a success. Detailed 
information as to the workings of the new system, however, 
are not as yet at hand. 

The Society of German Engineers, at its annual convention 
held in Dresden June 29 and 30, and July 1, empowered Its 
officers to negotiate v;ith representatives of the Prussian State 
government, as well as the government of the German Federa- 
tion, to make arrangements for the bringing out of the 
Technolexikon, which, as we have mentioned before in Ma- 
chinery, the society found Itself forced to give up about a 
year ago, on account of the great scope of the work, involving 
expenditures greater than the society considered that it could 
consistently make. 

The much-advertised New York-Paris automobile race, which 
started from New York, over a route across the United 
States, Siberia, Russia, and Germany, to Paris on February 
12, this year, was practically concluded by the arrival of the 
Thomas car in Paris on July 30. This race marks one of the 
most interesting events in the automobile history, and the fact 
that it was carried to a conclusion indicates the present state 
of the endurance of the automobile, and rather reverses the 
general' opinion that the automobile is fit only for good and 
smooth roads in a country where the repair shop is near at 

It Is interesting to note that the slide rule, which but lately 
has become universally used for calculations, was invented 
nearly 300 years ago. An article in Zeitschrift fiir Vermes- 
sungswesen calls attention to the fact that Gunter, shortly 
after his bringing out the trigonometric logarithm tables in 
1620, placed logarithmic scales on wooden rules, and used a 
pair of dividers io add or subtract the logarithms. In 1627 
these logarithmic scales were drawn by Wingate on two sepa- 
rate wooden rules, sliding against each other, so as to render 
the use of dividers unnecessary, and in 16.i7, or over 250 
years ago. Partridge brought out the slide rule in its present 

In view of the present agitation for tlie preservation of the 
natural resources of the United States, the methods employed 
by the Swedish government for the preservation of forest 
reserves as well as ore deposits are of special interest, and 
we have previously referred to the replanting of forests, the 
limitation of export shipments of iron ore, and the taking over 
of some iron ore deposits by the government. It is now 
reported that the Swedish government is still further pur- 
suing the policy of actual ownership of ore deposits, the 
present parliament having passed a bill providing for the 
state purchase of the important Svappavaara ore fields in the 
northern part of the country. 

In an editorial in Teknisk Tidskrift, attention is called to 
the mistaken idea of economy which manifests itself in the 

September, 1908. 



use of cheap materials and cheap labor, rather than In a 
proper systematl/.lng tor using the given opportunities In the 
most economical way. Many a man thinks that when he can 
l)uy some belting ior a tew dollars less than he has been used 
to do, by selecting a secondary quality, he has accomplished a 
great saving, but loses sight of the fact that this mere tem- 
porary saving may be lost many times over, through fre- 
quency of repairs, faster wear, and disturbances In the run- 
ning of the shop machinery. Still more serious, however, Is 
the case when the "saver" selects the living material as the 
proper territory for his exploitation. The expression "cheap 
labor" Is not clear, and it often Is the cause of serious mistakes. 
It Is self-evident, says the editorial referred to, that a poorly 
paid employe, as a rule, does not develop full energy, and that 
an efficient draftsman, for instance, if he is paid less than the 
common standard of wages for his class, will constantly give 
greater interest to the question, "How can I get out of here?" 
than to the problems which he is supposed to solve. 

In an article in the Engineer, London, Mr. P. V. Vernon 
states that a good rule for the horse-power required to drive 
machine tools is to assume one horse-power for each 10,000 
square inclies of belt delivered to the machine per minute. 
This rule is based on a working belt pull of 39.6 pounds per 
inch of width tending to rotate the pulley, a rule which, it 
is stated, is justified by the author's experience, and which 
may be demonstrated as follows: 10,000 square inches of belt 
per minute = 10,000 linear inches of belt one inch wide 
per minute = 10,000 -^ 12 linear feet of belt one Incli wide per 
minute. As each inch of width of belt is assumed to carry 
39.6 pounds of effective tension, the power transmitted will be: 

■ X 39.6 foot-pounds = 33,000 foot-pounds. 

or H.P. = - 



in which formula, D = diameter of pulley in inches, 
W^ width of belt in inches, and 
w=: revolutions of pulley per minute. 
A tight double belt may transmit twice the amount of 
power given by the above rule; but although the machine 
must be strong enough to resist the extra pull, yet it is not 
wise to provide for double the motive power where a separate 
motor is used, as most motors will stand as much temporary 
overload as a belt, and no belt will work well with a perma- 
nent overload. 

A method for surface-hardening structural steel and steel 
rails Is described in the Mechanical Engineer. The principle 
whereby this is accomplished is as follows: The steel ingot, 
when stripped from the mold, is enclosed in a receptacle 
lined with brick, the receptacle being about eight or ten 
inches larger than the ingot placed in it. Space is left between 
the ingot and the sides of the chamber, and when the ingot 
has been lowered centrally into the receptacle, the intervening 
space between the hot ingot and the sides of the receptacle 
is filled as rapidly as possible with dry powdered carbon or 
other carbonaceous material. This material is rammed in 
between the ingot and the walls, and when the receptacle is 
completely filled, the ingot is allowed to remain covered for 
a length of time depending on the amount of carbon to be 
absorbed by the surface. Several hours, as a rule, is neces- 
sary for obtaining the required results. The carbon pene- 
trates into the surface of the steel Ingot, and the whole 
process may be compared with the case-hardening of mild 
steel parts. The carburized ingot, when removed from the 
receptacle, is again heated and rolled into a structural shape, 
the finished article now presenting a hardened surface. It is 
stated that if it is desirable that only a part of the outer 
surface of the ingot should be hardened, so that when rolled 
down, the harder part may form the head of a steel rail, for 
Instance, the part forming a web or flange still remaining 
soft, the hot ingot may be put into a receptacle, and suitable 
division pieces inserted so that carbon may be brought into 
contact only with the part required to be hardened. This 
process has been developed by Mr. Benjamin Talbot, formerly 
of Phoenixville, Pa., who is now living in England. 


In an article In Page's Weekly, the mifthod of hardening 
small cutting tools adopted by the firm of Ludwig I^ewe & 
Co., In their Berlin works. Is referred to. The hardening pro- 
cesB Is carried on by means of electrically heated barium salt 
baths, the arrangement of tlie crucible and the electrodes be- 
ing as shown in the acci;mpanylng engraving. By means of 
this process, it has been possible to harden large milling cut- 
ters in about half an hour, including the time for pre-heating, 
which takes the greatest part of the time. To bring the 
cutters up to a temperature of 750 degrees F. constitutes this 
pre-heating. After that, it takes only about a minute to bring 
an average-sized cutter to 1,400 or 1,500 degrees F., and then 
another minute to bring it up to about 2,370 degrees F., which 
is, by this firm, considered the right hardening temperature. 
The time stated above refers to average-sized and heavy mill- 
ing cutters, whereas it 
only takes from 6 to 10 
minutes to bring a small 
milling cutter to the right 
temperature in the elec- 
trically heated salt bath. 

The advantage of elec- 
trically heated salt baths 
is stated as being the total 
absence of any scale on 
the tool thus hardened, 
and that the tools are not 
distorted in the hardening 
process. The bright ap- 
pearance is retained by 
the hardened tool, so that 
it is sometimes difficult to 
tell from the appearance 
whether a tool has been 
hardened or not. 

In regard to cooling the 
cutters, the firm of Lud- 
wig Loewe has found that 
when high-speed steel tools 
are cooled in an air blast, 
any moisture coming in 
contact with the hot tool 
has a tendency to crack it, 
so that it becomes neces- 
sary to dry the air before 
it enters into the nozzles. 

It has also been found for EiectrlcaUy Heated Hardening Baths. 

that it is absolutely impossible to cool a cutter which has 
a very heavT body and fine teeth in the air blast, as the heat 
from the central portion is not extracted fast enough, and 
therefore does not permit a sufficiently rapid cooling of the 
teeth to insure proper hardening. For this reason, the firm 
has adopted a method of cooling the cutters from the harden- 
ing heat of 2,370 degrees P. to a temperature of about 1,100 
degrees F. by quenching in an electrically heated salt bath. 
After having been cooled to about 1,100 degrees F. in the bath, 
the cutters are allowed to cool down slowly in the air, and 
the whole process has the advantage of being cheap and relia- 
ble, as well as effecting a considerable saving in time. 

It must, however, be understood that electrically heated 
barium salt baths are advantageous to use only when a large 
quantity of tools is to be hardened, because this method will 
otherwise prove expensive. It has also been remarked that 
the electrically heated bath is more advantageous for heavy 
than for small tools but it is not clear why the process should 
be thus limited to the former class of tools. 


Machinery.y. V. 
Arrangement of Crucible and Electrodes 

Engineering, June 19. 1908. 

On account of the high price of high-speed steel, its use, 
particularly for heavy tools, has been rather limited in the 
past. All kinds of devices in the form of tool-holders have 
been adopted whereby a small tool made of high-speed steel 
performs the cutting, while the remainder of the tool, or the 
holder. Is. of cheaper material. Many attempts have been 


M \rinxKuv 

Soptonibor, 1008. 

made to weld high-speed steel onto mild steel, as well as outii 
high carbon steel. In order that a superior cutting edge may 
be presented to the work, while the cost of the tool is still 
liept down lo a reasonable figure, the required size and stiff- 
ness of the tool being provided for by the body of cheaper 
material. All attempts to weld high-speed steel onto high 
carbon sted or machine steel have, however, until quite re- 
cently, proved futile. This is apparently due to the different 
coefficients of expansion of the different steels, hi.nh-si)eed 
steel having a low corfficient of expansion. 

Lately a welding process, however, has been invented which 
is controlled by the Fusion Welded Metals Co., Ltd., 56 Vic- 
toria St.. Westminster. London, by means of which it is pos- 
sible to weld high-speed steel onto other steels. The opera- 
tions are very simple. The welding of the two steels is per- 
formed by means of a thin film of copper. The copper Is 
lilaced in the form of a feeder along the line of the joint. Ths 
parts to be welded are then surrounded by a reducing com 
pound and are placed in a furnace where the temperature i.s 
raised to about 2.200 degrees F. The gas which is formed by 
the burning of the compound seems to affect the copper In 
such a way that the latter is reduced to a fluid as thin as 
sririts of wine, and in this condition it penetrates the mole- 
cular surfaces of the two classes of steel and produces actual 
cohesion and not merely adhesion. In fact, the weld becomes 
stronger than the remainder of the metal, so that if the two 
pieces being welded are forced apart, the line of fracture will 
follow the course of a new break rather than pass through 
the joint. The weld is so close that in some cases it is hardly 
possible to find a trace of the copper. A wide field of useful- 
ness is predicted for this process. One application which has 
already been suggested, and where the process most likely 
will be most commonly used, is that of welding high-speed 
steel to carbon or machine steel bodies for the production of 
high-speed cutting tcols at a moderate price. 


J. C. Miller, in Power and the Engineer, May 26, 1908. 
The au'.hor. in this article, presents the results of a year's 
operation of a suction gas power plant, stating the fixed 
charges in a way that will satisfy men who are prone to think 
of interest, depreciation, etc., as Important elements in power 
cost. The engine under consideration was a single cylinder, 
horizontal -50 brake-horse-power, regulated on the hit-and-miss 
principle, and belted to the line-shaft. The gas was drawn 
from a suction producer, using anthracite pea coal. The 
plant was of English manufacture, and was well designed and 
constructed. The producer was equipped with the usual 
vaporizing apparatus for supplying steam to the blast, and 
with the usual coke scrubber and expansion box. The cost 
of the installation of the plant was $3,300. The table below 
gives the fixed and operating charges: 


Interest at 6 per cent $198.00 

Depreciation, repairs, taxes, insurance, 12 per cent. . , 396.00 



Engineer at $2 dai'y. 300 days $600.00 

67% tons coal at $4.50 30'4.S7 

Oil and waste 48.00 

Scrubber water .- 12.00 


Total yearly charge $1,558.87 

Cost per horse-power-year of 3.000 hours, assuming 

an average rate of 50 horse-power $31.17 

The repairs of the year were relatively small, consisting of 
new grate-bars in the producer, new coke in the scrubber, and 
small repairs to the connecting-rod and Ignition equipment. 
The total cost of the repairs, in fact, was less than $10. In 
the fixed charges given above, 12 per cent has been allowed 
for depreciation, repairs, insurance and taxes, which was 
more than ample for the year in question. The cooling water 
was used over and over, and therefore no charge is made for 
this item. Tn the item of attendance, the entire salary of 
the engineer is charged up against the plant, although lie 
had ample time for other work, but little of his time being 

mcded with the producer and engine after the plant was in 
operation. The coal used came from the Scranlon district 
and cost $4.50 per ton, delivered. The coal consumed averaged 
441 pounds per working day, so that it can safely be s-^aid that 
the consumption was only one pound per brake-horse-power. 
The writer sums up by stating his conviction that only 
hydraulic power can surpass the present showing for economy. 
The cost as shown, correspo:ids with electric power delivered 
to tlie consumers at 1 1/3 cent per K. W., much below the low- 
est commercial rate to coi^suniers using an equal amount of 

Joseph H. Hart, in The Mining World. July i5 1908. 
The accompanying illustration shows a system of air com- 
pression which may beccme useful under certain circum- 
stances. In the engraving merely the principle is shown, 

some mechanical im- 
provements being pos- 
sible of introduction i:i 
a ' commercial appa- 
"■atus not being indi- 
cated. The construc- 
ticn of this device is 
very simple. It con- 
sists of an endless 
chain of buckets mov- 
ing over two cog- 
wheels, the apparatus 
being almost entirely 
sunk under water. The 
buckets on the left- 
hand side turn their 
openings downward 
when moving in the 
downward dire ction. 
and are thus filled with 
air when they strike 
the surface of the wa- 
ter. During the down- 
ward movement of the 
buckets the air inside 
of them is compressed, 
as indicated by the 
double lines on the 
lower buckets on the 
left-hand side, the 
pressure on the air 
depending simply on 

New Idea in Air compression. ^f,g Jepth Ot the buck- 

ets below the surface of- the water. When the bucket 
comes to the lower cog-wheel, it is turned around 
and the air escapes, being then collected into a hood 
A where it will be under pressure corresponding to the hydro- 
static pressure of the water at the point at this depth beloiv 
the surface. At the top of the mechanism the water is carried 
from the surface to the upper level of the wheel, and when 
the buckets are reversed, the water is dumped, and the 
buckets again filled with air. The raising of the water from 
the surface to the place where it leaves the buckets represents 
one of the losses of the mechanism. This loss remains ap- 
proximately constant for all conditions, and expressed as a 
percentage of the total power requii-ed. it decreases as the 
depth of the device, and in consequence the compression, in- 

MacltinfTy.X T. 

Several months ago Mr. Thomas A. Edison aroused con- 
siderable interest in a proposed monolithic concrete construc- 
tion for dwelling houses, the details of which he has worked 
out. The idea briefly is to mold a house complete, the same 
as an iron casting is made in sand, with the difference that 
in the Edison house scheme the mold is constructed of cast- 
iron forms, which are set up to make the house complete, 
even including the roof, porches, steps and everything requir- 
ed to complete a dwelling house. Mr. Edison had calculated 
that a workingman's two-family dwelling house of one-piece 

Scpti'inlicr, 1!K)S. 



concrete coiilil be made in this nuuiner for about $l,L'il(l; but, 
lilie inauy oilier silienus tliat appear proniisiiis on t'le face, 
this one does not app<?ar as proniisin« upon invesllnalion. 

In tlie Hrst place, the cost of the cast-iron nu)lds lor a Iwo- 
faniily house would be not less than $2.'), 0(10. according to Mr. 
Udlson's own estimate, and the weight would be not less 
than 280.000 pounds. This, of course, means a very large 
initial investment and costly transportation of the molds 
from one building site to another. The si/e if the dwelling 
proposed to be built in this manner is 21 feet liy -l!) feet, with 
a height of liS feet, not including the cellar. The walls will 
be 12 incites thick, decreasing to S inches on the second story. 
The roof is to be 6 inches Ihiclv, and the floors and partitions 
are 4 inches in thickness throughout. The structure will be 
reinforced with ii.-inch and %-inch steel rods. Water pipes, 
gas pipes, plumbing, ducts for wiring, and lining for chimney 
flues are set in position before pouring the concrete. 

The concrete mixture proposed is one part cement, three 
parts fine sand, and five parts stone or gravel, fine enough to 
pass through a one-half inch sieve. In order to prevent seg- 
regation of the materials before reaching their destined posi- 
tion in the molds, it is proposed to add colloids, which, in 
common language, are certain clays that promote fluidity of 
the concrete and non-segregation of the constituents. 

The scheme undoubtedly would prove unprofitable except 
where large numbers of houses were built on one plot and 
where the materials could be obtained at low cost. The in- 
vestigation made by a disinterested expert appears to indicate 
that Mr. Edison's estimate of the weight of the molds and 
the cost of houses built in this way is too low. The cost of 
a house, with the present prices of labor and material, would 
be nearly twice the figure quoted, according to the Cement 
Age. and the weight of the molds would be considerably 
greater than 280,000 pounds. 

The future of monolithic concrete construction for hous23, 
factories and other structures depends very largely on the 
means developed for holding the materials in place during 
the setting period. It appears that the Erti"oH plan is crude 
and very costly. The ultimate development of cheap con- 
crete construction of the monolithic type would appear to re- 
quire a combination of wooden forms and cast-iron molds 
made up so that a large variety of shapes can be produced 
with comparatively few fonus. 


Engineering Digest, June, 1908. 
The author of the article here abstracted presents the fol- 
lowing formula for calculating the number of ampere turns 
of excitation required for an ordinary magnetic clutch, con- 
sisting of a thick disk with an annular space machined out 
of one face for the magnetizing coil, and provided with a flat- 
laced disk armature of the same diameter. 

9,500,000 LBD \/H.P. 

Ampere turns = 

All VBN(D- + SRB) 
In this equation, 
L ^= mean length of the magnetic circ\iit, 
B = radial width of the annular pole face. 
Z)^ diameter of central pole face or hub of clutch, 
ff .P. = brake-horse-power to be transmitted. 

A = mean cross-sectional area of the path of the lines of 

,u^ permeability of metal, say 2,500 for wrought iron. 
A' = revolutions per minute. 

7?=:: mean radius of annular pole face, which, in turn, 
outside diameter of clulch — B 


All dimensions are in inches. 

As an example, assuming that R ^ i inches, D = 2V' inches, 
B^l inch, L^IO inches, A = 9 square inches, H.P. :=4, 
jV=100, and ;U = 2,500, then the ampere turns equal 

9,500,000 X 10 X 1 X 2.5 X V4 

= 340 

9 X 2,500 X VI X 100(2.5^ + 8 X 4 X 1) 
To allow for the reluctance of the joint, this should be in- 
creased to, say, 400. 


I'li/HT nail bji Edgar A. CiihUt lii'forc the Franklin Inntilule. 
March 26. M»08. 

A great deal of experimenting has Ix'cn undertaken in the 
past in order to deterniine tlie requlreinents for permanent 
molds for making castings; (hat is, molds which could be 
used over and over again for producing the same parts. The 
purpose of the present discussion is to describe a method and 
apparatus using permanent molds which are not destroyed 
through the action of the hot iron, and in which cast iron 
pipe can be produced in which the supposed evils of unequal 
heating and cooling due to the use of permanent molds do 
not appear. 

So-called permanent molds are not new. Kor many years, 
small iron castings have been successfully made in iron molds 
without great detriment to either casting or mold. These 
castings, however, have invariably been very small, and the 
process chilled them to extreme hardness, so that it was not 
possible to machine them. This limited the use of such 
molds very materially. Extensive experiments, however, have 
been undertaken by the Tacony Iron Co., Philadelphia. Pa., for 
producing cast iron water and gas pipe in permanent molds. 

The ordinary process for casting such pipe is as follows: 
Iron flasks, a cope and drag, are rammed with sand over a 
metal pattern; a green sand core is introduced, and the cope 
and drag are clamped together. The pipe is then poured. 

Fig. 1. General View of Machine for Casting Pipe in Permanent Molds. 

with the pipe in a horizontal position, and after cooling, the 
pipe is removed from the flask and carried to the end of the 
floor where the cores aire removed. Then it is carried to the 
cleaning room where the sand is rattled off. the gates and fins 
are removed, and after inspection it is ready for shipment. 
Altogether the pipe has to be handled ten times. In this pro- 
cess the loss is great, often reaching 12 to 15 per cent. In 
fact, with very tew improvements, and these relating mainly 
to cores, soil pipe is made in precisely the same manner and 
with just as much labor per pipe as was the practice fifty 
years ago. 

Any process that would save the use of sand for the mold, 
and would produce pipe that could be easily cut, would natu- 
rally be very desirable. In addition, if it would be possible 
to produce a machine so that the work could be carried on 
continuously day and night, it w^ould evidently be of great 
advantage for economical production. The experiments under- 
taken by the firm previously referred to made it possible to 
design a machine which would operate continuously, using 
permanent molds. These experiments showed that when pipes 
were cast in a mold every eight minutes, the temperature of 
the mold never raised above 450 degrees F.. even if the opera- 
tions were continued for hours. If, however, pipes were 
poured every two minutes, the temperature of the mold would 
rise rapidly, and at 900 degrees F. it would begin to warp. 
In order to comply with the requirements thus determined, 
the machine as described in the following was designed. 

Machine for Continuous Casting of Pipes. 
The. machine consists of an angular table or ring approxi- 
mately 40 feet in diameter, w^hich carries 30 molds arranged 
at equal intervals. The table is constructed of two concentric 
rings of channel beams connected with 30 cross pieces or 
trucks, each of which has two wheels with roller bearings to 



September, 1908. 

support the frame. The wheels run on concentric circular 
tracks laid In concrete foundations. The tracks are arranged 
on an Inclining conical surface, and by this means the table 
will resist any movement other than rotating about Its center. 
Each truck or cross bar of the table carries a steel pin 
working loosely in a vertical hole and of such length as to 
allow about two Inches of the pin to project below the bottom 
line of the truck, hut admitting it of being pushed up until 
flush with the bottom of the truck. Under the table or ring, 
at two diametrically opposite points, are arranged two hy- 
draulic cylinders which slide In ways similar to those of a 
planer, the pistons within the cylinders being held stationary, 
and the cylinders moved hack and forth by the operation of a 
four-way valve controlling the admission of water alternately 
to each end of the cylinders. The stroke of the cylinders is 
of such length as to be slightly more than the spacing of the 
molds carried by the table. Projecting from the top of the 
cylinder is an inclined plane surface designed to lift the 
truck-pins, previously referred to, when the cylinders move in 
a direction opposite to the required motion of the table, and 
to allQW a pin on each side to fall, after the Inclined surface 
has passed. This occurs at or near the end of the backward 
stroke of the cylinders; and when the controlling valve is so 

Fig. 2. Setting the Core. 

moved as to cause the cylinders to move forward, the pins 
which have been lifted and allowed to fall are brought in con- 
tact with the projections on the cylinders, and hence the table 
is carried forward by the motion of the cylinders a distance 
equal to the spacing of the molds, and the cylinders are ready 
for another return or back stroke to engage the next pins, 
thus intermittently moving the table ahead one space at each 
cycle of the cylinders. 

The center of the table is left open for the location of hy- 
draulic pumps, operating valve reservoirs, etc., required in 
imparting motion to the table. The table makes one com- 
plete revolution every seven and one-half minutes, and conse- 
quently produces thirty pipes in that time, or two hundred 
and forty pipes an hour. 

At certain points about the table are arranged closing and 
opening devices, which are designed to close the mold, or 
bring the cope side down to its place on the drag side, with- 
out shock, after the cores are set in place, and to open the 
mold or lift the cope after the pipe has been poured. 

Between the closing device and the opening device is lo- 
cated a pouring device adapted to receive the molten metal 
from the cupola and pour it into the molds. 

Description of Mold. 
Each mold consists of a rectangular block of cast iron, ap- 
proximately 18 inches wide and 18 Inches high, by 6 feet long, 
parted on a diagonal line across the corners, and provided 
with hinges at the lower edge of the parting so as to allow 
the upper portion or cope to be swung up and back from the 
lower portion or drag. These molds weigh about 6,500 pounds 
complete. At the center of the mold Is the cavity Into which 

Fig. 3. Mold entering Closing Device. 

the metal is to be poured to form the pipe. Thus one-half of 
the pipe is formed in the upper and one-half in the lower por- 
tion of the mold. 

Gates are cut in the face portion of the lower part or drag, 
of such size and shape as to receive the molten metal from 
the ladle and guide it into the mold. Three such gates are 
used, each dividing into two portions. Thus the cavity of 
the mold is entered at six points. The gates are so shaped 
as to receive the shock of the falling stream of molten metal 
at a point outside of the mold cavity, and convey it into the 
mold quickly but gently, so that the core is not damaged by a 
rush of molten metal against it. At the highest point of the 
barrel of the mold, a small groove is cut, extending through- 

Fig. 4. Pouring the Aletal. 

out the entire length of the barrel. This groove, which is 
quite small, being only one-eighth of an inch wide and deep. 
is intended to receive any gases or air which may be trapped 
in the mold, and so avoid the formation of flat spots at the 
top of the pipe. The resultant ridge not being prominent is 
not an objection, but rather adds to the strength of the struc- 

On one end of each mold is carried an arm rigidly attached 
to the upper or movable half. This arm extends under the 
mold, and is of such form that when the mold is open it forms 
a rest for the movable half, holding it in such position as to 
allow of any work, such as setting cores, removing finished 
pipes, cleaning, etc. On the end of this arm is a steel roller 

September, 1908. 



which Is caused to travel down an Inclined plane by the rota- 
tion of a table carrying the mold. This Inclined plane Ib ar- 
ranged to receive the roller at Its higher position when the 
mold Is open, and to guide It smoothly to Its lower position, 
by this means closing the mold without shock or jar to dis- 
turb the core. This inclined plane constitutes the closing de- 
vice. Each end of the mold Is provided with rings or bush- 
ings which are used to support the core arbor in a precisely 
central position in the cavity of the mold, so that the pipe 
when finished shall have uniform thickness of metal at every 

The core arbor consists of a cast Iron hollow cylinder some- 
what longer than the pipe to be cast and about three-quarters 
of an Inch less In diameter than the Inside diameter of the 
pipe. It Is perforated throughout most of its length by small 
holes to allow any gases formed by contact with the molten 
metal to pass into the arbor and so have free vent to the air 
through the ends. 

The core is made by placing the core arbor in the core ma- 
chine, which consists of a support for the ends of the arbor, 
semicircular in form, and of a diameter to fit the arbor ends 

Fig. 5. Immediately after Pouring. Mold, entering Opening Device. 
partiaUy opened. 

a shaking screen arranged to sift sand, and a guide to drop 
it upon the arbor, and a knife, so shaped as to form the sand 
to the outline of the inside of the pipe. 

The core arbor, after being thoroughly wet, is placed in the 
end supports and rotated by a crank-shaped piece of iron 
held loosely in one end by an operator. At the same time 
another operator shakes a sieve suspended over the arbor 
and previously filled with sand, saturated to the proper de- 
gree with water. This sieved sand is caused to fall directly 
upon the wet, rotating arbor and clings to it. The surplus 
sand is scraped away by a steel knife held at the proper dis- 
tance from the arbor to make the finished core of the diam- 
eter and shape required. When sufficient sand is on the 
arbor to make a full and complete core (which requires about 
five seconds), the core is lifted from its supports and is ready 
for use. No further treatment of any kind is needed, and 
the core is placed in position in the mold, which is then 
caused to pass the closing device, bringing the upper portion 
down in place, and the mold is ready to receive the metal. 

A ladle is provided to receive the metal as it flows from 
the cupola. As the table rotates and brings a mold, which 
has passed the closing device, into pouring position, the ladle 
automatically drops into position with the lips close to the 
pouring holes. The ladle is then tilted to pour by the oper- 

ator, but In tilting It rotates around a center line which 
passes through the pouring lips, and hence the points of pour- 
ing do not move; and the streams of metal are guided direct- 
ly from the pouring holes through the various gates into the 
mold, and fill It completely, compressing any air or gas which 
may be trapped Into the groove provided at the highest point 
for that purpose. If no gases are trapped, which, strange as 
it may seem. Is usually the case, this groove Is also filled with 

pig. 6. Mold open. Pipe Cast in Place. 

metal and forms a slight rib running the length of the pipe. 
When the pouring operation is complete and the operator tilts 
the ladle back, it automatically rises to a higher position, so 
that the next mold may pass under it and assume the pouring 

The mold being now filled with metal, is held long enough 
to allow the metal to set, and is then opened by passing the 
opening device, which is just the reverse of the closing de- 
vice, the roller on the end of the arm or mold being guided up 
an inclined plane, thereby lifting the upper half or cope side, 
and swinging it away from the lower or drag side. The pipe. 

Fig. 7 Fiuishoa 

ud Arbor. Molds Open. 

which Is Still a bright orange color, is lifted from the mold 
and placed, after removal of the gates, with those previously 
cast, in piles, to cool slowly, when the core arbor is with- 
drawn and returned to the core machines to be used again. 
After removal of the finished pipe from the mold, the loose 
sand which falls from the core during the handling of the 
pipe, and any other dirt, loose gates, etc., which may be left 
in the mold are swept out by air blasts or hand brushes, and 
the mold is ready for another core and another filling with 



Septomhor, 1908. 



A gifiii v;irli-i.v i>i ilifferent means have been devised for 
locking a nut in place, so as to prevent accidental loosening 
of the parts being held together by the tightening of a nut 
en Its bolt. In the accompanying Supplement are shown 
twenty-seven different styles of locI<ing arrangements, care 
having been talven to select those that are most commonly 
found in engineering practice. It is not necessary to explain 
all of the methods indicated at length: a few words relating 
to each type will suffice. Referring to the Supplement, Fig. 
1 shows a locking device where the nut is locked to the bolt 
by means of a set-screw. A small plug of steel or brass is 
pla<ed in front of the screw point, to prevent the screw from 
injuring the thread of the bolt. 

Fig. 2 represents the U. S. .Navy standard form of lock 
nut. It will be noticed that the first shoulder below^ the nut 
proper fits in the stock, while the second one is smaller and 
acts as a face for the set-screw to engage with. Also note 
that the set-screw is "dog-pointed," and that the nut proper 
never should come down flush against the stock; 1/32 inch 
clearance is allowed here for all sizes of nuts. 

Fig. 3 shows a very good form. A shoulder is turned down 
on the lower side of the nut to the diameter across flats, and 
a groove is turned in this shoulder for the point of the set- 
screw. A collar fitting this shoulder is fastened by a pin as 
shown. A set-screw is then passed through this collar and 
engages in the groove of the nut. The thickness of the col- 
lar and shoulder should be about one-quarter the diameter 
of the nut plus V4 inch, in good practice, and the pin which 
holds the collar should be one-eighth the diameter of the bolt 
plus 1/16 inch. 

In the method shown in Fig. 4. a special nut with a slotted 
flange is required. This flange has six slots, and the dog 
which acts as a check is provided with an oblong S-Ot. This 
arrangement gives a positive lock, and the nut can be locked 
at any position required. The thickness of the dog and the 
slotted flange should be about one-quarter the diameter of 
the bolt. 

Fig. 5 is an excellent fcrni. It is a combination of the 
spring and double nut arrangements shown in Figs. 10 and 
11. The double nut may work locse under constant rattle and 
jar. but the split ring below has a tendency to absorb the jar. 
This form is used extensively in automobile frame construc- 

In the method sho".\ n in Fig. 6, a small taper pin is put 
half in the nut and half in the bolt, one half-hole being put 
in the nut and six. or as many as desired, in the bolt. This 
allows of finer adjustment than one hole only. The taper 
pin should never be driven in too tight to prevent its being 
pulled out without difficulty when required. 

Fig. 7 requires a specially made nut. It is made of stock 

one-half the thickness of the nut, which is doubled over on 

itself, as shown, and afterwards tapped. After this nut is 

screwed down tight in place, a little extra twist on the top 

. half locks it very securely. 

Fig. 8 shows an inner nut which is tapered and split. This 
inner nut fits in an outer shell which has a tapered hole. 
When the nut is assembled in place, the screwing down of 
the outer shell pulls the inner nut down in the taper hole. 
which closes the split in the side. This clamps the inner 
nut to the bolt. This form is highly recommended. 

Fig. 9 shows the regular slotted or cast'e nut. When the 
nut is screwed down in place, a small hole is drilled through 
the bolt at the bottom of one of the slots, and a cotter pin is 

Fig. 10 shows the old reliable form of nut and check nut. 
or double nut. The check nut is commonly made one-half 
the thickness of the nut proper, and should be placed on the 
under side, as shown. This arrangement puts the stress on the 
thicker nut, where it should be because of the greater number 
of threads to receive it. 

In Fig. 11 is shown what is known as Grover's spring. 
When the nut is screwed down tight, the spring is flattened. 
and its elasticity keeps the nut tight on the bolt. 
• Address : 329 Main St., W., Lansing, Mich. 

l''ig. 1L' sliows the ear washer. After the nut is screwed 
down in place, the ear on the washer is bent up tight against 
i. flat side of the nut, and a small pin keeps it from turning. 
This washer should be about one-sixth of the diameter of the 
holt in thickness. 

Fig. 13 shows a right-hand nut below, with a smaller left- 
hand nut iibove it. both screwing on the same bolt. All 
tendency of the larger right-hand nut to unscrew is counter- 
acted by the smaller left-hand nut. which screws on tighter 
if the larger nut turns. 

Fig. H shows a regular hexagon nut with a slot sawed 
a little past the center and about three threads from the top. 
After this nut is screwed down in place, give the part above 
the slot a little extra twist, the same as in Fig. 7, or hit it 
a light tap with a hammer, and spring the shelving part down 
a trifle. When the nut is to be removed, the top part may 
be sprung back again to place, and it is then easily unscrewed. 

In Fig. 1.5 the same sawed nut is used as in Fig. 14, and 
a small screw is placed as shown. After the nut is screwed 
down, the small screw is tightened. This increases the fric- 
tion between the threads of the belt and nut by springing 
down the upper and thinner part. 

Fig. 16 represents the lip washer. This washer has a small 
lip on the inside which slides in a groove in the side of the 
bolt. All tendency of the work below the nut to move is spent 
en the washer which cannot move because of the lip. This 
is a very good form, and is extensively used. 

Fig. 17 shows a small lock fastened down by a cap screw, 
the flat side of the lock coming against the flat of the nut. 
In Fig. 18 the principle of locking is practically the same as 
in Fig. 17. except that the nut may be locked at every one- 
twelfth turn instead of one-sixth turn. This al'ows of much 
finer adjustment. The principle of the form shown in Fig. 
19 is the same as in Figs. 17 and 18, except that the lock 
fits the corner of the nut. The method shown at Fig. 20 is 
exceptionally gcod where a circle or long row of nuts are to 
be locked. Fig. 21 qiiite closely resembles Fig. 18, except that 
the nut is locked on all sides. This form also admits cf a 
one-twelfth revolution in locking. The locks shown at Figs. 
17, 18, 19, 20, and 21 are known as stop plates. 

In Fig. 22 an ordiflary bolt and nut are used. The bolt 
is allowed to stick through the nut a short distance. The 
( nd of the bolt is sawed before the nut is screwed on. After 
the nut is screwed home, the end of the bolt is wedged out a 
trifle with a dull cold chisel. This locks the nut very securely, 
but by screwing the nut off. the sawed end of the bolt will be 
brought back to its original shape. 

In Fig. 23 a small cap screw is screwed down so that its 
head is tangent to a flat side of the bolt. In Fig. 24 a taper 
pin is driven in firmly as shown, so that it enters partly in 
a groove in the side of the nut. 

Fig. 25 shows an excellent method, but a special nut is re- 
qiiired. The nut must have a slotted flange as shown. The 
small pin shown has a shoulder which comes up under the 
bottom of the nut, and behind the pin is a coil spring. By 
pushing this pin down flush with the surface of the work, the 
nut may be turned to any position desired, and the pin will 
spring back into place, thus locking the nut. 

In Fig. 26 a small hole is drilled through the bolt, flush 
with the top cf the nut. A piece of soft wire is run through 
the hole and wound around the bolt, as shown, to insure 
against its coming out. This form also answers very nicely 
where more than one nut is to be locked. The wire may ba 
passed on through any number of bolts and its ends fastened. 

In Fig. 27 a slotted nut is required. A groove is cut down 
the side of the bolt deep enough to contain a wire. The nut 
is screwed down with the wire in place in the slot in the 
bolt, and the wire is then bent over in one of the slots. 

* * * 

It is alleged that freight shipped from Cincinnati to To- 
ledo, via the Erie and Miami Canal often is received in a 
shorter time than when sent by rail. This, if true, confirms 
the statistical average of railway freight movement of only 
about 25 miles per day, a rate of progress considerably less 
than that achieved by the canaller traveling by daylight only. 
A canal boat hauled both day and night can easily make 60 
miles per 24 hours. 

September, 1908. 




The large lied (astiiiR shown niathined and nuninted on Up 
supports In Fig. 1. is that of the Libby turret lathe, built by 
the International Machine Tool Co., of Indianapolis, Ind.* 
In this niaihine the head-stock and bed are one solid casting, 
so that particular care has to be taken In planing and boring 
to have all parts come to the right dimensions, as the ma- 
chine Is built on the interchangeable plan, and no alterations 
from the drawings are allowed for the sake of making a 
faulty casting "finish out." One of the special tools used 
to place the making of the bed on an interchangeable basis, 
is the gage shown in place on the ways in Fig. 1. This 
gage is used for testing the planing of all the sliding sur- 
faces of the casting, in their relation to each other and to 
the center line of the spindle. 

Fig. 1. A One-piece Turret Lathe Head-stock and Bed. with the Gage by 
Center in the Vertical Arm must coincide with the Center 

After the casting has been cleaned and made ready for 
machining, the first operation is naturally that of "laying 
out." The reference line is the center line of the spindle. It 
is located in the usual way, by prick-punch marks in cross 
pieces inserted in the spindle boxes. This center line is so 
located that the spindle boxes will clean out, the ways finish 
to the right horizontal and vertical distances from the center 
line, and all other planed surfaces and bored holes come to 
the proper dimensions. When this laying cut is completed, 
the bed is placed on the planer table right side up, with the 
axis of the spindle carefully lined so that it is parallel with 
the ways of the planer. Roughing cuts are then taken over 
the top and front edge cf the casting at the points marked 
A and B in Fig. 2, which shows a cross section of the bed. 
This operation determines the lay-out of the bed, and if there 
are any surfaces or holes which do not finish out to dimen- 
sions in the subsequent operations, the piece is spoiled. 

The casting is next turned over on the planer and mounted 
on parallels so that the head-stock clears the bed, being 
clamped on surfaces B and B, and lined up with surface A 
parallel to the ways of the planer. The base C is now planed 
to the finished dimension. The casting is then again reversed 
and clamped to the planer platen en this finished surface C. 
with edge A lined up with the ways of the table; all subse- 
quent planing operations are completed without further shift- 
ing of the work. 

The next finishing operation is the surfacing of A and B. 
To test this operation, the gage shown on the bed in Fig. 1 
is used. The general form of the gage is perhaps more readily 
seen in the succeeding illusti'ations, Figs. 3 to 7. It will be 
seen that it rests on surface B. and when in use is aligned by 
its bearing on the vertical surface A, against which it is held 
by a clamp screw (best seen in Fig. 7) which bears on sur- 
face D. When these surfaces A and B are properly finished, 
and the gage is aligned as described, the center mounted in 

* See the New Machinery and Tools section of the March. 1908. issue 


the upper arm must coincide with the prick-punch mark Id 
the cross piece of the front spindle box, from which the pri- 
mary lay-out was ma<le. 

These gaging BUi-faces. A and B, having thus been flnisbed, 
the next operation is the laying-out of the siiccfedirig cuts. 
Vertical surfaces I). IC and F are located by scribing on the 
top surface of the bed lines gaged by the corresponding sur- 
faces Z>, E and F in Fig. 'A, these surfaces being carefully 
machined to the dimensions given on the drawing of the 
work. D, J:' and /•' may now be roughed and finished, the 
final testing (f the accuracy of the work being effected by 
clamping the gage on the bed in its proper position, and test- 
ing the surfaces completed to see If they match up with the 
corresponding surfaces on tlje gage. 

At O in Fig. 2 is the surface to which is fastened, by meane 
of a clamp entering the dove-tail H, the casting which carries 
the series of stops used for limiting the movement of the 

turret slide. At O in Fig. 3 will 
be seen a hardened plunger, car- 
ried by a steel bushing mounted 
in the gage, and provided with 
a cross pin, projecting through 
an L-shaped opening in the 
bushing. This plunger, which 
IS forced downward by a spring, 
may be released so that the 
lower end rests on the surface 
O of Fig. 2. If this surface is 
properly located, the upper end 
of the plunger and the upper 
end of the bushing in which it 
is contained will be flush with 
each other, both having ground 
surfaces. By this means, the 
accuracy of location of surface 
G is tested. When the plunger 
is not in use, the operator's fin- 
ger on the cross pin raises it, 
and swings it into the horizontal 
portion of the slot, thus holding 
it into its upper position. For 
locating the dove-tail slot, block H in Fig. 3 is provided. It 
may be slipped into a slot on the under side of the gage, 
and used for scribing the lines used for locating the rec- 
tangular groove, which is first planed to the proper depth in 
the casting. This rectangular groove is then finished out to 

which the Planing is Tested ; the 
Line of the Spindle. 


Fig. 2. Cross-section of the Bed ; the Surfaces to be Finished are 
Indicated by Double Lines. 

the desired angle on each side by tools held in the swivel 
head of the planer. The accuracy of the finishing of each 
side of the slot is gaged by block H' in Fig. 3, which, when 
placed in the dove-tail groove, with the bevel on either side, 
must accurately enter the same slot in the gage in which 
block H is shown in the figure. 

As may be seen in the various illustrations (see Fig 4, for 
instance) the gage is provided on the front side with an arm 
which projects downward, and carries the various reference 
surfaces, gage pins, etc., required for properly testing the 



September. IIhis. 

iiiachining on ilif lidiit side of tlip bed. In tlip c-ross and tur- 
ret slide carriiiges of this uiuchine, tliere are three revolving 
parts which only just clear the rough surface of the bed. 
These clearances are made small, to reduce the overhang of 
the carriage as much as possible, so that the operator may 
get close up to his work. The gage is provided with pivots 

lower cxtrcniily of the arm. as shown, on wUicli the straight- 
edge /. in Fig. 5 may be laid. If this accurately lines up with 
the corresponding surface of the casting, the planing is riglit 
in this respect. 

There are finished pads on both the front and back sides of 
the bed, not shown in Fig. 2, which support the various feed 
and rapid-traverse shafts. These must also be machined to 
the proper distance horizontally from reference surface A. 
The spring plunger }i, identical in construction with M and 
O, is used for the front surface. This is shown applied to 
this surface in Fig. 1. For the pads on the rear, a gage 0, 
Fig. (!, is used, which, when held as shown against the fin- 
ished face of the bed, must just make contact with a plug set 
into the rear end of the fixture. 

When all the tests described have thus been made, it may 
be assumed that the work is correct, so far as the planing is 

Fig. 3. Block and Gages for Laying Out and Testing the Dove-tail Slot. 

/, / and /. on which may be mounted cast iron disks J and ./ 
(see Fig. 4). When mounted on these pivots, these disks ex- 
actly correspond in position and diameter with the revolviii;^ 
parts which have to clear the bed, and if the operator slides 
the gage from one end of the ways to the other, and these 
disks clear, he may be sure that in the finished machine the 
carriage parts will also clear. If they Interfere, the casting 
must be trimmed in the planer. The lower and smaller of 
the two disks ,/. after being tested in the position shown, 
is tried again on the middle pin /. 

As those of our readers who are familiar with this machine 
know, the cross-slide carriage is mounted on the bed in a very 

Fig. 4. Testing the Bed for Clearance tor Revolving Parts in the Apron. 

peculiar way, being supported entirely by smrfaces D, B, A, 
L and il/, in Fig. 2. It does not extend across to the ways 
on the rear side of the machine. This construction allows 
the cross slide to clear practically the full diameter of the 
work capable of being swung over the ways, so that while the 
work is in place, the slide may be moved clear back past it 
and the chuck by which it is held, allowing the turret slide 
to be brought close to the work. It is evident, then, that 
surfaces L and M must be finished with reference to surfaces 
A, B and B. They are gaged as shown in Fig. 5, where a 
spring plunger .1/ is shown, exactly identical in construction 
with G in Fig, 3, which is released from its locked position 
and forced down by a spring against the surface in question. 
If this surface is right, the ground end of the plunger and 
of the bushing contained in it will be flush with each other. 
To measure surface L, an angular face is provided at the 

Fig, 5. Testing the Bevel Bearing Surface for the Cross-slide 
Carriage Support. 

concerned. Surfaces K. P and Q are good enough if made 
to careful scale measurements. 

It will be seen that this gage simplifies to a remarkable de- 
gree the inspection, the laying out, and machining of these 
castings. The foreman, for instance, if there is a question 
about the accuracy of the workmanship in a particular case, 
ran put the gage in place and take all the measurements in- 

Fig. 6. 

Testing the Planing of the Pad for the Bracket of the 
Quick-motion Shaft. 

side of a very few minutes. It can be imagined that the 
device under these conditions is a great incentive to accur- 
ate work. 

A practical man will readily understand that the advan- 
tage of working so closely to figures as is required by a 
gage of this kind, does not consist in cheapening the actual 

September, I'JOS. 



cost of the planing or Inspection. Tlie cost of planing, in 
fact, is doubtless Increased by its use, owing to tlie higher 
grade of v.orlimanship which it icquires. The advantage is 
seen when it conies to asseniblinK and fllting up the mnchlno. 
The main casting is always the part that is most difflcult to 
build on an interchangeable basis. With the aid of such 
devices as the one we describe, carrying throughout the 
whole casting the system of close working to figures, the 
time of assembling and fitting is greatly reduced. This is 
what counts, as it saves a large share of the most costly 
work that goes Into the building of a high-grade machine tool. 

Fig. 7. The Gage mounted on its Truck, by v^Mch it is carried 
■vphere needed. 

The possibility of saving a lot of time in the assembling, at 
the expense of a comparatively small less of time in the 
manufacturing, is one that is not always appreciated. 

A tool that is as useful as the one we have just described 
merits the best of treatment. In Fig. 7 we shovi- the gage as 
it looks when at home. As may be seen, it is comfortably 
mounted on a special truck, which may be wheeled from 
point to point in the shop, as the case may require. The 
various supplementary devices shown in the preceding illus- 
trations are carried in the box body of the truck. It is 
certainly encouraging to see a faithful servant so well looked 


* * * 



A modicum of self-reliance and self-esteem is a pretty good 
thing for any man to have, but in the days when a man is 
very hard up for a job, it has occurred that his estimate of 
his own ability has been somewhat above par with results 
disastrous to his self-esteem and reputation. 

Some years ago Jim West concluded that the only way to 
get a job was to put up what is commonly called a big bluff, 
and start in as a machinist. Now Jim had not worked in a 
machine shop except for about two weeks in a little shop 
somewhere in Indiana seven years before. He had tried the 
job in the belief that he wanted to learn a trade, but he soon 
tired of shop work because a clerking job seemed more suit- 
able to a young gentleman of his refined tastes and lady-like 
manners. He had not prospered in the clerking business, 
and being out of a job and hard up, he remembered that the 
machine shop did not seem so bad after all. Stranded in a 
city where there were many shops and a scarcity of machin- 
ists, he concluded to take a chance and hire out as a ma- 
chinist — on the strength of his two-weeks' shop experience! 
Now the city where Jim found himself stranded was the 
Queen City of the West, the center of machine tool building 
where a machinist usually can get a job if he can anywhere. 
He applied to the superintendent of one of the large shops, 

a!id upon being asked if he was an experienced man. he re- 
plied without hesitation in the affirmative. The ■super" 
(juickly let him understand that the shop rtally did not need 
any more help, this information being conveyed to properly 
cool off the applicant's expectancy of a bulky weekly pay 
envelope, but finally admitted that If Jim had any experience 
in cutting spur gears on a milling machine, he might employ 
him. Jim saw that his expected Job would go "glimmering" 
If he did not convince the "old man" that gear cutting was 
his specialty, and he did not hesitate to state his qualification 
in very emphatic and convincing language. The "super" was 
given to understand that no gear-cutting job existed that he 
could not do In i)roper form. 

Now In justice to Jim we must say that it was not his in- 
tention "to draw a long bow," but when a man Is hard up 
and he feels quite uncertain where the money for the next 
week's board bill Is coming from, a slight stretching of the 
truth may seem excusable that under ordinary circumstances 
would not be approved of. 

Jim was told to go to work the next morning, and was 
placed in charge of the foreman of the milling department. 
A lot of gear blanks were turntd over to him, together with 
a drawing and a few verbal instructions. Jim did not under- 
stand the situation very clearly, but he started to work. He 
busied himself for some time with the drawing, first scratch- 
ing his head behind the right ear and then behind the left, 
and then finally concluded that he had better make friends 
with the man operating the next machine. He frankly con- 
fided how matters stood, and the man taking pity on him. 
L'nowed Jim in as unostentatious a way as possible how to 

"Two amaU teeth or one big one?" 

set up the work, start the machine, manipulate the feed and 
work the index head. Jim started to work, taking great pains 
with the first gear. He indexed tooth after tooth carefully, 
and about noon he found that he had a space left that did 
not seem quite big enough for two teeth, but that clearly was 
too large for one tooth. He realized that here was a case 
where judgment meant more than experiencet?). and In order 
to show that he knew what he was talking about, he called on 
the foreman, showed him the situation, and said: "What 
would you think to be best — to put in two small teeth or one 
big one in the space that I have left here? Personally, I 
would say that two small teeth would work the best." The 
foreman looked at Jim steadily for what seemed like a long 
time, swelling up as though he were about to explode, but he 
was a wise foreman and did not cuss. He simply said. "I 
wish, Jim. that jou had given me your opinion about the two 
small teeth before you commenced to cut this gear. It wou^d 
likely have saved you and me a lot of trouble. The next 
time that you hire out as an all-around machinist, be careful 
abou-t giving your personal opinions unless you know what 
you are talking about. Perhaps you might be able to hold 
your job down a little longer than five hours if you do." That 
ended Jim's experience as a machinist in that shop. 



September, 1!)08. 



When constructing a die, the degree of accuracy with which 
It is made, and the general finish, will depend somewhat upon 
the amount of work that it will be required to do, or the 
number of pieces to be produced. When this number is com- 
paratively small, the most inexpensive die that will do the 
worlv properly should be made. Dies of this class are known 
as "emergency dies," as they are quickly made, and are not 
constructed to withstand long and continuous usage. When, 
however, a die is to be used incessantly for a long period, or, 
perhaps, until it is worn out through use, the materials used, 
and the quality of the workmanship, should be of the highest 
possible grade, and every detail brought as near perfection 
as possible. If the design of the die is at all complicated, it 
should be so constructed that the parts subjected to the great- 
est wear can be replaced, thus avoiding the necessity of mak- 
ing a new die. 

The selection of a high grade of steel for dies is of para- 
mount importance, and though such steel may be somewhat 
expensive, the increased efficiency of the die will more than 
compensate for this expenditure. In the Shop Operation 
Sheets accompanying this number, a simple form of blanking 
die is shown. This die, when in use, is held in place in a 
bolster, or die-bed, by the dove-tailed sides of the bolster, and 
by a key which is driven in between one side of the die and 

.Mathl.ieru.X. J'. 

Figs. 1 and 2. Illustration of the Saving of Metal Effected by cutting 
the Blanks diagonally from the Stoclf. 

the bolster. The latter is bolted to the table of the power 
press. It is not necessary to have a bolster for each die. for 
by making the die-fitting standard, a number of dies of nearly 
the same size may be used in the same bolster. In order that 
this may be done, the beveled sides of the die blanks are 
planed to an angle of 10 degrees, this being the standard 
angle to which the dove-tailed seats of the bolster are planed. 
The Shop Operation Sheet explains the various steps in con- 
nection with planing and laying out a blanking die. The die 
proper should be finished before the punch-plate or stripper, 
as these are laid out from the die itself. A piece of high- 
grade, annealed steel, long enough to make several dies, should 
be selected, and cuts taken on both the top and bottom sur- 
faces, the top surface being finished smooth. The piece is 
then set up on the planer as shown, with the finished, or top 
side, held against a beveled parallel strip, which, in turn, 
rests against an angle plate which is fastened to the planer 
platen. One edge of the piece is then planed. This finished 
edge is then placed next to the platen and the opposite edge 
finished. If one side of the parallel strip is at an angle of 10 
degrees with the other, it is evident that the beveled edges 
of the die blank will have a taper of exactly 10 degrees. Care 
should be taken to see that the finished side of the blank 
bears on the platen at both ends, after it is clamped in place, 
in order that th e beveled edges be made parallel. There 

• With Shop Operation Sheet Supplement. 

should bo no trouble in this connection if all chips have been 
tarefiilly removed, as the blank, when pressed against the 
taper parallel will tend to move downward. A piece of thin 
paper, placed beneath each end of the work, will, however, 
enable one to determine whether or not the work is bearing 
properly on the platen. 

After the steel strip is planed to fit the bolster, a piece of 
sufllcient length for the die is cut off. and the die is ready to 
be laid out Defore this is done, however, a templet or 
master blank should first be made. Sheet steel is used for 
this purpose, the thickness of which w'ill depend somewhat 
upon the size of the templet; for comparatively small work, 
steel about 3/32 inch thick will suflice. The outline of the 
templet should be laid out very carefully, and finished, by 
filing, to conform exactly to the required shape and size of 
the hole to be cut in the die blank. As the die we are con- 
sidering is a plain blanking die, it will only be necessary to 
make a templet having the required outline of the blank. 
If, however, the die were to be of the blanking and piercing 
type, the location of the holes to be pierced in the blank would 
be laid out on the templet to facilitate locating them in their 
proper place in the die. 

After the templet is accurately finished, the top surface of 
the die blank should be brightened with a piece of coarse 
emery cloth, and the surface prepared for laying out by either 
applying a solution composed of one part bluestone, and ten 
parts water (sulphate of copper), or by heating the die blank 
as described in Operation Sheet No. 74. The surface will 
then be either coppered or blued, depending upon the method 
employed, and on such surfaces all lines made by a sharp 
scriber will be bright, and made plainly visible by the con- 
trast with the darker background. 

The templet, or master blank, can now be used for laying 
out the die. It is first clamped centrally on the face of the 
die blank by the diemakers' clamp shown; then by following 
the outline of the templet w-ith a sharp scriber, its shape is 
transferred to the face of the blank. Before locating the 
templet, however, the most economical way of cutting the 
blanks from the stock must be determined, that is, the way to 
obtain the greatest number of blanks from a given weight of 
stock. It will be seen then that the way in which the die is 
laid out will depend, to a great extent, on the shape of the 
blank. The die shown in Operation Sheet No. 75 is laid out 
in the way best adapted to most blanking operations, that is, 
so that the blank is cut at an angle of 90 degrees with the 
edge of the stock, but while this layout might be considered 
typical, it is not the most economical one for the particular 
shape of the blank shown. In this case, it is more economi- 
cal to cut the blanks diagonally, with reference to the edge 
of the stock, as shown in Fig. 2. By comparing this illus- 
tration with Fig. 1, w'hich shows the scrap from a section of 
stock which has been blanked in the usual manner, the sav- 
ing in metal by diagonal blanking is apparent, as a much 
narrower strip of stock can be used. More blanks can also be 
obtained from a given length, as will be understood by noting 
the difference between the dimensions a and 6 in Figs. 1 and 
2. When thousands of blanks are to be produced, the saving 
in metal that is effected is considerable. 

When the shape of the blanks is such that there would, 
unavoidably, be a considerable amount of metal between the 
punched holes, the stock can. at times, be cut to a better 
advantage by so locating the stop, or gage pin (which regu- 
lates, by its position, the amount of metal left between the 
punched holes) that sufficient metal is left between the 
holes to permit the strip being turned around and again 
passed through the press. If a large number of blanks are 
to be made, however, a double blanking die would be prefer- 
able. The most economical layout can often be determined 
easily and quickly by cutting out a few paper templets, using 
the steel master blank as a gage, and arranging these in 
various ways until the best method of blanking is ascertained. 

After the outline of the templet has been transferred to 
the die blank, the centers of the holes to be drilled for the 
purpose of removing the core, should be located. In the Oc- 
tober issue, the way in which this core is removed, and the 
hole finished to conform to the master templet, will be ex- 


The accompanying engravings show a punch and die for 
the production of two 0.014 inch fliicli iron Ijlanlis, having 
almost ldenti<al outlines and proportions, and required to be 
produced in equal numbers. The blanlis to be cut are shown 
in Fig. 2, together with a central piece of scrap resulting 
from the blanking operation. In addition to the blanking' 
out of the pieces, two small holes, not shown In Fig. 2, are 
pierced at one end. By examining the design of the punch 
and die in Fig. 1, it will be seen thai the tool is essentially 
made on the compound i)rlnciple, the lilanks being pierced 
and cut out complete in both the upper and the lower die at 
the same time, and simultaneously ejected from each, together 
with the central portion A, Fig. 2, or, in other words, one 
of the parts required, C, is cut out by the upper half of the 
die. or what is commonly called the punch, and the other 

plainer than the engravings tbemBelves. The constructiou 
of the die, however, may be of some interest. The holders 
oor.sist of fiat castings, machined where necessary, having 
four bosses, one at eaih corner, for the sub-iiri-ss pins, and 
having projections or ribs cast where there are no outside 
cutting edges, for the purpose of strengthening the bolder, 
and providing a backing for the sections. The tool steel 
pieces which form the cutting edges of the dies, are planed, 
drilled and tapped, and the piercing holes reamed slightly 
tapered, after which these sections are hardened and finished 
all over by surface grinding. Prior to the hardening of the 
cutting sections, however, grooves are planed transversely 
in them as shown in the small section between the plan of 
the upper and lower die in Fig. 1. These grooves are '^ inch 
wide and % inch deep; they are planed on the under sides 
and serve to decrease the tendency of the ends of the long 


Pig. 1. Plan and Section of Upper and IaOwbt Portiona of Die for Cutting Pieces B and C in Figr. 

blank, B, is cut out by the lower half of the tool, or what 
would be called the die. In Fig. 2, the pieces cut out have 
been shown with differently inclined cross-section lines, in 
order to more plainly indicate the worlv done by, and the 
action of, the tool illustrated. The three laminations — the 
two pieces to be cut, and the central piece of scrap — slide by 
gravity from the face of the die into a box at the rear of the 
press, the press being tilted for this purpose. The die, as 
will be seen, is made on the sub-press principle, four pins 
being used in each of the corners to properly align the upper 
and lower dies, thereby lessening the liability of accidentally 
shearing the edges, and at the same time insuring quick and 
accurate setting, which cannot be obtained conveniently by 
any other method. The tool is placed in an inclinable, over- 
hanging, open-backed power press, running at 80 strokes per 

The general principles on which this die worlcs are so 
simple that by comparing the shape of the pieces to be cut, 
as shown in Fig. 2, with the layout of the die in Fig. 1, no 
explanation can make the general working of the die any 

steel pieces pulling away from the holder and rising up. 
thereby destroying the assembled condition of the punch and 
die, and making refitting of some parts necessary. 

The constant impact common to blanking operations affects 
the long hardened steel members in these dies to a marked 
degree. After about \<2 inch has been ground away on the 
top by repeated sharpenings, the long pieces will strain the 
threads on the screws which secure them to the face of the 
body of the die. and due to this strain, the long pieces will 
warp, the ends usually rising up. The grooves on the side 
next to the holder may not be an absolute cure for such unde- 
sirable conditions, but they tend to eliminate these troubles 
to a considerable extent. If the sections should warp in hard- 
ening, they may be straightened and replaced in their respec- 
tive locations on the holders by peening on the top, care being 
taken not to strike near to the cutting edge. The steel parts 
of the upper and lower die having outside cutting edges are 
held in position not only by the screws coming through from 
the back, but also by 14 inch thick backing plates, doweled 
and screwed firmly to the holder. 



Suptonibur, 11)08. 

The strippers are made of Mj-'nch boiler plate, and are 
planed on the outer face. They are forced to the top of the 
dies by coll springs made from %-lnch wire, and their move- 
ment is limited by the heads of %-inch hexagon screws. The 
nuts on the lower ends of these screws are jjreventod from 
turning by a groove filed In the side with a small round file, 
and pins driven into the counterbored seats, fitting with their 
ends in the grooves. All adjusting of the strippers is done 
from the top of the dies. It will be noticed that stripper 
plates are provided for the sheet outside of the die, as well 
as for the parts which are cut out by the die. When the die 
was first designed, no stripper plates were provided for the 
outside, as the sheet iron from which the blanks were cut did 
not seem to require any stripping on the outside edges; but 
it was noticed that when the die was in operation, the outer 
edges of the stocli sometimes bent down at quite an angle 

when the tool was cutting, re- 
sulting in unsatisfactory work 
when cutting blanks from the 
stock at places where the fit was 
slightly imperfect. The o\iter 
edges of the die also dulled more 
quickly than the inner edges, 
where strippers were used from 
necessity. By adding outer 
strippers to the die to clamp the 
stock, the troubles mentioned 
were overcome, and better work 
was turned out at the same time 
as the intervals between grind- 
ings became longer. Several 
years of experience have proved 
that when cutting sheet metal in 
large dies, it is by far the best 
practice to clamp the stock 
when cutting. When the stock 
is not so clamped, it is very liable to have a tendency to 
spread the die by straining the outer sections, or to cause 
other troubles. 

The piercing punches are driven into the holders, which is 
sufficient to hold them securely in place. Openings in the 
press ram flange are provided to allow the piercings to 
escape. In connection with this die, especial attention should 
be called to the small amount of scrap resulting from cutting 
out both of the odd-shaped blanks at once, the scrap for each 
two blaYiks being only the piece A in Fig. 2 and, of course, 
a narrow strip on each side of the stock used. 



Fig. 2. Pieces B and C, cut by 
Die in Fig- 1. and the Scrap Piece 
A resulting from the Operation. 


Some time ago the writer had occasion to make some 1%- 
inch eye-bolts, that is, eye-bolts having 1%-inch shank, for 
generators, and with the tools at hand he found It a rather 
difficult job. In the first place a 2 by 4 inch machine steel 
bar was hammered down enough for a shank about 2 inches 
in diameter. The piece was then cut off about 4 inches from 
the shoulder, and a 2-inch hole punched in the center, which 
hole was thereafter increased to 3 inches. The corners were 
then cut off, as shown at B in Fig. 2, and the inside and out- 
side corners around the hole were removed in order to procure 
a circular section at this place. The result was a fairly good- 
looking job, but the time it required to make the forging was 
too great, it having required about three hours to make the 
first eye-bolt, and when the time was cut to 2V2 hours, it was 
considered as doing well. 

The writer, however, was not satisfied, and asked the super- 
intendent for permission to make a forming tool, but, for 
some reason, this was refused. But later, receiving an order 
for as many as 12 eye-bolts, he undertook to make the tool 
"on his own hook," the superintendent having gone away for 
several days. The tool was made, and the time was cut to 
three-quarters of an hour on each ej'ebolt, and by using the 
furnace, they could be made in one-halt hour each. It took 
the writer and a helper about five hours to make the forming 
tool, and there was four hours machine work on it, making a 
total of nine hours, or a total cost, including shop cost, of about 

$11.00. Considering the cost of the first eye-bolt to be in the 
nelghborliood of $4.00, including the shop cost, the writer 
thought that the saving In time more than paid for the tool. 
In the following is described how the tool was nv.ule. 

One of the best of the eye-bolts previously made was filed 
up smooth and well rounded for the purpose of forming 
the tool. A ring was also made of 1'4-inch round machine 
steel, 3V4 inches inside diameter, as shown at A, Fig. 2, In- 


O— > 

1 ,* 

3 '.y-'- B " 

JiaeUnrrf, X.y, 

Fig. 1. Former or Die for Eye-bolt Forging. 

tended for making the first indention in the tool. After this, 
two pieces of locomotive driving axles were obtained, and 
two pieces or plates made, 7 inches square by 2% inches thick. 
The corners of these were hammered, as shown in Fig. 1. The 
two pieces were heated, and the ring placed between them, 
and then hammered together. After this, a piece of 1%-inch 
round steel was used for forming the groove for the shank 
as shown at A, in Fig. 1. The plates were then again heated, 
and after having removed the scale, the eye-bolt was put in 
place between them, and once again the plates were hammered 
together, after which the edges were worked up with a bob- 
punch to get them sharp. Then the eye-bolt was put between 
the plates again for the final blow. 

. MaeMntry, .Y. F. 
Fig. 2. Successive Steps in Forging an Eye-bolt. 

When the steel plates had cooled off. two holes were drilled 
at opposite corners, as shown at B in Fig. 1, while the eye-bolt 
still remained in place. The plates were then bolted together, 
and a hole drilled through the center, as shown at C in Fig. 1. 
This hole was bored out to 2% inches diameter. The bolts 
were then taken out, and the holes at the corners drilled for 
%-inch pins, which were then driven into the bottom part, 
with the ends tapered slightly on the outer end, so as to enter 
the holes in the upper part of the tool. The pins were of 
such length that when the dies were placed together, the pins 

September, 1908. 


were below the surface of llie tlios. Finally holes wen' (hilled 
in one corner of the upper die at />. Kig. 1, to tit the jaws of 
ihe tongs for handling It. 

The blank fortiings are now made in 'Ihe same way as before, 
and as sliown al 11 in Fig. 2. The blanlis are placed lielwoen 
tlie forming dies, and these are hammered togetlier, and wlien 
the eye-bolt Is taken out, the surplus metal will be found 
around the outside of the eye-bolt and in the hole, as shown 
at C. in Fig. 2. Tills fin Is cut off from the outside, and the 
eye-bolt is then again heated and placed in the die for a final 
blow. Then a short piece of steel, 3 inches in diameter and 
about I'.j inch long, as shown at D. Fig. 2, is placed on the 
die of the steam hammer, and a light blow will clean out the 
inside edge of tlie eye-bolt, leaving it linished as shown at E, 
in Fig. 2, excepting for cutting the shank to the proper length. 

Decatur, 111. Gkokgk T. Coles. 


There are a great many interesting operations, common 
enough in some siiops. which the workmen in other shops sel- 
dom or never hear about. A shop which has many things 
of interest and value to the wide-awake machinist is the 
Remington-Sholes typewriter factory. One of the many in- 

Piff. 1. Part St&tnped and Rolled to Shape, at Various Stages of Completion. 

(cresting operations carried out in this shop is a process 
for rolling a head on a stamped punching. The process may 
not be new, but it is certain to be of interest to many of 
the readers of Maciii.xery. In Fig. 1 is illustrated a small 
detail for a typewriter in full size; at A Is the piece as cut 
in a die from stock about 3/32 inch thick. This part is cut 
in the sub-press die B, in Fig. 2. The piece shown at C, Fig. 
1, is the same part with a head rolled on it. It will be noticed 
that there are some fins around the edge of the rolled or formed 

^ pr » 


Fig. 2. Sub-presa Dies used for Stamping: and Trimming Pai-t in Fig I. 

portions. At D, in Fig. 1, the piece is shown trimmed off, 
the trimming being done in a sub-press die, as shown at E. 
in Fig. 2. The stem of the piece is Inserted in the slot in the 
lower die shown at the top. It is clamped by means of the 
eccentric lever shown at one side, the trimming being done by 
the upper half of the die. 

It would be very ditficult, if not entirely impossible, to do a 
satisfactory forming job of this type in a punch press. The 
work is done in a special rolling device, the elementary prin- 

ciple of which is shown in Kl(.'. 3. The heails /■' and O of the de- 
vice rock up and down about pivots, as Bhown, between the 
positions indicated in the full lines and the pusitiouB shown in 
the dotted lines. The piece to be formed is held in a die be- 
tween /•' and G. and the heads, as they rapidly move up and 
down, gradually are fed toward each other, thereby rolling 
the metal into the shape indicated. The appearance of one 
of these heads, (1. is shown in Fig. 4. Ktha.n Viam.. 

Decatur, 111. 


It may not have occurred to many of the readers of Ma 
CHINERY that blue-prints of small size can be made without a 
blue-printing frame. An ordinary window can be used if the 
sun shines through it, and a blueprint can be made in any 

i/aMiiM^y. A i; 

Fig. 3. Principle of Rolling Device. 

window. An ordinary thick bath towel is placed behind the 
print, the tracing being placed against the glass. The towel 
should be folded into two or three thicknesses and arranged 
so that no wrinkle or uneven part lies against the print. A 
small drawing board may then be placed against the towel, 
but it is better to tack the towel at its corners to the board. 

Fig. 4. One Head of Rolling Device, showing Construction 
of Work Holder. 

It is also advisable to attach the tracing to the printing paper 
by small gummed stickers, to keep them in the proper posi- 
tion and to prevent sliding. Ordinary stickers cut into nar- 
row strips will be sufficient, and need engage only a narrow 
surface on both the paper and the tracing, to serve the pur- 
pose. The print can then be frequently looked at without 
disturbing the relation, and can be easily torn off without in- 
juring it or the tracing. Fragments of the stickers are 
easily scraped off. The printing paper and tracing can be 
held by a blank projecting edge against the window while the 
towel and board are being pressed against them. Any suitable 
means for holding the board in place may be used. 

Another improvised printing outfit used by the writer con- 
sists simply in spreading the towel evenly upon the floor 
where the sun can strike it, placing the printing paper and 
tracing upon it, and then merely covering these with a thick 



September, 1908. 

. plate of glass. When nrst laiil dowu, the glass may be pressed 
downward with considerable pressure, after which its weight 
alone will be sufficient to keep the paper smooth. This will 
be the case if two or three thicknesses of bath towel are used. 
This plan wcrks perfectly for sheets 10 X 15 inches and below, 
this being the size used by the writer. Larger prints could 
doubtless be made in this way it weights were put upon the 
corners of the glass. 

Another very practical way of making small prints is to use 
a smooth board with a slightly curved face. A tack placed 
in each corner of the tracing and print will cause them to 
snugly lie against the curved surface of the board, making a 
sharp and clear print. No glass is needed. C. E. Blunai-. 

Battle Creek, Mich. 

In these days of taper turning attachments, it is not often 
that one has to set over a tailstock to turn a taper. Some- 
times, however, this has to be done, and the methods usually 
given are not only clumsy and troublesome, but almost invari- 

Fig. 1. Method of obtaining Setting for Taper Turning, First Step. 

ably end up with the statement that no account has been 
taken of the effect produced by the uncertain depth to which 
the center holes have been drilled. It is not conducive to 
one's respect for the author of a rule, after figuring out by 
proportion how much to set over a tailstock to turn a taper 
of 0.650 Inch on a piece 3 21/32 inches long, to be told that 
this is only approximate and the exact setting must be 
determined by trial. As a better method, and one which 
not only eliminates all figuring, but also gets rid entirely of 

with a sliding head, should be held against the side of F and 
this latter turned in the tool-post until the edge of the blade 
D "cuts " the points of the centers A and C. The piece F 
should then be clamped, care being used to prevent changing 
this adjustment in clamping. It is evident that the side of 
F will now make an angle with a perpendicular to the axis 
4 B of the lathe, which is equal to half the angle of the 
required taper. Now move up the tail-stock, and place the 
piece to be turned (A', Fig. 2) between the centers. Then 
hold a small square H against the piece F and set back the 
tail-stock until the blade of the square shuts out the light 
when held against /•' and brought up to the piece K. Should 
K be longer than one foot, obviously the tail-stock should be 
set over moi-e instead of being set back. If care be used in 
each step of this process, a taper three or four inches long, 
when tried with a chalk line along its side, just as it comes 
from the lathe, will show a bearing for its entire length. 
While it has taken some time to describe this process, I do not 
think it takes over three minutes in actual practice to set 
over a tail-stock to turn a given taper after the work is 
ready. H. C. Lord. 

Columbus, Ohio. 

Fig. 2. Setting the TaU-stoclc for Taper Turning : Second Step. 

the uncertainty of the center holes, I venture to offer to the 
readers of Machineey a method which I have used for some 
time In the instrument shop of the Emerson McMillin Ob- 

The piece to be turned should first have its ends faced off 
true, and a smooth cut taken over about two or three inches 
of its length, the centers being accurately in line. Then take 
the piece out of the lathe and move the tail-stock until the 
extreme poinis of the centers are exactly one foot apart, as 
shown in Fig. 1, the tail-center B being dotted. Then, in any 
convenient way, set over the tail-center exactly one-half the 
required taper per foot; that is, the distance BC should be 
one-half the required taper per foot. A piece F, which has 
been planed smooth and true on at least three sides, should 
then be placed in the tool-post G. This piece should be about 
the size of the body of the tools used in the lathe. A machin- 
.ist's steel square with a blade one foot long, and preferably 

A few home-made tools are shown in the accompanying 
engravings. The construction of these tools is very simple, 
and they will make a desirable addition to a die-maker's col- 
lection. During several years experience as die-maker, the 
writer has noted with considerable interest many different 
methods of locating round piercing punches in a punch holder, 
the means employed differing as widely as the men who used 
them, ranging all the way from the crude method of trans- 
ferring through the die by means of a twist drill, to the 
accurate master plate which is in almost universal uae In 
the watch-making factories. 




^D ,F 




Fig. 1. Device for Locating Holes 
for Punches in Punch Holders. 

Fig. 2. 


Die-makers' Square or 

In Fig. 1 is shown a device which the writer has used con- 
siderably for locating the punches for small open dies, with 
the best results. The bracket G is made from tool steel, and 
the hole A is ground so that it is accurately at right angles 
with the face F. This can best be done on the face-plate of 
the bench lathe, using a revolving steel lap charged with 
diamond dust or carborundum. When using the tool for 
locating small round punches in the punch holder from the 
die, a piece of drill rod is first turned up, as shown at B, so 
that the diameter of the portion C equals the size of the hole 
in the die, and the part D is a close sliding fit in hole A. The 
piece B is then pressed into hole A, and the end C of the pin 
is placed in the hole in the die. One of the punches, that has 
previously been put into the punch-holder, is now permitted 
to enter its corresponding hole in the die, and when this is 
done, scribe lightly through the elongated hole E with a bent 
scriber on the punch-holder. After this, the die and bracket 
G are removed and a hole drilled and tapped in the punch- 
holder for a clamping screw in the center of the scribed out- 
line. Xo great accuracy is needed, as the slot E should be 
enough larger than the screw to admit of considerable side- 
play, and the screw can be placed anywhere within the length 
of the slot. After having drilled and tapped this hole, the 
die and punch are again assembled, and carefully levelled up 
with parallels. The bracket G Is placed on the punch-holder, 
and the screw in slot E is put in position and tightened, 
thereby binding the bracket to the punch holder, a bent screw- 
driver being used for tightening up the screw, if it has a 
slotted head. It is evident that the end of pin B which locates 
hole A of the bracket G now being clamped to the punch 
holder, is exactly in the position which the punch should 

September, 1908. 



occupy ill tlie finisheil tuol, bt'causo iMiil C of pin li rntcis the 
corresponding hole in the die. All that therefore remains 
now Is to place the punch-holder on the face-plate of a lathe, 
indicate tlie pin, in the usual way, so as to insure the hole 
being bored central, remove the locatinK tiracliet, and bore the 
hole for the punch. This method, of lourse, leaves a small 
threaded hole in the punch-holder, but this can easily be 
plugged up. Should it, however, be objectionable to have 
a tapped hole in the punch-holder, the bracket may be held 
to the punch-holder with a little solder on each side, care 
being talien that the bracliet is held down firmly to the holder 
when the solder is applied. 

In Fig. 2 is shown a die square, which, when carefully 
made. Is a vtry handy little tool. As will be seen, the blade 
can be adjusted from a 90-degree angle, or a perfect square, 
to an angle slightly larger or slightly smaller than 90 degrees. 
This tool is used for measuring the clearance of dies. By 
this means the die maker can measure the angle of clearance 
without the use of a regular protractor, and he can set this 
tool to the angle required for different jobs. The body part 
.1 is made of tool steel in two pieces, each side being recessed 
to accommodate the blade F. One side has a slot cut through 
it at B, which is bevelled and graduated. The rivets C shown 
serve to hold the two parts of the body together. The blade 
F is made of tool steel and Is pivoted on the pin D, and locked 
by means of a knurled screw E, the point of which rests on a 
hardened disk, to prevent marring the blade. The projecting 






Pig. 3. Tool for Cutting or Scraping 
the Edges of Thin Templets. 


Fig. 4. Handy Holder for 
Thin Templets. 

part of the blade is bevelled, as shown in the enlarged section 
at G, to allow the light to be more readily seen under it 
■when in use. 

The tool, Fig. 3, Is used in squaring up the edges of thin 
templets. The body part A is of tool steel having the corners 
nicely rounded, so as to be convenient for handling. A hole 
is drilled and tapped in the end for the screw B, which holds 
the pin or cutter C in position. This cutter is milled off on 
three sides, and is then hardened, and afterwards ground In 
the bench lathe, using a tool-post grinder with a cup wheel. 
When the cutting edge gets dull, the screw B is loosened, and 
the cutter G is turned around one-third of a revolution, so 
that the next cutting edge can be presented to the work. 
When all the edges are dull, the tool can again be ground on 
all the three sides. 

The tool shown in Fig. 4 Is a simple templet holder for small 
templets, which does away with the soldering on of a piece 
of wire, in which operation one usually manages to get part 
of the solder over the edge of the templet, which, whether 
left on or filed off, does not add to its accuracy. Another ad- 
vantage of this holder is that when using a templet which 
is thin, and therefore has a tendency to spring, washers can 
be roughed out approximately the shape of the templet, only 
a little smaller, and the templet can be placed between them 
and the nut screwed up to hold the templet between the 
washers. It can then be held firmly in a flat position. As 
an example may be shown the templet at the right side in 
Fig. 4, which is very thin, and would be difficult to work 
through a die in the ordinary way, but by making two washers 
or guides, not illustrated, of approximately the same shape 
as this templet, it may be held straight and flat. When 
the washers holding the templet are long and narrow, as in 
the present case, it is well to bend them a little before bind- 

ing with the nut, bo as to prevent the ends from lifting up 
when the nuts are lightened. Roy Plaistkij. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 


In manufacturing establishments, where small cars are used 
for transferring material and other supplies from one point 
to another, it is common to have turn-tables for changing the 

Marlt(aeri/tX. Y. 

Pig. 1. Action of Cur-wheels shown in Pig. 2 when on a Cur\'e 
of Short Radius. 

direction of the cars. Under these conditions, the car must 
be run onto the turn-table with some care, especially when 
the wheel base of the car is as long as the turn-table will 
admit, and much time is often lost in placing the car and 
swinging the turn-table to bring the car into position to take 
the new direction. For this and other reasons, curves in- 
stead of turn-tables are preferable, but in a manufacturing 
plant it is obvious that the curves must needs be of such 
short radius that cars of special construction are necessary. 
The object of this article is to describe a car that was especial- 
ly designed to meet these requirements, viz.. a car that will 
automatically adjust itself from running on a straight track 
to running on a curved track of short radius, say twelve feet, 
and which on passing the curve readjust itself again to 
straight running. The accompanying illustration, Fig. 1, 


Fig. 2. Construction of Car-wbeels for Curves of Short Radii. 

shows a car of this type with wheel flanges on the inside of 
the rails. The dotted lines marked CA show the direction 
of the center lines of the wheel axles which are rectangular 
in section, and rigidly fixed to the frame of the car with 
their depths perpendicular. The dotted lines CW show the 
direction of the center lines of the wheel-bearing sleeves. 
These sleeves are malleable castings cored parallel and an 
easy working fit (all the way through) in the up-and-down 
direction, but in the forward and rear direction the cored 
axle-seat is only parallel fcr about one-sixth of the length of 
the sleeve. This short parallel part of the axle-seat in the 
sleeve is directly above the center of the rail, and from 
each end of this short parallel part to each end of the sleeve, 
the cored axle seat flares, in both forward and rear directions, 
aa amount depending on the radius of the curve the car is 
intended to traverse. This short parallel part must be loose 



September, 1!H)8. 

enough on the axlo to let the sleeve swivel the full nninunt 
whieh the flared parts permit. 

Now, if the car is pushed or pulled forward or backward, 
the axle is forced against the short parallel part of the axle- 
seat, and if the ear is on a straight track, the wheel bearings 
will stand parallel with the axles. When a curve in the track 
is reached, and the flange of the wheel comes in contact with 
the rail, as shown at P in the engraving, Fig. 1. the wheel 
will force the sleeve to swivel, and the short parallel part of 
the axle-seat in the sleeve will be thrown out of line with 
the axle, but will always have a tendency to come back into 
line, and will do so as soon as the car reaches a straight 
piece of track. 

In the detail construction in the engraving. Fig. 2, A is the 
axle, B is the wheel-bearing sleeve, is a thin steel casing 
split lengthwise and pressed on the sleeve with the split at 
the top, and Ci is a thin steel bushing in the wheel-hub. (It C, 
is split, it must be done spirally.) The part D is a cap with 
two set-screws in it to keep the wheel in place on the sleeve; 
B Is a pin driven through the end of the axle between the end 
of the sleeve B and the inside of the cap D. The end of the 
sleeve B. where the pin goes through the axle, is convex in 
the forward and rear directions, the radius of the convexity 
being the distance from that end of the sleeve to the center 
of the short parallel part of the axle-seat. When the pin in 
the axle is against the highest part of the convex end of the 
sleeve, the end of the axle should clear the inside of the cap 
D by abcut cne-oighth inch. J.^mes T. Grimshaw. 

Detroit, Mich. 

A very good tool for graduating work in the milling ma- 
chine, when the index head is used for spacing, is shown in 
the engraving below. The tool is held stationary on the 
arbor in the same manner as a regular milling cutter, and 
the work is moved back and forth under it, the table stops 
being used to get the correct length of stroke. The body 

of the tool is made 
of machine steel, 
% inch thick, IVs 
inch wide, and 2% 
inches from the 
top to the cutting 
point. The hole A 
is bored for a 1- 
inch arbor. 

The cutter blade 
B fits freely into 
a slot milled in 
the machine steel 
body. It is made 
of i/s X 1-inch tool 
steel, hardened 
and tempered, and 
the cutting edge is 
ground to a 60-de- 
gree angle. The 
cutter is also 
ground at an 
angle of 80 de- 
grees to the front 
edge of the body 
for clearance. The 
pin C which holds the cutter in the slot is of 14-incli drill rod. 
The spring 7) at the front of the tool, which keeps the cutter in 
proper position when cutting and allows it to ease up when 
backing out, is 14 inch wide and lU inch long, and is held by 
a small screw E. Rapid, clean work can be done with this 
tool without danger of breaking the point. Ethan Viai.l. 

Tool for Graduating. 

drilled in place in the Jig. In the lower part are shown the 
details of the device. The piece to be drilled is turned and 
threaded in the screw machine, from bar stock, and the 
spherical head slab-milled in the milling machine. The hole 
to be drilled is the hole B in the head. The main body G 
of the jig is knurled to permit a good grip in handling, and 
is bored to 11/lG inch diameter, which corresponds with the 
diameter of the spherical head of the piece to be drilled. The 
three small counterbored holes D permit of the introduction 
of the feet or plungers E, around which are placed small 


The drill jig described In the following is so simple in its 
construction, and so easily manipulated, that I think it will 
be suggestive for improvement in drill jig design to some 
of tne readers of Machinery. In the upper part of the line 
engraving the jig is shown assembled, with the piece A to be 

'«^-'<-^ : llachlncru.S. V. 

Drill Jig of Simple but Interesting Design. 

helical springs. The stems of these feet E pass beyond the 
body C, and are threaded on the upper ends, the threaded 
portions entering into the cover F. The jig is now com- 
plete except for the bushing G, which, of course, is hard- 
ened, and made of tool steel. This bushing is pressed into 
the body C, and is just long enough to leave, when it is 
pressed down flush, sufficient room for the flattened head 
of eye-bolt A. The slot at H allows clearance for the 
stem of A. which latter provides a very convenient handle 
when drilling. In the event of a piece with a shorter stem 
being used, a small handle can be driven or threaded into the 
side of the body C to hold it while drilling. 

With the feet E resting upon the drill press table, and the 
thumb and fore-finger on either side of the body C. press 
downward in order to remove the piece; then, after inserting 
a new blank, the pressure on the body C is released, and the 
small helical springs bring the body C up against the cover 
I'\ thereby holding the work securely. The jig is now turned 
over, and, using F as a base, the hole is drilled through the 
work from the bushing G. C. H. Rajisey. 

Paterson, N. J. 


I have seen one or two devices around the shop for auto- 
matically stopping the lathe, or warning the operator when 
the tool had reached the end of its cut. which were very 
primitive in design, but served the purpose well. 

One way of stopping the lathe is to hang a weight on a 
cord which is attached to the shipper and which passes over 
a rod on a level with the bottom of the shipper. The weight 
is set on the back V of the lathe in such a position that when 
the carriage has reached the end of the cut. It will push off 
the weight, which will cause the shipper to be pulled over, thus 
stopping the machine. This device is used mostly on lathes 
with jobs running half an hour or so, and where the operator 
is running some other machine. 

Another arrangement used by the piece workers on roll 
turning, where they do not stop the lathe at all, is a tell- 
tale. It is a strip of sheet steel fastened by one end to the 
carriage and set in such a position that when the tool has 
reached the end of the cut, it w-ill rub against the faceplate, 
making a noise like an old style watchman's rattle, thus 
notifying the operator. Paul W. Abbott. 

Lowell. Mass. 

Septomber, 1908. 




I was much interested in Mr. Wasliburn's description of his 
toggle drawing punch for can ends (sec February, 1908, Issue 
of MACiii.NEiiY), as I have been closely connected with the can 
business for a few years. I like the toggle punch for shallow, 
unenibossed. piish-through work, but for the general line of 
can tops and bottoms I prefer a single action combination 
die, as there is usually some embossing to be done in addition 
to the cutting and drawing of the bottom; a top with an open- 
ing Is also usually required on fruit ami vegetable or "paclt- 
ers" " cans. This opening is used for fining, and is later closed 
with a cap. It has been found that a lip on the mouth of 

Figs. 1 and 2. Punches and Dies for Can Covers and Bottoms. 

a can end is essential to rapid and economical production, as 
it makes the entrance of the body into the ends more easy. 
and also maintains a good tight fit so as to make a good joint 
with the least amount of solder. 

The style of punch and die that produces a large portion 
of the can ends used by packers and supplied by the so-called 
can trust, is shown in Fig. 1, and might be termed a single 
action, cutting, drawing, and embossing combination. In addi- 
tion to the operations mentioned, the "single" dies, and espe- 
cially these of odd sizes, are further combined so as to make 
bottoms and tops with various size openings ranging from 1% 
inch to 3% inches in diameter; and even after this was ac- 
complished the blank from the l"i-inch opening was bumped 
up into a roofing tag. 

The gang dies are of identical construction, and are part 
of a line of machines that make a can and make three tops 
and three bottoms at each stroke; the sheet of tin is turned 
over to cut three more of each at the next stroke; then the 
stock goes to another gang press that makes six can caps 
and ten smaller caps for bottles. By this time the sheet 
is so well decorated with holes that it can be handled 
only with a pitchfork. This scrap is shipped to a detinning 
plant. The blanks from the can top openings are worked up 
under other presses, usually automatic. Some sheets make as 
high as twenty-four tops and bottoms and a relative number of 
smaller pieces. 

The engi-aving above of the die will probably need some 
slight explanation. Center block A. is made the same diam- 
eter as the outside of the can body, as this part determines 
the smallest possible diameter of the inside of the can end. 
The center block is bored out to receive die centers made 
for different size openings, and as these all come within the 
diameter of the panel X, the height of all must be alike at 
this point, though the contour may vary inside the diarneter 
of the panel. It is my practice to make the contour of the 
die centers lower than the rest of the bottoms, which makes 
it possible to run out tops as required, and by removing the 
punch only and changing to punch centers adapted to bottoms, 
as shown, bottoms can be made without changing the die or 
setting the die or press, which results in a considerable saving 

of the die setter's time when only one or two dies are avail- 

It win be readily seen that It Is not neei-.s.sary to have solid 
die centers or center blocks fcr boltoniK, as the punch center 
determines the convexity and the size and shai»e of the panel, 
provided the die center does not Interfere. Sometimes tops 
are required without the panel; then the die center Is raised 
an amount equal to the height of the panel, and the punch 
center shortened an equal amount, and a separate knock- 
out used. The part C Is the cutting edge, and D the pressure 
ring which can have a bevel of from 20 to 25 degrees, as a 
shallow draw has so little tenden-y to wrinkle, and bec^u-ie 
such wrinkles can be ironed out with a high pressure from 
the rubber barrel, there being little danger of bursting the 

The cutting edge of the punch is bevelled to fit the ring, 
which permits considerable upsetting before It Is necessary 
to refit. This cutting edge of the punch is 5/lC to 3/8 inch 
ahead of the embossing or bottoming point; this feature per- 
mits the die maker to upset and fit the punch to the cutting 
edge and ring without sinking back the entire interior of the 
punch, which means a gnat saving of time, when one considers 
that the punch can be fitted eight or ten times before sinking 
back. The diameter of this portion is made 0.010 Inch to 
0.012 inch larger than the proper size up to within 3/32 Inch 
of the knockout, then bored the proper diameter to draw the 
metal to the size of the center block; this double diameter 
draws, makes the end too large, and then redraws most of it 
to the proper size, leaving the lip flared out slightly, as shown 
exaggerated in the views of the tops and bottoms — a small 
detail that saves thousands of cans and many pounds of 
solder, and results in a higher speed of production. The 
forming punch F forms the metal around the hole blanked 
by punch E, while G forms the bead and panel and acts as 
a knockout through the springs as shown. The punch parts 
are held by a cap-screw, and a bit of soft rubber H insures 
the shedding of the blank. 

In the roofing tag combination, the blanking punch is fitted 
with a pick-up piercing pin J (Fig. 2) pointed to burst a hole 
instead of piercing it, and slightly reduced in diameter so 
as to pick up the work. Knock-off pins are provided, and they 
and the knockout ring are operated by a %- by i.j-inch bar 
actuated by the pin shown in the shank of the punch. The 
punch center and ring are slotted to make room and give 
action to the stripping bar. The die space is filled up with a 
forming post, forming and stripping ring and stripping pins 








iliichincrUyX. F. 
Fig. 3. Plain and Paneled Can Tops and Bottoms. 

supported by the threaded plug screwed into the die plate. The 
ring is intended mainly to hold the blank control on the 
down stroke, so the center pins are some little shorter than 
the others. A stud instead of a pipe now supports the rubber 
barrel, as there are now no blanks to go through. This seems 
like a lot of work to save a small piece of tin. but I know 
of one factory that makes 25.000,000 of these blanks yearly. 
I want to call attention to the difference between these two 
punches: The knockout in Fig. 1 begins to strip the work an 
instant after it is formed, and the work lies on the die but 
falls with the movement of the stock, the press being inclined 
as usual. With the style shown in Fig. 2 the work is picked 
up almost to the top of the stroke before falling, hence it is 
out of the way and permits easier movement of the stock. 
The roofing tag must be picked up high enough to drop clear 
of the die; if it drops in the die the next piece will be spoiled. 




September, 1908. 

After reading Mr. J. J. VoelcUer's remarks in tlie May Issue 
of MACiiiNEnY, relating to the use of the steady-rest, I 
would say that his remarks are very good as far as they go. 
but one of the most Important suggestions has been left 
out, which is necessary to make the subject more complete. 
This important point is that of setting the steady-rest. It 
seems to be quite common among machinists simply to set 
the steady-rest by screwing down the jaws upon the work 
until they have what they think is a running fit between the 

work and the jaws. 
This, of course, Is a 
very poor way, espe- 
cially for finished 
work, and would, as 
Mr. Voelcker says, 
need emery cloth, 
with the cloth side 
next to the work, in 
order to prevent mar- 
ring the finished sur- 
face. Even then, 
however, there is a 
'■C> liability of scratching 
the work if it has to 
be run for any length 
of time, because the 
steady-rest is set too 
positive to allow for 
e.xpansion of the 
metal by the heat 
due to friction. The writer has always found that the 
best way to set the steadj'-rest is that indicated in the ac- 
companying illustration. Referring to the engraving, the 
binding screw A should be screwed down with the fingers. 
This gives the workman a chance to adjust the tension of the 
jaws on the work every few minutes, and especially when 
filing the work, this gives very good results, as the nut can 
be adjusted according to the expansion of the work. It is 
admitted that emery cloth is a good thing to use in most 
cases, but there is no need of it if the precaution mentioned 
above is taken, providing the jaws have ordinarily smooth 
faces. The nuts on the bolts B. C. and D, for adjusting the 
jaws themselves, should be tightened positively with a wrench 
as soon as the work has been set central. 

New Britain, Conn. J. W. Dickixso.\. 

.i;.T.;,.„^,.„..v. r. 
Setting the Steady-rest. 


In the manufacture of tools requiring a great many dif- 
ferent marks to designate the different parts, the cost and 
up-keep of the dies is no small item. Having this in view, 
the idea of dies or type to lock in a form was submitted 

c£i B 


Fig. 2 JIacliineri/.XV. 
Figs. 1 and 2. Two Types of Die-holders for Marlcing Machine. 

to the builders of a marking machine, and the holder. Fig. 1, 
with three sets of figures and an alphabet, were made, in which 
the type A (shown also in detail), were held in place by a 
Fegment B which was fastened by screws C. This holder 
was not a success, as segment B would break at D, and, there 
being no way to hold the point from side play, the type would 
work loose. To overcome this, the holder shown in Fig. 2 
was made, in which type A and insert E are held from side 
play in the groove formed by milling away the tongue of 

the center piece, as shown by dotted lines, while screw H 
takes up end play. To change the type In the holder. Fig. 1, 
It was necessary to remove screws C and take off B. To 
change In the other holder, screws O are removed, when the 
side can be taken off leaving the type and insert free. With 
this holder an average of 750 impressions, of from 2 to 2.5 
letters and figures each, are made daily on annealed tool 
steel. With three sets of figures and an alphaliet, the range is 
very large, and can be increased at a fraction of the cost of 
separate dies for each mark. Our range, at i)resent, embraces 
over 200 different marks. 

Muscatine, Iowa. F. P. Hebard. 


The illustration shows a pipe-bending device which will 
be of value to anyone wishing to bend pipe without the trouble 
of filling it with sand or other materials. The mandrel E 
is held on base K by the steel block D. Stop collar F is set 
and pinned on the mandrel in such a position as to allow the 
end of the mandrel to project slightly past the center line of 
swivel block A, which is pivoted at B. and rounded out for 
the pipe. The backing block C. which also fits the pipe, is 
set so as to allow the pipe to slide over the mandrel E, and 
keeps it from buckling while it is being drawn off the 

The pipe is shown in the illustration after having been 
bent at right angles. Before making the bend, the swivel 
block A is set in a position parallel with the mandrel E, and 
the end of the pipe is then placed on the mandrel. It is 


Pipe. bending Device. 

held to the swivel block by means of a sliding block G which 
is locked by the eccentric lock-lever H. After making th.; 
bend, the lock-pin L is pulled out, after which the block G 
and the eccentric lever H can be removed; the pipe may then 
be pulled off the end of the mandi-el. R. H. M 


The accompanying engraving shows a fixture which was de- 
signed to straddle mill the casting shown in the upper right- 
hand corner. It was required that the piece should be finished 
on the two ends A and B, and that these ends should be ap- 
proximately square with the side C, which is rough. It was 
important that the top surface A should be a certain distance 
from the side E of the cored hole F, and that the length from 
A to B should be kept constant. It was decided to use a 
hand miller for the operation, finishing one piece at a time. 

The fixture consists of a base D of cast-iron, planed off on 
the bottom, and having a key to fit the slot in the milling ma- 
chine table and holes in the ends for the usual holding down 
bolts. The flat side of the work rests on the hardened tool 
steel plate /, and the side C is pressed against the jaw T by 
the clamp G, thus locating the work square with the cutter 
spindle. The work is held down by the action of the beveled 
surfaces of the jaw T and the clamp O, acting on the upper 
round corner of the work. The clamp is pivoted at 6 to the 

September, 1908. 



base ot the fixture, and Is operatetl by the eccentric h through 
the two connoctlug rods // which are attached one on each 
side of the clamp. The base is cut away lo allow clearance 
for these connecting rods, and the hardened tool steel plate 
U is let into the back of the base for the eccentric lo work 
against. The side plates V are fastened to the sides of the 
base to keep out the dirt. A coil spring forces the damp 
G away from the work when the eccentric is released. 

To keep the distance between E and A of the work con- 
stant, It is necessary to gage from the surface E, and the 
locating piece must enter the hole F, which is less than 7-16 
inch square. The locating piece must also be withdrawn a 
sufficient amount alter the work is properly located and 
clamped, in order to clear the cutter. The edge P of the locat- 
ing piece R, which is pivoted to the slide L, rests against the 

MUling Fixture of Ingenious Design. 

surface E of the work. The slide L is dove-tailed on the bot- 
tom to fit the base of the fixture. One end of the lever is 
pivoted to the slide at X, and the other end to the center Y of 
the arm 8. This arm S Is pivoted at one end Z to the base ot 
the fixture, and has a small knob in the other end to serve as 
a handle. 

The plate d is placed over the slide to keep out the dirt 
and also carries the stud e to limit the movement of the arm 
S. A small coil spring K keeps the end M of the locating 
piece R in contact with the lever 0. 

To operate the locating mechanism which is illustrated 
in the position in which it is just at the time the work is 
clamped, the arm S is turned 90 degrees to the left In the 
direction of the arrow. This moves the end of the lever 0. 
pivoted at Y, to the left, and the opposite end N of this lever 
to the right. By the action of the coil spring K on the locating 
piece R. the end M follows N to the right, and the opposite 
end P moves to the left away from surface E into the square 
opening of hole F of the work. The action of the arm in mov- 
ing through an arc of 90 degrees also pulls back the slide, 
since the lever is pivoted to it. When the arm 8 moves 
through the first few degrees, the slide has no appreciable 
backward movement, while the lever has a comparatively 
large movement at the end N to the right. This difference, 
caused by the location of the pivot points ot the moving parts, 
is such that the end P of the locating piece is first moved to 
the left, away from the surface E, into the square opening 
of hole F of the work, before the slide starts back. The latter 
part of the movement of arm 8 pulls back the slide enough so 
that part R will clear the cutters. 

In locating the piece, the opposite action, of course, takes 
place; the first part of the movement ot the arm causes the 
slide to advance, and the last few degrees movement causes 
it to remain practically stationary, while the end P of the lo- 
cating piece R is moved to the right. With the locating mech- 
anism withdrawn and the clamp O loosened, the operation is 
as follows: The work is laid on the plate / and up against 

the Jaw T and held there with the left hand, while with the 
right, the arm iS is bwung throufeh an arc of 90 degrees to the 
position In the engraving. The work Is then moved until 
the surface E conies in contact with the locating piece, and 
the operator, with his right hand, throws the eccentric lever 
,/ downward In the direction of the arrow, which <auBes the 
clamp (r to grip the work tightly, thus holding It down, and 
holding side C square with the cutter. The arm H Is swung 
In the direction of the arrow, pulling the locating racchanlsni 
out and away from the work. The table is fed towards the 
cutters In the usual manner. 

In operation, this jig proved to permit very rapid manipula- 
tion, and the quality of the work was all that could be desired. 


The engraving. Fig. 1, illustrates one of the most con- 
venient trucks, or "dollys," as the shop men call them, for 
moving all kinds of shop machinery, that I have seen. There 
are tew machines, such as are usually found in the average 
machine shop or factory, that cannot be mounted on these 
trucks and easily moved wherever desired, without resorting 
to the old method of rollers and a crowbar or two — the rollers 
in most cases being short lengths of shafting, or even steam 
pipe. Even w^hen rollers are used, the machine usually has 
to be mounted on skids. 

With these trucks, the machine is jacked up. the trucks run 
under and bolted fast to the legs. The jacks or blocking is 
then removed, and two or three men push the outfit wherever 
v.anted. guiding the trucks by means ot short iron bars placed 
in the holes shown at A in the line engrav- 
ing Fig. 2. The body of the truck is made 
of five pieces of oak, 29 inches long and 5 
inches square, securely mortised and bolted 
together, and bound on the outside by a 
band of iron 3/16 inch thick and 4 inches 

The four rollers, placed as shown, are 
made of cast iron, and are 6% inches long, 
5 inches in diameter, and revolve on a piece 
of li.i-inch shafting firmly strapped to the frame. This 
arrangement of four rollers makes turning the trucks much 
easier than would be the case with two long rollers. It also 
admits of a much more rigid frame. 

On top of the framework is mounted an arrangement simi- 
lar to the "fifth wheel" of a wagon. Firmly fastened to the 
upper half of the wheel is a piece ot heavy channel iron about 









Figs. 1 and 2 Truck for Moving Machinery. 

4 inches w-ide, with a cliannel 2 inches deep. On top of this, 
two pieces of iron, V- inch thick, 5 inches wide, and 10 inches 
long, with slots in them G inches long, are riveted. Blocks 
of hardwood, with slots to correspond to those in the plates, 
are fitted into the channel. The rivets, running through these 
blocks, prevent the bending of the plates where the slots 
weaken them, and also make a much more solid job with little 
additional weight. The slots in the plates allow the bolts, 
which are inserted frcm below, to be adjusted to accommodate 
different widths of legs. The wood blocks are slotted all the 
way out on the inner ends so that the bolts may be taken 
entirely out, if necessary. Viall. 



September, 1908. 



ContrlbuUonn of kinks, devlcoa nod methods of dolnfr work nro solicited for 

tills column. Write on one side of the paper only and 

send sketches when necessary. 


We had a number of pieces similar to A in the engraving 
below to machine with a slot having a round bottom or 
hole B through the entire length. No milling machine was 
available for the job at the time. The slot had to be some- 
where near central with the hole, and this is tlie way we did 
the job. The block was first planed square all over, then a 


slot was planed out to the proper depth. Piece D was set in 
the slot as shown to form a square hole and act as a guide for 
the long pilot E of the counter-bore. The four sides of the 
square hole, one of which was formed by the inserted piece 
D, guided the counter-bore central with the slot and at the 
right distance from the bottom of block. In this way we did 
a very satisfactory job. E. S. Wheeleb. 

Every machinist knows that when planing T-slots the tool 
has to be blocked or else lifted on the return stroke. The 
former process is hard on the cutting edge, and if the clapper 
be a heavy one, the latter is tedious for the planer hand, with 
the ever-present risk of a momentary lack of vigilance on his 
part and the resultant ruined tool or work. To obviate both 

blocking and lifting the tool, I made some latches, as shown 
in the engraving, and applied them to the slotting tools. They 
need no explanation, and can be used wherever the work 
permits the tool to swing clear at each end. For a case 
wnere the slight rubbing of the latch on the return stroke is 
undesirable, a pad of fiber is put on -with two number 
screws. Donald A. Hampson. 

Middletown, N. T. 

WTien cutting threads on screws and bolts, whether by 
threading dies or in a lathe, much time is wasted by gaging 
the threads with either a nut or a ring thread gage of the 
ordinary type. In the case of a. piece held between lathe 
centers, in order to gage the thread with the ring gage, it is 



f tj^i-i 




necessary to remove the piece from between the centers. The 
Dresdner Bohrmaschinenfabrik A.-G., Dresden, Germany, is 
making a gage for measuring the threads of screws, which 
serves the same purpose as a ring gage, but saves the user 
considerable time. This gage is shown above. The end 

marked A fits over the threads, and the end marked C is 
supposed not to pass over the threaded screw, when threaded 
to the right size. Thus, not only can the size of the threads 
be tried, but at the same time the gage acts as a limit gage. 


The job shown at A below, is one which I have to do 
quite often, and the following is the best way I have found 
of doing it. First I made a split collar B, the outside diam- 
eter of which was turiud to fit a collet chuck. In making 

SlachinerUiS.T- ■ 

the eccentric, a piece of steel % inch larger than the finished 
size is used. This is chucked in a three-jawed chuck with 
about % inch throw, and the end o turned to finished size. 
The side 6 is then faced, and the piece is cut off, allowing 
enough to finish the face c. The piece A is then inserted into 
the hole in the collar B, which is held in the collet chuck, and 
the surfaces d and c finished. Original. 


A rush order came to our department for a dozen shafts 
such as shown in the illustration. The immediate hurry, com- 
bined with the doubt that the order would ever be duplicated, 
made it imperative that seme method should be devised to 
make them right away, regardless of whether or not a little 
more time and thought would enable us to do the work in a 
way more satisfactory in the long run. The additional tools 
we had to make cost so little and worked so well, that I think 
a description of how we finished the shafts will prove of 
interest to the readers of Machinery. 

The shafts A, which were S% inches over all, were first laid 
out with care, with two of the crank-pins B directly opposite 
the third one. The larger part of the shaft was finished to 
15/16-inch diameter, and the crank-pins B turned to 5/16-inch 
diameter. The latter were first roughed out as much as they 
would stand without supports, and then the shafts were all fin- 

_Ji \J[ai:hin'cru,y.T. 

ished to size. Here is where cur special tools came in. These 
consisted of four tool-steel bushings nicely reamed to fit the 
shafts, and, in addition, three plugs of i,o-lnch round stock, 
two of which were % inch, and one, i,o inch long. The three 
smaller bushings C were heated to a dull red and dipped in 
oil to prevent them from stretching when in use. The crank- 
pin on the left was first turned to size, then a plug D was 
squeezed in, and a collar, which was a nice snug fit, forced 
on. The relation the collar and plug have as a support for 
the shaft while the next crank-pin is being turned can now 
be readily seen. In this manner the three pins were finished, 
each time a collar and stud being added. When they were all 
turned, cne large collar took the place of the three smaller 
ones, the plugs D still remaining. Then the part A. and the 
two ends, were turned. The shafts, when examined, were found 
to be true, besides being finished in good time considering the 
nature of the turning. Pkdho. 

September, 1908. MACHINEHY 


ThlB page is Intended to be used only for the publication of Buch ahop re- 
ceipts as the contributors know Prom experience to be practicable. Receipts 
are soltclled on the condmon that the contributors personally know that they 
are reliable The (hot that a receipt Is old and supposedly well-known does not 
bar It, provided It has not already appeared here. 

When soldering, and no acid is handy, a common tallow 
candle will answer the purpose. John 13. Si'khby. 

Aurora, 111. 


.Mix thoroughly one pound of pulverized chall< with one- 
quarter pound of borax. Rub some of this mixture into a 
chamois slun, and rub the tracing carefully with this. This 
preparation is superior to pure chalk. Rex McKee. 

.Toliet, 111. 


The following receipt for marking fluid for blue-prints lias 
given me satisfaction. The fluid is composed of potassium 
oxalate, 1 ounce; gum arable, 1 dram (60 grains); water, 6 
ounces; cobalt-blue to color. 

Staten Island. N. Y. William H. David. 

The short ends of old arc lamp carbons may be cemented 
together to form rods which burn quite well, and are no 
more brittle than ordinary carbons. The cement required is 
made by mixing potassium silicate and carbon dust to a 
consistency of a thick paste. The ends of the short carbon 
pieces are faced off square, and, after application of the paste, 
are pressed together by Ijand. O. G. 

While a great many shops now have facilities for attending 
to shop accidents, the necessity is often felt by the mechanic 
working in a small shop, or outside, for a useful salve to be 
applied to wounds in case of accident. The writer has made 
the following salve himself, has used it, and knows that it is 
far in advance of most articles for sale in drug stores at ten 
times the price. The ingredients are as follows: Two parts 
of swallow oil, five parts of petrol wax, two parts eucalyptus, 
and two parts of beeswax. Aeden. 

Rust may be removed from small steel parts such as screws, 
nuts, pins, etc., when they are not badly pitted, by dipping 
them into a dilute solution of sulphuric acid. To prepare 
the acid bath, pour the acid little by little into a bowl partly 
filled with water. After each addition of acid, try one of the 
rusted parts, and continue trying until the proper strength 
is obtained to eat the rust off clean. Better results will be 
obtained in this manner than by working to a set formula. 
Let the parts remain in the acid bath until cleaned of rust, 
then remove and wash in soda water, and then in benzine. 
Finally dry the parts and brighten in sawdust. 

S. W. Gkeen. 


Everyone knows how a small wound caused by rusty 
pieces of metal oftentimes develops blood poison, or lock- 
jaw- The following old-fashioned but infallible "first aid to 
the injured" may therefore be of value to remember. Ordi- 
nary brown sugar is heated on the surface sufficiently hot to 
produce a smoke, and the wound is held in this smoke for 
several minutes. No serious results will follow after this 
treatment, and all soreness will be taken out of the wound 
even though the application takes place some time after the 
accident. The smoke given off by burning woolen rags is 
equally effective, and, as they are more often available, par- 
ticularly to a man "off on a job," to keep this simple remedy 
in mind may be well worth while. Doxald A. Hampson. 

Middletown, N. Y. 

In order to keep white lead and tallow soft in winter and 
Bummer alike, bo that It can be applied with a brush to 
finislied piirtB of machinery before shipping them, and for 
use in niting keys, etc., prepare a mixture composed of five 
pounds of wliite lead and fifteen pounds of tallow. Heat this 
in a suitable receptacle, and stir until the ingredients are 
thoroughly mixed. Then remove the mixture to a cool place, 
and add two quarts of linseed oil. continuing to stir the com 
position until it becomes cold, as otherwise the white lead 
will settle to the bottom. This mixture will always remain 
of the same consistency at all temperatures. R S. F. 

Persons having occasion to paint oil wells of bearings, or 
any surface coming in contact with either hot or cold oil. will 
find a zinc paint consisting of 25 pounds oxide of zinc, 3 gal- 
lons gloss oil. and 1 quart linseed oil, cut with turpentine, 
and bleached with ultramarine blue, to be one of the best 
coverings ever made. The surface to be covered should be 
absolutely free of all greasy or oily substances; if proper 
care is taken, the paint will not crack and will retain its pure 
white appearance indefinitely. The paint can be blown into 
water jackets of bearings, filling the sand holes, and as it 
dries rapidly, will be found excellent for the purpose. 



The following solution will change the color of blue-print 
paper to a dark brown: Borax, 2% ounces; hot water. 38 
ounces. When cool, add sulphuric acid in small quantities 
until blue litmus paper turns slightly red, then add a few 
drops of ammonia until the alkaline reaction appears, and 
red litmus paper turns blue. Then add to the solution 1.54 
grains of red crude gum catechu. Allow this to dissolve, with 
occasional stirring. The solution will keep indefinitely. 
After the print has been washed in the usual way, immerse 
it in the above bath for a period of a minute or so longer 
than necessary to obtain the desired tone. An olive brown or 
a dark brown is the result. John B. Spebry. 

Aurora, 111. 


The pieces to be blackened should first be polished with 
No. 120 emery cloth. After polishing, the surfaces should be 
cleaned carefully, and then the work placed over the fire and 
drawn evenly to a second blue. Then, the work is dipped in 
lard or sperm oil, from which it is immediately removed, and 
all loose oil shaken off. This prevents the forming of blisters. 
An old piece of rubber, for instance a piece of old garden 
hose, is then placed on the fire, and as it burns, the work is 
held over the flame and smoke that comes from the rubber, 
until it is covered with a thick coat of black soot. The work 
is then removed from the fire, and permitted to cool off 
slowly. When cool, it is rubbed with an oiled cloth. All 

this must be done in one heat. 
Tarrvtown, N. Y. 

E. W. Norton. 


Blue-prints that have become burned or over-exposed, may 
be saved by the use of the following formula: Make a satur- 
ated solution of bichromate of potash, and keep a supply on 
hand in the blue-print room. If a print becomes over-exposed, 
wash it in the usual manner in a tank or tray of water, after 
which place it in another tray which should contain a mix- 
ture of two parts water to one part of the saturated solution 
of bichromate of potash. Allow the print to remain in the 
tray containing the solution until it shows a deep blue color 
and the white lines are clearly defined (which requires but 
a few seconds), after which the print should be thoroughly 
washed and rinsed in clear water. The proportion of the 
bichromate of potash may be increased or diminished as the 
occasion requires. This solution also acts equally as well 
when applied to white-prints made from vandyke negatives. 
Prints, as well as expense^and time, may be saved by the use 
of the above solution. -. C. Hassett. 

Meadville, Pa. 



September, 1908. 



Olve aU details nnd nntno and nddrcsa. Tho Inttor aro for our own convontence 
aud will not bo published. 


J. A. J. — In toslins east Iron cylinders used for dryer rolls 
on paper machines 48 inches diameter, 120 inches long with 
(he heads secured by cap-screws, which is the most severe 
test, 100 jioiinds per square inch steam pressure or 100 jioiinds 
cold water pressure? 2. Is there any difference in the sizes of 
the molecules of steam and water? 

A. — 1. Theoretically the stresses imposed by 100 pounds 
steam pressure and 100 pounds water pressure are the same, 
but for the purpose of a test to determine the tightness of 
the joints, water pressure is to be preferred. Small leaks are 
easily discernible with water that would escape detection with 
steam. Moreover, small steam leaks soon "take up." in the 
parlance of steam fitters, whereas small water leaks close very 
slowly, the sealing depending on the rusting of the metal. 
Compressed air is more searching than either water or steam; 
it will escape through a very minute aperture, and the leaks 
have no tendency to seal themselves. Water pressure obtained 
with a pump is more severe on the structure of cast iron than 
steam pressure because of the water hammer due to the 
pump action. 2. The chemical combination H,0 exists in 
three forms, i. c, ice, water, and steam, and it is supposed that 
the size of the molecule is unchanged in all three states. 


J. G. I. — 1. What 1^ the method of figuring the angle to 
which to set a universal milling machine table for cutting a 
given spiral? 2. Is not the involute system for standard cut 
gears exclusively used? 

A. — -1. To calculate the angle of the spiral to be milled on 
a cylinder, the lead of the spiral and diameter must be known. 
Then the formula is: 


Tangent a. = 

in which o =: angle of the tocth with the axis of the gear, 
7r= 3.1416, 

D=: diameter of piece. 
For example: What is the angle of a spiral with its axis 
that makes one turn in 27.22 inches, the diameter being 3^4 

3V. X 3.1416 

Tangent a = =0.40403, 

tne tangent of 22 degrees. 

2. The involute tooth is the form most used in the United 
States for cut gearing, but it is by no means exclusive. Cast 
gearing is generally made with cycloidal teeth, and some 
users of cut bevel gears prefer the cycloidal to the involute 


V. A. W. — 1. How are oil holes drilled in the so-called oil 
twist drills used for deep hole drilling? The holes in the 
samples before me are only about 5/32 inch in diameter and 
about 8 inches deep. They follow the twist of the flute. 2. 
How is the beautiful gray color produced on drills and milling 
cutters that is characteristic of the product of some small 
tool manufacturers? ' 

A. — 1. The holes are drilled before the drill is twisted, the 
blanks being rough-fluted, the drill twisted, and then finished 
in the usual manner. The drilling of the oil holes is done 
progressively by small twist drills, arranged in order of length, 
each drill deepening the hole made by its predecessor only % 
or % inch. The hole is begun with a short, stiff drill which 
starts the hole perfectly straight and true, and the following 
drills are guided by the section of the hole first drilled. This 
practice avoids the use of a long slender drill to drill the 
first part of the hole, and enables the drilling to be done much 
faster than would be possible otherwise. For a description of 
this practice in drilling small deep holes in pneumatic ham- 
mer barrels, see Maciiixert, December, 1902, page 231, engi- 
neering edition. 2. The beautiful gray color noted on twist 

drills, milling cutters, etc., is doubtless produced by the sand- 
blast process used by some makers to remove the burned oil 
and oxide resulting from the hardening process. It is merely 
incidental to this method of clciining, but because of the beau- 
tiful, frosted surface it hns a merit of its own. We believe 
that the same result is also obtained by electrolysis, the tools 
being suspended In an electric bath. The passage of the elec- 
tric current removes the oxide and leaves the surface in much 
the same condition as that produced by the sand-blast process. 


C. M. W. — Please give me instructions for making a mag- 
netic chuck to hold pieces of "i X Vi X 4-inch hardened 
steel for grinding, etc. I wish to use the chuck on an incan- 
descent lighting circuit, and desire to know the size of wire 
and the quantity required for winding the magnet. 

Answered by William Baxter, Jr.. Jersey City, N. J. 

It would not be possible to give all the information you de- 
sire without writing an answer that would fill a book. Wrt 
ran say, however, that if the magnet M is made of cast-iron 
or wrought-iron and wound with wire up to the lines B, it 
will hold the steel piece A if a direct current is passed 
through the wire. The force with which A would be held 
against the poles PP' would depend upon the kind of metal, 
the number of ampere turns of magnetizing current flowing 
around M, the distance between the ends of P and P'. their 





— 1 


1 1- 

\ / 

^^ i i 
1 1 , 

A ] 


/ \ 

■7'--| c 





Y -1^- A ■ ^ -H 


P' ^;J.-. 

/ ,.\ 

P ' " ; 

' 1 1 


-il - .Y .iivlwrVvCvT ■ ■ __- 






:-:-:.:::v.^.o: :.:■■:■:.:■::■;■:: :^x:■:■:■:■:■^^:o^^>^:<<>o^>:■^:■:■^ 

.••Ui.hnicra.S. r. 

shape, and the general conformation of the whole structure. 
The ampere turns are obtained by multiplying the number 
of turns of wire in the magnetizing coil, by the current 
strength in amperes. The force with which the poles P P' 
will hold the bar A is determined by the aid of the simple 



F = — , 


in which F is the tractive force in pounds, A is the area of 
contact between bar A and the poles PP' in square inches, 
and B is the magnetic density in lines of force per square 
inch passing through the surface of contact. To find the force 
with which A is held, all that is necessary is to know the 
magnetic density B. The way in which this is found we can- 
not give briefly, but you can find it in any good book on elec- 
trical engineering. If M is made of wrought iron, the pull 
will be about three times as great as with cast iron, other 
things remaining equal. If the ends of PP' are shaped as in- 
dicated by the dotted lines C. the pull will be further in- 
creased. You could wind the coil with No. 20 B. & S. gage 
magnet wire, and connect it in series with four or five 16-can- 
dle lamps; that is, connect so that the current passes through 
the lamps and then through the coil. If the wire does not 
get dangerously hot, and the magnet is not strong enough, 
connect more lamps in the group, putting the second lot of 
lamps in parallel with the others. 




The 1{. K. LeBloml Maehine Tool Co., 4Gii!i ICastern Avenue, 
Ciiii iiiiiati. Oliio, builds a line of milling machines which is 
well known to the readers of Maciii.nkuy. To extend the use- 
fulness of these milling machines over as wide a range of 
work as possible, the builders have designed a very complete 
and ingenious line of attachments. We show herewith half- 
tones and Hue drawings of these various attachments, to- 
gether with numerous illustrations showing their application 
to general shop work. 

Worm and Spur Gear Hobbing- Attachment. 

The device shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 is designed particu- 
larly for the hobbing of worm-gears, but, as will be explained 
later, can be used for spur gears as well. 

Fig. 1. 

Hobbing Attachment for the LeBlond Milling Machine Cutting 
a Large "Worm-wheel. 

The head- and foot-stocks of this arrangement are those of 
the builder's standard plain dividing head, the attachment 
itself consisting of means for connecting (through the index 
worm or directly as required) the spindle of this dividing 
head by change gears with the spindle of the machine, in 
such a way as to give the required ratio of rotation between 
the hob and the wheel. This connection is made through a 

Pig. 2. 

Cutting a Small Worm. wheel with the Change Gearing Directly 
Connected to the Work Spindle. 

flexible transmission system consisting of bevel gear joints 
and a splined shaft, which permits absolute freedom of ad- 
justment between the index head and the spindle. On the 
threaded nose of the latter is screwed a spur gear, meshing 
with a corresponding gear on a short spindle, supported by a 
bracket clamped to the over-hanging arm of the machine. This 

shcrl spindle carries a bevel gear meshing with a mate keyed 
to a short vertical shaft from which the splined shaft la 
driven, through another pair of bevels. The connections from 
these through to the back side of the head can be readily fol- 
lowed by comparing Figs. 1 and 2, where the machine Is 
shown in two different adjustments, to each of which, as will 
be seen, the arrangement readily adapts itself. 

Fig. 3. Bobbing a Spur Gear with the Hobbing Attachment on a 
Universal MiUing Machine. 

The quadrant carrying the change gears for obtaining the 
desired ratio between the cutter and work spindles is best 
seen in Fig 3. The driving connections are so arranged that 
the driving shaft from the change gears can be connected 
either directly to the spindle for cutting wheels of few teeth, 
or through the indexing worm and worm-wheel for large num- 
bers of teeth. In Fig. 1 the attachment is set up for hobbing 
a worm-wheel having many teeth, so the connection is made 

Fig. 4. Universal Spiral Gear Cutting Attachment. 

through the index worm of the dividing head. In Fig. 2, on 
tha contrary, a worm-wheel of tew teeth and for a multiple 
threaded worm is being hobbed, so the ratio of rotation is too 
high to be conveniently transmitted to the worm gearing. 
Under, these conditions the change gearing is attached di- 
rectly to the work spindle. 

The advantages of the positive method of hobbing worm- 
wheels are well known. The positive connection between the 
wheel and the hob makes unnecessary the preliminary gash- 
ing of the former, and so materially reduces the time and 
cost cf doing the work. In some cases it may be done in from 
one-fourth to one-fifth of the time required for the method 
which combines gashing and hobbing on a freely running 
work spindle. A very fine feed Is provided, and the work can 



September, 1908. 

be fed into the hob automat ically and tripped when the teeth 
have been cut to the proper depth. 

The worm-wheel shown in Fig. 1 has 120 teeth, 0.390 inch 
circular pitch, and is a trifle over 15 inches in diameter. The 
coarse pitch worm-wheel in Fig. 2 has 26 teeth. 6 pitch, quad- 
ruple thread, and Is 2 % inches diameter. This gives a ratio 
of 6% to 1, requiring the change gearing to be connected dl- 

blank, as is required by the usual method of performing this 
work on the milling machine or automatic gear-cutter. 

A set of compound gears is furnished for reducing the feed 
in the ratio of about 20 to 1. The reason for requiring this 
very fine feed is that the advance of the cutter per revolution 
should be In proportion to the number of teeth of the gear. 
For instance, in cult ins a spur gear with GO teeth, if we wish 


Flgr. S. DetaUs of Construction of 

rect to the spindle, as explained. The gears are hobbed com- 
plete in 12 minutes apiece, with power feed. 

Perhaps the most interesting use of this attachment is for 
the cutting of spur gears by the bobbing process. This pro- 
cess has been previously described in Machixert,* and the 
principle of its operation fully explained. It requires simply 
that a suitably shaped hob be rotated in the proper ratio with 
a spur gear blank, and fed through it at a suitable speed, 
the hob being set to cut teeth to the correct depth. The hob 
must also be set at the helix angle of its thread, as measured 
on the pitch line, if it is to give the proper shape to the 



«\ ^ 






. e/3 - 






N 1 




S ' 



W^^y lam 


k >-■ 


1 ^^9 



the Spiral Gear Cutting Attachment. 

to feed the work past the cutter at 0.060 inch per revolution 
of the work, it will be necessary to set the feed to equal 1/60 
of this amount or 0.001 inch, per revolution of the cutter. 

The spur gear being hobbed in Fig. 3 is 8 pitch 102 teeth. 
The capacity of the device is for work up to 16 inches in 
diameter, the spur gears and worm-gears alike. 

Universal Spiral Gear Cutting- Attachment. 

There are tw-o noticeable points of difference between the 
universal spiral gear cutting attachment shown in Fig. 4, and 
most other attachments which have been built for the same 
purpose. One of these differences is the fact that in this case 
the cutter is mounted so that it can be centered on the ver- 
tical axis about which the angular adjustment is effected. 
This being the case, the work may be centered with the cut- 
ter, which is then swiveled to any angle desired throughout 
the whole 360 degrees, without requiring recentering. The 
other feature of the construction, plainly evident In Fig. 4, is 
the manner in which the supporting head of the device has 

Fig. 6. Cutting a Spiral Gear of Large Diameter and Large Lead., 

teeth of the gear. It will be seen that this attachment, as 
described and shown in Figs. 1 and 2, furnishes the required 
movements and adjustments, except for the setting of the hob 
at the helix angle. To accomplish this, it is only necessary 
to use the device on a universal machine, as shown in Fig. 
3, bringing the table around so that the work and the hob 
are in the proper angular relation to each other. Under these 
circumstances, with the hob set at the proper depth and the 
proper change gears mounted in place, the hob may be started 
at one edge and fed through, finishing the work complete at 
one passage. This method of cutting spur gears has the well- 
known advantages of cutting all numbers of teeth for a given 
pitch with a single hob, and of giving a large output, owing 
to the fact that the cutting action is continuous, and does 
not require the return of the cutter and the indexing of the 

• .See article entitled Gear-Cutting Machinery, March, 1908, issue of 

Fig. 7. Cutting B Spiral of Short Lead on the Plain Milling Machine, an Opera- 
tion Impossible on the Universal Machine without Special Attachments. 

been off-set vertically, so as to raise the cutter nearer the 
center line of the spindle, and thus increase the maximum 
vertical distance obtainable between the top of the table and 
the bottom of the cutter. If it were not for this offset and for 
the change in the method of driving required by it, the 
capacity of the machine under the cutter for work mounted 
en the table or on centers, would be materially reduced. 

September, 1908. 



The mechanism of this device Is best understood by refer- 
ence to Fig. 5. The body A of the device Is clamped, through 
collar B, to the front of the column at the end, and Is pro- 
vided at the other, or outer end, with a bearing entering the 
hole in the outer support for the arbor (see Fig. 4). The at- 
tachment thus does not have to depend entirely on Its own 
rigidity in supporting the cutter, but has the additional stiff- 
ness of the over-hanging arm to depend on. To A is ilaniped 

Fig. 8. The Universal Milliner Attachment cutting an Inclined Slot. 

the swivel base C, by means of bolts D entering a circular T- 
slot in its outer face. This arrangement provides for the ad- 
justment of C to any angle throughout a full circle about the 
vertical axis xx. It is centered on its seat in A by means of 
the inter^l shoulder shown. The exterior surface, as seen 
at the right, is graduated in degrees to indicate the setting 
obtained. Dovetailed to C on horizontal guides is the spindle 
head E. The adjustment along the slide is effected by shoul- 
der screw F. seated in C. and nut G, clamped to E. This 
adjustment provides for the centering of the cutter on xx, the 
axis of angular adjustment. 

The main bearing of the spindle H is tapered % inch to the 
foot, and runs in a bronze bearing J, fast in head E. An out- 
board bearing K is also provided. This is tapered and is 
drawn by the nut shown into a taper seat in the removable 

The drive Is taken from the main spindle of the machine 
through a pinion R, keyed to a taper shank /?, driven into the 
spindle hole. This meshes with a gear T, which has a shaft 
integral with It journaled In casting A, and carrying keyed to 
It at Its outer extremity bevel pinion U. This pinion meshes 
with bevel gear V, keyed to bronze sleeve IV, to which is also 
keyed another bevel gear X. This sleeve revolves on the stud 
about whose axis the angular adjustment of C on A takes place. 
Bevel gear X mates with bevel gear Y, which Is bronze bushed 
and revolves on a stationary stud. On the shank of Y Is dow- 
eled gear Z, which engages pinion teeth cut at the left-hand 
end of spindle H. The teeth of // are made of sufficient length 
to provide for the longitudinal adjustment of the head E when 
centering the cutter. It will be seen from the end view that 
the bottom of the spindle head Is flattened oft as close as pos- 
sible to the outside diameter of the driving pinion, so that the 
cutter may project beyond all parts of the attachment far 
enough to do such work as rack cutting. If required. 

Two examples of the use of this attachment are shown in 
Figs. 6 and 7; in both of these cases a plain milling machine 
is used in combination with the same plain Indexing head to 

Fig. 10. Circular Milling Attachment with Automatic Peed and Throw-out. 

which the bobbing device is shown attached in Figs. 1, 2 and 
3. This combination of plain index head and spiral gear cut- 
ting attachment converts the plain milling machine into one 
of the universal type. In Fig. 6 a spiral gear of large diam- 
eter and small helix angle is being cut, so the head is set at 
but a slight angle from a position parallel with the spindle 
of the machine. As may be seen, the head is connected by 
change gears with the table feed screw, the same as for the 
universal arrangement. In Fig. 7 the attachment is shown 


— y 


Fig. 9. Details of Conatruction of 

bearing support L. This bearing, which is thus adjustable 
for wear, is removed bodily with L when changing cutters. 
For this purpose L is mounted in a dove-tail slide on the 
under side of spindle head E, being clamped there by bolt M. 
The cutter is clamped between collar N and the flange on 
sleeve 0, which latter is pressed against the cutter by nut P 
at the outer end of the spindle. For locking the horizontal 
adjustment of E, used for centering the cutter, bolts Q and Q 
are provided. 

21achinery,X. T. 

the Oniversal Milling Attachment. 

performing work which the universal milling machine is in- 
capable of doing except with special appliances. This work 
is the cutting of spiral gears of such large helix angle (or, in 
other words, of such short lead) that it would be impossible 
to swing the table through the required angle, thus necessi- 
tating tlje use of a right angle drive for the spindle, or the 
doing of the work with the vertical milling attachment. The 
possessor of the plain indexing device and this spiral gear at- 
tachment, therefore, is in some respects better equipped for 



Si'pletnbcr, I'JOS. 

spiral work than if lie had a milling machine of the universal 
type. He is not, of eourse, able to do either indexing or spiral 
cutting on taper work, but otherwise he is provided for. This 
attaehraent may also be conveniently used for thread milling. 
Universal Milling: Attachment. 
The universal milling attachment shown in operation in Fig. 
8 and in detail in Fig. 9 is of something the same construction 
as the spiral gear cutting attachment, though it is built for 
a wider range of work, and so differs in the details of its con- 
struction. As may be seen in Fig. S. the cutter is mounted in 
a taper hole at the end of the spindle, instead of centrally 
betw'een two bearings, as in the previous attachment. No end 
movement is provided for the spindle, and there is no neces- 
sity for keeping the distance from the center line of the spin- 
dle to the face of the spindle bearings down to a minimum. 

atioiis in degrees are provided for both of the swivel move- 
ments with which the spindle is thus provided. 

The device is driven by a short shaft S, having a tongue on 
its inner end entering the slot cut in the nose of the spindle. 
Uevel gear U, keyed to the outer end of S. engages bevel gear 
r keyed to shaft W, which latter is journaled in body A and 
swivel base C of the machine. The lower end of TV has keyed 
to it bevel gear X. meshing with bevel gear y on the spindle, 
which is thus revolved at the same rate of speed as the main 
spindle of the machine. It will be seen that the drive is 
simpler than in the case of Fig. '>. partly because the offset 
to give increased working range in the device is not required, 
and partly because the drive of the spindle is less restricted, 
so that a direct bevel gear drive may be used in place of the 
spur gearing of the previous attachment. The spindle H, 




Fig, 11. Details of Construction of the Circular Milling Attachment and its Feed Connections. 

as the work required of the device is mostly in the nature 
of end milling, or other operations in which this clearance 
is not vital. These considerations simplify the design of the 
device. An additional movement is provided, however: an ad- 
justment at any angle throughout the whole circle, about the 
axis of the main spindle of the machine. 

In Fig. 9, A, the main body of the device, is supported at 
the cuter end by the over-hanging arin as in the previous 
case, while at the other end it is fastened to a flange B. which 
is in turn made fast to the face of the column. Bolts T, enter- 
ing the circular T-slot in B. provide tor clamping body A in 
any angular position about axis yy of the machine. Swivel 
plate C is clamped to A by bolts D entering the T-slot in the 
former, so that the spindle head L, which is fastened to C, 
may be adjusted at any desired angle about axis zz. Gradu- 

shown in Fig. 9. is provided with a special taper for a collet 
with a threaded shank. It will also be furnished with a regu- 
lar No. 7 Brown & Sharpe taper having a hole for a through 
bolt, to be used in drawing the taper shanks to their seats or 
ejecting them for removal. 

In Fig. 8 the attachment is shown engaged in milling an 
angular T-slot, the work shown being the table of the cutter 
and reamer grinder built by the same firm. Other operations 
for which it is adapted are for such a variety of work as drill- 
ing, Uey-seating, and milling of spirals of too great an angle 
to be done with a cutter driven directly by the main spindje 
of the universal milling machine. Special conditions are 
readily met, the device often obviating the necessity for angu- 
lar mills, since the spindle can be swiveled to any angle of 
the horizontal or vertical plane. It will be noted that the 

Sfptoiuber, 1"J08. 



front bi-arliiK Is tapered % Inch per foot, with a hardoned anil 
ground Journal. The rear bearing Is straight, and Is adjusted 
by cliawing In the split taper bushing. 

Circular Milling' Attachment. 
Fig. 10 shows a circular milling attachment with automatic 
feed and throw-out, which is adapted to be used especially 
with a vertical attachment such as shown in Fig. 12, for the 
flnisliing of all kinds of cylindriial surfaces, on work which 
can lie conveniently held on a circular table. 

Fig. 12. Use of the Circular Milling Attachment In Finishing Straight 
and Circular Surfaces. 

The details of this device are shown in Fig. 11. The circu- 
lar base of the device, A, is clamped to the milling machine 
table. Table B rests on base A and is centered with it by a 
circular rib which closely fits a machined circular opening in 
the top of A. To a seat in this circular rib is clamped worm- 
wheel C, which, in combination with worm D, forms the means 
for revolving the table, and at the same time serves as a gib 
for drawing B down to its bearing on A. The center of B is 
provided with a tapered socket for convenience in holding 
arbors or studs for centering work, and other special uses. 
The extended hub provided for this taper hole is connected 
by ribs with the body of the table, so as to make the whole 
very rigid, and able to resist distortion due to the clamping 
of the work on its upper surface, without cramping the table 
on its guiding surface. 

Worm D may be operated by a crank and index plate at the 
outer end. of the same kind as used on the builder's standard 


HI 1 1^^ . .^iMflflHUB^^^^I 

i^^^BbHbBW^S. ^^^H^^H^SBfe 

this by means of knob F. the worm may be thrown Into or out 
of engagement at will. A stop screw G on the Bector flange 
of the eccentric limits the Inward movement to give the proper 
amount of play to the worm, and a damp nut at the same 
point furnishes means for retaining It in either the In or out 
position. A set-sirew //, at the front of the base, bears against 
a thin strip of the bearing of the table, which has been sep- 
arated from the remainder of the base by the saw cut shown. 
This provides means for clamping the table In position while 
the cut Is being taken, either for the rapid Indexing with the 
worm thrown out, or for hand Indexing through the worm 
and dividing plates. 

The power feed for the device Is obtained from the gear box 
withcut interfering with the regular transverse, cross, and 
vertical feeds, so that either of these may be used on the 
pieces without having to be disconnected for the circular feed. 
This makes it pcesible to fliiish very conveniently parts that 
have both plain and cylindrical surfaces to be milled. A tele- 
scopic feed rod Is provided, leading from a shaft held in a 
bracket on the side of the column of the machine, and con- 
nected by chain and sprocket wheels with the shaft on the 
feed box. This telescopic shaft is connected with reversing 
gear box ./, clamped on the milling machine table. The bevel 
gear and its shank A' to which the telescopic shaft is pinned 

Fig. 13. Using the Circular Milling Attachment as an Indexing Device 
for Cutting a Large Gear. 

dividing head, thus permitting the dividing of work clamped 
to the table with the same facility. Graduations in degrees 
are also provided on the outside diameter of the table, so that 
angles may be conveniently laid out without the use of the 
index plate. For a quick movement of the table, the worm 
may be thrown out by an eccentric device, not shown in Fig. 
10, but incorporated in the later design shown in the line 
engraving, Fig. 11. This consists of an eccentric sleeve E in 
which the worm and worm shaft are mounted. By rocking 

Fig. 14. Attachment for Slotting in the Milling Machine. 

are seated in an eccentric bushing L, which may be rocked by 
means of lever J^^. Feed shaft leading from the circular 
attachment, passes through reversing box J and is keyed to 
sleeve M. on which are formed a pair of bevel gears. The 
drawing shows lever A' in its central or vertical position, in 
which bevel gear K is out of mesh with the gears on sleeve il. 
By throwing lever .y to one side or the other, eccentric sleeve 
L is rocked and bevel gear K is thrown into engagement with 
one or the other of the two bevel gears il. thus giving motion 
in either direction to feed shaft 0. as required. 

Shaft is connected with bevel gear P by means of clutch 
Q, which is operated by a long rock shaft V. connected with 
a handle at the front of the base. By means of this handle, 
the automatic feed is stopped and started. Bevel gear P 
meshes with a mating gear R on worm-shaft D, thus complet- 
ing the connection required for the automatic feed. S and S 
are ball bearings to take the thrust of the worm, thus making 
the operation of the feed easy even under the heaviest cuts. 
For cases in which the indexing is not required, a hand-wheel 
is used on the upper end of shaft D in place of the index 
crank, thus making either the power or hand operation of 
the device equally easy. The periphery of the circular table 



September, 190S. 

Is provided with a T-slot in wliich Is clamped adjustable trip- 
ping dog T, which may be set to depress plunger U at any 
desired point, thus rocliing rod V and automatically throwing 
out the feed. 

The design of the device Is very compact so that the ver- 
tical capacity of the machine is not unduly reduced by its 
use. Figs. 12 and 13 show two examples of its use. In the 
first case a piece of woiiv wliich requires botli straight and 

30 GRAD. 

Machiiiery.y. Y, 
Pig. 15. Details of Construction of the Slotting Attachment. 

circular milling is clamped to the table, giving a good oppor- 
tunity for the use of longitudinal and circular feeds In suc- 
cession, as provided for by the independent connections pre- 
viously mentioned. The vertical milling attachment, built by 
the same malters, is employed in this case. Most of the work 
for which the circular attachment is adapted is best done 
with the vertical attachment. In Fig. 13, however, is shown 
a case in which the cutter is driven directly by the main 
spindle, and the attachment is used primarily for indexing. 
This case is the cutting of a large gear — too large to be swung 
in any index centers, and so large that even if it could be 

Pig. le. 

Change Gear Attachment for Spacing in Rack Cutting 
and Similar Operations. 

swung, the cutting point would be so far above the bearing 
surface of the table that heavy cuts could not be taken. Ar- 
ranged as shown, the pressure of the cut is vertically down- 
ward, and it may be supported, if required, by a rim rest 
clamped to the platen. The large diameter of worm-wheel 
provided is especially suited for indexing work of this char- 
acter. The wheel is centered by a plug or arbor driven in the 
taper hole bored in the center of the table. 

Slotting Attachment. 
The exterior of a slotting attachment for the milling ma- 
chine is shown in Fig. 14, and its details are indicated in the 
line drawing Fig. 15. The special features of this attachment 
are that it can be swiveled through an angle of 360 degrees. 

that it Is supported by the outboard bearing, and that the 
stroke is adjustable. It thus has a stiffness and a range of 
action which should make it a very useful device for such 
work as die making, light manufacturing, etc. 

A Hanged cap A is bolted to the face of the column. This 
cap has a bearing for crank-shaft B, whose Inner end is pro- 
vided with a tongue fitting the groove in the face of the 
nose of the spindle. The face of the crank disk is slotted for 
the head of bolt C. and has a ring D slirunk on it to prevent 
tlie bolt from escaping. Fitted over C is tlic bushing E. which 
serves as a crank-pin. The flange of this bushing where it 
rests on the face of the crank disk is serrated, to match cor- 
responding serrations on Ihe disk. By this means the crank 
may be adjusted for different lengths of stroke, with the assur- 
ance that the adjustment will not slip under any conditions 
of service. The tool slide F Is gibbed in a swivel guide O, 
which may he adjusted to any angle about axis x-x, and 
clamped in the required position by bolts H entering the 
T-slot in base A. The tool slide is operated from the crank 
by connecting-rod J. The construction of tlie tool slide and 
the way in which it is gibbed to O will be best understood 
from the upper sectional view of the figure. A saddle K is 
bolted to the face of G, and Is provided with a pivot which 
enters the hole of the overhanging arm, thus supporting the 
whole arrangement very firmly. The tool itself is held in 
bushing L, whose flange is graduated in degrees, so that the 
cutting edge may be revolved and presented to the work 
at any angle required. The bushing is clamped by bolt il. 
which locks it on the split hub primiple. The gib between 



11 'v m 

Fig. 17. Vertical Index Head for Slotting Screws, Finishing the Heads 
of Bolts, and for Similar Work. 

O and F, it will be noticed, is provided with a tongue fitting 
a groove in G to keep it in position. It is tapered and so is 
adjustable for wear. 

Back Spacing Attachment. 

For rack cutting either the universal milling attachment 
or the spiral gear cutting attachment (both previously de- 
scribed), or the regular rack cutting attachment built by this 
firm, shown in Fig. 16, may be used. The work, if short, 
may he held in a regular milling machine vise, or if longer, 
in a special rack cutting vise such as shown. For indexing 
the table longitudinally, a new attachment is provided. This 
attachment, which involves the use of change gears, obviates 
the necessity for reading graduations on the collar for spacing 
the teeth. The device consists of a bracket bolted to the 
table and carrying a quadrant, on which the necessary change 
gears may be mounted to connect the feed screw and the lock- 
ing disk. This locking disk is made in two sections and is 
reversible, one side containing two notches and the other one, 
for spacing whole or half revolutions. Fifteen change gears 
are furnished for spacing, giving all diametral pitches from 
3 to 6 by half pitches, from 6 to 16 by whole pitches, and 
from 16 to 32 by even pitches. Circular pitches from 1/16 
inch to 1/2 inch by 1/32 inch, and from 1 ,'2 inch to 1 inch by 
1/16 inch, are available. 

In Fig. 16 will be seen the supplementary connection men- 
.tioned as being used for driving a telescopic shaft for the 
circular attachment, independent of the regular table, saddle 
and knee feeds. As stated, it consists of a pair of sprocket 
wheels and a chain, of which the driven member is supported 
by a special bracket, and drives the outer end of the tele- 
scopic shaft. 

September, lt)08. 



Vertical Index Head. 
The half-tone, Fig. 17, and the line engraving, Fig. 18, 
illustrate a vertical index head which will be found con- 
venient for such work as cutting clutches, milling the heads 
of screws, and taking other cuts of a similar nature. The 
spindle A is of steel, and has a tapered bearing in the base B, 
in which it Is held by the nut C. The latter Is split and pro- 
vided with a lock screw to maintain the adjustment. The 
upper end of the spindle is provided with a large flange 
which covers the end bearing at the top of the base, and pro- 
tects the index ring D from chips, oil, etc. This index ring 
is fastened to the flange of the spindle by screws and dowels, 
and is locked by bolt E. Handle F operates a clamp bushing, 
made on the plan commonly used for holding tools in place 
in tlie screw mafhine turret. In indexing the work, handle 
F is unlocked to release the spindle, lock bolt E is pulled out, 
and the spindle, by grasping the flange or the work, is re- 
volved to the next indexing point, where the lock bolt is 
allowed to drop In place again. The spindle is again clamped 
by handle F and a new cut is taken. Twenty-four notches are 

riK. 18. 


Elevation, Section and Plan, shopping Construction of the 
Vertical Indexing Head. 

provided in the index ring, so that 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 24 
divisions may be obtained. The spindle has a No. 11 Brown 
& Sharpe taper hole, in which may be driven the shanks of 
chucks, threaded arbors, studs, etc., for holding the work. 
The whole attachment is very rigid and capable of pevforming 
severe service. 


In Fig. 1 is shown a key-seating attachment built by the 
Cincinnati Shaper Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, attached to a shaper 
of the same make. The attachment consists 
of a knee with floating jaws for holding the 
work, and a cutter bar provided with means 
for feeding and relieving the cutting blade, 
and for attachment to the tool-post of the 
shaper. Special attention has been given to 
the matter of quick acting and secure means 
for holding the work, and convenient and 
strong mechanism for controlling the adjust- 
ment and relief of the blade. Owing to the 
rapidity of manipulation possible and to the 
fact that the cut is taken on the drawing 
stroke, the output of the device is very high. 

Description of the Attachment. 
The holding arrangement for the work, as 
is best seen in the line drawings, Figs. 2 and 
3, consists of a knee A, provided with ways, 
in which jaws B and B are drawn together by 
the right- and left-hand screw C. A bushing, D. is provided, 
having a flange seated in a counterbored recess in the knee A, 
and having an outside diameter closely fitting the bore of the 
work in which it is desired to cut the keyway. In clamping 
the work in place, it is simply slipped onto D and screw C is 
tightened to bring the jaws B up against the work, which 
may be either rough or finished, without altering the condi- 
tions under which the work is held, since it will be seen that 

the gripping points are of the "floating" variety, adapting 
themselves to any surface or dimension presented. When so 
held, the work Is located on the bushing D, by the bore, 
so that the key-seating Is assuredly true with the hole. 

The cutter bar E passes through an eccentric hole cut In 
bushing D. It is clamped to the head of the ram through a 
universal Joint at F, the connection being made by a screw O. 


Fig. 1. Key-seating Attachment applied to Cincinnati Shaper. 

Provision is made in this universal joint to prevent the cutter 
bar from rotating. The cutter H is made from a simple block 
of tool steel, with a cutting edge formed to give clearance 
and top rake. It fits loosely in a slot cut through the bar as 
shown. A groove is cut across the rear edge, engaging the 
eccentric pin formed on the end of feed rod J. (The small 
details shown will assist in getting an understanding of these 
various parts.) By means of feed rod J the cutter is fed 
downward and relieved on the hack stroke, since any rocking 
movement imparted to it effects a vertical movement of B. A 
slot, of course, is cut in the bottom of bushing D, as shown in 
the detailed section, to permit the cutter to project through 
into the work. A corresponding slot is formed in the cutter 
bar itself to give clearance room for chips. 

Feed rod J extends to the front end of the cutter bar. where 
it is keyed to lever K, by means of which the operator con- 


Fig. 2. Section through Cutter-bar of Key-seating Anachment. 

trols the cross movement of the cutter. A screw L. entering 
a recess in J, prevents it from being shifted longitudinally. 
An eccentric M is keyed to an extended hub on bar E, and 
projects over a hub of corresponding diameter on lever K. 
Screw N has a projecting pin which enters a groove cut in 
the periphery of the hub K, thus tying it to eccentric M, while 
still permitting it to revolve. M and K may thus be pulled 
off of E and J respectively, to which they are keyed, and 



September, 1908. 

replnred if desired, being handled as a single unit. M is fast- 
ened 10 A' by a set-srrew 0. when the device is in operation. 

The movement of IC may extend through an arc of ISO 
degrees. In the upright vertical position shown, cutter // is 
extruded to the limit of its movement. If K, in Fig. 3, were 
swung vertically downward toward the right, H would be 
withdrawn to the limit of its upper movement. The swinging 
of A" in a downward direction is limited by the strildng of a 
projection on its hub against stop pin P, driven in eccentric 
if. The upward movement is limited either by the striking 
of the point of adjusting screw Q against the periphery of 
eccentric M. or against the projection on adjustable stop col- 
lar 7i'. which may be clamped in any desired position on M by 
thumb-screw 8. 

Method of Operating. 

Having thus described the mechanism, we are able to fol- 
low the method of operating the device. First, lever E is 
turned around 180 degrees from the position shown, to its 
lower vertical position, thus entirely withdrawing cutter H 
within the bar. Thumb-screw O is then loosened, and eccen- 
tric M is withdrawn, taking arm K and the attached parts 
with it. The work is then slipped over bar E and onto bush- 
ing D. which fits its bore. Floating jaws B are then clamped 
on the work, holding it securely. Eccentric M and lever K 
are next replaced in position and clamped there by screw 0, 
lever A' remaining in its downward position. Adjusting screw 
Q is now set so that it nearly touches the eccentric in this 
position, and the shaper is started up, it being understood 
that the stroke is set properly for the work in hand. 

'i inch wide, % inch deep and 7 inches long. The material 

w as high grade steel casting. 

Practice In Finishing' Gear Blanks in the Shops of the Builders. 

One feature of the shop practice of the Cincinnati Shaper 
Co., is dependent on the use of this attachment. Owing to 
the fact that the key-way Is cut true with the bore, no matter 
what the condition of the outside surface by which It is 
gripped, this operation may be performed immediately after 
the chucking. As is common practice in making gears of the 
first quality, gear blanks in this shop are finished on a true 
lathe arbor. The key-way being cut before turning, an oppor- 
tunity is afforded for putting a key in the arbor for driving 
the gears. A gear thus mounted on the arbor is shown in 
Fig. 4, together with the arrangement of the tools in the 
special slide rest which is used for facing the blanks. Since 
it is not necessary to depend on the forced pressing of the 
arbor into the work for driving the latter, it is possible to 
press a snugly fitting arbor of the kind shown, into the key- 
seated bore of the blank to the same point every time in such 
position that the edges of the finished faces will overhang 
slight clearance spaces on the arbor. When so arranged, the 
double roughing tool may be fed down until it rough faces 
the two sides of the gear down almost to the arbor. Return- 
ing the cross-slide, the two facing tools at the rear may be 
brought up, finishing the sides completely, clear down to the 
bore, and running out into the slight clearance spaces men- 

The fact of the blank being keyed prevents the longitudinal 
shifting of it on the arbor which might take place if the latter 






Tig. 3. Face View of Attachment showing Viae Jaws for Holding "Work. 

Machinery, y. T, 


Fier. 4. Facing Gear Blanks, mounted in the Lathe 
on a Keyed Arbor. 

As the ram commences its cutting stroke, which is the 
inward stroke in this case, the operator throws the lever E 
around in the direction opposite to the hands of a watch, until 
the point of screw Q stops against the eccentric surface of M. 
This, as explained, throws blade H downward, probably far 
enough to take its first chip. When the blade has passed 
through the work, the operator, with his hand constantly 
on E, again swings it back against stop pin P, meanwhile 
unscrewing Q a trifle more. At the beginning of the next 
cutting stroke he again swings it around in a counter-clock- 
wise direction until the point of Q again stops against the 
eccentric surface of .V. this time further around, causing // 
to project out a little further and take a second chip. This 
operation of feeding In deeper on the cutting stroke and 
relieving on the return stroke, is continued until the key- 
way has been cut in the work to the proper depth. This depth 
is located by stop collar R. which is adjusted on 3/ to limit 
the movement of K to the position that gives the proper depth 
of keyway. R is clamped in its position by thumb-screw S. 
The work being then completed, arm A' Is returned to its 
lower position so that the cutter blade is withdrawn; then E 
and M are removed (thumb-screw Is loosened) and the 
finished work is slipped off of bushing D and a new piece 
placed In position, after which E and M are again replaced 
and the operation proceeds as before. 

As evidence of the ability of the device to handle repetition 
work in large quantities, it may be mentioned that 400 pieces 
similar lo the one shown in the machine in Fig. 1, were key- 
seated at the rate of 2% minutes apiece. The key-way was 

were pressed into the work no more firmly than would be the 
case here, with holes varying slightly in diameter. In order 
to slip easily on an arbor lengthwise, the work must rotate 
on it as well, and this rotation is prevented by the key. The 
finish turning of the blanks is done on true gang arbors, on 
which the work is stacked to the full capacity of the arbor. 
Owing to the tact that two sides of the gears are faced in the 
same operation, they are true with each other and with the 
bore, so the gang arbor is in no danger of being sprung 
when the work is tightened up on it. This makes a very 
rapid and very accurate method of finishing small gear blanks 
that are made in large quantities. 

Range of Sizes. 
The bars E are made in seven sizes, to cut all key-seats up 
to 1-inch in width, in holes from U/IG inch upwards, in diam- 
eter. Bushings D are furnished in any desired size to fit the 
bore of the work to be key-seated. Bushings for cutting 
tapered key-ways will be furnished if desired. The device Is 
evidently applicable to the planer, as well as to the shaper. 


A positive-geared feed device, giving six changes, has 
recently been applied to the Cincinnati 16-inch engine lathe, 
by its builders. The Cincinnati Lathe & Tool Co., Cincinnati, 
Ohio. This feed box, as may be seen from an inspection of 
the half-tone engraving in Fig. 1 (where it is shown attached 
to the lathe) and of the line engraving. Fig. 2, is of original 

September, IKiis. 



ami interesting construitioii, and Sfenis to have been so 
designed as to accomplish its worlt with very few parts and 
simple mechanism. 

ReferrinK to the line engraving for the details, A is the 
lathe spindle which, through the nsual reversing tumblers U, 
drives the stud gear shaft V. From this, lonnection for 
threading may he made with the lead-screw /J by the usual 

pis. 1. Cincinnati Latiie provided with Improved Quick Peed 

change gears. Mounted on the change gear stud on the inside 
of the head-stock, is bevel gear E, meshing with a pinion F 
driving a worm-shaft G which is supported by bearings in 
swinging arm H pivoted about shaft C. To shaft J in the 
feed box is splined a triple worm-wheel A'. Any one of the 
three wheels composing this may be shifted into position 
under worm L by means of a slide M on the outside of the 


arm II raised until the worm L Is out of reach of the worm- 
wheels K. Then fork it is shifted to bring that one of the 
three worniwheels corresponding with the desired feed Into 
position beneath the worm. Arm H is then dropped to the 
(•orresponding vertical location Iter that wheel and locked in 
pla( e by bolt .V. The three changes thus obtained are doubled 
by means of the double sliding gears O which may be sUlfted 

J to engage with either P or C* on the 

feed rod, thus giving six changes in 
all, varying from 16 to 100 turns per 
inch. This is sufficient for general 
manufacturing work. 
In addition to these speeds which 
_ are Instantly obtainable, 22 addi- 

tional changes ranging from 'i to C4 
per inch, may be obtained, to suit 
special cases, by using the regular 
change gearing between C and D. 
and shifting sliding gear R on the 
lead-screw into engagement with 
gear P on the feed rod, which is thus 
driven from the spindle. To make it 
possible to drive the feed rod in this 
way, without interfering with the 
regular drive through the worm 
gearing, a lock bolt S is provided, 
having a finger engaging a groove in 
slip gear R and projecting into the 
feed box in the path of the swinging 
movement of arm H. Bolt S and 
arm H are so placed that the 
former prevents gear R from being thrown into mesh with 
P until H is raised to its extreme upper position, where 
engagement with even the largest of the worm-wheels K is 

This lathe has been previously built in two forms, either 
with the Emmes patent quick change gear device, or with 
plain belt feed. The lathe with the feeding device we have 
just illustrated is intended' to take the place of the belt feed 
machine, and will be furnished at the same price. The range 
of feeds provided appears to be suitable for ordinary work 
without requiring the use of the change gears at all for feed- 
ing. It will be noted that the feed is independent of the 
screw-cutting motion, so that the lead-screw is not operated 
except when required for actual threading. The machine 
shown in the illustration has a 3-step cone and double back 
gears. If required by the purchaser, a .5-step cone and single 
back gears will be furnished instead. 

Change Device. 


Fie. 2. 


Arrangement of Peed and Screws Cutting Connections for 
tlie Cincinnati Lathe- 

box. The inner extension of this slide embraces the largest 
of the wheels and so controls the axial position of all three. 
Arm H extends out through the feed box at the front of the 
lathe, where it is provided with a lock bolt y. by means of 
which it may be fixed at any one of four different vertical 
positions. To change the rate of feed, A' is pulled out and 


The Eberhardt Bros. Machine Co., 66 Union St.. Newark, 
N. J., has recently built the remarkable gear-cutting machine 
illustrated herewith. In Fig. 1, a blank is shown, cut with 
the various styles of teeth which the machine is capable of 
producing. As may thus be seen, it is practically universal 
in its adaptability, it being designed for thecutting of spur, 
bevel, skew, and face gears, besides being useful for gashing 
worm-wheels. It is intended to fill the requirements of a 
machine for stocking out bevel gears preparatory to finishing 
on a planing machine, and, likewise, of jobbing and repair 
shops for finishing bevel gears by the formed cutter method. 
This is done without limiting the capacity of the machine 
for spur gear work, in the way met with in the ordinary 
automatic spur and bevel gear cutter, provided with a swivel 
adjustment for the cutter slide. In other words, this machine 
will finish spur or bevel gears with equal accuracy, and with 
an equal output. 

Structural Features of the Machine. 
A heavy base casting is provided, having at one end guides 
on which the work spindle head is adjustable longitudinally, 
and on the other, a seat of circular form, on which the cutter 
head stanchion may be adjusted to the proper angle for any 
gear from a spur to a face gear. The work head, it will be 



September, 1908. 

Been, Is adjustable In two directions. The ndjustment of the 
saddle on the bed is for accommodating different diameters 
of blanks, and for setting the cutter to the required depth. 
That of the spindle head on the saddle Is at right angles to 
the first, and is used to accommodate bevel gears and pinions 
having varying lengths of hub, so as to bring the point of 
the pitch cone to the proper position. This also is used to 

Pig. 1. An Automatic Machine for Cutting Spur and Bevel Gears; also adapted for 
■Worm. Ske'w, and Face Gears. 

set the cutter to depth in cutting face gears. The screws for 
both of these movements are provided with adjustable dials, 
graduated to read to thousandths of an inch. The screw which 
makes the adjustment for the diameter of the blank may be 
operated from either end, as most convenient. 

The method by which the cutter slide is supported and the 
cutter driven, may be understood by reference to the line 
drawing. Fig. 3, in connection with the two half-tones. The 
cutter stanchion A, as has been explained, is adjustable about 
its circular seat on the top of the base to the required angle. 
The axis of adjustment is shown at x-x. The cutter slide 
itself, B, is mounted on a guide C, which swiv- 
els through a limited angle on a bearing on 
the face of stanchion A, about axis y-y. The 
slide C is set by this adjustment to the re- 
quired angle for making the approximation 
necessary when cutting bevel gears by the 
formed cutter process, and is clamped by bolts 
D. For spur gears, of course, the slide is set 
in a horizontal position, shown in Fig. 3. For 
cutting Bkew gears (much used in steel mill 
work in place of the more expensive and less 
easily removed worm-wheel) slide C is set to 
agree with the helix angle of the worm the 
skew gear is to mesh with. In gashing worm- 
wheels the same thing is done. For this latter 
case, of course, the automatic feed is not used, 
the work slide being fed on the saddle to the 
proper depth by hand for each cut. It will 
thus be seen that the cutter slide and work 
are as strongly supported when the work is 
set for cutting bevel gears, or even for face 
gears, as when cutting spur gears. 
The Driving Mechanism. 

The machine is driven through constant 
speed pulley E, which is connected by bevel 
gearing with a shaft F, whose center line 
is on axis x-x, about which A is adjusted. Shaft F is 
connected in turn by bevel gearing with shaft G, jour- 
naled in cutter head A. G is connected by spur gearing with 
shaft H, with center line on axis y-y, about which C is ad- 
justed. This, in turn, is connected by spur gearing with shaft 

■f. connected at one end with the feed box K for the power 
feed and quick return, and at the other by spur gearing to 
splined shaft L, which drives bevel pinion M, supported in a 
bracket attached to cutter slide li. M meshes with bevel gear 
•V, which is keyed to a vertical shaft which is connected with 
shaft by change gears as shown, for obtaining the required 
rate of spindle speed for the case in hand. A pinion on O 
drives the spindle gear P. The same provi- 
sion for adjusting the spindle Q lengthwise 
is made in this machine as with the usual 
automatic gear-cutting machine. It will be 
seen from the foregoing that the spindle drive 
is effected from a pulley of fixed position, 
without interfering with the two angular ad- 
justments of the cutter slide, or the axial ad- 
justment of the cutter spindle. For making 
the angular adjustments of the cutter stanch- 
ion, a W'orm is provided, engaging a circular 
rack secured to the bed. The worm carries a 
dial graduated to read to minutes of a de- 
gree, one degree being a whole turn of the 

Feeding and Indexing. 
The feed of the cutter carriage is varied by 
change gears, the quick return remaining 
constant. The cutter speeds and feeds are 
entirely independent of each other. The 
thrust bearings for the feed-screw are placed 
at each end, so that the screw is not under 
compression either during the feed or the 
return of the carriage. This "draw-cut" prin- 
ciple is said to reduce vibration and chatter- 
ing to a marked degree. The cutter carriage 
is of exceptional length, and travels on long 
and narrow guiding surfaces of the same construction as on 
the spur gear machines built by the same firm. The cutter 
spindle is in the center of the length of the carriage, thus 
preventing the possibility of lifting the latter, or "gouging" 
on the part of the cutter, when beginning the cut. 

The indexing mechanism is positive, and is operated by 
means of a rod from the feed box trip mechanism, as is usual 
on spur gear cutting machines. As this rod operates through 
the centers of angular adjustment of the machine, no atten- 
tion is needed whatever when the stanchion or swivel slides 
are moved for different angles, or when the head is moved 


J ^.— 

ij^Mjigsi-ii^^^^^'^lflii'^^ I 



2. Rear View of the Universal Automatic Gear-cutting Machine. 

in either direction. The use of chains is eliminated; there 
are only the two usual dogs to be set to suit the various 
lengths of face of the gear blanks. The indexing worm runs 
in a bath of oil and meshes with an index wheel of large 
diameter, made in halves to insure accuracy. 

Septeinbur, 1908. 



Incidental Features of the Design. 
An outside support Is furnished for the work arbor, ns 
shown in Fig. 1. This support accommodates wlieels up to 
the full diameter of the machine, and Is easily removed. 
Rim rests are provided to support large gears against the 
thrust of the cutter. A face-plate is also provided, with 
chucks and drivers for positively holding and driving wheels 
of large diameter. The cutter and work spindles have tapered 
holes, and each is provided with a draw bolt for positively 
drawing in and forcing out arbors. The work spindle Is a 
machine steel forging, while the cutter spindle and arbor are 


The question of t roughing conveyor belts has always led to 
controversy, and about the only point that seems to have been 
definitely settled, Is that with deep troughing-rolls the belt 
must be made so that It will bend to the required shape; and 
to obtain this shape with the ordinary multiple pulley Idler, 
the belt Is sometimes made up with fewer plies of fabric at the 
Hexing pari. The rubber protective cover of the belt has 
little or no tensile strength, and the result of weakening the 
fabric, especially in cases of the wide belts designed for 

3Iiurh(nery^'. J*. 
Fig. 3. Front and Side Elevation of Cutter End of Machine, sho-n^ngr Cutter Slide Adjustments and Method of Driving. 

Of tool steel. All driving shafts are of high carbon machinery 
steel and finished by grinding as, of course, are also the spin- 

Fig. 1 shows very plainly the convenient height of the ma- 
chine, and the accessibility of all the parts, such as the hand 
indexing and feed levers at the left of the machine, near the 
feed hand-wheel. These are used when setting the machine 
and are always within easy reach, being about 4 feet from 
the floor. A number of minor conveniences will be noticed. 
The change gears are enclosed by hinged covers, and guards 
are provided for encasing all the gearing. The oiling facilities 
provided have been carefully studied out. The bearings 
of all shafts and spindles operating in a vertical position have 
spiral oil grooves, cut in the opposite direction to the rota- 
tion of the shaft, so as to retard the downward flow of the 
lubricant. Felt wipers are arranged on all the planed bear- 
ing surfaces to keep the dirt and chips out, and retain the oil. 
An oil pump with suitable piping and reservoir is provided 
for supplying a lubricant, as when cutting steel. 


The machine has a capacity up to 48 inches in diameter, and 
10 Inches face, and will cut 3 diametral pitch in steel and 2% 
diametral pitch in cast iron. By taking stocking cuts, heavier 
pitches can, of course, be cut. One of the first lot of these ma- 
chines built is cutting 2 diametral pitch in steel as its regu- 
lar work. It will be noticed that, owing to the construction 
of this machine, the full capacity, so far as diameter is con- 
cerned, is available whatever the angle at w-hich the cutting 
takes place. This is owing to the fact that the swivel is 
effected by the cutter slide instead of by the work spindle, 
so that the latter always bears a definite relation with the 
clearance cut in the base for swinging work of large diameter. 

large carrying capacities, is to bring about a weakening at the 
very point where the load is heaviest and the bending of the 
belt most severe. 

An improved type, of pressed steel, is shown in the illustra- 
tion. The carrying-roll, firmly secured to the through shaft 
which revolves in self-oiling, dust-tight bearings, consists of 

Fig. 1. 

A Pressed Steel Troughlng Roll which gives a Maximum of Life 
and Carrying Capacity to the Convej'or Belt. 

three parts rigidly fastened together — one straight middle sec- 
tion, and two bell-shaped end-sections, the inner edges of 
which are flanged so that the center section overlaps each 
snugly, making a close joint and a well balanced roll. The 
ends are closed, which prevents entrance of material to inter- 
fere with the rotation of the roll or throw it out of balance. A 
point is also made of the clear height above the supporting 



Septeiiibri-, ions. 

planlv. as this effectually removes the roll from possible contact 
with spilled material. The carrylngrun is thus over a one-piece 
roll on which the loaded bolt bears evenly for its entire width. 
The result is that all troushing strain is eliminated and the 
belt wear is conHned to ordinary carryins service; nor does 
observation show that the difference in diameters of the roll 
injures the under side of the belt. This is no doubt due to 
the fact that the roll revolves at the speed of the loaded part 
of the belt and that rubbing is confined to its edges. The wear 
here is slight, and it has been found that the life of the belt 
Is determined by the wear on the carrying part rather than on 

the Under side. 

The return rolls are of the one-piece, straight-face type, 
set-screwed to a through shaft which revolves in bearings 
Identical with those on the carrying-run. Both rolls are com- 
pact light and strong, and in service, under severe conditions, 
show remarkable durability. The lightness and simplicity of 
constru.tion have so reduced the initial cost that closer spac- 
ing is possible, and this, where high speeds and great capaci- 
ties are desired, prevepts sagging of the belt and assures 
smooth easv operation, lessened horse-power consumption. 
and a minimum of belt wear. As the rolls are fixed to tlu. 
shafts which, as noted, revolve in oil, the lubricating points 
for each are reduced to two, and these are so accessible that 
the bearings are always in good condition. 

The following considerations should govern the adoption 
and use of the belt conveyor principle. First, it should be 
used onlv for materials to which it is adapted, there being 
no such thing as a universal conveyor. Second, the more 
nearly a belt conveyor approaches the flat position, the longer 
the belt will last, so troughing should be shallow enough to 
allow the belt to assume its shape naturally and without 
strain. Third, the belt, however it is made, should be uni- 
formly strong throughout its width, its construction being 
governed entirely by the material to be handled and the 
conditions under which the conveyor must be run. The roll 
just described, when used as it should be, conforms to the 
above conditions. It is built by the Link-Belt Co., Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 


The T. C. Dill Machine Co.. Philadelphia, Pa., is building 
the variable speed drive shown in the accompanying illustra- 
tions. As may be seen at the first glance, it embodies an 
exceedingly ingenious principle of action and is constructed 
along novel lines, though it somewhat follows the principle 
of the well-known Sellers drive in the matter of varying the 
speed by forcing straight disks in between tapered disks, 
pressed together by springs, the drive be- 
ing by the frictional contact between the 
edge of each straight disk and the sides 
of its mates on the other shaft. By 
varying the center distances of the two 
sets of disks, the diameter of the drive 

The Commercial Form of the Device. 
A variable speed device of this type is shown in its en- 
closed form in Fig. 1, and with the cover removed in Figs. 
2 and 3. The shaft which extends from the casing at the 
opposite end from the handle. Is the one which receives the 
power. On a sciiiared portion of this shaft are loosely mounted 

Fig. 1. Dill Variable Speed Drive aa supplied for General Use. 

on the tapered disks is varied, thus altering the speed. The 
novelty of the construction consists in multiplying these disks 
to as great an extent as required to transmit the desired 
power, and in making them of thin steel stampings, allowing 
the whole arrangement to be of very compact construction. 
Refinements have also been introduced in the methods of ap- 
plying the pressure, and in varying the center distances of 
the disks.- 

Flgr. 2. View of the Dill Drive with Cover removed from Caslne:. showinflf 
the Alternate Sets of Flat and Taper Disks which Transmit the Power. 

flat ground disks, punched from steel plate, with the holes to 
fit the shaft. The driven shaft, which delivers the variable 
speed from the device, has a similar squared portion on 
which are loosely mounted similar flat ground disks with 
squared holes. Between these constant speed and variable 
speed shafts is mounted a third, whose bearings are sup- 

Pig. 3. End View of the Drive, showing the Method of Supporting and 
Shifting the Intermediate shaft to change the Speed. 

ported by arms keyed to a rock shaft, parallel to the other 
two. On this intermediate shaft are mounted tapered disks 
which enter the spaces between those on the other two shafts. 
They are held to this intermediate shaft in the same way 
as the others, by squared seats. By means of the heavy 
coiled spring shown, w^hich presses together the flanges which 
confine them, all the disks in the device are pressed into con- 
tact with each other. The rock shaft on which the arms arij 
mounted which support the intermediate shaft, is provided 
with a handle by means of which the latter may be swung 
toward either the constant speed or the variable speed shaft. 
In the first case, the edges of the constant speed disks come in 
contact with a smaller diameter of the intermediate taper 
disks, while those of the driven shaft, on the contrary, en- 
gage a larger diameter of the disks they engage with. This 
results in the increase of the speed of the driven shaft. Of 
course, this shifting of the center distance between the shafts 
alters the spacing of all the disks, as the straight ones enter 
or recede from the tapered openings between the tapered disks. 
Owing to the rapid rate of rotation of the shafts, this side 
adjustment takes place practically instantaneously, all of the 
disks being free to move endwise on the squared shafts, as 
explained, except for the pressure of the coiled spring on the 
intermediate shaft, which gives the pressure required for the 

September, 1908. 



The c-ontiict between tlie Hat and tapeieil iliskii is byl a 
spot, and as they have a rolling action on each other, the 
frii-tloiial resistance is reduced to a minimum. Great power, 
« hile still retaining exceptional endurance. Is obtainea by 
first determining the proper pressure from the standpoint of 
endurance for one disli, and llien adding a sulllcicnl number 
to transmit tlio power required. The spring is adjusted to 

pact (lian that shown in tlie variable speed counter-sbafts In 
KigB. 1 to 3. The change in the tuovement of the iutermediate 
shaft as compared with the first design, necessitates a rear- 
rangement of the disks. As will be noted, the tapered disks 
are mounted on (he driving shaft and the driving end of the 
intermediate shaft, while the flat disks are mounted on the 
driven end of the intermediate shaft and on the spindle. This 

U 221 

itachtneru-X- i'. 
Flgr. 4. Suggested Arrangement of DiU Drive as Incorporated In the Head-stock of a 20-lnch Latbe. 

suit the load at a given speed, and as the speed is increased 
the pressure is reduced, and vice versa. Owing to the peculiar 
construction of this spring, constant horse-power output is 
attained by malving the pressure vary with the speed. 

The apparatus shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3 shows the drive 
in the form in which it is being put on the marlvet as a speed 
box for general use. These speed boxes are made in several 
sizes, from \'-2 horse-power up, and with a speed ratio of 5 to 1, 
though more or less can be had it desired. The drive shown, 
which is suitable for 5 horse-power, is 23 inches long and 15 
inches wide over all, including the extensions for the feet 
and bearings. The frame proper is only 19 inches long, 11 
inches wide, and 9 inches high. The disks are 4 inches in 
diameter and 3/64 inch thick. The constant speed shaft runs 
at 400 revolutions per minute. Compactness will thus be seen 
to be a prime characteristic of this device, as compared with 
others previously built for the same purpose. 

Direct Application to Lathe Head-stock. 

Instead of giving the constant-speed shaft a velocity midway 
between the highest and lowest of the driven shaft, the diam- 
eters of the disks may be so arranged that the change of 
speed is all in the direction of a reduction, so that the high- 
est speed of the driven shaft does not exceed the initial speed. 
This arrangement is recommended as being a suitable design 
for incorporating in the head-stock of a lathe or boring mill. 
Such a modification of the device is shown in the sketch of 
Fig 4 which suggests a suitable arrangement of the Dill drive 
as applied to a lathe head-stoclv. 

In this sketch it will be noted that the flat disks X (which 
are fitted directly to a squared seat on the spindle B) are 14 
inches in diameter, meshing with 12-inch tapered disks K 
on the intermediate shaft C. On the other end of the inter- 
mediate shaft is another series of flat- disks L 12 inches in di- 
ameter, which intermesh with tapered disks M of the same size 
on the constant-speed shaft A. Sufficient power for this ap- 
plication to the lathe may be obtained with a comparatively 
small nimiber of disks. With the arrangement shown a speed 
ratio of 30 to 1 is obtainable. 

It will be noted that in this case, instead of swinging inter- 
mediate shaft C from A toward B. it is mounted on arms E. 
pivoted in such a way that it approaches or recedes from A 
and B simultaneously. This construction is still more com- 

also necessitates two sets of compression springs, O and Q, 
for giving the pressure required for transmitting the power 
desired. The spreading apart of the disks and the conse- 
quent increased pressure of the springs as the speed decreases, 

Fig. 5. Arrangement by means of \rhlch the Speed of the Drive, mounted 
on the Counter-shaft, is controUed by the Position of the Tool-post, for 
Facing, etc. 

gives the increased torque required for transmitting constant 
power at variable speed — a provision which is necessary in 
the case of lathes. 

Automatic Speed Control for Lathes. 
The sketch shows an arm H. having a pin adapted to engage 
any one of a number of notches in a link J attached to the 
cross-slide. This arm is connected by link F to rock shaft D 



September, 1908. 

in such a way as to vary the speed with the position of the 
cross slide, tluis automatically adapting it to the diameter of 
the cut. This would be very convenient for facing cuts, or 
for work in which the diameter is constantly varying. The 
lathe shown in Fig. 5 is provided with a somewhat similar 
arrangement, intended, however, to be used with a variable 
speed box such as shown in Fig. 1, bolted to the ceiling. In 
this case the bell-crank at the rear is connected by a long 
link with the rock shaft of the speed box on the ceiling. A 
lever is also provided, as will be shown, by w-hich the speeil 
is changed manually when desired, the lever being so arranged 
as to slide with the carriage and be always in convenient posi- 
tion for the operator. The lathe in this case is adapted to the 
variable speed box drive by slipping a special wide-faced 
pulley over the two largest steps of the cone, thus giving a 
more powerful drive than the original construction, as well as 
a more flexible one. 


The machine shown in the two accompanying enguavings. Is 
the latest addition to the line of grinding machines built by 
the Norton Grinding Co. of Worcester, Mass. The machines 

tapers, but it made simple and rigid, so that it may do accu- 
rate and heavy work, without the complication due to extra 
adjustments on the table itself. There is, however, an ad- 
justment for the foot-stock to correct the alignment of the 
centers In case of any wear In the center points. The grind- 
ing wheel of this machine is furnished in various widths 
(from 2 to 4 inches) to suit various kinds of work; It Is 24 
inches 4n diameter. The machine will use 20 horse-power to 
good advantage. From 5 to 20 horse-power should be reck- 
oned on in installing the machine, the amount depending on 
the character of the work to be produced, and the ambition 
of the operator. 

The smaller sizes, that is, from flC to 120 inches length be- 
twen centers, are designed for the grinding of rolls and 
similar work. 


A new and useful instrument has recently been brought out 
by the Electrical Controller & Mfg. Co., of Cleveland, Ohio. 
The makers call it a "Fault-Finder." It is intended to be 
used in detecting and locating grounds, short circuits, open 
circuits, leaks and other faults in armature and field coils. 


Fig. 1. A Norton Grinder of Unusual Capacity, designed for the Finishing of Heavy Engine and Marine Shafts. 

control circuits, switchboard wiring, or any other electrical 
connection. It will not only indicate trouble, but will locate 
it as well. In the case of a motor armature, for instance, a 
faulty coil can be accui'ately located and the nature of the 

shown are notable for their great capacity, particularly in 
regard to length. They are especially intended for grinding 
long and heavy shafts such as found in stationary engine 
and marine work, as well as for finishing shorter work, such 


Fig. 2. Rear View of Heavy Norton Grinder. The Bed is made in Lengths of fVom 8 to 22 feet. 

as spindles, etc. The machine shown is not by any means 
the longest of this size the builders are prepared to make, 
though it is the limit practicable with the bed cast in one 
piece. In the case shown, the base is 30 feet long; for 
greater lengths it is made in three pieces. That for the larg- 
est machine of the series (which is capable of grinding work 
22 feet between centers) has a base 42 feet long. 

The base casting is unusually heavy, even when its size is 
■considered. The ways are provided with a series of oiling 
rolls, closely spaced, thus furnishing the lubrication necessary 
to insure long life and continuous accuracy in guiding ways. 
An equipment of permanent adjustable wedges is provided 
lor correcting the alignment after the machine has been placed 
on the foundation. These corrections are made at any time 
when errors appear, due to the settling of the foundation. The 
wedges are machined and rest on iron plates, which should 
be imbedded in the cement foundation and made to line up 
with a straight-edge and level. This system of adjusting 
"blocks has been previously described in Machinery. (See 
issue of March, 1907.) 

This machine has the same general features as the other 
Norton grinders. In the case shown, it is driven from an 
-over-hea4 counter-shaft, though it can be furnished for self- 
contained electric drive. It has no provision for grinding 

trouble defined. If the coil is damaged, the layer in which 
the fault lies can be determined. In a bunch of control wires 
in a multiple unit train control or other magnetic switch 
control, the faulty wire or pair of wires can be promptly lo- 
cated and the nature of the fault quickly found. The in- 

Fig. 1. Device for Detecting Faults in Electrical Connections. 

strument consists of a small box, provided with a strap for 
carrying over the shoulder when testing motors in inacces- 
sible places, such as under cars or on electric over-head trav- 
eling cranes. From this small box, leads are connected to tele- 
phone receivers (either one or tw'o, depending on the noisi- 

September, 1908. 



ness of the sunuiindiiigs) titted with a head piece ho as to 
leave both hands free for testing. The rheostat may be ad- 
justed to give a sound of any magnitude from a very loud 
one, more than a normal ear can stand, down as faint as 
iftay be desired. Leads extend from the box also to the two 
test terminals. 

This device is inexpensive, small and portable, and requires 
no outside current to operate it. But one man is needed to 
operate It under any conditions, so there is no excuse for the 
tester's desiring a helper. The manufacturers have prepared 
a neat booklet describing the instrument and giving instruc- 
tions for ils use; this will be sent on request to interested 


We show herewith a drawing press, placed on the market 
by the E. W. Bliss Co., 5 Adams St., Brooklyn, N. Y.. In 
which three sliding motions and a knock-out arrangement 
are bo combined that work formerly done in two operations 
may now be done in one. This does away entirely with re- 
handling and annealing first operation shells, inasmuch as 
the second operation immediately follows the first, making 
the second draw while the metal is still warm. 

y^^///y/j£.<ir. ■ 

Fig. 1. Triple-action Presa by means of which Two Drawing Operations 
are performed at Each Strolce of the Machine. 

In this press, the dies and the blank placed on them are 
carried by the lower table, which is raised by the toggle move- 
ment shown at the base of the machine to meet the stationary 
blank holder, supported by the sides of the press frame. Pro- 
jecting through this stationary blank holder are two plungers, 
one within the other, of which the outer or first operation 
plunger is operated by a lever movement which gives it a 
dwell, independent of and succeeding that given to the lower 
table, while the inner or second operation plunger is operated 
by the cranks and connecting-rods shown at the sides of the 

In performing a drawing operation, the movements are 
as follows: The blank is laid on the die carried by the lower 

table. This la raised by the toggle movement, holding the 
blank between the die and the stationary blank holder, dwell- 
ing there while the first operation punch (the ouUld« 
plunger) comes into action and makes the flrst draw. This 
plunger Is then given a dwell by the lever mechanism which 
operates it, so that it acts as a blank holder for the shell in 
the second operation. This second operation is performed by 
the smaller Inside plunger, which redraws the shell through 
a second opening In the die. The parts now all separate, and 
the knock-out comes Into action, ejecting the blank so that it 
may be easily removed. 

This press is of very compact construction, and occupies no 
more room than any double action machine of the correspond- 
ing size for second operation work. The floor space occupied 
over all is 'J feet 3 Inches from front to back, and 10 feet 11 
inches from right to left. The height from the top of the 
frame to the floor is 15 feet 9 Inches. The machine is geared 
in the ratio of 21 '/j to 1. The fly-wheel is 54 Inches in diam- 
eter and 8 Inches face, weighing 2,300 pounds, while the 
weight of the whole machine is 00,000 pounds. This machine 
is another evidence of the tendency in sheet metal working 
to combine operations, and reduce the number of handlings 
and annealing required for doing a given piece of work. 


In the March, 1907, issue of Maciiixebt, was published a 
brief description of a file of European origin, in which the 
teeth were of circular shape, and were cut out of solid metal, 
instead of being raised by chiseling as with the usual process 
of file cutting. This file is now introduced to the American 
market as a commercial product under the name of the 
"Vixen" patent milling file. It is sold by the National File 
& Tool Co., 205-206 The Bourse, Philadelphia, Pa. 

As may be seen in the half-tone, the teeth have a circular 
form and are cut unusually deep. This form makes them 
self-clearing — a great advantage, especially on soft metals. 

Fig. 1. A Smooth Free-cutting File in which the Teeth are 
cut out of Solid Metal. 

The file cuts equally well on soft or tool steel, cast or wrought 
iron, bronze and other hard metals, and, in addition, will cut 
brass, lead, aluminum and other soft metals without clogging. 
It is also useful as a wood or farrier's rasp, as well as for 
slate, marble, etc. Although its capacity is higher than even 
a tool of the rasp or bastard order, it does its work with 
such smoothness and precision that in spite of its great 
capacity for removing metal, it is adapted to the finest work 
as well. This is largely owing to the manner in which the 
teeth are cut, they being left with true, even cutting edges, 
which leave a smooth surface, producing curling chips more 
like that resulting from a true cutting action, than that of 
the ordinary file. The shape of the teeth is such that the 
file works as well on a greased surface as on a dry one. 

The first cost of the Vixen file is somewhat greater than 
that of the older variety, but it is asserted that on account 
of the enormuos amount of work it will do and its long life, 
it is very much the cheapest file on the market. Besides this. 
It may be resharpened four times, each operation costing 
about half that of the iie-cutting of the ordinary file, and 
after 'each resharpening the file is again quite as good as 
new. In addition to the special shape of the teeth, the 
capacity of the file is increased by the special process of 
hardening which is followed, as well as by the high quality 
of the steel from which it is made. This steel is a special 
preparation, obtained after exhaustive experiments. The 
file is made with 9 teeth to the inch for regular work and 



Soptcinber. 1908. 

12 teeth to the inch for fine work. The latter ranks with the 
"smooth" file in the matter of finish, though it greatly ex- 
ceeds it In the ability to remove metal. 

The new engine lathe built by the Walcott & Wcod Ma- 
chine Tool Co., of Jackson. Mich., is intended to be a plain 
manufacturing tool, in which the points specially looked out 
for are stiffness and cutting power. The accompanying half- 

Fig. 1. The Walcott 16-iiich Engine Lathe. 

tone illustration, and the line drawing showing a section 
through the head, and feed mechanism, will enable the reader 
to judge as to how nearly these requirements have been filled. 
As is required for modern conditions, the bed is deep and 
cross-ribbed at short intervals throughout its entire length. 
The head-stock is of heavy section, and is rigidly bolted to 
the bed. A 4-step cone is used, the largest step being 9% 

;}. may be shifted to either one of three positions to mesh 

with gears C. /> and K. respectively. These last gears are 

keyed to sleeve F, which runs loosely on stud G. For screw 

cutting, the intcrmodiate gear H on quadrant ./ is engaged 

with pinion teeth cut on the inner end of sleeve F. and with 

the proper change gear K on lead-screw L. For left-hand 

threads, intermediate gear M is interposed between F and 

H. There is nothing to correspond to the tumbler gears of 

the usual lathe, as the changes for direction of feeds are 

effected in the a|)ron. For any given change gear at A', three 

threads are available, depending on 

which of the three positions handle B 

occupies. The thread cutting index 

provided indicates the position of B 

cs well as the chang:^ gears used. 

While this quick-change apparatus 
extends the range of screw cutting, it 
was not primarily designed for this b?- 
ing intended rather for giving a quick 
control of the feed. WTien feeding, gear 
N on lower quadrant O is thrown into 
mesh w-ith intermediate gear H. To 
the inner hub of N are keyed two gears 
P. meshing with corresponding gears Q, 
which run loosely on the splined feed 
rod R. In recesses in the hubs of gears 
Q are formed clutch teeth, which may 
be engaged by a clutch blade between 
them, and manipulated through a slid- 
ing collar and an internal rod by hand 
lever S. Two changes of feed are thus 
obtained, which, combined with the 
three controlled by lever B. gives six 
in all. This is sufficient for the ordi- 
nary range of manufacturing, and 
makes the machine well adapted to the 
general run of work, quick change of feeds being much more 
important in this respect than quick changes for screw 

The carriage is strongly constructed, and has a bearing 22 
inches long on the w.iys. It is securely gibbed to the bed. 
The longitudinal and cross feeds are driven as explained by 
the feed rod. independently cf the screw. The apron, which 

I Machlneru.X. T. 

Fig. 2. End VieTV and Section through 

inches in diameter and 2 9/16 inch face. The spindle is of 
high carbon steel, ground, and with a 1 1/16-inch hole through 
its center. The bearings are of the best phosphor bronze, 
provided with ample oiling facilities and adjustable for wear. 
The thrust is entirely taken up at the rear bearing. 

Perhaps the principal feature of interest, so far as mechan- 
ism is concerned, is the arrangement of the feeds. As may 
be seen in Fig. 2. the rear end of the spindle is extended to 
"UDPort. the triple sliding gear A. which, by means of lever 

Head-stock, showing Feed Connections. 

is securely bolted to the carriage, is provided with gearing 
of ample face and pitch to withstand coarse feeds. There is 
no friction engagement, the drive being positive. Both the 
longitudinal and cross feeds are reversed in the apron, and 
the mechanism is so interlocked that the two cannot be 
thrown in together. The handles and hand-wheels for con- 
trolling these, together with those for the clamping arrange- 
ment and the throwing in of the half nut for thread cutting, 
are all on the front of the apron, within easy reach of the 

Soptcmber, 1908. 



iipeiator. The geariiiK of the apron is so anaiincil thai ono 
turn of tlio hanj-wheel moves llie ran-iaK<' apiiroxiniatcly one 
inch. Tliia is very convenient in thread ciittinn. as tlie lathe 
can he stopi)eii and the carriage moved hadi by hand a suit- 
able number of whole turns of the hand-wheel. This beiuK 
ilone, the lead-screw nut can be thrown In with the assur- 
ance that the threads will match up in. the right place. 

Special attention Is given to the workmanship of these 
machines, and they are sent out guaranteed to show correct- 
ness of alignment within 0.002 inch, in both cross and longi- 
tu<linal feeds. The beds are made from 6 to 10 feet long, as 
desirod. The G-foot bed will take 3 feet 3 inches between thq 
(enters. The regular equipment includes large and small 
face-plates, steady and follow rests, cfmponnd rest, full set 
of change gears for cutting threads from 3 to 36 per Inch, 
countershaft and wrenches. At extra cost, the lathe will be 
furnished with an oil pan and pump (as shown In the engrav- 
ing), or with a taper or relieving attachment. 

Fig. 1 shows n general view of the machine, Fig. 2 shows 
the machine with the work in plai'O ready to commence the 


Th6 three half-tcnes shown herewith illustrate an in- 
genious machine invented by Mr. N. C. Kirk, of Clialtanooga. 
Tenn. The purpose of the machine is the forming of elbows 

^^■^ (f^f/l/£/9)fyyy 


A Machine for Forming Ribbed Stove pipe Elbows by the Rolling Process 

in stove-piping by the crimping process. Unlike other ma- 
chines for the same work, there are no reciprocating move 
inents whatever in the mechanism, the whole process being 

Pig. 3. Appearance of Work at the Completion of the Operation: not« the 
Swinging Chuck which forms the Elbow to the Desired Radius. 

operation, and Fig. 3 shows the work completed. The power 
is applied to Use pulley shown at the rear of the machine, 
which, through suitable shafting and gearing, 
drives a spur gear mounted in the head. This 
spur gear has an eccentric seat, in which is 
mounted, on roller bearings, the ring which 
forms the grooves, the position of this ring 
being eccentri<- to the outside of the gear wheel 
liy the depth of crimping required. At each 
levolution of the gear a crimp is formed. The 
fact that the crimping ring is mounted on 
roller bearings, allows it to roll in contact with 
the work Instead of rubbing over it, preventing 
the shearing action that would otherwise take 

The work itself, as shown in Figs. 2 and 3, 
is held at each end by conveniently operated 
chucks, so that it does not revolve. The inner 
chuck is mounted on the sliding bar. while 
the outer one moves on a swinging support 
whose radius is equal to that it Is desired to 
give the completed elbow. During the feedln,!? 
of the pipe, the rear chuck slides on the bar, 
and the outer chuck swings about its pivot. 
The feeding is accomplished by the action of 
the crimping ring, whose axis is set in a posi- 
tion out of parallel >vith the axis of rotation of 
the gear which drives it. This angular setting, 
combined with the rotation, causes the rolling 
to take place in a helical line around the pipe, 
advancing the latter a uniform amount for 
each revolution. 

To form an elbow, the operator swings the hinged support 
with its outer chuck and hand-wheel around in position to 
receive the end of the blank pipe, w-hich has been slipped 
through the housing and into the chuck. The two ends are 
then made fast in inner and outer chucks (the latter being 
swung in for the purpose) by a slight turn of the hand- 
wheels. The machine is now started up, and the continuous 
helical crimp is formed, the pipe being fed out along the 
desired curve as the operation proceeds. When the correct 
curvature has been formed, the machine stops automatically 
with the crimping ring in position to receive another blank, 
in which position the finished elbow may be easily removed. 

Pig. 2. The Machine Open, ready to receive tlS Work. 

a rotary one. This makes possible an exceedingly rapid 
pioduction, witli an almost absolute absence of noise and 
vibration in the action, which is smooth and continuous. 


The 4S-inch radial drill built by the Dreses Madiine Tool 
Co., of Cincinnati, Ohio, has been redesigned throughout, but 
with particular reference to the driving mechanism. The 
back gears and clutches for stopping and reversing are now 
mounted on the spindle head Instead of on the arm at the 
back of the column. This makes It possible to arrange the 
controlling handles in considerably more convenient locations 
for machines of different sizes than was previously possible. 


September, 1008. 

and at the sanio time ppnnits the use of hlRhspeed shafts 
with low torque to a point in the drive very close to the drill 
Itself. Other featiires of the machine are the double column 
with the stationary stump carried very nearly to the top of 
the outer sleeve, and the gear box which, in combination witli 
the back gears, gives 14 rates of speed, and may be changed 
with ease while the machine Is running. This is due to the 
fact that the variable speed shaft, if not connected with a 
higher speed, runs constantly at a speed determined by the 
lowest ratio of the change gears. The pilot wheel for the 
quick return movement has four handles, any one of which 
may be used as a lever for operating, the clutch connecting 
the worm-wheel with the pinion shaft. The machine gives a 
general appearance of ruggedness and extreme simplicity, es- 
pecially when the number of movements and adjustments 
provided, is considered. 




The Lancaster Machine & Knife Works of Lancaster, N. Y.. 

is selling a new style of twist drill socket which, it would 

appear, overcomes most of the difficulties met with in driving 

taper shank twist drills. The great difficulty in doing this, 

In the upper part of Fig. 1 is shown a reducing socket with 
an external and internal taper, both oval in section. A knock- 
out pin is provided, as shown, for forcing out the drill from 
the socket without injuring it by raising a burr or otherwise. 
The lower socket is provided with a shank and is of the usual 
form, the drill being removed by a drift inserted in the cross 

Fig. I. 

Lau<;aster Oval Taper DrUl Sockets, which obviate the 
Use of the Tang. 

as is well known, is in preventing the tang of the drill from 
twisting off under the heavy service to which these drills 
are subjected under modern conditions and with modern 
tool steels. In the case of the Lancaster socket, the taper 
shank of the twist drill is oval in section throughout its 

Fig. 2. 

Lodge Ac Shipley Lathe fitted with the Lancaster Attachment or Turning and 
Boring Ovale and other Irregular Shapes. 

length, and fits accurately a corresponding taper oval hole in 
the socket. When so made, there is no way for the drill to 
slip, the only possible accident being the breaking of the drill 
itself, due to an over strain. 

Fig. 3. Rear View of Lathe fitted with Irregular Turning and 
Boring Attachment. 

A lathe built by the Lodge & Shipley Machine Tool Co. and 
equipped with a Lancaster attachment for turning ovals and 
other odd shapes, is shown in Figs. 2 and 3. The taper 
sockets are produced on lathes so arranged. The device con- 
sists essentially of a shaft carried in bearings at the rear of 
the bed, connected on one side by change gearing to the spin- 
dle, and on the other by a telescopic shaft to an eccentric 
on the cross-slide, the eccentric being arranged to reciprocate 
the tool-post in unison with the rotating of the spindle, thus 
producing the form desired. The change gearing between the 
lathe spindle and the attachment may be arranged in the ratio 
of 1 to 1 for eccentrics, 2 to 1 for ovals, 3 to 1 for 3-lobed cams 
and 4 to 1 for square sections. Increased ratios may be used 
for polygons of greater numbers of sides. The eccentric is 
double, the inner and outer members being rotatable on each 
other so as to vary the throw at will from zero to Y2 inch. A 
graduated disk is provided showing the throw obtained. For 
special work special eccentrics may be provided for any de- 
sired travel of the slide. Solid eccentrics (not adjustable) 
may be substituted for the arrangement described above for 
producing duplicate work in quantities. 

The tool-post is mounted on a supplementary 
slide, dovetailed to the carriage, and under the 
control of the taper attachment. This supple- 
mentary slide l^as cast to it brackets for the 
bearings of the sleeve on which the eccentric is 
mounted. The eccentric rod reciprocates the 
tool-slide, on which the tool-post may be adjusted 
to the diameter of work required. The main 
cross-slide ■ screw operates the supplementary 

The lathe shown is equipped with a taper at- 
tachment. For round taper turning, the driving 
shaft of the attachment on the back side of the 
lathe is disconnected from the spindle, while for 
plain straight turning the block is disconnected. 
When this is done the lathe may be run as an 
ordinary engine lathe. When boring or turning 
to shape, and using the forming device with or 
without the taper attachment, the work is done 
with the same precision and with as little extra 
care is in turning or boring round surfaces, the 
whole mechanism being positive and taking care 
of itself without attention. All the wearing 
surfaces of this attachment are provided with 
ample oiling facilities. A depth gage is fitted to the com- 
pound rest screw, so that all diameters can be easily and posi- 
tively duplicated in boring or turning. A gage is furnished 
lor locating the point of the tool for all cutting conditions. 

September, 1908. 



Besides the sockets shown in Fig. 1, other examples of the 
use of the attachment are shown In Fig. 4. These examples 
Include a series of oval taper shank sockets, inserted one 
within the other, and a lilobed coupling joint, which may bo 
used in the same way as the universal joint common in roll- 
ing niill practice. The builders claim that the device Is ap- 
plicable to the making cf drives of all kinds, doing away with 

Figr. 4. Samples of Turning and Boring produced by the Attachment. 

keys, set-screws, splined shafts and other holding devices. 
By using the squared design with the ends of the shafts tap- 
ered, a square positive coupling drive is procured, free from 
projectirtg set-screws and other objectionable features, and one 
that can be separated quickly and put together again without 
the necessity of re-facing. The hubs of gears may be bored to a 
square outline to fit correspondingly square turned shafts. 
Milling cutters, shell reamers and other tools at present held 
in place by keys, may also be fastened to their arbors in a 
similar way. This will avoid much loss from cracking in 
hardening, due to the weakness in this respect of the sharp 
corners of the key-way, as at present used. 


The Keuffel & Esser Co., 127 Fulton St . New York, has re- 
cently applied a new finish to its line of steel tapes. The 
illustration shows their Liliput steel tape photographed to 
show the excellent contrast given by this new finish, known 
as the "Keco." It will be seen that the figures may be plainly 
read, the numerals and graduations standing out brilliantly 
and clearly upon a jet black background. Another advantage 
of the finish is the fact that it is not injured by exposure to 

Fig. 1. The "Liliput" 25-foot Steel Tape; note the Legibility of 
the Graduations. 

moisture, as rusting is impossible. Its brilliancy is also 
not marred by handling with moist hands, as is the case 
with many other methods of finishing. 

The tape shown gives a length of 25 feet in an exceedingly 
small space. It is known as the "Liliput." It is provided 
with the maker's compensating centers, which may be ad- 
justed for wear after long use, so as to give just the friction 
required for the proper winding and unwinding of the tape. 
This results in materially longer life for the latter. 


The Hoefer Mfg. Co., Freeport, 111., has recently designed a 
power feed for its line of 16-inch drills. This power feed is 
shown attached to one of these drills in the accompanying 
engraving. As will be seen the arrangement adopted is rather 
original and very simple. 

The proper ratio for reducing the movement given by the 
driving shaft to that required for the feed, is obtained by 

two sets of worm gearing In series. The worm mounted on 
the driving shaft engages the worm-wheel keyed to the upper 
end of the vertical shaft, which is supported In a bearing 
fastened to the upper tie-bar of the frame. The lower end of 
this shaft carries a 3-Btep cone, which is belted to a corre- 
sponding cone, supported on an arm pivoted to the frame. 
This second cone is keyed to the shank of a worm, which 
engages the worm-wheel on the rack and pinion shaft. The 
engaging or disengaging of the worm Is effected by swinging 
the arm on which it is mounted in towards the worm-wheel 
or away from it. In the engaged position It Is held by a 
catch operated by a lever, which may be automatically re- 

Fig. 1. Hoefer 16-iiich Drill arranged with Power Feed. 

leased by an adjustable stop on the spindle sleeve; the depth 
drilled with the power feed is thus automatically gaged. The 
tension of the belt on the cone pulleys pulls the worm out of 
engagement as soon as the trip is released. The rates of 
feed given with this arrangement for the 16-inch drill are 
0.005, O.OOS, and 0.012 inch per revolution of the spindles. This 
has proved to be a suitable range for this size of machine. 
The convenience of the lever feed has not been sacrificed in 
attaching this power connection, as the right hand is free 
to use the lever as before. 


The Emmert Mfg. Co., of Waynesboro. Pa., has under- 
taken the manufacture of the Noyes vertical T-square, which 
is shown in the two accompanying illustrations. This instru- 
ment, which is very well described by its name, comprises a 
T-square, guided at the top of the board, and provided with 
a protractor adjustable to any position along its blade. The 
protractor is arranged with right-angle graduated arms, so as 
to avoid the necessity for loose scales, thus making the de- 
vice especially convenient for vertical use. 

A round steel track is fastened to the top of the drawing- 
board. The hf ad of the T-square forms a truck, provided with 
a set of four rollers which run on and are guided by this 
track. One pair of the rollers is beveled, and runs on ball 
bearings, so arranged that the weight of the head holds it 
down on the track with no lost motion, making possible a 


September, 190S. 

very free and sensitive movement. Tlie licad also carries a 
spring balanced drnni to wliicli is attadied a cord supporting 
the vertical sliding protractor, holding the latter to the blade 
and counterbalancing it. As the protractor is also guided by 
rollers, it thus has a very sensitive vertical movement. It 
will be seen that this combination of protractor and T-square 
makes provision for motion in accurate horizontal and verti- 
cal lines. 

Pivoted to the sliding protractor is a forked arm. to which 
interchangeable scales are attached at right angles to each 

Pig. 1. A T-square which is guided from the Top of the Board and is 
provided with an Attached Protractor having Adjustable Scales. 

other. This arm is provided with a worm, which engages 
notches cut on the rim of the protractor, and which can be 
quickly pressed out of engagement therewith. These notches 
are spaced 3 degrees apart, thus making possible instanta- 
neous setting of the protractor to any multiple of 3. This 
includes all the most commonly used angles as 0, 15, 30, 45, 
60, 75, and 90 degrees. This 3-degree angle Is convenient 
also in that it is a common draft to give to patterns, and 
is suitable for the conventional angle used for showing screw 
threads. For the finer adjustment, the neck of the worm has 
a graduation of 12 divisions, each of which represents -/4 
of a degree. Thus, readings are easily made to as fine a 
scale as % of a degree, which is as close as is ever needed 
in drawings. Interchangeable scales are provided which 
may give any desired graduations. 

Pig. 2. Two Sizes of the T-square, showing the Application to Small 
Drawing Boards, and to Vertical Boards of Great Size. 

Fig. 1 Shows the instrument itself, which may be seen ap- 
plied to the smaller board in Fig. 2. In the latter illustra- 
tion is also seen a modification of the T-square for use with 
boards of large size, that in question accommodating a 
drawing 6 x 10 feet. The use of such boards is a great con- 
venience, as it is possible to make full-sized drawings of a 
large machine with the same ease, accuracy and speed as on a 
24 X 36-inch beard. Full sized assembled drawings, with each 

pait stand ing in its natural and normal life-sized position, 
furnish almost the same advantages as ii model. Witli such 
a layout the location of the operating mechanism and the 
handles can be tried, and their convenience and accessibility 
can be determined. A more accurate scale layout is always 
possible also when a full-size scale is used. 

The use of the instrument is by no means conriiicd to the 
vertical position, it being equally suitable for use on pinaller 
boards in the ordinary horizontal or inclined position. One 
of its greatest conveniences, howevei-, is the fact that it may 
be so readily used on the vertical board as to do away with 
the inconvenience of holding triangles, scales, etc., on the 
uwkwaid vertical surface, all these instruments being com- 
liiiied ill this one. The advantages of the vertical board 
are thus made available. Owing to the vertical position of 
the T-square, it may be made much shorter than when it is 
guided from the left-hand side of the board, thus resulting 
in greater accuracy. The device does not take up much room 
outside of the board, it being necessary to extend the track 
beyond its ends but a few inches. 


'I"he Buckeye electric blueprinting machine manufactured 
by the Buckeye Engine Co., Salem, Ohio, is of the type in 
which the tracing to be copied and the blue-print paper are 
wrapped around a stationary vertical glass cylinder jjnd held 
there by a convenient roiling curtain while an arc lamp is 

Blue-printing Machine Governor for Controlling the Movement of the Lamp. 

lowered through the center of the cylinder at the proper rate 
to give the length of exposure required to make the desired 
print. In the older machines, with which most of our readers 
are familiar, the rate of descent of the lamp and the conse- 
quent length of exposure of 'the sensitized paper was regu- 
lated by an adjustable pendulum controlling an escapement, 
the whole being operated by the weight of the lamp. This 
device has been superseded by the mechanism shown in the 
accompanying engraving, which employs a governor to give 
the speed of descent required. 

The cord which supports the lamp is wound around drum 
A. which, with the attached crank, serves as the means for 
raising the lamp at the conclusion of the exposure, in prep- 
aration for a new one. Inside of the casing shown, and 
mounted on the same shaft which carries drum A and crank 
/J. is a gear C. This, through the intermediate gearing, ro- 
tates governor spindle D at a considerable velocity, the ratio 
of the geared connection being high. The governor E con- 
sists of a double weight, connected with arms, and pivoted 
at center of the spindle. Normally the spring at the right 
of E draws the governor to the outward position, pressing 
disk F (by means of the links shown) down against a bear- 
ing in a stationary bracket at the left, which also serves as 
the outer bearing for the shaft. Disk F being splined to the 
shaft, the friction between it and the stationary surface, un- 
der the influence of the spring, is sufficient to prevent the 
rotation of D. The lamp is thus held in a stationary posi- 
tion. On the front of the case is a l<nob G. provided with a 
pointer indicating graduations on the circular dial shown. 
G is connected to a small worm which meshes with seg- 


1 !)08. 



iiK'iiliil woiiii-wlioel teelli cut in tli»» lowt r arm of lever //. 
The upper arm of this lever enclreles n pusli-roil J, and hears 
on tlie lower end of the coiled spriiiK sliown mounted on it. 
./ passes through the stationary friction hrailiel into a hole In 
spindle I), where it bears against the cross-pin liy whicli the 
links are fastened to F, and by which /•' is keyed to U. 

It will be seen that the spring on J tends to force F away 
from its stationary seat against the inlluence of the sprln;,' 
attached to K, and that this pressure may be varied by the 
manipulation of knob O. When the pointer on O Is set at 
zero, (lie spring on J is released, and that attached to K has 
its full effect in preventing rotation of the parts. As the 
pointer is turned around to increase the pressure of spring 
./. /<■ is raised further from its seat, allowing the spindle to 
revolve until it has attained such a speed that the governor 
again forces the disk down to its bearing. 

The rate of movement of the lamp will thus be maintained 
at a point corresponding with that position of the governor 
balls which just barely allows the friction surfaces to rub 
en each other, with the spring pressure provided. This spring 
pressure may be varied by knob G. which consequently fur- 
nishes a means of adjusting the speed. The dial permits the 
determination cf the proper rate of printing for any given 
paper and given conditions. This rate may be duplicated with 
certainty at any time without having to go to the trouble of 
making trial printings. 

This device gives a greater variety of speeds than the older 
method, being capable of the most minute adjustment. It is 
noiseless and eliminates all jerk and jar from the lamp, thus 
greatly increasing the life and efficiency of its mechanism. 
The whole apparatus is enclosed, free from dust and dirt, in 
an iron box, which is clamped to the frame of the blue-print- 
ing machine at any height to suit the convenience of the 


The accompanying illustration shows si.i; new micrometers 
which have been added to the line made by the J. T. Sloeomb 
Co., Providtnct, R. I. They measure all sizes from 13 to 

board furnis a coniiiarinn'iJi tor a set of end measures froni 
i:t to 18 Inches, hu'reasing by 1-Inch steps. They are 7/ H! 
Inch In diameter, and are (Itted with rubber grips to avoid 
changes in length due to the heat absorbed from the hands 
III niaking measurements. 


Set of Sloeomb Micrometers, measuring from 13 to 19 Inches. 

19 inches, inclusive. The beads are provided with the well- 
known adjusting arrangement provided with all of this line 
of micrometers. 

The six instruments are furnished with the stand shown, 
which will be found very convenient for use in the tool-room, 
a board being provided with hooks for checks, to indicate the 
numbers of the workmen who borrow them. The base of the 

A.Mi.uuAN Gas Fuknack Co., 24 John St., New York. GaB 
furnace for hardening with barium chloride. This furnace 
if especially adapted to the use of this form of hardening 
bath. The crucible Is set Into the furnace and sealed. In 
such a way as to prevent the gas (lame from attacking the 
licjiiid in the crucible, and thus generating noxious fumes. 

Joii.N H. Doii.MA.N, 1 Bethune St., New York City. Tapping 
attachment for use in sensitive drill presses. It will drive 
taps up to and including % inch in diameter. A stop is pro- 
vided which, when the desired depth of tapping has been 
reached, reverses the spindle and backs the tap out. A fric- 
tion device has been incorporated in the attachment. Automatic Co., Cleveland, Ohio. Motor 
drive for screw machines. This company provides its screw 
machines, if required, with motor drives entirely self-con- 
tained. The motor is placed at the end of the machine, four 
posts extending ujiward from the corners of the frame for 
the support of the counter-shaft to the machine, which is thus 
independent of any hangers on the ceiling. 

WiiSTEBX Raii, Supply Co., Chicago, 111. Pneumatic vise of 
simple and rigid construction. On account of its quick and re- 
liable control it can be used not only as a vise, but as a 
metal former, punch or forcing press, shear, riveting machine, 
or bull-dozer. The air-cylinder is cast solid with one jaw and 
the base of the vise. The piston rod is a solid casting carry- 
ing the other tjaw of the 

TiiK CiMi.N.NATi SiiAi'KK Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. Heavy 24- 
inch crank planer. This machine is driven by a positive 
crank motion of Whitworth type so as to secure a quick re- 
turn. The cross rail is provided with a head which swivels 
on each side of the vertical, the angle being read from gradu- 
ations in degrees. The machine will plane 20 inches high, 
20 inches wide and has a 24-inch stroke. It is built with a 
solid base resting on the floor, and weighs 5,500 pounds. 

Jo.sEPii T. Rykuson & So.\, Chicago. 111. A portable auto- 
matic key-seating machine, especially designed for cutting 
key-ways in locomotive axles, either before or after the engine 
has been assembled. This machine is operated by an air drill 
or electric motor, as most convenient. An end mill is used, 
carried by a slide which reciprocates continuously over the 
length cf the key-way, while the mill is slowly fed in until 
the desired depth has been reached. 

TuE Westixgiiouse Tractio.v Bbake Co., Pittsburg. Pa. A 
line of belt-driven air compressors for industrial service. 
These compressors are made in four sizes, having 15, 26, 
44 U and .')4i._. cubic feet of free air per minute capacity, 
respectively, at standard speeds. The horse-power for these 
sizes at 100 pounds pressure is 3, 5, 9 and 11, respectively. 
They are provided with water jackets, but may be operated 
without if required. This compressor is of the duplex, hori- 
zontal, single-acting type, and is easily portable. 

Babdo.ns & Oliver, Cleveland. Ohio. Motor driven brass 
working lathe, in which the motor is mounted directly on 
the spindle. The controller provided is of the reversible drum 
type, and has an automatic brake, so that the lathe is brought 
to rest as soon as the power is shut off. though the controller 
may be set to allow the spindle to be easily turned by hand. 
when desired. The spindle is reversed by the controller for 
threading in less time than is possible with a belt. Twenty 
changes of speed are provided, ranging from 300 to 1,400 revo- 
lutions per minute in either direction. 



September, 1908. 


A new form of grapiiile lias bioii placed on the iiiiuket by 
Walter D. Carpenter Co., 39 Cortlandt St., New York. This 
product is of crystalline structure, but ground to a de- 
gree of fineness hitherto unattained except with the anior- 
pho>i8 form of the same material. The superior toughness 
and adhesiveness of the flalte or crystalline condition make 
it very difTicult to grind, and it is claimed that until recently 
it has been impossible to reduce it to the impalpable pow- 
dered form which would be most effective for practical appli- 
cation. In grinding the graphite to this condition the opera- 
tion introduces into the material a considerable quantity 
of fine grit — waste from the stones used Tor producing the 
material. Only a part of this grit could be removed, the 
process usually adopted being that of "blowing," on the same 
principle that chaff is separated from grain by winnowing. 
I?y a process developed by the manufacturer of Graphlio, 
the grit produced by grinding this tough flaked graphite to 
an impalpable powder is so fully gotten rid of that it is 
impossible to detect its presence in the finished product, 
thus- making a very superior article for the lubrication of 
the finest and most closely fitted bearings. 

Still another characteristic of Graphlio is the fact that it 
has been so treated that it will remain suspended in light oil 
practically indefinitely, and thus may be used in any system 
of oil piping or lubricators already installed, without re- 
quiring any special appliance to be furnished for using it. 
This permits also the continuous application by sight devices, 
instead, of requiring a troublesome periodical application by 
force pump or otherwise. It is of the highest commercial 
purity, containing about 95 per cent carbon and 5 per cent 
silicate, having thus in a high degree the characteristic ad- 
vantage of the crystalline over the amorphous form — the 
latter having usually a large proportion of foreign sub- 
stances combined with it (such as clay) which it is difficult, 
if not impossible, to remove. Particular attentio^ is called 
to its freedom from grit. This may be tested by rubbing a 
small quantity of it on a hard surface, like a glass plate, with 
a paper knife or any other convenient implement. The sub- 
stance is so inexpensive that it adds very little to the cost 
of a gallon of oil, while it is said that its use will decrease 
the amount of oil used from 40 to 50 per cent, thus resulting 
in a marked saving in the cost of lubrication. 

* * * 

As an interesting example of the working of the true mathe- 
matical mind, the case of Prof. Akerlund, of the Boras Tech- 
nical College, Sweden, who lately died, may be mentioned. In 
many particulars this man resembled Lord Kelvin, and he 
was well known in mathematical circles in Scandinavia. His 
former instructor in mathematics stated that, while at high 
school, after the first principles and the object of trigonometry 
and analytical geometry had been verbally explained to him, 
he worked out and became proficient in the fundamental 
theories of these two subjects without the aid of any text- 
books whatever. While at the university he studied philoso- 
phy, but as a true mathematician he would accept nothing 
which he did not understand, and as he found that the learned 
text-book in logic used there was beyond his own com- 
prehension, he would not admit that it was founded on real 
logic, and finally made the professor of the subject himself ad- 
mit that he, too, did not comprehend the particular subject as 
taught. This is the supreme test of the true mathematician. 
He accepts nothing as fact unless he can comprehend or prove 
it. In this connection it may be Interesting to note that 
Akerlund, while still at school, constructed an electric motor 
simultaneously with Gramme. Gramme, however, brought 
his invention first before the public eye and consequently the 
credit of being the inventor of the electric motor has been 

accredited to him. 

* * * 

Commencing October 1, the postage rate on letters mailed 
in the United States addressed to places in Great Britain and 
Ireland, will be 2 cents per ounce or fraction thereof. Let- 
ters mailed without postage will be forwarded to their desti- 
nation, but double the deficient postage calculated at the 
2-ceut per ounce rate will be collected from the recipient upon 


Stockholm, Sweden, August 12th, 1908. 

The commercial situation in Sweden at the present time 
appears to be somewhat discouraging. The wave of indus- 
trial depression which began last fall in the United States, 
reached Sweden later than the larger lOuropean countries, and 
consequently the improvement in conditions will doubtless 
commence somewhat later as well. The machinery dealers 
who handle largely foreign machines — American, English or 
German — feel the depression most keenly. The Swedes are 
patriotic by nature, and, therefore, prefer to buy the products 
of home industry, other conditions, such as price, quality, 
etc., being about equal; as a consequence, the importers of for- 
eign products received the first and hardest shock in the fin- 
ancial and industrial depression. The greater number of 
the works visited here are still working full time, though 
some of them are building for stock. 

The industrial depression in Sweden has, however, also a 
local cause. The labor unions have during the last few years 
become very powerful and have time and again, with more 
or less success, tried to better the conditions of the working 
people. This summer a dispute arose between the men and 
employers in some shops, and a strike was declared. The 
questions involved were rather complex and it appeared at 
one time as if all the Swedish industries would be drawn 
into the conflict, and the Employers' Association threatened 
a general lockout affecting the whole organized force of labor 
of the country. At the very last moment, however, this ex- 
treme step was prevented, and temporary peace, at least, re- 
stored. The feeling of unsafety which this state of affairs 
naturally brought about, had a very demoralizing influence 
on industry in general, and firms neither dared to take ' 
or place an order. The restored peace, however, it appears, 
has also restored confidence, and already signs are visible of 
a considerable revival in the industries. 

The sales of American machine tools in Sweden are stated 
to be on the decrease as compared with the sale of other 
machine tools. Germany, being near to this territory and 
being in possession of a better knowledge of local conditions, 
is a very able competitor with America; and the Germans 
also have the advantage of shorter shipping distances, and 
can, consequently, deliver their machines more promptly, and, 
at the same time, the freight charges are smaller. English 
machinery is also sold to quite a large extent in Sweden, and 
the competition on the part of the home manufacturers is 
making itself more and more keenly felt. A few Swedish 
machine builders are beginning to specialize on standard ma- 
chine tools to a considerable degree. 

Noteworthy Swedish Works. 

The largest of the works located in Goteborg is Lindhol- 
men's Mekaniska Verkstad. These works are largely de- 
voted to the shipbuilding trade, and are equipped with 
some very large docks for the purpose. Many of the vessels 
for the Swedish navy are built here, and one w^as under con- 
struction at the time of the writer's visit to the plant. The 
shops are also equipped for building engines and boilers, and 
for sheet metal work in general. The boiler department is 
well up to date and equipped with the most modern machinery, 
but the machine shop is less modern. The most notable work 
in the hands of the company at this time, perhaps, is the 
construction of one of the large railway ferryboats ordered by 
the Swedish government for the traffic between Sweden and 
Germany. This boat, w^hich is to ply between Trelleborg, 
Sweden, and Sassnitz, Germany, a distance of some 65 miles, 
has a capacity of from 15 to 18 railway cars in addition to 
spacious accommodations for the passengers. The length of 
the ferryboat is 348 feet, the width being 48 feet. 

One of the best-known of the Swedish mechanical works 
is that of Nydqvist & Holm, Trollhattan. This firm has 
gained a high reputation in locomotive building, most espe- 
cially for the high quality of workmanship and careful de- 
sign of its product. A large number, perhaps, in fact, the 
largest number of all the locomotives used by both the state 

Spptember, 1908. 



railways and the private roads In Sweden, are made by this 
conrern. Kor some years past, the firm has also made a 
specialty of air compressors and pumping machinery, and 
Is, at the present time, starting out in still another line 
of machine building — that of building gas engines. Sweden 
has no coal deposits worth mentioning, but is Instead in pos- 
session of large quantities of peat. The company is now carry- 
ing on extensive experiments with a view to using peat in gas 
producers for the motive power of gas engines. It is stated 
that there have been some dIfHculties In connection with these 
experiments in regard to the gas purifying apparatus, but it 
is said that the company has been able to eliminate all the 
(lifhculties which have arisen; the results of the experi- 
ments, however, are still l<ept secret. A large new machine 
shop has recently been erected by the firm, which is to be used 
in addition to the old shops, the latter being too small for the 
growing business. The new shop is splendidly lighted, and 
equipped with up-to-date heavy-duty machine tools and large 
electric traveling cranes. The electric welding process Is em- 
ployed in these works and gives very satisfactory results. It 
is used largely for mending and welding castings, and it is 
stated that the welded joint is as strong as the unbroken 
piece. On account of the large amount of cuirent consumed 
by the process, it is only run during the night, when there 
is but little load on the generators. 

A remarkable piece of work now in course of construc- 
tion in these works, is one of the two large water turbines, 
each of 12, .500 H. P., for the government power generating 
station at Trollhiittan. The utilization of the Trollhattan 
falls by a large government power station, which will ulti- 
mately also furnish power for part of the electrified state 
railways, has previously been, from time to time, referred to 
in Machinery. When complete, the present station will have 
8 turbines, each of 12,500 H. P., or a total of 100,000 H. P. 
Only four units are, however, to be installed at the present 
time, and the others will be installed as the demand for power 
increases. The required canal, the tunnels and the buildings, 
are at the present time built large enough to take care 
of the ultimate capacity. The energy is transformed by ex- 
ceptionally large generators into three-phase, 25 period, alter- 
nating current of 50,000 volts tension. The current is to be 
utilized partly by factories within easy reach of the power 
station, and partly by neighboring cities and towns for light- 
ing purposes. In the future, of course, when the electrifica- 
tion of the state railroads has been carried through, the 
greater part of the power will be consumed by these. The 
power plant is planned to be ready January 1, 1910. 

A concern which for some time past has been devoting itself 
exclusively to the building of machine tools, is Lidkopings 
Mekaniska Verkstad, Lidkoping. While this firm largely 
specializes on lathes, it does not devote itself exclusively to 
this one line in the American sense of the word specializa- 
tion, but builds also a large number of other types of machine 
tools', such as drills, planers, boring mills, etc. This firm's ma- 
chines, although not of so highly developed design as Ameri- 
can machine tools, are strong and powerful, and, apparently, 
of good workmanship. 

The Motala Mekaniska Verkstad, Motala. is one of the larg- 
est works in the country, employing about 1,000 men. These 
works are equipped principally for the making of marine 
engines, boilers and locomotives, and for bridge building, and 
have recently commenced to develop a line of oil engines. 
The concern is old and well established, and commands a 
skilled and well-trained staff of officers and men, and to the 
skill of the workmen, rather than to the employment of high- 
grade tools, must be credited the high class of work pro- 
duced. Besides the regular machine shops, there is also a 
small rolling mill plant largely for the individual needs of 
the shop, and a well-equipped forging shop for heavy forg- 
ings. The company also makes the larger portion of its own 
locomotive accessories. 

Without question, the best and highest developed of the 
Swedish machine tool firms is the Kopings Mekaniska Verk- 
stad, Koping. This is a mediiim-sized concern which during 
the course of the last few years has specialized on lathes of 
large and small types. The largest types of machines are 

usually built to order, but medium sizes are often built in 
lots of from six to twelve and smaller ones In lots of twenty 
at a time. Following the practice of most other European 
works, the company, however, makes also a few other ma- 
chine tools, such as planers, milling machines, drills, etc., 
but the building of these machines Is more or less spasmodic, 
depending upon the variations of demand in the lathe busi- 
ness. A very high class of machine tools Is employed In these 
shops, and the works are conducted according to the most 
modern methods. Recently some of the latest styles of Ameri- 
can grinding machines were bought and Introduced Into the 
shops, and the company Is commencing to use the latest 
American methods in grinding; electric chucks are used to a 
large extent in connection with the grinding machines. An 
increase in trade is expected by the company in the near 
future, and an enlargement of the works Is therefore con- 

A firm which is known outside of Sweden as a machine tool 
building firm of repute, is Nya Aktiebolaget Atlas, Stockholm. 
This firm has developed a number of original designs of ma- 
chine tools, such as drills, milling machines, boring mills, 
gear-cutting machinery, etc. During the last few years, how- 
ever, its manufacture of machine tools has gradually dimin- 
ished, partly because of the keen German competition. The 
firm is still engaged in this work, but only to a small extent, 
its efforts being directed toward the locomotive and railway 
car building Industry. The firm is also building steam en- 
gines, air compressors, pneumatic tools, railroad bridges, etc. 
On account of the high price of land in Stockholm and the 
consequent high living expenses and high wages, the com- 
pany is contemplating moving the works to a town a few 
miles out from the city. The first portion of the shops will 
probably be moved in about a year, and the remainder later, 
according to the conditions of the trade. 


Owing to the concentration of enormous buildings, the lower 
end of Manhattan Island is regarded by insurance experts as 
a very dangerous fire risk. Mr. William McCarroll, president 
of the New York Board of Trade and Transportation, has pub- 
lished a letter from Mr. P. F. Schofield, in which the danger 
is vividly pointed out. Mr. Schofield states that the area 
of Manhattan Island between 14th St. and the Battery is 
about equal to the area of Chicago, swept by the fire of 
1871 in which the property loss was $170,000,000. The as- 
sessed valuation of the Improvements on this section of 
New York is over $400,000,000, and the merchandise housed 
In- these buildings brings the valuation up to more than 
$1,000,000,000. One warehouse alone in this district is said 
to have stored at one time merchandise valued at more than 
$50,000,000. It is no wonder then that the wholesale dry 
goods district of Manhattan is the "nightmare of the in- 
surance world." A conflagration in this section of New 
York, on the scale of the Chicago fire, would wipe out prop- 
erty values unparalleled, and the effect of such a disaster 
would not be limited to the metropolis or to New York State. 
It would be felt in every city of the union, and in the Old 
World as well. The geographical situation of Manhattan 
Island, between two rivers, and the narrow cross streets, 
make the condition very favorable to the spread of a fire, 
especially when it is considered that winds attaining veloci- 
ties of forty to fifty miles an hour in combination with a 
temperature below the freezing point, are not unknown. Take 
such a situation, with insuflScient water pressure, and the 
possibility of a fire that would be unparalleled in property 
destruction in the world's history is not so remote as it 
might be. Should such a fire gain headway, the towering 
piles of architecture that dominate Broadway, and which 
are considered impregnable to fire would, in no small 
measure, add to the conflagration. The streets would be 
converted into artificial tunnels and canyons, acting like 
funnels or blow pipes to fan the flames when they had once 
gotten beyond the control of the fire department, and the 
flames would leap from building to building far above the 
puny streams that the fire engines and water towers could 



Septcnibor, 1908. 


Harris Tabor. 

Harris Tabor, of tlie Tabor Mfg. Co., died July 29, 1908, at 
his home in Philadelphia, his death being the result of an 
automobile accident which occurred on July 4 of last year. 
He was on his way to visit friends when the heavy machine 
in which he was riding was overturned by the shifting ot the 
soil of the narrow hillside road they were following. He 
was caught beneath the overturned machine and seriously 
injured, and was confined to his bed until the first of Septem- 
ber, shortly after which he resumed his duties at the Tabor 
Mfg. Co. His improvement was slow, and in March he con- 
tracted a severe cold which early in May forced him to again 
take to his bed. This, together with his weakened condition, 
brought about his death. 

He was horn in Clarence, Erie County, New York, on Janu- 
ary 26, 1843, At the age ot 21 he enlisted as a private in the 
Civil War for a term of two years. He was honorably dis- 
charged and mustered out of service at Elmira, N. Y, He 
began his mechanical training as an apprentice in the shop of 
his brother, Leroy Tabor, Sr., at Tiago, Pa., where he re- 
mained two years previous to his enlistment. After leaving 
the army he went to work as a machinist with S. Payne at 
Troy, N. Y. From there he went to B. W. Payne & Sons, Cor- 
ning. N. Y., and when this company moved to Elmira, he 
was made superintendent. In the early 80's he moved to 
Hartford, Conn., to assume the position of superintendent 
of the Hartford Steam Engine Works. After a year here he 
went to Pittsburg as superintendent of the Westinghouse 
Machine Co., where he remained for three years. During all 
this time his work had been specialized in the line of steam 
engineering. The well-known Tabor governor and Tabor 
steam indicator were invented and placed on the marlvet 
during this period. The former was sold to, and is now being 
manufactured by, the Ashcroft Mfg. Co. 

While with the Westinghouse Machine Co. he became in- 
terested in foundry work, and conceived the idea of a power 
operated molding machine. For furthering the development 
of this idea, he associated himself with Manning, Ma.xwell 
& Moore, and later resigned his position in Pittsburg and 
took up quarters in New York, where he could give the de- 
velopment of the molding machine his full attention. In 
188S he placed on the market the first successful power 
molding machine, operated by steam, through an over-head 
cylinder. In the fall the manufacture of the machine was 
transferred to the Pond Tool Works. Plainfield. N. J., and 
continued there until the early 9iVs when the Tabor Jlfg. 
Co. was organized, and the manufacture of the machine 
transferred to Elizabeth, N. J., where the vibrator system of 
molding and the first compressed air machine were brought 
out. In 1900 the greater portion of the interest of the com- 
pany was sold to Mr. Wilfred Lewis, and in September of 
that year the plant was transferred to Philadelphia. Up to 
this time he had been president of the company. From 190n 
to 1906 he was occupied in looking after his various inter- 

ests, and ailinn In the i;ip:i(ily of consulting engineer of th" 
Tabor Mfg, Co. In .hinc. I'.uii;. he moved to Pliiladplphia, 
where he again lock active part in the affairs of the com- 
pany up to the time of his illness. Mr. Tabor is survived 

by a wife. 

* * *f 


W. E. Farrcl has been clciti'd pri'sidcnt of the Stoever 
Foundry & Mfg. Co., Myerstown, Pa., succeeding Ralph Mc- 
Carty. who has resigned. 

Walter J. Friedlander has been made general manager of 
the Hisey-Wolf Machine Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, manufacturer 
of electric drills, grinders, etc. 

Walter S. Lang, of the Glasgow branch of Charles Churchill 
& Co., Ltd.. sails for Great Britain September 8. He has spent 
considerable time in this country studying American methods 
in a number of the prominent machine tool manufacturing' 

Forrest E, Cardullo, an occasional contributor to M.\cniNERY, 
w-ho was instructor of practical mechanics at Syracuse Uni- 
versity, has resigned his position and has been made professor 
of mechanical engineering at the New Hampshire State Col- 
lege, Durham, N. H. 

Edward K. Euston has been elected vice-president and gen- 
eral sales manager of the Stoever Foundry & Mfg. Co., Myers- 
town, Pa. He will have ofTices at 140 Cedar Street, New York 
City. Mr. Euston has been manager of the company's New 
York office for the past six years. 

R. B. Anthony, graduate of University of Wisconsin; E, L. 
Moreland, graduate of Johns Hopkins University, and F. W. 
Willey, graduate of Purdue University, have received the 
degree of master of science from the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology for post graduate work done in the electrical 
engineering department. 

S. Coulange, for the past twelve years designer for the 
Fabrique Nationale d'Armes de Guerre, of Herslal, Belgium, 
and representative of Fenwick, Freres & Co., has opened an 
office in Rue Louvrex, Liege, Belgium, as a consulting, invent- 
ing and constructing mechanical engineer of machine tools 
and special machinery. American and foreign manufacturers 
are requested to send Mr. Coulange their catalogues. 

B. B. Quillen. secretary and treasurer of the Cincinnati 
Planer Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, and Alfred Marshall, president 
of the Marshall & Huschart Machinery Co., with their wives 
and a party of friends, left Cincinnati on August 13th in 
automobiles for a tour through the East, and will travel 
through Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island. Connecticut. New York, New Jersey, visiting 
.\'ew York city, Philadelphia, Atlantic City, etc. The party 
e.xpects to he on the road four weelvs. 

Arthur D. Dean has been appointed chief of the division of 
trade schools of New York State, the appointment taking effect 
September 1. This appointment is made in accordance with 
an act passed by the New York legislature this year author- 
izing the establishment of industrial and trade schools in 
cities and union free school districts. Mr. Dean will do much 
traveling throughout the State to meet boards of education 
and gatherings of citizens interested in promoting local trade 
schools and industrial education. 

* * » 


The National Machine Tool Builders' Association will hold 
its regular annual convention at the Hotel Imperial, corner 
of Broadway and 32d Street, New York, Tuesday and Wednes- 
day, October 20th and 21st. Further information may be ob- 
tained from the secretary, Mr. P. E. Montanus, Springfield 
Jlachine Tool Co., Springfield, Ohio. 

* * * 

Never forget that you must begin at the bottom and not 
at the top if you desire results. Scattering seeds over an un- 
prepared surface is a waste of time. You must plow first. 
Then the results will be in direct proportion to the per- 
sistence with whicli the work is followed up. — Geo. G. Yeo- 
mans before the Railway Storekeepers' Association. 

Adv. Index pajres 36-48. 





^m^"" >^v 


Will concern himself only with cutters of a 
recognized standing and quality, for he feels 
that true economy is only effected by using 
the best obtainable. 

And to hnd out what make of cutters is 
most economical, he need look no further 
than to that make stamped B. & S. MFG. 
CO., ^\■hose reputation for quality was 
established over 45 years ago, and is still 
maintained to no less a degree today. 

It requires no argument on our part, for 
the merit of a cutter is in its capacity, that 

those stamped B. & S. MFG. CO. 

entire satisfaction. 

JVrite for cutter list. 
Sent free to any address. 




September, 1908. 


The demand for young men with a nici-p extended and a 
deeper training in electrical engineering theory than can be 
obtained in an undergraduate engineering course has led the 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Boston. Mass.. to em- 
phasize ils graduate courses. These graduate courses lead 
either to the degree of master of science for young men who 
propose to spend one year of advanced study of electrical 
engineering, or to the degree of doctor of philosophy cr doctor- 
of engineering for young men who are able and propose to 
spend longer periods in their advanced study and research. 
The degrees of master of science and doctor of engineering 
are particularly applicable to students following electrical 
engineering studies, and lectures, seminars, and other ad- 
vanced instruction for students who are candidates for the 
doctor's degree will be well under way in the electrical engi- 
neering department during the next school year. In addition 
to students who will follow the course leading to the de- 
gree of master of science, candidates who will follow the 
works leading to the degree of doctor of engineering have al- 
ready arranged to begin this work at the Institute next fall. 
The advanced work leading to the doctor's degree may follow 
in its major part either the lines outlined by Professor Jack- 
son's lectures on the organization and administration of public 
service companies, or by Professor Clifford's advanced course 
on alternating currents, as the individual student may choose, 
and it is expected to be accompanied by such other work as 
may be chosen by the individual student (subject to faculty 
approval) from other departments of science and engineering. 
It is believed by the faculty of the Massachusetts Institute 
of Technology, that engineering students of particular ability 
can well afford to spend from one to three years of special 
advanced study under competent instructors along the lines 
of engineering theory and practice, and that such students 
will profit largely from the results of such study. Indeed, this 
seems to be proved by the experience of numbers of engineer- 
ing students who have gone through courses of advanced study 
in engineering or scientific schools either in this country or 
abroad. The schools of foreign countries were doubtless for- 
merly in advance of the American schools, for the purpose of 
advanced study in engineering and applied science, but it is 
believed that this condition no longer prevails. The advanced 
courses in electrical engineering at the Institute are planned 
particularly with a view to meeting the needs of such students 
as have hitherto found it necessary to go to foreign countries 
for advanced engineering instruction. 

* * * 


The machine tool building firm of Ludwig Loewe & Co.. 
Berlin, Germany, has installed in its shop a very complete 
apprenticeship school. There are seven different courses for 
apprentices, according to the work for which the young man 
wants particularly to fit himself. The time of apprentice- 
ship for all-around machinists is four years, divided up be- 
tween nine different departments in the shop. For tool-mak- 
ers, molders, pattern-makers, lathe hands, planer and milling 
machine hands, and blacksmiths, the apprenticeship time is 
three years. The apprentices are given a rather thorough all- 
around experience, the lathe hands, for instance, spending 
three months in the tool grinding department and three 
months in the hardening department; the pattern-maker ap- 
prentices spending six months in the foundry, etc. Besides 
the practical training, the boy attends an apprentice's school 
within the shop in which he spends eight hours a week the 
first year (in the case of a four year's apprenticeship eight 
hours for the first two years), seven hours for the second 
year (or third), and six hours for the third (or fourth) year. 
The curriculum is made up not only of purely mathematical 
subjects, such as geometry, algebra, drawing, strength of ma- 
terials, etc., but a general course is also included, giving the 
rudiments of business law, civics and political economy. Be- 
sides this, two hours a week are devoted during the last two 

ytars to the study of German. It appears that the idea of 
this appienticeship school is not only to train good workmen, 
but also to produce men who have a broadened view of their 
•vorK and their duties, and who will, if successful in their 
mechanical work, be able to take any kind of a responsible 
position around the shop that may fall to them. There is no 
doubt that an apprentice training planned broadly will give 
more satisfactory results in the long run than one planned 
along loo narrow and specialized lines. 

• * * 


In .some of the anlhracile coal mines of northeastern Penn- 
sylvania, ashes are being used as pillars to prevent cave-ins. 
Flushed in the spaces formerly occupied by coal, the ashes 
form a solid mass when the, water drains off, capable of hold- 
ing uji the earth and rock above. Thus they enable the miners 
to "rob pillars" — to take out coal which they had been forced 
to leave as supports. A mine just outside of Scranton. Pa., 
is near a big boiler plant which consumes three hundred 
tons of coal daily. Xaturally, a large supply of ashes is 
created in the fire boxes beneath the boilers. It is estimated 
that about fifty tons of ashes a day are sent down into the 
mine. 'Water puni])ed from a nearby mine is used for the 
flushing Running through a wooden trough, it reaches a 
funnel that passes beneath the ashpits. This funnel slopes 
at a grade of three-eighths inch to the foot. At intervals the 
ashes are shaken into it from above. The flow of the water 
carries the ashes to a liorehole leading down through the 
ground to the mine. At the bottom are pipes leading to the 
worked-out places which are to be filled.' Through the pipes 
goes the torrent of ashes and water, and the ashes are piled 
into the abandoned "breast" or gangway, while the water 
seeps and drains away. Gradually the pile of ashes grows. 
until it reaches from floor to roof. Then it becomes hard and 
firm. Nearby have Ijeen left pillars containing hundreds of 
tons of coal. When the new ash-pillars are large enough to 
be sate supports, the coal can be taken out. The piping !s 
worn out very rapidly by the sulphur which is always present 
in mine water and therefore has to be replaced frequently. 

* * * 


In view of the discussion that has been carried on in the 
columns of Machinery and elsewhere regarding the status 
of inventors and their relation to the U. S. Patent Office, 
it is interesting to know that an or,ganizafion known as the 
International Congress of Inventors was established in 1906 
and incorporated in 1907 for correcting present abuses and 
lurthering the interests of inventors. Its object is to secure 
legislation which shall insure to the inventor the services of 
the patent office which his Itpplication fees should provide 
and protection for his inventions which a government guar- 
antee should give. It was largely through the efforts of this 
association that Congress this year provided for an increased 
force of examiners and for an advance in the salaries of the 
liatent office employees. An important matter now under con- 
sideration by the association is the establishment of a stan- 
dard for a United States patent. The patent system pur- 
ports to be a system for insuring a reward to inventors for 
their efforts and for stimulating the production of inventions 
of value to the public, but patentees and holders of patents 
have found that a United States patent has no definite stand- 
ing until it has been passed on by the courts. Further infor- 
mation regarding the objects of the association can be ob- 
tained from Mr. Ralph T. Olcott, secretary. International 
Congress of Inventors, Rochester. X. Y. 

* * * 

Experiments carried out at the testing plant of the United 
States Geological Survey, regarding the fuel value of Florida 
peat, indicate that in a gas producer plant this peat produces 
gas having a thermal value of 17.5.2 B.T.U., compared with 
149.6 B.T.U. for 'West 'Virginia coals and from 141.6 to 153.2 
B.T.U. for Pennsylvania coals. The amount of peat con- 
sumed per brake horse-power w-as 2. OS pounds as compared 
with 1 pound of West Vir.ginia coal, and 112 pounds to 1.47 
pounds of Pennsylvania coals. 



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Supplement to MACHIN! 

Tables for the Articles in this number entitled " Band and Block Brakts '| 






















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Contributed by A. L. Campbell. 

CoQbibatdd by A. L. Campbell. 

ttobcr, J 908. 

id Key-seating Change Gears Economically." 




























































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Coatributed by Racquet. 




































































































































































































































































































































































































































































































Oontrlbutad by Racquet. 


October, 1908. 


W. p. SASaBNT.* 

IN the prevlouB article of this series, the author dwelt at 
length on the controlling influence of the engineer In the 
planning of extensive Improvements. In order to main- 
tain the personal tone, the following observations, while of 
general Interest, will be addressed to the engineer In charge. 

It Is highly Improbable that a corporation, with the wisdom 
and caution acquired by successful growth, will expend large 
sums of money for improvements without having at hand 
Information covering "the existing state of the art." The 
engineer, therefore, should spend considerable time visiting 
the best and largest examples of recently built plants for 
metal-working, and also, from the first moment that exten- 
sions are considered, gather together all Information possible 
bearing on the subject from technical papers. It Is well to 
formulate an outline of the essential points affecting, first, 
the efficiency of the plant; second, the adaptability for sys- 
tematic extension; third, the expense attending the opera- 
tion; fourth, the construction of buildings; and fifth, the cost 
of plant. 

The following points are suggested as covering such infor- 
mation as will be of use In planning new shops. Other things 


Under the head of future extension, observe the area of 
the site In relation to space covered by the buIldlngB, and 
how the works' system of trackage Is planned In connection 
with the trunk lines of the various railroads serving the city 
where the site is located. Observe the polntB that bear on 
the labor supply; such as homes, street-car facilities, and the 
proximity to large manufacturing sections from which the 
better class of workmen can be drawn. 

Under expense of operation, study the arrangement of 
space and the length of haul within the works of the bulk of 
the material handled, the rapidity of handling, and the couree 
of the product through the works; also the arrangement of 
trackage, and facilities for storage and unloading which tend 
to keep down demurrage charges. The type of buildings has 
also a bearing on the expense factor through the variation 
of Insurance rates. The length and efficiency of power trans- 
mission lines, and the efficiency of the power plant and heat- 
ing apparatus, are large factors In the expense of operation. 

The details of building construction, when brought together 
for comparison, show the trend of the best thought, inasmuch 
as particular features that may be found In all or nearly all 

Fig. 4. Plan of AUia-Chalmers Co.'s Plant at West Allls, MUwaukee, Wis. 

will suggest themselves if some particular branch of the 
manufacturing is "lame" in the shops for which Improvements 
are under consideration, as, for instance, the forge shop or 
power plant, which are often neglected in shops otherwise 
highly efficient. Under the head of efficiency, look for the 
adaptability of the buildings to the equipment within them; 
as to whether or not there is sufficient height and span of 
cranes over the erecting space, as often provision Is not made 
for Increase In size of the product; and in the machine shop 
space, look at the reservation of space near machines for 
work in progress, so that expensive machines may not be 
held up waiting for castings to be brought from some remote 
part of the works. Such provision well justifies the cost of 
the additional width of bay required. Then, as to shipping, 
look out for space and handling facilities that will obviate 
the use of the valuable productive erecting space for tracks 
and boxing. The handling of work affects the productive 
efficiency according to the amount of non-productive time 
spent by producers In waiting for cranes and getting work 
on and off machines; therefore, attention should be given to 
the number of traveling cranes in relation to the floor space 
served by them, to the use of industrial tracks and column 
jib-cranes, and to the operating speeds of the various handling 
apparatus. This question of handling work may perhaps be 
considered a question of equipment, but it is Involved In the 
arrangement of space and affects the amount of space and 
dimensions a great deal. 

• Address : U4S Campbell Ave., Hamilton, Ohio. 

Pig. 5. Plan of Worthington Shops, Harrison. N. J. 

of the later plants, and which also conform to the recom- 
mended standards of the underwriter's and flre-protectlve 
associations, certainly are good examples to follow. The 
writer has almost come to regard the recommendations of 
the factory mutual fire insurance companies as axioms, 
and to judge building construction accordingly. The fact 
that the fire losses for the past ten years In plants Insured 
In the older factory mutual companies, and conforming to 
their standards, has been but four cents per hundred dollars 
annually compared with sixty cents in other properties, seems 
sufficient justification for this opinion. The framing, walls, 
roofs, floors, galleries, fire-proofing, and lighting should all be 
studied, and their relative costs. Railroad shops should not 
be neglected in one's Investigations, as the size of some of 
the latest shops Is such that almost all of the problems that 
arise in planning any metal-working shop have been han- 
dled on a large scale In planning them. 

The points outlined above will aid In getting at the meat 
of many published articles, and in gathering definite facts, 
rather than general knowledge without a definite application 
in mind. The following resumfe of the leading features of 
some of the later plants will emphasize the bearing of these 
points on various factors affecting the planning of new shops. 

Study of Recent Plants. 
A site tor a new plant may be selected from a number of 
sites by Its preponderance of advantages affecting the follow- 
ing heads: Adaptability for future extensions; railroad faclU- 



October, 1908. 

ties; labor supply; water supply; cost of foundations; cost 
of power. 

The West Allis plant of the AlllsChalmers Co. at Milwau- 
kee. Wis., is pre-eminent in meeting the requirements under 
most of these heads. Fig. 4 shows the general plan. The 
original buildings are shown by the shaded portion, the recent 
additions by the full lines, and the possible limits of exten- 
sions in conformity with the predetermined plan, by the 




Plant No. 6. 

Plant No. 7. 

Plant No 8. 



1 562 500 
















^#0^ Marhhicri/.X.T. 
Fig. 6. The IngersoU-Rand Plant, Phillipsburg. N. J. 

dotted lines. The arrangement and type of buildings are 
such that this layout of extension can be followed even if the 
nature of the product should be entirely different from the 
present lines. This plant is served by two railroads, and 
the activity of the rival freight agents in endeavoring to 
secure the lion's share of the business naturally tends toward 
a liberal supply of cars even when there is a general car 
shortage. As regards the labor supply, Milwaukee Is the 
principal manufacturing city in this section of the country. 
Locally, the site is in a recently improved community, just 
outside of the city limits. 


West Allis Worthington Rand 

Rectangular space, sq. ft 

Covered by buildings 

Percentage covered by buildings 

Yard space under cranes 


Percentage remaining 

Minimum distance between 

foundry and machine shops. 
Maximum distance between 

extreme points of foundry 

and machine shops 1,500 ft. 

Average haul of castings 810 ft. 

Maximum distance of power 

transmission (electric) .... 1,500 ft. 
Distance of transmission when 

ground floor space was 400,000 

square feet 600 ft. 

The well lighted and well ventilated shops, together with 
these other advantages, make the plant attractive to a high 
class of mechanics. The site chosen was a nearly level field 
of two hundred acres, and as a good bearing soil lay within 
a few feet of the surface, very little grading was necessary, 
and the foundation cost was relatively low. The item of 
foundation cost as effected by a proposed site is important, 
as the cost of one foot of foundation in depth will pay for 
two or more feet of brick wall above the foundation. 

Referring to Fig. 4, the great area of yard space served by 
yard cranes will be noticed, as shown by the diagonal lines 
between the various buildings, and this space is as effectively 
used as if under roof; the storing of castings inside the shop 
long In advance of the time when the machines are ready 
for them is avoided. 

Arrangement of Buildings. 
It has previously been stated that the arrangement of 
departments is one of the major factors affecting shop efli- 
ciency, and the facilities for handling materials another. The 

123 ft. 

250 ft. 

1,750 ft. 
1,111 ft. 

560 ft. 

2,000 ft. 
1,280 ft. 

1,100 ft. 1,600 ft. 

more effective use of space at the West Allis plant (Fig. 4) 
compared with the Worthington Works at Harrison, N. J. (Fig. 
5), and the Ingersoll-Rand Works at Phillipsburg, N. J. (Fig. 
6), is shown by the following: The rectangle formed by the 
buildings indicated by the dimensions 1,15G feet north and 
south, and l,2.^0 feet east and west contains 1,445,000 square 
feet; the buildings in Fig. 5 are contained in a rectangle 
1,550 by 800 feet, and deducting east of the smith shop leaves 
approximately 1,000,000 square feet. The buildings in Fig. 6 
are contained in a rectangle 1,250 by 1,250 equaling 1,562,500 


Building. Plant No. 8. Plant No. 7. Plant No. 8. 

Erecting Shop — High. Low. 

Crane-track span 70' 68' 69%' 112' 


helKht 00' 62' SB' 

Floor to roof 

truss 72'0" 72' W 

Width of build- 
ing 72' 126' 122' 

Machine Shop. 

Large vcrk — Nos. 1-2. Nos. 4-5. 
Width of build- 
ing 122' Wo' 122' 100. 

Width of hays.. 26'-69'-20' 89'-71' 30'-62'-30. 3n'-40'-.30' 

Crane-track span 67' 67' 59',4' 38' 


height 26' 44'6" 30' 26' 

Floor to truss.. 34' 02' .10' 

Under gallery 
floor — 
Crane track span ;5'6" 38'6" 2S' No galleries. 

Crane track, 

height 13' 17' 13' 

Floor to celling. 1.S' 21'3" 15%' 

Gallery Floor — 
Above main floor. 21 'J" 26'2" 18'-!" 

Head-ronm . . . . 14'8" 16' 12' 

Machine Shop. No galleries. 

Small work — 4 Stories. Galleries in shops. Saw-tooth roof. 

Width of floors.. 53' Inside 3114' 18 2.'i' wide. 

Head-room — 

1st sfor>- 21'4" 15'e" 13'6"-16'C" 

2d storv \i"l" 12'6" Ventilating bays 

.Sd story 14'3" 12'0" run N. and S. 

4th story 12'S" 20' wide, 29* 

high. See Fig. 

Rnofs Flat pitch. Flat pitch. Pitch 1 In 5. 

Center sk.vlights. Center skylights. Center skyiigbta 
Xo monitors. No monitors. Monitors. 

Wood sheathing. Wood sheathing. 
Tar and gravel. Composition. 

Framing Steel. Steel. Steel. 

Walls Brick. Brick. Brick. 

Pattern Shop. 

One story brick. Slow-burning mill 

Steel frame fire- construction, 

proofed. Flat Wood floors with 

pitch concrete asbestos paper 

roof. Wire-glass between. Plank 

windows with roof covered 

metal frames. with 4-ply slag 

Fire-doors auto- roofing, 

ma tic. 
Pattern Storage. 

Four stories. Same Four stories. Pat- 

construction as tern shop is a 

pattern shop. part of this 


Brick and steel. Brick and steel. Brick and steel. 
Roof— Flat pitch. Flat pitch. Pitch 1 in S. 

plank covered 
with tar and 
Width of hulld- 

Ing 222 feet 141 feet. 160 feet. 

Width of main 

bay 80 " 60 " 69 " 

Crane track span 78 " 58 V 65 " 

Crane track. 

height 28 ■• • 32 " 

Floor to roof 

truss 49 " 38 " 46 " 

Center skylights. Center skylights. Side skylights. 

Side ha.vs One 68' wide. Two 40' wide. Two 46' wide. 

Two 32' wide. 

Skylights. Skylights. Skylights. 
Height of charg- 
ing floor 23 feet. 21 feet. 18 feet. 

Sand and supply 

storage On sand floor at In lean-to outside Outside storage 

level of charg- of main space. bins. 

Ing floor inside 
of building. 

Cleaning No separate build- Large work Inside. Separate building. 

ing. Small work sepa- 

rate building. 
Moulding machine Part of main foun- Separate building. Part of main foun- 

fonndry dry, sand-mixing be- dry. 


square feet. The ground space covered by buildings withia 
these areas is 746,000 square feet for Fig. 4 or 51 per cent, 
450,000 square feet, or 45 per cent for Fig. 5, and 400.000 
square feet, or 26 per cent for Fig. 6. Then again. Fig. 4 has 
21 per cent of the remaining space within the rectangle under 
yard cranes. Fig. 5 is without yard cranes, and Fig. 6 has 
but 25,000 square feet or less than 2 per cent under yard 
cranes. These percentages with other items pertaining to the 
handling of materials are compared In Table V. 

October, 1908. 



A visit to the West Allls plant will dispel any doubt, because 

of the coiiipatt arrangement ol' apace, as to there being suffi- 
cient yard room. The sectional bookcaBe idea is noticeable 
in tlie lay-out of the Iiigersoll-Uand plant as well as the West 
AUis works, and the relation of departments will be unchanged 
despite additions that may be made. 

An advantage peculiar to the layout of wing machine-shops 
at right angles to the erecting shop with yards between Ilea 
in what may be called the side-feed of unfinished materials 
to the machine-shops. Castings are stored In these yards 
adjacent to the door nearest the Interior point where they 
will be machined. This side-feed requires the least amount of 
crane and truck handling and provides the shortest possible 
Inside route to the erecting floor, and eliminates in a measure 
the well known scene in end feed shops when all of the cranes 
are tied up at one end w-hile the furthermost crane is getting 
a large casting for transportation to the other end of the shop. 

The future methodical extension of all the departments 
does not seem to have been considered necessary for Plant 
No. 7, Fig. 5, as only the smith shop, low erecting shop, and 
molding machine foundry have lee-way. 

These three plants have the problem in common of the 
economical production of large, medium and small work In 

next the west wall, the skylight area being approximately 5 
per cent of the slant area. The machine bay at right angles 
to the main bay is 73 feet wide and 34 feet to the roof truss, 
and the machine bays parallel with the main bay are 44 feet 
and 35 feet wide and 22 feet to the trusses. The foundry 
main bay Is 75 feet wide and 40 feet to roof truss; the roof 
Is slate on plank and pitched 1 in 6. The lean-to bay is 39 
feet wide and 24 feet to the truss, roof slope 1 In 10, and of 
plank covered with tar and gravel. 

The Ball Engine Works, Erie, Pa., is interesting in the 
comparison of the buildings with those of the Hooven plant. 
Fig. 16 shows the erecting shop, 200 feet long, 74 feet wide, 
44 feet to trusses; roof slope, 1 In 4, of plank covered with 
slate. The machine shop bays are at right angles to the 
erecting space and consist of alternate flat and pitch roofs 20 
feet wide, forming a unique type of saw-tooth roof. This form 
of saw-tooth, supplemented as it is by the windows in the 
walls, has a more pleasing architectural effect than the 
severely plain type of saw-tooth roof shown in Fig. 17 which 
represents the erecting shop and machine bays of the Ridge- 
way Machine Tool Co. at Rldgeway, Pa. These latter shops 
are without side-wall windows except in the north wall. The 
roof of Fig. IG is far superior as regards ventilation on account 

Fig. 10 

Fig. 1 1 

Sand floor 


FifiT. 7. Machine Shops Nos. 1 and 2 of the Plant aho^vn in Fi^. 4. Fi^ 8. Erecting: and Shipping Department. 

Nos. 4 and 5. Fig. lO. Machine Shop No. 6. Fig. 11. Foundry. 

Fig. 9. Machine Shops 

large quantities, and the Table VI indicates the manner in 
which different designers have met the conditions. 

The heating of these three plants is through the medium of 
hot water under forced circulation, the heaters being in series 
with regular condensers, the vacuum on the engines being 
broken in proportion to the temperature of the outside atmo- 
sphere. The relative areas of departments and the power 
requirements of these and other large plants will be given 

The following information is derived mainly from articles in 
past issues of Machinery. The Hooven-Owens & Rentschler 
Co. works at Hamilton. Ohio, was described in the January. 
1904, number. This firm builds vertical and horizontal Corliss 
engines. The plant is exceptionally well equipped as the 
maximum size of work is limited only by the machine tools, 
of which the 20 x 20-foot boring-mill and a planer 14 x 12 x 35 
foot traverse are the largest. The shops are of brick and 
steel, and the lighting and ventilation are good. The main 
erecting bay is 75 feet wide and 57 feet from floor to lower 
chord of roof truss. The main machine bay lias the same 
dimensions. The roofs of the two bays are of one-sixth pitch, 
of plank and slate, and with skylights except on the slope 

of the opportunity for using movable sash in the vertical 
frames; and the elimination of gutters and consequent freedom 
from troubles, caused by melting and freezing of snow, com- 
mon to the cheaper forms of the regular saw-tooth, is a strong 
point in favor of this modified type. The crane tracks project 
into the erecting space in both the shops shown in the two 

The B. F. Sturtevant Shops. 
The new B. F. Sturtevant plant at Hyde Park, Mass., has 
many interesting features in the composite type of buildings. 
New England mill construction forms the base and is modi- 
fied by the use of steel interior columns for the first story, a 
20-foot column spacing, steel main girders and 12 x 16-inch 
wood floor beams on 4-foot centers for gallery floors, and by 
the transverse saw-tooth skylights over the high erecting floor 
and inner portions of the galleries. The erecting bay is 40 
feet wide and 30 feet from floor to truss. The galleries on 
either side are 40 feet wide and have 15 feet head-room under 
and over the gallery floor. The ground floor is of 3-inch hem- 
lock on tar concrete: the gallery floor for 250-pound load is 
of 2i,i-inch hard pine with 1-inch maple top floor, and of 
2-inch pine and 1-inch maple for 200-pound load. The roofs 



October, 1908. 

are %-Inch pitch, 3-lnch hard pine planking covered with tar 
and gravel. There are no wall columns as the walls of brick 
are 20 inches thick to the gallery floor and 16 inches thick 
from there to the roof. 

The Jones & Lamson Shop. 

An excellent ex9.mple of economical flre-proof construction 
Is afforded by the machine shop of the Jones & Lamson Com- 
pany at Spriiigfleld, Vt. The product of this shop is the well- 
known flat turret lathe. The building is three stories high, 
150 feet. long, 75 feet wide, with 14 feet headroom for first 
floor, 14 feet for second floor, and 11 feet for the third or top 
floor. A monitor 25 feet wide assists In lighting this floor. 
About 60 per cent of the wall area Is glass, which Is the same 
percentage as the window area of the new Pratt & Whitney 
machine shop at Hartford. The frame is of steel fire-proofed 
with concrete, floors and roof are of reinforced concrete, and 
the curtain walls are of brick. 

The Pencoyd Works of the American Bridgre Co. 

This shop Is remarkable for its massive construction as 
evidenced by the loads for which the gallery floors are de- 
signed: the first gallery for 500 pounds per square foot, and 
the second for 300 pounds per square foot. The central bay 

Ing about 60 per cent window area, steel frame, and concrete 
floors with the concrete of the floor slab-haunched down to 
the lower flange of the supporting I-beams, thereby fireproof- 
Ing thrm partly and adding about 50 per cent to their strength. 

The roof is nearly flat, of plank covered with tar and gravel 
roofing. Top floors are of clear li^-inch maple laid on sleep- 
ers which are embedded In the concrete. The ground floor 
consists of 3 Inches of concrete, then a damp-proof course of 
tarred felt, then 9 Inches of concrete In which are embedded 
the 4 X 4-inch sleepers as in the upper floors, and between the 
concrete and maple there Is a stratum of asphalt composition 
applied hot, thus giving the wood flooring a solid bearing. 

The building is very rigid, as the steel work is designed 
sufficiently strong for an additional story. It is a five-story 
L-shaped building, one wing being 65 feet wide and the other 
75 feet wide, with a double row of Interior columns giving a 
center passrage-way 25 feet wide for cranes. The first story 
has a clear headroom of 18 feet 4 Inches and all of the other 
floors have a headroom of 13 feet 4 inches (considerably more 
than in most other multi-storied shops), and as the windows 
come up to the under side of the floors the lighting Is excel- 
lent. A comparison of this shop with a single-story saw-tooth 
shop will be given later. As the benches, offices, and tool- 

Fig. 15 


Fig. 12. High Erecting Sbop of Plant shown in Pig. 5. Fig. 13. Machine Shop of Plant shown in Plan in Fig. 6. Fig. 14. Foundry of same Plant. 
Fig. 15. Machine Shop. Ingeraoll-Rand Plant. Fig. 16. Modified Saw-tooth Construction. Ball Engine Co., Erie, Pa. 

is 60 feet wide and the gallery bays 25 feet wide. Concrete 
Is used for walls and extends from web to web of the columns. 
The window area is 60 per cent of the wall area, and all but 
the lower sash are glazed with ribbed glass. The headroom 
under the first gallery is 13 feet, under the second, 12 feet, and 
11 feet under the roof. The crane arrangements are most 
unique. Over the 25-ton crane of 56-foot span in the main bay 
are two 10-ton cranes of 30-foot span running parallel, the 
trucks of these cranes away from the columns running on 
tracks supported from the roof trusses. Under each gallery are 
two parallel runways suspended from the main floor girders 
and on these runways are electrically operated jib cranes with 
5-foot radius arms. These cranes pick up work from trucks 
in the gangways and swing it over Into the machines. Tar 
concrete is used under the wood block top floor for the first 
story under the gallery, the tar being used for its preserva- 
tive effect on the wood. 

Pratt & Whitney Shop. 
A shop that is representative of many of the recently con- 
structed New England factory buildings for light and medium 
work Is that of the Pratt & Whitney Company at Hartford, 
Conn. It is an extremely rigid building with brick walls hav- 

rooms are next the walls, and sprinklers are installed, the 
noticeable absence of wooden cupboards and other combusti- 
bles near the interior columns will lead an unbiased observer, 
I am sure, to pronounce this shop sufficiently fireproof to 
compare with, and in details to be of a higher class than, a 
reinforced concrete structure. 

The foundry is situated across the tracks of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad, and is connected with the 
machine shops by a concrete tunnel which has the double 
function of affording a passageway protected from the weather 
for castings and for the distribution of heat, light, and power 
between the various buildings. 

Hoefer Manufacturing Company. 

The machine shop of the Hoefer Mfg. Co., described in 
Machinery December, 1905, is three stories in height, of modi- 
fied mill construction with wooden columns spaced on 20-foot 
centers each way, and with wood floor beams. The floors 
consist of a %-inch maple top floor laid on 3-inch yellow pine 
under planking; the walls are of brick, 17 Inches thick for 
the first story and 13 inches thick for the two upper stories. 
The cost is given as $22,000, or a little less than $1.00 per 
square foot of floor space. 

October, 1908. 



Colburn Machine Tool Co.'s Machine Shop, Franklin, Pa. 

This shop Is typical of many of the medium-sized plants 
making machine tools and requiring traveling cranes. The 
shop is of brick and steel with a slate roof laid on plank. The 
main bay is 37 feet wide and 31 feet to the roof truss; the 
side bays are each 30 feet wide and 14 feet to the trusses. The 
glass surface is about 65 per cent of the area of the side 
walls. This shop was described In Maciiinehy, February, 1906, 
and details and specifications were also given. The machine 
shop portion of Fig. 13 illustrates this type of shop. 

United Shoe Machinery Co 's Plant, Beverly, Mass. 

The designers and owners of this plant have adopted a 
purely reinforced concrete construction. The Hoor space cov- 
ered is about 17 acres, and the floors, roofs and columns of 
all buildings are of concrete. About 90 per cent of the entire 
wall area is of glass. There should be some great advantages 
in this exceptionally large glass surface to justify the greatly 
increased cost of heating, hut these advantages are too deeply 
hidden to be excavated by the author. Sprinklers are In- 
stalled only where combustibles are used or stored, and no 
insurance is carried. 

The Aiken Roof Type of One-story Shop. 

This peculiar type of roof construction is shown in Fig. 18. 
The advantages possessed by this form over the ordinary saw- 
tooth roof for buildings of very large areas are found in low 
first cost and maintenance. The lighting is not so uniform, 
but is very good. The shops of the Standard Steel Car Com- 
pany at Butler, Pa., are of this type, the main building being 
400 feet by 1,612 feet. The National Malleable Castings Com- 
pany shop of this type is 225 feet wide and 750 feet long. In 
this type of roof, sections are almost flat, the high sections 
being carried on the upper chord members and the lower 
sections attached to the bottom chord members of the trusses. 
The writer believes that even the strongest advocates of saw- 
tooth construction ■will admit the lower cost and superior 
natural ventilation of this type, at least on single buildings 
of large area. 

Multi-storied and Saw-tooth Roof Shops Compared. 

The Pratt & Whitney machine shop compared with a saw- 
tooth shop of equivalent fioor area (125,000 square feet) has 
better natural ventilation, is cooler in summer, has 25,000 
square feet of the simplest form of roof against 125,000 square 
feet of skylights, and has 80 per cent less underground piping 
to maintain. Heat, light, and power distribution is more 
economical both in first cost and in transmission losses. The 
greatest distance that a truck-load of material would traverse 
on elevator and floor from the receiving point in one corner 
to the extreme corner of the upper floor is 300 feet against 
450 feet from corner to corner of a one-storied structure. 

As regards lighting, the saw-tooth shop undoubtedly pos- 
sesses an advantage in the better diffusion of light, and con- 
sequently the strain on the eyes is greatly minimized. This 
advantage may be offset in a degree by the use of ribbed glass 
in the upper sash or windows and by the necessary window 
shades on east and south sides of a five-story building. The 
writer has yet to find that the productive eflSciency in any 
saw-tooth shop is greater than in the many two or more 
stcried shops in the manufacturing cities throughout the 
country. The writer recently has had experience in handling 
a maze of fine cotton yarns in a side-lighted shop and can 
fully appreciate the necessity of a soft, even light fqr textile 
work, but cannot see the necessity for better lighting in ma- 
chine shops than can be obtained by side lighting. 

Comparative Cost. 
The cost of saw-tooth shops may be 40 to 50 cents less 
per square foot of floor space than the high-class Pratt & 
Whitney shop described, but not less than a shop of slow- 
burning mill construction. The cause of this 40 or 50 cents 
difference per square foot is partly shown by the Table VII. 
These items, of course, do not make up the entire cost. The 
column A is for a high-class five-story machine shop for light 
and medium work and with a floor space of 125,000 square 
feet, gravel roof on plank sheathing on wooden purlins sup- 
ported by steel roof beams. Column B is a saw-tooth shop of 
125,000 square feet, roof slopes covered with slate. 

Much of this apparent saving on buildings may be offeet 
by the extra cost of sewers, piping and wiring, so that a fair 
comparison of cost cannot be made except for shops for manu- 
facturing like products, and ready for operation. 

Reinforced Concrete aa a Building Material. 
For underground work reinforced concrete is unsurpassed, 
for instance for tunnels, foundations, retaining walls, and 
vaiilis. Pattern shops and pattern storage buildings should 
be of real fire-proof construction and therefore concrete Is an 
ideal material for their construction. Concerns making light 
work are as well housed In one type of construction as 
another, but for machine shops and foundries necessitating 
high roofs and wide spans, brick and steel construction is 
better suited. Despite their strongly presented claims of low 
cost, leading concrete construction companies In New England 
and the Central West, in 190C. could not meet the steel com- 
panies on cost and time of erection, but undoubtedly concrete 
construction methods have been very much perfected since 
then. As the allowable stress per square inch of section in 
columns of reinforced concrete and steel is in the ratio of one 


Land— based on J435 per acre 0.2 1.0 

Floors 26.0 22.0 

Steel work 65.0 16.0 

Walls and foundations 31.0 8.4 

Roofs 3.6 40.0 

125.8 87.4 

to thirteen, a concrete column occupies twice as much space 
as a steel column, and by casting broader shadows affects the 
lighting adversely. The writer is loth to believe that con- 
crete should be adopted as the sole material of construction 
for large plants. As to cost, Mr. Leonard C. Wason writing 
in the Engineering Magazine, June, 1907, states that rein- 
forced concrete construction will cost 10 to 25 per cent more 
than mill construction, arri 20 to 30 per cent less than flre- 
prcofed steel frame buildings. On account of the great varia- 
tion of bids on reinforced concrete construction, the writer is 
unable to give reliable information on cost. 

The engineer before commencing work on tentative plans 
should visit the West Allis plant, even if he never investi- 
gates another large works, as he will find that the problems 
here have been well thought out and logically handled. It 
will be diflicult to find another plant (having so few build- 
ings) capable of turning out a mjllion dollars' worth of work 
per month within a year after the buildings were completed. 
The arrangement of space is most excellent, the work is han- 
dled economically and expeditiously, the power transmission 
is economical, and the interior equipment is in keeping with 
the high class character of the buildings. 

For light work, not requiring traveling cranes to serve 
many of the machine tools, a three-, four-, or five-storied shop 
\vith a light court, as shown in Fig. 10. is recommended where 
compactness of plant is desired or necessitated through lack 
of ground space or high cost of land. 

Mill cons'ruction is cheapest for multi-storied shops, and if 
built to comply with the rules cf the factory mutual com- 
panies will cost from $1.00 to f 1.10 per square foot of floor 
area. Steel frame construction, not fire-proofed, will cost 
from $1.40 to $1.60 per square foot, and reinforced concrete 
will cost from fl.30 to $1.50 per square foot. If the nature 
of the contents is combustible, automatic sprinklers should 
be provided, and the insurance rate will be from 20 to 35 
cents per $100 per annum on either of the three classes of 
buildings. Corrugated iron or steel covered buildings are 
naturally eliminated from consideration for these buildings, 
because they are not sufliciently warm or permanent except 
at a high cost of maintenance. 

For light and medium work, saw-tooth single-story shops of 
40,000 square feet area and an average height of 25 feet can 
be built for approximately $1 per square foot, but one must 
be content with a severely plain building, forbidding In ap- 

For medium and heavy machining, or for light and medium 
machining and erecting, the gallery type shown in Figs. 7, 9, 



October, 1908. 

and 12, Is common to most large plants. For building ma- 
chines up to 15 tons wolKht the type of IniiklinK shown in 
Fig. 13 houses all departments of many plants of 25,000 to 
50,000 square feet of floor space. For heavy work, demanding 
separate machine and erecting shops, the best results are 
obtained when the machine shops are at right angles to the 
erecting shop with the cranes projecting into erecting space 
as in Figs. S, 13, 16, and 17. 

Very high shops of wide span, and with galleries, are uni- 
formly of brick and steel and cost from ?1.G0 to ?2.00 per 
square foot according to the crane capacity and the gallery 
floor loads for which the buildings are designed. 

Pattern storage buildings are generally 2, 3, or 4 stories in 
height with fire-walls dividing the space into compartments. 
Slow-burning mill construction, fire-proofed steel, and con- 
crete are all used, the wooden construction leading; as in all 
guch buildings, automatic sprinklers are the main reliance 
for the protection of the contents, and given that they protect 

Fig. 17 
Pig. 17. Plain Saw tooth Roof. 


Fig. 18 
Fig. 18. Aiken Koof. 

the contents they will protect the buildings. The writer be- 
lieves that concrete with metal window frames and wire- 
glass windows will be the standard construction in the 
future. In that event no insurance need be carried on the 
buildings. One very important thing should be remembered 
in designing pattern storage buildings and that is to design 
the shelving and racks first, and then determine the window 
spacing and column spacing. 

Another thing that has been impressed on the writer's mind 
very strongly is to avoid outside down-spouts. This is best 
accomplished by extending the walls above the roof in the 
"parapet wall construction" recommended by the insurance 
companies, at the same time securing a more finished appear- 
ance. The down-spouts should have copper wire strainers at 
least 10 inches high and saddles should be built against the 
parapet avoiding sharp bends in the roofing felt, and the 
counterflashing should be built into the brickwork. Down- 
spouts inside will not freeze, and may be of galvanized iron 
to within about eight feet of the floor, where they should 
enter heavy cast-iron piping which should continue to the 
horizontal drains. The writer has seen, during the past win- 
ter, gangs of men with steam hose and fires, engaged in 
almost futile attempts to thaw out the outside spouts around 
a large plant. 

Roofs of large areas generally require a great deal of atten- 
tion, and the roofs giving the least trouble are of very fiat 
pitch and covered with tar and gravel or with tar and slag. 

Floors in single-story shops are now mostly laid on con- 
crete with a coating of coal tar between the concrete and the 
planking, and maple top floors are laid on the under planking 
to give a hard wearing surface and to facilitate repairs. Mono- 
lithic concrete floors are fast superseding other kinds for 
galleries and upper floors, as they add much to the rigidity 
of a building and can be built to stand heavy loads at a low 

Books that are most In demand for information pertaining 
to the design and construction of shops are: Cambria Steel 
Company's, Jones & Laughlin's or Carnegie Steel Co.'s hand- 
book, Kidder's "Architects' and Builders' Handbook," and 
Ketchum's "Mill Buildings." 

The preceding matter throughout is written with the domi- 
nant idea in mind that the difference between cost and selling 
price is the principal object in manufacturing, and the writer 
has endeavored to present principally the points affecting this 
difference, rather than those tending toward artistic per- 



Great difficulties are usually experienced In designing 
spiral gears, and these difflcullles are greatly accentuated 
when one has to design them for two shafts whose center 
distance cannot be altered to suit the gears, and also when 
the angle between the shafts is not a right angle, and the 
speed ratio Is not equal. The general practice is to work out 
the gears by lengthy mathematics, and should the answer not 
come out as desired, then a new trial is made, varying either 
one or the other factor, until the angles and diameters are cor- 
rect. This method of "cut-and-try" entails a great deal of 
work and waste of time. The following method, together 
with the diagrams used with It, will remove some of the diffi- 
culties, and enable one to arrive at the data required In a 
very short time. The method adopted is graphical, but the 
results may be checked by simple figuring. 

As the pitch diameter, spiral angle, and circular pitch are 
interdependent, they cannot be considered as a starting point 
in solving the problem, because they are not known. The 
starting point, therefore, must be the speed ratio, and some 
idea of the strength required, together with the center dis- 
tance. These factors, as a rule, can easily be ascertained. 
As it is common usage to employ ordinary spur gear cutters 
of regular diametral pitches for cutting spiral gears, the nor- 
mal pitch, or distance from one tooth to the next, measured 
at right angles to the tooth, must be the same as the pitch of 
a spur gear for which the cutter to be used is intended; there- 
fore, the corresponding diametral pitch and the speed ratio 
must be the initial data, all others being obtained afterwards. 

Three diagrams are given for the graphical solution of spiral 
gears. The diagram In Fig. 1 shows the relation between the 
quotient of number of teeth -^ diametral pitch, spiral angles, 

number of teeth 

and pitch diameters. The quotient 1 is com- 

dlametral pitch 
monly termed "equivalent diameter," and will be so referred 
to in the following. The diagram in Fig. 2 shows the rela- 
tion between the diametral pitch, the number of teeth, and 
the equivalent diameter. Finally, the diagram in Fig. 3 shows 
the relation between the pitch diameter, the spiral angle, and 
the lead of the helix. We will now proceed to give some 
typical examples illustrating the use of the diagrams. 

Example 1. Given a gear having 24 teeth, 6 diametral pitch, 
and a spiral angle of 40 degrees. Find the pitch diameter. 

First obtain the value of the ratio, number of teeth -^ di- 
ametral pitch, which, in this case, can be obtained without 
referring to diagram Fig. 2, being simply 24 -^ 6 = 4. Locate 
4 on the horizontal line in diagram Fig. 1, and project verti- 
cally until the line from figure 4 intersects the line for 40 
degrees spiral angle. Then follow the circular arc from this 
point, either to the right or downward, reading off 5.22 on 
the corresponding scale, this being the pitch diameter. Should 
the diameter be required accurately, we can figure it by the 


No. of teeth 1 

Pitch diameter = ■ X ■ 

Diametral pitch cos spiral angle 

= 4 X = 5.222 inches. 

cos 40 deg. 

This also gives a check of the result obtained by means of 
the diagram. The lead of the helix is now obtained from Fig. 
3, by projecting the. pitch diameter 5.22 horizontally to the 
ladial line for the spiral angle, and then, following the verti- 
cal line to the lead scale at the bottom of the diagram, we 
find, in this case, a lead of 19.6 inches. Of course, the outside 
diameter of the blank would be 5.222 + 2 X 1/6 = 5.555 inches, 
which is the pitch diameter + 2 times the addendum. 

Example 2. Required two gears which are to be equal in 
all respects, the diametral pitch being 8. and the centers to 
be approximately 4 inches apart. 

As the centers are not fixed, the gears in this case may be 

• For .idditional inform.ation on this and kindred subjects, see the 
article published in the .Vpril. 190.S, Issue of Machinekt on the 
"Derivation of Formula tor Determining Spur Gear Cutter Number for 
Spiral Gears." and other articles there referred to. 

t .\ddress : 22 Bristol Road. Bournbrook, Birmingham, England. 

October, 1908. 



S L6 4 U 3 Lt - l.a I Ji 


Nb= B 


Da= .. B 


<ro= B 


Jlachinery,y. T. 

Fig. 1. Diagram for Solution of Spiral Gears. 

1 1.6 2 S.6 3 i 5 

6 7 8 9 10 

^/'' y ^■'^'' ])^ }y^'''^l\ 

: 11/ L./.../../. 

y^ y\'^^ j<f\-f^\n 

l"TiJ ^/ ^-/-C^- 

' y" y^''^.--'^-''' ^u 

;/// /Xyy>- 


riW/ //Z<^<^> 





" W/)C'^^y>^^^^^^''''' 


' 1//^^^^^^^''^ 

'" i^mTT 1 1 , 

S 10 lo JO 25 30 36 40 15 60 

Fig. 2. Relation between Pitch. Number of Teeth, and Equivalent Diameter 
80° 75° 70° 65° 60° S5° 60° 45° 

^' 2" 3" 4" 6" 6" 7" 8" 9" 10" 11" 12" IS" 14" 15" 16" 17" 18" 10" 20" 
LEAD IN INCHES MacKlnery.X.r. 

Fie. 3. Relation between Pitch Diameter, Spiral Angle, and Lead of Helix. 


i* 35:«5'^ 

^ B 00° C Machiiteni.y.T. 

Fig. 4. Separate Dia«rrama for the Solution of some of the Problems Presented. 

made witli 4.') degrees spiral angle, and the center 
distance may be slightly adjusted to suit the pitch 
diameters. Referring to Fig. 1, follow the circular 
arc from diameter of gear = 4 Inches, until it inter- 
sects the radial line for 45 degrees spiral angle; then 
follow the vertical line down to the scale of the ratio 
between the number of teeth and diametral pitch, 
which Is found to be 2.82. Then, from Fig. 2. we 
find that with this ratio and 8 diametral pitch, the 
number of teeth is not a whole number, but the 
nearest number is 23, giving a ratio of 2.875 Instead 
of 2.82, which, by reversing the process and referring 
to diagram Fig. 1, gives a pitch diameter of 4 07 
inches. These results may be checked as follows 

No. of teeth 1 

Pitch diameter = X 

Diametral pitch cos 4'> deg. 

= 2.875 X =4.07 inches. 


The outside diameter is 4.07 + 2X0.125 = 4.32. 
The lead, as obtained from diagram Fig. 3, in the 
same way as in Example 1, is 12.8 inches. 

Example 3. Required a pair of spiral gears having 
a normal pitch corresponding to 10 diametral pitch, 
having a given center distance of 2V< inches approxi- 
mately, the sum of the spiral angles being 90 de- 
grees, and the speed ratio equal to 5 to 1. 

In this case both portions of diagram Fig. I are 
used, the upper part being employed for one gear and 
the lower part for the other, the easiest way being to 
get a strip of paper with two lines marked on its 
edge 5 inches (twice the center distance) apart, drawn 
to the same scale as the diagram. Move this strip 
of paper on the diagram (so that the edge of the strip 
passes through the center), as indicated at A, Fig. 
4. until the lines marl\ed coincide with points where 
the ratio of the equivalent diameters equals 5-^1, 
and then determine from Fig. 2 that these diameters 
also give whole numbers of teeth with 10 diametral 
pitch. We find that 0.5 and 2.5 at 78 degree.s and 
12 degrees are two such positions, and also 0.6 and 
3.0 at 70 degrees and 20 degrees. If we use the 
latter values, we will have 6 teeth and 30 teeth at 
70 and 20 degrees angle, respectively. The exact di- 
ameters can now he determined, as In our previous 
problem, and are 1.7.5 and 3.19 inches, respectively, 
the outside diameters being 0.2 inch larger, or 1.95 
and 3.39 inches, respectively. This gives the center 
distance 2.47. These values can now be figured from 
the formulas as before, and the leads obtained. 

Example 4. Required a pair of spiral gears, having 
a fixed center distance of 4.5 inches, running at equal 
speeds, the diametral pitch being 7. 

The method of procedure is similar to that of the 
last example, using a strip of paper having a distance 
of 9 inches marl<ed on the edge in the proper scale, 
as indicated at B in Fig. 4. At about 40 degrees 
spiral angle we find in Fig. 1 the ratio of number 
of teeth to diametral pitch to equal 3.14. This ratio 
is adjusted on diagram Fig. 2. as previously shown, 
so as to enable one to get a whole number of teeth 
with 7 diametral pitch, this number being In this 
case 22. The ratio is then 3.143, and following from 
this in Fig. 1 to the 40-degree line, one obtains a 
pitch diameter of about 4.1 inches for one gear, and at 
50 degrees, about 4.9 inches for the other. The spiral 
angles should now be carefully checked mathemati- 
cally as follows: 
cos spiral angle (first gear) 


= 3 143 X =0.766; spiral angle = 40 deg. 


cos spiral angle (second gear) 


= 3.143 X = 0.642; 


spiral angle = 50 deg., nearly. 


October, 1908. 

Now obtain the leads from diagram Fig. 3 In the same way 
as before, giving the leads of the gears 15.4 and 12.9 Inches, 

Example 5. Required a pair of spiral gears, the axes of 
which are at an angle of 120 degrees; center distance, 4.125; 
the ratio of equivalent diameters should be as 2 to 3, and the 
diametral pitch 5. 

We require first of all two numbers representing the equiva- 
lent diameters, these two numbers bearing the ratio to each 
other of 2 to 3. and giving a whole number of teeth with 5 
diametral pitch. These two numbers, when projected onto two 
spiral angle lines In a diagram made up as in Fig. 1, the sum 
of the angles of which lines equals 120 or 60 degrees, give 
two diameters whose sum equals the center distance multi- 
plied by 2. or 8.25. In this case we cannot use both parts of 
the diagram Fig. 1, as it Is made up for shafts at 90 degrees 
angle, and for this reason we must take the two readings from 
the same part of the diagram. The ratios 3 and 4.5 at 30 de- 
grees give corresponding diameters of 3.5 and 5.2, the sum 
being S.7. The ratios 2.8 and 4.2 giving 14 and 21 teeth at 
25 and 35 degrees, respectively, have diameters of 3.1 and 5.15 
(equals 8.25). From this we see that we can use 14 and 21 
teeth and the ratios 2.8 and 4.2. The diameters and spiral 
angles can now be obtained graphically, and more accurately 
In this manner: 

Draw two radial lines, as shown at C in Fig. 4, at 120 
degrees angle, on a separate piece of paper, and lay off on these 
to some scale the equivalent diameters, marking the end points 
2.S and 4.2 as shown at C. Fig. 4. From these points draw 
lines at right angles to the radial lines. It is now necesssary 
to find the position of a line 8.25 inches long, terminating upon 
these perpendicular lines, and passing through the center. A 
strip of paper is used in the same manner as before, and upon 
careful measuring of the respective distances from the center 
to the lines, one obtains the distances 3.075 and 5.175 inches, 
which represent the respective diameters, the sum being 8.25. 
The spiral angle is obtained by measuring or calculating as 


cos spiral angle of first gear = 2.8 X = 0.910; 


spiral angle = 24 deg. 15 min. 

cos spiral angle of second gear = 4.2 X — ■ ^^0.812; 


spiral angle = 35 deg. 45 min. 
The above examples will show the careful student the man- 
ner of working out each kind of gear required, and if the 
directions are properly followed, this method will be found 
to be a great time-saver. It may be mentioned that it is ad- 
visable to keep the spiral angle as nearly equal In the two 
gears as possible in order to obtain the greatest efficiency of 
transmission. It should be noted that when diagrams of this 
type are to be used for practical calculation of spiral gears, 
they should be laid out in much larger scale than that shown 
in the engravings, and it would be advisable to lay out radial 
lines in Fig. 1 for every degree, and vertical and horizontal 
lines for every tenth of an inch, and circular arcs for equally 
fine subdivisions. The same is true of the diagrams in Figs. 
2 and 3. In Fig. 2. horizontal lines should be laid out for 
every tenth of an inch, and vertical lines should be laid out 
for all whole numbers of teeth. In Fig. 3, the horizontal 
lines should be laid out for every tenth of an inch, vertical 
lines for at least every 0.2 of an Inch, and radial lines for 
every degree. This diagram should also be laid out so that 
leads over 20 inches may be read off. as well as those below 

this figure. 

• * * 

Some manufacturing concerns, because of general excellence 
of product In years gone by, have acquired so great a reputa- 
tion that they have capitalized their reputation, as it were. 
using the name to bolster up an output that no longer has 
superlative merit. So marked Is this condition with certain 
concerns to-day that one whose conversation is marked by 
greater forcibleness than elegance, remarks: "So-and-so's 
capitalization of good will and mechanical excellence has 
» h of a lot of water in It." 


In an article in The Engineering Review, September, 1907, 
entitled "Practical Pyrometry," the author gives a compara- 
tive table of the various types of thermometers and pyrom- 
eters in use, explaining the general principles upon which each 
depends for Its working, and stating the limits of temperature 
between which each type may be used. This table, particu- 
larly valuable on account of the concise form in which the 
Information it contains has been put, is reproduced below. 
At the present time pyrometry is becoming an important sub- 
ject in industrial life, and is not any longer confined to the 
scientific laboratory only. It wonld be difficult to mention 


Range ia 



of .\ction. 



over which 

they can be 



Change in volume 
or length of a 


32 to 1800 

Mercury, Jena 

body with tem- 

glass and nitro- 



-^0 to 900 

Glass and spirit 

—350 to 

or petrol 

+ 100 

Unequal expan- 

. sion of metal 


32 to 900 

Contraction o f 


32 to 3250 


Flow of gases 

The Uehling 

32 to 2900 

and Vis- 

through capil- 


lary tubes or 
small apertures. 

Thermo - elec- 


Galvanometric . . 

32 to 2900 


force developed 

by the differ- 

Potentiometric . 

32 to 2900 

ence in temper- 

ature of two 




Electric R e - 

Increase in elec- 

Direct reading on 


tric resistance 

indicator or 

of a wire with 

bridge and gal- 


vanometer. ... 

82 to 3200 


Heat radiated by 

Thermo-couple in 

hot bodies. 

focus of mirror. 

32 to 18,000 


32 to 18,000 


Change in bright- 

Photometric com- 

ness or in wave- 


32 to 3600 

length of the 

Incandescent fil- 

light emitted. 

ament in tele- 


32 to 3600 

Nicol with quartz 

plate and analy- 


32 to 3600 


Specific heat of a 

Copper or plati- 

body raised to a 

num ball with 

high tempera- 

water vessel . . . 

32 to 2700 



Unequal fusibili- 

Alloys of various 

ty of various 


32 to 3600 

metals or earth- 

1 enware blocks. 

many industrial operations that do not involve, during some 
stage or other, an accurate measurement of temperature. To 
the engineer, power station manager, foundry operator, metal- 
lurgist, and, last but not least, the tool hardener, particularly 
when he deals with high-speed steel, the judgment of tempera- 
ture has become of the first importance, as upon it depends 
the maintenance of efficiency in the highest possible degree, or 
the perfection of the material under treatment. Guess-work — 
concomitant with costliness — is now being gradually replaced 
by scientific thermometry, and manufacturers are realizing 
the assistance that the physicist is capable of affording them 
in the vital matter of accurate high temperature measure- 

October, 1908. 



R. W. Valla. t 



Among the various 
types of Jib cranes em- 
ployed for different 
services In the Indus- 
trial fleld, the simple 
underbraced type Is 
most common, and has 
been selected for anal- 
ysis In this article. In 
the Investigation, the 
method of design, and 
all the possible stresses 
to which this type of 
crane may be subject- 
ed, are considered. 
The treatise may ap- 
pear somewhat lengthy 
for such a simple ma- 
chine, and although some of the stresses discussed are fre- 
quently disregarded in actual practice because of the employ- 
ment of large factors of safety, yet all stresses should be 
investigated and provision made for them, especially In 
cranes of abnormal capacities or proportions, or both, which 
are frequently met with in practice. 

• As has often been said, sound judgment is a requisite of a 
successful designer. No precise rules can ever be formulated 
to cover all cases as they arise in practice, and the Judgment 
of tne designer is called upon repeatedly to decide the correct 
proceeding where there Is no precedent. 

The following discussion is of a typical crane, and is treated 
from a theoretical as well as a commercial standpoint, such 
as would be followed in the engineering oflSce of a manufac- 
turing company. 

The type considered consists essentially of a structure in 
which OF, a mast, rests on a foundation (see Fig. 1), and is 
supported at the top by a suitable connection. AE Is a mem- 
ber secured to the mast, and supported at D by a strut DC, 
which is bolted or riveted to a gusset plate on the member 
and mast, or connected to these members either with angles 
or castings as in Fig. 4. Let us first investigate the stresses 
produced in these members composing the frame, by the ex- 
ternal forces acting on the crane. The member AE, com- 
monly called the Jib, is subjected to stresses produced by the 
loads concentrated at the wheels of the trolley, and the 
weight of the members themselves, which stresses we will 
proceed to find. The trolley carrying the load Is supported 
by four wheels traveling the length of the Jib and producing 
the loads p, p, placed at a distance d from each other. The 
constant distance d is known as the wheel base. These wheel 
loads p, p are equal to the sum of the net load to be lifted, 
P, plus the weight of the trolley, ropes and bottom block, 
divided by the number of wheels supporting trolley, usually 

The Jib Is considered as a beam supported at the Joints A 
and D, having a cantilever end DE, and subjected to axial 
tensile, eccentric tensile, eccentric compressive, and flexural 
stresses. The length of the cantilever end from D to center 
line of load, when the load is at extreme outer end of the 
Jib, Is frequently made about one-fourth the distance between 
supports A and D, since, in general, the maximum bending 
moment produced by loads p, p when at the end of the canti- 
lever, and that produced when the load is midway between 
A and D are about equal. But, more accurately, this ratio 
should be proportioned so as to obtain equal maximum fiber 
stresses in both cantilever and span, and thus a Jib having 
a constant cross-section, such as a rolled beam or channel, 
can be economically employed. When loads p, p are acting 
between D and E, the maximum reaction R at D, when the 

• For previous articles on this and kindred subjects, see "History of 
Crane Design." June. 1908 ; "Power Required for Cranes and Hoists," 
November, 1907. and other articles there referred to. 

t Address : 754 Hoover St., Columbus, Ohio. 

tR. W. Vails was bom at Ponce, Porto Rico, 18S0. He is a drafts- 
man and designer, and has been employed at the Deely Iron Works, 
New York City : Bethlehem Steel Co., South Bethlehem, Pa., and the 
Case Mfg. Co.. Columbus, Ohio. 

trolley Is at the extreme end of the cantilever, la the sum o( 
the products of each of the wheel loads multiplied by the 
ratio of the long levers AE and AE, to the short lever AO. 
Expressing AE, AE,, and AD in terms of the dlmensiou let- 
ters, we have (see Fig. 1) 6, (b — d), and /, respectively. 
Then taking moments about A, the fulcrum of the lever, we 

6 (6 — d) 

K = pX hpX- (O 

I 2 

This reaction R produces a direct tensile stress between the 
points A and D of the Jib, and a compressive streaa in strut 

Let side AC of the triangle ADC In Fig. 1 represent the 
magnitude of this reaction R; then side AD represents the 
value of the tensile stress, or 

Bide AD 

Stress in AD = X R, 

side AC 

and, employing dimension letters < and g, we obtain 

Stress in AZ> = — X «. 


Substituting the value of R of formula (1) for R. we have 

pB + p(6 — d) I p6 + p(6 — d) 

Stress in AD = X— = (2) 

I 9 a 

Before the section of the Jib can be determined, it is requiriJd 
to find the maximum flexural stresses due to the live and dead 
load bending moments, and combine them with the axial or 


F Machtn€rj/,y. r. 
1. Diagram of Type o Jib Crane selected for Analysis of Stresses 

direct tensile stresses acting on span AD, when the absolute 
maximum bending moment occurs, that is when the wheel 
loads p, p are so placed that the center of the span is midway 
between the center of gravity of these loads and one of the 
trolley wheels. They must also be combined with the stresses 
produced by the eccentric pull of the ropes holding the load. 
The direct tensile stress in the Jib to be so combined is then 
not the maximum one Just found by formula (2), but that 
due to the reaction iJi when the trolley is at the poaiiion iu 
the span producing the greatest bending moment, and the 
value of that reaction R, at D is found by taking the momenta 
about support A, or. 

i?i = 



Value of R. at A is found by taking moments about sup- 
port D, 




To obtain the maximum live load bending moment we talio 



October, 1908. 

momeutB about point k under one of the wheels (aa shown In 
Fig. 1 ) ; then we have 

Maximum bending moment 

But as H, 



(see Fig. 3) =^ f -^ f, — f, (/, in this case being modified to 
give tensile stress in bottom flange, due to eccentricity of rope 
loading), or 

If we substitute this value of B, in 

the last equation, we And the greatest live load bending mo- 
ment from 

Live load bending moment 

2j\ 2/ 


Dead load bending moment = - 

Appro.ximate total bending moment 

p / dy u-l 
'21 \ 3 / 8 



where d = wheel base, 

w := weight of jib between supports A and D, which 
weight must be assumed, 
I = AJ), or span. 
In regard to formula (5) it may be said that the customary 
approximate method of adding the maximum live load bend- 
ing moment to the maximum dead load bending moment Is 
incorrect, except in cases where the maximum live load bend- 
Ins moment occurs at the center of the span. The correct 
method for this case is to add to the maximum live load 
bending moment its increment of the dead load moment at 
that point, and not the maximum value which takes place at 
the center of the span. The usual method is sufficiently cor- 
rect for practical purposes, however, as it Is on the safe side. 
The unit-stress /, due to bending, in pounds per square inch 
Is found from 



p J dy wl 

21 \ 2 / 8 

I / d\ 

Ji X - i> I ' + - I 
g \ 2/ 

The unit-stress due to jib reaction R^ Is found from 


/. = 

a ag 

Jnit-stress /,, due to tension of rope, is found from 

T Tz 




a Z 
where 7 = tension in rope in pounds, 

ijj rvalue of reaction at D when greatest live load 

bending moment occurs, 
z = eccentricity or distance between center line of 

rope and center line of member, in inches, 
Z = section modulus of section, 
a = area of section of member in square inches, 
tf=: weight of Jib between supports A and D, and 
cl, g, I. and p designate quantities as indicated in Fig. 1. 
The maximum compressive stress in top flange of jib sec- 
tion = / — /, + A, or 



('-:)'4 '■(-:) 



or combining 




- Tz 

+ ■ (9) 


The maximum tensile stress in the bottom flange of Jib 
when such flange is opposite to the line of action of the rope 

p t dy wl / d\ 

2/\ 2/ 8 ^ \ 2/ 



Or combining. 

f + f,-f,= 


-t- Tz 



These results should not exceed the specified fiber stress for 
the structure. Before selecting a structural shape to resist 
these maximum stresses just found, the stresses on the canti- 
lever end should be considered as follows: 

/ = flexural stress due to bending. 

/, = tensile stress due to jib reaction, 

/j = compressive stress due to tension or pull of ropes. 

Live and dead load maximum bending moment 

= (p X c) + [p X (c - d)] 
and /, or stress due to bending on cantilever 



pc + p (c — d) + 

Unit stress / : 


This maximum flexural stress takes place at D, and Imme- 
diately to the left of D, there exists at the same time the di- 
rect tensile stress due to the maximum reaction R, when the 
trolley is at the extreme end of the cantilever producing this 
bending stress, found in formula (1), which also must be 
combined with the stress due to the pull of the rope. There- 
fore the unit-stress at point !) = / + /, — /,. 

Rl p6 + p(6 — d) 

Unit-stress /, ^ — = 

ag ag 

Stress due to pull of ropes = 
Unit-stress /, 





Therefore the maximum fiber stress =r 

]]c + p {c — d) + 

f + .u- 


■p(b- d) 



or combining, 

pc + p (c — d) + ■ 




pb +p (& — d) 



where p = wheel load as before, 

w=: weight of section of jib from D to its extremity 
(see Fig. 1). 

The compressive stress in strut CD is R X 

triangle ADC, or R X — . 


side CD 

side AC ' 

of the 

October, 1908. 



And since R is maxlimim when the trolley Is at the extreme 
end of the cantilever, or 

pB 4- P (D — d) 

R = • (1) 

then the maximum compressive stress In strut = 

p6 + p (b — d) e 

X — (15) 


[pb + p (b — d)] e 

Unit-stress in strut = , (see Fig. 1). (16) 


where o equals area of cross-section of strut. 

The allowable unit-stress per square inch of section of this 
member Is found by the usual Gordon formulas 

for structural steel. / = 17,100 — 57 — (17) 

for yellow pine, 

f = 1,200 — 18 — (18) 

However, a satisfactory reducing formula of the Rankine 
type, extensively used by bridge companies, and specified by 
some railroad companies, is recommended. It is as follows: 

for structural steel, / = ( 19 ) 


1 + - 

13,500 r» 

for yellow pine. 

/ = 



1 + - 

where I := length of strut in inches, 

t^ thickness of timber in inches, 
r = least radius of gyration. 
The stress in the strut due to its own weight is neglected 
as being very small in most practical cases. 
Ordinarily the ratio — should not exceed 130; however, this 
ratio is frequently increased if the fiber-stress is well under 
the one specified, and as lon^ as its departure from straight- 
ness will not subject the strut to an appreciable bending 

The stresses that may exist in the mast are as follows: 
(See Fig. 1.) 

(1) Axial compression due to reaction R, and weight of 

(2) Eccentric stress due to R, when trolley is at extreme 
position on jib next to mast for cranes where jib connects 
to the face of the mast, and not at the center line of gravity 
of its section. 

{?,) Eccentric flexural stress due to tension in ropes. 

(4) Flexural stress due to direct tension in jib AE, and 
to the horizontal component of direct compression in the 
strut DC. 

(5) Eccentric flexural stress due to weight of drum and 
other hoisting machinery. This last stress is usually disre- 
garded, however, exfcept where the jib and hoisting machinery 
are of abnormally large proportions. 

Unit- stress f, = , 



i?3 = 

pl + p{l - d) 

pi + p (I - d) 


therefore /'i = 


pl + p {l — d) 

a al 

i?3 i?32, 

Unit-stress /a = 1 (see Fig. 3), 

a Z 





n ''^ 



pl + P(i- 




T Tz, 

Unit-stress /, = — -»- cos $ 

a Z 


Tension in jib = H = 

pb + i)(b - (I) 

(see Fig. 2) (2) 


The horizontal component of stress in strut is equal to the 
tension H. The mast is then considered as a beam sup- 
ported by reactions H and r. (See Fig. 2.) 

p X b + p ih — d) +w,X) 

r = (24) 


where w, ^ weight of structural frame, 

;■ = distance from center of mast to center of gravity 

of frame, 
m =: distance between centers of bearings. 
The quantity w, X j may be omitted when the frame is not 
very large. The maximum bending moment in the mast Is 
then r X « or r X V, whichever is greatest. Distances OA 
and CF, Fig. 1, should be as small as consistent with the de- 
sign to obtain economy. 

Unit-stress /'. at cantilever GA = — 


Unit-stress f'., at cantilever CF 


The axial compressive stress in the mast due to the whole 
weight of the structure, should be added to the flexural com- 

y y < t^ Maehtnrru.N.T. 

Fig. 2. OutUne of Crane for which the Design is Calculated. 

pressive stress /,' due to bending when the trolley is at the 
extreme end of the jib, since that part of the mast imme- 
diately beneatii C is subjected to both at the same time under 
these conditions. 

The stress // is not added to the stress // as found by 
formula (22), because they do not take place at the same 
time, the maximum bending taking place when the trolley is 
at the end of the jib, and the maximum eccentric compressive 
stress when the trolley is close to the mast. 

It is sometimes required, when long jib members are neces- 
sary, to brace the two shapes composing the jib at some in- 

termediate point in order to reduce the ratio — , and, at the 

same time, lessen the tendency of the jib members to spread. 
This is done by securing structural shapes bent clear over 

the jib trolley. (See Fig. 4.) The ratio — should not exceed 

that above specified. 

Tbe pintles at G and F should be made large enough to 
resist the bending moment on them, and also designed for a 
safe bearing pressure per square inch of their projected area. 
This pressure is the quantity r in formula (24). 

The jib end connection is subjected to flexural Stresses due 
to the tension of the rope or ropes, which should be taken 
into consideration. The connection is treated as a beam, and 
the pull of the rope or ropes as concentrated loads In the 
middle or at equal distances from the middle, according to 
the kind of connection employed, the beam in question being 
supported at both ends. 



October, 1908. 

Required to design a jib crane of the underbraced type to 
lift a load of 10,000 pounds at a radius of 21 feet 6 Inches; 
distance between underside of roof truss or top support and 
floor 13 feet 6 inches; jib to be constructed of two structural 
steel frames composed of standard size channels and con- 
nscted together (see Fig. 4); trolley mounted on four wheels 
running on top flanges of jib member. Maximum fiber-stress 
13,000 pounds per square inch, which is allowable for hand- 
power machines. For a load of 10,000 pounds we will use 
four parts of 7/16-inch— 6 strands of 19 wires— plow steel 
hoisting rope, having a breaking strength of 17,700 pounds, 

4 X 17,700 

and will give a factor of safety of = 7.08, which 

must also take care of the bending stresses in the ropes. This 
size of rope will require sheaves of 14 Inches In diameter, 
and will allow a wheel base of 36 inches. Two ends of these 
two lengths of rope will wind on the drum, and the other two 
ends will be supported at the outer end of the jib by an 
equalizing beam. 

Load to be lifted 10,000 pounds 

Approximate weight of trolley, ropes 

and block 500 pounds 

Total 10,500 pounds 


which will make the wheel loads = 2,625 pounds each. 


Distance between mast and joint D, Fig. 3, ^ 208 inches. 

Distance between jib and joint C = 120 Inches. 

Distance between mast and extreme position of outermost 
wheels of trolley ^= effective radius + half the wheel base = 
21 feet 6 inches + 1 foot 6 inches = 23 feet = 276 Inches. 

Let us first assume the trolley at that position In the spaa 
AB producing the greatest bending moment (see Fig. 1). 

Maximum live load bending moment 

3(?25 / 36 \« 

= 1 208 I = 227,793 inch-pounds. (3) 

2 X 208 \ 2 / 

By looking at the table of properties of steel channels in 
any steel company's handbook, we find that a 12-inch channel 
weighing 20.5 pounds per foot, with an area of 6.03 square 
Inches, has a section modulus about the axis perpendicular to 
the web of 21.4, and this value divided into the live load 
bending moment will give a stress of 10.644 pounds per square 
inch, which leaves us a margin for the other stresses yet to 
be considered. Therefore, we w-ill temporarily select the 
above shape for the purpose of finding the bending-moment 
due to the uniform weight of the member itself. 

Weight of channel between A and D ^ —— X 20.5 = 355 


355 X 208 

Dead load bending momenta ^9,230 inch 



Approximate total bending moment 

= 227,793 + 9,230 = 237,023 incli-pounds. (5) 

Unit Stress due to bending 
p / d\° wl 

n\ 2 / 8 237,023 

= = = 1 1 ,076 pounds per square 

Z 21.4 

inch. (6) 

Unit-stress due to reaction i?, 

/ 36 \ 

2625 X I 208 + — I 

= = 817 pounds per square inch. (7) 

120 X 6.03 


Tension in ropes ^ =2,500 pounds. 

Unit-stress due to tension in rope 

2,500 2,500 X 8 

= 1 = 1 ,348 pounds per square inch. ( 8 ) 

6.03 21.4 

Total stress on top flange =/-/,-{-/, = 11,076 — 817 + 
1,348 = 11,607 pounds per square inch (9), which stress Is 
under the one specified; the shape tentatively selected may 
therefore be used for this member of the crane. 

Weight of cantilever end of jlb = — X 20.5 = 159 pounds. 

Unit stress due to bending 

2,625 X 68 H- 2,625 X 32 + 159 X — 

= : ■ = 12,^13 pounds per Sq. 


Unit-stress due to reaction R 

2,625 X 276 + 2,625 X (276 — 36) 

• ~ 120 X 6.03 


Unit-stress due to pull in rope 


- = 1,872 pounds per sq. 

2,500 2,500 X 8 

■ -) =: 1,348 pounds per square inch. (8) 

6.03 21.4 

Total unit-stress on top flange of cantilever := 
12,613 + 1,872 — 1,348 = 13,137 pounds per square inch. (14) 
which is 137 pounds per square inch more than the specified 
stress. In practice, this will not be considered of sufficient 
importance to change the design. 

Fig. 3. General Dimensions of Crane to be Desigrned. 

Total length of jib member = 25 feet 1 inch, or 301 inches. 
Least radius of gyration of 12 X 20.5 pounds channel = 0.81. 

length 301 

The ratio = = 371, consequent- 
least radius of gyration 0.81 
ly the channels of the two frames should be braced at least at 
a point midway between the end connection and the mast. 
(See Fig. 4.) 

Length of strut DC = \l 120=+ 208' = 240.13 inches. Select- 
ing a 15 X 33-pound channel having a cross-sectional area of 
9.9 square inches, and least radius of gj'ration of 0.91, for 
strut, we have the compressive unit-stress 

[2,625 X 276 + 2,625 (276 — 36)] X 240.13 

: — = 1,316 pounds 

per square inch. 
Allowable stress 

208 X 120 X 9.9 



= 2.440 pounds per sq. 
inch. (19) 


13,500 X 0.91' 
The ratio of the length of the strut to its least radius of 

gyration is ^264. which is excessive; the maximum 

unit-stress, however, is very low, only 1.316 pounds per square 
inch, or hardly more than half of that allowed by the formula 
(19). As there is not a channel rolled by any mill vith a 
greater "least radius of gyration" than the one we have em- 
ployed, we may stiffen the strut laterally by riveting an angle 
to its web in the inside cr back of channel. Unless the ratio 
130 must be adhered to, the channel should be left as it is as 
long as the member shows no great deflection under load. 

October, 1908. 



Let us now investigate the stresses existing in the mast, 
which we assume Is composed of two 12 X 20.5-pound chan- 
nels. The distance from center of mast to nearest wheel 
when the trolley Is at the extreme position next to mast ;= 11 


2.G25 (208 — 11) -t- 2,625 (208 — 11 — 3G) 

Then «,== = ''.518 


As the two vertical shapes composing the mast are latticed 
together, we will take the two equal reactions R, (one which 
acts on one channel and the other on the opposite one) to be 
resisted by the two shapes combined, therefore the least 
radius of gyration of the mast as built Is then that perpen- 
dicular to the web of the channels, whose value Is 4.61. 

Then the allowable compressive stress 


= = 13,761 pounds per sq. inch. (19) 


Maximum bending moment on channel = 2,500 X (9 — 4) ^ 
12,500 inch-pounds. 


Unlt-Btre88 = = 7,143 pounds per square Inch. 


Horizontal reaction on pintles 
2,625 X 276 + 2,625 (276 — 36) 


- = 8,361 pounds. 



13,500 X 4.61- 

Un it-stress /', 

2,625 (208 — 11) -f 2,625 (208- 

■11 — 36) 

square inch. 

6.03 X 208 

• =:749 pounds per 

Assuming the pintles to be 4 inches long, and taking mo- 
ments about a lever arm from the center of the bearing to 
the support (=2 Inches), we have, bending moment = 8,361 
X 2 = 16,722 inch-pounds. Unit-Eftress on pintles should not 
exceed 9,000 pounds per square inch for machine steel. 

Section modulus of a circular sections: ^0.098d', 

where d^ diameter of section. 

' I 1(5722 

Diameter of pintle — d = ^l = 2.66 inches. 

N 0.098 X 9000 
The bearing pressure on pintles should not exceed 1,000 

pounds per square inch of projected area. Therefore 


I Machinery, H.T. 

Fig. 4. Crane calculated to lift a Load of ID. COO Pounds at a 
Radius 'Of 21 feet 6 inches. 

Stresses 1\ do not take place in this gusset-connected frame. 

Unit-stress /', due to tension c£ rope 

2.500 2,500 X 16 
= — 1 ■ X cos 9 deg. 30 min. (23) 



= 2.257 pounds per square inch. (See Fig. 4.) 
Horizontal reaction at top and bottom of mast when load 
is at extreme outside end of jib^ 

2.625 X 276 + 2,625 (276 — 36) 

- = 8,361 pounds. (24) 

Unit-stress /', due to bending moment at top of mast = 

8.361 X 22 

=8,548 pounds per square inch. 



Maximum unit-stress immediately beneath point A of mast 
= f. -4-/', = 8,548 + 2,257= 10.805 pounds per square inch. 

For the end connection of the jib at E we Select a 12-inch 
X 20.5 pounds channel for the sake of symmetry, and pro- 
ceed to investigate the bending stress to which it is subjected 
due to the pull of the ropes. The distance between the jib 
members is IS inches. The pull on the ropes is 2.500 pounds. 
The section modulus of the channel in consideration about an 
axis parallel to the web is 1.75. Two ropes, both four inches 
f-om the center of connecting channel are used (see Fig. 4). 

= 8.36 square inches are required. We will make the pintles 
2% inches in diameter by 4 inches in length, which will give 

a bearing pressure of =760 pounds per square inch. 

2.75 X 4 

The existence of the large number of trees, known as En- 
gelmann spruce, on the high slopes of the interior mountain 
system, extending from British Columbia southward to Ari- 
zona and New Mexico, has induced the U. S. Forest Service 
to undertake experiments to determine whether this tree, 
which is comparatively small and which is not considered a 
very valuable timber tree, can be used for making paper pulp. 
Samples have been received from the national forests of 
Wyoming, Colorado and Utah, and these have been treated 
ly the sulphite process, and pulp obtained from which is se- 
cured paper fully as good as that made from Eastern spruce. 
The results of preliminary trials on seasoned wood shows 
that it gives a fiber fully as valuable as that from its East- 
ern relative. The fiber of Engelmann spruce seems to be 
slightly shorter than that of the Eastern spruce, but it is of 
sufficient length to be used for the latter in nearly all the 
manufactured products, and there is apparently no reason 
why it should not be so used provided that other conditions 
cf manufacture and transportation are favorable. 

» « • 
It is stated in the English Mechanic and World of Science 
that an English company has succeeded in obtaining photo- 
graphic films where the natural colors of the objects photo- 
graphed are reproduced. The photographs are obtained by a 
direct method, and are made for use in a moving picture appa- 
ratus. The company has given an exhibition of the results 
obtained to members of the press, and it appears that this 
invention marks a decided advance in color photography. 



October, 1908. 



Even when men first began to harden Bteel, they probably 
Bought some method of ascertaining in particular cases 
whether their object had been accomplished. Perhaps the 
testing tool was nothing more than a fragment of Hint or 
another piece of steel known to be hard. Certain jewels — 
as the diamond — are well suited to a process which depends 
upon scratching. In fact, this process is in common use 
everywhere even at the present day. The test by filing is not 
to be despised as it is easily applied, and if the file is a good 
one, the results are sufficiently accurate and reliable for a 
considerable class of work. But the file is an instrument 
inadequate to the requirements of modern metallurgists and 
manufacturers. This is true for two reasons: First, the 
alloy steels seem to possess the property of being able to 
resist a file, apart from hardness. Thus, a piece of manganese 
self-hardening tool steel may be, in reality, softer than a 
specimen of a pure carbon steel, and yet resist the attacks 
of the file equally well. In explanation of this phenomenon, 
it has been suggested that the hard manganese resists the 
file while the iron substratum remains soft. The combination 
as a whole would not be so hard, although able to withstand 
the file. This, however, seems really to involve the proposi- 
tion that such steel is not a perfect chemical combination. 

The Scleroscope — An Instrument for Testing the Hardness of Metals. 

but that particles of manganese are held imbedded in iron or 
an iron alloy. Perhaps this may be so; but if it is true, then 
the action of such steel on the file is very similar to that of 
an emery wheel. The emery itself is very hard, but is held 
in a matrix that is soft. However, whether we accept this 
explanation or not, it is doubtful whether we have good rea- 
son to contend that a specimen of alloy steel is as hard as a 
piece of pure carbon steel, merely because it resists the file 
equally well. 

The second objection to the file is that it affords no reliable 
means of making accurate comparisons between different 
degrees of hardness. It is sometimes of importance in cases 
where one element of a machine slides against another to 
ascertain which of the two is the harder. The difference may 
be very slight, yet it will readily be granted that this differ- 
ence might become of importance if lubrication failed. For, 
the harder piece would then cut or wear the softer. If such a 
contingency is possible, then it is important that the more 
expensive part shall be the harder. A little reflection will 
convince one that this principle of associating a harder valu- 
able part with a softer less valuable part, has application 
everywhere in machine construction; but in order to apply 
this principle widely, it is necessary to be able to determine 
differences in hardness where these differences are quite 
small in amount. 

A modern instrumental means of testing for small differ- 

• For additional Information on this subject, see the article on "The 
Brlnell Method of Testing the Hardness oi Metals" published in the 
September, 1908, issue of Machineet. 

\ Address : 625 W. 135th St., New York City. 

ences in hardness is that known as the Brinell device. In 
accordance with this method, a steel ball is pressed against 
the specimen to be tested. The permanent indentation formed 
is then measured^ — say. for depth. Assuming that, with the 
compression the same and with a ball of the same size and 
hardness, the variations in depth of indentation furnish a 
means of quantitatively determining variations in the degree 
of hardness; it only remains to measure these depths with 
sufficient accuracy, and we shall obtain, by referring to a pre- 
viously calculated table, a series of numerical values express- 
ing the variations in hardness. Of course, the deeper the 
indentation, the softer the substance; so that it it is desired 
that the numbers increase with the Increase in hardness, we 
have only to take the reciprocals. This mechanical test for 
hardness has found pretty extended introduction. But It may 
well be questioned whether hardness Is really tested by the 
slow formation of an indentation. There can be no doubt that 
resistance to slow penetration is tested by this procedure, but 
is resistance to slow deformation what we mean by hardness? 
I scarcely think so. 

A piece of sealing-wax resists deformation but feebly if the 
deforming procedure is applied gradually. We should hardly 
say that the hardness of this substance is of so low a degree 
as this slight resistance to slow displacement of its particles 
would indicate. Then again, it is quite conceivable that 
toughness might so contribute its assistance in withstanding 
a slow deformative process that the result could not be looked 
on as an accurate indication of hardness alone. Now what 
we call toughness appears to be slow in its operation. That 
is, at the beginning of a deformative effort there is a yielding 
of the particles; this is followed by resistance to further dis- 
placement. But time seems to be required for the develop- 
ment of this resistance. What we call hardness appears to be, 
on the contrary, a resistance that is instantly available. That 
is to say, in hardness there is an instantaneous resistance to 
displacement of particles. This conception of the difference 
between hardness and toughness as the difference between an 
instantaneous and a slower recovery of particles, seems to 
strilte close to the truth. Adopting this distinction as a true 
criterion, we should derive a test for hardness by testing for 
the instantaneous recuperative power of metals. 

In the process employed by Mr. Shore (Shore Instrument & 
Mfg. Co., 226 W. 24th St., New York City), carried out by 
means of the hardness-testing instrument (the scleroscope — 
see Fig. 1) which he has developed, the energy of resistance 
at the moment when the elastic limit is exceeded seems to be 
the thing measured. And this would appear to be just about 
what we mean by hardness. A tiny hammer, pointed at the 
lower end, falls from a fixed height upon the specimen, strik- 
ing a blow exceeding the elastic limit. The rebound is then 

In the first experiments, a steel ball was used as the ham- 
mer, but the results were only partially satisfactory. In 
fact, the inventor was well-nigh on the point of giving up 
when he met a French expert in metals by the name of Dr. 
Herould. Following out certain of his suggestions, Mr. Shore 
has succeeded in producing an instrument which apparently 
gives great promise of solving the problem of the testing of 
hardness. The difficulty with the ball-shaped hammer was 
that it was incapable of striking a sufficiently hard blow to- 
get adequate results, especially with hardened tool-steel, so 
the area of contact was reduced, although the weight was 
kept large in comparison. In fact, the blow struck by the 
sharper of the two varieties of hammer used in the sclero- 
scope, is estimated at 75,000 pounds per square inch. The 
point which strikes Is, however, so small on the tip that with 
a fall of ten inches the weight of the whole hammer is 
required to be but a small fraction of an ounce. 

But the determination of these points, while important, 
was not by any means a complete solution. A great difficulty 
arose in connection with the material for the hammer; it 
was necessary to have extraordinary hardness combined with 
a non-crystalline structure. The diamond was found unequal 
to the requirements of the case, and after much investigation 
in which the scleroscope — although itself still Imperfect — 
assisted, a method of treating tool steel was developed, which 

October, 1908. 



produces, under favorable conditions, a very hard steel capa- 
ble of the exacting duty required. The absolute weight of 
the entire' hammer is little, but relatively to the striking 
area it is very great. This hammer, having a cylindrical 
body, is guided in its fall by a glass tube. Great difficulty 
has been experienced in getting tubes with a sufficiently per- 
fect bore. There seems to be no commercial method of manu- 
facturing such tubes, so the method of test-and-reject is em- 
ployed, resulting in a very great waste. 

The tube is secured to a frame in a vertical position with 
the lower end open. Upon exhausting the air by means of a 
rubber bulb connection, the hammer is drawn to the top 
where it is held by a suitable catch. When it is desired to 
release the hammer, a hook, seen in Kig. 1 at the top and 
to the left, is drawn downwards by the left band while the 
right compresses a second rubber bulb, seen on the table. 
Upon releasing the bulb, the hammer drops and Its point 
strikes sharply the piece of metal to be tested. The rebound 
of the hammer is measured against a scale graduated from 
to 140, secured in position back of the glass tube. To aid 
In reading the rebound, a magnifying glass is supplied. After 
some practice, its assistance may be dispensed with, if desired. 

Fig. ^. Shalt and Box of a Lathe being Tested to determine the 

Relative Hardness 

However, to use it, it is secured in such position as to cover 
the possible region of the expected reading. The rod to the 
left of the tube is the support to which the magnifying 
attachment is secured and along which it is adjustable. The 
rod to the right of the tube is a plumb-rod; it swings freely 
from a point of attachment above, and enables the operator 
to keep the tube vertical. 

The instrument proper — that is, apart from the supporting 
stand — may be used to test parts of machinery in position. 
In this way a shaft and box may be tested to determine the 
relative hardness. See Fig. 2. In using the instrument with 
the stand, the specimen is placed on the table or secured in 
a holder. It is necessary that the actual point tested should 
be clean and horizontal, and that the piece should be firmly 
held. If the specimen is quite irregular, it may be held in a 
support of asphaltum and tar. This combination; while yield- 
ing to slow pressures, is quite unyielding when the blow is 
instantaneous — as with the scleroscope hammer. Of course, 
the upper part of the specimen at the point to be tested must 
be horizontal. If necessary to test more than once, the piece 
should be slightly moved so as to expose a fresh point to the 
hammer. The indentation made is, however, very minute, so 
that several are usually unobjectionable. 

The scale, as already mentioned, runs from to 140. The 
hardness of the finest steels ranges from 100 to 110. Porce- 
lain and glass have higher grades, while unhardened steels, 
brass, zinc, and lead show lower and lower degrees. Unham- 
inered or unrolled lead produces a rebound of but two gradua- 
tions. The question may arise with some whether the gradu- 
ations should all be of equal size — whether, in fact, they 
should not progressively Increase as one goes from one end of 
the scale to another. It seems that there should be no differ- 
ence. What It is desired to measure Is the energy of the 
rebound. Now the energy of falling (or rebounding) bodies 
varies with the first power of the space traversed, so that 
with equal increases of energy we shall have equal increases 
of the space rebounded. The scale may be regarded, then, as 
affording readings which are strictly proportional to the 
energy of resistance of the metal being tested, when the 
elastic limit is exceeded. If we regard this energy of resist- 
ance as indicative of what we mean by hardness, then the 
scleroscope seems to fulfill the requirements of a scientific 
measurer of this important property of metals. 

One of the great results of the introduction of scientific 
methods of precise quantitative measurement of hardness, 
promises to be in the determination of the relation of the 
cutting tool to the work to be machined. We are all aware 
that the tool must be harder; but how much harder? And 
how express this relation in intelligible language? The 
scleroscope, it is hoped, will afford a pretty definite answer to 
this problem. The law has been laid down that the compara- 
tive hardness between tool and work as determined by sclero- 
scope readings, should be in the ratio of 3 to 1 or 4 to 1, in 
order to secure the best commercial results. In illustration 
of this point, we may take the case of work to be machined 
consisting of a 1 per cent carbon tool steel. Unannealed, such 
steel is found upon testing to disclose a hardness varying 
from 40 to 45 points. According to the above law, the cutting 
tool should be at least about 120 to 135 hard; but the same 
steel properly annealed, is only about 31 hard. Consequently, 
it is not at all difficult to find a suitable material for the 
cutting tools. Thus, a fine quality of pure carbon tool steel, 
well hardened, has a hardness of 95 to 110, and is conse- 
quently suitable to cut material of a hardness of 31. Now if 
this principle as to relative hardness necessary, can be thor- 
oughly established for all kinds of metals, an element of 
scientific certainty will be introduced into machine practice. 
This will make for economy of time and tool. 

Again, it is, of course, to be expected that if two metal 
parts wear or rub against each other, the harder of the two 
will cut the softer, whether the difference is small or great, 
so that it is often important to know whether the more expen- 
sive part is really the harder. The scleroscope would seem to 
afford a means of determining with precision slight differ- 
ences in hardness, thus enabling the manufacturer to assem- 
ble contacting moving parts on the principle of a harder 
expensive piece in association with a softer cheaper one. 
Thus in an electrical repair shop, instances may readily be 
found of the steel shaft cut by the brass box, the box cut by 
the shaft, and a pretty even wear of both. From an econom- 
ical point of view, it is much better to have the brasses worn 
than the shaft, and with such an instrument as the sclero- 
scope it would be possible to predetermine this economically 
better result. It would seem an easy matter for an automo- 
bile manufacturer, say, so to specify the hardness of the gear 
wheels used, that the gear manufacturer could supply him 
with a uniform product. 

A further illustration, which suggests itself, is the possi- 
bility of assembling the outer and inner rings of ball bearings 
so as to equalize the wear of the two raceways. Other things 
being equal, the inner raceway wears more rapidly because 
the convex ball contacts with a rather sharply convex raceway 
(convex as seen transversely), while in the case of the outer 
raceway the convex ball contacts with a more gradual and 
concave curve. By adjusting this inequality through associa- 
tion of a hard inner ring with a softer outer ring, the wear 
may be equalized. 

An important application of quantitative hardness tests, 
would appear to be in connection with high-speed steels. 
Now such steels disclose upon testing with this instrument, a 



October, 1908. 

hardness varying from 80 to 105. This Is at ordinary tem- 
peratures, however, and shows scarcely as high a degree as 
the best of the pure carbon steels. The effectiveness of high- 
speed steels depends largely upon the fact that at tempera- 
tures of 600 to 1,000 degrees, at which pure carbon steels 
would lose their temper, they retain a high degree of hard- 
ness, amounting, say, to 75 on the scleroscope scale. This is 
sufficient— following the principle of 3 to 1— to do heavy ma- 
chining on annealed machinery steel measuring 25 on the 
same scale. But, if the heat developed by high speed and 
heavy cuts, succeeds in lowering the high-speed steel of the 
tool much lower than 75, then it Is no longer an effective tool. 
It becomes of importance then to test high-speed steels for 
their effectiveness under temperature conditions obtaining In 
actual service. It is a small matter to know that a certain 
tool of high-speed steel is very hard when cold; what is Its 
condition when hot? By heating the tool to the required 
temperature, and then testing with the scleroscope, its condi- 
tion may be determined. It is thought that thus the real 
effectiveness of the high-speed steels may be determined in 
advance of their use or even of their purchase. 

It is deserving of serious consideration that the scleroscope 
method is not limited to particular metals. It seems applica- 
ble to practically all the metals, not only for comparing differ- 
ent varieties of the same metal, but for comparing specimens 
of different metals. Thus, as already pointed out, brass may 
be compared with steel. 



Formulas for band and block brakes are not easily ob- 
tained, because many mechanical hand-books do not give any 
information on this subject. In order to supply a possible 
need in this direction, the formulas given in the current 
supplement have been compiled. These formulas are based 
on, and agree in form with, the formulas for these classes 
of brakes given in "Des Ingenieurs Taschenbuch," published 
by the Hiitte Association, Berlin, Germany. 

In any band brake, such as shown in Fig. 1 in the Supple- 
ment, where the brake wheel rotates in a clockwise direc- 
tion, the tension in that part of the band marked x equals 


P ; and in that part marked y. the tension equals 

<;/*» — 1 


In these expressions. 

pounds; coefficient ^ = 0.2, and angle of contact = 240 de- 

grees, or fl = x tt = 4.18. The rotation Is clockwlae. 

Find force F required. 

_ _ P6 / cmB \ 100 X 4 / 2?ri8^'"-«>''';_;^ \ _ 

ecfl — 1 

P^ tangential force in pounds at rim of brake wheel, 

e = base of natural logarithms =: 2.71828, 
li = coefficient of friction between the brake band and the 

brake wheel, 
5:= angle of contact of the brake band with the brake 

wheel expressed in radians (one radian = 

180 deg. 
= 57.296 degrees). 

For simplicity in the formulas presented, the tensions at 
X and y (Fig. 1, band brakes) are denoted T, and 7";, respec- 
tively, for clockwise rotation. When the direction of the 

rotation is reversed, the tension in x equals T,=^P 

ei^« — 1 

, w-hich is the re- 

and the tension in y equals T, = P- 

e^fl — 1 
verse of the tension in the clockwise direction. 

The value of the expression e^^ occurring in these formulas 
may be most easily solved by means of logarithms. The value 
of ei^o is found by multiplying the logarithm of e by tha 
product of the numerical values of m and 0. and finding the 
number whose logarithm is equal to the result of this multi- 
plication. The procedure may be best illustrated by an ex- 

In a band brake of the type in Fig. 1 in the Supplement, 
dimension a=;24 inches, and 6:= 4 Inches; force P = 100 

* Address : Solvay Proceis Co., Engineering Dept.. Detroit, Mich. 




24 2.71828"®*'- 


16.66 X 



-1 2.31 

The formulas given for the brakes in the Supplement are 
not empirical, but are theoretically correct. They can be 
mathematically verified. By means of calculus the values 
represented by J", and Tj for the band brakes may be de- 
duced, while the various expressions for F are obtained by 



Steel Band 

Leather Belt on 


to Whole 



Cast Iron. 


Cast Iron, 


M = 0.18 









M -0.88 


m = 0.47 

li = 0.12 

^ = 0.1)8 





































































































equating the moments of the forces involved about any 
point of the brake, preferably about its fulcrum, or fixed 
point. For the block brakes the whole question is one of 
moments. For example, in Fig. 3, for clockwise rotation, 
by taking moments about the fulcrum we obtain F {a -^ 6) — 

Pc = , 

From which 


+ Pc 

a + b \iJi bf 

a + b 

The calculations for determining the value of e^^" are rather 
cumbersome, and the accompanying table is appended in order 
to save the computation of this value for certain values of n, 

and certain angles 6. 

* * * 

An interesting little slide rule has been brought out by 
Kolesch & Co., New York. This slide rule is only about half 
as long as the ordinary slide rule, and its weight does not 
exceed 1% ounce; but it can be used to the same advantage, 
with equal reliability and accuracy, as the larger rules. The 
subdivisions are the same as those of the larger instruments, 
and in order to make it possible for the eye to read oft the 
results with the same convenience as on a larger rule, a 
magnifying glass is placed in the runner, so that the divi- 
sions appear to the eye as clearly as those of larger slide 


* * * 

Somebody asked the successful business man how he man- 
aged to accomplish so much. He smiled as he told them that 
the secret lay in always doing the next thing next. — The 
Silent Partner. 

October, 1908. 





Working by guess, or by the rule of thumb, is practiced 
quite as much, if not more, in the making of cams as in 
any other Uind of machine work. I'ossibly this is so because 
a little leeway Is generally given for the action of cams in 
the design of many machines, and the time-honored cut and 
try methods are relied on to bring the movements within 
necessary limits. It is certainly a fact that many a man 
who has laid out and cut cams does not know just what their 
performances will be until they are asscmbU'd in their ma- 
chine and tested. • 

In this arti<le we will consider the method of laying out 
a cam the requirements of which are as complicated in prin- 
ciple as any ordinarily used. We will then review a process 

Plfif. 1. Layout of Cam. 

for making the master cam, which is generally used, and also 
another process not generally employed, but of much greater 

The cam which we will lay out is seen in Fig. 1. It turns 
toward the left and moves a 1-inch roller A which controls 
the lever B swinging on the stud C. The cam is to be keyed 
to a shaft, together with several other cams, in all of which 
the keyway is at the beginning of the cycle. The require- 
ments which follow are selected to illustrate as simply as 
may be the method employed. The head of the lever B, 
which is 12% inches long, is to remain at rest until the cam 
has turned 150 degrees from the zero point or beginning of 
the cycle; it is then to advance 1% inch in 43 degrees; then 
it will dwell for 35 degrees more, and, finally, retreat 1% 
inch in 92 degrees, after which it will dwell for the remain- 
der of the cycle. In Fig. 1 it is seen that the roller A is 
located at one-third of the distance from the pivot of the lever 
to its head. Hence a movement of one-half inch is required 
of the roller in the cam to move the lever head 1% inch. 

Layout of Cam. 
We will now begin the layout. Draw first the circum 
ference of the cam; its diameter w'e will make 10 inches. 
With tlie keyway on the vertical diameter, draw a line 
through its center. With this line as zero, divide the circum- 
ference into 30 degree sections, as shown, and number them. 
Now draw the circle D with a radius of 4 3/16 inches, to show 
the extreme outer position of the center of the roller, and 
the circle E with a radius of 3 11/16 inches, to show the ex- 
treme inner position of the center of the roller. Next, with 
the center of the cam as its center, draw the circle F, so 

that it will pass tluougli the center of the stud C. BeglnnlUK 
with the center of the stud C as zero, divide this circle Into 
sections and number them, as shown, for each CO degrees. 
Such further subdivisions as may be needed later may be 
made when required. 

Proceed now with care to place the needle of a pair of good 
compasses In the center of the roller A, and adjust them so 
that the pencil point will pass through the center of the 
stud C. We will call this radius R. Now having In mind 
the requirements stated above, one being that the cam 
should turn 150 degrees from Its zero before the roller moves, 
place the end of the compasses at 150 degrees on the circle 
D. Holding the needle here, with the radius R draw an 
arc intersecting the stud circle F at the point G. It Is seen 
that the point of intersection Is at 60 degrees on the circle 
F. Now place the needle point 43 degrees further along on 
the stud circle, or at 103 degrees, and with the radius R draw 
an arc intersecting the circle E at the point H. The point 
H marks the halt of the advance of the roller, and the be- 
ginning of its dwell. Now move the needle 35 degrees fur- 
ther along the stud circle to 138 degrees, and with the radius 
R draw another arc intersecting the circle E at the point /. 
This point marks the end of the dwell and the beginning of 
the retreat. Now move the needle 92 degrees further along 
the stud circle to 230 degrees and with the radius R draw 
an arc intersecting the circle D at the point K. This point 
marks the end of the retreat and the beginning of the dwell 
for the remainder of the cycle. 

The points H, I and K being marked, draw radii through 
them extending to the circumference of the cam circle. 
Knowing that the roll begins to advance at 150 degrees on 
the cam, the advance is seen to continue for 45 degrees. The 
roll then dwells for 35 degrees and retreats in 90 degrees, 
after which it dwells until the next advance begins. It is 
proper that these figures do not agree with the figures for 
the lever movement stated above. Barring possible slight 
errors in the layout, they are correct for the cam. 

The radius of the inner wall of the raceway or groove is, 
of course, Vo inch less than that of the path of the cam 
center. Hence the radius ef the inner wall of the outer dwell 

• For additional information on this subiect. see "Laying Out Cams 
for Rapid Motions." February, 1908, and otber articles there referred to. 
t Address : 158 Underbill Ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. 


Fig. 2. Common Method of MUiing Master Cams. 

is 3 11/16 inches, and that of the inner dwell is 3 3/16 inches. 
This inner wall is the counterpart of the master cam which 
will be used to cut the cam groove. 

Common Method of Making Master Cams. 

Assuming that the master cam has been properly machined 
and roughed down, we will consider briefly the generally 
used method of finishing it. This method comprises mount- 
ing the master cam in the dividing head of a universal mill- 
ing machine, and gearing the head with the feed-screw of the 
table so that the table will advance in proper ratio with the 
turning of the work In the dividing head. In Fig. 2 the mas- 
ter cam is mounted as above described, and held against a 
cutter in the vertical spindle milling attachment on a mill- 
ing machine. This cutter is of the same diameter as the 
roll which will be used in the cam. 

The process is as follows: Feed the work against the cut- 
ter until the cutter is 3 11/16 inches from the center of the 
master cam. Now, with the key-slot of the master cam which 
is the "zero" of the cam, directly in line with the cutter, 
turn the work 150 degrees. This finishes a part of the outer 



October, 1908. 

dwell of the cam. The next operation Is to feed the work 
against the cutter Vj inch while the dividing head turns 45 
degrees. Since 45 degrees is % of 360 degrees, or one turn, 
we want gears which will turn the work % of a revolution 
while the table advances Vl- inch. This is equal to one turn of 
the work while the table advances 4 inches. The gears on 
a feed-screw with four threads per inch, and 40-tooth worm- 
gear In the dividing head are, 

Gear on worm 36, 

First gear on stud 36, 

Second gear on stud 28, 

Gear on screw 70. 

Having connected these gears with care, feed the work 
against the cutter 0.500 inch. The gears will at the same 



Mafkiiicn/.y. Y. 
Fig. 3. Improved Method of MlUing Master Cams. 

time turn the work 45 degrees. This will give the advance 
of the cam. Now, with the table clamped where it is, turn 
the work 35 degrees further. This will give the inner dwell 
of the cam. Now change the gears so that the work will turn 
90 degrees while the table is backed away i/o inch. This may 
be done by removing the first gear on the stud with 36 teeth 
and replacing it with a 72-tooth gear. Having done this with 
care to avoid disturbing the w-ork during the change, back 
the work away from the cutter 0.500 inch. The gears w-ill 
have turned the work 90 degrees more, the intermediate hav- 
ing been properly adjusted. This will give the retreat of the 
cam. Now, with the table clamped where it is, turn the work 
until the cutter reaches the part already finished. 

This method, which has just been described, is very con- 
venient when the change gears will give the combinations 
that are necessary, but it will often happen that the desired 
combination cannot be made with even an approach to ac- 
curacy. This difficulty may be overcome, however, by a 
method which is not in general use, but by which any desired 
result may be obtained. 

Improved Method for Producing Master Cams. 

For convenience we will suppose that the master cam 
could not be cut with the gears named or with any others, in 
the vertical position. We will proceed as follows: Mount the 
roughed out master cam as before in the dividing head, and 
place a 1-inch end mill in the vertical milling attachment, but, 
instead of setting them in a vertical position, incline each 
at an angle of 23 degrees 34 minutes, as shown in Fig. 3. 
The reason for this -will appear later. 

By inspection we see that if the work be fed against the 
cutter. Fig. 3, the cutter will enter the work and approach 
the mandrel. We also see that if the angle of inclination be 
increased or reduced, the rate with which the cutter ap- 
proaches the mandrel will vary likewise. A convenient combi- 
nation of gears to use in this case is one which will turn 
the work 360 degrees while the table advances 10 inches. 

This result may be obtained by using four 36-tooth gears to 
turn the work. 

Having milled the master cam for the first 150 degrees to 
a radius of 3 ll/lC as before mentioned, we must find the 
correct distance to feed the table forward in order to make 
the cutter approach the mandrel % inch while the work 
turns 45 degrees. The computation is done as follows: 
Forty-five degrees is % of 300 degrees. Since the table is 
geared to advance 10 inches while the work turns 360 de- 
grees, the table will advance % of 10 inches while the work 
turns 45 degrees. Thus the advance is IV* inch to the 
45-degree turn of the work. By inspection we see that in 
Fig. 3 the cctter and the work-face form two sides in a right 
angle triangle with a hypothrnuse of I'i inch and one side 
of i/o inch. By solving, we find the angle a to be 23 degrees 
34 minutes, as mentioned above. Having now properly con- 
nected the gears to mill the advance on the cam, feed the table 
ahead 1.250 inch. As just stated, this will make the cutter 
approach the mandrel % inch while the gears will have 
turned the work 45 degrees. Now with the table clamped 
where it is, turn the work 35 degrees more. We are then 
ready to begin the retreat of the cam. We must arrange 
gears which will turn the work 90 degrees while the table is 
backed 1% inch. By removing the 36-tooth gear from the 
screw and replacing it with a 72-tooth gear, we get this 
result. Carefully make the change so as not to disturB the 
worK, and then back the table 1.250 inch. The gears will 
have turned the work 90 degrees further. Now, with the 
table clamped where it is, turn the work until the master 
cam is completed. 

This system for making cams may be used only where 
uniform movements are required. While we have used it 
to entirely finish a master plate cam, any part of any cam 
requiring uniform motion may be milled in this way with a 
degree of accuracy not readily obtained in any other way. 

Fig. 4. Milling a Master Cam for a Drum Cam. 

In fact, the work should be as true as the machine on which 
it is done. The same system may be used to make a master 
cam for a drum cam, as shown in Fig. 4. Note, however, that 
the work is set 23 degrees 34 minutes from the vertical posi- 
tion, while the cutter inclines at right angles to, instead of 
parallel with, the axis of the mandrel. The same combinations 
of gears would be used if the drum cam action were similar 
to the one which we have discussed. The exceedingly low cost 
of making master cams by this method makes it profitable 
to provide a master cam for cutting the groove In a single 

Special Cutter for Finishlngr Grooved Cams. 
A source of constant annoyance in milling grooves in cast 
ii-on cams lies in the fact that finishing cutters quickly 
wear and become under size. They must then be laid aside 

October, 1908. 



or used for taking the roughing cutB. while a innv cutter of 
full size is used for finishing. We will not discuss the prac- 
tice of putting a piece of paper in the collet to make the 
small cutter run out of true. Anotlier source of trouble, even 
with cutters with spiral flutes, is the tendency of the cut- 
ter to chatter, unless it is perfectly grovmd and all other 
conditions are exactly right. Still a tliird trouble is in tho 
tendency of the cutter to cut more on one side than on the 
other and to dig out stock in spots In the groove. 

In Fig. 5 is shown an extremely simple tool, the usefulness 
of which cannot be overestimated for finishing grooves In 
cast iron cams. It is a piece of tool steel, suitably machined 
to mount on an arljor. It is turned on the outside, with enough 
stock left on for grinding, after which the spiral grooves 


•i/..v. y. 

Fig. 5. Special Finishing? Cutter for Cam Grooves. 

shown in the developed surface are milled with an angular 
cutter. The piece is then hardened and ground to size. 
The cam groove which we are to finish is roughed out from 
0.002 inch to 0.012 inch below size; the roughing cutter is 
removed from the spindle of the cam-cutting machine, and this 
special tool is mounted in its place. The cam is then fed 
against the tool until the too) reaches the bottom, when the 
cam is turned one complete revolution. The tool will leave a 
true groove exactly the right size, and without chatter marks 
or hollows. 

By reason of the form of the cutting or scraping edges, it 
will outlast many ordinary cutters. Used in connection with 
it, a single roughing cutter may be repeatedly sharpened 
before it becomes too small for good results. 

* * * 


The ways of amateurs are interesting — and sometimes In- 
structive. The machinist will find the following question and 
answer, clipped from the column of a worthy contemporary, 
whose name we forbear to publish, interesting, somewhat 
amusing, but scarcely instructive, however — that is from a 
practical standpoint. Imagine a mechanic with a tool box 
filled with auger bits of various diameters for boring blocks 
of wood so that he could center all sizes of shafts likely to 
come his way! Follow-ing is the sketch with the question 
and answer referred to: 

What is a good method for finding the center of a shaft? — 
A. G. 

In a block of wood three-fourths inch thick bore a hole 
with an augur bit, just the size of the shaft. Allow the point 

of the bit to just show through the block. Place the block 
over the end of the shaft, and the center may then be marked 
with a sharp pointed prick punch. 

* * * 
The Cincinnati Shaper Co., Cincinnati, O., informs us that 
it has a patent pending on its shaper key-seating attachment 
illustrated and described in our September issue. 


In a paper presented before the American Brass Founders' 
Association, by Mr. Charles H. Proctor, Arlington, N. J., the 
electrolytic process of cleaning metals was described. The 
process is comparatively new, the first published account of it 
appearing about three years ago, and, although used by many 
large concerns. It Is not as generally known as it should be, 
considering the good results obtained and the cheapness of 
the process. 

Alkaline substitutes, such as sodium carbonate, potassium 
carbonate, potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide in solu- 
tion in varying degrees of concentration, and with small poi- 
tions of potassium cyanide, develop sufllcient hydrogen, with 
a current of 4 to 8 volts, with the bath at nearly boiling tem- 
perature, to entirely remove all organic substances from tho 
surface of metal, leaving same chemically clean. The use of 
this method has been constantly inci-easing, and at the present 
time very few large concerns, particularly those engaged in 
the manufacture of hardware, are without electrochemical 
cleaning baths. 

The action of an electro-cleanser is similar to the action of 
an electroplating bath. The only difference as far as the 
development of gases is concerned, is that no metal being in 
solution and the anode being insoluble, no metal is deposited, 
but with a strong current a copious evolution of oxyhydrogen 
gas is developed upon the articles, which attack the organic 
matter upon the surface, practically lifting it off and by rapid 
evolution of the gases carries it to the surface. The small 
quantity of potassium cyanide contained in solution absorbs 
the slight oxidation that might be upon the surface, and by 
the combined action produces a surface clean enough, after 
washing in clear water, for any deposits. 

The arrangement of an electro-cleaning bath is very simple. 
Prepare a wrought -iron tank of proportions best adapted to 
the amount of work to be cleansed. This should be heated 
with steam coils of Iron. Across the top of the tank an insu- 
lated frame should be constructed. Upon this frame place 
three conducting poles, as on the regular plating bath. To the 
two outside poles the positive current should be carried direct. 
This can best be accomplished with at least lA-inch copper 
wire flexible cables. To the center pole the negative current 
is connected with a cable of the same dimensions; no rheostats 
are necessary. The stronger the current the greater the evo- 
lution of gases and the quicker the cleansing operation is 

Although direct contact can be made w-ith the positive cur- 
rent to the tank itself, in practice better results have been 
obtained with anodes of sheet iron not more than 6 inches 
wide and of a length in proportion to the depth of the tank. 

The electro-cleaning solution should consist (for ordinary 
purposes) of 3 to 4 ounces caustic potash to each gallon of 
water, and to every 100 gallons of solution 8 ounces cyanide 
of potassium. This can be varied according to conditions. It 
is advisable to add at least % pound of cyanide each week. 
Where the articles, such as iron or steel, contain much oil or 
grease upon the surface, the density of the solution can be 
increased. For articles of brass, copper or bronze that have 
been polished, use a solution of carbonate of soda in the pro- 
portion of 2 ounces soda and % ounce caustic potash to each 
gallon of water, with the addition of 4 ounces of cyanide to 
every 100 gallons of solution. If much organic matter is upon 
the surface of the articles to be cleansed, it is advisable, where 
an air pressure can be obtained from an ordinary blower, to 
arrange a pipe so that the current of air can be deflected upon 
the surface of the solution, thus keeping the center of the 
solution clear of the insoluble substance that arises to the 
surface. When the cleanser is at rest, as much of this mat- 
ter as possible should be removed. 

It should be the aim of the operator to use the same 
methods of avoiding all unnecessary contamination as he 
would in electro-depositing baths. It is obvious even to those 
who have not practiced this method of cleansing metallic 
articles that large quantities of work can be treated very 
rapidly, and this is the case especially where frames or racks 
are used in the plating operations. 



October, 1908. 

From llie windows of llie Industrial Press business oftlce 
tlie construction of I lie new Manhattan Bridge, spanning the 
East River, can be plainly seen. This is the fourth great 
bridge joining Manhattan and Long Island, the others being 

the well-laiown suspension form. The towers of the Man- 
hattan Bridge are built of structural steel and were completed 
a few months ago. At the present time the process of "spin- 
ning" or hauling the cables is going on. Preliminary to 
spinning the cables, temporary footbridges were erected, these 
being suspended on I'V, -inch cables. These cables support 

Figr. 1. View of One of the Anchorages of the Manhattan Bridge, sho-wing the Stranda which are to form the Main Cables, resting in Temporary Saddles. 

Pig. 2. One of the Sheaves used for Hauling the SmaU Steel Cable 
Wires across the River. 

the Brooklyn Bridge and Williamsburg Bridge, both com- 
pleted, and the Blackwell's Island Bridge, nearly finished. 
The latter is of the cantilever type, and the other three are of 

Fig. 3. View of the Temporary Foot-bridges which Support 
the Hauling Cables. 

four foot-bridges on which the workmen stand, and also 
sustain the hauling rope supports which guide and control 
the spinning of the wire ccmposing the four main 

October, 1908. 



cables. Each cable will contain 37 strands of 256 wires each, 
a total of 9,472 wires per cable, which must be strung wire by 
wire. The enormous amount of work involved will be done 
by machinery driven by electric motors. 

The stringing of the wires in each cable Is accomplished 
by means of two traveling sheaves carried on opposite legs of 
an endless steel rope. Each sheave consists of a three-foot 
grooved wheel fastened to the hauling rope by means of 

Each hauling rope is driv<.-ii by a Gu-il.P., 220-volt Crocker- 
Wheeler form W motor. This is the type of motor designed 
by the Crocker-Wheeler Company for rolling mill duty, and 
is well adapted to work of this kind where sudden overloads 
and frequent starting and slopping are likely. The motors 
are fully enclosed and ca(iable of withstanding all kinds of 
weather and rough handling. The driving mechanism Is 
shown in Figs. 4 and S. Eaili motor is geared to a counter- 

Fig. 4. Cable Hauling Machinery. Brooklyn Anchorage Manhattan Bridge. 

wrought iron bracliets, as shown in Fig. 2. The hauling rope 
is three-quarters inch diameter, and runs above the position 
of the bridge cables on heavy rollers supported on uprights 
on the temporary foot-bridge. See Fig. 3. There are five 
of these hauling rope supports on the center span, two on 
each end span and one on each tower. The hauling sheaves 
move back and forth across the bridge from anchorage to 
anchorage, a distance of 3,223 feet. They are attached one 
to each leg of the hauling rope so that they move in opposite 

The wire, which is 0.192 inch in diameter (No. 6 Roebling 
gage), is delivered to the bridge on enormous reels or 
spools, weighing' three tons each. Half of these reels are 
placed at each end of the bridge. The end of the wire from 
a reel at each end of the bridge is put over the hauling sheave 
at that end and fastened to the anchorage. The machinery 
is then started and the sheaves move across the bridge, un- 
winding one wire from each reel. Two wires are thus strung 
by each sheave every time it crosses the bridge. When the 
sheave reaches the opposite side of the bridge the bight of 
the wire is taken off and made fast to that anchorage, and a 
new wire hauled from that side on the return trip. 

The wires are laid in temporary saddles of four grooved 
pulleys at each anchorage. See Fig. 1. As the hauling of 
each strand of 2.56 wires Is completed, the wires are bound 
together at intervals, and the strand is lifted from the tempo- 
rary saddle by means of a chain hoist and laid in its proper 
place in the permanent saddle. Two strands of each cable are 
strung simultaneously by the two sheaves of each hauling 

There is a separate hauling mechanism for each of the four 
bridge cables, so that they are strung independently of each 
other. Delays are, therefore, not cumulative. The delays in 
one cable affect that cable alone, and the work proceeds on 
the others. This results in a very considerable saving of 

shaft at a ratio of 5 to 1, and the counter-shaft is bevel geared 
to the driving shaft at a 5 to 1 ratio. On the driving shaft, 
above the gears, is a wood-lined, grooved, six-foot traction 
wheel, which drives the hauling rope. A five-foot idler wheel 
is also provided so that the hauling rope passes the traction 

7"FACE P.O. 52. 547 

Pig. 5. Elevation and Plan of the Cable Hauling Machinery. 

wheel twice, to produce the necessary grip. The driving 
motors are all located on the anchorage at the Brooklyn end 
of the bridge. 

The hauling rope moves at a speed of approximately 480 
feet per minute. It carries the sheaves across the river in 
about seven or eight minutes. Allowing for the time used in 
attaching wires at each end, about three trips are made per 
hour. It is estimated that at this rate the work of hauling 



October, 1908. 

will occupy four montlis, some timo being consumed In fixln? 
Kuide wires for each strand and in adjusting the wires after 
they are hauled. 

The reels of wire, as already stated, are stored at both 
ends of the bridge. The wire was delivered by John A. Roeb- 
ling's Sons Co., the same firm which delivered the wire for 
the old Brooklyn Bridge thirty years ago. The work of 
building the cables is being carried on by the Glyndon Con- 
tracting Co.. of New York City. 

The hauling equipment for this bridge differs from any pre- 
viously used. It will be remembered that in hauling the 
tables for the Williamsburg Bridge two steam engines were 
used, connected to the same driving shaft. It later became 
necessary to cut this shaft and use the engines independently 
to avoid cumulation of delays. Even with that arrangement 
only two cables could be hauled simultaneously. The Glyndon 
Company's cable hauling plant has doubled the capacity, and 
besides being electrically- instead of steam-driven, it is easier 
of manipulation and control. 

* * « 


The Fitchburg Iron Workers' Association, Fitchburg, Mass., 
recently tendered a banquet to the members of the Fitchburg 
city government and school board, and laid before them the 
plans for an industrial school to be incorporated in the present 
high school system, which was readily taken up by the city 
government, and has been put into operation. 

The idea is somewhat unique, and bids fair to become an 
essential factor in industrial education in towns and cities of 
limited size throughout the country. The plan, as outlined, 
is in a form of an apprenticeship system whereby boys hav- 
ing passed the first year In high school, take up during 
three years, a mechanical course studying one week In the 
school, and the following week working in the shops. A 
special instructor has been employed, and special text-books 
provided. The boys are taken in pairs by the manufactur- 
ing companies, and the boy who has studied in school a week, 
on Saturday morning at 11 o'clock goes to the shop and learns 
on what particular job the other boy has been working, and 
how it is handled, so that he can come in the following Mon- 
day morning and begin work where his mate left off, thus fol- 
lowing the shop course without necessitating instruction on 
the part of the shop foreman. 

Mr. Hunter, the man in charge of this work,, has had more 
applications than could be taken care of the first year, and at 
the present time all the boys are working in the shops and 
will continue to do so until the school opens. The coopera- 
tive industrial high school course is as follow-s: 


English 4 periods per week. 

Shop Mathematics 5 " " 

Mechanics 5 " " 

Freehand and Mechanical Drawing. .5 
Current Events 2 


English 4 periods per week. 

Shop Mathematics 5 " " 

Chemistry 4 " " " 

Electricity and Heat 4 

Freehand and Mechanical Drawing. .8 " " 


English 4 periods per week. 

Shop Mathematics 4 " " " 

Commercial Geography. Business 

Methods and Conditions 4 

Advanced Chemistry or Industrial 

History 5 

Freehand and Mechanical Drawing. .8 


English 4 periods per week. 

Civics and American History 5 " " 

Applied Mathematics 5 

Mechanical and Freehand Drawling. .8 " 
Discussion of Current Mechanical 
Appliances 2 " " " 

Shop work consists of instruction in the operation of lathes, 
planers, drilling machines, in bench and floor work, and in 
ether machine work according to the ability of the appren- 

tice as pertaining to the particular branch of manufacture in 
the shop where he is employed. 

Copy of the rules and conditions of this system is given 
below : 

Rules and Conditions. 

Under Which Special Apprentices Taking the Four-Year 
Cooperative Industrial Course at the High School of 
Fitchburg Are Received for Instruction at the works of 

Blank Machine Co. 

1. The Applicant for apprenticeship under this agreement 
must have satisfactorily met requirements for entrance to this 
course at the high school. 

2. The apprentice is to work for us continually, well and 
faithfully, under such rules and regulations as may prevail, 
at the works of the above company, for the term of approxi- 
mately 4.9.')0 hours, commencing with the acceptance of this 
agreement, in such capacity and on such work as specified 
below : 

Lathe Work, 
Planer Work, 

Bench and Floor Work. 

And such other machine work, according to the 
capacity of the apprentice, as pertains to our 
branch of manufacturing. 
This arrangement of work to be binding unless changed by 
mutual agreement of all parties to this contract. 

3. The apprentice shall report to his employer for work 
every alternate week when the high school is in session. an(J 
on all working days when the high school is not in session, 
except during vacation periods provided below, and he shall 
be paid only for actual time at such work. 

4. The apprentice is to have a vacation, without pay, of two- 
weeks each year, during schcol vacation. 

5. The employer reserves the right to suspend regular work 
wholly, or in part, at any time it may be deemed necessary, 
and agrees to provide under ordinary conditions other work 
at the regular rate of pay, for the apprentice during such 

6. Should the conduct or work of the apprentice not be satis- 
factory to employer, he may be dismissed at any time without 
previous notice. The first two months of the apprentice's shop- 
work are considered a trial time. 

7. Lost time shall be made up before the expiration of each 
year, at the rate of wages paid during said year, and no year 
of service shall commence till after all lost time by the ap- 
prentice in the proceeding year shall have been fully made up. 

8. The apprentice must purchase from time to time such 
tools as may be required for doing rapid and accurate work. 

9. The said term of approximately 4,9.50 hours (three-year 
shop term) shall be divided into three periods as stated 
below, and the compensation shall be as follows, payable on 
regular pay-days to each apprentice: 

For the first period of approximately 1.6.50 hours: 10 cents- 
per hour. 

For the second period of approximately 1.650 hours: 11 
cents per hour. 

For the third period of approximately 1.650 hours: 12'o 
cents per hour. 

10. The above wage scale shall begin the first day of July 
preceding the apprentice's entrance upon the first year of 
shop work of the high school industrial course. 

The satisfactory fulfilment of the conditions of this contract 
leads to a diploma, to be conferred upon the apprentice by 
the school board of Fitchburg upon his graduation, which 
diploma shall bear the signature of an officer of the company 
with which he served his apprenticeship. 


With reference to installment No. 5 of the above series 
which appeared in your August issue, we find on page 909' 
(engineering edition) a reference to ourselves in which it 
is stated: "The company usually builds the machines In 
lots of three throughout all departments, only occasionally 
making a larger number at a time." 

We believe the above must be a printer's error or due to &■ 
misunderstanding on the part of the author, as we informed 
him we built the machines in lots of three dozen. This ap- 
plies to machines 3 feet 6 inches, and 4 feet radius, and to a- 
number of lighter machines up to 5 feet and 6 feet radius on 
special classes of work. The heavy type of machines weigh- 
ing from 7 to 8 tons and upwards cannot, of course, be put. 
through in such large quantities. 

Halifax, England. Wxlxjam. A-squith. Ltd. 

October, 1908. 





One of the greatest changes In the way of liiipiovetnent in 
the art of blacksmitUlng came with tlio steam hammer. It 
made possible the making of heavy foi'gings from one solid 
piece of iron or steel, which previously had to be made in 
sections and welded together. Welding is still necessary on 
a great many kinds of blacksmith work, but with the steam 
hammer it can be done in less time and to better advantage 
than is possible by hand. The majority of people, including 
blacksmiths, seem to have only one conception of a steam 
hammer, that of a piece of machinery intended for striking 
a heavy blow; this is the principal, but by no mt-ans the 
only purpose for which it can be used. With a good equip- 
ment of tools and a good operator it is possible to do nearly 
any kind of machine blacksmlthing — all but the finishing 
touches — at the steam hammer. If necessary it can also be 
used to do drop forging and as a trimming press, shears, 
bulldozer, and vise, and for a variety of other purposes. 

With all its advantages it is, as a rule, one of tlic most 
abused pieces of machinery to be found around a manufac- 
turing plant. For every other kind of machine there is 
usually a skilled operator. If it happens to be operated by 
a boy, or any one else who does not thoroughly uiulerstaiui 

i(o) Q g 


Fig .3 

itaakineryj/, Y, 

Fig .2 

Figs. 1 to 3. Example of "Work, and Tools for "Breaking Down" Forgings. 

it, he is generally doing so under the directions of a compe- 
tent man. For the steam hammer, as with every thing else 
in the blacksmith shop, anything is good enough — an ordi- 
nary laborer, a small boy, or any one who comes along, pro- 
vided he can be hired for a small amount of money, regard- 
less of safety or economy. To get the best results from a 
steam hammer, however, as with any other kind of machine, 
it is absolutely essential that the operator thoroughly under- 
stands his business. He should be as conversant with the 
working parts and mechanism as an engineer should be with 
an engine, and should be able to do all minor repairing, such 
as packing glands, adjusting guides, valves, etc. As a ma- 
chine operator, he should be classed with skilled labor, and 
paid according to his ability. Like all other classes of help, 
really good steam hammer operators are scarce from the 
fact that the unskilled laborer usually gets the same rate 
of wages. 

The purpose for which the steam hammer is principally 
used is to draw iron or steel to smaller dimensions in the 


Miictiinur^. N. I'. 

Fig. 4. Use of Breaking Down Tool and V-block in the Steam Hammer. 

making of forgings. This can be done to the best advantage 
if the dies are slightly crowned in the center, not necessarily 
over 1/16 inch for each die, and the edges rounded off to 
about a radius of 3/32 inch. Any one who has done work 
with a steam hammer will appreciate the advantage of having 
the dies crowned. In drawing stock with perfectly level dies, 
the drawing is most in evidence where the edges come in 
contact with the metal; in the center it is simply spread out, 

• Address : Dlfi West Third St., Plalnfield, N. J. 

there being nothing in the dies themselves to give it a ten- 
dency to draw when a blow is struck by the hammer. Wlih 
the dies crowned, a blow will be more effective, and the 
spreading of stock will be reduced to a minimum. It is also 
an advantage to have the sides of the dies square, so that in 
making forgings such as are shown in Fig. 1, the shoulder 
will be as near as possible at right angles with the body 
of the piece. 

In "breaking down" stock for a shoulder a tool similar in 
construction to Klg. 2 should be used, the head or part which 







Mathiti^il. .V. 1'. 

Pig. e. Correct and Incorrect Types of Swages for Steam Hammer. 

does the work being in the shape of one-quarter of a circle. 
with the edges slightly rounded to prevent cutting. This tool 
will break down a shoulder square. It can be used either 
right or left-hand, and its shape gives it a tendency to crowd 
towards the shoulder which will leave the stock at that point 
up to, or slightly larger than, the original dimensions. This 
tool presents decided advantages over the round tool com- 
monly used, as this latter has a tendency to drag down the- 
edges near where it is used, making it necessary to upset 
and finish the work by hand to get the body of the forging 
uniform throughout. When round stock Is being broken 
down it is usually placed in a circular tool similar to a 
swage, which necessitates the using of a different tool for 

Fig. 6 



Machifiery, N.V. 

Fig. 7 

Pig. 6. 

Swages for Making Blank-headed Eye-bolts, 
for Forging Hubs. 

Fig. 7. Swages 

each size of stock. If a tool is used of the style shown in 
Fig. 3, which is made in the form of a V-block with a cir- 
cular bottom, it will accommodate several sizes of stock. 
Four or five such tools of different sizes will cover a large 
range of work. 

Fig. 4 shows how the breaking down tool and the V-block 
should be used in the steam hammer. The V-block is placed 
upon the bottom die, the work is laid in the V-block, and the 
breaking down tool on top of the work at the point intended 
for the shoulder. The tool is guided by hand until the piece 
has been marked all the way around. It can then be driven 
in, turning the piece continually, until it has reached 
the required depth. In drawing the shank of a forging, such 
as is show-n in Fig. 1, it should be kept square until it has 
been reduced to the required size; the corners are then 
worked in until an octagon shape is obtained; and, finally, 
the corners are rounded. This procedure prevents the center 
being "piped." 

In finishing round work, it should be done as far as pos- 
sible at the steam hammer, using spring swages. Of these 
there are several styles. Fig. 5 shows at the top the style 
which is simplest and most satisfactory to use. The swages* 
are made in two separate parts and held together by one 
rivet, and provided with a band to keep them in alignment 
without having to use a guide pin. The impression in eachj 



October, 1908. 

part should be half the depth of the diameter of the piece 
the swages are intended to finish, so that It would be Impos- 
sible to swage a forging under size. The edges or lips should 
l.e well backed off to prevent a fin or flash being formed. It 
a fln or flash Is formed upon a piece of work while It la 
being finished in swages or dies, it is liable to get worked 
Into the forging when It is turned for the next blow of the 
hammer, forming what is known as a cold shut. This may 
not be noticed on the forging, but will show up when the 
work is machined; it is unsightly on machine steel pieces, 
and renders tool steel useless for all cutting purposes. 

Swages of the style shown at the top in Fig. 5 can be made 
to form collars, ends for connecting-rods, blank-headed eye 
bolts, forgings with ball ends, and a variety of oth^r pieces. 
No machine work is necessary on this kind of swage, as 
It can be made and finished complete in the blacksmith- 
shop by using a dummy, or a forging made as near as pos- 

Figa. 8 and 9. Pin to be Forged, and Tool used for Carrying 
Out the Operation. 

sible to the dimensions of the pieces for which the swage 
is intended. This sample forging is used for finishing the 
impression, after it has been partly worked to shape, by 
heating the swage, and placing the dummy in it. The 
swage takes its impression from the dummy in the 
same manner as forgings take their shape from swages or 
■dies. This method of making tools is known as typing, and 
can be employed to good advantage on a great many kinds of 
torgings, when the quantity to be made is such that it will 
justify the making of tools. All forgings made in tools as 
here described will be duplicates and finished in less time 
than would be possible by hand. 

Fig. 6 shows a swage for making blank-headed eye bolts, or 
any forging with a circular head and a plain round shank. 
These are different from other swages in that they have the 
edges of the impression sharp where the head of the forging 


Machinery, .V. T, 

Figs. 10, 11 and 12. Forging an Angle Iron. 

is formed to insure a perfect circle. A fin or flash may be 
worked out where the impressions meet, but it will do no 
harm as it can be trimmed off with a chisel. The edges of 
the part of the impression where the shank is formed should 
be rounded off, as a flash formed at that point would cause 
'trouble in finishing with ordinary spring swages. 

When forgings with hubs are to be made, ring swages, as 
shown in Fig. 7, shouW be used. All that is necessary is to 
select stock heavy enough to allow the ends of the hubs 

being llnlshed. The work is heated, placed in the swage, 
given a few blows by the steam hammer, and the hub is 
formed, both sides being in perfect alignment. The stock 
worked out at the sides can be trimmed off with a chisel. 
This may seem wasteful, but the time saved will more than 
compensate for the loss of material. For round bosses a tool 
similar to halt the swage. Fig. 7, should be used; or a plain 
ring made of round stock would answer the purpose, by being 



Fig, 13. Tool for Drawing Work too abort for Breaking Down 
under the Steam Hammer. 

placed upon the stock while it is hot, and struck a few blows 
with the steam hammer. It may be well to explain the differ- 
ence between hubs and bosses; hubs project on both sides of a 
forging, while bosses only project on one side. 

In making forgings of the style shown in Fig. 8, it is cus- 
tomary to draw them from stock of larger diameter than 
the shank, and finish them in a heading tool. When a 
quantity has to be made, it is of advantage to use stock the 
proper size for the shank, cut in lengths, and to use a tool 
as shown in Fig. 9. This tool is bored out just deep enough 
for the length of the shank and counterbored to accommo- 
date the head. The stock should be heated on one end, placed 
in the tool, a few blows given by the steam hammer, and 
the forging is completed. A small hole should be drilled 
through the bottom of the tool, so that ft can be turned 



Fig. 14. Dies for Drop Forging under the Steam Hammer. 

up side down, and the forging removed with a punch. Six 
forgings can be made in this way in the same time as it 
would take to make one, if drawing it from heavier stock. 

In making angular forgings, stock of about the right size 
for the ends of the angles is usually selected, bent, and the 
corner worked back until it is square. This takes consider- 
able time and careful working, or a cold shut will be formed 
inside the corner. With a steam hammer, pieces of this 
shape call be made with very little trouble by using stock 
heavy enough to allow a solid corner being formed as 
shown iu Fig. 10, which can be done by using a round tool 
to break down each side of the piece intended for the angle, 
drawing the ends to the required size. Then the piece 
is bent in a V-block with a tool made for the purpose, as 
shown in Fig. 11. The result will be a piece as shown in 
Fig. 12. The V-block should have an included angle of 90 
degrees, and be rounded at the top edges, as shown, to prevent 
marking the ends. The tool for bending should have the edge 
or corner rounded so that it will form a fillet iuside the 
forging. Nearly any size of angle can be made with the 
same tools. 

October, 1908. 



A tool for drawing work wliicli is all brolveii down to one 
side, or between shoulders or bosses, when the distance Is 
too short to reach across the dies, is shown In Fig. 13. The 
head is square, and the corners rounded, each to a different 
radius, so that fillets of different dimensions may be formed 
with the same tool. 

Small pieces can be drop forged at the steam liammer 
without changing the ordinary dies, by using dies as shown 
In Fig. 14. The impressions are sunk the same as In regular 
drop forging dies. The dies are kept in alignment by two 
guide pins, and opened by two spiral springs placed on the 
guide pins. The dies are removed from the hammer dies by 
means of the handle attached to the back as shown. Forg- 
ings made in this style of dies are equal in every respect 
to regular drop forgings, with the exception that it requires 
more time making them. The steam hammer can be used to 
trim the forgings by using a trimming die and punch as 
shown in Figs l.'i and Ifi. Trimming dies of tlie style In 

Fig. 15 


Fig. 17 

Marhineru. JV. J', 

Fig. 16 

Figs. 15, 16. and 17. Trimming Die and Punch, and Completed Work. 

Fig 15, with open end, should be made heavy enough to pre- 
vent spreading, or breaking through the back, as they have 
no supporting device of the kind provided for dies In the 
trimming press. They also ought to be deep enough to allow 
of the forging dropping out of the reach of the punch when 
it is trimmed. Fig. 16 shows the punch, the face of which 
should be concaved to fit the forging it is intended to be 
used for. Fig. 17 shows the forging made in the dies In 
Fig. 14. The ends of the shanks are left heavy so that they 
can be finished either for eye-bolts or hooks. When made 
into hooks the shanks are left longer, finished in spring 
swages, and bent on a former made specially for that pur- 
pose. The style of dies here described can only be used for 
small work, and only then when the quantity is such that it 
will justify the expense of making the tools. 

The steam hammer can be used ■ as a punch press, when 
that machine is not available, by using a die and punch as 
shown in Fig. 18. The die is made on the same principle 


AtacMnvr^i. ,V. )'. 


Fig. 18. Punch and Die for Punching Holes under the Steam Hammer. 

as spring swages, the top part acting as a guide for the 
punch. The lower part, or die proper, should be thick enough 
to allow the scrap from the hole and the punch dropping 
below the level of the guide, otherwise the punch would be 
liable to be bent or broken. Punches need never be longer 
than the depth of the die, and should be tapered from the 
face to give them clearance when being driven through the 

stock. This style of die and punch can be used on hot work, 
as for removing the stock between the Jaws of wrenches, the 
centers of eye-bolts when being forged by hand, etc. 

In shops where there are no shears the steam hammer 
can be used for cutting off cold stock by using tools as shown 
in Figs. 19 and 20. Only one tool of each kind Is shown, but 
the tool can, of course, only be used in pairs, one below and 
one over the stock, so that their edges will just pass by each 

Fig. 19 

Fig. 20 

Figs. 19 and 20. Tools used under Steam Hammer for Shearing OfT Block. 

Other, the same as the jaws of shears. Fig. 19 shows the 
tools used for flat stock, while Fig. 20 shows the shape of 
tools for round stock. These tools are not as handy as shears, 
nor quite as safe, but are superior to saw or chisel in cutting 
up stock for forging. 

In forging rings of rectangular section it is customary to 
use stock of about the right dimensions for the section, bend 
it to shape, and weld it. This is all right for small rings, or 
large rings with small section; but when the size exceeds 5 
inches inside diameter, and the section ly^ inch square, it is 
advisable to make the rings from the solid stock for several 
reasons, principal of which are the saving of time, a more 
uniform section, and a perfectly solid forging when the ring 

Fig. 21. Steam Hammer Fixture used when Forging Rings. 

is finished. This latter is impossible with a welded ring, 
except at cost and labor out of all proportion with the size 
of the job. To begin with the ends of the stock must be 
upset to allow for waste in welding, and bent in the form of 
a circle, which distorts the shape of the material; the outside 
is drawn out while the inside is upset or compressed. The 
only part of the stock which retains its original size is the 
neutral line at the center of the bar. After the ring has been 
welded, it has to be flattened and trued up all over to 
anything like uniform. Then, there are always chances of 
a poor weld, which makes the finished piece useless for all 
practical purposes. 

When rings are to be made from the solid, the first thing 
to be done is to find the right amount of stock to use, which 
can be done by consulting hand-books, or by figuring out the 
cubic contents ol a solid piece having the same diameter 
and the same thickness as the ring for which It is in- 
tended, deducting the number of cubic inches equal to the 
hole, and allowing enough extra material for waste in forg- 



October, 1908. 

ing, ami for nuisliiuR in tlie machine shop. Cut off a piece 
(it round 8(oclv the |)iopor length, and upset it under the 
steam hammer until it is of the same thickness as the face 
of the ring to bo forged. Punch a hole in the center, and 
"drift" until it is approximately of the diameter required in 
the finished ring. The lower die should then he removed 
from the steam hammer, and a fixture of the style shown In 
the half-tone. Fig. 21, keyed in its place. This fixture is 
made in the form of a double V-block, the V's being circular 
In the bottom, and of an angle of about 120 degrees, allowing 
the use of different sizes of mandrels in drawing the rings 
to the required size. The ring or piece of stock with the 
hole punched through it is then placed between the V's, and 
the mandrel slipped through the hole and turned by means 
of the handles clamped to the shank. In turning the man- 
drel, the ring is turned with it, bringing a different point 
in line with the top die for each stroke of the hammer. This 
is done until the proper size has been reached, using larger 
mandrels as the hole increases in size. Rings up to 50 
pounds can be made complete in two heats. Larger rings up 
to the full capacity of the steam hammer can be made by 
using a larger fixture in the anvil block by removing the 
chair for the lower die. It is advisable to use hollow man- 
drels for the larger sizes to facilitate their handling. Rings 
made from the solid in the manner here outlined can be com- 
pleted in one-third the time required for welded rings. The 
section is uniform throughout, and no poor welds or over- 
heated spots show up in the machining. 

If the steam or power hammer were used, as it should be, 
to do the heaviest and most difficult work, the art of black- 
smithing would be made more attractive, and the manufac- 
turers' profits would be increased. 


The Gisholt band illustrated here is an outgrowth of the 
Gisholt Club, a social organization of the employes of the 
Gisholt Machine Co., Madison, Wis. The main object of the 
club is to promote acquaintanceship and good fellowship 
among the employes and their families. A room is provided 
by the company in which various entertainments are given 
during the year, and lecturers are employed from time to time 
to speak on topics of general interest. An event of impor- 


Giaholt Machine Co. Band. 

tance is an annual picnic held on ground across Lake Men- 
dota, near Madison. The picnic this year took place on 
August 8. In all these entertainments the Gisholt band is 
in evidence, and its members have acquired such proficiency 
that it plays very good music. A pleasing feature of the club 
during the summer is the open-air concerts given by the 
band on a piece of vacant property adjoining the Gisholt 
works. The club organization and the band auxiliary tend 
to bind together the employes to work for the common good. 
and are in line with all sound movements for the promotion 
of progress in coordinating human interests and manufactur- 
ing methods. 



A typical example of an open drill jig, very similar to 
the one developed and explained in the September issue, is 
shown in Fig. 73. The work is located against the three locat- 
ing pins A, and held in place against these pins by the three 
set-screws 7?. The three straps C hold the work securely 
against the finished pad in the bottom of the jig These 
clamps are so placed that when the work has been drilled and 
the clamp screws loosened, the clamps will swing around 

Fiff. 73. Example of Open DriU Jig. View ahowiug Front Side. 

a quarter of a turn, allowing the work to be lifted directly 
from the jig and a new piece of work inserted, when the 
clamps are again turned around into the clamping position, 
and the screws tightened. These straps are integral parts of 
the jig; at the same time, they are quickly and easily manupu- 
lated, and do not interfere with the rapid removal and inser- 
tion of the work. The strength and rigidity of the feet in 
proportion to the jig should be noted, this strength being 
obtained by giving proper shape to the feet, without using 
an unnecessary quantity of metal. 

The jig in Fig. 73 is also designed to accommodate the com- 
ponent part of the work when it is being drilled. When 
this is done, the work is held on the back side of the jig, 
shown in Fig. 74. This side is also provided with feet, 
and has a finished pad against which the work is held. The 
locating pins extend clear through the central portion of the 
jig body, and, consequently, will locate the component part 
of the work in exactly the same position as the piece of work 
being drilled on the fi-ont side of the jig. The same clamp- 
ing straps are used, the screws being simply put in from the 
opposite side into the same tapped holes as are used when 
clamping on the front side of the jig. The four holes D are 
guide holes for drilling the screw holes in the work, these 
being drilled the body size of the bolt in one part, and the 
tap drill size in the component part. The lining bushing in 
the holes D serves as a drill bushing for drilling the body 
size holes. The loose bushing E, Fig. 73, is used when drill- 
ing the tap holes in the component part, the inside diameter 
of this bushing being the tap drill size, and the outside diame- 
ter a good fit in the lining bushing. The two holes jP, Fig. 
74, are provided with drill bushings and serve as guides when 
drilling the dowel pin holes, which are drilled below size, 
leaving about 0.010 inch, and are reamed out after the two 
component parts of the work are put together. The two 
holes shown in the middle of the jig in Fig. 73, and which are 
provided with lining bushings, and also with loose bushing?;, 
as shown inserted in Fig. 74, may be used for drilling and 
reaming the bearing holes for the shaft passing through the 
work. In this particular case, however, they are only used tor 
rough-drilling the holes, to allow the boring-bars to pass 
through when finishing the work by boring in a special bor- 
ing jig, after the two parts of the work have been screwed; 

♦.Xrtdress: S.'i3 West Sixth St., I'l.Tinfiold. N, .1. 

October, 1908. 



The large bushings shown beside the jig In Fig. 73 are the 
loose bushings shown in place in Fig. 74. It will be noted 
that the b\ishings are provided with dogs for easy removal, 
as explain(>(l in the Installment in the May issue, and illus- 
trated in I'lg. 11. As the central portion of the jig body is 
rather thin, it will be noticed in Fig. 74 that the bosses for 
the central holes project outside of the jig body in order to 
give a long enough bearing to the bushings. This, of course, 
can be done only when such a projection does not interfere 
with the work. The bosses, in this particular case, also serve 

Fig. 74. Kear View of Drill Jig shown In Fig. 73. 

wrench may be used for tightening and unscrewing all of 
them. It can also be plainly seen from the half-tones thai 
there are no unncccHBarlly finislied surfaces on the jig, a 
matter which is highly Important In economical production 
of tools. 

Another example of an open drill Jig, similar In design lu 
the one just described. Is shown In Fig. 75. The work to be 
drilled in this jig is shown at .4 and B at the right-hand side 
of the Jig. In this case, the work Is located from the circu- 
lar ends. The two pieces A and B are component parts, and 

Fig. 75. Drill Jig ueed for Drilling Work shown to the Right. 

Pig. 7a. Drill Jig shown in Fig. 75 with Work in Place. 

Fig. 77. Rear View of Drill Jig ahown in Fig. 75, with Cover to 
be Drilled in Place. 

Pig. 78. DrlU Jig for Parts of Friction Clutches which are 
shown at the Right. 

another purpose. They make the jig "fool-proof," because 
the pieces drilled on the side of the jig shown In Fig. 73 
cannot be put on the side shown in Fig. 74, the bosses pre- 
venting the piece from being placed in position In the jig. 

Attention should be called to the simplicity of the design of 
this jig. It simply consists of a cast iron plate, with finished 
seats, and feet projecting out tar enough to reach below the 
work when drilling, three dowel pins, set-screws for bringing 
the work up against the dowel pins, three clamps, and the 
necessary bushings. The heads of all the set-screws and bolts 
should, if possible, be made the same size, so that the same 

Fig. 79. Drill Jig ahown In Fig. 78. with one of the Pieces 
to be Drilled in Place. 

when finished are screwed together. The piece A is located 
against three dowel pins, and pushed against them by set- 
screw C, and held in position by three clamping straps, as 
shown in Fig. 76. In this case, the straps are provided with 
oblong slots as indicated, and when the clamp screws are 
loosened, the clamps are simply pulled backward, permitting 
the insertion and removal of the work without interference. 
It would be an improvement on this clamping arrangement to 
place a stiff helical spring around the screws under each 
strap, so that the straps would be prevented from falling 
down to the bottom of the jig when the work is removed. 



October, 1908. 

At the same time this would prevent the straps from 
swiveling arouiul the screws when not clamped. 

In Fig. 77. the part H in Fig. 75 is shown clamped in posi- 
tion for drilling, the opposite side of the jig being used for 
this purpose. In jig design of this liind it is necessary to 
provide some means so that the parts A and B will be placed 
each on the correct side of the jig, or, as said before, the jig 
should be made "fool-proof." In the present case, the parts 
cannot be exchanged and placed on the wrong side, because 
the cover or guard B could not be held by the three straps 
in Fig. 7G. on account of the screws for the straps not being 
long enough. On the other hand, the piece A could not be 



Fiff. SO. Drill Jig shown in Fig. 78 used for Drilling Friction Sleeve. 

placed on the side shown in Fig. 77. because the long bolt and 
strap used for clamping on this side would interfere with 
the work. 

It may appear to be faulty design that three straps are 
used to fasten the piece A in place, and only one is employed 
for holding piece B. This difference in clamping arrange- 
ment, however, is due to thQ different number and the differ- 
ent sizes of holes to be drilled in the different pieces. The 
holes in the piece A are larger and the number of 'holes is 
greater, and a heavier clamping arrangement is, therefore, 
required, inasmuch as the thrust on the former Is correspond- 
ingly greater, the multiple spindle drill being used for drill- 
ing the holes. If each hole were drilled and reamed individu- 
ally, the design of the jig could have been comparatively 

In the design shown, the locating of each piece individu- 
ally in any but the right w-ay Is also taken care of. The 
piece A. which is shown in place in the jig Fig. 76, could not 
be swung around into another position, because the strap and 
screw at E would interfere. For the same reason the cover 
or guard B could not be located except in the right way. As 
shown in Fig. 77, the strap and screw would have to be de- 
tached from the jig in order to get the cover In place, if it 
were turned around. The locating pins for the work pass 
clear through the body of the jig, and are used for locating 
both pieces. The pieces are located diagonally in the jig, 
because, by doing so, it is possible to make the outside 
dimensions of the jig smaller. In this particular case the 
parts are located on the machine to which they belong, in 
a diagonal direction, so that the additional advantage is 
gained of being able to use the same dimensions for locating 
the jig holes as are used on the drawing for the machine de- 
tails themselves. This tends to eliminate mistakes in making 
the jigs as well. 

Sometimes, when more or less complicated mechanisms are 
composed of several parts fitted together and working in 
relation to each other, as, for instance, friction clutches. 
one jig may be made to serve for drilling all the individual 
parts, by the addition of a few extra parts applied to the jig 
when different details of the work are being drilled. In 
Figs. 78, 79, and 80, such a case is illustrated. The pieces 
A. B, and C. in Fig. 78, are component parts of a friction 
clutch, and the jig in which these parts are being drilled, is 
shown in the same figure, to the left. Suppose now that we 
wish to drill the friction expansion ring A. The jig is 
bored out to fit the ring befo're it is split, and when it is only 

rough-turned, leaving a certain number of thousandths of an 
inch for finishing. The piece is located, as shown in Fig. 79, 
against the steel block D entering into the groove in the 
ring, and is then held by three hook-bolts, which simply 
are swung around when the ring is inserted or removed. 
The hook-bolts are tightened by nuts on the back side of the 
jig. Three holes marked !•: in Fig. 79, are drilled simultane- 
ously in the multiple spindle drill, and the fourth hole F 
(see P'ig. 78), is drilled by turning the jig on the side. The 
steel block D, Fig. 79, is hardened, and has a hole to guide 
the drill when passing through into the other side of the slot 
in the ring. The block is held in place by two screws and 
two dowel pins. 

AVhen drilling the holes in the lugs in the friction sleeve B, 
Fig. 78, the block D and the hook-bolts are removed. It may 
be mentioned here, although it is a small matter, that, these 
parts should be tied together when removed, and there should 
be a specified place where all the parts belonging to a par- 
ticular jig should be kept when not in use. The friction 
sleeve B fits over the collar O, Fig. 80. This collar is an 
extra piece, belonging to the jig, and used only when drilling 
the friction sleeve; it should be marked with instructions for 
what purpose it is used. The collar O fits over the projecting 
finished part H in the center of the jig, and is located in its 
right position by the keyways shown. The keyway in the 
friction sleeve B. which must .be cut before the piece can be 
drilled, and placed in the right relation to the projecting 
lugs, locates the sleeve on the collar G, which is provided 
with a corresponding keyway. A flange on the collar G, as 
shown more plainly at L in Fig. 80, locates the friction sleeve 
at the right distance from the bottom of the jig, so that the 
boles will have a proper location sidew-ays. Two collars, G 
and L. are used for the same piece B, this being necessary 
because the holes M and M in the projecting lugs shown in 
P"'ig. 78 are placed in the same relation to the sides of the 
friction sleeve. The collars are marked to avoid mistakes, 
and corresponding marks on the jig provided so as to assure 
proper location. The friction sleeve is clamped in place by a 
strap which in this case does not form an integral part of 
the jig. This arrangement, however, is cheaper than it would 
have been to carry up two small projections on two sides of 
the jig, and employ a swinging leaf and an eye-bolt, or some 

Fig. 81. DHU Jig for Holes in Rim of Hand-wheel. 

arrangement of this kind. Besides, the strap is rather large, 
and could not easily get lost. The jig necessarily has a num- 
ber of loose parts, on account of being designed to accomodate 
different details of the friction clutch. 

The friction disks C. in Fig. 78, when drilled, fit directly 
over the projecting finished part H of the jig, and are located 
on this projection by a square key. The work is brought up 
against the bottom of the jig and held in this position by 
the same strap as is used in Fig. 80 for holding the friction 
sleeve. The bushings of different sizes, shown in Fig. 80, 
are used for drilling the different sized holes in the different 

In all the various types of drill jigs described above, the 
thrust of the cutting tools are taken by the clamping ar- 

October, 1908. 



rangement. In many caBes, however, no actual clamping ar- 
rangements are used, but the work Itself takes the thrust 
of the cutting tools, and one depends entirely upon the lo- 
cating means to hold the piece or jig in the right position 
when perlorming the drilling operation. It may be well to 
add that large bushings ought to be marked with the size 
and kind of cutting tool for which tliey are intended; and the 
corresponding place in the jig body where they are to be used 
should be marked so that the right bushing can easily be 
placed in the right position. 

Fig. 82. MisceUaneous Examples of Open DriU Ji£rs. 

A few more examples of open drill jig designs of various 
types may prove instructive. In Fig 81 are shown two views 
of a jig for drilling two holes through the rim of a hand- 
wheel. To the left is shown the jig itself and to the right the 
jig with the hand-wheel mounted in place, ready for drilling. 
As shown, the hand-wheel is located on a stud through its 
bore, and clamped to the jig by passing a bolt through the 
stud, this bolt being provided with a split washer on the 
end. The split washer perbiits the easy removal of the 
hand-wheel when drilled, and the putting In place of another 
hand-wheel without loss of time. The hand-wheel is located 
by two set-screws B passing through two lugs projecting on 
each side of a spoke in the hand-wheel, the set-screws B 
holding the hand-wheel in position while being drilled by 
clamping against the sides of the spoke. The jig is fastened 
on the edge of the drill press table, in a manner similar to 
that indicated in the half-tone, so that the table does not 
interfere with the wheel. The vertical hole, with the drill 
guided by bushing G, is now drilled In all the hand-wheels, 
this hole being drilled into a lug in the spoke held by the two 
set-screws B. When this hole is drilled, the jig is moved over 
to a horizontal drilling machine, and the hole D is drilled in 
all the hand-wheels, clamping the jig to the table of the ma- 
chine in a similar manner as on the drill press. 

In Pig. 82, at A, an open drill jig of a type similar to those 
shown in Figs. 73 and 75, is shown. This jig, however, is 
provided with a V-block locating arrangement. An objection- 
able feature of this jig is that the one clamping strap is 
placed in the center of the piece to be drilled. Should this 
piece be slender, it may cause it to bend, as there is no 
bearing surface under the work at the place where the clamp 
is located, for taking the thrust of the clamping pressure. 

At B and C in the same engraving are shown the front and 
back view of a drill jig, where the front side B is used for 
drilling a small piece located and held in the jig as 
usual; and the back side C, which is not provided with feet. 

is located and applied directly on the work itself In the place 
where the loose piece Is to be fastened, the work In this 
case being so large that it supports the jig. instead of the Jig 
supporting the work. 

At D in the same engraving is shown a Jig for locating 
work by means of a tongue A'. This tongue fits Into a corre- 
sponding slot in the work. This tneans for locating the work 
was referred to more completely in connection with locating 
devices. Finally, at F, Is shown a jig where the work Is lo- 
cated by a slot G In the jig body, into which a corresponding 
tongue In the work fits. 

It has not been possible to show actual designs of more than 
a few types of open drill jigs, the design, of course, varying 
according to the work to be drilled. The examples shown, 
however, will Indicate the most common constructions, and 
exhibit plainly the application of the general principles laid 
down for jig design in the previous Installments of this 


* • • 

The accompanying half-tones illustrate a profiling machine 
of the horizontal type, which, while on the one hand being 
provided with a guiding pin resting on a former, as in ordi- 
nary profiling machines, also combines this guiding arrange- 
ment with the feature of having a positive rotary as well as 
linear movement of .the work-carrying slide. This permits 
work of any shape being profiled, either circular or nearly 
circular, or such having a long, narrow oblong outline. In the 
latter case, if the machine were not provided with a combina- 
tion movement of the kind referred to, it would require that 
the cutter head would rise and fall through a considerable 
distance. With this combination movement, however, supnle- 

Fig. 1. Automatic Profiling Machine buUt by Messrs. J. Parkinson 
&, Son, Shipley, England. 

menting the movement caused by the guide pin on the former, 
any shape can be profiled with but a very slight movement of 
the cutter head. 

The machine is built by Messrs. J. Parkinson & Son, Ship- 
ley, England, and w-as originally designed for milling the out- 
line of bicycle cranks and the connecting-rods for small com- 
bustion engines. In the accompanying half-tone. Fig. 4, a 
bicycle crank is shown fastened to the work-carrying slide. 
The main features of the machine may be stated in a summary 
manner as follows: The rate of feed is the same on both the 
rotary and linear movements, so that the rate of output is 



October, 1908. 

governed only by the strength of the cutter and the quality 
•of finish required. It profiles automatically right around the 
article to be machined cither once or as many times as de- 
Fired; It required, the machine can be set to trip automatically 
on the conclusion of a portion of a revolution. The alteration 
for different lengths of linear motion In proportion to rotary 
motion is made simply by replacing a single pin, while the 

The work head is driven from a cone pulley on the baclc of 
the machine, which can be connected to or disconnected from 
the driving mechanism of the head by a clutch. There are 
two worm-wheels in the head, one at the front and one at the 
back. These two worm-wheels are driven at exactly the same 
speed, but the front worm-wheel is only driven intermittently. 
The front worm-wheel carries the .guides in which works the 
slide for the linear motion, as shown in the lialf-tones. Figs. 
3 and 4. In this slide are fixed two compound racks placed 
face to face. The racks are made compound in order to be 
able to compensate for wear and eliminate back-lash. Be- 
tween the two racks a pinion is placed which is driven direct- 
ly through a shaft from the back worm-wheel. The pinion 
is so placed that when in mesh with one rack it just clears 
the other, as plainly shown in Fig. 3. This arrangement, of 
course, throws the axis of the two worm-wheels eccentric 
with each other to an extent equal to the addendum of the 
rack teeth. In order to understand the action of the machine 
it should first be kept in mind that the back worm-wheel and 
therefore the pinion meshing with the rack, are always revolv- 
ing at a constant speed. 

Now, suppose that the front worm-wheel is stationary. The 
small pinion which rotates with the back worm-wheel will 
drive the rack with which it is in mesh. When the slide thus 
driven reaches the desired position in its travel, the screw 
at the end of the slide comes In contact with a lever by means 
of which the front worm-wheel is engaged and commences to 
rotate. This is done either by allowing a friction gear to 
start driving the worm or by allowing a positive clutch to 
come into action. Both worm-wheels are now revolving in 

Fig. 2. Rear View of the Automatic Profiling Machine. 

turning of a tumbler lever converts the action of the machine 
to a purely rotary one. There is but one trip movement for 
the double change from rotary to linear motion and back from 
linear to rotary motion. 

The general appearance of the machine is shown in Figs. 1 
and 2, the former showing a front view and the latter a back 
view of the machine. It is driven by a single belt from the 
■counter-shaft, both the cutter spindle and the work-holding 
Tiead receiving its motion from this pulley. The spindle is 


Fig. 3. View of the Worlc Head showing the Slide for Linear Motion. 

carried by a swlveling bracket as shown, and driven by a pair 
of spiral gears. The cutter can be lifted clear of the work by 
means of a hand lever indicated at the front of the machine. 
The former-pin or runner is carried by the same bracket as 
the cutter spindle, and the latter's path is made to conform 
to the path of the former-pin by means of a pantograph link 
thereby transferring the shape of the former geometrically to 
the work to be machined. 

Fig. 4. Bicycle Cranit fastened to the Work-carrying Slide. 

unison, and therefore the linear movement of the racks and 
the slide ceases; but inasmuch as the axis of the front worm- 
wheel is eccentric with that of the pinion, the rack that was 
In mesh with the pinion Is gradually withdrawn, and the other 
racK is brought in mesh until at the end of half a revolution 
the pinion is in full mesh with the second rack and the front 
worm-wheel is brought to a stand-still automatically on ac- 
count of releasing the pressure on the lever by the screw in 
the end of the slide. 

Immediately when the front worm-wheel ceases to rotate, 
the slide is once more driven in a linear direction by the pin- 
ion, but the motion of the slide is in the opposite direction In 
relation to its guides on the worm-wheel. This cycle can be 
repeated any number of times. When a different length of 
linear motion is required a longer or shorter screw is placed 
in the end of the slide to act on the stop. When a purely 
rotary movement is required the stop Is permanently removed 
from the front worm-wheel. 

» * * 

A creosoted wood conduit was recently removed from Sixth 
Avenue, New York City, and was found to be in excellent 
condition after 21 years' use. This conduit, which is the 
product of the Wyckoff Creosoting Co., was placed in 1887, 
and had to be removed this year in the excavation for the 
Hudson River Tunnels. It is in as good shape as when laid, 
and is being stored for possible future use. 

October, 1908. 




Most of U8 have had to tighten up wing nuts by hand, 
which, of course, is wliat they are Intended for, but some- 
times it Is convenient to be able to apply some tool for the 
tightening up of tliose nuts. For such a purpose the simple 
little tool illustrated in the accompanying line engraving. 

cracking iliiring the drying proceaseB are largely eliminated. 
The same advantages In this respect as are manifest In 
inserted teeth milling cutters would be gained In this •Inserted 
teeth" emery wheel. 

A Wrench for Tightening Wing Nuts. 

taken from the Horseless Age. will be found convenient. The 
•wrench is made of flat stock about 3/16 inch thick. Tlie 
handle .1 is made in various sizes, according to the size of 
the wing nut, five times the distance across the wings of the 
n\it being the usual practice. Two slots B are cut at right 
angles to each other in the circular part of the wrench, as 
shown. At their intersection the central opening is enlarged, 
so as to permit the screw on which the wing nut turns to enter. 

The accompanying illustration, reproduced from The 
Mechanical Engineer. .Tuly 17, 190S, shows a type of emery 
wheel which is claimed to be a decided improvement on the 
ordinary type of cup wheel made in a continuous ring. The 
advantages depend, it is claimed, on the fact that the spaces 
between the teeth, or blocks, of the emery wheel permit the 
air to freely play around them, thereby keeping them cool, 
and giving the dust created by the grinding an opportunity 
to more easily escape. The teeth are, in reality, loose sections 

New Type of Emery "Wheel which, it is claimed, is Superior 
to the Ordinary Cup Wheel. 

or segments, held in a special chuck. Each segment is secured 
thoroughly by a set-screw which is tapped through the enclos- 
ing casing, the screws acting on special clamping plates, 
forcing the segraents down into the opening provided for 
them, thereby wedging them in place. This type of emery 
wheel has been patented by Messrs. Luke & Spenser, Ltd., 
Eroadheath, England. 

It is difficult to say, off-hand, to what extent a wheel made 
up in this manner will prove practical. It seems that there 
are some very strong points in its favor. While it may seem 
at first sight as if a wheel of this type would be more expen- 
sive to make than the ordinary cup wheel, that factor is 
likely to be offset by the fact that the "teeth" of the wheel 
shown are very simple parts to make, and the great loss 
incidental to emery-wheel manufacture due to breakage and 

The transportation problem within the city llmiu has lately 
(ommanded a great deal of attention in Berlin, Germany, on 
account of the rapid extension of the city. The city Is already 
provided with subway and elevated railroads, running from 
east to west, but has not adequate rapid transit facilities 
from north to south. It has been concluded that the expendi- 
ture incident to a subway would not be warranted by the 
trafBc, and It was necessary to decide upon some kind of au 
elevated structure. It was considered, however, that the ordi- 
nary elevated railroad structure, as found in American cities, 
shut out too much light from the street below, and the type 
of suspended railroad, as indicated by the accompanying line- 
engraving, is projected. The dotted lines indicate one-half of 
the steel structure, which consists simply of a single column, 
or pedestal, in the center of the street, being provided at the 
top with the necessary structure for carrying one rail on each 
side. As shown in the illustration, but one rail is necessary 

Machinery.X. T. [ 
End Elevation of Car resting upon the Single Rail upon which It Travels. 

for the traffic in each direction, the car being suspended be- 
low the rail by substantial hangers, and the center of gravity 
of the car being exactly below the center of the rail. In 
curves, the car will swing inward or outward, according to the 
direction of curvature, and the unpleasant sensation to pas- 
sengers commonly experienced on curves is avoided. The sys- 
tem permits not only much sharper curves than are per- 
missible in ordinary railroad construction to be used, but 
there is less need of slower speed around the curves, the 
average speed being twenty miles an hour. In order to make 
the objection to the elevated structure as slight as possible, an 
ornamental design has been adopted, and the rails are located 
34 feet above the level of the street. 

* * * 
It is announced in Figaro that work has begun on the con- 
struction of a central station of wireless telegraphy in Paris 
to be used in connection with the Eiffel tower. The station 
itself, which will be provided with receiving and transmitting 
apparatus of exceptional power, is placed under ground, and 
is joined by wires with the extreme top of the tower. It is 
claimed that there are good reasons for believing that with 
a similar station erected in New York, direct communication 
between New York and Paris would be possible. Lee DeForest 
has announced that such a station will be established in the 
tower of the Metropolitan Life building and that he hopes to 
establish telephonic as well as telegraphic communication 
across the Atlantic. 



October, 1908. 

Copyright, 1908, by THB INDUBTBLAI. PRESS. 

Entarad >t th« Foat-Offloe in Naw York City at BMond-Claai Hail Hatter. 








Alexander Lucbars, President iind Treasurer. 

Manhow J. O'NolU, Secretary. 

Fred E. Rogers, Editor. 

Ralph E. Flanders, Erik Ober(r. Franklin D. Jones, Associate Editors. 

The receipt of a subscription is acknowledged by sending tbe current issue. 
Checks and money orders should be made to THE INDUSTRIAL PRESS. 
Honey enclosed in letters is at the risk of the sender. Changes of 
address must reach us by the 15th to take effect on the following month; 
^ve old address as well as new. Single copies can be obtained through any 

We solicit communications from practical men on subjects pertaining to 
machinery, for which the necessary illustrations will be made at our expense. 
All copy must reach us by the 5th of the month preceding publication, 

OCTOBER, 1908, 


MACHINERY Is published In four editions. The practical work of the shop 
is thoroug-hly covered in the Shop Edition— $1.00 a year, comprising more then 
430 reading pages and 36 Shop Operation Sheets, containing step-by-step illus- 
trated directions for performing 36 different shop operations. The Engineering 
Edition — $2. CO a year, coated paper $2. 50— contains all the matter in the Shop 
Edition, Including Shop Operation Sheets, and about 250 pages a year of ad- 
ditional matter, which Includes a review of mechanical literature, and forty- 
eight 6x9 data sheets filled with condensed data on machine design, engin- 
eering practice and shop w^ork. The Foreign Edition, $3.00 a year, comprises 
the same matter as the Engineering. RAILWAY MACHINERY, $2. GO a year, is a 
special edition, Including a variety of matter for railway shop work— same size 
as Engineering and same nunaber of data sheets. 


The cooperative educational plan instituted in Cincinnati 
by which students in the Cincinnati University are enabled 
to obtain practical knowledge of machine construction and 
mechanical work in the Cincinnati shops has attracted much 
favorable attention. Analogous to this plan is a new move- 
ment in industrial education just put into effect in Fitchburg, 
Mass. This, we believe, is one of the most practical plans 
of industrial education ever formulated, and an account of it 
will be found on another page of this issue. Briefly, the 
plan is to educate young men in the machine-shop art and in 
the high school, simultaneously. The students taking the 
cooperative course are arranged in pairs, one student spending 
one week in the high school while his partner works in the 
shop. The next week the position is reversed, and so on. The 
lads taken into this course must have previously spent one year 
in high school, and they are required to take a three-year 
apprenticeship course in mechanical work, so that a four- 
year high school course and the machine shop apprenticeship 
are finished the same year. 

The general result of such an educational system should 
be highly satisfactory, both as regards the manufacturers 
and the boys. It is common experience that the most ac- 
tive mental state exists with a moderate degree of physical 
exercise, so that students attending high school one week 
and working in the shop the next should be in the fittest con- 
dition for acquiring the elements of a trade and appreciating 
the value of an academic education. The condition of such a 
boy upon graduation is advantageous. He is not necessarily 
committed to being a machinist all his life, but is as free to en- 
ter any other vocation as are his mates who have only the ad- 
vantage of an academic education. The fact that he is the mas- 
ter of a trade will be a very valuable help to him, however, 
even if his ambition lies in the direction of higher education 
and a profession. A poor boy can earn his way in a more dig- 
nified and agreeable manner than the majority of poor stu- 
dents, who generally have to resort to all sorts of menial 
occupations to get along. It the cooperative student chooses 
to become a machinist, his general education and special me- 
chanical instruction should fit him to fill, ultimately, the high- 
est positions in the manufacturing world. 

.An Interesting point in patent law was recently passed on 
by the Circuit Court of the United States in the Eastern Dis- 
trict of Pennsylvania, in a suit to enjoin the further use of 
patented machines that had been sold for scrap. The court 
enjoined the use by a manufacturing concern of two crank- 
shaft lathes sold by the complainant company to a junk man. 
The machines, which were nearly complete in all essential 
details, were bought, repaired, and put in use by a competitor. 
The judge of the circuit court in granting the injunction re- 
straining the use of the machines by the defendant company, 
held that while the purchaser of a patented article from one 
who is authorized to sell, becomes possessor of an absolute 
property right in it (Keeler vs. Standard Folding Bed Co., 
157 U. S. 689) which he is capable of also transmitting to 
others, in this case the right of use did not follow the sale, 
inasmuch as the complainant company sold the machine as 
scrap. "A sale as scrap was a sale not to use, but to destroy; 
and cannot be wrested into a sale of the patented machines 
because the different parts could be picked up and put together 
again. (Wortendyke vs. White, 2 Ban. & Ard. 25; Cotton Tie 
Co. vs. Simmons. 106 U. S. 89)." It was also alleged by the 
complainant company that the machines were fraudulently 
disposed of by a foreman who now is an officer of the defen- 
dant company. 

The principal enunciated in the judge's decision is impor- 
tant to users of second-hand patented machinery and appa- 
ratus of whatever description, especially if the route by which 
they came into the users factory is obscure. It seems doubt- 
ful that the decision is entirely sound, as such a ruling might 
easily be made to impose unwarranted hardship on innocent 
purchasers. If there were no other remedy for the unlawful 
use of discarded patented machines, there would be good 
reason for the injunction, but any concern about to dispose 
of machinery for scrap can separate the parts and break them 
up so that reconstruction is impossible. The sale of a machine 
in workable or nearly workable condition, and without de- 
stroying the possibility of use, appears to us to carry with it 
an implied right to make further use thereof for its original 
purpose. The decision referred to, if sustained, might have 
unexpected results. For example, it might cause serious inter- 
ference with the sale of second-hand patented steam boilers, 
if the manufacturers were disposed to place an embargo on 
their further use. Steam boilers are commonly disposed of 
by power companies and others to junk dealers, when they 
have outlived their usefulness for high-pressure work. The 
junk men sometimes sell them to persons who want low-press- 
ure boilers for steam heating and other work not so severe 
as power generation, and it seems unreasonable that such a 
boiler, sold without breaking up, should not be used by the 
purchaser for the designed purpose. The fact that it was sold 
to the junk dealer ostensibly as scrap should not entail the 
destruction of the boiler unless a specific agreement was made 
to that effect. The second-hand value of a boiler having a 
possible further use is greater, of course, than if it were sold 
to be converted into scrap; but if the fact that the construction 
happens to include some patented feature can be used to 
prevent further use beyond the original buyer, an injustice 
would undoubtedly be worked on unsuspecting purchasers. 

The case in point is considerably complicated by the alle- 
gation that an employe of the complainant company disposed 
of the machines fraudulently, having sold them among other 
scrap when the officials of the company had no intention of 
disposing of the machines, which it is alleged had simply been 
removed from the machine-shop while awaiting repairs and 
further use. It is not clear from the text of the decision 
whether the judge took particular cognizance of this fact in 
granting the injunction, or whether he based his opinion 
entirely on the fact that the machines were sold for scrap and 
that such sale did not carry with it the right of use for their 
original purpose. A fraudulent sale, of course, would not 
carry with it the right of use of a patented article, or any 
other right or title; but as the complainant company was 
unable to establish a fraudulent sale, it appears that the 
court's decision was based simply on the assumption that a 
sale for scrap is not a sale for use, and that the user may 
be enjoined from such use. 

October, 1908. 




Some tiiiK' ago we published an editorial ou "Keeping 
Tilings Seven Years," In which was questioned the advisa- 
bility of storing away for future use odds and ends left around 
the shop. There are two departments in tlie shop, however, 
where almost everything pertaining to the work should be 
kept, even wlien it apparently lias passed its time of use- 
fulness. Tlii'se departments are the general odiie and the 
drafting-room. IJttle need be said about preserving the 
records in the office. Those pertaining to the mercantile end 
of the business are, of course, carefully preserved; but in 
the drafting-room, the practice is not always well defined. 
Regular drawings, it is true, are filed away, but a con- 
siderable part of the w-ork in the average drafting-i'oom con- 
sists in making small sketches, often in a hurry, for some 
special work in the shop. Often these are made simply in 
pencil and are not traced or blue-printed, the sketch itself 
being sent out in the shop, so that no record is left in the 
drafting-room. Sometimes the sketch Is lost In the shop, 
the work perhaps being half completed, and under such cir- 
cumstances it is much more difficult to make" another draw- 
ing that will conform to the worlc partly done, than it was 
to make the original lay-out. The saving of time incident 
to this method of sending sketches and drawings into the 
shop is usually so small that it does not seem wortli while 
to invite all the trouble that often comes from it; and for 
this reason a record of everything in the shape of a drawing, 
sketch, order or specification which goes into the shop from 
the drafting-room, should always be kept in some form so as 
to preserve a permanent record. While it may require a few 
more hours' worlv, at times, to systematically adhere to this 
policy, in the long run it will save a great deal of trouble and 
expense. Of course, we know that in hundreds of drafting- 
rooms such a system is already in force, but we also know 
that in a great many the haphazard methods referred to are 

The faculty of memory, while one of the most wonderful 
qualities of the human mind, is at the same time one of the 
most uncertain, and it often fails at the very time when its 
accurate working is of the greatest importance. For this rea- 
son anything icorth rememhering is icorth placing on record. 
The drafting-room may seem to be overcrowded with the card 
indexes, files or cabinets necessary to a scrupulous adherence 
to this principle; but there will be less time wasted searching 
for things mislaid or destroyed. Time is money. 


Machine tool designers and men engaged primarily in the 
construction of small machinery of that type, who have not 
had experience along other lines of mechanical achievement, 
are often prone to look upon calculations and formulas for 
the strength of materials and similar means for exact analy- 
ses as rather unnecessary, and of interest, not to practical 
men, but merely to the student. Engaged, as they are, in 
work where no great damage is done if a part proves too weak 
and breaks, as it can easily be repaired and replaced, the 
new part being sometimes made a little stronger or of the 
same dimensions and liable to break again under too heavy 
stresses, they do not seem to fully realize that in some kinds 
of engineering work such failures cannot be risked, for they 
may result in loss of life and property of appalling magnitude. 

If a belt from the counter-shaft to the driving pulley should 
happen to be too narrow and should break under the stress 
of a heavy cut, the mishap may be inconvenient and cause 
a little trouble, but as a rule no great damage is done; while if 
the mast on a crane intended to lift 10,000 pounds buckles and 
fails when a large casting of this weight is suspended from 
the hook, with several men on the foundry floor near by, the 
danger and the loss is too serious to be lightly considered. A 
lever on an automatic machine subject to constant vibrations 
may finally break; the breakage may cause temporary diffi- 
culty, but no great harm is done, and the damage is merely 
a small pecuniary one; but if one of the trusses on a railway 
bridge is improperly calculated and designed and gives way 

under the weight of an express train, the damage cannot be 
expressed in dollars and cents. 

Thus there Is some reason why men engaged In the design 
of small machinery should leave so much to guesswork, de- 
pending largely on "snap" Judgment, a condition which Is not 
pcrralsslblo In the design of machinery subjected to stresBes 
where failure means considerable ilamage, This element of 
chance and guesswork plays an Important pari in the design 
of machine tools, too Important, in fact, for the continued pres- 
tige of designers. There are many things that could be calcu- 
lated to a certainty, even on machine tools, which are propor- 
tioned merely on the designer's Judgment, and the outcome Is 
left to chance in many cases where It Is unnecessary. The 
judgment of a machine tool designer, of course, is one of his 
greatest assets, but he should not despise the manner In which 
the designer of other classes of machinery works, where It 
is necessary to determine exactly the dimensions and the con- 
ditions of the design. He should learn rather to adapt himself 
to methods of exact analysis when and where the conditions 
demand it. The combination of the qualities of instinctive 
machine design and design by mathematical analysis Is most 


• • • 


The mechanical progress of the last twenty-five years has 
been marvelous. The new inventions which have been brought 
forth, and which are constantly being perfected, have placed 
the machine industry, and particularly the machine tool manu- 
facture, on an extremely high plane mechanical'.y. Our highly 
developed and firmly established shop systems, proper man- 
agement, and general all-around intelligence, have made eco- 
nomical production in the shops possible in a degree which 
was not expected even a few years ago. But, in spite* of all 
this, we have temporary depressions in the machinery trade, 
for which there seems to be no reasonable cause. The tact 
is, however, that our business men. as well as our mechanics, 
while they have developed the science of individual economics 
of the shop to a high perfection, invented and improved labor- 
saving machinery, and, in general, placed the business, indus- 
trially, on the firmest ground, have not given due attention 
to the outside influences, those influences which do not depend 
upon the individual economics of each shop, but upon the 
economical principles applied to the nation as a whole. 

It is not the office of Machinery to teach political economy, 
but inasmuch as the machine tool industry, and all other 
industries in the country, for that matter, can only secure for 
themselves a small portion of the prosperity to which they 
are actually entitled, if they are hampered by adverse con- 
ditions of economics applied to the nation, we consider it 
proper to ask our readers to give more attention to a subject 
that is fully as important to the development of the trade to 
which they have devoted themselves, as the economical and 
commercial development of the individual shops. 

There is but one legitimate cause for hard times and that is 
the failure of crops. When depressions and hard times occur 
without being provoked by this cause, the reason is an arti- 
ficial one, which can be removed if we only give due attention 
to the economic problems that cause it. Wonderful as our 
industrial progress during the past century has been, it will 
prove of little value in the end, if the manufacturer as well 
as the mechanic do not find it easier to secure, on the one 
hand, a fair profit, or. on the other, continuous employ- 
ment at fair wages. It is time that the men employed in 
industries which depend so largely on the solution of some 
of our economic problems, should no longer Ignore giving 
attention to so important a subject. 

Inventions alone are not the only thing necessary to the 
prosperity of the machine industry. It is equally important 
that each man, whether he be a manufacturer or an employe, 
receives a fair equivalent for his exertions, and that he 
should not need to fear depressions caused simply by arti- 
ficial economic conditions. If the business men and the 
mechanics of this country would give more attention to eco- 
nomic conditicns and problems of this character, they could 
better safeguard themselves against such difficulties. 



As the result of tlie agitation which has been In progress 
for many years, the technical schools and universities of 
Prussia have, by a recent tiecree, been opened to women. Sucli 
privileges had already been granted in some of the smaller 

The experiments on the elevated railway lines in Chicago to 
eliminate noise by the use of a gravel roadbed on the struc- 
ture, has recently been abandoned, as the gravel not only 
failed to reduce the noise, but held water, with Injurious 
effects to the structure. 

The best preventative for spontaneous ignition of coal, says 
Compressed Air, is a small cylinder containing compressed 
carbon dioxide, filted with a fuse plug melting at 200 degrees 
F. A cylinder one foot long and 3 inches in diameter is 
sufficient to take care of 8 tons of coal. 

Two motor shows are to be held in France the latter part 
of this year, one being for private and the other for commer- 
cial vehicles. Both exhibits will take place in the Grand 
Palais. The show for pleasure cars will be open from Novem- 
ber 28 to December 13, and that for commercial motors from 
December 22 to 29. 

The importance of cement in engineering work is indicated 
by a contract recently made by the United States Government 
with the Atlas Portland Cement Co. for the Panama Canal. 
The c()ntract is for 4,500,000 barrels of Portland cement at a 
cost of $.5,500,000. This, it is said, is the largest single con- 
tract ever given out in the Portland cement business. The 
contract calls for a minimum shipment of 2,000 barrels a day 
and a maximum of 10,000. The present productive capacity 
of the company is 40,000 barrels per day. 

The Pennsylvania Railroad forestry department has just 
coinpleled its forestry planting for this year. It is stated by 
Railroad Men that 625,000 trees were planted. This makes a 
total of 2,425,000 trees set out by the Pennsylvania Railroad 
up to the present time. The object is to create an adequate 
supply of timber for ties reciuired in years to come. The 
Pennsylvania Railroad evidently is taking active steps in 
regard to the preservation of natural resources. The true way 
of preserving our forests is not necessarily not to use them, 
but to replant them. 

Cotton gins, printing, spinning, weaving machines, and 
scientific instruments are being exported from Japan to China, 
India and the United States. The exports of machinery for 
1907 is reported by Consul General H. B. IMiller, of Yokohama, 
to have increased 61 per cent, and there is an increase over 
the average for five years of 250 per cent. Thus far the ex- 
ported machines have been mostly copies of foreign models, 
but the makers of viojins at Nagoya have invented labor- 
saving appliances, and the tea-firing machinery used in Japan 
is chiefly of native invention. 

The twelve new torpedo boats under construction for the 
German Navy are to be driven by steam turbines. According 
to Engineering, it is planned to try four different types of 
turbines. The three boats which the Vulcan yards near Stet- 
tin are constructing are to be equipped with turbines of the 
Curtis type. The four boats which the Schichau yards of 
Elbing and Danzig have undertaken to build, will have Melms 
and Pfenninger turbines. Of the five torpedo boats under 
construction at the Germania yards at Kiel, four are equipped 
with Parsons, and one with Zoelly turbines. 

A union railway station is now in the course of construe 
tion at Leipzig. Germany, which will be one of the largest in 
the world. The five terminal stations which are in Leipzig 

at the present time, will all be removed upon the completion 
of the new terminal. This latter is to have 26 parallel tracks 
which will accommodate the trains of 13 different lines, and 
between each pair of tracks is to be a walk 40 feet wide, so 
that the total width of the train shed will be nearly 1,000 
feet. The main facade of the building will be 1,115 feet wide, 
or over 350 feet greater than the facade of the new Union 
Terminal at Washington, D. C, which is at present the larg- 
est in this country. 

The Cunard steamer Lusitania broke all records on her 
western trip ending August 21. She crossed the Atlantic in 
4 days and 15 hours, the total distance traversed being 2,780 
knots. The best day's run was 650 knots. The best hourly 
speed was 25.66 knots and the average for the trip was 25.05 
knots. This trip demonstrates the ability of the vessel to 
make the average speed required by the terms of the subven- 
tion allowed by the British Government, it being required by 
the terms that the vessel make one trip at the rate of 25 

Wliile the discussion of the recent disaster of the collapse 
of the Quebec bridge is still occupying the engineering pro- 
fession, reports of a similar accident come from Germany. 
On July 9 a bridge under construction over the Rhine, at 
Cologne, fell, and at least fourteen of the men engaged on 
the bridge work lost their lives, and nine men were taken 
from the water severely injured. The traveler used in erect- 
ing the central span collapsed, and carried with it all of the 
steel work. While not as disastrous an occurrence in regard 
to the loss of life as the Quebec bridge collapse, it was perhaps, 
merely by chance that no rnore men were, at the time, en- 
gaged on the work on the bridge, and the occurrence of two 
accidents of so similar a character, one in America and one 
in Europe, indicates that the engineer has still a great deal 
to learn and that, particularly in structural work, too great 
pains can never be taken by those in charge of design or 

In an editorial in Engineering News attention is called to 
the practice of sending catalogues to prospective customers 
without price lists, even though a price list may have been 
specifically requested. The idea is that the customer should 
state in detail the particular machines he is interested in, 
and prices will be furnished him for these only. Sometimes, 
however, the lack of definite information given to the cus- 
tomer is the cause of loss of big contracts. In the present 
case, a firm in Chile had requested manufacturers of mining 
and smelting machinery to furnish catalogues and prices. 
Many American manufacturers furnished catalogues, but did 
not attach price lists, whereas all the European manufacturers 
gave definite prices and terms. As correspondence between 
Chile and the United States requires some six weeks or two 
months in each direction, and delay was not permissible in 
this case, the result was that an order for ?75,000 worth of 
machinery was cabled to Europe and lost by the American 

The original supply of coal in the state of Pennsylvania 
is estimated by Mr. M. R. Campbell, of the United States 
Geological Survey, to amount to 21.000,000,000 short tons 
in the anthracite fields, and 112,574,000 000 short tons in the 
bituminous fields. It is interesting to note the statement 
that by the methods of mining anthracite coal in former 
years, for every ton of coal mined and marketed one and one- 
half ton were either wasted or left in the ground as pillars 
for the protection of the workers, so that the actual yield 
was only about 40 per cent. This percentage of waste has 
been greatly reduced in later years. Of the original available 
supply, as mentioned above, it is estimated that there is 
IT.dOO.OOO.OnO tons of anthracite coal left, of which one 
ton can be mined for each ton lost. This would indicate that 
the Peunsylvania fields can still yield 100 times the quantity 

October, 1908. 



of autliraiili- pro(lu(<'(l iu 1907. Tlie supply of bituminoiiR 
coal at the rate ot production in 1907 would not be exhaused 
for nearly 500 years. 

Economy in the use of material is the first law in manu 
facturing, but there are certain economies that may be obvi- 
ous when once known, but which have developed slowly and 
have to be seen to be appreciated. In the manufacture of 
twist drills it formerly was the practice to cut bar stock for 
drills into short lengths about six feet long. It finally was 
realized that "every bar has two ends," and that the propor- 
tion of waste with the six-foot bars was more than with the 
12- to 14-foot bars. The Standard Tool Co., Cleveland. O., no 
longer cuts its stock into lengths as short as 12 or 14 feet 
even, but stores them in mill lengths of 24 to 28 feet, thus 
reducing the waste due to croppage to a minimum. The 
stock is stored on end in a concrete storage warehouse spe- 
cially constructed for convenience in unloading from cars ami 
supplying the needs of the factory. Tlie stock is leaned against 
the side walls and a central rack. Each stock has its own 
stall, the sizes running from % inch up. Of course, the 
small sizes come in shorter mill lengths, it not being feasible 
to handle or store these in lengths of 2-1 feet or more. Thf 
central rack in this storehouse has three arc lights overhead 
for illuminating the stock at night or during the dark days in 
winter. The storehouse is warmed by five hot-air discharge 
flues distributed in the warehouse so as to keep the steel at 
a comfortable temperature to handle, no matter what the out- 
side weather may be. 


Leon Delagrange, president of the Aviation Club of France, 
established a new world's record with his aeroplane at Issy, 
near Paris, September G. His machine remained in the air 
29 minutes, 54 4/5 seconds, and circled the field 15 1/2 times, 
covering a distance of about 15 1/4 miles. On the following 
day Delagrange remained in the air 31 minutes, but was 
penalized three minutes because his machine touched the 
earth while making the first round of the field. On September 
5 Wilbur Wright made a flight with his aeroplane at Le Mans. 
France, of 19 minutes 48 2/5 seconds and traveled between 
14 1/3 and 15 miles. Following is a partial record of the 
progress of the heavier-than-air flying machines during the 
past year, taken from the New York Times: 

Oct. 15, 1907 — Henry Farman traveled 285 meters near 

Jan. 13, 1908 — Farman won the Deutsche Archdeacon Prize 
by sailing a kilometer in a circle near Paris. 

March 20 — Farman flew his aeroplane ly^ miles near Paris. 

May 13 — The Wrights flew 3 miles in 3 minutes near Paris. 

May IS — Baldwin's aeroplane White Wings made a short 
flight near Hammondsport, and five days later traveled 183 
yards and then upset. 

May 27 — Delagranges aeroplane flew 6 miles before the 
King of Italy at Milan, and next day made a record flight of 
10 miles. 

June 29 — Bieriot's monoplane won the Aero Club's medal 
by flying 100 yards. 

July 4 — Curtiss's aeroplane the June Bug flew one mile, 
and won the Scientific American Cup. 

July 7 — Farman won Armongaud's $2,000 prize by remain- 
ing twenty minutes and twenty seconds in the air. 

Aug. 2. — Farman, at the Brighton Beach track, went 700 
yards in forty seconds. 

Sept. 2 — Two Cornell instructors covered three miles in 
five minutes in an aeroplane of their own making. 

Sept. 3— While Orville Wright at Washington covered two- 
thirds of a mile In one minute, his brother Wilbur, at Le 
Mans, France, covered six miles in ten minutes. 

Sept. 5— At Le Mans, Wilbur Wright covered 15 miles in 
twenty minutes in his aeroplane. 

Sept. 9 — Orville Wright made two record-breaking flights 
near Washington with the machine under perfect control. 
The distance covered in the longest flight was about 40 
miles, the time being 62 minutes and 15 seconds. 

Sept. 11 — Orville Wright again breaks his record by re- 
maining in the air 70 minutes and 24 seconds. 

Mecliunival Engineer. August 14, 190«. 
Mr. Sherard Cowper-Coles of flrosvenor Mansions, 82 Vic- 
toria Street, Westminster, London, bae recently patented the 
following process for the manufacture of smokoleaB fuel. 
About one-third part by weight of wet peat and twolliirdg 
part by weight of bituminous coal In a finely divided state, 
are placed in a retort and heated to a temperature sufficiently 
high (about 850 deg. F.) to drive off those hydrocarbons that 
l)roduce smoke, the generation of the steam from the peat 
assisting in this operation. It will be understood that the 
temperature is not raised materially higher than is necessary 
to drive oft the hydrocarbons, as above stated. The heat is 
applied for about five hours. The bituminous coal binds the 
peat together to a coherent mass and forms a fuel of high 
calorific value, which is readily ignited in a grate m the ordi- 
nary Way and burns economically and without smoke. In 
practice the retort may be provided with relief valves and 
arranged so as to maintain a pressure of 10 pounds per square 
inch. The retort may also be fitted with a plunger which is 
forced to one end when the contents are in a plastic state, 
and it may be heated in any convenient way, such as by heat 
externally applied or by burning some of tlie gases generated 
after partial purification. The watery extract, containing tar 
of complex constitution, pyroligneous acid, and other pro- 
ducts derived from the carbonization of peat, in addition to 
the gases above referred to, is advantageously condensed and 
utilized for the production of a pitch of superior quality, and 
the usual condensibie products obtained from the bituminous 
coal in the retort may be collected and used for any desired 
purpose. In some cases the contents, after the above described 
process has been completed, may, either while still hot or 
after they have cooled, be discharged into a solution of cal- 
cium chloride. By this means the smokeless fuel is rendered 
slightly deliquescent and always retains a certain quantity of 
moisture. The coal or the peat, or both, may also be moistened 
with a solution of calcium chloride before being placed in the 

Engineering. August 14, 1908. 
The amount of slag produced per ton of iron from the blast- 
furnace, varies in amount from % ton to about I'i ton, 
according to the ores used; and, with the enormous output of 
pig irpn at the present time, it is not surprising that attempts 
are continually made to find some satisfactory means ot 
turning this material to account. The manufacture of con- 
crete bricks from blast-furnace slag has become a commercial 
process of some value. The material, containing as it does a 
large amount of lime and silica, is eminently suitable for 
such a purpose. The granulation of the slag is first effected 
by running it, while still in a molten condition, into water. 
After granulation, the slag is passed between squeezing-rollers 
for the purpose of removing the excess of water and crushing 
any large particles. For mixing with the slag, white unslaked 
lime has proved most satisfactory, ground to an 8,000 mesh. 
The lime should not contain more than % per cent magnesia. 
The slag and unslaked lime in proportions of 95 to 93 per 
cent slag to 5 to 7 per cent lime, are tipped into a large 
hopper and passed thence to a steam jacket mixing machine; 
the heat, together with the moisture in the slag, starting the 
reaction of the lime. It is then taken to the presses, in which 
the pressure is exerted on the 9 x 3-iiich side, thus insuring 
uniform thickness of all bricks, and from these presses the 
bricks are taken to steaming chambers. The slag must be of 
uniform grey quality, or variations in the color of the bricks 
will result. The success of the bricks depends on the care 
and uniformity with which the various operations are carried 
out. Uniformity of mixture and of pressing are most impor- 
tant. The moisture carried by the slag, when mixed with the 
unslaked lime in the mixing hopper, should not be more than 
8 to 10 per cent. The resulting bricks compare very favorably 
with red bricks, and are of a more uniform quality than 
cement bricks made of zinc slag and lime, or refuse clinker. 
They have a crushing strength of between 2,500 pounds and 
3,000 pounds per square inch, and have withstood very severe 



October, 1908. 

boiling and freezing tests. The bricks are satisfactory for 
building purposes, and masonry built with them has fire- 
resisting qualities as good as, if not superior to, that built of 
red briclv. Coloring matter can be added, if necessary, when 
mixing the lime and slag. The cost-sheet suggests that there 
may be a considerable future before this process, for the prices 
compare favorably with other bricks of equal quality. 


Frank N. Blake in tlie Horseless Age, August 2(), lilOH. 
Brazing consists in uniting metal parts by flowing melted 
brass, technically termed spleter, between them. It is prac- 
tically identical with soldering, except that spelter is substi- 
tuted for solder, and that a much greater degree of heat is 
necessary. In the greater degree of heat required to melt 
spelter lies one of the advantages which brazed work possesses 
over that which is soldered, the finished work enduring more 
heat without breaking or weakening; but the chief advantage 
lies in its superior strength at all temperatures and its appli- 
cability to a large variety of uses. Cast iron is a common 
material which is prone to break, and which can now be 
brazed. The production of the necessary heat is an important 
part of the process of brazing, and constitutes the chief diffi- 
culty and almost the only source of expense. For small work, 
a plumber's hand gasoline torch can be used in what may be 
termed an amateur sort of way, but for common use a forge, 
gasoline brazer, or a jet of gas supplemented by a blast of 
air can be satisfactorily used. The latter constitutes the 
cleanest, most convenient, and effectual brazing fire. 

A bed of coke or charcoal on a forge hearth is an excellent 
resting place for the work during the process of brazing. A 
backing of firebrick or of asbestos is of considerable assist- 
ance in confining and reflecting the heat, though, of course, 
these do not contribute to the heating process in the way that 
inflammable backings do. There is considerable opportunity 
for the display of judgment and discretion in the arrange- 
ment of the backing; aside from the saving of time and fuel 
there is, on large and difficult work, all the difference between 
success and failure in the way the heat is applied and utilized. 
Before work is assembled for brazing it should be well 
cleaned by file, scraper, scratch brush or other means; rust 
and scale do not favor the ready flowing of the fused spelter, 
though it will sometimes take hold of even such unfavorable 
surfaces. Cast iron may be cleaned by first heating to a 
bright red, and, after cooling, brushing the fracture anh adja- 
cent parts with a scratch brush. After thoroughly cleaning 
the work and securing good bright surfaces, the parts must 
be fastened together in the exact position they are to occupy 
when the job is completed. Usually the pieces are secured 
by pinning, but sometimes screws, bolts, wire, clamps of 
various sorts, and even fire-clay can be used to hold the parts 
in place. Whenever practicable, the parts should be secured 
in such a manner that the job can be turned over during the 
process of brazing, without disturbing the relation of the 
parts to each other, thus affording a better chance to apply 
the flux and spelter. 

Alcohol used in a common gasoline torch has been said to 
give a greater heat than gasoline, the reason given being that 
it requires less air, and consequently the flame is cooled less 
by it. As alcohol contains fewer heat units than gasoline, it 
would seem a less suitable fuel to use for this purpose, but 
perhaps the need of less air may explain the difference 
claimed for it. 

A simple and good formula for cast iron brazing is as 


Boric acid 16 

Chlorate of potash, pulverized 4 

Carbonate of iron 3 

Mix and keep dry, as moisture or long exposure to air 
renders it less efficient. When used, mix with grain spelter. 
Heat the work to a nice brazing heat and apply flux and 
spelter with an iron rod, flattened and spoon shaped at 
the end. 

Borax is much used for flux in brazing wrought iron and 
steel; it is not expensive, and one can be sure of getting a 

good article by buying of a reputable dealer. In any brazing, 
the work Is first brought to a bright red heat, flux is applied, 
and then mixed flux and spelter. Sometimes considerable 
"coaxing" Is required in order to make the melted metal 
flow into the joints; but with the flux applied first and 
allowed to find its way into the cracks and openings, the 
spelter will follow if carefully led and rubbed with the hot 
iron rod. After one side of the work has been brazed, it is 
turned over and the other side is treated in the same manner. 

In preparing work for brazing, too close a fit may be made, 
for the melted brass will not find its way into the most 
minute recesses. One one-thousandth of an inch is about as 
small a space as spelter will readily flow into. 

After brazing cast iron, it is a good plan to let it cool 
slowly, sudden chilling being regarded as injurious in some 
cases. Whatever process is employed it is a good rule to 
have the work bright and clean, and to use plenty of heat; 
these, together with good flux and spelter, constitute the 
essentials. Experience is always valuable, but that comes 
only with practice. 


Herbert T. Wade in the Engineering Keirs, August 13, 1908. 
One of the most important functions of the National Bureau 
of Standards at Washington, D. C, is the testing and stand- 
ardization of steel tapes of various lengths and forms, used in 
engineering work. These tests range from the minute and 
critical examination and study of the steel and invar tapes 
of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, employed in the accu- 
rate measurement i)f base-lines, to the inspection of the ordi- 
nary steel tapes of the surveyor and engineer. All of these 
tests are carried on in a specially designed laboratory, which is, 
without doubt, the best equipped for this kind of w-ork of any 
testing bureau or physical laboratory in the world. In fact, 
it can be only compared with a somewhat similar room of 
less than half the length at the International Bureau of 
Weights and Measures at Sevres, near Paris. Both of these 
laboratories are located underground, in order to secure a 
constancy of temperature, but the Washington testing room 
not only is better designed and equipped, but already its con- 
stants are known with a high degree of precision. The room 
is about 8 feet below the surface of the ground, 171 feet in 
length, and is about 8.2 feet in width and height. It is lined 
with white enamel brick, lighted by electricity, and contains 
steam and brine coils in addition to ventilation Inlets and 
outlets, so that by the aid of thermostats the temperature can 
be controlled within narrow limits. 

On one side against the wall is the United States Bench 
Standard of length, which consists of a steel bar mounted on 
rollers and supported horizontally on brackets. Opposite this 
standard is the comparator proper, used for the determination 
and standardization of steel and invar tapes for base-line 
measurement, and also for standardization of base bars of 5 
meters in length from the national prototype meter standard. 
The floor of the room is of concrete, on which is laid a track 
for the carriage containing the ice trough in which the bar, 
used as a standard, is carried when measurements and com- 
parisons are being made. There are eleven stone piers spaced 
1G.4 feet apart, and on these are mounted the micrometer- 
microscopes. Each pier is 14 X 14 inches in cross section 
and is set on a concrete base 16 inches square and 18 inches 
deep, the bases of the piers being separated from the floor by 
a space of 2 inches. This makes the piers and their founda- 
tions entirely independent of the floors or the structural walls 
of the building. At the north end of the tunnel the base of 
the terminal pier was built through a small vault to solid 
ground beneath, and is about 8 feet in height and 6 feet 
square. The piers at the ends carry not only the micrometers 
but also the marking bolts identifying the beginning and end 
of the standard distance. The tunnel thus arranged affords 
a comparator 50 meters (164 feet) in length, which is suffi- 
cient for the long tapes used in geodetic surveying. It might 
be said, in passing, that the development of the accurate use 
of tapes in the measurement of base-lines has been a striking 
feature of the work of the U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey in 
recent years, and such precision has been attained in the use 

October. 1908. 



of these tapes for ineasiirenients of base lines that they seem 
destined to supplant the more cumbersome base-burs. 

Within a few years, invar tapes, made from an alloy of 
steel and nickel, discovered by M. Ch. Kd. Ouillaunie. of the 
International Hureau of Weifihts and Measures, have been 
thoroughly tested in the field after standardization in tho 
laboratory, and the accuracy and convenience of their use 
has been clearly demonstrated. In using the comparator, the 
first step is to standardize a 5-meter steel or other bar In 
terms of the IT. S. National Prototype Standard, which is a 
meter bar of platinnm-iridium made at the International Bur- 
eau of Weights and Measures at Sevres, and like the other 
similar national standards of length of the nations of the 
world, known most accurately in terms of the International 
Prototype Meter preserved at the Bureau. To transfer the 
meter to tlie five-meter bar, there are in the third interval of 
five meters between the piers, measuring from the south end 
of the tunnel, four similar and intermediate piers spaced a 
meter apart. These piers are of similar size and construc- 
tion to the others, and on them the micrometer-microscopes 


Mfichineri/,S. F. 


Horizontal and Vertical Sections of the Tape Tesung Chamber, 

can be placed so that the meter bar passed successively over 
the intervening five meter distances will give a standard dis- 
tance of five meters with which the five-meter standard may 
be compared. The micrometer-microscopes are placed on iron 
brackets or arms which are attached tirmly but in an adjust- 
able manner to the tops of the stone piers, each of the latter 
having a hole cut through its top below the microscope arm 
so that light from an Incandescent lamp hung back of the 
pier can be used for the illumination of the microscope and 

The micrometer-microscopes used in the standardization 
work of the Bureau, have been tested for many years by the 
Division of Weights and Measures of the Bureau of Stand- 
ards and. previous to Its establishment, by the Office of Stand- 
ard Weights and Measures of the Coast Survey, so that the 
constants and operation of these instruments are known thor- 
oughly, though the usual adjustment is for one division on 
the head of the micrometer to correspond to one micron on 
the bar. The standard meter is placed In shaved Ice in a 
trough mounted on two trucks. This trough can be raised 
or lowered by simple and exact adjustments, and, in fact, the 
bar in the trough may be adjusted under the microscopes to 
a micron, or one-thousandth of a millimeter. The standard 
meter Is placed under one of the microscopes at the beginning 
or end of the five-meter Interval, and the cross hairs are set 
with great precision on the fiducial line marking the limit 
of the standard distance. Then the second microscope and 
Its cross hairs are set on the line at the opposite end of the 
bar with similar accuracy. The bar on the supporting 
carriage is then moved along between the second and third 
piers and similar adjustments are made. In this way the 
standard length of five meters is established, and the value of 
the five-meter bar which then can take the place of the stand- 
ard meter In the Ice trough. Is obtained. The value of the 
meter at the temperature of melting ice, degree Centigrade, 
Is accurately known, and this temperature figures as a stand- 
ard In all metric determinations. With a five-meter standard 
accurately determined. It Is possible to measure successively 
the ten Intervals of the 50-meter base of the tunnel, the pro- 
cess being precisely similar to that followed In getting the 
value of the five-meter bar. 

Not only must the temperature of the bars In the Ice trough 
be known and regulated, but the temperature of the tunnel 

itself and of the tapes under lest. For this purpose there 
are carried on the walls of the room 14 lines of pipe, the upper 
twelve of which are used for circulating brine cooled to a 
temperature of — 10 degrees Ccutigrade and enabling the tem- 
perature of the room to be reduced to degree Centigrade 
with facility. The two lower lines of pipe contain steam 
when desired, so that not only can the coefficients of expan- 
sion of the tapes be measured, but the temperatures of ordi- 
nary field work duplicated. This, of course, does not obviate 
the necessity of taking exact thermometer readings at each 
observation and detei-mination, and these are made as usual 
with carefully calibrated thermometers. 

The microscopes at the ends of the 50-meter comparator, to 
which reference has been made, are referred to the bronze 
bolts in the pier foundation to insure their greater stability. 
Having the distance between the two terminal microscopes 
accurately determined with the ice bar apparatus, it is only 
necessary to substitute the steel or invar tapes and to apply 
the standard tension with spring balances which previously 
have been calibrated with correct weights in another labora- 
tory of the Bureau. The tapes can 
be supported at such intervals as 
would be employed in field work, and, 
by the temperature regulating ap- 
paratus already described, the tem- 
perature of the vault can be varied 
and the coefficients of expansion can 
be determined with great precision. 

In making the standard tests, meas- 
urements are made with the ice bar 
apparatus in the morning and then 
again at night, and the mean of the 
two measurements is the standard dis- 
tance for the day. The tapes 
ordinarily are measured after they 
have remained all night in the laboratory comparator room 
and have assumed its temperature. In recent tests of 
invar tapes the coefficient of expansion of tapes of 50 meters 
in length was determined with precision to a micron, and 
was found to range from 0.000000374 to 0.00000044 for 1 de- 
gree Centigrade. Thus invar has a coefficient of expansion of 
about 1/28 that of steel, so that working under ordinary coa- 
dltions where the refinements of the most precise geodetic 
work are not necessary, a temperature correction can be neg- 
lected. The determination of the expansion of the invar and 
steel tapes Involved a study of the constants of the compara- 
tor room itself, and it was found that the entire tunnel shrinks 
about slx-hundredths of an inch in passing from a tempera- 
ture of 100 degrees F. to 32 degrees F. 

The work in the laboratory Is so arranged that there can 
be measurements made each day, and there is a direct com- 
parison of the tapes with the five-meter bar on each occasion. 
This bar, which has been used for many years, so that its 
constants are know-n with high precision, is of steel, with the 
terminals of the standard distance indicated by lines on plat- 
inum-irldlum plugs. In testing invar tapes the tension used 
is 10 kilogrammes, while ordinary steel tapes of 100 feet are 
stretched at a tension of 10 pounds. The chief practical ad- 
vantage of the Invar tape is that its small coefficient of expan- 
sion not only simplifies measurements generally, but in par- 
ticular, permits of accurate measurements being made in the 
daytime instead of at night, as Is essential in using steel 
tapes in base-line measurement. 

On the w-all opposite the comparator is the 50-meter U. S. 
Bench Standard for testing ordinary steel tapes. This has 
been formed of five cold-rolled steel bars, about 33 feet in 
length, welded end to end with thermite. As previous to the 
welding the bars were well fitted and cleaned, the result is a 
continuous bar 1C5 feet In length. Not only are the terminal 
distances marked by platinum-iridium plugs with fine trans- 
verse lines, but at various regular intervals similar plugs are 
inserted, so that the intermediate distances on a tape can be 
verified with accuracy. These plugs are inserted every 10 
feet for the tapes with the customary divisions, and every 
5 meters for the metric tapes, the distances being correct at 
62 degrees F. for the customary measures, and at degree 
Centigrade for the metric scale. Ordinarily, the tapes are 
laid fiat on the steel bar, but if desired they can be suspended 



October, 1908. 

on small pins on (lip outside of the bar and the conditions 
of support arranged to simulate those in the field. Tlic bar 
Itself is free to move on rollers carried on brackets fastened 
to the masonry wall and spaced at intervals of 40 inches, so 
that not only is it kept hornzontal, but it is free to expand 
and contract with changes in temperature. 

The Bureau of Standards not only tests metal tapes for the 
various government departments, but also for manufacturers 
and engineers vipon payment of nominal fees, depending on 
the length of the tapes and the number of divisions examined. 
The charges range from 7.5 cents for tapes not longer than 100 
feet, and supported throughout the entire length, to $2.25 for 
tapes 400 feet in length with comparisons at the 100. 200. 
and 300-foot divisions. If the tape is supported at intervals, 
the Bureau doubles the charge, while determining the coeffi- 
cient of expansion, testing under different tensions, determin- 
ing the modulus of elasticity, or other tests are made for 
suitable and reasonable fees. 

The tests can be made as elaborate as desired, but in most 
cases it is sufficient to compare the tapes with the U. S. Bench 
Standard for the total distance and some of the more im- 
portant subdivisions, as the coefficient of expansion of the 
majority *of steel tapes is practically that of the standard 
steel bar— 0.0000063 per degree Fahrenheit or 0.0000114 Centi- 
grade — so that a direct comparison with the latter suffices 
and will afford an adequate determination of its accuracy tor 
most purposes. If the tape in construction and tests complies 
with the requirements of the Bureau, it will be certified, and 
the Bureau of Standards test number corresponding to the 
number of the certificate issued will be stamped or etched on 
the tape. 

Since the Bureau has undertaken the testing of tapes there 
has been an increase in the accuracy of those available for 
engineers, and there is no reason to-day tor any one to have 
any uncertainty about the accuracy of his measures with the 
Bureau of Standards ready to make final and conclusive tests 
on payment of a small fee. In the year ending June 30, 1907, 
135 tapes were submitted for test by engineers and surveyors 
in all parts of the country. 


Paper by Mr. Shcrard O. Cowper-Coles read before the British 
Institution of Mechanical Engineers, -/itly, r.iOS. 

The numerous processes involved in the production of suit- 
able copper and its subsequent conversion into copper sheets, 
tubes, and wire by a series of operations, such as rolling, 
drawing, and annealing, would occupy too much time to be 
referred to even briefly; therefore the author has limited the 
paper to the direct production of copper tubes, sheets, and 
wire by electrolysis from impure copper. The methods de- 
scribed are all based on the work of Davy and the law of elec- 
trolysis established by Faraday in 1833, namely, that when 
a current of electricity is passed through a solution contain- 
ing metallic salts and two or more electrodes, one of which is 
soluble in the Solution, a known quantity of metal is trans- 
ferred from one electrode to the other for a given quantity 
of electric current; that is to say, if the soluble electrode 
(the anode) is connected to the positive pole, and assuming 
the metal and the electrolyte employed to be pure, a weight 
of metal will be deposited upon the cathode connected to the 
negative pole, corresponding to the amount dissolved from the 
anode. If the anode is of impure metal many difficulties are 
introduced, and if the current is increased, to a sufficient 
density to enable the metal to be deposited at such a rate as 
will give commercial results, other serious difficulties arise. 
Electro-metallurgists have been working for thirty years or 
more devising methods to overcome the difficulties experienced 
in applying Faraday's law to the commercial production of 
copper tubes, sheet, and wire from comparatively Impure 
copper having the physical properties of wrought copper, 
when deposited at a sufficiently rapid rate. 

The refining of copper by electrolysis has now assumed 
vast proportions, and the annual output of electrolytic copper 
in the year 1907 has been estimated at 400,000 tons, equal to 
56 per cent of the world's production, and the capital sunk 
in the Industry at about £15,000,000. The whole of the cop- 

per thus produced is In the form of rough slabs or cathode 
plates which have to be smelted and worked to the desired 
forms. Electro-metallurgists have been striving for many 
years to devise a process which does away with the smelting 
of copper after it has been electrolytically refined, and to 
electro-deposit copper after the refining operation in such a 
form that it can be placed direct on the marliot as finished 
sheets, tubes, and wire. 

The author, when carrying out some experiments on the 
production of copper tubes and sheets by electro-deposition on 
rotating cathodes, observed that when the speed was greatly 
increased, entirely new re- 
sults were obtained, and 
that a current density of 
200 amperes or more per 
square foot could be em- 
ployed, the copper remain- 
ing smooth and having a 
tensile strength equal to 
the best rolled or drawn 
copper, and in some cases 

a tensile strength some Fig. l. copper cathode in the Form or b 

Cone to determine Critical Speed. 

50 per cent higher than 

that obtained by the ordinary process of casting and roll- 
ing, the tensile strength increasing with the rate of rota- 
tion of the mandrel. The result of revolving a mandrel at a 
comparatively high speed is that every molecule, a? it is 
deposited, is burnished or rubbed down so as to produce a 
tough fibrous copper, the usual order of things being reversed, 
the present practice being to put the mechanical work into a 
mass of copper by rolling or drawing instead of treating each 
molecule separately. This observation led to further experi- 
ments, which resulted in evolving the process now known 
as the centrifugal copper process for the manufacture of 
sheets, tubes, and wire, which will now be described in de- 
tail, together with the results obtained. 

After a long series of experiments had been made to de- 
termine the best composition for the electrolyte and the most 
economical current density to employ, the critical speed was 
accurately determined by means of revolving cathodes in the 
form of cones, Fig. 1. By observing the point at which the 
copper remains smooth, and by measuring the circumference 


Fig. 2. Vat used for produclngr Copper Sheets by the Centrlftieral Process. 

of the cone at that point and multiplying it by the number 
of rotations per minute, the critical speed is readily deter- 
mined; 200 amperes per square foot is found to be the most 
economical current density, although a current density up to 
500 amperes per square foot can be employed by increasing 
the rate of rotation, but the increased cost due to increased 
voltage renders such a current impracticable for ordinary com- 
mercial work. 

One of the chief difficulties inherent in any electrolytic or 
wet process for the production of copper tubes and sheets, is 
having any working parts, such as bearings, in an acid copper 
sulphate solution, and this was one of the first troubles en- 

October, 1908. 



countcri'il wlieu woikiiiy llie I'l'iitrlfiigal pioioss on n commer- 
cial scale. This difficulty was eventually ovt'iconie by con- 
structing vats In the form of an annular ring, as shown In 
Fig. 2. If will be observed that by s\ich an arrangement all 
working parts are outside the vat and do not come into con- 
tact with the electrolyte, so that the l>carlngs can be lubri- 
cated in the ordinary way; only the actual lace of the mandrel 
on which tlio copper is to bo deposited is immersed in the 
electrolyte. The cathode consists of a steel or cast-iron cylin- 
der closed at one end, to which Is attached on the inside a 
steel rod projecting below the edge of the mandrel to guide it 
into position; the cylinder can be 5 or 6 feet In diameter 
or even larger, so as to produce a copper sheet of say 20 feet 
long by 4 or 5 feet broad. Anodes, composed of crude copper, 
are placed around the mandrel with intervening spaces, and 
are fed forward by suitable mechanical means, as the copy-jr 
dissolves away, so as to keep the voltage constant. 

One great advantage of the centrifugal process Is that <^ 
very low voltage is required even when employing a very high 
current density; for instance, only 0.8 of a volt is required at 
the terminals of the vat when working at a current density 
of 200 amperes per square foot of cathode surface. The effect 
of revolving the ca- 
thode Is five-fold; it 
keeps the electrolyte 
agitated, so that there 
is always a fresh sup- 
ply of copper Ions in 
proximity to the 
cathode; each mole- 
cule of copper as It is 
deposited on the ca- 
thode is burnished or 
rubbed down by 
means of the skin 
friction between the 
revolving cathode and 
the electrolyte; the 
rotation prevents any 
foreign matter that 
may be in suspension 
in the electrolyte set- 
tling on the cathode 
and becoming entan- 
gled by further cop- 
per being deposited 
around or over it; It 
brushes away any 
air-bubbles on the 
cathode, which are 
the cause of nodules 
forming; and the 
rotation of the ca- 
thode ensures the 
thickness of copper being uniform, even when a mandrel of 
say 8 feet in length Is employed. 

The method of making tubes by the centrifugal process is 
as follows: A mandrel somewhat smaller than the finished 
internal diameter of the tube is prepared by coating it with 
an adhesive coating of copper by first depositing copper upon 
the surface from an alkaline solution and then thickening 
it up in an acid solution, the surface being highly burnished 
and treated chemically to ensure the easy removal of the 
deposited tube. The mandrel thus prepared is then placed 
in a vat as shown in Fig. 3. When the desired thickness 
has been obtained, the mandrel is removed and placed in a 
horizontal or vertical lathe, and a round-faced roller run over 
the surface so as slightly to expand the deposited copper, 
which can then be readily drawn off. 

Copper sheets are prepared in a similar manner, the only 
difference being that the mandrels are of much larger diame- 
ter, and a narrow insulating strip is fitted down one side so 
that the sheet can be easily removed by inserting a tool 
under one of the edges of the deposited copper. It is no more 
costly by the centrifuf^a! ijrocess to nialie lliiii sheets tli:in 
thiclc ones; copper foil can be made in five minutes, direcl 
from crude copper. Copper tubes produced by this process 

















• jS* 

1 '^. 





i ^ 








Fig. 3. Vat used when making Tubes by 
the Centrifugal Process 

without any drawing, have given a maxiinuni stress of 17 
tons, and tubes after drawing have withstood a pressure of 
3,000 pounds per B<iuaro in<:h without showing any signs of 
distress. Sheets made without any rolling have given a maxi- 
mum stress of 28 to 30 tons per square Inch, according to the 
peripheral speed at which the mandrels were revolved. 

The production of copper wire by electrolytic means Is a 
more difficult problem than the production of copncr tnl."* 







Pig.-). Diagram Hhuvrlng Method 
of forming Weak Line of Cleavage 
due to CrystaUlne Structure. 


Fig. 6. Diagram niiovi.i.K the Ef- 
fect of Sharp and hounded Cor- 
ners on the Cryatalllne Structure 
of Metal deposited on Mandrel 

and sheets. Various processes have been suggested and tried 
from time to time, such as the electro-deposition of copper 
on thin wire, until it has obtained a considerable thickness, 
and then drawing the thickened wire down to a comparatively 
fine wire. Experiments have been made with such processes, 
but so far they have not been worked commercially. 

Copper wire is made by the centrifugal process in the fol- 
lowing manner: A mandrel similar to that used for making 
copper sheets is employed, around which a spiral scratch is 
made, the pitch being determined by the size of wire re- 
quired. The effect of the spiral scratch (which need only be 
very light, but must be angular), is to cause the crystalline 
structure of the copper to form a cleavage plane, as shown 
in Fig. 4. It will be observed that the copper divides exactly 
at the apex of the scratch, that is. the copper deposited in the 
scratch is equally divided and forms a small V-shaped fin 
on two sides of the copper strip. It the scratch is not angular, 
but rounded at the base, the copper will not divide, as the 
crystals are radial, as shown in Fig. 5. After the desired 
thickness has been obtained, approximating the pitch of the 
spiral scratch, the mandrel is removed from the depositing 
cell and placed in a vertical position on a special lathe, and 
the copper strip is unwound, as illustrated in Fig. 6, at an 
angle of about 4.5 degrees to the face of the mandrel. During 
the process of unwinding, the small fin or burr is removed 
by passing the wire through a suitable die and then through 
a wire-drawing machine provided with three or more draw- 
plates to reduce the strip to the desired diameter. By em- 
ploying a mandrel of 6 or 7 feet in diameter, lengths of wire 
4 or 5 miles long can be made 
in one operation. Reference 
was previously made to this ipi ■".-•. r 
method of making copper wire 
in the November, 1905, issue 
of Machinery. 

The advantages of an electro 
lytic process as compared to a 
smelting process are many, and 
the day is not far distant 
when copper will no doubt 
be leached direct from the ore 
and electrolyzed with insoluble anodes, to produce finished 
copper sheets and tubes in one operation direct from the ore 
without the infermediate process of smelting and refining. 
The centrifugal process is a step in this direction, as it is 
capable of depositing copper from its solutions by using in- 
soluble anodes in the form of finished tubes or sheets in one 
operation. The centrifugal process is at least ten times faster 
than any existing electrolytic process, and a high current 
density can be employed without deteriorating the quality of 
the copper. The plant is simple and free from mechanical 
complications, and the amount of copper locked up for a 
given output is small compared to other processes. The 
process is of interest to mechanical engineers, ^s it conclu- 
sively proves that to get a high tensile strength in metals 
combined with ductility, it is not essential to put a large 
amount of work into the metals as hitherto has been con- 
sidered necessary, by the processes of swaging, rolling or 
drawing, but that a very small amount of energy will suffice 
when applied in the manner described. 

Pig. 6. 

Unwinding the Copper Strip 
from the Mandrel. 



October, 1908. 



This article is a kind of appendix to the one on machining 
change gears which appeared in the April issue. Through in- 
formation obtained later, I was rather surprised to learn that 
the method of broaching keyseats therein described was com- 
paratively unknown in America. So I thought a bit more in- 
formation might he acceptable. 

Of course the "pull" broaching machine as made by the 
Lapointe Machine Tool Co. in America and Smith & Coven 
try in England, are well known examples of broaching ma- 
chines, hut I do not fancy either of them (from a casual knowl- 
edge of the machines) for keyseating change gears, because 
every time a gear or stack of gears has been operated on, the 
machine must be stopped to place another in position. 

With the "push" method the machine runs continuously, 
it being comparatively easy to keyseat a gear at every stroke, 
the machine running at from 120 to 140 strokes (forward and 
return) per hour. 

Another objection to the "pull" type when applied to this 
work is the difficulty of making the long slim cutters which 
must of necessity be made in one piece, whereas with the 
cutter bar, illustrated herewith, the cutters may be made in 
two or more parts. My previous article stated that the cut- 
ters were fixed to the bar by screws from the under side, but 
since that w-as written w-e have found a better way. 

The objection to the first method is that the cutters must be 
exceptionally wide to admit of using reasonable size of 

- nil -M I I I n I 

-++H I i I I -M- i"n -> 

„ j. . r. . f.^^^r^^f.J^^r' . j -. r^tr - JNJ^J^J^ J ^ I 

Ti ■ 



Bar with Inserted Cutters for Keyseating Change Gears. 

screws. We have had a lot of trouble with the cutters break- 
ing at the tapped hoies, so after some study I evolved the 
one shown in sketch. 

It will be seen that there are no holes in the cutters, so 
that they, therefore, may be made the same width as the 
keyseat to be cut. The beveled ends and the clamping arrange- 
ment at the center ensure a solid job and also make it pos- 
sible to insert new cutters with very little trouble. Of course, 
it will be understood that the taper of the cutting edges from 
B to C is not a straight line from end to end. The presence 
of the clamping plate at the center necessarily does away 
with two or three of the cutting edges so that if BAG were 
all in the same straight line the tooth A would have two or 
three times too much stock to remove. 

The largest bar we have at present is IV2 inch diameter 
for keyseats % inch wide, 3/16 inch deep, and 18 inches of 
cutting edges seems to be about right. Of course, the overall 
length of the bar is unimportant, but I should not reduce 
the length of the cutting edges for 1 incli bars for keyways 
Vi inch by ^^ inch and over. 

While in my previous article I showed how we did the 
work on a planer, it would be far more convenient, where 
there is much small keyseating, to make a special machine. 
This machine would always be ready and it would then pay 
to keyseat even odd gears in this manner. A machine for 
this work is very simple and could be made very cheaply. 
All that is required is a gap lathe bed, a central screw driven 
by two belts (open and crossed), a reciprocating carriage 
driven by the screw, and a suitable bracket for the work to 
press against. 

The cutter bars could be kept in close proximity to the 
machine; then if even a single gear required to be keyseated 
it would only be necessary to insert the correct size of bush, 
start the machine, mount the gear on the cutter bar, insert 

bar in end bracket, and the job is finished in less time than 
it takes to tell about It. 

I think it would pay almost anyone to make a special nia- 
cliiue in prel'ennce to rigging up a planer; but at the saiu" 
time It must not be supposed that the machine would be kept 
constantly at work. It would take rather a big shop and 
a large number of gears to keep one of these nuichiues in full 
employment, but an hour or two's run a day will be quite suffi- 
cient to pay a good percentage on the Investment. 

It should also be mentioned that the keyseats are kept up 
to size (depth) by putting tissue paper under the cutters. 

Another point I should like to particularly emphasize is the 
importance of the method of indexing, christened block index- 
ing for want of a better name, [Also known as multiple index- 
ing — Editor] which was referred to in my previous article. 
1 am firmly convinced that where the ordinary consecutive 
indexing method is in use on gears, say up to 6 diametral 
pitch, it is possible, by introducing block indexing, to increase 
the speed and feed so that the output is raised by fifty per 
cent. Not only this, but with the latter method and the in- 
creased speed and feed, the cutter and finished gear will be 
actually cooler than it would have been under the former con- 
ditions after doing an equal amount of work. The Brown & 
Sharpe Mfg. Co., in the book of instructions sent out with 
their gear-cutting machines, decs not in my opinion attach 
sufficient importance to this method of indexing; they dismiss 
the question as follows: "The advantage claimed for omitting 
one or more teeth before cutting is the more even distribu- 
tion of heat throughout the blank. On the other hand, how- 
ever, good results can be obtained by arranging the speed 
and feed slow enough to avoid heating." 

This was written a few years ago, before high-speed steel 
wakened up machine tool-makers. It was, no doubt, permis- 
sible then to "run slow enough to avoid heating," but now 
modern conditions demand that we should run as near the 
top speed and feed as we can get, finding ways and means 
of dissipating the heat generated. 

Those mechanics who have never tried this method will be 
surprised to learn how the heat is dissipated by simply skip- 
ping a few teeth. At our works we would never think now of 
cutting change gears by the ordinary consecutive indexing 
method. The table (see Data Sheet Supplement) is exactly like 
the one we use with our B. & S. machine, but it is quite 
a simple matter to calculate one for any other make of 
machine. Suppose, for example, that the change gear table 
supplied with any particular machine gave the following 

20 30 

change gears to index a certain number of teeth — and — 

60 50 

(20 and 30 being drivers in both cases): then if we wish to 
cut say every fifth tooth (this depends on the number of 
teeth in the gear, it must not be a multiple) multiply the 
20 30 20 30 5 1 

fraction — X — by 5. Then we have — X — X' — ■ = — 
60 50 60 50 1 1 

In this particular case equal gears would divide the blank 
so that every fifth space was cut. 

I notice in the series of articles ■•Gear-Cutting Machinery," 
which have recently appeared in these columns, that one 
machine (February. 1908, engineering edition), by J. Parkin- 
son & Son, Shipley, England, is specially arranged for block 
or multiple iudexiug. but as shown above, nearly any ma- 
chine can be set up with very little trouble, though, no doubt, 
there would be some difficulty with the smaller pinions; but 
block indexing does not make as much difference when the 
gears to be cut have only a small number of teeth, so that 
it is not really a very serious difficulty after all. 

* * * 

The largest apartment building in the world will be built 
in New York City, on Broadway and Amsterdam Avenue, be- 
tween 86th and 87th Streets. It will cover the entire block 
and will be 350 feet long. 200 feet wide and 150 feet high. It 
will be tw-elve stories in height, and will have 175 apartments, 
containing from nine to fourteen rooms each. The building 
will be constructed in the form of a hollow rectangle, the 
courtyard in the center being 250 x 100 feet wide. The struc- 
ture will cost $3,000,000. 

October, 1908. 




It has long been possible to pioiliuc ;i double helical form 
of cut gearing by bolting together a pair of spiral wheels of 
opposite hand, but this method of construction is far from 
satisfactory on account of the extreme difficulty of bringing, 
at anything like a reasonable cost, the two sides Into accurate 
register. About five years ago Herr Wiist, of Zurich, con- 
ceived the idea of generating both sets of spiral teeth in a 
single-wheel blank by using two hobs of opposite hand to cut 
the teeth simultaneously. The difTiculty was to find means 
whereby the teeth on each side could be cut through to the 
center. This difficulty was, however, solved when the teeth 
were staggered, so that the centers of the teeth on one side 
of the wheel coincided with the centers of the spaces between 
the teeth on the other side. Wheels and pinions of this form 
are now manufactured by the Power Plant Company, Limited, 
West Drayton, Middlesex. The result of the method adopted 
by this firm will be better understood on reference to Fig. 1, 

which is a reproduc- 
tion of an actual pin- 
ion of seven teeth 
which was cut in this 
way. Not only have 
wheels so made proved 
quite satisfactory, but 
they have been found 
to possess the advan- 
tages incidental to the 
old stepped type of 
g8aring, viz., greater 
freedom from backlash 
and shock; and machine-cut double helical gears of this type 
are far stronger than straight-cut gears of equal pitch and 
width. The capacity of a gear-tooth to transmit power depends 
on the metal section available at the base to resist the maxi- 
mum bending stress. In the case of ordinary straight-spur 
gears, the teeth are subjected to greatly varying bending 
stresses while in engagement, and the maximum stress on a 
driven tooth occurs when a driving tooth first engages it at .the 
extreme tip. The bending stress is then proportional to the 
product of the driving force into the height of the tooth. 

With double helical wheels the conditions are much less 
severe. What is meant will be understood on reference to 
Fig. 2 below, which shows in development a portion cf the 
rim of a wheel cf 50 teeth, having staggered double helical 

Fig 1. A 7-tooth Herringbone Gear formed 
by the Wiist Process. 


Fig 2. Tbe Instantaneous Lines of Contact made by Three Contiguous 
Teeth with their Mating Teeth. 

teeth cut at 23 degrees, and a width equal to five times the 
circular pitch. The three teeth. A. B. and C. are all in engage- 
ment at the same time, and the normal elevations of these 
teeth are shown. The wheel of 50 teeth is considered to be 
driven by a pinion of 25 teeth, and the representation is made 
at the moment when the center of tooth B is engaged at the 
pitch line. In order to make a comparison with straight spurs 
it is necessary to average the contact across tlie three teeth 
A. B. and C. This is shown by the horizontal lines in Fig. 3. 
which are obtained by averaging the ordinates of the contact 
lines in the upper view of Fig. 2. On comparison of Figs. 2 

and 3, it will be nolueil that the average contact for .1 is at 
its lowest and (' at lis highest, while the average for B is 
about the pitch-line. As the wheels roll on, these average 
contact lines change in position, but on any one tooth they 
never rise above the level shown for A In Klg. 3, nor fall 
below that for C in the same figure. Thus for every tooth 
there is a zone within which the limits of average contact 

ilachtmrHtS. V, 

Ftg. 3. The Average Lines of Contact on the Ibree Teeth. 

must lie, as illustrated by Fig. 4. Here the shaded portion Y 
shows the variation of average contact for the case under con- 
sideration, while X is the working height of the tooth. For 
teeth cut at 23 degrees to the axis, on a wheel whose width Is 
five times the circular pitch, Y equals about 0,44A' for a wheel 
of 50 teeth driven by a pinion of 25 teeth. 

Fig. 5 shows the corresponding variation of contact, and of 
bendiug stress, in a straight-cut spur-wheel under similar con- 
ditions. It will therefore be seen that the reduced variation 
of stress allows the employment of much finer pitches, for 
equal powers and speeds, than are permissible for straight- 
cut gears. 

The particular case considered is merely given for illustra- 
tion, but the same method of comparison holds good for any 
combination. In general, the variation of bending stress on 
double helical staggered teeth is less than in the case con- 
sidered, because the comparatively fine pitch employed usually 
leads to wheels of many teeth, the number being rarely less 
than 100, and rising sometimes to 500. Another advantage 
claimed for these helical teeth is that their gradual engage- 
ment tends to eliminate shocks, and this effect is increased by 




• From an article entitled "Machine-cut Donijle Helical V^'beels" 
Eiiginn'rinff, February 21, IOCS. 

Fig. 4. Shaded Area shows Range Fig. 5. Shaded Area shows Range 
of Average Line of Contact on Her- of Line of Contact on Spur Gear 
ringbone Tooth. Tooth. 

the Stepped form of teeth adopted. The smoothness of run- 
ning, which is the direct outcome of these special features, 
consequently makes it possible to produce noiseless gears 
without having recourse to intrinsically weak pinion materi- 
als, such as raw hide, or fiber. 

[The form of gearing here shown is that produced by the 
Wiist machine, described in the April, 19oS. installment of the 
series of articles on gear-cutting machinery which we have 
just finished. The great advantage of this form of herring- 
bone gearing would seem to be the possibility of producing 
it at a reasonable cost. We do not understand the difficulty 
mentioned in the above article of bringing the two sides of a 
split gear of this style into accurate register. If the two sides 
are not in accurate register, the pinion will float sideways on 
the gear slightly until it is in engagement equally on eacti 
side. The shaft should be left free for end-wise movement 
for this purpose, and no collars are necessary. We are not, 
furthermore, inclined to believe that the staggered form of 
tooth is of any advantage whatsoever, except as it facilitates 
manufacture. The herringbone gear itself has the effect of a 
stepped gear of an infinite number of steps, so it is perfect 
in this respect, and staggering the teeth cannot make it any 
more perfect. 

The main subject matter of this article, however, relating 

to the strength of helical gearing, is new so far as we know. 

It is evidently a fact that helical gearing is stronger than spur 

gearing of the corresponding size, owing to the fact that at no 

time is the whole breadth of any one tooth subjected to the 

maximum pressure, that pressure occurring cnly at one point. 

— Editor.] 

« « * 

Don't tell what you would do if you were someone else — 
just show what you can do yourself. — Speed. 



October, 1908. 

Within the past seven years a valuable tool, uniciue in its 
characteristics, has been developed for cutting, shaping, and 
welding metals, in the oxy-acetylene "torch," which now is 
so well advanced that it bids fair to displace other emergency 
cutting and welding means to a large extent. The oxy-acety- 
lene process had its inception in France, the first experimenter 
being Mr. Edmund Fouche, of Paris, who began his work on 
it in 1901. The principle of the oxy-acetylene torch or burner 
is essentially the same as that of tlie oxy-hydrogen blow-pipe. 

Pig. 1. DavlsBournonvlUe Oxy-aoetylene Cutting and Welding Torches. 

which has been used for many years for generating intense 
heat. But though the oxy-hydrogen flame is intensely hot, the 
flame produced by the oxy-acetylene torch is so much hotter 
that the two are not in the same class. The temperature pro- 
duced by the oxy-hydrogen flame is rated by authorities at 
about 4.000 degrees P., while that of the oxy-acetylene flame 
is estimated at about 6,300 degrees F. Not only is the flame 
of acetylene much hotter than hydrogen, but the number of 
B. T. U. per cubic foot Is about five times as great, being as 
330 to 1,600. Hence both the intensity and amount of heat is 
greatly increased in the flame of the oxy-acetylene torch. A 
comparison between the two instruments has been aptly put 
as like that of "a finely pointed-tool and a blunt instrument." 
While the temperature of the flame of the oxy-hydrogen 
torch is high enough to melt and even vaporize most com- 
mercial metals, when the heat is confined, it is not high enough 

Pig. 2. Samples of Steel and Cast Iron \^elding. and Cutting done 
with Oxy-acetylene Flame. 

to fuse the edges of metals and make autogenous welding 
commercially profitable. At least this appears to be the case 
in the present development of the art. The rapid radiation and 
conduction of heat away from the joint prevents perfect fusion 
and joining, but with the vastly hotter oxy-acetylene flame, 
autogenous w-elding becomes easy and rapid. Even aluminum, 
which conducts heat aw-ay with great rapidity and can be 
locally fused with difficulty, yields to the oxy-acetylene flame 
and joins perfectly, the joint being entirely homogeneous. In 

•For previous articles on autogenous welOing. see "Blow-pipe Metal 
Welding with Acet.vlene," March, 1004 : ".\cetvlene Gas for Welding," 
SeiJtember. 1006; and "Autogenous Welding," July, 1907. For articles 
on storage n( acetylene gas in acetone, sec ".\cetone as an .\bsorber of 
Acetylene Gas Under Pressure." December. ]!)03. and "The Acetylene 
Safety Storage System." .\ugust. ino4. For article on oxygen cutting, 
see "The Use of 0.\ygen for Remoying Ulasl Furnace Obstructions." 
.Tuly, 1U06. 

fact, the autogenous weld thus produced is the only known 
method of joining aluminum that will not separate with use. 

The commercial development of metal-cutting and auto- 
genous welding has been taken up by several concerns in the 
United States and Europe. The processes are essentially the 
same, the difference being in the construction of the torches 
and the manner in which the gases are generated. Great dif- 
ficulties have been met in cheaply producing pure oxygen gas. 
The cheap production of acetylene had, to a great extent, been 
satisfactorily solved in the extensive development of acetylene 
lighting, but even this art had to be further developed to meet 
all the requirements of metal welding and cutting work. 
There are four or five commercial means of making oxygen, 
these being principally the oxone or barium process, the liquid 
air process, the epurite process, and the chlorate of potash 
process. The latter process is used by the Davis-Bournonville 
Co., New York, and the following notes relate to the develop- 
ment of the art of metal cutting and autogenous welding, as 
reached by this concern. 

The chlorate of potash process of generating oxygen is well 
known, being perhaps the simplest method. It will be found 
described in elementary works on chemistry. The oxygen of 
chlorate of potash can be driven off by gentle heat, and, in 
practice, the potash is placed in a closed retort and subjected 

Fig. 3. Welding together the Parts of a Drawn Steel Retort. The Operator 
feeds the Joint with a Special Grade of Iron Wire. 

to a comparatively low temperature. The reduction is facili- 
tated by the addition of black dioxide of manganese in the 
proportion of 14 pounds of manganese to 100 pounds potash. 
The oxygen gas is passed through scrubbers and is pumped into 
receivers. The pressure in the receivers is varied according 
to the use, it being desirable to compress from 125 to 1.50 
pounds per square inch for metal cutting, while 15 pounds 
pressure suffices for autogenous welding. The acetylene gas is 
produced in the Davis generator which is adapted to all press- 
ures up to 15 pounds per square inch. The machine is auto- 
matic and feeds lump carbide perfectly up to sizes that pass 
through 1-inch screen. The theoretical quantity of water to 
carbide is about '2 pound to 1 pound carbide, but to absorb the 
heat of the chemical transformation the generator is required 
to have a water capacity of 1 gallon water to 1 pound carbide. 
For repair shops and work outside of the shop, a portable 
apparatus is required, and for such purposes th^ oxygen and 
acetylene gases are stored in small cylinders. The storage of 
oxygen is a simple matter ot pumping the gas into the cyl- 
inders until the required pressure has been reached. The 
storage of undiluted acetylene under pressure in tanks is 
impracticable, but fortunately, it was discovered in 1S96 by 
Claude and Hesse, two French engineers, that acetone, a fluid 
derived from the dry distillation of wood, is a remarkable 
solvent for acetylene, being capable of absorbing 25 times its 
volume at 60 degrees F. for each atmosphere. At ten atmo- 
spheres, or 150 pounds pressure per square inch, a gallon of 
acetone absorbs 250 gallons of acetylene gas. When absorbed 
bv acetone, acetylene is non-explosive under heavy pressure. 

October, 190S. 



A red-hot wire might be thrust iuto the receiver with abso- 
lutely no effect, provided there is no free space occupied by 
acetylene gas. To prevent the possibility of there being free 
spaces for the accunuilation of gas, acetylene storage tanks 
were designed by Mr. lOdmuiid Kouche, which are paclied with 
porous brick, asbestos or other neutral porous material, thus 
filling the entire free spaces and atfording storage for the 
acetone and acetylene gas only In the cells of the filling. 

Fig. 1 shows the Davlsnournonville Co.'s cutting and 
yelding torches. The upper ilUistratioa is the cutting tcrcli 
and differs from the welding torch shown in the lower illus- 
tration simply in that it has an auxiliary detachable oxygen 
tube secured to the side. The welding torch has an acetylene 
gas tube and an oxygen tube which combine in a tip or nozzle 
from which the united gases flow and burn. The upper tube 
In each illustration is for oxygen, while the lower tube is for 
acetylene, the two gases uniting at the end of the removable 
tip within the body of the torch. The enlarged portion of the 
torch in the acetylene pipe is packed with porous material to 
prevent flash-backs extending bpyond the torch itself. 

Samples of welding and cutting are shown in Fig. 2. The 
pieces at the left are parts of two steel strips which were 
welded edge to edge. The welded piece was cut in two 
and the lower specimen shown was bent over on the weld 
through an angle of about 120 degrees. The ground parts 

foot. The oxygen for the heating Jet is carried at 14 to 18 
pounds pressure, while the pressure of the oxygen cutting jet 
supply is much higher, being about 12,'> pounds pressure. 
Only one oxygen cylinder Is required, however, the low pres- 
sure welding flame supply being taken fr< ni the high-pressure 
supply and regulated by a reducing valve. 

Fig. 3 illustrates the welding of thin steel retorta used for 
generating oxygen gas. The material for the retorts Is 
brought in drawn shape, one part being made with a collar 
and the other having a rounded bottom. The length of the 
retort is too great to permit it being drawn in one piece, 
hence the necessity of welding the two parts together near 
the center. The following is an approximate cost of welding 
l/16inch metal. The consumption of acetylene is 2.8 cubic 
feet per hour; of oxygen 3.6 cubic feet at a pressure of 8 to 
10 pounds. The rate of welding is about 50 feet per hour, 
and with labor at 30 cents per hour, the total cost per hour 
is 43.6 cents, or less than 9/10 per cent per lineal foot. The 
cost of welding increases with the thickness of material, of 
course, reaching an estimated cost of 37 1/2 cents per lineal 
foot for 7/lG- to i/o-inch thick metal. 

In Fig. 4 is illustrated the welding of a broken flange on a 
casting. This job, which would have been diflicult and ex- 
pensive by brazing, was easily accomplished. In this illus- 
tration, as in Fig. 3, the operator is shown feeding material 

Fig 4. Welding the Broken Flange of a Cast Iron Base. The Opprator 
feeds the Joint vrith a Cast Iron Rod. 

on the left end of each piece indicate a perfectly homogeneous 
union. The piece in the lower right-hand space is made up of 
cast ii'on and steel welded together. The cast iron is welded 
to itself as indicated in the illustration, and to the steel, the 
union in each case being perfect. However, because of the 
difference in expansion and contraction, there is danger of a 
crack appearing in cast iron welded to steel unless it is care- 
fully cooled off. Right here it might be said that expansion 
and contraction are the greatest foes of antogenous welding, 
and to effect satisfactory work on some pieces, it is neces- 
sary to raise the temperature by pre-heating before welding 
is commenced. Then the difference in temperature of the 
welded and unwelded parts is not so great. Moreover, this 
practice has the advantage of saving gas that otherwise would 
be required to heat adjacent parts before fusion is reached. 
The upper right-hand piece shown in Fig. 2 is a sample of 
y^-inch steel plate cut out with the cutting torch. The piece 
illustrated is shown reduced to about one-half the actual size, 
and it gives an idea of the width of kerf, the kerf being about 
% inch wide. Cutting steel with a torch is much more spec- 
tacular and impressive than welding, the metal being cut 
away rapidly and passing off in scintillating sparks. The 
work is done with comparative rapidity. A No. 1 tip will cut 
up to %-inch steel at the rate of 60 feet per hour, with a 
consumption of 12 cubic feet of acetylene and 15 V2 cubic feet 
of oxygen in the heating jet and 60 cubic feet of oxygen in 
the cutting jet. The cost of operation with labor at 30 cents 
per hour is estimated at $2.6S. or about A' 2 cents per lineal 

Fig. 6. Cutting Off Steel Sheet Piling with Oxygen Cuning Torch 
sho^ring Portable Apparatus. 

into the weld, the same as a tinner feeds solder when solder- 
ing. For welding steel and wrought iron a special iron 
wire is used, and for welding cast iron, rods of cast iron. 

Fig. 5 illustrates the use of the cutting torch cutting off 
steel sheet piling. This work, as before stated, is done with 
rapidity, and is a very spectacular performance. In the case 
of cutting, the combustion of the steel materially raises the 
temperature and assists in the work. This was pointed out by 
Chevalier C. de Schwarz in a paper read before the .May, 1906, 
meeting of the Iron and Steel Institute, and it gives one a 
startling idea of the power of the oxygen cutting flame when 
the concentration of the heat units produced is known. Burn- 
ing 1 pound of acetylene with oxygen produces from 18,250 to 
21.500 B.T.U. The mean value may be taken as about 19,750 
B.T.U. per pound, and the number of cubic feet at at- 
mospheric pressure at about 14Vj. Now, the burning of 1 
pound of steel with oxygen produces approximately 2,970 
B.T.U., but at atmospheric pressure 1 pound of acetylene gas 
nils 6,750 times the space of 1 pound of steel. Hence, the 
intensity of the heat with perfect combustion of the steel in 

6,750 X 2,970 

oxygen will be, theoretically, = 1.015 times the 

intensity of heat of the oxy-acetylene flame. As a matter of 
fact, of course, this enormous temperature is not even re- 
motely approached, because the metal dissolves at a far lower 
temperature and passes off in sparks, which are speedly cooled 
by the atmosphere. F". E. R. 



October, 1908. 



In the .lanuary issue of Maciii.nery a coiilributor described 
a simple device for grinding angular cutters. The principle 
embodied ' in this device Is used In almost all devices for 
grinding angular cutters, or formed cutters having regular 
milling cutter teeth. In the case of formed cutters with regu- 
lar milling cutter teeth, it is, of course, necessary that the 
teeth be ground around the edges instead of the teeth being 
only ground on the faces as is the case with eccentrically 
relieved teeth. In Fig. 1 are shown two types of milling cut- 
ters which may be ground with devices working on the prin- 
ciples indicated and described be'.ow. The cutter A is a regu- 
lar fluting cutter for taps, and the cutter B is a formed fluting 

la Fig. 3 is shown the device used for grinding a tap fluting 
cutter. The angle included between the two faces on the flut- 

I r 



ilachinery,y. F. 
Fig. 1. Shape of Regular Tap and Formed Fluting Cutters. 

Ing cutter is 85 degrees, and the angle between the two faces 
C and D in the device for grinding the teeth of these cutters 
is also 85 degrees, one side making .30 and the other 55 de- 
grees with a line at right angles to the axis of stud A on 
which the cutter is mounted while grinding. The device con- 
sists of a base-plate G. having three 
feet which rest on a special table cii 
the grinding machine, shown in Fig. 
5, which will be more fully described 
later. On this base-plate G slides a 
cutter holding slide H. which has a 
groove in the bottom, fitting a tongue 
projecting from the base-plate. An 
oblong slot is provided in tlie base-plate 
as shown at P, so that the slide H can 
he clamped to the- base-plate by the 
screw L, at any place within the length 
of the slot. The screw K passing 
through the lug R driven into the base- 
plate G, and acting upon the slide H, 
permits the necessary adjustment. 
The slide U holds a stud or spindle A. 
passing through a projecting standard 
F of the slide. The cutter to be ground 
is mounted on this stud. 

It will be evident upon explanation 
of the action of this device in grinding 
the cutters, that these must be so 
mounted upon the stud A that the 
apex of the included angle between the 
two angular faces (that is, the point 
P, Fig. 1, where the angular sides 
would meet if extended) shall be on 
the same center line as the point .Y 
of the grinding fixture, where the two 
sides C and D meet (see Fig. 3). In 
order to obtain the fine adjustment 
necessary to bring these two points on the same center line, 
that end of stud A which enters in the bearing in the 
standard F is provided with threaded portions on which 
adjusting nuts are mounted. Collars are placed on the 
smaller diameter of A. against the shoulder M, so that the 
adjustment necessary to be made by the nuts will be com- 
paratively small, the collars taki ng up the main difference in 

• Associate Ertit..r of Machinery. 

width of the various cutters to be ground. On the outside end 
of the stud A is a collar B, and a set-screw, having a large 
round slotted head, which is used for binding the collar 
against the cutter. It will be noted that this collar is cut 
oft on one side to an angle. This is done in order to permit 
the collar to clear the emery wheel of the grinder when the 
side of the cutter tooth next to the collar is being ground. 

As shown at A. in 
Fig. 1, the cutters to 
be ground have their 
two faces connected 
with the small radius, 
different for different 
kinds and sizes of 
fluting cutters. This 
radius is obtained by 
permitting the faces 
of the cutter teeth to 
project slightly out- 
side of the faces C and 
1) of the base-plate G, 
Fig. 3, when the cut- 
ter is in position on 
the shaft A, the point 
P of the cutter, however, still being in line with the point 
.V of the device, as mentioned above. When in use, the 
grinding device is placed on the table of the grinding ma- 
chine, as shown in Fig. 5. This table is mounted directly 
on the grinding machine knee, and is provided with a guide 
strip E. The hardened shoe X. in Fig. 3, slides against 
this guide strip E in Fig. 5, and by swinging the device 
around so that first the face C comes along the guide strip 
E, and then turning it around the point .V until the face 
D rests against the guide strip, the cutter is ground to the 
same angle as that of the base-plate G in Fig. 3, and a 
radius will be formed at the point of the cutter, its length 
depending upon the distance the faces of the cutter teeth 

Fig. 2. 

3Iachtner]j,S. T. 

End View of Formed Fluting Cutter 
Grinding Device. 

Fig. 3. Device for Grinding Tap Fluting 
Cutter shown at A, Fig. 1. 

Pig. 4. 

Device for Grinding Formed Fluting 
Cutter shown at B, Fig. 1. 

project outside of the faces C and D. Different angles may 
be obtained by t)utting tapered strips along the sides C and 
D. the angle included between the faces of the strips being 
the same as the angle between the faces of the teeth of 
the cutter. The base-plate for this device should o^ made 
of machine steel, and the faces C and D should be case- 
hardened. If tapered strips are screwed onto the faces C and 
D to accommodate ether angles than the ones referred to, 

October, 11)08. 



these strips shouUl also be made of luuchiue steel and case- 
hardened. Slide H is made of cast iron. 

The engraving, Fig. 5, shows the special table, previously 
mentioned, on the cutter grinding machine. This table con- 
sists of a cast iron body, provided with two tool steel plates .S 
on the top. forming the table surface. These plates are hard- 

mlttlng a greater or Icfs amount to be ground off from the 
teeth of different cutters. 

In Fig. 6 is i}hown a device which Is use