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The well-established reputation of Tennemann's Grund- 
riss der Geschichte der Philosophte^i may absolve its 
translator from any longer preface than is necessary to 
explain the principles by which he has been guided in 
the prosecution of his undertaking. 

In consequence of the extreme conciseness, in places, 
and the pregnant brevity of the original, I have been 
sometimes obliged to employ expressions of my own to 
convey the sense of my author; which would have been 
misrepresented by a literal version. Occasionally this has 
been made necessary by the phraseology of Tennemann, 
borrowed from the school of Kant to which he belonged ; 
and which if presented to the English reader in all its 
native peculiarity might have been understood by none 
but those who were the least likely to consult the transla- 
tion. As far, however, as it appeared possible, I have 
preserved the technical expressions of my author, sub- 
joining for the most part an explanation of their meaning 
for the benefit of those English readers who may not 
have plunged into the profound abyss of German meta- 
physics. As a Manual of the present description ought 
to be calculated for general use, I have in general made 

* I have entitled the present work a Manual of the History of Philosophy, 
in preference to a literal translation of the German title, for the same reasons 
which probably led the French translator (M. Cousin), to a similar choice. 
It is needless to remark, that the original is an abridgment, by Tennemann 
himself, of his History of Philosophy, in eleven volumes, and was first pub- 
lished by him in 1812 ; since which time it has been frequently reprinted, with 
considerable improvements and additions, principally from the pen of profes- 
sor Wendt, of Gbttingen. The present translation has been made from the 
Leipsic edition of 1829. 

The term Philosophy, it will be observed, implies throughout Moral Philo- 
sophy, or Metaphysics in general. 



it my object to remove from my work all those pecu- 
liarities which would have had the effect of embarrassing 
without instructing' the private student, and whenever 
it has appeared to me that an observation of my author 
was of a nature impossible to be apprehended by any 
but a scholar long familiar with the disputes of the Ger- 
man lecture rooms, I have endeavoured to express the 
sense of it in other words, or, in a very few instances, 
have preferred to omit it altogether. It is hoped that 
every thing which is really valuable in the original, on 
many accounts so admirable, will be found to have been re- 
tained. If it be thought that in some instances I have de- 
parted too far from the expressions of my author, let it be 
remembered that the most literal is not always the most 
faithful translator ; and that he who shall render verbum 
verbo the composition of a German metaphysician or his- 
torian, runs the risk of being intelligible only by a refer- 
ence to his author, or by having his own work done into 
English. There are parts of Tennemann which on this 
account I had much rather have composed anew than 
translated, particularly the Introduction, 

The history of German metaphysicians subsequent to 
Bardili, I have found it necessary to abbreviate more 
considerably. The articles alluded to were principally 
compiled by M. Wendt, in order to supply what Tenne- 
mann did not live to complete — an account of the living 
philosophers of his own country : but these sketches are 
so extremely concise and the language so technical that, 
(added to the unspeakable absurdity of many of the sys- 
tems reviewed), it would have been impossible to have 
made them intelligible to an English reader without en- 
larging them to a disproportionate extent. M- Cousin 
who felt the same difficulty has, in his translation, omitted 
them altogether; preserving however the catalogues of 
each author's works. I have preferred giving, for the 
most part in the author's words, some general idea of each 
system, and have preserved as much of the bibliographi- 
cal part as appeared in any degree necessary for the uses 
of the English reader. Another reason seems to have 


contributed to induce M. Cousin to suppress these arti- 
cles, namely, that the metaphysicians in question are so 
perpetually in the habit of changing and modifying their 
views, that before a statement of their sentiments could 
have been printed at Paris or Oxford, they may very pro- 
bably have displaced every fragment of their own the- 
ories, and promulgated a new set of opinions to their 
pupils of Jena or Gottingen. 

For similar reasons I have slightly modified the con- 
cluding articles on the present philosophical systems of 
other countries 5 preserving, however, all the information 
they contain. 

It must be borne in mind that Tennemann was a Ger- 
man and a Kantist, with all the erudition which charac- 
terises his learned countrymen, and with a much larger 
proportion of judgment and discrimination than they are 
sometimes found to evince. Still, his criticisms are ne- 
cessarily cast in the mould of his school ; and although 
greatly too well informed and too acute to be a slave to 
its prejudices, he is apt to be encumbered by its techni- 
calities, and is almost necessarily possessed with a high 
idea of its exclusive importance. It is through the me- 
dium of such prepossessions that he surveys the Systems 
of every other School, and by them he has been induced 
to allow rather more than a patriotic space to the labours 
of his countrymen, with whom he evidently thinks that 
the only chance of philosophical regeneration resides. 
It is necessary to bear this in mind whenever the opinions 
of the writer under consideration elicit those of the Cri- 
tic ; who nevertheless has exercised considerable for- 
bearance in withholding as much as possible his private 

One of the greatest advantages possessed by this ex- 
cellent Manual is its copious Bibliography ; indicating all 
that is worth reading, (and much that is not), on every 
subject it embraces ; and presenting us with a catalogue 
of each author's works, and those of his commentators 
and opponents. In this department it will be found that 
the titles of works in German which relate to the Classics 


or to writers of the Middle Ages, have been generally 
translated by me, in order to point out to the reader the 
large mine of various information contained in the libra- 
ries of Germany. But when arrived at the metaphy- 
sicians of that country, I have judged it better to retain 
the actual titles of their works and those of their com- 
mentators, as the books may be thus more easily procured 
than if their titles had been translated ; and because 
no one was likely to attack in their own language the 
metaphysical works of Kant or of Schelling, who was not 
competent to peruse their titles at least in the original. 

I could have wished indeed that circumstances had 
permitted me to enlarge the catalogue of English and 
Scottish writers at the expense of those of Germany, but 
in the mean time, while I have preserved in the text the 
names of all the metaphysicians of every German school, 
I have occasionally forborne to particularise all the com- 
positions of some among them who are known to us only 
as obscure commentators on exploded systems. A few 
treatises on other subjects I have struck out from the Bib- 
liography, as not likely to be useful, or because they 
were not readily procurable by the English reader. In the 
place of those omitted, others have been added, and more 
would have been, had not the supellex already furnished 
been more than ample for all the purposes of the student, 
to whatever extent he may desire to push his inquiries. 

The reader will observe, that the numeration of the 
sections in the present translation, after § 252, does not 
always correspond with that of the German. This has 
been occasioned by my subdividing some sections which 
originally formed one, and simplifying in one or two 
instances the numeration observed in the original; but 
principally in consequence of my abridging the introduc- 
tory sections from o06 to 316, which it appeared advisable 
to do, on account of the obscurity, as well as the repeti- 
tion, which there encumbers the original. The running- 
titles and the names of the philosophers, will sufficiently 
guide any one who may wish to compare the translation 
with the original, and obviate all difficulty which might 


result from such a change. The references to the sections 
have been uniformly corrected according to the numera- 
tion thus established ; and it is hoped that many errors 
will not be discovered in the voluminous and minute 
bibliography which has cost the translator so much care. 

To these trivial alterations I am compelled to add that 
I have judged it better to omit altogether a few passages 
which appeared to militate against Revealed Religion, 
rather than to alter or to soften them. These instances, 
however, are exceedingly rare. 

In this task, (the difficulty of which will be appreciated 
by few), I have been materially assisted by the excellent 
French translation of M. Victor Cousin'', well known in 
the philosophical and literary world for many important 
publications. His thorough acquaintance with the sub- 
ject, no less than his knowledge of German, admirably 
qualified him for the undertaking he has so well exe- 
cuted; and if it be sometimes the case that the *' Inter- 
preter is the harder of the two," the fault is not that of 
M. Cousin, but of the French language, which, at least 
to English apprehensions, often fails to convey as accu- 
rate a sense of metaphysical distinctions as that presented 
by the homespun compounds of the corresponding 
German. I have followed M. Cousin in placing the 
references at the bottom of the page, instead of incor- 
porating them with the text, as the German typographers 
delight in doing ; to the great embarrassment of the 
English reader, and to the visible disfigurement of the 
page. A very few references have been occasionally 
omitted, as belonging to points which did not appear to 
me necessary to be substantiated by a quotation. 

Occasionally, when an expression in M. Cousin's trans- 
lation has seemed to me more felicitous than the original 
it represents, I have endeavoured to give the spirit of the 
former : in one or two particulars also I have preferred 
his subdivisions, as being more simple than those of 

•» Manuel de I'Histoire de la Philosophie, traduit de I'Allemand de Tenne- 
mann, par V. Cousin, Paris et Bnueiles, 1829, 2 vols. 8vo. 


M. Wendt, and recommended by his perfect acquaint- 
ance with philosophical history. 

If I were to step for a moment out of the humble path 
of a translator, and offer a remark on the matter which 
has of late occupied so large a portion of my time, I 
should be inclined to suggest a conclusion very different 
from that with which Tennemann has summed up his 
great undertaking. He confidently anticipates that the 
disputes which, from the days of Thales, have continued 
to agitate the philosophical world, will all eventually 
conduct mankind to the discovery of true philosophy ; 
and that all the deviations of Human Reason from the 
right path will prove to have been only so many avenues 
to the desired object. Far different is the sentiment his 
translator is tempted to express ! Of these everlasting 
disputes what has been the result ? How little has been 
gained by endless controversy? System has expelled 
system only to succeed one another, like the phantas- 
magoria with which children are amused : one gaudy and 
disproportioned figure making way for another, — equally 
motley and equally unsubstantial ! 

When the learned Casaubon visited for the first time 
the Sorbonne, his pompous Cicerone exclaimed, ** Here, 
sir, is a court which for five hundred years has been the 
scene of incessant disputations ! " " Eh bien ! et qu'-a-t-on 
done prouve V demanded the acute Genevese. 

These endless disputes, however, and ineffectual efforts 
will not have been without their use, nor will the record 
of them have proved an unprofitable task, if they should 
lead the student to a conclusion widely different from 
that adopted by Tennemann, but resting on a much 
surer foundation. The inadequacy of Human Reason to 
satisfy its own requirements, ought to incline the learned 
and the wise a little to mistrust the guide to which they 
are apt to commit themselves without hesitation ; and the 
monstrous absurdities which have been embraced by many 
who had rejected the plain evidences of Revelation may 
convince us of the fallibility of the most acute under- 
standings, when they surrender themselves to their own 


unlimited control. The most fantastical dreams of the 
wildest religious enthusiast were never more repugnant 
to common sense than the Neoplatonism of Proclus, the 
Absolute Identity of Schelling, or the Ego and Non-Ego 
ravings of Fichte. 

It is pleasing to reflect that those philosophers whose 
views in Science were the most profound and wise, were 
among the firmest friends of Revealed Religion. 

I regret that notwithstanding the pains that have been 
taken, some typographical errata occur, for which my 
absence from Oxford may not be thought a sufficient 
excuse. Some of these are noticed at the end, and it is 
hoped there are not many more, — the nature and extent 
of the work considered. 

I am fully sensible of other imperfections for which 
I alone am responsible, and for which my regret that they 
exist is no apology. 

February \st, 1832. 






A HISTORY of philosophy, to be complete, demands 
a preliminary inquiry respecting the character of this 
science, as well as respecting its subject-matter, its form, 
and object ; and also its extent or comprehensiveness, its 
method, its importance, and the different ways in which 
it may be treated. All these particulars, with the biblio- 
graphy belonging to it, will form, together with some 
previous observations on the progress of philosophic re- 
search, the subject of a general introduction. The par- 
ticular introduction will carry us on to the first period 
of this history, through a rapid survey of the religious 
and philosophical opinions of the Orientals, as well as 
the first attempts of the Greeks. 





I. Character of the History of Philosophy, 

^ Ch. Leonh. Reinhold, On the Character of the History of 
Philosophy, in the collection of Fiilleborn ; Fasc. I. 

^^ Geo. Fred. Dan. Goess, Essay on the Character of the 
History of Philosophy, and on the System of Thales, Erlangen^ 
1794, 8vo. with a sketch of the proper limits of the History of 
Philosophy, Leips. 1798, Svo. 

•j- J. Christ. Aug. Grohmann, On the Character of the 
History of Philosophy, Wittenberg^ 1797, Svo. 

•f W. GoTTL. Tennemann, History of Philosophy, vol. i, 
Leips. 1798, 8vo. 

Dan. Boethius, De idea Historiae Philosophise rite formanda, 
Upsal, 1800, 4to. 

-|- Fred. Aug. Carus, Observations towards a History of Phi- 
losophy, Leips. 1809. 

•f Ch. Fred. Bachmann, On Philosophy and its History; three 
Academic lectures; Jena, 1811, 8vo. On the History of Phi- 
losophy, second edition, remodeled, with a dedication to Reinhold, 
Jena, 1820, Svo. 

"f Christ. Aug. Brandis, On the Character of the History of 
Philosophy, Copenhagen, 1815, Svo. 

2. The human mind has a tendency to attempt to 
enlarge the bounds of its knowledge, and gradually to 


aspire to a clear development of the laws and relations 
of nature, and of its own operations. At first it does 
nothing more than obey a blind desire, without account- 
ing to itself sufficiently for this instinctive impulse of the 
understanding, and without knowing the appropriate 
means to be employed, or the distance by which it is re- 
moved from its object. Insensibly, this impulse becomes 
more deliberate, and regulates itself in proportion to the 
progress of the understanding, which gradually becomes 
better acquainted with itself. Such a deliberate impulse, 
is what we call Philosophy. 

3. Thereupon arise various attempts to Approximate 
this mental object of the understanding^: attempts more 
or less differing in respect of their principles, their 
methods, their consequences, their extent, and, in general, 
their peculiar objects. In all these attempts, (which take 
the name of Philosophic Systems, when they present 
themselves in a scientific form, and the value of which is 
proportionate to the degree of intelligence manifested by 
each particular philosopher;) we trace the gradual develop- 
ment of the human understanding, according to its pe- 
culiar laws. 

4. But the development of human reason is itself 
subject to external conditions, and is sometimes se- 
conded, sometimes retarded, or suspended, according to 
the different impressions it receives from without. 

5. To give an account of the different works pro- 
duced by the understanding, thus in the progress of im- 
provement, and favoured or impeded by external cir- 
cumstances is, in fact, to compose a history of philosophy. 

G. The subject-matter of the history of philosophy, is 
both external and internal. The internal or immediate 

* Weiller, Kajet., ilber das Verhiillniss der philos. Versuche zur 
Philos. (Schulschrift, 1812) in dem zweit. Bd. der akad. Reden und 
Abhandlungen, 1822, 8vo. 



embraces, 1st. The efforts continually made by the un- 
derstanding to attain to a perception of the first principles 
of the great objects of its pursuit (§ 2), with many inci- 
dental details relating to the subject of investigation, the 
decfree of ardour or remissness which from time to time 
have prevailed ; with the influence of external causes to 
interest men in such pursuits, or the absence of them. 
Sdly. The effects of philosophy, or the views, methods, 
and systems it has originated ; effects varying with the en- 
ergies out of which they sprang. In these we see the un- 
derstanding avail itself of materials, perpetually accu- 
mulating towards constituting philosophy a science, or 
rules and principles for collecting materials to form a 
scientific whole ; or, finally, maxims relating to the me- 
thod to be pursued in such researches. 3dly and 
lastly : We observe the development of the understanding 
as an instrument of philosophy, that is to say, the pro- 
gress of the understanding towards researches in which 
it depends solely on itself; in other words its gradual 
progress towards the highest degree of independence : 
a progress which may be observed in individuals, in 
nations, and in the whole race of man. 

Observation. The history oi systems of philosophy is not to be 
confounded with the history of philosophy, 

7. The external matter consists in the causes, events, 
and circumstances which have influenced the development 
of philosophic reason, and the nature of its productions. 
To this order of facts belong : I st. The individual 
history of philosophers, that is to say, the degree, the 
proportion, and the direction of their intellectual powers ; 
the sphere of their studies and their lives, the interests 
which swayed them, and even their moral characters. 
2dly. The influence of external causes, that is to say, 
the character and the degree of mental cultivation pre- 
valent in the countries to which they belonged ; the 
prevailing spirit of the times ; and, to ascend still farther, 
the climate and the properties of the country ; its insti- 
tutions, religion, and language. 3dly. The influence of 


individuals in consequence of the admiration and imita- 
tion they have excited, by their doctrines or example ; 
an influence which betrays itself in the matter as well 
as in the manner of their several schools. (Bacon, Locke, 

8. The fonfi of the history of philosophy consists in 
the suitable arrangement of these two classes of materials, 
so as to make one scientific whole. Nevertheless, the 
result is modified, partly by the end of history in 
general, and partly by the special end of the history of 

9. History in general is distinguished, when properly 
so called, from Annals, Memoirs, etc. by its form : i. e. by 
the combination of its incidents, and their circumstantial 

10. To enable the history of philosophy to satisfy an 
enlightened curiosity, not merely a vain and idle one, its 
object ought to be thoroughly to explore, through its 
continual alternations of improvement and declension, the 
progress of a philosophic spirit, and the gradual develop- 
ment of philosophy as a science. This end cannot be 
attained by a mere acquaintance with historic facts, but 
rather by contemplating their mutual dependence, and 
connecting their causes and effects. 

11. The efforts of philosophic reason are internal to 
the mind ; but by their publication, and the influence 
they exert on the world without, they assume the charac- 
ter and enter into the combinations of external facts. 
The facts therefore which form a groundwork for the 
history of philosophy may be regarded as both external 
and internal; because, 1st. They stand in connection 
with chronology, as successive or contemporaneous 
events. 2dly. They have their external effects and 
causes. 3dly. They have their origin in the constitu- 
tution of the human understanding, developing themselves 


in a variety of combinations and mutual relations. 4tlily. 
They have reference to a mental object. 

12. The formal character, therefore, of a history of 
philosophy will be modified according to the above four- 
fold relation, and by its proper end, which is to de- 
monstrate at once circumstantially and with a scientific 
view, the causes of every revolution, and its consequences. 

Observation. The circumstantial account does not consist merely 
in a chronological statement of a series of facts, but assumes 
such a series as its text and groundwork. It is very compatible 
with a scientific character in the history of philosophy; at the 
same time that it must be borne in mind, that a history of phi- 
losophy is not philosophy itself. See the work of Grohmann 
cited above, at the head of § 2. 

13. Consequently, the history of philosophy is the 
science which details the efforts of the human understand- 
ing to realise the idea of philosophy, by exhibiting them 
in their mutual dependency: it is a systematic arrange- 
ment of facts illustrating the continual development of 
philosophy, as a science. 

Observation. There is a difference to be observed between the 
history of philosophy, and the history of mankind, — the history 
of the cultivation of the human understanding, and the history 
of the sciences. The biography of philosophers, the examination 
of their writings, the statement of their opinions, and the biblio- 
graphical history of philosophy in general, are either preliminary 
lights and aids, or constituent parts, of the history of philosophy. 

II. CompreJiensiveness and Commencement of the History 

of Philosophy. 

' See in addition to the works cited above, at the head of § 2, 
'j- BcERGE RiiSBRiGii, ou the Antiquity of Philosophy, and the Cha- 
racter of this Science, translated from the Danish into German by 
J. Amb. Markussen, Copenh. 1803, 8vo. 

14. The history of philosophy does not affect to com- 
prehend all the ideas, hypotheses, and caprices which 
have found a place in minds addicted to philosophic re- 
searches ; such an attempt would be equally impracticable 


and unprofitable. The only philosophic opinions which 
deserve to be recorded, are those which may claim to be 
so for their originality, their intrinsic worth, or their in- 
fluence in their own and subsequent epochs. 

15. It must be granted that philosophy has had a 
beginn'mg, because it is nothing else than a superior de- 
gree of energy and activity in the exercise of reason, 
which must have been preceded by an inferior. But 
it is not necessary that the history of philosophy should 
embrace all its first efforts, or ascend up to the very cradle 
of our species. 

16. No sufficient reason has been alleged to induce a 
belief in the existence of a Primitive Philosophic People, 
with whom philosophy might be supposed to have com- 
mence(Jj and from whom all philosophic knowledge might 
have emanated ; for an aptness to philosophise is natural 
to the human mind, and has not been reserved exclusively 
for any one people. The very hypothesis of such a peo- 
ple would remove only one step farther the question of 
the origin of philosophy. Nor must we dignify with the 
name of science the symbolical notions of some of the 
earlier races, which did not as yet clearly apprehend and 
grapple with their objects. 

Observation. The idea of a Primitive Philosophic People is 
founded; 1st. On the hypothesis that all instruction came by 
revelation. 2dly. In the tendency of the understanding to re- 
fer correspondent facts to the same origin. 3dly. In the attempt 
to render certain doctrines more venerable by their high antiquity. 
The general cause is to be sought in the indolence natural to hu- 
man nature, and the habit of confounding opinions which have 
a semblance of philosophy with philosophy itself. The writers 
who have devoted themselves to the critical examination of 
history with a theological view, have declared the Hebrews to 
be the primitive race ; others (like Plessing) the Egyptians ; and 
these last have recently (since the writings of Fred. Schlegel), 
been displaced by the Hindoos. 

17. Although we discover in every people the traces 
of a spirit of scientific inquiry, nevertheless this general 


disposition does not appear to have developed itself in all 
in an equal degree : nor has philosophy among all attained 
to the character of a science. In general, it seems as if 
nature employed the civilization of one nation as the 
means of civilizing others, and accorded only to a few 
the distinction of originality in intellectual discovery. 
Consequently, all nations have not an equal claim to a 
place in the history of this science. The first belongs 
to those among whom the spirit of philosophy, origi- 
nally aided by a slight external impulse, has felt 
itself sufficiently strong to advance to independent re- 
searches, and to gain ground in the paths of science ; 
the second belongs to such as, without possessing so 
much originality and spontaneous exertion, have adopted 
philosophic ideas from others, — have made them their 
own, and thereby exerted an influence over the destinies 
of philosophy. 

18. The Greeks are the nation whose originality of 
genius has created an era in the history of this science. 
In fact, although they were dependent for part of their 
first civilization on other nations, and have received from 
foreio-ners certain materials and incitements to the study 
of philosophy, we can perceive that they evinced them- 
selves a lively and sincere interest in such investigations, 
and among them this curiosity assumed a scientific cha- 
racter, and imparted the same to the language itself. It 
is among the Greeks, then, that we find for the first time 
a truly philosophic spirit, united to literature and good 
taste, and a scientific spirit of investigation which center- 
ed in the contemplation of the Nature of Man : to this 
succeeded the desire of investigating to the end and con- 
solidating these first bases of study (the origin this of 
scepticism) ; and at length ensued the formation of a phi- 
losophic language and method. We have moreover posi- 
tive and certain testimonies to enable us to follow, on 
grounds altogether historical, the origin and develop- 
ment of the philosophic literature of this nation. We 
may add that the philosophy and, in general, the science 


of the Greeks naturally combine and form a wliole with 
those of more recent nations. 

19. The Orientals, prior to the Greeks in point of 
antiquity and the date of their civilization, never attained 
to the same eminence, at least as far as we are enabled 
to judge. Their doctrines were constantly invested with 
the character of Revelation, diversified by the imagina- 
tion under a thousand different aspects. Even among the 
Hindoos they wear a form altogether mystical and sym- 
bolical. It was the genius of these nations to clothe in 
the colours of the fancy the opinions of the understanding, 
and a certain number of speculative notions, more or less 
capriciously conceived, in order to render them more 
evident ; without troubling themselves to examine the 
operations of mind and their principles ; with its move- 
ments progressive and retrograde. The notions respecting 
the Deity, the world, and mankind, which these nations 
incontestably entertained, were not, with them, the causes 
nor the consequences of any true philosophy. Their 
climate, their political constitution, and despotic govern- 
ments, with the institution of castes, were often ob- 
stacles to the free development of the mind. Besides, 
the history of these nations continues still to be involved 
in obscurity ; there is a want of positive and certain in- 
formation ; and the relation their intellectual progress 
bears to the history of philosophy cannot as yet be 
sufficiently ascertained. 

Observation. There are some interesting remarks on the 
Greek and Oriental characters, and on the causes of their diver- 
sity in the work off J. Aug. Eberhart, entitled the Spirit ofPri- 
mitive Christianity, vol. i, p. 63, sqq. What is generally under- 
stood by the Barbaric philosophy ? See Diog. Laert. I, 1, sqq. 

20. The true commencement, therefore, of the his- 
tory of philosophy must be sought among the Greeks, 
and particularly at that epoch when, by the progress of 
imagination and intellect, the activity of the understand- 
ing had attained a high degree of development : an 


epoch when the minds of men become more independent 
of rehgion, poetry, and politics, apphed themselves to 
the investigation of truth, and devoted themselves to 
regular studies. This state of things may be referred to 
the epoch of Thales. The different directions and forms 
which, in the course of ages, this spirit of philosophic 
research assumed ; and the effects, of every kind, which 
it produced, derived, through different channels, from 
the Greeks to the moderns, constitute the province of 
the history of philosophy. 

Observation. The definition of the true limits of the history of 
philosophy has only of late become an object of inquiry : (the 
system of ethnography, or partial histories of particular nations) 
opposing itself to anything like a precise limitation, and even yet 
there is nothing satisfactorily determined on this point ; only 
Tiedemann would exclude the Orientals. The reasons assigned on 
the other hand by f Carus, Thoughts on the History of Philoso- 
phy, p. 143, and -J-Bachmann, On Philosophy and its History, and 
the same author. Dissert. Pliilos. de peccatis Tennemanni in historia 
Philosophise, Jen. 1814, 4to., fail to prove that they necessarily 
belong to philosophy. It is true that a great interest attaches to 
the investigation of their doctrines, but we must distinguish well 
between this and the proper interest of the history of philosophy. 
On the whole, it may not be useless to preface the statement 
of Greek philosophy, by a brief review of the j)hilosophic and 
religious opinions of the principal nations who, in a greater or 
less degree, have had relations with the Greeks. 

III. Method, 

Consult, besides the works cited before (§ 2) -j" Christ. Garve, 
De ratione scribendi historiam Philosoj^hiae, Lips. 1768, 4to. and 
Legendorum veterum praecepta nonnulla et exemplum. Lips. 
1770, 4to. both contained in Fulleborn's Collection, etc. Fasci- 
culi xi, xii. 

j- Geo. Gust. Fulleborn, Plan of a History of Philosophy, 
in the iv. Fasc. of his Collection ; and, -j" What is meant by a 
representation of the Spirit of Philosophy ? Fasc. v. 

•f Christ. Weiss, On the Method of treating the History of 
Philosophy in the Universities, Leips. 1800. 

521. The Methody determined by the end of the sci- 


ence (§ 10), consists in the rules agreeably to which the 
materials ought to be investigated, collected, prepared, 
and combined to form a whole. 

22, The materials for the history of philosophy may 
be either accidentally met with, or methodically inves- 
tigated. In the latter case we ought to inquire especially 
what are the authorities and what should be the procedure 
of a well-directed research. The sources to which we may 
have recourse are of two sorts ; the works themselves of 
philosophers which have descended to us ; and the notices 
afforded by other writers concerning the lives and the doc- 
trines of these philosophers ; testimonies, the authenticity 
and probability of which should be critically examined. 
The less that any philosopher has written, or the less his 
writings have been preserved, the more we should seek to 
collect information from other authors ; but, at the same 
time, the more necessary it becomes to be cautious in our 
adoption of such information ^ When only fragments 
remain, it is well to consider them not only philosophically 
but critically. 

23. Besides collecting the propositions of philoso- 
phers, it becomes necessary to study their true sense, their 
extent, their origin, and their mutual connection % in order 
to be enabled to assume the true point of view in which the 
philosopher himself stood, and to appreciate the merit 
of his labours, without exaggeration, and without injustice. 
The means to this end are a perfect acquaintance with his 
contemporaries, with the idioms of the language, and the 
course of men's ideas at that time ; as well as a compai'ison 
of different authorities and testimonies with a view to ascer- 
taining their credibility. In order to attain to a faithful 
and true representation of the meaning and the merit of 
difJerent philosophical systems, it is indispensably neces- 

•» See H. KuHNHAnoT, De fide historicoruni recte aestinianda in Hist. Philo- 
sophiae. Helmst. 1796, 4to. 

•= Apply this, for example, to the uatunc convenienter vivere of tlie Stoics, 
and their aKaraXrj^ljia. 


sary that we should compare one philosophical doctrine 
with analogous ones, whether contemporary or posterior ; 
that we should determine with care its points of approxi- 
mation and divergency; that we should investigate its 
place in the general system of its author, and the manner 
in which he appears to have been led to this doctrine ; in 
which particular, care must be taken to distinguish be- 
tween internal principles and external causes. 

24. The management of the materials thus critically 
analyzed, demands a particular care in the choice of ex- 
pression ; particularly in the case of technical terms, 
which it is necessary to render with perspicuity ; without, 
however, giving them too foreign an air and character, 
e. g. the e|i?, habitus, of Chrysippus. For the connection of 
these materials, it will result from that chronological and 
systematic dependency of which we have spoken (§ 2), and 
especially from their joint relation to the final object and 
end of the understanding (§ 3). 

Ohservation. The particular ends contemplated in such a 
work may justify a certain diversity in the manner and method 
of it : and may help to resolve the question (according to cir- 
cumstances), whether it should be accompanied or not by cri- 

25. In combining these materials into a whole it is 
necessary to direct an earnest and constant attention to 
the development of reason, and to the progressive ad- 
vancement of science. With this view we should establish 
points of repose, consisting in divisions and subdivisions, 
which ought, not merely to enable the reader the better 
to glance over the work, but should offer a clearer view 
of the whole, and of the mutual relation of its parts. 

Observation. The ethnographical method, which prevailed up 
to the time of Tiedemann, is useful for a collection of the ma- 
terials proper for a general or special history of philosophy ; but 
will not form such a history itself. 

26. Assuming the above principle, it is required to 


constitute distinct epochs: 1st. That a sensible progress 
should have taken place in the improvement of reason, 
and that new lights and new principles should have 
been introduced into philosophy itself, influencing the 
scientific combination of acquired knowledge. 2dly. That 
great external events should have had a powerful and 
lasting influence over philosopliy ^. 

27. Three principal periods may be defined in the 
history of philosophy. First period : Comprising an ac- 
count of the eftbrts of the understanding to acquire a 
knowledge of first principles, and the laws of nature, and 
freedom of will and action ; without a clear conscious- 
ness of the method most conducive to such knowledge : — 
Greek and Roman philosophy. Second period : Efforts 
of the understanding towards the same end, but under 
the influence of a principle superior to itself, derived 
from Revelation ; subsequently an impulse to free itself 
from any imposed restraint ; followed by a fresh subjuga- 
tion to another arbitrary formulary ; a spirit exclusively 
dialectic : — Philosophy of the Middle Ages. Third pe- 
riod: Fresh and independent exertions towards the 
discovery of first principles ; with the purpose of ar- 
ranging all human knowledge in a more complete and 
systematic form ; an epoch remarkable for the manner 
in w^hich it has contributed to investigate, found, and de- 
fine the principles of philosophy as a science. — Modern 

Krug, in his History of Ancient Philosophy, p. 28, admits 
only two divisions, that of ancient and modern philosophy. 
He assumes as the line of demarcation the dechne of govern- 
ment, manners, arts, and sciences, during the first five or six 
centuries of the Christian era. 

IV. Importance of this History. 

■f Fr. Ant. Zimmermann, Dissertation on the Utility of the 
History of Philosophy, Heidelb. 1785, 4to. 

<* Dan. Boethius, De praecipuis Philosophiae epochis. Lond, 1800, 4to. 


if Geo. Gust. Fulleborn, Some general Deductions from the 
Hist, of Philosophy in his Collection, Fasc. iv, and, On certain Ad- 
vantages resulting from the History of Ancient Philosophy, Fasc xi. 

•f H. RiTTER, On the Advancement of Philosophy through the 
History of Philosophy (a supplement to his work, On the Influence 
of Descartes), Leips. 1816, 8vo. 

28. If philosophy may claim the highest interest, as 
the most elevated of human sciences, its history, for the 
same reason, ought to possess a great importance. 
Whoever is interested in philosophy ought not to be 
ignorant of its history, and progress. 

29. The history of philosophy, besides, possesses a 
scientific merit peculiar to itself; it disposes the mind 
to a free employment of its powers, furnishes it with 
useful results, respecting the proper method to be fol- 
lowed, renders it more sensible to its aberrations, with 
their causes and consequences, and thereby furnishes 
a valuable assistance towards establishing rules for a 
right conduct of the understanding, in order to the 
attainment of new lights, and discovery of fresh paths : 
sources of information indispensable to philosophy, so 
long as it must be considered as in a progressive state, 
and not yet fully matured. 

SO. The history of philosophy has a connection with 
all the other sciences and their history ; more especially 
with the history of Religion and of Mankind, because 
Reason is the basis of all knowledge, and embraces the 
ultimate end of all theoretical and all practical employ- 
ment of our faculties. 

31. As a department of study, such history may ma- 
terially improve the understanding, all the powers of 
which it exercises in the research and exposition of 
the different systems. Nor is it less calculated to in- 
fluence the habits of the mind, inasmuch as it teaches 
the renunciation of prejudices, modesty in forming an 
opinion, and tolerance of the opinions of others: its 


tendency is to secure the mind from exaggerated ad- 
miration, and to moderate attachment to opinions re- 
ceived on the faith of authority. 

Observation. On the other hand, has not the study of the 
liistory of philosophy its disadvantages ? Wliat are they, and 
how do they present themselves ? — Indecision, and hesitation 
of judgment, indifference to the truth and the value of every 
rational research, can only be effects of a light and superficial 
study, where the diversity of opinions is the only thing con- 
templated, without regard had to their principles : where the 
difference of doctrines is the only thing attended to, without 
ascending to the points of union which they have in common. 
Here may be applied what Bacon says of philosophy. 

V. Different ways in which the History of Philosophy 

may he treated. 

32. The history of philosophy divides itself into uni- 
versal and particular, according to the extent of the 
objects which it may be the author's design to embrace. 
The first is the statement, by facts, of the progress of 
philosophy, considered as Science in general, in its prin- 
cipal directions, and its most conspicuous results. This 
sort of history embraces a consideration of the principles 
of all philosophy ; the most distinguished systems of 
philosophers ; and the progress which they have ena- 
bled the philosophical sciences to make in their several 
departments. The second is employed about instances 
of the progress of the understanding confined within 
certain limits of time and place ; and limited to cer- 
tain particular directions, or certain special objects of 

Observation, f Carus, Thoughts on the History of Philosophy, 
p. 106, defines the universal history of philosophy as, " the na- 
tural history of human reason, its pursuits and productions." 
But he takes this definition in so loose a sense, that he gives 
us, instead of historic facts, nothing but a meagre and barren 
abstract of general conclusions. This way of viewing the matter 
does not answer the true end of a history of philosophy ; the 
second chapter of this general introduction contains the sub- 
stance of it. 


33. The universal history of philosophy, may be pre- 
sented in an abridged or a detailed form. The principle 
of a good abridgment is to present a review, as complete 
as possible, of all the essential subjects of discussion, 
with a due regard to perspicuity and brevity. Truth, 
impartiality, and conciseness are of course requisite. 

34. Agreeably to what has been laid down (§ 32) we 
may define many kinds of particular histories of phi- 
losophy; such as, 1st. (From a relation to certain times 
or places ;) histories of the philosophy of particular 
epochs ; e. g. — of the ancients, of the middle ages, or of 
the moderns ; with numerous subdivisions, embracing 
histories of the philosophy of this or that particular 
nation. Sdly. (From a relation to certain particular 
pursuits or special objects of philosophy;) histories of 
systems or schools, or literary questions, taken separately; 
of different philosophical methods ; of the technical lan- 
guage of philosophy ; histories of certain branches of 
philosophy ; histories of certain philosophical notions, 
principles, or theories. If a particular philosophical 
history be limited to one single object, we have then 
a special history — a monography. 

S5. There is an intimate relation between particular 
and universal history. The first supplies the other with 
useful and various materials ; but the latter, in its turn, 
develops general views, and affords lights for the exam- 
ination and exposition of the particular details. Conse- 
quently they can only become perfect when united. 

VI. Various Histories of Philosophy. 

36. The history of philosophy has not been separately 
treated, as a distinct science, by the ancient philosophers. 
They have touched upon the subject only while occupied 
with the statement of their own doctrines, and only so far 
as the points they adverted to bore a relation to what 


they taiiglit tliemselves, in which respect the critical judg- 
ment of Aristotle threw a light upon the opinions of his 
predecessors. A collection of historic documents illus- 
trative of the gradual development of philosophy, was the 
first step towards a history of the science. Even in 
modern times the earliest attempt at this sort of history 
was made in the form of a compilation, and the model 
assumed was the work of Diogenes Laertius. The pre- 
vailing notion of the time was that of a primitive phi- 
losophic race (§ IG), and that all philosophy was derived 
from revelation; the etknogra2:)/tical method heing adopted 
in the execution (cf. § 25, obs.). First period. Bcnjle 
awakened a spirit of criticism in this kind of under- 
taking; Jac. Thomasius extended the circle of study 
necessary to the same; and Leibmt;^ indicated what 
the history of philosophy ought to be. Second period, 
from Brucker to Tennemann : philology and criticism 
improved the materials collected ; some imperfections 
in the works of the preceding age were corrected, 
and the science assumed more elevated pretensions. 
Brucker published the most complete work yet known, 
which, by a laborious assemblage of documents, by the 
judiciousness of his remarks, and particularly by what 
it contains on the biography of the philosophers, con- 
tinues to be useful: but is deficient in a philosophic 
spirit. Gurlett and Tiedemann pursued a better method, 
and rendered great services to its special history. — From 
Kant to our own time ; a zealous industry has been 
applied to its improvement in respect of theory and 
method; and, in consequence of the inquiries which this 
new sort of study has suggested, examination has been 
made of its proper sources and principles ; documents 
have been revised, and their contents more ably stated ; 
under the influence, more or less sensible, of a philoso- 
phical spirit and system^. The German nation has done 

^ See a review of the principal services rendered to the history of philosophy 
since 1780, in the Philosophical Journal of Nieth.ammer, 1795, Nos. viii. 
and ix. Tennemann's Review of tlie Labours of the liiitory of Philosophy 
in the last fifteen years of the eighteenth Century, iu the Ergihnhl. der Allg. 



the most for this description of history, as regards both 
its manner and its matter; but there is still occasion 
for much labour in this extensive field. 

VII. Bibliography of the History of Philosophy, 

87. Under this head are comprehended the works re- 
lative to the history of philosophy in general and in par- 
ticular. We shall particularise the writings on individual 
subjects, as they shall come under consideration. The 
works on t^e universal history of philosophy may be 
arranged under five heads : (a) Treatises on its Litera- 
ture and Method, (b) Collections, (c) Miscellanies. 
(d) Detailed histories, (e) Outlines. 

(a) Bibliographical Treatises. 

J. JoNsius, De scriptoribus Hist. Philosophicae libri iv, Francof. 
1659. — Recogniti et ad praesentem aetatem usque perducti, cura 
J. Chr. Dorn, Jen. 1716, 8vo. 

•f J. Andr. Ortloff, Bibliographical Manual of the History 
of Philosophy, Erlcmgen, 1798, 8vo. part i, never completed. 

N. B. The Treatises on Method have been cited under the 
preceding sections. 

(b) Collections. 

Jac. Thomasii, Schediasma historicum, quo varia discutiuntur 
ad liistoriam turn philosophicam turn ecclesiasticam pertinentia. 
Lips. 1665, •4to. The same work under this title : Origines 
historiae philos. et ecclesiast., cura Chr. Thomasii, Hal. 1699, 

J. Franc Buddei, Analecta Historiae Philosophiae, Hal. 
1706, 8vo. second edition, 1724, 8vo. 

-j" Acta Philosophonim : by Chr. Aug. Heumann, 3 vols. 
Svo. Hal. 1715-23. 

Jac Bruckeri, Otium Vindelicum, sive meletematum Histo- 
rico-philosophicorum triga, Aug. Find. 1729, Svo. Miscellanea 
historiae philosophicae, litterariae, criticae, olim sparsim edita, etc. 
Aug. Find. 1748, Svo. 

"6' ' """^* ' • ^^> 

Lit. Z. 1801, s. 81—147, and Carus, Hints on the History of Philosophy 
Leips. 1809, s. 21—90. 


CiiR. Ern. de Windiieim, Fragnientu historioe philosopliioae, 
etc. Erl. IToS, 8vo. With essays of various other authors. 

f Micii. HisMANN, Magazine of Philosophy and its History, 
Goett'uig. et Leips. 1778-83, 6 vols. 8vo. In this work arc 
many essays translated from the Academic Royale des Inscrip- 
tions, etc. 

■j- Geo. Gust. Fuelleborn, Collection of Pieces towards a 
History of Philosophy, ZuUkhau, 1791-99, Fasc. xii, 8vo. 

Guill. Traugott Krug, Symbolae ad Histor. Philosophiae, 
Le'ips. 1813, 4to. Part first. 

f J. Fred. Fries, Pieces towards a History of Philosophy, 
Heidelberg, Fasc. i. 

(cj Miscellanies, containing researches and remarks 
on the History of Philosophy. 

The true Intellectual System of the Universe, by Ralph Cud- 
worth, etc. Lond. 1678, folio, second edition, by Birch, 1743, 
2 vols. 4to. and 8vo. Lond. 1820, and Oxford, 1829. 

CuDwoRTHi Systema Intellectuale hujus Universi, seu de veris 
naturas rerum originibus commentarii, quibus omnis eorum phi- 
losophia qui Deum esse negant, funditus evertitur : accedunt 
reliqua ejus opuscula, Jen. 1733, folio; second edition, Leyd. 
1773, 2 vols. 4to. translated by Mosheim [with the addition of 
many learned notes and dissertations by the translator.]. 

HuETii, Demonstratio Evangelica, Paris, 1679, folio, often 

Dictionnaire historique et critique, par J. Bayle, Rotterd. 
1697, 2 vols, folio. The best edition is the fourth, reviewed and 
augmented by Desmaizeaux, Amst. et Leid. 1740, 4 vols, folio. 
Various translations and extracts. [A continuation lias been 
published by J. G. Ciiaufpie, Amst. 1750, likewise in 4 vols, 

f Ern. Platner, Philosophical Aphorisms, with some Prin- 
ciples for a History of Philosophy, Leij)s. 1782, 2 vols. 8vo. a 
second edition, 1793-1800, 8vo. 

(d) Detailed Histories. 

The History of Philosophy by Thomas vStanley, Lond. 1655, 
folio, third edition, 1701, 4to. Latin translation with corrections 
by GoDEFR. Olearius, Historia Philos. Lips. 1711, 4to. et Ven. 
1733, 4to. 

Histoire critique de la Philosophic, ou Ton traite de son Origine, 
de ses Progres et des diverses Revolutions qui lui sont arrivees 
jusqu'a notre temps, par M. D*** (Andr. Fr. Boureau Des- 

c 2 


L Andes), Paris, 1730-36, 3 vols. Another edition, Atnsterd, 3 
vols. 8vo. 

f J. J. Brucker, Questions on the History of Philosophy, 
Ulm, 1731-36, 7 vols. 12mo. with a Supplement, 1737, 12mo. 

J. Bruckeri, Historia critica Philosophise a Mundi incunabu- 
lis, etc. Lips. 1742-44, 5 vols. 4to. anew edition without altera- 
tions, but augmented by a Supplement, 1766-67, 6 vols. 4to. 
An English Abridgment by W. Enfield, History of Philosophy 
from the earliest times, etc. Lond. 1791, 2 vols. 4to. again in 
8vo. 2 vols. 

Agatopisto Cromaziano (Appiano Buonafede), Delia 
Istoria e della indole di ogni Filosofia, Lucca, 1766-71, 5 vols. 
8vo. Again Venice, 1782-83, 6 vols. 8vo. For the continuation 
of this work see § 38 (a). 

-j" History of Philosophy for Amateurs, by J. Christ. Ade- 
LUNG, Leips. 1786-87, second edition, 1809, 3 vols. 8vo. 

-f- J. Glieb Buhle, History of Philosophical Reason, Lemgo, 
1793, 8vo. vol. I. Instead of this work, which he did not con- 
tinue, Buhle published f A Compendium of the History of Phi- 
losophy, and a critical Bibliography of this ScieiKje, Goetting. 
1796-1804, 8 vols. 8vo. We may here add the work cited in 
§ 38. on Modern Philosophy, which is preceded by a Review of 
the Ancient Systems of Philosophy up to the fifteenth century. 

-j- G. Gottlieb Tennemann, History of Philosophy, Leips. 
1798-1819, 11 vols. 8vo. One vol. of second edition published 
by A. Wendt, 1828. 

Degerando, Histoire comparee des Systemes de la Philo- 
sophic, 1804, 3 vols. 8vo. second edition, augmentee, 4 vols. 
8vo. Paris, 1822. A German translation by Tennemann, 
Marburg, 1806-7, 2 vols. 8vo. 

■\ J. Henr. Mart. Ernesti, An Encyclopedic Manual of 
General Hist, of Philos. and its Bibliography, Lemgo, 1807, 8vo. 

-f- Fred. Aug. Carus, Hints for a Hist, of Philos. Leips. 1809, 
2 vols. 8vo. (in the fourth volume of his posthumous works). 

f E. G. Steck, the History of Philosophy, vol. I, Riga, 
1805, 8vo. 

-j- C. J. H. WiNDiscHMANN, Die Philosophic im Fortgang der 
Weltgeschichte, Bonn, 1827, 8vo. 

(e) OidUnes. 

Omitting the sketches of the History of Philosophy, 
which, since tlie time of Buddeus, may be found at the 
head of many Manuals of Philosopliy, we shall merely 
notice the following abstracts : 


Geo. Hornii, Historia Philosophica, Lugd. Bat. 1655, 4to. 

Laur. Reinharti, Compend. Hist. Philosoph. Lips. 1724, 8vo. 

Jo. GoTTL. Heineccii, Element Hist. Philosopliicae, Berol'in. 
1743, 8vo. 

-f- J. Brucker, Abridgment of his Questions on the History 
of Philosophy, Ulm, 173G, 12mo. with additions, 1737; under 
the title of Elements of the Hist, of Philos. Ulm, 1751, 8vo. 

•j" J. Bruckeri, Institutiones Hist. Philosophicoe, Lips. 1747, 
8vo. second edition, 1756, third edition, by Fr. Gottl Born, 
Leips. 1790, 8vo. 

-j- C. G. "VV. LoDTMANN, Brief Sketch of the History of Phi- 
losophy, Helmst. 1754, 8vo. 

Forme Y, Abrege de I'Histoire de la Philosophic, Amstd. 1760, 

"f Fr. Ant. Buesching, Sketch of the History of Philosophy, 
Berlin, 1772-74, 2 vols. 8vo. 

-|- Christ. Meiners, Sketch of the History of Philosophy, 
Lemgo, 1786, 8vo. second edition, 1789. 

•f Jo. GuRLiTT, Sketch of the History of Philosophy, Leips. 
1786, 8vo. 

f Fr. Xav. Gmeiner's, Literary History of the Origin and 
Progress of Philosophy, and of its Sects and Systems, Greiz. 
1788-89, 11 vols. 8vo. 

f J. Aug. Eberhard, General History of Philosophy, Halle, 
1788, second edition, 1796, 8vo. Abstract of a general History, 
Halle, 1794, 8vo. 

-f Geo. Socher, Historical Sketch of the Systems of Philo- 
sophy from the Greeks to Kant, Munich, 1802, 8vo. 

f Fred. Ast, Sketch of the History of Philosophy, LandsJmt, 
1807, 8vo. 

-|- Ch. Aug. Schaller, Manual of the History of Philosophi- 
cal Discoveries, etc. forming the second part of the Magaz. 
fiir Yerstandesiibungen, Halle, 1809, 8vo. 

■f- Ph. L. Snell, Brief Sketch of the History of Philosophy : 
Part first, History of Ancient Philosophy, Geissen, 1813, 8vo. 
Part second. History of the Philosophy of the ^Middle ages, Ibid. 
1819, 8vo. 

f Gaeten Weiller, Sketch of the History of Philosophy, 
Munich, 1813, 8vo. 

f Jos. Hillebrand, History and Methodical Systems of 
Philosophy, forming the second part of his Introduction to Phila- 
sophy, Heidelberg^ 1819, 8vo, 


-j- A. T. RixNER, Manual of the History of Philosophy, 3 
vols. Salz. 1822-23, 8vo. 

f L. Hamerskold, Outlines of the History of Philosophy 
from the earliest times to the present, Stockholm, 1822, 8vo. 

38. Works on the history of philosophy in detail: 
classed according to the distinctions given in § 34. 

I. (a) Histories of particular epochs. 

•f W. Traug. Krug, History of Ancient Philosophy particu- 
larly among the Greeks and Romans, Leips. 1827, 8vo. second 

■f Christoph. Meiners, Memoirs towards a History of the 
Opinions prevalent during the first centuries after the birth of 
Jesus Clirist, Leips. 1782, 8vo. 

Agatopisto Cromaziano (Appiano Buonafede), Delia ris- 
taurazione di ogni Filosofia nei secoli xv, xvi, xvii. This 
work may be considered as a sequel of one by the same author, 
mentioned in the preceding §. Venice, 1789, 3 vols. 8vo. -f A 
German translation, with corrections and additions, by Ch. 
Heydenreich, Leips. 1791-92, 2 vols. Svo. 

•f J. GoTTL. Buhle, History of Modern Pliilosophy from 
the revival of Letters, Goetting. 1800-5, 6 vols. 8vo. Cf. 
§ 37 (d). 

-j- A. Kayssler, Memoirs towards a Critical History of Mo- 
dem Philosoj)hy, Halle, 1804, large 8vo. 

-j- Cii. Fred. Bachmann, On the Philosophy of our own Times, 
Jena, 1816, 8vo. 

-i- K. J. H. WiNDiscHMANN, Critical Reflections upon the 
fate of Philosophy in modern times, and the commencement of a 
new era, Francof. 1825, 8vo. 

(b) Histories of the Philosophy of particular nations. 

(For writings on the philosophy of the most ancient nations, 
see below § 68, and following.) 

CicERONis, Historia Philosophise antiquse ; ex omnibus illius 
scriptis collegit, etc. Frid. Gedike, Berl. 1782; second edition, 
1801, Svo. 

•f Fr. Vict. Lebrecht Plessing, Historical and Philosophi- 
cal Researches on the Opinions, the Theology, and Philo- 
sophy of the most Ancient Nations, and particularly of the 


Greeks up to the time of Aristotle, Elbing, 1785, part the first, 

f Fr. Vict. Lebreciit Plessing, Memnonium, or Researches 
to elucidate the Mysteries of Antiquity, Le'ips. 1787, 2 vols. 8vo. 

-|- Fr. Vict. Lebreciit Plessing, Researches to illustrate the 
Pliilosophy of the most remote Antiquity, Le'ips. 1788, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Berchetti, Filosofia degli antichi popoli, Perugia, 1812, 8vo. 

f Cur. Meiners, History of the Origin, the Progress, and the 
Decline of the Sciences in Greece and Rome, Lemgo, 1781-82, 
2 vols. 8vo. incomplete. 

The Philosophy of Ancient Greece investigated hy W. An- 
derson, Loud. 1791, 4to. 

(Fr. de Salignac de la Motiie Fenelon,) Abrege des Vies 
des Anciens Philosophes, etc. Paris, 1795, 8vo. 1796, 12mo. 

Deffendente Sacchi, Storia della Filosofia Greca, Pavia, 
1818-20, 4 vols. 8vo. (Brought down to the times of the So- 

f G. Fred. Dan. Goess, The Science of Education on the 
Principles of the Greeks and Romans, Ansixich. 1801, 8vo. 

Paganinus Gaudentius, De Philosophiae apud Romanes 
origine et progressu, Pisa, 1643, 4to. Reprinted in the Collec- 
tion, Nova rariorum Collectio, Fasc. ii, iii, Halce, 1717. 

J. L. Blessig, Diss, de Origine Philosophicse apud Romauos, 
Strashurg, 1770, 4to. 

IL (a) Histories of different Fhilosophical Methods, 

Systems, and Schools. 

J. Gerh. Vossii, De Philosophiae et Philosophonim sectis lib. 
ii, Hag. Com. 1658, 4to. contin. atque supplementa adjecit. Jo. 
Jac. a Ryssel, Lips. 1690, 4to. again Jena^, 1705, 4to. 

•j" C. Fr. St.eudlin, History and Spirit of Scepticism, princi- 
pally in relation to Morals and Religion, Leips. 1794-95, 2 vols. 

Imman. Zeender, De notione et generibus Scepticismi et 
hodierna praesertim ejus ratione, Bern. 1795, 8vo. 

For writings relative to particular schools of philosophy, see 
the places wherein these schools are mentioned. 


fb) History of the Philosophical Sciences in detail. 

B. T. (Bas. Terzi) Storia critica delle Opinioni Filosoficlie, 
etc. intorno all' anima. Padova, 1776-78, 8vo. 

■f Fr. Aug. Carus, Historj^ of Philosophy, Leips. 1808 (third 
vol. of his posthumous works). 

Pet. Gassendi, De Origine et varietate Logical, opp. torn. I. 

Ger. Jo. Vossii, De Natura et Constitutione Logicae, etc. 
Hag. Com. 1658. 

Jo. Alb. Fabricii, Specimen elenchticum Historiae Logicae, 
Hamh. 1699, 4to. 

JoH. Ge. Walch, Historia Logicae, in his, Parerga Academica, 
p. 453, sqq. Leips. 1721, 8vo. 

JoACH. Geo. Daries, Meditationes in Logicas veterum. Ap- 
pendix to his. Via ad Veritatem, Jena, 1755, 8vo. 

•f Fuelleborn, Brief History of Logic among the Greeks, in 
his Collection, Fasc. iv, No. 4. 

J. Gottlieb Buhle, De vetermn Philosophorum Graecorum 
ante Aristotelem conaminibus in arte Logica invenienda et perfi- 
cienda. In the Commentatt. Soc. Goetting. tom. x. 

* * * 

f W. L. G. VON Eberstein, Attempt at a History of Logic 
and Metaphysics among the Germans, from the time of Leibnitz 
to the present day, Halle, 1794-99, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Jac. Tiiomasii, Hist, variae fortunae, quam disciplina Meta- 
physica jam sub Aristotele, jam sub scholasticis, jam sub re- 
centioribus experta est ; at the head of his, Erotemata Metaphy- 
sica, Lips. 1705, 8vo. 

Sam. Fred. Buchner, Historia Metaphysices, Wtttemh. 1723, 

LuD. R. Wachlin, Diss, de progressu Philos. Theoreticae, 
sec. xviii, Lund. 1796, 4to. 

B. T. (Bazil. Terzi), Storia critica delle Opinioni Filosof. 
etc. intorno alia Cosmologia, Pad. 1788, 8vo. tom. I. 

f Dietrich Tiedemann, Spirit of Sjoeculative Philosophy, 
Marhurg, 1791-97, with a table, 7 vols. 8vo. brought down to 


-j- Result of Philosophical Researches on the Nature of Hu- 
man Knowledge, from Plato to Kant, by Th. Aug. Suabedissen. 
A prize composition. Marburg, 1808, 8vo. 

-|" Prize Compositions on the Question : What has been the 
Progress of Metaphysics in Germany, from the time of Leibnitz 
and Wolf? by J. Christ. Schwab, Ch. Leonh. Reinhold, J. H. 
Abicht, Berlin, 1708, 8vo. 

Fred. Ancillon, Melanges de Litterature et de Philosophiaj, 
2 vols. Paris, 1809, 8vo. 

* * * 

De Burigny, Histoire de la Philosophic payenne, ou Sentimens 
des Philosophes et des peuples payens, etc. sur Dieu, sur Tame, 
et siir les devoirs de I'homme, La Hayc, 1723, 2 vols. 12mo. 
The same work, under the title of. La Theologie payenne, etc. 
Paris, 1753, 2 vols. 12mo. 

•j" J. Achates Fel. Bielke, History of Natural Theology, 
Leips. et Zelle, 1742, 8vo. A new History of Human Reason, 
Part first, 1749, Part second, 1752, 4to. Zelle, 

■\ Mich. Fr. Leistikow, Memoir towards a History of Natu- 
ral Theology, Jena, 1750, 4to. 

"f J. Ge. Alb. Kipping, Essay towards a Philosophical His- 
tory of Natural Theology, Brunswick, 1761, Part first, 8vo. 

•f Chr. F. Polz, History of Natural Theology (in his, Natu- 
ral Theology), Jena, 1777, 4to. 

-j- Ph. Christ. Reinhard, Sketch of a History of the Origin 
and Development of Religious Opinions, Jena, 1794, 8vo. 

-j- Imman. Berger, History of Religious Philosophy, Berlin, 
1800, 8vo. and Reflections on the Philosophy of Ecclesiastical 
History in St.eudlin's Beytr. Book iv, Fasc 5 (1798). 

^ ^ -Jp 

Chr. Godefr. Ewerbeck, Super doctrinae de moribus His- 
toria, ejus fontibus, conscribendi ratione et utilitate, Halle, 1787, 

■f Geo. Sam. Francke, Answer to the question proposed by the 
Scientific Society of Copenhagen : Quinam sunt notabiliores gra- 
dus per quos philosophia practica, ex quo tempore systematica 
pertractari coepit, in eum quem hodie obtinet statum pervenerit? 
Altona, 1801, 8vo. 

Nic. HiERON. GuNDLiNG, Historia Philos. Moralis, Pars i, 
Hal. 170G, 4to. 

f Gottlieb Stolle, History of Heathen Morality, Jenar 
1714, 4to. 


■f J. Barbeyrac, Preface to his French translation of the Jus 
Natura of PufFendorf, Basle, 1732, 4to. containing a History 
of Morals and Natural Right. 

George England, Inquiry into the Morals of the Ancients, 
Lond. 1757, 4to. 

•f Christ. Meiners, General and Critical History of Ancient 
and Modern Ethics, Goetting. 1800-1, Part second, 8vo. 

•\ C. Fr. St^udlin, History of the Philosophy of Hebrew 
and Christian Morals, Hanover, 1805, 8vo. and History of Moral 
Philosophy, Hanover, 1823, 8vo. 

-|" Leop. von Henning, Principles of Etliics, historically de- 
veloped, Berl. 1824, 8vo. 

■^ J. Christ. F. Meister, On the Reasons of the Disagree- 
ment among Philosophers with respect to the Fundamental 
Principles of Moral Philosophy, at the same time that they agree 
on particular points of the same, 1812, 8vo. 

* * * 

J AC. Fr. Ludovici, Delineatio Historise Juris Divini Naturalis 
et Positivi Universalis, Halle, 1701, second edition, 1714, 8vo. 

Jo. Franc. Buddei, Hist. Jur. Naturalis in his Selectis Jur. 
Nat. et g. Cal. 1717, 8vo. 

Chr. Thomasii, Paulo plenior Historia Juris Naturalis, Hal. 
1719, 4to. 

"j- Adr. Fr. Glafey, Complete History of the Rights of Rea- 
son, second edition, corrected, Le'ips, 1739, 4to. 

•\ J. J. Schmauss, History of Natural Right (in the first book 
of his New System), Goetting. 1753, 8vo. 

Essay on the History of Natural Right, Lond. 1757, 8vo. 

G. Christ. Gebauer, Nova Juris Naturalis Historia quam 
auxit Ericus Christ. Cleveshal, Wetzlar, 1774, 8vo. 

'f G. Henrici, Hints to Establish the Doctrine of Right on a 
Scientific Foundation, Hanover, 1809-10, Part second, 8vo. 
The history is in the first part. 

(c) History of Particular Ideas, Princijiles, and 


-|- Christ. God. Bardili, Epochs of the principal Philosophi- 
cal Opinions, Part first, Halle, 1788, 8vo. 

CiiR. Fr. Polz, Fasciculus commentationum Metapliysicarum 
quae continent historian!, dogmata atque controversias dijudicatas 
de primis principiis, Jena, 1757, 4to. 

Ch, Batteux, Histoirc des Causes premieres, Paris, 1769, 2 


vols. 8vo. A German translation by J. J. Engel, Leips. 1773, 
8vo. new edition, Halhcrst. 1792, 8vo. 

Historia philosophica Doctrinoe de Ideis (by J. J. Brucker), 
Aiigsb. 1723, Svo. Cf. Miscell. Hist. Phil. p. 50, sqq. 

GuiL. GoTTiiiLF Salzmann, Commcntatio in qua historia 
doctrinae de fontibus et ortu cognitionis humanae ita conscripta 
est, ut illorum potissimum ratio habita sit quae Plato, Aristoteles, 
Cartesius, Lockius, Leibnitius, et Kantius de his fontibus probare 
studuenmt, Goctthig, 1821, 4to. 

Iff* *t* "nt 

CiiRiSTOPii. Meiners, Historia doctrinae de vero Deo, Lemgo, 
1 780, 8vo. translated into German by Meusciiing. 

(G. Frid. Creuzer,) Philosophorum veterum loci de provi- 
dcntia divina, itemque de fato, emendantur, exi)licantur, Heidelb. 
1806, 4to. 

Jenkini Thomasii (Philips), Hist. Atheismi breviter delineata, 
Bas. 1709; Alt. 1713, Ed. auct. Loud. 1716, Svo. 

Jac. Fr. Buddei, Theses Theolog. de Atheismo et Supersti- 
tione, Jena, 1717, Svo. afterwards in German, 1723, Svo. 

Jac. Frid. Reimanni, Historia Universalis Atheismi et Athe- 
onim, etc. Hildes, 1725, Svo. 

* * * 

J. Gottlieb Buhle, De ortu et progressu Pantheismi Inde a 
Xenophane Colophonio primo ejus auctore usque ad Spinozam 
Comm. (In the, Commentt. Soc. Reg. Goetting. vol. x, p. 157.) 

"" * * * 

Hugo Grotius, Philosophorum sententiae de Fato et de eo 
quod in nostra est potestate, Amst. 1648, 12mo. 

■\ J. C. GuNTHER Werdermann, Attempt at a History of 
Opinions respecting Fate and Free Will ; from the most Ancient 
Times to the most recent Philosophers, Leips. 1793, Svo. 

* *- * 

Jos. Priestley, History of the Philosophical Doctrine con- 
cerning the Origin of the Soul, and the Nature of Matter. In 
his Disquisitions relating to Matter and Spirit, Loud. 1777, Svo. 

* * * 

JoACH. Oporini, Historia critica de Immortalitate Mortaliumr 
Hamh. 1735, Svo. 


f Adam W. Franzen, Critical History of the Doctrine of the 
Immortality of the Soul, before the Birth of our Lord, Lubeck, 
1747, 8vo. 

J. Frid. Cott.e, Historia succincta dogmatis de vita eterna, 
Tiib. 1770, 4to. 

•f Chr. W. Flugge, History of the Belief in the Immortality 
of Man, and a Resurrection, etc. Leips. 1794-95,two parts, 8vo. 

•f Essay towards an Historical and Critical Examination of 
the Doctrines and Opinions of the principal Modern Philosophers, 
respecting the Immortality of the Human Soul, Alto)ia, 1796, 

Dan. Wyttenbach, de Questione, quae fiierit veterum Philo- 
sophon.mi Inde a Thalete et Pythagora ad Senecam usque sen- 
tentia de vita et statu animarum post mortem corporis, 1783. 

Struve, Hist, doctrinag Graecorum ac Romanorum philoso- 
phorum de statu animarum post mortem, Altona, 1803. 

-j- C. Phil. Conz, History of the Hypothesis of the wandering 
State of Souls, Kcenigsh, 1791, 8vo. 

Stellini, De ortu et progressu morum atque opinionum ad 
mores pertinentium specimen, in his Dissertat. Padua, 1764, 4to. 

•f Christ. Garve, Treatise on the dilferent Principles of Moral 
Philosophy from Aristotle to the present time, Breslau, 1798, 
8vo. And, in continuation of this work, Special Considerations 
on the most general Principles of Moral Philosophy, Ibid. 1798, 

•j- G. Drewes, Conclusions of Philosophical Reason on the 
Principles of Morality, Leips. 1797, two parts, 8vo. 

•f C. C. E. ScHMiD, History of the Doctrine of Indifference, 
in his work entitled Adiaphora, Jena, 1809, 8vo. 

t Car. Fried. St^udlin, History of the Doctrine of the 
Morality of the Drama, Goett. 1823. 

* * * 

-f" Gottlieb Hufeland, Essay on the Principles of Natural 
Right, Leips. 1785, 8vo. 

f J. C. F. Meister, On Oaths, according to the Principles of 
Pure Reason, a prize composition, Leips. and ZiUlichau, 1810, 
4to. Another prize composition of the same author, On the Diver- 
sity of Opinion among Philosophers with regard to the Funda- 
mental Principles of Morality and Natural Right, Ibid. 1812, 



-j" Micii. HissMAXN, History of the Doctrine of the Associa- 
tion of Ideas, Goetting. 1770, 8vo. 

t The same subject, at greater length, J. G. E. Maas, Essay 
on the Imagination, second edition, Halle, 1795, 8vo. And in 
his preceding work ; Paralipomena ad historiam Doctrinse de 
Associatione Ideanim, Hal. 1787, 8vo. 

For the remainder, see the treatises on the different philoso- 
phical sciences in particular. 



39. It is from without that the first impressions of the 
human mind are derived ; on these it speculates, at first 
instinctively and without method ; till having attained to 
a consciousness of itself and its capabilities, it acquires 
the power of exercising its faculties with a perfect know- 
ledge of them. 

Philosophy is the result of its attempts to satisfy its 
thirst for knowledge. 

40. To know, is to have a perception of a determinate 
object, or the consciousness of a perception and of its 
relation to something determinate, and distinct from the 
perception itself. In all knowledge, the subject and the 
object are relative terms ; implying the percipient and 
the thing perceived ^. 


Note of Translator. I have judged it better to omit altoge- 

K Throughout the treatise, this is necessary to be borne in mind j and, 
agreeably to this distinction, what belongs to the subject is called subjective ; 
and objectiie that which belongs to the object. 


tlier the present section (as I have taken the liberty of altering 
others), not perceiving that it could be of any utility to the 
reader ; even if he should be fortunate enough to comprehend it. 

42. By reflection and abstraction we distinguish be- 
tween our perceptions and the matter to which they have 
a reference, and it is only by reasoning on the former 
that we can hope to solve the problems which philosophy 
would investigate. In fact, the objects which present 
themselves to our contemplation are purely contingent, 
variable, and indeterminable ; while philosophy is essen- 
tially ^o^i/ii/*^, and concerned with the higher principles 
of knowledge, the reasons of things — their laws — their- 
universal and necessary ends. 

44. Philosophy, as a science, pretends to a systematic 
knowledge of the conditions, reasons, and primary laws 
of all knowledge. Such a system ought to present a 
complete development of the principles of the human 
mind, and a perfect deduction of all that results from 
them, without lacuna or omission. Without this, it must 
be impossible to establish a theory of human knowledge 
which may be complete, solid, and connected through all 
its parts. 

45. All knowledge ought to be proved and referred to 
a system by philosophy. All truths demand proof; that 
is to say, a deduction from superior principles ; except 
the highest truths of all, which cannot be demonstrated. 
Philosophy, then, as a science, is founded on something 
directly true and certain, and on the agreement between 
what is concluded, and that which is self-evident and 
self-established. Reason is the highest and ultimate 
source of all moral certainty. 

46. But before the Understanding can arrive at a 
thorough comprehension of itself, it must pass through 
many intermediate degrees of improvement ; and in this 
transition-state, being as yet ignorant of the ultimate 


principle of knowledge, and not seeking it in that direc- 
tion, in which alone it can be found (viz. in the mind in- 
stead of external objects, in the subject instead of the 
object), ends in mistaking for it something inferior and 
subordinate ; pursues certainty beyond the limits of 
reason ; commits innumerable errors in the demonstration 
of philosophical knowledge ; pretends to investigate mat- 
ters beyond its range ; and thus ends in opposition to 

49. The enlightened activity of the understanding, 
which, when properly cultivated, we call Philosophy (§ 
2), presupposes in its turn attention, reflection, and ab- 
straction. These are faculties which manifest themselves 
in various degrees, proportioned to the diversity of intel- 
lectual powers. 

50. The causes which influence the development of 
reason are : the constitution of the human understanding; 
certain desires, doubts, sentiments, and perceptions of the 
mind ; acquired knowledge ; curiosity ; emulation, result- 
ing from the number and the diversity of persons engaged 
in the same pursuit ; the influence of genius ; example ; 
encouragement; and the free communication of thought. 

51. Previously to the scientific investigation of the 
principles, the laws, and the ends of phenomena presented 
to it, the human mind in some sort imagines, or, as it 
were, divines them ; and this imagination conforms itself 
to the laws of the fancy ; assimilating and personifying. 
It is thus that man, in a state of nature, conceives of all 
things as living and resembling himself. There is vaguely 
presented to his thoughts a world of spirits, at first with- 
out laws ; afterwards, under the empire of a law foreign 
and external (Fate). He conceives an idea of unity and 
harmony, less at first in the internal world than the exter- 
nal; less in the whole than the parts; less by reflection 
than by a poetic creation (his fancy finding objects for the 
conceptions of his understanding) ; and thus advances 


from a capricious indulgence of the imagination to the 
exercise of legitimate thought. 

52. The development of the understanding begins with 
a sentiment of rehgion. The more that man by reflec- 
tion extends and enlarges the sphere of his conscious- 
ness, the more he elevates himself, with regard to the 
object of his veneration, from sensation to mental concep- 
tion, and from opinions to general ideas. The human 
mind investigates the principle of its religious belief, first 
of all without, in the object ; subsequently within, in the in- 
tellectual subject, 

53. It is thus that man advances, from a state of con- 
sciousness, obscure and imperfect, to an enlightened 
knowledge; from poetry to reason; from a blind to a ra- 
tional faith ; from individual to universal. It is thus that 
guided by an obscure sentiment of truth, of harmony, of 
analogy, he prosecutes the pursuit of something certain 
and necessary ; to which may be referred all the points of 
belief which have attracted his attention ; and which may 
establish the certainty of them. It is thus that he at- 
tempts philosophy, at first to satisfy his own mind ; after- 
wards, with a more general view, for the advancement of 
Reason itself. In the natural order of her progress. Phi- 
losophy apprehends at first the complex objects of the 
world without, which are of a nature to excite in a lively 
manner its attention ; subsequently, it advances by de- 
grees to objects more difficult of apprehension, more ob- 
scure, more internal, and more simple. 

Obserimtio?i. This progress may be observed to obtain in a 
greater or less degree, and with different modifications, among all 
nations. There is, however, this difference, that only a few have 
elevated the philosophy of the human mind to the rank of a for- 
mal science ; — whence proceeds this difference ? 

54. Philosophy, when it has assumed a scientific cha- 
racter, has a tendency by the investigation of causes, of 
the laws, and the ultimate ends of things, to constitute 


human knowledge as an integral system, independent, 
and fundamentally established (§ 2 and 44). Such is 
the task of philosophical reason ; but we must also dis- 
tinguish the differences which exist in its aiiu, method, 
and results. 

55. As to its aim, philosophy may be influenced by a 
solitary and partial curiosity, confined to one point of 
view, or stimulated by a more liberal and scientific in- 
terest, at once practical and theoretical. As to method 
it proceeds (on general topics) either from principles 
to consequences (the sijnthetic order); or from conse- 
quences to principles (the analytic order) ; and (in special 
matter), as far as relates to the starting point of its re- 
searches, it advances, either, from a complete and pro- 
found inquiry into the nature of our faculties for know- 
ledge to the knowledge itself of things ; or from the 
knowledge of things to the theory of knowledge. This 
last method of proceeding is called, since the time of 
Kant, the Dogmatic method, or Dogmatism ; the other, 
the Critical method. 

5Q. The non-critical philosophy has for its aim to es- 
tablish certain points of doctrine (dogmata)^ or to de- 
stroy the dogmatic opinions of others ; in which latter 
case it has the tendency, as it does not substitute other 
principles for those which it removes, to establish uncer- 
tainty and doubt as most consistent with reason. The 
first of these two schools ends in dogmatism positive ; the 
second in scepticism, or dogmatism negative, 

57, Dogmatism pretends, either, that human reason is, 
of itself, capable of attaining to a knowledge of the laws 
and the nature of things ; or, that it cannot attain thereto 
without a superior instruction and guidance. The first 
of these doctrines is Nattiralism, or Rationalism, in its most 
extended signification ; the other is Siipernaturalism. 

58. Rationalism, in the most extended signification of 



the word, proceeds sometimes upon knowledge, sometimes 
(like that of JacobiJ^ upon belief; and either demon- 
strates the truth of our impressions and knowledge, by 
the reality of the objects ; or, contrariwise, the reality of 
the objects, by the certainty of the impressions. In the 
first of these cases we have realism, which takes for its 
principle the reality of things ; in the second case we 
have idealism^ which takes for its foundation the certainty 
of our ideas ; while many philosophical systems, on 
the other hand, pretend that there is an original iden- 
tity of knowledge with its object. 

59. Dogmatism, with reference to the means of acquir- 
ing knowledge, is either Sensualism, or Rationalism in a 
more restricted sense ; or compounded of both. As far 
as relates to the origin of knowledge, dogmatism becomes 
either Empirism (otherwise called Exjierimentalism), or 
Noologism ; or compounded of both. Lastly, with refer- 
ence to the number of fundamental principles, it becomes 
Dualism or Monism ; and to this last description belong 
both Materialism and Spiritualism, as well as the system 
of Absolute Identity. 

60. "Supernaturalism not only asserts that the Deity is 
the active principle of all that exists, but also that revela- 
tion is the source of all truth ; thus referring all know- 
ledge to a supernatural source, unattainable by the steps 
of science. There are diversities in this system accord- 
ing to the manner in which revelation is considered rela- 
tively to its subject or its object; as universal or par- 
ticular; and as superior or subordinate to reason; or 
co-ordinate with it. 

Observation. Supernaturalism has this in common \nth scep- 
ticism, that it lays great stress on the false pretensions and the 
inefficiency of reason. 

61. Scepticism is opposed to dogmatism, inasmuch as it 
seeks to diminish the confidence of reason in the success 
of its efforts. It uses as arguments the errors which are 


often with justice imputed to dogmatism, or alleges cer- 
tain formal propositions of its own, relative to the end 
and the principles of knowledge. It is, therefore, the 
perpetual antagonist of dogmatism; but in disputing the 
pretensions to which knowledge lays claim, it proceeds 
even to deny its existence and destroy it altogether. 
Scepticism is sometimes universal, sometimes particular, 
and has been the precursor of the critical method, which 
leads to the true science of reason. 

62. The result of philosophic research is a system of 
philosophy ; that is to say, a collection of philosophical in- 
formation drawn from philosophical principles, and of 
this there can be only one true system, which is that ideal 
of the science reason perpetually aims at (§ 2). But the 
various attempts of individual thinkers to attain thereto 
have given occasion to a number of systems, which approxi- 
mate this ideal object in proportion to the knowledge they 
evince of the true end and principles of philosophy, — to 
the extent of information they convey, — the validity of 
the reasoning they contain, and the accuracy of their 
technical language (cf. § 3). 

Observation. Until a more complete examination of the powers 
of the miderstanding shall have been instituted, and a more ex- 
tensive analysis of the faculty of knowledge, systems of philoso- 
phy must inevitably contain a mixture of universal and ^9ar^i- 
cular, of true and false^ of determinate and indeterminate^ of 
objective and sicbjective. 

63. These different systems are opposed to each other 
and to scepticism. The consequence has been a contest 
which we see carried on with a greater or less degree of 
ardour, maintained by the love of truth, and too fre- 
quently also by private interests and passions; until at 
last either indifference , or a revolution in the spirit of phi- 
losophy, or the acuteness of logicians and critics put an 
end to it, for the time, and introduced a more liberal sys- 
tem of inquiry. 


36 GENERAL INTRODUCTION, [sect. 64, 65. 

64. More than one system has figured upon the stage 
in various dresses, and certain philosophical questions 
have frequently been repeated under different forms. 
These apparent reiterations do not, however, prove that 
philosophy has been retarded in its progress ; the repe- 
tition of old ideas does not render its advance towards 
new ones more tardy, but only more sure. By this very 
circumstance analysis is rendered more exact and more 
complete ; and the search after unity, consistency, and 
perfection, more accurate and profound. The character 
and the attributes of science are more completely de- 
veloped, are better understood, — better appreciated ; — 
errors and unfounded theories more cautiously avoided. 

65. But, with all these retrogradations and moments of 
apparent relaxation, advancement is impossible except by 
the aid of a sustained zeal for philosophical investigation. 
This science demands a perpetual agitation of doubts and 
discussions ; of controversy between dogmatism and scep- 
ticism, between the partizans of ancient systems and of 
modern ideas. 



To this head belong the works on the rehgions and the 
discoveries of the East at large ; some of which, for ex- 
ample those of Plessing, have been noticed above, § 38 ; 
see, besides, the mythological treatises, such as : 

f Fr. Creuzer, Symbolical and Mythological System of the 
Ancients, etc. 4 vols. Leips. and Darmstadt, 1810-12, second 
edition, 1820 (and following years), 5 vols. 8vo. 

f J. GoRREs, History of the Fables of the Asiatic World, 2 
vols. Heidelh. 1810, 8vo. 

f J. J. Wagner, Ideas towards an Universal Mythology of 
the Ancient World, Francfort on the M. 1808, 8vo. 

f J. G. Rhode, On the Age and Merit of certain Records of 
Oriental Antiquity, Berlin, 1817-18. And Memoirs towards 
illustrating the science of Antiquities, No. J, Berlin, 1819, No. 
II, 1820, 8vo. 

Particularly a dissertation in No. I, on the most Ancient Reli- 
gious Systems of the East. 

L. C. Baur, Symbolical and Mythological Systems, 2 parts, 
Stuttg. 1825, 8vo. 

(jQ. Instruction was in part conveyed by the nations of 
Asia to tlie Greeks, and the latter had gone through 
many gradations of intellectual improvement before the 
epoch when a philosophical spirit was awakened among 
them. Accordingly, it may not be foreign to our purpose 
to give a rapid sketch of the religious and philosophical 


opinions of the oriental nations, as well as of the first ad- 
vances of intellectual improvement among the Greeks, in 
order to be enabled to estimate, at least generally, the in- 
fluence which the former may have had over Grecian 
genius in its infancy ; and consequently over pMlosopMj 
itself, in its manner as well as its matter. The Hindoos, 
the Persians, the Chaldeans, the Egyptians, and the 
Phoenicians, are the principal nations with whom the 
Greeks have had any intercourse ^. 


Authorities : The sacred books of the Hindoos, the Schasiers, 
and particularly the Vedams, whereto belong the Uimnishadas 
(fragments of the Oupiiekliat), and the Puranams, to which belong 
the ancient national poems; Ramayana (Serampore, 1806-10, 
3 vols. 4to. a new edition by A. W. Schlegel), — Mahahharata 
— and the Dersanas. 

Bhaguat-Geeta, or Dialogues of Chrishna and Ardjoon in 
eighteen lectures, with notes, translated from the original Sanscrit 
by Ch. Wilkins, Lond. 1785, 4to. 

Bagavadam, ou Doctrine Divine ; ouvrage Indien Canonique 
sur I'Etre Supreme, les Dieux, les Geans, les Hommes, les 
diverses parties de I'Univers (par Opsonville), Paris, 1788, 8vo. 

L'EzouR Vedam, ou ancien Commentaire du Vedam, con- 
tenant I'exposition des Opinions religieuses et philosophiques 
des Indiens, traduit du Samskretan par un Brahme ; revu et 
public avec des observations preliminaires, des notes, et des 
eclaircissements, Yverdun, 1778, 2 vols. 12mo. (The introduc- 
tion, On the Wisdom of the Hindoos, is by Sainte-Croix^). 

Theologia et Philosophia Indica s. Oupnek'hat id est secretum 
tegenedum, stud, et op. Anquetil du Perron, Argent, 1801-2, 
2 vols. 4to. (Deutsch im Auszuge von Thad. Anselm Rixner, 
Number g, 1808, 8vo.) 

■\ W. VON Humboldt, on the Bhagavad-Gita, Berlin, 1826. 

Ambertkend, a work on the Nature of the Soul; an account of 
itbyDEGuiGNEsinthe I'Acad. des Inscript. torn. XXVI. 

Munava Dh arm as ASTRA (English), with a preface by Sir W. 
Jones, Lond. 1796. 

Prabod'h Chandro'daya, Or the Moon of Intellect, an alle- 

* On the general character of thought in the East, see above, $ 19. 
'' Consult however t Sciilegel's Ind. Biblioth. II, 50. 


goric Drama : and Atma Bod'h, or the Knowledge of Spirit, 
etc. ; translated from the Sanscrit and Pracrit by J. Taylor, 
1812, 8vo. 

•f Remmohon-Roy, Jena, 1817. 

Ctesiae Indicorum fragmenta ; Strabo ; Arrianus De Exped. 
Alexandri : Palladius De gentibus Indiae et Brachmanibus ; Am- 
brosius De moribus Brachmanum, et alius anonymus de iisdem, 
junctim editi cura, Ed. Biss.ei, Lond. 1668, 4to. 

Specimen sapientiae Indorum veterum, Grsece ex cod. Hoist, 
cum vers. Lat. ed. Seb. Gfr. Stark, Berol, 1697, 8vo. 

Alex. Dow, History of Hindostan, from the earliest account 
of time to the death of Akbar, translated from the Persian of Mu- 
HAMMED Casim Ferisiita, Loud. 1768, 3 vols. 4to. (With a 
learned Dissertation prefixed, concerning the Language, Manners, 
and Customs of the Hindoos.) 

J. Jag. Holwell, Interesting liistorical Events relative to the 
Provinces of Bengal and the Empire of Hindostan, Lond. 1766, 
3 vols. 8vo. 

Sinner, Essai sur les dogmes de la Metempsychose et du 
Purgatoire, enseignes par les Brahmins de I'lndostan, Berne ^ 
1771, 8vo. 

Asiatic Researches. Calcutta; from 1788 ; several volumes. 

The Dissertations and Miscellanies relative to the History of 
the Antiquities, Arts, Sciences, and Literature of Asia, by Sir 
W. Jones and others, have been extracted from the last volumes 
of the foregoing collection, Lond. 1792-8, 4 vols. 8vo. 

Systema Brachmanicum liturgicum, mythologicum, civile ex 
monumentis Indicis musasi Borgiani Velitris dissertationibus 
historico-criticis illustravit Fr. Paulinus a S. BARTHOLOMiEO, 
Romce, 1791, 4to. 

■\ Various Dissertations in the Memoires de I'Academie des In- 
script, by Tiiom. Maurice, and Mignot (Memoirs on the ancient 
Philosophers of India, in vol. XXXI.), and De Guignes, (In- 
quiry respecting the Philosophers called Samaneans), vol. XXVI. 

■\ J. Ith, Moral Doctrine of the Brahmins, or. The Religion 
of the Hindoos, Berl. and Leips. 1794, 8vo. 

-|- Fr. Schlegel, On the Language and Wisdom of the Hin- 
doos, Heidelh. 1808, 8vo. 

PoLiER, Mythologie des Hindous, tom. I. et 11, Paris, 1809, 8vo. 

•j" Fr. Mayer, L^niversal Dictionary of Mythology. The first 
vol. only has appeared. By the same author : Brahma, or the 
Religion of the Hindoos, Leips. 1818, 8vo. 

W. Ward, A View of the History, Literature, and Religion 
of the Hindoos, Lond. 1817-20. 4 vols. Particularly vol. IV. 


■f Arn. Herm. Ludw. Heeren, On the Indians ; (Suppl. to 
the thh'd edition of his work, Ideen ilber die Politic, etc. s. 444), 
Gotting. 1815-27, 8vo. 

•f Nic. Muller, Opinions, Arts, and Sciences, of the ancient 
Hindoos, Me7itz, 1822, 8vo. 

Launjuinais, La Religion des Indous selon les Vedah, ou 
Analyse de I'Oupnek'hat publie par Anq. du Perron, Paris, 
1823, 8vo. See also his Memoirs on the Literature, Philosophy, 
etc. of the Hindoos. 

•f Othm. Franks, On the Hindoos, and their Literature, etc. 
Leips. 1826, 8vo. 

•f J. G. Rhode, on the same subject, Leips. 1827, 2 vols. 

67. The Hindoos early distinguished themselves for 
arts, industry, civilization, and science ; but the commence- 
ment of their history is, even yet, involved in great ob- 
scurity, and lost in the wildest traditions and chrono- 
logical pretensions. Nothing has, even yet, been posi- 
tively decided on the question whether their civilization 
and sciences be indigenous or derived from others ; nor 
yet, whether they may not have blended certain notions 
either directly or indirectly borrowed from foreign na- 
tions, with others which were properly their own. The 
same uncertainty prevails with respect to the age attri- 
butable to their sacred books. 

Of the four castes into which the nation is divided, the 
first consists of the priests (Brahmins) ; subdivided into a 
great number of sects, and modified by various revolu- 
tions. The compulsory emigration of many Brahminical 
tribes has carried their religious opinions into the adja- 
cent countries of Siam, China, and Tartary. 

The supreme being of the Hindoos is Brahma, incom- 
prehensible by any human understanding ; pervading and 
vivifying all things. Originally, he reposed in the contem- 
plation of himself; subsequently, his creative word has 
caused all things to proceed from him, by a succession of 
continual emanations. As creator, he is named Brahma; 
as the preserving power, Vishnou; as the destroyer and 
renovator of the forms of matter, Siva. These three 
relations of the divine being constitute the Trinity 
[Timourti) of the Hindoos. The innumerable transform- 


ations of Vishnoii, or incarnations of the cUviiie' beincf, 
form the principal subject of their sacred books. Con- 
nected with this doctrine of emanation is that of the pre- 
existence of souls ; their derivation from the divine na- 
ture ; their immortality ; their fall ; and the purification 
of fallen spirits by successive migrations through the cor- 
poreal world. — (Doctrine of the migration of souls, or 

Subsequently, the rehgion and philosophy of the Hin- 
doos was split into two sects — of Brahmism and Bud- 
dhism. In consequence of this we find, both in their sa- 
cred books and among the Brahmins, the greatest dis- 
crepancy of opinion to prevail respecting God, the world, 
and the soul: that is to say, we find both realism and 
idealism; theism and atheism; materialism and spiritual 
ism. These doctrines are for the most part propounded 
in the form of instruction, delivered by men professing 
to be enlightened from above '^. Though obscured by 
poetic imagery, we detect throughout, the workings of 
an acute and ingenious spirit, w^hich made some sort of 
advance towards correct reasoning. After all, the true 
systematic and scientific genius of philosophy must not 
be expected in these works. Their books of moral 
precepts have a character of nobleness and gentleness 
which belong to the race ; and are, in a great measure, 
framed in accordance with the doctrine of the migra- 
tion of souls. In the religion of Buddha, to which belong 
the Siamese, the Talapoins, and the Bonzes, the supreme 
felicity of God, and of the human soul, is made to consist 
in a state of absolute indifference and inaction. 


Besides some works enumerated § QQ, consult Alphabetum 
Tibetanum, auct. Aug. Ant. Georgio, Romce, 1762, 8vo. 
Mayer has given an extract from it in his Lexicon. 

•= See, concerning the Gymnosophists, Cic. Tusc. V, 27 ; concerning Me- 
nou-Capila, BucUlha, Calanus, Cic. do Div. I, 23; Tusc. IT, 22. 


f P. S. Pallas, Collection of Historical details respecting 
the Mogul nations, Petersburgh, 1776-1803, 4to. 

f Klaproth, Travels in the neighbourhood of Caucasus, 
1823, 2 vols. 8vo. 

•f HiJLLMANN, Critical Researches respecting the Lamaic Re- 
ligion, Berlin, 1796, 8vo. 

68. Like the Hindoos, the Thibetians believe in a God 
who reveals himself in a threefold relation and form ; and 
suppose a great number of transformations of this deity, 
principally in his second character. They have, besides, 
various traditions respecting the origin of all things ; re- 
specting spirits, and their descent into the visible woi'ld ; 
also with regard to the different epochs of the world, and 
the migration of souls. 


Sinensis imperii libri classici sex e Sinico idiomate in Lat. 
trad, a P. Franc. Noel, Prag. 1711, 4to. 

-f The Chou-King, one of the sacred hooks of the Chinese, 
translated by Father Gaubil, revised and compared with the 
Chinese by M. de Guignes ; with a notice concerning Y-King, 
another sacred book of the Chinese, Paris, 1770, 4to. 

-f A Treatise on some points of the Chinese Religion, by Fa- 
ther LoNGOBARD. Furthermore, A Treatise on some important 
points relative to the Mission to China, by Father Sainte- 
Marie ; with Letters of M. de Leibnitz on the Chinese Phi- 
losophy. These three works are contained in Leibnitzii Ej^ist. 
ed. Kortholt, 2 vols. 

Confucius Sinarum Philosoj)hus sive scientia Sinensis Lat. 
exposita studio et op. Prosperi Juonetta, Christ. Herdtrich, 
Franc Rougemont, Phil. Couplet, P. P. Soc. Jesu, Paris, 
1687, folio. 

Geo. Bern. Bilfingeri, Specimen doctrinae veterum Sinarum 
moralis et practicae, Francof. 1724. 8vo. 

Chr. Wolfii, Oratio de Sinarum philosophia practica, Francof. 
1726. Third edition, with notes of Langius, Hal. 1736, 4to. 

J. Bened. Carpzovii, Memcius seu Mentius Sinensium post 
Confucium Philosophus, Lips. 1725, 8vo. 

De Pauw, Recherches philosophiques sur les Egyptiens et les 
Chinois, Berlin, 1775, 2 vols. 


Memoires concemant THistoire, les Sciences, les Arts, les 
Moeiirs, les Usages des Chinois, par les Missionnaires de Pekin 
(Amyot et d'autres), Paris, 1770-91, 4 vols. 

Cf. the Dissertations of De Guignes and others, in the Me- 
moires de I'Acad. des Inscript. vol. XXV, XXVII, XXXVI, 

The works of Confucius, containing the original text, with a 
translation by Marsiiman, Serampore, 1809, 4to. 

Historia Philosophiae Sinensis, etc. Bruns. 1727, 4to. 

Klaprotii, Memoires Relatifs a I'Asie (Asiat. Magaz. from 

Morrison, On Chinese Literature (in the Asiatic Journal). 

Abel Remusat, Journal Asiatique, vol. I, July 1823, p. 3. 
Consult also Windisciimann, in the first vol. of his work, Philo- 
sophic ini Fortgange der Geschichte. 

69. The popular religion of the Chinese (which was 
that of their most remote ancestors), consists in adoration 
of the heavens, the stars, and the powers of nature per- 
sonified, with certain superstitious notions, of more re- 
cent date, respecting astrology, the demons, and magic. 
Lao-Kiun and Fo^ mixed up these rehgious opinions 
(which they did not correct), with some philosophical 
ones. Koung-fu-tzee {Confucius)^ ahout 550 B.C., col- 
lected the traditions belonging to both these personages ; 
new-modelled the laws; and gave excellent moral pre- 
cepts. It is very remarkable that his writings contain no 
trace of a recognition of the existence of a Supreme 
Being, or of the immortality of the soul. Mung-chee, 
or Meng-dseu (Memcius) enlarged upon the doctrines of 
Confucius. A variety of opinions migrated from India 
and from Thibet into China. The improvement of 
science among them has for many hundred years been 
inconsiderable. (For what reason?) — The Japanese en- 
tertain similar doctrines. 


Authorities : The Sacred Scriptures, Herodotus, Plato, Aris- 
totle, Diodorus Siculus, Xenophon Cyrop., Strabo, Plutarch, 

*^ According to some, this last is the Buddha of the Hindoos, and the same 
with the Sommona-Codom of the Siamese. Cf. Bayle, art. Sommona-Codom. 


Aoyia rov ^ufoa,a-r§ov, or Chaldean Oracles ; the same, with addi- 
tions, by Fr. Patricius, Nova de Universis Philosophia, Venet. 
1595, fol. ; and also published by Stanley, in his, Philosophia 
Orientalis (cum notis Clerici). 

Thom^ Hyde, Historia Religionis veterum Persarum eorum- 
que Magorum, Oxonii, 1700-4 ; new edition, 1760. 

Zend-Avesta, Ouvrage de Zoroastre, contenant les Idees 
theologiques, physiques, et morales, de ce Legislateur, les Cere- 
monies du culte Religieux qu'il a etabli, etc., traduit en Fran9ais 
sur I'original Zend, avec des remarques, et accompagne de plu- 
sieurs traites propres a eclaircir les matieres qui en sont I'objet ; 
par M. Anquetil Duperron, Paris, 1711, 4to. 

•\ Anquetil and Foucher, Memoirs on the Person, the 
Writings, and the Philosophical System of Zoroaster ; in the 
Memoires de I'Acad. des Inscript. XXVII, p. 257 and sqq. ; 
Memoires de Litterature, vol. XXX and XXXV. 

(Jones), A Letter to M. A du P , containing a Cri- 
tique on his translation of the works attributed to Zoroaster, 
Lond. 1771, 8vo. 

C. P. Meiners, De Zoroastris vita, Institutis, Doctrina, et 
Libris ; In the Nov. Comment. Soc. Scient. Getting, vol. VIII, 
IX : and Comm. de variis religionum Persarum conversionibus ; 
in the Comment. Soc. Getting. 1780, cl. phil. 1,45, et sqq; II, 
19, sqq; and, concerning Zoroaster, in the Biblioth. Philos. torn. 
IV, p. 2. 

T. Ch. Tyschen, Commentat. de Religionem Zoroastricarum 
apud exteras gentes vestigiis ; In the Nov. Comm. Soc. Scient. 
Gott. torn. XI, XII. 

The Dessatir, or Sacred Writings of the ancient Persian 
prophets, Bombay, 1818, 8vo. 

-j- J. G. Rhode, The Sacred Tradition; or, A complete Sys- 
tem of the Religion of the ancient Bactrians, Medes, and Per- 
sians, or the people of Zend, Francf. on the Maine, 1820, 8vo. 
Particularly p. 453 and sqq. ; and the works of the same author 
enumerated § QQ. 

Der Schahnameh des Firdusi in epitomirter Uebertragung 
von GoRRES, etc. 2 vols. Berlin, 1819, 8vo. 

Asiatic Researches, vol. VIII and IX. 

On the Authenticity of the books of Zend consult also, 
■f BuHLE, Manual of the History of Philosophy ; f Zoega, 
Dissertations published by Welcker ; Valentia, Travels ; 
and Erskine, Dissertation on the Parsees, in the second vol. of 
the Literary Society of Bombay. 


I. In the times of the Greeks, the religion of the 
lians (Parsees) consisted in the adoration of the 
'enly bodies (Sabeism), especially the sun; and of 
powers of nature. The priests were called Magi. 
Zio.oaster (Serduscht), a Mede by birth, reformed the 
religion of the Medes, which, originally confined to the 
worship of fire, had been modified to the worship of the 
sun and the planets. This worship survives to the pre- 
sent day in India among the Parsees, who were driven 
out of Persia by the Mahometans ; and who pretend to 
be still in possession of the sacred books of Zoroaster. 
This philosopher lived in the time of Guschtasb (Darius 
Hystaspis). He asserts the existence of a supreme 
being, all-powerful and eternal (Zeruane Akerene, i. e. 
infinite time), from whom have eternally proceeded, by 
his creative word (Honofer), two principles, Ormu^d and 
Ahriman\ Ormuzd (Oromasdes), being pure and infinite 
Light, Wisdom, and Perfection, the Creator of every good 
thing ; Ahriman the principle of darkness and evil, op- 
posed to Ormuzd, either originally, or in consequence of 
his fall. To this belief are attached fables respecting the 
conflicting efforts and creations of these two powers ; on 
the universal dominion ultimately reserved for the good 
principle, and the return of Ahriman during four periods, 
each of which is to last three thousand years ; — on the 
good and the evil spirits ( Amshaspands, Izeds, Ferfers^, 
and Deves), and their differences of sex and rank ; — on 
the souls of men (Ferfers), which, created by Ormuzd 
before their union with the body, have their habitation in 
the heavens ; and which ultimately, according as in this 
world they have served Ormuzd or Ahriman, pass after 
death into the dwellings of the blessed, or are precipitated 
into obscurity: — finally, respecting the future resurrection 
of the bodies of the wicked after the victory of Ormuzd 
and the restoration of all things. Such, with some ascetic 
precepts, are the leading subjects of their sacred books. 
The doctrines of Zoroaster had an extensive influence 
owing to the principles of demonology arid magic. 

« These have been compared to the Ideas of the Platonists. 



Authorities : The Scriptures, Diodorus Siculus, II, 29 ; Strabo, 
XVI, p. 739, ed. Casaub. ; Sext. Emp. adv. Math. lib. V. ; Cic. 
de Div. I, 1, 41 ; II, 46, sqq. 

Berosi Chaldaica, in the work of Scaliger, De Emendatione 
temporum ; and in Fabric Bibl. gr. t. XIV, p. 175 ; and the 
work itself (probably not authentic), entitled, Antiquitates totius 
Orbis ; published in Fr. Jo. Annii, Antiquitt. Varr. vol. XVII, 
Romce, 1798 (and subsequently). 

•f Aug. L. Schlozer, On the Chaldeans, in the Repertory of 
Biblical literature published by Eichhorn, vol. VIII and X. 

Stanleii, Philosophia Orientalis in Clerici opp. Philos. 

■j- Fr. Munter, Religion of the Babylonians, Copenh. 1827, 

Jo. Jag. Wagner's Works before referred to. 

71. The Chaldeans were devoted to the worship of the 
stars and to astrology : the nature of their climate and 
their country disposing them to it. The worship of the 
stars was revived by them and widely disseminated, even 
subsequently to the Christian era, under the name of 
Sabeism. The learned caste, which appropriated to itself 
the appellation of Chaldeans, had collected a certain num- 
ber of astrological facts, and carried to a great length the 
delusive science of astrology. Under the empire of the 
Persians, this caste lost much of its credit, through the 
influence of the Magi, and ceased to attempt any thing 
but common place tricks of divination. The cosmogony 
of Berosus ^, and the pretended Chaldean oracles (allowed 
to be apocryphal), are evidently the productions of another 
age and country. The principal divinity of this nation 
was called Bel. The fables related of him by the pre- 
tended Berosus do not deserve recital. 



Authorities : Books of Moses, Herodotus, lib. II, Manethonis 4 
iEgyptiaca et Apotelesmatica (fragments of dubious authority), 
Diodorus Siculus (with Heyne's Observations in the Comm. Soc. ■ 

» A contemporary of Alexander tlie Great. 


Gott. V, VI, VII), Plutarchi Isis et Osiris, Porphyrins Dc Absti- 
nentia, Jambliclnis De Mysteriis -(Egyptiorum, cum ep. Porpliyrii 
cd. Tii. Gale, Oxon. 1678, fol., Horapollinis Hieroglyphica, Gr. et 
Lat.ed. DePauw, T^rry. 1727, 4to., Hermes Trismegistus in Franc. 
Patricii nova de Universis Philosophia, etc. Ferrar, 1591. 

Fr. And. Strotii, ^gyptiaca sen Vetenim Scriptorr. de reb. 
^gypti commentarii et fragmenta, Gotha^ 1782-83, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Athan. Kirciieri, CEdipus ^Egyptiacus, Romce, 1652-54, 
folio, et Obeliscus Pamphilius, Ibid. 1656, folio. 

Jablonski, Pantheon ^gyptiac. Francf. ad Viadrim, 1750-52, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

Conrad. Adami, Comm. de sapientia, eruditione atque inven- 
tis ^gyptiorum. (In his, Exercitatt. Exegett. p. 9o, sqq.) 

•f C. A. Heumann, On the Philosophy of the Ancient Egyp- 
tians ; in his, Acta Philosophorum, II, 659, sqq. 

De Pauw, Recherches Philosophiques sur les Egyptiens et les 
Chinois, Berlin^ 1773, 2 vols. 8vo. 

•j" J. C. Meiners, Essay on the History of the Religion of the 
Ancients, particularly the Egyptians, Gotting. 1775, 8vo. On 
the Worship of Animals, in his Philosophical Miscellanies, part I, 
p. 180 ; and several treatises by the same in the Comm. Soc. 
Gotting. 1780-89-90. 

-j- F. V. Lebrecht Plessing, Osiris and Socrates, Berl. and 
Strals. 1783, 8vo. cf. above § 38. 

f C. P. ^MoRiTz, Symbolical Wisdom of the Egyptians, etc. 
Berlin, 1793, 8vo. 

■f P. J. S. VoGEL, Essay on the Religion of the Ancient Egyp- 
tians and Greeks, Nilrnberg, 1793, 4to. 

Jos. Christoph. Gatterer, De Theogoiiia ^gyptiorum ad 
Herodotum, in Comm. Soc. Gotting. vol. Y et VII. De Metem- 
psychosi, immortalitatis animomm symbolo -/Egyptiaco, vol. IX. 

-j- Creuzer, Religions of Antiquity (cited above, at the head 
of § 66), et Commentatt. Herodotese, c. II. 

Heeren, Ideen, etc. second part, second edition. 

See also the recent works on Egypt : Denon's Description ; 
Belzoni ; Gau; Minutoli, etc. ; Pfaff's Hieroglyphica, A^wrw 6. 
1824, 8vo. 

72. The Egyptians were a nation highly remarkable 
for the antiquity of their civilization, and the originality 
of all their social system. Their priests, who formed a 
separate caste, were the sole depositaries of the secrets of 
certain sacred books written in hieroglyphics^. It is very 

8 See t Heerex, Thoughts on the Policy, Commerce, etc. of the Ancients; 


difficult to determine with certainty, owing to the want of 
existing records, in what consisted their mysterious know- 
ledge (Esoteric doctrine). It probably had a reference 
to the popular religion (Exoteric doctrine), which autho- 
rised the worship of the constellations (Sabeism); and 
that of certain animals (Fetischism), as symbolical of the 
former; of certain deified heroes (Thaut or Thot, Her- 
mes, Horus) ; and lastly, maintained the doctrine of the 
Metempsychosis ''. Their divinities Isis and Osiris, repre- 
sented two principles, male and female. The peculiar 
character of the country seems to have given rise to, and 
encouraged, as the principal sciences of the Egyptians, 
geometry and astronomy ; to which was united astrology 
and other superstitions, highly popular with the people 
at large. It is impossible to define with accuracy the 
progress which the priests may have made in the above 
sciences ; but, previous to their intercourse with the 
Greeks, we cannot conclude them to have been possessed 
of any high degree of mental cultivation. 

After the foundation of the Graeco-Egyptian king- 
dom, the civilization of the two races was combined, and 
this circumstance renders yet more difficult any explana- 
tion of the mysteries of the ancient esoteric doctrines, and 
the former habits of the original inhabitants. 

73. The Hebrews. 

See the books of the Old Testament : the Introductions to the 
Old Testament by Eichhorn and others ; and the Commentaries 
on each book, as for instance those on Job, Proverbs, and the 
Prophets in general. 

Flavii Josephi Opera ed. Haverkamp. Amstel. 1726, 2 vols, 

Jos. Fr. BuDDiEi Introd. ad Histor. Philos. Hebraeor. Halc^i 
1702, 8vo. Edit, emendata, 1721. 

f Fried. Andr. Walther, History of the Philosophy of the 
Ancient Hebrews- Gott. 1750, 4to. 

and the articles of the New Literary Journal of Leipsig, 1816, Nos. I and II, 
on the recent attempts to explain the hieroglyphics. 
'' IlEnoD. II, c. 123. 


W. Warburton's Divine Legation of Moses, new edition, 
Lond. 175G, 5 vols. 8vo. Supplement, 1788, 8vo. 

-j- Jos. Fr. Jerusalem, Letters on the Books and the Philoso- 
phy of Moses, Brunswick, 1762, 8vo. and 1783. 

f Jos. Dav. MiciiAELis, The Mosaic Law, Francf. on the M. 
1770-7'), vols. 8vo. New edition, 1775 and 1803. 

•f- W. A. Teller, Theodice of the First Ages, etc. Jena, 
1802, 8vo. 

f C. A. LiNDEMANN, On the Book of Job, Wittenh. 1811, 8vo. 

Jul. Frid. Winzer, De Philos. Morali in libro Sapientiae, 
quae vocatur Salomonis, exposita, Viteb. 1811, 4to. 

C. Frid. Staudlin, Comment, de Prophetar. Hebraeor. Doc- 
trina Morali, G'ott. 1798, 4to. 

■f J. Jahn's Bibl. Archaeology, Vienna, 1796, second edition, 

■f Laz. Bex David, On the Religion of the Hebrews before 
Moses, Berlin, 1812, 8vo. 

-|- Phil. Buttmann, Dissertation on the two first Mythi of 
the Mosaic History, etc. in the Berliner Monatsschrift, 1804, 
Nos. Ill and IV, and 1811 No. III. 

■f Phil. Buttmann, On the Mythos of the Deluge, Berlin, 
1812, 8vo. 

The Phoenicians. 

Sanchoniatho, and the authors who wrote upon him. Frag- 
ments of Books attributed to him in Euseb. Praeparat. Evangel. 
I, 10. 

Sanchoniatho, Phoenician History translated from the first 
book of Eusebiiis, etc. with a continuation, etc. by Eratos- 
thenes Cyrenaeus ; with historical and chronological remarks 
by R. Cumberland, Lond. 1720, 8vo. 

H. Dodwell's Appendix concerning Sanchoniathon's Phceni- 
cian History, Lond. 1691, 8vo. 

D. J. Baier, De Phcenicibus eorumque studiis et inventis, 
Jena, 1709, 4to. 

J. Mich. Weinrich, De Phcenicum Litteratura, Meiningce, 
1714, 4to. 

See also -f Heeren (Ideen, etc. I, 2), and f Munter, Religion 
of the Carthaginians, Copenh. 1821, with f Bellermann, on the 
Phoenician and Punic Coinage, Berlin, 1812-16. 

74\ The Phoenicians, a counnercial people, sewed, 




through their continual intercourse with other nations, to 
disseminate widely a knowledge of the discoveries effected 
in the arts and sciences. Nevertheless, their mercan- 
tile habits restricted ° their own knowledge to the mari- 
time art and the mathematics. The history and the doc- 
trines of Sanchoniatho" and of Ochus (Mochus, Mos- 
chus), are, at the present time, matters of much dispute. 
The cosmogonies attributed to them, as well as the popular 
religion of the Phoenicians, are eminently material. Po- 
sidonius, the Stoic, cites Moschus as the first inventor of 
the doctrine of atoms. See Sext. Empir. adv. Mathem. 
IX, 363, and Strabo, Geog. XVI, p. 757. 

First Civilisation of the Greeks, their Mythological and 

Poetical Traditions. 

See, above, § 38, 1, h. 

De Pauw, Recherches Philosophiques sur les Grecs, Berlin^ 
1787, 4 vols. 8vo. 

Barthelemy, Voyage du Jeune Anacharsis en Grece. 

•f J. D. Hartmann, Essay towards a History of the Civiliza- 
tion of the principal Nations of Greece, Lemgo, 1796, 1800, 2 
vols. 8vo. 

Christ. Gottlob Heyne, De causis Mythorum veterum 
Physicis, in Opiisc. Acad. torn. I. 

■j- C. Fr. Creuzer, Symbolik (above § 66). 

•f F. W. J. ScHELLiNG, On the Mythi, Traditions, and Philo- 
sophical Maxims of the first epochs of the World ; in the Me- 
morabilien of Paulus, No. V. 

•f H. E. G. Paulus, Chaos, a Poetic Fable, and not an era 
of physical cosmology. In his Memorabilien, No. V. 

-f" Fr. Ast, On the Chaos of the Greeks, in the Journal of 
Arts and Science, 1808, vol. I, part. 2. 

75. Greece was gradually rescued from barbarism, and 
advanced to a state of civilization, by the means of fo- 
reigners. Colonies from Egypt, Phoenicia, and Phrygia, 
introduced inventions and arts, such as agriculture, music, 
religious hymns, fabulous poems, and mysteries. It can- 
not be doubted that, in like manner, a great number of re- 

" PiATO, De Rppub. IV, p. 359. ° About 1200 B. C (1). 


ligious opinions and ideas must have migrated from Egypt 
to Greece. The only question is the degree of influence 
we should allow to these adventitious materials, the man- 
ner in which they became naturalized in their new coun- 
try, and how far they were lost, or not, in the civilization 
and mental culture which they contributed to form. It is 
true that the Greeks possessed not only a rare aptitude 
for literature, but also a high degree of intellectual ori- 
ginality, the consequence of which necessarily was, that 
whatever they acquired from foreign nations speedily as- 
sumed among them a new and original character; the 
more so, because there was no sacerdotal race, no division 
into castes, no despotic authority to obstruct the ad- 
vances of society and the development of the mental 

The religion of the Greeks, notwithstanding the sensi- 
ble forms which it assumed in most of its mythi (the mean- 
ing of which was indeterminate), presented a subject-mat- 
ter to engage and exercise the curiosity of the human mind. 
The poets laid hold on these materials, and employed them 
with unrivalled success. By these latter a sort of national 
education was established, addressing itself in part to the 
understanding, in part to the senses, which served as an 
introduction to scientific pursuits. Among those who in 
this respect exerted the greatest influence, was Orpheus ' / 
by his religious hymns, his imaginations respecting cos- 
mogony; by the introduction of mysteries, and by certain 
moral precepts'". Musceus, by his poetic description of 
the region of the dead, — Homer", by his national epic 

' About 1250 B.C. (?) 

™ De Orpheo atque de Mysteriis ^Egyptiorum, auctore K. Lycke, Hafnia, 
1786, 8vo. Cf. Jos. GoTTLOB Schneider, Analecta Critica, Trajecti ad Via- 
drim, \111 , Bvo. (Fasc. I. sect. 4.) Wagner, Mythol. sect. 344, sqq. 

C. A. LoBECK, De Carminibus Orphicis, Diss. I. Regiomont. 1824. 

G. H. BoTHE, Orpheus Poetarum Graecorum antiquissimus, Gott. 1825, 

On the Mysteries, see Euseb. Praepar. Evan. II, 3, p. 61 ; ]Meiners Verm. 
Phil. Schriften, Th. Ill, § 164, ff ; S. Ckoix. Recherches Hist, et Critiques sur 
les Mysteres, 2nd ed. ed. De Sacy, 2 vols. Paris, 1817 ; and Lobeck, De Mys- 
teriorum Grjecorum Argumentis, Diss. I, III, Eegiomflnt. 1820, 4to ; with the 
Mythological works of Crelzfr, Bavr, and Voss, mentioned above. 

" About 1000 B.C. (?) 



poems, which present a faithful picture of the manners 
of ancient Greece, and contain a multitude of my thological 
recitals **, — HesiodP, by the collection he made of the sa- 
cred mythi (forming a system of theogony and cosmogony,) 
and by originating a great number of new ideas on mo- 
rals 'i, — Epimenides of Crete ^, and Simonides^ of Ceos, 
with the lyric and gnomic poets, and the authors of fables 
(^sop), belong to the same class, as having rendered 
to their country the like services * . 

Gnomic, or Sententious Philosophy. 

C. G. Heyne, De Zaleuci et Charondae Legibus atque insti- 
tutis. In his Opusc. Academ. torn. II. 

-j- On the Legislation of Solon and Lycurgus, in the Thalia 
of Schiller, 1790, No. XL 

<* Chr. Glob. Heyne, De Origine et Causis Fabularum Homericarum. 
Nov. Comment. Soc. Scient. Gbtt. vol. VII. 

t J. F. RoTHE, On Homer's Idea of a Supreme Deity, Gorlitz, 1768, 4to. 

C. GuiL. Halbkart, Psychologia Homerica, ZuUichau, 1796, 8vo. 

K. H. W. VoLCKER, On the ^ux*) ^^^ dScAov of the Iliad and Odyssey, 
etc., Giessen, 1825, 4to. 

Fr.Guil.Sturz, De Vestigiis Doctrinas de Animi Immortalitate in Homeri 
Carminibus, Prolusiones I — III, Gerce, 1794 — 1797, 4to. 

Jo. Dan. Schulze, Deus Mosis et Homeri comparatus. Lips. 1799, 4to. 

t Fraguier, On the Gods of Homer; in the Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscr. 
tom. IV. 

Gust. Gadolin, De Fato Homerico, Abo, 1800, 8vo. 

Jo. Fr. Wagner, De fontibus Honesti apud Homerum, Luneb. 1795, 4to. 

P About 800 B. C. 

1 t L. WACHLER,On the Notions of Hesiod respecting the Gods, the World, 
Man, and his Duties, Rinteln, 1789, 4to. 

t Wagner, Homer and Hesiod, Sulzb. 8vo. 

Ch. Glob. Heyne, De Theogonia ab Hesiodo condita ; in the Nov. Com- 
ment. Soc. Gbtt. vol. VIII. 

Chph. Arzberger, Adumbratio doctrinae Hesiodi de origine Rerum, Deo- 
rumque Natur^, Erlang. 1794, 8vo. 

t Letters on Hesiod, by Creuzer and God. Hermann, Leips, 1818, 8vo. 

»■ t C. F. Heinrich, Epimenides of Crete, Leips. 1805, 8vo. 

Pet. Gerh. Dukeri, Diss, de Simonide Ceo, poetcl et philosopho, Ultra- 
jecti, 1768, 4to. 

' See the article Simonides in Bayle's Dictionary. 

' Ulr. Andr. Rhode, De Veterum Poetarum Sapientifi Gnomica, Hebrae- 
orum imprimis et Grajcorum, Hafniie, 1800, 8vo. 


Jo. Fr. Buddei Sapientia Veterum, h. c. Dicta illustriora Sep- 
tem Graeciae Sapientum cxplicata, Halce^ 1699, Ito. 

f C. Aug. Heumann, On the Seven Sages ; in the Acta Phi- 
losoph. No. X. 

f Is. DE Larrey, History of the Seven Sages, 2 vols. Rot- 
terdam, 1713-16, 8vo. augmented by the remarks by Delabarre 
DE Beaumarchais, The Hague, 1734, 2 vols. 8vo. (French). 

7G. In the legislative systems of the Greeks, particu- 
larly those of Lycurgus, Zaleucus, Charondas, and So- 
lon, we observe a high sense of liberty, a profound ob- 
servation of the human heart, and great political pru- 
dence and experience. The sentences of the Seven Wise 
Men", and the ancient Gnomic poets, contain, it is true, 
nothing more than rules of practical wisdom, expressed 
with energy and conciseness ; but they evince, even at 
this early period, an advancement in civilization, and a 
ripeness of intellect for the pursuits of science; whenever 
an occasion should present itself to facilitate their prose- 

J. CoNH. DuRii Diss, de recondita Veteium Sapientia in Poetis, Alidorf 
1655, 4to. 

El. Weihenmaieri Diss, de Poetarum Fabulis PhilosophiaB involucris, 
rimce, 1749, 4to. 

Chr. Glob. Heyne, Prog, quo disputantur nonnulla de Efficaci ad Disci- 
plinam publicam privatamque vetustissimorum Poetarum doctrina morali, 
Gotting. 1764, 4to. 

" From the XLth to the LVIIth Olympiad. 





Progress of the understanding towards knowledge, but 
without a clear perception of the principles which should 
direct it. 

77. The Greeks, who had derived from foreigners the 
first seeds of civiHzation, distinguished themselves above 
all the other nations of antiquity, by their taste for poetry, 
for the arts and sciences. The position of their country, 
their religion, their political constitution, and their love 
of liberty, contributed to develop, in all its originality and 
grandeur, the native genius of their country. They thus 
were betimes matured for philosophy, and engaged in 
the pursuit of it, even from the earliest date of their po- 
litical liberty (§ 75). 

78. A philosophical spirit having been once awakened 
among the Greeks, continued to extend its dominion. 
They devoted their attention to the most important ob- 
jects of science (theoretically and practically) ; introduced 
method into their researches, forming a system of scepti- 
cism in opposition to dogmatism, and rarely failing to 
apply these speculative inquiries to purposes of real life. 
The wise men of Greece have justly been regarded by 
succeeding ages as models ; as well for their spirit of re- 
search and investigation, as for the results to which these 


have led, both in the manner and the matter of their phi- 
losophic inquiries ; but above all for a certain character 
of elegance and urbanity, and a command of philosophical 
language, which satisfies at once the judgment and the 

79. Their philosophy did not arrive at this perfection 
at once ; it began by disjointed speculations on the ex- 
ternal world. The habit of reflection which grew out 
of these first essays ; the diversity of the results at which 
they arrived ; and the continually increasing sense of a 
want of unity and harmony in their conclusions, recalled 
wandering speculation to the contemplation of the human 
mind, as the ultimate source of all certain knowledge ; 
and philosophy became more enlarged, more methodical, 
and more systematic. In after times, the discord of 
different systems ; the prevalence of a subtile scepti- 
cism ; the oppression of the understanding under a load 
of historical erudition, eventually diverted the mind from 
the investigation of its own properties ; till the philoso- 
phers of Greece, having borrowed from those of the 
East some of their opinions, in the hope of attaining to 
something like positive knowledge, fell, instead, into syn- 
cretism and mysticism^. It is true that the passionate 
enthusiasm which mixed itself up with this later philo- 
sophy, belonged in part to the natural character of the 

80. The history of Grecian philosophy may, therefore, 
be divided into three periods analogous to the ages of 
man; his youth — his maturity — and his decrepitude. Pe- 
riod the first : an ardent spirit of speculation, but with 
limited views and deficient in svstem : from Tliales to 
Socrates, i. e. from 600 to 400 B. C. Period the second : 
a spirit of inquiry more universal, more systematic ; both 
dogmatical and sceptical; from Socrates to the union of 
the Porch and the Academy, i. e. from 400 to 60 B. C. Pe- 

* [The force of these terms, as used by the author, will be sufficiently ex- 
plained in the course of the work. Tj-o«s.] 

56 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

riod the third : cultivation of Greek philosophy by the 
Jews and the Romans, and its declension ; philosophical 
learning, without a philosophical spirit ; sceptical spe- 
culations under a more learned aspect, but speedily lost 
in mystical and enthusiastical fancies, and destroyed by 
the union of Grecian literature with that of the Orientals. 
Prevalence of Christianity, from jTlnesidemus to John of 
Damascus ; i. e. from the year 60 B. C. to the eighth 
century *. 

Authorities for the history of Grecian philosophy, 

81. These are twofold; direct and indirect. The first 
are the works of the philosophers themselves, of which 
only a portion have come down to us entire, and for the 
most part consist of unconnected fragments, which have 
inflicted on the learned a prodigious deal of labour to ar- 
range and illustrate them. The indirect sources consist in 
notices and information respecting the lives, the doctrines, 
and labours of the philosophers, which are to be found in 
subsequent writers of whatever description; whether pre- 
sented to us in detached and unconnected pieces, or in a 
more complete form, and with a systematic arrangement. 
To this class belong : 1 st. The writings of philosophers 
which contain accounts of the theories of their prede- 
cessors ; among others, the works of Plato, Aristotle, 
Cicero (§ 180), Seneca, Plutarch (§ 185), Sextus Empi- 
ricus (§ 189, sqq.), Simplicius (§ 220). 2dly. The collec- 
tions of Diogenes Laertius^ Philostratus '', Eunapius*^, 

» Consult also t Ast, Epochs of Greek Philosophy, in the Europa of Fr. 

ScHLEGEL, vol. II, No. II. 

^ Diogenes Laertius, De Vitis, dogmatibus et apophtegmatibus clarorum 
Philosophorum, cur& Marc. Meibomii, Am%t. 1692, 2 vols. 4to. Cur^ P. 
Dan. Longolii, Cur. Regn., 2 vols. 1739, 8vo. h\]is. 1759, 8vo. 

*^ Flav. Philostrati Vitae Sophistarum in Philostratorum Operibus, Gr. 
et Lat. c. not. Olearii, hx]n. 1709, fol. 

<> EuNAPii Vitae Philosophorum et Sophistarum, ed. Junics, Antiverp, 
1568, 8vo. Ed. CoM.MELiN, //eide/fe. 1596,8vo. Ed, Schott, Geneve, 1616, 


The history of philosophy ascribed to Galen^, and that of 
Origen^; with the collections of the Pseudo-Plutarch s, 
and of Stoba?us^. Sdly. The works of other Greek and 
Latin authors, such as Athenaeus', Aulus Gellius'', Ma- 
crobius^, Suidas"^. 4thly. The writings of the eccle- 
siastical Fathers ; Clemens Alexandrinus, Origen, Euse- 
bius, Lactantius, Augustine (§ 232), Nemesius, Photius 
(§ ^S5). 



Partial and Unsyste^natic Speculation, 

Henr. Stephani Poesis Philosophica, Paris, 1573, 8vo. 
'Hfii/cyj Ttoirja-K; seu Gnomici Poetae Graeci, ed. Brunck. Argent^ 
1784, 4to. And the Works on the Seven Sages and the Legisla- 
tors of the Greeks. 

^ Claudii Galeni Liber Trtpi (pCKoaocpov XaropiaQ, in Hippocratis et Galeni 
Operibus ex edit. Carterii, torn. II, p. 21, seq. 

^ Origenis (piXoao^ovfjieva in Jac. Gronovii Thes. Antiq. Grasc, torn. X. 
(Also published by), 

Jo. Chph. Wolff, Compendium Historia3 Philosophicas Antiquge sivePhi- 
losophumena quae sub Origenis nomine circumferuutur, Hamb. 1706 — 1716, 

S Plutarchus, De placitis Philosophorum,sive de PhysicisPhilosophorum 
decretis, ed. Chr. Dan. Beck, Lips. 1787, Bvo. 

•> JoH. Stob^i Eclogae Physicae et Ethicae, ed. A. H. L. Heeren, Goit. 
1792—1801, 2 parts in 4 vols. Sermones, Francf. 1781, fol. Ed. Nic. 
Scnow, Lips. 1797, 8vo. 

» Athen^i Deipnosophistarum, libri XV, ed. Casaubon, Lttgd. 1657 — 
64, 2 vols. fol. Jo. Schweigh^user, Argent. 1801 — 7, 14 vols. 8vo. 

^ t Fragments of the History of Ancient Philosophy, drawn from the Nights 
of Aulus Gellius, Lemgo, 1785, 8vo. 

Noctes Atticae, Henr. Steph. 1585. Gronov. Lugd. Batav. 1706, 4to. etc. 

' Macrobii Saturnal. ed. Jac. Gronovius, Lugd. Bat. 1670, 8vo. Ed. 
Zeune, Lips. 1774, 8vo. 

"' The modern works on the history of philosophy among the Greeks, have 
been mentioned, $ 38, I, a and b. 

58 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

SciPio Aquilianus, De placitis Philosophorum ante Aristote- 
lem, Milan, 1615, 4to. Op. Ge. Monalis, Veiiet. 1620, 4to. 
Ed. Car. Phil. Brucker, Lips. 1756, 4to. 

f D. TiEDEMANN, First Philosophers of Greece, Leips. 1780, 

f G. Gust. Fulleborn, On the History of the first ages of 
Grecian Philosophy. In his Collection, Fasc. I. 

J. GoTTL. BuHLE, Comment, de Veterum Philosophorum Grae- 
corum ante Aristotelem conaminibus in arte Logica invenienda et 
perficienda. Comment. Soc. Scient. Gott. tom. X. 

Fried. Bouterwek, De primis Philosophorum Graecorum de- 
cretis Physicis. Comment. Soc. Gott. tom. II, 1811. 

See also the works enumerated above, § 75, on the Greek My- 
thology, particularly on Orpheus, Homer, and Hesiod, and the 
Gnomic poets. 

82. A spirit of philosophical research first manifested 
itself in some rude attemps in Ionia, made at the pe- 
riod when this country, colonized from Greece, enjoyed 
the utmost prosperity. Thence it extended to some of 
the neighbouring colonies ; subsequently into Magna 
Groecia, until the conquests of the Persians and the 
troubles of southern Italy compelled it to take refuge in 
Athens; from which, as a centre, intellectual civilization 
was disseminated, and, as it were, radiated over the whole 
of Greece. 

83. The starting-point of philosophy was the question 
concerning the origin and the elementary principle of the 
world : the resolution of which was attempted after the 
exj)erimental method by the Ionic school ; and X\ve formal 
method by the Pythagoreans. The Eleatic school op- 
posed to each other the experimental and intellectual sys- 
tems ; which were combined by the Atomistic philoso- 
phers. Last of all came a Sophistical school, which 
threatened to destroy all belief, religious and moral. 

84. But this progress of investigation was a sort of 
prelude to a more scientific philosophy, which by and by 
turned from the external object to the internal subject : 
from the world without to the mind within. Philosophical 


82—85.] lONIANS. THALES. 59 

reflection, discarding poetical fictions, applied itself to 
practical purposes, by the discovery of moral and political 
apothegms, for a long time delivered in verse (GnomcCy 
yvhence philosophia gnomica sive Sententiaria; cf. § 75-76). 
In theory, men wandered, went from one hypothesis to 
another, until, in the end, they endeavoured to substitute 
for these a system of metaphysical knowledge. The 
earliest philosophers were solitary, and without a school 
(Pythagoras nevertheless being an exception). Their no- 
tions were disseminated at first by oral tradition ; subse- 
quently by writings ; which gradually disengaged them- 
selves from poetic fictions. 

I. Speculations of the Ancient lonians. 

•f H. RiTTER, History of the Ionian Philosophy, 5er/m, 1821, 

BouTERWEK, Dissertation referred to above, at the head of 


•f The Abbe de Canaye, Inquiry respecting the Philosophy 
of Thales, in the Memoires de I'Acad. des Inscript. torn. X. 

Chr. Alb. Doederlini Animadversiones Historico-criticae de 
Thaletis et Pythagorae Historica ratione, 1750, 8vo. 

GoDOFR. Ploucquet, Dissert. de Dogmatibus Thaletis Milesii 
et Anaxagorse Clazomenii, etc. Tubings 1763 ; and in his Com- 
ment. Philos. Select. 

Glieb. Chph. Harles, Tria Programmata de Thaletis Doc- 
trina, de Principio Rerum, imprimis de Deo, ad illustrandum Ci- 
ceronis de Nat. Deor. locum, lib. I, 10, Erlang. 1780-84, folio. 

J. Frid. Flatt, Diss, de Theismo Thaleti Milesio abjudi- 
cando. Tub. 1785, 4to. 

^ GoEss, On the System of Thales. See above, at the head 
of § 2. 

85. Thales (600 B. C), of Miletus, the most flourish- 
ing commercial city of Ionia, improved himself by travel, 
was possessed of some mathematical and astronomical 
knowledge, and was ranked by his fellow-citizens among 

60 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

the Seven Sages. He was the first Grecian who dis- 
cussed, on principles of reason, the origin of the world. 
Water (vdup), or humidity^, was in his opinion (formed 
in consequence of some experimental observations very 
partial in their nature) the original element {a$x'n), whence 
all things proceeded^; and spirit, vdv<;, the impulsive prin- 
ciple. He observed the attractive power of the magnet 
and, consistently with his theory, supposed the stone to 
have a soul. Every thing is full of the divinity ^ It is 
not exactly known in what manner Thales associated the 
spiritual parts of his system with his material principle. 
Accordingly, the discussions which his theism has occa- 
sioned commenced at a very early epoch ^. Among other 
sentences, they attribute to him yvZOi a-eavrov. 

Anaximander and Pherecydes. 

^ The Abbe de Canaye, Inquiry concerning Anaximander, 
in the Memoires de TAcad. des Inscript. torn. X. 

■\ Fr. Schleiermacher, Dissertation on the Philosophy of 
Anaximander, in the Memoirs of the Royal Academy of Sciences 
of Berlin, 1804-11, Berlin, 1815, 4to. 

-f- H. RiTTER, The work referred to above, and the article 
Anaximander, IVth part of the Encyclopedia published by 
Ersch and Gruber. 

Pherecydis fragmenta e variis scriptoribus collegit, etc. com- 
mentationem de Pherecyde utroque philos. et historico praemisit 
Fr. Guil. Sturz, Gera, 1789, 8vo. second edition, 1824. 

-j^ Heinius, Dissertation on Pherecydes, in the Memoires de 
lAcad. Roy. des Sciences, Berlin, V, 1747. 

f See also the work of Tiedemann mentioned above, at the 
head of § 82, p. 172, sqq. 

86. Anaximander^, a Milesian like Thales, and a friend 
of that philosopher, chose as the basis of his argument, 
on the same subject, not analogy, but an assumed philoso- 
phical principle. The primary essence he asserted to be 
infinite (aTteipov), comprehending all things, and divine (to 

« J. H. MuLLER, De AquJi, principio Thaletis, Altd. 1719, 4to. 

*> Aristot. Metaph. I, 3. De Coelo, II, 13. 

c Aristot. De Anim;i, I, 2, 5. Cf. De Mundo, VI. 

^' Cicero, De Nat. Deor. I, 10. 

e About 610 B. C. 


^eiov), without, however, more exactly defining it*^. Ac- 
cording to some he attributed to this divine nature an es- 
sence akogether distinct from the elements ; according 
to others, he made it something intermediate between 
water and air. It is only in infinity that the perpetual 
changes of things can take place ; from infinity, opposites 
detach themselves by a perpetual movement, and in like 
manner continually return to the same. By this principle 
the heavens and the earth subsist : with respect to which 
Anaximander did not content himself with astronomical 
speculations only. Every thing which is contained in 
infinitude (to aiteipov), is subject to change, itself being 
unchangeable ^. Such also was the doctrine, with some 
slight differences, of his contemporary, (but younger than 
himself), Pherecydes of Syros ; who recognised as the 
eternal principles of all things Jupiter (zet? or aW-rjo), Time, 
and the Earth. It appears also that he attempted an ac- 
count of the origin of the celestial bodies and of the hu- 
man race, and that he believed the soul to be immortal''. 
Anaximander and Pherecydes were the first philosophers 
who committed their thoughts to writing. 


Dan. Grotiiii (praes. J. Andr. Schmidt), Diss, de Anax- 
imenis Psychologia, Jen. 1689, 4to. 

87. Anaximenes, of Miletus', followed the doctrine of 
his friend and teacher Anaximander ; but instead of the 
indeterminate uitei^ov of the latter, certain observations, 
though partial and limited, on the origin of things and 
the nature of the soul, led him to regard the air {^f) as 
the primitive element ^. In after time, Diogenes of Ajwl- 

^ DioG. Laert. II, 1. 

6 AiiiSTOT. Physic. I, 4, 5; III, 4 — 7 ; andSiMPLic. Comment, in Phys. 
p. 6 ; and De Coelo, p. 151. 

h Aristot. Metaph.XlV, 4. Diog. Laert. I, 119. Cic. Tusc. Qu. I, 16. 

' Flourished about 557 B. C. 

•* Aristot. Metaph. I, 3. Simplic. in Phys. Arist. p. 6 et 9. Cic. 
Acad. Quaest. II, 37. Plutarch. De plac. Philos. I, 3. Stob. Eel. I. p. 

62 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Ionia, revived and improved upon this system ; in which 
we may already observe a more enlarged view of nature, 
and a freer exercise of the understanding. 

II. Speculations of the Pythagoreans. 

Authorities : besides Plato and Aristotle, and the Pythagorean 
Fragments, particularly those of Philolaus : 

Pythagoras Aurea Carmina. Timaeus Locras. Ocellus Lu- 
canus. Porphyrins de Vita Pythagorae, ed. Conr. Rittershusius, 
Altd. 1610, 8vo. See also %pi/o-ea ctttj, in the Sententiosa vetus- 
tissimorum Gnomicorum opera, torn. I. ed. Glandorf, Lips. 
1776, 8vo. and in the Collection of Brunck. 

Jamblichi De Vita Pythagorica liber Gr. cum vers. Lat. Ulr. 
Obrechti notisque suis edid. Ludolf Kuesterus, acced. Malchus 
sive Porphyrius De Vita Pythagorae cum not. L. Holstenii et 
Conrad. Rittershusii, Amstelod. 1707, 4to. ed. Theoph. 
KiESLiNG, Lips. 1815, 8vo. p. I and II. 

Pythagorae Sphaera Divinatoria de decubitu aegrotorum ; and 
the Epistolae Pythagorae, in the Opusc. Myth. Phys. of Gale, p. 
735, sqq. 

Socratis et Socraticorum, Pythagorae et Pythagoricorum, quae 
feruntur Epistolae, ed. Orellius, 1816, 8vo. 

Rich. Bentleii, Dissert, de Phalaridis, Themistoclis, Socratis, 
Euripidis, aliorumque Epistolis, in Latin, sermonem convertit 
J. D. A. Lennep, Groning, 1777, 4to. Et, Bentleii Opuscula 
Philologica, Dissertationem in Phalaridis Epistolas et Epistolam 
ad J. MiLLiuM complectentia, Lips. 1781, 8vo. 

-j- Meiners, History of the Sciences in Greece and Rome, 
tom. I, p. 187. 

-f- Meiners, Dissertation on the Authenticity of some works of 
the Pythagorean School in the Bibliotheca Philol. tom. I, No. V. 

-j- TiEDEMANN, Early Philosophers of Greece, p. 188, sqq. 

W. Lloyd, A Chronological Account of the Life of Pythagoras, 
and of other Famous Men his Contemporaries, with an Epistle to 
Dr. Bentley, etc., Lond. 1699-1704, 8vo. 

Henr. Dodwelli Exercitationes duae, prima de aetate Pha- 
laridis, altera de astate Pythagorae, Lond. 1699-1704, 8vo. 

Dissertations sur I'Epoque de Pythagore, par De Lanauze et 
Freret, dans les Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscript. tom. XIV. 

296. Sext. Emp. Hyp. Pyrrh. Ill, 30 ; Adv. Mathem. VII, 5 ; IX, 360. 

DiOG. JjAF.nT. II, 3. 

88, 89.] PYTHAGORAS. 63 

* * * 

Ge. Lud. Hamberger, Exerc. de Vita et Symbolis Pythagorae, 
Fitemb. 1676, 4to. 

Dacier, La Vie de Pythagore, ses symbols, ses vers dores, 
etc. Par. 1706, 2 vols. V2mo. 

Chph. Schrader, Diss, de Pythagora, in qua de ejus Ortu, 
Praeceptoribus et Peregrinationibus agitur. Lips. 1708, 4to. 

Je. Jac. Leiimann, Observatt. ad Histor. Pythagorae, Frcft. 
et Leips. 1731, 4to. 

M . . . ., Vies d'Epicure, de Platon, et de Pythagore, Amst. 
1752, 12mo. 

\ Fred. Christ. Eilschov, History and Critical Life of Py- 
thagoras, translated from the Danish of Philander von der 
Weistritz, Kopenhagen, 1756, 8vo. 

-j- Aug. E. Zinserling, Pythagoras-Apollon, Lips. 1808, 8vo. 

JoH. SciiEFFER, Dc Natura et Constitutione Philosophiae Ita- 
licae, Ups. 1664. Edit. II, cum carminibus, Fitemb. 1701, 8vo. 

f J. Le Clerc, in his Bibliotheca, torn. X, art. II, p. 79. 

-|- H. RiTTER, History of the Pythagorean Philosophy, Ham- 
burg, 1826, 8vo. 

\ Ern. Reinhold, On the Pythagorean Metaphysics, Jena, 
1827, 8vo. 

For the ancient works relative to Pythagoras and his Philoso- 
phy, see the f Acta Philos. of Heumann, part II, p. 370, part 
IV, p. 752. 

88. The difficulties which embarrass this part of his- 
tory and demand the exercise of much critical discernment, 
are, — The want of authentic writings, the abundance of 
those which are apocryphal, the mystery which appears 
to involve every thing belonging to the person, the cha- 
racter, and views of Pythagoras and his society ; the diffi- 
culty of discriminating between what was his own, and 
what was borrowed from the Egyptians, or may have 
proceeded from others of his school, and finally, the re- 
establishment of the same school at a later period, under 
different masters, and with somewhat different views. 

89. Pythagoras was born at Samos ^ ; and improved 

' In 584, according to Meiners. 

64 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

himself by his travels in Greece and Egypt "", and proba- 
bly also by the lessons of Thales and Pherecydes, (whose 
disciple he is said to have been"), as well as by those of 
Anaximander. After having previously attempted to esta- 
bUsh a school and a species of philosophical congregation, 
at Samos, he founded one (about 521) at Croto, in Italy, 
whence his school came to be called the Italic. Besides 
the improvement of the intellectual, moral, and rehgious 
capacities of man, this society had also considerable political 
influence ; which circumstance occasioned the ruin of the 
society, about the year 500; and the death of its founder o. 
Pythagoras may justly be esteemed a man remarkable for 
his talents, his discoveries, the elevation of his ideas, and 
the authority he possessed over others ; but the ancient 
Greeks and Romans invested him with something more 
than this, amounting to a sort of superstitious reverence. 
He was the first who assumed the name of philosopher. 
See Cic. Tusc. Qusest. V, 3, 4. Diog. Laert. VIII, 8, 
and I, 12. 

90. He investigated the principles of the mathematical 
sciences; particularly of Arithmetic, Geometry, Music, 
and Astronomy; his discoveries in which are of them- 
selves sufficient to immortalise his name. He ascribed 
an occult power to words and numbers p ; and the science 
of arithmetic, which he considered as the key to the mathe- 
matics, he looked upon as containing also the essence of 
all philosophical knowledge^. From this principle he was 
led to adopt a sort of Mathematical Philosophy, which 
gave to his school also the name of Mathematieal. We 
possess only fragments of the speculations of his school 
on these subjects ; in which we are not enabled to distin- 
guish the hand of the master from that of his disciples. 

"' Fr. Buddei Diss, de Peregrinationib. Pythagorae, Jena, 1692, 4to. j and 
in his Analect. Hist. Philos. 

" Diog. Laert. I, 118, sqq. Cic. De Div. I, 13. 

° About 504, according to Meiners ; according to others 489 B.C. 

P yELiAN. Var. Hist. IV, 17. Jamblicii. c. 10. 

'1 AmsTOT. ISIetaph. I, 5. 

91, 92.] PYTHAGORAS. (}'> 


On the subject of the Pythagorean nunil)crs, see Jac. Brxjckeh, 
Convenientia Nunierorum Pythagorye cum I dels Platonis, Miscell. 
Hist. Philos. 

De Numerorum, quos Arabicos vocant, vera origine Pythago- 
rica commentatur Conk. Mannert. Norimb. 1801, 8vo. 

f C. A. Brandis, On the Doctrine of Numbers of the Pytha- 
goreans and Platonists (in the Rhen. Mus. of Hist. Philos. etc. 
1828, No. II, s. 208). 

Amad. Wendt, De rerum principiis secundum Pythagoreos 
Comment. Lips. 1827, 8vo. 

Numbers were defined by the Pythagoreans to be the 
principles (alrlai) of all things "^ ; this school being dis- 
posed by their mathematical studies to make the system 
of external things subordinate to that of numbers, agree- 
ably to their axiom, luf^yjo-iv clvca. to. tvra Tuv a^i6[A,Zv^ . Num- 
bers are equal and unequal, a^rioi and xejiiTTo/; the ele- 
mentary principle of the latter being umtt/ {f/.ovdi), that of 
the former duality (St^a?). Unequal numbers are limited 
and complete ; equal ones unlimited and incomplete. 
The abstract principle then of all perfection is unity and 
limitation (to ireireoaa-ixevov)', that of imperfection, duality, and 
indeterminateness (to aireioov). The ten elementary num- 
bers which are represented in the tetractys^ , and which 
embrace a complete system of numeration, contain also 
the elements of a perfect system of nature. (See Arist. 
Met. I, 5). In this instance they applied the theory of 
numbers to explain the natures and substances of things, 
as, in others, to illustrate their formation and origin. But 
on this subject, we are acquainted only with subsequent 
essays, and belonging to a later school*. 

92. On the TVorld and the Deity. The Pythagoreans, 

1 Arist. Metaph. I, 3. Jamblich. Vit. Pythag. c. xii, p. 120, ex Hera- 
clide Pontic. 

"■ Arist. Metaph. I, 5, 6 ; XII, 6, 8. 

» Sext. Empir. Adv. Math. IV, 3. 

J. Geo. MiCHAELis, Diss, de Tetracty Pythagoiica, Franco/, ad Viad. 1735. 
Erh. Weigil, Tetractys Pythagorica. 

' Sf.xtvs, Adv. Matheni. X, 249, sijq. 


66 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

like their predecessors, considered the world to be a har- 
monious whole {Koa-fxoq) ; Consisting, according to a system 
of Decades, of ten great bodies revolving around a com- 
mon centre, agreeably to harmonious laws ; whence the 
music of the spheres ", and their explanation of the sym- 
bolical lyre of Apollo. The centre, or central fire (the 
sun), in other words, the seat of Jupiter, A<o? olKoq fvXdK'^f 
is the most perfect object in nature, the principle of heat, 
and consequently of life ; penetrating and vivifying all 
things. According to the same system, the stars also are 
divinities ; and even men, nay, the inferior animals have a 
sort of consanguinity with the Divine Being. They con- 
sidered the dcemones as a race intermediate between gods 
and men, and attributed to them a considerable agency 
in dreams and divination ; always, however, assigning as 
ultimate causes of all things, destiny and the deity. They 
ennobled their notion of the deity by the attribution of 
certain moral qualities, such as truth and beneficence''. 

98. Doctrine of the Soul. The soul also is a number, 
and an emanation from the central fire^, resembling the 
constellations to which it is allied by its immortality and 
its constant activity ; capable of combining with any body, 
and compelled by destiny to pass successively through 
several. This theory of the metempsychosis, borrowed 
(it is probable), from the Egyptians^, Pythagoras ap- 
pears to have combined with the doctrine of moral Retri- 
bution. It is to the Pythagoreans we are indebted for 

" Aug. Boeckh, Disputatio de Platonlco Systemate Coelestium Globorum, 
et de verk indole Astronomiae Philolaicae, Heidelb. 1810, 4to. 

^ Plato Phaedon. p. 139, et Heindorf. ad h. 1. Plutarch. De Plac. 
Philos. I, 3, 7 ; II, 4. Diog. VIII, 27. 21. Jamblich. LXXXVI, 137, 
sqq. PoRPHYR. Vit^ Pythag. § 41. ^Elian. Var. H. XII, 59. Stob. Eel. 
Phys. p. 206. 

CoNR. DiETR. Koch, Diss. : Unum Theol. Pythagor. Compendium, Helmst. 
1710. Mich. Mourgues, Plan Theologique du Pythagorisme et des autres 
Sectes, Toulouse, 1712, 2 vols. 8vo. 

y Diog. Laert. VIII, 28. 

^ Herodot. II, 123. Arist. De An. I, 3.1 Plut. De Plac. Philos. 
IV, 7. Jamblich. Vit. Pyth., c. 24. Dioo. Laert. VIII, 14, 28, 30, 31. 
Stod. EcI. I, 1044, sqq. 

93, 94.] , PYTHAGORAS. <}7 

the first attempt, however rude, at an analysis of tlie ope- 
rations and fjiculties of the mind. The understandino- 
and the intellectual faculties (vovq and foivcq), they placed 
in the brain ; the appetites and the will {Qvixiq)^ in the 
heart*, and distinijuished between the rational and ani- 
mal soul. 

9i. The doctrine of Pythagoras embraced also the 
question of Et/iics^ ; and the fragments of his which we 
possess on this subject contain (in symbolical language), 
many admirable ideas, but of which the jjrinciples are not 
sufficiently developed^. Moral good they identified with 
ifu'ifij — evil with mnUipUcitij. Virtue is the harmony and 
unison of the Soul; (Aristot. Eth. Nicom, II, 5 ; cf. I, A. 
Diog. Laert. VIII, 3S, Clem. Alex. Strom. IV, c. 23); 
or in other words, similitude to God, ofxoXojla -npoq to Be7ov. 
Justice they defined to be, aoi9[/.o<; WdKiq tVo?^ ; and Right 

=» Cic. Tusc. QujEst. I, 17. Diog. VIII, 30. Stob. Eel. Phys., p. 878. 

Ambros. Rhodii, Dial, de Transmigratione Animarum Pythagorica, Hafn. 
1638, 8vo. 

Paganini Gaudentii De Pythagoric^ Animarum Transmigratione, Pis. 
1641, 4to. 

Essay of Transmigration, in defence of Pythagoras, T.ond. 1692. 

GuiL. IfiHOvii De Palingenesia veterum, s. Metempsychosi sic dict^ Py- 
thagorica, Libb. III. Avxst. 1733, 4to. 

•» Marc. Mappi Diss. (Praes. Jac. Schaller) de Ethick Pythagorica, 
Argent. 1653 ; and in the Fragmm. Hist. Philos. of Windheim. 

Magn. Dan. Omeisii Ethica Pythagorica, Altd. 1693, 8vo. 

Frid. Guil. Ehrenfh. Rost, Super Pythagora Virtutem ad Numeros refe- 
rente non revocante. Lips. 1803. 

Fit. Bernii Arcana Moralitatis ex Pythagorae symbolis coUecta, Ferrar. 
1669 ; ed. quartus Pavl Pater. Francf. ad M. 1687. 

Jo. Mich. Sonntag, Diss, de similitudine nostri cum Deo Pythagorico- 
Platonico, Jen. 1699, 4to. 

Fr. Buddei, Diss.De KaOdpaei Pythagorico-Platonic^, Hal. 1701, 4to; cf. 
Analect. Hist. Philos. ejusdem. 

Ch. Aug. Roth, De Examine conscientiae Pythagorico vespertino. Lips, 
1708, 4to. 

Jo. Friedem. Schneider, Diss. De avotip seu ascensu hominis in Deum 
Pythagorico, Hal. 1710. 

Jo. ScHii.TF.Ri, Diss, de Discipline Pythagoric^, in his Manuductio Philos. 
Moralis. Jen. 1676, Bvo. 

«= Arist. Eth. Magn. I, 2. 

«! Arist. Eth. Nicom. T, 1 ; cf. II, 6 ; V, 5. Dmo. Laert. VIII, 33. 

68 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

they made to consist in to avrnreTvovOoi; •, Friendship was 
made to consist in community of interests, and equaUty : 
self-murder was condemned by Pythagoras as a crime 
against the gods, and the virtue which he especially com- 
mended was self-command (Karaprva-K;), But the attention 
of this school was principally engaged, and its disciples 
exercised in a species of ascetic morality, which pervaded 
all their system^. 

95. We are acquainted with but a small portion of 
the writings of the old Pythagorean sect, and these are 
merely commentaries on the opinions of their master. 
The philosophers belonging to it were Aristceus of Croto, 
the successor and son-in-law of Pythagoras, according to 
Jamblichus ^ ; Teleauges and Mnesarchus, sons of Py- 
thagoras ; AlcmcBon of Croto, principally distinguished 
as a naturalist and physician ; Hippo of Rhegium, and 
Hippasus of Metapontum ; (these two last were allied 
to the Ionic school, by their doctrine of a fundamental 
and elementary principle of nature) ; Ecphantus of Syra- 
cuse, who inclined to the Atomic school ; Clinias, the con- 
temporary of Philolaus, and Epicharmiis of Cos, the co- 
median, called also the Megarean and Sicilian, on account 
of his residence at those places. Nothing can be advanced 
with certainty concerning Ocellus the Lucanian^, and 
Timceus of Locri Epizephyrii, and on that account called 
Timseus the Locrian^. The work attributed to the lat- 
ter' is nothing but an abstract of the Timaeus of Plato, 

^ Several symbolical precepts are to be found apud Plutarch. De Pueror. 
Educ. fin.; and Diog. Laert. VIII, 17. 

f Vita Pythag. 

« Flourished about 496 B.C. 

*» Respecting both, consult + Meiners, Hist. Doctr. de Vero Deo, P. II, p. 
312, sqq. The same, in his t History of the Sciences among the Greeks and 
Romans, vol. I, p. 584. The same, in the t Bibl. Philol. of Gott., vol. I, No. 
I, p. 204; and t Tiedemann, Spirit of Speculative Philosophy, vol. I, p. 89. 

' litpL rfjg Tov Kofffiov \|/vx>je, printed in the Opusc. IMyth. Phys. et Eth. 
of TiioM. Gale, p. 539, sqq., and published by D'Argens, Berlin, 1763, 8vo. 
translated by Bardili, in the Collection of Fulleborn, No. IX, $ 9. On 
this work, consult t Tf.nnemank, System of the Philosophy of Plato, vol. I, 
p. 93. 

95, 96.] PYTHAGORAS. G9 

and the authenticity of the treatise on the Universe ^, 
attributed to Ocellus, is even more unquestionably apo- 
cryphal. Among the most distinguished Pythagoreans 
of a later period should be mentioned, Archytas of Ta- 
rentum^, a contemporary of Plato, and Philolaus of 
Croto, or Tarentum ™ ; who became celebrated for his 
system of astronomy, and composed the first treatise of 
his school which was committed to writing", entitled, 
'* The Bacchae, or Inspired Women**." 

9G. The doctrine of Pythagoras had great influence 
with the most eminent philosophers of Greece, and, in 
particular, with Plato ; from the impression it communi- 
cated to their speculations. Subsequently, however, it 
became the fashion to call Pythagorean all that Plato, 
Aristotle, and others after them, had added to the doc- 
trines of Pythagoras ; even opinions which they them- 
selves had started ; and to this medley of doctrines of va- 
rious origin was superadded a mass of superstitions (§ 184). 

•* rifpt tT]q tov iravTOQ ^ixrsujg, first published in the Opusc. of Th, Gale, 
p. 99, sqq. The same, by Batteux, with the work of Tim^us, Par. 1768, 
3 vols. 8vo ; and also separately, by D'Argens, Berlin, 1792, Bvo; by Ro- 
TERMUND, Leips. 1794, Bvo; and lastly, by Rudolphi, Ocellus Lucanus de 
Rer. Natur^, Graece ; rec, comment, perpet. auxit et vindicare studuit Aug. 
Frid. Wilh. Rudolphi, Lips. 1801, 8vo., translated with a Dissertation on 
the Genius of Ocellus, by Bardili, ap. Fulleborn, Fasc. X, § 1 — 3. 

' See C. G. Bardili, Epochen, etc., supplement to the first part. The 
same, Disquisitio de Archyta Tarentino, Nov. Act. Soc. Lat. Jen. vol.1, p. 1. 
Tentamen de Archytae Tarentini \\tk atque operibus a Jos. Navarra con- 
scriptum, Hafn. 1820, 4to. Collection of the pretended Fragments of Archy- 
tas, in the t History of the Sciences by Meiners, vol. I, p. 598. 

«» The contemporary of Socrates. 

n Concerning this philosopher, see the work of Aug. Boeckh, mentioned 
§ 92, note j and t The Doctrine of the Pythagorean Philolaus, with the frag- 
ment of his work, by the same, Berl, 1819, 8vo. 

° On the Pythagorean Ladies, see Jamblich. Vit. Pyth. ed. Kuster, p. 21. 
Theano is particularly mentioned as the wife or the daughter of Pythagoras. 
DiOG. Laert. VIII, 42, sqq. ; Jambl. 1. c. ; in the work of Gale, Opusc. 
Myth., p. 740, sqq., in the Collect, of J. Chph. Wolf, Fragmenta Mulie- 
rum Graecarum prosaica, p. 224, sqq., we find letters attributed to Theano 
and other women of this sect. See also, Fabricius, Bibl. Gr. ; t Wieland 
On the Pythagorean Ladies, in his works, vol. XXIV ; Fred. Schlegel, 
Abhandlung iiber Diotima, fourth vol. of his works, Vienna, 1822, 8vo. 

70 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

III. Speculations of the Eleatic School. 

Liber de Xenophane, Zenone, Gorgia Aristoteli vulgo tributus, 
partim illustratus Commentario a Ge. Gust. Fulleborn, Hal. 
1789, 4to. 

Ge. Lud. Spaldingii Vindiciae Philosophorum Megaricorum ; 
subjicitur Commentarius in priorem partem libelli de Xenophane, 
Zenone, et Gorgia, Hal. 1792, 8vo. 

-j- J. GoTTFR. Walther, The Tombs of the Eleatic Philoso- 
pher unclosed, second edition, Magd. et Leips. 1724. 

JoH. GoTTL. Buhle, Commcntatio de Ortu et Progressu Pan- 
theismi inde a Xenophane primo ejus auctore usque ad Spinozam, 
Gotting. 1790, 4to., et Commentt. Soc. Gott. vol. X, p. 157. 

Chr. Aug. Brandis, Commentationum Eleaticarum, p. 1. 
Xenophanis, Parmenidis, et Melissi doctrina e propriis Philoso- 
phorum reliquiis repetita, Alton. 1813, 8vo. 

97. All the philosophers, whom we have hitherto had 
occasion to mention, made experience the basis of their 
arguments, and consequently were led by the evidence of 
their senses to the consideration of the contingent and the 
variable : which it was their endeavour to reconcile with 
the invariable and absolute, by referring all to the same 
original. We are now called upon to observe the com- 
mencement, at Elea in Italy, of a school which boldly as- 
serted that experience existed only in appearance : that 
the ideas of movement and change were unintelligible ; 
and, by these doctrines, were led to derive all knowledge - 
from the mind itself, as the only substantial foundation of 
Truth. The Deity they identified with the Universe. 

All this amounted, as is obvious, to a species of ideal- 
ism and pantheisfn^, which was iiiiagined by four philoso- 
phers, with the private circumstances of whose lives we 
have not much acquaintance. 

P Jdeulism is used to denote the theory which asserts the reality of our 
ideas, and from these argues the reality of external objects : Pantheism is the 
opinion that all Nature partakes of the divine essence. 

97, 98.] XENOPHANES. 71 


Fragments of the Poem of Xenophanes TrepJ ^va-euq, in the Col- 
lection of FuLLEBORN, No. VII, § 1 ; and in Brandis Comment, 

ToB. RoscHMANNi Diss. Hist. Philos. (praes. Feuerlin) de 
Xenophane, Altd. 1729, 4to. 

Diet. Tiedemann, Xenophanis decreta. Nova Biblioth. Philo- 
log. et Crit. vol. I. fasc. 11. 

■\ FiJLLEBORN, Xenophanes, Collection, fasc. I, § 3. See 
the works mentioned in the preceding §. 

98. Xefiophanes of Colophon was the contemporary of 
Pythagoras, and, about the year 536, estabUshed himself 
at Elea or Velia, in Magna Graecia. From the principle 
ex 7iihiIo nihil fit, he concluded that nothing could pass 
from non-existence to existence. According to him, all 
things that really exist are eternal and immutable. On 
this principle he looked upon all nature as subject to the 
same law of unity; eV to Iv koI Ttav. God, as being the 
most perfect essence, to ^dvruv aoia-rov Ka) Kodna-rov, is eter- 
nally. One ; unalterable, and always consistent with him- 
self; He is neither finite nor infinite, neither moveable nor 
mimoveable ; he cannot be represented vnider any human 
semblance ; he is all hearing, all sight, and all thought, 
and his form is spherical. The same philosopher (on the 
principle of experience), proposed to explain the multi- 
fariousness of variable essences by assuming, as primitive 
elements, water and earth. He appears to have hesitated 
between the opposite systems of empirism'^ and ration- 
alism, and bewailed the incertitude which he regarded as 
the condition of humanity ^ Xenophanes was the first 
to set the example of a philosopher who divested the 

1 Empirism, or eiperimentalism, it is necessary to bear in mind, would derive 
all our knowledge from experiment, by the avenues of the senses : rationalism, 
on the contrary, from the mind. 

»■ Arist. de Xenoph. c. 3 ; Met. I, 3, 5. Sextus, Hyp. Pyrrh. I, 224, 
sqq. ; III, 228; Adv. Math. VII, 49, sqq. Aokoq S'LttI Train TsrvKTai, 52, 
110; VllI, 326; X, 313, sqq. Dice. Laert. IX, 19, sqq. Stob. Eel. II, 
p. 14, sqq. ed. Heeren. 

72 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Deity of the unworthy images under which he had been 
represented ^ 


Fragments of his Poem iteoi (pva-eaq, collected by H. Steph;ens. 
■f- FuLLEBORN, Fragments of Parmenides, collected and illus- 
trated, Zullichaic, 1795, 8vo. The same in his Collection, fasc. 
VI and VII. The same Fragments, published Avith those of Em- 
pedocles, by Peyron ; see § 108. (On Parmenides cf. Diog. Laert. 
IX, 21, sqq.). 

J. Brucker, Letter on the Atheism of Parmenides, translated 
from the Latin into French, in the Bibliotheque Germanique, 
tom. XXII, p. 90. 

•f Nic. Hier. Gundling, Observations on the Philosophy of 
Parmenides, in the Gundlingiana, tom. XV, p. 371, sqq. 

•f J. T. Van Der Kemp, Parmenides, Edincs, 1781, 8vo. 

99. Parmenides of Elea, who travelled with Zeno to 
Athens about 460, enlarged upon the above system. He 
maintained that the understanding alone was capable 
of contemplating Truth ; that the senses could afford 
only a deceptive appearance of it. From this principle 
he deduced a twofold system of true and of apparent 
knowledge ; the one resulting from the understanding, the 
other from the senses *. His poem on Nature treated of 
both these systems ; but the fragments of it which have 
come down to us make us better acquainted with the for- 
mer than the latter. In i\\e former ^ Parmenides begins 
with the idea oi pure existence, which he identifies with 
thought and knowledge"^ (never expressly making it the 
same with the Deity), and concludes that iion-existence, 
TO iA.ri ov, cannot be possible ; that all things which exist 
are one and identical ; and consequently that existence 
has no commencement, is invariable, indivisible, pervades 
all space, and is limited only by itself; and consequently 

« Clem. Alex. ed. Pott. p. 714, sqq. 

' Sextus, Adv. Mathcm. VII, 111. Auist. Metaph. 1,5. Uioc. Laert. 
IX, 22. 

« See Frag, in FVlleborn, V, 45, 46. 88—91. 93, sqq. 

99, 100.] PARMENIDES. MELISSUS. / 73 _ 

that all movement or change exists only in appeaxcmc^. 
The manner, notwithstanding, in which objects pi*cseut f Tpr\" 
themselves to our senses is uniform, and is called U^a.^,^r- 
To account for this appearance conveyed by the senses, 
Parmenides assumed the existence of two principles, that 
of heat or light (ethereal fire), and that of cold or dark- 
ness (the earth) ; the first pervading and active, the 
second dense and heavy ; the first he defined to be pos'i- 
iive, real; and the intellectual element (fiy]fA.iovoy6<;) ; the 
second the negative element, or, IXt] ; or as he preferred 
to style it — a limitation of the former^. From this two- 
fold division he derived his doctrine of changes; which 
he applied even to the phenomena of the mind. 


Aristotelis liber de Xenophane, Zenone, Gorgia, c. I, 2 ; et 
Spalding Comment, ad h. lib. See Bibliogr. § 97 ; cf. Diog. 
Laert. lib. IX, § 24. 

100. Melissus of Samos% adopted (possibly from the 
teaching of the two last philosophers) the same system of 
idealism, but characterized by greater boldness in his 
way of stating it, and, in some respects, by profounder 
views. What really existed, he maintained, could not 
either be produced or perish ; it exists without having 
either commencement or end ; infinite, (differing in this 
respect from Parmenides), and consequently, one, inva- 
riable, not composed of parts, and indivisible : which doc- 
trine implies a denial of the existence of bodies, and of 
the dimensions of space. All that our senses present to 

* Parmenidis Fragmenta, in the Collection of Fulleborn, V, 39, sqq. 
Arist. Physic. I, 2 ; Metaph. Ill, 4 ; Lib. de Xenophane, 4. Plutarch. 
De Plac. Philos. I, 24. Sext. Empir. Adv. Math. X, 46; Hyp. Pyrrh. Ill, 
65. SiMPLic. in Phys. Arist. p. 19 et 31. Stob. Eel. I, p. 412, sqq. 

y SiMPLic. Comment, in Arist. de Coslo, p. 38, b. 

^ Cic. Acad. Quaest. II, 37. Plutarch. De Plac. II, 7—26; III, 1, 15 ; 
IV, 5 ; V, 7. Sext. Empiric. IX, 7, sqq. Stob. Eel. I, p. 500. 510. 516, 
et al. 

^ He was distinguished as a statesman and naval commander, and flouiifshed 
about 444 B. C, 

74 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

us (that is to say, the greater part of things which exist), 
is nothing more than an appearance^ and is altogether 
beyond the hmits of real knowledge ^. As for the rela- 
tion between real existence and the Deity, we are igno- 
rant of the sentiments of Melissus on this head ; for what 
is reported by Diog. Laert. IX, 24, can be considered 
as relating only to the popular notions. 


See the works mentioned in § 97. 

Diet. Tiedemann, Utrum Scepticus fuerit an Dogmaticiis Zeno 
Eleates ; Nova Bibliotheca Philol. et Crit. vol. I, fasc. 2 ; cf. 
"f Stuadlin, Spirit of Scepticism, vol. I, 264. 

101. Zeno of Elea, an ardent lover of liberty*", tra- 
velled, with his friend and teacher Parmenides, to Athens, 
about the LXXX. Olympiad"^, and appeared in the cha- 
racter of a defender of the idealism of the Eleatic school, 
which could not but seem to people at large strange and 
absurd ; endeavouring, with great acuteness, to prove that 
the system of empiric realism is still more absurd^. 1st. 
Because if we admit that there is a plurality of real es- 
sences, we must admit them to possess qualities which are 
mutually destructive of each other, similitude, for example, 
and dissimilitude; unity and plurality; movement and re- 
posed 2dly. We cannot form an idea of the divisibility of 
an extended object without a contradiction being involved; 
for the parts must be either simple or compounded ; in 
the first of which cases the body has no magnitude, and 
ceases to exist ; in the second it has no unity, being at 

b Arist. Phys. I, 2, 3, 4 ; III, 9 ; De Coelo, III, 1 ; De Sophist. Elench. 
28. SiMPLic. in Physic. Arist. p. 8 et 9. 22. 24, 25 ; in Arist. de Coelo, p. 
38, a. Cic. Acad. Quaest. II, 37. Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. Hyp. Ill, 65 ) Adv. 
Math. X, 46. Stob. Eel. I, p. 440. 

<= Plutarch. Adv. Colot. ed Reiske, vol. X, p. 630. Dice. Laert. IX, 
25, sqq. Vat.. Max. Ill, 3. 

d 460 B.C. 

^ Plato, Paumknidls, p. 74, sqq. 

'■ Plato, Pha-'di. vol. J II, p. ^O'l. Simimk. in Phys. Arist. p. 30. 

101-103.] ZENO. HERACLITUS. 75 

the same time finite and infinite s. 3dly. Innumerable 
difficulties result (according to Zeno) from the supposi- 
tion of motion in space : if such motion be allowed to be 
possible, the consequence is, that infinite space must, in a 
given time, be traversed. He has acquired great cele- 
brity by his four logical arguments against motion *', and 
particularly by the well-known one named Achilles'. 
4thly. We cannot form a notion of space as an object, 
without conceiving it to he situated in another space, and so 
on ad injinituni^. And in general he denies that the 
absolute unity which the understanding requires as a 
character of real existence, is in any sort to be recognised 
in the objects of the senses ^ By thus opposing reason 
to experience, Zeno opened the way to scepticism; at the 
same time laying the foundations of a system of logic, 
of which he was the first teacher™; and employing dia- 
logue ". 

10^. The speculations of the Eleatae (to which Xenia- 
des of Corinth °, also attached himself p), were subse- 
quently pursued in the school of Megara. They did not 
fail to meet with opponents, but their real fallacy was 
not so readily discovered. Plato, by making a due dis- 
tinction between ideas and their objects, approached the 
nearest to the truth. 

IV. Heraclitus. 

JoH. BoNiTii Diss, de Heraclito Ephesio, P. I — IV, Schnee- 
berg, 1695, 4to. 

Sf SiMPLIC. 1. C. 

h Arist. Physic. VI, 9. 14. Cf. Plato, Parraenid. I. c. 
' Car. Henr. Erd.m. Louse, Diss, (praeside Hoffbauer) de Arguraentis 
quibus Zeno Eleates nullum esse Motum demonstravit, etc. Hal. 1794, 8vo. 

•' Arist. Phys. IV, 3. 5. 

1 Arist. Metaph. Ill, 4. Simtlic. in Phys. p. 30. Senec. Ep. 30. 
'» Plutarch. Pericles. Sext. Emp. Adv. Math. VII, 7. Diog. Laert. 
IX, 25, 47. 

" Arist. De Sophist. Elench. c. 10. 

" Sext. Kmp. Adv. JMath. \'1I, 48, 53 j Vlll, 5. 

P In the fifth century B.C. 

76 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

GoTTFR. Olearii Diatribe de Principio reriim Naturalium 
ex mente Heracliti, Lips. 1697, 4to. Ejusdem : Diatribe de 
rerum Naturalium genesi ex mente Heracliti, ibid. 1072, 4to. 

Jo. Upmark, Diss, de Heraclito Epliesiorum Philosopho, Up- 
sal, 1710, 8vo. 

JoH. Math. Gesneri Disp. de Animabus Heracliti et Hippo- 
cratis, Comm. Soc. Gott. torn. I. 

Chr. Gottlob Heyne, Progr. de Animabus siccis ex Hera- 
cliteo placito optime ad sapientiam et virtutem instructis, Gbt- 
ting. 1781, fol. ; and in his Opusc. Acad. vol. III. 

-f- Fr. Schleiermacher, Heraclitus of Ephesus, surnamed 
the Obscure; compiled from the fragments of his work, and the 
testimonies of ancient writers, in the third fasciculus of vol. I, 
of the Musseum der Alterthumswissenschaften, Berl. 1808, 8vo. 
Cf. the work of Ritter, p. 60, referred to above at the head of 
§ 85 ; and, in answer to the views of Schleiermacher, Theod. 
L. EicHHOFF, Dissertationes Heraclitese, partic. I, Mogunt, 1824, 

103, By his birth Heraclitus of Ephesus belonged to 
the Ionian school^. He was a profound thinker, of an 
inquisitive spirit; and the founder of a sect called after 
him, which had considerable reputation and influence. 
His humour was melancholy and sarcastic, which he in- 
dulged at the expense of the democracy established in his 
native town, and with which he was disgusted. The 
knowledge he had acquired of the systems of preceding 
philosophers (vyeing with one another in boldness), of 
Thales, Pythagoras, and Xenophanes', created in him 
a habit of scepticism of which he afterwards cured him- 
self. The result of his meditations was committed to a 
volume, the obscurity® of which procured for him the 
appellation of a-Koreimi;^, He also made it his object to 
discover an elemental principle ; but either because his 
views were different, or from a desire to oppose himself 
to the Eleatae, he assumed it to be Jirey because the most 

1 He flourished about 500 B. C 

•■ According to some, he was the disciple of this philosopher. 

' This work is cited under different titles ; e. g. M-ovaai, Fragments in 
Henr. Steph. Poes. Philos. Cf. Schleiermacher. 

' DioG. Laeu. IX, 5 ; et II, 22. Arist. Rhet. Ill ; De IMundo 5. Cic. 
De Nat Deor. 1, 26; 111, 14 ; De Fin. IT, 5. 



subtile and active of the elements. Fire he asserted to 
be the foundation of all things, and the universal agent. 
The universe he maintained to be neither the work of 
gods nor men; but Sifire, continually kept alive, but with 
alternations of decay and resuscitation, according to fixed 
laws ". Hence he appears to have deduced among others 
the following opinions: 1. The variability, or perpetual 
flux of things {jo-t\ ^)^ wherein also consists the life of ani- 
mals y. 2. Their formation and dissolution by fire; the mo- 
tion from above and from below ; the first by evaporation, or 
avaSv/xjWi?; and the future conflagration of the universe^. 
3. The origin of all changes, in consequence of two princi- 
ples, viz. discord (iroXe/xo?, e/Jt?), and concord (elp'^vrj, 6fAoXoyia)j 

and their mutual opposition (ivavTioryi<;), according to fixed 
laws of fate {elfAapfAevvj''). 4. The principle of force and 
energy he asserted to be the principle also of thought. 
The universe he maintained to be full of souls and dce- 
mones, endowed with a portion of this all-pervading fire. 
He maintained the excellence of the soul to consist in its 
aridity, or freedom from aqueous particles — ccvri xpvxv a^ia-rvj 
or (Tocpccrdrrj^. The soul, he continued, by its consan- 
guinity to the divine mind, is capable, by abstraction, of 
recognising the universal, and the true ; whereas by the 
exercise of the organs of the senses, it perceives only what 
is variable and individual. We may remark, that this 

w Aristot. Metaph. I, c. 3, 7 j De Mundo, c. 5. Simplic. in Phys. 
Arist. p. 6. Clem. Alexand. Strom, lib. V. 

^ Plat. Cratyl. vol. Ill, ed. Bipont. p. 267. Cf. Theaetet. ibid. p. 69. 
y Plutarch. De Plac. Phil. I, 23, 27, 28. De d apud Delph. p. 227, 


^ Arist. De Coelo, I, 10; III, 1. Plutarch, de ti apud Delph. Dioo. 

Laert. IX, 8. 

^ DiOG. Laert. IX, 7, 8, 9. Simplic. in Phys. p. 6. Plat. Sympos. 

c. 12. 

*» According to Stob., Serm. 17. and Ast, on the Phaedrus of Plato, c. 
Ill, ed. Lipa. 1810, Avyij ^;;p// 4'^x^l <yo<pioTaTr]. On this expression, com- 
pare, besides the works mentioned above. Pet. Wesselino, Obs. de Heracl. 
avt] ■^vxn (TotpioTOLTT] KOI ap'wTi), in ej. Observatt. Miscell. Amstelod. vol. V, 
c. Ill, p. 42. 

"^ Aristot. De Aninik, I, 2, 3. Plutarch. De Plac. Phil. IV, 3. Sex- 
tus, Adv. Math. VII, 126, sqq. Cf. 249; VIII, 286 ; Hyp. Pvrrh. Ill, 
230. Stob. Eel. 1. p. 191, sq(i. 900. 

78 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

system, with which we are very imperfectly acquainted, 
and which furnished a great many hints to Plato, the 
Stoics, and i^nesidemus, contained many original and 
acute observations ; which were apphed also to moral 
and political questions. 

V. Speculations of the Atomic School. 

DiOG. Laert. lib. IX, § 30, sqq. ; and Bayle's Diet. art. 

104. Leuci2)pus, a contemporary, possibly also a dis- 
ciple of Parmenides"^, opposed the system of the Eleatae; 
which he unjustly accused of contradicting itself, by ad- 
vancing the exclusive and narrow doctrine of atoms (the 
corpuscular system^); a doctrine which, agreeably to ex- 
perience, maintained the existence of motion and plu- 
rality^. He asserted also the existence of a matter filling 
space (to TrX'^pe^), and constituting the element of reality ; 
by the division of which we arrive at something indivisi- 
ble, TO aroiAov ; while at the same time he taught the ex- 
istence of a vacuum (to k^vIv) ; opposed to material reality, 
yet possessing a certain reality of its own^; and endea- 
voured to account for the actual state of the world by the 
union (a-vjKpia-n; OX (TviA.TtXoK'fi), and the separation (pia,Kpia-i<;), 
of material reality, within the limits of this void. Ac- 
cordingly, the elementary principles of this system of 
materialism are the atoms, vacuum, and motion ; and we 
recognise in it none but corporeal essences. The atoms, 
the ultimate elements of what is real, are invariable, indi- 
visible, and imperceptible, owing to their tenuity ; they oc- 
cupy space, and possess forms infinitely diversified; those 
which are round possessing also the property of motion. 
It is by their combination or separation (he continues) 

'' Flourished about 500 B. C. His birth-place is unknown ; probably Mi- 

•^ Cf. above, $ 74, at the end. 

'' AnisT, De Generat. ct Corrupt. I, 8. 

•f AiMST. Phvs. IV. 3. 


that all things have their origin, and are brought to their 
dissolution ; their modifications (aXXoiaxreic:) and properties 
being determined by the position and order (Oea-n; and 
ra^i?) of these particles ; and take place in consequence 
of a law of absolute necessity. The soul itself he defined 
to be nothing but a mass of round atoms ; whence result 
heat, motion, and thought ''. 


The fragments of Democritiis have been collected by Ste- 
phens, and are to be found still more complete in Orelli 
Opusc. Graec. Sententiosa, I, 91, sqq. 

DiOG. Laert. IX, 34, sqq. ; and Bayle, art. Democrite. 

JoH. Chrysost. Magneni Democritiis re^aviscens, sive Vita 
et Philosophia Democriti, Lugd. B. 1648, Hag. 1658, 12mo. 

JoH. Geuderi Democritiis Abderita Philosophus accuratissi- 
mus, ab injuriis vindicatus et pristinae fama restitutiis, Altd. 
1665, 4to. 

GoTTL. Frid. Jenichen, Progr. de Democrito Philosopho, 
L'qjs. 1720, 4to. 

Godofr. Ploucquet, De placitis Democriti Abderitae, Tuhing, 
1767, 4to. And in his Commentatt. Philos. sel. 

See also the work of Hill, mentioned § 151. 

105. Democritiis of Abdera*. This ardent inquirer into 
Nature, ill-understood by his countrymen of Abdera, and 
to whom has been attributed by subsequent tradition a 
laughing vein, in opposition to the melancholy of Hera- 
clitus, his contemporary, had been a great traveller for 
the purpose of amassing instruction, and composed several 
works ; none of which have come down to us entire. He 
expanded the atomic theory of his master, Leucippus ^ ; 
to support the truth of which he maintained the impossi- 
bility of division ad itifinitum ; and from the difficulty of 

h AuisT. De Gen. I, 1, 2, 8 ; De Ccelo I, 7 ; III, 4 ; Metaph. 1,4; De 
Animk I, c. 2. Simplic. in Phys. Arist. p. 7. Stob. Eel. I, p. 160, 306, 
442, 796. 

' Born about 490 or 494 ; according to others, 460 or 470. 

^ Arisi. De Gen. Anim. 5, 8. 

80 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

assigning a commencement of time, he argued the eternity 
of existing nature, of void space, and of motion'. He 
supposed the atoms, originally similar, to be endowed 
with certain properties such as impenetrability, and a den- 
sity proportionate to their volume. He referred every 
active and passive affection to motion, caused by impact ; 
limited by the principle he assumed, that only like can act 
on like '". He drew a distinction between primary mo- 
tion and secondary; impulse and reaction (Tta.'ky.oq and avn- 
rv-rrla) ; from a Combination of which he deduced rotatory 
motion (S/vij). Herein consists the law of necessity (amy/c/?), 
by which all things in nature are ruled '^. From the end- 
less multiplicity of atoms have resulted the worlds which 
we behold, with all the properties of immensity, resem- 
blance, and dissimilitude, which belong to them. The 
soul consists (such is his doctrine), in globular atoms of 
jflre^, which impart movement to the body. Maintaining 
throughout his atomic theory, Democritus introduced the 
hypothesis of images (ei'SojXa) ; a species of emanation 
from external objects, which make an impression on our 
senses, and from the influence of which he deduced sen- 
sation (ccla-Brjcnq), and thought {yo-fjcriq). He distinguished 
between a rude, imperfect, and therefore false perception, 
and a true one (7i/vjo-/'/jP). In the same manner, consistently 
with his theory, he accounted for the popular notions of 
the Deity ; partly through our incapacity to understand 
fully the phenomena of which we are witnesses, and partly 
from the impressions communicated by certain beings 
(et'SwXa) of enormous stature, and resembling the human 

^ Arist. De Generat. et Corrupt. 1,2; Physic. VIII, 1; De Generat. 
Anim. II, 6. Diog. Laert. IX, 44. 

'" Arist. De Generat. et Corrupt. I, 7. 

•> Arist, De Generat. et Corrupt. I, 7 ; Physicor. IV, 3. Diog. IX, 45, 
49. Sextus, Adv. Math. IX, 113. Plut. De Decret. Philos. I, 25. Cf. 
Stob. Eel. I, 394. 

*" Arist. De Anim. I, 2. Plutarch. De Plac. Philos. IV, 3. 

P Arist. De Anima I, 2, 3. Plutarcii. De Plac. Philos. IV, 3, 4, 0, 13, 
19. Arist. De Sensu, c. 4 ; De Divinat. per Somnum, c. 2. Sextus Adv. 
Math. Vll, 135, sqq.; VIII, 6, 184; Hyp. Pyrrh. I, 213, sqq. Arist. Me- 
taph. IV. 5. (',(. De Divin. 11,67. 


figure, which inhabit the air'^. To these he ascribed 
dreams and the causes of divination'". He carried his 
theory into practical pliilosophy also, laying down that 
happiness consisted in an equahlUty of temperament (evOv- 
l*.i(x) ; whence he deduced his moral principles and pru- 
dential maxims ^ . Democritus had many admirers * ; 
among others, Nessus, or Nessas, of Chios, and the 
countryman of the latter (and according to some his 
pupil), Metrodorus (by whom were propagated certain 
sceptical notions"); Diomenes oi Smyrna; Nausiphanes, 
of Teios, the master of Epicurus ; Dlagoras of Melos, 
the freedman and disciple of Democritus, who is also 
numbered among the Sophists (§ 109), and was obliged to 
quit Athens^, on account of his reputed atheismv; Anax- 
archus of Abdera, the contemporary and friend of Alex- 
ander the Great ; and others. It w^as from Democritus 
that Epicurus borrowed the principal features of his me- 

VI. Others of the Ionian School, 

Hermotimus and Anaxagoras. 

For the traditions relating to Hermotimus of Clazomenae, see 
a -f- Critical Inquiry by Fr. Aug. Carus, in the Collection of 
Fiillebom, fascic. IX, p. 58, sqq. 

-|- Heinius, Dissertations on Anaxagoras, torn. VIII and IX 
of the History of the Royal Academy of Sciences and Belles Let- 
tres of Prussia (French); and in the Magazine of Hissmann, 
torn. V, § 335, sqq. (Germ.). 

q Jo. CoNR. ScHWARZ, Diss. de Democriti Theologia, Cohl. 1718, 4to. 

»■ Sextus, Adv. Math. IX, 19,24. Plutarch. Dedefectu Oraculor. IX.p. 
326; Vita ^milii Paulli, II, p. 168. Cic. Nat. Deor. 1, 12, 43; De Divin. 
I, 3. 

» DiOG. Laert. IX, 45. Stob. Eel. II, p. 74, sqq. Cic. De Fin. V, 8, 29. 

* DioG. Laeiit. IX, 58, sqq. 

" Cic. Acad. Quaest. IV, 23. Sextus, Adv. Math. VII, 43, 88. 

^ In 415 B.C. 

y Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 51, sqq.; Hyp. Pyrrh. Ill, 218. Mariangelus 
Bonifac. a Eeuthen, de Atheismo Diagorae. J. Jac, Zimmermanni Epist. 
de Atheismo Evemeri et Diagora;, in Mus. Brem. vol. I, p. 4. Theod. Gott- 
HOLD Thienemann, On the Atheism of Diagoras, apud FiJlleb. fasc. 
XI, No. 2. Cf. p. 57, sqq. ; and Bayle's Diet., s. h. v. 


82 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

De Ramsay, Anaxagoras, ou Systeme qui prouve I'lmmortal- 
ite de I'ame par la matiere du Chaos, qui fait le Magnetisme de 
la Terre. La Haye, 1778, 8vo. 

God. Ploucquet, A work mentioned above, § 85. 

•\ Fr. Aug. Carus, On Anaxagoras of Clazomense, and the 
Genius of his Age, in the Collection of Fu'lleborn, fascic X. 
The same, Disser. de Cosmo-Theologiae Anaxagorae fontibus. 
L'qos. 1797, 4to. 

■f J. VAN Vries, Two Dissert, on the Life of Anaxagoras 
(Dutch), Amsterd. 1806, 8vo. 

J. T. Hemsen, Anaxagoras Clazomenius sive de Vita ejus 
atque Philosophia Disquis. Philos. Hist. Gotting. 1821, 8vo. 

RiTTER, Work mentioned above, at the head of § 85. 

Anaxagor^ Clazomenii Fragmenta, quae supersunt, omnia, 
coUecta Commentarioque illustrata ab E. Schaubach, etc. Lijjs, 
1827, 8vo. 

Sketch of the Life, Character, and Philosophy of Anaxagoras, 
Classical Journal, No. XXXIII, p. 173-177. 

106. Anaxagoras'^, animated by an extraordinary love 
of science, distinguished himself among the most cele- 
brated thinkers by following this principle, that the study 
of the heavens and of nature is the proper occupation of 
man^. He is looked upon by some as the disciple of 
Anaximenes (which is inconsistent with chronology), and 
by others, of Hermotimus, who was also a native of Cla- 
zomense, and is said to have recognised a Superior Intel- 
ligence as the Author of nature ''. In his forty-fifth 
year Anaxagoras fixed himself at Athens ; but in conse- 
quence of the machinations of a party, he was accused of 
being an enemy to religion, without it being possible for 
Pericles himself to protect him ; and retired to end his 
days at Lampsacus*^. Nothing has so much contributed 
to his celebrity as his doctrine of a 'NoZq, or intellectual 
principle, the Author of the universe ; a conclusion to 
which he was led in consequence of the superior attention 
he paid to the system of nature : the mystical revelations 
of his countryman Hermotimus ^ possibly contributing to 

* Born at Clazomenae, about 500 B. C. The friend of Pericles. 

* Arist. Eth. Eudem. I, 5. 

'' AnisT. Met. I, 3. Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 7. 

c In 428 B.C. 

<* Arist. Metaph. 1, 3. Pmn. Hist. Nat. VII, 52. 


form in him this opinion ; as well as the manifest incon- 
sistency and inadequacy of all those systems which had 
recognised only material causes. Adhering to the prin- 
ciple, ex n'lhilo nihil Jit^ he admitted the existence of a 
chaotic matter, the constituent elements of which, always 
united and identical (ra o/xo<o/>ce/j^)^, are incapable of being 
decomposed ; and by the arrangement of which and 
their dissemination he undertook to account for the phe- 
nomena of the natural world ^: adding, that this chaos, 
which he conceived surrounded by air and ether, must 
have been put in movement and animated at the first by 
the Intelligent Principle. NoiJ? he defined to be the a&%^ 
T^^ Kiv-fia-iwq. From this first principle he deduces motion, 
at first circular ; the result of which rotation (he main- 
tained), was the separation of the discordant particles; 
the union and amalgamation of those which were homoge- 
neous ; and in fine, the creation of symmetry and order. 
Intelligence, he considered the active and creative cause ; 
he believed this principle to be endowed spontaneous 
energy: to be simple and pure; refined from all matter; 
pervading all things ; defining and limiting all things ; 
and consequently, the principle of life, sensation, and 
mental perception ^. 

Anaxagoras was more inclined to the study of physics 
than of metaphysics, for which he is blamed by Plato "^ 

e The term Homoeomeriae appears to be of more recent invention. 

Another of his maxims was, kv ttuvti iravTa, that in every thing there is a 
portion of every thing. 

[Like lord Peters loaf! Transl.] 

f G. De Vkies, Exercitationes de Homoiomeria Anaxagorae, Ullraject. 
1692, 4to. t Batteux, Conjectures respecting the Homoiomeriae, or similar 
Elements, of Anaxagoras. The same, Developpement d'un Principe Fonda- 
mental de la Physique des Anciens, etc. Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscript. torn. 
XXV ; and + Hismaxn, 3Iagaz. vol. Ill, sect. 153 and 191. See also G. N. 
Wiener, On the Homoeomeriae of Anaxagoras, Wormat. 1771 (Lat.), and 
EiLERS, Essay on his Principle, -bv voiiv tlvat. -jravTuv uItiov. Fcf ad M. 
1822, 8vo. 

e DroG. Laert. IT, 6, sqq. Akist. Phys. I, 4 ; VIII, 1 ; Metaph. I, 3 ; 
De Generat. et Corrupt. I, 1. Simplic. in Phys. Arist. p. 33, sqq. Arist. 
De Anirak, I, 1. 

h Phaed. c. 46, sqq. 


84 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

and by Aristotle ^ Accordingly he explained on physi- 
cal principles the formation of plants and animals, and 
even of the heavenly bodies' : which drew upon him the 
reproach of atheism ^ He admitted to a certain extent 
the validity of the evidence of the senses ; but reserved 
for reason (^^oV?), the discrimination of objective truth '. 

Diogenes of Apollonia and Archelaus. 

f Fr. Schleiermacher, On the Philosophy of Diogenes of 
Apollonia, in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sc. of Berlin, 
1815 (Germ.). 

Fr. Panzerbieter, De Diogenis ApoUoniatse Vita et Scriptis, 
Meining. 1823, 4to. 

107. Diogenes of Apollonia (in Crete), and ArcJielaus 
of Miletus (or, according to others, of Athens) ; both of 
whom were about this time resident at Athens, appear, 
in different ways, to have blended the doctrines of Anaxa- 
goras with those of Anaximenes. Diogenes ™ maintained 
that air was the fundamental principle of all Nature, and 
imputed it to an intellectual energy" : uniting in this respect 
the system of Anaximenes with that of Anaxagoras. On 
the other hand, Archelaus, a disciple of Anaxagoras °, 
maintained that all things were disengaged from the origi- 
nal chaos by the operation of two discordant principles of 

•' IVIetaph. I, 4. Aristotle accuses him of using the Deity only as a machine 
in his philosophy. 

' Maintaining that the sun was originally ejected from the earth and heated, 
till it became a fiery mass, by rapid motion. 

'' Theophrast. Hist. Plantar. Ill, 2. Diog. Laert. II, 9. Xenoph. 
Memorab. IV, 7. Platon, Apol. Socr. 14. 

' Sextus, Hypotyp. I, 33 ; Adv. Math. VII, 90. Arist. Metaph. IV, 5, 
7. Cic. Tusc. Quaest. IV, 23. 31. 

>" Cf. above, $ 87. He v^^as sometimes surnaraed Physicus ; and flourished 
about 472 B. C. In his adoption of one elementary principle he resembled the 
Ionian school : his book was intitled Trepi (piaeujg, of which Simplicius has 
preserved us several fragments. 

" Arist. De An. I, 2 ; De Generat. et Corrupt. I, 6. Simplic. In Phys. 
Arist. p. 6 and 32. Diog. Laert. IX, 57. Cic. De Nat. Deor. I, 12. 
Euseb. Prajpar. Evang. XV. 

" Flourished about 460 B. C. 

107, 108.] DIOGENES. EMPEDOCLES. 85 

heat and cold (or of fire and water) ; that mankind had in- 
sensibly separated themselves from the common herd of the 
inferior animals ; and was inclined to believe that our ideas 
of what is just, and the contrary, are conventional, and 

not by nature l to Zikociov eivai kou to a»V%poy oi) (pvTei aXKa vofx^ P. 

With respect to the operations of the mind his system 
was one of pure materialism. The system of nature of 
this last is still more obscure than that of the former '^, 


Empedocles Agrigentinus, De Vita et Philosopliia ejus ex- 
posuit, Carminum Reliquias ex Antiquis Scriptoribiis collegit, 
recensuit, illustravit Fr. Guil. Sturz, Lips. 1805, 8vo. Cf. 
Phil. Buttmanni Observ. in Sturzii Empedoclea, in the Com- 
ment. Soc. Phil. Lips. 1804, et Empedoclis et Parmenidis Frag- 
menta, etc. ; restituta et illustrata ab Amadeo Peyron, Lips. 
1810, 8vo. 

.To. Ge. Neumanni Progr. de Empedocle Philosopho. Fiteb. 
1790, folio. 

-f" P. Nic. BoNAMY, Researches respecting the Life of Empe- 
docles ; in the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscript. vol. X. 

■f TiEDEMANN, System of Empedocles ; in the Magazine of 
Gottingen, tom. IV, No. 3. 

f H. RiTTER, On the Philosophic Doctrine of Empedocles, in 
the Litterarische Analekten of Fr. Aug. Wolf, fascic. IV. 

DoMENico SciNA, Mcmoric sulla Vita e Filosofia di Empedocle 
Gergentino. Palermo, 1813, 2 tomi 8vo. 

108. Empedocles of Agrigentum •■, distinguished him- 
self by his knowledge of natural history and medicine ^ ; 
and his talents for philosophical poetry. It is generally be- 
lieved that he perished in the crater of ^^tna *. Some sup- 
pose him to have been a disciple of Pythagoras or Archy- 
tas (Diog. Laert. VIII, 54*, sqq.) ; others, of Parmenides. 

P Diog. Laert. II, 16. Cf. Sextus, Adv. Math. VII, 135. 

*i Plutarch. De Plac. Philos. I, 3. Cf. Simplic. in Ph. Aristot. p. 6j 
et Stob. Eel. I. 

•■ Flourished about 442 ; according to others 460 B.C. 

* Which procured liim of old the reputation of working miracles, Diog. 
Laert. VIII, 51. Cf. Theoi'h. Gust. Harles, Programmata de Empedocle, 
num ille merito possit magiae accusari, Er/. 1788-90, fol. 

' Gi . Phil. Olearii Progr. de Morte Empedoclis, Li\)s. 1733, fol. 

86 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

He cannot have been an immediate scholar of the first, 
inasmuch at Aristotle (Met. I, 3) represents him as con- 
temporary with, but younger than Anaxagoras ; and be- 
cause he appears to have been the master of Gorgias. 
His philosophy, which he described in a didactic poem, 
of which only fragments have come down to us, combined 
the elements of various systems: most nearly approaching 
that of Pythagoras and Heraclitus, but differing from the 
latter, principally: 1st. Inasmuch as Empedocles more 
expressly recognises four elements ", earth, water, air, 
and fire : these elements, (compare his system, in this 
respect, with that of Anaxagoras), he affirmed not to be 
simple in their nature ; and assigned the most important 
place to fire''. Sdly. Besides the principle of concord 
((f)i}Ja), opposed to that of discord (v€7koi;), (the one being 
the source of union and good, the other of their oppo- 
sites), he admitted into his system necessity/ also, to explain 
existing phenomena ^. To the first of these principles 
he attributed the original composition of the elements. 
The material world (a-cpccTpoq, p^/Acs^) he believed, as a 
whole, to be divine : but in the sublunar portion of it he 
detected a considerable admixture of evil and imperfec- 
tion^. He taught that at some future day all things must 
again sink into chaos. He advanced a subtile and scarcely 
intelligible theory of the active and passive affections of 
things (Cf. Plato Menon. ed. Steph. p. 76, C. D. 
Arist. De Gener. et Corr. I, 8 ; Fragm. ap. Sturz. v. 
117), and drew a distinction between the world as pre- 
sented to our senses (/coV^o? ala-Briroq), and that which he 
presumed to be the type of it, the intellectual world [Koa-iAoq 
vofjToq) ^. He looked for the principle of life in fire : ad- 
mitting at the same time, the existence of a Divine Being 

" D. C. L. SrnuvE, De Elementis Empedoclis, Dorp. 1807, 8vo. 
^ AnisT. Met. I, 4 ; De General, et Corrupt. I, 1, 8 ; U, 6. 
y AitiST. Phys. 11, 4 ; De Partib. Animal. 1,1; II, 8. 
'• SiMPLic. In Phys. Arist. 

** AuisT. Metaph. I, 4 ; 111,4. Plutarch. De Solertia Animal. 
^ Fragm. edit. Peyron, p. 27. Simplic. in Arist. Phys. p. 7. De Coelo, 
p. 128. 

109.] SOPHISTS. 87 

pervading the universe ^ From this superior intelligence 
he believed the Dcctnones to emanate, to whose nature 
the human soul is allied. The soul he defined to consist 
in a combination of the four elements (to account for the 
knowledge it possesses, of external objects, which he con- 
ceived was owing to an analogy subsisting between the 
subject and the object) ; and its seat he pronounced to be 
principally the blood ^. He appears to have made a dis- 
tinction also between good and evil dcemones *. 

VII. Sophists, 

Particulars and opinions respecting them to be found in Xeno- 
phon, Isocrates, Plato, Aristotle, Plutarch, Sextus E., Diogenes 
Laertius, and Philostratus. 

LuD. Cresollii Theatrum Veterum Rhetorum, Oratorum, 
Declamatorum, i. e. Sophistarum, de eorum disciplina ac discendi 
docendique ratione, Paris. 1620, 8vo. and in Gronovius, Thes. 
tom. X. 

Ge. Nic. Kriegk, Diss, de Sophistarum Eloquentia, Jena. 
1702, 4to. 

Jo. Ge. Walchii Diatribe de praemiis Veterum Sophistarum 
Rhetorum atque Oratorum; in his Parerga Academica, p. 129; 
and, De Enthusiasmo Veterum Sophistarum atque Oratorum, 
Ibid. p. 367, sqq. 

-f- Meiners, History of the Sciences, etc. vol. I, p. 112, sqq. 
and vol. II. 

109. The rapid diffusion of all sorts of knowledge and 
every variety of speculative system among the Greeks, 
the uncertainty of the principles assumed and the con- 
clusions deduced in the highest investigations, (conse- 
quences of the little stability of the data on which they 
were grounded), together with the progress of a certain 
refinement which kept pace with the deterioration of their 
moral and religious habits, all these causes conspired to 
give birth to the tribe of Sophists^; that is, to a class of 

c Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 64 et 127. Cf. Arist. Metaph. Ill, 4. 
•1 Arist. De Anim. I, 2. Sext. Adv. Math. I, 303 ; VII, 121. Plu- 
TAKCH. De Deer. Philos. IV, 5 ; V, 25. 
e Plutarch, De Is. et Osir. p. 361. 
^ The term (jo(piaTi](^ had at first been equivalent to that of (jo^oq. 

88 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

persons possessed of a merely superficial and seeming 
knowledge ; to the profession of which they were influenced 
by merely interested motives. The Sophists GorgiaSf Pro- 
tagoras, Prodlcus, Hippias of Elis, Polus, Thrasymachus, 
and CallicleSy were orators and scholars very well prac- 
tised it is true in the art of speaking, of dialectics, criti- 
cism, rhetoric, and politics, but being totally devoid of any 
real love of philosophy, were anxious only so far to follow 
the current of their time which set that way, as to pro- 
mote their own advantage by means of their ability as dis- 
putants. All they desired was to distinguish themselves 
by the show of pretended universal knowledge ; by 
solving the most intricate, most fanciful, and most useless 
questions : and above all, hoped to get money by the pre- 
tended possession of the art of persuasion s. With this 
view they had contrived certain logical tricks of a kind to 
perplex their antagonists ; and, without possessing in the 
least degree a spirit of philosophy, they maintained all 
sorts of philosophical theories. The end of their system 
would have been to destroy all difference between truth 
and error. 

Their conduct reflected much of the general character 
of their age and country, while it had the advantageous 
effect of awakening at length, in others, a nobler and 
more elevated spirit of inquiry. 

110. The celebrated orator, Gorgias of Leontium'', a 
disciple of Empedocles, endeavoured, in his work on Na- 
ture \ to demonstrate by certain subtile arguments, which 
it is not necessary to repeat here, that nothing real exists ; 
nothing which can be known ; or communicated by the 
means of words ^. The distinction he established between 

e Plat. Tim. ed. Bipont., torn. IX, p. 285. Xenoph. Memorab. I, 6. 
AnisT. Sophist. Elench. c. I. Cic. Acad. Qaaest. II, 23. 

'' Flourished about 440. Was ambassador at Athens 424 B. C. 

' We find, apud Aristot. et Sext. Empir., fragments of this work, under the 
title : rifjoj row j^u) uutoq i) Trepl (pvaeojg. To Gorgias are also attributed the 
Speeches which are to be found among the Oratores Graeci of Reiske, vol. VIII. 

^ Arist. De Xenoph. Zenone et Gorgi^, especially c. V, sqq. Sextus, 
Adv. Math. VII, 65, sqq. 

110.] SOPHISTS. 89 


■ objects, impressions, and words, was important, but led to 

■ no immediate result. Protagoras of Abdera (said to 
have been the disciple of Democritus), maintained that 
all human knowledge consists solely in the apprehension 
of the object by the subject'; that consequently that man 
is the standard of all things (liavTuv %/5»;jM,aT&jv jw-erpov avBpu-Koq)"^ : 
that, as far as truth or falsehood are concerned, there is 
no difference between our perceptions of external ob- 
jects " : that every way of considering a subject has its 
opposite, and that there is as much truth on the one side 
as the other ; and that consequently nothing can be sup- 
ported in argument with certainty ° : maintaining at the 
same time the sophistical profession, " to make the worse 
the better argument." As for the existence of the gods, 
he appears to have esteemed it doubtful p, in consequence 
of which he was banished from Athens (where he taught), 
and died in banishment, about the XCIII. Olympiad. 
Prodicus of Julis in the isle of Ceos*', a disciple of Pytha- 
goras, employed himself in investigating the synonymes of 
words : deduced the principle of religion from the appear- 
ances of a beneficent intention in external nature "" ; and 

> Plat. Thezetet. ed. Bip. II, 68. Sext. Hyp. Pyrrh. I, 217. Cf. Diog. 
Laeut. IX, 51. 

" Plat. Crat. torn. Ill, 234, sqq. Arist. Met. XI, 5. Sextus, Hyp. 
Pyrrh. I, 216, sqq. 

n Plat. Theaetet. p. 89, 90, 102. Sext. Adv. Math. VII, 60, sqq. 369, 
388. Cic. Ac. II, 46. 

° Diog. Laert. 1. 1. 

I' Cic. De Nat. Deor. I, 12, 23. Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 56, sqq. Diog. 
Laeut. IX, 51, 53. 

On Protagoras, consult, besides the Dialogue which bears his name, in 
Plato, ed. Bip. vol. HI, p. 83, sqq.; and Meno, vol. IV, p. 372, sqq., /Elian, 
A. Gellius, Philostratus, and Suidas. t J. C. Bapt. NifuNBtRGER, Doctrine 
of the Sophist Protagoras, on existence and non-existence, Dortm. 1798, 8vo. 

Chr. Gottlob Heynii Prolusio in Narrationem de Protagora Gellii. N. A. 
V, 10. ; et Apuleii in Flor. IV, 18, Cwttiug. 1806, on his Sophisms and those 
of his disciple Evathlus. 

Jo. LuD. Alefeld, Mutua Pythagorae et Evathli Sophisraata, quibus olim in 
judicio certarunt, etc. Giess. 1730, 8vo. 

I About 420 B.C. 

' Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 18. Cic. De Nat. Deor. I, 42. 

90 FIRST'PERIOD. [sect. 

declaimed very plausibly on the subject of virtue \ Hip- 
pias of Elis was a pretender to universal knowledge*. 
Thrasymaclius of Chalcedon " taught that '* might made 
right ;" and Polus of Agrigentum, Callicles of Acharnse, 
Eutkydemus of Chios, and others, that there is no other 
principle of obligation for man than instinct, caprice, and 
physical force; and that justice and its opposite are of 
political invention''. Diagoras of Melos was notorious 
for professing atheism (§ 105). Critias^ of Athens, the 
enemy of Socrates, and reckoned among the partisans of 
the Sophists, ascribed the origin of religion to political 
considerations ^, and appears, like Protagoras, to have as- 
serted that the soul was material and resided in the senses; 
which last he appears to have placed in the blood ^. 



111. The Sophists compelled their antagonists to ex- * 
amine narrowly human nature and themselves, in order 

^ For example, in his celebrated tTridsi^ig, Hercules ad bivium. See Xenoph. 
Memorab. II, 1, 21 ; and Cf. Xenophontis Hercules Prodiceus et Silii Italici 
Scipio, perpetu^ nota illustrati a Gotth. Aug. Cub^eo, Lips. 1797, 8vo. 

t Plat. In Hipp. Maj. et Min. Xenoph. JMemorab. IV, 4. Cic. De Orat. 
Ill, 32. 

" Plat. De Republ. I ; ed. Bip. torn. VI, p. 165, sqq. 

2* Plat. Gorgias, Theaetet., de Republ. II, de Leg. X, p. 76. 

y One of the thirty tyrants, died 404 B. C. 

^ Sext. Hyp. Pyrrh. Ill, 218 ; Adv. Math. IX, 54. 

** Arist. De Anima, I, 2. 

CnniJE Tyranni Carminum aliorumque ingenii Monumentorum, quae super- 
sunt, dispos. illustr. et emend- Nic. Bachius. Praemissa est Critiae Vita a 
Philostrato descripta. Lips. 1827, 8vo. Guil. Ern. Weber de Critia Tyr- 
ranno Progr. Francf. ad M. 182-1, 4lo. 



111, 112.] SOCRATES. 91 

to be able to discover some solid foundation on which 
philosophy might take its ground, and defend the princi- 
ples of truth, religion, and morality. With this period 
began a better system of Greek philosophy, established 
by the solid good sense of Socrates. Philosophy was 
diverted into a new channel, and proceeded from the 
subject to the object, from man to external nature, in- 
stead of beginning at the other end of the chain. It be- 
came the habit to investigate no longer merely specu- 
lative opinions ; but likewise, and in a still greater de- 
gree, practical ones also. Systematic methods of proof 
were now pursued, and the conclusions arrived at dili- 
gently compared. The want which all began to feel of 
positive and established principles, gave birth to different 
systems ; at the same time that the scrupulosity with 
which all such systems were examined, kept alive the 
spirit of original inquiry. 

112. This alteration was effected under the influence 
of some external changes of circumstances also. Athens 
had now become, by her constitution and her commerce, 
by the character of her inhabitants, the renown she had ac- 
quired in the Persian war, and other political events, the 
focus of Grecian arts and sciences. In consequence, she 
was the scene of the labours of their philosophers : schools 
were formed in which ideas might be communicated, the 
intellectual powers of those who frequented them de- 
veloped by more frequent and more various contact of 
the opinions of others, and emulation continually excited 
towards continually higher objects. On the other hand 
these schools w^ere liable to the defect of fostering by 
their very facilities of acquiring knowledge, a certain in- 
tellectual indolence ; increased by the easy repetition of 
the doctrines of their teachers, and aided by the methodi- 
cal nature of the instruction itself. It was to the power- 
ful influence of the character and inquiries of Socrates, 
that the philosophy of the period owed the new impres- 
sions and bias which were given to it. 

92 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

I. Socrates. 

The principal authorities are ^ : Xenophon (particularly the 
Memorabilia and Apology of Socrates), and Plato (Apology?) 
(Compare these two writers, in this respect). Secondary sources : 
Aristotle, Cicero, Plutarch, Sextus Empiricus, Diogenes Laertius 
(II, 18, sqq.), Apuleius. 

113. Socrates was born at Athens in 470 or 469, and 
was the son of a poor sculptor named Soplironiscus, and 
of Phaenareta a midwife. He formed himself to a cha- 
racter completely opposed to the frivolity and sophistical 
habits of the refined and corrupted age to which he be- 
longed, living all the while in constant habits of society, 
even with certain characters less distinguished for their 

* The pretended Epistles of Socrates, lately published (cf. the bibliography 
at the head of § 88), are spurious. See Chph. Meiners, Judicium de quo- 
rumdam Socraticorum reliquiis in Comment. Soc. Gott. vol. V, p. 45, sqq. 

Works on the Life, Doctrine, and Character of Socrates. 

Fr. Charpentier, La Vie de Socrate, troisieme edit. Amst. 1699, 12mo. 

J. Gilbert Cooper, The Life of Socrates, collected from the Memorabilia 
of Xenophon, and the Dialogues of Plato, Land. 1749-50, and 1771. 

Jag. GriLL. Mich. Wasser, Diss. (Pra2S. G. Chr. Knohr) de Vita, Fatis 
atque Philos. Socratis, (Etting. 1720, 4to. 

t W. Fr. Heller, Socrates, 2 parts, Francf. 1789-90, 8vo. 

t C. W. Brumbey, Socrates, after Diog. Laertius, Lemgo, 1800, 8vo. 

Dan. Heinsii Socrates, seu de Doctrin^, et Moribus Socratis Oratio; in 
his, Orationes, Lvgd. Bat. 1627, 8vo. 

Dan. Boethius, De Philosophic Socratis, p. I. Ups. 1788, 4to. 

t Garnier, The Character and Philosophy of Socrates ; in the Mem. de 
I'Acad. des Inscript. torn. XXXII. 

t G. Wiggeus, Socrates as a Man, a Citizen, and Philosopher, Rost. 1807; 
second edition, Neustrel. 1811, 8vo. 

t Ferd. DelbriJck, Reflections and Inquiry concerning Socrates, Cologne, 
1816, 8vo. 

J. Andr. Cammii Commentatio (Praes. Jo. Schweigh^user) : Mores So- 
cratis ex Xenophontis Memorabilibus delineati, Argent. 1785, 4to. 

J. Hacker, Diss. (Praes. Fr. Reinhard), Imago Vitae Morumque 
Socratis e Scriptoribus vetustis, Viteb. 1787, 8vo. 

J. Lusac, Oratio de Socrate Give, Lugd. Bat. 1796, 4to. 

Fr. Menizii Socrates nee OfHciosus Maritus, nee laudandus pater fami- 
lias. Lips. 1716, 4to. 

Joii. Math. Gesneri Socrates Sanctus pa'derasta, in Comment. Soc. Reg. 
Gotting. torn. 11. 

113,114.] SOCRATES. 93 

virtues than their accompHshments. He took for his 
model the abstract idea of a true philosoplicr, who 
throughout his hfe, as a man, and as a citizen, should ex- 
hibit an instance of the perfectibility of human nature. 
He became the instructor of his countrymen and of man- 
kind, not for the love of lucre nor of reputation, but in 
consequence of a sense of duty. He was desirous above 
all things to repress the flight of speculative theories by 
the force of an imperturbable good sense ; to submit the 
pretensions of science to the control of a higher autho- 
rity, that of virtue ; and to re-unite religion to morality. 
Without becoming, properly speaking, the founder of a 
school or system of philosophy, he drew around him, by 
the charms of his conversation, a crowd of young men 
and others, inspiring them with more elevated thoughts 
and sentiments, and forming several of those most de- 
voted to him into very brilliant characters. He en- 
countered the Sophists with the arms of good sense, 
irony, and the powerful argument of his personal charac- 
ter. A constant enemy to mysticism and philosophical 
charlatanism (even in the circumstances of private life), 
he drew upon himself the hatred of many ; under which 
he ultimately fell ^ being put to death by hemlock in the 
year 400 B.C.S Ol. XCV, 1. 

114. Although, properly speaking, Socrates was not 

^ t On the Trial of Socrates, etc. by Tn. Christ. Tyschen, in the Bib- 
lioth. der alten Literatur und Kunst., I and II fasc. 1786. 

t W. SuvERN, On the Clouds of Aristophanes, Berl. 1826. With addi- 
tions, ibid. 1827. 

M. Car. Em.Kettner, Socratem Criminis majestatis accusatum vindicat. 
Lips. 1738, 4to. 

SicisM. Fr. Dresigii Epistola de Socrate juste Damnato, Lips. 1738, 4to. 

t J. C. Ciipn. Nachtigall, On the Condemnation of Socrates, etc. in the 
Deutsche Monatsschrift, June 1790, p. 127, sqq. 

Car. Lid. Richter, Commentatt. 1, II, HI, de Liberh quam Cicero vocat 
Socratis Contumacia, Cassel. 1788-90, 4to. 

c Ge. Christ. Ibbecken, Diss, de Socrate Mortem minus fortiter subeunte, 
Lips. 1735, 4to. 

Jo. Sam. M'lller, Ad Actum oratorio-dramaticum de Morte Socratis in- 
vitans, praefationis loco, pro Socratis fortitudine in subeundk Morte contra 
Ibbeckeniura pauca disputat. Ilamb, 1738, fol. 

94 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

the founder of a philosophical school, yet by his charac- 
ter, his example, by what he taught, and his manner of 
communicating it, he rendered, as a wise man and popti- 
lar teacher, immense services to the cause of philosophy : 
calling the attention of inquirers to those subjects which 
are of everlasting importance to man, and pointing out 
the source from which our knowledge (to be complete), 
must be derived ; from an investigation of our own minds 

God. Wilh. Pauli, Diss, de Philosopliia Morali Socratis, Hal. 
1714, 4to. 

Edwards, The Socratic System of Morals as delivered in 
Xenoph. Memorab. Oxford, 1773, 8vo. 

LuD. DissEN, Programma de Philosophia Morali in Xeno- 
phontis de Socrate Commentariis tradita, G'dtt. 1812, 4to. 

115. The exclusive object of the philosophy of So- 
crates was the attainment of correct ideas concerning 
moral and religious obligation ; concerning the end of 
man's being, and the perfection of his nature ; and lastly 
his duties ; all of which he discussed in an unpretending 
and popular manner ; appealing to the testimony of the 
moral sense within us. 1st. The chief happiness of man 
consists in knowing the good which it his duty to do, and 
acting accordingly : this is the highest exercise of his 
faculties, and in this consists eviv^a^ia (right-action)**. 
The means to this end are self-knowledge, and the 
habit of self-control. Wisdom (a-ocpia)^ which he often 
represents as moderation {a-afpoa-vvri)^ may be said, to em- 
brace all the virtues ^ ; and on this account he sometimes 
called virtue a science^ The duties of man towards 
himself embrace also iyKpaiTeia, (continence), and courage, 
{avlpela)^. Our dutics towards others are comprised 
in justice (liKaioa-vvy}) ; the fulfilment, that is, of the laws, 
human and divine. Socrates appears to have been the 

'> Xenoph. Memorab. IK, $ 14, sqq. ; Cf. I, 5 ; IV, 4, 5, 6. 

c Ibid. Ill, 9, $ 4 et 5. 

f AnisT. Eth. Nicom. VI, 13. 

« Xenoph. Memorab. I, 5, $ 4; IV, 5, § 6 j IV, 6, $ 10, sqq. 


115.] SOCRATES. 9 

first to make allusion to natural right or justice''. 
2dly. Virtue and true happiness (ei)Sa<^ov<a) he held to be 
inseparably united*. odly. Religion {eva-f^aa), is the 
homage rendered to the Divinity by the practice of virtue; 
and consists in a continual endeavour to effect all the 
good which our faculties permit us to do ''. 4thly. The 
Supreme Being is the first author and the guardian of 
the laws of morals ^ : his existence is proved by the order 
and harmony observable in all nature; both in the inward 
constitution of man, and the world without. (First instance 
of theology deduced from the order of nature). He is a 
rational but invisible Being, reveahng himself only by his 
works'". Socrates acknowledged, moreover, a Provi- 
dence ; (to which doctrine he superadded a belief in divi- 
nation, and in a tutelar dasmon of his own) " ; with the 

h Xr.NOPH. Memorab. IV, c. 4, c. 6, § 12. To (pvcrei diKaiov. 

Jac. Guil. Feuerlin, Diss. Historico-philosophica, Jus Naturae Socratis, 
Altdorf. 1719, 4to. 

* Xenoph. Memorab. Ill, 9 ; IV, 2, § 34, sqq. ; 1, 6, § 10. Cic. Offic. Ill, 3. 

k Ibid. I, 1, $2, 3; III, 9, § 15. 

' Ibid. I, 2, 4 J IV, 3, 4. Plat. Apol. Socr. c. 15. 

"' M. LuD. Theopii. Mylii Diss, de Socratis Theologi^, Jen. 1714, 4to. 

J. Fu. AuFsciiLAGER, Comment. (Praeside J. Schweigh^user) : Theologia 
Socratis ex Xenoph. Memorab. excerpta. Argent. 1785, 4to. 

" God. Olearii Dissert, de Socratis Daemonio, Lips. 1702; and in 
Stanley, Hist. Philos. p. 130, sqq. 

t Chph. Meiners, On the Genius of Socrates, in part III. of his Misc. 

t On the Genius of Socrates, a Philosophical Inquiry, by Aug. G. Uhle, 
Hanov. 1778, 8vo. The same, previously published in the Deutsches Museum, 

+ Parallel between the Genius of Socrates and the IMiracles of Jesus Christ, 
by Doctor Less, Getting. 1778, 8vo. an Answer to the preceding. 

See also the Dissert, of Schi.osser, Getting. 1778, fasc. I, p. 71 and 76. 

t On the Genius of Socrates, a new Philosophical Inquiry (by J. Ciipt/. 
Kcenig), Francf. and Leips. 1777, 8vo. 

t B. J. C. JusTi, On the Genius of Socrates, Leips. 1779, 8vo. 

Rob. Nares, An Essay on the Demon or Divination of Socrates, Land. 
1782, 8vo. 

Matth. Fremling, De Genio Socratis, Lund. 1793, 4to. 

t J. C. Nachtigall, Did Socrates Believe in his Genius'? Deutsche Mo- 
natsschrift, 1794, fasc. XI, p. 326. 

J. Fr. Schaarschmidt, Socratis Daemonium per tot secula a tot hominibus 

96 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

other attributes of the Divinity which have a reference to 
the good government of the world without, and in parti- 
cular of man °. He deemed that beyond this his inquiries 
ought not to extend. 5thly. The soul he considered to 
be a divine essence, or partaking of the divine nature. 
He believed it to approximate the Divinity (fz-erexeiv rov 
Oeov), in respect of its reason and invisible energy, and on 
this account he considered it immortal p. 6thly. All the 
other arts and sciences which have no reference to prac- 
tice he looked upon as vain, without object, and unac- 
ceptable to God : though he himself was not unac- 
quainted with the mathematics, and the speculations of 
the Sophists ''. 

116. The method of teaching observed by Socrates'" 
was a sort of intellectual obstetricism (jocaieurtKvj) ; agree- 
ably to which he made it his practice to elicit from each, 
in conversation, the principles of his convictions, em- 
ploying induction and analogy. His own good natural 
sense suggested to him this method ; which was admir- 
ably calculated to refute the Sophists by making them 
contradict themselves ^ In such encounters he armed 

doctis examinatum quid et quale fuerit, num tandem constat? Nivemo7it. 
1812, 8vo. 

o Xenoph. Memorab. I, 4 ; IV, 3. 

P Ibid. I, 4, § 8, 9 ; IV, 3, § U ; Cyropaed. VIII, 7. Plat. Phsdo, 
c. 8, sqq. 

t W. G. Tennemann, Doctrines and Opinions of the Socratic School re- 
specting the Immortality of the Soul, Jena, 1791, 8vo. 

q Xenopii. Memorab. I, 1, § 15 ; IV, 7. Cic. Tusc. Quaest. V, 3; Acad. 


>■ Fr. Menzii Diss, de Socratis Methodo docendi non omnino praescriben- 
da, Lips. 1740, 4to. 

J. Christ. Lossius, De Arte Obstetricia Socratis, Erf. 1785, 4to. 

t Fr. M. Vierthaler, Spirit of the Socratic Method, Salzb. 1793, 8vo.j 
second ed. Wurzb. 1810. 

t J. F. Guaffe, The Socratic Method in its Primitive Form, Gott. 1794 ; 
third ed. 1798, 8vo. 

G. J. SiEVEns, De Methodo Socratic^, Slesv. 1810. 

« t C. Fr. Fraouier, Dissertation on the Irony of Socrates, his pretended 
Familiar Genius, and his Character ; in the Memoirs of the Academy of In- 
scriptions, torn. IV. 


110—118.] SOCRATES. 97 

himself with his characteristic elouve/a, or affected igno- 
rance, and with his pecuHar logic *. 

117. The services which Socrates has rendered to phi- 
losophy are twofold ; negative and positive. Negative, 
inasmuch as he avoided all vain discussions ; combated 
mere speculative reasoning on substantial grounds ; and 
had the wisdom to acknowledge ignorance when neces- 
sary ; but without attempting to determine accurately 
what is capable, and what is not, of being accurately 
known. Positive, inasmuch as he examined with great 
ability the ground directly submitted to our understand- 
ing, and of which Man is the centre ; without, however, 
any profound investigation of the different ideas and mo- 
tives which influence practice. He first distinguished 
that Free-will and Nature were both under the domi- 
nion of certain laws ; pointed out the proper sources of 
all knowledge ; and finally laid open new subjects for 
philosophic research. 

Chr. Fred. Liebegott Simox, Diss. (Praes. W. T. Krug), 
de Socratis meritis in Philosophiam rite aestimandis, Viteh. 1797, 

•f- Fr. Schleiermacher, On the Merit of Socrates as a Phi- 
losopher ; in the Memoirs of the Class of Philosophers of the 
Royal Academy of Sciences of Berhn, 1818, 4to. p. 50. 

118. As Socrates divided his time among men of 
very different habits and dispositions, some more in- 
clined to active life, some to retired study, a great 
number of disciples in very different classes of society, 
and with very different views, were formed by his con- 
versations, and still more by his method of teaching, 
so favourable to the development of the understand- 
ing". The Athenians Xenophon'' (cf. § 113,) JEschines, 

t Xenoph. Memorab. IV, 2. Plat. Theaetet., Meno, Sympos. p. 260. 
Cic. De, Fin. II, 1. 

» Cic. De Oratore, III, 16. Dioc. Laert. Prooem. sect. 10. 

^ Born about 450, died 360 B. C. 

On the pretended letters of the Socratic philosophers, see the remark above, 

% 113. 


98 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Shno^f Crito, and the Theban Cebes^, disseminated the 
principles of their master and Uved agreeably to them. 
Among those who especially devoted themselves to the 
pursuits of philosophy, AntistJienes the Athenian, founder 
of the Cynic school, subsequently Aristippiis, the chief 
of the Cyrenaic, and afterwards Pyrrho, gave their at- 
tention exclusively to questions of morals, and their prac- 
tical application. Euclid of Megara, Plicedo of Elis, 
Menedemus of Eretria, were occupied with theoretical 
or metaphysical inquiries. The more exalted genius of 
Plato embraced at once both these topics, and united 
the two principal branches of Socraticism ; either of 
which separately was found sufficient to employ the gene- 
rality of the Socratic philosophers. When we examine 
the spirit of these different schools, the Cynics, the Cy- 
renaics, the Pyrrhonists, and the Megareans ; (as for the 
schools of Elis and Eretria we are but imperfectly ac- 
quainted with them); and lastly, that of the Platonists ; 
we find that the four first did little more than expand the 
ideas of Socrates, with partial views of his system ; while 
the latter is distinguished by a boundless activity, allied 
to the true Socratic spirit ; and which explored all the 
subjects of philosophic investigation. 

II. Partial Systems of the Socratics. 

I. Cynics. 

Authorities : Xenophon, Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Plutarch, Sex- 
tus Empiricus, Diogenes Laertius, VI. 

Ge. Gottfr. Richteri Diss, de Cynicis, Lips, 1701, 4to. 

J. Ge. Meuschenii Disp. de Cynicis, Kilon. 1703, 4to. 

A. GoERiNG, Explicatur cur Socratici Philosophicarurn, quae inter se Dis- 
sentiebant, Doctrlnarum Principes, a Socratis Philosophic longius recesserint, 
Partennpol. 1816, 4to. 

y The authenticity of the two dialogues attributed to him is contested. 
See BoECKH, Simonis Socratici, ut videtur, Dialogi quatuor. Additi sunt 
incerti auctoris (vulgo ^schinis) Dialogi Eryxias et Axiochus, ed. Aug. 
BoECKir, Heidelb. 1810, 8vo. 

* The writing known under the name of Uiva^ (Cebetis Tabula) is also at- 
tributed to a Stoic of Cyzicus, of a later age. See also, Fr. G. Klopfer, De 
C. Tabula, Zwich. 1818, 4to. 


119,120.] ANTISTHENES. 99 

Christ. Glieb. Joeciier, Progr. de Cynicis nulla re teneri 
volentibus, Lips. 1743, 4to. 

Fr. Mentzii Progr. de Cynismo nee Philosopho nee liomine 
digno, Lips. 1744, 4to. 


GoTTLOB LuD. RicHTER, Diss. de Vita, moribus ac placitis 
Antisthenis Cynici, Jen. 1724, 4to. 

LuD. Chr. Crellii Progr. de Antistliene Cynico, Lips. 1728, 

119. Antisthenes , an Athenian^, at first the disciple of 
Gorgias, afterwards the friend and admirer of Socrates ; 
was virtuous even to excess, and proportionably arro- 
gant. He placed the supreme good of man in virtue ; 
which he defined to consist in abstinence and privations, 
as the means of assuring to us our independence of ex- 
ternal objects : by such a course he maintained that man 
can reach the highest perfection, the most absolute feli- 
city, and become like to the Deity, Nothing is so beautiful 
as virtue ; nothing as deformed as vice ; {r'ayaBa, Koka, ra, 
KaKcc ala-xpa.) ; all things else are indifferent {adid(popa), and 
consequently unworthy of our efforts to attain them^ 
On these principles he built a system of practice so ex- 
cessively simple, as to exclude even the decencies of 
social life ; and for the same reasons professed a con- 
tempt for speculative science*^, alleging that the natures 
of things are undefinable. He maintained also that opi- 
nions are all identical, and that no man can refute those 
of another **. We must not omit his idea of one Divinity, 
superior to those adored by the populace ^. 

1 20. In spite of the unattractive austerity of his way of 

a Flourished about 380 B.C. 

^ DioG. Laert. VI, 11, sqq., 103, 106. 

^ Notwithstanding, many works of his are quoted (Dioo. Laert. VI, 15, 
sqq.) of which only two speeches remain to us, printed among the Orat. Graic. 
of Reiske, torn. VIII, p. 52, sqq. 

'I Arist. Metaph. VIII, 3, V, 29. Plat. Sophist., p. 270. 

'' Cic. De Nat. Deor. I, 13. 


100 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

life, which procured him the surname o^'AtcXokvccv, Antis- 
thenes, by his lofty spirit and the eccentricity of his cha- 
racter and conduct, drew about him a great number of 
partisans, who were called Cynics; whether from the C?/- 
nosarges, where their master taught, or from the rude- 
ness of their manners ^ Among these we remark Di- 
ogenes of Sinope^, said, on doubtful authority, to have lived 
in a tub ; who gave himself the name of Kvav ^^ and prac- 
tised a species of asceticism': and after him, his disciple 
Crates of Thebes^, and his wife, Hipparchia of Maronea; 
but these latter are not distinguished for having contri- 
buted any thing to the cause of science. Onesicritus of 
i^gina, Metrocles the brother of Hipparchia, Monimus 
of Syracuse, Menedemus, and Menippus, are cited, but less 
frequently. The Cynic school finally merged in that of 
the Stoics : it made an ineffectual attempt to rise again 
in the centuries immediately succeeding the birth of our 
Lord ; but without displaying the spirit, merely by affect- 
ing the exterior of the ancient Cynics '. 

II. Cyrenaics. 

Authorities : Xenophon, Aristotle, Cicero, Plutarch, Sextus 
Empiricus, adv. Math. VII, 11, Diog. Laert. II. 

' Diog. Laert. VI, 13 et 16. 

& Bora 414, died 324 B.C. 

h Diog. Laert. VI, 20—81. 

* The letters which bear his name Cprobably supposititious), are found in 
the Collection published by Aldus Manut. (reprinted at Geneva, 1606) ; 
twenty-two more exist, according to the notice of the unedited letters of Di- 
ogenes, etc, by M. Boissonade, Notices and Extracts from the MSS. in the 
King's Library, torn. X, p. ii, p. 122, sqq. (French). 

For remarks on this philosopher consult : 

t F. A. Grimaldi, Life of Diogenes the Cynic, Naples, Mil , 8vo. (Ital.) 

Chph. Mar. Wieland, Swrcparijc {.laivonivoq, or Dialogues of Diogenes 
of Sinope, Leips. 1770 ; and among his works. 

Fried. Mentzii Diss, de Fastu Philosophico, virtutis colore Infucato, in 
imagine Dlogenis Cynici, Lips. 1712, 4to. 

Jo. Mart. Barkhusii Apologeticnm quo Diogenem Cynicum a crimine 
et stultitiae et imprudenti-Te expeditum sistit, Regiom. 1727, 4to. 

•« Diog. Laert. VI, 85, sqq. Cf. Juliani Imperat. Orat. VI, ed. Span- 
genb., p. 199. 

' Luciani Kvuikoq, and other Dialogues. 

121.] CYRENAICS. 101 

Frid. Menzii Aristippiis Philosophus Socraticus, sive de ejus 
Vita, Moribus et Dogmatibus Commentarius, Hal. 1719, 4to. 

-j- Batteux, Elucidation of the Morals of Aristippus, to ex- 
plain a passage of Horace ; in the Memoirs of the Academy of 
Inscriptions, tom. XXVI. 

■f C. M. WiELAND, Aristippus, and some of his Contempo- 
raries, 4 vols. Leips. 1800, 1802. Works complete, vols. XXXIII 

H. KuNHARDT, Diss. Philos. Histor. de Aristippi Philosophia 
Morali, quatenus ilia ex ipsius Philosophi dictis secundum Laer- 
tium potest derivari, Helmst. 179G, 4to. 

121. Aristippus'" of Cyrene, a colonial city of Africa ; 
born to easy circumstances, and of a light and sportive 
character, had, when he first attended the conversations 
of Socrates, an inclination for self-indulgence, which the 
latter eventually succeeded in rendering more elevated, 
without being able to eradicate ". He made the summum 
bonum and the TeXoq of man to consist in enjoyment, ac- 
companied with good taste, and freedom of mind, rl Kpa- 

Tel'v Ka) fAV} rjTr a<r9ai vjhovSv cc^kttov, ov to fArj y^p'^<T6ai° , Other 

pursuits and sciences he made very light of, especially 
the Mathematics p. His grandson Aristippus, surnamed 
Metrodidactus (because instructed by his mother Arete, 
daughter of the elder Aristippus^), was the first to de- 
velop, on these principles, a complete system of the phi- 
losophy of self-indulgence, '^Soi/io-/Ao^. This sort of philo- 
sophy takes for its basis the affections, principally of the 
body {itdBri) ; which it divides into pleasurable and the 
reverse ; giving the preference to the pleasures of the 
senses. Its degraded object is not €^&a</^owa, but merely 
present and actual enjoyment (^Sov^ iv Kivvjo-e*); allowing 
something to wisdom and virtue (as they were pleased to 
term them), as means of attaining thereto'. The philo- 

n» Flourished 380 B. C. 

" DioG. Laert. II, 65, sqq. Plutarch. Adv. Principem Indoct. II, p. 
779. Xenopii. Memorab. II, 1 j et III, 8. 
° DiOG. Laert. II, 75. 

P DiOG. Laert. II, 75. Arist. Met. Ill, 2. 
'1 J. Ge. Eck, De Arete Philosopha, Lips. 1775, 8vo. 
*■ J)ior;. Laert. IT, 86, sr)q. Euseb. Praep. Evang. XIV, 18. 

102 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

sophy of these teachers (neglecting logic and the natural 
sciences), was confined to what they called a system of 
morals ; built entirely on that of the sensations, as being 
the only objects of knowledge concerning which we are 
not liable to err (/caxaXv^TrTea ku) aS;a;//eyo-Ta ^), and at the 
same time the only eritetia of virtue K 

122. This species of philosophy, when it came to be 
compared with our notions of Truth, Justice, and Reli- 
gion, gave birth to a subdivision of the sect of Cyrenaics, 
called also Hdonics (vjZovikoi), Theodorus (of Cyrene ?), 
surnamed the Atheist, a disciple of the second Aristip- 
pus ", and probably also of the Stoic Zeno, the Sceptic 
Pyrrho, and others % taking, like his predecessors. Sensa- 
tion for the basis of his argument, ended by denying the 
existence of all objects of perception; disallowed the 
reality of an universal criterium of Truth, and thus 
opened the way for the Sceptic school : framing to him- 
self a system {Indifferentism,) which excluded all differ- 
ences of right and wrong, in Morals and in Religion, and 
assuming pleasure or gaiety (%apa), as the final end of ex- 
istence. His followers denominated themselves Seo^vpeioi^, 
His disciple. Bio of Borysthenis', and Eiihemerus (ac- 
cording to some of Messene^), made an application of 

9 Cf. DioG. Laeut. II, 92. Cic. Acad. Qusest. IV, 46. 

* DioG. Laert. II, 86, sqq. Sext. Empir. Adv. Math. VII, 11, 15, 191 

« Flourished about 300 B.C. 

=* SuiDAS, s. h. V. DioG. Laert. 86 et 97, sqq. 

y Sextus, Adv. Math. VII, 191, sqq. Plutarch. Adv. Colot., XIV, p. 
177. EusEB. Przep. Evang. XIV, 18. Droc. Laert. II. 93, 97—100. 

2 Bio the Borysthenite, called also the Sophist, lived in the middle of the 
third centuiy B. C. 

See Bayle's Dictionary: et Marius Hoogvliet, Specimen Philosophico- 
criticum continens Diatriben de Bione Borysthenita, etc., Lugd. Bat. 1821, 

* The fragments of his work, entitled, 'lepa avaypa<l>r], in Diod. Sic, Bibl. 
Hist. ed. Vesseling, torn. II, 633 ; and among the fragments of Ennius, who 
had translated them into Latin. Idem, ed, Hessel, p. 212. See also, con- 
cerning Euhemerus and Euhemerism : 

t Sevin, Researches concerning the Life and Works of Euhemerus ; 
t FouRMONT, Dissertation on the Work of Euhemerus, entitled, 'I^pd ava- 

122—124.] PYRRHO AND TIMON. 108 

this doctrine to the religion then prevalent ^. llegesias, 
who in the time of Ptolemey taught at Alexandria, a na- 
tive of Cyrene and pupil of the Cyrenaic Parcsbates, was 
equally decided in maintaining the indifference of right 
and wrong, hut asserted that perfect pleasure is un- 
attainable in our present state (aSi/Wroi/ koI awrra^KTov)^ 
and concluded that death was therefore preferable to life. 
Hence he was surnamed Yleia-Bdvaroq^, He became the 
founder of a sect, the Hegesiacs. 

123. Anniceris of Cyrene, who appears, like Hegesias, 
to have been a disciple of Paraebates, and to have taught 
at Alexandria, endeavoured, without renouncing the prin- 
ciples of his sect, to get rid of their revolting conse- 
quences, and to reconcile them with our sentiments in 
favour of friendship and patriotism, by pleading the re- 
fined pleasures of benevolence^: thus making the Cyre- 
naic system approximate that of Epicurus. The success 
of the latter caused the downfal of the Cyrenaic school. 

III. Pyrrho and Timon, 

Authorities: Cic. De Fin. II, 13 ; IV, 16. Sextus Empiri- 
cus. Diog. Laert. IX, 61, sqq. 105, sqq. Euseb. Praep. Evang. 
XIV, 18. 

Cf. the bibliography § 38, II, a. 

■f G. P. DE Crouzaz, Examination of Pyrrhonism, Ancient 
and Modem, Hague, 1733 (French). Extracts of the same 
work in, Formey, Triumph of Evidence ; with a Prelim. Dissert, 
by M. DE Haller, Berlin, 1756, 2 vols. 8vo. (French). 

ypacpr], etc. ; and t Foucher, Memoirs on the System of Euhemerus, in the 
Mem. of the Academy of Inscriptions, torn. VIII, XV, XXXIV. (all French.) 

'» Cic. De Nat. Deor. I, 42. Plutauch. Adv. Stoicos,XIV, p. 77 ; De Is. 
et Osir., torn. VII, p. 420, ed. Reiske. Sextus, Adv. Math. IX, 17, 51, 55. 
DioG. Laert. II, 97 ; et IV, 46 — 58. Diod. Sicul. V, 11 et 45. Lact. 
Div. Instit. I, 11. 

<= Cic Tusc. Quaest. I, 34. Diog. Laert. II, 86, 93, sqq. Val. Max. 
XVIII, 9. 

J. J. Rambach, Progr. de Hegesia TrtiaOavduit, Quedlimb. 1771, 4to. 
Idem, in his Sylloge Diss, ad rem Litterariam pertinentium, Hamb. 1790, Bvo. 
No. IV. 

•^ Dioo.LAr.RT. II, 96, 97. 

104 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

J. Arrhenii Diss, de Philosopliia Pyrrhonia, Ups. 1708, 4to. 

God. Ploucquet, Diss, de Epocha Pyrrhoiiis, Tubing. 1758, 

J. Glieb. Munch, Diss, de Notione ac Indole Scepticismi, 
nominatim Pyrrhonismi, Altd. 1796, 4to. 

Jac. Bruckeri, Observatio de Pyrrhone a Scepticismi Univer- 
salis macula absolvendo, Miscall. Hist. Philos, p. 1. 

C. Vict. Kindervater, Diss. Adumbratio Questionis, an 
Pyrrhonis Doctrina omnis tollatur virtus, Lips. 1789, 4to. 

RicARD. Brodersen, Dc Philosophia Pyrrhonia, Kil. 1819, 4to. 

J. RuD. Thorbecke, Responsio ad Qu. Philos. etc. num quid 
in Dogmaticis oppugnandis inter Academicos et Scepticos inter- 
fuerit (?), 1820, 4to. 

J. Frid. Langheinrich, Diss. I et II de Timonis Vita, Doc- 
trina, Scriptis, Lips. 1729-31. 

124. PjjrrJio of EIis% originally a painter, together 
with his master Anaxarchus accompanied Alexander in 
his campaigns, and subsequently became a priest at Elis. 
In common with Socrates (whom in some particulars he 
resembled), he maintained that virtue alone is desirable^; 
that every thing else, even science, is useless and unpro- 
fitable. To support this last proposition, he alleged 
that the contradiction existing between the different 

principles supported by disputants {avriXoyloc, avrlQea-K; rav 

Xoyuv), demonstrates the incomjirehensibilitij of things 
(a/caraX^i/z/a). All this, he argued, should make a philoso- 
pher withhold his assent (eVe^eij/), and endeavour to main- 
tain an ocTiaBeta., or freedom from all impressions. By this 
doctrine, Pyrrho and his school attached a special mean- 
ing on the word <r/cei//i? (examination), which had already 
been frequently employed more loosely ^. His friend and 
pupil Timon, a physician of Phlius, and previously a 

e Flourished about 340, died about 288 B. C. 

f Cic. De Orat. Ill, 17 ; De Finib. Ill, 3 ; Acad. Quaest. II, 42. 

e DioG. Laert. IX, 70, sqq. Sext. Empir. Hyp. Pyrrh. I, 209, sqq. 
AuL. Gell. XI, 5. 

Hence the Pyrrhonists are also called Sceptics, in the proper sense of the 
word : they have been more properly denominated Ephectics (from tTroxrj, sus- 
pension of judgment), Zetetics, and Aporetics (investigators, and doubters). 

124, 125.] MEGARIC SCHOOL. 105 

pupil of Stilpo at Megara ^, carried still farther this sys- 
tem of scepticism, which had begun on moral principles ', 
and maintained with sarcastic bitterness the following pro- 
positions "* against the Dogmatics*: the doctrines of the 
Dogmatics are founded not on substantial principles, but 
mere hypotheses : — the objects of their speculations do 
not come within the compass of certain knowledge : — all 
science is to be accounted vain, as not contributing to 
happiness : — in questions of practice we ought to give ear 
only to the voice of our own nature, that is of our sensa- 
tions ; and by withholding the assent in matters of specula- 
tion (afacr/a), should cudcavour to retain the mind in a 
state of unalterable repose (arapa^io,)^, A question has 
been raised whether the Ten sources of doubt (ro-noi or rpiitot 
tYiqeitcxri^), of the Sccptics ™, are the work of Pyrrho or 
Timon. The latter left behind him no disciple of note, 

IV. Megaric School. 

Authorities : Plato, Aristotle, Cicero, Sextus Empiricus, Diog. 
Laert. II. 

J. Casp. Guntheri Diss, de Method© Disputandi Megarica, 
Jen. 1707, 4to. 

J. Ern. Junn. Walch, Commentatio de Philosophiis Veterum 
Criticis, Jen. 1755, 4to. 

G. LuD. Spalding, Vindiciae Philosophorum Megaricorum, 
Berol. 1793, 8vo. 

Ferd. Deycks, De Megaricorum Doctrina ejusque apud Pla- 
tonem et Aristotelem vestigiis, Bon. 1827, 8vo. 

J. G. Hager, Dissert, de Modo Disputandi Euclidis, Lips. 
1736, 4to. See also Bayle. 

h Flourished about 272 B. C. 

« Sext. Adv. Matli^^53. 

'' Particularly in his satiric poem, St'XXot, whence he has been occasionally 
denominated 5'i//()o;rap/iifs. Fragments of the three books of this poem, and of 
his work nepi aidOrjfrsbJv , are to be found partly in the Dissert, quoted above 
(of Is. Fr. Langheinrich), and partly in. Hen. Steph. Foes. Philos. and 
among the Analect. of Buunck. torn. II and III. 

* [For an account of what is meant by Dogmatism, see above §§ 55, 56, 57. 

' Cic. Fin. II, 21, 13; IV, 16; Offic. I, 2 ; De Orat. Ill, 17. Diog. 
Laert. IX, 61, sqq. 103, sqq. Euseb. Praep. XIV, 18. Sextus, Adv. 
Math. Ill, 2 ; XI, $ 171 ; VII, § 30. 

•" See, subsequently, under the art, iEnesideraus. 

106 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

125. Euclid of Megara", had studied the philosophy 
of the Eleatae previously to his becoming a disciple of 
Socrates. After the death of his master; having, toge- 
ther with the most of his other pupils taken refuge at 
Megara, he established there a school ; the principal ob- 
ject of which was the cultivation of Dialectics, on the 
principles of Socrates and the Eleatae. The subtilties 
of this sect, which were sufficiently censured of old (wit- 
ness the appellation of ipia-riKoi), have been still more 
severely condemned by the moderns ; who it must be 
allowed, have not been able to collect a sufficiently ac- 
curate account of what their practice really was. They 
appear to have pointed out the difficulties which attend 
rationalism and empiricism : and to have pursued certain 
Dogmatics to their last defences, particularly Aristotle 
and Zeno. Practical philosophy appears, with the ex- 
ception of Stilpo, to have engaged the attention of few 
of this school. 

126. Euclid gave as it were a new edition of the 
Eleatic doctrine : Good is one (ev to uyaOov) ; which alone 
is real and invariable : reasoning by analogy he rejected 
(^la. ■napa^o>.ri(; Xoyovq) ; attacking not SO much the premises 
assumed, as the conclusions drawn (eitn^opdv)^, Euhulldes 
of Miletus, and his disciple Alexinus of Elis (nicknamed 
'EXeVltyo?), are only known as the authors of certain cap- 
tious questions {a^vTa)'^ which they levelled at the Empirics, 
and in particular at Aristotle ; such as ; the (TupeirYj<;, the 
\}/evU[jf.€]/o<;, the K€parivvi(;, etc. P. Diodorus surnamed Cronus, 
of Jasus in Caria, the pupil, according to some, of Eubu- 
lides, denied the twofold significations of words ^, investi- 
gated the question of possibilities (irepi Iwa-vav) "■, and specu- 

» Flourished about 400 B. C. 

« Cic. Acad. Quaest. IV, 42. Dioo. Laert. II, 106, 107. 

P DioG. Laert. II, 108, sqq. Cic. Acad. Quaest. IV, 29. Sext. Empir. 
Adv. Math. VII, 13 ; cf. IX. 108. A. Gell. N. A. XVI, 2. 

1 A. Gell. Noct. Att. XI, 12. 

■• Arist. De Interpret, c. IX ; Metaph. VIIT, 3. Cic. De Fate Frag. VII, 


lated concerning the truth of hypothetical judgments (to 
a-vvrjixuevov) ^ ; and finally advanced some arguments to dis- 
prove the reality of motion^. His disciple Philo, the 
Dialectic (who must not be confounded with the Stoic, or 
vwith the Academician of the same name), became his 
opponent on these subjects. «S'^i//?o of Megara, a philo- 
^sopher venerable for his character", disallowed the ohjec- 
^tive validity of relative ideas {ra, et'S^j) ; and the truth of 
opinions not identical*''. He made the character of a 
wise man to consist in apathy or impassibility (animus 
inipatiens, Senec. Ep. 9.): from which doctrine his dis- 
ciple Zeno deduced a great number of consequences. 
We find also mentioned as Megarics, Bryso or Dryso, 
a son of Stilpo ; Clinomachus^ and Ruphantus. 

V. Schools of Elis and Eretria, 

1 27. The schools founded by Phoedo of Elis and Me?ie- 
dcmus of Eretria (§ 118), are not, as far as we can learn, 
more distinguishable from each other than from that of 
Megara. The first was a true disciple of Socrates^: his 
opinions w^ere set forth in dialogues which have not come 
down to us. The second, a hearer of Plato and Stilpo, 
may be said to have continued at Eretria the school of 

« Sext. Empir. Adv. Log. II, 11, 114, sqq. ; Adv. Phys. 11, 115; Pyrrh. 
Hyp. II, 110 ; Adv. Math. VIII, 112, sqq. Cic. Acad. Quaest. II, 47. 

» Sextus Empir. Adv. Math. X, 85, sqq.; IX, 363 ; Adv. Phys. II, 85, 
sqq. ; Pyrrh. Hyp. II, 242 et 245. Stob. Eel. I, p. 310. Euseb. Pra;p. 
Evang. XIV, 23. 

" Dioc. Laeut. II, 113, sqq.; flourished 300 B. C. 

* " liiugnete die objective Gviltigkeitder Gattungsbegriffe(ra idr]), 

und die Wahrheit derjenigen Urtheile, die nicht identisch sind." 

^ Plutarch. Adv. Coloten, XIV, p. 174. Dice. Laert. II, 119. Plat. 
Soph. torn. II, p. 240, 269, 281. Simpl. In Physica, p. 26. 

t J. Chph. Schwab, Remarks on Stilpo, in the Philos. Arch, of Eber- 
HARD, torn. II, No. 1. 

J. Frid. Chph. Graffe, Diss, qua Judiciorum Analyticorum et Synthe- 
ticorum Naturam jam longe ante Kantium Antiquitatis Scriptoribus fuisse per- 
spectam contra Schwabium probatur, G'ott. 1794, 8vo. 

y DioG. Laert. II, 112. 

'- DioG. Laert. II, 105. 

108 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Elis *. He and his disciples (in this respect resemhhng 
Stilpo), Umited truth to identical propositions^. They 
denied that it could be inferred by negative categorical 
propositions, or conditional and collective. 

III. More complete Systems, proceeding from the School 

of Socrates. 

128. A more complete system of dogmatic philosophy 
was founded at the Academia by Plato ; on the principles 
of the Rationalists : and another by his disciple Aristotle, 
on those of the Empirics*^. From the Cynic school sprang 
the Stoics, and from the Cyrenaics the Epicureans. The 
dogmatism of the Stoics called forth the opposition of the 
Academician Arcesilaus, with whom began the scepticism 
of the later Academy. In this manner, from the Socratic 
school arose four dogmatical systems ; diverging from one 
another in theory and practice ; and, in addition to these, 
a school decidedly sceptical. 

I. Plato. 

Authorities : Plato, his works, with the Argumenta Dialogo- 
rum Platonis of Tiedemann (in the 12th vol. of the ed. Bipont.): 
Translated by Schleiermacher : Guil. van Heusde, Specimen Cri- 
ticum in Platon. ace. Wyttenbachii Epist. ad auct. Lugd. Bat. 
1803, 8vo. Aristotle, Cicero, Plutarch. (Q,uaest. Platon.), Sext. 
Empiricus, Apuleius de Doctrina Platonis, Diogenes Laertius, lib. 
Ill, Timaeus, Suidas. 

Modern Works on the Life, Doctrine, and Works of Plato in 


Mars. Ficini, Vita Platonis : Introductory to his translation 
of Plato. 

Remarks on the Life and Writings of Plato, with Answers to 

* DioG. Laert. II, 125, sqq. 

*» SiMPL. In Phys. Aristot. p. 20. Diog. Laeut. II, 135. 

«= [The Rationalists, it will be remembered, argue from the phenomena of the 
mind, or the world within us ; the Empirics or Experimentalists, from those of 
the world without. TramL'\ 


128, 129.] PLATO. 109 

the principal Objections against him, and a General View of his 
Dialogues, Edhib, 1700, 8vo. 

-f" W. G. Tennemann, System of the Platonic Philosophy, 
Lc'ips. 1792-5, 4 vols. Svo. 

f Fr. Ast, On the Life and Writings of Plato, intended as 
introductory to the Study of that Philosopher, Leips. 181G, Svo. 

-j- Ferd. Delbruck, Discourse on Plato, Bonn. 1819, 8vo. 

f Jos. Socher, On the Works of Plato, Munich, 1820. A 
work principally relating to their authenticity and chronological 

James Geddes, Essay on the Composition and Manner of 
Writing of the Ancients, particularly Plato, Glasg. 1748, Svo. 

J. Bapt. Bernardi Seminarium Philosophiae Platonis, Venet. 
1599-1605, 3 vols. fol. 

RuD. GocLENii Idea Philos. Platonicae, Marh. 1612, Svo. 

LuD. Morainvilliere, Examen Philos. Platonicae, 1659, 

Sam. Parker, A Free and Impartial Censure of Platonic 
Philosophy, Lond. 1666, 4to. 

f J. J. Wagner, A Dictionary of the Platonic Philosophy, 
Gottlng. 1779, 8vo. with a Sketch of that System. 

-|- J. Fr. Herb art, De Platonic! Systematis Fundamento, 
Gott. 1805, Svo. Cf. his Manual to serve for an introduction 
to Philosophy, second edition, IV sect. ch. 4. 

P. G. VON Heusde, Initia Philosophiae Platonicae, Pars. I, 
IJltraj. 1827, Svo. 

Translations by Cousin (French), Sydenham, and Schleier- 

129. Plato^ was born at Athens 430 or 429 B. C, in 
the ord or 4th year of the LXXXVII. Ol., the son of 
Aristo and Perictione, of the family of Codrus and Solon, 
and was endowed with distinguished talents for poetry 
and philosophy. By the advice of Socrates he attached 
himself to the latter pursuit. He had originally some 
inclination for public life, but was disgusted by the per- 
petual changes which took place in his time in the govern- 
ments of Greece ; by the corruptions of the democracy, 
and the depravity of the manners of his countrymen *". 
His studies were happily promoted by a diligent cultiva- 

^ His proper name was Aristocles. 
« Pi.AT. Epist. VII. 

110 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

tion of poetry and the mathematics ; by foreign travel, 
particularly in Italy and Sicily; and by familiar inter- 
course with the most enlightened men of his time ; parti- 
cularly with Socrates, whose conversations he attended for 
eight years * ^; as well as by the correspondences which he 
entertained with the Pythagoreans of Magna Graecia ^. 
In this manner was formed this great philosopher, surpass- 
ing, perhaps, all, by the vastness and profoundness of his 
views, and the correctness and eloquence with which he 
expressed them : while his moral character entitled him to 
take his place by the side of Socrates. He founded in the 
Academia a school of philosophy, which for a long period 
was a nursery of virtuous men and profound thinkers. 
Plato died in the first year of the C VIII. Olympiad, 348 

130. His works, principally in the form of dialogues^; 
(models of excellence for the rare union of a poetic and 
philosophic spirit) ' ; are the only incontestible authorities 
respecting his opinions ; but we must not hope to attain 
his entire system except by conjecture, as he had certain 
doctrines {aypacpa, ^oyfjt.arcc) which he did not communicate 

* He had previously become acquainted with the sj'stem of Heraclitus. 
^ Xenoph. Memorab. Ill, 6. Apuleius. 

s Jo. GuiL. Jani Dissert, de Institutione Platonis, Viteb. 1706. De Peri- 
grinatione Platonis, ibid, ejusd. 

Chph. Ritter, De Praeceptoribus Platonis, Gryphisw. 1707, 4to. 

On his intercourse with Xenophon : 

Aug. Boeckh, Progr. de Simultate quam Plato cum Xenophonte exercu- 
isse fertur, BeroL. 1811, 4to. 

h J. Jac. Nast, Progr. de Methodo Platonis Philosophiam tradendi Dia- 
logica, Stuttg. 1787. 4to. 

J. Aug. Goerenz, Progr. de Dialogistic^ Arte Platonis, Viteb. 1794, 4to. 

* Henr. Phil. Conr. Henke, De Philosophia Mythica, Platonis imprimis, 
Observationes variae, Helmst. 1776, 4to. 

t J. Aug. Eberhard, Dissert, on the proper end of Philosophy, and the 
Mythi of Plato, in his Vermischte Schriften, Hal. 1788, 8vo. 

J. Chr. HiJTTNER, De Mythis Platonis, Lips. 1788, 4to. 

t Garnier, Mem. on the use which Plato has made of Fables, in the 
Mem. de I'Acad. des Inscript. tom. XXXll. 

t M. INIarx, The Mythi of Plato, a Dissert, in the Eleutheria, a Literary 
Gazette of Frlbourg, published by Ehrhardt, tom. I, fasc. 2 and 3. Frib, 
1819, 8vo. 

130—132.] PLATO. Ill 

except to those whom he entrusted with his esoteric phi- 
losophy ^ *. 

131. Plato, by his philosophical education and the 
superiority of his natural talents, was placed on an emi- 
nence which gave him a commanding view of the systems 
of his contemporaries, without allowing him to be in- 
volved in their prejudices ^ He always considered theo- 
retical and practical philosophy as forming essential parts 
of the same Whole : and conceived that it was only by 
means of true philosophy that human nature could attain 
its proper perfection '". 

13^. His critical acquaintance with preceding systems, 
and his own advantages, enabled Plato to form more 
adequate notions of the proper end, extent, and cha- 
racter of philosophy °. Under this term he compre- 
hended a knowledge of the Universal, the Necessary, the 
Absolute ; as well as of the relations and essential pro- 
perties of objects °: Philosophy he defined to be Science, 
properly so called. The source of knowledge he pro- 
nounced to be notP the evidence of our senses, which 

^ PtAT. Epist. II, VII, XIII. ; Phaedr. p. 388. ; Alcib. Pr. ; de Rep. 
IV. Arist. Phys. IV, 2 ; De Gener. et Corrupt. II, 3. Simplic. in Arist. 
libr. de Anima, I, p. 76. Suidas. 

* This is denied by others. 

We must not omit to notice, as sources of information respecting Plato, the 
passages in Aristotle, where that philosopher criticises the system of his master. 
See Fr. a. Trendelenburg, Platonis de Ideis et Numeris Doctrina ex 
Aristotele illustrata, Lips. 1826, 8vo. 

" Sophista, vol. II, p. 252, 265. Cratyl., p. 345, 286. 

m De Rep. VI, p. 76, 77 ; Ep. VII. 

n On the end of the philosophy of Plato, see, besides the work of Eberhard 
quoted in the preceding section : 

Aug. ^NIagn. Kraft, De Notione Philosophiae in Platonis tpaoraig, Lips. 
1786, 4to. 

GoTTLOB Ern. Schulze, De summo secundum Platonem Philosophiae 
fine, Helmst. 1789, 4to. 

o Theajtet., p. 141 ; De Republ. VI, p. 69; V, p. 62 ; De Leg. Ill, p. 131. 

P Jo. Fr. Dammann, Diss. I et II de Human^ sentiendi et cogitanda fa- 
cultatis Natur^ ex Mente Platonis. Helmst. 1792, 4to. 

112 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

are occupied with coni'ingent matter, nor yet the under- 
standing,* but Reason ''j whose object is that which is 
Invariable, and Absolute (to oWw? %v '^). He held the doc- 
trine of the existence in the soul of certain innate ideas 
(vo-^l^ara) which form the basis of our conceptions, and 
the elements of our practical resolutions. To these t'Sea*, 
as he termed them (the eternal tza^aUtjiAccra,, types or 
models of all things, and the »/>%«/, or principles, of 
our knowledge), we refer the infinite variety of indi- 
vidual objects presented to us (to aireipov, and ra, itoXXd^). 
Hence it follows that all these details of knowledge are 
not the results of experience, but only developed by 
it. The soul recollects the Ideas in proportion as it 
becomes acquainted with their copies (oy-oiafAccra), with 
which the world is filled : the process being that of 
recalling to mind the circumstances of a state of pre- 
existence*. Inasmuch as the objects thus presented to 
the mind correspond in part with its Ideas, they must 

* [The Kantists (of whom Tennemann is one), make a broad distinction 
between the Understanding and Reason. Trans-I 

q Phffido, p. 225. 

•• Phzedr., p. 247. 

8 Besides the general treatises above, see, on the Ideas of Plato, the follow- 
ing works : 

SciPiONis Agnelli Disceptationis de Ideis Platouis, Venet. 1615, 4to. 

Car. Joach. Sibeth, Diss. (Resp. J. Chr. Fersen) de Ideis Platonicis, 
Rostoch. 1720, 4to. 

Jac. Bruckeri Diss, de Convenienti^ Numerorum Pythagoricorum cum 
Ideis Platonis ; Miscellan. Hist. Philos., p. 56. 

Glob. Ern. Schulze, Diss. Philosophico-Historica de Ideis Platonis, Fiteft. 
1786, 4to. 

t Fr. V. L. Plessing, Dissertation on the Ideas of Plato, as representing 
at once Immaterial Essences and the Conceptions of the Understanding, in the 
Collection of CcEsar, vol. Ill, p. 110. 

Theoph. Fahse, Diss, de Ideis Platonis, Lips. 1795, 4to. 

De Schanz (Praes. Matth. Fremling), De Ideis Platonicis, Lund. 1795, 

See work of Trendelenburgii, mentioned above, § 125. 

H. Richteri de Ideis Platonis libellus, Lips. 1827, 8vo. 

J. Andr. Buttstedt, Progr. de Platonicorum Reminiscentia, Erlang. 
1761, 4to. 

» Phaedo, p. 74, 75 ; Phaedr., p. 249. 

132—134.] PLATO. 113 

have some principle in common; that principle is the 
Divinity, who has formed these external objects after the 
model of the Ideas ". Such are the fundamental doctrines 
of the philosophy of Plato ; in accordance with which he 
placed the principles of identity and contradiction among 
the highest laws of philosophy "" ; and drew a distinction 
between Empirical knowledge and Rational; the one 
being derived from the Intellectual, the other from the 
External world, [KoaiAoq aWOriroi; and vo^to?): making the 
latter the only true object of philosophy. 

The system of Plato is an instance of Rationalism, 

133. The division of philosophy into Logic (Dialectics), 
Metaphysics (Physiology or Physics), and Morals (the 
Political science), has been principally brought about by 
Plato y, who clearly laid down the chief attributes of 
each of these sciences, and their mutual dependencies, 
and distinguished also between the analytical and syn- 
thetical methods. Philosophy therefore is under great 
obligations to him, quoad for mam. She is no less in- 
debted to him for the lights he has thrown upon the above 
parts considered separately; though he did not profess 
to deliver a system of each, but continually excited the 
attention of others, in order to further discoveries. 

134. Plato considered the soul to be a self-acting 
energy {av-vh kavih kivqvv) ^ : and viewed as combined with 
the body, he distinguished in it two parts, the rational 
{Koyia-TiKoyf vovq) ; and the irrational or animal (aXoyto-Ti/cov 
or cTTidy/AijTiKov) : mutually connected by a sort of middle 
term (Si^/ao?, or to 0t;/>ioe*Se? ^.) The animal part has its 
origin in the imprisonment of the soul in the body''; 
the intellectual still retains a consciousness of the Ideas : 

" De Rep. VI, p. 116—124 ; Tim., p. 348. 

^ Phsdr., p. 226, 230; De Rep. VI, 122, VII, 133 ; De Leg. Ill, p. 
y Sextus, Adv. Math. VII, 16. 
' De Leg. X, p. 88, sqq. 
* De Rep. IV, 349. ed. Stkph. 
•> Phaedo. 



114 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

whereby it is capable of returning to the happy con- 
dition of Spirits. In Plato we discover also a more 
complete discrimination of the faculties of knowledge, 
sensation, and volition"^; with admirable remarks on their 
operations, and on the different species of perception, 
of sensation, of motives determining the will ; as well as 
the relations between Thought and Speech. (See for 
the last, Theaetet. ed. Steph. p. 189, E sqq. Phileb. p. 
38, D.) 

135. Plato has rendered no less service to philo- 
sophy by affording it the first sketch of the laws of 
thought, the rules of propositions, of conclusions, and 
proofs, and of the analytic method : the distinction drawn 
between the Universal (/coivov), and Substance (ova to) ; and 
the Particular and the Accidental: he diligently investi- 
gated the characteristics of Truth, and detected the signs 
of the phenomenon, or apparent Truth ^ : to him we owe 
the first attempt at the construction of a philosophical 
Language ^ : the first development of an abstract idea of 
knowledge and science ^ : the first logical statement of the 
properties of Matter, Form, Substance, Accident, Cause 
and Effect, of Natural and Independent Causes of Re- 
ality (to ov), and of Apparent Reality (<^a*K5/xevov) ; a more 
adequate idea of the Divinity, as a being eminently good ; 
with a more accurate induction of the Divine Attributes S; 
especially the moral ones; accompanied by remarks on 

c DeKep. IV, p. 367. 

On the doctrine of Plato as respecting the soul, consult the following works : 

+ Chph.Meiners, Dissertation on the Nature of the Soul, a Platonic Alle- 
gory (after the Phaedrus) ; in the first vol. of his INIiscellany, p. 120, sqq. 

t C. L. Reinhold, Dissertation on the Rational Physiology of Plato : in the 
first vol. of his Letters on the Philosophy of Kant, Letter XL 

Em. Gf. Lilie, Platonis Sententia de Natur^ Animi, Getting. 1790, 8vo. 

^ For the Logic of Plato, consult t J. J. Engel, Essay on a Method of Ex- 
tracting from the Dialogues of Plato his Doctrines respecting the Understand- 
ing, Berl. 1780, Bvo. 

« In the Cratylus. 

^ The degrees of the latter are, So^a — havoia — sTTKTTrjfiT]. 

'-' De Rep. II, p. 250 ; VII, 133. 

135.] PLATO. 115 

the popular religion, and an essay towards a demonstra- 
tion of the existence of God by reasonings drawn from 
Cosmology ^. He represented the Divinity as the author 
of the world, inasmuch as he introduced into rude 
matter (t'x»j — to aiA.op(f)ov), order and harmony, by moulding 
it after the Ideas, and conferring (together with a rotatory 
motion), an harmonious body, governed as in the case 
of individual animals, by a rational spirit. He also de- 
scribed the Divinity (in respect of his providence), as the 
author and executor, or guardian of the laws of Morals ; 
and to him we owe the first speculative essay on Divine 
Justice; according to his views, the existence of evil not 
being attributable to the Deity, inasmuch as it results from 
matter, and he having ordered all things in such a way 
as to exclude as much as possible its existence '' : lastly, 
to him we owe the first formal development of the doc- 

e De Leg. X, p. 68, XII, p. 229. Cf. X, p. 82, sqq. j Phileb. p. 244; Epi- 
nomis, p. 254, sqq. 

»> De Rep. IV, 10 ; Tim., p. 505, sqq. 

On the Cosmogony and Theology of Plato, consult, besides the ancients 
(e.g. Proclus), the commentaries on, and translations of, the Timseus : t L. 
HoBSTEL, The Timaeus of Plato, the doctrine and the end of this work, with 
Remarks and Illustrations, Brunswick, 1795, 8vo ; and t The Timaaus of 
Plato, a Primitive and Veracious Monument of true Physical Knowledge, 
translated, with illustrations, by K.J. Windischmann, Hademar, 1804. 

Mars. Ficini Theologia Platonica, Florent. 1482, fol. 

Es. PuFENDORFii Diss. de Theologia. Platonis, Lips. 1653, 4to. 

J. Fried. Wucherer, Diss. II. de Defectibus Theologian Platonis, Jen. 
1706, 4to. 

Ogilvie, The Theology of Plato compared with the Principles of Oriental 
and Grecian Philosophers, Loud. 1793, 8vo. 

t Diet. Tiedemann, On the Ideas of Plato respecting the Divinity, in the 
Mem. of the Antiq. Soc. of Cassel, torn. 1. (Fr.). Cf. Spirit of Speculative 
Philosophy, tom. II, p. 114, sqq. 

t W. Gl. Tennemann, On the Divine Intelligence: in the Memora- 
BiLiEN of Paulus, fasc. I, p. 2. 

Balth. Stolberg, De \6yy et v<p Platonis, Viteh. 1676, 4to. 

J. Ge. Arn., Comnientatio de Doctrine Platonis de Deo a Chris- 
tianis et recentioribus Platonicis varie explicata et corrupta, Marb. 1788, 8vo. 

C. Fried. Stavdlin, Progr. de Phil. Platonicaj cum Doctrink religionis 
JudaVca et Christiana cognatione, Cott. 1819, 4to. (See Gott. Gel. Anz., 
No. XCV. 1819). 

Lud, Horstel, Platonis dortrina de Deo e Dialogis ejus, etc. Lips. 1814, 


116 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

trine of the spirituality of the soul, and the first attempt 
towards demonstrating its immortality \ 

136. The interesting research which Plato carried so 
far, respecting the Supreme good*", belongs to the subject 
of Morals. Virtue he defined to be the imitation of 
God, or the effort of man to attain to a resemblance to 
his original (ofXQiaa-iq BeZ Kara, TO dvvarov ^) ; or in other terms 
a unison and harmony of all our principles and actions 
according to reason '^, whence results the highest degree 
of happiness. Virtue is one, but compounded of four 

On the Matter and Formation of the World, and the Soul of the 
Universe, according to Plato, 

DiETR. TiEDEMANN, De Materia quid visum sit Platoni ; Nov. Biblioth, 
Philos. et Crit., vol. I, fascic. 1. Gdtt. 1782. 

t Chph. Meiners, Considerations on the Greeks, the age of Plato, the Ti- 
maeus of that Philosopher, and his Hypothesis of a Soul of the World, in vol. I. 
of his Vermischte Schriften. 

Aug. Boeckh, On the Formation of the Soul of the World, according to 
the Timaeus of Plato : in vol. III. of the Studien, published by Daub and 
Creuzer. (Germ.) 

Aug. Boeckh, Progr. de Platonic^ Corporis Mundani fabrica conflati ex 
Elementis Geometrica ratione concinnatis, Heidelb. 1809, 4to ; and De Pla- 
tonico Systeraate Caelestium Globorum et de Ver^ indole Astronomiae Philo- 
laicae, Ibid. 1810, 4to. 

* Cf. J. Chph. Gottleberi Animadvers. ad Platonis Phaedonem et Alcibia- 
dem II. Adjuncti sunt excursus in quaestiones Socraticas de Animi Immor- 
talitate. Lips. 1771, 8vo ; t Fried. Aug. Wolf, On the Phaedo, Berl. 1814, 
4to ; and the following : 

Sam. Weickmanni Diss, de Platonic^, Animorum Immortalitate, Viteb. 
1740, 4to. 

Chr. Ern. de Windheim, Examen Argumentorum Platonis pro Immor- 
talitate Animae Humanae, Gott. 1749, 8vo. 

Moses Mendelsohn's Phaedo, Berl. 1767, 8vo. 

t W. G. Tennemann, Doctrines and Opinions of the Socratic School re- 
specting the Soul's Immortality, Jena, 1791, 8vo. 

Gust, Frid. Wiggers, Examen Argumentorum Platonis pro Immortalitate 
Animi Humani, Rost. 1803, 4to. 

Franc. Pettavel, De Argumentis, quibus apud Platonem Animorum Im- 
mortalitas Defenditur. Disp. Acad., Berol. 1815, 4to. 

t The Phaedo of Plato Explained and Examined, more especially inasmuch 
as it treats of the Immortality of the Soul j by Kuhnhardt, Lubeck, 1791, 8vo. 

■* Especially in the Theaetetus, the Philaebus, the Meno, and the Republic. 

' Tim., p. 338, vol. IX ; Theaetet. p. 176. 

>" DeRep. IX, p. 48. 

136.] PLATO. 117 

elements : Wisdom (o-of /« — (ppovvjo-iq ) ; Courage, or Con- 
stancy (av^p€ia) ; Temperance (o-axppoa-vv/j) ; and Justice (S<- 
Kaioa-vvf] ") : which are otherwise termed the four cardinal 
virtues. Such virtues he describes as arising out of an 
Independence of, and Superiority to, the influence of the 
senses. In his practical philosophy Plato blended a rigid 
principle of moral obligation with a spirit of gentleness 
and humanity; and education he described as a liberal 
cultivation and moral discipline of the mind**. Politics 
he defined to be the application, on a great scale, of the 
laws of Morality ; (a society being composed of indi- 
viduals and therefore under similar obligations) ; and its 
end to be liberty and concord. In giving a sketch of his 
Republic, as governed according to reason, Plato had 
particularly an eye to the character and the political dif- 
ficulties of the Greeks p ; connecting at the same time, the 
discussion of this subject with his metaphysical opinions 
respecting the soul''. Beauty he considered to be the 
sensible representation of moral and physical perfection "^ : 
consequently it is one with Truth and Goodness, and 

n De Rep. IV, 443, sqq. 

o De Rep. Ill, p. 310 ; De Leg. I, p. 46, sqq., II, 59. 

P De Rep. 

<i Consult the following works on the philosophy of Plato, as bearing upon 
practical principles : 

Chrys. Javelli Dispositio INIoralis Philosophiae Platonicae, Ven, 1536, 4to. 
Et, Dispositio Philosophiae Civilis ad Mentem Platonis, Venet. 1536, 4to. 

Magn. Dan. Omkisu Ethica Platonica, Altdorf. 1696, 8vo. 

Fr. Aug. Lud. Adolph. Ghotefend, Commentatio in qu^ Doctrina Pla- 
tonis Ethica cum Christiana Comparatur, etc., Gotting. 1720, 4to. 

Jon. Sleidani Surama Doctrinae Platonis de Republic^ et de Legibus, Ar- 
gentor, 1548, Bvo. 

J. J, Leibnitii Respublica Platonis, Leips. 1776, 4to. 

J. Zentgravii Specimen Doctrinae Juris Naturae secundum Disciplinam 
Platonicam, Argentor. 1679, 4to. 

Car. Moroexsterx, De Platonis Republ. Commentt. III., Hal. 1794, Bvo. 

J. Lud. Guil. de Geer, Diatribe in Politices Platonicae Principia, Ultra). 
1810, 8vo. 

t Fii. KoppEN, Polity, according to the Principles of Plato, Leips. 1818, 

G. Pinzger De iis, quae Aristoteles in Platonis Politic reprehendit, Leips. 
1822, 8vo. 

•■ Do Leg. 11, p. 62, sqq., p. 89, sqq.; Sympos. Phaedr. Ilippias. Maj. 

118 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

inspires love (e^w?) ; which leads to virtue ^ (Platonic | 

137. Plato borrowed considerably from other philoso- 
phers, particularly the Pythagoreans ; who suggested to 
him the leading idea that all the variety of existing ob- 
jects are compounded of a substance and a superinduced 
form : but what he borrowed his own genius stamped 
with a character of originality, and blended the dis- 
cordant systems of older philosophy in an harmonious 
whole ; the striking advantages of which are the Unity it i 
presents in its system of /c/^«* ; the combination in one j 
and the same interest of all our motives of action, specu- , 
lative or practical ; the strictness of the union which he 
maintains between Virtue, Truth, and Beauty : the infi- 
nite variety of new ideas of which the germes are to i 
be found in his system; and finally, for the love of I 
science which his meditations inspire. On the other i 
hand his system is not without its weak side : he did not 
sufficiently distinguish between ideas originating in the 
mind itself and those which are acquired by experience ; 
and his account of the origin of the Ueai, borders on 
Mysticism. There are faults also in his manner: the 
union of much imagination with reasoning, of a poetic 
with a philosophic spirit, and the total absence of any 
systematic form, have rendered his doctrine difficult to 
be apprehended; gave occasion for abundance of mis- 
interpretations ; and ultimately had great influence over 
the fortunes of Platonism. 

13S. Plato drew around him a crowd of disciples and 
admirers ; many of them celebrated statesmen, and even 
several females*; among others Axiothea of Phlius, and 
Lasthenia of Mantinea. As the doctrines he had blended 
came subsequently to be redivided ; and as succeeding 
ages produced a succession of different prevailing spirits 
of philosophy, his school was subdivided into several 

» Sympos. Phaedr,, p. 301 ; Euthyphr., p. 20. 
' OioG. Laekt. Ml, 46. 

137, 138.] ARISTOTLE. 119 

sects ; and thus gave birth to various Academies. To the 
Jirst of these belonged Speusippus of Athens (died 339 
B. C), the nephew and successor of Plato " ; and his suc- 
cessor Xenocrates of Chalcedon (died 314 B. C.)''; who 
in his manner of expressing himself resembled Pytha- 
goras : for instance, in defining the soul to be a self- 
7iwving number. After him Polemo of Athens ^ presided 
at the Academy ; who considered the summum bonum to 
consist in a life regulated according to nature ^ ; and sub- 
sequently Crates of Athens *. Finally Crantor of Soli, 
the friend and disciple of Xenocrates and Polemo, main- 
tained the original system of the founder of the school, 
with the exception of a small number of alterations, ap- 
plied principally to the popular doctrines of practical 
morality ^ The new Academy (see below § 166, sqq.) 
directed its speculations to prove the uncertainty of hu- 
man judgment: while the Neo-Platonists founded a 
school of enthusiasts who laid claim to a high degree of 


II. Aristotle, 

Authorities : The works of Aristotle, and his numerous com- 
mentators, whose observations must be admitted with caution; 
(among others, Ammonius, Alexander Aphrodisiensis, Simpli- 
cius, and Themistius) ; Cicero, Plutarch, Sextus Empiricus, Diog. 
Laert. lib. V., Suidas. 

Modern Works on the Life and Philosophy of Aristotle in general. 

Franc. Patricii Discussionum Peripateticarum, torn. IV, 
quibus Aristotelicae Philosophise Universae Historia atque Dogmata 

" Diog. Laert. IV, 2, sqq. For some of his opinions, see Akist. Met. 
VII, 2 ; XII, 7 ; Eth. Nic. I, 4. Sext. Adv. Math. VII, 145. 

" Diog. Laert. IV, 6, sqq. Sext. Adv. Math. VII, 16, etc. 

y In 314 B.C. 

^ Diog. Laert. IV, 16, sqq. Cic. De Fin. IV, 6. 

» About 313 B.C. 

^ Heracl'ules of Pontiis the author of some treatises of which we possess cer- 
tain fragments (ed. Geo. D. Koeler, Hal. 1804, 8vo. Cf. Diog. Laert. 
V, 86, sqq. Cic. Tusc. V, 3; De Div. I, 23, and Suidas, s.h. v.), was 
the hearer both of Plato and Aristotle; on which account he has by some been 
called a Peripatetic. 

120 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

cum veterum placitis coUata eleganter et erudite declarantur, 
Basil. 1581, fol. 

Melch. Weinrichii Oratio Apologetica pro Aristotelis Per- 
sona adversus Criminationes Patricii, Lips. 1614, 4to. 

Herm. Conringii Aristotelis Laudatio ; Orationes duae, 
Helmst. 1633, 4to. 

F. V. L. Plessing, On Aristotle, in Ccesar^s DenkwurdigJceiten 
aus der Philos., Welt. torn. III. 

J. GoTTL. Buhle, Vita Aristotelis per Annos Digesta : in the 
first vol. of his edition of the Works of Aristotle. 

Mich. Piccarti Isagoge in Lectionem Aristotelis cum Epistola 
Conringiana et Praemissa Dissertatione de Natura, Origine, et Pro- 
gressu Philos. Aristotelicae ; ed. J. Conr. Durrius, Altd. 1667, 

Petr. Joh. Nunnesii, Barth. Jos. Paschasii, et Jo. Bapt. 
MoNTORii Oratt. tres. de Aristotelis Doctrina, Franco/. 1591, Svo. 

Mich. Piccarti Hypotyposis Philos. Aristotelicae, Norimb. 
1504, Svo. 

J. Crassotii Institutiones in Universam Arist. Philosophiam, 
Par. 1619, 4to. 

J. CoNR. DuRRii Hypotyposis totius Philos. Aristotelicae, 
Altd. 1660, 4to. 

rf* "T^ 'iv 

Petri Rami Animadversiones Aristotelicae XX libris compre- 
hensae, Par. 1558, 8vo. ; and his other works quoted farther on. 

Petri Gassendi Exercitationes Paradoxicae Adversus Aris- 
totel., etc. Grat'ianoji. 1624, 8vo. ; and in his Works, Liigd. 

Petri Valeriani Philosophia contra Aristotelem, DantisCy 
1653, 4to. 

On the other hand see the Works written in Defence of Aris- 
totle, by Mart. Dorpius, P. Gallandius, J. Broscius, J. Guil- 
leminat, H. Stabius, Jos. de Munnana against Valla, Ra- 
mus, and others. 

Pet. Villemandy, Manuductio ad Philosophiae Aristoteleae 
Epicurae et Cartesianae parallelismum, A^nst. 1683, 8vo. 

Ge. Paul. Roetenbeccii Disp. de Principio Aristotelico et 
Cartesiano, Altd. 1685, 4to. 

Sam. Mascovii Exerc. Acad, uter in Scrutinio Veritatis Rec- 
tius dubitet Aristoteles an Cartesius, Regiom. 1704, 4to. 

Harris (James) of Salisbury, Works (passim), published by 
his son (Lord Malmsbury), Lond. 1801, 2 vols. 4to. Again 1805, 

Cf. besides, the articles Aristoteles, Aristotelische Philosophic 
(by Buhle), in the great Encyclop. published by Ersch, etc. ; 
part V. 

139.] ARISTOTLE. /'l2t " 

139. Aristotle was born at Stagira, SSI B. d Ol. "^ ^^^^ ^ 
XCIX. He inherited from his father Nicomachus, who - , - ■* 

had been the physician and friend of Amyntas king o" 
Macedon, a predilection for natural philosophy. From 
368 B. C. he continued, for twenty years, the disciple 
of Plato, improving under that great master his admirable 
talents for analysis ; though, subsequently, he separated 
from him. In 343 he became the preceptor of Alex- 
ander, who assisted his scientific pursuits by sending 
to him collections of objects of natural history, and fur- 
nishing him wdth sums of money for the purchase of 
books'^. He founded in 331 a new school in the walks 
of the Lycaeum; whence the name of Peripatetics'^; 
and died in o22^ at Chalcis in Euboea; probably by 
poison which he had taken, on being obliged to leave 
Athens, under the suspicion of atheism. Aristotle has 
bequeathed to us excellent works on all the sciences 
known to the Greeks, and particularly on Moral philoso- 
phy. These treatises are to be divided into exoteric and 
esoteric, or acroamatic ^ The peculiar fortunes to which 
his works have been exposed^, have rendered still more 
difficult the examination and exposition of his doctrines, 
already sufficiently obscure, by their brevity and the pe- 
culiarity of the language he employed ^. 

«= Plin. Hist. Nat. VIII, 16. 

•' DioG. Laert. V, 2. Cic. Acad. Quaest. I, 4. A. Gell. N. A. XX, 5. 

<= 01. CXIV.— CXIII. 

^ J. GoTTHL. BuHLE, Commcntatio de Librorum Aristotelis distributione 
in Exotericos et Acroamaticos, Gott. 1788, Bvo.; and in the first vol. of his 
edition of Arist. 

Franc. Nic. Titze, De Aristotelis Openim serie et distinctione liber. Lips. 
1826, 8vo. 

s See Strab. Geo. lib. IX, cIPlut. in Vit. Syllae, c.26. Heyne, Opusc. 
Acad., vol. I, p. 126, et Schneider, Epimetrum de Fatis Libror. Aristoteli- 
corum, in his edition of Arist. Hist, of Anim. Lip5. 1811, p. 76. See also Bran- 
Dis in the Rhein. IMuseum, I. Jaiirg, Nos. Ill and IV, Bonri, 1827. 

^ Petr. Joh. NuNNEsirs, De Causis Obscuritatis Aristotelis earumque 
remediis, una cum Vitk Aristotelis a Joii. Philopono descripta, etc. Lugd. 
Bat. 1621. 

t FiJLLEBORN (Collect, fasc. IX.), On the Manner and Philosophy of 

122 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

140. Aristotle possessed in a high degree the talents 
of discrimination and analysis, added to the most astonish- 
ing knowledge of books, and the works of nature. To the 
latter, more especially, he had devoted himself. He re- 
jected the doctrine of ideas*; maintaining that all our 
impressions and thoughts, and even the highest efforts of 
the understanding, are the fruit of experience ^ ; that the 
world is eternal, even in its fonn, and not the work of a 
creative providence. In the theory of composition he 
drew a distinction between the matter, which he referred 
to philosophy, and the form^ which he derived from 
poetry. Instead of following his master in his way of 
reasoning from the universal to the particular, he always 
takes the opposite course, and infers the first from the 
latter. His writings contain valuable remarks on the 
systems of his predecessors ; his own being that of Em- 
piricism, modified, in a slight degree, by the Rationalism 
of Plato'. 

141. Philosophy, according to Aristotle, is science 
arising out of the love of knowledge ; or knowledge ac- 
cording to certain principles"". There are two sorts of 
knowledge,, mediate and immediate °. In order to make 
the first possible, the existence of the second is necessary. 
We become sensible immediately and by experience of 
particulars (ra KaB' eKacrra,) : mediately, but still by experi- 
ence, we acquire the universal (ra KaB" oXov), and we thus 

* Metaph. I, 7 ; XII, 9. 

^ Analyt. Prior. I, 30. 

' Here may be noticed the comparisons drawn between the two philosophers, 
by George of Trebizond, and G. Gemisthus Pletho. 

And also: Paganinus Gaudentius, De Dogmatum Aristotelis cum Phil. 
Platonis comparatione, Florent. 1539, 4to. 

Jac. Mazonius, De Comparatione Aristot. cum Platone, Venet. 1547, fol. 

Jac. Carpentarii Platonis cum Arist. in Universa Philosophia compa- 
ratio. Par. 1573, 4to. 

An DR. Bachmann, Aristoteles cum Platone comparatus, Nordh. 1629, 4to. 

Rapin, Aristotle and Plato compared, Paris, 1671, 8vo. (French). 

Chr. Herrmann Weisse, De Platonis et Aristotelis in constituendis prin- 
cipiis differentia, Commentat. Lips. 18*28, Bvo. 

"» Phys. II, 3 ; Met. I, 2. " Anal. Post. I, 2 ; II, c. 19. 




attain to that which is real and necessary , and is capa- 
ble of being expressed in definitions and axioms. From 
immediate knowledge we deduce mediate, by means of 
arguments, the theory of which belongs to logic; the object 
of which is to show how we can ascertain by reasoning the 
certainty or the probability of things. Logic therefore is 
the instrument (organum) of all science or philosophy, 
but only quoad for mam; (a distinction which was after- 
wards very often forgotten) ; for it is experience which 
must supply the matter to be worked upon, and wrought 
into general principles °. The first principle is that of 
contradiction ; but, though productive of truth, it is the 
test and not the constituent element of truth p. By his 
works comprehended under the title of Organum, Ari- 
stotle has, next to Plato, rendered the greatest service to 
logic '^; as the science which would establish the formal 
part of reasoning, and elucidate its theory : he there con- 
siders propositions and ideas as the elements of reason- 
ing "■, with admirable remarks on language interspersed; 
and he ought not to be made responsible for the abuse, 
which afterwards prevailed, of this art, when it came to 
be considered as capable of supplying not only ihefor-m 
but the matter of argumentation. 

142. Aristotle, above every other philosopher, enlarged 
the limits of philosophy. He comprised therein all the 
sciences (rational, empirical, or mixed), with the single 
exception of history : and appears to have divided it as a 
whole into Logic, Physics, and Ethics ; or into speculative 

« Anal. Post. I, 18. 

P Anal. Post. Metaph. I, 1 ; IV, 3 ; De Anim^, III, 5, 6. 

1 Mich. Pselli Synopsis Logicae Aristotelis Gr. et Lat. ed. El. Ehinger, 
Aug. Vind. 1597, 8vo. 

NicEPH. Blemmyd.e, Epitome Logicae Doctrince Aristotelis Gr. et Lat. ed. 
Jo. AVegelin, ibid. 1605, fol. 

Geo. Aneponymi Compendium Philosophiae seu Organi Aristotelis Gr. et 
Lat. ed. Jo. Wegelin, ibid. 1600, Bvo. 

Jac. Cahpentarii Descriptio Universae Artis disserendi ex Arist. Organo 
coUecta et in III. libros distincta, Par. 1654, 4to. 

Car. Weinholtz, De Finibus atque pretio Logicae Aristotelis, Host. 1824. 

' Sophist. Elench. 34, fin. 

124 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

and practicaP. Speculative -phWosoiphy contemi^\3ites the 
real order of things ; which is not dependent on our will : 
practical, the accidental and voluntary ; real substances 
are either invariable {aKivrira), or variable (/c/y>jTa). The 
latter either perishable {<p9aprci), or imperishable. Sublu- 
nary things are variable and perishable : the heavens are 
imperishable, but variable: the Deity alone is imperish- 
able and invariable. Consequently, speculative philoso- 
phy becomes, in proportion as it advances in abstraction, 
either Physics, or Mathematics, or what came to be after- 
wards called Metaphysics : relatively to its objects, it is 
divided into Physics, Cosmology, Psychology, and The- 
ology. Practical philosophy comprehends Ethics, Politics, 
and Economy ^ These subdivisions are not broadly 
traced, on defined principles, yet it is to Aristotle that 
we are indebted for the first hint of an encyclopaedic 
system of the sciences ; for having subjected to a rigorous 
examination the notions and principles of his predeces- 
sors; for having himself laboured to establish others by 
induction and reflection : and we are called upon to ad- 
mire the multitude of hints, inquiries, and observations, 
which are dispersed up and down his works, without 
forming integral parts of his system, 


Jac. Carpentarii Descriptio Universae Naturae ex Aristotele ; 
pars I et II. Par. 1562, 4to. 

Pet. Rami Scholarum Physicanim, libri VIII. Par. 1565, 

Sebastiani Bassonis Philosophise Naturalis Adversus Aris- 
totelem libri XII, Par. 1621, 8vo. 

Speculative philosophy. 1st. Physics or Natural Phi- 
losophy. Nature {(pva-n;), is the stwi of all existing 
things, whose existence can be known only by means of 
perception and experience founded thereon. Ta vovjra, 

« DioG. Laert. V, 28. 

Ge. Paul. Roetenbeck, Diss. Aristotelicae Philosophice divisionem sub 
exanien vocans, Altd. 1705, 4to. 

t Metaph. T, 2 ; VI, 1 ; XI, 3 ; Ethic. X, 9 ; (Econ. I, 1. 

143.] ARISTOTLE. 125 

the objects of our mental conception, do not exist y^t^r se"^. 
Nature is also the internal principle of change in objects, 
and this constitutes a distinction between her works and 
those of art. The knowledge of nature is properly the 
knowledge of the laws of bodies, so far as they are 
in movement. In this science are comprised the fol- 
lowing subjects of discussion : Nature, Cause, Accident, 
End, Change (and its subdivisions), Infinitude, Space, 
and Time : and moreover a general theory of movement. 
Nature, as a principle of change, does nothing without an 
end or object; which end is the Form''. When we 
speak of chance (to a^JTo/xarov), we alw^ays in fact mean real 
causes, unknown to ourselves. All change necessarily 
presupposes a subject-matter (^Tro/ceZ/xevov, CXij) : and a form 
{^lloq). A change {Kivtia-iq, fAeraPoX-^), is the realization of 
that which is possible (evTcXe^e/a) ^, so far as it is possible, 

y] rov Syva/xe* ovroq eVreXe^e/a y roiovrov ^. As SOOn aS the Possi- 
ble {hvvdfjt.€i Qv) assumes a certain form and is developed 
after a particular manner, every other condition and state 
is excluded (o-Tcp^o-i^). Matter, Form, and Privation, are 
therefore the three principles, or elements of existence 
and of change. Change is possible in respect of Sub- 
tance, Quantity, Quality, and Place. This last condi- 
tion, and generally that of space and time, serve as a 
foundation for the others ». Place (totto?), is the first im- 
moveable limit of that which surrounds us : (to rov ivepU- 

XOVTO(; iteoai; Sckiv/jtov TrpSrov) ^ ; there is nO vaCUUm (/cej'oy). 

Time is the measure or numeration (api6iA0(;), of movement, 
with reference to priority and posteriority (api6[xo<; Ktvria-euq 
Kara, to irpwrov Kal va-reoov ^. Infinitude is that which continually 

" Metaph. Ill, 2—4 ; V, 5. 

'' Phys. II, 4—6, 8, sqq. 

y Cf. SviDAs, sub htic V. Cf. also Father Ancillox, Critical and Phi- 
losophical Researches respecting the Entelechia of Aristotle, in the Mem. of 
the Royal Acad, of Prussia (Class of Phil.), for the years 1804 — 11, Bert. 
1816, p. 1. sqq. (Fr.). 

* Phys. Ill, 1; VIII, 1. 

a Ibid. Ill, 1 ; VII, 7; VIII, 7. 

b Ibid. IV, 4, sqq. 

<= Ibid. IV, 11. 

120 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

suggests the idea of still greater extent, in addition to 
that already ascertained. In reality there is no being 
which can be called Infinite ; only in our conception. 
Time is infinite, Body and Space are finite, although 
susceptible of infinite division '^. Motion in general, like 
time, has neither beginning nor end. Nevertheless it 
must be supposed to have a first cause of movement, itself 
unmoved (to irpSrov kivoZv aKiv^rov). This source of move- 
ment must be eternal and invariable ; its essence is eter- 
nal and pure, activity and life : such a cause is the 
Divinity. The first thing put in motion from eternity 
was the Heavens ^. 

144. Cosmology. The world (ko(7{ao^, ovpavot;), is the sum 
total of all things subject to change. Beyond its limits 
is neither change, nor time, nor space. Itself is eternal 
and immoveable ^ The First Being, who is the author of 
all movement, is not himself a part of the world. The 
latter is a whole, bounded by the heavens, without be- 
ginning or end, and of a spherical form. The earth is 
the central point, the heavens the circumference.- Hence 
arise three simple movements ; towards the centre (the 
gravitation of bodies towards the earth) ; from the centre 
to the circumference (light bodies, for instance, fire) ; and 
finally about that centre (the circumambient bodies, the 
heavens, etc.). The circular motion is the most perfect, 
and the upper region of the heavens in which it prevails^ 
is perfect and divine; indestructible, not subject to suffer- 
ing or change ; and consequently of a nobler nature than 
sublunary parts. The elementary matter of the constel- 
lations is the principle of all life, action, and thought in 
the inferior region ; and all things here are subject to its 
influence and direction. The constellations are animated 
beings (e/>t.x^i;%a) ; their principle of motion is within them- 
selvesj although they revolve in the circle to which they 

•^ Phys. Ill, 1 — 7; VI, 1—9. 

e Ibid. YUI, 5, sqq. ; l)e Ccelo, II, 3, sqq. 

' DeCoelo. I, 1'2. 

144, 145.] ARISTOTLE. 127 

are attached. In general, this part of Aristotle's system 
is obscure and inconsistent, and appears to waver between 
two opposite doctrines^. 

145. Pliysiology is indebted to Aristotle for its first 
cultivation; for an essay, imperfect indeed, but built upon 
experiment associated with theory. The soul he pro- 
nounced to be exclusively the active principle of Life ; 
the primitive form of every body capable of life, i. e. organ- 
ized; {4^^X^'] eVriv ivTeXex^ia, vj ■npux'/i <Toofxa.TO<; (pva-iKov i^covjv e^ovTOij 

St/j/a/xej •'). The soul is distinct from the body : but con- 
sidered as its form {eiZot; or hn'Kexela), it is inseparable 
therefrom '. The faculties (Svi/a/tAe*?), of the soul are : Pro- 
duction, and Nutrition •", Sensation', Thought (to 8*avo- 
vjTiKov), and Will or Impulse. Notwithstanding, Aristotle 
maintains the unity of these faculties in one soul, and re- 
jects the notion of a plurality of souls. His remarks on 
the characteristics of our means of knowledge, that is the 
senses, are deserving of particular attention '" ; as well as 
his observations on the Common Sense, (Koivri ata-O-qa-iq) ; and 
on Consciousness (the existence of which he was the first 
distinctly to recognise ") ; on Imagination (fpavraa-ia,)^ Me- 
mory {f^vfjixfj °) ; and Recollection (ava/xvTjo-i?.) Perception 
is the faculty which conveys to us the forms of objects : 
Thought is the perception of forms or ideas by means 
of ideas ; which presupposes the exercise of Sensation 
and Imagination P. Hence a passive (iiccO-firiKoq), and an 
active Intelligence {TzoiririKoq voZq). The last is imperish- 

fJ De Coelo, I, 6—12 ; II, 1, 2, 3, 4 ; De Gener. et Corrupt. II, 10 ; De 
Gener. Animal. II, 3 ; III, II ; Meteorol. I, 1 ; Metaph. XII. 8; Phys. 
VIII, 2, 3, 5. 

»> De An. II, 1. 

« Ibid. I, 1—4. 

To this subject belong the Commentaries on the woiks of Aristotle which 
treat of the soul, etc. 

^ De An. II, 2, 4 ; De Gener. Anim. II, 3. 

' Ibid. II, 5,6, 12; 111,12. 

"> Ibid. II, 6; III, 12, sqq. ; De Sensu et Sensibili. 

" Ibid. Ill, 1, sqq. 

o Ibid. Ill, 3, et De jMemoriii. 

P Ibid. Ill, 4. 

128 ARISTOTLE. [sect. 

able (Immortality independent of Conscience or Memory '^). 
The thinking faculty is an energy distinct from the body, 
derived from without "^j resembling the elementary matter 
of the stars ^ The understanding becomes Theoretical 
or Practical, according to its application, and, together 
with the Will, determines our actions. The Will (ofel^), 
is an impulse directed towards matters of practice, that 
is to say, toward Good ; which is real or apparent, ac- 
ing as it procures a durable or a transient enjoyment*: 
op€^n; is subdivided into ^ovX^o-k; and eViSi^/x./a ; the Willy 
properly so called, and Desire. Enjoyment is the result 
of the complete development of an energy : which at the 
same time perfects that energy. The most noble of all 
enjoyments is the result of Reason ". 

§ 146. 

"i J. G. BuHLE, On the Authenticity of the Metaphysics of 
Aristotle : in the Biblioth. of Ancient Arts and Literature, fasc. 
IV. See also his Compend. of the Hist, of Phil. II, § 331, sqq. 

"f FuLLEBORN, On the Metaphysics of Aristotle : in his Collect, 
fascic. V. 

Petri Rami Scholarum Metaphysicarum lib. XIV. Par. 1566, 

Primary philosophy, treating of the nature of Being 
in the abstract, was an attempt of Aristotle's, the first 
which had been made, in the science since denominated 
Metaphysics. It was reasonable to expect that this at- 
tempt should be as yet an imperfect one. It contains an 
analytical statement of what he denominated the Catego- 
ries (ten in number "), a title under which he comprised 

1 De An. II, 1—6 ; III, 2, sqq., 5. 

•■ De Gen. Animal. II, 3. 

* Cic. Acad. Quaest. I, 7. 

« De An. Ill, 9— 11 ; Eth. Ill, VI. 

" Ethic. X, 4, 5,8. 

^ The ten Categories, or pradicamenta of Aristotle, are : i) ovaia, to ttooov, 
TO TTotov, TrpoQ Ti, TTov, TTOTs, KHvOai, t^ftv, TToitiv, Trac^ftv, Substancc, Quan- 
tity, Quality, Relation, Place, Time, Situation, Possession, Action, Passion. 
Aristotle distinguishes between these and the Categoremata, or Pnrdicahilia, 

146, 147.] ARISTOTLE. 129 

and elucidated without much systematic order, the lead- 
ing characteristics of Being, as apprehended by the Un- 
derstanding and the Senses^. With this arrangement he 
connected the question of the First Being, and His pro- 
perties (theology^). God, the absolute cause of regular 
movement % is the perfection of Intelligence (vovi), to whom 
appertains, of his own nature, pure and independent 
Energy, and the most complete Felicity ^ : He is immu- 
table, and the end of all Nature ''. 

147. Practical i^hilosophy, by the profound analysis of 
Aristotle, became a moral theory of happiness, on Em- 
pirical principles. The fundamental point was the idea 
of a sovereign good and final end. The final End (reXo?), 
is happiness {€vdaifji.Qvia, evTvpa^ia), which is the result of 
the energies of the soul, iv jS/oj reXeirf, in a perfect life'^: 
such happiness being the highest of which our nature is 
capable. This perfect exercise of reason is virtue ; and 
virtue is the perfection of speculative and practical 
reason : hence the subdivision of Intellectual virtue 
(Biavo>jT*K7j aper-ri), and moral {r]9iKri^). The first, in its per- 

which have reference to the former, and are five in number : 'Opor, yho^, 
tlSog, hacpopci, Idiov Kai avfx^t^riKOQ (Top. I, 6.) 

See Harris's Philos. Arrangements, Edi?j. and Land. 1775, Bvo. 

Cf. the Categories of Aristotle, with illustrations, offered as an introduction 
to a new theory of Thought, by Sal. Maimon, Berl. 1794, 8vo. On the au- 
thenticity of the treatise on the Categories : Krug, Observationes Ciit. et 
Exeget. in Aristotelis librum de Categoriis, part I, Lips. 1809, 4to. 

y Metaph. V, 7. Cf. Categor., II, ed. Buhle. 

z Besides the old treatises on the Theology of Aristotle, by J. Faustius, 
HiER. Capr/i:donus, FoRxuNits LiCETVs, and the treatises of Valeria- 
Nus Magnus and Zachar. Grapius on the Atheism of Aristotle, consult: 

JoH. G. Waixh, Exercitatio Histor. Philosophica de Atheismo Aristotelis. 
Parerga Academica, Lips. 1721, 8vo. 

JoH. Sev. Vater, Theologiae Aristotelicae Vindiciai, Lips. 1795, Bvo. 

t Fiii.LEBORN, in his Collect., fasc. III. on the Nat. Theol. of Aristotle. 

a Cf. $ 143—144. 

b Pol. VII, 1. 

<• Metaph. I, 1 ; XII, 7, sqq. ; De Coelo, II, 3, sqq. ; De Gener. et Cor- 
rupt. 1,6. 

d Eth. Nic.I, 1—7; X, 5,6. 

« Idem, I, 13; II, 1. 


130 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

fection, belongs to God only, and confers the highest 
degree of felicity ; the second, adapted to human nature, 
is the perfection of reasonable will (ef*?, habitus), the 
effect of a rational deliberation (7rpoa<peTt/f^ *), of which 
the principle is constantly to take the mean between 
two extremes (to /a^Voj/, i^eo-oTvj^^). Moral virtue presents 
itself under seven principal characters, having reference 
to the different objects of desire or avoidance ; (the car- 
dinal virtues). To these are added certain virtues of a 
mixed character ; and Justice, which in its most exten- 
sive signification may be said to embrace all the virtues. 
Under the head of Justice Aristotle comprehends Right 
also ^. Justice consists in rendering to each his due, and 
its operation may be explained by applying to it the 
Arithmetical and Geometrical proportions conformably 
to the two species, the Distributive and Corrective, into 
which he subdivided the virtue. To these must be 
added Equity, which has for its end the rectification of 
the defects of law ^. Under the head of Right (SiVatov), he 
distinguishes that appertaining to a family (oIkovoixikov), 
from that of a city (TtoXiriKov) ; dividing the latter into the 
natural {(pva-iKov), and the positive (vofxiKov). 

Aristotelis Ethiconim Nicomaclieoriim adumbratio accommo- 
date ad nostrae Philosophise rationem facta, Disp. Jo. Fr. Gottl. 
Delbruck, Hal. 1790, 8vo. 

if The Ethics of Aristotle, translated and illustrated by Chr. 
Garve, Brest . 1798—1802, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Aristotle's Ethics and Politics comprising his Practical Philo- 
sophy, translated from the Greek, illustrated by Introductions 
and Notes, the Critical History of his Life, and a new Analysis 
of this Speculative Works, by J. Gillies, Lond. 1797, 2 vols. 

f K. L. Michelet, On the Ethics of Aristotle, Berl. 1827, 

* Aristotle may be said to have been the first to analyse -rrpoaipemg, or 
deliberate free-choice. 

f Eth. Nic. IT, 6. 

K Idem, V, 1, 6, sqq. 

'' C. A. Droste-Huelsiioff, De Aristotelis Justitia Universali et Particu- 
lar!, deque nexu, quo Ethica et Jurisprudentia junctae sunt, Bonn, 1816, 8vo. 

148—150.] ARISTOTLE. 131 

148. A perfect unity of plan prevails throughout his Mo- 
rals, his Politics, and his CEconomics. Both the latter have 
for their end to show how the object of man's existence 
defined in the Ethics, viz. Virtue combined with Happi- 
ness, may be attained in the civil and domestic relations, 
through a (jood constitution of the state and household '. 
The state (ttoX^), is a complete association of a certain 
number of smaller societies sufficient to provide in com- 
mon all the necessities of life ^. Intellectual influence 
alone should preponderate. The science of Politics is 
the investigation of means tending to the final end just 
mentioned : its principle is expediency, and its perfection 
the suitableness of means to the end. By this principle 
Aristotle would prove the lawfulness of slavery ' ; (Pol. I, 
5). All education he refers to the ultimate end of poli- 
tical society. 

149. Aristotle also rendered great services to philoso- 
phy by his investigations with regard to the elements of 
language ; particularly in his treatise -rtep) ep/xvjve/a?: and by 
the first profound examination instituted of the principles 
of the fine arts "" ; the theory of which, agreeably to 
his system, he deduced from the imitation of Nature, 

150. The first successors of Aristotle were, for the 
most part, skilful commentators on his doctrines, who en- 
deavoured in publications under similar titles to restate 
more clearly what he had first advanced : the eflfect of 
which was that his system gradually withdrew farther 
and farther from that of Plato, and proportionably ap- 

' Ethic. VIII, 9 ; X, 9. — See the translations of the Politics and (Econo- 
mics, by SciiLossER, Lubeck and Leips. 1798, 2 vols, and that of the Politics 
by Garve, with Remarks and Dissertations by FDlleborn, Brest. 1799, 
1802, 2 vols. 8vo. Also : Aristotelis Rerura Public, relliq. coll. illustr. etc. 
C. Fr. Neumann, Heidelb. et Spir. 1827, 8vo. 

^ Pol. I, 2. 

' VV. T. Krcg, De Aristotele Servitutis Defensore, Lips. 1813, 4to. 

C. G. GoETTLiNo, Commentaiio Je Noiione Servitutis apud Aristotelem, 
Jen. 1821, 4to. 

™ To this head belong the Rhetoric and Poetics of Aristotle. 


132 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

proached the limits of Materialism. The most distin- 
guished of his immediate followers were Theophrastus of 
Eressus " ; whom Aristotle himself had characterised as 
the most learned and the ablest of his auditors, and the 
most proper to be his successor and heir°: Eudemus oi 
Rhodes, who, as well as Theophrastus, republished with 
very few alterations Aristotle's doctrines in Physics, 
Logic, and Ethics : Diccearchiis of Messana p, and Aris- 
toxenus of Tarentum, the musician ; both materialists in 
their opinions on psychology : the first considering the 
soul to be a vital energy, inherent in the body ^ : the lat- 
ter believing it to be a symphony or harmony resulting 
from the body, analogous to those elicited from the 
chords of an instrument *". Heraclides Ponticus has been 
already mentioned (§ 138). Subsequently, we have oc- 
casion to remark, among the disciples of Aristotle, the 
follower and successor of Theophrastus % Strata of Lamp- 
sacus ; who died about 270 B.C., and published, with 
more of original character about it, a system of Physics *, 
in which he referred the existence of all things to the 
productive energy of nature, acting unconsciously ; which 
caused him to be considered by many an atheist ". We 

" Formerly called Tyrtamos. 

" DioG. Laert. V, 36, sqq. A. Gell. Noct. Att. XIII, 5. 

Of his numerous works the only one which has come down to us, besides 
his treatises on Natural History, is his book of Characters (j)0i/coi x"p<^if^TfiP^Q)> 
and some fragments. Opera Gr. et Lat. ed. Dan. Heinsius, Lugd. Bat. 
1613, 2 vols. fol. See also the work of Hill, mentioned in the following 

V Flourished about 320 B. C. 

1 Nic. DoDWELL, De Dicasarcho ejusque Fragmentis. Cf. Bredow, Epp. 
Paris, p. 4, et alibi, et Bayle, Diet. 

»■ G. L. Mahne, Aristoxeno Philos. Peripatetico, Amstel. 1793, 8vo. 

9 Cic. Tusc. Quaest. I, 10, 31. 

' Hence he was surnamed Physicus. 

" DioG. Laert. V, 58. Cic. Acad. Quaest. IV, 38 ; De Nat. Deor. I, 
13. Sext. Emp. Hyp. Pyrrh. Ill, 32, 136, sqq.; Adv. Math. VII, 350; 
X, 155, 177, 228. Simplic. In Phys. p. 168 et 225. Lactant. De Ira 
Dei, 10. Plutarch. Adv. Coloten. p. 163; De Plac. IV, 5; De Solert. 
Anim. p. 141. Stob. Eel. p. 298—348. 

Phil. Frid. Sciilosser, De Stratone Lampsaceno et Atheismo vulgo e 
tributo, Viteh. 1728, 4to. 

150.] EPICURUS. 133 

have fewer details with regard to Demetrius Phalereus ", 
a follower of Theophrastus : as an orator and statesman 
he was sufficiently distinguished. As for those who 
came after, Lijco or Ghjco, of Troas, the successor of 
Strato^, (ahout 270 or 268 B. C), Hieronymus of Rhodes 
his contemporary % Aristo of Ceos, the successor of Lyco% 
Critolaus of Phaselis, w^ho went to Rome as ambassador 
at the same time with Carneades ^ and his pupil and suc- 
cessor Diodorus of Tyre — all we know of these Aristo- 
telians is that they devoted their especial attention to the 
investigation of the supreme good "", After them, we are 
ignorant even of the names of the masters of the Peripa- 
tetic school, till the time of Andronicus (see § 183). 

The system of Aristotle for a long time maintained its 
ground as distinct from that of Plato : subsequently, at- 
tempts were made to associate them, as identical ; or by 
giving the superiority to one or other. In the Middle 
ages that of Aristotle, degraded to a system of formu- 
laries, became universally prevalent ; till in the end it 
yielded to Platonism: not, however, without continuing 
to retain great influence, from the general adoption of its 

III. Epicurus. 

Authorities : Epicuri Pliysica et Meteorologica duabus Episto- 
lis ejusdem comprehensa, ed. Jo. Glob. Schneider, Lips. 1813, 

Epicuri Fragmenta librorum II et XI, De Natura, etc., illus- 
trata a Rosinio ed. Orellius, Lii^is. 1818, 8vo. 

Brucker, Diss, de Atheismo Stratonisj Amoenitates Litterariae of Schell- 
HORN, torn. XIII. 

^ Flourished 320 B.C. 

y DioG. Laeut. V, 65, sqq. 

' Idem, IV, 41, sqq^68. 

^ Idem, V. 70—74.' 

b 155 B.C. 

•^ Cic. Acad. Quaest. IV, 42 ; De Fin. II, 3 ; V, 5. 

^ J. Launoy, De "N'aria Philosophia; Aristotelicaj Fortune, Paris, 1653, 
third edition, Hagce Comit. 1662, 8vo. Recudi curavit Jon. Herm. ab 
Elswich, nteb. 1720, 8vo. 

G. Pail RoETENBErK, Oratio de Philosophiai Aristotelicae per singulas 
ablates Fortuna Vari&, Altd, 1668, 4to. 

134 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

DiOGENis Laertii De Vitis, Dogmatibus et Apophtliegmatibus 
clarorum Philosophorum lib. X, Gr. et Lat. separatim editus, 
atque Adnotatioiiibus illustratus a Car. ISurnberger, Norimb. 
1791, 8vo. 

Cf. also the Didactic Poem of Lucretius de Rerum Natura : 
and likewise Cicero, Seneca, Plutarch. 

Petri Gassendi Animadversiones in Diogenem Laert. de 
Vita et Pliilosophia Epicuri, Lugd. Bat. 1649, fol. 

Ejusdem de Vita, Moribus et Doctrina Epicuri, libb. VIII, 
Lugd. 1647, 4to. Hagce Comit. 1656, 4to. 

-j" Sam. de Sorbiere, Letters on the Life, Character, and. 
Reputation of Epicurus, with Remarks on his Errors (among 
his Letters and Discourses), Paris, 1660, 4to. 

■f J. Rondel, Life of Epicurus, Par. 1679, 8vo. transl. into 
Lat. Amst. 1693, 12mo. 

-j- Essay towards an Apology for Epicurus, by an Opponent of 
Batteux (J. G. Bremer), Berl. 1776, 8vo. 

Fr. Ant. Zimmermann (Resp. Zehner), Vita et Doctrina 
Epicuri Dissertatione Inaugur. Examinata, Heidelb. 1785, 4to. 

"i" H. E. Warnekros, Apology for, and Life of, Epicurus, 
Greifsw. 1795, 8vo. 

Nic. Hill, De Pliilosophia Epicurea, Democritea, et Theo- 
phrastea, Genev. 1669, 8vo. 

Petri Gassendi Syntagma Philosophise Epicuri, Hag. Com. 
1655 et 1659, 4to. and in his 0pp. 

151. Epicurus^ of the demus of Gargettos, near 
Athens, was born of poor parents. His father, who had 
settled at Samos, gained his hvehhood as a schoolmaster, 
and his mother by divining. The constitution of Epicu- 
rus was feeble, and his education imperfect, but his 
talents were superior. A verse of Hesiod, and the works 
of Demosthenes awakened in him, while yet young, a 
spirit of inquiry. Soon after, he attended at Athens, but 
in a desultory manner, the lessons of Xenocrates the 
Academician, Theophrastus, and others. In his thirty- 
second year he opened a school at Lampsacus, which, 
five years after, he removed to Athens'^; where he taught, 
in his garden, a system of philosophy which readily re- 
commended itself by the indulgence it held out to sensual 

c Born 337, died 270. ^ Diog. LAERf. X. 15. 

151—153.] EPICURUS. 135 

habits, combined with a taste for the refinements of social 
hfe, an abhorrence of superstition, and a tone of elegance 
and urbanity which blended with all his doctrines. He 
may be justly reproached with depreciating the works of 
other philosophers. Of his numerous writings ^ we pos- 
sess only a few fragments cited by Diogenes Laertius, 
and the book Trept cpva-cuq, which by a fortunate chance was 
discovered among the ruins of Herculaneum. 

152. According to him, philosophy directs us to happi- 
ness by the means of reason''. Consequently, Ethics 
form a principal part of his system, and Physics, etc. are 
only accessories. He assigns the same inferior place to 
what he terms Canonics, the Dialectics of his system \ 
There is little originality in this theory of happiness ; 
and the form alone in which it is put belongs to Epicu- 
rus. The theory is in fact nothing more than one of 
Euda^monism, with a sprinkling of moral sentences, built 
upon an Atomic system by way of Physics ; with a the- 
ology suitable to such a whole : a system which if rigor- 
ously pursued through all its consequences, could not fail 
of leading to immorality. 

153. Epicurus borrowed from Democritus his theory 
of certain subtile emanations of objects (aizoppotoci, a-noa-- 
Tda-eii), which he supposes to detach themselves there- 
from, and so disperse themselves through the air (§ 105). 
These, impressing the senses, produce on them corres- 
ponding images, and these again create the mental con- 
ceptions of the same ; less perfectly representing the 
original objects. It is from the senses that we derive all 
our ideas, even those which are universaly and of which 
there existed previously what he termed TrpoXiji/zeK "^ ; the 

B DioG. Laert. X, 17. 

'• Skxtus Emp. Adv. Mathem. XI, 169. 

' Senec. Ep. 89. DiOG. Laert. X, 24 — 31. 

" Jon. Mich. Kern, Diss. Epicuri Piolepses, seu Anticipationes, Sensibus 
demum administris haustne, non vero menti innatai, in locum Cic. de Nat. 
Deor. I, 16, Gott. 1756, 4to. 

Tacoms Roorda, Disp. de Anticipatione cum omni, turn inpiimis Dei, 

136 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

understanding contributing however to their formation ^ 
Every perception of the senses and imagination is true, 
because necessarily responding to the images impressed 
upon them, and the results are neither capable of being 
demonstrated nor refuted {ivapyrji;, a^oyoq). Our opinions, 
on the other hand {lo^cn), are either true or false, accord- 
ing as they respond or not to our sensible impressions ; 
wherefore these are always to be referred to as their cri- 
teria. Our sensations (Tra^r/), are our criteria with respect 
to what we ought to desire or to avoid (aipea-iq and (pvy^). 
There is no law of necessity for thought ; or a Fatalism 
would be the consequence. Such are the principles of 
his Canonics"™. 

§ 154. 

-f The Morals of Epicurus, with Remarks, by M. the Baron 
DEs CouTUREs, Par. 1685. f With additions by Rondel, the 
Hague, 1686, 12mo. 

■f The Morals of Epicurus, drawn from his own writings, by 
the Abbe Batteux, Par. 1758, 8vo. 

Magni Omeisii Diss. Epicurus ab Infami Dogmate, quod 
Summum Bonum consistat in Obscoena Corporis Voluptate, De- 
fensus, y4ltd. 1679, 4to. 

"f Investigation respecting the Partial and Exclusive Opinions 
of the Stoic School, and that of Epicurus, with respect to the 
Theory of Happiness (by E. Platner) ; in the Neue Bihlioth. 
der Schoenen Wissenschaften, XIX. B. 

Morals. Pleasure is the sovereign good of man; for 
all beings from their birth pursue pleasure and avoid 
pain. Pleasure consists in the activity or the repose of 
the soul ; in the enjoyment of agreeable sensations, and 
the absence of those which are painful (-^Sov^ ev Kiv^a-ei, and 
Tjhovv] Karaa-ryjiAo.riK'^). Epicurus regarded this well-being 
as the end of man's existence ; and pronounced the sum- 

atque Epicureorum et Stoicorum de Anticipationibus Doctrina, Lugd. Bat. 

' DioG. Laert. X, 31, sqq. 46, sqq. 52. Lucret. IV, particularly vv. 
471—476. 726—753. Cic. Divin. II, 67. 

"» Dioc. Laert. X, 32. Sext. Adv. Math. VII, 203, sqq. Cic. Acad. 
QuKst. IV, 25. 32 ; Nat. Deor. I, 25; De Fato, 9, 10. 


154, 155.] EPICURUS. 

mum bonum to be a state exempt from suffering, 
result of the satisfaction of all our necessary, and rd^^z "^ 

tural desires ". All our sensations, in themsely^s are' ok the ^ 
equal in worth and dignity, but differ greatl}^** niiw T7 T* H ^^ "^ 
tensity, duration, and their consequences. The pfcasures ^^ 
and the pains of the mind exceed those of thex>ody. 
To attain happiness, therefore, it is necessary to make a^^- 
choice (afpeff-^-) ; and to rule our desires by the help of 
reason and free-will, or individual energy independent of 
nature, which Epicurus explains in a manner not the 
most philosophical °. Consequently Prudence {(f)povri<riq)^ 
is the first of virtues : next to that Moderation and Jus- 
tice. Virtue in general has no value or worth but for 
the consequences which attend her ; namely, that she is 
inseparably allied to enjoyment p. Contracts are the 
origin of Right : their end is the mutual advantage of the 
contracting parties, and expediency the principle which 
makes their performance obligatory "i. Occasionally Epi- 
curus took higher ground ^ ; with the same inconsistency 
which compelled his adversaries to praise the life he led ; 
so much at variance with the spirit of his precepts ^ 

Observation. A difference is to be observed between the 
system of happiness adopted by the Cyrenaics and that of Epicu- 
rus ; who appears to have made his more perfect, in proportion 
as he became gradually more alive to the deficiencies of the 
former. See Diog. Laert. X, 6, 131, 137. Cic. Tusc. Quaest. 
Ill, 18; Fin. I, 17. 

§ 155. 

GuALT. Charleton, Physiologia Epicureo-Gassendo-Charle- 
toniana, etc. Lond. 1654, fol. 

GoTTFRiD. Ploucquet, Diss. de Cosmogonia Epicuri, Tub, 
1755, 4to. 

•f- Restaurant, Agreement between the Opinions of Aris- 

n Diog. Laert. X, 131. 136, 137. 139. Cic. Fin. I, 9. 1 1. 

o Diog. Laert. X, 144. Cic. Nat. Deor. 1, 25. 

P Diog. Laert. X, 129. 140. 142. 

'I Idem, X, 150, 151. 

r Idem, X, 135. Cic. Tusc. Quaest. II, 7. 

* Cic. Tusc. Qua:st. Ill, 20. Senec. De Vith Beatil. 13. 

138 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

totle and Epicurus on Philosophy, Lugd. Bat. 1682, 12mo. 

Physics, He considered the science of Physics as 
subordinate, in some sort, to that of Morals ; and that 
its proper end was to liberate mankind from all super- 
stitious terror derived from their conceptions of the celes- 
tial phenomena, the Gods, Death, and its consequences ; 
i. e. from vain apprehensions affecting the living \ With 
these views, Epicurus found nothing which suited him 
better than the Atomic theory, which he enlarged by 
adding a great number of hypotheses, and applied to ex- 
plain different natural phenomena. If we admit the ob- 
jects presented to our senses to be compound in their 
nature, we are led to presume the existence of simple 
uncompounded bodies, or Atoms. Besides weight, form, 
and volume, and that which he considered to be the pri- 
mitive movement common to all, viz. a perpendicular, 
he assigned to them also an oblique motion", without 
adding any proof. The various mechanical movements 
of Atoms in vacuo (to Kevh)^ or space (totto?), have produced 
annre^ates, or bodies, and even the universe itself; which 
is a body, and which, considered as a whole, is immuta- 
ble and eternal, though variable and perishable in re- 
spect of the parts, or worlds, of which it is composed''. 
The world being imperfect and presenting nothing but 
scenes of misery, destruction, and death (imperfections 
especially observable in Man), cannot be considered the 
work of an Intelligent Cause. Besides, such an origin is 
irreconcileable with the tranquil and happy lot of the 
Gods y. All the appearances of final causes which are 
observable in the world are purely fortuitous ^. The soul 
is of a corporeal nature, as is attested by its sympathy 
with the body : but at the same time of a nature more 

t DioG. Laert. X, 81, sqq. ; 142, sqq. Lucret. I, 147. Plutarch. 
Noa posse suaviter Vivi secundum Epicurum, c. 8, 9. 

" LucuET. II, 217. Cic. Fin. I, 6. 

"^ DiOG. Laert. X, 39, 43, sqq., 73, sqq. Lucret. II, 61, sqq. 

y DioG. Laert. X, 139. 76, 77. Lucret. V, 157. 235; III, 855. 984. 
Cic. De Nat. Deor. I, 9—16. 

* Lucret. IV, 821. 

155, 156.] EPICURUS. 139 

refined, involved in one less perfect. Its elemental prin- 
ciples are heat, the ether spirit, and an anonymous mat- 
ter on which depends its sensibility : this last is situated 
in the breast, the others dispersed over the body *. The 
soul and the body are united in the most intimate man- 
ner ; the latter is born with the body, and perishes with 
it, by the dissolution of its component Atoms ^. To sup- 
pose the soul immortal is to contradict all our notions of 
the characteristics of an immutable and eternal being ^. 
By such arguments Epicurus would disprove the imma- 
teriality of the soul, which Plato had maintained. Death 
he affirmed to be no evil'*. 

§ 156. 

Jo. Fausti Diss, de Deo Epicuri, Argent. 1685, 4to. 

J. CoNR. ScHWARz, Judlcium de Recondita Theologia Epi- 
curi. Comment. I, II, Coh. 1718, 4to. 

Jo. Henr. Kronmayer, Diss, (praes. Gottl. Stolle) de 
Epicuro, Creationis et Providentiae Divinae assertore, Jen. 1713, 

JoH. Achat. Fel. Bielke, Diss, qua sistitur Epicurus Atheus 
contra Gassendum, Rondellum, et Baelium, Jen. 1741, 4to. 

■f Chph. Meiners, Dissertation on the Character of Epicums, 
and the Contradictions in his Theory of the Divine Nature : 
Vermischte Schriften, II, p. 45, sqq. 

Theology. Such a system, as the ancients themselves 
remarked of it, approaches Atheism rather than Theism^; 
and accordingly some Stoics, among others Posidonius, 
treated Epicurus as an avowed Atheist^: but it may be 
nearer the truth to look upon him as an inconsistent 
Theist, who asserted the existence of the Gods, and en- 
larged upon their attributes with all the hardihood of 

* DiOG. Laert. X, 63, sqq. Lucret. Ill, 31, sqq., 95, sqq., 138. 183. 
204, sqq. Sextus Emp. Hyp. Pyrrh. 187. 229. 

^ Lucret. Ill, 324, sqq., 396, sqq., 426, sqq. Diog. Laert. 64, sqq. 

*^ Lucret. Ill, 807, sqq. 

•1 Diog. Laert. X, 139. Cf. 124, sqq. Lucret. Ill, 670, sqq. 

^ Plutarch. Non posse suaviter Vivi sec. Epicur. c. 8. 

' Cic. De Nat. I, 30—44. 

140 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Dogmatism. He concludes that they exist, from the uni- 
versahty of a ReUgious beUef ; which according to his 
system, is the Effluence of certain real objects. The 
Gods are compounded of Atoms, and bear the human 
shape, the most perfect of all figures, their substance 
beincr analagous to that of ovu' bodies, without being alto- 
gether the same : they are eternal, imperishable, and su- 
premely happy : as such they are worthy of our worship, 
although they inhabit the space intermediate between the 
Worlds, in a state of repose and indifference, in which 
their felicity consists, and without exerting any influence 
over the affairs of this lower region. 

157. Epicurus had a great number of disciples, among 
whom we remark Metrodorus^ and his brother Timo- 
crates, Colotes (the same against whom is directed a trea- 
tise of Plutarch), Polycenus^ Leonteiis and his wife The- 
7/22*^a, all of Lampsacus ; add to these another Me^ro^/o- 
riis of Stratonicea, who subsequently went over to the 
Academy '': and the friend and confidant of Epicurus, 
Leontium, the noted courtesan of Athens ; next came 
Herinachus of Mitylene, the successor of Epicurus'; and, 
at a later period, Polystratus, Dio7iysius, Basilides, Apol- 
lodorus, Zeno of Sidon, Diogenes of Tarsus, Diogenes 
of Seleucia, Phcedrus and Philodemus of Gadara, etc. 
His school subsisted for a long time without undergoing 
any important modifications ^ : of which the reason pro- 
bably was, the spirit of the system itself, and the defer- 
ence entertained by his followers for their master. He 
had, besides, guarded his doctrines against any consi- 
derable innovation by founding them on formal proposi- 
tions, or general maxims (Kt^pta* So|a<^). If on the one hand 
this system had a tendency to extinguish all belief in the 

& DioG. Laert. X, 22, sqq. 
>> Idem, X, 9. 
' 270 B.C. 

^ Si.N. Ep. 33. Who are the real Epicureans and real Sophists'? (SeeDiog. 
Laert. X, 26. 

' LucRET. Ill, 14. Cic. Fin. 1, 5--7 ; II, 7. Dioc. Laebt. X, 12, 13. 

15G, 157.] ZENO AND THE STOICS. 141 

Intellectuality of the human soul, on the other it fortified 
it against superstition ; with the loss, it is true, of all 
belief derived from the understanding"'. 

IV. Zeno and the Stoics, 

Authorities : The Hymn of Cleanthes, and the Fragments of 
Chrysippus and Posidonius ; Cicero ; Seneca ; Arrian ; Antoni- 
nus ; Stobjeus ; Diogenes Laertius, VII ; PUitarch, in several 
of his Treatises against the Stoics ; Simplicius. 

Modern Works. 

Hemingii Forelli Zeno Philosophus leviter adumbratus. Ex- 
ercitatio Academica, Ups. 1700, 8vo. 

JusTi Lirsii jManuductio ad Stoicam Philosophiam, Antwerp, 
1604, 4to.; Lugd. Bat. 1644, 12mo. 

Thom. Gatakeri Diss, de Disciplina Stoica cum Sectis aliis 
collata. Prefixed to his edition of Antonin., Cambridge, 1653, 

Fr. de Quevedo, Doctrina Stoica, in ejus 0pp. tom. Ill, 
Bruxell. 1671, 4to. 

Jo. Fr. Buddei Introduct. in Philos. Stoicam. Prefixed to his 
edition of Antonin., Lips. 1729, 8vo. 

Dan. Heinsii Oratio de Philos. Stoica ; in suis Orationib. 
Ludg. Bat. 1627, 4to., p. 326, sqq. 

-j- DiETR. Tiedemaxx, Systcm of the Stoic Philosophy, Ze?p5. 
1776, 3 vols. 8vo. ; and in his Spirit of Speculative Philosophy, 
vol. II, § 427, sqq. 

JoH. Alb. Fabricii Disp. de Ca\'illationibus Stoicorum, Lips. 
1692, 4to. 

157. Zeno was born at Cittium, in Cyprus"; his father 
Mnaseas being a rich merchant. Having received a good 
education, chance, added to his own inclinations, caused 
him to attend the Socratic schools. He became a hearer 
of the Cynic Crates, Stilpo, and Diodorus Cronus the 
Mecrareans, and the Academicians, Xenocrates and Po- 
lemo, for several years. His object was to found a sys- 
tem of Human instruction which might oppose itself to 

'" LvciAN. Alexander. " About 340 B.C. 

142 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Scepticism ; and, in particular, to establish rigid princi- 
ples of Morality, to which his own conduct was conform- 
able. In the Portico (o-to^), at Athens, he formed a 
school °, distinguished for a succession of able philoso- 
phers, and lovers of virtue ; a school which became 
memorable for the influence it possessed in the world, 
and its resistance to vice and tyranny. Zeno died after 
Epicurus P. His system was extended, developed, and 
completed in the course of a long rivalship with other 
schools, particularly that of Epicurus and the New Aca- 
demy. Its principal supporters were Persceus or Doro- 
theus of Cittium'^, Aristo of Chios '^, who founded a 
separate school approaching that of the Sceptics % 
Herillus of Carthage * ; and lastly, the pupil and worthy 
successor of Zeno, Cleanthes of Assos ". Next came the 
disciple of the last, Chrysippus of Soli or of Tarsus, 
the pillar of the Portico ""; then his disciple Zeno of 

o About 300 B.C. 

P Between 264 and 260 B. C. 

q SuiDAS, s. V. Persaeus and Hermagoras. 

«■ GoDOFR. BucHNEui, Dlss. Hist. Philos. de Aristone Chio, Vita et Doc- 
trina Noto, Lijjs. 1725, 4to. 

Jo. Ben. Carpzovii Diss. Paradoxon Stoicum Aristonis Chii : 'Oj^oTov 
ilvai Tip dyaOi^ viroKpiTy tov <ro<p6v, novis Observationibus illustiatum, Lips. 
1742, 8vo. 

* We must not confound him with Aristo of Ceos, the Peripatetic, $ 150. 

t Persaeus, Aristo, and Herillus flourished about 260 B. C. 

Quill. Traitgott. Krug, Herilli de Summo Bono sententia e.xplosa non 
explodenda, Symbolar. ad Hist. Philos. Partic. Ill, Lips. 1822, 4to. (Cf. Cic. 
De Offic. I, 2.) 

« Flourished about 264 B. C. 

t Hymn of Cleanthes to the Supreme Being, in Greek and German, with a 
Statement of the principal Doctrines of the Stoics, by Herji. Heimart Clu- 
Dius, Gott. 1786, 8vo. 

+ Gr. C. Fr. Mohnike, Cleanthes the Stoic, Greifswald, 1814, 8vo. 

J. Fr. Herm. Schwabe, Specimen Theologiae Comparativae exhibens K\e- 
avOovQ vfivov eiQ Ala, Jen. 1819. 

'^ Cic. Acad. Quaest. IV, 24. Dice. Laert. VII, 183. He was born 
280, died 212 or 208 B.C. 

J. Fr. RiciiTER, Diss, de Chrysippo Stoico Fastuoso, Lips. 1738, 4to. 

Ge. Albr. HAGEDOR^, Moralia Chrysippea e Rerum Naturis petita, Altd. 
1685, 4to. 

Jon. CoNu. Hacedorn, Ethlca Chrysippi, Norimb. 1715, 8vo. 

158—160.] ZENO AND THE STOICS. 143 

Tarsus y, and Diogows of Babylon, who with Carneades 
and Critolaus went as ambassador to Rome about 155 
B.C.; still later came Antipater of Tarsus or Sidon^, 
Pancct'ius of Rhodes, who succeeded him at Athens, but 
also taught at Rome, and accompanied Scipio Africanus 
to Alexandria^; and lastly, Posidonius of Apamea in 
Syria, a pupil of the former, and surnamed the Rhodian, 
from the school which he established at Rhodes ^ Even 
after an examination of all the historical authorities rela- 
tive to the philosophers of this sect, it is no easy mat- 
ter to assign to each his respective part in the composi- 
tion of its doctrines. On the present occasion we can 
only find room for the principles and general charac- 
teristics of the system. 

159. According to the Stoics, philosophy is the science 
of human perfection (a-Q(pia, wisdom), which developes 
itself in thought, knowledge, and action. Its three prin- 
cipal subdivisions are Logic, Physiology, and Ethics. 
The latter is the most important, the others subordinate. 
The Stoics were not able to digest these into a systematic 
form, founded on solid principles ; because they pursued 
the theory of Empiricism ; their fundamental maxim 
being — to follow Nature ^. 

160. The Logic of Zeno and his successors was of 

y About 212 B.C. 

* About 146 B. C. 

a Flourished about 130 B. C. 

t Memoirs of the Life and Works of Panaetius, by the Abbe Sevin, in the 
Mem. of the Acad, of Tnscript. torn. X. 

Car. Gunth. Ludovici Progr. Panaetii Vitam et Merita in Romanorum 
turn Philosophiam turn Jurisprud. illustrans, Lips. 1733, 4to. 

Fr. Ge, van Lynden, Diss. Historico-Critica de Panaitio Rhodio, Philos. 
Stoico (praes. Dan. Wyttenbach), Lugd. Bat. 1802, 8vo. 

b He flourished about 103 B. C. 

Fr. Bake, Posidonii Rhodii Reliquiae Doctrinae. Collegit atque illustravit, 
Lngd. Bat. 1810, 8vo. 

c Cic. Fin. Ill, 21 ; IV, 2 ; Acad. Quaest. I, 10, sqq. Senfc. Ep. 89. 
Plutarch. Decret. Philos. Prcem., et De Stoicorum Repugn., p. 342. 
DioG. Laert. ^ II, 40, sqq. 54. 

144 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

much more extensive application than that of Aristotle : 
forming a considerable part of the wisdom he professed 
to teach, and being adapted ad materiam as well as to 
the form of argumentation ; and comprehending in its 
range as subordinate to itself, something of Psychology, 
Grammar, and Rhetoric. Such a system of Logic was 
intended to oppose to the uncertainty and the instability 
of popular notions a solid and stable science, worthy of a 
philosopher ; and which might serve him as a touchstone 
of Truth and Falsehood. It rested on the theory of 
perceptions. Every original perception is the result of 
impressions produced upon the mind, and is therefore 
denominated cpocvraa-ia, visutn. Out of these original and 
sensible impressions Reason, a superior and directing 
power (to -^ye/Aovi/cov), forms our other notions and opinions. 
The true are styled by Zeno (pavrda-iai KuraXriitriKai, or 
/caraXTji/zeio that is, such as are verified by their cor- 
respondence with the object to which they refer, are 
freely assented to, and constitute the foundation of 
science. The rule of Truth, accordingly, is Right Rea- 
son, opooi Xoyoq, which conceives of an object as it is. On 
this Dogmatic Empiricism rested the system of Zeno. 
Chrysippus remarked with still greater exactitude the dif- 
ference between sensible impressions (ala-9rjriKai), and those 
which are not derived from the senses. The latter i. e. 
ideas result from the mutual comparison of the former, 
and by combining whatever they contain of Universal. 
This union takes place sometimes involuntarily, sometimes 
in consequence of a voluntary application of the under- 
standing; and hence result, on the one hand, natural ideas 
[(pv(TiKcci evvoicx.1 Koi Tt^oX'^xl/eiq), and ou the othcr notions artifi- 
cially acquired (ewoiai). Of these the former constitute the 
Sensus communis {koivoi; Koyoq), which is the criterium of 
Truth '^. The versatility, or as it may be termed the 
subtilty of the mind of Chrysippus, displayed itself 
especially in the manner in which he perfected the Syllo- 

'' Cic. Acad. Qu;cst. I, 11 ; II, 42. Pi. rr arch. Dogm. IV, 11. Diog. 
Laeht. VIT, 54. A. Geli.hts, XIX, 1. 


gistic system of Logic ; and particularly in his theory of 
Hypothetical and Disjunctive arguments. 

§ H^l. 

JusTi Lipsii Physiologia? Stoicormn libri III, Jntiv. 1010, 4to. 

Th. a. Suabedissen, Programma : cur paiici semper fucrint 
Physiologiae Stoicorum Scctatores, Casel. 1813, 4to. 

Zeno attempted, in his Physiology, to give such an 
account of the notions commonly received respecting 
the ohjects of the natural world, as, without the substi- 
tution of any hypothesis, might afford a foundation for 
practical judgment. Of all preceding systems, that of 
Heraclitus, which supposed the existence of an all-per- 
vading A07S-J appeared to Zeno to suit his purpose best, 
and ai^reed with his doctrine that immaterial beinsfs are 
nothing more than chimeras ^ According to the Stoics 
all that is real — all that can act or suffer is corporeal. 
They make a distinction however between solid bodies 
(o-repea), and the contrary. Space, Time, and Ideas are 
incorporeal. Chrysippus also distinguished between 
Space and Vacuum ; and pronounced the latter, like 
Time, to be infinite. There are two eternal princi- 
ples {a.px°^t), of all things : the one {^>.yiY, matter, passive; 
the other active, namely the Divinity, or creative prin- 
ciple ; the source of activity, and author of the forms and 
arrangement of all things in the world. God is a living 
fire, unlike however to common fire ; he is named also 
TzveviAo. ov spirit^; he fashions, produces, and permeates 
all things, agreeably to certain laws (Xoyoi a-TvepixocTiKoi), 
Matter is thus subject to universal reason, which is the 
law of all nature '. 

Various proofs of the existence of a Divinity were 

e Cic. Acad. Qusest. 1, 11. Diog. Laert. VII, 56. 

^ Diog. Laert. VII, 135. 

s Idem, VII, 140. 

^' Cic. Nat. Deor. II, 14. Dioc. Laert. \l\, 139. Stob. p. 538. 

» Cic. Acad. Qua.'st. I, 11 ; Nat. Deor. II, 8, 9. 14.22.32. Sextis, 
Adv. Math. IX, 101. Dioo. Lvi ht, VII, 134. sqcj. 147 — 156, sqq. Stub. 
Eel. Phys. I, p. 312—538. 

146 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

alleged by the Stoics, particularly by Cleantlies and 
Chrysippus ^, 

According to the doctrines we have reviewed, God is 
in, not without the world. The world itself is a living 
beine: and divine. Hence resulted the close connection 
maintained by these philosophers between Providence 
(TTpovoia) and Destiny {eli/,api/.iv7i), founded upon the rela- 
tions between Cause and the Effect observable in the 
world 1 : this notion led Chrysippus still farther, to De- 
terminism; and thence to Optimism^, to Divination 
{fAOLvriK-fi), and an attempt to explain the Mythological Po- 
lytheism by the aid of Physiology and Theology °. In like 
manner as the world was produced by the action of fire, 
when the four elements (a-roixe7cc)^ out of which the Divinity 
formed all things, were separated from primeval matter ° ; 
so must it ultimately perish by the same p. This combus- 
tion or dissolution by fire, by which all things will be re- 
solved into their original state (iKitvQua-iq toZ kco-ixov) has 
been rejected by some subsequent Stoics ^, among others 
by Zeno of Tarsus, Panaetius, and Posidonius^ 

162. The soul is an ardent spirit (Trv€vy,cc evOepixov), being 
a portion of the Soul of the world, but, like every other 
real individual being, is corporeal and perishable ^ Cle- 

^ GuiLL. Traug. Krug, Progr. de Cleanthe Divinitatis assertore ac prs;- 
dicatore, Lips. 1819, 4to. 

• Plutarch. De Stoic. Repugn, p. 1056. Stob. Eel. Phys. vol.1, p. 180. 

'" JoH. Mich. Kern, Disp. Stoicorum Dogmata de Deo, Gott. 1764, 4to. 

Jac. Brucker, De Providentia Stoic^in Miscell. Hist. Philos. p. 147. 

S. E. ScHULZE, Commentatio de Cohserentia Mundi partium earumque cum 
Deo conjunctione summa secundum Stoicorum Disciplinam. Viteb. 1785, 4to. 

Mich. Heixr. Reinhard, Progr. de Stoicorum Deo, Torgav. 1737, 4to. 
Et Comment, de Mundo Optimo praesertim ex Stoicorum Sententia. Torgav. 
1738, 8vo. 

" Cic. Nat. Deor. I, II, III ; De Fato, c. 12, 13. 17. A. Gellius, N. 
Att. VI, c. 2. 

« DioG. Laert. VII, 142. 

P Cic. Nat. Deor. 11, 46. 

*i Philo, De ^tern. Mundi. 

•■ JacThomasii ExercitatiodeStoica]Mundi Exustione.ctc. Lips. 1672, 4to. 

Mich. Sonntag, Diss, de Palingenesiu Sioicorum, Jen. 1700, 4to. 

s Cic. De Nat. Deor. HI, 14; Tusc. Qua?st. T, 9. Dioo. Laert. VII, 156. 

1G2, 1G3.] ZENO AND THE STOICS. 147 

anthes and Panastius went so far as to endeavour to 
establish its mortality by proofs It consists of eight 
parts or powers : one, and the principal (to rjjefAoviKov^, or 
Intelligence (XoyKj-[Ao<;), is the source of all the rest, namely, 
the five senses, speech and the generative faculty ; in the 
same manner as the Divinity is the origin of all individual 
energies in the world without". The emotions also, as 
well as the passions and appetites of the soul {TtdOrj and 
opixai), are the results of the intellectual faculty ; because 
they are always founded on some belief of the reality of 
their object, on some approbation, or judgment". 

§ 1G3. 

Casp. Scioppii Elementa Stoicae Philosophiie Moralis, Mogunt. 
1606, 8vo. 

J. Fr. Buddei Exercitt. Historico Philos. IV. de Erroribus 
Stoicorum in Philos. Morali, Hal. 1695-96. 

Ern. Godf. Lilie, Commentationes de Stoicorum Philos. 
Morali. Comment. I. Alton. 1800, Svo. 

•f J. Neeb, Examination of the Morality of the Stoics com- 
pared with that of Christianity, Mainz, 1791, Svo. 

Ern. Aug. Dankegott Hoppe, Diss. Hist. Philos. : Principia 
Doctrinae de Moribus Stoicae et Christianae, Viteh. 1799, 4to. 
(See also the works of Conz and Wegscheider, cited § 182). 

The morality of the Stoics was built upon profound ob- 
servation of the essential characteristics of human Na- 
ture, of Reason, and Free-will ; and a close association of 
the laws of Practice with those of Nature ^, in virtue of 
this principle, that God, the inherent cause of all the exist- 
ing forms and proportions of the world, is himself the su- 
preme Intelligence and Law. In consequence of the Ra- 
tional nature of Man, the Stoic considers Order, Legality, 

• Chph. Meiners, Commentar. quo Stoicorum Sententia de Animorum 
post Mortem statu et fatis illustratur; Verm. Philos. Schriften, vol. II, p. 

" Plutarch. Decret. Philos. IV. 4. 5. 21. Sextus, Adv. Math. IX, 101. 

« Cic. Tusc. Quajst. IV, 6, sqq. ; Fin. IV, 33. Diog. Laert. VII, 110. 
Stob. Eel. Eth., p. 166. 170. Plutarch. De Virt. Morali ; de Decret. 
Philos. IV, 25. 

y Cic. De Nat. Deor. I, 14. 

L 2 

148 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

and Reason, as what we are above all things bound to 
respect, as the only condition on which man can attain to 
the end of his being, that is Virtue ; towards which all 
Nature is framed to lead us. Accordingly the first of all 
maxims is ^ : To live agreeably to the law of Right Reason 
(op6o(; Xoyoq) ; or according to the formulary of Cleanthes 
and other Stoics : To live conformably to Nature, (oixoXo- 

yov(jt.evu(; '^yv, or Of/.o'koyovy.evcoq ry ^va-ei ^?Jv) ^. See above Polc- 

mo (§ 138). Such a life is the proper end of Human ex- 
istence ^. 

164. The most remarkable principles of the Practical 
system of this school are: 1st. to kuXov, (or Virtue), is the 
only absolute good : Vice, on the other hand, is the 
only positive evil : every thing else is morally indifferent, 
(aS/a^opov), possessing only a relative value, which renders 
it in a greater or less degree capable of becoming an ob- 
ject of choice, of avoidance, or simply of toleration, (Xtjit- 
rov, aXrjTvrov, fX€<Tov^), 2dly. All actlous are conformable or 
unconformable to the character of the agent, KaO-^Kovra, 

irapa, ro KCcOy^KOv : the first being subdivided into KaOrjKOvra, 

TiXeTa,, and k. [/.ea-a ; the former, inasmuch as they are done 
in fulfilment of the law, are called good actions, Karo^6a>[/.aTa, 
and their contraries, transgressions, a/AapT-^/xara. The 
Karop6u)iA.a,Tcx, alone are virtuous and worthy of commenda- 
tion ; without respect to their consequences ^. Sd\y. 
Virtue is founded on Prudence (fpoV/ja-<?) ; it consists in a 
Rational and Spontaneous practice, consistent with itself, 
and with Nature ; having for its object the knowledge and 
the performance of what is good ^ : Or, again. Virtue is 
a system of conduct regulated by the principle, that no- 

* AuT. Cress. Comment, de Stoicorum Supremo Ethices Principio, Viteb. 
1797, 4to. 

^ Cic. Fin. III. 6; Cleanthes, Hymn. V. Dice. Laert. VII, 87. Stob. 
Eel. Eth. PI. II, pi 32. 132. 134. 138, sqq. 

•' JoH. Jac. Dornfeld, Diss, de Fine Ilominis Stoico, Lips. 1720, 4to. 

«= Cic. Fin. Ill, 3, 8. 15. 

'' Idem, 7. 9. 17, 18. Stob. Eel. Eth. II, p. 58, sqq. 

•^ DioG. Laert. VII, 89. AiaOtaig\oyovfieprj. Stob. Eel. Eth. II, 
p. 204 : AiaQtffig v^J'X'lC o('ii<pii)i'oq civrrj TTfpl o\ov tov (3ioi'. 


thing but the practice of good is good, and that therein 
alone consists the character of true hberty^ Vice is an 
inconsistent mode of action, (inconstantia), resulting from 
the neglect or the perversion of reason : the evil passions 
accompanying which are voluntary and blameable^. 4thly. 
Virtue being the only good, can alone enable us to attain 
felicity '' eChaifxovia : which latter consists in a tranquil 
course of life, {evppoia ^/ov), and cannot be augmented by 
any increase of duration \ 5thly. Virtue is one, and 
Vice is one : neither of them are capable of augmenta- 
tion or dimunition "*. All good actions are respectively 
equal, and in like manner all evil, inasmuch as they 
flow from the same sources. Virtue is manifested under 
four principal characters : Prudence, (f^ov»jcr<?) ; Courage, 
(avSpa); Temperance, (o'ojfpoo-tvTj) ; Justice, QiiKaioa-vvvj): with 
a corresponding number of Vices \ Cthly. The Virtuous 
man is exempt from Passions (Tra^v?), but not insensible 
to them. It is in this sense that we must understand the 
aitaSeia, of the Stoics "". The Passions ought to be not 

f Cic. Acad. QuEest. I, 10 ; Fin. Ill, 7 ; Tusc. Quaest. IV, 15; Paradoxon 
V. Plutarch. De Virt. Mor. c. 3. 

s Cic. Acad. Quaest. I, 10 ; Tusc. Quaest. IV, 9. 23. 

h Ben. Bendtsen, Progr. de avrapKeia rjjg dperjje TTpbg evdaifxoviav. 
Hafn. 1811, 4to. 

JoH. CoLMAR (praas. Ge. Paul. Rcetenbeccio), Diss, de Stoicorum et 
Aristotelis circa gradum necessitatis bonorum extemorum ad summam beatita- 
tem disceptatione, Nprimb. 1709, 4to. 

* Cic. Fin. Ill, 14. Stob. Eel. Etli. p. 138. 154. Diog. Laert. VII, 83. 

k Cic. De Fin. Ill, 14, 15. 

» Cic. Acad. Quaest. I, 10; Fin. Ill, 14, 15. 21; IV, 20— 27, sqq. 
Paradox. Ill, 1. Plutarch. De Virt. Mor. c. 2. Stob. Eel. Eth. PI. II, 
p. 110. 116.218.220. 

"' Cic. Acad. Qu^st. I, 10 ; Tusc. Quaest. IV, 16—19. A. Gellius, 
XIX, 2. 

Jon. Barth. Niemeyer, Dissert, de Stoicorum cnraOei^, etc. Helmst. 
1679, 4to. 

JoH. Beenii Dispp. Ill, de a7ra0£t^ Sapientis Stoici, Hafn. 1695, 4to. 

Jon. Henr. Fischer, Diss, de Stoicis diraedag falso suspectis. Lips, 

1716, 4to. 

Mich. Fr. Quadius, Diss. Hist. Philos. tritum illud Stoicorum Trapa^o^ov 
nepi cnraOtiag expendens, Sedini. 1720, 4to. 

t Chph. Meiners, On the Stoic Apathy : Verm. Philos. Schriften, torn. II, 

p. 130, s(\([. 

150 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

moderated but eradicated. The Wise man alone is free. 
Chrysippus mainly contributed to systematise the Ethics 
of the Stoics, and asserted that the principle of Right was 
founded in the ?iature of Reasonable Beings, {(pva-ei ku) /*»? 
eia-ei lUaiov) : and derived from this the characteristics of 
Natural Right. 

165. The Stoics admitted only two descriptions of 
men ; the good, o-ivovhaToi ; and the bad, ipavXoi : without al- 
lowing the existence of any intermediate class. With 
such a view they drew a portrait of their ideal Wise 
man"; with all the most sublime features of moral and 
intellectual perfection, but without a sufficient observa- 
tion of the differences v/hich must necessarily exist be- 
tween the ideal image and the reality; and more as if 
they were describing the qualities of a superior nature, 
than a degree of perfection attainable by man". On the 
same principle they permitted their Wise Man, under 
certain circumstances, to deprive himself of life (a.vro%ei§la), 
as a part of his absolute freedom p. In later times this 
licence was made still greater, particularly by the autho- 
rity of Seneca*^. The blending of the moral system of 
the Stoics with their views of Physics and Theology, and 
an imperfect estimate of the distinctions v/hich form the 
limits between the Law of Nature and Free-will, Morality 
and Felicity, gave occasion, in this system, to many incon- 
sistencies which are easily observable ; especially in their 
ideas of absolute liberty, and the incompatibility of this 
entire independence with Fate ^ The system bears also 
throughout a character of extravagant pride and asperity, 
which is hostile to the cultivation of moral sentiment. 
On the other hand, we find abundant germs of noble 

n t Ant. le Grand, The Stoic Wise Man. The Hague, 1662, 12mo. (Fr.). 

Erh. Reusch (praes. Omeisio), Diss. Vir Prudens Aristotelicus cum Sa- 
piente Stoico collatus, Altorf. 1704, 4to. 

« SioB. Eel. Eth., p. 198. 221. 

P Chr. Aug. IIeumann, Diss, de airoxetpi'^Pliilosophoium, Maxirae Stoi- 
corum, Jena. 1703, 4to. 

q Cic. Fin. Ill, 18. Dioc. VII, 130—176. Stou. Eel. Eth. II, p. 226. 

•• Cic. De Fato, c. 12, sqq., 17. A. Cell. VI, 2. 

165, IGG.] NEW ACADEMY. 151 

sentiments, calculated to elevate man, and inspire him 
with a sense of his own dignity : and it has on many occa- 
sions communicated to its disciples an invincible courage, 
and fortitude to resist all the rigours of Tyranny. 

V. Neiv Academy. 

Authorities : Cicero, Sextus Empiricus, Diog. Laertius, lib. IV. 

-|- Staudlin, work mentioned above (§ 38, II.) 

-j- FoucHER, History of the Academicians, Paris, 1G90, 12mo. 
Diss, de Pliilos. Academica, Paris. 1G92, 12mo. 

J. D. Gerlacii, Commentatio exhibens Academicorum Ju- 
niorum de Probabilitate Disputationes, Gotting. 1815, 4to. 

J. RuD. Thorbecke, Responsio ad Qu. Philos. : quaeritur in 
Dogmaticis oppugnandis numquid inter Academicos et Stoicos 
interfuerit ? Quod si ita sit, quaeritur, quae fuerit discriminis 
causa ? (Place ?) 1 820, 4to. 

166. The bold and uncompromising Dogmatism which 
prevailed in the Porch, and the bitter attacks made by 
Zeno and Chrysippus on the founder of the Academy', in- 
duced the successors of the latter to investigate, after a 
more scnpulous manner, the prevailing Dogmatical sys- 
tems, and in particular, that of the Stoics. The conse- 
quence was a habit of doubting in philosophical inquiries ; 
a habit which characterised a whole class of Academicians, 
in opposition to the practice of the original school : hence 
the New Academy ; the founder of which was Arcesilaus 
of Pitane, in ^Eolia *. This is sometimes called the aS'^- 
cond or the Middle Academy, with reference to the one 
which followed. After having previously applied him- 
self to the study of Poetry, Eloquence, and the Mathe- 
matics, this philosopher attended, at Athens, Theophras- 
tus, and afterwards Polemo. Grantor and Zeno were 
his fellow disciples under the latter : and their methodi- 
cal and innovating spirit incited him to contradiction. He 
subsequently took the place of Sosicrates, as Chief of 

* DioG. Laert. VII, 32. 
» Born 318 or 316 B.C. 

152 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

the Academy, and died 241 or 239 B. C. He was a phi- 
losopher of extensive knowledge, of great ability in Dia- 
lectics, and of stainless morals. 

167. The character thus introduced, by a spirit of 
doubt, into the Academy, was one of Diffidence ; which 
tended to circumscribe the pretensions of Philosophy, 
without denying the possibility of certain, or at least, of 
probable knowledge. In this manner, by the subtilty of 
his Logic, Arcesilaus brought into question the princi- 
pal Dogmatical doctrines, in order to open the way for 
more profound inquiries; and to this end introduced into 
the Academy the method oi Disputation^^, He attacked, 
above all, the (pavraa-ia. /caraXvjTTTiKvj, as it was termed, which 
Zeno taught, and admitted as a criterium in thesis while at 
the same time he denied it in hypothesis. Constantly op- 
posing himself to the opinions of his adversaries, he was 
drawn into a general Scepticism with regard to our know- 
ledge of the, Absolute Existence and nature of things y; 
so much scr^ that he denied the reality of any adequate 
criterium of Truth, and recommended, as a quality of wis- 
dom, a suspension of all definitive Judgment^. In Prac- 
tical philosophy, he maintained that the safest rule was the 
principle of Conformity to Reason; to el'Xoyov*. His im- 
mediate followers were Lacydes of Cyrene, Evander and 
Tclecles, both of Phocis ; and Hegesiniis of Pergamus^. 

168. But a much more distinguished personage fol- 
lowed in Carneades of Cyrene*^. He attended at first 
the school of the Stoics ; afterwards he became the pupil 

" Cic. Ac. Quaest. T, 12 ; II, 6, sqq. ; Fin. 11, 1. Diog. Laert. IV, 28. 
Plutahch. Adv. Coloten. c. 27. 

^ Cic. Ac. Qujcst. IT, 24. Sextus Adv. Math. VII, 154. 408, sqq. 

y Cic. Ac. Quaest. I, 12. Sext. Hypotyp. 1, 1. 4. 220—235 (where a dis- 
tinction is made between Pyrrhonism and the principles of the New Academy). 
Adv. Math. VII, U3. 

" Sext. Emp. Pyrrh. Hyp. I, 232, sqq. ; Adv. Math. VII, 150, sqq. 

» Sext. Adv. Math. VII, 158. Cf. Hyp. Pyrrh. I, 231. 

'' Diog. Laert. IV, 59, sqq. 

c Born ahout 215 died 130 V,. C. 

107, 108.] NEW ACADEMY. 153 

and successor of Hegesinus at the Academy ; and Iiaving 
been sent a deputy to Rome'', he excited universal ad- 
miration by his eloquence and his logic ^. This philo- 
sopher, who has by some been considered the founder of 
a Third Academy, directed his Scepticism more espe- 
cially against Chrysippus, with great oratorical and argu- 
mentative talent. Taking into consideration the two- 
fold relation of the favTaa-ia, to the object (to (pavraa-rov), 

and the subject {(pavtaaiovy.evoq), he concluded that there 
could be no real knowledge of any object, inasmuch as 
neither the senses nor the understanding afford a sure 
testimony (Koir-^piov) of its truth; and maintained that all 
that can be inferred is i)robahiUtij ^ (to TttBavov) ; in three 

distinct degrees : €y.poc(ri<;^ or ittdavy] (pavraa-ia : ccnefna-itoca-roq '. 
and tielul€viA.evri ^ Trepiu^evf^evvj (pawaa-la ^. In this COnsists the 

system of P rob abilities of Carneades {ei/XoyKTrta). He at- 
tacked the Theology of the Stoics in detail : proving 
that the Divinity cannot be conceived of as a %(oov: and 
that we cannot apply to him our ideas of Existence and 
Morality. He exposed, in like manner, by victorious de- 
monstration, the fallacies attending the practice of attri- 
buting to the Deity a human form *'. He defended against 
the Stoics, the existence of a Particular Natural Right ; 
and, on the subject of the Supreme Good, opposed to 
theirs the opinion of a certain CallipJio ; who made it 
consist in Virtue united to Pleasure. He threw consider- 
able light on practical morals, by comparing Civil with Na- 
tural Right ; and Prudence with Morality ; (making Pru- 
dence the principle of action ;) but for want of solving the 
apparent contradictions between these two principles he 
did injury to the cause of Virtue, tliough his own charac- 

«* See above § 158. 

e 598 of Rome ; 155 or 156 B. C. 

^ Cic. Ac. Quaest. II, 10, sqq. 

e Cic. Ac. Qujcst. II, 9.31, sqq. Skxt. Adv. Math. VII, 159, sqq. ; 161, 
167, sqq. Ei'SEB. Praepar. Evang. XIV, 7, scjq. 

'• Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 138, sqq.; 140, sqq. ; 182, sqq. Cic. De Nat. 
Deor. Ill, 12, sqq. ; De Divin. II, 3. 

154 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

ter was far from being opposed to iV. Clitomachus of Car- 
thage, the disciple and successor of Carneades (129 B. C), 
put the sceptical arguments of his master in writing''. 

169. The Stoics were sensible of the danger which 
menaced the foundations of their system, but the only 
answer they v/ere able to make was the reproach of in- 
consistency with which Antipater taxed the Academi- 
cians ', or they cut short their attacks by the downright 
assertion; That we ought not to endeavour to discover 
any new grounds of knowledge and certainty"^. Never- 
theless, Dogmatism and Scepticism in their respective 
schools, relaxed somewhat of their rigour, and a sort of 
reconciliation between them was brought about by Philo 
of Larissa and Antiochus of Ascalon", his pupil and 
follower, who became a teacher at Athens, Alexandria, 
and Rome. The first was the pupil and successor of 
Clitomachus ; he also taught at Rome, whither he re- 
treated during the war of Mithridates, a hundred years 
B. C, : and by some he has been considered the founder 
of a Fourth Academy. He confined Scepticism to a con- 
tradiction of the Metaphysics of the Stoics and their pre- 
tended criteria of knowledge*^: he contracted the sphere 
of Logic P : made Moral philosophy merely a matter of 
public instruction ; and endeavoured to prove that the 
old and new Academies equally doubted the certainty of 
speculative knowledge*^. Antiochus derived from the Con- 
science a strong argument against Scepticism % to which 

' Lact. Div. Instit. V, 14. 16, 17. Quintil. XII, 1. Cic. De Leg. I, 
13; Fin. II, 18. 

^ t Heinius, Dissertation on the Philosopher Clitomachus ; in the Memoirs 
of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin, 1748. 

' Cic. Ac. Qurest. II, 9. 34. 

m Ibid. 6'. 

" Died 69 B. C. 

" Sext. Hypotyp. I, 235. Cic. Ac. Qutest. II, 6. 

P That is if it is of him that Cicero writes, Ac. Quasst. II, 28. 

1 Cic. Ac. Quxst. II, 5. 23. Skxt. Hyp. I, 220. Srou. Eel. Eth. II, 
p. 38, sqq. 

■■ Cic. Ac. Quaest. II, 8, sqq., 34. 

1G9, 170.] NEW ACADEMY. 155 

in his youth he was incUnctl. Consequently, he hecame 
an opponent of his master ^ : and in the end endeavoured 
to demonstrate the identity of the Academic, Peripatetic, 
and Stoic doctrines with respect to Morals^; maintaining 
that the differences were merely nominal. He has heen 
improperly regarded by some as the founder of a Fifth 
Academy ; for he rather approximated the doctrine of 
the Stoics ; inasmuch as he admitted that there is a de- 
gree of certainty in Human Knowledge " ; and rejected 
the system of Probabilities of the Academy. These two 
attempts at union were the prelude to many more''. 

In his moral system, Antiochus treated self-love as the 
Primum Mobile of men and animals ; considering its ope- 
ration to be at first instinctive; and afterwards aided by 
consciousness and reason. In this respect he modified 
and tempered the Stoic principle y. 

170. Thus was the debate between Dogmatism and 
Scepticism for a time suspended : and the latter, at 
least, ceased to be heard of in the Academy. It is true 
that all these disputes had not settled the grand point 
in question ; whether there be any solid principle and 
foundation for knowledge in general, and, in particular, 
for Philosophic Knowledge : but by the observation of 
Moral Consciousness the disputants had come to the 
conclusion that something stable and certain in know- 
ledge is necessary ; and had drawn broader distinctions 
between what belongs to the subject (man), and what 
relates to the external object. 

The four great philosophical factions continued to 
maintain at Athens their several schools, close by each 
other, without mutually interrupting their discussions ; 
and prosecuted, but with less vivacity than of old, their 
ancient disputes. 

« Cic. Ac. Quaest. I, 4; II, 4. 22. 
t Cic. De Fin. II, 3.8.25. 
" Cic. Ac. Quaest. II, 7. 11. 13, sqq., 21. 

" Cic. Ac. Quaest. II, I. 1., et 35, 43, sqq.; De Fin. V, 3. 7 ; De Nat. 
Deor. I, 7. Sext. Emp. Hyp. 1, 233. 
y Cic. Fin. V, 8, 9. 11, sqq., 21, sqq. 


156 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 



Propagation and Downfal of Grecian Philosophy. 

General Sketch. 

171. Scepticism, after it had lost much of its influence 
in the Academy, re-appeared in the schools of Medicine : 
where it called forth fresh inquiries on the part of those 
who were inclined to more positive doctrines : inquiries 
which were fostered by the increased intercourse which 
had taken place between the Orientals and the Greeks, 
as well as by some other great external events, such as 
the conquests of Alexander and the Romans, and, sub- 
sequently, the growth of Christianity. Combined with 
other causes, these events contained the principle of the 
decline and fall of Grecian philosophy, at the same time 
that they laid open new paths to the spirit of Philosophic 

17^. Alexander^ had annihilated the republican liberty 
of Greece and subdued to the Grecian arms, together with 
Egypt, the whole of Asia, as far as the Indus : thus open- 
ing tlie way for an active commerce between the East and 
the West, which contributed to enlarge the sphere of Gre- 
cian art and science. Alexandria, that mighty commercial 
city which gradually succeeded to the importance of fallen 
Athens, strengthened these distant relations, and helped 
to convert them to the interests of science. The Ptole- 

« Died 323 B.C. 

171—173.] GENERAL SKETCH. 157 

mies, the successors of Alexander in Egypt ^, aided the 
cause of knowledge by founding their famous Library and 
Museum ; although original inquiry appears to have been 
damped by this vast accumulation of scientific resources, 
and the facility with which they were accessible. A pro- 
gressive decline became observable in the Spirit of Phi- 
losophy, which was gradually directed to humbler ob- 
jects, of a more pedantic character ; such as Comment- 
aries, Comparisons, Miscellanies, Compilations, etc. etc. 
Reference may be made to : 

CiiR. GoTTL. Heyne, De Genio Seculi Ptolemoeorum. Opusc. 
Acad., vol. I, p. 76. 

Chr. Uan. Beck, Specimen Historian Bibliotliecanim Alex- 
andrinarum, L'tps, 1779, 4to. 

§ 173. 

See the Works mentioned § 38. 

The Romans, a nation of mere warriors and conquerors, 
with whom the interests of their Republic outweighed 
all others, became acquainted with Grecian philosophy, 
particularly with the Peripatetic, Academic, and Stoic 
doctrines, only after the conquest of Greece ; and more 
especially through the intervention of three philosophers 
whom the Athenians deputed to Rome^. In spite of 
determined prejudices and reiterated denunciations^, one 
of these doctrines (that of the Academy), daily gained 
disciples there ; especially when Lucullus and Sylla had 
enriched the Capital with conquered libraries. The lat- 
ter, after the capture of Athens, 84 B. C, sent thither 
the collection of Apellicon, which was particularly rich in 
the works of Aristotle. 

" Third century B.C. 
c 155 B.C. 

Levesow, I")e Carneacle, Diogcne et Ciilolao, el de Causis Neglect! studii 
Philosophi;e apud Antiquiores Romanos, Swtlin. 1795. 

Dan. BohTiiii Digest, de I'hilosophia' nomine apud \'eteres Romanos in- 
viso, Upsal. 1790, 4to. 

J A. Gki,i., N. a. XV, U. 


158 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

The Romans almost always looked upon philosophy as 
a mean to attam some personal or political end : betray- 
ing by that very circumstance their want of a genuine 
philosophic spirit. Nevertheless they eventually became 
the depositaries of Grecian philosophy. 

174. Christianity, the religion of the ^' Pure in Heart," 
which prescribed a disinterested love of our neighbours, 
and proclaimed to all mankind, without any outward dis- 
play of philosophy, the reconciliation of God to Man, 
afforded, as it were, a fresh text, of the highest interest ; 
which was no less capable of being enforced by reason 
than by revelation. It has exercised a various influence 
over the progress of Philosophical Reason, by the matter 
of its doctrines, as well as by their form. 

175. The Spirit of research of Grecian Philosophy, 
once so original and independent, was exhausted. Rea- 
son had tried every path, every direction then open to 
her, without being able to satisfy herself: because she 
had not advanced to the original sources of knowledge, 
and consequently had continued an enigma to herself. 
The different philosophic systems had viewed truth only 
in one of its aspects ; and consequently were involved in 
errors. The want of philosophical method had rendered 
the disentanglement of these errors the more difficult ; 
and a reconciliation or adjustment had become impossible 
between the different sects, whose disputes, v/hile they 
prevented the understanding from sinking into lethargy, 
had also the effect of detracting from the pure and disin- 
terested love of Truth. Consequently, the efforts of 
Science were not so much directed to the investigation of 
the first principles of knowledge, as to maintain, consoli- 
date, illustrate, and apply conclusions which had been 
already drawn. 

17G. The political, rehgious, and moral condition of the 
Roman Empire during the first centuries after the Chris- 
tian era, were not such as to animate and sustain a spirit 

174—178.] GENERAL SKETCH. 159 

of philosophical research. Greece had lost her political 
existence ; Rome her republican constitution. Beginning 
with the Capital, Luxury, Egotism, and Indolence, had 
spread their reign to the remotest provinces. The cha- 
racteristic features of the period were a neglect of the 
popular religion ; a preference for foreign rites ; (of 
which an incongruous medley was tolerated) ; a widely 
prevalent superstition ; a disdain of what was Natural ; a 
mania for what was strange and extraordinary : a curious 
prying into the (pretended) occult arts ; with an extinc- 
tion of all sentiments truly great and noble. Such are 
the characteristics given by the Epicurean Lucian of Sa- 
mosata (2nd. cent. A. C.) in a Satire, which exposes with 
the most poignant ridicule the false philosophy of his age. 
(Cf. § 181). 

See -f Chph. Meiners, History of the Decline of Morals 
under the Roman Government, Leips. 1782, 8vo. 

177. Consequently the efforts of the understandhig 
were directed in various ways, and tended: 1st. To main- 
tain the Schools and Systems already existing ; not with- 
out considerable modifications. Sdly. To revive superan- 
nuated doctrines, such as those of the Pythagorean and 
Orphic philosophies, odly. To combine by Interpretation, 
Syncretism, or Eclecticism,* the various systems ; espe- 
cially those of Plato and Aristotle ; and to trace them all 
back to the ancient Dogmata of Pythagoras, the pretended 
Orpheus, Zoroaster, and Hermes ^. 4thly. To combine 
in one the Spirit of Oriental and Occidental philosophy. 

178. Nevertheless philosophy made at least some ap- 
parent progress, and extended the outward limits of her 
reign, if she did not improve the territory she had already 
acquired. The Romans and the Jews by this time had 
made themselves acquainted with the doctrines of the 

* [^Syncretiim professes to combine the elements of diffuient systems : Eclec- 
ticism to select from all what is consistent with truth. Tiaiis.'\ 

« Cf. L. E. Otto Baumgartkn-Crvsius, De Llbiorum Ilermeticorum ori- 
gine atque Indole, Jen. 1827, 4to. 

160 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Greeks, and had produced some philosophical works 
sufficiently original. Nor does this progress of philo- 
sophy appear to have been merely external ; inasmuch as 
Scepticism assumed a more decided character, and gave 
occasion for a fresh Dogmatical system in the school of 
the Platonists. By imagining a new source of know- 
ledge, consisting in the contemplation of that which is 
absolute ; by labouring to combine the old and the new 
theories of the East and the West, they endeavoured to 
provide a broader basis for Dogmatic philosophy, to 
prop up religion, and to oppose a barrier to the rapid 
progress of Christianity ; but eventually lost themselves | 
in the dreams of Metaphysics. On the other hand the 
Doctors of the Catholic Faith, who at one time had re- 
jected and contemned the philosophy of the Greeks, 
ended by adopting it, at least in part, in order to complete 
and fortify their religious system. The invasions of the 
barbarous tribes, and the disunion of the Eastern and 
Western empires brought on at last an almost utter ex- 
tinction of Philosophical research. 

Introduction and Cultivation of Grecian Philosophy 

among the Homans. 

179. Unquestionably the national character of the Ro- 
mans, more disposed for action than speculation, did not 
encourage philosophy to spring up among them unas- 
sisted ^. The revolutions also in their government, the 
loss of their republican constitution, the tyranny of the 
greater part of their emperors, and the general and con- 
tinually increasing corruption were little favourable to the 
development of a truly philosophical spirit, yet from 
time to time they manifested a degree of interest in such 
researches, which they looked upon as indispensable to 
a cultivated mind, and as serviceable for certain civil 
offices. Agreeably to their native character and habits 

^ K. F. Henneu, De Tmpedimentis, quai apud Vett. Romanes Pliilosophias 
negaverint successum, Hal. 1825. See also the authors mentioned at the 
liead of $ 24, />. 

179.] CICERO. IGl 

they sliowed more predilection for the doctrines of the 
Porch or of Epicurus, than tliose of Plato and Aristotle ; 
which were of a more speculative character. The Ro- 
mans thus applied themselves to Grecian philosophy ; 
successfully transferred into their own language some of 
its treatises ; enriched by the application of them their 
jurisprudence and polity, but did not advance a step by 
any original discovery of their own. Consequently, we 
can distinguish only a small number of Latins who have 
deserved a page in the history of philosophy. We shall 
proceed to mention the principal of those among them, 
who, whether Romans or foreigners, cultivated and dif- 
fused the philosophy of the Greeks, with some partial 
modifications in their manner of teaching it. 


Authorities : The works of Cicero ; Plutarch. Life of Cicero. 

f MoRABiN, History of Cicero, Paris, 1745, 2 vols. 4to. 

CoNYERS MiDDLETON, Life of Cicero. (Several editions). 

Jac. Facciolati, Vita Ciceronis Litteraria, Patav. 1760, 8vo. 

H. Chr. Fr. Hulsemann, De Indole Philosophica M. T. 
Ciceronis ex ingenii ipsius et aliis rationibus aestimanda, Luneh. 
1799, 4to. 

Gautier de Sibert, Examen de la Philosophic de Ciceron ; 
dans les Mem. de lAcad. des Inscr. torn. XLI et XLIII. 

Chph. Meiners, Oratio de Philosophia Ciceronis ejusque 
in Universam Philosopliiam meritis ; Verm. Philos. Schriften, 
L § 274. 

J. Chph. Briegleb, Progr. de Philosophia Ciceronis, Cob. 
1784, 4to. Et, De Cicerone cum Epicuro Disputante, Ibid. 
1779, 4to. 

J. C. Waldin, Oratio de Philosophia Ciceronis Platonica, 
Jen. 1753, 4to. 

Math. Fremling (resp. Schantz), Philosophia Ciceronis, 
Lund. 1795, 4to. 

f J. Fr. Herbart, Dissert, on the Philosophy of Cicero : in 
the Konigsb. Archiv. No. I. 

R. KiinNER, M. T. Ciceronis in Philosophiam ejusq. partes 
merita, Hamburg, 1825, 8vo. 



162 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Adam Bursii Logica Ciceronis Stoica, Zamosc. 1604, 4to. 

CoNR. Nahmmacheri Theologia Ciceronis; accedit Ontologias 
Ciceronis specimen. Frankenh. 1767, 8vo. 

Dan. Wyttenbachii Dissert, de Philosophiae Ciceronianae 
Loco qui est de Deo, Amstel. 1783, 4to. 

•f An Essay towards settling the Dispute between Middleton 
and Ernesti on the Philosophic Character of the Treatise De Na- 
tura Deorum ; in five Dissert. Altona and Leips. 1800, 8vo. 

Gasp. Jul. Wunderlich (resp. Andr. Schmaler), Cicero de 
Anima Platonizans Disp. Viteb. 1714, 4to. 

Ant. Bucheri Ethica Ciceroniana, Hamb. 1610, 8vo. 

Jasonis de Nores, Brevis et Distincta Institutio in Cic. 
Philos. de Vita et Moribus, Patav. 1597. 

180. M. T. Ciceroni like many other young Romans 
of good family, was instructed by Greek preceptors. In 
order to improve himself in eloquence and the science of 
polity, he travelled to Rhodes and Athens ; where he 
occupied himself with the pursuit of Grecian philosophy, 
directing his attention particularly to the Academic and 
Stoic systems. He owed, in part, his success as an orator 
and a statesman to the ardour with which he devoted him- 
self to these studies. At a later period of his life, when 
his career as a statesman was closed by the fall of the 
Republic, with his characteristic patriotism, he conse- 
crated his leisure to the discussion of points of philosophy ; 
labouring to transplant the theories of the Greeks into his 
native soil : with little gratitude on the part of his coun- 
trymen '^. In all speculative questions he maintained the 
freedom of opinion and the impartiality which became a 
disciple of the New Academy: following the method also of 
that school in the form of his writings. In questions of 
morality he preferred the rigid principles of the Stoics'; 
but not without doing justice to Plato, Aristotle, and even 
Epicurus, (as far as the correctness of his life was con- 
cerned ''). His philosophical works, in which he appears 
to have made Plato his model, are a most valuable collec- 

s Born at Arpinum, 107 B. C, died A. D. 44. 
'' Cic. Orat. pro Sextio. Plutarch. Vit. Cic. V. 
* De Offic. I, 2. 
^ De Nat. Deor. I, 5 : Acad. Qua-st. IV, 3. 

180, 181.] EPICUREANS. 163 

tion of interesting discussions, and luminous remarks on 
the most important topics, e. g. On the Nature of the 
Divinity; On the Supreme Good; On the Social Duties; 
On Fate ; Divination ; the Laws ; the Republic, etc. 
etc. ^ : and have proved a mine of information to succeed- 
ing ages, without however betraying any great depth of 
thought. They are likewise highly valuable as throwing 
light on the history of philosophy "^, and have contributed 
to form the technical language of this science. 


181. The doctrine of Epicurus when first disseminated 
in their country attracted among the Romans a crowd of 
partisans", in consequence of its light and accommo- 
dating character, and the indulgence it afforded to the in- 
clinations of all ° ; as also because it had the effect of dis- 
engaging the mind from superstitious terrors. Unhappily 
it favoured at the same time a frivolous and trifling spirit. 
Very few of the Roman Epicureans distinguished them- 
selves by a truly philosophical character ; and even these 
adhered literally to the doctrines of their master, without 
advancing a step beyond them. Such, among others, 
was Lucretius^ i who gave a statement of those doctrines 
in his didactic poem De Rerum Natitrd : as a poem, a 
work of superior merit '^. 

' De Div. II, Init. 

"» M. T. Ciceronis Historia Philosophiatj Antiquae. Ex illius Script, ed. 
Fried. Gedike, Berl. 1782, 8vo. 

° Among the most considerable were, Catius and Amafanius ; C. Cassius, 
Tit. Pomponius Atticus, Caius Velleius, Bassus Aufidius ; add to these the 
poet Horace, with several more. 

Cic. Fin. I, 7 ; Tusc. Quaest. IV, 3 ; Ep. ad Div. XV, 19. Senec. Ep. 
21, 30. 

P Born 95, died 50 B. C. 

1 C. Plinius Secundus, author of the Natural History, who died A.D. 
79, by the eruption of Vesuvius, and Lucian of Samosata, the satirist ($ 176), 
who flourished in the second cent, after Christ, (see t J. C. Tiemann, On the 
Philosophy and Language of Lucian, Zerbst. 1804, 8vo.), have been num- 
bered among the Epicureans without sufficient grounds : as well as the con- 
temporaries of the latter, Diogenes Laertius (flourished about 211), and Cel- 


164 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Stoics and Cynics, 

f C. P. CoNz. Dissertations on the Hist, and Characteristics 
of the later Stoic Philosophy ; with an Essay on Christian Mo- 
rality, on Kant, and the Stoics, Tiih. 1794, 8vo. 

G. P. HoLLENBERG, Dc PrsBcipuis Stoicae Philosophiae Doc- 
toribus et Patronis apud Romanos, Leips. 1793, 4to. 

J. A. L. Wegscheider, Ethices Stoicorum recentiorum funda- 
menta ex ipsorum scriptis eruta, cum principiis Ethicis quae critica 
rationis practicae sec. Kantium exhibet, comparata, Hamh. 1797, 

182. Next to those of Epicurus, the doctrines of the 
Stoics obtained the greatest success at Rome, especially 
among men of a severer character'^, who had devoted 
their lives to public affairs. With such men, the Stoic 
philosophy being more closely applied to real life, and 
exercising a marked influence over legislation and the 
administration of the laws^, naturally acquired a more 

sus. The latter is known to us as an adversary of Christianity by the work of 
Origen. By some he is esteemed a Neoplatonist. 

' Such, in the days of the Republic, were the Scipios, and, in particular, 
the second Scipio Africanus, cf. § 158. C.Laelius; the jurisconsult Pub. 
Rutilius Rufus, Q. Tubero, Q. Mucins Scaevola the augur j and subsequently, 
Calo of Utica, and M. Brutus, the assassin of Caesar. 

« See the preceding note. 

We must here take notice of the sect of the Proculians, founded. In the 
time of Augustus, by Antistius Labeo, and his disciple Semp. Proculus. This 
sect was formed in opposition to that of the Sabinians, headed by Masurius 
Sabinus, a disciple of C. Ateius Capito. See Just. Henning. Bcehmeri 
Progr. de Philosophia Jureconsultorum Stoica, Hal. 1701, 4to. 

Ever. Ottonis, Oratio de Stoica veteruni Jurisconsultorum Philosophia, 
Duish. 1714, 4to. 

J. Sam. Herino, De Stoica veterum Romanorum Jurisprudentia, Stettin. 

These three works are collected in that of Gottlieb Slevoigt, De Sectis 
et Philosophic Jurisconsultorum Opuscc. Jen. 1724, 8vo. 

Chr. Westphal, De StoC Jurisconsultor. Roman. Rest. 1727, 4to. 

Chr. Fried. Geo. Meister, Progr. de Philosophia Jurisconsultorum Ro- 
manorum Stoica in DoctrinC de Corporibus eorumque partibus, Gott. 1756, 

Jo. GoDOFR. ScHAUMBURG, Dc Jurisprud. veterum Jurisconsultorum 
Stoica, Jen. 1745, 8vo. 

t J. An DR. Ortloff, On the Influence of the Stoic Philos. over the Juris- 
prudence of the Romans : a Philos. and Jurisprudential Dissert. Erlang. 


practical spirit, and began to disengage itself in some de- 
gree from speculative subtilties. Besides Athenodorus 
of Tarsus*, C Musonius Rufiis the Volsinian", Anncetis 
Cornutiis or Phornutus'' of Leptis, in Africa, (the two last 
expelled from Rome by Nero about 66 A. C), Cheer emon 
of Egypt, who was a preceptor of Nero, Euphrates of 
Alexandria, Dio of Prusa, or Dio Chrijsostom y, Basilides 
and others, we must not forget, as having distinguished 
themselves in Moral philosophy or by their practical wis- 
dom, Seneca'', Epictetus of HierapoHs in Phrygia, a 

• Flourished about two years after Christ. 

t Sevix, Researches concerning the Life and Works of Athenodorus, in 
the Mem. of the Acad, of Inscr. torn. XIII. 

J. Fr. Hoffmanni Diss, de Athenodoro Tarsensi, Philosopho Stoico, Lips. 
1732, 4to. 

" t BuRiGNY, Mem. on the Philosopher Musonius, in the Mem. of the 
Acad, of Inscr. torn. XXXI. 

C. MusoNii RuFi Reliquiae et Apothegmata, ed. J. V. Peerlkamp, Harl. 
1822, 8vo. 

D. Wyttenbachii Diss. (resp. Niewland), de Musonio Rufo Philoso- 
pho Stoico, Amstel. 1783, 4to. 

t Four unedited Fragments of the Stoic Philosopher Musonius, translated 
from the Greek, with an Introduction respecting his Life and Philosophy, by 
G. H. MosER, accompanied by the article of Creuzer on this publication, in 
the Studien, 1810, torn. VI, p. 74. 

'' D. Martini Disp. de L. Ann^eo Cornuto, Phil, Stoico. Liigd. Bat. 
1825, 8vo. To him is attributed the Oeojpia Trepl Trjg tCjv OtCJv (pvaeoig, re- 
published by Gale, Opusc. M. et Ph. p. 137. 

y Both flourished under Trajan and Adrian. 

^ Luc. Ann. Seneca, of Corduba in Spain ; the preceptor of Nero. Born 
about 3, died 65 A. C. 

Senecae Opera ed. Ruiikopf. Lips. 1797, sqq. 6 vols. 8vo. 

Essay on the Life of the Philosopher Seneca, on his Works, and the Reigns 
of Claudius and Nero, with Notes (by Diderot), Paris, 1778, 12mo. 

It is to be found also in the collection of his works, and the French transla- 
tion of Seneca by La Grange. 

t FtL. Nuscheler, The Character of Seneca as deduced from his Life and 
Writings, Zurich, 1783, 8vo. 1 vol. 

C. P. CoNz, On the Life and Character of Seneca : as a preface to a trans- 
lation of the Consolatio ad Helv. etc. Tubing, 1792, 8vo. 

Jo. Jac.Czolbe, Vindiciae SenecaB, Jen. 1791, 4to. 

Jo. Andr. Schmidii Disp. de Senec& ejusque Theologia, Jen. 1668, 4to. 

Jo. Ph. Apini, Disp. de Religione Seneca, Viteh. 1692, 4to. 

JusTi SiBERi Seneca Divinii Oraculis quodammodo consonans, Dresd. 
1675, 12ino. 

Fried. Chr. Gelpke, Tractatiuncula de Farailiarilate qua; Paulo Apos- 

166 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

slave who preserved nevertheless a free spirit ^, and who, 
having been banished from Rome, established a school 
at Nicopolis in Epirus ^ : Arrian ^ a disciple of the pre- 
ceding, whose doctrines he preserved in writing, and 
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus , the philosophic emperor % and 

tolo cum Seneca Philosopho Intercessisse traditur verisimilliraa, Lips. 1813, 


Christ. Ferd. Schulze, Prolegomena ad Senecae Librum de Vit^ Beata, 
Lips. 1797, 4to. 

t L. Ann. Seneca, by Joh. Ge. Carl. Klotzscii, Wittemh. 1799, 1802, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

Henr. Aug. Schick, Diss, de Causis, quibus Zeno et Seneca in Philosophia 
discrepent, Marh. 1822, 4to. 

E. J. Werner, De Senecse Philosophia, Berol. 1825, 8vo. 

z Epicteti Enchiridium et Arriani Dissert. Epicteteae ; edid. J. Schweig- 
H^usER ; Epicteteae Philosophiae Monumenta, etc, Lips. 1799, 1800, 5 vols. 

t The Manual of Epictetus translated into German by Linck, N^iirenfe. 1783 j 
and by Thiele, Francf. 1790. 

Works of Epictetus, translated by Carter (Mrs.), Lond. 1758, 4to. 

t Arrian, Conversations of Epictetus v^^ith his Disciples, translated, with 
Remarks Historical and Philosophical, and a Brief Exposition of the Philoso- 
phy of Epictetus, by J. Math. Schulz, Altona, 1801 — 3, 2 vols, large 8vo. 

t Giles Boileau, Life of Epictetus, and Account of his Philosophy, se- 
cond edition, revised and corrected, Paris, 1667, 12mo. 

M. RossAL, Disquisitio de Epicteto qua probatur eum non fuisse Christia- 
num, Groning. 1708, 8vo. 

Jo. Dav. Schwendneri Idea Philosophiae Epicteteae ex Enchiridio deli- 
neata. Lips. 1681, 4to. 

Chph. Aug. Heumanni Diss, de Philosophia Epicteti, Jen. 1703, 4to. 

LuD. Chr. Crellii Diss. II, to. tov ''ETriKTrfTov vTrepcro^a icai aao^a in 
Doctrin^ de Deo et Officiis erga se ipsum, Lips. 1711-16, 4to. 

Jo. Erd. Waltheri Diss, de Vita regenda secundum Epictetum, Lips. 
1747, 4to. 

t H. Kunhardt, On the Principal Points of the Ethics of the Stoics, after 
the INIanual of Epictetus : in the Neues Museimi der Philos. und Literatur, 
published by Bouterweck, torn. I, fascic. 2 ; and tom. 11, fascic. 1. 

t J. Franc. Beyer, On Epictetus and his Manual of Stoical Morality, 
Marb. 1795, 8vo. 

a Flourished about 90 A. C. 

^ Flavins Arrianus of Nicomedia, prefect of Cappadocia in 134. 

<= Became emperor in 161, died 180 A.C. 

Antonini Commentarii ad se ipsum (ftg tavTov j3ij3\ia ^mSsku), ed. Thom. 
Gataker ; Wolle; Morus 3 Jo. Math. Schulz; Slesv. 1802, sqq., 8vo. 
Translated into German by the same, with Observations and an Essay on the 
Philosophy of Antoninus, Schlesiv. 1799, 8vo. 


disciple of the Stoic Q. Sextus of Chaeronea, the grand- 
son of Plutarch. Seneca^ who appreciated the truth 
which he discovered in various systems of philosophy but 
principally attached himself to that of the Portico '', was 
one of the first who drew a distinction between a Scho- 
lastic and Practical philosophy. The latter he judged 
the most essential, its primary object being individual 
Morality; (Philosophia Prceceptiva), He gave admir- 
able rules of conduct, after the principles of the Stoics ®, 
but betraying at the same time considerable predilection 
for Exaggeration and Antithesis ^ Ejnctetus reduced 
the moral system of the Stoics to a simple formulary, 
avexov Ka) a7re%oi;, sustuie ct ahst'iue : and assumed as his 
leading principle, Freedom. 

Antoninus imparted to the same system a character of 
gentleness and benevolence, by making it subordinate to 
a love of Mankind, allied to Religion. These two last 
are much less decided advocates of suicide than Seneca 
(§ 1G5). About this period a great number of writings 
of this school proclaimed a more fixed belief in the im- 
mortality of the Soul. — Of the Cynics the most distin- 
guished during the second century were : Demonax of 
Cyprus, who taught at Athens ; Crescens of Megalopolis, 
and Peregrinus, surnamed Proteus, of Parium in Mysia; 
who, they say, burnt himself at Olympia about 1G8 A. C. 

The two last contributed nothing to the cause of 
Science ^. 

CiiPH. Meiners, De JM. Aurelii Antonini ingenio, Moribus et Scriplis, in 
Comment. Soc. Gotting. 1784, torn. IV, p. 107. 

Cf. C. Fr. Walcihi Comm. de Heligione M. Aur. Antonini in numina 
celebrate, Acta Soc. Lat. Jenensis, p. 209. 

J. Dav. Koeleri Diss, de Philosophiji M. Aurel. Antonini in Theoria et 
Praxi, Alton. 1717, 4to. 

Jo. Franc. Buddei Inlioductio ad Philosophiam Stoicam ad raentem M. 
Antonini ; prefixed to the edition of Antoninus by Woli-, Leips. 1729, 8vo. 

t J. W. Reche, Essay towards a Statement of the Stoic Maxims according 
to the Views of Antoninus : in his translation of Antonin. Francf. 1797, Bvo. 

d Ep. 20. 45. 82. 108. 

« Ep. 94. 

^ QuiNTiL. Inst. X, I. 

6 LuciAN, Demonax, et de INIorte Peregrini,— Cf. A. Gelhus, N. A. VIII, 
3; XII, 11. 

168 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 


On each of the Philosophers mentioned in this section, consult 
Suidas, and the first volume of Patricius, a work cited § 139. 

183. The philosophy of Aristotle was not suited to the 
practical chdiYdiCiev of the Roman mind, and such as de- 
voted themselves to the study of it, becam-e mere commen- 
tators of various merit or demerit. We must account 
Peripatetics : Aficlronicus of Rhodes (§ 1 50), who arranged 
and expounded at Rome the works of Aristotle ^ ; Cra~ 
tippus of Mitylene, whom Cicero the Younger and seve- 
ral other Romans attended at Athens '' ; Nicolas of Da- 
mascus * ; Xenarchus of Seleucia, who as well as the pre- 
ceding, gave lessons in the time of Augustus ; Alexander 
of i^gas, one of the preceptors of Nero ^ ; Adrastus of 
Aphrodisias ^ ; and more especially the celebrated com- 
mentator Alexander of Aphrodisias"",* the disciple of 
Herminus and Aristocles, who taught at Alexandria. 

s Flourished about 80 B. C. 

It is thought that he was not really the author of the book Yisgl ttciQwv, ed. 
HoEscHEL, Aug. Vind. 1594; and the Paraphrase of Aristotle's Ethics, ed. 
Dan. Heinsius, Lugd. B. 1607, 4to. ; 1617, 8vo. ; Cantab. 1678, 8vo. 

h Flourished about 48 B. C. 

• t Franc. Sevik, Inquiry concerning the Life and Works of Nicolas 
Damascenus, in the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions ; and the Frag- 
ments of NicolausDam., published by Orelli, Lips. 1804 ; Suppl. 1811, 8vo. 
Some critics have attributed to him, without sufficient grounds, the book 
Titpi Kocr/jiov, found among the works of Aristotle. 

^ To him are attributed the Commentaries on the Meteorologies and Meta- 
physics of Aristotle, which by others are assigned to Alexander Aphrodisi- 

' Second century after Christ. 

™ At Venice and Florence have been printed, in the sixteenth century, in 
a separate form, the different Commentaries attributed to him, on the following 
works of Aristotle : 

The Analytica Priora, the Topics, the Elenchi Sophistarum, the books De 
Sensu et Sensibili, the Physics, with the treatises Dc Anim^, and De Fato 
(ritpi tlfiapnkvi]Q Kai tov tcp' rjjxXv). 

Cf. Casiri Biblioth. Arabico-Hisp., vol. I, p. 243, for the works of Alex- 
ander of Aphrodisias. 

* Called, by way of eminence, the Commentator. 

183, 184.] NEW PYTHAGOREANS. 109 

He founded a school of commentators/* which bore his 
name, and attacked the Stoic doctrine of Fatahsm, which 
he declared irreconcileable with Morality. Among the 
Syncretic Peripatetics, may be mentioned Ammonius of 
Alexandria, who taught at Athens"; Themlstius of Paph- 
lagonia; Syrianus and ShnpUcius^. (See § 2^^1). The 
commentaries of the latter, next to those of Alexander of 
Aphrodisias, are the most distinguished production of 
these schools. 

Neiu Pythagoreans, 

184. Pythagoras, whose reputation and even whose 
philosophy had long been familiar to the Romans '' ; had 
at the period of which we are treating a large number of 
follow ers : his exemplary life, and still more the myste- 
rious character of his history and his doctrines, being the 
principal causes of the species of enthusiastic reverence 
with which he was regarded. Some Moral Reformers 
wished to adopt his principles of practice: of which nvmi- 
ber w ere Qu. Sextius ^, (a Roman who wrote in Greek), 
and Sotion of Alexandria' ; both of them acquainted with 
Seneca at Rome^: and to this class of Pythagoreans it is 
probable that we should refer Apollonius of Tyana, in 

* Surnamed the Alexandrians and Alexandrists. He differed from Aris- 
totle in his doctrine respecting the soul. 

" In the first century. Plut. de Ei apud Delph. ed. Reiske, torn, vii, p. 
512, sqq., et torn. VI, p. 260. 

His various commentaries on the works of Aristotle (especially his phy- 
sical treatises), were published at Venice, at the end of the fifteenth and be- 
ginning of the sixteenth centuries. 

His Comment, on the JManual of Epict. has been given by Schweigh. 
Monum. Epict. Phil. torn. IV. 

P Cic. De Senect., c. 21 ; Tusc. IV, 2. 

1 Or Sextus. He flourished about 2 A. C. 

He must not be confounded with Sextus of Chaeronea ($ 182), the Stoic. 
His Moral Sentences are to be found in the dubious translation of IIuffinus, 
published by Th. Gale, Opusc. INIythol. Phys., etc- p. 645, sqq. 

De Burigny, On the Philosophical System of Sextius, in the Memoirs of 
the Academy of Inscriptions, torn. XXXI. 

•■ About 15 A. C. 

* Seneca, Ep. 108. 

170 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Cappadocia*, a disciple of Euxenus of Heraclea, in Pon- 
tus, an imitator of Pythagoras, and a pretender to divina- 
tion ; and finally, Secundus of Athens ". Others (for in- 
stance, Atiaxilaus of Larissa, banished from Italy under 
a suspicion of magical practices ''), applied the principles 
of Pythagoras to the study of Nature; or, like Moderatus 
of Gades ^, and Nicomachus of Gerasa % endeavoured to 
discover, in the Pythagorean doctrine of Numbers, a sub- 
lime and occult science % which they blended with the 
theories of Plato. 


See the works mentioned § 200 ; particularly that of Route r- 


185. After the downfal of the Sceptic Academy (§ 169, 
170), even in the time of Augustus, a new school of Pla- 
tonists began to form itself, and became popular. Among 

t Flourished about 70 A. C. 

Flavius Philostratus de Vita Apollonii Tyanaei, in Philostratorum 0pp. cura 
Olearii, Lips. 1709, fol. : where are printed, with many other letters, those 
attributed to Apollonius. 

Jo. Laur. Mosheim, Diss, de Existimatione Apollonii Tyanaei ; in ejus 
Commentationib. et Oratt. Var. Arg. Hamh. 1751, 8vo., p. 347, sqq. 

SiGiSM. Chr. Klose, Diss. II de Apollonio Tyanensi Philosopho Pythago- 
rico Thaumaturgo, et de Philostrato, Viteh. 1723-24, 4to. 

J. C. Herzoc, Diss. Philosophia Practica Apollonii Tyana?i in Sciagraphia, 
Lips. 1719, 4to. 

See also Bayle, and the article by Buhle in the great Encyclopedia, pub- 
lished by Ersch, part IV. 

» About 120 A.C. 

For his Moral Sentences, see Secundi Atheniensis Responsa ad Inter- 
ROGATA Hadriani, iu the work of Tii. Gale, referred to above, (note *i,) p. 
633, sqq. 

" lie flourished under Augustus. 

y Flourished first century after Christ. 

*■ Second century after Christ. 

Nicomachus is said to have been the author of a theory of Numbers (In- 
troductio in Arithmeticam, Gr. Paris, 1538, 4to.), explained by Jamblichus ; 
and of a Manual of Harmony (apud Meieom. : Antiqu* Music-e Auctores, 
VII. Amst. 1652, 4to.) 

Fragments of his Symbolics of the Science of Numbers (OtoKoyoviJLtva api9- 
fxilTiKu), arc to be found in Piiotius, Biblioth. Cod. 187, p. 237. 

^ An Essay on this occult science of Numbers is to be found ap. Sext. Em- 
riRic. adv. Malhem. X, 248. CL also Pouimiyr. Vit. Pythagor., j 32, sqq. 

184, 185.] NEOPLATONISTS. I7I 

these ThrasyUus of Mendes'', the Astrologer, distin- 
guished himself; with Thcon of Smyrna^, the author of 
an Exposition of Plato *' ; Alc'uwus, who has left us a 
brief sketch of the Platonic doctrine *" ; Alblmis, the pre- 
ceptor of Galen ; Plittarch of Chaeronea \ a disciple of 
Ammonius (§ 83), and preceptor of Adrian ; Calvisius 
Taurus of Berytus near Tyre ^, the master of Aulus Gel- 
litis ; Luc. Apuleius of Medaurus in Numidia ^ ; and Max- 
imus Tyrius, the Rhetorician'. 

These philosophers made it their object to disseminate 
in a popular form, the Ethics and Religious Theory of 
Plato, and constructed for themselves a system of allego- 
rical interpretation, which connected the doctrines of that 
system with the ancient religious Mysteries'". With this 
they blended much that was derived from the Pythago- 
reans and Aristotle ; and, in the Dogmatic manner, pur- 
sued the most lofty speculations (the outline of which had 
been traced in the treatises of Plato), on the Deity, the 
Creator, the Soul of the World, the Demons, the Origin 
of the World, and that of Evil. They supposed our 

^ First century after Christ. 

c Eleventh century after Christ. 

^ Theon Smyrnensis de iis quae in Mathematicis ad Platonis lectionem uti- 
lia sunt, Gr. et Lat. ed. Ism. Bullialdus, Paris. 1644, 4to. 

^ Alcinoi introductio ad Platonis Dogmata. Gr. cum vers Lat. Mars. Fi- 
cini, Paris. 1533, 8vo. ; republished with Platonis Dialogi IV, ed. Fischer, 
1783, Bvo. 

f Plutarchi Opera Omnia Gr. et Lat. ed. Henr. Stephanus; ed. Reiske, 
XII vols. Bvo. Lips. 1774—82 ; ed. Hutten, XIV vols. 1791—1804, Bvo. 
Plutarchi Moralia ex recensione Xylandri, Bas. 1574, fol. ; ed. Witten- 
BACH, V vols. 4to. Oxon. 1795—1800, et XII vols. Bvo. 

Plutarch was born 50 died 120 A. C. 

e About 139. 

h Flourished about 160. 

Apuleii Opera, Lugd. 1614, 2 vols. Bvo. ; — in usum Delphini 1688, 2 vols. 
4to. Particularly his sketch therein of the Platonic Philosophy. 

Cf. Apuleii Theologia exhibita a Cii. Falstero in ejus Cogitationib. Phi- 
los., p. 37. 

* Flourished about 180 A.C. 

Maximi Tyrii Dissertationes XXXI, Gr. et Lat. ed. Dan. Heinsius, Lugd, 
Bat. 1607 et 1614 ; ex recens. J. Davisii recudi curavit Jo. Jac. Reiske, 
Lips. 1774-75, 2 vols. Bvo. 

'' Euseb. Praep. Evang. IX, 6, 7. 

172 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Ideas to have a substantial existence; and applied their 
abstract principles to account for phenomena of their own 
days ; for instance, the cessation of oracles \ The phy- 
sician Galen^, the inventor of the Fourth Figure of 
Logic, was a calm and sedate Platonist who admitted, to 
account for the phenomena of Life, the existence of a two- 
fold Spirit, XlveviAo, ZuiKov — -^vxiKiv^: Favorinus of Arelas, 
in Gaul, was more inclined to Scepticism °. These Pla- 
tonists were at the same time for the most part Eclectics, 
but not altogether after the manner of Potamo of Alexan- 
dria p, who, while he selected what he judged most ten- 
able from every system, pretended to form of these ex- 
tracts a separate doctrine of his own ; concerning which 
we have not sufficient details to enable us to judge ^. 

The Neoplatonism of the Alexandrians, as we shall 
afterwards see, has been improperly deduced from this 
isolated attempt. 

Scepticism of the Empiric SchooL 


Authorities : Eiisebii Prepar. Evangel. XIV, 7. 18 ; Frag- 
ments of vEnesidemus, Uvppcoveiav Xoyuv oktw ^i[oXia, apud Pho- 
tium, Myriobiblion sive Bibliotlieca cod. 212 : and in Sextus Em- 
piricus (cf. § 189); Diog. Laert. IX. 

See also the article ^nesidemus by Tennemann, in the En- 
cyclopedia by Ersch, part. II. 

' Plutarch. De Def. Orac. ; De Is. 

•" Claudius Galenus, born at Pergamus 131, died about 200 A. C. 

" Galeni Opera Omnia, ed. Ren. Ciiarterius, Paris, 1679, XIII vols. 
Cf. $81. 

t Kurt Sprengel, I>etters on the Philosophic System of Galen, in his 
Collection towards a History of Medicine, part. I, p. 117. 

" Imm. Fried. Gregorii Duaj Commenlatt. de Favorino Arelatensi Phi- 
losopho, etc. Laiib, 1755, 4to. 

Z. FoRSMANN, Diss. (prJBS. Ebr. Porth-an) de Favorino Philosopho Aca- 
deniico, Abo, 1789, 4to. 

I' The period when he lived is uncertain. 

C. G. Gi.ocKNi.R, Diss, de Potamonis Alexandrini Philosophia Eclectica, 
recentioruni Platonlcorum DiscipliniV admodum dissimili, Lips. 1745, 4to. 

1 Dioo. Laert. 1, 21. 

185, 180.] ^NESIDEMUS. 173 

186. i^ncsidemus, a native of Gnossus in Crete, set- 
tled at Alexandria'^, revived, about the commencement of 
this period, the Scepticism * which had been silenced in 
the Academy, and wished to make it serve the purpose of 
strengthening the opinions of Heraclitus to which he was 
inclined*. In conformity with Heraclitus, who lays down 
that every thing has its contrary, he maintained that we 
ought to admit universally, that contradictory appear- 
ances are presented to each individual". He placed the 
Thought under the dominion of external objects, making 
Truth to consist in the universality of the opinion or per- 
ception of the subject (Man "). He accused the Acade- 
micians of being deficient in Generalisation, as Sceptics, 
and thereby contradicting themselves ^. In order there- 
fore to strengthen the cause of Scepticism, he extended 
its limits to the utmost : admitting and defending the ten 
Topics (lUa. rpoTTo* eVox^^), attributed also to Pyrrho(§ 124); 
to justify a suspense of all positive opinion. These To- 
pics are deduced: 1. From the diversity of Animals; 
2. From that of Mankind considered individually; 3. 
From the fallibility of our Senses; 4. — The circumstances 
and condition of the Subject; 5. — Position, Distance, and 
other local accidents ; 6. — The combinations and associa- 
tions under which things present themselves to our no- 
tice ; 7. — The different dimensions and various properties 
of things; 8. — Their mutual relations ; 9. — The habitude 
or novelty of the sensations; 10. — The influence of Edu- 
cation, and Institutions, Civil and Religious ^ In short, 

' He probably flourished a little later than Cicero. 

* According to the testimony of Aristocles, related by Eusebius, loc. laud. 
At the same time, Diog. Laert. (IX, 114), mentions among the disciples of 
Timon ($ 124), a certain Euphranor of Seleucia, whose lessons Eubulus of 
Alexandria had followed. To the latter he assigns, as disciple, Ptolemy of 
Cyrene, who, he says, revived Pyrrhonism ; and whose disciple Heraclides, a 
sceptical philosopher, had been the master of ^nesidemus. 

' Sext. Adv. Math. IX, 337 ; X, 216. 233. 

" Idem, Hypot. I, 210, sqq. 

" Idem, Adv. Math. VII, 349, 350 ; VIII, 8. 

y Photius. 

' EusEB. Pra>par. Evang. XIV, 18. Sextus, Adv. Math. VII, 345; Hy- 
pot. I, 36. Cf. Diog. Laert. IX, 87. 

174 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

iEnesidemus opposed Sceptical objections to every part 
of Dogmatical philosophy. According to him, Scepticism 
(icvppu)V€io<; X070?), is a Criticism exercised with regard to 
Sensible Phenomena and our Ideas of them ; which would 
convict them all of the greatest inconsistency and confu- 
sion ^ 

The fault of this Scepticism is its End, and its preten- 
sions to Universality, 

187. The boldest attack made by any of the ancient 
philosophers on the possibility of demonstrative know- 
ledge, was that attempted by ^Enesidemus against the 
reality of the Idea of Causality ; with the application of his 
ideas to the investigation of natural causes {^tiology^). 
He argued that the idea of Causality is unfounded because 
we cannot understand the relations of Cause and Effect : 
which he endeavoured to prove by arguments a priori ; 
and also by insisting on the mistakes and false inferences of 
the Dogmatists in their inquiries into the nature of Causes. 

188. From the time of ^Enesidemus to that of Sextus, 
followed a succession of Sceptics, all of them physicians 
of the Empiric and Methodic Schools*^; who confined 
themselves to the observation of facts, and rejected all 
theory respecting the causes of diseases. Among these, 
Favorinus (§ 185), attached himself to the principles of 
iEnesidemus. The most distinguished were Agrippa, 
Menodotus of Nicomedia, and Sextus, Agrippa ^ reduced 
the ten Topics of Dubitation to five more extensive 
ones, viz. 1. Difference of Opinions; 2, The necessity 
that every proof should be itself capable of proof; 3. The 
Relativeness of our impressions ; 4. The disposition to 
Hypothesis ; 5. The fault of arguing in a Circle. 

Finally he insisted on this, that there cannot be any 
certain knowledge, either immediately, e| eat^Toi;, nor me- 

=* DioG. Laert. IX, 78. 

'' Sextus, Adv. Math. IX, 217, sqq. ; Hypotyp. T, 180, sqq. 

^ Dioo. Laeut. IX, 116. 

»> First or second century after Christ. 

18G— 189.] SEXTUS EMPIRICUS. 175 

diately, e| irepov ; and especially applied himself to criti- 
cise the Formal part of knowledge *. 

Sextus E??ijnricus. 

Sexti Empirici Opera Gr. et Lat. cd. Jo. Alb. Fabricius, 
Lijjs. 1718, fol. Recens. Struve, Regiomont. 1823, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Criticisms on this author : 

GuiL. Langius, De Veritatibus Geometricis adv. Sextum Em- 
piricum, Hafn. 1G56, 4to. 

De primis Scientiarum Elementis, seu Theologia Naturalis me- 
thodo quasi Mathematica digcsta. Accessit ad haec Sexti Emj)i- 
rici adversus Mathematicos decern Modonim eVo^-^? seu Dubita- 
tionis, secundum editionem Fabricii, quibus scilicet Sextus Scep- 
ticorum Coryphaeus, veritati omni in os obloqui atque totidem 
retia tendere baud dubitavit, succincta turn Philosophica turn cri- 
tica refutatio (per Jac. TiiOxMSon), Regiomont. 1728, (id. 1734), 

Gotofr. Ploucquet, Diss, examen rationem a Sexto Empirico 
tarn ad propugnandam quam impugnandam Dei existentiam col- 
lectarum, Tuhing. 1768, 4to. 

189. Sextus, surnamed Empiricus, from the School of 
Physicians to which he belonged, was a native, as ap- 
pears, of Mitylene *^, and a pupil of Herodotus of Tarsus s, 
the Sceptic. He put the finishing stroke to the Philoso- 
phy of Doubt, about the end of the second century. 
While he availed himself of the works of his predeces- 
sors, especially i^nesidemus, Agrippa, and Menodotus ; 
he contributed much to define the object, end, and me- 
thod of Scepticism ; particularly in his three books Uvppw' 
veiuv lirorvKua-eav ; and to guard against the attacks of the 
Dogmatists, he made more accurate distinctions between 
the operation of his system and the practice of the New 
Academicians or of the Dogmatists themselves. 

190. According to Sextus, Scepticism is the faculty 
(^vvafAK;), of comparing the perceptions of the senses and 

« DioG. Laert. IX, 88, sqq. Sextvs, Hypotyp. I, 164 — 178. 
f This has been proved by Visconti in his Iconographia, on the testimony of 
a medal of that city. 

fs DioG. Laert. IX, 116. 

176 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

the conclusions of reason ((pccivofAeva re ku) voov[xeva), in order 
by such a competition, so instituted, to arrive (&»« t»;v eV 

ro7q avriK€i[Aevoi(; irpdyfACca-i Koi Xojok; laocrdeveiccv^, at a suspension 

of all judgment (eVoxv?), on matters the nature of which is 
obscure to us {a^Xov, a(l)av€(;) : hence results a certain re- 
pose of the mind (arapa^la), and, in the end, a perfect 

equilibrium ([xerpioTraBeict), 

His Scepticism admits the existence of perceptions 
and appearances [(paivoixeva) ; does not deny the possibility 
of knowledge but the certainty of it ; and abstains from 
its pursuit. His system is not a Doctrine, but a Manner 
of contemplating subjects, and consequently does not de- 
mand to be proved, but only requires to be stated ''. His 
maxim was ovlh y.aXKov ' : meaning that no one thing de- 
serves to be preferred to another. 

191, Sextus appears sometimes to have forgotten this 
principle, when he would erect his system into a Doc- 
trine, and represent it as an Art ; and an Art destruc- 
tive of all inquiry after Truth, and denying the possi- 
bility of its attainment. He deserves this reproach be- 
cause : 1 . Wlien he finds himself at a loss for arguments 
of Doubt, he suggests that hereafter they may be disco- 
vered^; 2. He declines all exposition of the real nature 
of our impressions and knowledge'; 3. He entrenches 
himself, when he finds it necessary, in downright So- 
phisms™; 4. He endeavours, in this manner, by mere 
sophistical arguments, to prove that no science can be 
taught or learnt " ; 5. He goes so far as to argue, in op- 
position to his own doctrine (§ 190), against the reality 
of our perceptions ° ; 6. He does not define with suffi- 
cient perspicuity the facts which he assumes as data, 
e. g. our impressions, and the laws of Thought. 

•> Sextus, Hypotyp. I, 1.4. 25. 

' Ibid, 14. 

" Ibid. 33, sqq.; 11,259. 

' Idem, I, 9, sqq. 

'" Adv. Math. I, 9. 

" Ibid. 

« Ibid. 351, sqq. 


190—193.] SEXTUS EMPIRTCUS. 17Y 

192. Notwithstanding these objections, his statement of 
Scepticism is a very important work, both in respect of 
the manner in which he has treated it, and as a record of 
the state of Science, more especially of Metaphysical Phi- 
losophy, among the ancients. In the five last books of 
his treatises, Ufo<; rolq [xa6y]f/.aTiKQv<;^ he reviews the doctrines 
of the principal philosophers on the most important sub- 
jects ; setting in a strong light the incertitude of their 
Principles, and contradictory or inconsistent conclusions. 
He endeavours to show that the Dogmatists had never 
discovered any solid and irrefragable criterium of Truth: 
and that they all disagree with respect to the Principles 
of Logic, Physics, and Ethics. Denying the existence 
of any self-apparent Certainty (in consequence of the 
contradictions which prevail in the theses of Philoso- 
phers), he begins by demanding that every truth should 
be proved ; and then goes on to show that such proof is 
impossible, for want of self-evident Data. Beginning 
with such principles he proceeds to demolish all the Sci- 
entific labours of the human understanding ; not except- 
ing the Mathematics. 

193. Such a system of Scepticism had the tendency to 
cut short all farther research, and appeared to threaten 
Science itself with extinction. Nevertheless, such a Scep- 
ticism contained in itself its own contradiction : pretend- 
ing to restrain the natural tendency of the human under- 
standing to these inquiries, without being able to make 
good the object it promised to realise, the repose of the 
mind. At the time when it appeared it seems to have 
made little impression ; in consequence of the slight in- 
terest then felt for philosophical studies ; and it died with 
Saturninus (also called Cythenas), a disciple of Sextus ^. 
The only persons who paid attention to it were some phy- 
sicians, such as Galen, {De optima docendi gencre'^), and 
the philosopher Plotinus^ The latter^ opposed to it a 
Dogmatism allied to the Supernatural and Enthusiastic. 

p DioG. Laeut. IX, 116. "i See $ 185. 

•• See § 203. * Plot. Enn. V. lib. V, II, 


178 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Philosophic Doctrines of the Jews and Gnostics. 

194. It has not been perfectly ascertained whether at 
this period there existed an Eastern School of Philoso- 
phy, ' h.varo'kiKyi hlocaKct'kia, ^ It has been asserted by Mo- 
sheim, Brucker ", Walch ^, and Buhle ; and denied by 
Meinersy and Tiedemann^. It is impossible to contro- 
vert the existence of certain opinions peculiar to the 
East ; but the question is, whether they had already as- 
sumed a philosophical form and character, or whether 
they were not rather developed and brought to perfec- 
tion in proportion to the progress which Grecian philo- 
sophy, and particularly that of Plato, made among the 
Orientals ^. This last conjecture becomes still more pro- 
bable when we reflect that at this period appeared the apo- 
cryphal writings, falsely ascribed to Zoroaster, Hermes, 
and others ; as well as when we remark the efforts made 
by several Gnostics ^, to depreciate the works of Plato ^. 

195. On the supposition that the Orientals had a phi- 
losophy of their own, it is natural to suppose that the 
immense extent of the Roman Empire would bring it into 
contact with that of the Western Nations, and contribute 
to their admixture. History has afforded us proof of 

* Cf. Theodot. in Fabricius, Bibl. Gr. torn. V, p. 135 ; Porphyr. Vita 
Plotini, E. XVI; Eunapii Vita ^desii, p. 61. 

" Hist. Crit. Phil. torn. II, c. 3, p. 639, sqq. 

■'' Commentat. cle Philosophia Orientali in Michaelis Syntagma Commen- 
tatt. part II, p. 279. 

y t History of Philosophy, p. 170. 

' + Spirit of Speculative Philosophy, torn. Ill, p. 98. The same (a prize 
composition) : De Artium Magicarum Origine, Murb. 1788, 8vo. 

* BouTERWECK, in an excellent treatise, which we shall have occasion to no- 
tice § 200, considers the mystical doctrines of immediate Intuition, and the 
Emanation of Spirits, as having been derived from the East and from Persia ; 
particularly through the channel of Alexandria ; where they had already been 
long established. 

•' Plotin. Enn. I, lib. IX, 6. 

*= See Buhle, Compendium of the History of Philosophy (§ 37), part IV, 
p. 73. sqq: and the larger work of Tennemann on the History of Philosophy 
(ibid.) torn. VI. p. 438. 

194—107.] JEWS. PHILO. 179 

this in the doctrines of the Jews, tlie Gnostics, and the 
Neoplatonists. Alexandria, where, from the time of the 
Ptolemies, every system of philosophy had been taught, 
was the principal point of union between the Eastern 
and Western doctrines. 

I. Jews, 

See the works mentioned in § 73. 

196. During their exile the Jews had collected many 
opinions belonging to the religion and philosophy of Zo- 
roaster (§ 70), for example, that of a Primitive Light, of 
Two principles, the Good and the Evil, and of the De- 
mons. Subsequently, a certain number of their country- 
men who had settled in Egypt, and, in consequence of 
their medical studies had engaged in speculation (parti- 
cularly those who were devoted to a contemplative life, 
and therefore called Therapeutae), acquired some know- 
ledge of Grecian philosophy ^ : but the discoveries which 
they found there they regarded as derived from their own 
religion. In order to substantiate this idea, Aristeas^ de- 
vised the story of an ancient translation into Greek of the 
Old Testament ; and Aristobulus ^, a Peripatetic, forged 
certain Apocryphal books and passages. 

Philo of Alexandria. 

Philonis Opera. Fl. Josephi Opera, (see § 73). 

Jo. Alb. Fabricii Diss, de Platonismo Philonis, Lips. 1693, 
4to. Idem. : Sylloge Dissertat. Hamh. 1 738, 4to. 

'' The resemblance of the Essenes to the Pythagoreans had already been 
observed. See J. J. Bellermann, Historical Evidences respecting the Es- 
senes and Therapeutae, Berlin, 1821, 8vo. 

« HuMFHEDi HoDY, contra Historiam Aristeae de LXX interpretibus, etc. 
Oion. 1685, 8vo. Et: De Bibliorum Textibus Origin., Versionibus, etc. 
1705, fol. 

f LuD. Casp. Valkenaer, Diatribe de Aristobulo Judc-eo, Philosopho Peri- 
paletico, Lugd. Bat. 1806, 4to. Other critics however consider the very ex- 
istence of this author as doubtful, and attribute the Commentaries on the 
books of Moses, which bear his name,''to a later period. He lived, perhaps, 
in the time of Ptolemy Philometor. 

N 2 

180 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

f C. F. Sthal, Attempt at a Systematic Statement of the 
Doctrines of Philo of Alexandria : in the Allgem. Bihl. der 
Bihl. Literatur of Eichhorn, tom. IV, fasc. V. 

•f J. Chph. Schreiter, Ideas of Philo respecting the Immor- 
tality of the Soul, the Resurrection, and Future Retribution : in 
the Analecten of Keil and Tzschirner, vol. I, sect. 2 ; see also 
vol. Ill, sect. 2. 

197. The Jew Philo g, a man of a cultivated mind, 
settled at Alexandria, brought forward in a better 
shape the same opinions. He applied his knowledge of 
the systems of the Greeks, and, in particular that of 
Plato, (who has so many points of correspondence with 
the Orientalists), to the setting forth in a more complete 
manner (as he fancied), the religion of his country. 
Josephus^ subsequently followed the same course. On 
the other hand Philo transferred into his system of Pla- 
tonic philosophy many of the opinions of the East, in 
return for those which he borrowed from Plato. He 
may be considered (as Bouterweck has ranked him), as the 
first Neoj^latonist of Alexandria. He assumes that the 
Divinity and Matter, are the two first principles ; exist- 
ing from eternity. Agreeably to the opinions of Plato, he 
characterises them thus : the Divinity as a Being, Real, 
Infinite, and Immutable; Incomprehensible to any human 
understanding ("Ov) : Matter, as non-existing, (|W>j oV) ; but 
having received from the Divinity a form and life. He 
represents the Deity, by certain Oriental figures, as the 
Primitive Light, as an Infinite Intelligence ; from whom 
are derived, by irradiation, all finite Intelligences. In 
the soul of the Divinity are concentrated the ideas of all 
things possible. This "koyoq of the Divine Being, the focus 
of all Ideas {Xoyo(; ivhdeeroq), is in fact the Ideal World ; 
and called also the Son of God, or the Archangel. He 
is the image of God, the type after which God by his 
creative power (Xoyo(; ir^ocpepiKoq), formed the world, such as 
it presented to our senses. We cannot become ac- 

fe' Horn at Alexandria, some years B.C. 

'' Flavius Josepluis, born at Jerusalem. 37 A. C. 

197.] THE CABBALISTS. 181 

quainted with the nature of God but by His immediate 
influence on our minds : hence the doctrine of internal 
Intuition '. We may clearly observe how, in the writings 
of Philo, the doctrines of the Jews were modified by 
those of Platonism ; and how this admixture gave birth 
to new opinions. Numenius of Apamea in Syria *", in part 
admitted these innovations, and maintained that reason 
is the faculty of acquiring a knowledge of that which is 
Absolute, and of whatever lies beyond the limits of sense. 
He distinguished in the nature of the Divine Being, 
whom he also maintained to be incorporeal (aa-ufxarov), the 
Supreme Divinity and Pre-existent ; an Immutable, Eter- 
nal, and Perfect Intelligence : and the Creator of the 
world or Demiurgos, (vovq) ; having a twofold relation : to 
the Divinity as His Son, and to the World, as its author. 
The same philosopher maintained the Immateriality and 
Immortality of the Soul, and styled Plato the Attic 

Moses, (arTiKiiuv^). 

The Cabbalists. 

Authority : The Talmud. 

Liber Jezirah, translatus et Notis illustr. a Rittangelo, 
Amstel. 1642, 4to. 

Artis Cabbalisticse, hoc est reconditae Theologiae et Philoso- 
phiae Scriptores; (editor, J. Pistorius), torn. I, Basil. 1587, fol. 

Kabbala Denudata, seu doctrina Hebrseorum transcendentalis 
et ^letaphysica atque Theologica, opus antiquissimae Pliilosophiae 
barbaricae variis speciminibus refertissimum, in quo ante ipsam 
libri translationem difficillimi atque in literatura Hebraica summi, 
commentarii nempe in Pentateuchum et quasi totum scripturarum 
V. T. Kabbalistici, cui nomen Sohar, tam veteris.quam recentis, 
ej usque Tikkunim seu supplementorum tam veterum quam re- 
centiorum praemittitur apparatus. Tom. I, Solish, 1677, 4to. torn. 
II. Liber Sohar restitutus (editore Christ. Knorr de Rosen- 
roth). Franco/. 1684, 4to. 

■f- Rabbi Cohen Irira, Porta Coelorum. (A Commentary on 

' Philo de jNIundi Opificio, de Confusione Linguarum, de Soraniis, quod 
Deus sit immutabilis, de Praemiis et Poenis. Euseb. Pra;p. Evang. VII, 13 j 
XI, 15 ; Hist. Eccles. II, 4, sqq. ; 7, sqq. 

'' Second century after Christ. 

» ErsEB. Pra^p. Evang. XI, 10. 18, IX, 6; XIII, 5; XIV, 5; XV, 17. 

182 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

the two Cabbalistic books above). Wolf, Biblioth. Hebr. Hamh. 
1721, 4 vols. 4to. (in the first vol.). 

■\ EisENMENGER, Judaism displayed, Konigsh, 2 vols. 1711, 

f De la Nauze, Remarks on the Antiquity and Origin of 
the Cabbala, in the Mem. of the Acad, of Inscr. tom. IX. 

■f J. Fr. Kleuker, On the Doctrine of Emanation among the 
Cai)balists, etc. Riga, 1786, 8vo. 

f Life of Solomon Maimon, published by Ph. Moritz, Ber- 
lin, 1792, in 2 parts, 8vo. 

'\ On the Doctrines of Emanation and Pantheism in the first 
ages of Antiquity, with especial reference to the writers of the 
Old and New Testaments. An Historical, Critical, and Expla- 
natory Essay, Erf. 1805, 8vo. 

198. Cabbala (that is oral tradition) is a system of pre- 
tended illumination, diversified by a variety of fables, which 
the Jews affect to have received from a Divine source 
through secret tradition. To treat of it only as far as it 
belongs to the history of philosophy — it had its origin as 
early as the first centuries of the Christian era, and was 
invented or systematised by the Rabbi Akibha ™, and his 
disciple Simeon Ben Jochai, the spark of Moses. It consists 
in a string of philosophical legends, which represent all 
things as descending in a continued scale, from the First 
Light ; the Deity and Creator. They are arranged in ten 
Sephiroths or luminous circles ; and four worlds, Azi- 
luth, Briah, Jezirah, and Aziah. Adam Cadmon, the first 
man, was the firstborn of the Divinity, the Messiah, by 
whose means the rest of the universe emanated from the 
Almighty, who, nevertheless, continues to maintain and 
uphold the same : God being the inherent cause of all 
things. All things that exist are of a spiritual nature, 
and matter, is nothing but a condensation or attenuation 
of the rays of light ; forming, as it were, the embers of 
the Divine essence. In a word every substance partakes 
of the Divine nature. 

To this theory of Emanation were added a tissue of 
imaginations respecting the Demons, which involved a 
belief in magic : respecting the four elements of souls ; 

"' Died A. D. 138. 

198, 199.] GNOSTICS. 183 

their origin and formation; and lastly with regard to 
man considered as a microcosm, or little world in himself. 
This last notion gave occasion to a new fancy, that of 
pretending to acquire knowledge by ecstacy. The whole 
is a mass of strange and exaggerated fictions, conceived 
under the influence of the religion of the Persians, but 
employed by those who advanced them to recommend to 
general notice the sacred history and doctrines of the 
Jews; especially with respect to the creation, and the 
origin of evil. It is probable that the Cabbalistic books 
Jezirah and Sohar (see the works mentioned at the head 
of this §), the first attributed to the Rabbi Akibha, the 
second to Simeon Ben Jochai, have been from time to 
time interpolated by their expositors. The Christians 
became acquainted with the Cabbala, by name^ only in the 
fifteenth century ; the Jews having carefully concealed 
from them these mysteries. 

II. Gnostics. 

Walch, De Philosoph. Oriental. Gnosticorum Systematis fonte ; 
and MicHAELis de Indiciis Gnosticae Philosophise tempore LXX 
Interpretum et Philonis ; second part of his last Syntagm. Com- 

Ern. Ant. Lewald, Comment, ad Hist. Religionum vett. 
illustrandum pertinens, de Doctrina Gnosticorum, Heidelh. 1818, 

■f J. Aug. Neander, Origin and Development of the principal 
Gnostic Systems, Berlin, 1818, 8vo. 

The same author had previously published : De Fidei Gnoseos- 
que idea et ea, qua ad se invicem et ad Philosophiam referuntur 
ratione secundum mentem Clem. Alexandrini, Heidelb. 1811, 

199. The same spirit of extravagant speculation pos- 
sessed the Gnostics also. They pretended to a supe- 
rior and mysterious knowledge (yvSo-*?) of the Divine 
Being, and the origin of the World : blending the re- 
ligious dogmata of the Persians and Chaldees with those 
of the Greeks and Christians. The greater number of 
them professed Christianity, though they were looked 
upon as heretics : Some attached themselves to the 

184 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Jewish persuasion ; others became its adversaries ; others 
again appear to have belonged to no particular religious 
creed whatsoever. The most distinguished among them, 
(for the most part Orientals), were Simon Magus, Menan- 
der the Samaritan, Cerinihus the Jew, all belonging to the 
first century : then Saturninus the Syrian, Basilides, Car- 
pocrates, and Valentinus of Alexandria, who approximated 
the Neoplatonists, (second century) : Marcion of Sinope ", 
Cerdon and Bardisanes, both Syrians °, (about the middle 
of the second century); and Manes^ a Persian, (put to 
death by Sapor A. D. 277). Their followers subsisted 
some ages after. One division of them recognised in the 
Divinity the One Great principle w^hence they derived all 
things, according to different degrees or classes of spirits 
called iEons ; another admitted the existence of Two first 
principles, a Good and an Evil one, continually opposed 
to, and conflicting with each other. Lastly, a third divi- 
sion of Gnostics maintaining the existence of two Princi- 
ples (of Light and Darkness), asserted that they were both 
derived from one common Creator. In general, they iden- 
tified matter with the Evil principle, and regarded even 
the formation of the Universe as a fall and declension from 
the Divine Being. These their leading dogmata were 
associated with a multitude of fictions incredibly daring 
and extravagant; and each of which supposed a particular 
revelation imparted to their authors. The imagination has 
been allowed among the Orientals a predominant influence, 
and they delight in losing themselves in a labyrinth of 
hypotheses allied to the supernatural. Morahty could 
not but suffer in consequence of such extravagancies, and 
was apt to sink into a narrow asceticism. 

" Aug. Hahn, Piogr. de Gnosi Maicionis Antinomi, P. I and II. Regio- 
mont. 1820-21, 8vo. Et : Antitheses Marcionis Gnostici, liber deperditus, 
nunc quoad ejus fieri potuit restitutus, ibid. 1823, 4to. 

" Aug. IIaun, Bardesanes Gnosticus Syrorum primus Hymnologus. Com- 
mentat. Hist. Theol. Lips. 1819, 8vo. 

p t Beausobre, Critical History of Maniches and Manicheism, Avisterd. 
1734_39, 2 vols. 4to, (French). See also Bayle, s. v. and Walch's Hist, 
of Heres. part. I. sect. 770. 

t K. A. VON RticiiLiN Melldegg, The Theological System of Manes, and 
its Origin, etc., Francf. on the 31. 1825, 8vo. 


Enthusiastic Neoplatonism of Plotimis ; predecessors and 
successors of this philosopher. 

Authorities : The works of riotiniis ; Porphyry ; Jamblichus ; 
Julian; Eunapius, Vita; Philosophorum, (see §81); Sallustius, 
de Diis et Mundo ; Prochis ; Suidas. 

f Sainte-Croix, Letter to M. Du Theil, on a new edition of 
all the works of the Eclectic Philosophers, Paris, 1797, 8vo. 

GoTTFR. Olearii Diss. de Philosophia Eclectica ; in his 
translation of Stanley's History of Philosophy, p. 1205. 

-j- Critical History of Eclecticism, or the Neoplatonists, Avig- 
non, 17G6, 2 vols. 12mo. 

■f- G. G. FiJLLEBORN, Neoplatonic Philosophy ; in his Collect, 
fasc. Ill, No. 3. 

■f Chph. Meiners, Memoirs towards a History of the Opinions 
of the first century after Christ, with Observations on the Sys- 
tem of the Neoplatonists, Leips. 1782, 8vo. 

C. A. G. Keil, De Causis alieni Platonicorum recentiorum a 
Religione Christiana animi, Lijis. 1785, 4to. 

J. G. A. Oelrich, Comm. de Doctrina Platonis de Deo a 
Christianis et recentioribus Platonicis varie explicata et cor- 
rupta, Marb. 1788, 8vo. 

Alb. Christ. Roth, Diss, (prses. J. B. Carpzov) Trinitas 
Platonica, Lips. 1693, 4to. 

JoH. WiLH. Jani Diss, (praes. J. G. Neumann) Trinitas Pla- 
tonismi vere et falso suspecta, Viteh. 1708, 4to. 

H. Jac. Ledermijller, Diss, (praes. Ge. Aug. Will) de 
Theurgia et Virtutibus Theurgicis, Altd. 1763, 4to. 

J. Aug. Dietelmaier, Progr. quo seriem Vetenun in Schola 
Alexandrina Doctorum exponit, Alid. 1746, 4to. 

Im. Fichte, De Philosophise Novae Platonicae Origine, Berol. 
1818, 8vo. 

Frid. Bouterweck, Philosophorum Alexandrinorum ac Neo- 
platonicorum recensio accuratior. Comment, in Soc. Gott. habita, 
1821, 4to. (See Gott. gel. Anz. No. 166, 167, 1821). 

200. Neoplatonism had its origin in the frequented school 
of the Platonists of Alexandria, and was characterised by 
an ardent and enthusiastic zeal. Its disciples aspired to 
attain the highest pinnacles of science, to acquire a know- 
ledge of the absolidey and an intimate union (eWo-^) there- 

186 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

with, as the final end of man's being. The way thereto 
they held to be contemplation, {Qeupla). 

201. The principal causes which led to this new system 
were : The decline of genuine Grecian philosophy, and 
the admixture with its remains of the theories of the East ; 
added to a continually-increasing attachment to Oriental 
exaggeration and enthusiasm, which they confirmed by 
frequent appeals to celestial revelations, while they depre- 
ciated the merit of Plato as a philosopher*'. The pre- 
vailing spirit of the age, and the decline of the Roman 
empire contributed to this. To these may be added two 
other causes : the opposition the Sceptics of the modern 
school continually made to all pretensions to rational 
knowledge ; and the alarm which the victorious progress 
of Christianity occasioned to the defenders of the old reli- 
gion, lest it should be utterly overthrown. 

The importance which Platonism assumed in this con- 
flict between the Christians and the Polytheists, added to 
the daily increasing influence of Oriental notions, caused 
that philosophy to assume a fresh distinction : its ardent 
character being aided by the scientific turn of the Greeks, 
and heightened by the admixture of many other doctrines. 

202. Philo of Alexandria (§ 197), Numenius (ibid.) and 
Atticus,had already given specimens of this sort of mystical 
speculation, and association of Oriental ideas with those 
of the Platonists. The same is observable in the writings 
of many of the Greek Fathers of the Church, Justin, for 
instance, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen ; who not 
unfrequently Platonise. Ammonius of Alexandria, a man 
of low birth, obliged to gain his livelihood as a porter 
(whence his surname of Saccas), and probably also an 
apostate from Christianity "", but endowed with a strong 
love of knowledge, great talents, and an enthusiastic tem- 
per, threw himself into this new career of philosophy. 

fl Plotin. Enn. II, lib. IX, 6. 
• EvsEB. Hist. Eccles. VI, 19. 


and became the founder of a school % which hiboured to 
reconcile the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle on the most 
important topics *. He infused the same enthusiastic 
spirit into his disciples, among whom Longinus ", a cele- 
brated critic and judicious thinker^, Plotinus, Origen, 
and Herenidus, were the most distinguished. The three 
last made a solemn engagement to keep their doctrines 

§ 203. 

Plotini Opera, Florentice. 1492, fol., et cum Interpret. Ficiiil, 
Bas. 1580, 1615, fol. 

Plotini liber de Pulchritudine ad Codd. fidem cum Annotatione 
perpetua et praeparatione, ed. Fried. Creuzer, Heidelb. 1814, 

Plotinus ITept T^q TTpwT^^ ^S'X/l'i "^^v TidvTuv, etc. ; Villois 
Anecd. Gr. II, 237, sqq. 

-j- The Enneades of Plotinus translated, with Explanatory Re- 
marks by Doctor J. G. von Engelhardt, preceded by the 
Life of Plotinus by Porphyry, part. II, Erl. 1820, 8vo. See 
also the Studien of Creuzer, vol. I, Francf, and Heidelb, 1805. 

PoRPHYRii Vita Plotini, at the commencement of the editions 
of the works of Plotinus. 

Friedr. Grimmii Commentat. qua Plotini de Rerum prin- 
cipio sententia (Enn. II, lib. VIII, c. 8. 10) Animadversioni- 
bus illustratur, Lijis. 1788, 8vo. 

Jul. Friedr. Winzer, Progr. adumbratio decretorum Plo- 
tini de Rebus ad Doctrinam jVIorum pertinentibus. Spec. I, Fiteb. 
1809, 4to. 

Plotinus was born A. D. 20.5, at Lycopolis in Egypt. 
Nature had endowed him with superior parts, particularly 
with an extraordinary depth of understanding and a bold 

About 193 A. C. 

' C. F. RosLER, Diss, de Commentitiis Philosophiac Ammoniacai fraudibus 
et noxis, Tub. 1786, 4to. 

" Dav. Rhunkenii Diss, de Vit^ et Scriptis Longini, Liigd. Bat. 1776, 
and the editions of the treatise Uepi 'Yipoug attributed to him, by Toup, More, 
and Weiske, (Leips. 1809, 8vo.). 

^ Born at Athens 213. Put to death at Pahnyra, A. D. 275. 

y PoRPHYR. Vita Plotini. Euseb. Hist. Eccles. 1. 1. Hieroclcs de Provi- 
dentia, in Puoiivs, cod. 261. 214. 

188 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

and vigorous imagination. He early manifested the^ 
abilities in the school of Ammonius at Alexandria. Sub- 
sequently he determined to accompany the army of Gor- 
dian to the East, in order to study the Oriental systems 
in their native soil. He returned a dreamer, perpetually 
occupied with profound but extravagant meditations; 
labouring to attain the comprehension of the Absolute by 
contemplation ; a notion borrowed from Plato, which be- 
came exaggerated in his hands. Carried away by his 
enthusiasm he thought that he was developing the de- 
signs of the philosopher of the Academy, when in fact he 
exhibited his thoughts only partially and incompletely. 
The impetuous vivacity of his temper, which caused him 
perpetually to fall into extravagancies, prevented his re- 
ducing his mystical Rationalism to a system. His various 
scattered treatises were collected by Porphyry in six En- 
neades ^, 

He died in Campania, A. D, 270 ; having taught at 
Rome, and excited the almost superstitious veneration of 
his disciples. 

204. Plotinus* assumes, as his principle, that philosophy 
can have no place except in proportion as knowledge and 
the thing known, — the Subjective and the Objective — are 
identified. The employment of philosophy is to acquire a 
knowledge of the Unity, (to *ov, to %v, to a^a^Lv), the essence 
and first principle of all things: and that not mediately by 
thought or meditation, but by a more exalted method, by 
direct intuition (itapova-la), anticipating the progress of re- 
flection''. The end of his philosophy according to Por- 
phyry (§ 215), is an immediate union with the Divine 
Being ^ He was led by twofold considerations, Scientific 

^ PoRPiiYR. Vita Plotini, c. 6 and 24. 

* [The translator regrets that he has not been able to diminish much of the 
obscurity of the system of Plotinus, as detailed in the admirable analysis of 
Tennemann. Without minute attention, it is not likely that even the prac- 
tised reader will be abie to follow the course of his theory ; and unfortunately 
it will not repay the attention it demands.] 

»> Enn. V, lib. Ill, 8 ; lib. V, 7, sqq. ; Enn. VI, lib. IX, 3 et 4. 

^ Enn. V, lib. I, 1, 2. 


as well as Moral, to this mystical sort of Idealism : the 
only path which human Reason had not yet essayed. 

205. Every thing that exists, exists hy the law of Unity; 
is one ; and partakes in Unity. Nevertheless External 
Nature and Unity are not identical ; because every object 
comprises a plurality of others. Neither is reason Unity ; 
for it contemplates Unity in a complete manner, not with- 
out but ivithin itself. It is at once the subject contem- 
plating and the object contemplated : therefore it is not 
single but twofold ; it is not the first or Primitive Being, 
but only Unity deduced and derived from some other 
principle. Primitive Unity is not one thing, but the 
principle of all things ; absolute good and perfection ; 
absolute in itself, and incomprehensible. It has nei- 
ther quantity nor quality ; neither reason nor soul : it 
exists neither in motion nor repose ; neither in space 
nor time ; it is not a numeric unity nor a point, for 
these are comprehended in other things, in those namely 
which are divisible; but it is pure Existence without 
Accident ; of which we may form a notion by conceiving 
it to be sufficient to itself: it is exempt from all want or 
dependency, as well as from all thought or will: it is not 
a thinking Being, but Thought itself in action : it is the 
principle and cause of all things, infinitely small, and at 
the same time of infinite power ; the common centre of 
all things, — Goocl"^ — T/ie Deity. 

See the work of Oelrich, § 200, and : 

GoTTL. Will. Gerlach, Disputatio de Differentia, quae inter 
Plotini et Schellingii Doctrinam de Numine Summo intercedit, 
Viteh. 1811, 4to. 

206. Unity is also represented as Primitive and Pure 
Light, from which perpetually radiates a luminous circle 
pervading all space. It imparts the sight and know- 
led ere of itself, and at the. same time (without losing its 

J Enn. VI, lib. IX, l.sciq. 

190 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

Unity), it is the essence of all things that exist ^. The One 
and the Perfect continually overflows, and from it Being, 
Reason, and Life, are perpetually derived, without de- 
ducting any thing from its substance, inasmuch as it is 
simple in its nature, and not, like matter, compound*". 
This derivation of all things from Unity, does not resem- 
ble Creation which has reference to time, but takes place 
purely in conformity with the principles of causality and 
order, without volition ; because to will is to change ^. 
From this primordial Unity there emanates, in the first 
place (as light does from the sun), an eternal essence of 
the most perfect nature ; viz. Pure Intelligence, {vovq)^ 
which contemplates Unity, and requires only that for its 
existence. From this in its turn emanates the Soul of 

the world, {^vxh toS itavToq or tuv %\av). 

Such are the three elements of all real existence : 
which themselves have their origin in Unity'': this has 
been (somewhat impiously) called the Trinity (Trias) 
of Plotinus \ 

207. Pure Intelligence (Noi;?), is the efflux and the 
image of Unity; but inasmuch as it contemplates Unity 
as its object, it becomes itself a subject, and is thus dis- 
tinguished from that which it contemplates ; hence the 
first instance of Duality. Inasmuch as Intelligence con- 
templates in Unity that which is possible , the latter ac- 
quires the character of something determined and li- 
mited ; and so becomes the Actual and Real (ov). Conse- 
quently, Intfelligence is the primal reality, the base of 
all the rest, axid inseparably united to real Being. The 
object contemplated and the thinking subject, are iden- 
tical ; and that which Intelligence thinks, it at the same 

e Enn. Ill, lib. VllI, 8, 9 ; Enn. VI, lib. VIII, 16 ; Enn. IV, lib. Ill, 
17 ; Enn. V, lib. 1, 7. 

f Idem, VI, lib. IX, 9. 

& Idem, V, lib. I, 6. 

" Idem, II, lib. IX, 1. Ill ; lib. V, 3, V ; lib. I, 3 et 6 ; lib, 11, 1. 

' JoM. IIkim. Feustking, De Tribus Hypostasibus Plotini, Viteh. 1694, 
4to. Cf. Dissertations of Roth and Janvs, quoted § 200. 


time creates. By always thinking, and always in the 
same manner, yet continually with some new difterencc, 
it produces all things : it is the essence of all imperish- 
able essences : the sum total of infinite life **. 

208. The Soul (i. e. the Soid of the World), is the off- 
spring of Intelligence, and the thought Q^oyo(;) of Intelli- 
gence, being itself also productive and creative. It is 
therefore Intelligence, but with a more obscure vision 
and less perfect knowledge ; inasmuch as it does not itself 
directly contemplate objects, but through the medium of 
Intelligence; being endowed with an energetic force which 
carries its perceptions beyond itself. It is not an original 
but reflected light, the principle of action, and of external 
Nature. Its proper activity consists in contemplation 
{B€upta) ; and in the production of objects by means of this 
contemplation. In this manner it produces, in its turn, 
different classes of souls, and among others the human ; 
the faculties of which have a tendency to elevation or de- 
basement. The energy of the lowest order, creative, and 
connected with matter, is Nature {(pva-i^^). 

209. Nature is a contemplative and creative energy, 
which gives form to matter {\oyoq iroiwv) ; for form (elSo^ — 
/*opf^) ; and thought (^oyoq) ; are one and the same. All 
that takes place in the world around us is the work of 
contemplation"'. Thus from Unity, as from the centre 
of a circle, are progressively derived Plurality, Divisible 
Being, and Life ; by continued abstraction. In Unity, 
form and matter are distinguishable ; for it is Form that 
fashions ; which supposes something capable of receiving 
a determinate impression ". 

210. Form and Matter, Soul and Body, are inseparable. 

" Enn. VI, lib. VIII, 16; Enn. IV, lib. Ill, 17 ; Enn. VI, lib. VII, 59; 
lib. VIII. 16; Enn. V, lib. I, 4,7; lib. III. 5. 7; lib. V, 2; lib. IX, 5; 
Enn. VI, lib. VII, 12, 13. 

' Enn. V, lib. 1, 6, 7 ; lib. VI, 4; Enn. VI, lil). II, 22. 

"' Enn. Ill, lib. VIII. 

» Enn. IT, lib. IV, 14 ; Enn. 111. lib. \ I, 7. 


192 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

There never was a time when the universe was not ani- 
mated ; but as we can conceive it not to have been so, 
the question suggests itself: What is matter; and how 
was it produced by Unity (since the latter is the principle 
of all Reality ?) Matter is real, but devoid of Form ; it 
is indeterminate, capable of receiving a form, and stands 
in the same relation to it as shade to light. Unity, as 
being the cause of Reality, continually progresses from 
itself as a centre : and following this progressive scale 
of production to the end, we arrive at a final product, 
beyond which no other is possible ; an ultimate term 
whence nothing can proceed, and which ceases to re- 
tain any portion of unity or perfection. The Soul, by 
its progressive contemplation, which is at the same time 
production also, creates for itself the scene of its action ; 
that is. Space, and therewith Time also. The Soul is a 
light kindled by Intelligence, and shedding its rays within 
certain limits, beyond which is night and darkness. It 
contemplates this darkness, and gives it a form, from its 
own incapability of enduring any thing unimpressed by 
Thought ; and thus out of darkness it creates for itself 
a beautiful and diversified habitation, inseparable from 
the cause which produced it ; in other words it bestows 
on itself a body *'. 

Plotinus appears sometimes to regard unformed or 
rude matter as a product of the mind, but through an 
imperfection in its operations : supposing the mind while 
occupied in creation to have been sometimes carried out 
of itself, without fixing its view on the First and Perfect 
Principle ; and consequently becoming liable to indeter- 
minateness '^. At other times he speaks of unformed 
matter as possessed of reality, but not derived from the 

211. There is an Intellectual as well as a Sensible 
World: the latter is but the image of the former, and 

" Enn. I, lib. VIII, 7 ; Enn. HI, lib. IV, 9 ; Enn. II, lib. Ill, IV. 
P Enn. 1, lib. V1I1,3. 4. 
1 Enn. in, lib. VIII, 1. 


hence their perfect accordance. The intellectual world 
is a Whole, Invariable, Absolute, Living ; undivided in 
point of Space ; unchangeable through time : it is Unity 
in Plurality and Plurality in Unity.* Indeterminateness 
exists even in the Intellectual world : the greater the dis- 
tance from True Being the greater the degree of Inde- 

In the Sensible World, (the reflection of the former), 
are plants, the earth, rocks, fire, etc. — all of them en- 
dued with life ; for the World itself is an animated Idea. 
Fire, air, and water are ideas endowed with life : a Soul 
inhabiting Matter, as a creative principle. 

Nothing in Nature is devoid o^ Reason: even the inferior 
animals possess it, but in a different degree from man ^ 

212. Every object possesses Unity and Multiplicity. 
To the Body belongs Multiplicity, divisible with refer- 
ence to Space. The Soul is an essence devoid of extent, 
immaterial, and simple in its nature ; without body ; or 
with a body which has two natures, the superior one in- 
divisible : the inferior divisible. (Descent of Souls from 
the Intellectual to the Sensible world). 

Plotinus states very ably the metaphysical arguments 
for the immateriality and immortality of the Soul : but at 
the same time gives loose to an extravagant imagination 
in his dreams respecting the reunion of the immaterial 
element with the corporeal substance ^. 

213. Every thing that takes place is the result of Ne- 
cessity, and of a principle identified with all its conse- 
quences ; (in this we see the rudiments of Spinozism, and 
the Theodicee of Leibnitz *). All things are connected 

* [The reader will be obliged to me for occasionally omitting small portions 
of this statement (as I have done elsewhere), which are too abrupt and concise 
to be intelligible to any one but those who may have just read the original 
author, and therefore have no occasion to consult the present work. Trans.'\ 

' Enn. IV, lib. IV, VIII, IX ; Enn. VI, lib. IV, VII. 

« Enn. IV, lib. I, II, III, VI. 

» Enn, VI, lib. VJI, 8—10 ; Enn. IV, lib. IV, 4, 5 ; Enn. VII, lib. II, 3. 


194 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

together by a perpetual dependency ; (a system of uni- 
versal Determinism, from which there is only one excep- 
tion, and that rather apparent than real, of Unity). Out 
of this concatenation of things arise the principles of na- 
tural Magic and Divination ". As for the existence of 
Evil in the external world, Plotinus considers it to be 
sometimes an unavoidable negation of good, at others, 
something positive ; such as Matter, Body ; and, in this 
latter particular, sometimes as being superadded to the 
soul, and the cause of imperfection in its productions ; 
sometimes as seated within the soul, as its imperfect 
product. In this manner he falls into the very fault which 
he urges against the Gnostics ^. He is also led to adopt 
a system of Optimism and Fatalism, adverse to Morality ^ ; 
though occasionally he admits that moral Evil is volun- 
tary, and the author of it accountable ^. 

214. Unity (the Divinity), being Perfection itself, is 
the end and object of all things, which derive from him 
their nature and their being ; and which cannot become 
perfect but through him. The Human Soul cannot 
attain perfection or felicity but by the contemplation of 
the Supreme Unity, by means of an absolute abstraction 
(a7rX«(7i?, Simplification), from all compounded things, and 
by ascending to the heights of pure existence. In this con- 
sists Virtue, which is twofold : Inferior Virtue, (or TroXm/c^), 
belonging to such souls as are in the progress of purifica- 
tion ; and Superior Virtue, which consists in an intimate 
union, by contemplation, with the Divine Being (evaa-K;). 
Its source is the Divinity himself. The Soul acquires by 
its contemplation of Divine beauty a similar grace ; and 
derives warmth from the Celestial fire ''. 

215. This system is built on two principles unsup- 

" Enn. Ill, lib. II, 16 ; Enn. IV, lib. IV, 32. 40. 

'^ p:nn. I, lib. VIII ; Eua. II, lib. IX ; Enn. Ill, lib. II. 

y Enn. I, lib. VIII, 5 ; Enn. Ill, lib. II, 18. 

■' Enn. Ill, lib. II, 9, 10. 

^ Enn. T, lib. II, VIII, 13 ; Enn. VI, lib. VII, c. 22 j lib, IX, 9—11. 


ported by proof. These are: 1st. That the Absolute 
and Universal, which is inaccessible to the senses, is the 
Principle of the Universe, and may be recognised as 
such : 2dly. That it can be comprehended by means of 
an intellectual contemplation, superior in its nature to 
Thought itself. Plotinus represents Thought as Contem- 
plation — transforms Philosophy into Poetry — and our con- 
ceptions into substantial objects. His doctrine is a per- 
version of some Platonic notions carried to extravagance 
by the enthusiasm prevalent in that age. Neglecting the 
humble question of 2)ossibilities, his philosophy pretends 
to supply at once a complete theory of universal know- 
ledge. At the same time it certainly contains several 
valuable hints respecting our faculties for acquiring know- 
ledge, and some elevated thoughts, which have been bor- 
rowed and improved by other philosophers. It acquired 
the highest popularity, principally because it derived 
knowledge from a source superior to the senses ; and 
owing to its doctrine of a Triad, and the relation it sup- 
poses between it and the external world : and in short 
was considered a complete exposition of the theory of 
the Great Plato : of that Plato whom men began now to 
consider divinely inspired ^ Next came the attempt to 
prove the correspondence of Plato's system with those 
anterior doctrines whence he was supposed to have de- 
rived so many of his own : viz. of Pythagoras, Orpheus, 
Zoroaster, and Hermes ; and they were not long without 
apocryphal books also, attributed to the same, to sub- 
stantiate this notion. They went farther, and desired to 
prove a like correspondence between Plato and his suc- 
cessors, particularly Aristotle. All these attempts, which 
were inconsistent with a truly philosophical spirit, did 
but foster the prevailing taste of the age for superstition 
and mystical exaggeration. (Magic and Divination, etc.). 
Among the numerous disciples of Plotinus were prin- 
cipally distinguished Porphijry (whose proper name was 
Malchus), and AmeUus or GentUianns of Rtruria. The 

" Procli Theol. Platonis, lib. I, c. 1, 


196 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

works of the latter, illustrative of the theory of Plotinus, 
have not come down to us. 


Porphyrii Liber de Vita Pythagorae, ejusdem sententia? ad in- 
telligibilia ducentes, cum Dissertatione de Vita et Scriptis Por- 
phyrii, ed. Lucas Holstenius, Rom. 1630, 8vo. Cf. § 88. 

Porphyrii de abstinentia ab esu Animalium libri IV, ed. Jac. 
DE RpioER, Traj. ad Rhen. 1767, 8vo. 

Ejusd. : Epist. de Diis, Daemonibus ad Anebonem (in Iambl. 
de Mysteriis, Fen. 1497. Cf. § 217). 

Ejusd. : De quinque Vocibus, seu in Categorias Aristotelis In- 
troductio, Gr. Paris. 1543, 4to ; Lat. per Jo. Bern. Felici- 
ANUM, Venet. 1546, 1566, fol. 

Uop^vpiov <pi\o<7Q<pov 7tpo(; yiapKtXXav, etc Invenit, interpretatione 
notisque declaravit Angelus Majus, etc. acc. ejusdem Poeticum 
Fragmentum, Med'iol. 1816, 8vo. 

Malchus or Porphyry was born A. D. 233, at Bata- 
nea, a colony of the Tyrians in Syria, and after having 
been formed by the instructions of Origen and Lon- 
ginus, whom he attended at Athens (§ 202), he went to 
Rome at the age of thirty, and there frequented the 
school of Plotinus, of whom he became a passionate ad- 
mirer, and subsequently the biographer (§ 203). He 
possessed much more knowledge than his master, but 
less depth of understanding ; coupled with considerable 
vanity and love of distinction. To judge from his writings, 
he possessed an inquisitive and critical spirit, and did not 
scruple to express doubts respecting some particulars of 
the Pagan mythology, the belief in apparitions, for in- 
stance, and demons ^ ; but on the other hand he was at 
times carried away by mystical and extravagant notions. 
He appears to have been so particularly in his latter days ; 
when, like Plotinus, he pretended to have been honoured 
by a divine vision^. His labours were principally devoted 
to the explanation and diffusion of the philosophy of his 

•-' See his Epistle to Anebo. 
'^ Povphyr. V^ita Plot, sub fin. 

216, 217.] lAMBLICHUS. 197 

master; to an attempt to blend the theory of Aristotle 
with those of Plato and Pythagoras; to the elucidation of 
certain topics connected with his religion, such as those of 
sacrifice, divination, the demons, and oracles; and lastly, 
to attacks on Christianity, against which he composed 
certain works ^, while resident in Sicily. He taught elo- 
quence and philosophy at Rome, after the death of Plo- 
tinus, and died A. D. 304. 


lamblichus de Mysteriis iEgyptiorum liber seu Responsio ad 
Porphyrii Epistolam ad Aneboncm, Gr. et Lat. ed. Thom. Gale, 
Oxon. 1G78, folio ; with the other works of lamblichus. 

Ejusd. : Ile/jJ /3/oy UvBayopiKoZ Xoyo(;. See § 88 : (with) 

Ejusd. : Aoynq itpor^e-nriKoq elq (piXo(ro(piav, adhortatio ad Philos. 
Textum, etc., recensuit, interpretatione Latina, etc., et Ani- 
madversionibus instruxit Theoph. Kiessling, Lijys. 1813, 8vo. 

Ejusd. : De Generali Mathematum Scientia (the original in the 
Anecdota Grseca of Villoison, torn. II, p. 188, sqq.), and Intro- 
ductio in Nicomachi Geraseni (see § 184) Arithmeticam, ed. Sam. 
Tennulius, Arnh. 1608, 4to, et Theologumena Arithmetices, 
Paris. 1543, 4to. 

Ge. E. Hebenstreit, Diss, de lamblichi Philosophi Syri doc- 
trina, Christianae Religioni quam imitari studet, noxia, Lips. 
1704, 4to. 

217. The mystical philosophy of lamblichus was even 
still better adapted to the temper of the age. He was born 
at Chalcis in Coele-Syria, became the disciple of a certain 
Anatolius and of Porphyry: obtained the surname ofOay- 
{Acia-ioi; and ©eioTaro?, and died A. D. S3S. In reputation he 
soon surpassed his master, Porphyry; but not in talent. 
In his life of Pythagoras he appears as a Syncretist, or com- 
piler and combiner of different systems, but without cri- 
tical talent. In the fragments of his work on the soul, and 
in his letters ^, we discover some good sense, and more ac- 
quaintance with his opinions of the old philosophers, 

« EusEB. VI, 19, Hist, f^ccles. 
^ Preserved to us by Stobaeus. 

198 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

with which he is apt to blend his own philosophical 
tenets. It is very doubtful ^ whether he was the author 
of the work on the mysteries of the Egyptians, but if 
so, no one ever carried to a greater length than he did, 
the mysticism and exti'avagance of his age. Styling him- 
self the priest of the Divinity, he there, with the most 
perfect assurance, gives solutions of the queries proposed 
by Porphyry in his letter to Anebon (§ 216): and defines 
with the utmost minuteness the different classes of angels, 
the apparitions of gods and demons ; with a multitude of 
details equally authentic. He maintained the doctrine of 
union with God (IpoccniK)] eVojo-i?), by means of theology and 
theurgy, or the supernatural science ; to which he made 
philosophy subordinate. 

By Theurgy he meant to express the practice of cer- 
tain mysterious actions, supposed to be acceptable to the 
Divinity; and the influence of certain incommunicable 
symbols, the perfect knowledge of which belongs to God 
alone, whereby the Divinities are influenced according to 
our wishes : and to give some colour to these extrava- 
gances he referred to the Hermetical books, whence he 
chose to suppose that Pythagoras and Plato had derived 
their theories. 

Successors of lamblicJms and their contemporaries, 

218. lamhlichiis had a great number of followers ; 
among others Dexippiis, Sopater of Apamea, j^desius, the 
successor of lamblichus, and Eiistathius the successor of 
the latter, both of Cappadocia. Among the disciples of 
iEdesius were Eusebius of Myndus, and Priscus of Mo- 
lossis, both of whom rejected the belief in Magic and 
Theurgy'', to which Maximiis^ of Ephesus and Chrysanthius 
of Sardes were inclined. To the school of the latter be- 

s See Meinehs, Commentat. Soc. Getting. 1782, vol. IV, p. 50 ; and 
TiEDEMANN, Spirit of Speculative Philosophy, torn. Ill, p. 473, sqq. 

•' EuNAr. Vit. Soph. p. 69. 

' Ma^j/iov ^iXoaocpov Karapxm', rec. etc. ed. Gebhard, Lips. 1820, 


longed Eunapius of Sardes '\ and the emperor Julian^. The 
Neoplatonic system was taught in part by Claudian, bro- 
ther of MaximuSj and by Sallust, the same doubtless who 
became consul under Julian, A. D. SQS^ and wrote an ab- 
stract of this system ^ Then came the Eclectic Themist'ius 
of Paphlagonia'" (§ 183), who taught at Nicomedia and Con- 
stantinople : the commentator and compiler Macrobius " : 
the Eclectics Hierocles and Olympiodorus, who taught at 
Alexandria" andi /Eneas of Gaza, the disciple of Hierocles 
(§ 224), who subsequently became a convert to Christianity. 
After the close of the fourth century, Athens became the 
principal seat of the new philosophy, where it was professed 
hy Plutarch of Athens, the son of Nestoriusi^, who was sur- 
named the Great ; by Syrianus of Alexandria, his disciple 
and successor, who taught the Aristotelian system as an in- 
troduction to that of Plato "^ ; by Procliis (see following §) ; 
and by Hermias'^ of Alexandria, a pupil of Syrianus, and 
husband of /Edesia, also a disciple of this school. 

' See Bibliogr. §81. 

•' Became emperor 360, died 363 A.C. 

Juliani Opera ed. Dion. Petavius, Varis. 1630, 4to. Ed. Ezech. Span- 
iiEiM, Lips. 1696, fol. 

Ad. Kluit, Oratio inauguralis pro Imperatore Juliano Apostate, Middelb. 
1760, 4to. 

JoH. Pet. Lvdewig, Edictum Juliani contra Philosophos Christianos, Hal. 
1702, 4to. 

GoTTL. Fn. GuDii Diss, de Artibus Juliani Apostatae Paganam super- 
stitionem instaurandi, Jen. 1739, 4to. 

Hiller, De Syncretismo Juliani, Viteb. 1739, 4to. 

t Aug. Neander, On the Emperor Julian and his Age, Leips. 1812, 8vo. 

' Sallustii Philosophi de Diis et Mundo, lib. Gr. et Lat. ed. Leo Alla- 
Tius, Rom. 1638, 12rao; et Lugd. 1639. Id.: Opusc. Myth. Gale. Emen- 
datius edidit, Luc^ Holstenii et Thom.'e Galei Annotationibus integris, 
Formeii autem selectis aliorumquc, etc., illustr. Jo. Cokr. Orellivs, Turici. 
1821, 8vo. 

'" In the latter part of the fourth century. 

» Aurelius Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius, flourished about 409. 

" Fifth century. 

!• 350— 430 A.C. 

a Died about 450 A.C. 

"■ Not to be confounded with the Christian philosopher of the same name, 
who attacked Paganism in the third century. (Irrisio Philos. Gentil. ed. 
Gvil. Worth. Oxon. 1700, 8vo.) 

200 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 


Marini Vita Procli Gr. et Lat. ed. J. A. Fabricius, Hamh. 
1700, 4to ; ed. Jo. Fr. Boissonade, Lips. 1814, 8vo. 

Procli Philosophi Platonici Opera e codd. MSS. Bibl. Reg. 
•Paris. Nunc primum edid. Victor Cousin, torn. I — V, Paris. 
1819-24, 8vo. 

Procli in Theologiam Platonis lib. VI, una cum Marini Vita 
Procli et Procli Instit. Theol. Gr. et Lat. ed. jEmil. Portus 
et F. LiNDENBROG, Hamh. 1618, fol. ed. Fabricius, 1704, 4to. 

Ejusdem: Commentariorum in Platonis Timaeum lib. V, Bas. 
1534, fol. 

Commentary on the Alcibiades of Plato, by Proclus. Two 
portions of this work, viz. De Anima ac Daemone ; and De Sa- 
crificiis et Magia, were published by Ficinus, in Latin, Ven. 
1497, fol. : and often republished. Another portion, Ile/jt evwo-eoj^ 
Koi KaK'Kovq, has been published after the MSS. by Creuzer. The 
Dissertation of Plotinus is added thereto (§ 203). 

Initia Philosophise ac Theologiae ex Platonicis fontibus ductae 
sive Procli Diadochi et Olympiodori in Platonis Alcibiadem Com- 
mentarii. Ex codd. MSS. nunc primiim Graece ed. Fr. Creu- 
zer, part I— IV, Franco/. 1820-25. 

-j- De Burigny, Life of the Philosopher Proclus, and Notice 
of a MS. containing some of his works hitherto unpublished : in 
the Memoirs of the Academy of Inscriptions, tom. XXXI. 

219. This philosophy was reinforced by the accession 
of Proclus, surnamed AtaSox©?, and born at Constantinople 
A. D. 412. He spent his ardent and enthusiastic youth 
at Xanthus% a city devoted to Apollo and Minerva, 
where his parents resided. Thence he removed to Alex- 
andria, where Olympiodorus was teaching; and subse- 
quently to Athens, where the lessons of Plutarch, of 
Asclepigenia his daughter, and his successor Syrianus * 
(§ 218), instructed him in the philosophy of Aristotle and 
Plato. When on his travels he procured himself to be 
initiated in all the mysteries and arcana of Theurgy. He 
united an imaginative temper to great learning, but was 
unable to balance his acquirements by any weight of un- 

* In.Lycia, hence he was called Lycius. 

• Proclus succeeded the latter in his school of IMatonism — whence his name 

219, 220.] PROCLUS. 

A . V Mill fl r^ K- ,'UNI.VEI^£ 

derstanding. He looked upon the Orphic podms and ^y 

Chaldajan oracles, which he had diligently studied, ^^.TpA", 
divine revelations (§ 71), and capable of becoming instrr " 

mental to philosophy by means of an allegorical exposi- 
tion ; whereby also he endeavoured to make Plato and 
Aristotle agree ". He called himself the last link of the 
Hermaic chain {a-ei^a ipfAaiK-^), that is, the last of men con- 
secrated by Hermes, in whom, by perpetual tradition, 
was preserved the occult knowledge of the Mysteries''. 
He elevated faith (tt/o-t*?), above Science, as forming a 
closer bond of union with Good and Utiit?/^. 

220. His sketch of philosophy contains a commentary 
on the doctrines of Plotinus, and an attempt to establish 
this point, that there is but one real cause and principle 
of all things, and that this principle is Unity, which pro- 
duces all things in one uniform order, by triads. His ob- 
scure system was founded on an imperfect analysis and 
synthesis of the properties of Being, of which it admitted 
three grand divisions, Existence, Life, and Reason, or 
NoS?. All these he derived from Unity, and made them 
the sources of three other triads (Enned). 

He distinguished the Divinities, (making these also de- 
scend from Unity and give birth to triads), into Intelligible 
and Intelligent, Supernatural and Natural: attributed a 
Supernatural efficacy to the name of the Supreme Being, 
and, like his predecessors, exalted Theurgy above Philo- 
sophy ^. Proclus also attacked the Christian religion ; 
being principally oftended by the doctrine of the creation 
of the w orld \ In his three treatises on Providence, Fate, 
and Evil^, he states with great ability his notion that 

" Marin.,p. 53— G7 ; Procli Theol. Plat.I, 5 ; Comment, in Tim. V, p. 291. 

X Marini Vita Procli, p. 76 j Photius, cod. 242. 

y Theologia Plat. I, 25. 29. 

^ In Timseum, p. 291. 299. Theol. Plat. I, 25. 29. 

^ Procli XXII Argumenta adversus Christianos, apud Pliiloponum, de 
^ternitate INIundi contra Proclum. ed. Trincavelli, Gr. 1535, fol.j Lat. 
Lu^d. Bat. 1557. 

*» See Fabiucivs, Bibl. Gr. torn. VII et VIII, for extracts from a Latin 

202 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

the latter does not spring from Matter ^ but from the Hmi- 
tation of Power, and labours to reconcile the system of 
Plotinus with the conclusions of sound reason. 

221. Proclus died A. D. 485, with a reputation for 
wisdom and even for miraculous powers approaching 
adoration ; leaving behind him a crowd of followers, of 
whom some were females, such as Hjipatia^, Sosipatrat 
Asclepigenia, etc. His disciples were of very different 
degrees of talent, but little distinguished for improving 
the sort of philosophy he had bequeathed them. Among 
the most considerable were Marinus of Flavia Neapolis 
(Sichem), who succeeded Proclus as a teacher at Athens ; 
and composed his life (see § 219); but subsequently dif- 
fered from him in his interpretation of Plato ; then Isido- 
rus of Gaza, who took the place of Marinus at Athens, 
and afterwards removed to Alexandria ; an enthusiastic 
character but devoid of originality ; with Zenodotus the 
successor of the latter, in what they termed the Golden 
Chain: Still later Heliodorus and Aminonius, both the 
sons of Hermias of Alexandria (§ 218); and of whom the 
latter taught there ; then the Egyptians Heraiscus and 
AsclejncideSy Asclepiodotus, Severianus, Hegius, and Ul- 
pian, the brother of Isidorus. To this epoch belongs 
likewise John Stobceus the compiler"^. The last who taught 
the Neoplatonic system in the Academy of Athens was 
£)a?wasciM6r (of Damascus^), a disciple of Ammonius the son 
of Hermias, as well as of Marinus, Isidorus, and Zenodotus. 
He united a certain clearness of understanding to an ac- 
tive imagination ; and being dissatisfied with the manner in 

«= Jo. Chph. Wernsdorf, Diss. IV de Hypatiil, Philosopha Alexandiina, 
Viub. 1747-48; et Jo. Ciini, Wolf, Fragmenta et Elogia Mulierum Giaeca- 

^ John Stobeeus of Stobi in Macedon, flourished at the beginning of the sixth 
century. For his collection see § 81. 

e Fragments of his treatise, 'ATroptai kui Xvaetg rrepi apx^v, are to be found 
in the Anecd. Gr. of Wolf. torn. Ill, p. 195, sqq. Fragments of the Biogra- 
phy of the Philosophers by Damascius (the Fragments relate to Isidorus of 
Gaza), are found apud Photium, cod. 142, and 118. 

Damasciu:- Damascenu5 flourished m the first half of the sixth century. 


which Plotmus had subdivided Primitive Unity into many 
subordinate Unities, (Triad of Triads — or Ennead), he la- 
boured to reduce every thing to a Simple Unity ; at the 
same time that he admitted the impossibility of adequately 
comprehending the primordial and abstract principle of all 
things ; and asserted that it was accessible to the human 
understanding only by means of analogies, and symbols, 
and that partially. 

Among his disciples and those of Ammonius was the 
celebrated commentator on Aristotle, Sinqilicius of Cili- 
cia*^; who, as well as his teachers, endeavoured to recon- 
cile Aristotle and Plato. The emperor Justinian having 
by a severe decree caused the schools of the heathen 
philosophers to be shut ^, Damascius, with Isidorus, Sim- 
plicius and others, was obliged to fly into Persia, to the 
protection of the king Chosroes. They returned indeed 
A. D. oSSj but the ardour of this sect which had so long 
and so widely prevailed, and had exerted an insensible 
influence even over the opinions of the Christian philoso- 
phers, was manifestly on the decline. 

Philosophy of the Fathers of the Church. 

f J on. Aug. Eberhard, Spirit of Primitive Christianity, 
Halle, 1807-8, 3 vols, 8vo. 

f Fr. Koppen, Philosophy of Christianity, 2 parts, Leips. 
1813-15, 8vo. Second edition, 1825. 

■f J. W. ScHMiD, On the Spirit of the Morality of Jesus and 
his Apostles, Jen. 1790, 8vo. 

f J. LuD. EwALD, Spirit and Tendency of Christian Morality, 
Tub. 1801, 8vo. 

■f C. Fr. Rosler, Dissertation on the Philosophy of the 
Primitive Christian Church, in the fourth vol. of his Library of 

f Flourished about the middle of the sixth century. 

Jo. GoTTL. BuHLE, Dc SimpUcii Vita, ingenio et meritis, Gott. Anz. 
1786, p. 1977. The Commentaries of Simplicius on Aristotle's Categories, 
Physica, and the books de, Coclo, and de Anim^, were published at Venice, in 
the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. SciiwEiGH.tusJia has given his Com- 
mentary on the Enchiridion of Epiclelus . JMonum. Epict. Philos. torn. IV. 

•^ A. D. .529. 

204 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

the Fathers. See also his work : De Originibus Philosophiae 
Ecclesiasticse, Tubing. 1781, 4to. 

JoH. Ge. RosenmUller, De Christianas Theologise Origine, 
Lips. 1786, 8vo. 

■f Marheinecke, On the Origin and Progress of Orthodoxy 
and Heterodoxy, in the three first Ages of Christianity, Studien, 
torn. Ill, Heidelb. 1807, 8vo. 

-f C. W. Fr. Walch, Outline of a complete History of 
Heresies, 2 vols. Leips. 1762-85, 8vo. 

C. Ch. Fr. Schmid, Progr. de ignavia Errorum in Religionis 
Christianae Disciplina vulgarium principe causa, Jen. 1698, 4to. 

-j- W. MuNscHER, Manual of the History of Christian Doc- 
trines, I and II vol. second edition, Marh. 1802-4; III and IV 
vol. 1802-9, 8vo. ; third edition, 1817, etc. 

222. The Christian religion was formed for Univer- 
sality, by its Simplicity, its close alliance with Morality, 
and the Spirit of its worship, at once mild and severe. 
Its first teachers justly placed its claim to acceptation on 
the broad basis of its divine original, and were led to con- 
trast its doctrines with those which had been devised by 
human reason. The limits of Truth and of Duty had, (if 
mankind would have been satisfied), been at last defined ; 
and the strange dissensions of inquirers after both, re- 
conciled. But the fact of the divine origin of the religion 
gave occasion to various questions ; and it was asked, 
how revelation can be established ; how it can be ascer- 
tained that a doctrine is divine ; and what is its true im- 
port ? Hence the various degrees of authority allowed 
by different parties to the pretensions of Tradition and 

223. The disciples whom Christianity was continually 
gaining in different countries, were embued with very 
different principles and feelings, and many of them had 
also imbibed some philosophical system or other. The 
knowledge which such had already acquired of the 
theories of tlie Greeks ; the necessity of replying to the 
attacks of Heathen adversaries; and the desire of illus- 
trating the Christian doctrines, and forming into a whole 

222— 22r>.] FATHERS OF THE CHURCH. 205 

tlie solutions which were offerccl from time to time of the 
questions and cavils of their adversaries, — all these causes 
gradually led to the formation of a species of philosophy 
peculiar to Christianity, which successively assumed dif- 
ferent aspects, as regarded its principles and object. 

By these means something of the Grecian spirit of phi- 
losophy was transfused into the writings of the Fathers 
of the Church ; and in after times proved the germ of 
original speculations* 

224. Many of the Fathers of the Church, especially 
the Grecian, considered philosophy as in harmony with 
the Christian religion, (or at least partially so), inasmuch 
as both were derived from the same common source. 
This source of truth in the Heathen philosophy was, ac- 
cording to Justin Martyr (§ 226), derived from Internal 
Revelation by the "koyoq, and Tradition '' : according to St, 
Clement ' (§ 226) and the other Alexandrians, it was drawn 
from Tradition recorded in the Jewish Scriptures^; ac- 
cording to St. Augustine (§ 232), it was simply OralK In 
the estimation of all these Fathers Philosophy was, if not 
necessary, at least useful for the defence and confirma- 
tion of the Christian doctrine. 

225. Other Fathers of the Church, especially certain 
of the Latin, as TertuUian "", Arnobius ", and his disciple 
Lactantius'', surnamed the Christian Cicero, deemed phi- 
losophy a superfluous study, and adverse to Christianity, 
as tending to alienate man from God : — nay, some of them 

b Apolog. II, p. 50, 51. 83. 

' Jo. Aug. Neander, De Fidei Gnoseosque ide&. et ek qu^ ad se Invicem 
et Philosophiam referuntur ratione secundum mentem dementis Alexandrini, 
Heidelb. 1811, 8 vo. 

•' Justini Cohortatio ad Gr.nccos. Clemens Alexandrinus, Strom. I, p. 298. 
312 ; Euseb. Pra;p. Evang. XIII, 12, 13. 

• Aug. DeCivit. Dei, VII, 11. 

"' Of Carthage : became Christian about 1B5 A. C. died 220. 

" Taught eloquence at Sicca, and died about 326 A. C. 

" L. Coelius Lactantius Firmianus, teacher of elo(iuence at Nicomedia, died 
about 330. 

206 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

did not scruple to pronounce it an invention of the Devil, 
and a fruitful source of heresy p. 

226. Nevertheless the party which favoured snch pur- 
suits gradually acquired strength ; and the Fathers came 
to make use, on the Eclectic system, of the philosophy of 
the Greeks^'. Accordingly Julian thought that he was 
taking an effectual method of obstructing the Christian 
religion when he interdicted to its followers the study of 
that philosophy. Yet all the schools of the ancients 
were far from meeting with a like acceptation on the part 
of the Fathers. Those of Epicurus, the Stoics, and the 
Peripatetics were little considered, on account of the 
doubtful manner in which they had expressed themselves 
with regard to the immortality of the Soul, the existence 
of a Supreme Being, and his Providence ; or the oppo- 
sition which existed between their views and those of 
Christianity. The Platonic system, on the other hand, 
from the degree of affinity they affected to discover in it 
to the Jewish and Christian Revelations, was held in 
high esteem ^ Nay, the earliest Fathers themselves be- 
longed to the school of Alexandria*. Justin Martyr, 

P Ern. Sal. Cypriani Diatribe Academica, qua expenditur illud Tertul- 
liani : Hsereticorum Palriarchae Philosophi, Helmst. 1699, 4to. 

Ad. Rechenbergeri Diss, an Hajreticorum Patriarchae Philosophi, Lips. 
1705, 4to. 

Chu. Gottfr. Schutz, Progr. de Regult\ Fidei apud Tertullianum, Jen. 
1781, 4to. 

E. W. P. Ammon, Coelii Lactantii Firmiani Opiniones de Religione in 
Systema redactse, ErL. 1820, 8vo. 

Tertullian. Apologia, c. 47 ; De Praescript. Hferes., c. 7 ; Adv. Marcion. 
V, 19 ; Lactant. Div. Instit. IV, 2 ; passim. De Falsa Sap. lib. Ill, c. 1, § 10, 
sqq. ; Clem. Alex. Strom. I, p. 278. 309 ; VII, p. 755. Basilius adv. Euno- 
mium. I, Chrysostomi Ilomilia in Matthaiiim. 

'1 Clem. Alex. Strom. I, p. 288 ; Lactant. Div. Inst. VII ; Augustin. de 
Doctr. Christ. II, 11. 39. 

' Cf. the work of Staudlin, referred to above § 135. 

'^ t SouvERAiN, Platonism unveiled, or an Essay concerning the Platonic 
Xoyoc, Cologne, 1700, 8vo. Translated into German, with a Preface and Re- 
marks by J. Fn. L(effler, second edition, ZuUichan and Freitsiadt, 1792, 


affirmed that the Xoyo^ previously to Tlis incarnation had 
revealed Himself to the philosophers of antiquity ^ Cle- 
ment of Alexandria enlarged on the same idea, and pro- 
fessed to consider Pagan philosophy as an Introduction 
to Christianity. To these may be added Athenagoras'^ 
of Athens, and Tatiamis the Syrian ", the Apologists, 
who both discovered, as they thought, many points of 
resemblance between the Christian Religion and Plato- 
nism. Origen " the disciple of Clement and the adversary 
of Celsus, pronounced, with his master, that happiness 
consists in the contemplation, (Oeupia.) of the Divinity; 
and drew a distinction between the popular acceptation 
of Religion, and the same when thus explained by the 
learned y; (on which account he came to be considered by 
some as the first who hinted at the Philosophy of Chris- 
tianity ^). To the same class also belonged Synesius of 
Cyrene '\ a pupil of Hypatia ; /Eneas of Gaza'', and even, 
— in some respects, St, Augustine, (§ 232). 

In this manner the Church gradually became recon- 
ciled to philosophy ; especially after the discussions on 

t Baltus, Defence of the Fathers against the Charge of Platonism, Faris, 
1711, 4to. 

J. Laur. Mosheim, Comment, de Turbata per recentiorcs Platonicos Ec- 
clesia. In Diss. Hist. Eccl. tom. I, p. 85. 

t J. A. Cramer, On the Influence of the Alexandrian School on the Pro- 
gress of the Christian Religion ; (in his continuation of Bossuet, II, 268). 

Cas. Aug. Theopii. Kiel, Exercitationes de Doctonbus veteris Ecclesiae 
culp& corruptae per Platonicas sententias Theologia: liberandis, Isiiis. 1793, 
sqq. 4to. Comment. I — XIV. 

Henr. Nic. Clausen, Apologeta) Eccl. Christianae Ante-Theodosiani Pla- 
tonisejusque Philosophiai arbitri, Hafn. 1817. 

*■ Justin INIartyr was born of heathen parents at Flavia Neapolis in Pales- 
tine, A.D. 89 : died a Christian 165. Apol. II, p. 83. 

* [I have not thought it necessary to add the works, and editions of the 
works, of the Fatliers, as they only incidentally belong to the subject of this 
Manual. Transt.'] 

" Both he and Athenagoras were originally heathens, and both flourishcnl 
about 170 A. D. 

^ Of Alexandria, born 185, died 253. 

y Tlfpi uftx^v, lib. 1, 1. 

' Ibid. Prajf. § 3. See $ 230. 

* Flourished about 410. 

*» Flourished about 187 : see $ 218. 

208 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

the Arian heresy had taught them the necessity for a 
more subtile Logic. Nemesius*^, bishop of Emesa, in his 
Essay on Man, followed Aristotle (§ 230), and Boethius 
the Roman (§ 234), translated and commented on several 
of his works on Logic (§ 2'S5). 

227. Philosophy was at first employed as an auxiliary 
to the Christian Religion, to assist in winning over the 
more cultivated of the Greeks to whom it was addressed ; 
subsequently it was turned to the refutation of heresies ; 
and lastly applied to the elucidation and distinct state- 
ment of the doctrines of the Church. Through all these 
successive gradations the relations of Religion and Philo- 
sophy continued always the same : the former being 
looked upon as the sole source of knowledge, the most 
exalted and the only true philosophy ; the latter being 
regarded as merely a handmaid to the former, and a 
science altogether earthly, — scientia ynundana^. Logic 
was exclusively devoted to Polemics. 

The prevailing system therefore of the Fathers 
is a Supernaturalism more .or less blended with Ra- 
tionalism. The former daily acquired additional pre- 
dominance, in consequence of the perpetual disputes 
with the heretics, who were inclined to place Reason 
side by side with Revelation : and in consequence also of 
the resolution of some Christian teachers to put a severe 
restraint on the waywardness of human interpretation as 
applied to the Scriptures. Revelation came to be re- 
garded not only as the source of all Christian belief, but 
as the fountain also of all knowledge, speculative and 

Observation. The labours of the Fathers in the discussion of 
the doctrines of Christianity doubtless belongs to the History of 

c Flourished about 380. 

•^ Tertull. De Prscscript. IlaBiet., c. 7. Lactant. Div. Instil. I, 1 ; V, 1 ; 
in, 1. Salvianus, De Gubernat. Dei Pra^fat. Euseb. Pr<ep. Evang. IV, 
22. Damasceni Dialecticc, c. 1, sqq. Didymus in Damasceni Parallelis, 
p. 685. 


227—229.] FATHERS OF THE CHURCH. 209 

Religion, on account of their dependency on Revelation^ and 
their connection with various articles of the Christian creed. 

■ Nevertheless, a review of the philosophical tenets which were 
I involved, and a sketch of the system of Augustine, appear neces- 

■ sary for the elucidation of the opinions of following ages. (See 

■ MUnscher, Handb. der Christl. Dogmengesch. I and II parts). 

■i §^29. 

W' Chr. Fried. Rosler, Philosophia veteris Ecclesiae de Deo, 
Tubing. 1782, 4to. Idem: Progr. Philosophiae veteris Ecclesiae 
de Spiritu et de Mundo, ibid. 1785, 4to. 

Alb. Chr. Roth, (praes. Jo. Ben. Carpzov), Trinitas Pla- 
tonica. Lips. 1693, 4to. 

Jo. WiLH. Jani, Diss, (praes. J. G. Neumann), Trinitas 
Platonismi vere et falso suspecta, Viteb. 1708, 4to. 

See also the work of Souverain, § 226, s. 

The Deity — and the Relation in which the world and 
mankind stand to God, are the principal subjects of the 
speculations of the Fathers ; and in these we may observe 
an evident appeal to the judgment and the under- 

I. The Deity. There are three ways in which God 
may be known : by His image ; from external nature ; 
and by immediate revelation. We find different proofs 
of the existence of a God drawn from mixed Physics and 
Theology, from Cosmology* and Ontology '^j noticed by 
the Fathers ; though in general they treat it rather as a 
matter of faith than knowledge, and appear to have con- 
sidered the idea of a Divinity as innate, because uni- 
versal. The nature of God ^ is not capable of being 
known by the unassisted understanding''; at least by any 
conceptions of our own, without Divine revelation*. 
Some of the Fathers do not express themselves so posi- 

« Greg. Naz. Orat. XXXIV, 0pp. ed. Colon. 1690, torn. T, p. 559. Joh. 
Damascenus, De Fide Orthod., lib. I, 3. 

' August. De Libero Arbitrio, 11, 5 — 15. See also lib. VIII, 3 ; de 
genesi ad litt., lib. VIII, cap. 14. 

e " God has not so much revealed what He is as what He is not" was the 
sentiment of Clemens (Strom. V, p. 689). 

^ Damascen. de Orth. Fid. I, 4. 

' DioNYs. Areop. Ep. 5; et De Mysticri Theol., c. 4, sqq. 


210 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

tively on this head, inasmuch as they admit the possibility 
of the appUcation to this great subject of our unassisted 
ideas and understanding. The greater part of them at first 
represented the Deity as associated with Space and Time, 
like a corporeal being ''i but gradually they corrected these 
notions, and reduced them to those of Immateriality, or 
something very nearly approaching to it^ Their re- 
flections were more profound than those of the Heathen 
philosophers respecting the attributes of the Deity, but 
were not altogether free from the charge of inconsistency. 

^30. II. Relation of God to the World. The Fathers, 
in opposition to the Manicheans and Gnostics, maintained 
the Scriptural doctrine of the Creation of the world by 
the will of God, and its formation out of non-existence. 
On this a question was moved : Did the Creation take 
place within the limits of Time ? (which St. Athanasius, 
Methodius, and St. Augustine affirmed) ; or from all 
Eternity ? (as thought Clement of Alexandria and Ori- 
gen) ^ : and to what end was it created ? 

The Fathers admit a general and particular Provi- 
dence " : assert the maintenance and government of the 
world by the ministry of angels*'; or, some of them, with- 
out their ministry p. They opposed the fatalism of the as- 
trologers and Stoics ^, in order to maintain the doctrine 
of Free-will, and sometimes pushed their speculations on 
this head farther than, it is probable, they themselves in- 
tended ^ They endeavoured to reconcile the doctrine of 
the omniscience of God with that of the free-agency of 
man ^ ; and entered largely into the discussion of the 
origin of physical and moral Evil. Most of them taught 

^ Tertull. Adv. Prax. c. 7. Arnob. Adv. Gent., lib. I, p. 17. 

• AucusTiN. De Div. Q. XX, Ep. 57. 

"" Ilfpt dpxbiv, III, 5. 

" Lactant. De Ira Dei, c. 30. Nemesius, De Nat. Horn, c, 42, 44. 

° Justin Martyr, Athenagoras, Tertullian, Augustine, John of Damascus. 

P Nemesius, 1. 1. 

1 Nemes. 68. 34. AuGusTXN.De Civ. Dei, V, 9. 

"^ Nemes. 1. 1. c. 38. 

■* AUCISTIN. 1. 1, 

230, 231.] FATHERS OF THE CHURCH. 211 

that it was unavoidable ^ and maintained took 
place neither with nor in opposition to the will of God ; 
in other words, that it was simply ^^enwi/^c^c/ by Him. 
They attributed it in part to human agency, in part to 
the influence of evil Spirits ". — They asserted the exist- 
ence of spiritual beings endowed with a subtile essence ", 
who minister to the Deity in the government of the world. 
On the origin of evil spirits are found some superstitious 
and extravagant notions in the writings of Dionysius the 
Areopagite^, and Psellus^. 

Anthropology. Is man composed of two, or of three 
essential elements. Body, Soul, and Spirit? — as Justin 
and all the Fathers his immediate successors (all of whom 
inclined to Neoplatonism), asserted. The human Soul 
was at first thought material; subsequently however it 
was pronounced immaterial and spiritual, by the Pla- 
tonist Fathers : as also by Nemesius and St. Augustine ^ 
As to the origin of souls, they were conceived to be 
created, by some immediately, by others mediately. (Per- 
petual creation, or pre-existence of souls). The immor- 
tality of the soul was thought by some (St, Augustine) in- 
separable from its essence ; by others, (Justin, Arnobius), 
a peculiar gift of God, either bestowed on all, or specially 
on the elect. 


f Baubeyrac, Treatise on the Morality of the Fathers of the 
Church, Amsterd. 1728, 4to. (French). See also his, Introduc- 
tion to his translation of the Natural Law of Pufendorf. 

•j" Ceillier, Defence of the Ethics of the Fathers of the 
Church, Paris, 1718, 4to. 

' Lactant. Div. Instit. II, 8. 12 ; V, 7. 

"Of the Devil. Tektull., A.ugust. See $ 232. 

'' Orig. n«pi nrpx- ^> ^' J"* Damasc. De Ortli. Fid. II, 3. 

y De Hierarchia Coclesti. 

* De Daemonibus. 

* August. De Quaniitate Anima;. c. 1 ; et al. : Claudianus Mamer- 
TiNus, a presbyter of Vienno in Gaul, composed, about 470, a treatise, De 
Statu Anim<Te, libb. III ; ed. P. Moseli.anus, Bas. 1520, 4to. and subsequently 
Cas. Baiith. Cvgv, 1655, 8vo. 

p 2 

212 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

•f (B4j&Tus), Opinions of the Fathers on the Ethics of the 
Heathen Philosophers, Strasb. 1719, 4to. (French). 

•f J. D. MicHAELis, Morals, part ii, Gotting. 1792, 8vo. 

Car. Fred. Staudlin, Progr. de Patrum Ecclesiae Doctrina 
Morali, Gotting. 1796. -f The same: Hist, of Christian Morals, 
ibid. 1799, 8vo. 

f Essay towards a History of Christian Morals, Asceticism, and 
Mysticism, with a review of all the works on these subjects, 
vol. i, Dortmund, 1798, 8vo. 

III. Ethics, or relation of Mail to God. The Ethics 
of the Fathers of the Church are deficient in sys- 
tematic character ; but in detail they are of uncompro- 
mising strictness, and tend to elevate man above the 
dominion of the senses. Their fundamental principle is 
the will of God, and on the part of man, obedience to that 
will. The means of becoming acquainted with it are the 
Scriptures and Reason ; the latter subordinate to the 
former. According to some, God requires the fulfilment 
of His will in virtue of His almighty power ^; according 
to others, with a view to the eternal welfare and felicity 
of man*^. According to a third theory, God is at the 
same time the Sovereign legislator and the Supreme 
Good, and End, of all reasonable beings. To be united 
to Him is the height of happiness^. To this was ap- 
pended the doctrine of Duty and Conformity to His will, 
or Virtue. Sincerity, disinterested love of our neighbour, 
patience, and chastity, are virtues pre-eminently com- 
mended by the Fathers ; the three last especially being 
enforced with peculiar strictness. Free-will, which was 
at first more largely admitted as a condition of moral 
action, came to be afterwards limited, and in a manner 
annulled (§ ^62, 25S). 

A species of ascetic Mysticism subsequently usurped 
the place of this Morality. 

Augiistini Confessiones, etc. 0pp. tom. i. 

'' Teutull. De Poenitentia, c. 4. 

•= Lactant. Institut. Divin. lib. Ill, c. 11, sqq. 

* AucrsriN. De Libero Arbitrio, I, 6; II, 19. 

232.] FATHERS OF THE CHURCH. 213 v \\X 

PossiDii Vita Augiistini, ed. Jo. Solinas, Rome. 1731, 8vo. 
In the Acta Sanctorum, torn. V, p. 213, sqq., and in the Bene- 
dictine edition of the Works of Augustine, Parisy 1G77 — 1700, 
11 vol. fol. ; 1700—3, 12 vol. fol. 

St. Augustine was one of the greatest luminaries of 
the Latin church «. After having studied the Scholastic 
philosophy, and become an ardent disciple of the Mani- 
cheans, he was converted to the orthodox faith by the 
powerful eloquence of St. Ambrose, at Milan, (A. D. 
387), and subsequently, (A. D. 405), was appointed 
bishop of Hippo, and distinguished himself as a zealous 
preacher, a champion against Heresy, and a copious 
writer. He employed his philosophical acquirements, 
and his great and versatile powers in reducing to the 
form of a system the doctrines of Christianity ; and ulti- 
mately produced a theory by which it was associated with 
much of Platonism. ; According to him, God, the most 
perfect and exalted of essences, exists of necessity 
(§ 229) : He is the creator of the world (§ 230) ; Eternal 
Truth and Eternal Justice; of whom man has certain 
innate notions, by means of a faculty of intuition superior 
to the evidence of the senses ^ God is the supreme good 
of the Spiritual world, to whom we labour to reunite our- 
selves s. He has called all reasonable beings to the en- 
joyment of happiness through the practice of virtue ; and 
to that end has endowed them with reason and free-will 
(§ 231). The use of this free-will is committed to the 
option of the agent, who, according to his employment of 
it, approaches to or withdraws himself from God, and 
renders himself more worthy, or more unworthy, of 
felicity. Moral evil is negative, and has not any posi- 
tive cause. Evil men are necessary to complete the sum 
of the Universe, which is perfect ; and which would not 
be perfect without them, inasmuch as it supposes the ex- 
istence of all possible classes of beings, in all possible 

« Aurelius Augustinus, born at Tagaste in Africa, A. U. 354 : died 430. 

f De Quantit. An. c. 20. 

s De Civit. Dei, X, 3. De Veri Relig., c. 55. 

214 FIRST PERIOD, [sect. 

degrees ^, Such was the system of Augustine respecting 
the Divine Government. In his latter years he rejected 
this for another : that man, since the fall, has lost immor- 
tality, and free-will, as far as the doing of good is con- 
cerned, but not as affects the commission of evil ; from 
which principle he deduced the doctrine of absolute Pre- 
destination and Irresistible Grace'. He was led to this 
system by a literal adherence to some expressions of 
Scripture to which he had occasion to refer in his dis- 
pute with Pelagius, a British monk ; who, with his friend 
Coelestius, came out of Ireland into Africa, and asserted 
the free-will of man to do good^. St. Augustine like- 
wise originated several new ideas respecting the soul 
and its faculties, the senses, and the five degrees of Intel- 
lectual Power, which have been often revived '. 

2SS. The authority of St. Augustine's name contributed 
to render his latter system the text-book of Dogmatic 
Science in the West. The destruction of the Roman 
Empire by the inroad of barbarians, and the obliteration 
of the remains of ancient literature, contributed to re- 
press the spirit of original inquiry, which had on many 
subjects been superseded by Revelation. Under such 
circumstances, the writings of the Fathers were beneficial 
to philosophy also ; as preserving some vestiges of an- 
cient discussions. This was especially true of the works 
of Augustine, and applies to the treatises on Logic, 
falsely imputed to him '" ; and which were recommended 
during the middle ages by the stamp of his name. 

>^ De Lihero Aibitrio, T, 14 ; II, 1. 19, 20 j 111,9; lib. 3. Qu. 41. 

* De Civ. Dei, XIV, 10; XV, 21 ; XXI, 12; XXII, 30. De Nuptiis et 
Concupiscentia, IT, 34; De Natura et Gratia; De Gestis Pelagii, contra 
(luas Epp. Pelagianorum, contra Julianum de Corruptione et Gratia, de 
Gratia et Libero Arbitrio, de Praedestinatione Sanctorum. 

'' t Pun. Marheinecke, Dialogues on the Opinions of Augustine, with 
respect to Free-will and Divine Grace, Berl. 1821, 8vo. 

t G. F. WiGGERs, Essay towards an Historical Statement of Augusti- 
nianism and Pelagianiem, etc., Berl. 1821, 8vo. 

' De Quantit, An. n, 70, sqq. 

"1 Principia Dialectica: : et : Decern Categoria\ vol. I, edit. Bened. 

233, 234.] ECLECTICS. 215 

Boethius, Cassiodonts, and other Eclectics. 

234. Besides the dry abstract of what were called the 
Seven liberal arts, by Marcianus Capella"^, we remark 
among the works which served as text-books to the ages 
following, and took a rank intermediate between the an- 
cient and modern philosophies, the works of two Patri- 
cians of the kingdom of the Ostrogoths, Boethius and 
Cassiodorus, the last champions of classical literature in 
the West. Both were Eclectics, and endeavoured to 
reconcile the doctrines of Plato and Aristotle. Boethius'* 
lived at the court of the Gothic king Theodoric, who 
caused him to be beheaded under a false suspicion of 
high treason P. By him principally was preserved in 
the West some faint knowledge of the system of Aris- 
totle. He translated some treatises of that philosopher 
on Logic, and wrote a commentary on the translation 
of the Isagoge of Porphyry by Victorinus, which was 
looked upon as a preparation for the study of Aris- 
totle. He also composed, in his prison at Pavia, his 
treatise De Coiisolatione Philosophioe^ which became a 
great favourite with following ages. His contemporary 
Cassiodorus"^ i also preserved, especially in his work De 
Septe7n Discipliiiis, some relics of Grecian philosophy ; 
and encouraged the monks to transcribe the ancient MSS. 

n Marcianus Minaeus Felix Capella, flourished about 474. His work 
entitled, Satyricon, has been frequently printed, (see Fabric. Bibl. Lat. torn. 
I, p, 638), and lastly by J. A. Gof.z, Norimb. 1794, 8vo. 

Anicius Manlius Torquatus Severinus Boethius, born A. D. 470. 
t Gervaise, History of Boethius the Roman senator, Paris, 1715. 

His works : Basil. 1570, fol.; De Consolatione, published by Pertius, Lugd. 
Bat, 1671, Bvo. Lips. 1753, 8vo. Ed. et Vitam Auctoris adjecit Jo. Tiieod. 
Bj. Helfreciit, Hof, 1797, 8vo. 

P Between 524 A. D. and 526. 

1 Magnus Aurelius Cassiodorus, born at Squillacci about 480 ; died, in a 
convent, 575. 

t Fr. D. de Sainte-Martiie, Life of Cassiodorus, Paris, 1695, 12mo. 
Bi'AT, Life of Cassiodorus among the Dissert, of the Acad, of Sciences of Ba- 
varia, vol. I, s. 79. 

Cassiodori Opera Omnia op. ct stud. Garetii, Rotomag, 1679, 2 vols, fol.; 
et Venet. 1729. 

216 FIRST PERIOD. [sect. 

In Spain, under the dominion of the Visigoths, Isidoriis, 
archbishop of Seville {Hispalensis), rendered a real ser- 
vice to learning by the composition of his useful book 
of reference "". In England and Ireland science survived 
longer than elsewhere. Bede, the Anglo-Saxon, sur- 
named the Venerable^, enjoyed there a great celebrity: 
and assisted by the works above mentioned, composed 
his Abstracts, of which, some time afterwards, Alcuin 
availed himself. (See § 244, sqq). 

^S5. In the East the pretended works, (of a mystical 
character), of Dionysius the Areopagite *, believed to be 
the contemporary of our Lord and his Apostles, and First 
bishop of Athens, acquired considerable celebrity, and in 
the middle ages proved a rich mine to the Mystics (§ 229, 
230, and 246). They embraced a sort of adaptation of 
the doctrine of Emanation and of Platonism in general 
to Christianity ; and are generally supposed to belong to 
the third or fourth century; though some, as Dallaeus, 
refer them to the sixth". It is true that literature in 
general still survived in the Grecian Empire, but without 
spirit or originality. It owed its existence to the Aristo- 
cratic constitution which still subsisted in the Greek 
Church, (differing in this respect from the Latin, which 
fell under the dominion of Papacy), and to the degree 
of attention still bestowed on the Greek philosophers. 

' Died A. D. 636. 

Isidori Hispalensis Originura seu Etymologiarum libri XX. Aug. Vind. 
1472, fol. c. not. Jac. Gothofredi in Auctorib. Lat. p. 811 : and in the 
edition of his 0pp. ed. Jac. Du Breul, Paris, 1601, fol. col 1617. 

« Born 673, died 735. 

Bedce Opera Omnia, torn. I, III, Paris. 1521 et 1544 j Colon. 1612 and 
1688, 8 vols. fol. 

' De Coelesti Hlerarchia, de Divinis Nominibus, de Ecclesiastic^ Hierarchic, 
de Mystica TheologiC. Dionys. Areop. 0pp. Gr. Bas. 1539 ; Ven. 1558 ; Paris. 
1562, 8vo. ; Gr. et Lat. Paris. 1615, fol. ; Antverp. 1634, 2 vols. fol. ; and with 
Dissertations on the Author, Paris, 1644, 2 vols. fol. 

" The most recent inquires on this subject are those of: Jo. Ge. Vital. 
Engeliiardt, Dionysio Areopagit^, Plotinizante, praemissis Observa- 
tionibus de Historic Theologiie Mysticai rite tractandC, § I et II, Erl. 1820, 
Bvo. L. FniD. Otto Baujujarten-Crusius, Progr. de Dionysio Areopagita, 
Jen. 1823, 4to. 

235.] ECLECTICS. 217 

In the sixth century, tJohn Stobccus, who was inclined to 
the doctrines of Neoplatonism (§ 221); and subsequeotl^^ 
in the ninth, the patriarch Photius'', formed valuable col-^ or 

or THJ? 

lections of extracts from difierent ancient authors. I j A^'is-T VPP n i i 

in this part of the epipire, ^^^ 


totle also was better appreciated in this part of the ajp^pire, 

James of Edessa, the Monophysite, caused the dialectiiXjPOTl^ 
treatises to be translated into Syriac. John of Alexandria^ 
surnamed Philoponus^ (an Eclectic), distinguished himself 
by his Greek Commentaries on Aristotle ; from whom, 
nevertheless, he differed on the question of the eternity 
of the world (§ 220) ; and after him John of Damascus ^, 
not only gave to the East for the first time a system of 
Theology (§ 229, 230) ; but by his works ^ continued to 
direct public attention to the study of the Aristotelian 
philosophy, which was not extinguished till the downfal 
of the Greek Empire (§ 254). 

^ Born A.D. 858, died 891. 

Mvpio(3i(3\'iov, ed. Hoeschel, Aug. Vind. 1601. 

y Died about 608. 

His Commentaries — On the Analytics (First and Second), on the Physics, 
Metaphysics, De Anim^, and other works of Aristotle, appeared, for the most 
part, at Venice, in the sixteenth centuiy. 

* Died about 754 ; also known by the name of Chrysorrhoas. 

* 'EKOtaig TTJs opOodo^TjQ Trhreug. — Opera ed. Le Quien, Paris. 1712, 2 
vols. fol. 






Attempts of the Understanding towards the ctdtivation 
of Science, under the influence of an extraneous 2^ri?iciple 
and positive laws. 

History of the Philosophy of the Middle Ages and of the 
Schoolmen, (From 800 to the Fifteenth Century), 

2S6, The spirit of philosophical curiosity which had 
possessed so much influence throughout the preceding 
period, dwindled to a very slender thread, and influenced 
in a very inferior degree the puhlic mind during the days 
of barbarism and ignorance, on which we are about to 
enter. At the same time a new System and new Method 
were contained in embryo in the precious remains of old 
philosophy, and acquired the name of the Scholastic; be- 
cause it was principally formed in the schools founded 
since the time of Charlemagne'*. That great monarch, 

'^ See the Work of Launoy, § 243; and J. M. Unold, do Societate Li- 
teraria a Carolo M. instituta, Jen. 1752, 4to. 

It must not be forgotten, however, that such studies were cultivated at a 
still earlier period in Great Biitain. See Mviiuay, Do Briiannia atque Hi- 
bernia Saiculo a sexto inde ad decimum literar. domicilio ; in the Nov. Com- 
ment, Soc. Gott. torn. II, part II, p, 72. 

236—238.] MIDDLE AGES. 219 

so astonishingly superior to the age in which he Hvcd, 
very properly began the work of civilization by esta- 
bhshing elementary schools for the clergy, where were 
taught, in the jejune sketches of Marcianus Capella^ 
CassiodoruSy and Bade, the Seven Liberal arts, or, as 
they were termed by Boethius, the Trivium and Quadri- 
vium. Charlemagne founded likewise an Academy at- 
tached to his court, as well as a school for the instruc- 
tion of those destined for public affairs ; and for the im- 
provement of the latter he invited, principally from Eng- 
land, several men of eminent merit. (See Alcuin, § 244). 
His successors also encouraged the establishment and 
maintenance of Schools for the clergy, in the convents 
and episcopal sees. 

237. In these schools, and still more in the universities 
which were subsequently formed, especially in that of 
Paris, the model of all the rest, a degree of zeal for science, 
as considerable as could be expected from the informa- 
tion and circumstances of the ecclesiastics for whom these 
seminaries had been principally designed, gradually un- 
folded itself. An alliance was now formed between Faith, 
which implicitly received the doctrines which the hie- 
rarchy of the Romish church maintained, and Reason, 
which laboured to investigate the principles of the same 
truths. The means employed were Logic and Metaphy- 
sics, or Dialectics. This was the origin of the scholastic 
philosophy, which was engaged in the application of 
Dialectics to Theology, (such as it was established by 
St. Augustine), and an intimate association of these two 

238. The Human mind thus endeavoured at once, with- 
out any substantial knowledge or previous discipline, to 
grapple with the greatest of all questions, the Nature of 
the Divinity; and by a course the reverse of that pursued 
by Grecian philosophy, beginning with this great prin- 
ciple, sought in its descent to embrace the circle of all ac- 
quired knowledge. The impulse was given by Theology ; 

220 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

which always continued to be the principal moving power, 
as well as object. At first nothing more was designed 
than the confirmation of certain isolated doctrines by the 
authority of an appeal to Reason as well as Revelation ; 
subsequently men were desirous of binding together into 
a sort of system, the results of these reasonings ; in the 
end it was their endeavour to consolidate, confirm, and 
define the sphere of knowledge which by such means 
they had extended. 

239. Revelation had already supplied the great results 
of such inquiries on the most important particulars. All 
that remained, and all they attempted, was to invest those 
results with the formalities of a science. All that could 
be obtained by investigation had been already defined, 
and was strictly maintained by the Church ; nor were 
the means employed — Dialectics — less absolutely fixed by 
usage. The circle of mental activity was consequently 
confined ; and a spirit of minute subtilty began to prevail, 
more especially in establishments cut off from large com- 
munication with the great world, which amused the in- 
quisitiveness of the human mind by the discussion of 
puerile formularies, and a sort of intellectual see-saw 
applied to ideas instead of realities. 

240. Philosophy at first dwindled into a mere logical 
skeleton after the manner of Boethius and Cassiodorus; 
and more recently, in conformity to the sketch of Bede (§ 
234), which was adopted as his model by Alcuin; and 
finally, after the system attributed to St. Augustine (§ 233). 
It became indeed somewhat more enlarged after they had 
acquired from the Arabs some slight acquaintance with the 
Aristotelian philosophy, by means of rude translations from 
the Arabic and Greek. In spite of the opposition it at first 
encountered, and the imputation of heresy, this philosophy 
became daily more prevalent, and ultimately of universal 
influence, in consequence of being allied to Theology. 

241. It is not possible to define with accuracy the du- 

239—242.] MIDDLE AGES. 221 

ration of the empire of scholastic philosophy. It began 
in the ninth century •", and has in some degree survived 
to our own days; but the revival of classical literature and 
the Reformation deprived it for ever of that unlimited 
authority which it possessed before. 

242. Four epochs may be defined in the history of this 
philosophy, deducible from the history of the question 
concerning the Reality of Ideas; and the relations of 
Philosophy to Theology. First jieriod, down to the 
eleventh century: — A blind Realism^, with attempts to 
apply the elements of Philosophy to Theology. — Second 
period, from Roscelliti to Alexander of Hales, or Alesius, 
at the commencement of the thirteenth century. — The 
first appearance of Nominalism and of a more liberal 
system of inquiry, quickly repressed by the ecclesias- 
tical authorities, which established the triumph of Real- 
ism. A more close alliance was consequently brought 
about between philosophy and theology. — Third period. 
From Alexander and Albert, surnamed the Great, to 
Occam: — thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. During 
this period. Realism had exclusive dominion : the system 
of instruction adopted by the Church was consolidated by 
t^e introduction of the Aristotelian system ; and philoso- 
phy became still more closely connected with theology. — 
The age of St. Thomas Aquinas and Scotus. — Fourth 
period. From Occam to the sixteenth century. — A con- 
tinued contest between Nominalism and Realism, wherein 
the former obtained some partial successes. Philosophy 
was gradually detached from Theology, through the re- 
newal of their old debates. Some other disputes grew out 
of the attempt to introduce reforms in the systems of both. 

Observation. Three different relations subsisted between Phi- 
losophy and Theology during these periods : 1st. Philosophy 

^ The origin of Scholastic philosophy is often referred to the epoch of Ros- 
cellin, about the end of the eleventh century ; or to the twelfth century ; or 
lastly, (as Tiedemann does), to the commencement of ihe thirteenth. 

<= [Realism supposes our \deas to have a real e&sence : Nominalism the con- 
trary. Tkanst..] 

222 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

was considered merely subordinate : as the Ancilla Theologies : 
2dly. It was associated with the latter on a footing of equality : 
3dly. They were mutually separated and divorced. 

243. In examining the philosophy of these ages we 
ought, (making due allowance for the circumstances of the 
times, and not appreciating what was effected then by what 
might be achieved now), to allow all their merit to supe- 
rior minds without laying to their charge the faults of 
their age and their contemporaries ; and to show our- 
selves sensible to the good as well as to the evil of the 
Scholastic system. Among its good results were an in- 
creased ability in the management of doctrinal metaphy- 
sics, a great subtilty of thought, and a rare sagacity in 
the development and distinction of ideas, with individual 
efforts on the part of several men of genius, notwithstand- 
ing the heavy bondage in which they were held. The ill 
effects were, the dissemination of a minute and puerile 
spirit of speculation, the decay of sound and practical 
Reason, with a neglect of the accurate and real sciences 
and of the sources whence they are to be derived, that is : 
— Experiment, History, and the Study of Languages. To 
these must be added the prevalence of the dominion of 
Authority, and Prescription ; Bad Taste ; and a rage for 
frivolous distinctions and subdivisions, to the neglect of 
the higher interests of science. 

General Treatises on the History of Scholastic Philosophy. 

LuD. ViVES, De Causis Corruptarum Artium ; (in his Works), 
Bas. 1555, 2 vols. 8vo. 

History of the Decline of the Arts and Sciences, to their 
Revival in the XIV and XV Centuries : serving as an Intro- 
duction to a Literary History of these two Centuries, Lond. 

CiES. Egassii Bul^i Historia Universitatis Parisiensis, etc. 
Paris. 1665-73, 6 vols. fol. 

f J. B. L. Ckevier, History of the University of Paris, from 
its foundation, etc. Paris, 1761, 7 vols. 12mo. 

.Ton. Launojus, De Celebrioribus Scholis a Carolo M. instau- 
r.'jtis, Par. 1672. Idem: De Varia Aristotoli.s Fortuna in Aca- 

243, 244.] ALCUIN. 

dcmia Parisicnsi, Par. 1653, 4to. ; accesscrc J. Jonsii Diss, de 
Historia Pcripatctica ct cditoris de varia Aristotelis in Scholis 
Protestantium Fortuna Sclicdiasma, Vitemb. 1720, 8vo. 

CiiPH. Binder, De Scholastica Theologia, Tab. 1614, 4to. 

He KM. Conking, De Antiquitatibus Aeademicis Dissertt. 
Helmst. 1659-1673, 4to. Cura C. A. Heumanni, Gott. 1739, 

Ad. Tribbeciiovii De Doctoribus Scholasticis et Corrupta per 
eos Divinarum et Humanarum rerum Scientia liber singularis, 
Giss. 1665, 8vo.; ed. II cum Praefat. C. A. Heumanni, Jen. 
1719, 4to. 

J AC. Thomasius, De Doctoribus Scholasticis, Lips. 1676, 4to. 

f J. A. Cramer, Continuation of Bossuet, part V, torn. II, 

f ScHRocKH, Ecclesiastical History, part XXII — XXXIV. 

Fabricii Biblioth. Lat. Mediae et Infr. iEtatis. 

F. Bruckeri De Natura Indole et Modo Philosophise Scho- 
lasticae, in his Hist. Philos. Crit., torn. Ill, p. 709, and his Hist, 
de Ideis, p. 198. 

f TiEDEMANN, Spirit of Speculative Philosophy, parts IV 
and V. 

■j" BuHLE, Manual of the History of Philosophy, torn. V and 

f Tennemann, History of Philosophy, torn. VIII, sqq. 

f W. L. G. Baron von Eberstein, Natural Theology of the 
Schoolmen, with Supplements on their Doctrine of Free-will, 
and their Notion of Truth, Leips. 1803, 8vo. 


I. Absolute Realism doivn to the commencement of the 

Eleventh Century. 


244. The attempts of a spirit of Philosophy at this 
period were feeble and imperfect, but they might have 
been more successful but for the constraint imposed by 
the Hierarchy. Such a state of things permitted the ex- 
istence of only a small number of superior writers, who 
shed a doubtful light amid the general gloom of igno- 

224 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

ranee, and laid the foundations of the Scholastic system. 
The first of these, in the order of time, was the English- 
man Alcuin or Albinus^, whom Charlemagne brought with 
him from Italy to his court. This learned writer (for the 
times in which he lived) wrote upon the Trivium and 
Quadrivium^ (§ 240). His pupil Rhabanus Maiirus intro- 
duced his dialectics into Germany ^ 

Johannes Scotus Erigena, 

•f Johannes Scotus Erigena, or an Essay on the Origin of 
Christian Philosophy, and its sacred character, by Peder 
Hjort, Copenh. 1823, 8vo. 

245. John Scotus, an Irishman (hence his surname of 
Erigena), belonged to a much higher order : a man of 
great learning, and of a philosophical and original mind ; 
whose means of attaining to such a superiority we are 
ignorant of. He was invited from England to France by 
Charles the Bald, but subsequently obliged to quit the 
latter country ; being persecuted as a heretic. At the 
invitation of Alfred the Great he retired to Oxford, 
where he died about 886. 

His acquaintance with Latin and Greek (to which 
some assert he added the Arabic) ; his love for the philo- 
sophy of Aristotle and of Plato, his translation, (exceed- 
ingly esteemed throughout the West), of Dionysius the 
Areopagite (§ 235)', his liberal and enlightened views 
(which the disputes of the day called upon him to ex- 
press), respecting predestination^, and the eucharist, — 
all these entitle him to be considered a phenomenon 
for the times in which he lived. Add to this, that he re- 
garded philosophy as the Science of the Principles of all 

d Born at York 736, died 804. 

^ In his work De Septem Artibus. See his 0pp. Omnia de novo collecta 
et ed. cur. Fuobenii, Ratisb. 1777, 2 vols. fol. 

f Born at Mentz 776 ; died archbishop of that city 856. 

s See on this subject his treatise, De Divintl Praedestinatione et Gratia, in 
GiLE. Manguini Vett. Auctt. qui IX. Sec. de Pra^destinatione et Gratia 
scripserunt, Opera et Fragmenta, Paris, 1650, torn. I, p. 103, sqq. 


things, and as inseparable from religion ; and that he 
adopted a philosophical system'', (a revived Neoplato- 
nism), of which the foundation was the maxim : That 
God is the essence of all things ; that from the pleni- 
tude of His nature they are all derived, and to Him ulti- 
mately return {Primordiales causce — natura naUirata). His 
labours, enlightened by so much learning and suggested 
by so much talent, might have accomplished more if they 
had not been blighted by the imputation of heresy. 

Berenger and Lanfranc. 

OuDiNi Diss, de Vita Scriptis et Doctrina Berengarii, in Com- 
mentatt. t. II. p. G22. 

G. E. Lessing, Berengariiis Turonensis, Bruns. 1770, 4to. 
•\ See Historical and Literary Miscell., extracted from the hbrary 
of Wolfenb., V. vol. (Complete Works of Lessing, t. XX). 

Berengarius Turonensis, Dissert, by C. F. Staudlin, in 
his Archives of Ancient and Modern Ecclesiastical Hist. (publ. 
with Tzchirner), vol. II, fasc. 2, Leips. 1814. The same : 
Progr. Annuntiatur editio libri Berengarii Turonensis adversus 
Lanfrancum ; simul omnino de ejus scriptis agitur, Gott. 1814, 

MiLONis Crisptni Vita Lanfranci, apud Mabillon Acta Sanctor. 
Ordin. Bened. Saec. VI, p. 630; and his 0pp. ed. Luc.Dacherius 
(D'Achery), Paris, 1648, fol. 

24G. Next in order comes Gerbert, a monk of Aurillac, 
who afterwards became pope Sylvester II.*, and acquired, 
at Seville and Cordova, extraordinary information, for 
that time, in the mathematics and Aristotelian philosophy 
of the Arabs, which he disseminated in the schools or 
monastaries of Bobbio, Rheims, Aurillac, Tours, and 
Sens ''. After him appeared Bereffger of Tours \ who 
was distinguished for his talents, his learning, and his 

*• De Divisione Naturae libri V, ed. Tn. Gale, Oxon. 1681, fol. (scarce). 
Extracts from Erigena are to be found in Heumanni Acta Philos. torn. Ill, 
p. 858 ; and in Dupin, Auctt. Eccles. torn. VII, p. 79. 

' Born in Auvergne ; pope A.D. 999; died 1003. 

*^ His Dialectic treatise, De Rationali et Ratione Uti, is to be found in the 
Thesaur. Anecdot. Pezii, t. 1, part 2, p. 146 : and his Letters in Duchksne, 
Hist. Franc. Scriptt,, t. U. p. 789, sqq. 

' Con. Berengarius, born about the commencement of the eleventh century, 
died 1088. 


226 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

freedom of opinion, by which he drew upon himself some 
severe persecutions, in consequence of discussions on the 
subject of transubstantiation*. His opponent Z/flr/z/r^wc •", 
as well as the cardinal Peter Damiantis, or Damien'^f 
brought to perfection the art of Dialectics as applied to 
Theology: and his skill therein gave to the former (in 
the opinion of his contemporaries), the advantage over 
Berenger. This discussion, which was subsequently 
revived, had the effect of tightening still more the bonds 
of Papal authority. 

St. Ansehn of Canterbury. 

Anselmi Cantuariensis 0pp. lab. et stud. D. G. Gerberon, 
Paris. 1675 ; second edition, 1721 ; Venet. 1744, 2 vols. fol. 

Eadmeri Vita S. Anselmi, in the Acta Sanctorum Antw., 
April, t. II, p. 685, sqq., and in the edit, of the Works of Anselm 

"i A. Raineri, Panegyrical Hist, of St. Anselm, Modeiia, 1693 
— 1706, 4 vols. 4to. : and Jo. Sarisburiensis De Vita Anselmi, 
Wharton's Anglia Sacra, part II, p. 149. 

247. St. Anselm, the pupil and successor of Lanfranc 
(whom we must not confound with the schoolman his con- 
temporary, Anselm of Laon)°, was born at Aosta in 1034 : 
became prior and abbot of the monastery of Bee, and 
died, archbishop of Canterbury, 1109. He was a second 
Augustine ; superior to those of his age in the clearness 
of his understanding and powers of Logic ; and equal to 
the most illustrious men of his day for virtue and piety. 
He planned a system of religious philosophy, to be ef- 
fected by combining the results of controversies on such 
subjects, in accordance, for the most part, with the views 
of St. Augustine. For this purpose, he composed his 
Monologium sive Exemplum Meditandi de ratione Fidei ; in 
which he endeavoured to state systematically the great 
truths of religion on principles of common reason, but at 

* Liber Berengarii Turonensis adversus Lanfrancum ex Cod. Mscpt. 
Guelpherbit. edit, a Sxaudlino, Gott. 1823, 4to. (Progr. III.) 
«" Born at Pavia 1005; died, archbishop of Canterbury, 1089. 
" Of Ravenna; born 1001, died 1072. 
° Died A. j). 1117. 

247, 248.] HILDEBERT OF TOURS. 227 

the same time presupposing the more sohd foundation of 
rehgious conviction. To this he added his Proslogiuniy 
otherwise caWed, Fides gii(vre?is Tntellectum ; where he seeks 
to prove the existence of God from the fact of our idea 
of an Ahnighty power. A monk of Marmoutier, named 
Gaumlou, ably attacked this sort of ontological argu- 
ment f". Ansehn may be looked upon as the inventor 
of Scholastic Metaphysics, inasmuch as he afforded the 
first example of it; though other systems subsequently 
superseded his own, and some of his ideas were never 
followed up. 

Hildebert of Tours. 

Hildeberti Turonensis Opera ed. Ant. Beaugendre, Paris. 
1708, fol. ; and in the Biblioth. Patrum of Galland, t. XIV, 
p. 337, sqq. 

■f W. C. L. ZiEGLER, Memoirs towards a Hist, of the Theo- 
loirical Belief in the Existence of a God, with an Extract from the 
first Dogmatical System (in the West) of Hildebert, archbishop of 
Tours, \}m. 1792, 8vo. 

248. Hildebert of Lavardin, archbishop of Tours "J, 
and, as is probable, the disciple of Beranger, was equal 
to Anselm in sagacity and ability as a logician ; and pos- 
sessed the advantage of a more popular style, and more 
various information. To an acquaintance with the Clas- 
sics and other accomplishments, rare in his age, he added 
independence of mind, a practical understanding, and a 
degree of taste which preserved him from falling into the 
vain and puerile discussions of his contemporaries. His 
Tractatits Pkilosopldcus ' and his Moralis Philosophia, are 
the first essays towards a popular system of Theology. 
Othlo and Honorius, two monks of the same period, op- 
posed themselves to the Logicians, and shut themselves 
up in impregnable mysticism. 

1* Gaunilonis liber pro insipiente adversus Anselmi in Proslogio ratiocinan- 
tem \ together with Anselmi Apologeticus contra insipientem. (In the works 
cited above). 

q Born between 1053 and 1057 ; died about 1134. 

■■ Part of this treatise is comprised in the works of Hugo de St. Victor. 


228 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 


II. Disputes between the Nominalists and Realists , from 
Roscelliti fend of the Eleventh Century) to Alexander of 

Jac. Thomasii Oratio de Secta Nominalium ; Orationes, Lips, 
1683 et 86, 8vo. | 

Chph. Meiners, De Nominalium ac Realium initiis ; Com- 
mentatt. Soc. Gott., t. XII, p. 12. 

LuD. Frid. Otto Baumgarten-Crusius, Progr. de Vero 
Scliolasticorum Realium et Nominalium discrimine et sententia 
Theologica, Jen. 1821, 4to. 

JoH. Mart. Chladenii Diss. (res. Jo. Theod. Kunneth) 
de Vita et hseresi Roscellini, Erlang. 1756, 4to. See also The- 
saurus Biog. et Bibliographicus of Geo. Ern. Waldau, Chemnit. 
1792, 8vo. 


249. The practice of Dialectics, and the questions 
arising out of a disputed passage in Prophyry's Introduc- 
tion to the Organum of Aristotle (-n-epi TreWe (pavav), respect- 
ing the different metaphysical opinions entertained by the 
Platonists and Peripatetics of the nature of General 
Ideas, — Such were the causes which led to the division 
between the Nominalists and Realists, the latter adhering 
to Plato, the first to Aristotle : disputes which stirred up 
frequent and angry debates in the schools, without any 
other result than that of sharpening their powers of argu- 
mentation ^ This long discussion was begun by John 
Roscellin (or Roussellin), a canon of Compiegne*, who, 
(on the testimony of his adversaries), maintained that the 
ideas of Genus and Species were nothing but mere words 
and terms (flatus vocis), which we use to designate 
qualities common to different individual objects ". He 

' JoH. Sarisburiensis Metalog., c. IT, 16, 17. ^ 

' About 1089. 

" See the treatise of Anselm De Fide Trinitatis, seu De Incarnatione Verbi, 
c. 2 : and John of Salisbury. 


249, 250.] ABELARD. 229 

was led on by this doctrine to some heretical opinions 
respecting the Trinity, which he was ultimately compelled 
to retract at Soissons, A. D. 1092. It is certain that Ros- 
cellin is the first author who obtained the appellation of a 
Nominalist, and from his time the school previously esta- 
blished, which held the creed that Genus and Species 
were real essences, or types and moulds of things, (Uni- 
versaUa ante rem according to the phrase of the School- 
men), was throughout the present period perpetually op- 
posed to Nominalism, whose partisans maintained that the 
Universalia subsisted only in re, or 2iOst rem : nor was 
the difficulty ever definitively settled. 


Petr. Abelardi et Heloisae Opera nunc prim, edita ex MSS. 
codd. Fr. Amboesii, etc. stud. Andr. Q,uercetani (And. Du- 
chesne), Pari*. 1616, 4to. Idem: In Historia Calamitatum 

•\ (Gervaise), Life of P. Abeillard, Paris, 1720, 2 vols. 

John Berington, The History of the Lives of Abelard and 
Helo'ise, etc., Birm. and Lond. 1787, 4to. 

-j- F. C. ScHLOssER, Abailard and Dulcin. Life and Opinions 
of an Enthusiast and a Philosopher, Gotha. 1807, 8vo. 

J. H. F. Frerich, Comment. Theol. Grit, de P. Abelardi 
Doctrina Dogm. et Morali, (prize comp.), Jen. 1827, 4to. 

250. A celebrated discussion took place in the School 
of Paris on the nature of General Ideas and their con- 
nection with their subject-matter, between William de 
Champeaux^, a renowned Logician, and Peter Ahelard, 
or Abeillard, his pupil and opponent. Abelard, who by 
some has been considered the first in point of time of the 
Scholastic philosophers, employed in the debate none but 
negative arguments ; but proved himself to be endowed 
with some qualifications superior to the narrow dispute in 
which he was engaged. He was born at Palais, a village 
near to Nantes, A. D. 1079, and possessed rare abilities 
which were sedulously cultivated. To great talents as a 

« G. Campellcnsis ; he died bishop of Chalons, A. D. 1120. 

230 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

logician, he added an extensive acquaintance with Gre- 
cian philosophy ; borrowed, it is true, from St. Augustine 
and Cicero. The perusal of the Classics had imparted 
to his mind a certain elegance as well as elevation, which 
set off his style in teaching and writing, and which at 
this period was rare, and proportionably admired. He 
evinced even greater boldness than Anselm in his at- 
tempts to re-state on general principles the grand doc- 
trines and mysteries of Christianity, particularly that of 
the Trinity y. He also attempted, as Hildebert had 
done before him (§ 5^48), to explain, on philosophical 
principles, the chief points of Theological Morality, as, 
for instance, the ideas of Vice and Virtue. He made 
both to consist in the mental resolution, and denied that 
our desires in themselves are of the nature of sin^ 
His talents as a teacher attracted an immense crowd 
of admirers from among the young men at Paris, and 
increased the celebrity of its university; but at the 
same time, his reputation drew upon him the envy of 
others, which, backed by his ill-fated passion for Eloisa, 
and the zeal of theologians rigidly attached to the doc- 
trines of the Romish church, and in particular the jealousy 
of St. Bernard, embittered the remainder of his life ; and 
diminished the influence his talents would otherwise have 
possessed. He died at Clugny, 1142. 

251. In spite of the persecutions of Abelard a great 
number of men of talents were willing to tread in his 
steps, and attempted, with various success, to associate 
Philosophy with Theology. The principal were G. cle 
Conches^, and Guild, de la Porree, born in Gascony, and 
bishop of Poitiers ^ ; Hugh de St. Victor, of Lower 

y In his Introductio ad Theol. Christian., libb. III. seu De Fide Trinitatis, 
libb. Ill : see his Works, p. 973 sqq. : and in the larger Treatise : Theologia 
Christiana, libb. V, given by Edm. Martene, Ihes. Nov. Anecdot., t. V. 

'^ Ethica, seu liber dictus Scito te ipsura, in Pezii Thes. Noviss. Anecdoto- 
rum, t. Ill, part 2, p. 625. 

» Died 1150. 

*> On that account surnamed Pictaviensis. Died 1154. 


Saxony or Flanders*'; Robert {FoUoth?) of Mclim'^ ; Ro- 
bert Pulleyn, the Englishman « ; Peter, surnanied Lorn- 
bardiis, bishop of Paris, born in a village near Novara, in 
Lombardy, and died 11 G4. To these must be added the 
disciple of the latter, Peter of Poitiers^; Hugh of Amiens^; 
Richard de St. Victor the mystic''; Alain de RysseV, etc. 
The most distinguished was LombardiiSi in consequence of 
his Libri Senterdiarinn, which procured him the additional 
appellation o^ Magister Sententiarum^. In these he put 
together extracts from the Fathers on different points of 
faith, without adding any solution of the difficulties that 
occurred ; supplying an abundant treasury of disputation 
for the logicians of his time. His works became popular — a 
sort of storehouse and armoury for ecclesiastical polemics ; 
though others of those we have mentioned possessed 
more real merit ; for instance, the two mystics, Hugh de 
St. Victor, surnamed the Second iVugustine, a man of an 
elegant and philosophical mind ; and his pupil Richard 
de St. Victor, who to his mysticism added considerable 
acuteness. Pulleyn also was the author of a clear and 
enlarged account of the correspondence of Doctrines with 
the principles of Reason ; and finally, Alain de Ryssel 
applied to these matters the exactness of a mathematical 

c Born 1096, Died 1140. 

Ejusd. : Opera stud, et industr. Canonicorum Regiorum Abbat. St. Vict. 
Rothovias:. 1618, 3 vols. fol. 

See C. Gfr. Derling, Diss, (praes. C. Gin. Kenffel), de Hugone a St. 
Victore, Helmst. 1745, 4to. 

«* Melidunensis, died 1173 A. C, according to the Literary History of 
France, torn. XlII, p. 1164. 

e PuUus, died between 1150 and 1154. 

f Pictaviensis ; died archbishop of Embrun, 1205. 

s Died archbishop of Rouen, (hence called Rothomagensis), 1164. 

•' A Scotchman, died 1173. Opera, ]'enet. 1506, 8vo. Par. 1518. 

• Called also Alain de I'lsle, and Alanus ab Insulis. Died 1203. 

Carl, de Visch, Oratio de Alano, in the Works of Alain, ed. by Viscn, 
Antwerp. 1653, fol. 

•^ Petri Lombardi libri IV Sententiarum : frequently published, parti- 
cularly Veil. 1477, fol. ; Colon. 1576, Bvo. See Bossuet and Cramer's Hist, 
part. VI, § 586. 

232 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

252, John of Salisbury (J. parvus Sarisburiensis'), a 
pupil of Abelard, and a man of classical erudition, in spite 
of his predilection for Aristotle clearly perceived the 
faultiness of the philosophy of his age, and the futility of 
that Logic which he attacked with considerable ability ™. 
Dialectics came in the end to be employed both for and 
against the system of the Church, as was shown by the ex- 
ample oi Simon de Tour nay (Tornacensis), oi Amalric (or 
Amauric de Bene, in the district of Chartres, who died 
1209); and by his pupil David de Dinant. Besides a 
great number of paradoxical doctrines, the last taught a 
species of Pantheism, borrowed it is probable, from J. 
Scot Erigena". These heretics justly turned into deri- 
sion the School Dialectics. In the midst of the absurdities 
of the age, a certain independence of Thought manifested 
itself; very rude indeed as yet, but prepared to offer 
some opposition to dogmatising authority. By means of 
persecutions, anathemas, and interdictions, the adverse 
party succeeded in subduing it, for the time. 

The most distinguished leaders of the latter were St. 
Bernard*, abbot of Clair vaux (born 1091, died 1153), and 
Walter, abbot of St. Victor. 


Exclusive dominion of Realism; Complete alliance be- 
tween the Church and the Aristotelia7is,from Alexander of 
Hales to Occam. 

J. Launojus, De Varia Aristotelis Futura. (Above, at the 
head of § 244). 

25^. It was precisely at the time when every thing ap- 

1 Died bishop of Chartres 1130. 

™ In his PoLicRATicus, sive de Nugis Curialium et Vestigiis Philosopho- 
rum, libb. VIII; et Metalogicus, libb. IV, Lugd. Bat. 1639, Amst. 1664, 
8vo.; and in his CCCI Epist., Paris. 1611, 4to. 

" Gerson, De Concordia jMetaphysicse cum Logich, part. IV. Thomas 
Aq. Lib. Sent. II, dist. 17, Qu. I, a. I. Alberti Summa Theol. part I. 
Tract. IV, Qu. 20. 

* Best edition of his works by Mabillon, Paris, 1690, 6 vols. 

252, 253.] DOMINION OF REALISM. 233 

peared to have a tendency to discard the philosophy of 
Aristotle from all interference with the doctrines of the 
church, that it acquired the greatest ascendancy. About 
the year 1240 men began to be better acquainted with 
his works collectively^ in consequence of being brought 
into contact with the Greeks, who had never altogether 
deserted him°; and still more through the Arabians. 
The very circumstance that the perusal of these works 
was prohibited in 1209, 1215, and 1231, increased the 
avidity with which they were read to such a degree, that 
the Dominicans and Franciscans, the staunchest main- 
tainers of orthodoxy, who had recently assumed authority 
in the University of Paris, eagerly devoted themselves to 
the same study. — The following question appears of in- 
terest : How was it that the works of Aristotle came to 
be known in the West? From the East by the way of 
Constantinople, or by the way of Spain through the 
Arabs P? From this question is to be excepted the Or- 

° In the eleventh century appeared in the Greek empire the philologist Mi- 
chael CoNSTANTiNE PsELLus, bom 1020 died about 1100: the author of 
Commentaries on Aristotle and Porphyry ; Paraphrasis Libri Arist. de Tnter- 
pretatione, Gr., with the Commentaries of Ammonius and Magentinus, about 
1503. Compendium in Quinque voces Porphyriiet Aristotelis Praedicamenta, 
Gr., Paris. 1541 ; and gvvo\\/iq tig ttjv 'ApiaTOTsXovg AoyiKrjv Gr. et Lat., 
Aug. Vind. 1597 ; besides Introductio in sex Philos. Modos, etc., Gr. c. Lat. 
vers. Jac. Foscarini, Ven. 1532, Paris. 1541, 12mo. ; and a book on the Opi- 
nions of the old Philosophers respecting the Nature of the Soul, Gr. et Lat., 
with, Originis Philocalia, Paris. 1618 and 1624, 4to., subsequently reprinted. 
To Psellus succeeded Eustratius, metropolitan of Nicaea, in the beginning 
of the twelfth century, (Fabric Bibl. Gr. lib. Ill, c. 6, p. 151, sqq. note a.), 
and other writers of the thirteenth century, who abridged the Logic of Aristotle; 
such as, NicEPHOR. Blemmydes (flourished about 1254), and Geor. Ane- 
PONYMUS (Nicephorae Blemmydae Epitome Logicje Doctrinae Aristotelis, Gr. 
et Lat. Aug. Vindel. 1606, 8vo. ; Georgii Aneponymi Compendium Philos. 
siv. Organi Aristot. Gr. et Lat. Aug. Vind. 1600) ; Geor. Pachymerus, 
who survived till 1310, author of a Paraphrase of the Philosophy of Aristotle 
in general, of which extracts have been published, (Gr. et Lat. Oxon. 1666, 
8vo., Epitome Philos. Bas. 1560, Lat. fol.) ; and Tiieod. IMetochites, who 
survived till 1332, and commented on the works of Aristotle relating to Physics 
(Fabric. Bibl. Gr. vol. IX). 

P See Buhle, Manual of the History of Philosophy, part. V, p. 247. 
Heeren, History of the Study of Classical Literature, vol. I, p. 183. This 
question has been thoroughly discussed, and decided in favour of a Saracenic 

234 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

ganum^ which was known as early as the time of Charle- 
magne ; having been sent as a present to him from Con- 


j354. The Arabians, originally devoted to Sabeism, had 
received a fresh impulse from the doctrines of Mahomet, 
which suited well their ardent temperaments and inquisi- 
tive minds. He died 0)^2 ; but the flame was kept alive 
by the fiery zeal of his successors, who insisted more and 
more on his pretended mission from on High. In a short 
time they had subjected to their belief a large portion of 
Asia, Africa, and Europe. Their relations with the con- 
quered nations, especially the Syrians, Jews, and Greeks; 
the progress among them of luxury, and all its conse- 
quences ; the demand for foreign physicians and astro- 
logers, and the influence acquired by the latter, engen- 
dered among them an ardent emulation for the sciences, 
which was encouraged in every way by the caliphs of 
the house of the Abassides, Al Mansour'^, Al Mohdi'", 
Haroun al Raschid the contemporary of Charlemagne % 
Al Mamoum *, and Motassem " ; who caused the Greek 
authors to be translated into Arabic, founded schools, 
and collected valuable libraries ". 

origin, in the following prize composition of the Academy of Inscriptions and 
Belles Lettres, at Paris : Critical Inquiry respecting the Age and Origin of 
the Latin Translations of Aristotle, and the Greek or Arabic Commentaries 
employed by the Schoolmen, etc., by M. Jourdain, Paris, 1819, 8vo. On 
this work see Getting. Gel. Anz. 1819, No. 142. 

<i Ileigned from 753 to 775. 

•• Died 784. 

s Reigned from 786 to 808. 

t From 813 to 833. 

« Died 841. 

■'' Abulfed/e Annales Moslemici Arab, et Lat. Opera Reiskii, etc. ed. J. 
G. C. Adleii, Huvn. 1789, sqq.tom.. I — V, 4to. 

G. Elmacini, Historia Saracenica, ed. T. Erpen, Lugd. Bat. 1625, fol. 

t K. E. Oelsnkr, Mahomet : Influence of his Religion during the Mid- 
dle Ages: prize composition of the Institution, 1809 ; translated and enlarged 
by E. D. M., Frayicf. 1810, 8vo. 

Olai Celsii Hist. Linguaj ct Eruditionis Arabum, Upsul, 1694, 8vo. 

Richardson, Dissertation on the Languages, Manners, and the Literature 

254, 255.] ARABIANS. 235 

§ ^55. 

CiiPiT. Chr. P'abricii (resp. J. Andu. Nagel), De Studio Phi- 
losophias Gr3eca3 inter Arabes, y^Z^t/. 1745, 8vo.; id.: in the Frag. 
Hist. Philos. of WiNDiiEiM, p. 57. 

Car. Solandri Diss, de Logica Arabiim, Ui^s. 1721, 8vo. 

EusEBii Renaudoti Dc Barbaricis Aristotelis Librorum Ver- 
sionibus Disquisitio, in Fabric. Biblioth. Gr. torn. XII. 

-j- Tiedemann, Spirit of Speculative Philosophy, torn. IV, and 
Brucker, Hist. Philosophiae, torn. III. 

f Jos. VON Hammer, A Brief History of Arabian Metaphysics, 
and an Article of the Leipz. Lit. Gaz. 1826, No. IGl — 163. 

Aristotle and his commentators down to J. Philoponiis, 
were almost the only philosophers who found favour with 
the Arabians. The body of his philosophy they received 
indeed only through the doubtful medium of Neopla- 
tonism, and by means of inadequate translations y. To 
the study of these they added MathematicSj Natural His- 
tory, and Medicine. But many obstacles were in their 
way. In the first place the Koran, which opposed limits 
to the free exercise of their understandings : the opposi- 
tion also of a formidable party who pretended to main- 
tain the orthodox belief: the difficulty of understanding 
Aristotle himself: and the absolute supremacy they pre- 
sently accorded to him: lastly, their national tendency to 
exaggeration and superstition. All therefore they ef- 
fected was to interpret, and very frequently to misinter- 
pret, the system of that philosopher, without ever ad- 

of the Eastern Nations ; prefixed to his Persian, Arabic, and English Dic- 
tionary, Oiford, \ni , fol. 

J. GoTTL. BuHLE, Commentatlo de Studii Graecarum Literarum inter 
Arabes initiis et rationibus. Comment. Soc. Gotting, vol. XJ, p. 216. 

Jo. Leo. Africanus, De Viris quibusdam illustribus apud Arabes Libellus ; 
in Fabric. Bibl. Gr., torn. XIII. 

Chr. Friedr. Sciinurrer, Bibl. Arabicre Specimen, part. I — V, Tub. 
1799—1803, 4to. ; et Bibliotheca Arabica, Hal. 1811, Ovo. 

IIenuici MiDDELDORPii Commcntatio de Institutis Literariis in Ilispania, 
quae Arabes auctores habuerunt, Gott. 1811, 4to. 

y See the works of Jourdain and Bvhle mentioned above. 

236 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

vancing beyond him ; attempting to apply his principles 
to their own blind faith. The consequence was, an 
abundant harvest of futile refinements. To such a phi- 
losophy was superadded, accidentally, a sort of mysti- 
cism ; especially among the Pantheistic sect of the Sojis or 
Ssiffis {SoJism2is, Snjismus), founded before or during the 
second century of the Hegira, by Abou Said Abul Clie'ir ; 
a sect which continues to survive in sufficiently large 
numbers in Persia and India ^. 

After all, the records of Arabic philosophy have been 
too little investigated to enable us to speak of them with 
sufficient certainty. 

^^Q, The principal Arabian philosophers (for the most 
part exclusively devoted to the system of Aristotle), were : 

1. Alkendif or Alkindi^, of Basrah, a physician and phi- 
losopher, the master of copious and various learning, and 
well versed in the Sciences. He flourished, A. D. 800, 
under the reign of Al Mamoum. 2. Alfarabi ^ of Balah, 
in the province of Farab, who died A. D. 954 ; a man of 
superior parts ; and styled the second teacher of intellectual 
knowledge. His Logic, as well as his treatise on the 
origin and subdivision of the Sciences, was greatly in 
vogue with the schoolmen. S. Avicetina*^, born about 
980, at Bochara: died 10o6. He devoted himself es- 
pecially to Logic and Metaphysics (which he thought the 
first of the Sciences, inasmuch as it has for its subject 
Being in the Abstract) ; as well as to Medicine and Al- 
chemy. He manifested an original vein of thought in his 

2 Ssufismus sive Theosophia Persarum Pantheistica, quam e MSS. Biblioth. 
Regiae Berol., Persicis, Arabicis, Turcicis eruit atque illustravit Friedr. Aug. 
Deofidus Tholuck, Berlin, 1821, 8vo. The opinion of this author is, that 
Sofism had its origin neither in India nor Persia, but in the religion of Maho- 
met itself. His hypothesis is controverted by the author (Qu. M. Hammer?) 
of a critique in the Lit. Gaz. of Leipsic (1822, Nos. 252 — 258), on an im- 
portant work relative to Oriental IMysticism, entitled, Rescliati Ainol Hajat, 

» Otherwise called Abu Yusuf (Jacob) Ebn Eschak (Isaac) Al Kendi. 

•» Abu Nasr Mohammed Ebn Tarchan Al Farabi. 

c Abu Ali Al Hosain Ebn Sina Al Schavich Al Raus. 

256, 257.] AVERROES. 237 

commentary on the Metaphysics of Aristotle''. He there 
asserts that it is no more possible to assign a definition of 
Absolute Being, than it is to give one of the Neces- 
sari/y the Possible, and the Real, From the abstract 
notion of Necessity, he concludes that what is necessary 
is without an efficient cause ; and that there is only one 
Being existing of Necessity. 4. Algazel of Tus ^, an acute 
Sceptic, who proved himself able to defend the cause of 
a Supernatural revelation with ability in opposition to the 
doctrine of Emanation, as well as that of the harmony of 
causes, and the materiality of the Soul ; with many others 
of the opinions of the Aristotelians and Neoplatonists. 
He maintained the infallibility of the Koran, and asserted 
the miracles of Mahomet to be incontestible proofs of his 
mission. 5. Thophail, or Ahiibekr^, of Cordova ; died at 
Seville 1190. He was distinguished for his philosophical 
romance Hai Ebn YoMan, or the Man of Nature ® ; in 
which he sets forth with ability the enthusiastic doctrine 
of the Neoplatonists respecting intuition. 


Commentary of Averroes on the Arabic trans, of Aristotle : in 
various editions of the Works of Aristotle, Ven. 1562 ; vol. II. 
Besides his work : Destructio destructionis Philosophiae Alga- 
ZELis, in the Latin translations, Venet. 1497, and Venet. 1527, 
fol. See Fabricii Bibl. Gr. XIII, p. 282, sqq. 

257. 6. Averroes^\ the disciple of Tophail, was born 
at Cordova, and died at Morocco, 1206 or 1217. He was 
the most celebrated of the learned men of his nation, and 
the close and almost servile follower of Aristotle. He 
was styled, by way of eminence, the Commentator ; and, 

<* Metaphysica per Bernard. Venetuni, Venet. 1493. Opera, Ven. 1523, 
5 vols. fol. ; Bas. 1556, 3 vols. 

^ Abu Haraed Mohammed Ebu Mohammed Ebn Achmed Al Gazali, born 
1072, died 1111. 

^ Abn Dsafar Ebn Thophail. 

8 Philosophus Autodidactus, trad. Lat. per Ed. Pocoke, Oxon. 1761, 4to. 

^ Abul Walid Blohammed Ebn Achmed Ebn Mohamed Ebn Rashid. 

238 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

in spite of the great number of his secular employments, 
was a most copious writer. His treatment of Aristotle 
ought to be appreciated by a reference to the state of 
opinions in his day. Though he professed to do no more 
than interpret him, he imputed to him many opinions 
which in reality were not his : blending with his system 
the Alexandrian doctrine of Emanation, in order to assign 
a living First-principle to account for all contingent things. 
His theory of an active Intelhgence is a necessary conse- 
quence of this manner of interpreting the doctrine of 
Aristotle. The great Primal Essence produces all the 
various modifications of things, not by the way of Creation, 
(because — ex nihilo nihil fit) but by uniting matter and 
form, or by developing the form involved and contained 
in the matter \ Thought, as well as sensible Perception, 
supposes three things : a material, and, as it were, a formal 
understanding; the one being impressed, the other re- 
ceiving the impression ; as well as a power to communicate 
the impression. There exists an Universal — Active In- 
telligence, in which all mankind partake equally, and 
which is derived to us from without : its principle being, 
perhaps, the same which influences the moon''. Averroes 
was a man of a clear-sighted enlightened mind, who be- 
lieved in the authority of the Koran, but regarded it as a 
sort of exoteric doctrine, the foundation of which he 
sought to place on scientific grounds '. 

Sects of Arabian Philosophers. 

S58. Speaking generally, the Arabian philosophers were 
divided into two parties ; viz. the philosophers simply 
so called (Idealists), who, according to the belief of the 
Platonists of Alexandria, held that the world was eternal, 
and endeavoured to unite this belief to their own pre- 
scribed religion; to which school belonged also the As- 

• AvERuoES, lib. X!l, Metapliys. 

^ Averroes, De A iiimae Beatitudine. Epitome Metaph. Tract. IV. Cocl. 
Ehodog. Ant. Lect. lib. Ill, c. 2. 

' See ]M. Hammer's work, cited above, for a list of several Arabian phi- 
losophers of more recent date, and less reputation. 

258, 259.] JEWS. 239 

cetics or Sofis (§ 255) : and, secondly, the Mcdahhcnns 
(Dialectic philosophers, or rcasoncrs), who took their 
ground on the positive doctrines of the Koran ; en- 
deavoured to explain, on philosophical principles, the 
origin of the world ; and combated the Idealists '". We 
are not as yet perfectly acquainted with these two sects. 
A third likewise is mentioned, that of Assar'iah, or fala- 
lists, who referred every thing to the will of God, 


259. The doctrines of the Arabians were communi- 
cated to the Christian world principally through the 
medium of the Jews, who imported them from Egypt, 
where the sciences had been prosecuted with great ar- 
dour. The Jews themselves took a prominent part in 
philosophical researches, and were distinguished for more 
than one philosopher. Of this number was Moses Mai- 
7?iotiides": born at Cordova, A. D. 1139, and brought up 
under Theophail and Averroes, and inclined to the study 
of Aristotle ; but for these reasons persecuted by the 
fanatical part of his own countrymen, up to the period of 
his death ; which happened in 1205. In his work en- 
titled More Nevochim {Doctor- Perplexorum°)j he manifests 
an acute and enlightened understanding in the exposition 
of certain doctrines, and in the philosophical principles 
which he assumes. As a proof, he resists his inclination 
for the Arabic- Aristotelian system so far as to call in 
question many of its hypothesis, e. g. that of the Intelli- 
gences of the spheres, and of the Active Universal Intel- 

It may be observed, that during the twelfth and thir- 
teenth centuries, the Jews acted as interpreters between 
the Saracens and the Western nations, by their frequent 
translations into Hebrew of the works of the Arabians ; 

"' AvERUOEs in Metaph. lib. XII, c. 18, Moses Maimonides More Ne- 
vochim, lib. I, c. 71, p. 133 — 135. 
" Rabbi Moses Ben Maimon. 
** Translated into Latin by J. lUrxTonr, Basil. 1629, 4to. 

240 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

which were re-translated from the Hebrew, (a language 
then better known than the Arabic), into Latin ; very im- 
perfectly indeed, but pretty generally. 

260. The consequence of this dissemination of the 
Aristotelian philosophy from an Arabian source, was the 
increased reputation of that philosopher, who was in a 
manner installed the sovereign and infallible arbiter of truth 
and falsehood in all matters of science. The circle of the 
sciences and the field of inquiry was enlarged, new ideas 
and new combinations were developed to the advantage 
of Dialectics, the exercise of which they called forth. 
Philosophy came to be less and less confounded with the 
sciences, and was allowed to retain a place distinct from 
them. One of the principal co-operating causes was the 
formation of the University of Paris, and of similar insti- 
tutions in other cities. Out of this arose a sort of pole- 
mical contest between Theology and Philosophy, in which 
the former obtained the ascendancy ; the latter being de- 
pressed to an inferior position, and a distinction esta- 
blished between Theological and Philosophical truths. 
To this succeeded an attempt to reconcile and associate 
the two, which was for some time successful. 

Alexander of Hales and his Contempoi'aries. 

261. The first author who turned to account the works 
of the Arabians was Alexander of Hales fAlesiusJ, so 
called from a convent in Gloucestershire, and surnamed 
Doctor Irrefragabilis, Tiedemann makes him the first 
Schoolman. He taught Theology at Paris, and in his 
Summa Theologice° enlarged upon the Manual of Lom- 
bardus, (§ 251), by a rigorous syllogistical statement 
of the different opinions contained in his book. JVil- 
Ham of Auvergne"^ devoted himself to the statement 

« Ven. 1475, fol. f^orimb. 1481. Ven. 1576, 4 vols. fol. 
P Guillielmus Arveinus, and Parisiensis, because bishop of Paris, died 
1249. Opera, Yen. 1591, fol. Aurel. 1674, 2 vols. fol. 

260—202.] ALBERT THE GREAT. 241 

and discussion of pliilosopliical questions respecting Mo- 
rals and Metaphysics, with less general views. Vincent of 
Beaiivais *^, in his books of reference (Sjjcada), gave a pic- 
ture of tlie state of the Sciences at this period, particularly 
of moral philosophy, and has enlightened us with respect 
to the discordant opinions of the Nominalists and Realists. 
Michael Scott (was living at Toledo A. D. 1217) trans- 
lated the works of Aristotle, De Ccelo et de Mtmdo, and 
De Anirnci, as well as the Historia Naturalis ; according 
to the Arabian arrangement : a labour in which he was 
assisted by a Jew named Andrew. He commented on 
Aristotle, and availed himself of his Logic. Robert 
Grosseteste, or Greatheady {Robertus Capito)^ who taught 
at Paris and Oxford, and died bishop of Lincoln A. D. 
1253, besides other treatises composed some Commenta- 
ries on Aristotle. 

Albert the Great, 

Rudolphus Noviomagensis de Vita Alberti M. libb. Ill, Colon. 
1499, et : Alberti M. Opera ed. Pet. Jammy, Lyon. 1051, 21 
vols. fol. 

262. Albert of Bollstddt, or the Great, was the first 
who gave a decided direction to the general tendency in 
favour of the Aristotelian system. He was born at Lau- 
ingen in Swabia, A. D. 1193 or 1205, and studied at 
Pavia, where he entered the order of the Dominicans, 
and by his great application to study, especially to that 
of Natural History, (a department then very generally 
neglected), he acquired so great a mass of information 
that he came to be looked upon as a prodigy, and a sort 
of enchanter. He lived principally at Cologne and Paris : 
in 1260 was made bishop of Ratisbon, but subse- 
quently resigned that dignity, in order to devote himself 

1 Bellovacensis, died about 1264. Speculum Universale, Argent. 14T3, fol. 
Speculum quadruplex Opera et stud. Tlieologor. liened. Duaci, 1624, 4 vols. 
fol. See Vincent de 15eauvais, etc., by Fn. CiiPn.SrnLossER, Francf.a. M. 
1819, 2 vols. 8vo. 


242 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

to study. He died in his convent at Cologne 1280. He 
was rather a learned man and a compiler of the works of 
others, than an original and profound thinker. He wrote 
commentaries on most of the works of Aristotle, in which 
he makes especial use of the Arabian commentators, and 
blends the notions of the Neoplatonists with those of his 
author. Logic, Metaphysics, Theology, and Ethics, were 
rather externally cultivated by his labours than effectually 
improved. With him began those minute and tedious 
inquiries and disputes respecting Matter and Form, Es- 
sence and Being (Essentia or Quidditas and Existentia, 
whence subsequently arose the farther distinction of Esse 
EssenticEj and Existentice). Rational Physiology and 
Theology are indebted to him for many excellent hints. 
The latter science he treated in his Summa Theologia, as 
well according to the plan of Lombardus as his own. 
He described the soul as a totum 2^otestativum, and as- 
serted that General Ideas belonged partly to the mind, 
partly to external objects. In his Theology he laboured 
to define our rational knowledge of the Nature of God, 
(excluding from such inquiries the mystery of the Trinity), 
and enlarged upon the metaphysical idea of Him, as a 
necessary Being, (in whom Essence and Being are identi- 
cal), endeavouring to develop in this manner His attri- 
butes. These inquiries are often mixed up with idle 
questions and dialectic absurdities, and involve abundant 
inconsistencies ; as for instance, when he would account 
for the creation by the doctrine of Emanation, (causatio 
tmivocaj, and nevertheless denies the Emanation of 
souls : — he insists upon the universal intervention of the 
Deity in the course of Nature, and yet asserts the exist- 
ence of natural causes, defining and limiting His opera- 
tions. He considered Conscience to be the highest law of 
Reason. All virtue which is acceptable to God is infused 
by Him into the hearts of men. His scholars were dis- 
tinguished by the name of Albertists. 

26.3.] BONAVENTUUA. 243 


f Abridged History of tlie Life, Virtues, and Religious System 
of St. Bonaventura, etc. Lyon, 1749, 8vo. and: Bonaventurae 
Opera, Argent. 1 182, fol. Idem : Jussu Pii V, Romce, 1588-96, 
7 vols. fol. (best edition). 

^QS. The contemporary of Albert, John of Fidanza or 
Bonaventura », surnamed Doctor Seraphicus ; was pos- 
sessed of less extensive learning than the other, but of 
more talent ; and a pious frame of mind, tinctured with 
mysticism. It was his endeavour to reconcile the views 
of Aristotle and the Alexandrians. In his commentary 
on Lombardus * he contracts the sphere of speculation, 
and studies to employ the principles of Aristotle and the 
Arabians, not so much for the satisfaction of a minute 
and idle curiosity, as for the resolution of important ques- 
tions, and to reconcile opposite opinions ; especially in 
the important inquiries respecting Individuality and Free- 
will. Occasionally he rests his arguments rather on the 
testimony of human experience than that of theory: for 
instance, respecting the doctrine of the Immortality of the 
Soul. The Supreme Good he affirms to be Union with 
the Deity ; by which alone mankind can attain a percep- 
tion of Truth, and the enjoyment of happiness. This 
leads him to ascribe " all knowledge to Illumination from 
on high ; which he distinguishes into four species : Exte- 
rior — Inferior — Interior — and Superior. He defines also'' 
six degrees whereby man may approximate the Deity; 
and refers to these six as many distinct faculties of the 
Soul : an ingenious idea and copiously detailed, but in a 
great degree arbitrary and forced. 

Finding speculation insufficient for the ideal attainment 
of the Supreme Good, he abandoned himself with all his 
heart to mysticism. 

» Born at Bagnarea 1221, died 1274. 

' Comment, in iNIagistrum Sententiarum. 

" Reductio Artium ad Theologiam. 

" Itinerarium INIentis in Deum. See his works above. 


244 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

Thomas Aquinas. 

Thomae Aq. Opera Omnia, stud, et cura Vinc. Justiniani et 
Thom.'E Manriquez, Rom. 1570-71, 18 vols, fol., (best edition). 
Idem: cura Fratrum ord. praedicat. Par. 1636-41, 23 vols. fol. 
(containing the dubious works, but less correct). Opera Theolo- 
gica cura Bern, de Rubeis, Ven. 1745, sqq. 20 vols. 4to. 

Bern, de Rubeis (de' Rossi), Dissertatt. Critical et Apolo- 
geticse de Gestis et Scriptis ac Doctrina S. Thomae Aquinatis, 
Venet. 1730, fol. Idem (prefixed to the above edition). 

•j- A. TouRON, Life of St. Thomas Aquinas, with an account of 
his Doctrines and Works, Par. 1731, 4to. 

LuD. Carbonis a Costaciario Compendium Absolutissimum 
to tins Summae Theologicae S. Thomae Aquinatis, Venet. 1587, 

Thomae Aquinatis Summa Philosophiae per S. Cas. Aleman- 
NiuM. Panr. 1640, fol. 

Summa S. Thomae Hodiernis Academiarum Moribus accom- 
modata, sive cursus Theologiae Opera Caroli Renati Belluart, 
Ultra] . 1769, Svo. 

Placidi Rentz, Philosophia ad Mentem D. Thomas Aquinatis 
explicata, Colon. 1723, 3 vols. Svo. 

Pet. Zorn, De Varia Fortuna Philosophiae Thomae Aquinatis. 
Opusc. Sacr. torn. I. 

264. Nearly at the same time with Bonaventura, St. 
Thomas Aquinas (or ab Aquino), obtained a celebrity 
which eclipsed that of almost every writer of his age. 
He was born A. D. 1224, in the castle of Rocea Sicca in 
the kingdom of Naples, of a great feudal family ; and in 
opposition to the wishes of his parents, was determined by 
his ardent love for study to enter the order of the Domini- 
cans, (1243). The same attachment to letters carried 
him to Paris, and to Cologne, to profit by the lessons of 
Albertus, and caused him to decline all offers of advance- 
ment in his order, beyond that of Definitor ; while it pro- 
cured him the reputation of the greatest Christian philo- 
sopher of his century, and the appellations of Doctor 
Universalis and Angelicus. He died 1274, and, as well 
as Bonaventura, was canonised. Thomas Aquinas was 
endowed with a genius truly philosophical ; had amassed 

264.] THOMAS AQUINAS. 245 


great knowledge; and cherished an ardent zeal for the ad- 
vancement of rational knowledge. He rendered real ser- 
vice to the Aristotelian philosophy by the pains he took to 
cftbct a translation of the works in which it was contained, 
and by his commentaries on them. lie was a Realist y, and 
considered the abstract idea of things to be their original 
essence. This system he endeavoured to place on a 
firmer basis by extending the theory of Thought pro- 
pounded by Aristotle, to which he superadded somewhat 
of the system of Plato and of the Alexandrians. With 
this is connected his explanation of the ideas of Matter 
and Form, as Elements of compound objects. The in- 
tellectual Soul, the nature of which he discusses after 
Aristotle's system, is the Substantial Form of man, 
immaterial and indestructible. But his meditations were 
principally devoted to the study of Theology, which he 
endeavoured to reduce to a systematical form by enlarg- 
ing upon its principles in the manner of the Aristotelian 
and Alexandrian Schools. Such was the design of his 
Commentary on Lombardus, of his work Against the 
Heathens ^, and of his Stimma Theologice, The latter is 
the first attempt at a complete system of Theology com- 
prehending one of Ethics, and is enriched with many 
solid and wise observations, without the observance of 
any rigorous order in its details. Its principles are 
not laid down with sufficient precision, and the different 
sources of information are not clearly distinguished. 
He taught that Evil, or the negation of Good is neces- 
sary to the completion of the Universal system, and 
that God is only the accidental cause of it. We may ob- 
serve in this system (as well as in St. Augustine, from 
whom he derived them), many of the principal features of 
that of Leibnitz respecting the Divine Government. He 
treats the subject of Morals, which he divides into Gene- 
ral and Special, in part according to the views of The- 

y The terms Realist and Idealist may, in this treatise be considered synony- 
mous : both are opposed to Nominalist, and signify a believer in the reality of 
Generic and Specific Ideas. 

* Summa Catholicaj Fidei adversus Gentiles, Burdig. 1664, 8vo. 

246 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

ology, and partly after those of Aristotle : and although 
his ideas are not very clearly defined or largely developed, 
that science is much indebted to his labours. He con- 
tinued to be for a long time the highest authority in mat- 
ters of Religion and Philosophy, and had a large number 
of disciples, (especially among the Dominicans and Je- 
suits), who called themselves by his name. Among these 
we remark y^gidius Colonna, a Roman, Hervceus (§ 267), 
Thomas de Vio CajetanuSf Gabr, Velasquez, Petrus Hier- 
tadus de Mendoza, P. Fonseca, Domenic of Flanders 
(died 1500), and Fr. Suareis (died 1617). 

Contemporaries of Thomas Aquinas. 

265. Other contemporaries of Thomas deserve to be 
briefly mentioned ; for instance, Petrus Hisjjamis, of Lis- 
bon, afterwards pope, under the style of John XXI, 
and who died 1277. He distinguished himself by his 
Summulce Logicales, an abridgment of the Scholastic 
Logic : and it is to him we probably ow e the ingenious 
arrangement of the different forms of argument, so often 
republished^. To him must be added H. Goethals of 
Muda, near Ghent, better known under the name of 
Henricus Gandavensis, surnamed Doctor Solemnis, who 
became a professor at Paris, and died archdeacon of 
Tournay, 1293''. He was endowed with great sagacity 
of understanding, attached to the system of the Realists, 
and blended the Ideas of Plato with the formularies of 
Aristotle : attributing to the first a real existence, inde- 
pendent of the Divine Intelligence. He suggested some 
new opinions in Psychology, and detected many specula- 
tive errors, without however suggesting corrections of 
them, owing to the faultiness of the method of the Phi- 
losophy of his time. He frequently opposed Thomas 

^ t JoH. ToB. KoHLER, Complete Account of Pope John XXI, celebrated 
as a Physician and Philosopher under the name of Petrus Hispanus, Getting. 
1760, 4to. 

•* Henr. Gandavensis Quodlibeta in IV libb. Sententiar. Par. 1518, fol. 
Summa Theologiaj, ibid. 1520, fol. 

265, 26G.] DUNS SCOTUS. 247 

Aquinas himself. To these we may add Richard cle 
MiddletoHy ( Richardus de Media Villd)^ siirnamed Doc- 
tor Solidus, Fundatissimus, and CopiosuSy who died a pro- 
fessor at Oxford, A. D. l.SOO, and was a skilful interpre- 
ter of Lombardus. 

Duns Scotus. 

Joh. Dunsii Scoti Opera Omnia collecta, recognita, Notis et 
Scholiis et Commentariis illustrata (ed. Ludov. Wadding), 
Lugd. 1G39, 12 vols. fol. 

HuGONis Cavelli Vita Joh. Duns Scoti ; prefixed to Quaes- 
tiones in Sententias, Antwerp. 1G20. — Apologia pro Joh. D. Scoto 
adversus Opprobria, Calumnias etinjurias quibus P. Abr. Bzovius 
eum onerat. Par. 1C34, 12mo. 

LuD. Wadding, Vita Joh. Duns Scoti, Mont. 1644, 8vo. (Id. 
in his edition above). 

Math/EI Veglensis Vita Joh. Dunsii Scoti, Patav. 1671, 
8vo. Id. : in the Thesaurus Biog. Bibliographicus of Waldau, 
part I, p. 75, sqq. 

J. G. BoYviN, Philosophia Scoti, Par. 1690, 8vo. The same: 
Philosophia quadripartiti Scoti, Par. 1668, 4 vols. fol. 

Joh. Santacrucii Dialectica ad Mentem Eximii Magistri 
Johannis Scoti, Lond. 1672, 8vo. 

Fr. Eleuth. Abergoni Resolutio Doctrinae Scoticse, in qua 
quid Doctor Subtilis circa singulas, quas exagitat, quaestiones sen- 
tiat, etsi oppositum alii opinentur, brevibus ostenditur, in sub- 
tilium studiosorum gratiam, Lugd. 1643, 8vo. 

Joh. Duns Scotus (Doctor Subtilis) per Universam Philoso- 
phiam, Logicam, Physicam, Metaphysicam, Ethicam contra ad- 
versantes defensus, Quaestionum novitate amjilificatus, ac in tres 
tomos divisus. Autor Bonaventura Baro, Colon. Agr. 1664, 

Joh. Arada, Controversiae Theologicae inter S. Thomam et 
Scotum super quatuor libros Sententiarum, in quibus pugnantes 
Sententiae referuntur, potiores difficultatcs elucidantur, et Respon- 
siones et Argumenta Scoti rejiciuntur, Colon. 1620, 4to. 

JoH. Lalemandet, Decisiones Philosophical, Monach. 1644- 
1645, fol. 

Crisper, Philosophia Scholae Scotisticae, Aug. Vindel. 1735 ; 
et Theologia Scholae Scotisticae, 4 vols., ibkl. 1748, fol. 

9,QV^. John Duns Scotus, born at Dunston in Northum- 
berland (about 1275 ?), became a Franciscan, and was sur- 

248 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

named Doctor Suhtilis which he deserved by the pregnancy 
of his parts. He studied at Oxford and Paris, and died 
prematurely, A.D. 1308. His celebrated attack on the 
system of Thomas Aquinas drew this skilful reasoner 
very frequently into vain and idle distinctions, but in all 
his dialectic disputes he maintained a steady zeal for the 
promotion of real knowledge. He endeavoured to ascer- 
tain some certain principle of knowledge, whether intellec- 
tual or sensible, and applied himself to demonstrate the 
truth and necessity of Revelation. As a Realist he dif- 
fered from Thomas, by asserting that the Universal is 
contained in the Particular not merely in posse but in 
actu : that it is not created by the Understanding but 
communicated to it : that the nature of things is deter- 
mined to particular or universal by a higher principle : 
with other opinions too obscure to be satisfactorily de- 
tailed in a compendium like the present. In Psychology 
he opposed the belief that the faculties of the soul were 
distinct, and maintained the freedom of the will. In 
Theology he endeavoured to fortify the Cosmological 
proof of the existence of the Deity, and to demonstrate 
the Divine Attributes, He asserted the Supreme power 
of the Divine Will in all things, even in the establish- 
ment of the laws of Morality; which he deduced from 
that alone. Occasionally he expressed doubts respect- 
ing the admissibihty of a Theology founded on principles 
of Reason. 

Duns Scotus was the founder of a school, The Scot- 
ists, who distinguished themselves for subtilty of dispu- 
tation, and for incessant disputes with the Thomists, 
These disputes were so frequently mixed up with human 
passions, that Science derived from them little benefit; 
and it very frequently happened that the points in ques- 
tion instead of being elucidated were obscured through 
their controversies. 

Disciples of Thomas; or, Thomists, 
267. Among the Thomists of the thirteenth century 

267—269.] THOMISTS. SCOTISTS. 249 

we may remark : 1 . /Egidiu Colonna a Roman <=, a con- 
sistent Realist ; according to whom, Truth resides in the 
understanding as well as the object. His principal merit 
was that he unravelled with perspicuity certain metaphy- 
sical problems, and endeavoured to reconcile discordant 
opinions respecting the questions of Being, Form, Matter, 
and Individuality. 2, Hervceiis^, whose learned but ab- 
struse logic was even yet more unintelligible than that of 
his predecessors. 


2GS. The most celebrated contemporary disciples of 
Scot were, Fr, Mayronis a Franciscan ^, who first set the 
example of disputes in the Sorbonne {Actus Sorhonici), 
and wrote esteemed commentaries on Aristotle, St. Au- 
gustine, St. Anselm, Lombardus, etc.: — Hier. de Ferra- 
riis, Antonius Andrece^, Walter Burleigh (§ 212). To 
these may be added the Franciscan Pet. Tartaretus (in 
the fifteenth century), J. B. Monlorius (flourished about 
1569), and Major. 

269. At this period also appeared two men highly re- 
markable for the reformation which they attempted, but 
were not able to effect, in the philosophy of the age. 
The first of these, Roger Bacon a Franciscan, was born 
at Ilchester, 1214; and acquired great celebrity by his 
knowledge of Mathematics, Chemistry, Physics, and the 
Languages; as well as by the fertility of his original ideas 
and inventions. He was surnamed in consequence Doc- 
tor Mirabilis ; but unhappily, also, was accused of witch- 
craft, and imprisoned by command of the general of his 

c ^gidius Columna Roraanus, surnamed Doctor Fundatissimus s. Theo- 
logorum Princeps, born 1247, died 1316. 

<* Herve Noel, or Hervaius Natalis, born in Bretagne ; at first a monk then 
general of the order of the preachers ; professor of Theology, and rector of 
the university of Paris. Died at Narbonne, 1323. 

« Franciscus de Mayronis, Doctor lUuminatus et Acutus, Magister Ab- 
stractiomivi. Died at Placentia, 1325. 

' Doctor DulciJiuHS, born in Arragon. Died about 1320. 

250 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

order. He had the perspicacity to detect the false prin- 
ciples of the philosophical system of his time, and instead 
of the frivolous distinctions then established, was desirous 
of opening new paths to inquiry through the study of 
Nature and the Languages. Unfortunately the monkish 
spirit of the time repressed his investigations, and the 
influence they would have insured to him. He taught at 
Oxford A. D. 1240, and died 1292 or 1294 s. Raijmond 
Lulli {Lullus, or Lullius, born at Palma in the isle of Ma- 
jorca 1234), was distinguished in his mature days for a 
devout piety, as he had been notorious in his youth for 
his love of pleasure. He devoted himself to the conver- 
sion of the Mahometans and Pagans ; pretending to have 
received to this intent illumination from above, and the 
gift of the Great Art {Ai^s Magna^'), His endeavours 
not being as successful as he had hoped, he devoted this 
Great Art to the reformation of Philosophy and the 
Sciences. His art was nothing more than a Mechanical 
Logic, calculated to solve all questions without any study 
or reflection on the part of him who should use it. He 
added thereto some hints borrowed from the philosophy 
of the Arabians and the Cabbala, which he appears to 
have been the first Christian author to cultivate. In his 
numerous works and those of his School we frequently 
discover more clear and elevated views of Morality, 
though he was not able to escape canonical censure on 
this head. He died 1315. His followers {LuUists), dis- 
seminated a superstitious enthusiasm, together with the 
belief he entertained in the possibility of making gold ; 
but occasionally struck out new and valuable ideas. Long 

s See his Opus Majus ad Clementem IV, Sam. Jebb, Loud. 1733, fol.j and 
tlie Biographia Britannica, IV, 616, sqq. 

^ Jacobi Custerer, De Raimundo Lullio Dissertatio in Actis SS. Ant- 
tverp., torn. V, p. 697. — t Perroquet, Life of Raymond Lulle, Vendome, 1667, 

Raymundi Lulli Opera Omnia, ed. Salzinger, Mogunt. 1721 — 42, 10 vols, 
fol. Et: Opera ea quae ad Inventam ab ipso Arteni Universalem pertinent, 
Argent. 1598, 8vo. 

See also J. H. Altstadtii Clavis Artis Lullianae et Verze Logicae, Argent. 
1609, 8vo. ; and Bruck. Hist. Phil. p. 1353, sqq. 

He obtained the appellation of Doctor Ilhiminatissmus. 

270.] OCCAM. 251 

after his death the Ars Magna of Raymond LulH found 
admirers among men of talent, (e. g. Giordano Bruno). 
At this period also appeared P6Y;7/5«Z»yi/;owo {or Abano)^ 
near Padua, born 1250, died 1315 or 1316; a physician, 
attached to the Arabian doctrines, and author of a book 
entitled. Conciliator DiJ/erentiarum Philosophicarmn et 
Prcccipue Medicoriwi^ :■ — and Arnold de Villanova, who 
died in 1312, a zealous fellow-labourer with the former, 
and inclined to the opinions of Raymond Lulli ^. 


III. Dispiffes between the Noininalists and Realists re- 
fieived bf/ Occam, in which the former gain ground. {From 
the Fourteenth Century to the end of the Fifteenth.) 

270. About the close of this century a man of great merit 
contributed much to the downfal of Realism, and the ces- 
sation of these endless logical disputes, by resolving diffi- 
culties after a clearer and more precise manner, and esta- 
blishinof the foundations of a more exact knowledofe of 
properties of the Object and Subject. This was G. Du^ 
rand de St. Pourqain ^ He was at first a Thomist, but 
subsequently became a candid adversary of that School"". 


JoH. Salaberti Philosophia Nominalium vindicata, or, Logica 
in Nominalium Via, Liit. Par. 1651, 8vo. (very scarce). Some 
extracts are to be found in Cramer, Continuation of Bossuet, 
VII, p. 867. 

Ars Rationis ad Mentem Nominalium, Oxf. 1673, 12mo. 

GuiL. Occam, Quaestiones et Decisiones in IV libb. Sententiar. 
Lugd. 1495, fol. Centiloquium Theologicum, ibid. 1496, fol. 
Summa Totius Logicae, Par. 1488 ; Oxf. 1675, 8vo. 

' Ven. 1471 — 1483, fol. His life is to be found in the Quartalschrift of 
Canzler and Meissner, second year, No. IV, fasc. 1. 

^ Opera Omnia cum Nic. Taurellii Annotatt., Bas. 1585, fol. 

' Durandus de Sancto Porciano, Doctor Resolntissimus, born in Auvergne; 
bishop of Meaux. Died 1332. 

"• Launch Syllabus Rationum, quibus Durandi causa Defenditur, in 0pp., 
torn. I, p. 1. See his Comment, in Magistr. Sentent. Par. 1508. 

252 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

271. William of Occam (or Ockham), an Englishman, 
born in Surrey, and surnamed Doctor Singularis, Invi- 
cibilis et Venerahilis Inceptor, a disciple of Scot, and, 
like him, a Franciscan; began a new era in philoso- 
phy and history by his talents, and the courage with 
which he opposed himself most zealously to the despotism 
of the prevailing dogmata. He was a teacher at Paris at 
the beginning of the fourteenth century, and having de- 
fended the rights of the king of France and the emperor 
against the usurpations of the Pope, died, persecuted but 
not subdued, at Munich in 1347 or 1343. He proposed to 
effect no more by his Logic than a better demonstration 
of common opinions ; refused to submit implicitly to au- 
thority ; and closely following the principles of more ra- 
tional Dialectics, and in particular the dictum that — 
Entia non sunt multiplicanda prceter necessitatem : he de- 
monstrated the absurdity of Realism ; refuted it in a va- 
riety of particulars, and directed the attention of others 
to the doctrine of the Nominalists. He denied that Ideas 
had any other real existence than what they possess in 
the understanding, by which they are contemplated ; be- 
cause such an hypothesis is not necessary either for the 
purposes of science or philosophy, and because it leads 
to extravagant consequences: on the contrary, such Ideas 
are ihefigmenta of the mind itself by the process of Ab- 
straction, which it employs to designate classes of ex- 
ternal objects". He did but sketch the principles of a 
philosophy afterwards completed ; but his labours suf- 
ficed to withdraw the attention of his followers from the 
all-engrossing question of the principle of Individuality, 
and directed them rather to the acquirement of fresh 
knowledge. In his theory of knowledge, Occam receded 
still farther from the opinions of the Realists, and by 
maintaining that Thought was Subjective, afforded a 
greater handle to Scepticism and Empiricism than pos- 
sibly he himself might have intended. Though too ab- 
solutely laid down, such a proposition, was, nevertheless, 

" Comment, in Lib. I, 2, Quaest. 4 and 8. 


in the circumstances of the times, serviceable to the 
cause of philosophy. William of Occam, by controvert- 
ing established Dogmata, by his Scepticism, and by the 
new ideas he started, impaired the authority of ex- 
isting principles, and gave occasion to more extended 
inquiries. On the same ground, he endeavoured, in The- 
ology, to circumscribe the subjects of investigation, and 
rejected the established Scholastic proofs of the Exist- 
tence, Unity, and Omnipotence of the Divinity ; as also 
of His Wisdom ; asserting that all these are to be de- 
rived from Religion alone. Nevertheless, he departed 
so far from his own principles as to offer a proof of the 
existence of God, derived from the preservation of all 
things in their original state ; asserting that for such pre- 
servation some active efficient cause must be assigned, 
which can be no other than the First Creative Principle. 
With respect to the possibility of forming an adequate 
idea of God, he offers many excellent observations, but 
not altogether conclusive. In Psychology he threw out 
some ingenious notions respecting the Soul, the diversity 
of its faculties, and their relations to their objects. He 
refuted at length the hypothesis of Objective Images 
(Species) ; up to this time regarded as necessary to a 
theory of Perception and Thought. On many points 
Occam adhered to the opinions of his master, Scotus ; 
for instance, respecting Free-will, and the origin of Moral 
distinctions in the Will of God. 

Opponents of Nominalism. 

272. Occam in his turn was opposed by the partisans 
of Realism, though in a much more feeble manner, and 
among others by his fellow-student Walter Burleigh f", 
Burlceus [Doctor Planus et Perspicuus), born 1275 ; at first 
a professor in England, then at Paris, and lastly at Ox- 
ford, and who died about 1337. The debates between 

V He composed Commentaries on Aristotle and a Biography of the Philoso- 
phers : De Vita et Moribus Philosophorum et Poetarum, Colon. 1427, 4to. 
Nurevih. 1777, reprinted. See IIeumann, Acta Philos., No. 14, p. 282, sqq. 

254 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

the two schools appear now to have been mainly confined 
to oral disputation. With regard to the writings of 
Thomas de Bradwardine'^i and Thomas de Strasburg"^, 
we need only remark that the former resisted the ten- 
dency to Pelagianism contained in the theory of Scotus, 
and the second did but reproduce what had been already 
taught by iEgidius Colonna. Marsilius of Inghen^ ap- 
pears to have been a moderate Realist, according to the 
principles of Occam and Scotus, as respected the theory 
of Volition. 


^73. The most celebrated Nominalists who succeeded, 
were John Buridan and Peter D'Ailly. John Buridan of 
Bethune, professor of philosophy and theology at Paris *, 
was looked upon by his contemporaries as one of the 
most powerful adversaries of Realism, and distinguished 
himself also by his rules for finding the Middle Term in 
Logic ; a species of contrivance denominated by some 
the Ass's Bridge ; as well as by his inquiries concerning 
Free-will, wherein he approached the principles of De- 
terminatism ", maintaining that we necessarily prefer the 
greater of two goods. As for the celebrated Illustration, 
which bears his name, of an Ass dying for hunger between 
two bundles of hay, it is not to be found in his writings. 

q Of Hertfield ; died archbishop of Canterbury 1339. Wrote De Causa Dei 
contra Pelagium et de Virtute Causarum lib. Ill, ed. Henr. Savile, Lond, 
1618, fol. Thomas de Bradwardine was also celebrated for his Mathematical 

' Thomas Argentinensis, died prior-general of the order of the Hermits of 
St. Augustine, A. D. 1357 : composed Comment, in Magistr. Sententiarum, 
Argent. 1490, fol. 

s Surnamed Ingenuus: He taught at Paris and Heidelberg, which latter 
university he helped to form. Died 1396. He composed Commentt. in IV 
libb. Sententiarum, Hagen, 1497, fol. 

Dan. Lud. Wundt, Commentatio Historica de Marsilio ah Inghen, primo 
Universitatis Heidelberg. Rectore et Professore, Heidelb. 1775, 8vo. The 
same, in the Thesaurus Biog. et Bibliographicus of Waldau. 

' In the year 1358 he was still living at Paris. 

" See his Qua^stiones in X lihb, Ethicorum Aristot. Paris, 1489, fol.; Oxf. 
1637, 4to, QujKSt. in Polit. Arist, ibid. 1500, fol.; Compendium Logics, 
Ven. 1499, fol. Summula de Dialectica, Paris, 1487, fol. See Bayi.e's Diet. 

273, 274.1 NOMINALISTS. 255 

Peter D\iillyy a cardinal (died 1 125)", assisted to mark 
still more broadly the limits between Theology and Phi- 
losophy, and opposed the abuses of the Scholastic system. 
His opinions respecting the degree of certainty belonging 
to human knowledge, and his examination of the proofs 
advanced of the existence and unity of God deserve par- 
ticular attention y. The other partisans and supporters 
of Nominalism were Robert Holcot^ an Englishman (died 
1349), Gregory of Rirdini^f Richard Suisset (or Sivins- 
head), an Englishman and a Cistercian monk (taught at 
Oxford about 1350), Henry of Oyta, and Henry of Hesse'' ^ 
Nicolas Oramus^, Matthew of Cracoiv^, and Gabriel Biel, 
who died 1495, and was the author of a brief and lumi- 
nous exposition of the principles of Occam ^, Almost all 
were celebrated as professors, and men of cultivated 
parts, but without any true philosophical talent, though 
Henry of Hesse distinguished himself by some discoveries 
in Mathematics and Astronomy. 

274. Up to this time the disputes between the two 
sects continued to be pursued with the like animosity, 
and with equal admixture on both sides of human pas- 
sions. Though Nominalism had been proscribed at 
Paris '', it nevertheless made good its ground, and even 

* Peter de Alliaco, styled Aquila Gallia:, born 1350 at Compiegne : chan- 
cellor of the university of Paris, 1389, bishop of Puyand Cambrai, and finally 
a cardinal. 

y Petri de Alliaco Cardinalis Cameracensis Vita, by Dupin, in 1st vol. 
of Opp. Gersoni, p. 37. 

Petri de Alliaco Questiones super IV libb. Sententiarum, Arg. 1490, fol. 

^ Greg. Ariminensis, died at Vienna 1358. A distinguished divine, and 
general of the Augustine order. 

a Both Germans; the latter died 1397. 

*> Or Oresmius, died bishop of Lisieux, 1382. 

•= Or Chrochove, in Pomerania, died 1410. 

^ Born at Spires, provost of Aurach, and professor of theology and philoso- 
phy at Tvibingen. 

Epitome et Collectarium super IV libb, Sententiar. Tub. 1495, 2 vols. fol. ; 
Kpitome Scripti Guil. Occam Circa duos Priores Sententiarum. 

IIiEROv. WiF.GAND BiFi,, Diss. (prnps. GoTTi.iEn Wernsdorf) de Gar. 
Biel celeberrimo Papista Antipapista, Viteh. 1719. 4to. 

e In 1339, 1040, 1409. 1473. 

256 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 

gained from day to day fresh adherents ; nay, it more 
than once obtained, even at Paris, as well as in the uni- 
versities of Germany, the pre-eminence, but without com- 
pletely defeating the opposite party. The same scenes 
were perpetually acting on both these theatres of conten- 
tion : the nature of Ideas not being the only point of dis- 
pute, but combined with a complete diversity of opinions 
in general. On the part of the Nominalists might be 
noticed the gradual increase of a spirit of independence, 
and a tendency to more liberal principles, though asserted 
by very imperfect philosophical Methods. This spirit 
especially manifested itself in opposition to the theses of 
the Idealist Nicolas of Auiricuria (bachelor of Theology at 
Paris, 1348), and of John de Mer curia (about the same 
year ^), yet eventually proved abortive, and the customary 
opinions of the age resumed their sway. 

275. The ultimate consequence of these repeated dis- 
cussions was a diminution of the credit and influence of 
the Scholastic system, and at the same time a diminished 
regard for philosophy, especially for Logic, of which in 
his time Gerson already saw reason to complain ; and 
this induced a disposition to Mysticism, arising out of a 
feeling of disgust for unmeaning verbal disputes. Mysti- 
cism was accordingly preached with ardour by John Tau- 
ler, who died at Strasburg 1361, and more especially 
by the celebrated Johii Charlier de Gerson of Rheims, 
born 1363, the disciple of Peter D'Ailly, and his suc- 
cessor as chancellor of Paris, in 1395; died almost in 
exile in 1429, at Lyon. He devoted his principal atten- 
tion to discussing the obligations of Practical Christianity, 
which procured for him the appellation of Doctor Chris- 
tianissiinus ; and reduced all philosophy to a mystical 
doctrine which he founded entirely on the occult impres- 
sions of Inspiration 8. He nevertheless opposed himself 
to enthusiastic extravagancies, retaining the use of Logic, 

* Sec BouLAv, Hist. Univ. Paris, torn. IV, p. 308, sqq. 
-' De IMystica. Theol. Consideratt. II. 

27.').] NOMINALISTS. 257 

and employing it after a new method ''. Next to him we 
must place Nicolas de Clemange (de Clemangis), a cou- 
rageous thinker ; wlio opposed the narrow subtilties of 
tlie Schools '. He was rector of the university of Paris 
(1.S93), and died about 1410. But the man who, as a 
religious writer, possessed the greatest influence in his 
own and succeeding ages was Thomas Hamerken (Malleo- 
lus), styled Thomas a Kempis^^ from the name of a vil- 
lage, Kempen, in the archbishopric of Cologne, where 
he was born A. D. 1.'380. He died 1471. Another 
eminent mystic* was John Wessel, surnamed Gansford, or 
Goesevot (Goose-foot)', styled by his contemporary ad- 
mirers Li/x mundi et magister contradictionum. He was 
at first a Nominalist, and an opponent of the dogmatism 
of the Schoolmen. The same dislike of the same system 
may be observed in the Natural Theology oi Raymond de 
Sahonde (or Sebunde), who taught at Toulouse in the 
first half of the fifteenth century, about 1436. He as- 
serted that man has received from the Almighty two 
books, wherein he may discover the important facts 
which concern his relation to his Creator, — namely, the 
book of Revelation and that of Nature : the latter he 
affirmed to be the most universal in its contents, and 
the most perspicuous. He endeavoured by specious 
rather than solid arguments to deduce the theology of 
his age, even in its more peculiar doctrines, from the 

•> Centilogium de Conceptibus, liber de Modis Significandi et de Concordia 
Metaphys. cum Logic^. 

J. G. Engeliiahdti CommentationesdeGersonioMystico, parti, Erl. 1822, 

Gersonis Opera, Bus. 1488, vol. Ill, fol. ; ed. Edm. Richer, Paris, 1606, 
fol., et Lui). Ellies Dupin, Antverp. 1756, 5 vols. fol. 

' Opera ed. Jo. Mart. Lvdius, Lvgd. Bat. 1613, 4to. 

'' Especially by his well-known book De Imitatione Christi. A good edition 
of his Works by Sommel, Antwerp. 1600 — 1607, 4to. 

* [The terms Mystic and Mysticism are used in the present work in a 
semewhat restricted and peculiar sense. TramL] 

' Born at Grbningen, 1409; died 1489. He must not be confounded with 
his contemporary, the Nominalist, John Burchard von ]Vessel. See Gotze, 
Comment, de J. Wesselo, Lut. 1719, 4to. J. Wesselii Opera, ed. Lydius, 
Amst. 1717, 4to. 


258 SECOND PERIOD. [sect. 275. 

contemplation of Nature and of Man. His attempt 
deserved, for its just observations on many subjects, es- 
pecially on Morals, greater success than it met with ; 
until Montaigne directed to it the attention of his con- 


Observation. It cannot be expected that a minute account 
should have been rendered of the respective opinions, in detail, of 
each Schoolman ; involved as they are in endless disputes and 
distinctions respecting the same subjects : — Such a specification, 
if it had been possible, would, in an abridgment like the present, 
have been superfluous. The Sentences of Lombardus and the 
works of Aristotle were the constant subjects of their discussions 
from the time of Albert the Great ; respecting which their com- 
mentaries and disquisitions were as minute as they were volu- 
minous and unprofitable. 

"' Montaigne has translated, under the title of Natural Theology, his Liber 
Creaturarum sive Natura;. The Latin editions are Francof.\Q2b, and Amstel. 
1761. See Montaigne's Observations in his Essays, L. 11, c. 12. 

PART THE Till R 13 




Frojn the Fifteenth Century to the end of the Sixteenth. 

276. The exclusive system we have been considering 
which, grounded in authority, pretended to estabHsh a 
philosophy maintained by logical definitions and com- 
binations, contained within itself the elements of its own 
destruction. The disputes of the two adverse sects into 
which its supporters were subdivided, gradually loosened 
its hold on the public mind, and the Nominalists in the end 
openly attacked its authority ; so that men became more 
and more awakened to the necessity (though as yet im- 
perfectly understood), of consolidating Science, and 
strengthening its foundations, by a more accurate and 
renewed observation of Nature, and by increased study 
of the Languages. The party of the Mystics especially, 
animated as they were by a more profound sentiment of 
zeal, religious and moral, were dissatisfied with the 
meagre and pedantic forms, which were as yet their only 
support. Nevertheless it was from another quarter that 
the revolution was destined to commence. 

277. The human mind had too long lost the true path 
of Science, to be able immediately to recover it. In 
consequence of its long subjection to prescriptive ideas, 


260 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

we find that it continued for some time to labour to un- 
ravel the consequences of those it had inherited, rather 
than apply itself to the legitimate objects of inquiry — the 
principles of Knowledge, and of its own operations. 
From want of skill to detect the concatenation of different 
branches of knowledge, and from the habit of confounding 
notions derived from very different sources, the human 
mind was unable to discover the faultiness of its own me- 
thod, and the influence of the old system was necessarily 
prolonged. Other circumstances contributed to the same 
result : the inveterate reverence for Aristotle's authority 
— the want of real and accurate knowledge — the bad 
Taste of the age, and the low state of Classical learning — 
added to the redoubtable authority of the Papal Hierar- 
chy, and the jealous zeal with which the guardians of the 
ancient Dogmatism protected their errors ; — all these 
auxiliary circumstances long continued to make it difficult 
to shake off the intolerable yoke, against which some 
bolder spirits had already begun to rebel. 

278. Nevertheless certain political events in Europe 
gradually prepared the way, though at first distantly, for 
a complete change in its civil and ecclesiastical constitu- 
tion, — shook the supports of the old philosophy ; and, by 
ultimately destroying it, helped to produce a revolution in 
the literary world, rich in important consequences. These 
were: The Crusades — The Invention of Printing — The 
Conquest of Constantinople — The discovery of the New 
World — and the Reformation ; with the direct or indirect 
results of these events ; such as the formation of a Middle 
Class of citizens — the influence acquired by public opinion 
— the increase of the Temporal at the expense of the 
Spiritual Power — the consolidation of civil authority on 
firmer and better-established bases — the advancement of 
experimental knowledge and the sciences — the acquisition 
of models for imitation and sources of instruction in the re- 
covery of the authors of antiquity — and, lastly, the im- 
provement and cultivation of the languages of Modern 
Europe. The human mind became sensible of its need of 


instruction and of the imperfection of its present systems, 
and demanded a better philosophy ; but, too weak as yet 
to support itself without such assistance, it leaned upon 
the authors of antiquity for guidance and support. The 
cultivation of this study brought with it an improved 
spirit of refinement and moral improvement, and at the 
same time showed by reflection the evils of that state of 
mental subjugation to which so many centuries of man- 
kind had been reduced, and awakened in those who pro- 
secuted it a desire to liberate themselves from such 

279. At the same time that these circumstances from 
without operated, or contributed to operate, so great a 
change in the fortunes of Philosophy, a strong disposition 
prevailed among many to derive all true knowledge and 
wisdom from no other source but Revelation ; and, con- 
sequently, to the devout study of the Bible was added 
also a Cabbalistical spirit of inquiry, which appears to 
have been derived by the Fathers from the Jews ; and 
which was in part kept alive and recommended by the 
constant disputes and uncertainties of a vast number of 
contending sects, into which the Philosophical world was 
soon divided. 

280. The consequence of all these different causes was 
that a variety of systems of greater or less validity began 
to prevail; knowledge was cultivated and improved; — 
the limited horizon, which before bounded the views of 
all, was enlarged : some of the Grecian systems of phi- 
losophy were cultivated and adopted ; discussions were 
set on foot with regard to their respective merits, and the 
attempt was made to combine them (either partially or 
entirely) ; and to reconcile them with Christianity. The 
systems themselves were consequently submitted to ex- 
amination, attempts were made to extend the dominion of 
Science, more especially in the department of Natural 
History (as yet so imperfectly cultivated), though ac- 
companied with a thirst for occult and mysterious science. 

262 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Lastly came the desire to combine in one system not only 
Theology and Philosophy, but in like manner to unite the 
Intellectual and Experimental theories ; — the doctrines of 
Plato and those of Aristotle. 

Revival of Greek literature in Italy : with its 
immediate consequences. 

281. When the Greeks, who had always retained a 

certain degree of attachment for letters, derived from 

their renowned ancestors, (§ 25"^), came to solicit in Italy 

assistance against the Turks ; and, after the capture of 

Constantinople, sought there a safer residence than in 

their own country, they brought with them a rich fund of 

various arts and literary treasures, and infused a new 

energy into the minds of the Western nations, who were 

already in a state to profit by such acquisitions \ Among 

these precious remains of Ancient Greece were the 

works of Aristotle and Plato in their original form : 

the knowledge of which was presently disseminated 

through Europe with remarkable celerity. The Greeks 

who respectively supported the two systems of those 

great philosophers, (such as George Gemisthus Pletho ^, 

* To this age belong the poets Dante Alighieri, Petrarca, and Boccaccio, who 
contributed much to the general diffusion of a literary taste, though not im- 
mediately and directly to that of philosophy. 

For the learned Greeks who were instrumental in bringing about this revival 
of Classical literature, (^Emmanuel Chrysoloras, Th. Gaza, George of Trehi- 
sond, John Argyropulus, etc.)* see Humphr. Hodius, De Graecis illustribus 
Linguae Gr. Literarumque Humaniorum restauratoribus, Lond. 1742, 8vo. 
Heeren, Hist, of the Study of Class. Lit. Chph. Fr. Borner, De Doctis 
Hominibus GriEcis Literarum Gra^carum in Italia restauratoribus, Lips. 1750, 
8vo. CiiPH. Meiners, Biography of celebrated Men. 

'' Of Constantinople: came to Florence 1438. 

Geo. Gemisthi Plethonis, De Platonicae atque Aristotelicae Philosophiag 
Differentia, Gr., Ven. 1540, 4to. 

Among his Philosophical Works : was 

Libellus de Fato, ejusd. et Bessarionis Epist. Amoeboefe de eod. Argumento 
cum Vers. Lat. H. S. Reimari, Lvgd. Bat. 1722, 8vo. De IV Virtutib. 
Cardinalib. Gr. et Lat. Adr. Occone interprete, Bas. 1522, 8vo., et al. De 
Virtutibus et Vitiis, Gr. Lat. ed. Ed. Fawconer, Oion. 1752, 8vo. See 
Fabric. Bibl. Gr. torn. X, p. 741. 

281, 282.] GRECIAN. LITERATI. 263 

on the one side, a partisan of the Neoplatonic doctrine ; 
and on the other George Scholarius, subsequently called 
Genuadius, Theodore Ga^a"^^ and more especially George 
of Trebisond'\ all Aristotelians), engaged in a warm dis- 
pute respecting the merits of their favourite systems*', 
which it required all the moderation of cardinal Bessa- 
rion ^ in any degree to temper. 

Attack on the Scholastic System. 

282. The first result of all these circumstances was a 
conflict with the Scholastic system, which, besides the 
inherent causes of its barbarous style, bad taste, and nar- 
row views, was occasioned also by the recent discovery of 
the great difference between the Aristotelian theory as 
taught in the Schools, and the same as it was discovered 
to exist in the writings of Aristotle himself. The philolo- 
gists Hermolaus Barbarus s, the translator of Aristotle, of 
Themistius, and Dioscorides, and Angelas Politianus ^, 
were the first to enter the lists with its champions: Lau- 
rentius Valla\ and Rodolph Agricola^ the German, en- 

c Came into Italy about 1430; died about 1478. He was born atThessa- 

'• Born 1395, in the isle of Crete; professor of Greek literature in various 
places in Italy ; died 1484 or 86. 

Besides several commentaries, he wrote the dissertation styled, Comparatio 
Aristotelis et Platonis, Ven. 1523, 8vo. 

e On this subject see a Dissert, of Boivin in the Mem. of the Acad, of 
Inscript., torn. II, p. 775, sqq. 

See his work: In Calumniatorem Platonis libb. IV, Ven. 1503 et 1516, 
directed against the Aristotelians. Ejusd. : Epist. ad IMich. Apostolicum de 
Prxstantia Platonis prae Aristotele, etc., Gr. c. vers. Lat. Mem. de I'Acad. 
des Inscript., tom. Ill, p. 303. 

f Born in 1395, at Trebisond, came to Florence in 1438, died in 1472. 

K liermolao Barbaro, of Venice ; born 1454, died 1493. 

^ Properly Angelo Ambrogini, or Cino ; surnamed Poliziano : born at JMonte 
Pulciano 1454; died 1494. 

• Lorenzo Valla of Rome ; born 1408, died 1457. 

Laurentii Vallae Opera, Basil. 1543, fol. De Dialectical contra Aristote- 
leos. Venet. 1499, fol. De Voluptate et Vero Bono libb. HI, Basil. 1519, 4to. 
De Libero Arbitrio, ibid. 1518, 4to. 

'' Rudolph Ilusmann or Ilausmann ; born at Batflen, near Groningen, 
1443, died 1485. 

264 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

deavoured, by removing the rubbish with which the field 
of Dialectics was encumbered, to render them more avail- 
able for useful purposes : then succeeded H. Cornelius 
Agrippa of Nettesheim (see § 287), Ulrich von Hutten^t 
Eras?nus"'j and his friend J. L. Fives'", Philip Melanch- 
thon (§ 292), Jacobus Faber^, Marius Nizolius^, Jac. Sa- 
doletus^f and Jac, Acontius^. The methods pursued by 
these learned men in their attacks on the system of the 
Schools were very dissimilar, according to the different 
lights in which they viewed that system, and the different 
objects which engrossed their attention. 

Renewal of the Ancient Systems. 

283. In consequence of these pursuits the systems of 
the Grecian and Arabian philosophers were brought into 
discussion, and the opposition to the Scholastic system 
reinforced. The doctrines of Aristotle and Plato were the 
first which thus regained their place ; (the sort of know- 
ledge then cultivated favouring their reception); and, sub- 

RuDOLPHi Agricol^ Db Inventione Dialectica lib. Ill, Colon. 1527, 
4to. Ejusd. : Lucubrationes, Basil. 1518, 4to.; et Opera, cur^ Alardi, Colon. 
1539, 2 vols. fol. 

• Born 1488, died 1523. Opera (ed. Munch) torn. I— V, Berol. 1821-5, 

™ Desiderius Erasmus, born at Rotterdam 1467, died 1536. 

Des. Erasmi Dialog! et Encomium Moriae. Opera ed. Clericus, Land. 
1703, 11 vols. fol. 

n Born at Valencia 1492, died 1540. 

LuDOvici VivES De Causis Corruptarum Artium, Antverp. 1531 ; and, De 
Initiis, Sectis et Laudibus Philosophiae. Idem : De Anim^ et Vit^ libb. Ill, 
Bus. 1538. Opera, Basil. 1555, 2 vols. fol. 

«> J. Lefevre, of 'Etaples in Picardy ; died 1537. 

P Of Bersello; died 1540. 

Jac. NisoLii Antibarbarus, seu de Veris Principiiset VeraRatione Philoso- 
pliandi contra Pseudo-Philosophos libb. IV, Farma. 1553, 4to. Ed. G. W. 
Leibnitz, Francf. 1674, 4to. 

1 Of Modena ; died 1547. 

Jac. Sadoleti Phaedrus seu de Laudibus Phiiosophia; libb. II. In 0pp. 
Mogunt. 1607, 8vo. Patau. 1737, etc. 

^ Born at Trent ; died 1566. 

iNIethodus s. Recta Investigandarum tradendarumque Artium ac Scientiarum 
ratio. Bas. 1558, in 8vo. 

283, 284.] REVIVAL OF PLATONISM. 265 

sequently, otlier theories allied to theirs. In this man- 
ner the Cahbalistic and Theological systems were mixed 
A up with the theories of the Platonists ; and the Ionian 
and Atomistic doctrines with the Aristotelian. The 

I Stoic and Sceptic systems at first had few defenders : 
nevertheless, as it is impossible that any of the ancient 
theories should give entire satisfaction in an age so dif- 
ferent from that in which they first appeared, and as 
their defects were of course gradually brought to light, 
it followed that attempts were occasionally made to com- 
bine different views, while at other times they w^ere sepa- 
rately attacked with Sceptical objections. In their choice 
of a sect, and their efforts to establish or destroy a 
theory, men were influenced by two sets of considera- 
tions ; according as they proposed to themselves to 
establish a Theological system, or to promote discoveries 
in Natural Science. 

I. Revival of Platonism : The Cabbalistical, Magical, 

and Religious Philosophies. 

Besides the works mentioned § 282, see the Sketch of the 
History of Philosophy by Buhle. 

LuDW. Dankegott Cramer, Diss, de Causis Instauratse Saec. 
XV, in Italia Philosopliiae Platonicse, Viteh. 1812, 4to. 

284. The Platonic philosophy which was eagerly re- 
ceived in Italy by men of fanciful minds was fostered at 
Florence by the two Medici, Cosmo and Lorenzo % and 
excited there a vivid enthusiasm ; though wearing rather 
the character of the Neoplatonic school than of the Aca- 
demy. Among the recommendations it possessed in their 
eyes was one which in fact was purely gratuitous, viz. 
that it was derived, as some of the Fathers believed, from 
the Jewish philosophy and religion ; and hence its repu- 
tation of being allied to Christianity *. A similar preju- 

* Will. Roscoe, The Life of Lorenzo de Medici, Liverp. 1795, 2 vols. 4to. 
' Jon. Pici Heptapliis, p. 1, Franc. Pici Epist. lib. IV, p. 882. 

266 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

dice caused them to connect with Platonism the Cabba- 
listical and Mosaical doctrines. In addition to this, 
Platonism continually acquired fresh adherents in conse- 
quence of the meagre logical system of the Schools, and 
its inaptitude to satisfy the human mind when awakened 
to inquiry. It presently allied itself to Mysticism, and 
engaged in the rational defence of doctrines derived from 
a higher source ; supported by argument the Immortality 
of the Soul ; and served to balance the Naturalism of the 
mere Aristotelians; but also unfortunately in some re- 
spects favoured superstition, especially by the doctrine of 
the Intervention of Superior Beings in the government of 
the world". An honourable exception must be made in 
the case of Astrology, which it uniformly rejected. 


C. Hartzheim, Vita Nic. de Cusa, Trevir. 1730, 8vo. 

Among the first of those who bade adieu to the Scho- 
lastic creed was the Cardinal Nicolas Ctisamis "^ ; a man 
of rare sagacity and an able mathematician ; who arranged 
and republished the Neoplatonic System, to which he 
was much inclined, in a very original manner, by the aid 
of his Mathematical knowledge. He ventured upon some 
philosophical explanations of the mystery of the Trinity 
not easy to be understood nor defended, but of which so 
much may be stated, that he presumed the Almighty to 
be Unity, and the Father of Equality, and of that which 
associates and unites Equality to Unity; (by which he 
dared to signify the Son and the Holy Ghost). According 
to him, it is impossible to know directly and immediately 
this Absolute Unity (the Divinity) ; because we can make 
approaches to the knowledge of Him only by the means 
of Number or Plurality. Consequently he allows us only 
the possession of very imperfect notions of God, and 

" FiciM, Praefatio in Plotinum ; Pomponatius De Incantationibus, c. I. 
X Nicolaus ChrypfFs of Kuss or Kusel (hence called Cusanus) in the arch- 
bisiiopiic of Treves; born 1401, died 1464. 


those by the aid of Mathematical symbols. Absurd and 
worse than absurd as many of these ideas are, and incon- 
sistent as he is both in other particulars, and inasmuch as 
he appears to have fallen into the grievous error and sin 
of identifying, in his theory of the Universe, the Creator 
and the Created ; — -obscure as he also is in his manner of 
stating these reveries, they contain nevertheless y, several 
profound observations imperfectly expressed, respecting 
the faculties of the understanding for the attainment of 
knowledge. For instance, he observes, that the princi- 
ples of knowledge possible to us are contained in our 
ideas of Number (ratio exjjUcata) and their several rela- 
tions ; that absolute knowledge is unattainable to us 
(prcecisio veritatis inattingibUis, which he styled docta 
ignorantia), and that all which is attainable to us is a 
probable knowledge (conjectura). With such opinions 
he expressed a sovereign contempt for the Dogmatism of 
the Schools. 

FiciNi Opera in II tomos digesta, Bas. 1561, Par. 1641, fol. 

Commentarius de Platonicae Philosophiae post renatas Literas 
apud Italos restauratione, sive Mars. Ficini Vita, auctore Joh. 
CoRsio ejus familiari et discipulo. Nunc primum in lucem 
eruit Angelus Maria Bandini, Pis. 1772. 

J. G. ScHELHORN, Comment, de Vita, Moribus, et Scriptis Mar- 
silii Ficini. In the Amaenitatc. Literar. tom. I. 

•f" Life of J. Picas, Count of Mirandola, in Meiner's Lives of 
Learned Men, 2 vols, and: Pici 0pp. Bonon. 1496, fol. Oj^era 
utriusque Pici, Bas. 1572-3 et 160L, 2 vols. fol. 

The examples of Pletho and Bessarion (§ 281) were 
improved upon by Marsilius Ficinius^, a Florentine phy- 
sician, who engaged with zeal and ability in the defence 
of the Platonic philosophy ; both by his translations of 
Plato, Plotinus, lamblichus, Proclus, etc. ; and also his 
original productions, devoted to the commendation of that 
system. Cosmo de' Medici, (who died 1464), availed 

y NicoLAi CusANi Opera, Paris. 1514, 3 vols, fol.; Basil. 1565,3 vols, 
fol. De Docta Ignorantia, torn. III. Apologia Doctae Ignorantias lib. I. 
De Conjecturis libb. II. De Sapienti^ libb. III. 

2 Born at Florence 1433, died 1499. 

268 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

himself of his services in the foundation of a Platonist 
Academy, about l460^ But Ficinus was a Neoplatonist, 
who added to the system of the Academy some Aristote- 
han doctrines, and regarded the Hermes Trismegistus of 
the Alexandrians as the inventor of the theory of Ideas. 
In his Theologia Platonica he displayed ability in the 
statement of certain arguments to establish the Immorta- 
lity of the Soul^, and opposed the doctrine imagined by 
Averroes, and maintained by the Aristotelians, of an Uni- 
versal Intelligence (257). The object he proposed to him- 
self was to apply his views of the Platonic system to the 
defence and explanation of Christianity. His enthusiasm 
won over John Picus, count of Mirandola*^, a learned 
man of superior parts, but extravagant imagination. He 
had studied the Scholastic philosophy and imbibed the 
notion that the philosophy of Plato was derived from the 
books of Moses, whence he was inclined to deduce all 
the arts and sciences'^. In consequence of such a per- 
suasion, he devoted himself to the study of the Oriental 
languages and Cabbalistical books ; from which he drew 
a large proportion of the theses which he proposed to 
maintain in a public disputation as announced by him at 
Rome, but which never really took place ^. From the 
same sources he drew the materials of his Essay towards 
a Mosaical philosophy, in his Heptaplus. He held in 
great esteem the Cabbalistical writings, to which he was 
tempted to ascribe a divine origin, and considered neces- 
sary to the explanation -of the Christian religion ; at the 
same time that he asserted their entire accordance with 
the philosophical systems of Pythagoras and Plato ^ His 
favourite design, which however he not live to realise, 
was to prove the consistency of the Aristotelian and Pla- 

* t R. SiEVEKiNG, History of the Platonist Academy of Florence, Gotting. 
1812, 8vo. 

'' Theologia Platonica s. de Immortalitate Animorum ac ^Etern^ Felicitate 
libb. XVIII. Idem : in 0pp. torn. I, Paris. 1641, fol. 

•^ Count and prince of Concordia, born 1463, died 1494. 

«' Heptaplus, part. I, Basil. 1601. 

" Conclusiones DCCCC, Rom. 1486, fol.j Cot. 1619, 8vo. 

' Apol. p. 82. 110. 116. 


tonic systems ^. In his inaturer age when lie had emanci- 
pated himself from many of the common prejudices of his 
time, he composed an able refutation of the superstitions 
of the astrologers. The reputation of the Count of Mi- 
randola, his works, and his numerous friends, contributed 
to establish the credit of the Platonic and Cabbalistical 
doctrines. His nephew J. Fr. Picus of Miranclola 
(killed 1533), followed his steps, without possessing his 
abilities ; but more exclusively devoted than his uncle 
to Revealed pliilosophy '', he opposed at the same time 
the Heathen and the Scholastic systems. 

Cabbalistic and Magical Systems. 

f BuHLE, History of Cabbalistic Philosophy, in the Fifteenth 
and Sixteenth Century, in his History of Modern Philosophy, II, 
1, 360, sqq. 

^87. John ReucJdin *, a zealous restorer of philosophy 
and classical literature, travelled into Italy, where his in- 
timacy with Ficinus and Picus inclined him to the Pytha- 
gorico-Platonic doctrine, and to the study of Cabbalistic 
writings ^ ; which he disseminated in Germany by means 
of his works, De Verba Mirijico ^, and De Arte Cabba- 
listicd"^. The extravagant performance of the Francis- 
can monk Franc. Giorgio Zorzi^, De Harmonia Miindi 
istius, cantica tria, Venet. 1525, doubtless was thought 

s JoH. Pici Epist. ad Ficin., torn. I, p. 753. 

h lie wrote : De Studio Divinai et Humanae Sapientiai, edid. J. F. Bud- 
DEUS, Hal. 1702, 8vo. Examen Doctrina; Vanitatis Gentilium ; De Pra;no- 
tionibus. In the 0pp. utiiusque Pici, (see above;: Epp. ed. Cupii. Cei.- 
i.ARius, Jen, 1682, Bvo. 

' Called also Capnio. He was born 1455, at Pforzlieim, was professor at 
Tiibingen, and died 1522. 

^ Life of Reuchlin, in the work, of Meiners already quoted, part I, No. 2. 
S. F. Gehres, Life of John Reuchlin, etc., Carlsruhe, 1815, 8vo. 

' Libri III, Bas.fol., (1494). 

'" Libri III. Hagen. 1517— 1530, fol. 

" Franciscus Georgius, surnamed Venetus ; because a native of that city. 
He flourished in the beginning of the sixteenth century. 

270 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

too full of daring reveries, and was far from possessing the 
influence enjoyed by the works of H. Cornelius Jgrippa 
of Nettesheim ". The latter united to great talents uni- 
versal information ; but his greediness of reputation and 
money, and his fondness for occult sciences, imparted a 
character of indecision and inconsistency to his life as 
well as to his works. At Dole he gave with the greatest 
success public lectures on the work of Reuchlin, De Ver- 
ba Mhifico ; and at the suggestion of Tritheim, the most 
celebrated adept of his time, he composed his treatise, 
De Occulta Philosopliia'^ ^ a system of extravagant chi- 
meras, in which Magic, the Complement of Philosophy, as 
he terms it, and the key of all the secrets of Nature, is 
represented under the three forms, of Natural, Celestial, 
and Religious or Ceremonial; agreeably to the three- 
fold division of the Corporeal, Celestial, and Intellectual 
Worlds. He there enumerates, with a show of scientific 
classification purely superficial, the hidden powers which 
the Creator has assigned to the different objects of the 
Creation, through the agency of the Spirit of the World. 
It was natural that Agrippa should become a partisan of 
Raymond Lulli (§ 269), and accordingly he wrote a com- 
mentary on his Ars Magna. Nevertheless his caprice 
sometimes inclined him to opinions directly the reverse ; 
and in such a mood he rejected all dependence on human 
knowledge, and composed his Cynical treatise, as he 
terms it, T>e Incerlitudine et Vanitate Scientiarinn^. This 
work, which had great reputation in its day, occasionally 
presents us with sophistical arguments ; occasionally with 
admirable remarks on the uncertainty and vanity of all 
scientific pursuits ^ Agrippa and his follower John 
Wier % were of service to philosophy by opposing the 

" Born at Cologne 148G. 

V Lib. I, 1531 ; lib. Ill, Colon. 1.533, 8vo. 

1 Cologne, 1527 ; Paris, 1529 ; Antwerp, 1530, 4to. 

•■ On this writer consult Meiners, Lives, etc. ; and Sciielhohn, in the 
Amaenitat. Litt., torn. 11, p. 553. 

Ejus Opera in duos tomos digesta, Lvgd, 73., without date, 8vo ; repub- 
lished 1550 et 1600. 

* Lorn at Grave in Brabant, 1515: died 1588. 

288.] THEOSOPHY. 271 

belief in witclicraft. After an adventurous life, Agrippa 
died 1535, at Grenoble. 


288. The physician and theosophist Aureolus Theo- 
phrastiis Paracelsus (such were the names he assumed^), 
blended Chemistry and Therapeutics with the Neo- 
platonic and Cabbalistic mysticism. He was an ingeni- 
ous and original charlatan, with much practical inform- 
ation, and a sufficiently penetrating spirit of observa- 
tion, who though destitute of scientific information, 
aspired to the character of a reformer in Medicine. To 
effect this he made use of the Cabbalistic writers, whom 
he endeavoured to render popular, and expounded with 
a lively imagination. Among the principal mystic notions 
which he enlarged upon without method or consistency 
(very frequently so as scarcely to be intelligible), were 
those of an internal illumination, — an emanation from 
the Divinity, — the universal harmony of all things, — the 
influence of the stars on the sublunar world, — and the 
vitality of the elements, which he regarded as spirits en- 
cased in the visible bodies presented to our senses. His 
grand principle was a pretended harmony and sympathy 
between Salt, the Body, and the Earth : between Mer- 
cury, the Soul, and Water ; between Sulphur, Spirit, and 
Air. His extravagancies found a good number of parti- 
sans*. As a mystic and theosophist Valentine Weigel*^ 

* His real names were Philip Theophrastus Bombast von Ilohenheim ; born 
at Einsiedeln in Switzerland, 1493 ; died at Salzbourg, 1541. 

' t J.J. LoEs, Theophrastus Paracelsus von Hohenheim, a Dissertation in 
the Studien of Creuzer and Daub., torn. I. Cf. Sprengel, Hist, of Medi- 
cine, part III. Lives and Opinions of the most celebrated Physicians of the 
close of the Sixteenth and commencement of the Seventeenth Centuries, pub- 
lished by Thad. Ansel5i. Rixner, and Thad. Siber, fasc. I. Theophrastus 
Paracelsus, Sulzbach, 1819, 8vo. 

Phil. Theophrasti Paracelsi Volumen Medicinal Paramirum, Argent. 
1575, Bvo. and. Works of Paracelsus, published by Jon. Huser, -Bos. 1589, 
10 vols. 4to. Strasb. 1616—18, 3 vols. fol. 

" Born at Hayne in Misnia, 1533 ; was a Lutheran minister at Tschopau in 
Misnia, and died 1588. 


272 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

followed the steps of Paracelsus and Tauler (§ 275); but 
the doctrines of the former were especially propagated 
by the society of the Rosy-Cross, formed in the seven- 
teenth century, probably in consequence of a satiric 
poem " of the theologian Valentine Andrece (born at WUr- 
temberg, 158G, died 1654). 


Cardanus de Vita Propria ; in the first part of his Works, 
Lugd. 1663, 10 vols. fol. — See Bayle's Dictionary. His 
Life, by W. R. Becker, in the Quartalschrift of Canzler 
and Meiners, year 3rd, 3 qu. fasc. V. Id. : In his Lives 
and Opinions of celebrated Physicians, etc., fasc. II, Sulzbach, 
1820, 8vo. 

Jerome Cardan ^, a celebrated physician, naturalist, 
and mathematician, resembled Paracelsus in his eccen- 
tricities ; but was greatly superior to him in information. 
During his youth, a delicate constitution and tyrannical 
treatment retarded his progress, and the prejudices of 
the day in favour of astrology, and the imagination of a 
familiar spirit, gave a misdirection to his studies, to be 
traced in his writings ; which treat of all sorts of sub- 
jects, and without any systematic order ^. Sometimes he 
supports, sometimes he opposes the superstitions of the 
Astronomers and Cabbalists, and mixes up profound ob- 
servations and ingenious and elevated ideas with the most 
capricious absurdities. The Theologians of his day, who 

HiLLiGER, De Vitti, Fatis, et Scriptis Val. Weigelii j and Fohtsch de 
Weigelio, in the Miscell. Lips. torn. X, p. 171. 

Weigelii I'ractatus de Opere Mirabili ; Arcanum Omnium Arcanorum ; 
t The Golden Touch, or, the Way to learn Infallibly all Things, etc. 1578, 4to., 
and 1616. Instruction and Introduction to the Study of German Theology, 
Philosophy, Mysticism, etc., 1571. Studium Universale j nosce te ipsum s. 
Theologia Astrologizata, 1618. 

* t TheChymical INIarriage of Christian Rosenkreutz, 1603. Thesame(Ax- 
due/e) ; Universal Reformation of the World by means of the fama fraterni- 
tatis of the Kosy-Cross, Eatisb. 1614, 8vo. 

y Geronimo Cardano, born at Pavia, 1501 ; died 1576. 

''■ See especially his treatises : De Subiilitate, et Rerum \'arietate. 


condemned him as heterodox, have accused him, without 
sufficient grounds, of atheism. 

II. Revival of' the System of Aristotle. 
Oj^ponenfs of the same. 

Sec the work of J. Launoy, De Varia Aristot. Fort., etc., 
mentioned § 2 13. 

W. L. G. Baron von Eberstein, On the Logical and Meta- 
physical System of the Peripatetics, properly so called, Hallcy 
1800, 8vo. 

290. Nevertheless, the theories of Aristotle had many 
defenders. The Scholastic system had long nourished 
in the minds of men a ])rofound veneration for the author 
of the Organum; and the education of the age inclined 
men to the reception of his ideas. When his works came 
to be known in their original form, they were eagerly stu- 
died, explained, translated, and abridged. Among the 
theologians, and physicians in particular, was formed a 
numerous school of his adherents. The latter especially, 
who were inclined to Naturalism, were enabled to re- 
state on his authority certain doctrines belonging to Na- 
tural religion and philosophy. The distinction they drew 
between philosophical and religious Truth, served to pro- 
tect them from the censures of some zealous theologians. 
In the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries the Aristotelians 
were divided into two sects : the Acerroists, attached to 
the commentary of Averroes (§ 257), and the Alexandrists^ 
or successors of Alexander Aphrodisiensis (§ 183). These 
two parties drevv^ upon themselves so much notice by the 
acrimony of their disputes on the principles of Thought, 
and the Immortality of the Soul, that in 1512 the Lateran 
council endeavoured to cut short the dispute by pro- 
nouncing in favour of the more orthodox party. 

Italian Peripatetics. 

291. Among the most renowned Peripatetics of Italy, 
we may remark P. Pomponatius"^ ^ of Mantua. His de- 

a Born 1462, died 1525 or 1530. 

Petri Pomponatii De Naturalium effectuum admirandorum Caiisis ieu 


274 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

votion to the doctrines of Aristotle did not prevent his 
originating many of his own, and detecting the weak 
points of his master's system. He endeavoured to arouse 
his contemporaries to more profound investigations, dis- 
cussing 'Nvith singular force and acuteness various sub- 
jects, such as : The Immortality of the Soul, — Free.-will, 
— Fate, — Providence, — and Enchantment, or Demonology 
(or to express it more fully) — the question whether the 
phenomena of nature which bear the appearance of being 
marvellous, are produced by the agency of Spirits (as the 
Platonists pretended), or that of the constellations. Hav- 
ing asserted that, according to Aristotle there is no cer- 
tain proof to be adduced of the Immortality of the Soul, 
Pomponatius drew upon himself a violent and formidable 
controversy, in which he defended himself by asserting 
the distinction to be maintained between revealed and 
natural religion. Many superior men were formed in his 
School, such as Simon Porta or Portias^, Pauliis Jovius^, 
Julius Caesar Scaliger^, who subsequently opposed Car- 
dan ^ ; the cardinal Gasparo Contaiim, and Augustus Ni- 
p/ius ^ (who became his adversaries) : the Spaniard J, 
Genesius Sepuheda^-^ and lastly, the paradoxical free- 

de Incantationibus liber. Ejusdem : De Fato, Libero Arbitrio, Praedestina- 
tione, Providentia Uei, libb. V, in quibus difficillima capita et quaestiones 
Theologicae et Philosophicae ex sana Orthodoxae Fidei Doctrina explicantur et 
multis raris historiis passim illustrantur per auctorem, qui se in omnibus Ca- 
nonicae Scripturae Sanctorumque Doctorum judicio submittit, Basil. Fen. 1525 
— 1556—1567, fol. 

Ejusdem; Tractatus de Immortalitate Animas, Bonon. 1516, etc. Tlie 
latest edit., publ. by Ciiph. Gottfr. Baruili, contains an account of the life 
of Pomponatius. See also; Jo. Gfr. Olearii Diss, de Petro Pomponatio, 
Jen. 1709, 4to. 

Porta De Rerum Naturalibus Principiis de Anima et Mente Humana, 
Pior. 1551, 4 to. 

•» Sim. Porta, died 1555. 

<= Paolo Giovio, born at Como 1483, died 1552. 

•J Delia Scala, born at Ripa 1484, died 1559. 

^ In his Exercitationcs de Subtilitate. 

^ Born 1473, died 1546. Libri VI, De Intellectu et Daemonibus, Ven. 
1492, fol. Et: Opera Philos., Ven. 1559, 6 vols. fol. Opusc. Moralia et 
Politica, Paris. 1645, 4to. 

e Born 1491, died 1572. 


thinker LuciUo Vamm^\ burnt at Toulouse in IGIO. Be- 
sides Poniponatius (who was the head of the school of 
Alexandrists), this sect boasted other learned men who 
were not among his disciples ; such as, Nicolas Leonicus, 
surnamed Thowreus^\ Jacobus Zabarella^, who differed 
on some points from Aristotle ; Ccrsar Cremouimis ', and 
Francis Piccolomini , etc. On the side of the Averroists, 
with the exception of Alexander Achillinus of Bologna "" 
(who was styled the second Aristotle) ; Marc Antony 
Zimara ", of San-Pietro in the kingdom of Naples ; and 
the fomous Aristotelian Andretv Cesalplni'^, we find no 
names of great celebrity. Cesalpini turned Averroism 
into an absolute Pantheism, by daring to represent the 
Deity not only as the cause, but as the subject-matter 
and substance of the world : and identified with the Uni- 
versal Intellisjence the minds of individual men, and even 
of animals. He asserted the immortality of the soul and 
the existence of Daemons. 

German Peripatetics. 

See the Dissertation of Elswick, quoted § 243. 

-j- A. H. C. Heeren, a few words on the Consequences of 
the Reformation as afFecting Philosophy. In the Reformat'ions- 
almanach of Kayser, 1819, p. 114, sqq. 

^ Lucilio, or Julius Caesar Vanini, was born at Naples, about 1586. 

Amphitheatrura ^ternag Providentiae, etc., Lugd. 1615, 8vo. 

De Adrairandis Naturae, Arcanis, etc. libb. IV, Paris. 1616, Bvo. 

Life, Misfortunes, Character, and Opinions of Lucilio Vanini, an Atheist 
of the Seventeenth Century, etc, by W. D. F., Leips. 1800, Bvo. 

' Born at Venice 1457, died 1533. 

*^ Born at Padua 1532, died 1589. De Inventione Primi Motoris, Fcf. 
1618, 4to. 0pp. Philosophica, ed. J. J. Havenreuter, Fcf. 1623, 4to. 

' Cesare Cremonini, born at Centi, in the duchy of Modena, A.D. 1552, 
died 1630. 

Cjps. Cremonini liber de Paedi^ Aristotelis. Diatyposis Universae Naturalis Philosophise. Illustres Contemplationes de Auim^. Tractatus 
tres de Sensibus Externis, de Internis et de Facultate Appetitiv^, 

"> Alessandro Achillini, died 1512. 

n Died 1532. 

" Born at Arezzo 1509, died 1603. 

Andreae Cesalpini Quaestion. Peripateticie libb. V, Veuet. 1571, fol. Da.^- 
monum Investigatio Peripatetica, Ven. 1593, 4to. 

T 2 

276 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

292. Although Luther and Melanchthon p, in the begin- 
ning of the Reformation entertained unfavourable senti- 
ments towards the Aristotelian philosophy, on the same 
principle that they denounced the system of the School- 
men, both, nevertheless, lived to renounce this preju- 
dice, and Melanchthon especially, not only asserted the 
indispensabilty of philosophy as an auxiliary to theology, 
but recommended especially that of Aristotle, without 
confining this praise to his logic''. In Ethics, however, 
he maintained the principle of Morality to be the will of 
God. On one occasion only was war afterwards declared 
against philosophy (about 1621), by Dan. Hoffmann , pro- 
fessor of Theology at Helmstadt ; and his two disciples, 
J. Angelas Werdenhagen (§ 321, note), and Wenceslaiis 
Schilling^. The philosophy of Aristotle, disencumbered 
of the subtilties of the Schoolmen (though these were 
speedily succeeded by others), owed the favour which it 
enjoyed in the Protestant universities, to the authority of 
Melanchthon ; and a swarm of commentaries and abridg- 
ments of this system presently appeared, which at all 
events served to keep in practice those attached to such 
studies. Among such we may particularise Joachim Ca- 
merarius, who died at Leipsic 1574. 

The credit of Aristotle became in this manner re-esta- 
blished, and so continued till about the middle of the 
seventeenth century ; nor was it materially affected by the 
desertion of a few, who like Nicolaus Taurellus % the op- 

P Born at Bretten 1497, died 1560. 

1 Melanchthonis Oratio de Vita Aristotelis, habita a. 1537, torn. II, De- 
clamatt., p. 381, sqq. ; et torn. Ill, p. 351, sqq. ; Dialectica, Viieb. 1534. Ini- 
tia Doctrinffi Physica;, 1547; Epitome Philosophise INIoralis, Viteb. 1589; 
De Anima, 1540, Bvo. ; Ethicae Doctrinae Elementa, Viteb. 1550. These dif- 
ferent works have been frequently republished, and were edited with his works 
at large by Caspar Peucer, Viteb. 1562, 4 vols. fol. 

' Dan. Hofmann, Qui sit Veras ac Sobria^ Philosophic in Theologiii Usus? 
Helmst. 1581. See Corn. Martini Scriptum de Statibus controversis, etc. 
Helmstadii agitatis inter Dan. Hofmannum et quatuor Philosophos, Lips. 
1620, 12mo. 

" Born at Miimpelgard 1547, died 1606. 

Nic. Taurelli Philosophiae Triumphus, Basil. 1573, Bvo. Alpes Caesae 
(against Cesalpini), Fcf. 1597, Bvo. Discussiones de Mundo adv. Fr. Pic- 


ponent of Cesalpini, seceded a little from the prevailing 

Opponents of the Aristotelian Pkilosophij. 

293. Notwithstanding, the adversaries of the Aristo- 
telian system daily increased in number. Without touch- 
ing upon other Schools more or less opposed to his 
(whose universality of system impeded their progress), 
we may enumerate, besides Nicolaus Taurellus just men- 
tioned, Franc, Patrizzi^ Bruno, Berigard, Magnenus, 
Telesius, and Campanella : (all of whom we shall have 
occasion to mention hereafter); with Peter Ratni/s^, one 
of the ablest opponents of the Peripatetic System, and 
a distinguished mathematician. He engaged in the dis- 
pute from a disgust for the technicalities of the Schools, 
and laboured to give popularity to a more accessible 
kind of philosophy, but was deficient in a true philo- 
sophical spirit, and without an adequate comprehension 
of the principles of Aristotle ; which he attacked with- 
out measure or moderation; asserting that they were 
a tissue of error. Logic was the point he first ob- 
jected to"; asserting that it was altogether factitious, 
without order, and without perspicuity; at the same 
time that he composed a new one '', more adapted to 
practical use, which he wished to substitute for that of 
Aristotle. He defined it to be, " Ars bene disserendi," 
and considered Rhetoric to be an essential branch of it. 
Notwithstanding the attacks of his many enemies, who 

colominium, Amb. 1603, 8vo. ; Marb. 1603, 8vo. Discussiones de Ccelo, 
Amh. 1603, 8vo. See Jac. G. Feuerlin, Diss. Apologetica pro Nic Tau- 
rello, De Rerum ^ternitate, Norimb. 1734, 4to. With the Synopsis Aristo- 
telis INIetaphysices. 

' Properly called P. de la Ramee, of a poor family in Picardy; born 1515; 
killed at Paris in the massacre of St. Bartholomew, 1572. 

JoH. Thom. Freigii Vita Petri Rami, at the end of Audomari Taltei Ora- 
tiones, Marb. 1599. Besides the works of Ramus mentioned § 143 and 146; 
see the following notes. 

" Animadversiones in Dialecticam Aristotelis, libb. XX, Paris. 1534, 4to. 

* Institutiones Diulecticai, lib. II, Paris, 1543, Bvo., 1548 ; Scholar Dia- 
lecticae in Liberales Artcs, Bas. 1559, fol. Orationes Apologetics, Paris. 
1551, 8vo., et al. 

278 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

were fcy no means temperate in their animosity, he at- 
tracted some partisans (called after him Ramists), especi- 
ally in Switzerland, England, and Scotland. Among others, 
Audomar Talceus^ {Taloii), his two disciples Thom. Fre- 
ights of Fribourg ^, and Franc. Fabricius ; Fr. Beii- 
chus ; Wilh. Ad, Scribomus ; Gasp. Pfaffrad^ ; Riid. Go- 
clenius **, who gave his name to a species of Sorites ; an 
Eclectic and able psychologist '^ ; and Otto Casmann^ a 
pupil of the latter, who laboured to complete a system of 
metaphysics relative to the luiman mind*^. To these may 
be added the celebrated English poet Milton. The 
principal opponents of Ramus were. Ant. Govea, Joach. 
PerioniuSj and Charpentier, the Aristotelian, (see biblio- 
graphy at the head of §§ 140, 141, 143) ; who also was his 
murderer on the day of St. Bartholomew. In Germany 
the principal were, J. Schegk^, Nic. Frischlin, Phil. 
Scherbius^y and Corn. Martini^. 

III. Revival of Stoicism. 

294. The Stoic doctrines during this period were not 
altogether without partisans and supporters ; but notwith- 
standing all the advantage they may be supposed to have 
derived from the dissemination of the works of Cicero and 
Seneca, and their seeming consistency with the Christian 
Morals, they did not gain as many adherents as some 
other philosophical systems. This is ascribable in part 
to the peculiar theories (in physics and morals) of the 

y The friend of Ramus. Died at Paris in 1562. 

* Died 1583. 

a Died 1622. 

b Born at Corbach 1547, died at Marbourg 1628. 

c ^w^oXoyi'a, h, e. De Hominis Perfectione, Anim^ et Imprimis Ortu, etc., 
Marh. 1590—1597, 8vo. Ejusd. : Isagoge in Org. Aristotelis, Fcf. 1598, 8vo. 
Problemata Log. et Philos., Marh. 1614, 8vo. Cf. $ 129. 

•^ Psychologia Anthropologica sive Animaj Humanee Doctrina, Hanau. 
1594, 8vo. 

^ Professor of Natural Philosophy at Tubingen; died 1587. 

f Died 1605. 

g Died 1621. 

294, 295.] VARIOUS ESSAYS. 279 

Stoics, and partly to the influence of the prevaiHng spirit 
of the age, and the estabhshed forms of instruction. 
The writer who principally attached himself to these 
doctrines, at the period of which we are treating, was 
Justus Lipslus (Joost Lipss •"). Originally he favoured 
the Scholastic system, which he abandoned for the culti- 
vation of Classical literature ; particularly the works of 
Cicero and Seneca. Celebrated as a critic and philolo- 
gist, he became (though never in the proper sense of the 
word, a philosopher), an able expositor of the Stoic 
system. All that he w^anted to make him a true Stoic, 
(as he himself has confessed), was Constancy and Con- 
sistency. He seems rather to have aimed at preparing 
the minds of his readers for the study of these doctrines, 
especially as given in Seneca, than to have attempted the 
restoration of the system. Casp. Scioppius {Schoppe)\ 
a man of equivocal character, published extracts from the 
works of Lipsius. Thom. GataJier^ an Englishman*^, 
occupied himself with the historical department of this 
system, as well as CL Sal/tiasius, and Dan. HeinsiusK 


I. Various Essays, 

295. In the midst of these attempts to re-establish the 
theories of antiquity ; while the old and the new doctrines 
were brought into constant competition, and the esta- 
blished system not only endeavoured to repulse the at- 
tacks which were constantly levelled at it, but to acquire 

•' Born at Isea, near Brussels, 1547; died 1606. 

JusTi Lipsii libb. II, De Constanti^, Franco/. 1591, 8vo. Ejusd.; Opera, 
Aniverp. 1637, 4 vols. fol. 

* Born 1576; died 1649. 

k Born 1574; died 1644. 

' Dan. Heinsii Oratt. In the Works of Scioppius and Gataker, consult 
the Bibliog. ^ 158 and 163. 

280 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Ill . 

fresh credit by reconciling its discordant doctrines 
might be remarked from time to time some superior spirit 
who had the courage to quit the beaten track, and at- 
tempt a new one of his own ; though unhappily, from the 
want of well-established principles for his guidance, he 
too usually fell into considerable errors. Among these 
we must reckon the German, Nic. Taurellus, already 
mentioned (§ ^92), who laboured to draw a still stronger 
line of demarcation between philosophy and theology, 
and looked upon Reason as the proper source of philo- 
sophic knowledge. Of the Italians, Cardan (§ 289), 
and Vanini (§ 291), and of the French P. Ramus, who 
meditated a reform of philosophy. As by this time the 
old established Scholastic method of drawing all know- 
ledge from abstract ideas, was insufficient to satisfy men's 
minds, they attempted to attain more certain conclusions 
by the way of experiment. This principle was especially 
followed up by the Political writers and Naturalists. 
Among the former Niccolo MaccJiiavelU^j a statesman, 
matured by the study of the Classics and by knowledge 
of the world, had in his Principe (1515) given with great 
ability a picture of Political men, such as he had generally 
found them: and John Bodin'^, having in his Republic 
discarded the opinions of Plato and Aristotle, had en- 
deavoured to explain the principles of a form of govern- 
ment neither a Monarchy nor a Democracy, and regulated 
by mixed principles of strict justice and accommodating 

II. Tele sins. 

Fr. Baco, De Principiis et Originibiis Secmidum Fabulas Cu- 
piclinis et Coeli, sive de Parmenidis et Telesii et Prsecipiie De- 

'" A writer who particularly distinguished himself on this side was the 
Thomht Fr. Suarez, (died 1617) ; by his Disputationes JMetaphysicae, Mo- 
ginit. 1614. 

" Born at Florence 1496; died 1527. 

Jon. Fr. Christii De Nic. Macchiavello libb. Ill, Lips, et Hal. 1731, 
4to. Opere 1550, 4to., etc., Milan. 1805, 10 vols. 8vo. ; Flor, 1820, 10 vols. 

o {Bodinus), born at Angers, about 1550; died 1596. 

De la Ri-publique, Penis, 1576, fol. and 1578. In Latin 1586, fol. 


296.] TELESIUS. / 281 

mocriti Philosophia Tractata in Fabula de Cupidine. (^p. tpmJ 
III, ed. Elz., p. 208. ^'^wj f r^ 

Jo. Ge. Lotteri Diss, dc Bcrnardini Telesii Philosophi ttali 
Vita et Philosophia, L\i)s. 1726-1733, 4to. 

"I" Lives and Opinions of the most celebrated Physicians at 
the end of the Sixteenth and beginning of the Seventeenth Cen- 
turies. Published by Tii. Aug. Rixner and Siber ; fasc. Ill, 

296. A Reformation was attempted in Natural Phi- 
losophy hy BernarcUniis Telesius. Born 1508, at Cosenza 
in the kingdom of Naples, he received a Classical edu- 
cation from an uncle at Milan, and subsequently, at Rome ; 
and at Padua devoted himself with ardour to philosophi- 
cal and mathematical studies, and from which he im- 
bibed a disinclination for the doctrines of Aristotle. At 
a more advanced age he published with great success his 
work De Naturd juxta Propria Principia p. He became 
a teacher of Natural Philosophy at Naples, and founded 
an academy named after him, Telesiana and Consentina; 
which was intended to demolish the Aristotelian philoso- 
phy. He was compelled by the persecutions he under- 
went from the monks to retire to Cosenza, where he died 
1588- His system is one of pvn-e Naturalism, and bears 
some resemblance to the views of Parmenides (§ 99). His 
chief objection to those of Aristotle is, that he laid down 
as principles mere abstractions, {abstracta et non entia). 
He himself maintained the existence of two incorporeal 
and active principles. Heat and Cold ; and a corporeal 
passive principle, Matter; on which the other two exercise 
their influences. He derived the heavens from Heat, and 
the earth from Cold ; and attempted, in a very unsatis- 
factory manner, to account for the origin of secondary 
natures by a supposed perpetual conflict between the 
Heavens and Earth. Having attributed sensation to his 
two incorporeal principles, he went on to assign souls to 
plants and animals in general. He drew however a broad 

P The two first books appeared at Home 1565, in 4to. The entire woik. was 
published at Naples in 1586 and 1588. 

282 THIHD PERIOD. [sect. 

distinction between the immortal soul of Man, and that of 
other animals, and asserted that it was the immediate gift 
of God at the time of conception "i. He maintained that 
Sensation was not absolutely passive, but a perception of 
changes operated in the mind itself'. Knowledge ac- 
quired by means of inference he described as a species of 
imperfect Sensation. Independently of these theories Te- 
lesius was an Experimentalist and Materialist. His ad- 
versaries Marta and CJiiocci were, in their turn, attacked 
by Campanella% (infra). 

III. Franc, Patrh^i, or Patritius, 

•\ Lives and Opinions of the most celebrated Physicians, etc. ; 
published by Rixner and Siber ; fasc. IV: Fr. Patrizzi, 
Sulzh. 1823, 8vo. 

297. Fi\ Patrizzi *, the author of a new theory of ema- 
nation, borrowed the materials of it from all quarters, but 
principally from the Neoplatonists, and the pretended 
records of Primitive Mysticism collected by them; as 
well as from the system of Telesius. He commenced this 
undertaking by an elaborate refutation of Aristotle". 
Nevertheless he attempted^ a theory of light, according 
to the Aristotelian method. He affects to divide his sub- 
ject into four parts, viz. : Panaugia, Panarchia, Pamp- 
sycliia and Pancosmia : and cites to support his theories 
a number of apocryphal mystic books y. Wisdom he 
defines to be Universal Science. Light is in all things 
the primal object of knowledge. Philosophy, therefore, 
or the investigation of Truth, ought to begin with the 

<i De Rer. Nat., lib. V, c. 1, sqq. 

r Ibid. VIII, 21. 

* Campanellae Fhilosophia Sensibus demonstrata, etc.. Neap. 1590, 4to. 

' Born atClisso in Dalmatia, 1529 ; professor of the Platonic philosophy at 
Ferrara and Rome; where he died 1593. 

" Discussiones Peripatetic ae, published at first separately, Ven. 1571 — 1581, 
4 vols. See above, § 139. 

" Nova de Universis Philosophia in qufi Aristotelic^ Methodo non per Mo- 
tum sed per Lucem et Lumina ad primam Causam ascenditur, etc., Ferrar. 
1591, fol., Ven. 1593, Lo7id. 1611. 

y Attributed to the ancient Persians. 

297, 298.] GIORDANO BRUNO. 283 

contemplation of Light. 1. All Light is derived from the 
first source of illumination — God. 2. God is the highest 
principle of all things, o. The universe is animated. 
4. It is endowed with the qualities of unity and indi- 
viduality by means of Space and Light ; both of them 
incorporeal essences. 

Such are among the principal ideas which Patrizzi 
follows up in the work above mentioned. It may be ob- 
served that this was not the last occasion when by me- 
tamorphosing material forms into Spiritual Essences, an 
alliance was attempted between the dreams of the Neo- 
platonists and the philosophy of Aristotle. 

IV. Giordano Bruno, 

•\ For Giord. Brmio, see Brucker, torn. IV : and Buhle, 
History of Modern Philosophy, torn. II, p. 703, sqq. Fulle- 
BORN, Beitrcege^ etc. fasc. VI. Heumann, Acta Philos. fasc. 
Ill— IX. XV. 

Car. Steph. Jordani Disquisitio Historico-Literaria de Jor- 
dano Bruno Nolano, Primislavice (no date), 8vo. 

Fr. Christ. Lauckhard, Diss, de Jordano Bruno, Hal. 1783, 

f Biographical Memoir of Giord. Bruno, by Kindervater ; 
In the Memoirs of Caesar, relative to the Philosophical World, 
torn. VI, No. 5. 

^ Biography of Bruno, in Adelung ; History of Human 
Folly, I vol. 

Fr. Jacobi, Letters to ^Mendelssohn, on the Doctrine of 
Spinosa ; second edition, Breslau, 1789, 8vo. Suppl. I. 

■f Heydenreich, Appendix to the History of Revolutions in 
Philosophy, by Cromaziano, p. 257, tom. I. 

f Lives and Opinions of the most celebrated Physicians, etc. ; 
(see prec. §). 

^98. One of the most extraordinary writers of this age 
was another Italian named Giordano Bruno (Jordanus 
Brunus); remarkable for his history, as well as his 
learning and great abilities. He was endowed with a 
vigorous and versatile capacity, united to a fruitful imagi- 
nation ; of an elevated but restless and passionate cha- 

284 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

racter ; and greedy of fame. He possessed considerable 
knowledge of the ancient systems of philosophy, the 
mathematics, physics, and astronomy ; and his taste was 
refined by the influence of classical literature. He was 
born at Nola, in the kingdom of Naples, about the middle 
of the sixteenth century. Little is known of his early 
life. He professed himself a Dominican, but the year 
and place of his noviciate are not known. Some religious 
doubts, and bold strictures on the monkish orders, 
obhged him to quit Italy, probably in 1580. He retired 
to Geneva, where his love for dispute and paradox 
brought him into trouble with the adherents of Calvin. 
Thence he retreated to Paris ; where he gave public lec- 
tures on the Ars Magna of Raymond LuUi. After a 
visit to London, he returned to Paris, 1585; and there 
openly announced himself the adversary of Aristotle, 
which procured him a great number of enemies. In 158G 
he became a private teacher of moral philosophy and 
mathematics at Wittemberg ; afterwards he took up his 
abode at Prague, at Helmstadt, (where he taught as pro- 
fessor of philosophy), and at Francfort on the Maine. In 
1592 he returned once more to Padua, it is not known for 
what reason ; and, after having passed some years in tran- 
quillity, was arrested, (in 1598), by the Inquisition; sent 
to Rome, and there, on the seventeenth of February IGOO, 
burned as a heretic, and apostate from his religious vows. 

299. Bruno was formed by the character of his mind 
to reject the dry system which had prevailed under the 
sanction of Aristotle's name. He was naturally inclined 
to the study and cultivation of the Classics, and in parti- 
cular was carried away by the bold and comprehensive 
views of the Eleatae and Alexandrian Platonists ; which 
at that time found in Italy many minds disposed to re- 
ceive them. He dived deep into their mysteries, and 
transfused them into his own writings with talent and 
originality. He assumed the appellation of Philotheos, 
and under that name in various writings, composed with 
considerable fancy as well as learning, — occasionally with 

299.] GIORDANO BRUNO. 285 

wit, and always with ability — he maintained that the Divi- 
nity is the internal principle and substantial essence of 
all things, and that in Him power and activity — the Real 
and the Possible, form at all times one indivisible whole. 
He added to these notions many more, for instance, that 
of carrying to perfection the art of Lulli, whom he looked 
upon as the harbinger of his own reform in philosophy ; 
and while he availed himself of the bold discoveries of 
Copernicus, (which possibly first inclined him to doubt 
the prevailing system), he associated with the truth of 
these the prejudices of his age in favour of Astrology and 
Magic. His ardent imagination and restless temper were 
less fitted for expressing with systematic precision such 
reveries, than for detailing them with an exuberance of 

His books (especially those in Italian), are extremely 
scarce : Fiilleborn and Buhle have been at the pains to 
make a complete list of them. It is sufficient to enu- 
merate here the principal. 

JoRDANi Bruni Acrotismus seu Rationes Articulorum Physi- 
corum adversus Peripateticos Parisiis propositorum, etc. Viteb. 
1588, 8vo. 

PiiiLOTHEUs JoRDANUs Brunus Nolanus de Compendiosa 
architectui-a et complemento Artis Lullii, Paris, 1582, 12mo. 

De Umbris Idearum, Par, 1582, 8vo. ; part II is entitled Ars 

Idem : Delia Causa, Principio ed Uno, Venice, (more probably 
Paris), 1584, 8vo. An extract from it is to be found in the 
letters already mentioned of Fr. Jacobi. 

Idem : Dell' Infinito Universo e Mondi, Venet, (probably 
Paris), 1584, 8vo. 

Spaccio della bestia tnowi-dnte,- Paris, 1584, 8vo. 

Degli Eroici furori, ibid. 1585, 8vo. 

JoRDANi Bruni Explicatio Triginta Sigillorum ad omnium 
Scientarum et Artium Inventionem, Dispositionem et Memoriam 
quibus adjectus est Sigillus Sigillorum. 

Idem : De Lampade combinatoria Lulliana ad infinitas Pro- 
positiones et media invenienda, Viteb. 1587, 8vo. De progressu 
et Lampade venatoria Logicorum, etc. ibid. eod. De Specierum 
scrutinio et Lampade combinatoria Raym. Lulli, Prag. 1588. 

286 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Articuli CLX adv. hiijus tempestatis Mathematicos atque Philo- 
soplios, item CLXXX Praxes ad totidem Problemata, ibid. eod. 
De Imaginum, Signorum et Idearum compositione ad omnia In- 
ventionum, Dispositionum et Memorise genera libb. Ill, Franco/, 
ad M. 1591, 8vo. De Triplici, minimo et mensnra ad trium 
Specnlativarum Scientianim et multarum activarum Artium 
Principia libb. V, Francof. 1591, Svo. De Monade, numero et 
figura liber consequens (libros) qiiinque de minimo magno et 
mensura. Item de Innumeralibus, Immenso et Infigurabili, sen 
de Universo et Mundis libb. VIII, Francof. 1591, Svo. 

300. The principal points of what may be termed his 
Theology are the following : God — the First Principle, 
is that which all things are, or may be. He is 0}ie, but 
in Him all essences are comprehended. He is the sub- 
stance also of all things, and at the same time their Cause 
— (Final, Formal, and Creative) : — Eternal without limit 
of duration ; Natura Naiurans. As the first Efficient 
Cause, He is also the Divine and Universal Intelligence 
which has manifested Itself in the form and fashion of the 
Universe : He is the Soul of the Universe, which per- 
meates all things, and bestows upon them their forms and 
attributes. The end contemplated by this Great Cause 
is the perfection of all things, which consists in the de- 
velopment of the various modifications of which the dif- 
ferent parts of Matter are susceptible. To be — to will — 
to have the power — and to produce, are identical with 
the Great Universal Principle. He is incomprehensible to 
us because Absolute and Uncompounded. His substance 
and his creative energies are determined by his Nature ; He 
cannot act otherwise than he acts ; His will is necessity ; 
and this necessity, at the same time, the most perfect 
freedom. The Divinity, as the first and vital energy, has 
revealed Himself from all eternity in a variety of produc- 
tions ; yet continues always the same ; Infinite, Immea- 
surable, Immoveable, and Unapproachable by any simili- 
tude. He is in all things, and all things in Him ; because 
by Him and in Him all things live, act, and have their 
increase : He pervades the smallest portions of the Uni- 
verse, as well as its infinite expanse : He influences 
every atom of it as well as the Whole. It follows, tliat all 

300—301.] GIORDANO BRUNO. 287 

tilings are animated ; all things are good ; because all 
things proceed from a Being essentially good. 

oOI. Bruno follows the same train of ideas in his 
reflections on the world, (Uuiversum, or Natura na- 
turata), which he represents as One, Infinite, Eternal, 
and Imperishable. Nevertheless the world, in its ex- 
ternal nature, and as containing the development of 
all things, is but the shadow of the Supreme Prin- 
ciple. Its element is Matter^ originally formless ; but, 
as united to, and identified with, the primitive and 
eternal Form, it virtually contains all possible modifica- 
tions of form. He maintained that none had better ex- 
pressed than Pythagoras, in his theory of Numbers, the 
manner in which all things are derived from the Infinite 
Being as Unity : towards which the human mind per- 
petually aspires. By the multiplication of its own 
Unity the First Principle causes the production of multi- 
farious beings ; but at the same time that It is the source 
of species and individuals beyond all calculation, It is 
Itself unlimited, and unconfined by Number, Measure, or 
Relation. It remains always One, and in every respect 
Indivisible ; at once Infinitely Great and Infinitely Little. 
Inasmuch as by It all things are animated ; the Universe 
may be represented as a Living Being: an immense and 
infinite animal, in which all things live and act in a thou- 
sand and a thousand different ways. 

Bruno endeavours to establish by a variety of proofs 
thi'S eternity of the world ; from the immortal destiny 
of Man ; from the infinitude of the Creator's power, 
which must be productive of like infinite effects ; from 
the goodness also of the Divine Being; as well as by 
metaphysical arguments drawn from our ideas of Infi- 
nite space ; and the impossibility of finding a Central 
Point ; which last proof he ingeniously applies to the de- 
fence and confirmation of the Copernican system : re- 
futing the opposite theories, especially that of the Peripa- 
tetics. As the material world is but a shadow and 
reflection of the First Principle, so our knowledge alto- 

288 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

gether consists in the perception of Similitudes and 
Relations; and as the First Principle, descending from 
Its elevation, produced, by multiplication of Itself, the 
infinite diversity of natural objects ; so do we gradually 
acquire the idea of Unity, by combining the multifarious 
objects presented to our senses. The end of all phi- 
losophy is this recognition of Unity existing in Contraries. 
— In Every individual the Soul assumes a particular 
form ; inasmuch as its nature is simple and uncom> 
pounded it is immortal, — without limits to its energies, 
— and, by extension and contraction, it forms and fashions 
its own body. 

To be born is the consequence of such expansion of 
the Centre ; Life consists in the maintenance of a Spheri- 
cal shape, and Death is the contraction into the same 
Centre. The highest end of all free-agents is the same 
with that of the Divine Intellect ; namely, the perfection 
of the Whole. 

Bruno's system is nothing more than that of the Eleatag 
and Plotinus corrected and extended : a sort of Pan- 
theism f? by many misunderstood as a system of Athe- 
ism ; set forth with a persuasive eloquence springing 
from the author's own conviction, and with great richness 
of Imagination; and engaging the attention by a multi- 
tude of striking and noble ideas. The system of Bruno 
continued long neglected, or misunderstood, till the theories 
of Spinoza and Schelling directed towards it a degree of 
revived attention. 

V. Sceptical wiiters. 

302. Many combined causes now gave birth to a new 
species of philosophical scepticism in certain calm and 
vigorous minds, which manifested itself according to the 
peculiar characters and habits of each. These causes 

t [Pantheism, it will be remembered, presumes the whole Universe to par- 
take of the Divine Nature ; or, in other words, that the Divine Nature is ex- 
tended to all parts of the Creation, and animates them all. Trans.'] 

302, 303.] MONTAIGNE. 289 

were, the renewed study of the old philosophers ; the 
awakened spirit of original investigation ; the extended 
sphere of experimental observation ; with the craving 
which began to be felt for more certain knowledge and 
better established principles; with all the discussions and 
theories which these causes set in motion, diversified ac- 
cording to the characters of their respective authors. 


Essais de Michel de Montaigne, Bordeaux^ 1580 ; Lond. 1724 ; 
Paris. 1725, 3 vols. 4to ; Lond. 1739, 6 vols. 12mo, etc. 

Eloge de Mich, de Montaigne, Couronne a I'Acad. de Bor- 
deaux en 1774 (par l'Abbe de Talbert), Par. 1775, 12mo. 
Eloge Analytique et Historique par De la Dixmerie, Par. 1781, 

303. Michel de Montaigne, or Montagne^, was the 
first of his age who inclined to the philosophy of Doubt. 
With a mind highly cultivated by the study of the An- 
cients, and of History ; with great knowledge of the 
World and Men, he contemplated human life as it is pre- 
sented to us, in its multiplicity and inconsistency ; with- 
out analysing these discrepancies so as to arrive at unity 
and consistency. His acute observation of the disagree- 
ment existing between all philosophical theories produced 
in him a way of thinking akin to positive Scepticism in 
matters of philosophy ; and he pronounced the uncer- 
tainty of human knowledge and the feebleness of human 
reason to be the grand conclusions to which all his ob- 
servations had led him ; reposing with a sincere faith on 
the authority of Divine Revelation. The uncertainty 
which he ascribed to all human science he extended even 
to matters of practice, without however denying the truth 
of practical obligations. His opinions are expressed 
with admirable candour and modesty in his delightful 
Essays, the originality and graces of which will ahvays 
make the book a favourite with men of taste ; though his 
philosophy has been very differently estimated by diflferent 

« Born in a castle of the same name in Perigord, 1533 ; died 1592. 

290 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

critics. Though his own character and conduct were 
free from the reproach of immoraUty and irrehgion, his 
work has unquestionably the defect of not doing justice 
to its author's real sentiments ; nay, even of encouraging 
the contrary. 

Pierre Char r on. 

•\ De la Sagesse ; trois livres, par P. Charron, J^orrfeawa*, 1601 ; 
edit, expurg. Par. 1604. 

Eloge de P. Charron, par G. M. D. R. (George Michel de 
Rochemaillet), prefixed to the Works of Charron, Par. 1607. 
See Bayle. 

304. Montaigne had great influence over two distin- 
guished authors of his own day : Etienne Bo'etie (died 
1563), Counsellor of the parliament of Bourdeaux ; 
who in his Discours de la Servitude Voluntaire, set forth 
with considerable talent his republican principles : and 
Pierre Charron (born at Paris 1541), a celebrated 
preacher, and a man of ability and estimable character ; 
but who in consequence of his intimacy with Montaigne, 
having unhappily contracted a habit of Scepticism, in- 
dulged in some unwarrantable speculations on religious 
topics. According to him. Wisdom (La Sagesse), is the 
free investigation of what is common and habitual. The 
desire of knowledge is natural to man ; but Truth resides 
with God alone, and is undefinable by human reason. 
On this principle he grounds another, of distrust and 
indifference with regard to all science ; a bold dis- 
belief of Virtue (or the appearance of it) ; and even of 
great doctrines of Religion (particularly the immortality 
of the Soul) ; alleging that its external history did not 
correspond with its divine original, and the ideas he was 
pleased to form of God, and the worship of God. On 
the other hand he insisted upon the obligations of a 
certain Internal Religion connected with Virtue, and 
founded in the knowledge of God and Self, and exhorted 
to the practice of moral duties derived from a certain 
everlasting and imperishable law of Nature, which has 

304, 305.] PIERRE CHARRON. 291 

been implanted in the understanding by God Himself, and 
contains the highest Good of Man. This crude theory 
he expressed with some eloquence, and died 1G03, de- 
cried by many as an atheist ; which he did not altogether 

305. We perceive that the human mind had, in the 
period of which we are treating, attempted many paths, 
already opened, to the mysteries of knowledge, by the 
ways of Revelation, Reason, and Experiment^. None 
of them had been pursued far enough ; because, occu- 
pied with the pursuit of results and conclusions, men had 
omitted to begin by examining themselves, and their own 
faculties, instead of the objects contemplated by the latter. 
They had not yet inquired in what respects Revelation 
may be justly expected to supply information: nor had 
the pretensions of Experiment and Reason to be severally 
the fountain-heads of knowledge been balanced, or ad- 
justed. A sort of Scepticism, grounded on experiment 
and observation, discouraged the pride of human reason, 
without having the effect of silencing its inquiries ; and 
rather busied itself with diving again into the exhausted 
mines of ancient disputes, than attempted any fresh proofs 
of the Certainty of Knowledge. A species of intellectual 
anarchy and chaos seemed for a time to prevail: the 
more exact knowledge derived from the writings of the 
ancients contributing rather to increase than to still the 
commotion ; till it ended in something like an universal 
fermentation, which slowly defecated. An immense mass 
of unorganised knowledge and misdirected views con- 
tended together, till the necessity came to be gradually 
felt of more systematic and better-founded inquiries ; 
and to attain this end gigantic efforts were made, which 
became continually more effectual and more universal. 

* [Reason and Experiment: the first is meant to imply the principle of the 
Rationalists : the latter of the Experimentalists, or Empirics. Transl.'] 

U 2 

292 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 




A free and progressive sjnrit of inquiry into the piin- 
ciples, the laws, and limits of human Imowledge ; with at- 
tempts to systematise and combine them. 

306. It was time that the human understanding should 
assume confidence in itself, and, relying on its own powers, 
force its way through the deep labyrinth of knowledge. 
Many causes which we have already enumerated com- 
bined to stimulate its exertions ; and among the most 
powerful w^ere the desire of elucidating the grounds of 
Religious and Moral knowledge ; and the wish to recon- 
cile and associate the Empiric and Rational systems. 
The philosophical systems of the Greeks continued to be 
examples of what might be effected, though they were 
no longer adhered to as models. The improvement in 
social habits, and the clearer views of moral duties, which 
Religion and established forms of Government had pro- 
moted, brought with them the necessity for a more per- 
fect system of Ethics than was to be found in the theories 
of the Ancients ; while the Scholastic system was found 
less and less capable of satisfying the demands of an in- 
creasing curiosity. The improvement effected in tlie 
Mathematical Sciences by Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, 
and Toricelli, awakened a like enthusiasm among philo- 
sophers of another class ; which the analogy subsisting 
between their pursuits tended to promote. The grand 
question which began to influence such speculations was, 
the Origin and the Certainty of Knowledge ; with in- 
quiries as to the ultimate grounds of jMoral Right — Mo- 
ral Obligation, etc. 

Bacon and Descartes long exercised the most import- 
ant influence over succeeding philosophers, and caused 


their respective principles to become for a time universal. 
The spirit of inquiry had been first awakened in Italy; but, 
being repressed there, had acquired a much more exten- 
sive dominion in England, France, and G*crmany. The 
researches of these two great men were intended to com- 
plete the fabric of philosophy ; but too impatient to 
arrive at the conclusion, they neglected to lay with suf- 
ficient care and accuracy a perfect foundation. Their 
followers felt themselves at liberty to consult their seve- 
ral tastes, and rushed either into a rashness of demon- 
stration^ which could end only in futility ; or devoted 
themselves to perpetual experiment, unallied to any hy- 
pothesis: while sober investigation of the powers of the 
mind itself, as the source of knowledge was, for a long 
time, neglected by both parties. The factions too of the 
Speculative and Practical philosophers came to be op- 
posed to each other : and, as each had much to ob- 
ject to the other, and much to say for themselves, 
they were successful in keeping up an interminable dis- 
pute, without any other result of their labours, but that 
of prejudicing the cause of philosophy in the minds of 
others. The Casuists and disciples of Thomas Aquinas 
on the one hand, and the Aristotelians (who preserved 
their authority among the Protestants, by whom Thomas 
was rejected) on the other, had long confined the atten- 
tion of their disciples principally to Speculative ques- 
tions ; and Practical philosophy had been almost en- 
tirely resigned into the hands of theologians. Gra- 
dually it became the practice to confirm the decrees of 
Civil Legislation by arguments derived from Revelation 
or from Reason : and as this caused philosophy to be- 
come more practical, so the habit of deducing all duties 
and all moral obligation from the will of God, as their 
ultimate source, gradually exalted it to speculation ; and 
brought about an union between the two systems, on the 
important subject of Morals. 

The improvements effected in the present period may 
be described as consisting in : 

A separation and distinction of Moral Philosophy from 

294 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 307. 

Science at large, and the assignment to it of an appro- 
priate and peculiar domain of its own : — A better per- 
ception of the essential requisites of a system of know- 
ledge, in its whole extent, and in its details : — A clearer 
discernment of the respective provinces and claims of 
Theology and Natural Reason: — The advancement of 
knowledge both in the materials collected and the man- 
ner in which they were arranged : — And an improvement 
in the method of philosophy.* 

o07. This period may be subdivided into two : the first 
extending to the end of the eighteenth century, and ca- 
pable of being distinguished into smaller epochs by the 
names of the great men who illumined it : the efforts at 
knowledge then made being principally of a Dogmatic 
character. The latter period commences with the con- 
cluding years of the eighteenth century, and embraces 
the labours of the Critical School, with the results to 
which they have led. 

* [In the above sketch I have omitted, as well as altered, much that is to 
be found in the original ; but which appeared to me more likely to weary by 
repetition, or confuse by its obscurity, than to instruct the reader. 

In consequence of the omission here made, the numbers of the sectiotts from 
this place to the end of the volume, differ from those of Tennemann ; (308 
Trausl. — 316 Orig.) ; which, however, can occasion no difficulty to any one 
who may desire to refer to him, as the names of the philosophers will be a 
sufficient guide. Transt.^ 






Fresh and independent Essays of Reason, with a more 
profound and Systematical Spirit of investigation. 


I. The Empirism of Bacon. 

Mallet's Life of Bacon, prefixed to his Works. 

Rawlay, the same ; and R. Stephen, Letters and Remains of 
Lord Chancellor Bacon, Lond. 1734, 4to. 

For the services rendered by Bacon to Philosophy, see Hey- 
DENREicH, in his transl. of Cromaziano, vol. I, p. 306 (Germ.). 

-j- Sprengel, Life of Bacon, in the (Halle) Biographia, vol. 
VIII, No. 1. 

308. Francis Bacon, lord Verulam, appeared in England 
as a reformer of Philosophy ; a man of a clear and pene- 
trating judgment, great learning, great knowledge of the 
world and men, but of a character not free from reproach. 
He was born in London A. D. 1561 : attained the highest 
offices in the state, which he ultimately lost through 
his failings, and died 1626. In his youth, he studied 
the Aristotelian system of the Schools, and the Classics. 
The latter study, as well as the practical pursuits to which 
he presently devoted himself, taught him the poverty and 
insufficiency of the former. In his maturer age he applied 
himself to consider the means of reforming the Method 

296 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

of Philosophy, to which end he composed some works ^, 
which by the new principles they developed had even 
greater influence over the fortunes of Philosophy than if 
he had completed an entire system of his own. 

309. Bacon chose a new path, altogether diverging 
from the beaten one: instead of the syllogistic proof by 
argument, taking that of experiment by Induction : (which 
had been already imperfectly attempted by Telesius § 295), 
and proposing to re-construct the edifice of Human know- 
ledge. Although his views may be "said to be in some 
degree partial, yet he deserves the highest admiration 
and praise for his triumphant attacks on the School- 
philosophy ; for having applied for information to Nature 
and Experiment ; for having referred the question of 
Final Causes to Metaphysics rather than Physics ; for 
the clear development of certain points in the Science 
of Mind, e. g. that of the Association of Ideas; as also 
by his well-digested refutation of some of the super- 
stitions of his age, and the composition of his Organum as 
a new method of attaining to the knowledge of Nature ; 
(B. I, Aphor. 19, sqq.); and by his book, De Augmentis 
Scientiarum, which contains a masterly review of the 
Sciences, with his views for their enlargement and im- 
provement *^. To show how far Bacon was from being a 
mere experimentalist, it is sufficient to refer to his expres- 
sions relative to the science and object of Moral Philoso- 
phy. Science, he says, is nothing more than the image 
of Truth, inasmuch as Truth in Reality, and Truth in 
Knowledge, only differ as a direct ray of light does from 
a refracted one*^. The object of Philosophy is threefold, 

b DeDignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum (Latin) 1623: (English), Lond. 

His Works, Amsterd. 1663, 6 vols, l-2mo., with a Life by W. Rawlay : 
Lond. 1740, fol. 4 vols, by MALi-tx : and 1765, 5 vols. 4to. 

Novum Organum Scientiarum, l.ond. 1620, fol. 

c It is very likely that the works of Bacon suggested to J. Barclay his 
Treatise, called Icon Animorum, Lond. 1614, 8vo. We shall have occasion to 
speak of Cumberland and Hobbes presently. 

■' De Augm. Sc, I, col. 18. 

309, 310.] CAMPANELLA. 297 

God — Nature — Man. Nature presents itself to our com- 
prehension, as it were, by a direct ray of light, while GocJ^,, r 
is revealed to us only by a reflected one". j^' ^v^\ 


II. Philosophical system of Campanella. 

TiiOM.E Campanell.e, De Libris propriis, et recta ration^ 
studeiidi Syntagma (ed. Gabr., Par. 1642, 8vo. ; 
Amstel. 1645 ; Rotterd. 1692, 4to. See also Crenit, Collectio 
Tractatuum de Philologiae studiis, liberalis Doctrinae Informatione 
et Educatione Literaria, Lugd. Bat. 1696, 4to. 

Ern. Sal. Cypriani, Vita et Philos. Thomae Campanellae, 
Amstel. 1705, 8vo.; ed. II, 1722, 8vo. 

Consult German Museum, 1780, No. XII, p. 481 ; and 
SciiRocKii, Biogr., etc. torn. I, p. 281 (Germ.). 

Prodromus Philosophiae Instaurandae, id est, Dissertationis de 
Natura Rerum Compendium secundum Vera Priiicipia ex Scriptis 
Th. Campanellae praemissum (per Tob. Adami), Francof. 1617, 

■f Doctrine of Campanella on Human Knowledge, with some 
Remarks on his Philosophical System, by Fulleborn, Collect. 
Fasc. VI, p. 114. 

We have already had occasion (§ 295) to mention one work of 
Campanella, to which we may add these, at present sufficiently 
rare : 

De Sensu Rerum et Magia, Francf. 1620. Philosophise Ra- 
tionalis et Realis partes V, Paris. 1638, 4to. Universalis Phi- 
losopliiag sive Metaphysicarum Rerum juxta propria Dogmata 
partes tres, Paris. 1638, fol. Atheismus Triumphatus, Romce, 
1631, fol. Ad Doctorem Gentium de Gentilismo non retinendo 
et de Praedestinatione et Gratia, Paris, 1636, 4to. Realis Phi- 
losophiae Epilogisticae partes IV : hoc est, De Rerum Natura, Ho- 
minum Moribus, Politica, cui Ci vitas solis adjuncta est, CEcono- 
mica cum Adnotationibus Physiologicis a Tobia Adami, nunc 
primum edita, Fz-rtwco/'. adM. 1623, 4to. Prodromus Philosophise 
Instaurandae. Civitas Solis, Ultraj. 1643, 12mo. 

Scelta d'Alcune Poesie Philosophiche di Septimano Squilla, 
1632 (sine loco). 

310. The contemporary of Bacon, Thomas Campanella, 
(born at Stilo in Calabria, 1568), made a like attempt to 

« De Augm. Sc. Ill, cap. 1. 


298 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

deduce all knowledge from experiment. Endowed with 
superior talents, and carefully brought up, he entered the 
order of Dominicans, and pursued his philosophical 
studies as a noviciate in the convent of Cosenza ; but 
when, by his own reflections as well as in consequence of 
the objections of Telesius*, he was led to suspect the 
universal authority of Aristotle, he shook off the preju- 
dices of his education, and endeavoured to satisfy his 
doubts by studying the remains of other ancient philoso- 
phers. But finding that these, as well as the remarks of 
Telesius himself, who attracted him by the freedom of 
his inquiries, were insufficient to set his mind completely 
at rest, he attempted knowledge by a path of his own. 
He admitted the existence of two sources, and only two, 
of all knowledge, Revelation and Nature: the first the 
origin oi Theology, the last oi Pliilosopliy : in other words, 
the Histories of God and of Mankind. Scepticism, with 
Campanella, was but a transitory state of the mind : he 
was too eager to supply its place by a dogmatic edifice of 
his own ; without having cleared his way to it by previous 
inquiry. He attempted too great a diversity of pursuits, 
and aspired to effect a reformation in every art and 
science, without having acquired a sufficient command of 
the necessary details. The adversities of his life con- 
tributed much to impede his progress as a philosophical 
reformer : for having been accused of disloyalty to the 
Spanish government, he was kept twenty-seven years in 
strict confinement; and when at last, in 16^6, acquitted 
and set at liberty, was obliged to remove for security to 
Paris, where he died 1639. 

311. Campanella had a clear and philosophical under- 
standing, and extensive knowledge; with a genuine love 
of Truth ; which last he asserted to be the proper foun- 
dation of all philosophy. He also proposed a new ar- 
rangement of the Sciences. His views were often just 

* [It will be remembered that Telesius was born at Cosenza, where he died 
1588. 7VrnKs/.] 

311,312.] CAMPANELLA. 299 

and clear, but his hasty and impatient Spirit prevented 
his bringing them to perfection. His principal efforts 
were directed to the construction of a system of Meta- 
physics containing the principles of Theology, Natural 
History, and Morals. He looked upon the Metaphysics 
of Aristotle (so called) as nothing more than a sort of 
Logic, and a Vocabulary. IMetaphysics is a necessary 
science, because our senses convey to us only that which 
is contingent and individual, without informing us as to 
the general relations of things and their real nature. 
Logic is not a science of that which is real and Pieces- 
sary — God and His creation — ; but an art of language 
adapted to philosophy (Phil. Rat. H, 2). The only 
avenue to knowledge is by the Senses ; — Sensation is the 
source of Knowledge [Sentire est Scire). Consistently 
with this theory he resolved into Sensation all the opera- 
tions of the mind (such as Memory, etc.), and asserted 
that Thought itself is nothing but a combination of the 
results of Sensation ; which combination itself is presented 
to us by means of Sense. 

312. The object which Campanella had most at heart 
was the completion of a system of Dogmatism, which 
might be successfully opposed to Scepticism; and of 
which he gave a sufficiently accurate outline in his Meta- 
physics (lib. I). He either replies to the causes of doubt 
assigned by the Sceptic school, or invalidates them, or 
their consequences. He appeals to the natural desire 
felt by man to know, and to ascertain the grounds of 
knowledge. It is impossible even to deny the certainty 
of knowledge, without some ascertained principles of 
knowledge, which the Sceptic himself is compelled to 
refer to. He lays down certain incontestible principles 
of this kind drawn from general consent. Our senses in- 
form us. That we are, and that we are possessed of 
power, knowledge, and will : That our power, knowledge 
and will are limited : That even as we ourselves enjoy 
these faculties, so are they enjoyed by others also. Cam- 
panella did not advance beyond these first principles, be- 

300 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

cause he was satisfied that the external world was a 
Revelation afforded by the Divine Being {operando), 
which, when compared with the Word of God, afforded 
the only satisfactory means of knowledge. 

313. The great Metaphysical problem is, to give an 
account of external objects, and their existence. To 
solve this Campanella begins with the axiom, That ex- 
ternal objects exist and are presented to our senses. 
These appearances must be either true or false ; agree- 
ably to the obvious rule that a thing must either be, or 
not be ; and to the laws {Primalitates) of existence and 
non-existence. The Primal laws of existence are, Possi- 
bility or Power, {Potentia) ; Knowledge {Sapientia), and 
Sympathy or Love {A??ior). What can be — is : what is — 
must be. Every thing must possess sensation, and be 
the object of it; otherwise it would not exist to us. Every 
thing has its principle of self-preservation, and abhors 
annihilation ; without which it could not endure, nor 
energise, nor exist. The Primal laws of non-existence 
are Impossibility {Impotentia) ; Ignorance {Insipientid) ; 
and aversion {odium Metaphysicum). The three objects 
of the Primal laws of existence are, Being, Truth, and 
Good, of which the outward token is Beauty. These 
principles conduct the argument up to the consideration 
of God ; the highest Essence, or the highest Unity (Me- 
taph. VII, 1, sqq.). Campanella then describes the attri- 
butes and operations of the Divine Unity: Necessity is the 
result of Power, Destiny of Knowledge, and Harmony of 
Love. He built his system of Cosmology on Theology, 
as well as his contemplations respecting Psychology, etc., 
in which he followed the ideas of the Neoplatonists and 
Cabbalists, as well as those ofTelesius. He recognised 
in the world an Unity of Life, ( Mundiim esse Dei vivam 
statuam); and deduced his system of Divine Justice and 
the laws of necessity and chance, from certain considera- 
tions on the connection between Necessity and Existence ; 
and Non-existence and Accident. He maintained the 
Existence of an Incorporeal world, and of Spirits, which 

313, 314.] CAMPANELLA. 301 

put in motion the stars. The Soul is a corporeal spirit, 
which can recognise its own nature to be subtile, warm, 
and light. From its efforts after felicity, (unattainable in 
this life), he argued its immortality. 

In his practical system, which he grounded on the 
other, he brought forward several new ideas. The Infi- 
nite Being is the Supreme Good, the object and end of 
all things. Rehgion has revealed Him to us ; and 
points out the w^ay by which we may pass from the sensi- 
ble to the invisible world, and to the highest attainable 
perfection. It consists in the obedience to God, tlie love 
of Him, and the contemplation of tilings earthly and 
Divine. Some striking ideas are disclosed respecting 
Natural and Revealed religion. Internal and External, 
Innate and Acquired. 

314. The system of Campanella is to be praised rather 
for its negative than its positive qualities. He displayed 
a genuine love of knowledge and of truth in the contest 
he sustained with the Aristotelian System of the Schools, 
with Atheism, and the false Politics of Macchiavelli ; as 
well as in the manner in which he asserted the ric^ht of 
the Understanding to attempt fresh and untried paths of 
Science ; but he has shown himself unable to solve the 
grand problems of philosophy, by the inadequacy of his 
principles, the want of coherence in his system, and the 
slender union that subsists between his own ideas and 
those he has associated with them of others. It ought 
not, however, to be forgotten, that he had the merit of 
having first distinctly proposed such problems for solu- 
tion, and attempted to effect the same, with views favour- 
able to rational Knowledge and Religion. 

(See his Treatise, De Gentilissmo non Retinendo.) 

302 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

III. Modifications of the Ionic and Atomistic Schools. 

Basso, Berigard, Magnenus, Sennert, Gasseiidi. 

315. When the Aristotelian system was laid aside as 
confessedly deficient, particularly with respect to Natural 
History, an attempt was made to revive the Ionic and 
Atomistic doctrines. After Sebastian Bassos ^ attack on 
the Physics of Aristotle (see Bibliography § 143) many 
others came forward to revive ancient doctrines or pro- 
pose new ones. Claude de Guillemert de Berigard^ ad- 
vanced a theory, on the Eclectic plan, borrowed partly 
from the lonians, and partly from the Atomic philosophers, 
and maintained that it was conformable to the Christian 
system, while he opposed the Aristotelian hypothesis of an 
original Matter '^. Another Frenchman, Jean-Chrysostbme 
Magnenus^, recommended the system of Nature of Demo- 
critus, as affording an adequate solution of natural pheno- 
mena, Dav, Sennert^ also attempted to remodel Physics 
on the principles of Democritus '. He maintained that 
Form and Matter are independent of each other, and 
asserted that Souls were created by the Divine Being 
out of Nothing; which brought him into a dispute 
with J. Freitag, (a professor at Groningen) in which 
he was defended by his disciple J, Sperling. Pietro 
Gassendi"", styled by Gibbon "the most learned of the 
philosophers of his age, and the most philosophical of 
the learned," undertook to defend and review with im- 

f About 1621. 

s Or Beauregard, born at Moulins 1578 ; died at Padua 1667, or later. 
'» CiRcuLi PisANi, seu de Veterum et Peripatetica Philosophia Dialog!, 
Udin. 1643—47, 4to. Patav. 1661. 

• Born at Luxevil, and professor of Medicine at Pavia, the author of Demo- 
critus Reviviscens, sive Vita et Philosophia Democriti, Ticini, 1646, 12mo. 
Liigd. Bat. 1648 ; et Hag. Com. 1658, 12mo. 

k Born at Breslau 1572, died 1637. 

• Dan. Sonnerti Hypomnemata Physica de Rerum Naturalium Principiis, 
Franco/. 1635-36, 12mo. Physica, Viteh. 1618, 8vo. Opera Omnia, Venet. 
1641 ; Lugd. Bat. 1676, 6 vols. fol. 

•» Petrus Gassendus j born at Chartansier in Provence 1592; died at Paris 

315, 316.] GROTIUS. 303 

partiality the system of Epicurus ", which he asserted had 
not yet been done. He distinguished himself by his dis- 
coveries in Mathematics, Physics, and Philosophy, in all 
of which he displayed great judgment and learning; and 
was a redoubtable adversary of Aristotle °, Fludd^, and 
Descartes''. With a laudable love of truth he drew a 
true picture of the life and character of Epicurus ^, and 
illustrated his philosophy, without concealing the faults 
he had committed in respect of Theology and the doctrine 
of Final Causes. He endeavoured to erect upon Epicu- 
rism a philosophical system of his own ^ Ein. Maigfian 
(or Maignanus^), who attempted to revive the dreams of 
Empedocles, excited less attention. 

IV. Law of Nations of Grotius. 

316. But philosophy now began to extend her re- 
searches from External Nature to the questions of Civil 
Right. Hugo Grotius, (properly Hugo de Groot "J a dis- 

n Sam. Sorberii Diss, de Vit^ et Moribus Petri Gassendi, prefixed to his 
Syntagma Philos. Epicuri. 

t Bernier, Abrege de la Philosophic de Gasseudi, Paris, 1678, 8vo. Lugd, 
Bat. 1684, 12mo. 

BuGEREL, Vie de P. Gassendi, Paris, 1737, 12mo. See also Lettre Cri- 
tique et Historique a I'auteur de la Vie de P. Gassendi, ibid. 1737, 12mo. 

Petri Gassendi Opera Omnia, Lvgd. 1658, 6 vols. fol. et Flor. 1727. 

° Exercitationes Paradoxicae adversus Aristoteleos, libb. I, Gratianopl. 1624, 
Bvo. ; libb. II. Hag. C. 1659, 4to. ; (and the Answer of Engelcke) ; Censor 
Censuri Dignus; Philosophus Defensus, Rostock, 1697. With Disput. adv. 
Gassendi, lib. I, Exercitationum V, ibid. 1699. 

P Examen Philosophiae Rob. Fluddi. 

^ Dubitationes et Instantiee ad. Cartesium. 

"■ Syntagma Philosophise Epicuri cum refutationibus Dogmatum quae contra 
Fidem Christianam ab eo asserta sunt; praefigitur Sorberii Dissert, de Vita 
et Moribus P. Gassendi, Hag. Com. 1655-59, 4to. ; Loud. 1668, 12mo. Aynst. 
1684, 4to. 

' Syntagma Philosophicum, Oper. vol. I. 

t Born 1601 ; died 1671. 

jNIaignani Cursus Philosophicus, Tolosce, 1652, 4 vols, and Lugd. 1673, 

" Bom at Delft 1583 ; died at Rostock 1645. 

Vita Hugonis Grotii, Lugd. Bat. 1704, 4to. (P. Ambr. Lehmann), Grotii 
[Manes ab iniquis Obtrectationibus Vindicati, Delft. 1721 ; Lips. 1732, 3vo. 

304 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

tinguished Philologist, Theologist, Jurist, and Statesman, 
of great learning, and a clear and sound judgment, opened 
the way to a new study, that of International Law, by his 
celebrated work on the Rights of Peace and of War ''j 
the first example of a philosophical statement of Na- 
tional Law. Some learned men had indeed prepared 
the way by similar labours, among others, J. Oldendorp^, 
Nicolas Hemming ^, Bened. Winkler, and Alb. Gentilis *. 
The humane and exalted mind of Grotius was led to this 
undertaking by the Christian wish to diminish, if possible, 
the frequency and the horrors of war. He took as the 
foundation of his argument the elements of Natural 
Right, and applied his immense erudition to show the 
universal assent paid by all nations to the principles of 
Right and Justice, His mode of proof was obviously a 
species of Induction, which he may have borrowed from 
his contemporary Lord Bacon. Grotius is sometimes 
carried away, by the abundance of his learning, from the 
course of his argument, but nevertheless distinguished 
himself above any of his predecessors by his superiority 
to prejudice, and prescription. He considers our idea 
of Right to be the result of a moral faculty, and derives 
its first principles from the love of society (socialitas) ; 
hence the obligation of defending that society (societatis 
custodia) ; and distinguishes between natural Right and 
Law, ( Dictamen rectce rationis), and positive (Jus volun- 
tarium), whether of Divine or Human original; fre- 

Life of Grotius, by Gasp. Brand, and ad. V. Cattenburg. Dordr. 1727-32, 
2 vols. fol. (Dutch). 

t Vie de M. Hugo Grotius, par M. de Burigny, Paris, 1752, 2 vols. 12mo. 

t Hugo Grotius, his Life, etc. by H. Luden, Berl. 1807, 8vo. (Germ.). 

^ De Jure Belli et Pacis, Paris, 1625, 4to. cum Commentario W. van 
DER MuELEN et aliorum, Amstelod. 169G — 1703, 3 vols. fol. Best edition, 
Lausanne, 1751, 4 vols. 4to. Grotius illustratus Op. H. et S. de Cocceji, 
Wratislv. 1745-52, 4 vols. fol. 

y Born 1506 ; died 1567. 

' Born at Laland 1513; died 1600. 

* Born 1551 at Castello di San Genesio, in the March of Ancona, died 

De .Ture Belli Libri tres, Hanau. 1539, 8vo; ibid. 1612. 


qiicntly ivncmg positive law up to Revelation as its imme- 
diate source. He draws a distinction also between 
perfect and imperfect Right: between legal and moral 
obligation. Although Grotius did but lay open this rich 
mine of inquiry, we are indebted to him not only for 
having suggested the pursuit, but for having contributed 
towards it a valuable stock of materials. His work has 
formed an era in literature, and been the subject of nu- 
merous, and often contradictory, commentaries. Sehlen ^ 
by his Natural Law of the Hebrews, which was followed 
up by Zenfgrave^ and Alberti^i authors of the Natural Law 
of Christianity, — pursued a totally different system, and 
derived Right from the conditions of a state of Innocence. 

V. Materialism of Hobbes. 

Thomne Ilobbes, Angli Malmesburiensis Vita, (Auct. J. Au- 
bery), Carolopoli, 1G81, 12mo. 

Fr. Casp. Hagemii Memoriae Philosophorum, Oratorum, 
Baruthu. 1710, 8vo. 

Rettwig, Epistola de Veritate Philosopliia3 Hobbesianae, 
Brem. 1695, 8vo. 

316. The influence of Bacon's philosophy was, as might 
have been expected, especially felt in England. Thomas 
HobbeSj a friend of his, entered into some of his views, 
from which he deduced a system of Materialism. He 
was born in 1588, at Malmsbury. Like Bacon he had 
contracted from the study of the Classics a contempt for 
the philosophy of the Schools ; and his travels and inti- 
macy with his illustrious countryman, as well as with Gas- 
sendi and Galileo, had led him to think for himself. But the 

^ Bora at Salvington in Sussex, 1584; died 1654. 

Jo. Seldeni De Jure Natural! et Gentium juxta Disciplinam Ebrjeorum 
libb. VII. Lond. 1640, fol. Arg. 1665. 4to. 

c Born at Strasbourg 1643, died 1707. 

JoACH. Zentgravii Db Jure Natural! juxta Disciplinam Christianorum 
libb. VIII. Strash. 1678, 4to. 

'' Valent. Albeuti Compendium Juris Nat. Orthodoxa) Theologiaj con- 
formatura, Lips. 1676, 8vo. 


306 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

practical direction which he laboured to give to his specu- 
lations, had the effect of limiting them. When the civil 
wars broke out, he proclaimed himself by his writings a 
zealous advocate of unlimited monarchy, as the only secu- 
rity for public peace. He died 1679; having published 
several mathematical and philosophical Essays, which 
have drawn upon him the reproach of fondness for para- 
dox, and the stigma of Atheism. 

His works: O^era, Amstelod. 1638, 4 vols. 4to. Moral andPo- 
litical "Works, Lond. 1750, fol. Elementa Philosophica de Give, 
Par. 1642, 4to. ; Amstel. 1647, 12mo. Leviathan, sive de ma- 
teria, forma et potestate Civitatis Ecclesiasticae, et Civilis, (English 
Lond. 1651, foL), Lat. Amstel. 1668, 4to. ; Appendix, Amstel. 
1668, 4to. Human Nature, or the Fundamental Elements of 
Policy, Lond. 1650, 12mo. Elementorum Pliilosophiae sectio 
prima de corpore (Engl. Lond. 1658, 4to.), Lat. Amstel. 1668, 
4to. De Corpore Politico, or the Elements of Law, Moral and 
Political, Lond. 1659, 12mo. Q,uaestiones de Libertate, Necessi- 
tate et Casu, contra Doctorem Bramhallum. (Engl. Lond. 1656, 
4to.). Hobbes's Tripos, in Three Discourses, Lond. 1684, 8vo. 

317. Hobbes appears to have aimed, above all things, 
at freedom and solidity in his speculations, and, rejecting 
every thing hypothetical, affected to confine himself to 
the tangible, or in other words, to the phenomena of 
Motion and Sensation. He defines philosophy to be 
the knowledge, on accurate principles, of phenomena 
resulting from present causes ; or vice versa the ascer- 
taining of possible causes by means of known effects^. 
Philosophy embraces as an object every body capable 
of producing an effect, and presenting the phenomena 
of composition and decomposition. Taking the term 
Body in its widest extent, he divides its meaning 
into Natural and Political, and devotes to the consi- 
deration of the first his Philosopliia Naturalise compre- 
hending the departments of Logic, Ontology, Meta- 
physics, Physics, etc. ; and to that of the second his 
Philosopliia Civilis, or Polity, comprehending Morals. 
All knowledge is derived from the senses : but our per- 

e De Corp. p. 2. ' 


ceptions are nothing more than tlie effect of external 
ohjects operating on the brain, or setting in motion 
the vital spirits. Thought is calculation (computatio), 
and implies addition and subtraction. Truth and False- 
hood consist in the relations of the terms employed. 
We can become acquainted only with the Finite : the 
Infinite cannot even be imagined, much less known : 
the term does not convey any accurate knowledge, but 
belongs to a Being of whom we can form an idea only 
by means of Faith. Consequently, religious doctrines 
do not come within the compass of philosophical dis- 
cussion, but are determinable by the laws of Religion 
itself. All, therefore, that Hobbes has left free to the 
contemplation of philosophy is the knowledge of our 
natural bodies, of the mind, and polity. His whole 
theory has reference to the External and Objective, inas- 
much as he derives all our notions from the senses, and 
describes the soul itself as something corporeal though of 
extreme tenuity. Instead of a system of pure metaphy- 
sics, he has thus presented us with a history of mind and 
its phenomena, deficient it is true in general depth, but 
which with some narrow and limited doctrines, contains 
occasionally others more enlightened and correct. 

318. His /?rac/2ca/ philosophy, however, attracted more 
attention than his speculative. In this also, Hobbes 
pursued an independent course, and altogether de- 
parted from the line of the Schoolmen. His grand object 
was to ascertain the most durable posture the Body Poli- 
tic could assume, and to define Public Right. An ideal 
form of government and state of morals had been ima- 
gined by Plato in his Republic, by Sir Thomas More ^ 
in his Utopia ^, by Campanella in his Civitas Solis ^, and 
by Harrington^ in his Oceana''. Hobbes, on the con- 

^ Born at London, 1420; beheaded 1535. 

e Basil. 1558 ; besides many other editions. 

'' See above bibliography of $ 310. 

• Born at Upton, 1677. 

k Land. 1656. With his works, 1700 and 1737. 


308 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

trary, assumes the existence of certain elements of Natu- 
ral Right, which he supposes to have prevailed in a 
state of Nature anterior to civilization, contemplated 
according to the experimental method ^ Agreeably to 
the lowest law of Nature man, if he does not aim 
at the injury of his neighbour, grasps at every thing 
which can contribute to his own well-being, and shuns 
every thing that can cause the contrary. Self-preserva- 
tion is the highest object of his pursuit, just as death 
is of his avoidance. All that tends to this end, and 
to the removal of pain, is conformable to reason, and 
therefore lawful. Right is the liberty of employing 
our natural powers agreeably to reason. Man has 
therefore the right of self-preservation and self-de- 
fence ; and consequently of using the means to this end : 
and he is himself the judge and arbiter of these means. 
But the consequence of these individual rights, in a state 
of nature, must be an universal collision of all ; who must 
be perpetually brought into opposition with one another, 
to the destruction of all repose and security, and even 
of the power of self-preservation. Self-love, therefore, 
(or Reason), and the love of quiet, produce a new state of 
things, under the form of a civil compact, (status civilis), 
in which a portion of the individual liberty of each is re- 
signed by him, and intrusted to one, or more. With 
this epoch commences that of external, obligatory Right. 
Absolute power on the part of the government, and im- 
plicit submission on the part of the governed, are neces- 
sary to the well-being of a state ; and the best of all forms 
of government is therefore the monarchical. 

Self-love is the fundamental law of Nature, and Interest 
the rule : the law of Nature is also the law of Morals 
flex moralis). Hobbes has the audacity to refer to the 
Bible for confirmation of such doctrines, deduced from 
arguments of his own. 

His success was not great, and the little which he had 
was principally among foreigners. Of the number of his 

' In his treatise De Give. 


impartial judges, was the Dutchman Lcunbert VdUiuy' 
sen"^: and of his adversaries Richard Ctwiberlund'\ and 
Robert ScJiarrock °. 

VI. Lord Herbert of Cherbury. 

319. Edward Lord Herbert of Cherbury f', followed a 
course exactly the reverse of that pursued by Hobbes, 
but equally opposed to the principles of true religion. 
He defended the notion of innate ideas, and derived our 
knowledge not from the understanding nor the senses, 
but from a certain instinctive reason ^ to which he made the 
former subordinate. Instead of tracing our acquaintance 
with religion (according to his ideas of it) to historical tra- 
dition, as Hobbes had done ; he derived it from a supposed 
internal illumination afforded to all mankind. Agreeably to 
these views, he pursued his researches on the Rational 
instead of the Empiric method, particularly with respect 
to the nature of Truth ; on which subject he published 
a separate work^ He described the soul not as a tabula 
rasa, but as a closed book, which opens only when Nature 
bids it. It derives from itself its knowledge of general 
truths (communes tiotiticej ; which are so far common to 
all men ; and ought to remove doubts and differences in 
philosophy and theology. He maintained the existence 
of what he was pleased to call an Intellectual Religion, 
and claimed for this religion of his own the right to ex- 

™ Lamberti Velthuysen de Principiis Justi et Decori, DIssertatio Epis- 
tolica, continens Apologiam pro tractatu clarissimi Hobbesii de Give, Aimtelod. 
1651, 12mo. 

" To be mentioned afterwards. 

•* De Officiis secundum Jus Naturale, Okoh. 1660, 8vo. 

P Born 1581 ; died 1648. 

1 Naturalis instincius. 

■■ Tractatus de Veritate prout distinguitur a Revclatione, a verisimili, a pos- 
sibili, et a falso, Lut. Paris. 1624 et 1633 ; Lo/u/. 1645, 4to. ; 1656, 12mo, 
(With the Essay, De Causis Errorum). De lleligione Gentilium Errorum- 
que apud eos Causis, Lond. 1645, 8vo. Part I, completed 1663, 4to. and 
1670, 8vo. 

310 THIRD PERIOD. [secTc 

amine and verify all other pretensions to revelation ^ 
The obscurity of his own thoughts and expressions, and 
the dominion at that time enjoyed by the experimental 
system of philosophy, caused him to be but little noticed 
in his day. He was however justly attacked by Divines, 
as an enemy to Revealed religion. 

VII. Mystical Naturalists and Theosophists of 

this period, 

320. J. Baptist van Helmont^ about this time united 
a study of the phenomena of Nature to a degree of 
mysticism. He had been taught at Louvain the Scho- 
lastic system, by the Jesuit Martin del Rio; and had 
imbibed from the study of Kempis, Tauler (§ 275), and 
Paracelsus, a degree of enthusiasm which he carried into 
his art, that of medicine. With many fanciful notions of 
his own, he nevertheless detected errors in others, and 
started several good ideas. In order to effect by means 
of Alchemy and Philosophy a reformation in his own 
art, he devoted himself to the investigation of the U^ii- 
versum. With such a design, he attached himself prin- 
cipally to the doctrines of Paracelsus, and derived all 
knowledge from direct and immediate revelation. He 
maintained that all Nature is animated ; but, at the same 
time, asserted that nothing earthly partakes of the Di- 
vine Nature, which is incommunicable. All corporeal 
beings are replete with spirits, which by means of air 
and water, the only true elements, and their mutual fer- 
mentation, produce every thing else. Such were the 
principles of his spiritual Physiology". His son, Fr. 
Mercurius van Helmont'^, endeavoured to enlarge our 
knowledge of "The divine Science" — (Theosophy); and 

* De Verltate, p. 265, sqq. ; 282, sqq. , 

* Born at Brussels, 1577 j died at Vilvoorden near Brussels, 1644. 

" t J. J. Loos, J. Baptista van Helmont, J/eiofe/fterg. 1807, 8vo. See also 
B. ab Ilelmont. Opera, Amstel. 1648, 4to. ; and Franc/ . 1659, 3 vols. fol. 

^ Born 1618 : spent his life in travelling in Germany and England ; and 
died 1699. 


by a new division of the different orders of Beings and 
their relations to Unity, sought to compose a system 
which might combine the doctrines of the Platonists and 
Cabbahsts with those of Christianity. He taught espe- 
cially the theory of an universal Sympathy of all things, 
with many strange notions about the relations of the soul 
to the body, and of the body to the soul, asserting that 
they differed not in essence but in form, and stood in the 
relation of Male and Female. To this he added a sort 
of Metempsychosis, combined with a belief in the neces- 
sity of a future judgment after deaths. Marcus Marci 
von Kronland^i set forth a system of Cosmology of his 
own, in which he blended the Ideas of Plato with the 
Forms of Aristotle, and endeavoured to destroy the quali- 
tates occidtce of the Schoolmen to make way for his klece 
seminales, which he affected to consider more intelligible. 
These Ideas are the Powers of Nature which, with the 
aid of light, create and form all things. Nay, the very 
constellations operate on the sublunary world by means 
of light, and by the agency of the Ideas ». 

321. In England the enthusiastic system of Paracelsus 
found a patron in the learned physician Robert Fludd^, 
who sought to ally it to the Mosaic history of the crea- 
tion^. He was answered by Gassendi. In Germany a 
like enthusiasm laid hold on the pious and inquisitive 

y Paradoxical Discourses, Lend. 1690. Seder Olam, sive Ordo Saeculorum, 
hoc est Historica enarratio Doctrina Philosophicfe per unum in quo sunt om- 
nia, 1693, 12mo. 

' Died 1676. 

a Jon. Mac. Marci a Kronland, Idearum Operatricium Idea sive De- 
lectio et Hypothesis illius Occulta; Yirtutis, quae Semina fcecunda et ex iisdem 
Corpora Organica producit, Vrag. 1035, 4to. Philosophia Vetus restituta, in 
qua de mutationibus quae in Universo sunt, de Partium Universi Constitu- 
tione, de Statu Hominis Secundum Naturam et Prater Naturam, et De Cura- 
tione Morborum, etc. libb. V, Frag. 1662, 4to. 

^ Robert Fludd, or De Fluctibusj born at Milgate in Kent, 1574; died 


<= Ilistoria JMacio-et Microcosmi INIetaphysica, Physica et Technica, ();>- 
pen/i. 1717, Philosophia MosaVca, Gude. 1638. 

312 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

temper of the shoemaker of Gorlitz, Jacob Bohm^, who 
with a mind highly excited by tlie study of the Scrip- 
tures, to which he added the natural philosophy of Para- 
celsus and his contemporaries ; — with a peculiar depth of 
thought, disfigured by a rude unscientific manner and a 
barbarous style, (partly composed of the terms of Chemis- 
try then in use), — gave vent to his speculations, (often un- 
intelligible and often profound), respecting the Deity and 
the Origin of all things- He affected to deliver these as 
something oracular, and wrote in his native language, 
whence his appellation of philosophiis Teutonicus. His 
mysticism gained disciples in Germany, and even abroad, 
being adopted in France by Poiret, and in England by 
H. More, and John Pordage a physician ; who even wrote 
a commentary on him. Of all these hereafter. In more 
recent times St. Martin has given as it were a new and 
able version of this species of Theosophy. 

S22. Bohm and Fludd had endeavoured to find autho- 
rity in the Bible for their own extravagancies. The like 
attempt was made by others, particularly by Jo. Amos 
Comeniiis ®, who in his Synopsis Physices ad lumen Divi- 
num reformatce^, detailed more clearly the opinions of 
Fludd and others. He supposes three elementary prin- 
ciples of all things ; Matter, Spirit, and Light. The first 
is the corporeal essence, the second is subtile, self-exist- 
ing, invisible, imperceptible, dispensed by the Divine 
Being to all living creatures, to animate and possess 
them. Light is the plastic spirit ; an intermediate es- 
sence, which penetrates matter and prepares it for the 

^ Born at Alt- Seidenberg, near Gorlitz, 1575 j died 1624. 

t Jacob Bohm, a Biographical Essay, Dresden, 1802, 8vo. 

t Works of J. Bohm, Amsterd. 1620, 4 vols. Bvo. etc. ; 1730, 10 vols. Bvo. 
Selections from his Works, Amst. 1718 ; Francf. 1801, 8vo. — Translated into 
Dutch and English. 

<= Of the village of Comna, near Brerau in Moravia; born 1592, died at 
Amsterdam 1671. 

f Lips. 1632, 8vo ; 1663, 8vo. 

322,323.] SCEPTICS. 313 

admission and reception of spirit, investing it at the same 
time with a form. lie has also originated some re- 
markable ideas on philanthropy, in which he followed 
Val. Andreoe*^. J. Baicr, the successor of Comenius '', 
and some others, have bequeathed works to the same 

VIII. Sceptics, 

323. Scepticism was revived and extended by Fr, 
Sanchc;:: (Franc. Sanctius), a Portuguese ^ who taught 
medicine and philosophy at Toulouse with considerable 
reputation, up to the time of his death, which happened 
in 1632. He was obliged by his office to teach the Aris- 
totelian system, and not venturing openly to controvert 
it, assailed it under cover of his Scepticism; and hav- 
ing proved by means of arguments already brought for- 
ward, but to which his lively manner imparted an air of 
novelty, the uncertainty of human knowledge, he under- 
took to give in another work a method of his own for 
attaining to certainty. This promised work, however, 
never made its appearance. Franqois de la Mothe le 
Vcujer^, an author of great learning, talent, and judo-- 
ment, enlarged upon the grounds of Scepticism, with a 
reference to Science and even to Religion. He denied 
the existence of any common rational foundation for the 

? See several articles in the Tageblatt des Menschheitlebens, published by 
Ch. Christ. Fr. Crause, 1811, No. XVllI, sqq., on a work of Comenius 
entitled, General Obseiyations on the Improvement of Human Nature, etc., 
Halle, 1702. 

h About 1606. 

* Born 1562 at Bracara, in Portagal. 

Francisci Sanchez Tractatus de multum Nobili et Prima Universali Scientiii 
quod nihil scitur, Lond. 1581, 4to. et 12mo; Francf. 1618, 8vo, with the re- 
marks of Dan. Hartnack, entitled, Sanchez aliquid Sciens., Stettin. 1665, 
12mo. Tractatus Philosophici, Rotterd. 1649, 12mo. 

"' Born at Paris 1586; died 1672. 

Cinq Dialogues faits ii I'lmitation des Anciens, par IIoratius Tubero (par 
Francois de la Motiie le Vayeu), Mons, 1671, 12mo ; 1673, 8vo. and an 
Answer by M. Nahle, Berl. 1744, 8vo. (Euvres, Paris, 1654 et 1667 — 1684, 
3 vols. fol. 

314 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

latter, in consequence of the diversities of belief that have 
always prevailed, and maintained that reason in theology 
must give place to faith, a superior faculty, and conferred 
immediately by Divine Grace. In other respects he 
showed himself a decided unbeliever ; representing life 
as a miserable farce, and virtue as almost a dream. 


I. Descartes, 

Baillet, La Vie de R. Descartes, Par. 1690, 4to ; abregee, 
Paris, 1693, 12mo. 

God. Guil. Leibnitii Notata circa Vitam et Doctrinam Car- 
tesii in Thomasii Historia Sapientias et Stultitiae, torn. II, p. 
113, and in the 3rd vol. Epistolarum Leibnitii ad Diversos, p. 

Reflexions d'un Academicien sur la Vie de Descartes, envoyees 
a un Ami en Hollande, A La Haye, 1692, 12mo. 

Eloge de Rene Descartes, par Gaillard, Paris, 1765, 8vo ; 
par Thomas, Paris, 1761, 8vo ; par Mercier, Geneve et Paris, 
1765, 8vo. 

JoH. Tepelii Historia Philosophicae Cartesianas, Norimh. 
1672, 12mo. De Vita et Philos. Cartesii, ibid. 1674. 

Recueil de quelques Pieces curieuses concernant la Pliiloso- 
pliie de M. Descartes (par Bayle), Amsterd. 1684, 12mo. 

Petri Dan. Huetii Censura Philosophise Cartesianse, Paris, 
1689, 12mo. Philosophise Cartesianae adversus Censuram Pet. 
Dan. Huetii vindicatio, aiit D. A. P. (Augusto Petermann), 
Lips. 1690, 4to. Reponse au Livre qui a pour titre : P. Dan. 
Huetii Censura, etc. ; par P. Silvain Regis, Par. 1692, 12mo. 
Huet answered by his (anonymous) Nouveaux Memoires pour 
servir a I'Histoire du Cartesianisme ; par M. G. Paris, 1692, 

Admiranda Methodus Novae Philosophise Renati Descartes, 
Ultraj. 1643, 12mo. 

Balth. Bekkeri de Philosophia Cartesii Admonitio Candida 
et sincera, Wesel. 1668, 12mo. 

Ant. le Grand, Apologia pro Cartesio, contra Sam. Par- 
kcrum, Lond. 1672, 4to ; Norimh. 1681, 8vo. 



324, 325.] DESCARTES. 315 

324. Rene Descartes (Cartesius), was born 1596, at 
La Ha3^e, in the Touraine, and attempted a reformation 
in the philosophy of his country by a method opposed to 
the Experimental, on the principles of pure Rationalism. 
His system was favourable to independent research, and 
met with equally violent opponents and partisans, attract- 
ing, as it did, universal attention. In the school of the 
Jesuits at La Fleche he early distinguished himself by 
the quickness of his parts, and his love of knowledge. 
Fired with this passion and eager to satisfy it by study, 
he devoured without a plan a multitude of books, which 
working upon his own ardent temper, left him more un- 
certain than he was at first ; his subsequent travels 
instead of curing contributing to increase the malady. 
Presently his adventurous spirit conceived the plan of 
erecting a philosophy of his own; no part of which should 
be borrowed from others. With this view he repaired 
to Holland, where he trusted to find leisure and freedom, 
and where he composed the greater part of his works ^ 
He presently attracted great attention, became involved 
in controversies, especially with theologians, and after 
maintaining an extensive and learned correspondence, 
was invited into Sweden by Queen Christina, and died 
there shortly after in 1650. 

His works : Opera, Amstelod. 1692-1701, 9 vols. 4to. Opera 
Philosophica, Francf. ad M. 1692, 4to. Principia Pliilosophiae, 
Amstel. 1644-1656, 4to. ^Meditationes de Prima Philosophia, 
etc., ibid. 1641, 4to. Discours de la Methode pour bien con- 
duire la Raison et chercher le Verite dans les Sciences. Plus, la 
Dioptrique, les Meteores, et la Geometrie, etc. Par. 1637, 4to. ; 
a Latin translation (by Courcelles) revised by Descartes, 1644, 
Specimina Philosophiaj seu Dissertatio de Methodo, Dioptrice, 
etc. Amstel. 1656, 4to. Meditationes. Tractatus de Passionibus 
Animas, ibid. 1656, 4to. Tractatus de Homine et de Formatione 
Foetus, cum Notis Lud. de la Forge, ibid. 1677, 4to. Epistolae 
(translated), ibid. 1688, 4to. 

325. Descartes was not merely a metaphysical philoso- 

' Between 1629 and 1649. 

316 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

pher : he was distinguished as a mathematician, an astro- 
nomer, and a physiologist. His very reputation and suc- 
cess as a philosopher, was in a great measure owing to 
the discoveries he effected in those sciences. His object 
was to constitute philosophy a demonstrable science; but 
he rushed too eagerly from the state of doubt, which 
he considered a necessary preparation for all knowledge, 
to knowledge itself. He begins with the experimental 
observation of Consciousness and Thought: and from 
this concludes the existence of the thinking subject — 
(cogito : ergo sum) — of the soul ; which thus distin- 
guishes itself from material substances, and conse- 
quently is independent of them. Its essence consists in 
thought^ and is on that account more easy to be re- 
cognised than that of the body. Clearness and distinct- 
ness he regarded as the criteria of truth. The soul does 
not contemplate all subjects with equal distinctness, which 
proves its nature to be imperfect and finite. It possesses, 
nevertheless, the idea of an Absolute, Perfect Being, or 
Spirit ; the first and necessary attribute of whom is exist- 
ence"^; and as such ideas cannot be derived from the Im- 
perfect Soul, they must flow from the Perfect Being to 
whom they relate, and consequently must be innate. On 
this recognition of the existence of an All-perfect Being, 
the evidence and certainty of all absolute knowledge is 
grounded ; on the principle that the Divine Being will 
not suffer us to fall into error while lawfully employing 
the faculties for knowledge bestowed by Him. The 

™ Sam. Werenfels, Judicium de Argumento Cartesii pro Existenti^ 
Dei, petito ex ejus Idea; in his Dissertatt. var. Argument. Pars. II ; and, on 
the other side, Jacquelot, Examen d'un Ecrit qui a pour titre. Judicium de 
Argumeto, etc. Many articles on the subject appeared in the Journal des 
Savans, 1701; the Histoire des Ouvrages des Savans, 1700, 1701, and the 
Nouvelles de la Republique des Lettres, 1701, 1702, et 1703. 

Andr. Richter, Diss. (resp. Jo. Foubin) de Religione Cartesii, Gryphis. 
1705, 4to. 

CiiR. Breithaupt, Dissert. De Cartesii Theologi^ Naturali et Erroribus in 
eii commissis. Helmstud. 1735, 4to. 

Lvi). Fit. Ancil-lon, Judicium deJudiciis circa Argumentum pro Existentia 
Dei ad Nostra usque tempora Latis, Berol. 1792, 8vo. 

326.] DESCARTES. 317 

essence of the body consists in expansion. The body 
and the thinking essence, — (the body, that is, and the 
soul, — are essentially opposed to each other. 

326. God, as the Infinite Being, is the author of the 
universe, which is infinite ; but the material and intellec- 
tual parts of which it is composed are imperfect and 
finite. The assistance or co-operation of the Divinity 
{assistentia she concursus) is necessary to the very pre- 
servation and maintenance of these". Descartes did not 
distinguish between Matter and Space, and consequently 
found no difficulties to oppose the application of his 
theory of vortices, (which he described as deriving their 
immediate impulse from God), to account for the pheno- 
mena of Creation. 

The Soul he asserted to be simple in its nature, or in 
other words, purely immaterial, (spiritualism of Des- 
cartes), but intimately connected with the body. The 
pineal gland may be supposed to be its seat, because it 
there appears to energise in immediate connection with 
the vital spirits. From the immateriality of the soul he 
deduced its immortality ; and lest he should be obliged 
by his argument to extend the same properties to other 
animals, he pronounced these to be living machines. The 
soul is free, because it feels itself to be so ; and in its 
freedom consists its liability to error. He drew a dis- 
tinction between the passive impressions and the active 
decisions (passiojies et actiones) of the soul. The opera- 
tions of the Will, the Imagination, and Thought, belong 
by their nature to the latter class. He constituted three 
classes of Ideas, those which we acquire, those which we 
create, and those which are born with us. The first are 
derived from external objects, by means of impressions 
communicated to our organs. Vital warmth and motion 
do not proceed from the Soul, but from the Animal 

" This doctrine was conveited by Gculinx and others into one oi Occuhoix- 
aliiin. See § 32B. 

318 THIRD PERIOD. {sect. 

Spirits. He accounts for the communion existing be- 
tween the Soul and Body by his doctrine o^ Assistentia, 
The Soul determines the direction of the Vital Spirits. 

327. Notwithstanding the confusion Descartes made 
between Thought and Knowledge, — the want of solidity 
in his principles, and of conclusiveness in his inferences, 
as well as the many contradictions they imply, which 
would have become more apparent if he had treated the 
subject of Morals also, we cannot shut our eyes to the 
great effect produced by his philosophy. His discussions 
awakened men to independent thought, both by their 
matter and their manner, — the form a^s^mlLas the sub- 
stance of his doctrines, no less than by their bold and 
striking character. Men were impelled to investigate the 
principles of Thought and Knowledge, and the differ- 
ences which exist between them ; efforts were made to « 
decide the controversy between Experimentalism and ^ 
Speculative philosophy, between Rationalism and Super- j 
naturalism ; at the same time that he gave the last blow 
to the Scholastic system, and introduced into the philo- 
sophical world a new life and energy, animating to the 
pursuit of Truth and the detection of Error, His doc- , 
trines presently attracted the notice of a great number of 
distinguished thinkers. In Hobbes, Gassendi °, P. Dan, 
Hiief^, Gabr. Daniel^, etc., he encountered able ad- 
versaries, who subjected his leading principles to a se- 
vere, but at the same time calm and philosophical ex- 
amination; but he was attacked in a more intemperate 
manner by several schoolmen and theologians, such as 

o Ger. de Vries, Dissertatiuncula Historico-Philosophica de Renati Car- 
tesli Medltationibus a Gassendo impugnatis, Ultraj. 1691, 8vo. 

P Censura etc. (see bibliography $ 324). This work called forth several 

'1 See his Ilomance : Voyage du INIonde de Descartes, Paris, 1691, 12mo. 
Iter per Mundum Cartesii. Amslelod. 1694, 12mo. Nouvelles Difficultes 
proposees par un Peripateticien, Amst. 1694, 12mo. Idem en Lat. Novae Dif- 
ficultates, etc. ibid. 

327, 328.] CARTESIANS. 319 

Gishert Voetius^, Martin Schoock^ the Eclectic, Cyriac 
LentuUtis the Jesuit, ValoiSf and others, who taxed him 
with Scepticism and Atheism. A number of talented per- 
sons were formed in his school, or attached themselves to 
his system ; and in spite of the interdictions levelled 
against it in Holland by the Synod of Dort (1656), and 
also in Italy (1663), it gained ground in the Netherlands 
and France. In England, Italy, and Germany, it made 
less progress, though it produced an effect on all depart- 
ments of Moral Philosophy, Logic, Metaphysics, and 
Morals *, nay even on Theology ". 

S2S. Among the partisans of the philosophy of Des- 
cartes we may specify his friend De la Forge^, a physi- 
cian at Saumur; Claude de Clerselier (died 1686), the 
editor of his posthumous works ; Jacques Rohault (died 
1 675) ; Pierre Si/lvain Regis ^, a pupil of the latter, and an 
able commentator on Descartes ; with many Jansenists of 
the Port Royal ^ who opposed a more rigid morality to 

' Born at Heusden 1589; died 1676. 

» Born at Utrecht, 1614 ; died 1665. See Bibl. 324. 

t L'Art de Vivre Heureux, Paris, 1692, 8vo. In Lat. ; Ethica Cartesiana 
sive ars Bene Beateque Vivendi, Hal. 1776, Bvo. 

" Philosophia S. Scripturae Interpres (by L. Meyer, a physician and friend 
of Spinosa^, Eleutheropoli. 1666, 4to. third edition by Sejiler, Hal. 1776, 

Valentini Alberti Tractatus de Cartesianismo et Coccejanismo, Lips. 
1678, 4to. Viteb. 1701 4to. 

* L. DE LA Forge, Traite de I'Esprit de I'Homme, Paris, 1664, 4to. In 
Lat. Tractatus deMente Humantl, ejus Facultatibus et Functionibus, Amstelod. 
1669; Breme, 1673, 4to. ; Amst. 1708, 8vo. 

y Born 1632 ; died 1707. 

P. Sylvain Regis, Systeme de la Phllosophie, contenant la Logique, la 
JMetaphysique, la Physique, et la Morale, Paris, 1690, 3 vols. 4to. Reponse 
aux Reflexions Critiques de M. Duhamel sur le Systeme Cartesien de la 
Philosophie de M. Regis, Paris, 1692, 12mo. see Bibl. o{ § 324. L'Accord 
de la Foi et de la Raison, Paris, 1734, 4to. 

^ Among other distinguished works, this society has produced, I'Art de 
Penser, Paris, 1664, 12mo. Translated into Lat. by J. C. Bravn, with a 
preface of Fr. Buddevs, Hal. 1704, 8vo. (This treatise has been sometimes 
improperly ascribed to Arnauld). 

320 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

the doctrines of the Jesuits. Among these were Ant. 
Arnauld'^, Blaise Pascal^, Nicole^, and also, Father 
Malebranche (see § 331), Antoine Le Grand '^ a physician 
at Douai, J. Clauberi/^y Adrian Heerebord, and more 
particularly Arnold Geidinx of Antwerp ^ From the 
principles of Descartes, the last derived the doctrine of % 
Occasional Causes {Systema causariim occasionalism — 
Occasionalis7nus) which supposed the Deity to be the 
actual cause of the motions of the body and affections 
of the mind, the soul and the limbs merely affording the 
means of their development. This notion was extended 
and explained by Balthazar Becker, Voider, Male- | 
hranche, and Spinosa. Geulinx added to this strange 
doctrine a pure system of morality, and maintained that 
the main defect of Ancient and Modern systems of Ethics 
was the encouragement afforded by them to Self-love ; 

^ Born 1623 ; died 1694. His works, Lausanne, 1777, 30 vols. 4to. 

b Born at Clermont 1623 ; died 1662 (§ 332). 

Pascal, Pensees sur la Religion, Amst. 1697, 12nio. Paris, 1720, 12mo. 
Lettres Ecrites par Louis de IMontalte (Pascal) a un Provincial de ses Amis, 
avec Notes de Guill. Wendrock (Nicole), Cologne, 1657, 1684, 8vo. ; 
Lpyde, 1771, 4 vols. 12mo. Translated into Lat. by Nicole. 

c Died 1695. Essais de Morale, Paris, 1671, 6 vols. 12mo. Instructions 
Theologiques et Morales, Paris, 1709, 12mo. CEuvres, Paris, 1718, 24 vols. 

'^ Ant. le Grand, Philosophia Veterum e Mente Renati Descartes, Lo7icl. 
1671, 12mo. Institutio Philosophiae Secundum Principia Renati Descartes 
Nova INIethodo adornata, Lond. 1672, 8vo. ; 1678, 4to. Dissertatio de Ca- 
reutia Sensus et Cognitionis in Brutis, Norimb. 1679, 8vo. 

e Professor at Duisburg; born at Chartres 1665 ; died 1665. 

Jon. Claueergii Opera Philosophica, Aynstelod. 1691, 4to. Logica Vetus 
et Nova. Ontosophia, de Cognitione Dei et Nostri, Duisb. 1656, 8vo. Initi- 
atio Philosophi, seu Dubitatio Cartesiana, 1655; jShdh. 1667, 12mo. 

f Born at Antwerp about 1625; died 1669. 

Arnoldi Geulinx, Logica Fundamentis suis, a quibus hactenus col- 
lapsa fuerat, restituta, Lugd. But. 1662, 12mo. ; Amstelod. 1698, 12mo. 
Metapbysica Vera et ad Mentem Peripateticorum, Amstelod. 1691, 12mo. 
TvCjOl aeavTov, sive Etbica, Anistel. 1665, and Lugd. Bat. 1675, 12mo. Ed. 
Philarethus, Amstel. 1696, 12mo. ; 1709, 8vo. Annotata pra^currentia ad R. 
Cartesii Principia, Dordraci. 1690, 4to. Annotata INIajora ad Principia Phi- 
losophirc R. Descartes, accedunt Opuscula Philosophica ejusdem Auctoris, 
iJordruci. 1691, 4to. 

328.] CARTESIANS. 321 

and made Virtue to consist in a pure love of — [amor cff'ec- 
tionis noil affeclionis)j—ix\\{\. devotion to the injunctions of 
practical Reason ; or, in other words, in obedience to God 
and to Reason, for the sake of Reason itself. The cha- 
racteristics of Reason thus contemplated he pronounced 
to be attention (diligentia), docility (obedientia), con- 
formity to moral obligations (justitia)y and a disregard of 
all other goods (humilitas). Though his ideas on Morals 
were often admirable for their truth and refinement, they 
did not meet with much success ; partly because they 
were entangled with his doctrine of Occasionalism ; and 
partly because the foundations on which they should rest 
were not perfectly established ; added to which they pre- 
scribe nothing but a blind submission to the Divine will, 
to such a degree as almost to take away the free exercise 
of Reason. Balthasar Becker^, taking for his ground 
the doctrines of Occasionalism, and the Spiritualism of 
•Descartes, denied that men were capable of being influ- 
enced by the agency of Spirits ; and in particular attacked 
the opinions then prevalent in favour of sorcery and 
witchcraft; which cost him his employment. On the 
other hand Pierre Poiret^, at first a Cartesian, then a 
Mystic, affected to deduce from the principles of Des- 
cartes, a proof of the immediate agency of God and of 
spiritual beings on the mind of man. Several theolo- 
gians and philosophers endeavoured to reconcile the 
Cartesian system to Revealed Religion, and defended 
or explained it in writings partly didactic and partly 
polemical. Among others may be enumerated J. Cocce- 

8 Born in West Friesland, 1634 ; died 1698. 

Besides the work of his already mentioned (bibliogiaphy § 324) ; he wrote 
the Beloverte IVereld, or Enchanted World (Dutcli), Leuivarden, 1690; 
Amsterd. 1691-93, 4 vols. 4to. Wilh. IIei.vr. Beckkh, Schediasnia Critico- 
literarium de Controversiis B. Bekkero ob librum die bezauberle Welt motis, 
Kouigsb. et I-eipz. 1721, 4to. See the Life, Opinions, and Fortunes of B. 
Becker, by J. M. Schwager, Leipz. 1780, 8vo. 

h Born at Mentz, 1746 ; died 1719 (See $$ 331, 333). 

P. PoiRET. Economic Divine, 1647, 7 vols. Bvo. Cogitaliones de Deo, 
Animu et Malo, Avntelod. 1677-1685-171G, 4to. 

322 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

jus^i Christopher Wittich^, Gerard de Vries\ Hermann 
Alex, Roell"", and Ruard Andala"", 

II. Spinoza. 

His works : Benedicti de Spinoza Renati Descartes Prin- 
cipiorum Philosophiae pars prima et secunda More Geometrico 
demonstratse. Accesserunt ejusdem Cogitata Metapliysica, in 
quibus difficiliores, quae tarn in parte Metapliysicae generali qu'aln 
speciali occurrunt Qusestiones bre\dter explicantur, Amstel. 1663, 
2 vols. 4to. Tractatus Theologico-Politicus continens Disser- 
tationes aliquot, quibus ostenditur Libertatem Pliilosopliandi non 
tantum Salva Pietate et Reipublicae Pace posse concedi, sed 
eamdem nisi cum Pace Reipublicae ipsaque Pietate tolli non 
posse, Hamh. (Amsterd.J 1670, 4to. Under various fictitious 
titles : Dan. Heinsii Operum Historicum collectio prima. Ed. 
II, priori multo emendatior et auctior, Lugd. Bat. 1675, 8vo. 
Henriquez de Villacorta, M. D. a cubiculo Philippi IV, Ca- 
rol! II, Archiatri Opera Chirurgica Omnia sub auspiciis poten- 
tissimi Hispaniarum Regis, Amstel. 1673, 8vo. ; 1697, 8vo. In, 

* Died 1669. 

" Born at Brieg 1625; died 1687. 

Christopher Wittich. Consensus Sanctae Scripturae cum Veritate Philoso- 
phiae Cartesianae, Neomag. 1659, 8vo. Theologia Pacificata, Lugd. Bat. 
1675, 4to. Annotationes, in quibus Method! celeb. Philosophi succincta 
notitia redditur, Dordr. 1688, 4to. Anti-Spinoza seu Examen Ethices Bened. 
de Spinoza, Amstel. 1690, 4to. 

1 Ger. de Vries (see § 327, note ''). Exercitationes Rationales de Deo 
Divinisque perfectionibus nee non Philosophemata Miscellanea, Traj. 1685, 
4to. Edit. Nova ad quam praeter alias accedit Diatribe singularis gemina, altera 
de Cogitatione ipsa mente, altera de Ideis rerum Innatis, Ultraj. 1695, 4to. 

"» He was professor of Theology at Franeker and Utrecht, and died 1718. 

Herm. Alex. Roel Dissert, de Religione Naturali, Franeq. 1686, folio. 
Disputationes Philosophicae de Theologia Naturali duae, de Ideis Innatis una, 
Ger. de Vries Diatribae oppositae. fourth edit. Franeq. 1700, 8vo. Ultraj. 

" Born in Friesland 1665 ; professor of Theology at Franeker ; died 1727. 

Ruard Andala Syntagma Theologico-Physico-Metaphysicum, Franeq. 
1710, 4to. Cartesius verus Spinozismi eversor et Physicas Experimentalis 
Architectus, Ibid. 1719. In answer to J. Regius, Cartesius verus Spino- 
zismi Architectus : Leovard. 1718. Exercitationes Academicae in Philoso- 
phiam Primam et Na^uralem, in quibus Philosophia Cartesii explicatur, con- 
firmatur et vindicatur, Franeq. 1709, 4to. Examen Ethicae Geulinxii, Ibid. 
1716, 4to. Questiones Physical, 1720. Apologia pro VerS\ et Saniore Phi- 
losophiil, etc. 

329.] SPINOZA. 323 

French ; La Clef du Sanctiiaire, par un savant liomnie do notre 
siecle, Leyde. 1678, 12mo. Traite des Ceremonies supersti- 
tieuses des Juifs, tant Anciennes que Modemes, Amsterd. 1678, 
12mo. Reflexions Curieuses d'lm Esprit desinteresse sur les 
Matieres les plus importantes au Salut, tant public que parti- 
culier, Cologne^ 1678, 12mo. 

Annotationcs Ben. de Spinoza ad Tractatum Theologico-Po- 
liticum, ed Ciir. Tiieopii. de Murr, H(tg. Com. 1802, 4to. 

Bened. de Spinoza Opera Postlmma, Amstel. 1677, 4to. 
(containing : Ethica, Tractatus Politicus, de Intellectus emen- 
datione, Epistoloe). 

Bened. de Spinoza Opera quae supcrsunt Omnia, ed. H. 
Eberii. Gottlob Paulus, Jen. 1802, 1803, 2 vols. 8vo., with a 

Works on Sjiinoza and his Doctrines. 

John Colerus, Life of Spinoza, etc., etc. Originally pub- 
lished in Dutch, Utrecht, 1697 ; in French, The Hague, 1706, 
Svo. ; in German, Franco/, and Leips. 1733, 8vo. 

Refutations des Erreurs deBENOiT de Spinoza, par M. Fene- 
LON, par le P. Lamy, et par le Comte de Boulainvilliers, avee 
la Vie de Spinoza, ecrite par M. Jean Colerus, augmentee de 
beaucoup de particularites tirees d'une "Vie Manuscrite (from 
the next book), de ce Philosophe ; faite par un de ses amis, 
Brujcellesy 1731, 12mo. 

La Vie et I'Esprit de M. Benoit de Spinoza, Amsterd. 1719, 
8vo. The author was a physician named Lucas, or Vraese, coun- 
cillor of the Court of Brabant at the Hague. Only seventy copies 
of a very limited edition were offered for sale, at a very high 
price ; which caused a number of MS. copies to be taken. The 
second part was burnt, but the biographical part, (also very 
scarce), w^as published under this title : La Vie de Spinoza par 
un de ses Disciples, nouvelle edition non tronquee, etc., Hamh. 
1735, Svo. 

H. Fr. v. Dietz Ben. von Spinosa nach Lebcn und Lehren, 
Dess. 1783, 8vo. 

M. PniLiPsoN Leben Ben. von Spinosa, Brannschw. 1790, 
8vo. (nach Colerus). 

Jariges iiber das System des Spinosa und iiber Bayle's 
Erinnerungen Dagegen in der Histoire de I'Acad. des Sciences 
de Berlin a. 1740, und in Hissmann's Magazin 5. Bd. S. 5 ff. 

" Fr. H. Jacobi iiber die Lehre des Spinoza, in Briefen an Urn. 
Moses Mendelssohn, BresL 1785 ; sec(md aufl. 1789, 8vo. und in 
Jacobi's Schriften, 4 B., I. Abth. Moses Mendelssohn Mor- 


324 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

genstunden (see § 367, etc.): An die Freimde Lessing's, ein 
Anhang zu Jacobi's Briefwechsel, Berl. 1786, 8vo. F. H. Ja- 
coBi wider M. Mendelssohns Beschuldigungen, Leipz. 1786. 
(Math. Claudius) zwei Recensionen in Saclien Lessing, M. 
Mendelssohn und Jacobi, Hamb. 1786. Ueber Mendelssohn's 
Darstellung der Spinozistischen Philosophie in Casar's Denk- 
wiirdigkeiten, 4 B. K. H. Heydenreich Animadversiones in 
Mosis Mendelii filii Refutationem placitomm Spinosse scripsit, 
Lips. 1786, 4to. Derselbe : Natur und Gott nach Spinosa, 1 B. 
(mit Auszugen aus der oben angegebenen Vie von Lucas), Leipz. 
1789, 8vo. 

Gott. Einige Gesprache von J. G. Herder, Gotha, 1787, 

D. G. S. Francke Preisschr. iiber die neuern Schicksale des 
Spinozismus und seinen Einfluss auf die Philosophie iiberh. und 
die Vemunfttheologie insbesondere, Schleswig. 1812, 8vo. 

Ern. Stiedenroth nova Spinozismi delineatio, Gott, 1817, 

LuD. Boumann Explicatio Spinozismi. Diss, inaugural. Berol, 
1828, 8vo. 

Car. Rosenkranz De Spinozae Philos. Diss. Hal. et Lips. 
1828, 8vo. 

329. The Jew Baruch (Benedict) Spinoza, or Spinosa, 
entered into the speculative views of the Cartesian School 
with all the originality of a profound and penetrating 
genius. He was born at Amsterdam, 1632, and even in 
his childhood distinguished himself for his ardent love of 
knowledge. His doubts with respect to the authority of 
the Talmud, and his frame of mind, devout, but free from 
superstition, rendered him indifferent to the ceremonial 
part of his own faith, and were the means of bringing 
upon him many persecutions. Concealed in the houses 
of some charitable Christians, he applied himself to the 
study of Latin and Greek, Mathematics and Metaphysics, 
especially those of Descartes, the clearness and simplicity 
of whose system attracted his attention, without being 
able to satisfy his judgment. After having devoted his 
life to contemplation, pursued in retirement, he died at 
the Hague, A. D. 1G77, with the reputation of an es- 
timable man, and distinguished philosopher. Spinoza 
made it his principle to admit nothing to be true, the 


329.] SPINOZA. 325 

grounds of vvhicli lie could not distinctly recognise ; and 
endeavoured to found his system of Ethics, (as he termed 
it), on something like Mathematical demonstrations of the 
principles of Moral Life, founded on the knowledge of 
God. These speculations carried him into the highest 
region of Metaphysics, and gradually led him to the re- 
markable theory proposed also by Descartes °, which 
asserts the existence of only one Absolute Essence, — (the 
Deity), — Infinite Being, with Infinite Attributes of Ex- 
pansion and Thought, reducing all finite beings to the 
state of Apparent Essences, and limitations or modi of 
those Attributes. Substance is not an individual being, 
but the foundation and substratum of all individual 
beings : It never has begun to be, but exists per se and 
of necessity, (see Eth. P. I, prop. 5). Nothing can be 
said to have a beginning but finite objects, or the mutable 
limitations of the Attributes of Infinity : in this manner 
from the Attribute of Expansion arises the modification 
of Motion and Repose : from that of Thought those of 
the Understanding and Will. Infinite Expansion is, on 
the same principle, the ultimate Element of all finite cor- 
poreal objects ; and Absolute or Infinite Thought, of all 
finite thinking beings. The primordial Elements — Infi- 
nite Expansion and Infinite Thought — are mutually re- 
lated, without having been produced the one by the 
other. All finite things (e. g. Body and Soul) exist in 
the Deity : The Deity is their inherent Causey Natura 
Naturans, He himself not finite, though from him all 
finite things have necessarily proceeded ; there is no such 
thing as Accident, but an universal Necessity ; which in 
the case of the Deity is united to Liberty : because the 
Deity alone is not circumscribed by the existence or 
operations of any other being. He operates according to 
the internal necessity of His own nature ; and His will and 
knowledge are inseparable. There is no free Causality 

o H. C. W. SiGWART iiber den Zusammenhang des Spinozismus rait der 
Cartesianischen Philosophic, Tubing. 1816, 8vo. 

H. RiTTER iiber den Eiufluss des Cartes, auf die Ausbildung des Spinozis- 
mus, Leipz. 1816, 8vo. 

326 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

of Ends and final Causes ; but only the Causality of Ne- 
cessity and natural Causes. The immediate and direct 
conception or idea of any real and present object is called 
the Spirit or Soul {Mens) of such object ; and the thing 
itself, or the direct and immediate object of such idea or 
conception is called the Body of such Spirit. United, 
they compose one and the same individual object; which 
may be apprehended in a twofold relation, under that of 
the Attribute Thought, or the Attribute Expansion. All 
ideas, as far as they have a relation to the Deity, are 
true : because all ideas which exist in the Divine mind 
are perfectly correspondent to their respective Objects ; 
and consequently every idea of our own which is absolute 
and corresponds with its object, is true alsoP; and the 
understanding contemplates things according to their true 
nature inasmuch as it contemplates them with a view to 
their eternal and necessary properties ^. Falsehood has 
its origin in the negation of Thought ; and the admission 
of irregular and imperfect notions ^. Every idea of a real 
object embraces at the same time a conception of the 
eternal and infinite essence of God, (Prop. 45) ; and con- 
sequently by a knowledge of the first we may attain to an 
adequate comprehension of the Divine nature. The 
human mind can therefore indisputably apprehend the 
nature of God ^. On the other hand, the knowledge we 
are able to acquire of individual objects is necessarily 
imperfect. In the lively contemplation of the Deity 
consists our greatest happiness : Since the more that 
we know of God, the more inclined we are to live ac- 
cording to his will*^; in which consists at the same time 
our happiness and our free-will : — Deo parere summa 

P Prop. 43. Sicut lux se ipsam et tenebras manifestat, sic Veritas norma 
sui et falsi est. 

1 E natur^ rationis non est, res ut contingentes, sed ut necessarias contem- 
plari (et) sub quiidam eternitatis specie percipere. Propos. 44. 

' Eth. P. II, Propos. 32—34 sqq. 

* Prop. 46, 47. 

* Amor Dei non nisi ex cognitione ejus oritur ; Tract. Theol. cap. IV, 
p. 42. 

329, 330.] SPINOZA. 327 

libertas est. Nevertheless our Will is not absolutely 
free, inasmuch as the mind is directed to this or that end 
by some external cause, which cause is dependent on 
another, and so on in perpetual concatenation. In like 
manner no other faculty of the mind is altogether absolute 
and uncontrolled (P. II, prop. 48). 

330. The rude materials of his system Spinoza had 
amassed in the course of his early study of the Rabbini- 
cal writings, and the theory of Descartes had only sup- 
plied him with a scientific form. He draws all his con- 
clusions, after the mathematical method, by a regular de- 
duction from a small number of axioms, and a few leading 
ideas, which he assumes to be self-evident, such as those 
of Substance and Causality. His conclusions have all an 
appearance of mathematical strictness, but appear to 
labour in this respect, that it may be questioned how the 
infinitude of finite objects is a necessary result of the 
infinite attributes of the Deity. The grand defect of his 
theory is, that all Individuality and Free-will is lost in 
subordination to the Divine Essence, and that his sys- 
tem of Ethics is made one of mere Physics, because all 
finite things are made necessarily subject to the Divine 
Nature, and appertain to it as modifications of its at- 
tributes, forming parts of an universal system of abso- 
lute Causality ". The profoundness of his ideas ; the 
syllogistic method of his reasoning ; the hardihood of his 
attempt, — to explain things Jinite by injinite, — give an air 
of obscurity to the whole system, and make it difficult to 
be apprehended in true sense : it does not, however, 
deserve the appellation of an atheistic theory, which has 
been liberally bestowed upon it ever since its first appear- 
ance, rather in consequence of the passions of the dis- 
putants, than from any thing contained in the work itself. 
It may rather be called a system of Pantheism (not 
7)iaterial like that of the Eleatae, hut fonnal), which em- 
braces and illustrates a noble idea of the Divinity, as the 

" Ep. 62. See Tract. Theol.-Polit. cap. XV^I. 

328 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Primal Cause of Being, so far as it may be investigated 
by speculations purely ontological. Nevertheless, such 
a conception does not satisfy the understanding, and con- 
tradicts the principles of Theism, especially in their 
practical relations and application. 

331. Spinoza's character was no less misrepresented 
than his doctrines. Few at first dared to profess them- 
selves his friends and adherents ''. His first opponents, 
either from not having understood his system, or from 
some secret attachment to it which they were at pains to 
conceal, allowed him to have the advantage, and con- 
tributed to his reputation. Of this number were: Fr, 
Cuper^ , Boulainvilliers^i Chr. Witiich^, (who answered 
him the most fully of them all), P. Poiret ^, Sam, Parker y 
(§ 333), Isaac Jacquelot ^. Those who undertook the con- 
flict with more sincerity (such as J. Bredenbwg '^), found 

" Of these we may mention, J. Oldenburg, who nevertheless, on many 
points, differed from Spinoza. The following writers have, perhaps improperly, 
been designated as Spinozists : the physicians, L.Meyer and Lucas, the first 
the author of a work entitled, Philosophia Sacrae Scripturae interpres : see $ 
327, note ; Z. Jelles, Abh. Cufaeeer, who defended and explained Spinozism 
in two treatises : Specimen Artis Ratiocinandi Naturalis et Artificialis ad 
Pantosophiae Principia Manuducens, Hamb. (Amst.) 1684; et : Principiorum 
Pantosophiae, P. II. et P. Ill, Hamb. 1684; J. G. Wachter, Concordia 
Rationis et Fidei, etc., Amstel. (^BeroL), 1692, 8vo. ; and Theod. Lud. Law : 
Meditationes de Deo, Mundo, et Homine, Francof. 1717, Bvo. ; et : Medi- 
tationes. Theses, dubia Philosophico-Theologica, Freifstadt. 1719, Bvo. 

y Arcana Atheisme Revelata ; a work severely censured by H. More, 0pp. 
Philos.tom. I, p. 596, and by J^oer : Fr. Cuperus mala Fide aut ad minimum 
frigide Atheismum Spinozae oppungans, Tub. 1710. 

^ The Comte de Boulainvilliers ; born 1658, died 1722. See bibliography 
of $ 328. 

^ See § 328. 

^ See § 328. Poiret, Fundamenta Atheismi eversa, in his Cogiiata de 
Deo, etc. 

c Born in Champagne, 1674; died 1708. 

Isaac Jacquelot, Dissertations sur I'Existence de Dieu, etc., par la Refu- 
tation du Systeme d'Epicure et de Spinoza, La Haye, 1697. See § 325, 

*' Enervatio Tractatus Theologico-Politici una cum Demonstratione Geome- 
trico ordine disposita Naturam non esse Deum, Eoterod. 1675, 4to. 


331, 332.] SPINOZA. 329 

themselves involved in contradictions, being unable to 
refute the sophistry of Spionza, and not enduring to 
admit its validity. 

It is only of late that the talents and opinions of Spinoza 
have been better appreciated ; at the same time that the 
Critical method of the rationalists has enabled them to 
detect the weak side of his system *. 

The most recent philosophical system approaches in 
many respects that of Spinoza. 

III. Malehranche, Fardella, 

FoNTENELLE, Elogc dc Malcbranchc, dans le tom. I. de ses 
Eloges des Academiciens, A la Haye, 1731, p. 317. 

Nic. Malebranche, De la Recherche de la Verite, Paris, 
1673, 12mo. ; seventh edit. 1712, 2 vols. 4to., or 4 vols. 12mo. 
In Lat. by Lenfant, De Inquirenda Veritate, Genev. 1691, 
4to. ; 1753, 2 vols. 4to. 

Nic. Malebranche, Conversations Chretiennes, 1677. De la 
Nature et de la Grace, Amsdt. 1680, 12mo. Meditations 
Chretiennes et Metaphysiques, Cologne (Rouen), 1683, 12mo. 

Malebranche, Entretiens sur la Metaphysique et sur la 
Religion, Rotterd. 1688, 8vo. Entretiens d'un Philosophique 
Chretien et d'un Philosophe Chinois, sur la Nature de Dieu, 
Paris, 1708. Reflexions sur la Premotion Physique, etc. 
Paris, 1715, 8vo. ; CEuvres, Paris, 1712, 11 vols. 12mo. 

SS2, Nicole Malebranche ^, one of the Fathers of the 
Oratoire, whose disadvantageous person concealed a 
profound genius, and indisputably the greatest metaphy- 
sician that France has produced, developed the ideas of 
Descartes, and imparted to them a fresh originality, and 
greater clearness and vivacity : but his views of religion 

^ Christian Wolff, for instance, and Bayle ; the first of whom has refuted 
the system of Spinoza in his t Translation of his P^thics, Francf. and Hamb. 
1744, Bvo. See also Jariges, quoted at the head of § 329. The dispute 
between Jacobi and INIendelssohn on the Spinozism of Lessing, was the occa- 
sion of a great number of writings respecting the tenets of Spinoza. See the 
same section. The t Translation of the Ethics of Spinoza by Ewai.d (Gera, 
1791 — 93, 8vo.), also contains a refutation of Spinozism, on the principles of 
the Critical system. 

f Born at Paris 1638 ; died 1715. 

330 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

led him to superadd some tenets of his own inclining to 
mysticism. He has been peculiarly successful in discus- 
sing the theory of knowledge, the sources of error, 
(especially those which have their origin in illusions of 
the Imagination), as well as in his examination of the 
proper Method for the investigation of Truth. He 
described the understanding as passive ; maintained ex- 
tension to be the characteristic of Body; the soul to 
be an essence simple in its nature, and therefore distinct 
from its body ; and represented the Deity as the only 
source of all thought and all existence. These opinions 
led him to controvert, by acute arguments, the doctrine 
of Innate Ideas, and gave rise to the extraordinary asser- 
tion, that it is in and through the Divinity that we appre- 
hend all things, which are comprehended intellectually in 
His essence ; that the Divinity is the Intellectual World ; 
Infinite and Universal Reason, and the abode of Spirits : 
in these respects making near approaches to Spinozism. 
The doctrine of Occasionalism (which he enlarged and 
extended) is closely connected with such speculations ; 
by which he was farther led to assign to the Soul and 
Body a sort of Passive activity, and to represent the 
Deity as the original cause of all their operations : a 
species of Idealism, half religious and half mystical. We 
may trace in it the consequences of a blind devotion to 
Demonstration, as the only method of attaining Truth. 
The Abbe Foucher ^ opposed to his system one of scepti- 

S Simon Foucher, Critique de la Recherche de la Verit6. 

Among the authors who discussed and opposed the theory of Malebranche, 
we may mention Father Du Tertre (who did not understand it) : Refutation 
du nouveau Systeme de M6taphisique compose par le Pere INIalebranchej Paris, 
1718, 3 vols. 12mo. ; and Ant. Arnauld : Des Vraies et des Fausses Idees 
centre ce qu'enseigne I'Auteur de la Recherche de la V6fite, Cologne, 1683, 
8vo. To the latter work INIalebranche replied by his : Reponse de I'Auteur 
de la Recherche de la Verile au livre de M. Arnauld, des Vraies et des 
Fausses Idees, Rotterdam, 1684. Defense de M. Arnauld centre la Reponse 
au livre des Vraies etdes Fausses Idees, Cologne, 1684, 12ino. ; Trois Lettres 
de I'Auteur de la Recherche de la Verite, touchant la Defense de M. 
Arnauld centre la Reponse, Rotterd. 1685, 12mo. The dispute was prolonged 
in some other writings ; by Locke, in the second vol. of his Miscell. Works' 

332,333.] MALEBRANCHE. MYSTICS. 331 

Michael-Angelo FardeUa '', in his Logic ', employed in 
the defence of Idealism the same arguments which had 
been used by INIalebranche, namely, that the existence of 
the material world is incapable of demonstration, and can 
only be maintained on the grounds of religious belief. 

IV. Supernaturalists and Mystics of this period. 

333. The dissensions of the Empirical and Specu- 
lative Schools, brought once more upon the stage the 
opposite factions of the Supernaturalists, the Mystics, 
and the Sceptics. Among these by far the most distin- 
guished was Blaise Pascal; who, in consequence perhaps 
of his early devotion to Mathematics, imbibed a distrust 
of philosophical speculation, and in the latter part of his 
life, when his bodily sufferings increased, devoted him- 
self to a sort of asceticism. Theophilus Gale (Galeus) 
was a thinker of a diiferent stamp. He was a presby- 
terian minister'', and maintained that all true philosophy 
is contained in the revealed word of God, made known 
immediately to the Jews, and from them at various epochs 
and in various ways, derived to other nations. Conse- 
quently, philosophy is subordinate to theology. He re- 
commended for these pursuits the study of the Neo-platonic 
writers ^ Ralph Cudworth^ pursued the same system, 
but (with greater originality) turned it against the Mate- 
rialists and Atheists, in defence of Revealed Religion. 
He collected proofs of the existence of God (Syst. c. V. 
§ 101 — 102), and of the Creation out of Nothing; and 
maintained the doctrine of an Intellectual system of know- 

Amsterd. 1732, 8vo. and by Leibnitz, in the second vol. of a Collection of 
Philosoph. Pieces, by Leibnitz, Clarke, Newton, etc., second edit. Aimt. 
1740, 8vo. 

»' Died at Padua, 1718. 

' Venice, 1696. 

k Born 1628 ; died 1677. 

' Theoph. Gale, Pliilosophia Universalis, Land. 1676, 8vo. Aula Deoruni 
Gentilium, Ibid. 1676, 8vo. 

■" Born in the county of Somerset, 1617; died a Professor at Cambridge, 

332 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

ledge, founded on Innate Ideas, according to the views 
of Plato. The Plastic Nature ^, which he supposes may 
account for the conformity of created things to their uses, is 
nothing more than the intellectual world of Plato ; to make 
room for which he denies the existence either of blind 
chance, of mechanical necessity, or of an immediate and 
continual creation on the part of God. He reproached 
Descartes for having excluded from Physics the doctrine 
of Final Causes. He derives the principles of Moral 
Good and Rectitude from certain Moral Ideas, which are 
copies of the Divine Wisdom, and not from notions 
acquired by experience ° : on many other points also, 
adopting the principles of Plato. Henry More"^, a member 
of the same university, followed the same line of argument. 
He was a learned man, and of an acute understanding, who 
finding the Peripatetic system insufficient to satisfy his 
doubts, which had carried him so far as to question his own 
Individuality, embraced the Neoplatonic theory, borrowed 
principally from the works of Ficinus, studying also 
the Cabbalistic writings ; which he defended in several 
of his compositions, but without moulding these different 
materials into an uniform system (see § S2\). He 
derived all philosophical knowledge from intellectual 
intuition, and maintained that all the truths of philosophy 
are deducible from Revelation, and have reference to 
Man and his destiny. In his metaphysics — the subject of 

n Cap. Ill, § 25, sqq. 

<» Ralph Cudworth, The True Intellectual System of the Universe, 
Lond. 1678, folio : 1743, 2 vols. 4to. : 4 vols. 8vo. with Life by Birch, Oxford, 
1830. Systema Intellectuale hujus Universi, etc., Lat. vert. J. L.Moshemius j 
■with a Life of Cudvirorth, Jen. 1733, folio, cum Correctionib. Posth. Lugd.Bat, 
1773, 2 vols. 4to. Treatise Concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality, Lond. 

P Born 1614; died 1687. . 

Henrici Mori Opera Philosophica Omnia, Lond. 1679, 2 vols. fol. 

Ejusd. Conjectura Cabbalistica in tria prima capita Geneseos. Defensio 
Cabbalae Triplicis. Apologia contra Sam. Andre* Examen Generale Cab- 
bala; Philosophical. Trium Tabularum Cabbalisticarum decem Sephiroth. 
Questiones et Considerationes in Tractatum primura libri Druschim. Cate- 
chismus Cabbalisticus, sive Mercavaeus, fuudamenta Philosophic, sive Cab- 
balcB -<Etopa:domelisseae Enchiridium Metaphysicum, Land. 1674, 4to. En- 
chiridium Ethicum, Lond. 1660—1668—1672, 8vo. 

333.] MYSTICS. 333 

which is Immaterial nature — lie endeavoured to establish 
the existence of an immoveable space, distinct and sepa- 
rate from moveable matter ; and affected to deduce from 
this principle the laws of all motion, and of all matter 
liable to motion. He attributes to this space a real exist- 
ence, and even some of the attributes of the Deity; 
describing it as the universal circumscription of the 
Divine presence. He maintains that the nature of the 
souls of men and other animals is simple, but supposes 
them to possess a certain extent. He pointed out the 
faults of the systems of Descartes and Spinoza, at the 
same time expressing great respect for their talents. 
In Ethics he blended the principles of Aristotle and 
Plato. The contemporary of the two former, Sam. 
Parker "^y bishop of Oxford, criticised the atomistic theory 
of Descartes, and his proof of the existence of the Deity ; 
and defended theology (whence he derived his proofs 
of the existence of God) against Atheism ^ The physician 
and preacher John Porclage % declared himself the advo- 
cate of a mystical Supernaturalism. He endeavoured to 
systematize the theosophic enthusiasm of Jacob Bohm 
(see § 321), and pretended to have been assured of 
the truth of his reveries by special revelation*. His pupil 
Thomas Bromley, disseminated the same notions. In 
France, Pierre Poiret, originally a Cartesian (§ 328), de- 
voted himself altogether to a mystical supernaturalism, 
which denied to the mind all independent agency ; and 
declared war against speculative philosophy ". 

q Died 1688. 

•■ A Free and Impartial Account of the Platonic Philosophy, Oxford, 1666, 
4to. Tentamina Physico-Theologica de Deo, Lond. 1669, 8vo. 1673. Dis- 
putationes de Deo et Providenti^, Lond. 1678, 4to. 

8 Born about 1625 ; died in London 1698. 

* Metaphysica Vera et Divina, Francf. et Leips. 1725, 3 vols. 8vo. Sophia 
seu Detectio Coelestis Sapiential de Mundo interno et externo, Amst. 1699. 
Theologia ]Mystica sive Arcana JMysticaqueDoctrina delnvisibilibus, /Eternis, 
etc., non Rationali Arte sed Cognitione Intuitivii Descripta, Amst. 1691. 

" De Eruditione triplici, Solida, Superficiaria et Falstl, Amst. 1629 — 1706, 
1707, 2 vols. 4lo. Fides et Ratio coUalai ac suo utraque loco redditas 
adversus Principia Jo. Lockii, Amst. 1707, 8vo. Opera Posthuma, Amst, 
1721, 4to., and elsewhere. See § 331, note. 

334 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

V. Sceptics. 

334. Scepticism was propagated in France by two dis- 
ciples of Le Vayer, Simon Sorhiere * and Simon Foucher 
(§ S^2). The first translated the Sketch by Sextus Em- 
piricus of the Pyrrhonean philosophy (§ 151, bibhogr.). 
The latter employed himself upon the history of the Aca- 
demic system (see at the head of § 166), and opposed 
Scepticism to the speculations of Descartes and Male- 
branche. On the other hand appeared, as opponents of 
Scepticism, Peter Mersenne"^, Martin Schoock (§327)% 
and Jean de Silhon ^. In England the preacher Joseph 
Glanville^ endeavoured to moderate by a degree of Scep- 
ticism the unbounded extravagancies of Dogmatism, (par- 
ticularly of the Aristotelians and Descartes), with the hope 
of promoting the cause of philosophy*. He enlarged with 
ability on the causes of doubt, and applied them to the 
different departments of science ; more particularly, the 
discoveries in physics effected in his own time. His remarks 
on causality, in which he coincides with those of Algazel 
(§ 25ij) and appears to have forestalled Hume, deserve 
especial attention. We do not, says he, detect the existence 
of any cause by intuition, nor immediately, but by reflection 
and therefore by inference, which may be erroneous''. 

t Born 1615 j died at Paris 1670. 
" Died 1648. 

P. Mersenne, La Verite des Sciences centre les Sceptiques, Paris, 1625, 

" Mart. Schoockii De Scepticismo pars prior, libb. IV, Groning. 1652, 


y Died 1666. 

Jean Silhon, De la Certitude des Connaissances Humaines, etc. Pans, 
1661, 8vo. 

■'■ Died 1680. 

* Jos. Glanville, Scepsis Scientifca, or Confessed Ignorance the Way to 
Science ; in an Essay of the vanity of dogmatizing and confident opinion. 
With a reply to the exceptions of the learned Thomas Albius, Lond. 1665, 
4to. De Incrementis Scientiarum inde ab Aristotele ductarum. Lond. 1670. 
Henr. Stabius has published a Dissertation in answer to the latter work. 

'» Scepsis Scient., p. 142. 


Jerome Hirnhaym^ also allied Scepticism to Supernatu- 
ralism. Declaiming with considerable ability against 
literary presumption, and the arrogance of the learned, and 
maintaining that all knowledge is delusive, and that every 
axiom (so esteemed) of Reason had been annulled by Re- 
velation, he insisted that Revelation from God, Su- 
pernatural Grace, and an internal Divine illumination, 
are the only true sources of certain knowledge. His 
Scepticism led him to recommend an enthusiastic Asce- 

It may be remarked in general, that about this period 
Scepticism was called in to support the Catholic religion, 
whose advocates endeavoured by the use of it to recall 
Protestants to the pale of the church. 



I. Sensualism of Locke. 

An Essay concerning the Human Understanding, in four books, 
Lond. 1690, fol. tenth edit. Lond. 1731, 2 vols. 8vo. 

Thoughts on Education, Lond. 1693 ; Lond. 1732, etc. 

Posthumous Works, Lond, 1706. The Works of John Locke, 
1714, 3 vols. fol. third edit. 1727. Collection of Several Pieces 
of John Locke, Lond. 1720, 8vo. 

On his Philosophical System consult : 

Jean Le Clerc, Eloge Historique de Feu M. Locke, en avant 
du torn. I. des QEuvres Di verses. 

Tennemann's Abh. liber den Empirismus in der Philosophic, 
vorziio;lich den Lockischen in d. III. Th. d. Uebersetzuns:. 

Darstellung und Priifung des Lockischen Sensualsystems, in 

*^ A monk of the order of Prnemonstratenses, and Doctor of Theology at 
Prague ; died 1679. 

HiERONVMus HiRNHAVM, De Typho Generis Ilumani, sive Scientiarum 
Humaniorum inani ac ventoso tuniore, difficultate, labilitate, falsitate, jac- 
tantia, pra;sumtione, incommodis et periculis, tractatus brevis in quo etiam 
vera sapientia a falsa discernitur, et simplicitas mundo contempta extollitur, 
idiotis in solatium, doctis in cautelam conscriptus, Prag. 1676, 4to. 

336 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

G. E. Schulze's Kritik der Theoretischen Pliilosophie I B, S. 
113; II B, S. 1. 


Schuler) Jo. Lockii de Ratione Sententias Excutit, Fiteb. 1714, 

S3 5. John Locke, (born at Wrington near Bristol, 
1632 ; died 1704), renounced the intricacies of Scholastic 
philosophy for the more congenial study of the classics. 
The writings of Descartes inspired him with fresh ardour, 
particularly for the cultivation of Medicine and Metaphy- 
sics. He rejected indeed many of his master's notions, 
more particularly that of Innate Ideas ; but was not the 
less captivated by his love of perspicuity and distinctness. 
The endless disputations of the learned led him to suspect 
that they had their origin in an improper use of words 
and want of precision in our ideas ; which he proposed 
to rectify by ascertaining the grounds and extent of human 
knowledge, through investigation of the properties of the 
human understandinor. This was the orimn of his renowned 
work by which he justly acquired the greatest distinction 
for the modesty and tolerance of his way of thinking, 
and the clearness and rectitude of his understanding, 
evinced in the course of a correspondence with the most 
accomplished men of his day. He so far adopted Bacon's 
principles that he pursued the method of experiment and 
observation, in preference to that of speculation ; apply- 
ing it principally to metaphysical subjects. His method 
has many advantages, but at the same time some great 
defects ; especially that of avoiding the great obstacles 
and difficulties in the course of science instead of directly 
encountering them. Notwithstanding, the opposition 
which he encountered was not so much the consequence 
of this radical fault, as of certain deductions from his 
system. (See § 333 note, and 337 note). By his treatises 
on Toleration and Education, Locke has rendered indis- 
putable and undisputed services to mankind. 

33G. Locke's great object and merit, was the investiga- 
tion of the origin, reality, limits, and uses of knowledge. 

335, 336.] SENSUALISM OF LOCKE. 337 

He contested the hypothesis of Innate Ideas, throwing 
great hght on one side of the question, and endeavoured 
to prove by an induction which was necessarily incom- 
plete, that all our notions are acquired by experience. 
The two ultimate sources of all our knowledge are the 
Senses and Reflection (or the perception of the operations 
of our minds) ; which has caused his system to be called 
one of Sensualism ; since he gives even to Reflection the 
appellation of an Internal Sense. Our ideas are partly 
simple, partly compound : among the first are those of 
Solidity, Space, Extension, Figure, Motion, Rest : those 
of Thought and Will : those of Existence, Time, Dura- 
tion, Power, Enjoyment, and Pain. Our simple ideas 
have an objective, or absolute and independent reality. 
The soul, like a piece of white paper (tabula rasa), merely 
receives their impressions, without adding any thing 
thereto of her own. They represent partly primary, 
part'ly secondary qualities or properties : among the first 
are Extension, Solidity, Figure, Number, etc. : among the 
latter, (which are deduced and derived as the first are 
direct and original), — Colour, Sound, Scent. Compound 
ideas are deduced from simple ones by an operation of 
the mind, for instance by Connection, Opposition, Com- 
parison, or Abstraction. The ideas so acquired are those 
of Accident, Substance, and Relation. The understand- 
ing either applies Experiment and Observation to the 
formation of compound ideas, or by a totally different 
course, develops simple and absolute ones, such as those 
belonging to Mathematics and Ethics. 

Locke has also suggested some admirable ideas on 
Language, and the abuses to which it is liable. — He defines 
knowledge to be the perception of the Connection and 
Agreement or the want of Connection and Disagreement 
of certain ideas, which maybe deduced from four sources; 
Identity or Discrepancy — Relation — Co-existence or 
necessary connection, and Real Existence'^. As relates 
to the 7node of this perception, knowledge becomes either 

^ Essay, 13. IV. ch. I. $ 1—3. 


338 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Immediate or Mediate : Immediate, if the result of intui- 
tion, and Mediate if produced by demonstration: to 
these must be added a third class relating to particulars 
ascertained by sensible proof. It must be remarked, how- 
ever, that his observations on the limits and use, etc. of 
knowledge do not penetrate far enough, nor, by any 
means, exhaust the question ; he may even be said to 
have pronounced judgment against the reality of know- 
ledge, before he had detailed his theory on the subject. 
His reasoning is far from being satisfactory on the sub- 
ject of the principles of thought and knowledge, all of 
which, (even that of contradiction), he describes as de^ 
rived and secondary. His analysis only embraces the 
material, without extending to the formal part of know- 
ledge ; and unravels only a few of the least intricate of 
our compound ideas. He deduces all knowledge from 
experiment, yet nevertheless proposes to support and 
confirm the latter by various inadequate proofs ; and in 
this manner he maintains the possibility of a demonstrative 
knowledge of the Existence of God% and the Immor- 
tality of the Soul ; and endeavours to erect a system of 
Metaphysics on the sandy foundation of experimental 

337. It was the object of Locke to liberate philosophy 
from vain disputations and unprofitable niceties ; but his 
work had the effect of discouraging, by the facility and 
accommodating character of its method, more profound 
investigation ; at the same time that he gave a popular 
air to such inquiries, diminishing the interest they ex- 
cited, and affording advantages to Ecclecticism and Ma- 
terialism. In Morals he adopted the principles of Ex- 
periment and a theory of Eudaemonism f. On the other 

* In Books IV". X. he develops his Cosmological proof. 

^ On the faults of Locke's Empiricism consult Lord Shaftesbury : Letters 
written by a Nobleman to a young man at the University, Lond. 1716. 

Two inconsiderable works in answer to Locke were published by Henry 
Lee (Anti-Scepticism) and by John Norris, Lond. 1704, 8vo. That by 
Bp. Broavn : The Procedure, Extent, and Limits of Human Understanding, 


liancl his system promoted the knowledge of Metaphysics 
on the grounds of Experience, and contained a variety 
of admirable rules relative to Method, as well as many 
valuable hints on points up to that time neglected. His 
theory gained a great number of adherents in Eng- 
land, France, and the Netherlands, where J. Le Clerc e 
and Gravesande embraced his principles. Thence it 
gradually extended its influence into Germany. A great 
number of eminent men became his partisans, and de- 
duced from his Experimentalism its direct or remote con- 
sequences, such as the hypothesis of a peculiar sense for 
the apprehension of Truth in matters of speculation and 
practice (Reid, Beattie, Rudiger); the attempt to establish 
the objective Reality of knowledge, (Condillac, Bonnet, 
D'Alembert, Condorcet) ; the analysis of the faculties of 
the Soul, (Hartley, Condillac, Bonnet) ; the farther de- 
velopment of excellent rules for the investigation of Truth, 
(Gravesande, Tschirnhausen); an inadequate view of Me- 
taphysics considered as nothing more than Logical reason- 
ings on given facts (Condillac) ; the increase of Materialism 
and Atheism (La Mettrie, Systeme de la Nature ; and 
Priestley) ; and lastly the conversion of Morality into in- 
terested calculation (La Rochefoucauld, Helvetius). 

n. Isaac Newton, 

"Works : Xatiiralis Philosophiae Principia Mathematica, Loud. 
1687, 4to. Augmented, 1713 ; edid. Lesueur et F. Jaquier, 
Geneva, 1760, 8 vols. 4to. 

Treatise of Optics, etc., Lond. 1704, 4to. Optica Lat. reddita 
a Samuel Clarke, Lausann. 1711, 4to. 

Lond. 1729, 8vo. second edit., made more noise, and was continued under the 
title of Things Divine and Supernatural conceived by Analogy with Ihings 
Natural and Human, etc. Lond. 1733. (Against the First Part Berkklev 
composed his Alciphron, or the Minute Philosopher). To these must be 
added : Two Dissertations concerning Sense and Imagination, with an Essay 
on Consciousness, Lond. 1728, Bvo. 

^ Clericusj born at Geneva 1C57 ; died 1736. 

Jon. Ci-ERifi Opera Philosophica, Amst. 1692 et 1693. CEuvres Com- 
pletes, 1710, 4 vols, 4to. et 1722. See ^ 343. 


340 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Opera, Comment, illustr. Sam. Horsley, Lond. 1779, 5 vols. 

A View of Newton's Philosophy by Henry Pemberton, 
Lond. 1726, 4to. 

GuiLL. Jac. S. Gravesande, Physices Elementa Mathematica 
Experimentis confirmata ; s. Introductio ad Philosophiam New- 
tonianam, Lugd. Bat. 1720, 2 vols. 4to. 

Voltaire, Elemens de la Philosophie de Newton, mis a la 
portee de tout le Monde, Amst. 1738 ; and. La Metaphysique de 
Newton, ou Parallele des Sentimens de Newton et de Leibnitz, 
ihid. 1740, 8vo. 

-|" Comparison between the Metaphysics of NcAvton and Leib- 
nitz, in Answer to M. de Voltaire, by L. M. Kayle, G'dtt. 1740, 

'\ Maclaurin, Statement of the Discoveries of Newton, 1748 : 
translated into Lat. by Gr. Falck, Vienna^ 1761, 4to. 

338. The tendency in favour of Experimental philoso- 
phy, which had already become prevalent in England, was 
confirmed by the authority of Newton ^. This illustrious 
philosopher, whose great discoveries in Physics, (e. g. the 
theory of Colours and the laws of Gravitation), achieved 
by the calm prosecution of experimental observations, 
naturally inclined him to recommend to others the same 
career, was so far from giving any encouragement to hy- 
pothetical speculation, that he made it his maxim, that 
** Physics should be on their guard against Metaphysics." 
Nevertheless he himself occasionally indulged in such in- 
quiries ; for instance, when he suggested that Infinite 
Space, in which the celestial bodies revolve, might pos- 
sibly be the sensorium of the Deity. He supposed the 
existence of certain properties inherent in bodies — e. g. 
that of weight in atoms — and even presumed that when 
Natural Philosophy should have completed her course of 
Experiment, she might contribute to the perfection of 
Moral Philosophy ; inasmuch as a more adequate know- 
ledge of the First Great Cause, and of our relations to Him, 

h Born at Wolstrop in Lincolnshire 1642; Professor of Mathematics at 
CambriUge 1669; died 1727. 

338, 339.] ISAAC NEWTON. 341 

may assist us in acquiring a fuller sense of our duties 
towards Him*. 

III. English School of Moral Philosophy , and Reaction 
excited against the Emjnricism of Locke, 

339. A school was formed in England, whose object 
was to establish the principles of Moral Philosophy on 
the basis of natural reason, and who to this end adopted 
the experimental method of Bacon. They sought for our 
first ideas of moral obligation not in the Understanding 
itself but in a peculiar and separate sense, {Moral Sense) ; 
inasmuch as it is by the senses that we acquire all know- 
ledge of real objects. With the desire of opposing the 
selfish system of Hobbes (see § 316), and with the hope of 
exposing some of his inconsistencies, Richard Cumber- 
land^ endeavoured to establish the existence of a principle 
totally different — of Benevolence towards man and de- 
votion to God ; and proceeded to prove by reasoning that 
such a principle was the legitimate foundation of all our 
duties and of our highest happiness ^ 

These new views were carried still farther by a memor- 
able character — Antony Ashley Cooper, Earl of Shaftes- 
bury'^ ; the friend of Locke, but whose penetration de- 
tected the consequences which might be deduced from a 
system of exclusive Experimentalism (see § 337). He 
made virtue to consist in the harmony of our social and 
selfish propensities, and in the internal satisfaction which 
is the result of disinterested actions, accompanied neces- 
sarily by the happiness of the individual ". Like Plato 
he was inclined to identify the Beautiful and the Good. 

• Optic, lib. Ill, Qu. xxxi, p. 330. 
^ Boin 1632; died 1719. 

• Richard Cumberland, De Legibus Naturae Disquisitio Philosophica, in 
qua, etc., Elementa Philosophiae Hobbesianae cum INIoralis turn Civilis con- 
siderantur et refutantur, Land. 1672, 4to. Trad. Franf. avec des Remarques 
de Barbeyrac, Amsterd, 1744, 4to. 

m Born at London, 1671 ; died at Naples 1713. 

" Shaftesbury, Characteristics of Man, Lond. 1733, 3 vols. 12mo. An 
Inquiry concerning Virtue and Merit, 1699. And The Moralists. 

See iVIemoirs towards a Life of the Earl of Shaftesbury, drawn from the 

342 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

The ingenious W, Wollaston° maintained that Truth 
is the Supreme Good, and the source of all pure MoraUty ; 
laying it down as the foundation of his argument that 
every action is a good one which expresses in act a true 

340. The consequences of the Empiricism of Locke had 
become so decidedly favourable to the cause of Atheism, 
Scepticism, Materialism, and IrreligionP, that they in- 
duced the celebrated Dr. Sam. Clarke"^, after Locke and 
Newton, the most distinguished of the English philoso- 
phers, to enter the lists as a redoubtable adversary of the 
new opinions ^ Admitting the existence of a necessary 

Papers of Mr. Locke, and collected by Le Clerc, in the second volume of the 
Miscell. Works of Locke. 

° Born 1659 J died 1724. 

W, WoLLASTON, The Religion of Nature Delineated, Lond. 1724 — 1726 

Examination of the notion of Moral Good and Evil advanced in a late book 
entitled : The Religion of Nature Delineated, by John Clarke, Lond. 1725, 

J. M. Drechsler, On Wollaston's Moral Philosophy, Erlang. 1801, and 
1802, 8vo. second edition. 

P We may here refer to many writings v^^hich arose out of a dispute on the 
Immateriality of the Soul, between William Coward, a physician, who 
denied it in several works (from 1702 to 1707), and his opponents J. Turner, 
J. Broughton, etc. To these may be added the controversy excited by H. 
DoDWELL, who had maintained that it was mortal. 

q Born at Norwich 1675 ; — the pupil of Newton— died 1729. 

•■ In opposition to the opinion of Dodwell, already referred to, he en- 
deavoured to deduce the doctrine of the Immortality of the Soul from our ideas 
of Immaterial existence : A Letter to Mr. Dodwell, wherein all the arguments 
in his Epistolary Discourse against the Immortality of the Soul are particularly 
answered, etc. Lond. 1706, 8vo. The noted Freethinker Ant. Collins, (a 
disciple of Locke, born at Heston 1676; died 1729), pointed out the defects of 
this answer in his Letter of the learned Mr. H. Dodwell, containing some Re- 
marks on a pretended demonstration of the Immateriality and natural Immor- 
tality of the Soul in Mr. Clarke's Answer to his late Epistolary Discourse, 
Lond. 1708, 8vo., which gave occasion to several writings exchanged between 
Collins and Clarke. See the collection mentioned in bibliogr. § 346, and, 
Philosophical Inquiry concerning Human Liberty, Land. 1715 ; with Supple- 
ments, 1717, 8vo. etc. 

Clarke's Natural Theology is contained in his various Sermons, under this 
general title : A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God, Lond. 

340.] ISAAC NEWTON. 343 

connection between natural and revealed religion, Clarke 
endeavoured to prove, by a new method, the existence of 
God. He described the Deity as the subject or substra- 
turn of infinite space and time, and asserted that space 
and time were His accidents : alleging some insufficient 
reasons for moral free-will ; and sinking virtue into a com- 
pliance with propriety^. On the other hand, the Scepti- 
cism of Bayle induced the archbishop of Dublin, William 
King^i to publish a system of Divine Justice, prior to that 
of Leibnitz ; which was republished under another and 
more extended form by John Clarke (the brother of 
Samuel), who did not hesitate to make Self-love the 
principle of Virtue ". The naturalists John Ray "^ and 
WilUam Derham^ took part in these disputes by publi- 
cations half physical and half theological. Collier'' and 

1705 et 1706, 2 vols. 8vo. And Verity and Certitude of Natural and Revealed 
Religion, Lond. 1705. The collection to which we have referred, contains also 
the compositions of Clarke relative to his dispute with Leibnitz, on the subject 
of Space and Time, etc. (See also the Collect, of Polz mentioned § 38, II, c.) 

The Works of Sam. Clarke, Lond. 1738—42, 4 vols. fol. Hoadley has 
written his Life. 

s Sam. Clarke, Discourse concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of 
Natural Religion, Lond. 1708. In answer to this appeared : The foundation 
of jNIorality in Theory and Practice considered in an Examination of Dr. 
Sam. Clarke's opinion concerning the original of Moral Obligation ; as also 
of the notion of Virtue advanced in a late book entitled : An Inquiry into the 
original of our ideas of Beauty and Virtue by John Clakke, York (without 

* De Origine Mali, authore Guilielmo King, etc., Lond. 1702, 8vo. 
Subsequently translated into English. Leibnitz in his System of Divine 
Justice frequently has an eye to this work, which Bayle has combatted in his, 
Reponse aux Questions d'un Provincial. 

" An Inquiry into the Cause and Origin of Evil, etc., Lond. 1720 — 21, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

" John Ray, or Wray ; born 1628; died 1705. 

Three Physico-Theological Discourses, LontZ. 1721, 8vo. ; and, The Wisdom 
of God in the Works of Creation, sixth edition, Lotid. 1714. 

y Died 1735. 

Will. Derham's Physico-Theology, etc. Lond. 1713, 8vo. Astro-The- 
ology, etc. ibid. 1714. 

^ Clavis Universalis, or a New Inquiry after Truth, being a Demonstration 
of the Non-existence or Impossibility, by Collier, Lond. 1713, 8vo. 

344 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Berkeley^ followed a course completely different. The 
last, in particular, a profound and judicious thinker, 
animated by a spirit of genuine benevolence, and venerable 
for his personal character, vt^as shocked by the evil conse- 
quences which the prevailing theory of Experimentalism 
had produced. He was led to imagine that the fruitful 
source of all such aberrations was the unfounded belief 
in the reality and existence of the external world ; and 
adopted a system of absolute Idealism as the only means 
of correcting such hallucinations. Berkeley has evinced 
no little sagacity in the arguments he adduces to show 
the difficulties attendant on the ordinary belief, and the 
obscurity of our ideas of Substance, Accident, and Ex- 
tension ; maintaining that our senses convey to us none 
but sensible impressions, and do not afford us any proof 
of the existence or substantiality of their objects ; and 
that consequently the existence of an external world inde- 
pendent of our sensations may be nothing more than a 
Chimaera. Consequently none but Spirits exist : man can 
contemplate nothing but his sensations and ideas ; but as 
he certainly is not the cause to himself of these, it is no 
less certain from their multiplicity and variety, as well as 
their harmony and consistency, that they are communi- 
cated by a Spirit, (as none but spirits exist), and by a 
Spirit of infinite perfections — God. Though dependent 
on God for knowledge, man is nevertheless endowed with 
absolute free-will, and the cause to himself of his own 

a Born at Kilkrin, in Ireland, 1684; bishop of Cloyne 1734 ; died 1753. 

Treatise on the Principles of Human Knowledge, Lond. 1710, 8vo.; 2nd ed. 
1725. Three Dialogues between Hylas and Philonous, ibid. 1713, Bvo. AI- 
ciphron, or the Minute Philosopher, ibid. 1732, Bvo. ; 1734, 2 vols. Bvo. 
Theory of Vision, ibid. 1709, Bvo. The Works, ibid. 1784, 2 vols. 4to. 

Attached to his works is a life of the author by Arbutiinot ; probably the 
same which appeared separately under the title of, An Account of the Life of 
G. Berkeley, Lond. 1776, Bvo. 

A work has been published by t J. C. Esciienbach, Rost. 1756, Bvo., 
which contains a statement of the opinions of all the philosophers, (particularly 
of Collier and Berkeley), who have denied the existence of their own bodies 
and of the external world ; with notes in refutaton of the text. 

340, 341.] ISAAC NEWTON. 345 

errors and crimes. Collier's work never attained the 
celebrity enjoyed by the elegant dialogues of the Bishop 
of Cloyne, but both, with a laudable wish to preserve 
from decay the elements of natural Ethics, alike at- 
tempted to demonstrate the necessity of Idealism, on 
principles first advanced by Malebranche ; and trusted 
that they had destroyed to the root Scepticism and Athe- 
ism. Their doctrines, however, had little influence over 
the fortunes of the English School of philosophy. 

Berkeley's remarks on the Theory of vision are also 
of interest. 

341. The system we have referred to (§ 339), of Be- 
7ievolence, was more fully developed by a new philosopher. 
Francis Hidcheson^y who has been looked upon as the 
founder of the Scottish School, placed in a still stronger 
light than his predecessors the contradiction existing 
between Self-love and Virtue. He allows the appellation 
of Good to those actions alone which are disinterested 
and flow from the principle of Benevolence. The last 
has no reference to expediency nor personal advantages, 
nor even to the more refined enjoyments of moral sym- 
pathy, the obligations of Heason and Truth, or of the 
Divine Will. It is a distinct and peculiar principle ; a 
moral sentiment or instinct of great dignity and authority ; 
and the end of which is to regulate the passions, and 
decide, in favour of Virtue, the conflict between the 
interested and disinterested aflections. On this founda- 
tion Hutcheson erected all the superstructure of the 
Moral duties. 

His inquiries are valuable also as tending to illustrate 
the principles of the Fine Arts. 

^ Born in Ireland, 1694; became a professor at Glasgow 1729 ; died 1747. 

Francis Hutcheson, Inquiry into the Original of our Ideas of Beauty and 
Virtue, Land. 1720. Essay on the Nature and Guiding of Passions and Af- 
fections, with illustrations on the IVIoral Sense, ibid. 1728. System of Moral 
Philosophy, in three books, etc., to which is prefixed some account of the life, 
writings, and character of the author, by Will. Lef.chmann, ibid. 1755, 
2 vols. Ito. 

346 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

IV. French Moral Philosophers. 

342. In France Moral philosophy took nearly the 
same exjjeriinental direction. The Jesuits having en- 
deavoured to render popular the species of morality which 
favoured their ends by founding it on looser principles of 
obligation % the fathers of the Oratoire or Port-Royal, 
Arnauld, Pascal, Nicole, Malebranche (§§ 328, 332, 333), 
opposed to theirs a rigid system of Ethics, but which, 
being occasionally mystical and enthusiastic, was not likely 
to be permanently established. Francois Due de la Ro- 
chefoucauld ^ on the other hand painted human nature as 
he had found it; representing it as directed solely by 
Self-love; and supplying a convenient sort of Morality 
for the use of the most corrupted portion of the upper 
classes. Bernard de Mandeville^ went so far as to assert 
that Virtue is nothing more than the artificial effect of 
Policy and Ostentation, and that private vices are public 
benefits : a detestable doctrine, which removed all funda- 
mental distinction between right and wrong, justice and 
injustice K 

c See La Morale des Jesuites, etc. Mons, 1669, 8vo. 

^1 Born 1612; died 1680. 

Reflexions, ou Sentences et Maximes Morales de M. de La Rochefoucauld, 
Paris, 1690, r2mo. ; A7nsterd. \705, 12mo. Avec des Remarques par Amelot 
DE LA HoussAYE, PaHs, 1714. Maximes et (Euvres completes, Paris, 1797, 
2 vols. Bvo. 

*^ He was born at Dort, 1670, of a French family, and lived in London, 
where he practised as a physician. Died 1733. 

f See his celebrated fable of the bees, which he published in 1706 : The 
Grumbling Hive, or Knaves turned Honest. Eight years afterwards he pub- 
lished, with illustrations : The Fable of the Bees, or Private Vices made Public 
Benefits, Loud. 1714. To defend his doctrine, he composed six dialogues, 
which form the second volume of the entire work in the edit, of 1728, and in 
those which followed. To these he added : An Inquiry into the Origin of 
Moral Virtue, sixth edit. 1732, 2 vols. 8vo. It has been already remarked, 
that the Alciphron of Berkeley is principally directed against this author. He 
was answered also by other writers, particularly by W. Law : Remarks upon 
a book: The Fable, etc., in a letter to the author, Lond. 1724 ; second edit. 
1725. And (Bluet) Inquiry whether a general practice of Virtue tends to 

342, 343.] SCEPTICS OF THIS PERIOD. 347 

V. Sceptics of this Periods 

343. Scepticism had been employed by Nicole and by 
Bossuet s, and by several other writers, as the means of 
bringing back the Protestants to the pale of the Catholic 
Church ; and of exalting its authority by setting forth the 
incertitude and fallibility of human reason ^. Two indi- 
viduals, however, of comprehensive and liberal minds, 
undertook still farther to defend the cause of Scepticism 
for its own sake. The first was the prelate P. Dan, 
Huet ', one of the most learned men of his day, and versed 
in almost every department of Science. He had in his 
youth embraced the Cartesian system, but became dis- 
satisfied with it on studying the work of Empiricus (see 
§ 327) ; and renounced Gassendi's theory, because adverse 
to religion. In this manner he fell into philosophical 
Scepticism, which in his later writings he made public. 
He admits that Truth must doubtless exist, but asserts 
that it can be known only to God. The Human under- 
standing has so many obstacles to encounter in its pro- 
gress towards knowledge, that it cannot hope to attain it, 
nor can it be assured of the complete correspondence of 
its perceptions with their objects. Faith alone can impart 
certainty, but this is not attainable on Sceptical principles. 

the Wealth or Poverty, Benefit or Disadvantage of a People, etc., Lond. 1725, 

Mandeville, Free Thounhts on Religion, the Church, Government, etc., 
Lond. 1720. 

& Bishop of Meaux; born 1617; died 1704. 

'' Franc. TuRRETiNi Pyrrhonismus Pontificius, Lugd. Bat. 1692. 

* Born at Caen 1630 ; died 1721. 

Petri Dan. Huetii Commentarius de Rebus ad eum pertinentibus, Hag. 
Corn. 1718, 12mo. 

Demonstratio Evangelica, Amstel. 1679, Bvo. 1680, 8vo. 

Censura Philosophiae Cartesianae ; and other works. (§ 324). 

Questiones Alnetanae de Concordia Rationis et Fidei, Cadom. 1690, 4to. ; 
Lips. 1693— 1719, 4to. 

Traite de la Faiblesse de I'Esprit Humain, Amst. 1723, 12mo. In answer 
to this: Ant. Muratort, Tiattato della Forza dell' Intendimento Umano, 
Ossia il Pirronismo confutato, Venet. 1745; third edit. 1756, 8vo. 

348 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

because it does not spring from Reason, but from a higher 
principle, and has reference to a Truth absolute in itself, 
and the subject of a distinct revelation. 

Pierre Bayle ^ appears not to have been so intimately 
convinced as Glanville (§ 334) of the possibility of a True 
Philosophy, although he contributed more than the other 
had done to open a way to the discovery of it, by his in- 
genious attacks on the Dogmatic Systems, and by show- 
ing that Scepticism cannot be the ultimate end of our in- 
quiries. This great scholar and honourable man pos- 
sessed not so much a profound spirit of philosophical 
research, as a quick sagacity and critical judgment. 
These talents, improved by extensive reading (particularly 
of Plutarch and Montaigne) and the study of the various 
philosophical systems and religious tenets of his time, had 
the effect of forming in him a sceptical way of thinking, 
and encouraging a spirit of historical criticism, of which 
up to that time there had been no example. He was 
born at Carlat in the county of Foix, 1647, his father 
being a reformed minister, and after many vicissitudes 
which befel his party in the Church, held a professor's 
place at Sedan, and afterwards at Rotterdam (1681) ; 
became embroiled in many controversies, and died in a 
fortunate state of independence A. D. 1706. He was a 
quick-sighted spirit, who employed against Prejudice, 
Error, and Dulness, but still more against Superstition 
and Intolerance, the arms of a lively wit, various learning, 
and equal acuteness. At first he embraced the Car- 
tesian system, but having compared it with others, and 
accustomed himself to Sceptical discussions, he ceased to 

^ Pierre Bayle, Pensees sur les Cometes, 1681, Amsterd. 1722 — 1726, 
4 vols. 8vo. 

Dictionnaire Historique et Critique. 

Rt-ponses aux Questions d'un Provincial, Rotterd. 1704, 5 vols. Bvo. Let- 
ties, Ttotterd. 1712 J Amst. 1729, Bvo. CEuvres Diverses, La Haye, 1725 — 
1731, 4vols. fol. 

Dies Maizeaux, La Vie de P. Bayle, Amst. 1730, 12mo. ; La Haye, 1732, 
2 vols. 12mo.,- et en avant du Dictionn. edit, d' Amsterd. 1730 et 1740 j et 
Bale, 1741. 

C. M. Pfaffii Disseitationes Anti-Ba^lianae tres, Tubing. 1719, 4to. 


confide even in the possibility of knowledge, and brought 
himself to believe, That Reason was clear-sighted enough 
to detect error-, but not sufficiently so, without external aid, 
to attain to Truth. In short, that without a Revelation 
from above she cannot but err. With such views he 
applied himself constantly to detect the weak sides of 
every sect and system, which nevertheless had had their 
supporters : particularly insisting on the difficulties which 
belong to the questions of the attributes of the Deity, — 
Creation — Providence — Evil, Moral and Physical — Imma- 
teriality — Free-will, and the reality of our knowledge of 
an external world. At the same time that he availed 
himself of Revealed Religion as a beacon in the discus- 
sion of such subjects, he did not fail to point out what- 
ever, in the Christian doctrine or morals, he chose to con- 
sider at variance with Reason ; stimulating the minds of 
men to inquiries still more sceptical. In his discussions 
on Providence carried on with Jean Le Clerc ^ (§ 337), with 
Isaac Jacquelot (§ o^H), and with Leibnitz, on the origin 
of Evil (§ 350), and others, he always preserved the calm- 
ness and dignity of a philosopher. His works have 
greatly contributed to the dissemination of knowledge, 
and unfortunately also to the propagation of an unsettled 
spirit of free-thinking. Jean-Baptiste de Boyer, Marquis 
d'Argens^^ also appeared as a Sceptic. 

' Le Clerc wrote in answer to Bayle : Defense de la Providence contre les 
Manicheens, dont les Raisons ont 6te propos^es par M. Bayle dans son Dic- 
tionnaire Critique (dans le t. I, des Parrhasiana, p. 303). This work is com- 
posed on the principles of Origen. Le Clerc also undertook the defence of 
Cudworth's System, especially of his hypothesis of Plastic Natures: the dis- 
cussion produced a multitude of writings on both sides, and finally led Le Clerc 
to accuse Bayle of Atheism. 

Jacquelot attacked the theological opinions of Bayle in his work, Conformity 
de la Foi avec la Raison, ou Defense de la Religion contre les principales Dif- 
ficultes Repandues dans la Dictionnaire Uistorique et Critique de M. Bayle, 
Amst. 1705, 8vo. Bayle replied to him in his, Reponses aux Questions d'un 
Provincial. Jacquelot then published an Examen de la Th^ologie de M. 
Bayle ; and the latter rejoined by, Entretiens de IMaxime et de Thtmiste, ou 
Reponse a I'Examen de la Theologie de M. Bayle, par M. Jacquelot. This 
work appeared at Rotterdam in 1707, after the death of the author. Jacquelot 
replied to it by another. 

'" Chamberlain of Frederick the Great ; died at Aix, his native town, 1770. 

350 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

The Sceptical School was attacked, but not overcome, 
by P. de Villemandy^y J. P. de Crouza^°, and Formey"^, 



344. About the middle of the seventeenth century phi- 
losophy acquired in Germany renewed energies, though 
these were at first confined to a limited sphere. Samuel 
Fr. Baron von Pufendorf reduced Natural Law to the 
forms of a science. He was born 163^, at Flbke, near 
Chemnitz; and having studied the Cartesian philosophy 
at Jena, became in 16G1 professor of the Law of Nature 
and Nations, at Heidelberg, afterwards at Lund, and 
died historiographer of the House of Brandenburg, at 
Berlin, 1694. He attempted to reconcile the opinions of 
Hobbes and Grotius, and discussed Natural Law as a 
separate question, independent of the obligations of Re- 
vealed Religion or Positive Civil Law. The philosophers 
of the Theological school became in consequence his 
enemies ; particularly Valent. Alberti and Joachim Zent- 

Pufendorf first gave a currency to the principle of So- 
ciability, which Grotius had started ; and maintained that 
in virtue of this motive, which is allied to Self-love, man 
desires the society and co-operation of his fellow-men ; 
but that at the same time through the corruption of his 
nature, (the state of Nature described by Hobbes), and 
in consequence of the multiplicity of his desires, and the 
impossibility of easily satisfying them, as well as the in- 
stability of his natural disposition, he is no less inclined 
to do injury to others, and is furnished with the means 
of doing so in his address and cunning. From these 

" Petri de Villemandy, Scepticismus Debellatus seu Ilumanae Cog- 
nitionis Ratio ab imib Radicibus explicata, etc. Lugd. Bat. 1697, 4to. See 
$ 139. 

" See the works mentioned § 124. 

P Ibid. 

344.] PUFENDORF. 351 

considerations he infers, on the principle of Self-love, 
the first law of society, that we should each individually 
labour to maintain the social compact, which derives 
its authority directly from God, as the Creator of man- 
kind. From this origin Pufendorf deduces the laws of 
Morality and Jurisdiction. He does not indeed discrimi- 
nate between Natural and Moral Right, and frequently 
recurs to Christianity for positive precepts ; yet he may 
be said to have laid the foundations of an Universal phi- 
losophy of practice. The multifarious disputes in which 
he was engaged, particularly with Alberti (§ 315), were 
of little service to the cause of philosophy. He has 
perhaps been as much encumbered by his commentators 
as his adversaries. 

Sam. Pufendorf, Elementa Jurisprudential Universalis, ^a^. 
Com. 1660 ; Jen. 8vo. 

De Jure Naturae et Gentium libb. VIII, Lund. 1672; Francof. 
1684, 4to. ; cum Xotis Hertii, Barbeyraci, et Mascovii, 
Francof. et Lips. 1744, 1749, 2 vols. 4to., and other editions. 
De Officio Hominis et Civis libb. II, Lund. 1673, Svo., and 
other editions. Cum Notis Variorum, Ludg. Bat. 1769, 2 vols. 
Svo. Eris Scandica, Francof. 1686. On the Natural Law of 
Pufendorf, see Leibnitz. (Cf. § 350, note.) 

I. Leibnitz. 

Fontenelle, Eloge de M. de Leibnitz, dans I'Histoire de 
I'Acad. Roy. des Sciences de Paris, 1716. f The biography it 
contains was founded on a ]\Iemoir communicated by J. G. von 
Eccard, which has been published by Von ^Iurr, in the Journal 
of the History of the Arts, etc., part VII, Niirmh. 1779. 

Bailly, Eloge de M. de Leibnitz, qui a Remporte le Prix de 
r Academic de Berlin, 1769, 4to. 

Leben und Verzeichniss der Schriften des Herm v. Leibnitz 
in LuDovici's Ausfiilirlichem Entvvnirf einer Vollstiindigen His- 
toric der Leibnitzschen Philosophic im ersten Bande, Leipz. 1737, 

Lamprecht Leben des Hrn. v. Leibnitz, Berlin^ 1740, Svo. 

Geschichte des Hrn. von Leibnitz, a. d. Franz, des Ritter v. 
Jancourt, Leipz. 1757, Svo. 

A. G. Kastners Lobschrift auf Leibnitz, Altona, 1769, 4to. 

352 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Mich. Hissmann Versuch iiber das Leben des Freiherrn von 
Leibnitz, Miinster, 1783, 8vo. 

A Life of Leibnitz, by Rehberg, is to be found in the f Ha- 
noverian Magazine, 1787, year 25 ; and another among the 
"f Lives and Characters of distinguished Germans, by Klein, 
1 vol. ; as well as a third in the -f German Pantheon, by Eber- 


345. The comprehensive genius of Gottftied Williain 
Leibnitz embraced the whole circle of philosophy, and 
imparted to it, in Germany at least, a new and powerful 
impulse. All that can interest or exercise the under- 
standing was attemped by his great and original mind, 
more especially in the Mathematics and Moral Philosophy. 
He was ignorant of no one branch of learning, and in all 
he has shown the fertility of his mind by the discoveries 
he suggested or attempted. He w^as the founder of a 
school in Germany which distinguished itself for the so- 
lidity of the principles it embraced, and the systematic 
manner in which these were developed — a school which 
effected the final overthrow of the Scholastic system, and 
extended its influence over the whole range of the sci- 
ences. Leibnitz, by his example and his exertions, laid 
the foundations of this great revolution, by combining the 
philosophical systems which had prevailed up to his time : 
by his extraordinary learning : the liberality of his mind : 
and that spirit of toleration which led him always to dis- 
cover some favourable point of view in what he criticised 
— something, even in the most obscure systems, which 
might suggest matter for research. To this must be 
added the harmony which prevailed in his own system, 
and the infinitude of bright ideas, hints, and conjectures, 
which were perpetually, as it were, scintillating from his 
brilliant mind, though he left to others the task of collect- 
ing and combining them. 

He was born June 21, 1616, at Leipsic, where his 
father was professor of moral philosophy, and studied the 
same science under J. Thomasius (born 16^2, died 1684), 
applying himself at the same time to the Mathematics p 

P Under Erh. Weigel, at Jena, (who died 1690). 

345, 346.] LEIBNITZ. 353 

and the study of Natural Law ; read the Classics in the 
original tongues, particularly Plato and Aristotle, whose 
doctrines he endeavoured at an early age to combine. 
The cultivation of his mind was advanced, and the ver- 
satility and address of his natural parts promoted, by im- 
mense reading and a multifarious correspondence: by his 
early independence of mind : by his travels, particularly 
to Paris and London : and by his acquaintance with the 
most distinguished statesmen, and most illustrious sages 
of his time. He died, November 14, 1716, at Hanover, 
of which state he was a privy councillor, and keeper of 
the library ; scarcely less honoured after his death than 
during his life, as is testified, among other things, by a 
monument recently erected to him. 

§ 346. 

"Works : His Dissert, de Principio Individuationis, Lips. 1664. 
Specimen Quaestionum Philosophicarum ex Jure Collectarum, 
ibid. eod. Tract, de Arte Combinatoria, cui subnexa est De- 
monstratio Existentiae Dei ad Mathematicam certitudinem ex- 
acta, Lips. 1666; Frcf. 1694. The first Pliilosophical Treatises 
of Leibnitz are to be found in the Acta Eruditorum, from 1684 ; 
and in the Journal des Savans, from 1691. 

GoTTFR. W. Leibnitii Opera, studio Lud. Dutens, Genev. 
1768, 6 vols. 4to. 

To this collection must be added : 

•j" The Philosophical Works of the late M. Leibnitz, pubHshed 
by M. RuD. Erich Raspe, with a preface by M. Kastner, j4m- 
sterd. and Leips. 1765, 4to. The German edition contains Re- 
marks and Additions, by J. H. F. Ulrich, Halle, 1778 — 1780, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

A Collection of Papers, which passed between the late learned 
M. Leibnitz and Dr. Clarke, in the years 1715 and 1716, re- 
lating to the Principles of Natural Philosophy and Religion ; 
pubhshed by Samuel Clarke, London, 1717, 8vo. 

Leibnitii Otium Hanoveranum, sive Miscellanea G. W. Leib- 
nitii ed. JoACH. Fr. Feller, Lips. 1718, 8vo. : et, Monumenta 
varia inedita. Lips. 1724, 4to. Epistolae ad Diversos, ed. Chr. 
KoRTHOLD, Lips. 1734, 1742, 4 vols. 8vo. 

Commercium Epistolicum Leibnitianum, ed. Jo. Dan. Gru- 
BER, Hanov. et Gotting. 1745, 2 vols. 8vo. 

A a 

354 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Commercii Epistolici Leibnitiani tjrpis nondum evulgati se- 
lecta specimina, ed. Joh. Ge. H. Feder, Hanov. 1805, 8vo. 

f Comparison between the Metaphysics of Leibnitz and New- 
ton (§ 338, bibliogr.), by L. Mart. Kahle, Gotting. 1741 ; 
translated into French, The Hague, 1747, 8vo. A similar work 
(French), by Beguelin, in the Memoirs of the Academy of Ber- 
lin, 1756. 

Recueil de Diverses Pieces sur la Philosophic, la Religion, 
etc., par MM. Leibnitz, Clarke, Newton (publ. par Desmai- 
zeaux, Amsterd. 1719, second edit. 1740, 2 vols. 8vo.) 

Leibnitz, Essai de Theodicee sur la Bonte de Dieu, la Liberte 
de I'Homme, et I'Origine du Mai, Amsterd. 1710, 8vo. ; 1712- 
14-20-48, (Lat.): Colon. 1716, 8vo. ; Francf. 1719, 2 vols. 8vo. 
Leibnitii Tentamina Theodicae de Bonitate Dei, Libertate Homi- 
nis, et Origine Mali. Versionis novae editio altera cum Prgef. 
Aug. Fr. Boeckhii, Tubing. 1771, 2 vols. 8vo. (Several Ger- 
man editions). 

•f Doctrine of Leibnitz, etc., translated from the French by 
J. H. KoHLER, Francf. 1720, 8vo. ; new edition by Hutii, 
Francf. 1740, 8vo. 

Ejusd. : Principia more Geometrico demonstrata cum ex- 
cerptis et Epistolis Philosophi et Scholiis quibusdam ex Historia 
Philosophica, auctore Mich. Gottl. Hanschio, Francf. et Lips, 
1728, 4to. 

Leibnitz was led to the composition of his philoso- 
phical system by various causes ; by the acute comparison 
he was induced to make of the most celebrated of former 
systems with a reference to the exigencies of his own time ; 
by a capacity fruitful in ingenious hypotheses and in im- 
provements or accommodation ; as well as by his great 
mathematical acquirements. His object was so com- 
pletely to reform Philosophy that it might possess a 
strictness of demonstrations analogous to that of the Ma- 
thematics, and to put an end to all disputes betwen its 
factions, as well as all differences supposed to exist be- 
tween it and Theology^; with the hope of diminishing 
the principal difficulties belonging to some great ques- 
tions, and, at the same time, the causes of dispute by im- 
proving the method of philosophy, and ascertaining, if 
possible, some positive and invariable principles. It was 

1 Discours de la Conformite de la Foi avec la Raison (in the Theodicee.) 

347.] LEIBNITZ. 355 

his opinion that the same course should be pursued as 
in the Mathematics, which led him to prefer the method 
of Demonstration and the system of Rationalism; such 
as it had been embraced by Plato and Descartes ; without 
entirely concurring with either. The method thus adopted 
induced him to appreciate even the labours of the 
Schoolmen. There are certain necessary Truths (such 
was his opinion), belonging to Metaphysics as well as 
Mathematics, the certainty of which cannot be ascertained 
by Experiment, but must be sought ivithin the Soul itself. 
This is the corner-stone of the Rationalism of Leibnitz ; 
who endeavoured to liberate the Cartesian system from 
its attendant improbabilities ; without, however, effecting 
any accurate discovery of the principal conditions of phi- 
losophical knowledge, or any complete definition of its 
method or limits. The Rationalism of Leibnitz is espe- 
cially apparent in his Theory of Knowledge, essentially 
opposed to that of Locke. Leibnitz interested himself 
in the investigation of the possibility of a Characteristic 
or Universal Language : which might represent the 
discoveries in Art and Science in the same way that 
arithmetical and algebraic signs express theTproportions of 
numbers. (CEuvres Philosophiques, p. bo5, sqq. ; Prin- 
cip. Philos. § 30, SS, So, 37). 

347. According to Leibnitz necessary Truths are 
innate : not that we are from our birth actually con- 
scious of them, but are born with a capacity for them. 
Our perceptions however differ by being clear or obscure, 
distinct or confused. Sensible perceptions are indistinct ; 
all precise knowledge being the property of the understand- 
ing. The criterium of Truth, which Descartes laid down 
(§ ^62S) is inadequate : the rules of Logic, which are the 
same in substance with the laws of the Mathematics, are 
more appropriate to the purposes of Philosophy. All our 
conclusions must be founded on two grand principles : 
1st. That of Indentity and Contradiction, ^ndiy. That of 
a Sufficient Cause. These two principles are as appli- 
cable to necessary as to contingent truths. Necessary 

356 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

truths are discoverable on the principle of Contradiction, 
by the analysis of compound objects hito their simple 
elements : accidental truths, on the other hand, are ascer- 
tained by virtue of the Sufficient Cause, which conducts 
us to an ulterior and independent truth, beyond the 
range of what is contingent "". The ideas which relate to 
objects witJiout the soul, must have a correspondency 
with such objects ; otherwise they would be mere illu- 
sions. The ultimate ratio of innate and necessary truths 
resides with the Deity, as the source of all necessary and 
absolute Truth, which is dependent on the Divine Un- 
derstanding (not the Divine Will.) 

Leibnitii Meditationes de Cogiiitione, Veritate et Ideis ; in 
the Acta Eruditorum, 1684. 

Nouveaux Essais sur rEntendement Humain par I'Auteur de 
rHarmonie pre-etablie ; in the CEuvres Philosophiques, published 
by Raspe. 

348. His Monadologia is the central point of the system 
of Leibnitz, by which he believed himself to have ascer- 
tained the ultimate grounds of all knowledge. Plato's 
theory, and possibly the notions of the physician Francis 
Glisson % led him to these speculations, by which he also 
believed himself to have found a way of reconciling the 
Aristotelian and Platonic systems. Experience proves 
to us the existence of compound objects ; consequently, 
we are led to believe in the existence of simple ones 
(Monades) of which the other are compounded*. Our 
senses cannot apprehend these, inasmuch as they present 
to us objects in their confused and compound state, the 
understanding alone contemplating them with precision. 
That which is Simple is the elementary principle of the 
Compounded, and as the former cannot be directly appre- 

'^ Princ. Philos. ^ 31—46. Th^odic. p. 1, $ 44. 

» Died 1677. 

I'ractatus de Natuia Substantias Energiticil, s. de Vit^ Naturai ejusque 
tribus facultatibus perceptive, adpetitiva et motivl auct. Franc. Glissonio, 
Lond. 1672, 4to. 

' Piincip. Philos. p. 1. 

348.] LEIBNITZ. 357 

hended by the Senses, it is multiplied and confused in 
our perceptions. The Monades cannot be influenced by 
any change from without, their principle of modification 
being internal to themselves, and inasmuch as all real 
substances must have their internal properties, by which 
they are mutually discriminated", and as there is 
no other internal property but that of perception, it 
follows that the Monades are Spiritual poivers and 
faculties, which are continually labouring to change 
their condition (or perceptions.) God is the Monas 
Monaduni : The necessarily existing Essence. Every 
real essence is af?ilguratio7i from His ; modified by the 
limited nature of the being in which it is contained. The 
Essence of God is absolute Perfection ; it embraces all 
possible Realities without limitation ; none of them con- 
flicting wdtli the rest. He is the absolute and sole cause 
of the actuality of the world and the existence of all 
things : the all-sufficient cause, unlimited by action or 
condition : the original source of all knowledge and 
being. There exists therefore an infinite and original or 
primordial Monade, and also secondary, finite, and limited 
Monades, which latter are distinguished from one 
another by the properties of their phenomena. Some 
Monades are without Perception (Inert bodies) : — some 
possess it (souls) : — some are endowed with an obscure 
consciousness (the inferior animals) : some possess a 
clear and perfect one. Distinct perceptions are the 
sources of Action : obscure and confused ones of Passion 
and Imperfection. Every simple substance, or Monade, 
forming as it were the Central-point of a compound sub- 
stance (for instance that of an animal), is the nucleus of 
an infinitude of other Monades, which constitute the 
external body of the first ; and agreeably to the aflfections 
of these aggregated Monades, the Central-Monade appre- 
hends and, as it were, concentrates in it a common focus, 
the impressions of external objects. Furthermore, as 

" " Because there cannot be two things which completely agree in their 
internal properties." 

358 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

every thing in this world is connected with something 
else, and as all bodies affect others, and are themselves 
affected in the ratio of their respective distances, it follows 
that each individual Monade is a sort of living tnirrorf 
endowed with an internal activity of its own, enabling it 
to image forth the whole Creation, being itself constituted 
on the same principles as the Universe at large. There 
exists no immediate influence (injluxus physicus) of one 
simple substance on another (e. g. Soul and Body), but 
merely an ideal connection : that is, the internal affections 
of each Monade harmonise with those of the Monades 
which are in immediate connection with the first. This 
gives them the appearance of being mutually influenced 
by each other. The cause of this correspondence is the 
infinite wisdom and power of God, who, at the first, so 
constituted all things, that there exists an universal — pre- 
ordained harmony, or Harmonia prcestabilita^. Space 
is the arrangement of all things simultaneously existing : 
the phenomenon of Expansion is the consequence of the 
confused manner in which such arrangement is repre- 
sented by the senses ; and Time is the order of successive 
changes which take place in the external world. Time 
and Space have merely an ideal and relative existence. 

The following works may be consulted : 

Principes de la Nature et de la Grace fondee en Raison, par 
feu M. le Baron de Leibnitz ; dans I'Europe Savante, 1718, 
Novembre, Art. VI ; et Recueil, etc., torn. II. See the works 
mentioned § 345. 

GoDFR. Ploucquet PriiTiaria Monadologise capita, Berol. 
1748, 8vo. 

Institutions Leibnitiennes, ou Precis de la Monadologie, Lyon, 
1767, 8vo. 

De Justi. Dissertation qui a remporte le Prix propose par 
I'Acad. Roy. des Sciences de Prusse, sur le Systeme des Monades, 
Bert. 1748, 4to. By the same author: -}- Defence of the Dis- 
sertation on Monades, etc., Frcf. and Leips. 1748, 8vo. (Germ.) 

■j' Plan of a Brief Account of Works rchitive to Monades or ' 
Elementary Bodies, from the time of Leibnitz to our own ; in the 

'' See Leibn. dans le Journal des Savans, 1695. p. 414 et 445, 

348, 349.] LEIBNITZ. 359 

1st, 2nd, and 3rd, vols, of the Philosopliical Bibliotheca of Got- 
tingen, by Windiieim, 1749. 

G. Bern. Bilfinger, Commentatio de Harmonia Animi et 
Corporis Hiimani maxime praestabilita ex mente Leibnitii, Francf. 
et Lips. 1723, 8vo. ; second edition, 1735, Svo. 

Ancillon (Pere), Essai sur I'Esprit du Leibnitzianisme, en 
Fran^. dans les Dissertations de la Classe Philosophique de 
TAcad. des Sciences de Berlin, 1816, 4to. 

H. C. W. SiGWART, The Doctrine of Leibnitz on Pre-esta- 
blished Hannony, compared with his former Doctrines, Tubingen, 
1822, 8vo. ;, 

349. The Divine Intelligence contemplates an infinitude 
o£ possible worlds, from among which His wisdom and 
goodness have selected, and His power created the best, 
i. e. the world in which the greatest number of Realities 
exist and harmonise with each other. (A system of 
Optimism). Hence it follows that every thing is for the 
best, considered as a part of the universe with which it is 
connected, even although in itself it should be imperfect ; 
nor can any thing be other than what it is ^. Every thing 
is so constituted as to attain in the highest possible 
degree its own felicity, and to contribute in the greatest 
degree possible to the good of the Whole. The exist- 
ence of Evil is no objection. Leibnitz distinguished 
Evil into Metaphysical — Physical — and Moral. Meta- 
physical evil is nothing but the necessary limitation of the 
nature of finite beings, the consequences of which are 
physical evil (e. g. pain), and moral (sin). Moral evil has 
its origin in the power of Choice intrusted to Finite 
beings. Freedom of will is not an Equilibrium or In- 
difference of inclination, nor yet a determination without a 
motive ; but a free choice of one line of conduct in prefer- 
ence to others no less physically possible ; influenced, but 
without constraint or necessity, by that, among many 
motives of action, which preponderates. It by no means 
interferes with this perfect freedom of election that God 
foresees all human actions, inasmuch as contingent and 

y Principia, ^ Iv — Ix ; Theodicee, i, p. 8, 9. 

360 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

free-will actions only exclude the hypothesis of absolute, 
not that of conditional necessity. Every thing in the 
world is conditionally necessary ; yet man, not foreseeing 
the future, is bound to act according to his judgment and 
reason. In these respects Leibnitz studiously opposed the 
system of Descartes, whose hypothesis of absolute Fate 
deprived even the Deity of all real influence. God does 
not absolutely will or ordain either physical or moral 
evil ; but he allows the first to exist as a necessary con- 
sequence of His general laws, and as means to ulterior 
ends ; and permits also the existence of the latter, inas- 
much as it is necessarily connected with the highest de- 
gree of perfection possible in the present world: His 
wisdom and goodness having established a harmony 
between the systems of Nature and Grace ; in which 
consists the Divine Government of the world. 

Leibnitz was led (as he tells us in his Preface to the 
Theodicee) to these speculations on the harmony between 
Revelation and Reason, by the doubts and objections of 

Works to be consulted : 

Fr. Ch. Baumeister, Historia de Doctrina de Optimo Mundo, 
Gorlitii. 1741. 

Wolf ART, Cuntroversiae de Mundo Optimo, Jen. 1745. 

(Reinhard) Dissertation qui a remporte le Prix propose par 
I'Acad. Roy. des Sciences de Prusse, sur I'Optimisme, avec les 
Pieces qui ont concouru, Berlin, 1755, 4to. 

•f Collection (in Germ.) of Writings on the Doctrine of Op- 
timism, Rostock, 1759, 8vo. See also the work of Werdermann, 
mentioned § 38, II, c. 

•f Various Writings on Occasion of the Dispute between 
Platner and Wezel respecting the Theodicee of Leibnitz, 
Lips. 1782, 8vo. 

Leibnitii Doctrina de Mundo Optimo sub examen revocatur 
denuo a Ciir. A. Leonii. Creuzer, Lips. 1795, 8vo. 

RoBiNET, in his Book on Nature, has published a System 
analogous to that of Leibnitz, Amsterd. 1761 — 08, 5 vols. 8vo. 

Im. Kant iiber das Misslingen aller Philos. Versuche einer 
Theodicee in seinen kleinen Schriften, 3 B. Betrachtungen 
iiber den Optimismus, Koningsh. 1759, 4to. 

350,351.] LEIBNITZ. /361 

350. Leibnitz gives us but partial views of his^ Doc- 
trine ; not presenting it to us as a whole, but piecemeal. 
Practical philosophy he has touched upon but slightly *. 
For the most part his system is the imperfect result of a 
great talent for analysis and combination; of great ability 
in reconciling the difficulties and differences presented by 
Philosophy and Theology; embracing a partial and 
incomplete investigation of the faculty of knowledge. As 
Locke had sought the foundation of all knowledge ex- 
clusively in the senses, so did he in the understanding; 
and asserted that it is by Thought that the existence of 
external things is ascertained (a system of Rationalism). 
He confounds Logical possibility and actuality with Real ; 
makes all the phenomena of perception too completely 
intellectual ; and overlooks the important part which 
observation must always support in the acquisition of 
of knowledge *. If his system had been well founded it 
would have established an absolute Determinism ; incom- 
patible with the free agency of rational beings. Never- 
theless, his philosophy, abounding in bold hypotheses and 
splendid observations, has promoted the cause of meta- 
physical science, by bringing into circulation a multitude 
of new ideas ; to which the circumstance of his composing 
for the most part in French has contributed. 

•\ Detailed Plan of a Complete History of Leibnitz, by C. G. 
LuDovici, Leipz.1732, 2 parts, 8vo. 

851. Leibnitz had a great number both of adherents 
and adversaries ^ : the former for a length of time labo- 

^ Consult : De Principiis Juris Observationes, 1700. Anonymi Sententla 
de Tractatu cl. viri Sam. Pufendoufii qui inscribitur de Officiis Ilominis 
et Civis; in a Programma of J. C. Bohmer, 1709, 4to. t On Natural Law 
according to Leibnitz, see his Preface to Corpus Juris Gentium ^ and several 
of his Letters. 

* See t Em. Kant : Criticism of Pure Reason, fifth edition, p. 316, sqq. 

•* Bayle (for instance), in his Dictionary : Leibnitz replied by his : 
Eclaircissemens des Difficultes que I\I. Bayle a trouv^es dans le Systerae 
nouveau de I'Union de I'ame et du corps, Journal des Savans, 1698, and his 
Histoire des Ouvrages des Savans, 1698, p. 329 j with: Reponse aux Re- 

362 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

riously employed themselves in fortifying the outworks of 
their master's system; while the latter directed their 
attacks rather against the consequences of his philosophy 
than its principles. The result was an animated 
conflict, which kept alive the interest of philosophical 
research, and insensibly introduced the habit of more 
profound inquiries respecting the fundamental properties 
of human knowledge. 

The system of Leibnitz, though favourably received 
by many distinguished professors, failed at first to obtain 
great influence in Germany, from its want of a sys- 
tematic form. Other obstacles impeded its progress in 
France and England. 

Among his successors we must distinguish M. G, 
Hansch'^, and Christian Wolf, the most renowned advo- 
cate of this school, and the first who gave an extensive 
popularity to the system. He was succeeded by his pu- 
pils, Bilfinger and Baumgarten (§ 360.) 

flexions dans la seconde edition de M, Bayle, article Kouarius, sur le Sys- 
teme de THarmonie pr6-etablie, dans I'Histoire Critique de la Republique des 
Lettres, torn, ii, et Recueil des Diverses Pieces, torn, ii, p, 389. Sam. Clarke, 
and Nev/ton also opposed Leibnitz. We have mentioned above ($ 346) the 
works which relate to their disputes, etc. The Abbe Foucher also wrote an 
article against his system of pre-established Harmony, in the Journal des 
Savans, annee 1695, p. 638, sqq., to which Leibnitz replied in the same 
Journal, 1696, p. 255 — 259 : Lamy attacked him in his Connaissance du 
Systeme, etc. torn, ii, p. 225, sqq. which was met, on the part of Leibnitz, by : 
Reponse aux Objections que le P. Lamy, Benedictin, a faites contre le Sys- 
teme de I'Harmonie pre-etablie, dans le Journ. des Sav., 1709, p. 593. We 
may add to the number of his opponents all who subsequently declared against 
the doctrines of Wolf ; particularly Pierre de Crouzaz (§ 357) in his 
Critique on Pope's Essay on Man, and in his Reflexions sur I'ouvrage 
intitule : La Belle Wolfienne, Lausanne, 1743, Bvo. De Vattel defended 
against the last the system of Leibnitz, in his : Defense du Systeme Leibnitien 
contre les Objections et les Imputations de M. Crouzaz, conteuues dans 
I'Examen de I'Essai sur I'Homme, de Pope, Leyde, 1741, Bvo. 

c Born near Dantzig, 1683 ; died at Vienna, 1752. 

M. GoTTL. Hansch, Principia Philosophia;. See § 346, bibiiogr. 

Ars Inveniendi, s. Synopsis Regularum Prajcipuarum Artis Inveniendi, 
etc., 1727 (no place mentioned). Selecta Moralia, Hal. 1720, 4to. 


Other Contemporary Philosophers. 

352. About the same time two learned men of great 
merit attempted, witli different views, a reformation in 
School-philosophy still prevalent in Germany. The cele- 
brated physician and mathematician E. W. von Tschirn- 
hausen^, who had studied at Leyden, and early attached 
himself to the opinions of Descartes and Spinoza, endea- 
voured to systematise a theory of philosophical discovery 
and observation, on the principle of the mathematics. 
Christian Thomasius^ laboured to render philosophy more 
jjopular in its character, and to disseminate a knowledge 
of it in his native language ^ In Ethics he at first at- 
tached himself to the principles of Pufendorf, whom he 
defended against his assailants ; though subsequently he 
withdrew from him ^, not so much in respect of his prin- 

^ Born at Kieslingswalde in Oberlausitz, 1651 ; died 1708. 

Chr. Walth. Tschirnhausen, Medicina Mentis, sive Artis Inveniendi 
Praecepta Generalia, Amstelod. 1687 ; Lips. 1695 — 1705—1753, 4to. 

A biography of the author was published separately at Gorlitz, 1709, 8vo. 
See Fontenelle, Eloges, p. 166. For an opinion of his philosophical labours, 
see the Collection of jMemoirs of G. G. Ftjlleborn, Fasc. V, p. 32, (Gerra.) : 
where are to be found extracts from his Medicina Mentis. 

e Born at Leipsic, 1655 ; died at Halle, 1728. 

^ Consult the article on Christian Thomasius, in the Universal Biography 
of Schrockh, (Germ.). 

t Chr. Thomasius, his Life and Works, by H. Luden, Berlin, 1805, 8vo. 

t G. G. FiJLLEBORN, On the Philosophy of Chr. Thomasius, in the IV. 
Fasc. of his Collection of JMemoirs, etc. 

Chr. Thomasii Introductio in Philosophiam Aulicam, seu primae lineaB 
Libri de Prudentia Cogitandi atque Ratiocinandi, Lips. 1688, 8vo. ; Hal. 
1702. Introductio in Philosophiam Rationalem in qua Omnibus Hominibus 
Via plana et facilis panditur, sive Syllogistica, Verum, Verisimile et Falsum 
discernendi, novasque veritates inveniendi. Lips. 1601, 8vo. 

t Introduction to the Art of Reasoning, Halle, 1691, 8vo., (and other edi- 
tions), t Exercise of the Art of Reasoning, Halle, 1710, 8vo. t Essay on 
the Existence and Nature of the Spirit, etc., Halle, 1699 — 1709, 8vo. 

Chr. Thomasii Dissert, de Crimine Magias, Hal. 1701, 4to. 

B Chr, Thomasii Institutionum Jurisprudential Divinae libri III, in quibus 
Fundamenta Juris Nat. secundum hypotheses ill. Pufendorfii perspicue de- 
monstrantur, etc., Franco/, et Lips. 1688, 4to.; Hal. 1717, 4to. (Germ.); 
Halle, 17l2,4to. Fundamenta Juris Naturae et Gentium, ex Sensu Communi 

364 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

ciples as by the distinctions he made between the Prae- 
cepta Justi — Honesti et Decori ; and by hmiting Natural 
Right to merely negative principles of external conduct. 
His views in these particulars procured him, in after 
time, as much abuse from one set of philosophers as 
they obtained applause from another ''. They were main- 
tained in a more exact and methodical manner by Fijihraim 
Gerard, and still more so by Jer. Gundling^. The prin- 
ciple of morality which Thomasius assumed was Reason- 
able Love, differing from unreasonable or Self-love ; of 
which, after all, it was a modification. The fruit of this 
Reasonable Love or Desire, is Happiness or repose of 
mind, constituting the ultimate object and supreme good 
of man. His successors (Gerhard and Gundling), de- 
fined still more broadly the limits between Natural Right 
and Morality, and treated the former as a system of per- 
fect right and corresponding obligation, having in view 
a State of Nature ; at the same time frequently referring 
to the enactments of positive law, especially the Roman, 
to which a certain degree of authority was still allowed. 
Heineccius, The Cocceii, and Putter, have treated Natu- 

deducta, Hal. 1705—1718, 4to. (Germ.) ; Halle, 1709. Introductio in Phi- 
losophiam Moralem cum Praxi, Hal. 1706. 

t The Alt of Living Conformably to Reason and Virtue, or, an Introduc- 
tion to Morality, Halle, 1792 — 1710, 8vo. t On the Cure of Unreasonable 
Desire, etc., Halle, 1696—1704, Bvo. 

Fr. Schneider, Philosophia Moralis secundum Principia Thomasiana, 
Hal. 1723. 

•» They were especially attacked by G. E. Schulze, (t On the Principles of 
Civil and Penal Right, Gotting. 1813, preface, p. 1 and 17) : as well as by 
the celebrated Jurist, Hugo ; who calls this attempt to distinguish between 
Natural Right and Morality — a Moral System intended for the use of Cut- 
throats (eine Todtschlagsmoral). 

' Ephr. Gerhard died 1718 ; he published his Delineatio Juris Naturalis 
sive de Principiis Justi libri III, quibus Fundaraenta Generalia Doctrinae de 
Decoro accesserunt, Jen. 1712, 8vo. 

Nic. Jer. Gundling, born at Nuremburg, 1671, died at Halle, 1729; he 
published: Via ad Veritatem Moralem, Hal. 1714, Bvo. Jus Naturae et Gen- 
tium, etc., Hal. 1714, 8vo. 

On the Rights of Nature and Nations, etc., Francf. and Leips., 1734, 4to. 
See his Article in the second vol. of Schrockii, t Biography of Celebrated 
Literary Characters, etc. 

352, 353.] WOLF. 365 

ral Law with these views ; their ideas being more fully 
developed by Achenwall ^ ; who also turned his attention 
to National Law. Among the philosophers who adhered 
to Wolf, must be mentioned the Eclectic Buddeus ^ 

IV. Wolf and his School; his Adversaries, and other 
Contemporartj Philosophers, 

Vita, Fata, et Scripta Chr. Wolfii, Lips, et Breslav. 1739, 

f CiiR. GoTTScHED, Historical Eulogium of Christian Baron 
von Wolf, Halle, 1755, 4to. 

Life of Wolf, in the Memoirs towards a Biography of Cele- 
brated Men, by Busching, vol. I, p. 3 — 138. 

Chr. Wolfii Dissertat. inauguralis ; Philosophia Practica 
Universalis Methodo Mathematica conscripta. Lips. 1701, 4to. 

Chr. Wolf's Vemiinftige Gedanken von den Kraften des 
menschlichen Verstandes, Halle, 1710, Svo. u. ofter. Auch 
Lateinisch. Vemiinftige Gedanken von Gott, der Welt und der 
Seele des Menschen, auch alien Dingen iiberhaupt, Frankf. u. 
Lelpz. 1719, Svo. ; VI. Ausg. 1736. Anmerkungen dazu, Frkf. 
1724, 1727, 1733, Svo. Versuche zur Erkenntniss der Natur 
und Kunst. 3 voll. Halle, 1721—23, Svo. Vemiinftige Ge- 
danken von den Wirkungen der Natur, Halle, 1723, Svo. Von 
den Absichten der natiirlichen Dinge, Frankf. 1724, Svo. Von 
des Menschen Thun und Lassen, Halle, 1720. Von dem gesell- 
schaftlichen Leben der Menschen und dem gemeinen Wesen, 
Halle, 1721, Svo. Institutiones Juris Naturae et Gentium, Hal. 
1750, Svo. ; Deutsch. 1754, Svo. Nachricht von seinen cigneii 
Schriften, die er in Deutscher Sprache in verschiedenen Theilen 
der Weltweisheit herausgegeben, Frankf 1726, Svo. Gesam- 
melte kleine philosophische Schriften, Halle, 1740, 4 Th. Svo. 

Latin Works : Luculenta Commentatio de Differentia nexus 
Rerum Sapientis et Fatalis Necessitatis, nee non Systematis H. P. 
et Hypothesium Spinozae, 1723. Oratio de Sinarum Philoso- 
phia, Hal. 1726, 4to. Philosophia Rationalis s. Logica Methodo 
Scientifica pertractata, Frcf et Lips. 172S, 4to. ; second edition, 

^ Born atElbingen, 1686 ; died 1756. 

GoTTFR. Achenwall, Jus Naturae, Gott. 1750, seventh edition, cum Prae- 
fat. de Selchow, 1781, 2 vols. 8vo. Observationes Juris Nat. et Gent. Spec. 
I — IV, Gottinar. 1754, 4to. Prolegomena Juris Nat. Gott. 1758, fifth edition, 

' J. F. Budde, born 1697, died 1729. 

366 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

1732. Philosophia prima sive Ontologia, ibid. 1730. Cosmo- 
logia Generalis, ibid. 1731. Psychologia Empirica, ibid. 1732. 
Psychologia Rationalis, Frcf. et Lips. 1734. Theologia Natu- 
ralis, 1736, 1737, 2 vols. 4to. Philosophia Practica Universalis, 
ibid. 1738, 1739, 2 vols. 4to. Jus Naturae, 1740, 8 vols. 4to. 
Philosophia Moralis sive Ethica, Hal. 1750, 4 vols. 4to. Phi- 
losophia Civilis sive Politica, fortgesetzt von Mich. Chr. Hano- 
vius, Hal. 1746, 4 vols. 4to. Jus Gentium, Hal. 1750, 4to. 

■f C. GuNTHER LuDovici, Plan of a History of the Wolfian 
Philosophy, second edition, Lips. 1737, 3 parts, 8vo. f Fresh 
Developments of the Leibnitzo -Wolfian Philosophy, Leips. 1730, 
8vo. •\ Collection, etc., of all the Controversial Works pub- 
lished on the subject of the Wolfian Philosophy, Leips. 1737, 
two parts, 8vo. 

•f G. VoLKMAR Hartmann, Introduction to the History of 
the Leibnitzo-Wolfian Philosophy, and the Controversy excited 
on the subject by Professor Lange, Francf. and Leips. 1737, 

•f A. Meissner, Philosophical Lexicon adapted to the System 
of Chr. Wolf, and collected from his German Writings, Bayreutk 
and Hof, 1737, 8vo. 

S5S, Christian Wolf was born at Breslaw, in 1679, 
and was formed to become one of the most profound phi- 
losophers of the Dogmatic School by the study of the Ma- 
thematics, of the Cartesian philosophy, and of the Medi- 
cina Mentis of Tschirnhausen. He was by nature pos- 
sessed of less invention than powers of analysis, and 
talents for systemisation ; with considerable powers of 
popular expression. These advantages he employed in 
the illustration and defence of the Leibnitzian system, 
with singular success. By his elementary works, in Ger- 
man, he completed the downfal of the Scholastic philo- 
sophy in the universities of Germany ; to which Thoma- 
sius also contributed. He materially improved the 
habits of thought of his countrymen, by promoting their 
progress in science, and the cultivation of order, method, 
and systematic arrangement. In 1707 he became pro- 
fessor of Mathematics at Halle, and after a long contro- 
versy with his colleagues (among others with J. J. Lange, 
(§ o5G), who accused him of Atheism), he was driven from 
his chair (1723), and retired to Marburg, where he taught 

353, 354.] WOLF. 367 

as professor of Moral Philosophy. He was honourahly 
recalled to Halle (1740), by Frederic H. ; and died there 
April 9th, 1754; — having outlived his reputation. 

354. Wolf was the first philosopher who sketched out 
a complete Encyclopedia of the philosophical sciences, 
and, in a great measure, filled up his outline. He 
divides speculative philosophy into Logic and Meta- 
physics ; of which Metaphysics comprehends Ontology, 
Rational Psychology (to be distinguished from Em- 
pirical), Cosmology, and Theology. Practical philosophy 
he subdivides into Universal practical Philosophy, Ethics, 
Natural Right, and Law, and Politics. These subdivisions 
of Moral Philosophy, with the addition of Esthetics, or, 
the Theory of Taste, are at the present day generally 
adopted. As for the matter of his Philosophy, he found 
it for the most part supplied by others. He adopted the 
views of Leibnitz, with the exception of the perceptive 
faculties of the Monades, which he absolutely rejected, 
and of the Pre-established Harmony. He may be said 
to have given a new edition of the Leibnitzian system, 
under the form of a dogmatical Dualism ^ ; and filled up 
some of the lacunae it contained, either by the addition of 
new matter of his own, or a skilful development of his 
master's views. His chief merit consists in the unity of 
plan he has preserved, and the consecutiveness of his 
argumentation, which is the effect of a rigorous applica- 
tion of what is called the mathematical method, and 
which he declares to be nothing more than an exact 
adaptation of the laws of Logic. The improvements 
which Wolf thus brought about, consisted in a more ex- 
act arrangement, a clearer definition of ideas, and greater 
precision in the language of philosophy. The main 
defects of his system were, an affectation of demonstrating 
every thing, an exclusive attention to the principle of 
Thought, a neglect of the difference between the material 

"> A Dualism it will be remembered implies the recognition of two ele- 
mentary principles. 

368 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

and formal conditions of knowledge, and a disposition to 
exalt contradiction into an universal principle of all 
science. It must be added that he maintained it to be 
impossible to discriminate between ideas derived from 
the intellect and those acquired by experience ; limited 
the operations of the mind to the mere perception of 
impressions^: and in short, overlooked the characteristics 
which distinguish Moral Philosophy from the Mathe- 
matics, in respect of Form and Matter. His system led 
him to the construction of a number of useless and 
tedious formulas, which could have no other effect but 
that of inspiring disgust and contempt for speculative 
researches in general, and particularly for those of Meta- 
physics. His theory, like that of Leibnitz, favours the 
doctrine of Determinism, or moral Fatalism. 

355. Wolf chiefly distinguished himself by the accuracy 
of his scientific method, as applied to practical philoso- 
phy. He laboured to ascertain some fundamental prin- 
ciple, from which he might deduce the whole system of 
Practice, and connect its details with his general theory ; 
which he was the first among modern philosophers to 
attempt. Such a fundamental principle he believed him- 
self to have discovered in the idea of Perfection, and 
thought that experiment confirmed his observation. 
He defined those actions to be good which perfect our 
condition, i. e. produce or tend to produce an unison 
between our condition as it was, as it is, and as it will be ; 
and evil those which produce the contrary effect, or are 
the causes of a discrepancy and discordancy in our 
state at different periods. Free actions are in a certain 
sense necessary also, and derive their qualities of evil and 
good from their consequences and results, and not from 
an original distinction made by the Divine Will. Virtue 
is, consequently, the art of making perfect our condition. 
The grand rule of virtue is, Perjice te ipsum : do that 
which may perfect your own condition, or that of another, 
and avoid all that can render it imperfect. Reason 
suggests what will perfect or render imperfect our state. 

355.] WOLF. 369 

and consequently, all moral good is dependent on know- 
ledge, all moral evil the consequence of defective know- 
ledge. The consciousness of our perfection, or approx- 
imation to perfection, bestows contentment : a state of 
contentment confers happiness ; and the consciousness 
of a continued and uninterrupted progress towards per- 
fection is the greatest happiness that can be enjoyed by 
man". From these principles Wolf deduces the subor- 
dinate laws of Morals, of Natural Right (comprehending 
a general theory of Rights and Duties °), and of Polity 
with great apparent fjicility, and much display of detailed 
information. The unity and consecutiveness of his 
system gave it a prodigious advantage, to which must be 
added, the circumstance that he made the intellect the 
source of moral knowledge. Its faults were the vagueness 
of its leading idea, the difficulty of deducing from such a 
principle the obligations of morality, and the absence of 
an adequate motive for virtuous action ; defects which the 
great abilities of many disciples of his school have not 
been able to palliate. In reality it is a system of Ration- 
alism only in appearance, and from the want of a complete 
discussion of the question of moral consciousness, ends 
in one of Eudaemonism (§ 368). Nevertheless, some par- 
ticular subjects have been treated by members of this 
school not unsuccessfully; particularly by Thorn. Abbt^. 

" For Wolf's Works on Ethics see § 353 ; and J. Aug. Eberhard's 
Sittenlehre. See $ 367, notes. 

*» In this respect he has been followed by most of the writers who have 
treated of Natural Law. Baumgarten (§ 360) and H. Kohler alone 
reduced this subject to the narrow limits to which it had been confined by 
GuNDLING (§ 352). 

The principal authors who have treated the subject with the views of Wolf, 
are: Nettelbladt (^360), Darjes (§ 358), and the Jurist J. C.F. Meister, 
t Rudiments of Natural Law, Francf. on Oder, 1809, 8vo. The Eclectics 
HoPFNER (died 1797), and Ulrich (died 1813), differed from this school 
only on minor questions. 

P Born at Ulm, 1738 ; died 1766. 

Thom. Abbt vom Tode fiir das Vaterland, Bresl. 1761, 8vo. Vom Ver- 
dienste, Berl. 1765, 8vo. 


370 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 


356, Jealousy of Wolf, in addition to other more justi- 
fiable motives, raised up a formidable antagonist to his 
system in the person of John Joachhn Langs'^, who 
sounded the alarm against it, as a mass of Fatalism and 
Atheism, destructive alike of religion and government. 
His strictures presently excited the same apprehensions 
in other learned men, such as Dan. Str'dhler^^ J. Fr, 
M'uller^, etc. and brought about a decree against the 
publication of Wolf's doctrines in the Universities. The 
greater part of the adversaries of that philosopher were 
men of narrow minds, and prejudiced opinions ; some few 
were actuated by more laudable motives, the desire of 
maintaining perfect freedom of discussion and hatred of 
party-spirit ; but almost all directed their views only to the 
consequences of his system without ascending to its prin- 
ciples. A small number examined it with more enlarged 
views, and acquired a durable reputation, such as Afidreas 
Rudiger (following §), «7. P. de Crousa^ (the same),' and 
more particularly Chr, Aug. Criisius (§ 358), and J, G. 

1 Born at Gardelegen 1670: professor of Theology at Halle, from 1709 to 

J. JoACH. Lange, Causa Dei et Religionis Naturalis adversus Atheismum, 
etc., Hal. 1723, 8vo. Modesta Disquisitio novi Philosophiai Systematis de 
Deo, Mundo, et Homine, et praesertim harmonia commercii inter Animam et 
Corpus Praestabilita, Hal. 1723, 4to. (The author endeavours to demon- 
strate the agreement, in this particular, of the doctrines of Spinoza with those 
of Leibnitz). Placidae Vindicias Modestae Disquisitionis, Ibid. Eod. Beschei- 
dene aufp'uhrliche Entdeckiiiig der Falschen und Sch'ddlicheti Philosophie, Halle, 
1724, 4to. Nova Anatome seu Idea Analytica Systematis Metaphysici Wolfi- 
ani, Francof. et Lips. 1726, 4to. 

A Complete Collection of the Works published during the Controversy 
between Wolf and Lange has been printed (in Germ.) at Marburg, 1737, 

' Objections to the Rational Thoughts of M. Wolf on God, etc. part I, 
Halle, 1723, 8vo., part II, 1724. Wolf replied by his Sure Method in answer 
to False and Calumnious Imputations, 1723 (Germ.) 

* t Objections to the Rational Thoughts of Wolf on the Faculties of the 
Human Intellect, etc., Giessen, 1731, 8vo. 

356, 357.] ECLECTICS. 371 

Darjes (the same). Most of the controversies aftected 
less the general theory of Wolf and Leibnitz than parti- 
cular doctrines, for instance, the Monadologia ; the Pre- 
established Harmony ; Free-will and Determinism. Some 
fine observations relative to Method were occasionally 

357. Andreas Rudiger^ distinguished himself as an 
Eclectic of an original character, of great acuteness and 
learning ; detected many imperfections inherent in the 
system of philosophy then prevalent, and endeavoured to 
reform it. He repeatedly changed, however, his own 
views ; nor was his mind sufficiently profound to enable 
him to arrive at a well-founded system. He rendered con- 
siderable service to Dialectics (though he erred in con- 
founding the province of Logic with that of Metaphysics), 
and particularly in his elucidation of the doctrine and 
theory of Probability, which in a great measure had been 
neglected. His thoughts on the two methods o^ sensible 
and intellectual demonstration (Mathematical and Meta- 
physical), contain some valuable hints, and the germs of 
a clear distinction between Mathematics and moral philo- 
sophy. He made sensation and reality the ultimate 
foundation of philosophical truth. He maintained the 
spirituality of the soul, yet supposed it to possess exten- 
sion, like all other created essences. Elasticity he held 
to be the characteristic property of Body. He attacked 
Wolf on the subject of Pre-established Harmony, assert- 
ing that it was incompatible with the free-agency of man. 
As a teacher he had considerable influence". Jean 

' Born at Rochlitz, 1673: was the pupil of Thomasius (§ 352); and died 
at Leipzic, 1731. 

" Andu. RuDiGEur Disp. de eo, quod omnes Idea; Oriantur a Sensione, 
Lips. 1704. De Sensu Veri et Falsi libri IV, Hnl. 1709, 8vo. second edition ; 
Liys. 1722, 4to. Thilosophia Synthetica, Hal. 1707 ; second edition, with this 
title: Institutiones Eruditionis, 1711, 8vo. ; third edition, corrected, 1717. 
Physica Divina, Ilecta Via, eademque media inter Superstitionem et A theismum , 
etc. Franco/, ad M. 1716, 4to. Philosophia Tragmatica, Lips. 1723, 8vo. 
t Opinions of Wolf respecting the Nature of the Soul, etc., with the Ob- 
jections of RUdiger, 1727, 8vo. 

B b 2 

372 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Pierre de Crousaz (§ 343) instituted a most complete ex- 
amination of the system of Wolf''. He was an Eclectic, as 
was J, F, Buddeusy (§ S52), J. G. Walch% S. C. Holl- 
mann ^, with several other learned men of that day. His 
works contain a rich fund of excellent remarks and judi- 
cious opinions. 

358. Chr. Aug. Crusius by his acuteness as a reasoner 
has deserved the first place among the opponents of 
Wolf. He was born at Leune near Merseburg, in 1712, 
and having studied under Riidiger, became professor of 
theology and philosophy at Leipsic ; where he died in 
1775. The disinclination for Wolf's system, which he 

^ J. P. DE Crouzaz, Observations Critiques sur I'Abrege de la Logique de 
M. Wolf, Geneve, 1744, 8vo. (cf. $ 351, note ''). La Logique, ou Systeme 
des Reflexions qui peuvent conduire a la nettete et a I'^tendue de nos Connais- 
sances, Amsterd. 1712, 8vo. ; third edition, Amsterd, 1725, 4 vols. 8vo. Logicaa 
Systema, Genev. 1724, 11 vols. Bvo. De Mente Humana Substantia a Corpore 
distincta et Immortali, Dissert. Philosophica Theologica, Groning, 1726, 4to. 
De I'Esprit Humain, Bale, 1741, 4to. Traite du Beau, Amsterd. 1712; 
second edition, 1724, 2 vols. 12mo. Traite de I'Education des Infans, La 
Haye, 1722, 2 vols. 12rao. 

y Born 1667 ; died 1729. 

Jo. Franc. Buddei Elementa Philosophiae Instrumentalis, sive Institu- 
tionum Philosophiae Eclecticae, torn. I — III, Hal. 1703, Bvo. sixth edition, 
1717. Elementa Philos. Theoreticag, ibid. 1703, Bvo. and other editions. 
Theses de Atheismo et Superstitione, Jen. 1717. t Thoughts on the Philo- 
sophical System of M. Wolf, Fribourg, 1724. t A Modest Reply to the 
Observations of Wolf, Jena, 1724, Bvo. ; and, t A Modest Proof that the 
Difficulties proposed by Buddeus are well founded. Elementa Philosophiae 
Practicae, 1695, Bvo. and other editions, Selecta Jur. Nat. et Gent. Hal. 
1704—1717, Bvo. 

^ Born at Meiningen, 1695 ; died 1775. 

G. Walch, t Introduction to Moral Philosophy. Leips. 1729, Bvo. The 
same in Latin, 1730, Bvo. t Philosophical Dictionary, Leips. 1726, and other 

a Born at Alstettin, 1696 ; died 17B7. 

He was one of the earliest antagonists of Wolf, whom he attacked in his 
Commentatio Philosophica de Harmonia inter Animam et Corpus Praestabilita, 
Viteb. 1724, 4to. Institutiones Philosophicae, 2 vols. Viteb. 1727. Paulo 
uberior in omnem Philcsophiam Introductio, tom. I, Viteb. 1734, tom. II, 
III, Got. 1737 — 1740, Bvo. Philosophia Prima quae Metaphysica vulgo 
dicitur, Gotting. 1747, Bvo. Diss, de Vera Philosophiae Notione, Viteb. 
1728, 4to. 

358.] ECLECTICS. 373 


had imbibed from his preceptor, was confirmed by a sin- 
cere attachment to revealed rehgion, and by his practical 
temper. He endeavoured to discover a system in unison 
with Reason and Revelation, which might correct the 
errors of Wolf's theory, especially objecting to the abuse 
of the principle of "a Sufficient Reason." His mind, 
however, was not sufficiently profound nor liberal, nor 
his observation of the human mind sufficiently compre- 
hensive to enable him to detect and expose the leading 
errors of the Dogmatism of his day. Consequently he 
was unable to effect any real reformation, though his 
views were, in many respects, more correct than those 
of his contemporaries. He became the author of an in- 
genious, well-digested, consistent, and harmonious sys- 
tem; but frequently lost himself in capricious hypotheses, 
and mystical conceptions^. According to him, Philoso- 
plty is the sum of rational truths, of which the objects are 
durable in their nature. It is distinguished from Ma- 
thematics by its Object and Method. It comprehends 
Logic, Metaphysics, and Practical philosophy (Discipli- 
narphilosophie). Instead of the principle of Contrariety 
or Contradiction, which Wolf had adopted as the founda- 
tion of his system, he lays down that of Conceivahility 
ifiedenkbarlieii) which comprehends, as he asserts, the 
principles of Inseparability, and Incompatibility ; and 
assigns as the proximate reason of the certainty of hu- 
man knowledge, the impulse of which we are conscious, 
and (as it were) a sort of internal constraint to ac- 
cept certain things as truths : referring to the Divine 

* Christ. Aug. Crusius, Weg zur Gewissheit und Zuverlassigkeit der 
menschlichen Erkenntniss, Leifz. 1747, 8vo. Entwurf der nolhwendigen 
Vernunftwahrheiten, insofern sie den zufalligen entgegengesetzt warden, Leipz. 
1745, 8vo. Dissertatio de Usu et Limitibus Rationis sufficientis, Lips. 1752. 
De summis Rationis Principiis, Lips. 1752, 8vo. Abhandl. von dera rechten 
Gebrauche und der Einschrankung des sogenannten Satzes vom zureichenden 
oder besser determinirenden Grunde, N. A. Leipz. 1766, Bvo. Anleitung iib. 
Natiirl. Begebenheiten ordentlich. u. vorsichtig uacbzudeuken, 2 B. Leipz. 
1774, Bvo. 

Justin Elias Wustemann Eiuleit. in das Lehrgebiiude des Urn. Dr. Cru- 
sius, ^Vittenb. 1751, 8vo. 

374 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Veracity as the ultimate foundation of all ascertained 

In Logic he sets out with psychological observations ; 
attributing to the soul a plurality of faculties. In meta- 
physics he limits and restricts the * Sufficient Cause' of 
his adversaries, by distinguishing between the Essential 
Cause and the Causal {Existential — und Cmisalursache) ; 
and by assuming as the principle of Free-agency that of 
Original Activity : which theory implied that of Indiffer- 
entism. He examined with accuracy the idea of Exis- 
tence, and maintained that Space and Time were Ab- 
stracts of Existence ; which compelled him to consider 
them as attributes of God and elementary essences. He 
rejected the customary proofs of a Divinity, derived from 
the idea of a Perfect Being, because it was confounding, 
as he asserted, real with ideal existence : and also that 
deduced from the contingent objects of the material 
world : and, instead, attempted to draw one from the 
Contingency of Substances. He attributed to the Deity 
a supreme free-agency, infinite and unrestricted : ac- 
knowledged Him to be the sole Creator and Governor 
of the world : asserted His will to be the only law of rea- 
sonable beings : and His glory the final cause of the cre- 
ation. He was led by these views to reject the Optimism 
of Leibnitz. Another Eclectic, very popular in his day, 
Joach. J. Darjes^f resembled Crusius in many of his 
opinions. In Practical philosophy he more approximated 

359. In Morals ^, Crusius drew his conclusions not 

'' Born at Glistron, 1714 ; died professor of Moral Philosophy at Francfort 
on the Oder, 1791. 

Jo. Ge. Darjes, Via ad Verltatem, Jen. 1755; Deutsch. 1776, 8vo. Ele- 
menta Metaphysices, Jen. 1743-44, 2 vols. 4to. Aumerkungen liber einige 
Satze der Wolfischen Metaphysik, Frankf. u. Leipz. 1748, 4to. Pliiloso- 
phische Nebenstunden, Jen. 1749 — 1752. IV Sammlungeu. Bvo. Erste Griinde 
der Fhilosophischen Sittenlehre, Je«. 1755, 8vo. Institutiones Jurisprudentiae 
Universalis, Jen. 1745, Bvo. 

See SciiMciiTEG roll's Nekrol. for the year 1792, 2 vols. 

•» Crusius, Anweisung verniinftig zu leben, darinnen nach Erkliiruug des 
iiieuschl. Willcns die Natiirl. Ptlichtcn und die Allgem. Klugheitslchren im 


359, 360.] WOLF AND HIS ADHERENTS. 37r> 

from the conceptions of the intellect, but the sugges- 
tions of the will and conscience. He derived the idea of 
duty from moral necessity or obligation : He asserted 
the free-agency of the human mind (which he contem- 
plated principally in a negative point of view, i. e. as 
uninfluenced by physical or material laws), and developed 
the formal conditions of our free-will actions, and the 
motives of them. The principle of a moral law led him 
to that of a moral Governor and Legislator, and conse- 
quently to the hypothesis which ascribes all moral obli- 
gations and laws to the Divine Authority, deducing, as 
the Schoolmen had done, the principles of Morals from 
the Will of God. That what is consistent with the nature 
of the Divine perfections ^ and accords with the designs of 
God, is good; and becomes obligatory on all rational 
beings. God demands of His rational creation, in the 
first place that they should be good : and also wills their 
happiness, as a consequence of virtue. 

This system contains many excellent and true remarks, 
and some well-founded though imcomplete distinctions 
between Necessity and Duty, or Obligation — Happiness 
and Virtue ; but founded as it is upon an external prin- 
ciple of obligation, and without a determinate notion of 
virtue, is far from the perfection necessary to the ends 
of science. 


3G0. In spite of all his opponents and persecutions 
(especially in the first quarter of the eighteenth century). 
Wolf had many followers, and became the founder of a 
School which was long the prevailing one, (especially 
during the second quarter of the eighteenth century), and 
possessed great influence through the talents of those 
who espoused it. The Leibnitzo-Wolfian theory was at 
first defended, enlarged, and applied, in a form decidedly 

richtigen Zusammenhange vorgelragen werden, Leipz. 1744, 3. Aufl. 1767, 

376 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Scholastic : subsequently, a greater degree of good taste 
and a more liberal style was adopted by its adherents, 
after the manner of the French and English writers ^, 

The most celebrated disciples of Wolf were: G, Bern, 
Biljinger, or more properly Bullfinger^\ L. Ph. Thum- 
mig^; and among the Theologians, the provost J. G, 
Reinbeck^ ', I. Gottl. Catis:^] J. P. Reusch^\ and G. 
H. Riebov or RibbovK To these must be added the 

<^ K. GtJNTHER LuDovici ausfvihrlicher Entwurf einer vollsfandigen Histo- 
rie der Wolfischen Philosophie, II. Augs. Leipz. 1737. III. Th.8vo. Neueste 
Merkwiirdigkeiten der Leibnitz- Wolfischen Philosophie, Leipz. 1738, Bvo. 
Sammlung u. Ausziige der sammtlichen Streitschriften wegen der Wolfischen 
Philosophie, Leipz. 1737, II Th. Bvo. 

d Professor at Tiibingen ; born 1693, died 1750. 

Ge. Been. Bilfixger, Dilucidationes Philosophicae de Deo, Anima Hu- 
mana, Mundo, et Generalibus Pverum AfFectionibus, Tubing. 1725, 4to ; 1740 
— 1768. Praecepta Logica curante Chph. Frid. Vellnagel, Jen. 1729, 
Bvo. Cf. Bibliog. § 349. Et : Epistolae Amoebeae Bulfingeri et Hollmanni 
de Harmonia Prsestabilita, 1728. De Triplici Rerum Cognitione, Historica, 
Philosophica, et Mathematica, Tubing. 1722, 4lo. Coramentationes Philoso- 
phicae de Origine et Permissione Mali, Praecipue Moralis, Francf. et Leips. 
1724, Bvo. 

* Born at Culmbach, 1697 ; died professor at Cassel, 1728. 

LuD. Phil. Thummig, Institutiones Philosophiae Wolfians, Franco/, et 
Lips. 1725-26, Bvo., 2 vols. (A brief account of Wolfs system). De Immor- 
talitate Animae ex intima ejus Natura Demonstrata, Hal. 1721. De Principio 
Jur. Nat. Wolfiano, Cassellis, 1724. Meletemata varii et rarioris Argumenti 
in unum volumen collecta. 

For an account of his other w^orks, consult Hartmann, t Introduction to 
the History of the Systems of Leibnitz and Wolf, (mentioned above), p. 1106. 

f Born at Zelle, 1682 ; died 1741. 

See his t Preface on the Advantages of Philosophy in the study of The- 
ology, prefixed to Considerations on the Sacred Truths contained in the Con- 
fession of Augsburg, etc., Berl. et Leips. 1731, 4to. 

g Born at Tiibingen, 1690 ; died 1753. 

IsR. Gottl. Canz, Philosophiae Leibnitzianas et Wolfianae Usus in The- 
ologia. Franco/, et Lips. 1728 — 1734, Bvo. Disciplinae Morales Omnes, etc., 
Lips. 1739, 8vo. Antologia, Tubing. 1741, Bvo. 

h Born at Almersbach, 1691 ; died professor of Theology at Jena, 1757. 

Jon. Pet. Reusch, Via ad Perfectiones Intellectus Compendiaria, Isemici, 
1728, Bvo. Systema Logicum, Jen. 1734, 8vo. Systema Metaphysicum An- 
tiquiorum atcjue recentiorum, Jen. 1735, 8vo. 

' Born near Getting., 1724 ; died 1774. 

t Riebovius, Expansion of the Ideas of M. Wolf, respecting the Deity, 
etc., Franc/, et Leips. 1726 ; and, Dissertatio de Anima Brutorum, (added to 
his edition of llorarius), f/eimst. 1729, Bvo. 


Jurists J, A, F. von Ickstadt ^ ; John G. Ileii^ccius 
(born at Eisenberg, IGSO; died a professor at Halle, 
1741); J. Ulr. von Cramer^-, and Dan. Nettclhhdt^; 
J, J, SchierscJimidt^ •, but especially J. H. Winckler'^; 
J, C/tpk, Gottsched^' ; J, A. Er?iesti^; Fr, Chph. Bau- 
meister^; Martin Knutzen^, (the three last distinguished 
themselves by useful elementary works) : and, above all, 
Alexander Gottlieb Baumgarten^. The last greatly dis- 
tinguished himself by a skilful analysis of our ideas, by 
several new hints, and by the first attempt yet made 

k Bom 1702 ; died 1776. 

De Ickstadt, Elementa Juris Gentium, Wirceh. 1740, 4to. Opuscula Ju- 
ridica, Ingolst. et Aug. Vindel., 1747, 2 vols. 4to. 

' Born at Ulm, 1706 ; died 1776. 

Jo. Ulr. Cramer, Usus Philosophiae Wolfianai in Jure, Ma?'^., Specimina 
XIII, 1740, 4to. Opuscula, Marb., 1742, 4 vols. 4to. 

m Born at Rostock, 1719 ; died 1791. 

Dan. Nettelbladt, Systema Eleraentare Universae Jurisprudentiae Natu- 
ralis, usui Jurisprudentiae positivae accommodatum, HaL 1749 ; fifth edition, 
1785, 8vo. 

" Died professor of Law at Erlangen, 1778. 

Born at Leipsic, 1703 ; died 1772. 

J. H. WiNCKLER, Institutiones Philos. Wolfianae, etc., usibus Academicis 
accommodatae. Lips. 1735, 8vo. 

P Born near Kbnigsberg, 1700 ; died, 1766. 

J. Chpii. Gottsched, t First Principles of all Philosophy, etc., Leips. 
1734, 2 vols. 8vo.; second edition, 1735-36. 

1 Born at Tennstiidt, 1707; died 1781. 
r Born 1708 ; died at Gorlitz, 1785. 

Fr. Chr. Baumeister, Philos. Definitiva, hoc est, Definitiones Philoso- 
phicaa ex Systeraate libri Baronis a Wolf in unum collectas, Viteb. 1735, 8vo. ; 

« Died 1751. 

Mart. Knutzen, Elementa Philosophias Rationalis sive Logica, Regio- 
mont. 1771, 8vo. 

t On the Immateriality of the Soul, Francf. 1744, 8vo. 

Systema Causarum EfHcientium, Lips. 1745, 8vo. 

• Born at Berlin, 1714 ; died at Francfort on the Oder, 1762. 

Alex. Gottl. Beaumgarten, Philosophia Generalis, edidit cum Dissert, 
prooemiali de Dubitatione et Certitudine, J. Chr. Forster, Hal. 1770, 8vo. 
jNIetaphysica, Hal. 1739, 8vo. Ethica Philosophica, Hal. 1740, 8vo. Jus 
Naturae, Hal. 1765, 8vo. De Nonnulis ad Poema pertinentibus, Hal. 1735, 
4to. iEsthetica, Francof. ad Viadriin. 1750 — 58, 2 vols. 8vo. j second edi- 
tion, Francf. 1759. 

Consult G. Fn. Meier, t Life of Baumgartcn, Halle, 1763, 8vo. 

378 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

at a system of ^Esthetics, (or the principles of Taste). 
He described philosophy as the science of properties, 
which can be known by other means than that of faith. 
G. Fr. Meier ^, a disciple of the former, commented on 
the treatises of his master, and enlarged on certain ques- 

361. Gradually, (about the middle of the eighteenth 
century), this school lost much of its credit, and the pecu- 
liar and pedantic formalities of the Wolfians were turned 
into ridicule "" . Metaphysics too, sank in the public 
esteem ; and the minds of men became directed more to 
the variety and multiplicity of objects to which a princi- 
ple may be applied, and less to the investigation of a 
simple principle itself: — to the acquisition of fresh know- 
ledge rather than to the consolidation of that already 
acquired. The Empiricism of Locke daily gained ground, 
and in consequence of this and of the prevailing spirit of 
the age, and a renewed taste for the history of philo- 
sophy, a species of Eclecticism began to prevail, more 

" Died at Halle, 1777. 

Sam. Gotth. Lange, Leben C. f . Meier's, RalU, 1778, 8vo. 

Ge. Fr. Meier Versuch einer allgemeinen Auslegungskunst, Halle, 1756, 
8vo. Metaphysik, Halle, 1756. 4 Bde. 8vo. Beweis, dass die menschliche 
Seele ewig lebt. II Aufl., Halle, 1754, 8vo. Vertheidigung desselben, Halle, 
1753. Beweis, dass keine Materie denken konne. Beweis der vorherbestimm- 
ten Uebereinstimmung, Halle, 1743, 8vo. Theoretische Lehre von den Ge- 
miithsbewegungen, Halle, 1744, 8vo. Versuch eines neuen Lehrgebaudes 
von d. Seelen der Thiere, Halle, 1756, 8vo. Gedanken von dem Zastande 
der Seele nach dem Tode ; Beurtheilung des abermaligen Versuchs einer 
Theodicee ; Gedanken von der Religion. Anfangsgriinde der schonen Wis- 
senschaften, Halle, 1748 ; II Aufl. 1754, III Th. 8vo. Philosophische Sit- 
tenlehre, Halle, 1753 — 1761 ; 5 Th. 8vo. Betrachtung iiber die natiirliche 
Anlage zur Tugend und zum Laster, Halle, 1776, 8vo. Recht der Natur. 
Halle, 1767, 8vo. Versuch von der Nothwendigkeit einer niihern OfFenba- 
rung, Halle, 1747, 8vo. Untersuchung verschiedener Materien aus der Welt- 
weisheit, Halle, 1768—1771, 4 Th. 8vo. 

* The French spirit of persiflage contributed much to tlys effect. Witness 
the Candide of Voltaire, first published 1757. 

See, A Complete Collection of the Controversial Writings, published in the 
course of the Dispute between Maupertuis and Samuel Konig, Leips. 1758, 
Hvo. (Germ.). 

3G1, 302.] SCEPTICISM OF HUME. 379 

adapted to pursuits of elegance and popular utility, than 
to the abstract -research of remote principles. 

I. Scepticism of Hume, 

36S. The spirit of Experimentalism continued to retain 
its predominant influence in England. David Hartley^, 
the physician, whose religious and moral character bore 
a considerable resemblance to that of Bonnet (§ 365), 
pursued the inquiries of Locke relative to the soul, on 
principles exclusively materialist. The Association of 
ideas he made the foundation of all intellectual energy ; 
and derived it from certain vibrations of the nerves. He 
allowed to man only a subordinate degree of free-will, 
asserting that the Deity is the original cause of all the 
operations of Nature, and that mankind are nothing 
more than His instruments, employed with reference to 
the final end of the Universe. The morality or im- 
morality of actions is determined by their tendency to 
produce happiness or misery. Presently a much more 
acute genius pursued the path marked out by Locke, till 
he arrived at a more complete and decided Scepticism. 
The idealism of Berkeley (§ o40), which had never been 
popular, instead of checking, as its author had hoped, 
the spirit of Scepticism, contributed to encourage it. This 
was what David Hume did not fail to remark. He was 
born at Edinburgh in 1711, and early forsook the study 
of law for that of history and philosophy, to which he 
devoted the remainder of his life ^. Taking the experi- 

y Born at Illingworth, 1704 j died at Bath, 1757. 

David IIartlev, Observations on INIan, his Frame, his Duty, and his Ex- 
pectations ; in two parts, Loud. 1749, 2 vols. 8vo. Theory of Human IMind, 
with Essays, by Jos. Priestley, Load. 1775, 8vo. 

^ The Life of David Hume, written by himself, Lond. 1777, 12mo. Sup- 
plement to the Life of D. Hume ; (See a letter from Adam Smith to W. 

A Letter to Ad. Smith, on the Life, Death, and Philosophy of his friend 
D. Hume; by one of the people called Christians, Oxford, 1777. 

Apology for the Life and Writings of D. Hume, etc., Lond. 1777. 

Curious Particulars and Genuine Anecdotes respecting the late Lord Ches- 
tci field and D. Hume, etc., Lvnd. 1788. 

380 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

mental principles of Locke as the foundation of his sys- 
tem, he deduced from them many acute hut specious 
conclusions respecting the nature and condition of man, 
as a reasonable agent. He was led on by arguments, 
the fallacy of which is lost in their ingenuity, to the in- 
ference that there is no .such thing as ascertained objec- 
tive truth : that our views are limited to the phenomena 
of Consciousness, — the impressions we are conscious of, 
and the subjective relations of the latter. The inves- 
tigations of Hume were recommended not only by a 
great appearance of logical argumentation, but by an 
elegance, and propriety of diction, and by all those 
graces of style which he possessed in so eminent a de- 
gree ; and which made his scepticism more dangerous 
than it deserved to be. Our perceptions, according to 
Hume, are to be divided into impressions or sensations 
and ideas : the last are copies of the former, and differ 
from them only inasmuch as they are less forcible and 
vivid. All the objects which reason can contemplate are 
either relations of ideas (for instance, the elements of Ma- 
thematics), or facts and matters of experience. Our 
conviction of the reality of any fact is founded on Sensa- 
tion, Reflection, and an estimate of the relations of cause 
and effect. Our acquaintance with the laws of Causality 
does not come to us by any a j)riori principles, but sim- 
ply by experience. We expect from similar causes simi- 
lar consequences ; and the principle of this anticipation 

H. D. Hume, Treatise of Human Nature, etc., Lond. 1738, 2 vols. 8vo. ; 
1739, 2 vols. 4to. 

Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, EcUnb. 1742, part I, Bvo. Inquiry 
concerning Human Understanding, Lond. 1748, Bvo.; (In the third vol. of 
his Essays, Hume gave a new^ edition of this treatise). Political Discourses, 
Lnnd. 1749; Edinb. Lond. 1749 ; Edinb. 1752, (reprinted among his Essays, 
vol. II.). Inquiry concerning the Principles of Morals, Edinb. 1751, Bvo. 
The Natural History of Keligion, Lond. 1755, 8vo. ; (See Essays, vol. IV.). 
Essays and Treatises on Several Subjects, Lond. 1770 — 1784, 4 vols. Bvo. 

Dialogues concerning Natural Religion, second edition, Lond. 1779, Bvo. 

(On this subject consult J. vcobi, t David Hume, or, An Essay on Faith, 
Idealism, and Realism, Breslau, 17B7, Bvo. : published also in his Works. 

Essays on Suicide and the Immortality of the Soul, Lond. 1789, Bvo. 


is to be sought in the habitude of the connection of certain 
phenomena, and in the Association of our ideas. There ex- 
ists therefore no certain knowledge independent of Expe- 
rience ; nor any Metaphysical science, properly so called. 
After all, Experience does not possess any such demon- 
strative evidence as do the Mathematics ; but is based 
upon a certain instinct, which may prove deceptive. We 
find that instinct contradicts the conclusions of philo- 
sophy with respect to the ideas of Space, Time, and 
Causality ; and consequently we are compelled to doubt 
the evidence of Experience in these particulars : unless 
we give the preference to Natural Instinct over philoso- 
phical Scepticism. Geometry and Arithmetic are objects 
of abstract Science : Criticism (in matters of Taste) and 
Morality are objects of Sensation, and in no respectyb/'w? 
'part of the province of the understanding. In morals^ 
Hume asserted that merit consists in the utility or 
agreeableness (utile et dulce) of man's character and qua- 
lities, as relating to himself or to others : he allowed that 
the understanding had considerable weight in the forma- 
tion of a moral judgment, but denied that it was suffi- 
cient of itself to pronounce a sentence of moral ap- 
probation or disapprobation. Consequently he was led 
to make the Moral Sense, which he identified with Taste, 
the primum mobile of moral action. This Sense consists 
in a sentiment of human happiness and misery. His 
theory was calculated to support that of an original Moral 

As for the question whether Self-love or Benevolence 
preponderate in the human mind, he leaves it unan- 

The Scepticism of Hume was originally directed against 
the conclusions only of Speculative philosophy, but in 
fact would destroy the foundations of all real knowledge. 
He directed, however, his objections principally against 
the existence of the Deity, His providence ; against the 
reality of Miracles, and the Immortality of the Soul : as- 
serting that all these doctrines were unsupported by 
sufficient evidence. 

382 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

His life and character were estimable. He died, Au- 
gust 25th, 1776, with perfect serenity and even gaiety. 


S6S. The Scepticism of Hume acquired of course the 
greatest notoriety, attacking as it did the foundations of 
religious as well as moral truth. Many antagonists of 
his doctrines undertook to refute them, but, instead of 
striking at the root of his Sceptical objections, and de- 
monstrating their fallacy, they contented themselves with 
appealing to Common Sense, which was just what Hume 
desired. Among his opponents we must reckon in the 
first place three Scotchmen ; Thomas Reid^, a sincere 
inquirer after Truth, who maintained the existence of 
certain principles of knowledge, independent of expe- 
rience, and treated moral philosophy as the Science of 
the human mind, allowing it, however, no other founda- 
tion than that of Common Sense, or a species of Intel- 
lectual Instinct. 

The eloquent James Beattie ^, espoused the same cause 
with greater ardour, but with less of a philosophical spirit, 
and laboured to vindicate the truths attacked by the 
Sceptics ; admitting the principle of a Moral Sense. He 
was the author also of some elegant treatises on Es- 

'^ Born 1704; became a professor at Glasgow; and died 1796. 

TiiOM. Keid, Inquiry into the Human Mind on the Principle of Common 
Sense, third edition, Lond. 1796, 8vo. Essays on the Intellectual Powers of 
Man, Edinb. 1785, 4to. Essays on the Powers of the Human Mind, Loud. 
1803, 3 vols. 8vo. 

^ Born 1735 ; professor of Moral Philosophy at Edinburgh, and afterwards 
at Aberdeen. Died 1803. 

Account of the Life of James Beattie, by Alex. Boweu, Land. 1804. 

James Beattie, Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth in Oppo- 
sition to Sophistry and Scepticism, Edinb. 1770 ; fifth edition, Lo)id. 1774. 
Theory of Language, Eond. 1788, 8vo. Dissertations Moral and Critical, 
Jyont/. 1783, 4to. Elements of the Science of Morals, torn. 1, Edinb. 1790; 
torn. II, 1793. 


363, 364.] SCOTTISH SCHOOLS. 383 

Lastly, James Oswald (flourished about 17G9), a Scotch 
Ecclesiastic, exalted the principle of Common Sense *" into 
the supreme canon of all truth, and the ultimate rule in 
all inquiries. 

These authors have demonstrated the mischievousness 
of speculation when it would reduce all our convictions 
to demonstration : but have not avoided a contrary fault, 
that of making the intellectual principle inert and pas- 

364. The celebrated physician, Joseph Priestley "^^ cri- 
ticised at the same time both Hume and his antagonists. 
He may be said to have been more successful with the 
latter, whose histinctive principles he justly styled quali- 
tates occultce. In opposition to Hume he alleged a proof 
of the existence of the Divinity, which was untenable^. 
He was a rank Determinist, and consistently with his 
principles, controverted, as Hartley had done, the doc- 
trine of free-agency, and endeavoured to establish a sys- 
tem of materialism like that advocated by his predeces- 
sor ^ Next came Edward Search (his real name was 

*^ James Oswald, Appeal to Common Sense in Behalf of Religion, Edinb. 
1766—1772, 2 vols. 8vo. 

^ Born at Fieldhead, 1733 ; died 1804. 

« Jos. Priestley, An Examination of Dr. Reid's Inquiry into the Human 
Mind ; Dr. Beattie's Essay on the Nature and Immutability of Truth ; and 
Dr. Oswald's Appeal to the Common Sense, Lond. 1774, Bvo. Letters to a 
Philosophical Unbeliever, containing an Examination of the Principal Objec- 
tions to the Doctrines of Natural Religion, and especially those contained in 
the writings of Mr. Hume, Bath, 1780, Part. I, II. Additional Letters, 1781 
— 87,; and: A Continuation of the Letters, Northumberland-town (^U. S.) 
1794, 8vo. 

The Life of Jos. Priestley, with Critical Observations on his Works, and 
Extracts from his Writings illustrative of his Character, Principles, etc., by J. 
Carry, Lond. 1804, 8vo. 

^ Jos. Priestley, Disquisitions Relating to Matter and Spirit, etc., Loud. 
1777, 8vo. 

Three Dissertations on the Doctrine of Materialism and Philosophical Ne- 
cessity, Lond. 1778, 8vo. 

The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity illustrated, etc., Lond. 1777, Bvo. 

Letters on ^Materialism and Hartley's Theory of the Human Mind, by 
Priestley, Lond. 1776, 8vo. The last called forth answers from Palmer 

384 THIRD PERIOD. , [sect. 

Abraham Tucker ^), who, in questions of Morals, referred 
every thing to personal expediency. On the other hand, 
Richard Price^, in opposition to the Experimentalists, 
who would derive all our ideas from Sensation, main- 
tained that the understanding is essentially distinct from 
the sensual system, and the source of phenomena not to 
be confounded with those which originate in the senses. 
He investigated with acuteness and ability many import- 
ant questions relative to Morals, and controverted the 
doctrine of a Moral Sense, as irreconcileable with the 
unalterable character of moral ideas, which, as well as 
those of Substance and Cause, he maintained to be eter- 
nal and original principles of the intellect itself, inde- 
pendent of the Divine Will. He has admirably illus- 
trated the differences existing between Morality and Sen- 
sation — Virtue and Happiness ; at the same time that he 
points out the intimate connection existing between the 
two last\ On the other hand the theory of a moral 
sense found a defender in Henry Home^, distinguished 
for his Critical works ; and in Adam Ferguson ^, who 

and Bryant; and more particularly the work of Richard Price, entitled: 
Letters on Materialism and Philosophical Necessity, Lond. 1778, 8vo. 

Ausziige aus Dr. Priestley's Schriften iiber die Nothwendigkeit des Wil- 
lens und iiber die Vibrationem der Gehirnnerven als die JMateriellen Ursachen 
des Empfindens und Denkens, nebst Betrachtungen iiber diese Gegenstiinde 
und einer Vergleichung der Vibrationshypothese mit Hrn. Dr. Gall's Scha- 
dellehre, Altona, 1806, 8vo. 

s Ed. Search, Light of Nature Pursued, Lond. 1769 — 70, 5 vols. Bvo. 
Free-will, Fore-knowledge, and Fate, Lond. 1763, Bvo. 

h Born at Tynton, 1723 ; died 1791. 

' Price, Review of the Principal Questions and Difficulties in Morals, 
particularly those respecting the Origin of our Ideas of Virtue, its Nature, 
Relation to the Deity, Obligation, Subject, Matter, and Sanctions, Lond. 1758, 
8vo. ; third edition, Lond. 1787, 8vo. 

^ Born at Edinburgh : became Lord Kaimes in 1752 ; died 1782. 

Henry Home, Essays on the Principles of Morality and Natural Religion, 
Edinb. 1751, 8vo. Historical Law, 1759, 8vo. The Principles of Equity, 
1760, fol. Elements of Criticism, Lond. 1762,3 vols. 8vo. ; third edition, Etiin/n 
1765, 3 vols. Bvo. Sketches on the History of Man, Lond. 1774, 2 vols. 4to. 

' Born in the Highlands of Scotland, 1724 ; died 1816. 

Ad. Ferguson, Institutes of Moral Philosophy, Lond. 1769, Bvo. Prin- 
ciples of Moral and Political Science, Edinb. 1793, 2 vols. 4to. Essay on 
Civil Society, Edinb. 1766, 4to. 

;5(>4.] FRENCH EMPIRICS. 385 

made virtue consist in the progressive development of 
the powers of the Soul in its advance towards intellectual 
perfection. Adam Smith "', a friend of Hume's, and prin- 
cipally celebrated for his work on the Wealth of Nations, 
the text-book of Political Science, maintained that Mo- 
rality can only consist in actions which are of a sort to 
merit universal approbation ; and consequently made Sym- 
pathy the principle of Morality. By means of this fo- 
culty we put ourselves in the situation of the agent whose 
conduct we are considering, and then pass a sentence, 
uninfluenced by personal considerations, on the propriety 
or impropriety of his conduct. From such judgments, 
repeatedly formed, are deduced, according to Smith, ge- 
neral rules for our own conduct. The sum of his mo- 
rality is this: "So act that other men may sympathise 
with you." 

Thomas Payne"^", one of the founders of the indepen- 
dence of the United States, astonished even the English 
by the furious democracy of his ravings. 

In connection with the metaphysical labours of the 
British writers, we ought to mention essays on the 
principles of Taste by Alison, Gerard, and Burke; as 
well as their speculations on Language, and the History 
of Mankind. 

II. French Empirical School, 

f History of the French Revolution, or the Commencement, 
Progress, and Eifects of the (so called) New Philosophy of that 
Countrjs III Parts, Lcips. 1827-28, 8vo. 

"> Born at Kirkaldy 1723 ; died 1790. 

Ad. Smith, Theory of IMoral Sentiments, sixth edition, Land. 1790, 2 vols. 
8vo. Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, Lond. 
1776 ; second edition, 1777, 2 vols. 4to. Essays on Philosophical Subjects, 
etc., to which is prefixed an account of the life and writings of the author, by 
DuGALD Stewart, Lond. 1795, 8vo. 

" Born in Norfolk, 1737 ; died in America, 1809. 

Common Sense, Fh'Uadelphia, 1776, 8vo. Rights of Man, being an An- 
swer to ^Ir. Burke's attack on the French Revolution, parts 1,11, seventh edi- 
tion, 1791-92. The Age of Reason, being an Investigation of True and Fa- 
bulous Theology, parts 1, II, I.ond. 1794. 

C C 

386 THIRD PERIOD. [sect, 

365. Philosophical research in England constantly pur- 
sued the path of experiment, sometimes with acute and 
profound, at other times with narrow and superficial 
views ; religion being throughout the principal object to 
which its inquiries were directed. The same tendency 
prevailed in France also, modified however by the cha- 
racter of the French nation, as well as by the influence 
still possessed by the clergy. The metaphysics of Des- 
cartes and Malebranche had fallen into oblivion ; Gas- 
sendi and Newton having taken their place ; though a still 
more numerous party devoted themselves to the princi- 
ples of Locke. Montesquieu **, who investigated the 
Laws of Nations with the genius of a true philosopher, 
and the mathematician and naturalist P. L. Moreaii de 
Maupertuis^f pursued the experimental method without 
calling in question the truth of Revealed Religion. The 
influence of the philosopher of Ferney was more exten- 
sive and pernicious (see the following §). C/i. Batteux "^^ 
may be considered the first Frenchman who proposed 
a theory of the fine arts. Etienne Bonnot de Condillac^j 
laboured to bring to perfection the system of Experi- 
mentalism, and to trace all the operations of the mind 
of Man, since the Fall, to Sensation, by means of the prin- 

° Charles Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu ; born in the Chateau de la 
Brede, near Bourdeaux, 1689 ; died 1755. 

De TEsprit des Lois, 1748; (numerous editions). (Euvres, Lond. 1759, 
3 vols. 4to ; 5 vols. 8vo. (several other editions). (Euvres Posthumes, 1798, 8vo. 

P Born at St. Malo, 1691 ; died at Bale, 1759. 

Essai de Philosophic Morale, Lond. 1750, 8vo. Essai de Cosmologie, Berl. 
1750, 8vo. CEuvres, Lyon, 1756, 4 vols. 8vo. 

1 Born at Allendhuy, 1713 ; died 1780. 

Les Beaux Ars reduits a un raeme Principe, Faris, 1746, (several editions). 
Cours de Belles-Lettres, ou Principes de la Litterature, Paris, 1747—50, 
(many editions). 

' Born at Grenoble, 1716; died 1780. 

Cours d'Etudes du Prince de Parme, par M. I'Abbe de Condielac, Paris, 
\11Q, 16 vols. Bvo. 

Essai sur I'Origine des Connaissances Humaines, Amsterd. 1746, 2 vols. 

Traite des Sensations, Lond. 1754, 2 vols. 12mo. 

Trait6 des Animaux, Amsterd. 1755, 2 vols. 12mo. 

Qluvres Philosophiques, Paris, 1795, 6 vols. 12mo. (several other editions). 

36.5.] FRENCH EMPIRICS. 387 

ciple of the transformation and modification of its phe- 
nomena. The cultivation of Language he asserted to be the 
medium of improvement to Science ; and maintained that 
Language had its origin in the involuntary cries by which 
we express pleasure and pain. He affected to analyse 
all knowledge according to the mathematical method, and 
laboured to reduce each particular science to its most simple 
expression, or in other words, to an identical proposition. 
It may be remarked that he confounds in his theory the 
principles of Experimental and Speculative philosophy, 
and approximates the Atomical Theory of Gassendi, by 
enumerating among original facts that of the existence of 
bodies; (see the Theory of Gassendi, § 314). Charles 
Bonnet ' also rendered considerable service to psychology. 
He was an admirable observer of Nature, with a mind 
habitually religious. He also derived all our ideas from 
sensation, by means of certain fibres and their vibrations; 
distinguishing the mind from the body, but allowing it to 
possess nothing of its own but a twofold capacity of Sen- 
sation and Impulsion. He denied the doctrine of in- 
nate ideas; deduced all the phenomena of the understand- 
ing from sensation, and was consequently led to main- 
tain that the Soul can effect nothing but through the 
agency of the body; which is the source of all the modifi- 
cations of which the other is susceptible. In this manner 
he approached Materialism, and admitted the existence of 
an affinity between the reason of men and of other animals. 
Other writers followed up the consequences deducible 
from the Empirical System with greater consistency and 

« Born at Geneva, 1720 ; died 1793. 

(Ch. de Bonnet), Essai de Psychologic, ou considerations sur les opera- 
tions de r^me, sur I'habitude et sur I'education, J^ond. 1755, 8vo. 

Essay Analytique sur les Facultes de I'ume, Copenh. 1759-60, third edit. 


La Palingen^sie Philosophique, ou Id^es sur I'etat passe et sur I'etat 
futur des etres vivans, Geneve, 1769, 2 vols. 8vo. 

(Euvres d'Histoire Naturelle et de Philosophic, Nenfchdtel, 1779 ; second 
edition, 1783, 8 vols. 4to. 

INIemoires pour servir a I'Histoire de la Vie et des CRuvrages de !\T. Ch. 
Bonnet, par J. Tkembley, Berne, 1794, 8vo. 

c c 2 

388 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

boldness ; plunging into the abyss of Atheism, Mate- 
rialism, and Absolute Determinism, in all questions af- 
fecting the Soul and Morals. Of this number was La 
Mettrie *, a man of infamous character, who endeavoured 
to account for all the operations of the mind on principles 
merely mechanical. Helvetius^ in like manner de- 
rived all its phenomena from sensible perception, and 
pronounced the notion of infinitude to be simply nega- 
tive. To these must be added the authors of the too- 
famous Systeme de la Nature, La Grange, or the Ba- 
ron D'Holbach "", and Rob'met ^. We must attribute prin- 

* Jul. Offroy de La Mettrie, born at St. Malo, 1709; died at Berlin, 

(Euvres Philosophiques de M. de La Mettrie, Lond. (Berl.), 1751, 2 vols. 
4to.; Amsterd. 1753 — 64, 2 vols, 8vo. Histoire Naturelle de I'ame, La Haye, 
(Paris), 8vo. ; (this work, by order of the Parliament, w^as burnt by the hands 
of the executioner). Traite de la Vie heureuse de Seneque, Postdam, 1748. 
L'Ecole de la Volupt6 {id. sous le titre de I'Art de Jouir), 1750. L'Horame 
Machine, Leyd. 1748, 12mo. L'Homme Plante, Postdam, 1748, 8vo. 

In answer to these w^orks were published : L'Homme plus que Machine, 
par Elie Luzac, Lond. (Leid.), 1748 ; second edition, Gotting. 1755, 12mo. 
De Machina et Anima Humana prorsus a se invicem distinctis Commentatio, 
auct. Balth. Lud. Tralles, Breslav. 1749, 8vo. 

GoDOFR. Ploucquet, Dissert. de Materialismo, Tubing. 1750, cum Sup- 
plemento et Confutatione Libelli : L'Homme Machine, ibid. 1751, 4to. 

" Claude Adrian Helvetius, born at Paris, 1715; died 1771. 

De I'Esprit, Paris, 1758, 4to. ; 2 vols. 8vo. 

De I'Horame, de ses Facultes et de son Education, Lond. (Amsterd.), 1772, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

Les Progres de laRaison dans la Recherche du Vrai, Lond. 1775, 8vo. 

OEuvres completes, Amsterd. 1776, 5 vols. 12mo. ; Deux-Ponts, 1784, 
7 vols. 8vo. ; Paris, 1794, 5 vols. 8vo ; 1796, 10 vols. 12rao. 

Eloge de M. Helvetius, (Geneve), 1774, 8vo. Essai sur la Vie et les 
Ouvrages de M. Helvetius (par Duclos?), en avant de son Poeme didactique, 
intitule : Le Bonheur, Lond. (Amsterd.), 1773, 8vo.; and in his (Euvres 

^ Paul H. D. Baron von Holbach, died 1789. 

Systeme de la Nature, ou des Lois du Monde Physique et du Monde IMoral, 
par feu M. Mirabaud, (La Grange 1 le Baron d'Holbach ?), Lond. 1770, 
2 vols. 8vo. 

In reply see : Bergieu, Examen du Materialisme, ou Refutation du Sys- 
teme de la Nature, Paris, 1771, 2 vols. 8vo. 

De Castillon, Observations sur le Livre intitule : Syst. de la Nat., Bei-l. 
1771, 8vo. 


cipally to the influence of the French Encyclopedists the 
popularity which was enjoyed by a species of philosophy'' 
which consisted in unfounded speculations (on the prin- 
ciples of Materialism) on all abstruse subjects, together 
with arguments from analogy pushed to an extravagant 
length. To this must be added, the affectation of making 
science of every kind popular and accessible to all; and 
the habit of ridiculing as pedantic all serious and pro- 
found philosophical inquiries. 

36G. The men who at this period were dignified in 
France with the title of philosophers, professed to remove 
the fetters in which freedom of thought was confined ; 
but influenced by narrow and frivolous views, disseminated 
none but worthless doctrines which had the tendency to 
confound rational man with brute Nature, or on the 
other hand to deify the material world : pronouncing the 
belief in a God to be superfluous or problematical, and 
rejecting all j^ositive or revealed religion as a device of 
priestcraft. The universal corruption of the aristocracy, 
and the puerility of a ceremonial form of worship, pro- 
cured for such opinions a ready acceptance. With views 
like these the Encyclopedists prosecuted with zeal their 

" Reflexions Philosophiques sur le Syst. de la Nat., par M. Holland, 
(Georg. Jonath.), Paris, 1772, 2 vols. 8vo. ; Neufchdtel, 1773. 

(Voltaire), Reponse au Systeme de la Nature, Geneve, 1772 ; et Ency- 
clopedie, artic. Dieu. 

Le Vrai Sens du Systeme de la Nature, (par Helvetius), ouvrage post- 
hume ; (this work is made up of extracts). 

t F. X. V. Mangold, A Calm Refutation of Materialism, in answer to 
the author of the System of Nature, Augsb. 1803, Bvo. 

y Jean Baptiste Robinet; born at Rennes, 1723. 

RoBiNET, Considerations Philos. de la Gradation Naturelle des formes de 
I'etre, ou les Essais de la Nature, qui apprend a faire I'llomme, Amstd. 1767, 
2 vols. Bvo. Parallele de la Condition et des Facult^s de I'Homme avec 
celles des autres Animaux, trad, de I'Angl., Bouillon, 1769, 12mo. See bib- 
liog. § 349. 

' On French Empiricism, consult W. R. Bodmer, Le Vulgaire et les jNIe- 
taphysiciens, ou Doutes et Vues critiques sur I'EcoIe Empirique, Faris, 1802, 

See the works of M. M. Baranfl and Ja\, On the French Literature of 
Win Century, (French). 


390 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

pernicious plan ; particularly Diderot ^, and D'Alembert ^ ; 
aided by the popularity of Helvetius and Voltaire*^. 
Others (like Rousseau), whose views were not altogether 
so objectionable, did more harm than good by a mass of 
declamations, well-meant in certain respects, but per- 
nicious in their effects. In practical philosophy, the opi- 4 
nion daily gained ground that the little Morality they 
chose to require, ought to be founded on experimental 
observation of the nature of Mind. From Self-love they 
deduced a system of Self-expediency, at variance with 
the essential characteristics of morality. In this manner 
Helvetius attempted to deduce all meritorious actions 
from interested motives, and allowed them to be merito- 
rious only as far as they contributed to the well-being of 
some particular society of men^. Others inconsistently 
attempted to ally the maxims of a better system of 

* Dennis Diderot, born at Langres, 1713 ; died 1784. 

Encyclopedie, ou Dictlonnaire Raisonne des Sciences, des Arts, et des 
JNIetiers, par une Societe de Gens de Lettres ; mis en ordre et public par 
M. Diderot, Paris, 1751 — 1763, 27 torn, folio pour le texte, 6 vols, de 
planches. Seconde edition, 1783 — 1800, 63 livraisons, 4to. 

Vues Philosophiques, ou Protestations et Declarations sur les Principaux 
Objets des Connaissances de I'Homme ; nouv. ed. Berlin, 1755, r2mo. (par 

Diderot. Pensees Philosophiques, La Haye, 1746, 12mo. (a work directed 
against Christianity, and burned by the hands of the executioner). Lettre 
sur les Aveugles, a I'Usage de ceux qui Voient, Paris, 1749. Pensees sur 
rinterpretation de la Nature, Paris, 1754, et 1759, 12mo. CEuvres Philo- 
sophiques, 6 vols. Arnsterd. 1772. CEuvres completes. Land. 1773, 5 vols. 

See the Memoires pour servir a I'Histoire de la Vie et des Ouvrages de feu 
M. Diderot, by his daughter. Mad. de Vaudeuil, in the periodical work of 
ScHELLiNG. entitled ; Zeitschrift fur Deutsche, Fasc. I, 1813. 

** Jean Le Rond d'Alembert, born at Paris, 1717 ; died, 1783. 

Melanges de Litterature, d'Histoire et de Philosophie de M. D'Alembert, 
Paris, 1752, 5 vols. 12mo. ; 1770, 5 vols. 8vo. 

CoNDORCET, Eloge de M. D'Alembert, 1783. 

c Marie FRANfois Arouet de Voltaire, born, 1694, died, 1778. See 
his Life by Condorcet, and since by Ancillon, Melanges de Litt. et de 

Lettres Philosophiques, par Voltaire (burnt by the executioner). Can- 
dide, ou I'Optimisme. ffiuvres, several editions. 

•' In his work De I'Esprit, mentioned above. Among other replies to 
this work see : Cur. Wilh. Franch. Walch, De Consensu Virtulis Moralis 
et Political contra Helvetium, Gottiiig. 1759. 


morality to exclusive Self-love : for instance Mahly'', 
and Rousseau, who had the talent to declaim about virtues 
which he did not practise*^; and who, with Robinet^, 
admitted the existence of a moral sense. The daring 
and short-sighted speculations of Rousseau respecting 
Nature, Education, and Polity, are sufficiently known, 
as well as the pernicious results to which they con- 
ducted. To this second description of French moralists 
Diderot also belongs ''. 

It may be remarked that after the publication of Mon- 
tesquieu's splendid work on Law, a great degree of atten- 
tion was excited in France by the subject of Legislation ; 
which was treated by their writers with unrivalled temerity 
and extravagance. Abundance of theories on this sub- 
ject, as well as on the Laws of Government and Nations, 
appeared, professing to discuss those points with a view 
to the Principles of Philosophy \ 

« Gabriel Bonnot de Mably, born at Grenoble, 1709; died, 1785. 

f Born at Geneva, 1712 ; died, 1778. 

J. J. Rousseau, Discours sur I'Origine et les Fondemens de I'lnegalite 
parmi les Hommes, Amsterd. 1755, 8vo. Lettres Ecrites de la Montagne, 
Amsterd. 1764, part II, 8vo. Du Contrat Social, ou Principes du Droit Poli- 
tique, Amsterd. 1762, 12mo. Emile, ou de TEducation, Amsterd. 1762, 8vo, 
(Euvres completes, Geneve, 1782, 17 vols. 

& In the work mentioned above, § 349. See also : Vue Philosophique de la 
Gradation Naturelle des formes d'etre, ou les Essais de la Nature qui apprend 
a faire un Homme, Amsterd. 1767, 2 vols. 8vo. 

^ Principes de la Philosophie Morale, ou Essai sur le Merite et la Vertu, 
1745. See $ 339, note. 

' We may particularise Gasp, de Real; born at Sisteron, 1682; died, 
1752. Traite complet de la Science du Gouvernement, Paris, 1762 — 64, 
8 vols. 4to. Mably, De la Legislation, ou Principes des Lois, Amsterd. 
1776, 2 vols. 8vo. Doutes proposes aux Economistes sur I'Ordre Naturel 
et Essentiel des Soci^tes, Paris, 1766, 12mo. (Euvres, Paris, 1793, 12 vols. 
Bvo. ; and also: I'Ecole des Physiocrates, ou Economistes. Quesnav, born, 
1697; died, 1774. Ordre Naturel et Essentiel des Societ6s Politiques; 
MiRABEAu the father, Condorcet, Mirabeau the elder, and Emm. Sieves. 

BuRLAMAQui (Jean-Jacq., bom, 1694, died, 1748), Principes du Droit 
Natur. Emmeric de Vattel, born, 1714, died, 1767. Droit des Gens 
(after Wolf), Loud. 1757, 2 vols. 4to. 

392 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

III. German Eclectics. 

367. The following authors belonging to the school of 
Wolf opposed themselves in part to the French philoso- 
phy. Herm. Sam. Reimarus^, a Naturalist and Theolo- 
gian, who united perspicuity to depth in his works on 
Logic, Natural Theology, and the instinct of brutes : 
Gotifried Ploucquet^, an acute thinker, who simplified 
Logic, discovered a logical calculus, and laboured to 
illustrate the principal points of the doctrine of Monado- 
logia. J. H. Lambert^, a distinguished Mathematician, 
who applied the principles of his favourite science to the 
more exact demonstration of metaphysical problems. 

•^ Born at Hamburgh, 1694; died a professor at the Gymnasium, 1765. 

Herm. Sam. Reimarus, + Theory of Reason, or the Method of employing 
Reason aright in the investigation of Truth, Hamburgh and Kiel, 1756, fifth 
edition, 1790, 8vo. t The Principal Truths of Natural Religion, Hamburgh, 
1754. The fifth edition contains also the t Dissertation of J. A. Reimarus, 
on the Existence of God and the Human Soul, 1781, 8vo.; sixth edition, 1791. 
t Considerations on the Instinct of Brutes, 1762, 8vo. fifth edition, with the 
notes of J. A. Reimarus, 1798. 

1 Born, 1716 ; became professor at Tiibingen ; died, 1790. 

G. Ploucquet (See preceding sect, and § 348.) Methodus tractandi 
infinila in Metaphysicis, Tubing. 1748, 4to. Methodus tam Demonstrandi 
directe omnes Syllogismorum Species quam vitia forraaj detegendi ope unius 
regulae, Tubing. 1763, 8vo. Principia de Substantiis et Phaenomenis ; acce- 
dit Methodus Calculandi in Logicis ab ipso inventa, cui prasmittitur Comment, 
de Arte Characteristica Universali, Franco/, et Lips. 1753, 8vo. ; second edition, 
1764, 8vo. Fundamenta Philosophiae Speculativae, Tubing. 1759, 8vo. ; 
ibid. 1782, 8vo. Institutiones Philosophiae Theoreticae, ibid. 1772. Der- 
niere edit., intit. : Expositiones Philos. Theor., Sttittg. 1782, 8vo. Elementa 
Philos. Contemplativas s. de Scientia Ratiocinandi, Notionibus disciplinarum 
Fundamentalibus, etc., Stuttg. 1778, 8vo. Solutio Problematis Lugdunensis 
qua ex una hac Propositione concessa : existit aliquid, existentia entis realis- 
simi cum suis attributis eruitur, Tubing. 1758, 4to. Commentationes Philos. 
Selectiones, etc., recognitie, UltraJ. ad Rhenum, 1781, 4to. Variae Questiones 
Metaphysica; cum subjunctis responsionibus, Tubing. 1782, 4to. 

t Collection of writings referring to the Logical Calculus of professor 
Ploucquet, with fresh additions, published by A. F.,B6ck, Francf. and Leips. 
1766. Republished since. 

"' Born at Miihlhauscn in Sundgau ; died at Berlin, 1777. J. H. Lam- 
bert, t New Organon, or. Thoughts on the Right Method of determining the 
Characters of Truth, etc., Leips. 1764, 2 vols. 8vo. t Treatises on Logic and 
Moral Philosophy (edited by J. Bernouilli), vol. I, Dessau, 1782, 8vo. 

367, 368.] GERMAN ECLECTICS. 393 

368. It contributed to the impression which the works 
of Hume at first excited in Germany, that men had 
become in a manner weary of long and profound inves- 
tigations of which they had seen so many unsuccessful 
instances ; and had tacitly adopted the conviction that 
Truth is not to be attained by any single system, but, 
like a ray of light, is refracted and dispersed through 
many. In the place therefore of laborious research suc- 
ceeded a species of Eclecticism ° which contented itself 
with adopting whatever had an appearance of probability 
to recommend it, more especially if it seemed likely to 
prove of popular utility. J, G. SuUer°, a clear-sighted 
and talented inquirer, who united powers of observation 
to those of speculation, hesitated between the views of 
Wolf's school and those of the British metaphysicians, 
and in his investigation respecting the fine arts, which 
have done him honour, made it his object to discover a 
moral principle to account for their influence. He 
directed the attention of his countrymen to the specula- 
tions of Hume. Hitherto Eclecticism had proved a 
species of rampart against the overwhelming influence 
of particular systems ; but at the epoch of which we are 
speaking it was nothing but a consequence of the doubt 
and uncertainty which embarrassed the minds of men. 
Empiricism had overpowered and stifled metaphysical 
inquiry, aided by the influence of French manners and 

t Introduction to the Architectonic Science, etc., Riga, 1771, 2 vols. 8vo. 
t Cosraological Letters on the Formation of the World, etc. Angsb. 1771, 
8vo. Correspondence of Kant and Lambert, in Kant's ]Miscell. Works. 

" See Beausobue, Le Pyrrhonisme Raisonable, Berl. 1755, 8vo. 

" Born at Winterthur, 1720 ; died a professor at Berlin, 1779. 

J. G. Sl'lzer Moral. Betrachtungen iiber die Werke der Natur, herausg. 
von Sack, Berl. 1741, 8vo. Voriibungen zur Erweckung der Aufraersamkeit 
und des Nachdenkens, Berl. Mil, 3 Th. 8vo. AUgemeine Theorie der 
schbnen Klinste, Leipz. 1771—74, 2 B. letzte ; Ausg. ebend. 1792—94, 
4 B. Verm Philos. Schriften, Leipz. 1773—85 ; III Aufl., 1800. Mit einer 
Biogr. Vorrede von v. Blankenburg, 2 B., 8vo. Particularly : liber den Ur- 
sprung der angenehmen and unaugenehmen Empfindungen, Leipz. 1773, 8vo. 

FoRMEY Eloge de Mr. Sulzer, Berl. 1779, 8vo, II. C. IIirzel an Gleim 
iiber Sui.zer, den Weltweisen, 2 1'h., Zurich. 1780, 8vo. Lebensbeschreibung, 
von ihm selbst aufgesetzt, Btrl. 1809, 8vo. 

394 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

literature, which found a powerful patron in Frederic 
the Great p. Such a state of things gave birth to the 
system of J, B, Bassedow ^ ; who nevertheless en- 
deavoured to combine solidity of argument with popular 
utility; and proposed felicity, the sentiment of approbation, 
and analogy, as principles of Truth ; at the same time that 
he admitted in certain cases the obligation of belief, as a 
species of probable knowledge, superior to the testimony 
of the senses. Then came the system of the Jewish 
philosopher Moses Mendelssohn^, who endeavoured to 
unite elegance to perspicuity in his speculations on the 
principles of Taste and Psychology. Next, the Naturalism 
of G. S, Steinbart^, and the Essays of J. A, Eberhard^^ 

P On the philosophy of Frederic the Great consult Fulleborn's Collect. 
Fasc. VII. 

<i Born at Hamburgh, 1723 ; died, 1790. 

JoH. Bernh. Basedow's Philalethie oder neue Aussichten in die Wahrheit 
und Religion der Vernunft bis in die Granzen der OfFenbarung, Altona, 1764, 
2 Th. 8vo. Theoretisches System der gesunden Vernunft, Altona, 1765, 8vo. 
Prakt. Philos. fur alle Stiinde, Dessau, 1777, 2 vols. 8vo. See Schlich- 
teg roll's Nekrol, 1790, 2 vols. 

>• Born at Dessau, 1729 : died, 1786. 

JMosES Mendelssohn Abh. liber die Evidenz in den Metaph. WW. 
Berl. 1764, 4to. ; II Aufl. 1786. Phaedon oder liber die Unsterblichk. der 
See\e, Berl. 1767, 8vo. ; VI Aufl. herausg. von Dr. Friedlander, Berlin, 
1821, 8vo. Morgenstunden oder Vorlesungen iiber das Daseyn Gottes, Berl. 
1785; II Aufl. 1786, 2 B. 8vo. Briefe uber die Empfindungen, Berl. 1755, 
8vo. Philosophische Schriften, Berl. 1761 ; 3 Ausg. 1777 ; 2 B. 8vo. Kleine 
Philos. Schriften mit einer Skizze seines Lebens von Jenisch (herausg. von 
Miichler), Berl. 1789, 8vo. 

Leben und Meinungen Mendelssohns nebst dem Geiste seiner Schriften, 
Humb. 1787, 8vo. 

s Born at Ziilichau, 1729 ; died, 1809. 

Gotthelf Sam. Steinbart's System der reinen Philosophic oder Gllick- 
seligkeitslehre des Christenthums, Z'ullichau, 1778 ; IV Aufl. 1794. Philos. 
Unterhaltung zur weitern Aufklarung der Gluckseligkeitslehre Heft I — III, 
Z'ullichau, 1782 — 86, 8vo. Gemeinnutzige Anleitung zum regelmiissigen 
Selbstdenken, III Aufl. 1793, 8vo. 

' Born at Halberstadt, 1738 ; died a professor at Halle, 1809. 

Jo. Aug. Eberhard Allgem. Theorie des Denkens und Empfindens, Berl. 
1776—86, 8vo. Neue Apologie des Sokrates, Berl. 1772—88. Von dem 
Begriffe der Philos. und ihren Theilem, Berl. 1778, 8vo. Kurzer Abriss der 
Melaphysik, llulle, 1794, 8vo. \'orbereilung zur Natiirlicheu Theologie, 
//u//e, 1781, 8vo. Sittenlehie der Vernunft, Berl. 1781—86, 8vo. Theorie 
der Schiinen Kiinste und Wissenschaften, llulle, 1783 j 111 Aufl. 1790, 8vo. 


a dexterous inquirer, who had the merit of making an 
able attempt to revive the principles of Leibnitz, and dis- 
tinguished himself in the application of philosophy. 
— E. Plainer "^ also inclined to the ideas of Leibnitz, but 
with a more sceptical turn of mind and greater acuteness ; 
and added some valuable essays on Anthropology and 
Physiology. The tendency to a system of mere Euda)- 
monism which had been remarked in Wolf's theory, 
betrayed itself in the modified form it assumed under the 
hands of Platner : according to whom happiness or well- 
being, is the end of all existence, and good is that which 
conduces to the happiness of individuals, and of all ; 
Virtue being free-will directed towards the attainment of 
what is truly good. 

Christian Garve " made morality consist in the fulfilment 
of those laws which are obligatory on mankind at large, 
in all their various relations : such are the several prin- 
ciples of Virtue — Propriety — Benevolence — and Order. 
The Revision of Philosophy, by Cliph. Meiners^, belongs 

Handbuch der ^sthetik fiirgebildete Leser, 4Th. Halle, 1803, sqq. ; II Aufl. 
1807, fF. 8vo. Geist des Urchristenthums, Berl. 1807, 8vo. Versuch einer 
AUgemeinen Deutschen Synonymik, 6 Th. Halle, 1795 ; II Aufl. 1820. Fort- 
gesetzt von Maass (XI — XII B.) Vermischte Schriften, Halle, 1784, 8vo. 
Neueste vermischte Schriften, Halle, 1788, 8vo. Philosophisches Magazin, 
Halle, 1788—92 ; 4 B. 8vo. Philosophisches Archiv. 2 B. 1792—95, 
Bvo. See Nicolai, Gedachtnissschrift auf J. A. Eberhaud, Berl. 1810, 8vo. 

" Born at Leipsic, 1744 ; died there, professor of Medicine and Phi- 
losophy, 1818. 

E. Pi.ATNER Philosoph. Aphorismen, Leipzig, 1776 — 82, 2 Th. 8vo. ,- neue 
umgearbeitete Aufl. 1793, 1800. Anthropologie fiir Aerzte und Weltweise, 
Leipz. 1772, 8vo. Neue Anthropologie 1 B. Leipz. 1790, 8vo. Gesprache 
iiber den Atheismus, Leipz. 1781, 8vo. Lehrbuch der Logik. und Metaphysik, 
Leipz. 1795, 8vo. For his life and character see the memoir published by his 
son in the Literary Journal of Jena, No. 38, 1819. 

* Born at Breslau, 1742; died, 1798. 

Chr. Grave Abh. iib. d. Verbindung der Moral u. d. Politik, Bresl. 1768. 
Betrachtungen iiber die allgem. Grundsiitze der Sittenlehre, Bresl. 1798, 8vo. 
Versuche iiber verschiedne Gegenstiinde der Moral, etc., II Aufl. 1821, 8vo. 
Ueber das Daseyn Gottes, Bresl. 1802. 

y Born, 1747; died, 1810. 

Chph. Meiners Revision der Philosophie, 1 Th. G'vtt u. Golha, 1772, 8vo. 
Abriss der Psychologie, 1773. Grundriss der Seelenlchre, Leipz. 1786. 
Tntersuchungen iiber die Dcnk.- und \N illeuskriilte, CotHng. 1806, 2 'J'h. 8vo. 

396 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

to his period ; and the controversy between J. C. Lossius % 
and the acute J. N. Tetens % on the question whether 
Truth be or be not objective. The former maintained it 
to be subjective, and derived the highest principle of 
Thought from certain vibrations of the nervous system. 
To these we must add the popular Manuals of J. H. 
Feder^, and J. A, H. Ulrich (§ 355, note.) 

Nevertheless, we may observe that the German nation 
did not altogether lose either its characteristic depth of 
research, or a regard for the sacred interests of Mankind. 
Of this the pious C. F. Gellert*^ is a sufficient proof; 
whose writings and lectures equally contributed to pre- 
serve a sense of religion and moral duty among his con- 

369. Tn the place of Metaphysics, in Germany as in 

Verm. Philos. Schriften, Leipz. 1775 — 76, 3 Th. 8vo., with several other 
works on Psychology and Ethics. 

* JoH. Christ. Lossius Physische Ursachen des Wahren. Gotha, 1775, 
8vo. Unterricht der gesunden Vernunft, Gotha, 1777, 2 Th. 8vo. Neues 
Philos. Allgem. Reallexicon, Erf. 1803—7, 4 B. 8vo. 

a Born at Tetenbull, 1736 ; died, 1805. 

JoH. Nic. Tetens Philosophische Versuche iiber die menschliche Natur 
und ihre Entwickelung, Leipz. 1776 — 77, 2 B. 8vo. Gedanken iiber einige 
Ursachen, warum in der Metaphysik nur wenige ausgemachte Wahrheiten 
sind. Biitzow u. Wismar, 1760, 8vo. Ueber die allgem. speculative Philo- 
sophie, B'utzow, 1775, 8vo. (anonym.) 

^ Born, 1740 ; died a privy-councillor of Justice at Hanover, 1821. 

JoH. Ge. Heinr. Feder's Institutiones Log. et Metaph. Fcf. 1717. Grun- 
driss der Philos. WW. Coburg, 1767, und Glob. A. Tittel's Erlauterungen 
dazu, 1785, 8vo. Grundsatze der Logik u. Metaphysik, Gutting. 1794, 8vo. 
llntersuchungen iiber den menschlichen Willen, dessen Naturtriebe, Veran- 
derungen, etc., Gotiing. und Lemgo, 1779 — 93, 4 Th. 8vo. ; II Aufl. 1783, 
sqq. with several other works. Ueber das moral. Gefiihl, Copenh. 1792, 8vo. 
J. G. H. Feder's Leben, Natur und Grundsatze (Autobiographic, von seinem 
Sohn herausgegeben), Leipzig, 1825, 8vo. 

c Born at Haynichen, 1715 ; died professor of moral philosophy at Leipsic, 

CiiR. Frciigott Gellert Discours sur la Nature, et I'etendue et I'Utilite 
de la Morale, BerL 1764, 8vo. Moral. Vorlesungen, herausg. von Ad. Schlegel 
und llcyer, 2 B., Z.eJps. 1770, 8vo. Cun. Garve Ammerkungen iiber Gel- 
lorts Moral, seine Schriften iiberh. und seinen Charakter, Leipz. 1770, 8vo. 
Gellerts sUmmtl. Schriften, Leipz. 1769 — 70, 7 Th. 8vo. 


Great Britain, a species of empirical Psychology had ac- 
quired astonishing credit and influence. Tetens, (men- 
tioned in preceding section), particularly distinguislied 
himself, by prosecuting the inquiries of Locke respecting 
the origin of knowledge, with great acuteness, and with- 
out any taint of materialism. He illustrated the opera- 
tions of the faculties of the understanding ; made it his 
object to substantiate the proofs of an objective Truth, 
and to refute the scepticism of Hume ; and thus eventually 
fell into the same path which was pursued by Kant. He 
attracted, however, little attention in his day. We may 
here place the anthropological researches of C F, Ir- 
wing^j J. H. Campe^, Dietr. Tiedemann^ , Plainer y Garve 
(see preceding section), C Ph. Moritz^, J, J, Engel^, Fr, 
Joach. Eschenburg *, of the able critic J. G, E. Lessing ^, 

•' Born at Berlin, 1728 ; died, 1801. 

Carl Franz v. Irwing Erfahrungen und Untersuchungen iiber den Mens- 
chen, Berl. 1778, 4 Th. 8vo. 

« Born at Teersen in Brunswick, 1746 ; died, 1818. 

Empfindungs- und Erkenntnisskraft der menschl, Seele, 1776, 8vo. Ueber 
Empfindung und Empfindelei, Hamb, 1779. Sammlung einiger Erziehungs- 
schriften, Hamb. 1777, 2 Th. 8vo. Theophron, Hamb, 1783, Braunschvj, 
1790, u. bfter. 

^ Born, 1748 ; died a professor at Marburg, 1806. 

Untersuchungen viber d. Menschen, Leipz. Mil — 78, 3 Th. 8vo. Iland- 
buch der Psychologic, herausgegeben von VVachler, Leipz. 1804, 8vo. ; Vgl. 
oben Litt. 26 S. 

g Born at Hameln, 1757 ; died, 1793. 

Aussichten zu einer Experimentalseelenlehre, 1782, 8vo. Magaz. zur Erfah- 
rungsseelenlehre, 10 Th. 1793 — 95 ; und Selbstcharakteristik in Anton Reiser, 
1785 — 90. Abh. iiber die bildende Nachahmung des Schonen, Branmchw. 
1788, 8vo. Grundlinien zu einer vollstand. Theorie der schonen Kiinste 
(besides several other works). 

h Born at Parchim, 1741 ; died, 1802. 

Besides several treatises on ^Esthetics : der Philosoph fur die Welt, Leipz. 
1115—11, 2 Th. 8vo. ; N. A. 1801, sqq. ; and in his works. Bed. 1801, 
sqq. 6 B. 

• Born at Hamburgh, 1743 ; died, 1820. 

Entwurf einer Theorie und Litteratur des schonen Wissenschaften, Berl. 
1783, 8vo. IV Aufl. 1817, 8vo. 

^ Born at Kamenz, 1729 ; died, 1781. 

Various Essays on ^Esthetics and Criticism, and : Die Erziehung d, 
Menschengeschlechts. Siimmtl. Schriften, Berl. 1771 — 91, 30 B. 8vo. 

398 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

and the theologian J. G, Von Herder^ ^ a man of 
comprehensive mind, besides many other writers on 
Criticism and the Fine Arts, some of whom followed the 
principles promulgated in Great Britain (by Hutcheson, 
Gerard, Hume, Home, and Burke, etc.) ; while others 
adopted the French theories, (particularly that of Bat- 
teux, see § "^^^-^ and others again attempted paths of 
their own. The influence of Moral Philosophy became 
more perceptible; not only as affecting the sciences im- 
mediately connected with it, such as the Mathematics, 
Physics, Natural History, and Medicine ; but as operating 
on certain subordinate branches of science up to that 
time neglected; such as Education (treated after Rous- 
seau by Basedow f Campe, Reswitz) ; the theory of Lan- 
guage (by Herder after Harris ^ and Monboddo) ; and 
The History of Mankind (zealously investigated by 
MeinerSf Isaac Iselin^, and Herder. The last attacked 
the jejune system of pretended discovery prevalent in his 
time, seconded by his ingenious contemporary J. G. 
Hamann'^, as well as by Jacobi (of w^hom presently), and 
by Matthias Claudius (the messenger of Wandsbeck). 
Among these C Th. Ant, Maria Von Dalberg also 
deserves a place p. 

• Born at Morungen, 1744 ; died at Weimar, 1803. 

The author of various works on Phil. Hist, and the Fine Arts, parti- 
cularly : Ideen zur Philos. der Gesch. der Menschheit; Preisschrift iiber 
den Ursprung der Sprache seit, 1772—89. Adrastea ; Kalligone; Terp- 
sichore, etc. 

m Born at Salisbury, 1709; died, 1750. 

» Born at Bkle, 1728 ; died, 1782. 

Versuch iiber die Gesch. der Menschheit, 1764, 8vo. 

*> Born at Konigsberg ; died at JNIiinster, 1788. 

Hamann's Schriften herausg. von Fr. Roth, 1 — 8 B., Berl. 1821, 8vo. 
(reviewed by Hegel in the Jahrbiicher der wiss. Kritik, 1829). For his cor- 
respondencewith Jacobi see the works of the latter. See also the Sibylline 
Leaves of the Magician of the North, published by D. Fn. Cramer, Leipz. 
1819, 8vo. 

P Elector, Arch-Chancellor, and then Grand-Duke of Franckfort, and sub- 
sequently Archbishop of Ratisbon : born, 1744 ; died, 1817. 

Betrachtungen iiber das Universum, Erf. 1776, VII Aufl. 1821. Vom 
Verhiiltniss zwischen Moral und Staatskunst, Erf. 1786, 4to. Gedanken von 

370.] RETROSPECTIVE. 391) 


370. A review of the progress of philosophy during 
the period we have been considering will convince us 
that it had gained more in the apparent extent than the 
real value of its dominion. It is true that the different 
branches of philosophical science had acquired a rich 
mine of fresh materials, and a new study, that of the 
theory of Taste, had been laid open : the application of 
Philosophy to particular subjects, (for instance those of 
education and the political sciences), had been enlarged, 
and the influence of Moral Philosophy had come to be 
recognised throughout the whole circle of human, know- 
ledge. On the other hand, little progress had been 
made in the improvement of a philosophical Method. 
The questions respecting the true character of Philo- 
sophy, its Form, and its End, were scarcely stirred at all: 
the conflicting opinions with regard to the origin of 
knowledge had not been reconciled ; and notwithstanding 
the recourse which had been had to the different methods 
of Observation, Reflection, and Demonstration, the prin- 
ciples of their application had scarcely been discussed. 
Everywhere prevailed Incertitude, Doubt, and Dissen- 
sion, respecting the most important questions ; with a 
barren and superficial Dogmatism. The combatants on 
every side had laid aside their arms rather from indifler- 
ence and disgust for intellectual speculation, than because 
any one predominant and satisfactory solution of the 
points at issue had established peace. The philosophical 
sciences stood in need of more accurate limitations and 
more completely scientific forms, in consequence of the 
want of Principles ; which the reformation Psychology 
had pretended to effect was inadequate to supply ^. 

der Bestimmung des moral. Werths, Erf. 1787, 4to. Grundsatzeder yEsthetik 
ebend. 1791, 4to. Vom Bewusstseyn als allgem. Grunde der Weltweisheit 
ebend. 1793, 8vo. u. a. 

1 Revision der Philosophie (by Meinehs). See above § 368, note. 

400 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

371. In Practical philosophy also might be observed a 
conflict between the opposite tendencies of Empiricism 
and Rationalism; in which the former had obviously 
obtained the advantage. The claims of the Intellect had 
not indeed been altogether rejected, but had seldom been 
fairly and freely discussed ; the Understanding being per- 
petually confounded with Reflection, and treated as the 
handmaid of sensation ; and not as an independent power 
and energy. Some inquirers (e. g. Geulinx and Rich. 
Price) had detected the two grand defects of most 
systems of Morality then received : 1st. That they 
either set out with self-love as their principle, or termi- 
nated in it as their end ; producing nothing but a series 
of maxims more or less subservient to the mere attain- 
ment of Happiness by the exercise of Prudence. 2ndly, 
That they did not recognise the Intellect as the first 
legislating principle of free-agency. 

No lasting reform was however brought about by these 

The Ethics of the day, accordingly, amounted to Uttle 
more than a selection of what appeared to be the best 
results, on an Eclectic plan, and with views altogether 
subjective and personal; consisting in deductions from 
the principles of Self-love and Sympathy. Free-will — the 
first requisite of a sound system of Ethics — occasioned 
considerable perplexities to the supporters of such 
theories ; since either they contemplated a free-will purely 
psychological, or laboured to solve the problem on meta- 
physical grounds, and thereby inclined to Determinism : 
or maintained a blind and unprincipled free-agency, 
against which theoretical reason revolted. In proportion 
as the disputants became more and more sensible of the 
difficulties belonging to this question, they were tempted 
to desert the prosecution of such inquiries altogether, and 
to adopt in their stead the easier task of rendering Philo- 
sophy popular and — sujoerjicial. 

To this subject belong : 

De Premontval Pensecs sur la Liberie, Ber'l. 1754, 8vo. 
Le Diogene de d'Alcmbert, ou Diogene decent. Pensees libres 


sur I'Homme et siir les Principaux Objets des Connaissances dc 

rHomme. Nouv. ed. Berl. 1755, 12mo. Vucs Philosophiqucs, 

Berl. 1757; 2 torn. 8vo. Du Hazard sous I'Empire de la 
Providence, Berl. 1755, 8vo. 

Versuche einer Anleitung zu einer Sittenlehre fiir alle Mens- 
chen (von Schulz), Berl. 1783—87, 4 Th. 8vo. 

Jo. Aug. Heinr. Ulrich Eleiitheriologie, odor iiber Freiheit 
und Nothwendigkeit, Jen. 1788, 8vo. 






A. Critical Idealism of Kant, 

Memoirs, etc. of Kant : 

LuDW. Ernst. Borowski Darstellung des Lebens und Charak- 
ters Kants, Konigsb. 1805, 8vo. Reinhold Bernard Jachmann 
Im. Kant, Geschildert in Briefen an einen Freund, Konigsb. 1805, 
8vo. C. A. Ch. Wasianski Im. Kant, in seinen letzten 
Lebensjahren, Konigbs. 1804, 8vo. Biographic Im. Kant's, 
Leqjz. 1804 ; 4 Th. 8vo. J. Ch. A. Grohmann dem An- 
denken Kant's, Berl. 1804, 8vo. Fr. Bouterweck, Im. Kant, 
ein Denkmal, Hamb. 1804, 8vo. F. Th. Rink Ansicliten aus 
Kant's Leben, Konigsb. 1805, 8vo. Kant's Gedachtnissfeier, 
Konigsb. 1811, 8vo. 

S12. A reformation in Philosophy had now become 
necessary. It was effected by a philosopher of the first 
order, who had quahfied himself to correct the principal 
defects of the former systems by a long and ardent, but 
secret study of all the branches of the subject. His 
appearance at that time was the more opportune, because 
already several men of talent {Lessing, Winkelmannj 
llamann, Herder, Gotke, and others) had excited by 
their various compositions a great degree of intellectual 
activity, and created a capacity for the reception of new 


ideas on Science and tlie Arts. Emmanuel Kant was 
born at Konigsberg, the 22nd of April, 1721<; became a 
professor in the same city, and died February 12th, 1804. 
He may be styled a second Socrates, having created a 
new philosophy, which, by investigating the origin and 
the limits of human knowledge'', revived the spirit of 
research, extended it, taught it its present position, and 
directed it to the true path of Science, through the culti- 
vation of Self-knowledge. For the accomplishment of 
this task he was qualified by uncommon talents, studi- 
ously cultivated, and enriched by extensive reading. His 
piety and virtue set bounds to an exclusive spirit of 
speculation, and imparted to his works the character of 
their author. A profound love of truth and a pure 
moral sentiment became the principles of his philosophy, 
to which he added the qualities of originality, solidity, 
and sagacity, in an eminent degree. The revolution 
which he was thus enabled to effect was astonishing. It 
is true that it was not brought about without many 
impediments, but its consequences have been immense, 
and the whole course of philosophy has been modified by 
its influence. 

For the works of Kant see below, § 377. 

373. His attention being awakened by the Scepticism 
of Hume (§ SQ2), he was led to remark the very different 
degree of certainty belonging to the deductions of Moral 
Philosophy and the conclusions of Mathematics ; and to 
speculate upon the causes of this difference. Meta- 
physics of course claimed his regard ; but he was led to 
believe, that as yet the very threshold of the science had 
not been passed. An examination of the different phi- 
losophical systems, and particularly of the jejune Dog- 
matism of Wolf, led him to question whether, ante- 
cedently to any attempt at Dogmatic philosophy, it might 
not be necessary to investigate the possibilif?/ of philo- 

* Hence called the Criticnl method , or that of investigation and ex- 

D d 2 

404 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

sophical knowledge, and he concluded that to this end an 
inquiry into the different sources of information and a 
critical examination of their origin and employment were 
necessary : in which respect he proposed to complete 
the task undertaken by Locke. He laid down in the 
first place that Moral Philosophy and Mathematics are, 
in their origin, intellectual sciences. Intellectual know- 
ledge is distinguished from experimental by its qualities 
of necessity and universality. On the possibility of intel- 
lectual knowledge depends that of the philosophical 
sciences. These are either synthetic or analytic : the 
latter of which methods is dependent on the first. What 
then is the principle of synthetical a 'priori knowledge 
in contradistinction to experimental ; which is founded 
on observation ? The existence of d priori knowledge 
is deducible from the mathematics, as well as from the 
testimony of common sense ; and it is with such know- 
ledge that metaphysics are chiefly conversant. A science, 
therefore, which may investigate with strictness the pos- 
sibility of such knowledge, and the principles of its em- 
ployment and application, is necessary for the direction of 
the human mind, and of the highest practical utility. Kant 
pursued this course of inquiry, tracing a broad line of 
distinction between the provinces of Moral Philosophy 
and the Mathematics, and investigating more completely 
than had yet been done the faculty of knowledge. He 
remarked that synthetical a priori knowledge imparts a 
formal character to knowledge in general, and can only 
be grounded in laws affecting the Individual, and in the 
consciousness which he has of the harmony and unison of 
his faculties. He then proceeds to analyse the particulars 
of our knowledge, and discriminates between its elemen- 
tary parts so often confounded in practice, with a view to 
ascertain the true nature of each species : the character- 
istics of necessity and universality which belong to a 
priori knowledge, being his leading principles. 

374. The faculty of theoretical or speculative know- 
ledge is composed of Sensibility and Understanding, — 


Apprehensiveness and Spontaneousness. The material 
part of sensibility consists in the sensations which belong 
to it ; the formal conditions are space and time. Space 
and Time have no reality except in our conception of 
them, but may be said to exist a priori^ as conditio?is of 
our perceptions. The understanding combines, in the 
form of ideas and judgments, the materials supplied by the 
sensitive faculties. The laws according to which the 
understanding acts, independently of experience (or 
rather regulating experience), are the (four) categories. 
These, witli the conditions of sensitive perception (viz. 
Space and Time), make up the forms and elements of 
pure Intellect. The forms of sensibility and intellect 
determine and define knowledge : they adapt themselves 
to the materials supplied by sensible experiment, and are 
independent in their own nature of the phenomena to 
to which they are applicable. The grand conclusion of 
the Critical system of Kant is this, that no object can be 
known to us except in proportion as it is apprehended by 
our perceptions, and definable by our faculties for know- 
ledge ; consequently, we know nothing per se, but only 
by means of its phenomena. In this consists his Critical 
Idealism, (being founded on a critical examination of the 
faculties of knowledge), or, as it is otherwise termed, 
his transcendental Idealism. In consequence of these dis- 
tinctions, it follows that our knowledge of real objects 
must be acquired by experience ; and that a priori know- 
ledge contemplates only t\\e\v formal conditions, or their 
possibilitf/. It is only under such limitations that syn- 
thetical d /?Wori knowledge is possible, and within these 
boundaries Metaphysics must be confined. Connected 
with the above is the acute distinction established by 
him between Thought and Knowledge*', (the neglect of 
which has been a fertile source of error), — between the 
objects apprehended and our apprehensions of them ; 
as well as the line drawn between Reason and Un- 
derstanding, with reference to Logic and the Trans- 

^ Hence we are enabled completely to separate Logic from INIetaphysics. 

406 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

cendental theory. Speculative reason, considered as the 
art of ratiocination, labours to attain a perception of 
absolute unity, and to produce a connected system, by 
means of Ideas, which impart a formal character to the 
operations of the mind. Knowledge, on the other hand, 
is not attainable by the means of Ideas, since they have 
no proportionate object within the province of Expe- 
rience ; although Reason is perpetually labouring after a 
complete knowledge of God, the world, the immortality 
and free-agency of the soul ; and although the whole 
artillery of Metaphysics has been constantly directed 
towards these points. True philosophical reason will 
not presume to make any constructive use of such Ideas, 
lest it should be betrayed into the labyrinth of apparent 
knowledge, and a maze of contradictions. This he pro- 
ceeds to evince by a critical examination of the proofs 
adduced of the substantiality and immortality ef the soul, 
— the termination and commencement of the world — (with | 
the contrary suppositions), — the divisibility or indivisi- 
bility of substances — the necessity or contingency of 
causation and being, in the present world, — and the ex- 
istence of God. Reason cannot demonstrate the existence 
of the objects of these ideas, which are imperceptible 
to the senses : nor, on the other hand, can it prove the 
contrary. All that is permitted to speculative reason is 
a moderating power in the employment of our ideas, for 
the ultimate extension of knowledge. 

375. Reason, however, is not merely speculative, but 
also practical, having the effect of limiting our absolute 
Free-will by the ideas of Duty and Right. An ex- 
amination of our ideas of Duty and of well-regulated 
Will (in which, by the common consent of mankind, con- 
sists the essence of moral worth), leads him to recognise 
the existence of certain a priori principles of a practical 
nature ; which define not ivhat is, but, w/iat ought to he. 
Practical reason is autonomic — simply defining the formal 
character of the Will, and presupposing free-agency as a 
necessary condition. The Laws of Ethics are superior 


to the empirical and determinable free-will which we 
enjoy in matters of practice, and assume an imperative 
character, occupying the chief place in Practical Phi- 
losophy. This categorical principle becomes an abso- 
lute law of universal obligation, giving to our conduct an 
ultimate end and spring of action ; which is not to be con- 
sidered as a passion or affection, but as a moral sense of 
respect for Law. Virtue, therefore, consists in obe- 
dience to the dictation of Duty, or the moral constraint 
imposed by the legislative power of Reason ; or, in other 
words, in the submission of our impulses and inclinations 
to Reason. Morality is not Happiness, though it implies 
a rational title to it, and makes us worthy of being Happy. 
It is universal and necessary consistently with free-will. 
The ideas of Free-will, Immortality, and a Divinity, 
derive their certainty from the practical laws of Ethics. 
This certainty, however, is not the result of speculative 
science, but of a practical rational belief. By such a 
definition of the Summum Bonum and ultimate end of 
rational existence we are enabled to perceive with clear- 
ness the harmony which exists between the intellectual 
and sensual nature of man ; between speculative and prac- 
tical Reason. 

Civil or juridical law is distinguished from moral, inas- 
much as the former legislates only with respect to ex- 
ternal actions, and provides for the freedom of all by 
limiting and defining that of individuals. The descrip- 
tion of Right which results is of a Coercive character, 
and demands the protection of the State ; which itself 
reposes on a contract as its foundation; being designed 
for the maintenance and preservation of the rights of all. 

376. Speculative knowledge (founded on the idea of 
Nature), and Practical (founded on that of Free-agency), 
form two distinct hemispheres, as it were, of the same 
whole, and differ altogether in their principles. The 
faculty of Judgment interposes between these two powers 
and their objects — Nature and Free-will, (which are united 
by an inexplicable link in the mind of man) ; and specu- 

408 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

lates on their mutual accordance. It does not add any 
thing to objective knowledge, but enables us to reflect 
on Nature as a Whole, by means of a peculiar principle, 
that of Proportionateness of the Means to the End ; 
which is not objective but purely subjective. The Judg- 
ment therefore makes the particular subordinate to the 
universal ; and operates partly by means of classification, 
partly by reflection. In the latter case, according to a 
principle of our nature which prompts us to employ with 
freedom the energies of the mind, we apply to external 
nature ideas derived from the understanding in the ex- 
ercise of this freedom, being conscious of a species of 
intellectual satisfaction. In this manner we examine Na- 
ture with a view to the principles of formal Proportionate- 
ness ; we discuss the principle of the pleasure derived 
from the Beautiful and the Sublime, and apply the same 
sort of teleological^ scrutiny not only to the forms but also 
to the material and internal proportions of Nature. The 
principle by which we are guided in such observations 
is this : that there exists an internal proportion between 
the means and the end in organic nature, and although 
this principle does not immediately produce any direct 
result, it leads us to anticipate the conclusion of a final 
end impressed on all Nature by a Spiritual Being, im- 
perceptible to our senses ; which conjectural conviction is 
converted into certainty by Practical Knowledge. {Phy- 
sico-Ethico- Theology, or Teleology). 

377. Works of Kant. His grand enterprise was his 
Critical examination of our faculties of knowledge, on the 
principles of a Transcendental Philosophy, i. e. of a 
theoi'y which deduces, from an examination of the facul- 
ties of the human mind, certain established principles as 
the conditions of its operations ; giving to all these spe- 
culations a systematic form. Of this great design Kant 
has completed some parts, with his characteristic ori- 
ginality, acuteness, and depth of thought : for instance, 

* 7V/'.('/(i,c77 denotes the consideration of final causes. 


the Metaphysical system of Nature, in which he has 
shown himself the precursor of the Dynamic Philosophy, 
inasmuch as he maintains that Matter fills Space in virtue 
of impulsive forces (those of Expansion and Attraction). 
To this he added his Moral Metaphysics, or Theory of 
Right and Virtue; as well as separate dissertations on 
Religious Anthropology, Education, and other important 
subjects, which contain many admirable and profound 

Kant's earlier works are : 

Gedunken von der wahren Schatzung der lebcndigen Krafte, 
Konigsb. 174:0, 8vo. Principiormn jMetaphysicor. nova diluci- 
datio, ibid. 1755, 4to. Betrachtungen iiber den Optimismus, 
Kbiiigsb. 1759, 4to. !Monadologia Physica Spec. I, ibid. 1756, 
4to. Versuch den Begriff der negativen Grossen in die Welt- 
weish. einzufiihren, Konigsb. 1763, 8vo. Einzig moglicher Be- 
weisgriind zu einer Demonstration des Daseyns Gottes, ebend. 
1763; zuletzt 1794, 8vo. Die falsche Spitzfindigkeit der vier 
Syllog. Figuren, ebend. 1763 ; Frank/, iind Leii^z. 1797. Beo- 
bachtungen iiber das Gefiihl des Schonen und Erhabenen, Ko- 
nigsb. 1764, Svo. ; Riga, 1771. Traume eines Geistersehers, 
Riga, 1766, Svo. ; 1769. AUgem. Naturgesch. und Theorie des 
Himmels, etc. IV Aufl. Zeitz, 1808, 8vo. De Mundi Sensibilis 
atque Intelligibilis Forma et Principiis, Regiomont. 1770, 4to.; 
(a work in wliicli he gives the first hint of the plan of his great 
Critical undertaking). The above, with several other treatises, 
are collected in Kant's Kleinen Schriften, Konigsb. u. Leipz. 
1797, III Bde. 8vo. Verm. Schriften, achte und vollst. Ausg. 
(herausg. von Tieftrunk), Halle, 1799—1807, IV Bde. 8vo. 
Sammlung einiger bisher unbekannt gebliebenen Schriften von 
Im. Kant (herausg. von Rink), Konigsb. 1800, 8vo. 

His principal works are : 

Kritik der Reinen Venmnft, Riga, 1781, VI Aufl. ; Leipz. 
1818, 8vo. Kritik der Praktischen Yemnnit, Riga, 1788; V 
Aufl. Leipz. 1818, 8vo. Kritik der Urtheilskraft, Berl. 1790 ; 
III Aufl. 1799, 8vo. Prolegomena zu einer jeden kiinftigen 
Mataphysik, etc., Riga, 1783, 8vo. Grundlegung zur Meta- 
physik der Sitten, Riga, 1785, 8vo. ; IV Aufl. 1797. Meta- 
physische Anfangsgriinde der Naturwissenschaft, Riga, 1786, 
Svo. ; III Aufl. 1800. Ueber eine Entdeckung, nach der alle 
neue Kritik der reinen Vemunft durch eine altere entebehrlich 
gemacht werden soil, Konigsb. 1792, Svo. Die Religion inner- 
halb der Granzen der blossen Vemunft, Konigsb. 1793, Svo. ; 
II verm. Aufl. 1794. Zum owigen Frieden, ein Philosophischer 
Entwurf, Konigsb. 1795, 1796, Svo. Metaphysische Anfangs- 

410 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

griinde der Reclitslehre, Konigsh. 1799, 8vo. II Aiifl. 1803, Svo. 
Metaphysische Anfangsgriinde der Tiigendlehre, Konigsh. 1797, 
Svo. ; II Aufl. 1803. (Both are contained under the title of, Meta- 
physik der Sitten.) Anthropologic in pragmatischer Hinsicht, 
Kdnigsh. 1798; III Aufl. 1821, s'vo. Der Streit der Facultaten, 
Konigsh. 1798, Svo. 

Works of others illustrative of the above : 

-j" The Logic of Kant, a Manual for the Academical Classes, 
by G. B. Jahsche, Konigsh. 1800, Svo. (published from the 
papers of the students). ^ Education, published by Rink, ihid. 
1803, Svo. "[" Lectures on Religious Philosophy, Leips. 1817, 
Svo. (published from the papers of the students). ■^ Lectures 
on Metaphysics, (published by the Editor of the Religious Phi- 
losophy, etc., PoLiTz), Erfurdt, 1821, Svo. 

378. With regard to the general character of the Cri- 
tical system of Kant, we may observe that it confined it- 
self to a contemplation of the phenomena of Conscious- 
ness, and attempted to ascertain, by analysis, not of our 
ideas, but of the faculties of the soul, certain invariable 
and necessary principles of knowledge ; proceeding to 
define their usage, and to form an estimate of them col- 
lectively, with reference to their formal character : in 
which investigation the distinctions and definitions of 
those faculties adopted by the school of Wolf, were 
presumed to be valid. It exalted the human mind, by 
making it the centre of its system; but at the same 
time confined and restricted it by means of the con- 
sequences deduced. It discouraged also the spirit of 
Dogmatical Speculation, and the ambition of demonstrat- 
ing all things by means of mere intellectual ideas, making 
the faculties for acquiring knowledge the measure of 
things capable of being known, and assigning the pre- 
eminence to Practical Reason rather than to Speculative, in 
virtue of its end, viz. Wisdom ; which is the highest that 
reason can aspire to ; because to act virtuously is an uni- 
versal and unlimited, but to acquire knowledge only a 
conditional duty. It proscribetl Mysticism, and circum- 
scribed the provinces of Science and Belief. It taught 
men to discriminate and appreciate the grounds, the ten- 
dency, the defects, and partial views, as well as the ex- 
cellencies of other systems ; at the same time that it 


embodied a lively principle for awakening and strength- 
ening the interest attaching to genuine philosophical re- 
search. It afforded to philosophy a firm and steady 
centre of action in the unchangeable nature of the human 
mind. In general, it may be observed that the theory 
of Kant constructed little ; and rather tended to destroy 
the structures of an empty Dogmatism, and prepare, 
by means of self-knowledge, the way for a better state 
of philosophical science ; seeking in Reason itself the 
principles on which to distinguish the several parts of 

On the other hand it has been urged against this sys- 
tem : 

That it does not recognise the existence of Rational 
Ideas : because its author, without even examining into 
the claims of both, attributes to experience a preponde- 
rance over the opposite principle — making demonstration 
the sole evidence of knowledge, that it makes a distinc- 
tion between speculative and practical reason, and that 
it dislocates, (as it were), by its subdivisions, the facul- 
ties of the human mind. To this must be added (it is 
objected) a certain Formalism, which betrays itself even 
in his practical system, and in consequence of which the 
student is led to regard things principally in a subjective 
point of view ; that is, with a reference to the laws and 
forms of human action : from which to absolute Idealism 
is an easy step. 

The following works contain criticism on Kant's theory : 

D. Jenisch iiber den Grimd und Werth der Entdeckimgen des 
Hrn. Prof. Kant, Berl. 1790, 8vo. Jon. Neeb, iiber Kant's 
Verdienste um das Interesse der Philosophirenden Verniinft, II 
Aufl. Frank/, a. M. 1795, 8vo. Glo. Bj. Gerlacii Philosophie, 
Gesetzgebung und Aesthetik in ihrcm jetzigen Verhiiltniss zur 
sittlichen und asthetischen Bildung der Deutschen, eine Pries- 
schrift. Poseu, 1804, 8vo. Flugge's Versuch einer Historisch 
kritischen Darstellung des Einflusses der Kantischen Philosophie 
auf Religion u. Theologie. 2 Thle. Hannov. 1796, 1798, 8vo. 
Tr. Ben. Agap. Leo Krito oder iiber den wohlthjitigen Einfluss 
der kritischen Philosophie, Leipz. 180G, 8vo. Staudlin's Abh. 
iiber den Werth der Krit. Phil, in s. Bcitr. zur Phil. u. Gesch. 
der Rel. Ill, IV, V Th. Goti. 1797-98-99. See also, Bou- 

412 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

TERWECK Imm. Kant ; ein Denkmal. Arthur Schopenhauer's 
Appendix to his work, mentioned § 407, containing a Critique 
of Kant's theory. V. Busse Metaphysische Anfangsgriinde 
der Naturwissenschaft von Im. Kant in ihren Grunden widerlegt, 
Dresd. 1828. 

Earliest Adversaries of Kanfs System, 

See (K. Glob. Hausius) Materialien ziir Gesch. der Krit. Phi- 
losopliie, nebst einer Histor. Einleitung zur Gesch. der Kant. 
Philos. Ill Sammlungen, Leipz. 1793, 2 Bde. 8vo. 

C. L. Reinhold iiber die bisherigen Schicksale der Kant. Phi- 
losophic, Jena, 1789, 8vo. 

379. The first of Kant's great works produced, at its 
appearance, little sensation. When at last it began to 
attract attention, it excited a great sensation, and many 
questions with regard to its end and character. The 
very language in which it was couched, containing a set 
of phrases and terms entirely new, was an obstacle to its 
progress, and, no less than its contents, revolted the minds 
of most of the learned countrymen of its author. A great 
variety of mistakes were necessarily committed with respect 
to it. Some pronounced it superficial, and gave it credit 
for nothing more than an appearance of originality. 
Others, admitting it to be original, declared it to be dan- 
gerous and pernicious ; inasmuch as it set forth a system 
of Idealism, which would annihilate the objective reality 
of Knowledge, destroy all rational belief in God and the 
immortality of the soul, and consequently was adverse to 
revealed religion. Several eminent men became in va- 
rious ways adversaries to the new system, of whom we 
may particularise: Mendelssohn^ \ Hamann'^ and Jacobi 

^ M. Mendelssohn's Morgenstunden. 2 Bd. Berl. 1785, 8vo.; (see $ 368). 
Priifung der Mendelssohnscheii Morgenstunden, oder aller speculativen Be- 
weise fiir das Daseyn Gottes, in Vorlesungen von L. H. Jakob. Nebst einer 
Abhandl. von Kant, Leij)z. 1786, 8vo. 

c Hamann : In his Letters to Jacobi — Jacobi's Works, I u. IV B. 
Jacoiu, iiber das Unternehmen dcs Kriticismus, die Vernunft zu Verstande 
zu bringen, etc., in Reinhold's lieitragen zur leichten Uebersicht, etc., Ill, 1. 


(§398); Eberhonl^; Feder'^ {%SGS); Ad. Wcishaupt^- J, 
l\Flatt^; G.A.TitteV'; S. Relmarifs (^361)-, D.Tiede- 
mann ' (§ 369) ; Plainer (§ 3C8) ; Garve ^ ; Meiners ' ; G. 
E, Schulze (§ 401); J. C. Schwab"'; Herder''; IL G. 
ron Gerstenberg° ; F. Baader^, and others*'. 

f^^ J. A. Eberhaud : In the Philosophical Journals published by him : (see 
368, note ')• 

« J. G. H. Feder, iiber Raum und Zeit zur Priinfung der Kant. Philoso- 
phic, Getting. 1787, 8vo. Philos. Biblioth. von Feder u. INIeiners. 1 Bd. 
Gott. 1788, 8vo. 

^ Ad. Weishaupt, iiber die Griinde und Gewissheit der menschlichen Er- 
kenntniss. Zur Priifung der Kant. Kritik der reinen Vernunft, N'urnb. 1788, 
8vo. Ueber Materialism us u. Idealismus, ein Philosophisches Fragment, 
N'tirnb. 1787; II Aufl. 1788, 8vo. Ueber die Kantischen Anschauungen 
und Erscheinungen, ebend. 1788, 8vo. Zweifel iiber die Kantischen Begriffe 
von Raum und Zeit, ebend. 1788, 8vo. He also wrote : Ueber Wahrheit und 
sittliche VoUkommenheit, Regensb. 3 Bde. 1793-97, 8vo. Schaumaxn and 
Born replied to him and to Feder. 

5 J. F. Flatt's Fragmentarische Beitrage zur Bestlmmung u. Deduction 
des Begriffs und Grundsatzes der Causalitat und zur Grundlegung der Natiirl. 
Theologie, Leipzig, 1788, 8vo. See § 380, note. Also : Briefe iiber den 
Moral. Erkenntnissgrund der Religion in Beziehung auf die Kantische Philo- 
sophic, Tubing. 1789, 8vo. 

^ Glo. a. Tittel, Kantische Denkformen od. Kategorieen, Frkf. a. M., 
1788, 8vo. Ueber Hrn. Kant's Moralreform, Franhf. und Leipz. 1786, 8vo. 

• Dietr. Tiede.manx, Theatet, oder iiber das Menschliche Wissen, ein Bei- 
trag zur Vernunftkritik, Frankf. a. M. 1794, 8vo. 

In answer to this, J. Cir. F. Uietz Antitheatet, Host u. Leipz. 1798, 8vo. 
D. Tiedemann's Idealistische Briefe, Marb. 1798, 8vo. Beantwortung der- 
selbeu von Diez, Goiha, 1801, 8vo. ; und cine Abh. Tiedemann's in den Hes- 
sischen Beitragen, 111 St. 

•* Garve, in der Uebersetzung der Ethik des Aristoteles, 1 Bd. nebst einer 
Abh. iiber die verschiedenen Principe der Sittenlehre von Aristoteles bis auf 
Kant, Bvesl. 1798, 8vo. On the other side : J. Chr. Fr. Dietz iiber Phi- 
losophic, Philosophische Streitigkeiten, Kriticismus und Wissenschaftslehre, 
nebst einer Priifung der Garve'schen Beurtheilung des Kritischen Systems, 
Gotha, 1800, 8vo. 

' See Meiners AUgemeine Geschichte der Ethik, Gotting. 1800, 2 Thle. 

"> J. C. Schwab, Vergleichung des Kantischen Moralprinzips mit dem Leib- 
nitz- Wolfischen, Berl. 1800, 8vo. Ueber die Wahrheit der Kantischen Phi- 
losophic und die Wahrhcitslichc der A. L. Z. in Jena in Ansehung der Phi- 
losophic, Berlin, 1803, 8vo. He composed also : Von den Dunkeln Vorstel- 
lungen, etc., Stuttg. 1813, 8vo. 

" JoH. Gottfr. Herder's Verstand u. Erfahrung, eine Metakritik zur 
Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Leipz. 1799, 2 Bde. 8vo. Kalligone, Leipz. 
1800, 3 Thle. 8vo. 

414 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

The system was also attacked by many violent and 
passionate declaimers, such as Stattler"^ -, and in several of 
the universities the authorities forbade that it should be 

Commentators and Partisans of Kant's Critical 


380. In spite of these inherent difficulties and external 
assaults, the Critical philosophy continued to gain ground 
in Germany ; and began to exercise considerable in- 
fluence over the character of the other sciences. Several 
men of talent declared in its favour; supporting it by 
writings intended either to defend or illustrate it, and 
rendering service not only to Kant, but to the cause of 
philosophy at large. 

Among these we may enumerate J. Schuiz ^ ; C. C E. 
Schjnid^; C. Leo?i. ReinJiold^, (see below, § 382); Solo- 

in answer to this : Kiesev/etter's Priifung der Herderschen Metakritik, 
Berl. 1799, 2 Bd. 8vo. 

" (H. W. VON Gerstenberg), Die Theorie der Kategorieen entwickelt 
und erliintert, Altona, 1795, 8vo. Sendschreiben an Carl von Yillers das 
gemeinschaftl. Prinzip der Theor. und prakt. Philos. betrefFend, Altona, 1821, 
8vo. vgl. mit einem kleinen Aufsatz Uber Ursache in dem Intellbl. der A. L. 
Z. St. 54, 1823. 

P Fr. Baader, Absolute Blindheit der von Kant deducirten prakt. Vernunft 
an Fr. H. Jakobi, 1797. Beitrage zur Elementarphilosophie, ein Gegenstiick 
zu Kant's met. Anfangsgr. der Naturw. Hamb. 1797, 8vo. 

1 See various treatises by Brastberger, Maass, Bornutrager, Pe- 
zoLDi, Breyer, etc. 

•■ Antikant, Munich, 1788, 2 vols. 8vo. : and a work on the same subject 
by Reuss, Wiirzburg. 1789, 8vo., with this title: Soil Man auf Katholischen 
Universitiiten Kant's Philosophi studiren ? 

« JoH. ScHULz, Erliiuterungen uber des Hrn. Prof. Kant Kritik der reinen 
Vernunft, Konigsb. 1785, 8vo. u. 1791. Desselben Prufung der Kantischen 
Kritik der reinen Vernunft. ibid. 1789—92 ; 2 Bde. 8vo. 

*■ Carl Chr. Ebrh. Schmid, Kritik der reinen Vernnuit im Grundrisse. 
Jena, 1786, 8vo. ; III Aiifl. Jen. 1794. Wbrterbuch zum leichtern Gebrauch 
der Kantischen Schriften, Jena, 1788, 8vo. ; IV Aufl. 1798, 8vo. 

" Reiniiold's Briefe liber die Kantische Philosophie (see the German 
Mercury 1785—87), T.eipz. 1790; 2 Bde. 8vo. 


mon jMciimon'' \ C. II. Hei)dcnreich^ \ J. Sigism. Beck''' \ 
Sam. Alb. Alellin^] Laz. Bendavid^; J. C. F. Diet:::'' -^ 
Fr. W. D. and Cli. G. Snell'^ ; J. C. G. Sc/iaumatin" ; 
and many others ^ These formed a numerous school of 
Kantists, which necessarily comprehended also a large 
number of disciples of inferior parts, and blindly devoted 
to the system of their master. 

It cannot be denied that the rapid progress which the 
system soon began to make contributed greatly to awaken 
a new and vigorous spirit of research. Men of superior 

" Sai, TMaimon's Versuch iiber die Transcendentalphilosophie, Berl. 1790, 

y Heydenreich's Originalideen iiber die interessantesten Gegenstaude der 
Philosophie, Leipz. 1793 — 96. 5 B. 8vo. See several other works by the 
same author, e. g. an Introduction to the Study of Philosophy, published at 
Leips. 1793, (in Germ.) 

^ See §. 382. 

* G. S. A. Mellin's JNIarginalien und Register zu Kant's Kritik des Erkennt- 
nissvermogens, Jena, 1794 — 95, 2 Th. 8vo. Kunstsprache der krit. Philos. 
alphabet, georduet, Jena, 1798, 8vo. Anhang, 1800, 8vo. (also: Marginalien 
u. Register zu Kant's met. Anfangsgr. der Rechtslehre.^ Encyklopiidisches 
Worterbuch der krit. Philosophie, Zullichau %i. Leipz. 1797 — 1803, 6 B. 
8vo. etc. 

•• Laz. Bexdavid's Vorlesungen iiber die Kritik der reinen Vern. Wien, 
1795; II Aufl. 1802. Ueber die Kritik der Urtheilskraft, ebend. 1796. 
Vorles. iiber die Kritik der prakt. Vernunft, nebst einer Rede iiber den Zweck 
der krit. Philos. ehend. 1796, 8vo. Vorlesungen iiber die metaphys. Anfangs- 
griinde der Naturwiss. ehend. 1798. Preisschr. iiber den Ursprung uns. 
Erkenntniss, Berl. 1802, 8vo. Versuch einer Rechtslehre, Berl. 1802. 

*= See the preceding $. He also wrote; Der Philosoph. u. die Philos. aus 
dem wahren Gesichtspuncte und mit Hinsicht auf die heut. Streitigkeiten, 
Leipz. 1802, 8vo. und : Ueber Wissen, Glauben, Mystik u. Skepticismus, 
Liibech, 1809, 8vo. 

^ F. W. D. Snell, Darstellung u. Erliiuterung der Kant. Kritik der Ur- 
theilskr. Maunh. 1791 — 92, 2 Th. 8. Menon, oder Versuch in Gesprachen 
die vornehmsten Puncte aus der Kritik der prakt. Vern. zu erlaiitern, ibid. 
1789, 8vo. ; II Aufl. 1796, 8vo. Several manuals, e. g. Lehrb. f. d. ersten d. Philos. 2 Th. VII verb. Aufl. 1821 ; rait Ch. W. Snell, Handb. 
der Philos. fiir Liebhaber, Giessen, 1802, 8vo. mit C. Ch. E. Schmid das 
philos. Journal. Giessen, 1793 — 95, 5 B. 8vo. 

*^ ScHAUMANN, lib. d. transceudentale Aesthetik, ein krit. Versuch nebst e. 
Schreiben an Feder iib. d. transcend. Idealismus, Leipz. 1789, 8vo. (a work 
principally directed against the attacks of Feder). 

^ Such as Born, Abicht, Phiseldeck, Need, .Jakob, Tieftrunk, Kiese- 


416 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

parts began to apply the principles it developed to the 
more accurate and systematic cultivation of the differ- 
ent departments of science, and especially to purposes of 
a more comprehensive study of Method. Logic was 
treated successfully by S. Maimon^\ Hoffhmier ; Maas ; 
Kiesewetter; Krvg ; Fries; etc. Metaphysics by Ja^oi"^; 
Schmid; and Krug. Ethics by SchmicP; Jakob; Tief- 

s Sal. Maimox, Versuch einer neuen Logik oder Theorie des Denkens, etc. 
Berl. 1794, 8vo. Hoffbauer's Analytik der Urtheile und Schlusse, Halle, 
1792, 8vo. Anfangsgriinde der Logik. Halle, 1794; II Aufl. mit einer psy- 
chologischen Vorbereitung vermehrt, ebend. 1810, 8vo. Ueber die Analysis 
in der Philosophie, nebst Abhandlungen verwandten Inhalts, Halle, 1810, 8vo. 
Versuch iiber die schwerste und leichteste Anwendung der Analysis in den 
philos. Wissenschaften, eine gekriinte Preisschrift mit Zusatzen, Leipz. 1810, 
8vo. Jakob's Grundriss der allgem. Logik und krit. Anfangsgrunde der 
allgem. Metaphysik, Halle, 1788, 8vo. IV Aufl. 1800, 8vo. Maass, Grundr. 
der Logik, Halle, 1793, 8vo. IV verm. Aufl. 1823. C. Chr. Ehr. Schmid's 
Grundriss der Logik, Jena, 1797, 8vo. Tieftrunk's Grundriss der Logik, 
Halle, 1801, 8vo. Die Denklehre im reindeutschen Gewande u. s. w., nebst 
einigen Anfsiitzen von Kant, Halle, u. Leipz. 1825, 8vo. Die angewandte 
Denklehre u. s. w. ebend. 1827, 8vo. Kiesewetter's Grundriss einer all- 
gemeinen Logik nach Kanlischen Grundsatzen, begleitet mit einer weitern 
Auseinandersetzung, Berl. 1791 f. 2Th. ; II Aufl. 1802 u. 1806. Also : Logik 
zum Gebrauch fUr Schulen, ebend. 1797 ; and : Die wichtigsten Satze der 
Vernunftlehre fiir Nichtstudirende, Hamb. 1806, 8vo. Fr. W. D. Snell 
erste Grundlinien d. Logik. Ill Aufl. Giessen, 1828, 8vo. 

(On the other side) : Carl Chr. Flatt, Fragmentarische Bemerkungen 
gegen den Kantischen u. Kiesewetterischen Grundriss der reinen allgem. 
Logik. Tubing. 1802, 8vo. 

** Jakob's Priifung der Mendelsohnischeu Morgenstunden, nebst einer Abh. 
von Kant, Leipz. 1786, 8vo. Beweis fiir die Unsterblichkeit der Seele a. d. 
Begriffe der Pflicht. Zullichau, 1790 — 94 — 1800, 8vo. Ueber den moralischen 
Beweis fiir das Daseyn Gottes, Liebau, 1791, 8vo ; II verm. Aufl. 1798. 

Carl Ciin. Erh. Schmid's Grundriss der Metaphysik, Jena, 1799, 8vo. 
The vi'orks of Krug and Fries are mentioned below, §§ 404, 405. 

' C. Chr. Erh. Schmid's Versuch einer Moralphilosophie, Jena, 1790, 8vo. 
IV Aufl. 1802, 1803 ; 2 B. 8vo. Grundriss der Moralphilosophie, Jena, 1793 ; 
II Aufl. 1800, 8vo. Adiaphora, philos. theol. u. hist, untersucht. Jetia, 1809, 
8vo. Kiesewetter, iiber den ersten Grundsatz der Moralphilosophie, nebst 
einer Abhandlung iiber die Freiheit von Jakob, Halle, 1788 ; II Aufl. Berl. 
1790—91, 2 Th.8vo. Jacob's philosophische Sittenlehre, Halle, 1794, 8vo. 
Grundsiitze der Weisheit und des menschl. Lebens, Halle, 1800, 8vo. Ueber 
das moral. Gefiihl. Halle, 1788, 8vo. Tieftrunk's philos. Untersuchungen 
ub. d. Tugendlehre, Halle, 1798—1805, 2 B. 8vo. Grundriss d. Sittenlehre, 
Halle, 1803, 2 Th. (Tugend- und Rechtslehre), 8vo. Hoffbauer's l^nter- 


trunk, Iloffbauer, Ileydenreich, SttluiUin, Kri/g, Fries, 
Kunhardt, etc. The philosophical principles of Law 
and Right'', by Huf eland, Heydenreich, Buhle, Jakob, 

suchungen iiberdie wichtigsten Gegenstande der Moralphilosophie, insbes. die 
Sittenlehre und INIoraltheologie, 1 Th. Dorim. 1799, 8vo. Anfangsgriinde der 
Moralphilosophie und insbes. d. Sittenlehre, nebst einer allgemeinen Gesch. 
derselben, Halle, 1798, 8vo. IIeydenreicii's Propiideutik der Moralphiloso- 
phie nach Grundsiitzen der reinen Vernunft, Leipz. 1794. 3 Th. 8vo. Ueber 
Freiheit u. Determinismus u. ihre Vereinigung, Erlaiig. 1793, 8vo. ; und 
mehrere Schriften zur popuhiren IMoral. K. F. Staudlin Grundriss der Tu- 
gend u. Religionslehre, Gotting. 1800, 8vo. Ge. Henuici Versuch iiber den 
ersten Grundsatz d. Sittenlehre. 1 Th. Leipz. 1799, 8vo. Leonh. Creuzer's 
skeptische Betrachtungen iib. die Freiheit des Willens, Giessen, 1793, 8vo. 

•^ G. HuFELAND Versuch iiber den Grundsatz des Naturrechts, Leipz. 1785, 
Bvo. Lehrsiitze des Naturrechts, Jena, 1790; II Aufl. 1795, 8vo. Heyden- 
reich System der Natur, nach krit. Prinzipien, Leipz. 1794 — 95, 2 Th. 8vo. 
Grundsatze des Natiirl. Staatsrechts, nebst einem Anhang Staatsrechtl. 
Abhandlungen, Leipz. 1795, 2 Th. 8vo. Versuch iiber die Heiligkeit des 
Staats u. die Moralitiit der Revolutionen, Leipz. 1794, 8vo. Briii.E Lehrbuch 
des Naturrechts, Gdlt. 1781, 8vo. Ideen zur Rechtsw., Moral u. Politik. 
I Samml. G'utt. 1799, 8vo. He also wrote : Entwurf einer Transcendental - 
philos. Gott. 1798, 8vo. Ueber Ursprung u. Leben des Menschengeschlechts 
u. das kiinftige Leben nach dem Tode, Braunschw. 1821, 8vo, K. Chr. E. 
Schmid's Grundriss des Naturrechts, Fiir Vorles, Jena u. Leipz. 1795, 8vo. 
Jakob's Philosoph. Rechtslehre, Halle, 1795; II Aufl. 1802, 8vo. Auszug, 
ebend. 1796, 8vo. Antimachiavell. Halle, 1794, u. 1796, 8vo. Maas iiber 
Recht u. Verbindlichkeiten, Halle, 1794, 8vo. Untersuchungen iiber die 
wichtigsten Gegenstiinde des Naturrechts, Halle, 1790, 8vo. Grundriss des 
Naturrechts, Leipz. 1808, 8vo. Hoffbauer's Naturrecht, aus dem Beorifte 
des Rechts entwickelt, Halle, 1793 ; III Aufl. 1804, 8vo. Untersuchungen 
iiber die wichtigsten Gegenstande des Naturrechts, ebend. 1793, 8vo. Allgem. 
Staatsrecht u. s. w. Halle, 1797, 8vo. Dass Allgem. Naturrecht u. die Moral 
in ihrer gegenseit. Abhlingigkeit, etc., Halle, 1816, 8vo. Th. Schmalz Recht 
der Natur, 1 Th., Kdnigsh. 1792 ; II Aufl. 1795, 8vo., 2 Th. Naturl. 
Staatsrecht, 1794; II Aufl. 1795. Das Naturl. Farailien- und Kirchenrecht, 
ebend. 1795, 8vo. Erklarung der Rechte des jMenschen u. Biirgers, etc., ebend. 
1798, 8vo. Handbuch der Rechtsphilosophie, ebend. 1807, 8vo. P. J. 
Anselm Feuerbacii's Kritik des Natiirl. Rechts, Altona, 1796. 8vo. Ueber 
die einzig moglichen Beweisgr'unde gegen das Daseyn u. die Giilligkeit der 
Natiirl. Rechte, Leipz. u. Gera, 1795, 8vo. Antihobbes, I Th. Erf. 1798, 8vo. 
K. Sal. Zacharia Anfangsgr. des Philos. Privatrechts, Leipz. 1804, 8vo. 
Anfangsgr. des Philos. Criminalrechts, ebend. 1805, 8vo. Vierzig Biicher vom 
Staate, 2 B. Stuitg. u. Tub. 1820, 8vo. K. II. L. Politz : Die Staats- 
wissenschaften im Lichte unserer Zeit, 4 B., Leipz. 1823, u. f. C. H. Gros 
Lehrbuch der Philos. Rechtswissenschaft. Tuhing. 1802 ; III Aufl. 1815, 8vo. 
J. Chr. Gottt.. Schaumann's wissenschaftl. Naturrecht, Halle, 1792, 8vo. 

E e 

418 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

MaaSy HoffbaueTi Schmah, Feuerhach^ Fries, Solom. \ 
Zachariey Polite, Gros, etc. The question of Religion, ! 
considered as a part of Practical philosophy ^, was treated 
by Heydenreich, Schmid, Jakob, TieftrunJc, Krug, etc. i 
The theory of the Fine Arts ™ was discussed by Heyden- \ 
reicJi, Heusinger, and Delbruck, and the poet Schiller, j 
(in his prose writings) ; whose free spirit soon shook oiF 
the shackles of the School-philosophy. Psychology ° by 

Kritische AbhancUungen zur Philos. Rechtslehre, Halle, 1795, 8vo. Versuch 
eines neuen Systems des Natiirl. Rechts, ebend. 1796, 8vo. G. Henrici Ideen 
zu einer wissenschaftl. Begrundung der Rechtslehre oder iiber den Begriff u. die 
letzten Griinde des Rechts, etc., Hannov. 1809 — 10, 2 Th. 8vo. ; II verm. 
Aufl. 1822, 8vo. J. A. Bruckner Essai sur la Nature et I'Origine des Droits, 
Lips. 1810, 8vo. 

' Heydenreich, Betrachtungen liber die Philosophie der Natiirl. Religion, 
Leipz. 1790 — 91, 2 B. 8vo. Grundsatze der moral. Gotteslehre, Leipz. 1793, 
8vo. Briefe iiber den Atheismus, ebend. 1797, 8vo. See § 367. C. Chr. 
E. Schmid's Philos. Dogmatik, Jena, 1796, 8vo. Jakob's AUgemeine Re- 
ligion, 1797, 8vo. s. oben. Tieftrunk's Versuch e neuen Theorie der Re- 
ligionsphilosophie, Leipz. 1797, 8vo. Hoffbauer's Untersuchungen iiber 
die wichtigsten Gegenstiinde der Natiirl. Religion, Halle, 1795, 8vo. J. E. 
Parrow Grundriss der Vernunftreligion, Berl. 1790, 8vo. Geo. Chr. 
Muller's Entwurf einer Philos. Religionslehre, 1 Th. Halle, 1797, 8vo. 
Many critiques on the Religious Philosophy of Kant appeared from the pens of 
Ratze, Storr, Jachmann, G. E. Schulze, Schelling. 

•" Heydenreich's System der ^sthetik, I Th. (unfinished) Leipz. 1790, 
Bvo. ^sthet. Wcirterbuch, 4 Th. Lej/jz. 1793, fF. J.H.Glieb. Heusinger's 
Handbuch d. ^sthetik, Gotha, 1797, 2 B. 8vo. L. Bendavid Beitr. zur 
Kritik des Geschmacks, Wien, 1797. Versuch einer Geschmackslehre, BerL 
1799, 8vo. Ferd. Delbruck das Schone, Berl. 1800, 8vo. F. W. D. 
Snell Versuch einer ^sthetik f. Liebhaber, II Aufl. Giessen, 1828. 

" J. Ith, Anthropologic, 1794, 8vo. C. Chr. E. Schmid's empirische 
Psychologic, 1 Th. Jena, 1791 ; 11 Aufl. 1796, 8vo. Psychlog. Magaz. seit, 
1796; Anthropolog. Journal, 1803. Jakob's Grundriss der Erfahrungsseelen- 
lehre, Halle, 1791 ; IV Aufl. 1810, 8vo. Grundriss der emp. Psych. Leipz. 
1814, and, Erlauterung des Grundrisses, ebend. Hoffbauer's Naturlehre d. 
Seele, in Briefen, Halle, 1796, 8vo. Untersuchungen iiber die Krankheiten 
der Seele, Halle, 1802, 3 Th. 8vo. Psychologic in ihrer Hauptanwendung auf f 
die Rechtspflege, Halle, 1808, 8vo. Der Grundriss vor s. Logik, u. besonders, 
Halle, II Aufl. 1810. Kiesewetter's kurzer Abriss der Erfahrungsseelen- 
lehre, Berl. 1806, 8vo. ; II Aufl. 1814. Fassl. Dartsellung der Erfahrungs- 
seelenlehre, Hamb. 1806, 8vo. F. W. D. Snell empir. Psychol. Giessen, 
1802 ; II Aufl. 1810. Maass, s. oben s. 29. Litt. Versuch iiber die 
Leidenschaften, Halle, 1805 — 7, 2 B. 8vo. Versuche iiber die Gefiihle, 
bes. iiber d. Affiscten. 2 Th. Halle u. Leipz. 181 i — 12, 8vo. 


Schmidf Jakob, Snell, etc. Education ° by Heusinger, 
Miemei/er, Schwartz y etc. 

All these authors, (most of them professors in the 
German Universities), contributed in a greater or less 
degree to illustrate or extend the system of their master. 
The most remote branches of philosophy were influenced 
by the central action and impulse which had been com- 
municated by Kant : and even his adversaries ended by 
doing him justice. It is true that in France p, and in Eng- 
land "^ his system could scarcely obtain a hearing, in spite of 
the zealous labours of some of its admirers ; but in Hol- 
land % and the North of Europe, it had greater success. 

o JoH. Heivr. Glteb. Heusincer's Versuch eines Lehrbuchs der Erzie- 
hungskunst, Leipz. 1795, 8vo. A.H. NiEMEYER'sGiundsHtze der Erziehung, 
Halle, 1796, 8vo. ; VI Aufl. 3 B. 1810, 8vo. Leitfaden der Padadogik und 
Didaktik, Halle, 1803, 8vo. Friedr. Heinr. Car. Schwarz Lehrbuch d. 
Piidagogik und Didaktik, Heideth. 1807 — 8. Erziehungslehre, Leipz. 1802—4, 
3 B. 8vo. J. LuD. EwALD Vorlesungen iiber d. Erziehungslehre, 3 Th. 
Manuh. 1808, 8vo. 

P Philosophie de Kant, ou Principes Fondamentaux de la Philosophie 
Transcendentale par Charles Villers, Metz. 1801, 2 vols. 8vo. See the 
Critical Journal of Schelling and Hegel, vol. I, No. 3, p. 6, sqq. Germ. 

See also several essays in the Spectateur du Nord, Hamburgh, 1798-99. 

Essai d'une Exposition succinate de la Critique de la Raison pure de Mr. 
Kant, par Mr. Kinker, traduit du Hollandois par J. le Fr. Amsterd. 1801, 
8vo. De la Metaphysique de Kant, ou Observation sur un ouvrage intitule : 
Essai d'une Exposition, etc. par le Citoyen Destutt-Tracy in the Memoires 
de rinstit. Nat. Scienc. jMoral. T. IV. 

Philosophie Critique Decouverte par Kant fondee sur le dernier principe du 
savoir, par J. Hoehne, Paris, 1802, 8vo. 

q NiTscH, General and Introductory View of Kant's Principles concerning 
Man, the World, and the Deity, Lend. l696, 8vo. /' 

The Principles of Critical Philosophy, selected from the works of Emm. 
Kant, and expounded by James Sic. Beck. Translated from the German, 
Land, and Edinb. 1797, 8vo. 

Willich's Elements of the Critical Philosophy, Lond. 1798, 8vo. 

•■ Paul van Hemert, Beginsels der Kantiansche VVysgeerte, Amstd. 1796, 
8vo. Magazyn voor de Critische Wysbegeerte en de Geschiedenis van dezelve, 
Amsterd. 1798, 8vo. Epistolae ad Dan. Wyttenbachium, Amsterd. 1809, 8vo. 
(Dan. Wyttenbach, in answer to Hemert) (piXofxaOeiag ra airopaStjv — 
Miscellaneae Doctrinae, lib. i, ii, Amsterd. 1809, 8vo. 

J. Kinker, Essai d'une Introduction, etc. (see above). 

F. H. Heumann, Principes Moraux de la Philosophie Critique Developp^s 
et Appliques a une Legislation externe fondee sur la Justice, la liberie, et 
I'egalite naturelle, Amstd. 1799, 8vo. 

Van Bosch, Ethica Philosophiae Criticae. 


420 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

We may consider as unavoidable consequences of the 
popularity it acquired, the number of abuses to which it 
gave birth, such as an unmeaning use of formularies, a 
blind devotion to one single system, and a contempt for 
all experimental knowledge. 

B. Philosophical Systems subsequent to that of 


381. The triumph of Critical philosophy was of short 
duration. It opposed too many factions, and counteracted 
too many views and pretensions to obtain an easy victory. 
The various misapprehensions to which it gave birth raised 
suspicions of the correctness of the principles it contained, 
as well as of the propriety of the method by which they 
were developed. Some asserted that the theory was suf- 
ficiently refuted by Common Sense, because it amounted 
to nothing more than a system of mere Idealism, and de- 
stroyed the very reality of all external nature. Others 
went only half as far in their objections, alleging that 
Kant had thrust out real existence by one door, to let it 
in by another. His system was judged to be incomplete 
in this respect also, that by subdividing the different 
mental principles of Knowledge % it placed them side 
by side, as co-ordinate with one another, instead of 
making them subordinate to one supreme principle (§ o78). 
Many of its opponents objected to it that instead of 
weakening the cause of Scepticism it contributed to for- 
tify it : while some of its partisans brought discredit on 
their cause by misapplying its formularies, or by their 
extravagant expectations of its success*. Besides, the 
views developed, particularly the distinction established 
between Knowledge and Science, were too new to be at 

* Such as the principles of Thought and Knowledge; a principle of Specu- 
lative Science, and a principle of Practical Reason. 

• For instance ; t A Preliminary P^xposition of the Principles of a General 
System of Posts ! ! ! Gotting. IBOl. 

381, 382.] REINHOLD. 421 

once generally adopted or apprehended, and too repug- 
nant to the natural tendency to speculation, for the un- 
derstanding at once to submit to their discipline. The 
consequence was, that the Critical system itself gave 
occasion to a variety of attempts, partly to re-establish 
the old dogmatical theories": partly to exalt the new 
philosophy itself to the highest grade of Science, to con- 
stitute it a complete system of knowledge, (of which Kant 
had only pointed out the method), supposing it to have 
attained to the region of the Absolute and Perfect, in 
which Being and Science become identical, and all the 
contradictions of Reflection disappear. A variety of 
fresh systems made their appearance, by which man 
hoped to attain to a knowledge of the Absolute ; some 
by the way of contemplation, — some by thought, — some 
by science, — others again by belief. It was natural that 
Scepticism also should revive in exact proportion as at- 
temps at demonstrative science began to characterise the 
New Philosophy. 

The consequence was that from this School itself pro- 
ceeded fresh essays both of Dogmatism and Scepticism. 

C, L. Reinhold. 

See Reinhold's Life and Works, edited by E. Reinhold, Jena, 
1825, 8vo. ''. 

An Account of his Doctrines, etc. ; by his pupil, E. Duboc, 
Hamh. 1828, 8vo. (Both in German). 

382. The leader in these controversies was C. L. Rein- 
hold; who was born at Vienna, 1758, and subsequently 
became a professor at Jena and Kiel; where he died, 

Having by laborious study made himself thoroughly 
acquainted with the spirit of the Critical system, and 

" For instance : the Empiricism of Selle, Berlin, 1788, Bvo. The Ra- 
tionalism of Ebeuhard ; — and the Eclecticism of Feuer. 
* Containing several letters of Kant and his contemporaries. 

422 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

cultivated his own talent for analysis, he convinced him- | 
self that he had discovered in them a principle of per- 
petual harmony among men of inquisitive minds, and a 
panacea for the evils of mortality ^\ His hope being dis- 
appointed by the innumerable misapprehensions which 
prevailed with regard to it, he laboured to discover for 
it some internal evidence, in corroboration of the argu- 
mentative proof it possessed already. He believed him- 
self to have detected such a principle by the observation, 
that although Kant had investigated fully the faculties 
for acquiring knowledge, he had not examined the per- 
ceptive and imaginative faculties, which are the ultimate 
source of all knowledge, and necessarily modify and de- 
fine it. He also complained that the Critical system was 
not sufficiently scientific, and, in particular, wanted a 
common principle influencing all its parts, and a theory 
founded on such a principle, which might supply the 
elements of Logic, Metaphysics, and the Criticism of 
Reason. To this end he proposed the principle of 
Consciousness. In consciousness we may distinguish be- 
tween two relative terms — the Object conceived — and 
the Subject which conceives : by investigating the na- 
ture of mental conception and its modifications of unity 
and multiplicity, Reinhold endeavoured to ascertain the 
laws and properties of Knowledge and Consciousness, as 
well as the results of a critical examination of the ra- 
tional faculties. This theory^ had the appearance of 

y See the letters of Kant mentioned § 380, note ". 

* It was styled the Theory of the Faculties of mental Conception. 

Versvich einer neuen Theorie des menschl. Vorstellungsvermbgens, Prag.n. 
Jena, 1789, 8vo. ; u. 1795. Ueber die bisherigen Schicksale der Kant. Phi- 
losophie, Jena, 1789, 8vo. Ueber das Fundament des Philos. Wissens. Jena, 
1791, 8vo. Beitrage zur Berichtigung bisheriger Missverstiindnisse der Phi- 
losophic, I u. II B. Jena, 1790, 1794, 8vo. Auswahl vermischter Schriften, 
2 Thle. Jena, 1796, 8vo. Preisschrift iib. die Frage : welche Fortschritte 
hat die Metaphysik seit Leibnitz und Wolf geinacht ( together with other prize 
compositions of Schwab and Abicht), Berlin, 1796, 8vo. Verhandlungen 
iiber ein Einverstandniss in den Grundsiitzen der sittlichsn Angelegenheil aus 
dem Gesichtspuncte des gemeinen und gesunden Verstandes, I B. L'ubeck, 
1798, 8vo. 


382.] REINHOLD. 423 

giving to Critical Philosophy what it wanted in unity and 
harmony ; at the same time that it seemed to render it 
more intelligible by reflecting a light upon its principles 
as well as its consequences. It was assailed, however, at 
the same time by Dogmatic and Sceptical antagonists, 
{Flatty Heydenreich, Beck, etc. ^), but particularly by the 
author of ^nesidemus **. In consequence of these attacks, 
Reinhold himself became sceptical as to the validity of 
his own system, which he endeavoured to improve, partly 
by modifying the terms he had employed, and partly by 
strengthening its weak points. He ended, however, by 
renouncing it altogether, and adopted first the theory of 
Fichte"^, and afterwards that of Bardill"^. This genuine 
lover of Truth turned, in his latter days, his attention to 
the critical examination of Language, as the source of all 
the misunderstandings which have arisen in Philosophy 
(conducting his researches with an especial regard to 

* See the following section. 

^ (GoTTLOB Ernst. Schulze), iEnesidemus, oder iiber die Fundamente 
der von dem Hrn. Prof. Reinhold in Jena gelieferten Elementarphilosophie, 
nebst einer Vertheidigung des Skepticismus gegen die Anmaassungen der Ver- 
nunftkritik, (Helmst.), 1792, 8vo. 

In reply to ^nesidemus: J. H. Abicht's Hennias, oder Auflosung der 
die giiltige Elementarphilos. betrefFendeu iEnesidemischen Zweifel, Erlang, 
1794, 8vo. J. C. C. Visbeck's Hauptmomente der Reinholdischen Elemen- 
tarphilos. in Beziehung auf die Einwendungen des ^nesidemus, Leipz. 1794, 
8vo. Darstellung der Amphibolic der Reflexionsbegriffe, nebst dem Versuche 
einer Widerlegung der Hauptmomente der Einwendungen des iEnesidemus 
gegen die Reinholdische Elementarphilos, Frkf. am M. 1795, Bvo. (by Beck.) 

In reply to Reinhold's theory : Einzig moglicher Standpuncl, von welchem 
die krit. Philosophie beurtheilt werden soil. Riga, 1796, Bvo. 

Reinhold, Fichte, Schelling von Jac. Fries, Leipz. 1803, 8vo. 

^ Sendschreiben an Lavater u. Fichte iiber den Glauben an Gott, Hamb, 
1799, Bvo. Ueber die Paradoxieen der neusten Philos., Hamb. 1799, Bvo. 

^ Beitrage zur leichten Uebersicht des Zustandes der Philos. beim Anfange 
des 19, Jahrh. Hamburg. 1801 — 3, 3 Hefte, Bvo. More recently : Anleitung zur 
Kenntniss u. Beurtheilung der Philos. in ihren sammtl. Lehrgebiiuden, Wien. 
1805, Bvo. (Anonym:) Versuch einer Auflosung der etc. Aufgabe, die Na- 
tur der Analysis und der analyt. INIethode in der Philos. genau anzugeben und 
zu untersuchen, etc., Munch. 1805, Bvo. 

Bardili's u. K. Lh. Reinhold's Briefwechsel iiber das Wesen der Phi- 
los. und das Unwesen der Speculation, herausg. v. Reinhold, Munch. 1804, 

424 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

cases of Synonymy), with the hope of effecting that har- 
mony among philosophical inquirers which was con- 
stantly his object. He endeavoured to elucidate the 
equivocal expressions and inconsistencies of the cus- 
tomary formal Logic, which he maintained to be the es- 
sential causes of the reproach so long incurred by Moral 
Philosophy, that it was incompetent to make good its 
pretensions to the character of a Science ^. He endea- 
voured also, by a new theory of the faculties of human 
knowledge on scientific principles^, to bring to an end 
the inquiries he had started in his former attempt. 

His son, E. Reinhold (professor of Moral Philosophy 
at Jena), follows the steps of his father in his inquiries 
respecting the relations and connection between Logic 
and Language ^. 

383. J. Sigismund Beck (first professor at Halle, after- 
wards at Rostock), an acute disciple of Kant, endea- 
voured to recommend the Critical System by an abridg- 
ment of it, and by making the Critical point of view the 
point of view also of all original mental conception : but his 
ideas were confused and his method bad, and he injured 
the cause which he sought to support, by drawing his 
conclusions without any previous analysis of the facul- 

e Anfangsgriinde der Erkenntniss der Wahrheit in einer Fibel, Kiel, 1808, 
8vo. Riige einer merkwiirdigen Sprachverwirrung unter den Weltweisen, 
Weimar, 1809, 8vo. Grundlegung einer Synonymik fiir den Allgem. Sprach- 
gebrauch in den Philos. Wissenschaften, Kiel, 1812, 8vo. Das menschl. 
Erkenntnissvermbgen aus dem Gesichtspuncte des durch die Wortsprache 
verraittelten Zusammenhangs zwischen der Sinnlichkeit und dem Denkvermo- 
gen, ehend. 1816, 8vo. 

'' Die alte Frage : Was ist die Wahrheit bei der erneuerten Streitigkeiten 
iiber die gottl. Offenbarung und die menschl. Vernunft in nahere Erwagung 
gezogen, Altona, 1820, 8vo. (See particularly the concluding bibliography 
$ 164). 

(On the other side :) Was ist Wahrheit? Eine Abhandl. veranl. durch die 
Frage des, etc., Reinhold, von dem Grafen H. W. A. von Kalkreuth, Breslau, 
1821, 8vo. 

s Ern. Reinhold, Versuch eider Begriindung und neuern Darstellung der 
log. Formen, Leipz. 1819, 8vo. lie also wrote : Grundziige eines Systems der 
Erkenntiiisslehre und Denklehre, SchlemciLr, 1822, 8vo. 

383, 384.] FICHTE. 425 

ties for acquiring knowledge, on which tliey were founded. 
He also prepared the way for the most absolute transcen- 
dental Idealism, by making every thing depend on the 
understanding; deriving our very ideas of Space and 
Time directly from that and from original mental con- 
ception, and abolishing the broad distinction which sub- 
sists between Contemplation and Thought. 

Jak. Sigism. Beck erlauternder Auszug aus den kritischen 
Schriften des Prof. Kant. Riga, 1793-94, I und II B. Vol. 
Ill directed against Reinhold with this title : Einzig moglicher 
Standpunct, aus welchem die kritische Philosophic beurtheilt 
werden muss. Riga, 1796, II Bde. 8vo. Grundriss der kri- 
tischen Philosophic, Halle, 1796, 8vo. Propadeutik zu jedem 
wissensch. Studio, ehend. 1796. Commentar iiber Kant's Me- 
taphysik der Sitten, I Th. 1798, 8vo. Beck subsequently put 
forth : Grundsatze d. Gesetzgebung, 1806, em Lehrbuch der 
Logik. Rost. u. Schwerin, 1820, 8vo. ; and Lehrb. des Naturrechts, 
Jen. 1820, 8vo. 

Fichtes Scientific Theory. 

For the bibliography see below, § 389. 

384. The philosophical labours of J, G. Fichte at- 
tracted far greater attention. 

He was born May 19, 1762, at Rammenau, in the 
Haute-Lusace, and, after having studied at the School of 
Pforta, and at the universities of Jena and Leipsic, 
passed several years in Switzerland and Prussia, and in 
1793, became professor of Moral Philosophy at Jena: 
resigned his office in 1799, and retired to Berlin: in 1805 
filled a professorial chair at Erlangen, and afterwards in 
the university of Berlin ; where he died, 1814. Fichte 
made it his object to constitute the Critical philosophy a 
science, founded on the most exact principles '', with the 
hope of precluding all future errors an-d misapprehen- 
sions, and of annihilating Scepticism ; the cause of which 
was defended, among others, by Schuhe and Sol. Mai- 

^ t Idea of the Scientific Theory : Pref. p. 5. t General Principles of the 
Scientific Theory, p. 12. 

426 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

mon. Encouraged by the success which his " Essay to- 
wards a Criticism of Revelation in General," obtained ', 
and by the example of Reinh old's theory of the percep- 
tive faculties, he gave full scope to his original and inde- 
pendent genius, which, with a firmness approaching ob- 
stinacy, led him constantly to maintain and boldly to 
profess the conclusions to which he had once arrived. 
His object was to concoct a system which might illustrate 
by a single principle, the material and formal properties 
of all science ; might establish the unity of plan which 
the Critical system had failed to maintain, and solve that 
most difficult of all problems regarding the connection 
between our conceptions and their objects. Such was 
the origin of his Scientific Theory'', which supposes that 
neither Consciousness nor the objects to which it refers, 
— neither the material nor formal parts of knowledge, — 
are to be considered as data; but are the results of an 
operation of Ego, and are collected by means of Reflec- 
tion. Fichte does not, like Kant, begin by an analysis 
of our faculties for acquiring knowledge, — of practical 
reason and judgment; nor yet, as Reinhold had done, 
by assuming a primitive y«c^, — that of Consciousness; but 
supposes an original act of the subject (Ego), from which 
he derives the very construction of Consciousness itself. 

The method he pursues is as follows. He begins by 
investigating the proper meaning of the term Science, 
It is a system of Knowledge based on a higher principle, 
which imparts a determinate value to Knowledge itself. 
The Theory of Science has for its object to demonstrate 
the possibility and validity of Science, the solidity of the 
principles on which it is founded, and consequently the 
connection and coherence of all human knowledge. Inas- 
much as this Theory or Doctrine of Science is the highest 
of all Scientific Systems it must be dependent on a pecu- 
liar principle, not deducible from that or any other 
science. The Theory of Science is independent of all 

' Klmigsb. 1792 : second edition 1793. 
^ Wissenschaftslehre. 

384, 385.] FICHTE. 427 

others, — self-demonstrated, and is because it is. The 
Tlieory of Science implies also a System connected with 
it ; and, contrariwise, the fact of a System implies that of 
a Theory, and of a first and absolute principle ; the circle 
of argumentation being complete and inevitable. Such a 
Theory of Science is what we term Moral Philosophy, 
which has for its object the necessary laws of human 
action. When the energies of our minds have been de- 
termined to any particular pursuit, (such as Logic, Geo- 
metry, etc.), they become the objects of a Special Science ; 
the determination to such particular pursuits being a 
contingent direction imparted to free-action, and conse- 
quently incomplete. On the other hand the Theory of 
Science is complete in itself, and forms a perfect whole. 
The objects it contemplates are, agreeably to what has 
been stated, the original operations of the human mind, 
which take place according to a certain determinate me- 
thod and form. These become the objects of Conscious- 
ness by means of the faculty of Reflection, which analyses 
all objects, and abstracts from them whatever is not Con- 
sciousness. In this way we attain to Absolute Unity, 
which comprehends all Sciences and their principles ; 
in other words, to pure Ego. Reflection and Abstrac- 
tion are subject to certain laws of Logic, which are ele- 
mentary parts of the Theory or Doctrine of Science. 

885. First principle, A = A. X represents the sys- 
tematic dependency of the whole. A and X being sup- 
posed to exist in Ego may be signified by this formulary, 
Ego sum Ego. This is the self-evident principle of Mo- 
ral Philosophy and Knowledge in general; expressing 
the necessary form and substance of Consciousness. In 
virtue of this principle we form judgments ; to judge 
being an act and operation of Ego. Ego then esta- 
bhshes, absolutely and independently, its own existence ; 
being at once the agent and the result of the action : in 
which combination consists the essence of Consciousness. 
The first operation of Ego is that of Reflection on itself, 
which is occasioned by an impediment opposed to its 

428 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

hitherto unrestrained energies. Ego places itself in the 
position of the subject, inasmuch as it opposes itself as 
subject to the obstacle contemplated. The second princi- 
ple (involved in the former), is this — that Ego is not Non- 
Ego. There remains yet a third principle, conditional 
as far as relates to its form ; but not as respects its value. 
To exemplify this, an action of Ego is required, which 
may illustrate the opposition of Ego and Non-Ego in 
Ego, without destroying Ego. Reality and Negation 
can be associated only by means of limitations. Limita- 
tion then is the third principle we were in search of. Li- 
mitation again leads us on to Divisibility. Every thing di- 
visible is a quantity. Consequently in Ego there must exist 
a divisible quantity, and therefore Ego contains something 
which may be supposed to exist or not to exist without 
detracting from the real existence of Ego. Hence we 
arrive at the distinction of a separable and an absolute 
Ego. Ego implies the opposition of a divisible Non- 
Ego to the divisible Ego. Both of them have their ex- 
istence in absolute Ego, being respectively determinable 
by a reference to that. Hence are derived the two fol- 
lowing propositions : 1 . Ego implies a limitation of its 
extent by means oi Non-Ego, which circumscribes its ab- 
solute and otherwise unlimited influence. 2. In like man- 
ner Ego determines and defines Non-Ego. The real ex- 
istence of the one circumscribes that of the other. On 
this point turn all the disputes between the Nominalists 
and Realists ; and it is by a reference to this that they 
must be adjusted. The grand problem which specula- 
tive philosophy would endeavour to solve, is the accom- 
plishment of such a reconciliation, and a satisfactory ex- 
planation of the connection between our conceptions and 
the objects to which they refer. The first of the two 
propositions above stated is necessary to be admitted, 
because without the opposition we have described there 
would be no such thing as Consciousness — without an 
object there could be no subject. Ego cannot be said to 
exist except as modified by Non-Ego. But vice versa, 
without a subject there can be no object : Ego must also 

385.] FICHTE. 429 

be admitted to exist as determining Non-Ego : The one 
fact implying a passion, — the other an action of Ego, 
Our conception of external objects, as external, is an act 
of EgOf whereby it transfers to Non-Ego a real existence 
abstracted from itself. By such an operation of the mind 
Non-Ego assumes the character of something real as 
respects Ego, inasmuch as Ego transfers to it a portion 
of its own reality. Allowing that external objects im- 
press the Thinking Subject, yet this is nothing more than 
the opposition of those objects as Non-Ego to our own 
Ego (limiting thereby the latter) ; the agent continuing 
to be the Thinking Subject and not the external Objects. 
From what has been stated, may be deduced: 1st. The 
reciprocity existing between Ego and Non-Ego. The 
action and passion of Ego are one and the same thing, 
as relates to Non-Ego. 2ndly. The operations of Ego 
tend to show that the ideal and real principles, which 
have been adopted to explain the connection between the 
mind and external objects, are identical. The explana- 
tion is to be sought in the fact that we contemplate Ego 
as active, and Non-Ego as passive ; or vice versa. By 
such an hypothesis the discordant claims of the Realists 
and Nominalists are reconciled, and the true theory of 
philosophical science developed. 

From such principles the Transcendental theory of the 
faculty of mental perception infers the following conclu- 
sions. 1. Mental perception can only take place in virtue 
of a reciprocal action existing between Ego and Non-Ego. 
2. The influence of Ego on Non-Ego is opposed to that 
of Non-Ego on Ego. In such cases Ego balances, as 
it were, between two contrary influences. Such hesita- 
tion is the effect of the imagination, which equally repre- 
sents the passive and active operations of Ego; or, in 
other words, conveys them to the Consciousness. 3. Such 
a state of hesitation implies the act of contemplating, in 
which it is difficult to separate the contemplating Subject 
from the Object contemplated. It is not Reflection (the 
tendency of which is inwards), but activity directed to- 
wards external objects, — Production. 4. From the fa- 

430 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

culty for contemplating results Contemplation, properly so 
called, which is the effect of the absolute spontaneousness 
of Reason, — i. e. of the JJnder standing. 5. Judgment, 
in the next place, weighs the objects presented to it by 
the understanding, and defines their mutual relations. 
6. The contemplation of the absolute spontaneousness of 
Ego affords the apprehension of Reason, and the basis 
of all Science. 

Practical Ajyjplication of the Scientific Theory. 

386. Tm^o facts have been up to this point required as 
postulates to support the above system : the reciprocal 
action of Ego and Non-Ego; and the occurrence of an 
obstacle to Ego^ which restricts its hitherto unlimited 
energies, and gives birth to Non-Ego. Now as the exist- 
ence of Ego itself (involving that of Non-Ego) is depend- 
ent on this very circumstance, the whole system would 
fall for want of a foundation, if we could not deduce from 
Ego itself the principle of such an obstacle. This can 
be effected only by practical not by theoretical philoso- 
phy. The Scientific Theory in its practical application 
contemplates absolute practical Ego, which, by defining 
Non-Ego, becomes the principle of the obstacle alluded 
to, and of the limitation of the activity of Ego. Such an 
Ego is free, unlimited, and independent; the only true 
Reality; while on the other hand Ego, considered as 
Intelligence determined by Non-Ego, is finite and limited. 
In virtue of its unlimited activity Ego commences by cir- 
cumscribing itself. This it does as a determining faculty, 
which implies the existence of something else determin- 
able by it. Consequently, Ego possesses by implication 
the power of determining that which is determinable, in 
other words, of determining Non-Ego ; which is ob- 
jective activity, and the result of pure Activity. Abso- 
lute Ego posseses an unlimited activity, and a perpetual 
tendency to become the cause of something else. With 
such an impulse Ego commences an unlimited career, but 

386, 387.] FICHTE. 431 

without attaining its object or becoming a Cause. In 
consequence of not accomplishing this end its energies 
are repulsed and reflected upon itself (Reflection). In 
virtue of its inherent activity and its inability to attain 
the end first proposed, Ego now opposes a counter- 
movement to its first impulse. Hence arises the ob- 
stacle alluded to, or Non-Ego. Non-Ego being once 
established, Ego assumes with reference to it the charac- 
teristics of practical, definitive, and causal. Non-Ego 
also re-acts on Ego^ determining to a certain extent 
EgOf and opposing a counterpoise to its influence. In 
this manner Non-Ego also becomes a cause with refer- 
ence to EgoK It is thus we arrive at the recipro- 
cal opposition existing between Ego and the external 
World ; the former in one respect assuming the charac- 
ter of something connected with, and dependent on, the 
World, (considered as Intelligence), but in another, (as 
Practical), continuing free and independent of the same. 
In this manner, by establishing the existence of Ego, 
we establish that of the World, and by establishing the 
existence of the external World we establish that of Ego, 
Consequently, the World can possess reality only for an 
EgOf in an Ego, and by an Ego. The leading proposition 
of the theory is this : that Ego is absolute Activity : that 
all which exists out of Ego is produced by Ego by means 
of position, opposition, etc. Ego is the subject-object, 
and as such the basis of the Transcendental Idealism. 

On certain Branches of Philosophy treated by Fichte. 

387. The author of the Scientific Theory attempted to 
re-model on its principles some of the philosophical 
sciences, such as Ethics and Natural Law. His dis- 
quisitions respecting both contain many original and 
striking ideas by the side of an equal number of paradox- 

' The perception of the limits of the activity of Ego is what we denominate 

432 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

ical imaginations, with an appearance of logical deduction 
which is fallacious and unreal, resting on no solid basis, 
although managed with great ability. Ethics. Having by 
his Idealism annihilated the objective reality of the sensi- 
ble world, and left nothing in its place but a system of 
mere Images, he proceeds to establish by means of Con- 
science, a belief in the existence of a sensible world, 
intelligible and independent of the former ; and to demon- 
strate the possibility of referring our actions to an attain- 
able end. He sets out with the idea of free-will, that is, 
of unrestrained independent free-agency, which is the ten- 
dency of Ego, and on which the idea of independence 
is founded. Consequently, the principle of practical 
Morality is the necessary conviction of Intelligence, that 
its freedom must be defined by the notion of complete 
free-agency, or, in common language, that Conscience 
must be obeyed without limitation ^. Such a conviction 
is the principle of Duty. Virtue consists in a perfect 
conformity and unison with self. Natural Law and 
Right, which Fichte was the first to treat as independent 
of Moral Right, instructs us as to the relations, in respect 
of Right, and the reciprocal actions of free-agents, and 
deduces them from self-consciousness, of which they are 
necessary conditions. Man cannot conceive himself to be 
a rational animal except inasmuch as he attributes to him- 
self a power of Causality ; nor can he suppose himself 
possessed of this, without extending the same to other 
beings, to all appearance like himself. Consequently, he 
conceives himself to be placed in certain relations of 
Right with regard to the latter, which induce him to 
regard his personal liberty as circumscribed by that of 
others. Fichte denies the existence of an Original 
Right, regarding it as a fiction created to meet the 

" In his Anwelsung zum seligen Leben, § 133, sqq., this view of morality is 
made superior to that presented by the principle of positive and imperative 
Legislation, at the same time that Fichte makes it subordinate to those of 
Religion and Science. According to his theory the only true life is the life 
in God, which gives birth to a higher principle of morality, lays open to us a 
new world, and creates it. 

387.] FICIITE. 433 

exigencies of Science. All Right has reference to some 
society or other, and derives its very existence from such 
a state. Rational beings are consequently intended to 
become at once members of society. A state is the 
realisation of Right as contemplated by Reason. — In his 
later account of political Right, Fichte chose to consider 
the realisation of the Kingdom of God upon earth as the 
true image of a state based on the principles of Reason ; 
in other words a Theocracy, founded on the revelation of 
God in a human shape. It may be observed in general 
that his leading maxim is to make every thing subordi- 
nate to the idea of Reason: and on this principle he 
founded his plan for an universal national system of 
education, and a permanent school or college of learned 

The Religious philosophy of Fichte has also attracted 
great attention. He represents the Deity as the imme- 
diate principle of morality, an idea to which Ego attains 
in consequence of feeling itself restricted in the exercise 
of its free-agency by the ideas of obligation. Ego 
labours to realise this idea of duty, and consequently 
to recognise a moral creation in the midst of the 
world without, which it has itself produced: in this 
manner it approximates the Deity, and attains to the life 
which proceeds from God. In this moral World Felicity 
is the result of moral worth. This felicity is not to be 
confounded with Happiness; which does not, and cannot 
exist : a doctrine which prohibits all reference to the 
latter as a final end. It is not necessary to think of the 
Deity as something distinct from the Moral World just 
described, notwithstanding our proneness to conceive of 
Him as a separate being, and the author of that creation. 
1st. Because we cannot attribute to the Divinity the 
qualities of Intelligence or Personality, without making 
Him a finite being, like to ourselves. 2ndly. It is a 
species of profanation to conceive of the Deity as a sepa- 
rate essence, since such an idea implies the existence of a 
sensible being limited by Space and Time, ordly. We 
cannot impute to Him even existence without confound- 


434 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

ing him with sensible natures. 4thly. No satisfactory 
explanation has yet been given of the manner in which 
the creation of the world could be operated by God. 
5thly. The idea and expectation of Happiness is a 
delusion, and when we form our notions of the Deity in 
accordance with such imaginations, we do but worship the 
idol of our own passions — the Prince of this World. 

Such extravagant or paradoxical rhapsodies " naturally 
procured for their author the reputation of Atheism, and 
drew upon him some persecutions not altogether un- 
deserved ; notwithstanding the display which he made of 
a profound sentiment of moral duty. He lived to renounce 
in some degree his heresies (see § 389) ^ 

Remarks on the Scientific Theory at large. 

388. The system of Fichte is distinguished by a great 
appearance of logical accuracy and deduction. It solves 
many difficulties, but at the same time gives occasion to 
many new ones, and was exposed to the following ob- 
jections. By the Kantists it was urged that 1st. Fichte 
had proposed for solution a grand philosophical problem, 
without previously inquiring whether it was capable of 
being solved. He pretends to explain every thing, but 
attempts this only by means of a seeming transcendental 
deduction, and is constantly driven back to gratuitous 
assertions and cyclical arguments. Sndly. The principles 
laid down are those of Logic, which can never enable us 
to attain to an accurate knowledge of the nature and 
properties of any subject or object. It was farther urged 

" See the work on the principle of our belief in a Divine Providence, men- 
tioned in § 389 (notes). In his work on the Destiny of Man, p. 287, Fichte 
assumes the character of a mystical theist. 

[o It is painful to be the instrument of putting on record so much of nonsense 
and so much of blasphemy as is contained in the pretended philosophy of 
Fichte : the statement, however, will not be without its good, if the reader be 
led to reflect on the monstrous absurdities which men will believe at the 
suggestion of their own fancies, who have rejected the plain evidences of 
Christianity. TransL'] 

388.] FICHTE. 435 

that these abstract elements had been artfully invested 
by him with the semblance of realities, particularly in the 
case of Principle the first, by the substitution of Ego 
for the Indeterminate Object. The non-Kantists ob- 
jected: 1st. That this system converts Ego into an abso- 
lute and independent essence, annihilating the existence 
of external Nature, its independent reality, and its con- 
formity to the laws of Reason. 2ndly. It is inconsistent 
with itself. Ego at first is represented as nothing but 
infinite activity, opposing to itself as a limitation Non- 
Ego, and thereby producing all things — space included. 
But in the first place ; what is it which compels Ego, 
as yet unlimited and unrestrained, to circumscribe itself 
by the position of Non-Ego ? — " Because otherwise it 
could not attain to a knowledge of objects." But what 
necessity can be shown for its aiming at the knowledge of 
objects, being itself infinite and unlimited? The pre- 
tended principle of the Activity o^ Ego,m virtue of which 
it establishes an objective world, is a primordial fact, of 
which we have no evidence from experience, and which 
can only be ascertained by intellectual contemplation, and 
is therefore di postulate arbitrarily, and, as it were, surrep- 
titiously assumed for the purposes of the theory. Fichte 
confounds the operations of transcendental imagination in 
the construction of geometrical figures with the creation 
of determinate objects, without stopping to explain how 
the multiplicity of external objects and their various 
properties can possibly be effected by the construction 
of Form in Space. The postulate of an obstacle encoun- 
tered by the infinite activity of Ego, which throws it back 
upon itself, and creates a consciousness of the necessity 
attaching to certain mental perceptions, is not to be ac- 
counted for either by the nature of Ego or Non-Ego. In 
short, instead of one mystery, this theory would establish 
another still more incomprehensible, all the time pretend- 
ing to explain the former by the latter, and ending with 
an admission that its own principle of explanation is in- 
comprehensible. Accordingly, in the most recent state- 
ment of his theory, the author is compelled to assert, (in 


436 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

order to account for the feeling of necessity attached to 
certain mental perceptions, arising from their relation to 
an object), that Ego is restricted in the exercise of its 
energies by certain determinate limits, although he had 
described it as Infinite Activity and Independent Action. 
These limits or restrictions he is pleased to call incom- 
prehensible and inexplicable, which nevertheless were 
precisely the object at which his Scientific Theory of 
Philosophy was levelled. His Idealism, therefore, is an 
example of speculation carried to the most extravagant 
excess, and ending in the destruction of itself; after 
having first annihilated all science and free-agency. 

Compare this transcendental Idealism with the super- 
natural Idealism of Berkeley ^ and the Realism of Spi- 

389. Fichte himself endeavoured to accommodate his 
theory to the opinions of others by subjecting it to va- 
rious modifications P, particularly with reference to the 

P Fichte's Works. On the Theory of Science at large : Ueber den BegrifF 
der Wissenschaftslehre, Weimar, 1794, 8vo. Zweite verb. u. verm. Aufl. 
Jena, 1798, 8vo. Grundlage der gesainmten Wissenschaftslehre, Weimar, 
1794, 8vo. ; II Aufl. 1802, 8vo. Grundriss des Eigenthiimlichen der Wis- 
senschaftslehre, Jena u. Leipzig, 1795, 8vo. ; II verb. Aufl. ebend. 1802. 
Grundlage, etc., u. Grundriss, neue unveranderte Aufl. Tub. 1802. Versuch 
einer neuen Darstellung der Wissenschaftslehre, und zweite Einleitung in die 
Wissenschaftslehre (in dem Philosophischen Journal, herausgeg. von Nie- 
thammer u. Fichte, 1797. St. I.S. i f., St. IV. S. 310, S. V. S.i f. und VI). 
Antwortschreiben an K. L. Pveinhold anf dessen Beitr. zur leichtern Ueber- 
sicht des Zustandes der Philosophic beim Anfange des 19 Jahrhunderts, Tub. 
1801, 8vo. Sonnenklarer Bericht an das grossere Publicum iiber das eigent- 
liche Wesen der neuesten Philosophic, etc., Berl. 1801, 8vo. Die Wissen- 
schaftslehre in ihrem allgemeinsten Umrisse dargestellt, Berlin, 1810, 8vo. 
Die Thatsachen des Bewusstseyns. Vorlesungen gehalten, etc., zu Berlin, 
1810-11 ; Stuttg. u. Tub. 1817, 8vo. 

On Religious Philosophy in particular ; Versuch einer Kritik^'aller Offen- 
barung (anonym.) II verm. u. verb. Aufl. Konigsb. 1793, 8vo. Ueber den 
Grund unsers Glaubens an eine giittliche Weltregierung (Philosoph. Journal, 
VIII B. (1798) 1 St. Fe. K. Forberg's Entwickelung des Begrifl^^s der Re- 
ligion. Ebendaselbst.). Appellation an das Publicum iiber die ihm beige- 
messenen atheistischen .Eusserungen, Jena u. Leipz. 1799, 8vo. Der Heraus- 
geber des Philosophischen Journals gerichtliche Vcrantwortungssohriften gegen 
die Anklage des Atheismus, Jena, 1799, 8vo. (FounERc's Apologie seines 

389.] FICIITE. 437 

agreement he pretended to have established between 
it and the Critical method ; as also with regard to 
the means of detecting in Consciousness the original 
activity of Ego. At first he attempted this on the prin- 
ciples of Thought, but subsequently had recourse to In- 
tellectual Contemplation ; (in his Sonnenklarer Bericht, 
mentioned below). The most remarkable difference how- 
ever between the earlier and later editions of the Theory 
of Science, is this : that the first was composed on the 
principles of Idealism, the latter on those of Realism. The 
former sets out with asserting the unlimited and independ- 
ent activity of Ego; the latter by maintaining the absolute 
existence of the Deity, as the only true reality — the only 
pure and self-existing life — of whom the world and con- 
sciousness are but the image and impress ; treating ob- 
jective nature as nothing more than a limitation of Divine 
Life. The philosophical system of Schelling appears to 
have contributed no less than the species of religious sen- 
timent still retained by Fichte to effect this change. 

The Scientific Theory excited a prodigious deal of at- 
tention and gained a great number of partisans, among 
others : F. K. Forberg, (see the catalogue of Fichte's 
w^orks, No. 2); F. J. Niethammer, (born 1766); K. L. 
Reinhold, (see § 382) ; Schelling^ (see following §) ; J. B, 
Schad (§ 395), afterwards a disciple of Schelling ; Abicht 
(§ 396) ; Mehmel, and others ">. 

augeblichen Atheismus, Gotha, 1799, 8vo.). Anweisung zum seligen Leben 
Oder auch die Ileligionslehre, etc., Berl. 1806, Bvo. 

Ethical and other writings : Vorlesungen uber die Bestimmung des Gelehr- 
ten, Jena, 1794, 8vo. System der Sittenlehre, Jena u. Leipz. 1798, 8vo. Bei- 
tragre zur Berichtisunj; der Urtheile des Publicums iiber die Franzosische Re- 
volution, 1793, 8vo. Grundlage des Naturrechts, Jena, 1796, 1797, II Thle. 
8vo. Ueber die Bestimmung des Menschen, Berlin, 1800, 8vo. Der gesch- 
lossene Handelsstaat. Ein Philos. Entwurf als Anhang zur Rechtsl. Tubing. 
1800, 8vo. Vorlesungen iiber das Wesen des Gelehrten, Berl. 1806, 8va. 
Die Grundziige des gegenwiirtigen Zeitalters, Berlin, 1806, 8vo. Reden an 
die Deutsche Nation, Berl. 1808, 8vo. Die Vorlesungen iib. den Begriffdes 
wahrhaften Kriegs. ebend. 1813, 8vo. Die Staatslehre od. Ub. das Verhaltn. 
des Urstaats zum Vernunftreiche in Vortragen, etc., aus dem Nachlasse he- 
rausgeg, Berl. 1820, Bvo. 

n Works illustrative of those of Fichte : Philosophisches Journal heraus- 

438 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

It also encountered many sturdy antagonists and severe 
critics, especially among the Kantists "". The end of it 
has been the same with that of all other exclusive theo- 
ries, and in spite of its imposing tone of authority, which 
would elevate speculation at the expense of experimental 
knowledge (which it affects to contemn), it has failed to 
acquire an ascendency in matters of philosophy. At the 
same time, it must be confessed that in its day it had 

gegeben von Niethammer, Neustrel w. Jena, 1795-96, IV B. j mit Fichte, 
1797—1800, V— X B. 

Fr. W. Jos. Schelling, Abhandlungen zur Erlauterung des Idealismus 
der Wissenschaftslehre in dem Philos. Journal von Fichte und Nieth. 1796, 
u. 1797 ; and in Schelling's Philos. Schriften, I B. 

JoH. Bapt. Schad, Grundriss der Wissenschaftslehre, Jena, 1800, 8vo. 
Gemeinfassliche Darstellung des Fichteschen Systemes und der daraus her- 
vorgehenden Religionstheorie, Erfurt, 1799 — 1801, III B. 8vo. Geist der 
Philosophie unserer Zeit, Jena, 1800,j 8vo. Absolute Harmonie des Fichte- 
schen Systems mit der Religion, Erf. 1802, 8vo. Transcendentale Logik, Jena, 
1801, 8vo. 

G. E. A. Mehmel, Lehrbuch der Sittenlehre, Er/. 1811. Reine Rechts- 
lehre, ebend. 1815, 8vo. At an earlier date : Versuch einer vollst. analyt. 
Denklehre, 1803, und iiber das Verhaltniss der Philos. zur Religion, 1805, 
8vo. u. a. 

r Criticisms of Fichte's theory : Stimrae eines Arktikers liber Fichte und 
sein Verfahren gegen die Kantianer (von K. Thdr. Rink), 1799, 8vo. 

Vom Verhaltniss des Idealismus zur Religion, oder : ist die neueste Philo- 
sophie auf dem Wege zum Atheismus ? 1799, 8vo. 

Freimiithige Gedanken iiber Fichte's Appellation gegen die Anklage des 
Atheismus und deren Veranlassung, Goiha, 1799, 8vo. 

J. H. Gli. Heusinger, Uber das Idealistisch-Atheistische System der 
Hrn. Prof. Fichte, Dresden u. Gotha, 1799, 8vo. 

K. L. Reinhold, Sendschreiben an Lavater und Fichte iiber den Glauben 
an Gott, Hamb. 1799, 8vo. 

F. H. Jacobi an Fichte, Hamb. 1799, 8vo. 

W. Traugott Krug, Briefe iiber die Wissenschaftslehre, Leipz. 1800, 8vo. 

GoTTLOB Chr. Fr. Fischhaber, Uber das Princip und die Hauptprobleme 
des Fichteschen Systems, nebst einem Entwurfe zu einer neuen Auflosung 
derselben, Carlsruhe, 1801, 8vo. 

C. Chr. Ehr. Schmid's Ausfuhrliche Kritik des Buchs : die Bestimmung 
des Menschen, in Schmid's Aufsiitzen Philosophischen und Theologischen 
Inhalts, Jena, 1802, 8vo. 

Ch. F. Bohme, Commentar Uber und gegen den ersten Grundsatz der W. 
L., ALtenb. 1802, 8vo. 

Jac. Fries, Reinhold, Fichte, und Schelling, Eeipz. 1803, 8vo. 

Fr. Wilh. Jos. Schelling, Darlegung des wahren Verhiiltnisses der Na- 
turphilosophie zu der verbesserten Fichteschen Lehre, Tubing. 1806, 8vo. 


390.] SCHELLING. 439 

great influence over the minds of Fichte's contemporaries, 
and by the sort of eloquence which characterised his 
compositions, has promoted in many men a strong ten- 
dency to supra-sensual pursuits and investigations. 

ScheUing's Theory of Absolute Identity. 

390. Fichte had attempted to construct a system of 
knowledge on the principles of Idealism, in respect both 
of Form and Matter; but Schelling carried Speculation 
a step farther, and instead of Ego, the Subject-Object, 
placed at the head of his system the Absolute Itself, and 
proposed to solve on philosophical principles the highest 
problem which Reason can contemplate — the nature of 
Absolute Being, and the manner in which all finite beings 
are derived from It. F. W. J. von Schelling^ is unques- 
tionably an original thinker, superior to Fichte for the 
vivacity of his imagination, — the poetical character of his 
genius, — and the extent of his acquirements ; more par- 
ticularly in the history of ancient philosophy, in antiquities, 
and natural history. Having studied at Tiibingen the 
systems of Kant, Reinhold, and ^Enesidemus (Schulze), 
he accused the former of failing to deduce his conclu- 
sions from the first axioms of Science, and desiderated 
a common principle which might embrace alike the Spe- 
culative and Practical departments of knowledge * : object- 
ing also to the use made of what was called the Moral 
Proof". Fichte's theory made a strong impression on 
his youthful and ardent temper, more inclined to adopt 
with readiness the imagination of the infinite and creative 
activity of the human mind, than disposed to a painful 

* An Aulic councillor, and at the present time a professor at Munich ; 
born at Leonberg in Wurtemberg, Jan. 27, 1775. 

' With these views he composed his first work : Uber die IMiiglichkeit einer 
Form der Philos. iiberhaupt, Tubing. 1795 ; and, Vom Icn als princip der 
Philos., Oder iiber das Unbedingte im Menschlichen Wissen., ibid. 1805, 8vo, 
(see his Philos. Works, Vol. I). 

" See his t Philosophical Letters on Dogmatism and Criticism ; first pub- 
lished in the Journal of Niethammer, 1796, and since incorporated in his 

440 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

examination of the forms and laws by which that activity 
is circumscribed. With such views the young scholar 
resorted to Jena, where he formed a close intimacy with 
Fichte, and defended his theory against the partisans or 
the adversaries of Kant ; without, however, adopting all 
its Dogmata. Gradually he dissented more and more 
from the system of his master, in proportion as he became 
more and more sensible of its defects. 

391. Fichte had deduced all his system from the opera- 
tions of Ego in what may be termed a 2^^ogressive me- 
thod ; but without offering any proof for his leading as- 
sertion that the Subjective produces and creates the Ob- 
jective ; the latter never producing the Subjective. This 
process may be reversed and the argument conducted 
from Objective Nature to Ego ; and if a due reference 
be not made to the Critical system the one method is no 
less admissible than the other. Spinoza had already 
produced a system of Dogmatism carried to the highest 
possible point, and ending in an objective Realism; and 
by such considerations Schelling was led to form the 
idea of two opposite and parallel philosophical Sciences 
— the Transcendental Philosophy, and the Philosophy of 
Nature, to the special treatment of which, especially the 
latter, he devoted various works. The former begins 
with the consideration of Ego, and derives from that the 
Objective, the Multifarious, the Necessary, — in short — 
the system of Nature. The latter sets out with the con- 
templation of Nature, and deduces therefrom Ego, the 
Unrestricted, and the Simple. The tendency of both 
is to illustrate by their mutual relations the powers of 
Nature and the Soul, considered as identical. 

The principle which they have in common is this; The 
laws of Nature must exist within us as the laws of Con- 
sciousness ; and vice versa the laws of Consciousness 
are found to exist in objective Nature as the laws of 
Nature. It is to be observed, however, that the first of 
these two Sciences cannot investigate to the end the 
inexhaustible variety of external Nature ; nor can the 

391.] SCHELLING. v^f4JL -^^liA/^yK 

second attain to a perception of the Simple and Absolute. ^ . , 

It is impossible to explain to ourselves how out of Unit}^ > 

arises Multiplicity, and out of Multiplicity — Unity; (the 
last combining the twofold characters of Unity and Mul- 
tiplicity). In this manner Schelling founded his system 
on the Original Identity of that which knows and that 
which is known, and was led to conclude the absolute 
identity of the Subjective and Objective, or the Indiffer- 
ence of the Differing ; in which consists the essence of 
the Absolute : — that is, the Deity. The Absolute is re- 
cognised by an absolute act of cognition, in which the 
Subjective and Objective concur : in other words, by In- 
tellectual Contemplation. Consequently Schelling op- 
poses x\bsolute Cognition or Knowledge, obtained through 
the medium of the Ideas, to inferior or secondary know- 
ledge, the result of Reflection by means of ordinary con- 
ceptions. The last description of knowledge is directed 
to things conditional, individual, and divisible, which are 
associated by a process of the understanding. The 
former contemplates the Absolute, which is independent 
and unconditional, and is apprehended by means of the 
Ideas. This is Science properly so called, and develops 
itself, (agreeable to its nature), as Unity, in an organic 
whole, in which the Subjective and Objective are indi- 
visible and identical : a divine Science, embracing the 
highest sphere of Nature ; — the only Science worthy of 
our serious regard, or of the name of Philosophy. 

In this manner the system of Schelling proposes to 
attain to a knowledge of the essences and forms of all 
things, by means of the intellectual Ideas, and asserts 
that to he and to know are identical : (whence its appel- 
lation of the System of Absolute Identity — Identitdtslehre). 
It is a transcendental and, according to Schelling, abso- 
lute system of Idealism, which would derive all know- 
ledge not from the partial principle of Ego, but from one 
still higher — The Absolute ; comprehending not only 
Ego but Nature also. It proposes to attain to a know- 
ledge of the latter by means of the Ideas '', and labours 

'^ The rhilosophy of Nature, or the Construction of Nature a priori. 


THIRD PERIOD. [sect. !•' 

to establish a perpetual parallelism or analogy between 
the laws of Nature and those of Intelligence. 


392. The Absolute is neither infinite nor finite ; nei- 
ther to know nor to be; neither Subject nor Object; but 
that wherein all opposition of Subject and Object, — 
Knowledge and Existence, — Spirit and Inert Nature, — 
Ideal and Real, — together with all other differences and 
distinctions are absorbed and disappear, leaving an in- 
dissoluble and equal union of Knowledge and Existence. 
This Absolute Identity of Ideal and Real, and Absolute 
Indifference of the Differing (of Unity and Plurality), is 
the Unity which comprehends the Universe ^. Absolute 
Identity exists, and out of its limits nothing really exists, 
and consequently nothing is finite which exists per se. 
All that is is Absolute Identity or a development of its 
essence. This development takes place in conformity 
with certain correlative Oppositions of terms, which are 
derived from Absolute Identity as the poles or sides of 
the same object, with a preponderance to the Ideal or 
Real ; and become identified by the law of Totality ; 
the principle of their development being that oi Identity 
in Triplicity, Such development is sometimes styled a 
division of the Absolute ; sometimes a spontaneous reve- 
lation of the same ; sometimes a falling-off" of the Ideas 
from the Deity. By such a revelation Absolute Know- 
ledge is made possible to us ; Reason itself (as far as it 
is Absolute) being the identification of the Ideal and 
Real. The characteristic ybn?? of The Absolute is abso- 
lute knowledge, in which Identity and Unity assume the 
character of Duality, (A = A). The leading proposi- 
tions of this theory consequently are: 1. That there ex- 
ists but one identical nature ; and that merely a quanti- 
tive (not a qualitive) difference exists between objects, 
quoad essentiam, resulting from the preponderance of 
the Objective or Subjective, — the Ideal or Real. The 
Finite has only an apparent existence, inasmuch as 

y See Considerations on various Philosophical Principles, and particularly 
that of Schelling, in Fischhaber's Archis. f. Philos. 1 Heft. 

392.] SCHELLING. 443 

it is the product of merely relative Reflection. 2. The 
One Absolute Nature reveals Itself in the eternal 
generation of existing things, which on their part consti- 
tute iheforfns of the first. Consequently each individual 
being is a revelation of Absolute Being, in a determinate 
form. Nothing can exist which does not participate in 
the Divine Being. Consequently the Natural world is 
not dead, but animated and divine, no less than the Ideal. 
3. This revelation of the Absolute takes place in con- 
formity with certain correlative Oppositions which cha- 
racterise different gradations of development, with a pre- 
ponderance of the Real or the Ideal ; and which conse- 
quently are nothing more than so many expressions of 
Absolute Identity. Science investigates these Oppo- 
sitions and presents a picture of the Universe, by de- 
ducing the Ideas of objects from the original contemplation 
of The Absolute, on the principle of Identity in Triplicity, 
(called by Schelling the process of Construction), in con- 
formity with the creative process observable in Nature 
itself. This Ideal construction is what we call Phi- 
losophy, (the Science of Ideas); the highest effort of which 
is the perception of a relative form amid the multifarious- 
ness of external Nature, and the recognition, in this 
relative form, of Absolute Identity. 

The scheme of such Construction is as follows : 

I. The Absolute — -The Universe in its original form — The 

Deity : manifested in 

II. Nature, (the Absolute in its secondary form), 

As Relative and Real, As Relative and Ideal ; 

According to the following gradations : 

Weight— :Matter 
Light — Motion 
Organic Structure — Life 

Above these gradations, (technically named by Schelling 
Potenzen), and independent of them, are arranged : 

Truth — Science 
Goodness — Religion 
Beauty — Art. 

Man (as a Microcosm) 
The System of the World (the 
external Universe) 

The State 

444 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

393. Schelling believed himself to have discovered in the 
Ideas the essence of all things and their necessary forms ; 
following the process of Intellectual Contemplation. He 
affected to amend the system of Kant, who had only 
recognised the existence of a knowledge of the phenome- 
nal world, and allowed nothing more than belief for things 
existing ^er se ; and thought he had refuted Fichte, who 
represents Ego as the only true Being, and all Nature as 
a dead and lifeless non-existence, incapable of any other 
characteristics than those belonging to a negation or 
limitation of Ego. Feeling confident that he had ori- 
ginated an ideal construction of the universe, not as it 
appears to us but as it really exists, he unfolded his views 
with great ability, without conforming himself to the sub- 
divisions of Philosophy usually observed, and made a 
skilful use of his acquaintance with the theories of Plato, 
Bruno, and Spinoza. After having published several 
statements of his theory at large, he applied himself 
especially to one branch of it, — the application of its 
principles to real existence or the Philosophy of Nature, 
considered as the living principle which produces all 
things by subdivision of itself, according to the law of 
Duality. Of the Ideal Department of his system he 
treated only some separate questions, in his later writings 
on Free-will and the origin of Evil, the Nature of God, 
etc. etc. ^. On the subject oi Morals he delivers himself 
as follows : The knowledge of God is the first principle of 
all Morality. The existence of God necessarily implies 
that of a moral world. Virtue is a state of the soul in 
which it conforms itself not to an external law, but an 
internal necessity of its own nature. Morality is also 
Happiness. Happiness is not an accidental consequence 
of Virtue, but Virtue itself. The essence of Morality is 
the tendency of the soul to unite itself to God as the 
centre of all things. Social life, regulated according to 
the Divine Example with reference to Morality and 

^ In his, riiilosophy and Religion, in his Essay on Free-will, in the Letter 
to Eschenmayer with reference to this treatise, and {en passant) in his con- 
troversies with Fichte and Jacobi. 

393.] SCHELLING. 445 

Religion — Art and Science — is what we denominate a 
community, or the State. It is a harmony of necessity 
and free-will, with an external organisation. History, as 
a whole, is a revelation of the Deity, progressively de- 
veloped. In his treatise on Free-will, Schelling went on 
to make a distinction between the Deity (simply so con- 
sidered, or the Absolute), and the Deity as existing ^ or 
revealing himself, proceeding from a principle of exist- 
ence contained in the Deity, (Nature in the Godhead), 
and thus attaining the condition of a complete essence, 
and assuming the character of personality, {Dens imj}li- 
citiis expUcitus — see the following section). Every pro- 
duction of Nature contains in itself a double principle, 
viz. an obscure and a luminous one, which, to a cer- 
tain extent, are identical. In mankind these constitute 
personality, the result of spirit and will, which have the 
power of separating themselves from the Universal Will 
which sways all Nature, by virtue of individual free-will. 
The consequence of this opposition of Individual to 
Universal Will, is the origin of evil ; which becomes 
real only by virtue of such opposition. Schelling has 
treated the subject of Beauty merely with a reference to 
Art, defining it to be the Infinite represented in a finite 
shape, and describing Art as a representation of the 
Ideas, and a revelation of God to the human mind. This 
theory must be regarded as incomplete, (according to 
Schelling's own confession, Phil. Schr. 1 B.) ; its scientific 
development, as a whole, being conveyed to us only in a 
brief fragment *. 

a In the, Zeitschr. f. spec. Phys. 2 B. 2 Heft. s. 114, sqq. 

His works (besides those already mentioned § 390). Ideen zu einer Phi- 
losophie d. Natur, als Einleit. in das Stud, dieser W. 1 Th. Leipz. 1797, 8vo. 
Zweite durchaus verb. u. verm. Aufl. Landshut, 1803. Von der Weltseele ; 
eine Hypothese der hohern Physik zur Erkliirung des allgem. Organismus, 
nebst. einer Abhandl. iiber das Verhiiltniss des Idealen u. Kealen in der Natur, 
oder Entvvickelung der ersten Grundsiitze der Naturphilosophie an den Prin- 
cipien der Schvvere und des Lichts, Uamb. 1798, 8vo. ; III Aufl. 1809. The 
last treatise printed separately, Hamb. 1806, and Landshut, 1807. Erster 
Entwurf eines Systems der Naturphilosophie, Jena, 1799, 8vo. Einleituno- zu 
seinem Entwurfe eincs Systems der Naturphil,, oder liber den Ke'i^riff der 

446 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

Observations on the above System. 

394. The theory of Schelling is remarkable for the 
originahty of the views it contains, the magnitude of the 
problems it would solve, the consistency of its plan, and 
the vast circle of its application. It binds together by 
one single Idea all the essences of Nature, removing the 
limits which had been assigned by Kant to the dominion 
of Science, and asserting the possibility not only of a 
subjective apprehension, but of an objective and scientific 
knowledge — of a certain and determinate perception of 
God and Divine things, by virtue of the identity between 
the human mind and the essence of all Being. It em- 
braces the whole circle of philosophical speculation, 
removing, as it does, the distinction between empirical 
and rational knowledge ; and its principles are made 
applicable to all the sciences. It has the appearance how- 
ever of being, 1st. As relates to Practical Science, very 
confined and embarrassed ; nor can we discover how, in 
such a system of Absolute Identity, there can be room for 

specul. Physik, etc., ebend. 1799, 8vo. System des transcendentalen Idealis- 
mus. Tub. 1800, Bvo. Zeitschrift fur die speculative Physik. 1 u. 2 B. Jena, 
1800—3, 8vo. Neue Zeitschrift u. s. w. Tub. 1803. Krit. Journal der Phil, 
herausg. von Schelling u. Hegel, 2 B. Tub. 1802 — 3, 8vo. Bruno oder 
liber das gottl. u. Natiirl. Princip. der Dinge. Ein Gesprach, Berl. 1802, 8vo. 
II Aufl. Vorlesungen iiber die Methode des akad. Studiums, Stuttg. u. Tub. 
1803, 8vo. II unveriind. Aufl. 1813. Philosophic und Religion, Tub. 1804. 
Davlegung des wahien Verhaltnisses der Naturphilosophie zu der verbesserten 
Fichteschen Lehre, Tub. 1806, 8vo. Jahrbiicher der Medicin als Wissenschaft 
(darin Aphorismen zur Einl. in die Naturphilos. 1 B. I Heft.) Tub. 1806. 
Philosophische Schriften, 1 B. Laiidshut, 1809, 8vo. ; (containing also his 
Rede iiber das Verhiiltniss der bildenden Kiinste zu der Natur, 1807, gehalten, 
und die Abhandlung : Philosophische Untersuchungen iiber das Wesen der 
menschl. Freiheit und die damit zusammenhangengen Gegenstiinde.) Sciiel- 
LiNo's Denkmal der Schriftvon den gbttlichen Dingen des Hrn. F. H. Jacobi 
und der ihm in derselben gemachten Beschuldigung eines absichtlich tiiuschen- 
den, Liige redenden Atheismus. Tub. 1812, 8vo. Allgemeine Zeitschrift von 
und fiir Deutsche, III Ilefte ; (containing Schelling's answer to a writing of 
EsciiENMAYER, iiber die Abh. von der Freiheit.) Uber die Gottheiten von 
Samothrace, Stuttg. u. Tub. 1815, 8vo. 

394.] SCHELLING. 447 

practical necessity^ or, in other words, the obhgation of 
duty ^. The theory is characterised by a bhnd sort of 
Natural Necessity and Determinism : — God reveals him- 
self of necessity : — All History, and all the mutations of 
the world are but the modifications of his essence*^. 
Sndly. Independently of this partial view of Nature, 
the system is deficient in the solidity of its principles. It 
is not shown in what manner the human mind can elevate 
itself to the intellectual contemplation described : the 
principles, therefore, laid down, are mere suppositions. 
Thought without a Thinking Subject is nothing better 
than an abstract idea :— Absolute Identity is incon- 
ceivable independent of Relative Identity, Without 
the latter, the former is reduced to a mere non-entity. It 
cannot be shown that Absolute Identity constitutes the 
essence of all beings: Objective Reality depends upon a 
confusion of the nature of Thought with the essence of 
external objects. To pretend that a pure abstraction 
like this is real, and constitutes the essence of all things, 
is a mere unfounded hypothesis, the proof advanced by 
Schelling being altogether untenable ^ : to support which 
he has recourse to a mere jumble of words, (" Identity of 
Identity and Non-Identity"), — to contradiction — (*' The 
bond of Unity and Plurality — the Copula, — The Abso- 
lute in the Absolute, — The Divine in the Divine, etc."), 
and to a multitude of vague and indefinite terms. 3rdly. 
This theory has only the appearance of a scientific 
system. The attempt to deduce the Finite from the 
Infinite and Absolute, and the Particular from the Uni- 
versal, by means of a real demonstration, (construction), 
has proved abortive ^. The author maintains that a 
Finite and Infinite, a Real and Ideal have co-existed 
from the beginning of things in an indissoluble union: 

•> See Schelling, Philos. und Relig. s. 53 u. f. Philos. Schriften, s. 
413 u. f. 

<^ Darst. des wahr. Verb. s. 66. 

•' Zeitschr. $ 7. Darst. der Verb. s. 50. 

e See Zeitscbiift fur specul. Fbys.k. 2 V>. II lift. s. 18 j Eruno, s. 81 — 131 ; 
Pbilos. u. Kel, s. 35. 

448 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

but anon he is obliged to suppose a separation be- 
tween them, by virtue of his hypothesis of Absolute 
Identity. The same is the case with regard to self- 
revelation. The only answer he affords to the question, 
Why the Deity should reveal himself.'' — is a simple asser- 
tion that so it must be ^ Occasionally he has recourse to 
Plato's mythical hypothesis of a Fall of the Ideas from 
the Absolute ^ ; concerning which it may be queried 
how any thing can fall from the Absolute, which by 
hypothesis embraces and contains all things? Occasionally 
he labours to demonstrate that nothing exists besides 
Unity, the Copula, and the Absolute ^ : whence then are 
derived finite knowledge Jiaving reference to Space and 
Time; and the Categories? All that gives to his argument 
the appearance of successful demonstration is, that he has 
substituted for the vague idea of the Absolute certain 
fictions of the Imagination, and notions borrowed from 
experience. 4thly. Can any one presume to believe that 
the inscrutable nature of the Godhead is contained in the 
idea of Absolute Identity? His Natural Philosophy 
conveys to us no knowledge of God, and the little it 
reveals appears opposed to Religion \ It becomes a sys- 
tem of Pantheism by identifying the Deity with Nature ^, 
and makes the Deity himself subject to superior laws, 
supposing him obliged to reveal himself, and making the 
Divinity as Intelligence proceed, within the compass of 
Time, from non-intelligent principles — Nature in the 
Deity and Chaos. The Deity is supposed to render 
passive a certain portion of his nature with which before 
he energised, and to enable us to conceive of him as a 
personal being, we are obliged to suppose the existence 
in him of Nature as a negative essence '. God is repre- 
sented not only as a Divine Being, but as Life. Now 

f As a fact morally necessary : Abh. von du Freih. s. 492. 
e Relig. u. Philos. s. 35. 
h Darst. s. 62. 

' See the close of the following section. 

^ Schelling has endeavoured to repel this charge : Philos. u. Relig. s. 52. 
Schr. s. 402 ff. 
» Pages 96, 97. 


394, 395.] SCHELLING. 449 

life pre-supposes a certain destiny, and implies passive 
affections and a gradual development ; and to such li- 
mitations we are taught to helieve that the Deity has 
voluntarily submitted himself"'. The whole theory is 
nothing better than an ingenious fiction, which, by offer- 
ing the appearance of a solution of all difficulties, and by 
its pretended Construction of Nature, proved generally 
attractive ; as well as by removing all idea of Constraint 
or Moral Obligation, — by suggesting a variety of new 
ideas, — and by appearing to throw open a wide perspec- 
tive to the views of Science. As for the manner of Schel- 
ling, we are called upon to remark, besides the faults of 
a vague and indeterminate mode of expression already 
noticed, the employment of certain mythical and meta- 
phorical terms, after the manner of Plato, which increase 
the difficulties belonging to his system". 

Partisans and Adversaries of the Sijstem of Schelling, 

395. The enthusiasm which this system excited may 
be explained by a reference to the character of the theory 
itself, and of the times in which it appeared. A con- 
siderable school of disciples was formed among the moral 
philosophers, theologians, philologists, physicians, and 
naturalists of the day ; who professed to investigate anew 
their several sciences on the principles of the system of 
Absolute Identity, and aspired to complete that system 
by fresh discoveries. The views of Schelling had a more 
especial influence on the sciences of Natural History, 
Mythology, History, and the Theory of Taste. The two 
Schlegels at one time contributed to extend its reputation 
by their labours in the last department. Others of this 
school were less commendable ; and a dizzy spirit of ex- 
aggeration seemed to possess its professors, which led 

m Abh. iiber die Freih. s. 493, phil. Schr. 

" [The grave remarks of the author on this absurd theory miglit perhaps have 
been worthily replaced by the pithy criticism of INIr. Burchell, apud the Vicar 
of Wakefield, as applied to other absurdities, videlicet — Fudge— Fudge — 
Fudge. Transl.] 


450 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

them to accept as the highest efforts of wisdom the 
most extravagant and fantastical conceptions, and, by 
allying itself to superstition and enthusiasm, seemed 
to restore the days of Neoplatonism. 

To this school belonged the Naturalists H. Steffe?is°, 
J, Gon-es"^, the Chevalier F, von Baader"^, L. Oken^ ^ 
J, P. V. Troxler^, K, J. Windischmann^ ^ G. H. Schu- 

Born at Stavanger in Noi*way, 1773 ; a professor at Breslaw. 

H. Steffens, Grundziige der pliilos. Naturwissenschaft. Berl. 1806, 8vo., 
with his other treatises on the Natural Sciences — Ueber die Idee der Universi- 
taten, Berl. 1809, 8vo. Caricaturen des Heiligsten, Leipz. 1819—21, 2 B. 
u. a. Anthropologic , Brezl. 1822, 2 B. Von der falschen Theologie und 
dem wahren Glauben, Bresl. 1824, 8vo. 

P Professor at Munich. 

GoRRES, Aphorismen iiber die Kunst, etc., Cohlenz, 1804, 8vo. Aphorismen 
iiber Organomie, ehend. 1804, u. Frcf. 1803, 1 Th. Exposition der Physiologie 
Cobl. 1805. Glauben und Wissen. Munch, 1805. Mythengeschichte, etc. 

1 Of the university of Munich. 

Fr. Baader, Beitriige zur Elementarphysiologie, Hamh. 1797, 8vo. Ueber 
das Pythagor. Quadrat in der Natur od. die 4 Weltgegenden. Tub. 1799, u. 
a. kl. Schriften in den Beitragen zur dynam. Physik. Berl. 1809. Spater : 
Begriindung der Ethik durch die Physik. Munch. 1813. Ueber den Blitz als 
Vater des Lichts an H. Jung, 1815. Abhandlungen iiber die Extase ; Analogic 
des Erkenntnis- und des Zeugungsvermogens ; Ueber die Freiheit der Intelli- 
genz. Eine Rede. Munch. Ueber die Vierzahl des Lebens, Berl. 1819, 8vo. 
Satze aus der Bildungs- und Begriindungslehre des Lebens, Berl. 1820, 8vo. 
Fermenta cognitionis, I— III Heft. Berl. 1822—23. (The first treats of the 
origin of good and evil in men). Ueber die Vierzahl des Lebens, Berl. 1819, 
8vo. Proben religibser Philosophic iilterer Zeit, Leipz. 1825, 8vo. Vorle- 
sungen lib. rel. Philos. im Gegensatz der irreligibsen alterer und neuerer Zeit, 
Munch. 1827, 8vo. 

•■ Professor at Munich. 

L. Oken's Uebersicht des Grundrisses des Systems der Naturphilosophie 
und der damit entstehenden Theorie der Sinnc, Fcf. a. M. (1802,) 8vo. Abriss 
des Systems der Biologic, Gott. 1805. Ueber die Zeugung, Bamb. 1805. 
Lehrbuch der Naturphilosophie, Jena, 1809, sqq. 3 B. 8vo. N. Aufl. 1829. 
Lehrbuch d. Naturgeschichte, 1 u. 3 Th., Leipz. 1813, u. Isis. 

s A Swiss physician. 

Troxler's Versuche in der organ. Physik. Jena, 1804, 8vo. Ueber das 
Leben und sein Problem, Gott, 1807. Elemente der Biosophic, Leipz. 1808, 
(in dieser Schrift nahert cr sich mehr Jacobi) ; und Blicke in das Wesen des 
Menschen, Aarau, 1812, 8vo. Philosophischc Rechtslehrc der Natur u. des 
Gesctzes, etc., Zurich, 1820, 8vo. Naturlehrc des menschl. Erhennens od. 
Mctaphysik. Aarau, 1828, 8vo. 

' A professor at Bonn. 

K. J. Windischmann's Ideen zur Physik, 1 B. W'urzb. n. Bamb. 1805, 8vo. 
Vergl. Darstellung des Bcgriffs der Physik in Schellings neuer Zeitschr. fijr 

395.] ^^H SCHELLING. ^^^ 451 

hcrf^i F, J. Schehers^'j (all of whom, with the excep- 
tion of Oken, inclined to the principle of Faith), K. E. 
SchelUng^, P. F. von Walt/ier^f J. Weber ^, W. Nasse^, 
D. G. Kieser, Blasclie", etc. To these must be added 
the moral philosophers F. Asf^, K. W. F, Solger^, (pos- 
sessing more originality than the rest) ; E. A, Eschen- 
maijer and »/. J. Wagner \ (the two last eventually be- 

spec. Phys. 1 B. I Ileft. 1802. Ueber die Selbstvernichtung der Zeit, HeiJelb. 

1807, u. a. 

" A professor at IMunich. 

Schubert's Ansichten von der Nachtseite der Naturwissenschaft. Dresd. 

1808, 8vo. ; Neue Aufl. 1817. Ahndungen einer allg. Geschichte des 
Lebens, Leipz. 3 Th. 1806—20, Bvo. Symbolik des Traums, etc. Bamb. 1814 ; 
II Aufl. 1821. Altes und Neues aus dem Gebiet der innern Seelenkunde, 
Leipz, 1816, 8vo. Die Urwelt und die Fixsterne, Dresd. 1822, 8vo. 

* A professor at Heidelberg. 

SciiELVERs, Elementarlehre der organ. Natur. 1 Th. Organomie, Gott. 1800. 
Philosophie der Medicin, Frcf. 1809, 8vo. Ueber das Geheimniss des Lebens 
1814, Bvo. Von den sieben Formen des Lebens, Frcf. a. M. 1817, Bvo. 

y K. E. ScHELLiNG, iiber das Lebea und seine Erscheinung, Landshut, 
1806, Bvo. 

'• Walther, iiber Geburt, Daseyn u. Tod. Nurnb. 1807. Ueber den Ego- 
ismus in der Natur. ebeud. 1807, u. a. S. Physiologie des Menschen, etc. 
Landshut, 1807—8, 8vo. 

* Weber's Metaphysik des Sinnl. u. Uebersinnl. Lands. 1801, 8vo. Lehrb. 
der Naturwissenschaft, Landshut, 1803 — 4. Philos., Rel. u. Christenthum 
im Bunde, M'unchen, 1808 — 11, VII Hfte. Wissenschaft der materiellen 
Natur oder Dynamik dei- ^Nlaterie, N'dnchen, 1821, u. a. 

•» Nasse, iiber Naturphilosophie, Freyberg, 1809, Bvo. Zeitschrift fiir psych, 
^rzte, Leipz. seit 1818. 

<^ Vgl. Blasche, iiber das Wichtigste, was in der Naturphilos. seit 1801 ist 
geleistet worden in der Zeitschr. Jsis, herausgeg. von Oken, IX St.Jahrg. 1819. 
Dessen Vertheidigung des Naturphil. Systems in der Jsis, 1826 ; V Heft gegen 
die Einwiirfe im Hermes XXIV (von Bachmann). In Schellingscher Ansicht 
ist auch dessen Theodicee, unter d. Titel : das Bose im Einklange mit der 
"NVeltorduung, Leipz. 1827, Bvo., abgefasst. 

^ Ast's Grundlinien der Philosophie, Landshut. ] 801 ; N. A. 1809. System 
der Kunstlehre oder Lehr- u. Handbuch der ^Esthetik, etc., Leipz. 1805, 
II Aufl. Grundriss der ^sthetik, Landshut, 1807, u. Auszug : Grundlinien 
der ^sthetik, ebend. 1813, Bvo. Gesch. der Philos. s. S. 23. 

^ SoLGER, Philos. Gespriiche. Erste Sammlung, BerL 1817, Bvo. Erwin, 
Vier Gespriiche uber das Schone und die Kunst, BerL 1815, II Thle. Bvo. 
Nachgelassene Schriften und Briefwechsel. Herausg. von L. Tieck u. Fr. v. 
Raumer, Leipz. 1826, 11 B. Bvo. 

f Philosophie der Erziehungskunst, Leipz. 1803, 8vo. Von der Natur der 

Dinge, Leipz. 1BU3, Bvo. System der Idealphilosophie, Leipz. 1B04, 8vo. 

His other works will be mentioned below, $ 406. 

r- cr '^^ 
(. g ^ 

452 THIRD PERIOD. [sect. 

came opposed to Schelling) ; and Hegel^ (§ 407), who as 
well as Kraiise seceded in the end from the tenets of 
his master. The doctrines of Schelling were expressly 
taught by J. B. Schad^ (§ 389) ; G. M. Klein' (the most 
faithful expositor of the system) ; and reduced to a course 
of philosophy by Ign. Thanner^, and Th. A, RixnerK 
By Zimmer^ and Buchner^ the theory was applied to 
the principles of Religion and Ethics ; and by Bach- 
mann^ and Nusslein^ to Esthetics. The former of these 
ended by adopting other opinions. 

s See his, Differenz des Fichteschen u. SchelHngischen Systems in Bezie- 
hung auf Reinhold's Beitrage, etc., Jena, 1801, 8vo.; and the Critical Jour- 
nal published conjointly with Schelling. 

^ System der Natur- u. Transcendentalphilosophie in Verbindung darge- 
stellt, Landsh. 1803-4, II Thle. 8vo. Seine nachher angekiindigten : Insti- 
tutiones Philosophise Universae, etc., scripsit Jo. Schad, P. I. Logicam com- 
plectens, Charkow, 1812. Institutiones Juris Nat., ibid. 1814, 8vo. 

' A professor at Wlirzburg. Klein, Beitrage zum Studium der Philoso- 
phie als Wissenschaft des All. Nebst einer vollst. u. fassl. Darstellung ihrer 
Hauptmomente, Wurzb. 1805, 8vo. Verstandeslehre, Bamb. 1810. Yer- 
such, die Ethik als Wissenschaft zu begrlinden, etc., Rudolst. 1811. Dar- 
stellung der Philos. Religions- und Sittenlehre, Bamb.u. Wiirzb. 1818, 8vo. 

•^ A professor at Salzburg. Thaxner's Versuch einer moglichst fasslichen 
Darstellung der absoluten Identitatslehre, etc., M'llnchen, 1810, 8vo. Hand- 
buch der Vorbereitung u. Einl. zum selbstst. wissenschaftl. Stud. bes. der 
Philosophic. Erster formaler Theil : die Denklehre, M'unchen, 1807. Zwei- 
terjmat. Th. : die Metaphysik, 1808, 8vo. Ferner ; Lehrbuch der Theoret. 
Philos. nach den Grundsatzen der absoluten Identitatslehre f. akad. Vorles. 
I. Th. Logik. ; II Th. Metaphysik (auch mit dem Titel : Logische, Metaphys. 
Aphorismen, etc.), Salzb. 1811-12, 8vo. Lehr- und Handbuch der Prakt. 
Philos. fiir Akad. Vorles. I Th. Allgem. Prakt. Philos. u. Naturrecht, ebend. 
1811, 8vo. 

^ A professor at Amberg. Rixner, Aphorismen aus der Philos. als Leit- 
faden, Landsh, 1809, 8vo. umgearbeitet : Aphorismen der gesammten Philos. 
zum Gebr. seiner Vorles. Ill Bdchen, Sulzbach, 1818, flf. 8vo. 

"> Zimmer's Philos. Religionslehre, I Th. Lehre von der Idee des Abso- 
luten, Landshut, 1805, 8vo. Philos. Untersuchung iiber den Allg. Verfall 
des menschl. Geschlechts, ebend. 1809, 8vo. 

n BucHNER, Uber Erkenntniss und Philos., Landshut, 1806. Grundsatze 
der Ethik., 1808, 8vo. Das Wesen der Religion, Dillingen, 1805, 8vo. 
Zweite Aufl., Landsh., 1809. 

o A professor at Jena. Bachmann : Die Kunstwissenschaft in ihrem 
allg. Urarisse dargestellt f. akad. Vorles. Jena, 1811, 8vo. Ueber Philos. u. 
K-anst. Jena u. Leipz. 1812, 8vo. ; (see bibl. $§ 1, 41). Von Verwandts- 
chaft der Physik u. Psychol. Preisschrift. Utrecht u. Leipz. 1821. System 
der Logik. Leipz. 1829, 8vo. 


Among the adversaries of the system were several dis- 
tinguished partisans of the theory of Kant, as well as 
the authors of certain new doctrines ; such as Ilerhart, 
Boideriveki and Jacobin whom we shall have occasion to 
me^ition below. The opinions of Schelling were espe- 
cially attacked by the theologians ; who appear, however, 
occasionally to have understood them but imperfectly. 
Others, (for instance Daub), endeavoured to reconcile 
them with Religion. 

Other Systems, 

396. Fr. Douterwek'^i an acute reasoner who had ori- 
ginally embraced and even given a new exposition of the 
theory of Kant, abjured the tenets of his master from a 
conviction that they were not proof against Scepticism, 
and professed himself dissatisfied with the partial cha- 
racter of Fichte's system. He maintained that Science 
demands the recognition of something Absolute, without 
which no knowledge nor even thought is possible, inas- 
much as something real, — a Being, — the Absolute, — is 
pre-supposed in